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Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"

lAwtab of Wyoming 



LUME 28 



APRIL 1956 



NUMBER 1 







w 



s^V* 



Official Publication 

of the 

WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Published Biannually 
by 
iE WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



WYOMING STATE LIBRARY ARCHIVES AND 
HISTORICAL BOARD 

Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Mr. James Bentley Sheridan 

Mr. Henry Jones Manna 

Mr. Thomas O. Cowgill Cody 

Mrs. Lora Jewett Pinedale 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Margaret E. Hall Moorcroft 

Attorney-General George F. Guy, Ex-officio 

WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

President, W. L. Marion Lander 

First Vice President, Dr. DeWitt Dominick Cody 

Second Vice President, Dr. T. A. Larson Laramie 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Wyoming State Historical Society life membership $50.00, joint life 

membership (husband and wife) $75.00; annual membership, $3.50, 

joint annual membership (two persons of same family at same 

address) $5.00. 

THE WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 
STATE OFFICE BUILDING — CHEYENNE 
STAFF 

Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Deputy 

Reta W. Ridings Head, Research Services 

Herbert J. Salisbury Assistant Archivist 

Mrs. Lillian V. Stratton Secretary 

ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Lola M. Homsher Editor 

Reta W. Ridings Co-editor 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually, in April and 
October, and is the official publication of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. It is received by all members of that Society as a part of their 
dues. Individual copies of the current issues of the Annals of Wyoming 
may be purchased for $1.00 each. Available copies of earlier issues are 
also for sale. A price list may be obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor will 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 
contributors. 

o 

Copyright, 1956, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 
Department. 



Mwk of Wyoming 

Volume 28 April 1956 Number 1 

Zable of Contents 

DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT— A HISTORY 3 

Ray H. Mattison 

AUTOMOBILES FOR THE PARK 20 

PLAINS HISTORY REVITALIZED 21 

F. H. Sinclair 

THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL, PART II 27 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 

OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 41 

Compiled by Maurine Carley 
THE 1859 OVERLAND JOURNAL OF NATURALIST GEORGE 

SUCKLEY 68 

Richard G. Beidleman, editor 

WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI, PART VI 80 

Dale L. Morgan, editor 

WYOMING HISTORICAL SOCIETY _ 94 

WYOMING ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES 97 

L. C. Steege 

THE BUILDING OF GREYBULL 99 

BOOK REVIEWS 

Leonard and Goodman, Buffalo Bill; King of the Old West 100 

Sell and Weybright, Buffalo Bill and the Wild West 100 

Eggan, Social Anthropology of North American Tribes 103 

Croy, Wheels West 104 

Settle, Saddles and Spurs: The Pony Express Saga 105 

Jensen, The Pony Express 105 

Elston, The Wyoming Bubble 107 

Towne and Wentworth, Cattle and Men 108 

Burns, Gillespie and Richardson, Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches 109 

Sharp, Whoop-Up Country 110 

Brown and Felton, The Frontier Years 112 

Spindler, Tragedy Strikes at Wounded Knee 114 

CONTRIBUTORS 115 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Mateo Tepee or Devils Tower 2 

Wm. Rogers making first ascent of Devils Tower, 1893 8 

Handbill of first exhibition ascent 8 

William Rogers 8 

Poster warning against vandalism, Devils Tower 14 

Indian legend depicting origin of Devils Tower 14 

Sunday inter-racial union religious services, Sheridan, 1955 22 

Miss Indian America II and III and runners-up 24 

Map: Northern End of Red Wall Country 32 

Chief Dull Knife 34 

Rock ledges west of Dull Knife battle site 36 

Dull Knife battle site 36 

Map: Oregon Trail Trek No. 2 42 

La Bonte Stage Station, 1863 52 

Stone Artifacts 96 




Mateo Tepee or Devils Tower, Crook County, Wyoming. Stimson 
photo, Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department. 









T)evils Zower 
Rational Monument- -A Mistory 

By 

Ray H. Mattison, Historian 
National Park Service 

The year 1956 marks the 50th Anniversary of the establishment 
of Devils Tower National Monument, the first of our national 
monuments. The same year is likewise the Golden Anniversary 
of the enactment of the Antiquities Act which authorized the 
President, by proclamation, to set aside "historical landmarks, 
historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic 
or scientific interest that are upon lands owned or controlled by 
the United States as National Monuments." 1 Under this law and 
subsequent authorizations, 84 national monuments have now been 
established. 

All who have seen the gigantic stump-like formation, known as 
Devils Tower, rising some 1,200 feet above the Belle Fourche 
River, will understand why it inspired the imagination of the 
Indians. They called it Mateo Tepee, meaning Grizzly Bear 
Lodge, and had several legends regarding its origin. According 
to the Kiowas, who at one time are reputed to have lived in the 
region, their tribe once camped on a stream where there were 
many bears. One day seven little girls were playing at a distance 
from the village and were chased by some bears. The girls ran 
toward the village and when the bears were about to catch them, 
they jumped to a low rock about three feet in height. One of 
them prayed to the rock, "Rock, take pity on us — Rock, save us." 
The rock heard them and began to elongate itself upwards, push- 
ing the children higher and higher out of reach of the bears. 
When the bears jumped at them they scratched the rock, broke 
their claws and fell back upon the ground. The rock continued 
to push the children upward into the sky while the bears jumped 
at them. The children are still in the sky, seven little stars in a 
group (the pleiades). According to the legend, the marks of 
the bears' claws may be seen on the side of the rock. 2 



* In preparing this article, the writer wishes to acknowledge the assis- 
tance given him by Mr. Newell F. Joyner, former Custodian of Devils 
Tower National Monument! Mr. Joyner, while stationed at the Tower, 
collected considerable material for a history of the area which was freely 
used by the author. 



4 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The Cheyenne version of the origin of the Tower is somewhat 
different. According to their legend, there were seven brothers. 
When the wife of the oldest brother went out to fix the smoke 
wings of her tipi, a big bear carried her away to his cave. Her 
husband mourned her loss deeply and would go out and cry de- 
fiantly to the bear. The youngest of the brothers was a medicine 
man and had gieat powers. He told the oldest one to go out and 
make a bow and four blunt arrows. Two arrows were to be 
painted red and set with eagle feathers; the other two were to be 
painted black and set with buzzard feathers. The youngest 
brother then took the bow and small arrows, told the older broth- 
ers to fill their quivers with arrows and they all went out after 
the big bear. At the entrance of the cave, the younger brother 
told the others to sit down and wait. He then turned himself 
into a gopher and dug a big hole in the bear's den. When he 
crawled in he found the bear lying with his head on the woman's 
lap. He then put the bear to sleep and changed himself back into 
an Indian. He then had the woman crawl back to the entrance 
where the six brothers were waiting. Then the hole closed up. 
After the Indians hurried away, the bear awoke. He started after 
them taking all the bears of which he was the leader. 

The Indians finally came to the place where Devils Tower now 
stands. The youngest boy always carried a small rock in his 
hand. He told his six brothers and the woman to close their eyes. 
He sang a song. When he had finished the rock had grown. He 
sang four times and when he had finished singing the rock was 
just as high as it is today. When the bears reached the Tower, 
the brothers killed all of the bears except the leader, who kept 
jumping against the rock. His claws made the marks that are 
on the rock today. The youngest brother then shot two black 
arrows and a red arrow without effect. His last arrow killed the 
bear. The youngest brother then made a noise like a bald eagle. 
Four eagles came. They took hold of the eagles' legs and were 
carried to the ground. 3 

The Tower also was an object of curiosity to the early white 
explorers. Although early fur traders and others probably saw 
the gigantic formation at a distance, none ever mentioned it in 
their journals. Lt. G. K. Warren's Expedition of 1855 passed 
through the Black Hills en route from Fort Laramie to Fort 
Pierre but probably never was within sight of it. 4 In 1857, War- 
ren, accompanied by Dr. F. V. Hayden and others, started from 
Fort Laramie to explore the Black Hills and then returned to the 
Missouri via the Niobrara River. At Inyan Kara, they met a 
large party of Sioux who threatened to attack if they attempted 
to advance farther. While here, Warren reported seeing the 
"Bear's Lodge" and "Little Missouri Buttes" to the north through 
a powerful spy-glass. It is not known if he was referring to the 
Bear Lodge Mountains or to the Tower itself. The explorers 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 5 

retraced their route 40 miles and took another route eastward 
instead of the one originally planned." When Capt. W. F. Rey- 
nolds' Yellowstone Expedition passed through the Black Hills 
region two years later, J. T. Hutton, topographer, and the Sioux 
interpreter, Zephyr Recontre, on July 20 reached the Tower and 
returned to the Expedition's camp on the Little Missouri River. 
Neither Warren nor Raynolds, however, left descriptions of the 
formation. 

It remained for the U. S. Geological Survey party, who made 
a reconnaissance of the Black Hills in 1875, to call attention to 
the uniqueness of the Tower. Col. Richard I. Dodge, commander 
of the military escort, described it in the following year as "one 
of the most remarkable peaks in this or any country." 7 Henry 
Newton (1845-1877), geological assistant to the expedition, 
wrote : 

... Its [the Tower's] remarkable structure, its symmetry, and its 
prominence made it an unfailing object of wonder. ... It is a great 
remarkable obelisk of trachyte, with a columnar structure, giving it 
a vertically stratiated appearance, and it rises 625 feet almost per- 
pendicular, from its base. Its summit is so entirely inaccesible that 
the energetic explorer, to whom the ascent of an ordinarily difficult 
crag is but a pleasant pastime, standing at its base could only look 
upward in despair of ever planting his feet on the top. . . . s 

Colonel Dodge is generally credited with giving the formation 
its present name. In his book, entitled The Black Hills, published 
in 1876, he called it "Devils Tower," explaining "The Indians call 
this shaft The Bad God's Tower, a name adopted with proper 
modification, by our surveyors." 9 Newton, whose published work 
on the survey appeared in 1880, explained that the name Bear 
Lodge (Mateo Teepee) "appears on the earliest map of the region, 
and though more recently it is said to be known among the Indians 
as 'the bad god's tower,' or in better English, 'the devil's tower,' 
the former name, well applied, is still retained." 10 However, since 
that time, the name Devils Tower has been generally used. Geolo- 
gists, on the other hand, have in some instances continued to use 
the original name. 11 

Over the years there have been changing theories concerning 
the origin of Devils Tower. The latest belief, based upon the 
most extensive geological field work yet done, probably will be 
supported by further study. 

Briefly stated, about 60 million years ago when the Rocky 
Mountains were formed, there was similar upheaval which pro- 
duced the Black Hills and associated mountains. Great masses 
of very hot, plastic material from within welled up into the earth's 
crust. In some instances it reached the surface to produce lava 
flows or spectacular explosive volcanoes which spread layers of 
ash many feet thick over a vast part of the Great Plains. 

In the Devils Tower vicinity, this slowly upsurging, heated earth 



6 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

substance spent its force before reaching the surface, cooling and 
becoming solid within the upper layers of the earth. During this 
process probably a very large mass of it, many miles across, moved 
within a few thousand feet of the surface. Before it cooled, fingers 
or branches of pasty-textured material moved upward along lines 
of weakness in the rock layers near the surface of the earth. Some 
of these pinched out, while others formed local masses of varying 
size and shape. Devils Tower and the nearby Missouri Buttes, 
as we know them today, represent some of these offshoot bodies 
which solidified in pretty much their present size and form at 
depths of possibly one to two thousand feet beneath the surface. 
The phonolite porphyry, as the rock of Devils Tower and the 
Missouri Buttes is known, is very hard. 

During subsequent tens of millions of years, erosion has stripped 
away the softer rock layers in which these masses formed, leaving 
them standing as dominant landmarks. The process continues 
today as the Belle Fourche and Little Missouri Rivers and their 
tributary streams, aided by freezing, thawing rain drops, and the 
other processes that break down the rock, continue to alter the 
face of the earth in this region. 

Within less than a decade after the U. S. Geological Survey 
party passed through the region, the first settlers were to enter the 
western end of the Black Hills in which the Tower is located. 
The Treaty of 1868 guaranteed this region to the Indians. In 
1874, in violation of this treaty, Gen. George A. Custer led a 
reconnaissance expedition into the Black Hills. As the result of 
his reports of the discovery of gold in paying quantities in the 
Hills, miners invaded the region. While the Government attempt- 
ed to negotiate with the Indians to purchase the Hills, the Army 
endeavored to keep out the intruders. When the negotiations 
broke down in 1875, the troops were withdrawn and miners and 
settlers poured into the region Towns such as Custer City and 
Deadwood sprung up over night. Many of the Indians, as a result, 
became convinced that they would lose their reservations in the 
Dakotas, Wyoming and Montana and joined the hostiles. By 
early 1876 the Government found a full-scale Indian war on its 
hands. Following the Battle of the Little Bighorn in June, the 
Army pursued the hostile groups relentlessly. In the fall of that 
year the Indians were compelled to cede the Black Hills and most 
of their lands in Wyoming to the whites. For several years, 
however, small marauding groups continued to wander through 
the region. 

By the end of the decade, the vicinity around Devils Tower was 
comparatively safe for settlers. In the early 1880's the first of 
these came into the Belle Fourche Valley in the vicinity of Hulett. 
With the exception of such outfits as the Camp Stool and the D 
(Driscoll), most of these settlers were small-scale farmers and 
ranchers from the mid-western states. In the vicinity of Moor- 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 7 

croft and the Tower, on the other hand, most of the land was 
occupied by large-scale outfits, such as the 101. From 1889 
to 1892, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad extended 
its line from the South Dakota State Line through Newcastle, 
Moorcroft and thence to Sheridan. 12 From several points along 
this line, the Tower may be seen in the distance. It is not un- 
reasonable to conjecture, therefore, that the railroad may have 
had some influence in the movement to give the area national 
protection. 

Fortunately, the Government took early action to prevent the 
Tower from passing into the hands of individuals who might wish 
to exploit the scenic wonder for private gain. In February 1 890, 
Charles Graham filed a preemption application for the lands on 
which the Tower is situated. In August of the same year, the 
General Land Office issued an order to reject all applications 
on these lands. This order forestalled other attempts to acquire 
the Tower for speculative purposes. 13 

Meanwhile, support grew for the idea of preserving the Tower 
as a national or state park. In February 1892, Senator Francis 
E. Warren (1844-1929) of Wyoming wrote the Commissioner of 
the General Land Office asking him for assistance in preventing 
the spoliation of Devils Tower and the Little Missouri Buttes, 
located several miles to the northeast. 14 Several weeks later, the 
Land Office issued an order setting aside, under the Forest Reserve 
Act of March 3, 1891, some 60.5 square miles, which included 
both the Tower and the Little Missouri Buttes, as a temporary 
forest reserve. This reserve was reduced in June 1892 to 18.75 
square miles and the unreserved portion in 1898 was restored to 
settlement. 

In the same year, Senator Warren introduced a bill (S. 3364) 
in the United States Senate for the establishment of "Devils Tower 
National Park.'' Acting on the advice of the General Land Office, 
the Senator requested in his proposal that 18.75 square miles or 
11,974.24 acres, which include both Devils Tower and the Little 
Missouri Buttes, be set aside for the park. The bill, which was 
introduced on July 1, 1892, was read twice by its title and referred 
to the Committee on Territories. It appears that Congress took no 
further action on the proposal. 10 

It was not until fourteen years later that Devils Tower became 
a national monument. Although the proposal to make the area a 
national park apparently did not receive much public support, the 
proponents were sufficiently influential to keep it in timber reserve 
status. Following the passage of the Antiquities Act in June 
1906, Frank W. Mondell (1860-1939), Representative-at-Large 
from Wyoming and resident of Newcastle, lent his support to the 
plan to have the area preserved as a national monument. Mondell 
was a member and later chairman of the important House Com- 
mittee on Public Lands. 17 It was apparently as the result of his 




William Rogers making first exhibition ascent of Devils Tower, July 4, 
1893. Courtesy National Park Service. 



IPEV IL'S TOW ER ' 

Sittwtaf in 

pROOK COUNTY. WYOMING, 



The Devil's tower is a perpeodteala" -eohana of 
Toek act* no lsaiaaa bedag has e^ar st§j>pt4 -ui>:m 
5 it* top. 

t Csi Jul) ■=■'•<. J-S9S. Old Glory will be ilur^ to 
^the fcreese from »?■<? lop of tfc.e Tower, 800 fee; &3m 
^■the ground by Wa Sogers. 



Jlu C 



'. !"■>*> 



'? i>,,fflt Air .ii-..i V-> 

g P#i'S«i r.wVf tvill be mdistaineA. Tab : ;rcst ssgiit < 
• j. V,ii . -u, ™i« be observe. ia.'i th* 4th of JTuiy j 
;5 *W'iU Jx! better J.JK-U!: at the Devil's Tower tha» at the ? 
^World's Fair. ,. . 



I^nnmi; 



.:** 



i,^.^^'^t-.".fr "A ^ >'..>v\ *;',' -'^'V**' x 




Handbill of first exhibition ascent William Rogers. Courtesy National 
of Devils Tower, July 4, 1893. Par& Service. 

Courtesy National Park Service. 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 9 

influence, more than that of any other individual, that President 
Theodore Roosevelt, on September 24, 1906, proclaimed Devils 
Tower as a national monument. Upon the recommendation of 
the Commissioner of the General Land Office, the acreage set 
aside was only 1,152.91 acres, believed by him to "be sufficiently 
large to provide for the proper care and management of the 
monument" under the terms of the Antiquities Act. The Little 
Missouri Buttes were not included in the monument area. The 
remainder of the reserve was opened to settlement in 1908. 1S 

The question whether President Theodore Roosevelt ever visited 
Devils Tower is a matter of conjecture. Some elderly residents of 
the region claim that he visited the place on one of his hunting 
trips through the Black Hills; others, that he dedicated the monu- 
ment when it was established. The writer has been unable to 
find any contemporary letters or newspaper accounts which show 
that he visited the Tower at any time. 19 On April 25, 1903, while 
on an extended tour through the West, Roosevelt made train stops 
at Gillette, Moorcroft and Sundance, Wyoming; and at Edgemont 
and Ardmore, South Dakota. 20 It is highly probable that he saw 
the Tower at a distance at that time. The several Wyoming 
newspapers published in September 1906, which were consulted 
by the writer, made no mention whatever of the Tower receiving 
national monument status. 

Although it was difficult to reach, the Tower early became a 
favorite camping and picnicking spot for people living in the 
vicinity. One of the inviting features was the large spring of pure 
cold water located near its base. It was some distance from a 
railroad so it could be reached only over unimproved roads or 
trails by horseback, wagon or buckboard. One long-time resident 
of Hulett, some ten miles distant from the monument by present 
paved highway, informed the writer that in the 1890's, it was 
necessary to ford the Belle Fourche River seven times to get to the 
Tower. Many of the people in the vicinity went to the Tower 
once or twice a year and spent one or two nights there. The 
Fourth of July observances for the community were sometimes 
held there and people often came from considerable distance to 
these events. 21 

The best-known early event was the 4th of July celebration held 
at the Tower in 1893. According to the handbill circulated for 
the occasion, 22 the principal speakers were N. K. Griggs 23 of 
Beatrice, Nebraska, and Col. William R. Steele 24 of Deadwood, 
South Dakota. The handbill announced "There will be plenty 
to Eat and Drink on the Grounds;" "Lots of Hay and Grain for 
Horses;" and, "Dancing Day and Night." It also stated "Perfect 
order will be maintained." The feature attraction, however, of the 
day was to be the first climbing of the Tower by William Rogers, 
a local rancher. 25 The event was apparently given wide publicity. 



10 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Rogers made elaborate preparations for the big event. With 
the assistance of Willard Ripley, another local rancher, he pre- 
pared a 350-foot ladder to the summit of the Tower. This was 
accomplished by driving pegs, cut from native oak, ash and willow, 
24 to 30 inches in length and sharpened on one end, into a con- 
tinuous vertical crack found between the two columns on the 
southeast side of the giant formation. The pegs were then braced 
and secured to each other by a continuous wooden strip to which 
the outer end of each peg was fastened. Before making the 
exhibition ascent, the men took a 12-foot flagpole to the top and 
planted it into the ground. The building of the ladder by Rogers 
and Ripley was an undertaking perhaps more hazardous than the 
climbing of the Tower itself. 20 

People came for a distance from 100 to 125 miles to witness 
the first formal ascent of the Tower. The more conservative 
estimates are that about 1,000 people came by horseback, wagon 
and buckboard to see the spectacular feat. For many of them it 
was a trip requiring several days of tedious travel over rough and 
dusty trails. Rogers began his ascent following proper ceremonies 
which included an invocation. After climbing for about an hour, 
he reached the top. Amid much cheering from the many open- 
mouthed spectators some 865 feet below, he unfurled an American 
flag, which had been specially made for the occasion, from the 
flagpole. Devils Tower had at last been conquered in the full 
view of an assembled throng. During the afternoon, a gust of 
wind tore the flag loose and it drifted down to the base of the 
Tower. Here the promoters tore it up and sold the pieces for 
souvenirs. 27 

Others were soon to climb the Tower by Rogers' ladder. On 
July 4, 1895, Mrs. Rogers duplicated her husband's climb two 
years earlier and became the first woman to reach the summit. 
It is estimated that 25 people later made the ascent of the Tower 
by Rogers' ladder. The last to reach the top by this means was 
"Babe" White, "the Human Fly," in 1927. Much of the ladder 
has since been destroyed. However, a portion of it may still be 
seen on the southwest side of the Tower. 28 A viewing device on 
the Tower trail assists the visitor to locate the remnants of the 
ladder. 

Almost a quarter of a century was to pass after Devils Tower 
was given national recognition before a full-time National Park 
Service employee was to be stationed at the monument. Conse- 
quently, there is little information about the area for the period 
from 1906 to 1930. When the monument was established, the 
Commissioner of the General Land Office directed the Special 
Agent of the district in which the area was located and the local 
Land Office to act as custodians of the newly-created area. They 
were to prevent vandalism, removal of objects and all unauthorized 
occupation or settlement of lands on the monument. Mr. E. O. 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 11 

Fuller, of Laramie, served with the Sundance office of that agency 
as special investigator from 1908 to 1919. He informed the 
writer that, among his various duties, he was charged with the 
responsibility of looking after the Tower. Mr. Fuller related to 
the writer that on one occasion a Wyoming newspaper carried 
an article indicating that souvenir hunters were damaging the 
Tower by chipping it. The story soon reached the East, and 
within a short time one New York and several Washington, D. C, 
papers were carrying alarming stories that the giant formation 
was being undermined and seriously threatened. The fear was 
voiced that, if measures were not taken immediately to prevent 
it, the famous landmark would soon be destroyed. As a result of 
this publicity, the Commissioner of the General Land Office sent 
out instructions to place warning signs on the monument asking 
people not to molest the Tower. It was Mr. Fuller's responsibility 
to post these signs on the area. He visited the place from time 
to time to prevent people from destroying trees and damaging the 
natural features of the area. 20 

Meanwhile, Congressman Mondell made persistent efforts to 
interest the Federal Government in developing the monument 
as a tourist attraction. In February 1910, he introduced a bill 
(H.R. 21897) providing for an appropriation to build an iron 
stairway from the foot to the summit of Devils Tower. The pro- 
posal was referred to the Committee on Appropriations 30 and 
apparently never reported out. In 1911 and 1913 Mondell re- 
introduced identical bills (H.R. 8792 and H.R. 88) to the earlier 
one in the 62nd and 63rd Congresses and they too died in the 
committee. 31 In 1915 and 1917, he introduced bills (H.R. 165 and 
60) to provide for the building of roads at the monument "and 
for other purposes." These met the same fate as the earlier bills. 
Mondell, however, continued to urge the Secretary of Interior 
and the Director of the National Park Service to build a bridge 
across the Belle Fourche River, east of the monument, and con- 
struct a suitable access road to the area. 32 

With the popularizing of the automobile, the need for visitor's 
facilities on the area increased. In 1916, the National Park Ser- 
vice was organized and the monument was placed under its juris- 
diction. Prior to 1917, Congress made no general appropriations 
for the protection and maintenance of the national monuments. 
Until the 1930's the amounts allotted for this purpose continued 
to be very small. 33 Various groups continued to urge for a satis- 
factory access road to the area and for a bridge across the Belle 
Fourche River near the monument. Early in 1915, Mondell trans- 
mitted a request to the Secretary of the Interior from the three 
legislators from Crook County asking Congress for funds to build 
a road to the tower. 34 At a picnic held at the monument on 
July 4, 1916, which was attended by some 500 people, a petition 
was drafted and signed by 153 persons and sent to Congressman 



12 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mondell. The petitioners complained that they had been com- 
pelled to walk a mile and a half that day over a trail which was 
"washed out and filled with logs" in order to reach the Tower. 
They asked Congress for an appropriation of $20,000 to convert 
the giant formation into a public resort and to build a bridge 
across the Belle Fourche. 35 Pressure from the various groups 
through Congressman Mondell was soon to bring some results. 
In 1917 the National Park Service, with the assistance of Crook 
County, built a 12 to 16-foot road three miles in length and with 
a grade of eight percent leading to the giant formation. 30 In the 
following year, this road was improved so that it could be reached 
more easily by automobile. 37 The spring at the base of the Tower 
was also made more serviceable. 38 

It was some time, however, before pressure was sufficiently 
strong to compel the Federal Government to build a bridge across 
the Belle Fourche near the monument. For many years, it had 
been necessary for those entering the area from the east to ford 
the river. During the summer months, the river was subject to 
sudden and unpredictable rises which frequently made it impos- 
sible for people visiting the area to return to the east bank until 
the waters subsided. In many instances, those so stranded were 
compelled to camp out one, and in some cases, several nights. 
Pressure from local people and travel organizations to build the 
bridge continued to be strong throughout the early 1920's. In 
1923 a petition, containing seven pages of signatures of people 
from Wyoming and South Dakota, was submitted to the Secretary 
of the Interior asking that the Belle Fourche near the monument 
be bridged. Both Senators Warren and John B. Kendrick lent 
their support to the movement. It was not until 1928 that the 
bridge was built. 39 

During the 1920's, the National Park Service was able to pro- 
vide only the most minimum accommodations for visitors at 
Devils Tower. Some work continued to be done in maintaining 
the roads. In 1921 John M. Thorn, County Commissioner of 
Crook County, of Hulett, was appointed custodian at an annual 
salary of $12 a year/ Thorn served primarily as foreman of 
maintenance work and performed the minimum paper work neces- 
sary in preparing payrolls and making purchases. In 1922 the 
Service built a log shelter to protect the visitors from inclement 
weather, cleaned the spring next to the Tower and improved the 
road within the monument boundaries. However, in spite of the 
improvements the Government was able to make, the maintenance 
at the monument must have been very inadequate. Trespassing 
stock continued to graze on the area and occupy the log shelter 
erected for visitors. The Secretary of Custer Battlefield Highway 
Association complained to the Director in 1929 that the road to 
the Tower the previous year "was a disgrace, many people turned 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 13 

back because of the terrible road conditions." He also pointed 
out that the area needed a full-time custodian. 41 

Despite the hardships in reaching the Tower and the lack of 
accommodations after reaching there, visitation to the area con- 
tinued to rise during the 1920's. "The monument is receiving 
an increasing number of visitors who like to camp on the ground," 
reported the Director in 1922. 4 " From 1921 to 1930 the esti- 
mated number of visitors rose from 7,000 to 14,720, the average 
being 9,100." After 1925 a register was kept at Grenier's Store 
which was located near the east entrance to the monument. 

During this period the National Park Service was under con- 
tinued pressure to authorize concessions at the Tower. Numerous 
applications were made by individuals and companies to erect 
restaurants, gasoline stations, hotels and recreational facilities 
there. The Service consistently maintained that such develop- 
ments of a permanent character should be made outside the monu- 
ment boundaries and not within the area itself." 

It has only been since 1930 that Devils Tower National Monu- 
ment has become a national tourist attraction. This has been the 
result of several factors. During the latter part of the 1920's, the 
Custer Battlefield Highway (U. S. Highway 14) was built between 
Spearfish, South Dakota, and Gillette, Wyoming, and came within 
only seven miles of the Tower. The State also built improved 
roads into Sundance from U. S. Highways 85 and 16. A paved 
highway was also constructed from U. S. Highway 14 to Alva 
making the area from the south entirely accessible by paved roads. 
Local and state Chambers of Commerce, travel associations, news- 
papers and periodicals gave the Tower wide publicity as one of 
the natural "wonders of the world." 4 "' 

The decade of the 1930's was one of extensive development for 
the monument. Although the Nation was in the throes of the 
Great Depression, considerable sums of money as well as man- 
power were made available for public works through the various 
relief agencies. Working under the supervision of the National 
Park Service, these agencies, particularly the Civilian Conservation 
Corps, inaugurated an extensive development program at the mon- 
ument. From 1935-1938 a CCC camp was located there. Prac- 
tically all of the improvements on the area at the present time 
are the results of their efforts. New roads were built, modern 
water and electrical systems installed, footpaths were laid out, 
picnic areas were established with tables and comfortable benches, 
and trailer and overnight camping areas were provided the visitors. 
Residences for employees, workshops and machine shops were 
erected. In 1938 a museum of sturdy log construction was com- 
pleted. 

The result of the improved roads and visitor facilities at the 
monument is reflected in travel records. During the ten-year 
period from 1931 to 1941, in spite of the Great Depression, the 



14 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



number of visitors practically tripled. In 1931 the count was 
11,000; in 1936, 26,503; in 1941, 32,951. 

In the early 1930's, the first full-time custodian was stationed 
at the monument. This was George C. Crowe, who previously had 
been a Ranger-Naturalist at Yosemite National Park in California. 
Crowe served from April or May 1931 until March 1932 when 
he was transferred to Yellowstone National Park as Assistant 
Park Naturalist. Newell F. Joyner, who earlier had seen service 
at Yellowstone as Ranger and Naturalist, succeeded Crowe as 
Custodian. 4 " Joyner served in this capacity for 15 years. 

The big annual event each year at the monument, the Pioneers' 
Picnic, had its origin at this time. Although old-timers frequently 
met at the Tower prior to that time, it was not until 1932 that they 
formally organized. In that year, the Northern Black Hills Pio- 
neer Association came into being. Its membership was limited 
to people who had resided in that section for at least 35 years. 
On one day each year, usually in June, this organization sponsors 
a program which features speakers, music, and sometimes con- 
tests. 17 

In the late 1930's, professional mountain climbers gave their 
attention to Devils Tower. Although the summit of the giant 



DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, 

GENERAL LAND OFFICE. 

DEVILS TOWER 
NATIONAL MONUMENT, 

WYOMING. 

WARNING. 

NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that 
any person or persons •who iniure 
or destroy or, without specific author- 
ity from the Secretary of the Interior, 
excavate or appropriate any historic 
or prehistoric ruin, monument, object of 
antiquity, or of scientific interest, for 
the protection of which this reserva- 
tion was created, wili be subject to 
arrest and punishment under the provi- 
sions of the acts of Congress approved 
February 6, 1905. and June 8, 1906. 

APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS under the pro- 
visions of section 3 of the act of June 8 1906. from 
reputable museums, universities, colleges, or other 
recognized scientific institutions or their duly author 
ized ageDts, will be considered by the Secretary of 
the Interior 

FRED DENNETT. 




Poster issued by the General Land 
Office warning visitors not to van- 
dalize Devils Tower. Courtesy E. 
O. Fuller, Laramie Wyoming. 



Indian legend depicting the origin 

of Devils Tower. Courtesy National 

Park Service. 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 15 

formation had by then been reached a number of times by means 
of the ladder which Rogers had built in 1893, no one had reached 
the top without this device. With the consent of the National 
Park Service, three mountain climbers, all members of the Amer- 
ican Alpine Club of New York City, led by Fritz Wiessner, in 
1937 made the first ascent of the Tower solely by rock-climbing 
techniques. They reached the top in four hours and forty-six 
minutes. This party made many scientific observations and 
brought down samples of the rock as well as vegetation found 
there. Eleven years later 16 members of the Iowa Mountain 
Climbers Club, after reaching the summit, hoisted bedding and 
food and spent the night. To date (November 1955), there have 
been 173 recorded individual ascents of the formation by skilled 
climbers." - Practically all of these were made on the southeast 
side of the Tower by three different climbing routes. In 1955 
James McCarthy and John Rupley made the first ascent on the 
west side. 

In the fall of 1941 the Tower made the headlines of the Nation's 
leading newspapers. This was brought about through the fool- 
hardy stunt of a professional parachutist named George Hopkins. 
Without the consent or knowledge of National Park Service offi- 
cials, Hopkins, who held a number of United States and world's 
records for spectacular jumps, on October 1 parachuted from an 
airplane to the top of the Tower. His plan was to make his 
descent by means of a one-half inch 1,000-foot rope which was 
dropped from the plane. Unfortunately, this rope landed on the 
side of the Tower and Hopkins was unable to get it. The Park 
Service was confronted with a serious problem, and newspapers 
throughout the country made the most of the predicament. Tele- 
grams and letters offering advice on how to rescue Hopkins came 
from all over the United States. Meanwhile, food and blankets 
were dropped to him while Service officials considered how to get 
the man down from the giant formation. 

After weighing carefully various methods, the Service, on 
October 3, decided to accept the offer of Jack Durrance, a student 
at Dartmouth College, skier and mountain climber who had led 
the second mountain-climbing ascent of the Tower in 1938, to 
lead the rescue party. More food, water, and blankets were 
dropped to Hopkins and assurances were given him that help was 
coming. Advice and offers of assistance continued. The Good- 
year Company offered to loan the use of a blimp to effect the 
rescue. The Navy offered the use of a helicopter. Bad weather, 
meanwhile, grounded Durrance's plane, so the mountain climber 
had to travel to Denver by train. On October 5, Durrance and 
his party arrived at the monument. Working closely with Service 
officials, they laid out a safe climbing route for rescue operations. 
On the following day, Durrance led seven other climbers to the 
summit of the tower where they found Hopkins who, in spite of 



16 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

his ordeal, was in excellent physical condition and in good spirits. 
The descent was made with little difficulty. The stranded stunt 
man and the rescue operations which received wide publicity at- 
tracted many spectators from all parts of the Nation. During 
the six-day period, some 7,000 visitors came to the monument 
to see him and witness rescue operations." 

Within a few months following the Hopkins episode, the United 
States entered World War II. Travel to the National Park Service 
areas, except by members of the Armed Forces, was not encour- 
aged. Personnel, as well as appropriations, needed to maintain 
the areas, were reduced to a minimum. Gas and tire rationing, 
together with reduced vacation time resulting from the War effort, 
was soon to be reflected in reduced travel figures. In 1942 the 
visitors at the monument numbered 20,874; in 1943, 5,1 14; 1944, 
6,024; 1945, 7,315. 

In 1947 Raymond W. Mclntyre, the present incumbent, suc- 
ceeded Joyner as Superintendent of the monument. Mclntyre, a 
native of North Dakota, was Park Ranger at Glacier National 
Park immediately prior to entering on duty at the Tower. He had 
previously served in the capacity of Ranger at Mount McKinley 
National Park in Alaska and a Ranger with the U. S. Forest 
Service. 

Increased visitation following World War II has brought new 
problems to the National Park Service in the administration of the 
monument. From 1946 visitor totals jumped from 35,551 to an 
all-time high of 100,919 in 1954. This great increase in visitor 
use of the area has brought about a critical need for additional 
facilities. These include improved and enlarged camping facilities, 
additional housing for monument personnel, more trails, addi- 
tional water and sewer developments and more interpretive facil- 
ities. 

The problem at Devils Tower National Monument is not 
unique. The increased travel to all of the National Park Service 
areas since World War II has brought about similar needs else- 
where for expanded facilities and services. Assuming that this 
travel will continue to increase in the next decade as it has in the 
past, the Director in 1955 launched "MISSION 66." By this 
program, a long-range planning project for the National Park 
Service was begun to meet the needs of the Nation in the year 
1966, the Golden Anniversary of that agency. The purpose of 
this program is "to make an intensive study of the problems of 
protection, public use, interpretation, development, staffing, legis- 
lation, financing, and all other phases of park operation, and to 
produce a comprehensive and integrated program of use and pro- 
tection that is in harmony with the obligations of the National 
Park Service under the Act of 1916," under which the organization 
was established. 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 17 

CHRONOLOGY OF DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL 
MONUMENT 

1859 — Members of Capt. W. F. Raynolds' Yellowstone 

Expedition visit Bear Lodge (Devils Tower). 

1875 — U. S. Geological Survey visits formation. Name 

changed from Bear Lodge to Devils Tower. 

1892 — Area established as forest reserve. Senator Warren 

introduces bill to establish Devils Tower National 
Park. 

1893 — William Rogers and Willard Ripley make first ascent 

of Tower by ladder. 
1906 — President Theodore Roosevelt establishes Devils 

Tower as the first national monument. 
1930 — First full-time custodian appointed for monument. 

1933-1941 — Area developed by Civilian Conservation Corps and 

other agencies, in cooperation with the National 

Park Service. 

1937 — Fritz Wiessner and party first ascend Tower by 

mountain-climbing techniques. 

1954 — Monument visitation passes 100,000 mark. 

1956 — Golden Anniversary of Devils Tower National Mon- 

ument observed. 



1. U. S. Statutes at Large, XXIV: 225; The Antiquities Act, which 
was enacted by the 59th Congress and approved June 8, 1906, was spon- 
sored primarily by various archeological, historical and scientific societies 
of the United States. A similar measure was introduced in the 58th Con- 
gress. The chief objective of the Act was to preserve the many historic 
and prehistoric Indian ruins which were then on the huge public domain 
of the Southwest and also to save objects of scientific interest. See House 
Report No. 2224, 59th Congress, 1st Sess.; Senate Report No. 3797, 59th 
Cong., 1st Sess. 

2. Sundance Times, Nov. 10, 1927; Reprinted from Denver Rocky 
Mountain News, July 24, 1927. 

3. Souvenir Program, Northern Black Hills Pioneer Association (n.p., 
1938). 

4. Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 76, 34th Cong., 1st Sess., 1-79. 

5. House Ex. Doc. No. 2, 35th Cong., 2nd Sess., 628-643. 

6. Report on the Exploration of the Yellowstone River Commanded by 
Bvt. Brig. Gen. W. F. Raynolds (Washington, 1868), 33. 

7. Richard I. Dodge, The Black Hills (New York, 1876), 95. 

8. Henry Newton, E.M., and Walter P. Jenny, E. M., Report on the 
Geology and Resources of the Black Hills (Washington, 1880), 200-201. 

9. Dodge, loc. cit. 

10. Newton and Jenny, loc. cit. 

11. Thomas A. Jaggar, "The Laccoliths of the Black Hills," Annual 
Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1900. Thirty-first Annual Report 
of the Geological Survey, Part III (Washington, 1901), 251-266. 

12. Mrs. Grace Bush, Mrs. Ett Butts, Mr. Roy Bush, Mr. Frank Proctor, 
Mr. Pat Murphy, Mrs. Goldie Hardy, all of Hulett, Wyo., interviews by 



18 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Ray H. Mattison Aug. 8 and 9, 1955; Mr. Victor French, Mrs. Alfred 
Nielson. both of Alva, Wyoming, interviews by Ray H. Mattison Aug. 
8, 1955; Thomas M. Davis, "Lines West! — The Story of George W. Hold- 
rege," Nebraska History, Vol. XXXI (Sept., 1950), 210-212. 

13. Louis A. Groff, Commissioner, General Land Office, hereafter 
indicated as GLO, Letter to Register and Receiver, Buffalo, Wyoming, 
Aug. 11, 1890; Thomas H. Carter, Commissioner, GLO, to the Secretary 
of the Interior, Feb. 16, 1892; C. C. Moore, Commissioner, GLO, to Mr. 
Dick Stone, July 16, 1932. 

14. Senator Francis E. Warren, Letter to Carter, Jan. 30, 1892, National 
Archives, hereafter indicated as NA. 

15. Carter to the Secretary of the Interior, Feb. 16, 1892; Carter to 
Register and Receiver, GLO, Sundance, Wyo., March 5, 1892; N. J. 
O'Brien, Special Agent, to Commissioner, GLO, June 13, 1892; Binger 
Hermann, Commissioner, GLO, to the Secretary of the Interior, April 4, 
1898; Secretary of the Interior to Commissioner, GLO, April 16, 1898, NA. 

16. Congressional Record, 52nd Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. XXIII, Part 6, 
5700; Commissioner, General Land Office, to the Secretary of the Interior, 
Sept. 1906, NA. 

17. Mondell served as Representative-at-Large from Wyoming from 
1895-1897 and 1899 to 1923. He was the majority floor leader in the 
66th and 67th Congresses. According to his son William, the elder Mondell 
was always interested in the Tower and at one time was the author of an 
article about it, which the present writer has been unable to locate. He 
first visited the Tower in 1888 while looking for coal. Representative 
Mondell made his first political speech in a schoolhouse near the Tower 
in 1890 when he was running for the office of State Senator. William 
Mondell, interview by Ray H. Mattison, Aug. 12, 1955. 

18. Commissioner, General Land Office, to the Secretary of the Interior, 
Sept. 1906, NA. Assistant Commissioner, GLO, to Register and Receiver, 
Sundance, Wyo., Feb. 28, 1908. 

19. Elting E. Morison, Ed., The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (Cam- 
bridge, 1951-1954). 8 vols. Passim. In these volumes, the editor has 
compiled a fairly complete chronology giving a day-by-day summary of 
Roosevelt's activities from Aug. 1898 until he left the Presidency in March 
1909. There are several gaps in this chronology in the last few years of 
his life. However, it does not indicate that Roosevelt ever visited the 
Tower. In answer to an inquiry by the writer if Roosevelt dedicated the 
Tower, Mr. Morison, on Feb. 14, 1955, replied: 

According to the chronology, ". . . Theodore Roosevelt was in 
Oyster Bay, New York, on September 24, 1906, so it would have 
been impossible for him to have dedicated the monument on that day. 
There is no record that he went West at all during the next two years, 
so I think it unlikely that he ever did actually dedicate it." 

20. Morison, op. cit., IV: 1,354; VIII: 1,471. This chronology does not 
indicate that Roosevelt was in Wyoming between April 1903 and August 
1910. 

21. Mrs. Grace Bush, Mrs. Ett Butts, Mr. Frank Proctor, Mr. Victor 
French, Mrs. Alfred Nielson, Mrs. Goldie Hardy, interview. 

22. See copy of handbill in The Sundance (Wyoming) Times. Feb. 17, 
1954. 

23. N. K. Griggs was a prominent Nebraska lawyer. He was a member 
of the Nebraska Constitutional Convention in 1871 and member of the 
State Senate, of which he was President, from 1873 to 1877. A. T. 
Andreas, History of Nebraska (Chicago, 1882), 899. 

24. William R. Steele (1842-1901), following the Civil War in which 
he served in the Union Army, went to Wyoming. He practiced law and 
was a member of the Legislative Council in 1871. He was a territorial 
Delegate to Congress from 1873 to 1877. In 1901, he died in Deadwood, 



DEVILS TOWER NATIONAL MONUMENT 19 

South Dakota. South Dakota Historical Collections (Pierre, 1922), 
XI: 466. 

25. See copy of handbill in Sundance Times, Feb. 17, 1954. 

26. Memorandum for the Historical Files by Mr. Newell Joyner, Cus- 
todian, Devils Tower National Monument, DT; Sundance Times, Nov. 10, 
1927, reprinted from Denver Rocky Mountain News, July 24, 1927. 

27. Joyner, loc. cit.; Sundance Times, March 3, 1955; Mrs. Orpha May 
Dow, Mrs. Ethel Kinney, Newcastle, Wyoming, interviews by Ray H. 
Mattison, Aug. 5, 1955; Mrs. Ett Butts, Mr. Roy Bush, Mr. Frank Proctor, 
Mr. Victor French, Mrs. Alfred Nielson, interviews. 

28. Joyner, loc. cit. 

29. Commissioner, GLO, to Secretary of Interior, Sept. 1906, NA; Mr. 
E. O. Fuller, interview by Ray H. Mattison, Aug. 18, 1955; Fuller to Mr. 
Raymond Mclntyre, Superintendent, Devils Tower National Monument, 
Aug. 13, 1949, DT. 

30. Congressional Record, 61st Cong., 2nd Sess., 2481 

31. Congressional Record, 62nd Cong., 1st Sess., 1023; 63rd Cong., 1st 
Sess., 81. 

32. Congressional Record, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., Vol. LIII, Part I, 17; 
Congressional Record, 65th Cong., 1st Sess.. Vol. LV, Part I, 123; Dick 
Stone to the Director, NPS, July 10, 1922; F. W. Mondell to Director, 
NPS, May 17, April 4, 7, 1917; Aug. 5, 8, Oct. 17, 19, 1919; James J. 
Cotter to Mondell, Sept. 1, 1916; Mondell to the Secretary of the Interior, 
July 12, 1916, NA. 

33. Annual Reports of the Director, National Park Service, hereafter 
abbreviated NPS, 1929, 59. During the 14-year period from 1917 to 1930, 
inclusive, the appropriations for the protection of national monuments 
varied from $3,500 in 1917 to $46,000 in 1930, the average being $19,248. 
In 1928, the amount allotted for Devils Tower National Monument was 
only $162; for 1929, $312. Arno Cammerer, Assistant Director, NPS, 
to John M. Thorn, May 1, 1928, NA. 

34. Mondell to the Secretary of the Interior, Feb. 24, 1915, NA. 

35. A. W. Storm, W. A. Ripley and C. C. Storm, letter to Mondell, 
July 6, 1916, together with petition, NA. 

36. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1917 , I: 873. 

37. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1918, I: 898; Nils 
Nilson to Director, Sept. 26, 1918; Director to Mondell, Oct. 2, 1918, NA. 

38. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, 1919, I: 1038. 

39. Senator John B. Kendrick to Director, NPS, March 22, 1921; Feb. 
24, Oct. 24, 1922; May 9, 1924; Warren to the Secretary of the Interior, 
Nov. 19, 1924; Petition to Secretary of the Interior, Dec. 12, 1923; Cam- 
merer to W. D. Fisher, Jan. 4, 1924; Dick Stone to Director, Aug. 22, 
July 24, 1922; A. E. Demaray, NPS, to Stone, Aug. 11, 1932; Stone to 
Cammerer, June 10, 1929; Sundance Times, Feb. 11, 1932. 

40. Annual Report of the Director, NPS, 1921, 119-120. 

41. Annual Report of the Director, NPS, 1922, 70; Stone to the Director, 
July 24, 1922; W. D. Fisher to Horace M. Albright, Director, NPS, March 
15, 26, 1929; Stone to Acting Director, NPS, Apr. 12, 1924. 

42. Annual Report of the Director, NPS, 1922, 157-158. 

43. Annual Report of the Director, NPS, 1926, 71; 7929, 51. 

44. Devils Tower Tours (General), NA. 

45. See Devils Tower: Publicity & Statistics Files, NA. 

46. Joyner to Superintendent Rogers, Apr. 22, 1944, DT. 

47. Souvenir Program, Seventh Annual Picnic Northern Black Hills 
Pioneer Association, June 19, 1938. 

48. In the present-day climbing of a precipice, the members of a party 
are roped together as a safety precaution. For this purpose, nylon rope, 
having a tensile strength of 4,000 pounds, is generally used. The regular 
equipment used is the piton, carabinger or snaplink, and piton hammer. 



20 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Only one member climbs at a time while the others in the party wait and 
pay out the climber's line or take up the slack. When the first has reached 
a secure position, another moves up, each one in turn making his advance. 
This process is known as "belaying" the climber. Except in case of 
"tension climbing," when the surface of a wall is such that no footing is 
available for regular climbing or if it becomes necessary to climb over a 
bulge in the wall, a climber does not depend upon the rope for climbing, 
but only as a safety measure in the event of a fall. Belaying is also used 
in making the descent. The climbers sometime descend by means of 
sliding down the rope, known as "rappelling," secured from above. 
49. Joyner, Memorandum to the Director, Oct. 10, 1941, DT. 



Automobiles for the Park 

Basin Republican, Friday, January 10, 1908 

By 

Cody Stockgrower 

During his recent trip east Col. Cody has been busy on a prop- 
osition to secure legislation allowing automobiles to be run in the 
National Park and Forest Reserves. 

A law was passed years ago prohibiting the entrance of steam 
vehicles to the park. 

At that time automobiles were unknown, but the law was so 
drawn that it prohibits all such power vehicles, when the idea 
really was to prevent the construction of railways in the Park. 

When the beautiful lake above the Shoshone canyon dam is 
filled with water and the road from Cody to the Park is com- 
pleted along its banks to connect with the Forest Reserve road, 
it will make the most romantic and scenic auto boulevard in the 
United States, and the passage of an amendment to the present 
law so as to allow autos to be used in a trip from Cody to the 
Park and around the circle would greatly increase the pleasure of 
tourists and make this town a favorite gateway to Nature's Won- 
derland. 

It is proposed to send to Congressman Mondell and our sena- 
tors a petition requesting them to introduce and push a bill for 
such amendment. Everyone in and around Cody will be glad 
to push a good thing. 



Plains Mistory Revitalized 

By 

F. H. Sinclair 

On September 17, 1851 a great conclave of plains tribes was 
held on the Platte river to join in a treaty of non-aggression. This 
document was designed to perpetuate peace between the warring 
plains tribes — a peace which hardly endured until the ink on the 
treaty was dry. But a few months elapsed before the Crows, 
Sioux, Cheyennes, Shoshones, Blackfeet and Arapahoes were 
again at one another's throats, and all but the Crows and Sho- 
shones were bitterly opposing the white-man's increasing migra- 
tion into Wyoming's great game country. It was an era of blood- 
shed and bitterness which lasted most of half a century. 

Now more than 100 years later the same tribes which partici- 
pated in that 1851 treaty come together at Sheridan, Wyoming — 
in fact many more tribes are represented than collected on the 
Platte — at an event which has attracted national attention because 
of its magnitude. In 1955 about 6000 plains Indians, represent- 
ing more than 40 tribes from 20 states were present, and a large 
number is expected this year. 

While there is still smouldering the fire of tribal antagonism, 
rivalry is no longer a matter of bullet and arrow, but differences 
are settled in friendly competition in the presentation of age old 
ceremonies, Indian sports and arts and crafts. Young, modern 
talented Indians — musicians, both instrumental and vocal, con- 
tribute to the programs to illustrate the advances made in the 
period of transition from an old way of life to an entirely new one. 

The great Indian celebration, the producers point out, is not a 
commercialized Indian "pow-wow" for entertainment of tourists, 
but has more significant objectives behind it — the building of bet- 
ter understanding between the red and white races, the perpetua- 
tion of Indian song and legend, and the preservation of Indian 
arts and crafts which have contributed so much to our American 
culture. 

The Indians themselves have accepted the ideals back of the 
project and have joined to make it what one noted author said 
was the "greatest inter-racial cooperative effort in human relations 
of this century." At this time when segregation and integration 
has been occupying a prominent place in the public mind, the 
project has created country-wide attention. The Indian comes to 
participate at his own expense, without any compensation other 
than the prizes or premiums he may win in the contests, which are 



22 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

but a small part of the cost to the redmen, some of whom travel 
more than 3000 miles round trip to take part. 

The production is staged by Kalif Management Corporation, 
an operating non-profit, trust corporation, organized by Kalif 
Shrine Temple of Sheridan, with net returns to go to Shriners 
Hospitals For Crippled Children, which accept patients without 
regard to race or creed, and at which many Indian children have 
been treated, a fact which the Indian, being a great lover of chil- 
dren, appreciates. 

The producers emphasize the fact that the project is not simply 
a community event, but that because of the fact that Indians come 
from many states and that historically these tribes participated in 
incidents which took place not only in the Sheridan country, but 
in parts of the entire northwest it is an area matter. 

The great camp of tipis which is erected on the fairgrounds 
directly in front of the grandstand houses a larger population than 
many of the county seats in the state — and it occupies the very 
site of the camp of General George A. Crook's army which head- 
quartered here during the campaign of 1876. It was here that 
the Shoshones under Chief Washakie and the Crows under Plenty 
Coups, Old Crow and Medicine Crow joined the expedition as 
allies. Old Crow's son, Simon Old Crow, and Medicine Crow's 




Sunday inter-racial union religious services in great camp of 5,500 plains 
Indians — 43 tribes from 20 states at Sheridan, Wyoming, August 7, 1955. 



PLAINS HISTORY REVITALIZED 23 

grandson, Joe Medicine Crow have prominent parts in All Amer- 
ican Indian Days. 

Coming with the Lakotas — the great Sioux nation— are de- 
scendents of John Richaud, Big Bat Pourrier, Major Twiss, Red 
Cloud and Spotted Tail — all historic characters in Wyoming's 
past. From Standing Rock come the relatives of Sitting Bull, Gall 
and Crow King — and John Little Crow, grandson of the famous 
Isanti chief of that name who headed the Minnesota uprising. 

From far across the mountains come the Umatillas from Ore- 
gon, along with the Yakimas, the people of Chief Kamiakin. Chief 
Joseph's children, the Nez Perce, with whom can be seen the son 
and grandsons of Too-hul-hul-soot, the noted war chief, come 
from Idaho — and also from that state come the Bannocks and 
western Shoshones. 

From Montana come the Blackfeet, Piegans, Bloods, the prairie 
Gros Ventre, Chippewa-Crees, Assiniboine and Yanktonnais. 
Montana also sends 700 "fighting Cheyennes" and over 1000 
Crows. 

Wyoming's Shoshones and the Arapahos, descendants of Sharp 
Nose and Black Coal cross the mountains to meet their relatives 
the southern Arapahos who come from far off Oklahoma. Other 
Oklahoma Indians include the Kiowas, Comanches, Creeks, 
Osages, Cherokees, southern Cheyennes and Pawnees. Among 
the latter are heard the names of Echohawk, Good Fox, Fancy 
Bear, members of the famous body of Pawnee Scouts who served 
with Crook. 

Yellow Robe the 98 year old Cheyenne, veteran of the Little 
Big Horn, will attend the 1956 affair. He served as a scout under 
General Nelson A. Miles and was present at the surrender of Chief 
Joseph at Bear Paw Mountains in Montana in 1877. Several 
aged women who lived in the days of the buffalo and a number 
who are survivors of the Wounded Knee fight will be on hand. 

The colorful festivities begin with a mammoth parade in which 
all of the tribes participate, each with its own division — with a 
wealth of white buckskin, gay embroidery of porcupine quills and 
beads, and eagle feather head-dresses waving in the breeze. Old 
shields, lances and warrior society staffs are resurrected from their 
hiding places and again appear in the colorful procession. Floats, 
travois and motor cars — the old and the new — are in line, and 
buffalo hunters along with young Indians, talented and well edu- 
cated show the remarkable progress made by Indians within two 
generations. 

The 5th Army Headquarters at Chicago took part by sending 
four outstanding Indian soldiers and two Indian WAACs from the 
11th Airborne Division, Fort Campbell, Kentucky who acted as 
a color guard with the official stand of colors of the Fifth Army 
to head the parade. The Air Force sent a service band from 
Ellsworth Field, South Dakota. This year the 5th Army will again 



24 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



send a color guard and have promised a division infantry band. 
The United States Marine Corps will send a color guard, and the 
9th Naval District in Chicago will also participate. 

Afternoons are devoted to Indian sports, Indian style horse rac- 
ing, hide races, tipi races, lance throwing and other events seldom 
seen by whites — a program which the Indians enter into with all 
they have, as they are traditionally interested in contests of all 
kinds — and tribal rivalry sharpens the contests. 

At the time the celebration is held the harvest moon rises over 
the great tipi village. Those who heard the Pawnee tenor, Basil 
Chapman and the lovely soprano of the same tribe, Lillie Real- 
rider, sing the "Indian Love Call" from Sigmond Romberg's "Rose 
Marie" have stated that the composer himself would have been 
enthralled to hear real Indians render his beautiful composition, 
in full costume, and under a Wyoming moon. 

The tribal ceremonies and dances are staged under 30,000 
watts of electric lights, to the throb of torn toms and music which 
was old when Lewis & Clark first came into contact with the 
Mandans, Hidatsa and Arikiras who are present in considerable 
numbers. Wierd dances such as the humorous Thunderbird dance 
of the Yakimas provide the audience with a spectacular treat. 




Left to right: Miss (Indian) America II Mary Louise Defender, Ft. Yates, 

N. D., Sioux; Miss (Indian) America III Rita Ann McLaughlin, Crow 

Agency. Montana, Sioux; Miss Wynema Rose ArchariVbault, runner-up, 

Pawnee; Miss Geneva Whiteman, runner-up, Crow. 



PLAINS HISTORY REVITALIZED 25 

Youngsters in tribal finery do their stuff — with all of the dignity 
and pride of their elders. Crow women do a victory dance with 
costumes literally covered with elk teeth. 300 Arapahos in a 
blaze of color give the crowd a thrill as they emerge from the 
shadows into the well lighted entertainment area. 
Youngsters in tribal finery do their stuff — with all of the dignity 

Then there is the Miss (Indian) America contest. In 1955, 
97 Indian beauties, representing 33 tribes, from 20 states entered 
the contest — intelligent and talented Indian girls, many of them 
college students. It is not a swim suit contest, but contestants 
must appear in authentic tribal regalia. Some of the costumes are 
a century old, museum items, which required months to make. 
The costume worn by Miss (Indian) America III weighed 65 
pounds and was valued at $1000. 

The judges of the contest in 1955, and who will serve in that 
capacity this year, were Herbert O. Brayer of Chicago, writer, 
publisher and historian, president of the Chicago Posse of West- 
erners; Dr. W. A. Campbell (Stanley Vestal), Norman, Okla., 
noted historian and author; Mrs. Emmie Mygatt of New York, 
prominent authoress, who has had many best sellers in the juvenile 
field; Mrs. Elizabeth Lochrie, of Butte, Mont., noted painter of 
Indian subjects and Mr. Randy Steffan, rising young painter and 
illustrator, of Cisco, Texas. 

The winners of the Miss (Indian) America contest in the past 
have been the honor guests of the great Miss America Pageant — 
and the directors of the great beauty show say that having Miss 
(Indian) America there has now become a tradition. The present 
holder of the title who will preside over All American Indian Days 
this year is Rita Ann McLaughlin, Minne-wiyakpa-win, Shinging 
Water Woman, great granddaughter of Major James McLaughlin, 
the Standing Rock Indian agent who had the custody of Sitting 
Bull at the time the old medicine man was killed while resisting 
arrest. 

Another contest which has drawn attention is the selection for 
the award given to the "Outstanding American Indian Of The 
Year" — which is made by a panel of judges from nominations sent 
in by the tribal councils throughout the country. The winner of 
the award in 1955 was Napoleon B. Johnson of the Cherokee 
tribe, who is chief justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court. The 
judges, who will again serve this year, were Dr. Kenneth Wells. 
president of Freedoms Foundation, Valley Forge, Penna., W. C. 
(Tom) Sawyer, Chief Justice of the North Dakota Supreme Court 
James Morris and former supreme court justice Charles R. Hayes 
of South Dakota. All are directors of Freedoms Foundation. 

Then there is the arts and crafts exposition, where in the finest 
in Indian handicraft is exhibited — old weapons, shields, medicine 
bags, lances, wonderful beadwork and buckskin, buffalo hides — 
and even a buffalo hide tipi 100 years old! Pottery, silverware 



26 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and rugs from the southwestern Indians, as well as the $1000 
squash blossom silver and turquoise necklace, especially hand 
crafted by Pueblo Indians, the gift of the Inter-tribal Ceremonial 
Association of Gallup, New Mexico — annually presented to Miss 
(Indian) America. 

The third day of the celebration falls on Sunday. An impressive 
inter-denominational, inter-racial religious observance is held in 
which Indian and white clergymen take part, and music is fur- 
nished by both Indian and white choirs. The service begins 
with the camp crier calling the people to worship. Indian solo- 
ists, accompanied by a great concert Hammond organ, played by 
an Indian girl organist adds to the color. Those who have attend- 
ed this unusual event in past years have found it to be one of the 
most inspirational experiences of their lives. 

An so from the time the cannon fires to start the big colorful 
parade, which many have pronounced one of the most unique in 
America, until the drums stop throbbing at 5 o'clock in the morn- 
ing following the last night of the show, it is a continuous thrilling 
affair. On the day following the tipis come down, lodge poles 
are stacked away and the hills which have looked down upon 
Indian camps for centuries, once more form the background for 
the open country where Crook and his blue clad cavalrymen spent 
the summer of 1876. As the very old Sioux warrior said at the 
end of last year it is "lila waste" — heap good! It is Wyoming's 
past history again come to life! 



Zhe Mole-'m-the- Wall 

By 
Thelma Gatchell Condit 

PART 2— THE INDIANS 

The first men in the Hole-in-the-Wall country were Indians, as 
the trails and tracings plainly show. In that early period of peace, 
the land lay in unbroken calmness with only Powder River, the 
buffalo, the grass, the Indians and their lazy villages, the high 
mountains with their places for far-seeing, the big sky, and over 
all the quiet feeling of security and freedom. A rare, breath- 
taking picture of life — but only a moment in the fast "marching- 
on" of Time. 

If the old trails along Powder River could disclose their many 
secrets what a lavish fund of information would be added to the 
history of Johnson County. The old trails, and they are many — 
some faint, some deeply worn, are quite as much a mystery as 
the land itself. They led in and out of the big grass country of 
the Middle Fork of the Powder River, made, doubtless, in the 
beginning by the hords of buffalo, who in their abundance made 
the land black. The Indians followed the buffalo north along 
the same trails. 

To those who care to delve into the history of the Indian and 
the Indian wars of the west, the country known as the Hole-in- 
the-Wall offers a fertile field for research. While it was a part 
of the eastern slope of the Big Horns known as "Absaraka" — the 
Home of the Crows — there is little to support the theory that the 
Crows at any time held undisputed control over it. For the Snakes 
(Shoshones), Arapahoes, Cheyennes and Blackfeet undoubtedly 
used this ground for hunting and trapping as did the Crows. The 
legends of all these tribes teem with tales of battle fought in this 
country between the Indians even before the white men invaded 
this Indian paradise. 

About 1760 the Sioux, or Dakota Indians, being driven out 
of Minnesota found their way to the Powder River country by 
way of the Black Hills and southeastern Montana, then southward 
up the Powder into Wyoming and present day Johnson County. 
The Sioux Indians were quite different from the other Indians 
in that they had a decided sense of organization. They wanted 
land upon which to found a kingdom, so to speak. They were 
large, fine-looking Indians, with mental ability quite outstanding — 
possessing a pride of race which made them the most dangerous 
of all Indians to the white man. Being natural horsemen they 



28 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

became formidable enemies in time of battle. They were some- 
thing to be reckoned with, for both Indian and white adversaries. 
When they beheld the Powder River country with its tall waving 
grasslands, its high wall of "shining mountains" to the west, its 
abundance of sheltered valleys and hidden canyons, they knew 
it was what they wanted and they took it, after many years of 
fighting. They drove the Crows and other tribes westward into 
the Basin country and brooked no interference on the Powder. 
They completely dominated the Cheyennes, who became their 
staunch allies. For 40 years, or more, until the Civil War period, 
they led a wonderful life. It was called the "Golden Age of the 
Sioux." It was a time of great contentment — food in abundance, 
peace and prosperity of a kind seldom equalled. 

(The Indians traveled in and out of the Hole-in-the-Wall country 
by way of two well-marked trails, the principal one being known to 
old timers as the "Sioux Trail". It extended the full length of 
Johnson County, north and south (north to Montana — south 
through southern Wyoming) — following as closely as possible 
along the east side of the Big Horns. Few historians seem to have 
made any record of it. It was marked at frequent intervals by 
mounds of rock which are plainly seen from Dayton, Wyoming, 
to and beyond the Hole-in-the-Wall Ranch on Buffalo Creek. It 
crossed the divide between the Tongue and Powder Rivers near 
Massacre Hill (where all Indian Trails in Wyoming unite). It 
passed the Piney Creeks west of the Guyer ranch at Story, Wyo- 
ming, then on to Shell Creek, Johnson and French Creek. Then 
it passed between the site of old Fort McKinney and the mountains 
(above Buffalo), going up Stevenson's Gulch, crossing Bull 
Creek above the old Kingberry ranch and Beaver Creek through 
the Willow Glenn ranch. Then it came up the mesa above Mayo- 
worth and down to the Gene Cash ranch on the North Fork of 
Powder; on south, via the west side of E K mountain and through 
the west end of Dull Knife pass, on down Cotton Wood Creek — 
through Fraker Pass and on down the valley behind the red wall 
to Arminto and beyond. It is interesting to note that the Sioux 
Trail paralleled and intersected the Bozeman Trail from Dayton 
to the Middle Fork of Crazy Woman Creek. There the Bozeman 
Trail turned to the east and the Sioux Trail to the west. 

The mounds of rock heaped along the trail at intervals seemed 
to have some obscure religious significance, like the stone wheel 
above Sheridan and the tiny mounds near Pryor Gap in Montana. 
The late Howard Lott of Buffalo, Wyoming, had in his possession 
two stones which marked the beginning of and identified an 
Indian monument, or pile of stones. They were found along 
the Sioux Trail in southern Johnson County and were identified 
and explained to him by Sherman Sage, an old Arapahoe Indian, 
living at that time on the Shoshone Indian Reservation. The 
smaller stone was placed on the ground at the intersection of a 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 29 

cross marked in the earth. Other stones were then added and 
the large one left on top to serve as a special marker. Other 
Indian parties coming along the trail, seeing it, would stop and 
worship and worshipping add their own stones, (believing it was 
"Good Medicine" for them) always leaving the large stone on 
top as a marker — then pass on. No one actually seems to know 
the true meaning of these piles of rocks but they definitely mark 
the trail, whatever their real significance. 

Another well-known Indian Crossing of the Big Horns was that 
long known as the N H Trail — from the brand of an English cattle 
company which occupied what is now the Harry Roberts ranch 
(D Cross outfit) at Barnum. Near this ranch the way led up the 
south side of Beaver Creek, a small tributary of the Middle Fork 
of the Powder, then across the "slope" and down by Little 
Canyon Creek and Spring Creek to the old W. H. Richards ranch 
and down to the Nowood Creek, a north-flowing tributary of the 
Big Horn River, whose entire basin was accessible by this route. 

It is thought that it was by this trail that Hunt's Astorians passed 
over the Big Horns on their way to the Wind River Country in 
1811. It is recorded that they were fortunate enough to come 
upon the trail of some Crow Indians returning from a trade jour- 
ney to the Mandans and that after a number of vain attempts to 
find a passage over the Big Horns by themselves, solicited the 
guidance of Crow and Shoshone Indians who led them along the 
well known Indian road we call the Sioux Trail "until they came 
to a pass westward over the mountain — where many buffalo had 
marked the way to a north-running tributary of the Big Horn". 

All along the Sioux Trail from the mesa (above Mayoworth) to 
the beginning of Buffalo Creek canyon are many interesting evi- 
dences of Indian habitation. Paintings are in evidence in Dull 
Knife Pass, and along Cottonwood Creek where it empties into 
Red Fork above the Alfred Brock Ranch. Pictograph drawings 
are on the rocks in Dull Knife Pass as are also Indian graves. 
There was a grave in a tree in a canyon south of the old abandoned 
Mayoworth-Tensleep road on the Hat Ranch. On a hill on the 
lower end" of the Hat Ranch just west of the old McDowell place, 
five skeletons were taken from one grave by John Merriman and 
Douglas Cash. They also found a wealth of rare artifacts. 

Numerous camp grounds are in evidence at regular intervals. 
There is one on the Gene Cash ranch that has been covered with 
several feet of silt and is exposed in a bank where N. Fork of 
Powder is undercutting this old camp ground. The Gene Cash 
boys have a great wealth of Indian trinkets, weapons and artifacts 
from this camp ground. Several graves are on the slate ridge 
south of the Gene Cash place — going up the slope on the Middle 
Fork of Powder are more of these rock piles — marking an Indian 
Trail. All along the way it is possible to find any amount of 
Indian "chippings" and arrow heads of all kinds. The walls of 



30 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Buffalo Creek Canyon are covered with Indian drawings, where 
fortunately, inaccessibility has kept them unmarred by wanton 
visitors. 

Few people, I think, realize that the Powder River country 
behind the wall witnessed the end of over 200 years of warfare 
between the Indians. The Dull Knife Fight Nov. 25 and 26, 
1876, marked the end of the struggle between the Indians and 
the white man for supremacy in the west. This location's very 
remoteness caused it to be a last "hide-out" for the most freedom 
loving of the Indians — those hoping against hope to remain 
uncontrolled by the fork-tongued white man with his everlasting 
lies. 

The causes which led up to the Indian War of 1876 were 
numerous and replete with wrongs heaped upon the red man, and 
perhaps a brief summary of events preceding the Dull Knife 
Fight would not be amiss. Late in the summer of 1875, Indian 
Inspector E. C. Watkins made what he called a complete survey 
of the Indians who were still out. He reported as follows: "There 
are still out, and hostile, about 30 or 40 lodges of Hunkapapa 
Lacotas, under Sitting Bull, and about 300 lodges of Ogalalla 
Sioux under Crazy Horse". It is interesting to know that usually 
there were about 5 people to a tepee, including women and chil- 
dren, so it meant that from the above report there were 300 or 
400 fighting men on the war path. Watkins apparently was 
uninformed concerning two northern Cheyenne villages, one under 
Chief Two-Moons and one under Dull Knife who were still out 
and hostile to the highest degree. The Department of the Interior 
had implicit faith in the agent Watkins (or perhaps, being so far 
removed from the scene, were unconcerned ) ; at any rate orders 
were sent to the Indians to be on the appointed reservations by 
the first of Jan. 1876, or soldiers would be sent against them. 
How well the Indians, under leadership of Sitting Bull and Crazy 
Horse, took steps to gather the tribes and repel the soldiers is 
well known in historical circles. Instead of the three to four 
hundred of Watkins report there came together eight or nine 
thousand warriors, fierce and furious toward the whites, and as 
well organized as Indians ever were. General Terry, Commander 
in Dakota, and General Crook, Commander of the Platte, were 
ordered by General Sheridan to proceed to Powder River country 
and bring in the hostiles. 

During this campaign the Indian met no decisive defeat as 
previously, and tasted victory at the Battle of the Rosebud and 
Battle of the Little Big Horn where Custer was wiped out, after 
which engagements they scattered far and wide in the Powder 
River country, always in small groups to evade detection. 

