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Mwte of Wyoming 


APRIL 1955 



• -.1} 

Official Publication 

of the 


Published Biannually 



Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

El wood Anderson Gillette 

Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins 

Thomas O. Cowgill Cody 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Bertha Taylor Mountain View 

Mrs. Prentice Hall Moorcroft 

Attorney-General Howard Black, Ex-officio 


President, Frank L. Bowron Casper 

First Vice President, W. L. Marion Lander 

Second Vice President, Dr. DeWitt Dominick Cody 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Wyoming State Historical Society life membership $50.00, joint life 

membership (husband and wife) $75.00; annual membership, $3.50, 

joint annual membership (two persons of same family at same 

address) $5.00. 



Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Deputy 

Herbert J. Salisbury Assistant Archivist 

Lola M. Homsher Editor 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually, in April and 
October, and is the official publication of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. It is received by all members of that Society as a part of their 
dues. Individual copies of the current issues of the Annals of Wyoming 
may be purchased for $1.00 each. Available copies of earlier issues are 
also for sale. A price list may be obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor will 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 


Copyright, 1955, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 

(AHuah of Wyoming 

Volume 27 April 1955 Number 1 

Zable of Contents 


Olaf T. Hagen 

Mary F. Bragg 

Howard B. Lott 

D. G. Thomas 

Lloyd McFarling 


Hamilton Gardner, editor 


Dale L. Morgan, editor 


President's Message by Frank L. Bowron 



By the Editor 

THE PIONEER, a Poem 117 

Jessa Eula Waliis 


Graham, The Reno Court of Inquiry 118 

Sandoz, The Buffalo Hunters 119 

Larson, Wyoming's War Years, 1941-1945 121 

Horan and Sann, Pictorial History of the Wild West 122 

Krakel, The Saga of Tom Horn 123 

American Heritage 125 



Fort Caspar Restoration 2 

Oldtimers at Dedication of Worland Townsite Marker 18 

Committee Members, Worland Marker Dedication 24 

March of the 2d Dragoons in 1857 (Map) 44 

Stone Artifacts 103 


A change in publication date of the Annals of Wyoming is being 
made with this issue. Publication date will henceforth be April 
and October rather than January and July. 







Platte Mdge Station and 
Jort Caspar 

Olaf T. Hagen* 

Platte Bridge Station, enlarged and briefly known as Fort 
Caspar, 1 occupied an important place on the South Pass route to 
the Pacific Coast. Situated at the last or "upper crossing" of 
the North Platte, the historic cavalcade which passed it was a 
long one, traceable at least to 1812. Fur traders, missionaries, 
explorers, and emigrants were followed by communication and 
transportation services which enhanced the history of points on 
this route. When the Civil War broke out the speedier commun- 
ications provided over this most direct overland route heightened 
its importance. On April 12, 1861, when the Confederate bom- 
bardment of Fort Sumter opened, the Pony Express, which had 
demonstrated the feasibility of the route, was still in operation; 
that year the daily overland mail was transferred to this northern 
route; that fall the Pacific telegraph was completed. All passed 
Platte Bridge. 

A small cantonment or "block station" was constructed for the 
shelter of garrisons who guarded the bridge and patrolled the 
travel routes. Its brief history was climaxed by an Indian fight 
on July 26, 1865, when a small force under Lt. Caspar Collins 
escaped the surrounding Indians only after the loss of their leader 
and several comrades. Although not among the decisive battles 
of Plains Indian warfare, this dramatic affair looms large among 
the heroic traditions of the Wyoming frontier. A restored stock- 

*OIaf T. Hagen, who died in August 1949, wrote this paper in connection 
with studies relating to the historical program of the Region Two Office, 
National Park Service. The paper has been edited for publication by 
Westerner Merrill J. Mattes, the present Regional Historian, National Park 

1. The fort was so called in honor of Lt. Caspar Collins, but it appears 
that the order naming the post incorrectly spelled his name (Agnes Wright 
Spring, Caspar Collins, New York, 1927, p. 96). Although the misspelled 
name is given in Heitman's Historical Register and Dictionary of the U. S. 
Army, 1789-1903 (Vol. 2, p. 466), writers familiar with the history of the 
post, Coutant, Hebard, and Hafen, in works to be referred to hereafter, 
all spell it "Fort Caspar," thus correcting the War Department's error 
whether official or not. Since the confusion has been created, there 
appears sufficient reason to accept the correct spelling even though it may 
be argued that the incorrect spelling is official. 


ade, with crude log buildings adjoining, on the western edge of the 
modern city of Casper, Wyoming, is a reminder of this frontier 

Among the first, if not the first, to use the remarkable South 
Pass and North Platte River routes were the Astorians returning 
under Robert Stuart. Their abortive winter camp in 1812, 
described by Washington Irving, was not many miles west of the 
big bend of the river, where the later historic route continued 
westward toward the Sweetwater and South Pass." These early 
fur traders found here a wilderness abounding in game. Bison, 
elk, bighorn sheep, and grizzly bear continued to be plentiful in 
the region even after heavy emigration had depleted vegetation 
and had driven the wildlife away from the immediate vicinity of 
the traveled route. 3 

A decade after the Astorians found it, the renowned South Pass 
had been rediscovered by other fur traders, and some of their 
traffic used this gradual ascent to the western mountains and 
valleys and others used it to push on to the Pacific shores. Mis- 
sionaries with Nathaniel J. Wyeth, in 1834, after a fortnight or so 
along the Platte, bid adieu to the river with some regret, as did 
later travelers who found its valley not inhospitable. In 1836, 
"the first white women overland to the Pacific," the wives of the 
Oregon-bound missionaries, the Reverend H. H. Spalding and 
Dr. Marcus Whitman, reached the Platte River which, like other 
swollen streams to be crossed, was a barrier. Mrs. Whitman and 
Mrs. Spalding camped on the south bank one Sunday, but their 
Sabbath quiet was disturbed by the men of the fur company 
building boats for the crossing. 1 Contrary to some assertions, the 
river was not generally fordable to wagons carrying spoilable 
goods, except at certain seasons, although, like other streams — 
even the Missouri — it was commonly forded with herds of cattle. 

2. The location of the Astorians' camp near the Platte Crossing is given 
as Bessemer, Wyoming (C. G. Coutant, The History of Wyoming, Laramie 
Wyo., 1899, Vol. 1, p. 112), and at the mouth of Poison Spider Creek, 
18 miles west of Casper (Grace Raymond Hebard and E. A. Brininstool, 
The Bozeman Trail, 2 vols., Cleveland, 1922, Vol. 1, p. 33). 

3. W. J. Ghent, The Road to Oregon (New York, 1929). A synopsis 
of the early background is also found in Hebard and Brininstool, pp. 25-58. 
The wildlife is given some attention in Astoria by Washington Irving (New 
York, 1861, pp. 412-420). Other detailed observations are found in the 
original Collins papers appearing in the life of Caspar Collins, edited by 

4. D. Lee and J. H. Frost, Ten Years in Oregon (New York, 1844, 
p. 117). W. H. Gray, History of Oregon (Portland, 1870, p. 117). Men- 
tion is made of the crossing of the Platte below Red Buttes in 1836, where 
buffalo were killed and the sewed hides were stretched over willow frames 
to make boats. Mrs. Spalding's diary for July 26, 1836, is quoted, page 
15 of The Coming of the White Women, 1836, by T. C. Elliott, reprinted 
from the Oregon Historical Quarterly. 


Rushing out of narrow gorges of the Black Hills, as the mountains 
west of Fort Laramie were long known, the Platte here was a swift, 
deep, and cold stream during June and July when most of the 
emigrants reached this point. Late rains and early snows at times 
made it difficult to ford at other seasons."' 

In 1839, men of the stamp of Sutter and Lassen were among 
the few who forged their way overland to California by way of 
Oregon. Soon they were followed by Bidwell, Applegate, Fre- 
mont, Burnett, and others prominent in early emigrations to the 
West Coast. From the diaries and accounts written by them 
and their fellow travelers can be reconstructed the story of the 
traffic over the trail as a whole or at some particular place as 
this crossing of the north fork of the Platte. 

In 1847, four years after the "great emigration'" to Oregon, the 
Mormons were confronted with this obstacle on the route which 
they also took from "Winter Quarters" on the Missouri in seeking 
homes in the wilderness. To ease the difficulties of their following 
brethern, the enterprising "Saints" established a ferry in the vicin- 
ity of the upper crossing. A "leather skiff was used by them. 

Indians had known how to make bull boats which the fur 
traders also employed as well as rafts. Some of the emigrants 
developed their own version of the bull boat by nailing green 
buffalo hides flesh side out to wagon boxes used to ferry goods 
across the river. The variety of craft was considerable. Most 
were basically rafts. Early ferries were little more. Their buoy- 
ancy was increased when poles were fastened transversely across 
canoes shaped by hollowing out cottonwood logs. Some of these 
rafts or ferries, with ropes fastened to each end, were drawn to 
and fro by men standing on shore. Later they became "current 

5. Earlier observers varied in their estimate of the width of the river. 
The differences may in part be attributed to different points at which the 
river was seen and the different seasons at which it was seen. Traveling 
with the Mounted Riflemen in 1849, Colonel Loring estimated the width 
at 150 yards and Major Osborne Cross with the same expedition estimated 
it at not over 400 yards. The March of the Mounted Riflemen . . . , 
Raymond E. Settle, ed. (Glendale, 1940, pp. 116, 333). 

6. No attempt is made here to reconstruct the story from the original 
journals. In The Wake of the Prairie Schooner, Irene D. Paden (New 
York, 1945) has written in popular style a comprehensive story of the 
trail, based on a knowledge of the great number of the eyewitness accounts 
and the physical character of the country they described as seen today. 
Her 25-page bibliography, pages 479-504, is the most nearly exhaustive 
one available. While the bulk of the titles listed may be generally known, 
the list includes many manuscript accounts which have seldom been, if 
ever, used in published accounts. One chapter, "The Ferries of the North 
Platte," pages 192-201, deals particularly with the crossing concerned here. 
It is regrettable that Francis Parkman in his classic Oregon Trail gives no 
particular space to the crossing although he describes scenes in the nearby 
mountains and at La Bonte's. 


ferries," guided by a pulley or pulleys on a rope or other cable 
stretched across the river. 7 Some employed oars. 

The Mormons found the ferrying of "gentiles" lucrative in a 
vital way. Here their service had the miraculous power of gaining 
provisions, more prized than gold in the distant wilderness. They 
continued in the business and "Mormon Ferry," located near the 
Upper Platte ford, was perhaps the best known of the ferries. 
There were, however, several ferries between the mouth of Deer 
Creek and the Red Buttes, some distanc below which was the 
upper ford or last crossing. Some were transitory affairs, estab- 
lished by emigrants seeking to replenish their funds or supplies. 
As the route north of the river was developed, a portion of the 
traffic did not have to cross the North Platte at this point. But 
with the great swell in travel caused by the gold rush, there was 
no lack of patronage." 

Overland mail service to the settlements established by the 
Argonauts, Oregonians, and Mormons developed slowly during 
the fifties. A monthly mail service to Salt Lake City did not 

7. Mormon Ferry became the designation of the crossing known as the 
"Upper Platte Ferry or Ford." See W. Clayton, The Latter-Day Saints' 
Emigrants' Guide of 184S (reproduced in A Journal of the Birmingham 
Emigrating Company, pages 137-176, by Leander V. Loomis, edited by 
Edgar M. Ledyard, Salt Lake City, 1928, p. 158). An 1850 guide indicates 
at least three ferries between Deer Creek and Red Buttes, there being 
some 28 or more miles between the "Upper" and "Lower" ferries (Hosea 
B. Horn, Horn's Overland Guide, New York, 1853, pp. 20-21). This 
guide locates this "third ferry" at 41° 50' 40" (Clayton, 158). Some of 
the incidents, including quotations from original accounts, related to the 
origin and location of Mormon Ferry are told by Coutant, I, 344, 364-365; 
The Oregon Trail, by the Federal Writers' Project (New York, 1939, 
pp. 180-182), quotes extensively from the journal of Appelton Harmon, 
which is not listed alphabetically in the bibliography of that work (Ibid., 

The craft used for crossing are described in several original accounts 
as suggested by Mrs. Paden. One of the most interesting descriptions is 
found in Across the Plains and Among the Diggings by Alonzo Delano 
(New York, 1936, pp. 34-37). Descriptions by Appleton Harmon, quoted 
in the Oregon Trail Guide (p. 180) are also very good. 

Much is said about the ferrying charges. They fluctuated a great deal, 
but, although the rate was lower at first, in 1849 and after a charge of 
$4 to $5 per wagon and from 500 to $1 per head of stock appears general. 
Payment was often made in goods. The later toll bridge charges were 
not less. Consequently many tried to find a satisfactory ford before 
paying the price asked. When unsuccessful they were permitted to pay 
the toll in goods — even "baby wagons " which, though cherished, seemed 
unnecessary if they met the price exacted. Even the military, at times, 
decided that crossing on rafts of their own construction seemed unwise 
when at the Mormon Ferry wagons would be crossed for $4 each and 
same guaranteed delivered on the other side without damage. Even using 
this precaution they were "so unfortunate as to have two men drown." 
Quoted by Settle (op. cit., 112). 

8. Delano (op. cit., 36) is among those who mention transient ferry 


meet its schedule with regularity. Military operations in Utah, 
however, caused increased governmental interest in improved ser- 
vice, and by 1858 the service to Salt Lake City was weekly. Like 
the earlier mail, which went westward from Council Bluffs or 
Omaha, the 1858 mail from Independence, Missouri, followed 
the route which crossed the Platte in the vicinity of the present 
Casper, Wyoming. The Utah Expedition, 1857-58, appears also 
to have led to the establishment in 1858 of a small temporary 
military station at the bridge which spanned the Piatte at the 
upper crossing. 

On June 13, 1858, Companies D and E of the 4th Artillery 
rharched from Fort Kearny, Nebraska Territory, with instructions 
to occupy the bridge over the North Platte, and arrived and took 
post at the Platte Bridge on July 29, 1858. By General Orders 
No. 7, District of the Platte, dated April 13, 1859, the post was 
ordered abandoned as soon as possible. On May 1, 1859, Com- 
panies D and E, 4th Artillery, departed thence for Fort Laramie." 

In May 1859 the mail contract was assigned to Jones, Russell 
and Company, the operators of the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak 
Express. Backed by the freighting firm of Russell, Majors, and 
Waddell, the company, reorganized as the Central Overland Cal- 
ifornia and Pike's Peak Express Company, to provide speedier 
service and to demonstrate the practicability of the central route, 
launched the Pony Express. In 1861, when seccession of the 
Southern States was imminent, the daily overland mail was trans- 
ferred from the longer Butterfield route to this central line. 10 

To facilitate the mail services and the freighting of supplies 
for the Utah Expedition, the crossing had been bridged. As early 
as 1853 emigrants found a structure some six or seven miles 
below Mormon Ferry. Near the latter place a second bridge was 
constructed late in the fifties. The existence of two rather costly 
bridges, so near each other in country so distant from the settle- 
ments, seems an incongruity but attests to the importance of the 
route. 11 


9. National Archives letter of September 4, 1947, by Elizabeth B. 
Drewry for Director War Records Office. 

10. Le Roy Hafen, The Overland Mail (Cleveland, 1926), 53, 165, 
et seq. 

11. The basic secondary source on the Platte Bridge appears to be 
Coutant (I, 364-367). He points out that the history of bridges in Wyo- 
ming is not too clear. Stating that the bridge at Mormon Ferry, above 
Casper, had been built in 1859 by Louis Ganard, he mentions also the 
one seven miles below it, constructed earlier by John Reshaw or Richaud. 
An 1865 participant in the military operations in the vicinity spoke of the 
"upper bridge" and the "lower bridge." He also located the fight of July 2 
with the Indians as on "Reshaw (Richard) Creek, 4 miles from lower 
bridge." (Quoted in Hebard and Brininstool, I, 162-164.) 

The publications of the Wyoming Landmarks Commission do not treat 
Mormon Ferry as a separate site. Their map, unlike some others, shows 


Indian troubles along the central overland route, even with its 
great use, had been sporadic in the fifties. The Grattan massacre 
in 1854, Harney's Ash Hollow attack in 1855, and the Cheyenne 
Expedition in 1 857 recall outstanding clashes. There were other 
conflicts but of no major consequence. Simultaneously with the 
outbreak of the Civil War there was a rash of depredations along 
this central route. Ostensibly, for this reason the daily overland 
mail soon was transferred to the more southern Cherokee Trail in 
the summer of 1862. That was the year of the Sioux outbreak 
in Minnesota. There is little proof, however, that any of these 
Indian troubles were of Confederate inspiration. ^ 

The loot to be gained from plundering the relatively unprotected 
communication lines was sufficient incentive for some depreda- 
tion along travel routes, and growing discontent, as a result of 
dealings with white men, was not such as to deter even peacefully 
inclined tribes from making violent demonstrations of their resent- 
ment. Until the Civil War was virtually over, however, the Gov- 
ernment's policy toward Indians along the Platte route was 
sporadic and less punitive than it was after the War Department 
was less busy on other fronts. General Connor's "Battle of Bear 
River" (Utah, January 29, 1863), in which over 200 Indians 
were killed, and the notorious Sand Creek massacre (Colorado, 
November 24, 1864), under Col. J. M. Chivington, were excep- 
tions; but they showed the Indians that the temper of some of the 
military leaders on the frontier could be unmerciful. 13 

The guarding of the overland routes west from Fort Laramie 
to South Pass was entrusted largely to the 11th Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry until 1865 when considerable reenforcements arrived to 
operate under General Connor in the Powder River Indian Expe- 
dition." It was apparently with some disappointment that mem- 
bers of the Ohio regiment found themselves diverted from other 
battle fronts to Indian country. Serving almost continuously from 
1862 to 1866, some of the regiment found pleasures as well as 
risks in this frontier assignment where they certainly were spread 
thin over a large area. 15 

Platte Bridge somewhat nearer Casper than the Mormon Ferry. First 
Biennial Report of the Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming, 
1927-1928 (Casper, 1929, map following p. 34). 

Although it is probable that the bridge and ferry were not on identical 
land, it seems they were in proximity. 

12. Frederic L. Paxson, The Last American Frontier (New York, 1928, 
pp. 227, 235, 243 et seq.); Hafen, 230. 

13. Ibid., 241-249; Spring, Caspar Collins, 45. 

14. In 1862 Caspar Collins mentioned two companies of regular cavalry 
and a Mormon company. Letter of June 16, 1862, reproduced by Spring. 
op. cit., 118. 

15. Ibid., 86. 


The removal of the daily mail to the southern Cherokee Trail 
in 1862 nearly doubled the mileage to be protected by troops be- 
tween Fort Kearny and Bridger's Pass. The telegraph line on the 
North Platte route still had to be maintained and required military 
protection. While small details of troops were distributed to 
smaller stations, on the southern route Fort Halleck and Camp 
Collins became important military points. Escorts, of course, 
could aid the mail coaches in getting through, but, as depredations 
increased, the operators withdrew their stock from dangerous parts 
of the route and discontinued operations, demanding garrisons 
of at least 30 men at each station. 1 " 

Fort Laramie, on the North Platte route, continued to be the 
hub of military operations for both routes. 17 Besides posts, as 
Camp Mitchell near Scottsbluff to the eastward, at least eight 
stations were maintained between Fort Laramie and South Pass 
in the following order: Horseshoe Creek, La Bonte or Marshall, 
Dear Creek, Platte Bridge, 18 Sweetwater, Three Crossings, Saint 
Mary's or Rocky Ridge, and South Pass, near Pacific Springs. 
For a time at least these were constituted into two divisions of 
four stations each, with the eastern group's headquarters at La 
Bonte and the western one at Three Crossings or the Sweetwater. 1 " 

The details assigned to these "block stations" varied in size, 
but they were small, consisting at times of only half a dozen or 
less men. One company had to garrison several posts and escort 
emigrants or mails or Government wagon trains. 20 

16. Ibid., 42-49. 

17. Le Roy R. Hafen and Francis Marion Young, Fort Laramie and the 
Pageant of the West, 1834-1890 (Glendale, 1938, pp. 303-330). 

18. National Archives data, apparently not complete, Miss Drewry's 
letter of September 4, 1947, states the muster rolls of Co. G, 11th Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry, show it was stationed at Platte Bridge from October 
1864 until July 22, 1865. According to the rolls the detachment at Platte 
Bridge commenced building the fort on February 2, 1865, and finished all 
but the corral and stables on February 20. 

19. For descriptions of these posts, see Spring, op. cit., 70 n2; 71 nl, 
2, 3, & 4; 74 nl; 75 nl; 77 nl; also 61 nl, 2, 80. 

Several contemporary illustrations of those posts have survived. A few 
of them are by Caspar Collins, Co. G, 11th Ohio, and some by C. Moell- 
man, a bugler in the same company. A partial list of references to these 
follows: Horseshoe Creek, by Moellman (Hebard, I, 83); La Bonte or 
Camp Marshall (Coutant, 368; Hebard, I, 103); Deer Creek, by Collins 
(Spring, frontispiece; Coutant, 361; Hebard, I, 103); Platte Bridge, by 
Collins (Spring, 66; Hebard, I, 173; also opposite p. 352, "The Eleventh 
Kansas Regiment at Platte Bridge," by S. H. Fairfield, pp. 352-362, 
Transactions of the Kansas Historical Society, Vol VIII, 1903-1904); 
Sweetwater, by Collins (Spring, 34; Hebard, I, 83); Three Crossings 
(Hebard, I, 83); St. Mary's or Rocky Ridge (Hebard, I, 87); Bridger 
Pass (Hebard, I, 121; Hafen, Overland Mail, 343). 

Collins, when in charge of the western division made his headquarters 
at the Sweetwater Station (Spring, 74, 158). 

20. Ibid., 74, 76. 


The appearance of the posts was as varied as their numbers for, 
except possibly for the sod roofs, there is little that can be classed 
as typical. While often described as stockaded, they had a less 
formidable appearance than did their prototype of the fur-trading 
era east of the Rockies or the "block house era" in the Pacific 
Northwest. Primarily these places were small "cantonments." 
Besides sheltering troops, however, they also housed the telegraph 
station and operator and at some, as in the case of the Platte 
Bridge Station, there was a trading post and the dwelling of the 
toll bridge owner. Some of the posts showed the influence of ear- 
lier developed telegraph and stage stations from which they 
evolved. 2 ' 

The life of the troops assigned to garrison these posts can be 
glimpsed in the work on Caspar Collins by Agnes Wright Spring. 
This publication contains detailed descriptions of several of the 
posts and reproduces many of the letters by Lt. Caspar Collins 
and his father, Col. William O. Collins, who commanded the 1 1th 
Ohio until 1865. Either from a desire for refraining from alarm- 
ing relatives at home or because of a natural inclination, young 
Collins appeared to have been more preoccupied with his observa- 
tions on ethnology, the flora and fauna, and hunting and sketching 
familiar scenes on his route than with fighting Indians. By 1865 
he is said to have succeeded to the command of his company, 
having charge of the four stations in the western division, that is, 
from the Sweetwater to South Pass." Every fortnight or so he 
made the rounds of these posts, covering 104 miles. The bitter 
cold of December 1864 did not stop him from riding 220 miles, 
mostly alone, to Fort Laramie. 23 Still, he had scarcely arrived 
on the plains in 1862 when he prophetically and wisely observed: 
"I never saw so many men so anxious in my life to have a fight 
with the Indians. But ponies are faster than American horses, 
and I think they will be disappointed." 21 

The Indians periodically took up their annoying forays, stealing 
horses and other stock and now and then killing a man, and 
occasionally taking a woman or child captive. They cut the 
telegraph lines, attacked and destroyed mail coaches, and burned 
stations, interrupting communication and transportation services. 
Generally, the depredations were committed by small bands which 

21. Hebard and Brininstool. I. 135. National Archives letter by Miss 
Drewry, September 4, 1947, states that muster rolls of Co. G. 11th Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry, show post built February 2-20, 1865, except for corral 
and stables. This times very closely with the Mud Spring's fight. 

22. Miss Drewry, September 4, 1947, states that Lt. H. C. Bretney 
commanded the company. 

23. Spring, 71-2, 74, 158, 171-73. 

24. Collins' letters, April 15, 1865, December 13. 1864, June 30, 1862. 
Ibid., 121-122, 158-159, 168-170. 


swooped down on isolated posts, running off stock and even 
cutting telegraph wires within a few yards of the stations, but 
seldom stopping for a standing fight as some military men hoped 
they would do. Pursuing troops had difficulty in making contact 
with them. After the attack on the Mud Springs Station, some 
100 miles east of Fort Laramie, Colonel Collins, early in Feb- 
ruary 1 865, did succeed in overtaking an unusual concentration, 
estimated as high as 2,000 warriors, and in July the number in 
the fight at Platte Bridge was estimated at 1,000 or more 
warriors. 25 

This gathering along the route has been interpreted by some 
as evidence of a planned general Indian uprising'" Others have 
asserted that the concentrations were in part the results of Sully's 
expeditions against the Sioux in Dakota and the treatment of the 
Cheyennes and Arapahoes at Sand Creek." 7 On the whole, the 
Indians appear to have made no real concerted effort at particular 
points on the route, but rather it was small parties that plundered 
the route where they could. These attacks well may have been 
the normal reactions of different Indians to similar provocations 
in different areas. is The festering of cumulative causes of Indian 
discontent arising out of the encroachments of the aggressor nation 
was not helped by the aggressive attitude of some military leaders. 
When two Sioux chiefs, Two Face and Black Foot, were brought 
into Fort Laramie, in May 1865, with the captive Mrs. Eubank 
and daughter, victims of a raid, Colonel Moonlight, of the 1 1 th 
Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, Commanding, meted out arbitrary 
punishment. He derisively reported his action: "I concluded to 

25. Because of the nature of the work the significance of the engage- 
ments may appear to be somewhat overemphasized by Mrs. Spring, espe- 
cially if compared with the more casual treatment given these same events 
in more general studies by Hafen or Paxson. 

In a list of 19 engagements of the 11th Ohio (Spring, 97) for the 
period from November 1862 to August 1865, 15 were fought between 
February 6 and July 26, 1865. See report by Col. Wm. O. Collins, March 
2, 1865, and mention by Lt. Collins' letter of April 15, 1865 (Spring, 170). 

26. "Gathering of the Tribes" is the title of one chapter by Mrs. Spring 
which speaks of the concentration of the Indians in the Powder River 
country. George B. Grinnell, Fighting Cheyennes (New York, 1915), 

27. Hebard and Brininstool (op. cit., 125, 129, 138) give a rather 
alarming picture of the situation which reflects the tone of reports of 
some of the military leaders. The feeling is suggested that the Indians 
were in complete control of the district. Colonel Moonlight, of the 11th 
Kansas Volunteer Cavalry, commanding at Fort Laramie, is quoted as con- 
firming the opinion of other officers when he stated: "The Indians are 
now determined to make it a war of. extermination and nothing short of 
five thousand men can make it extermihation for them." 

28. Paxson, op. cit., 244. 


tie them up by the neck with a trace-chain, suspended from a 
beam of wood, and leave them without any foothold.""" 

Moonlight was soon mustered out of service. He was discred- 
ited when shortly after this hanging incident the Indians made 
away with his command's horses while he was on an expedition 
against them after one of their bands had turned on their soldier 
escort and escaped to join the hostiles. 3 " 

Friends of the Indians asserted that reenforcement of the 
hostiles' forces was due in part to rumors of harsh measures with 
which they were threatened by the military. 31 Unfortunately, these 
rumors were too well founded in fact. General Connor announced 
that bands of Arapahoe and Sioux who had been fed near Fort 
Halleck and Camp Collins, suspecting that their part in the depre- 
dations along the mail route had been discovered, left for the 
warpath. He declared that "none of them are to be trusted. They 
must be hunted like wolves. The severest punishment is necessary 
before we can have any peace with them." He ordered that all 
Indians along the mail route be treated as hostiles and that no 
quarter be shown males over 12 years of age. 3 " 

The depredations of the Indians were actually of such report 
that the Department of the Interior had turned the troubles over 
to the War Department. "We have got these Indian matters now 
in our hands and we must settle them" wrote General Dodge to 
Connor on July 21, 1 865. :l:< Although a scout on the Little 
Arkansas had been ordered by General Sanborn to be careful to 
observe instructions requiring that no acts of hostilities be com- 
mitted by the troops unless attacked," General Dodge informed 
him "When you get there [Indian country] you can determine 
whether you can make peace safely before whipping them. If 
not fight them, and then make the agreement. I want it settled 

29. Hebard and Brininstool, I, 149-150. 

30. Hafen, Fort Laramie, 334. 

31. Vital Jarrot, U. S. Indian Agent for the Upper Platte Agency, 
blamed the threats of army officials for driving friendly Indians to join 
the hostiles. (Letter of August 8, 1865, in House Ex. Doc, 39th Cong. 
1 Sess., Ser. No. 1248, p. 617.) He also mentioned misdeeds of Indian 
Agents which alienated some of the tribes (July 15, 1865, Ibid., 616-617). 
His observation may reasonably be assumed to have been directed at 
Connor's orders. 

32. See P. Edw. Connor, Brig. Gen., Commanding, District of the 
Plains, Fort Laramie, July 3, 1865, to Maj. Gen. G. M. Dodge, Department 
of the Missouri, in Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Vol. 48. 
pt. 2 (102), p. 1045. (War of the Rebellions Compilation of official 
records of Union and Confederate Armies, Washington. 1880-1901, 70 
vols, in 130.) 

33. Dodge to Connor, July 21, 1865. Ibid., 48. pt. 2 (102), pp. 1112, 

34. Maj. John H. Sanborn, Fort Riley, Headquarters Upper Arkansas 
District, July 13, 1865. Ibid., 48, pt. 2 (102), p. 1077. 


while you are in the country, and they can see our power and you 
understand in making any agreement we can only make it for a 
cessation of hostilities, keeping away from our lines of travel, 
and we desisting from molesting them."*' 

General Pope, superior to both Dodge and Connor, had heard 
"from several sources unpleasant news about General Connor's 
doings." 3 " Loathe to believe anything to his discredit, he asked 
Dodge to look into it. When he received copies of the orders 
issued the commanders of the assembling Powder River Indian 
Expedition, reading "You will not receive overtures of peace or 
submission from Indians, but will attack and kill every male 
Indian," Pope officially denounced them as "atrocious" and "in 
direct violation of my repeated orders." He commanded that 
these infamous orders be rectified without delay on threatened 
penalty of the officer's commission, if not worse. 37 

Still, Pope wrote to Dodge stating that he did not wish to inter- 
fere "with your expeditions until they are over," 3 * and preparations 
for the Powder River Expedition, under General Connor, were 
allowed to go ahead. 

Fate may have sided with the Indians for the punitive expedition 
did not get under way without difficulties. Although the meeting 
of Generals Grant and Lee at Appomattox Courthouse on April 
9 had freed the War Department to give more attention to Indian 
warfare, retrenchment made it necessary to hurry the reduction 
of the military forces to the essential minimum. In addition, 
many of the reenforcements arriving in the Indian country consist- 
ed of volunteer regiments having many members who felt that 
since the war was over their term of service was up. Their defi- 
ance of orders was termed mutinous by officers who had no less 
harsh medicine to bring about their subordination than for the 
Indians. 39 

The seriousness of the threat to Platte Bridge in 1865 is not 
altogether evident. The success of the Indians in stopping mail 
service and in breaking telegraphic service was considerable. 
Some weeks after the Mud Springs attack, the Indians resumed 
their forays against the southern route. The mail service was 
again interrupted. Several stations were abandoned. On June 8 

35. Dodge to Sanborn, July 24, 1865. Ibid., 48, pt. 2, pp. 192, 1117. 

36. Ibid., 48, pt. 1, 352, Pope to Dodge, August 7, 1865. 

37. Ibid., 48, pt. 1, 356. 

38. Ibid., 48, pt. 1, 352, 356. 

39. Hafen, Fort Laramie, 337. Many references to conduct of different 
volunteers termed mutinous are found in materials published in the 
Official Records cited. 48, pt. 2 (102), 1059, 1084, 1112, 1122-1123. 
Connor ordered one mutinous regiment suppressed "with grape and can- 
ister," and the leaders brought to trial; but others he felt he could not 
punish because they were scattered, and their services could not be dispensed 


the Sage Creek Station was burned. The operators lost several 
head of stock and withdrew the balance from the exposed sections 
of the line. They did not want to resume service until larger 
military garrisons were provided/" 

The telegraph service was also broken by the cutting of the 
wires and burning of poles. Toward the end of May, St. Mary's 
Station was burned and lines were cut for some distance, at times 
quite close to the stations. A scout in force developed no fights 
and found only a barren country. 

On June 3, Indians appeared near the Platte Bridge. The 
sergeant commanding called for help from troops from nearby 
Camp Dodge and did what appears to have been the common 
practice, "ordered the men to fire on the Indians." Three shots 
from the 12-pound howitzer "drove the Indians over the bluffs." 
Soon Colonel Plumb was chasing them for five miles or so. In 
this fray the casualties were small as was usually the case in such 
fights.' 1 

On July 25, the Indians appeared again near the Platte Bridge. 
This time they came in larger force. Again help was called for. 
A Cheyenne chief, Highbacked Wolk, was killed. Before his 
body was recovered by the Indians it is said to have been scalped 
and mutilated by some soldiers in retaliation for the mangling 
of their fallen comrades. 42 

During the night of July 25 or early in the morning of July 26, 
Lt. H. C. Bretney and a detail of men en route from the West to 
Fort Laramie arrived at the Platte Bridge Station. They reported 
passing a wagon train with a military escort also eastward bound. 
Therefore, on the morning of July 26 Lieutenant Collins, who had 
been on the plains since 1862 and who recently had arrived at 
the station on his way back to his posts to the westward, either 
volunteered or was ordered to lead what has been called a "forlorn 
hope" to relieve and bring in the wagon train." With 25 men he 
set forth across the bridge. Soon the force was surrounded by 
Indians rising from ambush in the ravines. In a charging retreat, 
all but five of the force escaped the foe, but Collins and four 
enlisted men lost their lives. Mrs. Spring has reconstructed 
what happened as follows: 

The evidence is not exactly clear, but it appears that Collins ordered 

a retreat by his left, which movement faced his command towards 

the post and left him as rear guard. The Indians were by that time 

40. Hafen, Fort Laramie, 329-337; ORWOR, 48, pt. 1. 255. 294, 295. 
296, 815. 

41. ORWOR, 48. pt. 1, 296; Spring 77. Two men are listed as killed 
in this affair. In proportion to the number engaged, such losses were high. 
Colonel Plumb was later U. S. Senator from Kansas (Coutant. I, 478). 

42. Spring, 81-83. Sgt. Isaac B. Pennick and Lt. Wm. Y. Drew, Co. I. 
11th Kansas Cavalry, in Hebard and Brininstool, I, 160, 182. 

43. Spring. 82-85; Hebard and Brininstool. I, 166-172. 183-200. 


massed so closely around the little band that they were afraid to 
shoot for fear of killing each other, and consequently the fighting was 
for the most part hand to hand. 

One man who was riding beside Lieutenant Collins said that Caspar 
was shot in the hip as he rode down the hill, but that he said nothing 
about it, so that the soldier could not tell whether the wound was 
severe. When they reached the bottom of the hill, Caspar heard the 
cries of a wounded soldier who had fallen from his horse and went 
back to his rescue. Caspar reached the wounded man, whom he 
partially raised and tried to assist to a position in front of him, when 
his horse became unmanageable and whirled. Collins was last seen 
with both revolvers drawn as his horse dashed into the crowd of 
Indians. His horse, which was wounded and later captured by the 
Cheyennes, was known as hard-headed and was always running 

A day or two later the bodies of the slain were searched for. 
The horribly mangled remains of Caspar Collins were found 
some distance from the fight. Only one of the victims appears 
to have escaped these indignities. 1 " 

On the day of this Platte Bridge fight, the wagon train was 
approaching the vicinity of the Red Buttes, within a few miles of 
the bridge, when the Indians fell upon it. Of a force of about 25, 
only 3 escaped. The treatment of the victims was even more 
fiendish than that handed those who failed to escape to the bridge 
earlier that day. Officials of the Indian Service agreed that the 
atrocities were "very numerous and shockingly revolting" in their 
details. 4 '' Friendly agents, critical of the military, saw "the neces- 
sity of keeping the Indians from the main roads." 

The casualties of the troops in the fights of July 26 at Platte 
Bridge and the Red Buttes numbered 26 or 27 killed and 9 
wounded. Through the gloom cast by this loss there appeared 
to the troops one bright ray: Scouts reported that "the Indians 
threw away all scalps they had taken. . . a sure sign they had lost 
more than they had killed." 47 The number of Indians engaged is 
variously estimated. The official report given the day after the 
fighting by General Connor reads: 

One thousand Indians attacked Platte Station on Tuesday; fighting 
two days. Lieutenant Collins, Eleventh Ohio Cavalry and 25 men. 
Eleventh Kansas Cavalry, killed; 9 wounded. Bodies scalped and 
horribly mutilated. Note picked up on field to-day evidently written 
by a prisoner who stated that he was captured on the Platte, states 
the Indians say they do not want peace and expect an increase of 

44. Spring, 86-87. 

45. Ibid., 94; Fairfield, 359-360. 

46. House Ex. Doc, 39 Cong, 1 Sess. (Ser. 1248), pp. 581-4, E. B. 
Taylor, Supt., Northern Superintendency, Omaha, Nebr., September 15, 

47. ORWOR, 48, pt. 1, 358. 


1,000 men to their force. They are now three miles west destroying 
the telegraph line. The left column is now en route there; the balance 
will leave in two days. I start for Platte Bridge myself on Saturday. 4 " 

Connor's Powder River Indian Expedition, which had been 
assembling for a final settlement of these Indian troubles by force, 
finally got under way with a considerable body of troops. It did 
mete out harsh punishment to all Indians it caught, but it failed 
in accomplishing its intended settlement of the Indian problem by 
whipping them in a "standing fight" or trapping large numbers and 
thus crushing them. There was no repetition of the battles or 
massacres at Ash Hollow, Bear River, or Sand Creek. As young 
Lieutenant Collins had foreseen, the alerted Indians used their 
greater mobility to advantage, and ran away. More moderate 
voices prevailed upon governmental officials to change their 
policy. Connor was soon relieved of the command in the district 
and peace emissaries were sent out to the Indians/ 9 

The Platte Bridge Station escaped further troubles. During 
1865 it was apparently made a permanent post and enlarged, 
and on November 21 it was renamed "Fort Casper" by an order 

II. The Military Post situated at Platte Bridge, between Deer and 
Rock Creeks, on the Platte River, will be hereafter known as Fort 
Casper, in honor of Lt. Casper Collins, 11th Ohio Cavalry, who lost 
his life while gallantly attacking a superior force of Indians at that 
place. 50 

Unfortunately the order misspelled the name of the fallen hero 
whom it honored. 

Negotiations with the Indians led to a treaty providing for the 
opening of the Powder River or Bozeman road, traversing choice 
Sioux hunting grounds. But when Forts Phil Kearny, C. F. 
Smith, and Reno were established on that route in 1866, the 
resentful Indians soon held them virtually in constant state of 
siege. On December 21, 1866, they annihilated Fetterman and 
his command of 80 men. In the Wagon Box Fight the next 
August, the Sioux were repulsed, but they did not accede to the 

48. Ibid., 357, July 27, 1865, by E. P. Connor. The note picked up 
after the battle is published by Hebard and Brininstool, op. cit.. I, 192. 

49. Hafen, Fort Laramie, 338; Hebard and Brininstool, I, 237-261; 
Coutant, I, 505-539; Grinnell, 203-4. When Connor returned to his base 
at Camp Connor he found orders recalling him and relieving him of the 
command, and peace negotiations were ordered in this district as they had 
been in the Arkansas District and in Dakota. 

50. Hebard and Brininstool (I, 175), as did Coutant before them 
(I, 478), reproduce the order spelling the name "Fort Caspar." See Note 1 

The short life of Fort Caspar as such was no doubt due to the fact-that 
while fairly close to the focal point where the Bozeman Trail crossed the 
route to the Pacific it was not at the junction where Fort Fetterman was 


treaty of 1868 creating the Great Sioux Reservation until the 
objectionable forts were abandoned.' 1 

One fort established in 1867 where the Bozeman Trail crossed 
the Oregon Trail and the North Platte near La Bonte or Marshall 
Station at the mouth of La Prele Creek was named for the leader 
of the Fetterman disaster. It continued until 1878. Even before 
its establishment, however, the importance of the post at the site 
of the Platte Bridge fight had waned and in 1 867 the new Fort 
Caspar was abandoned."' 

Plans and pictures of Fort Caspar suggest that it was of the 
general type of western Army post or fort as these military can- 
tonments were called.' 3 Incorporated in it were parts of the old 
block station, the enlargement of which is said to have been 
ordered during 1865. ' It was the Platte Bridge Station known to 
young Collins and his comrades rather than Fort Caspar, however, 
which represented the climactic period of this site. The temporary 
crude block station, simply constructed out of peeled logs and 
with sod roofs, the inelegant dirt-floor quarters of the officers, 
and the small squad rooms and mess rooms pushed right up 
against the stable and corral are not things of beauty even in 
their present reconstructed state. But to the trooper and soldier 
guarding overland communications, they must have been a source 
of physical comfort after patrols through subzero winter weather 
and an ideal refuge when confronted by a foe numerically superior. 
Thus the station, like others of similar construction, served a real 
military purpose. 

51. Hafen, Fort Laramie, 339-361. 

52. Coutant, I, 594; Drewry, op. cit. 

53. Ibid., op. p. 480. The illustration appears to be an idealized one. 
An undated plan (after 1865) obtained from the National Archives shows 
the arrangement of the post before the expansion had been completed. 
The new developments were further away from the river than was the 

54. The above plan mentions some buildings as worthless. From it, 
it appears that the one wing of the Platte Bridge Station was returned 
completely to civilian use. Buildings numbered 18. 19, and 20 of the 
plan are described thereon as the "Bridge Proprietor's dwellings and 
store — W.U. Telegraph Office — Boarding House and Ranche," respectively. 
These appear to be part of the old station buildings. Copies of a sketch 
plan of the earlier station by Collins are also available. There was 
also a "Post Sutler's Store (Old Fort Block House)" and a "Mormon 
Supply Depot." 

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"Dedication of 
Worland Zownsite Marker 

Mary F. Bragg* 

A low hill west of the Big Horn River, surmounted by modern 
farm buildings now, but scarred by indentations where the first 
Worland settlers lived in dugouts and cabins, looms above a 
stone marker of enduring granite. At this spot adjacent to 
Highway 20 and not far distant from the river bridge, old timers 
and many of the younger generation, Washakie county and Wor- 
land city officials with Joseph S. Weppner, Cheyenne, secretary 
of the Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming and scores 
of others met on Friday 2 P.M., August 27, 1954 to pay tribute 
to the pioneers whose dreams converted a raw sage and grease- 
wood desert into a green and fertile valley. 

The occasion was the dedication of the monument marker of 
the original town-site of Worland. The monument, installed on 
a site deeded to the Landmark Commission by the Holly Sugar 
Corporation, serves as a silent reminder to all who pass of perils 
overcome and prosperity assured for future generations. Spon- 
sored by the Worland Woman's Club, organized in 1914, through 
a committee of the Past Presidents with Mrs. William F. Bragg, 
chairman, the project took shape last year when the commission 
agreed to furnish the marker. 

On the face of the marker is a fine example of the stone carver's 
art. It is an engraving of the first postoffice and stage station 
erected and operated by C. H. "Dad" Worland, original home- 
steader on the site and for whom the settlement was named. 

Records from "Historical Review and Development of the 
Worland Valley" by the late C. F. Robertson, first mayor of 
Worland, indicate that the log cabin was established as a post- 
office with C. H. "Dad" Worland as the first postmaster in 1904, 
about the time of the incorporation of the Hanover Land and 
Irrigation Company on June 20, 1904. 

The survey party for the company was headed by Mr. Robert- 
son. Officers, now deceased, were W. L. Culbertson, Carroll, 
la., president; Rev. D. T. Pulliam, Loveland, Colo., vice president; 
R. E. Coburn, Carroll, la., treasurer; Mr. Robertson, Omaha, 
Neb., secretary and manager. The original sponsors included 
Dr. N. B. Rairden, Supt. of Baptist Missions for several western 


Many avenues and streets of Worland, when incorporated on 
the east side of the river, were named in memory of the pioneers 
and town founders. 

Mr. Robertson tells in his book of arriving in camp west of the 
river in 1903 with the group to survey future irrigation lines. 
Here he first met "Dad" Worland who had homesteaded near 
Fifteen Mile Creek and was then living in a dugout which he 
called "The Hole in the Wall". The genial pioneer had been all 
over the west trailing sheep from Oregon and Washington east 
and engaging in a myriad of other enterprises. He first came 
to the Big Horn Basin selling fruit trees for the Stark Nurseries 
of Missouri. A hundred miles from the nearest railroad he took 
up his land, dug in, and waited cheerfully for civilization to come 
his way. Whi^h— eventually — happened. 

Old timers were invited to meet near the original "dug-out" and 
select the site for the marker on Dec. 13, 1953 with the Worland 
Woman's Club committee. Early day residents present were 
E. M. Conant and the late Mrs. Conant, Messers and Mesdames 
Lloyd Wilson, Noel Morgan, Fritz Loudan, George C. Muirhead, 
A. G. Johnson, Herb Horel, Mrs. Henry Mammen, Mrs. Elsie 
Shryack, Frank S. Coulter and committee members Mesdames 
Bragg, St. Clair, Bartholomew and Waldo. 

To obtain the deed from the Holly Sugar Corporation for the 
site selected Mrs. Bragg appointed E. M. Conant, George C. 
Muirhead, Noel Morgan, Lloyd Wilson and Frank S. Coulter to 
the committee. Mr. Glen Yeager, Worland Holly Sugar super- 
intendent, was very helpful. The marker was placed on the site 
July 15, 1954. 

Joseph L. McClellan of Billings, Mont., who was a clerk for 
"Dad" Worland in the early days sent the picture of the old log 
cabin which was selected to be used on the marker at an open 
meeting for all pioneers interested in choosing the most suitable 
picture. With the picture he wrote that his duties consisted 
mainly of collecting thirty-five cents per meal from each patron 
arriving on the stage from Garland to Thermopolis. He was a 
lad of sixteen and was proud that "Dad" said it was the first time 
his hotel ever made him any money. 

Below the engraving on the marker is the inscription: 

"To all pioneers and in memory of C. H. "Dad" Worland for 
whom the town is named. He erected the stage station on the 
old Bridger Trail about 100 yards north of here. That spot was 
the original townsite established in 1904. The town moved across 
the river in 1906. Erected by the Historical Landmark Commis- 
sion of Wyoming." 

Dedication ceremonies were in charge of Mr. Weppner. After 
selections by the Worland Junior High School band directed by 


Basil Broadbsnt, the Rev. Arthur P. Schnatz, D.D., pastor of 
the Zion Evangelical Lutheran church gave the invocation in 
memory of the pioneers. 

Frank R. Watson, mayor of Worland, gave the welcome address 
and introduced Mr. Weppner. 

Giving a brief history of the Landmark Commission, Mr. 
Weppner thanked the Worland Woman's Ciub for their request 
for the marker saying that it is the first request from the Big Horn 
Basin. He said that over thirty markers have been placed since 
the 1927 state legislature established the Commission when the 
late Frank Emerson, former Worland resident, was governor. 
Warren Richardson, chairman; and Mr. Weppner, secretary; both 
of Cheyenne, are the only original members left and have served 
continuously since appointed. 

Glen Yeager, Holly Sugar Corporation superintendent at Wor- 
land, and Mr. McClellan of Billings, Mont, were introduced by 
Mr. Weppner. He thanked Mr. Yeager on behalf of the state 
for the site and to Mr. McClellan he expressed appreciation for 
the photograph used on the marker. Both responded with short 

Wellington Rupp of Seattle, Wash, told some early day history. 
He said that his father the late A. G. Rupp had located a post- 
office called Welling west of the river from Rairden in 1900. The 
log store and postoffice building was the only one between Ther- 
mopolis and Basin City. Goods were brought from Montana and 
later from Garland, Wyoming by six horse teams and Studebaker 
tandem wagons. The Rupp family, consisting of father, mother, 
two sons and a daughter, also cared for travellers coming through 
by stage or their own buckboards. The father also operated a 
ferry across the river. Later Rupps moved to Worland in 1904. 

Another speaker telling of early days was Wilbur A. Woodrow 
of Thermopolis, whose wife Gertrude is the daughter of the late 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Thomas, pioneer operators of the Hotel 
Elma which was later moved across the frozen river in January 
1906 with many other buildings as the C. B. and Q. R. R. was 
laying the track on the east side of the river. There was no bridge 
spanning the river as today. 

Mr. Woodrow pointed out locations of many buildings of the 
old town including the hospital, Hanover office managed by E. M. 
Conant, Bebb's Store in charge of the late Ashby Howell, Sam 
Black's Hardware Store, Big Horn Canal office, Hotel Elma, 
Mclntyre's Barber Shop (Mclntyre was also town marshal and 
justice of the peace), the late O. C. Morgan's livery barn (he 
brought many landseekers by rig from the nearest railroad point 
at Garland), Rupp's Store, part of which was used for a school- 
room (Miss Carrie Ley then Mrs. Alice Rhodes were the first 
teachers, assisted by Robert E. Stine), the Chinese Laundry, the 


stage station and postoffice. Among some of the anecdotes he 
told were of Ashby Howell's ferry across the river also of a packrat 
incident at the cattle camp of Ray S. Hake. The camp was located 
on the site of the present Worland railroad depot. 

Verification of the original townsite being on the old Bridger 
Trail first marked in 1 866 by the famous Jim Bridger as a safe 
road to the Montana Gold Fields is contained in a photostatic 
copy of a U. S. War Department map of the Yellowstone and 
Missouri Rivers and their tributaries explored by Capt. W. F. 
Reynolds, US Top. Engs. and 1st Lieut. H. E. Maynadier, 10th 
US Infantry in 1859 through 1860 and revised up to the year of 
1876 by Maj. G. L. Gillespie, US Engineers. 

William F. Bragg, writer and native son of Lander, told of Jim 
Bridger opening the trail in 1 866, as did John Bozeman whose 
route to the gold fields skirted the eastern flank of the Big Horns. 
Records of pioneers on the Bridger route are scant and will bear 
further research but the Bridger road was known to be safer than 
Bozeman's trail since it did not run through the domain of the 
fighting Sioux tribes. Fierce fights east of the Big Horns were 
attacks on Fort Phil Kearney, Fort C. F. Smith, the Fetterman 
Massacre and the Wagon Box fight. 

This map was discovered by William F. Bragg, Jr., an instructor 
on the faculty of the Southeast Center of the University of Wyo- 
ming at Torrington. Serving as U. S. Ranger and Historian at 
the Fort Laramie National Monument this summer he presented 
the copy of the map to his father of Worland. It shows that while 
the Bozeman Trail swung northwards east of the Big Horns from 
For+ Fetterman on the North Platte, Bridger continued to Fort 
Caspar, crossed the river there then swung northwest and reached 
Badwater Creek. From the spot now occupied by Lysite, Wyo. 
he followed up Bridger Creek, crossed the Big Horns through 
Bridger Pass, came through the Kirby country then crossed the 
Big Horn to the west side a short distance north of the mouth of 
Nowater Creek. His road followed the river closely until opposite 
the present town of Manderson. His road then veered north 
through Pryor's Gap, across Clarks Fork River and eventually 
joined Bozeman's road east of the present town of Bozeman, Mont. 

The old map shows two passes here — each named after one 
of the old scouts. In 1866, the entire Big Horn Basin was prac- 
tically unexplored territory with but a few streams marked east of 
the river. Badwater, Nowater and Nowood appeared to have 
been known to these early explorers but few others. Streams west 
of the river were better known due to scouting by soldiers and 
Shoshoni scouts from military camps over in the South Pass area. 

So "Dad" Worland's old log cabin marked a historical road 
which had almost faded from memory of the early pioneers whose 
settlement is now commemorated by the silent sentinel placed 


there by the State of Wyoming just fifty years after a U. S. post- 
office was established in the log cabin stage station. 

After the talk by Mr. Bragg there was a moment of silence in 
memory of the pioneers and those unable to be present. 

Mrs. Bragg and the committee expressed appreciation to all 
who had assisted with the project. A group picture of the pioneers 
present was taken at the foot of the marker. They were registered 
by Charles R. Harkins. A pioneer picnic was held in the evening 
at the Sanders city park. Both events were well attended. 

Registrations of the pioneers and the younger generation were: 

Mr. and Mrs. Rico H. Stine, Vista, Calif.; Mr. and Mrs. Lee S. 
Hake, Jr. and Frances Hake, Los Angeles, Calif.; Mr. and Mrs. 
Robert F Gillespie, Ralph and Barbara, Detroit, Mich.; Mr. and 
Mrs. William E. Taylor and Edward, Phoenix, Ariz.; Mr. and 
Mrs. Joseph L. McClellan, Billings, Mont.; Wellington Rupp, 
Seattle, Wash.; Tom Cotter, Dodson, Mont.; Mrs. William Dol- 
phin, Butler, Wis.; Miss Helen Taylor, New York City; Joseph 
S. Weppner, Cheyenne; Robert E. Stine, Casper; Mr. and Mrs. 
W. S. Black, Mr. and Mrs. Wilbur A. Woodrow, Charles Watkins, 
all of Thermopolis; Mr. and Mrs. Amandus W. Erickson, Burling- 
ton; Mrs. Echo Sweet Pickett, Ten Sleep. 

Mayor Frank R. Watson and Mrs. Watson, Messers and Mes- 
dames J. S. Russell, E. M. Conant, H. C. Shirk, A. A. Palmer, 
A. G. Johnson, Earl T. Bower, Cecil D. Black, Ray F. Bower, 
Frank S. Coulter, their daughter Mrs. Tom Turnbull and grand- 
daughter Mary Evelyn Turnbull, Ray S. Hake and daughter-in-law 
Ray Hake, Jr. and son Steven Ray Hake, Russell Laird, Roy 
Russell, C. H. Stark, A. H. Ellbogen, H. D. Rauchfuss, Bert 
Agee, Clair Barngrover, Fred Greet, W. J. Gorst, H. H. Horel, 
George C. Muirhead, Harry A. Taylor, Albert Girod, A. J. 
Knisely and daughter Mrs. Leonard Bonine and son, E. M. 
Paris, William F. Bragg, Don H. Babbitt, Lloyd Wilson, A. J. 
Klein, E. L. Evans, Joe Salzman, Gordon McGarvin all from 
Worland; Miss Anna F. Godfrey, Mesdames C. F. Robertson, 
Margaret McClellan Chastain, Ruth Millard McKeon, Minnie 
Taylor Francke, Lillian Leithead, Myrtle Compton and daughter 
Carleen, Wallace Shryack, Gayleen and Terry, Frank Dent, Emile 
Faure, Ruth Palmer Kennedy, Daisy McCann, Mary Bosch White, 
Anna Elizabeth Bosch George, Fred Bosch, A. E. Bartholomew, 
Rosa St Clair, W. A. Waldo, Marie Piatt, O. C. Bonine all from 

P. F. McClure, Charles R. Harkins, Guy Woodrow, Frank 
Farley, William Greet, Sam H. Black, Dean Palmer, Don H. Bab- 
bitt, Jr., William Faure, Elmer Packer, Ray Pendergraft, Albert 
Bosch, Roger Clymore, Henry Leikham, R. M. Showalter, Pete 
Scheuerman, Leo Scheuerman, S. S. Halstead, Gaden Russell, 



J. D. McNutt, Bill Orr, Ken Monroe, Hugh Knoefel, Alex Leiper 
all of Worland. 

Among visitors to view the marker before the dedication were 
"Dad" Worland's nephews Willis and John Worland and their 
wives from "Dad's" hometown, where they live at Montgomery 
City, Mo. It was their first visit to the town established by their 
pioneer uncle whom they visited at Denver, Colo, before his 
death some years ago. Mr. Robertson described him as a "dia- 
mond in the rough", genial but self-contained to a marked degree 
with dry wit and humor. They called on Mr. and Mrs. George C. 
Muirhead and Mr. and Mrs. Glen Yeager, both couples now living 
in homes built by "Dad" and his son Charlie Worland, also 

Committee members, left to right: Mrs. A. E. Bartholomew, Mrs. 
Rosa St. Clair, Mrs. W. A. Waldo, Mrs. W. F. Bragg, Sr.; and Mr 
Joseph S. Weppner, secretary of the Historical Landmark Com- 
mission of Wyoming. 

Zke Old Occidental 

Howard B. Lott* 

The pioneers of the Old West were remarkably lacking in 
originality in the application of names. This accounts, in a way, 
for the existence of so many Occidental hotels in that new cattle 
land of the sixties and seventies which extended westward from 
the Missouri river to the Rockies. One in particular, however, 
the old Occidental of Buffalo, Wyoming, stood apart from all the 
others in many respects. It was the first to be erected in that 
part of the Indian country claimed by the Crows, Cheyennes, 
and Sioux known as the Powder River Country. During the 
sixties when Kansas was just becoming well known as a cattle 
country, there was located at Dodge City an Occidental hotel, 
undoubtedly the original from which the Old Occidental received 
its name. 

Back in the days of 1879 when the name Johnson County first 
began to appear upon the pages of Wyoming history, there ap- 
peared upon the banks of Clear Creek at the eastern boundary 
limit of the Fort McKinney Military Reservation, a gathering of 
rugged pioneers engaged in the building of a new town. A 
number of tents had here been set up on the site of the future town 
of Buffalo. 

Charles E. Buell, a pioneer of Johnson County, was living in 
one of the tents of this new tent-town. Born in Geneva, Wis- 
consin, he had come to northern Wyoming in 1878 with the 
Trabing Brothers and, remaining for a while in their employ, had 
assisted them with the transfer of their store in 1879 from its 
original location at the Bozeman Trail crossing on Crazy Woman, 
to a site on what is now the Cross H ranch, some four miles 
south of Buffalo. Before the word had been passed around that 
the post reservation had been reduced, the store was once more 
dismantled and moved to a new location on the banks of Clear 
Creek, some three miles nearer the fort. 

The story of how the Occidental came to be was told to the 
writer by Miles Buell, a son of the builder. Charley Buell was 
preparing his meal one day at his tent not long after his arrival 
on Clear Creek, when a party of miners rode up with a large pack 
outfit. They inquired of Mr. Buell if they might remain with him 

NOTE. — This article was written by Mr. Lott in 1939. 


for a few days and if he would board them during their stay in 
the new town. He readily assented to the proposition, and the 
miners prepared themselves for a few days of leisure among these 
pioneers, free from the cares of their own campfire and the prep- 
aration of their own meals. One of them inquired of Mr. Buell 
as to the best manner in which to cache some gold that they had 
just recently taken from the Big Horn Mountains to the west. In 
the way of a reply, Mr. Buell conducted them to the interior of 
the tent and pointed out to them a hole dug into the ground 
directly under his bed. He informed them that they might place 
the gold in this hole and rest assured that it would not be molested. 
This was done, and these miners thus received from Charley 
Buell the facilities of Johnson County's first hotel. For several 
days thereafter Charley Buell made coffee, fried bacon, and turned 
"flapjacks" for this party of miners and was liberally rewarded 
for his hospitality upon their departure. Thus did the Old Occi- 
dental take its beginning in a tent on the banks of Clear Creek. 

Charley Buell then decided that the hotel business might be 
profitable in this new town and concluded to erect a building on 
the site of the tent-hotel and go into the business on a larger scale. 
Putting up a temporary frame shack, he then proceeded with the 
construction of the famous Old Occidental. While engaged in 
the removal of underbrush and trees from the site, Mr. Buell 
discovered a human skull in the crotch of one of the trees. Upon 
being removed and examined closely, it was found to be that of an 
Indian, buried probably, as was the early custom of several of the 
Indian tribes, upon a scaffold constructed among the branches 
of closely growing trees. The skull had become tightly held by 
the growing branches and remained in position when the scaffold 
supporting the body became dilapidated and fell away. It even- 
tually came into the possession of one of the pioneer attorneys of 
Buffalo and still occupies a place upon the shelf in his office. 

The new building consisted of a main structure approximately 
twenty-four by twenty-eight feet. The entrance was through a 
large door surmounted by a panel consisting of small panes of 
glass. One window on each side of this door, together with one 
directly above, were of native lumber covered by a hip roof of 
shingles. There were six bedrooms on the upper floor, three on 
each side, and each had a dormer window. The lower floor was 
occupied by the lobby, dining room, and kitchen. Along the 
north and south sides of the lower story there were constructed, 
in somewhat of a lean-to fashion, two more sets of rooms, which 
set off the whole building in a pleasing balance of uniform con- 
struction. The front room of each of these two sets or groups 
extended some five or six feet past the front of the main building 
and in the walls thus formed, and directly opposite each other, 
there were placed two additional doors, thus permitting entrance 


to these side rooms without passing through the main building. 
The picture was completed by the usual hitchrack in the street 
before the main doorway, which served as a hotel de occidental 
to the many cowponies of the day whose apparent duty was to 
wait with patience on three legs the return of their riders from 
a session within of "bucking the tiger" or consuming straight 
whiskey at two bits a drink. 

This building was completed some time during the fall of 1880, 
and from old notes and papers preserved by Mrs. Charles Buell, 
there is found an item which states that the first cook employed 
by Mr. Buell in the Old Occidental was a Jacob Schmerer, more 
familiarly known as Dutch Jake. Schmerer was somewhat of a 
character, in a way, and was well liked by Charley Buell. His 
disappearance from his squatter claim on Dry Creek in April 
1885, was the cause of no little amount of talk in the country and 
anxiety among his friends. He had spent the winter on his claim 
in the poisoning of wolves, and when it became apparent that he, 
together with all his belongings, was really gone, suspicion was 
at once directed toward Bill Booth, a questionable character who 
had spent the winter with Schmerer at his claim. The story of 
Booth's capture in Miles City by Stock Inspector W. D. Smith, 
his return to Buffalo, and the incidents of his trial and hanging 
at the rear of the then new court house is too long to be related 
here, but in view of the fact that this was Johnson County's first 
legal hanging, would, in itself, make an interesting tale. 

The Old Occidental was more than just a hotel in the early days 
of Johnson County. Not only serving as a hotel and a place of 
meeting for old friends, who had for weeks or perhaps months lost 
trace of one another, it also served as a town hall, a polling place, 
and, fortunately for the victims of disease and those who survived 
an encounter with the Colt or Winchester, it served as a hospital. 
Then, too, when Johnson County was being organized in 1881, 
the right or north wing served the purpose of a court house. It 
was here that John R. Smith and Charles A. Farwell, two of the 
commissioners appointed by the territorial governor for the pur- 
pose of organizing the county, met and proceeded with the steps 
necessary for the calling of an election of county officers to handle 
the affairs of the new County. This first meeting was held in the 
north wing of the Old Occidental, and the record is dated Clear 
Creek, March 29, 1881. It goes on to state that for Clear Creek 
precinct, Porter Kempton, John Erhart, and A. J. McCray were 
appointed judges of election and that the voting place was desig- 
nated as A. J. McCray's Occidental Hotel on Clear Creek. (Just 
why the Occidental was inferred as belonging to McCray is not 
known, as construction was performed by Charley Buell, McCray 
having been taken in as a partner some time during this same 
spring 1881.) Also, it was through the effects of Mr. and Mrs. 


Buell that the Old Occidental came to be so well known for its 
hospitality in the years to come. 

During the year 1884 the people of Johnson County enjoyed a 
prosperity that was growing along with the cattle business. The 
new Canaan was booming and the stockmen had not as yet suf- 
fered the great losses in livestock which had to be sustained by 
them later on. Needless to say, the Old Occidental shared in 
this prosperity and expansion which resulted in the building of an 
annex to the old hotel. The annex was built south of and ad- 
joining the main building, between it and the bank of Clear Creek. 
It was a two story frame building, and, because of the fact that 
it was of two stories, did not have the usual false front so much 
used in the construction of Western buildings in those days. A 
false front to the annex was unnecessary; it was two full stories 
high and Buffalo citizens, as well as the owners, were proud of it. 
After its completion the bar room of the old hotel was transferred 
to the annex and several pool and billiard tables were added. The 
lobby, dining room, and the kitchen remained in the original 
building for several years when they were moved into the annex. 
By this time the County had acquired property of its own through 
the purchase of Ed. O'Malley's "Lone Star Dance Hall" and this 
had been converted into a temporary court house and the County 
Commissioners met no more at the Old Occidental. 

The Buells, as host of the Occidental, were known far and wide 
for their hospitality, and at some time during the winter of 1883 
they became the cordial hosts to a large number of friends in 
giving a masquerade ball at the Old Occidental, the first of its 
kind to be held in the town. The place was one of gayety and 
splendor, and nothing was overlooked which might add to the 
charm or popularity of the affair, even to the furnishing of the 
music by the Fifth U. S. Cavalry band from Fort McKinney. 

From the lobby of the Old Occidental, along about the nineties, 
many of Owen Wister's characters found their way into the pages 
of his "Virginian. " It was here that many of the manners, cus- 
toms, and expressions of the genuine cowboy were impressed upon 
the mind of the author of this widely known book, one of the few 
books upon the West that really portrays the life of the cowpuncher 
as he really lived it. 

The lobby of the Old Occidental was a common meeting place 
for Johnson County people and it was here that old friends met 
and discussed the news of the day, transacted their personal 
business, or told of past experiences. A story that Bill Hayes used 
to tell on J. A. McDermott, a deputy sheriff under Frank Canton, 
is worthy of mention here as it originated in the lobby of the 
old hotel. 

McDermott and Hayes were sitting in the Occidental lobby one 
day during the early eighties. Hayes, happening to look through 


the window and across the street, became suddenly interested in 
something which was going on in front of the livery stable across 
the way, nudged Mac, and pointed out the window. Glancing 
toward the scene which had drawn the attention of Hayes, Mac 
discovered that a cowpuncher, aided by a six-shooter in an 
attempted robbery, had forced the liveryman to back up against 
the wall of the stable with his hands above his head. 

"Guess I better be getting over there and find out what the 
trouble is," remarked the deputy; "Want to go along?" 

"Oh, no, no, not me," was Hayes' reply. "I don't want to get 
mixed up in that." 

"Well, I'll be going over myself," was Mac's reply. 

"If you do, you'll find yourself lined up with that liveryman 
holding your hands in the air," was the parting shot of Hayes as 
Mac departed in the performance of his duty. 

And surely enough, as Billy Hayes sat and watched, he soon 
observed Mac take a position beside the liveryman and slowly 
raise his hands into the air. At this critical moment, however, 
a kind providence intervened and sent relief in the person of 
Frank Canton, the sheriff, who happened to pass by and saw the 
predicament of his deputy and the liveryman. Quickly sensing 
the situation, he asked what the trouble was, at the same time 
slipping his hand into his pocket, a significant movement to those 
acquainted with it. He then demanded in a guff tone for the 
cowpuncher to "Hand over the gun" a request quickly complied 
with. The sheriff had save the day for Mac, but this was by no 
means the end of the affair, as later on Mac was more than once 
forced to blush deeply at the mention of it. 

A story of the Old Occidental would not be complete without 
some mention of the hostilities that once in a while sent the peace- 
ful bystanders hurrying for cover. During the nineties and while 
"Red" Angus was operating the hotel in the capacity of a lessee, 
a quarrel arose between Angus and "Arapahoe" Brown over a 
board bill which Angus contended Brown owed him. Scathing 
words were exchanged between the two and these becoming 
inadequate to express the emotion felt, Angus drew a gun and 
point-blank fired a shot into the body of Brown. The ball passed 
through Brown's clothing consisting of a heavy overcoat, an under- 
coat, a vest, two heavy shirts, and heavy underwear, with just 
enough force left behind it to carry it through the ribs of Brown's 
chest, where it dropped harmlessly in the chest cavity without 
any apparent injury to the organs therein. Brown then walked 
for a considerable distance to a doctor who dressed his wound, 
and in due time fully recovered. He carried the bullet in his body 
for several years and was later killed at the hand of another 


Another shooting occurred in the kitchen of the Old Occidental 
some three years later. This was the killing of Hugh Smith at 
the hands of a man called Frenchy. It seems that the wives of 
these two men had been quarreling, and Smith had later taken up 
his wife's quarrel and had used profanity toward Frenchy's wife 
and had struck and kicked her. Mrs. Frenchy retaliated by 
hurling a dinner plate at the offender, and Frenchy had meanwhile 
been informed that someone was beating his wife. He quickly 
secured a gun, rushed into the kitchen, and shot Smith three or 
four times. After the first shot Smith drew his own gun and 
fired once at Frenchy, but after that could not see to shoot because 
of powder smoke. Smith was fhen removed to the laundry build- 
ing at the rear of the hotel, where he died a few hours later. 

After standing for over a quarter of a century on the bank of 
Clear Creek, the Old Occidental was doomed to travel the trail 
of its contemporary, the cowpuncher. Progress and a growing 
town demanded that a new structure replace the Old Occidental. 
From 1906 to 1910, a modem brick building gradually replaced 
the famous old hotel and in a short time the hewn logs and native 
lumber of the Old Occidental had been torn down and hauled 
away to serve another purpose in ranch house or barn. 

To many there is a certain fascination in the landmarks of the 
Old West and although modern methods and modern business 
make a demand for things modern, still it is with a pang of regret 
that they stand silently by and watch this inevitable change. The 
Old Occidental and the old-time cowpuncher have passed the 
way of the buffalo and the Indian. 

Mow Keek Springs 
Celebrated Christ mas /// '7$ 

D. G. Thomas* 

I shall always retain pleasant memories of those early, happy 
territorial days. A camp, that was all Rock Springs was then; and 
to attempt to dignify it as a town or a city would be a misnomer. 
A few small, red houses dotted here and there over the present 
town-site comprised the camp, so far as outward appearance went. 
On what is now known as B Street there were but three dwellings 
of a more pretentious type, and they were occupied by officials 
of the coal company. Further along on the street was a one- 
room building which served the dual purpose of a school-house 
and an amusement hall. In addition to these houses referred to 
was the American House, a prominent institution in those days. 
It was owned and managed by "Uncle" George Harris, a true 
sport in every respect. He would bet his money on anything, 
white or black, high or low, a horse-race, foot-race, target 
shooting, clay or live pigeons, or anything else. Too often he 
lost his bets; but he was a good loser and never whimpered. He 
died not many years ago, comparatively a poor man. In his day, 
George Harris made plenty of money with his different enter- 
prises, but it sifted through his fingers like sand through a sieve. 

Across the railroad track from the American House stood the 
Central Hotel, managed by John Jarvie, a man of varied attain- 
ments, but not a gambler. Kindness was one of the dominant 
traits of his character. I personally know this to be true. I ad- 
mired him very much, and when in 1911 I learned that Jarvie had 
been murdered in a most brutal manner in Brown's Park, I took 
his passing as a personal loss. Mr. E. L. Kolb, in his fascinating 
book, "Through the Grand Canyon from Wyoming to Mexico," 
speaks of the murder in the following words: "On emerging from 
Red Canyon we spied a ranch house, or log cabin, close to the 
river. The doors were open and there were many tracks in the 
sand, so we thought someone else must be about. On approach- 
ing the house, however, we found the place was deserted, but with 
furniture, books and pictures piled on the floor in the utmost con- 
fusion, as if the occupants had left in a hurry. This surmise 

*This manuscript is from the collection of the W.P.A. manuscripts 
located in the Wyoming State Historical Department. 


afterwards proved to be correct, for we learned that the rancher 
(John Jarvie) had been murdered for his money, his body having 
been found in a boat further down the river. Suspicion pointed 
to an old employe who had been seen lurking near the place. He 
was traced to the railroad, over a hundred miles to the north; but 
made his escape and was never caught." 

But there was another camp, invisible to the casual passerby, 
wherein lived some families and the cavemen known as bachelors. 
These were the "dug-outs" planted along the banks of Bitter 
Creek. They were made by excavating an area large enough for 
one or more rooms, the sides roughly boarded and the roof made 
of poles laid side by side, and all being covered with dirt taken 
from the "hole in the ground." Those more fastidious in their 
tastes and desiring something in the way of luxury, employed many 
yards of cloth sheeting in lieu of plaster. The floor of the "dug- 
out" was in general the soil, packed firmly and smoothly and 
swept regularly. Chinatown was considerably larger than was 
Rock Springs, including the "dug-outs." At that time it was 
estimated that the Chinese numbered from ten hundred to twelve 
hundred souls. The number of white men working in the coal 
mines would not exceed thirty, divided about evenly between the 
two mines which were being operated by the company. This 
force of white men was retained by the company from motives 
of necessity and not from choice. Since the coming of the 
Chinese into the mines, the white miner was taboo, and only 
those known for their probity and general knowledge of coal min- 
ing were employed. Besides, there were many kinds of labor a 
white man only could perform, such as the sinking of the slopes, 
and, the narrow work must be sheared. The Chinese miners were 
not advanced enough to do it. Track-laying and mule driving 
must likewise be performed by white labor. Ten hours consti- 
tuted a working day, and the majority of the white men were re- 
quired to work every day, including Sundays. 

Christmas eve in the year 1878 was in many respects a memor- 
able one. The white inhabitants of the community gathered in 
the little one-room school-house, which stood about where the 
Junior High is now located. It was truly a loving, family gather- 
ing. The arrangements for a proper observance of the holiday 
festival were most complete. All met on a common level, each 
doing his or her share to see to it that the spirit of Christmas was 
exemplified and diffused, so that all should partake of it. Nothing 
was left undone, no one was overlooked or forgotten. The 
children provided the most of the literary and musical entertain- 
ment for the grown-ups. I look back now with unalloyed pleasure 
at the grouping of those beautiful children, dressed like fairies, 
their eyes sparkling with merriment and anticipation, and their 
voices ringing like silver bells as they sang the anthems and 


choruses. When Santa Claus came down the chimney their happi- 
ness was complete; the little candles were lighted on the tree, 
and the gorgeousness and the splendor of the ornaments and the 
wonderful presents on display were simply dazzling and wonderful. 

For days and days before the event willing hands had been 
busily engaged in stringing cranberries and popcorn for the pur- 
pose of decorating the tree; these and such tinsel as could be 
found formed the background of a veritable fairy-land. I have 
stated that in the distribution of presents none were overlooked. 
Occasionally some old hardened sinner crouching in a seat at 
the rear of the building would be startled and surprised when 
Santa Claus, calling him by name, announced, in ringing tones, 
a gift for that man. When the fairy child acting as Santa's mes- 
senger carried the prize to him, his old eyes would moisten and 
often tears trickled down his cheeks. Something just then oper- 
ated to change that man's entire nature. The knowledge that 
someone cared for him enough to manifest it with a token of 
remembrance affected him. Perhaps, too, the recollections of his 
own happy childhood suddenly flashed upon the screen of memory 
and unfolded a picture of home and loved ones. Who knows? 
Often the hardened old sinner proved only a sinner in spots; 
press the proper button and the light of his better nature would 
cause those spots to disappear. 

