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Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 

April 7 96 J 



Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

E. A. Littleton Gillette 

Henry Jones Hanna 

Mrs. Lora Jewett Pinedale 

E. W. Mass Casper 

Mrs. Wilmot C. Hamm Rock Springs 

Mrs. William Miller Lusk 

Mrs. Lorraine Stadius Thermopolis 

Attorney-General Norman Gray, Ex-Officio. 



Lola M. Homsiier Director 

Henryetta Berry Assistant Director 

Mrs. Ruth J. Bradley Chief, Historical Division 

L. C. Steege Chief, Museum Division 

Mrs. Bonnie Forsyth Chief, Archives & Records Division 


The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and 
October and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.00 each. 
Available copies of earlier issues are also for sale. A price list may be 
obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyri'^ht, 1961 , by the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 

A^mls of Wyoming 

Volume 33 

April 1961 

Number 1 

Lola M. Homsher 

Ruth J. Bradley 
Assistant Editor 

Published Biannually by the 


Official Publication 

of the 



OFFICERS 1960-61 

President, Mr. E. A. Littleton Gillette 

First Vice President, Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins Casper 

Second Vice President, Vernon K. Hurd Green River 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary. Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Past Presidents: 

Frank L. Bowron, Casper 1953-1955 

William L. Marion, Lander 1955-1956 

Dr. DeWitt Dominick, Cody 1956-1957 

Dr. T. a. Larson, Laramie 1957-1958 

A. H. MacDoug.all, Rawlins 1958-1959 

Mrs. Thelma G. Condit, Buffalo 1959-1960 

The Wyoming State Historical Society was organized in October 1953. 
Membership is open to anyone interested in history. County Historical 
Society Chapters have been organized in Albany, Campbell, Carbon, Fre- 
mont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Platte, Sheridan, Sweet- 
water, Washakie. Weston, and Uinta counties. 

State Dues: 

Life Membership $50.00 

.Joint Life Membership (Husband and wife) 75.00 

Annual Membership 3.50 

Joint Annual Membership (Two persons of same family at 

same address.) 5.00 

County dues are in addition to state dues and are set by county organ- 

Send State membership dues to: 

Wyoming State Historical Society 
Executive Headquarters 
State Office Building 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Zablc of Contents 


Clark C. Spence 


Ake Hultkrantz 


Mrs. Wilburta Knight Cady 

THE HOLE-IN-THE-WALL, Part VII, Section 2 53 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 

IN MEMORIAM, Loren Clark Bishop 72 


Trek No. 11 of Emigrant Trail Treks 
Compiled by Maurine Carley 


Hans Kleiber 


L. C. Steege 


President's Message by Mr. E. A. Littleton 


Mattes, Indians, Infants and Infantry: Andrew and Elizabeth Burt 

on the Frontier 108 

Cooley, Meet Me on the Green 109 

Howard, War Chief Joseph 110 

Taylor, Glimpses into Edgemont's Past HI 

Kane, A Guide to the Care and the Administration of Manuscripts .... Ill 

Elston, Sagebrush Serenade 113 

Worthwhile Books on the Editor's Desk 113 



Street Scene, Buffalo, Wyoming, 1903 Frontispiece 

Melbourne, The Australian Rain Wizard 4, 7, 14 

The Shoshones in the Rocky Mt. Area 36 

A Family Portrait 43 

The Hole-in-the-Wall 56, 62 

In Memoriam, Loren Clark Bishop 72 

Wyoming Archaeological Notes, Midland Point 105 

Maps: The Hole-in-the-Wall 54 

Overland State Trail - Trek No. 1 74, 75 


He Made it Rain Yesterday in Cheyenne. 

Courtesy State Historical Society of Colorado 
From the Rocky Mountain News September 8, 1891. 

the Australian Kain Wizard 

Clark C. Spence 

The post-World War II scientists who seeded the clouds with 
dry ice, carbon particles, or silver iodide were latecomers among 
Americans who attempted the production of rain by artificial 
means. Various Indian tribes, of course, had from an early date 
employed special medicine men and ceremonies to this end, but 
even their white conquerors, using so-called "scientific" theories 
and techniques, made numerous attempts in the late nineteenth 
and early twentieth centuries. Instead of incantations, dances, 
or perhaps the mimicking of aquatic birds and animals, the new 
"scientific" rainmakers attempted to move warm moist air to 
cooler heights by means of large fires, fans, or vertical wind 
tunnels; they proposed drawing down moisture from the clouds 
by means of electricity; they created explosions in the atmosphere 
in the widely-accepted belief that concussion induced precipitation 
(Didn't rain always follow battles?); they bombarded the clouds 
with various substances, including lime, electrified sand, and liquid 
carbonic acid; they released chemicals — usually secret — from 
ground installations — all in the hopes of compelling Nature to 
release precious drops of moisture. 

Rainmaking theories and experiments were especially popular 
in the drought years of the early 1890's and the methods most 
often suggested were either concussion or the use of chemicals. 
Many rainmaking advocates, like Robert Dyrenforth, who headed 
a government experiment in 1891-1892,^ were undoubtedly sin- 
cere in their beliefs. Many others, unfortunately, were charlatons 
preying upon public gullibility in efforts to line their own pockets. 
They were confidence men, shrewd, calculating, and ambitious 
and some were successful to a remarkable degree. In this last 
category would fall Frank Melbourne, one of the most famous 
of the chemical rainmakers. 

Often referred to in his day as the "Rain King" or the "Rain 
Wizard," Melbourne was born in Ireland and had lived in 
Australia and New Zealand for a dozen years before joining his 
brothers in the United States. He had dabbled in real estate 
and in cattle ranching and it was in New South Wales that he 
worked out his rainmaking techniques. Indeed, he later claimed 
to have been forced to flee the Australia-New Zealand region to 


avoid possible recrimination for having produced rains of flood 
proportion. - 

In 1891, a tall, dark haired, bearded man of about forty-five, 
he appeared in Canton, Ohio, where his brother John, a wealthy 
contractor, refused to permit him to establish an observatory and 
laboratory atop his luxurious home. A brother-in-law in the same 
city, however, allowed him to conduct experiments from a shed 
on the edge of his property, and Melbourne, though first consid- 
ered by some to be "teched in the head," soon built up an 
enthusiastic following, not to mention a bank account, by means 
of a series of "successful" rainmaking demonstrations. In July, 
for example, when he announced that he would produce rain on 
an appointed day, another brother, William, took bets from all 
comers and when rain did fall the Melbourne purses were fatter 
by several thousand dollars.-' 

In his pretensions to the public, Frank Melbourne was never 
immodest. In the summer of 1891 he claimed to have induced 
rain in eight consecutive tests. To prove his ability, he promised 
showers every Sunday until September 1, but being a sports 
enthusiast, he willed them to come only in the evenings.^ Not 
only had he drenched Canton and tied up traffic, he was competent 
to produce rain in Death Valley, if given an opportunity. In 
fact, according to Melbourne, his invention could bring rain over 
an area "of upwards of 250,000 square miles at any time that I 
desire, and this without regard to climate.""' He was also at 
work on a "Cold Wave Machine" — a gigantic air conditioning 
apparatus designed to provide a cool climate for a large section 
of the country.''' 

His rainmaking equipment was mysterious indeed. It was 
carried in several ordinary-looking black gripsacks, from which 
Melbourne was seldom parted. He once left a restaurant, rather 
than check his precious bags." His machine had cost $15,000, 
and each operation of it required $400, he said. It was small — 
"no larger than a dinner pail," said a reporter for the Denver 
Rocky Mountain News — and operated by a crank, with gases being 
liberated through a pipe protruding upwards of a dozen feet or 
so above the roof. Newsmen who watched outside his shed 
reported hearing a "rumbling, fluttering sound," a noise like the 
buzzing of a bee.'^ Melbourne never made public his process: 
once he hinted that his apparatus produced chemicals then un- 
known to science.'* Other than that, he said nothing. 

He did admit that his machine was so simple that if the secret 
were known everyone would imitate it and bring down rain at will. 
Such a situation would be unendurable, commented the editor of 
the Hutchinson, Kansas, News, because "there could never be a 
political barbecue without all the rain machines of the opposition 
being set in motion," and "the infidels would spoil all the camp- 


meetings and the church people ruin the horse races"; nothing but 
conflict and ill will would result.^" 

Melbourne came to the attention of the editor of the New York 
Tribune in August, 1891, and the newsman stated his belief that 
such "would-be rainmakers" should be treated with respect so 
long as they appeared to act in good faith, but that the evidence 
should be weighed very carefully. Why not draw a board of 
inquiry from neutral agency like the Ohio State Board of Agri- 
culture or the faculty of Oberlin College to observe Melbourne 
and his work? Only then, if reputable organizations sanctioned 
his process and its results, could financial aid be expected from 
scientists or capitalists.^^ 

No such impartial review was ever conducted, however, and 
Melbourne turned his eyes westward. Several times he had men- 
tioned that the flatness of the plains and the thinness of mountain 
air would increase the efficiency of his rainmaking apparatus.'- 
In mid-June, 1891, he had addressed a letter to the Governor of 


Courtesy State Historical Society of Colorado 
From the Rocky Mountain News July 6, 189L 


Wyoming, outlining his talents and proclaiming a willingness to 
go anywhere.^'' Late in August the Cheyenne press announced 
that negotiations had been completed and that "Melbourne, the 
Australian and New Zealand rain doctor," would soon be there. 
He was to receive $150 if he produced rain, nothing if he failed, 
although the Chicago Tribune insisted that if he succeeded "a 
mammoth stock company with practically unlimited capital" would 
probably be formed to operate in the West.^^ 

Melbourne arrived in Cheyenne on August 27 accompanied by 
his brother, Will, and was escorted by a local arrangements com- 
mittee to the home of Frank H. Jones, a civil engineer who had 
been instrumental in persuading some twenty-three subscribers to 
contribute the $150.^"' The "Rain King" would have made his 
Wyoming appearance earlier had he not been negotiating with 
farmers near Fort Scott, Kansas.^*' 

The Melbourne brothers took a room at the Inter Ocean in 
Cheyenne, but their work was conducted from a coachman's room 
on the upper floor of a stable on the grounds of the Jones home, 
the old Morton Frewen house, at 25th and Van Lennen Streets. 
The Frewen property was ideal: it occupied an elevated position 
and its two-and-a-half acres were enclosed to assure privacy. In 
the work room itself shingles were removed from the apex of a 
dormer window to give Melbourne access to the open air.^^ 

The press was sympathetic, if sometmies reserved. The Chey- 
enne Daily Sun described Melbourne as "... a man in the prime 
of life, open, intelligent face, frank, a trifle nervous and intensely 
sanguine. He is confident as a new millionaire, and the brother 
has a sack of money to wager on their game." If successful, said 
the 5///1, Melbourne could in effect name his own price: 

If success attends the efforts of this remarkable man in a marvelous 
business, he can get a steady job right here at wages that, from a 
monetary standpoint, will make the president envious. i*^ 

John Carroll, editor of the Cheyenne Leader, evidenced more 
skepticism but would eventually be a firm supporter of the "Rain 
Wizard ' : 

It will be a great day when each granger can anchor a cloud over his 
own little eightyracre farm and by pulling a string like an aeronaut in 
a balloon or sending up a few inexpensive whiffs of gas precipitate 
upon his parched land a copious downpour of rain .... The umbrella 
and gum coat dealer will have a perpetual picnic; people may develop 
web feet and the individual who can't swim may wish he had never 
been born. 

There's a great day coming when each man will be his own rain 
doctor, but with ail due respect to Mr. Melbourne, it is yet a good 
ways off.i" 

Melbourne did not commence work immediately, probably 
because Andrew Gilchrist, one of the waiting committee, did not 
wish to risk having his haying interrupted, although Frank Jones, 


already being called "Rainwater Jones," was eager for the experi- 
ment to proceed.-" On August 30, however, the Sun announced 
that "Prof. Melbourne's Rain Mill Started Up at 6 O'clock This 
Morning." Captain Ravenscraft, the local Signal Officer, had 
predicted fair weather, and the committee had given the go-ahead 
signal. Melbourne had promised to produce at least one-half 
an inch of rain wtihin three days.-^ 

The self-styled "cloud compeller" worked in secrecy. He 
entered the stable with his mysterious gripsacks and a "big revolver 
to discourage too curious spectators."-- The entire stable was 
kept locked, windows were covered with blankets, and all cracks 
stuffed to keep out prying eyes. "Like a voter of the Australian 
ballot Melbourne was alone with his God and his lead pencil or 
whatever it was," reported Editor Carroll.--^ Brother Will was ill 
at the Inter Ocean, but he pulled himself together long enough 
to cover bets. By all reasoning the odds should have been in 
Melbourne's favor. As the newspapers pointed out, the region 
was experiencing a dry spell of three weeks duration; besides were 
not the State Fair, a miners' convention, a teachers' institute, and 
the shooting tournament of the Rocky Mountain Sportsmens' 
Association all scheduled to meet in Cheyenne during the first 
two weeks of September?-^ 

On the following day Signal Officer Ravenscraft early noted the 
possibility for rain and in the afternoon two brisk showers fell, 
the heaviest rain of the season. These were violent thundershow- 
ers which ranged out some twenty miles on all sides of town, 
depositing a half inch of moisture, and incidently killing two cows 
and two calves belonging to C. P. Organ, one of the members of 
the committee responsible for bringing Melbourne to Wyoming.-'"^ 
It was "Melbourne's rain"; snow which fell at Casper, over a 
hundred miles to the north, was also attributed to his miraculous 

Ravenscraft announced that he believed the rain was the result 
of "supernatural agencies," and Melbourne was voted his $150, 
the committee calling his experiment "an unqualified success."-^ 
Newspapers carried the story far and wide and made Melbourne 
a hero. "The Wizard," ran headlines in the Denver Rocky Moun- 
tain News, "Melbourne Astonishes Cheyenne by Bringing a Heavy 
Downpour of Rain.''^^ "The Rain Doctor Did It," said The Salt 
Lake Tribune.-'^ "A Successful Attempt is Made in Cheyenne," 
reported The Minneapolis Tribune.^^ The Casper Derrick prob- 
ably gave as graphic a description of Melbourne's "success" as 
anyone : 

Late Monday night he returned to his den, hung the monkey 
wrench on the safety valve, re-adjusted the water gauge and turned 
on the crank when lo! the heavens were suddenly overcast . . . and 
in the beautiful language of the wooly West there was a devil of a 
rain and the Lord-i wasn't in it. 


The editor of the Salt Lake Tribune, admitting that he had 
previously considered the whole affair "as a sort of dismal fake 
on the part of the most improbable crank in the world," now was 
much more receptive of Melbourne: "He is a famine breaker, he 
is a dust disperser, he is a disease-germ exterminator, he is a daisy, 
and we need him very much indeed."-'- The Washington Evening 
Star got the name wrong, but carried the story with enthusiasm ;-^-' 
The Chicago Tribune, in an account stemming from Lester Kabris 
of Cheyenne, pictured Melbourne as "a miracle performer" of 
great importance because of his "cloud squeezing experiments."-'^ 
The Rocky Mountain News, which published a cartoon showing 
"Melbourne as Jupiter Pluvius" pouring water down on Cheyenne, 
drew comparisons between Melbourne and the federal concussion- 
ist experimentor, "General" Dyrenforth: 

While the government was pumping water from the ethereal blue 
spreading over the Staked Plains of Texas, a pale-faced young fellow 
was at work in Ohio and Wyoming squeezing rain from cloudless 
skies as one would squeeze water from a sponge, and as much at will. 

Dyrenforth's system of detonating explosives in the air and on 
the ground was expensive and "inconvenient ... for small fam- 
ilies," said the News, predicting that in the end Melbourne's pro- 
cess would prevail.^'' 

In Cheyenne, Melbourne was the man of the hour. Many of 
the ladies were impressed, said the Daily Leader. "Men of the 
faith are patting themselves on their breeches pocket," and "Col. 
Rainwater Jones walks on moist air." "It begins to look like 
gondolas would become necessary equipages in Cheyenne unless 
the committee should immediately call off the mysterious and 
puissant Mr. Melbourne," said the editor.-'*' "The irrigation ditch 
can go," commented the Daily Sun. "It might be well, however, 
to have another trial of the rain wizzard's [sic] skill before filling 
up the water trenches." No trouble or expense should be spared 
to demonstrate the practicability of Melbourne's invention: scien- 
tists and representatives of the Department of Agriculture should 
be invited to observe further tests. ^^ Unhappy were betting scof- 
fers and a number of ranchmen whose haying had been disrupted 
by rain. The latter threatened legal action to collect damages 
from Melbourne, but as the papers pointed out, a successful suit 
of this type brought against the "cloud tapper" would establish 
him as a bona fide rainmaker and be worth millions to him.^*^ 

Meanwhile Melbourne promised to bring more rain. However, 
just as he "was preparing to collect and crack more rain clouds," 
the local committee persuaded him to postpone his work to permit 
clear weather for haying. A new date, September 7, was set, with 
Melbourne to receive $100 if he produced a half an inch of 
moisture on schedule. When he retired to his "laboratory" again 
on September 4, his secrecy was beginning to irritate newsmen a 
little. Reporters described him as being "artistically evasive"; 


he "would break the heart of the best lawyer in the state if put 
on the witness stand."'^-' 

Again there was brisk wagering, with the odds seeming to favor 
Melbourne, who had told the skeptics, jokingly perhaps, that if 
they continued to scoff he would flood the town.^^' Interest ran 
high but the appointed day passed without rain. On September 8, 
twelve hours after the expiration of the time limit, an eighth of an 
inch fell. This was "only a scrawny little unassertive bilgewater 
instead of a deluge," but Melbourne claimed it as his own, insist- 
ing that high winds had hampered his work and blown his rain 

This second Cheyenne experiment was with some charity "cata- 
logued as doubtful." Signal Officer Ravenscraft pointed out that 
the belated sprinkle was actually part of a major storm which had 
covered the region extending from Portland, Oregon, to Omaha, 
Nebraska. Furthermore, in reconsidering the precipitation of 
September 1 credited to Melbourne, Ravenscraft now believed 
that that rain had been "chased in here by a cold wave and that 
Melbourne had nothing to do with the case or the goods.""*- There 
was widespread disappointment and some of the faithful strayed. 
The local committee was not satisfied. "Rainwater Jones" was 
said to have "come out of his probation pew and gracefully taken 
a seat on the mourners' bench,"^"^ although this lapse was but 

On the other hand, there were many who stood by Melbourne. 
The Cheyenne Daily Sun contended that the mysterious machine 
had succeeded one time out of two, and even if only fifty per cent 
effective it was "yet the most marvelous thing the age of mankind 
has developed." Then in macabre tones, the editor added: 
"Wouldn't it be intensely romantic and terribly tragic if Melbourne 
were to be killed by his own lightning and thus die with his 
secret?"^^ Believers proposed that Wyoming engage the rain- 
maker's services for a full year, regardless of cost.*'' They sug- 
gested that the federal government hire him to combat forest 
fires. **^ When there was criticism brought against Melbourne, the 
Cheyenne press especially went out of its way to defend him. 
When a New York newspaper called the "Rain King" "an Austra- 
lian adventurer," "a rain make-believer," interested only in "the 
much-talked-of cloud with a silver lining," editor Carroll of the 
Daily Leader, a recent convert, plunged to the rescue.*^ When a 
Californian named Michael Cahill charged publicly that Mel- 
bourne, "the Cheyenne Cloud Cracker," was a "pretender," and 
had pirated his invention, the Cheyenne Sun had a few comments : 

Hang the ocean on a clothes line to dry, lasso an avalanche, pin a 
napkin on the crater of a volcano, skim the milky way with a tea 
spoon, throw salt on the tail of the noble American eagle, paste 
"for rent" on the stars and stripes; do all these, but don't, pray don't, 
question the originality of Melbourne.^s 


In the meantime, Melbourne had been considering several offers 
in various parts of the West,^" and on September 9, he left for 
Salt Lake City, along with his brother and Frank Jones. ^" The 
Mormon capital was enjoying a wet season and Melbourne did 
not demonstrate there. Instead, under the auspices of land agent 
E. P. Tarpey of the Central Pacific Railroad and C. E. Wentworth, 
of the Union Pacific, he conducted an experiment at Kelton, Utah, 
a semi-deserted station on the Central Pacific. Melbourne was 
to receive $500 if one-half inch of rain fell by midnight, September 
17, and it was rumored that, if successful, he would receive a 
lucrative railroad job. He commenced his operations on the 
morning of the fourteenth in the Kelton schoolhouse, where with 
the usual secrecy precautions, he worked day and night, came out 
only twice for meals, and in the end collected his money, although 
only .43 inches fell at Kelton. "^^ 

About this same time, either shortly before or shortly after the 
Kelton trial, Melbourne attempted to bring rain at the town of 
Nampa, on the Oregon Short Line in southern Idaho. Here he 
failed completely and left even before his deadline had expired."- 

But his reputation had spread and several groups were bidding 
for his services. A California organization was after him; Reno 
wanted him for the Nevada state fair, and A. B. Montgomery 
of Goodland, Kansas, persuaded him to appear at the county fair 
in that town.'''* At Goodland $500 had been raised by public 
subscription and the Rock Island Railroad promised half-fare 
excursions within a radius of 150 miles. As a result of a public 
meeting in the little borough in western Kansas a committee had 
been formed to enter into a contract with Melbourne, while a 
second committee made local arrangements. Melbourne had 
agreed to produce a "good rain" reaching from 50 to 100 miles 
in each direction. "^^ 

Rainmaking became a prime topic of conversation in Goodland, 
although not all citizens supported the idea. One refused to 
subscribe funds because "it was interfering with the Lord's business 
and harm would come out of it." Another "did not believe in it 
and the first thing we know we would have a hell of a tornado 
here that would blow the town from the face of the earth. "•'''• Still, 
the fact that a $500 purse had been collected indicated that there 
were many who \vere willing to believe. 

The "rain milker" passed through Cheyenne enroute to Good- 
land in late September, "as complacent, confident and sociable 
as ever." Jones, who affectionately referred to the mysterious 
valise as "the baby," was "still clean gone," reported the Cheyenne 
Daily Sim/'^' Melbourne arrived in Goodland on September 26, 
amidst fanfare and a shower of rain, an occurrence which brought 
to mind the story of Davy Crockett and the 'coon. "Don't shoot, 
Mr. Melbourne, I'll come right down," the rain was supposed 
to say.-*^ 


Because of the dampness there was delay and to keep Mel- 
bourne from going elsewhere his living expenses were paid by the 
local committee on arrangements. On the fair grounds a two-story 
wooden structure had been built, the upper room to be used by 
the rainmaker and the lower floor by Will Melbourne and Frank 
Jones to prevent interference by curious spectators.'*'' Once start- 
ed, Melbourne worked steadily at least three days but no rain 
fell at Goodland by his deadline of October 4. Rain did fall in 
other parts of Kansas and telegrams received by the Goodland 
town fathers asked that the rainmaker be "shut off." As usual, 
Melbourne blamed the wind for blowing away the fruits of his 
labor and claimed the wayward showers as his own."'-' A "misty 
rain" which fell on October 5, he also claimed. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the Chicago Tribune headlined the story: "Melbourne 
Causes the Rain to Fall. Complete Success Attends his Latest 
Experiments at Goodland."^'* 

A second Goodland experiment, conducted a few days later, 
ended on October 8, with skies clear.*'^ Even this did not com- 
pletely deplete the ranks of the loyal. Rain which fell at Kansas 
City a few days later was attributed to Melbourne operating 
secretly.*'- A mass meeting in Goodland asked the "rainmaker" 
to submit a seasonal program and Melbourne suggested that he 
be paid ten cents per cultivated acre to produce moisture for some 
forty western counties — a total cost of about $20,000.*'-^ 

If Kansans are gullible enough, and Providence helps the Wizard out, 
with one or two coincident wet spells, this is liable to prove a good 
thing for Melbourne, who, of course is not in the business for his 

So commented the Dodge City Globe-Republican.^^ With the 
Kansas proposal still not formalized, Melbourne left on October 
13 for Omaha. 

He returned briefly to Canton, then made a journey through 
the Southwest to Mexico in the early part of 1892. In Texas he 
gave at least one demonstration of his skill. This exhibition was 
described by Alexander Macfarlane, Professor of Physics at the 
University of Texas, who said that Melbourne must have borrowed 
his method "from the Bushmen." 

He came to Temple, Texas, hired a shanty on the outskirts of the 
town, shut himself and an assistant in, and all observers out. All that 
could be observed from the outside was the issue of some colored gas 
through a small pipe in the roof of the shanty. The proceedings of 
this imposter were gravely discussed by intelligent people; so great is 
the ignorance of physical nature.*^^ 

All the while, Melbourne was dickering either personally or 
through Frank Jones, who acted as his manager. He claimed to 
be interested in a contract with the government of Mexico and 
to have declined one in Brazil.^'' He steadfastly maintained that 






OXrGSN -<1PP^R4T17& 


The mode of oiwration which General 
Dyrenforth adopts is to form a "line of bat- 

F^nk M0tLoimte, the Rain Wizard. DynamiU Ktu^ [Tandem.] 

Courtesy State Historical Society of Colorado 
From the Rocky Mountain News August 28, 1891. 


he would work only on a pay-as-you-go plan and his stated rates 
were now high. He quoted a figure of $5,000 for one inch of rain 
delivered in Oregon; he had hopes of working out an arrangement 
with a group of Nebraskans to supply moisture for two million 
acres between May 1 and September 1 for $200,000, payments 
to be made monthly, with adjustments if sufficient rain did not 
fall."" Under such proposals, which were never accepted, he 
could hardly lose. 

Late in 1891 and early in 1892 at least three artificial rain 
companies were formed in Goodland to capitalize on Melbourne's 
reputation."*^ It was rumored that the "Rain King" had sold his 
secret to them, but Melbourne steadfastly denied this. He in- 
tended to retain the secret, he insisted. "There is not enough 
money in the west to buy it.""*^ Still, the competition was serious. 
It forced him to advertize in the spring of 1892, when he pub- 
lished a brief pamphlet, Rain Production of Frank Melbourne 
During the Season of 1891. Its introduction, "To the People of 
the Arid Regions," stated his purpose was to give an account of 
his "successful" experiments at Canton, Cheyenne, Kelton, and 
Goodland and to announce his readiness "to enter into contract 
to produce sufficient rain for crops, in any part of the United 
States, on very reasonable terms. ^'' 

In Cheyenne that same summer he signed a contract with three 
counties in eastern Colorado and one in western Nebraska to 
produce at least .51 inches of rain within seventy-two hours at 
the towns of Holyoke, Fleming, and Julesburg. In return, if suc- 
cessful, he would receive six cents per cultivated acre. Again he 
failed and his professional stature diminished. There was a light 
shower, but hardly enough "to quench the thirst of a grasshopper," 
according to a contemporary account.'^ 

His reputation was further tarnished when it was later discov- 
ered that the dates he selected for producing rain were identical 
with those for which rainfall was predicted in long range forecasts 
in the popular almanac published by Irl R. Hicks of St. Louis. ^- 
There is some evidence, too, to indicate that a barometer was part 
of Melbourne's "secret" equipment and that he tended to gauge 
his activities according to its fall.^^ 

After 1892 Melbourne dropped from sight. In 1894 his body 
was found in a Denver hotel room, only the initials "F.M." on his 
luggage providing identification. His death was listed as suicide."^ 

And so Frank Melbourne, "rain doctor," "cloud compeller," 
"Jupiter Pluvius," passed from the scene. He was the godfather, 
in a sense, of a series of would-be rainmakers in the 1890's. 
Despite his assertions to the contrary, the Kansas rainmaking 
companies that eclipsed him in 1892 probably used his process. 
These concerns were in turn overshadowed by the work of Clayton 
Jewell and several others working under the auspices of the 
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Company in the mid- 


nineties, again using the Melbourne method.^'' From Jewell and 
his assistants the "secret" formula fell into the hands of a number 
of persons, some of whom attempted to utilize it themselves, and 
was finally made public in 1899 by George Matthews of Wichita, 
Kansas. The recipe was simple: ten fluid ounces of sulphuric 
acid, fifty fluid ounces of water, and five ounces of zinc. The 
net product was obviously hydrogen gas. More explicitly, the 
instructions continued: 

Renew every hour and stir every thirty minutes day and night until 
rain comes. The moment rain begins to fall remove jar or crock. 
In territory west of Kansas use one-third less; at sea-level use double 
the quantity. In Kansas work only on southerly winds, which are 
moisture bearing winds. Begin an experiment in a clear sky. One 
station of the experiment if successful will produce a rain 30 to 50 
miles wide in diameter. A better and more certain result can be 
secured by having three or more^^ stations 40 to 50 miles apart. 

Despite the fact that many people never ceased to believe in his 
"rainmaking" magic, Frank Melbourne must be regarded as a 
charlatan and a "rain fakir." A master opportunist, a salesman of 
extraordinary ability, and a practicing psychologist, he understood 
the weaknesses of human nature and craftily exploited them to his 
own advantage. He had no credentials but for a brief time he 
managed to "sell" himself to at least one segment of the public with 
remarkable success. The product of a gullible, yet a hopeful, age, 
Melbourne was in a sense little more than a petty gambler, waiting 
for the big hand which never came. He wagered not only money, 
but his time and his reputation, that rain would fall within a 
specified time. Since he worked ordinarily after a sustained dry 
period, his chances of success were good. Fickle, unpredictable 
Dame Nature, however, defied the law of averages often enough 
to brine his ruin. 


1. See "Experiments in Production of Rainfall," Senate Executive Docu- 
ment No. 45. 52d Congress, 1st Session (1891-1892), 1-59. 

2. Rocky Mountain News (Denver), August 2, 1891; The Chevenne 
Daily Sun.' August 28, 1891. 

3. Rockv Mountain News, July 28, August 2, 1891; The Chevenne Daily 
Sun. August !3, 1891. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Melbourne to George W. Baxter (Canton, Ohio, June 11, 1891), 
The Cheyenne Daily Leader, June 19.. 1891. 

6. Rocky Mountain News, August 13, 1891. 

7. The Salt Lake Tribune, September 19, 1891. 

8. Rocky Mountain News. August 3, September 6, 1891; The Cheyenne 
Daily .S;/,'!. August 13, 1891. 

9. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 5, 1891. 

10. Hutchinson, Kansas, News, August 4, 1891, quoted in Martha B. 
Caldwell, "Some Kansas Rain Makers," The Kansas Historiccd Quarterly, 
VII (August, 1938), 308. 

n. New-York Tribune, August 6, 1891. 


12. Rocky Mountain News, August 2, 1891. 

13. Melbourne to George W. Baxter (Canton, Ohio, June 11, 1891), 
The Cheyenne Daily Leader, June 19, 1891. 

14. The Chevenne Daily Sun, August 23, 1891; The Chicago Daily Tribune, 
August 24, 189 1. 

15. Committee members included George Baxter, Andrew Gilchrist, 
and C. P. Organ. Rocky Mountain News, August 28, 1891; The Cheyenne 
Daily Sun, August 28, 1891. 

16. Melbourne had agreed to produce a half an inch of rain in Bourbon 
County for $500, but the arrangement was abandoned. The Cheyenne 
Daily Sun, August 28, 1891; The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, August 5, 1892. 

17. The Cheyenne Daily Sun. August 28, 1891; The Cheyenne Daily 
Leader, September 1, 1891. 

18. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, August 28, 1891. 

19. The Cheyenne Daih Leader, August 29, 1891. 

20. Ibid. 

21. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, August 30, 1891. 

22. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, August 30, 1891. 

23. Ibid., September l,'l891. 

24. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, August 28, 30, 1891; September 1, 1891. 

25. Ibid., September 2, 1891; The Cheyenne Daily Leader, September 
4, 1891. 

26. Rocky Mountain News, September 2, 1891. 

27. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 2, 1891; The Cheyenne Daily 
Leader, September 2,1891. 

28. Rocky Mountain News, September 2, 1891. 

29. The Salt Lake Tribune, September 2, 1891. 

30. The Minneapolis Tribune, September 2, 1891. 

31. Quoted in The Cheyenne Daily Leader, September 8, 1891. 

32. The Salt Lake Tribune, September 3, 1891. 

33. Washington Evening Star, September 2, 1891. 

34. The Chicago Daily Tribune, September 19, 1891. See also the 
Chicago Tribune, September 20, 1891, and the New-York Tribune, Sep- 
tember 20, 1891. 

35. Rocky Mountain News, September 6, 8, 1891. 

36. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, September 2, 1891. 

37. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 2, 1891. 

38. Ibid. 

39. Ibid., September 3, 4, 5, 1891. 

40. Ibid.. September 6, 1891. 

41. Ibid., September 8, 1891. 

42. Ibid. 

43. Ibid. 

44. Ibid. 

45. C. H. Randall to editor (Casper, September 10, 1891), ibid., Sep- 
tember 11, 1891. 

46. The Cheyenne Daily Leader, October 1, 1891. 

47. Ibid.. October 8, 1891. 

48. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 15, 1891. 

49. These included Salt Lake City, Denver, and Akron, Colorado. Ibid., 
September 5, 10, 1891; Rocky Mountain News, September 3, 1891. 

50. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 9, 1891. 

51. Melbourne insisted that he did not guarantee one-half inch for 
Kelton, but on the average for a sixty-mile radius. The Salt Lake Tribune, 
September 15, 18, 19, 1891; The Cheyenne Daily Leader, September 17, 

52. The Cheyenne Daily Sim, September 15, 26, 1891. 

53. The Salt Lake Tribune, September 18, 1891. It was first announced 
erroneously that Robert Dyrenforth, the government experimentor, was to 


be in Goodland. Tlie Kansas Weekly Capital (Topeka), September 24, 

54. Rocky Mountain News, September 20, 1891; Martha Caldwell, 
"Some Kansas Rain Makers," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, VII (Au- 
gust, 1938), 309. 

55. Goodland, Kansas, News, September 24, 1891, quoted in ibid., 311. 

56. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 26, 1891. 

57. The Minneapolis Tribune, September 26, 1891. 

58. Caldwell. "Some Kansas Rain Makers," The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly, VII (August, 1938), 309-310, 311; The Kansas Weekly Capital, 
October 1, 1891. 

59. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, October 7, 11, 1891; The Kansas Weekly 
Capital, October 8, 15, 1891; Federal Writers' Project, Kansas (New York, 
1949), 335. 

60. The Chicago Daily Tribune, October 6, 1891. 

61. The Kansas Weekly Capital, October 15, 1891. 

62. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, October 18, 1891. 

63. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, October II, 1891. 

64. Dodge City. Kansas, Globe-Republican, December 10, 1891, quoted 
in Caldwell, "Some Kansas Rain Makers," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, 
VII (August, 1938), 311. 

65. Alexander Macfarlane, "On Rainmaking," Transactions of the Texas 
Academy of Science, I (November, 1893), 75. 

66. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, October 30, 1891. 

67. Melbourne to Jones (Hermosillo, Mexico, February 13, 1892; 
Canton, Ohio, January 2, 1892); W. M. Burnett to Melbourne (Wasco, 
Oregon, May 21, 1892), in Agnes Wright Spring, "Rainmakers of the 
'Nineties," The Colorado Magazine, XXXII (October, 1955), 296, 298. 

68. See Caldwell, "Some Kansas Rain Makers," The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly, VII (August, 1938), 311-316. 

69. the Cheyenne Daily Sun, October 30, 1891. 

70. The introduction of this pamphlet is quoted in full in Spring, "Rain- 
makers of the 'Nineties," The Colorado Magazine, XXXII (October, 1955), 

71. Quoted in Alvin T. Steinel, History of Agriculture in Colorado (Fort 
Collins, 1926), 261. 

72. Ibid. 

73. The Cheyenne Daily Sun, September 8, 1891. 

74. Steinel, History of Agriculture in Colorado, 261. 

75. See Caldwell, "Some Kansas Rain Makers," The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly, VII (August, 1938), 320-324; Engineering News (New York), 
XXXIII (February 14, 1895), 109. 

76. The Wichita Daily Eagle, July 30, 1899. 

Zhe $ ho s hones 
in the Koeky Mountain Mca " 

Ake Hultkrantz 

The study of the Shoshone cultures west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains began very recently. Except for Robert H. Lowie's sketches 
in a few ethnographical reports from the time immediately before 
and after the first World War, it was not until Julian H. Steward's 
work, from the 1930's and 40's, that the basis was laid for our 
more intimate knowledge of the Western Shoshones. If we are 
surprised that the study in this ethnographical field began at such 
a late date, then we must be even more surprised that the eastern 
Shoshone groups — those Shoshones that live or lived in the 
Rocky Mountains of Idaho, Utah, Wyoming and Montana — have 
not yet had an adequate, complete description, and this in spite 
of the fact that they have been better known to ethnographical 
science than the Western Shoshones. 

Some attempts to describe the outlines of the Rocky Mountain 
Shoshones' cultural life have of course been made. Lowie visited 
the Lemhi Indians in Idaho 50 years ago, and collected their 
ethnography in a work which unfortunately suffers from the 
weakness that it does not clearly distinguish between different 
ethnical groups.^ Just before the outbreak of the second world 
war D. B. Shimkin spent a couple of summers among the Sho- 
shones in Wyoming, and as a result of his studies he published, 
among other things, a work concerning the ethnogeography of 
these Indians." A complete monograph of the Eastern Shoshones' 
culture is, however, completely missing. 

Those studies made among the Wind River Shoshones in Wyo- 
ming, which the author of this article carried on during the summer 
and fall of 1948, were directed mainly towards the study of social 
and religious culture. When, however, it became apparent that 
such a study could not be carried out unless the cultural milieu 
and cultural traditions were considered in their entirety, my 
investigations were then, at an early stage, directed toward the 
entire Shoshone culture. A summary of my viewpoints concerning 

* The Article was originally published in Swedish in Ymer 1956:3, pp. 
161-187. The present translation was done by Dr. Arne Magnus, University 
of Colorado, Boulder. The introduction has been partly revised, and some 
few new references have been added in the footnotes. 


the structure and content of the culture of the Wind River Sho- 
shones appeared in Ymer in 1949.'^ 

The conviction that a primitive culture in all its aspects cannot 
be completely investigated in a few months prevented me, however, 
from an immediate detailed publication of my findings. Only a 
few results concerning specific problems were published.^ New 
field studies were necessary. It was necessary to complete my 
data in several fields and it also seemed desirable that the pre- 
viously collected experiences should be subject to renewed control 
in the field.'' 

Consequently, new visits were made to the Shoshone area during 
summer and fall of 1955 and summer of 1957. The main portion 
of this time was spent in Wyoming. Shorter visits, however, were 
made also among Shoshone and Bannock Indians in Idaho." The 
field studies in Wyoming included studies not only of the Wind 
River Shoshone, but also of another tribe that lives on the reserva- 
tion, the Arapaho of the big Algonquin family.' In connection 
with the study of the so-called Sheepeaters (see later in this 
article), I made expeditions to the mountainous area of Wyoming 
to find their out-of-the-way haunts."' Besides the field studies I 
did archival research, partly at the Indian agencies at Fort Wash- 
akie (Wyoming) and Fort Hall (Idaho), partly in Mammoth 
Springs (Yellowstone National Park), Laramie (Archives of 
University of Wyoming), and Washington, D. C. (Library of 
Congress). Important, hard-to-get-to documents were made avail- 
able to me by Prof. Robert F. Murphy at the University of 
California. It is a natural consequence of the steady change in 
the natives' cultures that the ethnologists are forced to rely upon 
older descriptions in archives for their investigations. The time 
is past that historical conclusions can be drawn by means of 
comparative cultural analysis only. 

The main results of my 1955-57 investigations can be sum- 
marized as follows. 

The many-sided, cultural investigations which I started in 1948 
was completed. It turned out, however, that it became harder 
and harder to direct my studies towards the goal for which I had 
aimed in the beginning, a monograph on Wind River Shoshone 
culture during the days of their old Plains Indian life, and this 
for two reasons. 

The first is that in our days it is very difficult to reconstruct 
a primitive culture which several generations ago ceased to be 
an independent, functioning mechanism. Wyoming's buffalo- 
hunting Shoshone Indians gave up their political independence 
in the 1860's (when they, through agreements in 1863 and 1868, 
voluntarily congregated on a reservation), while their economic 
independence already had been undermined from the 1 840's when 
the wild life had disappeared from the Green River area) up to 
the 1880's (when the buffalos disappeared). In other words. 


that time when the Shoshone culture was an independent, free 
"superorganism" (Kroeber) is now more than 80 to 100 years 
past; and it is now impossible to draw any safe conclusions from 
the present "cultural material" concerning the Shoshone culture of 
the 1850's to 1870's. Not even the libraries' information or old 
travel books are sufficient to complete the picture. 

The other difficulty in the reconstruction of the culture is that 
the name Wind River Shoshone comes from reservation times and 
actually denotes a heterogeneous group of people.'* My investi- 
gations show that the present day Wind River Shoshone — up to 
this time considered by ethnologists as a homogeneous tribe — 
is composed of descendants of three independent, ethnic units as 
of 1860, within the present boundaries of Wyoming. If one 
goes further back in time, then one can conjecture that the number 
of independent groups was even greater, but two large main 
groups stand out both through their socio-political structure and 
their economic activities: the Buffalo Hunters or Kucundika of 
the Plains, the main portion of the present day Wind River 
Shoshones, and the Sheep-Eaters or Tukudika in the mountains. 
In order to obtain a better knowledge of the complicated cultural 
situation in older times, and especially to gain an understanding 
concerning the connection of the Wyoming cultures with the 
similar Shoshone cultures in Idaho and Utah, I made a quick 
investigation of these cultures and the rest of this article is devoted 
to a resume of the results of this comparative study. 

Because of situations which I have mentioned above, my 
investigations of the Wyoming Shoshones' historic cultural forms 
resulted in a collection of material which will appear in two 
monographs, one concerning the Buffalo Hunters and one con- 
cerning the Sheepeaters (Tukudika); and, in addition, material 
was collected concerning special cultural aspects referring par- 
ticularly to the Buffalo Hunters' cultural complex. I have in mind 
especially my studies of social and religious culture and my note- 
taking of the Shoshone texts (myths, legends and tales). 

Studies of the cultural changes and cultural contacts (accultura- 
tion), the second goal of my studies, were concentrated to the 
period 1948-1955 because this included the time between my first 
and second visit with the Shoshones. This does not prevent my 
material from throwing light on acculturation before 1948. After 
all, one can characterize the whole history of the Plains Indian 
culture as one long acculturation process, a continuous assimilation 
with European civilization. 

In the following pages I describe as mentioned an overall view 
of the general ethnological results of my comparative field and 
library studies of the Shoshones on both sides of the Continental 
Divide. In this connection one should note that for the Wyoming 
Shoshones I consider only those parts of my investigations which 
are of direct ethnological interest, whereas, for instance, my 


detailed studies of religion and mythology are completely neglect- 
ed. This survey has taken the form of a culture-historical overall 
view and brings out the most important data concerning the 
habitats, history, economic life and socio-political organization 
of the Eastern Shoshone groups. Since many of those cultural 
aspects and problems which I touch upon here will, I hope, be 
analyzed in greater detail in future publications, I have kept the 
footnotes to a minimum. 


Those Shoshones that in historical time — that is, mainly during 
the nineteenth century — have had their home area in the imme- 
diate neighborhood of the main range of the Rocky Mountains, 
have been divided into a number of different groups, which are 
often difficult to keep apart. It is natural that these many small 
groups of hunters, fishermen and collectors who walked around 
in these mountains, forests, and desert areas have not been satis- 
factorily classified in the present historical materials — reports by 
agents, travel descriptions and diaries. It seems less natural that 
the same material does not clearly put the riding Shoshones which 
frequented military and commercial forts in a class by themselves. 
Vage names such as "Shoshones" or "Eastern Shoshones" are 
given, while at the same time detailed information about the 
grouping of other riding tribes in nearby areas, such as the Crow 
and the Blackfoot Indians, is given. But, as a matter of fact, 
the authors of these old papers had good reasons for expressing 
themselves as they did. 

The term Eastern Shoshones, which is used in the old papers, 
refers mainly to the hunting Shoshone Indians of Wyoming, and 
in particular to the riding groups which hunted buffalo on the 
Plains. The name is somewhat vague but it must be that way, 
because it is doubtful whether the Indians in question were clearly 
distinguished as an ethnical group from the more westerly and 
northerly Shoshones. 

The descriptions by the Indian agents, dating from about 1850, 
as well as information from the present day Shoshones, tell about 
the time when Wyoming Shoshone buffalo hunters stayed mainly 
west of the Rockies in the area around the Green River, Bear 
Lake and the Great Salt Lake. From this base they made occa- 
sional expeditions to the area east of the Wind River Mountains, 
partly to hunt buffaloes and partly to fight the Plains Indians 
that kept them away from the rich hunting grounds in the east: 
the Crow Indians, Arapaho, Cheyenne, and later, the Sioux In- 
dians. At times these Shoshones operated together with other 
riding Shoshone groups west of the mountains, groups which 
otherwise did not have the Plains as hunting area. The Wyoming 
Shoshones frequently spent the winter with these tribesmen in 


their headquarters in the valleys of Idaho. Far into our time this 
connection between the Shoshone groups has existed, not only 
with separate individuals, but with whole families moving from 
Idaho to Wyoming or vice-versa. Nobody can deny that the 
Shoshones of Wyoming had a strong tribal organization, at least 
during the time Washakie was the chief (ca. 1840- 1900), but the 
families were not tied by this organization; they could leave to go 
where they wanted — but often with the risk of being an easy prey 
of an enemy tribe. 

This Shoshone cooperation makes the nation of "Eastern Sho- 
shones" an artificial one. Among the present day Wind River 
Shoshones are Bannocks and Paiutes, Lemhi Shoshones and so- 
called "Western Shoshones," while the descendants of Washakie's 
soldiers live on reservations in Idaho and Utah. Those cultural 
traditions which were carried on by the Shoshones at Fort Hall 
and Fort Washakie are surprisingly similar. "We are the same 
people. There is no difference between us," several representa- 
tives of the different Shoshone groups told me on sevral occasions. 

In addition to this comes the fact that different groups of riding 
Shoshones probably have had a common history not too far back. 

As I mentioned in my earlier article in this periodical, our 
knowledge of the Eastern Shoshones in prehistoric time — that is, 
before Lewis and Clark — is meager.^" The material which has 
been brought to light up to this time — archaeological finds and 
written notes — have not given us a satisfactory picture of Sho- 
shone pre-history. It seems, however, that our uncertainty is 
clearing at a few essential points, partly because Dr. W. Mulloy 
has found ceramics near Laramie (at Red Buttes), which accord- 
ing to his opinion were made by the Shoshones in late pre-historic 
time. Similar ceramics have also been dug up both near the 
Great Salt Lake and in Montana.^' The author of this paper 
has found, by library investigations in the U.S.A., manuscripts 
and older printed works which show undoubtedly that the Sho- 
shones in older times had a considerably further extension to the 
east and north than at present, a fact which is apparent also from 
Mulloy's material. 

So far this viewpoint has had support only from David Thomp- 
son's papers, the trustworthiness of which has been questioned by 
most ethnologists. In about 1790, Thompson's informant, an 
old Blackfoot Indian, told him of his recollection of the clash 
between the Shoshones and the Blackfoot Indians on the clash 
between the Shoshones and the Blackfoot Indians on the Canadian 
plains about 1730, which shows among other things that the 
Shoshones at that time were masters on the western plains. In 
other words, Thompson got this information 60 years after these 
things had happened and 50 more years passed before he re- 
corded it. ^2 It is natural therefore that his information was met 
with mistrust by ethnologists. However, Thompson's description 


of what happened has been supported by the just msntioned ar- 
chive material. According to their agreed information, the Sho- 
shones at the beginning of the eighteenth century Hved in the rich 
buffalo land north of the Missouri but were chased away by the 
Blackfoot Indians who had gotten arms from the British fur 
traders and thereby had won an overwhelming advantage over 
the Shsohones who had only the bow and arrow. ^•' 

Mulloy's finds of ceramics make it likely that the Shoshones 
lived on the Plains even before they had horses, that is, about 
1 650. On the other hand, it was probably the horse which made 
possible the expansion toward the Saskatchewan River. Thus the 
Shoshone occupation of the Canadian Plains did not last too long. 

It is at present impossible to decide with certainty which of the 
Shoshones were moving around on the northern plains 250 years 
ago. According to the ideas of Teit and Berreman, those Sho- 
shones that escaped the Blackfoot Indians moved to Idaho and 
Oregon, whereby they entered the territory of the Shahaptin 
Indians in Oregon. ^^ Ray has maintained, however, that the 
historical and ethnological data do not allow such an explanation 
in the case of Oregon.^"' | Personally, I find it more probable that 
parts of the Lemhi Shoshones in Idaho, as well as the Washakie 
Shoshones in Wyoming and the Comanche Indians who are the 
descendants of the Wyoming Shoshones on the southern Plains 
actually are retreat groups from the older Shoshone population 
on the Plains. Thus I find it likely that a small portion of the 
Lemhi Shoshones had previously visited the Plains in Montana 
as Lewis and Clark indicate."'' That the majority of them, how- 
ever, probably did not do so is supported by their own tradition. 
1 find it equally likely that many of those Shoshones who hunted 
during the 1 800's on the Wyoming Plains were the direct descend- 
ants of the earlier mentioned far-reaching Plains Shoshones, 
although I have not been able to get information from the Wind 
River Shoshones to support this argument. But it seems likely 
to me — as Mooney thinks also — that the Comanches' definite 
divorce from their nearest linguistic kin, the Shoshones in Wyo- 
ming, was connected with the Algonquin and Sioux Indians' 
spreading over the northern and western plains, which led to a 
splitting of the Shoshone block. ^' 

In light of all these facts it seems natural not to make an 
absolute distinction between the east, west and north Shoshones. 
Nevertheless, it seems suitable to retain these terms in order 
to get a rough geographical classification of the Shoshones in the 
Rockies, the only form of classification which seems possible if 
one wants to put the many split historical groups into wider 
categories. Hoebel has employed the concept of "Eastern Sho- 
shones" in such a fashion that it includes both Wyoming and 
Idaho Shoshones.'^ But I do not wish to support this new use 
of language since it does not have historical tradition. In the 


true Eastern Shoshones one ought to include the Buffalo-eaters, 
the Sheepeaters and the so-called Dove Eaters in Wyoming (see 
below). These cultures cannot easily be distinguished from 
historically related cultures further west that are structured in the 
same fashion, but the carriers of the cultures have lived near each 
other and today live on the same reservation. In the same way 
it is possible to distinguish the north and west Shoshones^^: 
those Shoshones that live in northern and eastern Idaho and 
northern Utah I call the North Shoshones; those further west, 
the West Shoshones. It will be the East and North Shoshones that 
will interest us in what follows. But also the Bannocks which 
belong to the Paviotso stock will be included because they have 
been intimately connected with the Shoshones in central and 
eastern Idaho and generally had the same culture as these. 

The following description of the Shoshones in the Rockies is 
based mainly, as previously mentioned, on my own field investiga- 
tions. Those who want more information are referred to the 
publications of Lowie, Hoebel and Steward.-*' It is to be noted 
that the results of these researchers not only deviate from my 
results but also deviate from each other. This is particularly true 
concerning the division into groups: Hoebel starts from smaller 
units, unfortunately named "band" (they are to a large extent 
loosely put together groups without that stability and rigidness 
which is implied in the word band); Steward discusses greater 
units consisting of groups put together into "districts," and he 
prefers district names (for example, Bannock Creek Shoshone) 
over the names which refer to their way of living (Rabbit Eaters) 
and which were used previously.-^ As for myself, I make an 
in-between choice; I start from greater units which I, according 
to convenience, call "groups" or "tribes" (comprised of "bands"), 
and keep the old names which in time have been accepted by 
the Indians as their "folk name."-- 


Those Indians that are considered here are the Agaidika and 

1. Agaidika ("salmon eaters") along the Lemhi River, Idaho. 
The name originally referred to salmon eating Indians who lived 
in the Lemhi Valley, but in later times has been used even for 
the Tukudika (see below), since these settled there during the 
1850's and began cooperating with the real Agaidikas. It would, 
however, be better to apply the name Lemhi to this new combined 
group which is composed of formerly separate people. Thus, in 
principle the two names Lemhi and Wind River Shoshone corre- 
spond to each other; both refer to ethnic groups which arose 
during the time on the reservation. Agaidikas called themselves 
also "pia agaidika," "big salmon eaters" — "because we caught big 
salmon," an old man told me. The same name, however, has been 


given to those salmon fishing Shoshones who lived on the Camas 

The Agaidikas still remember the time when they had no horses 
and lived on wild grass, berries, roots, pinyon nuts, fish (salmon 
and trout) and some big game which existed in the neighborhood: 
antelopes and deer and mountain sheep. Although fishing played 
a very important role and among other things, as Steward has 
pointed out, demanded collective effort, it was not dominating, 
but the multifarious economic activities typical for all the older 
Shoshonean cultures put its stamp on the daily lives. The Indians 
were passive during the winter and the early spring; everybody 
stayed in the winter quarters. The summer and fall were spent 
at fishing, hunting and collecting, sometimes at the Lemhi and 
Salmon Rivers, sometimes in other places near the winter quarters. 
Occasionally the Agaidikas teamed up with the Tukudikas; occa- 
sionally the latters made short visits to the Agaidika. 

It is natural that a people with such a simple and at the same 
time so diversified way of living did not develop any form of tribal 
organization. The winter quarters probably had certain headmen, 
generally trusted persons, whose main function was that of giving 
advice. During fishing seasons they probably showed more lead- 
ership. Religion also must have been uncomplicated, and prob- 
ably agreed with the pattern of belief which exists in later times. 
Characteristic of this religion has been the belief in spirits in 
animal form, which functioned as guardian spirits for the medi- 
cineman, who saw them in visions, for example of rock paintings 
and rock carvings. 

This whole cultural structure changed completely when the 
Agaidikas got horses. It was not that the old ways of living were 
given up; but new ways of living appeared, first of all, the buffalo 
hunting; and the collecting of herbs and roots was extended to 
far away places. It is of course possible that buffalo hunting 
appeared earlier; but Steward's data indicate that this was not 
the case, and my most important informant denied it too. The 
Agaidikas now also turned into "Kucundikas," "buffalo-eaters." 
They were organized firmer, partly so that they could meet the 
technical demands of the buffalo hunt, partly so that they could 
withstand their Indian enemies who competed with them for the 
game and usually congregated at the buffalo grounds — the Black- 
feet, Gros Ventres, and Crow Indians. But the hunting expedi- 
tions also led them into contact with friendly tribes towards the 
west, as, for example, with the Nez Perces and the Flathead 
Indians, and with Shoshonean people further away, for instance 
the buffalo hunting Shoshones of Wyoming. It was possible that 
the Shoshones from Lemhi hunted buffalos on the plains of 
Wyoming together with Washakie's Indians, but mostly they went 
to the buffalo areas at Bozeman, Montana.-^ These mounted 
Indians were welded together rather firmly and were led by chief- 


tains who both had control over "the tribe" (that is, the previous 
groups) and represented it before the white people. The chieftain 
title was kept in one family for three generations. The best 
known of these chiefs was Tendoy or Tindowoci, and his younger 
son, George Wince Tendoy (died 1954), was the last remaining 
centrol directing authority among these Indians. 

2. Tukudika (the proper name is "meat eaters," that is, "eaters 
of big horn sheep"). These people lived in the high areas 
around Salmon River, Idaho. They were also called toyaino, 
"mountain dwellers," and in later times have also been called 
Agaidika (compare above). They are not identical with the 
Tukudika who lived in Wyoming and did not know of their 
existence. There have been some Tukudikas in southwestern 
Montana; but since I do not have certain information about them 
I do not want to discuss them at present. 

The Tukudikas built up their economy in the same way as the 
Agaidikas; they collected herbs, berries, and roots, fished and 
hunted. But unlike the Agaidikas who spent comparatively more 
time at fishing than in other ways of gathering food, the Tukudikas 
spent more time at hunting than at fishing. Now and then they 
hunted deer — and those who did so were called Tihiyadika, "Deer 
eaters" — but they killed mainly the mountain sheep (bighorn). 
Hunting for mountain sheep was carried on the year around, 
during the winter on light snowshoes (so-called hunting mocca- 
sins) and with dogs. The dogs were too small that one could 
use them for transport animals, as was the case with the Tukudikas 
of Wyoming. The hunting was done individually or in families 
but was never organized on a big scale, since the wild life appeared 
in small flocks. 

The consequence of this was that the Tukudika population was 
spread out in small groups all over the Salmon River area. Many 
of these were comprised of only a few families each, but there 
existed also a few larger groups. Thus those Tukudikas who lived 
north and west of Salmon City gathered in the winter quarter at 
Pohorai ("sagebrush valley"), and even as late as 1870 one could 
find 200 individuals there. The families spread apart every spring 
for hunting expeditions in the different valleys; then when the 
berries ripened during the summer they moved to these areas and 
hunted and fished etc. The winter camp never had a fully 
developed chieftainship, but a certain authority was held by some 
old man who had much experience in life and was generally 

Tukudikas lived their peaceful life at mountain rivers of Idaho, 
isolated from the surroundings and shy of strangers, even up to 
the middle of the last century, at which time they to a large 
extent joined Tendoy's Agaidikas at Lemhi. Not until then did 
they get horses, and those who had fleet-footed animals soon 
followed the Agaidikas on their buffalo hunting expeditions to 


distant places.-' Thus the Tukudikas were incorporated in the 
Agaidika's socio-pohtical system. 

A few of them, however, must have remained in the mountains 
where they mixed with "lawless" elements of other tribes, elements 
that considered the mountains as refuge from the advancing white 
colonists. Already in the 1 860's did there exist in the mountains 
a "sheepeating" population comprised of Indians that had left 
the Bannock, Paiute, Nez Perce, Cayuse, Spokane and Coeur 
d'Alene Indians and a few Snake Indians, that is Shoshones, and 
probably Tukudika. For a long while they spent their time 
stealing cattle and now and then murdering a gold miner. Finally 
they were stopped by General Howard (1879).-'' 

Today there are not many Tukudikas left. "They have died 
away, and only the old ones are left," said my informant. 


Ihe Indians considered here are the Shoshone and Bannock at 
Fort Hall, Idaho. They belong to two different linguistic groups 
(although both belong to the uto-aztecan linguistic family): on 
one hand there are the so-called pohogue, "sagebrush people," 
belonging to the Shoshonean linguistic stock, and on the other 
side we have the Bannock, whose language is more closely related 
to that of the northern Paiute or Paviotso. Both groups have, 
since the beginning of 1 9th century, liked to operate together and 
the connection between them has been strengthened by several 

The Bannocks have — probably rather late — turned away from 
their linguistic kinsmen in Oregon. They have been spread over 
great parts of Idaho and bordering parts of Montana and Wyo- 
ming; and a great number of Shoshones on the Wind River reser- 
vation have Bannock blood in their veins, several families having 
typical Bannock names. The Bannocks appeared in several 
groups: some were in scattered single families or small groups, 
with or without horses, in the northern and western part of the 
area which they inhabited;-*' mounted Bannock were found near 
Fort Hall and along the Snake River, who, in later times, could 
collect into one large band. The Shoshone in Wyoming call the 
Bannocks that visited Salmon River, Northern Bannocks, while 
those who lived on the middle sections of Snake River are called 
Southern Bannocks. 

The Bannocks did not differ very much from their Shoshone 
neighbors as far as economics, mode of living and habits are 
concerned. Those mounted Bannocks who stayed around Fort 
Hall (which happened to be their winter quarter even before the 
time of the reservation) congregated often, as we just mentioned, 
into a "band" with a military organization reminiscent of that of 
the Washakie Shoshones, although it was not of the same firm 
type. Under chieftains like Tagi or Buffalohom they made expe- 


ditions to the buffalo countries east of the mountains, often along 
the famous Bannock Trail in Yellowstone Park; and they often 
made devasting raids on the white settlers. Two Bannock upris- 
ings occurred after the creation of the reservation at Fort Hall, 
one in 1878 (Camas Prairie, Idaho), and the other in 1895 
(Jackson Hole, Wyoming). The first mentioned uprising was 
caused, among other things, by the fact that Shoshones from 
Wyoming settled near Fort Hall and received the provisions 
which were meant for the Bannock, while the Bannock stayed in 
another place. The trouble in 1895 was not a serious one; the 
Bannocks simply took an expedition to their old hunting grounds 
outside the reservation, something which was now forbidden. 

The Shoshones at Fort Hall and along the Snake River were 
distributed among many groups which could not be distinguished 
effectively from the Western Shoshones out in the deserts or the 
Eastern Shoshones on the sagebrush prairies of Wyoming. A 
few groups lived by fishing in the Snake River; other groups 
hunted elk and deer up in the mountains; still other groups were 
seed gatherers or were mounted buffalo hunters, etc. It is, never- 
theless, very hard to define these groups from what one knows 
about their economic activities because these were to a very large 
extent dependent upon the seasons and changed in each group. 
It is therefore hardly correct to distinguish as Hoebel did a special 
group as "elk eaters" west of the Teton mountains: in these areas, 
which are exceptionally rich in elk, Shoshones gathered from 
everywhere — and for that matter Plains Indians too — to hunt the 
elk, and any specific elk eating group probably never existed. 

Before the horse was introduced, all these Shoshones were 
probably at the same time gatherers, hunters and fishers. This 
variation was necessary because the supply of wild animals and 
herbs was not too plentiful. Not until the Shoshones got horses 
were they abJe to hunt, to any large extent, the best wild game 
on the Idaho plains, although it was not very frequent: the 
buffalo. Although there is good reason to believe that the horse 
had long been in the possession of the Fort Hall-Shoshones,^^ by 
the end of the nineteenth century there were still a number of them 
who did not ride. Using an old terminology, occurring in early 
sources, one can roughly divide the Fort Hall Shoshones into 
those who were riding "Snake Indians" — who probably were 
recruited from different groups, mainly from the eastern part of 
the Snake River area-^ — and those who did not ride or "shosho- 
coes" (also called "diggers", "uprooters", "walkers", or "fish- 
eaters".)^^ In the Snake River Basin and near Fort Hall the 
mounted groups and the salmon eaters dominated, further south 
were the seed gatherers and the so-called fisheaters. Only the 
first two mentioned groups are here referred to as the Fort Hall 

Among these are the salmon eaters — here as near Lemhi River 


called Agaidika — representatives of the older way of living. They 
lived mainly on the Snake River below Fort Hall; north of there 
one could certainly fish for whitefish and trout, but the real salmon 
was best caught west of the present reservation. As was the case 
with the Lemhis, the salmon fishing was done by a collective 
action under the leadership of a chieftain, whose authority, how- 
ever, did not last past the fishing season. During the rest of the 
year, the "salmoneaters" were hunting in the mountains in the 
south, scattered into family groups. The women collected berries 
and roots the year around. 

The mounted Fort Hall Shoshones originally had a primitive 
collecting and fishing economy, and in spite of the fact that they 
became buffalo hunters in historical time, they still retained their 
old ways of living.^" One can even say that by having horses 
they were able to continue their old ways of living more intensely 
than before. They could hunt mountain sheep in northern Utah, 
fish at the Shoshone Falls, where salmon was abundant, dig roots 
at the Camas Prairie, hunt deer in the Salmon River mountains. 
At the same time there was the possibility of hunting buffalo on 
the Plains and taking part in the trade with other Indians and 
with the Whites. Together with Bannock and Washakie Sho- 
shones they visited the buffalo grounds in Idaho (until 1840), 
Montana, and Wyoming. Their wanderings led them to Lemhi, 
where they found protection against the Blackfoot Indians, to 
"the trading markets" at Camas Prairie, where Indians of different 
nationalities traded goods, to the summer rendezvous of the white 
fur hunters and trappers at Green River, Weber River, Bear Lake 
and other places, and to the trading post Fort Bridger at Black's 
Fork in southwestern Wyoming. 

Their social organization changed with their economic occupa- 
tion. Particularly during summertime, when fishing, hunting, and 
collecting of roots and berries in the areas around the Snake River 
was a daily chore, the family group was the natural unit. But as 
Steward has correctly pointed out, the buffalo hunt on the Plains, 
and with it increased danger of attacks by enemy Plains tribes, 
demanded firmer group organization. The Shoshones were now 
led together in bands headed by chieftains, and under the influence 
of the Wyoming Shoshones they developed a social and military 
organization reminiscent of that of the Plains Indians, with camp 
circles, a police organization, and rules and regulations concerning 
buffalo hunting and warfare."'^ This type of organization which 
was considered necessary only at certain times was, however, never 
as well developed as among their tribal kin in Wyoming. Only 
rather arbitrary "bands" were gathered around the chieftains, 
that is, the former leaders of fishing and hunting. A consequence 
of this was that the Bannock chieftains, who had a stronger 
authority, dominated when the Shoshones and Bannocks took 
longer hunting or war expeditions together. In addition to this. 