When General Crook took the field again in November he 
had everything in his favor. The outfit was made up of eleven 
companies of Cavalry from the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th and 5th regi- 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 31 

ments under Gen. Ronald S. MacKenzie, 4 companies of the 4th 
Artillery, dismounted, and eleven companies of infantry under 
Col. R. I. Dodge. No better-equipped or more forcefully organ- 
ized army ever marched against the Indian. There were 1,500 
officers and men including 6 surgeons. This was white men 
only. The Indian auxiliaries numbered about 400, including 
Sioux, Arapahoe, Shoshoni, Bannocks and Pawnees, and (most 
valuable of all in the ultimate outcome of the Red Fork Fight) 
a few Cheyennes. 

Crook's military plans were good — with the Indian scouts 
scouring the country all around in advance to allow no surprise 
attacks and with Gen. MacKenzie's well picked Cavalry in readi- 
ness to rush forward to strike the first sharp blows; thus allowing 
the infantry time to make a firm stand. Crook had in addition 
168 wagons and 7 ambulances with 219 drivers and attendants — 
also a pack train of 400 mules with 65 mule packers to follow 
MacKenzie whenever he cut loose from the main body. In short, 
no better equipped expedition ever set foot against the Indian. 
The men were seasoned Indian fighters and well-outfitted for 
winter weather — fur caps, and gloves — fur leggings, felt boots 
and overshoes. Each man had 3 blankets and a tent if he re- 
mained close to the wagons, and also was kept in close contact 
with food supplies. In brief, everything was taken into consid- 
eration, even the weather, for which they were equipped. 

The Indian Scouts were divided into detachments according 
to tribal relations, commanded by Lt. Clark Schuyler and Major 
Frank North (famous for his Pawnee Indian Battalion). These 
Indian Scouts were undoubtedly above average, both physically 
and mentally, and were much impressed with the immense quan- 
tities of bacon, sugar and coffee carried on this expedition. 
The most outstanding scouts were: 

"Sharp Nose" — Arapahoe 

"Leading Chief" — Pawnee 

"Rag-picker" — Shoshoni 

"Three Bears" — Sioux 
They did all the talking and planning with the officers. Some of 
the other scouts were named as follows — (but I do not know their 
tribe) Yellow Shirt, Pretty Voiced Bull, Lone Feather, Charging 
Bear-Kills in Winter, Black Mouse, Fast Thunder, Lone Dog, No 
Neck, Sorrel Horse, White Elk, Bad Mocassin, Fox Belly, and 
Red Leaf. 

On the 14th of November 1876 the Army of Crook left Ft. 
Fetterman. It was miserably cold as they crossed the Platte with 
its floating ice and wound their way over the long line of bluffs, 
northwest to Cantonment Reno. (It is about 90 miles between 
these Forts and was made in 4 days marching, facing a stinging 
snow storm.) At this time Ft. Reno had been abandoned as a 
Fort — but had been re-established several miles above the site 



32 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



of the old Fort for a supply base for expeditions such as Crook's. 
Officers and men were living in holes excavated in the clay banks. 
It was here that the Shoshoni Indians joined the column (over 
100 in number) under command of Tom Cosgrove. 

They remained at Reno only until the storm abated and on 
Wednesday November 22nd Crook started for the Crazy Woman's 
Fork of the Powder, about 25 miles west of Reno. They camped 
at the spring that night on what was the Edgar Simmon's ranch, 
now owned by Frank Lawrence of Buffalo. 

Shortly after dawn the next morning "Sitting Bear", a Cheyenne 
Indian, arrived in camp waving a white flag. He had been sent 
from the Red Cloud Agency to warn his people to surrender and 
save bloodshed. He reported a Cheyenne village, a large one, 
hidden in the canyons of the lower Big Horns near the source of 
Crazy Woman Creek. 

So MacKenzie, the morning of Nov. 24th, was immediately 
ordered out to locate, surprise attack, and completely destroy this 
village. He was given the most reliable of the scouts, (their 
selection based entirely upon their knowledge of this particular 
section of the country) taking with his command about 1,100 
men. There is some confusion as to the exact route taken bv 




Northern End 


OF R.E.V 


U>ftt-L Country 


With 


hfUBA EA»T OF 


rue U)«LL 



%y Jawss S Cc 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 33 

MacKenzie, but research by T. J. Gatchell and J. Elmer Brock 
and other local authorities, and visible evidences along the trail 
make the following one seem reasonable. The first day they 
camped on the N. Fork of Powder, undoubtedly where the old 
Sioux Trail hit the river on the Gene Cash ranch. The following 
day the scouts returned, reporting the location of the Cheyenne 
village on Willow Creek behind the red wall. They led the troops 
to a hidden camping site that day where they rested until night 
fall. This camp site was either in Dull Knife Pass, or in the Red 
Canyon (as evidenced by old canteens and army equipment found 
there) going from E K mountain down to Red Fork. (See map) 
They then made a night march which took them up Red Fork 
through what is now the Alfred Brock ranch to where Red Fork 
Canyon comes through the mountain range, then across the divide 
to the west where they approached the Barnum valley at the 
lower, eastern end. Here they waited to attack the following day 
at dawn. 

The approach to the red wall country by this route is indeed 
hazardous. The country is rough and broken, full of dry creek- 
beds, gullies and wide crevices, whose icy sides made travel hard- 
going. Any one knowing the trail can fully realize what a stroke 
of military genius was displayed by MacKenzie as he led his 1 1 00 
men, mostly single-file, over the trail, going over the worst and 
most dangerous part, the canyon, at night. It speaks well for 
the Indian scouts and guides and discipline of men and animals. 
These were indeed no ordinary men who marched against the 
Cheyennes that November day. 

The extreme northern end of the red wall country (where Dull 
Knife's village lay) is, in itself, a beautiful valley found unex- 
pectedly tucked away and completely shut off on all sides — by 
Fraker Mountain to the north, the Big Horns to the west, and red 
buttes to the south (MacKenzie Hill being the largest of these) 
and to the east the solid rocky gorge through which only the creek 
Red Fork can pass easily. 

In this valley the two prongs of Red Fork meet and wind their 
way gracefully through the gorge at the eastern end, which here 
narrows perceptibly. The northern prong is called Bear Trap; the 
southern branch was at that time called Willow Creek. 

It was, and still is, one of the most secluded, peaceful places 
in the world. That's why, beyond a doubt, that the Cheyenne 
Indians selected it for their most-favored winter camp ground. 
Frank Grave's ranch buildings now stand on the village site (the 
valley widens out here) where then stood the 200 buffalo-hide 
lodges. The camp was full of all kinds of supplies such as ammu- 
nition and food, to last the Indians all winter. 

First this valley was ideal because it was so carefully hidden; 
second, because it contributed in every way to their Indian com- 



UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING 

LARAMIE 



34 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



fort and well-being. Tall grass grew in abundance to feed their 
ponies, water was there — good water. All around were natural 
barriers for the pony herd (God-made corrals — little box can- 
yons). Wild fruit grew in profusion, chokecherries, gooseberries, 
currants and plums. The grasslands on top of the wall were the 
feeding ground for deer and elk. To the south on the slopes of 
Middle Fork of Powder River were the big feeding grounds of the 
buffalo. All around were high places for seeing far, to learn of 
enemy approach. 

A few miles up the slope a cold spring cropped out where they 
made arrow heads of the flint rock found in abundance there- 
abouts. All about this place was good; and they were mightily 
content. The Cheyenne Indian was a part of this land; he received 
its abundance gratefully. To him life was very simple: his home 
was the all-important. His love of home was as surely a part of 
him as were the miracles of nature. Even in the time of great 
danger he took time for "home-y" things — eating, singing, sleep- 
ing, visiting, courting, and feasting from fire to fire. 

As mentioned before, this was the winter village of Chief Dull 
Knife, Little Wolf being second chief. Both men were tried and 
true warriors. Dull Knife's Cheyenne name was Woh-Hah-Hit 
(Morning Star). It was his 
allies, the Sioux, who named 
him Dull Knife, the hidden 
meaning being that he was 
such a formidable enemy that 
it would dull a knife if one 
tried to stab him. 

This village consisted of 
about 200 lodges. The Chey- 
ennes were by far the most 
artistic and skillful of the 
Plains Indians. Their tepees 
were exquisite, their bead work 
beautiful beyond a white man's 
words of description. Little 
did they realize that on this 
day of November 1876 they 
would forever be deprived of 
this favored spot by the ap- 
proach of Colonel MacKenzie 
in command of the Cavalry 
contingent of the Crook col- 
umn. 

The whole night preceding 
the attack they had spent in 
dancing the scalp dance and mEF DU ll KNIFE. 

Other dances of rejoicing — to Courtesy Mrs. Thelma Condit. 




THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 35 

celebrate the wonderful victory the Great Spirit had given them 
over Custer. So given were they to the ecstacy of their dancing 
that they were completely unaware of the enemy laying in wait in 
the canyon at the end of the valley. Everyone was gay, and, at the 
moment, felt secure and safe. Happily weary they went to their 
tepees in the still hours before dawn. They didn't know the enemy, 
so near, below them, were straining every muscle to keep perfect 
quiet lest a cough or a sneeze or a stomping hoof or a carbine 
dropped from a frost-numbed hand betray their presence. 

At last just before dawn, complete stillness reigned, undisturbed 
except for an occasional howl of a coyote and the answering bark 
of a dog. It was at this moment the sleeping village was awakened 
by the thundering hooves of the attacking Cavalry. The warriors, 
stupid and drugged by the first intense moments of falling asleep, 
grabbed their weapons, rushed naked from their tepees 1 and 
attempted to repel the assault — but they were pitifully out-num- 
bered and at a disadvantage, being taken unaware. The charging 
troops drove them and their women and children back, west, into 
the surrounding canyons. 

The Shoshoni Scouts climbed the big hill to the south (Mac- 
Kenzie Hill) and kept up an erratic fire on the Cheyennes as they 
attempted to salvage their belongings from the village. The Chey- 
ennes finally made a stand on the hill north of the creek, and for a 
while held the troops off. Toward evening it started snowing, 
the weather turning very cold. The Indians, cut off from their 
supplies, suffered terribly — eleven babies froze to death in their 
mother's arms, horses were cut open that the old people might 
put their frozen feet into the warm insides for comfort. The only 
thing the Cheyennes could do was hold onto their natural fortifi- 
cations in the high rocks in the canyons to the west until nightfall 
and then withdraw with their families, their wounded and their 
dead. 

MacKenzie's orders were to completely wipe out the village, 
leaving nothing in useable condition. Never had such beautiful 
Indian things fallen into the hands of the white man — buffalo hide 
tepees and personal effects of rare workmanship. What a mighty 
blaze it all made- as a winter's supply of buffalo meat and grease 
and all personal belongings of the defeated were tossed on the fire. 
The camp equipment was a queer conglomeration, not only Indian 
things but white man's things, such as an occasional mattress, cups 
and saucers, and pillows. There even were bottles of strychnine 
used by the Indians to poison wolves. Everywhere was evidence 



1. Contrary to belief, Indians always slept naked. As the lodges were 
round in shape, in winter time a small fire was kept in the center and the 
occupants slept with their feet toward it. In those days when plenty of 
buffalo robes were obtainable, they were not uncomfortable even in the 
coldest weather . 





Rock ledges up the canyon to the west of the Dull Knife battle site where 

the Cheyennes entrenched themselves. From here they made their escape 

north to Fraker Pass. Courtesy Mrs. Thelma Condit. 




Dull Knife battle site. Looking west toward Big Horn Mountains, showing 

willows along Red Fork and the eastern end of MacKenzie Hill to the left. 

(From a very old picture.) Courtesy Mrs. Thelma Condit. 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 37 

that these warriors had been implicated in the Custer Massacre, 
such as memorandum books, saddles, canteens, nose-bags, cur- 
rency and guns. Seven hundred head of horses were seized, 
some branded U S 7 C. One hundred of these the Pawnee Scouts 
loaded with such loot as pleased their fancy." Everything which 
would not burn was broken or poked full of bayonet holes. 

MacKenzie's troops returned in a six days' march by the same 
route. They undoubtedly passed around the north end of E K 
mountain, for Elmer Brock found numerous horse skeletons there 
in the 1890's which were beyond question horses used by the 
military, as they all wore a peculiar shoe designed for use in snow. 
The horses had evidently become exhausted and been shot to 
keep the Indians from getting them, all being shot from the same 
side of the head. 

Sam Stringer, an old stage driver who spent his last years in 
Buffalo, was one of Crook's teamsters and had remained at the 
Crazy Woman camp at the time of the Dull Knife Fight. He told 
Elmer Brock that the dead soldiers killed in the battle were buried 
by caving banks of earth off on them, and in the spring an expe- 
dition was sent for the bodies which were taken to Cantonment 
Reno 3 for burial. 

The Indians retreated north through Fraker Pass by following 
up the many little canyons, thence going along the face of the 
Big Horns, striking Clear Creek and coming down back of Bald 
Mountain just above the present "Soldiers and Sailors Home". 
They camped for some time at the south end of Lake DeSmet. 
Game was plentiful and they gradually re-supplied themselves 
with food and clothing. 

It is interesting to note the numerous evidences of their retreat 
from the battlefield. One half mile north of Dull Knife Pass on 
the crest of the ridge (Sec. 13, T.P. 44, R. 84 W.) are fortifica- 
tions which could protect the high point on the mountain, as well 
as provide a most excellent observation point. There are 
also old stumps of small trees there, which were obviously cut 
with tomahawks. A few miles further up the ridge (Sec. 2, 
T.P. 44, R. 84, W.) is a high timbered knob and many evi- 
dences of trees that were downed with tomahawks. Farther up, 
along the Arch Creek ridge there was at one time two miles 
of shelter built up under the rock rim made of slabs of rotten logs 



2. It is interesting to note at this time that 16 Cheyenne scalps were 
taken by Pawnees and Shoshones. The other Scouts refrained from scalp- 
ing, being loyal to General Crook's wishes that no mutilating take place. 

3. Lieut. Homer W. Wheeler was in charge of carrying the wounded 
from the Dull Knife Fight. His book The Frontier Trail page 179 tells 
of this. George Bird Grinnell in The Fighting Cheyennes gives the details 
of this battle. 



38 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and small trees. These undoubtedly sheltered the women and 
children. 

Where Arch Creek turns sharply to the southwest before enter- 
ing Bear Trap Creek, there are many fortifications and barricaded 
caves. The caves are just below the ""arch", while above the 
"arch" are still numerous fortifications and shelters which were 
still bullet proof a few years ago. There is one square pen made 
of pitch logs with slab rocks leaning against it. 

Frank Grouard, who was a scout with Crook and knew this 
country like a book, insisted that a detachment be sent to guard 
Dull Knife Pass, but this request was ignored and some of the 
Cheyennes were thought to have escaped through this pass after 
the Dull Knife Fight. 

Hard Robe, a Cheyenne scout with MacKenzie, was with the 
Pawnees in this fight, though only a boy at the time. He visited 
the late Jim Gatchell of Buffalo years ago and told many inter- 
esting events connected with the fight. He said it was Frank 
Grouard who located the Cheyenne camp for MacKenzie. Grou- 
ard knew of the trail through Dull Knife Pass and by following 
it had looked down on the camp from Fraker Mountain. 

Hard Robe was a very thin, wiry, quiet Indian, but spoke good 
English, having been a policeman on the reservation. He told 
how on the afternoon of the fighting MacKenzie sent Frank 
Grouard, Bill Rowland, (interpreter) and himself up the draw, 
west, to talk to the Indians and ask them to surrender and go to 
the reservation where they would be taken care of. They crawled 
up the draw on their hands and knees. Rowland opened up 
conversation with Little Wolf, who was in command there. Little 
Wolf replied to the message in this manner, "Dull Knife will never 
surrender. He says he has lost two sons in this fight, and you 
might as well go ahead and kill us all." To Frank Grouard he 
said, "Go away and take your Indians. We can whip the soldiers, 
but we can't whip you both." 

Many were the deeds of bravery and daring that day. Momen- 
tary dashings here and there, making never-to-be-forgotten pic- 
tures on the memory of those remembering. Like Sharp Nose, 
the Arapahoe Chief, with his piercing eyes and hawk-like nose, 
dignified and commanding respect from all, as he wound his way 
in and out in the thick of things on his little wiry, gaily painted war 
horse. 

Like Three Bears, the Sioux boy, young in years, but a man 
in warfare and intelligence, whose crafty maneuvering and quick 
wise thinking made him outstanding on this day. 

Like the sprawled body of the dying Cheyenne boy, shot 
through the neck, as he was desperately trying to save the village's 
precious pony herd. Around his neck was wrapped his rope — 
no doubt he slept with it ever-ready in case of attack — this son of 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 39 

Dull Knife's stiffening in death, giving his young life trying to do 
what most of all needed to be done. 

Like the huge, fearless Cheyenne warrior on his large white 
horse, bearing on his left arm a magnificient shield of buffalo-hide 
from which eagle plume decorations hung so far down that they 
swept the ground at his horse's feet as he rode again and again 
into the very face of the foe, defying them; only to be filled with 
death-bringing lead for his pains. 

Like the young Cheyenne, who charged recklessly into the 
enemy gun fire to bring back the body of his dead brother, only 
to be downed at the last moment of safety. 

Hard Robe said the only ones who did not cover themselves 
with glory that day were the Shoshones. They didn't want to 
fight and kept dashing back to safety. They had a good place 
for concealment on top of MacKenzie Hill and didn't venture off 
too far. 

It was in this battle that Medicine Bear "won his spurs". Weasle 
Bear, only 15 years old, also gained great glory that day. (These 
Indians were both Cheyennes and friends of T. J. Gatchell.) 

Weasle Bear told how Captain North and a few of his Pawnee 
Indian scouts attempted to capture the horse herd, which was in 
the little natural corral (the pocket up Red Fork back of where 
the Frank Grave's house now stands.) Under fire from the In- 
dians on the hills to the north, they got the herd started down 
the valley when North's horse, mortally wounded, plunged and 
fell to the ground. A big Pawnee Indian reached down and 
grabbed North by the belt and carried him to safety. 

Bill Rowland, the squaw man interpreter, whose wife was a 
full-blooded Cheyenne, felt no compunctions about his part in 
betraying the Indians, for he said later that he thought this was 
the only way to subdue them. 

A mention must be made of the mule-packers, too, for they 
played a most important part in Crook's campaign. Upon their 
integrity and efficiency depended the whole well-being of the 
Cavalry. Their close following with ammunition, food and bed- 
ding made for success during an engagement. General Crook 
was outstanding in the attention he gave his mule pack train, and 
much of his favorable campaigning was due to his meticulous 
choice of mules and packers. The latter were, of necessity, physi- 
cally strong and active, cheerful, and willing to assume grueling 
work and responsibility. They also had to be good cooks. 

Capt. John Bourke, who was in the Dull Knife Fight, kept a 
diary of the events. He thus describes a well known mule-packer, 
Uncle Dick Kloster. "He was clad from head to heel in fur and 
blanket-lined canvas, a muskrat cap upon his head, while from 
eyes to breast depends a snow-white beard, matted, like a board 

with frozen tobacco juice Uncle Dick's idea of Paradise 

would be a place with abundance of grass and water for his mules 



40 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

— no flies to bother them — and the very best of rations for his 
men, beans, bacon, and "yeast powder" bread, dried apples, 
coffee and chocolate and on occasion a "snootful" of something 
to drive away malaria." 

Much admiration can be accorded the participants in this de- 
cisive fight — both red and white; but the thing standing clearest 
in the minds of those who know the red wall country is the sad 
inevitableness of this battle. It was a heart-breaking situation. 
The Cheyennes couldn't surrender, even though they knew in 
their hearts they couldn't win; and MacKenzie couldn't spare them, 
for he was ordered to wipe them out. Yes, the white man won, 
but it was no victory. Everything was in favor of the army — even 
Indian guides betraying and showing the way. It was not a vic- 
tory, it was just a great pity — a sadness beyond compare. But 
out of the whole scene arises a glorious admiration for the Chey- 
enne Indian — a glory which will never die: that going-on when 
he was defeated; that not-giving-up when all was lost. That fine 
thing will always be a part of the Dull Knife Battlefield — it will 
always be there for those with the eyes to see; part of the very 
earth itself, unconquerable, undefeated, deathless. 

And so ended Indian occupation in the Hole-in-the-Wall. 



Oregon Zmil Zrek $o. Zwo 

Compiled by 

Maurine Carley, Trek Historian 

October 25, 1953 

On June 28, 1953, the first of a series of Oregon Trail Treks 
was held, under the guidance of Mr. L. C. Bishop, Wyoming State 
Engineer, and Mr. Albert Sims, a rancher from Douglas, Wyo- 
ming. The log of Oregon Trail Trek No. One appeared in the 
October 1955 Annals of Wyoming. 

OFFICERS 

Governor C. J. Rogers Captain of the train 

Albert Sims ...Wagon Boss 

Roy Amick Assistant Wagon Boss 

Frank Murphy Assistant Wagon Boss 

Clark Bishop Assistant Wagon Boss 

Maurine Carley Historian 

Red Kelso Photographer & Press 

Maj. H. W. Lloyd Corporal of Guard & Registrar 

Mrs. Pauline Peyton Chaplain 

Glenn A. Conner Trumpeter 

80 Participants 28 cars 

Note: Numbers preceding ."M" indicate miles on the map west 
from the Nebraska-Wyoming line. 

At the crossing of Warm Springs Draw (45V / 2 M), the trail 
forks — the south fork to go by Warm Springs (46 3 A M) and on 
past Porters Rock, crossing Bitter Cottonwood three times and 
crossing Horseshoe Creek some 9 miles above where the north 
branch crosses, joining the right hand branch at the Oregon Trail 
Marker at 83% M. of the north branch and 86 M. of the south 
branch. This trek follows the north branch. (See map.) 

9:00 A. M. Following a prayer by the Chaplain, the caravan 
left the HENRY FREDERICK RANCH MUSEUM (V2 M. west 
of 47 M) located just north of U. S. Highway 26, two miles west 
of Guernsey. 

Prayer by Mrs. Peyton 

"Oh, God of Mercy — Father of all, we ask Thy blessing upon 
this caravan. We thank Thee for the ideals of courage and free- 
dom set forth by the men and women who first came over this 
trail and for Thy guidance in times of need. Help us to remember 



42 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



in the days of plenty as well as in the time of poverty. There is 
need for unselfish service in the best and noblest things of life. 
May the sacred memories of those who blazed our Wyoming trails 
and died upon the unknown prairies become a regenerating in- 
fluence in our lives, inspiring us to gratitude for all they did 
toward making this region a better place in which to live. Amen." 

9:10 A.M. Paused at an Oregon Trail Marker (51 M.) where 
we traveled on the old road. A branch trail came in from the 
southwest at 50^ M. 









Oregom ~7*>a il TkzK No. z 

October Z5J9S3 
Historian 



WMite* Mfrwm £**+ $fai*£m* 




OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 43 

9:15 A.M. Arrived at an OREGON TRAIL MARKER 
(53V2 M.) at old Badger Station on the Colorado and Southern 
R.R. just south of where the trail crossed Bitter Cottonwood 
Creek. (A Copy of Otto Herman's talk not made available.) 

9:20 A.M. Passed old BITTER COTTONWOOD STAGE 
STATION (54 M.) 200 feet east of the present road. 
9:25 A.M. Passed to north of an old brick kiln. (55 M.) 
9:35 A.M. Halted (55V4 M.) to point out old trail and bases 
of telephone poles. Otto Herman found a wood covered insulator 
here which was presented to the State Historical Museum together 
with a bracket and pole top found by Clark Bishop and Albert 
Sims. 

9:40 A.M. Crossed Little Cottonwood Creek. (56V2 M.) 
9:55 A.M. Arrived at the divide opposite an OREGON TRAIL 
MARKER (59 M.) on an east branch of the road. 

Mr. Lester Bagley gave a few remarks about this marker. 

Ladies and gentlemen: We are now on what is known as the 
divide between Cottonwood Creek and Horseshoe Valley. Look- 
ing off to the north we see the Horseshoe Valley, and Sibley Peak 
which is located near the point where Horseshoe Creek intersects 
the valley and unites with the Platte River. 

This monument was erected by the Landmarks Commission 
some years ago on what is believed to have been one of the early 
and much used divisions of the Oregon, California and Mormon 
Trails. We followed one of the old trails which we left just west 
of this point about a quarter of a mile. The trail we are on now 
was one of the first trails, and was probably used much earlier 
than that one about a quarter of a mile to the east. It was along 
that trail that the telegraph line was built. 

Looking off to the north and east you will notice a high plateau. 
One of the trails passed over that high point and was used quite 
extensively by people who did not wish to cross the river during 
flood waters and wet periods in the spring. The trail used by 
the Mormon vanguard company in 1847 was about six miles west 
of this point and left the main trail shortly after climbing onto 
the divide after leaving Warm Springs. These trails were all used 
at different times, depending largely on weather conditions and 
the availability of food for animals. 

From this point we proceed into the Horseshoe Valley where 
many interesting events took place. 

10:00 A.M. Departed from Cottonwood Divide. 

10:05 A.M. Crossed Bear Creek, traveled on a country road Vi 
mile to the west of the Oregon Trail. 

10:20 A.M. Arrived at TWIN SPRINGS (64V6 M.) 



44 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mrs. Bob Trenholm gave the history of Twin Springs which is 
on the Trenholm ranch. 

Twin Springs refreshed the trappers and traders, the Oregon 
bound emigrants who responded to Horace Greeley's plea, "Go 
West, young man," the Mormons in their quest for the Promised 
Land, and the reckless "California or Bust" emigrants who poured 
through this state. 

While the Mormon Trail is generally conceded to have been 
on the other side of the river, the Mormon Cutoff, over what was 
later known as the Diamond A. Hills, is a reminder that the Mor- 
mons helped shorten and improve the Oregon Trail. They built 
the first of their series of mail stations joining Fort Laramie and 
Salt Lake City at Horseshoe Creek. Their other stations were at 
La Bonte, Deer Creek, Sweetwater, Devil's Gate, and Fort 
Bridger. 

Judge Carter, first sutler at Fort Bridger, came to the West 
with the Johnston Army in 1857. In his diary, he mentions 
having breakfast at Twin Springs and notes the beautiful Horse- 
shoe Valley through which he passed. The Mormon mail station 
— located approximately where Horseshoe Stage and Telegraph 
Station was later built — was in smouldering ruins as the Saints 
were burning their buildings before the advancing army. 

As the roadway along the Platte was shortened and perfected, 
it was no longer known as the Oregon or California, but the 
Overland Trail. In the year 1859, the Overland Stage Company 
obtained all the mail contracts from the Missouri River to the 
West Coast. In order to improve its service, it built stations 
throughout the Western states. One of these was at Horseshoe 
Creek, one of the most historic sites this side of Fort Laramie. 

It served as a Mormon Mail Station, an Overland Stage Station, 
a Pony Express stop, and Overland Telegraph Station and finally 
the Horseshoe Road Ranch, which was burned, in 1868, during 
a three-day battle with the Sioux. The encounter, which is 
generally known as the Battle of Horseshoe Creek, was concluded 
at Twin Springs. Perhaps many of you have read Captain John 
R. Smith's excellent account of this battle. 

Captain Smith, a telegraph operator, and two companions were 
living at the ranch when Chief Crazy Horse and 67 Oglalla and 
Minneconjou Sioux attacked. The dogs gave the alarm with their 
barking, so Captain Smith and one of the men went up Sibley 
Peak to scout around. They were studying a coup stick they 
found when the Indians sprang from behind the rocks near the 
top of the butte and began shooting at them. They chased them 
back to the station, where they barred the door, opened the port- 
holes, and prepared for a siege. 

They had plenty of food but nothing to drink but Red Jack 
Bitters. The Indians set fire to the stockade, and the men could 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 45 

not reach the well, which had been in the enclosure. The Indians 
then set fire to the stables, killed a mule, two horses, and wounded 
a third. Satisfied for the day, they withdrew to the Mouseau 
road ranch at Twin Springs, where they begged food, then returned 
to harrass the men at Horseshoe. 

The Indians contented themselves through the night by barking 
like coyotes and hooting like owls. The next day, they withdrew 
a number of times only to reappear later. After dark they felt on 
all sides of the building to locate the portholes. Then they built 
fires between. They danced and howled with glee as they were 
sure that the white men were being roasted alive, but they had 
made their way through an opening in the kitchen floor to a tunnel 
which led to a small sod walled fortress about twelve feet from 
the building. While the fire was dying down, the men dug through 
the wall and escaped into the darkness. They managed to catch 
the crippled horse. 

At Twin Springs, they found that Mouseau, his Indian wife, and 
children had fled when they found that the Indians were on the 
warpath. The two men at the station joined them, and they spent 
the night caching their supplies, including a ten gallon keg of 
whiskey, under the floor. The next morning, they set fire to the 
cabin, so that the dirt roof would fall in and cover their cached 
goods. 

Then they set out for the Bellamy ranch on Cottonwood, eleven 
miles away. The men were re-enforced by a mule and an extra 
horse to carry their possessions. About noon they met David 
Dampier, a Frenchman, an employee of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany, who was on his way to Twin Springs in search of a horse 
that had strayed. When he found that the Indians were camped at 
Bull's Bend, he was glad to turn back. The refugees, now seven 
in number, trudged along until they reached the foothills later 
known as the Diamond A. Hills. Looking back, they saw a band 
of 63 Indians coming for them as fast as their ponies could gallop. 
The other four had been killed or wounded at Horseshoe. 

When the Indians charged, their yelling stampeded the horses 
and mule which ran away with all of their possessions, including 
what money they had — around $500.00. This amount had been 
pooled and placed in the pocket of a pair of pants later seen on one 
of the Indians. He had cut out the crotch to make them into 
leggings and had apparently fallen heir to the money. 

The Indians jumped from their horses and rushed up the hillside 
to surround the white men. When Captain Smith paused to take 
aim at Crazy Horse, a bullet grazed the skin over his heart, went 
through his sleeve, and flattened itself out on a rock behind him 
He lost no time joining his comrades on the knoll above. There 
he found Bill Harper, one of the men from Twin Springs, with 
an arrow imbedded in his eye. When Harper pulled out the 
arrow, bringing the eye with it, he commented that he would just 



46 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

fight that much harder. But he was the first to fall. The white 
men scored several hits as the Indians swarmed around to scalp 
and mutilate him. During the maneuvering which followed, three 
of the Horseshoe men were wounded — Captain Smith, with an 
arrow in his arm; Bill Hill, by an arrow hitting the back of his 
head, and Bill Norrell, by an arrow which severed the tendons 
in the top of his left foot. Hill, bleeding profusely, could go no 
farther, so he begged his comrades to shoot him. When they 
refused, he took his own life rather than fall into the hands of the 
Indians. Dampier, who was the next to be killed, was shot in 
the back by a gun. 

The four remaining refugees managed to hold off the Indians 
until peace terms could be agreed upon. Crazy Horse was hungry 
and tired of fighting. He made it known that he wished to return 
with the white men to their camp for food. "You four brave 
men, 1 ' he said. "We not want to fight you any more." 

They were about famished when they reached Twin Springs. 
Smith started to dip up a drink with an old, black coffee pot one 
of the Indians had been carrying. He thought it seemed heavy. 
Looking inside, he found the scalps of his three comrades, Harper, 
Hill, and Dampier. He flattened himself out on the ground beside 
the Indian who had been carrying the coffee pot as he drank from 
the refreshing spring. 

After the white men had given their supplies to the Indians, 
they went into their small rock-walled fortress to dress their 
wounds and eat some crackers and cheese they had managed to 
save from the cache. When they heard the Indians again signal- 
ling with their eagle bone whistles, they put lighted candles in 
the portholes so that they would think that they were still there. 
Then they made their escape to Cottonwood ranch, which they 
reached at 2:30 A.M. 

Bellamy relayed the word to Fort Laramie. When the soldiers 
came to inspect the battle ground and bury the dead, they found 
armloads of arrows, blood stained blankets, powder horns, etc. 
According to John Hunton, who accompanied the soldiers, the 
three men were buried in the vicinity of Bear Creek Draw, one 
near a telegraph pole. 

10:35 A.M. Left Twin Springs. 

10:45 A.M. Arrived at HORSESHOE STATION (67 M.) 
located on Jack Landcaster's Ranch. 

Jack Landcaster gave the following report on Horseshoe Station. 

The Mormon Mail station, according to a surveyor's map done 
at Horseshoe Creek, July 1857, for Hiram Kimball, mail contrac- 
tor, included a 640 acre tract following the course of the creek. 
The gardens are shown on the north side, and a large irrigation 
ditch on the south, beginning about 50 rods east of where the 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 47 

old trail crossed the stream. No definite record can be found 
regarding the extent of this station, though a letter of John Taylor's 
tells of the immense amount of money spent in building the mail 
stations along the route. He speaks of all of the station as having 
a corresponding number of animals, etc., as the Deer Creek Sta- 
tion, where there were 76 horses, 123 cattle and a stockade to 
enclose 42 houses. Such was the plant for Horseshoe, but it is 
probable that only a few of these houses were built at the time 
Brigham Young decided upon his scorched earth policy before 
the advancing Johnston Army. 

Two of the earliest characters to pause at Horseshoe Station 
long enough to make history are Buffalo Bill, then Pony Express 
rider, and Alf Slade, Division Superintendent for the Overland 
Stage Company. Buffalo Bill, while bear hunting up Horseshoe 
Creek, encountered a band of horse thieves, somewhere in the 
region of the Clate Russell ranch. He barely escaped with his life. 

According to Mark Twain, in Roughing It Slade was accused of 
more than twenty murders. Many were committed in this locality. 
Slade had already made a name for himself before being trans- 
ferred to Horseshoe, for he had carried out his threat to live to 
carry Jules Reni's ears around in his pocket. Jules had previously 
ordered his burial, believing that he had successfully murdered 
him. 

E. W. Whitcomb, who came to Horseshoe Creek to live in the 
spring of '61, tells of some of Slade's escapades. In his memoirs, 
he says that he found Slade a good neighbor. He would do any- 
thing in his power for someone he liked, but if he disliked some- 
one, he was bound to have trouble with him when he was under 
the influence of liquor. Whitcomb, who was running a trading 
store at the time, had a stock of groceries, liquors, and clothing. 
Slade would often come to his place to play cards. Frequently 
he imbibed too freely. 

Mrs. Slade, for whom Virginia Dale, Colorado, was named, 
decided that if he had to go farther for his liquor, she might not 
have so much trouble with him. So she proceeded to get the em- 
ployes at the stage station drunk one night when Slade was away. 
She then directed them to set fire to Whitcomb's establishment 
which might have been on the Downey ranch. Charred ruins of 
this trading post may have given rise to the confusing belief that 
the Horseshoe Station was to the West of the present highway. 

All that was saved at Whitcomb's store was some tobacco and 
two half barrels of whiskey, which was taken to Slade's. The top 
was knocked in on one of the barrels, a cup hung up, and everyone 
ordered to drink. The other was emptied into the well so that the 
boys would have a never failing supply. 

The forty men assembled at the station were in such high spirits 
that when someone suggested that they set fire to the station, one 
of the men seized a fire brand and started for the hay stacks, 



48 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

which were connected with the stables and other buildings. The 
telegraph line had been erected that fall, so Mrs. Slade telegraphed 
her husband at Julesburg and urged him to make haste in coming 
home. She then upset the barrel of whiskey and threatened to 
shoot anyone who made a move in her direction. Her determined 
action saved Horseshoe Station. 

While Slade was in charge at Horseshoe, John Sarah, who had 
a road ranch on Bitter Cottonwood, displeased him. Slade sent 
a coach load of Overland Stage Agents to Sarah's. They killed 
him, his Indian wife, and an Indian visitor. Another man, who 
escaped, is said to have run twenty-five miles to Fort Laramie 
to give the alarm. Sarah's children escaped through a window. 
A little girl, twelve; her sister, eight; and the baby sister she was 
carrying on her back were found on the prairie two weeks later, 
dead from exposure. Sarah's five-year-old son separated from 
the girls and was picked up by Slade's agents, who took him to 
Horseshoe. He was adopted by Slade and was seen in Denver 
with Virginia Slade several years after the renegade was hanged 
by the vigilantes in Virginia City, Montana. 

11:00 A.M. Departed from Horseshoe Station. 

11:15 A.M. Arrived at Glendo where the Historical Landmark 
Commission dedicated a marker to the burning of the HECK 
REEL WAGON TRAIN and the murder of GEORGE THROS- 
TLE by the Indians in 1876. 

Mr. Joe Weppner gave the following dedication speech. 

The A. H. Reel Bull Train was attacked August 1, 1876, twelve 
miles west of here on the Old Bozeman-Cheyenne-Ft. Fetter- 
man Trail by the Indians. George Throstle, a teamster, was 
killed and scalped. Four horses, ten oxen were killed and three 
wagons were burned. There were sixteen men in the crew but 
the Indians outnumbered them several times and they had to 
escape after dark. The attack took place about 4 P.M. in the 
afternoon, and lasted until after dark. Some of the crew made 
their way to the nearest stage station and telegraphed the affair 
to Cheyenne. 

A. H. Reel had contracted the hauling of supplies from Chey- 
enne to Fort Fetterman for the government and this particular 
train had such supplies. Mr. Reel was one of Cheyenne's early, 
prominent citizens, and was mayor of the town in the days when 
it was "Wild and Wooly." He had a fine record and a good 
administration. Mr. Richardson, chairman of our Commission 
knew the whole family very well. 

George Throstle, the teamster killed by the Indians, and A. H. 
Reel and family are all buried in Cheyenne. 

The Commission has erected a similar monument on the high- 
way south of Lingle commemorating the Grattan Massacre the 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 49 

past month. We also marked the spot in the field where it 
actually occurred and have also placed a small marker on the 
exact spot twelve miles west of here, where the burning of this 
train occurred. (The old Fetterman-Cheyenne Road and bases 
of the poles of the telegraph line are there today as shown by the 
Government field notes. — L. C. Bishop) We have also completed 
the marking on all cross highways of the Overland Stage Route 
across the southern past of the state. We have erected eight mon- 
uments on the Route. 

11:30 A.M. Departed from Glendo. Paused at an OREGON 
TRAIL MARKER recently moved by the Glendo Boy Scouts 
from near Glendo on the Bozeman Trail to 73% M. on the 
Oregon Trail. 

12:00 Noon. Arrived at the location of the burning of the Heck 
Reel Wagon Train and where George Throstle was killed and 
scalped by Indians August 1, 1876, on the Fort Laramie-Fon 
Fetterman branch on the Oregon Trail. (This location was taken 
from the field notes of the Government Survey and surveyed by 
J. A. Cole.) Accounts of the episode are hereby included. 

The first account of the burning of the Heck Reel Wagon Train 
was written by J. C. Shaw. 

Venerable George H. Cross' story of the "burnt wagon" fight 
was published a while ago. It occurred July, 1876. The place 
is about 12 miles west of Glendo, near the N.W. corner of Platte 
county. The wagon train was attacked by Sioux. It was the 
property of Heck Reel, a pioneer mayor of Cheyenne, whose 
residence stood where the Cox-Carroll service station is located. 
Wagon Chief of the train was George Throstle, who died in the 
fight. The account filed in the state annals is that of Sylvester 
Sherman, a bull-whacker with the train, who in his later years 
ranched on Rawhide Creek and there died in 1925. Sherman's 
story was reported by J. C. Shaw of Orin Junction. The Shaw 
report follows: 1 

On the 5th day of July 1876, we commenced to hire men and 
load up with government freight for Ft. Fetterman. We had to 
hire all kinds of men from good bull-whackers and Mexicans down 
to a few long haired Missourians. 

Mr. Reel was there and told Throstle to furnish every man with 
a good forty-five sixshooter, and a forty-four Winchester, and 
have them carry the guns in the jocky box on the front end of the 
wagon, as there was plenty of Indian signs along the North Platte 
river, and all the time kept on the lookout for Indian signs and 
at all times be careful. 



1. Printed in Annals of Wyoming Vol. 3 No. 3, January 1926, pages 
177-180. This issue is out of print and rare. 



50 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

We broke camp at the lake above Cheyenne the morning of the 
7th of July 1876 and traveled the old road. Cheyenne to Black 
Hills until we got to Bordeaux, and from there we traveled the 
cut off by way of the Billy Bacon ranch on the Laramie River, 
and by the old Toby Miller ranch on Cottenwood Creek, and by 
the St. Dennis ranch on Horseshoe, and we struck the old Fetter- 
man road, from Ft. Laramie to Ft. Fetterman. At Elkhorn we 
camped for the night. The hill at Elkhorn was a long hard hill, 
and both Throstle and I stayed back until the last wagon was 
up it. Each wagon had one trail wagon and some had two. After 
we had got up the hill, we rode out ahead of the teams to look 
over the road. When we were about 300 yards away from the 
lead team (we were traveling along a divide Elkhorn on the left 
and some steep draws to our right ) when it seemed that a hundred 
Indians jumped out of a draw shooting at us. Three bullets 
struck Throstle while only one struck me. He was next to them 
and just a little ahead of me. He threw up both hands and said 
"Oh! My God," and fell. Every Indian yelled and made a dash 
to cut me off from the wagon train. It was a close race as 
Throstle's horse made a wild rush for the train, and the Indians 
whipping, shooting and yelling caused both horses to circle instead 
of running straight. I had no time to shoot as I used both feet 
and both hands to whip with. As they got closer to the train they 
pulled away a little but kept up a constant fire at the men running 
up and down the teams, until they shot Irish Pete through the leg, 
and he yelled out cussing as loud as he could "Corall the Wagons, 
Ves, or they will kill every one of us." Then I came to myself 
and called to the lead man to corrall, and all the good men were 
driving the lead teams and knew what to do and in a short time 
we were corralled. In the meanwhile the men were each shooting 
at them with a six shooter, as they came up closer. One man 
jumped on a wagon and began to throw off sacks of flour while 
others commenced to build brestworks. I called for the rifles 
and there was only one man who knew where they were, and he 
jumped on a wagon and began to throw out flour. The guns had 
five thousand pounds of flour on top of them. We got our guns 
and each man got to his place in the brestworks. The Indians 
thought we had nothing but pistols, and were coming up close 
yelling the most hideous yells anyone ever heard, running by at 
full speed on their war horses, laying down on the horse's side 
and shooting under his neck. They seemed to have good guns 
and plenty of ammunition, and while they did not kill any of us, 
they were doing lots of damage to the work cattle and the few 
saddle horses we had. A Mexican was driving next to the last 
wagon and a long haired Missourian the last team. The Mis- 
sourian saw that there was no show to get his team in so left it 
and came on up to the Mexican's (who had deserted at the first 
of the fighting and crawled in among the drygoods in one of the 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 51 

lead wagons) and whacked it on in. It looked for awhile as if the 
Indians would get him but he shot with one hand and whacked 
the bulls with the other. After we got in a few good rounds with 
our guns they fell back and would only come up in sight. We 
laid there all day, and as night came on they came up to the 
wagon which was left on the outside, at about three hundred 
yards distance, that was loaded with ten thousand pounds of 
bacon, and forty kegs of beer, and threw off the beer and rolled it 
down a long hill and set the bacon on fire. The blaze seemed to 
reach two hundred feet high and we could have seen to have 
picked up a pin in the corrall. We were sure our scalps were gone. 
We knew that if they could get on a hill and look down on us 
they could see the situation, and charge us after dark, but they 
seemed to be afraid of us, and never even shot into the camp. 

The Mexican had a little dog that he seemed to love very much, 
but the dog was gun shy and would run out of camp at the sigh* 
of a gun, and as we lay looking through our port holes, Irish Pete 
and I side by side, we saw something crawling toward us. Irish 
Pete whispered, "It is an Indian we will both shoot, but let mc 
shoot first as I feel sure I can hit him." We both fired and a dog 
howled out, and a shrill voice cried "You killed my dog, you 
killed my dog!" 

The next morning we unyoked our oxen and drove them back 
to Elkhorn to water, while others went to hunt for the teams that 
were hitched to the wagon. The wheel oxen were burned to 
death, and the next team was burned some, but they had pulled 
the front wheels out from the wagon, and five teams were grazing 
around still hitched together. 

We broke camp about eleven o'clock, drove the lead wagon 
up to where Throstle had fallen, and found that they had taken 
his clothes, scalped him and cut out his heart. We laid him on a 
tarpaulin, on top of the groceries and covered him up. 

As we went on up the road we met two cowpunchers, and after 
talking to them a minute we asked if they had seen any Indians. 
They laughed and said no that they did not believe there was any 
in the country. They said that they had been on LaPrele Creek 
for two years and had not as much as seen a moccasin track. I 
told them that we had had a fight with them the day before. They 
laughed again and said shown them the signs. I handed one of 
them my bridle reins, and stepped up on the brake and pulled the 
tarp back and let them see Throstle's body. They turned my 
horse loose, and turned and rode for Ft. Fetterman, and the last 
we saw of them they were riding like jockeys, on the last quarter 
in a mile race. 

We camped at LaBonte that night, and on to Ft. Fetterman 
the next day. While we gave poor Throstle a good decent burial, 
there was no ceremony. 

[After quoting Sherman, Shaw added a note:] "Mr. Sherman 




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OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 53 

later showed me the exact spot where the battle was fought, and 
where the wagon was burned. At that time there were pieces of 
wagon irons and some hoops off of the beer kegs, and some pieces 
of broken ox shoes." I have tried to tell this in Mr. Sherman's 
language, just as he told me. [Mr. Sherman later became Heck 
Reel's foreman for the HR outfit in Laramie.] 

Mr. Gordon Sherman recounted the following story of the 
burned wagon train as he remembered his father telling it. 

We were traveling along the road from Cheyenne to Ft. Fetter- 
man along a ridge between Elkhorn Creek and LaBonte Creek. 
George Throstle wagon master, and I (Vess Sherman), his 
assistant, were riding about a quarter of a mile ahead of the 
wagon train when the Indians came up a ravine from my side 
shooting at us. They shot past me killing George Throstle. He 
remarked, "Oh, God," or "My God," as he fell from his horse. 

The horses both turned for the wagon train and thanks for a 
good horse, I outran them to the train although they tried to cut 
me off and were shooting at me all the time. 

One of the bullets hit the fork of my saddle, On reaching the 
train, the lead driver said, "Vess, if we don't corral the wagons, 
they will kill all of us," so we succeeded in corraling all but the 
three trail wagons and shooting at the Indians with six shooters. 

The driver of the third wagon from the rear left his team, so the 
other two had to leave theirs and all caught up with the wagons 
that were being corraled. 

Our rifles were in a wagon under a load of flour which had to 
be unloaded before we could use them. We managed to fight 
them off without any loss of men. The Indians burned the three 
rear wagons that were loaded with bacon, whiskey and beer after 
unloading what they wanted to drink. 

They fought us until later that evening. The next morning we 
picked up Throstle's body; they had scapled him and cut off his 
boots. That morning we met two cowboys horseback headed 
towards Cheyenne looking for work. We told them to watch for 
Indians, because we had a fight with them the day before. They 
wouldn't believe it until we showed them Throstle's body. Then 
they went back to Ft. Fetterman. We continued on without any 
more trouble. 

The following information came from the Cheyenne Daily 
Leader 

August 3, 1876 

DOINGS OF DEVILS 

Another Good Man Killed and Scalped by Red Fiends. 

Mr. A. H. Reel received the following dispatch late last night; 



54 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Fort Laramie, Aug 2, 

The Indians attacked your train near Elkhorn, yesterday 
about four o'clock. 

They killed and scalped Geo. Throstle, wounded a team- 
ster, killed four horses, ten oxen, and burned three wagons. 

Sam Graves and Geo. Powell brought Throstle's body into 
this fort to-night. Your train is on the Labonte to-night. 

John Hunton 

George Throstle was a man who was esteemed highly by 
his numerous friends here, and enjoyed an extended acquain- 
tance through this region. Brave almost to rashness, he was 
yet full of nerve and caution, and the Indians paid dearly for 
his scalp. He was master of the train, which was conveying 
Government freight to Fetterman, and had sixteen men under 
his command, all of whom were armed and certainly made a 
desperate fight. 

Mr. Throstle had been in Reel's employ for nine years; 
was about 35 years old, and was faithful, industrious and 
temperate. Mr. Reel telegraphed instructions to have the 
body sent to Medicine Bow, and will himself meet it there 
immediately with a coffin, etc., when the body will be brought 
to this city and buried. 

12:15 P.M. Left the spot of the tragedy. 

12:25 P.M. Paused at an OREGON TRAIL MARKER 
(83% M.) where we entered the CHEYENNE-FETTERMAN 
ROAD from the southwest. 

12:40 P.M. Arrived at the LA BONTE STATION (89Vi M.) 
where a stop was made for a twenty minute lunch period. 

Mr. Fred Dilts, Jr. gave the following history of the La Bonte 
Station. 

The information that I have received concerning this location 
is through the courtesy of Harry Pollard of Douglas, and Paul 
Henderson of Bridgeport, Nebraska. 

We are on the scene not only of a historic fort, but also a cross 
road of cattle trails. Mr. Pollard, who came to La Bonte with 
his family in 1883, states that prior to the disastrous year of 1886, 
100 thousand head of cattle came down the ridge to south of us. 
These herds from Texas and other southern states perished in the 
winter of 1886. 

The La Bonte Stage station was named after a hunter named 
La Bonte. La Bonte was the son of a Kentucky mother and 
French father. He was reared in Mississippi. In 1825 he win- 
tered in Brown's Hole on the Green River. In 1826 he married 
a Snake Squaw named Chil-Co-The (reed that bends). He later 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 55 

acquired a second squaw and they quartered on the South Platte. 
While LaBonte was hunting on the North Platte, Arapahoes de- 
stroyed his lodge and took the squaws. The first one escaped and 
returned to him in 1828. Soon he appeared on this creek with an 
Indian named Cross Eagle, and while he was trapping on the 
creek, unfriendly Indians attacked the camp located at the fork 
of the creek and killed the squaws of the trappers. Thereafter the 
creek was known as La Bonte creek. After this, La Bonte re- 
moved to Lewis Fork of the Columbia river. 

The diary of Wm. H. Jackson in 1866 states that the old road 
passed the ruins of Fort La Bonte. Evidently this is the year that 
station was burned. Further evidence of this date lies in the diary 
of Jake Pennock who on Aug. 5, 1865, recorded that he camped 
at La Bonte Station. Perhaps it is at this time that Camp Marshall 
came into existence to replace the burned Fort. The only date I 
could find on Camp Marshall is 1865-66; other than this date I 
know nothing. 

The diaries of such travelers as Alex Ramsey 1849, E. B. Far- 
num 1849, Ceclia Hienes 1853, and George Keller 1851 all indi- 
cate that their impressions of the surrounding country were the 
same, "little grass, wretched country, steep hills etc." and La Bonte 
creek was a welcome relief with beautiful trees and water. Per- 
haps it was the dry trail between Horseshoe and La Bonte that 
gave them this distorted viewpoint. 

The crossing of La Bonte was at no fixed point because of the 
action of floods upon the banks. Perhaps the most used crossing 
is to the south of us, because at this point the creek often was an 
eighth of a mile wide due to low banks and sandbars. Evidences 
of crossings may be found, or have been apparent four or five 
miles up and down the creek; however the Stage Station was the 
focal point of all the crossings. 

Harry Pollard states that when he first arrived in La Bonte in 
1883, that remains of cabins were scattered quite profusely in 
this area. Also some cords of wood were still stacked in some 
areas where they had been cut for fuel. There is a marker about 
a mile north of here, erected by Bill Hooker on the site of his 
cabin. It was purportedly the first cabin to be built on LaBonte 
Creek entirely of logs. 

The site of the station is where the hay stacks stand. Digging 
still unearths the charred remnants of the fort. Mr. Pollard states 
that at the turn of the century, short posts and stubs remained as 
an out-line of the area circumscribed by the confines of the Fort. 
The stockade was evidently built of cottonwood logs embedded 
vertically side by side. The sides were perhaps 150 feet in length. 
The walls of the fortress also served as the outside walls of the 
buildings within the fort. On the north west corner was located 
the kitchen. The only gate was on the center of the west wall. 
The south side was divided into rooms. The east side was stables 



56 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Squad rooms divided the area into a parade ground on the west 
and corral on the east. The squad rooms were separated by a 
gate to the corral which allowed access to the outside gate. A 
hand dug well, located outside the walls of the fort, supplied water. 
I have marked the depression of the location of the well with a 
rag. Twenty years ago, this well was still four or five feet deep, 
but it necessarily had to be filled in because of the hazard. 

At a point that I have indicated by a flag, seven soldiers were 
buried. I do not know how they met their death, or when it 
occurred, but Mr. Pollard said that when he was commissioned by 
the government to assist in their exhuming, musket balls and iron 
arrow heads were found with the remains, which indicates they 
were killed by Indians. Headboards were placed above the 
graves. The only legible one read "Andrew Kirkwood Age 18, 
1 1th Ohio Inf." These bodies were moved to Fort McPherson in 
1 896, and reburied in the military graveyard. 

This area must have been the scene of some activity. In my 
boyhood, my brother and myself used to come to this location 
and dig up beads of many colors from the anthills. This would 
indicate the presence of Indians perhaps in trading or at least in 
temporary camps. The broken fragments of four inch artillery 
shells unearthed by ploughing would indicate that all might not 
have been peaceful at some time. 

1:20 P.M. Departed from LaBonte Station. Paused at an 
OREGON TRAIL MARKER (92 M.) on La Bonte Wagon 
Hound Divide. Crossed Wagon Hound Creek (93 M.). The old 
road crossed 100 feet to the east. 

1:50 P.M. Passed by an OREGON TRAIL MARKER on a 
large stone at east base of a hill 80 feet high where red earth is 
mentioned in some of the old diaries. 

Mr. W. W. Morrison read excerpts from several diaries telling 
about this place. 

Mountian men, traders, pioneers, and others passed this way. 
Here was the route of the Empire builders. Through their letters, 
their diaries, their personal records these great Americans have 
made us an eye-witness to their lives. 

Few knew the name of this spot (Wagonhound) but none ever 
forgot its description for it was red-soil and rocks. For three or 
four miles the road was deep with what appeared to be brick dust. 
It rose in billows and hid the teams. One woman was so im- 
pressed by the lurid color and the general look of drastic upheaval 
that she painfully crawled to the top of one of the "mountains of 
red stone" and inscribed upon it, "Remember me in mercy O 
Lord." 

The following descriptions of this area are taken from diaries: 
John Ball, 1832. 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 57 

"June 15. Here also we found red standstone. It was a 
region of rattlesnakes and large fierce bears. Some of the 
best hunters of Captain Sublettes party shot one five or six 
times before they killed him." 

Harriett, 1845. 

"June 22nd. This morning we commenced our zigzag course 
through the red hills; roads bad, traveled 15 miles and en- 
camped on a stream affording wood in abundance." 

Hastings, 1847. 

"July 4th. This day, Sunday, traveled across the redbanks. 
The red dust blew all over us; camped on a beautiful stream." 

Greer, 1847 

"July 20th. I could have written a great deal more if I had 
had an opportunity. Sometimes I would not get the chance 
to write for two or three days, and then would have to rise 
in the night when my baby and all hands were asleep, light a 
candle and write . . . Made 10 miles Sage still to cook with." 

Birmingham Emigranting Company . . . Loomis, 1850. 

"June 6, 1853. Got under way this morning at 5 o'clock 
drove brisk rather to fast, for the good of our horses, travelled 
through a mountaineous country, but roads very good, com- 
posed of what is called red sand, I think however, that it has 
more the appearance of clay than sand, it looks something 
like Spanish brown, we passed today many grand curiostities, 
one of which was a high mound of rocks some 75 to 80 feet 
high and piled up so perpendicularly that it was difficult for 
a man to climb to the top." 

Sharp Diary, 1852. 

"Sat. June 26th. This day we crossed Big Timber Creek and 
Marble creek. Road very rough. The hills for a consider- 
able distance in the neighborhood of Marble creek are of red 
shale formation, and the country is picturesque and interest- 
ing. We advance about twenty-two miles. We encamped 
near the bed of a dry branch which had neither wood nor 
water." 

2:05 P.M. Departed. 

2:30 P.M. Arrived at an OREGON TRAIL MARKER 

(100Vi M.) where the Cheyenne-Fetterman road branched to the 
north. (9 miles north to Fort Fetterman.) This marker was 
recently moved to its present proper location by Albert Sims. 



58 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

2:40 P.M. Departed (100V4 M.) 

3.10 P.M. Arrived at the location of the old LA PRELE 
STAGE STATION (107 M.) 

Mr. Glen R. Edwards gave an interesting account of the La 
Prele Stage Station. 

Folks, I wish to say I am more than pleased that I was permitted 
to be one of your party. I feel I have learned a great deal and 
wish to say that Bishop and others who have made this memorable 
trip possible should be justly thanked and properly rewarded. 
Let us hope the good work of mapping and marking this Old 
Overland Highway may be continued another year. 

The place we now stand, if we will face the East I will try to 
describe. The small piles of stone are the ruined chimneys of 
fireplaces of 4 log cabins where men who cared for the station 
lived and labored as we do today — looking and hoping for a 
better tomorrow. This is the ruins of the old well, perfectly walled 
with rock. Also the ruins of the old cellar. To your right, near 
the bank of the creek, lies the remains of a gallant soldier. Mr. 
Ayres cannot remember the name but does remember the marker, 
which was a board about 12 inches wide, engraved with a knife: 
[The following information was furnished by L. C. Bishop from 
the muster roll of Company, 11th Ohio Cavalry in the National 
Archives] 

RALSTON BAKER 
KILLED BY INDIANS 

May 1, 1867 
11th Ohio Cavalry 

Now looking East you view the ruts of the old road, marking 
so plainly the mode of travel — the Stage Coaches, Pony Express 
and Telegraph line taking the shortest distance and going over the 
hill, while heavy loaded wagons took the longer route to your left 
and went around the hill. 

Also to the east is Table Mountain. About Va mile to the 
northwest the Rock Creek-Ft. Fetterman Road crosses the Oregon 
Trail. Mail was carried from Ft. Laramie, also from Rock Creek. 
One stage a day each way. Stages did not drive in the night as 
they did on the Overland Trail. The Rock Creek Road went to 
Fetterman and for several years on north to Bozeman, Montana. 
Fort Fetterman was officially abandoned in 1884. Mail was car- 
ried until the building of the Fremont Elkhorn Missouri R. R. in 
1886. 

Just across the creek to the north was the pioneer home of 
George Powell who has been previously mentioned today. One 
mile to the north was the site of the first school house built in 
the north part of the state, Pleasant Valley School, District 6, 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 59 

Albany County. It was built by the father of Clark Bishop. He 
was one of the early La Prele ranchers and father of a large family, 
who have all been a credit to their country. 

To the west V2 mile is an Oregon Trail Marker. This stone is 
where the Natural Bridge road crosses this old road, The Natural 
Bridge, a public park maintained by Converse County and visited 
by several thousand tourists during the year, was donated as a 
pioneer monument by Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Ayres in 1921. 

Sometime during the month of March in 1876 while the first 
expedition was away from Fort Fetterman, White Horse, a chiet 
of the Arapahoes, reported to Major Alex Chambers, commanding 
Fort Fetterman, that a bad white man stole his ponies and drove 
them up the LaPrele Creek; Major Chambers detailed Sergeant 
Pat Sullivan of Co. "F" 4th U.S. Infantry to go with White Horse 
and get back his ponies. White Horse and his son kept to the 
hills and let Sullivan go up the creek. When Sullivan found the 
ponies and commenced to drive them to the Fort, Bill Chambers, 
the noted Persimmon Bill, shot Sullivan in the back, killing him 
instantly. He then robbed him of about $350.00 and his gun, 
the horse having run back to the Fort. Sergeant O'Brien's com- 
pany then turned out and took up the double quick and went after 
the murderer, but the company being afoot and Persimmon Bill 
being mounted he reached Table Mountain before the troops and 
there defied them. The company took several shots at him but 
the Tange being too long found it was no use, and therefore had 
to give up their quest. Sergeant O'Brien has related to me several 
very trying cincumstances which happened in those early days 
before our country was properly settled and the most of the 
unruly Indians sent to their Happy Hunting grounds. 

The following was written by Captain John D. O'Brien for 
A. C. Ayres for a school reading about the year 1904. 

"George Powell, for nearly sixty years a resident of Wyoming, 
died at his home Sunday morning after a long illness. He was in 
his eighty-first year. 

"Mr. Powell was a resident of Wyoming since 1866, when he 
came to old Fort Laramie from Denver. He was born at Fair- 
field, Iowa, October 22, 1844. He started for the west in 1864, 
going with a freight outfit from the Missouri River to Denver, 
before the days of railroads and when traveling through that sec- 
tion was full of danger from Indians. In 1866 he came to Fort 
Laramie, entering the service of the government as a freighter. 
He helped in the removal of Fort Casper and the erection of Forts 
Fetterman and McKinney. Later he engaged in the business of 
freighting from Medicine Bow to the northern army posts. 

"In 1876 he settled on the La Prele and lived there at his Doug- 
las residence until the time of his death. In 1878 he was married 
to Miss Margaret Skoglund, who survives him. Surviving also 
is a daughter, Mrs. Thomas Hutchinson of Douglas. 



60 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

"Funeral services were held Tuesday afternoon at the Hofmann 
Chapel, under the auspices of Ashlar Lodge of Masons, of which 
Mr. Powell had for many years been a member. Burial was in 
Douglas cemetery." 

Folks, this has been a wonderful day and I trust we all look 
to another year when our work so well begun may be continued. 
With Divine guidance may we carry on and when we depart may 
we feel our work is well done. We will part as friends of the West 
have parted for the last 1 50 years. May you all winter well. 

Mrs. Pauline Peyton also told about the La Prele Stage Station. 

It has been suggested that I write about the Oregon Trail and 
other items pertaining to the Edwards historic ranch on La Prele 
creek. 

Old Timers, including hunters, trappers, prospectors and others, 
who handed down legendary history before my time, by word of 
mouth, blazed the trail for my echo. 

My parents, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin C. Smith, brought my younger 
sister, Stella, and I to the Lower La Prele valley in Albany County, 
Wyoming Territory, in the year 1882 to make our home with 
them on father's homestead, which joined the George Powell ranch 
on the east. 

At that time, the early settlers were more concerned about find- 
ing a way to re-route the Emigrants on the Oregon Trail with the 
hope of getting them out of the old camp grounds in the valley 
rather than placing gates in the fences for the convenience of the 
travelers. 

I well remember hearing S. A. Bishop, our neighbor on the east 
say "Don't send any of your Emigrants over here," because he 
was trying to figure out a way to get rid of some of the old trails 
on his place. He also said, "that he would leave a little of the 
old road for a land mark when he plowed his meadow, because 
he could not pretend that he could not see the Mormon trail, 
when it ran through the center of our north meadow and clear 
across the George Powell place." 

There was evidence of a Mormon settlement in the LaPrele 
valley at a very early period, and the above mentioned road 
entered the George Powell ranch on the east and ran diagonally 
through the east meadow, past the old Bunk house, between the 
Adobe house and the barn turning south at the old Mormon well, 
going up the creek about a quarter of a mile and half way up a 
steep hill before turning west. John Boyd, who made his home 
at the Powell place for a number of years, was often quoted "any 
one could tell that trail was the Mormon road because they were 
half way up that steep hill before they would admit that it would 
be a good idea to turn west and join the other white Emigrants 
going west a mile or two farther north." 



OREGON TRAIL TREK, NO. TWO 61 

Mr. Powell often chuckled to himself about the time he saw 
Emigrants turn back when they saw the Teepes of Ann Hornbacks 
Indian relatives in his meadow. He used to say it would be hard 
to tell which could eat a rancher out of house and home first when 
they camped on his place, the Injuns, as he called them, or the 
Mormons who were still coming over the trail to see if they had 
forgotten some of their people when the Arapahoes put them to 
flight." 

The original branch of the northern Oregon Trail passed Ft. 
Laramie, crossed the Platte river, came through the Bed Tick 
country into Sand Creek country and followed that little stream, 
which was usually dry in most places until it came to a spring with 
a strong flow of water at the base of a small hill near the present 
home of the Jenkins family; here the road crossed the Sand Creek 
and followed it north to the confluence of the Sand Creek and the 
La Prele creek, crossing directly above the mouth of Sand Creek, 
going through the timber, which was quite dense at this point 
until most of the trees and wild fruit were cleared away on or 
about 1890. 

Father allowed the old trail to remain at this place to the 
small hill that extended into our central meadow; here the old 
trail went north until it passed the northern boundary of our land, 
turning west about a few rods east of the place the Oregon trail 
marker was set on or about 1913. 

This branch of the trail left the valley by going up a hill to the 
west, crossing the land eventually owned by Jim Abney and finally 
going through or near the Old Deer Creek Station. 

Another well worn trail came across the hilltop from the south 
and crossed the original trail near an old lake which showed signs 
of having been worthy of the name lake at some time in the past. 
This trail went north almost to the Platte where it joined an 
old trail going toward the big camp at the ROCK IN THE GLEN 
(just west of the town of Glenrock.) 

My father put gates in" the east side of his fence for the con- 
venience of Emigrants who were still coming through our land on 
the original trail and left the south side of our land unfenced for 
a few years because so many Emigrants were coming from the 
hill top of the Kellogg house (now Jenkins home). 

Those travelers turned west up the LaPrele creek where a large 
deposit of gravel and sand could be seen near the other road 
west of Sand creek. Here the women washed and mended their 
clothes while the teams (some of which were oxen) rested before 
entering the George Powell ranch and crossing the creek at a 
shallow creek crossing south of the old log shed, that had been 
there so long no one seemed to know when or by whom it had 
been built. 

There was much evidence of an old camp ground and graves 
upon both of these ranches. The above mentioned trail enjoyed 



62 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the company of the road to Deer Creek Station and also the deep 
path at the side of the road where those trails crossed the creek 
on the Powell ranch running diagonal across a small meadow west 
of the Adobe house and going up the hill from which they finally 
merged with the original Oregon Trail going west to Deer Creek 
Station, where the combined trails were called the Overland Trail. 

George Powell showed his respect for the original Oregon Trail, 
which bounded his place upon the north, by setting his fence 
back a few feet, apparently donating that land to the country when 
the land on the opposite side of the trail was fenced. 

We were told that the deep path that crossed the southwest 
corner of our land and entered the Powell place just north of the 
deep crack or gulch in the land had been made in early days by 
the mail carrier's pony, when the mail was delivered to Deer 
Creek Station and perhaps to other stops along the trail. 

There was evidence of an old telegraph line, which I believe 
crossed the Powell land a little farther south; I remember seeing 
that line and later finding some of those heavy green bulb like 
things south of our place. 

I can still remember seeing women, wearing card board slats 
in their sun bonnets, riding in covered wagons with their husbands 
and their children peeking out over the shoulders of their parents, 
who had no qualms about driving through our hay meadow on 
the Old Trail, past our house without consulting us in any way, 
prior to the year 1886 at which time the railroad reached the new 
town of Douglas. 

I made my home on my father's homestead until after his death 
in 1897 and again during the years between 1907 and 1912 and 
all during that time our men folk were trying to figure out some 
way to reroute the travelers on the Oregon Trail, first the Emi- 
grants and later the ranchmen including Charley Horr and others 
who were of the opinion that it was legal to trail their cattle 
through our meadow on the old trail at any time of the year. 

It is not my desire to discredit any difference of opinion about 
old land marks before my time, but rather to state the truth about 
things that I saw or heard during the years the I lived upon the 
Lower La Prele ranch. 

The following history about Fort Fetterman which is only nine 
miles from this station was given by Claude L. McDermott. 

On account of the increasing attacks on the emigrants and 
United States Army in the Territory of Dakota (and the new ter- 
ritory of Wyoming which was created July 25th, 1868, when the 
bill creating the Territory of Wyoming was signed by President 
Andrew Johnson) it became necessary to locate a post on the 
North Platte River at a point where La Prele Creek empties into 
that stream. This was at the angle where the Bozeman Road 
turns to the north. Accordingly Major William McE. Dye, with 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 63 

Companies A.C.H. and I, Fourth Infantry, was sent to construct 
the fort. These troops arrived on the ground on July 19, 1867, 
and at once commenced the erection of the necessary buildings. 
The fort was located on a beautiful plateau, 800 yards from the 
river and about 130 feet above it. 

This fort became destined to play an important part in the 
development of Wyoming as well as the Pacific coast, especially 
the northwest part. When Fort Casper was abandoned and the 
three forts north of it, Reno, Phil Kearney and C. F. Smith, it 
became of necessity an important supply point for the army oper- 
ating against the Indians in the Northwest. The post received its 
name in honor of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel W. J. Fetterman, 
Captain in the Twenty-seventh Infantry, who with his whole com- 
mand, was killed in the Indian massacre near Fort Phil. Kearny, 
December 21, 1866. 

With the first troops who came to Fort Fetterman was Captain 
John D. O'Brien, who after serving his time in the Army became 
a permanent resident of Douglas, Wyoming; from there he enlisted 
for service in the Spanish War and Commanded Company F, First 
Regiment of Wyoming Volunteers, and went with command to 
Manila, year 1898. He is buried in Douglas, Wyoming. 

Fort Fetterman was abandoned in 1878, but was a shipping 
point for several years. The town of Douglas was established in 
June 1886. Bill Barlow, who was earlier associated with Bill 
Nye in newspaper work as well as being mail clerk on the Union 
Pacific, had established Bill Barlow's Budget at Fort Fetterman, 
and refused to move to the new town of Douglas, on the grounds 
that the location as set-up by the Pioneer Townsite Engineers 
was not the place for a town. But later in the summer of 1886 
Bill Barlow moved to the town of Douglas, which was given this 
name in. honor of Senator Douglas from Illinois. The Chicago 
and Northwestern Railroad had extended its railroad to Douglas, 
Wyoming, which caused the transformation of the wild and wooly 
west's economic life. 

Many things happened at Fort Fetterman of which I have heard 
and I knew many characters that were a part of this Frontier Post 
and several that were born here, but time will not permit at this 
point to give account of such things. 