Barney McCabe was here and there and everywhere that night; 
he it was who cut and hauled the tree from the mountains; he 
acted as janitor by keeping the "home fires burning" and the 
building at the proper temperature. Besides these duties, he was 
the guardian angel of the peace, being the town constable. He 
loved the children and would go any lengths for them, and on 
this occasion he was anything but a cipher. 

McCabe originally came from Ireland, and as a sturdy young 
man found himself in South Pass City, then one of the greatest 
gold-producing camps in the world. For a time he worked in 
those mines, but gave up his employment after a few months, to 
engage in freighting between Bryan Station, at that time the 
division point of the railroad, and South Pass City. His exploits 
while in that service would provide many interesting tales of 
daring, of hardships and narrow escapes from the Indians who 
infested the regions of the South Pass, country. We slept in the 
same cabin and under the same buffalo robes for many months. 
The long winter nights we usually passed beside a roaring fire, 
and then it was that Barney would become reminiscent. He 
named scores of fine young men, miners, hunters and freighters, 
victims of the Indian's deadly arrow. He had often been called 
on to help bury those men, and in every instance he found that 
the bodies had been horribly mutilated. I never inquired as to 


where in the country those murdered men were buried, but I do 
know that in the low bottom lands at Big Sandy crossing I 
counted at one time about twenty-eight graves, and I wondered 
if the majority of them did not contain the bodies of those poor 
fellows. McCabe was typically a western character, witty, and a 
keen lover of horses; should a cowboy be abusive to his animal, 
Barney never hesitated to interfere in behalf of the horse, and it 
mattered not who the man was, he had to either desist or fight. 
The outcome was, usually, that the cowboy desisted. Whenever 
McCabe saw a wheelbarrow he always related how, when a young 
man, he often wheeled his mother to church "in one of them 
things. " Barney McCabe passed out into the Great Beyond long 
ago, and I hope he has found his proper reward. 

In conclusion, let me say that after the Christmas tree and the 
entertainment came the dance. John Ludvigsen, with his music 
box, furnished the music on the accordion which he purchased 
in Norway, and it was truly a wonderful instrument. The qua- 
drille was the principal dance, and the way the dancers whirled 
through the seemingly intricate figures was wonderful. I still 
believe that for sheer fun and enjoyment, the old-fashioned qua- 
drille is far ahead of the modern dances. John Ludvigsen"s 
relating a funny anecdote was one of the prize events of such 
occasions. In telling it he anticipated the end of the story and 
started to laugh at about the middle of it; as he proceeded his 
laughter increased until finally the tears rolled down his cheeks 
and he became convulsed and hysterical to such an extent that 
he could say no more. I never knew him to finish telling a funny 
story. As John continued to laugh it became contagious, and 
those around him caught it and laughed uproariously because of 
his convulsive explosions of mirth. 

I believe that the spirit of Christmas was more truly emphasized 
in those days than at the present. Perhaps the reason for this 
will be found in the unanimous and hearty cooperation of the 
entire people of the community. The fewness in number probably 
would account for that cohesion of interests. 

A Zrip to Zhe Mack Mills 

in 1876 

Lloyd McFarling 

Leander P. Richardson traveled from Fort Laramie to Dead- 
wood near the end of July, 1876; spent five days in Deadwood 
Gulch; and described his experiences in an article published in 
Scribner's Monthly Magazine for April, 1 877.' Richardson's 
article has been almost entirely ignored by historians, yet it con- 
tains a vivid picture of conditions on the trail and in the mining 
camps when the stampede to Deadwood was at its climax. 

I have no information about Richardson other than that inci- 
dentally revealed by the article. It is evident that he was a tender- 
foot. Weather conditions during the first few days of his trip 
were abnormally unfavorable and he was perhaps unduly im- 
pressed by the hardships and dangers of frontier travel. Probably 
these hardships and dangers contributed to his pessimistic attitude 
toward mining, miners, and the Black Hills region. Subsequent 
history proved that many of his opinions were wrong, yet his 
reporting of facts was generally accurate. He began his article 
on a note of scepticism: 

That portion of country, away in the interior of Dakota, which has 
come to be known all over the world as the Black Hills mining region, 
has probably been the subject of more newspaper discussion than 
any other discovery in America, if we except the excitement of 1849 
over California. And yet this newly found El Dorado is at the 
present time enshrouded so completely in vagueness, that the greater 
part of the conversation which it excites still takes the form of un- 
certain conjecture, perhaps not unblended with willful misrepresenta- 
tion. A majority of those who have personally visited the region are 
men who went there, endured the privations, and took upon them- 
selves the necessary risk of losing their lives, with the express purpose 
of making an immense fortune in an exceedingly short time. Many 
who discovered their error, returned as soon as circumstances would 
permit, and some of these, being deeply imbued with the species of 
lunacy which a miner's life is apt to impart, or else sacrificing their 
regard for veracity to their false sense of pride, have circulated reports 
of the vast resources and abounding beauty of the country, and 
excited exaggerated hopes of the brilliancy of its future. 

1. Leander P. Richardson, "A Trip to the Black Hills", Scribner's 
Monthly, Vol. 13, No. 6, April 1877, pp. 748-756. 


Richardson's description of his trip began at Fort Laramie. 
He left that place on the morning of July 22, 1876, a member of 
a party of eight men, traveling in a "jerky" and a large freight 
wagon, each drawn by four horses. The name of the first vehicle, 
thought Richardson, was derived from the peculiar manner in 
which it switched the driver from the seat whenever any rough 
road was encountered. He chose a seat on the springless, but 
more dependable, freight wagon. 

The route led up the Platte several miles, through deep sand. 
The sun poured down with greater fierceness than Richardson had 
ever experienced, and the travelers were surrounded all morning 
by innumerable sand-gnats "which darted into our eyes, crawled 
into our nostrils, buzzed in our ears, and wriggled down our necks 
in a most annoying fashion." They reached Government Farm, 
fifteen miles from Fort Laramie, about eleven o'clock and Rich- 
ardson burned his fingers in his first attempt to cook a meal. The 
meal was not a success. Everything became covered with bacon 
grease, and there was more dust in the food than he was accus- 
tomed to eating. In the afternoon the party went on to Rawhide 
Buttes, where it overtook a larger train of canvas covered wagons, 
enroute to the Black Hills. 

Richardson's party camped near the wagon trail and went 
through "the tedious and horrible mockery of supper", and the 
men wrapped themselves in their blankets and slept, some of 
them in the wagons and others on the ground. The next morning 
(July 23) was cold and damp with a drizzling rain setting in. 
The party of eight men had eight colds. Breakfast was a 
"swindle". They started at four o'clock, reached Running Water 
(the Niobrara River) about ten, and experienced the "one-act 
farce of dinner". 

They continued to travel to the north and at four o'clock met 
six men in a huge freight wagon — gamblers going to Cheyenne 
to purchase new equipment for their business. The gamblers were 
reticent about the prospects of gold mining at Deadwood. They 
reported that a bull-train, heavily weighted with flour and mer- 
chandise, was waiting at Hat Creek. 

Hat Creek was the army camp and ranch on Sage Creek which 
afterward became one of the main stations on the stage line to 
Deadwood. 2 Richardson's party reached the place late that 
afternoon, just as a rain storm, which had been threatening all 
day, broke over them. 

Just across the creek was a soldiers' camp garrisoned by six men. 
The regular number kept at the Hat Creek camp is from forty to 
forty-five, but the majority of the soldiers were now away on a scout- 

2. There had been some stage service to Custer City before this time 
but regular service had not been maintained because of Indian depredations. 


ing expedition with General Merritt. 3 Close beside the camp is a 
building ordinarily known as "Johnny Bowman's Ranch". 4 These 
ranches, which abound along the lines of all the stage and freight 
roads in this wilderness, form a peculiar phase of frontier life. They 
are hotels, bar-rooms and stores for general merchandise, all com- 
bined in one, and the whole business is usually transacted in a single 
room. In fact, but few of them can boast of more than one apart- 
ment. At any of these places a traveler can purchase almost any- 
thing, from a glass of whiskey to a four-horse team, but the former 
article is usually the staple of demand. The proprietor of the Hat 
Creek ranch is known and highly esteemed from Cheyenne to the 
remotest parts of the Black Hills district. 

In the evening the party held a council around the fireplace in 
the cabin on the Bowman Ranch. They had reached what they 
considered the boundary between the "safe" country and that 
infested with Indians, and they were not in agreement as to the 
best time to enter the Indian country. The final vote was that 
the party would remain here overnight and perhaps start again 
next evening. 

... at midnight the storm became extremely violent, and the rain 
which had soaked through the canvas dripped down upon us in great 
chilling drops. . . . That morning at breakfast the party was not a 
cheerful one, and the blind desperation which possessed all of us 
inspired the proposal to hitch up the horses and go ahead, Indians 
or no Indians. The proposition was sullenly assented to, and ten 
o'clock found us once more upon the road. The mud was thick and 
deep, and our progress was far from rapid. In about two hours, after 
passing through a number of deep and miry water-courses, our teams 
swung around under the shadow of a great overhanging bluff of 
yellow earth, and we found ourselves upon the banks of Indian Creek, 
which, our driver announced, was the most dangerous part of the 
whole journey. The bed of the creek is about two hundred yards in 
width, and the banks are steep and high. Sharply outlined mounds of 
earth rise at frequent intervals in the stream-bed, and form places of 
protection from which the murderous savages may fire upon their 
unsuspecting victims, without any risk of being killed or wounded 
themselves; moreover, the course of the creek is heavily timbered, so 
that it is almost impossible to distinguish forms a short distance away. 
The slight stream of water which passes down through the valley (I 
had almost said gorge) winds its sinuous way from one bank to 
another. The road follows its bed for two or three miles and the 
general course of the creek for about fifteen miles, gradually working 
toward higher ground. Through this valley the party marched, rifles 

3. Colonel (Brevet Major General) Wesley Merritt, commanding the 
5th Cavalry, was in the Hat Creek region a few days before Richardson. 
On July 17 the 5th Cavalry fought a brief battle with a band of Cheyenne 
Indians on Warbonnet Creek, and drove them back to Red Cloud Agency. 
On the day Richardson reached Hat Creek Ranch Colonel Merritt was 
enroute from Red Cloud Agency to Fort Fetterman with his regiment. 
Charles King, Campaigning With Crook and Stories of Army Life, New 
York, 1890, Chapter IV. 

4. John Bowman established the Hat Creek Stage Station in the 
"autumn" of 1876, and remained in charge until September 1879, according 
to Agnes Wright Spring, The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express 
Routes, Glendale, Calif., 1949, pp'. 122-3. 


in hand, and ready for an attack. The storm had settled into a reg- 
ular driving rain from which no refuge could be found. The wind 
was very cold — more chilling than some of the bleakest of New 
England air currents, and the discomforts of our situation were greatly 
increased. But the bad weather no doubt added to the security of 
our position, for, as my companion on the lumber-wagon . . . found 
time to say, "Any Injun who would venture out on such a day was a 
sight bigger fool than most of his race." 

We were then in the midst of this region covered by alkali. In 
many cases the ground was white with it, and the pools of water, 
which had gathered from the rain were thick and of sickening flavor. 
When the ground impregnated with alkali is damp or wet, it forms 
the most villainous clinging compound imaginable. The revolving 
wheels quickly become solid masses of heavy mire, the spaces between 
the spokes and between the wheel and the wagon-box being com- 
pletely filled, so that every hundred yards or so, it became necessary 
to dismount and pry it away with a crow-bar. In order to relieve 
the jaded horses, the greater number of the passengers dismounted. 
But after half a dozen steps their boots would pick up great slabs of 
the earth, and they too were forced to resort to the crow-bar. By 
five o'clock in the afternoon we had gone about fourteen miles, and 
one of the horses had given out entirely. In another hour we came 
in sight of an old and deserted cabin away to the right of the road, 
on the edge of Indian Creek, now swollen to a rushing torrent. To- 
ward this shanty our steps were directed, and by dark the horses were 
picketed out, and we ate another melancholy meal of raw ham and 
hard-tack. Some water which we brought from the creek was as 
thick as molasses, and so white with alkali as to resemble cream. 
A pailful of this delectable beverage was set inside the roofless hut, 
and seven or eight prickly pears, pounded to a pulp, were put in to 
"settle" it for our morning meal. The travelers were divided up into 
watches, and spent the night in a miserable and dreary way. 

The travelers started early the next morning (July 25). Toward 
ten o'clock the mud began to dry and progress became more 
rapid. In the afternoon they saw, briefly, a group of thirty or 
forty Indians in the distance, but apparently were not seen by the 
Indians. Just before dark they reached the Cheyenne River. 
That morning the stream had been dry; it was now running fifty 
yards wide and from four to nine feet deep. 

Our driver was warned by persons on the opposite shore that it would 
be impossible for us to cross, but in spite of that, he determined to 
make the trial. The result was that the horses got into a quicksand, 
the wagon became fast in the mud and some of the passengers were 
obliged to spend more than two hours in the water before the outfit 
was again on dry land. This was the second drenching for us, and 
we were not very amiable, — in fact we almost came to blows two or 
three times within an hour. "Van" and myself mounted horses and 
went over to the ranch on the other side. In the house we found 
three old frontiersmen to whom danger was as pleasant as safety 
is to ordinary mortals. We obtained some dry clothes, our own 
garments were hung up before the huge fire-place and a supply of 
fried venison, coffee, and bread was prepared. 5 

5. This ranch was, at times, the hangout of Persimmon Bill Chambers, 
supposed to be the leader of a gang of horsethieves. Spring, op. cit., pp. 
124 and 138. 


They remained here until the afternoon of the third day (July 
28), and about eight o'clock in the evening of that day reached 
the soldiers' camp' 1 at the mouth of Red Canyon. As soon as their 
evening meal was over they started into the canyon, traveling by 
night to reduce the danger of Indian attacks. They encountered 
no Indians, got through the canyon with no misadventure other 
than an overturned wagon, and reached Custer City next day 
(July 29). Most of the miners had stampeded to Deadwood 
Gulch, leaving only about one hundred and fifty people in a town 
of perhaps a thousand cabins. Richardson thought that as a 
mining town Custer City was a "delusion" but predicted that if 
the Black Hills excitement continued it would become the leading 
point in the Hills for the distribution of supplies. This prediction 
was logical enough at the time Richardson was traveling, for the 
main road to Deadwood was then through Custer. A few months 
later, however, the main trail from Cheyenne to Deadwood entered 
the western side of the Black Hills via Camp Jenney; while the 
trail from Sidney, Nebraska, skirted the eastern base of the Hills. 
Important trails were also developed from Bismarck and Fort 
Pierre to the northern and eastern mining areas. Custer City 
became merely a branch-line supply point for the south-central 
area of the Hills. 

At Custer City the travelers had a "square meal" in a "regular 
hotel". Late in the afternoon they started north and that night 
camped about twelve miles from Custer on Spring Creek. Next 
morning (July 30), they passed through Hill City — "a collection 
of about 200 partly built houses which were deserted at the time 
of the Deadwood excitement, not a single person remaining in 
the place." At noon they reached the "Rapid Creek District" 7 
where mining was going on extensively. 

Twenty seven hours later, our teams, by this time utterly worn out, 
reached the brow of a steep hill, down the side of which the road 
wound its way into the lower end of Deadwood Gulch. The gulch is 

6. This infantry camp, like that at Hat Creek Ranch, was a subpost of 
Fort Laramie. Spring (up. cit., p. 124) calls it "Red Canyon Station, or 
Camp Collier". Captain Stanton, who surveyed the routes to the Black 
Hills in 1877, after the camp was discontinued, called it the "old subpost", 
and gave the location as 3.64 miles north of Cheyenne River. Captain 
W. S. Stanton, Annual Report Upon Explorations and Surveys in the 
Department of the Platte, in the annual Report of the Secretary of War, 
1878, 45th Congress, 3d Session, H. R. Ex. Doc. 1, Part 2, Vol. II, Part 
III (Serial 1846) p. 1731. 

7. Richardson's article is not sufficiently specific to enable us to 
identify his route from Hill City to Deadwood. His mention of extensive 
mining in the Rapid Creek District suggests that he crossed Rapid Creek 
near Camp Crook which afterwards became Pactola. When Stanton sur- 
veyed the trails in 1877 the main road from Custer to Deadwood was 
farther west, crossing Castle and Little Rapid Creeks. 


about ten miles long, and very winding in its course. Through its 
bottom stretches a long line of shanties and tents, forming, in all, 
four towns. At the lower end is Montana City, then come Elizabeth 
Town, Deadwood City, and Gayeville (or Gaye City). Our train 
finally halted in Deadwood City, and we were immediately surrounded 
by a crowd of miners, gamblers and other citizens, all anxious to 
hear from the outer world. It was Sunday afternoon, and all the 
miners in the surrounding neighborhood were spending the day in 
town. The long street was crowded with men in every conceivable 
garb. Taken as a whole, I never in my life saw so many hardened 
and brutal-looking men together, although of course there were a few 
better faces among them. Every alternate house was a gambling 
saloon, and each of them was carrying on a brisk business. In the 
middle of the street a little knot of men had gathered, and were 
holding a prayer-meeting, which showed in sharp contrast to the 
bustling activity of wickedness surrounding it. 

Richardson had a letter of introduction to Charles H. ("Colo- 
rado Charlie") Utter. He met Utter a few minutes after he 
arrived in Deadwood, and was invited to share Utter's camp. On 
the way to the camp they met Utter's partner, James Butler 
Hickok, otherwise known as Wild Bill. 
Wild Bill: 

. . . was about six feet two inches in height, and very powerfully 
built; his face was intelligent, his hair blonde, and falling in long 
ringlets upon his broad shoulders; his eyes blue and pleasant, looked 
one straight in the face when he talked; and his lips thin and com- 
pressed, were only partly hidden by a straw-colored mustache. His 
costume was a curiously blended union of the habiliments of the 
borderman and the drapery of the fashionable dandy. Beneath the 
skirts of his elaborately embroidered buckskin coat gleamed the 
handles of two silver mounted revolvers, which were his constant 
companions. His voice was low and musical, but through its hesita- 
tion I could catch a ring of self-reliance and consciousness of strength. 
Yet he was the most courteous man I had met on the plains. 

On the following day I asked to see him use a pistol and he 
assented. At his request I tossed a tomato-can about 15 feet in the 
air, both his pistols being in his belt when it left my hands. He drew 
one of them and fired two bullets through the tin before it struck 
the ground. Then he followed it along, firing as he went, until both 
weapons were empty. You have heard the expression "quick as 
lightning?" Well, that will describe "Wild Bill. . . ." 

Early in the forenoon of my third day in Deadwood, word was 
brought over to camp that he had been killed. We went immediately 
to the scene, and found that the report was true. He had been sitting 
at a table playing cards, when a dastardly assassin came up behind, 
put a revolver to his head and fired, killing his victim instantly. That 
night a miner's meeting was called, the prisoner was brought before 
it, his statement was heard, and he was discharged, put on a fleet 
horse, supplied with arms, and guarded out of town. s The next day 

8. Richardson's time table is incorrect. Wild Bill was killed in the 
afternoon of August 2, a preliminary meeting was held that night and 
plans were made for the trial of Jack McCall, and the actual trial lasted 
from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. August 3. The funeral of Wild Bill was held in the 
afternoon of August 3, while the trial was in progress. 


"Colorado Charley" took charge of the remains of the great scout, and 
announced that the funeral would occur at his camp. The body was 
clothed in a full suit of broad-cloth, the hair brushed back from the 
broad forehead, and the blood washed from the pallid cheek. Beside 
the dead hero lay his rifle, which was buried with him. The funeral 
ceremony was brief and touching, hundreds of rough miners standing 
around the bier with bowed heads and tear-dimmed eyes, — for with 
the better class "Wild Bill" had been a great favorite. 

Richardson stayed in the Deadwood region five days. The rest 
of his article was devoted to a brief evaluation of mining conditions 
in the Black Hills. He wrote that all mines then in operation 
were placer mines, although prospecting for quartz was going on. 9 
He thought that five or six, or possibly ten mines paid from $200 
to $2,000 per day. The largest amount he saw taken from one 
mine in a single day was $1,085, the result of the work of seven 
men. But these were exceptional amounts, and it was Richard- 
son's opinion that the average Deadwood Gulch mine would just 
about pay "grub". 

Seven out of every ten men in the whole region have no money 
and no means of getting any. The Deadwood ground is all taken up, 
and men do not dare to go out prospecting away from the main 
body, on account of the Indians. Summed up briefly, the condition 
of mining affairs is this: placer mines are all taken up; quartz mines 
the only resource left. In order to work these, capital, machinery, 
and mills for the crushing of ore must be introduced. Men of wealth 
will hesitate about sending capital into a country so far from railroad 
communications, and about which so little is definitely known. 
Most of the men now in the Black Hills are laboring men, inexper- 
ienced as miners. Their chances for employment in the mines, then, 
are small, and their prospects in quartz mining are even poorer. The 
mineral riches of the Black Hills cannot be developed for fully 
twenty-five years to come. . . . 

Farming there is out of the question. Throughout the greater 
part of the district heavy frosts begin in September; snow-storms did 
not cease last spring until the eleventh day of June. ... It follows 
then, that the necessaries of life must always be imported at immense 
cost. There is to be considered the collateral fact that during a 
greater part of this long season of ice and snow, placer miners cannot 
work. . . . 

I have no hesitation in saying that I think the Black Hills will 
eventually prove a failure. 

Of course we know now that most of these opinions were at 
least partly wrong, and the predictions somewhat absurd. Yet 
there was considerable justification for pessimism in Deadwood 
Gulch in August, 1876. Only one really rich deposit of placer 

9. Lode claims were located in the Black Hills as early as December 
11, 1875. The original Homestake claim was located April 9, 1876. 
Francis Church Lincoln, "Mining in South Dakota", in The Mining Industry 
of South Dakota, South Dakota School of Mines Bulletin No. 17, Rapid 
City, South Dakota, 1937, p. 12. However, milling machinery had not 
reached the Black Hills at the time of Richardson's visit. 


gold had been discovered in the Black Hills at that time, and it 
was natural to think that lode mines could not be developed for a 
long time. Many of the miners had come to the Hills poorly 
equipped and provisioned, and there was much destitution. The 
Indian danger was real enough; several miners were killed by 
Indians near Deadwood and Rapid City within three weeks after 
Richardson left Deadwood. 

But the difficulties that really existed in the Black Hills in 
1 876 were mostly temporary. The Sioux Indians relinquished 
their rights to the region in 1877; farming and stock-raising be- 
came profitable occupations; hard-rock gold mining developed; 
men of wealth did send capital into the country; and employment 
at relatively high wages was soon plentiful, not only in the mines 
but in all the various activities of a rapidly developing region. In 
fifteen years two railroads reached Deadwood. By the end of 
1948 the Black Hills produced 21,831,345 fine ounces of gold 
with a total value of $545,694,284.00. , ° 

10. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines Minerals 
Yearbook, 1948. 

March of 2d 'Dragoons 

Report of Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke on the 

March of the 2d Dragoons From Fort Leavenworth 

to Fort Bridget- in 1857 

Edited by 
Hamilton Gardner 

When the Utah Expedition was activated early in 1857 upon 
instructions of President James Buchanan and Secretary of War 
James B. Floyd, the one officer in the United States Army who 
had had the most extensive experience in trans-continental military 
marches was Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, Com- 
manding Officer, 2d Dragoons. 1 Beginning in 1829, as a young 

1. Cooke was born June 13, 1809, near Leesburg, Virginia, son of 
Colonel Stephen Cooke, a surgeon in the Continental Army during the 
Revolutionary War, and Catherine Esten, daughter of a one time British 
Governor of Bermuda. He entered the United States Military Academy 
at the age of fourteen and was graduated with the Class of 1827. Assigned 
first to the 6th Infantry, he participated in the Black Hawk War in Illinois 
during 1832. He became one of the officer-founders of the 1st Dragoons 
in March, 1833, (the first permanent cavalry regiment in the Army, which 
was redesignated the 1st Cavalry in 1861), with which he served until 
1847. Then he transferred to the 2d Dragoons, which he commanded 
from late in 1853 until 1861, although Brevet Brigadier General William 
S. Harney was carried on paper for several years as Regimental Com- 

Upon the outbreak of the Civil War Cooke remained loyal to the Union, 
although his only son, John Rogers Cooke, and his sons-in-law, J. E. B. 
Stuart and Dr. Charles Brewer, espoused the Confederate cause. As a 
Brigadier General in 1862, he commanded the cavalry of the Union Army 
of the Potomac in the Peninsular Campaign. Later he became Command- 
ing General, Department of the Platte, with headquarters at Omaha and 
directed the campaign against the Sioux in Wyoming during 1866. At 
the close of the War he was promoted Brevet Major General. He retired 
in 1873 and died at Detroit, Michigan, March 20, 1895. 

General Cooke became recognized as one of the Army's leading cavalry- 
men and in 1859 completed his Cavalry Tactics, which was adopted for 
the service. He was equally well known as an Indian fighter. 

For brief biographies of Cooke see my articles: A Young West Pointer 
Reports for Duty at Jefferson Barracks in 1827, Missouri Historical Society 
Bulletin, IX, 124; (St. Louis, January, 1953); and The Command and Staff 
of the Mormon Battalion in the Mexican War, Utah Historical Quarterly, 
XX, 331; (Salt Lake City, October. 1952); and even more recently: Carolyn 
Thomas Foreman, General Philip St. George Cooke, The Chronicles of 
Oklahoma, XXXII, 195; (Oklahoma City, Sumner, 1954). For Cooke's 
part in the Wyoming-Sioux campaign see: Alson B. Ostrander, The Boze- 
man Trail Forts Under General Philip St. George Cooke in 1866; (Seattle, 

— .-.— i 2 


2d Lieutenant, he accompanied Major Bennet Riley with four 
companies of the 6th Infantry on the Army's first expedition along 
the Santa Fe Trail. 2 He participated in the original march of the 
1st Dragoons from Jefferson Barracks, near St. Louis, to Fort 
Gibson, in the present Oklahoma. 3 In 1843 he made two round 
trips on the Santa Fe Trail.' Cooke first crossed Wyoming in 
1845, when Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny brought six companies 
of the 1st Dragoons from Fort Leavenworth to the South Pass 
and returned by way of Bent's Fort, Colorado, and the Santa Fe 
Trail." In the Mexican War he contributed to the conquest of 
the Southwest by leading the Mormon Battalion from Santa Fe 
to San Diego as part of the Army of the West." He travelled 
again across Wyoming on his return from California in 1847. 7 
So, as Cooke commenced his march to Fort Bridger in 1857, he 
was not only experienced in traversing the Western prairies and 
plains, but was no stranger to the Oregon Trail and Wyoming. 

As background, a brief summary of the current military situa- 
tion is necessary for a proper understanding of Colonel Cooke's 
march. By General Orders No. 12, Head Quarters of the Army, 
New York, June 30, 1857, 8 Brevet Lieutenant General Winfield 
Scott, General-in-Chief, had assigned Brevet Brigadier General 

2. Philip St. George Cooke, Scenes and Adventures in the Army; or 
Romance of Military Life, 39-88; (Philadelphia, 1857); and Otis E. Young, 
The First Military Escort on the Santa Fe Trail, From the Journal and 
Reports of Major Bennet Riley and Lieutenant Philip St. George Cooke; 
(Glendale, Calif., 1952). 

3. Hamilton Gardner, The March of the First Dragoons from Jefferson 
Barracks to Fort Gibson in 1833-1834, The Chronicles of Oklahoma, XXXI, 
22; (Oklahoma City, Spring, 1953). 

4. Cooke's official Journal of these two expeditions was published as 
A Journal of the Santa Fe Trail, 1843, in The Mississippi Valley Historical 
Review, XII, 72-98, 227-255; (Lincoln, June and September, 1925); with 
annotations by William E. Connelley. 

5. Cooke, Scenes and Adventures in the Army, 282-432; Hamilton 
Gardner, Captain Philip St. George Cooke and the March of the 1st 
Dragoons to the Rocky Mountains in 1845, The Colorado Magazine, XXX, 
246; (Denver, October, 1953). 

6. Cooke's official daily Journal of the Battalion march was published in 
Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 2, 31st Cong., Spec. Sess., and reprinted in The South- 
western Historical Series, VII, 65-240; (Glendale, 1938); edited by R. P. 
Bieber and A. B. Bender. His Report to General Kearny from San Luis 
Rey, California, February 5, 1847, may be found in House Ex. Doc. No. 41 , 
30th Cong., 1st Sess., 551-563. It was republished in Utah Historical 
Quarterly, XXII, 15, (January, 1954); edited by Hamilton Gardner. 

7. Cooke, The Conquest of New Mexico and California; an Historical 
and Personal Narrative; (New York, 1878); and Proceedings of the Court 
Martial in the Trial of Lieut. Col. John C. Fremont, Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 33, 
30th Cong., 1st Sess. 

8. National Archives and Records Service, War Records Branch, Wash- 
ington, D. C; cited as N. A. R. S. W. R. B. Many orders of the War 


William S. Harney to command the Utah Expedition as it assem- 
bled at Fort Leavenworth. Previously allocated to the force were 
the 2d Dragoons, 5th Infantry, 10th Infantry, Phelps' Battery, 
4th Artillery, and Reno's Battery. The leading element of the 
Regular column, which was the 10th Infantry, did not depart from 
Fort Leavenworth until July 18. But numerous wagon trains 
and herds of beef cattle, belonging to Army contractors, had 
gathered or had already started west. Thus when the 2d Dragoons 
cleared the Fort on September 17, the Expedition and its trains 
were spread over several hundred miles along the Oregon Trail. 
In the meantime General Harney, by issuing his General Orders 
No. 7, Head Quarters, Army for Utah, Fort Leavenworth, Septem- 
ber 1 1, 1857, "relinquishes the command of this Army to Colonel 
Albert S. Johnston of the 2d Cavalry"." The new Commanding 
Officer left the Post with an escort of Dragoons September 18."' 

Department to mobilize the Utah Expedition may be found in House Ex. 
Docs. Nos. 2 and 71, 35th Cong., 1st Sess. These volumes also contain 
General Scott's original letter of instructions to General Harney, consider- 
able correspondence passing between the Army commanders and with 
Utah Territorial authorities, and other historically pertinent documents. 

9. N. A. R. S. W. R. B. 

10. The definitive biography of Albert Sidney Johnston is by his son: 
William Preston Johnston, The Life of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston; (New 
York, 1878). An interesting phase of his military career is the repeated 
contacts with Cooke over the years. 

A native of Kentucky, Johnston was appointed to West Point from 
that State and was graduated in the Class of 1826, one year ahead of 
Cooke. With them in the Corps of Cadets at that time were several 
embryo officers who later rose to outstanding distinction in the Mexican 
and Civil Wars — for the North, Robert Anderson, of Fort Sumpter fame, 
Charles F. Smith, George P. Heintzelman, Silas Casey; for the South. 
Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, Joseph E. Johnston, John B. Magruder. 

Like Cooke, Johnston served with the 6th Infantry in the Black Hawk 
campaign of 1832, as did two future Presidents of the United States. 
Zachary Taylor and Abraham Lincoln. He resigned from the Army April 
24, 1834; Cooke succeeded him as Regimental Adjutant, 6th Infantry. 
Johnston then moved to Texas where he eventually became Secretary of 
War of that Republic. In the War with Mexico he was elected Colonel. 
1st Regiment of Foot Riflemen of Texas Volunteers. He returned to the 
Army October 31, 1849, as Paymaster, with the rank of Major. 

In 1855 Jefferson Davis, then Secretary of War, induced the Congress 
to activate two additional regiments of cavalry. Command of the 1st 
Cavalry was bestowed on Colonel Edwin V. Sumner, like Cooke, an 
officer-founder of the 1st Dragoons in 1833. For the 2d Cavalry Secre- 
tary Davis went outside the mounted service, as represented by the 1st 
Dragoons, 2d Dragoons and Mounted Rifles, and picked Johnston as 
Colonel. His designation to command the Utah Expedition has already 
been noted, although he had had no experience in trans-continental military 

On November 18, 1857, the War Department announced the promotion 
of Colonel Johnston to Brevet Brigadier General "for meritorious conduct, 
in the ability, zeal, energy, and prudence displayed by him in command 
of the Army in Utah". On that precise date he had proceeded only as 


One additional military fact of the utmost significance must be 
pointed out. The Expedition to Utah started altogether too late 
in the season. Experienced Army officers such as Cooke were 
well aware of the inherent danger and General Scott himself later 

Scott protested against the expedition on the ground of inexpe- 
diency, and especially because the season was too late for the troops 
to reach their destination in comfort or even in safety.^ 

For the hardships, privations and losses which the Army for 
Utah suffered during the winter of 1857-1858 while camped in 
tents high in the mountains near Fort Bridger the Army itself 
was not to blame. Knowing in advance the risks they incurred, 
they performed a soldier's simple duty by obeying the orders of 
the constituted civilian authorities in Washington. 

far as the South Pass and had not yet joined the Army for Utah. Notifi- 
cation of his new rank reached him April 10, 1858. Late that spring he 
left his Army's temporary winter camp near Fort Bridger and passed 
through Salt Lake City June 26, 1858. About 40 miles to the southwest 
he established Camp Floyd, which remained his headquarters for the De- 
partment of Utah until March 1, 1860, when he departed for Washington 
on leave. Colonel Cooke followed him in command of the Department 
on the ensuing August 1 and changed the name of Camp Floyd to Fort 

General Johnston's last assignment in the U. S. Army was as Com- 
manding General, Department of the Pacific. He arrived at his head- 
quarters in San Francisco January 15, 1861. His sympathies being entirely 
for the South, he resigned his Federal commission April 9, when he learned 
that Texas had seceded from the Union. He had hardly signed the resig- 
nation, however, before Brevet Brigadier General Edwin V. Sumner sud- 
denly appeared at his office with secret instructions from the War 
Department and summarily relieved him. Certain California newspapers 
claimed Johnston had attempted previously to incite a rebellion in the 
Golden State, but General Sumner's official report cleared him from that 

He now travelled overland from Los Angeles, through Arizona, New 
Mexico and Texas, and reported to President Jefferson Davis, Confederate 
States of America. On September 10, 1861, by Special Order No. 149, 
Headquarters, Confederate States Army, President Davis named five offi- 
cers to the rank of full General, theretofore unknown in America. In 
order of seniority, they were Samuel Cooper, (for many years The Adjutant 
General, U. S. Army, who assumed the same office for the Confederacy), 
Albert Sidney Johnston. Robert E. Lee, Joseph E. Johnston and Pierre 
G. T. Beauregard. 

General Johnston's assignment was to command virtually all Southern 
troops west of the Alleghany Mountains. During the winter he achieved 
little of importance. Finally in the spring he decided to attack the Union 
forces under Major General U. S. Grant. The Battle of Shiloh ensued 
April 6, 1862. While with his troops in an advanced and dangerous part 
of the battlefield, he fell mortally wounded. 

11. Memoirs of Lieut. -General Scott, LL. D.. written by Himself, 604; 
(New York, 1864). The italics are mine. 


Cooke reported to Colonel Johnston November 19 and sub- 
mitted his official version of the march exactly two days later. 
Despite this hurriedness of preparation, the Report still shows 
examples of his outstanding literary style, so abundantly illustrated 
in his more leisurely published writings. 12 

"Headquarters Second Regiment of Dragoons 
Camp on Black Fork, U. T., 13 November 21, 1857 

As required, I have the honor to report that, in obedience to 
instructions from the Colonel commanding the army for Utah, 
I marched in command of six companies 11 Second Dragoons three 
miles from Fort Leavenworth, and encamped on the afternoon of 
the 17th of September. 

The regiment had been hastily recalled from service in the field, 15 
and allowed three or four days only, by my then commanding 
officer to prepare for a march of 1,100 miles over an uninhabited 
and mountain wilderness. In that time the six companies of the 
regiment which were to compose the expedition were reorganized; 
110 transfers necessarily made from and to other companies; 
horses to be condemned, and many to be obtained; the companies 
paid, and the commanders of four of them changed. About fifty 
desertions occured. To these principal duties and obstacles — 
implying a great mass of writing — were to be added every exertion 
of experience and foresight to provide for a line of operation of 
almost unexampled length and mostly beyond communication. 
On the morning of the 1 6th, at the commencement of a rain-storm, 
an inspector general made a hurried inspection by companies, 
which could not have been very satisfactory to him or others; 
the company commanders, amid the confusion of Fort Leaven- 
worth, presenting their new men — raw recruits — whom they had 
scarcely found or seen, under the effects usually following the 

12. Because of the remarkable achievement of Cooke's Dragoons, the 
Report was the only one of its kind published by the Government in con- 
nection with the Utah Expedition. It first appeared in House Ex. Doc. 
No. 71, 35th Cong., 1st Sess., almost a century ago. 

13. In 1857 the area south and west of the South Pass was still part 
of the Territory of Utah, constituting Green River County. The eastern 
boundary line was the crest of the Rocky Mountains. 

14. Companies A, B, C, F, G and I. The other four companies of 
the Regiment, D, E, H and K, remained on duty in Kansas Territory. The 
unit designation of "troop" for the cavalry had not been put into use as yet. 

15. The 2d Dragoons had been on duty for much of the two preceding 
years assisting the Kansas Territorial authorities in pacifying the turbulent 
conditions arising from the bloody struggle between the "Free Soilers" and 
"States' Rights" factions. 


I marched, then, on the 17th. My preparations, though hurried, 
were as complete as possible. Then it was to be proved that 
three or four more days were to be lost in waiting for the Quarter- 
master's Department to supply the absolutely necessary transpor- 
tation. On the 18th, 107 mules were furnished, which the same 
day had arrived from a march of perhaps 2,000 miles from 
Bridger's Pass; above 100 of the others were nearly worthless 
from want of age, and requiring several hours to harness a team. 
On the morning of the l^th, twenty-seven teamsters were wanting, 
and men were furnished utterly ignorant of the business and 
without outfits. I marched late that day, fourteen miles, and the 
last of the train reached the camp at twelve M. on the next day, 
the 20th, eleven wagon tongues having been broken. On the 
21st, after a hard rain, I marched six miles, which, on slippery 
roads, was as much as such a train could well accomplish; and 
only that night nearly half of one of the companies which we had 
met returning to Fort Leavenworth, from a march of 600 miles, 
reached my camp. 

Half allowance, or six pounds a day of corn for horses and 
mules, was the largest item of transportation. Three or four 
laundresses, with their children, were with each company. 16 

September 23. — I received an application of Governor Cum- 
ming 17 for his (54) public animals, and was first informed that 
an order from the War Department, communicated to the Quarter- 
master's Department at Fort Leavenworth, ordered it furnished. 

The weather now for ten days proved very fine; but there was 
generally a deficiency of grass, that was not compensated by the 
corn allowance. This was owing to the many troops and contract- 
trains which had passed, the camps being on streams running 
across the route. 

October 1 . — On the Little Blue I reached the train of 25 wagons 
and teams which the Colonel commanding had there stopped on 
their return from the Cheyenne expedition, to make out my outfit 
for the longer marches beyond assistance. Hard bread for the 
whole march to Salt Lake City was to be taken from Fort 
Kearney. Such was the condition of the young mules furnished at 
Fort Leavenworth that only fourteen of these additional wagons 
were available, 66 mules being necessarily exchanged. Here, as 

16. Under current Army tables of organization each company was 
allowed a number of laundresses, who were usually the wives of enlisted 

17. Alfred Cumming of Georgia. He had been named by President 
Buchanan as Governor of Utah Territory to succeed Brigham Young and 
served until 1861. His wife accompanied him on the Cooke march, as did 
several other newly appointed Territorial officials. 


had been ordered, Assistant-Surgeon Covey 1 '' joined the regiment, 
relieving Assistant-Surgeon Milhau. 1 " 

October 3. — There was so severe a northeast storm that I lay 
in camp. I knew that there would be no fuel at the next, on the 
Platte River. 

October 4. — 1 marched in the rain, and on the 5th arrived at 
Fort Kearney"" at 10 A. M., my rate of marching after September 
21 having averaged 21 miles a day. There I remained the next 
day. I could not increase the number of wagons, but exchanged 
a few mules; nor could the required amount of corn be furnished. 

On the 7th I marched in the rain, which had continued since 
the 2d of the month. 

Up to the 12th — eleven days — the rainy weather continued, 
clearing up with thick ice; but the marches averaged twenty -one 
miles. The grass was very scarce and poor. It was not a season 
and prospects for delays. Every care was taken to sustain the 
horses;" they were led, at that time, about two hours a day, and 
grazed on spots of grass found in the march. The length of the 
march was also accomodated to it, and diligent search made. That 
night I was encamped on an island west of Fallon's Bluff. This 
long rain made the want of fuel more severe; it rendered useless 
the now scarce bois de vachej 1 ' 

18. Dr. Edward V. Covey of Maryland had been appointed Assistant 
Surgeon in the Army Medical Department August 29, 1856. He resigned 
June 1, 1861, and became a Surgeon in the Confederate States Army. 

Information in these footnotes concerning Army officers mentioned in 
the Report has been obtained from Francis B. Heitman, Historical Register 
and Dictionary of the United States Army; by "Authority of Congress"; 
2 vols.; (Washington, 1903); and George W. Cullum, Biographical Register 
of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy at West 
Point, N. Y.; (New York, 1868). 

19. Dr John Jefferson Milhau, a native of France, was granted an 
appointment in the Army as Assistant Surgeon April 30, 1851. He 
rose to the rank of Colonel in the Union Army during the Civil War and 
was cited three times for gallantry. He resigned October 1, 1876, and 
died May 8, 1891. 

20. Fort Kearney was named in honor of Brevet Major General Stephen 
Watts Kearny, already mentioned. The name was inadvertently misspelled. 
See: Albert Watkins, History Of Fort Kearney, Collections of the Nebraska 
State Historical Society, XVI, 227; (Lincoln." 191 1 ). 

2 1 . Cooke's Report frequently discloses his solicitude for his animals. 
As a result of his long experience in extended marches in the West and as 
a true cavalryman, he was keenly conscious that the mobility of his column 
depended largely on the condition of the mounts and draft animals. 

22. "Buffalo chips", used by travelers on the plains as fuel from time 


After this, the repeated hard frosts, with the previous con- 
sumption of grass by the troops, trains, and sixty thousand emi- 
grant cattle, almost left us without this all-important support — 
I mean of a sort or condition fit for the support of our animals." 3 

October 15. — I crossed the South Platte with a very cold 
northwest wind. Descended Ash Hollow, 24 and marched a mile 
or two on the North Platte in the vain search for any grass. These 
twenty-two miles, with the two serious obstacles overcome, were 
accomplished by the whole train in good time. This must be 
attributed to the excellent management of that most efficient 
officer, First Lieutenant John Buford," 5 Regimental Quartermaster. 

After this the horses began to die and necessarily be left on 
the road. On the 17th two corn-trains were passed which had 
left Fort Kearney twelve days in advance of the regiment. I 
renewed my deficient supply, relieving them. A northeaster, with 
sleet, was distressingly chilling that evening in camp on Smith's 
Fork. Next day there was a snow-storm, falling three or four 
inches, which the teams were scarcely forced to face; and twenty- 
three mules, all three-year olds, were relieved from harness, 
exhausted. Bunch-grass was sought and found that night in the 
hills, several miles from the river. 

Private Whitney, of Company G, died in the camp near Chim- 
ney Rock, of lock-jaw. He was buried on the bluff, with the 
honors of war, next morning at sunrise. The thermometer was 
33°; but a fierce wind made the cold excessive. We found ice 
floating in the river. 

October 20. — I crossed Scott's Bluff by the old (the best and 
shortest) road, snow still nearly covering the ground. 

A mail, which had been in company for eleven days, did not 
get up until the night of the 21st. 

23. Mounted expeditions of the Army west of the Missouri depended 
entirely on the seasonal buffalo grass as forage for their animals. Rations 
of grain were usually carried in the baggage trains, but never hay. 

24. Ash Hollow was the scene of the Battle of the Blue Water against 
the Brule Sioux, September 3, 1855, in which Cooke had commanded the 
mounted troops. 

25. John Buford, born in Kentucky but appointed to the United States 
Military Academy from Illinois, fulfilled the promise implicit in Cooke's 
commendation. After graduating in the Class of 1848 he joined the 1st 
Dragoons, but was shortly transferred to the 2d Dragoons. He entered 
the War Between the States as a Major, but in July, 1862, he had attained 
the rank of Brigadier General of Volunteers. Within a year he had 
become a Major General. How far he would have gone had he remained 
alive is conjectural, because he died December 16, 1863, while the War 
was at its height. 


On the 22d, my camp was four miles below Fort Laramie, 26 
with scarcely any appearance of grass, and there was none other 
for miles. I had made twenty-one miles a day from Fort Kearney, 
the road being pronounced worse than ever remembered by a 
number of old and frequent travelers on it. 

On the 23d, the regiment camped a half-mile below the the fort 
on Laramie River. Mr. Buford, sent the night before, although 
then directed elsewhere, had found the only grass, a mile and a 
half higher up, where the mules were herded during my stay. He 
was now directed to make a critical examination and report upon 
all the mules, and a board of the oldest company officers was 
ordered to carefully inspect and report upon the horses. 

Fifty-three were reported, on the 24th, ineffective for active 
service, and two hundred and seventy-eight fit to prosecute the 
march. The Regimental Quartermaster reported his ability to 
proceed with a diminution of only ten wagons, but eleven others 
of the train only capable of going five or six days, when their loads 
of corn would be consumed if the others were not lightened. 
There was but little hay there, and 1 ordered an issue from it to 
the horses during their stay. The corn-trains were expected in a 
day or two. It was absolutely necessary to await their arrival. 

1 had received your communication of October 5, giving dis- 
cretionary authority to winter in the vicinity of Fort Laramie; but 
that evening I determined to continue on. I ordered the laun- 
dresses to be left. Lieutenant-Colonel Hoffman 27 stated that he 
could provide for them. Those too sick to ride were ordered to 
be left. The allowance of equipage in the general order for the 
summer march was greatly reduced, as in fact all other baggage; 
and even two ambulances, brought for the sick, were loaded with 
corn until they might be needed. 1 considered it prudent to take 
rations for thirty days. 

On the 26th of October, the corn arrived, and was instantly 
taken and packed, by great exertions, for the march that afternoon, 
it being recommended by the guide, Jeaniser, who now joined me, 
in order to make camps with grass. 

26. Cooke had previously visited Fort Laramie in June, 1845, during 
the march of the 1st Dragoons to the South Pass. He wrote a vivid 
description of the Post and its inhabitants in his book, Scenes and Adven- 
tures in the Army, 335. His impressions are quoted in part in Le Roy 
Hafen and Frances Marion Young, Fort Laramie and the Paqeant of 
the West, 109-111; (Glendale, 1938). 

27. William Hoffman, of New York, a West Point graduate in the Class 
of 1829, was an officer of the 6th Infantry. In 1857 he was detached as 
Post Commander at Fort Laramie. He had been twice cited for gallantry 
in the War with Mexico. He spent most of his service in the Civil War as 
Commissary General of Prisoners and at its close received the brevet rank 
of Major General. He retired in 1870 and died August 12, 1884. 


At one o'clock, the 'General 1 was sounded. Soon after I re- 
ceived the despatch of October 18 from South Pass. This, 
announcing, in fact, hostilities^ in front, the great want of cavalry, 
and the strong hope of the Colonel to see us with him, I read to 
the officers assembled in front of the mounted regiment, adding a 
few words expressing my confidence in their every exertion to 
meet the kindly-announced expectations of the commander of the 

I had corn for the night brought to the camp — seven miles — 
by two wagons of the fort. Half allowance for eighteen days was 
then in camp. The horses were all blanketed from that time, and 
on the march led and mounted alternate hours, besides dismount- 
ing on difficult ground. 

October 27. — Marched twenty miles. The guide found very 
good grass far from the usual road, making a cut-off to the North 
Platte. There I commenced herding the horses till dark, and the 
mules all night. 

The marches were twenty miles a day until October 30, whsn, 
finding on the river very unusually good grass, after marching 
eight miles, the camp was made and horses and mules herded, 
no corn being issued in that camp, save a half-feed to horses next 

Next day there was rain; but we marched twenty miles, to the 
first grass in the vicinity of Deer Creek — two miles west of it. 
At the trading house I caused some good hay to be purchased — 
all there was, and less than an allowance for the horses. A hunter 
was there hired, a beef procured and slaughtered. An express- 
mam" was also engaged, and I wrote to communicate with head- 
quarters; but the man did not present himself until the next night. 

November 1. — Owing to a total absence of grass, the march 
was prolonged to twenty-three or twenty-four miles, and a camp 

28. As early as August 26, in the vicinity of Pacific Springs near the 
western end of South Pass, the leading element of the Utah Expedition 
had encountered patrols of the Utah Territorial Militia. The first contact 
was between an Army supply train and a detachment of the Utah 1st 
Regiment of Cavalry. Contrary to General Scott's specific instructions, the 
train had been left practically unguarded. On that specific date Colonel 
Edmund B. Alexander's 10th Infantry, in lead of the Army column, was 
still on the march east of Fort Laramie and the remaining units were 
strung out behind on the Oregon Trail. Colonel Johnston had not yet 
been appointed and an entire month was to elapse before the Dragoons 
departed from Fort Leavenworth. Later, as Colonel Alexander advanced 
westward from the South Pass, the Mormon riders kept his infantry and 
trains under constant observation, harrassed his outposts, drove off several 
herds of cattle and burned three wagon trains. The 10th Infantry arrived 
at Fort Bridger early in October and found the Mormons had burned it. 
A temporary camp called Camp Winfield was established in the vicinity. 

29. A mounted messenger. 


was made above the bridge. Next morning was very cold; the 
few tents were with difficulty folded and packed, having remained 
frozen from the sleet two nights before. The old road was taken, 
leaving the road at the crossing, and, it not having been used by 
the troops, we were not disappointed in finding grass for a camp 
at the first spring — fifteen miles. Five wagons and teams of worst 
mules were that morning left in camp, to return to Fort Laramie 
after resting a day. 

November 3. — Twenty miles were accomplished, against an 
excessively cold headwind, to a camp on Sago Creek. The horses 
were mostly led. The fatigue of walking up and over the high 
hills, in the face of the wind, was very great. A bad camp, with 
poor hill-grass and a cold rain, was our welcome on Sago Creek. 

November 4. — The camp was on Sweetwater, a mile above 
Independence Rock. The hunter brought in at night four hundred 
pounds of good buffalo-meat, and also for me a canteen of 
petroleum from a spring at the base of one of the small black 
mountains not distant from the road. Five empty wagons and 
teams were ordered back to Fort Laramie. 

November 5. — We passed Devil's Gate, with a landscape up 
the Sweetwater Valley. We crossed the little river to within half 
a mile of a deep grassy vale, extending into the mountain masses 
of naked granite. There all the animals were loosed for the night, 
the mouth of the canon only being guarded. 

On the 6th, we found the ground once more white and the snow 
falling, but then very moderately. I marched as usual. On a 
four-mile hill the north wind and drifting snow became severe. 
The air seemed turned to frozen fog; nothing could be seen. We 
were struggling in a freezing cloud. The lofty wall at Three 
Crosssings' was a happy relief; but the guide, who had lately passed 
there, was relentless in pronouncing there was no grass. The idea 
of finding and feeding upon grass in that wintry storm, under the 
deep snow, was hard to entertain; but, as he promised grass and 
other shelter two miles further, we marched on, crossing twice 
more the rocky stream, half choked with snow and ice. Finally, 
he led us behind a great granite rock, but all too small for the 
promised shelter. Only a part of the regiment could huddle there 
in the deep snow, while the long night through the storm contin- 
ued, and in fearful eddies from above, before, behind, drove the 
falling and drifting snow. Thus exposed, in the hope of grass, 
the poor animals were driven with great devotion by the men once 
more across the stream, and three-quarters of a mile beyond to 
the base of a granite ridge, but which almost faced the storm. 
There the famished mules, crying piteously, did not seek to eat, 
but desperately gathered in a mass; and some horses, escaping the 


guard, went back to the ford where the lofty precipice first gave 
us so pleasant relief and shelter. 

Thus morning light had nothing cheering to reveal; the air 
still filled with driven snow. The animals soon came, driven in, 
and, mingled in confusion with men, went crunching the snow in 
the confined and wretched camp, trampling all things in their 
way. It was not a time to dwell on the fact that from that moun- 
tain desert there was no retreat nor any shelter near, but a time 
for action. No murmurs, not a complaint was heard, and certainly 
none in their commander's face a doubt or cloud; but with cheerful 
manner he gave orders as usual for the march. And then the 
sun showed his place in the sky, and my heart, for one, beat 
lighter. But for six hours the frost or frozen fog fell thickly, like 
snow, and again we marched as in a cloud. 

The deep snow-drifts impeded us much, and in crossing Sweet- 
water the ice broke in the middle. Marching ten miles only, I got 
a better camp, and herded the horses on the hills. It was a 
different road, where a few days before the bodies of three frozen 
men were found. 

November 8. — The mercury that morning marked forty-four 
degrees below freezing-point. The march was commenced before 
eight o'clock, and soon a high north-west wind arose, which with 
the drift, gave great suffering. Few could ride long, but of neces- 
sity eighteen miles were marched to Bitter Creek. The snow was 
blown deep in its valley, to which the hills gave little shelter. On 
them, the guide said, there was some grass; but few animals went, 
and none stayed there, so bitter was the wind. Twenty-three 
mules had given out, and five wagons and the harness were ordered 
to be abandoned at the camp. 

Next day nineteen miles were to be marched, the road over high 
hills and table-lands; the snow was deep and drifted; the officers 
and men leading must break through the drifts in the road, where 
the wagons must follow it; the cloud was still on us, and freezing 
in our faces. Seven hours thus, and the Sweetwater Valley was 
regained; the wagons arrived at night. The animals were driven 
over the ice to herd on the high hills bounding the very narrow 
valley; but in the night a very great wind arose and drove them 
back from the scant bunch-grass there, freezing to death fifteen. 
We had there for fuel, besides the sage, the little bush-willow 

November 10. — The northeast wind continued fiercely, envelop- 
ing us in a cloud, which froze and fell all day. Few could have 
faced that wind. The herders were to bring up the rear, with 
extra but nearly all broken-down mules, but could not force them 
from the dead bushes of the little valley, and they remained there 
all day and night, bringing on next day the fourth part, that had 


not frozen. Thirteen miles were marched, and the camp was made 
four miles from the top of the pass. A wagon that day cut partly 
through the ice of a branch, and there froze so fast that eight 
mules could not move it empty. Nearly all the tent-pins were 
broken in the last, camp; a few of iron were here substituted. 
Nine trooper-horses were left freezing and dying on the road that 
day, and a number of soldiers and teamsters had been frost-bitten. 
It was a desperately cold night; the thermometers were broken, 
but, by comparison, must have marked twenty-five degrees below 
zero. A bottle of sherry wine froze in a trunk. Having lost about 
fifty mules in thirty-six hours, the morning of the 11th, on the 
report of the Quartermaster, I felt bound to leave a wagon in 
the bushes, filled with seventy-four extra saddles and bridles and 
some sabres. Two other wagons, at the last moment, he was 
obliged to leave, but empty. The Sharp's carbines were then 
issued to mounted as well as dismounted men. 

November 1 1 . — Pleasant in the forenoon to men well wrapped 
and walking in the sun; we nearly surmounted the pass, 30 and, 
marching seventeen miles, encamped on Dry Sandy. The guide's 
search then resulted in his reporting 'no grass'. There remained 
but one day's corn after that night. It proved intensely cold, which 
must needs be seven or eight thousand feet high in the winter, in 
latitude above 42°. The mules for once were ordered tied to the 
wagons. They gnawed and destroyed four wagon-tongues, a num- 
ber of wagon covers, ate their ropes, and, getting loose, ate the 
sage fuel collected at the tents. Some of these they also attacked. 
Nine died. 

The fast growing company of dismounted men were marched 
together as a separate command by day; the morning of the 12th 
a number of them were frost-bitten from not being in motion, 
although standing by fires. 

That day eighteen miles were marched to Big Sandy, where 
the guide found grass, and fuel with it, so good that the 13th was 
made a day of rest; the animals were all herded at the grass. 
Fifty horses had been lost since leaving Laramie. The regiment 
had maintained through its sufferings an excellent spirit. 

30. As Cooke's Dragoons crossed the South Pass on November 11, it 
may be helpful to place other units of the Utah Expedition. On October 
10 Colonel Alexander, claiming to have received no instructions from 
Colonel Johnston as to plans of operation, had decided on his own to 
move along the Bear River to Soda Springs, now in Idaho, and approach 
Salt Lake City from that point in the spring. Heavy snow storms impeded 
his progress, however, and he was finally called back by an order from 
the Army Commanding Officer, dated October 16. Colonel Johnston him- 
self had reached the South Pass October 18 and arrived at Fort Bridger 
about November 5. He now decided to spend the winter there in a tem- 
porary establishment which he named Camp Scott. 


November 14 was cold with a dense fog, which caused much 
delay and difficulty in collecting the animals. I marched, however, 
to 'Second Crossing'; there was scarcely any grass. The weather 
had now much moderated. 

The 1 5th I reached and crossed Green River; there was very 
little grass, near or far; the horses were herded at night half a 
mile from camp, crossing the river on the ice. The United States 
October mail, which preceded me by two days from Fort Laramie, 
arrived there soon after me. Nine wagons were left at the house, 
and forty-two mules, with teamsters to herd them. 

The sick report had rapidly run up from four or five to forty- 
two, thirty-six soldiers and teamsters having been frosted. 

A man of Green River named Migette, was authorized to collect 
and winter such animals as he might find surviving on the road. 

November 16. — We had to face a very severe wind, and to 
march, too, eighteen miles before a camp-ground could be got, on 
Ham's Fork, and there was little or no grass. At mid-day my 
return express, now sent to Fort Laramie, was met. Twenty 
horses were abandoned in that twenty-four hours. 

November 17. — The guide was sent early to look for grass; we 
found some, and I marched, leading the horses six miles, and 
encamped there, on 'Little Muddy', running into Black's Fork. 

November 18. — Thirteen miles were marched, and some very 
good bunch-grass was found, by careful search, between the barren 
clay ridges, within half a mile of which I camped on Black's Fork. 

November 19. — Marched, leading through the mud and snow, 
as yesterday, fourteen miles, passing the camp of the Tenth In- 
fantry. I encamped several miles above them, on Black Fork, 
and about three miles below Fort Bridger. 

From there I reported in person yesterday, and one of my 
companies joined the army headquarters, Camp Scott. 

I have one hundred and forty-four horses, and have lost one 
hundred and thirty-four. Most of the loss has occurred much 
this side of the South Pass, in comparatively moderate weather. 
It has been of starvation. The earth has a no more lifeless, 
treeless, grassless desert; it contains scarcely a wolf to glut itself 
on the hundreds of dead and frozen animals which for thirty 
miles nearly block the road with abandoned and shattered prop- 
erty; they mark, perhaps beyond example in history, the steps of 
an advancing army with the horrors of a disastrous retreat. 31 

31. Cooke did not exaggerate. Colonel Johnston's march from Pacific 
Springs to Fort Bridger — some 120 miles — had been a terrible experience. 
Constant snow storms had been encountered; the temperature dropped to 
16°; the draft animals and beef cattle weakened pitifully because of lack 
of forage. As a result they dropped alongside the road and in camp by 


A list of the officers is subjoined. 

With high respect, your obedient servant, 

P. St. George Cooke, 

Lieutenant Colonel, Second Dragoons. 

To the Assistant Adjutant-General of the Army of Utah 
Camp Scott, Utah Territory. 
Lieutenant-Colonel P. St. George Cooke 
Major M. S. Howe :i -' 
First Lieutenant John Buford, R. Q. M. 

John Pegram, Adjutant '" 
Assistant Surgeon Edward N. Covey 

Brevet-Major H. H. Sibley, Comdg Co I and squadron l!1 

Captain James M. Hawes, " C " 

First Lieutenant Jonas P. Holliday " F " 

Thomas Hight " " B 3T 

the hundreds and quickly froze. Progress was so slow that fifteen days 
were required to negotiate the last 35 miles! (Johnston, Life of Gen. 
Albert Sidney Johnston, 212-215). 

On arrival the troops faced a frigid winter with what little shelter could 
be provided by tents. All of this suffering was directly attributable to the 
fact that the Utah Expedition had started entirely too late in the season. 
It had been launcned against competent military advice. Final blame must 
be squarely placed upon the stupidity of the politicians in Washington. 

32. Marshal Saxe Howe, a native of Maine and graduate of West Point, 
spent all his Army service in the cavalry attaining the rank of Colonel in 
September, 1861. He retired in 1866 and died twelve years later. 

33. Born in Virginia, John Pegram was a West Point graduate in the 
Class of 1854. On September 8, 1857, he was designated Regimental 
Adjutant of the 2d Dragoons. He gave up his Federal commission May 
10, 1861, and turned to the South. He early was promoted Major General 
in the Confederate Army and was killed in action in a battle in his home 
State, February 6, 1865. 

34. Henry Hastings Sibley, a New Yorker, was graduated from U. S. 
Military Academy in 1838 and served until the Civil War with the 2d 
Dragoons. He was cited for gallantry during the Mexican War. Despite 
his birthplace, he joined the Confederacy and became a Brigadier General, 
C. S. A. 

35. A Kentuckian by birth and a West Point graduate in 1845, James 
Morrison Hawes was brevetted 1st Lieutenant for gallantry in Mexico 
two years later. He resigned from the Army early in 1861 and became 
a Brigadier General in the Southern forces. He died in 1889. 

36. Jonas P. Holliday, of New York, was a member of the West Point 
Class of 1850. He immediately joined the 2d Dragoons and succeeded 
Lieutenant Buford as Regimental Quartermaster August 4, 1858. In the 
Civil War he became Colonel of the 1st Vermont Cavalry, but died on 
the following April 5. 

37. Thomas Hight was appointed to the Military Academy from Indiana 
and was graduated in 1853. He entered the War Between the States as 
Lieutenant Colonel, 1st Maine Cavalry, but resigned from the Army for 
unstated reasons in April, 1863. He reentered the service with the 3d 
Maine Infantry, of which he became Colonel April 29, 1864. He was 
honorably discharged July 2, 1864, and died three years afterwards. 


John B. Villepigue dismounted men 

Second George A. Gordon " A 

John Mullins 

Ebenezer Gay " " G 

John Green 4 ' 2 

So ended the most remarkable march in Cooke's wide exper- 
ience. His solicitude for his men and animals, his courage under 
highly adverse conditions, his efficiency in handling his command 
won the praise of all his superior officers. General Scott, the 
General-in-Chief of the Army, in an order dated August 10, 1858, 
voiced what all cavalrymen felt: 

The march in the depth of winter of Lieutenant-Colonel Philip St. 
George Cooke, commanding the Second Dragoons, from Laramie 
through the South Pass to Green River, deserves, as it has already 
received, special commendation." 

Almost twenty years later Cook wrote of the experience of 
his Dragoons during the winter of 1857-1858: 

38. John Bordenave Villepigue was born in South Carolina and was 
graduated from West Point in 1854. He resigned from the Army March 
31, 1861, even before hostilities began, and became a Brigadier General 
under the Stars and Bars. He died November 9, 1862. 

39. Another native of Virginia, George Alexander Gordon, became a 
West Point graduate in 1854. Unlike nearly all other Regular officers from 
the Old Dominion, he retained his commission in the Union Army. His 
highest rank during the Civil War was Brevet Lieutenant Colonel, bestowed 
for gallantry. 

40. John Mullins, of Tennessee, was also a member of the U. S. M. A. 
Class of 1854. He followed the South in 1861 and became Colonel, 19th 
Mississippi Infantry. 

41. Ebenezer Gay was a New Englander from New Hampshire and 
likewise belonged to the Class of 1854. He became a Lieutenant Colonel 
in the Civil War, but was "dismissed the service" in 1869. Reinstatement 
followed one year later. 

42. John Green was the only non-West Pointer among Cooke's line 
officers. Moreover, by one of those strange quirks of military fortune, he 
was the only one to win the Congressional Medal of Honor subsequently. 
Foreign born in Germany, he enlisted in the ranks in 1846, worked his 
way up through the non-commissioned grades and was commissioned 2d 
Lieutenant, 2d Dragoons, June 18, 1855. He finished the Civil War as 
Lieutenant Colonel, but in 1890 was promoted Brigadier General for 
service in Indian campaigns. He received his Medal of Honor in an 
engagement against the Modoc Indians at Lava Rocks, California. January 
17, 1873. 

43. N. A. R. S. W. R. B. 


. . . To the regiment was assigned the charge of herding, in distant 
mountain valleys, between six and seven thousand oxen, mules, and 
horses, to which its own were added; these, thus peculiarly exposed 
to renewed raids of the Mormons, had, by day, to be spread over 
thousands of acres. On application for assistance the smallest com- 
pany in the army was sent . . .** 

44. Colonel Theophilus F. Rodenbough, From Everglade to Canon with 
the Second Dragoons, 192; (New York, 1875). 

Additional military information concerning Cooke's march, by way of 
background, may be found in: Brigadier General Oliver L. Spaulding, Jr. 
The United States Army in War and Peace, 236-240; (New York, 1937) 
Colonel Albert G. Brackett, History of the United States Cavalry, 177-181 
(New York, 1865); Percival G. Lowe, Five Years a Dragoon, 294-308 
(Kansas City, 1906); William Drown, Personal Recollections — A Trum- 
peter's Notes, 206-218. Diaries of two Regular officers serving with the 
Utah Expedition have been published by State Historical Societies. The 
first. The Utah Expedition, 1857-1858; Letters of Capt. Jesse A. Gove; 
published by the New Hampshire Historical Society; (Concord, 1928); 
sheds some interesting side lights on the Expedition as a whole. The 
second. The Utah War; Journal of Albert Tracy, 1858-1860; issued by the 
Utah State Historical Society; (Salt Lake City, 1945); does not begin 
until Cooke's march had been accomplished, but describes several incidents 
in which Tracy became involved with Cooke at Camp Floyd. 

Washakie and Zhe Shoshoni 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the Utah 
Superintendency of Indian Affairs 

Edited by 

Dale L. Morgan 

PART IV— 1857-1859 


Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to James W. 

Denver, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated G. S. L. 
City, Sept. 12, 1857 10 * 

Enclosed please find Abstract account current and vouchers 
from 1 to 35 inclusive (also abstract of employees) for the current 
quarter up to this date, as owing to the stoppage of the mail I 
have deemed it best to avail myself of the opportunity of sending 
by private Conveyance not knowing when I may have another 
chance. The expenditure as you will observe by the papers 
amount to $6411.38 for which I have drawn my drafts on the 
department in favor of Hon. John M. Bernhisel delegate to Con- 
gress from this Territory. You will also observe that a portion 
of these expenditures accrued prior to this quarter, which may 
need a word of explanation. Santa Clara is in Washington 
County the extreme Southern County of this Territory and this 
labor was commenced and partly performed, seeds, grain &c fur- 
nished prior to the time that Major Armstrong visited those parts 
of the Territory, hence failed to find its way into his reports and 
failed being included in mine because the accounts & vouchers 
were not sooner brought in and hence not settled untill recently; 
but little has been effected in that part of the Territory at the 
expense of the Government, although much has been done by the 
citizens in aiding the Indians with tools, teams and instruction in 
cultivating the earth. The bands mentioned are part of the Piede 

102. U/19-1857. This letter, written as the Utah Expedition was 
marching toward Utah, reflects the general insecurity of the Mormon 
position. Brigham Young later made much of the fact that the Federal 
government had failed to notify him of his having been superseded as 
governor and superintendent of Indian Affairs, and the letter is an example 
of scrupulous avoidance of these topics. 


tribe of Indians who are very numerous, but only in part inhabit 
this Territory. These Indians are more easily induced to labor 
than any others in the Territory and many of them are now 
engaged in the common pursuits of civilized life. Their require- 
ments are constant for wagons, ploughs, spades, hoes, teams and 
harness &c to enable them to work to advantage. 

In like manner the Indians in Cache Valley have received but 
little at the expense of the Government although a Sore tax upon 
the people; West and along the line of the California and Oregon 
travel, they continue to make their contributions, and I am Sorry 
to add with considerable loss of life to the travellers. This is 
what I have always Sought by all means in my power to avert, but 
I find it the most difficult of any portion to control I have for 
many years Succeeded better than this. I learn by report that 
many of the lives of the emigrants and considerable quantities of 
property has been taken. This is principally owing to a company 
of some three or four hundred returning Californians who travelled 
those roads last spring to the Eastern States shooting at every 
indian they could see, a practise utterly abhorrent to all good 
people; yet I regret to say one which has been indulged in to a 
great extent by travellers to and from the Eastern States and 
California, hence the Indians regard all white men alike their 
enemies and kill and plunder whenever they can do So with 
impunity and often the innocent Suffer for the deeds of the guilty. 
This has always been one of the greatest difficulties that I have 
had to Contend with in the administration of Indian Affairs in 
this Territory. It is hard to make an Indian believe that the whites 
are their friends and the Great Father wishes to do them good, 
when perhaps the very next party which crosses their path shoots 
them down like wolves. This trouble with the Indians only exists 
along the line of travel west, and beyond the influence of our Set- 
tlements. The Shoshones are not hostile to travellers so far as 
they inhabit in this Territory except perhaps a few called "Snake 
diggers" who inhabit as before stated along the line of travel west 
of the settlements. There have however been more or less depre- 
dations the present season North and more within the vicinity of 
the Settlements owing to the causes above mentioned and I find 
it of the utmost difficulty to restrain them. The Sound of war 
quickens the blood and nerves of an Indian. The report that 
troops were wending their way to this Territory has also had its 
influence upon them. In one or two instances this was the reason 
assigned why they made the attacks which they did upon some 
herds of Cattle they seemed to think that if it was to be war they 
might as well commence and begin to lay in a Supply of food, 
when they had a chance. If I am to have the direction of the 
Indian Affairs of this Territory and am expected to maintain 
friendly relations with the Indians, there are a few things that I 


would most respectfully suggest to be done. First, that travellers 
omit their infamous practise of shooting them down when they 
happen to see one. 

Whenever the citizens of this Territory travels the roads, they 
are in the habit of giving the Indians food, tobacco and a few 
other presents, and the Indians expect Some such trifling favor, 
and they are emboldened by this practise to come up to the road 
with a view of receiving such presents. When therefore travellers 
from the States make their appearance they throw themselves in 
Sight with the Same view and when they are Shot at Some of their 
numbers killed as has frequently been the Case, we cannot but 
expect them to wreak their vengeance upon the next train. 

Secondly. That the Government should make more liberal 
appropriations to be expended in presents I have proven that it is 
far cheaper to feed and clothe the Indians than to fight them. I 
find moreover that after all when the fighting is over, it is always 
followed by extensive presents which if properly distributed in the 
first instance might have averted the fight. In this Case then the 
expense of presents are the Same and it is true in nine tenths of 
the Cases that have happened. 

Third. The troops must be kept away for it is a prevalent fact 
that where ever there are the most of these we may expect to find 
the greatest amount of hostile Indians and the least Security to 
persons and property 

If these three items could be complied with I have no hesitation 
in Saying that so far as Utah is concerned that travellers could go 
to and from pass and repass and no Indian would disturb or molest 
them or their property. 

In regard to my drafts it appears that the department is indis- 
posed to pay them, for what reason I am at a loss to conjecture. 
I am aware that Congress Separated the office Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs from that of Governor, that the Salary of Governor 
remained the Same for his Gubernatorial duties, and that the 
Superintendent was fifteen hundred I do think that inasmuch 
as I perform the duties of both offices that I am entitled to the 
pay appropriated for it, and trust that you will so consider it. 

I have drawn again for the expenditure of this present quarter 
as above Set forth, of course you will do as you please about 
paying as you have with the drafts for the two last quarters. 

The department has ofen manifested its approval of the manage- 
ment of the Indian Affairs in this Superintendency, and never its 
disapproval. Why then should I be subjected to such annoyance 
in regard to obtaining the funds for defraying its expenses? Why 
should I be denied my Salary, why should appropriations made 
for the benefit of the Indians of this Territory be retained in the 


treasury and individuals left unpaid? These are questions I leave 
for you to answer at your leisure, and meanwhile Submit to Such 
course in relation thereto as you shall See fit to direct. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to James W. Denver, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Camp Scott, 

Green River County, U. T., Nov. 30, 1857 103 


I arrived here several days ago, with Col Cooks command. 
Circumstances compells the Army, to remain here untill spring. 
All the civil officers for Utah are here & must of course remain 
under the protection of the Army. The Gove [r] nor will in a few 
days organize the Territorial Government. 

I expect within two weeks, to have an interview, with the Cheif 
of the Snake Tribe, which are in winter quarters a short distance 
from here. I will also within a few months visit in company with 
Agent Dr. Hurt, several other Tribes 

Dr Hurt, was driven from his "indian Farm" in "Salt Lake 
Valley," by the Mormons, & is & will remain in this camp, the 
Dr. will report to me as soon as we get fixed. We are at present 
enguaged building Houses (cabins & fixing up for the winter. I 
am at present writing in my carraige with gloves on my hands — 
the thermometer below zero. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to James W. Denver, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Camp Scott, 

Green R. County, Dec. 14, 1857 104 

Dear Sir 

In compliance with a regulation of your department, making it 
the duty of superintendents to report annually, I submit the fol- 
lowing report. 

Having been in the Territory of Utah, but a few weeks, I have 
consequently but little to report. I arrived at this Camp the 
latter part of last month, & was informed by Col. [Albert Sidney] 
Johnston, the Commanding Officer, that the Army, would go into 
Winter quarters at this place. All the civil officers are Stoping 
here, and I am oblidged to do the same. I have been buisily en- 

103. F/172-1858 

104. F/176-1858 


guaged erecting a cabin in some degree suitable for an office and 
dwelling, will have it finished in a few days. 

"Little Soldier," Cheif of a Small Tribe of Sho-Sho-Ne Indians 
visited me last Tuesday and remained in Camp Two days. This 
Cheif had with him several of his men, and also an Indian named 
Ben Simons, formerly of the Deleware Tribe, but for the last 
Twenty years a trader among the Indians of this Territory. Ben 
Speaks most of the languages of this region, and English suffi- 
ciently well to answer for an interpreter.'""' 

Little Soldier's Tribe is at present encampted in Weber Valley, 
on the road leading from this Camp to Salt Lake consequently 
in close proximity to the Mormans, and in a position to render 
assential service to the Mormons, should they be so disposed. 
Little Soldier assures me however, that they have always kept 
aloof from Mormon delusions and maintained strict integrity 
towards the U. States and any of her Citizens, who have traded 
through his country. I have satisfied myself that they have not 
deceived me. Inasmuch as this Tribe have not acceeded to the 
wishes of the Mormons, & as an inducement for a continuence of 
friendship I have given them some presents for which they were 
very thankfull and much pleased. 