Washakie at times influenced these Shoshones strongly and many 
of them stayed under his leadership. 



Those Shoshone gioups, which, according to an old use of the 
language, are denoted as "diggers," could roughly be divided into 
Hukandika, Pengwidika and Weber Utes. 

1. Hukandika ("dusteaters": they walked on foot and thereby 
got the dust of the desert in their mouth) at Bannock Creek, 
Idaho, and Bear River Bay, Utah. It is to be noted that the name 
Hukandika has been applied to a number of different groups 
between the Snake River and the Great Salt Lake, together with 
the name kamodika ("eaters of black tailed jackrabbits" ) . Many 
of the smaller groups with different names ( squirrel eaters, marmot 
eaters, and others) that have reportedly traveled around in north- 
ern Utah, southern Idaho and southwestern Wyoming, have col- 
lectively been called Diggers, Rabbit-eaters or Hukandikas. An 
older source (Stuart) mentions that "Hukandikahs" or "Salt 
Lake Diggers" lived in the area around the Great Salt Lake.-^- 
A Hukandika Indian whom I met at Bannock Creek even applied 
the name "hukandika" as a name to the Shoshones in general. 
There are, however, two main groups which have gone under the 
name "hukandika": The Indians living on Bannock Creek and 
the Indians living near lower Bear River and Promontory Point, 
Great Salt Lake. The first mentioned are also called sonivo- 
hedika ( "wheat-eaters" ) . 

Hukandika are known for having acquired horses very late 
(probably after 1850). Like other Shoshonean groups with a 
primitive extensive economic system in pre-horse days they moved 
around in families or small groups, particularly during the summer, 
and lived off berries, roots and pinyon nuts (which they got from 
Grouse Creek in northwestern Utah and later, using horses and 
following the Fort Hall Shoshones, at Yellowstone) and fish and 
other available game (rabbits, deer, antelopes). When the Huk- 
andikas were supplied later with horses, a somewhat firmer social 
organization developed, in that the small camps were united under 
band leaders, one for the northerly and one for the southerly 
group. Over the country around Bannock Creek and extending 
down to Salt Lake ruled Pokentara or Pocatello, whose people, 
following serious raids on the white emigrants, were almost all 
annihilated in the massacre at Bear River (1863). The Hukan- 
dika to the south often took part in the Wyoming Shoshone buffalo 
hunts. The Hukandikas had in general much in common with 
Washakie's Shoshone, who often had their winter quarters at 
Bear River, fished in the Salt Lake tributaries and traded with 
the Mormons in Salt Lake City. Many Hukandikas stayed at 


times at Fort Bridger in Wyoming. It is likely that Washakie's 
Shoshone tribe partly recruited from the Hukandikas. 

2. Pengwidika ("fish eaters") at Bear River and Logan River 
in Utah. I'his group may also be called Hukandika or Rabbit 
Eaters, but is ethnologically best known as Pengwidika or "fish- 
eaters." The Indians, who originally trapped rabbits, hunted 
antelopes and caught fish of different kinds, probably even min- 
nows, were in historical times mounted, and were like the 
Hukandikas from further west decimated badly at the Bear River 
Massacre. Their chief was Wirasuap ("Bear Spirit"), who was 
probably identical with the "Bear Hunter" mentioned in older 
reports by agents. Wirasuap was a contemporary of Pocatello, 
although probably older than he, and was closer to Washakie than 
was Pocatello. Wirasuap and Washakie occasionally had common 
winter quarters south-west of Bear Lake. On these occasions the 
two chiefs appeared as peers. At Bear Lake the united Shoshone 
groups carried on winter fishing; they made a hole in the ice and 
fished with hook and line. Bear lake has been a frequently 
used meeting place of the Shoshone Indians, as it appears from 
many investigations in recent times of the camp sites at the Lake. 
In the year of 1827 the white fur hunters held a rendezvous at 
Bear Lake. 

3. Weber Utes between the Salt Lake and the Wasatch moun- 
tains in Utah. It is likely that these "Utes" really were Sho- 
shones.-''' Living representatives of them probably do not exist. 
They are included here for the sake of completeness and because 
it is very likely that at least at times they came together with 
Washakie's Shoshones. 

This kind of connection existed only exceptionally between 
Washakie's Shoshones and the "pure" or "real" Utes, who lived 
south of them, namely the Utes in the Uintah valley (Utah) and 
the Utes along the Yampa River (Colorado). 


We here consider as Fort Bridger Shoshones those Shoshones 
who occasionally visited the Fort Bridger neighborhood, south- 
western Wyoming, as well as the more permanent Shoshone 
settlers in the same area ("Bridger Basin"), Kamodika and 

This section of Wyoming, which was originally a part of Utah, 
was, particularly after the trading post of Fort Bridger had been 
erected in 1842-43, a meeting place for several different Indian 
groups, of which the Shoshones were the dominating ones. The 
Shoshones have probably been masters in this area from the 
beginning, although we do know very little about them in older 
times because they, as at Bear River, changed their economic and 
social life after the traders and fur hunters had invaded the area 
about 1 820. It is likely, however, that, before this change, those 


Shoshones who were here were partly buffalo hunters from Idaho 
and Utah on their way through, partly bands of buffalo hunters 
from Wyoming who stayed there through winter, and partly small 
groups of fairly stationary "rabbit eaters." In the course of the 
18th century many of the latter had probably already acquired 
horses and were taking part in the buffalo hunts. 

At the middle of the 19th century the situation at Bridger 
Basin probably looked as follows. From the west, as earlier, 
buffalo hunters passed through the country: Shoshone and Ban- 
nock from Idaho, Shoshone from the areas east and north of the 
Great Salt Lake. At Fort Bridger there gathered every summer 
Indians who traded with the whites (and with each other); 
buffalo eaters from the north, south and west (Shoshones, Utes, 
Flatheads, Nez Perce Indians, and occasionally Crow Indians), 
Navajo Indians (who followed the old Indian and Spanish trail 
north along Green River), Tsiigudika ("eaters of white tailed 
deer") from Snake River — probably identical with Hukandika — , 
Haivodika from Bridger Basin (see below), and many Shoshone 
half breeds, children of white trappers and Indian women. Those 
half breeds spent their time partly on buffalo hunting and partly 
on trading. The earlier "rabbit eaters" seem at this time in the 
main to have been absorbed by the "buffalo hunters" and 

Haivodika ("Dove eaters"), also called Black's Fork Indians,-^^ 
lived a greater part of the year along the creeks of Green River 
in the Bridger Basin and in particular at Henry's Fork. Tradition 
says that they split away from the buffalo hunting Shoshones in 
Wyoming at the death of the chief Yellow Hand in 1 842. During 
the 1 860's their chief was Bazil (Pasi), stepson of Sacajawea, 
Lewis and Clark's famous Shoshone guide, and closely related to 
Yellow Hand.'^'" "Dove eaters" seems to have been then their 
derogatory nickname, applied to them by the buffalo hunting 
Shoshones, because from the viewpoint of the latter they seemed 
to behave timidly and passively. Occasionally the Haivodika 
went horseback to hunt buffalos on the Plains, and then they lived 
like the Plains Shoshones; but mostly they spent their time at 
trading. They served as go-betweens between the nomadic tribes 
and the whites at Fort Bridger; they bought skins from the Plains 
Indians and sold them at the Fort and distributed the white 
Traders' goods among the Ute Indians. It is even known that they 
went to the Mormons at Great Salt Lake and exchanged skins 
for agricultural products and textiles. 


Those Shoshone Indians which lived in the mountains and forest 
areas in northwestern Wyoming were called, like the corresponding 
Shoshonean groups in Idaho, Tukudika, or Toyani. 

Tukudika ("sheep eaters,") see explanation of the word above. 


was in Wyoming a name used by all Shoshones to designate 
vaguely those Indians who occasionally or regularly devoted them- 
selves at bighorn hunting up in the mountains. Thus, some 
Washakie Plains Shoshones (Tavonasia's group, see below) called 
themselves Tukudika, when, after their transfer to the Wind River 
Reservation, they made summer excursions to Yellowstone Park 
in order to hunt big horn sheep. The real Tukudikas, however, 
were permanently living in the mountains; these were called 
Toyani, a name which Hoebel reserved for the Yellowstone Park 
Sheep eaters, but which correctly should be applied even to the 
more southerly Tukudikas in Wyoming — and as we have seen 
above also to the Tukudikas in Idaho.-^*' In a wider perspective, 
all mountain dwelling Tukudikas in Idaho, southwestern Montana 
and northwestern Wyoming, made a block of groups with almost 
identical economic structure but without any political or territorial 
unity. Not until later times did greater socio-political groups 
appear in Idaho and Wyoming. 

The Tukudikas in Wyoming, who have received very little 
attention from the ethnologists, lived on the Yellowstone Park 
Plateau, in the Absaroka mountains, in the Tetons and in the Gros 
Ventre mountains south of the national park, and in the Wind 
River mountains down to the historical South Pass. It is, how- 
ever, incorrect to believe that they lived in the mountains alone. 
At least during the 19th century they also appeared down in the 
Green River valley, and those of them who could ride or did ride — 
I refer here mainly to the Wind River area Tukudika who had 
good contacts with the buffalo hunting Shoshone — could even get 
as far as Bridger Basin. The Tukudikas in Yellowstone Park 
seem to have been most isolated.-^^ They were mixed with the 
Bannocks and were therefore called by Shoshones living other 
places Panaiti toyani ("Bannock mountain dwellers"). In all 
likelihood the Tukudikas were composed partly of an old layer 
of Shoshone "walkers", who retained the old way of living from 
the time before horses were introduced and who established a 
specialized mountain culture, and partly of pauperized Plains 
Shoshones, who had lost their horses or who had been forced to 
give up the Plains life for fear of the mighty Algonkin and Sioux 

Those Tukudikas whom Captain Bonneville, Russell, and other 
trappers met in the mountains of Wyoming appeared in very small 
groups — often family groups — and walked on foot, accompanied 
by big dogs, which at the same time were hunting dogs, carriers, 
and pullers (they hitched on the V-shaped "travois"). The 
Tukudikas lived on berries, herbs, and roots, fished in the small 
lakes, hunted small animals of different kinds and larger animals 
like elk, deer and mountain or bighorn sheep. They hunted par- 
ticularly the latter, which were very important as food and cloth- 
ing. Since these animals appeared in very small herds, the indi- 


vidual method of hunting was the most suitable. This situation 
and the fact that the forested areas were hard to travel through are 
probably the main reasons that these Indians' socio-political 
organization in olden times was so elementary. 

The situation changed considerably among the Wind River 
Tukudikas during the course of the 19th century. Hostile Plains 
tribes entered the mountains and the primitively organized moun- 
tain dwellers had to seek support and protection among Washakie's 
Shoshones. From the latter they received more horses, and at 
the same time they formed bigger and firmer units than before. 
The Tukudikas were now collected in from 3 to 4 bands, with 
Toyaewowici as their main chief. Even their mode of traveling 
was changed. I'he winter was spent down in some valley near 
the mountains, for example at Red Banks near Dubois. Early 
in the spring they moved half way up the mountains to fish. The 
summer was spent in the mountains, where they hunted as in 
olden times, and in August and September they went out on the 
plains near Green River to hunt antelopes. Occasionally they 
even came to Fort Bridger, where they exchanged meat and fur 
for gunpowder and rifles. 

As far as we can see, the Tukudikas living further north retained 
their old social structure even at the end of the 19th century. 


Many Shoshone groups stayed at times on the plains of Wyo- 
ming in order to hunt buffalos and antelopes. But only a limited 
number of them stayed more permanently within the area, namely 
those Eastern Shoshone plains hunters who in historical times 
operated mainly in southwestern Wyoming and the bordering area 
of Idaho and Utah. They called themselves Kucundika ("buffalo 
eaters") and were known as "Washakie's Shoshones." Because 
they resided mainly in the Green River Valley, the whites called 
them Green River Shoshone. A better name, however, would be 
"Wyoming Plains Shoshones." No Shoshoneans deserve the name 
Plains Shoshone better because in cultural and social respect they 
approached the Plains Indians more than any other Shoshone 
groups, the Comanche Indians excepted. 

Written sources from the 1 840's and later show that the mount- 
ed Wyoming Shoshones' land area at this time was considerable. 
They hunted on the plains from Montana to southern Wyoming. 
They visited up in the mountain areas from the Bitterroot moun- 
tains in the northwest to the Uintah mountains in the south and 
on western excursions they reached the Camas Prairie in Idaho 
and the Great Salt Lake in Utah. They had a lively contact with 
the Lemhi Shoshones far in the north and the Comanche Indians 
far to the south, and it is characteristic that Washakie grew up 
among the former, while his predecessor, chief Yellow Hand, was 
son of a Comanche chief. Reports of agents and fur trappers' 



journals inform us that the Plains Shoshones' area of action was 
stretched over a large territory, although the area in which they 
lived had gradually diminished. Successively they were moved 
away from the open Plains, in particular by the Blackfoot and 
Gros Ventres (whom they fought in the Wind River area even in 
the i840's), but also by the Crow Indians, who pressed them 
away from the excellent hunting grounds south of the Yellowstone 
River. It appears that they lived mainly on the plains near Green 
River in the 1830's. But during the 1840's they expanded anew: 
the Crow Indians made peace with them so as to be able to with- 
stand the pressure from the Blackfoot and Sioux Indians, and the 
Shoshone under Washakie extended their hunting trips to the 
Wind River country and the Bighorn Valley. These hunting 
expeditions became of absolute necessity, since their most impor- 
tant game animals, especially the buffalo, had been exterminated 
from the Green River Valley. The Laramie agreement of 1851, 
which made the Crow Indians masters of the land east of the 

vShoshone Buffalo Hunt and Dance. 

Painted on elk hide by Charles Washakie, fourth son of Chief Washakie. 
On display in the Wyoming State Museum by courtesy of Mrs. Mable 
Cheney Moudy. 


Absaroka and the Wind River mountains, forced Washakie again 
to seek hunting grounds up in the mountains, although he now 
and then raided the plains and on those occasions fought with the 
Crow, Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians. The Shoshones' 
main base was still the land around the Green River, and it was 
here that their first reservation was established in 1863. A work 
from the middle 1860's mentioned these Shoshones, and not 
without reason, as "the Washakeeks or Green River Snakes. "^^ 
Not until after 1872 could Washakie and his Shoshone definitely 
be transferred to the new reservation at Wind River. 

In spite of forced moves and changes in hunting areas the 
mounted Wyoming Shoshones to a large extent kept the rhythm 
in the annual scheme of traveling which characterized their exist- 
ence since olden times. Before the Wind River reservation was 
established the winters were spent at Fort Bridger, near Bear 
Lake, or up in the mountain areas toward Idaho; but to some 
extent also on the plains close to, for example, Shoshone River 
or Wind River. The winter diet consisted mainly of dried meat 
(of buffalo, deer or elk). The spring was spent with hunting and 
fishing near the winter quarters while the horses fattened up. 
Even limited buffalo hunting was carried on if possible. Although 
the buffalos were thin this time of the year their skin had value 
as material for clothing, tent covers, etc. When summer neared, 
the Shoshones gathered for a Sun Dance down near Fort Bridger. 
Thereafter they scattered in family groups and spent their time 
in diverse occupations. They sold furs at Fort Bridger and bought 
salt and com at Salt Lake City; and up in the mountains they 
dug up roots, picked berries, trapped rodents, and hunted small 
game. When the heat of the summer decreased, the tribes gath- 
ered again for the big buffalo hunt of the fall. They moved then 
to grounds that were rich in buffalos, and especially to those areas 
where their scouts had locaHzed herds no matter where they might 
be. At the middle of the last century one found the largest herds 
of buffalo in Wyoming in the Big Horn Basin, east of the Big 
Horn Mountains, and in the area northeast of the Laramie Range, 
and also in northern parts of the Wind River Basin some buffalos 
could be found. Gradually Washakie visited all these areas. 
When in the middle of the 19th century the buffalos decreased 
in numbers on the old Shoshone hunting grounds closest to the 
mountains, Washakie's expeditions were extended further away to 
buffalo ranges on the plains east of the Big Horn Mountains and 
northeast of the Laramie Range. Thereby, however, the risk of 
bloody encounters with the hostile Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho 
Indians unfortunately increased. When the fall hunting was over, 
the Shoshones went into winter camps, and, according to the 
circumstances, camped together or split into separate bands. 

These Shoshones were not typical exponents of the Plains Indian 
culture if we compare them with the Plains tribes just mentioned. 


Their diverse ways of subsistence united them more with their 
tribal relatives behind the mountains than with their nearest 
neighbors on the plains. Thus the Plains Shoshones were not 
dependent on the buffalo for food in the same manner as, for 
example, the Cheyennes, but could replace the usual winter supply 
of dried buffalo meat with dried elk meat. And Hamilton, who 
in the 1840's was visiting both the Cheyenne and the Shoshone 
Indians wrote that the Shoshones to a larger extent than the Chey- 
ennes were mountain Indians and were hunters of small game."'** 

As far as socio-political organization is concerned, the Wyoming 
Plains Shoshones remind us more of the genuine Plains tribes. 
The reasons for forming strong groups, which we have already 
observed in the Lemhi and Fort Hall Shoshones, were of course 
also present among the buffalo hunters of Wyoming, and they 
appeared even stronger here. During the time these Shoshones 
were buffalo hunting on the open plains they were usually organ- 
ized as one big group, a "tribe" with a central chief, an advisory 
council, and a warrior sodality with police functions (ohamupe, 
"the yellow forelocks"), etc., all in accordance with the customs 
of the Plains Indians. This tribal organization was also the func- 
tioning ethnic unit during the Sun Dance or "Thirst-withstanding 
Dance," which appeared yearly in June as a religious three day 
ceremony, when the Plains Shoshones, through prayer, dance and 
fasting received assurance of protection from the highest God. 
Even the Sun Dance was taken over from the Plains Indians and 
was a religious complex belonging to the ideology of the buffalo- 
hunting society.^" 

In name and in reality, at least from the 1840's, Washakie was 
the chief of the Shoshone tribe on Wyoming's plains. But at his 
side were a number of experienced warriors, who gathered around 
them occasional and more or less solid bands. These bands, the 
size of which could change during a few years, often operated 
completely independently of the "tribe." One of these bands was 
under the leadership of Tavonasia, a strong competitor of Washa- 
kie, whose leadership over the tribal organization he was not happy 
to accept as a fact. Before the Wind River reservation was estab- 
lished Tavonasia and his people visited occasionally in Utah and 
in the Bear River Valley and occasionally among the buffalo 
grounds at Sweetwater and North Platte."*^ After the move to the 
Wind River reservation Tavonasia and his band moved in summer 
time to Yellowstone Park where they fished and hunted. Another 
band leader, whom the whites hardly dared trust, was the halfbreed 
Nakok, son of a French trapper and a Shoshone squaw. In the 
battle at Bear River, where he lost one eye, he appeared on the 
rebellious Indian side. He was, according to old documents, very 
independent in his relationship to Washakie, and he was able to 
draw people away from the latter.^- 

Several reports from the 1850's and 1860's indicate that Wash- 


akie at times had difficulties with his band chiefs, and often 
had to depend on the white man's support in order to control 
them/-' In spite of this, however, he had great authority as a 
general rule among the Shoshones and was on occasions a chief 
for a reinforced tribe in which could even be found Hukandika 
from Utah, Fort Hall Shoshone, and Tagis Bannock. Thus the 
road was made smoother for Washakie's position of strength on 
the Wind River reservation. 


The scattered Shoshone groups in Wyoming — Haivodika, Tuku- 
dika, Kucundika, maybe also Kamodika — were gathered during 
the course of the 1 870's on the reservation at Wind River, which 
through the Fort Bridger treaty of 1868 had been established for 
them. To begin with, the reservation had been planned also for 
the Bannock, Washakie, the man among the Shoshones with 
whom the whites had negotiated most, wanted, namely, to have 
the support of the Bannock tribe in the fight against the steadily 
more persistent Sioux Indians, who as early as the 1 840's ( accord- 
ing to what Fremont tells us) invaded the Wind River area time 
after time and who, at the same time as the Shoshones moved 
into the reservation, intensified their raids upon it. The Bannock, 
however, were placed at the Fort Hall reservation and in their 
place Washakie was forced to leave room for his arch enemy the 
Arapaho, after they had laid down their weapons (1876). 

The main portion of the Shoshone population at the Wind River 
Reservation consisted of Washakie's reasonably well disciplined 
people. It is therefore natural that Washakie in the future re- 
mained the obvious leader and that even Basil and the Tukudika 
chiefs considered him as the head man of the Shoshone. During 
the rest of his lifetime he kept this unusually great authority, in 
spite of the fact that the tribal council was organized in 1886 
for the purpose of removing the power of the chief.^^ After 
Washakie's death (1900), the tribal council had all the power, 
and since the death of his son, Dick Washakie (1944), even a 
nominal chief has been lacking. 

The different elements of population on the reservation have 
gradually grown together. This means also that the Tukudika 
are not neglected any more; many of them have leading positions 
in the tribal council. And the social line of demarcation is not 
now so much between the Kucundika and Tukudika, as between 
conservative and progressive elements, between adherents of the 
old tribal life (represented by the so-called "Sage Creek group") 
and spokesmen for a gradual assimilation with the white civil- 


1. R. H. Lowie, "The Northern Shoshones," Amer. Mus. of Nat. Hist., 
Anthrop. Papers 2:2 (1909). 


2. D. B. Shimkin. "Wind River Shoshone Ethnogeography," Univ. of 
Calif., Anthrop. Records 5:4 (1947). 

3. A. Hultkrantz. "Kulburbildningen hos Wyomings Shoshoni-indianer," 
Ymer 1949:2. 

4. See "Ethnos" 1951-55, and Ymer 1954:2. 

5. It can even be added, that I tried to gain knowledge of the Sho- 
shonean language. A great part of my time during the visits with the 
Shoshones in 1955 was spent at studying the language with the help of 
native teachers. 

6. Valuable help during my visits at Fort Hall Reservation was given 
mc by the Bannock researcher Dr. Sven Liljeblad in Pocatello. 

7. It was, first of all, some of the Arapahos" religious rites which I 
studied, but also the relations between the Shoshone and the Arapaho 
were of interest to me. 

8. The foremost authority on Yellowstone Park, Jack E. Haynes, led 
me to old camp sites within the area of the park. 

9. My 1949 publication (see note 3 above) concerned the buffalo hunt- 
ing Shoshones which I then — according to Shimkin's and others' pattern — 
called Wind River Shoshone. My later investigations have made it clear 
that this name for the historical buffalo hunters is infortunate. "Wyoming 
Plains Shoshone" is better. See further A. Hultkrantz, "Tribal Divisions 
within the Eastern Shoshoni of Wyoming," Proceed, of the 32. Intern. 
Congr. of Americanists (1958), pp. 148-154. 

10. A. Hultkrantz. "The Indians in Yellowstone Park," Annals of Wyo- 
ming. Vol. 29:2 (1957), p. 133 f. Cf. also Earl H. Swanson, "Problems in 
Shoshone Chronology," Idaho Yesterdays, Vol. 1:4 (1957-58), pp. 21ff. 

11. University News Service, Laramie, June 19, 1950. This report has 
not been printed yet. See also W. Mulloy, "The Northern Plains" (in J. 
Griffin, Archeology of Eastern United States. Chicago 1952), p. 136. 

12. David Thompson's Narrative of His Explorations in Western America 
1784-1812, ed. by J. B. Tyrrell, Toronto 1916, p. 327 ff. 

13. Dr. J. C. Ewers at National Museum in Washington, D. C, was 
friendly enough to put several of the referred documents at my disposal. 

14. See J. V. Berreman, "Tribal Distribution in Oregon," Amer. An- 
throp. Ass., Mem. 47 (1937), p. 55 ff. 

15. V. F. Ray, "Tribal Distribution in Northeastern Oregon," Amer. 
Anthrop. 40:3 (1938), p. 392 ff. 

16. Jfr B. De Voto (ed.), The Journals of Lewis and Clark (1953), 
p. 213 f. 

17. J. Mooney in Bur. of Amer. Ethnol., Bull. 30:1 (1907) p. 327. 

18. E. A. Hoebel, "Bands and Distributions of the Eastern Shoshone," 
Amer. Anthrop. 40:3 (1938). 

19. In this general division of the Shoshone I follow Steward. See J. H. 
Steward. "Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups," Bur. of Amer. 
Ethnol.. Bull. 120 (1938^, p. XII. 

20. See Lowie, op. cit., Hoebel, op. cit., and Steward, op. cit. 

21. J. H. Steward, "Some Observations on Shoshonean Distributions," 
Amer. Anthrop. 41:2 (1939), p. 261 ff. 

22. Previously different groups denoted themselves as n^yw', "the peo- 
ple." The names that have come to characterize them come mostly from 
Shoshone neighborhoods with another way of life. 

23. Before 1840 there were still buffalos in Idaho, particularly at the 
upper part of Snake River; but after this date the most easily attainable 
buffalo haunts were north of the Yellowstone River. 

24. It was always Agaidika's hunting chief who took the initiative in 
these excursions. 

25. See O. O. Howard, My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile 
Indians (1907), p. 421 ff., 431 f. Jfr R. Ross Arnold, Indian Wars of 
Idaho (1932), p. 222 ff. 


26. A Shoshone informant told me that tidibiano were sheepeaters of 
the Bannock people in western Idaho. 

27. Cf C. Wissler, "The Influence of the Horse in the Development of 
Plains Culture," Amer. Anthrop. 16:1 (1914), p. 23 f.; F. Haines, "The 
Northward Spread of Horses among the Plains Indians," Amer. Anthrop. 
40:3 (1938), p. 435; and J. C. Ewers, "The Horse in Blackfoot Indian 
Culture," Bur. of Amer. Ethnol., Bull. 159 (1955), p. 6 f. 

28. My informants said that even Nevada Shoshone ("White Knives") 
appeared among them and hunted together with the Bannocks. 

29. This division which was made by Bonneville, Wilson, De Smet, 
Lander and Hoffman, has however never been applied consistently. The 
name "Snake Indians" (which seems to go back to the white man's wrong 
interpretation of the symbol for "Shoshone" in the Plains Indians' sign 
language) has thus been applied not only to the mounted Shoshones in 
Wyoming and Idaho, but also to the western "foot Indians" in eastern 
Oregon. The name "shoshocoes" is taken from the Shoshone word 
shoshogoi, "those who are walking on the ground." 

30. This possibly is due to the fact that there were so few buffalos 
west of the Rockies; the buffalo was eliminated completely there during 
the 1840's (by fur trappers, immigrants and Indians). 

31. In contrast to this it seems that such a religious institution as the 
Sun Dance was not accepted at Fort Hall until the turn of the century, 
1900. According to one of my informants the Shoshones and Bannocks 
danced the Sun Dance together for the first time in Jackson Hole. If this 
information is correct, then this first Sun Dance can not have been later 
than 1896, since the state of Wyoming forbade the Indians to stay in 
Jackson Hole after that time. 

32. G. Stuart, Montana As It Is (1865), p. 80. 

33. Cf. Steward, "Basin-Plateau Aboriginal Sociopolitical Groups," p. 
219 ff., and J. A. Jones. "The Sun Dance of the Northern Ute," Bur. of 
Amer. Ethnol., Bull. 157, p. 211. 

34. In Shoshone Black's Fork is called "Pine River," but it must not be 
confused with Pine Creek at Pinedale, Sublette County. 

35. It is possible that Bazil's group consisted of Comanche who had 
followed Yellow Hand from the Comanche land (Yellow Hand was orig- 
inally Comanche Indian) to Wyoming, and at his death had broken away 
from the Plains Shoshone (f. D. B. Shimkin, "Wind River Shoshone 
Geography," Amer. Anthrop. 40:3 (1938), p. 415. 

36. Hoebel, op. cit., p. 410. The word "mountain-dwellers" is consid- 
ered by the present-day descendants of the Tukudika as humiliating and 
has apparently been applied to them by the Plains Shoshone as a derogatory 

37. Hultkrantz, "The Indians in Yellowstone Park," p. 134 ff. In this 
article I used the name dukurika (cf. Shimkin: dukurka); however, follow- 
ing discussions with America linguists I have decided to use the form 
tukurika in the future. 

38. Stuart op. cit., loc. cit. 

39. W. T. Hamilton, My Sixty Years on the Plains (1951), p. 83. 

40. At the same time the older religion remained characterized by ' 
individual vision quests and really diversified belief in nature spirits. 

41. Concerning Tavonasia, see Rep. Comm. Ind. Affairs 1873 p. 41 ff., 
1878 p. 150. 

42. Concerning Nakok, see Rep. Comm. Ind. Affairs 1869 p. 274, 275. 
Nakok eventually became Washakie's companion, war-chief and most im- 
portant interpreter. 

43. See Rep. Comm. Ind. Affairs 1868 p. 158, 1870 p. 175. 

44. Rep. Comm. Ind. Affairs 1886 p. 260. 

A family Portrait * 


Mrs. Wilburta Knight Cady 

The more one delves into the past, the more one is filled with 
humility. It is in this spirit that I try to paint this family portrait, 
"which shows that adversity is something like a refreshing rain of 

The beginning of this portrait was etched in Colonial Times 
when some branches of the family belonged to the Providence 
Plantation which had been founded by Roger Williams after his 
banishment from Massachusetts because of his disagreements with 
the church there. One of the men who had sent orders to have 
Rogers deported to England was John Cotton. So at the beginning 
in the New World some families were close friends, some bitter 

One branch of the Cotton Family returned to England about 
1700, returning to the United States via Canada in 1870. The 
other branches gradually drifted westward from Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, and Massachusetts, to Illinois, finally coming to 
rest in southern Nebraska. They drove an ox team, using a willow 
as a whip, and upon arrival at their destination, this switch was 
planted and grew into a beautiful tree. Their first job was cutting 
the sod and building their shelter. 

Five generations (now six) make up the portrait in Laramie. 
The first, our maternal grandparents, were visitors, but they are 
buried in the Laramie cemetery. 

It is the next generation that paints the picture we are studying. 
It begins to take form when Wilbur Clinton Knight left his father's 
farm near Blue Springs, Nebraska, at the age of 21. He stayed 
at home until that time to help with the farm and five smaller 
children, because his very stern, religious father demanded it, for 
he did not see any sense in an education for making a living. His 
son entered the University of Nebraska's Preparatory School, 
wearing a suit of clothes his mother had made (she had learned 
the tailoring trade from her father). Wilbur's only resource on 
entering the University was money he had earned from a crop of 
corn he had planted and had harvested. His finances were in a 
worse condition when he graduated. 

Many interesting stories were told about the ways he earned 

* This paper was written for the Albany County Historical Society and 
presented in November 1959. 



enough to put himself through seven years of prep school and 
college. He was a blacksmith, carpenter, plumber, printer, glazer, 
musician, chemist, and inventor. He financed the college paper 
and established the first stationary store on the campus. He and 
a fellow student made their living quarters in the attic of the Old 
Main Building (now torn down), tapping the Chemistry lab for 
gas to use as heat and fuel. They secured a contract to replace 
all broken windows on the campus. The story is told that when 
times became too hard, a number of windows would have to be 

A friend of his said, "In walks with nature he developed an 
independence of thought and resourcefulness that prepared him for 

Courtesy Mrs. Cady 

Wilbur Clinton Knight and Emma Howell Knight with their children (left 
to right) Samuel Howell, Wilburta Anna and Everett Lyell Knight. 


dealing with life in a most practical and efficient way. More than 
that, he had developed a homely philosophy that made him despise 
the dishonest and insincere. I think that I never knew a man 
who was so modest and unassuming and yet so well stocked with 
things that made for success, as was our friend when he left the 

One summer he came to Wyoming to work in the field of 
botany. Here he found such a wealth and possibilities in mining 
and geology that he spent the remainder of his college years 
studing these subjects. Upon graduation he received a bachelor 
and master's degree. Later he received his doctorate from the 
University of Chicago. 

The portrait becomes clearer when Elizabeth Emma Howell 
attended the University of Nebraska just long enough to become 
acquainted with Wilbur Knight. Then her father decided that he 
needed her to help him in his coal and insurance business and that 
women had no need for an education, so she returned to Omaha 
to help him and further her musical education. 

Upon graduation father was employed as assayer for the Swan 
Testing and Sampling Company with an excellently equipped assay 
office and chemical laboratory in Cheyenne. He was also ap- 
pointed Territorial Geologist. From 1885 to 1889, he made many 
trips into different parts of Wyoming and Colorado, studying 
minerals and mining situations. On November 6, 1887, he made 
his first visit to the University of Wyoming. 

In 1889 he was engaged by the Sartoris brothers as Superin- 
tendent of the Keystone Mine west of Laramie. 

The portrait becomes more distinct when Wilbur Knight and 
Elizabeth Emma Howell were married in Omaha, Nebraska, on 
October 16, 1889. They visited in Cheyenne, staying at the old 
Interocean Hotel (which later burned). On their way to Laramie 
they crossed the old Dale Creek trestle, which was used at the 
time that the Union Pacific had a single track system. 

Frank and Lionel Sartoris were English young men who, having 
finished their educations, took the usual trip around the world, 
stopping in Laramie. They decided that there was the place 
they wanted to settle, as there was quite a colony of English people 
here at that time. Some returned to England and some stayed. 
They bought the Keystone Mine and built the Home Ranch, known 
as the Douglas Willan, Sartoris Ranch. Frank was one of the 
founders of the National Live Stock Association in Chicago in 
1 892, which had $500,000,000 represented. The old W. W. Hall 
in Laramie was built as an English club. 

It took two days to make the trip from Laramie to Keystone 
with a four-horse team and buggy. The first night was spent at 
the Home Ranch, which was located northwest of the present 
Millbrook. I do not remember the house but have seen the 
remains of some of the buildings. It was a regular English manor 


house, with a large billiard room in the center, living rooms on 
one side, dining room and kitchen on the other. Stairs led to a 
balcony from which the sleeping rooms opened. This house was 
torn down about 1908, as the wind and weather had made it 
unsafe. As far as I can learn, no one seems to know what became 
of all the furnishings. 

It had been on January 1, 1 876, that Colonel Downey conferred 
the name of Centennial upon what was supposed to be the richest 
mine yet found in Wyoming. It turned out to be a pocket which 
produced $20,000 worth of yellow metal. In the Laramie Re- 
publican, September 1 6, 1 890, there is quite an article on why 
the early mining efforts in Wyoming were disastrous. 

The Wyoming Commonwealth, Mining Convention Edition, 
January 4, 1891, says of the Keystone Mine, "It is 220 feet deep, 
has 20,000 tons of quartz in sight. The mine is worked through a 
double shaft and is supplied with a double drum oscillating hoist, 
and has two steam pumps, with a capacity of 260 gallons of water 
per minute. The pumping stations are cut at 160 feet, the vein 
is a true fissure ranging from 18 inches to 10 feet in width. It 
varies in value from 1 to 200 dollars a ton. With the quartz are 
copper ores. The Otras Company's twenty stamp gold mill is 
the largest and best equipped in the state. [This building was 
torn down in 1955-56 W.C.K.]. The Florence Mine is about 
% mile south of Keystone and is developed by the Otras Company. 
This mine has reached a depth of 160 feet and has over 1,000 
feet of drift. This quartz is being refined at the Keystone mill. 
The vein is of good width and has granite walls. The ore ranges 
from a low grade quartz to a very high grade white iron ore which 
assays high in gold. 

"At the present time the Otras Company employs 30 men and 
expects to run the entire winter. In the spring, as soon as the 
snow melts, they expect to sink the Keystone shaft to 400 feet, 
and continue sinking the Florence." 

Money was poured into such places as Keystone, Florence, 
Gold Hill, Brush, Button, Douglas Creek and Corner Mountain, 
with the continual hope of great fortune. Gold was King. It 
came easily and departed the same way. 

The Sartoris boys gave father a large gold watch and a silver 
mounted shot gun and mother a Webber piano, as wedding pres- 
ents. Many an evening father came home and had to pass through 
a line of miners listening to the music from that piano. All kinds 
of luxuries were sent to the camp from eastern cities the year 

The ground from the Home Ranch to Keystone, on that Oc- 
tober, 1889, was covered with deep snow, and the trip was made 
by bobsled. In the camp the log home and some of the furniture, 
waiting for the bride, had been made by the groom. He had 
hand-hewed the ceiling logs. The rooms were not large, they 


were heated by wood stoves, lit by kerosene lamps, and there was 
no plumbing, but it was a wonderful home. On the north side 
was a large separate room which the Sartoris boys used as their 
headquarters. [This building has recently been torn down]. 

There are many stories I remember of that time. There were 
16 brides in camp that winter, and 16 babies born that summer and 
fall. The only attendent was a midwife, and she had one of the 
babies. The first bread the bride baked had to be fed surrep- 
titously to the goats, because it was so dark and hard. 

Her brother came to visit and a bear hunt was planned with 
elaborate preparations. He had never been in the mountains and 
when told to watch at a certain place became so frightened, as 
night came on, that he climbed a tree and stayed there. The hunt- 
ers returned tired, dirty, worn-out, without their kill. To their 
utter consternation, they sat down to a dinner of beautifully 
roasted bear which had been supplied by Dirty Pete. 

Dirty Pete lived at Podunk down the road where he had a cave 
into the side of a mountain which served as a refrigerator. Here 
he kept game and wild meat for the people who wished it. He 
lived up to his name. The only washing his dishes ever had 
was that given them by the dogs as they lapped their meals off 
them, but who could be choosey when meat was a serious 

Pete Fisher, against the advice of older men, went into a 
deserted cabin to cut logs for fire wood. The weight of the winter 
snow was heavy on the roof, and it caved in, covering him with 
logs and snow. His back was broken, and the doctor who came 
out from Laramie said that there was no hope for him. He did 
live but was paralyzed from the waist down. They came to 
Laramie, and for years his wife supported the three of them (the 
third was one of the 16 babies) by catering and cleaning. Later 
he would be strapped into a two-wheeled cart, equipped with a 
gun and a pack of blood hounds. The horse was trained to pull 
the cart to the old wire gates so that Pete could open and close 
them. The dogs scared up the quarry and brought it back to 
Pete after he shot it. By trapping in this original manner, he 
was able to add to the support of his family. Both Mr. and Mrs. 
Fisher lived until after 1928. 

On October 10, 1890, the inhabitants of Keystone were aroused 
by a quaking of the earth and a terrific explosion. It was soon 
learned that it was caused by a falling meteor about 2 miles north- 
east of the community. One fell near Denver at the same time. 

Of course, there was the love story. The Home Ranch was 
run by George Morgan and his wife. They had a beautiful (and 
I mean beautiful) daughter named Clara. In the course of time 
Lionel and Clara fell in love. This caused so much consternation 
in the family in England that Father Sartoris came to settle things, 
which he did after many very stormy scenes. 



One day much later, a short, swarthy, stocky man with a scar 
along his cheek rode up to the Home Ranch on a burrow and 
asked to see Mr. Morgan. Clara, who was sitting on the porch, 
replied, "The servants quarters are in the rear." Mr. Bell looked 
her over very thoroughly and said, "I will marry you, young lady." 
And he did — but the life of E. J. Bell is a story all by itself. 
Lionel returned to England and after many years wrote to Mrs. 
Bell that he would give anything he possessed but his son to be 
back in Wyoming. Frank Sartoris married Nellie Grant, daughter 
of the president. 

A regular stage ran from Laramie to Keystone. Father always 
carried the refined gold into town, and it always got through. He 
was an excellent shot. Often the bricks weighed 62 pounds and 
were worth $1,200.00. 

In reading through the papers of those days one finds many 
Indian stories and many encounters with bears. There is a great 
deal written about Gold Hill. Its backers expected a large gold 
rush; there was talk of a new road, a telephone line and mail route. 
The miners flocked there from Florence and Keystone. It was 
said that Gold Hill would be to Laramie what Leadville was to 
Denver. One group of men made the trip over the mountains on 
snowshoes in the middle of winter. 

The papers tell of drilling for oil, supplying the town with 
natural gas; they discussed the water question, the laying of sewers, 
building the Cathedral, mail delivery, the glass factory, and the 
soda works. A large block of soda from one of the Soda Lakes 
was exJiibited at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893. Many very 
gay parties held at Red Buttes, Centennial and other mining 
centers were attended by folks from Laramie. 

Matt Dawson and a Mr. Scrymser were drowned in Hutton's 
Lake. Father was among the men who went out to help. They 
were overtaken by a blizzard. They unhitched and tied the horses 
securely to the wagon and found enough material to keep a small 
fire burning underneath the wagon until the danger was over. 
One of the bodies was finally found, the other floated to the 
surface during the spring. 

The largest ranch was owned by the Enghshman, Douglas 
Willan. It consisted of 190,000 acres on Mill Creek. 

In 1891 father bought a house in Laramie and opened an assay 
office and laboratory down town which he operated until he was 
appointed to do the same work for the University in 1893. 

The Third Annual Report of the University of Wyoming, 1894, 
pages 5 to 8, tells of this venture. 

"The School of Mines was formally opened last fall. . . The 
chief aim of the school is to prepare young men for actual service 
in the various paths of mining and metallurgy, especially empha- 
sizing practical training. . . The Assaying Department was made 
especially strong since the Board of Trustees authorized the Pro- 


fessor of Mining and Metallurgy to do assaying free for the citizens 
of Wyoming for the college year of 1893-1894. . . . [T]he School 
of Mines has saved the citizens of Wyoming who have patronized 
it. . . $2,993.00, during a period of nine months. 

"During the same period there have been received 203 letters 
of enquiry relative to the state's great mineral wealth. At the 
opening of the school there was not a single mineral speciment in 
the department. In this short space of time there have been 
collected and donated over 200 mineral specimens for a working 
cabinet. [Father made the cabinets to hold them himself, and 
they were moved into the new Geology Building in 1955. W.K.C.] 
Unfortunately there are no cases for cabinet speciments and they 
are being damaged considerably by dust and packing. . . 

". . . Chief among the needs [of this school] is an appropriate 
building in which to arrange the various departments. . . The class 
in assaying is as large as can be accommodated with the present 
equipment. . . ." 

This class was held in the Old Mechanical Building which was 
torn down to make way for the present Art Building. The Pro- 
fessor's office was one room in the basement of Old Main. In 
1 902, he moved his department in the New Science Hall. No one 
realized how soon this would be occupied by his eldest son. [Dr. 
Samuel Howell Knight, Professor of Geology and Head of that 
Department at the University of Wyoming.] 

From 1897 to 1903, Wilbur C. Knight was State Geologist of 
Wyoming and occupied the chair of Geology and Mineralogy and 
was curator of the Museum at the University. He was a Mason, 
a fellow of the Geological Society of America, and a member of 
the Geographic Society of America. During his life he wrote 
many papers for magazines and for University publications. The 
last of these was "Birds of Wyoming." 

In 1899 the Union Pacific organized an expedition and asked 
father to take charge of it. I can best quote from his own article 
as it appeared in the National Geographic, December, 1900. "The 
general passenger and ticket agent of the U. P. R. R. rendered a 
valuable service to the scientific world when it organized an 
expedition for the purpose of collecting fossils and studying geol- 
ogy. A pamphlet, invitation and transportation from Chicago 
to Laramie and return were sent to every university and college, 
and museum of importance in the United States. One hundred 
men from every state in the union arrived July 19th. On July 
21st at 9 o'clock, the long line of wagons and horses arrived on 
the campus and by 10 they were loaded and started across the 
Laramie Plains. It was the largest expedition of the kind, of which 
there is any record. Some of the men had never slept out of doors 
overnight or eaten food cooked over a camp fire. The first day's 
march was 20 miles. They were in the field 39 days, visiting 
among other places, Platte Canyon, Rock Creek, The Freezout 


Hills, Bates Hole, and Laramie Peak. Three carloads of dinosaur 
bones were shipped and there were many vertibrates. Several 
new discoveries were made. There was no serious illness, no 
accidnts, no delay by breakdown or loss of horses." 

In the late spring, father had come home from Douglas with a 
very bad case of measles. He was very ill and virtually got out of 
bed to head the expedition. Mother and Jim McClelland (the 
department's assistant) had to answer all the funny letters which 
people wrote asking about the dangers of bears, Indians, etc. 
Morris Corthell and Ben Bellamy went on this trip. 

In 1900 father prepared an exhibition of mineral resources of 
the state to be sent as a representation of Wyoming at The Paris 

From 1901 until his untimely death in 1903, he was given a 
leave of absence from the University, but he spent much time 
there. He was technical advisor to the Belgo- American Drilling 
Trust which undertook the development work for more than 600 
companies already contracted for in Europe to operate the oil 
fields of Wyoming. The representative of the company paid 
tribute to the ability of Professor Knight when he said, "His fame 
is heralded the country over." 

The last part of the portrait shows Mrs. Wilbur Clinton Knight 
or Emma Howell Knight (as she was to be called very much 
against her wishes). As an early resident of Laramie, she was 
interested in women's and children's activities; she played on one 
of the first basketball teams, took many courses at the University, 
belonged to literary organizations, was a charter member of the 
Woman's Club, and was business manager of the Woman's Edition 
of the Laramie Boomerang published January, 1900. She was 
secretary of the Woman's Club at the time it contacted Mr. Carne- 
gie about the library. At one time she spelled down many of the 
prominent men and women of the community. During her hus- 
band's life, she entertained many a noted person and her home 
was always the center for University functions and groups of 

In 1904 she was elected County Superintendent of Schools for 
Albany County. It is a tragedy that she did not keep a record of 
her experiences, for they were the last of the horse and buggy 
days and the beginning of the automobile. During the first sum- 
mer she set out with a team and wagon, over which was an 
umbrella for shade, accompanied by her two small sons, 10 and 
12, to visit the schools which were in session for the three summer 
months. She was told that there was only one road, but she found 
dozens of them. Nevertheless she found the school for which 
she was looking and a ranch at which to spend the night. 

The County Commissioners refused to let her rent a car to 
visit a school that was being held in the late fall at Hallock 
Canyon. They knew a man who knew the country, and she had a 


horse and buggy. These would be very much cheaper than the 
auto. It was November, the ground was covered with snow, and 
it was cold. The buggy was open with no protection from the 
wind and snow. I will never forget how she looked as she climbed 
into that buggy! She resembled a big black bear. Her feet were 
incased in German sox and huge overshoes. She wore several 
overcoats and carried a charcoal heater for extra warmth. The 
driver did not know the country, and they became lost. They 
finally found a sheep bedding camp. The herder told them where 
they could find a deserted shack. In those days such shacks were 
always left open so that they could be used in an emergency. All 
that was asked was that they be left as found and the wood used 
be replaced. Quite a contrast to today. They climbed through a 
glassless window at the rear of the building inside a lean-to. They 
managed to get a little food from the sheepherder, but the driver 
lost the baking powder, so that their biscuits were hardtack. The 
horse and driver slept in the lean-to and mother in all her trappings 
lay on a bed, which was only equipped with springs, under the 
window. She finally dozed off to be awakened by something 
feeling up and down her spine. She was too frightened to call 
out, but finally managed to summon enough courage to reach 
behind her. She felt the horse's nose as he tried to reach the 
warmer inside of the building. 

One summer she was in the Laramie Peak region. It was neces- 
sary to visit the Esterbrook school. (She visited every school 
once a year). The trip took several days around the mountain 
but could be completed in one if made on horseback over the 
mountains. So Ida Hill rode with mother, and she rode her own 
horse. She fully expected to return that evening so did not pay 
much attention to the landmarks. For some reason the teacher 
had dismissed school, so it was necessary for her to stay overnight. 
Ida had to return. By the time the visit was completed it was 
raining hard. The teacher loaned mother an umbrella, and she 
set off over the hill, alone. The horse plodded along, neither 
animal nor rider conscious of much except the rain. Again she 
had been told there was only one road. All of a sudden there 
was a distinct fork. The rain beat against the horse's face, and 
he automatically took the left hand road. The farther they went, 
the surer she was that it was wrong, so she turned the horse 
around, stopping at the fork saying, "Now, Dick, I am lost, it is 
up to you to see that we get back to the ranch safely." Dick 
hesitated a second, took the right hand fork, and they were soon 
back at the Hill Ranch. 

On April 1, 1911, she became Dean of Women at the Uni- 
versity of Wyoming. That same year at graduation she received 
her Bachelor of Arts degree at the same time her daughter received 

Again she was constantly having funny experiences. There 


was the woman who collected all of the pillows so that she could 
have a feather bed, one who tried to get her to take a tip because 
she let her use the electric iron, and the one who did not know 
how to turn on the faucet to get water. 

The funniest experience was probably on Halloween. After 
hours, when Merica Hall was dark and silent, the door bell rang. 
She opened the door to be confronted with a large group of young 
men who were carrying a cow, to which they gave a push and 
it landed up the small flight of stairs. She was sure that she 
saw a son's face among the culprits. Soon the halls were full of 
screaming girls with their hair in curl papers. The poor cow 
raced from one end of the hall to the other, knocking down the 
fire extinguisher. The liquid from it squirted over everything 
and pandemonium reigned until the police arrived and removed 
the critter. 

During World War I, mother did the work of three people. 
Besides her regular work as Dean she taught, supervised the table 
which was run for the girls who lived in Merica Hall (later she 
managed the Commons), acted as emergency nurse during the flu 
epidemic, and worked with Red Cross and on War Bond Drives. 

She resigned as Dean of Women in 1920 but served on the 
L.aramie City School Board, the Board of the Cathedral Home, 
and Ivinson Hall Board, both run by the Episcopal Church of 
Wyoming. She lived at the last two places several times when 
no one else was available. She was hostess several times at the 
University of Wyoming Summer Camp in Snowy Range. Her last 
experience was a nine-month tour of the Orpheum Circuit as a 
tutor for Baby Peggy and her sister. Peggy was her grandniece 
and a star of silent pictures and vaudeville. 

The portrait is finished. It has included a multitude of exper- 
iences which have developed into two distinct parts. First was the 
last of pioneer days: when life was primitive and distances long; 
geese flew over the town in large flocks every fall and spring; 
the eastern limits of Laramie was 9th street; there were very few 
telephones and street lights; when all wrapping paper was saved 
and used by the children as scratch paper; when cooking was done 
very well without standard measurements; when one often started a 
fire in a stove that had gone out from the live embers of another 
one; when entertainment was in the home or church; nearly every- 
one had his own bam with a horse, cow, and chickens; when the 
surplus water from the city springs ran through the town in ditches 
on each side of the streets; when there was little plumbing; when 
one had to wait sometimes Vi hour to get across the Grand Avenue 
Railroad crossing as the cars were being switched; when cattle 
drives often came through the town; when there was little elec- 
tricity; when the only hot water was that heated on the coal stove; 
when change was made in round figures in gold or silver. (I could 
hardly find ten pennies to put in the Sunday School box for my 



tenth birthday). There was Httle fresh fruit or vegetables, and 
cranberries and celery were only to be had at Thanksgiving and 

The second part stretches through the time when telephones 
and bathtubs were becoming plentiful; when cars, electricity and 
gas were in demand; when radios were coming into use; when one 
never gave hot water a second thought; when fresh fruit and vege- 
tables were a daily habit; when paved roads were being constructed 
across the continent; when all schools were held nine months a 
year, and a war to end all wars had been fought. 

Zke Mole-in- the- Wall 


Thelma Gatchell Condit 




The old time fiddler and his medley of tunes has truly become 
an institution in the story of the West, and here we find much 
of the heart and soul of her people. Truth, tradition, history and 
thought are preserved in the ritual of song, and music has ever 
played a vital role in man's life — even if no more than an off-key 
whistled tune, it fulfills and gives expression to some need, deep 
down inside. Just as in medieval days the singing of ballads by 
the bard or minstrel was the chief entertainment of any group, 
so in the old ranch and bunk houses and around camp fires, after 
a hard day's work, the cowhands gathered round and sang songs 
telling of their adventures. Some of the airs were old ballad 
tunes they had known in their homes in the East, some were 
strictly traditional and of lost origin, but mostly they sang ditties 
made up as they went along, their themes taken from actual 
experiences of daily and nightly range routine, which were many 
and varied. 

When following the trail herds, the chief danger was that of 
stampede, and in order to quiet th? bedded-down animals and 
avert panic, they rode around the herd singing dogie songs or 
cattle lullabies. To keep them going on the trail, the cowboy used 
sharp rythmic cries which developed into another definite type of 
western song. 

All music is the spontaneous and sincere expression of the soul 
of a people; it's the simple expression of simple, everyday things; 
for all life is rhythm, and melody is only man's emotional response 
to nature (or life). As Byron, the poet, so ably said, "There's 
music in all things if men had ears; The earth is but the music of 
the spheres." 

So the cowboys' songs became a part of the heritage brought up 
along the cattle trails by the Texas riders whose professed and 
constantly restated melancholy and longing for the ranges "back 
home" became the adopted and accepted themes of our rangeland 
songs. The cowboys' desire to be "somewhere else" was ceaseless; 
his restless, roving spirit, his wistful sadness and unfulfilled long- 
ings, his quiet resignation to the hardships of life lend a musing 




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mysteriousness (like life itself) to these songs, reflecting so well 
this brief, uniquely different era of history. 

These elemental emotions were best expressed on stringed in- 
struments and so it was that the violin became the medium, lending 
forceful sweeping charm to these old airs. Early day westerners 
cared little for the blending of musical instruments in harmony — 
all they wanted was melody and rhythm; and what sweetness, what 
sadness, what sheer joy could come forth from the strings of a 
violin, even in the hands of an amateur. One could ask nothing 
more in the way of musical expression; as J. Neihardt so aptly 
said, "O, let me be a tune-swept fiddle string." These old cowboy 
tunes lent themselves perfectly to dance tunes, as the country 
settled up and families arrived and dances began to be held. 

While many a man could and did fiddle, few reached the peak 
of popularity held year after year after year by Edgar Simmons of 
Crazy Woman Creek. Edgar H. Simmons and his twin brother 
Edward S. Simmons arrived in Cheyenne from Monroe, Wisconsin, 
in March of 1881.^ The first week after their arrival they spent 
assisting a man who had a contract to set out the first cottonwood 
trees in Cheyenne. Then they found jobs with the Searight Bros. 
Cattle Co., better known as the Goose Egg outfit, whose ranch 
was located on the North Platte River above Casper. 

During the next years they worked on various roundups etc. 
covering all the country between Powder River and Laramie City. 
In the fall of '8 1 they took a job with a surveying crew, who were 
surveying the Rattlesnake Mts. country in central and southern 
Wyoming. This consisted mainly of locating water as near as 
possible to the center of possible town sites. The Simmons 
brothers also had the job of supplying wild meat for the crew, 
which was not at all difficult to do as the wild game of all kinds 
was plentiful everywhere. While on this job they carved their 
names on Independence Rock, using their surveyors chisels. Ed- 
gar's son, George, of Sheridan was delighted to recently find 
their names still there, plainly visible after all these years. 


E. H. and E. S. Simmons 

Monroe, Wisconsin 

1. The brothers were born in Green County, Wisconsin, November 8, 
1858 and were sons of Charlton Jackson and Mary Allison Simmons, who 
were married at the ages of 19 yrs. and 16 yrs. respectively. Charlton was 
a native of Greenville, North Carolina, and Mary came from Lawrence 
County, Illinois, where her father, Samuel V. Allison, was a Baptist min- 
ister. C. J. Simmons became a farmer on a rather extensive scale, raising 
blooded horses and cattle. This raising of blooded livestock has been 
carried on in Johnson County by Edgar and his sons after him. The 
Simmons Brothers bulls were well-known throughout northern and central 



Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Simmons 

Edward S. Simmons (left) and Ed- Showing Simmons' new house and 
gar Simmons, taken on their 80th some pet deer, 

birthday, Nov. 18, 1938. 

Courtesy Thelma G. Condit 


Edgar told of an early day experience while on a roundup in 
the Basin country near the Bay State Ranch, a big cattle outfit 
near Tensleep and, while it has nothing to do with early day 
dances, it is certainly worth a little space as being so typical of 
the times. It was in the fall of the year when lush, black-ripe 
chokecherries were thick on the bushes along the creek bottoms. 
One evening the roundup cook went to the creek for a bucket of 
water and discovered huge bear tracks in the damp ground in and 
around the chokecherry bushes, where the animal had been feast- 
ing on the berries. All the men were alerted and sure enough the 
next day a big, old, 1200 pound silver tip ambled out in front 
of some of the riders. The old fellow, being a smart one, had 
no desire to lock horns with the intruders and made a beeline for 
a small cottonwood grove nearby. The punchers untied their 
ropes and in a flash were after the bear, but were too late to catch 
him out in the open. The cowboys, ever ready for any diversion 
no matter how trivial or how dangerous, and always prompt to 
vent their often perverted sense of humor in some jokesters' 
prank upon some one of unproven valor, immediately selected the 
newcomer in their crowd to act as "bird dog" to go in and route 
the bear out. As expected the cowboy expressed reluctance, 
having no desire whatever to follow such a lead, and he was just 
plain scared to death. But common sense told him he really had 
no choice in the matter, if he expected to keep his self-respect, 
for at no time was a roundup a place for those weak of heart. 
So into the grove he went, slowly because of the thickness of the 
brush and the decided unwillingness of his horse to proceed. The 
bruin was tricky or apparently in no peaceful frame of mind. The 
cowboy didn't see him at first, as his attention was focused on 
trying to quiet his horse; and before he knew what had happened 
the bear had lunged and grabbed the horse by the hindquarters 
(thinking that by hanging onto the horse he could use him as a 
lever to get at the man). The cowboy turned around and shot 
the bear in the mouth with his six-shooter, and he kept on shooting 
until the bear let the horse go. The horse, a strawberry roan, 
was petrified with fear, and, while cruelly slashed, recovered but 
bore the ugly claw scars to the end of his days. And the cowardly 
cowboy was no longer a coward (outwardly, at least) and was 
treated with the utmost respect by all hands and the cook. 

Edgar told of another time when he temporarily took a job as 
roundup cook. He said he never was much of a cook and didn't 
pretend to be one, but was surprised the very first morning to 
see that the fellows weren't eating their oatmeal. (Surely anybody 
could prepare oatmeal mush.) The boss finally remarked, and 
not unkindly either, "Edgar you might just try putting some salt 
in this stuff tomorrow." (Was that in the days before "salt 

In June of 1886 Edgar and Edward filed on claims on the 


South Fork of Crazy Woman Creek, where their older brother, 
Charley, had already established residence. 

In the fall of '89, Edgar went back to his old home in Monroe, 
Wisconsin, where he operated his father's farm for a time. In 
December of that year he married Elizabeth Isely, and in the 
spring of '90 brought his wife to Johnson County, coming by 
train as far as Rock Creek Station (near Laramie). From there 
they traveled by team and wagon to the homestead on Crazy 
Woman, taking two weeks to make the trip. Here they took up 
residence and began the business of stock raising and also began 
to live the kind of life that endeared them to all who knew them 
or came in contact with them; for both this man and his wife 
possessed virtues rare and wholesome, so typical of that strength 
of character which has made our pioneer heritage one of integrity 
and enviable solidity. - 

Their cabin, like all early day homestead shacks, had a dirt 
floor, which, thoughts to the contrary, was surprisingly easy to 
keep clean. The surface was just sprinkled with water and 
swept up. 

Mrs. Simmons was another Julia Brock, in that her entire 
married life was spent in loving, unselfish giving of herself, not 
only to her family and neighbors, but to the whole community. 
Her fulfillment in life derived from making a real home and 
cheerful surroundings during the lean years of building up a 
cattle business and providing material and spiritual comfort for 
others heedless of the cost to herself in hours, days and years of 
endless hard work; all of which brings to mind Whittier's quota- 
tion, "God is, and all is well." She made you believe that way. 

She raised a big garden, enough actually for six families because 
she always planned to share it with her neighbors, who were not 
so fortunate water wise and could not raise much in the way of 
garden produce. It wasn't at all uncommon for her tomato vines 
to yield a wagon load of tomatoes. One year their garden yielded 
a pumpkin weighing 100 pounds. Mrs. Simmons fed it milk. 
This was done by cutting off a long runner just beyond the 
blossoms and sticking this cut end into a pail of milk. It was 
surprising how much milk the plant thus absorbed through the 
stem, and how the pumpkins grew on that runner. Aunt Ida 
Vincent (Edgar's sister, who had married and lived in Buffalo) 
weighed only 98 pounds and they took, a picture of her and the 
prize pumpkin which weighed more than she did. No visitor 
passed through but was welcome to load up with fresh garden 

2. To them were born 6 children, 5 of whom are still living: Clarence 
who lives at Fruita, Colo; Cora Taylor who lives at Grand Junction, Colo; 
Albert, deceased; Jennie Scott who lives at Clyde Park, Montana; George 
who lives at Sheridan, Wyo.; Stella Phillips who lives at Banner, Wyo. 


Stuff, which was always a rare treat in the early days, for the 
cowmen husbands, as I've mentioned before, had an aggravating, 
stubborn way of deliberately overlooking empty wood boxes, 
milk cows and gardens. Somehow they just didn't adjust to such 
tasks, and if the women folk weren't of the type who could go 
ahead with the milking, etc., the families just went without such 
luxuries; unless, of course, they were able to hire some old fellow 
to do it for them, which wasn't often. 

Mrs. Simmons herself milked nine cows (this was while the 
rest of the family were busy putting up hay on the "lower place" 
and couldn't be home for chores) through the summer months, 
so she'd have enough cream for her year's butter supply. (They 
didn't milk many cows during the winter, only enough for the 
daily milk consumption.) She'd make up butter as fast as the 
cream accumulated and pack it in salt brine in stone crocks with 
a cloth tied securely over the top and store it in the milk box in 
the spring, which never froze in the wintertime. 

Also she provided herself with jelly glasses by tying a heavy, 
paraffin-soaked twine around glass beer bottles, just below the 
neck, and touching a hghted match to the string. This burned all 
around and caused the glass to snap and crack and break off. 
The children liked to help with this, for it was such fun to hear 
the glass pop off. The jagged edge would then be carefully filed 
down to smoothness. Mrs. Simmon's tomato catsup was put in 
these containers, too, and sealed with paraffin. 

Mrs. Simmons also was a fine seamstress. She could see some 
one wearing a dress and go home and cut a pattern just like it 
for her own use. Edgar once said, "Lizzie, if I hadn't brought 
you to Wyoming, you'd have been a fine seamstress in some big 
shop back East." 

While Lizzie Simmons had very little formal education, she 
had an unusually adept mind. So accurate was her memory and 
so keen her sense of "figures" that she was really the family ledger; 
all important dates, like when a bank note was due, etc., she had 
catalogued in her brain and it seemed that the family had need 
of very little bookkeeping for this reason. Even when an old, 
old woman she retained this sharp mental quickness. 

Another thing remembered about her was her happy disposition. 
She always hummed or sang as she went about her innumerable 
tasks; and if she'd stayed in the east she'd no doubt have been a 
part of the church choir; as it was she sang sweet lullabies to her 
small ones as she rocked them to sleep or soothed them in their 
childhood ailments. 

At one time the switchboard connecting the north and the 
south part of the county was installed in the Simmons' home and 
Mrs. Simmons was on call night and day to relay telephone 
messages from party to party. She was the "go-between" for those 
on the north, or Buffalo line, and those on the south, or Kaycee, 


Mayoworth and Barnum lines. Many important business matters 
were transacted over the phone as well as the usual multitude of 
little trivial neighborly messages, and, no matter whether her hands 
were in the bread dough, or the cake pan or dish water, Mrs. 
Simmons willingly and cheerfully attended to the switchboard, for 
which service she received no pay whatever. She had the use 
of the line to talk either way and felt that this was compensation 
enough, it being a great convenience at times to have such a 
privilege. When it came to accommodating people, Mrs. Simmons 
never once became impatient or felt imposed upon, for she did 
not ever resent doing anything at all that helped others. It was 
a "set-rule" that the switch was never to be left open, or connected 
(unless, of course, in case of life or death or some catastrophe) 
so she had to take the message and repeat it to the party on the 
other line. 

During World War I at four o'clock p.m. sharp the latest war 
news was broadcast over the wires. One long ring was the signal 
alerting everybody. Some member of the family stood by Mrs. 
Simmons and wrote down the communication as she took it, and 
she in turn repeated it over the south line. Everybody took down 
their receivers and listened; and this daily bulletin was a big event 
in the lives of these isolated families. 