One outstanding feature of this settlement was the notable peo- 
ple who visited Fort Fetterman and here an idea was born in the 
mind of a great novelist Owen Wister, who wrote the Virginian. 
He lived at Fort Fetterman, and if you will read his book, the 
names of some of his characters lived in Douglas. Most of them 
were ex-soldiers and became cowboys; from this rough and ready 
life the western cowboy was created, and I believe, the first really 
western story to be staged on Broadway, was the Virginian. 
Dustin Farnum became a heroic actor and sprang to fame. 



64 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The author was Owen Wister, a Philadelphian, who came to 
Medicine Bow, Wyoming, and crossed over the Fetterman road to 
Fort Fetterman, where he lived and was closely associated with 
Dr. A. W. Barber, who had the Hospital there. Dr. Barber was 
also from Pennsylvania, I believe, and was the person who coached 
this young Novelist Owen Wister to write this thrilling story of the 
Wyoming plains. 

The Virginian is a composite character, but Owen Wister fol- 
lowed the round-up of the CY Outfit (the Carey interest) and 
Missou Hynds was the foreman of this vast cattle organization. 
If you were acquainted with Missou Hynds and other people in 
the novel, you would guess that Owen Wister had lived with and 
around Missou Hynds and Dr. Barber, that his leading character 
would be none other than Missou Hynds. 

Malcolm Campbell was a Deputy Sheriff at Fort Fetterman, 
which at this time was a part of Albany County. One day little 
Frenchie a peddler, carrying his wares on his back, made a fast 
walk from LaBonte Station to Fort Fetterman. He arrived nearly 
exhausted; he hastened to Malcolm Campbell's office and told him 
that the man-eater Parker, was working at the LaBonte station. 
Deputy Sheriff Campbell got his team harnessed, deputized his 
brother Dan and drove to LaBonte Station. When he arrived, 
Dan Campbell, Malcolm's brother, was not in a very good mood, 
slightly worried; however, to his surprise Parker walked up to 
the team, and the driver Dan throwed him the lines and he started 
to unhook the team. Dan stared at him in amazement, Malcolm 
Campbell climbed down from his position on the seat, coolly and 
walked up to the Man-eater Parker, placed hand-cuffs on him 
and then took him to Laramie City and placed him in "ail. Parker 
was accused of killing several prospectors who went with him to 
find gold in the Colorado mountains. This Frenchy was a member 
of this party for a while and knew all the members. It was claimed 
that Parker ate these men to survive the winter as he was en- 
trapped in the mountains and his food supply gave out. He was 
tried in Lake City, Colorado, and sentenced to be hung, but he 
was reprieved and served 17 years in the Colorado penitentary. 
A distorted story goes, that the Judge who tried and sentenced him 
remarked "Parker, you have committed a terrible crime. There 
were seven democrats in Hinsdale county, and you ate five of 
them." 

Fort Fetterman became an important place in the west, as 
from here the people of all classes came and departed in various 
directions. Like all early forts hewn out of the wilderness, bleak 
plains, sandy hills and running water in the near-by river, a set- 
tlement near the Military reservation, which consisted of a few 
bizzare houses among the purple sage, sold fire water to anybody 
where the adventurous, both male and female, gathered to hold 
a rendezvous with glamour of the denizens, wild women, dangerous 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 65 

men, daring soldiers and the settler, who was the only one to sur- 
vive. There were many incidents that happened, for instance 
the duel between Billy Bacon and Sanders, the shooting of a store 
clerk and the lynching of the slayer; thus with this background as 
told and perhaps witnessed by some, the great western story was 
written at and near old Fort Fetterman and Owen Wister in The 
Virginian put the daring cowboy on a high pedestal ever since. 
This nearby settlement was known as the Hog Ranch. 

There are many stories about Fort Fetterman, but now it is only 
a past memory to a few and is fading from Wyoming history. 

Time will not permit a further discourse of the story of Fort Fet- 
terman. I feel highly honored to be a member of this Oregon Trail 
Trek No. 2. Thanks. 

The following letter from C. W. Horr to Clark Bishop is in- 
cluded here for its historical information. 

Douglas, Wyoming 
May 4, 1950 
Dear Clark: 

The first I ever heard of Billy Bacon was by Billie Ashby, who 
was foreman of the Bridle Bit outfit in Goshen Hole. Bacon and 
Jimmy Abney both worked for him. They used to have some 
fun with him. Would saddle Bacon up and Jimmy would try to 
ride him. 

Bacon came to LaBonte in about '79 and ran a road ranch at 
the crossing. Just squatters right. Sold his right to Harry Pol- 
lard's father in the Spring of '83 for $5,000. Then he went to 
Cheyenne and was drinking and gambling, but some of his friends 
got him to leave, so he went back to LaBonte and bought a bunch 
of cows. He took the cows up to Bacon Park in June, '84. I 
saw him there. He had built a cabin and his wife was there in 
'85 or '86. He traded the cattle to Frank Gore — 100 head — for 
Frank's Saloon in Fetterman, so that is how he came to be in 
Fetterman and Sanders owned the dance hall. Well, they fell out 
and started out to get each other. Bacon had a double-barrelled 
shotgun and Sanders had a .45 Six-shooter. When they met, 
Bacon shot Sanders in the stomach and Sanders shot Bacon in 
the throat. Sanders was badly shot and died the next day, and 
Bacon lived about a week. They sent to Fort McKinney and got 
a young surgeon. They put Bacon on the operating table and 
four men held him and Fred Schwartz was one of them. The 
surgeon was trying to get the bullet but it slipped down Bacon's 
throat or windpipe and choked him to death. 

In the Spring of '87 or '88, I went to Brown Spring's Creek, 
where they started No. 6 Roundup. We worked the road between 
the Platte and Cheyenne Rivers. We got back to Fetterman the 
latter part of June. We had a big herd and laid over a day or two 



66 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

to work this herd. That is the first time I ever saw Jimmy Abney. 
He was an inspector working for the Wyoming Stock Growers 
Association. He married Mrs. Bacon and stayed there. 

It was about the time that John Fenix and Pretty Frank went 
over across the river to clean up the Hog Ranch. When they went 
in, Lawrence was behind the bar. Fenix shot at Lawrence and 
shot him in the stomach, and he shot at Pretty Frank and missed 
him. Pretty Frank and Fenix both ran out and were getting on 
their horses. Lawrence came out with a shotgun and shot one of 
Frank's eyes out. He always wore a patch over that eye after that. 
Fenix was in bed in the hotel (in Fetterman). I went in to see 
him. He looked very bad and died a few days later. I went to 
Colorado in 1881. Came to Wyoming 9th of June, 1883. My 
neighbors, when I first came to Wyoming: G. H. Cross, D. W. 
Leman, John Jones, Peter George, Charles Rice, Bill Howard and 
Charles George. 

C. W. HORR 

4:15 P.M. The Trek disbanded, some going to Fort Fetterman 
and some to the Natural Bridge, and others to their homes. 

FOLLOWING IS AN INTERESTING SUMMARY OF 
TREK NO 2 BY VIRGINIA TRENHOLM, GLENDO, WYO- 
MING. 

October 25, 1953 was a disagreeable day from the standpoint of 
weather, but this failed to deter the delegation assembled at the 
Frederick Museum near Guernsey. Regardless of dreary skies 
and a raw wind, everyone was eager to learn more about the 
great trail to Oregon. When we recognized among the group 
many who had been with us on Trek No. 1 , we felt a warm glow 
of friendship because of our mutual interest. 

We left the present highway at Frederick's and proceeded along 
the general course of the trail toward old Badger Station on the 
C & S in the vicinity of Wendover. The name Badger, retained 
by the Wendover voting precinct, is reminiscent of the early days 
of the railroad. Here the C. & S. erected a monument showing 
where the trail crossed Bitter Cottonwood, as the stream was 
known to the emigrants because of the bitter type of cottonwood 
trees growing along its banks. The old stage station bearing the 
name of the stream was some 200 feet east of us. 

Before reaching the Oregon Trail marker on the divide between 
Bitter Cottonwood and Bear Creek, we observed the bases of 
several Overland Telegraph poles. 

Hesitating to brave the uncertainty of the road down Diamond 
A Hill, we stopped to look out over Bear Creek Draw and Cassa 
Flats. To our right we could see Bull's Bend, as the admirable 
location along the Platte was known before an engineer for the 
railroad gave it the high sounding name of Cassa. 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. TWO 67 

Our next stop was at Twin Springs, a favorite camping place 
for the emigrants. The foundation of a small fortress is all that 
remains of the road ranch which was a scene in the three day 
battle with Crazy Horse and his warriors. The Indians were 
camping at Bull's Bend when they first staged their attack on 
Horseshoe Station. The battle ground stretched from there by 
Twin Springs to the Diamond A. Hill. 

We were next given an account of famous, old Horseshoe Sta- 
tion at the site of the well where a bailing bucket was retrieved by 
Captain John R. Smith, sixty years after his battle with Crazy 
Horse. Captain Smith's account establishes definitely the location 
of the station. 

The dedication of a marker memorializing Heck Reel's wagon 
train was held at the point where the Ridge Road leaves Highway 
87. This was at Bellwood Court, which bears the name first given 
by Judge J. M. Carey to a stage station owned and operated by a 
Mrs. McDermott at Horseshoe Creek. This stage stop, across the 
highway and west of the old Horseshoe Stage and Telegraph Sta- 
tion, was in operation before the railroad was built connecting 
Badger with Orin Junction to the north. 

When the railroad reached Glendo, Mrs. McDermott moved 
from her Horseshoe location to give the name Bellwood to the 
town's first hotel. 

Following the Ridge Road, we finally arrived at the site of the 
burned wagon train. Here we were given a splendid account of 
the Indian attack by the son of Ves Sherman, Heck Reel's 
wagon boss. 

Our stop for lunch was at the LaBonte Station, where Mr. Diltz 
told us something of the fur trapper for whom the station was 
known. We looked with interest at the depressions marking the 
empty graves of soldiers whose bodies had been moved elsewhere. 

We paused at two more Oregon Trail markers before reaching 
the site of LaPrele Stage Station. Here we were given a brief 
account of nearby Fort Fetterman though time did not permit 
our visiting the site of the fort which served as an important 
supply station for the forts to the north on the Bozeman Trail. 

Before leaving LaPrele, the reader might be interested in know- 
ing that LaPrele, or Laparelle as it is locally pronounced, was not 
a Frenchman like LaRamie, LaBonte, etc., but rather a type of 
grass growing in the vicinity. This explanation is found in the 
writings of Fremont in '42. 



Zhe 1859 Overland journal 
of Naturalist Qeorgc Suckley 



Edited by 
Richard G. Beidleman 



Many were the diaries and journals kept by travelers on the 
Oregon Trail in the last century. Most of the chronicles were of 
lean entries about stream crossings, sickness, mileages, encounters 
with bison and Indians, and so on. Only on rare occasions did 
some itinerant's penning rise above the ordinary and contribute 
a graphic portrayal of life on the famous overland trail. Francis 
Parkman's The Oregon Trail was, of course, the foremost of the 
classics, but becomingly increasingly of interest and importance 
are all those which described in some detail the new frontier coun- 
try, with its topography, animal life, and plant life, since the 
ingredients of that frontier country are now rapidly vanishing. 

The writings of itinerant naturalists are particularly to be val- 
ued. These men, many of them medical doctors, usually had 
educational backgrounds and professional interests which encour- 
aged detailed, accurate, and significant observations. The journals 
of some, like John Kirk Townsend and Adolph Wislizenus, have 
been published, while a few are still to be encountered here and 
there in manuscript form. 

The short diary which follows was written by one who was both 
doctor and professional naturalist, George Suckley. A native 
New Yorker, Suckley graduated from the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons (Columbia University) in 1851 and after a short 
period as resident physician at New York Hospital was invited 
to serve as naturalist for the eastern division of the government 
railroad survey to Washington Territory. He accompanied this 
expedition from Minnesota to the northwest coast during 1853, in 
December of that year being commissioned an assistant army 
surgeon at Fort Steilacoom on Puget Sound. In 1855 Suckley, 
on a six-month leave from the army, returned briefly to New York 
by sea, then continued his army residence in the Northwest until 
his resignation on October 3, 1856, at which time he sailed for 
China via San Francisco. During this entire army period Suckley 
maintained his interest and activity in the field of natural history, 
sending specimens to and corresponding with Dr. Spencer F. 
Baird of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. 

Suckley's jaunt on the Oregon Trail was under somewhat irreg- 



THE 1859 OVERLAND JOURNAL 69 

ular circumstances. Several years after having resigned from the 
army medical service, Suckley decided to reenlist and on March 
11, 1859, again passed the entrance examination in New York 
City. There were no vacancies for doctors in the army at that 
time, but in early May the Surgeon General's Office offered 
twenty-nine-year-old Suckley a special contract to accompany a 
party of army recruits to Utah Territory as a surgeon. 

On May 9, 1859, Suckley wrote the Surgeon General's Office 
a letter of acceptance with the qualification that the contract be 
for a six-month period only. The same day he notified Dr. Baird 
of the impending expedition, adding that he would "endeavor to 
act for the S. I. as before." Later in the spring he wrote Baird 
again, asking if the Institution could furnish him with a "small 
box containing 2 copper cans & arsenic, labels, etc.," for collecting 
purposes, and a "bird & a mammal catalogue mailed to me with 
marks attached to such as you specially desire." Suckley realized 
that the nature of the expedition would limit his scientific en- 
deavors to essential items. 

By late May the young doctor was on his way west, and on 
June 1, 1859, when his diary commences, he was in Fort Leaven- 
worth, Kansas Territory. Some of the journal entries permit a 
rough postulation of the party's itinerary. The expedition de- 
parted from Fort Leavenworth about June 11, 1859, traveling 
northwestward and reaching Fort Kearney on the Platte River 
towards the end of June. On July 14, after journeying along the 
Oregon Trail, the cross-over from the South to the North Platte 
via Ash Hollow was accomplished. Fort Laramie was passed 
towards the end of July. Here the party took the southwest 
cutoff from the fort along the Chugwater River, over Cheyenne 
Pass to the Laramie plains, and westward from there. By August 
12th, the latest date in the journal, the party was on the Muddy 
River west of the continental divide and Bridger's Pass. Presum- 
ably the route continued west beyond Fort Bridger and then south- 
west to Camp Floyd near Salt Lake City. 1 

The journal, in the manuscript collection of the U. S. National 
Museum Library, Washington, D. C, is a small, leather-covered 
notebook. It contains in pen and pencil not only diary entries 
for the period of June 1 through August 12, 1859, but also an 
annotated list of birds, eggs, and nests collected, and miscellaneous 
natural history observations. Many of the scientific names used 
by Suckley and included herein are obsolete today. In the follow- 
ing diary, clarification of identification using currently acceptable 



1. Camp Floyd was established south of Salt Lake City in Cedar Valley 
in the summer of 1858 by the Utah Expedition under General Albert Sidney 
Johnston. Although withdrawal of troops commenced in 1860, the camp 
was not abandoned by the army until July, 1861. 



70 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

common names adopted primarily from Roger Tory Peterson's 
A Field Guide to the Birds has been included in the text within 
parentheses rather than in footnotes, to facilitate readability. 

This journal apparently represents Suckley's last scientific work. 
On August 3, 1861, he was again sworn into the Army Medical 
Department as a brigade surgeon with the rank of major. The 
doctor served quite sucessfully with the Army of the Potomac 
during the Civil War until his resignation in April of 1865 at the 
rank of colonel of volunteers. He died on July 30, 1869. 

The author wishes to express his appreciation to the U. S. 
National Museum for permission to publish this journal and to 
Miss Reta Ridings of the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 
Department for assistance with certain points of Wyoming history. 

June 1 Ft. Levenworth. Doves (mourning dove) Parakeets 
(Caroline paroquet) Quail (bob-white) Swallows Black- 
birds abundant also Picus erythrocephalus (red- 
headed woodpecker) 

June 3 Startled a bird off its nest, made in a small clump of grass 
in open pasture. The nest was simply a depression in the earth 
with a few straws & dried blades of grass only laid around 

its sides and containing 4 large eggs, each with the small end 
pointing towards the centre. The nest belonged to the Actiturus 
Bartrami or Bartram's Snipe (upland plover). The old bird 
would sit very closely in the nest until almost trodden upon, 
when she would leave the nest, and by running & fluttering 
endeavor to decoy the intruder away sometimes uttering sharp 
cries Quail are whistling in every direction 

June 17th We are now at a small stream near the Nemaha. 2 For 
several days we have passed over long reaches of rolling prairie, 
varied by small patches of wood near the streams. The birds 
commonly met with are those found breeding on the plains. 
A. bartramii (upland plover), Euspiza americana (dickcissel), 
&c. &c. — near the timber Quail & doves are found & in it all 
or nearly all the forest loving small birds common to the 
northern western States. 

Today a young hawk, perhaps not more than 4 days hatched 
out, was brought to me: It was perfectly white & covered with 
soft down much like that of young domestic fowls. 



2. The company was probably encamped near the headwaters of the 
south fork of the Nemaha River which flows north through the present- 
day town of Seneca in northeastern Kansas. During Suckley's time this 
fork was also known as the "Big Nemaha," "Illinois Creek," or "Legerette 
Creek." 



THE 1859 OVERLAND JOURNAL 71 

The only serpents noticed thus far have belonged to a single 
species of Pituophis or Bull-snake 

A turtle, whose shell I preserved was caught, on a hook, from 
Grasshopper Creek. 3 It would weigh about 4 lbs & seemed 
to be a male. It made delicate delicious stew. 

A very large "snapping turtle" which would probably weigh 
12 lbs. was brought to me a few days since, but after wards 
escaped. A small "box" land tortoise (probably an ornate 
box turtle, Terrapene ornata) was got by me at Ft. Leaven- 
worth, but not preserved. — 

Blue "bottle flies" have been very annoying lately, "blowing" 
new white blankets to which they are attached by the rank 
unctuous smell common to those fabrics when recently manu- 
factured. 4 Specimens of small Hyladae (probably swamp tree 
frog, Pseudacris nigrita, or cricket frog, Acris gryllus) which I 
caught in my tent coming up from the grass floor, are enclosed 
in alcohol Also a few "ticks" which are numerous & 

troublesome in this part of Kanzas 5 



June 19 Some long thick shelled unios (fresh-water mussels of 
the family Unionidae) obtained at crossing of Big Blue" 

25 some unios from Little Blue 7 
After crossing the Big Blue River in going west heard no more 
quail (bob-white) & presume that at this parallel the river 
mentioned is their western limit — unless perhaps a few strag- 
glers cross it — 

Upon the Little Blue R, July 25th s found young blue winged 
teal & mergansers of the year (probably hooded mergansers, 



3. Grasshopper Creek, now known as the Delaware River, was a major 
tributary of the Kansas River, crossed by the expedition about thirty-five 
miles northwest of Fort Leavenworth. 

4. Suckley probably referred to the common bluebottle fly (Cdlliphora) 
which is a member of the blow-fly family (Calliphoridae). These flies 
lay ("blow") their eggs on meat or other provisions, in this case on the 
white army blankets. 

5. The army party left Ft. Leavenworth, traveling west and then north- 
west to traverse the northeastern corner of Kansas. They may have fol- 
lowed portions of the Butterfield Overland Express route or the earlier 
Fort Leavenworth-Fort Kearney road. 

6. The Big Blue River, a tributary of the Platte, runs north through 
present-day Marysville into Nebraska. The company may have crossed 
the river near the later site of the town. In 1859 this point was at the 
western edge of settlement in Kansas Territory. 

7. The Little Blue River was undoubtedly reached north of the Kansas- 
Nebraska border near present-day Fairbury. Like many earlier expeditions, 
Suckley's party probably followed the valley of the Little Blue northwest 
towards Fort Kearney on the Platte. 

8. Suckley entered the wrong date. It should have been June 25th. 



72 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

as young of other species normally would not be in this area 
during June). The latter were able to fly well. The former 
were pretty well feathered but could scarsely fly — Young blue- 
jays were also seen, able to fly moderately well. Along the 
same river for the first time saw the great raven (probably the 
American raven ) . — We also at this place first struck the Buffalo 
which continue until we had passed Ft. Kearny about 120 
miles." Two kinds of Catfish are found in the waters of the 
Platte, one more nocturnal than the other, is more numerous in 
the sloughs along the river — The latter also contain small sun 
fish, chubs red-finned shiners, & wall-eyed Pike — or Pike 
perch Lucio perca the dace ? of the Platte having a mem- 
branous valve in the nostril is found in the turbid waters of the 
Platte where the water is so darkened by the mud that the fish 
evidently must depend more upon the sense of smell than upon 
its eyesight when in pursuit of food. They are bold gresdy 
feeders seizing the bait run off with it with a jerk & upon 
being hooked battle strongly to escape. Colors when first 
caught pale yellowish drab on the back tail upper fins & top 
of head; sides quite silvery, belly & lower fins silvery white. — l0 

Thursday July 14 Crossed over from S. Platte to N Platte 20 m. 
Entered the valley of the latter via Ash Hollow, an abrupt rock 
bordered canon. The cliffs are apparently of whitish limestone 
or hard white clay — " Swallows breed in them & cedar trees 
( actually junipers ) grow here and there from their sides — Birds 
noticed doves, robins, Fringilla tristis (American goldfinch) — 

The bottom of the canon has large beds of gravel & among 
the dried herbage are found various curious crickets & grass- 
hoppers. On the sand a small lizard of which I obtained several 
specimens, near a small spring brook found 3 frogs & 1 toad, 
preserved also skull & foot bones of a wolf, also many 
curious beetles, hymenoptera (bees) & other insects. In the 
bluffs are found antelope (the pronghorn) jackass hares & 



9. If Suckley's distance was correct, bison were first encountered in 
the vicinity of present-day Fairbury, Nebraska, farther east than records 
by many earlier chroniclers. 

10. It would be difficult to identify specifically the species of fishes 
which Suckley mentioned. The red-finned shiner was probably Notropis 
umbrqtilis, a common Middle Western creek minnow. 

1 1 . Ash Hollow, named by Fremont, lay at the bottom of a precipitous 
canyon down which one branch of the Oregon Trail descended to the 
North Platte River near the present town of Lewellen in western Nebraska. 
Emigrant wagons often had to be lowered by ropes down this chasm. The 
cliffs were of the Ogallala geologic formation, deposited in late Miocene 
and Pliocene time about twelve million years ago. This formation is 
characterized by layers of white sandstone, calcareous sandstone and lime- 
stone, with some embedded clay, silt and fine sand. 



THE 1859 OVERLAND JOURNAL 73 

some deer Capt Grover 1 " saw today a small animal a little 
larger than a prairie dog. 

Also 2 birds "about the size of ravens with white heads & tails 
& black bodies & wings" Eagles? (the description fits the 
adult bald eagle) a bird on the cliffs near Ash Hollow & 
along the N. Platte above it saw many swallow nests — One 
where a simple shelf in the rock has wall in front of the exca- 
vation made of small pellets of mud slightly held together by 
straws containing a small white egg with brown specks, which 
was evidently the n & e of the hirundo horreorum or Barn 
Swallow. The inside of nest lined with feathers. Nests of the 
Cliff Swallow H. lunifrons in vast numbers in certain favorite 
spots where the birds appear to breed in colonies size and 
shape of nests much like the mamma of a woman with a central 
hole replacing the nipple. A Sterna frenata (least tern) killed 
at camp of July 15th N. Fork Platte R. — Differed from descript. 
in having 3 black primaries & the feet orange, not orange red. 
Stomack contained apparently fragments of small fish — seized 
its prey by hoving & suddenly dropping upon it gull fashion 
Spinis (either the pine siskin or goldfinch) first met with today. 
Coturnis gramineus (vesper sparrow) abundant 

Small squirrel obtained Platte R. July 17 — They are rather 
abundant above Ash Hollow. July 1 8 Anas clypeata ( shoveller 
duck) near Court House Rock 13 July 18 N Platte R near 
Court House Rock Young Black ducks (closely related to the 
mallard) near full grown & well feathered killed — Tur Dove 
(mourning dove or "turtle dove") are abundant Female Mer- 
gus cucculatus (hooded merganser) also killed Curious small 
egg obtained 

20th Blue winged teal & A clypeata (shoveller) 

29 Red eyed black billed cuckoo obtained & compared — Killed 
near the Chugwater N. T. 14 July 29th Skin much damaged 
and not preserved 



12. Captain Grover was probably Cuvier Grover from Maine, an 1846 
graduate of the military academy at West Point. Grover, ranking fourth 
out of his graduating "class of 59, received promotion to captain on Sep- 
tember 17, 1858, and by the end of the Civil War had become a major 
general with the Union forces. 

13. Courthouse Rock is a large sedimentary landmark south of the 
Oregon Trail near present-day Bridgeport in western Nebraska. According 
to some, the formation was named by early Saint Louis travelers who 
thought it looked like their home town courthouse. 

14. The Chugwater is a branch of the Laramie River which swings 
southwest from Fort Laramie. The party was following what was called 
the "Fort Laramie and New Mexico Road," extending from Fort Laramie 
towards Denver and used mainly by emigrants. 



74 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

31st Chugwater 50 m w of Laramie 1 '"' Magpies were for the 
first reported to me. Grizzly sign for the first time reported. 
We have now struck the Black Hills in which are found elk 
deer (mule deer) & big horn 10 

August. 1 Saw several magpies Mountain sheep, (always in 
Blk Hills) antelope & deer numerous — but no buffalo. Skulls 
of buffalo which had probably been killed last winter have been 
seen. Dusky grouse shot, see Birds 15. Aug 1st Route through 
Blk Hills w of camp Walbach. 17 Hills of considerable height 
capped by rock containing much feldspar mice &c. & disinte- 
grating freely. ls Soil on the top made up principally of the 
detritis of this, which, altho of barren appearance, yields a 
pretty good crop of bunch grass 

Aug 2nd We are still ascending & are within 15 miles of a ridge 
upon which is perpetual snow,"' nights cold; the day coolish with 
thunder storms — & a hurricane passed near our camp prostrat- 
ing everything before it. — Flowers are very numerous & are 
of many species — a kind of wild currant & several kinds of wild 
gooseberry are noticed; also the red raspberry, & to day a friend 
saw strawberries still green, also some of the vines having blos- 
soms Uva ursi (kinnikinnick) abundant in the forests of Pine 
the "Red Rocky Mountain Pine" or P ponderosa (ponderosa 
pine or western yellow pine) 



15. By "Laramie," Suckley referred here to Fort Laramie. 

16. The mountains to the west were not the Black Hills, although often 
called such by early travelers, but rather were the Laramie Mountains 
of the Rocky Mountain chain. 

17. Camp or Fort Walbach was established at the head of Lodgepole 
Creek, elevation 6927 feet, on the so-called "Lodge Pole Trail" by an army 
order of September 20, 1858, although the spot may have been in use 
as an army camp earlier. Many emigrants were traveling the road through 
Cheyenne Pass (west of Walbach, see footnote No. 19) at this time as a 
cut-off from Fort Laramie to the Laramie plains, and the temporary camp 
was created to protect these emigrants from Indian depredations. The 
camp was officially abandoned on April 19, 1859, although, as Suckley's 
diary suggests, the location was still made use of. On September 4, 1916, 
a state monument was erected and dedicated near the site, about twenty 
miles northwest of Cheyenne. 

18. This was undoubtedly the igneous rock known as Sherman granite, 
which is coarse-grained and composed of pink feldspar, glassy-looking 
quartz, black hornblend and mica. This rock breaks readily into a 
gravelly soil. 

19. Pole Mountain, 9100 feet in elevation, was about the right distance 
away (to the south) to fit Suckley's description but is ordinarily not cov- 
ered with "perpetual snow." However, it may have been snow-capped 
during this particular August. The party crossed the Laramie range at 
Cheyenne Pass, 8591 feet, which lies about ten miles southeast of present- 
day Laramie and west of the site of Camp Walbach. 



THE 1859 OVERLAND JOURNAL 75 

A panther (mountain lion) was seen at this place near a dead 
deer which it had apparently but just killed, & had partially 
devoured. We are camped (Aug. 2) at Lodge Pole Creek, 
about 14V6 miles from Camp Walbach. Several curious green 
coleoptera (beetles) 1 Buprestes (a wood-boring beetle), & 
1 other having green body & fiery red kind were captured. 

Aug 5 Camp 1 1 miles E of Medicine Bow Creek"" — Saw for 
the first a sage hen. Man died this Saturday evening (Dick- 
ensen) 

Aug 12 2nd Camp on Muddy R" 1 — We arrived at this after going 
10 miles from last camp, which broke up this morning at sunrise 
Lt Thomas & myself, with servant, remained behind the com- 
mand & hunted on the hills & in the river bottom around the 
deserted camp. We flushed about 35 sage fowl (sage hens), 
killing of that number 13. — Yesterday I killed seven about 5 
miles above last night's camp on the same river — The sage fowl 
are very numerous along the bottom until the high, coarse sage 
bushes were met with. One bird killed by me was a male — 
the present specimen — the first that I have yet seen among 
some 40 or 50 birds which have brought into camp. This 
specimen rose like the others from behind a low sage brush on 
the valley bottom & was brought down in the ordinary manner. 
The white patches, greenish yellow "wattle pouches", feet 
grayish olive, iris hazel, Bill black (ed. note: measurements for 
this bird were given in the diary but have not been included 
here) The half grown brood when scattered have a call by 
which they come together. This is of two notes quickly re- 
peated & is analogous to the call-note of the young turkey under 
similar circumstances — The half-grown young when wounded 
after having been caught utter a clear but feeble screaming most 
like that of a domestic fowl of the same age similarly seized. 

The old female upon being flushed is apt to utter cackling noise 
much like that of the pinnated or sharp tailed grouse, & at times 
when alarmed & running makes a somewhat similar noise as a 
guide I suppose to the young. . . . (ed. note: except for further 
miscellaneous notes on sage hens, this concludes the diary sec- 
tion of the manuscript). 



20. Medicine Bow Creek lies about fifty miles northwest of present-day 
Laramie. The expedition apparently traveled northwest out of the Laramie 
plains, crossing several branches of the Laramie River (the "east fork" 
and "west fork") and eventually striking the above creek probably near 
the later site of Fort Halleck close to Elk Mountain. 

21. This particular Muddy Creek is located a short distance west of 
Bridger Pass (see footnote No. 25). 



76 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

LIST OF BIRDS COLLECTED EN ROUTE FROM FT. LEAVEN- 
WORTH. K. T. TO SALT LAKE U. T. — 1859 

No. 1 Mimus carolinensis (catbird). Ft. Leavenworth June 8th This 
bird belonged to nest & eggs preserved & marked No. 3. See list of 
Nests & eggs 

No. 2 Collyrio excubitoroides (loggerhead shrike) Camp near Ft. Lea- 
venworth June 9th 

No 3 Pipilo erythrophthalmus (towhee) Male Killed June 12th, 22 miles 
W. of Ft Leavenworth Nest & eggs preserver; marked No. 4. The 
female escaped but this bird was evidently her mate. 

No. 4 Euspiza americana (dickcissel). Male near Turtle Creek, Kan- 
zas." June 16th. Belonging to nest & eggs marked No. 5. The species 
is quite abundant on the grass prairies of Eastern Kanzas., Builds its 
nest on the ground. That found was composed of grass neatly laid: 
those of the outside being coarse & those of the inside very fine — Eggs 
4 of a pale blue: immaculate. 

No. 5 Sturnella neglecta (western meadowlark) Male supposed parent of 
eggs invoiced 27 Ft Kearny June 30 

No 6 Chordeilles popetue (nighthawk) Skin of female belonging to eggs 
marked 28 

7 Set of 4 Athene hypugaea (burrowing owl) Platte R July 1859 The 
female was in brown plumage The males (3) were paler 

8 Tyrannus verticalis ? (Arkansas kingbird) with lower tail coverts 
lemon yellow instead of dusky as in Bird Report 23 see T. verticalis 

9 Otus wilsonianus (long-eared owl) Chugwater near Ft. Laramie July 
29 Found in dense thicket. Flew a short distance & then "lit" 
Stomach contained the remains of what appeared to be a Dipodomys 
(kangaroo rat) — no gravel in stomach which was quite muscular. The 
hair of the mammal appeared to be in a process of separatim & was 
disposed to become matter, preparatory, I suppose, to the formation of 
small rolls to be expectorated by the mouth, as is the case with the 
screech owl. An owl of this size not the Prairie dog owl was seen by 
Mr. Frank Hunt to retreat to a p-dog burrow (probably the short-eared 
owl which, like the burrowing or "prairie dog owl," occurs in open 
country and is active during the daylight hours) 

10 Plectrophanes ? (one of the longspurs) male 25 m W of Laramie 
July 29 15 

11 Plectrophanes ? — female (damaged skin) same locality. July 29 

12 Same bird probably male same locality 

13 Pipilo ? (towhee) Irids red. same locality & date 

14 Dove (mourning dove), Chugwater July 31 See measurements on 
box. 21 Legs reddish flesh color not nearly of so bright a red as those 
of well marked male L. carolinensis (mourning dove) 

15 Female Tetrao obscurus (dusky grouse) Cheyenne Pass about 15 
miles from Camp Walbach. on the Chugwater side, (most Eastern 
locality?) July 31 59 



22. Turtle Creek was one of the small creeks east of the Nemaha River 
in northeastern Kansas. The name was probably a local one and seems 
no longer to be in use. 

23. The bird report mentioned was Dr. Spencer F. Baird's General 
Report on North American Birds, published in 1858 as one of the series of 
Reports of Explorations and Surveys of a Railroad Route to the Pacific 
Ocean. 

24. Suckley shipped his collections to the Smithsonian Institution from 
Fort Kearney, Fort Laramie, and also probably from Camp Floyd. 



THE 1859 OVERLAND JOURNAL 77 

16 Erismatura rubida (ruddy duck) Aug 1st 10 miles on the Laramie 
side of Camp Walbach 

17 Small prairie dog owl (burrowing owl) near Camp Walbach 

18 Buteo Bairdii ? (Swainson's hawk) East Fork of Laramie Aug 3rd 
(Road to Bridgers Pass) 2 " 22 50 \AVa' x ' Cere greenish yellow, base 
of both mandibles bluish slate color, the tip only of the lower being 
black. The greater portion of upper mand. black. Irids brownish 
yellow, Legs pale yellow, claws blk. Tail 10 Male ? Testicles (if such) 
much atrophied owing to lateness of the season 

19 Larus delawarensis. Ring-billed Gull W. Fork Laramie Ri. Aug 
4th/59 19 3/4 48 Vi 15 

20 Sage fowl Adult female 24V2 38 11 Medicine Bow Creek Aug 
6th 59 See notes under head of Sage fowl 

21 Sage fowl same date & place young early brood 

22 Sage fowl (young late brood) same date & locality 

23 adult female same date & locality 

24 Phalaropus wilsonianus (Wilson's phalarope) Med. Butte, shot on 
pond 27 legs & feet yellow, see page 705 Bird Rept. 

25 Oroscoptes montanus (sage thrasher) Iris yellow. Legs greyish black. 
Bill pale bluish towards the base black tip. Was feeding on Prairie 
Bridger's Pass near & under a dead cow probably eating maggots. In- 
quisitive. 

Eggs and Nesfe 

June 7th Ft. Leavenworth. N & E marked 1 Bird not recognized 

June 8 Fort Leavenworth Marked 2. The bird was destroyed From its 

description as the "Brown Thrasher" was probably the Harporhynchus 

rufus Cab. (brown thrasher) No. 2 
No. 3 June 8th Marked 3. Nest & Eggs of Mimus felivox (catbird). 

Bird preserved 

4 No. 4 22 m W of Ft Leavenworth June 12th N & eggs & male bird 
Pipilo (towhee) Bird preserved 

5 N & E of Euspiza Americana (dickcissel) belonging to Bird-skin No. 4 

6 Single egg June 18 Bird unknown 

7 Single egg & nest Brown Thrush ? (brown thrasher) From near Big 
Blue R 

8 Nest & eggs from near Big Blue R. Kanzas 

9 Cat bird nest & eggs near Little Blue R 

10 Harpo rufus ? (brown thrasher) near Little Blue R 

1 1 Nest & eggs of a bird said by the man who brought it to belong to 
the meadow lark Sturnella neglecta (western meadowlark) Found on the 
ground. Little Blue River Kanzas June 25 Very doubtful 

12 A broken egg of a small bird resembling Fringilla socialis (chipping 
sparrow). The nest was on the ground among the grass in an upland 
prairie near Little Blue R. Kanzas (Nebraska) obtained June 25th/59 



25. Bridger's Pass was a continental divide crossing twenty miles south- 
west of present-day Rawlins, used particularly by the overland stages in 
the early 1860's. 

26. These numbers refer to the following measurements of the speci- 
men: total length, wingspread, and wing length. 

27. Medicine Butte was a rocky knob, 8769 feet in elevation, located 
about twenty-five miles west of Fort Bridger. The name derived from 
the frequent establishment of Indian medicine men camps in the vicinity. 
There was apparently a temporary army post here known as Camp Medi- 
cine Butte, where Suckley's party may have stopped. 



78 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

4 eggs were in the nest. Old bird could not be obtained. Eggs were 
broken while being brought to camp. 

1 3 Loose Egg Little Blue R 

14 A set of odd eggs collected at 32 mile creek near Ft Kearny, Neb. 28 
like those of the Brown Thrush (brown thrasher) are paler than those 
of the species marked 15. The other eggs are broken cat-birds egg — 
2 doves eggs (though stated by the soldier that brought them not to 
be of dove — that had a 

15 5 eggs of Brown Thrush (brown thrasher) 32 mile creek near Ft 
Kearny Neb. T. June 26 

No. 16 Egg of a bird said by the soldier who found the nest to be a 

"blackbird" 
No. 18 3 whitish eggs found by soldiers on the surface of the ground on 

the plains at 32 mile creek near Ft Kearny 
No. 19 2 eggs found in similar situation with No 18 and perhaps same — 

Eggs of Sturnella neglecta (western meadowlark) 
No 20 Nest & eggs 32 m Creek 
21 & 22 (ed. note: illegible notations) 

23 Eggs of Tyrannus carolinensis (eastern kingbird) and no mistake. 
The old bird was killed & carefully compared with Baird's description 

24 Single egg probably of Ectopistes carolinensis (mourning dove) 

25 Single egg of unknown parents. The old bird was said to be dark 

26 Eggs of Actiturus bartramii (upland plover) Ft. Kearny June 30 
1859 

27 Eggs & nest of a bird said to be the meadow lark The same soldier 
afterwards went to the place from whence the nest had been taken & 
killed a bird near by which seemed to him to be identical with that 
which had previously flown off the nest. This he brought to me & & 
proved to be the Sturnella neglecta (western meadowlark). The eggs 
were quite recent & as I have seen young larks apparently of the season 
already flying about I presume that the species incubates twice or oftener 
during the season 

The foregoing were dispatched from Ft Kearny 

28 Eggs of Chordeilles popetus (nighthawk) Female preserved July 3rd 

29 Eggs of dove ?? Taken by a soldier from a nest in a bush 

30 Two eggs obtained July 8 from a Prairie-dog "Town" — They were 
found by a soldier at the mouth of a burrow, & were said by him to be 
the eggs of the Prairie-dog Owl (burrowing owl) & that he saw the old 
owl — The eggs were nearly hatched out, upon removing the young from 
the shell I found their legs & feet much like those of various of the true 
plover, with 3 toes, & lacking the hind one 29 The length of egg about 
VA inches color dingy green, speckled with black The black specks 
more numerous & larger on the butt half and of irregular size. (ed. note: 
two sketches of eggs included) The nest was simply a depression in 
the ground, bordered by a few coarse straws. 

The stomacks of four owls have been examined. They contained frag- 
ments of grass-hoppers, Coleopterous insects (beetles), &c & in one I 
found the forefoot of some small rodent — The stomachs were thick & 
muscular gizzard-like, & generally packed full of food. 

31 Nest containing 3 eggs obt. July 14 at Ash Hollow Young thrown in 
alcohol 



28. 32-mile Creek was a northern tributary of the Little Blue River, 
lying west of present-day Hastings, Nebraska. 

29. This was perhaps the earliest description of the eggs and nest of 
the mountain plover. Suckley was commended for this discovery in the 
Smithsonian Report of 1859. 



THE 1859 OVERLAND JOURNAL 79 

32 Nest N. Fork Platte, July 15/59 

33 Nest, same locality & date 2„eggs — Found in ground 

34 Nest & eggs of Sturnella neglecta (western meadowlark) N. Platte 
July 16 1859 — These 2 eggs were addled. There were in the next two 
young just hatched. These thrown in alcohol in two bags 

35 Eggs obtained by Capt. Grover.July 17th see note on slip of paper 
with egg 

36 Odd egg July 18. Platte R. near Court House Rock in box with 
specimen No. 30 

Alcohol 

June 14th Grasshopper Creek. Lino bag No. 1 containing small fishes 
Same date & locality No. 2 Unios (fresh-water mussels). Other unios 
are packed dry. A catfish from same stream, but larger than the other 
specimens was thrown loose in the can. A turtle which would weigh 
about 5 lbs was also caught & cooked shell preserved The catfish 
was of a light yellowish brown when first out of the water, but became 
of the ordinary dark olive color shortly after death 

Small crayfish obtained from a pool near Nemaha creek K. T. July 17th 30 
Leeches obtained sticking to the shell of a turtle— caught in Grasshopper 
Creek about June 14th They appeared to be parasitic. v 

Garfish plenty in Big Sandy 31 

June 18th Vermillion River about 100 miles west of Ft. Leavenworth. 32 
Obtained several small Pmelock & other fish, enclosed in lino bag No. 3. 

19th Small snake. Crossing of the Big Blue R. K. T. 

19th Long unio — label No. 4 Thrown in bag. Other large thick ones 
are dried & enclosed from the same locality 

No. 4 2 catfish from Big Sandy River 

No. 5 Chubs from Little Blue 

June 25 Catbird & other eggs found near Little Blue R- — Enclosed in . . . 
box. Another egg & nest the . . . which was destroyed by a dog & the 
egg broken was obtained on a farm near the same locality. I am unable 
to say to which species the egg belongs. 

June 25 A nest said to have been found on the prairie & belonging to the 
meadowlark of which I know nothing 

Small fish in lino bag from E. Branch of Bitter Creek U. T. 33 Aug. 14th 
found in water excessively alkaline 

Other small fish from Muddy R. Bridgers Pass were also gotten 

Due Landow 1 duck 10 1 burrowing owl 10 2 gulls 20 1 hawk 20 
1 owl 10 2 sage fowl 30 



30. Suckley again erred in writing the date. It should have been June 
17. 

31. It is difficult to ascertain which "Big Sandy" Suckley meant. There 
was an affluent of the Little Blue River known in Suckley's time as "Big 
Sandy Creek." The presence of garfish and catfish would suggest that it 
was this creek rather than the Big Sandy in western Wyoming to which 
the naturalist referred. 

• 32. It is likely that Suckley meant either the Black Vermillion, which 
is an east tributary of the Big Blue River, or a western branch of the 
Black Vermillion known as the "Vermillion," or "Big Vermillion." The 
main Vermillion River is a tributary of the Kansas River and lay some- 
what south of the company's apparent route. 

33. Bitter Creek lies southeast of present-day Rock Springs, Wyoming. 
The army company probably struck the creek at about the later site of 
Barrel Springs stage station, which was built for overland stage use in 1862. 



Washakie and Zhe Skoshoni 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the Utah 
Snperintendency of Indian Affairs 

Edited by 

Dale L. Morgan 

PART VI— 1862 

LXIV 

William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to James 

Duane Doty, et al., dated Office of Indian Affairs, 

July 22, 1862. 117 

Jas. D. Doty Esq. 
Supt. Ind. Affairs, 

Luther Man[n] Jun r . U. S. Agent 
for Indians in Utah 

Henry Martin Esqr. 
Present 

Gentlemen. 

Congress at its recent session having appropriated Twenty 
Thousand dollars for the purpose of making a treaty with the 
Shoshonees or Snake Indians, you have been designated by the 
President to carry into effect the object of the said appropriation. 
— No sufficient reports of explorations are in the custody of this 
office to enable me to state definitely the boundaries of the 
Country inhabited and claimed by these Indians, but it is under- 
stood that they inhabit the Country in the Northern part of Utah 
and eastern portion of Washington Territories, 148 through which 
lies the route of the overland mail, and the emigrant route through 
Utah and into Washington Territory and it is mainly to secure 



147. 37th Congress, 3rd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1157), pp. 536-537. 

148. The Territory of Idaho was not created till March 3, 1863. The 
Territory of Washington was extended to include this area when Oregon 
became a State in 1859. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 81 

the safety of the travel along these routes that a treaty is 
desirable. 110 

It is not expected that the treaty will be negotiated with a view 
to the extinguishment of the Indian title to the Land, but it is 
believed that with the assurances you are authorized to make of 
the amicable relations which the United States desires to establish 
and perpetuate with them, and by the payment of twenty thousand 
dollars of annuities in such articles as by the President may be 
deemed suitable to their wants for which you are authorized to 
stipulate, you will be enabled to procure from them such articles 
of agreement as will render the routes indicated secure for travel 
and free from molestation; also a definite acknowledgment as well 
of the boundaries of the entire country they claim, as of the 
limits within which they will confine themselves, which limits 
it is hardly necessary to state should be as remote from said 
routes as practicable. 

It must however be borne in mind that in stipulating for the 
payment of annuities the sum mentioned above is not to be 
exceeded, so that if for any reason, you are unable to treat with 
all the bands of the Shoshonees, the amount of annuities stipulated 
to be paid must be such a proportion of said sum as the number 
of the bands treated with bears to the number of the entire nation. 

It will also be well so to frame the treaty that while on the one 
hand it is expressed that the United States being aware of the 
inconvenience resulting to the Indians in consequence of the 
driving away and destruction of the game along the route traveled 
by whites, are willing to fairly compensate them for the same, the 
Indians on the other hand shall acknowledge the reception of the 
annuities stipulated for, as a full equivalent therefore, and shall 
pledge themselves at all times hereafter to refrain from depreda- 
tions and maintain peaceable relations with the United States 
and their Citizens. 

Should you find it impracticable to make one treaty which will 
secure the good will and friendship of all the tribes or bands of 
Shoshonee Indians, you will then negotiate only with that tribe 
or band which is most dangerous to emigrants and settlers upon 
the route of travel over which the mails are carried and also the 
overland route of travel north of that, and you can only secure 
protection for one of said routes, you will negotiate a treaty with 
such tribe or bands as will secure that protection to the route over 



149. As will be seen hereafter, 1862 was a critical year along the 
Overland Trail. Emigrant travel by the familiar South Pass route became 
hazardous, and the overland mail route was shifted south to the old Chero- 
kee Trail between Denver and Fort Bridger. The U. S. Government, which 
so long had taken Shoshoni friendship for granted, all at once awakened 
to the value and meaning of that friendship and began to "talk treaty." 



82 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

which the largest amount of travel and emigration passes without 
reference to the mails. 

I have to direct that you arrange the times and places of your 
Councils with the Indians that so far as practicable the entire 
nation shall be represented, which it is presumed the amount 
appropriated will with proper economy enable you to very nearly 
if not completely accomplish. 

Mr. Martin, one of your commissioners having filed the neces- 
sary bond, has been entrusted with the funds and will make all 
such arrangements for the purchase of goods and disment [i.e., 
disbursement] of money as may be necessary. . . . 



LXV 

Henry Martin, Special Agent, to William P. Dole, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Washington, D. C, 

July 22, 1862. 150 

Sir 

Fearing that it may be necessary for the safety of Government 
Trains transporting Indian goods in my charge, en route for the 
Sho Shone Indians, I desire the authority to call upon any Com- 
manding officer on the Plains for the necessary military escort 
for that purpose, and for our personal safety during our sojourn 
in the Indian country on official business. . . . 

LXVI 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Utah 

Territory, August 5, 1862. 151 

At Midnight on the 2d inst. Little Soldier, Chief of the Cum- 
um-bahs, or Utah Digger Indians, 152 who has always been a good 
friend to the white people, and who has always notified them of 
any approaching danger, arrived at the residence of D. B. Hunting- 
ton, Interpreter for the Superintendency, and informed him as 
follows : 



150. M/613-1862. Martin three days before had officially transmitted 
his bond as "Special Agent to negotiate a treaty with the Shoshonees or 
Snake Indians" (M/610-1862). 

151. D/639-1862 end. Printed in 37th Congress, 3rd Session, House 
Executive Document 1 (Serial 1157), pp. 357-358. 

152. Little Soldier has figured in many prior documents of this series 
as chief of a mixed band of Shoshoni and Utes living in the Great Salt 
Lake Valley and also ranging through the Wasatch Mountains. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 83 

That the Shoshone or snake Indians, and the Bannack Indians, 
inhabiting the northern part of this Territory and the Southern 
portion of Eastern Washington Territory, have united their forces 
for the purpose of making war upon, and committing depredations 
on the property of, the white people, settlers in this Territory, and 
the Emigrants to the Pacific coast by the Northern route. That for 
this purpose the Sho-sho-nee Indians have set aside Wash-i-kee, 
the great Chief of that Nation, because he is a man of peace and 
a friend to the whites, and have chosen in his place, as their leader, 
Pash-e-go, because he is a man of blood. 15 " That they are trying 
very hard to get the Cum-um-bahs, the Gos-Utes, and Sho-e-gars 
or Bannock Diggers, to join them. That they have already killed 
a number of Emigrants and committed many depredations on the 
property of the Settlers and Emigrants, stealing horses, cattle, &c. 
— That lately they have stolen and run off one hundred and fifty 
horses & mules at and about Ft. Bridger; a large number in the 
northern part of the Territory, and three head north of and within 
ten miles and seven head within fifty miles of Great Salt Lake 
City. That they are now removing their families to the Salmon 
River country to get them out of danger — and that when the 
leaves turn red in the fall is the time they have agreed upon to 
assemble and when the leaves turn yellow and begin to fall the 
time they are to fall upon and exterminate all the settlers in the 
Territory. That all these war movements are instigated and led 
on by War-a-gi-ka, the great Bannock prophet, in whom the 
Bannocks and Sho-sho-nees have unbounded confidence and faith 
— who lives in the vicinity of Walla Walla, in Oregon, or Wash- 
ington Territory. 15 ' Little Soldier, very urgently warns the people 
of the great danger hanging over them and advises them to have 
their guns with them at all times, in the Kanyons and in their 
fields. . . . 



153. Frederick Lander (see Document LI) placed the range of "Pash- 
e-go" as the head of John Days River and west of the Blue Mountains — 
that is, in Oregon and apparently it is he who is referred to here. But 
there seems to have been a subchief of similar name among the Wyoming 
Shoshoni, called by Lander "Push-e-can" or "Pur-chi-can," who as Lander 
said, bore upon his forehead "the scar of a blow of the tomahawk given 
by Washikee in one of their altercations." The diaries of Mat Field in 
the Missouri Historical Society mention this latter chief in connection with 
the celebrated raid by Cheyennes and Arapahoes upon the horses of 
Shoshoni and mountain men at Fort Bridger in the summer of 1843, and 
intermittent later mention may be found of him, e.g., Document XVIII. 
Some confusion of identify is possible. 

154. See again Document LI. It seems likely that Doty was again 
referring to Pash-e-go, and that the name "War-a-gika" refers rather to 
the tribe or band, whose name was rendered by Lander as Warraricas, or 
sun flower seed-eaters. This was the division of the Bannock headed by 
Pash-e-go. 



84 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

LXVII 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, August 13, 1862. 13 

Sir: — On the 6th of March last I deemed it my duty to advise 
your Department, as also the Secretary of War, of the threatened 
attacks by the Shoshonees upon the Emigrant Trains passing 
through the Mountains the then coming season, and to suggest 
the occupation by a Regiment of Troops, of some point in the 
vicinity of Fort Hall on Shoshonee river, near the point of inter- 
section of the Northern California road with the roads to Oregon, 
and from this City to Salmon river Gold Mines. 

Subsequently, as additional information was received from 
friendly Indians that it was the intention to assemble a large force 
— estimated by them at two thousand — sufficient to overpower 
any Train, I ventured to again call the attention of the government 
to the threats and conduct of those Indians, and the prospect that 
many emigrants would lose their lives, or be robbed of their 
property, if military protection was not given at that point; and 
asked of the Secretary of War a portion of the $25,000 appropria- 
tion for the defence of Emigrants, to provide for their protection 
at the place threatened. 156 

The subject was renewed in my letters of April 1 1th; with the 
further information that they would certainly commence their 
depredations upon the Overland Mail Line East of this City. All 
the officers of the United States then here, and the officers of the 
Overland Mail and Telegraph Companies united in a Telegram 
to the Secretary of War, a copy of which is enclosed herewith, 
conveying to him the same intelligence, which they deemed alto- 
gether reliable, and urging that Troops be raised here for tem- 
porary service, and until the Troops of the United States could 
reach this country. 

No notice appears to have been taken of these representations 157 
— certainly no favorable response was given; and it is supposed, 
from the published Letter of Brigham Young also herewith en- 



155. D/639-1862. Printed in the Serial cited above, pp. 354-356. 

156. Congress had appropriated this money in an act approved January 
27, 1862. The funds were principally expended by an "emigrant escort to 
Oregon and Washington Territory" commanded by Captain Medorem 
Crawford, whose journal is printed as 37th Congress, 3rd Session, Senate 
Executive Document 17 (Serial 1149). West of South Pass Crawford 
traveled the Lander Cutoff; he notes that many parties went on ahead, as 
he stayed behind to look after the rear of the year's emigration. A Utah 
contribution to the security of the Overland Trail this year is noted below. 

157. This matter got mixed up with the anti-Mormon politics of this 
period in Utah territorial history. A report by the Adjutant General of 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 85 

closed, and from other information, our efforts to protect the 
lives and property of our citizens and the Overland Mail and 
Telegraph Lines, have been counteracted by his — or some other 
invisible influence, and that our exertions have resulted only in 
increasing his power in this country and not that of the United 
States — the President having conferred upon him the authority 
to raise troops and withheld it from the officers of the United 
States. 

The events which have occurred since our communications were 
made confirm the correctness of our information, and prove that 
the assertion of Brigham Young was not reliable, that "the state- 
ments of the aforesaid Telegram are without foundation in truth," 
as he believed. 

Before the Emigration appeared on the road the Shoshonees, 
in connection with Dakotahs and Cheyennes, robbed the Overland 
Co. of their Stock upon more than three hundred miles of the 
road west of Fort Laramie, killed several of their drivers & em- 
ployes, and effectually stopped the mail. 

Early in June, Smith, Kinkaid, and others, forming a small 
party, on their way from California to the States, were attacked 
by the Eastern Bannacks, who hunt with the Shoshonees between 
Raft river near Fort Hall, and Bear river, and all but Smith & 
another were murdered, and the entire party robbed. Smith was 



the Army on April 24, 1862, as to measures taken to make secure the 
Overland mail route to California notes in part: 

The suggestion of the acting Governor and other civil functionaries 
of Utah that a regiment of mounted men by raised in that Territory 
is not concurred in because it is not supposed so large a force is 
necessary. The proposition of Senator Latham, deemed by him most 
expedient and reasonable, is that Brigham Young be authorized to 
raise, arm, and equip a company of 100 mounted men for not less 
than three months, to protect the mail and route, and the telegraph 
line west of Salt Lake near Independence Rock, from Indian depre- 
dations and to recover the stock and property of the mail company 
which has been stolen. From the personal interest Brigham Young 
is said to have in the telegraphic communication with Salt Lake and 
from his known influence over his own people, and over the Indian 
tribes around, this plan is supposed to offer the most expeditious 
and economical remedy to the obstructions to the mail route. The 
objection to this plan is that Brigham Young is not a functionary 
recognized by the United States Government, and a requisition for 
volunteers from Utah should be made upon the Governor of the 
Territory. There are two companies of the Third Regular Cavalry, 
paroled men, now at Detroit. These might be mounted and sent to 
the point where troops are required, but a considerable time would 
elapse before they could reach there. (U. S. War Department, 
Official Records of the War of the Rebellion [Washington, 1897], 
Series I, Volume L, Part I, pp. 1023-1024.) 
The sequel appears in the text. The company of Mormon volunteers even- 
tually raised was commanded by Lot Smith. Their experiences are set 
forth in Margaret Fisher, Utah and the Civil War (Salt Lake City, 1929.) 



86 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

shot in the back, with an arrow, but succeeded in reaching the 
settlement on Bear river, with the arrow yet in him. 

In that month three Emigrant Trains were waylaid by the Sho- 
shonees, near Soda Springs, and the people robbed & killed. 

During the month of July, I am informed of several Trains 
being attacked & robbed, and many people killed. A man returned 
from Salmon River informs me, that at the crossing of the Salt 
Lake and California roads, he saw two waggons standing in the 
road, and the dead bodies of three white men lying beside them. 
There is no doubt that there have been many murders committed 
there of which no account has been given. 

The robbery of 200 head of stock last month, owned by Jack 
Robinson and other settlers, took place near Fort Bridger, and 
within six miles of the camp of the forces put into service by 
Brigham Young. 

I also transmit herewith a statement of the chief, "Little Soldier" 
— of the danger of a proposed general rising of the Shoshonees 
and Utahs made to the interpreter; and yesterday I received in- 
formation that the Indians in Tuilla & Rush vallies declared their 
intention to commence robbing on the Western road. They have 
stolen many horses & cattle of late from the settlements, and they 
enter the houses of farmers, and in an insolent manner demand 
food, and that meals shall be cooked for them. 

A regiment of California Volunteers, under the command of 
Col. Connor, 158 are said to be at Fort Churchill, in Nevada, 600 
miles west of this, on their way to this City; but unless their march 
is hastened they will not reach here until winter. A telegraph- 
order from the Secretary of War to increase their speed, would 
soon bring them upon that part o the road which is threatened 
by these Utah Indians — 

It is stated that General [James] Craig is five hundred miles 
east of this City, and that he has no orders to advance his troops 
into this territory, nor into the Washington territory. . . . 

LXVIII 

[Unidentified Newspaper Clipping] 159 

%z sjc %: $: 

The federal authorities in Utah and Brigham Young have be- 
tween them a question of veracity to settle, as will be seen by the 



158. The California-Nevada Volunteers, commanded by Col. Patrick 
Edward Connor, reached Great Salk Lake City in October, and on the 
bench above the city founded the post which became Fort Douglas. The 
garrison was maintained until the close of the Civil War. 

159. This clipping appears as an enclosure of D/635-1862, and is 
printed with it in the same Serial, pp. 356-357. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 87 

following correspondence. Brigham does not want any troops 
sent to Utah. It might interfere with his pretended State govern- 
ment. :.""■ 



Great Salt Lake City, April 11, 1862. 

To Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, Washington 

The Indians in Utah are robbing the Overland Mail Company 
of their horses and provisions, and destroying their stations, and 
declare the paper wagons shall be stopped within two months. 
They are killing the cattle of the inhabitants, and demanding pro- 
visions of them and of the Superintendent in an insolent and 
threatening manner, and 2,000 Shoshones are now entering the 
northern settlements, demanding food and clothing. An impera- 
tive necessity demands immediate military protection for the mail 
company and settlers. We ask that the Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs, James Duane Doty, be authorized by the Secretary of 
War to raise and put in service immediately, under his command, 
at the expense of the General Government, a regiment of mounted 
rangers from inhabitants of the territory, with officers appointed 
by him, each man to furnish his own horse, clothing, arms and 
equipments, to serve three months or longer, if required, or until 
troops of the United States can reach the territory; and that he be 
authorized to procure the necessary subsistence. 



(Signed) 



Frank Fuller, 

Acting Gov. of Utah. 

J. F. Kinney, 

Chief Justice Supreme Court, Terr, of Utah. 

Samuel R. Fox, 

Surgeon [Surveyor] General, Utah 

Frederick Cook 

Assistant Treas. Overland Mail Company 

H. S. R. Rowe, 

Superintendent Overland Mail Company 

E. R. Purple, 

Agent Overland Mail Company. 

Joseph Hollady, 

Agent Eastern Division Overland Mail Co. 

W. B. Hibbad, 

Assistant Superintendent Pacific Telegraph 
Company. 



88 ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Great Salt Lake City, April 14, 1862. 
Hon. John M. Bernhisel, Washington, D. C. 

I am informed that a telegram has been forwarded from here 
over the signatures of Frank Fuller, J. F. Kinney, and six others, 
not one of whom is a permanent resident on this Territory, to the 
Secretary of War, asking him to authorize James D. Doty, Super- 
intendent of Indian Affairs, to raise and officer a regiment here 
for three months, or until United States troops can reach here, 
under the general allegations that the property of the Overland 
Mail Company and the settlers are in danger from the Indians. 
So far as I know, the Indians in Utah are unusually quiet; and 
instead of 2,000 hostile Shoshones coming into our northern set- 
tlements, Washekeek, their chief, has wintered in the city and 
near it, perfectly friendly, and is about to go to his band. Besides, 
the militia of Utah are ready and able, as they ever have been, 
to take care of all the Indians, and are able and willing to protect 
the mail line if called upon so to do. The statements of the 
aforesaid telegram are without foundation in truth, so far as we 
know. 

(Signed) BRIGHAM YOUNG 

To these I will only add that I deeply regret the collision in 
these two despatches. I very much respect Fuller and Doty and 
the chief representatives of the Overland Mail, but am forced to 
say that the Indians have, I think to them, been greatly misrep- 
resented by interested persons. I have seen times in the moun- 
tains when there was anxiety, but that is not the present time. If 
th traders on the eastern road, who are buying up stock for the 
Salmon River Mines, were all gibbeted, there would be less, if any 
at all, loss of mail stock. 

UTAH. 

LXIX 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, Aug. 25, 1862. 160 

Sir: — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your Letter of In- 
structions dated July 7th, 1862, transmitting a printed Circular 
of the Secretary of the Interior dated June 5th, in relation to 
Contracts for the government; and requiring an estimate for the 



160. D/635-1862. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 89 

amount of goods or service required to be made in time for the 
transmission of the contract for approval. — My Bond as Super- 
intendent, executed according to the "form" received, was trans- 
mitted on the 23d. instant. 

Also, by the same mail, the Commissioners Letter dated July 
19th, was received, advising of the appointment of Luther Mann 
Jr. in conjunction with Henry Martin a special agent of the 
Department, to negotiate a Treaty with the Shoshonee nation of 
Indians; and that Mr. Martin, as disbursing agent, will arrange 
for all the necessary expenses. I have requested Mr. Mann, as 
directed, to hold himself in readiness to enter upon his duties; 
and I await Mr. Martin's arrival in the Country, from whom 
nothing has as yet been heard. . . . 

LXX 

Ben Holladay to M. P. Blair, dated Salt Lake, 
August 26, 1862. 101 

Sir: A general war with nearly all the tribes of Indians east 
[i.e., west] of the Missouri river is close at hand. I am expecting 
daily an interruption on my line, and nothing but prompt and 
decisive action on the part of government will prevent it. The 
lines should be protected by soldiers at intervals of one hundred 
miles. General Paige's force is too small. I think it my duty to 
give government this information through you. Colonel Conner's 
forces are four hundred miles west, travelling slowly. 

I leave for home in the morning. Hope to see you by Sep- 
tember 10. . . . 

LXXI 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, August 29, 1862. 102 

Sir: — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Letter dated July 22nd, enclosing "a copy of instructions issued 
to myself in connection with Messrs. Henry Martin & Luther Mann 
Jr. as Commissioners to negotiate a Treaty with the Shoshonee 
Indians." Mr. Martin has not yet arrived in this Territory, and I 
do not know when he can be expected, as I have not heard of 
his departure from the East. 



161. 37th Congress, 3rd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1157), p. 358. The writer of this letter was the celebrated Ben Holladay, 
who figures so largely in the annals of the overland mail. The recipient, 
Montgomery P. Blair, was at this time the Postmaster-General. 

162. D/640-1862. 



90 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Those Indians have committed so many outrageous murders 
and depredations this season, that it is doubtful whether they will 
venture to meet us in Council. They still continue their attacks 
upon the Trains, near the junction of the Northern California, 
Oregon & Salmon river roads. 

Military agricultural settlements along those roads, as suggested 
to the Department, & to the Secretary of War, in my communica- 
tions last year, can alone be relied upon, in my opinion, to restrain 
these Indians and to give efficient and adequate protection to 
emigrants and property on those roads. Permission to form 
settlements and establish Ferries on the Shoshonee river ought 
perhaps to be obtained. 

The robberies which they have lately [inserted with caret: been] 
committed in the vicinity of this City, of large bands of Horses, 
indicate their disposition, I think, to make war upon the white 
settlers. On Saturday last they took a drove of one hundred & 
forty horses from a ranch about twenty miles from this. . . . 

LXXII 

Charles E. Mix, Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 
Open Letter, dated Office Indian Affairs, Sept. 19, 1862. ]63 

TO THE PUBLIC: From information received at this depart- 
ment, deemed sufficiently reliable to warrant me in so doing, I 
consider it my duty to warn all persons contemplating the crossing 
of the plains this fall, to Utah or the Pacific coast, that there is 
good reason to apprehend hostilities on the part of the Bannack 
and Shoshone or Snake Indians, as well as the Indians upon the 
plains and along the Platte river. 

The Indians referred to have, during the past summer, committed 
several robberies and murders; they are numerous, powerful, and 
warlike, and should they generally assume a hostile attitude are 
capable of rendering the emigrant routes across the plains extremely 
perilous; hence this warning. 

By order of the Secretary of the Interior. 

LXXIII 

Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to James Duane Doty, 

Supt. of Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, 

Sept. 20, 1862. 181 

Sir: I have the honor of submitting the following report relative 
to the affairs of this agency. 



163. 37th Congress, 3rd Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1157), p. 359. 

164. Ibid., pp. 348-349. This is Mann's first annual report. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 91 

There is but one tribe in care of this agency, (the Shoshones;) 
there are, however, several small bands of Utes, numbering some 
thirty or forty lodges ranging upon the lands of the Shoshones 
by permission, awaiting, no doubt, the action of the government 
to settle them upon their own lands, the Uintah reservation. 

The Shoshones within this agency number, as near as I can 
ascertain from information derived from the mountaineers, (some 
of whom have been living in this country for the last thirty years, 105 
four thousand souls. The relative number of males or females 
of the different ages I am unable, with any degree of certainty, to 
state; suffice it to say, however, that the females very largely 
predominate. 

I arrived at my agency December 19, 1861, entirely destitute 
of the means of transportation, or of funds belonging to the depart- 
ment to procure the same. I am unable, therefore, to give you 
but a limited amount of information in regard to the Indians under 
my charge. Those, however, who have ranged in the vicinity of 
this agency are in a very destitute condition, and from the best 
information that can be obtained, the whole tribe are unques- 
tionably the poorest Indians that range in the mountains. A few 
ponies constitute their entire wealth. 

There is very little game in this Territory, by which the Indians 
are enabled to procure the necessary means of subsistence. Large 
herds of buffalo that used to range in this vicinity have entirely 
disappeared, depriving them of their usual amount of food, like- 
wise a great source of comfort derived from the manufacturing of 
the skins into tents and clothing to keep themselves comfortable 
in cold weather. The small amount of provisions and clothing 
distributed to them by Superintendent Martin, before my arrival 
in this Territory, was entirely inadequate to their wants. Owing 
to the limited amount of means placed in my hands, I have been 
unable, as fully as I should have desired, to supply their wants, 
thereby preventing them from supplying themselves by unlawful 
means. 

Large numbers of the Shoshones, in conjunction with the Ban- 
nacks, who range along the southern boundary of Washington 
Territory, have been committing upon the emigrants travelling 
to California and Washington some of the most brutal murders 
ever perpetrated upon this continent. 

I am glad to say, however, that Washakee, the head chief of 
the Shoshones, and his band, have abstained from any acts of 
violence or theft, which have characterized a large portion of the 



165. More properly, 38 years. Ashley's men penetrated to the Fort 
Bridger area for the first time in 1824. 



92 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tribe. From conversations or talks recently held with Washakee, 
I am apprehensive that a general outbreak of hostilities will take 
place throughout this entire region of country. Large herds of 
stock have been stolen and driven off by predatory bands of 
Shoshones, during the present season, none of which have as yet 
been chastised for their stealing propensities, thereby emboldening 
them to commit further acts of theft and violence upon the whites 
living or travelling through this country. 

In view, then, of the threatened or anticipated hostility of the 
Indians against the whites, as well as for the protection of the 
overland stage and telegraph lines, I would most earnestly recom- 
mend that three or four companies of soldiers be stationed at 
this post, its capacity being ample, without the expenditure of but 
a very small amount of means, to quarter that number. 

In obedience to the request of circulars, I will transmit to the 
department separately the information desired: first, as to the 
employes; second, as to schools; also, as to farms and farming. 

I cannot too strongly urge upon the department the necessity of 
placing the Shoshones upon a reservation to be located at one of 
the three points, viz: The Wind River valley, which is said to be 
one of the finest valleys in the mountains. It lies in the western 
portion of Nebraska, east of the Rocky range, and is susceptible 
of a high degree of cultivation. The only objection that can be 
urged against its location is its close proximity to other tribes 
with whom the Shoshones are at war. 166 The next location that I 
would mention is the valley of Smith's fork. This valley, however, 
is embraced within the limits of the large military reservation, 
twenty by twenty-five miles square. Large bodies of land along 
the fork are susceptible of a high state of cultivation. Judge Wm. 
A. Carter, the sutler at this post, is successfully farming some 
three hundred acres in that locality. The last and only location 
that I would call your attention to is the valley of Henry's fork, 
in conjunction with the Green River valley. This location is 
situated north of the Uintah range of mountains, and south and 
east of the military reserve. Large numbers of the mountaineers 
who are living in this locality have been in the habit of wintering 
there. The amount of lands susceptible of cultivation is somewhat 
limited. 

Hoping that the department will approve of my recommenda- 
tions in this report, alike vital to whites and Indians, I have the 
honor to be, very respectfully . . . 



166. Coming four and a half years after Forney's report of Feb. 10, 
1858, which showed the Shoshoni frequenting the Wind River area (see 
Document XLII), Mann's proposal seems to have been the first to advance 
the idea of settling the Shoshoni permanently in that area. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 93 

LXXIV 

Henry Martin, Special Agent to William P. Dole, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated San Francisco, 

Oct. 9, 1862. 107 

Sir: 

From information derived by me as to the existing feeling & 
condition of the "Sho-sho-nee" Indians, I deem it expedient and 
necessary that the balance of the appropriation for making a 
treaty with those Indians, now remaining in your hands, five 
thousand dollars ($5000.) should be immediately remitted to me 
or placed to my credit in this city. 