I herewith transmit to you, the Report of Agent Dr Hurt. I 
have examined the Report carefully and have talked with men, 
of unquestionable integrity who have seen the Indian Farms, and 
so far as I have been able to investigate the matter, justice compells 

105. Most of what is known about Ben Simons emerges in the records 
of 1857-58, and a considerable part of that is developed in the documents 
now printed. He is said to have been a Cherokee, or a half-breed Cherokee 
of French parentage, and attained to the status of a sub-chief with Little 
Soldier's band of mixed Shoshoni and Utes. Another man of like character, 
variously referred to as Jim Simons or Jim Cherokee, appears fugitively 
in the same records. Perhaps the earliest documentary reference to Ben 
Simons occurs on Oct. 14, 1852, in the letter by Brigham Young quoted 
in Note 60. He frequented, with Little Soldier's band, the Weber River 
area in particular, and Lieut. E. G. Beckwith, carrying on the Pacific 
Railroad survey after Gunnison's death, in the spring of 1854 referred to 
his presence in the Morgan Valley, even calling a creek by his name. 
On Aug. 7, 1858, Richard Ackley referred to Ben's presence with a detach- 
ment of troops as far east as the North Platte (Utah Historical Quarterly, 
1941, vol. X, p. 203). During the winter of 1857-58 he moved back 
and forth between the lines of the Mormons and Camp Scott, and was a 
principal source of information for both. He appears to vanish from the 
record in 1859; the last reference I have to him is a report of a conversa- 
tion made by Dimick B. Huntington on Feb. 14, 1859 (L. D. S. Journal 
History for this date). Arrapine and Ben Simons had been visiting 
Huntington in Great Salt Lake City, and Ben, who apparently was a 
black-bearded man, is represented as having told Arrapine "that somebody 
had got to die for shooting at him last winter in the mountains — he did 
not say who it would be." 


me to bear favourable testimony to the policy of Dr. Hurt, in 
introducing agriculture among these Tribes. 

Dr. Hurt has undouptably given his entire time & energies to 
improve the condition of the Tribes, in his neighbourhood, & has 
by his devotion to their interests endeared himself much to them, 
and also stimulated other Tribes, who have come many miles, to 
visit these farms, and are asking instructors, Dr H. has accom- 
plished all this without any assistance from those around him, but 
in many instances had to encounter obsticles thrown in his way. 
For the reasons, for which Dr. Hurt, abandoned the farms, I refer 
you to his letter to Col. Johnston.'"" 

Permanently locating the Indian Tribes of this Territory, and 
the introduction among them, of agriculture and Mechanical per- 
suits, shall be my cheif aim. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to James W. Denver, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Camp Scott, 

Green River Co., Utah T., Jan. 1, 1858 1 " 7 

Dear Sir. 

There is now, no probability of the Army or civil Department 
getting into Salt L. City, before May or June or even then. 

In compliance with the Special request of the Acting Commis- 
sioner Mr Mix — I have availed myself of every opportunity to 
get reliable information of the true condition of the Indians in 
this Territory. I have obtained Some usefull and interesting infor- 
mation. Since my last communication, Five chiefs and Seventy 
to Eighty of their principal men, visited me — representing two of 
the Utah Tribes or Bands. The Utahs claim the country — be- 
tween Salt L. City, Rocky Mountains — New Mexico & Serrie 
Neveda. Those that were here seemed peacefull, but, evidently 
poor, they belong to Dr Hurt Agency, & the Dr. informs me that 
they have renderred him some service on the Indian farms. These 
Bands are anxious to enguage in Agriculture & asked me to assist 
them, and also send a white man to instruct them, they informed 
me, that game, was very scarce in their country, but plenty of good 
land. Wash-a-Kee — principal Cheif of a small Tribe called 
"Snakes," send me a special Message last week, informing me, 
that he would visit me before the Army left. This Tribe is at 

106. For the general background to Indian Affairs at this time in Utah 
Territory see Dale L. Morgan, "The Administration of Indian Affairs in 
Utah. 1851-1858," Pacific Historical Review, November. 1948. vol. XVII, 
pp. 405-409. 

107. F/189-1858. 


present on Wind River, on lands belonging to the Crous, ,us they 
claim Green River County, but game is too scarce here, & hence 
they go elsewhere for subsistence. The Snakes, & Some of the 
Utah Bands, have been at variance for some years, but both Seem 
willing, to make friends, which I will endeaver to consummate 
in the Spring or sooner if possible. 

Several persons who have done business among these different 
Tribes, inform me that they have never molested any Whites. I 
give the Utahs that visited me some presents. The Department 
have directed me to examine the financial accounts of Agents 
Hurt & Armstrong, which I cannot do, untill we get into (If Ever) 
Salt Lake City. 

T have received a communication Since here, informing that the 
person appointed to the Agency at Salt L. City, had declined, & 
I am consequently requested to continue Mr. Armstrong — Mr A. 
is a Mormon, & untill further instructed, I must decline recognizing 
him as an Agent. I beleive the last Congress passed an Act for 
an Indian Agency, in Carson Valley. I think it would be advisable 
to appoint a suitable person to that Agency. Mr John Kerr, is 
here, in the employ of Mr Livingston, and who I think would 
make a very good & reliable Agent. Mr Kerr has lived several 
years in this Territory, and seems familiar with Indian affairs. 
I also reccomend the appointment of some person in the place 
of Mr Armstrong, at Salt Lake city. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Charles E. Mix, 

Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Camp Scott, 

Green River Co., U. Territory, Feb. 10, 1858 109 

Dear Sir. 

The bearer Lewis M. Stewart Esq — is my Brother-in-Law, who 
I take pleasure in introducing to your favourable consideration, 
he is a Scholar & Gentleman, & in every way worthy your confi- 
dence. Mr Stewart, come out with me, & has renderred me assen- 
tial service. Mr. S. visits the States, to attend to some private 
business for me, & bring out my family; 

I requested Mr. S. — to visit Washington, for reasons, that will 
appear in this letter. The Mails have been very irregular; indeed 
no Mails, at all, untill within the last three weeks, & then only 
part of the Oct. Nov & December Mails. These Mail delinquences 
are insufferable, especially when the roads, have ben in a traveling 

108. This is one of the earliest documents that shows Washakie's 
Shoshoni frequenting the country that eventually became their reservation. 

109. S/273-1858. 


condition all Winter. There is a strong presumption, that the 
Mail, has been intercepted, we are forced to this beleif, from the 
fact that no official, Civil or Military officer have received any 
thing from Washington, & very few letters of any kind. I have 
received but three letters since I left home. 

I have communicated all my official acts, among the Indians, 
to your Department, which I hope, has met with approval. I 
came into this country, with a full determination to do my duty, 
both to the Government & Indians. The duties pertaining to my 
office, are very different from my former habitudes, and it would 
not be very strange, if I would commit some errors, in the outstart 
of my Mission. Rest assured, my Dear Sir, that I have not been 
idle, to inform myself, of the duties of my office. My principal 
associate, is Gov. Cumming, 11 " a man of extraordinary acquire- 
ments, & my warm friend. I beg leave to remind, you, of a 
promise to send me a Book, containing a general & special 
Hystory, of all the Indian Tribes, in the U. States. I will regard it 
as a very great favour, to send me said Book, by my friend Mr. 

I forwarded several weeks ago, my first financial Report, which 
from the peculiar condition of affairs here, may need some 
explanation. If so, I feel confident, Mr. Stewart can make a 
satisfactory explanation. I am very anxious to make a right 

I wish to be rightly understood, in refference to my motives, 
for comming out, into this country, that it was or is not to make 
money, but reather a hope & prospect, of improving a broken down 
constitution, & avoiding the development of already incipient 
consumption. I am happy to inform you that my Health is 
already greatly improved. 

I see it stated in the papers, & the impression seems to be 
general, that some of the Indian Tribes, are in the employ of B. 
Young, there is no truth in this, & I think I stated so, to the 
Department, in my communications. I am assured, by reliable 
persons, that the Indian Tribes, in this Territory, with the excep- 
tion of those in & about Carson Valley, have been uniformally 
peaceable, & never molested any of our people & the Government, 
altho frequently impertuned by the Mormons, to steal from & 
murder Emigrants. To improve the condition of the Indians, in 
Carson Valley, I reccommended the appointment of an Agent 
for that locality — the person whom I reccommended, left here, a 
few weeks ago, for the States, & may be at Washington about the 

110. Alfred Cumming, a Georgian, governor of Utah from 1857 to 
1861, had previously been Superintendent of the Central Superintendency 
at St. Louis, and had ample background to give Forney wise counsel. 


first of March. I also advised the appointment of a new Agent 
at Salt Lake City, I cannot think, that you, will want to continue 
a Morman in office. I beleive I reccommended no one for this 
Agency — I do now respectfully reccommend Dr. C. B. Gillespy, 
Bradys Bend P. O., Armstrong Co. Pa. I know the Dr well, 
and consider him well qualified for any position, & I feel confident 
he would come out. 

I see it stated, that Genl [James W.] Denver has been appoint- 
ed, Secretary for Kansas, how is this — I was in hopes that the 
Kansas, troubles were all rightly fixed up long before this. With 
a veiw to the prospective good of Kansas, I would respectfully 
reccommend, the Hanging or exporting, some of the scoundrals, 
who seem so bent on mischeif. Did Walker & Stanton, brake 
down. I hope the President will not suffer by the Kansas diffi- 

It is my full purpose, to visit every full Tribe, in this Territory, 
within the next ten months. I will have an interview with the 
"Snake" Tribe, before we leave this point, these are wintering on 
"Wind River," this section of the Territory belong to this Tribe. 

My opportunities have been too limited, to enable me to say 
much of the real & true condition, of the Indians, in this Territory. 
I have talked with the representatives of two Tribes, from these 
& other sources, I have learned, that all are poor, scarcity of game, 
is the cause. The Cheifs, & principal Men, with whom I have 
talked, are anxious to be taught farming. The "Utah" Cheifs, 
who visited me last Month, told me that they had very little game, 
but plenty of good Land, and asked me, to send a white to teach 
the Art of farming. I am anxious to give these people an oppor- 
tunity to work 

If the Department, have any communication to make, please 
send it by Mr. Stewart, as the Mail is uncertain. Mr. Stewart 
will give you any information about the condition of things here, 
It is very uncertain when the Army will leave, not perhaps untill 
June. Present my compliments to the Secretary of the Interior. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Charles E. Mix, 
Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Camp 
Scott, Green River Co., March 11, 1858 111 
Dear Sir. 

I received a letter from Col. Johnston, several days ago, re- 
questing my Co-operation in furthering the operations of the U. 
Army, by employing some expert Indians, for the performance 

111. F/227-1858. 


-of certain kinds of duty, which might prove effecacious to all 
here encampted. 

The intention is not to enguage Indians, for actual fighting, but 
as scouting parties. On reflection, I have concluded, that it is 
my duty, to render the Army, all the aid in my power. I have 
send for the "Snake Tribe," they being the most intimately ac- 
quainted with this portion of the Territory. 

I received a letter, yesterday evening, from "Little Soldier"' 
principal Cheif, of a small Tribe, at present encampted on Bear 
River, some fifty miles from this camp. Weaver & part of Salt 
L. Vally, was the home, of this Tribe, untill driven from all their 
best land, by the Mormons. They were encampted, all winter 
near "Ogden City," Weaver Vally — they left there several days 
ago, crossed the Mountain & Cannons — between this & S. L. City, 
the road, they inform me, is in a good Condition. I will see the 
Tribe in a few days. 

"Little Soldier"^ Tribe — have been suspected, by some, for 
having formed friendly relations with the Mormons. This Cheif, 
with some of his principal men, visited me last fall, shortly after 
our arrival here. There own Statements, & the testimony of 
reliable men, convinced me, that this Tribe, have ever, been faith- 
full, to the Government & our citizens. All subsequent informa- 
tion of this people, strengthens my good opinion of them. 

It is uncertain, when I may have another safe opportunity of 
sending letters — this goes by the Army Express. . . . 


D. W. Thorpe to Charles E. Mix, Acting Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, dated Washington, D. C, March 26, 1858 11 " 

In the establishment of an Indian Agency for the "Snake 
Nation" I would respectfully mention that if the Government 
should Deem the season to[o] far advanced to make the usual 
arraingements for the purchas[e] and transportation of Goods for 
that Tribe, I will be able to have the goods furnished and fraigtted 
at the ordinary Government rates, by the direction of the Depart- 

In this connection I would beg to suggest that a limited amount 
of goods for that destination would be most advisable untill those 

112. T/286-1858. 


Indians have been visited and there chiefs and head men assembled 
and the numbers and wants more certainly ascertained. 

A few thousand dollars properly and carefully distributed 
amoung them would be an e[a]rnest of the kind feelings of Gov- 
ernment in their behalf and would be most salutary in the pre- 
vention of any undue influence being used over them by the mor- 
mons in connection with the difficulties now pending in that 
region. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Charles E. Mix, 
Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Fort 
Bridger, April 17, 1858 113 
Dear Sir. 

There has nothing peculiarly interesting transpired in my de- 
partment, since my last Communication. 

I visited last week the Sho-Sho-Ne- Tribe at present encamped 
on Bear River, fifty miles from here, in the direction of Salt L. 
City. I promised the Cheifs of this Tribe, sometime ago- and 
when yet encamped in Weber Valley, that whenever they had 
moved to Bear River, I would endeavor to visit them, consequently 
Tuesday evening of last week, two Cheifs, with seventy men, 
came to my place, all well mounted, to escort me to there Camp. 
There was no backing out, on the following day we starded. This 
was my first visit to an Indian Camp. I was decidedly pleased 
with the general appearance & appearently industrious habits of 
these people. I was informed by one of the Cheifs, Ben Simons, 
who acted as Interpreter, that they had out almost constantly 
hunting parties They have killed this Winter, over a hundred 
elk, & a large quantity of small game — They have also com- 
menced traping in Bear River, & have already Caught considerable 
Otter & Beaver. 

A small party, from this Tribe, were the first Indians that visited 
me, after our arrivel here. This is one of the Tribes — B. Young, 
boasted, would assist him, in the event of a conflict with the 
U. States. Several days intercourse, on my recent visit, ennables 
me to say most confidently, that this Tribe, is true, to the Govern- 
ment, beyond all peradventure. 

I received your communication informing me of the appoint- 
ment of an Agent at S. L. City. 

113. F/260-1858. 


I will send my financial report, for the quarter Ending March 
31, the first of next month. My visit to B. River, last week, & 
other official matters, prevents me, sending it by to Morrow's Mail. 

Wash-A-Kee. — Principal Cheif of the Snakes, has send me 
word, that he & his principal men will visit me within two weeks. 

White-Eye — Principal Cheif, of a large Tribe, of "Utes,- spend 
part of a day at my Tent, he is evidently a man, Calculated to 
rule, he wants me to see all his Cheifs & principal men, before we 
leave this. Three of the Sho-Sho-Ne Cheifs, have requested me, 
to meet them & all there people at "Bear Lake," in May, & give 
them a talk - which I can do on my way to Salt Lake City. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Charles E. Mix, 
Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 
Fort Bridger, May 21, 1858 114 
Dear Sir. 

I succeeded on the 12 th inst. of consummating a Treaty of 
Peace, between the Snake Tribe, under Cheif Wash-A-Kee — his 
five sub-Cheifs, and the Utah Tribe, under White-Eye — Sow-At- 
& Sam Pitch — equal Cheifs, These two Tribes have been at enmity 
for years, fighting and killing each other, and endangering the 
lives & property of Whites. 

I seen and talked with both Tribes, before they met here, and 
at my request met in Council, at my office. All differences are 
adjusted, and I have good reason to beleive, that the peace will 
be permanent. 

The line deviding these Indians, was never deffinately explained 
to them, both Tribes, now understand where the dividing line 
between them is. 

The Bannack Tribe, were present at the Council. I will give 
you, on the first June a full account of the above transaction, and 
also, all my other official doings, since in the Territory & to the 
end of the fiscal year. 115 It is my intention, and will make my 
arrangements accordingly, That from the first of July, to December 
or January, my time will be principally occupied traveling — visit- 

114. F/252-1858. 

115. His official duties so pressed upon him that Forney, as he reported 
later, did not find the time to prepare this "full account" of the "Treaty 
of Peace" he brought about between the Shoshoni and the Utes; the same 
cause prevented his making the visit to Bear Lake which he had contem- 
plated. In view of what Forney says about his having defined a "dividing 
line" between the two tribes, this dereliction in duty becomes the more 


ing the Tribes & Bands, in other portions of the Territory, unless 
prevented by political entanglements. I have satisfactorily ar- 
ranged the boundaries, and concluded permanent friendship with 
four Tribes, of considerable importance. 

I will leave this next Monday or Tuesday, for Salt L. Valley, & 
the Indian farm, near Provo City. My friend Govenor Cumming, 
visited the Indian farm, during his trip through the Mormon Settle- 
ments, and found things on the farm in a very different condition, 
then represented to me by the Agent. The Govenor seen about 
2000 bushels of wheat — Cattle and farming implements. The 
person on the farm, was requested to remain untill my arrival 
there, which will, I trust, be next week, & in time, to have some 
potatoes &c — planted. 

I will return here again in a few weeks, I have an appointment 
to meet the whole Sho-Sho-Nee Tribe, on Bear River Lake, in 
June. I intend also, if possible, to make a visit to several Valleys, 
from thirty to fifty miles, south-East of this, and also explore some 
along Green River, and a Valley east of this River. This explora- 
tion is being made, with the veiw of determining the feasibility 
of permanently settling the Snake Tribe, for Agricultural purposes. 
Wash-A — kee, principal Cheif, of this Tribe, is very anxious to 
settle his people permanently, he assures me, that all he wants is 
a good White man, to instruct his people, & farming implements, 
& his young men will do the work.' 16 

I respectfully invite your attention to my financial report, the 
amount expended in presents may seem large. I may have ex- 
ceeded the bounds of discretion in making so many. I will explain 
my principal motives for doing as I have done. All the Tribes 
I have had intercourse with, have always been faithfull to the 
Government, & never molested any of our people. Three of the 
Tribes, have never received any presents. These Indians were & 
are in a position, which, if disposed, could have done us more 
harm than the Mormons. After consulting a few friends last fall, 
& the destitute condition of the Indians, many really almost naked 
& starving, I felt it to be my duty, to do as I have done. I have 
given all the presents, I intent to give, to the Indians, in this portion 
of the Territory, which at the price even here will not exceed Eight 
thousand dollars, to the end of the fiscal year. . . . 

N B. I have much more to say, but have been & still too 
sick an express will leave here June 1 st , when I will write again. 

116. Each succeeding wave of Indian officials heard a similar tale 
from the Indian chiefs of Utah Territory. Alas, the young men did not 
take kindly to "doing the work," which in their view was properly the 
sphere of the squaws. 



Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, U. T., 
June 30, 1858" 7 
Sir: — 

Enclosed please find an abstract account current, property re- 
turn, and vouchers from one to seventeen inclusive. Showing an 
expenditure during the quarter ending June 30, 1858, of Seven 
thousand and Sixty eight 57/100 Dollars, for which I have drawn 
two drafts No 95 for Three thousand five hundred and thirty four 
Dollars, and No 96 for Three thousand five hundred and thirty 
four 57/100 Dollars, in favor of Hon. J. M. Bernhisel Delegate 
in Congress. 

Of the above amount, One thousand three hundred and sixty 
eight 44/100 Dollars, was expended as you will perceive at Fort 
Bridger in presents to Wash-e-kik, Standing Rock, Tib-en-de-wah 
and their respective bands, all of the Shoshone tribe of Indians, 
at their annual visit made at that place in August last. 11 ' These 
accounts would have been included in my former reports, but 
have not been rendered until the 3 rd of April of the present 
quarter, as appears in voucher No. 1 . 

Since my last report the Indians have generally been rather more 
quiet and in a few instances returned some of the horses which 
they had previously stolen. One exception however to this is a 
portion of the Utahs under White-Eye, Anthro, Peeteeneet, Sand- 
pitch and Tin-tic who with their bands numbering above six 
hundred, came into the Settlements, about the last of May, from 
the vicinity of Fort Bridger, very hostile in their feelings and 
appearently only awaiting the advance of the troops from that 
point to make a general attack. As it was they committed many 
depredations, by stealing horses, Killing Cattle Sheep &c, but 
since they have learned the peac[e]able advance of the troops, 
their hostile feelings seem to be somewhat subsiding. 

Owing to these causes, it became necessary to not only hold 
them in check but to feed them in order to conciliate and keep 
them from actual outbreak until matters could be explained to 
them understandingly. 

I trust that the foregoing explanations will be deemed sufficient 
and satisfactory and the account paid accordingly. 

117. Y/34-1858. 

118. "August last" would have been the summer of 1857. Very little 
information has turned up bearing on the movements of the Shoshoni 

in 1857. 


Dr Forney Superintendent of Indian Affairs, tho doubtless 
having been some time in the Territory and probably officiating 
partially in his office while at Camp Scott did not until quite 
recently sufficiently assume its duties that I could feel relieved 
therefrom. Being now at the scene of his duties, these matters 
will hereafter devolve upon him, thus closing my official inter- 
course with this department. 

Trusting that Dr. Forney's intercourse with the department 
may be congenial, as well as satisfactory to the native tribes. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Charles E. Mix, 

Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, Utah Territory, Sept. 6, 1858 1 "' 

Sir: In accordance with the regulations and requirements of 
the Indian department, I have the honor to submit to you a report 
of my doings among the Indians of this Territory. 

I received my commission on the 9th day of September, A. D. 
1857, and with the least possible delay thereafter commenced my 
journey to my superintendency. It was the opinion of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior and yourself that I could reach Fort Leaven- 
worth in time to come out under the protection of Colonel [Philip 
St. George] Cook[e]'s command, but I found on my arrival at 
the fort that the command had left and were en route twelve days. 
I did not overtake it until it reached Fort Laramie. 

My party reached Camp Scott, near Fort Bridger, on the 17th 
day of November last, after experiencing extremely cold weather 
in the mountains; and it was only through the kindness of Colonel 
Cook (to whom I am much indebted) that we were enabled to 
reach the camp of the Utah army. 

On account of the inclement state of the weather, and the 
troubled condition of affairs in this Territory, I was compelled to 
remain during the whole of last winter at Camp Scott, and of 
course was not very favorably situated to attend to the duties of 
my office. I had a building erected, however, and entered upon 
my official duties in the best manner possible under the circum- 

The tribes and fragments of tribes with whom I had business 
relations during my forced residence at Camp Scott are as follows, 
to wit: on the second day of December last I was visited by 

119. The original manuscript having disappeared, this report is re- 
printed from the published version in the Report of the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs for 1858, 35th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Executive 
Document 1, Part 1 (Serial 974), pp. 561-565. 


San-Pitch, a principal chief of the Utahs, and a few of his men. 
I will speak more elaborately of this tribe in the progress of this 
report. They wished to see Agent Hurt, who was then residing 
at Camp Scott. I gave them a few presents; this was my first 
official act with the Indians. 

On the 10th of December following, Little Soldier, chief, and 
Benj. Simons, sub-chief, of a band of Sho-sho-nes, with some of 
their principal men, called on me; several merchants, however, 
who had recently and for several years resided in Salt Lake City, 
and who were well acquainted with this tribe from their proximity 
to the Mormon settlements, regarded their visit with suspicion. 
It was believed by many that they were spies. I learned, however, 
that their reason for visiting camp was to ascertain the object 
and ultimate destination of so many soldiers in the Territory. All 
this was explained to them, and after receiving some presents they 
departed for their homes in Weber valley. Ben Simons under- 
stands and speaks English sufficiently well to answer for an in- 
terpreter. I visited this tribe in April last. They then encamped 
on Bear river. The territory claimed by them includes Salt lake, 
Bear river, Weber river and Cache valley. Almost all the arable 
land belonging to them is occupied by white settlers, and, if not 
in actual cultivation, is held by virtue of certain legislative grants 
as herd grounds. I can learn of no effort having been made to 
locate any portion of this tribe. 1 " 1 This is to me surprising, as they 
have frequently solicited me to select some suitable place to enable 
them to raise wheat and corn. It was my intention to visit Weber 
and Cache valleys with this object in view. Several events, how- 
ever, which have lately transpired, render this impossible this 
season. There is no tribe of Indians in the Territory with whom 
I have any acquaintance that have been so much discommoded 
by the introduction of a white population as the Sho-sho-nes. For 
the past few years they have been compelled to live in the moun- 
tains, (as the game has all been driven off the lowlands,) where 
the snow frequently falls to such depths as to be destructive to 
man and beast. But notwithstanding all the disadvantages under 
which they labor from the introduction of a white populace, I 
cannot learn that they have ever molested any of our citizens, 
but, on the contrary, have always been friendly. 

120. The Mormons at Ogden, in November, 1854, undertook the 
expedient of disarming Little Soldier's band and distributing them among 
the families in Weber County, "where the people were best able to feed 
and clothe them for the winter, and set them to work"; the whites suc- 
ceeded in disarming the Indians, as related with some gusto by James S. 
Brown, op. cit., pp. 347-350. Brown implies that after the initial excite- 
ment died down, Indians and citizens got along very well together. But 
his forced acculturation of Little Soldier's people had no permanent results. 


About the 22d day of December last, I was visited at Camp 
Scott, by White-eye and San-pitch, Utah chiefs, with several of 
their bands. They were destitute of provisions and almost in a 
starving condition, while it was not in my power to procure pro- 
visions for them. I was assured by Agent Hurt that they had 
always been peaceably disposed towards the whites. After making 
them some presents I dismissed them, and they returned to their 
camp on Henry's fork. These Indians belong to one of the prin- 
cipal tribes of this Territory. There is but one other large tribe, 
(the Snakes,) as I am informed. Both the principal tribes are, 
of course, divided into a great number of small bands, but all 
submit to the authority of one or the other of the chiefs of their 
respective tribes. 

The best land belonging to the Utahs is situated in Utah valley, 
which is well watered by numerous small streams. All the land 
that is susceptible of cultivation is occupied, and most of it is 
now being farmed. There are eight towns in this valley, with 
populations ranging from three hundred to four thousand souls. 
It was once the favorite hunting ground of the Utahs, but civil- 
ization has driven the game from the valleys; there remains, how- 
ever, an abundance of fish in all the streams. Much has been 
done and is doing for this tribe, (the Utahs.) Three years ago 
Agent Hurt opened up two farms for them on land claimed by 
them, one on Spanish Fork creek, in Utah county, the other on 
Salt creek, in Sanpete valley, one hundred and seventy miles 
south of this city. I visited Spanish Fork farm in June last, and, 
together with ex-agent Armstrong and Thomas J. Hurt [Hunt?], 
took a list of the government property on the farm. 

There is quite a discrepancy in relation to the extent of this 
reservation between the agent who commenced it and the author- 
ities of Spanish Fork City. Upon my first visit to the farm Agent 
Hurt had not returned to it. Not knowing the quantity of land he 
intended to include in the reservation, I marked some natural 
boundaries myself. Upon the return of Agent Hurt he assured 
me that the points I had designated were the ones he always 
intended as the boundaries of the reservation. 

In regard to the reservation I had a personal interview with 
the authorities of Spanish Fork City, and it is really extraordinary 
to me that they have never raised objections to this reserve prior 
to this time. It is with extreme regret that I am forced into a 
controversy with them, imperative duty requiring me to take the 
course I do. Years ago, at the request of the then superintendent, 
(B. Young,) Agent Hurt commenced the Indian reservation pre- 
cisely where indicated — has made improvements from time to 
time at a cost of from $15,000 to $20,000, and now, for the first 
time, is required to give an account of his "stewardship" to the 


inhabitants of Spanish Fork City. I am clearly of the opinion 
that this claim is unfounded, from the letter of Agent Hurt as well 
as from my own observation. I shall, therefore, proceed to have 
the reserve enclosed as soon as possible. 

Strenuous efforts will be made to induce this tribe (the Utahs) 
to locate permanently, as no permanent good can ever be done 
for them so long as they roam about in their wild state. 

I visited San-Pete creek farm last month, (August,) which is 
situated in the west end of San-Pete valley and county. This 
farm was opened about two years ago, under the directions of 
Agent Hurt, for a band of the Utahs under Chief Arapeen, a broth- 
er of San-Pitch. It is the second farm within the boundaries 
of this tribe, and is well watered and timbered, and has a suffi- 
ciency of good grazing land; for these reasons I consider it a 
more eligible location for an Indian reserve than that at Spanish 

On this farm there are one hundred and ninety-five acres of 
land under cultivation, and will produce this year (1858) about 
twelve hundred bushels of wheat, besides small quantities of corn 
and potatoes. 

From the loose manner in which business has been previously 
conducted on the farm, I appointed a new overseer, who is 
acquainted with the Indian language. 

The Indians are to perform all the work; with proper care in 
imparting instruction, not only this but all the other Indian farms 
may in a short time be worked by Indian labor. 

The experiment of agriculture among the Indians of this Terri- 
tory has not been as successful as might have been anticipated, 
when we consider the destitute condition of those for whom it has 
been introduced. 

Indians are proverbially lazy, and only the pinchings of hunger 
will drive them to work, so much white labor has heretofore 
been employed to do work for them, and they have not been suffi- 
ciently taught that their subsistence depends upon their own labor. 
But notwithstanding, the comparative ill success of the agricultural 
experiment, it is the only available means of ameliorating the con- 
dition of the Indians in this Territory, as game enough could not 
be found to subsist them for one year. In my opinion, reserva- 
tions should be made without delay. Every acre of arable land 
that can be irrigated will be occupied in a very short time. I will 
give this subject my earliest attention. I have instructed Agent 
Dodge to attend to this as soon as possible in Carson valley. 

A farm was commenced several years ago for a small tribe 
called the Pah-Vants, on Corn creek, in Millard county, under 
the direction of Agent Hurt. Ranosh [Kanosh], the chief of this 


tribe, visited me, and expressed a desire that some good white 
man might be placed upon the farm to direct them, assuring me 
that the Indians would do all the work. His request was not as 
Indians' generally are, for paint, beads, &c, but for agricultural 
implements. I employed a Mr. [Peter] Boyce to take charge of 
this farm, at fifty dollars per month. No other white labor will 
be employed. Eighty acres of wheat were raised upon this farm 
this year. I will visit it in January and define a reservation. 

I have visited a small tribe called the Go-sha-utes, who live 
about forty miles west of this city. They are, without exception, 
the most miserable looking set of human beings I ever beheld. 
I gave them some clothing and provisions. They have heretofore 
subsisted principally on snakes, lizards, roots, &c. I made con- 
siderable effort to procure a small quantity of land for them, but 
could not find any with water sufficient to irrigate it. I will give 
this matter my attention as soon as possible after my return from 
the Humboldt. 

I have heretofore spoken of a large tribe of Indians known as 
the Snakes. They claim a large tract of country lying in the 
eastern part of this Territory, but are scarcely ever found upon 
their own land. 

They generally inhabit the Wind river country, in Oregon and 
Nebraska Territories, and they sometimes range as far east as 
Fort Laramie, in the latter Territory. Their principal subsistence 
is the buffalo, and it is for the purpose of hunting them that they 
range so far east of their own country. This tribe numbers about 
twelve hundred souls, all under one principal chief, Wash-a-kee. 
He has perfect command over them, and is one of the finest look- 
ing and most intellectual Indians I ever saw. 

He prides himself that neither he, nor any of his tribe, have ever 
molested a white, although the great overland route from the 
States to California passes immediately through their country. 

It seems somewhat strange that this tribe has never received 
any attention whatever from any of the officials of this Territory. 121 
This I learned, not only from the Indians, but from other persons 
who have been among them for several years, and especially from 
Major Bridger, one of the earliest pioneers of this country. 122 

The only portion of the country of this tribe suited for agricul- 
tural purposes is the valley of Henry's Fork, about forty miles 
south of Fort Bridger and opening out into Green River valley. 

121. It was a consistent ellusion of various agents of the Indian office 
that nothing was ever done before they, individually, took a job in hand, 
and it will be seen that Forney's remark is not strictly true. 

122. Jim Bridger returned to his fort in the fall of 1857 as a guide for 
Johnston's army. He remained in the military service until July 2, 1858. 


This Wash-a-kee wished to reserve, and is very anxious I should 
open a farm for them. For this purpose I sent Agent Craig to 
Green River county; but I fear the matter will have to be post- 
poned for this winter for want of a suitable person to take charge 
of the farm. 

For several years an enmity has existed between the Utahs 
and the Snakes. My attention was directed to this soon after 
entering upon my official duties. I alluded to the feud during my 
first interview with the Utahs, in December last, but their war- 
chief, White-eye, did not seem disposed to talk about it, and it was 
not until April last that they signified their willingness to make 
peace with the Snakes. On the 3d day of May I received infor- 
mation that the Snake tribe of Indians were encamped on Green 
river. Reports were in circulation that they had come to make 
war upon the Utahs, who were encamped in the vicinity of Camp 
Scott. Immediately upon hearing the report, I despatched a mes- 
senger to Wash-a-kee to learn his intentions, and if he intimated 
hostility to the Utahs to persuade him to encamp at some con- 
venient place, until I could have a talk with him. On the 6th 
day of May my express man returned, and informed me that 
Wash-a-kee was willing to leave the adjustment of the difficulties 
between his tribe and the Utahs to me. 

Accordingly, on the 13th of May, Wash-a-kee, of the Snakes, 
White-Eye, Son-a-at, and San-Pitch, of the Utahs, with the sub- 
chiefs of the different tribes, and also several chiefs of the Ban- 
acks, (of whom I will speak further hereafter,) assembled in 
council at Camp Scott, when, after considerable talk and smoking, 
peace was made between the two tribes. After I had given the 
Snakes and Ban-acks some presents they left camp. 

The latter tribe (Ban-acks) I had frequently heard of, but 
supposed they were part of a tribe of the same name who live in 
Oregon Territory, and consequently not within my superinten- 
dency; but upon making inquiry I learned that they were a sep- 
arate and distinct people, claiming a country lying within my 

In their habits and appearance they are much like the Snakes, 
with whom they are on terms of the greatest intimacy. They 
number between four and five hundred, and are all under one 
principal chief, named Home. 

Immediately after I received your communication in relation 
to the massacre of the Arkansas emigrants, three hundred miles 
south of this, on the southern California road, I procured the ser- 
vices of a reliable person [Jacob Hamblin], well acquainted with 
the southern Indians and their language, and since the latter part 
of June have been in constant communication with these Indians. 
My endeavor to establish peaceful relations with them has proved 


successful beyond my expectations. This route to California is 
now free from all danger from Indians. 

I have succeeded in recovering ten of the children remaining 
from the massacre of last September. It is supposed that there 
are more in the neighborhood; if so, they will be found. 123 

I am now busily engaged in preparing for a trip to the Hum- 
boldt river. Having learned that the Indians in that region were 
committing depredations upon travellers, and, in one instance, 
having attacked the mail party and stampeded their stock, I will 
travel with an escort. In addition to which, one hundred and fifty 
men, (one hundred mounted and fifty infantry,) upon a requisi- 
tion from his excellency Gov. A. Cumming, will proceed to the 
Humboldt, subject to my orders. 

It is my present intention to proceed to Gravelly Ford [near 
present Beowawe, Nevada], which is one hundred miles beyond 
the first crossing of the Humboldt, and, if circumstances permit, 
will proceed to Carson valley and establish Agent [Frederick] 
Dodge, who accompanied me, in his position. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Charles E. Mix, 
Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 
Nov. 5, 1858 m 

I have already apprised you, in several Communications, of my 
intention to visit the Humboldt Indians and latterly of my having 
done so. I returned from this trip last friday evening. It has 
been my intention from my first advent into this Valley, so soon 
as compatible with other official duties, to visit the Indians, on 
the great Northern Rout to Califa. 

It was only since the middle of last June, that my movements 
have been unincumbered by political entanglements. Since then, 
as I have frequently advised your Department, my entire time has 
been devoted to official duties. 

In pursuance of your request, that I would visit, with as little 
delay as possible, the Indian Tribes, and ascertain their locality 
and condition. This I have done, so far as time and other duties 
would permit. 

The Tribes & Bands in this Territory, with but one or two 
exceptions, live almost entirely in, and adjacent to, the Valleys 

123. See Juanita Brooks, The Mountain Meadows Massacre, Stanford, 

124. F/337-1858. 


through which the Northern and Southern Roads to California 
from this City, pass. As also on and near the road to the South 
Pass of the Rocky Mountains. 

Previous to my trip to the Humboldt. I had visited or had had 
business relations, with the following Tribes; the Snakes, under 
their Chief Wash a keek, the Sho Sho Nees, under Little Soldier, 
the Utes, the Bannocks, the Pah-vantes & Go Sha Utes. I have 
given a hasty account of all the above tribes in my late report. 

About the last of August or beginning of September last, I was 
apprised that the Indians of Humboldt Valley had committed 
depredations on the U. S. Mail, and took immediate steps to 
ascertain the facts from what seemed, reliable testimony. It was 
said that several thousand hostile Indians were assembled in that 
Valley, and that the mail and all connected with it, and all trav- 
ellers were threatened. I immediately made known the state- 
ments to his Excellency Govr Cumming, who at once, made a 
requisition on Genl Johns [t] on for One hundred and fifty troops, 
to march to the Humboldt without delay. In pursuance of this 
request, Captain Haws with 150 men, were sent on said expedition, 
with orders not to proceed beyond the first Crossing of the Hum- 

Twenty men of said command were (if necessary) to accom- 
pany me to Gravelly Ford. I left this City Sept 12 for the 
Humboldt, having with me, an ambulance, one Govt wagon with 
provisions and presents, One hired wagon & team & driver in all 
seven men including Interpreter, guide, drivers, cook &c. 

Mr. Dodge, Agent for Carson Valley, also accompanied me. 
Septr 13. At Farmington 16 miles north of this City I met "Little 
Soldier" a Chief, with about fifty Sho-Sho-Nees. For prudential 
reasons, it was deemed advisable to give them some provisions. 
This Band, with others of the Sho-Sho-Nees, have been solicited 
by the hostile Indians in Oregon to aid them against the Govern- 
ment, but without success. Chief "Little Soldier" expressed great 
solicitude for my safety, was fearful 1 would not return safe. By 
my directions a small quantity of flour and beef was distributed 
to his Band. 

[A lengthy account follows of meetings held with other Indians 
along the overland trail, especially down the Humboldt, including 
two bands of Shoshoni — concerning whom Forney observes : 
'There are now four chiefs present viz Py-poo-roo-yan — San-Pitch 
— We-ra-yoo — Tse-Mah & Paw-sha-quin Representing. . . prob- 
ably 4 to 600 Indians. . . . One of these 'Bands' have some 
horses and ponies, and a few of the men have Buffalo Robes. 
They are Sho-Sho-Nees and recognize Wash-a-keek as their great 
chief." Forney went as far west as Stony Point, treating with a 


band of White Knife Shoshoni, before turning back to Great 
Salt Lake City.] 

On my way home, at Box Elder, seventy miles north of this, a 
Band of Sho-Sho-Nees, numbering 128 met me. These have 
recently broken off from Little Soldiers Tribe. I was unable to 
learn from them the Cause. 

They made demands for sundry things. I distributed among 
them a small quantity of flour, beef and a few presents. The 
Indians loafing about the Northern Settlements, are a source of 
considerable annoyance to the inhabitants, much complaint was 
made to me, while passing through there, recently. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to A. B. Greenwood, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, Sept. 29, 1859 (Extracts) 12 " 

Sir: In accordance with the regulations of the Indian depart- 
ment, I have the honor to submit the following as my annual 
report for the year 1859. 

s{c :Js ^c sj: s|c ^e 

The Indians, claiming a home in Utah Territory, are evidently 
the offspring of two nations who migrated west of the Rocky 
mountains from the northwest many years ago. It is probable 
that most of the descendants of those nations are now within the 
boundary of this Territory. They have greatly decreased in num- 
bers, and proportionately in their mental and physical condition, 
during the past thirty years. Their degeneracy in the mode of 
living and comforts has been more manifest during that period. 

This I learn from old mountaineers who have lived among them, 
corroborated by Indian testimony. 

The descendants of the two nations above alluded to are now 
called Sho-sho-ne or Snake, and Utah or Ute. 

The only exception is a small tribe of Bannacks, numbering 
about five hundred. "Horn,' , the principal chief of these, with 
his people, visited Fort Bridger in April, 1858, where I had 
an interview with them. This chief claimed a home for himself 
and people in this Territory, and informed me that he and those 

125. This document, like No. XLVIII, has to be recovered from its 
printed occurrence, in 36th Congress, 1st Session, Senate Executive Docu- 
ment 2, Vol. 1, (Serial 1023), pp. 730-741. Owing to its great length, 
some parts have been omitted — a few paragraphs at the beginning con- 
cerning a rape by two Utes and its aftermath, and at the end a considerable 
discussion of the reservations then existing in Utah, an equally lengthy 
account of the Mountain Meadows Massacre, and some remarks on diffi- 
culties with Shoshoni in the Idaho area. 


old men around him were children, young men, and now old men, 
in this country. 

Major Bridger, my interpreter at the time, assured me that for 
the last thirty years he had traded, almost yearly, with this tribe 
in that section of country, and that, when he first knew them, they 
numbered twelve hundred lodges. 

I granted to this tribe of Bannacks a home in the portion of this 
Territory claimed and inhabited by Wash-a-kee and his tribe of 
Sho-sho-nes, and with that chief's entire consent. These two 
tribes are extensively intermarried, and live together amicably. 


This division of the Indians is subdivided into fourteen regularly 
organized bands. 

One of these, by common consent, is denominated a tribe, and 
is under the complete control of Chief Wash-a-kee, assisted by 
four to six sub-chiefs. These number, at least, twelve hundred. 

The remaining thirteen bands have each one principal and 
several sub-chiefs. 

Five of these bands, numbering about one thousand, roam 
through Salt Lake, Weber, Ogden, Bear River, Cache, and Malad 
valleys, and the adjacent mountains and canons. One band, of 
one hundred and fifty to one hundred and eighty, mostly confine 
themselves to the regions along the northern California road, 
from Bear and Malad rivers to the Goose Creek mountains. 

Seven bands roam through the valleys of the Humboldt, and in 
the regions over one hundred miles south of the Humboldt, to the 
Peyute country, and east and west about two hundred miles. 
These bands frequently subdivide into many small squads, to 
clean thoroughly the country, through which they roam of every- 
thing containing a life-sustaining principle. 

Included among the Sho-sho-nes is a band called Go-sha-utes, 
who speak the same language, and live in and roam over those 
portions of the territory claimed and inhabited by the latter. This 
band is a mixture of Snake and Ute, the former preponderating. 
A few years ago the Go-sha-utes were a considerable tribe. Their 
principal and only chief died about four years ago, since which 
they have remained broken and subdivided into small fragments, 
except about sixty, who have organized into a band, and have a 
quiet and well disposed chief to control them. This band is now 
permanently located on the Deep Creek Indian farm. The re- 
mainder roam over a region of country from forty to two hundred 
miles west of this city. A concentration of them all into Deep 
Creek valley is in progress. I have had intercourse with every 
tribe and band of Sho-sho-nes in the Territory, and have endeav- 


ored to learn from them their number. And, in my opinion, they 
number about forty-five hundred. They occupy about one-third 
of the Territory, the northeast portion. 


The Utah, Pah-vant, and Pey-ute, constitute the second division 
of the Indians. 

Although these are designated by several different names, yet 
they all emanate from one nation or tribe, and speak the same 

The Utes are subdivided into several tribes and many bands. 
Those known as Uinta-utes, claim Uinta valley and the country 
along Green river. A portion of these have lived, part of last and 
this summer, at the Spanish Fork Indian reservation. 

This tribe is governed by four chiefs, and numbers about one 

There is a band of Utes, with several chiefs, numbering about 
five hundred, who, in pursuance with my request, mostly located 
last May on the Spanish Fork reservation, where it is presumed 
they will continue. Another band of about eighty are living on 
the San-Pete Indian farm. 


These are Ute Indians, but are a distinct, organized tribe and 
number about seven hundred. They obey and are controlled by 
one principal, and several sub-chiefs. About half of them have 
their home on the "Corn Creek" Indian farm. The other wing 
of the tribe lives along the "Sevier lake" and surrounding country, 
in the no[r]theast extremity of Fillmore valley, and about fifty 
miles from Fillmore city. 

There are seemingly two distinct, organized divisions of Pey-Ute 
Indians. One division inhabit the Humboldt, north, from about 
fifty miles west of Strong [Stony] Point to the California line, 
and northwest to the Oregon line. These are estimated to number 
about six thousand, by Agent Dodge. 

For further particulars, I refer you to the accompanying report 
from Frederick Dodge, Esq., Indian agent in Carson valley. 

There is a tribe of Indians who dwell along the base of the 
Sierra Nevada mountains, from Honey Lake to one of the forks 
of Walker's river: these are called Wa-sho, and are supposed to 
number from five to eight hundred. I am not certain whether or 
not they belong to the Ute division. 126 

126. The Washoe are regarded as a separate linguistic stock. 


The ten bands (Ute Indians) inhabiting the southern portion 
of the Territory are scattered along the California road, generally 
adjacent to the settlements, from Beaver valley, along the Santa 
Clara, Virgin, Los Vegos, and Muddy rivers, to the California 
line and New Mexico. These bands number about two thousand 
and two hundred. I am credibly informed that there are large 
numbers of Ute Indians roaming at and in the neighborhood of 
the Elk mountains, in the southeast part of the Territory. The 
number of these is variously estimated at from one to three 

The supposed total number of Indians in Utah Territory is as 
follows : 

Sho-sho-nes, or Snakes 4,500 

Ban-nacks 500 

Uinta Utes 1,000 

Spanish Fork and San Pete farms 1,000 

Pah-vant, (Utes) 700 

Pey-utes, (South) _ 2,200 

Pey-utes, (West) 6,000 

Elk mountain Utes 2,000 

Wa-sho of Honey lake 700 


The Sho-sho-nes claim the northeastern portion of the Territory 
for about four hundred miles west, and from one hundred to one 
hundred and twenty-five miles south, from the Oregon line. The 
Utes claim the balance of the Territory. 

I have visited within the last twelve months every portion of 
this Territory where it is supposed Indians are living, except the 
Carson agency and Elk mountain. 

The public interest required me to visit different portions several 
times during the last year, and my almost constant intercourse 
with the Indians has afforded me ample opportunities to become 
familiar with their true condition. 

The tribe of Snakes, under chief Washakee, and the small tribe 
of Ban-nacks, living in the regions northeast, near Fort Bridger, 
go east yearly to hunt elk and buffalo; this, with still considerable 
game in their country, keeps them from absolute want. 

The balance of the Indians in Utah are extremely poor. The 
utmost ingenuity is put in requisition to sustain life; they eagerly 
seek after everything containing a life-sustaining element, such as 
hares, rabbits, antelope, deer, bear, elk, dogs, lizzards, snakes, 
crickets, grasshoppers, ants, roots, grass-seeds, bark, &c. 

Many men, women, and children are entirely naked. 


With some of the Indians, stealing cattle, horses, mules, &c., is 
a matter of necessity — steal or starve. 

It is my clear conviction that the immigration of a white popula- 
tion into the Territory has had a deleterious effect upon the Indian. 
Game cannot exist except in the fertile watered valleys; these, 
with a few exceptions, are occupied by a thrifty population, and, 
consequently, the game is exterminated. 

It is proper to remark that those Indians who roam adjacent 
to the settlements, have received, and are receiving, considerable 
aid from the inhabitants. 

All the tribes and bands visited by me have received presents, 
such as blankets, various kinds of clothing, and ammunition: the 
last was not dealt out indiscriminately. To some of the bands I 
have given frequent material aid in flour, beef, &c, especially to 
those who have been forced to give up to whites the valleys which 
furnished them with subsistence. 

About five bands of the Sho-sho-nes are severe sufferers by 
the influx of whites; those who inhabited Great Salt Lake, Weber, 
Bear, Cache, and Malad valleys, extending eighty miles north. 
These valleys, which, in their natural state, furnished the Indians 
much subsistence, are now entirely occupied by permanent in- \ 

Game in this country must become exinct when the valleys 
adapted to farming purposes are occupied by white men, which 
is already the case, with few exceptions: so much so, that it will 
be difficult, even now, to procure an advantageous location for\ 
a reservation for the Sho-sho-ne bands above alluded to, without\ 
paying for more or less improvements. 

With the exception of the Uinta and Elk Mountain Utes, the 
country of the Utahs is fast filling up with settlers. The govern- 
ment has, however, made three eligible Indian farms in the 
country claimed by the Utes. The Uinta Utes, the band at Spanish 
Fork, the one at San Pete, and the Pah-Vants, at Corn creek, have 
received much more assistance heretofore than all the other In- 
dians in the Territory; and, unless I am much deceived, these 
same Indians have been guilty of more depredations than any 
others in the Territory. It is gratifying, however, to be justified 
in saying that these Indians have done better this season than ever 
heretofore, and they promise fair for the future. I am endeavoring 
to have them permanently located on the several farms; and, until 
this is accomplished, no salutary improvement can be expected 
in their habits and condition. 

The bands of Pah-Utes, in the southern portion of the Territory, 
are extremely destitute; the country they inhabit is almost a con- 
tinuous desert. This is especially the case with those bands south 
of Cedar city, and which constitute by far the largest portion of 


them. Almost every band yearly cultivates small patches of 
wheat, corn, beans, &c, along the banks of the streams. The 
small expenditure I made the last year among the southern 
Pah-Utes has had a salutary tendency. 

I saw many of those Indians last spring, and it was my intention 
to send an agent to remain among them for some time. This, 
heretofore, has not been possible; but I will instruct Agent 
Humphreys to start for that quarter in a few weeks, to visit all 
the bands, if practicable, with instructions to ascertain their true 
condition, and the geographical character of the country they 

An intelligent gentleman, who was guide to the first emigrant 
company which passed through the southern part of the Territory 
to California, twelve years ago, informs me that he then saw 
wheat and cornfields, with at least six acres in each, successfully 
cultivated by those southern Pah-Utes, and that his company 
would have fared badly but for the wheat, corn, peas, and beans 
purchased by them from the Indians. 

It is to be regretted that this condition of things has not been 
continued. These Indians have evidently degenerated very rapidly 
during the last twelve years, or since white men have got among 

State Mis tor leal Society 



Frank L. Bowron 

The first day of January, 1955, marked the final date for per- 
sons interested in Wyoming history to become charter members 
of our State Historical Society. The deadline was extended by 
action at the Annual Meeting of the Society on October 17. 

The charter membership, which has exceeded 900 in number, 
gives our society a solid foundation for future growth and expan- 
sion. It must be stressed that although they cannot now become 
charter members, all persons interested in the objectives of the 
Society are welcome to join and we must constantly be alert for 
ways and means of increasing membership. 

The annual meeting, held in Casper in October, was highly 
successful. Virtually every section of Wyoming was represented 
and more than 100 persons were in attendance at the business 
session. The meeting marked the first full year of Society opera- 
tion and it is appropriate to express the thanks of the Society 
and myself to the fine services rendered by all the county and 
state officers, particularly our very efficient executive-secretary, 
Miss Lola M. Homsher and her staff at the state museum, to Miss 
Maurine Carley, diligent and helpful secretary-treasurer of the 
Society, and the many other people in Wyoming who have con- 
tributed to the growth of the group. 

Financially the Society reflects a sound financial structure, 
with more than $1,000 set aside in the Life Members fund, and 
a healthy balance in our general fund which has enabled the 
Society to undertake several projects including a $300.00 grant 
to a University of Wyoming student to assist in the writing of a 
county history of a selected Wyoming county. 

Renewal of annual memberships is now underway and all 
charter members will probably be interested in maintaining their 
status by remitting their dues immediately. 

Charter membership of the Society, now over the 900 mark, 
still has some problems to be ironed out. With some eight 
chartered county organizations in the state, coordination between 
state and local societies is of the utmost importance and such 


coordination can be achieved only through the close cooperation 
of both state and county officers. Several problems regarding 
payment of dues through the county group to the state and the 
acceptance of state dues by our state office without payment of 
county dues, have arisen. These matters will have to be worked 
out on a temporary basis by the Executive Committee and will 
be placed upon the agenda for action at the next annual meeting. 
A committee to make recommendations for improving the Society 
membership arrangements was appointed at the annual meeting. 

The Society has also established a number of annual awards 
to be presented at each annual meeting. In future years it is 
planned that awards will be made in several categories of historical 
work. In 1954 awards were made to Dr. T. A. Larson for his 
book Wyoming's War Years, 1941-1945, and to Mr. L. C. Bishop 
for his outstanding work on the Oregon Trail treks. Additional 
achievements in the field of history were awarded honorable 
mention certificates at the 1954 meeting. In future years awards 
will be made upon the recommendation of local historical societies 
or the state Executive Committee. 

As we enter 1955, your Society has nine chartered county 
organizations. As our objective of this year, we should concen- 
trate upon forming county groups in most of our other counties. 
To date we have chartered Albany, Campbell, Carbon, Fremont, 
Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona and Washakie counties. One 
other county in Wyoming, Sheridan, has more than enough mem- 
bers of the state society to organize, and nine other counties lack 
only a few members before they will have enough to set up their 
county organizations. They are: Converse, Big Horn, Hot 
Springs, Niobrara, Park, Platte, Sublette, Sweetwater and Teton 

I want to urge the Society members in the above named counties 
which are not presently chartered to meet and organize and make 
application for a charter from the state group. Our Society can 
function with the greatest efficiency when we have accomplished 
our goal of a county organization in each of the state's 23 counties. 

Election of officers at the annual meeting resulted in reelection 
of most of the incumbent officials. The only changes in the 
roster of state officials of the Society were in the offices of vice 
president, Mr. William Marion of Lander being elected first vice 
president to replace F. H. Sinclair of Sheridan who declined re- 
nomination, and Dr. DeWitt Dominick of Cody being elected 
to the post of second vice president. 

Members of the Executive Committee were slated to meet in 
Cheyenne on January 8 and 9, 1955, with the Society legislative 
committee, members of the legislature, and the new state officials 
to go over legislative proposals of the society. Briefly the legis- 



lation sponsored by the Society in the 1955 session includes a 
statue for Statuary Hall in Washington, D. C, a bill to allow 
counties to levy a one-half mill tax for historical purposes, and 
support of appropriations for increased services by the Archives 
and Historical Department and State Museum. In addition the 
Executive Committee will be asked to approve bills to designate 
Charles Winter's "Wyoming" as the official state song, to desig- 
nate a state motto, and to give their support to proposals for 
microfilming state documents. 

In conclusion, it is interesting to note that as a result of the 
last election, quite a number of members of the Society are now 
serving in the state legislature and state offices. Governor 
Simpson, Mrs. Minnie Mitchell, State Auditor, and Miss Velma 
Linford, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, are members 
and have expressed interest in the aims of our Society. We feel 
sure that these officials, as well as our members in the Legislature 
itself, will do a great deal to assist our Society's program in coming 


Second Annual Meeting October 17, 1954 

casper, wyoming townsend hotel 

The Second Annual Meeting of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society was held in the Jade Room of the Townsend Hotel on 
October 17, 1954. After a luncheon at which Dr. T. A. Larson 
gave a humorous talk, "Sage Brush Tonic", the meeting was 
called to order by the president, Frank Bowron. 

The treasurer gave the following report: 


Life members 18 $ 900.00 

Five year member 1 17.50 

Annual member 1 had pd. for Annals 1.50 

Annual members 669 2341.50 

689 members 

Charters 7 

Interest Building 
& Loan 







Stationery, charters, 
ship cards, Secret; 


Statue Committee 

ary book 


$ 25.00 

$ 102.46 





Bank balance $ 338.04 

Savings (Building & Loan) 1717.81 

Balance, October 17, 1954 $2055.85 

This report was approved as read. 

The following chairmen reported on their committees: 
Mr. George Snodgr ass— Dues 
Mr. W. F. Bragg, Jr. — Junior Historians 
Mr. William Marion — Awards 
Mr. Tosh Suyematsu — Incorporation 
Dr. T. A. Larson — Statue 

The president gave his report of the progress of the Society for 
the year October 1953 to October 1954. 

693 members (4 had joined in the last two days). 

7 counties have been organized — Albany, Carbon, Campbell, 
Fremont, Goshen, Laramie, and Natrona. 

3 counties are practically organized — Hot Springs, Johnson, 

The treasury is in good condition. 

The officers and county delegates have paid their own ex- 
penses to the four Executive Meetings this year. 

Much credit is due Miss Homsher for her untiring service and 

Mr. Snodgrass moved the adoption of the following recommen- 
dations from the Dues Committee: 

a. That the fiscal year be the same as the calendar year from 
January 1 to January 1. The county chapters are to 
conform with the calendar year of the State Society. 
Motion carried. 


b. That since it is the function of the county chapters to 
collect and remit dues to the State Society, the State 
Society should collect dues and remit to the local chapter 
if the occasion arises. Motion carried. 

c. That since the county chapters collect and remit dues to 
the State Society the county chapters will issue the mem- 
bership cards. Motion carried. 

d. That a joint family membership of $5.00 for 2 persons 
living at the same address be permitted providing they 
receive only 1 copy of the Annals. Motion carried. 

e. That a joint life membership for a man and wife living 
at the same address be set up for $75.00 (1 copy of 
Annals to be sent them). This membership is not to be 
assessed in the future by the State Society. After con- 
siderable discussion about the relationship of county life 
memberships to state life memberships the recommenda- 
tion was amended as follows: that the question of life 
memberships be referred to the Executive Committee 
who should produce a solution to the problem this year. 
Passed as amended. 

f. That provisions be made to pay for life memberships on 
the installment plan at the rate of $10.00 per year for 5 
years on single life memberships and $15.00 per year 
on joint life memberships. Motion carried. 

g. That the closing date for charter membership be extended 
to December 31, 1954. Motion carried. 

By these actions the constitution was amended as follows: 


Article II, Sec. 1 at the end of the first sentence the fol- 
lowing sentence to be added: 

"Joint membership for two persons of the same family 
living in the same house shall be $5.00 payable in ad- 

Article II, Sec. 2 be changed to read: 

"The fees for life membership shall be $50.00 for a 
single membership and $75.00 for joint membership of 
man and wife, and when once paid no further dues shall 
be imposed upon these members." 

Article II, Sec. 5 be added: 

"The fiscal year shall be the same as the calendar year 
from January 1 to January 1. The counties are to con- 
form to the fiscal year of the State Society." 


Article V, Sec. 2 be added to the By-Laws to read: 

"The Executive Committee is empowered to receive 
invitations for the Annual Meeting at the Third Quarterly 
Executive Meeting which will be held in July." 

Mr. Bragg moved the adoption of the following recommenda- 

a. That a scholarship of $300.00 be set up at the University 
of Wyoming for a graduate student who is writing a his- 
tory of a county in Wyoming. That said student contact 
the County Historical Society and work through it. That 
parts of the thesis be published in the Annals so that 
eventually there will be a complete history of the State 
by counties. Motion carried. 

b. That county chapters contact the manual training teach- 
ers in their counties to make signs to indicate the distance 
to historical markers which are off the highway. That 
the Chambers of Commerce and County Societies help 
defray the expenses, and the Boy Scouts or some like 
organization help erect them. That all this be done with 
the approval of the State Landmark Commission. The 
State Society is responsible for setting up uniform speci- 
fications for the markers. Motion carried. 

Mr. Suyematsu moved that the Wyoming State Historical So- 
ciety be incorporated so that it can hold property and have 
exclusive right to its name. Motion carried. 

Mr. Marion announced the recipients of awards as decided by 
his committee. He also gave the basis for the decision as follows: 

1. Publications to be considered must pertain to Wyoming 
history and must be copyrighted. 

2. Activities must be connected with preserving Wyoming 

3. Awards are to be given for the current year only. 

Mr. L. C. Bishop received an award for his organization 
of historical treks on the old Oregon Trail. 

Dr. T. A. Larson received an award for his book Wyo- 
ming's War Years, 1941-45. 

Honorable Mention Certificates were given to: 

a. Fremont County Pioneer Association for placing 
500 names of pioneers on the pioneer monument 
in Lander and for collecting historical material for 
their museum. 

b. Mrs. Mary H. Scott for her work on the Oregon 
Trail in Western Wyoming. 


c. Goshen County Historical Society for its coopera- 
tion with the Torrington Chamber of Commerce 
for setting up a Museum for a Day on Main Street. 

d. Kalif Temple of the Mystic Shrine in Sheridan for 
organizing the All American Indian Days. 

e. Sertoma Club of Casper for its protection and 
preservation of the replica of old Fort Caspar. 

Dr. Larson gave a report of the Statue Committee. He recom- 
mended that the Society go on record as favoring placing a statue 
in Statuary Hall. He suggested that the resolutions and ballots 
be handed to the proper commission of the next Legislature. 

Dr. Larson also moved that the W.S.H.S. sponsor legislation 
urging the Legislature to place a statue in Statuary Hall. Motion 

It was moved that the Society get behind a bill similar to the 
one Mr. Hitchcock presented in the State Senate in 1953. It 
authorized the County Commissioners to levy Vi mill tax for the 
support of museums. Dr. Dominick amended the motion to read 
— County Commissioners be allowed to use Vi mill levy toward a 
museum or other historical project. Motion passed as amended. 

It was moved, seconded, and carried that the Executive Com- 
mittee have authority to pay current bills. 

It was moved, seconded, and carried that the Constitution be 
amended to provide opportunity for the Executive Committee to 
receive invitations for the Annual Meeting at the Third Quarterly 
Executive Meeting in July. 

The secretary read the Resolutions of Appreciation for Mr. 
W. R. Coe (copy attached). The secretary was instructed to 
send a copy to Mr. Coe. 

Mr. Steege, chairman of the Nominating Committee, presented 
the following slate of officers: 

President Mr. Frank Bowron 

1st Vice President Mr. William Marion 

2nd Vice President Dr. DeWitt Dominick 

Secretary-Treasurer Miss Maurine Carley 

Mr. MacDougall moved that the nominations be closed and a 
unanimous ballot be cast for those named above. Motion carried. 
The secretary cast the ballot. 

The secretary was instructed to write notes of appreciation to 
( 1 ) the Natrona County Historical Society for its splendid cooper- 
ation in arranging for the Annual Meeting — fifty people enjoyed 
the tour to Fort Caspar in the morning, sixty-five enjoyed the 
luncheon at the Townsend; (2) the Casper Chamber of Commerce 


for help in registration; and (3) to the Townsend Hotel for their 
courtesy in providing rooms for the meetings. 

The president thanked the Executive Committee and the mem- 
bers for their fine cooperation during the past year. 

Meeting adjourned at 5:00. 

Maurine Carley 

WHEREAS the promotion of a better understanding of our 
national heritage is a matter of the greatest importance, and 

WHEREAS the Conference on American Studies at the Uni- 
versity of Wyoming has for three summers past spread such an 
understanding among the teachers of this region, while the estab- 
lishment of a greatly expanded American Studies Program at that 
institution will have an even more potent influence, 

BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyoming State Historical Society 
expresses deep appreciation to William Robertson Coe, of Cody, 
Wyoming, for his perception of the importance of this work and 
for his generosity in financing past Conferences on American 
Studies and in endowing American Studies at the University of 
Wyoming with $750,000. 

NOTE — Since a complete listing of Charter Memberships to 
the State Historical Society was not available at the time of 
publication, the listing planned for this issue will appear in Volume 
27, Number 2, October 1955. 

Wyoming Archaeological JVotes 


L. C. Steege 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled, that any 
person who shall appropriate, excavate, injure, or destroy any 
historic or prehistoric ruin or monument, or any object of an- 
tiquity, situated on lands owned or controlled by the Government 
of the United States, without the permission of the Secretary of 
the Department of the Government having jurisdiction over the 
lands on which said antiquities are situated, shall upon conviction, 
be fined in a sum of not more than five hundred dollars or be 
imprisoned for a period of not more than ninety days, or shall 
suffer both fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court. 

Sec. 2. That the President of the United States is hereby 
authorized, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation 
historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other 
objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the 
lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United 
States to be national monuments, and may reserve as a part there- 
of parcels of land, the limits of which in all cases shall be confined 
to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and manage- 
ment of the objects to be protected: Provided, that when such 
objects are situated upon a tract covered by a bona fide unper- 
fected claim or held in private ownership, the tract, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary for the proper care and management 
of the object, may be relinquished to the the Government, and the 
Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to accept the relin- 
quishment of such tracts in behalf of the Government of the 
United States. 

* Editor's Note: Because so much of Wyoming's archaeological material 
is being lost to the state through neglect, improper excavation, and through 
removal from the state by other institutions, the Executive Committee 
of the Wyoming State Historical Society has become concerned over the 
situation. Mr. Steege, as a member of the Executive Committee, was 
requested to investigate into the federal laws governing such antiquities. 
This report is the result of his inquiries. 


Sec. 3. That permits for the examination of ruins, the 
excavation of archaeological sites, and the gathering of objects 
of antiquity upon the lands under their respective jurisdictions 
may be granted by the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, 
and War to institutions which they may deem properly qualified 
to conduct such examination, or gathering, subject to such rules 
and regulations as they may prescribe: Provided, that the exam-, 
inations, excavations, and gatherings are undertaken for the 
benefit of reputable museums, universities, colleges, or other 
recognized scientific or educational institutions, with a view to 
increasing the knowledge of such objects, and that the gatherings 
shall be made for permanent preservation in public museums. 

Sec. 4. That the Secretaries of the Departments aforesaid shall 
make and publish from time to time uniform rules and regulations 
for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Act. 

Approved, June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. L. 225) 

You will note that there is no provision for State Historical 
Societies to be eligible to do any excavating, or to gather any 
objects of antiquity under this act. However, through the untiring 
efforts of one of the most outstanding men of our State, The 
Wyoming State Historical Society has been given consideration 
to make application for archaeological permits. 

I believe that it would be most fitting at this time to pause 
for a moment to pay our respects to the memory of this great 
Statesman, our late Senator, Lester C. Hunt. Senator Hunt 
devoted a great deal of time towards the preservation of history 
in Wyoming and his efforts in this particular case were unlimited. 

The following are the uniform rules and regulations as prepared 
by the departments of Agriculture, War, and Interior to carry out 
the provisions of the Antiquities Act. 

1 . Jurisdiction over ruins, archaeological sites, historic and pre- 
historic monuments and structures, objects of antiquity, historic 
landmarks, and other objects of historic or scientific interest, 
shall be exercised under the act by the respective Departments 
as follows: 

By the Secretary of Agriculture over lands within the exterior 
limits of forest reserves, by the Secretary of War over lands within 
the exterior limits of miliary reservations, by the Secretary of 
Interior over all other lands owned or controlled by the Govern- 
ment of the United States, provided. The Secretaries of War and 
Agriculture may by agreement cooperate with the Secretary of 
the Interior in the supervision of such monuments and objects 
covered by the act of June 8, 1906, as may be located on lands 
near or adjacent to forest reserves and military reservations, 


2. No permit for the removal of any ancient monument or struc- 
ture which can be permanently preserved under the control of the 
United States in Site, and remain an object of interest, shall be 

3. Permits for the examination of ruins, the excavation of archae- 
ological sites, and the gathering of objects of antiquity will be 
granted, by the respective Secretaries having jurisdiction, to rep- 
utable museums, universities, colleges, or other recognized scien- 
tific or educational institutions, or to their duly authorized agents. 

4. No exclusive permits shall be granted for a larger area than 
the applicant can reasonably be expected to explore fully and 
systematically within the time limit named in the permit. 

5. Each application for a permit should be filed with the Secre- 
tary having jurisdiction, and must be accompanied by a definite 
outline of the proposed work, indicating the name of the institu- 
tion making the request, the date proposed for beginning the 
field work, the length of time proposed to be devoted to it, and 
the person who will have immediate charge of the work. The 
application must also contain an exact statement of the character 
of the work, whether examination, excavation, or gathering, and 
the public museum in which the collections made under the permit 
are to be permanently preserved. The application must be 
accompanied by a sketch plan or description of the particular 
site or area to be examined, excavated, or searched, so definite 
that it can be located on the map with reasonable accuracy. 

6. No permit will be granted for a period of maore than three 
years, but if the work has been diligently prosecuted under the 
permit, the time may be extended for proper cause upon appli- 

7. Failure to begin work under a permit within six months after 
it is granted, or failure to diligently prosecute such work after 
it has been begun, shall make the permit void without any order 
or proceeding by the Secretary having jurisdiction. 

8. Applications shall be referred to the Smithsonian Institution 
for recommendation. 

9. Every permit shall be in writing and copies shall be transmitted 
to the Smithsonian Institution and the field officer in charge of 
the land involved. The permittee will be furnished with a copy 
of these rules and regulations. 

10. At the close of each season's field work the permittee shall 
report in duplicate to the Smithsonian Institution, in such form 
as its Secretary may prescribe, and shall prepare in duplicate a 
catalogue of the collections and of the photographs made during 


the season, indicating therein such material, if any, as may be 
available for exchange. 

1 1 . Institutions and persons receiving permits for excavation shall, 
after the completion of the work, restore the lands upon which 
they have worked to their customary condition, to the satisfaction 
of the field officer in charge. 

12. All permits shall be terminable at the discretion of the Secre- 
tary having jurisdiction. 

1 3 . The field officer in charge of land owned or controlled by 
the Government of the United States shall, from time to time, 
inquire and report as to the existence, on or near such lands, of 
ruins and archaeological sites, historic or prehistoric ruins or 
monuments, objects of antiquity, historic landmarks, historic and 
prehistoric structures and other objects of historic or scientific 

14. The field officer in charge may at all times examine the permit 
of any person or institution claiming privileges granted in accord- 
ance with the act and these rules and regulations, and may fully 
examine all work done under such permit. 

15. All persons duly authorized by the Secretaries of Agriculture, 
War, and Interior may apprehend or cause to be arrested, as 
provided in the act of February 6, 1905 (33 Stat. L., 700) any 
person or persons who appropriate, excavate, injure, or destroy 
any historic or prehistoric ruin or monument, or any object of 
antiquity on lands under the supervision of the Secretaries of 
Agriculture, War, and Interior respectively. 

16. Any object of antiquity taken, or collection made, on lands 
owned or controlled by the United States, without a permit, as 
prescribed by the act and these rules and regulations, or there 
taken or made, contrary to the terms of the permit, or contrary 
to the act and these rules and regulations, may be seized wherever 
found and at anytime, by the proper field officer or by any person 
duly authorized by the Secretary having jurisdiction, and disposed 
of as the Secretary shall determine, by deposit in the proper 
national depository or otherwise. 

17. Every collection made under the authority of the act and of 
these rules and regulations shall be preserved in the public museum 
designated in the in the permit and shall be accessible to the public. 
No such collection shall be removed from such public museum 
without the written authority of the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, and then only to another public museum, where it 
shall be accessible to the public; and when any public museum, 
which is a depository of any collection made under the act and 


these rules and regulations, shall cease to exist, every such col- 
lection in such public museum shall thereupon revert to the 
national collections and be placed in the proper national depos- 

In reviewing a report of archaeological activity in Wyoming 
for the years of 1952-1953, in Southwestern Lore Volume XIX 
No 4 March 1954, I find work being done by four universities 
and institutions in addition to our own university. 

Did you know that the material collected by these archaeologists 
from other states will probably be lost to our state forever? Also, 
that the history of these archaeological sites will be written by 
the universities and institutions from ouside our borders who 
have these archaeologists in the field? Wake up Wyoming! Let's 
start writing more Wyoming archaeological history in Wyoming. 



L. C. Steege 


In determining just what classification should be given a certain 
artifact, let us consider first of all how it was used by the ancient 
man who made it. He obviously manufactured his artifacts to 
fulfil certain needs such as a type for scraping, another for grind- 
ing, still another for cutting, etc. 

As a general rule, I find that almost all stone artifacts can be 
placed into one of eight individual categories and that each one 
of these categories can be given a simple name which all persons 
can understand. These names usually describe the uses or the 
purposes for which the artifact was made. Types and sub-types 
are listed with each category. 

A Pounding 

1 Percussors, Hammers or Mauls 

B Grinding 

1 Mano and Metate 

2 Pestle and Mortar 

3 Abraders 
C Chopping 

1 Direct Percussion 

a Axes 

b Hoes and Spades 

c Choppers 

2 Indirect Percussion 

a Celts and Wedges 



D Scraping 





End Scrapers 

Side Scrapers 
a Straight 
b Concave 
c Convex 
d Notched 

Blades, Knives, Slitters 





1 Drills 

2 Perforators 


1 Pendants, Gorgets, Amulets 

2 Effigies 

3 Pipes 

4 Perforated Disks 

H Hunting and Warfare 

1 War Club 

a Flaked 
b Polished 

2 Projectile Points 

a Stemmed-S 
b Stemless-N 
c Shouldered-Sh 


The first essential for the description of stone artifacts is the 
identification of the various parts of the artifact. 

Figure 1 is a sketch of a projectile point or arrowhead as some 
prefer to call it. This type of artifact has the most parts for 
identification. The same descriptive terminology holds true for 
all stone artifacts and is not necessarily confined to projectile 
points alone. 

The main part of an artifact is called the "body". The flat 
or broad part is known as the "face". The face as viewed from 
the top is known as the "dorsal face". The underside is called 
the "ventral face". 

The pointed end of an artifact is called the "point" or "tip" and 
the opposite extremity is the "base". Sketches and photographs of 



pointed artifacts should always be made with the "point" up. 
When this is done there will be no mistake as to which end is the 
"point" or "tip" and which end is the "base". 

When the base is narrower than the body, we refer to the 
artifact as being "stemmed" or "tanged". Stemmed artifacts are 
a result of shouldering or notching of the edges or base. 

The "neck" is the narrowest portion of the stem. 

The narrow or sharpened sides of the artifact are called the 

fy uve / 






Top v/ei^/ 

Top view 

fu.\\ Groove^ 

S\6e View 

figure. 3 

Thrtt Quay ley Groove. 

Sottorr^ VitvJ 

Stone Artifacts 

Bottom V/eu/ 


The sharp and pointed ears which are a result of corner notches 
and sometimes of base notches are known as "barbs". 


Probably the first "pounding" artifact to be utilized by ancient 
man was a plain ordinary rock. By holding this rock in one or 
both of his hands, he could batter and break bones or rocks with 
direct pounding. These artifacts are known as "percussors". 
They have no definite size or shape. Most of these percussors 
were water worn rocks from a river bed. They were quite smooth 
and would not injure the hands of the operator. Some archae- 
ologists refer to these stones as "Eoliths", which may be defined 
as a rock found in nature and utilized by man without any rework 
or retouching. These percussors can easily be recognized by the 
scars on the ends and edges which were caused by consistant 
pounding and battering. 