Each family (or phone) had its own particular ring (like 4 
short rings or 2 long ones etc.) which could be heard all along 
the line, and "rubbering" (listening in on some one else's call) 
became prevalent, especially among certain women of an inquis- 
itive turn of mind. While often most annoying, this was quite 
understandable, for it gave them outside news and contacts that 
relieved the daily monotony and lonliness somewhat. Seldom did 
the females have a way or the time to gather for the repeating of 
things thus heard nor did it often become malicious gossip. The 
bad thing about it was that when too many receivers were down 
at one time it weakened the reception (as did bad storms and 
wind), and when this occured the party using the line would ask 
the "listeners-in" to please hang up and they always did. 

The Simmons had the usual run of visitors, some interesting 
and some just the usual "run of the mill," but no matter who or 
what they were they were always welcome and always fed. If an 
outlaw or member of Hole-in-the-Wall gang stopped, he was dined 
as lavishly as any one else and Mrs. Simmons felt no fear or 
apprehension, even when she and a houseful of little children 
were there alone, as they sometimes were, and some of the young 
ones sick, too. 

A Mr. Landers, used to visit periodically. He was on the 
elderly side and wore a rather worn black suit, which was often 
dust covered from the road. He rode a thin old mare — she was 
so awfully thin she in fact seemed quite unfit for travel. Mr. 
Landers always stayed all night and the next morning right after 


breakfast they'd all gather in the living room and Mr. Landers 
would read Bible verses and offer up prayers and they'd sing 

Indians used to camp along the foot of the mountains below 
Winingars and one time when Edgar was returning home horse- 
back from Buffalo, he was stricken with a violent sick headache. 
By the time he reached the Indian camp he was ready to reel off 
his horse, so ill had he become. An old woman of the tribe 
immediately sensed his trouble and, tying his horse to a tree, urged 
him to come inside her tepee and lie down. With capable hands 
she felt of his eyes and burning forehead, and after making him 
comfortable, fanned her smouldering fire into life and brewed 
some sort of tea and had him drink the potion. Then making the 
cooled, wet leaves into two small compacts she laid them over his 
eyes, placing her fingers gently over his eyelids to hold packs in 
place. And in a short time, strange to relate, the headache had 
completely passed away. 

All this time a young Indian maiden had hovered in the back- 
ground smiling and showing concern for Edgar, and as soon as 
he sat up she ran to a bed nearby and, fumbling in among the 
covers, suddenly came up with some grimy cold boiled potatoes 
which she held out to him, making every visible sign that she 
wanted him to have them; but somehow they just didn't appeal 
to him in the least and he knew his refusal to eat them offended 
the girl very much. This troubled him greatly for some time to 
come, for he hated to make anyone unhappy; but the thoughts 
of taking even a bite of those soiled, unpalatable looking potatoes 
proved so repugnant to him that no other thing could enter his 
mind at that moment.-^ 

During the early days wild game was plentiful and it provided 
not only meat for the family, but also diversion and a hobby as 
well. All the Simmons family loved and understood wild animals. 
They bring to mind a verse in a Sioux prayer, "Teach us to walk 
the soft earth as relatives to all that live." They did. One day 
the boys found a motherless doe fawn on the mountain and 
brought her home and raised her as a pet and called her Ruby. 
She was so sweet and gentle. At first she lived in a small pen 
by the house and was fed from a bottle. Then the boys built her 
a larger pen with a doghouse shelter. The next year they brought 
home a buck fawn and from this beginning grew a fine herd of 
deer, 13 or 14, and a large, fenced in pasture. In the wintertime 
the deer were fed hay and grain and they all became the gentlest 
of pets. In fact the Simmons ranch was called the Johnson County 
Deer Ranch (an article about this appeared in an issue of the 
Buffalo Bulletin) and people came from far and near to see the 
beautiful, graceful, affectionate creatures with their legs so slender 
and their feet so delicately formed they seemed more like pieces of 
ceramic art than real live flesh and blood capable of strenuous 



Left to right: Jennie Simmons (Scott), George Simmons, Stella Jones (a 
teacher), and Clarence Simmons "Leaving to play for a dance at Barnum." 

Edgar Simmons "Swiss" type house. 

(See old coat at left front on fence 

where wren built her nest.) 

Front row, left to right: Clarence 
Simmons (son of Edgar), Charlie 
Brown. Back row: Edgar Simmons, 
Albert Simmons (Edgar's younger 

Courtesy Thelma G. Condit 


swift bounding and jumping. Any member of the Simmons' family 
could enter the pasture at any time and caress and feed the deer, 
but strangers had to be very cautious. Just anybody wasn't 
allowed inside, for the result could have been dangerous. Wild 
things never completely overcome their fear of strange smells 
and strange movements. 

Much could be told of the Simmons as a family and I think this 
quotation of Buxton's is most suitable when thinking of them: 
"The road to success is not to be run upon seven-leagued boots. 
Step by step, little by little, bit by bit — that is the way to wisdom — 
that is the way to glory." But the music they provided for early 
day dances is the thing most remembered. The same fine char- 
acter, integrity and ability Edgar used in building up a fine ranch 
is shown also in the fine musical reputation he achieved. This was 
just as important to him as any of his other activities, and he felt 
duty bound, as did his wife, to give service to his fellow men, and 
for the most part free of charge out of the kindness of his heart. 

Edgar said he did not play the violin — just the "fiddle", which 
brings to mind a story heard about an early day gathering where 
they were hard pressed for music. Present was a newcomer to 
the community, an elderly rather sedate sort of man, who, the 
cowboys knew, had a vioHn among his bunkhouse possessions; 
so they handed him a violin at this particular time and said it was 
up to him to furnish the music for the event. But the man kept 
insisting that he could not fiddle. When their persuasions had 
become slightly embarrassing he finally took up the violin and 
began to really pour out music, highly classical tunes, using all 
fingers and all strings in a great burst of eloquence. After a few 
minutes of bewildered listening a cowboy went up to the old man 
and said, tapping him on the shoulder, "Excuse me, sir, but I can 
sure see you meant what you said about not knowin' how to play 
a fiddle; you sure can't and that's a fact. There's got to be better 
music 'n that or this here gatherin' ain't goin' to be no dance. 
There ain't nobody, no matter how willin' could dance to that 
racket, it ain't even got time." 

Not so with Edgar's music. He could play the fiddle and the 
violin, too, and nobody, ever, at any time found fault with his 
tunes, or felt that there was any difference between "fiddling" and 
violin playing. He played church hymns beautifully; in fact, any 

3. The Bob Aindts who live on the mountains above Kaycee had a 
pet fawn, too. He was allowed to run loose after he grew older; but he'd 
always, even when a two-year-old, come bounding back to the house when 
thirsty to get his drink of water from the bottle, no matter if he'd been 
walking along a mountain stream all morning. He considered himself a 
privileged member of the family at all times and would lie on the couch, 
sometimes curled up, sometimes stretched full length with his head on the 
pillows, as if that sort of thing was entirely in keeping with "deer life." 


type of music he played found immediate response in the hearts 
of the Hsteners. He was just that kind of musician. He had 
learned when still a boy, as all his family were more or less of 
a musical turn of mind, and upon coming to Wyoming found that 
this particular talent stood him in good stead, since there were few 
musicians here at that early time. Dancing being about the only 
form of entertainment, a fiddler was much in demand. He and 
his brothers Edward and Charlie ( 1 st and 2nd violins and cello 
respectively) started providing music for ranch house dances all 
around the country. Later their sister Ida jonied their orchestra, 
playing a melodian (which was a small reed organ, supplied with 
air by a bellows worked by treadles.) 

But it was Edgar and his violin who became famous from the 
Piney country in Sheridan County to the Buffalo, Kaycee, Sussex, 
Barnum and Mayoworth areas in Johnson County. Many times 
he traveled along horseback to these communities so that the 
people could have their dance. If the home afforded an organ 
or piano, whoever could would chord for him; and if no such one 
was available, he'd play alone all night after an all day's ride 
getting there and an all day's ride getting back home again the 
next day. 

Mrs. Simmons made him a green felt sack for carrying his violin 
(he was most careful of it at all times) when he rode horseback 
to a dance. Two flour sacks were placed over this to keep off 
dust and dirt. When he rode in the buggy he took the violin case. 

One time when going to a Barnum dance he decided to return a 
work horse to a neighbor on the way. With the violin held in 
place at his side by a strap over his shoulder, he climbed on his 
saddle horse, which was none too gentle, and led the work horse 
by a rope with a half hitch over his left hand. Everything went 
along fine until, for some unaccountable reason the strap came 
undone, letting the violin loose. Edgar went through all kinds of 
hasty maneuvers in an attempt to grab the violin, or at least break 
its fall, but was unable to hold it, and in the falling it hit his horse 
in the flank which, of course, spooked the animal. This sudden 
lunging forward tightened the rope on the work horse and Edgar 
was painfully jerked out of the saddle and dumped on the ground 
by the rope tightening on his hand. The work horse being of a 
calm turn of mind had just stopped and began nosing the sacked 
violin, undoubtedly puzzled as to its identity. Fortunately, and 
to Edgar's great joy, the instrument was in no way damaged, but 
Edgar was; the middle finger of his left hand was popped com- 
pletely out of its socket and laying back on his hand. After a 
brief investigation there didn't seem much he could do to remedy 
the situation so, catching his saddle horse, he continued on his way. 
He did, however, stop at the first ranch house he came to and 
they helped him get the finger back in place as best they could. 
Thev wanted him to take time to soak the hand in hot water to 


relieve the pain somewhat, or at least wait to have it bandaged 
and taped, but Edgar wouldn't because folks were depending on 
him for music; and just how, he wanted to know, could a fellow 
finger violin strings with a bundled up hand. 

That night, as he played, the injured finger kept slipping out 
of place and he'd put it back time and time again. Finally, giving 
it up as a bad job, he kept right on fiddling anyway, using his 
other fingers, to all appearances as normal as ever, his philosophy 
being that the dance must go on in spite of one "no-good" finger. 
That's the way he was, his own temporary physical pain and 
discomfort being of lesser importance at the time. And so it was, 
if perchance a string broke beyond repair, he'd just go on with 
the strings he had — the main consideration always being, "the 
dance must go on." Which brings to mind a fiddler story from 
early day Platte County history, an incident which supposedly 
gave birth to the "Hartville Rag." A fiddler had played so hard 
and so long, so the story goes, that he'd worn out all his strings 
but one. However, being of an ingenious turn of mind, he re- 
mained completely undaunted and suddenly let loose with a 
musical creation of his own played over and over again on the last 
string. There wasn't much to it except rhythm and "go" and the 
enthusiasm of the man with the bow in his hand. So it was with 
pioneer people, they used what they had and had a good time 
anyway. Everything didn't have to be "just so". They were 
none too critical when in a merry making mood and made the 
most of everything they did. 

If anyone was critical it was Edgar himself, but only in this 
one small way. If he saw dancers in the crowd not in step with 
his music, he'd stop and say, "Now, folks, let's all get together — 
it looks and feels so much better when we're all doing it together." 
"He was sure a crank on time," his son George said, "and every- 
body had to do the square dances right; if they got mixed up 
he'd stop his fiddling and go out on the floor and show them 
how it should be done." 

Edgar was always very "persnickety," too, about how he looked. 
His mustache had to have a certain "just-right turn-up" on the 
corners, and everything about his person had to be neat and clean 
and "well-pressed." This held true in everything he did; even his 
handwriting. So painstaking was he with this that his signature 
never varied; it was always accurately, and neatly written, and 
even when he was an old man it never became uncertain and 
"shaky looking" like other peoples' often did. He took pride in 
doing things well; no time, he felt, was ever wasted no matter 
how much longer it took, if a thing was done right and as it should 

When learning new dance tunes, he'd practise and practise until 
every part was well and thoroughly learned — no slipping and 
slurring over the strings and fumbling around to cover up a part 


forgotten, or leaving out sections like so many fiddlers did (and 
still do). Each little note had its rightful place, and every piece 
he mastered from beginning to end and, once learned, never forgot. 

Sometimes the song titles became confusing and when he wanted 
to connect a tune with a name he'd say, "Lizzie, how does 'such 
and such' start?" and from the bountiful storeroom of her mind, 
she'd hum or sing the first few notes for him and that was all he 

As soon as Clarence, his eldest son, was old enough Edgar 
taught him to play the cello, or bass fiddle, for accompaniment 
and the two of them played together for many years. When a 
little fellow Clarence would get so tired and so sleepy he felt as if 
he simply had to stop, for the fiddle bow was big and heavy and 
solid like a cane. He got so he could play automatically awake 
or asleep it seemed. He often felt that he'd missed a lot of fun 
as a young man because he didn't get to dance and make merry 
with the ones of his own age at these functions; he wasn't as 
dedicated to the playing as his father was. 

One time when he was especially exhausted, a certain flippant 
young woman in the crowd flung out her full skirt and knocked 
his bow off the fiddle strings — and she kept doing this time after 
time, apparently thinking it very funny. When Clarence became 
convinced it was not an accident and that she was doing it delib- 
erately, he suddenly became angry and, after the next mad sashay, 
he raised the bow and whacked her across the rump. Highly 
indignant she yelled out, no doubt amazed at the stoutness of the 
bow, and tried to make something of it; but no one paid any 
attention to her fuss and Clarence was very glad he'd hit her. He 
felt she had it coming. 

Edgar taught all of his children to play as each became old 
enough. Stella, his youngest, said she looked forward eagerly to 
the time when she, too, would be old enough to go to help play 
for dances. It was a very exciting part of their lives. Edgar 
taught Stella to play the piano with two fingers on one hand and 
one finger on the other hand when she was almost too little to 
reach the piano keys. She chorded many years with her Dad 
and said, "I know you can play when you're sound asleep. You 
just go on automatically like a clock ticking; you've done it so 
much you get so you don't even have to think what you're doing. 
And I know I didn't make a mistake or my Dad would have poked 
me sure." 

The children tell of many times they'd ride home horseback in 
40° below zero weather, so stiff and so cold and so tired from 
the long ride that they'd get down on their hands and knees and 
crawl up the steps to the house when they reached home, by that 
time too "all-in" to even walk. This admission held no hint of 
complaint or grumbling or self-pity, it was the mere stating of a 
fact. This was one of the reasons they were endeared to the 


hearts of the people. (I believe few if any dancing crowd ever 
realize how much the musicians give of their energy and time. 
Surely their contribution is much "under-sung.") 

When they'd go to the dances in the wagon or buggy, they'd 
place a piece of marble in a quilt and put it at their feet. This 
marble would be heated very hot in the oven beforehand and it 
was surprising how long it held its warmth and how toasty-warm it 
kept a person's feet on a long, cold ride. 

But of all the children it was George who followed most closely 
in his father's musical footsteps. While attending school in Buffalo 
he had both the opportunity and the inclination to take violin 
lessons. Through his knowledge of his father's old tunes many 
of them are now being tape recorded by Mrs. Olive Whitmire of 
Story and Vance and Sandra Sackett of Mayoworth, all of whom 
are vitally interested in preserving these old folk songs in their 
entirety. Many of Edgar's were never found in written form and 
George, with the help of other members of the family, is now 
attempting to splice together these old tunes so they'll not be 
forever gone and lost to posterity, a most commendable thing for 
him to be doing. George is now one of the group of the Sheridan 
"Shriners' Old Time Band," which has (and is) gaining much 
popularity all over the state. 

No one but Edgar ever played some of the old-time waltzs, 
some of them beautiful old ballad tunes like "I Stood on the Bridge 
at Midnight" and "Frolic of the Frogs" and "The Waves of the 
Danube." The latter tune is full of minor chords and Edgar never 
found an accompanist who completely pleased him in the playing 
of this particular piece until he found Doc Mitchell of Kaycee (of 
whom we shall hear more in the next issue). He was a musician 
of no little talent and "put in a lot of little extra runs." He was 
more than just a "chorder," he understood minor keys, and how 
Edgar enjoyed playing this beautiful old waltz with Doc, and 
how much folks liked to waltz to the sweetly-sad tune. It was 
everybody's favorite waltz then. 

The actual getting ready for a dance fell to the lot of the women 
of the household. All the "good" clothes had to be washed and 
starched and ironed the day before; bread had to be baked and 
meat boiled and ground up for sandwiches, and cakes had to be 
baked, for everyone attending contributed to the midnight lunch. 
Even the hair cutting of the male members of the family fell to the 
women, too. Not only her own men folks but the hired hands as 
well depended upon her to trim up their hair nice and proper. 

Mrs. Fred Hesse, Sr. told of cutting the hair of one of the 28 
cowboys, a young redheaded fellow whose hair was so heavy and 
so very curly it couldn't be cut in the usual manner. She had to 
pull out a small strand at a time and snip it off, and when she let go 
it immediately fell back into a nice little curl. She thought all 


the while how envious the girls would be to see such lovely little 
curls on a man's head where surely they were entirely wasted. 

This incident is told of another hair cutting where the "barbers- 
at-hand" were a rollicking bunch of cowboys from over the moun- 
tain. An old fellow from the Tensleep country showed up at the 
bunkhouse on the day before a scheduled dance and the fellows 
there decided he needed a hair cut. Being a rather cantankerous 
sort he flatly refused to submit to a hair cut, and the stuff was so 
grimy, it's doubtful if everyday shearers would have been able to 
do the job, anyway. So while he was glumly sitting on a tree 
stump out front smoking his ill-smelling pipe, a cowboy sneaked 
up from behind, threw a loop around the old fellow's middle and 
dragged him up to the hitching post to which he was securely 
snubbed. Then, dividing his long greasy hair into strands, which 
one by one he wadded up in little knots to where they stuck up 
"straight-out" all over his head, he stood back and slowly and 
deliberately shot them off one at a time with his six-shooter, to 
the deep amusement of the cowboys looking on. The old fellow 
never flinched; suppose he thought he was hopelessly outnumbered 
anyway and a sudden move could have sent a bullet whizzing 
into his cranium. Needless to relate, he did not attend the dance. 
He, right then and there, resaddled his weary old steed and rode 
off down the road with the cowboy's loud, coarse, carefree laughter 
ringing in his ears. 

In 1914 the Simmons' completed their new, two-story house at 
the end of the Horn. It was a Swiss type building with porches 
upstairs and downstairs.^ 

The building was constructed sturdily, being built of logs with 
siding on the outside and plastered walls within, which made it 
warmer in winter and cooler in summer. The lime for the plaster 
was burned in a kiln around the end of the Horn. (There were 
several of these kilns in the mountains near gypsum or limestone 
beds, where the gypsum or limestone was burned to make the lime 
used in plaster and cement, etc. ) 

The dwelling had high ceilings and open stairways and a pic- 
turesque bay window alcove in the living room facing south where 
house plants thrived and bloomed the year round. Large, pot- 
bellied stoves were used for heating, the kind where large chunks 
of wood were put in from the top; and it was surprising how much 
heat was put out and how long a piece of log would bum and 
hold a fire in these big, flat stoves. 

Visitors from the east often asked Edgar what the altitude was 
at their ranch, so once, just for the fun of it when a surveyor's crew 

4. Mrs. Simmons' family, the Isely's were of Swiss descent, arriving in 
Wisconsin directly from the old country. The family has a book of the 
Isely family tree which is most interesting and informative. 


was nearby, he had them measure the altitude, and it was found 
to be just a mile high from the upstairs porch. A wonderful view 
of the country south and east could be had from this porch; the 
mesa was in plain sight and the Pumpkin Buttes in the dim dis- 
tance. It was a fine place for taking pictures and an ideal one for 
watching visitors approach across the mesa road. Neighbors and 
others, too, were always calling on the phone and asking if "so and 
so" had gone by yet. Mrs. Lou Webb often worried when her 
daughter Anita didn't get home as soon as she expected (she 
usually drove her father to town) so she'd phone Mrs. Simmons 
and say, "Has Anita crossed the mesa yet?" So someone in the 
family would go out on the porch with a pair of fieldglasses and 
see what they could see. They could always tell Mae Gardner be- 
cause she drove so fast; others could be recognized by their horses 
or gear and so on. It was rather exciting, this watching "traffic" 
on the mesa road, but it also consumed a lot of time in a busy day 
and was just another friendly, neighborly accommodation provided 
by the Simmons family. 

One time when Edgar was working outdoors he became too 
warm and removed his coat and hung it on the garden fence. 
It was an old suit coat he had taken for everyday wear, and upon 
returning to the house for supper completely forgot his wrap, 
leaving it hanging by the collar on the picket fence. The next 
morning when he went to get the coat, he was surprised to see 
that a wee mama wren was building her nest in one sleeve, whose 
top hole was hanging there exposed within the folds of the garment. 
So Edgar quietly backed away, leaving the coat untouched; and 
there it hung year after year. And year after year the small, 
brown-backed bird with the vertical tail returned there and built 
her nest of twigs, grasses and stems and lined it with feathers and 
horsehair and laid in it her little brown spotted eggs. And year 
after year the Simmons folks watched the wrens and enjoyed their 
everlasting "busy-ness" and incessant sharp chattering. 

When the big house was finished, they gave the customary big 
housewarming dance. The heavy double doors going from the 
living room to the front bedroom were opened and pushed back 
against the wall, and all the furniture from both rooms was moved 
out so ample dancing space was then uncluttered. All day long 
everyone in the family put all breakable and valuable things in 
dresser drawers and closets and places safe from children's fingers, 
which meant that for weeks afterward they'd be trying to find 
certain things tucked away, where no one could remember now. 
Homemade benches were placed against the walls where they'd 
take up as little space as possible. The small children were soon 
safely tucked in beds upstairs or laid on quilts piled in the floor 
corners where they slept peacefully through the long night, clothes 
on and all. For everybody for miles around came in a body, 
whether they were of the dancing crowd or not. Half grown. 


shy offspring sat on the benches, usually too bashful to dance the 
round dances; but all joined in happily when it came time for the 
squares. Elderly folks came and sat around visiting and enjoying 
generally this getting away and doing something different. Grand- 
ma Gallerger from over Mayoworth way was there and everyone, 
especially the "small fry," were overwhelmed anew at her vast 
proportions, for she was very, very heavy set. Her bosom, due 
to her tightly corseted abdomen, stuck up and was thrust forward 
to such an extent that she could and did set her plate of sandwiches 
and cake on her "chest-shelf." She had no lap and, if she had had, 
it would have proved difficult to see over her bosom into a plate 
of food there. Setting her lunch on her bosom left her hands 
entirely free to gesticulate as she devoured her food and waved her 
cup of coffee about. 

Whatever food was left over from the dance supper at midnight 
was eaten for breakfast the next morning, because those traveling 
considerable distances never left on empty stomachs. Food was 
as much enjoyed on such occasions as the dancing itself, and was 
always to be seen in amounts to satisfy the most ravenous appetites 
and the largest of crowds. Coffee was made in the scoured-out 
copper wash boilers. The coffee itself was put into tightly tied 
sacks and placed in the cold water. When it had boiled awhile the 
coffee was ready to drink. 

While a night's pounding of feet on floors wasn't exactly good 
for them, no one worried about the floors being muddied and 
ruined for, like the folks dancing on them, they were made sturdy 
and durable and the womenfolk felt it to be no added burden to 
refinish or repolish afterwards. It was all a part of their very 
busy, full life 

Edgar Simmons had the distinction of playing for 25 consecutive 
years for the annual March 17th St. Patrick's Day dances at Kay- 
cee. John Nolan, a burly Irishman of considerable means, gave 
these dances in way of a big celebration each year and they were 
looked forward to eagerly by everyone for miles around (more 
of these in next issue). Everything was free and the hall was 
amply and suitably decorated in Irish green. At first these affairs 
were held in the Griggs Hotel Lobby — that was before the town 
had a community hall. This time of year the weather was invar- 
iably bad and blustery and often the Simmons musicians (some- 
times Edgar alone in later years) had a difficult time arriving 
on time; but it didn't really matter too much whether they came 
early or late, because the dancing went on indefinitely anyway. 

When they arrived the Simmons were treated like kings. Their 
horses were stabled, rubbed down and fed; they were fed and had a 
hotel room free for their use where they could sleep until 11 
o'clock next day if they so desired. Even though seldom receiving 
more than $5.00 a night, Edgar felt amply repaid, for he felt it a 
great honor to be able to contribute thus to early day dance good 


times; he felt a big responsibility, for he knew everybody really 
and truly wanted him to play. 

And as the years went by Edgar simply wore his arm out 
playing for dances. Mrs. Simmons used to soak it in hot water 
all day before the dance and souse it with lavish amounts of 
liniment so he could manage to get through the night's playing, 
for even though long distances and bad weather caused him con- 
siderable personal hardship, Edgar never refused to play for a 

At one time in later years, when 70 yrs. of age, he won second 
place in the Old Time Fiddlers Contest held at Douglas, Wyoming, 
during the State Fair. Also once he played over the radio from 
station WLS in Chicago and another time from Henry Fields' 
station in Shenandoah, Iowa, gaining considerable renown. Every- 
body loved him and, remembering Edgar Simmons, I cannot 
refrain from quoting these hnes from the French poet De Sales: 

"Nothing is so strong as gentleness. 
Nothing is so gentle as real strength." 

(to be continued) 

/// M^tnoriam 


March 4, 1887 - February 20, 1961 

Wyoming lost one of her foremost citizens upon the passing of 
Loren Clark Bishop. His was a remarkable life of outstanding 
achievement both in his chosen profession of engineering and in 
his avocation of marking and mapping the historic sites and trails 
of Wyoming. His work remained unfinished, and it behooves 
those who follow to take up where he left off and carry his plans 

Overland Stage Zrail- Zrek ^o, 1 

Trek No. 1 1 of Emigrant Trail Treks 

Sponsored by 

Albany County Historical Society and Carbon County Historical 

Society under the direction of Clark Bishop, Albert Sims and 

Lyle Hildebrand 

Compiled by 
Maurine Carley, Trek Historian 

September 17-18, 1960 

Caravan - 34 cars 75 participants 


Captain ....Lt. R. O. Galloway, Wyoming Highway Patrol 

Assistants Albert Sims, Clark Bishop 

Guides _._ Lyle Hildebrand, L. C. Abbott, 

Willing Richardson 

Wagon Boss ...Dr. Robert H. Burns, A. S. "Bud" Gillespie 

Historian.. Maurine Carley, Dr. T. A. Larson 

Topographers H. M. Townsend, J. M. Lawson 

Photographers Neal E. Miller, Willing Richardson 

Press Lael L. Miller 

Registrar.: David CortheU 

Cooks Elizabeth Hildebrand, G. R. McConnell 

NOTE: Numbers preceding "M" indicate distances on the Over- 
land Stage Trail northwesterly from Virginia Dale Stage 

Saturday — September 17, 1960 

9:30 A.M. In spite of a dense fog, seventy-five weU wrapped 
trekkers gathered at the old Virginia Dale Stage Station to retrace 
the Overland Stage Trail. After registering and appraising the 
exterior of the station, the party went inside. The squared-off 
logs have been whitewashed, brands have been painted as a 
border around the walls and relics of the past proudly displayed. 
The station is now used as a community house, so we were able 
to sit comfortably on sofas, rockers, or on ice cream chairs around 



the wall as we were welcomed by Mr. A. H. Stark, the present 
owner of the place, following which two papers were read on the 
history of the area. 



by Edith R. Williams 

Virginia Dale, situated in a beautiful valley in the Black Hills 
(Laramie Range) of northern Colorado and southern Wyoming 

— — C)yer/a^<f 7f-o/t 
P^ejsnf- c/c3<^ f-oads 

Mojo /oa- ^gx? /• / 7 ^^ . 


Qy/'rtfi^/a OaJv ffO. 



and now a peaceful ranching community, was one of the most 
famous Overland Stage Stations on the Overland Route to Cali- 
fornia. Its name and fame spread from ocean to ocean by the 
stage travelers. National magazine writers and news correspond- 
ents described it in terms of praise and then again with awe and 

In mid- 1862 Virginia Dale was established as the first division 
point northwest of Denver when the Overland Stage Line moved 
southward from the Emigrant or Oregon Trail where stage prop- 
erty could no longer be protected from Indian depredations along 

/Pass Cf-eeA. 

O" ^:> 


/nfn. -^^'--- — ..' .. 

Z £"3 END 

• - O/d Sfajc Srcr^/'oris • ■•' 

A7<yyo /of-Se/or. /a rh. 


the northern trail. Joseph A. Slade, better known as Jack Slade, 
was appointed Division and Station Agent. He was transferred 
from the North Platte or Oregon Trail Route where he was known 
and recognized as the most efficient Division Agent on the stage 
line. It is said of him that he never failed to get the United States 
mails through on time on his division, and stage robbers and road 
agents had a great fear of him. The station house, stage stables, 
and other buildings at Virginia Dale were erected by Slade, and 
the old station, its walls scarred by bullet holes, is still standing on 
the site where it was originally located. Thus Slade was the first 
white man to locate in what is now known as Virginia Dale. He 
named the stage station "Virginia Dale'' in honor of his wife's 
maiden name. Nearby, to the west of the station, is a well which 
in 1864 was dug sixty-five feet deep in solid granite. This well 
is still in use. The first shingles used for the stage station were 
freighted from St. Joseph, Missouri, at the cost of one dollar and 
fifty cents per pound. 

Slade had the reputation of being a gambler and desperado, 
but he never neglected his duty as division and station agent. A 
strict disciplinarian, he never permitted his orders to be disobeyed 
or evaded. At times, when under the influence of liquor, he was 
a terror to his associates, a fiend incarnate. It is said he made 
Virginia Dale Station a rendezvous for gamblers and road agents. 

To the east of the stage station is a high hill. Lookout Mountain, 
upon the summit of which Slade erected a stone lookout. Here he 
kept a watchman most of the time who could view the station and 
the plains far to the east and to the northwest. If the sentinel 
saw danger approaching the station, he would signal to the men at 
the station, thus often averting Indian massacres which have dotted 
the plains with graves of victims. 

A mile to the northeast of the station lies Table Mountain, a 
mile long, a quarter of a mile wide, and quite flat on top. Its rim 
of shale rock and the perpendicular cliffs make it very difficult 
of ascent. By means of a very few trails can the top be reached. 
From its summit a clear view of the surrounding country can be 
obtained. This was the retreat chosen by the road agents who 
terrorized the stage line. It was an ideal hide-out as it was covered 
with abundant grass upon which horses could feed, and it has a 
small lake on top. In this "Robber's Roost," the gang built 
themselves a cabin and lookouts where they were safe from inter- 
ference. It was quite generally believed that Slade was the leader 
of this gang, and while he performed his duties as station agent, 
he also notified the "Roost" when there was a particularly valuable 
shipment on its way. The reason for the belief was that the gang 
always seemed to know when and where to put their fingers on 
money, jewels, and liquors. 

.At one time during Slade's incumbency, sixty thousand dollars 
worth of gold being shipped by the government as several months' 


back pay to the soldiers, never reached its destination. When the 
stage arrived at Virginia Dale, it was supposed to await an escort 
of troops from Fort Collins. The soldiers were late in arriving, 
so the driver started on, perhaps thinking a few minutes could not 
endanger the treasure. At this precise time the bandits attacked, 
but this time they were pursued by the United States cavalry. After 
the robbers were exterminated, the strong box that had contained 
the money was found in the creek, its top and bottom gone. The 
money is one of the supposed buried treasures of Colorado, and 
it is believed that the bandits hit it in the vicinity of Table Moun- 
tain before they were caught. In fact, it is claimed that the stage 
robbers, or road agents as they were called, made their head- 
quarters at times at Slade's place on Dale Creek. 

Slade remained in charge of the division for a little more than 
a year, and then was discharged by the stage company. His 
conduct during his drinking bouts became intolerable and the 
reputation of the station became so bad that the stage company 
was compelled to make a change. 

When Joseph Slade left the stage station in 1863, he was suc- 
ceeded by Robert Spotswood, a man of extreme courage and 
daring to undertake the hazardous duties of Jack Slade who was 
"recognized as the most efficient Division Agent on the entire 
line." Spotswood's friends almost tearfully bade him goodbye 
as he left Denver, saying, "Slade will surely kill you rather than 
leave his post."' However, Spotswood wrote, "I arrived at Virginia 
Dale and told my mission. There was no wild outbreak on Slade's 
part. He bowed to the will of the Company without a word and 
turned everything over in good shape after making an accounting 

Spotswood in turn was followed by William S. Taylor, noted 
for his foresight and ingenuity. It was during his incumbency 
that a warning came of an impending attack by the Ute Indians. 
With the supply of ammunition low and only a few men available 
for protection, a barricade was quickly thrown up at a narrow 
vantage point and surmounted by lengths of stovepipe arranged 
in such fashion as to resemble huge cannons. The Ute warriors, 
thus frightened by such an array of military strength, rode toward 
the Laramie Plains. Mr. Taylor's most gracious wife, fine looking 
and cultured, was also noted for her great tact and good cooking. 
It was at this time that the stage station became a refuge for 
women and children from the stage stations further west when 
Indian depredations became terrible during 1864 and 1865. 

Mr. Taylor was followed at the station as agent by Mr. S. C. 
Leach, who still held that post in 1867 when the Overland Stage 
Line was abandoned on the completion of the Union Pacific Rail- 
road to Cheyenne. Mr. Leach bought the property at that time 
from the stage company and lived in the station with his family 
for many years. 


In order to protect the Overland Stage during the hazardous 
years of their operations a miUtary escort was provided, first by 
the 9th Kansas Regiment of Volunteer Infantry and next by Com- 
pany B of the First Colorado Volunteer Cavalry who took over 
their duties a short time later. Captain Evans brought his 11th 
Ohio volunteer cavalry to LaPorte to replace Company B. These 
veteran Indian fighters guarded the Overland stage line from 
LaPorte to the Laramie Plains in order to prevent white and 
Mexican bandits and Indians from attacking the stagecoaches.ffl 

Virginia Dale Station is marked by a monument erected by the 
Colorado State Historical Society and the Fort Collins Pioneer 
Society. Because the federal highway cut the famous old station 
off the main travelled road, the monument was erected on the 
new highway at a point three-quarters of a mile from the old 
station. As a good road leads directly from the site of the monu- 
ment to the old station, directions are placed at the monument to 
guide people to the old station which is in excellent repair. Dedi- 
cator)' ceremonies for the monument took place on Washington's 
birthday, February 22, 1935. 

Mr. Samuel Bowles, editor of the Springfield, Massachusetts 
Republican, who was detained at the Dale with a party of famous 
men in 1865 because of Indian raids, wrote, "Virginia Dale de- 
serves its pretty name. A pearly, lively-looking stream runs 
through a beautiful basin, of perhaps one hundred acres, among 
the mountains . . . stretching away in smooth and rising pasture 
to nooks and crannies of the wooded range; fronted by rock 
embattlement, and flanked by the snowy peaks themselves; warm 
with a June sun and rare and pure with an air into which no fetid 
breath has poured itself, — it is difficult to imagine a more loveable 
spot in nature's kingdom.'' 

Contrasting as it did with many of the other stage stations 
whose natural surroundings were barren and ugly, Virginia Dale 
became at once a favorite camping place for emigrant trains for 
it was on the route from Julesburg and Denver which went west 
through LaPorte and Virginia Dale and followed the Cherokee 
or Overland Trail. During these years it was the only route 
emigrants were permitted to follow by the order of General Con- 
nor, Commander of the Department of the Platte because of the 
hostility of the northern Indians. Caravans often stopped at the 
Dale for days at a time to rest their weary stock. It was not an 
unusual sight to see fifty to one hundred emigrant wagons with 
their loads of human freight and merchandise in camp array. 

To the southeast of the old station house and close to the main 
travelled road above where these wagons camped on the stream, 
there is a picturesque rock which has a perpendicular height of 
five hundred feet. One legend is told, explaining the name of 
the rock, in which a Cheyenne Indian warrior became enamored 
with a young Ute Squaw, but because of a tribal law of the Utes 


that Stated no member of the tribe could marry out of the tribe, 
he was refused her hand. Despairing of ever gaining consent 
of the Utes and seeing no way to escape the vengeance of their 
pursuers, they locked themselves in each others arms and leaped 
from the summit of this mountain and were dashed to pieces on 
the rocks below. This incident gave rise to the name "Lover's 
Leap" which still clings to the rock. 

To the southwest of the station and on the opposite side of the 
road is a small cemetery in which there are three graves. One of 
these is that of a white man who, while out hunting, had killed 
a deer at no great distance from the station. While in the act of 
skinning his game, he received an arrow in the back which pene- 
trated one of his lungs. Looking around, he could see no one. 
He mounted his horse and rode back to the station and told what 
had happened. Soon afterwards he died and was buried in the 
little graveyard. One of the other graves contains the remains 
of Mrs. S. C. Leach, whose husband bought the stage property 
from the Overland Stage Company and lived in the house and kept 
the post office for years. Who the occupant of the third grave is, 
is unknown. He may have been a victim of Slade's anger or a 
sick and weary traveler whom death claimed before he reached 
his journey's end. 

The stage station was sold in 1885 by Mr. Leach to W. C. 
Stover. In 1895 William McNurlen moved in with his family 
as the next owner, living there until 1906. At this time Emil 
Hurzler bought the station and began homesteading on the land 
nearby. He built a house to the west of the station which now 
serves as the clubhouse of the Virginia Dale Home Demonstration 
Club. In 1914 Mr. Hurzler sold the old stage station to A. J. 
Lawson. These men served as postmasters during their years 
in the stage station. The Lawson family, in the spring of 1930, 
sold the property to Mr. and Mrs. A. D. Bashor who in turn 
sold it to Mr. and Mrs. Fred Maxwell in 1943. 

After the Overland Stage Company abandoned the stage line 
in 1867, it was not until the spring of 1872 that other settlers 
began to locate along the streams and establish homes. Among 
the first of these were Andrew Boyd, Isaac Stafford, and D. C. 
Young who took up ranches on the Dale that year while Moses 
Morrison and Peter Gealow established ranches on Deadman's 
Creek, a tributary of Dale Creek. The following fall Thomas 
Bishop located on Dale Creek a mile below the old stage station. 
These first settlers were soon followed by Joseph George, C. B. 
Mendenhall, W. H. Harriman, Milton McCain in 1874 and later 
Frank Kibler, N. T. Webber, and Fred Christman. Though not 
a complete list, it gives one the impression of how desirable this 
locality was in which to establish permanent homes and how 
quickly the population increased. 

Other men who deserve mention as old timers in the Virginia 


Dale region are William Richard Williams in 1868, William Max- 
well and W. J. Logan in 1878. While these men established 
homes on the Upper Boxelder, Fish, and Dale Creeks, they and 
their descendants are a part of the social and progressive life of 
the community. It is easily understood that this first little band 
of settlers clung closely together because the danger from Indian 
raids was not yet passed, and they looked to one another for 
protection if a crisis of this sort should occur. 

The first white child born in this community of Virginia Dale 
was Rachel Boyd, now Mrs. C. W. Webber of Fort Collins. The 
first wedding of the community was that of Kate Holliday, sister 
of W. H. HolHday, and Frank Kibler, one of the first white men 
to settle on a ranch on Deadman Creek. The wedding took place 
at the Holliday sawmill close to what is now known as the Green- 
acre place, at midnight, four hours later than scheduled, as the 
minister. Reverend Franklin Arnold of Laramie, became lost on 
his way from Sherman to the sawmill. 

The first sawmill was located in 1873 at what is now the John 
Moen Ranch by N. T. Webber. Other sawmills were soon estab- 
lished and these mills helped many of the settlers to get a start, 
tflln 1885 Otis Wallace bought what is now the Schafer Ranch, 
and he is believed to have owned the first purebred Hereford bull 
in the community. 

The first schoolhouse in the region was built in 1874 of hand- 
hewn logs, and school was held as soon as the building was com- 
pleted. The building, in good repair, is still used, and many a 
Virginia Dale lad and lassie obtained their educational foundations 

The first religious work done at Virginia Dale was the organ- 
ization of a vSunday School in 1877. The church was first built 
as a Union Church near the home of W. H. Harriman in 1880. 
In 1883 this building was moved to its present location above 
Deadman Creek near the old Christman home and can be seen 
at the present from the highway. The religious activities have 
been many and of the utmost importance to the community. 
Today renewed interest is being shown, and the religious life and 
community activities nearly always are going hand in hand. 



Mrs, W. J. Logan, Sr., 
Livermore, Colorado 

When I first saw the old Virginia Dale Station, it was owned by 
Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Lawson who had bought the property from 
Emil Hurzler in 1914. A porch ran the full length of the building. 
Mr. Lawson and his wife operated a general store and had a 


community post office. They were very friendly and hospitable 
to the neighborhood people. During the influenza epidemic of 
1919, Dr. Wilkins of Fort Collins came here and vaccinated the 
members of the families of the community. Afterwards a hot 
dinner was served to all those present by Mrs. Lawson and her 
sister Miss Mildred Clark now Mrs. John Moen. Mrs. John Moen 
recently told me of the survey of the countryside which was made 
in 1877. 

Mr. Lawson later removed the porch and added a long, wide 
room which was used for dancing and neighborhood good times. 
A relative, Relly Allen, made the plaque which you see on the 
building with the information that the shingles were freighted from 
St. Louis, Missouri, at a cost of $1.50 per pound. 

The Lawsons sold their property in the spring of 1930 to Mr. 
and Mrs. A. D. Bashor, who continued to operate the business. 
When the course of the highway was changed and the building 
was no longer on the main highway, the Bashors sold to Mr. and 
Mrs. Fred Maxwell and built the present Virginia Dale store and 
post office. This sale was in January 1943. Mrs. Bashor told 
me that while she lived here she found a bone Indian needle which 
was used for sewing. 

Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell gave the old house to the club women, 
and we remodeled it into our present clubhouse. We welcomed 
the neighborhood and club women to use the old stage station, 
and many different types of entertainment have been performed 
in it which include Christmas parties, literary meeting, Livermore 
Women's Chorus, colored movies, oyster stew suppers sponsored 
by the church and Sunday School, hymn singing, Easter sunrise 
services, graduation services for the 8th grade, neighborhood plays, 
box socials, pie socials, bazaars, etc. Community life continues 
to center around this building. 

10:00 A.M. The fog lifted and we departed north on the old 
Overland Stage Trail which soon veered to the right between two 
hills, but we continued on a dirt road which was once the highway. 
After crossing the trail twice, we arrived at Tie Siding (15 miles). 

10:25 A.M. Dr. Robert Burns pointed out the path of the 
trail along the hillside above the meadow to the south, and 
indicated the patch of grey sage which marked what Mr. Maxwell 
called the ''Dirty Woman Station" about a mile to the southwest. 
This is the likely site of the Willow Springs Station which later may 
have been called the Dirty Woman Station. Its distance from 
Virginia Dale and the Big Laramie Stations is close to 15 miles 
which checks with the old maps Mr. Bishop has in his files. 

10:35 A.M. After leaving Tie Siding, we travelled about two 
miles north and turned off, under the guidance of Gill Frazer, 
to traverse the trail for several miles on a high, grassy bench 
along the east side of Willow Creek with the beautiful Medicine 
Bow Range in the distance to the west. We left the trail just 



south of Red Buttes, at the deserted plaster mill site, and con- 
tinued on the Highway to Fort Sanders. 

by Mary Lou Pence 

As we look over this site, decayed and neglected, it is almost 
impossible for us to visualize that it was once, and not so long ago, 
the foundation of Wyoming's proud sentinel of the southeastern 

Although its older sister, Fort Laramie on the Oregon Trail, 
was far more famous in playing an historic role to the Pacific- 
bound emigrants, yet unquestionably Fort Sanders was of equal 
importance in the actual settling of Wyoming. Fort Sanders was 
guardian of the so-called Overland Trail including the Denver- 
Salt Lake, and Lodgepole Creek branches. It was protector of 
the Union Pacific tracklayers, and its uniformed soldiers escorted 
Ed Creighton's second telegraph wire stringers. Its very presence 
in this frontier region made possible the establishment of com- 
munities and isolated ranches. 

For the story of Fort Sanders let us turn the pages of history. 
In the early 1860's, the Sioux were warring savagely on the wagon 
trains along the Oregon Trail. The route was becoming more and 
more dangerous, and Ben Holladay, the kingpin of the Overland 
Stage Company, decided to chart a new route to the south, follow- 
ing closely the old Cherokee Trail and through the lands of the 
friendly Shoshone. 

But the determined Indians, bent on stopping the invasion of 
the white men, followed the rocking and rolling stages to the new 
trail. Here they found more lucrative prey, for the Lodgepole 
Creek branch also passed this way. Therefore, in 1866 with 
these precarious conditions prevailing on the Laramie Plains, it 
became expedient for the United States government to establish 
a garrison as near as possible to the junction of the two roads. 
Commanding General Pope decreed the new fort should be named 
Fort John Buford, and he detailed Captain Harry Mizner to select 
its location. The orders also included the dismantling of Fort 
Halleck near Elk Mountain and the transporting of these materials 
to the new site. From abandoned Fort Collins, Colorado, should 
come the commissary stores. Soldiers were dispatched into the 
Laramie Black Hills to assist in obtaining timbers. 

Before the building of the Fort got under way, however, Captain 
Mizner locked horns with the Overland Stage officials. Ben Holla- 
day demanded an exhorbitant toll for the moving of military 
wagons and materials over his road. Since the proposed garrison 
was for the protections of the stagecoach king's route, it defies 
imagination as to why Holladay took this course. But he did, 
and the outraged Army captain requested from his superiors 


judicial exception to the original order to locate the post six miles 
east of the Overland Trail. This was the beginning of bad blood 
between the Overland ranchers and the soldiers. Early govern- 
ment reports are filled with incidents of the ranchers frisking 
away the Army livestock in retaliation. 

fSy June the reservation was staked out, and the buildings were 
going up at Fort John Buford, but in September 1866, the name 
of the Fort was changed. A post in Montana had earlier been 
christened Buford, and so the bastion on the Laramie Plains 
became Fort Sanders in memory of Civil, War hero General Wil- 
liam P. Sanders who lost his life in 1863. ) 

>The military reservation was nine miles square and included, 
but exempted from military authority, Laramie, i To the south 
it extended to Red Buttes and included what is now the fish 
hatchery. Hayfields, too, were within its confines, and one of 
these, claimed by the Overland Stage Company, was cause for 
further grievance. 

In October of the first year the little cemetery came into being. 
Sergeant John Sherry was killed by Indians and a monument was 
erected. It was not long before more graves were added, for the 
ambush attacks by the Indians were constant and continuous. 

Before Fort Sanders was one year old, it came into prominence 
as the first county seat of Laramie County, a subdivision of Dakota 
Territory. It held this title until January 3, 1868, when Laramie 
County was divided and Cheyenne, child of the Union Pacific 
Railroad, took title to the eastern division, and South Pass became 
county seat of the newly created Carter county, western half. 

During 1867 a telegraph office was established at Fort Sanders, 
and for $2.90 ten words could be sent to Omaha. 

With the progress of the Union Pacific Railroad through the 
territory, more soldiers were needed, and what was intended to 
house four companies of soldiers, now was enlarged to accommo- 
date six companies. In 1868 the guardhouse (its ruins still remain 
at the site) with a prison room was built. This edifice was much 
used by Laramie's first sheriff, N. K. Boswell, for the town of 
Laramie in its early days had no jail. At one time Boswell locked 
up over forty desperadoes in the prison room. 

That famous Hell on Wheels newspaper, the Frontier Index, 
was published from a box car sidetracked at Fort Sanders. Its 
publishers, Fred and Leigh Freeman, began here their ballyhoo 
for the name of the territory "Wyoming." 

The Fort in no time grew to impressive proportion. Soldier 
Creek ran past the grounds heading toward the river, and water 
was channeled through the rear yards of the officers' quarters, 
the parade grounds, and barracks. Old Glory waved from the 
flagstaff above an oasis of green grass. Trees, too, were planted. 

A typical scene of the 1 870's was the buggies drawn by spanking 



groomed horses filing through the archway toward the fort. Blue 
coated officers received the citizens of Laramie and adjoining 

The Fifth Cavalry Brass Band played for the Sunday evening 
concerts. The Fourth Cavalry String Orchestra provided music 
for the gala balls staged at the Fort. Tucked in the scrapbooks 
of many of those Wyoming belles of that day are invitations to 
these festive affairs. The stables at the Fort were well stocked 
with fine mounts for riding parties. The big pond was a swimming 
pool by summer and a skating rink in the winter. A dramatic 
society and a theater provided culture. 

The twenty-five acre stockade itself was impressive. There 
were three quartermaster houses, officers' quarters, a blacksmith 
shop, a sawmill, shoemaker and tailor shops, three commissary 
stores, thirteen sets of wash and laundry quarters, a hospital — 
built first of logs and then frame addition with four wards — , and 
two sets of cavalry stables. The pride and joy of the Fort was 
the latest patent oven which could put out 350 loaves at a time. 

There was the seamy side of Fort Sanders, too, when the rail- 
roaders and the soldiers clashed on paydays in town — the rail- 
roaders usually the champs. Charlie Hopkins, whose wife was 
Margaret Mandel, has recalled for me many interesting incidents 
of the old days of Fort Sanders. Phil Mandel was one of the 
contractors for hay and timber to the post. Mr. Hopkins' own 
family, the Von Begals, lived on Second Street and each payday 
these houses were targets for the hootched-up soldiers. "Our 
windows were regularly broken by the enlisted men throwing 
stones at them on those nights they'd had too much to drink at 
the Halfway House," he said. 

Many famous people stopped at Fort Sanders. In 1869 Presi- 
dent Grant met with officials of the railroad to discuss gradation 
of the roadbed. Generals Sherman, Sheridan, and Potter as well 
as Buffalo Bill, Wild Bill Hickok, traders, trappers, and friendly 
Indians sought its shelter. According to Calamity Jane, she, too, 
was stationed here in 1871-72 after her campaign with the Army 
in Arizona. The last important group was a party of hunters from 
General Narry's New York Tribune in 1881. 

During the Ute uprising in Colorado several companies were 
ordered from the garrison to rush to the aid of Major Thornburg. 

By 1882 the need for the post was considered ended. The 
Indians had been put on reservations, settlers were taking up land, 
and Wyoming was on the verge of casting off the symbol of 
wilderness. Since the government could no longer keep two forts, 
and the political pressure was on in favor of Fort D. A. Russell 
near Cheyenne, the Laramie Plains garrison was done. On May 
18, 1882, the commandant received orders to abandon Fort 
Sanders, the troops stationed here were ordered to Fort D. A. 


Russell. A handful of soldiers remained under Lieutenant John 
Scott to make disposition of the public property. 

One by one the buildings were torn down or moved away. At 
least two found foundations in Laramie. Colonel Donnellan 
transplated the elaborate officers' quarters to Sixth and Grand 
where it continued to remain in the limelight. Eventually it 
became the town's hospital and then a sorority house. It was 
razed last year to make way for the new Safeway Store. The one 
remaining building is the Wesley Club on the corner of Fifth 
and Grand. 

In 1889 a portion of the reservation was deeded to the State 
of Wyoming, and this today is the site of the fish hatchery. A few 
buildings remained, but a fire in 1924 claimed some, and again 
in 1936 the historic old guardhouse prison room went up in flames. 
Only the ruins of the two small buildings remain to mark the 
site of this once famous fort. 

In 1914 the Jacque Laramie Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution sponsored a Memorial, erecting a marker at 
Fort Sanders. This was staged July 1914, and Governor Joseph 
M. Carey gave the principal address. In the unveiling he said: 
"A state can never comprehend how much it owes its pioneers 
and it is most fitting that those who came after should be reminded 
of the hardships of the first people who penetrated into a new 
uninhabited land. This marker is placed on a spot where there 
assembled as many heroes as ever were together on any spot in 
the world." A fitting tribute to the sentinel of the Laramie Plains. 

12:15 P.M. The Overland Trail Trekkers left Fort Sanders 
under a typical Wyoming blue sky and drove to the Flag Ranch 
which was one of the pioneer ranches on the Laramie Plains. In 
1871 Bob Homer, a Bostonian, stopped off in Laramie on his 
way to California and became so captivated with the place that 
he decided to live here. Everything he touched prospered. His 
holdings were the largest, his corrals and barns the biggest, and 
"the big House or Homer's Castle" became the talk of the Plains. 
This two-story, log house had cupolas, balconies and twenty-one 
rooms filled with priceless furniture from Europe. Above it 
waved a big American flag. Unfortunately the castle burned to 
the ground in 1933. 

However, we were able to see the "yellow buggy" which had 
made many trips, drawn by four spanking horses, to Laramie nine 
miles away. This custom-made vehicle is a rich, yellowish brown 
with folding seats and an entrance from both front and back. 
It is in perfect condition and should be in a museum and not in 
an old barn. There, also, we saw a copper contraption which 
was probably the first washing machine in the state. The place 
now belongs to the Pitchfork Ranch in Texas. 

12:50 P.M. With L. C. Abbott as guide, we drove for miles 


through native hay meadows to historic Hutton Grove where we 
had a bountiful lunch together under the trees. 

A short distance from the grove stand the buildings of the 
Hutton or Heart Ranch operated by Mr. Abbott. The old bunk- 
house, a hundred feet long, a hundred years old and sway-backed, 
is still in use. The blacksmith shop dates back to its Overland 
Stage days. 

This ranch was an important one in the 60's as it stood near the 
Big Laramie Crossing of the Overland Trail. 

After Mr. Ed Creighton had completed his telegraph line across 
the West, he returned to the Laramie Plains accompanied by 
Charley Hutton and Tom Alsop who established this ranch. It 
is typical of ranches in the area as the buildings are unpainted and 
look old, which they are. Entering the house we had a great 
surprise, as it was modern, well furnished and cozy with bear 
rugs and an old pot-bellied stove from Fort Sanders. Sparkling 
cut glass and fine antiques were proof of the comfortable life 
of the family. 

2:35 P.M. Back on the highway we passed an OVERLAND 
TRAIL marker as we rode toward Jelm Mountain. Leaving the 
highway we had a real taste of trail life as we bounced over salt 
sage, which may be good for cattle but not for travelers. We 
saw nothing for miles in any direction but native buffalo grass 
waving in the wind. A little excitement was afforded as the cars 
crossed the Lake Hattie Canal, a dry ditch with perpendicular 

Several shafts marked O. T. were placed along this route. 
How Lyle Hildebrand, our guide, found his way from marker 
to marker in that open country is still a mystery. 

3:45 P.M. Arrived at the Mandel Ranch (43 M) which is 
proud to display an old blacksmith shop made in the careful 
manner of long ago with perfectly fitted dovetailed corners. It 
had been moved from the Little Laramie Stage Station many years 
ago. Dr. Burns said that the log work was high class and that 
Mr. Mandel made the first recorded filing on land in the Laramie 
Plains in 1864 when Wyoming was still part of Dakota territory. 
The big house stood empty and deserted. 

Mr. Mandel was stage master in the 60's at the Little Laramie 
River Crossing of the Overland Trail route. That station first 
stood on the flats of a dry knoll above Brown Creek about one- 
half mile away. It was moved to Mandel's first ranch on the 
Little Laramie and then to its present location. 

4:20 P.M. Arrived at the Little Laramie Stage Station on 
Brown Creek (44 M). We walked down to see the old crossing a 
short distance from the buildings. . 


The Overland Stage Station on the Little Laramie. The Mandel 
Ranch, Now the 


by Amy Lawrence 

Phillip Mandel, a native of Alsace, France, built a crude log 
cabin on or near this location. How lush this valley must have 
looked to its first settlers, abounding in all kinds of game, hidden 
by or at least belly deep in rich grass. Maybe he even came in 
the fall, about this time of year, when valley grasses were turning 
to a rich autumn gold, and the air caressed him cooly while the 
sun warmed him. 

Mr. Mandel joined the United States forces against the Mormon 
Rebellion in Utah. It was during this trek that he made arrange- 
ments to utilize his homestead on the Little Laramie as an Over- 
land Stage Station on the new Overland route out of Denver. Mrs. 
Al Pence reports in her article in the Laramie Boomerang, July 1 0, 
1960, that/ "While in Sah Lake City he met Overland Stagecoach 
Kingpin Ben HoUaday, and entered into an agreement to assist 
in starting the new subsidiary to Oregon across the grass rumpled 
Laramie Plains."; 

(In 1864 Mr. Mandel made one of the first homestead entries in 
the Dakota Territory for this quarter section, NW^/4 2-16-76, 
establishing title to the first of the three Mandel ranches. Like 
several other pioneer ranchers and traders, including Jim Bridger, 
Mr. Mandel bought weary, footsore cattle from travelers or traded 
for cattle which were rested and fattened, thus gradually accumu- 
lating a small herd of cattle in the valley.) 

It was also here that the first hay was cut. According to 
Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches by Burns, Gillespie, and Richards, 
he sold hay to the government at Fort Sanders for $30.00 a ton. 
No wonder it took the annihilating winter of the 1880's to induce 
Wyoming ranchers to feed hay. Today, in a bad drouth year, hay 
is selling for about $30 a ton delivered, and cattle are worth 
twenty to fifty times as much as in 1860. 
/Indian raids were common here as at most stage stations. Mrs. 
Pence reminds us that the Laramie Plains were sacred hunting 
ground and relates that Mr. Mandel had several close shaves while 
looking out for his cattle and that his hay crews were under an 
armed guard. Mr. Mandel reported in his records one particularly 
close call while gathering his milk cows. He was afraid to fire 
his single action rifle. While awaiting the Indian's next move, 
a troop of cavalry showed up on their way to Fort Halleck near 
Elk Mountain.) 

I, for one, hardly blame the Indians. The hunting must have 
been wonderful. We still have deer, beaver, ducks, martin, and 
weasel. Fhe entire valley is a winter haven with wonderful brush 


shelter, and the meadows that suppHed hay one hundred years ago 
are still some of the richest and most productive in the West. 

It is interesting to know that Mr. Mandel was "one of the best 
liked pioneers of the old West. ... his station was known from 
ocean to ocean and emigrants he befriended frequently noted in 
their diaries his many kindnesses. These acts of charity ranged 
from 'free meals' to 'free plots for burial.' " These graves are 
now lost, for none of the pioneers that I have ever visited with 
have mentioned any graves in the vicinity. We do not know the 
exact location of the buildings used for the stage station. 

The Folsters, who at one time lived here, built a cabin south 
and east of this house on a grease wood knoll, a location sometimes 
mistaken for the original station. However, this site is not in the 
original homestead. There is not a log or stone to indicate there 
was a building here, and this small creek flows only part of the 

It is entirely possible that our present home is the old stage 
station. When we moved here in 1938, this was an old log build- 
ing including the west end through the kitchen. The logs were 
flat, hand-hewn, without mortar, much the same construction as 
the old blacksmith shop which is known to have been on this 
ranch. In addition, this house was entirely put together with 
handmade nails. My antique books indicate handmade nails were 
not made commercially after 1 840. The house was in bad enough 
shape to have been old enough to be the stage station. The first 
winter, when the wind blew, we had to make certain the furniture 
was sitting on all four comers of the linoleum in the kitchen as 
the wind raised it in waves and billows. 

It has been reasonably well established that the river crossing 
used by the trail travellers was probably the crossing a little south 
and east of the ranch buildings which we still use. It seems almost 
certain that this was the main crossing for several reasons. First, 
it is the best year round crossing, and the oldest for several miles 
up the river. Second, it is the only crossing on the original quarter 
section which was homesteaded. Third, it agrees with an official 
map of the Overland Trail which shows the trail cutting diagonally 
across this quarter section, crossing the river just below the forks. 

The trail was, of course, like all the early wagon trails, very 
wide, as the travellers sought to avoid the deepening ruts. There 
are trails cutting through the meadows of both section 1 and 2 
east of us and some in section 3 on our west which is another 
part of the Mandel ranch. 

There were three Mandel ranches according to Mr. Thees, a 
Laramie pioneer who worked for the Mandels. Phillip and his 
brother George lived here first and then moved to the Miller 
ranch. In 1881 Phil built the ranch about two miles to the south 
where the old blacksmith shop is located. His brother George 
retained ownership of this ranch, and the first item on our abstract 


dated 1883 is in his name. In 1887 he lost the ranch to Ludolph 
Abrams on a bad debt, and it became known as the Abrams ranch. 

I have been unable to determine the part that the second Mandel 
ranch, or Miller ranch, played in the story of the Overland Trail, 
and since so little seems to be known, 1 have agreed with Mrs. 
Coykendall to give a brief history of this ranch. 

The present stone house, the Swift-Miller home, is probably a 
part of the original Mandel holdings, although the land records 
show that the Mandel homestead was on section 4-16-76 and the 
house stands on 3-17-76. This homestead patent was issued in 
1877 and was a part of the ranch known as the Puis ranch. 

It is probable that the Miller ranch played an active part in the 
Trail because just north and west of the house are wagon tracks, 
deeply worn in a sandstone outcropping in the hill. At the time 
when the Lawrences moved to this ranch, the old stone house 
was arranged in such a way as to indicate that the house had been 
used as a hotel at one time. 

4:45 P.M. We left the Lawrence ranch and travelled across 
the open prairie. At one place a ditch had to be dug out so the 
cars could proceed. As dusk began to fall we passed a big stone 
monument set on a hill. This is the burial place of Clement 
Bengough, a titled Englishman who preferred his sod-roofed house 
in Wyoming to a castle he inherited in England. He always rode 
a spirited horse, and he never opened a gate but hurdled it. This 
first known dude in Wyoming, being a scholar, once absent 
mindedly wrote a check in Latin. 

6:10 P.M. Arrived at the Cooper Cove Ranch near the old 
Cooper Creek Stage Station, in a lovely quiet valley. 


by Mr. A. S. Gillespie 

To locate ourselves I will point to the prominent landmark, 
Cooper Hill, which can be seen over the ma'or portion of the 
Laramie Plains. This hill has an elevation of 9230 feet. I think 
it was named along with Cooper Creek and Cooper Lake after 
one of the firm of March and Cooper who owned a large land 
and cattle empire. 

At one time Cooper Hill was a mining center for gold, silver, 
and copper, and the real promoter at one time was B. W. Towner. 
Enough mineral was mined to warrant building a stamp mill 
which remained intact until late years. There were sufficient 
miners and mail for the federal government to establish a post 
office which was named Morgan after the prominent cattleman 
George Morgan, Sr., who was at one time manager of the Wyo- 
ming Hereford Association, now the Wyoming Hereford Ranch, 
and the Douglas Will an Sartoris Company. Most of this activity 
was around the turn of the century. 



[ The Overland Stage Station which operated in 1 862 was located 
about three hundred yards below this barn on northeast Va of 
west west ^4 section 20, Township 18 North and Range 17 West 
of the 6th principal meridian. I think evidence of the old founda- 
tion of the springhouse can be found. This site was known as 
the Cooper Creek Crossing. The people who first operated this 
station were named Cassidy. Later to supplement their income, 
they milked cows and hauled their dairy products every two weeks 
to Laramie and peddled it out. Cassidys^ were not title holders 
of the land but had only squatter's rights. ) 

The elderly couple Cassidy came back to Albany County and 
visited this ranch in 1916. They gave much of the early history 
of the ranch at this time. 

The Cassidys told my sister of the incident when a man named 
Luger who ran sheep on Dutton Creek was murdered by the 
Indians. His body was slashed and mutilated as well as being 
scalped. His body was buried on the ground now occupied by 
the present oil rig and buildings. The site of the grave was lost 
when the excavation was done by the oil company. 

Luger's wife, under the cover of darkness, was able to escape 
the Indians and found her way into the stage station. After mur- 
dering Luger, the Indians passed by the stage station where the 
Cassidys lived. 

Mrs. Luger was a nurse. She left Montana and went to Denver 
where she met and married Luger. After his death, she met and 
married James Dougherty of the Little Laramie. Burt and OUie 
Wallis own that ranch today. 

Dr. C. Latham, who was the Union Pacific Railroad physician 
and surgeon when the company built into the Laramie Plains, 
realized the cattle raising possibility of the country. He formed a 
partnership with H. W. Gray and Charles A. Lambert, and they 
invested in cattle. The first brand certificate that was issued in 
Albany County went to Dr. C. Latham, October 21, 1871. The 
brand was a barbed arrow on the left side or shoulder. 

During Dr. Latham's operations in the cattle business, he had a 
camp for his riders just east of that grove of trees to the south. 
The cabin remained until recent years. That camp was located 
in northeast Va of section 30, township 18, north and range 77, 
west of the sixth meridian. The chief headquarters for his outfit 
was located on what is still known to this day as the Latham 
Bottoms which is on the east side of the river south of Bosler and 
up the river. 

Nancy Filmore Brown, wife of the late Judge M. C. Brown, 
described Dr. Latham as a most interesting character. He was a 
tall, erect person, full of anecdotes and a charming talker, and a 
man of culture and education. 

The Laramie Daily Sentinel, August 7, 1870, page three, de- 
scribes the Latham outfit, thusly: "Dr. Latham and his company 


have the finest drove of cattle of all the thousands which have been 
located in this valley. We say finest because there is, we believe 
the most money in them. Out of about 3000 head there are nearly 
a 1000 calves, which are not reckoned in the purchase, and may 
be said to have cost nothing. The balance are nearly all cows, 
yearlings and two-year-old cattle. It is a class of stock which 
is to enrich the country and stock-grower." 