The hostility of these Indians toward the emigrants and white 
settlers, will, in my opinion, oblige me to make larger purchases 
of blankets &c. in this city, than I had at first anticipated, and in 
order for me to be able to do anything with them before the 
winter sets in I shall require nearly the entire amount of the 
appropriation, and therefore ask that the balance in your hands 
may be placed to my credit without delay. . . . 

Please address me in care of Wells Fargo & Co to this city, and 
the letters will be forwarded to me wherever I am. 



167. M/647-1862. This letter shows that Martin attempted to reach 
his assigned field of duty via California, not overland. 



Wyoming State Mistorical Society 

PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE 

By 

W. L. Marion 

The object of the State Historical Society is well stated in the 
by laws and in the articles of incorporation of the Society: "to 
collect and preserve all possible data and materials including his- 
torical relics, relating to the history of Wyoming and illustrative 
of the progress and development of the State; to promote the 
study and preservation of such data and materials and to encour- 
age in every way possible interest in Wyoming history." Before 
the organization of the Society there was little or no concerted 
effort throughout Wyoming to accomplish what the Society has 
set out to do. 

It is true there was the State Historical Department, but it 
lacked the money and staff to adequately gather the data relating 
to the history of our State; consequently much, too much, of our 
important history has been lost. In order to correct this sin of 
omission, a call went out in the summer of 1953 and the Society 
was organized in the city of Casper on October 1 8th. Mr. Frank 
Bowron of Casper was elected president; Mr. F. H. Sinclair of 
Sheridan, first vice president; W. L. Marion, Lander, second vice 
president; Miss Maurine Carley, of Cheyenne, secretary -treasurer; 
and Miss Lola Homsher, Director of the State Archives and His- 
torical Department, executive secretary. Under the leadership of 
the president and the two secretaries the Society started in with 
a healthy growth. We now have ten Counties with real live chap- 
ters with two more in progress of organization. It is our sincere 
hope to see all twenty three of our Counties with active chapters; 
Albany, Campbell, Carbon, Fremont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, 
Natrona, Park and Washakie are all live going Chapters. 

There seems to be some misunderstanding as to requirements 
to memberships in the Society, especially we have it so in Fremont 
County, for some seem to think that they have to be a resident 
of the State for at least twenty five years in order to apply for 
membership. This is not so. Any one interested in the history 
of our State is welcome to join with us in this work of gathering 
historical data relating to our State, and we especially welcome 
the faculties of our schools and colleges to membership. In fact 
some of the most active members of the Society are people who 
just recently came into our State. 

Our State is a young State; our star in the constellation of our 
Union is the forty-fourth among forty-eight; our history as a State 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 95 

dates back sixty six years, but a large part of our history goes 
back much farther — to the dim distant past. Before ever a white 
man set foot in what is now Wyoming, men trod the hills and 
valleys; their artifacts, some very crude and some showing a high 
degree of perfection, give mute testimony of their culture as do 
the pictographs chiseled on our cliffs and rocks. Rude cabins, 
the roofs long fallen in and logs rotting tell of the fur trade. Yes, 
before the trappers the arrastras in our mountains tell us that 
possibly the gold loving Spaniard went through our State long 
before the great emigration over the Emigrant (Oregon, Mormon 
Trail) or the Bozeman Trails. 

It is our hope that as many as possible of the old historical sites 
will be marked before their locations are completely lost. 

We were disappointed last summer on the trek over the old 
Emigrant Trail to see the poor markings of the old Pony Express 
and Telegraph Stations. Some of the old sites are very poorly 
marked and some are misleading and should be corrected. Mr. 
L. C. Bishop is doing a wonderful job in creating interest in the 
old Emigrant Trail, and we have an inkling that through his treks 
better monuments will mark the old sites. 

Another matter that should be taken care of are the relics owned 
in the Pioneer Societies of our counties. We have not seen all 
of them, but at Lander and Thermopolis the buildings housing 
the relics are exceedingly vulnerable to fire. We would like to 
see this corrected; sure, we expect all of them carry fire insurance, 
but money could never replace the valuable historical relics the 
buildings now contain. 

One other project we want to see started is the Indian Museum 
at Ft. Washakie on the Wind River Reservation. At present 
stored in the old mill building at Ft. Washakie are over two 
thousand artifacts taken out of the Dinwoodie Caves some years 
ago. These are all classified and should be on exhibit. We want 
this museum to be strictly an Indian project. Lacking at present 
is a building to house the exhibit, but we think this can be solved 
and we are working on it. 

And now, we wish to extend to the members of the Wyoming 
State Historical Society and to all the Chapters our best wishes 
for a very successful year of 1956. 





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Celt Adze 




Figure, 3 
Chsel Gou^e 



n 



Figure, f 
Ho&S and vSp&aes 




/VotcKed Stemmed 
Figure S 
f\eaM Oiofpcr 



SU 



>> r .Vr. 




A|cttoJ 

of 
H&fti'ny 



Wyoming Archaeological Notes 

STONE ARTIFACTS 

By 

L. C. Steege 

With exception of projectile points, the chopping artifacts were 
probably the most widely used implements of all the Tribes and 
Cultures in the United States. 

The most generally distributed chopping artifacts were the 
grooved axes. They ranged in size from a few ounces to ten and 
fifteen pounds. They were usually made of a fine grained, tough 
material, and show a very careful exacting workmanship. A great 
deal of time must have been consumed in the manufacture of these 
axes. Even after the selection of a river- worn or a glacial-worn 
blank, countless hours must have been spent in pecking a groove 
around the stone, shaping the bit and poll, and finally grinding 
and rubbing the entire surface to achieve a fine polish which in 
some cases rivals the art of modern lapidarists. 

Since these polished axes are seldom found in graves or in 
mounds, it leads one to assume that they may have been handed 
down from father to son for many generations. A close exam- 
ination of some of the ancient logs used by the Cliff Dwellers in 
the Mesa Verde region of Colorado reveals the work accomplished 
by these implements. Since the majority of the bits of these axes 
were not too sharp, only small chips were removed in the hacking 
process. This gives the hewn end of the log a similar appearance 
to beaver cuttings. 

Axes are classified as full grooved and three quarter grooved. 
(Figure 1 ) On rare occasions half grooved axes have been found. 
These are recognized by grooves or flutes on the two faces only. 
Extremely rare are the double bitted polished axes which have 
no poll. Another rare type as found by the author in the State of 
Utah, is the base or poll grooved axe which consists of an addi- 
tional groove around the poll at a right angle to the main groove 
around the body. (Figure 1A) 

Grooveless polished axes are known as Celts. They derive this 
name from their similarity to the grooveless axe used by some of 
the early Celtic Nations of Europe. Celts, as a general rule, are 
wider at the bit than at the poll. They are fairly symmetrical 
which is a distinguishing characteristic from the adze, which is 
usually quite flat on one face and also much thinner. (Figure 2) 

Most authorities classify a celt as being an unhafted axe, better 
known as a hand axe. This would place them in the category 
with the direct percussion choppers. Since many of the celts have 



98 ANNALS CF WYOMING 

battered polls which could have been caused by hammering, I have 
placed them in the category of indirect percussion choppers. In 
reality, the celt must have been an all around tool and weapon. 
The smaller ones could have been encased in rawhide, mounted 
on a handle, and been a very effective tomahawk. Since there is 
such a variation in sizes, the celt could have been used as a hand 
axe as well as a chisel and wedge. The possibility of use as a 
skinning implement should not be overlooked. 

Chisels differ from celts in as much as they are usually long and 
slender. They are highly polished and have a sharp cutting edge. 
The cutting edges of some chisels show evidence of having first 
been chipped and then ground in order to achieve the sharp 
tapered edge. 

Gouges are similar to chisels except the cutting edge which is 
concave instead of straight. (Figure 3) 

Whether or not ancient man used the chisel and gouge in the 
same manner as we do today is purely speculation. They must 
have been used by hand pressure only since very few, if any, 
would ever withstand any hammer blows. 

In classifying hoes and spades, the names are synonymous with 
the larger types usually being called spades. They vary in size 
from about four inches to twenty inches in length. The most com- 
mon shape is oval but some of the more rare types are notched 
and stemmed. 

The three types of hoes and the probable method of hafting are 
shown in figure 4. The handle is a forked branch from a tree. 
The blade was held in place by rawhide lashings around it and 
the fork of the handle. The blank selected for the hoe or spade 
was shaped by percussion flaking with little or no emphasis 
stressed for sharpness, the main desire being a well tapered bit 
or chopping edge. 

Hoes and spades were the agricultural implements of ancient 
man. They are seldom found in Wyoming, especially any which 
show a degree of soil polish from use. A great number of these 
artifacts have been found around the quarries in the "Spanish 
Diggings" area but I doubt if any were ever used in that area. 
The greatest concentration of these artifacts seems to be in the 
entire Mississippi Valley, with the hub centering in the States of 
Tennessee and Kentucky. Hoes and spades made of quartzite, 
which originated in the quarries in the "Spanish Diggings" area, 
have been found in mounds in Ohio. The extensive use of these 
digging tools can be visualized with the construction of one of 
these mounds. Thousands of cubic yards of earth had to be dug 
with these crude implements to account for the size of some of 
the mounds. 

Probably the most popular chopping artifact of the Plains 
Indian was the meat chopper which was used in the same manner 
as our cleaver is today. They were very similar to the oval hoe 



WYOMING ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES 99 

or spade, the main difference being the edge of the chopper. One 
edge was sharp for cutting and the opposite edge was blunt so as 
not to injure the hand holding it. (Figure 5) They were quite 
large and heavy. The weight, together with a sharp edge and the 
force of a hand working it in a downward stroke, made this chop- 
per a very excellent implement for dividing a large carcass into 
smaller portions which could be handled more easily, and also 
for cleaving bones, joints and tendons. They were also used for 
splitting the long bones in order to extract the marrow. 

Of all the chopping artifacts described in the preceding para- 
graphs, only the meat chopper is found in any abundance in 
Wyoming. A few grooved axes have been found, but celts, adzes, 
chisels and gouges are practically unknown. Hoes and spades are 
rare. Most all the choppers were artifacts of the more permanent 
type of cultures which existed throughout the Mississippi Valley 
and the Coastal areas of the United States. 



Zke Muilding of Qreybull 

Basin Republican, Thursday, September 6, 1906 

As an evidence of faith in the future of Big Horn county, the 
Big Horn River valley, and the town of Greybull, a large number 
of business men are preparing to launch various commercial enter- 
prises at the new town, eight miles below Basin, in the near future. 

At present Hardy & Cove have the only place of business, a 
saloon on the townsite, and a depot is being built. But this is 
not all. Everything is in readiness to begin the erection of a bank 
building for Cather & Sons, and by October 1 this firm will open 
the Greybull Bank, organized as a state institution and backed 
by plenty of capital, push, and excellent business ability. A large 
store building for a complete general merchandise stock is to be 
put up immediately by two young men from Illinois, and a com- 
modious hotel is to be built near the depot. With these estab- 
lished, other business enterprises will follow, and the town at the 
mouth of Greybull will have commenced its career as a business 
center for a large district. 

May it, with the other towns in Big Horn county, grow and 
prosper; for in the development of a country good live towns 
mean much in its advancement. And here it might be well to 
suggest that all petty jealousies should be thrust aside, and, 
although a good-natured competitive rivalry in business may exist, 
in a few years we'll have a county filled with prosperous farmers 
and ranchers, with here and there thriving and busy towns, all 
working in harmony for the upbuilding of one of the greatest and 
most resourceful sections on earth. 



Kook Keviews 



Buffalo Bill; King of the Old West. By Elizabeth Jane Leonard 
and Julia Cody Goodman. (New York: Library Publishers, 
1955. 320 pp. Illustrations. $4.95) 

Buffalo Bill and the Wild West. By Henry Blackman Sell and 
Victor Weybright. (New York: Oxford University Press, 
1955. 278 pp. Illustrations. $6.95). 

There are few book-length biographies of the pioneer builders 
of Wyoming. Among our worthies who have had biographical 
treatment William Frederick Cody, better known as Buffalo Bill, 
1846-1917, has received more attention than anyone else. 

The famous hero of the Wild West Show ranks as one of the 
greatest showmen of all time. His extraordinary popular appeal 
was based on personality and promotion, but also on some rather 
remarkable feats of scouting, riding and hunting in the West. He 
earned millions of dollars. He was fabulously generous to his 
many friends. Moreover, he spent hundreds of thousands of dol- 
lars (some say millions) trying to develop the Big Horn Basin 
and the town of Cody. 

It does not follow that many Wyoming folks hold Buffalo Bill 
in high esteem. He got practically no votes two years ago in the 
balloting for the state's outstanding deceased citizen. No matter 
how Bill excelled as a frontiersman and showman, too many peo- 
ple still remember him as he was in his tragic last years, or have 
heard derogatory comments about him. In a society where tem- 
perance, faithfulness to one's spouse, and thrift are held to be 
important virtues Buffalo Bill cannot be elected as the greatest 
citizen. The race is not to the swiftest on horseback! 

Both of the books before us give Buffalo Bill his due — and 
more. Both of them make some contribution to our knowledge 
of his career. Both are popular rather than scholarly. The 
Leonard-Goodman biography falls short of the pretension an- 
nounced on the jacket that it is "definitive." Buffalo Bill's eldest 
sister, Julia Cody Goodman, began the book before she died in 
1928. A novelist, Elizabeth Jane Leonard, undertook to help her 
out. In turn an editor, James William Hoffman, joined the enter- 
prise actively enough to get his name on the title page. Hoffman 
writes in an introductory note that he "collated and arranged, 
after research and authentication, the material which Julia Cody 
Goodman had furnished and which Elizabeth Jane Leonard had 
written so well." 

The basic weakness of the book is that it presents with never a 
doubt many of the tall tales that Bill and his press agents manu- 
factured for publicity purposes. If one would separate fact and 



BOOK REVIEWS 101 

fancy about Buffalo Bill a good place at which to begin is Thomas 
J. Walsh's book, The Making of Buffalo Bill (New York, 1928). 
Admittedly truth and fiction are so interwoven in Buffalo Bill's 
three "autobiographies" that it may never be known for sure where 
the line should be drawn. However, the Leonard-Goodman book 
does the incredible — swallows everything. Also, it says nothing 
about Bill's notorious weaknesses for whisky and women, nothing 
about his unhappy home life, nothing about his days in court. The 
authors even try to improve on Bill's autobiographies. For ex- 
ample, when Bill related that once he left a Chicago ballroom 
after the first dance and spent the rest of the evening in the bar, 
this book says "he slipped into the cloakroom and remained out 
of sight for the rest of the evening." Oh, yes, the book "bears 
the full endorsement of the Cody Family Organization." 

One of the book's rare statements that might be construed as 
critical is one in which it is said that Bill had "little understanding 
of the world of business and finance." This is really not critical, 
however, for it gives him more credit than he deserves. It was 
no accident that he died broke. 

The Leonard-Goodman book thins out markedly as time goes 
on. The hectic and tragic last 15 years of the great man's life 
take up only 15 pages. Perhaps the explanation is that even a 
devoted sister could find little to adore in those declining years. 

Despite its excessive eulogizing the book adds something to our 
knowledge of Buffalo Bill. It publishes several letters from Bill 
to sister Julia, and in many passages Julia's recollections of her 
brother are drawn upon. The book includes a note on Mrs. 
Cody's family and a Cody Genealogy which purports to trace a 
direct line back to Philip Le Cody, a French Huguenot, who was 
living in Massachusetts in the 17th century. This is contrary to 
the usual story that Cody was of Irish descent. 

The Sell-Weybright book is a more impressive publication. 
Sell, who is proud to be a distant kinsman of Buffalo Bill, edited 
Harper's Bazaar in the 1920s. He operated a Chicago advertising 
agency for 20 years, and is now president of Sell's Specialties, Inc., 
packers of Sell's Liver Pate, as well as editor of Town & Country 
Magazine. His co-author, Weybright, has enjoyed a varied career 
in writing and publishing, and has been since 1945 chairman of 
the board and editor-in-chief of The New American Library of 
World Literature. In preparing their Buffalo Bill book Sell and 
Weybright have put research assistants to work in many places 
and have devoted quite a lot of their own time to the project. 
Their acknowledgments are numerous and farflung. In particular 
they give much credit to the W. R. Coe Collection of Western 
Americana at Yale University. 

Sell and Weybright have been able to command a first-line 
publisher who was willing to put out a really beautiful book that 
includes 137 half-tone illustrations besides a four-color frontis- 



102 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

piece reproduction of Rosa Bonheur's portrait of Buffalo Bill on 
a white horse. 

Sell and Weybright trace Buffalo Bill's ancestry to an Irishman 
who came to Massachusetts in 1746. Unlike the authors of the 
book reviewed above, they reflect some of the doubts which 
earlier writers have had about many of Bill's yarns. They recog- 
nize their hero's weaknesses, but are more sympathetic than Walsh 
was in his 1928 study and Croft-Cooke and Meadmore were in 
their 1952 biography. Sell and Weybright do not picture Bill 
as an incorrigible adolescent who never grew up, as some have 
done. They picture Louisa, to whom he was married from the 
age of 20 till he died, as a sharp-tempered, nagging, jealous wife 
who took "violent and seemingly irrational dislikes to Cody's 
friends." They defend Bill: He didn't chase women — they chased 
him; he didn't get drunk — though he drank prodigiously. They 
relate that in his later years, when his contract restricted him to 
three drinks of whisky a day, he lived up to the letter if not the 
spirit by taking the whisky in over-sized beer mugs. They discuss 
his love affair with the English actress on whom he spent $80,000 
before his abortive attempt to get a divorce so he could marry her. 
And they mention that at 55 he was enjoying "occasional brief 
passing romances with attractive young ladies." 

Sell and Weybright handle Bill's early life in the West rather 
sketchily. No fresh attempt, based on thorough research, is made 
to get at the truth of Bill's activities before he entered show busi- 
ness. Easily the best part of the book comes thereafter. Nowhere 
else is the rise and fall of the Wild West Show, in the U. S. and 
abroad, told so well and with such lavish illustrations. 

In a book which obviously enjoyed so much loving care from 
authors and publishers it is surprising to find misstatements like 
the following: The Gold Rush began "in 1849 when gold had been 
found in Sutter's Creek in California" [in 1848 in the American 
River]; Fremont was at Fort Laramie with an expedition in 1844 
[he was there in 1842 and 1847 but not in 1844]; the Pony Ex- 
press went north from Salt Lake to Sacramento [west] ; Cheyenne 
is derived from the French word for dog [from the Sioux word 
Shahiyena ] ; the Carey Act established the Reclamation Service 
[the Newlands Act did]. And there isn't space here to permit 
explanation of several gross errors in references to Custer's last 
battle. 

Even so, Sell and Weybright have produced quite a remarkable 
book, and the authors will probably infect some of their readers 
with the "tremendous admiration for Buffalo Bill" that they 
themselves profess to have. 

Sell and Weybright apparently believe that Bill should have 
been buried in Wyoming: "The old man told his friends that he 
wanted to die in the Big Horn Basin, and to be buried there .... 
Whose was the decision to bury Buffalo Bill at Lookout Mountain? 



BOOK REVIEWS 103 

Evidently it was decided by Louisa Cody. She paid for the funeral 
expenses. But the story has persisted that she was persuaded to 
make this decision by Harry Tammen. The Denver Post said it 
was the Colonel's wish to be buried at Lookout Mountain. No- 
body heard him express such a wish before his death. It was 
also said and believed by many people in Denver and Cody that 
Mrs. Cody was paid ten thousand dollars by Mr. Tammen, for 
the privilege of selecting, with Bonfils, the burial place." 

In sum, the first book will be preferred by those who like their 
history romantic and unsullied by skepticism, and by those who 
believe it improper to speak ill of those who have departed; the 
second book will be preferred by others, although there is enjoy- 
ment in both books for all readers. 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 



Social Anthropology of North American Tribes. Edited by Fred 
Eggan. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955 (2nd 
edition). $6.50) 

This volume was originally a group of essays in social organ- 
ization, law, and religion presented to the late British anthropolo- 
gist, A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, by certain of his American students. 
Most of the essays were published under the same title in 1937. 
The present work is enlarged to include two new articles by Sol 
Tax and Fred Eggan. 

The book's importance is testified to by the fact that a second 
edition has been issued at this late date. It should be valuable 
to several different kinds of people. The student of social science 
will find it an excellent introduction to the methods and history of 
current American ethnological theory. The student of the Amer- 
ican Indian, who is intent upon delving deeper into the social 
systems which were encountered (embodied in aroused Indians) 
during the fight for the American frontier, will find particular 
tribes placed in carefully documented perspective. The average 
reader too can benefit from reading selected essays in terms of his 
special interests. For the book is not merely a study of Indians. 
It is an integrated approach to general problems of history, law. 
belief systems, social structure, and social process. 

Following an introduction by Robert Redfield, the plan of the 
book unfolds from explicit tribal studies to general syntheses, and 
it ends with a statement of the current work in American anthro- 
pology and its prospects. Quite properly leading off, Sol Tax's 
classic article on principles of social organization sets the stage 
for the following monographs. It states clearly most of the prob- 
lems to be dealt with in the rest of the book. Fred Eggan's treat- 
ment of Cheyenne and Arapaho kinship focuses on the patterning 



104 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of terminology in comparable social and ecological situations. 
Two pioneer studies of Southern Athapaskan social organization 
are represented by Morris Opler's and J. Gilbert McAllister's 
monographs on the Chiricahua and Kiowa Apache. William Gil- 
bert's study of Eastern Cherokee social organization demonstrates 
the high level of social regulation to be found among American 
Indian groups, especially those with clan or linear organization. 
John Provinse's article on the underlying sanctions of Plains Indian 
culture was one of the first to focus on the "primitive" legal 
institutions of the aboriginal American hunter. Philleo Nash pre- 
sents an analysis of culture contact (Indian-White on the Klamath 
reservation) which results in deprivation and an ensuing religious 
revivalism among the minority group. 

The above essays were in the original edition. There are two 
additional papers which make this volume even more important 
than the 1937 edition. Sol Tax's short history of the study of 
social organization at least partially fills the long felt need for an 
outline of the development of ethnologic thought and theory. 
And in his concise statement on the theoretical background for 
contemporary work in social anthropology, Fred Eggan analyzes 
the work already done in each cultural area of North America, 
that in process, and that which has yet to be accomplished. 

The book stands as a monument to the theoretical framework 
of Radcliffe-Brown who died in 1955. He left behind a genera- 
tion of students who, through their works and stimulation of still 
another generation, have advanced anthropology . . . the study of 
man . . . several degrees farther toward the science of man. When 
one finishes any of the articles he is left with a feeling of excite- 
ment — an itching to know more. The essays are probing and 
tentative, but they are also full of promise that the future will 
reveal man more completely to himself. 

University of Wyoming Charles R. Kaut 



Wheels West. By Homer Croy. (New York: Hastings House, 
1955. 242 pp. $3.75) 

In Wheels West Homer Croy has recreated the tragic and grisly 
story of the ill-fated Donner expedition to California in 1846-47. 
Eighty-seven people were members of this wagon train but only 
forty-four survived to reach their destination. What happened to 
the people on their way is the subject of this book. 

The general outline of the story of the Donner Expedition — 
how they were caught in the snows, starved and resorted to canni- 
balism — is well known to readers of western history. Croy, 
however, has done considerable research in attempting to find out 
as much as possible about the people who comprised the Donner 



BOOK REVIEWS 105 

party and has attempted to present them as individuals. This 
tends to add considerable human interest to this book. 

While the whole great epoch of westward migration is in a sense 
the story of family and society movements, yet it was individuals 
who made the decision to go, who suffered, triumphed or died in 
seeking the end of the long trails. The wagon train that carried 
the Donner party west was composed of such individuals and their 
personal struggles are well recorded here. 

The strength and heroism of Margaret Reed, Tamsen Donner, 
the bestiality of Keseberg who came to prefer human flesh to wild 
meat — help make Wheels West a clear and gripping story of one 
of the great tragedies of the westward movement. This book 
helps illustrate once again the qualities of strength and courage 
required and the sacrifices that were demanded of those who rode 
the wagon trains on the trails west. 

Homer Croy has attempted, as he says, to "simplify the Donner 
Story." Certainly, for the general reader, the simplification has 
added to, rather than detracted from, the book. He retraced the 
path taken by the Donner Party to Sacramento, California in the 
process of researching for this book. Wyoming readers may be 
interested in a passage from the introduction — 

I think the biggest trail thrill that I had was to walk along the 
Donner-Oregon Trail near Fort Laramie, Wyoming — fifty feet wide, 
it was, and deep enough to hide a hay cock. And at Guernsey, 
Wyoming, the trail is cut in stone as deep as my waist. Could it be 
possible? I asked myself. But there it was and there I was and there 
was History. 

It was at Fort Laramie that the Donner party was warned by a 
mountain man against taking the Hastings Cutoff into California. 
Failure to take this advice was later to cause the death of many 
of the expedition. 

Wheels West is not a great book in the sense of The Way West, 
but it is an eminently readable book about the tragic story of the 
Donner party. 

Torrington, Wyoming Walter L. Samson 



Saddles and Spurs: The Pony Express Saga by Raymond W. Settle 
and Mary Lund Settle (Harrisburg: The Stackpole Company, 
1955. ix + 217 pp. Preface, illus., map, bibliography. 

$3.75) 

The Pony Express by Lee Jensen (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 
1955. 154 pp. Illus., maps, short bibliography. $2.50). 

Despite the recent revival of Davy Crockett and the re-enshrine- 
ment of the coonskin cap in the frontier hall of fame, the earlier 



106 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

American frontier is hard put to compete with its off-spring the 
Trans-Mississippi West. The last frontier had all the advantages 
because it had all the props. Cowboys, stage coaches, mobile and 
highly painted Indians, colorful river steamers, grizzled mountain 
men, and blue-clad cavalry troopers paraded across the stage 
before the admiring eyes of a deeply impressed American public. 
It is no wonder that Ned Buntline could sell his stuff; many a 
visitor who returned, and who had "seen the elephant," swore 
that all seemed to be action and excitement west of the river. 
Most dramatic of all, and exemplifying American ingenuity and 
impatience, is the experiment known as the Pony Express. 

The origin of the mail service arose out of the distances that 
separated golden California from the rest of "the states." After 
1 849 not only national, but world, attention was focused upon the 
new bonanza and Americans were anxious not only to keep in 
close touch with it, but to secure the land closely to its govern- 
mental parent. Hopefully, railroad surveyors cover the interven- 
ing distance, but the decade of the Fifties was clouded by a 
rising section question and no rails reached out for California 
before the Civil War. That did not mean that men stayed home. 
Rich strikes in Nevada and Colorado in 1859 siphoned off men 
from the East in great numbers. Most of them had one aim in 
mind: sudden wealth and an early trip home. Their desire to 
keep up with affairs at home led to a great demand for mail and 
news. They usually got it through express companies, at a rate 
of from twenty five to fifty cents a letter. But there were business 
men — entrepreneurs of the new boom — who demanded much fast- 
er service. They wanted the quickest means of communication 
between the booming West Coast and eastern financial centers. 

Starting in April, 1860, and running for approximately a year 
and a half, the Pony Express carried tissue-paper letters from St. 
Joseph to San Francisco by way of the old California Trail. A 
single horse and rider could deliver as much as $3200. worth of 
mail at a single trip, the rate being five dollars per half ounce and 
twenty pounds the capacity. But even at these rates high overhead 
costs and an absence of governmental subsidies spelled failure. 
Then came the telegraph, a monument to communication that 
proved to be the tombstone of the Pony Express. 

The two most recent works about the last frontier's dramatic 
experiment are quite different in their presentation. The Settle 
volume indicates the extensive research the authors claim for it 
but in the judgment of this reviewer they have fallen short of their 
desire to produce more than simply another book on the subject. 
More time, or care, in the writing, and particularly in the organ- 
ization, would have borne rich fruit. Fascinated by the facts they 
have produced, they succumb to the understandable desire to use 
them all. The result is too often a descent into peripheral mater- 
ials, interesting as they are, to the detriment of the larger view. 



BOOK REVIEWS 107 

Jensen's volume, apparently intended for teenagers, compares 
very favorably with the Settle book. Frequent illustrations by the 
incomparable Nicholas Eggenhofer add tremendously to its value. 
In addition to Eggenhofer's fine pen work, the author has collected 
an excellent representation of photograph and drawings of his 
subject. The story is well organized, easily written and avoids 
the pitfall of discussing the ancestry of each and every rider, or 
suspected rider, of the Express. The background material em- 
ployed is done in good taste, sufficiently to illustrate the signifi- 
cance and necessity of the mail service but brief enough to keep 
the story in focus. 

Both volumes underscore the fact that the work of the Pony 
Express was carried on by young men. We have a tendency to 
think of the "old pioneers" and somehow imagine that the fron- 
tiersmen were advanced in age when they accomplished their feats 
of valor. The saga of the postmen on horseback reminds us that 
the youthful, the daring, the vigorous, were the ones who gambled 
with the dangerous and tricky wastes of land that lay beyond 
civilization. Their exploits were more than a business operation; 
the aura of romance surrounding their venture fired the imagina- 
tion of an already excited American public and dramatized the 
possibility of the West's conquest. 

University of Colorado Robert G. Athearn 



The Wyoming Bubble. By Allan Vaughan Elston. (Philadel- 
phia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1955. 222 pages, $2.75) 

There have been a great many fictional stories written about 
the West, but a small percentage of them have as an authentic 
historical background as does The Wyoming Bubble. This book 
is based on the history of Cheyenne during the year of 1883 when 
cattle frauds still occurred now and then and gun-play was per- 
formed by those who felt themselves as being above the law. 
Allan Vaughan Elston has done an extensive piece of research 
in the Cheyenne Leader and other reference sources, as well as 
visiting various sections of Cheyenne and the vicinity north and 
west for about 60 miles distance. 

The main plot of the novel centers around fictitious characters, 
one of whom is a Russ Hyatt. There is also a member, in good 
standing, of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, trying to 
sell his brand on a falsified spring Tally report to a man from the 
east interested in buying into the Wyoming cattle business. One 
exciting episode after another, filled with action and suspense, 
retains the deep interest of the reader from the very first paragraph 
when Hyatt has his horse Tony shot out from under him by a 
bullet intended for Russ Hyatt himself. 



108 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

In the historical background real historical individuals, who 
were prominent in Cheyenne at the time, are mentioned, like Hi 
Kelly, Joseph M. Carey, Francis E. Warren, Luke Voorhees and 
others. Famous places such as the Inter-Ocean Hotel, the Chey- 
enne Club, the Opera House, the Hi Kelly ranch, and the City 
and County Jails, play an important part in the story, around 
which various events take place. Mr. Elston has made his descrip- 
tions of places and people so interesting and vivid one would think 
he was actually witnessing the happenings of the 1880's, as a few 
present day citizens of Cheyenne did. The vividness of the de- 
scription of the old Cheyenne Club, for an example, one would 
find quite accurate if he were to look at a picture of the exterior 
of the building after reading the story. 

Allan V. Elston is well qualified to write novels like The Wyo- 
ming Bubble, the Forbidden Valley, and the Long Lope to Lander, 
to mention only three of the fourteen stories of the West which 
he has written. Though born in Kansas City, Elston spent most 
of his boyhood days in Colorado and worked for a time up around 
Lander and South Pass, Wyoming. One thing, however, seems 
lacking in Mr. Elston's books which the reviewer feels would be 
a great addition. A good story like The Wyoming Bubble never 
seems complete unless it is possible to have at least two or three 
photographs to better illustrate the authentic historical back- 
ground. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Herbert J. Salisbury 



Cattle and Men. By Charles W. Towne and Edward N. Went- 
worth. (Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 
1955. 379 pp. $4.00) 

Since the dim dawn of prehistoric times man has been utilizing 
the meat of animals. At first he utilized the flesh of wild animals 
which he could kill with his crude stone and metal weapons. Meat 
is one of the essential bearers of amino acids, the building blocks 
of the body, and when protein is not available in the diet man's 
metabolism starts at once to tear down the tissues of the body 
to supply that essential. 

The story of the slaughter of cattle for hides and tallow at the 
California missions (Pages 123-129) is interesting but brings up 
a point of practicability. Could 2,000 cattle be killed in one day, 
for even skillful riders and knife wielders could hardly catch up 
with that many, and it would take a little army of riders to hold 
up the herd during the butchering? Once blood was spilled the 
other cattle would be leaving the country if not tightly restrained, 
and one can readily see that it might be impossible to restrain 
them. 



BOOK REVIEWS 109 

On page 12 a mention is made of the Indians running the buf- 
falo over a cliff and killing them wholesale. It is interesting to 
note that the name of Chugwater Creek in southeastern Wyoming 
comes from this practice. The buffalo were run over the steep 
cliffs which border on this stream and when they hit the stream 
the noise was described as Chug — chug. 

On page 23 mention is made of hybrids between cattle and 
other species. The reviewer when in Chinghai Province in North- 
west China in 1946 saw many hybrids between Yellow Cattle and 
Yaks. The first cross were called Pien Nu and the second cross, 
Calaba. Only a few Calaba are raised as they are very delicate 
and the Pien Nu are for the most part sterile. 

The authors were brought up in the livestock-saturated atmos- 
phere of the country during the last century and their handling of 
the material in "Cattle and Men" shows not only scholarly and 
orderly display of material, but also a love of the livestock and 
land which is the birthright of all Britons. The skillful handling 
of the material amplifies the close dependence of man on cattle 
throughout history not only for food and raiment but also for 
sport and financial income of many kinds. Their arrangement 
of the material and the theme of interdependence makes a book 
which is interesting to the last page with not a trace of boredom; 
and at the same time the great mass of material and the complete 
index and bibliography make the book a most valuable one in any 
livestock man's library. 

University of Wyoming R. H. "Bob" Burns 



Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches. By Robert Homer Burns, Andrew 
Springs Gillespie and Willing Gay Richardson. (Laramie: 
Top-of-the-World Press, 1955. vii plus 752 pp., illus. 
$10.00) 

This book is a huge one, in keeping with the broad sweep of 
the Laramie Plains with which it deals. The handsome red- 
covered volume measures 1014x7 inches, is two inches thick and 
weighs four pounds. It offers no light reading. 

What it does offer is a rich collection of facts about the men and 
women who pioneered in establishment of the livestock industry 
in Wyoming, especially the Laramie Plains and Chugwater region. 
All three of the authors of this book are descendants of Wyoming 
ranch families and have played roles in the life of which they 
write. Recording of this story has been with them a labor of love, 
and they have labored devotedly and well to preserve the basic 
information about the people and the land they know so well. 
What the book may lack in literary embellishment it makes up 
for in genuineness. 



Ill) ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Much of the information rounded up in this volume was pub- 
lished serially, in the Laramie Republican-Boomerang and the 
Laramie Plains Chronicle, over a period beginning in 1952. Some 
parts were published before that, in the Westerner. Collection of 
the material in this form is a solid contribution to the literature 
of the shortgrass plains. 

There are pictures, maps, diagrams and facsimile reproductions 
galore. More than five hundred photographs are included — a few 
of them twice. Some of the old photographs are indistinct but 
have some historical interest in spite of this. Some are of much 
value because of the detail shown. 

As is the case with the pictures, little selectivity has been exer- 
cised. The plan apparently was to pour into the book every scrap 
of information that could be obtained. Handling this mass of 
material made checking and verification difficult, and the result 
is that inaccuracies have crept in. An attempt has been made 
to repair this damage by inserting six pages of fine type at the 
back of the book. Captioned "Addenda, 1 ' this is mostly Errata, 
correcting errors in the text or picture captions. Even this device 
did not catch them all; for example, Page 252 says that Agnes 
Wright Spring, noted Wyoming and Colorado historian and au- 
thor, is the daughter of Gordon Wright and in the next paragraph 
says her father was John Wright. A picture caption speaks of 
the George Wright ranch. In all three cases, as might easily 
have been ascertained, the name should be Gordon L. Wright. 

A valuable part of the book is the explanation, by Dr. Burns 
in Chapter VI, of "Landmarks on the Laramie Plains," and, in 
Chapter VII, of "Land Descriptions. Origins of Terms Section, 
Township and Range." The detail given in Chapter VIII by Mr. 
Gillespie, on "Roads and Freighting on the Laramie Plains," is 
likewise valuable. 

The great worth of the book lies in the many accounts of the 
lives, adventures and activities of the ranchers and cowboys of a 
day that is gone. The student of those times, the western fiction 
writer seeking authentic local color and detail, and the reader who 
just reads to get the feeling and catch the spirit of the plains 
pioneers, will all find what they seek here. The book's faults 
are minor, compared with its virtues. 

Denver, Colorado Maurice Frink 



Whoop-Up Country. By Paul F. Sharp. (University of Minne- 
sota Press, 1955. 347 pp., plates. $5.00) 

Paul F. Sharp has presented a studied and thoroughly docu- 
mented story of one of the American West's most colorful chap- 
ters. 

An associate professor of history at the University of Wisconsin, 



BOOK REVIEWS 111 

he approaches his subject quite academically. While his story 
telling may lack a certain breeziness and fluidity, the author is so 
well grounded in facts and so acquainted with the era of which he 
reports that readers cannot fail to grasp a vivid picture of the 
period and the people who lived it and made it colorful. 

Whoop-Up Country specifically defined is that area of the 
Rocky Mountain west just east of the continental divide stretching 
northward from the banks of the Missouri river into Canada to a 
point somewhere above the present site of Calgery. It is anchored 
in Montana at Fort Benton and in Alberta at Ft. McLeod, first 
outpost of the Northwest Mounted Police. 

It is the land of the Blackfeet Indians who once roamed up 
and down its grassy reaches undisturbed by an artificial boundary 
at the 49th parallel the white man decided was politically neces- 
sary. Sharp's book is a stormy tale of how this area was brought 
completely under dominance by the white man between 1865 and 
1885, how local forces fought for commerce and resources, often 
brutally and frequently without logic. 

Yet the people you meet in the pages of Whoop-Up Country, 
whether petty politicians, soldiers, stage drivers and bullwhackers, 
thieves or cattlemen, dishonest officials or men of the cloth, be- 
come very real in light of their surroundings and demands upon 
them by the times and their associates. All breathe a certain 
lustiness which is characteristic of the period. 

The author, sifting rumor from fact and fiction from truth, 
probably comes as close to historical honesty as any writer of 
today can do in his treatment of this strange, wild country of 
many opposing forces and numerous conflicting interests. In 
explaining the massacre at Cypress Hills of 1873 where a party 
of Fort Benton hunters and whiskey traders virtually wiped out 
a band of North Assiniboins, Sharp gives a clue to his approach. 
He says: 

"It heightened the tension already existing between Britain and 
the United States and fanned the smoldering embers of national 
spirit into flame on both sides of the international boundary in 
North America." 

"In such an atmosphere, national bias quickly distorted fact 
and fiction to create as vigorous a set of legends and myths as 
surround any incident in American history." 

While on the American side of the line the raiders were eulo- 
gized by local historians as "valiant frontiersmen bravely fighting 
for their lives against fearful odds as savages sought to wipe them 
out," the Canadian version painted them as "Boarder ruffians, 
drunk with whiskey and greed, brutally slaughtering innocent and 
defenseless Indians without purpose or justification." 

Of this Sharp declares neither interpretation seems defensible 
in view of available evidence. To create a truer picture he gives 
both sides of the story, then takes a critical look at the men in- 



112 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

volved as well as their reputations and the circumstances of the 
times. 

The book's name, Whoop-Up Country, is no title dreamed up 
in the fertile brain of a publisher as an eye catcher, for the Whoop- 
Up Trail, that thin, rutted high road of adventure and commerce, 
actually existed. A phrase based on life surrounding the trail is 
still used in some quarters when persons refer to "whooping it up." 

Sharp offers an adequate cross section of the period and the 
hectic development of the country prior to the penetration of the 
railroads into this part of the western plains. With it he supplies 
considerable background, wherever necessary, to give the reader 
a more firm foundation for understanding the era and its people. 

The invasion of free traders, beginnings of the Canadian Moun- 
ties, their policies as opposed to those on the American side of the 
line, law such as existed around Fort Benton, and life in that river 
town as far up the Missouri as steamers dared to travel, brings to 
light the social, economic and political events of the period. 

Whoop-Up Country is good, solid reading. It is not a novel 
in any sense of the word. Rather, it represents an honest approach 
to an era and geographical area in the west which for some reason 
has been largely overlooked by historians. 

Helena, Montana Brad Slack 



The Frontier Years. By Mark H. Brown and W. R. Felton. (New 
York: Henry Holt and Co., 1955. 272 pp. Illus. $10.00) 

Two years after the red men were victorious in their last ditch 
stand (which in reality spelled their doom) on that sage brush 
ridge of the Little Big Horns in southern Montana, a young man 
with the urge of his pioneering midwestern forefathers came to 
Fort Keogh, Montana Territory. He had in his pocket a letter 
of introduction addressed to the garrison's commandant, General 
Nelson Miles. The attention given this written recommendation 
was to determine the course of the remaining days of that young 
man's life. 

He was Laton Alton Huffman and he was seeking the position 
of Fort photographer, a civilian post. His father, before him, had 
been a picture taker, and although their bread and butter came 
off their Iowa farm, yet they satisfied their ascetic souls with the 
mirrored delights from processing the wet plate negatives by the 
smelly bath from the collodion bottle. 

The Frontier Years, the work of authors Mark H. Brown and 
W. R. Felton, rounds out the biography of L. A. Huffman, and 
presents 124 photographs of the vanishing west and a picture of 
the subject taken in 1926, five years before his death 

Both the text and the photos depict the day of the buffalo 



BOOK REVIEWS 113 

hunters — red and white — that final war of extermination upon 
the vast prairie herds in the wastelands of the Yellowstone and 
Missouri rivers. There is a glimpse into the lives of the Indians 
as it was in those times. Then came the freight lines and the cat- 
tlemen's ranges and the advent of the railroads after which Huff- 
man claims "there was no more West." 

But it was of the Montana he knew in the early years of the 
eighties that Huffman's portrayals became famous. Even as he 
made his way to that frontier outpost Little Wolfe and Dull Knife 
were leading their homesick Northern Cheyennes on the historic 
trek from Oklahoma Indian Territory to their Montana homeland. 
And the Sioux, that proud and populous tribe, was yet to be 
coerced by confinement to a reservation. 

At Fort Keogh the new post photographer took up his position 
without salary. But he had the occupancy of a rude cottonwood 
log building, the privilege of the officers' club and an opportunity 
to engage in his enterprise. (His predecessor had gone broke on 
a similar arrangment.) Huffman decided that if he were to be 
successful he would pursue some side businesses — guiding and 
hunting and acquiring a small ranch — for their mercenary benefits. 

But the garrison did provide him with interesting subjects for 
his camera. He met scouts and soldiers who had starved with 
Crook, officers who had charged with MacKenzie, and cavalrymen 
who had ridden with Custer. He came face to face with frontiers- 
men of that day — Yellowstone Kelly, Liver-Eating Johnson, Big 
Leggins Broguier, as well as others famed in questionable pursuits 
— Big Nose George, Calamity Jane and Charlie Northrup. 

Later the picture taker was to open a studio at Miles City — 
called Miles Town. It was in that historic old cow town that he 
continued his exciting profession, although he was not content to 
remain in the dark room. He took to the trails and his lenses 
caught hunting expeditions, Indian encampments, jerk lines and 
bull trains, roundup scenes and finally the laying of the steel rails. 
Between trips he jotted down impressions and wrote letters back 
home. 

Compiling the book itself surely must have been a labor of love 
— for W. R. Felton was Huffman's son-in-law. Bessie Huffman 
Felton, and another daughter, Ruth Huffman Scott, had faithfully 
preserved their father's negatives, letters, diaries, newspaper clip- 
pings and notes and which provide an intimate and accurate back- 
ground in the presentation of the lexicon of their father. 

The Frontier Years includes, besides the very excellent photo- 
graphs, a prologue and epilogue, and index and bibliography and 
seven sections concerned with: Montana, 1860-1878; The Fron- 
tier Photographer; Hide Hunters and Sportsmen; Soldiers — Red 
and White; Bright Lights on the Prairie; Hayburners and Wood 
Burners; Native Americans. 

While the printed page does much to portray the vivid and 



114 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

dramatic past, yet it is Huffman's camera that has supplied that 
precise record of the days of the redman, buffalo, open range and 
the changing times. As did W. H. Jackson, Morrow and Illings- 
worth make a place for themselves as pioneer photographers of 
the Seventies, so now we may list Huffman's contribution of the 
next decades when he gives students and casual viewers an authen- 
tic and candid glimpse of his era. His pictures throughout the 
publication of later day Indians are unexcelled. 

If there is one regret to be expressed concerning The Frontier 
Years it is that the printing is offset, and one has a feeling that 
such a priceless accumulation of history deserves the beauty of 
engraving. Then, too, this reviewer found errors in the bibliog- 
raphy — the spelling of Carrie Adell Strayhorn — instead of Stra- 
horn; — and Alexander Toponce (correctly it should be Topence). 
But these are minor defects, and the authors are to be praised for 
their contribution, The Frontier Years, to Western Americana. 

Laramie, Wyoming Mary Lou Pence 



Tragedy Strikes at Wounded Knee. By Will H. Spindler. (Gor- 
don, Nebraska: Gordon Journal Publishing Company. 1955. 
88 pp. $1.50) 

Will H. Spindler has spent a quarter of a century in the United 
States Indian Service where he is still employed as an Indian day 
school teacher on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation of South 
Dakota. In addition to teaching school for the government, Spin- 
dler has written several books depicting Indian life and various 
other phases of Western Americana. 

His most recent book Tragedy Strikes at Wounded Knee is 
really a collection of some 16 short stories covering interest- 
ing events and Indian life at the Pine Ridge Reservation since 
the tragic Wounded Knee Massacre which occurred December 29, 
1890. It is a little sad that Spindler was not able to come up with 
aspects of the massacre after all of his years of living near the site 
of that bloody battle that have not been written and rewritten 
during the past fifty to sixty years. But, in describing the Wound- 
ed Knee affair, Spindler was at least accurate. The photos used 
in conjunction with the story are the usual pictures most every 
reader has seen many times. This reader wondered why Spindler 
did not get permission to use some of the drawings and photo- 
graphs used in the 14th Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, 1892-93, "The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak 
of 1890" by James Mooney. The reproduction of these drawings 
and photographs would have added much more reader appeal to 
his book. 

For those interested in other facets of Indian life, particularly 



BOOK REVIEWS 115 

Sioux Indian life, since 1890, the other 15 stories in Spindler's 
book will be of real interest. And, in keeping with the position 
white man is now giving his red brother, Spindler's introduction 
is truly up to date. He says, "The Indian is nobody's tool. He 
is intelligent, keen witted, and quick to see through any trickery, 
'synthetic' business or friendship, chicanery, or subterfuge. The 
day of 'soft-soaping' him and treating him as a child has passed — 
gone the way of the old open range cowboy and the buffalo .... 
The time has come when we must treat him as a man and give 
him a man's place in a man's world." 

And basing his collection of stories upon the above, Spindler 
truly gives the Indian (Sioux at least) his rightful place in society. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming William F. Bragg, Jr. 



Contributors 



Ray Harold Mattison has been with the National Park Ser- 
vice since 1948, serving at Shiloh National Military Park, Ten- 
nessee, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, and since 
1950 as Historian, Region Two Office, at Omaha. A native of 
Nebraska, Mr. Mattison took his undergraduate work at Wayne 
State Teachers College, Wayne, Nebraska, and received his M. A. 
from the University of Nebraska. He is the author of fifteen articles 
which have appeared in the historical journals: of Georgia, New 
Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Nebraska. 



Francis Howard Sinclair, a resident of Sheridan since 1941 
where he is a journalist and public relations counsel, is Secretary- 
Manager of All American Indian Days, a position for which he 
is notably fitted. Born in Glendive, Montana, the son of Daniel 
and Mary Sinclair, Montana pioneers, he has the rare distinction 
of being an adopted member of several Indian tribes: the Hunk- 
papa Sioux, Chief Soldiers Lodge of the Northern Cheyenne, the 
Arapaho tribe, and a member of the Pueblo Brotherhood, Jemez 
Pueblos. He is at present chairman of the Wyoming Indian 
Affairs Commission, secretary of the 20 State Governor's Inter- 
state Indian Council, and Continental Chief of Continental Con- 
federation of Adopted Indians. 

Mr. Sinclair has written for numerous publications and news- 



116 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

papers, and stories for several movies including All Flesh is 
Grass and Roamin' Wyoming. 

He was editor of the Bill Brothers Publishing Co., New York, 
1921-41, and he served as Public Relations Director of the Amer- 
ican National Cattlemen's Ass'n, 1946-50. His newspaper col- 
umn, written under the pseudonym of "Neckyoke Jones", is widely 
read through the Sheridan Press and the Wyoming Stockgrower's 
Ass'n magazine Cow Country. 



Richard G. Beidleman, assistant professor of zoology at 
Colorado A. & M. College since 1948, is a native of North Dakota. 
Dr. Beidleman has served as seasonal ranger naturalist at Yosemite 
National Park (1948-49) and Rocky Mountain National Park 
(1950-56). In 1954-55 while on special leave from the College 
he made a study of "The Significance of the American Frontier 
on Natural Science" on a Ford Foundation Fund Education Grant. 
His studies took him through 40 states following the trails of early 
naturalists and examining their journals and their collections. He 
has to date authored 75 publications in the field of popular and 
technical science, primarily zoology, his most recent work being a 
"Guide to the Winter Birds of Colorado." Dr. Beidleman received 
his education at Brown University, University of New Mexico and 
the University of Colorado. 



ERRATUM 



In the October 1955 issue of the Annals of Wyoming, at the 
top of page 139, the following line was omitted: "loaf of bread 
and literally covered with giant mahogany bushes," 



Annals of Wyoming 



LUME 28 



OCTOBER 1956 



NUMBER 2 




Official Publication 

of the 

WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Published Biannually 
by 
IE WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



WYOMING STATE LIBRARY ARCHIVES AND 
HISTORICAL BOARD 

Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Mr. James Bentley Sheridan 

Mr. Henry Jones Hanna 

Mr. Thomas O. Cowgill Cody 

Mrs. Lora Jewett „ Pinedale 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Margaret E. Hall Moorcroft 

Attorney-General George F. Guy, Ex-officio 

WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

President, Dr. DeWitt Dominick Cody 

First Vice President, Dr. T. A. Larson Laramie 

Second Vice President, Mr. A. H. MacDougall Rawlins 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Wyoming State Historical Society life membership $50.00, joint life 

membership (husband and wife) $75.00; annual membership, $3.50, 

joint annual membership (two persons of same family at same 

address) $5.00. 

THE WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 
STATE OFFICE BUILDING — CHEYENNE 
STAFF 

Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Deputy 

Reta W. Ridings Head, Research Services 

Mrs. Lillian V. Stratton Secretary 

ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Lola M. Homsher Editor 

Reta W. Ridings Co-editor 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually, in April and 
October, and is the official publication of the Wyoming State Jlistorical 
Society. It is received by all members of that Society as a part of their 
dues. Individual copies of the current issues of the Annals of Wyoming 
may be purchased for $1.00 each. Available copies of earlier issues are 
also for sale. A price list may be obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor will 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 
contributors. 

o 

Copyright, 1956, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 
Department. 



Mnote of Wyoming 

Volume 28 October 1956 Number 2 

Zable of Contents 

STONE AGE INDUSTRY IN WYOMING 119 

Mae Urbanek 

GOD'S OBELISK 126 

Mae Urbanek 

HISTORY OF RIVERTON 127 

Vada Carlson 

CAMP CARLIN 145 

Charles D. Carey 

HOLE-IN-THE-WALL, Part III 151 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 

OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 167 

Compiled by Maurine Carley 

WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI, PART VII 193 

Dale L. Morgan, editor 

WYOMING HISTORICAL SOCIETY 208 

WYOMING ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES 213 

L. C. Steege 

BOOK REVIEWS 

Pence and Homsher, Ghost Towns of Wyoming 216 

Foster-Harris, Look of the Old West 218 

Ruby, Oglala Sioux 219 

Allyn, Twentieth Century Pioneering 220 

Shoebotham, Anaconda: Life and Times of Marcus Daly 221 

Hanson, Northwest Guns 223 

Walters, Early Days and Indian Ways 224 

Lott, Wagons Rolled West 225 

Buckeridge, Lincoln's Choice 227 

Curry, So Far from Spring 228 

Elston, The Marked Men 230 

CONTRIBUTORS 230 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Spanish Diggings 118 

Riverton, Wyoming 134 

. Camp Carlin 144 

Wild Cat Sam Abernathy, Herbert Andrus, Murphy Creek Crossing, 

John Wheelwright and Poison Joe James 152 

Map: Southern End of Red Wall Country 156 

Wolk skin 163 

Map: Oregon Trail Trek No. 3 166 

Stone Artifacts 214 

INDEX 231 




Blanche Spencer of Lusk in ancient 

mine of Stone Age aborigines at 

Spanish Diggings 



Jerry Urbanek in pit at Barbour 
Quarries, Spanish Diggings 




Jerry Urbanek at Holmes Quarries, 
Spanish Diggings 



Holmes Quarries, Spanish Diggings. 

Mrs. Spencer standing in pit, Jerry 

Urbanek at top of picture. 



Stone Age Industry /// Wyoming 

By 

Mae Urbanek 
Lusk, Wyoming 

While expeditions of scientists search the frozen wastes of 
northern Canada and Antarctica for clues to the life and habits 
of the earliest stone age man on the North American continent, 
vast ancient stone quarries of a prehistoric race lie peaceful and 
undisturbed in eastern Wyoming. Here is the earliest evidence 
of specialization, mass production, and assembly line techniques. 
The thousands of tipi rings, the trainloads of scattered rejects, 
and the hundreds of silent, empty pits on the hill tops mutely tell 
of great activity here over five thousand years ago. Cattle now 
graze over the roadless expanse and only an occasional jeep 
invades the prairie solitude enjoyed by jackrabbits, antelopes, and 
deer. 

A pioneer rancher, A. A. Spaugh of Manville, is credited with 
having discovered the quarries in 1879. The following summer 
when two cowboys, J. L. Stein and William Lauk, viewed the open 
pit mines, they thought them the work of Spanish conquistadores, 
prospecting for gold. These cowboys called the area "Mexican 
Mines" or "Spanish Diggings". But Coronado, the noted Spanish 
explorer of the fifteenth century, had not traveled this far north, 
nor would he have wasted his time digging in the quartzite veins 
where there was no sign of gold. Plains Indians have no theories 
or traditions concerning the diggings, and admit their ancestors 
would never have labored so hard. Scientists agree that the 
quarries were dug by stone age men struggling to secure material 
from which they could fashion the first crude axes, hoes, and 
spears to aid them in their battle for survival. These stone tools 
alone are left to tell the unwritten history of aboriginal man. 

In his History of Wyoming, I. S. Bartlett states that prehistoric 
remains in New Mexico and Arizona cannot compare in size, 
impressiveness, weirdness, and mystery to these remains in Wyo- 
ming. The so-called Spanish Diggings may well contain the 
buried records of the primitive beginnings of mankind, and are 
one of the richest archaeological fields on the North American 
continent. 

Prehistoric quarries are scattered over an area of approximately 
four hundred square miles, lying in parts of Niobrara, Goshen, and 
Platte counties. The area, about ten miles wide and forty miles 
long, is roughly bounded by Highway 20 on the north; Highway 85 



120 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

on the east; Highway 26 on the south; and Highway 87 on the 
west. Although a large sign describing the Spanish Diggings is 
located on Highway 20, three miles west of Keeline, no road over 
which modern cars can travel leads to the main diggings from this 
direction. The main quarries are approximately sixteen miles 
south of the sign. Owners and lessees of the land surrounding the 
quarries do not encourage tourist travel. In the past they have 
had their water tanks plugged with bullets, their cattle scared, 
their fences torn down, and their gates left open. It is very diffi- 
cult for a stranger to find the pits and workshops of Spanish 
Diggings. 

The easiest approach to them is from a graveled road which 
turns off from Highway 87 one mile north of Glendo, and runs 
east to Meadowdale, an inland store and postoffice. Nine miles 
east of Glendo, or nine miles west of Meadowdale, the traveler 
should turn north through an auto gate or cattle guard where a 
sign lists the names of Roy McCormick, Douglas Lay, and Bill 
Ziska. An ungraded and unmarked road leads north and east 
through fields and farm yards for six miles to where a dim trail 
turns left to the top of a hill where there are three government 
geological stakes. The main quarries are about a mile east of 
these stakes. 

The region is practically a wilderness, weird and picturesque. 
To the far west rises the imposing blue height of Laramie Peak. 
In all directions the land slopes away in a series of rounded hills, 
interspersed with irregular gullies and accented with grotesque 
rock formations. It is short grass country, supporting only a scant 
growth of sagebrush. From a usually dry creek rises a series 
of sandstone and quartzite cliffs. On the top of this high mesa 
are the quarries, pits, open cuts, and great rock dumps that tell 
of tremendous mining operations that probably lasted several 
centuries. 

Eight or ten feet of worthless rock had to be removed, carried 
away and dumped down hillsides, before quartzite which could be 
chipped into tools and weapons was uncovered. All work was 
done with stone wedges and hammers of granite which probably 
were brought here from the vicinity of Laramie Peak. There is 
no native granite in this area. 

The mining was a slow, laborious process, requiring hundreds 
of workers to accomplish what one man with explosives, steel 
tools, and engines could do today. The pits were dug in series 
or rows and average twenty-five to thirty feet in diameter. They 
probably were about thirty feet deep. James L. Stein in 1882 
cleaned out one pit to a depth of twenty-two feet but never reached 
the bottom. When the vein of quartzite in one pit had been 
mined, the pit apparently was abandoned and used as a refuse 
dump for the next pit beside it, so that today the deepest pits are 



STONE AGE INDUSTRY IN WYOMING 121 

only ten to twelve feet deep, and contain great quantities of 
worked and discarded stone. 

Many scientists visited the quarries in the thirty years following 
their discovery, and practically all artifacts of any value were 
removed for study and display in various institutions. The 
Holmes Quarries, named for W. H. Holmes of the Smithsonian 
Institute, are about a half mile northeast of the geological stakes 
previously mentioned. The Barbour Quarries are on another hill 
about a mile east of the stakes and were so called in honor of 
Dr. Edwin H. Barbour of the University of Nebraska. The Dorsey 
Quarries about a mile to the southeast of the Holmes Quarries 
were named for Dr. George A. Dorsey, curator of the Field 
Museum of Chicago. Other archaeologists who visited and wrote 
about the area were Dr. Harlem I. Smith of the Canadian Geolog- 
ical Survey, and C. H. Robinson from Illinois State Museum. 

Hans Gautschi of Lusk acted as guide for C. H. Robinson when 
he explored not only the Spanish Diggings but the whole area of 
prehistoric activity which extends north to within six miles of 
Manville, and south to Whalen and Saw Mill Canyons east of 
Sunrise. Mr. Gautschi has a large collection of artifacts from the 
Spanish Diggings proper, which include only the main pits in the 
Spanish Hills and do not extend more than a mile or two in any 
direction from the geological stakes. He also has numerous 
artifacts gathered from the whole area explored by him and C. H. 
Robinson, as well as many polished stones. Part of these are in 
his home and part of them in the Lusk Museum which is located 
near the Standard Filling Station that Mr. Gautschi operates in 
Lusk. 

It is believed that the Holmes pits are older than the Barbour 
quarries where the rejected stone is still clean and free of lichens. 
In the Holmes pits the growth of lichens on the walls and worked 
rock give scientists a clue to the great age of the mines. In this 
very arid country, it takes centuries for the first lichen to form on 
the disturbed rocks. After it has established itself, a second type 
of lichen can grow, profiting by the moisture accumulated by the 
first species. Again growth is very, very slow but eventually the 
third variety, a leafy type of lichen, appears. Since all three kinds 
of lichen exist in the Holmes pits, E. B. Renaud of the University 
of Denver, reasoned that the first pits were dug centuries ago in 
prehistoric time by stone age or Neanderthal men. 

There is some additional evidence that helps to give substance 
to this theory according to J. R. Wilson of Glendo, a well-known 
artist and collector of fossils and artifacts. Mr. Wilson says that 
twenty-five years ago Harrison Peyton, a rancher, uncovered a 
fossilized human skull while digging an irrigation ditch. The skull 
was sent to the Colorado Museum of Natural History where it was 
studied by authorities who pronounced it of "Mongoloid-Negroid" 



122 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

type or a close approach to the Neanderthal type skulls found in 
Africa, Europe, and China. Crude stone implements comparable 
in type to those at Spanish Diggings were found in connection 
with the fossils of these stone age men. 

Mr. Wilson says, "These men who worked the Spanish Diggings 
were a different race from the American Indians, and probably 
belonged to the race of old Neanderthal men who migrated across 
Europe to China, and then across the Bering Strait to become the 
original human settlers of America. Centuries later another and 
more advanced race of savages, maybe the ancestors of the 
American Indians, again crossed the Bering Strait and with their 
improved weapons and knowledge wiped out the original stone 
age man on this continent." 

The bones of the skull found near Glendo were thicker than 
those of any existing race, the forehead low and retreating, the 
bony ridge above the eye sockets exceedingly prominent. From 
the crudely chipped artifacts found in the region, mostly scrapers, 
hoes, skinning knives, lance heads, and hammers, it is apparent 
that the people were a peaceful agricultural race not nearly as far 
advanced intellectually or as warlike as the Plains Indians. The 
tools are large as if used by a powerful people. 

From a biography of fossilized bones and rocks, the stone age 
man might be described as being built for existence on cold, barren 
tundras left by the last retreating glaciers. He was a shambling 
figure on slow, flat feet, with a thigh curved and a knee never 
quite straight. He probably had a powerful chest and shoulders 
with huge hands and awkward thumbs. His jaw was large with 
a forward thrust; his nose prominent, and over his eyes the heavy 
ridges of his low skull met. 

But he knew the use of fire, and had learned to clothe himself 
in animal skins. He prepared these skins with crude knives of 
stone, after he had killed their original owners with rough hand- 
tossed spears or rocks, or by driving them over steep cliffs. Prob- 
ably the bison was his chief source of food and clothing, while 
he may have captured rats and rabbits in snares or killed them 
with rocks. Meat, the marrow from crushed bones, berries, prairie 
mushrooms and turnips, and the fruit of the prickly pear cactus 
served as food. He had not discovered the wheel, and had no 
domesticated animals with the possible exception of the half-wild 
wolf or coyote. 

This stone age man had time for few sentiments, and may not 
have even bothered to bury his dead. No burial grounds have 
ever been found at or near the Spanish Diggings. But apparently 
he had learned the value of cooperation with fellow men, and of 
better stone tools made possible by specialization. While one 
group of men mined the rocks, another group processed them into 
tools, and a third group spent their time hunting and trapping 



STONE AGE INDUSTRY IN WYOMING 123 

animals for food. Such extensive evacuations into hills of solid 
rock would not have been possible if each man had taken time 
to hunt food for himself and family. This stone age man must 
have developed a property sense in the possession of stone tools 
secured with such great labor, and passed them down from genera- 
tion to generation. 

On the hillsides sloping away from the pits in all directions were 
thousands of villages, their sites now marked by the half-sunken 
circles of rocks which once rested on the edges of hide tents. The 
sizes of the villages vary, but about twenty tipi rings usually form 
a group. Then several rods of space intervene before another 
group of circling stones mark another village. In one secluded, 
sunny place in the valley, several tipi rings larger than the others 
are set off by themselves. Could the ruler or medicine man have 
lived here in solitude and primitive splendor? 

The tipi rings are about eight to ten feet in diameter indicating 
smaller tents than those used by the Plains Indians, who had 
horses to help in transportation and so could afford more spacious 
living quarters. Heat-chipped stones are usually outside of the 
rings indicating that this was only a summer workshop, and that 
the laborers migrated to a warmer climate in winter. It is possible 
that many tribes inhabiting the great drainage bed of the Missis- 
sippi River came here on expeditions to secure the quartzite for 
making their tools. 

A cache of quartzite implements that are exact duplicates of 
those found in Spanish Diggings were first discovered by a man 
digging a ditch near Belleville, Illinois, about 1867. At that 
time no stone of this kind had been found in America. These 
artifacts were so strange and unusual that they were sent to the 
Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D. C. Similar crude tools 
have been found in Ohio, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and other states. 
Since the only known source of that particular quartzite is in 
Wyoming, the finding of these widely scattered artifacts would 
indicate these stone age men either bartered their prized tools 
or came on their own mining expeditions. 

This rare purplish, golden brown, and grey quartzite is very 
hard and dense and chips with a conchoidal fracture that allows 
the rocks to be easily worked into different shapes with sharp 
edges. It was formed by silicious water seeping over sandstone. 
While five to ten feet of rock on top are too brittle to chip well, 
the lower stratas are more dense and tougher, thus making the 
deeper mines worth the tremendous extra work it took to dig 
them. At intervals nodes of jasper, chalcedony, and agatized 
quartz are found and these were excellent for finer chipping and 
smaller points. 

There are few signs of chipping at or near the quarries. Appar- 
ently once the good rock was mined, it was rough-blocked and 



124 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

carried away, sometimes as far as fifty miles to finishing shops 
located in pleasant valleys and near springs. Even here it may 
have been only roughly shaped into the primary leaf patterns 
which could have been transported hundreds of miles away before 
being finished into knives and scrapers. For the vast quantity 
of rock mined, the amount of chips and spalls are few at Spanish 
Diggings. The village sites are strewn with thousands of tons of 
rejects or partially shaped rocks which would not chip down to 
the necessary thinness. While there are imperfect and broken 
spear heads, knives, and scrapers in the area, about the only place 
it is now possible to find perfect specimens is in gullies and 
ravines where water is uncovering the artifacts that it and the wind 
buried centuries ago. 

The artisans who did the chipping had their favorite work spots 
now marked by piles of tiny spalls and chips. Some seemed to 
prefer to work with the purple rock, while others specialized in 
the brown or grey. On one rock a smooth hollow was apparently 
worn by the worker's feet while he sat on another rock higher 
up and fashioned his tools. The view is magnificent from this 
place, the prairie broken by hills and shadows stretching away 
fifty miles to the south and east, with the outstanding form of 
Flattop peak dominating the scene. The rocks spaced farther 
apart in the tipi rings show that the doorways opened to the south 
and east. Often to one side of the doorway is a pile of chips. 

Present day Indians claim that they do not know how to chip 
rocks into artifacts; that the skills have been lost. In the "Hand- 
book of Aboriginal American Antiquites" W. H. Holmes of the 
Smithsonian Institute, Bureau of American Ethnology, discussed 
at great length the art of rock fracture. He believes that after 
the quartzite, flint, and jasper was rough blocked into the approx- 
imate size of the desired weapon or tool, it was grasped firmly 
in the left hand, which was protected by a piece of tanned hide. 
The rock was then struck lightly, near the edge, with a downward 
blow by a hammer rock held in the right hand. The chip would 
break from the underside, its size being determined by the distance 
the hammer blow was from the edge. 

The artisan turned the rock in his hand, spacing the blows, 
and so shaping the desired tool. After one revolution of the rock, 
it would be reversed and chipped from the other side. If the 
center portion of the rock did not work down to the desired 
thinness it was discarded. The finishing work was probably done 
with a bone splinter, tooth, or sharpened end of a deer horn held 
in the right hand, and pressed firmly against the edge of the rock, 
thus breaking off a much smaller spall than could be done with a 
rock hammer stone. The hand acted as a cushion, so that the 
rock would not be broken by the hammer blows. Two artisans 
might work together, one holding the rock and a bone punch, 
and the other hitting the punch with a rock hammer. 



STONE AGE INDUSTRY IN WYOMING 125 

Sometimes the worker might rest his artifact on another anvil 
rock, holding it there with his left hand, and hitting it with a rock 
hammer held in his right hand. Many of these small, hard ham- 
mer stones with abrasions showing they have been used in this 
way have been found in the area. The quartzite found at Spanish 
Diggings works up readily by either method of chipping, and 
even an amateur can fashion a crude tool in a half hour. 

Below the Barbour quarries on a hillside sloping to the northeast 
and toward the summer sunrise is a strange mosaic figure formed 
by rocks that are now deeply sunken into the dry earth. The 
figure is outlined by two parallel rows of evenly spaced stones 
which are about five feet apart and extend for about a hundred 
feet down the hillside. Groups of rocks placed at right angles 
near the top of the figure may represent either the outstretched 
arms of a man or a cross. Similar groupings of rocks at the base 
of the figure may form the legs of a man or the base of a cross. 
Many of the stones have been disturbed by visitors, and no one 
agrees as to what the strange figure may represent. Stone mounds 
run northeast from the figure into the valley for nearly a half 
mile. Excavations have disclosed no buried bones or tools. 

The shop sites about twenty-five miles south of Spanish Dig- 
gings in Whalen and Saw Mill Canyons near Platte River are 
especially extensive. Piles of chips and spalls mark many work- 
shops in protected valleys. One artisan seems to have specialized 
in making hoes, another knives, or scrapers. In nearly all work 
sites a center block or stone anvil has been found, indicating that 
the workman rested the tool he was chipping on another rock. 

Natural caves in limestone cliffs at the head of Whalen Canyon 
have preserved both animal and human bones, as well as charcoal 
from fires long dead. A few logs found here show the marks of 
the stone axe. Although these caves may have served as shelters 
for the easliest stone age men, both the bones and logs probably 
belonged to a more recent race. Artifacts which show greater 
skill in chipping than the easliest man possessed are also scattered 
over this region, indicating the work of a more modern race. 

Unless the visitor comes to the Spanish Diggings with an interest 
in the historic beginnings of the human race, and an imagination 
great enough to picture the barren hillsides swarming with hordes 
of skin-clad men and women lugging their burdens of stone and 
raw flesh, he will be disappointed. All he will see will be dis- 
organized piles and pits of rock; great gullies partly filled with 
discarded rocks; hillsides strewn with broken rocks, and tipi rings. 
Nothing but silent rocks guarded by great bald eagles. 

But if this visitor comes in an inquiring, imaginative mood, he 
will view a great amphitheater of early human drama with the 
mysterious blue background curtain of Laramie range hanging 
in the west. To him the broken rocks on the high mesa will 



126 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

speak in mute testimony of the struggles and ambitions and co- 
operation of a race that lived some fifty centuries ago. The 
chords of wind music sometimes weird, and sometimes strangely 
peaceful will be the only sounds in this vast, abandoned cathedral 
which once echoed with sharp blows of rock on rock, and the 
shouts and cries of laboring stone age men. 