Sometime during the early periods, this ancient man discovered 
that, by constant pecking with a percussor, a groove could be 
formed around the body of a stone which would enable him to 
tie on a handle. This hafted tool would be much more efficient 
than the original hand percussor. At first the grooves were shal- 
low and were confined to the broader sides only. Little by little 
these grooves were made deeper and longer until eventually some 
completely encircled the stone. Thus the hammer or maul was 

When the groove completely encircles the body of the stone, 
we refer to it as being "full grooved". Figure 2 

When the groove is confined to three sides only, it is known 
as "three-quarter grooved." Figure 3 

Mauls or hammers have been found in every county of Wyo- 
ming. The most common is the full grooved hammer. Percussors 
are found in the more ancient workshops and campsites. Some 
of the finest specimens of percussors, that I have seen in this 
State, were found in the "Spanish Diggings" vicinity, and also in 
Uinta and Sweetwater Counties. 

Wyoming Zephyrs 

The Editor 

The Human Side of Wyoming 

(At the regular meeting of the Campbell County Chapter of the 
State Historical Society on November 23, 1954, Mrs. Margaretta 
Gratz gave an interesting paper on the background and philosophy 
of Wyoming history in which she stresses the importance of the 
Wyoming heritage. Her article, entitled "The Human Side of 
Wyoming 1 ' is printed here in its entirety.) 

A state is like a house which a man builds. He takes the 
materials at hand and shapes the house to his dreams and needs 
and pleasures. He builds his foundation of stone, chiselled by 
experience, rears his walls straight, strong and enduring into which 
he cuts many windows that light may enter to brighten the darkest 
corners. He makes his doorway wide, that all who wish may 
come in freely and welcome. He shapes his sheltering roof, 
making it a bulwark against rain, snow, wind and adversity. Now 
he has a house, a material thing, but he knows that the living 
must enter before it can become a home. 

Wyoming is our house, strongly built of material things but 
it is the people themselves whose vision, tolerance, courage and 
wisdom, make it a HOME, a state home by the people, for the 

The history of any people or country is the sum total of dis- 
covery, exploration and settlement. Discovery is born of a cur- 
iosity urged on by the love of adventure or the desire to make 
known to the world, the vastness of the unknown. Settlement 
is born of the inherent love of personal freedom. A freedom 
where the individual has the liberty to go from where he is, to 
where he wants to be; to courageously tear himself from all 
ancestral ties, comforts and ways of living in order to lay his 
hands on a wide stretch of lonely land and say, "This land is mine 
— to have and to hold!" In this simple statement, lies the very 
secret of our country's progress and greatness. 

It is in this manner that the history of Wyoming is built. Each 
phase of development has written its own record of achievement. 
The explorers, Lewis, Clark, Bozeman, Bridger, DeSmet, Fremont, 
La Ramie, Colter, Verendrye, Ashley and others have opened the 
way to this new land. Theirs is a saga of vision, bravery, patience 


and self-denial. They gave to a land-hungry world the endless 
acres of Wyoming. They beckoned, and all who yearned for a 
more independent way of life came and found it on the rolling 
prairies of Wyoming. After the explorers had mapped these vast 
areas, the trek of the pioneer began. Each with little of this 
world's goods came with eager hopes and willing hands. History 
was in the making! 

At the turn of this century after Wyoming had received her 
statehood, there were three types of settlement. First, the pioneers 
who dreamed of vast empires for cattle and sheep-grazing. Sec- 
ond, the pioneering group wno came in search of the mineral 
wealth that lay beneath her surface. Coal, oil, gas, iron, uranium 
and other vital minerals so necessary to a state's growth were 
here for the mining engineer to develop and to build into an 
industrial force that contributes to Wyoming's posterity. Third, 
the pioneering homesteaders who enriched her history by their 
steadfast faith in this new land which they had come to love. 

Perhaps no other group of people in this century worked harder 
and with so little as did these homesteaders. Stoically, they 
accepted the dust, the scorching winds, the blizzards, the drouth, 
the grasshoppers, the hail and the loneliness with fatalistic pa- 

"Next year will be better" was their philosophy. Here among 
these statebuilders is history, so human that it touches all of us 
with memories not to be forgotten. The loneliness in a tar-paper 
shack with only wolves and coyotes to break the silence; the 
moaning ceaseless winds, the longing hope for rain to give moisture 
to the withered grass, the anxiety in the face of the homesteader 
as he watches a thunderhead roll towards his wheat fields, the 
clutching fear of sickness with a doctor fifty miles away. This is 
a vital page in her history, this struggle that helped build into 
its people the heritage of courage and right values of living. 
Someday, history will honor these valiant ones, preserving and 
passing on to later generations the elemental drama, the humor 
and the tragedy of these early days when a great rural life was 
starting and a mighty farming industry was being born! 

No history of any state is complete without a record of the 
cultural contributions of the people who built that state. 

As the settlers poured into the new land, they brought with 
them the tools of their former way of life. Each brought his gifts 
to the new land and the sharing of these gifts with each other, 
gave to Wyoming a cultural background that shaped the very 
destiny of her people. 

The vast un-broken stretches of prairies, the awe-inspiring 
beauty of her mountains, the glory of her sunsets, the restless 


movements of her cattle and sheep, the swift flight of her wild 
things, all have found expression in music, poetry and art and 
through these avenues of expression there has been brought into 
sharp relief her individuality as a people and as a state. Through 
them, feelings and emotions have become tangible and real. 

In perspective, let us look at the onward march of Wyoming. 
Look at her people, who out of tireless energy and heartbreak, 
have carved a state worthy of every honor. Note the historic 
contributions of her grazing industry, her progress in the develop- 
ment of vital ores for our country's defense, her agricultural 
advancement in the fields of science. All have given this state a 
rural strength that reflects the spiritual grandeur of our great 
country. The spirit of free enterprise, equality and better stand- 
ards of living is the inherent privilege of all free Americans. It 
is here written in the pages of Wyoming history. It is also found 
in the hearts of her people — the privilege to go from where you 
are to where you want to be! 

From Our Newspaper Files: 

Cheyenne Leader of April 2, 1868. 


We have heretofore called public attention to the importance 
of establishing and improving the wagon roads leading from this 
city in the direction of Fort Sanders, Laramie and Sweetwater, 
and considering the large amount of emigration which is expected 
to outfit and start with wagons from this city during the present 
season, we can conceive of no one subject in which this city is 
interested which is worthy of greater attention, and at the same 
time which has been so inexcusably neglected. To a city like 
this, which partially depends on travel for its business, the im- 
portance of good roads leading into and from it is a matter of the 
first importance. If parties can purchase their teams and supplies 
cheaper here than at any point a short distance further along and 
feel satisfied that good and direct roads are provided for their 
convenience in travel, a few miles more or less by rail will not 
be of much consideration in a long journey when economy in 
dollars and cents is the chief point to be looked after; but if no 
facilities are offered for transit by wagon from this point, the 
question of time and labor to say nothing of avoiding risk of 
breakdown, will be the main point for their consideration, and the 
matter of saving a few dollars and cents becomes a question of 
secondary importance. Of course there is a road or two leading 
toward the localities above mentioned, but it is equally as true 
that those roads can very easily and cheaply be materially im- 


proved in character, as well as that the distance might be consid- 
erably diminished. 

The road to Sanders, via Cheyenne Pass, is now considered 
eight to ten miles shorter than that by the way of Carmichael's 
Camp and Dale City, and this same route could easily be shortened 
five or six miles, by opening a road in a direct line to the Pass, 
instead of going out, as at present, in a northeasterly direction, to 
Pole Creek. This cut-off could be made at a very trifling expense, 
as the character of the country over which it would pass is of 
low, rolling hills, similar to those surrounding this city. The 
road through Cheyenne Pass might also be improved, and these 
unexpensive changes might be of much influence and weight in 
inducing freighters and traders to select this point at which to 
make their purchases. It has generally been found that the city 
which is most liberal in such matters as good roads and bridges, 
as well as prices, receives, as a natural result, the most liberal 
share of trade, and consequently attains the greater prosperity. 
In this particular we believe Cheyenne is similar to other cities 
similarly situated, and it will be found that something more than 
the mere building of houses and importation of goods is required 
to establish and retain an extensive trade. Commerce, in this 
country, depends upon the roads, as in other places it may depend 
upon seas or lakes; and as your roads are so will be your receipts. 

Statement Made by the Stock Tender at Cold Spring. 

(The following item has been taken from the original manu- 
script written in longhand by Luke Voorhees, Superintendent of 
the Cheyenne Black Hills Stage and Express Co. The manuscript 
is located in the collection of Russell Thorp of Cheyenne.) 

Cold Springs robbery Sept. 29, 1878 

Statement made by the Stocktender after the robbery. 

Shortly before time for the stage to arrive from Deadwood a 
man on horseback rode up and asked for a drink of water. Upon 
dismounting he ordered me to throw up my hands which I did 
and then pushed me in the grain room of the stable. By this time 
the band of five I thought there were of them all got in the stable 
and proceeded to make arrangements for the capture of the coach. 

They removed the mud or chinking from between the logs near 
the door of the stable where the Stage always stops and on its 
arrival opened fire from their position on the inside after the 
killing of Campbell and wounding Gale Hill. Scott Davis [Cap- 
tain of the Shot Gun Messengers] got away from the coach and 
taking position behind a tree opened fire on the robbers. Soon 
after this the band rounded up all of the men about the place and 



tied them to trees saying that at 1 o'clock a man would be along 
to release them. Immediately upon securing their victims they 
removed the safe from the coach and opened it. This the Stock- 
tender says required several hours of work. On completion of 
this job the robbers took to the woods. The men remained tied 
to the trees until half past 9 or 10 o'clock at night when the 
stocktender was released from being tied he started to report the 
affair to headquarters at Deadwood. 

Fremont County Pioneer Association Adds Names to Monument 

In the January 1954 Annals of Wyoming appeared an article 
"History of the Fremont County Pioneer Association," in which 
was told the story of the erection of the Pioneer Monument in 
Lander on which were carved 152 names of Fremont County 
pioneers and the dates of their arrivals in the county. 

During the year 1954 an additional 171 names and dates of 
arrival have been added to the monument. The total list now 
includes practically ail of the real pioneers of Fremont County. 
The following names and dates were added in 1954: 



Abra, E. T. "Ted"— 1898 
Adams. Ellis H.— 1883 
Adams, M. F.— 1895 
Adams, Alice — 1883 
Alger, L. H.— 1899 
Ansell, Joseph H.— 1878 
Appleby, A. C. "Dutch"— 1882 
Appleby, Leona E.— 1888 
Baldwin, Chester E.— 1887 
Baldwin, George L. — 1869 
Barquin, James D. — 1904 
Bates, Chas. E.— 1886 
Battrum, A. P.— 1880 
Beaton, Donald A.— 1886 
Beck, Russell R.— 1892 
Beckwith, T. C.— 1897 
Boardman, John R.— 1898 
Brown, N. H.— 1882 
Bunce, A. M.— 1881 
Burch, I. L.— 1902 
Burnet, John C— 1880 
Burlingham, John H.— 1889 
Bybee, Chas. L.— 1893 
Carmody, John — 1876 
Carpenter, A. W. "Pete"— 1891 
Carpenter, C. E.— 1890 
Carpenter, Ellen M. — 1890 
Carpenter, James H. — 1890 

Carpenter, Nellie W.— 1890 
Carr, John— 1885 
Carter, Edward A.— 1880 
Chambers, Jesse S. — 1897 
Cheney, Helen— 1885 
Cheney, Matilda— 1873 
Chittim, John— 1880 
Cochrane, Ben F.— 1900 
Cole, Chas. T.— 1881 
Coon, E. E.— 1884 
Cooper, Dr. A. H.— 1905 
Connell, Emmett — 1890 
Countryman, Mark W. — 188* 
Cross, Edith H.— 1871 
Cross, George A. — 1893 
Dale, James— 1902 
Day, J. S.— 1885 
Delfelder, J. A.— 1892 
Doane, Frank— 1889 
Dollard, Chas. F.— 1878 
Duncan, Thomas S. — 1893 
Duncan, W. L.— 1893 
Driskell, C. A.— 1893 
Earle, Edson A.— 1889 
Earl, Fred A.— 1887 
Farthing, Edward — 1880 
Fields, Chas. B.— 1878 
Firestone, W. A.— 1883 



Firestone, Winnie — 1886 
Fischer, F. B.— 1900 
Fister, Andrew J. — 1886 
Fourt, E. H.— 1890 
Fuller, D. E.— 1898 
Gaylord, Anna B.— 1893 
Gaylord, Joshua B.— 1900 
Gaylord, L. B.— 1886 
Graham, James M. — 1893 
Hagans, Wm. J.— 1900 
Hall, Chas. M.— 1903 
Harris, Edward S.— 1882 
Harrison, W. N.— 1887 
Hayes, Vince V.— 1886 
Hays, John— 1892 
Henton, Elisha— 1881 
Henton, Matt— 1881 
Hereford, Robert L.— 1893 
Higby, Guy W.— 1904 
Hilmer, Fritz— 1900 
Hornecker, Albert — 1877 
Hornecker, George — 1883 
Hudson, Dan F.— 1882 
Hufftile, Mart— 1874 
Iiams, Elmer E. — -1881 
Jammerman, Emil- — 1888 
Johnson, Albert J.— 1895 
Johnson, Ella M.--1905 
Johnston, Alex — 1886 
Jones, E. "Brockey" — 1886 
Kimball, Ralph— 1901 
Kinnear, N. B.— 1888 
Kirk, J. M.— 1887 
Kirkland, A. R. "Bird"— 1883 
Landis, John E.— 1882 
Lee, Albert D.— 1900 
Leseberg, Ed.— 1880 
Leseberg, Phoebe — 1883 
Leseberg, Lyle — 1904 
Lockard, H. R.— 1900 
Macfie, Wm. H.— 1901 
McDonald, Angus J.— 1878 
Mcintosh, James L. — 1885 
Mcintosh, Wm. P.— 1886 
Mcintosh, P. J.— 1885 
Mcintosh, Arthur G.— 1885 
Manseau, L. Andrew — 1879 
Martel, A. H.— 1896 
Merriam, Ed.— 1893 
Mills, Gardner S.— 1885 
Moore, Chas. C.— 1880 
Moore, Frank— 1896 
Moriarty, Tom C. — 1884 
Moriarty, Jack F.— 1899 
Moudy, Mable C.— 1878 
Murray, L. Signor — 1887 
Myers, Albert— 1900 
Nails, Stuart— 1903 

Nails, Esther— 1885 
Nipper, Grant — 1903 
Noble, Fred F.— 1882 
Nottage, E. Cheney — 1876 
Oakie, J. B.— 1882 
Obert, Carl— 1884 
O'Neal, J. W.— 1896 
O'Neal, Rose G.— 1878 
Oswald, Walter— 1883 
Pogue, J. C— 1888 
Parks, Sam C. Jr.— 1884 
Parks, S. Conant— 1885 
Picard, Dave— 1880 
Picard, Mary Hayes — 1886 
Preston, D. A.— 1888 
Ranney, E. L.— 1889 
Rate, Frank— 1895 
Read, Leslie W.— 1894 
Rhodes, Chas. W.— 1892 
Rice, M. Owens— 1904 
Roberts, Dr. John — 1883 
Roberts, Arthur C— 1880 
Robinson, Ben— 1883 
Rogers, Emma F. — 1885 
Royce, Pat— 1889 
Sanderson, A. H.— 1886 
Scarlett, Wm. R.— 1898 
Sheehan, Jerry H.— 1885 
Sheehan, Dan P.— 1898 
Sheldon, F. B.— 1885 
Sherlock, Peter— 1868 
Simpson, Wm. L.— 1884 
Simpson, J. P.— 1888 
Smith, Byron H.— 1900 
Souter, John— 1904 
Spencer, P. C— 1903 
Stack, Mrs. Lou— 1880 
Steers, W. H.— 1876 
Stelzner, Ed.— 1886 
Stewart, James D.— 1902 
Stone, Virgil H.— 1904 
Stowe, J. Milton— 1896 
Stratton, Fred D.— 1904 
Stringer, Carl R.— 1901 
Stringer, Albert F.— 1901 
Stronach, Alex — 1903 
Tweed, Edward — 1879 
Tweed, Albert— 1879 
Vaughn, W. L.— 1882 
Vincent, Joe — 1902 
Wadsworth, H. E.— 1884 
Welty, Dr. F. H.— 1889 
Williamson, David — 1883 
Williamson, John — 1883 
Winchester, John H. — 1895 
Young, U. S. "Grant"— 1884 
Young, Rufus L.— 1901 



Recent Acquisitions 


Accardo, Jas. 

Albertson, Ace 
Ottumwa, Iowa 

Benson, George C. 
Port Hueneme, Calif. 

One metal dog collar and tag dated 1890. 

Jasper nodule found 5 miles S.E. of 
Lance Creek, Wyoming. 

67 artifacts: 10 mortars and fragments; 
42 pestles and fragments; 1 abrader; 
6 mano; and 8 perforated dishes and 
fragments; 2 flints; and 15 fishhooks. 

Uranium sample from Poison Basin 
seven miles West of Baggs. 

Cheyenne Chamber of Commerce Two chairs that were used in the old 
Cheyenne Inter-Ocean Hotel, Cheyenne. 

Benson, Leroy 

Cushing, Mrs. M. M. 
New York 22, N. Y. 

Ekdall, Dr. A. B. 

Gillespie, A. S. 

Harwood, Bill 

Hayes, James L. 

Hoge, Owen S. 

Howard, Don 

Hubbard, W. P. 

14 guns, 15 pistols, 1 bullet mold, 1 
sword, 1 driving whip, 3 knives, 1 
leather pocket, 1 metal frame for gun 
butt, 1 wooden butt for gun, and 1 
gun chest. 

Curry comb used by William Boyce; 
dipper used at well, Boyce Ranch. 

Model of horse with pack on back using 
diamond hitch. Rawhide hackamore, 
used on "Steamboat", with black horse 
hair Theodore, used 50 years ago at 
Bosler on the Coble Ranch. The 
Theodore was made just recently by 
Donor. Also braided horse hair rope 
made by Donor. 

Skull of a mountain sheep, with bullet 
imbedded in forehead, from Cody 

Colt revolver — 44 calibre carried by 
Lawrence Hayes in Rawlins. Patent- 
ed 1872. 

Spurs with leather straps, inlaid with 
donor's initials made 40 years ago 
by his brother-in-law, S. Perry Abner, 
Wolf, Wyo., from scrap metal on lat- 
ter's Ranch. Mr. Hoge wore these 
spurs when he was manager of the 
Horse Shoe Ranch. 

Metal wood axe found on Sweetwater 
Trail (Oregon Trail) in Split Rock 

Baby Beaver mounted. Found about 3 
years ago in Snowy Range with front 
paws frozen. 



Huinzinga, Janice 

Jack, William "Scotty' 

Jones, Craig 

Kremer, Leo 

Kremer, Mrs. Leo 

Laramie County Historical 

Latham, Mrs. Bill 

Lumley, Teri Jean 

Grand Junction, Colo. 

Mabie, Mrs. Virgil R. 

Moberly, W. E. 

Moor, Mrs. Ross W. 
Lamar, Colo. 

Ogle, Mr. James R. 

Peabody, A. S. 

Richardson, Warren Family 

Ridings, Reta 

Broad axe found near Keystone, Wyo- 

14 First day cover airmail envelopes — 
from the 14 Niobrara county post- 
offices, May 19, 1938. 3 brochures 
on Cheyenne Black Hills Stage Lines 
and this special flight. 

Pure sulphur block from Elk Basin Unit 

Rattlesnake rattles, one with 36 rattles 
from three different snakes, two others 
small, from Roy E. Moore Collection. 

Four pair glasses worn by Mrs. Minerva 
Moore, Donor's Great Grandmother, 
before 1900. 

Six iron pieces from "Portugee" Phillips 
Ranch near Chugwater. 

Straight edge razor; initialed watch fob 
made of human hair; 9 artifacts. 

Axe about 50 years old found on site of 
old ghost town of Carbon. 

Hair wreath in glass frame which be- 
longed to Mrs. Homer Mabie. 

Fossil found north of Medicine Bow. 

Six early Frontier Day Ribbons — five 
silk and one leather; six photos of 
Theo. Roosevelt, Taft, early bi-plane, 
first car — all in Cheyenne; tooth- 
puller of 1900's; opium pipe; two 
original Edison bulbs; two ox shoes. 

Blickensderfer typewriter #7, Serial 

Wedding dress of Mrs. Alfred S. Pea- 
body who was married in Capetown, 
S. Africa, May 11, 1864. Lived in 
Laramie from 1878 to 1933. 

Twenty-five cents (paper currency) giv- 
en to Warren Richardson by General 
U. S. Grant in 1879 when he delivered 
a telegram to him while a guest at 
the Railroad House, Cheyenne, Wyo- 

Hickory cane; glass cane made by Lara- 
mie Glass Works; black umbrella; 
folding umbrella in soft leather case. 



Schaedel, Mrs. Grace 

Schrader, Mrs. Wesley 

Shiek, Mrs. Frank N. 
Long Beach 2, Calif. 

Trollope, O. L. 

Underwood, Emily and Gertrude 
and Sorensen, Charles 

Wade, Mr. and Mrs. Alvin N. 

Washburn, Bernard 

Whiteley, Dr. Philip W. 
Denver, Colo. 

Willson, Mr. and Mrs. G. M. 


Square nail from John Phillip's Ranch 
at Chugwater; metal ice shave found 
at 609 E. 27th Street, Cheyenne, on 
site of early day ice house which 
burned down. 

Holy Bible printed by George E. Eyre 
and William Spottiswoode, N. Y. Of- 
fice, 1863, "from Library of E. A. 

Two strings of Indian beads; blue and 
white bone beads from an Indian 
grave, Platte county, Wyo. Odd- 
sized smaller beads gathered from ant 
hills near Chugwater, Wyo., in 1907 
by Mrs. Shiek. 

Artifact, probably an Indian tanning 

1921 Frontier Day button. 

Bible, 1840, H & H Phinney's Stereo. 
Edition, Cooperstown, N. Y.; gun, 
German W. W. I, M78 Model 

Iron sausage grinder found on top 
Squaw Mt. 25 miles west of Wheat- 

Three tokens used by M. E. Kirk Bros, 
at their trading posts in New Mexico. 

Hummingbird nest with baby bird found 
by S. D. Winship several years ago 
in Sinks Canyon. 

Wyoming Stock Growers Ass'n Hand wrought links-rough lock used as 
Cheyenne a brake on steep hills on freight 

wagons and sleigh runners; spade bit. 

Zollinger, Frances L. 
Tulsa 5, Okla. 

Jicarilla Hamper; Jicarilla Apache bas- 
ket; round Pomo basket; small Porno 
basket (cup and saucer); Hoopa Val- 
ley basket, top and handle; Hoopa 
Valley basket; three pairs Shoshoni 
beaded gloves; one Shoshoni beaded 
bag; one Santa Domingo Pueblo 


Bishop, L. C. 

Bissell, Paul 
Wellesly, Mass. 

Manuscript, "Early History of Laramie 
County", original of speech given 
Aug. 25, 1954. 

2 envelopes from U.P.R.R. Office Supt. 
dated Cheyenne, Dakota Territory. 



Brown, Mr. Miller 

Champ, Mrs. Myrtle 

Chatterton, Hon. Fenimore 
Arvada, Colo. 

Ferguson, Mrs. R. A. 

Graf, Mrs. Geo. J. 
Green River 

Hill, Burton 

Hunt, Lester C. Mrs. 
Washington, D. C. 

Kamber, Abraham 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

McCreery, Alice Richards 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mercer, Ralph 

Miller. Mrs. Arthur 

Morgan, Floyd 
Pine Bluffs 

Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles 

Peabody, A. S. 

Letter and two broadsides on campaign 
of Miss Estelle Reel dated 1894. 

Map of Wyoming highways 1906; 
pamphlet on Sundance. 

Newspaper clipping of his speech as 
Wyoming Governor at Great Fair, St. 
Louis, 1904. 

Five picture postcards, pamphlets, 
"Sketches of The West," one map of 
Yellowstone Park 1950, newspapers, 
newspaper clippings; "Sketches of the 
West" by John L. Hunton (piano 

Set of World War II Ration Books and 

Bulletin, entitled The Cattle Baron's Re- 
bellion as published in the Buffalo 
Bulletin — History of Johnson County 

Original drawing of "Bucking Horse" 
used on Wyoming's license plate; one 
picture post card of Stub Farlow on 
War Dog. 

2 newspaper clippings on death of F. W. 
LaFrentz, from N. Y. Times, July 

Letters, newspaper clippings and writings 
about Wyoming by donor. 

Typescript, "The Family Lineage of the 
Mercer Family" with letter dated 
4/15/1911 to Mr. B. H. Tillotson, 
Olathe, Kansas. 

Fashion magazine of early 1900's. 

Manuscript poems: "The Homesteader" 
by A. S. Crandall; "To my Buddy 
Over There", "The Locator Replies to 
Mr. Crandall" by Frank Burdick, "The 
Departing Homesteader" by J. A. 

Framed list of candidates, 1883; framed 
newspaper account by Louise O'Leary 
of Mrs. A. J. Parshall's experiences 
during winter of 1879. 

2 Maps: Topographic of Albany county- 
Laramie, Quadrangle, July 1908 edi- 
tion; map of city of Laramie, April 
10, 1909. Also a prospectus of Wyo- 
ming Central Land and Improvement 
Co., Laramie, 1884. 



Schaedel, Mrs. John 

Shiek, Mrs. Frank N. 
Long Beach, Calif. 

Taylor, Miss Dorothy K. 

Van Tassel, Charles 
Los Angeles 17, Calif. 

Weston, Mrs. Daphne 

Copy of Typescript "Memoirs of Mrs. 
George W. Snow" by donor; pen 
sketch map by donor "Bear Creek 
Stage Station, Later George W. Snow 

Typescript, "Early History of Laramie 
County" a speech given by Donor's 
husband about 1902. 

Newspaper The Idea, Durango, Colo., 
May 22, 1886, Vol. 2, No. 95, with a 
full page Litograph by J. E. Dilling- 
ham, 1861, "View of Black Hawk 

Pamphlet; "The Passing of the West and 
Other Poems of Frontier Days" by 

Manuscript on death of Frances Warren 
Pershing and her 3 daughters; news- 
paper clipping "Memorial Hospital 
had Historic Beginning in Tent 87 
Years Ago", Wyo. State Tribune, 


Coe, W. R. 

New York City 

Hanway, Earl 

Gard, Wayne, The Chisholm Trail. 

Ruiz & Vigil, Provisional Regulations . . . 
of Upper California. 

DeVoto, Bernard, The Louisiana Pur- 

Hafen, LeRoy R. and Ann, Old Spanish 
Trail. Vol. I of South West and 
Rockies Series. 

Hafen, Leroy R. and Ann, Journals of 
The Forty-Niners, Vol. II of South 
West and Rockies Series. 

Wheat, Carl I., Mapping The American 
West 1540-1857. 

Hooker, Wm. Francis, The Bullwacker. 

Horgan, Paul, The Rio Grande, Vols. I 
and II, Great River Series. 

Graham, Col. Wm. A., The Reno Court 
of Inquiry. 

Malone-Mifhollen-Kaplan, The Story of 
the Declaration of Independence. 

Simkin, Colin, Currier and Ives' Amer- 

Pamphlets: News from Home, Summer 
1954, by Kenneth H. Dunshee; Our 
Presidents — At A Glance, by Rolf 
Benj. Vinmont. Think, November 
1954, editorial by Thos. J. Watson. 

Hanway, J. Edwin, The Memoirs of J. 
Edwin Hanway. 



Hobbs, George H. 

Homsher, Lola M. 

Lovell Chamber of Commerce 

McGrath, Mary A. 
Washington, D. C. 

Meek, C. L. 

Lincoln, Neb. 

Ridings, Reta 

Rogers. C. J. Gov. 

Schell, Dean Herbert 
Vermillion, S. D. 

Van Tassell, Charles 
Los Angeles 17, Calif. 

Benton, Frank, Cowboy Life on the Side- 

David, Robt. B., Malcolm Campbell 

Ridpath, John Clark, Rid path Universal 
History, Vols. I-XVII. 

Pamphlet: Story of All- American Indian 
Days, Kalif Shrine Temple. 

Pamphlet: The Medicine Wheel, 1954. 

Wyomings Resources, 1889. 

Meek, Carleton L., Meek, Genealogy 

Polk & Co., Polk's Laramie Citv Direc- 
tory, 1939. , 

Navy Dept., Combat Connected Naval 
Casualties World War II, Vols. I & II. 

Pamphlet: Army & Navy Legion of 

Schell, Dean Herbert, Dakota Territory 
During the 1860's. 

Pamphlet: The Passing of The West. 


Benson, Geo. C. 

Port Hueneme, Calif. 

Ferguson, Mrs. R. A. 

Hemple, Carl 

Latham, Mrs. Bill 

Lebhart. Minnie (Miss) 

Lewis, Ton, Paul and Marvin 

47 early photos of Cheyenne Pioneers 
presented by the Benson and Bray 
families; 32 pictures taken some 50 
years ago in and around Cheyenne 
and Saratoga by Lawson Bray, uncle 
of Mr. Benson. 

23 miscellaneous pictures of Wheatland 

2 photos of air field, Cheyenne, 1922. 
Sent to Donor by H. T. Bean, Airmail 
Pioneer Assoc, Salt Lake, for pre- 
sentation to Museum. 

Views at Niagara, New York, and Niag- 
ara Falls, dated 9-20-1896. 

Framed photo of a stage and six-span 
of horses with four men. Driver. 
Thomas Cooper, Union Pacific Sta- 

Roll of film containing 78 exposures of 
60 pictures in the department picture 
file, taken by Paul, Ton and Marvin 
Lewis, Oct. 28, 1954. 



McCreery, Alice Richards 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Metz, Mrs. P. W. 

Ohnhaus, Mrs. Chas. J. 

Rogers, C. J. (Gov. Office) 

Stolt, Edna 

Wittenburg, Clarice F. 

52 pictures of people and scenes, Chey- 
enne, 1890's. 

7 photos of early Yellowstone highway, 
Wind River Canyon, Thermopolis, 

Photograph of officers and men of Bat- 
tery A, Alger's Lt. Artillery, W.N.G., 
all Cheyenne men, taken in front of 
Capt. Parmer's House on Warren 
Ave., 1898; 1907 Frontier Days. 

Picture of USS Battleship Wyoming, tak- 
en at Coco Solo Canal Zone, July 
25, 1919. 

7 Photos: Astorian Marker; 2 photos of 
people at Morris grave; Sacajawea's 
grave; 2 photos of Rev. Roberts; 
Tetons Mts. viewed through window 
of Church of Transfiguration at 
Moose, Wyo. 

3 photographs: Mary G. Bellamy; 
Rachel (Brown) Mathews; Wm. Jen- 
nings Bryan and party at Laramie 
residence of W. H. Holliday, 1907. 

Zhe Pioneer 

To the Pioneer, who came and gave their worldly all. 
Who gave their strength and selfless lasting love, 
Who planted seeds of courage with enduring faith 
In a country waste, for a home of rugged grace. 

To the Pioneer, who stood the trials of cruel clime, 
Who braved the isolated stretch of lonely years, 
Who knew so little luxury, but made it rich 
With toiling hands, understanding God's great land. 

To the Pioneer, who dreamt the dreams that would come true, 

Who made the trails for later ones to seek and tread. 

Who lived their lives in humble thankless tasks, 

To build a mighty freedom in this western land of ours. 

To the Pioneer, who worked and died in hearts content 
For a waste of land that bloomed from toil and sweat, 
Enriched their souls from a barren space that bred 
A loyal love, and earned with honors, a resting place. 

Jessa Eula Wallis 
Laramie, Wyoming 

ftook Ueviews 

The Reno Court of Inquiry. By Col. W. A. Graham. (Harris- 
burg, Pa.: The Stackpole Company, 1954. 303 pp., $5.00) 

The Reno Court of Inquiry, by Col. W. A. Graham, United 
States Army Retired, is an abstract of the record of the court of 
inquiry which was convened approximately two and one-half years 
after the Battle of the Little Big Horn for the purpose of inquiring 
into that military incident and especially as it reflected upon the 
military service of Major Reno. The record of the court of 
inquiry is the only record of sworn testimony given by the principal 
surviving participants of that historic battle between the Seventh 
U. S. Cavalry and the Plains Indians. 

The practice of abstracting the record in legal or quasi-legal 
proceedings has been one of long standing between lawyers and 
appellate courts. The purpose of the abstract is to reduce the 
volume of material without essential omissions yet dispensing with 
irrelevant, repetitious and unimportant testimony and forming a 
narrative of the evidence at the expense of verbatim quotations of 
questions and answers. Whether or not the author was aided 
by one skilled in the law in preparing this abstract is not known, 
but a magnificent job has been accomplished. 

At infrequent intervals the author has injected short summaries 
and comments in the abstract which aid the reader materially in 
retention of the big picture as the evidence unfolds and should be 
especially helpful to those of little or no knowledge of military 

Included in the publication is a reproduced United States Geo- 
logical Survey contour map of the battle area, a number of illus- 
trative sketches drawn by participants and a heretofore unpub- 
lished battle map drawn and annotated by Captain Benteen soon 
after the battle, but undiscovered until May of this year. Captain 
Benteen's map is a valuable addition to the slight record data on 
this famous engagement. 

The Reno Court of Inquiry is a most valuable addition to the 
many publications on the Custer Massacre. Here the reader for 
the first time can judge for himself as to the weight and prepon- 
derance of the evidence, the credibility of the witnesses and the 
probability of correctness of impression and analysis of the various 
participants. One thing is certain: there is no greater conflict 
of testimony or impressions than is present in any formal hearing 
concerning a situation which occurred two and one-half years 


before the hearing, and probably less than one would normally 
expect where the hearing involves an incident impregnated with 
the stress and confusion which invariably accompanies battle 
conditions, and especially so when the troops were in an extreme 
state of fatigue, as was true at the Little Big Horn. 

To those of us who have read and studied the many publications 
which have appeared over the years since 1876, The Reno Court 
of Inquiry appears to be the long needed concluding publication, 
and although it represents probably the most valuable of the lot, 
let us sincerely hope that it is the last. 

Laramie, Wyoming Alfred M. Pence 

The Buffalo Hunters: The Story of the Hide Men. By Mari 
Sandoz. (New York: Hastings House, 1954 xii + 372 pp., 
map, illus, $4.50.) 

This deeply interesting book is the second title in the American 
Procession Series, and sets a high standard for future authors to 

Marie Sandoz needs no introduction to Western readers; she 
is widely known as an interpreter of the Great Plains country, 
of the Indians whose home it was, and of their hopeless struggle 
to keep that home and their way of life. 

The Buffalo Hunters covers the 16 years between 1867, when 
the Plains were dark with buffalo in the millions, until 1883 when 
the vast herds had virtually disappeared, and only the few indi- 
viduals were left who would be the progenitors of the present 
herds in game preserves. This happened with incredible swiftness. 
It was unthinkable: those moving seas of animals must last 
forever! No plague, no drouth, no ice coating over the Plains 
grasses could have accomplished what men with the Big Fifty 
and the Sharps rifle and the West-creeping railroads accomplished. 
And with the vanishing buffalo, the Indians who lived on them, for 
whom the buffalo was food, clothing and shelter, they also dwin- 
dled to the pitiful, starving remnants of tribes on reservations, 
betrayed as only an archaic people can be, by a better organized, 
economically pushed culture in competition for their lands. 

Miss Sandoz' descriptions of the Plains, of the stampedes, the 
grass fires, the storms; of life in the hide and bone towns, 
are magnificent and thrilling. Her style is distinctive, recognizably 
her own. It is spare and tragic, deeply moving and without senti- 
mentality. A great number of the hide hunters are named and 
characterized, among them Wild Bill Hickok, the compulsive 
killer; flamboyant Buffalo Bill Cody, becoming the character Ned 


Buntline was creating; General Custer of dimming glory; Charlie 
Rath, the Mooar brothers, Johnny Cook, who was troubled — the 
treaties had said that Indian lands were closed to white hunters. 
Their dialogue, however, seems less convincing than the swift 
characterizations, and perhaps out of place in this type of historical 
narrative. Unfortunately also, there is no index for reference back 
and forth among the many characters as they shift in time and 
place. But this is minor in the great spectacle that Miss Sandoz 
brings into focus as she recreates the history of the extinction of 
each of the four great herds in turn. 

The Herds each moved in an orbit, a great, irregular ellipse of 
their migrations, winter to summer and back again, always feeding 
into the wind. First the Republican Herd in Wyoming, Nebraska 
and South Dakota, then the Arkansas and Texas Herds reaching 
into Wyoming on their northern swing, were exterminated, and 
only the rotting carcasses, the white bones remained. After the 
hide men had gone even the bones disappeared, shipped East by 
the thousands of carloads for fertilizer. Last to disappear was 
the Northern Herd in the early 1880's. Its more than a million 
animals had ranged through northern Wyoming, Montana, the 
edge of the Dakotas and into Canada. With buffaloes and Indians 
gone, the settlers swarmed in and Finis was written to the hide 
men's epoch in the history of the West. 

Of all the characters who played their parts in the development 
of the early West the hide men were, as a group, the least "sim- 
patico", as the Mexicans say. They failed to fire the popular 
imagination or to arouse popular enthusiasm, though many were 
incredibly brave, were dead shots and superb horsemen. Did 
the fundamental dirt, the incredible waste of the great bodies left 
to rot, the unbridled slaughter of a great and interesting animal 
and of the Indian who called him brother, leave uneasy con- 
sciences, glad not to remember this epoch? 

Soon after 'The Buffalo Hunters" appeared, a novel by Milton 
Lott, "The Last Hunt" was published by Houghton Mifflin. The 
action covers the period from the Spring of 1882 to the Fall of 
1885 when the great Northern Herd was wiped out. The two 
chief characters are hide hunters, Sandy McKenzie, with some- 
thing of the philosopher in him, like Johnny Cook, troubled by 
what was happening to buffalo and Indian; and Charley Gilson, 
the killer who was always alien to the land. The story is a com- 
pelling one, and the two books complement one another remark- 
ably. Read "The Buffalo Hunters" for the fine historical back- 
ground and then identify yourself with the hide men through the 
characters whom Milton Lott has created in "The Last Hunt". 
Like DeVoto's "Across the Wide Missouri" and Guthrie's "The 
Big Sky", which also should be read together, the two books will 


give the reader an appreciation and an understanding of a moving 
epoch in the history of the West. 

Mrs. Lois Butler Payson 

Albany County Carnegie 

Public Library, Laramie. 

Wyoming's War Years, 1941-1945. By Dr. T. A. Larson. (Stan- 
ford University Press, 1954. 400 pp, illus., $6.50) 

"All Sunday afternoon and through the night, we sat at our 
radios, stunned by the stark, horrible news coming to us over the 
air. By Monday, we had our mixed emotions pretty well in hand. 
We're still concerned, plenty worried, but we're not quite so 
frightened and we're carrying on." 

This quotation from the volume Wyoming's War Years, 1941- 
1945 by Dr. T. A. Larson sets the mood of the people of the 
State of Wyoming during the four years of World War II and 
that mood is accurately reflected in the excellent history of that 
critical period and its effect upon the state and its people which 
Dr. Larson has presented. 

In some 400 pages of intensely interesting reading, the head 
of the Department of History at the University of Wyoming sets 
forth the amazingly rapid transition to war-time economy and 
philosophy by the people of the state. The cross section of life 
reflects the failures as well as the successes of our citizens in 
meeting the thousands of new problems of war, but the final 
conclusion which must be made from the facts presented is that, 
by and large, Wyoming's citizens successfully met the crisis. 

Publication of a history of a short period in the life of Wyoming 
is a milestone in written Wyoming history. Sifting through the 
mountain of statistical information available and exercising a rare 
gift of judgement of historical value of that data, Dr. Larson has 
brought forth a volume which ranks as a source book for the 
years 1941 through 1945 for future writers, and he has presented 
his facts in such a way as to make the book entirely enjoyable to 
the average reader as well as the student of history. 

The author displays an unusual talent for transforming statistics 
into literature and it is a talent which might well be applied 
to other periods of Wyoming history with a resulting benefit to 
the accuracy of our written historical reports. This volume is 
relatively free of error. 


While Dr. Larson has used newspaper and magazine files, state 
and federal publications and other books and manuscripts as his 
source material, the files of former Governor Lester C. Hunt have 
afforded the author a considerable share of his information, espe- 
cially in those chapters dealing with state government and politics, 
and in those war-time fields in which state and federal government 
played a part. He appears to have taken advantage, also, of leads 
furnished by the Governor's correspondence, to follow up with 
personal interviews in a very successful effort to dispel some of 
the clouds of wartime security, supposedly made necessary for 
home front morale. 

Names and home counties of all men killed in the war, names 
of the civilians who served upon the boards vital to successful 
prosecution of the war and other statistics are included in the 
appendixes of the volume, and a bibliography and careful note 
citations are included. 

Dr. Larson richly deserves the recognition accorded to him on 
October 17 by the Wyoming State Historical Society in its award 
to him for the outstanding contribution of 1954 in the field of 
written Wyoming history. He has rendered an outstanding service 
to the State of Wyoming and to all of its citizens, and it is hoped 
that this volume is only the first of a series of accurate, readable 
accounts of the important periods of history in Wyoming. The 
work certainly marks Dr. Larson as one of the front-rank writers 
of Wyoming history and should win him recognition as one of the 
foremost writers in the West today. The volume is one which 
should have a place of honor in every Wyoming home, for it is a 
monument in itself to the sacrifices that Wyoming's citizens made 
during the Second World War. 

Casper, Wyoming Frank L. Bowron 

Pictorial History of The Wild West. By James D. Horan and 
Paul Sann. (New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. 254 pp., 
illus, index. $5.95.) 

This new book on the notorious portion of the western popu- 
lation contains some 380 pictures, the majority of which are of 
the desperadoes themselves. This is the largest collection of such 
photographs to be found in any one source book, and certainly 
persons interested in this side of western history cannot overlook 
this pictorial history. 

The authors define the Wild West as a time — roughly from the 
end of the Civil War to the turn of the century — and a place — 
roughly from the Middle Border country of Kansas, Missouri, 
and the neighboring states to the Pacific. 


The first chapter, however, covers briefly earlier outlawry in 
Eastern United States and includes such names as the Doanes, 
active during the Revolutionary War; the Harpes and Sam Mason 
who followed shortly after; John A. Murrel, Joseph Hare, Captain 
Lightfoot of the early 1880's; and the Loomis Gang of the middle 

The majority of desperados who hit the outlaw trail in the 
West and a number of law officers are included in this book in 
picture and story. The authors, however, have given a good deal 
of space to outlaws who appeared in earlier books by James D. 
Horan, Desperate Men and Desperate Women, including the James 
Brothers, the Daltons, the "Wild Bunch", Calamity Jane, Belle 
Starr, Pearl Hart, Pauline Cashman and China Polly. 

The book is a rapid survey of outlawry with a light narrative 
written for rapid reading as a background to the pictures. There 
is nothing definitive in the stories of the various characters who 
parade through the pages, and the book cannot be, as advertised, 
"the whole story truly told with pictures of the winning of the 
West from lawlessness to order." It can be claimed, however, that 
"Never before has there been contained in one volume such a 
wealth of Wild West pictures." 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Henryetta Berry 

The Saga of Tom Horn: The Story of a Cattleman's War, with 
Personal Narratives, Newspaper Accounts and Official Docu- 
ments and Testimonies. By Dean F. Krakel. (No imprint. 
Printed in Laramie, 1954. ix, 277 pp. Illus., bibliography 
and index. $4.75.) 

Every community cherishes some Robin Hood — a man of 
violence who lives beyond the law, yet fascinates lesser, law- 
abiding mortals. From Pennsylvania, with its pioneer Tom Quick 
to California with Joaquin Murrieta, fabulous local gunmen 
walk in an atmosphere of story-book romance. Of them all, 
New Mexico's Billy the Kid has achieved the most literary prom- 
inence, if the number of books written about him is any criterion. 
Wyoming's Tom Horn has had but three — Tom's own autobiog- 
raphy, a book by this reviewer, and now Dean Krakel's The Saga 
of Tom Horn. Horn's exploits are mentioned in varying detail 
in some dozen other "Westerns," also. Of all the famous gunmen, 
Tom Horn lived a life which has perhaps the most intriguing 
possibilities for an aspiring Western writer. 

Billy the Kid's claim to fame rests largely on the alleged fact 
that he killed twenty-one men — not counting Indians and Mex- 
icans — before he was twenty-one years old. However, research 


has divided this number of homicides by four, leaving Billy a count 
about equal to the five credited to Tom Horn. Billy was a killer 
in a "war" between rival families in New Mexico. Tom used his 
trigger talents in the fight for the open range between big and 
little cattle ranchers. This alone makes him the more significant 
of the two and there is still opportunity for much original investi- 
gation of Tom's career from heretofore untapped sources, espe- 
cially unrecorded personal reminiscences. Only last month this 
reviewer met in California a man — now wealthy — who as a boy 
washed the Cheyenne undertaker's carriage in order to get a view 
of Tom's corpse. 

Dean Krakel has limited his study to the nine years of Horn's 
life spent in Wyoming. An account of the thirty-two years Tom 
Horn lived in Missouri, Kansas, Arizona, and Colorado must be 
found elsewhere. But for the period from 1894 to 1903 this is 
the most complete book yet published. The author has achieved 
this feat largely with paste-pot and scissors, for less than twenty- 
five of the 264 pages of the text are original composition. The 
bulk of the volume is made up of extracts from An Autobiography 
by Joe LeFors (the peace officer who finally trapped Horn), an 
abstract of the testimony taken at Tom's trial, contemporary 
newspaper accounts, copies of pertinent correspondence, the final 
appeal to Governor Chatterton for clemency, and the account by 
John C. Thompson of Horn's execution, as published in the 
Brand Book of the Denver Westerners in 1945 — a grim and 
realistic eyewitness narrative describing the condemned man stand- 
ing on the scaffold while water ran out of a tank which, when 
empty, would spring the trap and lunge him into eternity. 

Probably the most important parts of Krakel's book are the 
transcription of the Horn confession and the abstract of the 
questions and answers at the trial. There are 126 pages of this 
— more than half the text. This is laborious reading for anyone 
unfamiliar with the case but interesting to people who have stud- 
ied it. The author writes vividly in the few pages devoted to 
his own account, but it is noticeable that he does not draw his 
conclusions from the original sources which he quotes. For 
instance, he describes the doomed Willie Nickell as riding to his 
death dressed in his father's hat and slicker. This is the version 
which has long been told in Wyoming by Tom Horn's apologists 
who infer that the murderer mistook the thirteen-year-old boy 
for his father. The fact that the author repeats this version and 
then, within a few pages, prints the testimony of Willie's mother 
to the effect that the boy wore no slicker, perplexes a reader. In 
the trial several other witnesses testified about the appearance of 
the dead boy, and Willie's bullet-pierced shirt was exhibited. Yet 
none of these witnesses mentioned a slicker. 


Another similar discrepancy needs clarification. The author 
says that Willie's brother, Freddie Nickell, drove a hay wagon 
down the road and through the gate where Willie was killed. 
Willie's mother, in her testimony, stated that Freddie drove the 
cows down that morning. Which is correct? If Mrs. Nickell's 
testimony can be impeached several other questionable points 
arise and perhaps Tom Horn may be given a new trial by posterity. 
Certainly he failed to get a new one before he died. 

The book, in addition to serving as a roundup of many sources 
for the Horn story, also includes an excellent assemblage of perti- 
nent pictures. Many of these have been copied from contem- 
porary newspapers and from the personal collection of Leslie 
Snow. Certainly such a gallery of the participants in the Horn 
trial has never before been available in book form. The legends 
on two of them seem questionable. The man on page 246 desig- 
nated as Charles Horn does not look like the Charles Horn this 
reviewer remembers, and the Victor Miller on page 131 seems 
much too young to be the eighteen-year-old boy at the trial. 
Perhaps this picture of him was taken years earlier. It would be 
interesting to have some of the Millers still living explain this. 
Let us hope, too, that KrakeFs book will elicit other observations, 
additions, and possible corrections of the Horn story from the few 
remaining survivors of that time, before the water runs out on 
them as it did for Tom Horn on November 20, 1903. 

University of California Jay Monaghan 

Santa Barbara College. 

American Heritage, The Magazine of History. Sponsored by 
American Association for State and Local History and the 
Society of American Historians. Edited by Bruce Catton. 
American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 551 Fifth Avenue, 
New York 17. Annual Subscription in U. S., $12.00, single 
copies $2.95. 

American Heritage, a magazine of history originally published 
by the American Association for State and Local History begin- 
ning in 1949, now appears in a new format. This outstanding 
publication, while a magazine in name and frequency of issue, is 
actually in bound book form. 

American Heritage will add to any library a constant flow of 
heretofore unpublished history. Its editors intend to bring out 
the drama in the day to day events which make history instead 
of being merely repetitious in a presentation of "great moments 
of history". This drama is to be found in local history depositories 


and will be made available through members of the American 
Association for State and Local History and the Society of 
American Historians, Inc. 

The articles presented in this first issue relate to no one special 
area of the United States but cover a great diversity of area and 
subjects — "The Old Fall River Line" which is accompanied by a 
concise story of its equipment and operations and is beautifully 
illustrated with 12 reproductions chiefly in color; "Holiday Time 
at the Old Country Store", a poignant description of an early 
institution which is rapidly disappearing from the American scene; 
"Painters of the Plains" by Eugene Kingman is beautifully illus- 
trated by the works of such artists as George Catlin, Karl Bod- 
mer, Alfred Jacob Miller, Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Remington, 
Charles M. Russell and Henry F. Farny. Other stories, all 
illustrated, include "The Great Club Revolution" by Cleveland 
Amory, "A King's Funeral" as reported by Theodore Roosevelt, 
"The Day They Burned the Capitol" by Willis Thornton, "Henry 
Ford" by Allan Nevins, "Acadia Country" by Bradley Smith, 
"Panamint: Suburb of Hell" by Lucius Beebe, a review of the 
Oral History Project of Columbia University, a selection from 
"Great River" by Paul Horgan, seventeen book reviews, and a 
short section devoted to recent developments in the historical 

The yearly subscription rate to this series is $12.00, a con- 
siderable savings over the purchase price of $2.95 when they 
are sold singly in bookstores. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Dorothy K. Taylor 


Mary Coburn Bragg (Mrs. William F., Sr.) is the youngest 
daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Coburn of Carroll, 
Iowa. Her father was one of the founders of the town of Worland 
where she lives. This fact has always inspired her interest in 
Wyoming history. 

Howard B. Lott was born in Buffalo, Wyoming, September 
23, 1896, and passed away on May 10, 1947. During his lifetime 
his chief interest was the history of Wyoming and the western 
area, and he wrote numerous articles on the West. From 1923 
until shortly before his death he was clerk in the Buffalo post 

David G. Thomas arrived in Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory, 
on March 11, 1878, at the age of 21. Following his move to 
Wyoming he studied law and later served as county attorney for 
Uinta County and later Sweetwater County. His career in his 
adopted state also included service as a coal mine inspector for 
the state and he was for a number of years superintendent of the 
U. P. Coal Company mines in the Rock Springs area. Mr. Thomas 
was interested in both history and poetry and was the author of 
the book of poems entitled "Overland and Underground". He 
died in February 1935 at his home in Rock Springs. 

Lloyd McFarling was born in Iowa in 1901, moved with his 
parents to South Dakota in 1902, and grew up on a farm and in a 
small town in Beadle County. He has since lived in California, 
Nebraska and Colorado. He has studied at one college, two art 
schools, and three universities; and worked at various occupations, 
including ten years of clerical, auditing and accounting work in 
the United States Department of Agriculture. He now lives at 
Palmer Lake, Colorado, dividing his time about equally between 
art activities and writing. He has published a few magazine 
articles and is the editor of one book, Exploring the Northern 
Plains, 1804-1876, an anthology of writings by explorers and 
travelers, which is scheduled for publication early in 1955. 


Jessa Eula Wallis (Mrs. Oliver Wallis) was born in Paris, 
Illinois, where she received her education. She came to Wyoming 
in 1903 with her parents, making her home in Laramie. In 1906 
she was married to Oliver Wallis, a ranch boy and a native son of 
a pioneer family who arrived in Wyoming in 1864. 

Her hobby has been painting and writing verse. Her poetry has 
been published in poetry magazines and daily papers, and "Wyo- 
ming Breezes", a book of poems published several years ago. 

Hamilton Gardner, Colonel AUS (Retired), is a graduate 
of the University of Utah and of the Harvard Law School. He 
practiced law in Salt Lake City from 1919 to 1942. Following 
World War II he held a government position in Washington, D. C, 
until his recent retirement. He is a veteran of World Wars I and 
II and has been active in the Organized Reserves and the National 
Guard. He is the author of a number of published articles on 
several phases of the military history of the West. 

MmI* of Wyoming 

)LUME 27 






Official Publication 

of the 


Published Biannually 



__ * ««iMi?iii 


Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Mr. James Bentley Sheridan 

Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins 

Mr. Thomas O. Cowgill Cody 

Mrs. Lora Jewett JPinedale 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Margaret E. Hall Moorcroft 

Attorney-General George F. Guy, Ex-officio 


President, W. L. Marion Lander 

First Vice President, Dr. DeWitt Dominick Cody 

Second Vice President, Dr. T. A. Larson Laramie 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Wyoming State Historical Society life membership $50.00, joint life 

membership (husband and wife) $75.00; annual membership, $3.50, 

joint annual membership (two persons of same family at same 

address) $5.00. 



Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Deputy 

Reta W. Ridings Mead, Research Services 

Herbert J. Salisbury .Assistant Archivist 

Lola M. Homsher JZditor 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually, in April and 
October, and is the official publication of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. It is received by all members of that Society as a part of their 
dues. Individual copies of the current issues of the Annals of Wyoming 
may be purchased for $1.00 each. Available copies of earlier issues are 
also for sale. A price list may be obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor will 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 


Copyright, 1955, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 

lAmals of Wyoming 

Volume October 1955 Number 2 

Zable of Contents 


J. K. Mcore, Jr. 


Thelma Gatchell Condit 

EVENTS OF THE YEAR 1865 Pertaining to Johnson County 142 

T. J. Gatchell 


Pierre LaBonte, Jr. 


Compiled by Maurine Carley 

NIOBRARA COUNTY, a poem 195 

Mae Urbanek 


Dale L. Morgan, editor 





McFarling, Exploring the Northern Plains 241 

Hieb, Fort Laramie 242 

Clough, Our Long Heritage 243 

Stewart, Custer's Luck 245 

Schmitt & Brown, The Settler's West 246 

Westermeier, Trailing the Cowboy 247 

Wright, Culture on the Moving Frontier 247 



Trader Tokens 1 29 

Hole-in-the-wall 136 

Powder River Country (Map) 138 

Buffalo Creek (Map) 139 

Fort Laramie— 1910 162 

"Old Bedlam", Ft. Laramie 182 

Lander Valley Historical Monument 233 

Stone Artifacts 235-236 

100 / "* 



Trader Tokens used at Fort Bridger, Camp Brown, Fort Washakie 
and Fort Laramie. Courtesy J. K. Moore, Jr. 

Post Zrader and Indian 
Zradcr Zokcns 

J. K. Moore, Jr. 

Transcript from a speech at a meeting of the Fremont County 

Chapter of the Wyoming State Historical Society held in the 

High School Library in Riverton, April 17th, 1955. 

The assignment to speak at this meeting upon the subject of 
Indian trader tokens led me to prepare an exhibit of the tokens 
in order that it could be passed around so everyone could see 
both sides of the pieces at a glance, the names and localities being 
in one row, and the values in the other. 

In value they run from $1.00, 500, 250, to 50. A 12V£0 
piece, called a "bit", also is included, but probably was not much 
used, as there were not many such pieces left in the collection I 

The two S. E. Ward, Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, pieces 
"good for trade in sutlers goods" are no doubt the oldest in this 
collection. They are made of a different metal and by a stamping 
process different from the others, with no inscription on the 
reverse side. They were in circulation before the Territory of 
Wyoming was set aside out of Dakota Territory on July 25th, 
1868. 1 

The W. A. Carter, Fort Bridger, and J. K. Moore, Camp Brown, 
pieces were made of brass and were cut out and stamped by hand 
with heavy steel dies, some of which I have in my collection. 
W. A. Carter probably introduced the use of tokens in his business 
some time during the 1860's. 2 I wrote the Curator of the Fort 
Bridger Museum for information about them, and, strange to 
relate, the answer was that there was not a single token in the 
museum and no knowledge of them. Immediately I sent them 
two complete sets to place on display. 

As the W. A. Carter tokens and those used by my father, J. K. 
Moore, Sr., are almost identical in type, I think Father got the 

1. Seth Ward was Sutler and Post Trader at Ft. Laramie from 1858 

2. Judge W. A. Carter came to Ft. Bridger with the Army in 1857 as a 
sutler. He established his business in a large store he built there and in 
which he had a stock of goods valued at $90,000.00. 


idea of using them from having handled them in Judge Carter's 
store, as he had clerked in the Fort Bridger store for a number of 

Indian traders were commissioned by the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs upon application through the Indian Agents at 
local Agencies and were required to furnish bond in the sum of 
$10,000, renewable annually. 

Post Traders were appointed by military authority and held 
their position indefinitely, without bond. 

Father was commissionned to accompany the soldiers when they 
were ordered from Fort Bridger in 1869 to proceed to the Popo- 
agie Valley to establish Camp Brown (now the site of Lander) 
on June 28th, 1869. 

In May, 1871, new Camp Brown, the present site of Fort 
Washakie, was determined upon as affording greater facilities for 
carrying out the orders from Headquarters. The site was selected 
at the junction of the North Fork and the South Fork of Little 
Wind River, and Captain R. A. Torrey, Company A. 13th In- 
fantry, was instructed to use the troops of his command for the 
protection of the officers and employees of the Shoshone and 
Bannock Agency and as a safeguard to the Indians of said Agency 
against wandering and hostile tribes. 

Accordingly on the 26th of June, 1871, site of the camp was 
changed and the work of dismantling the old Post of its serviceable 
lumber and transporting it to the new site was begun. 

The Shoshone and Bannock Agency had previously been locat- 
ed and established on the west bank of Trout Creek about a mile 
and a half south of the Camp Brown site. 

The name, Camp Brown, was carried through December, 1878, 
when, by Governmental Order, the name was changed to Fort 
Washakie in honor of Chief Washakie of the Shoshones. 

The J. K. Moore-Camp Brown tokens were probably made 
and put into use soon after the Camp Brown move, and the 250 
and 50 Fort Washakie pieces were introduced after 1878 when 
the name of the Post was changed. 

To us, behind the counter, and I was one of the clerks before 
the use of the tokens was discontinued, they were known as "brass 
checks". The Shoshones called them "Oha-boo-u-way ,, (yellow 
money) and the Arapahoe name was "Ne-ha-yah - bich-thay", 
also meaning yellow money. The tokens were kept in a separate 
till made especially for them. 

The purpose of their use was principally to pay the Indians in 
tokens for whatever they offered for sale, as a means of barter 
or exchange for merchandise in the store. And when an Indian 
asked for and was granted credit, tokens were issued and charged 
against the account as one item. This did away with having to 
itemize the purchases on their accounts. It was a great help in 


waiting upon the trade as the Indians were very slow in picking 
out one item after another in trading. They preferred to buy one 
thing at a time, pay for it and receive their change. Then they 
would buy the next item, put the money down, receive the change, 
if any, and proceed in this manner until they had finished trading. 

Because the Indians, as a rule, were slow in making up their 
minds about what they wanted to buy, it was quite satisfactory to 
them to trade with "yellow money" and very easy for a clerk to 
wait upon several customers at a time and keep them all in good 

The tokens were also used to pay for services rendered. The 
Indians were sometimes hired and paid in tokens to saw logs 
from the mountain into stove lengths and to perform various other 
jobs for the store and home, and when they hauled freight for 
the store they were paid in tokens. They were paid frequently 
for the recovery of lost live stock and sometimes were suspected 
of having had something to do with aiding the stock to stray. 

After the Shoshones had been moved to their Reservation in 
the Wind River country from their old home on ths Green River, 
near Fort Bridger, and until the buffalo herds had about disap- 
peared in the early 1880's, the tribe's principal source of income 
and living was derived from the meat of wild game they consumed 
and the sale of robes and pelts and goods they made of buckskin 
to sell. 

Meat of the wild animals was the chief and important food, and 
none of it was wasted, as they sun dried, to take home with them, 
every morsel they could not consume while it was fresh. The men 
did the hunting and killing and the squaws took care of the meat 
and the dressing of hides in their camps. 

Brains and liver from the slaughtered animals were saved and 
used for tanning. Hides they tanned to sell were not smoked. 
Buckskins used for making gloves and moccasins, and for other 
uses for themselves were smoked after being tanned, the smoking 
process making the buckskin more durable for the use they had 
for it. 

The hunting area for the Indians was not confined to their 
reservation. By the Treaty of 1868 the Shoshones were guaran- 
teed the unrestricted right to hunt and fish whenever and wherever 
they pleased. The Shoshones had a big country in which they 
hunted, extending East into the Big Horns, North into the Ab- 
sarokas, South into the Sweetwater country, and West along the 
Wind River Range. They moved into the different sections in 
groups during the hunting season, often spending many weeks 
on the hunt. 

Before leaving they would ask for credit for supplies, agreeing 
to bring their hides to Father for sale upon their return. He would 
extend credit in tokens for their needs which included, principally, 


flour, coffee, sugar, salt, baking powder, dry salt bacon, rice, 
dried beans, yellow laundry soap, matches, tobacco, candles, calico 
for shirts and dresses, canvas for tee-pees, ammunition, powder 
and lead, and other staple articles. The Indians did some trap- 
ping, and, in addition to the buffalo robes brought in after the 
hunt ended, were buckskins and the pelts of a number of fur 
bearing animals. 

When presented for sale the robes, buckskins and pelts were 
carefully graded and paid for in tokens according to market prices, 
condition of fur, and the degree of care used in skinning the 
animals and fleshing the hides. 

There were big times for many days around the store and in 
the camps when hunting parties returned and were paid for the 
things they brought home to sell. 

In the back yard at the store were two baling presses — one for 
buffalo robes and the other, a smaller one, for buckskins. The 
hides were pressed compactly in bales about four feet square 
weighing from 300 to 400 pounds each. 

The bales were bound with quarter inch rope and were covered 
with burlap before being shipped. The principal fur markets 
were located in Boston, New York, and St. Louis. 

Quoting from a copy of a letter to a fur dealer in Boston under 
date of March 26th, 1878, requesting quotations on furs, Father 
wrote: "It is my belief now that I will have no less than 1,000 
buffalo robes, and more likely 2,000 for shipment." 

The Indians not only sold buffalo robes, buckskins, and furs 
of all kinds, but many of the things they made, such as buckskin 
gloves, moccasins and beaded trinkets of all kinds. When they 
needed something from the store for home use they would sell 
some of their handiwork for which they were paid in tokens. 

If they had a considerable amount to spend, trading was in the 
nature of a family affair and they would often spend half a day 
or more at it. 

During the days of the buffalo, the trade was principally with 
the Shoshones, as the Arapahoes were not placed on the eastern, 
or lower part, of the Shoshone Reservation until 1878, at which 
time the buffalo herds were dwindling in number. 

The life of the brass tokens was about twenty years and during 
the time they were used their circulation on the reservation prob- 
ably about equaled the amount of currency and silver that reached 
the Indians. 

At Monte, their "hand game", and other games of their own 
making the Indians were inveterate gamblers. The Indian Office 
made an attempt to stop this in an order that the use of tokens in 
traders 1 stores be discontinued. So in 1894 the tokens were with- 
drawn from circulation, and I became the custodian of them. Bv 
this time the Indians had fenced some land which had been put 


under irrigation for them, had been issued farming implements, 
wagons, harness, etc., and had learned to grow some hay and 
grain which they sold to the Quartermaster at the Fort for feed 
for the Government horses and mules. They also hauled freight 
from Rawlins which was then the nearest railroad point. 

Since the establishment of the Agency the Indians had been 
receiving annuities every year, and rations once a week, until 
recent years. All this made for much weight to be hauled from 
the railroad in the course of a year, and the Indians were given 
the preference of hauling as much of it as they were capable, 
as a means of giving them employment and teaching them the 
advantage of being self supporting. 

In closing I would like to dwell briefly upon the subject of the 
difference in the lives of the long haired, often hatless, blanket 
wearing Indians of the times of which I write, and the generation 
of today. 

Confined to the boundaries of their reservation as they were, 
with permission to leave granted only by the Indian Agent in 
charge, they were happy and contented, in their tee-pees and 
tents, to camp by the side of some mountain stream where they 
herded their little band of ponies nearby and drove them to water 
every day. 

After the days of the buffalo they were restricted from hunting 
big game beyond the boundaries of their reservation, so they killed 
rabbits, prairie dogs and sage chickens, which were plentiful, and 
fished the streams. They lived simply on the rations they drew 
at the agency each week, supplementing them with foods of their 
choice and some clothing from the stores. 

The men wore blankets, leggings and moccasins and the squaws 
were dressed in calicoes and ginghams, covered by shawls they 
bought in the stores, with a silk handkerchief for a head covering 
The children got along without much clothing. 

Their diversion was mostly hunting near home, fishing, dancing 
and gambling, and as a whole they were contented, happy, and 
satisfied with life. 

Today, located on allotments scattered over their reservation; 
in cabins and modern homes, many of them with electricity and 
gas installed for modern appliances; driving high powered auto- 
mobiles and trucks over good roads instead of horses; farming 
with power machinery; raising live stock instead of depending 
upon the hunt, the Indians are living a life entirely different from 
the lives of their immediate ancestors. 

I mention these matters to show the course of the Indians as 
I have seen it, from the days of the buffaloes and trader's tokens 
to the ways of their white brothers. 

The day of the American Plains blanket Indian is past, and the 
days of the sutlers and Indian trader tokens are a memory cher- 
ished by only a few survivors of their time. 



J ■ 

■ ?' 

1. Looking east into the Hole-in-the-W all Trail. 

2. Closer view of Hole-in-the-W all Trail. 

3. Rock which could be moved to block the Trail. 

4. Looking down the trail from the rim. Note the rock which could be 
moved to block the Trail. 

5. Red Butte north of the Trail. This is used as a landmark to locate the 

6. Close-up view of the country just below the Hole-in-the-W all Trail. 

Zke Hole-iH-the- Wall 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 


Johnson County has occupied a unique position in the develop- 
ment of the west, both in regard to geographical setting and the 
spirit of her people who contributed so colorful a share of western 

While all of the Johnson County story is a rich exciting drama, 
those events centering around the Hole-in-the-Wall in the southern 
part of the county are by far the most typically outstanding. 
Largely located in the heart of the upper Powder River country 
it, by nature, was a favorite place for game, Indians, hunters, 
trappers and cowmen. By virtue of its position it became the 
beginning place of Johnson County history. Where could these 
actors playing their humorous, tragic, and manlike parts have 
found a more spectacular setting? 

The Hole-in-the-Wall country lies 19 miles west of Kaycee. It 
is easily approached by following the Barnum road, 12 miles of 
which is a good oiled secondary highway. The road follows the 
valley of the Middle Fork of Powder River. About 10 miles from 
Kaycee, Red Fork of Powder River flows into Middle Fork (at 
the first bridge) a few yards to the left of the road. About 5 or 
6 miles farther on, at the third bridge, Beaver Creek enters Middle 
Fork. After a cloud-burst or heavy rain up-country, it is fun to 
stop and see the two streams come together, Beaver Creek muddy 
red and Middle Fork clear and bubbly. (From here the road fol- 
lows Beaver Creek into the valley behind the wall). 

Just before entering the valley you see the old Barnum Com- 
munity Hall neatly framed in red cliffs, standing to the right of 
the road. Three fourths of a mile farther on the road forks (now 
having entered the valley proper), the right hand road leading 
north into the Barnum community, the left going west and south 
into the Hole-in-the-Wall Country. 

The valley behind the red wall is truly a rare beauty spot; its 
very unusualness as to coloring and location immediately sets it 
apart from other places. The high red wall to the east, extending 
north and south for 50 miles, is in itself vividly impressive. Run- 
ning along on top of it are grasslands on which grow rich winter 
feed. On the west, the valley is bounded by mountains (the end 
of the Big Horn) called the "slope", which is covered with good 
grass and trees, small gullies, and big and little canyons. The 
valley affords plentiful water for irrigation of hay meadows from 



loaf of bread and literally covered with giant mahogany bushes, 
Red Fork, Beaver Creek and Middle Fork of Powder. The green 
of the alfalfa fields presents a contrast of coloring that makes 
the wall seem more red and the slope more blue. The valley is 
not very wide and is nice in winter, being sheltered from the storms 
by the wall. Its red soil is of such a nature that it does not remain 
wet long — so heavy snows in the valley are not of as long duration 
as in other, more exposed places. It is full of little sheltered nooks 
and crannies and low brush which afford natural protection for 
livestock and game. It's just a step up the slope to summer feed. 
It's a perfect set-up for the cow business. 

To the extreme north lies Fraker Mountain, shaped like a huge 

rvE RU>4£.. 

Map by James G Comdit 



utterly shutting off all approach from the north except for the 
Sioux Trail which comes off this mountain, a trail never commonly 
used except by Indians and trappers because of its steep roughness. 

The northern, Barnum part of the valley, is a nicely settled little 
ranching community; but the southern part, which widens out 
more, is not thickly settled — it's just plain old cow-country, un- 
touched by the clutter of civilization — it's jeep or horse country, 
a man's country — rough and unshaven — no place much to stop 
and no one to see. 

The Hole-in-the-Wall part of the valley starts at the Bar C 
ranch, 25 miles from Kaycee, and extends about 10 miles beyond 
to the mouth of Buffalo Creek canyon. Here Buffalo Creek comes 
out of the mountain area and begins its 9 or 10 miles of twisting 
and turning until it empties itself into the Middle Fork of Powder 
River just below the Bar C ranch (between the buildings and 
Steamboat rock — a huge isolated piece of red wall which resem- 
bles a steamboat, and is easily seen and recognized from the 

The Hole-in-the-Wall country proper centers around the upper 
Middle Fork of Powder River and Buffalo Creek. (A study of 

Map bv JAmbs & c 


the map is necessary to understand Buffalo Creek). The Hole- 
in-the-Wall headquarters was located where Buffalo Creek first 
emerges from the canyon walls and makes a leisurely bend to the 
north. It is here that the old buildings stood. This place is 
quickly identified by the yellowish-white cliff standing there, the 
contrast of its lightness with the darkness of the wall being a rare 
thing and easily remembered. This spot is literally a big hole, 
but the name "Hole-in-the-Wair did not originate at this par- 
ticular site. It dated back many years to the days when this 
Powder River country belonged to the elk, wolf and buffalo. 

About XVi miles to the east of this natural hole is a trail over 
the red wall leading out into the Murphy Creek country (see 
picture). This trail was a natural wolf run, leading to and from 
the upper and lower Powder River country. So the wolf trappers 
were the first ones to enter this valley (after the Indians) as they 
set their traps along this trail. They started calling this place "the 
country behind the wall", for they had to call it something in 
order to refer to it. Places then had a natural way of naming 

It went as "the country behind the wair until Murphy Creek 
took its name. Just below the South Fork of Powder River cross- 
ing on the old road south of Kaycee, where Murphy Creek flows 
into South Fork, is a large-scale rock or bank-like cliff whose side 
in relief against the sky resembles a man's face. The old timers 
started calling the face "Old Man Murphy' 1 , and so the stream 
became Murphy Creek. Then the trappers began referring to 
the trail into the red valley as the "Murphy Creek Gap". 

Later, in 1882 or thereabouts, when the big cow outfits came 
into the red wall country, cattle and horses were put over this 
trail. A little over half way up the trail (see picture) is a huge 
rock lying to one side, forming a sort of hole. Cattle rustlers 
found they could slip "critters" up Murphy Creek, over the red 
wall trail, and find perfect sanctuary in this hidden valley — a 
valley with the wide slope to the west full of innumerable canyons 
of rich feed, conveniently and naturally hidden from prying eyes. 
Eight men could slide the rock into the trail, thus blocking it. 
Being a hard, shale-like path no tracks were left, and with the 
rock blocking the way everything looked innocently impassable. 
So the place began to be called the Hole-in-the-Wall from this 
rock, which does make a hole plainly seen (if you climb the trail 
to look). 

The important thing to remember is that the Hole-in-the-Wall 
name was in existence as such long before the Johnson County 
Invasion, and long before it became an outlaw hide-out. It was 
commonly established as the Hole-in-the-Wall country before any- 
one ever filed on the land and took its name naturally from the 
hole-forming rock on the trail and also from the gap itself which 


is clearly shown in the picture. It all centered around the trail 
coming in from Murphy Creek. 

To appreciate and understand the Hole-in-the-Wall you must 
visualize it as a whole. You must see it below (in the valley) and 
above, both from the top of the wall and the slope. You cannot 
know this place by seeing it in isolated parts, for it's the kind of 
country you can't confine to fences and little ownerships — you 
cannot think of the Hole-in-the-Wall apart from its surrounding 
areas. They are inseparable. You must see them all and think 
of them as one big whole. 

Sanford Thompson, a roughneck type, first lived on the land 
west of the "gap". He ran horses. It's very doubtful if he ever 
filed on this land; but, he built a cabin of sorts which he shared 
with his questionable friends. "Sang" Thompson he was called, 
Sang Thompson from the Hole-in-the-Wall, and he was rough and 
tough. It is easy to see why he called his place the Hole-in-the- 
Wall. It was the appropriate thing to do, and it was natural, too, 
that this country later became a hide-out for outlaws, the land 
itself affording isolation and convenient protection in its vast 
number of little blind canyons, caves and shelters. After the 
Invasion the name itself was a drawing card for outlaws, eastern 
writers building it up so as to sound excitingly wicked, when 
actually its use as an outlaw hide-out was the shortest part of its 
life and certainly not its primary use. 

Men have come there and gone, all leaving something of them- 
selves in the inimitable whole. The scenery remains for the most 
part the same through the years, although the main performers 
have long since gone their way. As the curtain falls on the 
thrilling scenes of frontier life which took place here, we realize 
how stupendous they were and try desperately to recapture them 
What better way is there than knowing the land itself to give us a 
clearer understanding of the men who lived there. And truly the 
region behind the red wall remains unchanged to such an extent 
that it would seem not at all improbable or unbelievable should a 
tribe of Indians drop off Fraker Mountain on the old Sioux Trail, 
or Wild Cat Sam with his buffalo gun and wolf traps appear for a 
moment in outline on the top of the Hole-in-the-Wall Trail. 