About 1887 a tragedy occurred to the east of that grove of trees. 
A man by the name of Embree was caught in a stealing affair. 
E. L. Dixon, the man who first settled this ranch, furnished the 
convicting evidence which convicted Embree. Embree threatened 
Dixon and said he would get even with him when he served his 
time in the Joliet prison which boarded and housed the Wyoming 
prisoners. E. L. Dixon was warned and kept a constant watch 
out for Embree. Finally he saw him coming on foot toward that 
grove of trees. E. 1.. Dixon concealed himself in the trees, and 
when (Embree came within rifle range, Dixon fired and Embree 
fell dead. Dixon was cleared as he was acting in self defense. 
Embree was buried to the east of the grove of trees. 

One of the first rural schools was established on this place 
during the time the ranch was occupied by the first permanent 
settlers, Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Dixon. The house stood back in a 
little park about four hundred yards below the barn. A man by 
the name of Anderson or Adams was the first teacher. 

The first dude in Wyoming lays in his grave east of the road 
we came in on and west of what is known as the Bengough Hill. 
His name was Clement S. Bengough. He chose that hill over- 
looking his ranch for his final resting place. A steel fence encloses 
the grave and headstone which gives the date of his birth and 
death. There is a little verse inscribed on the stone which I quote: 

"This is the verse you grave for me: 
Here he lies where he longed to be; 
Home is the sailor — home from the sea 
And the hunter home from the hill." 

Robert Louis Stevenson. 

6:30 P.M. It was dark by the time we left Cooper Cove, and 
the lights of the cars formed a brilliant procession as we wound 
our way to McFadden. From there on we dodged oil wells and 
tanks scattered along the road, finally arriving in Arlington 
(72 M) at 8:00 P.M., two hours behind schedule. Everyone 
showed true pioneer spirit and quickly bedded down for the night, 
tired but happy. 

Sunday — September 18 

Caravan - 30 cars 100 participants 

7:30 A.M. A hearty breakfast of cakes, eggs, bacon, and 


coffee was enjoyed in the cool, crisp air. While some cleaned up 
camp, the rest visited an old cemetery nearby where they found 
only one marked grave, that of R. Brown, August, 1881. 
8:00 A.M. Everyone reassembled for a paper. 

by L. E. Dixon 

I wish you Emigrants a late welcome. Instead of hoping you 
had a good rest, I better say, I am glad you all survived. 

Arlington, the spot where we are now assembled, was formerly 
called Rock Dale. This property was part of the Alvy Dixon 
estate to which Mrs. Rose Mary Dixon, widow of Alvy Dixon, 
fell heir and is still occupied by her during the summer. Alvy 
Dixon, pioneer cowman from the Laramie Plains country, rode 
into the country in 1881 with a pack horse, bed roll, frying pan, 
and six-shooter. 

In 1914 Mrs. Inez L. Kortes and Mrs. R. D. Meyer of Carbon 
County each donated the sum of $50.00 for the erection of this 
monument, the style of the stone identical with that which marks 
the site of old Fort Halleck. 

This is the site of the old Rock Creek Crossing on the Overland 
Trail, used in the 1860's. 

Indians were the first to make use of this beautiful spot. Then 
came the fur traders, the explorers, gold hunters, and the covered 
wagons en route to the California gold rush. 

The first recorded travelers on what is known now as the 
"Overland Trail" were General William H. Ashley and a group 
of trappers who came this way in 1825. General Ashley organized 
the Rocky Mountain Fur Company in 1822 and is credited with 
putting the trapper on horseback. Previous to this time trappers 
going to the Rocky Mountains used boats to navigate the Missouri 
River. In 1824-25 Ashley opened up a route that followed the 
Platte River which could not be navigated, making horses an 
essential item of travel. While General Ashley and his associates 
were acquiring fortunes, their trappers were constantly exposing 
themselves to grave dangers. It was estimated that three-fifths of 
the trappers for Ashley's company were killed by the Indians. 
In spite of all difficulties, the trappers in 1832 shipped about 
$175,000.00 worth of furs. 

Most of the people going west, in the 1840's and 1850's how- 
ever, used the Oregon or Emigrant Trail through Fort Laramie arid 
South Pass and the Mormons and Argonauts as well as the Pony 
Express used this route. It was not until the 1860's that the 
Overland Trail became an important route to the west coast. The 
Indians along the Oregon Trail became such a threat that the 
travelers started using the somewhat safer road to the south. 

The Overland Trail came into Wyoming at Virginia Dale and 


kept a southern route through the Laramie Plains, Arhngton, Elk 
Mountain and on to Fort Bridger in the western part of the state. 
Fort Sanders and Fort Halleck were built along the trail for the 
protection of the emigrants. 

The Overland Trail was first named the Cherokee Trail because 
df- a. party of Cherokee Indians who used the trail in 1849 on 
their way to California. After Ben Holladay purchased the 
overland mail in 1862, he moved the stagecoach line south to the 
Cherokee Trail, and it was renamed the Overland Trail. It be- 
came the principal mail, stage, and emigrant route after that date. 
There is a stone marker between Arlington and Elk Mountain 
commemorating the Cherokee Trail. 

I can remember very well small emigrant trains moving through 
Arlington when I was a small boy. 

The first buildings at Arlington were erected in 1860 by Joe 
Bush. The property was sold about 1868 to Mr. and Mrs. Bill 
Williams, and they operated it as a way station on the Overland 
Trail for several years. The government located a post office 
here and called it Rock Dale. I do not know when the name was 
changed to Arlington. In addition to the post office, there was a 
blacksmith shop where travelers might shoe their teams and repair 
wagons. There was also a dance hall upstairs and a saloon in 
this two-story building which still stands. At one time there was 
a block house nearby where protection might be had from the 
Indians, but it has been gone for many years. 

Mrs. Williams was well adapted to life of the old West. She 
had a ready tongue and could handle a six-shooter as well as most 
men. She was also an efficient, practical nurse and was always 
willing to help her neighbors out in time of illness and when a new 
citizen was ushered into the world. According to her story she 
helped me enter this world. I'm not sure about this. 

A toll bridge across Rock Creek was kept closed. Whenever 
an emigrant train or a lone rider arrived, Mrs. Williams was there 
to collect a dollar for each wagon and fifty cents for a horse and 
rider. The story goes that the leader of one large train defied her, 
refusing to pay the toll. He took his wagons down stream and 
crossed the creek. When the story got around, the profits from 
the toll bridge lessened, and it was abandoned. 

However, another travler tried the same course and drove his 
mules and wagon with his two small daughters beside him off 
into the river, and the high waters of the river drowned the two 
children and mules. 

The Williams raised a large garden and sold produce in season 
to miners, trappers, and emigrants. They also took a water right 
and irrigated hay which they sold to the travlers. 

Williams was thrown from a horse and dragged along a barbed 
wire fence. His body was so mutilated that he died. Later Sid 
Morris married Mrs. Williams, and they continued to operate the 


roadhouse, saloon, and gambling house until it was sold to Joe 
and Aunt Mary Dixon in the early 1900's. Alvy Dixon bought 
this property from Aunt Mary after Joe died in 1910. 

Horse thieves did a thriving business on the Overland Trail for 
a time. They would steal the travelers' horses and sell them to 
someone else or, we have heard, to their owners who were des- 
perate to make their trip in good weather. There were two cabins 
nearby where these bandits hid out. One was on Watkin's Creek 
near McFadden, and the creek still bears his name. The other 
was in the deep brush on Section 16 about two miles north of 

When I was a boy of eight years, my dad sent me up to a pasture 
east of here to chase some cattle out of a field. As I was crossing 
the trail, I saw someone driving a bunch of horses. Whey they 
got nearer, I could see there were two riding in a buckboard and a 
man horseback driving the horses. They stopped and wanted to 
trade me a new saddle for my old one I was riding. They had 
three new saddles strapped on the back of the buckboard. Dad 
had always warned me not to trade anything with a stranger. The 
next day we heard a posse had come through Arlington, looking 
for horse thieves, and these men had evidently stolen the new 
saddles, too. 

There is a small plot across the river and a short distance from 
the trail where those who died while making the long trek west 
were buried. The markers are long since gone, and there seems 
to be no record of who they may have been. One headstone was 
turned over, and the year 1881 appeared on the rock. 

In 1865 the Cheyenne Indians attacked a train of 75 wagons 
and surrounded a family named Fletcher. They killed the mother, 
wounded the father, who hid in a ditch and escaped, and captured 
the two daughters, Mary age thirteen and Lizzie age two. Mary 
was struck with several arrows but pulled them out with her own 
hands. She was separated from the sister Lizzie and watched the 
wagons burning in the valley. For weeks Mary tramped with the 
squaws while the braves led the way on ponies. She dressed and 
painted like an Indian, cared for fourteen ponies, helped gather 
firewood, waded and swam streams, and struggled through deep 

In the spring of 1866, aided by jealous squaws who wanted to 
get rid of her, she got in touch with a white trader named "Hanger" 
who paid a horse, a gun, and $1,600.00 for her release. A year 
later she found her father in Salt Lake City. 

Thirty-five years after the raid, a white woman, who spoke only 
Arapaho, visited Casper with some Indians from the Wind River 
Reservation. Mary Fletcher read about her in a newspaper, re- 
turned to Wyoming, and identified the woman as her sister. Lizzie 
remembered nothing about her capture and refused to go back 
with Mary. The proof that she was white, however, gave her a 


sense of superiority to the Indian women among whom she lived. 
It also elevated her Arapaho husband, John Brokenhorn. When 
lands were alloted the tribe in 1908, Brokenhorn refused his share, 
contending that the White man's government had no right to 
confine Indians to a part of the land which was wholly their own. 
9:15 A.M. Left Rock Creek Stage Station (Rock Dale - Ar- 
lington) with Willing Richardson as guide. He led us to a Chero- 
kee Trail marker above Foote Creek. One fine day Foote and 
John Sublette were cutting hay close by when a band of Indians 
surprised them. Foote was wounded so the creek was named for 
him. Some time later the Indian, responsible for the shot, went 
to Fort Halleck to inquire how Foote was getting along. When 
the door was opened for him, Foote shot the Indian dead. 


-- by Willing Richardson 

It was early in 1849 that a band of Cherokee Indians traded 
their wagons for pack horses at Greenhorn, Colorado, and guided 
by an Osage Indian pioneered a new trail which was first called 
the Cherokee Trail after them. It passed by this monument. 

From here they travelled south of the Overland Trail, crossing 
south of Elk Mountain at Oberg Pass, crossing the Platte at the 
mouth of Lake Creek and up Jack Creek to Twin Groves, west to 
Big Springs, thence on to Powder Springs, crossing Green River 
and to Fort Bridger. 

(This trail was used by Indians and trappers going west to the 
White River Country for many years. 

(\ saw five Indians with their squaws travel this trail in 1890 
at which time the trail was plain. It can still be seen in places. 

There was a branch of this trail that followed the foot hills of 
the Hayden Forest over the mountains into North Park and down 
the Cache la Poudre. ' 

Another creek nearby was known as Wagon Hound Creek, so 
named because many wagons crossing the old trail dropped off 
the banks and broke the hounds of their wagons. 

10:15 A.M. After travelling some distance toward Elk Moun- 
tain, we suddenly turned from a high bench down to the Medicine 
Bow River. The old Medicine Bow Stage Station (89 M) nestled 
among the trees. 



by Willing Richardson 

The Medicine Bow River was crossed here by Captain Lewis 
Evans' party in the latter part of July 1849. Their guide was a 


part Osage Indian hired at Greenhorn, Colorado. The party went 
west from here along the north side of Medicine Bow Mountain, 
now called Elk Mountain, and onto the crossing of the North 
Platte River along the route which later became the Overland 

The Evans party arrived at Salt Lake City August 13, 1849, 
and I quote the following by O. W. Lipe, who had remained with 
the wagon train: 

"We have got this far, a distance from home of 1,420 miles. 
We arrived here on Monday and expect to leave this evening. 
We traveled from Pueblo by the following route: Fort St. Vrain's 
on South Platte; crossed South Platte at the mouth of Cache la 
Poudre; up said stream through the mountains, to Laramie Plains; 
thence crossed Laramie river near the mountains; crossed Med- 
icine Bow river; passed Medicine Bow mountains; crossed the 
North Park and North Platte [and] Green river south of the 
South pass; and intersected the Independence road on Blacks 
Fork, about fourteen miles west of Green river. ..." 

This party probably made the first tracks for the Overland 

A reconnaissance of the route later adopted as the Overland 
Trail was made by Captain Howard Stansbury, Corps of Topo- 
graphical Engineers, U. S. Army, in the fall of 1850. He was 
guided from Fort Bridger by Jim Bridger and after crossing Green 
River, the party followed Bitter Creek, Bridger Pass, crossed the 
North Platte, and rounded Elk Mountain to the Laramie Plains. 
From Little Laramie Station, Stansbury headed for Telephone 
Canyon, Cheyenne Pass, and down Chugwater Creek. Because 
of an injury sustained by Captain Stansbury, the party turned 
north to Fort Laramie, but Stansbury believed that the Lodge Pole 
Creek could be followed to the North Platte and would make a 
good road. He recommended this route as being shorter by 63 
miles and better than the Oregon or Emigrant Trail. 

We do not know who erected the first stage station or built the 
toll bridge at Elk Mountain other than the station was owned and 
operated by the Overland Stage Company. Mr. and Mrs. William 
Stimpson (Mrs. Stimpson was my mother) purchased it in its 
entirety from Louis Johnson in 1872, and in the fall of 1875 they 
sold it to Louis Sederling and Chris Johnson. In 1880 a man by 
the name of Johney Jones built a large, rambling structure on the 
east side of the Medicine Bow River where it was more protected 
in winter. It contained a store, saloon, and post office called 
Elk Mountain. 

The Elk Mountain Trading Company Store was built on the 
site of the old Overland Stage Station. 

11:15 A.M. After all the cars were filled with gas, we drove 
on toward Elk Mountain. 

11:55 A.M. The caravan arrived at the Elk Mountain Stage 


Station (97M) later called Fort Halleck. When Ben Holladay 
moved his stage line from the Emigrant or Oregon Trail to the 
Overland Trail, the Indians followed him southward to the new 
route, and the federal government built Fort Halleck on the north 
base of Elk Mountain to give protection to the mail service. Some 
of the old buildings are still in use as ranch buildings belonging to 
Mr. Palm who welcomed us. 

Lunch was eaten on the parade grounds, then a tour was made 
to the old cemetery. Only one name was visible, that of James 
Foote — age 11, 1871. 

by Kleber Hadsell 

LeRoy Hafen in his book. The Overland Mail, writes that on 
July 21st the daily mail service was inaugurated upon the new line 
and the road was said to be in excellent condition. The Overland 
Stage line was in good running order with stations built and forts 
established or soon to be. Among these forts was Fort Halleck 
located at this place at the north base of Elk Mountain. The fort 
was named after Major General H. W. Halleck of Civil War fame. 
Troops were stationed here and at other points along the line. The 
troops that built Halleck were Company A of the 1 1 th Ohio 
Volunteer Cavalry. 

Bartlett's History of Wyoming states that Fort Halleck was 
established July 20, 1862, and was abandoned July 4, 1866. It 
was located near the foot of the Medicine Bow Mountains, and 
for a time it was one of the most important military posts in the 
Rocky Mountain region, being the center of Indian warfare of 
that period. 

In the spring of 1863 Captain J. L. Humfreville of the 11th 
Ohi(5 Cavalry saw hard service guarding stages and emigrant 
trains. In mid summer of 1863 the Utes caused some excitement 
around Fort Halleck. When information reached Denver a 
military expedition started from that point for Fort Halleck with 
sixty wagons and sixty days' supplies and six companies of the 
1st Colorado Cavalry under Major Wynkoop. The Utes came to 
the Fort about the first of July, begging for food. They then ran 
off some stage company stock and were followed unsuccessfully. 
Seventy soldiers pursued the Indians about thirty-five miles and 
defeated them, killing between twenty and sixty braves. One 
soldier was killed and four were wounded. 

In February 1863, Lieutenant Colonel William O. Collins de- 
scribed a snow storm which caught a party of soldiers near Fort 
Halleck as the worst in Wyoming history. One soldier died. 

In 1865 the Fort Halleck garrison was increased because of 
Indian attacks upon the Overland Stage. On Sage Creek near 
Bridgers Pass two emigrants were killed on June 2, and the 


country was raided for fifty miles along the mail line, j A station 
was attacked on June 8, and five of the seven men there were 
killed, horses were driven off, and the station burned. During the 
month of June 1865, the Overland Stage Company lost eighty- 
seven head of stock between Cherokee and Sulphur Springs Station 
which was west of Fort Halleck. Mail service was reduced to a 
tri-weekly schedule between Fort Halleck and Sulphur Springs 
Station, and soldiers furnished the transportation. Mail accumu- 
lated at the Fort and heavy wagons were used to carry it to Green 
River under escort. 

In August there was more trouble near Fort Halleck. On Au- 
gust 4, 1865, in the section between the Big Laramie and Rock 
Creek, twelve whites were killed and two captured according to 
E. N. Lewis, hospital attendant at Fort Halleck. One of these 
was scalped, tied to a wagon wheel and burned, with bacon being 
used as fuel. 

Robert Foote, who was born in Scotland, served for three years 
at Fort Laramie in Troop F of the 2d U. S. Cavalry. Later he 
was in charge of the commissary and store at Fort Halleck and 
operated teams between that Fort and Fort Laramie. He and 
Frank Daley did some of the bullwhacking. 

Mark Coad operated wood teams for hauling wood from a camp 
on Elk Mountain to Percy for the railroad, and Foote was the 
manager. On one of these wood hauling trips with five men and 
teams of both oxen and mules, the Indians made an attack near a 
lake. The men with the mule teams were killed and the mules 
were stolen. The two men with the ox teams, who were coming 
behind, quit their teams and made their escape on foot, arriving 
in Percy the next morning with the news of the disaster. The 
Indians hamstrung the oxen and threw the murdered men into 
the nearby lake which has since been called Bloody Lake. 

When the fort was abandoned in 1866 by the Army, Robert 
Foote remained at the site as storekeeper and postmaster. In 
1880 the post office was moved to Medicine Bow Crossing and 
named Elk Mountain Post Office. 

1 :45 P.M. The Overland Trail trekkers left Elk Mountain Stage 
Station with Willing Richardson as guide. We crossed Rattlesnake 
Pass and Rattlesnake Creek, suitable names for those desolate 

2:15 P.M. We arrived at Pass Creek (111 M. ) about two miles 
below where the Overland Trail crossed. Mr. Richardson ex- 
plained that no one seemed to know the exact location of the 
Pass Creek Stage Station, but he thought it was a mile or two 
up the creek from the road. He read letters from two old-timers 
who agreed with him. 

As we travelled on the old trail, Mr. Bishop remarked that he 
imagined the road was better in the 1860's than today. The people 
in the back seat agreed with him. The wall of faces and gargoyles 


grotesquely eroded on the rim of a cliff interested us as we rode 
below it. A child's grave, heaped with stones, was seen near 
the trail. 

3:45 P.M. Arrived at the North Platte Stage Station (127 M.) 
about five or six miles below Saratoga on the river. An old ceme- 
tery containing eight graves surrounded by a good fence was in 
excellent condition. A large monument dedicated to the Trail 
and its fatalities stood on the brink of a steep bank, high above 
the river. Below on the perpendicular cUffs were carved many 
names and dates of passers by. Also, a secret cave was seen in 
the bank where pioneers often hid from the Indians. 

by Leeland Grieve 

Whether the Cherokee Trail crossed the river at this point or 
approximately a mile and a half below here is a matter of opinion. 
Probably both crossings or some others were used as the occasion 
demanded. This crossing was known as the Bennett Crossing. 
There were two crossings on the river, one below the island and 
one across the island directly west of us here. A ferry was used 
for the crossing when the water was high. 

There is a long recorded history of people who crossed the 
North Platte in this vicinity. The first is written by General Wil- 
liam Ashley in 1825, but this is only a passing reference in his 
journal. Captain John Charles Fremont in 1843 devotes consid- 
erable space to his crossing of the North Platte. The chroniclers 
of the Cherokee Indians who emigrated to California in 1 849 and 
1850 mention only the fact that the North Platte was crossed. 
Possibly the best description of this site was left by Captain How- 
ard Stansbury who passed by this area in the fall of 1850. jOn 
August 12, 1856, Lieutenant Francis T. Bryan passed this way 
in his search for a wagon road to Bridger's Pass. The United 
States Army in its march to Utah in 1857 and 1858 had occasion 
to use the (Overland Trail, and at least three parties of men crossed 
the North Platte near here and left a record of that crossing. ' 

It was here that HoUaday moved his famous stage line in 1862. 
Troops were moved from the Oregon Trail, and Fort Halleck was 
established. A station was erected near the crossing, but W. O. 
Owens and his sister Mrs. Eva Downey (of Laramie) in 1933 
could not recall if it were made of wood or stone. 

The North Platte Crossing was a resting place for the emigrants 
after their two-day journey from Fort Halleck. It was at the 
corrals at this site that they rested their horses, and they carved 
their names in the soft sandstone cliffs. On each side of this river 
below us are the large heaps of stone that were anchors for the 
first cables made of buffalo hide that held the first ferries. 

On the butte directly west of us are the Indian graves. Whether 



Courtesy Pierre LaBonte, Jr. 

Albert Sims who has assisted L. C. 

Bishop in planning and leading the 

Emigrant Trail Treks. 

or not this has any significance 
in the history of this situation, I 
do not know. One thing is sure, 
they died here. Stansbury men- 
tions their forts and that this 
was their battleground, for 
warring tribes met here in 
mortal combat and raids. 

Points of interest at this site 
include the natural stairways 
leading up to the bluff, inscrip- 
tions by pioneers, a graveyard 
on the cliff, and a child's grave 
on the campground. 

In August 1933, many of us 
not so old old-timers remem- 
ber the dedication of the mon- 
ument at the crossing by the 
former State Historical Land- 
mark Commission and eight 
acres of ground, given by Mrs. 
Ella Mary Davis and her son 
R. H. Davis in memory of hus- 
band and father John C. Davis, 
which today is a state park. 

by L. C. Bishop 

1 am pleased to note that someone has erected a monument at 
this historic crossing of the North Platte River and that the eight 
pioneer graves have been fenced and the old headstones restored 
to some extent. It seems, however, that only one has the name 
and date. 

For your information I will add a note from my 1929 diary 
that shows the names and dates of six of these grave stones, be- 
ginning with number one on the north: LeRoy W. Morrison, Died 
May — . Number two, J. S. White, Died — 18th, 1863. Number 
three, George Layne. Number four, William M. Donald, Killed 
by Indians June 1864. Number five, John Hunter, Aged 17 
years. Died August 10, 1865. Number six, stone in place, marks 
gone. Number seven, headstone broken off, marks gone. Num- 
ber Eight, In Memory of Mary E. Stockton, died August 10, 1865. 

I have sketches in my diary of all the stones except numbers 
six and seven. 

Following Mr, Bishop's remarks, the men set off to locate the 
exact spot of the stage station with the aid of a metal detector. 



They feel certain that it was on the river about one half mile 
below the cliff and monument. 

6:00 P.M. After bidding one another goodbye, the party broke 
up declaring this trek one of the best. All look forward to con- 
tinuing it next year. 



T. A. Larson 

Robert Burns 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Croonberg 

A. S. Gillespie 

Greta Neubauer 

Glennie Bacon 

Geneva Bird 

Lyle Shingleton 

Ella Shingleton 

Mrs. J. Guffey and Sharron 

Gertrude Gould 

Mr. and Mrs. Lambertson 

Louise Frager 

D. Hall 

Cole Abbott 

Mike Bott 

Ed Barton 

Mrs. L. Corthell and David 

Miriam Moreland 

Mrs. O. Karraker 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Furley 

Mrs. C. Gomp 

Mr. and Mrs. G. McConnell 

Clarice Whittenburg 

Cherrie Gray 

Verna Hitchcock 

Mr. and Mrs. H. T. Person 


Mr. and Mrs. J. Eastgate 


Mr. and Mrs. C. Marsolf 

Tie Siding 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. S. Blunk 

Elk Mountain 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Richardson 


Mr. and Mrs. Neal Miller 

Mr. and Mrs. James Hayward 

Martha Stanley 

Kleber Hadsell 

Mr. and Mrs. Leeland Grieve 

Washington, D. C. 
Mrs. F. L. Nussbaum 
Mrs. Olga Arnold 


Larry Sandburg 

Mr. and Mrs. P. Keenan 


Mr. and Mrs. L. C. Bishop 

Maurine Carley 

Mrs. Graham Walker 

Mr. and Mrs. Ritter 

Mr. and Mrs. Glenn Conner 


Mr. and Mrs. Hildebrand 

A. S. Sims 

L. E. Dixon 


J. N. Lawson 


Nathan Kohler 


B. E. Bishop 


H. M. Townsend 

Earl Flaharty 
Gus Miller 

Mt. Home 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Manogian 


Mr. and Mrs. Gene Breniman 
Mr. and Mrs. Ed Noble 

Ft. Laramie 

Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Rymill 

Zhe Quartzite Arrowhead 

Hans Kleiber 

Against the noonday sun rose Fremont Peak 
Above its shining beds of ice and snow 
That shed their waters into Bull Lake Creek 
Through dark and timbered gorges far below, 
And tumbhng down their shadowy, rock-bound beds, 
The milky torrents gleamed like silver threads. 

To westward lay the crests of Dinwoodie, 
Shearing the sky in jagged disarray. 
But over all, in towering majesty, 
Mt. Gannett, with its icy crown held sway. 
And on a lateral ridge, between, stood I, 
To view this land of rock and ice, and sky. 

The ridge rose well above twelve thousand feet. 
With cirques gouged deep, and boulder-strewn. 
Yet, ever here, stray alpine blooms would greet 
My eyes in sheltered spots, safe and immune 
From summer frosts, and where the rims broke steep, 
I came across the tracks of mountain sheep. 

Living glaciers, cold and sullen lay 
Around me, as though only biding time. 
Til they again their crushing loads may lay 
Upon these slopes, as they did in their prime 
In cycles past, when from their high retreats. 
They smothered all this range in icy sheets. 

While from its highest point I peak-ward gazed. 

Clouds, had in silence, gathered at my back. 

The first I knew, a bolt of lightning blazed 

That struck a nearby cliff a deafening crack. | 

Half dazed, and blinded by the shattering blow, | 

I fled into a boulderfield below. % 

Beneath a pile of glacial waste I spied 
A gaping hole, wherein a man might lay, 
And to escape the hail, I crawled inside. 
While waiting for the storm to blow away, 
I caught a glint beside my stony bed, 
And saw it was a snow-white arrow head. 


No shaft, or other implements, I saw, 
No bones, or bits of charcoal were around, 
Only this quartzite flake, without a flaw. 
Lay gleaming Uke a jewel on the ground. 
For long, I marvelled at its cold display 
Of blue transluscence by the light of day. 

A point, more perfect, I had never seen. 
And slowly turning it from side to side, 
I wondered who the ancient man had been 
Who left it here, and too, what fickle tide 
Of fate had borne him to this boulder field, 
Which can so little food and shelter yield. 

Had he belonged to that lone, wandering race 

Of Sheep-Eaters, before the white man came, 

Whose trails and lairs one still can faintly trace? 

One of their hunters in the search of game 

Among these hostile peaks, who had to flee 

For shelter in a summer storm, like me? ' 

Wyoming Archaeological J^otes 


By L. C. Steege 

The Midland point derives its name from the style of projectile 
points found at the Scharbauer site located near Midland, Texas. 
However, the Scharbauer site was not the first to produce these 

Ventana Cave, located on the Papago Indian Reservation, about 
75 miles south of Phoenix, Arizona, was the first site to produce 
a Midland point. This particular specimen was made of basalt, 
which is a material that is quite difficult to flake. Since this 
point was the same general shape as a Folsom without flutes, it 
was assumed that due to the nature of the stone, it was merely 
an unfluted Folsom point. Later this same style of point, made 
of materials which were relatively easy to flake, was found in 
other sites. This proved that the material used was not necessarily 
a conditioning factor. 

The Lindenmeier site produced Midland points in the same 
levels with Folsom points. These were also considered to be 
unfluted Folsoms since they had been made from flakes which 
were much too thin to allow fluting. 

The Scharbauer site was discovered by an amateur archaeolo- 
gist, Keith Glasscock, in 1953. Glasscock found fragments of 
human bones with some artifacts in a wind blown area on a ranch 
owned by Clarence Scharbauer from whom the site derives its 
name. Realizing the potential importance of his find, Glasscock 
picked up the human bone fragments which were in danger of 
being blown away. However, he did not disturb anything below 
the surface. He notified the Laboratory of Anthropology in Santa 
Fe, New Mexico of his discovery and sent them the bones he had 
picked up. The site was investigated by several notable archaeolo- 

Twenty-one specimens of the unfluted variety and seven Folsom 
points were recovered from the Scharbauer site. A study of the 
unfluted points revealed that they had been made thin and flat 
intentionally and that they were a distinct type. In the report of 
the Midland discovery, these unfluted points are called "Midland" 

Carbon samples from organic matter in the Midland level 
proved unsatisfactory for dating, due to the small amounts recov- 



ered and the irregularities in testing. Since the Midland points 
have been found in the same levels with Folsoms, it may be 
assumed that they are contemporaneous. If this is the case, the 
antiquity of the Midland point is approximately 10,800 years. 

Midland points closely resemble the Folsom type. They are 
never fluted, and in general are smaller, flatter and thinner than 
Folsoms. The flaking is somewhat irregular. 


Wyoming State Mis tor leal Society 



E. A. Littleton 

Wyoming history, from its very beginning, has been exciting and 
interesting. From 1807, when John Colter stumbled up the Big 
Horn River into what is now Wyoming, many things of historic 
significance have been recorded. Many others have covered so 
many items of our history that one hesitates to offer new or later 
events. However, to keep our history continuing for future gen- 
erations, the Wyoming State Historic Society, I feel, is the organ- 
ization to do it. As President of this organization, I would men- 
tion historic events which have been rather ignored because per- 
haps it all happened only thirty or forty years ago. 

Many of our people can remember when the Homesteaders or 
Dry Farmers, as they were labeled, came to Wyoming. One old 
timer puts it this way: "Uncle Sam first would bet you 160 acres 
of land against $16.00 that you couldn't make a living on it. 
Then seeing how good it was. Uncle just doubled the bet: 320 
acres for $32.00. About 1916 Uncle Sam doubled it again, 
betting 640 acres against $64.00". The old timer says "You 
know, Tony, Uncle won every bet!" 

It was a mighty interesting time from about 1914 to 1920. 
Folks from the east come to Wyoming in droves. In Campbell 
County nineteen Missouri families came as a group and filed in 
one block. In another area some twenty Iowa families filed in a 
community which later became known as Little Iowa. In another 
part of our County, twenty-six families from Pennsylvania just 
about wrecked a Township of grazing land. A stockman in that 
area compared them to the year Mormon Crickets ate him out. 
So in four or five years hundreds of thousands of acres of land 
were transferred from Government land to private ownership. 
Homesteading in Wyoming wasn't quite as easy as pictured by the 
Locators or by the Colonization Agent of the Railroad. The 
disheartening dry summers and rough, snowy winters that followed 
drove many thousands of these dry farmers right back to their 
old homes or on west looking for a better life. 

Our entry into World War I in 1914 gave our boys going into 
service a real bargain. Uncle Sam gave them the privilege of filing 
on a section even if they were living in another state, also changing 
the legislation so that the time spent in Military Service would 
count as residence on the Homestead. Many sections of land were 
proved up on without the applicant even seeing what he filed on! 


Such were the Homestead Years. They have passed into History 
along with Colter, Bridger, Sublette and the early arrival of the 
Cow Man and the Sheep Man — all have had their places in 
Wyoming History. 

Many thousands of pages have been written by competent 
authors covering our early history. Now I hope some industrious 
author will cover the Homestead Years when more land was 
transferred from the Government to private ownership than the 
Oklahoma Stampede or the Texas Land Grants. 

Book Keviews 

Indians, Infants and Infantry: Andrew and Elizabeth Burt on the 
Frontier. By Merrill J. Mattes. (Denver, Colo., The Old 
West Publishing Company. 1960, illus. 301 pp. $5.95.) 

The Indians met in this solid contribution to Americana are not 
only such familiar figures as Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Spotted 
Tail and Washakie, but the little known Crow stalwarts Crazy 
Head, Good Heart, Bears Tooth and Iron Bull. 

The infants include little Pinahawney, daughter of Iron Bull, 
but are primarily the three children of Andrew and Elizabeth Burt. 
Andrew Gano, destined to be the youngest member of the Jenney 
Expedition of 1875 from Fort Laramie to the Black Hills. Edith, 
born in the blockhouse at Fort Sanders and shortly thereafter 
the youngest white resident of Fort C. F. Smith. Reynolds John- 
ston, a boyhood resident of Fort Laramie in 1888 and now a 
retired Brigadier General. 

The infantry are the several Regular Army regiments with which 
Andrew Sheridan Burt served between his baptism with fire as a 
Lieutenant at Mills Springs, Kentucky in January 1862 and his 
retirement as a Brigadier General in April 1902. Included are 
the 18th, 27th, 9th, 8th, 7th and 25th U.S. Infantry. 

In 1912 Elizabeth Reynolds Burt reread the diaries she had kept 
during her years as the wife of an Army officer on active duty 
and compiled with their aid a lengthy manuscript which she called 
"An Army Wife's Forty Years in the Service". Her diaries have 
been lost, but this manuscript was preserved and over forty years 
later placed in the Library of Congress for safe keeping by her 
son Reynolds. In 1957 General Burt asked Mr. Mattes, Regional 
Historian for Region Two of the National Park Service, to review 
his mother's manuscript. Historian Mattes quickly discerned the 
unusual character and broad scope of Mrs. Burt's account and 
arranged to prepare it for publication. 

Mattes has also recognized that Mrs. Burt's story needed more 
than the usual editorial treatment to properly present its contri- 
butions to our knowledge of the true story of the army in the West. 
Accordingly he took time to do a lot of solid research in post and 
regimental records, the considerable collections of the Burt family 
and the best published materials on the related places and events, 
to gather the material which with Elizabeth Burt's account he 
has skillfully woven into this book. 

As the author claims, Indians, Infants and Infantry, is ( 1 ) the 
first book length story of a frontier army officer's wife since 
Fougera's With Custer's Cavahy published in 1942, (2) the first 


biographical treatment of a line infantry officer of the Indian- 
fighting army, (3) the first revealed history of remote, little-known 
and dangerous Fort C. F. Smith, Montana Territory, and (4) 
the first full account of activities at and based upon famous Fort 
Laramie, Wyoming in the climactic years 1874-1876. All that 
and such bonuses as two fascinating chapters on Fort Bridger in 
1866-1867 and over forty fine pictures, many previously unpub- 
lished, make this volume a 'must' addition to the libraries of all 
followers of the Annals of Wyoming. Moreover, many readers 
who normally shun the works of professional historians will find 
this story of 'Brave Andy Burt' and his courageous wife both 
pleasant and rewarding reading. 

National Park Service David L. Hieb 

Omaha, Nebraska 

Meet Me on the Green. By Myra Cooley (New York: William- 
Frederick Press, 1960. 240 pp. $4.50) 

Mrs. Cooley, who lives on a cattle ranch near Pinedale, Wyo- 
ming, writes columns for Pinedale and Big Piney newspapers. In 
this volume apparently she has assembled some of these columns 
and added many new items. 

In a Foreword she describes the book: Meet Me on the Green 
is but the blabbing of Time, mere flashes of history, taken from 
the journals of the mountain men and others. ... it is not docu- 
mented history. ... it is not a novel, nor is it entirely fiction." 
There are, then, short snatches of history mingled with bits of 
fiction. Some of the short essays contain both fact and fiction. 
Sometimes it is hard to tell where fact ends and fiction begins. 
Only a western history expert could hope to distinguish what is 
true from what is imaginary. There is no index and no bib- 

Unlike many newspaper columnists Mrs. Cooley makes little 
effort to philosophize or moralize. She merely relates an incident, 
true, partly true, or fictional, and drops it. Once in a while, to be 
sure, she rounds it off with a comment such as "and so they 
escaped, no doubt living happily ever after," or "That was the way 
of the West." 

For subject matter she often wanders far from the Green River 
country, although the fur trade rendezvous is a favorite topic. 
She quotes, in full, Jefferson's instructions to his secretary Lewis, 
erroneously stating that they were instructions to Clark. She often 
mentions Jim Bridger whom she rates as "the greatest mountain 
man and Indian-fighter who ever lived." She relates that he died 
at Fort Laramie, but this is a mistake, since he died near Kansas 


City, Missouri. In several essays she obviously draws upon 
Washington lrving"s Astoria. On the whole, Mrs. Cooley writes 
entertainingly, and the readers of her newspaper columns will no 
doubt appreciate having this collection of her literary efforts. 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 

War Chief Joseph. By Helen Addison Howard and Dan L. Mc- 
Grath. (Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, Ltd. 1958. 
lUus. maps, notes, bibl. index. 362 pp. $4.50.) 

Although this volume is the 4th reprint of the 1941 edition 
without any changes, it remains, as stated in the introduction, an 
authoritative story of Chief Joseph and a fascinating account for 
those who are not historically minded. The style speaks well for 
the writers who pen an interesting and sympathetic story of the 
Napoleon of the Indians who was equal in his application of 
tactics with the generals who pursued him. 

War Chief Joseph has a double interest to Wyoming readers. 
First, Joseph did retreat across Idaho into Montana, passing 
through Yellowstone National Park where he created a special 
attraction. Secondly, the story brings to mind the injustices and 
wrongs inflicted upon the Indians. In Joseph's case, there were 
pressures and wrongs that led to some of the Nez Perces, the 
non-treaty members of the tribe who had remained neutral to 
friendly towards the whites, being forced on the warpath. After 
their surrender, another series of wrongs and broken promises, 
including the deportation of the survivors to an alien land, Okla- 
homa, were added to their sufferings. However, they were allowed 
to return to the Pacific Northwest and were settled on the Coalville 
Reservation at Nespelem, Washington, and the Lapwai Reserva- 
tion in northern Idaho. 

In his closing years. Chief Joseph gained the friendship of the 
whites. He visited New York City where he was somewhat of a 
novelty. He appeared before the students of the University of 
Washington and won their interest in the Nez Perces' welfare. 
After his death, the Historical Society of the University of Wash- 
ington presented a marker for his grave. 

One interesting sidelight to the war involving Chief Joseph and 
his Nez Perces is the fact that they held their own against the 
United States Army. Out of five battles, they won three, tied 
one, and lost the last. Their casualties were 151 killed and eighty- 
eight wounded exclusive of the women and children. The Army, 
on the other hand, lost 126 killed and 140 wounded. In his last 
fight, the Battle of Bear Paw Mountain, Montana, he lost eighteen 
killed and forty wounded out of a force of one hundred warriors. 
The troops who greatly outnumbered and outgunned him lost 


twenty-six killed and forty-two wounded. The Nez Perces never 
numbered more than 340 warriors, but they engaged in their 
retreat some two thousand troops. Perhaps as much to their 
credit, the Nez Perces never scalped or mutilated a fallen enemy 
and in the last battle even offered help to their wounded foes. 
Except for the depredations by some young bucks who had been 
given whiskey by the whites which led to the Nez Perce War, 
attacks upon non-military were kept to a minimum, particularly 
in Montana. 

For the reader who enjoys a good Indian story, this is the book, 
particularly on a Wyoming evening when being an armchair his- 
torian is much more desirable than being a field historian. 

Cheyenne Jesse H. Jameson 

Glimpses into Edgemont's Past. By Gilbert B. Taylor. (Lusk, 
Wyo.: Lusk Herald. 1961. illus. 133 pp. $2.50.) 

This history of Edgemont, S. D., privately printed, is important 
to the story of northeastern Wyoming, since history knows no 
artificial boundaries of states. The author, who has spent nearly 
all his life in Edgemont, has brought into this paperbacked booklet 
the results of his many years of collecting stories and pictures of 
the town and the vicinity. He does not claim to be a writer or a 
historian, but offers this contribution with the hope that it will 
preserve much of the early story which would otherwise be lost. — 

A Guide to the Care and the Administration of Manuscripts. By 
Lucile M. Kane. (Bulletins of the American Association 
for State and Local History, Volume II, Number 11, Sep- 
tember 1960. Madison, Wisconsin. Illus. Footnotes. Bibl. 
59 pp.) 

"Collecting manuscripts has been one of the most important 
activities of many historical societies since the formation of the 
first such organizations in the country, the Massachusetts Histor- 
ical Society, in 1791. . . . The significance of manuscripts to the 
cause of history has given high purpose to the repositories that 
collect them. In collecting manuscripts, furthermore, a repository 
imposes upon itself the obligations to take adequate steps for their 
care and preservation and to make them readily available to 
persons engaged in research. It is to the carrying out of these 
obligations that this bulletin is directed." 

Miss Kane carefully presents a step by step plan for the care 


and administration of manuscripts. She lays the ground work 
for accessioning a collection and assigning it a place in her first 
chapter. The accessioning of the collection begins with giving it 
a number and recording its title, date of receipt, date of acknowl- 
edgment, the donor's name and address, the approximate size, 
general subject matter, and comments on restrictions or transfers. 

After this has been completed, the collection is organized. 
Because each collection varies, it is difficult to formulate a set 
of rules that can be applied to all collections. However, it is 
recognized that once a collection is broken up, it is difficult to 
put it together or to maintain the interrelationship of materials. 
Therefore, it is preferable to keep the collection together. Mater- 
ials may be arranged, nevertheless, in a sequence such as chrono- 
logical, subjct, alphabetical, document types, or a combination 
of these methods. Each method of organization has its advan- 
tages but also drawbacks. 

Following the decision as to how to organize the collection, 
the cataloger or processor sorts the material into manageable 
units that will fit the planned organization as well as the nature 
of the collection. For example tape recordings, microfilms, and 
other specialized materials would require a different method of 
filing and preserving than documents. On the other hand, docu- 
ments, themselves, present special problems for their preservation. 

One of the most crucial steps in processing a collection is that 
of evaluating. Here Miss Kane presents some cautions and sug- 
gestions. Once a paper is weeded out, it is forever lost unless it is 
a duplicate. As she points out, thousands of form letters, job 
applications, cancelled checks, etc. can readily clog and bog down 
a depository and deny valuable space to other, more valued items. 
Bulk of this nature can be reduced by taking samples. But again 
the rule: discarding must be used cautiously and never in haste. 

There are various methods of preserving the papers and other 
materials from deterioration. Possibly one of the best safeguards 
is microfilming with restricted use of the originals. This method 
prevents both destruction and loss whether by misfiling or theft. 

The last step in the processing of the collection is cataloging. 
This step often represents a compromise of what should be done 
with what can be done. As much a concern to the institution 
processing the collection is to catalog it in order that it can fit into 
the National Union Catalog of Manuscripts. Cataloging is the 
orderly climax to the processing of the collection because it puts 
on cards a description of the collection, its location, and subjects 
covered by the collection. If the pattern for cataloging set forth 
by the National Union Catalog of Manuscripts is followed, then 
it becomes possible to incorporate the collection into a nation 
wide system, permitting scholars anywhere to know of the collec- 
tion and make use of it. 

This volume has a special interest to anyone or group collecting 


manuscripts and other historical materials. For further study 
there is an extensive bibliography and footnotes which explain 
in more details the principals and techniques discussed by Miss 
Kane. A good companion piece to go with A Guide to the Care 
and Administration of Manuscripts is Dorothy V. Martin's "Use 
of Cataloging Techniques in Work with Records and Manu- 
scripts," American Archivist, October 1955 (Vol. XVIII, No. 4), 
pages 317-336. 

Cheyenne Jesse H. Jameson 

Sagebrush Serenade. By Allan Vaughan Elston. (Philadelphia 
and New York: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1960. 219 pages, 

Allan Vaughan Elston's latest western novel has as its locale 
Douglas, Wyoming, and vicinity. Once again he has given us a 
fast moving story with an authentic background. 

Those familiar with Wyoming history will recognize such per- 
sonalities as Missou Hines, Lee Moore and Governor Moonlight 
who play brief roles in the story. — L.M.H. 


On the West 


The World of Willa Cather. By Mildred R. Bennett, new edition 
with notes and index. 285 pp. $1.50. (Originally pub- 
lished by Dodd, Mead & Co., Feb. 1951. Reprinted from 
the 5th printing of Nov. 1951, which corrected some errors 
in earlier printings.) 

The Populist Revolt, A History of the Farmers' Alliance and the 
People's Party. By John D. Hicks. 473 pp. $1.75. (Orig- 
inally published by the University of Minnesota.) 

Voice of the Coyote. By J. Frank Dobie. 386 pp. $1.40. (This 
edition reproduced from the 6th printing and published by 
arrangement with Little, Brown & Co. ) 

Crazy Horse, the Strange Man of the Oglalas, a Biography. By 
Mari Sandoz. 428 pp. $1.65. (Arrangements for publi- 
cation made with Hastings House, Inc.) 



Forty Years on the Frontier. By Granville Stuart. $17.50 
The Bozeman Trail. By Hebard and Brininstool. $17.50 
Sacajawea. By Grace Raymond Hebard. $12.50 

On the Civil War 
Commemorating the Centennial 

With Sherman to the Sea, A Drummer's Story of the Civil War, 
as related by Corydon Edward Fotte to Olive Deane Hormel, 
with a foreword by Elizabeth Yates. (N. Y.: John Day. Co. 
1960. $4.00.) 

Lincoln Day by Day, a Chronology, 1809-1865, 3 volumes. Earl 
Schenck Miers, Editor-in-Chief. (Washington, D. C: Lin- 
coln Sesquicentennial Commission. Index in Vol. 3.) 

A Ballad of the North and South. Text by Paul M. Angle and 
Earl Schenck Miers, music by Normand Lockwood. (New 
York: Associated Music Publishers, 1960.) A major work 
for high school and college production for the centennial 
observance of the Civil War. 

The American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War. Editor, 
Richard M. Ketchum, narrative by Bruce Catton. (N. Y.: 
American Heritage Publishing Co. 1960. 630 pp. 18 maps 
sketched for this book, illus. by 836 photos, sketches and 
paintings. $19.95.) 

Why the North Won the Civil War. Edited by David Donald. 
(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Press. 1960. 129 pp. index. 

John Palmer Usher, Lincoln's Secretary of the Interior. By Elmo 
R. Richardson and Alan W. Farley. (Lawrence, Kans.: 
Univ. of Kansas Press. 1960. 152 pp. bibl. index. $3.50.) 

Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War. By David 
Donald. (N. Y.: Alfred A. Knopf. 1960. 392 pp. illus. 
index. $6.75.) 


Hans Kleiber, outstanding Wyoming artist, came with his fam- 
ily to the United States from Austria in 1900 at the age of 13. 
In 1907 he came to Wyoming where he first worked in a lumber 
camp and soon afterwards became a Forest Ranger, an occupation 
he followed until 1923. That year he settled in Dayton, Wyoming, 
and began devoting all his time to his need of expressing himself 
through his art, using first the medium of pen and ink, later he 
turned to etchings, and eventually he included watercolors and oils. 

His first success came after a one-man show at Goodspeed's in 
Boston in 1928. Since then Mr. Kleiber has had exhibitions in 
most of the larger cities of the United States and in London, 
England. His etchings are among the holdings of many museums 
over the country. 

Mr. Kleiber's works of art are true expressions of the West. 
His poem presented here is one of several in his collection at the 
State Archives and Historical Department. 

Mrs. Wilburta Knight Cady is the daughter of Wilbur Clin- 
ton Knight and Elizabeth Emma Howell. She graduated in 1911 
with a B. S. from the University of Wyoming and in 1912 with a 
M. A. from Columbia Teachers College. On July 8, 1914, she 
married Charles Earl Cady, and three children were born to them. 
She was chairman of the Red Cross Albany County Nutrition 
Committee during World War II. She has taught Red Cross 
nutrition classes and helped run a canning center in Washington 
School, Laramie. In 1948 she received the Laramie Republican 
Boomerang Good Citizen's Award. 

Dr. Clark C. Spence is a native of Idaho. He did his doctoral 
work at the University of Minnesota, and for the past five years 
has been a member of the Department of History, Pennsylvania 
State University. Currently he is a lecturer of history at the Uni- 
versity of California. Among his publications are two books, 
British Investments and the American Mining Frontier, 1860- 
1901 (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1958) and 
God Speed the Plow: the Coming of Steam Cultivation to Great 
Britain (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1960). 

Mrs. Thelma Gatchell Condit. See Annals of Wyoming 
Vol. 29, No. 1, April 1957, pp. 120-121. 

Dr. Ake Hultkrantz. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 29, No. 
2, October 1957, p. 240. 



JAM 5 ^9^'. 

\ LAK Ti£ o.e Om 






Stiinson Photo 
Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 

October 1 96 J 


Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

E. A. Littleton Gillette 

Henry Jones Hanna 

Mrs. Lora Jewett Pinedale 

E. W. Mass Casper 

Mrs. Wilmot C. Hamm Rock Springs 

Mrs. William Miller Liisk 

Mrs. Lorraine Stadius Thermopolis 

Attorney-General Norman Gray, Ex-Officio. 



Lola M. Homsher \.. .Director 

Henryetta Berry Assistant Director 

Mrs. Ruth J. Bradley Chief, Historical Division 

Mrs. Bonnie Forsyth Chief, Archives & Records Division 


The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and 
October and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.00 each. 
Available copies of earlier issues are also for sale. A price list may be 
obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyright, 1961, by the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 


A^mls of Wyoming 

Volume 33 

October 1961 

Number 2 

Ruth J. Bradley 
Assistant Editor 



Lola M. Homsher 

Katherine Halverson 
Assistant Editor 

Published Biannually by the 


Official Publication 

of the 



OFFICERS 1960-62 

President, Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins Casper 

First Vice President, Vernon K. Hurd Green River 

Second Vice President, Charles Ritter Cheyenne 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Past Presidents: 

Frank L. Bowron, Casper 1953-1955 

William L. Marion, Lander 1955-1956 

Dr. DeWitt Dominick, Cody 1956-1957 

Dr. T. a. Larson, Laramie 1957-1958 

A. H. M.^cDougall, Rawlins 1959-1960 

E. A. Littleton, Gillette 1960-1961 

The Wyoming State Historical Society was organized in October 1953. 
Membership is open to anyone interested in history. County Historical 
Society Chapters have been organized in Albany, Campbell, Carbon, Fre- 
mont, Goshen, Johnson, Laramie, Natrona, Park, Platte, Sheridan, Sweet- 
water, Washakie, Weston, and Uinta counties. 

State Dues: 

Life Membership $50.00 

.Joint Life Membership (Husband and wife) 75.00 

Annual Membership 3.50 

Joint Annual Membership (Two persons of same family at 

same address.) 5.00 

County dues are in addition to state dues and are set by county organ- 

Send State membership dues to: 

Wyoming State Historical Society 
Executive Headquarters 
State Office Building 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Zabte of Contmts 


Rex L. Wilson 


Elizabeth Keen 


Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge 


Margaret Brock Hanson 

HOLE-IN-THE-WALL, Part VII, Section 3 179 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 


Hans Kleiber 


Trek No. 12 of Emigrant Treks 
Compiled by Maurine Carley 



8th Annual Meeting 


vSchell, History of South Dakota 230 

Grinnell, Pawnee, Blackfoot and Cheyenne - History and Folklore 

of the Plains '. 231 

Parish, The Charles Ilfeld Company, A Study of the Rise and De- 
cline of Mercantile Capitalism in New Mexico 232 

Spindler, Yesterday's Trails 233 

Garber, Big Horn Pioneers 234 

Bard, Horse Wrangler 235 

North, Man of the Plains: Recollections of Luther North 235 

Ward, Bits of Silver 237 

Ware, The Indian War Of 1864 238 



Trapper's Hut on Half Moon Lake Cover 

Clay Pipes 120, 124, 126, 129, 131 

The HoIe-in-the-Wall 178 

Overland Stage Trail - Trek No. 2 202, 206, 210 

Cold Springs Marker 225 

Map: Overland Stage Trail - Trek No. 2 194 





ftf^ jti «—«««(«»-., 

Courtesy Rex L. Wilson 

Clay Zobaeco Pipes 
from dort Cammlc 

Rex L. Wilson 


A great number of tobacco pipes have been collected at Fort 
Laramie National Historic Site as the result of both systematic 
archeology and surface collections by the park staff over a period 
of 20 years since the fort came under the administration of the 
National Park Service. There is known provenience for most of 
the material, notably that recovered by Paul Beaubien in excava- 
tions at the site of Fort John and at the Sutler's Store in 1950. 
In addition, hundreds of pieces were found on the surface after 
being exposed by the combined actions of wind and rain. The 
collection includes many hundreds of small, unidentifiable or 
duplicate fragments; however, only distinctive specimens are 
treated in this paper. 

A fur trading post from 1834 to 1849, a military post until 
1890, and a civiUan-owned social and business center until 1938, 
the site was continuously occupied for more than a century, 
making it most difficult to assign precise dates to most of the 
specimens. Jean C. Harrington's method of dating according to 
the diameters of the stem holes, proven useful at Jamestown, 
did not seem applicable and was not attempted. 

Although the search for information is a long and tedious 
process, it will continue. It is hoped that this paper will aid in 
the identification and interpretation of tobacco pipes for the mid- 
dle and late 19th century, and that it will stimulate further 
research. If it serves this purpose, my effort will have been 

My special thanks to Mr. Arthur Woodward, Altadena, Cali- 
fornia, who helped with the dating of the specimens and who 
knows far more about tobacco pipes than I do. Thanks to Mr. 
Robert L. Stephenson and Mr. G. Hubert Smith, Smithsonian 
Institution, Lincoln, Nebraska, who made valuable suggestions. 
Mrs. L. Simpkins of the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, Montreal, 
Canada, kindly supplied information on Canadian clay pipes. 
Rev. Thomas Low, M.B.E., Glasgow, Scotland, furnished valuable 
data on Scottish "clays," Park Historian John McDermott made 
pertinent suggestions on writing style, Susan Wilson helped with 
the organization of the material, Mr. Newell Joyner, National Park 


Service, Omaha, Nebraska, helped with the organization of the 
Fort Laramie collection, and Mr. Ray Littler, Torrington, Wyo- 
ming, helped with the plates. 


Writing in 1844, Andrew Ure, M.D., made the following 

"The practice of smoking tobacco has become so general in 
many nations as to render the manufacture of tobacco-pipes a 
considerable branch of industry. Some seek in the inhalation of 
tobacco-smoke a pleasurable narcotism; others imagine it to be 
beneficial to their health; but, in general, smoking is merely a 
dreamy resource against ennui, which ere long becomes an indis- 
pensable stimulus. The filthiness of this habit, the offensive odor 
which persons under its influence emit from their mouths and 
clothes, the stupor it too often occasions, as well as the sallow 
complexion, black or carious teeth, and impaired digestion, all 
prove the great consumption of tobacco to be akin in evil influence 
upon mankind to the use of ardent spirits."^ 

Despite these caustic remarks which clearly reflect the opinion 
held by one member of the medical profession of that day, the 
soldiers stationed at the frontier post of Fort Laramie seemed to 
greatly enjoy tobacco smoking, judging from the hundreds of 
tobacco pipes and fragments which have been recovered here 
over the past 20 years. 


Around the middle of the 19th century, tobacco pipes were 
made of a fine-grained plastic white clay, commonly called "pipe 
clay" in the industry. To make a pipe, the clay was first worked 
with water into a thin paste. The clay was then allowed to settle 
in pits, or it may have been passed through a sieve to separate 
any silicious or other stony impurities. The water was next 
evaporated until the clay assumed a doughy consistence after 
which it was well kneaded to make it uniform. Pipe clay is found 
in numerous localities in Europe but comes chiefly from the 
island (or peninsula) of Purbeck in Dorsetshire, England, and is 
distinguished by its perfectly white color and its great adhesion to 
the tongue after it is fired due to the large proportion of alumina 
which it contains.^ 

1. Andrew Ure, M.D., A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, 
New York, 1844, p. 1262. 

2. The bit of the pipe was sometimes lacquered or waxed to prevent its 
sticking to the smoker's lips. 


Making a ball of clay from the heap, a child of perhaps twelve^ 
began the process of manufacture by rolling the ball into a slender 
cylinder upon a plank with the palms of his hands in order to 
form the stem of the pipe. After sticking a small gob to the end 
of the cylinder to form the bowl, he laid the pieces aside for a 
day or two during which time some of the moisture evaporated 
from the mix, leaving the clay with a stiffer texture, more amen- 
able to fashioning into its final form. In proportion as he made 
these rough figures, he arranged them by dozens on a board, and 
handed them to the pipemaker. 

The pipe was finished by means of a folding brass or iron mold, 
channelled inside in the shape of the stem and the bowl, and 
capable of being opened at the two ends. It was made of two 
pieces, each hollowed out like half a pipe that had been cut 
lengthwise. When the jaws of the mold were closed, they consti- 
tuted the exact space for making one pipe. Small pins in one 
side of the mold, corresponding to holes in the other, served as 
precise guides for closing the mold.^ 

To form the bore, the workman took a long iron wire, with its 
end oiled, and pushed it through the soft clay stem, directing it 
by feeling with his left hand. He then laid the pipe in the groove 
of one of the jaws of the mold, with the wire sticking in it, applied 
the other jaw, brought them together and held them firmly with a 
clamp or vice. A lever was then brought down which pressed 
an oiled stopper into the bowl of the pipe, while it was in the mold, 
forcing it sufficiently down to form the cavity.^ Meanwhile the 
wire was being forced backward and forward so as to pierce the 
tube completely through.^ Withdrawing the wire, the jaws of the 
mold were opened, the pipe was taken out, and the excess clay 
was removed with a knife. After drying a day or two, the pipes 
were scraped, polished with a piece of hard wood, and the stems 
were bent into the desired form or left perfectly straight.^ Finally, 
they were carried to the kiln where 50 gross could be fired in 
from 8 to 12 hours. A boy and a workman could easily make five 
gross of pipes in a day's time.^ 

In 1881, Knighfs American Mechanical Dictionary stated that 
"clay, in its various forms still maintains a pre-eminence, and is 
used nearly all over the globe for making pipes, the commoner 
kinds varying in price from 50 cents to $1.20 per gross. "^ It 

3. Children commonly worked in factories at that time. 

4. Ure, op cit. 

5. Ibid. 

6. The wire must become visible at the bottom of the bowl, otherwise 
the pipe would not be perfect and would not draw. 

7. Straight stems seem to have been preferred at Fort Laramie. 

8. Ure, op cit. 

9. Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary, Boston, 1881, pp. 2583-84. 

UBRARY x^ - 

QF THE ^'^ 





Courtesy Rex L. Wilson 

further states that in those times the ordinary clay tobacco pipe 
continued to be handmade in essentially the same manner as in 
the middle of the century. ^'^ 

10. Ibid. (Heavy machinery had not yet been introduced in the clay 
pipe industry). 



During the latter half of the last century, the simpler varieties 
of clay pipes enjoyed the greatest popularity but other types were 
known. ^^ Porcelain pipes were imported from Germany, "the 
finer kinds being ornamented by painting, which is in some cases 
of a very artistic order."^- There are only two fragments of 
porcelain pipes in the Fort Laramie collection (Plate I, Nos. 1,2), 
but in their original forms they were like one very fine specimen 
that was recovered complete from the excavation of one of the 
Company Quarters buildings at Fort Union, New Mexico. The 
manner in which the porcelain pipes were made and their manu- 
facturers is not known. 

Wide-mouthed, red-clay (or terracotta) pipes were traditionally 
made in Turkey and Algeria. Some were ornamented by stamp- 
ing, and others were gilded with arabesque designs. They had 
wood stems of cherry or jasmine which, if used here at all, have 
long since disappeared. There is some question as to the origin 
of the effigy pipes with turbaned heads that occur at Fort Laramie 
(Plate I, Nos. 3-6), all of which are glazed. These apparently 
represent cheap imitations of the so called "Jacob" pipes made 
by Gambler of Paris around the middle of the 19th century, and 
differ from those imitated in that the Gambler figures were usually 
wearing beards. Woodward suggests that these pipes date some 
time around 1853.^-^ 

Red or brown clay pipes of the elbow style, reminiscent of clay 
and stone aboriginal varieties, and probably modeled after them, 
are also rather common at Fort Laramie (Plate I, Nos. 7-9). 
The origin of this type is not definitely known but some of them 
almost certainly were produced by the Pamplin Smoking Pipe and 
Manufacturing Company, Incorporated, of Pamplin, Virginia, 
which began turning out pipes around 1739.^"^ No such great 
antiquity is claimed for the Fort Laramie specimens which may 
be of modern manufacture. The Pamplin Company sometimes 
marked its pipes with the name POWHATAN and ORIGINAL, 
in impressed letters lengthwise on opposite sides of the short 
shanks (Plate II, No. 1). They are usually undecorated and 
unglazed, and require an additional stem, usually a simple reed 
around 10 inches in length^"^ that could be discarded in favor of a 
new one when it became clogged with tar and nicotine. 

H. E. Z. Massicotte, Le Bulletin des Recherches Historiques, Municipal 
Archives, Montreal, Vol. XL, No. 4, April 1934, p. 248. The ordinary 
Scotch pipe sold for around three cents. 

12. See Knight, op. cit, pp. 2583-84. 

13. Arthur Woodward, personal communication, March 31, 1961. 

14. Ibid. 

15. Ibid. 



Courtesy Rex L. Wilson 

Precise dates for the Fort Laramie pipes are almost totally lack- 
ing. We know that the manufacture of the more elaborate and 
expensive varieties of clay pipes began in this country around 
1860^*' but the common varieties of white clays have been pro- 
duced in the United States since 1820.^'' There is no record of 

16. I bid. 

17. Encyclopedia Americana, 1953, Vol. 22, p. 108. 


who made them and where. The earUest recorded name is that 
of Thomas Smith, who made tobacco pipes, presumably clays, in 
New York in 1847.i" 

Apparently the outbreak of the Civil War had considerable 
effect upon the clay pipe manufacturing industry in the United 
States. To some degree high tariffs imposed upon imports during 
the conflict stimulated the growth of the industry for a time. The 
pipes produced in the United States during this period could not 
compare in quality with the imported ones nor were they much 
less expensive, in spite of their being locally manufactured.^-' 

Prior to the war, the only pipe importer of note was Edward 
Hen, whose name, more than any other, was associated with to- 
bacco pipes in the United States before 1860. The Encyclopedia 
Americana reports that his business was fairly small, something 
less than $50,000 per year. However, a pupil of Hen, one Wil- 
liam Demuth, began making pipes in 1861 and apparently made 
a substantial success of the business. By the turn of the century, 
the smoking pipe industry in this country had risen to heights of 
quality and production equal to that of the combined efforts of 
the celebrated European plants.-*^' 

"W D'S" AND 'T D'S" 

The "W" and "D" initials which frequently occur on either side 
of the spur at the base of a white clay pipe bowl, probably repre- 
sent William Demuth. Several specimens with this marking are 
reported by Miller from Fort Lookout, South Dakota,-^ but none 
with this marking have been found at Fort Laramie except upon a 
single vulcanite stem. Miller also reports that he has recovered 
a variety of white clay pipes with the impressed initials "T D" 
on the side of the bowl facing the smoker.-- Several of these 
"T D" clays have been found at Fort Laramie-' with the letters 
in the same relative location on the bowls of the specimens (Plate 
II, No. 2), but whereas Miller reports letters 5 mm. in height, 
the letters on the Fort Laramie pipes range from 4 mm. to 7 mm. 
in height, with an average of 5 mm. Nor are the letters always 
impressed. They occur in relief on about half of the specimens 
and often one of the letters is nearer the lip than the other, giving 
the "T D" a staggered effect. Smith reports "T D" pipes from 
Fort Pierre II, South Dakota, and from Fort Stevenson, North 

18. Encyclopedia Americana, op cit. 

19. Ibid. 

20. Ihid. 

21. Carl F. Miller, "River Basin Surveys Papers," Bureau of American 
Etlinology, Bull. 176, Nos. 15-20, 1960, p. 65. 

22. Ibid. 

23. "T D's" have turned up from coast to coast. 