Qofs Obelisk 

By 
Mae Urbanek 

A joking soldier named me "Devil's Tower"; 

But God created me, a tapered spire 

To raise all searching eyes above the earth, 

To lift their vision upward to the stars. 

The Red Men gave to me a fabulous birth 

That saved three maidens from an angry bear; 

While men of science patiently explain 

Me as a monolith, volcanic-born. 

In homage, Roosevelt proclaimed this site 

The first of many Monuments, so pines 

And native flowers could thrive around my base. 

A thousand tapered pentagons of stone 
Compose my whole. Each fluted shaft alone 
Would crumble, fall, disintegrate to dust; 
Together as a triumphant whole they have 
Endured. The blasts of hail, bombastic winds 
Of fifty million years proved trivial 
As dew on blades of grass. God's Obelisk 
Upon a mountain top, I symbolize 
The permanence and peace of unity. 

Editor's Note: This poem won first place in a state poetry contest spon- 
sored by the Wyoming Federation of Women's Clubs in 1956. 



KivertOHt Jwm Sage Zo City 

By 

Vada F. Carlson 

Half a century ago, on August 15, 1906, the now thriving city 
of Riverton, Wyoming had its auspicious beginning. 

It did not, as some towns do, just grow up, like Topsy. No 
slow and uneventful process of crossroads store and clustering 
community preceded its birth. It came into being on that birthday, 
a real town, platted and planned, though without a building in 
sight. And luck were the first settlers who had a good tent to 
pitch there! 

Preparation for the town-to-be had its real beginning two years 
earlier, on April 21, 1904, when a treaty between the United 
States and the Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians of the Shoshone 
or Wind River Reservation was executed, ceding to the United 
States Government more than 2,000 square miles of reservation 
land. 

This great, roughly-triangular area lay in the Wind River Basin. 
It was bounded by the Big Wind River which, rising near the 
Continental Divide, flows southeasterly to a point just beyond 
the present site of Riverton, then abruptly changes course and 
flows northward, and by the Shoshone and Owl Creek Mountain 
ranges along the north. 

This treaty was ratified and confirmed by Congress on March 
3, 1905. The ceded portion was surveyed and platted and a 
proclamation by President Theodore Roosevelt on June 2, 1906 
established the manner in which the ceded lands were to be opened 
for entry and settlement. 

Back of all this was the dream of irrigating the hundreds of 
thousands of rich, irrigable land in the ceded portion and convert- 
ing it to farmland. 

Ex-Governor Fenimore Chatterton is credited with being one 
of the first to see the possibilities of irrigation in this area. He 
is said to have begun work on the idea soon after a trip he made 
through the area in 1900. 

In June, 1905, he is credited with having spiked a move to 
divert the waters of the Big Horn — as the Big Wind is called after 
emerging from Wind River Canyon — for irrigation of Montana 
lands. The following month he met with New York financiers 
who subscribed $5,000,000 to finance an irrigation project, pro- 
vided he could obtain permission from the Interior Department 
to construct canals prior to the land opening. 



128 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

On July 1, 1906 Chatterton organized the Wyoming Central 
Irrigation Company, with Joy Morton, president, and himself as 
vice-president and general manager. 

Notices of the coming land drawing were widely published and 
frontier-minded people were attracted. When the first trains came 
to Shoshoni in 1906 excursion rates were offered and many special 
trainloads of prospective settlers arrived. 

Shoshoni was at that time as wild as any tent and shack town 
could well be. Some of the settlers took one look and went home. 
Others argued realistically that things would settle down later and 
surveyed the situation level-headedly, coming to the conclusion 
that this was the opportunity of a lifetime, as it proved to be for 
many. 

The land drawing, after registration at Worland, Shoshoni, Lan- 
der and Thermopolis, took place at Lander on Aug. 4, 1906. 
Gov. Richards, Ex-congressman McGinnis of Helena and Ex- 
Mayor Schnitger of Cheyenne were the commissioners in charge. 

Hans Berlin of Laramie was the first name drawn. 

Among other well known Riverton people whose names were 
listed among the first 100 names drawn were James A. (Gus) 
Morrow, Mrs. Catharine Connaghan, J. E. Connahan, Dot Fuller, 
Luther F. Sproule, Archie Bugher, William Cook, Pete Berlin, Joe 
Tiffany, Thomas Malone, A. N. Holmberg, Frank E. Lamar, 
James A. Hurst, James Bolton, F. Reynolds, Fred M. Haymaker 
(for whom Haymaker Gulch north of Riverton was named), 
William Gilliland, Charles Ackenhauser and Charles Breniman. 

These were homestead entries. There were others who elected 
to wait until August 15 and squat on town lots. Among those 
so-minded were David and Roy E. Hays, E. T. Glenn, Frank H. 
Allyn, W. T. Judkins, W. S. Adams, J. A. L. Chenery, J. J. 
Jewett, William Mooney, Byron Mason, Dr A. B. Tonkin and 
many others who were to make their influence felt in the affairs 
of the newly established town. 

The townsite, which had been withdrawn earlier, was located 
on the north side of the Big Wind, near the Big Bend where it 
makes its northward turn. North and a little east of St. Stephen's, 
the Catholic Mission established in 1884, it was on a well-favored 
flat which had been in use for many years as a round-up site. 

It was on a bench above the river's bottom land and there was 
not a tree on it. Neither was there water up there. 

Prior to the opening Goyne Drummond and William Stuart 
Adams, deputy government surveyors, with a crew of men, went 
over from Shoshoni to stake the townsite. Drummond had pre- 
viously surveyed the proposed Riverton Project for the Bureau of 
Reclamation (in 1904) according to a letter from Glenn D. 
Thompson, Chief of the Division of Personnel, dated Sept. 30, 
1955. This was the first known survey of the Project, according 
to this authority. 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 129 

Mrs. William S. Adams (Alzada E.) came to the townsite with 
her husband, accompanied by their children, Feme, Heston and 
Thelma, and cooked the first meal on the townsite on August 

14. She is credited with having been the first white woman on 
the townsite. She remembers using the sideboards of a lumber- 
wagon, laid on boxes, as a table on which to serve the first meals 
in the new town. 

It is interesting to note the names of the streets on the original 
plat of the Town of Riverton, drawn up by Frank H. Allyn for 
the surveyors, and placed on record at the County Seat, Lander, 
Wyo., accompanied by Goyne Drummond's notarized statement 
certifying to the completion of the survey of the townsite on Aug. 

15, 1906. From north to south the east-west avenues were listed 
as Williams, Gaddie, Main Street, Gill, Gregory, Drummond, 
Adams and Independence. 

Drummond and Adams were, of course, named for the survey- 
ors. Gill, Gregory and Gaddie were named for Shoshoni men 
of those names who are said to have established the townsite 
company with J. W. Gudmundsen also of Shoshoni, as their legal 
advisor. 

The streets have since been renamed, and now are known as 
Jackson, Fremont, Main Street, Washington, Adams, Jefferson, 
Madison and Monroe. 

North-south streets still carry the numbers: that is, First, Sec- 
ond, Third and so on. The original townsite was seven blocks 
square. 

At first the townsite company intended selling 50-foot main 
street lots, but the sharp demand encouraged them to divide them 
into 25-foot lots, thereby doubling their revenue. 

The chief excitement on opening day in Riverton was the 
attempt made to declare the survey incorrect and the occupancy 
of lots illegal. Colored troops from Ft. Washakie, under the 
command of Capt. Thomas G. Carson, of the 10th Cavalry, 
cleared the townsite temporarily, but frantic telegrams cleared 
the situation and the dispossessed citizens returned to their lots, 
if, that is, someone more determined didn't beat them to them. 

A dim old snapshot, taken two weeks after the opening of the 
townsite, reveals a little tent town with box cars on the rails in 
the background. But within a month the picture had changed. 
The Riverton Hotel had been built by Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Adams, 
and one wing added. The Roy E. Hays Co. store, though perhaps 
still unfinished inside, loomed as a new structure. The Savage 
Hotel and the Forney saloon building were tall on the prairie and 
there were smaller buildings in varying stages of construction. 

The sheer misery of living on that treeless flat, without a particle 
of shade, except that provided by the tents and wagons, must have 
been an incentive to the pioneers to build — to build anything, 
rather than endure the blasting sun and the dust storms. 



130 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Besides, in this section of Wyoming there is very little time 
between the 15th of August and the first snowfall. Some of the 
townspeople knew this and made haste to put a roof over their 
heads. But, in spite of the possibility of heavy snow, many of 
the first settlers lived in boarded-up tents, set on platforms, not 
only that winter but for several years to come. 

That winter, happily, was exceedingly mild, though the next 
April was unpleasant. 

The majority of the Rivertonites were young and hardy and 
could endure hardships without too much discomfort. Neverthe- 
less, there were times, that fall, when their lot seemed a bit hard. 

For instance, all water had to be hauled from the river. Many 
local men took part in this labor, selling the water at three barrels 
for one dollar, but George and Bob Doughty are best remembered 
as men who manned the "water wagon." 

Modern day families, living in air-conditioned homes, have no 
idea what it is like to be without water and exposed to the hot sun 
and dust storms as were those early residents of Riverton. 

Mrs. E. S. Primm, a neat little woman whose husband, with the 
help of his brown horse "Buster", ran the local express wagon, 
lined her tent with green silkolene, apple-blossom-sprigged, to 
break the glare, and probably the widow who dug an 8 x 8 foot 
hole in the ground and roofed it with planks and dirt, hanging a 
blanket for a door, was less uncomfortable than some of the 
others in the tents. 

Mrs. Tom Sanders took a job cooking for Mrs. Savage at the 
Savage Hotel and nearly stifled in the little corrugated iron lean-to 
kitchen. 

Cooking over a sagebrush fire in the open is not recommended 
for either temper or complexion, but many of the "first ladies" 
did just that, considering themselves lucky if, perchance, they had 
a little sheet iron stove to set on the ground. 

Mrs. E. T. Glenn remembers one "company" dinner she cooked 
during those first days on the townsite. Someone had given her 
some rabbits. She fried these and a pan of potatoes and was 
about to serve the food when a dust devil danced across the flat, 
swirling dust over the food. 

After Mr. and Mrs. Adams built their hotel and began providing 
rooms and board for the homeless, Mrs. Adams was plagued by 
curious and hungry Indians from the reservation across the river. 
They came unbidden into her little kitchen, begged for food, and 
sometimes reached into the skillets and kettles with their dirty 
fingers before she could prevent it, soon learning this was a good 
way to persuade her to give them the contents they had con- 
taminated 

Considering that the people who made up that new town were 
from widely separated states and were, for the most part, complete 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 131 

strangers, they welded themselves into a closely knit "family" in 
record time. The Stork family had come over from Sheridan; 
the Connaghans were from Niantic, 111.; Mr. and Mrs. E. T. 
Glenn and their small daughter, Daisy, were from Montana; Dot 
Fuller and her brother, Lauchie G., came from Iowa; O. N. 
Gibson, lucky one of a trainload of Missourians, was from Tren- 
ton; David Hays and his son, Roy E. Hays, had been traders 
on the Navajo Reservation over in Arizona's Four Corners coun- 
try; Mr. and Mrs. Lee Mote came from Kokomo, Indiana; the 
Allyns were from Cheyenne; Mr. and Mrs. Adams and their fam- 
ily came from Saratoga; Mr. and Mrs. W. T. Judkins moved over 
from Basin with their children; there were several Nebraska fam- 
ilies, and many others from various states. 

Almost before the sagebrush was grubbed from the wide Main 
street they knew each other and were a community in spirit. 

Those who had drawn land adjacent to the town lived there 
while their new homes were being built, patronizing the hotels — 
the Riverton Hotel, the Wyoming Inn owned by Harry Waugh and 
his mother, the Savage, or Pioneer, as it was called for a time, 
and the Wind River Hotel, the impressive two-story structure 
built by Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Luthy, who had come to Riverton 
from the little new town of Shoshoni. 

During those first days of Riverton there were few two-story 
structures. The Forney saloon, the Madden and Gaylord building, 
the Savage Hotel, the Wind River Hotel and Stratton Hardware 
were the first. 

The Strattons were from Nebraska. F. M. Stratton, father of 
Fred D., A. J., and Thad Stratton, stopped in Lander to visit with 
Fred before going to Oregon to seek a new business site and was 
persuaded to cast his lot with the people of Riverton. He bought 
lots from Miss Allie Davis, pioneer county superintendent of 
schools, and stocked his hardware store, his sons joining him later, 
Thad becoming cashier of the First State Bank. 

The new town immediately began to get organized for business 
and W. E. Young served as Mayor, with Fred D. Stratton, Charles 
Parker, Charles Berger and C. H. Laiblin as council, or trustees. 

Fred Stratton was later given a power of attorney to make all 
lot transactions; many of the old documents bear his signature. 
He has continued to make Riverton his home and from 1950 to 
1954 served as its very able Mayor. 

William T. Judkins was appointed first postmaster of the town 
and a tiny building was built on Main street to serve as postoffice. 
Mail was carried in a flour sack until regulation pouches were 
made available. 

Michael W. Lichty was the first depot agent in Riverton, and 
C. P. Cox, who had handled the railroad's business until Lichty's 
arrival, was telegrapher. 

James Dale is listed as the little sagebrush city's first marshal. 



132 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mrs. F. H. Allyn and her daughters, Laura and Sadie, arrived 
in Riverton on Sept. 12, and on the 15th — when the town was one 
month old — she taught the first Sunday School in her boarded-up 
tent house, giving her the distinction of being the first person to 
hold religious services in the town. Ten town youngsters, includ- 
ing her own daughters, attended the meeting. 

With no building ready for use as a schoolhouse the first River- 
ton school convened in a tent with a Miss Thompson as teacher. 
She stayed only a short time — perhaps a month or less — and no 
records have been found by this writer to reveal her first name 
or her previous residence. 

The tent school was most unsatisfactory. Dogs, cats and chick- 
ens wandered in and out at will, and as the days grew colder the 
tent became a breezy place for children. 

The townsmen began the construction of a small, tar-roofed, 
tar-papered shack on the lots that had been set aside for a school, 
and when it was finished they hired Mrs. Mildred Belle Mote, a 
newcomer from Indiana, to teach the children. 

J. A. L. Chenery and F. M. Gill were two of the outstanding 
newspaper men of those pioneer days. Chenery and Weeks ran 
the Riverton Republican; F. M. Gill edited the Riverton News. 

Chenery, a well educated man with a splendid vocabulary and 
an acid wit, soon became known throughout the West and later 
abroad because of his "Big Bend Bazoo", a column which he ran 
weekly in the newspaper. To this day there are early day resi- 
dents who can quote some of his humorous limericks and other 
writings, and always with a chuckle of appreciation. 

He was from Illinois and a student and admirer of Abraham 
Lincoln. Among his other talents Jack Chenery was a musician. 
Not a great one, but a much appreciated one, since he could be 
counted upon to play for dances when there was no one else to 
do it. Since dancing was one of the very few diversions of the 
townspeople, this became most important. 

He was also a lover of flowers, and is said to have been behind 
the edict that all lot owners must plant trees along their frontage. 
His own place of residence, throughout his long stay in Riverton, 
was always well kept and his yard beautiful with flowers and 
lawns. 

Another gardener and flower lover of the early days was Little 
Chris Nielsen. "Little Chris", like Jack Chenery, was a bachelor. 
He was a little man in a hurry and early-day Rivertonites will 
remember him scurrying up and down Main street pushing a cart 
on which were the mail sacks, being taken to or from the post- 
office to the depot. His shot-legged, running walk marked him 
as far as he could be seen. 

Across from the depot, in the yard of his home, he planted 
gardens which were the envy of other gardeners, and "Little Chris" 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 133 

with his arms full of sweetpeas was familiar to travelers on the 
railroad. He met the trains to sell his fragrant wares, then rushed 
off to work in his gardens, which he gradually increased in size. 

The first winter of the town was marked by the Flick-Forney 
fight on New Year's Eve. It was a scrap in the true Old West 
tradition of angry men and blazing guns, but no one was seriously 
injured in spite of the shots fired. 

The lot jumping of the first few days of the town had settled 
down by December — that is, until Flick had a load of lumber 
unloaded on a lot Forney considered belonged to him. 

With his men from the saloon he operated Forney removed the 
lumber to the middle of Main street, drenched it with kerosene 
and set it ablaze, then he and his men paraded the street, daring 
Flick and the men from his saloon to come and fight it out. 

This they were too sensible to do, though they did do some 
shooting from concealment. One woman looked out to see what 
was going on and received a slight buckshot wound, but there were 
no fatalities and the men later settled their difficulties. 

That December, having by then built their residence at the 
corner of Fifth and Main, Mr. and Mrs. W. S. Adams and their 
family moved from the hotel, leasing it to C. J. and M. A. Green, 
who ran it until Mr. and Mrs. William Cook took over the lease. 

Mr. and Mrs. Cook later moved into the Forney building on 
Main street and operated a hotel, calling it the Grand Central. 
Both this building and the hastily constructed Savage Hotel 
burned. 

The first real fire in Riverton's history was in a cleaner's shop 
on Main street in 1909 and was hastily quelled by the volunteer 
fire department with the little hose cart, H. H. Waugh as hoseman 
and A. J. Stratton engineering the fight. 

Destruction of old records has made it impossible to report on 
the fall election at Riverton, or to list the names of the first voters. 

A scanning of the County Commissioners' proceedings for that 
year, however, did reveal that James Vine, Democrat, and William 
S. Adams, Republican, were appointed to act as registry agents 
for the general election in election district 9, and that L. Miller, 
C. H. Laiblin and E. M. Peterson were named election judges. 

Vine was a realtor in Riverton at that time. 

Evidently W. E. Young did not take his office of Mayor too 
seriously, as old papers tell of his stays in Montana and elsewhere. 
He was replaced the next spring by Dr. A. B. Tonkin. 

Dr. Tonkin's first office in the Riverton area was in a tent. He 
had been hired by the railroad to follow the construction crews 
as they slowly laid the rails from Casper to Lander. Arrived in 
Riverton, he decided to stay and hastily built a little office on his 
Main street lots, now the site of the impressive Tonkin Building, 

The municipal election was held May 14, 1907, and Dr. Tonkin 



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rife ' <■?:■;? 






1. Riverton, September 1, 1906 

2. Riverton, September 1, 1907 

3. Riverton, 1913 — Right, background is first brick school, occupied in 
1911. The home in the foreground was the homestead house of Hans 
Berlin who held No. 1 in the land drawing in 1906. 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 135 

was notified of his election on May 16, thus becoming the first 
duly elected mayor. 

C. H. Oatman was town clerk during the previous term, and the 
notice was signed by him. 

During Tonkin's term H. H. Waugh was city clerk, J. J. Jewett 
was treasurer, Charles Parker was marshal and the new council- 
men were C. H. Laiblin, Ed Ryan and a man named Daniels. 

Dr. Tonkin was a perfect master of ceremonies and was often 
chosen to conduct meetings. He had a poised and friendly man- 
ner that put both audiences and patients at ease. 

A bachelor when he came to Riverton, he became a benedict 
on Oct. 7, 1908, bringing the former Miss Cora B. Nicholson to 
the little town as his bride. 

As a pioneer doctor's wife, Mrs. Tonkin displayed the greatest 
courage and sympathy, often taking sick people into her home and 
nursing them, because there was no hospital in the town. 

Dr. John G. Cogswell was another of Riverton's early doctors 
who established a home and reared a family here. 

Another bachelor to settle in Riverton, then bring a bride here, 
was James J. Jewett, Sr. 

He had been a teacher in Casper, but entered the employ of 
the Nicolaysen Lumber Company and was sent to Shoshoni where 
he worked with Jesse Keith until Riverton's opening day. He 
came to Riverton, then, and was thereafter associated with the 
lumber and hardware business. 

When her school was out the following June, "J. J." went to 
Casper and married Miss Bertha Gutzman, bringing her to a new 
home he had built for her in Riverton. 

Throughout Mr. Jewett's life both he and Mrs. Jewett worked 
together to promote better educational advantages for Riverton 
children. 

Who was the first child born in Riverton? Mrs. Jessie Herring, 
whose son Frank was born Jan. 2, 1907, is positive that a boy 
child was born to a family named Crabtree in September of 1906 
soon after she arrived in Riverton, and remembers a party given 
for the parents and child in honor of the event. Unfortunately, 
no records establishing this birth are to be found, and the Crab- 
trees were not for long a part of the Riverton scene. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Landers' son Glen, who passed on the 
next year, was born Oct. 6, 1906. 

Kathryn, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Nevin, was born the 
following month, which makes it all but positive that she was the 
first girl born in Riverton. 

Among the early Riverton marriages were those of Vera Cain 
and Robert Stork, in June of 1907; Kathleen Cook and Harry O. 
Hall in July of 1907, and Julia Doughty to Claude Mitchum on 
the first birthday of Riverton, August 15, 1907. 



136 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

By that time Riverton claimed a population of 700 and had 
finally won full recognition as "Riverton" though the railroad was 
slow to change the station's name from "Wadsworth" to the 
name chosen by the Riverton people themselves. 

"Wadsworth ' was a fighting word to the old-timers, who blamed 
Harry Wadsworth, then Indian agent at Ft. Washakie, for the 
encroachment of Cavalry troops on the townsite during the 
opening. 

Had Jack Chenery had his way the town would no doubt have 
been named Big Bend, a name which would have been in every 
way suitable, since the big bend of the river is one of the most 
remarkable features of the landscape and had been known to 
trappers and traders since the early 1800s. 

It was here at the confluence of the rivers that some of the 
great gatherings of traders, trappers and Indians were held. 
"Meet at the Popo Agie" was the legend printed on signposts 
along Green River, and in 1838 there was a tremendous rendez- 
vous here, according to Myra Eells, a member of the Walker- 
Eells-Smith and Gray party, bound for the Oregon Country and 
the missions set up by Whitman and Spaulding. 

The four women, their husbands and assistants, were prevented 
by high water from crossing to the scene of the rendezvous the 
first night or so, but the men came to their camp, frightening them 
with their drunken shouts and laughter. 

They were no doubt the first white women to see the site of 
Riverton. 

Without a doubt the most important event of 1907 occurred on 
April 5, when Fenimore Chatterton, vice president and general 
manager of the Wyoming Central Irrigation Company, accom- 
panied by Mrs. Chatterton and their small daughters, Eleanor 
and Constance, had the pleasure of diverting water from the Big 
Wind river into the Riverton Canal. 

Work on this canal had been begun October 10, 1906. It was 
completed April 1, 1907. It was 15 feet wide on the bottom, 
according to information given in the newspapers of that day, 
with an average depth of seven feet. 

After those eight arid months on the treeless, dusty flat, the 
Riverton residents greeted the trickling water that came down 
the town's little irrigation ditches with almost hysterical joy. The 
saplings they had planted would grow and provide shade. They 
could plant gardens and flowers. Besides, they would have water 
at their own front doors, and would no longer have to depend on 
the water wagon. 

The Wyoming Central, through Mr. Chatterton, gave the town 
a free right to water, provided trees were planted on each side of 
the streets. The residents were only too happy to comply with 
this condition, and within a few years the trees were providing 
welcome shade. 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 137 

Now, after almost fifty years, many of the trees planted that 
first year are being removed, having become a menace because of 
their great size and their brittle age. Those old timers who planted 
the trees themselves, or watched their parents plant them, feel a 
genuine pang at parting with these old friends. 

Among the many families who made up the early population 
of Riverton and Riverton Valley were the Sproules, the Doughtys, 
the Judkins, the Hainses, the Storks, the Jensens, the Deardorffs, 
the Lichtys, the Coens, the Crams, the Fullers, the Connaghans, 
the Gardners, the Glenns, the Strattons, the Dykemans, the Bur- 
naughs, the Gibsons, the Holmbergs, the Kiles, the Hayses, the 
Gilberts, the Hansons, the Harrises, the Cains, the Malones, the 
Herrings, the Griffeys, the Cooks, the LeMars, the Vincents, the 
Reynolds, and others of that pioneer breed. 

Lowther Sproule was a true pioneer, having come to the Lander 
Valley in the 1860's. His eldest son, Luther, filed on acreage 
near the big bend of the river and the Sproule place became a 
show place of the valley, with wonderful crops each year. 

The Doughtys came to Riverton in the early part of September, 
1 906, two of the girls, Jessie and Dulcie, riding horseback. There 
were, in this family, six girls and four boys, Jim, Tom, George 
and Robert, and Ella (Wolf), Fannie (Goehring), Mary (Whit- 
ley), Jessie (Quisenberry), Julia (Mitchum) and Dulcie (Lowe). 
Those who did not come to Riverton in 1906 soon followed the 
portion of the family established here. 

A contract for cutting and hauling wood for the furnaces of 
the stamp mills at Atlantic City, brought the Stork boys — Ed, 
Tom, Bob, John, Bert and Bill, and their sister Alma, to this area 
in 1905. They came over from Sheridan, over the Wolton Divide 
and along the old Muskrat freight road. Crossing the Double 
Dives below the present site of Riberton, they continued to Lander 
and the gold mining area. 

However, the stamp mills soon closed down, so their long trip 
was not remunerative. But they knew about the land which was 
to be opened for settlement and bided their time. The older 
members of the family came to Riverton immediately after the 
opening, but Mrs. Stork and the two younger boys, Bert and Bill, 
waited until fall to follow. A. M. Stork, their father, arrived in 
the spring. 

Jens P. Jensen brought his motherless family of five — Herbert, 
Lud, Eda, Sylvia and Esther — to Riverton just a year after the 
opening. Eda, now Mrs. E. T. Abra, and Sylvia, now Mrs. 
Frank Zimmer, still live in Riverton on the property purchased 
by their father when the town was new. 

Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Deardorff were residents of Riverton for 
many years, Mr. Deardorff replacing M. W. Lichty as depot agent. 
After he resigned from the railroad he filled the position of city 
manager for some years. His widow now lives in California. 



138 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The Lichtys, Coens, Crams, Fullers, Gardners and Connaghans 
were among the homesteaders in Riverton Valley. 

Mrs. Catharine Connaghan, recently widowed in 1906, came 
here from Niantic, 111. at the suggestion of her brother, John 
Phelan, who had been a member of the early surveying crews. 
Her brother helped her with the building of her homestead home 
and she was so fortunate as to hire an Illinois farmer to be overseer 
of her ranch. His name was John O'Hearn, but he was not a 
relative of the John O'Hearn who was a clothier in Riverton for 
many years. 

Two of Mrs. Connaghan's daughters live in Riverton at the 
present time. They are Mrs. Lawrence J. Kirch and Miss Lucile 
Connaghan. The only son of the pioneer matron, Robert Con- 
naghan, is a resident of Cheyenne. 

Orion N. Gibson, early Riverton attorney, came with a special 
trainload of prospective settlers from Trenton, Mo. It was not 
his intention to locate here. He had come as a reporter for a 
Trenton newspaper. 

Almost blind, but a brilliant man and a very sensitive one, Mr. 
Gibson absorbed enough of the color and excitement of the new 
country to convince him he should at least register for the drawing. 
When the drawing was made he proved to be the only one in his 
group who drew a low number. He persuaded his brother, Henry, 
to come to Riverton and farm the land for him. His sister, 
Fannie, also came to cook for her bachelor brothers, and in 1912 
they were joined by a younger sister, Olga, and her husband, 
Charles A. Logan. 

Of this pioneer group only Mr. Logan remains. He still lives 
on the old homestead north of town. 

One man drew a low number and located himself on a dry farm, 
providing a most magnificent view, but little else. His name 
was L. G. Griffey; his homestead the beautiful bench on which 
the modern Riverton Airport has been built. 

Undaunted by its rocky dryness, Mr. Griffey plowed his fields 
and planted his grain, potatoes and other produce. His dry land 
potatoes, free from disease that plagued the irrigated tubers, were 
immediately in demand. 

Until his death in 1933 he remained stubbornly convinced that 
his land would yield in spite of dry weather. 

There was no water on the place, meaning that they had to haul 
water from Riverton or the river. Now, with a son of the pioneer 
occupying the old place, a well has been drilled. The son, Orville, 
makes no effort to farm. Two daughters, Mrs. Lena Statebake, 
and Mrs. Archie Bugher, still live in Riverton. 

Oscar T. Jordan, whose homestead was in the Lost Wells Butte 
region, was the first Riverton man to ship pen-fattened lambs to 
market from the new town. He was accompanied to Riverton by 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 139 

Mrs. Jordan and their younger daughter, Grace. Their other 
daughter, Josephine, now Mrs. Walter Breniman, became one 
of the first Riverton school teachers, arriving a year or so later. 

Other early teachers included Jeanette Connaghan, now de- 
ceased, her sister, Mary, now Mrs. Kirch, and Miss Helen Peters- 
dorf, now Fremont County superintendent of schools. 

Mrs. Henrietta Petersdorf, Miss Helen's mother, had a home- 
stead in the valley, and Miss Helen homesteaded a parcel of land 
in Missouri Valley, about 20 miles from town. She lived on it 
weekends, leaving after school on Fridays and riding out to stay 
until Sunday afternoon. 

The absence of fear was a remarkable thing among those early 
women homesteaders. They felt there was nothing to be afraid 
of, worse than an occasional prowling coyote or pack rats, and 
there is.no record of harm befalling one of them. 

Storms were more to be feared than varmints or men. One 
lady, a Miss Peede, was lost overnight in a blizzard when she 
started home from a neighboring homesteader's house that first 
winter. She was found by Edmo Le Clair, famous Indian scout. 
She had had presence of mind enough to keep walking, knowing 
that she would not rise again should she lie down to rest. 

Edmo Le Clair was, in many ways, a remarkable man. He 
and his family lived "up the river" in a roomy log house to which 
everyone in the country was welcome. He had no peer when it 
came to tracking men or animals and had served the Army with 
distinction during the last of the Indian skirmishes. 

In 1911, already a white-bearded man, 60 or thereabouts, he 
won the calf roping contest at the August 15 celebration, acting 
with precision and agility. 

That celebration also was notable because of the airplane 
flight of W. S. Adams, said to have been the first flight ever made 
in Wyoming. 

Mr. Adams shipped the plane in, assembled it and took off in 
it to the amazement of the celebrants. The craft was a Curtis 
Pusher, 4-cylinder, water-cooled plane. 

Adams and LeClair, both pioneers in their ways, bridged a 
great span of history, from the ox-team and Indian battles to 
aerial transportation and speed. 

A tragedy remembered vividly by all those who knew about it 
was the killing of young Leo Wolf Bear by the morning train, 
eastbound from Lander, on June 8, 1909. 

The young man had either fallen unconscious on the rails or 
had lain down to rest after a night in Riverton, during which he 
was known to have been drinking the white man's firewater. 

The mourning of the women of his family, done in the primitive 
"keening" manner, is still remembered by the women of the town 
as most pathetic and frightening in its intensity. 



140 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Easily the most outstanding personality of 1913 was Jacob A. 
Delfelder. 

"DeF', as he was familiarly and affectionately known, was a 
big man with an impressive manner. He was the sort of man in 
whom one instinctively felt confidence would not be misplaced. 

At that time Riverton and its leaders were getting a trifle shaky 
as to its future. The scheduled ditch had not been built and the 
homesteaders still had no water for their crops. (The first ditch, 
mentioned earlier, provided water for only a small portion of the 
irrigable land in the valley.) 

At about the time Delfelder came to Riverton he was said to 
have had about 20,000 sheep and at least 2,000 head of cattle, 
as well as 500 horses. He was 42 years old and in his prime. 

When he bought the imposing Blake house and moved his 
family into Riverton he became a part of Riverton. The people 
took him and his wife and son to their hearts, persuading him to 
become a candidate for Mayor. 

He won easily and to get him off to flying start he had James 
J. Jewett, lumberman; Roy E. Hays, of the Roy E. Hays Co.; 
Fred D. Stratton, of the hardware store, and Fred Hanson, of the 
Central Meat Market, on the council. 

Lawrence J. Kirch, who had been associated with Delfelder 
for many years, became city clerk, and before long Riverton's 
best known marshal, Abe Boland, was hired. 

"Del's" first move was to buy for the city an 80-acre tract of 
river-bottom land, which he promised would be converted into a 
race track and ball diamond. 

Riverton took on a new aura of prosperity and confidence and 
the people won back their faltering optimism. 

The townsmen were not disappointed in him. He represented 
them loyally, serving as a member of the state legislature and 
making many friends by introducing a bill which brought about 
an investigation of the Wyoming Central Irrigation Company, 
whose wealthy backers had failed miserably in keeping their early 
promises of water. 

In 1919 Delfelder, in common with the other stockmen of 
Fremont County, suffered great financial losses. Snow piled 
deeply on the range, making it necessary for them to ship their 
starving sheep and cattle outside or ship in feed for them. 

It was a terrific blow for any man to take and may have had 
some bearing on his health. At any rate he did begin to fail in 
health and passed on March 28, 1921. 

Another colorful and influential man came to Riverton in that 
same important year of 1913. He was William J. McLaughlin, 
called "Daddy Mack" by hundreds. 

He came to study the possibilities of setting up a tie and timber 
company, with a tie treating plant at Riverton to handle the ties 
he and his tie hacks would drive down the river. 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 141 

Again Riverton received a mental lift. A new industry, espe- 
cially one of that scope, would mean increased prosperity for the 
town. 

There had been one drive down the Big Wind, but it was logs, 
not ties, that the water floated, and that was back in the summer 
of 1906. The town was solidly behind any movement that would 
mean progress, and it was not long until new families began mov- 
ing in, meaning more houses had to be built for them, and other- 
wise boosting business. 

On Feb. 2, 1914 the first tie was felled in the timber above 
Dubois and the business which was to continue, to be a major 
one in the Riverton district for 33 years was launched. 

W. H. McLaughlin, no relation to W. J., but a former employe, 
came to Riverton with his family in the summer of 1913 to con- 
tinue his work for W. J. McLaughlin and was a key figure of the 
concern (The Wyoming Tie and Timber Company) then and 
after W. J.'s interests were purchased in 1920 by Ricker Van 
Metre. 

The first tie drive was held in 1914, the first tie appearing at 
the pond in Riverton on Aug. 1 and exciting much interest. That 
year 35,000 ties were driven from the woods to Riverton and the 
tie drive dinner which climaxed the drive was attended by nearly 
everyone in the town. 

The 1927 drive was the largest — 700,000 — though the 1929 
drive was also very large. The last drive took place in 1947, and 
the enterprise was sold to J. N. Fisher, who established a saw 
mill on Wind River, below Dubois. 

In the late winter of 1914 Frank Holt of O'Neill, Nebr. came 
to Riverton to investigate possibilities of starting a telephone com- 
pany and installing a telephone system and switchboard. His 
impression of the town was good and his reception warm, so he 
returned soon after the first of the year to begin work. 

Until then Riverton had been getting along with a telephone in 
the post office, one in Dr. Tonkin's office and one in the office 
of the Riverton Lumber Company. There was also a small 
country line, put in for and by the farmers down the valley. 

Holt rushed the work and in June of that year, 1915, telephone 
service was made available to Riverton. The first directory issued 
listed 72 patrons, but this was rapidly increased. 

Many changes had taken place during those first years; for 
one thing Frank H. Allyn had succeeded William T. Judkins as 
postmaster, a position he held until 1914. when Mrs. Nellie 
Gilbert was appointed. 

Good homes had been built and by 1915 the Main street was 
beginning to take on a more modern appearance, the old false- 
fronted stores and hotels giving way to good brick business build- 
ings. 



142 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The year of 1915 was a prosperous and busy year in Riverton. 
Actually the year's expansion seemed to begin on Dec. 5, 1914, 
when Peter B. Dykeman's electric light plant began operation 
and lights flashed on all over the town. At that time the old 
kerosene lamps were set on the shelves of the horns owners and 
a new era was entered. 

Among the many new buildings erected during 1915 were the 
Rhoades Hotel, the Riverton Garage, the Cain Building and the 
Tonkin building. The First State Bank building had been erected 
and in use for a year. The Popo Agie Light and Power Co. was 
already enlarging its plant; the Berlin Addition — new homesites 
on the land drawn by Hans Berlin at the 1906 opening — was 
opening up; a candy store was started by Mr. and Mrs. H. G. 
Wettlin; W. H. J. Bowey started the Riverton Chronicle, buying 
Jack Chenery's old paper, the Lander Eagle, and its antiquated 
machinery; Mrs. Lee Mote had become the theater operator of 
Riverton, with films being shown in the old Forney building near 
the postoffice; the treating plant for ties and telephone poles was 
being completed; an alfalfa mill, said to be the largest in the world, 
was under construction; the Birmingham and Nesbitt Lumber Co. 
was building on the lots at the rear of the E. T. Glenn Store. 

The old Wind River Hotel, purchased by John Lapeyre in 
1910, was moved to the rear of the lot to make way for the 
modern brick Lapeyre Hotel; the first flour was ground at the 
new roller mill by T. E. Goodman and there were many other 
minor activities going on in the building line. 

Also that year dedicatory services were held at the First Baptist 
Church, and it is significant that Mrs. Frank H. Allyn is listed 
among the charter members, which is proof that her interest in 
church affairs had not slackened since she conducted the first 
religious service in Riverton in Sept. of 1906. 

Adding to Riverton's prosperity at that time was the oil boom 
which was bringing speculators from all over the United States 
and had resulted in hopes for a very bright future in that industry. 

The following few years saw the building of the "little Acme" 
Theater, a gem of a theater but all too soon outgrown, since it 
seated only 250; the Teton Hotel, the Masonic Temple, the re- 
modeled and enlarged Roy E. Hays store; the Dykeman building 
and others. The new Acme, in use today, was not ready for 
occupancy until June of 1920. 

World War I had taken its toll and made its many changes 
during 1917-18-19, but with the boys home again from the service 
the little town settled down to its well-deserved era of prosperity. 

The Bureau of Reclamation had begun work on the big ditch 
by 1920 and again there was a wave of growth, with more and 
more new dwellings being constructed to house the increasing 
population. 



RIVERTON: FROM SAGE TO CITY 143 

Probably the worst shock the town ever experienced was the 
failure of the First State Bank in 1924 and the resulting depres- 
sion. But the all but final blow came in August of 1932, when the 
Riverton State Bank also closed its doors. 

But Riverton people had kept their chins up in the first hard 
years of the new town; they were not to be squelched without a 
struggle. As soon as they recovered from the shock they set 
about salvaging the pieces of the shattered civic economy. A 
Clearing House was set up by local merchants for cashing small 
local checks, providing change and keeping money in circulation. 

The Lions Club issued scrip in denominations of $1, 25 cents, 
10 cents and 5 cents, and later put out an issue of buckskin 50 
cent pieces that have become valued souvenirs of the depression. 

During the fall of 1933 more than a thousand Riverton men 
were out of work. Then relief agencies were started and Riverton 
benefited, with a new airport project, country club building and 
golf course, sewers and rodeo grounds and other civic improve- 
ments on the program. 

Orion N. Gibson, one of the original settlers and first attorney 
in Riverton, died in 1933, and Dr. A. B. Tonkin, one of the first 
doctors in the town, passed on January 19, 1934. 

Riverton's one dry farmer of 1906 — Lorenzo George Griffey — 
also died in 1933, after spending 27 years on the rocky mesa that 
bears his name — Griffey Hill. 

When the First National Bank opened its doors on Thursday, 
April 12, 1934, the new era of prosperity, which has continued 
uninterrupted until now, was ushered in. The shaky development 
years were a thing of the past. 

World War II years, though full of personal grief, saw much 
progress in this area. There was no holding the town down, once 
it was on the forward march. 

The opening of additional farming land under the new ditches 
of the "Project" has brought hundreds of new people to the 
valleys adjacent to Riverton, and a comparative boost to Riverton 
business. 

The little landing strip started in '33 has now grown into a 
fine and modern air terminal; Riverton's once rutted and muddy, 
and but recently rough and dusty, streets are in process of being 
paved; the city now boasts stop lights on Main street, and has 
become in every way a modern city of which its residents may 
be proud. 

The optimistic forecasts of the pioneers, though a little behind 
schedule, are being fulfilled. 



144 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 




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Camp Carlin 

By 
Charles D. Carey* 

Much of the fabulous story of the settling of Wyoming is passing 
into oblivion and it is regrettable. Most of the material found in 
this paper has come from interviews with the several residents 
of Cheyenne who are familiar with the assigned subject and from 
the few articles and letters that are on file in the State Historical 
Society. From the interviews, as is the case where man's impres- 
sions and opinions are reflected, there was found some variance 
in the facts. In those cases I have tried to be as objective as 
possible in relating them. It is believed that the information set 
forth is correct. 

Little did I realize when assigned this paper that I was to write 
about a unique military establishment. The varied operations and 
the many handicaps under which they were performed made Camp 
Carlin similar to no other Quartermaster Depot in the United 
States. 

The name of the Depot is of little importance today but it is 
interesting to note the facts about it. Officially, the military 
designation was the Cheyenne Depot; though it was well known 
as Camp Carlin or Carling, and even in the official records the 
spelling is found to be either when not referred to as the Cheyenne 
Depot. Colonel Elias B. Carling in August 1867 selected the 
site for the Depot and was its first Commandant. Little is known 
about Colonel Carling and the only reference found to him was 
in "Diary and Letters of the Reverend Joseph W. Cook", an 
Episcopalian Missionary who came to Cheyenne 1867-1868 to 
start an Episcopal Church. Carling served on the vestry. In his 
diary, Cook often referred to the Colonel who was most helpful 
in getting the church organized and who had his carpenters make 
such things as the wooden alms basins at the Depot for use at the 
Sunday services which were held at that time in the school house. 
Even in those days ministers had their problems with their way- 
ward parishioners, for in an entry dated March 18th, 1868 he 
writes: "Went to city at noon. Called on Mr. S. B. Reed and 
notified him of vestry meeting. Made several other calls. On 
return to bank I was horrified to find Mr. Woolley and Colonel 
Carling there in a terribly maudlin condition." He goes on to 



* This paper was read before the Young Men's Literary Club of Chey- 
enne September 18, 1953. 



146 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

write that the Colonel and Mr. Woolley came to the vestry meet- 
ing, at which the former presented a plan for the Church to which 
the Reverend could not agree, and ended the entry by saying that 
the Colonel "was not in condition to talk". 

In the Cheyenne Daily Leader on September 19, 1867, No. I. 
Volume 1, Mr. N. A. Baker in the issue stated that "the end of 
the track of the Union Pacific Railroad was within fifty-five miles 
of Cheyenne and would arrive by the middle of October. The 
30th Infantry, under the command of General Stevenson, moved 
its tents and other equipage up the creek to the military reservation 
and construction was immediately begun. Bids for lumber were 
advertised in the Denver newspapers and a contractor by the name 
of J. Mason began freighting in the materials. Green lumber 
eighty dollars per thousand; seasoned lumber ninety dollars per 
thousand, clear lumber one hundred dollars per thousand, dressed 
one hundred ten dollars per thousand and shingles twelve dollars 
per thousand. On November 23rd, the road bed for the railroad 
siding to the Cheyenne Depot was begun, and on December 10th 
the construction train and track crews of Dan Casement's outfit 
laid the two mile length of track, thus putting Camp Carlin and 
Fort D. A. Russell on the Union Pacific." 

The Cheyenne Depot was situated one and one-half miles west 
of Cheyenne on Crow Creek, or about half way between what 
was then the Boundaries of Cheyenne and Fort D. A. Russell- 
Along the north bank of Crow Creek were the large corrals, 
stables, and hay stacks. The harness, carpenter, blacksmith, 
wheelright and other shops lay to the north, and west of them and 
easterly were the sales store, cook and bunk houses and wagon- 
sheds. The Union Pacific spur lay north of all these servicing 
the warehouses. Farther to the North and on top of a higher hill 
were erected three officers quarters. Along the north bank of the 
creek to the east of the corrals and shops civilian superintendents 
lived. All the buildings were built of wood and painted a drab 
brown. One hundred wagons and five pack trains operated from 
the depot and a thousand mules were always in the corrals. At 
one time twenty-five hundred animals were under its care. Camp 
Carlin was the second largest Quartermaster Depot in the United 
States until the railroad supplanted the mule and wagon, and it 
then passed out of existence. 

From the Carlin warehouses were shipped to points five hun- 
dred miles distant the materials and supplies that were needed to 
equip and house the officers and men who were stationed at out- 
lying Forts, established to protect the few white settlers and con- 
trol the Indian uprisings. In the Wyoming Territory these Posts 
were: Fort D. A. Russell, Fort Sanders, Fort Fred Steele, Fort 
Bridger, Fort Washakie, Fort Fetterman, Fort Laramie, Fort Mc- 
Kenzie, Rock Creek Station. In Nebraska: Fort Sidney, Fort 
Omaha, Fort Robinson; In Utah — Fort Douglas; In Idaho — Fort 



CAMP CARLIN 147 

Hall; and in the last years before being abandoned — Meeker, 
Colorado, after the Thornburg Massacre which will be mentioned 
later. In addition to supplying these Forts and their Field Detach- 
ments, Carlin likewise furnished annuity goods to the many Indian 
tribes that had made treaties with the United States. Under the 
treaties the Indians received such items as food, clothing, bedding, 
tobacco, to mention but a few. Cataloging here the articles ware- 
housed would be endless, as one can readily imagine the quantities 
and varieties of items needed and stored to maintain fourteen 
outposts, their field detachments, as well as thousands of Indians. 

In a letter to H. H. Bancroft dated November 14, 1884, J. F. 
Jenkins Captain of the Commissary, United States Army, Spanish 
American War, writes, "I went to work in the Indian Department 
at Camp Carlin in 1876 when everywhere there was Indian talk 
and movements to suppress the warring Indians — I saw one thou- 
sand mules unloaded that day and seven thousand tons of hay. 
The first work I did was to receive goods for the Indians consisting 
of flour, beans, rice, bacon, salt port, baking powder, calico for 
dresses, cloth for shirts, bales of blankets, tobacco and thread. 
One shipment consisted of one million six thousand pounds. This 
was freighted to the Red Cloud and the Spotted Tail agencies in 
Northern Nebraska." 

To run the Depot some ten to twelve hundred civilians were 
employed filling jobs as teamsters, packers, laborers, and artisans. 
Many of the civilian employees were drifters following the Union 
Pacific tracks on their wasy to the west, northwest or Alaska to 
seek their fortunes. One Marcus Daly, a mule skinner, later 
amassed a fortune in Montana. Some artisans like Conroy, Crow- 
ley and Fitzgerald, blacksmith, carpenter and harness man, liked 
the Cheyenne settlement so well that after Carlin passed out of 
existence, made Cheyenne their home, and today their descendants 
are among its citizens — The late E. T. Logan's father was sent out 
from St. Louis in 1868 to manage the Ordnance Department, 
where he remained until 1874, at which time he resigned to open 
a small repair and hardware shop in Cheyenne. C. P. Organ, 
while a superintendent at Carlin, had such great hopes that Chey- 
enne would one day become a farming community that he had 
constructed a six mile ditch from Crow Creek about a mile and 
one-half west of Fort Russell around Cheyenne to some land he 
owned to the east. It was his belief that he could take the head- 
waters from Crow Creek to his land, but there was never a suffi- 
cient head of water except during a flood to make the ditch a 
success. 

How the first skilled artisan came to be employed at Camp 
Carlin is an interesting sidelight. The Conroys, as an example, 
who had settled in western Nebraska and were operating a stage- 
stop, received word of an Indian uprising which was sweeping 
through the area and that lonely settlements were being attacked. 



148 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Conroy, realizing that he could not stand off such a raid, packed 
up his family and followed the railroad west. One afternoon as 
they were making camp along Crow Creek between Cheyenne and 
Carlin, Colonel Carling, as was his custom, rode amongst the 
campers hiring all the able bodied men who wanted work. When 
he learned that Conroy had been a blacksmith at one time he 
offered him one hundred twenty gold pieces to work at the Camp. 
Skilled help was difficult to hire in those days, and to keep the 
wagons and harness alone in repair fourteen to sixteen black- 
smiths and eight to ten harness workers were employed. 

From Carlin went scheduled wagon and mule trains to the 
various Forts and Indian Agencies made up of three, four, possibly 
six hundred pack mules, each carrying two to three hundred 
pounds of supplies and ten to thirty four to six-mule wagons. Rec- 
ords do not show the number of men involved in such a movement 
but it must have been sizeable. There were the mule team drivers, 
wagon drivers, the packmakers, the cooks, military escorts and 
the escort wagon which was similar to our modern day ambulance. 
A stage coach often accompanied the train for the military pro- 
tection. The "bell mare", a grey or white animal with a bell 
around her neck, lead the procession, and there were always sev- 
eral replacements so that when one played out another took its 
place. 

The pack train was divided into sections according to the type 
of supplies — ammunition forward — food center — household equip- 
ment and clothing to the rear, followed by the wagons with perhaps 
hay, building materials, furniture, and last, of course, the camp 
wagon. In the earliest days of the Depot many trips were made 
solely by mule team as trails and bridges had not been built and 
there were many places that the wagons could not go. As routes 
were established to the Forts camp sites sprang up from use 
where water and wood were plentiful at some twenty-five mile 
intervals. In addition to the scheduled shipments to the Forts and 
Indian Agencies, emergencies supplies were constantly needed by 
the field troops sent out from any of the many forts to subdue 
the warring Indians. 

Like our G I's of today, the fifteen to sixteen hand mules were 
kept in condition with practice runs starting about nine in the 
morning and ending about four in the afternoon. These exercises 
were simulated to the last detail, including heavy packs filled 
with hay, to the regular trips to observe the mules' behavior and 
acquaint the animals with all types of conditions as well as to 
train new personnel. Many of the children, Bill Haas recalls, at 
Carlin and Cheyenne went along on these trips for the excitement. 

There were no social activities at the Camp for the personnel. 
The few officers who were in command had at their disposal the 
functions at Russell. There were no churches, hospitals, schools, 
guardhouses or Community buildings of any type. A sales store 



CAMP CARLIN 149 

was maintained where the employees could purchase foods and a 
few other necessities, with a bar in the rear where one could buy a 
drink for fifteen cents — two for a quarter. The week days were 
full with regular duties. Every Sunday, T. Joe Cahill remembers, 
the women prepared quantities of food prior to going to church 
to Cheyenne with the rest of the family. On these afternoons 
open houses were held and everyone called on each other. Life 
was routine from all aspects, and the only incident of any conse- 
quence was found in an article in the Cheyenne Sun, dated Sunday, 
July 1, 1890, entitled — "Memories of Camp Carlin", from which 
the following is quoted. "About the only thing that ever occurred 
at the camp out of the usual run of daily life was a duel that was 
fought about 1869 between Superintendent Botchford and Lt. 
Mason. They had a quarrel and the Lt. brought two revolvers 
to Botchford, telling him to take one and fight it out. Botchford 
declined, saying he would get one of his own pistols, which he did. 
There were seconds. They stood about 30 paces apart and fired. 
Botchford shot the Lt. in the abdomen, from which he died imme- 
diately. Botchford gave himself up to the police, was tried and 
acquitted." 

The few records about Camp Carlin do not show the various 
officers in command or their aides. Two of the latter were a 
Major Lord and a Captain Humphrey, both of whom were well 
known to the residents of Cheyenne. The latter became Quarter- 
master General of the Army and won distinction and prominence 
during the Spanish American War. 

One of the last big supply movements from the Cheyenne Depot 
was made at the time of the Thornburg Massacre, which took 
place in northwestern Colorado — Meeker, an Indian Agent for the 
Utes, and his family had been killed by the Indians. Troops 
were rushed to check the uprising. Supplies, mule teams, wagons, 
drivers and packers were sent out from Carlin via the Union 
Pacific Railroad to Rawlins, where they detrained and moved into 
the Ute Territory. Major Thornburg planned and led the attack; 
although counseled that his plan was folly, Thornburg nevertheless 
carried it out, resulting in heavy losses to the military. 

In May 1890, Cheyenne Depot was abandoned. Orders from 
Washington stated complete demolition of the Camp. All the 
buildings were sold on site for approximately $50.00 each to be 
demolished or moved away at the purchasers' expense. Major 
Lord's house now stands at 22nd and Thomes. 

In 1935 the location of the Carlin cemetery was established 
when workmen uncovered four caskets while laying a watermain 
at 906 Dodge Court. The unmarked graves were but two feet 
under ground and were moved to Lake view Cemetery. 

Today nothing remains of the Cheyenne Depot. Erosion and 
time have worn away trails, building sites, and have even changed 
the topography so completely that the few remaining early settlers 



150 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

cannot point out the various locations of the buildings without the 
aid of a map. The last cottonwood tree which shaded the Com- 
manding Officer's house was felled several years ago — and only 
a bronze plaque which was placed by the local chapter of the 
D. A. R. shows the site of this once important Quartermaster 
Depot. 



Zhe Mole-in- the- Wall 

By ; 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 
PART III— THE WOLFERS 

The large gray timber wolf followed the buffalo herds into the 
Hole-in-the-Wall. As he sat outlined against the sky on the crest 
of the trail, sending forth into that vast emptiness his unearthly, 
eerie wolf call, little did he realize that here, he, too, like the 
Cheyenne Indian, was doomed to keep his date with destiny at the 
hands of the white man. Tearing viciously at the hindquarters 
of the still-live buffalo calf, he felt secure in this big valley with 
its many hidden den-places and its water and grass, where wild 
game fed contentedly — wild game of all kinds upon which to 
satisfy his rapacious appetite. Being the most fierce and most 
powerful of the predatory animals he had no natural enemies, so 
thrived and multiplied and was content. No one of importance 
had heard the agonized bawling of the buffalo calf, its tortured 
cry being only a brief tragicalness in the ever-present mysterious- 
ness of the Hole-in-the-Wall. 

The Indian in his comings and goings caused little disturbance 
— he made no commotion or big noise. We know the wolf 
figured prominently in the life of the Sioux and Cheyenne, for in 
their pictographs in the Hole-in-the-Wall are many wolves. 1 Also 
we are made aware of this fact by the frequency in which "wolf" 
is used in their names, (especially among the Cheyennes who had 
many outstanding chiefs by name of Wolf, such as Little Wolf, 
Yellow Wolf, Lean Wolf, and Lone Wolf, etc.) 

In the beginning the wolf was killed only for purposes of orna- 
mentation. Indian attire was either symbolic or decorative — 
never, not even primarily, to cover nakedness. It was designed 
individually to satisfy each wearer's artistic need, or to suit his 
own particular fancy (and therefore was an excellent designation 
of character.) The Cheyenne prized personal bravery, therefore 
constantly wore articles of dress accentuating this trait. The wolf, 
being sagacious, fleet of foot, and almost uncanny in its power of 



1. Wolf pictograph 

in 1 







1. Wild Cat Sam Abernathy. 

2. Herbert Andrus and "Old Man Murphy." 

3. Murphy Creek Crossing just east of "Old Man Murphy" face. 

4. Shortie (John) Wheelwright (left) and "Poison Joe" James. 

5. Herbert Andrus of Kaycee, one of the first wolfers in the Hole-in-the- 
Wall. 

— Courtesy Thelma Gatchell Condit 









THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 153 

endurance, appealed greatly to the Indian mind, so the wolf tail, 
head or feet were very desirable for personal adornment. Little 
Wolf, a noted Cheyenne warrior, wore wolf tails suspended from 
the back of his breech-clout to denote strength and bravery. It 
meant that he was not only a powerful fighter but also in an 
emergency had the fleetness and endurance to escape from the 
enemy and survive any ensuing hardships. Many tribes had 
spectacular wolf dances in which the entire hide was used. The 
wolf was a sacred being whose calls the Indian learned and whose 
ways he watched and mimicked. 

According to George Bird Grinnell the Cheyenne built traps 
to catch the smaller wolves. First he constructed a little trench 
in the ground over which was built a mound of willow twigs, 
thrust into the ground on either side of the trench and bent in a 
half circle. Over this mound was placed grass and earth and more 
grass. Leading up to the opening of the mound a little fence-like 
structure was built on either side, and just inside the opening 
itself a deadfall of the ordinary type was am nged (the fall log 
and bottom log being lodge pole pine). For bait he used a bit 
of tallow slightly roasted which was placed on a bone spindle. A 
pull on the bait dislodged the spindle and first the supporting 
stick and then the log fell on the animal's neck or back, killing it. 
To lure the animal to the trap, the hunter went off a little distance 
and gave the wolf call which he had thoroughly mastered. 

As the buffalo herds became depleted, of necessity the Indian 
turned more and more to the large timber wolf to supply his 
never-ending need for strong, tough hides. Sewed together with 
sinew they were almost as good as buffalo skins. 2 The white 
wolf hide was greatly prized, not so much because of its rarity 
and beauty, as for its sacredness as a symbol of power, sagacity 
and physical strength. So, it is truly seen that the wolf population 
had little to fear at the hand of the Indian. 

However, a change came with the passing of the years. Peace 
no longer reigned on the Powder River, for the white man had 
entered the scene and wherever he came things changed and there 
was trouble — much trouble in the satisfying of his greed and his 
need for ever-new adventure. 

The falling-off of the big buffalo hunting and beaver trapping 
days and the ending of Indian warfare in the West left many white 
men stranded in a hostile country — men, who for reasons known 
only to themselves, did not wish to return to their former life. 
Many turned to wolfing. Generally alone, trappers ranged the 
whole Powder River country. It is a common matter of conjec- 



2. Among the Sioux Indians were found wolf robes on which were 
painted pictographs forming a crude sort of chronology system for record- 
ing events. 



154 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ture why these men voluntarily adopted means of livelihood so 
full of danger, and how it was possible for most of them to escape 
death in such a perilous environment; but really it isn't hard to 
understand — there wasn't much choice as to ways of earning a 
living in those days in this place; and only the hardy, tough, fear- 
less men remained in the West. The wolfers were all rugged 
individualists, by nature rebels, wanting to escape conformity to 
the dullness of conventional living — men who loved freedom and 
adventure and hated restraint of any kind. Wolfing was not only 
lucrative, it was also exciting. What more could be desired? 3 

Of a certainty these early wolfers were not glamorous-looking 
characters, nor could they, in themselves, demand a prominent 
place in history. Perhaps their only claim to greatness lay in 
their diversity of personalities — so typical of the times. They 
added a touch of interest and color, a bit of variance to the 
"over-all" picture of early days. They were indeed a motley crew 
— some educated, some illiterate, some humorous or queer, and 
others just plain cruel and dangerous. 

The first wolfers we hear about in Johnson County were con- 
nected with Fort Reno. This fort on the Middle Fork of Powder 
River during its short and scantily-recorded period of existence 
harbored many stalwart wolfers, whose visits were not only wel- 
comed but solicited; for the wolves, in large numbers, presented a 
constant threat to the horses of the post. A lonely little pile of 
rocks about a quarter of a mile northwest of the fort site marks 
the grave of a wolfer whose fearlessness availed him naught against 
the Sioux arrow that so swiftly and unexpectedly pierced his breast 
as he skinned the wolf he'd shot/ 

"Shortie" (John) Wheelwright was one of the best remembered 
early trappers in the Hole-in-the-Wall — he was decidedly out- 
standing because of his toughness and his successfulness in getting 
wolves. Shortie first came to Wyoming in 1876 as a mule-skinner 
in a government freighting outfit hauling supplies to General 
Crook. Frank Grouard, head scout under Crook, was instru- 
mental in getting Shortie hired as a scout, too, because he spoke 
the Sioux tongue as fluently as an Indian. Pursuing Indians in 
and out of the Hole-in-the-Wall with Crook and Grouard, Shortie 
became very familiar with the Powder River country and liked it 
so well he stayed on after the Indian Wars, building himself a 
cabin on the slope west of the red wall where he trapped wolves. 

Shortie was a Canadian from the Red River area. He'd had 



3. It was in 1866-67 that wolf pelts first became valuable — from then 
on there was a good market for them. Wolfers often made 3 or 4 thousand 
dollars a year — big money then. But they, for the most part, spent it 
foolishly — drinking and gambling. 

4. Little is known of this man, other than he was killed by a Sioux — 
he was the only wolfer I know of killed while pursuing his trade. 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 155 

first-hand experience trapping there and in Minnesota. He was 
a short little fellow, round-faced with a close-cropped mustache 
and gray gimlet eyes, sharp as nails. He was built compact and 
solid — even his fingers were short and stubby. His walk was 
peculiar. He might have had a broomstick for a back bone so 
straight and stiff was his posture. He never turned his head like 
ordinary people; there wasn't even the slightest expression on his 
face. He was always clean-shaven however; carried an old gray 
granite cup along to shave with — used cold water and plain old 
soap. There was no doubt about his being a dangerous fellow — 
he drank and gambled and was "touchy as a garter snake" about 
accepting favors from anyone. Nobody crossed Shortie when he 
was drinking — that is, not safely — for he'd shoot a man as quickly 
as he'd hatchet a wolf. Yet he was loyal to his friends and always 
liked children — truly a queer mixture of a man. 

He rode a big, tall, black horse called "Hooligan" — it was quite 
a sight to see the stubby short-legged man on the tall, lean horse 
loaded down with traps. 

One fall Shortie got 600 wolves, mostly in traps. He'd never 
shoot a wolf caught in a trap but pushed close enough to the end 
of the chain to hit him with his hatchet. One bitterly cold winter 
day he found a huge female in one of his traps — she was definitely 
on the fight, lunging savagely on the chain. Shortie began cau- 
tiously pulling in the chain and when he figured he had her at 
the end of it he raised his hatchet to finish her off — but she was a 
cute one and had saved enough chain to enable her to give one 
mighty lunge. She viciously tore at his upraised arm ripping 
through his heavy clothing into the flesh and knocking him down. 
Shortie quickly rolled out of reach and grabbed his six shooter 
and shot her. (Shortie died at the age of 99, a ward of Johnson 
County — he was practically blind and very unhappy to end his 
days so ignobly.) He never did seem able to adjust to the 
changing times — he forever belonged to the old frontier. 

Herbert Andrus, an old time resident of Kaycee, tells many 
interesting accounts of his trapping experiences in this area, which 
he says are, by far, the most eventful years of his life. He came 
to the Powder River country as a young wolfer from Fort Custer. 
He says, "There was money in trapping wolves in those days — it 
was big business — wolf robes were valuable and very serviceable, 
several being sewed together and lined with an army blanket." 

Andrus, upon arrival, established headquarters of sorts at the 
Circle F Ranch (old Willow Glen Ranch) on Beaver Creek, a 
tributary of the South Fork of Crazy Woman Creek. From there 
he trapped in the Murphy Creek and Hole-in-the-Wall areas, often 
using as a secondary camp a spot on the Middle Fork of Powder 
River on the old John Nolan ranch across the river from present- 
day Kaycee. 

Richard Car, an Englishman, and Henry James, from Wales, 



156 



ANMALS OF WYOMING 




THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 157 

ran the Circle F. They raised blooded livestock, mostly horses, 
and were considered prosperous. Their ranch had become a 
favorite stopping place, sort of a road ranch, probably, for Dick 
Car was an interesting fellow — very friendly — so many noteworthy 
persons were attracted to the Circle F because of this genial 
atmosphere. 

It was here that Andrus met Sam Abernathy (Wild Cat Sam), 
who was a wolfer from North Platte, Nebraska. It was the 
beginning of a firm friendship which resulted in many memorable 
wolfing trips into the later famous Red Wall country. 

Sam was a terrific rifle shot — his nerves and eyesight perfect. 
He'd invariably make bead-shots on game at extreme ranges. He 
had peculiar round eyes (like marbles) and when shaven his 
facial expression resembled that of a wildcat; so Dick Car, who 
had a keen sense of humor, nicknamed him Wild Cat Sam. Sam 
was truly a unique character — he could neither read nor write. 
This lack of education coupled with the propensity to spin yarns 
often made him appear ludicrous. However, there was nothing 
wrong with Sam — he was good-hearted and one of the most expert 
trappers that ever hit the Powder. It was understandable why 
Andrus, then a boy of 16, was attracted to Sam, who was warm- 
hearted and willing to help a boy. Mr. Andrus said "The more 
you could learn in those days made it that much better for you to 
get along." 

Sam's tall tales would fill a book — (he was Johnson County's 
Paul Bunyan) — and certainly furnished plenty of merriment for 
those associating with him around the wolfer's camp fires. 5 

Sam said of himself once, "I'm not pretty, but I'm hell for 
strong." In spite of his windiness Sam's expert shooting gained 
him the respect of his companions — they knew he wasn't one to 
be trifled with in a pinch. 

Andrus and Sam followed the wolf trails west from Murphy 
Creek into the Hole-in-the-Wall. A well-known early day land 
mark is still in evidence just below the South Fork of Powder 
River crossing on the old county road south of Kaycee, where 
Murphy Creek used to flow into South Fork of the Powder (see 
picture and map). It's a large bank-like, gumbo structure, whose 
south end in relief looks like an old Irishman's face. The wolfers 



5. One of Sam's tales: "One morning I was leading my pack horses, 
'moseying' along — the sun was just comin' up — I stopped to look around 
for somethin' for breakfast. Pretty soon I seen a grouse sitting on a hill; 
so I drew a bead on it and darned if the danged thing hadn't flown into a 
tree, a sitting there as pretty as you please. I emptied my danged gun on 
that fool grouse and be darned if it weren't still sitting in that tree. Finally 
come to find out it was a louse on my own eyebrow — every time I'd squint 
it'd come down hangin' loose over my shootin' eye. Sure had me wonderin' 
for awhile." 



158 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

started calling it "Old Man Murphy."". /'Old Man Murphy" is 
still there — easily found on J-U land east* of hiway 87, a few 
miles southeast of Kaycee. . "?. 

Andrus and Sam covered their territory on "saddle horses with 
a couple of pack horses to carry their tents, bedding and trapping 
gear. They always owned the best of rifles and a revolver, hunting 
knife and hatchet, and a buffalo robe if it could be managed. 

The first thing to be done was to prepare their camp against 
the weather. Often they built a dug-out covered with brush, which 
was warmer than a tent in severe weather. From this permanent 
camp they'd ride their trap line, which was in a big circle covering 
many miles and presenting many hazards and difficulties. Traps 
and carcasses would be stolen — (mostly by Indians, who hated 
the wolfers because many of their dogs took the poisoned baits ) ; 
badweather would bring suffering (often the wolf carcasses would 
be frozen in the snow and have to be chopped out and carried to 
camp to thaw before skinning ) ; and sometimes their horses would 
stray or be stolen. "But we always had good grub," said Andrus. 
"Bacon, coffee and beans and always meat — plenty of wild game." 

There was much work involved in preparing wolf bait. A 
"must" was fish oil, the "king of stinks," which was made by 
filling a jar with little minnows and setting in the sun to bring out 
the oil. To this was added a few drops of oil of rhodium, which 
had a peculiar attraction for wolves. Also a drop or two of the 
oil of annis was put in, as well as some dried beaver castors 
(glands) (they were a part of every trapper's equipment — no 
matter how they might disagree on other ingredients.) This scent 
mixture was used with a "bleached-bone set" on a cut bank on a 
regular wolf run. Wild Cat Sam taught Andrus to set 2 traps on a 
bank. When caught, the wolfs first impulse was to jump over the 
ledge. The next wolf, not able to see him, thus entirely unaware 
of any danger, would get caught in like manner in the second trap. 
So the men would come along and find two wolves hanging over a 
ledge, each caught by a foot. This type of set had another advan- 
tage — the wolf in such a position had less chance of uprooting a 
trap in his struggle to get away, his efforts being quite useless. 

The first wolfers made no attempt to seek out the dens — their 
primary concern was money from pelts — not extermination of the 
wolf. Mr. Andrus said it was hard to believe the number of 
wolves running on the Powder at that time. He and Sam had a 



6. Just to the left of the face is the famous old Murphy Creek freight 
road crossing. It was the one dreaded spot for freighters, being the worst 
mud-hole on the whole route. Mr. Andrus said, "If you ever wanted a 
freighter, you could always find one stuck in the Murphy Creek crossing 
pounding on his mules." One day he and Sam found a freighter stuck 
there. He had on 3 barrels of whiskey and 2 boxes of prunes. Sam looked 
the load over and said, "Who's goin' to eat all them prunes?" 



THE HOtE-IN-THE-WALL 159 

most unusual experience one day while following their trap line 
on lower Murphy Creek. They were going along an old trail 
when a nasty storm blew up, forcing them to stop and consider 
plans for some immediate shelter. They hastily constructed a dug- 
out on the north bank of the creek, using some old logs for the 
front (the remains of an old cabin no doubt). They built a 
fireplace in one end with a chimney of green sticks plastered with 
dobe mud and used an old piece of canvas for a door. A heavy 
snow fell that afternoon leaving about 5 inches on the ground by 
night. Mr. Andrus said, "About 10 o'clock from the dug-out 
we heard a pack of wolves apparently on Powder River near the 
mouth of Salt Creek — the howling became louder and louder, 
appearing from the sound that it was a large pack — two or more 
joined for the prowl. The howling indicated they were coming up 
the creek and traveling fast, evidently heading for some particular 
place. We put out the fire and waited. 

"Then more howling was heard — other packs answering from 
different directions until we counted 7 different packs. The first 
wolves were now close, and from the sound we estimated there 
were about 25 or more. Congregating on the flat south of the 
dug-out, they set up a most terrific howling — some milling around 
keeping up a continuous baying, and others sitting still uttering 
one prolonged wolf-howl after another. Two or three, presumably 
the leaders, gave the peculiar grey wolf-call — a loud booming 
sound gradually dying away to a long drawn-out wail that seems 
to tremble clearly on the air to the last faint sound. 

"The other packs kept answering and arriving, one at a time, 
each arrival being greeted by a new outburst of howling. While 
the dirst roof of the dugout afforded us a lot of protection, it was 
terrific the way the sound hit our ears. There was continuous 
movement, howling, snarling and snapping. We hoped for the 
moon to come out but in this we were disappointed. About 3 
A. M. they began to disperse and soon all was quiet. We had the 
feeling that we had been a party to something few white men were 
ever fortunate enough to witness. Somehow it gave us a new 
understanding of wolf nature. We figured several hundred wolves 
had met that night — many heading back toward the Tisdale Moun- 
tains, as we clearly saw by the tracks next morning. 