Sometimes the valley, the slope and wall are vivid and distinct. 
Again they are hazy and lazy-looking, quietly peaceful as if of no 
importance. So were the scenes enacted there — as varied, as 
exciting and often as mysterious as the land itself. Its very du- 
plicity makes its beauty more than beauty — it has an added rug- 
gedness and an elusiveness that makes it definitely life-like. It 
has depth of character which is not revealed to the casual observer. 
It is a setting worthy of the mettle of the men who acted their 
parts there. It is as varied and unusual in its moods as those who 
coped with it. It took stout men to live in the Hole-in-the-Wall 

Events of the ]f car 1865 


Paper by T. J. Gatchell Before the Johnson County Historical 
Society, June 9th, 1921 

For a topic to present to this society at this time I have decided 
on the events of the year 1865, as being of decided historic value 
to Johnson county; being the first military invasion of this terri- 
tory, and furnishing the first chronicled happenings in this imme- 
diate vicinity. It might be well, however, to state that the laying 
out of the Bozeman Trail in 1863, by John Bozeman, of Bozeman, 
Montana, had a decided bearing on the subsequent events; in fact 
our early history, so far as it deals with the development of this 
part of the country, is closely associated with that famous highway. 

The main subject of this paper will be the "Connor Powder 
River Indian Expedition," with its numerous complications; and 
the Sawyer road making party; as both enterprises were in force 
at about the same time. 

I will, therefore, take up the different divisions separately, and 
blend them where occasion demands. 

It has been necessary to take into consideration many things 
that happened in other parts of this western country, but only 
those that have a bearing on Johnson County have been intro- 

The closing of the great Civil War in this year turned loose a 
large number of adventurous men; some seeking further excite- 
ment; and others impoverished by the long struggle turned toward 
the "golden west" to improve their fortunes, and win homes for 
their families in this land of promise. Those men hardened in 
body by their experience in the war, and inured to danger, were 
the perfect type of pioneer; and though they passed through untold 
hardships and privations, they eventually came to their own. 

During the winter of 1864-65, to further the development of 
the newly discovered mines^ in Montana and to stimulate the 
settlement in that territory, /Congress made an appropriation of 
fifty thousand dollars to survey and build a wagon road from the 
mouth of the Niobrara river, Nebraska, Territory, to Virginia 
City, Montana. This road was to follow the river grade as far as 
the Black Hills country and then run north and intersect the 
Bozeman Trail at or near Powder river, from which place it 
would closely follow that trail J 

Taking into consideration the fact that this road passed through 
the country over which the Indian held absolute control, the 
magnitude of the undertaking is apparent. 


The Powder River and adjacent country was the home of sev- 
eral branches of the Sioux tribe, especially the Oglala and Brules; 
and allied with them were the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians; 
so it was to be expected that they would offer desperate resistance 
against the white man's invasion of these lands. This country 
was, from the Indian standpoint, all that could be desired; plenty 
of shelter, mild winters, sufficient food for their ponies, and an 
abundance of game in the broken country surrounding them for 
their own sustenance. It was an Indian paradise. 

In this territory, so ideally located, the Indians had established 
their families where they could leave them in comparative safety 
while the warring element of the tribes could raid the lower coun- 
try at will. 

So serious had conditions become for the settlers along the 
border; so terrible the toll exacted from the travelers along the 
Overland trail, that the military authorities finally awoke to the 
fact that something must be done to effectively subdue the ma- 
rauders, as the force of soldiers in the few scattered military posts 
were totally inadequate to handle the situation. To this end, the 
following orders were issued: 

"General Orders No. 80" 

Department of the Missouri 

St. Louis, Mo., March 28, 1865 

1. Brig. Gen. R. B. Mitchell, U. S. Volunteers is hereby 
relieved from the command of the District of Nebraska and 
will assume command of the District of North Kansas, head- 
quarters at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

2. The Districts of Utah, Colorado and Nebraska, are here- 
by merged into one command to be known as the District 
of the Plains. 

3. Brig. Gen. P. E. Connor, U. S. Volunteers, is assigned 
to the command of the District of the Plains, headquarters 
at Denver, Colo., Ter. 

By command of Major Gen. Dodge; 
J. W. Barnes, 
Ass't. Adjutant General. 

The direct result of this order was the organization of what is 
known as the "Connor Powder River Indian Expedition." 

General Dodge had implicit confidence in General Connor's 
ability to cope with the situation, and it is but fair to say that he 
had every reason to justify him in so believing. 

Connor had done masterly service in trying years of the Civil 
War as Commander of the District embracing what is now Colo- 
rado, Wyoming, and Utah; had held the Mormons in check; and 
controlled the Indian situation along the exposed borders and the 


Overland Trail with surprising efficiency, when the small number 
of men under his command is taken into consideration. The 
Powder River expedition, however, was an almost total failure so 
far as any lasting impression left with the hostiles is concerned: 
and an extensive research through the records and other sources 
of information bearing on the subject that I have been able to 
gather, places the blame for such failure on General Connor. 

There is no question as to General Connor's ability as an Indian 
fighter; he was thoroughly versed in such warfare, and a man of 
splendid judgment; but on this occasion he failed to properly 
organize his columns so that cooperation resulted, and it is nothing 
less than a miracle that the Cole and Walker contingents escaped 
as well as they did. 

The original plan was to send four columns into the stronghold 
of the Indians, each taking a different route and all to meet at an 
appointed rendezvous on the first day of September. 

The left column was to have been in command of Colonel Kidd; 
and the west column to under Captain Albert Brown, but the plans 
were changed somewhat and these columns were combined and 
commanded by General Connor in person. The eastern or right 
column was commanded by Colonel Nelson Cole, and his instruc- 
tions from General Connor, which are in the official records, I 
give in part as fellows: "You will proceed with your column by 
the best and most practicable route to the east base of the Black 
Hills, in Dakota Territory move thence along the east base of the 
Black Hills to Bear's Peak; situated at the northeast point of the 
hills where a large force of hostile Indians are supposed to be 
camped. From Bear's Peak you will move around the north base 
of the hills to the Three Peaks; from thence you will strike across 
country in a northwesterly direction to the north base of Panther 
mountain, Wolf where you will find a supply depot and probably 
part of my command. . . . You will not receive overtures of peace 
or submission from the Indians; but will attack and kill every male 
Indian over twelve years of age." 

The center column was in command of Lieutenant Colonel 
Walker and his instructions directed him via Rawhide Creek 
through the Black Hills, across the headwaters of the Little Mis- 
souri River, in a northwesterly direction to the Powder River to a 
point nearly opposite the north end of Panther mountain; and 
thence in a westerly direction to the rendezvous on Rosebud river. 
His instructions in regard to the hostiles were the same as those 
given Cole. 

It is decidedly unfortunate that General Connor failed to make 
a report, other than a few dispatches to General Dodge, of the 
expedition; so what I have been able to gather of the part taken 
by the column under him has been through those that had part 
in the affair; the only official report touching the matter having 
been the one made by General Dodge. A number of years ago 


I had the pleasure of meeting Captain N. J. O'Brien, who was 
an officer with the Connor command; and the information ob- 
tained from him, together with the diary of Captain H. E. Palmer, 
covering this campaign and published in Coutant's History of 
Wyoming; a brief account of the campaign by Capt. J. L. Hum- 
freyville, and what few war records I have been able to find that 
bear on the subject furnish about all the reliable information 
obtainable relative to this column's part in the affair. 

Colonel Qole made a report covering the campaign of the 
troops under him, to General Connor, at Fort Connor, on Sep- 
tember 20, 1865, but this report was never forwarded to the 
authorities, nor made a part of the official records. Feeling that 
the troops under him had not received proper credit for their 
strenuous effort during the campaign, and that he himself had 
been the subject of unjust criticism, Colonel Cole made a more 
comprehensive report of the affair some two years later, which 
he forwarded directly to General Grant, together with the one 
made to Connor. 

Supplementing Colonel Cole's report are the reports of Colonel 
Oliver Wells, commanding the Twelfth Missouri Cavalry; Maior 
Clem Landgraeber, commanding second battalion, Second Mis- 
souri Light Artillery; and from battery commanders: Captain 
Samuel Flagg, Captain E. S. Rowland, Lieut. Wm. Rinne, Lieut. 
Louis Holland, and Lieut. John H. Kendall. Several years ago 
Mr. Wm. Devine, of Sheridan, Wyoming, wrote a splendid article, 
giving a very complete account of the Cole column, which was 
published in the Sheridan Post, and to this article I am indebted 
for a great deal of information. 

I have also found some valuable data from the pen of G. Bird 
Grinnell, who in his excellent work, the Fighting Cheyennes, 
furnishes some valuable history touching on this expedition as 
well as on the Sawyer party. Mr. Grinnell has made an exhaus- 
tive study of these affairs, both from the standpoint of the white 
man and the Indian. I consider him an authority. Relative to 
the Sawyer expedition I have the report of Captain Geo. W. 
Williford, commanding the military escort, the war records, the 
History of Wyoming, by Coutant, and a number of other reliable 
sources of information. 


The Western, or left wing, of the Connor expedition was formed 
at Ft. Laramie, and was composed of the following organizations: 
Troop F, Seventh Iowa Volunteer Cavalry, under Captain N. J. 
O'Brien; Troop E, Eleventh Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, under 
Captain J. L.Humfreyville; Troop M, Second California Volunteer 
Cavalry, under Captain George Conrad; six troops of the Sixth 
Michigan Volunteer Cavalry, commanded by Colonel J. H. Kidd; 


a detachment of fourteen artillerymen from the Second Missouri 
Light Artillery, with a section of rifled cannon, in charge of Cap- 
tain O'Brien; a detachment of the U. S. Signal Corps, under Lieut. 
J. W. Brown; and a detachment from the Eleventh Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry serving in the Quartermaster's department. There were 
also seventy-five Pawnee Indian scouts, under Captain Frank 
North; and seventy Omaha and Winnebago Indian scouts under 
Captain E. W. Nash. 

Their wagon train consisted of 185 wagons, mostly requisitioned 
from civilian freight outfits, with 195 teamsters and wagon bosses, 
all under Robert Wheeling. 

As guides they had Major James Bridger, Nick Janisse, Jim 
Dougherty, Jean Resha, Mich Bouyer, Antwine LaDue and a 
scout named Bordeaux. In two of these scouts especially they 
had valuable men, Major Bridger being thoroughly familiar with 
Indians, and having an absolute knowledge of the country; while 
Mich Bouyer was one of the most reliable and efficient scouts of 
that time. Mr. D. C. Cummings, of this place, was well acquaint- 
ed with Bouyer, having met him first in 1871, and the following 
year they spent together at the home of Mr. Cummings 1 uncle in 
Montana. Mr. Cummings says that Mich Bouyer was a half- 
breed Indian by birth, but in all other respects he was a white man. 
Bouyer was among the brave men who gave up their lives in the 
service of their country at the battle of the Little Big Horn on 
June 25, 1876. 

This column left Fort Laramie on the thirteenth day of July, 
1865, and marched up the Platte river and crossed at the LaBonte 
crossing, which was a little below where Fort Fetterman was 
afterwards located, and from there their course led them in a 
northwesterly direction, practically following the Bozeman Trail, 
to Powder river. 

The California troops and the Indians under Nash, however, 
kept up the Platte river as far as Platte bridge where is now the 
city of Casper, and joined the main command a few days later. 
The expedition reached Powder river on the 11th of August and 
went into camp on the south side of that stream on land that is 
now embraced in the ranch of Young Bros. After sending scout- 
ing parties up and down the river to find a suitable site for a fort 
and after hearing their reports Connor decided to build the post 
on the north side of the river opposite their camp, and on the 
fourteenth of August the work of building Fort Connor was 

The location of Fort Connor (afterward Fort Reno) was well 
chosen, being on a mesa closely abutting the river, and which 
extended back in a level prairie for several miles before reaching 
the hills to the north. The intention of the War Deoartment wa- 
to build two posts on Powder river, one at this point, and one 


near its conjunction with the Yellowstone, but the other post was 
not built. 

Fort Connor, as near as I have been able to learn from those 
who were there, was not a very elaborate affair, being built of 
cottonwood logs, and only a few of the principal buildings being 

In conversation a few days ago with Mr. John Ryan, of Buffalo, 
who visited Fort Connor in 1866 with the Carrington expedition, 
he told me that the post was "nothing but a collection of cotton- 
wood shacks." 

On August 16th, while engaged in building the post, they got 
their first sight of Indians; Captain North and his Pawnee dis- 
covering a band of twenty-four Cheyennes, immediately started 
in pursuit. They followed these Indians nearly sixty miles before 
overtaking them; and in the resulting engagement succeeded in 
killing the entire party, captured 29 head of horses and other 
property with no loss to themselves but four head of horses. This 
fight took place on Powder river a little below the mouth of Crazy 
Woman Creek. 

On the nineteenth, one of the scouts discovered a large party 
of Sioux, and North and his Indians again took up the pursuit, 
and killed a chief and captured six head of horses. Colonel Kidd, 
with twenty-five men of the 6th Michigan Cavalry, who were on a 
scouting party, reported having seen from five hundred to a 
thousand Indians; and Captain Marshall, with 40 men of Troop E, 
Eleventh Ohio Cavalry, who were scouting in another direction, 
attacked another band of Sioux, and killed two Indians and cap- 
tured eleven head of horses. 

These bands were traveling north and were presumably among 
those that later attacked the Cole and Walker columns. 

Colonel Kidd was placed in command of Fort Connor, with 
the six troops of his regiment as a garrison, and August 22nd the 
expedition moved north, leaving a large part of the wagon train 
at the post. 

The first day's march brought them to Crazy Woman creek 
and they camped on the flat on this side of the stream about a 
mile below where Trabing is now located. 

Leaving this camp they marched down to the mouth of Wallow 
creek; thence up that stream to its intersection with the Bozeman 
Trail, following that road to Clear creek, and went into camp on 
this stream just above the mouth of French creek. 

From here their route led them along the Bozeman trail across 
Piney creek and Massacre hill to Prairie Dog creek; down which 
stream they traveled to Tongue river. 

Captain North and his Pawnees had been sent on a scouting 
expedition to the upper Tongue river country, and while the 
command was encamped at near the mouth of Prairie Dog creek 
two Pawnee Indians from his detail came in and reported that 


North had discovered an Indian village at the mouth of Wolf creek 
on Tongue river. General Connor decided to move to attack at 
once; made a forced night march, and the next morning, August 
28th, surprised and destroyed the village, which proved to be a 
band of Arapahoes and a few Cheyennes, under Chief Black Bear. 

There is a wide range of reports concerning this battle, but the 
only thing official is the report of General Dodge, who says: 
"Killed fifty, captured village, all winter provisions, and six hun- 
dred horses — all the stock they had." 

This fight took place on Tongue river at the mouth of Wolf 
creek, near where the town of Ranchester is now located, on land 
that is part of the 04 Bar ranch. 

In the summer of 1895, in company with Captain N. J. O'Brien, 
who had command of a troop of cavalry and also the artillery 
detachment during the engagement, 1 visited this battlefield. Cap- 
tain O'Brien's account of the affair does not differ in substance 
to any extent from that given by Captain Palmer, only that it 
was given in an absolutely impersonal way. According to Captain 
O'Brien's account, the troops charged the position about nine 
o'clock in the morning, driving the Indians from the village, and 
a running fight was kept up for several miles after the hostiles, 
both up Tongue river and Wolf creek; the soldiers keeping up the 
pursuit as long as their horses held out. In the meantime most 
of the ponies had been rounded up, and when about noon the 
troops returned from the chase, the work of destroying the village 
was started. The encampment consisted of some two hundred and 
fifty lodges, which were burned, together with the entire camp 
equipage, consisting of their winter's supply of food and many 
other things valuable to the Indians. 

Notwithstanding their fight, the Indians were not entirely sub- 
dued, and when the soldiers started the work of destroying the 
camp, they rallied and made a brave attempt to regain their 
property, and the troops were hard pressed to maintain the 
position, but by bringing the mountain howitzers into action and 
placing a few well timed shots in their midst the Indians retired 
to a safe distance and the work of destruction was completed. 
The troops started back to their bivouac at the mouth of Prairie 
Dog creek late in the afternoon; the Indians following and making 
desultory attempts to recapture their ponies, but the rear guard 
had no trouble in holding them off, and with the coming of night 
they abandoned the idea, and Connor's little army reached its 
destination without further molestation. A few prisoners had 
been captured, but the following day General Connor ordered 
them released to rejoin their tribe. The loss to the troops in 
this engagement was two soldiers and four Pawnee Indians killed. 
There were quite a number wounded, however, some of whom 
afterwards died. 

On September 1st, according to Captain Palmer's diary, we 


find the command camped on Tongue river, a short distance below 
the mouth of Prairie Dog creek. This was the day that the three 
columns were due to meet at the rendezvous at the northeast base 
of the Panther mountains on the Rosebud, and this column was 
at least eighty miles from the appointed place. 


The center column as in command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Walker consisted of six hundred men of his regiment, the Sixteenth 
Kansas, and a supply train of pack mules. They left Fort Laramie 
on the 2nd day of August, forming a junction with a Cole com- 
mand on the 15th, at Pine creek, in what is now South Dakota. 
As this column practically finished the campaign with the Cole 
contingent, it will hereafter be included in the report of that 


The Eastern division of the expedition was in command of 
Colonel Nelson Cole, 2nd consisted of eight companies of his 
regiment, the Second Missouri Light Artillery, equipped as caval- 
ry, and eight troops of the 12th Missouri Cavalry, under Colonel 
Oliver Wells; a section of three inch rifled cannon, manned by a 
detail from the artillery; and a wagon train of 140 six-mule teams. 
The command numbered about 1400 men. 

This command left Omaha City, Nebraska Territory, on the 
first day of July, 1865, and marched by way of Fremont to 
Columbus, from which place they followed up the North Loup 
river to its head; then across the sand hills to Niobrara river, and 
thence up Antelope creek and down Wounded Knee creek to the 
White river. From the White river they followed the Harney 
trail (1855) through the bad lands, past Ash Springs to Bear 
creek; then leaving the Harney trail to the right, they moved 
direct to the South Fork of the Cheyenne, (Belle Fourche), and 
then over the divide to the Little Missouri; thence to the head of 
OTallen creek and across to the Powder river, striking that stream 
at a point about fifty miles above its junction with the Yellow- 
stone, on the 28th day of August. 

The command by this time had nearly depleted their rations; 
the animals were playing out for want of forage; and it became 
necessary to locate the supply depot that General Connor's in- 
structions, delivered to Cole at the Loup river, said would be 
on the Rosebud. 

To this end, and to report to General Connor as the message 
delivered to him at the Loup inferred that his column was late, 
Cole dispatched Lieutenant Hoagland and twenty men of the 
Second Missouri Light Artillery, with a guide named Raymond, to 
find Connor's troops or the supply depot. 

The scouting party returned on the first day of September, 


having failed to find any trace of either Connor or a supply depot, 
or any evidence that any troops had been there. The scouting 
party also discouraged any attempt to take the worn out train 
across the broken country between them and the Tongue river. 
Being satisfied that Connor had not gone to Panther mountain, 
and Palmer's account proves that he had not, Colonel Cole decided 
that his best move was to get to rations as soon as possible; and 
Fort Laramie was the nearest point to get them, as far as he knew, 
as the existence of a post at Powder river was not known. 

On the first day of September they had their first skirmish with 
the Indians; the men who were herding the stock about a mile 
from camp being attacked by about five hundred of the hostiles. 
Captain Rowland, with seven men of the Second Missouri Light 
Artillery, closely pressed the Indians and killed a number of 
them; but while chasing a detached party another band of about 
forty-five suddenly charged out of a ravine and killed or mortally 
wounded all of the party with the exception of Captain Rowland. 
Colonel Cole immediately ordered out his entire force, excepting 
a camp guard; but by the time the main force arrived the Indians 
retreated and the soldiers could not pursue them because of the 
exhausted condition of their horses. Cole estimates the number of 
Indians killed in this engagement at about twenty-five and quite 
a number wounded. 

During the afternoon a column of smoke was observed in the 
direction of the mouth of Powder river and they arrived at the 
conclusion that it was either a big Indian village on the Yellow- 
stone, or that General Connor, unable to get down Tongue river, 
had gone around by the way of the Big Horn river, and was hold- 
ing his force at the mouth of Powder river, and endeavoring to 
attract the other columns by signal fires. 

It was decided to march down the river as they would be justi- 
fied in either case; if Connor was there they would find rations; 
and if it was an Indian village they could engage the hostiles; 
and it was also hoped that grass and game was more plentiful in 
that direction. 

On the morning of the 2nd they moved to the west side of 
Powder river and marched down that river twenty-five miles; 
but finding that it was impossible to take the wagon train through 
in that direction had to abandon that route. During that night 
to further add to their discomfort the weather changed from ex- 
treme heat to excessive cold and a terrific storm came up that 
killed a large number of their worn out horses. 

On the 3rd, they turned back up the river to the first place 
grass could be found for the horses; and Cole states in his report 
that during the march down the river and back to this point thev 
lost about 225 horses and mules. The following day a party, 
sent back to the camp of the day before to more thoroughly 


destroy the property necessarily abandoned at that place, were 
attacked by about seventy-five Indians; but were able to drive 
them off and pursue them several miles down the river. 

On the morning of the 5th, when the command was about 
ready to move, Indians were discovered in large numbers in the 
hills to the west, their intention being to cut off some teamsters 
who were rounding up stray mules; but well directed shots from 
the train relieved the situation and the Indians retired, carrying 
their dead with them. 

Cole says: "Larger detached parties showed themselves on the 
adjacent hills, and upon advancing the command in their direction 
I discovered that there were many hundreds in the ravines beyond 
who had until then not shown themselves. Whilst in person on 
the west side of camp I discovered that large bodies were moving 
up the valley toward the south and also that there was a consider- 
able force on the east bank of the river. Captain Boardman, 
with his company, (M, Second Missouri Light Artillery) had 
been stationed in the woods along the bank of the river, and 
covered the rear of the camp, whilst the Twelfth Missouri Cavalry 
occupied the right flank, the line of the Second Missouri Light 
Artillery extending to corral of the commissary train on the left, 
with parts of three companies deployed from the train to the 
woods. The company teams of the Twelfth Missouri Cavalry 
were formed in line perpendicular to the left of this regiment and 
extended from the section of artillery to the woods. The Indians 
made efforts to attract small parties of men from camp in pursuit 
of bands of from ten to a hundred of their number repeatedly 
charging up within 250 yards and rapidly moving away again. 
Frequent attempts were also made by them to get at the horses 
of the men who were on foot in the skirmish line, but the excel- 
lence of the Spencer arm and the promptness of the men, who 
gallantly met and repulsed them, though frequently outnumbered 
twenty to one, defeated the attempt at this quarter. In this 
desultory manner the engagement continued some three hours, 
until a dash was made upon a detachment of the Twelfth Missouri 
Cavalry, who without orders had crossed the river. When at- 
tacked they very improperly turned to gain shelter, but the super- 
ior condition of the Indians' horses enabled them to overtake the 
broken down horses on which they were mounted. This detach- 
ment was driven into the river, with the loss of two men killed 
and two wounded. They only escaped annihilation by the prompt 
action of Captain Boardman, who moved a portion of his com- 
pany to their support, and by well directed volleys drove the 
Indians back with heavy loss. The number of Indians in this 
charge could not have been less than a thousand. All the hill 
tops, divides, and margins of the nearest bluffs were literally 
covered with Indians, whose savage yelling was distinctly heard 
above the noise of the immediate conflict. On one hill a large 


number of them had collected; a red flag and the constant use 
of their signal glasses (a piece of looking glass flashed in the sun), 
denoted it to be their headquarters. I opened with shell upon 
this particular spot, and although not doing any serious damage 
caused the evacuation of this and all points within the range of 
my part of guns and a cessation of attack on the part of the Indians 
most of whom retired out of sight and could not be induced to 
remain within reach of any of the detachments sent in pursuit." 

From this point they moved up the river for the next three 
days when they again engaged the Indians. 

Of this fight Cole says: "Seeing nothing more of the Indians 
until September 8th, when Colonel Walker, Sixteenth Kansas, who 
was in my advance about three or four miles, sent back a courier, 
informing me that he was attacked by between 3,009 and 4,000 
Indians, who were driving him back. I was crossing my train over 
the river at the time, and ordering it moved up out of the timber 
and I pushed on with one battalion of the Second Missouri Ar- 
tillery, leaving the balance of this regiment to guard the train, 
and sent the 12th Missouri Cavalry to skirmish through the woods 
along the river bank to drive out a body of Indians who were 
posted in the timber. I also moved the section of artillery up to 
the front and opened upon a large force in a ravine, who were 
apparently preparing to take in flank a skirmish line of the Six- 
teenth Kansas. My pioneer company (Captain Boardman's Com- 
pany M, Second Missouri Light Artillery), had been marching 
with the Sixteenth Kansas, and in conjunction with them con- 
structing roads. When the attack was made it had been judi- 
ciously dismounted and deployed as skirmishers upon the right 
flank of Colonel Walker's line and with the Spencer carbine was 
making its way some hundreds of yards in advance of all others, 
clearing the front entirely of Indians, who turned their attention 
to the other and more poorly armed troops, whose rapid evolutions 
had damaged much of their ammunition and were now firing but 
little. Driving the Indians from a well selected position for attack, 
I found them exerting but little of the energy they had displayed 
on the fifth instant, as they gave way before every attack made 
on them boldly by parties of even half their number. The con- 
formation of the ground necessitated crossing the river at this 
point before proceeding further, and to prevent this a large force 
had gathered in the timber as if to dispute our passage. I directed 
the fire of my rifled piece among them and killed a number as 
they endeavored to escape across the river having an enfilade 
fire on them whilst they were huddled together at the various 
gulches running through the bank to the water. Crossing the 
opposite side of the river, camp was formed of both commands 

That afternoon a terrific storm came up which increased in 


intensity during the night; and, as the camp was in an exposed 
position, Cole moved the command up the river about two and a 
half miles to some heavy timber in which the suffering animals 
could get some shelter, where by surrounding them with huge 
log fires, and feeding them on cottonwood boughs and what little 
grass was attainable, decreased the death rate considerably. 

To again quote Cole: "During the thirty-six hours that the storm 
prevailed 414 of my animals perished on the picket ropes or along 
the road between camps." 

The location of this camp was on the Powder river, not far 
from the mouth of the Little Powder, and about five miles above 
where the town of Broadus, Montana, is now located. 

On the tenth, the command again moved up the river, crossing 
at this point under cover of their cannon, as the Indians had 
assumed a position where they could dash down at the troops if 
opportunity offered; but a few shots scattered among them forced 
them back out of range and the command moved on unmolested. 
This was their last brush with the hostiles, although they hovered 
in the rear of the troops for several days, but prudently kept out 
of range. 

On the 13th, a couple of soldiers and two Pawnee Indians ar- 
rived at camp with dispatches from General Connor directing Cole 
to either move his command over to Tongue river and join him, 
or to proceed up the river to Fort Connor. The advice of the 
dispatch bearers being that his worn out train could not negotiate 
the trip to Tongue river decided Cole to proceed up the river to 
Fort Connor. Lieut. Jones was sent with a detachment of the 
Second Missouri Light Artillery to accompany the Connor dis- 
patch bearers back to that column and to report the condition of 
the Cole and Walker commands. It has always been supposed, 
and most writers so state, that Captain North located the Cole 
command; but Cole says different, and so does Mr. Devine. Mr. 
Devine was well acquainted with Captain North, and as he is 
positive in the statement as above, it must be accepted as a fact. 

The command was now in a deplorable condition, being prac- 
tically out of rations and subsisting on horse and mule meat; 
nearly all the men barefooted; many suffering from scurvy and 
the effects of their exposure in the storms, but with the cheering 
news that up the river was a good supply of food they again took 
heart and started for the haven — Fort Connor. 

Considering the exhausted condition of both men and horses the 
trip up Powder river was made in surprisingly short time, reaching 
the mouth of Clear creek on the 14th, and Crazy Woman creek 
on the 16th, arriving at Connor on the 20th, and going into camp 
on the south side of the river. 

The loss to this column in the several engagements was as 
follows : 

Twelfth Missouri Cavalry, three killed, one missing; Second 


Missouri Light Artillery, five killed, five wounded, three of whom 

Cole estimates that they killed from 200 to 500 Indians and 
captured and killed a large number of ponies. From what I have 
been able to learn from the Indians this loss is considerably over- 


The Sawyer road party left the mouth of the Niobrara river. 
Nebraska Territory, on the 13th day of June, 1865, and was in 
charge of Colonel J. A. Sawyer, of Sioux City, Iowa. 

Colonel Sawyer had been an officer in the Civil War and was 
an engineer of considerable experience, and was considered a 
competent man for the enterprise. 

His working force consisted of about a hundred men and he 
had fifty two teams of oxen. His military consisted of companies 
C and D of the Fifth U. S. Volunteers, and twenty-four men of 
Troop B, Dakota Cavalry commanded by Captain Geo. W. 
WUliford. They were also provided with two pieces of artillery. 

(Their route led them west along the Niobrara river for about 
two hundred and fifty miles, when they crossed to the South Chey- 
enne river, up which stream they traveled to the mouth of Black 
Thunder creek; following that stream to its head they crossed the 
divide to the Belle Fourche river, and from there headed in a 
northwesterly direction for Powder river; their object in going in 
that direction being to find a suitable crossing on the Powder 
lower down than the Bozeman trail crossing at Fort Connor, and 
thus shortening the route.) 

(From official reports it seems that Connor had sent word to 
Sawyer not to attempt to go in that direction, the guides with 
Connor contending that the route was not feasible; but it was not 
until he found the rough and broken country impassable for his 
train that he turned back, intending to retrace his steps to the 
Belle Fourche, from where he intended to turn south and take the 
crossing higher up?) 

(The Indians in the meantime had been closely watching the 
expedition and on the second days' journey back to the Belle 
Fourche the train was attacked by a large number of the hostiles, 
being Sioux under Red Cloud and Cheyennes under Dull Knife, 
who kept the train corralled for four days and nights. Of this 
engagement Captain Williford in his report says:} 

(Fighting through the day; and at night the enemy would with- 
draw to commence hostilities again at early dawn, but finding 
that every effort to capture our train and massacre its defenders 
only resulted in their loss of many killed and wounded braves, 
they abandoned the siege. 'J 

I According to General Dodge, however, after the failure of the 


attack they held a parley, George and Joe Bent, Cheyenne half 
breeds, appearing on behalf of the Indians; and Colonel Sawyer 
gave them a wagon load of goods to let him proceed through the 
Indian country without further molestation!) 

Captain Williford was not in favor of Sawyer's proposition and 
protested agaiflst the giving of the goods to the Indians; and sub- 
sequent events showed that he was right, as /the next day the 
Indians again attacked the train as they were proceeding on their 
way to the Belle Fourche. In this attack the Indians were again 
repulsed and did not again molest the party!) 

(Captain Williford reports that he lost three men in the engage- 
ments, Privates Orlando Sous and Anthony Nelson, Troop B, 
First Dakota Cavalry, and Nat Hedges, citizen, and Sutler for 
the expedition, and that only a few were wounded and those 
slightly. The train then proceeded south of the South Butte, 
near which they camped, while Captain Williford with a detach- 
ment of the cavalry made a reconnaissance; finding that they were 
within thirteen miles of the road constructed by General Connor 
and only a day's march to the newly constructed Fort Connor.) 

fThe party arrived at Fort Connor on August 24th, and Captain 
Williford and the U. S. Volunteers were relieved from escort duty 
and ordered to garrison the fort, a detachment of the Sixth Mich- 
igan Cavalry under Captain Cole being sent with Sawyer J 

General Dodge is authority for the statement that as far as 
roadmaking was concerned the Sawyer expedition was a failure, 
that private outfits joining the party swelled the train to about 80 
wagons, and that more attention was paid to getting the train 
through than to survey and construct roads; that Captain Williford 
went simply as an escort to the party, arid had no control whatever 
over it, and exercised none until he was obliged to do so in order 
to save his command, in which, by his superior ability and skillful 
management, he succeeded. 

QThe site of the first attack on the train is on the divide between 
Kingsbury and S Bar creeks, in Campbell county, about twelve 
miles in a southwesterly direction from where the city of Gillette 
is now located!] 

(Geo. E. Smith and D. C. Cummings, of Buffalo, and R. C. 
Rasmussen, of Barber, have each at different times visited this 
place and have found many evidences of the engagement, such 
as pieces of burnecL wagons, old iron, etc., and the rifle pits are 
stiU easily identified) 

rrhe second engagement took place at a point near the Bishop 
road in a direction southeasterly between the scene of the first 
attack and the Belle Fourche river. Their camp when arriving 
at the South Butte was at a point about two and a half miles south, 
of the Butte, and was on land that is part of the Earl Brown ranch.) 
Mr. Milo B. Tanner, who for many years was a resident or 


Buffalo, was with the Sawyer expedition, having been a sergeant 
in Co. D, Fifth U. S. Vols. Mr. Tanner's experience was an 
unusual one, even for the exciting days of the Civil War. The 
Fifth U. S. Volunteers was an organization made up of Confed- 
erate prisoners, who had taken the oath of allegiance but refusing 
to fight against the South, had volunteered for the Indian wars. 
Mr. Tanner was a Union soldier, having enlisted in Co. C, 121st 
N. Y. Volunteers and while serving with that organization was 
captured at the battle of Salem Heights by the Confederates, being 
exchanged in about seventy days; recaptured at the battle of Cold 
Harbor, was confined at Andersonville prison. He escaped from 
Andersonville in a Confederate uniform and while endeavoring to 
regain the Union lines fell in with a Confederate patrol, being 
obliged to join them. The entire patrol was captured by Greson's 
cavalry, and he was taken with the other prisoners to the Alton, 
111., Federal prison where he was held as a rebel prisoner, and was 
unable to get the authorities to recognize his claim, they absolutely 
refusing to write or make any attempt whatever to let him prove 
his contention that he was a Union soldier. Finally, being dis- 
couraged in being held unjustly as a prisoner, he took the oath 
of allegiance and enlisted as above. The company to which he 
belonged being detailed to garrison Fort Connor, he remained at 
that post until the following summer, when the Carrington expe- 
dition relieved the U. S. Volunteers, and he went with them to 
Fort Kearny, Nebraska, where on October 11, 1866, he was 
discharged from the service. After many years his claim was 
recognized by the Government and he was granted a pension, but 
did not live long enough to receive any benefit from it, as the 
first payment did not arrive until after his death, which occurred 
on December 29, 1917, at the Wyoming Soldiers' and Sailors' 

(From Fort Connor the Sawyer party proceeded unmolested 
urftil they reached Tongue river, where they were again attacked — 
presumably by the same Arapahoes that Connor had engaged — 
and they were again forced to corral the train. A courier dis- 
patched to General Connor — then on Tongue river — resulted in 
his sending Captain Brown with two troops of the California 
Cavalry to their relief; but the Indians had desisted in the attack 
before the arrival of the Brown forces and the next day the train 
resumed its journey. Captain Brown, however, accompanied 
them as far as the Big Horn river. In this engagement xm Tongue 
river Captain Cole and two of his troopers were killed.) 

The return of the Connor contingent to Fort Connor, on Sep- 
tember 23rd, at last found the three columns united, but the de- 
plorable condition of the Cole command made the continuance 
of the campaign out of the question. 

I do not feel that in justice to all concerned that I can close 


this paper without making some comparison of dates and facts, 
and as Mr. Devine has in his article most thoroughly gone into 
these details I am going to briefly place the important points of 
his article before you. Before quoting Mr. Devine, however, I 
wish to state that the report of Colonel Cole is official; undoubt- 
edly having been made from his headquarters records, and con- 
sequently but^ little chance of his dates being wrong, while the 
Palmer account — the only record we have of the Connor com- 
mand — was private diary. Therefore, we are forced to accept the 
Cole report as authentic. Supplementing the report of Colonel 
Cole and his officers is the story by Devine and his account of 
the artificial one, which adds material proof to its correctness. 
Copying from Mr. Devine's article: 


See History of Wyoming, [Coutant] pp. 517 to 523, where 
you will find that the 29th and 30th of August were spent on Wolf 
creek and Tongue river. 

"On the 31st we traveled down Tongue river. . . . September 
1st, early in the morning a cannon shot was heard. No two per- 
sons could agree in what direction the sound came from, but as 
that was the day fixed for the general rendezvous of Cole and Con- 
nor's command near the mouth of the Rosebud, some eighty miles 
away, it was supposed that the sound came from there, as that was 
the day fixed for the rendezvous. General Connor directed Cap- 
tain North, with about twenty of his Indians and Captain Marshall, 
with thirty men of the Eleventh Ohio Cavalry, to push on rapidly 
to the rendezvous to communicate with Cole." 


"September 1st, scouting party returned, having found no indi- 
cation of Connor's command or any other white man ever having 
been in that part of the country. September 2nd, moved down 
the river twenty-five miles. 3rd burned some wagons and turned 
back up the river. Traveled about eighty miles, getting very cold. 
September 4th, moved about one and a half miles for grass and 
shelter. September 5th, attacked by the Indians from all sides 
and had to bring our section of artillery into action for the first 
time. The fighting that had taken place heretofore had been by 
small parties of our men and Indians." 


"When General Connor's command heard that cannon shot, 
not only one but a half dozen of them, it was no mystery to Jim 
Bridger or Frank North where the sound came from; in fact it 
was not a mystery to any of the command whom I came across 
at Fort Laramie during that winter. But the mystery to me is 


how it came to be the first day of September on the Tongue river, 
when it was the fifth on Powder river." 

Taking into consideration the difference in the dates, the state- 
ment of Mr. Devine, and the other facts bearing on the matter, I 
am forced to the conclusion that it was the Connor column that 
failed to make the rendezvous. 

Another factor in the failure of the campaign was the lack of 
competent guides with both the Cole and Walker columns. Cole 
marched all the way from Omaha for the most part through un- 
known country, at least unknown to any of his command. Added 
to this he was burdened with a cumbersome wagon train, and was 
forced to make roads as he went along. While it was true that he 
started with three Indians as guides, one of these was accidentally 
killed, one died of the scurvy, and the other left between two days, 
taking one of the best horses of the command with him. 

On the other hand, with the Connor column were seven scouts, 
any of whom placed with Cole or Walker could have guided them 
by the best and shortest route to the appointed meeting place. 

Having pack animals for transportation Walker might have 
done better, but this is only speculative when we consider what 
might have been the result had not Cole come to his assistance 
on the 8th of September and it perhaps safe to presume that he 
acted wisely in keeping in close touch with the larger command. 
As it was, with the assembling of the commands at Fort Connor, 
further attempts to push the campaign were abandoned, and after 
a few days' rest the entire force took up the march for Fort 
Laramie, and the "Connor Powder River Indian Expedition" was 

Zke Quest for Ca ftonte 

Pierre La Bonte, Jr. 

Possibly not one of the sons and daughters of early pioneers or 
any resident of Converse County, Wyoming, today has any doubt 
whatsoever that an actual La Bonte lived and trapped in the 
environs* of the Creek (near Douglas) bearing his name. 

Historians and students of Western history have until now been 
unable to uncover any authentic data on La Bonte. Legends and 
brief passages have been published through the years but none of 
these have carried any documentary proof nor been supported 
with findings of fact. 

Recently, however, proof of a La Bonte having appeared in the 
Laramie Region is about to be disclosed. 

In 1950 L. C. Bishop, Wyoming State Engineer, in behalf of 
the Wyoming Pioneer Association, edited a review of George 
Frederick Ruxton's book (1847) "Life in the Far West." Rux- 
ton's story of La Bonte (his principal character) lost much of 
his color in the abbreviated work. In its entirety, however, it is 
a magnificent job, and for a single book affords the best under- 
standing of the mountain fur trade. After reading the volume 
it is likely anyone could accept it as being an historical record 
of the time. 

Summarizing his contribution, Mr. Bishop conceded the correct- 
ness of the incidents, as related by Ruxton, and stated in a final 
paragraph: "I am sufficiently acquainted with the geography of 
the entire territory covered to feel sure that La Bonte did visit 
the places named." Further he adds: "For my part, I believe 
the story of La Bonte to be substantially true and as I view it he 
was a resolute, resourceful and rugged character of the Old West, 
worthy of being remembered by our pioneers." 

Certainly no one would quarrel with that last observation if 
it were supported by proof data. At its face value we might be 
mistaken to accept the Ruxton La Bonte as specifically historical. 

Le Roy Hafen re-edited and annotated "Life in the Far West" 
in 1951. In his introduction in the new edition he maintains the 
volume is "fictionized history, factual but not a reliable chronicle." 
To support this he quotes Ruxton, writing to the editors of 
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine and saying: "I have no doubt 
jumbled the dramatis personae one with the other." Obviously, 
since Mr. Hafen found no record of La Bonte in his research he 
assumed La Bonte might have been substituted for these possi- 


bilities: Joe Walker, Bill Williams, William Bent, Black Harris, 
Dick Wooten, John Hatcher or Rube Herring. He could have 
hazarded others but he stopped there. 

Bernard De Voto, noted historian and prolific writer, has found 
no actual La Bontes other than Louis and Jean-Baptiste La Bonte 
who were among the forty-five engages led by Wilson Price Hunt 
to Astoria in 1810. He says: "Nobody has any information 
about the career of either of the La Bontes — what happened to 
them after 1812, where they went, what they did, how long they 
lived or anything else." He also adds: "No LaBonte was an 
Ashley man and the name does not appear in the records of the 
mountain fur trade, except as the name of the Creek." 

Of Ruxton, De Voto declared his admiration for the author's 
natural gift for writing fiction but quite certainly considered the 
work just that. "Nothing in it violates plausibility but much of 
it is entirely untrue, in the sense that novels are untrue — that is, 
much of it is imaginary." 

Bennett Cerf observes: "If you ever hope to get along with an 
author (may we add the historian?) there is one thing you must 
understand from the outset. Every word that he sets down on 
paper automatically becomes a priceless gem and the merest sug- 
gestion that he alter or condense his text is an unforgivable insult " 

Frequently historians coming up with additional research have 
been known frankly to admit errors and omissions, to have filled 
in gaps with conjecture and otherwise been flatly wrong. 

If we are to assume then from Hafen's and De Voto's point of 
view that Ruxton's story is nine-tenths historical — well may it be! 
We look for an actual La Bonte of the Creek elsewhere and 
believe we have found him. So much for historians — we'll stick 
to the men who were there. 

We remember Parkman had left an ill Shaw to recuperate at 
La Bonte Camp and had told his friend he would meet him at 
Fort Laramie in August. As we consider the distances men 
travelled then Fort Laramie was not very far from the present 
La Bonte Creek. It is reasonable to infer Shaw was not left alone. 
Their friendship was profound. Since Parkman referred to the 
camp as La Bonte's it is equally reasonable to believe the man 
(suffering from dysentery) was left in La Bonte's care, if no one 
else — on La Bonte Creek. 

Going on with this reasoning, we establish La Bonte Camp or 
Rendez-Vous on the Creek of that name. Its location, therefore, 
was in the Laramie Region (Fort Laramie). Fremont had men- 
tioned the site also as not too distant from Fort Laramie, or about 
60 miles. 

In the interest of thoroughness here are recent factual findings 
on La Bonte which may fall into place in the history of the 


Laramie region. They were obtained after minute research from 
Mrs. Frances Biese, Archivist, Missouri Historical Society: 

"Pierre Chouteau, Sr. Account Book (1802-1812) 
page 247 September 23 1L caffe livree a Labonte 1. . - 
page 252 May 30, 1808 St. Louis, Par La Bonte Pelleteries 8.50 

"In The Diary of William H. Ashley (March 25 to June 27, 1825) 
edited by Dale L. Morgan in the April, 1955, Missouri Historical 
Society Quarterly Bulletin, Ashley states in the "narrative" (that part 
relating to his dealings with the trappers at Rendezvous, July 1, 1825) 
the following charges: 

1 yd Blue Cloth a 6, 

1 doz Rings g ' 2 , 

3 lb Sugar ° 4.50 

3 Coffee ,, .'■" 4.50 

2 yd Ribband "- 1 / 1 

"And, again, under the heading of 
Mr. Provo 

Wz Beads pr La Bonty 4 50 

In his footnote to the above Mr. Morgan states that "David" 
Labonte figures in the American Fur Company Account books 
in the Thirties and Forties". I do not know why Mr. Morgan 
identifies the La Bontee, or La Bonty of the narrative as "David." 
In addition to "David" La Bonte in the American Fur Company 
accounts we also have a "Daniel" Labonte (1841-1852), an 
"Etienne" LaBonte (1831-1836), and a "Rousseau" Labonte 

"No La Bonte in the records", said both Hafen and De Voto! 

We might be daring the "unforgivable insult" but the records 
are proof, notwithstanding. Where do we go from here? The 
quest is still on! 


Oregon Zrail Zrek JQo. One 

Compiled by 

Maurine Carley, Trek Historian 

June 28, 1953 

The road known as the Emigrant Road, the Overland Road, 
the California-Oregon Emigrant Road, and the Medicine Road of 
the Whites is now commonly called the Oregon Trail as it winds 
its way westward from the Missouri River to the Pacific coast. 
This road was the first great transcontinental highway in the 
United States. Over it, thousands of people and animals crossed 
Wyoming in the 19th Century. The white-topped wagons traveled 
from two to six abreast in many places, while at other times the 
terrain made it necessary for them to follow one road. 

Now, more than one hundred years later, in some places the 
road is hard to find. Nature has obliterated parts of it by erosion, 
winds, and rains; man has done his share erasing the ruts with 
his plow while cultivating his fields. 

Two Wyoming men decided, as a hobby, to locate and map the 
trail correctly for future generations. Mr. L. C. Bishop, State 
Engineer, and his friend, Mr. Albert Sims, a rancher from Doug- 
las, conceived the idea of Oregon Trail Treks so they could share 
their information and pleasure with others who were interested 
in preserving the historical lore of Wyoming. Armed with gov- 
ernment reports, diaries, quadrangle maps of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, aerial photos, any historical data obtainable, and equipped 
with uncanny ability to read the terrain of the country, these men 
set out on their exploring trips. 

After fifty miles of the main trail and its principal branches 
have been located and verified, a Trek is announced. Someone 
is then asked to tell the story of each historical spot along the 
trail. These places may be Indian battle grounds, hog ranches, 
old fort sites, or lonely graves. The person chosen is someone 
who is well qualified to speak on the subject. 

While reading about these Treks, we hope you, who were a 
part of them, will enjoy again your trip along what is now a scar 
of the old road. And you, who were unable to go, will have this 
information without the discomfort of heat, wind, or rough roads; 
but, of course, you will be without the pleasant companionship of 
people brought together by a common interest. 


June 28, 1953 

1 1 5 Participants - - - - 46 Cars 

NOTE: Numbers preceding "M" indicate miles on the map 
west from the Nebraska-Wyoming line. 


Governor C. J. Rogers Captain of the train 

Col. A. E. Froyd Wagon Boss 

Frank Murphy Ass't Wagon Boss and Guide 

Maurine Carley __ Historian 

Red Kelso.._ Photographer and Press 

Gen. R. L. Esmay .Corporal of Guard and Registrar 

Mrs. Sam Thompson ..Chaplain 

Glenn A. Conner Trumpeter 

8:30 A.M. The Caravan left the Bungalow Hotel in Tor- 

8:50 A.M. Arrived at the HENRY HILL GRAVE (2M) 
100 feet north of a south branch of the old road about 8 miles 
east of Torrington. This grave was framed with wood posts and 
an iron pipe which has been broken by range cattle. Now stones 
are piled on the mound. There is a concrete marker with the 
following badly worn inscription. 

"Henry Hill, Born June 8, 1820. Age 59 
Reengraved August 28, 1930, by M. H. Stewart 
A. H. and C. G. Jones." 

The following graveside prayer was given by the Chaplain. 

Dear Lord and Father of us all — as we pause at the side of this 
final resting place of Henry Hill, we are reminded of the moral 
and physical courage the early pioneers possessed. We honor 
them for the part they took in opening up and furthering travel- 
ways to the new frontiers. The knowledge of their strength and 
fortitude in privation and danger should inspire us all this day to 
rededicate ourselves to the preservation of our heritage, so that 
each individual will, in thought and deed, uphold the wonderful 
way of life these intrepid Pioneers sacrificed in ways to preserve. 
Dear Lord, we thank Thee for the many blessings of this land. 
May we, Thy children, prove true to Thy precepts and teach- 
ings. We ask in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen. 

Remarks by Robert O. Davis, Regional Engineer, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. 

The Geological Survey for many years has been using available 
historical information in the preparation of its topographic maps. 


Historical trails, markers, and other points of interest have been 
shown on many of our topographic quadrangles. 

In our mapping program, we are preparing a series of maps 
covering Continental United States. These maps are general 
purpose and contain many types of information as to terrain, 
water, and manmade improvements, and the historical data, we 
feel, is an important part of the record. 

Naturally, the Geological Survey is unable to go into any de- 
tailed research for the procurement of the various types of historic 
information, but we are very glad when the information can be 
made available to us to include it in our published maps. 

In the case of the Oregon Trail that we will follow today, we 
have been very fortunate in obtaining a very great amount of 
accurate, detailed information from Mr. L. C. Bishop and his 

For the past 5 years, our mapping operations in Wyoming have 
produced about 225 new topographic quadrangle maps. Through- 
out the Platte River area, the Oregon Trail naturally crosses most 
of these maps and, as it stands today, we have accurately posi- 
tioned the Oregon Trail on quite a number of these new topo- 
graphic maps. We feel that the information collected and recorded 
on these maps will be of great interest and value to later genera- 
tions, as it is also of value to us today, who are interested in the 
historical aspects of the Oregon Trail. 

On the latter part of the trip today, we will cross several of 
these new maps and it is hoped that you will be able to see this 
record as we have a few copies of the map in our car. 

I think you will realize that one of the most important aspects 
of this map record of the Trail is the fact that, in the future, as 
the marks that exist today have become indistinct or obliterated, 
it will be possible, by some simple survey methods, to relocate 
and trace this Trail very accurately, even hundreds of years from 

I would like to encourage all of you people, as individuals and 
also through the various organizations that are interested in the 
Trail, to assist us in obtaining good and precise data on the Trail 
in order that the map record will be as correct as possible. 

9:00 A.M. Departed from Henry Hill grave. At 2-2/3 M. 
a north branch enters. There are two to four ruts here. At 5 M. 
left the trail on the north branch. 

9:20 A.M. Arrived at the OLD RIFLE PITS (6-1/4 M.) at 
the upper end of the Hunton Meadows. Mr. Hunton cut hay 
here for Fort Laramie in the early days of the fort. 

Pat Flannery read excerpts from Mr. Hunton's Diary after 
telling about this well known pioneer. 

This historic location is named for John Hunton a true Virginia 


gentleman of the old school. In the 60's after the surrender of 
the Confederacy, John Hunton whacked bulls to Wyoming and 
settled in this area, where he grew up with the country and played 
an important part in its development for the next half century. 
He was one of Laramie County's early commissioners when it 
included Platte and Goshen. He was the United States Land 
Commissioner before whom the early settlers proved on their 
homesteads in this area. He was a deputy assessor who darkly 
hinted and grumbled from time to time that some of the founders 
of Wyoming's first families did not always give him full and 
accurate count of their herds. He was the engineer who surveyed 
most of the early irrigation ditches and reservoirs in this section, 
and he was with the party that made the first survey of what is now 
Sublette and Teton counties, then a natural wilderness. He was 
the Post Sutler at old Fort Laramie, appointed by President Grant. 
This gave him a monopoly on the sale of civilian goods at that 
historic post. He also had extensive dealings as a contractor with 
the army, furnishing to the troops the important commodities of 
that day — meat, firewood and hay. 

This is a brief sketch of his official and business life. The 
adventures and problems of his private life comprise an even more 
fascinating human story. 

John Hunton was a methodical and meticulous individual who 
kept an accurate and concise day by day record of the things 
that happened to him and his neighbors, and of each day's events, 
together with his very frank opinions of the same. This record 
comprises more than 50 volumes, one for each year, covering 
more than a half century of his life and Wyoming history, as he 
saw it. Some things are not exactly as the history books have 
them but they are interesting, anyway. 1 

I shall call on John Hunton himself for a few brief remarks 
about the year 1875. Following are his own words from his diary. 

"January 1, 1875. I have been butchering since 17th Decem- 
ber. By looking over my books and guessing together I find that 
I owe between $16,000 and $17,000 as a memorandum of this 
book will show." The memo lists 41 names of early Wyoming 
men and firms as his creditors to whom he owed a total of 

He completed his gloomy New Year's day picture in 1875 by 
saying, "The above is a liberal estimate of my indebtedness, which 
I think very doubtful if I ever get through paying it — as I only 
own about $9,000 worth of property. But will keep trying. Will 
make a big effort this year to reduce materially." 

1. "Excerpts from John Hunton's Diaries" edited by L. G. (Pat) Flan- 
nery for the years 1875-1876 appeared in the Lingle Guide Review from 
February 3 -July 14. 1955. 


However, Mr. Hunton did pay off all these debts and made a 
lot of money besides during the next ten years. One year his 
receipts from the government alone were around $100,000. But 
he got his financial body blow in the late 80's when things were 
tough all over for everybody. 

"Thurs. January 28 [1875] — Finished putting up ice at the 
Fort. Received of Capt. Luhn $564 on beef for this month. Staid 
at Fort all night, and won $30 at poker of Hathaway, Harwood, 
and Joe. 

"Tues. Mar. 23, 1875. Expedition under Capt. Mix started to 
bring Miners out of Black Hills. Mr. Bullock went with expedi- 
tion. Considerable Indian excitement about Black Hill. 

"Tues. Sept. 7, 1875. Staid at Post with Kelly. Went to three 
mile ranch to election. Voted Democratic ticket. Also Lollie. 
120 votes polled. 95 democratic. Dull time. Borrowed $20 of 
Kelly!" Lollie, it should be explained, was a half breed — half 
Indian and half French, and reputed to have been one of the most 
beautiful women in the territory. I gather from other entries that 
she was a sister of Baptiste Puerrier, or Big Bat, with whom Mr. 
Hunton was closely associated for many years. 

There are many fascinating items about military movements 
in the area, Indian depredations and fights, freighting, wood cut- 
ting, haying and similar operations that year, but for the benefit of 
any hunters in the crowd we'll let Mr. Hunton tell you briefly 
about an elk hunt on Deer Creek, which enters the Laramie at 
the old Fort. For days they had observed thousands of elk 
moving up Deer Creek. 

"Tues. Dec. 21, 1875 — Stayed last night near Deer Creek. 
This morning moved on to Deer Creek and saw large band of 
elk. Heavy drifts of snow here and in the hills. 

"Wed. Dec. 22, — 8 A.M. moved to place near elk on Little 
Creek. Went in camp and went after elk. Killed and gutted 97. 
Bat and I done the killing. Nath and the boys gutted them. 

"Thurs. Dec. 23 — Broke camp early. Wagons and four men 
went after elk killed yesterday. Bat, Austin Long and myself 
killed and gutted 26 more. Party with wagons killed three and 
camped ten miles west on Deer Creek." 

John Hunton didn't say so, but the soldiers at Old Fort Laramie 
probably had elk steak for that Christmas dinner seventy-eight 
years ago. 

In these meadows hay was cut for the army at Fort Laramie. 
Often the Indians would attack while this was being done so the 
men would have to run to these pits, which you still see here, for 
protection. Several skirmishes with Indians occurred on this very 

9 : 30 A.M. Department from Hunton Meadows. 


9:40 A.M. Arrived CLARY or CLARK GRAVE (7M) 90 
feet north of a south branch of the old road. A fence surrounds 
the grave. A small badly eroded stone marks the grave. On it 
is carved 

Wm. L. Clary [K] June 21, 1856. 

One half mile north of the Clary grave is another gravestone, 
but the markings are completely gone. There are four plain scars 
or ruts of the old road visible on this mesa. 

9:50 A.M. Departed from the Clary grave. 

10:00 A.M. Paused at an OREGON TRAIL MARKER 
(9M.) 2-Vi miles south of Torrington on the oiled road. The 
old trail is no longer seen here. - 

10:30 A.M. Paused at an OREGON TRAIL MARKER 2-Vz 
miles south of Lingle and 750 feet north of the old trail. (North 
of 19-V2 M. on map — about 14 miles by the present road from 
the Clary grave.) 

11:00 A.M. Arrived at the site of the GRATTAN MAS- 
SACRE (about 24-V2 M) near where the old Bordeaux Trading 
Post was located. An historical marker is on the present road Vi 
mile south of this historic spot. 

Mr. W. W. Morrison told the following interesting story of the 

It was late afternoon of August 19th, 1854, when Lieutenant 
Grattan and twenty-eight soldiers under his command lost their 
lives here in a sudden and vicious battle against an overwhelming 
number of Sioux Indians under chiefs Little Thunder and Sitting 
Bear. The interpreter with these men lost his life, too, making 
a total of thirty in all. 

Many and varied are the stories having to do with this massacre; 
but according to some of the best accounts we have followed, and 
which are found in History of Ft. Laramie by Hafen & Young, 
Coutant's History of Wyoming, Notes from John Hunton, Records 
from the War Department and other sources through which much 
research has been done we will give you the story as nearly 
accurate as we can, often quoting from those well known writers. 
Here is the story. 

On, or about August 17th, 1854, when a Mormon caravan 
composed of Scandinavian Proselytes, under the leadership of one 
Hans Peterson Olsen, passed the Brule camp near here, a cow 
from the emigrant herd became lame, fell behind the main herd, 
wandered near the Indian camp, and was killed and eaten by 
some of the Indians who said they thought the cow had been 

The Indians, some 3000 of them, were in camp along the 


Platte river and were waiting for the Government to distribute 
the goods and annuities which they had coming to them at that 
time. They had been camped here for ten or fifteen days, and 
they said they had been without much food during this time, 
except for what little game they were able to shoot close by. 

Their camp was not altogether here in one spot, but was scat- 
tered along for several hundred rods. Some of the teepees were 
east of here, and quite a number were west of here. 

The company of emigrants reported the loss of the cow to Post 
Commander, Brevet-Second Lieutenant Hugh B. Flemming, when 
they reached Fort Laramie. Lieutenant Flemming made prepara- 
tion to send Brevet Second Lieutenant John Lawrence Grattan 
of the 6th Infantry with Sergeant Faver, Corporal McNulty, and 
an interpreter and twenty-six privates to the Indian camp to receive 
the offenders. A few of the men were on horseback, but the 
main body of soldiers left Fort Laramie in an army wagon drawn 
by mules. Two mountain howitzers were taken along. 

At that time the American Fur Company had a few buildings 
some five or six miles below Fort Laramie, and when Lieutenant 
Grattan and his men reached this place a halt was made. The men 
were ordered to load, but not to cap their guns. Instructions as 
to what they should do were given them before reaching Bor- 
deaux's Trading House which was near the Indian camp. 

When the soldiers were nearing the Indian camp the moun- 
tain howitzers were loaded. At Bordeaux's trading house, Bor- 
deaux himself was called for and was asked to notify the chief 
of the soldiers' mission. 

Chief Bear appeared saying that the Indian who had shot the 
cow was a Min-i-con-jou; that he was unable to get the Indian 
to surrender; that when he had gone to the lodge of the offending 
Indian to pursuade him to give himself up he found six other 
Indians in the lodge loading their guns; and they, too, refused to 
give up the offender. 

Chief Bear said they told him "Last year the soldiers killed 
three of us, and again this year we sat by the roadside, and an 
emigrant shot at us, and hit a child in the head. The child still 
lives. Our chief, the Little Brave is dead, and we want to die 

No doubt what the Indians had in mind was the skirmish they 
had on June 15th, 1853, with Lieutenant Flemming and twenty- 
three soldiers under his command when some of the Indians had 
taken over the Ferry boat on the Platte river near Fort Laramie. 
Three Indians were killed in that skirmish. The boat was re- 

Soon after Chief Bear had returned to the men he was again 
sent to the Min-i-con-jou lodge to have the Indian surrender, but 
again was unsuccessful. Grattan was then compelled to seek out 


the offending Indian, and take him by force if necessary. He 
entered the Brule camp here, nearly in the center, and not far 
from the lodge of Chief Bear. 

That part of the camp here was a semi-circle shape with its 
convex side toward the river. It was probably situated just north 
of this irrigation ditch. Immediately to the north of the camp was 
an abrupt depression partly overgrown with bushes. This is the 
depression you can see from here. 

While talks between Lieutenant Grattan and the chiefs were 
under way this depression was being occupied by warriors. At 
the same time the women and children of the tribes were seen 
working their way toward the river. What happened from this 
point is not altogether clear as none of the soldiers survived; but 
it appears after reaching the center of the village, Grattan placed 
his men and howitzers facing the Min-i-con-jou lodge and opened 
another parley. 

"He was greatly handicapped by the interpreter Lucin Auguste" 
says one writer. "This man was not only disliked by the Indians, 
but had special grievance in that two of his animals had recently 
been stolen by the Indians. But most tragic he was intoxicated. . . 
In passing the upper village he was reported to have called out 
to the Indians, daring them to make good their threats to wipe 
out the whites, 'adding that he was coming with 30 men and a 
cannon, and that this time he would eat their hearts raw'.'' 

Bordeaux, who owned the trading post a few hundred yards 
from here, told Grattan the interpreter would make trouble, and 
if the interpreter were locked up in his cabin, he, Bordeaux, could 
settle the trouble in thirty minutes. 

As soon as Lieutenant Grattan halted in the center of the lodges 
he was immediately surrounded by several Indians. One of the 
chiefs came running to Bordeaux and said "My friend, come on; 
the interpreter is going to get us in a fight, and they are going to 
fight if you don't come." 

At the close of the interview, Lieutenant Grattan took out his 
watch and said it was getting late, and that he could wait no 
longer. To which the Chief Bear was reported to have said, "I 
have done all I could; and since you will have him, now push on 
and take him." And then turned and walked away. During the 
skirmish the chief was shot in three places. 

A Mr. Allen who had accompanied the troops from Fort Lara- 
mie, and whose horse had been borrowed, had seated himself on 
top of Bordeaux's house. "The Council", he said, "lasted about 
three quarters of an hour and during this time I saw many Indians 
collecting and mounting their horses near the river, and the women 
and children were leaving the village. At length, I saw the soldiers 
stand up and bring their guns down as if to fire, and at that 
moment I heard, I thought, the report of Indian guns, followed 


immediately by that of muskets. Two cannon were fired directly 

At that time the soldiers commenced to retreat, pursued by the 
Indians close to them and by others who had been concealed be- 
hind the depression north of the camp and who had now appeared 
in great numbers. 

The wagon and mules started off on a run. A man tried to 
climb in the wagon. The wagon reached the first point of the 
bluffs which crossed the road nearly a half mile southwest of here 
before it was overtaken. About eighteen of the soldiers reached 
the road between the two bluffs about three quarters to a mile 
from here. They were killed by the Indians who followed them, 
supposedly by those Indians who came from the Ogalala camp 

Lieutenant Grattan and three or four men were killed near 
the cannon. The interpreter was mounted on a horse, and a 
soldier who was on Lieutenant Grattan's horse was overtaken by 
some Indians who came from near the river below Bordeaux's 
house, passing close to it near the wagon where they were killed. 
The soldiers were loading and firing as they retreated. 

When the firing took place there were only about 50 Indians in 
front of the troops, the others were either concealed in the slough, 
or were getting ready near the river which is about three or four 
hundred yards distance. All the soldiers except one was killed, 
and this one was so badly wounded that he died within two or 
three days. The principal Indian casualty was the chief of the 
Brules. He was severely wounded and died within a week. It 
was reported one or two others were wounded but not killed. 

The Indians wreaked vengeance on the bodies of the soldiers. 
Heads were crushed, throats cut, legs were amputated and horribly 
mutilated. Lieutenant Grattan's bristled body was found with 24 
arrows in it. And was identified later by his watch. 

As the fighting began, Bordeaux barricaded his doors and pre- 
pared to defend his house. Maddened warriors were determined 
upon its destruction, but were talked out of it by friendly Indians 
and traders with Indian wives. He gave over supplies without 
hesitation. The American Fur Company west of here was broken 
into and the Indians helped themselves to the goods. 

The next day Lieutenant Flemming sent to Fort Leavenworth 
for reinforcements. At that time there were probably not more 
than 100 men left at Fort Laramie. 

Then on August 20th, or 21st, Sergeant Snyder was sent from 
Fort Laramie with the remainder of the Garrison Co. G, 6th 
Regiment to assist Bordeaux in burying the dead. By this time 
all of the Indians had disappeared toward the north. Lieutenant 
Grattan's body was sent away for burial, but the 28 enlisted men 
were placed in a common grave some eight or ten feet in diameter. 


The exact location of this grave just now is lost. We are stand- 
ing, however, within a few feet of where it was located. My 
camera, in 1945, recorded the spot when the old wooden marker 
was yet standing on the spot. I have the picture with me. Anyone 
may be welcome to see it if they wish. 

In memory of the 28 men, and Lieutenant Grattan who made 
the Supreme Sacrifice here I shall call the roll: 

Lt. John Lawrence Grattan 
Sgt. Wm. P. Faver 
Cpl. Charles McNulty 
Musician H. A. Krapp 
Musician H. E. Lewis 
Pvt. Charles Burkle 
Pvt. Wm. Camerson 
Pvt. Micheal Collins 
Pvt. John Courtney 
Pvt. Charles Platenius 
Pvt. A. Plumhoff 
Pvt. S. H. Rushing 
Pvt. Stan's Sanienski 
Pvt. Thomas Smith 
Pvt. Edward Stevens 
Pvt. John Sweetman 
Pvt. Wm. Whilford 
Pvt. John Donahoe 
Pvt. James Fitzpatrick 
Pvt. John Flinn 
Pvt. David Hammell 
Pvt. John McNulty 
Pvt. John Mildron 
Pvt. Patrick Murley 
Pvt. Walter Murray 
Pvt. Patrick O'Rourke 
Pvt. Anthony Boyle 
Pvt. John Williams 

The picture I have is that of a weather-worn marker made of 
wood, and is standing directly over the grave site. This was all 
that remained to mark the site where these men fought, died and 
were buried in one common trench-like grave. It was here their 
mutilated bodies lay for nearly thirty-seven years before they were 
removed to the National Cemetery on the grounds of old Fort 
McPherson in Nebraska. 

Here today, are perhaps some half dozen people who have 
visited this spot when it was marked, and they know about where 
it is located. After this generation will have passed who can 


locate the site if it is not marked properly. The plow has passed 
over the hallowed spot. Crops have grown above it. The winds 
have blown dirt over the remaining rocks which Mr. Hunton 
placed there into the hold. 

A suitable marker should be erected on the spot where these 
men were buried, and their names, and the dates they made the 
supreme sacrifice, inscribed upon it. If this is not done, in time 
this battle ground will go into oblivion. Quite some distance 
from the highway though it may be, it is my opinion that the State 
should purchase this tiny God's Acre from the private owner and 
enough land for drive-outs so that all Americans can easily reach 
this spot and pay tribute to those brave men whose lives were lost 

In the years that followed the massacre, badgers began digging 
in the burial site, and some of the human bones were brought to 
the surface and were exposed. John Hunton, an old-timer in this 
valley, hauled rocks and dumped them into the depression to stop 
the badgers from digging further. And then in 1891 when the 
Government was moving remains of soldiers at old Fort Laramie 
to a National Cemetery, Mr. Hunton wrote to the War Department 
suggesting the remains of Grattan's men also be moved from the 
lonely grave. This was ordered done. Mr. Hunton guided the 
men in charge of the work to the scene of the massacre. 

When the remains were exhumed many arrow heads were found 
sticking into the ribs and other parts of the bodies of those un- 
fortunate men who died here. 

The bones were taken to Fort Laramie where they were matched 
and assembled as nearly correct as possible. This was done on 
the long porch in front of where the museum is now. When this 
work was accomplished the remains were placed in caskets and 
shipped to Fort McPherson. The caskets were buried in a circle 
trench overlooked by a large marker bearing the following inscrip- 
tion upon its four sides. 

"In Memory Of Enlisted Men, Co. G. Inf. 
Killed In Action Near Ft. Laramie, Wyoming 
August 19th, 1854." 

At Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery, Fort Leavenworth, 
Kansas, lie the mortal remains of Lieutenant John Lawrence Grat- 
tan. His grave is number 290, A, Section A. A modest stone is 
at the head of his grave bearing this inscription: — 

"In Memory Of Lieutenant John L. Grattan, 
Who Was Killed In An Engagement With The 
Sioux Indians Near Fort Laramie, Neb. T. 
August 19, 1854." 


Young Grattan was 24 years old at the time of his death. He 
was appointed to the United States Military Academy from New 
Hampshire, and was admitted July 1, 1848. Was graduated from 
West Point in the class of 1853, and was appointed Brevet 2nd 
Lieutenant 6th Infantry, July 1, 1853. 

How unjustly, perhaps, have we measured them. Young Grat- 
tan and his men were not intoxicated despite some reports to the 
contrary, and we are here to defend them. Nor can we justly 
accuse the young officer of being rash and hot-headed. It was 
simply a case where a mission was given him to carry out, and he 
and his men died in trying to accomplish it. If blame is to be 
placed, then let it be on the Government for lack of proper forti- 
fication and man-power in a land so thickly peopled by savages, 
and for sending a handful of young men among such overwhelming 

Nestled in the White Mountains of New Hampshire is the little 
town of Lisbon where young Grattan was born, and where he 
grew to manhood. It has been our good fortune to contact people 
yet living who knew Peter Grattan, the father of Lawrence Grat- 
tan. These people were children of parents who had known the 
Grattan family many years, and who passed on to their children 
the story of the young Lieutenant and his untimely death in "far- 
away-Laramie." He was a fine looking, upright, honest and in- 
telligent young man of fine character of whom his parents were 
very proud. His Mother lived but three years after his death. 
His sweetheart across the street soon followed. Both died of a 
broken heart. His father lived to the ripe old age of 89 and 
never ceased to mourn him. Ah! the tears that have fallen else- 
where because of the tragedy here on that day in 1854. 

And now in closing I should like to thank each and everyone 
for the kind attention shown here in the great open, and under a 
hot summer's sun while listening to this bit of early Americana. 

11:15 A.M. Departed from the Grattan Massacre Site. 

11:30 A.M. Arrived at the location of OLD FORT BER- 
NARD. (27-VfcM.) In 1854 at the time of the Grattan Mas- 
sacre this was known as Gratiot's House and The American Fur 
Company Post, by the commanding officer at Fort Laramie. 

Mr. R. J. Rvmill read the following paper about FORT BER- 

Not much information is available about Ft. Bernard. In fact 
I found mention of it in but two accounts of the period — Park- 
man's Oregon Trail and Hafen and Young's Fort Laramie. Hafen 
and Young obtained their information from Edwin Bryant's What 
I Saw in California and Rocky Mountain Adventures. Authentic 
reference material is extremely limited. To establish for certain 
the exact location and dates of Fort Bernard would take a great 


deal of time and research. It seems that it is a fertile and inter- 
esting field for some student of Western history to explore further 
for more detail. 

Probably a reason for the scarcity of reference material is the 
post was not as important as some others and its life span brief. 
From Bryant's and Parkman's accounts we do know that it was 
in existence in 1 846, the year in which each visited it. Hafen and 
Young locate it at 8 miles below Fort Laramie, probably basing 
their information on Parkman's account, as he also placed Fort 
Bernard at 8 miles below Fort Laramie. Bryant says it was about 
7 miles below Ft. Laramie. 

The trading post, known as Richard's Fort Bernard, was owned 
and operated by two brothers by the name of Richard. It was 
run in competition to the American Fur Company and must have 
been quite successful as two Mackinaw boats loaded with furs 
were sent from it to St. Louis in the spring of 1846. Traders 
from New Mexico often visited this post exchanging corn for furs. 
Bryant went back to Fort Bernard from Ft. Laramie and there 
exchanged his wagons and oxen for pack mules and other pack 
equipment. Parkman described the fort in this manner — "Nestled 
beneath a line of cottonwood trees, we could discern in the dis- 
tance something like a building. As we came nearer, it assumed 
form and dimensions and proved to be a rough structure of logs. 
It was a little trading post belonging to two private traders and 
originally intended to form a hollow square. Only two sides of 
it had been completed." Parkman then goes on to say that they 
were led to the principal apartment of the establishment — a room 
10 feet square with walls of black mud and a roof of rough timber. 
There was a huge fireplace made of four flat rocks which had been 
picked up on the prairie. The room held no furniture except a 
rough settee covered with buffalo robes. 

In July of 1846 Richard left his trading post to go to Taos 
for supplies. In his absence someone set fire to his establishment. 
When the first emigrants came by that way in the spring of 1847 
they found it burned. It must have been rebuilt, for E. A. Tom- 
kins who saw it in the summer of '50 said it was an assemblage 
of log huts surrounded by great piles of buffalo hides, the size 
and shape of eastern haystacks. 

12:00 Noon. Departed from old Fort Bernard. 

12:15 P.M. Arrived at the old GOVERNMENT IRON 
BRIDGE (1875) across the North Platte River. This was also 
the location of an old ferry. Fort Platte was located about 1000 
feet southwest of this bridge. 

Mr. Lester Bagley read the following paper here. 

I deem it a privilege to be numbered among this group visiting 
the points of interest along the old Oregon Trail. I have been 


assigned to discuss briefly the following three points of interest on 
or near this location. ( 1 ) Old Fort Platte, which is located about 
1,000 feet southwest of this bridge; (2) the Mormon Ferry, which 
was located probably about 150 feet above this bridge; and (3) 
the old army steel bridge about Va, mile northeast of where we 
are now stopped. 

( 1 ) Old Fort Platte. 

Old Fort Platte was built just north of this point about 
100 yards. According to Hafen and Young this fort was built the 
fall of 1840 or the spring of 1841 by Lancaster P. Lupton. The 
Ridwell diary of 1841 was the first to mention it. It was con- 
structed of adobe. Joseph Williams, a missionary in 1841, men- 
tions "Fort Johns" being rebuilt. He says, "There are two forts 
here, about a mile apart." Fort Platte was built to compete with 
Fort Laramie in securing the fur trade of the region. 

(2) The Mormon Ferry. 

This brings us to the second point of interest, the Mormon 
ferry. It was just across the river from this point on June 1, 1847, 
that the vanguard of the Mormon migration camped in their trek 
West. It was the custom of this party to pull their wagons in a 
circle, thus forming a corral for protection of the stock during a 
portion of the night. However, at this location, since they felt 
somewhat near civilization and the river afforded some protection, 
the encampment was made in the shape of a "V", with the river 
forming the other side of the triangle. 

Immediately upon stopping, they took out the sole leather boat 
which they carried and crossed the river to visit with other mem- 
bers of their trek who had come from Pueblo in present-day 
Colorado. On the morning of June 2, President Young and 
other leaders of the party crossed the river in the portable boat 
and visited the ruins of old Fort Platte. The river at that point 
was 324 feet wide, this being in the flood stage and before dams 
were built on the Platte to hold back the spring runoff. They 
measured Fort Platte and found that it was 144' X 103', and 
the walls were 30" thick. There was a tower on the northwest 
corner which was approximately 10' square. 