Dakota,-^ but these differ from the Fort Laramie pipes in that the 
letters "T D" are surrounded by a circle of 13 six-pointed stars. 
No clay pipes have been found at Fort Laramie that have a decor- 
ation even remotely akin to those from Fort Stevenson. Wool- 
worth and Wood report pipes with a decoration similar to those 
found at Fort Pierre II from Kipp's Post, North Dakota.-"' That 
we find such a seemingly limitless variety of clay pipes is not 
surprising when we consider the production of the William White 
Company of Glasgow. Arnold Fleming, in his Scottish Pottery, 
states that the White factory in 1867 comprised five stories "and 
is filled throughout with the most modern appliances. There are 
six kilns, each holding 300 gross, and, as the firing process only 
lasts some twelve hours, we get an idea of the vast quantity of 
pipes produced from their 700-odd varieties of patterns."-*^ 

There is some question as to the meaning of the letters "T D." 
One explanation, often heard, is that the initials stand for Tommy 
Duncan, a Scot, who is credited with the invention of the clay pipe 
in the 17th century.-' Another interpretation is that given by 
Richard R. Sackett, who writes: "Probably the most common of 
all (clay pipes) are those marked 'T D' with a circle on the bowl-^ 

Although it has not been definitely determined for whose 

name the initials stand, it is known that before the close of the 
revolution the 'T.D.' had become a trade mark It is gener- 
ally accepted that the 'T.D.'s' were first made by Timothy Dexter, 
the celebrated eccentric of Newburyport, Massachusetts, who was 
born about twenty-five years before the Revolutionary War."-** 
"T D" pipes are also reported from Jamestown; two white clay 
bowls to which Cotter assigns a date of "post- 1720,"^'^ and from 
Fort Union, New Mexico. A William Gallop used the letters 
"T D" in Bristol, England, as early as 1 704, and this "trademark" 
was registered in the Guildhall in Gouda, Holland, by one Jan 
Boms in 1734. Pipes with this marking are known to have con- 
tinued in use in Western Europe for more than 150 years. A 

24. G. Hubert Smith, "River Basin Surveys Papers," Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology, Bull. 176, Nos. 15-20, 1960, pp. 138, 225. 

25. Alan R. Woolworth and W. Raymond Wood, "River Basin Surveys 
Papers," Bureau of American Ethnology, Bull. 176, Nos. 15-20, 1960, pp. 

26. J. Arnold Fleming, Scottish Pottery, Glasgow, 1923, p. 243. 

27. Paul Beaubien, Preliminary Report of the Archeological Investiga- 
tions at Fort Laramie National Monument, 1950, unpubl. MS, April, 1951, 
p. 13. 

28. None of these at Fort Laramie. 

29. Richard R. Sackett, "Historical Clay Pipes of the Minnesota Area," 
The Minnesota Archaeologist, Vol. IX, No. 3, July, 1943, p. 70. 

30. John L. Cotter, Archeological Excavations At Jamestown, Virginia, 
Archeological Research Series Number Four, National Park Service, U. S. 
Department of the Interior, Washington, 1958, pp. 210-212, 241. 




A'ti i{MWilJW ' lW ''' ' i l^* ' '<'^ '' ' ''' ' ^ 


m^i»m»m'W'r9f^'^','>'»,Mt:i^lSilil(g^fi^t^^ j^" 


Courtesy Rex L. Wilson 

Thomas Denes allegedly used the "T D" on his pipes in 1743 
or 1747. A white clay "T D" pipe made by the Wilham White 
Company of Glasgow was excavated from an Indian site that had 
been abandoned in 1827.^^ 

The true origin of the "T D" mark will probably never be 

3L Woodward, op cit. 


known. Pipes with this marking have been produced in Scotland, 
England, the United States, and Germany and have enjoyed wide- 
spread use for nearly 150 years. "T D'" pipes have been found 
on Revolutionary War camp sites of both the American and British 
armies dating in the I770's, before the birth of Timothy Dexter, 
which tends to further dispute the notion that he invented them.'*- 
"T D's' are still in use in this country and can be purchased in 
many tobacco shops today. 


Five simple undecorated, white clay pipes were found with 
"L. Fiolet / a S*. Omer / Depose" impressed into the forward 
end of each stem. It is known that the L. Fiolet Company, in the 
small town of St. Omer, Department of Pas-de-Calais, France, 
began manufacturing clay pipes in 1764, and it is very likely that 
the five found with that marking were made there; the company 
discontinued pipes in 1920.'^'' Four of them are essentially the 
same type, without spurs, and with the bowls set at right angles 
to the stems and resemble the "apple" style common in modern 
tobacco shops (Plate II, No. 3). The fifth pipe (Plate II, No. 4) 
is an aberrant "Dublin" type.'^^ 

All of the "T D" pipes found at Fort Laramie are made in the 
"Dublin" style. All are of white clay, all have spurs, and out of 
33 samples, all but one are undecorated (Plate II, No. 5). Out 
of a total of 35 "Dublin" style, plain white clay pipes, all except 
two have the "T D" marking. 

Elaborately decorated "Dublin" style white clay pipes are nearly 
as common as the plain varieties (Plate III, Nos. 1-9 and Plate IV, 
Nos. 1-8). Woodward feels that these safely fall within the 
trapper-military periods and date between 1834 and 1860.'^-"' 

It may be assumed from the sampling at Fort Laramie that all 
tobacco pipes marked on their stems with the impressed words 
"H. Isaac / N. O." were made very similar to the L. Fiolet pipes 
in style and material (Plate IV, No. 9), and that the White and 
McDougall Companies of Glasgow may have made no other 
than white clay pipes (Plate IV, No. 10 and Plate V, Nos. 1-2). 

The pipe fragments marked HENDERSON / MONTREAL 
(Plate V, Nos. 3-4) may have been products of the Montreal 

32. Ibid. 

33. Ibid. 

34. I use the term "Dublin" in an arbitrary sense. A pipe with its bowl 
set at an obtuse angle to a straight stem is known in the trade as a "Dublin" 
style pipe. 

35. Woodward, op cit. 



Courtesy Rex L. Wilson 

firm of William Henderson, founded on Colborne Street-^^' in 1848. 
The Canadian company made pipes out of clay found in the 
immediate vicinity from 1848 to 1854, and in 1855 the business 
was purchased by James M. Henderson and his son, James M. 
Henderson, Jr. Between 1855 and 1876 the firm was known as 
Henderson & Son and was later sold to Robert Bannerman, who 

36. Now de Lorimier Street. 


had been making pipes since 1858.''' The Henderson pipe frag- 
ments found at Fort Laramie must have been deposited between 
1848 and 1876 or shortly thereafter. 

Glasgow, Scotland, was one of the most important centers of 
the tobacco pipe industry during the latter half of the 18th century, 
and its trade was chiefly abroad. For example, in 1677, 120 
"clays" were exchanged for a plot of land in New Jersey, and in 
the shipping entries of Port Glasgow for 1795, 122 gross of clay 
pipes were dispatched to the United States. One of the largest 
and best known of the Scottish factories was that of William White 
and Sons of the Gallowgate, Glasgow, and, until recently, was the 
oldest business of its kind in Britain. Originally operated by the 
Corporation of Tobacco Spinners, in 1 805 the pipe-making branch 
of the concern was handed over to William White, who founded 
the firm. Another large old pipe-making business was founded 
in 1810 by a Highlander, Duncan McDougall. The McDougall 
pipes found at Fort Laramie were probably produced by this firm, 
and, like other Glasgow-made tobacco pipes produced for export, 
were nearly always about 7 inches in length. •^■'^ 

The manufacture of clay pipes was an old established industry 
in Glasgow, going back to the 17th century, but changes in smok- 
ing customs have caused it largely to die out in recent years. Its 
most flourishing era was in the middle of the 19th century when 
many pipes were made both for home use and for export. The 
celebrated McDougall and White companies have recently gone 
out of business, the latter in 1954. The following is a hst of pipe 
makers taken from the Glasgow Directory for the years 1845 
to 1892.'^'' 




Manufacturer Active Years 

Agnew, John 1853 

Arnott, D. ~ 1881 

Bannerman, Carrick 1865 

Cameron, C. 1873 

Christie, John 1865 

Christie, William " 1865 


37. Muirhead Moffat, Muirhead Moffat & Co., Glasgow, Scotland, 
personal communication. 

38. George C. Emslie, Glasgow, Scotland, personal communication. 

39. Ibid. 


Coghill, Alex. 1845-92 

Coghill, David 1865-92 

Coghill, George 1853 


Davidson, Thomas, jun. and Co. 1865-92 

Feron, E. 1881-92 


Fraser, James 1881 

Galbraith, Malcolm 1853 

Glasgow Clay Pipe Co., Ltd. 1881 

Glasgow Pipe Manufactory 1853-81 


Glasgow Tobacco Clay Pipe Manufactory 1881 

Grant, William, jun. 1 845 

Graven, J. 1881 

Hamilton, John 1881 

Hanley, Jos. 1873 

Lee, James 1845 

Liston, J. 1873 

McDougall, D. 1853-81 


Mclntyre, John 1892 

McLanchlan, Thomas 1892 

McLuckie and Prentice 1873 

Mather and Cochrane 1873 

Murray, W. sen. Caledonian Pipe Works 1845 

Newton and Rae 1865 

Nimmo, John 1865 

Nimmo, T. 1845 

^ Percy, Archibald A. 1881-92 

Reid, James 1892 

Scroggie, J. 1873-81 

Shaw, John 1865 

Thomas, John M. 1853 

Waldie, John 1873-92 

Wood, William C. 1865 


One rare specimen (Plate V, No. 5) has the word MANCHES- 
TER in raised letters along the right side of the stem as it is held 
in the smoker's mouth, and W. H. PIERCE & C°. appears on 
the opposite side. It was probably made in Manchester, Lanca- 
shire, England, but may possibly have been made in Manchester, 
New Hampshire. There are no other specimens in the Fort Lara- 
mie collection with this marking and nothing of its history is 
known to the writer. Another rare marking is the word SAINT 
in raised letters along the left side of a white clay stem and with 
. . . FIOLET on the right side (Plate V, No. 6). This doubtless 


represents a variation in marking of pipes made in St. Omer, 
France, by the Fiolet Company. 


Mr. Fleming declares that a revival of affection for old "clays" 
will return, that there will be a renaissance. Old champions of 
the clay pipe steadfastly maintain that on health grounds it is the 
safest pipe, in that the harmful nicotine is absorbed by the porous 
clay bowl and stem."*^' In the old days a pipe was associated with 
the good life and many an old Scot must have sung this little ditty 
which expressed his fondness for his "clay": 

"With a glass in ae' haund, and my pipe in the t'other 
I drink to my neighbour, and friend. 
My cares in a whiff of tobacco I smother 
For life we all know, might quickly end." 

Old Song^^ 

40. Fleming, op cit, p. 239. 

41. Ihid. 

Wyoming's ?WHtier J^ewspapers 

Elizabeth Keen* 


Some study has already been made of territorial newspapers in Wyoming. 
The standard reference, Douglas C. McMurtrie's Early Printing in Wyoming 
and the Black Hills,^ surveys the record only through December, 1870. 
Other accounts have appeared as informal reminiscences, often inaccurate 
as to dates and personalities concerned. Limited treatments of early 
journalism are included in state and county histories. Much of the infor- 
mation about early papers and editors is thus fragmentary, scattered, and 
sometimes contradictory. Furthermore, outside of special studies of a few 
individual editors, comparatively little attention has been paid to the content 
of the newspapers themselves. 

The present investigation covers the years between 1863, when the first 
paper was published, and July 10, 1890, the date on which Wyoming was 
admitted to statehood. It has attempted, first, to identify as accurately as 
possible territorial newspapers published in what is now the state of 
Wyoming and to record their names, the dates on which they were estab- 
lished, and their duration. Its second purpose has been to examine 
available territorial newspapers in an endeavor to determine their signifi- 
cance as historical and human-interest documents. The principal questions 
raised in this study are: what kind of man wrote, edited and often hand-sef 
the type, what his problems of production were, what pictures of commun- 
ities and the territory these gray and dusty files reflect, and what part the 
papers and their editors played in community and territorial development. 
It is hoped that these questions have been answered, in part at least, in 
the following pages. 

Since newspapers provide valuable source material for the historian, it 
has seemed of first importance to locate all copies and files of those that 
have been preserved, and to list in an appendix the papers and places 
where they may be found today. This information is no doubt still incom- 
plete, as it is probable that copies or files of territorial papers exist in 
libraries and collections of private individuals. In an attempt to explore 
all possible sources of information about the location of newspaper copies 
and files, a query was sent to every newspaper office and library in the 
state. Archives and other customary depositories of newspaper files were 
investigated. It was found that the largest collections of bound files and 
individual copies of such newspapers are in the holdings of the State 
Archives and Historical Department at Cheyenne and in the Archives of 
the University of Wyoming. A substantial number of issues have been 
preserved in libraries and newspaper shops in different parts of Wyoming. 
Others are preserved in out-of-state collections in the Library of Congress, 
the Bancroft Library, the Denver Public Library, and even in the library 
of the University of North Carolina. Microfilm copies of some of these 

* This article is from Miss Keen's master's thesis, University of Wyo- 
ming, 1956. 

L (Hattiesburg, Mississippi: Printed for the Book Farm by the South- 
worth- Anthoensen Press, Portland, Maine, 1943). 


scattered items kave been examined in the State Archives and Historical 
Department and University of Wyoming Archives. 

The early decades of Wyoming history saw many newspapers in pro- 
portion to the population. If a small town had a Republican newspaper. 
Democrats tried to establish a rival paper, or vice versa. Publication in 
some instances would be started literally overnight, go on for a few weeks, 
and then for any of a number of valid reasons, chiefly that of lack of 
money, newspapers would suspend publication. No copies of many of these 
evanescent papers exist today, so that this investigation of necessity has 
had to rely for information about these fleeting journals on what other 
newspapers said about them at the time. 

As wide a sampling of individual newspapers as was possible within the 
limits imposed by a thesis of this nature was made in an attempt to convey 
the flavor of early-day reporting in Wyoming. The excerpts included as 
samples were often chosen to illustrate the refreshing style of the day, for 
the territorial Wyoming newspaper was an intensely personal publication, 
distinctly different from today's objectively-written metropolitan newspaper 
and its smaller brothers, the community dailies and weeklies that strive to 
imitate this objectivity. If a territorial editor had prejudices, he aired them 
in the columns of his paper, unrestrained by non-existent laws of libel, 
undeterred by threats of tarring and feathering, gunshot wounds, or bruises 
and broken bones. Some of these editors were to become known nationally 
as Wyoming spokesmen. The importance of personalities in shaping terri- 
torial journalism has been recognized in this study by the inclusion of a 
section dealing with seven of the most colorful and influential territorial 

But the importance of the early newspaper as a historical record of 
community and territorial growth must not be minimized. From the 
first the Wyoming newspaper mirrored the community which it sought to 
serve. It shared the uncertainties, the hazards, even the violence of the 
frontier settlement struggling for existence through various stages of 
growth: from a scattering of tents, or sod and log houses, to a collection of 
frame buildings sheltering an exuberant and sometimes lawless population, 
and much later to a town of sedate homes, tree-shaded streets, and orderly 
citizens intent upon establishing schools, churches, and other monuments 
of civic pride and responsibility. One section of the thesis, therefore, is 
devoted to a discussion of territorial newspapers as reflectors of commun- 
ity and territorial life and development. 

Valuable help in completing this study has been given by Wallace R. 
Biggs, of the University of Wyoming journalism department, by the staffs 
of the State Archives and Historical Department of Cheyenne, the Univer- 
sity of Wyoming Archives, and the Albany County Carnegie Library, 
Laramie, and especially by Dr. Ruth Hudson, under whose direction this 
thesis was written. 


In a one-story log house one day in June, 1863, Hiram Brun- 
dage, the telegraph operator at Fort Bridger, Utah Territory, began 
publishing a small, daily newspaper, the first publication of any 
kind to be printed in territory lying within the present boundaries 
of Wyoming. He called it the Daily Telegraph. No records have 
been discovered to show what kind of press produced this fledg- 
ling, nor for how long it was to live. It was printed on only one 


side of a sheet six and one-half by ten and one-half inches.^ An 
examination of a facsimile reproduction of the third issue shows 
two columns of news, one small advertisement concerning job 
work done at the Telegraph office, and a statement that subscrip- 
tion rates were a dollar a month or ten dollars a year, paid 
"Invariably in Advance.'' The Telegraph's news dealt exclusively 
with the Civil War. Lee's whole force, said to be advancing into 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, was reported "within a short distance 
from Washington." The stories bore New York, Philadelphia, 
Washington, and Memphis datelines, with one "special" to the 
New York Worldr It is not unreasonable to conjecture here that 
Brundage, as telegraph operator, had simply copied off the stories 
as they sped over the two-year-old telegraph line west through 
Fort Bridger to larger, paying clients on the coast, and had hand- 
set them for his own use in the Telegraph. 

More than four years were to elapse before what is now Wyo- 
ming had its second newspaper. They were years of intense and 
bitter conflict between Indians and white men, of increased mih- 
tary intervention, of steady immigration to the West. Prospecting 
for gold along the Sweetwater, abandoned previously for the more 
profitable business of putting up hay and delivering telegraph 
poles to the Overland Stage Company, was resumed in the summer 
stampede of 1867. Then came the most vital force in the colo- 
nization and development of the new country: the Union Pacific 
Railway built its tracks across the plains and mountains of what 
later would be called southern Wyoming. And where the railroad 
ran, towns mushroomed along the right-of-way, and with the towns 
came newspapers. Some of the new country's first pubUcations 
appeared in such Union Pacific towns as Cheyenne, Laramie 
City, Green River City, Bear River City, and Evanston. 

Cheyenne, the first of these towns, was laid out in July, 1867, 
by orders of General Grenville M. Dodge, in charge of building 
the railroad, four months before the arrival there of the first train. 
A city of tents, it was later to become the territorial capital and 
the birthplace of a score or more of newspapers. Some of these 
lived for a few weeks; others survived for a year or more. Only 
six of them — three dailies and three weeklies — were publishing 
when Wyoming was admitted as a state in July, 1890. 


Scenting opportunities to be had in the tent city well in advance 
of the horde of journeymen printers who were later to give the 

1. D. C. McMurtrie, "Pioneer Printing in Wyoming," Annals of Wyo- 
ming, (Cheyenne, January, 1933), p. 729. 

2. Ibid., p. 732. 


new country a rash of newspapers, Nathan A. Baker and James E. 
Gates, driving a team of horses and taking along some printing 
equipment, left Denver for Cheyenne.'^ On September 19, 1867, 
three days after their arrival, they gave Wyoming its second news- 
paper. They called it the Cheyenne Leader.* W. E. Chaplin, 
one of Laramie's first newspapermen, says the Leader was printed 
a page at a time on a Gordon job press."' The first issue comprised 
four ten-and-one-half by fifteen-inch pages, each page having four 
columns of news, clips from exchange newspapers, and advertising. 
Baker priced his paper at fifteen cents a copy, and sold yearly sub- 
scriptions for twelve dollars. He addressed his readers with an 
optimistic, page-one "salutatory:" 

This is an age of speed. Railroads are the motive influence that 
works changes bewildering to contemplate. An apt and striking 
illustration of this is presented in the growth of Cheyenne, this infant 
prodigy, and railroad city of the West. Scarce six weeks ago but 
two houses indicated the locality of the town, where now between one 
and two hundred houses stand to attest the vigor with which Amer- 
ican people set about important undertakings. All this indicates a 
confidence which must have a sure basis. Having full convictions of 
the destined importance of this point, we have come among you to 
print a newspaper, and we ask, as the pioneer journal, that cordial 
support which we know will spring from persistent and effective 
labors for the commercial growth of our city. 

Promises as to the course of our paper are hardly necessary, as the 
best test of capabilities consists in the actual performance of duties 
pertaining to our position, rather than in words. We come upon no 
speculative venture, nor from mere curiosity; we mean work, and 
shall give exclusive attention to our profession. So give us that kind 
encouragement of the heart as well as of the purse, and our success 
is assured. 

The daily edition of the Leader, together with a weekly edition 
Baker began on January 2, 1869, was to continue publication 
under a succession of ownerships throughout the territorial period. 
Baker himself continued as editor and publisher until 1872 when 
he sold out to Herman Glafcke and moved to Denver. 

Meanwhile, other newspapers were being printed in Cheyenne. 
Possibly the second to appear there was the Frontier Index, which 
called itself the "Press on Wheels." Published and written by 
Legh R. Freeman and his brother, Fred K. Freeman, the news- 
paper was put out at the railhead of the Union Pacific as it was 

3. "From [C. G.] Coutant Notes," Annals of Wyoming, V, No. 1, p. 37. 

4. Although the masthead of the Cheyenne Leader, which showed it was 
printed in Dakota Territory, carried only the name of Baker as "Editor 
and Proprietor," Gates, later one of the owners of the Laramie Daily 
Sentinel, spoke of his help in establishing the Leader in the March 30, 1872, 
issue of the Sentinel. 

5. "Some of the Early Newspapers of Wyoming," Wyoming Historical 
Society Miscellanies (Laramie, 1919), p. 7. 


being built westward.'^ The Frontier Index grew out of the 
Herald, published at Fort Kearney, Nebraska Territory, with 
which Hiram Brundage, Fort Bridger Daily Telegraph publisher, 
had once been associated/ The Freeman brothers had bought 
the Herald, changed its name, loaded their press and supplies on a 
Union Pacific work-train, and started moving west. Existing 
copies show that it was pubhshed in Julesburg, Colorado, Fort 
Sanders, Laramie City, Green River, and Bear River City. No 
copies with a Cheyenne dateline are known, but the Cheyenne 
Leader of November 2, 1867, reported that Legh Freeman was 
in town and would shortly leave with his press for Fort Sanders. 
Cheyenne's third newspaper was the Argus, only two copies of 
which are known to have been saved.'* But the files of the 
Cheyenne Leader show that the Argus began publication October 
24, 1867, under the editorship of Lucien L. Bedell." Telegraphic 
communication with Denver and the East were completed the 
same day. The Cheyenne Leader, which seems to have taken a 
good deal of pleasure in noting the rapid turnover in the Argus 
staff members, printed items about George Barnett and W. P. 
Finley as departing associate editors, about Samuel McBride as a 
"former" Argus foreman, later one of the founders of the Colorado 
Chieftain at Pueblo, about Henry Garbanati's leaving the editor- 
ship of the Argus to engage in the practice of law, and about 
financial bickerings between Bedell and Julius Silversmith, Argus 
publishers.^*' Bedell, it would seem, won the argument because 
the Leader soon after reported that Silversmith had left the paper 
to publish the Northwestern Journal of Commerce. No copies nor 
further mention of the latter paper have been found. The Argus, 
meanwhile, became a weekly on January 6, 1869;^^ after one 
suspension in November, 1869, the paper pubhshed briefly, then 

6. Legh Freeman is referred to as "Leigh" by McMurtrie and other 
historians. A few issues of the Frontier Index are in the Bancroft Library 
at the University of California, Berkeley; microfilm copies are in the Uni- 
versity of Wyoming Archives and in the Wyoming State Archives and His- 
torical Department at Cheyenne. An examination of these copies shows 
page-one editorials and travel stories plainly signed "Legh," while Fred K. 
Freeman frequently in print referred to his brother in this manner. No- 
where in copies of the Index examined does Legh Freeman appear as 

7. McMurtrie, Early Printing in Wyoming and the Black Hills, p. 4. 

8. The University of North Carolina Library has the issue of Sept. 8, 
1868; the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has the issue 
of Nov. 12, 1869. 

9. Cheyenne Leader, October 26, 1867. H. H. Bancroft, Bancroft's 
Works, Vol. XXV, History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 1540-1888 
(San Francisco: History Co., 1890), p. 735, gives the date the Argus began 
publication as October 25, 1867. 

10. Cheyenne Leader, March 5, June 4, August 12, 1868; June 19, July 
16, July 26, 1869. 


died. A forced sale of its equipment and supplies "upon fore- 
closure of mortgage" was advertised in the May 9, 1870, issue of 
the Leader. 

The Daily Rocky Mountain Star was Cheyenne's next newspa- 
per. Republican in politics, it came out for the first time Decem- 
ber 8, 1867, and managed to survive for nineteen months, al- 
though during its brief lifetime it switched back and forth from 
daily to weekly publication.^- The only issues of the paper known 
to have been preserved are in the Library of Congress. ^^ The 
Star, too, suffered from a rapid turnover in staff; O. T. B. Wil- 
liams, Charles V. Arnold, J. H. Hayford, later to edit the Laramie 
Daily Sentinel, W. M. Bamberger, and T. J. Webster are among 
those known to have had a part in its publication.^^ When the 
Star had gone to press for the last time, Baker of the Leader 
bought its equipment, shipped it to South Pass City, then booming, 
and there began the South Pass News, to be treated later. ^^ 

Cheyenne's fifth newspaper was to survive less than three 
months. It was the Commercial Record, a weekly, and probably 
served as official organ to the Board of Trade. ^^ Apparently no 
copies of this newspaper have been preserved. The little that 
can be discovered about the Record is in the April 6, 1868, issue 
of the Cheyenne Leader: "A new candidate for public favor bear- 
ing the title Commercial Record has made its appearance. It is 
little more than half the size of the Daily Leader, and is to be 
issued weekly. Saltiel and Barnett are the publishers, and we 
hope they and their paper may flourish like the green bay tree." 
In its issue of June 24, the Leader announced the sale, to take 
place on the following day, of the Commercial Record printing 
office. It is possible that Emanuel H. Saltiel, the Record's pub- 
lisher, produced at this time another short-lived paper, the Fast 
Life. Although no copies of such a paper have been unearthed, 
files of the Cheyenne Leader make brief mention of it three 
times. ^^ Too, the Frontier Index, then being published in Lara- 
mie, stated on June 23, 1868: "The Fast Life, published at Shian, 
has fizzled out." 

Edward M. Lee, Wyoming's first territorial secretary, put up 
the money for Samuel A. Bristol and H. A. Pierce to begin publi- 

11. Ibid., January 6, 1869. 

12. Ibid., July 8, 1868. 

13. They are the issues for May 2, 16, 18, 1869, when the newspaper 
was a daily; January 13, 27, May 26, June 2, 9, 1869, of the weekly issues. 
(Recently the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department acquired 
a copy of the June 13, 1868, issue. — Ed.) 

14. McMurtrie, Early Printing in Wyoming and Black Hills, pp. 19-20. 

15. Cheyenne Leader, June 9, 1869. 

16. McMurtrie, Early Printing in Wyoming and Black Hills, p. 21. 

17. June 30, August 4, August 19, 1868. 


cation November 20, 1869, of the Wyoming Tribune. The Leader 
sourly noted the event by saying: "A new squirt. After much 
labor, that official of mountainous rottenness, 'Slang' Lee, has 
brought forth a mouse . . ."^'' Late in the summer of 1871, when 
it appeared that the Tribune had breathed its last, the Leader was 
quick to note: "The printing press and traps of the late Tribune 
have been bought by [George W. Corey] a member of Congress, 
resident of the Hoosier State. This fellow is the pet aversion of all 
decent Cheyenne folks, who are always slow to appreciate the 
peculiar line of greatness in which he excels. "^'^ The Tribune'-^ 
thereupon revived to live on for another sixteen months, when its 
death notice was recorded by the Laramie Daily Independent in 
its issue of December 28, 1872. 

Cheyenne's next newspaper was to last for only two or three 
months in the summer of 1870. It was the Wyoming Railroad 
Advocate, and as noted by the Wyoming Tribune on June 11, 
1870, it was a ". . . neat 7-column sheet published ... by J. M. 
Searle and Co. — Democratic, and devoted to the Territorial Rail- 
road interests, also mining and general development." 

A newspaper that called itself successively the Wyoming News 
and the Wyoming Daily Morning News began publication late in 
the summer of 1870 and lasted through April of the following 
year. Only a guess can be made as to the date of its first issue 
since just one copy of the newspaper has been traced.-^ However, 
it is reasonable to suppose that April 30 is the date of its death, 
and consequently that the extant copy is the final issue of the 
newspaper, since the Cheyenne Leader for May 1 reported that 
the rival paper had "breathed its last yesterday morning." Four 
days later the same newspaper quoted a memorial tribute from 
the Laramie Sentinel: 

Leaf by leaf the roses fall, 
Dime by dime the purse runs dry; 
One by one, beyond recall. 
Mushroom papers droop and die. 

18. Cheyenne Leader, November 23, 1869. 

19. Cheyenne Leader, August 18, 1871. 

20. The Tribune for Nov. 1869- Apr. 1870 is in the files of the Wyoming 
State Archives and Historical Department. — Ed. 

21. The State Archives and Historical Department at Cheyenne have the 
issue of April 30, 1871. At this time H. A. Pierce was the publisher of the 
Wyoming Daily Morning News; W. Richardson was the editor. In this 
issue, Pierce announced his intention of moving to Salt Lake City to publish 
a daily. He said that Cheyenne had "too many petty cliques and rings for 
broad and permanent prosperity, and if she would soon take her rightful 
position as a great commercial capital, she must rid herself of these 


Finally, the Cheyenne Leader of June 2, 1871, printed an item 
that by this time must have had for its readers a familiar sound: 
"The material of the Wyoming News is to be sold on Saturday 
next to satisfy employes' claims." 

Before the demise of the Wyoming Daily Morning News, still 
another newspaper had set up shop in the territorial capital — 
the Cheyenne Daily Sun. A reference is made to it in the Laramie 
Daily Sentinel of October 12, 1870; on February 4, 1871, the 
Wyoming Tribune noted the Sun's passing. Since no copy of it 
can be traced, nothing is known of this short-lived newspaper 
beyond the fact that it should not be confused with a later 
Cheyenne Daily Sun, owned and edited by Col. E. A. Slack, which 
appeared in the territorial capital March 3, 1876, after the owner 
had moved there from Laramie where the newspaper had origin- 
ally been called the Laramie Daily Sun.-- 

For a few years the fever to publish apparently abated in 
Cheyenne, since the next newspaper to appear was the Daily News, 
which did not begin publication until July 10, 1874.--^ William 
M. Benton put out the paper "as an advertising sheet, with spicy 
and interesting locals" until November, 1874, when he sold it to 
T. Joe Fisher, who thereafter ran it as a "campaign paper" for 
the Republicans.-^ 

Baker of the Cheyenne Leader and Fisher of the Daily News 
had the publishing field entirely to themselves until March, 1876, 
when E. A. Slack, former South Pass and Laramie City publisher, 
arrived in Cheyenne with equipment and material from the plant 
of the late Laramie Daily Sun, bought out the Daily News, and 
began publication March 6 of the Cheyenne Daily Sun, to which 
he soon added the Weekly Sun. Coutant said Slack's newspaper 
was "destined to exert a great influence, not only in the city but 
throughout the territory."-'' Baker of the Leader, who could be 
expected to make some kind of wry comment on the advent of a 
new publication, had this to say: 

The Cheyenne Daily Sun rises on Monday next. It is not yet de- 
cided whether it is to be a morning or evening Sun. It would seem 

22. Chaplin, p. 11. (Issues of the Laramie Daily Sun May 6, 1875- 
Feb. 22, 1876 and Cheyenne Daily Sun 1876-1895 are in the files of the 
Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department. — Ed.) 

23. J. H. Triggs, History of Cheyenne and Northern Wyoming (Omaha: 
Herald Steam Book and Job Printing House, 1876), p. 39. Bancroft, 
p. 798 n., gives the initial publication date as 1875. However, examination 
of the Aug. 31, 1874, issue of the Daily News preserved in the Wyoming 
State Archives and Historical Department shows it to be Vol. I, No. 43, 
which would make Triggs' date the correct one. (Three issues, for July 
22, 1874, May 12, 1875 and November 20, 1875 are in the Wyoming State 
Archives and Historical Department. — Ed.) 

24. Triggs, p. 39. 

25. Annals of Wyoming, XIV, p. 65. 



inappropriate, however, to have a Sun-rise in the evening. Speaking 
of Suns reminds us that this will be the third paper of that name 
published in Cheyenne. Old timers will remember that the first two 
had but brief lease of life, and left no monument, save the unpaid 
bills of their publishers.-*^ 

The summer of 1877 saw the arrival in Cheyenne of two more 
Laramie newspapermen: T. J. Webster, who has already been 
mentioned as having been on the staff of the short-lived Daily 
Rocky Mountain Star, and A. R. Johnson. They brought with 
them the plant of the late Laramie Daily Chronicle, and with it 
they began publication of the Cheyenne Daily Gazette?'^ Histor- 
ians of the period agree that the Gazette did not prosper, and that 
it was soon moved to Deadwood, but the newspaper must have 
survived the winter at least, for it is mentioned in the Daily Adver- 
tiser, another fleeting publication, in its issue of February 20, 
1878.-'^ This same issue, the twenty-fifth since the Daily Ad- 
vertiser began publication, shows that Willie Crook and C. S. 
Clark were its editors and publishers.--' 

The Daily Hornet, S. W. Hardinge, editor, began publication in 
Cheyenne Sunday, March 10, 1878, with the warning that the 
proprietors "will not be responsible for debts incurred by any of 
its help," and the brash announcement that the new paper had 
"a larger circulation than all the other daily papers combined."-^'' 
Subsequent issues of the paper show that Hardinge specialized in 

26. Cheyenne Leader, March 3, 1876. Mention has already been made 
of a previous Cheyenne Sun, but this investigation has failed to discover 
records of still another newspaper of that name. 

27. Chaplin, p. 12. Bancroft, p. 799 n., gives the date as 1876. How- 
ever, the Nov. 3, 1876, issue of the Laramie Daily Chronicle, Vol. I, No. 
160, has been preserved in the University of Wyoming Archives, and Chap- 
lin states that the paper continued publication in Laramie City throughout 
the winter of that year. Unfortunately, this examination has failed to find 
preserved any copy of the Gazette. 

28. This item is illustrative of the constant job-shifting that went on 
among newspaper offices: "The newspaper change to which we referred 
several days ago will take place tomorrow. Mr. Poulton takes charge of 
the Leader as associate editor; and Mr. Johnson, formerly of the Gazette, 
takes Mr. Poulton's place on the Sun. Mr. Wallahan retires, and, perhaps, 
will go to Dead Wood [sic] and take a place on the Dead Wood Times. 
Or, perchance, go on the Gazette of this city." 

29. Coutant, Annals, XIV, p. 75, states that Crook, "a mere boy but an 
unusually gifted one," was the editor of The Hornet at this time. However, 
the Daily Hornet, about to begin publication, is mentioned in Crook's 
Daily Advertiser as being "Mr. Hardinge's paper." Coutant, p. 75, also 
has Hardinge, whom he calls "Harding," editing The Spur. However, this 
investigation has failed to disclose the existence or further mention of a 
newspaper by that name. 

30. The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has an 
excellent file of the Daily Hornet from its first issue to April 11, 1878, 
which was probably the last time the paper came out. 


gossip, news about women's fashions, and criticism of the Chey- 
enne Daily Sun. And although by March 30 of the same year the 
Daily Hornet had increased its saloon advertising to two full 
columns, it was forced not long after that to suspend publication. 

On November 23, 1883, Asa Shinn Mercer, who had already 
founded newspapers in Oregon and in Texas, and S. A. Mamey 
began publication of the Northwestern Livestock Journal.'-^'^ This 
was to prove Mercer's "most successful newspaper venture. "^^ 
He continued the weekly, which was devoted to interests of the 
cattle industry, well beyond the territorial period to which this 
study is confined, but shortly after the publication in 1894 of his 
controversial book. The Banditti of the Plains, Mercer closed down 
his publication and eventually he was forced to leave Cheyenne. ^-^ 

Meanwhile, the Cheyenne Daily Tribune, established in 1884, 
had begun a long life under a series of ownerships which were to 
include that of Judge J. M. Carey, Wyoming's first United States 
senator. The Cheyenne Daily Leader of December 24, 1884, 
noted that "at a rather late hour last night the first issue of the 
Cheyenne Daily Tribune was distributed about the city. The new 
candidate for public favor is a six-column, four-page paper of very 
neat typographical appearance ... its editor, Mr. C. W. Hobart, 
says that in politics it will be Republican." Chaplin says that 
Hobart was backed by F. E. Warren of Cheyenne, "who generally 
had some surplus money for any printer or publisher in distress," 
and that Hobart was also backed by Senator Hill of Colorado who 
owned for many years the Denver Republican.'-^^ This is the same 
paper that in 1904, under the ownership of a company headed by 
William C. Deming and James H. Walton, was to become the 
Wyoming Tribune,^^' which appears in Cheyenne today as the 
Wyoming State Tribune. 

Another notable event occurred in 1884. On January 19 the 
Cheyenne Daily Leader, which had been Republican in politics, 
overnight changed its name to the Democratic Leader with the 
announcement that it would be published thereafter "by a corpora- 
tion composed of a number of gentlemen of the democratic faith 

31. Cheyenne Democratic Leader, July 22, 1884. 

32. Delphine Henderson, "Asa Shinn Mercer, Northwest Publicity 
Agent," Reed College [Portland, Oregon] Bulletin, XXIII (Jan., 1945), 
p. 30, n. 37. This brief study gives an excellent account of Mercer's life 
up to the time he established himself in Cheyenne. 

33. Mercer's Banditti tells the story of the range wars, and of the 
invasion of Johnson County by cattle barons of Wyoming and their Texas 
mercenaries in 1892. 

34. P. 16. 

35. Agnes Wright Spring, William Chapin Deming of Wyoming (Glen- 
dale, California: Arthur H. Clark Co., 1944), p. 92. 


political, and of party faith triumphal. "-^'^ On May 23, 1884, the 
name of John F. Carroll, editor, appeared for the first time on 
the paper's masthead. On June 12, 1887, the newspaper was 
published for the last time under the name of the Democratic 
Leader. Tuesday, June 14, it became the Cheyenne Daily Leader 
once more, with Carroll's statement that "we again throw open the 
editorial throttle, and with a roaring fire of ambition in the furnace 
resume a career which we sincerely hope will be pleasant and 
profitable both to our readers and to ourselves." 

By January, 1889, when a one-issue publication called the 
Cheyenne Review made its appearance, the territorial capital had 
three daily and three weekly newspapers: the daily Leader, Sun, 
and Tribune, the weekly Leader, Sun, and Northwestern Livestock 
Journal. They were the newspapers that had shown judgment 
and equanimity during booms and cheerful fortitude during hard 
times; they were also the newspapers that would continue publica- 
tion after the end of the period under investigation, when, on 
July 10, 1890, Wyoming became a full-fledged state. 


Meanwhile, as newspapers were taking root in Cheyenne, 
daihes and weeklies were blossoming forth in other parts of what 
is now Wyoming in such numbers that more than one newspaper 
in many a frontier community was commonplace. Laramie City, 
the next town of any size to grow up along the Union Pacific, 
was staked out by the railroad agent in March, 1868, just nine 
months after the first tent went up in Cheyenne. A division 
point of the railroad, it was to become the hated rival of Cheyenne, 
with bitter battles fought out in the pages of the towns' respective 
newspapers. In the territorial days Laramie City was never to 
have so many newspapers as its neighbor over the mountains, 
but nine, if not more, dailies and weekhes were to appear in what 
the Freeman brothers in their Frontier Index christened the 
"Nineveh of the Plains. "^'^ 

The "Press on Wheels" gave the new town its first newspaper. 
Between Cheyenne and Laramie the perambulatory newspaper had 
appeared for three or four months at Fort Sanders, three miles 

36. Some confusion exists concerning the Democratic Leader. The 
Library of Congress in its Hstings of territorial Wyoming newspapers, 
states that it was the Cheyenne Weekly Leader that had changed to the 
"weekly" Democratic Leader; however, an examination of the file of the 
Cheyenne Daily Leader for January, 1884, preserved in the Wyoming State 
Archives and Historical Department, shows the inclusion therein of the 
Democratic Leader, which continued publication as a daily until its former 
name was resumed. 

37. Frontier Index, April 21, 1868. 


south of Laramie. Now it was to publish in Laramie between 
April 12 and July 27, 1868, using for an office a log building at 
the corner of what is now called Second and Garfield streets. -^^ 
Throughout the few weeks that the Frontier Index remained in 
Laramie, the irrepressible Freeman brothers fired an unremitting 
barrage of insults in the direction of Cheyenne, which they always 
spelled "Shian," and extolled the beauties, commercial advantages, 
and other virtues of the "Nineveh." But by August 1 1 the "Press 
on Wheels" had rolled on and was publishing at Green River City. 

Laramie City was without a newspaper then until May 1 of the 
following year, when N. A. Baker, the man who gave Cheyenne 
its first permanent newspaper, performed a like task for Laramie. 
Edited by James H. Hayford, a Republican of strong views and 
few apparent inhibitions, the Laramie Daily Sentinel was a bright 
newsy sheet. ^^ One year later Baker sold the paper to Hayford 
and J. E. Gates, the old friend who had helped him to found the 
Cheyenne Leader. Hayford and Gates published the Sentinel as a 
daily until the end of 1878, when they changed over to weekly 
publication. One of the brightest lights of the newspaper was 
Edgar Wilson Nye, who, as city editor of the Sentinel from 1876 
until it changed to a weekly, became known all over the nation 
as Bill Nye, humorist. The weekly Sentinel came out regularly 
until it ceased publication in March, 1895. 

In the meantime, up in South Pass City, E. A. Slack had been 
publishing the South Pass News, a newspaper that will be more 
fully discussed later on. Slack's plant burned late in 1871. Sal- 
vaging what equipment and supplies he could. Slack took them 
to Laramie City, where on December 26, 1871, in partnership with 
T. J. Webster, he launched the Laramie Daily Independent.*^ 
Webster sold his interest March 12, 1875, to Judge C. W. Bramel, 
a colorful lawyer compulsively attracted by the business of pub- 
lishing; the paper then became the Laramie Daily Sun, and its 
politics shifted from "independent" to Democratic. ^^ Finally, in 
March, 1876, Slack bought out Bramel's interest, and, as we have 
already seen, moved the paper to Cheyenne, where once more 
there was a change of name and politics, and the paper began 
publication as the Republican Cheyenne Daily Sun. 

Judge Bramel, meanwhile, had apparently found the smell of 

38. Chaplin, p. 9. J. H. Triggs, History and Directory of Laramie City, 
(Laramie: Daily Sentinel, 1875), p. 44, says "tiiis saucy little sheet . . . 
continued a daily issue from the rear of the Frontier Hotel . . ." 

39. The Albany County Library, Laramie, has excellent files of the 
Laramie Daily Sentinel from May, 1870, to December, 1878, and of the 
Laramie Weekly Sentinel from 1878 to 1890. 

40. Files of this paper are located in the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 

41. Chaplin, p. 11. 


ink irresistible, for, as Chaplin was to recall later, Bramel "cast 
about and secured an outfit for another paper at Laramie," which 
he launched as the Laramie Daily Chronicle in May, 1876.^- A 
small wooden building on First Street between Garfield and Custer 
housed the new paper for a while, but before long Judge Bramel 
moved it to the second floor of a building on Second Street. A 
fervent Democrat, Bramel in his editorial columns strongly sup- 
ported Samuel J. Tilden, his party's presidential candidate that 
year, and in so doing incurred the equally fervent Republican 
wrath of the Sentinel's Hayford. Editorial swords were crossed 
all that summer, and apparently Bramel felt that he came out 
second best, for he was heard to acknowledge that he was "unable 
to throw as much mud as Hayford. "^-^ Hayford, as we shall see 
later, was not a man to have as an enemy. 

When the Democrats lost the election that year, Bramel's 
Chronicle lost a substantial source of revenue: the county's print- 
ing was given to the Republican Sentinel.*"^ About this time 
Bramel temporarily retired from the active publishing field; three 
of his employes, T. J. Webster, A. R. Johnson, and George A. 
Garrett, continued publication in Laramie until the spring of 1877 
when the plant was moved to Cheyenne and the paper, as we have 
seen, came out as the Cheyenne Daily Gazette.*'^' 

Bramel resumed his law practice in Laramie, but not for long. 
On New Year's Day, 1879, with Judge L. D. Pease, he launched 
his third paper, the Laramie Daily Times.^^' Coincidentally, Bram- 

DIED — In Laramie City on the 31st day of December, 1878, the 
Laramie Daily Sentinel, for want of support owing to the lack of con- 
fidence on the part of its former patrons. 

42. Ibid., p. 11. The only copy of the Laramie Daily Clironicle found 
is in the University of Wyoming Archives. It is the issue of Nov. 3, 1876, 
and is No. 160 of Vol. I. 

43. Ibid., p. 12. 

44. Ibid., p. 12. 

45. Confusion exists concerning Bramel's financial interest in the Sen- 
inel during its last days. Chaplin, p. 12, states that Bramel "sold" the 
paper to Webster, Johnson, and Garrett, but "again [took] an interest in 
the paper" when it resumed publication in Cheyenne. Progressive Men of 
tlie State of Wyoming (Chicago: A. W. Bowen, 1903), a commercial com- 
pendium of biographies published for a price and written by the subjects 
themselves, p. 162, states Bramel "has at various times been interested in 
daily and weekly newspapers published at Laramie and also at the city of 

46. Only one copy of the newspaper has been found: the issue of Jan. 1, 
1879, Vol. I, No. 1, is in the University of Wyoming Archives. On the 
flag under the name, Laramie Daily Times, in parenthesis is the note, "This 
is only a temporary heading." Bancroft, p. 794 n., says the Laramie Times 
"came from Salt Lake originally, where it had been a Danish journal. It 
was moved to Evanston, and thence to Laramie by C. W. Bramel and L. D. 
Pease. Pease ran it about two years. . . ." 


The Sentinel for a long time past has been like an old man in his 
dotage, whose days of usefulness are past, and only suffered to exist 
till his final summons shall come. The demise of the Sentinel has 
long been predicted for some time, but we thought it might linger 
with us a little longer, till within the last few days, when we knew its 
final end was approaching, and it finally went into convulsions and 
yielded up its miserable existence. 

The funeral will take place this evening at 6 o'clock . . . and will 
be accompanied to its final resting place by its former editor and his 
assistant, wearing the usual badge of mourning, and bearing the fol- 
lowing inscription: "We bled the people as long as they would stand 
it, and now they have bled us." 

Peace to its ashes. 

el's old enemy, Hayford, was changing over from daily to weekly 
publication, so the Times, after stating that politically it was 
neither Democratic nor Republican, with noticeable gusto ran the 
following item: 

Historians of the period have given conflicting accounts of the 
eventual fate of the Times.^'^ However, on April 2, 1881, the 
Laramie Weekly Sentinel, commenting on the fact that two daily 
newspapers were then being published in Laramie, said that al- 
though the phenomenon was not without its benefits still "there 
is not much to choose between the two. . . . The Boomerang gets 
the latest, but the Times the fullest report. Nye gets his by 
telegraph and Pease his by freight train, and the train brings the 
largest batch." Again, on March 18, 1882, the Weekly Sentinel 
noted that "our neighbor the Times has pooled its issues and is 
owned and run by a stock company." 

But though the end of the Times is obscured, its publication, 
meanwhile, had been so annoying to Laramie Republicans that 
they had begun their own newspaper, the Laramie Daily Boom- 
erang. Bill Nye, the editor and by this time a noted humorist, 
brought out the first issue March 11, 1881. Chaplin, who was 
the printing foreman on the new paper, said that the Boomerang 
was printed on a Washington press, "known as a lemon-squeezer," 
and that the purchase of an "inadequate" press and the renting 
of an "unsuitable building" above a bakery were Nye's first serious 

47. Bancroft, p. 794 n., states that it was "revived for a short time as 
the Missing Link, and again as the Tribune," but he gives no dates. I. S. 
Bartlett, History of Wyoming (Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1918), I, p. 455, 
states that the Times plant in 1882 "was sold to F. W. Ott, who continued 
it for several years as a weekly publication, supporting the democratic 
party." Chaplin fails to mention the end of the Times, or the establishment 
of the Tribune, but devotes a paragraph, p. 16, to the founding of the 
Missing Link. The Laramie Weekly Sentinel for Feb. 10, 1883 mentions 
the Tribune, stating that "C. W. Bramel takes his place [as editor] on the 
Tribune and can more than fill it." This study has failed to find any copies 
of the Missing Link or of the Tribune. 


newspaper mistakes. ^"^ A year later Nye tried to make good his 
blunders by selling the job office to raise enough money to buy a 
Prouty press and by moving the Boomerang to a location above 
the Haines livery barn on the corner of Third and Garfield 
streets.^'-* But this, says Chaplin, "was another grave mistake, as 
the fumes from the livery stable below were almost intolerable. 
It was in ascending to this office that he [Nye] cheerfully gave 
the advice to 'twist the gray mule's tail and take the elevator.' "^*^ 
Because of illness, Nye left the Boomerang in 1883, but the news- 
paper has continued on under a succession of owners, and in a 
consolidated form is being published in Laramie today. 

Meanwhile, 1882 had seen the establishment in Laramie of a 
short-lived Democratic daily, the Missing Link. Charles L. Rau- 
ner and Charles F. Wilson were the owners."^^ After a few months 
it became a semi-weekly, but before long it must have suspended 
publication because a Laramie directory for 1883-84 noted that 
there were only two newspapers being published that year: the 
weekly Sentinel and the daily and weekly Boomerang, at that time 
edited by M. C. Barrow.^- Barrow was later to achieve nation- 
wide fame as the editor of Bill Barlow's Budget at Douglas. 

It is probable that other newspapers, of which there is no rec- 
ord, "drooped and died" in Laramie during the period under in- 
vestigation. °^ For instance, the Laramie Daily Sentinel of July 19, 
1870, noted that it had received a call that morning from 
"... Miss E. Luce, the junior editor of the Semper Fidelis, a new 
rival paper published in this city every Wednesday evening over 
T. D. Abbot's book store. The present editorial corps is com- 
posed of Giovine Santo, a Homme d'esprit, and the motto ora et 
labora is a good one, and we believe they try to put it in practice. 
. . ." However, no copies of the Semper Fidelis have so far been 

(Between Cheyenne and Laramie at Sherman, where the Union 
Pacific Railroad crosses the summit of the Laramie Mountains, a 
newspaper may have been published in the summer of 1878, for 
on June 8 of that year the Laramie Weekly Sentinel referred to the 
Sherman Reporter as having been launched under the editorship 
of W. E. Ellsworth of the Summit House [a hotel and saloon]. 

48. P. 13. 

49. Chaplin, p. 13, notes that the Prouty was "only a little better than 
the Washington." 

50. Ibid., p. 13. 

51. Ibid., p. 16. 

52. Directory of Laramie City, Wyoming, 1883-4 (Laramie: Boomerang 
Book and Job Printing, 1883), p. 33. 

53. The Laramie Republican, founded by Chaplin and Thomas L. Mc- 
Kee August 14, 1890, after Wyoming had ceased to be a territory, is for 
that reason not included in this study. 


However, this investigation has failed to turn up any copies of a 
newspaper of that name, i 


Elsewhere in the new territory, as settlements took root and 
grew into towns, other newspapers were being established. Of 
these, some were inevitably of the "mushroom" type, others were 
to publish profitably for many years. And in addition to the news- 
papers already discussed, Wyoming in the early days had two 
migratory presses. The first, the Frontier Index, whose course, 
as we have seen, paralleled that of the Union Pacific Railroad 
during the construction period, continued on its boisterous way 
during 1869 from Green River City to Bryan, where, on Septem- 
ber 29, the Freeman brothers announced: 


There is a perfect stampede for the railroad crossing of Bear River. 
Because of Echo tunnel, the divide between Bear River and Weber 
River with detained track laying all winter, the mouth of Sulphur 
Creek on Bear River is the place where wholesale houses will locate 
in the shape of a winter town, the great winter metropolis — the 
Shian No. 2. 

But Bear River City, now shown on maps as Knight, Wyoming, 
failed to fulfill this optimistic prophecy. When the Freeman broth- 
ers arrived with their press, they found the town full of cutthroats, 
and as was their custom they spoke out forthrightly against the 
prevailing lawlessness. The Frontier Index came out at Bear 
River City for the last time on November 17. Three days later 
an angry mob of rioters, enraged by the Freeman crusade against 
crime, burned the printing shop to the ground. Legh Freeman, 
who narrowly escaped death, fled to Fort Bridger for help."^^ 

Up at South Pass City, in the meantime, another migratory 
press had found a temporary home. The Sweetwater Mines, 
believed to have been first published at Fort Bridger on February 
14, 1868, was in May of that year moved to South Pass City, 
where its two publishers, J. Edward Warren and Charles J. Haz- 
ard, worked hard at creating nationwide interest in the Sweetwater 
mining region.''"' Hazard, by August the sole editor, took the 
paper to Bryan, where he published it during the winter of 1868- 
69, explaining that the name of the paper would not be changed 

54. Elizabeth Arnold Stone, Uinta County, Its Place in History (n.p., 
n.d.), pp. 83-4. J. Cecil Alter, Early Utali Journalism (Salt Lake City: 
Utah State Historical Society, 1938), pp. 155-167, gives an entertaining 
account of the subsequent publishing adventures of Legh Freeman in 
Ogden, Utah, and Butte, Montana. 

55. McMurtrie, "The Sweetwater Mines, a Pioneer Wyoming Newspa- 
per," Journalism Quarterly, XII (June, 1935), pp. 164-165. 


because it had a large circulation in the states, territories, and 
Canada, and had become so well known that a change in its name 
would be "annoying.""'" Hazard admitted he considered the 
oddity of the name an advantage since it was unique among news- 
paper nomenclature.'^'' In the following April Hazard took his 
paper back to South Pass City. There financial troubles overtook 
him: in the last issue of the paper to be preserved, that of June 19, 
1869, and it is not unreasonable to conclude that this was the 
final issue of the Sweetwater Mines, a legal notice was printed 
summoning him to answer in the District Court the complaint of 
W. F. Edwards for the sum of $534.51. 

Another newspaper published in South Pass City at this time 
was the South Pass News. Nathan A. Baker, founder of the 
Cheyenne Leader, began it in 1869, later sold it to Judge Church 
Howe, who, in turn, sold it to C. J. Coles and E. A. Slack. When 
fire late in 1871 destroyed the print shop, equipment, and supplies. 
Slack, as previously noted, moved to Laramie, and began publica- 
tion of the Laramie Daily Independent. He could have had few 
regrets at leaving, however, for by this time there was little reason 
for an ambitious newspaperman to remain in South Pass City; it 
had begun to disintegrate into the "ghost town" it was later to 
become: Sweetwater gold was playing out, miners in large numbers 
were leaving the area, and empty houses and saloons outnumbered 
all other buildings.^^ 


Although three years were to elapse following the fiery death of 
the Frontier Index at Bear River City, during which that part of 
Wyoming which is now Uinta County had no newspaper, even- 
tually it was to have six traceable publications during the territorial 
period. The first of these, published intermittently during a seven- 
year period, was the Evanston Age, a weekly started in the fall of 
1871 by W. L. Vaughn. Apparently the publisher did not pros- 
per, for at the end of a few months he shut up shop and moved 
away, leaving behind him his press, ink, and newsprint."'-' Two 
years later WilUam Wheeler arrived in town, took over the plant, 

56. The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley, hasr 
a broken file of the Sweetwater Mines for 1868, and four issues of 1869^ 
Microfilm copies of these papers are in the University of Wyoming Library 
and in the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department. It is of 
interest to note that Bancroft, p. 732, and Bartlett, p. 456, refer to the, 
newspaper as the Sweetwater Miner. 

57. Sweetwater Mines, Nov. 25, 1868. 

58. Charles Lindsay, The Big Horn Basin (Lincoln, Nebraska: Univer- 
sity of Nebraska, 1930), p. 87. 

59. Stone, pp. 145-6. 


and resumed publication of the Evanston Age as a daily, a folio 
with a fourteen-inch long column. In the fall of 1 876 he formed 
a partnership with William T. Shaffer, who had been a Civil War 
correspondent and had worked on a Memphis newspaper before 
seeking his fortune in the West. At the time he joined forces with 
Wheeler, Shaffer was the publisher at Green River of a paper 
called the Rocky Mountain Courier and of the Carbon County 
News published at Rawlins. Shaffer himself wrote later that the 
partnership was dissolved in 1878 because the Age was "badly in 
debt to its employes and for stationery and material.""" 

In the spring of 1878, meanwhile, Mark Hopkins had begun 
publication of the weekly Vinta County Argus. ^''^ He continued 
the paper through the summer, suspended publication in Sep- 
tember, and not very long after that he moved to Laramie. *'- 

Again Evanston was without a newspaper until March 15, 1879, 
when Frank P. Lannon, a New Yorker eager to try his luck in 
the new country, and Shaffer began publication of the Uinta 
County Chieftain. On November 4, 1879, the newspaper shop 
and the meat market above which it stood were destroyed by 
fire."" Discouraged, Lannon abandoned publishing for ranching, 
but Shaffer saw the Chieftain through another twelve years of 

Another weekly with a brief life was the Evanston Examiner. 
Edited by E. Buchanan, it first appeared October 23, 1885. 
According to Shaffer, the Examiner "got tired and quit" in the fall 
of the following year, at which time Buchanan took his plant to 
Park City, Utah."^' 

On June 7, 1888, Austin Decker and Wilson Dillon began 
publication of the Evanston News. Decker lasted only a few 
months before leaving town; his place was taken by J. F. Loudin, 
who continued publication of the newspaper for six years before 
selling out finally to a company that installed J. J. Ryckman as 

The last newspaper to be established during territorial days in 

60. William T. Shaffer, "Evanston," Collection of the Wyoming His- 
torical Society (Cheyenne, 1897), I, pp. 298-9. 

61. The Bancroft Library has a file of the paper from May 9, 1878, 
the sixth issue, to Sept. 5, 1878. Both Stone and Shaffer speak of the 
Evanston Argus, but the Bancroft files show the correct name to be the 
Uinta County Argus. 

62. Shaffer, pp. 298-9. 

63. Ibid., pp. 298-9. Shaffer adds that "what material was not damaged 
by the flames was rendered almost worthless by being thrown upon the 
floor among charcoal and ashes. The type was all 'pied,' and some of 
the machinery was broken." 

64. Stone, p. 147. 

65. Shaffer, pp. 298-9. 

66. Stone, p. 147. 


Evanston was the Evanston Register, a weekly. Joseph U. Allard, 
a New Englander of French descent, began its pubhcation in 1 890. 
Later he was to become one of western Wyoming's best known 


Elsewhere across Southern Wyoming newspapers were publish- 
ing wherever emigrants had congregated to establish businesses, 
build their homes, and settle towns. Shaffer, as we have seen, 
had already established the Rocky Mountain Courier at Green 
River before he moved on to Evanston in 1876. Green River 
was to have at least two more newspapers during the territorial 
period: The Sweetwater Gazette*'^ and the Daily Press, an after- 
noon paper published by Judge C. W. Holden.''-' And in nearby 
Rock Springs printing was introduced in 1881 by the Rock Springs 
Miner. ''^^ 

In what is now Carbon County, the first newspaper to appear 
may have been the Fort Steele Herald, for, although apparently 
no copies have been preserved, the Cheyenne Leader on March 12, 
1869, recorded that a copy of the paper had been received in the 
newspaper's office. The Leader noted that the Herald was a week- 
ly put out by "Lowry & Bros.," that it was a half-sheet containing 
three columns to the page, and that the interesting news it printed 
included an item about a man who had killed nine hundred 
antelope and elk during the winter, and one about the prevailing 
snow blindness at the fort. However, this investigation has failed 
to disclose the preservation of any copy of the Herald. 

Rawlins was to have five different newspapers before Wyoming 
achieved statehood. The Carbon County News, after having been 
printed on the Courier Press at Green River, made its bow January 
12, 1878, under the ownership of William T. Shaffer and John 
C. Friend.'''^ Apparently the venture was so successful that in 
April of that year the Green River press was shipped to Rawlins, 
where it remained until the News suspended publication in Sep- 
tember, 1878. Not long after the suspension, the press was 

67. Ibid., p. 147. 

68. Bancroft, p. 786, n. 7, mentions the Sweetwater Gazette, two issues 
of which, those of Jan. 8, 1885 and Feb. 10, 1887, have been preserved 
in the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department. 

69. Robert E. Strahorn, Handbook of Wyoming (Cheyenne, 1877), 
p. 147, states that the Daily Press was a "sprightly twenty-column paper, 
having for its field the largest and perhaps richest county in the Territory." 

70. McMurtrie, Annals, IX, p. 741. 

71. John C. Friend, unpublished MS. in Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 


shipped back to Green River, where once more it was used by the 

E. A. Slack, who, as noted previously, already had published 
newspapers in South Pass City, Laramie, and Cheyenne, began 
publication July 19, 1879, of the Carbon County Journal. In 
November of that year Slack, who was still publishing the Sun 
in Cheyenne, sold the Journal to John C. Friend, who continued 
putting out the newspaper for thirteen years.'-* 

A syndicate of Republicans established the Wyoming Tribune 
in Rawlins on September 19, 1884. Merris C. Barrow, late of 
the iMramie Boomerang, remained the paper's first editor until 
the spring of 1886, when he left to start his own newspaper at Fort 
Fetterman.^' Several editors followed Barrow, but none stayed 
"any length of time."""' Eventually George R. Caldwell bought 
the plant and in June, 1888, moved it to Saratoga, and started 
the Platte Valley Lyre, to be given fuller treatment later on. 

Will Reid gave Rawlins its fourth newspaper, the Laborette, 
on April 8, 1885. A four-column, four-page folio, the paper was 
devoted to Labor interests. But it did not thrive, according to 
Friend, and suspended publication December 8, 1887. 

The Rawlins Republican, which appeared December 20, 1889, 
was the fifth and last newspaper to be published in Rawlins during 
the territorial period. H. B. Fetz, the editor and proprietor, had 
previously published a paper at Bothwell, a "paper town" town 
on the Sweetwater, but according to Friend he became "disgusted 
with the townsite people" and subsequently moved his plant to 
Rawlins," where he successfully conducted the Republican until 
May 1, 1895."'« 

Meanwhile, the Platte Valley Lyre had made its initial appear- 
ance in Saratoga June 7, 1888. George R. Caldwell, already 
mentioned as having bought the Rawlins plant of the Wyoming 
Tribune, was the former owner of a Lander newspaper. Because 
of the tall tales he told, Caldwell had earned the name of "Lurid 
Liar of Lander,"'^ but whether this fact had anything to do with 
his naming his new paper the Lyre has not been estabhshed. In 

72. Ibid. 

73. Ibid. 

74. Margaret Prine, Merris C. Barrow, Sagebrush Philosopher and 
Journalist (Laramie: Universtiy of Wyoming, 1948), p. 31. 

75. Friend, op. cit. 

76. Ibid. There is some confusion as to dates here, for although Friend 
states the Republican came out in 1889, Alfred James Mokler, History of 
Natrona County, Wyoming, 1888-1922 (Chicago: The Lakeside Press, 
1924) p. 29, states Fetz was printing the Sweetwater Chieftain at Bothwell 
in 1890. 

77. Mrs. Laura C. [Huntington] Heath, Rawlins Daily Times, April 4, 


the late eighteen-eighties he sold the paper to W. B. Hugus, who 
in turn disposed of the Lyre to Laura C. and Gertrude Huntington 
in 1890 while Wyoming was still a territory. The Huntington 
sisters were Wyoming's first women editors. Known as the "Lyre 
Girls," they set all the paper's type by hand, "for there were no 
machines in those early days . . ."^'^ 


Northern Wyoming's first newspaper was the Buffalo Echo, 
established in 1883.^" Bancroft notes that it was founded by a 
company and first edited by T. V. McCandlish.*^" On January 1 
of the same year L C. Wynn began publication of the Wind River 
Mountaineer at Lander.'^^ In 1887 the Wyoming State Journal 
began its long life at Lander; today it is one of the few terri- 
torial newspapers still being published. The same year saw the 
establishment of still another Lander newspaper — the Fremont 

Farther east Natrona County was to have four newspapers 
before the date on which Wyoming became a state, but only one 
of the four was destined to live for any great length of time. The 
first paper was the Casper Weekly Mail. James A. Casebeer, 
Casper's third postmaster, and an associate by the name of Lom- 
bard began publication of the newspaper November 23, 1888. 
After his partner's retirement on April 1, 1889, Casebeer contin- 
ued publication alone until May 16, 1890, when he sold out to 
Alex T. Butler. The latter brought out the paper for a little 
more than two years; then, after the issue of January 16, 1891, he 
suspended publication.^"^ 

J. Enos Waite, in the meantime, had launched the Bessemer 
Journal late in the year of 1888, but he was to find putting a paper 
out in this small town was an endless struggle. Waite was the 
editor and business manager from the beginning to the end — an 
end which came abruptly in December, 1890, when his plant was 
seized by creditors. ^"^ 

Of all Natrona newspapers, the Sweetwater Chieftain had the 
shortest life. Published in the town of Bothwell by J. B. Fetz, 
already mentioned as having started the Rawlins Republican either 

78. Ibid. 

79. McMurtrie, Annals, IX, p. 741. 

80. P. 792. 

81. H. G. Nickerson, "Early History of Fremont County," Annals, H 
(July 15, 1924), p. 21. McMurtrie, Annals, IX, p. 741, gives the date as 

82. Nickerson, p. 21. 

83. Mokler, pp. 28-29. 

84. Ibid., p. 29. 


in 1889 or 1890, the Sweetwater Chieftain came out in the spring, 
"blooming forth with the flowers in the Sweetwater valley ... it 
also withered and died with those same flowers in the fall of the 
year."'"'''* But during its brief lifetime the newspaper urged the 
removal of the state capital to Bothwell, the building of a railroad 
through Sweetwater country, the development of gold, silver, and 
copper mines nearby, the drilling of oil wells in the basin, and the 
development of adjoining soda lakes. ''^" 

The fourth Natrona County newspaper to be published during 
territorial days was the Wyoming Derrick. Owned by the Natrona 
County Publishing company and edited by W. S. Kimball, it began 
publication in Casper May 21, 1890. Under a succession of 
owners and managers, the newspaper continued publication for 
sixteen years, when it went the way of its three predecessors.^''' 

In adjoining Converse County at Fort Fetterman, E. H. Kimball 
on May 26, 1886, had already begun distributing the Rowdy 
West.^'^ Kimball told his readers that the composition and press 
work for the first seven issues had been done in Iowa and the copy 
itself had been written in Fort Fetterman.^-' Bert Wagner, an 
early-day reader, later recalled that the Rowdy West was "always 
printed on pink paper similar to the Police Gazette but minus the 
pictures."'*" Kimball, however, was not to have the field to 
himself for long. 