"At first thought it would seem that such a gathering of wolves 
had been a pre-arranged affair; however the gray wolves in winter 
traveled in packs usually from 8 to 14 — each pack having a par- 
ticular circle and making the round in about 14 days — seldom 
varying more than 2 days and often passing a given spot on the 
circle within 2 hours of its regular time. (It was this peculiar 
habit of regularity that finally caused the wolf to be wiped out.) 
These circles naturally overlapped and crossed so that several 
packs traversed the same territory (but at different times). The 
baying of a pack of wolves can be heard quite plainly at a distance 



160 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of 9 miles under favorable atmospheric conditions, (and no doubt 
much farther by the sensitive wolf ear) so it is probable that the 
various packs were attracted by the calls and left their regular 
run to come to the meeting. You know, there is nothing on earth 
like a lone wolf call — it makes you draw a little closer to the fire, 
dig a little deeper into your blanket and shudder, knowing in 
your heart the many things you'll never know. It brings shivers 
up and down the stoutest man's spine. Perhaps the wolf, too, 
even in his animal's sense knows this feeling of the futility of life 
and is thus sending forth his call of loneliness into the night." 

For the really bizarre wolfer we have Rattlesnake Jack. He 
hung around the Tisdale and May outfit a lot (present TTT ranch, 
see map). He -was a dirty, evil-looking, wizened-up fellow who 
wore a feather-decorated fur cap the year round. He was extreme- 
ly dark complexioned — like an Indian and reeked so strongly of 
wolf scent he could be smelled for miles around. Undoubtedly 
this was one reason he was so successful as a trapper, he smelled 
so like his bait. Also this personal filth probably accounted for 
his safety in carrying rattlesnakes around in his shirt. He'd get 
drunk, open his shirt front, and out would crawl 2 or 3 huge 
rattlesnakes. He'd play with and fondle them in utter fearlessness 
and seemingly without danger to himself. He always had three 
horses — one which he rode and 2 tailed together which he packed 
and led. Sometimes he'd be seen with a coyote or wolf pup in a 
cage on his pack horse. He was a dope fiend which, no doubt, 
accounted in part for his eccentricity. 

Poison Joe James was a wolfer who was well bred and educated. 
He had studied to be a dentist (to please his mother) but the 
great open spaces kept calling him — he wanted to be a trapper. 
He landed in the Hole-in-the-Wall at the time Butch Cassidy's 
gang was there. He fell in with Cassidy and went on several rob- 
bery jobs that didn't amount to much, so he decided he wasn't 
cut out for an outlaw and took to wolfing as being more to his 
liking. He built himself a cabin and corral on upper South Fork 
of Powder and set about going western. He read a lot and drank 
a lot and got himself 14 saddle ponies and a bunch of traps. 

The Indians nicknamed him "Poison Joe." About this time, 
becoming partially civilized, they found it easier to poison coyotes 
and wolves rather than ride a trap line. They traded pelts for 
goods at Ft. Washakie. They got strychnine from the fort. One 
particular time there was no strychnine to be had, so Joe decided 
he'd make some easy money. He filled old strychnine bottles with 
salt and sold them to the Indian for wolf poison. So they called 
him "Poison Joe." Wasn't long, however, before they got even 
with him. One morning upon getting out of bed Joe discovered a 
band of Indians camped out by his corral. He went out to be 
sociable and in due time spied a very comely Indian maid whom 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 161 

he decided then and there would make him a good wife. After 
considerable dickering he finally make the deal to get her for 7 
ponies. Everything seemed fine — the maid fulfilled his anticipated 
expectations and he figured he'd made a good bargain. But after 
a time duty forced him to tear himself away from his bride to ride 
his trap line. He reluctantly set out and was gone about a week. 
Upon his return, to his dismay and chagrin, he found not only his 
wife gone but his remaining horses and all things loose of any 
value. So Joe quit trapping and went to moonshining. He was 
very versatile. 

As the big cow outfits came into Johnson County and the 
country began to settle up, wolf trapping took on a new outlook. 
No longer was the wolf pelt looked upon as a money-bringer — 
wolfing now turned into a bitter fight for the extermination of 
this powerful predator. The wolf, himself, too, now faced an 
unfavorable outlook. With the coming of the cattle herds, wild 
game became scarcer and scarcer and his food supply became 
more and more of a problem. Of cattle and horses there was 
plenty, it's true, but they had more "fight" in them than the wild 
creatures and there were far too many men to plan against and 
watch out for. Change always brings its problems. The wolfer 
didn't want the dens cleaned out, for the den was his assurance 
of more hides to sell. (Old Harmon Fraker who was homestead- 
ing on the site of the Dull Knife Fight protected his wolf dens 
at the point of a gun.) The cowman couldn't afford the terrific 
slaughter of his horses and cattle — for the wolf seemed ever empty 
and there was no end to his killing. 

So the wolfers began signing contracts with the cattlemen want- 
ing to collect the large reward offered for any kind of wolf. Un- 
cannily sensing his danger, the wolf now grew wary preferring 
for the most part to kill fresh meat rather than take bait. Many 
things were tried to tempt him — such as putting strychnine in lard 
and spreading it on bacon rinds. Some wolfers used cubes of 
mutton tallow about one inch square, inside of which was inserted 
a 10 grain dose of potassium sulphate, a deadly instantaneous 
poison. (They used the New House No. 4Vi steel trap.) But 
still the killings went on. 

During the summer wolves paired off and lived in the timbered 
or sheltered places subsisting on food near at hand, if possible. 
(Wolves mated for life — as long as each lived.) As soon as it 
turned cold they collected in packs under a wolf dog leader. 
When attacking they separated into three groups; one slipping in 
between the main herd and a small bunch they desired to cut off; 
the second, under the guidance of the leader, would move straight 
to the head of the chosen victim; while the third group acted as 
rear guard — thus completely surrounding their prey. Those under 
the leader would seize the muzzle of the quarry while the rear 



162 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

guard slipped up and hamstrung him. The victim, being thus 
helpless, was easily downed and devoured. 

These huge wolves weighed from 125 to 150 pounds and were 
prolific breeders — having from 10 to 12 whelps to the litter. 
Being very fleet of foot, it was seldom possible to get a killing 
shot at one. The infuriating thing about their attacks, especially 
when in pairs, was the fact that they ate only the choice part of 
the animal, leaving the rest to the buzzards and magpies. (When 
running in packs, if not disturbed, they cleaned the carcass. ) 

So the wolfers, ranchers and government trappers began seeking 
out the dens when the pups were about a month old. (Pups were 
born in late April or early May.) This was slow, tedious work, 
considering the rugged, broken terrain of the Hole-in-the-Wall 
country and discouraged many of the wolfers who preferred the 
more exciting method of earlier days. 

In the early 1900's the wolves were being driven out of Canada 
and came drifting down this way. Their ferocity and audacity 
was almost unbelievable. The late J. Elmer Brock told some 
very exciting and alarming experiences they had with wolves on 
their ranch east of EK Mountain. 

One day the wolves had the cattle bunched up between the barn 
and the house, the poor critters in their panic crowding close to 
the buildings. One yearling calf escaped the vicious onslaught, 
only to die on the front door step with his entrails hanging out. 
The wolves in their fiendish hunger threw caution to the winds. 

Another time twelve or more grown hogs were killed on their 
way to the house, being forced in from the fields nearby by the 
attacking wolves. 

Elmer Brock always kept a grain-fed horse ready in the barn 
at all times preparatory to chasing wolves on a minute's notice. 
There was one male wolf killing his colts. Horseflesh was valu- 
able in those days and it was a most nauseating sight to see a fine 
colt gutted and left, with only a few mouthfuls eaten. Elmer spent 
some time watching this wolf's route and one day circumstances 
broke right for the chase. Elmer preferred trailing alone — it was 
far less confusing and more advantageous for a good shot. He 
rode his favorite and most trusted roping horse which had plenty 
of speed and endurance. It wasn't too long before he drew near 
enough for a long range shot, but the bullet only struck and broke 
one hind leg. Continuing the pursuit and coming closer, Elmer 
saw that the wolf was truly a fine specimen — a beautiful creature 
in spite of his vicious habits. It seemed a shame to shoot him 
and ruin the hide (for the only ammunition he had with him was 
the explosive type). Mounted wolf hides were very popular as 
rugs and couch covers and of a certainty this beast's pelt would 
make a rug worth owning; so Elmer suddenly decided to rope the 
wolf. He was an expert roper and his horse was one of the best. 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 



163 



He immediately gave chase which wasn't difficult since the wound- 
ed wolf couldn't make the usual head-way. As you can imagine, 
Elmer felt a thrill of exultation as his loop slipped over the wolf's 
head and tightened as his horse backed off. But the wolf was not 
to be so easily captured. He promptly turned his head and with 
his powerful jaws bit the rope in two just below the honda; and 
now free took off as fast as his hanging, useless leg permitted. 
Elmer, not to be undone, made another honda and took after the 
wolf, which he roped a second time. And a second time the wolf 
snapped the rope in his teeth as if it were nothing. This was 
repeated until there was no more rope, but by that time the wolf 
was about played out. Pretty soon he stopped on a little rise, 
so exhausted he lay down. Elmer withdrew a short distance and 
waited, holding a bead on him, hoping eventually for a favorable 
shot. After a time the wolf raised up facing the gun and the 
bullet landed in his chest. 

Elmer was justly proud of his catch for the wolf was a monster. 
When the wolf was skinned, he held it as high as he could reach 
with some of the pelt doubled over his hand, and it touched the 
ground (Elmer was 6 ft. tall). The mounted hide along with the 
bitten honda now adorns the wall in the living room of the Brock 
Livestock Company ranch house where Mr. and Mrs. Dan Hanson 
live (she was Margaret Brock, Elmer's daughter). Part of the 





Wolf killed by J. Elmer Brock. Note chewed rope. Courtesy Mrs. 
Dan Hanson 



164 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tail has fallen off and the hide has shrunk through the years, but 
it still measures over 7 feet from the tip of the nose to the tip of 
the tail. (See picture). 

A man by the name of Harry Williams was one of the last pro- 
fessional wolf hunters on the Powder River. He used to come 
often to visit with the Brocks and Mart Tisdale. Elmer, Mart and 
Harry spent hours trying out each other's rifles — often swapping 
guns. Harry was a government trapper and got to be quite deaf 
from shooting wolves in dens. He said, "Nine times out of ten 
you could tie a female up when you cornered her in the den — 
the cave being the last retreat she just sort of 'gave up'." Some- 
times, however, he had to kill one, and this close-quarter shooting 
was hard on ears. 

Harry would follow a wolf till he got him, no matter how long 
it took. He had one experience that really made him mad. He'd 
tracked a wolf for days — until both he and his horse were played 
out and his grub gone — and then in a final exhausting burst of 
speed when he at last came close enough and had his rifle raised 
for the longed-for shot, he heard a ping and he saw his quarry 
drop dead in its tracks. At the same moment a homesteader's 
kid on a spotted pony came nonchalantly riding along from behind 
a hill and claimed the wolf which he'd shot with his "22". He'd 
spied the lagging wolf and finished him off with no effort at all, 
and of course he collected the reward. (Harry couldn't have 
gotten it anyway, for he was trapping for Uncle Sam.) 

Around 1910 most of the wolves were gone, except a pair on 
Blue Creek. The male had been caught in a trap by a foot some- 
time or other and was plenty educated. His foot was all spread 
out and deformed so they got to calling him "Big Foot." He and 
his mate denned about a mile west of the Blue Creek Ranch, site of 
old George Curry (outlaw) ranch, and ranged from Buffalo Creek 
on the south to the North Fork of Powder on the north and east 
to Murphy Creek. The pair would kill as high as 15 head of 
yearlings in a night. The ranchers in the area finally offered a 
reward of $1000 for Big Foot (he was the killer) and $500 for his 
mate. L. R. A. Condit, who'd bought the Union Cattle Company 

on Beaver Creek (present D Cattle Company Ranch), and Jim 

+ 
Stubbs, of the Blue Creek outfit, bought some hounds to trail 
wolves. Every spare day some one was trailing them, but the 
hounds were either afraid of the wolves when cornered or else 
preferred to chase deer and rabbits. 

So Big Foot and his mate went their own way — couldn't get 
them near a trap or bait and they were too clever to get in a place 
to be shot at. In 1915 a fellow by the name of John Torrence 
hired out as a ranch hand at Condit's. He did ranch work in 



THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL 165 

summer and trapped in the winter time. 7 John was an energetic, 
little, dark-haired fellow with one crossed eye. At first glance he 
seemed all mouth and teeth, so large were they in proportion to 
the rest of him and the gold plate work in front showed up con- 
spicuously when he smiled, which was often. John loved nothing 
better than chasing wolves. 

One 4th of July a cowpuncher rode in saying Big Foot had been 
seen over in the Buffalo Creek area where he'd done a bad killing 
job. John decided to forego the 4th of July picnic and celebration 
and go wolfing. He rode Jeff, a little, short, heavy-legged black 
horse belonging to the Condit outfit. He was hard as nails and 
could take a long jaunt. After a fatiguing day's ride on Buffalo 
Creek John, toward evening, headed out over the trail onto the 
head of Murphy Creek. To his keen joy, he spotted Big Foot 
galloping over a ridge at the head of the draw about 300 yards 
away, running straight from him. John let the lead go and the 
bullet landed behind Big Foot, tearing up a blinding cloud of dust 
that momentarily stopped the wolf. That split second pause was 
unlucky, for John, raising his sights, instantaneously fired the sec- 
ond shot which struck him in the back of the head. 

This, then, was the end of wolf days in the Hole-in-the-Wall. 
John collected the reward and later became a government trapper 
of coyotes and bobcats (who took over the wolf's job of preying 
on livestock). 

The wolfer is gone. His pack is thrown aside and his old bat- 
tered coffee pot hangs on a broken limb. But he is to be remem- 
bered with envy, not so much because of his courage in blazing 
the trails into the Hole-in-the-Wall country and thus paving the 
way for the future ranchers, as for his absolute independence. 
For he, alone, of all white men, I believe, achieved the thing he 
most desired, the opportunity to live a life of complete freedom, 
unrestrained, uninhibited and beholden to none. 



7. Then every man was doing a little trapping on the side — coyotes, 
bobcats and wolves — earning a little extra money for the kids' Christmas 
or something to supplement wages which were low. The pelts were sent 
to Sears, Roebuck and Co. 



166 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



OJ9EG OA/ 77r* 1 1- ~7?*£K A/o . 3 

May 30, Z95-4 

Maur/ne Cor/ey, Ht'st-orian 




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CASPAR Coj.d.s/v-3 7~Me jAS/Asy-e/zs of /66 3 /**/D /664. 



Oregon Zrail Zrek fio. Zkree 

Compiled by 

Maurine Carley, Trek Historian 

May 30, 1954 

109 Participants -- -25 cars 

Note: Numbers preceding "M" indicate miles on the map west 
from the Nebraska-Wyoming line. Old Fort Laramie is 
33 M. The marker where the Trek started May 30th was 
1071/2 M. While about 90% of the old trail is plain from 
the starting point to Deer Creek Station (now Glenrock) it 
was necessary to travel mostly on present day roads to 
avoid fences and ditches. 

OFFICERS 

General R. L. Esmay in command of military escort 

Col. W. R. Bradley Captain of caravan 

Maj. H. W. Lloyd Sergeant of Guard and Registrar 

Frank Murphy Wagon Boss 

Albert Sims Assistant Wagon Boss 

Mate N. Wheeler Assistant Wagon Boss 

Maurine Carley Historian 

E. P. Hanway Photographer and Press 

Red Kelso Photographer and Press 

Keith Rider Photographer and Press 

Colonel A. R. Boyack Chaplain 

Glenn A. Conner Trumpeter 

9:00 A.M. The Caravan left the La Bonte Hotel in Douglas. 

9:30 A.M. Arrived at an OREGON TRAIL MARKER 
(107 ¥2 M.) located about 150 feet south of where the main 
Oregon Trail crosses the present Natural Bridge road. Clement 
Ayres who has lived all of his life near here, told about the sur- 
rounding country. 

9:45 A.M. Arrived at the beautiful AYRES NATURAL 
BRIDGE PARK. 

9:55 A.M. Departed from the Natural Bridge Park. 

10:20 A.M. Arrived at a point (109V^ M.) where two branch- 
es of the old road met. Here the trail crossed the La Prele-Box 
Elder Divide. Frank Murphy pointed out the Rock Creek-Lower 
La Prele road that was used after the country was fenced. 

10:30 A.M. Departed from 109V6 M. 



168 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

10:50 A.M. Arrived at five pioneer graves (113 M.) on a 
divide just south of the trail, about three quarters of a mile west 
of where it crossed Little Box Elder Creek. Mr. W. W. Morrison 
told of the massacre of four men and a small girl, and about the 
burning of six wagons by Indians, which took place near that spot 
in July 1864. (The remains of the four men — Mr. Sharp, Mr. 
Taylor, Mr. Franklin and Frank (Negro servant) were moved 
May 15, 1954 from a knoll just west of where the trail crossed 
Little Box Elder Creek and south of old trail to just south of the 
grave of Mary Kelly on the divide. Native sandstone markers 
were placed with the names of the 4 men at the west end of the 
mass grave and one with the name of the little girl at the west 
end of her grave. ) 

Following is the story as told at the grave of Mary Kelly near 
Little Box Elder Creek Crossing by W. W. Morrison. 

On Saturday, May 15th, just two days short of ninety years 
since their wagons rolled out of Geneva, Kansas, the mortal 
remains of three members of that wagon train, and the mortal 
remains of one other were removed to higher ground in the valley 
of Little Box Elder, Wyoming. 

Waters from a new dam when finished will cover the massacre 
site and the lonely spot where the bodies of four Pioneers lay in a 
single grave since the 13th day of July, 1864. 

Rocks, heaped upon the mound some 40 or 50 feet from the 
Oregon Trail marked the spot, reminded others in covered wagons 
passing in the late sixties and early seventies what tragedy might 
befall them before their journey's end. 

After the last wagon passed that way, loneliness mantled the 
Valley of Little Box Elder. Fences came. Then grass and sage 
brush grew over the old Trail. As they grew over the Trail, so 
they grew over the lonely mound. And the seasons and the years 
passed by. 

One summer day in 1945, while following the trail we came to 
the crossing of Little Box Elder. Having familiarized ourselves 
pretty well with the Fanny Kelly story we decided to search the 
valley thoroughly in an effort to locate the graves and the massacre 
site. 

That summer, and four summers thereafter, we returned to the 
Valley, often spending from daylight until dark there. When 
satisfied each spot was established, we made wooden markers and 
erected them at each place so they might not be lost forever, or 
until such a time as permanent markers might be had. They were, 
"Little Box Elder Crossing." "The Mass Grave." "Where Mary 
Fell," and "The grave of little Mary." 

Those who know history, know also there are usually two sides 
to every story. But this one is so full of cowardice, trickery and 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 169 

deceit by the red man that members of the Ogallala band of the 
Sioux Nation never have, nor can ever be proud of their Chief 
Ottawa and his band of 250 warriors, who lay in wait, and 
attacked a train of 4 wagons consisting of eleven souls, four of 
which were women and children. They killed the helpless emi- 
grants while they were preparing for the savages, who outnum- 
bered them 25 to 1 . Some victory for the Indian braves to gather 
around their evening campfires and boast about. Here's the story: 

In the cool of evening, July 12th, 1864, the wagon train crossed 
Little Box Elder and was ascending the opposite bank, when 
suddenly, and without warning a band of Indians, painted and 
equipped for war, appeared on the bluffs before the emigrants, 
uttering their wild warwhoops, and firing a signal volley of guns 
into the air. 

Almost before the startled emigrants had a chance to corral 
their wagons, the main body of Indians were close upon them. 
Mr. Kelly, leader of the little train, advanced to meet the savage 
leader and learn his intentions. 

His name was Ottawa. He rode forward uttering the words 
"How! How!" To be more deceitful he struck himself on the 
breast saying, "Good Indian, me!", and pointing to the others he 
continued, "Heap Good Indians, hunt buffalo and deer". And 
then the Indians began to shake hands with all the emigrants. 

After a while the chief told them they might move on, and 
promised that they should not be molested. After the wagons 
were in motion, the Indians became very familiar and insisted 
on driving the herd. Mr. Kelly soon called a halt, for he saw 
they were approaching a rocky glen where he believed they might 
attack them. The Indians urged them forward but they refused 
to move. 

The savages requested they prepare supper for them. The men 
thought it best to give them a feast, and each were busy in helping, 
when the massacre started. Here are the exact words from the 
lips of Fanny Kelly :- 

"Mr. Larimer and Frank were making the fire; Mr. Wakefield 
was getting provisions out of the wagon; Mr. Taylor was attending 
to his team; Mr. Kelly and Andy were out some distance gathering 
wood; Mr. Sharp was distributing sugar among the Indians; sup- 
per, that they asked for, was in rapid progress of preparation, when 
suddenly our terrible enemies threw off their masks and displayed 
their truly demoniac natures. There was a simultaneous discharge 
of arms, and when the cloud of smoke cleared away, I could see 
the retreating form of Mr. Larimer and the slow motion of poor 
Mr. Wakefield, for he was mortally wounded. 

"Mr. Kelly and Andy made a miraculous escape with their 
lives. Mr. Sharp was killed within a few feet of me. Mr. Taylor 



170 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

— I never can forget his face as I saw him shot through the fore- 
head with a rifle ball. He looked at me as he fell backward to the 
ground a corpse. I was the last object that met his dying gaze. 
Our poor faithful Frank fell at my feet pierced by many arrows." 

East of the crossing a wagon came in sight. A lone horseman 
rode in advance. The chief immediately dispatched a part of his 
band to capture or cut them off. The horseman was killed imme- 
diately. The teamster quickly turned his team, and started 
them east at full speed. He gave the whip and lines to his wife, 
who held in her arms a small child, and he went to the rear of his 
wagon, and, with his revolver, kept the Indians at bay. Several 
arrows and bullets passed through the wagon-cover, one passing 
through the sleeve of the child's dress. Finally the Indians left 
them and rode back to the scene of the murder, where the other 
Indians were tearing off covers, breaking, crushing and smashing 
boxes and trunks and distributing goods. 

Fanny Kelly and her daughter, Mary, and Mrs. Larimer and her 
son were led a short distance from the wagons and placed under 
guard. All of the plunder which the Indians could not carry was 
gathered into a pile and lighted. The two women were put on 
horses, and their children behind them, and then the Indians 
started, leading them northward. Darkness had come when they 
left the valley of Little Box Elder. 

During their ride in the darkness Fanny Kelly planned an escape 
for little Mary. Whispering in her ear she said "Mary, we are only 
a few miles from our camp, and the stream we have crossed you 
can easily wade. I have dropped letters on the way to guide our 
friends in the direction we have taken; they will guide you back 
again, and it may be your only chance of escape from destruction. 
Drop gently down, and lie on the ground for a little while to avoid 
being seen; then retrace your steps, and may God in Mercy go 
with you. If I can, I will follow you." 

Watching the opportunity, she dropped the little girl to the 
ground and she lay there all alone while Fanny Kelly, Mrs. Lari- 
mer and her child rode on in captivity. Later, Mrs. Larimer and 
her child escaped and found their way back, but Fanny Kelly 
was in captivity for five months, finally being delivered up at 
Fort Sully. 

Mr. Kelly and Andy were some distance from the wagons when 
the first shot was fired. They dropped to the ground and con- 
cealed themselves in some tall grass and sage brush where they 
lay awaiting darkness. An Indian in search for them came within 
a few feet of where Mr. Kelly lay, when a huge rattle snake raised 
up beside him and gave a warning rattle. Others nearby repeated 
it. Hearing them, the Indian retreated. Watching his chance 
when darkness came, Mr. Kelly crawled out of his hiding place 
and ran with all his might eastward until he reached a large 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 171 

wagon train which was encamped along the Trail. Soon after, 
Andy reached the same train. 

There must be a rattlesnake den near the massacre site. Once, 
when doing research in the valley, walking three abreast over the 
same spot, we came upon four huge rattlesnakes all within one 
acre. But to go on with the story. 

In the forenoon of July 13th, the large wagon train in which 
Mr. Kelly and Andy had sought refuge moved on toward the 
massacre sight. A little time brought them to where the dead 
body of the horseman lay. They placed the body in a wagon and 
proceeded on to where the attack occurred. Mr. Kelly and Andy 
were among the first to search the spot. The bodies of Mr. 
Sharp, Mr. Taylor, and Mr. Franklin were lying where they had 
fallen. Mr. Larimer was near with one arrow in his limbs. Mr. 
Wakefield was still alive, pierced by 3 arrows. 

A wide grave was dug, and the four bodies were lowered into it. 
A buffalo robe was placed above them, and then the grave was 
filled in. 

Little Mary found her way back to the trail. And on the after- 
noon of July 13, she was sitting on a bluff overlooking the road. 
Three or four soldiers returning from Fort Laramie saw the little 
girl holding out her hands imploring them to save her. 

The soldiers had, on the day before, been chased by Indians; 
had just passed the scene of the massacre and were using every 
measure of precaution. 

There was a large ravine between them and the little girl on 
the bluff. The soldiers were about to cross to the little girl when 
some Indians appeared in sight. Thinking the little figure to be 
a decoy, and, that the ravine might be filled with savages they 
turned and fled. When they reached Dear Creek station they 
made known their experiences. 

When the wagon train in which Mr. Kelly and Andy were in 
reached Deer Creek Station that evening, they heard the story of 
the little girl. And Mr. Kelly recognized the description of the 
child as little Mary. He applied to the officer in command for a 
detail of soldiers to go with him in search for her. 

On the morning of the 14th, when he and the squad of soldiers 
were walking east, they noticed some emigrants standing a little 
way from the trail. When they reached the scene, they discovered 
the mutilated remains of the little girl. Three arrows had pierced 
her body. She had been tomahawked and scalped . . . "When 
discovered" wrote Fanny Kelly, "her body lay with its little hands 
outstretched as if she had received, while running, the fatal 
arrows." 

The arrows were extracted from the little form, and she was 
wrapped in a sheet. A grave was made not far away, and she was 



172 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

taken there and placed in it. Mr. Kelly smoothed the earth over 
her burial place. And then they left the little grave all alone. 

In her book My Captivity Among the Sioux Fanny Kelly wrote 
of her:- 

In the far-off land of Indian homes, 

Where western winds fan "hills of black," 

'Mid lovely flowers, and golden scenes, 
They laid our loved one down to rest. 

Where brightest birds, with silvery wings, 
Sing their sweet songs upon her grave, 

And the moonbeam's soft and pearly beams 
With prairie grasses o'er it wave. 

No simple stone e'er marks the spot 
Where Mary sleeps in dreamless sleep, 

But the moaning wind, with mournful sound, 
Doth nightly o'er it vigils keep. 

The careless tread of savage feet, 

And the weary travelers, pass it by, 
Nor heed they her, who came so far 

In her youth and innocence to die. 

But her happy spirit soared away 

To blissful climes above; 
She found sweet rest and endless joy 

In her bright home of love. 

11:15 A.M. Departed from the Little Box Elder. 

11:40 A.M. Arrived at the Bixby ranch ( 1 1 5 V^ M.) where 
the old trail crossed the Box Elder (La Boise River in the old 
diaries). There was a Pony Express and Stage Station at this 
crossing at one time. 

Mr. Sandford Kenney, manager of the ranch gave an interesting 
account of the history of this place. Everyone enjoyed lunch 
under the big trees by the creek. 

12:35 A.M. Left the ranch. 

12:50 A.M. Paused at an OREGON TRAIL MARKER 
(119V^ M.) where Frank Murphy explained where the trail 
crossed the present highway. He also pointed out the A. H. 
UNTHANK GRAVE (1850) just south of the present highway 
1/3 of a mile ahead. This was the same Unthank who had carved 
his name on Register Cliff one week before. 

1:15 P.M. Arrived at DEER CREEK STATION (125 M.) 
where there was once a Pony Express Stage and Telegraph Station. 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 173 

Mr. AI Brubaker read a paper written by the late Allen R. 
Kimball on the site of the Old Deer Creek Stage and Telegraph 
Station. 

SOME "ANCIENT" HISTORY AND SOME 
"UNFORGETTABLE" CHARACTERS. 

By Allen R. Kimball Glenrock, Wyoming. 

At site of old Deer Creek Stage and Telegraph Station 

May 30, 1954 

Since very little has been written about the early history of this, 
our home town, I will make an effort to set down here some of the 
interesting facts that have been written by others and published 
in various books, magazines and newspapers, and also some quite 
interesting things I know from personal knowledge. 

The first reference I find to this particular location was written 
by Robert Stuart in a narrative describing a trip he made down 
the South bank of the North Platte River in December, 1812, 
quoted in Footprints on the Frontier by Virginia Cole Trenholm, 
and describing Deer, Boxelder and LaPrele Creeks and the moun- 
tains to the south. 

General John C. Fremont came thru here in 1842 and in his 
writings mentions the prele (horse-tail grass) along the creeks 
and from which LaPrele Creek was probably named. He also 
mentioned the large size of the artemisia (sage brush) and the 
strong odor thereof. He had as guide, Kit Carson, and they hid 
their wagons in the brush on the banks of Deer Creek and proceed- 
ed west by pack train. 

Jim Bridger, the famous "mountain man" and scout came to 
what is now Wyoming in the 1820's, being closely identified with 
early day Fort Laramie and later building his own Fort Bridger. 

In 1857 he operated a ferry across the Platte River near Orin 
in competition with one run by the Mormons, who also had settle- 
ments with irrigation ditches and buildings on what were later the 
V. R. Seymour, and Lockett ranches. 

Mormon Canyon took its name from the Mormons who, in 
1853 went southward from here to Medicine Bow and on to Salt 
Lake City. 

Jim Bridger, in 1855-56, guided Sir George Gore's elaborate 
hunting party of titled Englishmen up the river from Fort Laramie 
to the Yellowstone River country. The party killed hundreds of 
buffalo, elk, deer and antelope. 

In 1856 a Mormon named Hiram Kimball was awarded a con- 
tract by the Federal Government to carry mail from Fort Laramie 
to Salt Lake City. Stage Stations were at Horseshoe, LaBonte, 
Deer Creek, Sweetwater, Devil's Gate and Fort Bridger. The 
Deer Creek station was just West across the creek from our 



174 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Glenrock Park on what is now the W. L. Brown place. It had 
a telegraph station and an operator by the name of Collister, who 
had quite an interesting romance with an Indian maiden by the 
name of Bright Star. 

William Henry Jackson, the noted pioneer artist-photographer 
who erected the monument by the Tabor Hotel, tells in his auto- 
biography, Time Exposure, of staying near Deer Creek Station in 
1866, where he paid 75 cents per pound for sugar. His party 
moved on West the day the Indians burned the station. 

Apparently there was some kind of a settlement here in 1856 
which was referred to as "Upper Platte Agency", perhaps a sort 
of semi-military establishment for guarding emigrants who traveled 
the "Oregon Trail". The famous Pony Express also came thru 
here for the brief time it was operated. 

Some of the names of places and their origins are interesting. 
Pratt's Peak or Buck's Peak, as it is sometimes called, was named 
for Buck Pratt, a great uncle of Mrs. Bryon Parks. He was a 
prospector and used to stay frequently at our ranch on Boxelder 
going to and returning from town. He was an old "batch", had 
long gray whiskers, and one of his ears had been bitten off by a 
horse. He was one of the kindliest old souls I ever knew. When 
he stayed all night he usually slept with me and I remember his 
snoring was of the saw-mill variety. 

And speaking of sawmills, there were several in this first range 
of hills back in the 80's and 90's. All were abandoned before 
1900. I remember there had been one down in Boxelder Canyon 
below our ranch, one on Bat's Creek near the present I.O.O.F. 
Picnic Ground, one or two between Big and Little Boxelder 
Creeks and others in the Big and Little Deer Creek region. 

A man named Todd ran one of them and Uncle Dick Sutphin 
and his brother Mart ran another. Many of the first buildings here 
were built of this native lumber. The rest were built of logs. 
Bat's Creek and Bat's Canyon, above the old Clayton Ranch, 
were named for a French-Canadian trapper by the name of Bap- 
tiste Garnier, who was known as "Little Bat" and lived here in 
pre-railroad days. Hunton's Canyon and Hunton Creek were 
named for one of the few real early day pioneers who remained 
to write of the period from 1867 on, John Hunton. The old 
Thayer Ranch, now Hugh Duncan's is situated in Hunton's 
Canyon. 

Hunton's name reminds one that the original Carey Ranch was 
first owned by Malcolm Campbell, then John Hunton, then Wil- 
liams & Smith, then Taylor, Coffee, and Gill, and in 1885 by 
J. M. Carey & Bro. John Hunton, who had another outfit 
down near Fort Laramie, used the S O brand, and when they 
sold cattle, they vented the SO by adding L D, making the brands 
on the animals SOLD. 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 175 

The Midwest Review, a magazine published by the Midwest 
Refining Co. in their August 1926 issue featured Converse County. 
Its editors, R. S. Ellison and D. W. Greenburg were both intensely 
interested in early day Wyoming history and spent a lot of time 
and effort in preparing this particular issue. In it is a picture of 
A. R. Converse, for whom our county is named, drawings and 
pictures of Fort Fetterman in 1870 and 1874, a picture of Glen- 
rock in 1887, an article by John Hunton, many pictures of Dou- 
glas, Glenrock, Big Muddy Oil Field, Continental Refinery and 
numerous pioneers and citizens of Converse County. 

D. W. Greenburg says "Glenrock came to life with the building 
of the railroad (The Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley) in 
1887." 

"Deer Creek Station was the name applied in the 60's, but as 
that outpost fell into disuse, a settlement grew up at the mouth 
of Deer Creek, which was called Mercedes. After the discovery 
of coal, the place was named Nuttall, from Wm. Nuttall, who 
found and developed the coal property. In 1887 it took the name 
of Glenrock (when the buildings were moved to the present 
location), from the sandstone eminence near the refinery." The 
name Glenrock means "Rock in the Valley." 

The Midwest Review says John Hunton was the first settler 
on Boxelder, but Footprints on the Frontier says "The famous 
S O Ranch, the nucleus of which was found in the 10 x 12 adobe 
house on nearby Boxelder Creek, sold to John Hunton in 1 874 by 
Malcolm Campbell, became the property of the Carey family." 
This was quoted from the story of Glenrock, by E. B. Shaffner, 
and which was published in The Glenrock Independent. There 
are several pages of Mr. Shaffner's story quoted and it is well 
worth reading. The book also tells of one very dangerous crossing 
of the Platte near Deer Creek in 1849. Also of the establishment 
on Deer Creek of a settlement of German Lutheran missionaries, 
who tried but failed to Christianize the Indians. They held a 
Christmas celebration and distributed presents to the Indians 
from what was described as the first Christmas tree in the Terri- 
tory of Nebraska. Teaching the squaws to dance quadrilles; the 
burial of a young squaw who died here; keeping the telegraph 
line in repair in spite of the Indians; and many other interesting 
incidents are told, including a small-pox epidemic among the 
Indians. Prominent residents in the 1860's were a Major Twiss, 
Jos. Bissonette, and John Reshaw, who was described as being 
sort of a renegade. 

One day in the summer of 1947 I took Jap Sumner and Joe 
Slaughter out to the V R Ranch. Mr. Jolley, the present owner 
told us the origin of the V R brand. He said the original Scotch 
owners adopted the brand in honor of Britain's Queen Victoria — 
The V for Victoria and the R for Regina (Queen). On the way 
home we drove down thru the original homesteads of Jap & Joe 



176 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

on the lower part of the ranch and they recalled how they used to 
shoot sage chickens from their cabin doors. Mr. Sumner came 
to this locality in 1879, Mr. Slaughter in 1881. 

Glenrock came near being the metropolis of central Wyoming. 
The railroad company offered to make this the end of the road 
if the coal company would give them half of the town lots. The 
coal company refused, whereupon the railroad company estab- 
lished a townsite of their own where the refinery now stands and 
they built the depot and section house there. Selling no lots, they 
built the railroad on West and made Casper the terminal. 

About 1880 a group of Colorado men opened a coal mine here 
on the East bank of Deer Creek and operated it till about 1906 
when it was abandoned. The old "town" called Nuttall was about 
where the baseball diamond now is in Glenrock Park. 

From 1906 to 1916 the population was about 200. It had 
been 500 when the coal mine was at its best. In 1916 the original 
discovery well was brought in the Big Muddy field by Humphrey 
& Whiteside and in 1917 and T8 the population had zoomed to 
2000. Wildcatting in the field caused wild excitement in the town. 
Lots sold for 20 times their real value. 

Two efforts to incorporate the town failed. One was defeated 
by the coal company because the proposed corporate limits in- 
cluded too much of their land and the other attempt failed because 
it took in too much land belonging to the railroad company. But 
in 1908 a third attempt, which left out the coal company and 
railroad lands was successful. Jos. R. Slaughter was the first may- 
or; Wm. Veitch, Jos. Lythgoe, Geo. Lockett and Chas. Padden 
were the Councilmen, Roy C. Wyland was Town Clerk and Treas. 
and Geo. Devoe was Marshal. 

The discovery of oil on Mrs. Geo. D. McDonald's ranch adjoin- 
ing Glenrock on the North, on Thanksgiving Day, 1949, brings 
to mind Ed. J. Wells (sor-in-law of Wm. Nuttall). He and his 
brother Charlie prospected and promoted mining claims in the 
hills south of town for many years, probably never dreaming that 
he was living right on top of an oil dome. 

Then there was Tom Seymour, the original owner of the 
Tvaruzek, new Brubaker place. Mr. Seymour and Cy. Iba were 
among, if not the very first, to stake out oil claims in the Salt Creek 
field. Mr. Iba still owned his claims when the field was proved, 
but Mr. Seymour had let his go. But, of course, that was long 
before the days of the seismograph and deep drilling. Well, these 
old boys couldn't have suspected oil under their land back in 
the 1890's when the rest of us didn't even suspect it in 1948. 

The original owner of the V R Ranch was Major Frank Wol- 
cott, leader of the Cattlemen's Invasion of Johnson County in 
1892. The Burlington Railroad built thru here in 1913. - 

The Mutual Oil Co. Refinery, now Continental, was built in 
1917. The Sinclair Tank Farm, now Stanolind, was built in 1923. 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 177 

The city water works were built in 1913, the electric light plant 
and sewer system about 1917 or '18. Glenrock Park was bought 
in 1920. The Glenrock Public Library building was acquired in 
1943. The High School, the Grade School, the I.O.O.F. building, 
the Commerce Block, the Lincoln Building, the Higgins Hotel 
(now the Tabor), the Baptist and Catholic Churches and most of 
the finer homes were built during or soon after the 1917 boom. 
The first church was the Episcopal. The original building, which 
was burned down, was on the same lots as the present building, 
and was built prior to 1895. 

The Stork, the wise old bird with the "bundles from Heaven" 
seems to have established an air route passing directly over "D" 
street between 4th and 5th. Occasionally, when he is passing over 
with too heavy a load, he will drop off a couple of these "bundles" 
instead of the one ordered. Thus, in a period of about 30 years 
he had delivered twin boys to the Leon Chamberlain, Chas. Mor- 
gan, Geo. Lasky and Vaden Rock families and his most recent 
delivery was twin girls to the Nerwin Reeds. The street has come 
to be known as Twin Street. Only one other set of twins has ever 
been born in the town. 

With the coming of the railroad in 1886 it was expected that 
Fort Fetterman, which had been abandoned as a fort, would be- 
come a town, and many businesses had been established there. 
My father, E. H. Kimball, started the first newspaper in central 
Wyoming there on May 26, 1886. It was called The Rowdy West 
and was moved to Douglas when that town was started. The first 
paper in Glenrock was the Glenrock Graphic edited and published 
by my brother, (the late) Wilson S. Kimball, later of Casper. In 
his recent column "Ye Good Old Days" printed in the Casper 
Tribune-Herald he had related many interesting early day incidents 
of Glenrock and vicinity. 

In the Spanish-American and 1 st and 2nd World wars Glenrock 
lost three men killed in action, Jesse Martin, Wade Norton and 
Paul Rawdon, Jr. 

What is the oldest building in town? No one seems to know 
for sure, but it is undoubtedly one of the old log houses in "Happy 
Hollow". Edward Clark's house and Lyle Reckling's garage are 
shown in a photograph taken in 1887 and are probably the oldest 
in this part of town. 

Among the many "Unforgettable Characters" I seem to remem- 
ber best are Judge Thomas, Jerky Bill Clayton, Col. Kimball, 
Mrs. Higgins and Billy Fenex. 

"The Judge" was elected Mayor more or less as a joke but 
turned out to be one of the best we ever had. To him went the 
credit for building the fine water works system we now enjoy. 
When he was Justice of the Peace, he once told a bunch of cele- 
brating cowpunchers "Shoot 'em up boys, the Court's with you." 



178 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

"Jerky Bill", so named because he was afflicted with St. Vitus's 
dance was certainly one of the best riders who ever lived. He was 
utterly fearless of horses and if he was ever thrown no one around 
here ever heard of it. He had been a top rider in Buffalo Bill's 
Wild West Show but had been discharged for shooting powder 
into the Indians' faces during their sham battles. I have seen 
him gallop a horse down Main Street, jumping on and off, shooting 
two pistols into the air and throwing sand at the horses ears. The 
sand he had grabbed off the ground with one hand while hanging 
on to the saddle horn with the other while the horse was in motion. 
He had a choice collection of original words and phrases which 
he delighted in using on new acquaintances, like the following 
which I heard him spring on a traveling man: "Circumstances 
alter cases in a great many respects, but notwithstanding, never- 
theless however, you have to use your jurisdictional ideas in a 
simplified manner, shape and form, take observation into consid- 
eration, use all your experimental knowledge appertaining to the 
facts, and then if your diabolical system don't sogashitate with 
your other comprosities, you're in a hell of a predicament and not 
properly prepared for the coming of the "Great Millenial Dawn." 

"The Colonel" my father, E. H. Kimball, I remember best for 
his ready wit and humor. He was soldier, school teacher, lawyer, 
newspaper man and rancher, and during the Johnson County 
Invasion he was Deputy Sheriff under Sheriff Malcolm Campbell. 
He used to say he could digest anything an ostrich could and when 
hungry he "could eat a fricasseed missionary." His comment on 
birth control: "Hens have the thing down pat — they lay eggs, then 
if they don't want to hatch 'em, they can eat 'em." 

Mrs. Higgins was of Italian parentage but was born and edu- 
cated in France. She had the sharpest mind I have ever known in 
anyone and she used it to make a million dollars, when millionaires 
were about the scarcest commodity in Wyoming. Of course her 
husband, the late John E. Higgins, was a working partner in all 
their business ventures, yet it was conceded by all that she was the 
financial genius of the family. 

Billy Fenex I remember for his well-told stories of the early 
days. One of his best was about the Chinook wind, the first one he 
ever experienced. It seems he and Jap Sumner had been having a 
little spree in Douglas. The time was midwinter in about 1887. 
They stopped for the night at a rooming house in old Fort Fetter- 
man and when they went to bed there were about six inches of 
snow on the ground and the temperature was around zero. Short- 
ly after they turned in a Chinook wind came along and when Billy 
awoke and looked out of the window, the parade ground was 
covered with water. Opening the window, he discovered the air 
was warm and balmy. Going back to the bed where Jap was still 
sleeping, he got hold of his shoulder, gave him a shake, and said 
"Dam it Jap, wake up, we've been asleep all winter." 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 179 

Henry Bierman also was a "character". Asked by Claud Lam 
if he was going to attend the funeral of his divorced wife, he 
replied "Nope, she had no business dyin'." 

Rhody Adams was an old bachelor cowboy. One winter he 
boarded at my Mother's Hotel Kimball. He was a very hearty 
eater and when St. Valentine's Day came along some of ths other 
boarders sent him a comic valentine of a big fat hog with a mean 
verse under the picture. The letter was mailed in the Post Office 
and of course one of the other boarders just happened to get the 
mail and handed Rhody his letter at the dining table. He opened 
it up, looked at it awhile, then said, "Well, I see some fella sent 
me his photograph", and put it in his pocket and went on with his 
eating. 

And as I close, I am wondering how many of us now living 
here will be remembered as "Unforgettable characters." 

Cowboy Prayer at Grave 

"Oh, God if there is a God, have mercy on this man's soul, if 
he's got a soul". 

A pioneer grave found by some boys where it had washed out 
of a bank was moved 30 feet south by Eugene Poiret, E. B. 
Shaffner and Clark Bishop about 1938 has been moved from the 
south outskirts of Glenrock to the cemetery. The marker gave the 
name of E. B. Piatt of Canton. 1849. This was traced through a 
Masonic marker on the stone. 

1 :40 P.M. Departed from 125 M. 

1:50 P.M. Paused at the grave of J. P. Parker and M. Ringo 
( 128 M.). These are just north of the present highway. The two 
graves are enclosed by a fence. Placed there by Howard Jackson 
a pioneer resident of Glenrock. 

One headstone reads 

J. P. Parker 

Died 
July 1 1860 
Age 41 yrs. 

Iowa 

Arrived at the Ada Magill Grave (130% M.). Mr. Clark 
Bishop told that he had moved the remains 30 feet north when 
the highway was built in 1912. It was located on a knoll just 
north of the Oregon Trail. Now it is a few feet north of the old 
highway. He also told that Ada, a little daughter of the Magill's, 
had become ill at Deer Creek Station but the family had continued 
west with the wagon train. She became so sick at this point that 
the wagon train stopped when she died. Her parents buried her 
in a little box and walled the grave with rocks. Later a brother 
ate a poison weed and he also died along the way. 



180 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mr. W. W. Morrison read appropriate verses from Revelation 
and spoke briefly at the Ada Magill grave: 

The little services held at Ada Magill's grave ended. Lillies 
growing there upon that little grave were planted by Wanda and 
me in 1946. 

"Whether there were ever any other services held there I cannot 
say. I have not known of any. The wreaths put upon those 
lonely graves by the kind man from Douglas should be remem- 
bered. Probably those were the only flowers ever put upon the 
graves — the only flowers near the graves, save those growing wild 
on mother nature's breast — these long 90 years." 

2:30 P.M. Departed from the Ada Magill grave. 

3:00 P.M. Arrived at old Fort Casper (153 M.) in the rain. 

Verne Mokler related the following exciting story of Caspar 
Collins and other events at the old Fort Caspar. 

About fifty years ago, as a boy, I spent many hours searching 
among the ruins of the old buildings of Fort Caspar and in the 
vicinity of the fort for arrow heads, buttons from soldier uniforms 
and other relics of by-gone days. Many mementos of interest 
were picked up at that time. 

One hundred years ago, and at this time of the day, the location 
where we are now congregated was undoubtedly the scene of much 
activity, a camp of hundreds of people who had traveled far ac- 
cording to those times and had suffered many inconveniences to 
say nothing of hardships. Their covered wagons undoubtedly 
were parked for their convenience, some in the shade that was 
available and close to water. The women were, no doubt, busily 
engaged in preparing the evening meal while the men were visiting 
or working on their equipment; the horses, cattle and other live- 
stock were grazing nearby, and closely guarded. But still covered 
wagons, push carts, hand carts, and other modes of transportation 
of that day were constantly arriving from the east, after the long 
trek from Independence, Missouri, the jumping off place on the 
Oregon Trail for the California and Oregon Territory. These 
people, part of the approximate three hundred thousand that 
traveled over this trail during a period of twenty-five years, were 
enjoying a few days of rest and relaxation after weeks of travel, a 
few miles a day, from Independence, a distance of 794 miles, the 
last 1 27 from Fort Laramie, having been inconvenient, uncomfort- 
able, difficult and oftentimes hazardous. 

They were now at Camp Platte, one of the stations along their 
highway, which was one of the most hated by the hostile Indians, 
and they still had hundreds of miles to travel, which were rough, 
dusty and full of hardships much greater than any they had pre- 
viously traveled. Death was lurking at every turn of the road, 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 181 

either through sickness, fatigue, or from the hands of the maraud- 
ing Indians,; it was not a bright outlook and these emigrants were 
happy to stay a few hours or a few days before pushing on to 
distant lands. 

Camp Platte, organized in 1840 was approximately 127 miles 
west of Fort Laramie. It consisted of a few adobe houses and a 
small group of permanent residents or soldiers so provided little 
protection. It was known as Camp Platte for seven years, when 
the name was changed to Mormon Ferry. However the number 
of permanent inhabitants did not materially increase, but it did 
become a little better known as a resting and watering place. As 
the vandalism and pilfering by the Indians became more prevalent 
a larger contingent of soldiers was stationed there, providing a 
little more protection and security for the weary travelers. The 
name of Mormon Ferry was dropped in 1859, after a bridge 
spanning the Platte had been constructed by Louis Guinard, after 
the abandonment of the station by the War Department. The 
bridge was apparently not built from the bigness of his heart as 
history tells of toll charges from $1.00 to $6.00. The price was 
not based on the amount of the load as much as on the condition 
of the river — the fee going up when the river was high and down 
when the river was low. It was decided that Mormon Ferry was 
not an appropriate name as the bridge had been constructed to 
eliminate the fording of the river, so the fort became known as 
Platte Bridge station. 

The completion of the Pacific Telegraph line, erected along the 
route in the fall of 1861, added to the hostile feeling of the Indians, 
and soon after the sending of the first message on October 24th 
of that year many of the poles were chopped down and the wire 
cut and carried off. These depredations caused military stations 
to be established along the line to keep it in repair and maintain 
service. 

Platte Bridge station, after being abandoned for eight years, 
was reoccupied by troops, who were to serve as an escort for 
emigrants and to protect the telegraph line. A telegraph office 
was located near the south approach to the bridge. 

Colonel William O. Collins of Hillsboro, Ohio, received orders 
from President Lincoln, early in 1862, to proceed immediately to 
the "Indian country" to assist in the protection of the emigrants on 
their way to the west coast. He was accompanied by his eighteen 
year old son Caspar Wever Collins who, from close application to 
his studies in school, was not at that time in good physical condi- 
tion. Caspar and his father were initiated in Indian warfare soon 
after they left Fort Laramie as an estimated 500 Indians attacked 
a squad of thirty soldiers sent ahead to protect a wagon train. 
These soldiers were saved by the arrival of troops from the main 
contingent. For the next year Caspar spent most of the time at 



182 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the several stations in the vicinity of South Pass and assisted his 
father and Jim Bridger in transferring stage property from the 
route to a new southern one, necessitated by the hostilities of the 
Indians near the South Pass country. His first year in the area 
was one that not many people of his age, even at that time, had a 
chance to experience. He learned much of the ways of the trail 
and of the habits of the Indian. 

In the spring of 1863 Colonel Collins returned east to recruit 
more men for service in the Indian Country. He was accompanied 
by Caspar, who had enlisted on June 30th, and was commissioned 
a second lieutenant because of his year's experience in the West. 
He immediately returned to duty in the area where he had spent 
the past year and assumed the duties and responsibilities of his 
office. According to all reports, he was a good and loyal soldier. 

In the fall of 1 864 he was stationed at Sweetwater station, a mile 
east of Independence Rock, where he was in charge of four block 
stations, about forty miles apart and extending as far west as South 
Pass. Conditions steadily worsened and during the early months 
of 1865 the Northern Cheyenne, the Ogallala Sioux, the Southern 
Cheyenne and other wandering tribes held a council of war at 
the foot of the Big Horn Mountains. From that day on they were 
constantly on the warpath, committing daily depredations and no 
line of travel was safe for the whites. 

Possibly due to the foresightedness of Colonel William O. 
Collins, and upon his recommendations, Platte Bridge Station was 
early in 1865 changed from an 'occassional' troop station to a 
permanent fort, consisting of stores, blacksmith shop, telegraph 
station, and other buildings sufficient to garrison 100 men. The 
adobe buildings that had been in use for years were assigned to 
the soldiers on duty at the fort. 

Because of duties well performed Caspar Collins was promoted 
to first lieutenant, and in the middle of July went to Fort Laramie 
to receive his commission and get more horses for his men. On 
the way he and the two soldiers with him approached one of the 
army stations (Rocky Ridge) to see all the buildings on fire and 
to learn that the place had been attacked by 150 Indians. Re- 
membering these incidents Caspar did not deem it advisable to 
return to his station unaccompanied so lingered at the fort a couple 
of days, since he had been given permission to do so by Captain 
Bretney. Hearing that Collins was still at the fort, the command- 
ing officer, General Connor, ordered him to report at once to his 
command at Sweetwater station, about 179 miles distant. When 
the men at Fort Laramie heard of the order they induced Collins 
to remain in their quarters until July 20th, when a Corporal Paul 
Grim and twelve of the Eleventh Kansas Cavalry were leaving for 
Platte Bridge station with the mail ambulance. Lieutenant Collins 
and this detachment arrived at Platte Bridge late in the afternoon 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 183 

of July 25th. Excitement was running high because of the vast 
number of Indians gathered around the station, and because of a 
fight that had occurred that day in which Chief High-Backed Wolf 
had been killed. Late in the afternoon the Indians had withdrawn 
from the south side of the river and all fighting had ceased. 
Everything at the post that evening was quiet and there were no 
taunts or shouts from the Indians, and had it not been for the 
signal fires on the hills north and west of the river the occupants 
of the fort might have been led to believe the Indians had left 
the vicinity. 

As the supply of ammunition at the post was low many of the 
men were put to work "running bullets" and loading cartridges. 
Some of the soldiers were armed with breech loading carbines, 
some with repeating rifles, and some with Springfield muskets. A 
strong guard was placed about the fort and every precaution 
taken against a surprise night attack. About two o'clock in the 
morning of the 26th, Captain Henry C. Bretney of Company G. 
1 1 th Ohio Cavalry, with ten men arrived at the fort, having 
come from Sweetwater station enroute to Fort Laramie. They 
reported they had seen numerous Indians enroute to Platte Bridge 
and had heard their warcries, which they knew meant trouble. 

On his arrival at Platte Bridge, Captain Bretney reported to the 
commanding officer, Major Anderson, and told him that a rescue 
party should be sent immediately to Willow Spring creek to bring 
in a wagon train that was returning from an assignment to Sweet- 
water station. He reported that he and his party had seen hun- 
dreds of Indians on their way into the fort. However, Major 
Anderson must have felt that Captain Bretney was unduly alarmed 
as he did not send out the rescue party. 

At dawn the Indians were seen on the nearby hilltops in vastly 
increased numbers. Warriors smeared with war paint and in 
their grotesque regalia, rode around the fort shouting and making 
numerous demonstrations. Skirmishing began with the usual 
exchange of shots and the situation began to look very serious. 

Major Anderson called his officers together and detailed twenty 
men from Companies K and I, under Sergeant Hankammer, in- 
cluding the mail party under Corporal Grim, to go to the relief 
of Sergeant Custard and his twenty-three men comprising the 
wagon train which had been reported by Captain Bretney. Ser- 
geant Hankammer and the five line officers stationed at the post 
were "all on sick call or had other flimsy excuses" so were not 
available for duty. At seven o'clock Major Anderson sent for 
Lieutenant Caspar Collins and ordered him to proceed with 
twenty men from the Eleventh Kansas cavalry to the relief of 
the, wagon train on Willow Spring creek. Although only casually 
stopping at Platte Bridge on the way to his command at Sweet- 
water station, Lieutenant Collins was in no way bound to accept 
the order, but he made ready to go at once. 



184 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

He went to his fellow officer and close comrade, Captain Bret- 
ney, and asked to borrow his pistols. The captain attempted to 
dissuade him from going. He explained that he had told Ma : or 
Anderson early in the morning of the seriousness of the situation 
with the wagon train; that he knew there was an unusually large 
number of Indians in the locality; that there were several officers 
in the fort who could be assigned to that duty, and besides; that 
it meant almost certain death to endeavor to do anything at that 
time. John Friend, telegraph operator at Sweetwater station and 
a good friend of Caspar, said, "It is not your place to go, you 
don't know these men and it is up to their officers to go." Collins 
answered his friends, "I know what it means to go out there with 
such a small number of men, but I've never disobeyed an order. 
I am a soldier's son, and I must go out and try and rescue those 
men". 

Captain Bretney then went to Major Anderson, protesting the 
order sending Lieutenant Collins on the mission. He argued that 
it was a hazardous undertaking with such a small number of men; 
that Collins was under orders to return to his assignment at 
Sweetwater station; that a captain and three lieutenants of the 
Kansas Cavalry who knew the men were at the post; and that if 
anyone was to be sent it should be one of them. While this 
argument was going on Collins borrowed a horse from the regi- 
mental band leader and was ready to leave on the mission. 

Dressed in his new uniform, a revolver in the top of each boot, 
Collins led his men (after a last farewell to Captain Bretney and 
John Friend) across the bridge and towards the bluffs and hills 
north of the river. Immediately after Collins and his men had 
crossed the bridge, Captain Bretney and Captain Lybe with thirty 
men followed on foot to give protection to Collins and his men 
from any attack from the rear or right flank. 

When Collins and his men reached the foot of the bluffs the 
Indians began to swarm on them from the hills and from all sides. 
It is estimated that from one or two thousand or more Indians were 
in the vicinity, and had it not been for the protection given by 
the thirty men and two captains, undoubtedly Caspar Collins and 
his twenty men would have all been killed. Collins saw that some 
of his men had been killed and several wounded. He had suffered 
a severe wound himself, having been shot in the hip. Realizing 
that it would be impossible to go further without losing all his men 
he gave the command to return to the bridge. One man, not 
understanding the order dismounted and was fighting from a 
washout in the road when one of his companions yelled for him 
to run for the bridge. However, he was surrounded by Indians 
and that was the last seen of him. Another soldier, George Camp, 
was killed as he was crawling on his hands and knees towards the 
bridge. 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 185 

Although severely wounded Collins fought desperately to keep 
the savages back so his men, yet living, could make their escape 
to the bridge. When he reached the bottom land and had a 
fairly clear passage to the bridge a cry was heard from Adam Culp, 
a wounded soldier, lying on the ground, "Don't leave me — For 
God's sake don't leave me here". Although badly wounded, 
Collins whirled his horse and rode to the spot where Culp was 
lying, thus risking the possibility of saving his own life. Lifting 
the wounded man, Collins put him on his horse in front of him 
and undoubtedly would have rescued him had the horse not sud- 
denly become unmanageable and stampeded. The wounded sol- 
dier was thrown to the ground and Collins on the wild, unman- 
ageable horse was carried into the midst of the Indians on the 
northern hills. With both revolvers drawn and the bridle reins 
in his deeth he fought until he was surrounded and overpowered 
by the savages. He was carried out of sight of his companions 
and was seen no more until his mutilated body was found two days 
later. 

The troopers returning to the bridge were protected by the fire 
of the dismounted men under the command of Captains Bretney 
and Lybe, who themselves had to run at topmost speed to the 
bridge to keep from being surrounded by the Indians. Later 
several of the mounted soldiers attempted to follow the route of 
Collins on his runaway horse but there were still hundreds of 
Indians bent on destruction and they were forced to return to 
the fort. 

This was the end of what is now termed the "Battle of Platte 
Bridge" which commenced shortly after 7:30 in the morning and 
ended in less than an hour. 

The men who fell along the roadside were hacked with toma- 
hawks, their clothing stripped from them and their bodies mu- 
tilated. The remains of Collins were found nearly two miles north 
of the bridge. It was stripped of his uniform, a piece of telegraph 
wire twisted around the body, which had been dragged through the 
cactus and sagebrush for several hundred yards apparently before 
his death. One foot and one hand was hacked off; his heart cut 
out; powder had been placed in his mouth and exploded; his body 
badly mutilated; and more than two dozen arrows were still 
sticking in the body. 

Three of the soldiers who fell in this fight were buried on the 
field of battle but the body of Collins was brought to the fort and 
interred in the soldiers' cemetery, where it remained until March 
19, 1866, when it was taken to Fort Laramie. On June 14th the 
body was exhumed and escorted by the members of his company 
to Fort Leavenworth and from there to his boyhood home at 
Hillsboro, Ohio, where in the afternoon of July 24th, the remains 
were laid to final rest in the family burial plot. A monument 
was placed at the grave bearing the inscription: "Lt. Caspar 



186 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Wever Collins, Born Hillsboro, Ohio, September 30, 1844. Killed 
in battle leading a forlorn hope against Indians at Platte Bridge, 
July 26, 1865." 

In the handwriting of his father in the family Bible was written 
"Pure, brave, hospitable, generous, true." 

On November 21, 1865, Major General Pope issued Order 
No. 49 as follows: "The Military Post situated at Platte Bridge, 
between Deer and Rock Creeks, on the Platte River, will hereafter 
be known as Fort Casper, in honor of Lt. Caspar Collins, 11th 
Ohio Cavalry, who lost his life while gallantly attacking a superior 
force of Indians at that place." (The original order on file in the 
National archives in Washington, D. C. Caspar Collins' name was 
spelled "Casper" and the name of the fort the same. All orders 
signed at this old fort and contracts of the QM on file in the 
National Archives use the spelling "CASPER" — L. C. Bishop). 

However Fort Caspar did not exist for long for under date of 
October 19, 1867, the War Department issued orders abandoning 
the fort, and soon thereafter a majority of the buildings and the 
bridge were almost completely destroyed by the Indians. 

It is only fitting that the name of the fort was changed to honor 
the young man not twenty-one years of age, who gave his life and 
possibly saved the lives of more than one hundred soldiers sta- 
tioned at the fort. He was also the one who had drawn the sketch 
and floor plans for the fort as it was to be ( and as the replica now 
stands, with the exception of the stockade ) . 

In addition to the changing of the name of the fort in honor of 
Caspar Collins, Casper was named in his memory, Casper Moun- 
tain was changed from the former name of Black Hills, Dry Creek 
became Casper Creek and several fraternal organizations honor 
his name. The gold and silver communion set used in St. Mark's 
Episcopal church is a present from the sister of Caspar Collins, 
it being provided in her will that $100.00 should be used to pur- 
chase a permanent memorial for her brother. On Easter in 1919, 
this set was used for the first time in the church. 

Edness Kimball Wilkins read the following very interesting 
paper on The Restoration of Old Fort Caspar. 

You have heard Verne Mokler's stirring story of the death of 
Lt. Caspar Collins, and of the final burning of the fort that was 
named in his memory. I will take up the tale from there. 

As the Frontier recedes further and further into the past, the 
interest of our people in preserving the history of the pioneers and 
their trials and tragedies increases. 

From the very beginning of Casper the early settlers understood 
the great sacrifices that had been made in winning the West, and 
they revered and treasured the memories of the heroic men and 
women who had given their lives in the supreme effort. The 
Indian days were still very close to this new little town, and the 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 187 

citizens had a feeling of gratitude and of the kinship with the 
earlier pioneers and soldiers who had suffered and fought and 
died on the trails. For you see, it was only twenty years from the 
burning of the Fort to the founding of the town of Casper. 

Each "Decoration Day" as it was called in early Casper, some 
of you who are here today, or your parents and mine, went out 
to the ruins of the old Fort Casper and placed wild flowers on 
the graves of the soldiers who were buried there. When the river 
washed out its south bank and exposed more bodies, they were 
taken to Highland Cemetery in 1899, and the pioneers also decor- 
ated those graves. 

Almost forty years later (1938) when the road that you see to 
the east of us — the Mills Road — was under construction, another 
group of bodies was uncovered. Bob David saw some of those 
pitiful remains. One of the victims had 50 steel-pointed arrow- 
heads still embedded in his jawbone and several others deep in his 
backbone. All of the sad little group had been riddled by arrows. 

Frances Seeley Webb also saw some of the skeletons. She said 
two were men over six feet tall, with red hair. The last body 
found was a woman. A locket containing a blond curl was found 
near her skull, and a small braid of auburn hair still clung to 
her head. The locket can be seen in one of the display cases in 
Fort Casper. 

Mrs. Mary Astin, who turned the shovel of ground when recon- 
struction of the Fort was first started, also saw the skeletons. She 
said there were indications that they were military personnel, as 
there were uniform buttons and other such items scattered near 
them. 

No record of the victims could be found, but the search for 
information still goes on. Mr. Clark Bishop is even now searching 
the old military records and rosters, trying to identify them. They 
may have been emigrants massacred on the Oregon Trail, or lone 
trappers killed from time to time; or civilians at the very old 
Platte Bridge post; or the woman may have been the wife of a 
soldier. 

A fence was built around the burial mound in an attempt to 
protect the graves, and work has recently been started on a monu- 
ment to perpetuate the memory of the victims who met such a 
tragic death on the plains. Many other bodies are doubtless still 
resting under our feet as we walk over and near this hallowed 
ground. 

Soon after the War Department abandoned the bridge and the 
Fort in 1867, the Indians set fire to them; but some of the walls 
and buildings were still standing in 1898. Some of the buildings 
had been repaired from time to time by people seeking temporary 
shelter; others had been gradually torn down, as logs or materials 
were needed by ranchers or other settlers. Men still living in 
Casper can remember as boys playing in the old buildings. Sena- 



188 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tor Bob Carey, a cousin of our own Bob David, remembered 
staying in the old buildings with his parents when he was four 
years old, while the CY ranch buildings were under construction. 
(Those are the buildings you can see under the trees in the 
distance. ) Bob Carey, himself, was so interested in the restoration 
of the Fort that he donated a strip of land 80 feet wide, bordering 
the CY ranch, for a direct road to the Fort. (That is now 13th 
Street, over which you have just driven on your way here. ) 

I have been informed confidentially that the sleeping quarters 
that were built for use of the superintendent of the ranch when 
he came to the CY from the SO ranch were built from the logs 
from the old original Fort, and I understand that this building still 
stands and is the west end of the present bunkhouse at the CY, 
now called the HY ranch. Someday perhaps, they will be returned 
and again made a part of the old Fort. 

The land on which Fort Casper stood was filed on for a home- 
stead by "Uncle Matt" and "Aunt Fannie" Campfield, two of 
Casper's most respected and best beloved pioneer citizens, and 
our first Negro residents. Uncle Matt came to Casper in 1888 
and was elected and reelected the first coroner of Natrona County. 
He had his barbershop in rooms he rented from my father, next 
to the little Kimball Drug Store which was then located on Center 
Street where the Arcade Bar now stands. Uncle Matt and Aunt 
Fannie brought the first domestic chickens to this part of the 
country. 

Uncle Matt died before patent for the homestead was issued, 
so the patent was issued to Aunt Fannie who later sold the land 
to Antonio K. Feil before she returned to her home in the east. 
Uncle Matt is buried in Highland Cemetery, near my father and 
Charley Bucknum and his other early day friends. 

From the beginning of the century, when the Natrona County 
Pioneer Association was started in 1901, there had been talk of 
making Fort Casper into a memorial park. In 1914 the Chamber 
of Commerce had a committee working on it, but the usual 
obstacle was encountered — lack of funds. 

Then during the first oil boom the west 40 acres of Fort Casper 
were plotted into city lots, and again a desperate effort was under- 
way to save the rest of the ground for a memorial park, and 
finally, in 1922, the city council bought this hundred acres. 
Throughout those years and many that followed, I think my father 
(W. S. Kimball) and Verne Mokler's father (A. J. Mokler) served 
almost continually on various committees in connection with Fort 
Casper. 

In 1925 a committee from the Natrona County Historical So- 
ciety (W. S. Kimball, A. J. Mokler, Tom Cooper and Bob Ellison) 
prevailed on Tom Mills to deed to the Society that strip of land 
100 feet wide that you can see leading from the Oregon Trail 
monument to the river, and taking in the abutments to the old 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 189 

Platte River Station bridge (the old Guinard bridge.) At that 
time, twenty-nine years ago, many of the original logs and rocks 
and big iron spikes and pinnings were uncovered. (You under- 
stand, of course, that the river has changed its course through 
the years. It used to be right near where the monument now 
stands.) 

Plans for restoration of the old Fort and the bridge, and con- 
struction of a circle drive were finally underway — but, alas, it 
was then the fateful year 1929 — and the terrible depression was 
on. But in spite of the depression a meeting was held in January, 
1930, and the Fort Casper Association was formed by men and 
women undaunted by the black economic clouds of those years. 

1935 arrived, and the days of the W.P.A., and funds were 
found available for reconstruction of Fort Casper if the citizens 
raised an equivalent amount. Engineers, architects and historians 
and businessmen donated their services, together with the W. P. A. 
and the C. C. C. 

On December 18, 1935, a flag was raised, the High School 
band played the Star Spangled Banner, there were speeches by 
senators and other prominent citizens, and the first shovelful of 
dirt was turned. (My stepmother, Martha Converse Kimball, 
who had worked so earnestly and inspired so many others, was 
too ill to attend the ceremony; Mrs. Mary Astin turned the 
shovelful of dirt for her. ) One year later the work on the build- 
ings was finished, and Fort Casper was restored. Each building 
you now see stands on its original site, restored from sketches 
that had been drawn by Lt. Casper Collins himself, and each 
stands on the very foundations where the original building was. 
The fireplaces were constructed from the old foundation stones 
excavated from the ruins of old Fort Casper. Girl guides, dressed 
in beautiful buckskin dresses, guided visitors through the buildings, 
and related the story of Fort Casper. (Mrs. Astin tells me she 
has the dresses stored in her home.) 

But then the picture changed — time passed. In the twenty 
years since the work was started most of the members of the 
original committees had died, and the Fort was gradually for- 
gotten by the changing city administrations. No funds were voted 
for its upkeep; questions arose as to ownership and jurisdiction — 
whether the State, the County or the city had responsibility — or 
perhaps the Natrona County Historical Society or the Pioneers. 
Criticism was heard on every side concerning the condition of this 
wonderful monument. It was deteriorating fast, hastened by 
vandals and thieves. Parts of the land that had been dedicated 
for use only as a park, became part of the county fairgrounds. 
Other parts were leased to the Round-Up Club, for private use. 
Some was used by the city for its water pumping station. The 
Isaac Walton League has a fence across the land that was to be 
used for restoration of the old bridge. 



190 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Last winter the Commission was reactivated and new members 
appointed by the Mayor and Council. But it was the same famil- 
iar story — the City lacked the necessary funds to repair and 
protect this investment of over $100,000 in cash, and of untold 
suffering and loss of life back through the Indian Wars. 

Now I am sure you have all seen the thrilling movies where the 
wagon train was attacked by Indians, and the Cavalry dashed to 
the rescue. Well, just like the Cavalry of old, the Sertoma Club 
of Casper has come to the rescue of the old Fort. That organiza- 
tion is donating and building the fence to protect the buildings 
against future vandals. This week a flagpole was placed right 
where one stood a century ago, located by that sketch drawn by 
Lt. Casper Collins himself. Ultimately, lights will help guard 
this precious heritage. Someday, perhaps, part of the old bridge 
will even be restored. 