The Young party visited Fort John, or Fort Laramie, which 
was approximately two miles away. The superintendent was 
James Bordeaux, who was a very fine man and showed them 
every courtesy. He took them for a ride on the Laramie on a 
flatboat which he had constructed. They in turn made an agree- 
ment to rent this boat for $18.00 and use it for ferrying their 
wagons across the Platte. The boat was taken down the Laramie 
and pulled up the Platte to this point. 

Before leaving in the morning the camp had been reorganized 


into work details. All necessary repairs were made on the equip- 
ment; even the plows which were to be used later on were entirely 
repaired. Three forges were set up and charcoal was made in 
charcoal pits by burning the birch and willows which were found 
on the banks of the Platte. 

The ferrying started the morning of June 3, the crossing being 
made in the order of their divisions of ten. This crossing pro- 
gressed very rapidly. A heavy rain and hail storm struck at about 
1:30 that afternoon. The horses and stock were enclosed within 
old Fort Platte during the storm. As the ferrying progressed the 
forges were moved from the camping spot into Fort Platte and 
the repair work continued. They became so proficient in the use 
of the ferry boat that they were crossing a wagon approximately 
every 15 minutes; some crossings were made in only 11 minutes. 
All of the wagons were crossed with the exception of 15 by the 
evening of June 3. The ferrying continued the morning of June 
4, and the trek West was resumed about noon. 

(3) The Steel Bridge. 

This steel bridge was built many years later, in 1875. We 
might imagine the criticism that was heaped upon the Army and 
the Army Engineers for building a steel bridge so far west and 
at such an early time. However, we know that wooden bridges 
were vulnerable to fire, and the Army had had bitter experience 
in having bridges destroyed in this manner. As a result, the steel 
bridge was ordered from the processing plants in the east and 
was freighted by rail to old Camp Carlin near Cheyenne, which 
was an army supply base at that time. 

It was taken by ox team from Cheyenne, to this location in the 
fall of 1874, and was constructed the following spring at the 
location where it still stands. The decking on this bridge has 
been replaced once since that time. 

12:30 P.M. Departed from the Iron Bridge. 

12:35 P.M. Arrived at FORT LARAMIE (33M.) I-V2 
miles on the present road from the Iron Bridge. Everyone en- 
joyed the lunch under the trees, then inspected the old buildings 
and the Museum. 

Mr. David L. Hieb, Superintendent of the Fort Laramie Na- 
tional Monument read the following paper. 

It is a distinct pleasure to welcome such a group as this to Fort 
Laramie National Monument. You devoted much time and effort 
to seeking out many of the lesser known story spots along the 
greatest of the Covered Wagon Trails and it is most fitting that 
you should pause, if but briefly, at this site, which is vitally linked 
to more of the important factors in the conquest of the West than 
any other spot. 



Following the trail-blazing journey of Robert Stuart and the 
Astorians down the North Platte during the winter of 1812-13, 
trappers and fur traders pushed ever westward along the valley 
of the Platte. They probably reached the Fort Laramie region 
as early as 1821, when, according to tradition, one Jacques La 
Ramee was killed by Indians near the stream which now bears 
his name. 

Near the junction of the Laramie River and the North Platte 
was a favorite camping spot for trappers and traders en route 
to and from the great annual rendezvous in the Rocky Mountains. 
There, in 1 834, the first fort on the Laramie, a log stockade called 
Fort William, was erected by the veteran traders, William Sub- 
lette and Robert Campbell. The site was strategically located on 
the great central route to the mountains. 

James Bridger, Thomas Fitzpatrick, and Milton Sublette, then 
partners in the fur trade, purchased Fort William in 1835, but 
soon turned their interests over to the increasingly powerful Amer- 
ican Fur Co. That same year Dr. Marcus Whitman and Rev. 
Samuel Parker passed by on their way to Oregon as missionaries 
to the Indians. From the trappers' rendezvous on the Green 
River, Whitman returned to the States, and in 1836 he and Rev. 
Henry Spalding paused at the fort with their wives, the first white 
women to use the overland route which later became known as 
the Oregon Trail. 

In 1841, the company replaced Fort William with a pretentious 
adobe-walled post. It was officially named "Fort John on the 
Laramie," but in common usage it was "Fort Laramie," an immor- 
tal name in the annals of the West. At this time a rival post. 
Fort Platte, was built nearby on the Platte River by L. P. Lupton, 
but after less than 5 years of competition it was abandoned. 


During his explorations of the West in 1841, Capt. John C. 
Fremont foresaw the coming covered-wagon migrations. He rec- 
ognized the strategic location of Fort Laramie and recommended 
that it be purchased by the Government and made an Army Post 
to curb the hostile Indians and protect the wagon trains. It was 
not, however, until 1 849 that the fort was purchased by the United 
States Government for $4,000. Meanwhile, the first great migra- 
tion to Oregon in 1843, Col. S. W. Kearny's Dragoons in 1845, 
and the first Mormon emigration to Utah in 1847 had paused at 
Fort Laramie. 

By 1849, covered wagons were making the westward trek by 
the hundreds, spurred on by the discovery of California gold. In 
1850, over 55,000 emigrants were estimated to have passed the 


fort. In their mad rush to the West they tarried only long enough 
to obtain mail and supplies or to repair broken equipment. 

Because the Indians were becoming alarmed over this increasing 
encroachment on their hunting grounds by the white man, a parley 
to draw up a treaty with the Plains Indians was called in 1851. 
Ten thousand Indians gathered near Fort Laramie, and as a result 
of the conference the Sioux, Cheyenne, and other tribes agreed 
to allow passage of the wagon trains over their lands in return 
for annual payments by the Government of goods valued at 

However, sporadic incidents continued to strain relations be- 
tween Whites and Sioux. A climax was reached in 1854 when 
Lieutenant Grattan, an inexperienced young officer, sought to use 
force in arresting an Indian for the theft of a cow. The officer, 
his interpreter, and 28 soldiers were slain at an Indian camp a 
few miles east of the fort. 

The Pony Express, which began in April 1860, brought speedier 
mail service to Fort Laramie. A little over a year later it became 
one of the stations between St. Joseph and San Francisco which 
were linked by the Pacific Telegraph. During the Civil War, 
when regular troops were needed on the eastern fighting fronts, 
the task of guarding the telegraph, mail, and stage routes to the 
Pacific coast was assigned to volunteer troops. From Fort Lara- 
mie, small detachments were sent out to stations along the route 
such as Fort Mitchell, near Scotts Bluff, and Platte Bridge Station, 
near what is now Casper, Wyo. 

The construction in the middle 1860's of a series of forts along 
the Bozeman Trail to the Montana gold fields infuriated the 
Indians. The resultant fighting was climaxed by the destruction 
of Capt. W. J. Fetterman and his entire command of 80 men 
near Fort Phil Kearney, 235 miles north of Fort Laramie, on 
December 21, 1866. John "Portugee" Phillips, trader and scout, 
volunteered to summon aid from Fort Laramie for the remaining 
Fort Phil Kearney garrison. Braving a blizzard and lurking 
Indians for 4 days, he reached the fort on Christmas night with 
the shocking news, and a relief column pushed northward at once. 

Such successful resistance led the Government to negotiate a 
peace treaty at Fort Laramie in 1868. The Indians, under Chief 
Red Cloud, obtained all the concessions they demanded, including 
abandonment of three forts along the trouble-making Bozeman 
Trail. The treaty also gave the Indians control of the lands north 
of the North Platte River. For a few years there was a lull in 
Indian warfare. 

Completion, in 1869, of the Union Pacific Railroad altered 
modes of overland passenger, freight, and mail traffic and shifted 
it southward, bypassing Fort Laramie and diminishing its im- 


News of the discovery of gold in the Black Hills in 1874 was 
brought to Fort Laramie by a scout from Custer's expedition. 
The resulting inrush of miners, contrary to treaty provisions, again 
enraged the Sioux. Indian resistance to the White advance was 
climaxed by their double defeat of Crook's army based at Fort 
Laramie and the annihilation of Custer's command on the Little 
Big Horn, June 25, 1876. But eventually the Indians had to 
yield this choice part of their lands. 

After 1876, the fort became a station on the Cheyenne-Dead- 
wood Stage Route and a social center for ranchers and cowboys, 
but with the Indians subdued, it had outlived its usefulness. Its 
abandonment, recommended in 1886, was ordered three years 
later and carried out in April 1890. 

When the soldiers marched away, the 65 fort buildings were 
auctioned off at a bargain price to homesteaders who dismantled 
most of them. Many years passed before the historic importance 
of the old fort was recognized. Wyoming citizens urged its pres- 
ervation, and in 1937 the State purchased 214 acres, embracing 
the surviving buildings, for presentation to the Federal Govern- 
ment. The national monument was established by Presidential 
Proclamation in 1938. 

At Fort Laramie, the National Park Service is endeavoring to 
preserve the surviving features of the military period and, after 
exhaustive research, to restore standing buildings and related 
portions of the grounds to their appearance around 1888, while 
certain of the older structures provide glimpses of the fort scene 
as early as 1849. 

It is suggested that visitors to Fort Laramie stop first at the 
Information Center which with the headquarters of the National 
Park Service occupy the former Cavalry Barracks. Here infor- 
mation and free literature are provided and a variety of publica- 
tions are on sale in a small museum where displays aid the visitor 
in visualizing the appearance and significance of the fort at various 
periods in its long career. The Cavalry Barracks as originally 
constructed in 1875 provided quarters, kitchens, mess halls, wash 
rooms, reading rooms and other facilities for two 60-man units 
of troops. 

Walking 100 yards southwest, past the site of the Sutler's 
Residence and a commemorative monument, the visitor reaches 
the Sutler's Store. Erected in 1849 or early 1850 the adobe 
section of this structure housed a general store. The stone section 
was added about 1852 in part as quarters for the Sutlers. During 
the next three decades many other additions were made which 
disappeared by 1883. At that time the present lime-concrete 
section was constructed. This addition housed the Officers' Club, 
storage rooms and a public saloon which connected with a pool 
room in part of the stone section. The balance of the stone 


section then housed the Sutler's office and post office connecting 
with the original general store. Operated by the Sutler, or Post 
Trader as he was officially known after 1867, under a permit 
from the War Department, this versatile institution served more 
notable western travelers, residents and warriors, both red and 
white, than any other place in the west during its 40 active years. 

With Mansard roof and lime-concrete walls, there stands next 
to the Sutler's Store the last officer's quarters, erected at Fort 
Laramie in 1885. After the abandonment of the fort, it became 
the home of the last Post Trader, John Hunton. 

Next in "Officer's Row" stands a lime-concrete walled duplex. 
Erected during the building boom at Fort Laramie in 1875-1876, 
it is typical of Company Officers' quarters of that day. 

Turning his back to "Officers' Row", the visitor sees the stone 
foundations of a long, three-company barracks erected in 1868 
which faced one end of the historic Parade Ground, and had 
behind it mess halls and kitchens for each company. 

To the rear of "Officers' Row", stands a rough stone walled 
structure originally built by 1850 as post magazine. In later 
years it served as an out building under several types of roofs. 

Passing the sites of missing units of "Officers' Row", the visitor 
reaches "Old Bedlam". This two-storied frame structure has 
dominated the scene since the late summer of 1849 when it was 
partially completed of lumber milled locally by horsepower and 
mill work hauled overland from Fort Leavenworth. While post 
headquarters, home of the Commanding Officer, until 1867, and 
often the stronghold of bachelor officers, countless notables, sol- 
dier, civilian and redskin sat at its dinner and council tables. It 
has been intimately associated with many historic events, among 
the most dramatic of which was "Portugee" Phillips' 235 mile, 
four day ride through December blizzards with the news of the 
Fetterman disaster at Fort Phil Kearney in 1866. Its brick filled, 
clap-board walls echoing to historic tumult and social gaiety, it 
early acquired the name "Old Bedlam" which was immortalized 
in Gen. Charles King's novel Laramie, or the Queen of Bedlam, 
first published in 1889. As originally constructed, it had side 
wings. These were removed and the present rear wing added in 

Three sets of crumbling lime-concrete walls are all that remain 
of two commodious duplexes and a spacious veranda rimmed 
mansion for the Commanding Officer which were erected in 1881. 
They are stark reminders of the dismantling of many fine buildings 
for lumber after the public auction of 1890. 

Turning the corner of the Parade Ground by the remains of a 
small brick fountain and passing the site of another missing Offi- 
cers' Quarters, the visitor reaches the site of the fort built by the 
American Fur Co. in 1841. Located on high ground in a bend 







of the Laramie River, it dominated the then treeless valley from 
bluff to bluff. Many historians believe this to have also been the 
site of Fort William erected in 1834, but conclusive evidence as 
to its location is lacking. 

Occupying part of the site of Fort John is a large frame officers' 
quarters built in 1870. Originally designed for one family, it 
was later divided into duplex with two kitchen wings and verandas 
on three sides. 

Turning the far corner of the Parade Ground where once stood 
several minor buildings, including a printing office, the visitor 
reaches the ruins of the fine administration building erected in 
1885 to house not only the headquarters offices but a schoolroom 
for officers' children and the post theater. 

Facing the shallow stream, which is all that modern irrigation 
reservoirs have left us of the rushing Laramie River, are the stone 
walls and barred windows and doors of the guardhouse or prison 
built in 1 866. The upper floor was used largely by the post guard 
contingent, while prisoners, regardless of the degree of their 
offense, languished in the basement room where remains of a 
solitary cell suggests the probable harshness of military penal 
discipline. Bricked up windows and doorway are evidences of 
later use of the structure for ordnance storage. 

The long, low mound on the southeast side of the Parade 
Ground marks the site of another two company barracks behind 
which were kitchens and mess halls. These were also built in 

At the east angle of the Parade Ground stand the walls of a 
guardhouse erected in 1 876 to improve the lot of both guards and 
prisoners, while behind it are the foundations of the General Sink 
and the far end of the barracks foundations previously described. 

One hundred yards to the east, the brick and lime-concrete 
Old Bakery built in 1876 to replace an earlier bake house, has 
been restored to its condition as a granary, the use to which it 
was put after 1885 when a new bakery, now in ruin to the east, 
was constructed. 

The large, lime-concrete walled Commissary Storehouse was 
erected in 1883 and included offices, issue rooms, and storerooms 
for the variety of clothing, foodstuffs, and supplies controlled by 
the Commissary. In one large section of this structure are dis- 
played vehicles, implements, stoves and furnishings of certain of 
the historic structures. 

On the hill to the north stand the ruins of the post hospital 
erected in 1873 in the midst of an old military and civilian ceme- 
tery abandoned in 1867, but believed to contain burials as early 
as that of Milton Sublette in 1836. The hospital contained a 
12 bed ward, dispensary, kitchen, dining room, isolation rooms, 


surgeon's office, rooms for orderlies and storage, but no laboratory 
or operating rooms. It was the first lime-concrete building erected 
at Fort Laramie. 

East of the hospital is the ruin of a long, one story building. 
Built in 1884 it consisted of six, four room apartments for married 
non-commissioned staff officers. 

Looking west from "Hospital Hill", the visitor may look down 
on the sites of the Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage Company's stables 
and the Rustic Hotel, another of the Post Trader's enterprises 
during the Black Hills rush. Farther west stand the ruined walls 
of a sawmill-pumphouse erected in 1887 to replace a predecessor 
destroyed by fire. 

Now after expressing my regret at being unable to accompany 
you to each and every site on your trek today, I will close to permit 
you to visit as many of the historic structures here as your time 
and energy dictate. 

1:15 P.M. Departed from Fort Laramie. 

1:35 P.M. Arrived at the Yoder ranch where an old HOG 
RANCH was located on the Laramie River 3-Vi miles west of 
Fort Laramie. One building is still standing. 

Mr. John Yoder made the following remarks: 

This building was built over a hundred years ago. It was pre- 
ceded by a group of log buildings across the river. Those build- 
ings burned down, so they moved over here and built this, making 
it as fireproof as possible out of grout. 

It was a settler's trading post established in the late 40's by 
Seth Ward and William Guerrier to trade with immigrants on the 
Oregon Trail in competition with Fort Laramie. 

After the army took over Fort Laramie in 1849, they did a 
thriving business here. Also it became an off-limits saloon and 
roadhouse for the soldiers at Fort Laramie. (It was located just 
west of the Fort Laramie Military Reservation.) 

There were several frame buildings, an adobe hotel, and the 
barn which is still used to keep horses in when the place was a 
stage coach station. Although the wall was seven or eight feet 
high the Indians once tore a hole in the adobe wall and ran off 
with the horses. 

The main building, built of grout, had a courtyard in the center 
with a well. The walls were over eighteen inches thick and were 
plastered on the inside. 

1 :45 P.M. Departed from the Yoder ranch. 

1:55 P.M. Arrived at the PORTUGEE PHILLIPS HORSE 
MARKER (33-Vi M.) at the point where the old trail branched 
to the west and northwest. 


The following Tribute to John Phillips by Mr. Warren Rich- 
ardson was read by Mr. Joseph Weppner. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It was my great pleasure as a boy to have known 'Portugee' 
Phillips, the man we honor here today. In 1883, seventeen years 
after his famous ride from Fort Phil Kearney to Fort Laramie, he 
moved to Cheyenne and lived a block from my home. I saw him 
almost every day. I attended the same class in school with his 
little daughter, Mamie, who was a delicate girl who soon passed 
away. At her funeral, I, with other members of her class, was a 
pallbearer. 'Portugee' Phillips was a medium sized man — thin, 
and a rather swarthy complexion. In the fall of 1883 he wore a 
cape over his shoulders, and as he passed our house, I remember 
many kindly greetings from him. I saw recently in a magazine 
that the location of the grave of Mr. Phillips was unknown. He 
died in November, 1883, age 51 years, and I attended his funeral 
held at the cemetery in Cheyenne, where his wife has erected a 
beautiful monument. Cheyenne is proud to have his ashes. 

Some twenty years ago the Wyoming Legislature created the 
Historical Landmark Commission and I was appointed a member 
of that Commission. It was my first thought that a suitable monu- 
ment should be erected by the State of Wyoming in honor of the 
man who made the most extraordinary, difficult and courageous 
ride that is known in history. No other ride is recorded that is 
even comparable to it; think of it! Two hundred thirty-five miles 
in less than four days through a country full of thousands of war- 
ring Sioux Indians, the middle of the worst winter that had been 
known for years, with the thermometer thirty to forty degrees 
below zero. What courage! What endurance! 

On the night of December 24, 1866, there was a dance being 
held in 'Old Bedlam', celebrating Christmas Eve. Some time 
during the night a man rode up to 'Old Bedlam'. His face and 
mustache were covered with ice and he was so exhausted he could 
hardly stand after being helped from his horse. The officer of the 
guard who received him that night was Herman Haas, the father 
of genial William Haas, our ex-postmaster of Cheyenne. Mr. 
Haas has related to his son, Will, the account of 'Portugee' 
Phillips' reception many times. Mr. Haas, who was a member of 
the 1 1th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry stationed at Fort Laramie, asked 
the rider his name and what he wanted. Mr. Phillips was so weak 
he could hardly say that he wanted to see the commanding officer. 
He was taken into the room where the post commander was and 
he related the horrible details of the Fetterman Massacre that 
resulted in the death of Fetterman and his command, consisting 
of eighty-one men at Fort Phil Kearney. He delivered his message 
which asked for an immediate detail of cavalry to be sent to Fort 
Phil Kearney for the relief of the garrison which consisted of a 


small detachment surrounded by Indians. Without a moment's 
deiay, the commander ordered a bugler to sound 'Boots and 
Saddles' from the parade ground, and, in about an hour forty 
cavalrymen— all that could be spared — were hastily prepared and 
on their way to the relief of the few men, women, and children 
at Fort Phil Kearney, two hundrsd-thirty-five miles away. This 
was some ride, too, which will some day find its way into history. 

The horse Phillips rode was taken to the stables where veter- 
inarians worked on him to no avail, as the poor horse soon died 
of exhaustion. He was a, thoroughbred animal owned by Col. 
Carrington who let Mr. Phillips have him upon his request for the 
best horse at Fort Phil Kearney. 

I am happy to be here today where the Historical Landmark 
Commission of Wyoming has placed a marker on the spot where 
Mr. Phillips alighted from his horse. There is also a fine monu- 
ment at Fort Phil Kearney erected by our Commission. My wish 
that 'Portugee' Phillips be immortalized in the history of Wyoming 
has been realized. 

The noble horse Mr. Phillips rode has been suitably honored by 
a monument. Mr. Phillips rode only at night; and, allowing 
twelve hours a day for four days, the riding time would be forty- 
eight hours, or two days, which would be an average of five miles 
per hour riding. Mr. Phillips related to me that he carried a small 
bag of oats from which he fed a little each day to his horse. The 
faithful animal was rubbed and carefully cared for, even getting a 
little grass from the snow covered ground. It is to be remembered 
that the country was full of warring Sioux Indians, which made 
it necessary for Mr. Phillips to hide out in the daytime. 

The trivial comments that are made as to whether Mr. Phillips 
started on the night of December 21st, or after midnight, running 
into December 22nd, or whether he arrived on Christmas Eve or 
the early hours of the 25th, are immaterial. He made the ride in 
forty-eight riding hours, which makes it the greatest ride in re- 
corded history. It is strange that more accuracy has not been 
shown in reference to the ride. The man who made the ride and 
Mr. Herman Haas were both available for years afterward. I 
consulted them both. 

2:05 P.M. Departed from the Phillips Horse Marker. 

2:10 P.M. Arrived at the MARY E. HOMSLEY GRAVE 
just north of a branch of the old road and above the Ft. Laramie 
Canal, and 400 feet above the Tunnel (one mile northeast of 
33-Vi M. ) Taps were sounded by the Trumpeter. 

Briefly the story of the discovery of the grave is as follows: 

In November of 1925 a faintly inscribed fragment of sandstone 
that had evidently been broken from a stone still embedded in 


the earth was found on a hillside near Ft. Laramie. After some 
difficulty the inscription was deciphered to read — 

Mary E. Homsley 

Died June 25, 1853 

Aged 29 

A news article on the discovery, published in the Fort Laramie 
Scout, was followed by an editorial in the Portland Oregonian 
which asked the question, 'Who was Mary Homsley?' 

The question was soon answered by a daughter of the pioneer 
woman, Mrs. Laura Gibson, of Portland who 73 years before, at 
the age of three, had witnessed her mother's burial. Her father, 
Benjamin Homsley, a blacksmith, with his two young daughters 
had reached Oregon and had settled on a homestead. There he 
reared his children, and there he passed away. A reticent, un- 
demonstrative man, he had never talked of the tragic loss, and 
only through the newspaper articles did Mrs. Gibson learn the 
place of her mother's death. 

From contributions by citizens of Wyoming a cement monu- 
ment, in which the old stone is embedded, was erected at the grave 
and on Memorial Day, 1926, it was dedicated by Professor 

2:20 P.M. Departed from the Homsley Grave. 

2:30 P.M. The Caravan paused (36-V4 M. ) where a south 
branch of the old road entered the main one. 

2:35 P.M. It again paused (37 M.) where a branch goes right 
to Mexican Hill. 

2:40 P.M. At 39.6 M. turned north on a second branch of the 
old road to join the first branch at the bottom of MEXICAN 
HILL. From here drove Vi miles back to the rock cut on the 
Mexican Hill branch of the road. 

3:15 P.M. Departed from Mexican Hill. Paused (40 M.) at 
the Dugout where a Mexican lived prior to 1850. 

MARKER (42- 1 /i M.) and cemetery of unknown graves. 

Chester Frederick, a member of the family that donated this 
memorial to the state of Wyoming made the following statements 

Honorable C. J. Rogers, Captain of the train, all the 'Wagon 
Bosses', and 'hired hands', I wish to extend to each of you a 
sincere welcome to inspect 'Register Cliff Park.' Without question 
it is one of the smallest parks in existence; however the historical 
value that it has in relation to the Oregon Trail makes the park 
one of great importance. 

On the rugged face of this bluff you will find the names of many 
of the emigrants who trod westward to Oregon and California. 


I seriously doubt that many of those pioneers who carved their 
names here intended the inscriptions to be a tourist attraction 
years later, but carved their names to leave a message for relatives 
and friends who might pass over this same trail at a later date. 

Many of the eastern states are represented in the carvings and 
various dates are inscribed. To me it seems that Ohio appears 
the most frequently. In many cases the name of the state is still 
legible but erosion has erased the dates. 

Perhaps the most interesting set of names is that of T. H. 
Unthank dated 1850, O. N. Unthank 1869, and O. A. Unthank 
1931, because three generations are grouped here. 

Dimly visible is the outline of a red horse and rider painted 
on the cliff so as to form a good target. Legend says that soldiers 
would fire at the rider from their horses at a distance of approxi- 
mately 200 yards. Upon observing the target you will note that 
marksmen in the pioneer days were just the same as today. Some 
hit the target perfectly while others barely hit the bluff. 

To the south and west of us is a small fenced plot which is a 
pioneer cemetery. Your speaker accidentally unearthed one of 
the graves while digging a posthole. I do now know just how 
many graves there are in the enclosure but at one time, judging 
from the sinking of the ground, it appeared that there were sixteen. 
The late C. A. Guernsey stated there were sixteen. 

My mother came over this very trail in a covered wagon fifty- 
six years ago and my father was born here in 1884. Both of them 
were especially interested in preserving any article or bit of infor- 
mation pertaining to the early history of this section of Wyoming, 
so they dedicated it to the pioneers and donated it to the State of 
Wyoming. The area is now known as 'Register Cliff Park/ The 
Wyoming Park Commission then fenced the area to protect it 
from vandals. However, despite the precautions taken some 
individuals have succeeded in erasing a few of the names from 
Register Cliff and have carved their own names in the 'Open Reg- 
ister' of the Oregon Trail. 

Register Cliff Park, though small, is one of the most important 
landmarks on the Oregon Trail because it bears a record that the 
Carsons, the Woods, the Patricks, the Churchills, and the Craigs 
along with hundreds of other pioneers camped here and then con- 
tinued their journey westward. 

3:35 P.M. Departed from Register Cliff. 

3:45 P.M. Arrived at the SAND POINT STAGE AND 

(43 M.) 

The old trading post and stone fort at Sand Point was operated 
by Ward and Guerrier in the 1840's. The famous old Stage Sta- 
tion operated by Jules E. Coffee in the 50's, was located near the 


fort. A remnant of the chimney just south of the old trail still 
marks the location of this old station. 

3:50 P.M. Departed from the Sand Point Stage and Pony 
Express Station. 

4:10 P.M. Arrived at deep ruts in the sandstone south of 
Guernsey (45 M.). Halted 15 minutes to inspect ruts and base 
of an old telegraph pole. 

4:30 P.M. Arrived at LUCINDA ROLLINS GRAVE. 

A prayer was followed by remarks by Maurine Carley: 

The finding of Lucinda Rollins' grave was a strange coinci- 
dence. As you can see by the marker she was buried in 1849. 
It was not until 1934, almost one hundred years later, that her 
grave was re-discovered. 

The State Highway Department, through the Landmark Com- 
mission, authorized the survey of the Covered Wagon Drive. This 
drive was to parallel the deep ruts in the Guernsey area of the 
wagon trains of the old trail days. While surveying, Mr. Seward 
found a meander stone, which is a mark used in measuring, that 
had been placed there by someone while meandering here on the 
south bank of the North Platte River at a point where General 
John C. Fremont made his first camping place west of old Fort 

A week later Mr. Seward and Mr. Guernsey returned to locate 
the spot for the Fremont monument. While working Mr. Seward 
turned over a chalk-like rock and found it inscribed with the 
words 'Lucindy Rollins' and some other words which they were 
not able to read. Mr. Guernsey carried the piece a few yards 
away and placed it on top of the meander corner stone. Its tex- 
ture and jagged points fitted perfectly. On their next trip, with 
the aid of a magnifying glass, they read 'age 24, died June 11, 49, 

The first survey using the base of the headstone as a meander 
stone was made late in the 70's or 80's, Henry G. Hay in charge. 
This party started from the flag pole on the old parade grounds 
at Fort Laramie. The top of the stone had been broken off pre- 
sumably by animals so the base was used by the surveyors. 

The markings were preserved on the top portion because it lay 
face downward for about thirty years. Sixty years after that first 
survey the top part was found and fitted on the base. The present 
monument enclosing the original marker was erected by the FERA 
over the grave. 

As for Lucindy Rollins, no one knows for sure who she was 
nor has her family been traced. Mr. W. W. Morrison, an author- 
ity on graves along the Oregon Trail, says there were two Lucinda 
Rollins who died on the trip West. Mr. Lester Bagley, a Mormon 
scholar, thinks she was not a Mormon, as she has never been 


mentioned in a Mormon diary as far as is known. It was impos- 
sible for me to find anything about her in the Historical Depart- 
ment in Cheyenne. 

Hundreds of early pioneers lie in unmarked graves along the 
old trails. However Lucinda Rollins must have been a loved 
daughter or wife of one of the early travelers as more time than 
usual was spent carving and placing her marker. 

4:45 P.M. Departed from the Rollins Grave. 

Passed up WARM SPRINGS (47 M.) on account of the late 

Miss Lola M. Homsher furnished the following paper on these 
historical springs and camp site for the record: 

Upon reaching the point on the Oregon Trail at which was 
located the Big Spring or Warm Spring, often called the Emigrants 
Wash or Laundry Tub, the emigrant had traveled 680 miles from 
his point of departure, Independence. He had left the last remote 
outpost of civilization at Fort Laramie and was looking toward the 
even longer trek to the Pacific. By this time he had met many 
hardships and but few conveniences, and upon arriving at the 
warm spring many a train stopped long enough to allow its mem- 
bers to make themselves a little more comfortable and presentable. 

A major problem of trail travelers was that of keeping their 
clothing clean and in order. Many of the emigrants failed to real- 
ize what kinds of clothing would be advisable for the overland 
trek and how hard on their clothes travel would be. On the plains 
clothes usually had to be washed in cold water because there was 
relatively little if any wood near the camp sites, and buffalo chips 
did not make a very hot fire. 

The temperature of the water in this spring is generally given 
as about seventy degrees. However, John Steele in his diary in 
1850 had this to say on his visit to the spring: 

Tuesday, June 25: "This morning we left the river and struck 
across the terminating spurs of the Black Hills. In about seven 
miles, leaving the train, I descended into a deep ravine on the 
right side of the road, to visit a warm spring. It was very large, 
and with a temperature of ninety degrees." 

This is much warmer than is generally mentioned, and should 
the water have been that hot the spring might have been named 
"hot" rather than "warm". W. J. Ghent in his book The Road to 
Oregon states that at thirteen miles from Fort Laramie the emi- 
grants "passed Big Springs (also called Warm Spring, because its 
water was not icy cold.)" Mr. Lester Bagley, Wyoming State 
Game & Fish Commissioner, in a recent test of the water found the 
temperature registers between 60-62 degrees. 

Captain John C. Fremont in his Report of the Exploring Expe- 
dition to the Rocky Mountains in the year 1842 is possibly the 


first person to make a written account of the spring. In his report 
he wrote: 

"The road led over an interesting plateau between the North 
fork of the Platte on the right, and Laramie river on the left. 
At the distance of ten miles from the fort, we entered the sandy 
bed of a creek, a kind of defile, shaded by precipitous rocks, 
down which we wound our way for several hundred yards to a 
place where, on the left bank, a very large spring gushes with 
considerable noise and force out of the limestone rock. It is 
called "the Warm Spring," and furnishes to the hitherto dry bed 
of the creek a considerable rivulet. On the opposite side, a little 
below the spring, is a lofty limestone escarpment, partially shaded 
by a grove of large trees, whose green foliage, in contrast with 
the whiteness of the rock, renders this a picturesque locality. The 
rock is fossiliferous, and, so far as I was able to determine the 
character of the fossils, belongs to the carboniferous limestone of 
the Missouri river, and is probably the western limit of the forma- 
tion. Beyond this point I met with no fossils of any description." 

Overton Johnson and William H. Winter in their guide Route 
Across the Rocky Mountains, published in 1846, reported on 
Warm Springs stating that it was a good place for camping. They 
wrote: "Warm Spring. Between Fort Laramie and this point, 
there is no water, without descending to the North Fork, which 
will be very difficult. At the Warm Springs, there is an abundance 
of wood, and there will be no difficulty in using the water; but 
the grass is sufficient for only a few companies. They are a few 
hundred yards to the right of the trail. These Springs are at the 
entrance of the Black Hills, and the road beyond them is, in many 
places, steep and rocky; but from the last waters of the Kansas, 
thus far, it is certainly an excellent one." 

By the time that Joseph E. Ware published his Emigrants' 
Guide to California in 1849, he apparently did not recommend the 
Springs as a camping place. In his guide he indicated them as a 
landmark and noted that Heber Spring, 13 miles farther, was a 
good place to camp. 

John Charles Thompson in his column "In Old Wyoming" in 
the Wyoming State Tribune of August 3, 1947, stated that the 
spring "was a long day's drag from Ft. Laramie for the slow- 
moving caravans and comparatively few, probably, made it an 
overnight camping place. The advantages of warm water — the 
temperature is about 70 degrees — doubtless inspired many a halt 
there, however. Clothing perhaps uncleansed since travelers left 
Independence, Mo., 680 miles and many weeks distant, could be 
comfortably washed, and human bodies too. But wood was scarce 
and the spot exposed to attack from every side." 

He went on to say "That the Indians foregathered at these 
springs and spent much time there is attested by the innumerable 
flakings from stone implement fashioning which litter the adjacent 


hillside. It was the country of the Cheyenne and Arapahoes, 
into which the Crows and Shoshones occasionally ventured in 
force. The Sioux did not come south of the river until after 
'pickings' from the white men's invasion attracted them there. 

"The beasts, of course, knew these springs. It requires little 
imgaination to visualize the buffalo shouldering one another in 
effort to get to soothing water of the warm pool." 

William Clayton who kept a diary of the westward trek of the 
Mormon pioneers in 1847 made mention of the Warm Springs 
on June 5. He wrote that "at 1 1 : 35 a.m. halted for noon opposite 
a very large spring noted by Fremont as the warm spring. The 
water. in this spring was very clear and soft, but considerably 
warmer than the river water. . . . While nooning some of the 
brethren visited the head of the spring which bubbled out of the 
bluff and made a rivulet about four feet wide and three inches 
deep^-enough water to run a common flour mill." 

Orson Pratt, a member of this same train, wrote also on June 5 
"The name of Warm Spring; the water is not so cold as one would 
expect. The quantity is nearly sufficient to carry a common flour 
mill, being very clear. By our road it is fifteen miles from the 
junction of Laramie River and North Fork." 

Joseph Hackney and his party on June 16, 1849, made a record 
of the spring but failed to stop there. Hackney wrote "traveled 
20 miles roads hard and rolled but later tolerable hilly we pass 
the warm spring in the forenoon and then ascended a long rocky 
hill we camped for the night on the bitter cottonwood water grass 
very poor good wood plenty." 

Two days before, Henry Tappan and his party had apparently 
stopped at the spring after leaving Ft. Laramie, for in his diary 
he recorded "To day remained in Camp. For the first time on 
the route I tried my hand in the art of washing dirty clothes. Suc- 
ceeded admirabley although my fingers suffered some from the 
effects of very good soap." 

Vincent Geiger and Wakeman Bryarly in their diary mention 
Warm Springs on June 15, 1849, but stated that they failed to 
pass by it, "having kept on the ridge road, leaving the spring to 
our right." 

J. Goldsborough Bruff on July 12, 1849, did go to the spring, 
and he stated in his diary: "Soon reached the Warm-Sp'g brook, 
government wagon and men there, and the lime-kilns close by." 
Loomis in his Journal stated "Warm Springs, Lat. 42° 15' 6". 
This is a very strong spring of clear water, but it is warmer than 
river water, at all seasons of the year." 

While by searching through the various trail diaries numerous 
mentions of the springs can be found, the stories of the human 
tragedies which occurred nearby are less easily located. John 
Steele in his diary which has appeared in the book Across the 


Plains in 1850 and who was quoted earlier in this paper, continued 
with his account after visiting the spring: 

"Ascending through a canon, or great cleft in the rock, I came 
out on a wide prairie, across which was clearly marked the red 
outline of the road. My own train was pursuing its way in the 
distance, but a group of tents and wagons near the road, indicated 
an unwilling halt. 

"As I approached I saw in a tent, the sides of which were lifted, 
a young man in the last stages of cholera. Kind hands had raised 
him up and, no doubt, rendered all possible aid. In his delirium 
he was repeating familiar names, probably of brothers and sisters. 
At last he exclaimed, 'O mother! mother! why don't some of you 
come?' And looking earnestly around, as if trying to recognize 
some familiar face, the light faded from his eyes, and he was gone. 
His companions went out to prepare his grave by the side of two 
others which yesterday had met a like fate. All the rest of the 
company seemed in usual health, but language could not express 
how depressed and sad they were. Greatly affected by the scene 
I hurried away, but ere I had crossed the prairie, found six more 
newly made graves, showing how rapidly cholera was doing its 

In the Guernsey Gazette of July 2, 1937, appeared a story on 
the burning of a wagon train near these springs during the trail 
days. I would like to quote the article: 

"Not all history is told, nor all evidence gathered in the migra- 
tion westward of the nation. Thousands of men fell by the road- 
side, with no evidence recorded of their passing, nor is there a 
crude stone to mark their last resting place. They were never 
heard from again by relatives back home. . . . 

"At a location on a knoll about a half mile beyond the (Warm) 
Springs was mute evidence of a wagon train disaster. Here a train 
of eight or ten wagons had drawn into its circle for the night, 
or for defense. Here they witnessed an attack upon the train. It 
was burned to the ground by the Indians. For many years there 
lay the stark evidence of this tragedy — old wagon irons of each 
wagon and its contents were in place, with only here and there a 
piece of a charred spoke of a wheel or like fragment of charred 
wood, as evidence of what took place. 

"This circle of burned wagons was lying in place 25 years ago 
(1912) and many early residents of the locality recall vividly its 
appearance. It has all been carried away as relics but there are 
many here yet who saw it as it was left after the attack. 

"Exactly what took place we can only surmise. Here was 
complete evidence of a disaster to a wagon train. Were there 
any survivors? We find no reference to this train attack in history. 
The country was infested with the hostile Sioux. 

"A few weeks ago Ed. Shoults of Horse Creek, this state, who 


lived here as a boy when the town first started at the turn of the 
century, and hunted rabbits over the hills, investigating as boys 
will, all the hills and crannies in the whole immediate territory, 
gave the writer a vivid description of the picture of the burned 
wagon train. 

"Will the historian learn just what took place at this location 
through some yet undiscovered diary, or will this probable tragedy 
of the trail be erased completely with the passing of time? 

"Over on the south bank of the Warm Springs wash, about 50 
yards west from a point directly south of the Springs, and back 
on the bank a short distance was a little graveyard with five or 
six graves, with crude markers indicating their location. Time 
has eroded all evidence of this little burial ground. Warm Springs 
draw carries the run-off of a large watershed and at times a rolling 
torrent comes pouring down into the Platte. The banks of the 
draw have crumbled away by the washing water until all evidence 
of the last resting place of these emigrants is gone, yet there are 
some here who remember it. Were they some of the unfortunate 
victims of the wagon train attack? We have no way of knowing." 

5:10 P.M. Arrived at the FREDERICK RANCH opposite 
47-V / 2 M. on the north branch of the old road. We were wel- 
comed by Mr. Henry Frederick, then spent twenty minutes looking 
at the Indian artifacts and old time relics in his Museum. 

5:30 P.M. The Following Farewell statement was made by 
Mr. L. C. Bishop. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Here at Henry Frederick's ranch and museum 47 Oregon Trail 
miles from the east Wyoming boundary ends what we choose to 
call TREK NO. 1 of 1953 over the east section of the old trail. 
Some time this fall we plan to make a second trek and cover the 
next 43 miles of the road that we have mapped. This will take 
us to La Bonte Station on La Bonte Creek. Albert Sims is my 
partner in this mapping project which we hope to complete the 
next few years and as the mapping is completed, we hope to have 
more treks in order that those who are interested may have the 
benefit of the information we have obtained. Today you have 
heard talks by those who have made it their business to be in- 
formed on the early history of this old trail and in each future 
trek we plan to call on those best informed in the areas we traverse 
the same as we have today. 

Thank you one and all for your interest in our project and for 
your cooperation in making Trek No. 1 a success. All who have 
registered will be notified of the time of the next trek and furnished 
a program. If you think it worthwhile we will be glad to have 
you with us again. 

Niobrara County 

By *~~ 

Mae Urbanek 

Like the ripple of its waters, 
Rising in its prairie grass lands, 
Sounds the name of Niobrara — 
Indian for flat and spacious. 

Niobrara linking history, 

Holding past and future glory; 

Niobrara, land of contrasts, 

Rich in oil and food and folklore. ■ 

One hundred and fifty million years ago 

The dinosaurs lived here. 

Immense and slow, they ate 

The swampy growth and smaller dinosaurs; 

Then swallowed stones, like chickens do 

To grind this food. 

Their brains were small. 

When the Rocky Mountains rose 

And Niobrara lands were drained and dry, 

The dinosaurs died. The best collection 

Of their bones in all the world 

Stayed here, preserved in printed rocky sheets, 

Scalloped with shells of clams, 

For us to read. 

Crude skinning knives of the flinty rock, 
Hatchets and hoes of stone 
Are artifacts of an ancient race 
That lived here in ages unknown. 

Their shop sites tell of industry; 

Of mass production time; 

The "Spanish Diggings" hide many clues 

Of mankind's upward climb. 

The Indians came. 
For centuries they wandered on these plains 
And hunted buffalo. Beneath Chalk Buttes, 
Along the Silver Springs they camped and chipped 


Their arrowheads, perfect in form, not crude 
As those of the more ancient race. Trusting, 
Friendly, kind, they welcomed white man's coming 
Until he killed their buffalo and stole 
Their prairie land. 

Came the cattle and the cowboys 
Drivin' up the Texas Trail; 
Silver spurs and silver buckles, 
On through deserts, blizzards, hail. 

Keep the herd apointed, movin'; 
Sing 'em lullabies at night; 
Once delivered — free for prowlin' — 
Poppin' corn with dynamite. 

Gold discovered — fever mountin'; 

Stage coach rumbles on its way — 

Rawhide Buttes and Running Water, 

Hat Creek, Cheyenne River — change and hay. 

Many were the necktie parties 
All for little bricks of gold. 
Cattle barons quickly flourished — 
Land was free to grab and hold. 

Came the teamsters and the railroad — 
Silver threads through prairie grass; 
Came the town sites and the bankers, 
Education, polished glass. 

A tent town nestled by a hill 

And grew to fill the valley. Lusk 

Outlived its booms and breaks, and still 

Invites, as in homesteading days, 

When sod shacks grew as fast as mushrooms 

And like mushrooms sank away. 

Gleaming towers of oil wells lit 
The ancient homes of dinosaurs; 
And Black Gold flowed to benefit 
Enlarging schools; while farmers broke 
The fertile soil, and stockmen watched 
Each acre, eager to revoke 
The plow — enlarge their herds. 

Men still have the cowboy spirit; 
Like their boot heels and their hats; 


Boys can ride 'em, buckin', twistin'- 
Also rate with balls and bats. 

Women have their clubs and parties, 
Good as cooks and good at bridge. 
Life is full of flash and challenge 
On gumbo flats or on Pine Ridge. 

Famous for your howling blizzards; 
Finest grass land in the state; 
Highest in your oil production — 
Niobrara, you create 

Winners in the nation's contests, 
A Senator, a beauty queen; 
Champions in livestock judging — 
Though your number is fourteen. 

Niobrara, we salute you. 
You have wealth, unused, untold. 
In the spirit of your people 
Is your lead of hidden gold. 

Washakie and Zhe Shoshom 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the Utah 
Superintendency of Indian Affairs 

Edited by 

Dale L. Morgan 

PART V— 1860-1862 


F. W. Lander, Supt., U. S. Overland Wagon Road and 

Special Agent to Tribes Along the Route, to 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Washington, 

D. C, Feb. 11, 1860. Extract. 121 


In pursuance of the letter of instructions of Acting Commis- 
sioner Charles E Mix of March 26th 1859, I have carried out 

127. L/3 18-1860. The whole of Lander's report is printed in 36th 
Congress, 1st Session, Senate Executive Document 42 (Serial 1008), pp. 
121-139. At the time Lander was preparing to leave Washington, Jacob 
Thompson, Secretary of the Interior, wrote Acting Commissioner Mix on 
March 25, 1859, to say: 

Mr. F. W. Lander Superintendent of the Fort Kearney South Pass 
& Honey Lake road is about to proceed across the Rocky Mountains 
to California via the South Pass, the Upper basin of Green River 
and the Valley of Snake River near Fort Hall, through the Shoshone 
or Snake Indian region and the country of the Pannocks and other 
small tribes. 

The opportunity aforded by this journey of Mr. Lander, to hold 

intercourse with these Indians and impress upon them the importance 

of maintaining amicable relations with the whites and to secure a 

pledge to abstain from molesting the Emigrants who may pass over 

the new road has induced me to adopt suggestions made by him in 

regard to distributing presents among them, To enable him to do so, 

you will place at his disposal a sum not exceeding five thousand 

dollars from such appropriations as you may deem applicable and 

give him such instructions as may be proper to secure the end desired, 

it being understood that the service is to be performed without 

compensation. . . . 

Lander himself, under date of March 23, 1859, set forth a schedule of 

articles desired, adding, "The above is the amount for a single half lodge 

or a very small family and should be multiplied by 300 for the Washikee 

band of Snakes with their friends & visitors, the Northern Pannacks & 

sheep-Eaters by 200 — for the Pannack tribe, and by 300 for the two 

bands of Western Snakes." He also wanted "1 Uniform Coat or Suit 
for the Chief Washikee," valued at $50. (L/739-1859) 


the Specifications therein embraced, visited the tribes enumerated, 
and have the honor to report; 

The Eastern Snakes. 

On the second day of July [1859], the principal payment was 
made to the Eastern or Washikeek Band of Snake Indians at the 
Crossing of Big Sandy river, forty miles west from the South Pass 
in the presence of a large number of emigrants. Subsequent 
payments were made to small parties of this tribe as the Expedi- 
tion proceeded. 

No instance is on record of the Eastern Snakes having Com- 
mitted outrages upon the whites. The presents were given as a 
reward for their good behavior in the past, and as a payment for 
the destruction of their root and herding grounds by the animals 
of the emigration. They were requested to aid overland travellers 
by every means in their power, to restore strayed and lost stock 
and in case of any outrage being committed upon them by emi- 
grants, to refrain from reprisal, but report it through their chief 
to proper authorities. These points were explained to them by 
excellent interpreters, were agreed to and have been .implicitly 
regarded. The life of an emigrant was saved by an indian at 
"Green river crossing" and great assistance rendered at the same 
dangerous ford in passing trams, by the mounted warriors of the 
tribe. Lost Stock has been driven in, and by a paper bearing 
over nine thousand signatures, the emigrants state "that they have 
been most kindly treated by the indians." 

At the payment, the emigrants were given to understand the 
object of the disbursement of presents and have treated the indians 
with consideration and respect. 

The Eastern Snakes range from the waters of Wind river or 
latitude 43° 30' on the north and from the South Pass to the head 
waters of the North Platte on the east, and to Bear river near the 
mouth of Smith's Fork on the west. They extend south as far as 
Brown's Hole on Green river. Their principal subsistence is the 
roots and seeds of the wild vegetables of the region they inhabit, 
the mountain trout, with which all the streams of the Country 
are abundantly supplied, and wild game. The latter is now very 
scarce in the vicinity of the new and old emigrant roads. 

The immense herds of antelope I remember having seen along 
the route of the new road [Lander Cutoff] in 1854 and 1857 
seem to have disappeared. These indians visit the border ground 
between their own Country and the Crows and Blackfeet for the 
purpose of hunting Elk, Antelope and stray herds of Buffalo 
When these trips are made they travel only in large bands for 
fear of the Blackfeet and Crows. With the Pannachs and parties 
of Salt Lake Diggers they often make still longer marches into 
the northwestern buffalo ranges on the head waters of the Mis- 
souri and Yellow Stone. 


These excursions usually last over winter, the more western 
indians who join them passing over a distance of twelve hundred 
miles on the out and return journey. 

They are at peace with the Flatheads, hunting with them on the 
buffalo grounds. They seem to have no discretion in the killing 
of game. The antelope "surrounds 1 ' in which the whole tribe often 
engages are made at that season of the year when the antelope 
is heavy with young or has the fawn by her side. I witnessed 
one of these "surrounds" on the head waters of Green river in 
1858. On this occasion the whole herd of Antelope was slaugh- 
tered indiscriminately. 

Wash-ikeek, the principal chief of the tribe is half Flathead. 
He obtained his popularity in the nation by various feats as a 
warrior and it is urged by some of the Mountaineers by his extreme 
severity. This has in one or two instances, extended so far as 
taking life. The word Washikee or Washekeek signifies "Gam- 
bler's Gourd." He was originally called "Pina-qua-na" or "Smell 
of Sugar." "Push-e-can" or "Pur-chi-can," another war Chief of 
the Snakes, bears upon his forehead the scar of a blow of the 
tomahawk given by Washikee in one of their altercations. Wash- 
ikee, who is also known by the name of "the white man's friend," 
was many years ago in the employment of the American and 
Hudson's Bay Fur Companies. He was the Constant Companion 
of the white trappers, and his superior knowledge and accom- 
plishments may be attributed to this fact. 

He is very light Colored, remarkably tall and well formed, even 
majestic in appearance, and in my own opinion, an undeniable 
half breed. He is desirious of visiting Washington with the prin- 
cipal warriors of his tribe, never having been further east than 
Fort Laramie. The policy of making provision for this visit is 
evident, many of the more warlike tribes in his vicinity and some 
of the Eastern Snakes having been led to believe that the whites 
are very few in number. 

I have not heard the Chiefs of the more western tribes speak 
of such a visit, but they would probably join in it. As my instruc- 
tions did not direct any such arrangement, I could only inform 
the Chief that I would make his wishes known to the Great Father. 

Washikee expresses himself in favor of the Reserve System, 
and has named a section of Country near the Medicine Bow 
Butte [Elk Mountain, north of the Medicine Bow range] on the 
border lands of his tribe as a suitable place for farming purposes 
I should anticipate some difficulty at the present time, in any 
endeavor to unite the Eastern Snakes upon a reserve. I made 
them offers of seeds and utensils which were not well received. 
They express themselves very favorably in reference to herding 
and might be restrained to habits of discipline and self denial 
in this respect were suitable agents appointed to reside among 


them. They are a wandering tribe and range at different seasons 
of the year, as necessity calls, over the entire region I have 

The Salt Lake Diggers intermarry with the Eastern Snakes and 
are on good terms with them. Among these indians, are some 
of the worst in the mountains. Washikee will not permit a horse 
thief or a vagabond to remain in his band, but many of the 
Mormon indians go about the Country with minor Chiefs calling 
themselves Eastern Snakes. Old Snag, a Chief sometimes seen 
on Green river, who proclaims himself an Eastern Snake, and 
friend of the Americans, but who is, I am informed, half Pannack. 
is of this class. — His character is very doubtful; although no actual 
proof exists of his participation in robberies, he has been known 
to permit young men to travel in his band who have stolen horses 
from emigrants. — An instance of this sort has occurred the present 
season, to which I shall refer in my remarks upon the Pannack 
tribe. — 

Southern indians pass, on their way "to Buffalo"" (a technical 
term) through the lands of the Eastern Snakes and Pannacks, 
and the latter are often made to bear the blame of their horse- 
stealing proclivities. — The Southern or Salt Lake Snakes or Dig- 
gers are, as a class, more civilized than Washikee's band; many 
of them speak English exceedingly well and are very good farm 
laborers. — They are the most dangerous indians in the country, 
and if they could be gathered on a reserve during the passage of 
the emigration, where they can be made to support themselves 
much more readily than the Northern indians, it would be a 
matter of great benefit to the overland travel. — 

Any steps which could be taken to augment the power of 
Washikee who is perfectly safe in his attachment to the Americans 
and Northern Mountaineers, would also prove beneficial. — 

A depredation was committed in the Eastern Snake country by 
Salt Lake Diggers on their way "to Buffalo," a fine ox being shot 
down owing to a quarrel which grew out of a horse trade with 
an emigrant named Amberson Huff. — The man could not have 
gone on without another ox, which was purchased for him out of 
the funds of the Wagon Road Expedition and charged to your 
Bureau. — 

The Eastern Snakes speak the same language as the Camanches 
and often visit that warlike tribe. The Southern Snakes or Diggers 
have slightly different pronunciation for some words. Their 
language is called by mountaineers Digger Snake. 

The Western Snakes who go about the Country with the Pan- 
nacks also use a slightly different pronunciation from the Ca- 
manche or pure Snake of the Eastern Mountains. 

[There follow discussions of the Bannacks or Pannacks, re- 
ported to live in the Snake country and as far south as Cache 


Valley on occasion, with special attention to the chiefs Mopeah 
and Tash-e-pah (who, like Washakie, was reported to be half 
Flathead, and a friend to the Americans), with some account also 
of the activities of "Salt Lake Diggers" in the Snake area. Sub- 
sequently Lander remarks upon the "Western Snakes" of the 
Humboldt River area, mentioning that these are called by the 
mountain men "Sho-sho-kos."] 

Schedule of the number of the various bands referred to in this 
report or visiting the emigrant roads via the South Pass. 

I have estimated seven individuals to the lodge This is a 
larger number than is usual in a buffalo Country where the skin 
lodge is less costly than among the Snakes. 

Shoshonees or Eastern Snakes 

Chief Wash-i-kee or Wash-i-keek — in english "Gambler's 
gourd," or Pina-qua-na, in english "Smell of sugar." — Lodges, 
125. Subsistence — Buffalo, small game, fish, wild roots and 
seeds. — Range — Green river Country. Horses, a large number. 

Salmon river Snakes; Bannacks and Snakes and Sheep-eaters 

Chief. Qai-tan-i-an — in english "Foul Hand" with "Old Snag" 
and the Bannack "Grand Coquin" — Lodges 50 — Subsistence — 
Salmon and trout, elk, deer and antelope Range — On Salmon 
river and the mountains north of it — Horses — a small number. 

A Small band of the Sheep Eaters are very fierce and wild, 
rarely visiting whites. 

Western Snakes 

Chief. Am-a-ro-ko — in english. "Buffalo Meat under the Shoul- 
der" — Lodges 75. Subsistence — Buffalo meat and wild vege- 
tables. — Range — Kamass prairie — Horses — Large number. — Po- 
ca-ta-ro's band. Goose Creek mountains, heads of Humboldt, 
Raft Creek and Mormon settlements. — Horses — Few. 

Bannacks or Pannakees or Pannacks 

Chief Mo-pe-ah, in english — "Horn of hair on the forehead" — 
Lodges — 60. Subsistence — Buffalo meat and wild vegetables — 
Range — In Country of Salt river and tributaries — Horses — Large 

Bannacks of Fort Boise 

Chief — Po-e-ma-che-ah, — in english "Hairy Man" — Lodges 
100. Subsistence — Salmon fish, wild vegetables and roots — 
Range — In neighborhood of Fort Boise. Horses — large number. 


Salt Lake Diggers; Lower or Southern Snakes 

Chief. Indian name unknown — in english "Long Beard" Lodges 
— 50. Subsist Amongst the Mormons and by hunting and plunder 
Range — Around Salt Lake — Horses — Few. 

Warraricas — (in english — "Sun Flower seed eaters") or Diggers 
or Bannacks below Fort Boise, west of Blue Mountains. 

Chief Pash-e-co or Pa-chi-co. in english "Sweet Root" Med- 
icine man and head of all the Bannacks or Pannakees; thought a 
wonderful prophet by the Snakes — Lodges. 150. Subsistence — 
Roots and the Kamass with plunder Range — Head of John Days 
river and west of Blue mountains — Horses — very few — They steal 
the latter from the Cayuses. 

All the above indians travel together and intermarry. They 
hold the entire country. I Consider the Eastern Snakes as in 
some measure isolated from the rest and as being more particularly 
under the direction of the reliable chief Washikee. 

If the leading men of the disaffected tribes could be induced 
to visit Washington it would serve an important purpose. They 
know nothing of the number and actual power of the Gentiles, so 
called, and in my opinion are constantly deceived in regard to 

I recommend to you any of the following individuals as suitable 
persons to carry out your views in reference to the collection of 
any information required or the establishment of Agents in the 

Timothy Goodale would make a suitable agent for the Eastern 
Snakes. He is very reliable and has great influence with the 
Chief Washikee. From circumstances occurring which led me to 
doubt some of the statements of individuals having influence with 
the tribe, and present at the payment, I sent a night express after 
Goodale and he was of great service to me at that time. He is 
now in this city [Washington, D. C], if required for service would 
need a notification as he is a mountain trader, and will soon leave 
for the border. 

Thomas Adams, a citizen of this District, but who has passed 
the last seven years in the Rocky Mountains is well known among 
those Pannacks and Western Snakes who range east of Salmon 
Falls and north of Snake river. He is also familiar with some 
of the Salt Lake Diggers. 

Old Richard Grant who was for many years the Hudson Bay 
Factor at Fort Hall understands these western indians perfectly 
and is now in that Country. His son John Grant, who is married 
into the Western Snake tribe and is brother-in-law of the cele- 
brated Ten-toi, is not so well educated, but can give much infor- 
mation about them. He was born and reared in the vicinity of 
Fort Hall. 


Thomas Lavatti, the haif breed already referred to in this report 
is one of the best men in the mountains; brave, reliable and sen- 
sible in all his views in relation to the Indians. I think his 
advice as to the best method of approaching and Controlling the 
western Snakes and Pannacks to prevent war by the use of presents 
or by a little timely severity to the worst members of the tribes in 
concert with their Chiefs might be received with Consideration. 
He is a most excellent interpreter. 

Isaac Frapp or Shoshonee Aleck, — the half breed, who has been 
two years in the employment of the [Wagon Road] expedition, 
is a very excellent and faithful man. He is both brave and honest. 
His services of the present season are referred to in Mr. [William 
H.] Wagner's report. 

I think it will be necessary to have a road agent at the South 
Pass the coming season to inform emigrants of the new road — 
and to prevent the emigration being directed across the desert by 
interested parties who pick up the abandoned, or buy, at low 
prices, the tired cattle of overland travellers. This road agent 
should have the protection of a few companions. 

It is my opinion that Indian presents should again be sent into 
the Country, for the agent can do nothing without them. 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to A. B. Greenwood, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Washington, 

D. C, Feb. 27, I860. 1 " 

Sir: On the subject of new Indian farms, in addition to what 
I have already said, in letters and in my last annual report, I 
respectfully call your attention to the propriety of immediately 
locating the proposed new farms, as it will be difficult, even now, 
to obtain a sufficiency of eligible farming land, not already occu- 
pied by settlers, for two of the proposed new farms. The third 
is not so absolutely material, neither in regard to locality, or con- 
dition of the Indians; this third new farm is intended for Wash- 
a-kee"s tribe of Shoshonees; numbering about 1200; and a small 
tribe of Banacks about 500. (See my last report.) 

I recommend a concentration of all "Pah-Utes,' , now roaming 
in small bands through the southern portion of the Territory, on 
one reservation, if one sufficiently large can be found. These 
bands extend from Beaver City, & valley, south to California, 
and are the most destitute Indians of the Territory. 

Another farm is intended for the Shoshonees, roaming in Salt 
Lake, Ogden, Weber, Bear river, Cache, and Malade vallies. 

128. F/103-1860. 


All these could be concentrated on one reservation to be located 
somewhere in the northern part of the Territory. (I again refer 
to my last report. ) 

On these three new farms, and on the five already in progress, 
all the indians of the Territory (excepting those in the Carson 
Valley Agency, ) could be concentrated. 

The 4th farm is intended for Carson Valley Agency; the locality 
&c. must be determined by the Agent. 

Five thousand dollars, for each proposed new farm, is in my 
opinion, sufficient to start these farms successfully. . . . 


Jacob Forney, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to A. B. Greenwood, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, June 11, I860. 129 

Sir: I have resumed the duties of the Superintendency for rea- 
sons that I have stated 

We have already learned from papers and other sources, of 
Indian depredations in the western portion of this Territory, prin- 
cipally on and adjacent to the California Mail Route. 130 These 
depredations have been principally, if not altogether confined 
within the limits of the Carson Valley Agency, and among the 
Western Pey Ute Indians. 

Immediately upon hearing of these Indian outbreaks Gov Cum- 
ming promptly communicated with Col [Charles F.] Smith, the 
present commander of the Department of Utah, who without 
delay, detailed several companies of U. S. Troops for the Cali- 
fornia Mail route. This prompt action with the movement of a 
portion of the U. S. troops under General [N. S.] Clarke in Cal- 
fornia, and the volunteer organization and action in Carson 
Valley will, I am confident, speedily bring the Indians to terms. 

I also despatched a reliable person, with certain appliances, 
among the Go Sha Utes and Sho Sho Nees along the Mail Route 
as far as Ruby Valley and even beyond if deemed necessary. Bad 
Indians and worse white men, with the aid of causes that at 
present exist to the great detriment of the public interest, have 
conspired to excite the Indians all over the Territory 

129. F/ 176- 1860. Various charges having been brought against him, 
the Indian Office ordered hearings on these charges in Great Salt Lake 
City in the spring of 1860, during which time Forney was under suspension. 
Eventually he was dismissed from office. These troubles contributed to 
the neglect of the Indians in Utah during 1860. 

130. Forney refers to Nevada's "Paiute War" of 1860, which gave a 
thorough scare to the miners and occasioned a good deal of trouble to 
the overland mail. 


The Northern Sho Sho Nees and Bannacks have been anoying 
the northern settlements. I will leave tomorrow to visit the 
northern Indians. I expect to meet a considerable body of them 
in Cache Valley or some other point north. I sent an express 
for this purpose, North last Saturday. 

I will give Agent [A.] Humphreys instructions about the Utes 
and Southern Py-Utas. I will also visit the Sho Sho Nees between 
Fort Bridger and Rocky Mountains 

Under existing circumstances it cannot be expected that I can 
accomplish much. I will however devote my time, energies and 
private credit for the benefit of the public interest, until I leave 
for the East. 

The great wonder to me is, that the Indians are not much worse, 
and even as it is, the Indians are accused of many thefts, which 
are committed by white men, such as discharged soldiers & team- 
sters, Camp followers, apostate Mormons &c . . . . 


gov. a. cumming, et al., to a. b. greenwood, commissioner 

of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, 

Nov. 1, I860. 131 

To the Hon. A. B. Greenwood Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 
Washington D. C. 

The undersigned actuated by a sense of duty, would respectfully 
call your attention, and through you the attention of Congress 
to the pressing necessity of taking immediate steps towards bring- 
ing the Indians of the Territory of Utah under treaty obligations. 

It is believed that this Territory presents the only instance of 
the organization of a Territorial Government by Congress, — the 
country thrown open to settlement, without measures being first 
adopted to extinguish the Indian title, — The result has been re- 
peated, and almost constant depredations by the Indians upon the 
settlers, the destruction of whole fields of grain, — stealing and 
driving away stock, and in many instances the most wanton and 
cruel murder of peaceful and unoffending citizens. Those more 
kindly disposed have resorted to petty theft, and begging; all 
however urging in Justification of their course, that their own 
country was taken possession of without their consent; their grass 
and water used, their game driven off, and they left to suffer and 
starve. The burthens of all this, to the amount of thousands of 
dollars annually, have been born by the people of this Territory, 

131. R/1276-1860. The memorial was transmitted in a letter from 
Special Agent E. F. Ruth to Commissioner of Indian Affairs A. B. Green- 
wood, dated Washington, Dec. 8, 1860. 


which has operated very oppressively when taken in connection 
with other hardships, incidental to the settlement of a new country, 
so far in the interior: — 

Your memorialists need not refer in detail to the murder of 
Capt. [John W.] Gunnison and party by the Indians, while en- 
gaged in a government exploration and survey, or the more recent 
and atrocious murders in western Utah [i.e. Nevada], by which 
a number of valuable lives were lost — all of which we doubt not 
would have been prevented, had the Indians been treated by the 
government as other Indians in settled Territories, and placed 
under treaty stipulations. — 

Why we might ask, has the government neglected to make 
treaties with the Utes, the Digers, the Shoshones; and left the set- 
tlers of Utah at their mercy; and in the meantime formed treaties 
with other Tribes, paying them tens of thousands annually in the 
way of annuities and presents. The argument we believe in jus- 
tification of the course pursued towards the Indians of Utah, is 
that as the country was obtained from Mexico, and as that nation, 
never recognized the Indian title, the United States would adopt 
the same policy, and if necessary take possession of the country 
by force. 132 

We would respectfully submit whether this is not too enlight- 
ened, too great, and too humane a government, to borrow and 
adopt the errors and barbarities of any semi-savage nation. Be- 
sides, the country was purchased with the incumbrance of the 
possessory right of the Indians, and when thrown open to settle- 
ment, if Mexico does not remove the incumbrance, it seems but 
reasonable that the United States should. 

The first great -duty of the government — is to protect the citizen 
in the full enjoyment of all his civil and political rights, and by 
the organization of a Territory, it invites settlement, derives rev- 
enue from the sale of public lands, and is presumed to follow the 
citizen with its protecting arm; Its duties are two fold: — as the 
guardian of the Indian, it must see that his rights are preserved, 
and a fair compensation rendered for the possession which the 
government seeks to appropriate, and as the protector of the 
citizen, it must guard carefully his life, liberty and property. 

All Indian treaties have been based upon the ground of policy; 
— justice to the savage, not title in him. — Upon the ground that 
it was more just, more humane, to purchase their possession, and 
dispossess them peacably, than to take possession by force, — 
The Indians of Utah have a possession which to them is as val- 
uable, as sacred as that of any other Tribe with which the govern- 
ment ever treated. — To say to them that the country was derived 
from a nation that did not recognize their right of occupancy, and 

132. This was never the policy of the United States government. 


therefore the United States would not, would be using logic, which 
they would neither regard nor understand. 

It is sufficient for them to know that the Great Spirit gave this 
country to their fathers, sent the deer and antelope here for their 
food, and that while all that remains of their fathers are their 
graves, the hunting ground as their decendants belongs to them. — 

Already do they well understand, that Treaties have been made 
with other Indians, by which their lands have been purchased, and 
they are becoming impatient and indeed hostile, because the same 
course is not pursued with them. We are fully satisfied that much 
longer they cannot be restrained from open and avowed hostility. 
They fully realize the effect produced by settlement, taking pos- 
session of their most valuable hunting ground, driving off their 
game, consumeing their grass; and begging and plunder, seem 
to them not only Justifiable but their only alternative. — 

Therefore, as an act of Justice to the Indian, for the peace of 
the country, for the protection of settlers and travelers, we would 
most earnestly recommend that immediate steps be taken, to form 
Treaties, with the Utes, Pi-Utes — Diggers and Shos hones or 
Snakes, conscientiously believing, that such Treaties will be less 
expensive to the general government, than the present Indian 
policy in Utah, and that such action is indispensable in preventing 
the sacrafice of human life. 

Great Salt Lake City Respectfully Yours 

Nove. 1st 1860 A Cumming 

J. F. Kinney 

Ch. Justice Francis H. Wootton 

Henry R. Crosby 

Associate Justice S. C. Stambaugh 

Wm H Rogers Ind Agent 


Gov. U Ty. 

:is H. Woot 
Secretary of State 

Sur. Genl. 

William H. Rogers, Indian Agent, to William H. Russell, 
dated Great Salt Lake City, April 18, 1861. 133 

Dear Sir 

Knowing the interest that is felt in the Great Overland cen- 
tral rout, by the public, and your self, I deem it my duty as an 
Indian Agent to let you know the condition of Indian Affairs in 

133. C/1203-1861. This letter reached the Indian Office under cover 
of one by Frederick Cook, Treasurer, Overland Mail Co.. New York, 
lune 3, 1861, which says further: 

This, & like intimations from other reliable sources, lead us to 


this Territory at present (that is in my agency). 1 " I wrote a 
letter to Mr. Mix about the first of March last, asking him to 
answer my letter by pony [Pony Express] — I have not received 
a line from him; since writing that letter, I have had frequent 
appeals from the "Snake Indians" to make them a visit and give 
them a few presents; but have had no means to do so; and I now 
think if something is not done there will be trouble this summer, 
and 1 take this opportunity of informing the Department through 
you that if these Indians, who are the best in the Rocky Mountains 
and who pride themselves that they have never spilled the blood 
of a white man are not looked after, the Department must answer 
for it; they have been deceived by promises from both Forney 
and Davies, 135 and have received nothing since the winter of '57, 
and then only a small quantity of good [goods?] — they are a 
large band — Washakee is their Chief, they are the bravest and 
most intelligent Indians in the Territy: — his tribe have deserted 
him, or as they say they have thrown him away, he has always 
ruled them and could hold them in complete subjection until now. 
He told me last Summer that his Indians lost Confidence in him 
that he had made them promises of good on the word of the 
Superintendent to him; there is no Indian in the Tribe who can 
manage things so well as Washakee — he should be restored to his 
former position as Chief, this can be done at present with but little 
trouble, the Snakes say they do not intend to let the Mail or Emi- 
grants pass through their Country if they do not get some presents 
this Spring; it should be attended to without delay; they seem to 
think that the bad Indians who kill & steal get presents while 
they get only promises, and seem to have come to the conclusion 
that bad Indians are the only ones who are rewarded, which is 
very near the truth as far as this Territory is Concerned — 

I have had a long conversation with Mr. James Bromley your 
Mail Agent this morning, he informs me that if something is not 
done soon, there will be trouble in the Snake Count [r]y, which is 
in his division. — There are not enough U. S. Troops in Utah to 

believe that the immediate & most earnest attention of the Department 

is needed to prevent Serious trouble, which will cost the Govt, much 

money and many lives if it runs into actual war. 

Except under the protection of the Govt., which we have supposed 

would be ample for emigration and for us, it will be impossible to 

perform our service in transportation of the mails. 

William H. Russell, to whom Roger's letter was directed, was the well- 
known member of the firm, Russell, Majors & Waddell, which at this 
time was operating the Pony Express. 

134. Rogers' post of duty was primarily Ruby Valley in present Nevada. 
He had served since September, 1859. 

135. Benjamin Davies succeeded Forney as Superintendent in the sum- 
mer of 1860. He served a little over a year, being in turn succeeded by 
Henry Martin and James Duane Doty. 


whip this tribe, 1 "' they are the best fighters and the bravest in the 
Territory and are better prepared for fighting. — 

Col. Davis the present Superintendent has given out a few goods 
only to the Indians who hang arou[n]d the Settlements, they do 
not deserve them, for they are a miserable lazy set who would 
starve before they would go on a hunt. 

You can if you think proper show this letter to the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, and state to him that I think these Indians 
should have at lease [sic] eight or ten thousand dollars distributed 
to them in good immediately. — If the Department will enclose 
me such an amount in a draft, you can send it by Pony, and I 
will assure them that Washakee will be reinstated and the whole 
tribe reconciled; as it is of no little importance to both the Gov- 
ernment and to the Contractors of the Central overland Mail line. 

The Indians in the vicinity of Ruby Valley and D2ep Creek 
west of this on the Mail line are becoming daily more and more 
hostile towards the whites who keep the Stations, I have had 
reliable information if something is not done soon that they 
intend wiping out the Stations and Stock; they say Col. Davis 
did not give them any good last winter on his visit to that Country, 
they are preparing for another summers Campain; they are prin- 
cipally Goshutes. . . . 
P. S. 

1 am just from the South pass the Snake Country, and have 
informed Mr.- Rogers of the above facts in relation to the Snake 
Indians. If these Indians make an outbreak they will be hard to 
Stop as I am personally acquainted with this Indians 

James. E. Bromley 

Agent for Cent O S Comp 


Benjamin Davies, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Utah 

Territory, June 30, 1861. Extract."" 

* * * 

The immense depth of the snow, which in some places was said 
to be as much as fifty feet, rendered locomotion with wheeled 
vehicles impracticable, and although I ventured as far as the 
safety of my animals and men permitted, I was forced to confine 

136. The Civil War having broken out earlier this year, the forces 
which garrisoned Utah since 1858 were in course of being evacuated. 

137. 37th Congress, 2nd Session. Senate Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1117), pp. 741-743. In the earlier part of this report, Davies discussed 
at considerable length the Indian situation west of Great Salt Lake City. 


my operations principally to the bands and tribes who came from 
necessity by hundreds to visit me at my quarters. Including 
those whom I have visited and the multitudes that have congre- 
gated around my quarters, I have seen and made liberal distri- 
bution of presents among every tribe and band in this Territory, 
except those in Carson valley and certain remote bands on the 
head of the Humboldt river and Goose creek. The chiefs and 
principal men, with their families, have spent some time with 
me, and I have conversed fully with them, through my excellent 
interpreter, Mr. Dimmick B. Huntington, who has lived here 
twenty years, converses freely in each language, is well known 
by every band and chief throughout the Territory, and wields 
great influence over them all. In these conversations I discovered 
that they had a suspicion that it was the policy of the whites to 
populate their country and drive them into the big waters west of 
them, and some trouble may be anticipated in attempts to nego- 
tiate the purchase of their lands by treaty or otherwise. Most of 
the soil susceptible of cultivation is now settled and occupied by 
white persons, and the tide of population, attracted hither by the 
peculiar religious notions of the settlers of this Territory, will 
soon leave but little space for the poor Indian. I have again to 
urge the importance of extending the limits of the reserve at Ruby 
valley and Deep creek, (or Ibimpah) so as to embrace the whole 
of said valleys, and that surveys of the same be immediately made 
and their boundaries regularly designated. I also recommend the 
establishment of reserves and farms for the Snakes (Wash-akeis 
band and Bannacks) on Green river, three hundred miles east of 
this city, and also for the Weber-Utes, Little Soldier's band, on 
Weber river. For the various bands of Utes, Pah-Utes, Pah-vants, 
and others, who congregate at the Spanish Fork farm, I recom- 
mend the establishment of a reserve, including the whole of Win- 
ter [Uinta] valley 13 * in addition to the Spanish fork, Corn creek, 
and San Pete reserve. As the sum appropriated for the Indian 
service in this Territory is only about forty thousand dollars per 
annum, I beg to suggest that the amount expended in cultivating 
cereals is disproportionate to what should be invested in raising 
cattle, and supplying clothing. 