Merris C. Barrow, after remaining in Rawhns on the Wyoming 
Tribune for eighteen months, arrived in Fort Fetterman early in 
1886 to give Converse County its second newspaper. He called 
it Bill Barlow's Budget, and brought out the first issue June 9, 
1886. The Budget, which later was to receive national acclaim, 
was an eight-page weekly costing three dollars a year or "three 
hundred years for SSOO.OO.'"'^ On August 4, 1886, Barrow moved 
his paper to a shack in Douglas in anticipation of the arrival there 
of the Wyoming Central Railroad.''- Either he was a better news- 
paperman than his competitors, or his acidulous editorial comment 
was more telling than theirs, for within a short space of time 
Barrow put out of circulation, one after another, five rival news- 
papers. The first to go to the wall, after only a year of publication, 
was the Rowdy West. Next to die, after an even shorter span of 

85. Ibid., p. 29. 

86. Ibid., p. 29. 

87. Ibid., p. 30. 

88. For complete biography see Progressive Men of Wyoming, p. 856- 

89. Rowdy West, August 8, 1886. 

90. "Reminiscences of the Early Days of Douglas," Annals, II (April 15, 
1925), p. 65. 

91. Bill Barlow's Budget, June 23, 1886. 

92. Prine, pp. 24-25. 


life, was the Douglas Advertiser. The third, the Douglas Repub- 
lican, folded up after thirteen months of publication. Another 
Kimball-edited paper, the Graphic, published at Glenrock, and the 
Converse County News rapidly passed out of existence."-^ It is 
impossible to assess the editorial merits of these ephemeral publi- 
cations since, of them all, only a few copies of the Rowdy West 
are available for examination.''^ A comparison of Kimball's news- 
paper with Barrow's, however, discloses that Kimball printed 
only about half as much news as did the Budget. 

At the time the Converse County newspaper war was raging, 
still other newspapers were putting down roots. From a tent in 
the old town of Silver Cliff on May 20, 1886, issued the first 
number of the Lusk Herald. J. K. Calkins was editor and pub- 
lisher. The Wyoming Central Railroad was being built through 
the country at this time, so a generous portion of the first issue 
was devoted to a discussion of how fast the tracklayers were work- 
ing: "... they lay 60 feet of track to the minute and the iron men 
cannot work more than two-thirds of the time because the tie man 
cannot keep ahead of them ... If not delayed by bridges the 
locomotives will steam into Lusk about June 20. . . ."^"^ 

Farther north, the Stockade Journal, forerunner of the New- 
castle News-Letter Journal, began publication about September 1, 
1888, at Tubb Town, a boisterous settlement two miles from New- 
castle where today only rock steps and foundations remain to show 
that here once was a town. The printers had only a cigar box 
of type with which to start their publishing venture.'"' On Decem- 
ber 10, 1889, the first lots were sold in Newcastle. Within forty- 
eight hours Tubb Town was deserted. Since newspapers must 
have readers, H. C. Hensel and J. L. Stotts, publishers of the 
Stockade Journal, moved to Newcastle with their paper. The fol- 
lowing year Judge F. H. Fall began publishing the Newcastle 
News. In 1891 the two newspapers merged."' 

Nearer the Montana border, Sundance had had a newspaper, the 
Gazette, since 1884. The Wyoming Farmer and the Board of 

93. Ibid., p. 126. However, the Graphic must have been revived at a 
later date because the Bancroft Library reports a copy of this newspaper 
published as a weekly at Glenrock for September 13, 1889. This issue is 
No. 37 of Vol. IV. The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Depart- 
ment has issues for Apr. 13, 1888, and number of scattered issues for 1890, 
1891 and 1892. 

94. Issues of June 2-23, Aug. 8, 10, 1886, July 10-17, 1887, are in the 
Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department. 

95. Velma Linford, Wyoming, Frontier State (Denver: Old West Pub- 
lishing Co., 1947), p. 188. 

96. Wyoming, a Guide to Its History, Higliways, and People (New 
York: Oxford University Press, 1952), p. 358. 

97. Linford, p. 286. 


Trade Journal were being published here in 1888.'*'' Sheridan's 
first newspaper, the Sheridan Post, put out its first edition in May, 
1887, with H. D. Loucks and Thomas M. Cotton as publishers, 
and Cotton as editor."'' In the fall of that year T. T. Tynan and 
Fay Sommers launched the Sheridan Enterprise. ^^^^- South of 
Sheridan the Big Horn Sentinel, a forerunner of the present Buj- 
falo Bulletin, made its appearance in 1887."" Away south in 
Platte County Ira O. Middaugh settled in Wheatland in 1890 and 
began publishing the World, a weekly which he edited for fourteen 
years. "*- 

Wyoming, as McMurtrie has pointed out, was the next to the 
last of all the states to receive the benefits of the printing press, "'-^ 
yet, once the presses began printing, the number of newspapers 
that burgeoned forth might be taken to indicate that Wyoming 
publishers were anxious to compensate for any tardiness on their 
part in establishing their papers. For a few men the newspaper 
proved a steady if not lucrative means of livelihood. For others 
it meant bankruptcy within a few months. Certainly one of the 
chief forces leading to the founding of so many newspapers, as 
their columns show, was the heightening of controversy and the 
heating of emotions in days preceding political elections, although 
papers which had little more than political comment to offer 
their readers seldom survived for very long. 

This study has verified, either by examination of actual copies 
or by noting references to their existence in contemporary publi- 
cations, that seventy-three daily and weekly newspapers were 
established in what is now Wyoming between 1863 and 1890. 
How many other newspapers were published in those years, of 
which no records were kept and of which no copies remain, it is 
impossible to say. 

98. Copies of all three newspapers have been preserved in the Wyoming 
State Archives and Historical Department. 

99. J. D. Loucks, "[Sheridan] County After It Was Organized," Annals, 
IL p. 37. 

100. Ibid., p. 37. 

101. Correspondence with Frank Hicks, publisher of the Buffalo Bul- 

102. Spring, p. 94. 

103. Early Printing in Wyoming and Black Hills, p. 9. 

J^iogmpkieal Sketch 
of^ames Widger 

Maj. Gen. Grenville M. Dodge 

In answer to numerous requests, articles from early volumes of 
Annals of Wyoming which are no longer available will be reprinted 
from time to time in current issues. The following one first appeared 
in Annuls of Wyoming, Vol. 1, No. 3, January 15, 1924. 

At this late day it is a very difficult undertaking to attempt to 
write a connected history of a man who spent a long life on the 
plains and in the mountains, performing deeds and rendering ser- 
vices of inestimable value to this country, but who, withal, was so 
modest that he has not bequeathed to his descendants one written 
word concerning the stirring events which filled his active and 
useful life. 

It is both a duty and pleasure to make public such information 
as I possess and have been able to gather concerning James 
Bridger, and it is eminently proper and appropriate that this 
information should be published at the time when his remains are 
removed to the beautiful spot where they will forever rest, and a 
simple monument erected that posterity may know something of 
the remarkable man whose body lies beside it. 

James Bridger was born in Richmond, Virginia, March 17, 
1804. He was the son of James and Schloe Bridger. The father 
at one time kept a hotel in Richmond, and also had a large farm in 
Virginia. In 1812 he emigrated to St. Louis and settled on Six 
Mile Prairie. He was a surveyor, working in St. Louis and Illinois. 
His business kept him continually from home, and when his wife 
died in 1816 he was away from home at the time, and three little 
children were left alone. One, a son, soon died, the second — a 
daughter, and the third the subject of this sketch. The father had 
a sister who took charge of the children and farm. In the fall of 
1817 the father died leaving the two children entirely alone with 
their aunt on the farm. They were of Scotch descent. Their 
father's sister married John Tyler, who was afterwards President 
of the United States, and was, therefore, uncle by marriage to 
James Bridger. 

After the death of his father and mother Bridger had to support 
himself and sister. He got money enough together to buy a 


flatboat ferry, and when ten years of age made a living by running 
that ferry at St. Louis. When he was thirteen years old he was 
apprenticed to Phil Cromer to learn the blacksmith's trade. Be- 
coming tired of this, in 1 822 he hired out to a party of trappers 
under General Ashley, who were enroute to the mountains. As a 
boy he was shrewd, had keen faculties of observation, and said 
when he went with the trappers that the money he earned would 
go to his sister. 

The Rocky Mountain Fur Company was organized by General 
W. H. Ashley in 1822, and commanded by Andrew Henry. It 
left St. Louis in April, 1822, and it was with this party that Bridger 

Andrew Henry moved to the mouth of the Yellowstone, going 
by the Missouri River. They lost one of their boats which was 
loaded with goods worth $10,000 and while his land force was 
moving up parallel with his boats the Indians, under the guise of 
friendship, obtained his horses. This forced him to halt and build 
a fort for the winter at the mouth of the Yellowstone, and they 
trapped and explored in this locality until the spring of 1823. 

Ashley, having returned to St. Louis in the fall of 1822, arrived 
with his second expedition in front of the Aricara villages on 
May 10, 1823, where he was defeated in battle by the Indians, 
losing one-half his men, his horses and baggage. He then sent a 
courier across country to Henry, who went down the Missouri 
River with his force, and joined Ashley near the mouth of the 
Cheyenne. The United States forces under General Atkinson 
were then coming up the Missouri Valley to quell the Indian 
troubles and Ashley and Henry expected to remain and meet them, 
and their party joined this force under Colonel Leavenworth. 

After this campaign was over, Henry, with eighty men including 
Bridger, moved in August, 1 823, to his fort at the mouth of the 
Yellowstone, and in crossing the country lost two men in a fight 
with the Indians. He arrived at the fort August 23, 1823, and 
found that 22 of his horses had been stolen by the Indians, he 
abandoned the fort, and moved by the Yellowstone to near the 
mouth of the Powder River. Meeting a band of Crows, he pur- 
chased 47 horses. He then divided his party, and in the autumn 
of 1823 despatched the new party under Etienne Prevost, a noted 
trapper and trader. They moved by the Big Horn and Wind 
Rivers to Green River. With this party was Bridger, and no doubt 
it was this party that late in the fall of 1823 discovered the South 
Pass. The South Pass is the southern end of the Wind River 
Mountains and all the country there gives down into a level valley 
until the Medicine Bow Range is reached, some one hundred and 
fifty miles southeast. It forms a natural depression through the 
continent, and it is through this depression that the Union Pacific 
Railroad was built. In those days the pass was known to the 
trappers in the Wind River Valley as the southern route. This 


depression is a basin smaller than Salt Lake, but has no water in it. 
It is known as the Red Desert, and extends about one hundred 
miles east and west, and sixty or seventy miles north and south. 
The east and west rims of this basin make two divides of the conti- 

This party trapped on Wind, Green and other rivers, and in 
1823 to 1824 wintered in Cache Valley on Bear River. So far 
as we have any proof, Bridger was the first man positively known 
to see Salt Lake. It is claimed that a Spanish missionary. Friar 
Escalante, of Santa Fe, visited the lake in 1776. To settle a wager 
as to the course of Bear River, Bridger followed the stream to 
Great Salt Lake and found the water salt. He returned to his 
party and reported what he had learned, and they concluded it 
was an arm of the Pacific Ocean. In the spring of 1 825 four men 
in skin boats explored the shore line, and found it had no outlet. 

Andrew Henry was in charge of the Rocky Mountain Fur Com- 
pany until the fall of 1824, when Jedediah S. Smith took the place, 
and remained Ashley's partner until 1826. Ashley sold the Rocky 
Mountain Fur Company to Smith, Jackson and Sublette in July, 
1826. Bridger trapped in the interest of these men until 1829, 
Christopher Carson being with him this year. The winter 1829- 
1830 Bridger spent on Powder River with Smith and Jackson, and 
in April, 1830, went with Smith by the way of the Yellowstone to 
the Upper Missouri and to the Judith Basin, and then to the yearly 
rendezvous on Wind River, near the mouth of the Popo Agie. 

Sublette left St. Louis April 10, 1830, with eighty-one men and 
ten wagons, with five mules to each wagon and these were the 
first wagons to be used over what was known as the Oregon Trail. 
They reached the Wind River rendezvous on July 16th. 

On August 4, 1830, Smith, Jackson and Sublette sold out the 
company to Milton G. Sublette, Henry Frack, John B. Gervais 
and James Bridger. The new firm was called the Rocky Mountain 
Fur Company, and under these people was the only time the 
company operated under its own name. The trappers divided 
and occupied different sections of the country. Bridger, with 
Fitzpatrick and Sublette, took two hundred men, went into the 
Big Horn Basin, crossed the Yellowstone, then north to the great 
falls of the Missouri, ascended the Missouri to Three Forks, went 
by the Jefferson to the divide, then south several hundred miles 
to Salt Lake, here they obtained the furs collected by Peter Skeen 
Ogden, of the Hudson Bay Company. They then covered the 
country to the eastward, and reached the valley of Powder River 
by the first of winter, traveling in all about 1,200 miles. Here they 
spent the winter. It is probable that during this trip Bridger first 
saw Yellowstone Lake and Geysers, and he was probably the 
first fur trader to make known the wonders of Yellowstone Park. 
He talked to me a great deal about it in the fifties, and his descrip- 
tion of it was of such a nature that it was considered to be 


a great exaggeration, but the development of the park in later years 
shows that he did not exaggerate its beauties and wonders. Bridger 
was evidently well acquainted with its wonderful features. Cap- 
tain Chittenden, in his "The Yellowstone National Park," quotes 
from Gunnison's "History of the Mormons," giving Bridger's 
description of the park as follows: "A lake, sixty miles long, cold 
and placid, lies embosomed among big precipitous mountains. On 
the west side is a sloping plain, several miles wide, with clumps 
of trees and groves of pines. The ground resounds with the tread 
of horses. Geysers spout seventy feet high, with a terrific, hissing 
noise, at regular intervals. Water falls are sparkling, leaping and 
thundering down the precipices, and collect in the pools below. 
The river issued from this lake, and for fifteen miles roars through 
the perpendicular canyon at the outlet, in this section are the 
"Great Springs," so hot that meat is readily cooked in them, and, 
as they descend on the successive terraces, afford at length delight- 
ful baths. On the other side is an acid spring, which supplies 
Vermillion for the savages in abundance. In this admirable sum- 
mary we readily discover the Yellowstone Lake, the Grand Can- 
yon, the falls, the geyser basins, the mammoth springs and Cinne- 
bar Mountains." 

Bridger talked about the Yellowstone Lake and its surroundings 
to every one he met, and it was not his fault that the country was 
not explored and better known until in the sixties. A small lake 
near the headwaters of the Yellowstone has been named Bridger 

In the spring of 1831 Bridger and Sublette started for the Black- 
foot country, where they met a band of the Crows who stole all 
their horses. Bridger led a party of his men in pursuit and recap- 
utred all these horses as well as taking all the ponies of the Crows. 
Fitzpatrick had gone to St. Louis to bring out the winter supplies. 
Bridger and Sublette followed nearly their previous year's route in 
their hunting, and in the fall reached the rendezvous on Green 
River, where they met Gervais and Frack, who were at the head 
of another party of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. 

After leaving St. Louis Fitzpatrick came out with his supplies 
by the way of Santa Fe, and was so long in reaching the rendez- 
vous on Green River that Sublette returned to the Powder River 
to winter, and here they first met the competition of the American 
Fur Company, which finally drove the Rocky Mountain Fur Com- 
pany out of business. Fitzpatrick and Frack joined Bridger here 
on Powder River, but becoming disgusted with the movements of 
the American Fur Company under Vandenburg and Dripps, Fitz- 
patrick and Bridger with their entire outfit moved west some 
four hundred miles to Pierre's Hole, near the forks of the Snake 
River, in the spring of 1832 they moved up Snake to Salt, up that 
stream and across to John Day River, up that river to its head, 
and across to Bear River in the Great Salt Lake Basin. Here 


they again met the American Fur Company, with Vandenburg 
and Dripps. They struck off into a different country, and finally 
rendezvoused again at Pierre's Hole waiting for the surplus from 
the states being brought out by William L. Sublette. At their 
rendezvous concentrated this summer the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company, the American Fur Company, under Vandenburg and 
Dripps; Arthur J. Wyeth with a new party coming mostly from 
the New England States, a large number of free traders and trap- 
pers and numerous bands of Indians, and here occurred the cele- 
brated battle of Pierre's Hole, with the Gros Ventre Indians, which 
was one of the hardest battles fought in an early day on the plains, 
the losses being very heavy. 

The battle of Pierre's Hole, or the Teton Basin, was fought July 
13, 1832. Of the different fur companies and free traders there 
were present some three hundred men and several hundred Indians 
of the Nez Perces and Flathead tribes. The Gros Ventres, about 
one hundred and fifty strong, always hostile to the whites, were 
returning from a visit to their kindred, the Arapahoes. They car- 
ried a British flag captured from Hudson Bay Company trappers. 

When the Indians saw the band of trappers, who were some 
eight miles from the main rendezvous at Pierre's Hole, the Indians 
made signs of peace, but they were known to be so treacherous 
that no confidence was placed in their signs. However, Antoine 
Godin, whose father had been killed by this tribe, and a Flathead 
chief, whose nation had suffered untold wrongs from them, ad- 
vanced to meet them. The Gros Ventres' chief came forward, 
and when Godin grasped his hand in friendship the Flathead shot 
him dead. The Gros Ventres immediately retired to a grove of 
timber, and commenced piling up logs and intrenching. The trap- 
pers sent word to the rendezvous, and when Sublette and Campbell 
brought reinforcements the battle opened, the trappers charging 
the Indians, and finally tried to burn them out, but did not suc- 
ceed. The Gros Ventres, through their interpreter, made the 
trappers believe that a large portion of their tribe, some 800, were 
attacking the rendezvous. Upon learning this the trappers imme- 
diately left for its defense and found the story was a lie, but by 
this ruse the Indians were able to escape. The whites lost five 
killed and six wounded. The loss of the Gros Ventres was never 
fully known. They left nine killed, with twenty-five horses and 
all their baggage, and admitted a loss of twenty-six warriors. The 
Indians escaped during the night and affected a junction with 
their tribe. 

In 1832 the American Fur Company, operated by Vandenburg 
and Dripps, came into the territory of the Rocky Mountain Fur 
Company, which was under Fitzpatrick and Bridger, and under- 
took to follow their parties, knowing that their trapping grounds 
yielded a great many furs. They followed them to the headwaters 
of the Missouri and down the Jefferson. Fitzpatrick and Bridger 


thought they would get rid of them by going right into the Black- 
foot nation, which was very hostile. Finally Vandenburg and 
Dripps located on the Madison Fork on October 14, 1832, and 
near this place the Blackfeet killed Vandenburg and two of his 
men and drove his party out. The Blackfeet also attacked Bridger 
and his party, and in his "American Fur Traders" Chittenden 
gives this account of the wounding of Bridger: 

"One day they saw a body of Blackfeet in the open plain, 
though near some rocks which could be resorted to in case of need. 
They made pacific overtures, which were reciprocated by the 
whites. A few men advanced from each party, a circle was formed 
and the pipe of peace was smoked. It is related by Irving that 
while the ceremony was going on a young Mexican named Loretto, 
a free trapper accompanying Bridger's band, who had previously 
ransomed from the Crows, a beautiful Blackfoot girl, and made 
her his wife, was then present looking on. The girl recognized her 
brother among the Indians. Instantly leaving her infant with the 
Lorettos she rushed into her brother's arms, and was recognized 
with the greatest warmth and affection. 

"Bridger now rode forward to where the peace ceremonies were 
enacting. His rifle lay across his saddle. The Blackfoot chief 
came forward to meet him. Through some apparent distrust 
Bridger cocked his rifle as if about to fire. The chief seized the 
barrel and pushed it downward so that its contents were dis- 
charged into the ground. This precipitated a melee, Bridger re- 
ceived two arrow shots in the back, and the chief felled him to the 
earth with a blow from the gun, which he had wrenched from 
Bridger's hand. The chief then leaped into Bridger's saddle, and 
the whole party made for the cover of the rocks, where a desultory 
fire was kept up for some time. The Indian girl had been carried 
along with her people, and in spite of her pitiful entreaties was 
not allowed to return. Loretto, witnessing her grief, seized the 
child and ran to her, greatly to the amazement of the Indians. He 
was cautioned to depart if he wanted to save his life, and at his 
wife's earnest insistence he did so. Sometime afterwards he closed 
his account with the Rocky Mountain Fur Company and rejoined 
his wife among her own people. It is said that he was later em- 
ployed as an interpreter at the fort below the falls of the Missouri. 

"One of the arrowheads which Bridger received in his back 
on this occasion remained there for nearly three years, or until 
the middle of August, 1835. At that time Dr. Marcus Whitman 
was at the rendezvous on Green River enroute to Oregon. Bridger 
was also there, and Dr. Whitman extracted the arrow from his 
back. The operation was a difficult one, because the arrow was 
hooked at the point by striking a large bone, and a cartilaginous 
substance had grown around it. The Doctor pursued the opera- 
tion with great self possession and perseverance, and his patient 
manifested equal firmness. The Indians looked on meantime with 


countenances indicating wonder, and in their own peculiar manner 
expressed great astonishment when it was extracted. The arrow 
was of iron and about three inches long." 

In the early thirties Bridger discovered the "Two Oceans Pass," 
the most remarkable pass, probably, in the world. It is 8,150 feet 
above the level of the sea. Its length about one mile, and width 
nearly the same. From the north a stream comes from the canyon 
and divides in the pass, part following to the Atlantic waters by 
the Yellowstone and part to the Pacific by the Snake River, the 
two minor streams bearing the names of Atlantic and Pacific 
Creeks. A stream also comes from the south and makes the 
same divergence. Fish by these streams pass from one water to 
the other. Bridger used to tell the story of this river and fish 
passing through it, but no one believed it until in later years it was 
discovered to be true, and it is now one of the curiosities of Yel- 
lowstone Park. 

The first great highway across the plains was no doubt devel- 
oped by Bridger, and his trappers and traders, in their travels, as 
the most feasible route to obtain wood, water and grass. Its 
avoidance of mountains and difficult streams to cross was soon 
made patent to them. It was known in an early day as the 
Overland Trail, and later on as the Oregon Trail. It was estab- 
lished by the natural formation of the country. It was first used 
by the wild animals, who followed the present trail very closely 
in their wanderings, especially the buffalo. Next came the Indians' 
feasible method of crossing from the Missouri River to the moun- 
tains. Following them came the trappers and hunters, then their 
supply trains, first by pack and later by wagon. The first wheeled 
vehicle known to have passed over the trail was a six pound 
cannon taken out by General Ashley to his posts in Utah in the 
summer of 1826, and the first carts to pass over it were those 
taken out by the route the name of the Oregon Trail. Next came 
the Mormons, and following them the great immigration to Cali- 
fornia from 1849 on. 

In his "American Fur Trade" Captain Chittenden gives this 
description of the Overland Trail: 

"As a highway of travel the Oregon Trail is the most remarkable 
known to history. Considering that it originated with the spon- 
taneous use of travelers; that no transit ever located a foot of it; 
that no level established its grades; that no engineer sought out 
the fords or built any bridges, or surveyed the mountain passes; 
that there was no grading to speak of, nor any attempt at metalling 
the roadbed, and the general good quality of this two thousand 
miles of highway will seem most extraordinary. Father DeSmet, 
who was born in Belgium, the home of good roads, pronounced 
the Oregon Trail one of the finest highways in the world. At the 
proper season of the year this was undoubtedly true. Before the 
prairies became too dry, the natural turf formed the best roadway 


for horses to travel on that has probably ever been known. It 
was amply hard to sustain traffic, yet soft enough to be easier to 
the feet even than the most perfect asphalt pavement. Over such 
road, winding ribbonlike through the verdant prairie amid the 
profusion of spring flowers with grass so plentiful that the animal 
reveled on its abundance, and game everywhere greeted the hunt- 
er's rifle, and. finally, with pure water in the streams the traveler 
sped his way with a feeling of joy and exhilaration. But not so 
when the prairies became dry and parched, the road filled with 
stifling dust, the stream beds dry ravines, or carrying only akaline 
waters which could not be used, the game all gone to more hos- 
pitable sections and the summer sun pouring down its heat with 
torrid intensity. It was then that the trail became a highway 
of desolation, strewn with abandoned property, the skeletons of 
horses, mules, and oxen, and, alas! too often, with freshly made 
mounds and headboards that told the pitiful tale of sufferings 
too great to be endured. If the trail was the scene of romance, 
adventure, pleasure and excitement, so it was marked in every mile 
of its course by human misery, tragedy and death. 

The immense travel which in later years passed over the trail 
carved it into a deep furrow, often with several wide parallel 
tracks, making a total width of a hundred feet or more. It was 
an astonishing spectacle even to white men when seen for the first 
time. Captain Raynolds, of the Corps of Engineers, United States 
Army, tells a good story on himself, in this connection. In the 
fall of 1 859 he came south from the Yellowstone River along the 
eastern base of the Big Horn Mountains and struck the trail some- 
where above the first ford of the North Platte. Before reaching it 
he innocently asked his guide, Bridger, if there was any danger of 
their crossing the trail "without seeing it." Bridger answered him 
only with a look of contemptuous amazement. 

It may be easily imagined how great an impression the sight of 
this road must have made upon the minds of the Indians. 

Father DeSmet has recorded some interesting observations upon 
this point. In 1851 he traveled in company with a large number 
of Indians from the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers to Fort 
Laramie, where a great council was held in that year to form 
treaties with the several tribes. Most of these Indians had not 
been in that section before, and were quite unprepared for what 
they saw. "Our Indian companions," says Father DeSmet, "who 
had never seen but the narrow hunting paths by which they trans- 
port themselves and their lodges, were filled with admiration on 
seeing this noble highway, which is as smooth as a bare floor 
swept by the winds, and not a blade of grass can shoot up on 
it on account of the continual passing. They conceived a high 
idea of the "Countless White Nation," as they express it. They 
fancied that all had gone over the road, and that an immense void 
must exist in the land of the rising sun. Their countenances testi- 


fied evident incredulity when 1 told them that their exit was in no 
wise perceived in the land of the whites. They styled the route 
the "Great Medicine Road of the Whites." From 1883 to 1840 
Bridger conducted trapping parties in the interest of the American 
Fur Company through the country west of the Big Horn River, 
reaching to the Snake, and had many fights with and hairbreadth 
escapes from hostile Indians. 

In 1840 he was associated with Benito Vasquez in charge of 
an extensive outfit, which they conducted, in person until 1843, 
when Bridger and Vasquez built Fort Bridger, which seems to have 
terminated Bridger's individual trapping, and his experience as 
the head of trapping outfits. 

In 1842 the Cheyennes and other Indians attacked the Sho- 
shones near the site of Bridger's fort and got away with the stock. 
Bridger at the head of the trappers and Snakes followed them, 
killing many of the Indians, and recapturing part of the stock. 
However, the Indians got away with several of the horses. On 
July 8th, Mr. Preuss, of Fremont's expedition, met Bridger's party 
on the North Platte near the mouth of the Medicine Bow. Writing 
of this meeting, he says: 

"July 8th, our road today was a solitary one. No game made 
its appearance — not even a buffalo or stray antelope; and nothing 
occurred to break the monotony until about 5 o'clock, when the 
caravan made a sudden halt. There was a galloping in of scout 
and horsemen from every side — a hurrying to and fro in noisy 
confusion; rifles were taken from their cover; bullet-pouches exam- 
ined; in short, there was a cry of "Indians" here again. I had 
become so accustomed to these alarms that now they made but 
little impression on me; and before I had time to become excited 
the newcomers were ascertained to be whites. It was a large party 
of traders and trappers, conducted by Mr. Bridger, a man well 
known in the history of the country. As the sun was low, and 
there was a fine grass patch not far ahead they turned back and 
encamped for the night with us. 

"Mr. Bridger was invited to supper, and after the table-cloth 
was removed, we listened with eager interest to an account of 
their adventures. What they had met we would be likely to 
encounter; the chances which had befallen them would likely 
happen to us; and we looked upon their life as a picture of our 
own. He informed us that the condition of the country had be- 
come exceedingly dangerous. The Sioux, who had been badly 
disposed had broken out into open hostility, and in the preceding 
autumn his party had encountered them in a severe engagement, 
in which a number of lives had been lost on both sides. United 
with the Cheyenne and Gros Ventre Indians, they were scouring 
the upper country in war parties of great force, and were at this 
time in the neighborhood of the Red Buttes, a famous landmark, 
which was directly on our path. They had declared war upon 


every living thing which should be found westward of the point; 
though their main object was to attack a large camp of whites and 
Snake Indians who had a rendezvous in the Sweetwater Valley. 
Availing himself of his intimate knowledge of the country, he had 
reached Laramie by an unusual route through the Black Hills and 
avoided coming in contact with any of the scattered parties. 

"This gentleman offered his services to accompany us as far as 
the head of the Sweetwater, but in the absence of our leader, 
which was deeply regretted by us all, it was impossible for us to 
enter upon such as arrangement." 

Fort Bridger, located in latitude 41 degrees 18 minutes 12 sec- 
onds and longitude 110 degrees 18 minutes 38 seconds, is 1,070 
miles west of the Missouri River by wagon road, and 886 miles by 
railroad. Bridger selected this spot on account of its being on the 
overland emigrant and Mormon trail, whether by the North or 
South Platte routes, as both came together at or near Bridger. 

The land on which Fort Bridger is located was obtained by 
Bridger from the Mexican Government before any of the country 
was ceded by Mexico to the United States. He lived there in 
undisputed possession until he leased the property in 1857 to the 
United States by formal written lease signed by Albert Sidney 
Johnston's quartermaster. The rental value was $600 per year, 
which was never paid by the Government. After thirty years the 
Government finally paid Bridger $6,000.00 for the improvements 
on the land but nothing for the land. A bill is now pending in 
Congress to pay his estate for the value of the land. The improve- 
ments on the land, were worth a great deal more money, but after 
the Government took possession it seemed to have virtually ig- 
nored the rights of Bridger. 

The fort occupied a space of perhaps two acres, surrounded by 
a stockade. Timbers were set in the ground and elevated eight or 
ten feet above the surface. Inside this stockade Bridger had his 
residence on one side, and his trading post in the corner directly 
across from it. It had swinging gates in the center of the front, 
through which teams and cattle could be driven safe from Indians 
and renegade white thieves. He owned a large number of cattle, 
horses and mules, and his place was so situated that he enjoyed a 
large trade with the Mormons, gold hunters, mountaineers, and 

In a letter Bridger wrote to Pierre Chotau, of St. Louis, on 
December 10, 1843, he says: 

'T have established a small fort, with blacksmith shop and a 
supply of iron in the road of the immigrants on Black Fork of 
Green River, which promises fairly. In coming out here they are 
generally well supplied with money, but by the time they get here 
they are in need of all kinds of supplies, horses, provisions, smith- 
work, etc. They bring ready cash from the States, and should 
I receive the goods ordered will have considerable business in that 


way with them, and estabhsh trade with the Indians in the neigh- 
borhood, who have a good number of beaver among them. The 
fort is a beautiful location in the Black Fork of Green River, 
receiving fine, fresh water from the snow on the Uinta range. The 
streams are alive with mountain trout. It passes through the fort 
in several channels, each lined with trees, kept alive by the mois- 
ture of the soil.'' 

It was a veritable oasis in the desert, and its selection showed 
good judgment on the part of the founder. 

In 1856 Bridger had trouble with the Mormons. They threat- 
ened him with death and the confiscation of all his property at 
Fort Bridger, and he was robbed of all his stock, merchandise, and 
in fact, of everything he possessed, which he claimed was worth 
$100,000. The buildings at the fort were destroyed by fire, and 
Bridger barely escaped with his life. This brought on what was 
known as the Utah Expedition under Albert Sidney Johnston. 
Bridger piloted the army out there, taking it through by what is 
known as the Southern Route, which he had discovered, which 
runs by the South Platte, up the Lodge Pole, over Cheyenne Pass, 
by the old Fort Halleck, and across the continental divide at 
Bridgets Pass at the head of the Muddy, follows down Bitter 
Creek to Green River, crosses that river, and then up Black Fork 
to Fort Bridger. 

As the troops had made no arrangements for winter, and shelter 
for the stock was not to be found in the vicinity of Salt Lake, 
Bridger tendered to them the use of Fort Bridger and the adjoining 
property, which offer was accepted by Johnston, who wintered 
his army there. It was at this time that the government purchased 
from Bridger his Mexican grant of Fort Bridger but, as heretofore 
mentioned never paid him for the property, merely paying the 
rental, and claiming that Bridger's title was not perfect. This was 
a great injustice to Bridger. His title was one of possession. He 
had established here a trading post that had been of great benefit 
to the Government and the overland immigration, and he was 
entitled to all he claimed. The fort was the rendezvous of all 
the trade and travel, of the Indians, trappers and voyagers of all 
that section of the country. 

Concerning his claim against the Government, under date of 
October 27, 1873, Bridger wrote to General B. F. Butler, U. S. 
Senator, as follows: *** "You are probably aware that I am one 
of the earliest and oldest explorers and trappers of the Great West 
now alive. Many years prior to the Mexican War, the time Fort 
Bridger and adjoining Territories became the property of the 
United States, and ten years thereafter (1857) I was in peacable 
possession of my old trading post, Fort Bridger, occupied it as 
such, and resided thereat, a fact well known to the Government, 
as well as the public in general. 

"Shortly before the so-called Utah Expedition, and before the 


Government troops under General A. S. Johnston arrived near 
Salt Lake City, 1 was robbed and threatened with death by the 
Mormons, by the direction of Brigham Young, of all my merchan- 
dise, stock, in fact everything I possessed, amounting to more than 
$ 1 00,000 worth — the buildings in the fort practically destroyed by 
fire, and I barely escaped with my life. 

"I was with and piloted the army under said General Johnston 
out there, and since the approach of winter no convenient shelter 
for the troops and stock could be found in the vicinity of Salt 
Lake, I tendered to them my so-called fort (Fort Bridger) with 
the adjoining shelter, affording rally for winter quarters. My offer 
being accepted, a written contract was entered into between myself 
and Captain Dickerson, of the Quartermaster's Department, in 
behalf of the United States, approved by General A. S. Johnston, 
and more so signed by various officers on the general's staff such 
as Major Fitz-john Portor, Drs. Madison, Mills and Bailey; Lieu- 
tenant Rich, Colonel Wright, and others a copy of which is now 
on file in the War Department at Washington. I also was fur- 
nished with a copy thereof, which was unfortunately destroyed 
during the war. 

"I am now getting old and feeble and am a poor man, and 
consequently unable to prosecute my claim as it probably should 
be done. For that reason I respectfully apply to you with the 
desire of entrusting the matter into your hands, authorizing you 
for me to use such means as you may deem proper for the success- 
ful prosecution of this claim. I would further state that I have 
been strictly loyal during the later rebellion, and during the most 
of the time in the war in the employment of the Government. 

"Trusting confidently that you will do me the favor of taking 
the matter in hand or furnish me with your advice in the matter 
I have the honor, etc." 

On July 4, 1849, Bridger's second wife, a Ute, died. He had 
been for some time considering the movement of his family to the 
states, where his children could be educated, intending to devote 
his own time to the trading post at Fort Bridger. He went to the 
State in 1850, taking with him his third wife, a Snake woman, and 
settled upon a little farm near Little Santa Fe, Jackson County, 
Missouri. Bridger usually spent the summers on the plains and 
went home winters. In the spring of 1862 Bridger was at his 
home in Little Santa Fe, when the Government called him onto 
the plains to guide the troops in the Indian campaigns. I found 
him there when I took charge of that country in January, 1865, 
and placed him as guide of the Eleventh Ohio Cavalry in its march 
from Fort Riley to Fort Laramie. Bridger remained with them 
in many encounters they had with the Indians and his services to 
them were invaluable. In the Indian campaign of 1865-6 Bridger 
guided General Conner's column that marched from Fort Laramie 
to Tongue River, and took part in the battle on Tongue River. 


Captain H. E. Palmer, Eleventh Kansas Cavalry, Acting Assis- 
tant Adju. General to General P. E. Conner, gives this description 
of the Indian camp on Tongue River, August 26, 1865: 

"Left Piney Fork at 6:45 A. M., traveled north over a beautiful 
country until about 8 A. M., when our advance reached the top 
of the ridge dividing the waters of the Powder from that of the 
Tongue River. I was riding in the extreme advance in company 
with Major Bridger. We were 2,000 yards at least ahead of the 
General and his staff; our Pawnee scouts were there and there was 
no advance guard immediately in front. As the Major and myself 
reached the top of the hill we voluntarily halted our steeds. I 
raised my field glass to my eyes and took in the grandest view that 
I had ever seen. I could see the north end of the Big Horn range, 
and away beyond the faint outline of the mountains beyond the 
Yellowstone. Away to the northeast the Wolf Mountain range 
was distinctly visible. Immediately before us lay the Valley of 
Peneau Creek, now called Prairie Dog Creek, and beyond the 
Little Goose, Big Goose, and Tongue River Valleys, and many 
other tributary streams. The morning was clear and bright, with 
not a breath of air stirring. The old Major, sitting upon his horse 
with his eyes shaded with his hands, had been telling me for an 
hour or more about his Indian life — his forty years' experience 
on the plains, telling me how to trail Indians, and distinguish the 
tracks of different tribes; how every spear of grass, every tree 
and shrub and stone was a compass to the experienced trapper and 
hunter — a subject that I had discussed with him nearly every day. 
Dui-ing the winter of 1863 I had contributed to help Mrs. Bridger 
and the rest of the family, all of which facts the Major had been 
acquainted with, which induced him to treat me as an old-time 

"As I lowered my glass the Major said, 'Do you see those ere 
columns of smoke over yonder?' I replied, 'Where Major?' to 
which he answered, 'Over there by that ere saddle,' meaning a 
depression in the hills not unlike the shape of a saddle, pointing 
at the same time to a point nearly fifty miles away. I again raised 
my glass to my eyes and took a long, earnest look, and for the life 
of me could not see any column of smoke, even with a strong 
field glass. The Major was looking without any artificial help. 
The atmosphere appeared to be slightly hazy in the long distance, 
like smoke, but there were no distinct columns of smoke in sight. 
As soon as the General with his staff arrived I called his attention 
to Major Bridger's discovery. The General raised his field glass 
and scanned the horizon closely, after a long look, he remarked 
that there were no columns of smoke to be seen. The Major 
quietly mounted his horse and rode on. I asked the General to 
look again; that the Major was very confident that he could see 
columns of smoke which, of course indicated an Indian village. 
The General made another examination and again asserted that 


there was no column of smoke. However, to satisfy curiosity 
and to give our guides no chance to claim that they had shown us 
an Indian village and we would not attack it, he suggested to 
Captain Frank North, who was riding with his staff, that he go 
with seven of his Indians in the direction indicated to reconnoitre 
and to report to us on Peneau Creek or Tongue River, down which 
we were to march. I galloped on and overtook the Major,and as 
I came up to him overheard him remark about "these damn paper 
collar soldiers'' telling him there was no columns of smoke. The 
old man was very indignant at our doubting his ability to outsee 
us, with the aid of field glasses even. Just after sunset on August 
27 two of the Pawnees who went out with Captain North had 
discovered an Indian village." 

It was this village that Conner captured the next day, the fight 
being known as the battle of Tongue River. 

In May, 1869, Captain Raynolds was assigned to the explora- 
tion of the country surrounding Yellowstone Park, and I have no 
doubt it was from hearing of Bridger's knowledge of that park 
and its surroundings that caused him to engage Bridger for his 
guide. Bridger was with him about a year and a half, but they 
failed on this trip to enter the park, being stopped by the heavy 
snows in the passes, but they explored and mapped the country 
surrounding the park. 

In 1860 Ned Buntline, the great story romance writer, hunted 
up Bridger at his home in Weston and Bridger gave him enough 
adventures to keep him writing the balance of his life. Bridger 
took a liking to Buntline, and took him across the plains with him 
on a scouting trip. After a while Buntline returned to the East, 
and not long afterwards the Jim Bridger stories commenced to be 
published. One of these was printed every week, and Bridger's 
companions used to save them up and read them to him. Buntline 
made Bridger famous, and carried him through more hairbreadth 
escapes than any man ever had. 

Bridger's first wife was the daughter of a Flathead chief. She 
died in 1846. Her children were Felix and Josephine, both of 
whom were sent to school in St. Louis. Felix enlisted in the spring 
of 1863 in Company I, Second Missouri Artillery, under General 
Totten. He served throughout the Civil War, and later was with 
Custer in his Indian campaigns in Texas and Indian Territory. 
He died in 1876 on the farm near Little Santa Fe, Missouri, having 
returned from Dallas, Texas. 

Bridger's second wife was a Ute, who died July 4, 1849, at the 
birth of her first child, now Mrs. Virginia K. Waschman. Bridger 
brought this child up on buffalo's milk. When she was five years 
old she was sent to Robert Campbell in St. Louis, and two years 
later joined her sister Josephine in the convent. 

When Virginia was about 10 years old she obtained from Mrs. 
Robert Campbell a daguerreotype of her father which was taken 


in 1843. She colored or painted his picture, and in 1902 pre- 
sented it to me, saying: "I am most sure you will be pleased with 
it as a gift from me, and it will remind you of the great old times 
that you and father had when you were out in the mountains 
among the wild Indians. I have often heard my father speak of 
you, and have wanted to see you and tell you a great many things 
that happened when I was a child at Fort Bridger. Before my 
father's death he was very anxious to see you regarding old Fort 
Bridger, but could not find you." 

In 1850 Bridger took as his third wife a Snake woman. He 
bought a little farm near Santa Fe, Mo., and moved his family 
there from Fort Bridger that year. Mary was born in 1853. Wil- 
liam was born in 1857, and died from consumption in 1892. In 
1858 his wife died and [was] buried in Boone cemetery, near 
Waldo Station, Missouri. Bridger was on the plains at the time of 
her death, but returned to Missouri in the spring of 1859, soon 
after he heard of her death, and remained on the farm until 1862. 
This year he rented the farm to a man named Brooks, and bought 
the Colonel A. G. Boone house in Westport. He left his family 
there in charge of a Mr. London and his wife, and on the call of 
the Government in the spring of 1862 he left for the mountains to 
guide the troops on the plains. He remained on [the] plains until 
late in 1869 or 1870. In the spring of 1 871 he moved back to his 
farm near Little Santa Fe. 

Of his life from this time until his death, his daughter Mrs. 
Waschmann, writes me the following: 

"In 1873 father's health began to fail him, and his eyes were 
very bad, so that he could not see good, and the only way that 
father could distinguish any person was by the sound of their voice, 
but all who had the privilege of knowing him were aware of his 
wonderful state of health at that time, but later, in 1874, father's 
eyesight was leaving him very fast and this worried him so much. 
He has often-times wished that he could see you. At times father 
would get very nervous, and wanted to be on the go. I had to 
watch after him and lead him around to please him, never still 
one moment. 

"I got father a good old gentle horse, so that he could ride 
around and have something to pass away time, so one day he 
named his old horse "Ruff." We also had a dog that went with 
father; he named this old, faithful dog "Sultan." Sometimes father 
would call me and say: "I wish you would go and saddle old Ruff 
for me; I feel like riding around the farm," and the faithful old 
dog would go along. Father could not see very well, but the old 
faithful horse would guide him along, but at times father would 
draw the lines wrong, and the horse would go wrong, and they 
would get lost in the woods. The strange part of it was the old, 
faithful dog Sultan, would come home and let us know that father 
was lost. The dog would bark and whine until I would go out 


and look for him, and lead him and the old horse home on the 
main road. Sometimes father wanted to take a walk out to the 
fields with old Sultan by his side, and cane in hand to guide his 
way out to the wheat field, would want to know how high 
the wheat was, and then father would go down on his knees and 
reach out his hands to feel for the wheat, and that was the way he 
passed away his time. 

"Father at times wished that he could see, and only have his 
eyesight back again, so that he could go back out to see the 
mountains, I know he at times would feel lonesome, and long to 
see some of his old mountain friends, to have a good chat of olden 
times away back in the fifties. 

"Father often spoke of you, and would say, 'I wonder if General 
Dodge is alive or not; I would give anything in the world if I 
could see some of the old army officers once more to have a 
talk with them of olden times, but I know 1 will not be able to see 
any of my old-time mountain friends any more. I know that my 
time is near. I feel that my health is failing me very fast, and see 
that I am not the same man I used to be.' " 

Bridger was 77 years old when he died, and was buried on the 
Stubbins Watts farm, a mile north of Dallas, not far south of 
Westport. His two sons, William and Felix, were buried beside 

On Bridger's grave-stone is the following: 

"James Bridger, born March 17, 1804; died July 17, 1881. 
We miss thee in the circle around the fireside. 
We miss thee in devotion at peaceful eventide. 
The memory of your nature so full of truth and love, 
Shall lead our thoughts to seek them among the best above". 

At the time of his death Bridger's home was a long two-story 
house, not far from where he is buried with big chimneys at each 
end. It is now abandoned and dilapidated, with windows all 
broken. It is about one mile south of Dallas. He had 160 acres 
of land. No one lived in the house for years. The neighbors 
say it is haunted, and will not go near it. 

One of his wives is buried in a grave-yard several miles east of 
his grave. I found Bridger a very companionable man. 

In person he was over six feet tall, spare, straight as an arrow, 
agile, rawboned and of powerful frame, eyes gray, hair brown and 
abundant even in old age, expression mild and manners agreeable. 
He was hospitable and generous, and always trusted and respected. 
He possessed in a high degree the confidence of the Indians. He 
was one of the most noted hunters and trappers on the plains. 
Naturally shrewd, and possessing keen faculties of observation he 
carefully studied the habits of all animals, especially the beaver, 
and, profiting from the knowledge obtained from the Indians, with 
whom he chiefly associated, and with whom he became a great 
favorite, he soon became one of the most expert hunters and trap- 


pers in the mountains. The beaver at first abounded in every 
mountain stream in the country, but at length, by being constantly 
pursued, they began to grow more wary and diminish in numbers, 
until it became necessary for trappers to extend their researches 
to more distant streams. Eager to gratify his curiosity, and with a 
natural fondness for mountain scenery, he traversed the country 
in every direction, sometimes accompanied by an Indian, but 
oftener alone. He familiarized himself with every mountain peak, 
every deep gorge, every hill and every landmark in the country. 
Having arrived upon the banks of some before undiscovered 
stream, and finding signs of his favorite game, he would imme- 
diately proceed to his traps, and then take his gun and wander 
over the hills in quest of game, the meat of which formed the 
only diet of the trapper at that early day. When a stream afforded 
game it was trapped to its source, and never left as long as beaver 
could be caught. 

While engaged in this thorough system of trapping no object 
of interest escaped his scrutiny, and when once known it was ever 
after remembered. He could describe with the minutest accuracy 
places that perhaps he had visited but once, and that many years 
before, and he could travel in almost a direct line from one point 
to another in the greatest distances, with certainty of always 
making his goal. He pursued his trapping expeditions north to 
the British possessions, south far into New Mexico and west to 
the Pacific Ocean, and in this way became acquainted with all the 
Indian tribes in the country, and by long intercourse with them 
learned their languages and became familiar with all their signs. 
He adopted their habits, conformed to their customs, became 
imbued with all their superstitions, and at length excelled them 
in strategy. He was a great favorite with the Crow nation, and 
was one time elected and became their chief. 

Bridger was also a great Indian fighter, and I have heard two 
things said of him by the best plainsmen of his time; that he did 
not know what fear was, and that he never once lost his bearings, 
either on the plains or in the mountains. 

In those days Bridger was rich. He was at the Head of great 
trapping parties, and two great fur companies — the Rocky Moun- 
tain Fur Company and Northwestern Fur Company. When he 
became older he spent his winters in Westport, and in the summer 
was a scout and guide for Government troops getting ten dollars a 
day in gold. 

Unquestionably Bridger's claims to remembrance rest upon the 
extraordinary part he bore in the explorations of the West. As a 
guide he was without an equal, and this is the testimony of every 
one who ever employed him. He was a born topographer; the 
whole west was mapped out in his mind, and such was his 
instinctive sense of locality and direction that it use to be said of 
him that he could smell his way where he could not see it. He was 


a complete master of plains and wood craft, equal to any emer- 
gency, full of resources to overcome any obstacle, and I came to 
learn gradually how it was that for months such men could live 
without food except that the country afforded in that wild region. 
In a few hours they would put together a bull-boat and put us 
across any stream. Nothing escaped their vision, the dropping of 
a stick or breaking of a twig, the turning of the growing grass, 
all brought knowledge to them, and they could tell who or what 
had done it. A single horse or Indian could not cross the trail 
but that they discovered it, and could tell how long since they 
passed. Their methods of hunting game were perfect, and we 
were never out of meat. Herbs, roots, berries, bark of trees and 
everything that was edible they knew. They could minister to the 
sick, dress wounds — in fact in all my experience I never saw 
Bridger or the other voyagers of the plains and mountains meet 
any obstacle they could not overcome. 

While Bridger was not an educated man, still any country 
that he had seen he could fully and intelligently describe, and 
could make a very correct estimate of the country surrounding it. 
He could make a map of any country he had traveled over, mark 
out its streams and mountains and the obstacles in it correctly, 
so that there was no trouble in following it and fully understanding 
it. He never claimed knowledge that he did not have of the 
country, or its history and surroundings, and was positive in his 
statements in relation to it. He was a good judge of human nature. 
His comments upon people that he had met and been with were 
always intelligent and seldom critical. He always spoke of their 
good parts, and was universally respected by the mountain men 
and looked upon as a leader, also by all the Indians. He was 
careful to never give his work without fulfilling it. He understood 
thoroughly the Indian character, their peculiarities and supersti- 
tions. He felt very keenly any loss of confidence in him or his 
judgment, especially when acting as a guide, and when he struck 
a country or trail he was not familiar with he would frankly say so, 
but would often say he could take our party up to the point he 
wanted to reach. As a guide I do not think he had his equal upon 
the plains. So remarkable a man should not be lost to history and 
the country, and his work allowed to be forgotten, and for this 
reason I have compiled this sketch and raised a simple monument 
to his memory, reciting upon it briefly the principal facts of his 
life and work. It bears this inscription: 

1 804 James Bridger 1 881 

Celebrated as a hunter, trapper, fur trader and guide. Discov- 
ered Great Salt Lake 1 824, the South Pass 1827. Visited Yellow- 
stone Lake and Geysers 1830. Founded Fort Bridger 1843. 
Opened Overland Route by Bridger's Pass to Great Salt Lake. 
Was guide for U. S. exploring expeditions, Albert Sidney John- 


ston's army in 1857 and G. M. Dodge in U. P. surveys and Indian 
campaigns 1865-1866. 

This monument is erected as a tribute to his pioneer work by 
Major Gen. G. M. Dodge: 


A very important (and scarce) narrative, by his friend, Gen. 
Dodge. Privately printed and none for sale. Printed for Friends 
this work has passed entirely away and is today one of the very 
"Hard" works to find. 

Our MouHtains 

Margaret Brock Hanson 

No one should trespass on this ground 
But those who honor ghosts around, 

Those who hear the spirits speak 
From quiet hill to whispering creek; 

The souls of long departed men 

Who lived and loved and fought to end 

The bitter struggle for food and shelter. 

And the soul's most anguished search for answer 

To man's unanswered quest to know 
God's reason for us here below; 

No one should dig the graves they find 

Nor mar the writings that may bind 
Us to the long departed men 

Who roamed these hills from now to then! 



John Nolan and wife Effie 




Left — skating rink 
Right — Parker Blacksmith Shop, Bailey Dance Hall 

Courtesy Thelma G. Condit 

Zke Mole-i^tke- Wall 

Thelma Gatchell Condit 




The little town of Kaycee on the middle fork of Powder River, 
whose first building was a saloon, came into existence shortly after 
the Cattleman's Invasion. Ideally located where the north and 
south traffic crossed Powder River, and where roads led west and 
east to the Barnum and the Hole-in-the-Wall and the lower 
Powder River country respectively, Kaycee stood in the middle 
of the best cow land in Johnson County, and was from the 
beginning a cowman's town, receiving its name from the K C 
ranch owned by John Nolan. 

In the late '90's Buffalo was the nearest place where mer- 
chandise of any kind could be purchased. The post offices at 
Grigg and Mayoworth and Sussex sold only postal supplies and 
chewing and smoking tobacco. So the stockmen in the southern 
part of the country thought it a good thing to do to set up a store 
in Kaycee where they could buy the bigger share of their ranch 
supplies without the long trip to Casper or Buffalo. So on Sep- 
tember 7th, 1897, the Powder River Commercial Company was 
formed and incorporated with a stock capital of $20,000. John 
and Effie Nolan, husband and wife, deeded a tract of land 420 
feet by 210 feet, described by meets and bounds, to the Powder 
River Commercial Company October 4th, 1897. 

The next spring Jesse and Jim Potts were hired to haul logs 
from the mountains for the building, and Fred and John Winingar 
(from Ono) who were log carpenters, were hired to put up the 
store building (which is now the Grange hall). So well and 
sturdily was it built that even today it is a valuable piece of 
property. The floor was laid on logs instead of lumber, a thing 
that made so many of the early day buildings so completely dur- 
able and substantial. 

"The operations of this company were very successful and 
highly satisfactory to all concerned — they sold on open accounts, 
and through the years of operation collected every outstanding 
account except one, in the amount of $10.00." This store, from 
the time of its establishment, was an institution in the community, 
and many interesting things happened there. Like the time the 


U. P. train robbers (in 1899) reached Powder River and made 
contact with a local citizen for supplies to be purchased at the 
store and delivered to the outlaws down in the brush below town. 
The food had been bought and set out ready to be delivered as 
requested when about forty officers rode into Kaycee. There was 
plenty of hurrying around to get the supplies out of sight and 
to hide the bills that had paid for the groceries for it was crumpled 
and blackened money which had been damaged when the safe was 
blown up in the express car. 

As people round about now began coming to Kaycee for sup- 
plies, it was only natural that the place became a focal point for 
dances and "get-togethers"; and it became more than a drinking 
place for cowboys and outlaws. More buildings were put up 
and more businesses sprang up and it became a busy, active 
little town. 

John Nolan, whose K C ranch holdings also lay across the river 
to the south, was a very community minded man and did much to 
further the advancement of the town, in spite of the fact that he 
did carry on rustling and outlaw operations on the side. As an 
old-timer once said, "There wasn't nothin' old John Nolan 
wouldn't do for no one, that is, if he liked you." John was a 
friendly, likeable sort, and a good neighbor, but if you crossed 
him, folks said, "He could get awful mean." 

His mother-in-law, Mrs. Gantz, ran one of the first hotels in 
Kaycee (location where present Feed Rack is), and it was here 
that John first held his famous March 17th dances.^ The hotel 
lobby and dining room combined provided ample space for the 
dancing crowd, and Mrs. Gantz prepared the food which was 
all a free part of the big affair. Everybody got a shamrock and a 
little white clay Irish pipe for a favor. 

There never was any roughhousing at the March 17th dances. 
Being a husky, broad-shouldered Irishman, John took great pride 
in these dances and his Irish heritage and wanted everything to 
be in order and just right. John wasn't so tall, just broad and 
brawny and quite a fighter when riled. When he took a hand in a 
disturbance, he put an end to it then and there. And when he 
hit, he hit, putting an end to a fight right now. He had that lazy 
kind of a smile — it did not light up his face at all — it merely drew 
his lips back briefly; it made you a little undecided, if you didn't 
know him very well, as to whether he was exactly friendly or not. 
John always wore his pants looped out over the tops of his boots, 
probably because he liked folks to see the fancy ones he always 

1. After the Bailey Hall was built (see picture) Nolan's dances were 
held there and the crowd went up to the hotel for the sumptuous free 
dance supper served at midnight. 


Ura Kirtley, who spent much of his Hfe around Kaycee, tells of 
the first time he saw John Nolan. It was in '97, when he and his 
brother Lock came to Johnson County to buy a cattle ranch. 
They came from the town of Kirtley, 20 miles north and east of 
Lusic, Wyoming. His parents, Mr. and Mrs. S. L. Kirtley (orig- 
inally from Missouri) came to Wyoming in '91 in a covered wagon 
from Oregon and took up a dry-land homestead where they ran a 
little cow outfit. Following is part of an article written by Ura 
Kirtley and published in the Lusk Herald, which tells about the 
early post office named for his parents. 

"In the year 1889 or 1890, dry farmers from Iowa, Wisconsin 
and Missouri settled in what is now known as the Kirtley country. 
At that time it was known as Pleasant Ridge. In 1895 the com- 
munity decided to try for a post office. A petition addressed to 
the proper authorities was sent to Washington and signed by the 
homesteaders, suggesting the name for the new post office as 
Pleasant Ridge, and Mrs. Kirtley as postmistress. After some 
time my mother was notified the post office was allowed and 
that supplies and equipment consisting of saddle bags, cancelling 
stamp, ink pad and a few stamps were at the Vorhees post office 
14 miles away. I went to Vorhees for the supplies and, opening 
the package, we found to our surprise, the cancelling stamp printed 
"Kirtley" instead of "Pleasant Ridge." So with a few wooden 
boxes the Kirtley post office was bom." 

Following the trend so characteristic of the times, the Kirtley 
boys wished to move on to greener pastures, so had started north 
looking for a better location for a cattle ranch. Toward nightfall 
they reached the banks of Salt Creek, swollen and muddy and 
lashing out noisily at its banks. Seeing that it would be utter 
foolhardiness to cross the creek in its present condition they 
decided to stop right there, and straightway unsaddled their horses, 
picketed them out for the much needed food and rest, and set up 
camp for the night. 

They were riding fine horses, purchased from the Vorhees' 
ranch (where Vorhees raised the splendid horses used on his mail 
and stage routes), two grays and a sorrel, descendants of a fine 
Spanish breed, so Mr. Kirtley was told, and outstanding for 
stamina and high physical energy. 

The boys hadn't been camped long when John Nolan came 
along horseback, driving three loose saddle horses. All the 
animals were sweaty and lathered and gaunt from hard, fast travel. 
Seeing the flooded condition of Salt Creek, Nolan asked if he 
might stay with them until the creek went down. He said he'd 
come from the Pumpkin Buttes country bringing back the horses 
someone had swiped from him. He acted pretty nervous and 
restless as if he were expecting trouble of some kind and kept 
looking back as if he might be followed. It was the western 
custom when a stranger came along to roll back your tarp and 


let him in, and share with him whatever you had in the way of 
"grub." So the Kirtleys took him in and found him very nice 
and sociable. When he learned that they were looking for a 
ranch he said he had one up on North Fork he'd sell for 

When they crawled out of bed next morning they couldn't see 
Nolan's horses anywhere. He had just turned them loose, thinking 
"matter-of-factly" that they'd stay with the Kirtley horses. After 
considerable searching the men found them, all four, bogged down 
in the mud around the bend in the creek above camp. Toward 
morning Salt Creek had gone down and apparently Nolan's 
animals had decided to cross over and head for home. It took 
plenty of maneuvering and hard work on the part of the three 
men and the three Vorhees' horses to get them pulled out of the 
bog hole, and then plenty of time and effort scraping the mud 
off one for Nolan to saddle up. That Powder River country mud 
is vicious stuff, sticking and clinging like grim death. 

Nolan thanked the boys for helping him out and invited them 
to come stay with him when they reached Kaycee; said he'd take 
them on up to see that ranch on North Fork. 

So they did and spread their tarp and bedroll out by the side of 
his house (just across the river south and a little west of where the 
present day trailer court is). Tom O'Day was staying at Nolan's 
then and the Kirtleys found him a most entertaining individual, 
and they didn't know until years later that John Nolan had had a 
might strenuous time of it keeping Tom from stealing those Vor- 
hees horses from them. They were such perfect specimens, he 
just couldn't rightly see how he could possibly afford not to take 
them for Curry's outlaw trail. But Nolan won out and Tom 
refrained from his thieving impulse in this particular instance. 

While Lock and Ura were staying at Nolans, Charlotte, Nolan's 
only child was born. They did not see her at that time but knew 
she was there, for when they went in the house for meals, they 
could hear the baby crying in the bedroom. John himself was 
doing the cooking for the men on the ranch. Later his niece, 
Hilda Bailey from Montana, came and lived with them and helped 
with the work. 

The Kirtleys did not buy Nolan's ranch on North Fork, for 
about that time Roe Brock (an uncle of Elmer Brock) came along 
with a big band of sheep which so discouraged them they went 
back home, thinking if the Powder River country was going to 

2. This was the land Pete Griffin (who came to the Powder River 
country as gardener for Plunket and Roche at the N H ranch on E K) 
left John Nolan in his will because he said, "John Nolan was the most 
successful thief on Powder River." The land is now the lower part of the 
Johnny Cash ranch. 


become sheep country they wanted no part of it. And in '99 
their father and mother moved to South Dakota. The amusing 
part of it all was that Ura later returned to the Kaycee area as a 
sheepherder, this so he might learn the sheep business from inside 
out, and then persuade his father to enter the sheep business 
since cattle raising just wasn't as well paying as they had hoped. 

Later and for quite a period Ura clerked in the Powder River 
Commercial Company store. He claims that at one time the 
main street of Kaycee belonged to him by virtue of the fact that 
he and Albert Brock (then a county commissioner) put up the 
money to have it graded for the first time. Mr. Brock put up 
one day's labor, amounting to $4.00 and Kirtley contributed 
$40.00, which was one month's salary. Ura said it was a com- 
plete disgrace the way folks had to step and jump from rock to 
rock when the weather was wet and the mud bad. Jesse and Jim 
Potts had a horse grader and were doing some road work for the 
county up Mayoworth way and they were hired to do the grading 
of Kaycee's main street which was wider than it was long, and 
had never had even a shovel laid to it in way of improvement. 
Kirtley said, "It sounds mighty queer, but I saved money and 
spent some, too, in those days at $40.00 a month. Can't do that 

And people today can't have the fun folks then had at the com- 
munity dances, either. They gave themselves wholeheartedly to 
the business of having a good, wholesome time. When March 
17th rolled around all the womenfolk had new, and mostly home- 
made, dresses for the gala event, and the men who wished to 
spruce up for the occasion were decked out in new blue serge 
suits and white vests and gay, colored ties. Now there was one 
serious drawback to the fancy white vests, the pearl buttons were 
removable and had to be put back on the vest each time it was 
worn (or laundered). This presented the problem, most annoy- 
ing at times, of knowing where the buttons were and, when found, 
of getting them anchored in place with the little bar through the 
two buttonholes. Many a man found himself in an embarrassing 
situation, being "to far under the influence" to do this kind of 
tricky job with buttons on vests. So someone, anyone, had to 
come to the rescue. Drinking often began long before the dance 
started, for people came early and stayed late. 

There was a law in the early 1900's that forbade unincorporated 
towns to have saloons. This included Kaycee which was still not 
populated enough to be incorporated; but nevertheless whiskey 
was to be had. At the time Alex Cunningham was running the 
Powder River store and Kirtley was working there, John Nolan, 
Tom Gardner, Lou Webb and others had barrels of whiskey in 
the cellar of the store (whiskey then cost $2.60 a gallon) and 
it would be passed out free to the right people. A jugful would 


be run off and put in the icebox upstairs, and from it the men 
filled their half pint leather-covered, hip pocket flasks. Sometimes 
a real special person would be allowed to take home a whole pint 
at a time. Alex was a very good store man and a most con- 
scientious, honest employee, "but on occasion would lean toward 
the excessive use of liquor," it was said. And John Nolan def- 
initely sav/ to it that all his friends, every one of them, had what 
they needed in that line; but, as said before, he allowed no one 
at all to get out of line at his St. Patrick's Day dances. It was 
very seldom that a man got too drunk in those days. They all 
liked to dance too much to be incapacitated by too much liquor. 