The Sertoma Club, the Pioneers, all of you who are here this 
evening, and other citizens of Casper will, I believe, treasure in 
your hearts the stories you have heard tonight, and you will under- 
stand the full meaning of the message that is engraved on bronze 
tablets on that beautiful stone gate you came through, that was 
given to Fort Casper by the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. On those bronze plates it is written. 

"Love the land with love far brought 
from out the storied past.' 1 

(The gates mentioned above are now some distance from the 
Fort entrance, because of the piece of land that was given to the 
County for use as part of the Fair Grounds.) 

Thus ended another Trek. Although the weather was bad, the 
spirits of the trekkers were not dampened as they all looked 
forward to Trek No. 4. 

Following is an interesting summary of Trek No. 3 by Hazel 
Noble Boyack. 

The morning sun rode high in a bright blue orbit as we neared 
Douglas, Wyoming, the starting point for the day's trek on the 
Trail. Douglas — that enterprising and alert little city which 
proudly bears the name of the once famed Stephen A. Douglas, 
the "little giant" of the political and oratorical arena of American 
History in the eighteen fifties. 

The party of trekkers were to assemble at the Hotel LaBonte 
prior to the day's journey. It was an ideal starting point, the very 
name being tinged with the flavor of the early west, and one re- 
called to mind the rugged frontiersman, LaBonte, who came to the 
West about 1825 from his home state of Mississippi. 

At 9:00 A. M. Colonel William R. Bradley of the Wyoming 
Highway Patrol led the caravan through the streets of Douglas 
onto the highway where we headed West for a few miles, then 



OREGON TRAIL TREK NO. THREE 191 

turned to the South where the Old Trail had crossed the present 
Natural Bridge Park Road. Here a pause was made, and Mr. 
Clement Ayres, a long-time resident of that area, told of historic 
events incident to the early West. "The high tide of the emigra- 
tion" said Mr. Ayres, "was between 1849 and 1851, when more 
than 150,000 men, women and children passed through the section 
just south of Douglas, bringing with them more than 100,000 head 
of cattle. Johnston's Army to Utah, in 1857, also passed that 
way." 

The caravan slowly got into action again, and in a few moments 
we arrived at a delightful spot, Ayres Natural Bridge Park. Here 
the group was graciously received by the custodians of the grounds, 
Frank and Sula Splitek. 

The discovery of this remarkable Natural Bridge dates back to 
August 17, 1870, when Dr. F. V. Hayden, of the United States 
Geological Survey, in company with William H. Jackson, famous 
picture maker of the old West, first visited the spot. Mr. Jackson 
photographed the first likeness of the bridge. The LaPrele creek, 
a clear, sparkling stream, flows gently under the giant arch of the 
bridge. The name LaPrele is of French origin, and means "Horse 
tail" or "Shave tail", designating the type of grass that grows 
along the banks. The bridge's massive arch is a tribute to nature's 
masterful way of building, and supports several hundred tons of 
sandstone. 

We left, with reluctance, this shaded dell and park with its fire- 
places, green lawns and cool cottonwoods, but other points of 
interest beckoned and soon we found ourselves where the main 
Trail crosses the LaPrele and Box Elder divide. 

It was along the Little Box Elder Creek where one of the sad- 
dest tragedies of the Old Oregon Trail occurred. The story was 
ably told by Mr. W. W. Morrison, of our party. 

The graves of the four men killed here by the Indians had 
recently been moved to a new location near the spot where the 
trekkers gathered. The party stood in thoughtful silence as the 
Chaplain of the day, Colonel Archie R. Boyack, offered a beautiful 
prayer. The spot indeed seemed a sacred one, dedicated to those 
valiant people of yesterday who had given their all that these 
western regions might be colonized. 

After taps had been sounded by the trumpeter, the Caravan 
moved forward to where the Trail crossed the Box Elder, just 
below the Bixby ranch. At this point there once stood a Pony 
Express and Stage Station. 

One of the delightful parts of any Trek is the lunch hour. The 
cool morning air and gentle breezes had whetted our appetites, and 
soon delicious repasts were being taken out of dust-proof con- 
tainers and being enjoyed by all. (Notes from the bits of con- 
versation heard during lunch period — "Why haven't we seen the 
famed Jackalope??? This area is its natural habitat.") 



192 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

After lunch the party eagerly took to the highways and byways 
of our afternoon journey along the Trail. A pause was made 
just north of an old Oregon Trail marker where the Trail crosses 
the present highway. Here the grave of A. H. Unthank (1849) 
was pointed out to us. This gentleman had etched his name on 
the Register Cliffs just a few days previous. The name is clearly 
discernible on the cliffs today. Arriving at Deer Creek, the party 
noted the site of another Pony Express, Stage and Telegraph Sta- 
tion. These early outposts in the western wilderness during the 
early 1 860's expressed a spirit of daring and adventure that will 
not come again. Here Mr. Brubaker gave a fine discussion of 
historical events incident to the region and the early West. 

Just north of the present highway are the graves of two other 
pioneers, J. P. Parker (1860) and M. Ringo (no date). Ruts of 
the Trail cut deep into the prairie sod are still evident. Here the 
Chaplain offered a prayer and taps were sounded by the Trum- 
peter. 

The little Ada McGill grave! Usually the Trek West was a 
pleasant and happy one for the children. Too young to realize 
the hazards of the trip, they journeyed along happy in the adven- 
tures the day brought. But death also took its toll from among 
this group. In the solitary spots that mark their resting places, 
the stars keep vigil at night, and over the graves the prairie winds 
murmer and sigh. This grave is one hundred thirty and a half 
miles from the starting point of the Old Trail in Wyoming. The 
Chaplain offered a brief prayer, and taps were sounded. 

With eagerness our caravan of trekkers approached old Fort 
Casper, a place of stirring memories in early Western History. 
Edness Kimball Wilkins gave an excellent discussion of the history 
of the Fort. The Fort derived its name from a gallant young 
Officer, Lieutenant Casper Collins, who, on July 26, 1865, lost 
his life while battling a vastly superior force of Indians. "Your 
noble and gallant son", wrote General Dodge to the young officer's 
father, Colonel William O. Collins, ". . . furnishes by his brave 
conduct a bright example for heroism to the country and to my 
command." 

Mr. Verne Mokler gave a fine paper on the battle of Red Buttes 
and related history. This desperate fight had to do with the 
wagon train under the command of Sergeant Amos J. Custard, 
enroute to Platte Bridge from the Sweetwater Station near Inde- 
pendence Rock. Out of the twenty-one men in the train, only 
three escaped with their lives. The blood of many fine American 
youths was spilled during these years when the Indians and the 
White Men battled for supremacy of these vast western regions. 

Thus ended on May 30, 1954 at the site of Old Fort Casper, 
the delightful and historic Trek Number Three Along The Old 
Oregon Trail. 



Washakie and Zhe Shoshoni 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the Utah 
Superintendency of Indian Affairs 

Edited by 

Dale L. Morgan 

PART VII— 1862-1863 

LXXV 

David Moore, et al., to James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian 
Affairs, dated Ogden, Nov. 23, 1862. 16S 

Sir 

We understand through Indian Tom that a company of Cavalry 
from Col. Connor's Command are in search of a white child, 
said to be in Bear Hunters band, 

(Who are freindly indians and never known to be engaged in 
plundering Emigrants) From Indian Tom's positive information 
and other reliable statements their is no white child in that band, 
but their is a half breed the son of a French Mountaineer — by the 
sister of the cheif WashaKee principal cheif of the Sho-sho-Nee 
Nation, Said child is about 15 years old with yellow hair and light 
complection cannot talk English, on the approach of the Soldiers 
the Band fled to the Mountains to avoid colission with them, and 
sent this Indian as a Messenger of peace 

David Moore Col. Com d « 

5 th Regt Weber Co. Mil. 
F. A. Hammond Major 
George Hill Indian interpreter 
pf Danl. Gamble elk. 

LXXVI 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, Nov. 26, 1862. 169 

Sir: — The Shoshonee Tribe have been engaged with the Ban- 
ucks during the past summer in committing depredations upon 



168. Utah Field Papers, 1862. 

169. D/723-1862. 



194 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Emigrant Trains, and the inhabitants of this Territory. On the 
termination of their attacks upon the Trains, the Chiefs with a 
majority of the Tribe proceeded immediately up Shoshonee 
[Snake] river to the Buffalo hunting grounds on the tributaries 
of Missouri river and the Eastern slope of the Mountains. There 
they will remain until spring, from three to six hundred miles dis- 
tant from this place. 

Whether they can be induced to meet the Commissioners in 
Council and enter into a Treaty, after what has transpired, remains 
doubtful. I think they cannot be assembled until Spring, about 
the first of May. A point on Shoshonee river should be selected 
for that purpose, about two hundred miles north of this City, 
where they may be met on their return from their Buffalo hunt. 
The point which I would select, is on the Northern California 
road, near its junction with the Oregon road and the road to the 
northern Gold Mines, where there is a plenty of fish in the streams 
and game in the mountains for their support. It is the field of 
their massacres for years past. 

The Shoshonees and Banucks are now mixed; they live and hunt 
together, ranging through Nevada, Utah & Washington Terri- 
tories, into the Western parts of Nebraska and Dakotah Terri- 
tories. The Shoshonees are also much mixed with the Utahs; 
and it is not probable that a Council can be held with the Sho- 
shonees without many Banucks and Utahs being present. 

It will, I think, be hazardous to the lives and property of the 
white men in Nevada and Utah who are surrounded by the Utahs, 
and to the peace of the country, for the Commissioners to treat 
with the Shoshonees, and not in the same season to treat with the 
Utahs and Banucks. They at once say, that the Shoshonees re- 
ceive presents for killing the white men; and conclude that they 
will be rewarded in like manner if they do the same. The Utahs 
have several times this season threatened to rob the Mail Stations 
and Trains on the road west of this City, saying, that until they 
do so they will not receive from the Whites what they demand in 
provisions and clothing. For this reason I have deemed it 
imprudent to attempt to treat with the Shoshonees this fall or 
winter; hoping that Congress will early this winter make an 
appropriation for a Treaty with the Utahs in this Territory and 
Nevada, and for another with the Banucks in Oregon, Nevada, 
Utah & Washington. This appropriation I would earnestly recom- 
mend. I understand from the Commissioners Letter of instruc- 
tions that the appropriation made at the last session of Congress 
only authorizes a Treaty with the Shoshonees, and therefore it is 
presumed no other Tribe can receive any portion of it. 

If, according to our instructions, cessions of territory so as to 
include the white settlements — and thus relieve the settlers from 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 195 

the tribute constantly demanded of them by individuals of these 
Tribes, are not to be made in the Treaty, provision I think ought 
to be made by which the discoverers of gold, silver and other 
minerals are permitted to explore and occupy any portion of the 
country for mining purposes. At this moment valuable discoveries 
of gold & silver are being made in this Territory, as well as in 
Nevada and the Eastern part of Washington, in the country 
claimed by these Tribes, but now in the actual possession of several 
thousand miners. 

The goods required for presents, to be made to the Shoshonees 
when treating with them if purchased at San Francisco, cannot be 
forwarded from San Pedro before the 25th December. They will 
probably arrive here soon after the first of February. Messengers 
ought to be despatched then to the principal Shoshonee Chiefs, 
inviting them to the Council. The Commissioner will perceive 
the impossibility of assembling them and holding the Treaty earlier 
than the month of May next. They will not leave their hunting 
grounds until about the first of April. . . . 

LXXVII 

Joseph A. Gebow, Indian Interpreter, to James Duane 
Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, dated Ogden, Dec. 18, 1862. 170 

To 

Ex Governor Doty, 

Superintendent of Indian Affairs 

Dear Sir, — 

To your request, if the weather is favourable I shall meet at 
the time appointed. I have met Mr. [David] Moore in Ogden 
with two Copies one of Demic and Jebows Dialect, 171 our mind was 
quite congenial concerning the interpretation of words that pertains 
to the Indian language hoping that your health will keep with 
maturity & a long life upon this Earth, and you shall live fourfold, 
and have a happy time in this and next world — Your true & 
faithful friend . . . 



170. Ibid. 

171. Gebow's language is somewhat obscure, but apparently he has 
reference to Dimick B. Huntington's Vocabulary of the Utah and Sho- 
Sho-Ne or Snake Dialects, first printed at Salt Lake City in 1854, and his 
own A Vocabulary of the Snake or Shoshone Dialect, first printed at Great 
Salk Lake City in 1859, reprinted in 1864, and in 1868 reprinted at Green 
River as one of the earliest Wyoming imprints. A note on the third 
edition of Gebow's work is printed in Annals of Wyoming, April, 1939, 
vol. XI, p. 113. 



196 ANNALS OF WYOMING 



LXXVIII 



Luther Mann, Jr., to James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian 
Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, Dec. 21, 1862. 17 ~ 

Sir I Send you by Coach to day two Mountain Sheep Skins 
presented to you by Jack Robertson You will please accept them 
as a token of Old Jacks regard for you and greatly oblige .... 

LXXIX 

Luther Mann, Jr., to James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian 
Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, Jan. 10, 1863. 173 

Sir 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of drafts for Salaries of Jack 
Robertson and myself I would like to get Gebo s Vocabulary of 
the Snake language if you will procure a copy and forward to this 
place with Bill I will forward the amount Having but very little 
to do I have concluded to study the language .... 

LXXX 

Luther Mann, Jr., Indian Agent, to Schuyler Colfax, dated 
Fort Bridger, Jan. 19, 1863. 174 

Sir 

My Interpreter Jack Robertson had stolen from him last July by 
the ShoShonee or Snake Indians five Mules and One hundred and 
Sixty Horses two Emigrants on their way from California to the 
States while Encamped on Bear River had some forty head of 
Horses stolen by the Same Indians Francis Boisvert a Citazen of 
this country had some Forty Eight head taken by the Same Indians 
about the first of Jany 1 863 What course can they pursue if any 
to recover the pay from the Government Robertson was in the 
Employ of the Go 1 at the time the two Emigrants wer traveling 
from California to the States the Other was a private Citazen 
living in the Country You will confer a favour by making Enquiry 
of the Com of Indian Affairs what course if any the Parties can 
take to be remunerated partially for their losses Your Early 
attention is desired. All well .... 



172. Utah Field Papers, 1862. 

173. Utah Field Papers, 1863. 

174. C/57-1863. Schuyler Colfax* then a member of Congress from 
Indiana, later this year became Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
He was Vice President during Grant's first term. The letter sounds as 
though Mann might have owed his appointment as Indian Agent to 
Colfax's influence. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 197 

How did the Boys behave themselves at the Election last fall 
if any of them Played fals please inform me who they are 

LXXXI 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, Jan. 28, 1863. 175 

Sir: 

I have received your two Letters dated December 23 d , 1862, 
with circulars, regarding degrees of relationship among different 
Nations — 

I have given the Circulars to the Interpreters of the Utah & 
Shoshonee Nations, an requested them to reply to the questions 
as they are able, or can obtain information. 

Allow me to suggest, that if an intelligent clerk was employed 
for this purpose, one who has resided long enough in this Country 
to form an acquaintance with these Tribes — the information ob- 
tained, I have no doubt, would prove to be more reliable and 
much more satisfactory. The Interpreters in this Country are 
not educated men. . . . 

LXXXII 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, Feb. 16, 1863. 17 " 

Sir: — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your Letter of Jan- 
uary 15th, approving the nomination of Joseph A. Gebow as 
Shoshonee Interpreter. He is now on a visit to some of that 
nation, who, I have learned, are disposed to be friendly to the 
whites; and if this is so, to see that they are separated from those 
who are hostile who I expect will soon be attacked or pursued 
by the soldiers. The Indians state that there were 255 men, 
women and children killed in the late engagement on Bear river. 177 
Their camp was well filled with provisions, bacon, sugar, coffee &c. 
and with various other articles, all of which had obviously been 
taken from the Trains which they had robbed during the past 
season. I enclose the Colonels account of the affair. The killed 



175. D/39-1863. 

176. D/61-1863. 

177. Connor on Jan. 30, 1863, attacked the mixed bands of Bannocks 
and Shoshoni then living in Cache Valley. The "Battle of Bear River" 
drastically solved the Indian problem in this area, and led to the early 
colonization by the Mormons of this part of Idaho. 



198 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

were chiefly of the Bands of Bear Hunter and Sagowits, including 
those chiefs. 

When Mr. Gebow returns, I shall make the arrangement with 
him as to salary as directed, or discharge him. I had not intended 
to retain him more than one quarter, having heard of an excellent 
Interpreter, formerly in the employ of the Hudsons Bay Co., now 
residing at Deer Lodge, 450 miles north of this City, to whom I 
have written and offered the Situation. I hope at least to obtain 
his services when the Treaty is held with the Shoshonees in the 
Spring. The main body of the Shoshonees and Bannacks are now 
in his vicinity* * * * 

[Enclosed, as a clipping from an unidentified paper, is a dispatch 
from Col. P. Edward Connor, Franklin, Utah, Jan. 31, 1863, 
with a brief account of the battle on Bear River the day before; 
also a second dispatch dated Salt Lake City, February 1 ] 

LXXXIII 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, March 30, 1863. 17S 

Sir: — I hasten to acknowledge the receipt today of your Letter 
dated Febry. 21st. 1863, informing that Special Agent Hy. Martin 
has been directed to turn over the property & funds in his hands 
to Supts, Wentworth or Hansen &c. — Mr. Martin sent to me at 
this City from San Francisco last month, a few articles of Sta- 
tionary, and $500. in Treasury notes, for which I gave him a 
receipt by the gentleman who brought them. I had previously 
requested Mr. M. to send me this sum, to enable me to send 
Runners to the Shoshonees, inviting them to meet the Commrs. 
early this spring, according to the arrangement made with him 
last fall. 

But, learning that he had returned to Washington at the time 
I was about to dispatch the Runners, I have delayed them until 
I can receive further instructions. The Commissioner will readily 
perceive that I cannot with propriety make any proposition to 
these Indians to treat, unless the funds are here, or under my 
control, and the persons appointed to treat, are also in this country. 
Mr. Mann and myself are at all times ready; but when a third 
Commissioner will arrive — or whether he will come at all — cannot 
be calculated. I have therefore deemed it prudent not to com- 
municate with the Indians on this subject of a Treaty. 

When they return from their Buffalo Hunt in April and May 
would, as I have heretofore suggested, undoubtedly have been 
the best time to assemble them. The scattering Bands who have 



178. D/95-1863. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 199 

not been to the Hunt, and who have lived chiefly upon the plunder 
taken from Emigrants & travellers last season, are now being 
pursued by a few of the U. S. Troops stationed here. They have 
lately attacked the Mail Station in the Goaship country, on the 
Overland road, about 200 miles west of this, killed a stage driver 
on his box, wounded a passenger who will probably die, and killed 
two Station keepers. They burned two station houses &c, and 
took 12 of the Company's horses. They also stole 30 horses 
from a gentleman residing at Ibimpah. I hope soon to hear that 
they have been overtaken by the Troops, and punished. It is a 
wanton aggression on their part, and was without the slightest 
provocation. . . . 

LXXXIV 

William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to James 

Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, dated Office of 

Indian Affairs, June 1, 1863. 17 " 

Sir 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 30 th March 
last in relation to the proposed Treaty with the Shoshonees. 

I exceedingly regret that unforeseen circumstances have com- 
bined to cause so much delay in the attempt to effect the contem- 
plated negotiation. From the instruction forwarded to late Special 
Agent Martin in February last I had reason to suppose that fund 
would be at the disposal of yourself and Agent Mann so that a 
council with the Indians could be held early in the Spring. In 
this however I was disappointed as late Agent Martin returned 
bringing with him the unexpended balance of the funds entrusted 
to him. 

An answer to your letter has been delayed some days with a 
view to consulting with Gov. Nye (who has been expected in this 
City) in relation to the Treaty. As it is now probable that Gov. 
Nye will not now visit this place I have to inform you that the 
balance of the funds returned by late Agent Martin amounting to 
the sum of $15,783.88. will be deposited to your credit with John 
I. Cisco Asst. Treas. U. S. at New York when notice shall be 
received from you as to the time that the negotiation will be 
attempted, and that the funds are needed for that purpose. 

Agent Martin having wholly failed in accomplishing the object 
of his appointment, the negotiation will henceforth be confided to 



179. 38th Congress, 1st Session, House Executive Document 1 (Serial 
1182), pp. 514-515. 



200 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

you and Agent Mann under the instructions heretofore issued, 
unless it shall be found practicable, and in your judgment expe- 
dient to associate with you Gov. Nye of Nevada and Gov Wallace 
of the New Territory of Idaho in addition to Agent Mann, in 
which event you will be authorized to do so, but I suggest that 
no great delay, nor any considerable expense should be incurred 
for that purpose. 

In regard to the suggestions of your letter of 27 th Nov. last in 
relation to the necessity of treaties with the Utahs and Bannacks 
I have to state that you are authorized to make a joint treaty with 
these tribes and the Shoshones if one can be negotiated with the 
funds appropriated for the purpose of treating with the latter and 
now at your disposal. 

While I do not hesitate in view of the urgent necessities of the 
case and the weighty reasons therefore suggested by you to divert 
the specific application of the appropriation to the extent indicated, 
I do not feel warranted in attempting any negotiation with the 
Utahs and Bannacks in advance of an appropriation, unless it 
shall be found practicable to accomplish it as above indicated. 

In view of the limited amount of the appropriation it is exceed- 
ingly vexatious that so much thereof should have been expended 
by late Agent Martin to so little purpose and that the necessity for 
the exercise of the strictest economy should thereby be enhanced 
to so great an extent, I have however full confidence that whatso- 
ever is practicable will be accomplished by yourself and those who 
may be associated with you. 

Trusting that I may receive an early and favorable report from 
you .... 

LXXXV 

Luther Mann, Jr., to William P. Dole, Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, Telegram dated Fort Bridger, June 1863 180 

Sir. 

Five hundred Shossonee or Snake Indians will visit this agency 
today for the purpose of delivering up the stolen stock in their 
possession & of pledging themselves to keep quiet in the future 
they are entirely destitute of food or clothing shall I feed them 
for a few days Please answer immediately Supt Doty being now 
north I am compelled to apply for instructions from you direct 

L Mann Jr 



180. M/65-1863. The telegram was received in Washington June 2. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 201 

LXXXVI 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, June 20, 1863. 1N1 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, 
dated May 22d, 1863, in relation to my northern Expedition, and 
to report: 

That I returned to this city from that Expedition on the 19 th 
instant, having been absent six weeks in the Indian Country, and 
travelled over eight hundred miles. I accompanied Genl Con- 
ner to Snake river Ferry, 1 " 2 two hundred miles, where we separated; 
and he proceeded with his Cavalry up the Blackfoot river, and 
south, across the dividing ridge to Soda Springs, at which place he 
has established a Military Post [Camp Connor], on the old Cali- 
fornia & Oregon roads. 

The Bannacks and Shoshonees I met in small Bands, and, after 
counselling with them, I am satisfied they are disposed to be 
peaceable and friendly. The Exhibition of a Cavalry force among 
them apparently satisfied them that they could be reached by the 
power of the government, and that they would certainly be pun- 
ished if they committed depredations upon the white men. There 
are undoubtedly, as they say, some bad men among them, who 
will not be controlled by the Chiefs, but efforts are made by the 
peaceable Indians to restrain them. 

The only Bands that appear determined to continue hostilities 
were those of Pokatelo, Sagowitz, and Sanpitz — and with these 
I could obtain no communication. They must be left to Genl 
Conner's troops. 

When at Snake river Ferry two Express-men arrived bringing 
information that a large body of Shoshonees and Bannacks were 
assembling at Kamash Prarie, 1 * 3 — about one hundred miles farther 
north and on the road used by Emigrants to Bannack city — with 
the intention to either fall upon the Miners on Beaver Head and 
its branches, or upon the Emigrants along the road between South- 
Pass and Bridger. If this could be prevented by an interview I 
felt it my duty to make the attempt, and therefore proceeded with 



181. D/ 155- 1863. Printed in 38th Congress, 1st Session, House Execu- 
tive Document 1 (Serial 1182), pp. 515-516. 

182. At the mouth of the Blackfoot River, below present Blackfoot, 
Idaho. 

183. There were several Kamas prairies in Idaho; the one here men- 
tioned lay along the lower course of present Camas Creek, north of Idaho 
Falls. Bannack City, to which Doty traveled from Kamas Prairie, was 
one of the early boom camps which sprang up in Montana after the major 
gold strikes of 1862-63, located in the highlands between the Big Hole 
and Beaverhead rivers. 



202 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

my Interpreter to the place indicated to meet them. At Kamash 
prarie I found but few Indians, those remaining stating that those 
who had been there had gone in different directions to the Moun- 
tains to hunt, and that they were all friendly to the whites and 
disposed to be peaceable. They complained of the white men 
at Bannack city firing upon them in the streets of that place, when 
they were there upon a friendly visit, and were molesting no one, 
and killed their Chief Shnag, and two others. They said they did 
not intend to revenge this wanton act, because it was committed by 
men who were drunk, and they thought all the people there were 
drunk at the time. I advised them not to go there again, and to 
keep away from drunken white men; to be kind & render good 
service to the Emigrants along the road, and that they would be 
generously rewarded. I gave them a few presents of Blankets &c. 
However, fearing there might be trouble from this gross attack, 
and that other bands might not feel disposed to overlook it, I 
determined, as there was no Indian Agent in this section of coun- 
try, to proceed to Bannack City, about Eighty miles distant, to 
ascertain the truth of their statement, and to counsel with those 
who might be along the road thro' the Mountains. On entering the 
Mountains I encountered a large band of Shoshonees, who mani- 
fested a friendly spirit, expressed a desire to be at peace, and 
thankfully accepted the few presents I was able to make them. 

On arriving at Bannack I learned with regret that the statement 
by the Indians of the murder of their people, was true; that they 
were fired upon as they were sitting quietly in the street by a dozen 
white men; and that their sole object in visiting the place was to 
give up a child (which they did) which had been demanded of 
them on the supposition that it was a stolen white child. I saw the 
child, & have no doubt that it is a Half-breed, and was rightfully 
in their possession. I would have adopted legal measures for the 
punishment of these offenders but there were no civil officers 
there, and no laws but such as have been adopted by Miners. The 
matter must rest until the organization of the government of 
Idaho. 184 

Whilst at Bannack, I ascertained that Bands of FlatHeads had 
passed on the road by which I came, in search of the Bannacks & 
Shoshonees, for the purpose of stealing their horses and making 
war upon them. Deeming it unsafe to return alone, I employed 
Mr. [Robert?] Dempsey, an excellent interpreter, to send a guide 
and guard of Indians with me. These accompanied me faithfully 
to the settlements of Box Elder, and will on their way back give 
useful information to those of their Nation they meet. 



184. Montana Territory was created in 1864. At this time western 
Montana was nominally a part of Idaho Territory, created earlier in the 
year. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 203 

All the Indians I met, during my absence, appeard desirous to 
form a treaty with the U. S., and I told them that when the Com- 
missioners were ready to meet them, I would send a runner to 
them to inform them of the time & place for them to assemble. . . . 

LXXXVII 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Utah 

Territory, June 20, 1863. 1 "' 

Sir: — Your Letter of instructions in relation to the proposed 
treaty with Shoshonees, dated June 1st, 1863, I have the honor to 
acknowledge, and to inform you that I shall proceed the coming 
week to Fort Bridger for the purpose of meeting the Shoshonees 
who are assembled there — some of whom I met on my late expedi- 
tion — and of treating with them according to your Instructions of 
the 22nd of July, 1862, and of those now given. 

Many of these Indians have been hostile, and have committed 
depredations upon the persons & property of Emigrants & settlers, 
but now express a strong desire for peace. Agent Mann informs 
me that he is now feeding them under your authority; I therefore 
hasten to meet them, that some arrangement may be made by 
which they can with satisfaction return to their hunting grounds, 
and upon terms which shall secure peace hereafter, safety to the 
Emigrants & travellers, and relieve the Department from the 
expense now being incurred. 

These are about one third of the Shoshonees with whom treaties 
may be held; and I shall endeavor to limit the expenditures to the 
least amount to obtain the objects desired by government. 

You will please make the deposit with M r . Cisco, as indicated 
in your letter, that my drafts may be provided for on presentation. 

The Shoshonee Bands are scattered over so vast an extent of 
country that it will be necessary for the Commissioners to meet 
them at several points. The whole Nation can never be assembled, 
without bringing them hundreds of miles. . . . 

LXXXVIII 

James Duane Doty, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William P. 

Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt 

Lake City, June 26, 1863. 1S0 

Sir: 

By the efforts of Genl. Connor & myself, "Little Soldier," the 



185. D/149-1863; printed in 38th Congress, 1st Session, House Executive 
Document 1 (Serial 1182), p. 514. 

186. D/154-1863, printed in ibid., pp. 512-513. 



204 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Chief of the "Weber Utes," who had been hostile & committing 
depredations for some months past, has been induced to come in 
with his Band and promises to remain at peace with the whites. 1ST 
He met us, with 14 of his warriors today in council; wished to 
make a firm and lasting peace, encamped at a place near the City 
where we can supervise his conduct & agrees to remain there until 
we tell him to go to his hunting grounds; and has sent messengers 
to other Ute Bands assuring them of their safety if they join him 
& of our friendly disposition, and advising them also to come in. 

I have now strong hopes that hostilities on the part of the Utes 
will cease. . . . 



LXXXIX 

James Duane Doty and Luther Mann, Jr., Commissioners, 

to William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 

Fort Bridger, Utah Territory, July 3, 1863. 1NS 

Sir: We have the honor to transmit herewith a Treaty which 
we concluded yesterday with the Shoshonee Nation, which we 
hope will be approved by the Department. The terms were more 
advantageous than we had expected to obtain. 

The representation of the nation was very large, being from all 
the bands of the nation except four. The parties treating occupy 
the whole of the country east of — and including — Salt Lake Val- 
ley. The two principal Chiefs of the nation, Washakie and Wana- 
pitz, were present. 

One of these absent Bands is in Ruby valley and on the Hum- 
boldt mountains and river. The other three continue their hostil- 
ities, but are now much reduced in numbers, and have been driven 
by the Troops north to the valley of Snake river. We may now 
perhaps be able to get messengers to them, and induce them to 
treat with us for peace. 

The amount expended in making this Treaty, is about six thou- 
sand dollars: the account, with the vouchers, will be forwarded 
without delay. There was near one thousand Shoshonees — and 
no Bannacks or Utahs — on the ground. They have been fed, 
according to your instructions, for the past month, which has 
somewhat increased the expenditure of the Treaty fund, to which 
it is charged. . . . 



187. This is curious information about Little Soldier, who had never 
been particularly unfriendly toward the whites. It may be that he had been 
alienated by the slaughter in January, at the Battle of Bear River. 

188. D/157-1863. 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 205 

xc 

Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the Shoshone Nation 
of Indians. Concluded July 2nd. 1863. 1 *' 

Articles of Agreement made at Fort Bridger in Utah Territory 
this second day of July A. D. One thousand Eight hundred and 
Sixty three, by and between the United States of America repre- 
sented by its Commissioners, and the Sho-Sho-nee nation of In- 
dians represented by its Chiefs and principal Men and Warriors of 
the Eastern Bands, as follows: 

Article I Friendly and Amicable relations are hereby re- 
established between the Bands of the Sho-Sho-nee nation parties 
hereto, and the United States. And it is declared that a firm 
and perpetual Peace Shall be henceforth maintained between the 
Sho-Sho-nee nation and the United States. 

Article II. The Several routes of travel through the Sho-Sho- 
nee Country now or hereafter used by the white men, Shall be and 
remain forever free and safe for the use of the Government of the 
United States and of all emigrants and travelers under its authority 
and protection, without molestation or injury from any of the 
People of said nation. And if depredations should at any time be 
committed by bad men of their nation, the offending Shall be 
immediately seized and delivered up to the proper officers of the 
United States, to be punished as their offences Shall deserve. And 



189. D/ 157- 1863 enc. This was the first copy of the treaty sent on 
by Doty. As we shall see in Document XCII, on July 18 he transmitted 
"the original copy" of the treaty, at that time asking the Commissioner 
to add to the duplicate transmitted on July 3 "the name of the Chief Bazil 
who signed his name to this but did not arrive with his Band until that 
copy had been mailed." 

A memorandum by the Indian Office filed with 1/222-1866 comments, 
with respect to the treaty of July 2: 

This treaty, with three others, made with different bands of Sho- 
shonees and Goships, by Gov. Doty, of Utah, was acted upon favor- 
ably by the Senate March 7th 1864, with an amendment — the same 
amendment, as shown upon paper marked "A", being made to each 
treaty. All of the treaties were returned to Gov. Doty May 17th, 
with instructions to secure the assent of the Indians to the amend- 
ments, and all were returned by him before he was superseded as 
Sup't by Mr. Irish, Except this one, with Washakee's band, Gov. Doty 
reporting that he had not been able to get the chiefs together. The 
treaties thus returned were ratified and proclaimed by the President 
. Jan'y 17, 1865. 

After Mr. Irish had left Utah on leave of absence to come to 
Washington in the winter of 1866, this treaty was sent to him, having 
been found among Gov. Doty's papers [he being then deceased]. 

It is recommended that the paper should be sent to the Supt. of 
Utah, with instructions to obtain the assent of the Indians to the 
amendment as soon as possible. The appropriation of $10,000 pr 
annum is made by Congress without the treaty having been ratified. 



206 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the Safety of all travelers passing peaceably over Said routes is 
hereby guaranteed by Said nation. — Military-Agricultural Settle- 
ments and Military Posts may be Established by the President of 
the United States along said routes: Ferries may be maintained 
over the Rivers wherever they may be required and Houses Erect- 
ed and Settlements formed at Such points as may be necessary for 
the comfort and convenience of travelers. 

Article III. The Telegraph and Overland Stage Line having 
been established and operated through a part of the Sho-Sho-nee 
Country, it is expressly agreed that the Same may be continued 
without hindrance, molestation or injury from the people of Said 
nation; and that their property and the lives of Passengers in the 
Stages and of the Employees of the respective Companies Shall be 
protected by them. And further, it being understood that provi- 
sion has been made by the Government of the United States, for 
the Construction of a Railway from the Plains West to the Pacific 
Ocean, it is Stipulated by said nation that Said Railway or its 
Branches may be located, constructed and operated without moles- 
tation from them through any portion of the Country claim by 
them. 

Article IV. — It is understood the boundaries of the Sho-Sho-nee 
Country, as defined and described by Said nation, is as follows: 
On the North by the Mountains on the north Side of the Valey 
of Sho-Sho-nee or Snake River; On the East by the Wind River 
Mountains, Peenahpah, the north fork of the Platte or Koochina- 
gah and the north Park or Buffalo House; and on the South by 
Yampah River and the Uintah Mountains. The Western bound- 
ary is left undefined, there being no Sho-Sho-nees from that dis- 
trict of Country present; but the Bands now present Claim that 
their own Country is Bounded on the West by Salt Lake 1 "" 

Article V. — The United States being aware of the inconvenience 
resulting to the Indians in consequence of the driving away and 
destruction of game along the route traveled by Whites and by 
the formation of agricultural and Mining Settlements are willing 
to fairly compensate them for the Same; therefore, and in consid- 
eration of the preceding stipulations, the United States promises 
and agree to pay to the Bands of the Sho-Sho-nee nation Parties 
hereto, annually, for the term of twenty years, the sum of ten 
thousand dollars in Such articles as the President of the United 
States may deem Suitable to their wants and condition Either as 
Hunters or Herdsmen. And the Said Band of the Sho-Sho-nee 
nation hereby acknowledge the reception of the said stipulated 



190. These comments on the limits of the Shoshoni country should be 
compared with the reports of John Wilson in 1849, Jacob Forney in 1858, 
and F. W. Lander in 1860 (see Documents I, XL VII, and LI). 



WASHAKIE AND THE SHOSHONI 



207 



annuities as a full compensation and Equivalent for the loss of 
game and the rights and privaleges hereby conceded. 

Article VI. — The Said Bands hereby acknowledge that they 
have received from said Commissioners provisions and clothing 
amounting to Six thousand dollars as presents at the conclusion of 
this Treaty 

Done at Fort Bridger the day and year above written in presence of 



Jack Robertson 
Interpreter. 

Samuel Dean 



James Duane Doty 
Luther Mann Jr 



Commissioners 



Washakee 

Wanapitz 

Toopsapowit 

Pantoshiga 

Ninabutz 

Narkawk 

Tahvonshe'a 

Weer'ango 

Tootsahp 

Weeahyukee 



Wyoming State Mistorical Society 

THIRD ANNUAL MEETING 
September 15-16, 1956 Gillette, Wyoming 

Election of Officers 

Dr. DeWitt Dominick of Cody was elected to the presidency of 
the Wyoming State Historical Society at the Third Annual Meeting 
held in Gillette. Other officers elected were: Dr. T. A. Larson 
of Laramie, 1st vice president; Mr. A. H. MacDougall of Rawlins, 
2nd vice president; Miss Maurine Carley of Cheyenne, secretary- 
treasurer. Miss Lola M. Homsher is the permanent exscutive 
secretary. 

Program — September 15 

On Saturday morning, September 15, members of the Society 
were invited to stop at the Marquiss Little Buffalo Ranch, fifty 
miles south of Gillette, at 10:00 a.m. to view their herd of 300 
buffalo, the largest privately owned herd in the country. 

The afternoon program was held at the George Amos Memorial 
Library Auditorium, at which time Mrs. Roy Hardy, president of 
the Campbell County Historical Society, presided. The members 
of the local society had on display a number of fascinating antiques 
and artifacts which visitors were invited to look at while they 
enjoyed a coffee hour served by the Campbell County Chapter 
under the chairmanship of Mrs. Charles A. Mankin and Mrs. 
Howard Bundy. The hostesses dressed in early-day costumes 
which added much color to the afternoon program. 

Following the coffee hour Mr. Ralph Kintz of Gillette spoke 
on "Campbell County History" in which he presented a resume 
of the history of the area dating back to the entry of the Astorians 
into present-day Wyoming. 

Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Lucas, Mr. and Mrs. Lee Mankin and Mr. 
and Mrs. Howard Bundy presented an interesting exhibition of 
old time dances which were greatly enjoyed. 

A tour to the open pit coal mine five mile east of Gillette con- 
cluded the afternoon program. 

The evening program and annual dinner were held at the Pres- 
byterian Church where, after a delicious Smorgasbord served by 
the ladies of the church, rs. Roy Hardy welcomed the 117 mem- 
bers and guests. She introduced Mr. E. A. Littleton who presided 
as master of ceremonies. 

Mr. Littleton introduced the officers of the Society and a num- 
ber of the early cowboys who have lived in Campbell County for 
many years. 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 209 

Mr. Herbert Kahler, chief historian of the National Parks Ser- 
vice, was the main speaker of the evening and discussed "The 
Problems of Historical Conservation." He pointed out that the 
public has been aware of the need of preserving historical sites for 
only the past one-hundred years, and that each generation has 
to learn anew its historical responsibility. He recommended that 
Historical societies take statewide inventories of sites, natural 
objects and buildings which should be preserved. 

ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING 

Mr. W. L. Marion, outgoing president, presided at the Annual 
Business Meeting of the Society following the evening program. 
Committee reports were considered and the following actions were 
taken : 

1 ) Mr. Louis C. Steege, chairman of the Achaeological Com- 
mittee, reported that a copy of the proposed Archaeological Bill 
had been sent to each chapter for study. After general discussion 
regarding the need for such a bill on the statutes Mr. David 
Boodry, Goshen County, moved that the committee continue 
working on the bill and submit it to the next Legislature. Carried. 

2) Mr. O'Callaghan moved that the Society go on record to 
investigate the need and advisability of establishing a research 
professorship at the University of Wyoming. Carried. 

3 ) Short reports of the accomplishments of the County Chapters 
were given by members present: 

Albany County Chapter by Miss Clarice Whittenburg 
Campbell County Chapter by Mrs. Roy Hardy 
Carbon County Chapter by Mrs. George Pierson 
Fremont County Chapter by Mr. William Marion 
Goshen County Chapter by Mr. David Boodry 
Johnson County Chapter by Mrs. Thelma Condit 
Laramie County Chapter by Mr. Charles Ritter 
Natrona County Chapter by Mrs. Edness Wilkins 
Park County Chapter by Dr. DeWitt Dominick 
Washakie County Chapter by Mrs. William F. Bragg, Sr. 
Sweetwater County Chapter by Mr. Vernon Hurd 

Historical Awards 

Dr. T. A. Larson, chairman of the Awards Committee, an- 
nounced the following awards for outstanding contributions to the 
field of Western and Wyoming History for the year 1955-56: 
Book, non-fiction — Dr. R. H. Burns, Mr. A. S. Gillespie and 

Mr. Willing Richardson for Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches. 
Book, fiction — Peggy Simson Curry for So Far From Spring. 
Newspaper — Riverton Ranger for its 50th Anniversary Golden 
Jubilee Edition. 



210 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Business which makes the best use of historical advertising- 
Union Pacific Railroad. 
Promotion of Museums — Wyoming Pioneer Association. 

Treasurer's Report 

September 15, 1955 to September 15, 1956 

Cash and Investments, September 15, 1955 $3,615.67 

Receipts and Interest 3,134.75 



6,750.42 
Disbursements, 9/15/55 - 9/15/56 1,835.14 



Balance on hand September 15, 1956 $4,915.28 

ASSETS 

Cheyenne Federal Building & Loan $3,961.33 

Stock Growers National Bank 953.95 



$4,915.28 
Present membership of the Society stands as follows: 
Life members 24 

Joint life members 6 

Annual members 466 

Joint annual members 314 



810 



Counties organized 11 (Albany, Carbon, Campbell, Fre- 
mont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Sweetwater 
and Washakie.) 

Program — September 16 

Mr. L. H. Barlow opened his home to members of the Society 
on Sunday morning to allow them to view his extensive collection 
of artifacts and historical relics. 

The highlight of the state meeting was the afternoon program 
at Devils Tower National Monument where there was a record 
attendance of 2,568 persons. The Campbell County Chapter was 
in charge of the program for Gillette Day in celebration of the 
50th Anniversary of Devil's Tower being designated the first 
national monument in the United States. 

A free barbecue, sponsored by the Gillette Lions Club and 
Gillette Rotary Club, was held at the Tower beginning at 1 1 : 00 
a.m., the buffalo for which was donated by the Marquiss Little 
Buffalo Ranch. Music was furnished by the Campbell County 
High School Band. 

Mr. E. A. Littleton was in charge of the afternoon program. 
He introduced Dr. DeWitt Dominick who spoke briefly to the 
group on the aims, purposes and accomplishments of the Wyoming 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 211 

State Historical Society and invited all persons interested in Wyo- 
ming and Western history to join the Society. 

An interesting pageant on Wyoming History was presented by 
the members of the Campbell County Historical Chapter under the 
direction of E. A. Littleton with W. F. Bragg, Jr., as narrator. 
The pageant covered briefly the early history of Wyoming. 

Portraying the early-day trappers, pioneers and Indian scouts 
were Tom McMahon, John Reed, J. J. Wright and Frank Thomas. 

The second part of the pageant was devoted to the important 
role which women have played in Wyoming history. Dressed in 
the appropriate costumes of the day, the cast was as follows : 

Mrs. W. P. Parks, Sr Esther Morris 

Mrs. Delia Dillinger Mrs. Eliza A. Swain 

Mrs. A. R. Smith Miss Eliza Stewart 

Mrs. Ralph Kintz Mrs. Amelia Hatcher 

Mrs. Tom Morgan Mrs. C. F. Hilton 

Mrs. Howard Bundy.-.Mrs. Mary Markel 

Mrs. H. L. Mankin _Mrs. Agnes Baker 

Mrs. Eleanor Gleasom.Mrs. Sarah W. Pease 

Mrs. Cecil Lucas Mrs. Martha Symons-Boies-Atkinson 

Mrs. Otis Wright Mrs. Susan Ellen Wissler 

Mrs. R. B. Marquiss.-.-Mrs. Nellie Tayloe Ross 

The script for the story of the Women of Wyoming was written 
by Mrs. Archie Lindsey. 

Several of Campbell County's early-day cowboys rode in the 
pageant on their horses. Introduced were L. H. Barlow, 88-year 
old cowboy, W. J. "Walt" Monnett, a resident since 1892, and the 
three Lynde brothers, Worth, Bill and Ernest (Buster), and Mike 
Reardon, early day cowboy. Mr. Barlow concluded the pageant 
with a story of early days near Gillette. 

The speaker of the afternoon was Herbert E. Kahler, chief his- 
torian of the National Parks Service who discussed "National Mon- 
uments from 1906 to 1956." 

The members of the State Historical Society in attendance at 
the Third Annual Meeting of the Society were unanimous in their 
expression of their appreciation for the fine hospitality and enter- 
tainment extended by the Campbell County Chapter and the 
people of Gillette. 

Committees on Arrangements 
CAMPBELL COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY OFFICERS: 

President, Mrs. Roy Hardy 

Vice President, Ralph Kintz 

Sec'y-Treasurer, Mrs. R. B. Marquiss 
COMMITTEES: 

Mrs. C. M. Lucas, Program and Costumes 

Mrs. B. J. Coulson, Publicity 

Mr. Hubert Dickey, Courtesy and Registration 



212 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mrs. Roy Hardy, Reservations 
Miss Margretta Gratz, Antiques 
Mrs. Charles A. Mankin and Mrs. Howard Bundy, 
Coffee Hour and Dinner Committee 

Committees — 1 956-1 957 
Dr. Dominick appointed the following committees to serve for 
the coming year: 
AWARDS COMMITTEE— 

Mr. A. H. MacDougall, chairman 

Mrs. P. E. Daley, Rawlins 

Mr; Bob David, Casper 
SCHOLARSHIP COMMITTEE— 

Dr. T. A. Larson, Laramie 
NOMINATING COMMITTEE— 

Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins, chairman 

Mrs. Thelma Condit, Kaycee 

Mr. Vernon Hurd, Green River 

Mr. Ray F. Bower, Worland 

Mr. David Boodry, Torrington 
LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE— 

Mr. Frank Mockler, chairman 

Mr. Charles Ritter, Cheyenne 

Mr. Ralph Kintz, Gillette 

Mrs. Edness K. Wilkins, Casper 

Mr. Earl Bower, Worland 

Mr. Mervin Champion, Sheridan 

Mr. David Boodry, Torrington 

Mr. Louis Steege, Cheyenne 

COMMITTEE ON SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION OF INVASION 
OF HISTORICAL SITES— 

Mr. E. A. Littleton, chairman 

Mr. Louis Steege, Cheyenne 

Mr. William Bragg, Sr., Worland 

Mr. L. C. Bishop, Cheyenne 

Mr. Vernon Hurd, Green River 

Mr. William Marion, Lander 

Mr. A. H. MacDougall, Rawlins 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMMITTEE— 

Mr. Louis Steege, chairman 

Mr. Charles Ritter, Cheyenne 



Wyoming Archaeological Notes 

STONE ARTIFACTS 

By 
L. C. Steege 

SCRAPERS 

Scrapers are the most abundant of all the stone artifacts used 
by the Plains Indians. Since the skins of wild animals were used 
extensively for clothing, robes, moccasins and shelters, the prep- 
aration of these skins necessitated the use of great quantities of 
scrapers; hence their common occurrence throughout the Plains 
regions. 

How often have you heard this phrase? "I guess this is some 
sort of a scraper". It appears to be a universal habit of amateur 
archaeologists and collectors to place any artifact, which cannot 
be readily identified, into the scraper class. This is a very com- 
mon and erratic practice and should be avoided at all times. 

Scrapers are a very definite artifact. They were designed and 
made for a definite purpose. Scrapers are different from knives 
in as much as the scraper is a flake and the knife is a blade. The 
knife is V-shaped in cross section, the edge being tapered from 
both faces. A knife is relatively thin whereas a scraper is usually 
thick. The edge of a scraper is beveled by pressure flaking from 
the dorsal face only. This tends to give the working edge a sharp 
hooked surface which is essential for maximum efficiency. The 
ventral face of a scraper shows little or no flaking. The surface 
remains smooth and slightly curved since this side was the con- 
choidal surface of the original flake. 

Scrapers are classified as end scrapers and side scrapers. 

End scrapers are made with the working edge at the narrow 
end. Their shapes are roughly sub-triangular and rectangular. 
They were used by being held in one hand between the thumb 
and the index finger. For this reason end scrapers are sometimes 
referred to as "thumb scrapers". 

End scrapers are divided into two classes known as "keeled" 
and "on flake". The keeled variety (Figure 1 A) are sub- 
triangular in shape and have a thick stout end made for hard work 
on heavy hides. The on flake variety (Figure IB) are somewhat 
lighter tools and have no definite shape. 



214 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



EHD Scrrpers 




?rcfi\ e Q 




SIDE SCRAPERS 



g Figure/ 2. 







Strujkt Concave/ Convex Notched 



WYOMING ARCHAEOLOGICAL NOTES 215 

End scrapers with working edges on both ends are not uncom- 
mon. These are known as double end scrapers. End scrapers 
which were pointed on one end (Figure 1 C) were also used as 
borers and gravers. End scrapers were sometimes stemmed. This 
type was mounted on a short shaft or handle. Greater pressure 
could be applied with this implement. 

Side scrapers are found in a variety of forms, shapes and sizes. 
The working edge of the side scraper is along the broad end 
instead of the narrow end as on the end scrapers. The side scraper 
was held in one hand with the working edge of the scraper held 
very close to the object to be scraped. The object was then 
scraped along a straight line, sideways, or in a circular motion 
according to the results desired by the operator. 

Side scrapers are divided into four classes: Straight (Figure 
2 A), Concave (Figure 2 B), Convex (Figure 2 C), and Notched 
Figure 2D). Each class is characteristic by the general shape 
of the working edge. 

Notched scrapers were used for scraping cylindrical objects 
such as stems and shafts. They were also used to shred sinew. 



ftook Keuiews 



Ghost Towns of Wyoming. By Mary Lou Pence and Lola M. 
Homsher. (New York: Hastings House, 1956. 256 pp. 
illus. $7.50.) 

Wyoming is a story-book land and here we have a book that 
proves it. There is enough adventure and romance in this volume 
to keep the movie and television studios busy for years and years. 
And every word of it is true. 

Before going into the story-book phase, I want to mention the 
first chapter which is a short and excellent history of the state. 
It is told in a pleasant, highly readable style with the emphasis 
on personalities. Anyone needing a brief course on state history 
would do well to keep this chapter in mind. 

Now, let's wander through a few of the ghost towns themselves. 
They are dotted all over the state and vary in type from a roaring 
End-O'-Track railroad town to a quiet, completely altruistic set- 
tlement founded to bring culture to the West. There are mining 
towns, cow towns, timber towns and railroad towns, all at one 
time flourishing and now in most cases so completely vanished 
that it is difficult to find where they used to be. 

There is South Pass, the first gold mining town in Wyoming 
and its famous citizen, Esther McQuigg Morris, who made Wyo- 
ming the "Equality" state; and Bear River City with the roving 
newspaper, The Frontier Index, and its enterprising editor, Legh 
Freeman; and Rock Creek, a cow town that flourished lustily 
until the Union Pacific abandoned it; and Bessemer who gasped 
with its last breath that it was cheated at the polls by Casper; and 
Tubb Town, predecessor of Newcastle, with a water system that 
was apt to produce unexpected returns; and Bald City in the Big 
Horns, the City of Broken Hearts, near the mysterious Medicine 
Wheel. 

And then there is Benton, a roaring End-O'-Track town that 
was so busy being wicked that it had time for no good thing. 

"It was here they called 'That day lost whose low descending 

sun 
Saw no man killed or other mischief done'." 

Benton had the distinction of a "great white way" all its own, 
provided by locomotive headlights hoisted up on street posts, 
leading to a big amusement tent, though "amusement" is a pretty 
dainty word for what went on in that tent. This town lived only 
three months but in that short time it gained the reputation, ac- 



BOOK REVIEWS 217 

cording to historian C. G. Coutant, of being "the one bad town 
along the line of the Union Pacific". 

At the completely opposite pole from Benton is Jireh, founded 
by eastern idealists with the sole purpose of bringing culture to 
the West. No intoxicating liquor, no playing cards, no smoking, 
these were the rules and in spite of them and the hostility they 
aroused in our free-swinging state, these people founded a college 
and managed to keep it running by working half a day in the fields 
and teaching the other half. The first World War and a drought 
combined to kill all their hopes and the Jireh College building is 
now on the University of Wyoming grounds. This is the most 
pathetic of all our ghost towns and its failure the hardest to under- 
stand. If idealism, faith, intelligence and hard work cannot suc- 
ceed, what more is needed? That is the very genuine problem 
Jireh presents. 

Suggs presents no such problem. It died because of a roaring 
fight between its townspeople and a company of militia. To the 
Army's chagrin, its men were held off for a considerable length of 
time by two outlaws, ex-cowpunchers, who thought when the 
Army started shooting out of sheer boredom, that the law had 
finally caught up with them and they had no intentions of being 
taken without an argument. The townspeople joined in exuber- 
antly and the resulting free-for-all spelled the doom on the town. 

This material is handled with the vigor and charm of fine story- 
telling, in other words this is highly entertaining history. But 
don't forget it is history. Each person, each date, each fact has 
been checked and double-checked and the names of our authors 
provide the guarantee for that; Mrs. Pence is well-known in West- 
ern writing circles and Miss Homsher is Director of the Wyoming 
State Archives and Historical Department. 

There are more than a hundred illustrations, most of which 
have never been published before. These include nine Charles 
M. Russell paintings, several W. H. Jackson photographs, two 
drawings of the exuberant Tubb Town, a rare picture of Benton's 
"amusement" tent and many on-the-spot photographs of people 
and places. 

This is a book I can heartily recommend to both outlanders and 
natives ,the former because it will prove to them that Wyoming is 
the story-book land they have dreamed of, while the latter will 
find here the detail that has been lacking on certain people, events 
and places. A most entertaining and readable contribution to 
Wyoming history. 

New York City Maurene Chenoweth 

(Former Librarian at 
Laramie, Wyoming) 



218 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The Look of the Old West. By Foster-Harris. (New York. The 
Viking Press, 1955. 316 pp., illus., index., biblio. $7.50.) 

The Look of the Old West will have a great appeal for the stu- 
dent of pioneer history. It is a valuable handbook for the collector 
of Western Americana. 

The author, Foster-Harris, has made a life work of collecting 
"authentic Western Minutiae — the little things about how the 
people, animals and things of the Old West looked and acted." 

The book is attractively bound and profusely illustrated with 
detailed drawings by Evelyn Curro. These fine illustrations are 
of great interest to the reader, who is not only told but shown the 
way of life lived during "the glory years of the Old West." 

In his introduction, which he calls "The Waybill of This Book," 
Foster Harris says: "There are worlds of vital statistics about the 
Old West, but just try and visualize a vital statistic! How does 
it hold its pants up? Does it pack a gun, smoke, chew, wear its 
hair long? Sure this sounds silly, maybe, to a scholar, but when 
something is really alive in your mind, these are the tall trifles 
that perfect the picture. They make it real. That is the intent 
and purpose of this book." 

The period covered is from 1865 to the late 1890's. This was 
the romantic age of Western history so intriguing to the writers 
of novels, motion pictures, and plays. Western song writers and 
homespun poets sang the praises of this era. The files of early 
day newspapers have many examples of the colorful prose and 
verse of the pioneers. Many writers have carefully compiled the 
history of this period. 

It remained for Foster-Harris to make a unique compilation of 
the details which enables the reader to visualize the daily life of 
the pioneers. The author writes in an easy, informal, conversa- 
tional style, which makes reading pleasurable. 

A glimpse into the chapters will give an idea of the scope of 
the book. 

1. Soldiers into Civilians. The uniforms, insignia, and sundries of the 
Union and Confederate veterans who came West after 1865. 

2. Fighting Gear. Their rifles, carbines, revolvers, sabers, cartridges, 
and other equipment. 

3. Horse Trappings and Battle Flags. The battle flags. Equipment of 
the U. S. cavalry. 

4. Civilians Out West. What they wore, and took with them, including 
derringers, watches, money, tobacco, and other supplies. What they ate 
and drank en route. 

5. Cold Steel and Hot Lead. Knives, guns, and holsters. Gun fighting 
techniques. 

6. To Get from Here to There. How the pioneer travelled — Conestogas, 
ox-carts, prairie schooners; buckboards, buggies, stagecoaches; steamboats, 
and trains. Stage stations. 

7. Hoof Trails and Wheel Tracks. The Oregon Trail — the Missouri 
River — the Santa Fe Trail. The Chisholm Trail — the Western trail. The 
cowboys and the mountain men, and what they wore. 



BOOK REVIEWS 219 

8. Short Horses and Longhorns. Horses and cattle; equipment and 
methods of the cattle business. 

9. Free Grass and Barbed Wire. Grasses and poisonous plants. Buffalo 
and their slaughter. Dugouts; sod houses; water and fuel. The clothing 
of pioneer women. Guns and farm machinery. 

The Look of the Old West relives the life of the pioneer by pic- 
turing his way of living. The reader is left with a greater under- 
standing of pioneer times. Some will be left with a touch of 
nostalgia for the days that are no more. 

Buffalo, Wyoming Alice Anspaugh 



The Oglala Sioux. By Robert H. Ruby. (New York: Vantage 
Press, Inc., 1955. 115 pp. $2.50.) 

After living several years on the Pine Ridge Reservation as 
resident doctor-in-charge, Robert H. Ruby turned author to write 
about his friends — the Indians. The Oglala Sioux is a small book 
packed with authentic stories and observations about those once 
warlike people. 

Dr. Ruby makes us realize that the Sioux today are not like 
their proud, fierce, dangerous ancestors of one hundred years 
ago. They have now become confused, lacking the dash and 
courage of their predecessors. He writes, "He (the Indian) would 
rather not work, yet he has a fondness for two of the white man's 
possessions, liquor and the automobile." 

Since 1951, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has been carrying on 
a program that aims at placing any family who desires it away 
from the reservation. So far, sixty percent of these Indian families 
have become homesick and have returned to the reservation, where 
they live much as they did in the past. 

These Indians are still resentful toward the whites, so take out 
some of their hard feelings on federal employees. Mothers still 
tell their children about the sufferings the Sioux endured because 
of the whites. They repeat again and again the story of the Battle 
of Wounded Knee from which they date their downfall. Dr. Ruby 
gives three versions of that battle in such an unbiased manner 
that it leaves one wondering just who really caused the sad affair. 
The taking of the Black Hills, the killing of the Buffalo, and the 
opening of reservations are tales never to be forgotten by the 
Sioux. 

Around the campfires they dwell with pride on the daring deeds 
of their great leaders — Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Rain-in-the-Face, 
Spotted Tail, American Horse, Sitting Bull, and many others. Dr. 
Ruby has two good chapters on Red Cloud and Crazy Horse. The 
others are mentioned incidentally. 

Religion is very important to the Indians. Although some have 
embraced modern Christianity, the Sioux still cling to their old 



220 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

beliefs and forms, with interesting changes and additions. When 
the Indians were dancing the Ghost Dance during the Messiah 
craze they were singing "Father told us so." During their religious 
conclaves, Bui Durham tobacco plays a major part in their cere- 
monies today. 

The Native American Church is a new religion which has of- 
fered "a peep hole to peace for a confused group." This has 
taken the place of the Messiah craze, but it also has a funny twist 
as they chew peyote buttons as part of the ceremony. This is not 
harmful as marijuana is but merely relaxes them and makes 
everything seem rosy. 

The Indian stories which Dr. Ruby has set down show fantastic 
bits of imagination. They are based on nature which the Indian 
loved and understood so they may have seemed possible to them. 
Today they make as interesting reading as our own fairy tales. 
The spider stories are the best and were the most popular with the 
Indians. 

Anyone interested in Western history will enjoy reading Oglala 
Sioux, not only to refresh his memory of that important tribe but 
to learn many new, little known facts about them. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Maurine Carley 



Twentieth Century Pioneering. By Mary Julia (Moore) Allyn. 
(Fort Collins: B & M Printing Company. Privately printed 
by the Author. Illus. 61 pp. $2.00.) 

This is a delightful reminiscence of pioneering at the time of 
the opening for settlement of the ceded part of the Wind River 
Indian Reservation in Fremont County, Wyoming, in 1906. Al- 
though it is a personal story of the family of Frank H. Allyn, who 
first surveyed the townsite of Riverton and was its second post- 
master, there are many threads of history woven through the 
narrative. 

Published at the time of the 50th Anniversary of Riverton, 
Twentieth Century Pioneering undoubtedly already has and will 
continue to refreshen the minds of its readers with colorful inci- 
dents of a phase of Wyoming's settlement about which little has 
been written. 

Vividly the author describes her experiences of burning sage- 
brush for fuel, of teaching the first Sunday School in the Riverton 
community, of helping decorate the first community Christmas 
tree in the freight depot of the little frontier town. 

The pages of this booklet contain the story of many "firsts" in 
the Riverton area, such as the first telephone, the first automobile, 
and the first airplane flight in Wyoming. 



BOOK REVIEWS 221 

There is no complaint by Mrs. Allyn when she describes clip- 
ping her new lawn with sheep shears in the absence of lawn mow- 
ers. She took everything as a matter of course and kept her 
shoulder to the wheel, as many other pioneer women did. Through 
the entire story runs the satisfaction of accomplishing things 
through self-labor. 

Twentieth Century Pioneering, published in a limited edition, 
will soon become a collector's item. It has more than local inter- 
est since this is the story of a Federal land drawing which brought 
people from far and wide into the heart of Wyoming. 

Mrs. Allyn's story particularly appeals to this reviewer as it 
covers the years of my growing up on the Laramie Plains. Almost 
every name mentioned by the author is a familiar one from Rev. 
John Roberts and Rev. Sherman Coolidge, Governor Fenimore 
Chatterton and S. K. Loy to J. A. Delfelder and Kinch McKinney. 

Told in a straightforward and entertaining style, the incidents 
such as the wolf hunt, the marriage of John Erni, and the making 
of a townsite quilt add to the annals of Wyoming many facts not 
elsewhere available. 

Few persons ever preserve the photographs and data which give 
as complete a picture of the building of a town in the west as 
Mrs. Allyn has done. 

Much credit is due Mrs. Laura Allyn Ekstrom, former Assistant 
State Historian of Wyoming, and now Assistant Librarian of the 
State Historical Society of Colorado, for urging her mother and 
father through the years to put into writing the story of their 
pioneering. This is a must for collectors of Wyomingiana. 

Denver, Colorado Agnes Wright Spring 



Anaconda : Life and Times of Marcus Daly, The Copper King. 
By H. Minar Shoebotham. (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole 
Press, 1956. 220 pp. Illus. $4.50.) 

It is strange that a full length biography of Marcus Daly has 
not been written long since for all the ingredients are present in 
his life and times to make a great literary and historical thriller. 
We must be grateful for the present biography which brings much 
scattered material between the covers of a short book, but it is a 
straight documentary. It does articulate Marcus Daly's skeleton, 
but fails to clothe it with flesh or breathe life into it. 

Mr. Shoebotham's documentary is written in pedestrian prose, 
but even the bare facts of Marcus Daly's life are so extraordinary 
that one reads it with interest and a sense of plot and climax. 
Here is a stocky Irishman born in 1841 to a peasant farmer in 
County Cavan near the village of Ballyjamesduff, one of eleven 
children — and here is a millionaire who developed the wealth of 



222 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

"the richest hill on earth", built the biggest smelter in the world, 
created a town and in the "Anaconda Standard" published the best 
newspaper in the West. Here is a lad who tended hogs in Ireland, 
who in 1888 alone spent more than a million dollars for blooded 
horses to breed and train some of the swiftest racers in America 
at his great estate in Montana's beautiful Bitter Root Valley. 
Here is a man of great intelligence, personal worth and moral 
integrity, who bought legislators, judges and government officials 
to accomplish his aims, who plundered great forests on public 
land and raised betting at the racetrack to a statewide pastime. 
Here is a kindly and generous man who helped the needy, encour- 
aged the hopeless and won the undying loyalty of his men and 
associates, who shut down his smelters and mines, throwing thou- 
sands of men out of work in a desperate Montana winter when 
it became financially expedient to do so. Here is a man who came 
by steerage to America in his teens, worked as a dock hand, made 
his way to California via the Isthmus and landed in San Francisco 
with 500 in his pockets, who travelled by private car and consorted 
with the financial and industrial leaders of the world. Here is a 
man whom many called friend, who had so bitter a feud with 
W. A. Clark that the political history of Montana is scarred until 
today with the results of that enmity. Here is a man who brought 
to Montana her first industrial development, who sold out to 
Standard Oil her greatest resources and drained off from the state 
he loved untold wealth for which no adequate return has ever 
been made. 

There is almost nothing of social or economic evaluation or 
moral judgement in this book, nothing to compare, for instance, 
with Joseph Kinsey Howard's paragraph on the copper kings in 
"Montana, High, Wide and Handsome": an "amazing triumvirate 
who waged war over their prostituted state, debauching her 
politics and her people, sending gunmen among her miners to 
play out, half a mile underground, one of the most fantastic 
dramas of American frontier history". 

But even the unevaluated facts hold the reader's attention. 
Marcus Daly's mining career began at the placer diggings in 
Calaveras County, California, shifted to Virginia City, Nevada, 
and mines in Utah. He learned geology and mining as few men 
knew them, his keen mind, practical judgement and ability to deal 
with men more than compensating for the formal education he 
never had. He won the support of wealthy investors and large- 
scale mine operators. In 1877 he moved his wife and children 
to Butte whose gold was playing out and whose silver was not 
supporting big developments. He was the one who foresaw how 
copper, if mined and smelted cheaply in quantity, would find a 
market in the new telephone industry, spanning a continent with 
copper wires. Outside capital poured in and enabled him to 



BOOK REVIEWS 223 

open up vast mining operations, to build smelters and the town of 
Anaconda, to produce wealth "beyond the dreams of avarice". 

The unadorned story of the fight he lost to W. A. Clark when 
Helena was made the capital in 1894 is almost incredible: "As 
election day approached . . . money flowed like water. Clark 
and Daly men stood on street corners passing out five-dollar bills 
and entreating recipients to vote for either Helena or Anaconda 
. . . There was more free champagne and fifty-cent gift cigars in 
Butte than were sold in all the Rocky Mountain states at the time". 
When Helena received 1910 more votes than Anaconda, "Daly 
was burned in effigy . . . and that night drinks in every Helena 
bar were on Clark. Old timers recall it as the drunkenest night 
Montana ever witnessed". 

Even more incredible is the story of W. A. Clark's repeated 
defeats in his attempts to become a U. S. senator. These were 
the days when the Legislature chose the Senators, and votes 
were sold to the highest bidder. Finally, however, Clark's money 
won and in the election of 1900 he received a majority vote. 

At the time, his old enemy, Marcus Daly, lay dying in his suite 
at the Netherlands Hotel, New York. Death came when he was 
58 years old. He and Mrs. Daly are entombed in a mausoleum 
in Greenwood Cemetery, New York City. A few years later 
Augustus St. Gaudens created the bronze statue of Marcus Daly 
which looks across to "the richest hill on earth" from the campus 
of the School of Mines in Butte. 

Laramie, Wyoming Mrs. Lois B. Payson 



The Northwest Gun. By Charles E. Hanson, Jr. (Lincoln: 
Nebraska State Historical Society, xii + 85 pp., illus. $2.00) 

Mr. Hanson, who is Director of the Museum of Fur Trade, 
Chadron, Nebraska, has in his recent book "The Northwest Trade 
Gun" presented a most interesting and needed publication. 

The book covers the historical and technical information of the 
"Indian Trade Gun" in a way that will be most welcome by those 
who are collectors or students of fire arms. This technical infor- 
mation has been skillfully combined with the history of the fur 
trade and the companies engaged in this field. 

Various historical facts have been secured by the cooperation 
of the following; the Museum of the Fur Trade, the Nebraska 
State Historical Society, the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada 
and England and many other societies and individuals. 

The chapter titled "facts and Fancies" will be appreciated by 
readers as it separates the two regarding the general misconcep- 
tions of the use and purpose of the Northwest Gun. 



224 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The book contains more than fifty excellent pictures of the 
trade guns showing details of the various side plates, locks, proof 
marks and trade marks. 

Since the trade gun was so closely allied with the fur trade a 
large portion of the book is devoted to this history. Personally 
I find this section highly interesting and informative. 

Mr. Hanson is to be complimented upon the fine job of com- 
piling this difficult to secure information and presenting it in a 
book that will be enjoyed and cherished by not only gun collectors 
but also students of American History. 

Sheridan, Wyoming Mervin Champion 



Early Days and Indian Ways. By Madge Hardin Walters. (Los 
Angeles: Westernlore Press, 1956. 254 pp. $4.75.) 

The author grew up with Indians in her backyard in Wisconsin. 
They came each summer to camp in the woods owned by her 
father, and to bring grief to her mother, for they were constantly 
begging for something. It was this nearness that awakened a 
love for our red brethren that was to last Madge Walters for life. 

The first half of the book is the biography of the author. After 
two unsuccessful marriages she made a living by working in a 
number of different fields, including newspaper work, a stint of 
short story writing, and selling beaten biscuits. The short story 
idea did not sell, but the beaten biscuits did, first in Chicago, 
and then in Houston, Texas, where she made and sold her biscuits 
for seven years. 

This stay in Texas was to nearly ruin her health, but through 
a chance meeting with a teacher in an Indian school her desire 
to know the American Indian was rekindled. After a short trip 
to her home in Wisconsin, she finally settled in California where 
she went into the Indian trading business. 

This period of her life can be divided into three parts. The first 
or earliest period of her Indian trading was with the Indian of 
the Southwest. It was at this time that she cut her teeth, as it 
were, on what is good and what to look for among the artifacts 
and Indian culture. 

She early learned to accept and rely on the judgement of those 
people who had worked all their lives with the Indians. Many 
trips were made to the center of the Indian culture in the south- 
west, until she came to be trusted by her red friends. With the 
help of the traders on the reservations Madge Walters was able 
to pick up choice pieces of historical and ceremonial artifacts. 
Naturally the author was able to realize a profit on all the material 
she handled. 