These are unquestionably the poorest Indians on the continent. 
There is no game to subsist them, and from the nature of the 
country there never can be. Animals whose nature it is to inhabit 
forests will not abide in the beds of saleratus and on the barren 
rocks and dismal wastes of this insalubrious clime. If the system 
of cultivating grain be so modified as to substitute in part the rais- 

138. President Lincoln set aside the Uinta reservation for the Utes on 
Oct. 3, 1861, spurred by representations from the then superintendent. 
Henry Martin. 


ing of cattle for the subsistence of the Indians, it will operate 
beneficially in various respects. The Indian is by nature a herds- 
man, and he will readily fall in with the idea of taking care of 
cattle in preference to performing the more civilized labor of the 
farm. Besides, it is their nature to need meat. When fed on 
flour without meat for any length of time, they become diseased, 
and a change from that to meat will soon restore them to their 
wonted health. Owing to the d[i] fficulty of getting beef, I have 
tried to substitute the use of bacon. During last winter starvation 
compelled many of them to eat it, but some had to be supplied 
with beef. If four or five thousand dollars were invested in 
yearling heifers, and proper care were taken of them on the differ- 
ent reserves, beneficial results would soon follow. The plan of 
making up the goods designed to clothe them into garments, such 
as are worn by white persons, male and female, operates finely, 
and cannot be too strongly recommended. They are well pleased 
at being dressed like citizens, and it tends to make them more 
cleanly and careful of their person and their clothing, and the 
cost of making is saved by the less quantity necessary to be given. 
It also has the effect of preventing them from trading off their 
garments, which is invariably practiced when the raw material is 
given them. The destitution of these Indians and the excessive 
severity of the wintry seasons cause much sickness, especially 
inflammatory and pulmonary diseases, among them. 

Great suffering and many deaths transpire, which might be 
mitigated, and perhaps prevented, by proper medical treatment. 
Syphilis prevails to a fearful extent among the Pah-vants and 
Pi-utes, which it is said they contract among the Navajoes, with 
whom they do much trading. I recommend the appointment of 
an experienced physician, whose duty it shall be to render medical 
assistance to all who may need it within this superintendency. 
Owing to the high price of everything in this remote region, and 
the laborious, perilous, and self-sacrificing labor of the offcie 
attached to the Indian service here, I submit that their compensa- 
tion is inadequate, and recommend that their salaries be increased. 
The pay of the superintendent should be three thousand dollars, 
and that of each agent, two thousand dollars. From the best 
information I can obtain from traders, mountaineers, travellers, 
and other persons, I presume there are some twenty thousand 
souls embraced within the jurisdiction of this superintendency. 
I have, therefore, to submit that an appropriation of forty thou- 
sand dollars per annum is quite insufficient for their wants. After 
deducting salaries of officers, their incidental expenses, pay of 
farm agents, other employes, and incidental expenditures of the 
reserve, but little is left for clothing, which is more needed among 
them than anything else. To put the Ruby Valley reserve in suc- 
cessful operation will require — 


At least $7,000 00 

Deep Creek or Ibimpah ___ _____ 7,000 00 

Corn Creek _ 4,000 00 

San Pete 4,000 00 

To open a farm on Weber for Little Soldier's Utes 8,000 00 

To open a farm on Green River for Wash-a-kees, 

Snakes _ 10,000 00 

Besides what may be necessary to make repairs and 
carry on the Spanish Fork and Carson Valley farms, 

which may perhaps require 10,000 00 

Making in the aggregate _ $60,000 00 

Add to this for clothing, blankets, lodges, arms, 

ammunition, &c, two dollars per capita $40,000 00 

And we have an aggregate of .... 100,000 00 

which would not be more than might be judiciously and benefi- 
cially expended the ensuing year. 


Henry Martin, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. Dole, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, Oct. 1, 1861. Extract. 130 

Sir: In accordance with a regulation of the Indian department, 
requiring me to make an annual report of the situation of affairs 
in this superintendency, and to prepare estimates for the guidance 
of Congress in making annual appropriations for the support of 
the Indians in this Territory, I have the honor herewith to 
transmit to you my first annual report. 

I regret that my arrival in this Territory being of so recent a 
date, August 6, 1861, rendered it impossible for me to ascertain, 
as fully as I could wish, the exact condition of all the different 
bands of Indians in my superintendency. 

I have, however, been as diligent as circumstances would permit 
in finding out, from personal examination and reliable information 
from parties in whom I place confidence, the wants and necessities 
of most of the tribes and bands of Indians placed in my charge, 
and am sorry to say that I found them in a very poor condition, 
both as regards a sufficient supply of clothing to protect them 

139. 37th Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1117), pp. 744-748. 


from the severity of the weather in this mountainous country, and 

the necessary amount of food to keep them from actual starvation. 

Too little attention, I am fearful, has heretofore been paid to 

the fact that there is very little game in this Territory, of any 
description, which the Indians can kill to keep them in food. 
There is no buffalo whatever that range in this Territory, and 
very few antelope, elk, deer, mountain sheep, or bear, and these 
only in certain localities. 

Civilization seems to have had the same effect here as has been 
noticed elsewhere in this country since the first settlement by our 
forefathers, in driving before it the game natural to a wilderness, 
and the Indians complain bitterly that since the white man has 
come among them their game has almost entirely disappeared 
from their former hunting-grounds, and they are now obliged 
either to beg food from the white settlers or starve. 

The driving away of the buffalo not only deprives them of their 
principal supply of food, but also of a great source of revenue 
and comfort in the skins, which they sold and used to keep them 
comfortable in cold weather. 

I have had more applications from Indians for beef and flour 
since I have been here than anything else. They frequently come 
to me and fairly beg for some beef, to keep their squaws and 
papooses from starving. 

Owing to the limited amount of money placed in my hands, I 
have been unable to entirely satisfy their demands, but I am 
confident that what I have distributed in that way has been a great 
deal more satisfactory to the Indians than three times the amount 
expended in any kind of trinkets usually disbursed by the depart- 
ment would have been. 

The annual appropriation for this superintendency has, in my 
opinion, always been too small to allow the superintendent and 
agents to give that satisfaction to the Indians which their wants 
demand, and a proper regard for the rights and safety of the 
white settlers, by preventing depredations, requires. 

The establishment of the overland daily mail and telegraph 
lines, and their recent completion through this Territory — con- 
summations of such vital importance to the people throughout 
the Union — renders it necessary that steps should be immediately 
taken by the government to prevent the possibility of their being 
interrupted by the Indians. 

On this subject I have taken much pains to consult with most 
of the leading men connected with these great enterprises, and 
also with nearly all of the head chiefs of the Indians that range 
on their lines in this Territory, and have, after mature deliberation, 
come to the conclusion that the only manner in which this can 
be effected to the entire satisfaction and protection of all the 


parties concerned, is by a treaty between the United States and 
the tribes of Indians ranging in this superintendency. 

In recent consultations or "talks" with Wash-a-kee and Sho- 
kub, 1 '" the head chiefs of the Shoshones or Snake Indians, Nava- 
coots and Pe-tut-neet, chiefs of the Ute nation, and many of the 
sub-chiefs of both nations, I find that they are unanimously in 
favor of a treaty with the United States, and agree with me in 
considering that to be the only effectual way to check the stealing 
propensities of some of their Indians; and from information 
gleaned from them on various occasions,. I have made the follow- 
ing memorandum in regard to the probable cost and effect of a 

They express their willingness to cede to the United States all 
the lands they claim in this Territory, with the exception of reser- 
vations necessary for their homes; and ask, in return, that the 
United States shall make them annual presents of blankets, beads, 
paint, calico, ammunition, &c, with occasional supplies of beef 
and flour sufficient to make them comfortable, which I estimate 
can be done with a small addition to the usual appropriation. 

They seem fully to understand the nature and effect of a treaty, 
and the chiefs agree to hold themselves responsible for any depre- 
dations committed by any of their bands, if a treaty should be 
made, by deducting the amount of damage done from the annuity 
paid them. 

I cannot too strongly recommend this course to the department, 
and sincerely hope that it will meet with that prompt attention 
that, to my mind, the importance of the subject entitles it. 

I had expeced on my arrival in this city, and after assuming 
the duties of this office, to find matters in a shape that I could 
immediately proceed to the discharge of my duty towards the 
Indians, but was very much disappointed; and instead of finding 
an office properly in order, with facilities for doing business, I 
could find nothing but an old bundle of papers to show that there 
had ever been a superintendent in the Territory. 

This state of affairs necessarily delayed my intercourse with the 
Indians until I could procure an office and the fixtures necessary 
to do business with, which, owing to the exorbitant price charged 
for everything in this country, and the scarcity of material to 
manufacture office furniture, delayed me much longer than I had 

I have, however, succeeded in establishing an office here in a 
becoming and comfortable style, at an expense much less than has 
heretofore been allowed for that purpose. 

140. A chief of the Shoshoni living in eastern Nevada. 



James D. Doty, Special Agent of the Post Office 

Department, to Geo. W. McLellan, Assistant Postmaster 

General, dated Great Salt Lake City, December 14, 

1861. Extract:" 

I cannot think that Government has any cause to fear for the 
safety of the mail from this source; [the disloyalty of employees of 
the Overland Mail Company] but it has occasion to apprehend 
danger from the Indians. 

Seeing the large supplies of provisions and feed which the Co. 
has been compelled to accumulate this fall and to keep at each 
Station, these people, who are very wild, when hungry or starving, 
and perhaps at other times, are disposed to take by force what 
they require if they are not freely given what is demanded. The 
men of the Co. cannot, of course, comply with their demands — 
for they present themselves by fifties & hundreds and hence 
difficulties ensue. 

Two days before I passed the Red Butte, an assistant agent of 
that division was shot and instantly killed, as he was riding alone 
in his waggon near that place and his mules driven off. There 
can be no doubt that it was done by Shoshonee Indians who had 
been to a station near by demanding food which was refused. I 
have sent for the principal Chief of the Nation, hoping he may 
be able and willing to identify and deliver up the parties. 

Threats and demands for food are made along the entire line 
to Carson Valley; they insist that the Country is theirs; that they 
have made no treaty for it with government, and unless troops 
are placed at two or three points along the line, or I am authorised 
as Superintendent of Indian affairs to distribute provisions to them 
occasionally and thus draw them away from the line, serious 
difficulties may be apprehended and the mail cease to be carried 
for some period during the winter. The cost of provisions is very 
great; for they must either be purchased here, in this settlement, 
or at Atchison; from which place there are no trains for freight 
during the winter season. The sum of twenty thousand dollars 
I should think would be required for this purpose — and even this 
may prove insufficient. I am the only Superintendent on the line; 
and for the purpose, in part, of protecting the route, I have estab- 
lished an Agent at Fort Bridger and another at Ruby Valley near 
the Humboldt Mountains — but government has placed nothing 
in my hands to give the Indians at those points. These are the 
only Agencies with permanent agents in this extensive territory. 

141. This extract of a report by Doty was transmitted to the Secretary 
of the Interior on Jan. 9, 1862, by George W. McLellan, 2nd Asst. P. M. 
General (P/463-1862). 


which is bounded by the Indian country upon every side. The 
Telegraph line follows the Stage Route; and, allow me to urge, 
that both of them are now of too great importance to the com- 
mercial and other interests of the United States to be interrupted 
or destroyed; and that adequate protection should immediately 
be given to these great enterprises. 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to James Duane Doty, 

Supt. of Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, 

Dec. 27, 1861." 2 


On my arrival at this place I found that the Beef Cattle belong- 
ing to the Military Department had been Sold to Judge [W. A.] 
Carter with the Exception of two head which wer held by that 
Department The Commanding Officer proposed to turn them 
over to me if I would receipt for them I accepted his offer and 
gave him the following Receipt 


Received December 23 d 1861 of Capt J C. Clark 4 th Inft. Act. 
C. S. two head of Beef Cattle Commissary Stores for Issue to 
Indians at Fort Bridger 


Luther Mann Jr Ind. Agt. 

The Officer in Command still holds five Mules which they have 
no use for The Secretary of War on application might turn them 
over to the Indian Department I have obtained one of the Gov- 
ernment Buildings for an Office I shall require Some fixtures for 
the Same also Wood & Lights You will confer a favour by re- 
mitting me at your Earliest Convenience Some funds for that 
purpose as I hold no funds in my hands belonging to the Ind De- 
partment It will require Some two hundred dollars or more for 
that purpose There are some Indians in my agency that have 
not received any presents this fall or Winter I had about twenty 
five visit me on the 25th of the present month Should you think 
best to give them presents you can remit to me the funds for that 
purpose as Every thing they want Except flour can be obtained of 
Judge Carter of this place as Cheap if not cheaper than at the City 

142. Utah Field Papers, 1861. As appears hereafter, Mann, the first 
agent regularly detailed to the Shoshoni, took up his duties at Fort Bridger 
on Dec. 19, 1861. 


Please answer at your Earliest Convenience and Greatly Oblige. 

PS I would like some Powder and lead if you have received it 
send by stage 


William T. Atwood to William P. Dole, Commissioner 

of Indian Affairs, dated Washington, D. C, 

Febr. 13, 1862." 3 


I have the honor herewith to transmit to you my appointment 
as temporary clerk by James Duane Doty Superintendent Indian 
Affairs for the Territory of Utah; and beg leave to report myself 
to you in accordance with the instructions therein contained. 

I left Great Salt Lake City, Utah, the headquarters of the Utah 
Superintendency on Tuesday, December 23 d , 1861, and agreeably 
to my instructions, visited the Indians in the eastern part of the 
territory, on the mail route, and am happy to report that I found 
them all quiet and peaceable, and not in the least interfering with 
the white settlers in that section of country. 

After concluding my visits to the Indians I at once proceeded 
on my way to this city, arriving February 1 st 1862, after a cold & 
tedious ride across the plains. 

I also enclose my account for my salary for two months from 
Dec. 13 th the date of my appointment amounting to two hundred 
& fifty dollars ($250.) with the request that you will cause it to 
be paid as soon as practicable. 

My traveling expenses were advanced to me by Supt Doty, 
before leaving Gt Salt Lake City. . . . 


Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to James Duane Doty, 
Supt. of Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, Feb. 15, 1862. 1U 


I have this day appointed Jack Robinson 115 as Indian Interpreter 

143. A/465-1862. 

144. Utah Field Papers, 1862. 

145. John Robertson, "Uncle Jack Robinson," had been a fixture in 
the Fort Bridger area since Jim Bridger's day, and dwelt there until his 
death in 1882; he is buried in the Fort Bridger cemetery. Some early 
letters by him are printed in Elizabeth Arnold Stone, Uinta County, Its 
Place in History, Laramie, 1924, pp. 42-43. 


for the Fort Bridger Agency, at a Salary of five hundred dollars 
pr year, subject to your confirmation. 

Should such appointment meet your approval you will please 
advise. . . . 

To the Commissioner 

I respectfully recommend the confirmation of the above nomi- 
nation of Jack Robinson to be Interpreter at Fort Bridger Utah 
Territory for the Shoshonee Indians in the North East part of said 
Territory James Duane Doty 

Superintendency Ind Affs Superintendent 

Great Salt Lake City, February 20, 1862 


James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indan Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, April 15, 1862. 146 

Sir: — The accounts & vouchers for the 1 st quarter 1862, for this 
Superintendency are herewith transmitted. They would have been 
forwarded earlier but for my absence from this city from the 25 th 
of March to the 7 th of April, to the northern part of Salt Lake 
and Cache Vallies. I desired to have visited Bear Valley, where 
Washikee & his Band wish to settle, but found the Mountains 
covered with deep snow; and was detained four days in Cache 
Valley by snow storms. 

The Indians have been, in great numbers, in a starving and 
destitute condition. No provision having been made for them, 
either as to clothing or provisions, by my predecessors, I have 
been compelled to purchase supplies where they could best be 
obtained, & transport them to the places where the Indians had 
assembled, and where they were enduring great suffering. At the 
time of their greatest need the rains and snows had rendered the 
road impassable; and the Indians condition was such — with the 
prospect that they would rob the mail stations to sustain life — 
that I felt compelled to send Agent [F. C] Hatch to them and 
to purchase the wheat of James Worthington & 200 bushels of 
Livingston Bell & Co., charged in my account, and distribute it 
gradually among them. I also sent them some flour and clothing. 
It cost more than I wished, but it was the best under the urgency 
of the circumstances that could be done. If the present system 
is to be continued, I propose with your permission, during the 
autumn, when grain is cheaper and transportation can be obtained 
at reasonable rates, to provide at proper points the supplies of 

146. D/596-1862. 


provisions which will probably be required during the winter — 
But the Department will have no freedom from their demands — 
nor from those of the Mail Station Keepers, and inhabitants — 
until these Indians are removed from the line of the road by force, 
or by their settlement further south, as suggested in a former com- 
munication. If they are placed where they can have stock, and 
give their attention to raising it, I am confident they will soon 
cease to be beggars and depredators, and become the best of 
herdsmen. At present they are not satisfied with all that I have 
done for them, when they have in addition received largely from 
the Mail Company and from the inhabitants. 

The snow on the Wausatch Mountains has, since my arrival, 
presented an insuperable barrier to Uinta Valley; and it will be 
several weeks before they can be crossed. As soon as the passage 
is practicable, I shall execute your instructions by making a per- 
sonal examination of the Valley, which I think can be done with 
a guard of eight or ten men. The Elk Mountain Utahs, who 
inhabit that region of country, are understood to be unfriendly. 
None have visited the Superintendency since my arrival. It may, 
perhaps, become necessary to treat with them before occupying 
that Valley with other Bands. 

The remittance for salaries of Agents & Agency expenses, has 
been received. . . . 

James Duane Doty 


Wyoming State Historical Society 


Election of Officers 

Mr. W. L. Marion of Lander was elected to the presidency of 
the Wyoming State Historical Society at the Second Annual Meet- 
ing held in Lander on September 17-18 . Other officers elected 
were: 1st vice president, Dr. DeWitt Dominick of Cody; 2nd vice 
president, Dr. T. A. Larson of Laramie; secretary-treasurer, Miss 
Maurine Carley of Cheyenne. Miss Lola M. Homsher is the per- 
manent executive secretary. 


Mr. L. A. Millard, vice president of the Fremont County His- 
torical Society, presided at the Saturday afternoon session, the 
theme of which was Local History of Fremont County. Interesting 
papers were presented by members of several of the earliest pioneer 
families of the area. Included on the program were: "Echoes From 
the Arapahoe-Shoshone Council" by Mrs. Maud L. Clairmont, a 
member of the council; "Early Incidents in Fremont County" by 
Mrs. Fred Stratton, Sr., daughter of Captain H. G. Nickerson; 
"Indian Paint Brush" by Mrs. Blanche Schroer, read by Mrs. 
Scott; "History of the Ervin Cheney Family" by Mrs. Mable 
Cheney Moudy; and "The Universal American Indian Sign Lan- 
guage" by Mr. J. K. Moore, Jr., who demonstrated the use of 
the sign language as he discussed it. 

Mr. Norman R. Dickinson, president of the Fremont County 
Historical Society, presided at the dinner meeting on Saturday 
evening. Following his welcoming remarks, he introduced Dr. 
T. A. Larson, Head of the Department of History, University of 
Wyoming, who spoke on "Wyoming History in the National Ar- 
chives." Dr. Larson, who recently spent some five weeks at the 
National Archives where he did research in the records of the 
State Department and the Department of the Interior relating to 
the Territory of Wyoming, made an interesting and revealing 
address on information which he secured from these documents. 

Sunday morning was devoted to an historical tour of historic 
South Pass, the early gold rush towns of Atlantic City and South 
Pass City, and the site of old Fort Stambaugh. Mr. James Car- 
penter of Atlantic City led the tour. 

Mr. W. F. Bragg, Sr., of Worland talked on "Western Fiction" 
at the luncheon meeting on Sunday. Mr. Bragg, himself a well 
known author of western fiction, discussed outstanding works on 
the West and mentioned sources of ideas used by various 


authors. He demonstrated his own use of historical facts in his 
writings and gave a number of interesting reminiscences. 

Annual Business Meeting 

Mr. Frank L. Bowron, outgoing president, presided at the 
Annual Business Meeting of the Society held on the afternoon of 
September 18. Committee reports were considered and the fol- 
lowing actions were taken: 

1 ) The motion by Miss Velma Linford, chairman of the Na- 
tional Monuments Committee, was adopted, that "The Wyoming 
State Historical Society adopt in principal an overall plan for 
preserving examples of our culture; that the plan be given careful 
study and that details be suggested by the 1956 annual meeting." 

2) Mr. W. F. Bragg, Jr., chairman of the Historic Signs Design 
committee, gave dimensions for temporary wooden signs to be 
placed by local chapters at local historic sites and showed pictures 
and seals which might be used on them. He suggested these signs 
be made by schools in their workshops and erected with the 
assistance of local youth groups such as Scouts. He moved that 
"The Society buy the silk screen stencils which could be used by 
all Chapters; that uniform signs with definite specifications be 
adopted; and that each local chapter use the application for signs 
worked out by Mrs. Thelma Condit^ (Specifications and appli- 
cation forms adopted may be secured by writing to the Wyoming 
State Historical Department, Cheyenne.) 

3) Mr. David Boodry presented the following changes in the 
Constitution and By-Laws, which were adopted: 


Article I Sec. 2 — The Society is a non-profit organization incor- 
porated under the laws of the State of Wyoming. The Board of 
Trustees shall consist of the following officers of the State Historical 
Society: President, 1st Vice President, 2nd Vice President, Secretary- 
Treasurer, and Executive Secretary. 

Article IV. 

Sec. 1 Delete the words "who shall be elected by the Society at its 
annual meeting and who". 

Sec. 2 be renumbered to read Section 4. 

Sec. 2 — a) The nominating committee appointed by the President 
of the Society shall draw up a slate of nominees for President, 1st 
Vice President, 2nd Vice President, and Secretary-Treasurer, listing 
not more than 3 name fsor each office, b) The list of nominees will 
be announced to all members in July preceding the annual meeting. 
c) Ballots will be sent to all members in good standing at least one 
month prior to the Annual Meeting and will be counted at the Annual 

Sec. 3 — The 2nd Vice President shall be the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Awards. 

Article II Sec. 2. — Add the following sentence at the end: "Insti- 
tutions are not eligible for life membership." 

Article IV Sec. 1 — At the end of the last sentence add the follow- 
ing: "A joint membership shall be entitled to only one copy." 


4) Mr. Brown asked that members write to Postmaster General 
Summerfield requesting a commemorative stamp in 1956 in honor of 
the 50th anniversary of Devil's Tower, the first National Monument. 
Representative Thomson has introduced a bill on this matter in Con- 

5) Mr. Marion discussed the destruction of historical sites and 
suggested a reward of $50.00 for information leading to the arrest 
and conviction of any person who defaces such property. The ques- 
tion was referred to the Legislative Committee for action, and the 
committee was to define the term "historic sites." 

4) Mr. Bowron asked that members write to Postmaster Gen- 
eral Summerfield requesting a commemorative stamp in 1956 in 
honor of the 50th anniversary of Devil's Tower, the first National 
Monument. Representative Thomson has introduced a bill on 
this matter in Congress. 

5) Mr. Marion discussed the destruction of historical sites and 
suggested a reward of $50.00 for information leading to the arrest 
and conviction of any person who defaces such property. The 
question was referred to the Legislative Committee for action, 
and the committee was to define the term "historic sites." 

Historical Awards 

Dr. DeWitt Dominick, chairman of the Awards Committee, 
reminded the members that nominations for awards and qualifi- 
cations of the nominees should be sent to the chairman of the 
committee by September first. He emphasized that these awards 
should be worthy and coveted ones. He presented the following 


Mrs. Mary F. Bragg of Worland 

Mr. L. G. "Pat" Flannery of Ft. Laramie 

Dr. R. H. Burns of Laramie 
Mr. James Carpenter of Atlantic City 
Mr. Fred Stratton, Jr., of Riverton 


Dr. T. A. Larson announced that Sydney B. Spiegel of Chey- 
enne had been awarded the $300.00 annual scholarship offered 
by the Society to a graduate student at the University of Wyoming 
who will write a history of a Wyoming County. Mr. Spiegel will 
write a history of Laramie County. 

Treasurer's Report 

Cash and Investments on hand, October 17, 1954 ...$2,055.85 

Receipts Oct. 17, 1954-Sept. 17, 1955...... ..2,449.77 

Total $4,505.62 

Disbursements $ 889.95 

Balance of Cash & Investments on hand September 17, 1955 $3,615.67 



The treasurer further reported the following membership: 21 
Life members, 4 Joint Life members, 461 Annual members and 
254 Joint Annual members, a total of 740 members. Nine 
counties have organized local chapters: Albany, Carbon, Camp- 
bell, Fremont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona and Washakie. 

Monument Dedicated 

At 4:00 o'clock on Satur- 
day, September 17, following 
the afternoon meeting of the 
Society, the members present 
- ,. „ attended the dedication of an 

Historic Landmark Commis- 
sion marker at the junction of 
highways 287 and 789 at the 
eastern edge of Lander. Mr. 
Joseph Weppner, Secretary of 
the Commission, assisted by 
Mr. Jules Farlow, member of 
the Commission, were in 

The Historical Landmark 
Commission has attempted an 
experiment with this particu- 
lar marker in that they have 
placed on one marker several 
historical statements and have 
indicated the mileage to his- 
torical sites. In the past indi- 
vidual stones have been placed upon the actual site of the place 
of historical interest. 

;rr..^fxrm.>f ■ ' ~ 

Charter Membership 

Charter membership to the State Historical Society was orig- 
inally set to close on July 1, 1954. However, at the Annual 
Meeting of the Society held in Casper on October 17, 1954, this 
date was extended to December 31, 1954. At the closing date 
membership numbered 974. 

Following is a list of the Charter Members in the Society. 



Berry, Miss Henryetta, Cheyenne Coe, W. R. (deceased), 

Big Horn County Library, Basin New York City 

Boodry, David E., Lyman, Nebraska Condit, Mrs. Thelma S., Kaycee 

Bricc, Mrs. David W., Wheatland DeWitt, Mrs. Helen Holliday, 

Brimmer, George E., Cheyenne Los Angeles, California 

Brimmer, William N., Rawlins Helvey, Mr. & Mrs. R. T., Sheridan 



Hendryson, Irvin E., Denver, 

Hines, Mrs. Mary D., Denver, 

Homsher, Miss Lola M., Cheyenne 
Jolly, David S., Deer Trail, Colorado 
Larson, Dr. & Mrs. T. A., Laramie 
Lawrence, W. C, Moran 

McCullough, A. Stafford, Clifton, 

Metz, Mrs. Percy W., Basin 
Miller, Mrs. Mildred M., Big Piney 
Sackett, Carl L., Cheyenne 
Salisbury, Herbert J., Cheyenne 
Smith, Mack, Yoder 
Spencer, P. C, New York City 


Adams, Bill, Buffalo 
Adams, George M., Buffalo 
Ahern, Daniel K., Buffalo 
Albright, Mr. & Mrs. S. Paul, 

Alcorn, Clyde T., Torrington 
Alcott, Mr. & Mrs. A. L., Worland 
Alexander, Dr. A. F., Dugway, Utah 
Alleman, Mrs. Effie, Kemmerer 
Allen, Bess Opal, Casper 
Allen, Chester A., Sr., Laramie 
Allen, Miss Cody, Cody 
Allen, Mrs. Mary Jester, Cody 
Allen, Mr. & Mrs. R. W., Cody 
Allison, Archie, Cheyenne 
Allison, Mr. & Mrs. J. A., Gillette 
Allyn, Frank H., Cheyenne 
Amoretti, Mrs. Eloise A., Dubois 
Andersen, Mrs. Marion R., 

Bethesda, Maryland 
Anderson, Arthur J., Chicago, 

Anderson, Bryant B., Helena, 

Anderson, Elwood (deceased), 

Anderson, Mrs. G. D., Torrington 
Anderson, J. B., Manor, Pennsylvania 
Andrus, Herbert, Kaycee 
Angwin, Miss Lucia E., Evanston 
Anspaugh, Mrs. Alice and Lynn, 

Arnold, Olga Moore, Washington, 

D. C. 
Arrott, J. W., Sapello, New Mexico 
Arthur, Bill, British Columbia, 

Aton, Ernest, Rawlins 
Aton, Mrs. Ernest, Rawlins 
Aylsworth, Dr. D. W., Rawlins 
Aylsworth, Mrs. D. W., Rawlins 
Baker, Billie B., Denver, Colorado 
Baker, Ranson, Rawlins 
Baldwin, Philipa K., Denver, 

Ballard, Thomas W., Torrington 
Barber, Mrs. Raymond, Rawlins 
Barclay, Rex L., Lance Creek 
Bardo, Gerald, Lusk 
Barker, Kenneth, Chugwater 

Barlow, L. H., Gillette 
Barlow, William L., Gillette 
Barnes, Gerrit S., Denver, Colorado 
Barnes, Mrs. Lottie, Torrington 
Barquin, Mrs. James, Sr., Riverton 
Bartek, Clarence, Rock Springs 
Bartholomew, Mrs. Evelyn, Worland 
Bartlett, Marie S., Saratoga 
Bass, Charles, Jay Em 
Beabout, Mrs. Helen F., Torrington 
Beach, Mrs. Mary A., Mountainview 
Beard, Mrs. Cyrus, San Gabriel; 

Beavers, W. I., Rock Springs 
Beck, George T., Cody 
Beckwith, Miss Ruth, Denver. 

Bejino, Mrs. Helen M., Buffalo 
Bell, William J., Cheyenne 
Bellamy, Mrs. Mary G. (deceased), 

Bender, Miss Dorothy, Thermopolis 
Bender, Mrs. Walter, Encampment 
Bennett, Ed. F. & Kathryn R., 

Bennett, Mrs. W. E., Buffalo 
Benninghoven, Mr. & Mrs. Walter, 

Lyman, Nebraska 
Bentley, Mrs. Helen M., Casper 
Berlet, Walter H., Casper 
Bernfeld, Seymour S., San 

Francisco, California 
Bernhardt, Paul, Englewood, 

Berry, G. W., Denver, Colorado 
Bible, Mrs. George A., Rawlins 
Birney, Fletcher W., Jr., Denver. 

Bishop, Mr. & Mrs. L. C, Cheyenne 
Bishop, Marvin L., Casper 
Blakeslee, Claude L., Casper 
Blakeslee, Mrs. Claude L., Casper 
Bocott, C. H., Riverton 
Bocott, Mrs. C. H., Riverton 
Bogensberger, M. J., Cheyenne 
Boice, Mrs. Fred D., Jr., Cheyenne 
Boice, Mrs. Margaret Mcintosh, 

Bolten, Mrs. Ethel E., Rawlins 
Bon, Miss Lorraine, Cheyenne 



Bowen, Chester H., Gillette 
Bower, Earl T., Worland 
Bower, Mrs. Earl T., Worland 
Bower, Ray F., Worland 
Bower, Mrs Ray F., Worlanu 
Bowron, Mr. & Mrs. Frank L., 

Bradbury, Mrs. Shirley B., Evanston 
Bragg, Mrs. Laura I., Worland 
Bragg, William F., Jr., Cheyenne 

Cathers, Mrs. William E., Cheyenne 
Catron, Peter H., Sheridan 
Cavanaugh, Mrs. Frank, Worland 
Chadey, Henry, Rock Springs 
Chambers, Mr. & Mrs. A. D., Gillette 
Champ, Mrs. Myrtle M., Gillette 
Champion, Mr. & Mrs. Mervin, 

Chapman, Mrs. Mark A., Cheyenne 
Chassell, Norval W., Waterloo, Iowa 
Cheesbrough, John, Elk Mountain 

Bragg, William F., Sr., Worland 

Bragg, Mrs. William F., Sr., Worland Cheesbrough, Mrs. Nellie, 

Breitweiser, Wayne R., Powell Elk Mountain 

Breitweiser, Mrs. Wayne R., Powell Cheyenne Senior High School 

Bremers, Ralph R., Omaha, Nebraska Library, Cheyenne 

Bresnahen, Miss Winifred, Cheyenne Christensen, J. Marius & Reiva Niles, 

Brimmer, C. A., Rawlins Laramie 

Brimmer, Clarence A., Jr., Rawlins Christlieb. J. M., Omaha, Nebraska 

Brimmer, Mrs. Geraldine, Rawlins 
Bristol, Mrs. Daze M., Cheyenne 
Britton, Mrs. Roxie E., Basin 
Brock, J. Elmer (deceased), Kaycee 
Brokaw, Mrs. Ralph H., McFadden 
Brown, J. H., Cheyenne 
Brown, Mrs. ;r Sholie Richards, 

Monterey, California 
Brownell, Miss Elizabeth R., 

Arlington, Virginia 
Brownlee, Miss Beryl. Cheyenne 
Burdette, Mrs. Julius V., Cheyenne 
Burleson, Mrs. Ira, Riverton 
Burns, Miss Dorothy M., Sheridan 

Clairmont, Mrs. Maude, Fort 

The Arthur H. Clark Co., Glendale, 

Clark, Frank, Jr., Cheyenne 
Clark, W. F., Casper 
Clausen, Miss Esther M., Urbana, 

Clausen, Henry A., Colorado Springs, 

Claycomb, Mrs. Geneva W., Cody 
Clemens, Miss Mary K.. Torrington 
Cody Public Schools, Cody 
Colket, Mr. & Mrs. T. C, 2nd. 


Burns, Dr. Robert H., Laramie 

Burnside. Raymond A., Des Moines, Collins, Dabney Otis, Denver, 

Iowa Colorado 

Burt, Struthers (deceased), Moran Collins, Mr. & Mrs. John, Gillette 
Burwell, Mrs. Clark, Lovell Columbia University Libraries, 

Butler, Helen, Bartlesville, Oklahoma New York City 
Bylund, Mrs. Ruth Kimball, LaramieColyer, Oliver J., Torrington 
Byron, Mrs. Elsa Spear, Sheridan Conant, E. M., Worland 

Cahill, T. Joe, Cheyenne 
Campbell, Mrs. Joe, Walcbtt 
Canoso, Michael, Cambridge, Mass. 
Carbon County Public Library, 

Carley, Miss Maurine, Cheyenne 
Carlisle, Mrs. James, Cheyenne 
Carnegie Public Library, Sheridan 

Conant, Mrs. E. M. (deceased), 

Condit, Mrs. Lillian B., Laramie 
Condit, Richard H., Buffalo 
Conklin, Robert F., Cheyenne 
Cook, Mrs. C. C, Torrington 
Cook, Mr. & Mrs. Charles H., 


Carpenter, Miss Ellen M., Atlantic Cook, Malcolm L., Cheyenne 

Carpenter, Miss Mary J., Cheyenne 
Carter, E. B., Orr, Minnesota 
Carter, Edgar N., South Pasadena, 

Carter, Miss Gladys, Laramie 
Cashman, Harry J. & Gertrude A., 


Casper Junior High School, Casper Corthell, Irving E., Laramie 
Cassinat, Louis W. & Florence C, Cosgriff, Mrs. T. A., Denver, 

Rawlins Colorado 

Cooney, Thomas F., Grand Island, 

Cooper, Ralph, Kansas City, 

Cope, Everton B., Torrington 
Cordiner, A. H., Laramie 
Corthell, Mrs. I. E. and David, 



Coulter, F. S., Worland Englert, Kenneth E., Colorado 

Coulter, Mrs. F. S., Worland Springs, Colorado 

Cowley High School, Cowley Erickson, Mrs. Katie Kinnear, 

Crisler, Marie M., Cheyenne Kinnear 

Crisman, Rev. H. C, Torrington Espy, Mrs. Day, Rawlins 

Crook, Mrs. Esther M., Afton Fabian, Mrs. Harold P., Salt Lake 

dishing, Mrs. Matthew M., City, Utah 

New York City Farlein, Dr. J. A., Worland 

Dahlquist, John E., Fort Bridger Farlein, Mrs. J. A., Worland 

Dahlquist, Mrs. Laura, Fort Bridger Farlow, Mrs. A. J., Lander 

Daley, Mr. & Mrs. P. E., Rawlins Farlow, Jules E., Sr., Lander 

David, Robert B., Casper Faville, Mrs. A. D., Laramie 

Davis, Mrs. Lillie G., Cheyenne Feltner, C.G., Pinedale 

Day, Hugh S., Riverton Ferguson, Mrs. R. A., Wheatland 

Day, Mrs. Kenneth P., Saratoga Feser, Mrs. Donald, Los Angeles, 

Day, R. C, Rock Springs California 

Dayton, S. Reed, Cokeville Feuz, Mrs. Margaret C, Jackson 

Dechert, G. F., Riverton Fifield, Mrs. Dorothy H., Cody 

Deering, Mrs. Jean Miller, Boone, Fish, Mrs. Edna, Cheyenne 

Iowa Fitch, E. E., Laramie 

Deimer, Henry, Lander Flannery, L. G., Ft. Laramie 

Deininger, Mrs. Anita, Buffalo Foote, David & Myrtle G., Casper 

Delaplaine, Mrs. John H., Cheyenne Forest, Alvin M., Laramie 

Del Monte, H. D., Lander Fosnight, Mrs. Verryl V., Cheyenne 

DeVore, Harold, Laramie Fosdick, Raymond P., Blanca, 

Dickey, Hubert F., Gillette Colorado 

Dickinson, Mr. & Mrs. Norman R., Foster, Biford, Lander 

Riverton France, Mr. & Mrs. Walton E.. 

Dickson, Mr. Arthur J., Dayton Rawlins 
Dillinger, Mrs. Delia C. & Robert L.,Free Library of Philadelphia. 

Gillette Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Dilts, Fred, Douglas Freese, Mrs. Cynthia, Billings, 

Dinsmore, I. W., Rawlins Montana 

Diver, Mrs. Jessie S., Long Beach, Fremont County Pioneer Association, 

California Lander 

Dixon, Mr. & Mrs. L. E., Laramie Fremont County Public Library, 

Dobbin, Miss Anna M. & Miss Lander 

Etta M., Cheyenne Frink, Maurice, Denver, Colorado 

Dobler, Miss Lavinia G., New York Frison, Mr. & Mrs. Paul, Worland 

City Frison, Robert E., Buffalo 

Dodge, Beulah I. (deceased), Rock Froyd, Colonel Erwin A., Torrington 

River Fryberger, Mr. & Mrs. Harvey D., 

Dodge, George W., Rock River Sheridan 

Dolley, Frank Stephen, Los Angeles, Fryxell, F. M., Rock Island, Illinois 

California Fuller, Mrs. Caroline, Thermopolis 
Dominick, Dr. & Mrs. DeWitt, Cody Fuller, E. O., Laramie 

Draper, Mrs. Mary, Rawlins Fuller, Naomi Y., Rawlins 

Duggins, Miss Nellie R., Casper Fullerton, Mrs. Ellen Miller, Los 

Duis, Miss Emma, Casper Angeles, California 

Dunn, Mrs. R. L., Cheyenne Gaber, Mary A., Casper 
Dykes, J. C, College Park, Maryland Gadberry, Mrs. Clara Frances, 

Eberstadt, Edward & Sons, New Casper 

York City Gaddy, Mr. & Mrs. Albert M., 

Ehernberger, Jim, Cheyenne Iowa City, Iowa 

Ekstrom, Mrs. Laura Allyn, Denver, Gaensslen, Emil A., Green River 

Colorado Gage, Jack R., Sheridan 

Elder, T. H., Torrington Gallaher, Mr. & Mrs. Walter, 
Ellis, Erl H., Idaho Springs, Colorado Cheyenne 

Elmore, Mike, Gillette Gantt, Paul H., Washington, D. C. 

Emerson, Paul W., Cheyenne Garner, Miss May, Casper 



Garst, Mrs. Doris Shannon, Douglas 
Garton, Mrs. Maude, Casper 
Gatchell. Mrs. Jim, Buffalo 
Gaumer, W. B., Derby, Colorado 
Geddes, Mrs. R. W., Rawlins 
Gehman, Lester, Denver, Colorado 
Geier, D. O., Banner 
George Amos Memorial Library, 

George, Anna E., Worland 
Gettys, Claude L., Story 
Gibbs, Mrs. Charles, Sheridan 
Gibson, Mr. & Mrs. J. M., Pine 

Gilbert, Mrs. Evelyn Hall, Rawlins 
Gillespie, Mr. & Mrs. A. S., Laramie 
Gillespie, David, Dixon 
Gillespie, J. L., Sheridan 
Gillies, Misses Bessie & Catherine, 

Gillies. Miss May, Cheyenne 
G'eason, Mrs. Eleanor. Gillette 
Glebe, Miss Bess, Lovell 
Goedicke, Mrs. Misha S., Riverton 
Good, Mrs. Dorothea L., Wheatland 
Goodrich, Mrs. Ralph D., Grand 

Junction, Colorado 
Goppert, Ernest J., Cody 
Gordon, Mr. & Mrs. Alex, Rawlins 
Gorst. Mr. & Mrs. W. J., Worland 
Gose, Mrs. Etta M., Upton 
Gose, Vernie O., Upton 
Goshen County Library, Torrington 
Graf, Mrs. Louise Spinner, Green 

Graff, Everett D., Winnetka, Illinois 
Gratz, Miss Margaret, Gillette 
Gray, Mrs. W. O., Worland 
Greet. Fred, Worland 
Greet, Mrs. Fred, Worland 
Gress, Mrs. Kathryn, Cheyenne 
Grey, Donald C, Sheridan 
Griffith, James B., Sr., Lusk 
Griffith, Mrs. Vernon S., Sheridan 
Grigg, Mrs. Helen M., Riverton 
Groesbeck, Mrs. Betty, Cheyenne 
Guild, Lorin, Wheatland 
Gurney, James Whiting, Buffalo 
Hackett. Frederick B., Chicago, 

Haddox, Richard, Cheyenne 
Hahn, Mrs. Ethel B., Daly City, 

Haines, Mrs. Dorsey, Kaycee 
Haldeman, Miss Ada M., Torrington 
Hall, Miss Claire, Lander 
Hall, Mr. & Mrs. Hanes W., Worland 
Hall, Mrs. Prentiss G., Moorcroft 
Halsted, Miss Jessie Mae, Laramie 
Hanner. Mrs. Charles E., Worland 

Hanson. Dan, Hat Creek 
Hardy, Mrs. Marrabel, Gillette 
Harkins, Mrs. Charles H., Worland 
Harkins, Judge & Mrs. Donald J., 
Harrington, Clarence L., Denver, 

Harris, Burton, Boulder, Colorado 
Harris, John & Margaret, Pacific 

Palisades, California 
Harris, Mrs. Leland, Lovell 
Harrison, Michael, Sacramento, 

Harrower, James K., Pinedale 
Hart, Mrs. Shelia, Lander 
Hartsell, John R., Cheyenne 
Hartsell, Mrs. John R., Cheyenne 
Harvard College Library, Cambridge, 

Hatcher, Gunhild, Cheyenne 
Hayden, Mrs. Dudley, Jackson 
Hayden, Francis T., Cody 
Hayen, Charles, Lingle 
Haynes, Mr. & Mrs. Jack E., 

Bozeman, Montana 
Hays, Mrs. Alice C. (deceased). 

Hays, Irving C, Rawlins 
Hays, Mrs. Irving C, Rawlins 
Healey, Fred, Saratoga 
Healy, Mr. & Mrs. Alex, Sr., Worland 
Heath, Mrs. Evelyn E., Cheyenne 
Heindenreich, Mrs. Homer, Sheridan 
Hemry. Miss Kathleen, Casper 
Henderson, Mrs. Paul C, Bridgeport, 

Henry, Mrs. Joe, Denver, Colorado 
Hepp, Mr. & Mrs. George, Buffalo 
Heron, Lloyd, Worland 
Herring, Mora. Benkelman, Nebraska 
Hesse, Miss Georgia Isabel, 

Northfield, Minn. 
Hesse, George S., Northfield, Minn. 
Hesse, Miss Vivienne S., Buffalo 
Hewlett, Mrs. George Wilson, 

Hibdon, Kay, Kaycee 
Hieb, David L., Ft. Laramie 
Hilman, Fred W., Big Horn 
Hill. Mrs. Edith M., Cheyenne 
Hill. Mrs. John A., Laramie 
Hilliard, E. H., Jr., Englewood. 

Himebaugh, Mrs. Duke, Casper 
Hinckley, Frank T., Buffalo 
Hinckley, Mrs. Frank T., Buffalo 
Hines, John, Gillette 
Hiscock, Mrs. F. J., Cody 
Hodgson, Mrs. Colin, Hanna 
Hodgson, Mrs. Nellie G., 




Holden, Miss Minnie, Riverside, 

Holliday, Miss Alice, Riverside, 

Holliday, Mrs. F. A., Laramie 
Holmes, Mrs. Alice C, Saratoga 
Hook, James W., New Haven, 

Hoover, H. H., Kansas City, Missouri 
Hord, Mrs. Violet M., Casper 
House, Brad, Kaycee 
House, Mart, Kaycee 
Houser, George O., Jr., Cheyenne 
Houser, Mrs. Laura M., Guernsey 
Houston, Miss Jane Hunt, Cheyenne 
Hovey, Albert B., Encampment 
Howard, Mrs. John W., Cheyenne 
Howell, Mrs. Helen C, Worland 
Huey, Goldie R.. Casper 
Hughes, Frank T., Yoder 
Hughes, Nan Rhodes, Torrington 

Johnson, J. O., Watertown, 

S. Dakota 
Johnson, Raymond B., Boulder, 

Johnston, J. Pelham, Casper 
Jones, Mrs. J. H., Sheridan 
Jones, Lula Cobb, Billings, Montana 
Kafka, Mrs. Olive Garrett (deceased) 

Rock River 
Keeline, H. W., Gillette 
Kelley, Verona B., Torrington 
Kelly, Mr. & Mrs. Cash, Cody 
Kendall, Mrs. W. H., Sheridan 
Kennedy, Donald M., Sheridan 
Kent, Raymond D., Kelly 
Kerr, Ewing T., Cheyenne 
Kimball, Judge Ralph, Lander 
King, Norman D., Arlington, 

Kintz, Mr. & Mrs. Raloh G., Gillette 
Kirby, Kenneth M., Cheyenne 

Hull, Mrs. Irene David, Encampment Kirven, William J., Buffalo 

Hunt, Lester C. (deceased), 

Washington, D. C. 
Hunter, Mr. & Mrs. Allen, Gillette 
Hunton, Thos. S., Los Angeles, 


Knepper, George, Buffalo 

Knox, Raymond G., Kansas City, 

Krakel, Dean F., Laramie 
Kukura, Edna, Casper 

Hurd, Mrs. Emilie, Denver, Colorado La Bonte, Pierre, Jr., Assonet, 

Hurd, V., Green River 
Hutton, Mrs. Laura M., Cheyenne 
Hutton, Miss Eunice, Green River 
Hutton, William, Green River 
Huston, Mrs. A. T., Gillette 
Ilsley, John P., Gillette 
Inghram, Mr. & Mrs. Harry C, 

Ingraham, Mrs. Darlene Newton, 

Irving, Helen A., Rawlins 
Jabelman, Miss Ann, Cheyenne 
Jack, Wm. "Scotty", Cheyenne 

Lacey, Mrs. Herbert V., Cheyenne 
La Grange School Library, La 

Lambertsen, Robert M., Rawlins 
Lambertsen, Mrs. Walter M., Rawlins 
Landers, Mrs. Gladys, Gillette 
Landers, Leland, Gillette 
Lane, Charles Elmer & Alma 

Brockstedt, Cheyenne 
Langford, Russell R., North Platte, 

Lannen, Mrs. Matilda, Cheyenne 

Jackson, Clarence, Denver, Colorado Larmer, John, Bondurant 

Jackson, Mrs. Stella R., Douglas 
Japp, John, Gillette 
Jaync, Dr. Clarence D., Laramie 
Jennings, Mr. & Mrs. Talbot, East 

Glacier Park, Montana 
Jensen, A. W., Cheyenne 
Jepson, Carl E., Moose 
Jewett, Mrs. James J., Jr., Riverton 
Jewett, Mrs. Lora Neal, Pinedale 
Joelner, Mrs. Fred, Casper 
Johansson, Ester, Cody 
Johnson, Agnes S., Torrington 
Johnson, Carl D., Cheyenne 
Johnson, Finlay, Spokane, 

Johnson, Fred J., Medicine Bow 
Johnson, Helen Childs, Rawlins 

Larson, Ed C, Saratoga 
Larson Gordon C, Torrington 
Larson, Mr. & Mrs. Irving A., 

Larson, Magnus and Elizabeth, 

Hawk Springs 
Larson, Robert R., Cheyenne 
Latham, Mr. & Mrs. "Bill", 

Le Beau, Mrs. A. H., McFadden 
Leek, Holly W., Jackson 
Leermakers, J. A., Rochester, New 

Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm W., 


Lindsley, Alice Louise, Sheridan 
Linford, Miss Velma, Cheyenne 

Johnson, Mrs. Jessamine Spear, Story Linn, Ralph S., Moneta 



Lipscomb, William R., Denver, 

Lipsey, John J., Colorado Springs, 

Littleton, Mr. and Mrs. Ernnest A., 

Logan, Miss Cora, Torrington 
Logan, Edward O., Cheyenne 
Long, Dr. Margaret, Denver, 

Lott, Mrs. Emily, Buffalo 
Lott, Warren B., Buffalo 
Love, Mrs. Louise, Cheyenne 
Lovell Public Library, Lovell 
Lucas, Mrs. Cecil, Gillette 
Lund, Mrs. Alicia, Kaycee 
Lund, Floyd R., Kaycee 
Lund, Mrs. Glen, Kaycee 
Lusk High School, Lusk 
Lyall, Scott T., Billings, Montana 
Lynch, Mrs. H. B., Sunrise 
Lynch, Michael, Lamont 
Lynch, Mrs. Michael, Lamont 
MacDougall, Mr. & Mrs. A. H., 

MacLeod, D. G., Jackson 
McBride, Robert W., Buffalo 
McCormick, E. L., Colorado Springs, 

McCormick, John S., Elk Mountain 
McCoy, Col. Tim, Los Angeles, 

McCraken, Harry, Casper 
McCreery, John, Torrington 
McCullough, Joe J., Santa Maria, 

McDermott, Miss Genevieve, 

McFarling, Lloyd, Palmer Lake, 

Mcintosh, Marguerite G., Rawlins 
McKnown, James C, San Mateo, 

McMahon, Thomas B., Jr., Gillette 
McWilliams, Miss Belle, Cheyenne 
McWilliams, Mrs. Harold, Hillsdale 
Macklin, Seddie, Buffalo 
Mahoney, J. Frank, Rawlins 
Mahoney, Mrs. J. Frank, Rawlins 
Malody, Mr. & Mrs. James R., 

Malone, Miss Rose Mary, Casper 
Mankin, Mrs. Ora, Gillette 
Manley, Mrs. Frank A., Spur, Texas 
Mann, Mr. & Mrs. Homer C, Powell 
Marble, Fred W., Cheyenne 
Marion, William L., Lander 

Martel, Mr. & Mrs. A. H., Lander 
Martin, Miss Marguerite, Cheyenne 
Martin, R. D., Saratoga 
Mason, Ellsworth, Colorado Springs, 

Mattes, Merrill J., Omaha, Nebraska 
Mazzulla, Fred M., Denver, 

Meade, Irene I., Kinnear 
Meade, Mrs. Virginia Haldeman, 

Tucson, Arizona 
Melcher, George W., Hereford. 

Meldrum, Mrs. Jack, Buffalo 
Metcalf, Mrs. Agnes Wyoming 

Jenkins, San Bruno, California 
Metz, Will G., Buffalo 
Metz, P. W., Basin 
Mickelson, Mr. & Mrs. James F., 

Big Piney 
Mihan, S. D., Lyman, Nebraska 
Millar, Mrs. Mary Ethel, Colma, 

Millard, Mr. & Mrs. Lyle A., 

Miller, Mrs. Bert F., Laramie 
Miller, Mrs. Bertha A., Riverton 
Miller, Neal E. & Lael, Rawlins 
Miller, Thomas O., Lusk 
Mills, Luther C, Wheatland 
Mills, S. R., Wheatland 
Miners, Verne T., Chicago, Illinois 
Mitchell, Mrs. Minnie A., Cheyenne 
Mockler, Frank C, Dubois 
Mockler, Mrs. Frank C, Dubois 
Mokler, Miss Edness, Casper 
Monnett, Mr. and Mrs. Walt J., 

The Montana State College Library, 

Bozeman, Montana 
Montana State University Library. 

Missoula, Montana 
Moon, Chas. F., Omaha, Nebraska 
Moor, Mrs. Ross W., Lamar, 

Moore, Charles C, Dubois 
Moore, James K., Jr., Lander 
Morgan, Mr. & Mrs. Noel, Worland 
Morse, Mr. & Mrs. Glen, Gillette 
Mort, Mr. & Mrs. Tom, Lingle 
Moudy, Mrs. Mable Cheney, Laramie 
Mover, Mrs. Luella Hadley, Gillette 
Muirhead, Mr. & Mrs. George C, 

Mumey, Dr. Nolie, Denver, Colorado 
Murdoch, Mr. & Mrs. William, 


Markley, Mrs. Nellie Roberts, Fort Murphy, Mr. & Mrs. C. Clyde, 

Washakie Thermopolis 

Marquiss, Mr. & Mrs. R. B., Gillette Murray, Mrs. Maude I., Cody 



Music, Lonzo, Gillette 

Mussey, W. O., Jr., Denver, Colorado 

Nagle, George Henry, Cheyenne 

Nails, Mr. & Mrs. Stuart, Lander 

Nash, D. A., Lovell 

Natrona County High School, 

Nelson, Mr. & Mrs. Lou J., Rawlins 
Newell, Rev. Hubert M., Cheyenne 
Nichol, Mrs. Virginia B., Cheyenne 
Nicholas, Tom, Casper 
Nichols, Melvin L, Summit, New 

Nicholson, Mr. & Mrs. Oscar W., 

Nicklos, Chas. F., Albuquerque, 

New Mexico 
Niedersachsische Staats-und Univ., 

Gottingen, Germany 
Niobrara County Library, Lusk 
Nisselius, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur, 

Nisselius, Jack, Gillette 
Noble, Mrs. Lin I., Thermopolis 
Nussbaum, Dr. F. L., Laramie 
Oedekoven, Mrs. Ryllis Rae, Gillette 
O'Callaghan, J. A., Casper 
Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles J., Cheyenne 
Oldman, Mrs. Bert, Encampment 
Oliver, Mr. & Mrs. Glenn W., 

O'Mahoney, Senator & Mrs. Joseph 

C, Washington, D. C. 
Orr, Dr. Harriet K., Berkeley, 

Orr, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond S., 

Ostlund, Mr. & Mrs. Axel W., 

Ostrom, George, Big Horn 
Owens, Earl, Cheyenne 
Paddock, A. A., Boulder, Colorado 
Parker, Judge Glen, Laramie 
Parks, Mr. & Mrs. William P., Sr., 

Patterson, Richard A., Rock Springs 
Payne, Mrs. Janet Smith, Riverton 
Payson, Mrs. Lois Butler, Laramie 
Pearson, Mrs. Louise, Rawlins 
Pearson, W. E., Lovell 
Pence, Mrs. A. M., Laramie 
Peryam, Mrs. Mable Large, 

Trussville, Alabama 
Peter, Mr. & Mrs. W. D., Rawlins 
Peters, Mrs. Leora, Wheatland 
Peterson, Dr. Henry J., Denver, 

Peterson, Mrs. Ida Elizabeth, 

Peterson, Robert A., Cheyenne 

Peyton, Mrs. Pauline E., Douglas 
Peyton, Miss Pauline M., Douglas 
Pfister, Mr. & Mrs. John E., Sheridan 
Phelan, Catherine E., Washington, 

D. C. 
Pool, Mrs. Guy E., Torrington 
Porter, Mrs. Josephine, Worland 
Powers, Mrs. Margaret, Big Horn 
Prevo, Mrs. Jane, Worland 
Pryde, George B., Rock Springs 
Purdy, Jennie M., Cheyenne 
Quale, Mrs. Dave, Buffalo 
Raben, Roy C Huntley 
Radford, Ben H., Torrington 
Raisty, L. B., Decatur, Georgia 
Ramsbattom, Mrs. Lyle D., Buffalo 
Rasmussen, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur, 

Rasmussen, Mrs. S., Rawlins 
Rauchfuss, Mr. & Mrs. H. D., 

Rawlings, C. C, Ranchester 
Reed, Mr. & Mrs. John W., Gillette 
Reed, Mr. & Mrs. Lloyd R., Silver 

Spring, Md. 
Rendle. Mrs. Irvine J., Rawlins 
Repsold, George J., LaGrange, 

Rettstatt, Lucien D., Rawlins 
Reynolds, Adrian W., Green River 
Reynolds, James C, Sheridan 
Reynolds, Mrs. James C, Sheridan 
Rhoades, R. S., Dubois 
Rhode, Robert B., Los Angeles, 

Rice, Clarke P., Torrington 
Richardson, E. M., Pacific Palisades, 

Richey, B. J., Casper 
Ridings, Miss Reta, Cheyenne 
Ries, Mrs. Anthony, Cheyenne 
Riley, Mrs. Gladys F., Cheyenne 
Riter, Mrs. Franklin, Salt Lake City, 

Ritter, Alta, Gillette 
Ritter, Mr. & Mrs. Charles, 

Ritter, Raymond R., Gillette 
Riverton High School Library, 

Riverton Public Library, Riverton 
Robertson, A. E., Rawlins 
Robertson, Mrs. C. F., Worland 
Robertson, Miss Edith E., Green 

Robinson, Mrs. Arlene, Thermopolis 
Robinson, H. A., Thermopolis 
Rock, Mr. & Mrs. John M., Cheyenne 
Rogers, Mrs. Glenn K., Cheyenne 
Romick, Charlotte, Rawlins 



Ronzio, Richard A., Golden, 

Rosenstock, Fred, Denver, Colorado 
Roush, Floyd M., Denver, Colorado 
Rundquist, Albert N., Lusk 
Rush, N. Orwin, Laramie 
Rusk, D. L., Rawlins 
Russell, Mrs. Elizabeth E., 

Russell, Mr. & Mrs. Glen, Gillette 
Russell, Jean Beeler, Dixon 
Russell, Mr. & Mrs. J. S., Woriand 
Ryan, Mrs. John, Douglas 
Ryder, Mrs. Esther, Glenrock 
Rymill, Mr. & Mrs. R. J., Ft. Laramie 
Rymill, Walter L., Boulder, Colorado 
Sander, Miss Dorris L., Cheyenne 
Saunders, Mr. & Mrs. Don, Gillette 
Saunders, Mr. & Mrs. W. B., Gillette 
Schaedel, Mrs. John, Cheyenne 
School District No. 6, Medicine Bow 
Schroer, Mrs. Blanche, Lander 
Schroll, Mr. & Mrs. William R., 

Scifers, Mrs. Barbara, Casper 
Scott, Mrs. Mary Hurlburt, Laramie 
Seipt, Mrs. Henry M., Riverton 
Sender, H. M., Kansas City, Mo. 
Sheldon, Burton W., Cheyenne 
Sheldon, H. R., Pueblo, Colorado 
Sherard, Agatha, Gillette 
Sherbno, Rev. John C, Toledo, Ohio 
Shiek, Mrs. Frank N., Long Beach, 

Shields, Mrs. John T., Cheyenne 
Shirk, Mr. & Mrs. H. C, Woriand 
Sigstad, Steve, Denver, Colorado 
Simpson, Mr. & Mrs. Milward L., 

Sims, Albert G., Douglas 
Sinclair, Mr. & Mrs. F. H., Sheridan 
Sinclair, Mrs. Jack, Gillette 
Slack, Mrs. John, Sheridan 
Slack, Mrs. Mary, Cheyenne 
Slatt, Rebecca, Cheyenne 
Sloss, Mrs. C. C, Rawlins 
Sly, John F., Princeton, N. J. 
Smith, Mrs. Dwyer F., Cheyenne 
Smith, Mrs. Edith Carpenter, Helena, 

Smith, Mrs. Edith Eaton, Torrington 
Smith, Joe A., Wood River, Illinois 
Smith, Miss Louise S., Cheyenne 
Smith, Mrs. Margaret L., Buffalo 
Smith, Mr. & Mrs. William, Gillette 
Snell, Miss Bernice, Lander 
Snoddy, Mrs. Joe, Gillette 
Snodgrass, George H., Casper 
Snodgrass, Mrs. George H., Casper 
Snyder, Mrs. Charles, Crowheart 

Snyder, Mrs. Elizabeth Rydahl. 

Spencer, Mrs. Pearl, Big Piney 
Spielman, Jesse E. (deceased), 

Spielman, Mrs. Jesse, Gillette 
Spring, Mrs. Agnes Wright, Denver, 

Staats, Russell L., Chugwater 
Stan, Charles S., Casper 
State College of Washington Library, 

Pullman, Washington 
St. Clair, Mrs. Rosa, Woriand 
Steckel, Prof. Wm. R., Laramie 
Steckley, Mrs. Velma, Douglas 
Steege, Louis C, Cheyenne 
Stephenson, W. R., Casper 
Stevens, Mrs. Barbara G., Buffalo 
Stevens, Mrs. W. E., Laramie 
Stewart, W. G., Dubois 
Stimson, Dallas, Gillette 
Stoddard, Mrs. Fama Hess, Manville 
Stoddard, Lee C, Manville 
Stolt, Miss Edna B., Cheyenne 
Storm, Archie, Sheridan 
Stratton, Fred D., Jr., South Pass 

Stratton, Fred D., Sr., Riverton 
Stratton, Mrs. Nelle N., Riverton 
Streeter, Bessie, Gillette 
Streeter, Thomas W., Morristown, 

New Jersey 
Stump, Mary Barbara, Cheyenne 
Sun, Mrs. Tom, Rawlins 
Sundin, Mr. & Mrs. Clifford, Rawlins 
Suyematsu, Ellen Crowley, Cheyenne 
Suyematsu, Tosh, Cheyenne 
Swan, Henry, Denver, Colorado 
Swartz, Mrs. Kate, Gillette 
Swartzenbruber, Joe, Torrington 
Talmage, Mrs. F. D., Thermopolis 
Taylor, Mrs. Bertha B., 

Taylor, Miss Dorothy K., Cheyenne 
Taylor, Mr. & Mrs. Harry A., 

Taylor, Mrs. James W., Jr., Casper 
Taylor, Livingston L., Columbus, 

Taylor, T. D., Kaycee 
Templin, Curtis, Chugwater 
Teton County Library, Jackson 
Theisen, Mr. & Mrs. R. E., Sheridan 
Thorn, John C, Buffalo 
Thompson, Mrs. Jessie C, 

Thompson, Loenard O., Cheyenne 
Thompson, Melvin F., Big Piney 
Thomson, Mrs. E. Keith, Cheyenne 
Thorp, Russell, Cheyenne 



Tierney, Mrs. Margaret S.. Rawlins 
Tillett, Mrs. Bessie F., Kane 
Tonkin, T. C, Casper 
Toops, Mrs. Laura Chassell, 

Columbus, Ohio 
Toppan, Mr. & Mrs. Fred W., 

Topping, Mrs. Fred L, Elk 
Towns, H. C, Cheyenne 
Travis, Maury M., Casper 
Trenholm, Mrs. Virginia, Glendo 
Trew, Charlotte, Rawlins 
Turk, B. E., Sussex 
Turk, Harvey, Kaycee 
Turnbull, Roy, Lusk 
Turner, Mrs. Reed S., Moran 
Tyler, S. Lyman, Provo, Utah 
Tyrrel, Mr. & Mrs. Walter S., Lusk 
Underwood, Mr. & Mrs. Wm. H., 

University of Florida Libraries, 

Gainesville, Florida 
University of Kentucky Library, 

Lexington, Kentucky 
University of South Dakota Library, 

Vermillion, South Dakota 
Upton, William B., Jr., Denver, 

Urbanek, Mae, Lusk 
Van Burgh, Dana P., Jr., Casper 
Van Burgh, Mrs. Lucile, Casper 
van Hatten, C. J., Powell 
Vivion, Charles, Rawlins 
Wakeman, E. E. (deceased), 

Waldo, Mrs. W. A., Worland 
Wales, Mrs. Nellie L., Hamilton 

Walker, Mrs. Meda Carley, Cheyenne 
Wall, Max M., Torrington 
Wallace, Nancy G., Evanston 
Wallace, Taylor, Casper 
Waller, Charles T., Lawton, 

Wallis, Mrs. Alma A., Douglas 
Wallis, Bert & Miss Martha, Laramie 
Wallis, Mr. & Mrs. Oliver, Laramie 
Ward, Mrs. Orland W., Laramie 
Warlow, Mr. & Mrs. Eugene A., 

Warrington, Mrs. Clare, Cheyenne 
Washakie County Library, Worland 
Watson, Judson P., Lusk 
Watt, Howard S., Buffalo 
Webb, Miss Frances Seely, Casper 

Webb, J. Early, Kaycee 
Wentworth, Col. Edward N., 

Chicago, Illinois 
Weppner, Mr. & Mrs. Joseph S., 

Werner, George, Sr., Gillette 
West, C. F., Longmont, Colorado 
Weston, Mrs. Perry D., Cheyenne 
Wheatland High School, Wheatland 
Whittenburg, Miss Clarice, Laramie 
Wickersham, Miss Orpha, Cheyennne 
Wiley, Mrs. Lucille B., Cody 
Wilkins, Mrs. Edness Kimball, 

Willey, Irven, Upton 
Willford, Carl, Saratoga 
Willford, Mrs. Maude Jones, 

Williams, Alfred R., Fort Collins, 

Williams, R. Roy, Sheridan 
Williams, Wilbur F., Buffalo 
Williams, Wm. B., Banner 
Williamson, A. P., Lake Andes, 

South Dakota 
Williamson, C. D., Hanna 
Wilson, Mrs. Gilbert, Rawlins 
Wingett, Charles W., Cheyenne 
Winter, Mrs. Zita, Green River 
Winzenried, Fritz, Byron 
Winzenried, J. D., Byron 
Wolle, Mrs. Muriel Sibell, Boulder, 

Wood, Annye D., Saratoga 
Woodard, Mrs. Jocelyn Charde, 

Woodhouse, Mina T., Rawlins 
Woods, Mr. & Mrs. Jas. M., Gillette 
Woods, Robert J., Los Angeles, 

Woody, Jerome, Chewelah, 

Wyoming Tuberculosis Sanatarium, 

Wyoming Typewriter & Equipment 

Company, Cheyenne 
Yoder, Dr. Franklin D., Cheyenne 
Yoder, Oscar, LaGrange 
Young, Harry C, Glenrock 
Young, Miss Lilley, Laramie 
Zid, Major Frank A. & Leola E., 

San Francisco, California 
Zigweid, Edward J., Kaycee 
Zollinger, Mrs. W. J., Tulsa, 


Wyoming Archaeological J^otes 


L. C. Steege 

The second series of descriptions of Stone Artifacts brings to us 
category "B", the "Grinding Artifacts". 

Type 1 of these artifacts is the "Mano and Metate". These 
grinding artifacts have been found throughout the entire United 
States, North America and in many of the foreign countries. They 
are still used quite extensively in Mexico and also by the Pueblo 
Indians of the southwestern United States. In spite of their uni- 
versal distribution, the mano and metate are quite similar in 
appearance regardless of the locality in which they were found. 
The only differences are the sizes and the type of materials at 
hand from which they were made. 

The mano varies from the "one hand" type (figure 1- a,b,c, ) 
of the Plains Indian to the large heavy "two-handed" type (figure 
1, d) of some of the Pueblo tribes. They were often made from 
river worn stones of granite, quartz or other hard material. They 
are round, oval and rectangular shaped. Many were shaped by 
"pecking" and others bear evidence of having been used as "per- 
cussors". The one-handed variety of mano was of a size and 
shape which permitted it to be manipulated very easily by one 
hand. Occasionally one may find a mano which has been worn 
to a wedge shape which would signify an extreme amount of 
usage. Some manos show a rather high degree of polish which 
would suggest a use for tanning skins. 

I have found several manos which show an unusual degree of 
decomposition in some campsites and, in one instance, among 
some of the rocks in a tipi ring. Since the Plains Indian possessed 
very little if any pottery, it is my theory that these stones were 
heated in open fires and then placed in skin bags which might 
have contained water to be heated or some food to be cooked. 
The disintegration of the rock would therefore be hastened by the 
effects of this heating and then sudden cooling process. 

The metate is the stationary part of this grinding combination 
of stones. The metate also varies in size from the portable type 
of the Plains Indian (figure 2, a) to the large "fixed" type of the 
Pueblo Indians. They are irregular in shape and vary in thickness. 
The faces of the metates are shaped by the constant "pecking" 
and "rubbing" with the mano on its surface. Some are worn into 
a deep trough (Figure 2, c), others are saucer shaped. Occasion- 



ally a metate is found with a hole worn completely through the 
face. This metate was discarded since it would no longer be 

At permanent campsites one may find "fixed" metates. These 
are shallow troughs worn into some of the huge rocks and boulders 
scattered throughout the camp. In some instances, rock ledges 
and benches were utilized for a series of fixed metates. 

Some of the more advanced Pueblo cultures of the Southwest 
used metates which were supported by legs. This would place 
the face of the metate at a desired angle for the greatest efficiency. 
(Figure 2, b). 

The mano and metate were also used as a hammer-anvil com- 
bination. They were used, mainly, for pulverizing grains, seeds, 
roots and dried meats. 

The pestle and mortar served nearly the same purposes as the 
mano and metate, only on a more moderate scale. The pestle 
was the pounder and the mortar was the grinder. 

/Amos F'9^l c j 
*Ws Hew ^h c — •> r^ CD 

^ to OO Of 

Figure, X 



%hk /^taW/W^s 

TroLLaUJ Ale. We 



The pestle was usually an elongated piece of hard stone which 
was round in cross section. The base often times would be larger 
in diameter than the tip which was shaped to fit the hand. (Fig- 
ure 3, a,b,c) 

The mortar was bowl shaped, sometimes rather shallow and 
flattish and other times rather deep and shaped like a truncated 
cone. (Figure 3, d-e). Mortars were made of a variety of rocks. 
The Pueblo Indians of the Southwest and Mexico used lavas, 
some of which were very coarse grained in texture. Coastal In- 
dians of California used a rather hard type of sandstone. Indians 
throughout central Wyoming used a grey colored steatite. In 
some sections of Wyoming, natural cavities in limestone rocks 
were utilized. These small mortars are sometimes called "paint- 
pots". (Figure 3 f) 

Materials placed in the mortar could be broken into smaller 
fragments by pounding with the pestle. These smaller fragments 
could then be ground to a powder by downward and revolving 
pressure of the pestle against the bottom of the mortar. Roots, 



herbs and seeds for medicines, hematite and ochers for paints 
could be crushed and mixed in this manner. 

The pestles and mortars of the pharmacists today have changed 
very little in shape from those used by the aborigines. The only 
difference is the material from which they are made. 

Abraders have neither definite sizes nor shapes. They were 
used much in the same manner as one uses a file, whetstone and 
sandpaper today. Sandstones and pumice were the chief materials 
used for abraders. 

One particular type of abrader found in Wyoming is the arrow- 
shaft sander. This is usually a piece of sandstone in which a 
small straight trough about one-fourth inch in width is worn. 
(Figure 4) An arrowshaft placed in this trough and then rotated 
while drawn back and forth would soon be smoothed in the same 
manner as if a person used a piece of sandpaper. 

Bone awls, needles and fish hooks occasionally had to be re- 
pointed and sharpened. This was done with an abrader and 
often times left a series of scratch marks in the stone. 

Abraders or smoothers were used extensively in pottery making. 
Gouges, celts, and axes could never have been edged or polished 
without an abrader. 

Since these abraders nearly always were stones which were used 
just as they were found, they are seldom classified by archaeolo- 
gists as actual products of primitive man's industry, but I believe 
that this implement has played a very important part in the lives 
of the American Indians and is therefore worthy of a separate 

Kecmt Acquisitions 

The holdings of the State Archives and Historical Department 
and the State Museum have been enriched by gifts to the Museum, 
the Historical manuscripts collection, the map files, the picture 
files and the historical library from a number of donors since 
January 1955. 

To the collection of the State Museum have been added such 
items as Indian trader tokens, uranium ores, fossils, military uni- 
forms, valuable Indian artifacts, household utensils used in the 
homes of early Wyoming settlers, one of the early pianos to come 
into Wyoming, saddles, brands, and clothing worn during terri- 
torial days. 

To the historical manuscripts files have been added Civil war 
letters, military records of early Wyoming posts, early maps, early 
newspapers and clippings, original letters by Wyoming pioneers, 
biographies of Wyoming men and women, original diaries, land 
patents, advertisements, reward notices, campaign postures, a poll 
list of an election held at Atlantic City, Wyoming, in 1869, church 
histories, scrapbooks, and an 1879 dress catalogue. Several 
persons have loaned personal collections of historical papers for 
microfilming so that the information in these files is now available 
to researchers at the Historical Department. 

Pictures of Wyoming pioneers, of early Wyoming scenes, of a 
trip down the Big Horn River by boat, of the round-the-world 
automobile trip of 1907-10, of early airplane activity in Wyoming, 
and a number of glass plate negatives have been added to the 
picture files of the Department. 

The Department is indebted to the following donors: 


January 1 - September 15, 1955 


Bailey, Bob Carpenter, Mr. Jim 

Elk Mountain, Wyo. Atlantic City, Wyo. 

Beard, Mrs. Cyrus Christensen, Mrs. Mart T. 

San Gabriel, Calif. Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Buchholtz, Mr. Charles Corbin. Mrs. Helen 

Burns, Wyo. Worland, Wyo. 

Burdette, Mrs. Julius Davis, Mrs. Morgan D. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Casper, Wyo. 

Caplan, Mr. Daniel Eddington, Mrs. Jack 

Cheyenne, Wyo. Veteran, Wyo. 



Ekdall, A. B. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Emerson, Dr. Paul 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Gillespie, Mr. A. S. 
Laramie, Wyo. 
Gregory, Mrs. Laura G. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Haefele, James 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Hill, Mr. Jay 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Hilt, Mrs. Nat. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Hunter, J. M. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Latham, Mr. & Mrs. Bill 
Chugwater, Wyo. 
McClure, Mrs. J. E. 
Laramie, Wyo. 
McLellan, Mrs. Jerry 
Citrus Heights, Calif. 
Merrill, Ira 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Metz, Judge & Mrs. P. W. 
Basin, Wyo. 

Montgomery, Mrs. Bertha 
Carpenter, Wyo. 
Moore, Mr. J. K. 
Lander, Wyo. 
Norman, Mrs. Robert L. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Owen, Mr. Earl 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Ritter, Mr. Charles 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Rogers, Mr. Ralph 
Hawk Springs, Wyo. 
Sibley, Mr. Stephen 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Steege, Janice Elaine 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Steege, Louis C. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Swan. Mr. Henry 
Denver, Colo. 
Thompson, Mrs. Dale 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Thorp, Mr. Russell 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Whiteley, Dr. Philip W. 
Denver, Colo. 


Arnholt, Jerry 
Thedford, Neb. 
Barker, Ralph E. 
Thermopolis, Wyo. 
Bishop, L. C. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Boklen, Ted 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Champ, Mrs. Myrtle 
Gillette, Wyo. 
Davis, Mrs. Morgan D. 
Casper, Wyo. 
Deininger, Mrs. Anita W. 
Buffalo, Wyo. 
Delta Kappa Gamma 
Green River, Wyo. 
Eddington, Mrs. Jack 
Veteran, Wyo. 
Foote, Mr. Lester 
Saratoga, Wyo. 
Hardy, Mr. Hamilton 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
Haywood, Mr. Earl 
Story, Wyo. 