Mrs. Gantz, Effie Nolan's mother, had a "walk-in" icebox in 
her hotel, about 8 feet high by 4 or 5 feet wide, lined with tin 
or galvanized iron, with the large ice compartment on top. It 
took a lot of ice and a strong man to keep it supplied, but it was 
worth it, for a whole beef could be kept in it. This for a limited 
time, however, for there was no way to get away from the ever- 
present dampness and moistness coming from the melting of the 

If the hotel business was slack in the dining room, Mrs. Gantz 
would sell beef to people about town, to dispose of it before the 
inevitable mold took over and spoilage occurred. It was said 
that many a rustled steer found his way into the icebox, and 
paying guests often suspected (but couldn't prove, of course) that 
they were actually eating their own beef. Whether this were true 
or not, the beef was delicious and assured an ample supply of 
good old beef sandwiches for the midnight dance suppers, along 
with cakes of all kinds and descriptions. At 12 o'clock sharp, 
the musicians played the "supper waltz" and couples paired off 
for supper and going home. It was the custom that when a 
fellow asked for the supper waltz he, as a matter of course, gained 
the privilege of escorting the young lady home. This was a most 
exciting time for girls having their first dates. They could hardly 
wait to see who'd ask them for the supper waltz. Of course, 
they reserved the right of refusing, if the man did not suit their 
taste. Married men always got their wives for this dance, no 
matter how much they neglected them before and after. A wife 
could be sure of 3 dances with her spouse — the first, the supper 
and the last one, "Home, Sweet Home." Usually, for the rest 
of the evening, she was on her own. 

It was not uncommon to see Ed Goble, who worked for the 
Hesse outfit, or some other square dance caller standing on a 
chair in the doorway between the lobby and dining room hollering 
out loud and clear, above the music, the changes in the squares. 
Speaking of Ed brings to mind the time Tom Baker was camped 
out in the pasture south of the Hesse ranch house (on Crazy 
Woman Creek). Tom worked for Mr. Zindel as a teamster and 


always stopped at Hesse's coming and going from the ranch (now 
the Eldon Keith ranch) to Buffalo. Tom always brought out 
several jugs of booze and the cowboys always showed up when 
he pitched camp to help him empty a jug or two. This particular 
time they arrived too late and old Tom was sound asleep, drunk 
asleep, with his bed rolled out under the wagon. He was peace- 
fully and loudly snoring away and the boys hated to disturb his 
slumbers, so Goble dared a cowboy (just a raw kid) to get his 
rope and go over horseback and get the jug they'd seen sticking 
out from under Tom's head. The kid did, "roped the neck of the 
jug as pretty as you please" and jerked it out from under Tom's 
head without a bobble. The boys had a big celebration that night 
in the bunk house, as big as one jug would permit. When they 
concluded it was time to hit the hay, there was just one nice big 
drink left in the jug. After due consideration they agreed that the 
fellow who had the best dream that night would get that last drink 
first thing next morning. So at sunup next day, while donning 
their riding gear, it came to pass that only Ed and a fellow called 
Munk Bridges had had a dream. Munk told his first and when 
Ed's turn came he said, "By golly, Munk, that sure was a good 
dream all right, but I had one that'll beat that — you know I had a 
real humdinger of a dream — I dreamt that I got up in the middle 
of the night when you fellahs were asleep and drank that whiskey, 
and by God! that dream came true. 1 drank every last drop." 

Fat Jack Handy was another square dance caller in Kaycee. 
As- to build, he was almost square, a "Mr. 4 by 5", and had round 
marble eyes and a loud, husky voice. He always wore long red 
underwear ("union suits" they were called), which invariably 
showed above his pants. Sometimes the red underwear was his 
only shirt, relieved by wide suspenders holding up his britches. 
He'd stand on a soap box out in the middle of the floor and call 
out the changes, all the while waving his arms like windmill 
blades and sweating like mad, and "Man, how they'd rock that 
building." The Bailey hall shook so when a big crowd was danc- 
ing that you'd think any minute it would collapse, but it never did 
and is still standing as staunch and shaky as ever. It was just 
built that way, it seems. 

Not yet having gotten the gay rhythm out of their systems with 
the square dances, certain male individuals would entertain the 
crowd (and tax the working arms of the almost exhausted musi- 
cians) by dancing jigs to the popular tune, the "Irish Washer- 
woman." Ed Goble, Hugh Riley (who never danced any other 
dance) and Bob Taylor were popular jiggers. There seemed to 
be no limit to their energy — the louder the crowd would clap, 
the faster and harder they'd go. To those watching for the first 
time it seemed to be an endurance contest between the fiddler 
and the "jigger." Could Edgar Simmons play faster than the man 


could jig, or could the man jig faster than Edgar could play. 
Made one think of Pope's couplet, 

"Light quirks of music, broken and uneven, 
Made the soul dance upon a jig to Heav'n." 

But it always turned out that Edgar could play as fast and as long 
as the fellow could jig, and the fellow could jig as long as Edgar 
could play. They invariably came out even; it was a tie. 

Bob Taylor, who hailed from around the Lusk country (I think) 
was an N H cowhand, a handsome fellow and an accomplished, 
smooth dancer, a fact making him most popular with the female 
population. He was tall and had that aloof placid, indifferent 
attitude that women found so irresistable. An old fellow said, 
"When a ladies choice was called and the smoke cleared away, 
there was Bob under a pile of women, all fightin' and clawin' at 
each other to get at Bob first." 

If Bob Taylor was popular, another N H cowhand, a Bill 
somebody, was not. He was a good enough looking fellow, 
heaven knows, but there was just something about him that did 
not appeal to the ladies. Everybody is dull, stupid and uninter- 
esting at times, even a genius is ordinary at times, but poor Bill 
was unfortunate enough to be dull and uninteresting at all times, 
especially at a dance. Nobody at all would dance with him; but 
he never gave up trying and faithfully and stupidly made the 
rounds, only to be flatly and often rudely refused. For one thing, 
he was a poor dancer, had no sense of rhythm and was also 
clumsy and awkward; and then, worst of all, he sometimes had a 
peculiar odor about him which even when it wasn't there made 
you think of it anyway everytime you laid eyes on him. One old 
lady years later offered an opinion on the subject. She said, 
"Bill was definitely a "Saturday-nighter" about bathin', and, 
weather favorable, just took a hunk of homemade laundry soap 
and went down to Powder River. He didn't see no sense in goin' 
to the bother of heatin' up a tubful. You know, that homemade 
soap would curdle any kind of water. You couldn't expect 
nothin' in the way of cleanin' to come outta that rancid soap and 
alkali water, just mixed up body stink, soap stink and alkali water 
stink." Anyway, whatever it was, it wasn't pleasant, not even a 
wee whiff. Made you think of an old slimy mud hole, only worse. 

One night Bill came to the dance all togged out in a new serge 
suit, thinking foolishly that maybe "clothes made the man." But 
new suit and all his luck was even worse than usual, for in the 
course of the evening he got himself into a fist fight which also 
went against him and he came out of the fracas with a black eye 
which soon puffed completely shut. Several young ladies, bolder 
than most, decided to "job" poor Bill and pretended sweet concern 
over his damaged face and offered softly to doctor it up for him. 
Picking up his ears like a cutting horse at these unexpected words. 


Bill overeagerly followed the girls into the hotel kitchen, where 
they propped him back in a chair and told him to close his eyes. 
Then going to the icebox they took out a nice, round pat of butter 
about the size of a saucer and placed it carefully over the black 
eye and then placed a dish towel firmly around his head. They 
told him to put his hands over his face to keep it in place, which 
he did, while they quietly slipped out of the kitchen and away to 
the dance. Soon poor Bill found himself in a "buttery" mess, little 
greasy trickles running down his neck, into his hair and onto the 
new serge suit. When he realized what a fool he'd been, he was 
fighting mad again, which helped neither his eye nor his ruined 
suit nor his wounded pride. Next morning the bunk house gang 
asked him how he felt, and grinning sheepishly he said he felt 
"like a beer keg with 9 'arrer' holes in it." 

They laughed uproariously and dubbed him "Butter-eye Bill," 
a name he carried the rest of his life. It is said that he left the 
Powder River country years later and went up into Montana 
where the water ran fresher and the soap was store bought and 
eventually married a shy little schoolteacher, who thought he was 
very nice. 

Another special feature of the March 17th dances was the prize 
waltz. Only the very best dancing couples got up and tried for 
the prize, which never amounted to much, actually. It was the 
honor of winning it that counted. 

,When Vivienne Hesse attended a dance she was the "belle of 
the ball" and the "winner of prizes." She was constantly sought 
for a partner because she was so very gracious and gayly flirta- 
tious and such an outstandingly beautiful dancer. Often she'd 
ask Edgar Simmons to play her favorite schottishe and dare him 
to play faster than she and her partner could dance, but he 
never could play faster than her tiny feet could fly over the floor. 
One time, particularly remembered, she was wearing a black velvet 
dress with white fur around the bottom, her feet never but a few 
inches off the floor and going so fast it seemed she surely must be 
mechanically wound on springs, such was her seemingly untouched 
reserve of energy. She was a small, daintily built, very feminine, 
very pretty woman (and still is). There were many good dancers 
in those days, both men and women, but Vivienne excelled them 
all and was ever the gayest, happiest person in the crowd. 

The "2-step," "3-step" and "5-step" were popular dances. Mart 
Tisdale loved to "5-step" and Edgar had special tunes for all 
these preferences, like the "Seaside Gallop" and "Dill Pickles" 
(which his son George still plays). As said before he loved to 
please the dancing crowd in every little way, and how they loved 
him for it and how they danced and danced. 

Ura Kirtley cut quite a figure, too, in his blue serge suit, white 
vest and purple tie. He was a dashing figure, good-looking and 
out for fun. He'd write the names of the girls he was going to 


dance with on the wall of the hall and then cross them off as he 
danced with them. And you can bet that all the girls vied for a 
chance to have their names on the wall. Ura would also sit in 
and chord at the piano or organ to spell the regular musician, as 
did Doc Mitchell when he came to Kaycee. 

Doc contributed mightily to the general gaity, for he was not 
only a fine musician, but a happy-go-lucky person who was 
forever laughing, singing and chuckling to himself. He had a 
fine tenor voice and would break out singing at the least excuse, 
or no excuse at all. He guarded against gloom by meeting each 
day with a sense of humor. Could be he'd read Henry Ward 
Beacher's words that said, "A man without mirth is like a wagon 
without springs — he is jolted disagreeably by every pebble in the 
road.'' Anyway Doc scattered his good spirits around. He spent 
his happiness and squandered it and shared it, and wherever he 
went everybody had a good time. He sang "barbershop" songs 
and classical songs, his favorite one being 'The Rosary." He 
could play "honkytonk" music and good lively dance tunes, most 
anything you'd want to hear or the occasion demanded. 

Doc was built short and round; his head was as bald as a nest 
egg on top. When he was standing, his arms seemed too long 
for the rest of him, or else his legs were made too short. He was 
an oddly built, fleshy-faced little fellow, but rather nice looking 
in spite of it. 

When any prank was to be played on a "greenhorn," or anybody 
else for that matter, Doc was right in the middle of it. Like one 
time, a flashy young traveling man came into town and imme- 
diately and brazenly demanded, "Tell me where 1 can find a 
pretty girl for the night." One fellow replied, "We don't have 
no pretty girls in this town, man." Then Doc Mitchell and Frank 
Daniels, a big, husky cowboy, decided to work the man over, 
he was just too fancy. So very confidentially they told him to 
come with them and they started walking over across the bridge 
south toward John Nolan's place. When they came to the willows 
and bushes along the creek bottom they grabbed him, rolled him 
roughly on the ground, drug him around awhile by the feet and 
Doc put his knee on the fellow's head and slipped it off (called 
"knee-slipping," used often by fellows on roundups). The sales- 
man finally got loose (he was a scrapper himself) and came 
tearing back across the bridge, fancy garters flapping, shirt torn 
and hat gone, and hot on his trail came Doc puffing and panting 
with his six-shooter in a long holster hitting the ground every jump 
he made. The young man yelled out at the top of his lungs, "My 
God, ain't there any law in this town?" And somebody yelled 
back, "No, hardly any." 

Doc was quite a drinking man and liked the rough element 
around Kaycee. He'd rather get drunk and sing than anything 
else. He was just a rough country doctor, but a good one. All his 


hilarity was dropped and he attended strictly to business when 
sickness was involved. As one man said, "He never came and 
pushed things at you. He just did what he could and wasn't 
worried about pay." When serious illness occurred he stayed long 
hours with his patients and worked hard to save their lives. He 
would make trip after trip, long miles up or down river to see sick 
people as long as he could help them. 

He had a little old Model T Ford without a top — a "bug" sort 
of contraption he got around in when condition of weather per- 
mitted. He could jump mud puddles and hit cow trails with it. 
There weren't many roads to follow then. He always wore sheep- 
skin chaps in cold weather to keep himself warm on the long 
jaunts. If he couldn't get there by Ford, he'd switch to a horse; 
thus he was always prepared for any weather eventuality. 

Doc had two wives while in Kaycee. No one recalls much 
about the first one, apparently she just "up and left," couldn't take 
the life there. After awhile Doc went to Cheyenne and came back 
with a pretty redheaded wife, by whom he had two children, a boy 
and a girl. They lived in what is now called the "goat house," a 
little log building on the street back of the present Hole-in-the- 
Wall Bar.-^ 

When Doc's pretty redheaded wife wanted him for anything, 
she'd step outside and call him with a trill, a real high, sharp trill 
(like men nowadays call sheep or cattle at feeding time). Seemed 
as. if Doc could always hear her and he'd come a-running. 
( Jim Mitchell Johnson, who still lives in the middle fork of 
Pbwder River country carrying on the ranching operations of his 
late father, W. T. Johnson, was named for Doc Mitchell. ^ Mrs. 
Johnson, a frail little woman really had no business having a 
second child, everybody said, for she had a bad heart condition 
and little enough strength as it was to cope with hard ranch living, 
without another baby to look after. But she very much wanted 
another baby and she had all the faith in the world in Doc 
Mitchell. She just knew he'd bring her through and he did, 
although she herself never knew how near he came to not pulling 
her through. It was a long, drawn out labor and only God Him- 
self saw fit to let her live. She was so very delighted with her 
new son and so very grateful to Doc for his long hours of patient 
ministering that she called the baby Jim Mitchell Johnson, and 
so he is still called tbday. He never was called Jim alone, it has 
always been Jim Mitchell as his mother wished, as a tribute to a 
fine doctor, and, needless to say, he was a very spoiled, indulged 
young man from the very beginning. 

3. In later years the house fell into a tumbled down condition due to 
disuse and some family kept their goats on the premises, since there was a 
stout fence around the place. Hence the name "goat house." 


Delia Eldridge, an old woman still living in Kaycee, tells of the 
time her sister first came out from Chicago to visit her. She was 
not very much impressed with our wide open spaces on first sight, 
either. Rather than have her ride on the stage from Buffalo to 
Kaycee, Delia had a friend of the family, Jimmy Jarrard, bring her 
out in his new car. At that time an unprogressive, grouchy old 
codger lived on the west side of North Fork right by the road 
(across from the old Earl Dawson place). He had no use what- 
ever for these insane, fast moving vehicles and resented their 
speeding by his house (at 25 or 30 miles an hour), so he decided 
to put an end to it then and there. He hauled a lot of dirt out on 
the middle of the road in front of his place and piled it in big 
humps to make big bumps, so cars would get a good jolt and 
maybe turn over, he hoped. 

As always Jimmie Jarrard had had a few too many drinks and 
completely forgot about the bumps at North Fork until he'd hit 
the first one ker-whack. Delia's sister, not anticipating such a jolt, 
flew up out of the seat and hit her head on something, cutting it 
severely. She was bleeding profusely when they reached Kaycee 
and Doc Mitchell. Already completely unnerved from the long 
ride and the accident, the girl took one look at Doc and promptly 
went into hysterics, screaming and crying and telling him to stay 
away from her, because he didn't look like any doctor to her and 
she wasn't going to have any old country quack touching her head. 
She said she'd rather bleed to death by herself than have him kill 
her, as she knew he would from the looks of him. But there were 
plenty of people to hold her down and her head was stitched up 
and attended to in spite of her foolish fit. 

The really surprising thing about the whole incident was that 
when she returned to Chicago and consulted her own physician he 
said that whoever had taken the stitches in her head had done an 
expert job and that he himself could have done no better right 
in his own hospital. And I might add, the girl grew to love 
Johnson County and the people on Powder River as she continued 
to come west on visits. 

When the Salt Creek oil field boom started, Doc Mitchell moved 
to Lavoye and became a staff doctor for an oil company there, 
which, no doubt, was more profitable professionally. In later 
years, he died of pneumonia. In those days, pneumonia was 
almost always fatal to fat people and Doc was fat. After her 
husband's death, Mrs. Mitchell moved back to Cheyenne to live. 

As the years passed and more people arrived, another type of 
entertainment was enjoyed in Kaycee and that was the popular 
"stag dinners." They became quite the fad and it seemed the 
least excuse would be drummed up for having one. There were 
quite a few bachelors around Kaycee and vicinity and the men 
liked to get together and eat and drink. These affairs were 
always invitational (and by no means confined strictly to bach- 


elors), but no man who might happen along was ever excluded. 
He was told to go shave and clean up and join the party. They 
were held in the Grigg Hotel. Judge Grigg, as noted previously, 
was an old roundup cook and pretty handy at cooking "man- 
style," especially meat. He was an excellent suppher of food, 
would get the very best of everything obtainable, even sent to 
Denver for out-of-season vegetables and extra food treats to glad- 
den the stomachs of the party makers, knowing full well that, as 
Thomas Edison once said, "The stomach is the only part of man 
which can be fully satisfied." 

Across the alley back of the hotel was a log cabin where Alex 
Cunningham, Billy Summers and other bachelors lived. It was 
"official bachelor headquarters," and after the big dinner, men 
would go to the cabin for the drinking party that was the "grand 
finale" of the evening's festivities, the finishing touch to a perfect 
stag party. 

One old fellow recalling these times said, "Now if women had 
been present, we'd all been conscious of the improper table service, 
the dirty floor and the crudeness of our surroundings; they would 
say the Grigg Hotel was not fancy enough for so fine a party, 
but we men didn't even care about how many forks we had. We 
just let go and enjoyed the good food and good companionship 
and ate and drank to our heart's content. Those were good 
times — good food and good liquor, good friends." 

Robert Tisdale and his brother John of the T T T ranch, 
usually spent the winters in Canada, so before they left in the fall, 
a party was held in their honor; and when they returned in the 
spring, their homecoming called for another party, and so it went. 

R. E. Taylor, who bought the Zindel saloon, would come down 
from Buffalo and put on a party, if no one else was in the mood. 

At that time Gray Norval, who still lives in Buffalo, with his 
relative, Nick Babson, and a Mr. E. N. Smith were running 
sheep on the J — U ranch below Kaycee (just east of the old 
" '76"). This was formerly the old Ellis ranch. Gray said after 
he sold out his sheep business and moved to Buffalo, he'd still go 
back for every stag party held in Kaycee for "they were really 
something to attend." 

The following excerpt from an early newspaper tells of one of 
the parties: 

From Buffalo Voice clipping (date not there) 

"A love feast will be held at Kaycee next Monday night, and 
will be given by Robert Tisdale, John May, Alex Cunningham, 
Ura Kirtley, Chas. Cranston and Judge Grigg, those princes of 
good fellows, who are royal entertainers, and who expect their 
guests to enjoy themselves and are disappointed if they do not. 
A number have been invited from Buffalo to attend this "blow- 
out," among whom are R. E. Taylor, O. N. Quick, Fred Pettitt 
and F. G. S. Hesse; and all these gentlemen expect to be present 


if it takes the last shingle from the room. They will also take the 
Italian orchestra along, and while Kaycee gentlemen treat to the 
best the season affords, they will be treated to some of the best 
music that can be obtained." 

The Italian orchestra mentioned was a 4 piece traveling band. 
They'd stop and play for their meals and a little silver, and, while 
quite lively musically, never seemed to settle long in any one place, 
here today, gone tomorrow. 

The first dance remembered at Barnum or the Hole-in-the-Wall 
country was at the old N H, when Jim Stubbs paid Butch Cassidy 
$1500 in gold pieces for the Blue Creek Ranch. Rap Harrell, a 
Potowatomi Indian, born in Eastern Iowa (some said his father 
was a squaw man and his mother a full-blooded Sioux) who was 
then hanging out in the Hole-in-the-Wall, brought the deed to the 
ranch to Jim Stubbs a few days later since Cassidy, all of a 
sudden, found it necessary to disappear for a time and was there- 
fore unable to deliver the document himself. 

(To Be Continued) 

Medicine Mountain 


Hans Kleiber 

In the north end of the Bighorns, 
Ten thousand feet above the sea, 
On top a flattened, windswept mound, 
A now forgotten race of men 
Have left a wheel of natural stones 
Whose past is wrapped in mystery. 
To east and northward rounded crests 
With timbered valleys in between, 
Lie brooding in the summer sun 
Rimmed with drifts of lingering snow, 
But south and west its sprawling top 
Breaks into cliffs and slopes that fall 
By leaps into the plains below. 


The wheel is built haphazardly 
Of stones as found and gathered from 
The shale and limestone rims nearby 
Imbedded loosely, end to end, 
By time into the alpine sod. 
Its hub had been a shelter, once, 
That may have held a man in prayer, 
Or some lone dreamer of his kin. 
And from it spokes run to its rim. 
As rays would from a pictured sun, 
Uneven, as to length and breadth, 
Or due regard to cardinal points. 

Did ancient men once worship here 
To supplicate their deities 
For easement of their lot on Earth? 
Or try to chart the moon and stars 
In their celestial courses? 
Perhaps they pondered hfe and death, 
Man's age-old source of hopes and fears 
Since twilight of primeval dawn. 
They may remain for all time mute, 
Except, for scattered artifacts. 
They left but little to reveal 
From whence they came, or who they were. 

When first the white men found the wheel. 
They asked the Indians, who then claimed 
These parts their hunting grounds, 
What they, by chance, knew of the wheel, 
And whether they made use of it. 
But their replies were vacant stares, 
Except for one old, sightless buck. 
Who mumbled, "Heap bad Medicine," 
And then with sign talk plainly told 
That he had nothing more to say. 
And thus, a white old timer claimed 
How Medicine Mountain got its name. 


d c 
< 2 





m - 

OvedaHd Stage Zrail- Zrek J^o ,2 

Trek No. 12 of the Emigrant Trail Treks 
Sponsored by 


Carbon County Historical Society and Sweetwater Historical 

Societies under the direction of 

Paul Henderson, Lyle Hildebrand, Maurine Carley 

Compiled by 

Maurine Carley - Trek Historian 

August 5-6, 1961 

Caravan — 22 cars 68 participants 


Captain Col. Wm. R. Bradley, head of the Wyoming 

Highway Patrol 

Guide Paul Henderson 

Assistant Guides... .Leeland Grieve, G. A. Willis, Harry Lambert- 
sen, Vernon Hurd, John Dickson 

Wagon Boss Lyle Hildebrand 

Assistant Bosses Kleber Hadsell, Adrian Reynolds 

Historian Maurine Carley 

Topographer H. M. Townsend 

Photographers Charles Ritter, Paul Henderson 

Registrar Geneva Hildebrand 

Cooks Vera Ritter, Elizabeth Hildebrand, Robert 

Vivian, John Niland 

NOTE: Numbers preceding "M" indicate distances on the Over- 
land Stage Trail northwesterly from Virginia Dale Stage 

Saturday - August 5 

8:30 A.M. It was a bright, sunny morning when the crowd 
assembled at the Pick Ranch turn-off on State Highway 130, 
seven miles north of Saratoga, Wyoming. Old friendships were 
renewed and new ones begun. 


By Colonel Archie R. Boyack 

As we stand here this beautiful morning, August 5th, 1961, 
assembled for a day's adventure along the Old Overland Trail of 
yesteryear, it is fitting that we pay tribute to the one, who, in years 
past has been our organizer and leader of these historic journeys 
along famous Old Emigrant Trails of early Wyoming. 

The life of the late Loren Clark Bishop was one dedicated to 
an ideal. He was born at Old Fort Fetterman in 1885, a place 
located near Douglas, Wyoming, in Converse County, a spot rich 
in historical lore. In this locale young Loren Clark Bishop caught 
the spirit and atmosphere of the early West. The love of early 
Wyoming history dominated his life, especially in his later years. 

By profession Mr. Bishop was an engineer. He served his 
native State, Wyoming, as State Engineer for many years. For 
his outstanding contributions in his chosen field, he was awarded 
a Doctor of Laws Degree by the University of Wyoming in 1952. 

In the historical field Mr. L. C. Bishop was a charter member 
of the Wyoming State Historical Society, also an active member 
in the Wyoming Pioneer Association. His skill at historical map 
drawing is attested by many hundreds of people. Working through 
the Wyoming Pioneer Association, his mapping program identified 
old emigrant trails, stage, express and freight roads across Wyo- 
ming. For the Pony Express Centennial alone, he worked two 
years locating the spots where some thirty-eight (38) Pony Ex- 
press stations were located, for the historic re-run of 1960. 

In his travels over the Trails, Mr. Bishop used a metal detector 
and was rewarded by finding old bullets and shell cases from four 
to eight inches under the soil. With this device he located the 
exact site of the Fetterman Massacre which occurred on December 
21st, 1866, a few miles north of the site of Old Fort Phil Kearny 
in northern Wyoming. Finding this site added to his collection 
of artifacts, such as buttons from soldiers uniforms, bullets, etc. 

On November 16, 1960, on behalf of the American Association 
for State and Local History of Madison, Wisconsin, a formal 
presentation was made to L. C. Bishop of a National Award for 
marking historical sites in Wyoming. In 1954, he also received 
an historical award from the Wyoming State Historical Society at 
its annual meeting. 

In organizing the many historical treks across Wyoming, Mr. 
Bishop was a competent leader, understanding and tactful. Be- 
cause of his efforts on behalf of these history-making events, many 
hundreds of people have first hand information about Wyoming 

In his home life Mr. L. C. Bishop was a devoted family man. 
He is survived by his faithful wife Claire, and four sons and 
daughters: Colonel Lon E. Bishop, Army Engineer, Ogden, Utah; 


Floyd A. Bishop, Civil Engineer, Lander, Wyoming; Mrs. Edward 
Halsey of Newcastle, Wyoming and Mrs. James Froggatt, of 
Morro Bay, California. Fourteen grandchildren and one great- 
grandchild make up his fine family. 

In future years, as the people traverse the Old Pioneer Trails 
of our beloved state, Wyoming, we will find the name of L. C. 
Bishop written in indelible letters as one who, more than any other 
person, retraced and mapped that history-making route of our 
pioneer forebears across the prairies and mountain passes of 
wonderful Wyoming. 

As one of the good and honorable men of the earth, Mr. Bishop 
has left to his posterity a heritage of integrity and uprightness. 
And in his passing the sentiments enclosed in those famous lines 
from Tennyson's "Crossing The Bar", might summarize, in part, 
this good man's philosophy as death closed his active life. I 
quote : 


Sunset and evening star. 

And one clear call for me! 
• And may there be no moaning at the bar. 
When I put out to sea. 

But such a tide as moving seems asleep, 

Too full for sound and foam, 
When that which drew from out the boundless deep, 

Turns again home. 

Twilight and evening bell. 

And after that the dark! 
And may there be no sadness of farewell. 

When I embark. 

For though from hours bourne of Time and Place 

The flood may bear me far, 
I hope to see my pilot face to face 

When I have crossed the bar. 

9:00 A.M. Promptly at nine o'clock the caravan headed west 
on a road which wound through a green valley then onto sagebrush 
flats. To the right the hills looked like a big layer cake with 
chocolate frosting and behind them was the blue Medicine Bow 

9 : 30 A.M. Mr. Leeland Grieve, Mayor of Rawlins, and his son 
were waiting for us at the Platte River Crossing (127 M). Here 
Mr. Grieve pointed out the spot, across the river, where the trek 
ended last year, the location of the upper crossmg which was by 
ferry, and the lower crossing where the pioneers forded the river. 
Johnson's Island, lush and green, lay before us. 


Mr. Henderson stated that the barren hill to our left held the 
graves of several Indians and that names have been carved into 
the cliffs on both sides of the river. He also mentioned the 
numerous Indian forts in the vicinity. 

Captain Stansbury camped here September 22, 1850, after 
travelling a day's journey from Pine Grove Station, 23 miles west. 
Silas Hooper crossed on the Bennett Ferry May 23, 1863 on his 
westward journey (toll $5.00). 

By Leeland Grieve 

We are now at the Platte River Crossing. To the left of us is 
the crossing where Ed Bennett and Boney Ernest owned and 
operated a ferry which was controlled by cables made out of 
buffalo hides. The currents from both sides of the island carried 
the ferry across to the other side without having to be pulled. It 
is possible to find the mounds of rock on both sides of the river 
where the cables were anchored. The ferry was operated only 
during the high water season. 

At other times the emigrants forded the river at the lower 
crossing. In winter they crossed on the ice to Johnson's Island, 
which we see directly in front of us, then on to the upper crossing. 
The upper crossing had the advantage of not having to go over 
the rocky formation about one-half mile to the west. 

From William Richardson's diary, written some time during 
the early spring or summer of 1875, we find that the horses 
belonging to Richardson, Nixon, Milliken, and Amous swam over 
to the island and across the east channel to the east side of the 
river. The camp equipment was ferried to the east branch across 
to the horses. Their cattle were then sent over. Bennett and 
Ernest had their camp on the east bank in a small patch of willows 
close to a rock wall that ran for several hundred yards along the 
bank of the river. 

There is a natural stairway up this east wall which runs from 
the south to the north. At the top of the stairway there is a large 
hole beneath a large rock on the left side as you come up, which 
is the opening into the top of a cave which also has an opening 
in the bottom just back of the Bennett-Ernest camp. They used 
this cave for protection against Indians. This cave was supplied 
with grub, water, and firearms. From the top of the stairway 
on the right hand side there is a trail leading to the top of a hill 
where they maintained a lookout and had a view of the surround- 
ing country. From here they could see all camps along the river, 
all grazing livestock, and at times, watch for Indians. There was 
a stone enclosure for protection against surprise attacks for the 
lookout man. 

In 1 878 Richardson, Bob Jack, Duncan Jack, Edward L. 


Swazey, Fred Hee, and several others brought some 4,000 cattle 
east over this trail. Swazey alone owned 1,700 head. Richard- 
son's diary states that when Tom McArty left them at Green River 
and went south, he told them that if he ever bought stock again 
in southern Utah, to come out through Straw Berry, Pleasant 
Valley, Fort Duchesne, and ford the Green where there was better 
feed and water all the way. That would bring them through the 
Brown's Hole country, and it is evident they purchased the cattle 
south of Cedar City, Utah. 

10:00 A.M. In one mile the trails from the two river crossings 
unite. We had expected to travel on this, but because of a wash- 
out we had to backtrack several miles to the Bolton road. The 
old trail crosses and recrosses that road several times. 

1 1 :00 A.M. We arrived at Sage Creek Station (141 M) which 
was set at a slight elevation in a huge valley, perhaps thirty miles 
square, surrounded by a flat rim of hills. A bright yellow iron 
post with the inscription SAGE CREEK painted on it and a few 
rocks to mark the foundation of the buildings are all that remain 
to show the location of the stage station. Near the station are five 
graves — two belonging to Ben Holladay's keepers. 


By Ed Tierney 

Sage Creek Station was built May 2, 1861, from aspen and pine 
logs with a sod roof and an adobe fireplace. It was located four- 
teen miles west of the North Platte Crossing and placed in a good 
spot for surveying the surrounding country. Since rocks were not 
available, this station was not constructed as well as those made 
from stone. 

Shortly after the station was built the Utes killed the attendants, 
stole the stock and burned the station to the ground. In fact 
it was burned three times by the Indians. 

In 1863 the Indians became so savage in their attempts to stop 
the white men that military escorts for the mail were necessary. 
As emigrant trains were too slow the army could not allocate 
troops to protect them, but there were troops on patrol from 
May to September. 

A typical experience is told in A. E. Stuart's diary which was 
found at the University of Missouri. Mr. Stuart and his family 
were in a wagon train on their way to California and had gotten 
as far as Platte River Crossing when the patrol reported that the 
Indians had raided the stations west of Duck Lake to Point of 
Rocks and that large patrols from La Clede and Fort Bridger 
were out looking for hostiles. 

A bit of the diary is related — "The train left the river. As the 
day passed it rained harder. About an hour before nightfall we 


reached a station called Sage Creek and the attendants were over- 
joyed that we were to spend the night encamped close by. 

"During the next few hours 1 (Mr. Stuart) became very ill 
with a high fever and vomiting spells. My wife feared for my life 
so insisted that she take me back to the river in hopes of finding 
an army doctor. Our light cart was made ready and I was placed 
in it wrapped in buffalo blankets provided by generous Station 

"Luckily for me there was an army doctor at the river. His 
diagnosis was "Desert Fever" which was brought on by sour water. 
Where the sour water came from and why I was the only one to 
be so ill was beyond my wife and I. 

"As dawn approached I regained my strength and urged my 
wife to return to the wagons. She received permission from the 
Captain to travel with the soldiers. As we drew near the stage 
station (Sage Creek) we could hear the sounds of gun fire and 
could see a pall of smoke rising in the sky from the general vicinity 
of the station. A small group of soldiers were dispatched imme- 
diately to scout ahead and returned saying that the station and 
train was under attack by Indians. 

"Leaving only three troopers to escort us, the officer in charge 
ordered the troop forward post haste and arrived at the scene of 
the fight in time to relieve the besieged wagon train and station. 
The attendants of the station and several of the train had been 
killed and more painfully wounded. 

"It was later construed that the Indians had attacked as the 
train had broke night formation and had started on the trail. 
Scouts that had been sent out that morning had seen no Indians 
at all according to reports. An investigation by the army proved 
that this was not just a raiding party of young bucks looking for 
glory but was an organized party with many braves. It was not 
known what tribe or tribes had attacked as there were no dead 
Indians to be found. 

"A patrol of troops were sent out to scout while we buried the 
dead and read services. After examining the livestock and repair- 
ing what damage was done, the train once again set out for the 
west. We knew that when the soldiers left us we would be alone 
to continue across the desert on our own. Around noon we passed 
Pine Grove station which had also felt the savagery of the Indians 
but not to such an extent. They told us that the next seventy 
miles to Fort La Clede was probably the most dangerous on the 
trail west of the Platte Crossing. We thanked the people for their 
warnings and pushed on towards California. " 

11:15 A.M. We left Sage Creek Station travelling on a high 
bench, back to the Bolton Road then south on the oiled Sage Creek 
County road out of Rawlins. In two miles the Overland Trail 
crosses at right angles. The trail is north of the road as we crossed 
Miller Creek. We turned north on the Pipe Line road up the 


ridge road and left on the Overland Trail down to the site of Pine 
Grove Station (151 M). 

Lunch was eaten in the shade of the trees along the creek. 
Some of the people investigated the ruined foundations of the sta- 
tion directly south of where the trail crossed Pine Grove Creek 
while others visited the five unmarked graves on the brow of a 
hill 50 yards north of the crossing. 

By Mrs. Walter Lambertsen 

(Mrs. Lambertsen showed the group a picture of Pine Grove 
Stetion which she took twenty-five years ago. ) 
(\Along the Overland Trail, spaced forty or fifty miles apart, 
were the Home Stations, also known as Swing Stations. iThis is 
where drivers were changed, where passengers could obtain meals 
and where sleeping accomodations were available. Pine Grove 
was designated as a Home Station, and as such needed several 
buildings. The main building had a number of rooms which 
included sleeping quarters for women, a kitchen and dining room. 
Other buildings were the blacksmith shop, a bunkhouse for men, 
and a barn. 

The summer of '65 was known as the Bloody Year on the 
Plains. Indians were trying desperately to stop traffic along the 
Overland Trail and they actually did succeed in causing a serious 
interruption. Although an attempt to burn Virginia Dale station 
was thwarted, all the other stations between that point and Bitter 
Creek headquarters were reduced to charred heaps. ' 

The army took over to get the stagecoaches rolling again. It 
was imperative that the mail would get through. On June 3rd 
Lieut. James A. Brown of the 11th Ohio Cavalry reported from 
Ft. Halleck the result of their efforts. The Lieutenant had left 
Ft. Halleck with a force of thirty men under his command. He 
was also accompanied by a Captain Lewis and R. I. Spotswood 
who was division agent of the Overland Stage Lines. 

The company found Sage Creek Station deserted. About four 
miles farther along the road they found the bodies of two emigrants 
who had been murdered, one of whom had been scalped. They 
hurried to reach Pine Grove Station, only to find it had been 
abandoned. Bridger's Pass was deserted — all had fled to Sulphur 
Springs for protection. 

The next day the party retraced their path to Ft. Halleck with 
added protection from Sulphur. Five soldiers were left to guard 
each station. The troops were hardly out of sight of the Sage 
Creek Station when it was attacked by Indians. In addition to 
the five soldiers who had been left, there were two citizens and 
two stock tenders. All nine had good horses, so an attempt was 
made to outrun the Indians and seek refuge at Pine Grove. In 



the flight both of the stock tenders were killed, two cavalrymen 
were injured and a third was wounded and captured. One of the 
citizens escaped to Pine Grove, the other was never found. The 
surviving members of the party warned the troops here at Pine 
Grove and all fled back to Sulphur, picking up the detachment at 
Bridger's Pass as they went through. The trip along this section 
of the Trail had become known as "running the gauntlet'', and 
it was living up to its name. 

The cemetery on the bleak hill north of the Station once held 
eight eraves that were evident. A number of them were marked 

Pine Grove Stage Station 

Courtesy Mrs. W. Lantbertsen 


Unknown Graves on left bank of 

Pine Grove Creek directly north 

and opposite Pine Grove Station 


Remains of Pine Grove Station on 

right bank of Pine Grove Station 

site Old creek crossing directly 


Courtesy Paul C. Henderson 


and the names could be distinguished, but unfortunately the mark- 
ers have been removed and no record remains. 

As a Stage Station, Pine Grove's history was soon ended but 
this spot was to be the setting for one more act in the bloody 
drama of the West. 

It was in 1875 that the "town herd" of Rawlins, composed of 
forty head of saddle and pack horses, was stolen. Hunters and 
trappers owned the horses which were corralled a mile from town, 
and Al Farley put in charge of the herd. While he was in Rawlins 
for lunch, Indians drove off the entire herd. Farley gave the alarm 
and a posse was immediately formed. Incidentally, one member 
of the ten-man posse was Tip Vincent who later was ambushed 
and murdered while trailing Big Nose George's gang — another was 
Jim Rankin who won fame for his great ride of 160 miles in 24 
hours to report the Meeker Massacre.^ 

It was a simple matter to follow the trail of fifty or more horses, 
and before dark the posse found the Indians camped at Pine 
Grove with the stolen herd. The men remained out of sight until 
dawn at which time they charged the Indian camp. Nine Indians 
were killed in the encounter, the horses were recovered, eleven 
Indian ponies were taken, and the posse came through the battle 
without a single casualty. 

1 :30 P.M. We continued our hot, dry ride as we doubled back 
on a high ridge just wide enough for a road. The gullies were 
sandy and the hills steep — one so abrupt that we waited at the top 
until all cars made the grade. 

The old trail was in and out of this graded road as we travelled 
up to 7,532 feet elevation — the Continental Divide, where waters 
flow to the east and to the west. It was with difficulty that we 
realized that Bridger's Pass, a wide, level expanse, is nearly 8,000 
feet above sea level or as high as many rugged mountains in our 
western states. In the pass (155 M) we could plainly see, in a 
shallow draw, the deep ruts of the Overland Trail which were 
cut 100 years ago. 

There were two roads from Pine Grove to Bridger's Pass over 
this beautiful country with its level-topped, hogbacks and never 
ending rolling hills. 

2:45 P.M. After feeling the emptiness and loneliness of this 
vast land we were glad to come to Bridger Station tucked down 
among trees in a little green ravine. Although the buildings are 
no longer there, we know there once was a spring which must have 
been eagerly awaited long ago. 

Mr. Bill Daley read a paper on Bridger Pass and Bridger Station 
in the absence of his father, Mr. Ed Daley. 

L Other accounts give this as 164 miles in 21 Vi or 28 hours. 



By P. E. Daley 

We are now on the Continental Divide. The water to the east 
flows into some tributary of the North Platte, and thence to the 
Mississippi. The water to the west flows into the Muddy, to the 
Little Snake River, and finally into the Colorado River. 

This pass is not the lowest in elevation but it is one of the few 
that offered fairly easy terrain, fuel, Hvestock feed and abundant 
wild game. It is not known when Jim Bridger first went through 
this pass. His knowledge of the country and his extensive explora- 
tions are almost beyond belief, as he traveled throughout all the 
Rocky Mountain area. Indians in general were friendly to him, 
and they were a source of information and shelter. 

From here we look west toward the Muddy and Sulphur 
Springs. The grassy spots below us were known as the Seven 
Meadows. Today there are only three or four. This place was a 
well known stopping point for buUteams, military expeditions, 
and emigrants. At that time aspens, cedar and pine covered the 
surrounding hills. A saw mill here supplied much of the material 
for building the town of Rawlins. A great deal of timber was 
also cut for the wood burning engines of the U. P. 

On March 2, 1861, an arrangement to carry mail under the 
so-called "Million Dollar Contract" to the Central Overland 
California and Pikes Peak Express Co. was made to transport the 
daily mail to Salt Lake. Terms of the contract stated that the 
mail would run through Denver City and Salt Lake. The mail 
company favored this trail through Bridger's Pass as it was shorter 
than the South Pass route. This was agreed to with the proviso 
that the stations would be built and maintained by the citizens of 
Denver and Salt Lake. 

The first mail passed along this route on July 21, 1862. "i 

There are many graves around here, mostly unmarked, as the 
time and resources for marking them were limited. In the Muddy 
Canyon about three miles below here we will see the grave of 
G. A. Lovesey, drowned June 14, 1860. His gravestone is of 
sandstone and was expertly carved. It is one of the few that are 

3:15 P.M. We left Bridger Station travelling southwest to a 
yellow steel Overland Trail post where we turned right to follow 
on the trail which is the present improved road. (There was a 
group of unmarked graves near the marker.) The scenery was 
beautiful as we wound through the shallow Muddy Creek Canyon. 
The hills to our left were fringed with rocks at their crest and large 
sand dunes towered above them. 

A good story about this section of the trail was printed in the 
Saratoga Sun years ago. In 1 865 the Indians were so hostile that 
all stages were cancelled west of Platte Crossing for three weeks. 


Finally so much mail had collected the company decided it should 
be sent on, so one night three big coaches were piled full of mail 
sacks. A woman passenger, on her way to her husband in San 
Francisco, begged so hard to be allowed to go that she was per- 
mitted to crawl on top of the sacks in one of the coaches. 

At one o'clock, under a full moon, they left Platte Station and 
silently bowled along over the hard road with Heenan as driver 
and eight guards. They soon saw shadowy figures to their right 
and left but nothing happened until they entered Muddy Creek 
canon when the Indians began their attack from both rims. Dur- 
ing the running fight Heenan was shot in the right arm but he 
managed to get the coaches to the top of the canon. 

They quickly made a corral of the coaches and mail and pre- 
pared to sell their lives as dearly as possible. Some of the men 
were killed and their bodies were stacked on the barricade. The 
brave woman ran back and forth in a shower of arrows and bullets 
fetching ammunition and ministering to the wounded. 

At sundown Heenan ordered them on their way. Again those 
stealthy, shadowy forms kept pace with the travellers through the 
night as they drove like the wind toward Sulphur Springs. At 
daybreak another attack was made but the men at the station 
heard it and came to their rescue. 

4:00 P.M. Sulphur Springs Station (170 M), in a semi-ruined 
condition, is still used by the present owner. Mr. Morley, the 
caretaker, invited us into his spic and span house where we saw 
lovely antique furniture and enjoyed drinks from his cool well. 

Mr. John R. Daley, great-uncle of Bill Daley, came from Cali- 
fornia expressly to make this trek. He made this part of the trail 
more interesting with his tales of the past as he pointed out Double 
Crossing, scene of many Indian fights, and also mentioned that 
Joe Rankin passed this station on his way from the Thornburg 
Massacre to Rawlins for help. 



By Edward R. McAuslan 

The Sulphur Springs Stage Station was built on the new south- 
erly route of the Overland Trail shortly after July 11, 1862, when 
the Postmaster General of the United States ordered the mail 
contractor to move south from the Oregon Trail to Jim Bridger's 
old route, the one being traveled today by this group. The Sul- 
phur Springs Station is ten miles west of the Bridger's Pass Station, 
and eleven miles west of the Waskie Station. The buildings were 
primarily of sandstone, with sod roofs, and the ranch house was 
the old station before the more recent remodelling. The name 
of the station was derived from the strong odor emanating from 
flows of water nearby. This odor still prevails. The station was 



Site of ford across North Platte 
river on Overland Trail lootcing east 

Dug Springs Station 

Sulpliur Springs Station 

,i«%i i!s« rw 

Big Pond Station ruins 

Waskie Station 

Black Butte Station 
Courtesy Paul C. Henderson 


not only an important spot on the Overland Trail, but also served 
the travelers on the White River Road, which commenced at 
RawUns and thence extended southwesterly to Baggs and north- 
western Colorado. During the Meeker Massacre the White River 
was used by the soldiers from Fort Steele. 

The First Kansas Volunteers of the United States Army were 
posted at this Sulphur Springs site, and guarded the mail for some 
distance west and east. Major R. A. Morrse commanded this 
troop. These men dug rifle pits on either side of the bluffs over- 
looking Muddy Creek, and the depression as the result of one of 
these pits may be seen on the hill southeast of the buildings. 
A tunnel was dug from the pits down to the springs below, and 
though this now has caved in, the evidence is clear. 

Ed Tierney, of Rawlins, supplied some interesting material that 
he gathered from the National Archives. , On a day in August, 
1863, soldiers at Sulphur Springs heard shooting to the east, up 
Muddy Creek. A wagon train, which had halted to fill water 
casks, was fired into by a group of Indians, and shortly hordes 
of Indians assaulted the train. The Indians withdrew at the 
approach of Major Morrse's force. According to the Day Book 
of the Major, there were 29 white men, women, and children 
killed; 17 severely wounded; and 10 less critically injured. Later 
it was estimated that 90 Indians had been shot, and about that 
same number wounded. Subsequent War Department investiga- 
tions indicated that the Sioux and Cheyenne took part in the fight. 
It is believed by some historians that this battle was the first large 
scale attempt of the Indians to halt the western migration of the 

I On June 16, 1865, one hundred Indians raided Sulphur Springs 
and made away with the stock. 

The graves of persons killed during the Indian uprisings may 
be seen, in a dilapidated condition, in a small cemetery not far 
southwest of these buildings. The graves are possibly those of 
the stationmaster and his family and assistants. 

4:20 P.M. I Although the next station, Waskie, was only eleven 
miles farther on the trail, it was necessary for us to detour approxi- 
mately twenty miles to the southwest to the Baggs highway, on 
which we travelled north eleven miles. Two miles north of the 
Overland Trail monument we turned right for five miles. This 
part of the country was very dry and extremely barren. Antelope 
bounded over the hills. In the gullies sagebrush was higher than 
the cars and a new road had to be made through Chicken Draw. 

5:15 P.M. We arrived at Waskie (181 M) where a few up- 
right ruins were picturesque in the late afternoon sun. The 
buildings were made from cut sandstone put together with mortar. 
The old trail was plainly visible, but the station seemed lonely 
and desolate in the great expanse of rolling hills. 



By Jerry Felton 

One of the most unfortunate things that happen to historians 
occurs when the interesting events during a person's hfe are 
recorded only in his memory. When that person passes on, his- 
tory is lost to the future. Such has been the case here. Think 
of the wondrous tales this stone ruin could unfold if we had even 
a meager record of the experiences which the men and women, 
involved here, endured and enjoyed. 

A very careful search of all available records has failed to dis- 
close much about our present stop, called Waskie, except that we 
are 11 miles from our last stop. Sulphur Springs, and 13 miles 
from the next station. Duck Lake. We do know that, on occasion, 
troops were stationed here in small numbers and on the hill back 
of the ruins are a few graves, now nameless and forgotten, as is 
usually the case along the Overland Trail. : 

We have no alternative but to conjecture in our own minds the 
type of people who were stationed here. We can only imagine 
the loves and hopes that enriched their lives, and the tragedies 
they were forced to endure. It is difficult for us with our cars 
and other conveniences to imagine life in a station like Waskie, 
however 1 believe that a good many of the people here today 
would have welcomed an opportunity to share in one of our 
nation's finest projects — the winning of the West. 

V From here on west to Point of Rocks was one of the worst 
parts of the trail. It was usually either dry, hot and very dusty 
or so muddy in wet weather as to be barely passable. As a result, 
I imagine that Waskie was considered a jumping-off place by the 
drivers. The next 50 miles was dreaded by all. ) 

5:45 P.M. We retraced our way a couple miles then turned 
left to the Henry Baur ranch where many camped for the night. 
Others went on to Wamsutter and Rawlins. 

Sunday - August 6 

Caravan — 20 cars 50 participants 

7:30 A.M. Through the courtesy of Mr. Albert Sims a sub- 
stantial breakfast of cakes, eggs, bacon and potatoes was served 
by the cooks to the reassembled crowd. Ice, first aid equipment 
and a tank of gas were sent out from Rawlins. 

9:00 A.M. As soon as the camp was cleaned the trekkers met 
on the Baggs highway and left for Duck Lake. Mr. Baur stopped 
the caravan several times to point out the old trail. 

Duck Lake (194 M) proved a disappointment as there were 
no ducks and no water — only a few stones showed the outline of 
the station. Long ago it was one of the most anticipated stops on 


the trail as the grass was two feet high, several lakes were close 
by, and there were even springs in the sand dunes. 

Stansbury passed through here on his return trip on September 
18, 1850 and army engineers laid out the station in 1858 with a 
railroad in mind. 

10:10 A.M. We departed on a good road. At 202 M. we were 
surprised to find a lone, immense red rock 120 feet in circumfer- 
ence and 20 feet high standing by itself right by the trail. Among 
the many names cut on it were those of E. E. White 1852, Fritz 
Langer 1862, J. H. .fones 1862. 

11:00 A.M. Our next stop was Dug Springs (206 M), once 
beautiful with wild roses, today only crumbling ruins on a dry 
undulating prairie like ocean swells. In one wall, partially stand- 
ing, could be seen a small port hole for shooting at Indians. 


By Zita Winter 

(^The Dug Springs Station located in Middle Barrel Springs 
Canyon must have been in a beautiful place with many wild roses 
as it is also referred to as the Wild Rose Station. 

Located approximately thirteen miles east of LaClede Post on 
the Overland Stage Trail it was a regular stage and mail stop. 
The trail passed between the old well and the station. 

Today some walls are half standing, others half torn down 
as time and wind have been the most constant visitors for many 
years. Apparently the once flowing spring was dug deeper and 
wider in order to provide water for man and beast — hence the 
name Dug Springs. 

11:15 A.M. We left Dug Springs on a road which wound 
around the Mud Flats and eight miles farther on around a large 
archaeological site. The country was drier and more dreary with 
no sign of animal life. 

1 1:40 A.M. LaClede Station (221 M) was set near the north 
fork of Bitter Creek among surrounding hills. The buildings were 
of native brown sandstone and are partially standing. The trail 
passed between the two sets of buildings after having crossed the 
creek. Not only has wind and weather and time done its part 
in destroying the old station but an oil company knocked part of 
it down with a bulldozer to use as a crossing in the creek. 

Mr. Tierney related that several years ago he found one of the 
doors with an arrow still stuck in it. 

By Ed Tierney 

LaClede was built to protect the trail in this area and was one 
of the strongest forts. It consisted of barracks, a corral and a 


gun tower. Rifle pits were dug in the surrounding knobs and 
you can still see evidence of them today. 

In June 1 865 Lt. Wade Thorsen, with Co B, 1 1th Ohio Cavalry, 
was engaged in a skirmish about two miles east of the fort. The 
crafty Indians turned the fight into a running battle with the 
inexperienced troops pursuing the Indians into an ambush. They 
probably would all have been annihilated had not Co. D, 11th 
Ohio Cavalry, and a few civiUans back at the fort heard the 
noise and gone to their aid. 

12:00 noon. Mr. Baur led us a couple of miles to a clear, 
cold spring where we had our lunch. This is the only fresh and 
good water spring on the upper reaches of Bitter Creek. Wells 
had to be dug for station use. 

1 :45 P.M. The sun was shining and the trekkers in high spirits 
as we rode into the Red Desert country with its fanciful natural 
formations and colors. After crossing a bridge over Antelope 
Creek, we took a road north, then turned to our right on a poor 
side road down a steep hill to Big Pond Station (233 M). 

A few walls remain and there is an old well inside the northeast 
corner of the north room. (Good planning). Another set of 
ruins is on the opposite side of the road. We traversed the trail 
as we came down the hill. 


By Mrs. Emilie Hurd 

This station is not especially notable as it was merely one of 
the many way-stations on the Overland Stage line. 

The station was erected in 1862 and constructed of rocks which 

Ruins LeClede Stage Station 

Courtesy Paul C. Henderson 


F. V. Hayden, U.S. Geologist, reported in his preliminary report 
of the United Stales Geological Survey of Wyoming, dated 1872, 
as being composed of fresh water shells, embedded in sandstone 
and limestone. 

Very few mentions of this stage station have been found. It is 
reported that, sometime prior to '1868, when the line was 
abandoned, ^hat the station force and" United States Cavalrymen, 
assigned to Big Pond, were killed by the Indians. We cannot 
state the total number of persons killed, or any other details. Also 
it is reported that these people were buried in graves in this 
vicinity. However, no one has been able to locate their graves. 
{J. V. Frederick, in his Ben HoUaday, the Stage Coach King, 
says that in the summer of 1865, "Orders were sent to Fort 
Bridger to distribute troops along the route. Company B, with 
sixty men from Company C, First Battalion Nevada Cavalry, 
was sent to Waskie Station. Headquarters was {sic) established 
there, with thirty men on duty and groups of five soldiers each 
were placed at Rock Springs, Salt Wells, Rock Point, Black Buttes, 
and Big Pond. ... By attacking wagon trains, small parties of 
soldiers, ranches, stations, and coaches, the Indians were rapidly 
accumulating more arms and supplies. There was a method in 
this arming. They had resented General Connor's expedition to 
the Powder River region and early in August, they retaliated by 
attacking the entire route between Big Laramie and Rock Creek." 
It appears that similar attacks were also made on the portion of 
the line we are exploring on this trek. / 

/ During a trip to Nebraska from California in 1867, William H. 
^ckson recorded in his diary that he and his party traveled 
through this vicinity during July. Jackson's entry, dated Friday, 
July 12th, reads in part, "They alf went off & left us alone. Sam 
came back during the forenoon and told us to go on a little ways 
where there was feed & wait a while. In p.m. Sam came up again 
& told us to roll. Jim caught up with us soon after & we went 
on to "big pond" Sta. where there was a little lake." 

While this area teems with historical events, so far as we can 
determine very little has been written about it and consequently 
what would be valuable information has been lost. 

2:30 P.M. We didn't tarry long as the sky suddenly became 
overcast and lightning flashed across the heavens. Soon a heavy 
rain was falling on the gumbo flats so we hurriedly found the 
oiled road to Bitter Creek, omitting Black Buttes (247 M) Station. 

3 : 30 P.M. Many of the trekkers left the party at Bitter Creek 
but eight cars continued on the highway to Point of Rocks where 
we turned left across the tracks to Rock Point Station (261 M). 
This station, although nearly ready to fall down, is in the best state 
of any along the trail. Here Adrian Reynolds spoke on Black 
Buttes, which we hope to back track and see next year. 


By Adrian Reynolds 

As to the history behind Black Buttes there is not much to add. 
The background of all the stations along the entire route, of 
course, is practically the same. So I will refer mainly to my own 
recollections from my memory of the place in the past 30 years. 

It was in 1932 that I first visited this station and photographed 
it. At that time, the two front rooms, or those nearest the present 
road, were practically intact and some roof timbers still in place. 
Like all abandoned buildings out on the range, it had become a 
refuge for livestock. The trail was untouched and much as it 
was 70 years before, except of course for the ravages of time. 
Across the road south of the main station, in 1958 a county trek 
found the outlines of either a powder house or blockhouse of 
some kind. Some relics of percussion cap boxes, etc., were found. 
We also found buttons from army coats at the station and across 
the road. 

Like all of these ruins, the Black Buttes ruins have been steadily 
deteriorating year by year and will soon be nothing but a heap of 
rubble. You will note that the compound extended much to the 
north and that apparently a fair sized installation existed here. 
Another point of note, to me, is that, west of the Laramie river, 
this is the first point on the route where stage station and the iron 
horse greeted each other. 

As you go west a short distance further on, you will probably 
notice the stone foundations of an old coal mine, and also see 
walls partially standing out on the flat below the mine. This is 
the remains of the Hall Mine that opened with the coming of 
the railroad and closed soon after. On the 1958 trek, Bill Bram- 
well of Green River found an 1 868 nickel in the floor of one of the 
little stone cabins located back of the mine. Several relics, in- 
cluding the wheel of a mine car, and some dated desert glass, 
came from that trip. 

By Adrian Reynolds 

As in the case of Black Buttes, I shall refer to my own recol- 
lections about this station. A couple of hundred yards west you 
will find the old cemetery. In the early 1930's headstones and 
wooden markers still were there — now they are almost entirely 
gone. If my memory serves me right, the graves carried dates 
back to 1863. 

When this station was first deeded to the state, all walls were 
intact, some crude furniture was here, and there was a huge 
bellows in the northeast corner of the middle wing. This was 
stolen three years ago. 


You will note that many names have been carved on the station 
building and on the stable. These date back to the early travel. 
Apparently the station buildings straddled the trail. 

A place like this gathers many legends. One has to do with 
Butch Cassidy's gang after the Tipton train robbery. Rador has 
told me that he can remember, as a boy, that Cassidy rode into 
this place, then occupied by the Radors, and quietly holed up, 
after caching the loot on Sand Butte, until all the furore had died 
down a few days later. 

It is this story that furnishes the basis for the story behind the 
last inhabitant — Jim McKee. McKee was an old range character, 
who lived his final years here, and who died about 20 years ago. 
He is alleged to have ridden on the outskirts of the Wild Bunch, 
and did, to my knowledge, kill one man south of here in 1925 or 
1926. McKee is said to have come back to this point to search 
for loot which he believed Cassidy failed to recover. In the 1930's 
when the UPRR attempted to evict McKee he met the company 
representative with an old hog-leg and told the gentlemen to keep 
moving. For many years, he kept a smallpox sign on the doors 
to ward off the inquisitive. 

The Rador family occupied this building for a generation or so. 
I had hoped to have the Rador family history, including the dates 
of occupation, and its connection, if any, with the South Pass stage 
route, but have not yet been able to obtain the address of Clarence 
Rador, formerly with the Union Pacific, and now retired. He 
grew up in this building and in the little town across the creek. 

While G. F. Ashby was president of the railroad, I secured from 
him the grant of this station to the state of Wyoming, and, as you 
will note on the markers, it is the property of our Historical De- 
partment. As you know this station lies directly in the path of the 
new Interstate highway 80. If steps are not taken soon the whole 
place will be lost "'to progress". Many people think this Point of 
Rocks Station should be restored and made an island in the four 
lane highway. 

4:15 P.M. Another trek had ended. Next year, perhaps, we 
can meet at Bitter Creek and follow the part of the trail we were 
forced to omit because of heavy rain and gumbo roads. All are 
looking forward to completing the trail to the western border of 
Wyoming next year. 


Frederick, James Vincent — Ben HoUaday The Stage Coach Ki?ig 

Hafen, Leroy — The Overland Mail 

Mattes, Merrill — Indians, Infants and Infantry 

Peikin, Robert — The First Hundred Years 

Wm. Jackson Diaries 

A. E. Stuart's Diary 

Government Records 

Stories from settlers 




Bridgeport, Nebr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Henderson 

Sidney, Nebr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy MacAdam 

Wheatridge, Colo. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. M. Townsend 
and boys 

Concord, Calif. 

Mr. and Mrs. Eric Breneman 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Mr. John R. Daley 

Laramie, Wyo. 

Mrs. J. L. Guffey and daughter 
Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Shingleton 
Mrs. Lydia Corthell 

Buford, Wyo. 

Mr. and Mrs. James Boan and son 

Glendo. Wyo. 

Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Bretey 

Douglas, Wyo. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lyle Hildebrand 
and children 

Torrington, Wyo. 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter Keenan and 

Casper, Wyo. 

Mr. and Mrs. Verne Mokler 
Mr. Richard Eklund 

Green River, Wyo. 
Mr. Vernon Hurd 
Mrs. Emilie Hurd 
Mr. and Mrs. Adrian Reynolds 

Wheatland, Wyo. 
Mr. Earl Flaharty 

Sinclair, Wyo. 

Mr. and Mrs. Gene Breniman 

Rawlins, Wyo. 

Mr. Leeland Grieve and son 

Mr. E. M. Tierney 

Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Daley 

Mrs. Anthony Stratton 

Mr. and Mrs. E. R. McAuslan 

Mr. G. A. Willis 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Lambertsen 

Mrs. Robert Lambertson 

Mr. Louis Cassinat 

Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Col. W. R. Bradley 
Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Ritter and 

Miss Maurine Carley 
Mrs. Graham Walker 
Mr. Grant H. Willson 
Col. and Mrs. A. R. Boyack 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Larsen 
Mrs. L. C. Bishop 

Wyoming ^Archaeological J^otcs 

Field work at several archaeological sites in Wyoming has been 
carried on in recent months, under the direction of the organized 
chapters of the state archaeological society. 

The Sheridan group has continued work at the Trapper Creek 
site, including additional excavation, which indicates an extended 
period of intermittent occupation. Further exploratory pits have 
been made, and the site has been surveyed. A map of the picto- 
graphs at the site is to be made, to supplement the photographic 

More research at the Sisters Hill site, on Bull Creek, eight miles 
southwest of Buffalo, has been under way, primarily to prepare 
the site for geologic study by Dr. George Agonino and Vance 
Hayes.- The site was discovered by Eugene Galloway of Buffalo. 

Members of the Casper chapter have worked further at the Lee 
site, north of Midwest. Some twenty-five artifacts have been 
recovered recently. 

The Turk Burial site has yielded further artifacts during the 
past summer. First reported to Glen Sweem and Don Grey 
during 1960, it has been re-opened twice by them. Several skulls 
and artifacts have been removed for study. Due to extensive 
disturbance of the site, it is not possible to determine if the site is 
a burial or a reburial. This site is no doubt related to a fortified 
hill, three miles distant, in which the same type of artifacts were 

A bison trap northeast of Sheridan, in Powder River County, 
Montana, was excavated in August. This was with the sanction 
of the Smithsonian Institution which had in its possession a site 
report dated 1950, and the Montana Archaeological Society. 
Projectile points, probably Avonlea points, and bones recovered 
indicate the site was used for slaughtering only, and the campsites 
were elsewhere. Adequate charcoal samples were obtained with 
the bones so a date on the culture will be forthcoming. 

Work continues at the mammoth site near Rawlins, where a 
total of twenty-four artifacts have been recovered, all typical of the 
Clovis or Llano complex. Among recent finds are some bones 
from an extinct form of giant bison. Presence of these bones 
along with mammoth bones indicate the site was a frequently used 
kill site. 

Wyoming State Mistorical Society 

Eighth Annual Meeting September 16-17, 1961 

Elks Hall, Torrington, Wyoming 

Registration for the Eight Annual Meeting opened at 8:30 A.M. 
on September 16 in the Elks Hall in Torrington. One hundred 
thirty-one persons registered. 

An interesting program was arranged for the morning session. 
After community singing, Mr. C. O. Downing related episodes 
of the early history of the Goshen County area and Mr. Rex L. 
Wilson, Museum Curator at Fort Laramie National Historical 
Site, explained his historical archaeological work there. 


The Eighth Annual Meeting of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society was called to order promptly at 1:30 P. M. in the Elks 
Hall by the president, Mr. E. A. Littleton. Approximately one 
hundred members were present. 