BOOK REVIEWS 225 

The second phase of her life as a trader has to do with the 
Northern Plains Indians, the Sioux, the Crows and the Cheyennes. 
Again she was able through friends to acquire for her shop in 
San Diego some of the ancient and authentic artifacts. Many were 
ceremonial artifacts that are no longer used and were passing from 
use at the time the author collected them. 

The third phase has to do with the Indians of Canada, the 
Blackfeet, the Piegan, and the Bloods, all related. Through the 
influence of Mr. Willard Schultz she was able to visit a Blood Sun 
dance and all the attendant ceremonies. Again she collected great 
quantities of ancient artifacts, using as a medium of exchange 
money, cloth, blankets from the southwest Indians, tobacco and 
just plain friendship. One of her most prized possessions was a 
tomahawk still blood covered from its use in the Indian conflicts. 

Many of the items that Madge Walters collected found their way 
into museums where they will be given their true place in the life 
of the Indian of the past. Those that have fallen into private 
hands all too often lose their value and become but a bit of junk 
and as such are allowed to return to dust or are disposed of as 
junk. 

Madge Walters relates some of the customs and ceremonials of 
the Indians that have been allowed to die out because the present 
generation feels as though the white man belittles them in the per- 
formance of their ceremonials. She was privileged to witness 
many dances by the different Indian tribes that are not now per- 
formed and have been lost through indifference by the present 
generation. 

Cheyenne Charles Ritter 



Wagons Rolled West. By Elsie Moore Lott. (Sale Lake City: 
Stevens & Wallis, Inc., 1955. 62 pp. illus. $2.50) 

In her recently published book of poems, "Wagons Rolled 
West", Elsie Moore Lott draws back the heavy velvet curtains of 
time, and lets the reader share the joys and hardships of the 
pioneers who traveled in covered wagons from Nauvoo, Illinois, 
to Salt Lake Valley in 1846-47. Their story, told in lyrical verse, 
becomes very real to the reader because the author is so deeply 
and personally interested in the early history of the west. 

"This interest dates back to my earliest childhood," Elsie Moore 
Lott states. "I was the youngest of the family and had five sisters 
and two brothers. I was a great chum of my father who was a 
wonderful story teller and enthralled me with tales of his pioneer- 
ing days. He crossed the plains as a boy in the covered wagon 
days of 1847; carried mail by pony express; fought in the Black 
Hawk War; was a member of the party that first discovered the 



226 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

fabulously rich Tintic Mining District in Utah, 1869; developed 
various water resources including the Alta Ditch which served 
Provo Bench; and established the first fruit farm on Provo Bench." 

Writing of her childhood days here on the ranch at the foot of 
the mountains, she says, "Father had many fine thoroughbred 
horses which were my great love. I broke and trained the colts. 
Their grace of action and their winning ways led me to draw 
them in their different poses. Such sketching led me into studying 
water colors. Later I became active in numerous women's clubs 
where I was frequently asked to give readings of my poetry, and 
was urged to have them published so eventually I did in the 
book, "Wagons Rolled West and Other Poems." 

Daguerreotypes of Stephen Bliss Moore and his wife, Eleanor 
Colton Moore, the pioneer father and mother of the author appear 
in this book, which is also illustrated with her numerous clever 
pencil sketches that reflect the lyrical quality of the poems. 

Following the major epic poem, "Wagons Rolled West", are 
many short poems which show a great love of nature, the open 
plains and mountains, and portray the author's keen understanding 
of human nature. Her writing is spiced with sly, gentle humor. 
Several characteristic quotations from the book are: 

THE MOUNTAINS 

Let us worship in the mountains 
By the side of sagebrush fires, 
With the curling smoke for incense 
And the mountain peaks for spires. 

Let us drink an inspiration 
From the crystal streams that flow 
And renew our souls in silence 
As we gaze on peaks of snow. 

There are subtle fancies woven 
From the gold of autumn leaves, 
As around us drifts the fragrance 
Of the pine and cedar trees. 

Let us worship in the mountains 
Where the lonely vastness brings 
Our hearts into close communion 
With the shy and hidden things. 

There are those who love the city 
With its streets all in a row, 
But I'll away to the mountains 
Where the vagrant breezes blow. 

This book is dedicated "To Merrill", the husband whose faith 
and encouragement made the book possible. He is an industrial 
engineer and an author in the technical field of engineering. His 
work took them away from Utah to New York City, and finally to 
Los Angeles where they now live at 2525 Aiken Ave. They have 



BOOK REVIEWS 227 

one son, Stephen, also an engineer, whose favorite hobby is sing- 
ing pioneer songs. 

"Yes," Elsie Moore Lott writes, "I get very homesick for Utah 
and the mountains as I knew them in my youth. We make many 
trips back and when I get into those mountains I have a satisfying 
feeling that I belong." In her poem "Los Angeles" she says: 

"I long for crashing thunder 

The sound of pelting rain; 

Glory of a rainbow 

Across a field of grain." 

Lusk, Wyoming Mae Urbanek 



Lincoln's Choice. By J. O. Buckeridge. (Harrisburg: The Stack- 
pole Company, 1956. xviii + 254 pp., illus., bibliography, 
index. $5.00.) 

Past attempts by authors and publishers to dangle before the 
buying public the magic name of Lincoln are put to shame by the 
ingenuity of Buckeridge and Stackpole. Stretching the device 
to its ultimate they have come forth with a book about the Spencer 
seven-shooter, a fascinating gun, but have relied upon the Presi- 
dent to sell it for them. 

It is true, that shortly after the Battle of Gettysburg, Christopher 
Spencer brought his repeating weapon to the White House and 
watched Lincoln fire at a pine board in what is now Potomac 
Park. W. O. Stoddard, a young newspaper editor the President 
had known in Illinois, participated in some of the gun's tests. 
After the war he wrote that the weapon was Lincoln's choice; and 
so a book title. 

The real choice seems to have been that of the soldier. The 
difference between fifteen shots per minute with a repeating rifle 
as opposed to one, or possibly two, in the same period with a 
muzzle loader, was often the difference between life and death. 
The multiplication of fire power by fifteen had an appeal to the 
man in battle that needed no advertising or selling. The problem, 
as always, was that of getting official sanction for something new. 
That is what the book is really about. 

The author appears to feel that the gun needed his defense. The 
entire volume is a sales talk about the qualities of the weapon, 
the blindness of the War Department officials for not recognizing 
it as the answer to victory, the stupidity of all who would not see 
that the Spencer-armed cavalry was vital to successful military 
operations, — and here Sherman gets his lumps — and, finally, all 
the examples the author can muster of engagements whose out- 
come was affected by the Spencer. 

Mr. Buckeridge's passionate arguments represent an interesting 
essay in defense of a fine weapon but the total does not add up 



228 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

to a first rate book. The work is not well organized, wrong words 
are used (Sumpter for Sumter, Briton for Britain, and the constant 
confusion of Capitol with Capital), and there is a general imbal- 
ance in presentation in an attempt to show the importance of the 
repeating rifle. The reviewer cannot agree with Mr. Ashley 
Halsey, Jr., associate editor of the Saturday Evening Post, who 
wrote in the foreword: "What Mr. Buckeridge has done is to 
look at the gun and the man behind the gun, rather than taking 
a routine view of the tactics, strategy and pomposities of war. 
From his fresh vantage point, he perceived what formal historians 
with scant knowledge of firearms overlooked. . . ." 

On the contrary, with a rich subject, the author missed the bull's 
eye, and left us with a subject well worth repeating — by someone 
with a better aim. 

University of Colorado Robert G. Athearn 



So Far from Spring. By Peggy Simson Curry. (New York: Viking 
Press, 1956. 344 p. $3.95.) 

Kelsey Cameron came to North Park, Colorado, expecting a 
land of opportunity where a man could build a fortune in the 
course of a few years. He found a land of vast distances and 
bitter winds, sombre with the gray of sagebrush that reached as 
far as one could see. He found the cousin who had written 
glowing accounts of this far-off country, a soured, disillusioned 
man, living in dirt and disorder, content to run a ranch for some- 
one else and forget his early ambition. 

But Kelsey was made of different stuff. From the first he was 
determined to succeed, to bring over the girl he had left in Scot- 
land, with whom he had had one night of love. Beginning with 
a single cow, won in a lucky poker game, he built up a herd of 
fifty but sold all but the original one, to go for his wife and child. 

From that time on, it is the story of the young wife Prim, coming 
as a bride with a five-year-old child, struggling to adapt herself 
to a raw new country. Perhaps her name is a bit unfortunate, 
making too obvious the contrast between the two women who are 
the opposing forces in Kelsey's life. The name seems at times 
not wholly appropriate; she slips a little too easily into the rough- 
ness of speech and manners around her. The most important 
thing, however, is not the triangle situation which Prim senses 
from the first, but Kelsey's effort to carry out what his mother has 
said to him. "Make what happened with you and Prim Munro 
a good and beautiful thing; make it so if it takes a lifetime." 

In its emphasis on this theme the book might seem idealistic, 
but in detail it is almost brutally frank. Mrs. Curry's aim has 



BOOK REVIEWS 229 

been to give the real West, not the glamorized version of the 
typical Western story and the film. One might ask if in her desire 
for honesty she has sometimes gone a bit far the other way. We 
wonder if Dolly Gentry's house would have been the only one in 
the region to show cleanliness and order. Only those who lived 
through the period and shared its hardships and its satisfactions 
would be able to answer this question. 

But this is a minor point. The cowpunchers and ranchers are 
real people and we follow their fortunes with interest. Monte 
Maguire, who, when the women refused to accept her, gave up 
trying to be a lady and cast in her lot with the men, becoming the 
largest ranch-owner in the Park, is an admirably conceived char- 
acter. Her interest in helping on Kelsey's career is stronger even 
than her jealousy of his wife. 

There are powerful scenes in the book. One is the birth of the 
son whom Prim has not wanted, and another his death and the 
lonely burial. Strongest of all is the time when feed is running 
out in a long hard winter, and rather than let the cattle starve 
in the meadows, Monte decides to trail them over the mountain to 
the Laramie plains. We feel that we actually experience the 
lurching of the wagon, the cold wind and the snow, the sight of 
cattle dying along the trail. And it builds up to a terrific climax 
when one man, crazed by the hardships, is killed to save the rest. 

Probably the best thing of all is the impression the book gives 
of the country. The description of the different seasons, of the 
details of the landscape, is excellent. Jediah, who is something 
of a philosopher, sums up the attitude of people toward it, in his 
first meeting with Kelsey. "The Park's more than a place; it's a 
way of livin', son. And you're gonna fall in love with it or you're 
gonna hate it the way a man can hate another man's guts. Nobody 
I ever met has an in-between feelin' about the Park." This is 
true, not only of the North Park, but of all this Rocky Mountain 
region. At first the impression of it is brought out by Kelsey's 
constant comparison with the green of Scotland. But gradually 
he comes to see the beauty and the grandeur as well as the bleak 
loneliness. 

The one thing that keeps Kelsey and Prim together, and even, 
when they have thought to separate, still holds them in the end, 
is Heather, their daughter. She is vexed at their bickering, but 
she loves them both. The minister who baptized her wrote to 
Kelsey, she "has the best of both of you in her," and we feel that 
this is true. Perhaps it is fanciful to play with the title and say 
that in their lives so far Kelsey and Prim have gone through 
winter, both literally and figuratively, but in their daughter they 
have found the spring. 

Laramie, Wyoming Clara F. McIntyre 



230 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The Marked Men. By Allan Vaughan Elston. (New York: J. B. 
Lippincott Company, 1956. 221 pp. $2.75.) 

This is the latest western novel to come from the pen of Allan 
Vaughan Elston in which he has woven a fictional story based 
on an authentic background of locations, persons and facts insofar 
as the actual Johnson County Invasion is concerned. 

The Johnson County Invasion or "War" which took place in 
1892 came about as a result of a changing economy from the 
open range to a settled, fenced country. Asa Mercer, in his 
Banditti of the Plains gave the first account of this episode in 
Wyoming history, telling the story from the viewpoint of the small 
settler. Robert B. David in his Malcolm Campbell, Sheriff dwelt 
upon the story from the side of the big cattlemen. 

Elston has based his facts upon these and other accounts and 
upon newspaper research, weaving a story of love interest in with 
the Invasion story. Although he has to some extent attempted 
to be neutral, his leanings are definitely upon the side of the 
small rancher. 

Cheyenne Lola Homsher 



Contributors 



Charles D. Carey, son of Charles D. and Ellison Ellen Miller 
Carey, is a native of Cheyenne where he is engaged in the business 
of life insurance and property management. He attended the 
University of Colorado, and during World War II he was in the 
U. S. Air Force (1942-1945). Mr. Carey is a member of one of 
Wyoming's prominent pioneer families. His grandfather, Joseph 
M. Carey, served Wyoming as Territorial Justice of the Supreme 
Court and later as United States Senator and Governor. 



Vada Florella Rose Carlson is the Woman's Page Editor of 
the Arizona Daily Sun, Flagstaff, Arizona. She began her news- 
paper work in Riverton on the Riverton Chronicle in the fall of 
1915. Since that time she has worked on newspapers in California 
and Arizona. From March-June 1956 Mrs. Carlson worked on 
the Riverton Ranger, writing the history of Riverton for the 50th 
Anniversary Edition of the Ranger on the founding of Riverton, 
issued August 15, 1956. Mrs. Carlson is the author of numerous 
magazine articles, poems and stories and of the book of poetry 
The Desert Speaks. 



General Index 



VOLUME 28 



Abernathy, Sam, 157, 158-159; photo 
on horse, 152. 

Abney, Jim, 61, 65, 66. 

Adams, Rhody, 19. 

Adams, William Stuart, 130, 133, 
139; stakes townsite at Riverton, 
128. 

Adams, Mrs. William Stuart (Al- 
zada E.), 130; first white woman 
on Riverton townsite, 129. 

Airplane, first flight in Wyoming, 
139. 

All American Indian Days, Sheri- 
dan, 1955, illus., 22, 24; history 
of, 21-26; judges, 25; religious 
services, illus., 22; tribes repre- 
sented, 22-23. Miss Indian Amer- 
ica II and III, 24, 25. 

Allyn, Frank H., 129, 141. 

Allyn, Mrs. Frank H., 132, 142. 

Allyn, Mary Julia (Moore), Twen- 
tieth Century Pioneering, reviewed 
by Agnes Wright Spring, 220-221. 

American Indian of the Year, 1955, 
award, 25; judges for, 25. 

Amick, Ray, 41. 

Anaconda: Life and Times of Mar- 
cus Daly, The Copper King, by 
H. Minar Shoebotham, reviewed 
by Mrs. Lois B. Payson, 221-223. 

Anderson, Major, 183, 184. 

Andrus, Herbert, 155, 158-159; 
photo, 152. 

Anspaugh, Alice, review of Look at 
the Old West, by Foster-Harris, 
218-219. 

"Antiquities Act" 3, 7. 

Arch Creek, 38. 

Archambault, Wynema Rose, 24. 

Artifacts, See Indian artifacts. 

Ash Hollow, Neb., 72. 

Ashby, Billy, 65. 

Astin, Mrs. Mary, 187, 189. 

Athearn, Robert G., review of Lin- 
coln's Choice, by J. O. Bucke- 

' ridge, 227-228; review of The 
Pony Express, by Lee Jensen, 
105-107; review of Saddles and 
Spurs: The Pony Express Saga, by 
R. W. and M. L. Settle, 105-107. 

"Automobiles for the Park", by 
Cody Stockgrower, 1908, 20. 



Ayres, A. Clement, 59, 167, 191. 
Ayres Natural Bridge Park, 59, 167, 
191. 



Bacon, Billy, 65; ranch of, 50. 

Badger, [Wyo.] 66, 67. 

Badger Station, marker of, 43. 

Bagley, Lester, gives paper on Ore- 
gon Trail marker, 43. 

Baird, Dr. Spencer F., 68, 69. 

Baker, Ralston, 58. 

Bannack City, Mont., 201-202. 

Barber, Dr. A. W., 64. 

Barbour, Dr. Edwin H., 121. 

Barbour quarries, 121, 125; illus., 
118. 

Barlow, "Bill" See Barrow, Mer- 
ris C. 

Barlow, L. H., 210, 211. 

Barrel Springs Stage Station, 79. 

Barrow, Merris C, 63. 

Bat's Canyon, origin of name, 174. 

Bat's Creek, origin of name, 174. 

Battle of Bear River, 1832, 197, 204. 

Battle of Horseshoe Creek, 44-46. 

Battle of Little Bighorn, 6, 30. 

Battle of Platte Bridge, See Platte 
Bridge Fight 

Battle of Red Buttes, 183-186. 192. 

Bear Creek, 43, 66. 

Bear Creek Draw, 46, 66. 

Bear River, Battle at, 1832. 197, 
204. 

Bear Trap Creek, 33, 38. 

Beidleman, Richard G., editor, The 
1859 Overland Journal of Natu- 
ralist George Suckley, 68-79; biog. 
of, 116. 

Bellamy, Mr., 46. 

Bellamy Ranch, on Cottonwood, 45. 

Belle Fourche Bridge, 12. 

Bellwood Court, 67. 

Berger, Charles, 131. 

Berlin, Hans, 128, 142. 

Bernhisel, John M., 88. 

Bierman, Henry, 179. 

"Big Bend Bazoo" (newspaper col- 
umn), 132. 



232 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Bi2 Blue River, Neb., 71. 

'Bia Foot" (wolf), 164-165. 

Big Muddy Oil Field, 176. 

Big Nemaha River, 70. 

Bill Barlow's Budget, 63. 

Birds, collected in 1859 (Kans. to 

Utah), by George Suckley, 70-79. 
Bishop, Loren Clark, 41, 43, 58, 59. 

95, 179, 187, 212; letter from 

C. W. Horr, 65-66. 
Bitter Cottonwood Stage Station, 43. 
Bitter Creek, Wyo., 79. 
Bixby Ranch, 172; stage station, 191. 
Blair, Montgomery P., letter from 

Ben Holladay, 89. 
Boisvert, Francis, 196. 
Boland, Abe, 140. 
Boodry, David, 209, 212. 
Bordeaux, [Wyo.], 50. 
Botchford, Mr., 149. 
Bourke, Capt. John, 39. 
Box Elder Pony Express and Stage 

Station, 172. 
Bower, Earl, 212. 
Bowey, W. H. J., 142. 
Bowron, Frank, 94. 
Boyack, Col. A. R., 167, 191. 
Boyack, Hazel Noble, summarizes 

Trek no. 3, 190-192. 
Boyd, John, 60. 
Bozeman Trail, 28. 
Bradley, William R., 167, 190. 
Bragg, William F. Jr., 211; review 

of Tragedy Strikes at Wounded 

Knee, by Will H. Spindler, 114- 

115. 
Bragg, William F. Sr., 212. 
Bragg, Mrs. William F. Sr., 209. 
Brayer, Herbert O., 25. 
Breniman, Mrs. Walter, 139. 
Bretney, Capt. Henry C, 183-85. 
Bridger, Jim, 174; ferry of, near 

Orin, 173. 
Bridger's Pass, 75, 77. 
Bridle Bit outfit, 65. 
Brock. J. Elmer, 33, 37; experiences 

with wolves, 162-164; wolf killed 

by, illus., 163. 
Brown, Mark H. and Felton, W. R., 

The Frontier Years, reviewed by 

Mary Lou Pence, 112-14. 
Brown, W. L., 174. 
Brubaker, Al, gives paper on Deer 

Creek Stage Station, 173-179. 
Buckeridge, J. O., Lincoln's Choice, 

reviewed by Robert G. Athearn, 

227-228. 
Bucknum, Charley, 188. 
Buck's Peak, origin of name, 174. 



Buffalo, encountered, 1859, 72. 

Buffalo Bill, See Cody, William F. 

Buffalo Bill; King of the Old West, 
by E. J. Leonard and J. C. Good- 
man, reviewed by T. A. Larson, 
100 103. 

Buffalo Bill and Wild West, by H. 
B. Sell and V. Weybright, re- 
viewed by T. A. Larson, 100-103. 

Building of Grevbull, 99. 

Bull's Bend, 45, 66, 67. 

Bundy, Howard, 208. 

Bundy, Mrs. Howard, 208, 211, 212. 

Burns, Dr. Robert Homer, 209; and 
Gillespie, A. S., and Richardson, 
W. G., Wyoming's Pioneer Ranch- 
es, reviewed by Maurice Frink, 
109-110, given award, 209; review 
of Cattle and Men, by C. W. 
Towne and E. N. Wentworth, 
108-109. 

Butterfield Overland Express, 71. 



California-Nevada Volunteers, 86. 

Camp, George, 184. 

Camp Carlin, buildings of, 146; duel 
at, 149; employees at, 147; fur- 
nishes supplies to forts, 146-147; 
history of, 145-150; illus., 144; 
life at, 148-149. 

Camp Carlin, by Charles D. Carey, 
145-150. 

Camp Connor, 201. 

Camp Floyd, Utah, 69. 

Camp Marshall, 55. 

Camp Medicine Butte, Wyo., 77. 

Camp Platte, 180-181. 

Camp Walbach, 74. 

Campbell, Malcolm, 64, 175, 178. 

Campbell, Dr. W. A., 25. 

Campbell County Historical Society. 
208, 210, 211. 

Campfield, "Aunt Fannie", 188. 

Campfield, "Uncle Matt", 188. 

Cantonment Reno, 31, 37. 

Car, Richard, 155, 157. 

Carey, Charles D., biog. of, 230; 
Camp Carlin, 145-150. 

Carey, J. M., ranch of, 174. 

Carey, Robert, 188. 

Carley, Maurine, 94, 167, 208; com- 
piler, Oregon Trail Trek, No. 2, 
41-67; Oregon Trail Trek, No. 3, 
166-192; review of Oglala Sioux, 
by Robert H. Ruby, 219-220. 



INDEX 



233 



Carling, Col. Elias B., 145-146, 148. 

Carlson, Vada Florella Rose, biog. 
of, 230; Riverton: From Sage to 
City, 127-143. 

Carson, Kit, 173. 

Carson, Capt. Thomas G., 129. 

Carter. Judge William A., sutler, 
Fort Bridger, 44, 92. 

Casement, Dan, 146. 

Cash, Gene, ranch of, 28, 29, 33. 

Casper Mountains, origin of name, 
186. 

Cassa Flats, 66. 

Cassidy, "Butch" (outlaw), 160. 

Cattle and Men, by C. W. Towne 
and E. N. Wentworth, reviewed 
by R. H. Burns, 108-109. 

Chambers, Major Alexander, 59. 

Champion, Mervin, 211, 212; re- 
view of The Northwest Gun, by 
Charles E. Hanson, Jr., 223-224. 

Chatterton, Fenimore, 136; organ- 
izes Wyoming Central Irrigation 
Co., 127-128. 

Chenery, J. A. L., (Jack) 132, 136, 
142. 

Chenoweth, Maurene, review of 
Ghost Towns of Wyoming, by 
Mary Lou Pence and Lola M. 
Homsher, 216-217. 

Cherokee Trail, 81. 

Cheyenne Depot, history of, 145- 
150. 

Cheyenne Episcopal Church, 145. 

Cheyenne Pass, 74. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, into Wyoming, 7. 

Chiefs, See Indians: name of chief. 

Chugwater River, 73. 

Circle F Ranch, 155, 157. 

Cisco, John I., 199, 203. 

Clark, Edward, 177. 

Clayton, "Jerky Bill", 177-178. 

Cody, William F., 47; books about, 
reviewed, 100-103; interested in 
automobiles in park, 20. 

Cogswell, Dr. John G., 135. 

Colfax, Schuyler, letter from Luther 
Mann, Jr., 196. 

Collins, Lt. Caspar Wever, 180-186, 
189, 190, 192. 

Collins, Col. William O., 181, 192. 

.Collister, Mr., 174. 

Condit, Mrs. Thelma, 209, 212; The 
Hole-in-the Wall, pt. 2, The In- 
dians, 27-40. The Hole-in-the 
Wall, pt. 3, The Wolfers, 151-165. 

Connaghan, Mrs. Catharine, 138. 

Connaghan, Jeanette, 139. 



Connaghan, Mary, 139. 

Connaghan, Robert, 138. 

Conner, Glenn A., 41, 167. 

Connor, Col. Patrick Edward, 86, 
89, 198, 201, 203. 

Continental Oil Company, 176. 

Cook, Frederick, 87, 88. 

Cook, Rev. Joseph W., 145. 

Cooper, Tom, 188. 

Converse, A. R., 175. 

Cottonwood Divide [Wyo.], mark- 
er, 43. 

Coulson, Mrs. B. J., 211. 

Courthouse Rock, Neb., 73. 

Craig, Gen. [James] 86. 

Crawford, Capt. Medorem, 84. 

Crook, Gen. George, 30-32, 38, 39. 

Cross, G. H., 66. 

Crowe, George W., custodian, Dev- 
ils Tower, 14. 

Croy, Homer, Wheels West, re- 
viewed by Walter L. Samson, 104- 
105. 

Culp, Adam, 185. 

Curry, George (outlaw) ranch, 164. 

Curry, Peggy Simson, So Far from 
Spring, reviewed by Clara F. Mc- 
Intyre, 228-229; given award, 209. 

Custard, Sergeant Amos J., 183, 
192. 

Custer, Gen. George A., 6, 30. 

CY Ranch, 188. 



Dale, James, 131. 

Daley, Mrs. P. E., 212. 

Daly, Marcus, 147. 

Dampier, David, 45, 46. 

David, Robert B., 187, 188, 212. 

Davis, Allie, 131. 

Dean, Samuel, 207. 

Deardorff, C. E., 137. 

Deer Creek Stage Station, 173-179; 
See also Deer Creek Station. 

Deer Creek Station, 47, 61, 62, 171, 
172-179. 

Defender, Mary Louise (Miss In- 
dian America, II) photo, 24. 

Delf elder, Jacob A., 140. 

Dempsey, [Robert] (Indian inter- 
preter), 202. 

Devils Tower, ascent of William 
Rogers, 1893, illus., 8; exhibition 
ascent handbill, 8; illus., 2; Indian 
legend, illus., 14; origin of name, 
5-6; poster, 14. 



234 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Devils Tower National Monument, 
210; anniversary (50th) 3; chron- 
ology, 17; climbers, 14-15; cus- 
todians, 12, 14, 16; history of, 
3-20; illus., 2; legends, 3, 4; 
placed under Nat. Park Service, 
11-12; visitors, statistics, 13, 14. 

Devils Tower National Monument, 
by Ray H. Mattison, 3-20. 

Devoe, George, 176. 

Diamond A. Hills, 44, 45, 66, 67. 

Dickey, Hubert, 211. 

Dillinger, Mrs. Delia, 211. 

Diltz, Fred, Jr., talk on La Bonte 
Station, 54-56, 57. 

Dinwoodie Caves, artifacts from, 
95. 

Dodge. Col. Richard I., 5, 31. 

Dole, William P., letters from J. D. 
Doty, 82-86, 88-89, 89-90, 193- 
195, 197-199, 201-204; letters 
from Luther Mann, Jr., 200, 204; 
letter from H. Martin, 93; letters 
to J. D. Doty, July 22, 1862, 80- 
82; June 1, 1863, 199-200; June 
20, 1863, 201. 

Dominick, Dr. DeWitt, 208, 209, 
210, 211. 

Dorsey, George A., 121. 

Doty, James Duane, 87, 88; letters 
from W. P. Dole, 80-82, 199-200; 
letter from J. A. Gebow, 195; 
letter from L. Martin, Jr., 196; 
letter from David Moore, 193; 
letters to W. P. Dole, Aug. 5, 
1862, 82-86; Aug. 25, 1862, 88- 
89; Aug. 29, 1862, 89-90; Nov. 
26, 1862, 193-195; Jan. 28, 1863, 
197; Feb. 16, 1863, 197-198; Mr. 
30, 1863, 198-199; June 20, 1863, 
201-203; June 26, 1863, 203-204; 
July 3, 1863, 204. 

Doughty, "Bob", 130. 

Doughty, George, 130. 

Doughty family, 137. 

Douglas, Stephen A., 190. 

Douglas, Wyo., naming of, 63. 

Drummond, Goyne, stakes townsite 
of Riverton, 128, 129. 

Dull Knife Fight, 1876, 30; site of, 
illus., 36, map, 32. 

Dull Knife Pass, 28, 29, 33, 37, 38, 
39, 40. 

Durrance, Jack, 15. 

Dye, Maj. William McE., 62. 

Dykeman, Peter B., 142. 



Early Days and Indian Ways, by 
Madge Hardin Walters, reviewed 
by Charles Ritter, 224-225. 

Edwards, Glen R., gives account of 
La Prele Stage Station, 58-60. 

Eggan, Fred, editor, Social Anthro- 
pology of North American Tribes, 
reviewed by Charles R. Kaut, 
103-104. 

The 1859 Overland Journal of 
Naturalist George Sucklex, by 
Richard G. Beidleman, 68-79. 

E K Mountain, 37. 

Elkhorn, [Wyo.], 50, 51. 

Ellison, Robert S., 175, 188. 

Elston, Allan Vaughan, The Marked 
Men, reviewed by Lola Homsher, 
230; The Wyoming Bubble, re- 
viewed by H. J. Salisbury, 107- 
108. 

Emigrant trail, 1862, moved farther 
south, 81. 

Emigrants, Indian attacks on, 83, 
84, 86, 90, 92; in 1862, 193-194. 

Emigration, 1849-1851, 191. 

Esmay, Gen. R. L., 167. 

Expedition, 1859, Fort Leavenworth 
to Bridger's Pass, 69-79. 



Farnum, E. B., 55. 

Feil, Antonio K., 188. 

Felton, W. R. and Brown, M. H., 

The Frontier Years, reviewed by 

Mary Lou Pence, 112-114. 
Fenex, Billy, 177-178. 
Fenix, John, 66. 
Fetterman, Col. W. J., 63. 
First airplane flight in Wyoming, 

139. 
First child born in Riverton, 135. 
First teachers in Riverton, 132. 
Fisher, J. N., 141. 
Flick, Mr., 133. 
Forney, Mr., 133. 
Fort Bridger, 44. 
Fort Caspar, 63, 186; abandoned, 

1867, 187; history of, 180-186; 

restoration of, 186-190. 
Fort Casper Association, formed, 

189. 
Fort Douglas, Utah, 86. 
Fort Fetterman, history given by C. 

L. McDermott, 62-65; in 1886, 

177. 
Fort Halleck, 75. 
Fort Laramie, 73, 74. 



INDEX 



235 



Fort Laramie-New Mexico Road, 
73. 

Fort Leavenworth-Fort Kearney 
road, 71. 

Fort Reno, 31, 154. 

Fort D. A. Russell, 146. 

Foster-Harris, Look at the Old 
West, reviewed by Alice Ans- 
paugh, 218-219. 

Fox, Samuel R., 87, 88. 

Fraker, Harmon, 161. 

Franklin, Mr., grave of, 168. 

Frederick, Henry, Ranch Museum, 
41. 

Fremont, Gen. John C, 174. 

Fremont Elkhorn Missouri Rail- 
road, 1886, 58. 

Friend, John, 184. 

Frink, Maurice, review of Wyo- 
ming's Pioneer Ranches, by R. H. 
Burns, A. W. Gillespie, and W. G. 
Richardson, 109-110. 

The Frontier Years, by M. H. 
Brown and W. R. Felton, re- 
viewed by Mary Lou Pence, 112- 
114. 

Fuller, E. O., special investigator. 
Land Office, 10. 

Fuller, Frank, 87, 88. 



Gamier, Baptiste ("Little Bat") 
174. 

Gatchell, T. J. ; (Jim), 33, 38, 39. 

Gautschi, Hanns, 121. 

Gebow, Joseph A., approved as in- 
terpreter, 197-198; book on Sho- 
shone Dialect, 195, 196; letter to 
J. D. Doty, Dec. 18, 1862, 195. 

George, Charles, 66. 

George, Peter, 66. 

Ghost Towns of Wyoming, by Mary 
Lou Pence and Lola M. Homsher, 
reviewed by Maurene Chenoweth, 
216-217. 

Gibson, Henry, 138. 

Gibson, Orion N., 138, 143. 

Gilbert, Mrs. Nellie, 141. 

Gill, F. M., 132. 

Gillespie, Andrew Springs, Burns, 
R. H., and Richardson, W. G., 
Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches, re- 
viewed by Maurice Frink, 109- 
110; given award, 209. 

Gillette Lions Club, 210. 

Gillette Rotary Club, 210. 



Gleason, Mrs. Eleanor, 211. 

Glenn, E. T., 142. 

Glenn, Mrs. E. T., 130. 

Glenrock, Wyo., 175-176; business 
buildings, 177; early newspapers 
of, 177; origin of name, 175. 

Glenrock Graphic, 177. 

God's Obelisk (poem), by Mae 
Urbanek, 126. 

Goodman, J. C, and Leonard, E. J., 
Buffalo Bill: King of the Old 
West, reviewed by T. A. Larson, 
100-103. 

Goodman, T. E., 142. 

Gore, Frank, 65. 

Gore, Sir George, 173. 

Graham, Charles, 7. 

Grand Central Hotel, Riverton, 133. 

Grasshopper Creek, Neb., 71. 

Gratz, Margretta, 211. 

Grave, Frank, ranch of, 33. 

Graves, Sam, 54. 

Graves of, Mary Kelly, 168; Ada 
Magill, 179-180; J. P. Parker, 
179, 192; pioneers, near Little 
Box Elder Creek Crossing, 168; 
E. B. Piatt, 179; M. Ringo, 179, 
192; A. H. Unthank, 172, 192. 

Green, C. J., 133. 

Green, M. A., 133. 

Greenburg, D. W., 175. 

Greybull, history of, 99. 

Greybull Bank, 99. 

Griffey, Lorenzo George, 137, 143. 

Griffey, Orville, 138. 

Griffey Hill, 143. 

Grim, Corp. Paul, 182, 183. 

Grouard, Frank, 38, 154. 

Grover, Capt. Cuvier, 73. 

Gudmundsen, J. W., 129. 

Guinard Bridge, 189. 

Gutzman, Bertha, 135. 



Hammond, Maj. F. A., 193. 

Hankammer, Sergeant, 183. 

Hansen, Supt. 198. 

Hanson, Charles E., Jr., The North- 
west Gun, reviewed by Mervin 
Champion, 223-224. 

Hanson, Fred, 140. 

Hanway, E. P., 167. 

Hard Robe (Cheyenne scout), 38, 
39. 

Hardy, Mrs. Roy, 208, 209, 211. 
212. 

Hardy & Cove, Greybull, 99. 



236 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Harper, Bill, 45-46. 

Hayden, Dr. F. V., 4. 

Hays, David, 131. 

Hays, Roy E., 131, 140. 

Henderson, Paul, 54. 

Henry Frederick Ranch Museum, 
41. 

Herman, Otto, 43. 

Herring, Mrs. Jessie, 135. 

Hibbad, W. B., 87, 88. 

Hienes, Cecilia, 55. 

Higgins, Mrs. John E., 177-178. 

Hill, Bill, 46, 47. 

Hill, George (Indian interpreter), 
193. 

Historical Landmark Commission, 
See Wyoming Historical Land- 
mark Commission. 

Historical markers, 95; Badger Sta- 
tion, 43; Cottonwood Divide, 43; 
Heck Reel Wagon Trail, 48, 49; 
LaBonte Wagon Hound Divide, 
56; Oregon Trail Marker (near 
Glendo) 49; Wagon Hound (red 
soil) 56-58. 

Hog Ranch, 65, 66. 

The Hole-in-the-Wall, pt. 2, The In- 
dians, by Thelma Gatchell Con- 
dit, 27-40; pt. 3, The Wolfers, 
151-165. 

Hole-in-the Wall country, 151-165. 

Holladay, Ben, letter to M. P. Blair, 
Aug. 26, 1862, 89. 

Hollady, Joseph, 87- 88. 

Holmes, W. H., 121, 124. 

Holmes Quarries, 121; illus., 118. 

Holt, Frank, 141. 

Homestead entries, Riverton, 128. 

Homsher, Lola M., 94, 208; and 
Mary Lou Pence, Ghost Towns of 
Wyoming, reviewed by Maurene 
Chenoweth, 216-217; review of 
The Marked Men, by Allan 
Vaughan Elston, 230. 

Hooker, Bill, on La Bonte Creek, 
55. 

Hopkins, George, stunt at Devils 
Tower, 15-16. 

Hornback, Ann, 61. 

Horr, C. W. letter to L. C. Bishop, 
65-66. 

Horr, Charley, 62. 

Horseshoe Creek Battle, 44-46, 47. 

Horseshoe Creek Station, 44, 67. 

Horseshoe Road Ranch, 44. 

Horseshoe Station (Mormon mail 
station) 46-48. 

Horseshoe Valley, 43, 44. 

Hotel Kimball, 179. 



Howard, Bill, 66. 

Humphrey, Capt., 149. 

Huntington, D. B., 82. 

Hunton, John, 46, 54, 174, 175. 

Hunton Creek, origin of name, 174. 

Hunton's Canyon, origin of name, 

174. 
Hurd, Vernon, 209, 212. 
Hutchinson, Mrs. Thomas, 59. 
Hutton, J. T., 5. 
HY Ranch, 188. 
Hynds, Missou, 64. 



Iba, Cy, 176. 

Idaho Territory, 1863, 80. 

Illinois Creek, 70. 

Indian annuities, 147, 195. 

Indian artifacts, 96-99; axes, 
grooved and grooveless, 96-97; 
chisels, 96, 98; celts, 96-98; chop- 
ping, 96-99; hoes, 96, 98; gouges, 
96, 98; illus. of, 96, 214; Johnson 
county, 29; knives, 213; scrapers, 
213-215, illus. 214; spades, 96, 98; 
Spanish Diggings, 122, making of, 
123-125. 

Indian depredations on emigrants, 

1862, 83, 84, 86, 90, 92, 193-194; 

1863, 199, 203-204; on Overland 
Mail Co., 1862, 84-85, 87. 

"Indian Tom", 193. 
Indian troubles, 1865, 182. 
Indians: Bad Mocassin, 31. 
Indians: Bannock Diggers, 83. 
Indians: Bear Hunter, 198. 
Indians: Black Mouse, 31. 
Indianns: Bright Star (Indian maid- 
en), 174. 
Indians: Charging Bear-Kills in 

Winter, 31. 
Indians: Cheyennes, favorite winter 

camp, 33; in Dull Knife Fight, 

34-35. 
Indians: Chief Crazy Horse, 45, 46, 

47. 
Indians: Chief Dull Knife, 30, 38; 

port. 34. 
Indians: Chief High-Backed Wolf, 

183. 
Indians: Chief Little Soldier, 82, 83, 

203-204. 
Indians: Chief Little Wolf, 34, 38. 
Indians: Chief Narkawk, 207. 
Indians:Chief Ninabutz, 207. 



INDEX 



237 



Indians: Chief Ottawa, 169; and 
band attack Kelly train, 169-172. 

Indians: Chief Pantoshiga, 207. 

Indians: Chief Pash-e-go, 83. 

Indians: Chief Pur-chi-can, 83. 

Indians: Chief Push-e-can, 83 

Indians: Chief Sagowits, 198. 

Indians: Chief Sharp Nose, 38. 

Indians: Chief Shnag, 202. 

Indians: Chief Sitting Bear, 32. 

Indians: Chief Toopsapowit, 207. 

Indians: Chief Toosahp, 207. 

Indians: Chief Two-Moons, 30. 

Indians: Chief Wanapitz, 204. 

Indians: Chief Wanapitz, 207. 

Indians: Chief Washakie, 83, 88. 
193, 204, 207. 

Indians: Chief Weeahyukee, 207. 

Indians: Chief Weerango, 207. 

Indians: Chief White Horse (Arap- 
aho) 59. 

Indians: Crow, in Powder River 
Country, 27-28. 

Indians: Cum-umbahs, 83. 

Indians: Fast Thunder, 31. 

Indians: Fox Belly, 31. 

Indians: Gos-Utes, 83. 

Indians: Lone Dog, 31. 

Indians: Lone Feather, 31. 

Indians: Medicine Bear, 39. 

Indians: No Neck, 31. 

Indians: Plains, use of artifacts, 
213-215. 

Indians: Pretty Voiced Bull, 31. 

Indians: Red Leaf, 31. 

Indians: Sho-e-gars, 83. 

Indians: Shoshonis, 32, 39; boun- 
daries of, 1863, 206; condition of, 

1862, 91; concerning treaty to be 
made, 194; mixed with Bannocks 
and Utahs, 1862, 194; and Treaty 
of 1862, 80-82; and Treaty of 
Peace, July 2, 1863, 205-7; treaty, 
proposed, 1863, 198, 203. 

Indians: Sioux, in Powder River 
country, 27-28. 

Indians: Sorrel Horse, 31. 

Indians: Three Bears, 38. 

Indians: Treaty, 1851, 21. 

Indians: Treaty of 1862 with Sho- 
shonis, 80-82. 

Indians: Treaty of Peace, July 2, 

1863, with Shoshonis, 205-207. 
Indians: Treaty, 1868, 6. 
Indians: War-a-gi-ka (Bannock 

prophet) 83. 
Indians: Weasle Bear, 39. 
Indians: "Weber Utes", 203-204. 
Indians: White Elk, 31. 
Indians: Yellow Shirt, 31. 



Indians cede Black Hills to whites 

[1876], 6. 
Indians in Dull Knife Fight, 30. 
Indians in Hole-in-Wall Country, 

27-40. 
Indians in Powder River Country, 

27. 



Jackson, Howard, 179. 

Jackson, William Henry, 55, 174, 
191. 

James, Henry, 155. 

James, "Poison Joe", 160-161; pho- 
to, 152. 

Jenkins, J. F., at Camp Carlin com- 
missary, 147. 

Jensen, Jens P., 137. 

Jensen, Lee, The Pony Express, re- 
viewed by R. G. Athearn, 105- 
107. 

Jewett, James J. ; 135, 140. 

Jewett, James J., Sr., 135. 

Johnson, Napoleon B., award for 
Outstanding American Indian of 
the Year, 1955, 25. 

Johnson County, Cattlemen's Inva- 
sion, 176. 

Johnston, Gen. Albert Sidney, 69. 

Johnston Army, 1857, 44. 

Jolley, Mr., 175. 

Jones, John, 66. 

Jordon, Oscar T., 138-139. 

Joyner, Newell F., custodian, Devils 
Tower, 14. 

Judkins, William T., 131, 141. 



Kahler, Herbert, 209, 211. 

K a 1 i f Management Corporation, 
sponsors All American Indian 
Days, Sheridan, 22. 

Kamash prairie, Ida., 201 

Kaut, Charles R., review of Social 
Anthropology of North American 
Tribes, edited by Frank Eggan, 
103-104. 

Keith, Jesse, 135. 

Keller, George, 55. 

Kelly, Fanny, 168-172. 

Kelly, Frank, train attacked, 169- 
172. 

Kelly, Mary, grave of, 168; mas- 
sacre of, 168-172. 

Kelso, Red, 41, 167. 



238 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Kendrick, John B., interested in 
Devils Tower National Monu- 
ment, 12. 

Kenney, Sandford, 172. 

Kimball, Allen R., paper written 
on Deer Creek Stage Station, 173- 
179. 

Kimball, Col. E. H., 177-178; starts 
The Rowdv West, 111. 

Kimball, Hiram, 46, 173. 

Kimball, Martha Converse, 189. 

Kimball, Wilson S., 188; publishes 
Glenrock Graphic, 177. 

Kinney, J. F., 87, 88. 

Kintz, Ralph, 208, 211. 

Kintz, Mrs. Ralph, 211. 

Kirch, Lawrence J., 140. 

Kirkwood, Andrew, 56. 

Kloster, Uncle Dick, 39. 



La Boise River, 172. 

La Bonte, Mr., 190; sketch of life, 

54-55. 
La Bonte Stage Station, 1863, illus., 

52; history of, given by Fred 

Dilts, Jr., 54-56, 67. 
La Bonte Wagon Hound Divide, 

marker, 56. 
Laiblin, C. H., 131, 133. 
Lam, Claud, 179. 

Lancaster, Jack, ranch of, 46; re- 
ports on Horseshoe Station, 46-48. 
Land Drawing, Riverton, 1906, 128. 
Land Drawing, Wyoming, 1906, 

128. 
Lander, Frederick, 83. 
Lander Cutoff, 84. 
Lander Eagle, 142. 
Landers, Robert, 135. 
Lapeyre, John, 142. 
Lapeyre Hotel, Riverton, 142. 
LaPrele, origin of name, 67. 
LaPrele Creek, origin of name, 173, 

191. 
LaPrele Stage Station, 67; account 

given by Glen R. Edwards, 58-60; 

talk of Pauline Peyton's on, 60- 

62. 
Laprelle, 67. 
Laramie Mts., 74. 
Larimer, Mrs. Sarah L., 169-172. 
Larimer, W. J., 169-172. 



Larson, Dr. T. A., 208, 209, 212; 

review of Buffalo Bill and the 

Wild West, by H. B. Sell and V. 

Weybright, 100-103; review of 

Buffalo Bill; King of the Old 

West, by E. J. Leonard and J. C. 

Goodman, 100-103. 
LeClair, Edmo, 139. 
Legerette Creek, 70. 
Leman, D. W., 66. 
Leo Wolf Bear, 139. 
Leonard, E. J., and Goodman, J. C, 

Buffalo Bill: King of the Old 

West, reviewed by T. A. Larson. 

100-103. 
Lichty, Michael W., 131, 137. 
Lincoln's Choice, by J. O. Bucke- 

ridge, reviewed by Robert G. 

Athearn, 227-228. 
Lindsey, Mrs. Archie, 211. 
Little Big Horn Battle, See Battle of 

Little Big Horn. 
Little Blue River, Neb., 71. 
Little Box Elder Creek Crossing, 

168. 
Little Cottonwood Creek, 43. 
Little Missouri Buttes, [Wyo.], 4, 6, 

7, 9. 
Littleton, E. A., 208, 210, 211, 212. 
Lloyd, Maj. H. W., 41, 167. 
Lochrie, Mrs. Elizabeth, 25. 
Lockett, George, 176. 
Lodge Pole Trail, 74. 
Logan, Charles A., 138. 
Logan, E. T., 147. 
Look at the Old West, by Foster- 
Harris, reviewed by Alice Ans- 

paugh, 218-219. 
Lord, Major, 149. 
Lott, Elsie Moore, Wagons Rolled 

West, reviewed by Mae Urbanek, 

225-227. 
Lott, Howard, 28. 
Lucas, C. M., 208. 
Lucas, Mrs. C. M. (Cecil), 211. 
Lusk Museum, 121. 
Luthy, C. E., 131. 
Lybe, Capt., 184, 185. 
Lynde brothers (Bill, Ernest and 

Worth), 211. 

Lythgoe, Joseph, 176. 



McCarthy, James, 15. 
McDermott, Mrs., at Horseshoe 
Creek, 67. 



INDEX 



239 



McDermott, Claude L., gives history 
of Fort Fetterman, 62-65. 

McDonald, Mrs. George D., 176. 

MacDougall, A. H., 208, 212. 

Mclntyre, Clara F., review of So 
Far from Spring, by Peggy Sim- 
son Curry, 228-229. 

Mclntyre, Raymond W., custodian, 
Devils Tower, 16. 

MacKenzie, Gen. Ronald S., 31, 32, 
34, 37. 

McLaughlin, Rita Ann (Miss Indian 
America, III), 25; photo, 24. 

McLaughlin, W. H., 141. 

McLaughlin, William J., 140. 

McMahon, Tom, 211. 

Magill, Ada, grave of, 179-180, 192. 

Mankin, Charles, 208. 

Mankin, Mrs. Charles A., 208, 211. 

Mankin, Mrs. H. L., 211. 

Mann, Luther, Jr., 89, 203; letter to 
Schuyler Colfax, Jan. 19, 1863, 
196; letter to W. P. Dole, June, 
1863, 200; July 3, 1863, 204; let- 
ter to J. D. Doty, Sept. 20, 1862, 
90-92; Dec. 21, 1862, 196; Jan. 
10, 1863, 196. 

Marion, William L., 209. 212; 
President's Message (Wyoming 
State Historical Society), 94-95. 

The Marked Men, by Allan 
Vaughan Elston, reviewed by 
Lola M. Homsher, 230. 

Markers, See, Historical Markers. 

Marquiss, Mrs. R. B., 211. 

Marquiss Little Buffalo Ranch, Gil- 
lette, 208, 210. 

Martin, Henry, (Special Indian 
Agent), 80, 82, 89, 198; letter to 
W. P. Dole, July 22, 1862, 82; 
Oct. 9, 1863, 93; spent money 
unwisely, 200. 

Mason, J., (contractor), 146. 

Mason, Lt., 149. 

Massacre Hill, Johnson County, 28. 

Mateo Tepee, 3, 5; illus., 2. 

Mattison, Ray Harold, Devils Tower 
National Monument — a History, 
3-20; biog. of, 115. 

Medicine Bow Creek, 75. 

Medicine Butte, Wyo., 77. 

Meeker, Nathan C, (Indian Agent), 
149. 

Mercedes, [Wyo.], 175. 

"Mexican Mines" [Wyo.], 119. 

Midwest Review, 175. 



Military operations, California-Ne- 
vada Volunteers, 86; Eleventh 
Kansas Cavalry, 182, 183, 184; 
11th Ohio Cavalry, 183; 4th U. S. 
Infantry, 59. 

Miller, L., 133. 

Miller, Toby, ranch of, 50. 

Mills, Tom, 188. 

Miss Indian America II, photo. 24. 

Miss Indian America III, photo, 24. 

Miss Indian America Contest, 25. 

"Mission 66", 16. 

Mix, Charles E., letter to public on 
Indian depredations, 1862, 90. 

Mokler, A. J., 188. 

Mokler, Verne, relates story of Cas- 
per Collins, 180-186. 

Mondell, Frank W., efforts for Dev- 
ils Tower National Monument, 7, 
11, 12, 18. 

Monnett, W. L, (Walt), 211. 

Moorcroft [Wyo.], 6-7. 

Moore, Col. David, 195; letter to 
J. D. Doty, Nov. 23, 1862, 193. 

Morgan, Dale L., editor, Washakie 
and the Shoshoni, Part VI, 1862, 
80-93; Part VII, 1862-1863, 193- 
207. 

Morgan, Mrs. Tom, 211. 

Mormon Canyon, 173. 

Mormon Cutoff, 44, 45, 66, 67. 

Mormon Ferry, 181. 

Mormon mail station (Horseshoe 
Creek) 44, 46-48. 

Mormons, build stage stations, 44; 
on Oregon Trail, 44, 60-62. 

Morrison, W. W., 191; reads ex- 
cerpts of diaries, 56-58; speaks 
briefly at Ada Magill's grave, 
180; tells of massacre of Mary 
Kelly, 168-172. 

Morton, Joy, 128. 

Mote, Lee, 131. 

Mote, Mrs. Lee, 142. 

Mote, Mrs. Mildred Belle, 131. 

Mouseau, Mr., 45. 

Mouseau road ranch, 45. 

Muddy Creek, Wyo., 69, 75. 

Murphy, Clark, 41. 

Murphy, Frank, 167. 

Murphy Creek, 157, 158; freight 
road crossing, 158, illus., 152. 

Museums: Ft. Washakie Indian 
Museum, proposed, 95. 

Mutual Oil Co., Refinery, 176. 

Mygatt, Mrs. Emmie, 25. 



240 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Natrona County Historical Society, 

188. 
Natural Bridge, 167, 191; marker, 

59. 
Nemaha River, Kans., 70. 
Nevin, Frank, 135. 
Newton, Henry, 5. 
NH Trail, Big Horns, 29. 
Nicholson, Cora B., 135. 
Nielsen, "Little Chris", 132. 
Nolan, John, ranch of, 155. 
Norrell, Bill, 46. 
North, Maj. Frank, 31. 
Northern Black Hills Pioneer Assn., 

14. 
The Northwest Gun, by Charles E. 

Hanson, Jr., reviewed by Mervin 

Champion, 223-224. 
Nuttall, William, 175. 
Nuttall, [Wyo.], 175, 176. 
Nye, Gov. (Nev.), 200. 



Oatman, C. H., 135. 

O'Brien, Sergeant, 59. 

O'Brien, Capt. John D., 59, 63. 

O'Callaghan, Jerry, 209. 

Oglala Sioux, by Robert H. Ruby, 

reviewed by Maurine Carley, 219- 

220. 
O'Hearn, John, 138. 
Oil fields, near Glenrock, 176. 
"Old Man Murphy", 157-158. 
Oregon Trail, emigrants on. 180, in 

1849-1851, 191; near LaPrele 

Station, 60-62. 
Oregon Trail Markers, Badger Sta- 
tion, 43; marker near Glendo, 49. 

See Also Historical Markers. 
Oregon Trail Trek, no. 2, compiled 

by Maurine Carley, 41-67, map 

of, 42. Trek, no. 3, 166-192, 

map of, 166. 
Organ, C. P., 147. 
Orin Junction, 67. 
"Outstanding American Indian of 

the Year", See American Indian 

of the Year. 
Overland Mail and Telegraph co., 

84, 85. 
Overland Mail Company, robbed by 

Indians, 87. 
Overland Stage and Telegraph line, 

206. 
Overland Stage Company, 44. 
Overland trail, 1862, moved south 

to Cherokee Trail, 81. 



Pack trains, from Camp Carlin, 148. 

Packer, Alfred (man-eater), 64. 

Padden, Charles, 176. 

Paige, Gen., 89. 

Parker, Charles, 131, 135. 

Parker, J. P., grave of, 179, 192. 

Parks, Mrs. W. P. Sr., 211. 

Payson, Mrs. Lois B., review of 
Anaconda: Life and Times of 
Marcus Daily, The Copper King, 
by H. Minar Shoebotham, 221- 
223. 

Peede. Miss, 139. 

Pence, Mary Lou, and Homsher. 
Lola M., Ghost Towns of Wyo- 
ming, reviewed by Maurene 
Chenoweth, 216-217; review of 
The Frontier Years, by M. H. 
Brown and W. R. Felton, 112- 
114. 

Pennock, Jake, 55. 

Persimmon Bill, 59. 

Petersdorf, Helen, 139. 

Petersdorf, Mrs. Henrietta, 139. 

Peterson, E. M., 133. 

Peyton, Harrison, 121. 

Peyton, Mrs. Pauline, prayer by, 
on Oregon Trek, 41-2; tells about 
LaPrele Stage Station, 60-62. 

Pictographs, Johnson county, 129. 

Pierson, Mrs. George, 209. 

Plains History Revitalized, by F. H. 
Sinclair, 21-26. 

Plains Indians, See Indians: Plains. 

Piatt, E. B., grave of, 179. 

Platte Bridge Fight, 181-186. 

Platte Bridge Station, 180-182, 189. 

Pleasant Valley School, Albany 
county, 58-59. 

Poetry contest, 1956 (Wyoming 
Federation of Women's Clubs), 
126. 

Poiret, Eugene, 179. 

Pole Mountain, 74. 

Pollard, Harry, 54-56. 

The Pony Express, by Lee Jensen, 
reviewed by R. G. Athearn, 105- 
107. 

Pony Express Station, Deer Creek. 
174. 

Powder River country, Indians in, 
27. 

Powell, George, 54, 59-60, 60-62. 

Pratt, Buck, 174. 

Pratt's Peak, origin of name, 174. 

"Pretty Frank", 66. 

Primm, Mrs. E. S., 130. 

Purple, E. R., 87, 88. 



INDEX 



241 



Ramsey, Alex, 55. 

"Rattlesnake Jack", 160. 

Raynolds, Capt. W. F., 5. 

Reardon, Mike, 211. 

Reckling, Lyle, 177. 

Recontre, Zephyr, 5. 

Red Fork Canyon, 33. 

Red Wall Country, illus. of, 156; 
map of, 32. 

Reed, John, 211. 

Reed, S. B., 145. 

Reel, A. H. (Heck) Wagon Train 
attack, 48-53, 67; marker dedi- 
cated, 48-49. 

Renaud, E. B., 121. 

Rendezvous, "Popo Agie", 136. 

Reni, Jules, 47. 

Reno Cantonment, See Cantonment 
Reno. 

Rhoades Hotel, Riverton, 142. 

Rice, Charles, 66. 

Richards, Gov. William A., 128. 

Richardson, Willing Gay, and R. H. 
Burns and A. S. Gillespie, Wyo- 
ming's Pioneer Ranches, reviewed 
by Maurice Frink, 109-110; given 
award, 209. 

Rider, Keith, 167. 

Ridings, Reta, 70. 

Ringo, M., grave of, 179, 192. 

Ripley, Willard, 10. 

Ritter, Charles, 209, 212; review of 
Early Days and Indian Ways, by 
Madge Hardin Walters, 224-225. 

Riverton. banks of, 143; buildings 
of, 142-143; business houses, 129; 
colored troops from Ft. Washa- 
kie, 129; early marriages, 135; 
early pioneers of, 137; first child 
born, 135; first fire, 133; first 
teachers, 132; Riverton, 1906, 
1907, 1913, illus., 134; land draw- 
ing, 1906, list of names, 128; 
location of townsite, 128; names 
of streets, 129; oil boom, 142; 
scrip issues by Lions Club, 143; 
telephones, 141. 

Riverton: From Sage to City, by 
Vada F. Carlson, 127-143. 

Riverton Canal, 136. 

Riverton Hotel, 129, 131. 

Riverton Lumber Company, 141. 

Riverton Ranger, given award, 209. 

Riverton Republican, 132. 

Robertson, Jack (Indian interpret- 
er), 196, 206. 

Robinson, C. H., 121. 

Robinson, Jack, 86. 



Rock Creek-Fort Fetterman Road, 
58. 

Rock Creek-Lower LaPrele road, 
167. 

Rock in the Glen, near Glenrock, 
61. 

Rock mounds, Sioux Trail, religious 
significance, 28-29. 

Rocky Ridge Station, 182. 

Rogers, C. J., 41. 

Rogers, William, ascends Devils 
Tower, illus., 8, 9-10. 

Rogers, Mrs. William, climbs Devils 
Tower, 10. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, in Devils Tow- 
er region, 9. 

The Rowdy West, started, 177. 

Rowe, H. S. R., 87, 88. 

Rowland, Bill (interpreter), 38, 39. 

Ruby, Robert H., Oglala Sioux, re- 
viewed by Maurine Carley, 219- 
220. 

Rupley, John, 15. 

Russell, Clate, ranch of, 47. 

Ryan, Ed., 135. 



Saddles and Spurs: The Pony Ex- 
press Saga, by R. W. and M. L. 
Settle, reviewed by R. G. Athearn, 
105-107. 

Sage, Sherman, 28. 

St. Dennis ranch, 50. 

Salisbury, Herbert J., review of The 
Wyoming Bubble, by A. V. El- 
ston, 107-108. 

Samson, Walter L., review of 
Wheels West, by Homer Croy, 
104-105. 

Sanders, Mr., 65. 

Sanders, Mrs. Tom, 130. 

Sarah, John, family of, 48. 

Savage Hotel, Riverton, 130, 131, 
133. 

Saw Mill Canyon, 125. 

Sawmills, 1880's, Box Elder Creek, 
174. 

Schnitger, Mayor (Cheyenne), 128. 

Schuyler, Lt. Clark, 31. 

Schwartz, Fred, 65. 

Scrip, issued by Riverton Lions 
Club, 143. 

Sell, H. B. and Weybright, C, Buf- 
falo Bill and the Wild West, re- 
viewed by T. A. Larson, 100-103. 

Sertoma Club, Casper, 190. 



242 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Settle, R. W. and M. L., Saddles and 
Spurs: The Pony Express Saga, 
reviewed by Robert G. Athearn, 
105-107. 

Seymour, Tom, 176. 

Seymour, V. R., 173. 

Shaffner, E. B., 175, 179. 

Sharp, Mr., death of, 169-170; grave 
of, 168. 

Sharp, Paul F., Whoop-Up Country, 
reviewed by Brad Slack, 110-112. 

Shaw, J. C, gives account of Burn- 
ing of Heck Reel Wagon train, 
49-53. 

Sherman, Gordon, tells of Heck 
Wagon train burning, 53. 

Sherman, Sylvester ("Vess") 49, 53. 

Shoebotham, H. Minar, Anaconda; 
Life and Times of Marcus Daly, 
The Copper King, reviewed by 
Mrs. Lois B. Payson, 221-223. 

Shoshoni, [Wyo.] in 1906, 128. 

Shoshoni Indians, See Indians: Sho- 
shoni; Indians: Snakes; and 
Washaki and the Shoshoni. 

Sibley Peak, 43. 

Sims, Albert, 41, 43, 57, 167. 

Sinclair, Francis Howard, 94; biog. 
of, 115-116; Plains History Re- 
vitalized, 21-26. 

Sinclair Tank Farm, 176. 

Sioux Trail, lohnson County, 28-29, 
33. 

Skoglund, Margaret (Mrs. George 
Powell) 59. 

Slack, Brad, review of Whoop-Up 
Country, by P. F. Sharp, 110-112. 

Slade, Alfred, at Horseshoe Station, 
47. 

Slade, Virginia, (Mrs. Alfred), 47- 
48. 

Slaughter, Joe R., 175-176. 

Smith, Mrs. A. R., 211. 

Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Edwin C, 60. 

Smith, Harlem I., 121. 

Smith, Capt. John R., telegraphy 
operator, 44-46, 67. 

Smith. Lot, 85. 

Snake River ferry, 201. 

So Far from Spring, by Peggy Sim- 
son Curry, given award, 209; re- 
viewed by Clara F. Mclntyre, 
228-229. 

SO Ranch, 175, 188. 

Social Anthropology of North Amer- 
ican Tribes, edited by Fred Eg- 
gan, reviewed by Charles R. Kaut, 
103-104. 



Spanish Diggings, 119-126; artifacts 
at, 123-125; early men who 
worked, 121-122; illus., 118. 

Spaugh, A. A., 119. 

Spindler, Will H., Tragedy Strikes at 
Wounded Knee, reviewed by Wil- 
liam F. Bragg, Jr., 114-115. 

Splitek, Eula, 191. 

Splitek, Frank, 191. 

Spring, Agnes Wright, review of 
Twentieth Century Pioneering, by 
Mary Julia (Moore) Allyn, 220- 
221. 

Sproule, Lowther, 137. 

Stage Stations, 1856, 173; See also 
names of stations, as LaPrele, La 
Bonte, etc. 

Stanolind, 176. 

Steege, Louis C, 209, 212; Stone 
Artifacts, 96-99, 213-215. 

Steffan, Mrs. Randy, 25. 

Stein, J. L., 119. 

Stevenson, Gen., 146. 

Stone Age Industry in Wxoming, by 
Mae Urbanek, 119-126. 

Stone age man, 119-123. 

Stone Artifacts, by L. C. Steege, 
96-99, 213-215. 

Stork family, 137. 

Stratton, A. J., 131, 133. 

Stratton, Fred D., 131, 140. 

Stratton, F. M., 131. 

Stratton, Thad, 131. 

Streams, Johnson county, 28-29. 

Stringer, Sam, 37. 

Suckley, George, biog. of, 68-69; 
birds collected in 1859, 70-79; 
Journal, 1859, 68-79. 

Sullivan, Pat (soldier) 59. 

Sumner, Jap, 175-176. 

Sutphin, Uncle Dick, 174. 

Sweetwater Station, 182. 



Taylor, Mr., grave of, 168, 169-172. 

Taylor, John, 47. 

Teachers, first in Riverton, 182. 

Terry, Gen. Alfred H., 30. 

Teton Hotel, Riverton, 142. 

Thomas, Judge, 177-178. 

Thomas, Frank, 211. 

Thorn, John M., 12. 

Thornburg, Maj., 149. 

Thornburg Massacre, Colorado, 149. 

Throstle, George, 48-54. 

Tie drives, Riverton, 141. 

Timber industry, Riverton, 141. 



INDEX 



243 



Tipi rings, 119. 

Tisdale, Mart, 164. 

Tonkin, Dr. A. B., 133, 135, 141, 
143. 

Torrence, John, 164-165. 

Towne, Charles W., and Wentworth, 
Edward N., Cattle and Men, re- 
viewed by R. H. Burns, 108-109. 

Townsend, John Kirk, 68. 

Tragedy Strikes at Wounded Knee, 
by Will H. Spindler, reviewed by 
William F. Bragg, Jr., 114-115. 

Trenholm, Mrs. Virginia, paper on 
Twin Springs, 44-46; summarizes 
Oregon Trek, no. 2, 66-67. 

TTT ranch, 160. 

Turtle Creek, Kans., 76. 

Twentieth Century Pioneering, by 
Mary Julia (Moore) Allyn, re- 
viewed by Agnes Wright Spring, 
220-221. 

Twin Springs, 43, 44-46, 67. 

Twiss, Maj., 175. 



Uintah Reservation, 91. 

Union Pacific Railroad, 146; given 

historical award, 210. 
Unthank, A. H., grave of 172, 192. 
Upper Platte Agency, 174. 
Urbanek, Jerry, at Barbour quarries, 

illus., 118; at Holmes quarries, 

illus., 118. 
Urbanek, Mae, God's Obelisk 

(poem,), 126; review of Wagons 

Rolled West, by Elsie Moore Lott, 

225-227; Stone Age Industry in 

Wyoming, 119-126. 



Van Metre, Ricker, 141. 
Veitch, William, 176. 
Vine, James, 133. 

VR Ranch, origin of brand, 175; 
original owner, 176. 



Wadsworth, Harry, 136. 

Wadsworth, Wyo., 136. 

Wagon Hound [Wyo.], 136; de- 
scription of area, in diaries, 56- 
58; marker, 56. 

Wagon Hound Creek, 56. 



Wagons Rolled West, by Elsie 
Moore Lott, reviewed by Mae 
Urbanek, 225-227. 

Wakefield, Mr., 169-172. 

Wallace, Gov. (Ida), 200. 

Walter, Madge Hardin, Early Days 
and Indian Ways, reviewed by 
Charles Ritter, 224-225. 

Warm Springs Draw, 41. 

Warren, Senator Francis E., intro- 
duces bill for Devils Tower Na- 
tional Park, 7; lends support to 
building Belle Fourche Bridge, 
12. 

Warren, Lt. G. K., at Devils Tower, 
1857, 4-5. 

Washakie and the Shoshoni, A selec- 
tion of Documents from the Rec- 
ords of the Utah Superintendency 
of Indian Affairs, edited by Dale 
L. Morgan, Part VI, 1862, 80-93; 
Part VII, 1862-1863, 193-207. 

Washington Territory, 80. 

Watkins, E. C, 30. 

Waugh, Harry, 131, 133. 

Webb, Frances Seeley, 187. 

Wells, Charlie, 176. 

Wells, Ed J., 176. 

Wells, Dr. Kenneth, 25. 

Wentworth, Supt., 198. 

Wentworth, Edward N., and Towne, 
Charles W., Cattle and Men, re- 
viewed by R. H. Burns, 108-109. 

Weppner, Joe, dedication speech, 
Heck Reel Wagon Train Marker, 
48-49. 

Wettlin, H. G., 142. 

Weybright, V. and Sell, H. B., Buf- 
falo Bill and the Wild West, re- 
viewed by T. A. Larson, 100-103. 

Whalen Canyon, 125. 

Wheeler, Lt. Homer W., 37. 

Wheeler, Mate N., 167. 

Wheels West, by Homer Croy, re- 
viewed by W. L. Samson, 104- 
105. 

Wheelwright, "Shortie" (John), 154- 
155; photo, 152. 

Whitcomb, E. W., 47. 

Whiteman, Geneva, 24. 

Whittenburg, Clarice, 209. 

Whoop-Up Country, by P. F. Sharp, 
reviewed by Brad Slack, 110-112. 

Wiessner, Fritz, 15. 

"Wild Cat Sam", See Abernathy, 
Sam. 

Wilkins, Edness Kimball, 209, 212; 
reads paper on Restoration of Old 
Fort Caspar, 186-190, 192. 



244 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Williams, Harry, 164. 

Willow Creek, Johnson county, 33. 

Wilson, J. R., 121. 

Wind River Hotel, Riverton, 131, 
142. 

Wislizenus, Adolph, 68. 

Wister, Owen, 63-64. 

Wolcott, Maj. Frank, 176. 

Wolfers, 151-165. 

Wolfing, preparation for, 158. 

Wolves, "Big Foot", 164-165; habits 
of, 161-162; in life of Indians, 
151-153; pelts, 154, 161, 165; 
traps for, 153. 

Wooley, Mr., 145-146. 

Wright, J. J., 211. 

Wright, Mrs. Otis, 211. 

Wyland, Roy C, 176. 

Wyoming Archaeological Notes, 96- 
99; 213-215. 

The Wyoming Babble, by A. V. El- 
ston, reviewed by H. J. Salisbury, 
107-108. 

Wyoming Central Irrigation Com- 
pany, 127-128, 136, 140. 

Wyoming Federation of Women's 
Clubs, poetry contest, 1956, 126. 



Wyoming Historical Landmark Com- 
mission, dedication of Heck Reel 
Wagon Train Marker, 48-49. 

Wyoming Inn, Riverton, 131. 

Wyoming Pioneer Association, given 
award, 210. 

Wyoming State Historical Society, 
business meeting, 1956, Gillette, 
208-212; county chapters, 210; 
historical awards, 1956, 209-210; 
membership, 1956, 210; officers 
and committees, 1956, 208, 212; 
president's message, by W. L. 
Marion, 94-95; treasurer's report, 
1956, 210. 

Wyoming Tie and Timber Company, 
141. 

Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches, by R. 
H. Burns, A. W. Gillespie and 
W. G. Richardson, reviewed by 
Maurice Frink, 109-110; given 
award, 209. 



Yellow Robe (Scout), 23. 
Young, Brigham, 47, 84, 85, 86, 
Young, W. E., 131, 133. 



WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 

The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its func- 
tion the collection and preservation of the record of the people of Wyoming. 
It maintains a historical library, a museum and the state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out of its 
function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve records and 
materials now in private hands where they cannot be long preserved. Such 
records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, account books, auto- 
biographical accounts. 

Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agriculture, 
railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business establishments, and of 
professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, dentists, ministers, and 
educators. 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, manuscript 
materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religious, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications such 
as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any significant 
topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on western 
subjects. 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout the 
State. 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, Indian 
artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyoming and with 
special events in the State's history.