Healy, Mr. Alex, Sr. 
Worland, Wyo. 
Hodge, Mr. Wallace B. 
West Plains, Mo. 
Latham, Mr. & Mrs. Bill 
Chugwater, Wyo. 
Mattes, Merril J. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Metz, Mrs. P. W. 
Basin, Wyo. 
Ohnhaus, Mrs. Chas. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Ridgely, Mrs. Eva 
Laramie, Wyo. 
Renze, Mrs. Dolores 
Denver, Colo. 
Rinehart, Mrs. Lydia J. 
Upton, Wyo. 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Thorp, Mr. Russell 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Vernon, Mr. Tom 
Sacramento, Calif. 




Barker, Ralph E. 
Thermopolis, Wyo. 
Carpenter, Miss Mary 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Champion, Mervin 
Sheridan, Wyo. 
Davidson, Mr. Jesse 
Forest Hills, N. Y. 

Davis, Mrs. Morgan D. 

Casper, Wyo. 

Eddington, Mrs. Jack 

Veteran, Wyo. 

Ehernberger, Jim 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Foote, Mr. Lester 

Saratoga, Wyo. 

Fox, Mrs. George 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Gillespie, Mr. A. S. 

Laramie, Wyo. 

Haywood, Mr. Earl 

Story, Wyo. 

Hodge, Mr. Wallace B. 

West Plains, Mo. 

Kemmerer Chamber Commerce 

Kemmerer, Wyo. 


Barnes, Claude T. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
Beard, Mrs. Cyrus 
San Gabriel, Calif. 
Coe, W. R. 
New York City, N. Y. 
Copenhaver, Everett T. 
Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Dobler, Lavinia 
New York, N. Y. 

Eddington, Mrs. Jack 
Veteran, Wyo. 

Hook, James W. 
New Haven, Conn. 

Latham, Mr. & Mrs. Bill 
Chugwater, Wyo. 

Lee, Mr. C. W. 
Consolidated Western Steel 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Masterson, Mr. B. L. 

CleElum, Washington 

Mattes, Merril J. 

Omaha, Neb. 

Metz, Judge & Mrs. P. W. 

Basin, Wyo. 

Ohnhaus, Mrs. Chas. 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Rinehart, Mrs. Lydia J. 

Upton, Wyo. 

Shiek, Mrs. Frank N. 

Long Beach, Calif. 

Star Valley Chamber of Commerce 

Afton, Wyo. 

Steege, Louis C. 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Thermopolis Chamber of Commerce 

Thermopolis, Wyo. 

Thorp, Mr. Russell 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Vernon, Mr. Tom 

Sacramento, Calif. 

Watson, Mrs. Henry 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Woodring, John W. 

South Pass City, Wyo. 

Metz, Judge and Mrs. P. W. 

Basin, Wyo. 

Norman, Mrs. Robert L. 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Owen, Earl 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

O'Mahoney, Senator Joseph 

Washington, D. C. 

Stanolind Oil and Gas Co. 

Tulsa, Okla. 

Texas State Historical Society 

Austin, Texas 

Thomson, Hon. E. Keith 

Washington, D. C. 

Watson, Mrs. Henry 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Willson, Mrs. Annie 

Guernsey, Wyo. 

Wi'son, Mr. James 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 

ftook Kcviews 

Exploring the Northern Plains. By Lloyd McFarling. (Caldwell: 
Caxton, 1955. 441 pp. Maps. $7.50). 

This is an anthology of travel narratives written by 28 persons 
who visited the northern Plains (Montana, Wyoming, the Dakotas, 
and Nebraska) in the period 1804-1876. 

The editor has contributed what averages out to be about one 
page of introduction and one page of notes for each of the 36 
chapters into which the material is divided. 

The title is misleading, since the editor has a peculiar meaning 
for the word explorer: 'Tn this book an explorer is anyone who 
goes and sees and comes back and tells." Included are short 
excerpts from such well known persons as Audubon, Bracken- 
ridge, Bradbury, Catlin, De Smet, Fremont, Hayden, Dr. James, 
Lewis and Clark, Parkman, Raynolds and Stansbury, as well as 
articles by less well known persons. 

Even the 1876 military campaigns of Crook, Gibbon, Terry, 
and Custer find places in the volume. Custer gets brief mention 
in Lt. Edward Maguire's 8-page report to the Secretary of War. 
Maguire came up to the Custer battleground two days after Custer 
died. As chief engineer of the Department of Dakota he reported 
on operations in the department. 

Fifteen of the 36 chapters touch Eastern Wyoming in one place 
or another. To this reviewer, most interesting were two magazine 
articles: "The Mule and His Driver" by Samuel June Barrows, 
and one describing travel from Ft. Laramie to Deadwood in 1876. 

Lloyd McFarling, the editor, is an artist who lives at Palmer 
Lake, Colorado. According to the jacket he began the serious 
studv of history in 1948. In keeping with his profession of art 
McFarling has illustrated the book with 21 handsome maps. 
Considering the maps, and the generally accurate introductions 
and notes, it is apparent that the editor has put in a lot of time 
preparing the volume. 

Maybe the selections are too short. Probably most readers 
would throw out some, and substitute others. But many of the 
selections are quite interesting, and in some cases readers may be 
inspired to go to the original and read further. Caxton has done 
a first-class job of printing and binding. 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 

Laramie, Wyoming 


Fort Laramie. By David L. Hieb. (National Parks Service His- 
torical Handbook Series No. 20: Washington, D. C. 43 pp., 
illus., index. 250). 

In a series of handbooks describing the historical and archeo- 
logical areas administered by the National Park Service of the 
United States Department of the Interior, Historical Handbook 
Number Twenty will please and satisfy a multitude of teachers, 
tourists, and students of Western Americana. This particular 
work completes a task which should have been done some years 
ago. In precisely 43 pages studded with unique pictures and 
photographs, practical maps, and interesting sketches this small 
book tells the vivid tale of old Fort Laramie in Wyoming between 
the years 1834-1890. 

The Author, David L. Hieb, Superintendent of the Fort Laramie 
National Monument, not only does an excellent job of writing but 
is regarded as perhaps the outstanding authority in the United 
States today on the history and restoration of this scenic old Army 
post. Hieb's task was no easy one but he has placed into the 
hands of the curious, the uninformed, as well as the interested 
student of the West fundamental, concise, and accurate informa- 
tion regarding the growth and development of Fort Laramie which 
was a vital link in the chain of events which brought the Western 
part of this country under one flag. 

Another feature which is definitely attractive is the fluid ease 
and simplicity with which Superintendent Hieb writes. He begins 
his book with this information-packed paragraph. 

On the level land near the junction of the Laramie and North Platte 
Rivers stands Fort Laramie, long a landmark and symbol of the Old 
West. Situated at a strategic point on a natural route of travel, the 
site early attracted the attention of trail-blazing fur trappers, who 
established the first fort. In later years it offered protection and 
refreshment to the throngs who made the great western migrations 
over the Oregon Trail. It was a station for the Pony Express and 
the Overland Stage. It served as an important base in the conquest 
of the Plains Indians, and it witnessed the development of the open 
range cattle industry, the coming of the homesteaders, and the final 
settlement which marked the closing of the frontier. Perhaps no 
other single site is so intimately connected with the history of the 
Old West in all its phases. 

Yet, while the tourist finds Fort Laramie a fount of valuable 
information the keen student of Western history will note one 
glaring gap of information. Throughout the handbook colorful 
photographs are reproduced which were taken at the old post as 
early as 1864. It is sad that there is no list of names identifying 
these early soldiers, trappers, traders, and Indians. However this 
is probably not the author's fault since it may be a policy of the 
National Park Service when publishing historic handbooks to 
eliminate the label of identification underneath each and every 


photograph. Still further, it may be the fault of the donor who 
did not or could not identify these posed photographic participants 
in Fort Laramie life. 

One of the outstanding photographs appears on page 17 which 
was posed in 1864. Some sixteen men who are probably all Army 
officers, a small boy, and the proverbial Army "mutt" of nonde- 
script origin are recorded in this view. They are in all sorts of 
statuesque poses in front of "Old Bedlam' 1 . That is, all except 
the dog and he is feigning to be asleep but this reviewer suspects 
that he is really just napping with one eye open. It would be a 
good thing if the men who produce Western military extravaganzas 
for the Hollywood motion picture business would take time off to 
study this photograph as well as all of the photographs in this 
small book in order to ascertain what the mode and dress was of 
the Army in the 1860 , s while serving in the West. 

Considering the need of such a handbook, the information it 
contains, and the writing talent of Superintendent Hieb there is 
no doubt that Historical Handbook Number Twenty, Fort Laramie 
will have sold well into the thousands by this time next year. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming William F. Bragg, Jr. 

Our Long Heritage: Pages from the Books Our Founding Fathers 
Read. Edited, with Introductory Comments, by Wilson 
Ober Clough. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 
Published for the William Robertson Coe American Studies 
Program of the University of Wyoming, 1955. xv + 297 pp. 

We Americans have been justifiably proud of the political wis- 
dom and resourcefulness of our founding fathers, but have not 
fully realized how much they drew on the ideas and experiences 
of earlier generations. The nature of this indebtedness is disclosed 
in Our Long Heritage, a collection of passages from some of the 
great books which were available to American leaders at the time 
of the Revolution and the drafting of the Constitution. 

The readings, representing about fifty authors, are grouped in 
four divisions: the classical, the English tradition to 1700, the 
continental, and the eighteenth century. Here, among many 
others, may be found extracts, with pertinent editorial comments, 
from such famous writings as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, 
Cicero's De Legibus, Magna Carta, More's Utopia, Milton's 
Areopagitica, Locke's Treatises on Civil Government, Grotius' 
De Jure Belli at Pads, Montesquieu's Spirit of Laws, Rousseau's 
Social Contract, Blackstone's Commentaries, and Burke's Speech 
on Conciliation. What cultural riches are suggested by these 
names and titles! They have in common man's aspirations and 
struggles for political freedom and liberty under law. In an 


appendix are partial texts of some of the American revolutionary 
documents, for example, the Declaration of Rights of 1774, the 
Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom, and the Declaration of 
Independence, which show how skilfully and effectively the fathers 
adapted earlier ideals and principles to their needs. 

Obviously in a book of this size there could be only a sampling 
of the waters drawn from the well of political experience. Accord- 
ing to the editor, the authors and excerpts were chosen "on the 
evidence, admittedly sometimes inferential, as to the favored read- 
ing of the American eighteenth century" (p. 15). Since such 
preferences cannot be established precisely, there is room for 
differences of opinion as to just what should have been included. 
The choices that have been made are good; most of them are 
incontestable, and all can be defended. It is easy enough to sug- 
gest other writings that might have been added; but not so easy, 
on the assumption of a fixed number of pages, to designate the 
deletions that should have been made to make room for the 
additions. Certainly little could be taken out of the few pages 
devoted to the middle ages — two of them on England, and three 
more if St. Augustine and Justinian be included. Perhaps this is 
sufficient; but it would be unfortunate if the reader should infer 
that American indebtedness to this period of history was pro- 
portionally small. In some respects it was large: the patriots on 
the eve of the Revolution answered the claims of Parliament to 
complete legislative power by an appeal to the medieval concep- 
tion of law; and the constitution-makers were aware of precedents 
that had evolved in England before 1500 with respect to impeach- 
ment, the privileges of Parliament, and certain principles of civil 

This set of readings has happily been prepared so as to encour- 
age further study. The editorial introductions, both general and 
special, are suggestive and stimulating; there are helpful lists of 
collateral references; the index has been designed to assist those 
who may wish to trace the development of such concepts as 
natural law, the compact theory, or government by consent of the 
governed. The emphasis is on general ideas and principles rather 
than on details or machinery of government. To this no objection 
can be made; but a question may be raised as to the slight atten- 
tion paid to federalism, a word that does not appear in the index. 
To the founding fathers federalism meant more than an admin- 
istrative arrangement. It was one of the safeguards of liberty, 
since through it local autonomy could be combined with central 

This book is well adapted for use in courses in American 
civilization; but any mature person who is interested in our rich 
political inheritance can read it with profit. Its pages present the 
evidence to support the editor's admirable summary: "American 
political wisdom was the fruit of a long inheritance, stretching 


back to classical times, re-emergent in the Renaissance, blended 
opportunely with a sturdy British tradition of common law, rein- 
forced by the studies of continental scholars, and crossing as a 
whole to America as a common heritage ,, (p. 4). 

University of Colorado Colin B. Goodykoontz 

Custer's Luck. By Edgar I. Stewart. (Norman: University of 
Oklahoma Press, 1955. xvi + 522 pp., illus., $5.95) 
The last book we reviewed on the Battle of the Little Big Horn 

(The Reno Court of Inquiry) we concluded the review with the 
observation that probably it would be just as well if that were 
the last book on the subject. After carefully examining Custer's 
Luck, there would appear to be little, if any reason to modify 
that conclusion. 

Actually the author of Custer's Luck has covered a great deal 
more territory that a narrative of the Battle of the Little Big Horn. 
It constitutes a review of the Indian wars from the close of the 
Civil War until the Custer disaster in 1876. More than half of 
the book is devoted to events and engagements preliminary to 
and leading up to the Battle of the Little Big Horn. The book 
is footnoted extensively and actually amounts to a review or sum- 
mary of virtually all of the previous publications in connection 
with the subject matter. In saying that the book is a summary of 
other writings, readers of this review might be inclined to the 
thought that being a summary, the writing is characterized by 
brevity, which would leave an entirely wrong opinion, which 
might well be illustrated with the observation that more than two 
pages are devoted to the controversy as to what extent, if any, 
Reno was under the influence of liquor on the night of June 25th. 

It is our opinion that the book has merit in that it does bring 
within its covers a review of the Indian wars for the entire period 
and does give us some background to the entire governmental 
effort to reduce the position of the tribes following the Civil War 
in preparation for the great migration to and settlement of the 
West, and thus contribute to the first reader's appreciation of the 
big picture. 

The bibliography of the book is extensive and although it ap- 
pears that the author has missed some of the important available 
material, especially on some of the campaigns prior to the Custer 
incident, yet his research has been broad. 

The illustrations and maps are scant and of no significance. 
The price of the book is reasonable considering the size, but 
probably high when measured in the light of any contribution of 
new subject matter. 

Laramie, Wyoming Alfred M. Pence 


The Settlers' West. By Martin F. Schmitt and Dee Brown. (New 
York: Charles Scribner's Sons, xxviii + 258 pp., $7.50) 

The story of the west and frontier experiences have been written 
many times and in many ways. Lately, the picture-history book 
with its running narrative and contemporary photographs and 
illustrations is becoming a favorite of the reading public. 

The Settler's West, a recent pictorial history of the American 
West spanning a period of over sixty years, begins with the first 
emigrant trains in the 1 840's and ends with the settlement of the 
west — the end of the 1 9th century. 

The first chapters give us a picture of the settlers and their way 
of life as they built homes, cultivated land and started native 
industries. The chapter on the "Finer Things in Life" illustrates 
the part religion, education, literature music and frontier drama 
played in the everyday life of the pioneer. The authors state 
"The first good writing was produced unwittingly by the over- 
landers who kept journals or diaries of their experiences. Many 
such accounts were kept for remembrance' sake; their literary 
and historical values were discovered by a later generation." And 
even at that early date teachers were scarce and underpaid for 
"well-educated persons on the frontier could find more profitable 
employment clerking in a store." In other sections of the book 
there is the story of the western legend and the cowboy in litera- 
ture, the development of the western town, a review of the amuse- 
ments and recreation of the pioneers, and the origin of wild west 
shows and rodeos. The final chapter relates how law, order and 
politics came to the west. 

The text is highly readable as well as informative and the book 
has a very attractive format. In the table of contents the pictures 
and chapter headings are well-itemized but a considerable amount 
of usefulness is lost to the user because of a lack of index. The 
book has a very extensive bibliography. Over one third of the 
references are in publications of state historical departments and 
societies which indicate how important this type of source material 
is for historical research. 

The 300 western photographs included in the volume have been 
gathered from many private and institutional picture collections 
in the United States, but the Haynes Studio, Bozeman, Montana, 
and the University of Oregon Library seem to be two main sources 
of the illustrative material. Much time must have been spent on 
this research to have assembled this representative collection which 
portrays so vividly the society and institutions of the pioneer west. 

This is the third book with a western theme which Martin 
Schmitt and Dee Brown, both librarians, have written and anyone 
who has an interest in pictorial records of frontier life will want to 
add this book to his western history library. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Reta Ridings 


Trailing the Cowboy. By Clifford P. Westermeier. (Caldwell, 
Idaho: The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1955. 414 pp., illus., 

Author-artist Westermeier has here made "an attempt to enrich 
by means of contemporary observations the story of the cowboy." 
From newspapers, documents, magazine articles and books written 
before or near the turn of the century he has selected contemporary 
accounts written about the cowboy and published them in this 

His chapter headings, of which there are eleven, indicate the 
scope of his undertaking and cover the entire story of the cowboy 
from his origin on the western plains of the United States following 
the Civil War to the days of the decline of the range cattle industry, 
his daily work, his fun and recreation, and the code by which he 
lived. The book is rich in early anecdotes about the cowboy and 
includes some of the original "tall tales" which the cowboy could 
tell with such sincerity. 

The author has done a fine job of research, selection and organ- 
ization of his material. At the beginning of each chapter he has 
given a brief background of the subject covered. The selections 
published have received but little if any editing so the text has 
not been weakened or the original flavor of the pioneer journalist 
lost. He has carefully documented each quote, with footnotes 
being placed at the end of each chapter. Since the reader will be 
interested in the source of each quote, it is of some nuisance to 
be constantly turning to the end of each chapter; but this method 
of footnoting certainly makes the format of the book more 

Each chapter is headed with an original black and white draw- 
ing by Mr. Westermeier who was an artist for a number of years 
before becoming an historian. His fine topical drawings are the 
only illustrations in the book. 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 

Culture on the Moving Frontier. By Louis B. Wright. (Bloom- 
ington: Indiana University Press, 1955. 273 pages, $3.50.) 

Professor Wright's six papers, delivered in 1953 as the Patten 
Foundation lectures at Indiana University and now presented in 
book form, represent another of the perennial attempts to define 
the essential quality in American life. In his Preface the author 
announces his intention to show that the Anglo-Saxon tradition 
has been and remains, "the most significant cultural element in 
determining our homogeneity." 

One is reminded in reading the book of Parrington's admission 


in his Foreword to Main Currents in American Thought: "Very 
likely in my search I have found what I went forth to find." 
Unquestionably Mr. Wright has found what he went forth to find, 
and what few would deny — an English matrix of culture in 
language, literature, legal and political framework, and religious 
sectarianism. With considerable repetition, no doubt the result 
of printing the lectures as delivered, he develops this theme: The 
conservative strain of our British, and largely English, heritage 
moved across the continent and took firm foot in villages, towns, 
and cities from Jamestown to Seattle. The vitality and assimila- 
tive capacity of this heritage have given an English stamp to a 
remarkably homogeneous nation molded from diverse racial 
groups. Occasionally we are reminded not to overlook influences 
from Europe, Asia, and Africa, only to be reminded again that 
"such was the vigor of British culture that it assimilated all 
others." Our melting pot has produced "something called an 
American," but with "a British, and primarily English," prototype, 
"responsible for the American's language, his basic laws, his fun- 
damental liberties, and much of his manners, customs, and social 

A secondary theme runs through the discussions. The author 
sees the development of American society as "a contest between 
the powers of darkness and the forces of light for the soul and 
mind of the American citizen," even in the most recently estab- 
lished "outpost." Our British heritage represents "the forces of 
light" in combat with "the powers of darkness" embodied in en- 
vironment, foreign influences, and other "disintegrating forces." 
The standard-bearers of light have been "a stable minority," or 
"the better element," laboring potently to transplant "the ancient 
inheritance of things of the mind and spirit." Thus American 
towns and cities "all have a cultural common denominator that 
goes back to the seventeenth century and the stock of ideas that 
British settlers brought with them." This common denominator 
has determined the qualities of mind and character in Americans 
"who cannot claim a drop of Anglo-Saxon blood." 

The first four lectures treat successively "The Colonial Struggle 
against Barbarism," "The Kentucky Borderland," "North of the 
Ohio," and "The Age of Gold" in California. Two other lectures 
review "Spiritual Agencies" and "Secular Agencies" operating as 
instruments of civilization. Discussions focus on the establish- 
ment of churches, schools, and libraries, the distribution of printed 
materials in books, periodicals, and newspapers, and the rise of 
lecture and lyceum series, study clubs, and theatrical productions. 
Slanted presumably for a "lay" audience, the lectures are pre- 
sented in a pleasantly non-academic manner and illustrated with 
interesting citations. They are supplemented in printed form by 
end-notes which reveal that Mr. Wright has relied heavily for 
illustrative materials on well-known secondary sources. 


In his Preface the author refers to his obvious inability to deal 
with "all frontier zones or with all subtle variations." His aware- 
ness of this limitation has in no way qualified his repeated gener- 
alization. There is some confusion throughout the discussions in 
his usage of the word culture. Usually it seems to imply "enlight- 
enment" or "refinement." Occasionally it clearly has the sociolog- 
ical connotation of "total living pattern." In his concern to 
emphasize the continuity of "a pure British culture modified only 
by transplantation to the New World," the author virtually ignores 
the process of transplantation — the high degree of selection in- 
volved and the higher degree of modification by environment and 
other factors. By reference to places like India and South Africa, 
one might cite evidence that British culture has not always, as 
Mr. Wright insists, displayed unusual vitality and assimilative 
power. Even more vulnerable is his insistence on deriving his 
cultural germ from seventeenth century England and thus passing 
over later influences in thought from England and directly from 
the continent. And finally, Mr. Wright makes no acknowledg- 
ment of the community of heritage and outlook stemming from a 
common European or "Western" source in the political and 
philosophical systems of Mediterrenean civilization. 

Possibly the shortcomings felt by this reader point up again the 
fallacy of attempting to single out one cause for American unique- 
ness — in other words, the danger of over-simplification. No 
doubt the book serves its real purpose in offering information, in 
an interesting form, to the general reader. It will serve another 
useful purpose if it stimulates a historian less committed than Mr. 
Wright to the theory of cultural determinism to try filling in the 
blank spaces he has left on the "cultural" map of the United States. 

University of Wyoming Ruth Hudson 


James Kerr Moore, Jr., was born at Camp Brown, Wyoming 
Territory, in 1876. He clerked in his father's store at Ft. Wash- 
akie from 1895-97, was a stockgrower from 1898-1920, and an 
Indian Trader at Ft. Washakie from 1911-1929. After spending 
three years in California from 1930-1933 he returned to Dubois. 
Wyoming, where he assisted his brother Charles Moore at the CM 
ranch until 1949 at which time he and his wife, the former Edith 
N. Sampson, retired to live in Lander. Mr. and Mrs. Moore are 
the parents of three daughters, Mrs. Ronald O. Bell of Cody, 
Wyoming, Mrs. George A. Butler of Santa Ana, California, and 
Mrs. Frederick S. Fish, Jr., of the Circle Ranch at Dubois, 

Mrs. Thelma Condit, daughter of Mr. and Mrs T. J. Gatch- 
ell, is a native of Wyoming. She has lived in the Hole-in-the-Wall 
country for 21 years and her husband, Clark Ff. Condit, has lived 
there nearly all his life. Mrs. Condit taught school for 15 years 
in the Barnum, Kaycee, Sussex and Mayworth communities. For 
a number of years she has collected the history of Johnson County 
and the Hole-in-the-Wall country. Mr. and Mrs. Condit are the 
parents of three children: James G. Condit of Kaycee, Richard 
H. Condit of Buffalo, and Carolyn Knapp (Mrs. David). 

Mr. T. J. Gatchell was born August 2, 1872, at Black River 
Falls, Wisconsin. Following the profession of pharmacist, he 
opened the first drug store in Big Horn, Wyoming, in 1897. Dur- 
ing the Spanish American War he enlisted and served with the 
Rough Riders. In 1900 he moved to Buffalo, Wyoming, where 
he married Ursula Sackett. In 1901 he opened his own drug 
store in Buffalo which he owned until his death on June 5, 1954. 

Mr. Gatchell had a life-long interest in history and over the 
years built up a fine museum which he displayed in the back of 
his drug store. He was a close friend of the Indians of the locality 
and learned a good deal of the Indian language. Indians and 
whites alike who knew of his interests added many valuable items 
to his museum. He was presented a life membership in the Ore- 
gon Trail Association in 1930 and in 1950 he was honored by the 
Kiwanis Club of Casper which presented to him the citizenship 
plaque for that year. 


Pierre La Bonte, Jr. was born in Fall River, Massachusetts, 
where he attended public and business schools. His career first 
began in sales promotion for New England public service com- 

In 1921 he organized Pierre La Bonte Jr., Inc., an advertising 
agency which he continues to direct, servicing New England news- 

Now residing in Assonet, Massachusetts, Mr. La Bonte learned 
a few years ago of the stream in Converse County named La Bonte 
Creek. He became fascinated with research on the subject since 
it apparently was named for a trapper but could find no proof 
that such a character actually had roamed the area. 

Last summer Mr. La Bonte spent several weeks in the area of 
Douglas and La Bonte Creek seeking additional data. He now 
regards the section as his second home and plans annual visits 
to Wyoming to continue research. 

Mae Urbanek, a resident of Niobrara county for twenty-five 
years, is interested in local history and writing, both prose and 
poetry. She has published three books of poetry, "Niobrara 
Breezes", "Wyoming Winds", and "High Lights of the Hills." She 
also writes a monthly column, "Ranch Ramblings" in the Western 
Farm Life, published in Denver, Colorado. Collecting rocks on 
their trips of personal historic research is another hobby of Mrs. 
Urbanek that is also enjoyed by her husband, Jerry. They have 
a large collection of rocks on display at their ranch home. 

Qeneral fadex 


Acardo, James, gift of, 111. 

Adams, Thomas, 203. 

Albertson, Ace, gift of, 111. 

Alexander, Colonel Edmund B., 53, 

All American Indian Days, Sher- 
idan, 95. 

American Fur Company, 161, 169, 
171, 175, 181. 

American Heritage, the Magazine of 
History, reviewed by Dorothy K. 
Taylor, 125-6. 

American House, Rock Springs, 31. 

American Studies Program, U. of 
Wyo., 96. 

Angus, "Red", 29. 

Antiquities; report on Act for Pres- 
ervation of, 97-101. 

Armstrong, Major George W., 61, 

Arnholt, Jerry, gift of, 239. 

Artifacts, see Indian artifacts. 

Astorians, 4. 

Atlantic City, Wyo., 221. 

Atwood, William T., letter to Wil- 
liam P. Dole, Feb. 13, 1862, 128. 

Auguste, Lucin, interpreter, 170. 

Bagley, Lester, 175, 189, 190. 

Bailey, Bob, gift of, 238. 

Bannock Agency, 132. 

Bar C ranch, 139. 

Barker, Ralph E., gift of, 239, 240. 

Barnes, Claude T., gift of, 240. 

Barnum community, 137. 

Barholomew, Mrs. A. E., a photo, 

Battle of Bear River, 1863, 8. 

Beard, Mrs. Cyrus, gift of, 238, 240. 

Beckwith, Lt. E. G., 65. 

Benson, George C, gift of, 111, 

Benson, Leroy, gift of. 111. 

Bent, George, 155. 

Bent, Joe, 155. 

Bernhisel. John M., 61, 74. 

Berry, Henryetta, review of Pictor- 
ial History of the Wild West, by 

James D. Horan and Paul Sann, 

"Big Bat", see Puerrier, Baptiste. 

Big Spring, see Warm Springs. 

Bishop, L. C, 159, 163, 165, 194; 
gift of, 113, 239; historical award, 
90, 94. 

Bishop road, 155. 

Bissell, Paul, gift of, 113. 

Black Hills, 1876, 35-42. 

"Block stations", 3, 9-10. 

Boardman, Captain, 151. 

Boklen, Ted, gift of, 239. 

Boodry, David, 222. 

Booth, "Bill", 27. 

Bordeaux, James, 146, 170-171, 

Bordeaux Trading House, see Bor- 
deaux Trading Post. 

Bordeaux Trading Post, 168, 169. 

Bouyer, Mich, 146. 

Bowman, Johnny, 37; ranch of, 37. 

Bowron, Frank L., 95, 222, 223; 
President's Message, 89-91; review 
of Wyoming's War Years, 1941- 
1945 by Dr. T. A. Larson, 121- 

Boyce, Peter, 79. 

Boyle, Pvt. Anthony, 172. 

Bozeman, John, 22, 142. 

Bozeman road, 16, 17. 

Bozeman Trail, 142, 179; descrip- 
tion of, 22. 

Bragg, William F., Jr., 92, 94, 222; 

review of Fort Laramie, by David 
L. Hieb, 242-243. 

Bragg, William F., Sr., 22, 221. 

Bragg, Mrs. William F., Sr. (Mary 
Coburn), Dedication of Worland 
Townsite Marker, 19-24; biog. of, 
127; historical award, 223; a 
photo, 24. 

Brass tokens, see Tokens. 

Bretney, Lt. H. C, 10, 14. 

Brewer, Dr. Charles, 43. 

Bridger, James. 22, 79, 84, 146, 157, 

Bridger trail, 20, 22. 

Bromley, James, 209. 

Brown, Capt. Albert, 144, 156. 

Brown, "Arapahoe", 29. 

Brown, Lt. J. W.. 146. 



Brown, James S., 76. 

Brown, Miller, gift of, 114. 

Bruff, J. Goldsborough, 192. 

Bryan station, 33. 

Buchholtz, Charles, gift of, 238. 

Buell, Charles E., biog. of, 25-30. 

Buell, Miles, 25. 

Buffalo chips, 50. 

Buffalo Creek, 139-140. 

Buffalo Creek country, map of, 139. 

The Buffalo Hunters, by Mari San- 

doz, reviewed by Mrs. Lois B. 

Payson, 119-121. 
Buffalo robes, 134. 
Buffalo, Wyo., history of, 25-30. 
Buford, John, 51, 52, 58. 
Bullock, Mr., 167. 
Burdette, Mrs. Julius, gift of, 238. 
Burkle, Pvt. Charles, 172. 
Burns, Dr. Robert H., honorable 

mention award, 223. 

California-Oregon Emigrant Road, 

Camerson, Pvt. William, 172. 
Camp Brown, 131, 132; name 

changed to Ft. Washakie, 132. 
Camp Carlin, 177. 
Camp Collier, 39. 
Camp Collins, 9, 12. 
Camp Dodge, 14. 
Camp Floyd, 47. 
Camp Jenney, 39. 
Camp Mitchell, 9. 
Camp Scott, 56, 57, 64-70, 75, 76, 

77, 80. 
Camp Winfield, 53. 
Campbell, Robert, 178. 
Canton, Frank, 28-29. 
Cantonment, 3, 10. 
Caplan, Daniel, gift of, 238. 
Carley, Maurine, 89, 95, 164, 189, 

221; compiler, Oregon Trail Trek, 

No. One, 163-194. 
Carmichael's Camp, 108. 
Carpenter, James, 221; gift of, 238; 

honorable mention award, 223. 
Carpenter, Mary, gift of, 240. 
Carson Valley Agency, 205. 
Carter, W. A., 217; tokens of, 131. 
Cattle rustlers, 140. 
Central Overland California and 

Pike's Peak Express Co., 7. 
Cerf, Bennett, 160. 
Chambers, Persimmon Bill, 38. 

Champ, Mrs. Myrtle, gift of, 114, 

Champion, Mervin, gift of, 240. 

Chatterton, Hon. Fenimore, gift of, 

Cherokee, Jim, see Simons, Jim. 

Cherokee trail, 8, 9. 

Cheyenne Chamber of Commerce, 
gift of, 111. 

Cheyenne Expedition, 1857, 8. 

Cheyenne Pass, 108. 

Chiefs, see Indians: name of chief. 

Chinese in Rock Springs, 1878, 32. 

Chivington, Colonel J. M., 8. 

Christensen, Mrs. Mart T., gift of, 

Christmas eve, 1878, Rock Springs, 

Clairmont, Mrs. Maud L.. 221. 

Clark, Capt. J. C, 217. 

Clark Grave, 168. 

Clarke, General N. S.. 205. 

Clary, William L., 168. 

Clary Grave, 168. 

Clayton, William, 192. 

Clough, Wilson O., Our Long Her- 
itage, reviewed by Colin B. Good- 
ykoontz, 243-245. 

Coe, W. R., 95, 96; gift of, 115, 

Coffee, Jules E., 188. 

Cold Springs robbery. 1878, 108- 

Cole, Colonel Nelson, 144, 145, 149, 
150-151, 152, 153-154, 155, 156. 
157, 158. 

Collins, Casper, 3, 10, 11, 16; fight 
at Platte Bridge Station, 14-15. 

Collins, Pvt. Micheal, 172. 

Collins, William O., 10. 11. 

Condit, Thelma Gatchell, The Hole- 
in-the-Wall, 137-141; biog. of, 

Conner, Glenn A., 164. 

Connor, General P. Edward, 8, 12 
13, 15, 16; 142-158; relieved of 
command, 16; reprimanded by 
General Pope, 13. 

Connor Powder River Indian Expe- 
dition, see Powder River Expedi- 

Conrad, Captain George, 145. 

Cook, Frederick, 208. 

Cooke, John Rogers, 43. 

Cooke, Colonel Philip St. George, 
43-60, 64, 75. 

Copenhaver, Everett T., gift of, 240. 
Corbin, Mrs. Helen, gift of. 238. 
Corn Creek farm, 78, 85, 87. 
Courtney, Pvt. John, 172. 



Covey, Dr. Edward, 50, 58. 

Craig, Agent, 80. 

Cross, Major Osborne, 5. 

Culture on the Moving Frontier, by 

Louis B. Wright, reviewed by 

Ruth Hudson, 247-249. 
Cumming, Governor Alfred, 49, 64, 

68, 73, 81. 82, 205; letter to A. B. 

Greenwood, Nov. 1, 1860, 206- 

Cummings, D. C, 146. 
Cushing, Mrs. M. M., gift of. 111. 
Custer, General George A., 180. 
Custer City, 39. 
Custer's Luck, by Edgar I. Stewart, 

reviewed by Alfred M. Pence. 


Dale City, 108. 

Davidson, Jesse, gift of, 240. 

Davies, Benjamin, 202, 209; letter 
to William P. Dole, June 29, 
1861, 210-211. 

Davis, Mrs. Morgan D., gift of, 238, 
239, 240. 

Davis, Robert O., 164-165. 

Davis, Scott, 108. 

Deadwood, 39, 40. 

Deadwood Gulch, 39, 41. 

Dedication of Worland Townsite 
Marker, by Mary F. Bragg, 19-24. 

Deep Creek farm, 84. 

Deer Creek station, 9. 

Deininger. Mrs. Anita W., gift of, 

Delta Kappa Gamma, gift of, 239. 

Denver, James W., 69; letters from 
J. Forney. 64-67; letter from 
Brigham Young, 61-64; secretary 
of Kansas, 69. 

Devine. William, 145, 156-158. 

DeVoto, Bernard, 160. 

Dickinson, Norman R., 221. 

Dobler, Lavinia, gift of, 240. 

Dodge, Frederick (Indian agent) 
81, 82, 85. 

Dodge, Major General G. M., 12- 
13, 143, 144, 148. 

Dole, William P., letter from Wil- 
liam T. Atwood, 218; letter from 
Benjamin Davies, 210-211; letter 
from James Duane Doty, 219- 
220; letter from Henry Martin, 

Dominick, Dr. DeWitt, 90, 95, 221, 

Donahoe. Pvt. John, 172. 

Doty, James Duane, 209; letters 
from Luther Mann, Jr., 217-219; 
letter to William P. Dole, April 
15, 1862, 219-220; letter to 
George W. McLellan, Dec. 14, 
1861, 216-217. 

Dougherty, Jim, 146. 

Drew, Lt. William Y., 14. 

"Dutch Jake", see Schmerer, Jacob 

Eddington, Mrs. Jack, gift of, 238, 

239, 240. 
Ehernberger, Jim, gift of, 240. 
Ekdall, Dr. A. B., gift of. Ill, 239. 
Elizabeth Town, 40. 
Emerson, Frank, 21. 
Emerson, Dr. Paul, gift of, 239. 
Emigrant Trail, 163. 
"Emigrants Wash Tub", 190. 
Esmay, General R. L., 164. 
Eubank, Mrs., capttive, 11. 
Events of the year 1865 pertaining 

to Johnson County, by T. J. 

Gatchell, 142-158. 
Exploring the Northern Plains, by 

Lloyd McFarling, reviewed by T. 

A. Larson, 241. 

Farwell, Charles A., 27. 

Faver, Sergeant, 169, 172. 

Ferguson, Mrs. R. A., gift of, 114, 

Ferries, Ashby Howell's at Wor- 
land, 22; early, 5-6; toll rates, 6; 
Worland in 1900, 2L; see also, 
Mormon Ferry. 

Fetterman, Captain William J., 16, 

Fetterman massacre, 185. 

Fitzpatrick, Pvt. James, 172. 

Fitzpatrick, Thomas, 178. 

Flannery, L. G. "Pat", 165, 166; 
historical award, 223. 

Fleming, Lt. Hugh B., 169. 171. 

Flinn, Pvt. John, 172. 

Poote, Lester, gift of, 239, 240. 

Forney, Jacob, 75, 82, 209; dis- 
missed, 205; letters to J. W. Den- 
ver, Nov. 30, Dec. 14. 1857, Jan. 

I, 1858. 64-67; letter to A. B. 
Greenwood, Sept. 29. 1859, 83- 
88; letter to A. B. Greenwood, 
June 11, 1860, 204-205; letters to 
Charles E. Mix,, Feb. 10, Mar. 

II, April 17. May 21, Sept. 6, 
Nov. 5, 1858, 67-70, 71-73, 75- 
83: report, 1859. 83-88. 



Fort Bernard, 174-175. 

Fort Caspar, 3-17, 95; abandoned, 
1867, 17; illus. in 1947, 2; naming 
of, 16; plan of, 17; restoration, 
illus. in 1947, 2; spelling of, 3. 

Fort Connor, 146-147, 153, 155, 
156, 158; see also Fort Reno. 

Fort Crittenden, 47. 

Fort Fetterman, 17. 

Fort Halleck, 9, 12. 

Fort John, 176, 178, 182. 

Fort Kearney, 50. 

Fort Laramie, 9, 177-184; aban- 
doned, 180; Cavalry barracks, 
180; Commissary storehouse, 183; 
guardhouse, 183; history of, 177- 
184; Officers' Club, 180-181; Of- 
ficers' Row, 181; Old Bakery, 
183; "Old Bedlam", 181, 182; 
Post hospital, 183-184; Parade 
grounds, 181, 183; Sutler's store, 
180-181; 1910, illus. 162; see also 
Fort John. 

Fort Laramie, by David L. Hieb, 
reviewed by William F. Bragg, 
Jr., 242-243. 

Fort Laramie National Monument, 
177-184; established, 180. 

Fort Phil Kearney, 16, 185-186. 

Fort Platte, 176, 177, 178. 

Fort Reno, 16, 146; see also Fort 

Fort Sanders, 107, 108. 

Fort C. F. Smith, 16. 

Fort Stambaugh, 221. 

Fort Washakie, 132. 

Fort William, 182; history of, 178. 

Fox, George, gift of, 240. 

Fraker mountain, 138, 141. 

Frapp, Isaac, 204. 

Frederick, Chester, 187. 

Frederick, Henry, 194; museum, 

Frederick ranch, 194. 

Freighting, 33. 

Fremont, John C, 160, 178, 189. 

Fremont County Pioneer Associa- 
tion, honorable mention award, 

Fremont County pioneers, names 
listed on Lander monument, 109- 

"Frenchy". 30. 

Froyd, Colonel A. E., 164. 

Ganard, Louis, 7. 

Gardner, Hamilton, editor, March 

of 2d Dragoons, 43-60; biog. of, 


Gatchell, T. J., Events of the year 
1865 pertaining to Johnson Coun- 
ty, 142-158; biog. of, 250. 

Gay, Lt. Ebenezer, 59. 

Gayeville, 40. 

Ghent, W. J., 190. 

Gibson, Mrs. Laura, 187. 

Gillespie, A. S., gift of, 111; 239, 

Gillespy, Dr. C. B., 69. 

Gold discovery, Black Hills, 180. 

Goodale, Timothy, 203. 

Goodykoontz, Colin B., review of 
Our Long Heritage, by Wilson O. 
Clough, 243-245. 

Gordon, Lt. George A., 59. 

Goshen County Historical Society, 
honorable mention award, 95. 

Government Iron Bridge (1875) 
175, 177. 

Graf, Mrs. George J., gift of, 114. 

Graham, Colonel W. A., The Reno 
Court of Inquiry, reviewed by Al- 
fred M. Pence, 118-119. 

Grant, John, 203. 

Grant, Richard, 203. 

Grattan, Lt. John Lawrence, 168- 
174, 179; biog. of 173-174. 

Grattan Massacre, 8, 168-174; site 
of, 168. 

Gratz, Mrs. Margaertta, The Hu- 
man Side of Wyoming, 105-107. 

Gravelly Ford, 81, 82. 

Green, Lt. John, 59. 

Greenwood, A. B., letter from Ja- 
cob Forney, 83-88, 204-205; letter 
from Governor Alfred Cumming, 

Gregory, Mrs. Laura G.. gift of, 

Guernsey, C. A., 188, 189. 

Guerrier, William, 184, 188. 

Gunnison, Captain John W., 207. 

Haas, Herman, 185, 186. 

Haas, William, 185. 

Hackney, Joseph, 192. 

Haefele, James, gift of, 239. 

Hafen, LeRoy, 159-160, 175, 176. 

Hagen, Olaf T., Platte Bridge Sta- 
tion and Fort Caspar, 3-17. 

Hake, Ray S., 22. 

Hamblin, Jacob, 80. 

Hammell, Pvt. David, 172. 

Hanover Land and Irrigation Co., 

Hanway, Earl, gift of, 115. 
Hardy, Hamilton, gift of, 239. 



Harney, General William S., 43, 46. 
Harney's Ash Hollow attack, 8. 
Harris, "Uncle" George, 31. 
Harwood, Bill, gift of. 111. 
Hat Creek stage station, 36-37. 
Hatch, F. C., (Indian Agent) 219. 
Hawes, Captain James M., 58, 82. 
Hay, Henry G., 189. 
Hayes, "Bill", 28-29. 
Hayes, James L., gift of, 111. 
Haywood, Earl, gift of, 239, 240. 
Healy, Alex, Sr.. gift of, 239. 
Hebard, Grace Raymond, 187. 
Hedges, Nat, 155. 
Hempl, Carl, gift of, 116. 
Hickok, James Butler (Wild Bill) 

Hieb, David L., 177; Fort Laramie, 

reviewed by William F. Bragg. 

Jr., 242-243. 
Hight, Lt. Thomas, 58. 
Hill, Burton, gift of, 114. 
Hill, Gale, 108. 
Hill, Henry, 164-165; grave, 164- 

Hill, Jay, gift of, 239. 
Hill CitytS. D.], 39. 
Historical Landmarks Commission, 

see Wyoming Historical Land- 
marks Commission. 
Historical markers. Lander, 109, 

224; Worland, 19-24; see also 

Oregon Trail Trek, No. One. 
Hoagland, Lt., 149. 
Hobbs, George H., gift of, 116. 
Hodge, Wallace B., gift of, 239, 

Hoffman, William, 52. 
Hog ranch (near Ft. Laramie) 184. 
Hoge, Owen S., gift of, 111. 
The Hole-in-the-Wall, by Thelma 

Gatchell Condit, 137-141; illus., 

136; maps of, 138, 139; origin of 

name, 137-141. 
Holliday, Lt. Jonas P., 58. 
Holly Sugar Corporation, 19, 20, 21. 
Homsher, Lola M., 89, 190, 221; 

edits Wyoming Zephyrs, 105-117; 

gift of, 116; review of Trailing 

the Cowboy, by Clifford P. Wes- 

termeier, 247. 

Homsley, Benjamin, 187. 

Homsley, Mary E., grave of, 186- 

Hook, James W., gift of, 240. 

Horan, James D. and Sann, Paul, 
Pictorial History of the Wild 
West, reviewed by Henryetta Ber- 
ry, 122-123. 

Horseshoe Creek station, 9. 
Hotel Elma, Worland, 21. 
Hotel Occidental, Buffalo, 25-30. 
How Rock Springs celebrated Christ- 
mas in '78, by D. G. Thomas, 31- 

Howard, Don, gift of, 111. 
Howe, Major Marshal Saxe, 58. 
Howell, Ashby, ferry of, 22. 
Hubbard, W. P., gift of, 111. 
Hudson, Ruth, review of Culture on 

the Moving Frontier, by Louis B. 

Wright, 247-249. 
Huff, Amberson, 201. 
Huinzinga, Janice, gift of, 112. 
Human Side of Wyoming, by Mrs. 

Margaretta Gratz, 105-107. 
Humfreyville, Captain J. L., 145. 
Humphreys, A. (Indian Agent) 88, 

Hunt, Mrs. L. C, gift of, 114. 
Hunt, Wilson Price, 160. 
Hunter, J. M., gift of, 239. 
Huntington, Dimick B., 65, 211. 
Hunton, John, 173, 181; biog. of, 

165-167; diary of, 1875, 166-167. 
Hunton Meadows, 165-167. 
Hurt, Dr. (Indian Agent) 64, 65-66, 

67, 76, 77-78. 

Indian Affairs, superintendent sal- 
ary, 63. 

Indian agencies, Bannock, 132; Sho- 
shone, 132. 

Indian appropriations needed, 1861, 

Indian artifacts, 101-104, 234-237 
abraders, 237; arrowshaft sander 
104; classification, 101-102; de 
scription of, 102-104; Eoliths 
104; grinding, 234-237; illus.. 103 
235, 236; mano, 234-235; metate 
234-235; mortar, 235-237; per 
cussors, 104; pestle. 235-237 
Plains Indians, 234; pounding 
104; Pueblo Indians, 234, 235 

Indian conditions, 1857-1862,61-88 

Indian depredations, 8, 10-11, 12-13 
15, 62, 74, 80, 81, 82, 87. 205 

Indian diseases, 212. 

Indian farms, need for, 204, 211 
see also names of farms, e.g. 
San Pete Creek, etc. 

Indian habits and customs, 133-135 
habits in trading, 132-133. 



Indian improvements recommended, 

Indian provisions needed, 216. 
Indian scouts, Omaha, 146; Pawnee, 

146, 147; Winnebago, 146. 
Indian treaties, need for, 206-208, 

Indian treatment by travellers, 62, 


Indian tribes presented gifts, 63, 73, 

76, 77, 87, 204, 217. 
Indians: Arapahoe, 11, 12, 134. 
Indians: Bannock (Bannack, Pan- 

nack) 72, 80, 82, 83-84, 86, 201- 

202, 204, 206, 211. 

Indians: Bannock, Fort Boise, 202. 

Indians: Cheyenne, 11. 

Indians: Chief Am-a-ro-ko, 202. 

Indians: Chief Anthro, 74. 

Indians: Chief Arapeen, 78. 

Indians: Chief Bear, 169-170. 

Indians: Chief Black Bear, 148. 

Indians: Chief Black Foot, 11. 

Indians: Chief Dull Knife, 154. 

Indians: Chief Grand Coquin, 202. 

Indians: Chief Highbacked Wolf, 

Indians: Chief Horn, 80, 83-84. 

Indians: Chief Kanosh, 78-79. 

Indians: Chief Little Soldier, 65, 
70, 76. 82, 83. 

Indians: Chief Mopeah, 202. 

Indians: Chief "Old Snag", 201- 

Indians: Chief Pash-e-co, 203. 

Indians: Chief Paw-sha-quin, 82. 

Indians: Chief Peeteeneet, 74, 215. 

Indians: Chief Po-e-ma-che-ah, 202. 

Indians: Chief Push-e-can, 200. 

Indians: Chief Py-poo-roo-yan, 82. 

Indians: Chief Qai-tan-i-an, 202. 

Indians: Chief Red Cloud, 154, 179. 

Indians: Chief SandPitch (San- 
Pitch) 72. 74, 76. 77, 80, 82. 

Indians: Chief Shokub, 215. 

Indians: Chief Son-a-at, 80. 

Indians: Chief Sow-At, 72. 

Indians: Chief Standing Rock, 74. 

Indians: Chief Tash-e-pah, 202. 

Indians: Chief Ten-toi, 203. 

Indians: Chief Tib-en-de-wah, 74. 

Indians: Chief Tin-tic, 74. 

Indians: Chief Tse-Mah, 82. 

Indians: Chief Two Face, 11. 

Indians: Chief Washakie, 66, 67, 
72, 73, 74, 79, 80, 82, 84, 86, 200, 
202, 203, 209; see also Washakie 
and the Shoshoni. 

Indians: Chief We-ra-yoo, 82. 

Indians: Chief White Eye, 72. 74, 
77, 80. 

Indians: Crow, 67. 

Indians: Diggers, 199, 201, 203. 

Indians: Elk Mountain Utes, 86, 87, 

Indians: Go-sha-utes, 79. 82, 84-85, 
86, 205. 

Indians: Humboldt valley, 81-82. 

Indians: Pah-Utes, 87-88, 204. 

Indians: Pah-Vants, 78, 82, 85-86, 

Indians: Pannack, see Indians: Ban- 

Indians: Pey-utes, 85, 86. 

Indians: Salt Lake Diggers, see In- 
dians: Diggers. 

Indians: Sheep-eaters, 202. 

Indians: Shoshoni, 61-88, 131-135. 
198-220; see also Indians: Snakes. 

Indians: Sioux, 11, 12, 16, 143, 186. 

Indians: Snake diggers, 62. 

Indians: Snakes, 66-67. 69, 72, 73, 
77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84-85, 86, 209, 
211; see also Indians: Shoshoni. 

Indians: Snakes, Eastern, 199-201, 
202, 203. 

Indians: Snakes, Salmon River, 202. 

Indians: Snakes, Southern, 203. 

Indians: Snakes, Western, 201, 202, 

, 204. 

Indians: Treaty of 1851 (near Ft. 
Laramie) 179. 

Indians: Treaty of [1858] (Utes 
and Shoshoni) 72. 

Indians: Treaty of 1868 (Shoshoni) 

Indians: Treaty of Ft. Laramie. 
1868. 179. 

Indians: Utahs (Utes) 66-67. 72. 
74, 77, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85-88. 

Indians: Uinta Utes, 85, 86, 87. 

Indians: Washoe, 85-86. 

Iron Bridge ( 1875) 175. 177. 

Jack. William "Scotty", gift of, 112. 

Janisse, Nick, 146. 

Jarrot, Vital, 12. 

Jarvie, John, 31-32. 

Johnston, Colonel Albert Sidney. 

46-47, 48. 53. 56, 57, 64. 66, 69, 

Johnson County, first hanging 27; 

history of, 25-30, 137-141, 142- 

158; organized, 27. 
Jones, Craig, gift of, 112. 
Jones. Russell & Co., mail contract, 




Kalif Temple of the Mystic Shrine, 
Sheridan, honorable mention 
award, 95. 

Kamber, Abraham, gift of, 114. 

Kaycee, Wyo., 137, 140. 

Kearny, Colonel Stephen Watts, 45. 

Kelso. Red, 164. 

Kemmerer Chamber of Commerce, 
gift of, 240 . 

Kerr, John, 67. 

Kidd, Colonel J. H., 144, 145-146, 

King, General Charles, 181. 

Krakel, Dean, The Saga of Tom 
Horn, reviewed by John Mon- 
aghan, 123-125. 

Krapp. H. A., 172. 

Kremer, Leo, gift of, 112. 

Kremer, Mrs. Leo, gift of, 112. 

La Bonte, in Laramie region, 159- 

La Bonte .Daniel, 161. 

La Bonte, David, 161. 

La Bonte, Etienne, 161. 

La Bonte, Jean-Baptiste, 160. 

La Bonte, Louis, 160. 

La Bonte, Pierre, Jr., The Quest for 
La Bonte, 159-161; biog. of 251. 

La Bonte, Rousseau, 161. 

La Bonte camp. 160. 

La Bonte creek, 159, 160. 

La Bonte crossing, 146. 

La Bonte station, 9. 

LaDue, Antwine, 146. 

Lander, F. W., letter to Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, Feb. 11, 
1860, 198-204. 

Lander Cutoff, 199. 

Lander Valley Historical Monu- 
ment, dedication, 224; illus., 224. 

Landgraeber, Major Clem, 145. 

La Ramee, Jacques, 178. 

Laramie County Historical Society, 
gift of, 112. 

Larson, Dr. T. A., 92, 95, 221, 223; 
historical award, 90, 94; review 
of Exploring the Northern Plains, 
by Lloyd McFarling, 241; "Sage 
Brush Tonic" talk, 91; Wyoming's 
War Years, 1941-1945, reviewed 
by Frank L. Bowron, 121-122. 

Latham, Mr. & Mrs. Bill, gift of, 
112, 116, 239, 240. 

Lavatti, Thomas, 204. 

Lebhart, Minnie, gift of, 116. 

Lee, C. W., gift of, 240. 

Lewis, H. E., 172. 

Lewis, Ton, Paul and Marvin, gift 
of. 116. 

Linford, Velma, 91, 222. 

Livingston Bell & Co., 219. 

Long, Austin, 167. 

Loring, Colonel William W., 5. 

Lott, Howard B., The Old Occi- 
dental, 25-30; biog. of, 127. 

Lovell Chamber of Commerce, gift 
of, 116. 

Ludvigsen, John, 34. 

Lum'ey, Teri Jean, gift of, 112. 

Lupton, Lancaster P., 176, 178. 

Mabie, Mrs. Virgil R., gift of, 112. 

McCabe, Barney, 33-34. 

McCall, Jack, 40. 

McClellan, Joseph L., 20, 21. 

McClure, Mrs. J. E., gift of, 239. 

McCray, A. J., 27. 

McCerery, Alice Richards, gift of, 

114, 117. 
McDermott, J. A., 28-29. 
McFarling, Lloyd, A Trip to the 

Black Hills in 1876, 35-42; biog. 

of, 127; Exploring the Northern 

Plains, reviewed by T. A. Larson, 

McGrath, Mary A., gift of, 116. 
McLellan, George A., letter from 

James D. Doty, 216-217. 
McLellan, Mrs. Jerry, gift of, 239. 
McNulty, Corporal Charles, 169, 


McNulty, Pvt. John, 172. 

Mail service, Cherokee trail route, 

9; Indian interference, 13; North 

Platte route stations, 9; overland, 

3, 6-9, 13; stations abandoned, 13. 
Mann, Luther, Jr., letter to James 

Duane Doty, Dec. 27, 1861, Feb. 

15, 1862, 217-219. 
Maps, Buffalo creek, 139; Hole-in- 

the-Wall country, 138. 139; 

March of the 2d Dragoons in 

1857, 44. 

March of 2d Dragoons, edited by 
Hamilton Gardner, 42-60: map, 

Marion, William L., 90, 92, 94. 221, 


Markers, see Historical markers. 

Marshall, Captain, 147. 

Marshall station, 9. 

Martin, Henry, 209; first annual 
report, 213-215; letter to William 
P. Dole, Oct. 1, 1861, 213-215. 

Masterson, B. L., gift of, 240. 

Mattes, Merril J., gift of, 239. 240. 



Meek, C. L„ gift of, 116. 

Mercer, Ralph, gift of, 114. 

Merrill. Ira, gift of, 239. 

Merritt. Colonel Wesley, 37. 

Metz, Judge & Mrs. P. W., gift of, 
117, 239, 240. 

Mexican Hill, 187. 

Migette. Mr., 57. 

Mildron, Pvt. John, 172. 

Milhau, Dr. John Jefferson, 50. 

Military leaders attitude toward In- 
dians, 11, 12-13. 

Military operation, 4th Artillery, 7; 
2d California Volunteer Cavalry, 
145; Connor's Powder River Ex- 
pedition, 142-158; Dakota Caval- 
ry, 154, 155; 7th Iowa Volunteer 
Cavalry, 145; 11th Kansas Volun- 
teer Cavalry, 11, 15; 16th Kansas, 
149, 152; 6th Michigan Cavalry, 
145, 155; 2nd Missouri Light Ar- 
tillery, 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 
152; 12th Missouri Cavalry, 145, 
149, 151, 152, 153; 11th Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry, 8, 9, 10, 11, 
15, 145, 146, 157, 185; 6th Regi- 
ment, Co. G., 171; 5th U. S. Vol- 
unteers, 154, 156. 

Military posts, appearance of, 10. 

Military reenforcements to Indian 
country, 13. 

Millard, L. A., 221. 

Miller, Mrs. Arthur, gift of, 114. 

Miners, Rock Springs, 32. 

Mining in Black Hills, 1876, 35-42. 

Mitchell, Mrs. Minnie, 91. 

Mitchell, General R. B., 143. 

Mix, Charles E., 66, 167, 209; let- 
ters from J. Forney, 67-70, 71-73, 
75-83; letter from D. W. Thorpe, 

Moberly. W. E., gift of, 112. 

Monaghan, Jay, review of The Saga 
of Tom Horn, by Dean Krakel. 

Montana City, 40. 

Montgomery, Mrs. Bertha, gift of, 

Moonlight. Colonel Thomas, 11-12. 

Moor, Mrs. Ross W., gift of, 112. 

Moore, James Kerr, Jr., 221; Post 
Trader and Indian Trader Tokens, 
131-135; biog. of, 250; gift of, 

Moore. James Kerr, Sr., 131, 132. 

Morgan, Dale L., editor, Washakie 
and the Shoshoni, pt. IV, 1857- 
1859, 61-88; pt. V, 1860-1862, 

Morgan, Floyd, gift of, 114. 
Morgan, O. C, 21. 
Mormon Ferry, 6, 7, 8, 176-177. 
Mormons, 53, 60, 61, 64, 65, 67, 68, 

70. 76. 
Morrison, W. W., 168, 189. 
Moudy, Mrs. Mable Cheney, 221. 
Mud Springs Station attack, 11, 13. 
Mullins, Lt. John, 59. 
Murley, Pvt. Patrick, 172. 
Murphy, Frank, 164. 
Murphy Creek, 140, 141. 
Murphy Creek gap, 140. 
Murray, Pvt. Walter, 172. 

Nash, Captain E. W., 146. 

Nelson, Anthony, 155. 

Niobrara County, a poem, by Mae 

Urbanek, 195-197. 
Niobrara River to Virginia City 

wagon road, 142. 154. 
Norman, Mrs. Robert L., gift of, 

239, 240. 
North, Captain Frank. 146, 147- 

148, 157. 
O'Brien, Captain N. L, 145. 148. 
Ogle, James R., gift of, 112. 
Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles, gift of, 114, 

117. 239, 240. 
"Old Bedlam", Fort Laramie, 181, 


Old Fort Platte, see Fort Platte. 

"Old Man Murphy" rock, 140. 

The Old Occidental, by Howard B. 

Lott, 25-30. 
Old Rifle Pits, 165. 
Olsen, Hans Peterson, 168. 
O'Mahoney. Senator Joseph, gift of, 

O'Malley, Ed, 28. 
Oregon Trail, 163-194. 
Oregon Trail Trek, No. One, com- 
piled by Maurine Carley, 163-194. 
Oregon Trail Treks, 90; origin of, 

163; plan of No. 2 trek, 194. 
O'Rourke, Pvt. Patrick, 172. 
Our Long Heritage, by Wilson O. 

Clough, reviewed by Colin B. 

Goodykoontz, 243-245. 
Overland Mail Co.. 216. 
Overland mail service, see Mail 

Overland Road, 163. 
Owen, Earl, gift of, 239, 240. 



Pactola. 39. 

"Paiute War", 205. 

Parker, Rev. Samuel, 178. 

Parkman, Francis, 160, 174-175. 

Payson, Mrs. Lois B., review of The 
Buffalo Hunters, by Mari Sandoz, 

Peabody, A. S., gift of, 112, 114. 

Pegram, Lt. John, 58. 

Pence, Alfred M., review of Custer's 
Luck, by Edgar I. Stewart, 245; 
review of The Reno Court of In- 
quiry, by Colonel W. A. Graham, 

Pennick, Sgt. Isaac B., 14. 

Phillips, John "Portugee", 179, 181. 
185-186; buried in Cheyenne, 
185; horse of, 186; horse marker, 

Pictorial History of the Wild West, 
by James D. Horan and Paul 
Sann, reviewed by Henryetta Ber- 
ry, 122-123. 

The Pioneer, a poem, by Jessa Eula 
Wallis, 117. 

Pioneers, names listed on Lander 
monument, 109-110; W o r 1 a n d 
marker dedication, illus., 18. 

Platenius, Pvt. Charles, 172. 

Platte Bridge Station, 179; made 
permanent post, 16; renamed Fort 
Caspar, 16. 

Platte Bridge Station and Fort Cas- 
par, by Olaf T. Hagen, 3-17. 

Platte River, fording of, 4-5. 

Plumb, Colonel, 14. 

Plumhoff, Pvt. A., 172. 

Pony Express, 3, 7, 179. 

Pope, General, 13. 

Post Trader and Indian Trader 
Tokens, by J. K. Moore, Jr., 131- 

Post traders, 131- 132. 

Powder River, 137-141. 

Powder River county, map of, 138. 

Powder River Expedition, 8, 13, 16, 

Powder River Indian Expedition. 

see Powder River Expedition. 
Pratt, Orson, 192. 

President's Message, by Frank L. 
Bowron, 89-91. 

Puerrier, Baptiste, 167. 
Puerrier, Lollie, 167. 

The Queste for La Bonte, by Pierre 
La Bonte. Jr., 159-161. 

Rapid Creek district, 39. 

Raynolds, Captain W. F., early map 
of, discussed, 22. 

Red Buttes fight, 1862, 15. 

Red Canyon station, 39. 

Register Cliff, historical marker, 
Register Cliff Park, 187-188. 

The Reno Court of Inquiry, by 
Colonel W. A. Graham, reviewed 
by Alfred M. Pence, 118-119. 

Renze, Mrs. Dolores, gift of, 239. 

Report on an Act for the Preserva- 
tion of American Antiquities 
(Public no. 209), 97-101. 

Resha, Jean, see Reshaw, John. 

Reshaw, John, 7, 146. 

Richard brothers, trading post, 175. 

Richard's Fort Bernard, see Fort 

Richardson, Leander P., .35-42. 

Richardson, Warren, 21, 185. 

Richardson, Warren (Family) gift 
of, 112. 

Richaud, John, see Reshaw, John. 

Ridgely, Mrs. Eva, gift of, 239. 

Ridings, Reta, gift of, 112, 116; 
review of The Settlers' West, by 
Martin F. Schmitt and Dee 
Brown, 246. 

Ridwell diary (1841) 176. 

Rifle Pits, 165. 

Riley, Major Bennet, 45. 

Rinehart, Mrs. Lydia J., gift of, 
239, 240. 

Ritter, Charles, gift of, 239. 

Roads, in 1868, 107-108; Niobrara 
River to Virginia City, 142, 154. 

Robertson, C. F., 19, 20, 24. 

Robinson, John ("Uncle Jack Rob- 
inson") 218-219. 

Rock Springs, 1878, 31-34; China- 
town, 32; miners, 32. 

Rocky Ridge station, 9. 

Rogers, C. J. "Doc", 164; gift of, 
116, 117. 

Rogers, Ralph, gift of, 239. 

Rogers. William H., letter to Wil- 
liam H. Russell, April 18, 1861, 

Rollins, Lucinda, grave of, 189-190. 

Rowland, Captain E. S., 145, 150. 

Ruby Valley reserve, 212-213. 

Rupp, A. G., 21. 

Rupp, Wellington, 21. 

Rushing, Pvt. S. H., 172. 

Russell, William H., letter from 
William H. Rogers, 208-210. 

Russell, Majors & Waddell, 7. 



Rustic Hotel, Fort Laramie, 184. 
Ruxton, George F., 159, 160. 
Ryan, John, 147. 
Rymill, R. J., 174. 

The Saga of Tom Horn, by Dean 
Krakel, reviewed by Jay Mon- 
aghan, 123-125. 

Sage Creek station, burned, 14. 

Sago Creek camp, 54. 

St. Clair, Mrs. Rosa, a photo, 24. 

St. Mary's station, 9; burned, 14. 

St. Paul's Lutheran Church, Chey- 
enne, gift of, 239. 

San Pete Creek farm, 78, 85, 86, 87. 

Sanborn, General John H., 12. 

Sand Creek massacre, 8. 

Sand Point station, historical mark- 
er, 188-189. 

Sandoz, Mari, The Buffalo Hunters, 
reviewed by Mrs. Lois B. Payson. 

Sanienski, Pvt. Stan, 172. 

Sawyer, Colonel J. A., 154, 155. 

Sawyer Expedition, 154. 

Sawyer road, 142. 

Schaedel, Mrs. Grace, gift of, 113. 

Schaedel, Mrs. John, gift of, 115. 

Schell, Dean Herbert, gift of, 116. 

Schmerer, Jacob, 27. 

Schmitt, Martin F., and Brown, 
Dee, The Settlers' West, reviewed 
by Reta Ridings, 246. 

Schrader, Mrs. Wesley, gift of, 113. 

Schroer, Mrs. Blanche, 221. 

Schott, Mary H., honorable men- 
tion award, 94. 

Scott, General Winfield, 45, 53, 59. 

Sertoma Club, Casper, honorable 
mention award, 95. 

The Settlers' West, by Martin F. 
Schmitt and Dee Brown, reviewed 
by Reta Ridings, 246. 

Shiek, Mrs. Frank N., gift of, 113, 
115, 240. 

Shoshone Agency, 132. 

Shoshone Reservation. 133-135. 

Shoshonee Aleck, see Frapp, Isaac. 

Shoshoni Indians, see Indians: Sho- 
shoni; Indians: Snakes; Washakie 
and the Shoshoni. 

Shoults, Ed, 193. 

Sibley, Major Henry Hastings, 58. 

Sibley, Stephen, gift of, 239. 

Simons, Benjamin, 65, 71, 76. 
Simons, Jim, 65. 
Simpson, Milward L., 91. 
Sims, Albert, 163, 194. 

Sinclair, F. H., 90. 

Sioux trail, 139, 141. 

Smith, Colonel Charles F.. 205. 

Smith, Hugh, 30. 

Smith, John R., 27. 

Smith, Pvt. Thomas, 172. 

Snodgrass, George, 92. 

Snyder, Sergeant, 170. 

Sorenson, Charles, gift of, 113. 

Sous, Orlando, 155. 

South Pass, 4, 8, 221. 

South Pass City, 33. 

South Pass station, 9. 

Spalding, Rev. Henry H., 4. 178. 

Spalding, Mrs. Henry H., 4. 

Spanish Diggings, 104. 

Spanish Fork City, 77-78. 

Spanish Fork farm, 77, 78, 85, 86, 

Spiegel, Sydney B., 223. 

Stanolind Oil and Gas Co., gift of, 

Stanton, Captain W. S.. 39. 

Star Valley Chamber of Commerce, 
gift of, 240. 

Statuary Hall committee, 91, 95. 

Steege, Janice Elaine, gift of, 239. 

Steege, Louis C, 95; Report on an 
Act for the Preservation of Amer- 
ican Antiquities (Public no. 209) 
97-101; Stone Artifacts, 101-104, 
234-237; gift of, 240. 

Steele, John, 190, 192. 

Stevens, Pvt. Edward, 172. 

Stewart, Edgar I., Custer's Luck, re- 
viewed by Alfred M. Pence, 245. 

Stewart, Lewis M., 67, 69. 

Stolt, Edna, gift of, 117. 

Stone Artifacts, by L. C. Steeae. 
101-104, 234-237. 

Stratton, Fred, Jr., honorable men- 
tion award, 223. 

Stratton, Mrs. Fred, Sr.. 221. 

Stuart. Robert and Astorians, 4, 
178; location of camp, 4. 

Sublette, Milton, 178. 

Sublette, William, 178. 

Suyematsu, Tosh, 92, 94. 

Swan, Henry, gift of, 239. 

Sweetman, Pvt. John, 172. 

Sweetwater station, 9. 

Tanner. Milo B., 155-156. 

Tappan, Henry, 192. 

Taylor, Dorothy K., gift of, 115; 

review of The American Heritage, 

Taylor, E. B., 15. 
Telegraph service, 3, 9. 10-11; wires 

burned, 14. 



Texas State Historical Society, gift 

of, 240. 
Thermopolis Chamber of Com- 
merce, gift of, 240. 
Thomas, David G., How Rock 

Springs celebrated Christmas in 

'78, 31-34; biog. of, 127. 
Thomas, Mr. & Mrs. Frank, 21. 
Thompson, Mrs. Dale, gift of, 239. 
Thompson, John Charles, 191. 
Thompson, Mrs. Sam, 164. 
Thompson, Sanford ("Sang"), 141. 
Thomson. Hon. E. Keith, gift of. 

Thorp, Russell, gift of, 239, 240. 
Thorpe, D. W., letter to Charles E. 

Mix, March 26, 1858, 70-71. 
Three Crossings station, 9. 
Tokens, post trader and Indian, 

Tomkins, E. A., 175. 
Topographic mapping, Wyoming, 

Torrey, Captain R. A., 132. 
Trabing Bros., 25. 

Trader tokens, 131-135; illus., 130. 
Trailing the Cowboy, by Clifford P. 

Westermeier, reviewed by Lola 

M. Homsher, 249. 
A Trip to the Black Hills in 1876, 

by Lloyd McFarling, 35-42. 
Trollope. O. L., gift of. 113. 

Uinta Reservation, 1861, 211. 

Underwood, E. & G., gift of, 113. 

Union Pacific Railroad, 179. 

Unthank, O. A., 188. 

Unthank, O. N.. 188. 

Unthank. T. H., 188. 

Upper Platte Ferry, see Mormon 

Urbanek, Mae, Niobrara County, a 
poem, 195-197; biog. of, 25 1. 

Utah Expedition, 1857, 7, 43-60. 61. 

Utter, Charles H. ("Colorado Char- 
lie") 40-41. 

Van Tassel, Charles, gift of, 115, 

Vernon, Tom, gift of, 239, 240. 
Villepigue, Lt. John B., 59. 
Voorhees, Luke, 108. 

Wade, Mr. & Mrs. Alvin N., gift of. 

Wagon Box fight, 16. 
Wagon roads, see Roads. 

Waldo, Mrs. W. A., a photo, 24. 

Walker, Colonel Samuel, 144, 149, 
152, 158. 

Wallis, Jessa Eula, The Pioneer, a 
poem, 117; biog. of, 128. 

Ward, Seth, 184, 188; tokens, 131. 

Ware, Joseph E., 191. 

Warm Springs, 190-194. 

Washakie and the Shoshoni, A se- 
lection of Documents from the 
Records of the Utah Superinten- 
dency of Indian Affairs, edited by 
Dale L. Morgan, Part IV, 1857- 
1859, 61-88; Part V, 1860-1862, 

Washburn, Bernard, 113. 

Watson, Mrs. Henry, gift of, 240. 

Welling, Wyo., 21. 

Wells, Captain Oliver, 145, 149. 

Weppner, Joseph S., 19, 20, 21, 184; 
a photo, 24. 

Westermeier, Clifford P., Trailing 
the Cowboy, reviewed by Lola M. 
Homsher, 247. 

Weston, Mrs. Daphne, gift of, 115. 

Wheeling, Robert, 146. 

Whilford, Pvt. William, 172. 

Whiteley, Dr. Philip W., gift of, 
113, 239. 

Whitman, Dr. Marcus, 4, 178. 

Whitman, Mrs. Marcus, 4, 178. 

Whitney, Private, 51. 

"Wild Cat Sam", 141. 

Williams, Pvt. John, 172. 

Williams, Joseph, 176. 

Williford, George W., 154, 155. 

Willson, Mrs. Annie, gift of, 240. 

Willson, Mr .& Mrs. G. M., gift of. 

Wilson, James, gift of, 240. 

Winter, Charles, "Wyoming", state 
song, 91. 

Wister, Owen, and Virginian, 28. 

Wittenburg, Clarice F., gift of, 117. 

Woodring, John W., gift of, 240. 

Woodrow, Wilbur A., 21. 

Worland, C. H. "Dad", 19, 20, 22. 

Worland Woman's Club, 19, 20, 21. 

Worland, Wyo., marker dedication, 
19-24; illus. 18, 24. 

Worthington, James, 219. 

Wright, Louis B., Culture on the 
Moving Frontier, reviewed by 
Ruth Hudson, 247-249. 

Wyeth, Nathaniel J., 4. 

Wyoming, early history, 105-107. 

Wyoming Archaeological Notes, 97- 
'104, 234-237. 




Wyoming Historical Landmarks 
Commission, 20, 21, 185; dedi- 
cates Lander monument, 224. 

Wyoming State Archives and His- 
torical Department and State Mu- 
seum, acquisitions of, 111-117, 

Wyoming State Historical Society, 
89-96, 221-224; business meeting. 

1954, 91-96; business meeting, 

1955, 222-224; charter members, 
89; charter members listed, 224- 
233; constitution amended, 93-94, 
222-223; county chapters, 90; his- 
torical awards, 1954, 90, 94; his- 
torical awards, 1955, 223; honor- 
able mention certificates, 1954, 
90, 94-95; honorable mention cer- 
tificates, 1955, 223; membership, 
92, 224; officers, 1954-5, 90, 95; 
officers, 1955-6, 221; President's 
Message, 1954, 89-91; program, 
1955, 221-222; scholarship ($300) 
89, 94, 223. 

Wyoming Stock Growers Assn., gift 
of, 113. 

Wyoming's War Years, 1941-1945, 
by Dr. T. A. Larson, 90, 94; re- 
viewed by Frank L. Bowron, 121- 

Wyoming Zephyrs, edited by Lola 
M. Homsher, 105-117. 

"V eager, Glen, 20, 21, 24. 

Yoder, John, 184. 

Yoder ranch, 184. 

Young, Brigham, 71, 77, 176-177; 

letter to Commissioner of Indian 

Affairs, June 30, 1858, 74-75; 

letter to J. W. Denver, Sept. 12, 

1857, 61-64. 

Zollinger, Frances L., gift of, 113. 


The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its func- 
tion the collection and preservation of the record of the people of Wyo- 
ming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out of its 
function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve records and 
materials now in private hands where they cannot be long preserved. Such 
records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, account books, auto- 
biographical accounts. 

Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agricul- 
ture, railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business establishments, 
and of professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, dentists, ministers, 
and educators. 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, manuscript 
materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religious, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications such 
as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any significant 
topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on western 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout the 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, Indian 
artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyoming and with 
special events in the State's history.