Rev. Lamar Speier gave the Invocation and Mayor Everette 
Michel of Torrington welcomed the group. Copies of the minutes 
of the Seventh Annual Meeting were distributed to the members. 
These had also been published in the October, 1960, Annals of 
Wyoming. Since there were no objections they were approved. 
The Secretary read the minutes of the Executive Committee meet- 
ing which was held July 8 in Casper. These minutes were 
approved as read. 


September 24, 1960 - September 16, 1961 

Cash and Investments on hand September 24, 1960 

$ 9,018.54 

Receipts and Interest: 



Charters — Platte, Big Horn 


Hunton Diaries 


Bishop Memorial 






Disbursements 9-24-60—9-16-61 

Annals of Wyoming 


7th Annual meeting 


Office and postage, cards. 

active committees 


Scholarship: Laramie County 


$ 2,317.96 



September 16, 1961 

Stock Growers National Bank, Cheyenne $ 615.01 

Federal Building & Loan Ass'n, Cheyenne 7,111.44 

Life Memberships, Federal B&L 2,646.20 

Bishop Memorial Fund, Cheyenne National Savings 124.50 

Present membership of the State Society: 

Life Members 32 

Joint Life Members 20 

Annual Members 579 

Joint Annual Members 410 


Miss Carley explained that $685 was paid for tlie purchase of 
a quantity of Vols. 1, 2 and 3 of the Hunton Diaries. In 1960 
receipts for sale of the diaries were $221.22, for 1961 receipts 
were $171.48, leaving a balance owed the treasury of $292.30. 
Books are on hand and available for sale. 

The Secretary read a telegram from the Casper Chamber of 
Commerce inviting the Society to hold its Ninth Annual Meeting 
in Casper. Mrs. Hord, President of Natrona County Chapter, 
added a verbal invitation. Mrs. Alice Stevens, President of the 
Albany County Chapter, then invited the Society to meet in 
Laramie in 1962. Mr. Littleton thanked the two presidents and 
said that the place of the next meeting would be decided at the 
next Executive meeting. 

The Auditing Committee composed of Dr. R. H. Burns, Mrs. 
Emilie Hurd and Miss Clarice Whittenburg reported that the books 
had been audited and were in excellent condition. 

Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins read a Memorial to Mr. Bishop 
which had been written by Col. A. R. Boyack.^ It was decided 
to let the Bishop Memorial Fund accumulate a little longer before 
deciding what should be done with it. 

Reports from the Standing Committees were as follows: 
( 1 ) Archaeological Committee — Mr. Glenn Sweem, chairman. 
He announced that the Archaeological Bill had been prepared 
too late for the 1961 Legislature to act upon it. The committee 
has indicated the location of the Portuguese Houses. Twenty-one 
breast works have been located on the Middle Fork of Powder 
River. These may have been used by the Wilson Price Hunt 
Expedition in 1811. Efforts have been made to locate the remains 
of a wagon in the backwaters of the Pathfinder Dam, and the 
committee is trying to identify an old blade found near old Fort 
McKinney. They think it may be Spanish. 

1. The full text of the Memorial appears in the Overland Stage Trail 
Trek No. 2 in this issue. 


(2) Legislative Committee — Dr. Paul Emerson, chairman. His 
report stated that 650 letters were sent out to members urging 
them to contact their Representatives and Senators asking them 
to support the bills in the 1961 Wyoming Legislature which were 
of interest to the Society. Two bills passed were — Esther Morris 
Statue Replica and the Purchase of Fort Fetterman. 

(3) Scholarship Committee — Dr. T. A. Larson, chairman. He 
reported that the Laramie County history had been completed by 
Sydney Spiegel. He also suggested that the opportunity of writing 
county histories be opened to others not working for an M. A. 

(4) Historic Sites Committee — Although Mr. Bishop has passed 
away. Miss Homsher said that the work of the committee would 
be continued. The 1961 Overland Trek was headed by Paul 
Henderson, Lyle Hildebrand and Maurine Carley. 

(5) Historic Markers — Mr. Henry Jones, chairman. Mr. Jones 
explained that this was a huge undertaking but progress was being 
made in locating signs in many counties. He suggested that 
each Chapter add a discussion "Historic Markers" to its regular 
agenda. Each county can now start plans for a second sign this 

(6) Foundation Fund — Mr. Vernon Hurd, chairman. He stated 
that he had investigated some 5,000 possible foundations. Of this 
number he is beginning correspondence with thirty-five of them 
to see if any Wyoming project could receive financial support from 
such foundation funds. 

The Secretary announced that a good 1 6mm sound film, authen- 
tically documented, can be purchased or rented from the Montana 
State College in Bozeman, Montana. This would make an excel- 
lent program for a meeting. 

Very interesting annual reports were given or read by delegates 
from most of the counties of the state. These included Albany, 
Big Horn, Campbell, Fremont, Goshen, Laramie, Natrona, Park, 
Sweetwater, Sheridan, Uinta, Washakie, and Weston counties. 
These reports were the highlight of the meeting. They are on 
file in the Executive Headquarters. 

Miss Homsher introduced the members of her staff who were 
present and asked that the secretaries of county chapters address 
all correspondence to the State Archives and Historical Depart- 
ment during January and February when Miss Carley will be on 

Mr. Littleton announced that the State Archives and Historical 
Department had received an Award of Merit from the American 
Association for State and Local History. The citation read as 
follows : 

"The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department and 
State Museum, under the leadership of Lola M. Homsher, was 
honored for the quiet and competent construction, in a period of a 


decade, of a carefully thought-out historical and archival agency 
that serves the people of Wyoming in a broad variety of ways. 
The department's headquarters are in Cheyenne." 

The meeting was adjourned at 4:00 P. M. to reconvene at the 
Cold Springs Marker on Highway 87 south of Torrington. L. G. 
"Pat" Flannery read a dedicatory address which is printed at the 
end of these minutes. 


In the evening 175 persons attended the annual banquet held 
in the Elks Hall. 

After the Invocation given by Rev. Herbert A. Cies, all enjoyed 
community singing as they were being served. Each officer was 
presented with a five pound sack of Holly sugar and numbers were 
drawn for six additional sacks as door prizes. At each place were 
favors and a small box of Stover's candy. The Toastmaster, Mr. 
Irv Larson, made everyone feel at home with his warm friendly 
introductions and remarks. 

Mrs. Nancy Wallace, chairman of the Nominating Committee, 
announced the results of the election held by ballot through the 
mail. Officers for 1961-62 are: 

President ...Mrs. Edness Kimball Wilkins, Casper 

First Vice President Mr. Vernon Hurd, Green River 

Second Vice President Mr. Charles Ritter, Cheyenne 

Secretary-Treasurer Miss Maurine Carley, Cheyenne 

The office of Executive Secretary as set up by the constitution 
is not elective and will continue to be filled by Lola M. Homsher, 
Director of the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Depart- 

Mr. Vernon Hurd, chairman of the Awards Committee, an- 
nounced the following awards: 

Historical Awards: 

Lola M. Homsher. Publications: Non-fiction. For her 

book "South Pass 1868." 
Mrs. Vie Willets Garber. Pubhcations: Biography. For 

sponsoring and editing "Big Horn Pioneers." 
Mrs. Doris Shannon Garst. Publications: Juvenile Divi- 
sion. For "Broken Hand Fitzpatrick: Greatest of the 

Mountain Men." 
O. W. Judge. Periodicals, national. For his series of 

historical articles published in True West and Frontier 

Times magazines. 
Mrs. Edith M. Thompson. Periodicals, Wyoming. For 

her series of historical articles appearing in annual 

editions of the Casper Tribune-Herald. 


Historical Awards: 

Casper Tribune-Herald. Publications: Newspapers. For 
its series of outstanding annual Wyoming Editions. 

Maurine Carley. Historical Activities. For faithful and 
devoted service as historian on all Oregon, Mormon and 
Overland Trail Treks during the past several years. 

Albany County Historical Society. Activities: Restoration. 
For preserving the only remaining buildings of old Ft. 

Mary Jester Allen. Activities: Museums. For founding 
and serving as curator of the Buffalo Bill Museum at 
Cody. (Posthumous) 

Mrs. Esther Mockler. Special Fields: Radio. For her 
series of tape recorded interviews of old-timers regularly 
used on her "Listen Ladies" program on KOVE, Lan- 

Mrs. Peter Keenan. Fine Arts: Painting. For three oil 
paintings, two of Devil's Tower and one of the Oregon 

Charles Guild. Fine Arts: Photography. For preserva- 
tion of Wyoming history through the medium of photog- 

Russell Thorp. Cumulative Contribution: For his contin- 
uing deep interest and selfless contribution to the preser- 
vation and recording of Wyoming history. 

Honorable Mention: 

Grand Teton Natural History Association. Publications: 

Non-fiction. "Campfire Tales of Jackson Hole." 
Thomas A. Nicholas. Newspaper article. "Platte Bridge 

and the Oregon Trail in the Civil War Period, 1855- 

Prairie Publishing Co. Special Fields: Business firm for 

sponsoring a series of radio broadcasts over KTWO, 

Casper, on the Civil War. 
Robert T. Helvey. Special Fields: For his series of tape 

recordings of reminiscences of old-timers. 
Merle Prugh. Fine Arts: Music. For various composi- 
tions inspired by or using Wyoming historical themes. 
Adolph Sphor. Cumulative Contribution: For his series 

of portraits of well-known Indians and Indian collection 

on display at the Whitney Art Gallery. 
Warren W. Welch. Cumulative Contribution: For the 

preservation and recording of Indian Culture. 

Mrs. Otis Wright, chairman of the Resolutions Committee, read 
the following resolutions: 

WHEREAS the late L. C. Bishop has for many years been one 
of the most active and valuable members of the Wyoming State 


Historical Society, encouraging and documenting the preservation 
of facts about the early history of the State, and 

WHEREAS he spent many hours, both before and after his re- 
tirement as State Engineer, in locating and marking authentic 
sites on the Overland and Oregon trails, and particularly the 
stations of the Pony Express, so that last year's Centennial could 
be conducted with complete accuracy, and 

WHEREAS he held himself always ready to be present at any 
meeting of a County Society or any other organization interested 
in the history of Wyoming and the West, and to give to the mem- 
bers a first hand account of his findings on this or other historical 
subject, and 

WHEREAS he did a great deal of work personally to assure 
that Pony Express stations were accurately located and suitably 
marked, and 

WHEREAS members of the Wyoming State Historical Society 
are deeply aware of the loss sustained in his death by all Wyoming 
citizens who treasure the efforts of such meticulous historians as 
Dr. Bishop to document our early history before it is too late, 

Be It Resolved that the members of the Wyoming State Histori- 
cal Society take this means of expressing to Mrs. Bishop and other 
members of his family their regrets over his death, and their 
gratitude for the work he was able to accomplish, and 

Be It Further Resolved that copies of this Resolution be placed 
on the record of this Society and sent to the relatives of the 

(Submitted by the Albany County Historical Society.) 

WHEREAS the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Depart- 
ment is preserving the historical records, both public and private, 
and the historical relics of the State of Wyoming, and 

WHEREAS the program has in the past several years made 
great progress, annually serving 60,000 museum visitors, assist- 
ing 1,200 persons in historical research and serving 26 state 
departments as well as a number of municipalities, and has re- 
ceived national recognition and commendation for these services, 

WHEREAS the program must be pursued with vigor at the 
immediately present time while records and articles are still avail- 
able and the persons now possessing them can be assured of their 
proper preservation in an adequate historical and archival agency, 

WHEREAS this cultural and educational program is hindered 
due to insufficient space for museum displays, storage of records 
and readily accessible reference materials. 

Therefore, Be It Resolved that the legislature be petitioned to 
provide an adequate and functional building for museum, archives 


and history, with bombproof vault for security storage, to be 
built to properly preserve and further develop our Wyoming 

(Submitted by Russeli Thorp.) 

WHEREAS the Goshen County Chapter of the State Historical 
Society has been the gracious host to the Eighth Annual Meeting 
of the Society and, 

WHEREAS: the membership of the Goshen County Chapter 
and the residents of Torrington have extended every courtesy to 
make this an outstanding meeting. 

Therefore, Be It Resolved that we extend our sincere appre- 
ciation for the excellent program, the lovely and very interesting 
historical exhibits in the show windows of the various stores, the 
local tours and interesting speakers, and we especially thank Mr. 
E. A. Littleton, President of the State Historical Society, and 
Miss Hattie May, President of the Goshen County Historical 
Society, for her able organization and leadership in directing the 
program of this meeting, and to all the local committees which 
worked so hard to make this meeting a success. 

Resolutions Committee, 
Mrs. Otis Wright, chairman 
Mr. R. C. Helvey 
Mrs. Wesley Brown 

There was a discussion on the Resolution regarding a new 
building for the State Archives and Historical Department and 
State Museum. The resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

Dr. Nolle Mumey gave a very entertaining talk entitled "Excur- 
sions into Research in Wyoming History." He mentioned his 
research on his books about Jim Baker, Sacajawea, Calamity 
Jane, Bill Hickok and others. He also had an exhibit of pictures, 
maps, books and relics with which he illustrated his talk. He 
generously distributed and autographed copies of the story of 
Sacajawea of which he was the author. 


A caravan of happy historians visited Register Cliff, the site 
of the Grattan Massacre and Fort Laramie Historical Site under 
the leadership of Mr. Larry Sandburg and Mr. Irv Larson. At 
the site of the Grattan Massacre, L. G. "Pat" Flannery read an 
account of this tragic affair which is reprinted at the end of these 

At noon a home cooked lunch was served in Fort Laramie by 
the Grange. The food was good, the weather perfect and the 
plans of the Goshen County Historical Society smoothly executed 
so everybody had a fine time. 

Maurine Carley 



By L. G. "Pat" Flannery 
September 16, 1961 

Ladies and Gentlemen — Near this spot up until about half a 
century ago there was a cluster of famous cold springs. No one 
knows how many hundreds or thousands of years they flowed — 
but in a semi-arid wilderness such as this country then was, they 
must have been known far and wide, for nature has no finer, more 
refreshing gift for both man and beast than a drink of cold, pure 
water after long hours or days on a hot and dusty trail. 

It is therefore not surprising that when the fabulous Pony 
Express was launched on April 3, 1860, these cold springs became 
the site of one of its stations. It was one link in a chain of about 
150 such stations which stretched more than 1900 miles over a 
wilderness of mountain, stream and plain from St. Joseph, Mis- 
souri, to Sacramento, California. About 100 of these stations 
extended westward from Cold Springs to Sacramento and some 50 
eastward from this place to St. Joseph. The next station to the 
east was Horse Creek, in what is now Nebraska, a distance of 12 
miles. The next stop to the west was 13 miles, the Verdling 
Ranch site of the old Bordeaux Indian trading post. The average 
distance between stations was between 12 and 13 miles. Thirty- 
eight of them were in what is now Wyoming, covering a stretch of 
about 475 miles. 

The ride was made in relays by some 120 young men and 500 
horses. They traveled that 1900 miles in about 8 days. Lincoln's 
Inaugural address was carried from St. Joe to Sacramento in 
7 days and 17 hours. 

A brief word about those riders, most of them little more than 
boys in years. They were carefully screened and hand-picked. 
They of course had to be superb horsemen and also of proven 
courage and stamina and of excellent character and reputation — 
for their cargo was priceless and their responsibilities great. In 
addition, they had to be small, lean and wiry. Few of them 
weighed over 100 pounds. Each surplus pound of weight was a 
handicap which might mean the difference between success or 
failure, or even life and death. 

Each rider took an oath, solemly swearing that while an em- 
ployee of Russell, Majors and Waddell (owners of the line) he 
would not use profane language, drink intoxicating liquor, quarrel 
or fight with any other employee of the firm, and that he would 
conduct himself honestly and be faithful to his duties, etc. 

Each was then armed with a U. S. Navy Colt cap and ball, 
36 calibre six shooter, and the horses they rode were the finest 
and fastest money could buy. But the owners apparently realized 
that bullets, fine horse flesh and stout hearts alone were not 
enough — that their men needed something above and beyond 


material things to meet the duties and hazards of their task — so 
they also presented each rider with a Bible to carry with him. 

Between stations these young men pushed their horses hard, at 
speeds of from 8 to 15 miles per hour, depending on the terrain. 
When a rider galloped into the next station a fresh mount was 
waiting, saddled and ready. In a matter of seconds his mochila 
and the attached cantinas containing the mail, was transferred and 
he was up and away. His pay was from $50 to $150 per month. 

Twenty pounds of mail was the limit for each rider. Most let- 
ters were written on tissue paper and for good reason — the postage 
rate was $ 1 for each one-half ounce or less. 

Altho one of the most dramatic and exciting projects in this 
nation's history, the life of the Pony Express was short — a scant 
1 8 months. It fell a victim to automation and scientific progress, 
even as so many things today are falling. That new marvel, the 
telegraph, could carry a message in a few seconds that it took the 
Pony Express a week to deliver. 

But during its short and exciting life the ponies made 308 runs 
between St. Joseph and Sacramento and its riders galloped 
616,000 miles over mountain and plain to deliver a total of 
34,753 letters. It was a hazardous job which claimed the lives 
of a number of men and many horses. But only one mochila of 
mail was lost — an almost unbelievable record. That meant if 
you sent a letter by Pony Express the chances were 308 to 1 it 
would be delivered safely to its destination. 

The following quotations from an editorial in the Sacramento 
Daily Bee of October 26, 1861, struck me as worth passing on: 

"Farewell Pony . . . farewell and forever thou staunch, wil- 
derness overcoming, swift-footed messenger. For the good 
thou hast done we praise thee. Having run thy race ... we 
can part with thy services because, and only because, in the 
progress of the age, in the advance of science, thou has been 
superceded by a more subtle, active, but no more faithful 
public servant. Thou wert the pioneer of a continent in the 
rapid transmission of intelligence between its peoples, and 
have dragged in your train the lightning itself, which, in good 
time will be followed by steam communication by rail. 
Your destiny has been fulfilled. . . . Nothing that had blood 
and sinews was able to overcome you — but a senseless, soul- 
less thing that eats not, sleeps not, tires not, that knows not 
the difference between a rod of ground and the circumference 
of the globe itself, has overthrown and routed you. That is 
no disgrace, for flesh and blood cannot war against the ele- 
ments. Rest then in peace. Thou has done the work that 
was given you to do." 

Those eloquent and thoughtful words, written one hundred 
years ago, apply with equal force today. Change never ceases. 


The very Springs which gave this place its name were also the 
victims of progress. When the great irrigation ditches were buih 
which changed this semi-arid desert into a rich, green valley; 
when the land was leveled and criss-crossed with drainage canals 
— somewhere along the line the sources of those old Cold Springs 
were destroyed and even their memory would soon be lost to the 
minds of men were it not for markers, such as this, and other 
efforts to preserve the history of yesterday. 

It is worth while to keep such memories alive. Only from 
history and a living past can man gain knowledge and experience 
to help him meet the unknown future. I do not wish to sound 
corny or naive, but may I suggest that we join together in dedicat- 
ing this marker with the hope that we, too, may face the problems 
and questions of today and tomorrow with the same courage, 
confidence and determination shown by our pioneer forefathers 
in meeting and conquering the hazards and obstacles of their age. 


By L. G. "Pat" Flannery 
September 17, 1961 

One hundred and seven years ago last August this area was 
crowded with the lodges of numerous bands and tribes of Sioux 
Indians. They had gathered for their annual handout of goods 
and supplies, due them from the government under treaty. The 
date set for distribution was long past. They had been waiting for 
weeks. Their goods were stored several miles upstream in a ware- 
house at what was known as the Gratiot Houses, a trading post 
also called Fort John, a short distance east of Ft. Laramie — but 
the Indian Agent, Major J. W. Whitfield, had not arrived to make 


distribution. Each day the Indians had to drive their ponies a 
greater distance for grass. Each day their hunters had to range in 
ever widening circles in search of game for the cooking pots. They 
were understandably restless and provoked. 

Within sight of this spot was the emigrant trail up the Platte, 
generally known as the Oregon Trail, over which an almost con- 
stant stream of covered wagons plodded their weary way westward. 
This trail was known among the Indians as "The Holy Road" 
because of the terms of a treaty between the Sioux and the white 
men made on Horse Creek, near Ft. Laramie, in 1851. This 
treaty provided that the red men would not attack or molest the 
white man's wagon trains traveling this trail; that if Indians should 
steal from the emigrants the chiefs would see that full restitution 
was made; that if the whites stole from the Indians the government 
would recompense them for their loss. In return for this safe 
passage the United States promised to issue the Sioux tribes 
$50,000 worth of goods each year — delivery to be made near Fort 
Laramie. It was a touchy situation, an uneasy truce, marred by 
some incidents on both sides — but it had worked pretty well; 
the wagon trains had gotten safely thru, until this lame and half 
starved old cow came staggering along the afternoon of August 
18, 1854. 

She belonged to a Mormon wagon train which left her behind 
when she could no longer keep up. A young Miniconjou brave 
named High Forehead, on his way to visit the camp of the Brules 
near by, discovered this cow down, helpless and apparently 
abandoned. He promptly slaughtered her, summoned some of 
his Brule friends, and they had a feast. The wagon train proceed- 
ed on to Ft. Laramie, the owner of the cow reported her stolen 
by Indians and demanded compensation. 

Conquering Bear, chief of the Brules, also heard of the incident 
and realizing it might be considered a violation of the treaty, 
immediately went to Fort Laramie, and offered a pony as resti- 
tution for the cow. Old records indicate that a good horse was 
worth at least two good cows along the trail. 

Unfortunately most of the officers and men on duty at Fort 
Laramie were absent, leaving only a skeleton garrison in the post 
and Lt. Hugh B. Fleming in temporary command. Lt. Fleming, 
a young officer, was apparently reluctant to make a decision in 
the matter and Conquering Bear, unable to get an answer to his 
offer, returned to his camp and held a night conference with 
other head men. Early next morning Man Afraid of his Horses — 
altho some translations say it should be Man Afraid of His 
Women — a sort of over-chief among the Sioux, returned with a 
small delegation to the Fort and renewed the offer. Again they 
could get no decision from Lt. Fleming who left them cooling 
their heels all morning and into the early afternoon. 

Now comes the most amazing and difficult to understand part 


of the whole proceedings. Ahho refusing to accept full restitution 
for the cow as the treaty provided, Lt. Fleming instead authorized 
Lt. John L. Grattan to take a detail to arrest High Forehead, 
which he had no authority to do, and then washed his hands of 
the whole affair. Grattan, a green and hot-headed 24-year old, 
just graduated from West Point, started celebrating his first com- 
mand with a bottle while assembling his expedition, a wagon, 
two 12-lb. cannon, a sergeant, 25 privates and 2 band musicians. 
When Chief Man Afraid and his delegation saw this column cross 
the Laramie and head toward the Indian encampment about 
2 P.M., with Lt. Grattan and Lucian Auguste, an interpreter much 
hated by the Indians, at its head, they were disturbed and decided 
to trail along. What they observed was not reassuring. The 
interpreter was obviously drunk and at least some of the soldiers 
were nipping from a bottle of their own. 

The first stop was at the Gratiot Houses storeroom, where Lt. 
Grattan told the clerks and few soldiers on guard about his mis- 
sion, while Interpreter Auguste galloped his horse among the 
Indians outside, shouting insults and brandishing his pistol. As 
they came to each band of Indians Grattan issued orders for them 
to stay in camp which Auguste passed on, embellished with more 
threats and insults. 

The next stop was at Bordeaux' Trading Post, about 300 yards 
from this place, where Grattan told James Bordeaux to send for 
Conquering Bear. While they awaited his arrival Auguste contin- 
ued his campaign of insults and threats among the Indians in the 
area. Bordeaux, who of course understood the Indian language 
as well as English, was greatly alarmed and told Grattan the man 
had to be stopped or trouble was sure to follow. He also told 
the lieutenant if he would put Auguste inside the post away from 
the Indians that he, Bordeaux, could settle the whole thing in 30 
minutes. Grattan took no action. 

When Conquering Bear arrived Grattan demanded that he sur- 
render High Forehead. The Bear told him High Forehead was 
not a member of his tribe, merely a visitor at his camp and he 
had no authority over him or to surrender him. The Brule chief 
also increased his offer of indemnity to several ponies and Bor- 
deaux and other white men present all urged Grattan to delay 
further action until the Indian Agent arrived. 

Lt. Grattan's answer was to march his men right into the Brule 
Camp, point his cannon at Conquering Bear's lodge, line his men 
up on both sides, order them to cap their rifles and be ready to fire. 
He then stepped forward and told the Brule chief he intended to 
personally search the camp and arrest his man. Bear said that 
would be a bad thing to do, and offered a mule, worth at least two 
horses, in addition to the ponies — many times the value of any 
cow. The pow-wow continued. Auguste's interpreting became 
more inaccurate and insulting to both sides. Then suddenly High 


Forehead stepped from one of the lodges, shouted to Grattan he 
would not surrender but was not afraid to die and ready to fight 
him to the death. 

Meanwhile, from the roof of his trading post, Bordeaux and 
several other white men could see that braves from the other tribes 
had quietly surrounded Grattan on both flanks and the rear. They 
pursuaded Bordeaux to go and replace Auguste as interpreter to 
prevent a fight. Bordeaux jumped on his horse and started, but 
he was too late. 

Several scattering shots were fired and one Indian fell. The 
Bear shouted at his Brules to hold their fire, that maybe the white 
men would now go away. Instead, Grattan stepped back into 
line, grabbed the lanyard of one cannon and signaled his men to 
fire. The cannon were pointed a little too high and their balls 
whistled harmlessly over the tepees, but at the first volley Con- 
quering Bear, who had tried so hard to prevent a clash, fell mor- 
tally wounded. The Brules, gathered about their fallen chieftain, 
responded with a flight of arrows. Lt. Grattan was one of the 
first to go down — his body carried 24 arrows when recovered. 
The interpreter and a soldier holding Grattan's horse galloped 
off toward the Holy Road at the first shot and were next to be 
killed. Several men piled into the wagon and the driver whipped 
his horses back over the trail. Indians covering the rear took 
care of them. The remaining 15 or 20 soldiers retreated over 
rough ground to the base of a brush covered hill and for a time 
their fire held most of the warriors beyond arrow range. But 
when they made a dash from their cover across a flat stretch 
toward the Holy Road hundreds of mounted warriors charged 
and hacked them down. Within a few hours after those thirty 
men had left Fort Laramie, full of high spirits in more ways than 
one, all were dead. 

The now thoroughly enraged warriors spared Bordeaux and his 
family because he was a brother-in-law of the tribe and long time 
friend, and failed to find the several white men hidden on his roof. 
But they rampaged thru the night swearing death to all whites. 
Next morning they rode up river to the warehouse where their 
goods were stored — and from which the few soldiers and clerks 
had discreetly retired — helped themselves to what they wanted 
and scattered most of the goods — flour, sugar, bacon, etc., from 
the shelves in a fury of destruction. Then on they went to Ft. 
Laramie, where some say they made a token attack, others that 
they contented themselves with circling the Fort on their ponies 
and driving off all loose stock. On the third day they struck their 
great camp on the Platte and returned to their various hunting 

So it was not until the fourth day that a civilian and military 
burial party was able to reach the scene of the massacre. What 
they found was not pretty. The slain had been mutilated beyond 


recognition. Hot August sunshine has done the rest. Only the 
body of Lt. Grattan was returned to the post for burial. It was 
identified by a watch he was carrying. The rest were quickly 
covered in one common, shallow grave. The incident triggered 
a quarter century of intermittent savage warfare on the plains. 
It was not until after the Custer massacre of 1876 that our troops 
finally broke the back of the Sioux Nation. 

About 40 years ago the late John Hunton showed me this 
common grave. It was a depression about 15 feet in diameter 
and perhaps 3 feet deep in the center. The surrounding land was 
still brush covered river bottom. He told me it had been a mound 
when he first came to the country in 1867. The winds of more 
than a half a century had hollowed it out. Mr. Hunton stepped 
into the depression and scratched around with his cane. He un- 
earthed a tarnished brass button, a uniform collar insignia and 
what appeared to be a piece of arm bone and a human tooth. 
We reburied these evidences of an ancient tragedy in their dusty 
earth. I had seen enough and we went away from there. 

^00k Keviews 

History of South Dakota. By Herbert S. Schell. (Lincoln, The 
University of Nebraska Press. 1961. Illus. Index. 424 
pp. $5.50.) 

Macaulay wrote of Dante that in the Divine Comedy he "gives 
us the shape, the color, the sound, the smeU, the taste; he counts 
the numbers; he measures the size." And likewise Dr. Schell has 
compressed into 424 pages a tremendous amount of detail. The 
comparison must not be pressed too far, for Schell omits emotion 
and colorful language. His style is matter-of-fact, his treatment of 
individuals cautious and fair. 

On the other hand, while there is no Paradise in this volume 
there are glimpses of Purgatory and even of the Inferno. One is 
reminded of these places when he reads about "The Great Dakota 
Boom, 1878-1887." The countryside was full of money lenders, 
perjurers, swindlers, and sharp lawyers. Drouth and deflation 
moved in with their freight of abandoned homesteads and ghost 

One is reminded further of Purgatory in reading of the economic 
distress of the 1920s and 1930s. Almost 70 per cent of the banks 
closed their doors. The average value of farm land fell from 
$71.39 an acre to $18.65. Dust storms carried off the soil to 
plow depth. 

One is reminded again of Purgatory in the chapter "Reap- 
praisal: The Transformation of the Sioux." While Dr. Schell 
uses words such as "progress" and "transformation," he tells us 
enough of the facts about the 30,000 Indians in the state to raise 
speculation as to his definition of the word "progress." 

The reader of state histories looks for the unique and rarely 
finds it. In the case of South Dakota there is something unusual 
in the story of state socialism. Republican Governor Peter Nor- 
beck in 1917 took the lead in proposing Constitutional amend- 
ments permitting the state to enter various types of business. 
After the voters approved the amendments the Republican legis- 
lature proceeded to put the state into hail insurance, farm loans, 
coal mining, and cement manufacturing. The Nonpartisan League, 
with headquarters in North Dakota, tried to take control of South 
Dakota's state socialism but had to yield to the Republicans. In 
1923 the state entered the retail gasoline business, driving down 
the price of gasoline from 26 to 16 cents a gallon. Eventually 
the South Dakota Republicans recanted, shed their incongruous 
socialism, and lived to regret their temporary heresy. The state's 
rural credit venture eventually cost the taxpayers $57,000,000. 

This is a centennial history in that South Dakota was organized 


as a territory in 1861. The state has always been primarily agri- 
cultural. Though only about 80% as large as Wyoming, South 
Dakota has twice the population, twice as many cattle, and six 
times as many farm and ranch units. It produces far more com, 
oats, wheat, and barley. In common with Wyoming, South 
Dakota lacks industry and has suffered recently from outmigration. 
Indeed, lacking Wyoming's oil and irrigation South Dakota's ups 
and downs have been far sharper than Wyoming's. 

Dr. Schell, who has taught history at the University of South 
Dakota since 1925, has done an admirable job, and so has the 
University of Nebraska Press. This handsome, comprehensive, 
and authentic volume no doubt will be the standard history of 
the state for years to come. 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 

Pawnee, Blackjoot and Cheyenne - History and Folklore of the 
Plains from the writings of George Bird Grinnell. Selected 
by and with an introduction by Dee Brown. (Mass.: Har- 
vard University Press, xii+301 pp. $4.95.) 

This book is just what the title says it is. 

George Bird Grinnell was founder of the Audubon Society, a 
naturahst on Gen. Custer's famous Black Hills Expedition in 
1874, an early explorer of Glacier National Park, a leader in the 
National Park Movement and editor of "Forest and Stream" for 
thirty-five years. Known for all the foregoing and many other 
accomplishments, Grinnell is best known for his writings about 
his friends, the Plains Indians. 

Grinnell first met the Pawnees in 1870 when he made a grand 
tour of the West with Prof. O. C. Marsh's geological expedition. 

The Blackfeet first gained his interest when he made a hunting 
and fishing trip to Montana in 1887. The Blackfeet named him 
Fisher Hat and not only adopted him into the tribe but later made 
him a head chief. 

Grinnell's books on the Cheyenne are a product of a lifelong 
study of that tribe's way of life before and after the settlement of 
the West by the white man. 

Dee Brown's introduction deals with the life of Grinnell and 
explains his arrangement of the collection of writings. 

The first sections of the book deal with the tribes, Pawnee, 
Blackfoot and Cheyenne, the last section tells of the Indians' 
relations with the white man. Each of the first sections begins 
with an account of Grinnell's own experiences with the tribe, is 
followed by a tribal history and closes with selections of folklore. 

The folklore and hero tales are written as told to the author 
with no attempt at elaboration. The simple almost childlike lan- 
guage of the tales makes them appealing to readers of all ages. 


Very young readers are interested in and amused by tales such as 
"How the Deer Lost His Gall," etc. 

Most of Grinnell's books are long out of print and collectors 
of Western Americana owe Dee Brown a vote of thanks for mak- 
ing this collection available. 

Newcastle, Wyoming Mabel Brown 

The Charles Ilfeld Company, A Study of the Rise and Decline of 
Mercantile Capitalism in New Mexico. By William J. Parish. 
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961. Illus. 431 pp. 

By historical standards, this volume merits attention of every 
student of western history. For the first time, a detailed, well- 
documented analysis has been successfully made of the mercantile 
system on the western frontier. 

Covering the period 1865 to 1960, this study describes the evo- 
lution of a small-town merchant into a large wholesaler, with ex- 
ploration of his subsidiary ventures into allied field, particularly 
barter-banking and sheep industry — sidelines forced upon him by 
needs of his mercantile business. Pressures of frontier economy 
which forced him into a barter-banking system illustrate the pat- 
terns which similarly forced emergence in western communities 
of merchants as bankers, wholesalers, warehousemen and political 

Many people made contributions to settling the west. The men 
who built the basic foundations of every community in our region, 
however, were small-town merchants whose success in overcoming 
barriers of transportation, money exchange and fluctuating mar- 
kets, to build mercantile empires, at last, in this volume, achieve 
the recognition which is due them. Patterns of research Professor 
Parish has used are worthy of attention of any historian and are 
unique contributions in the field of western history. The very 
complete records of the Charles Ilfeld Company, while a histor- 
ian's gold mine, undoubtedly presented massive problems in selec- 
tion and judgment. Parish's success in separating the nucleus 
which forms his book marks him as a historian of quality. 

Regional historical significance, however, is only part of the 
measure of this book. Its social and economic study of the 
capitalist system gives a readable and accurate account of decline 
of mercantile operations in the west and is excellent reflection of 
larger, national economic forces. 

Even before Charles Ilfeld's death in 1929, his career as a 
mercantile capitalist had been ended by secession of the family 
corporation, a creature diseased at birth by such limited vision of 
the significance of emerging urban society that it was foredoomed 
to disaster. Ultimate absorption by an industrial capitaHstic cor- 
poration — the modern form of corporate socialist capitalism which 


divorces ownership from control — is only a reflection of the rap- 
idly accelerating present economic trend. 

The 20th in the series of Harvard University Studies in Business 
History, this book is a worthy companion of Great Basin King- 
dom, an Economic History of the Latter Day Saints, issued in, 
1958 by the same publisher, on shelves of western history. 

In view of obvious interest by today's reading public in the 
drama and intrigue of modern business operations, evidenced by 
virtually permanent best-seller positions of business management 
novels, The Charles Hfeld Company might be expected to achieve 
a wider pubhc than such books ordinarily receive. The same 
elements of suspense and struggle are present in this intensely 
interesting and rewarding volume. No library of western history 
can be considered adequate without the addition of this study of 
frontier economic life. 

Casper, Wyoming Frank L. Bowron 

Yesterday's Trails. By Will H. Spindler. (Gordon Journal Pub- 
lishing Company, Gordon, Nebraska. 1961. 80 pages. 

These are trails of memory. Along them the author takes his 
reader to the northern tier of counties in Nebraska where Kid 
Wade and Doc Middleton once held forth and made local history. 

The author and his wife spent thirty years in the Medicine Bow 
Day School at the village of Potato Creek in the extensive Pine 
Ridge Indian Reservation of southwest South Dakota. 

Each chapter tells a story. Beginning with the early day rustlers 
the memory trails lead the reader through the open range that 
used to be, to the first oiled road into the reservation from the 
Nebraska side. In between are chapters on the Indian beef issue, 
the severe winters, the war years on the reservation and their effect 
upon the Indians. Incidents in the history of the various churches 
on the reservation and some sidelights on the Sioux religion are 

There is a graphic description of the pioneer blacksmith and his 
shop. One can almost hear the sounds and smell the odors as he 
looks down that memory lane. The early day peddler with his 
wagon of trinkets and wares will bring nostalgic memories to 
those who have passed the half century mark. The old songs of 
the cowboy and the range, pioneer weddings, the antics of young 
cowboys bent on a little deviltry, all these are within the covers 
of this small volume. 

Several interesting photographs are included. Nebraskans and 
their Wyoming and Dakota neighbors will enjoy Yesterday's 

Bridgeport, Nebraska Helen Henderson 


Big Horn Pioneers. Edited by Vie Willets Garber. (Privately 
published. 1961. lUus. 115 pp. $1.50.) 

1 distinctly remember the first time I met Mrs. Vie Willits Gar- 
ber, "Aunt Vie", as her friends affectionately call her. It was 
late in November, 1930, when my future wife and I rode the mile 
or so separating the Gallatin Ranch from the Garber's home, west 
of Big Horn. Intermittent flurries of snow swept over the stark 
countryside and made us bend our heads over the horses' necks. 
But it was pleasantly warm and cozy in "Aunt Vie's" living room, 
where we found her sitting at a table covered with plants and 
books. She greeted us with simple graciousness and presently 
began to talk of the study she was just then engaged in: Pliny's 
Htstoria Naturalis, in Latin. I cannot say what impressed me 
most: her thorough knowledge of the classics or the originaHty of 
her interpretation. 

Now Mrs. Garber, who for many years taught Latin and history 
at the Big Horn High School, and is at present the school's 
librarian, has edited this collection of essays entitled "Big Horn 
Pioneers." Most of the contributors are Big Horn high school 
students or ex-students. All are descendants of the original set- 
tlers of this, in many ways, unique community. The stories cover 
the period between the foundation of what, with forgivable hper- 
bole, is here mentioned as "Big Horn City," and the year 1900. 
However, as Mrs. Garber puts it, "We trust you (the reader) 
will encourage youth to continue the record . . . where we have 
tried to stop, and to write stories of our pristine valley as our 
grandparents idealized it." To which I can only add. Amen. 

Big Horn Pioneers has all the nostalgic charm of a daguerreo- 
type of yesteryear. In the simple, yet colorful and often touching 
words of the members of the younger generation, the figures, the 
landscape and the customs of the past come strikingly to light. 
I shall quote a few passages that seem to me singularly interesting 
because of the authenticity they lend to the persons and places 
they portray. 

There is the story of the dance that was held "in the new hall 
over the store," when the weather, which had been mild all day, 
suddenly took a turn for the worse and the snow "piled drifts too 
deep to risk homeward going for those who had come long dis- 
tance;" and so they all went on dancing for three nights, while 
Mr. Chris Hepp played the accordion. And there is the hair- 
raising account of Mr. and Mrs. Jackson's encounter with the 
Indians of Sitting Bull, near Cheyenne, when the great chief de- 
cided to try "Mrs. Jackson's nerves" and she stood the ordeal 
with true pioneer courage. There are also a number of character 
sketches that the reader will not easily forget. I shall only mention 
that of the teacher, Mr. Spiegel, of whom Mrs. Alva T. Morge- 
reidge writes: "He hved in a neat little two-room house that faced 


ours about a block away. He had a housekeeper who came every 
day and kept his place immaculate. My lessons were from 9:00 
to 10:00 a.m. When I arrived my teacher was waiting for me, 
neat as a pin but usually in a red silk brocade robe which set off 
his white hair and beard, if not his pudgy figure. On a few 
occasions he was 'indisposed' with an ailment he never named but 
which rumor said was the result of too close association with the 
bottle . . ." 

Of course, all the oldest and most prominent families — the 
Custis, the Hannas, the Spears, the Wallops, the Moncreiffes, the 
Martins, the Sacketts and many many others whom I cannot men- 
tion for lack of space, are properly remembered. 

1 would like also to add that the book is richly illustrated with 
excellent contemporary photographs of Big Horn and of some 
of its best known citizens. 

Big Horn, Wyoming Carlo Beuf 

Horse Wrangler. By Floyd C. Bard as told to Agnes Wright 
Spring. (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 
1960. 296 pp. $4.00) 

The Western book-of-1960 from where I sit - a little saddle- 
sore-is Horse Wrangler. Sixty Years in the Saddle as told to 
Agnes Wright Spring. Here is the real West as lived, spoken in 
plain language by an observant and wise Wyoming bronc-stomper. 
Floyd Bard grew up in the saddle and gives a true picture of 
ranch life "on the fringe" of Wyoming as the old West was 
departing. His entire narrative makes for good reading, and 
has been told beautifully by Colorado's state historian. No one 
should omit The Horse Wrangler from their book collection. It 
is an original, not a reworking of other books. 

Cheyenne Ruth J. Bradley 

Man of the Plains: Recollections of Luther North, 1856-1882. 
Edited by Donald F. Danker. With a foreword by George 
Bird Grinnell. (Lincoln, Neb.,: University of Nebraska 
Press. Being Volume 4, in The Pioneer Heritage Series. 
350 pages, including 9 maps, appendixes and index. $4.75). 

Dr. Danker, Archivist of the Nebraska State Historical Society, 
has done for Luther H. North, but to a greater degree, that which 
he did for his brother, Frank J. North when he edited The Journal 
of an Indian Fighter - The 1869 Diary of Major Frank J. North 
which appeared in the June 1958 issue of Nebraska History. The 
Frank North reminiscences covered the period of just one year - 
that of Luther North covers a 26 year period. 


Born in Ohio in 1846, North's family moved to Nebraska ten 
years later where, as a youth of 13, he carried the mail for his 
older brother, J. E. North who held the contract for the delivery 
of mail between Columbus and Monroe. This was the summer of 
the so-called Pawnee War, his first contact with the tribe with 
which he and his brother Frank are so closely linked. It is 
doubtful if there were, at any time, two white men more closely 
identified with the Pawnee than the two North brothers, Frank 
and Luther. During the winter of 1861 he worked at the Pawnee 
Agency hauling logs to the sawmill built on the Reservation by 
the Government. The following summer he made his first contact 
with the Sioux who had run off a bunch of horses and mules he 
had turned out to graze. With the coming of the War Between 
the States, he enlisted in the 2nd Nebraska Cavalry in the fall of 
1 862, and in the spring of the following year was in General Alfred 
Sully's expedition against the Sioux. This was a short term enlist- 
ment as he was mustered out of the service early in December 

After this experience, he bought a freighting outfit from Frank 
who had gone to work for the trader at the Pawnee Agency. Dur- 
ing the years 1864 to 1867, Luther continued to freight, had con- 
tact with Pawnees and Sioux and led a life no more or less exciting 
than that of most men living on the frontier. He spent a few 
months at a business college in Michigan early in 1867. He was 
then called back by Frank who had been given orders to enlist 
four companies of Pawnees and to select his own officers. Luther 
was offered a captaincy in one of the companies. He accepted 
readily, serving until the end of the year when he stood his second 
mustering out from the military service. During this period, the 
Pawnee Scouts were used largely along the Union Pacific railroad 
right of way guarding the various camps against raids by the Sioux, 
Cheyenne and Arapaho and getting in plenty of action and excite- 
ment in so doing. 

In the spring of 1868, Frank was again ordered to enlist the 
Pawnee as scouts and although Luther wished to join up again, it 
was not possible for him to do so. However, when in 1869 Frank 
was once more asked to recruit a company of scouts, Luther went 
along as Captain. It was from this time on to the end of his ser- 
vice that he saw and participated in much of the action which 
became the basis of the many accounts he wrote and told of in 
later years. And it is from these accounts controversies have 

This book is bound to stir up plenty of heated discussion when 
students of the history of the West get together. These rem- 
iniscences must be read very carefully. It is suggested there be 
at the right hand of the reader a copy of Don Russell's The Lives 
and Legends of Buffalo Bill, George Bird Grinnell's Two Great 
Scouts and Their Pawnee Battalion, as well as Robert Bruce's The 


Fighting Norths and Pawnee Scouts and while you are at it don't 
overlook George Hyde's Pawnee Indians and the Frank North 
Diary mentioned earlier. This is suggested in all seriousness, if 
for no other reason than to read a different version of the same 
incident. And then the decision as to which version is the correct 
one is left up to you. "You pays your money and you takes your 

The reader cannot help but feel that Luther has subordinated 
himself to his brother Frank in a very modest manner, except as 
Don Russell suggests "when recounting his own exploits." Be 
that as it may and in spite of the fact that Luther North has told 
his story a half dozen or more times, this is a book deserving a 
place on the library shelves of any person interested in the making 
of the West. 

The rfeader will find the letters Luther wrote to his uncle John 
Calvin North and to Dr. Richard Tanner especially interesting. 
It is to be hoped Dr. Danker may see his way clear to edit more 
of these letters which are in the archives of the Nebraska Historical 
Society. (And if he does, this reviewer has a suggestion to make: 
please add the necessary punctuation and paragraphing as was 
one when the North- Williamson letters were printed in the Octo- 
ber-December 1934 issue of NEBRASKA HISTORY MAGA- 
ZINE. They were so much easier to read). 

Aside from a couple of "typos" noticed: on page 183, "Colonel 
Fred Grand" for "Colonel Fred Grant" and on page 209, the use 
of the word "sutter" for "sutler", and lacking the photographs 
which were promised in the prospectus, the University of Nebraska 
Press is to be congratulated for the high quality of bookmaking 
which went into producing this book and the three volumes 
preceding it. 

Sacramento, Calif. Michael Harrison 

Bits of Silver. Edited and with an Introduction by Don Ward. 
(New York: Hastings House, 1961. 306 pp. $5.95.) 

Bits of Silver presents a broad panoramic view of the early days 
of the west, ranging from the Battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876 
through the late 1920's, with the final selection from Mari Sandoz' 
Old Jules. 

Don Ward, who has compiled and edited these vignettes, has 
skillfully chosen the excerpts and chapters from the books, in 
that he has presented selections which are complete and satisfying 
stories within themselves, although each was an integral part of 
the book from which it was taken. 

The geographic scope is wide, with the selections bringing the 


reader the romance and color of the developing west throughout 
the southwest, the Great Plains, Rocky Mountains and California. 

The subject range is equally varied — the Indians and their prob- 
lems after the white men came to their country, the booming 
mining towns, the overland stage era, outlaws, homesteaders, and 
even the animal herds which disappeared with the settling of the 

As Ward has stated in the introduction of his book, "... the 
frontier presented many faces to those who lived it. For the 
red men, it changed within a few decades from a burgeoning 
preserve to a mocking prison. For some white men, it was an 
open invitation to plunder and exploitation. For others, it was a 
promise, a chance to grow in living. For some, shining beauty 
and new beginning. For some, dark sorrow and unsought end." 

Some of the most capable writers in the western field are 
represented in the book, among them Mari Sandoz, Frazier Hunt, 
Ellis Lucia, Homer Croy and Carleton Beals. 

The title of the book is interesting — "Bits of Silver" a token of 
the twenty-fifth, or silver, anniversary of the publishing house. 

Cheyenne Katherine Halverson 

The Indian War Of 1864. By Captain Eugene F. Ware. (A 
reprint of the original edition published in 1911 by Crane and 
Company, Topeka, Kansas). St. Martins Press, New York, 
1960, $7.50. 

One who is interested in history of the valleys of the Platte at 
the time of the first settlers will enjoy reading Ware's book. Here 
we have a straight-forward contemporary story of soldiers at their 
work. Maintaining telegraph lines to Denver and Ft. Laramie, 
protecting the settlers and guarding the forts and stage stations on 
the Platte Valley is their job and they do it. 

Winter campaigns, Indians, hard tack, and constant danger do 
seem to trouble these volunteer soldiers who joined to fight in 
the Civil War and find themselves fighting Indians instead. And 
they do a splendid job without benefit of the U. S. O., Information 
Officers, Special Service Officers, Red Cross, and psychologists. 

Ware's book is part of the story of America on the way towards 
becoming a great nation, uncomplicated by the frills, fringe bene- 
fits and frustrations which complicate American life today. I 
enjoyed reading Ware's book and I think you will, too. 

Cheyenne Frank Clark, Jr. 




The University of Nebraska Press is performing a valuable 
service in the field of Western Americana. Many books on the 
West have long been out of print, and the reprints through the 
Bison Books paperback editions are making such materials 
available now at reasonable prices. The following reprints have 
a publication date of October 5, 1961. 

Boy Life on the Prairie. By Hamlin Garland, introduction by 
B. R. McElderry, Jr. (Originally published by Macmillan 
Co. in 1899. Also included are an introduction addressed 
"To My Young Readers" and "Author's Notes" which 
appeared in the 1926 edition published by Allyn and Bacon.) 
435 pp. $1.40. 

Letters of a Woman Homesteader. By Elinore Pruitt Stewart 
with foreword by Jessamyn West. (Reproduced from the 
edition published in May 1914 by Houghton Mifflin Co.) 
282 pp. $1.25. 

Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales. By George Bird Grinnell, 
introduction by Maurice Prink. (Reproduced from the edi- 
tion published in 1889 by the Forest and Stream Publishing 
Co., New York.) Index, 417 pp. $1.65. 

Black Elk Speaks, Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the 
Oglala Sioux. As told through John G. Neihardt. Illus. by 
Standing Bear. (Reproduced from the 1932 edition pub- 
lished by William Morrow & Co.) 281 pp. $1.50. 

Them Was the Days, An American Saga of the 'gj's. By Martha 
Ferguson McKeown. Introductory notes by Royce H. 
Knapp. (Originally published by the Macmillan Co.) 282 
pp. $1.25. 


Rex. L. Wilson, Staff Museum Curator at the Fort Laramie 
National Historic Site, came to Wyoming in August, 1960, from 
the Fort Union National Monument, New Mexico, where he had 
served for two years as archaeologist. Previously he was archaeol- 
ogist at Ocmulgee National Monument, Macon, Georgia, and 
taught high school for five years at Enid, Oklahoma. His academic 
degrees include a B. S. in education-history from Phillips Univer- 
sity at Enid, and a B. A. in anthropology from the University of 
Oklahoma at Norman. At present he is finishing work for his 
master's degree in anthropology (archaeology) to be conferred 
upon completion of his thesis on the John W. Davis site in Mc- 
Curtain county, Oklahoma. Wilson, his wife, and their two young 
sons make their home in Lingle. Among his hobbies are photog- 
raphy, numismatics, 19th century bottle collecting, hunting, read- 
ing and gardening. He is a member of the Society for American 
Archaeology and the Fort Laramie Historical Association. 

Elizabeth Keen is assistant professor of English at Westmin- 
ster College, New Wilmington, Pennsylvania. A native of Los 
Angeles, she was graduated with a B. A. degree from the Uni- 
versity of California at Berkeley, and received her M. A. degree in 
1956 from the University of Wyoming. She spent about eighteen 
years as a newspaper reporter and correspondent in China, France 
and England, and lived in Argentina for one year. 

Margaret Brock Hanson is a native of Wyoming, having 
been born in Buffalo, the daughter of J. Elmer Brock and Janie 
Clare Thom Brock. She received her early education in the 
Buffalo schools, and later attended Goucher College in Baltimore, 
Maryland. She worked as a photographer until her marriage in 
1943 to Dan Hanson, Kaycee rancher, and photography is still 
one of her hobbies. She is an active member of the American 
National Cowbelles. She and her husband have six children, 
from four to sixteen years of age. 

Mrs. Thelma Gatchell Condit. See Annals of Wyoming, 
Vol. 29, No. 1, April 1957, pp. 120-121. 

Hans Kleiber. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 33, No. 1, April, 
1961, p. 115. 

Qeneml Jndez 

Abbot, Cole, 33:1:101 

Abbot. T. D., 33:2:149 

Abbott, L. C, 33:1:73, 85, 86 

Abrams, Ludolph, 33:1:89 

Adams, — , 33:1:90 

Agnew, John, 33:2:132 

Agonino, Dr. George, 33:2:215 

Albany County, 33:1:49, 90 

Albany County Carnegie Library, 

Albany County Historical Society, 
33:1:73; 33:2:220, 221 

Algeria, 33:2:125 

Allard, Joseph U., 33:2:153 

Allen, Mary Jester, 33:2:220 

Allen, Relly, 33:1:81 

Allison, Samuel, 33:1:55 

Alsace, France, 33:1:87 

Alsop, Tom, 33: 1 :86 

Altadena, Calif., 33:2:121 

Alvy, Mrs., 33:2:196 

American Association for State and 

Local History, 33:2:196 

American Fur Company, 33:2:162, 
163, 166 

"American Fur Traders", by Chit- 
tenden, 33:2:164, 165 

American Heritage Picture History 
of the Civil War, The, ed. Rich- 
ard M. Ketcham/narrative by 
Bruce Catton, 33:1:114 

American National Cowbelles, 33: 

Amous, — , 33:2:196 

Anderson, — , 33:1:90 

Angle, Paul M., A Ballad of the 
North and South, 33:1:114 

Antelope Creek, 33:2:210 

Archives of the University of Wyo- 
ming, 33:2:135, 136 

Argonauts, 33:1:92 

Argus, newspaper, 33:2:139 

Aricara villages, 33:2:160 

Arizona, 33:1:84 

Arlington, Wyo., 33:1:91, 92, 93, 
94, 95 

Arndt, Bob, 33:1:63 

Arnold, Charles V., 33:2:140 

Arnold, Rev. Franklin, 33:1:80 

Arnold, Mrs. Olga, 33:1:101 

Arnott, D., 33:2:132 

Ashby, G. F., 33:2:213 

Ashley, Gen. William H., 33:1:92, 
99; 33:2:160, 165 

Atkinson, Gen., 33:2:160 
Atlantic Creek, 33:2:165 
Auguste, Lucian, 33:2:227, 228 
Avonlea points, 33:2:215 

Babson, Nick, 33:2:191 

Baby Peggy, 33:1:51 

Bacon, Glennie, 33:1:101 

Baggs, Wyo., 33:2:207. 208 

Bailey, Hilda, 33:2:183 

Bailey, Dr., 33:2:170 

Bailey Hall, 33:2:179, 185 

Baker, Jim, 33:2:222 

Baker, Nathan A., 33:2:138, 142, 

146, 151 
Baker, Tom, 33:2:184, 185 
Ballad of the North and South, A 

text by Paul M. Angle, Earl 

Schneck Miers, music by Norman 

Lockwood, 33:1:114 
Bamberger, W. M., 33:2:140 
Bancroft Library, 33:2:135 
Banditti of the Plains, The, 33:2: 

Bannerman, Carrick, 33:2:132 
Bannerman, Robert, 33:2:131 
Bannock Creek, Ida., 33:1:31 
Bannock Trail, 33:1:29 
Bard, Floyd, Horse Wrangler, re- 
view, 33:2:235 
Barnett, George, 33:2:139, 140 
Barnum, Wyo., 33:1:59, 62, 64; 33: 

2:179, 192 
Barrow, Merris C, 149, 154, 156, 

Bartlett's History of Wyoming, 33: 

Barton, Ed, 33:1:101 
Bashor, A. D., Mr. and Mrs., 33:1: 

79, 81 
Bates Hole, 33:1:49 
Baur, Henry, 33:2:208, 210 
Bay State Ranch, 33:1:57 
Beacher, [Beecher] Henry Ward, 

Bear Lake, 33:1:30, 32, 37 
Bear River, 33:2:161, 162 
Bear River Bay, 31:1:31 
Bear River City, Wyo., 33:2:137, 

139, 150, 151 
Bear River massacre, 1863, 33:1:31 
Bear River, Utah, 33:1:31, 32 



Bear River Valley, 33:1:38 
Beaubien, Paul, 33:2:121 
Bedell. Lucien L., 33:2:138, 139 
Belgium, 33:2:165 
Be?i HoUaday the Stage Coach 

King, 33:2:211, 213 
Bennett, Ed, 33:2:198 
Bennett. Ferry, 33:2:198 
Bennett, Mildred R., The World of 

Willa Gather, 33:1:113 
Bennett Crossing, 33:1:99 
Benton, William M., 33:2:142 
Berreman, — , 33:1:24 
Belgo-American Drilling Trust, 33: 

Bell, E. J., 33:1:47 
Bellamy, Ben, 33:1:49 
Bengough. Clement, 33:1:89, 91 
Bengough Hill, 33:1:91 
Bessemer Journal, newspaper, 33: 

Beuf, Carlo, review of Big Horn 

Pioneers, Edited by Vie Willets 

Garber, 33:2:234-235 
Big Goose Valley, 33:2:171 
Big Horn mountains, 33:1:37 
Big Horn Pioneers, ed. by Vie 

Willets Garber, review, 33:2:234- 

235; award, 219 
Big Horn River, 33:2:160, 166; Ba- 
sin, 161; Mountains, 166; Range, 

Big Horn Sentinel, newspaper, 33: 

Big Horn Valley, 33:1:36 
Big Laramie Crossing, 33:1:86; 

river, 98; 33:2:211 
Big Laramie Station, 33:1:81 
Big Nose George, 33:2:203 
Big Pond Station, 33:2:210, 211; 

photo, 206 
Big Springs, 33:1:95 
Biggs, Wallace R., 33:2:136 
Bill Barlow's Budget, newspaper, 

33:2:149, 156, 157 
Biographical Sketch of James 

Bridger, by Maj. Gen. Grenville 

M. Dodge, reprint, 33:2:159-177 
Bird, Geneva, 33:1:101 
Bishop, B. E., 33:1:101 
Bishop, Floyd A., 33:2:197 
Bishop (Mrs. L. C), Claire, 33:2: 

196, 214 
Bishop, Col. Lon E., 33:2:196 
Bishop, Loren Clark, 33:1:73, 81, 

98, 100; Memoriam, photo, 72; 

Mrs. 101; 33:2:196, 197. 217, 

218, 220; Memorial Fund, 217 
Bishop, Thomas, 33:1:79 

Bits of Silver, ed. and with an 
introduction by Don Ward, re- 
view. 33:2:237-238 

Bitter Creek, 33:1:96; 33:2:169, 
209. 210, 211, 213; headquarters. 

Bitterroot Mountains, 33:1:35 

Black Butte Station, photo, 33:2: 

Black Buttes, 33:2:211. 212 

Black Elk Speaks, Being the Life 
Story of a Holy Man of the 
Oglala Sioux. As told through 
John G. Neihardt, 33:2:239 

Black Hills, 33:2:168 

Black Hills (Laramie Range). 33:1: 

Black's Fork. 31:1:31, 76: 33:2: 
168, 169 

Bloody Lake. 33:1:98 

Blue Creek Ranch. 33:2:192 

Blue Springs, Nebr.. 33:1:42 

Blunk. Mr. and Mrs. S.. 33:1:101 

Boan, Mr. and Mrs. James, and son, 

Board of Trade, 33:2:140 

Board of Trade Journal, newspaper, 

Bolton Road, 33:2:200 

Boms, Jan, 33:2:128 

Boone, Col., A. G., 33:2:173 

Bordeaux Indian Trading Post. 33: 
2:223, 227 

Bordeaux, James, 33:2:227, 228 

Bosler, Wyo., 33:1:90 

Boswell, N. K., 33:1:83 

Bothwell, Wyo., 33:2:154. 155, 156 

Bott, Mike, 33:1:101 

Bowles, Samuel, 33:1:78 

Bowron. Frank L., review of Paw- 
nee, Blackfoot and Cheyenne - 
History and Folklore of the 
Plains, by George Grinnell with 
an introduction by Dee Brown, 

Boyack, Col. Archie R., 33:2:196, 
217; Mrs. 214 

Boyd, Andrew, 33:1:79 

Boyd, Rachel, 33:1:80 

Boy Life on the Prairie, by Hamlin 
Garland, introduction by B. R. 
McElderry, Jr., 33:2:239 

Bozeman Trail, The, by Hebard and 
Brininstool, 33:1:114 

Bradley, Ruth J., review of Horse 
Wrangler, 33:2:235 

Bradley, Col. Wm. R.. 33:2:195, 

Bramel, Judge C. W., 33:2:146, 147 



Bramwell, Bill, 33:2:212 

Breneman, Mr. and Mrs. Eric, 33: 

Breniman, Mr. and Mrs. Gene, 
33:1:101; 33:2:214 

Bridgeport, Nebr., 33:2:214 

Bridger Basin. 33:1:33, 34 

Bridger, Felix, 33:2:172, 174 

Bridger, James. 33:2:159, 160, 161, 
162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 
169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 
176; 33:2:204, 205; Mrs., 171 

Bridger, James [Sr.], 33:2:159 

Bridger, Jim, 33:1:87, 96 

Bridger, Josephine, 33:2:172 

bridger, Mary, 33:2:173 

Bridger, Schloe, 33:2:159 

Bridger, William, 33:2:173, 174 

Bridger Lake, 33:2:162 

Bridger Station, 33:2:203, 204, 205 

Bridger ('s) Pass, 33:1:96, 97, 99; 
33:2:169, 176, 201, 202, 203, 

Bridges, Munk, 33:2:185 

Brininstool and Hebard, The Boze- 
man Trail, 33:1:114 

Bristol, England, 33:2:128 

Bristol, Samuel A., 33:2:140 

Brock, Albert, 33:2:183 

Brock, Clare Thom, 33:2:240 

Brock, J. Elmer, 33:2:240 

Brock, Julia, 33:1:58 

Brock, Roe, 33:2:182 

Brokenhorn, John, 33:1:95 

Brooks, — , 33:2:173 

Brown Creek, 33:1:86 

Brown, Charlie, photo, 33:1:62 

Brown, Lieut. James A., 33:2:201 

Brown, Judge, M. C, 33:1:70 

Brown, Mabel, review of Pawnee, 
Blackfoot and Cheyenne - History 
and Folklore of the Plains, by 
George Grinnell with an intro- 
duction by Dee Brown, 33:2:231- 

Brown, Nancy Filmore, 33:1:90 

Brown, Mrs. Wesley, 33:2:222 

Brown River, 33:1:92 

Brown's Hole, 33:2:199 

Brundage, Hiram, 33:2:136, 139 

Brush, Wyo., 33:1:45 

Bryan, Lieut. Francis T., 33:1:99 

Bryan, Wyo., 33:2:150 

Buchanan, E., 33:2:152 

Buffalo Bill, 33:1:84; Museum, 33: 

Buffalo Bulletin, newspaper, 33:1: 
61; 33:2:158 

Buffalo Echo, newspaper, 33:2:155 
Buffalo Voice, newspaper, 33:2:191 
Buffalo, Wyo., 31:1:58, 59, 61, 64, 

67; 33:2:179, 190, 191, 215 
Buford, Wyo., 33:2:214 
Bull Creek, 33:2:215 
Buntline, Ned, 33:2:172 
Burns, Dr. Robert H., 33:1:73, 81, 

86, 101; 33:2:217 
Broken Hand Fitzpatrick: Greatest 

of the Mountain Men, by Doris 

Shannon Garst, 33:2:219 
Bush, Joe, 33:1:93 
Butler, Alex T., 33:2:155 
Butler, Gen. B. F., 33:2:169 
"Butter-eye-Bill", 33:2:186 

Cache la Poudre River, 33:1:75, 96 

Cache Valley, 33:2:161 

Cady, Mrs. W i 1 b u r t a Knight, 

A Family Portrait, 33:1:42-52; 

biog., 115 
Cahill, Michael, 33:1:11 
Calamity Jane, 33:1:84; 33:2:222 
Caldwell, George R., 33:2:154 
California, 33:1:85, 93; 33:2:165, 

199, 200 
Camas Prairie, 33:1:26, 30, 35 
Cameron, C, 33:2:132 
Campbell, Robert, 33:2:163, 172 
"Campfire Tales of Jackson Hole", 

Canada, 33:2:150 
Canadian Plains, 33:1:24 
Canton, — , 33:1:13 
Carbon County, 33:1:92; 33:2:153 
Carbon County Historical Society, 

33:1:73; 33:2:195 
Carbon County Journal, newspaper, 

Carbon County News, newspaper, 

33:2:152, 153 
Carey, Gov. Joseph M., 33:1:85; 

Judge, J. M., -i^-.l-AAA 
Carley, Maurine, 33:1:93, 101; 33: 

2:195, 214, 217, 218, 219, 220, 

Carroll, John, 33:1:8, 9 
Carroll, John F., 33:2:145 
Carson, Christopher, 33:2:160 
Carter County, 33:1:83 
Casebeer, James A., 33:2:155 
Casper Derrick, newspaper, 33:1:9 
Casper Tribune-Herald, newspaper, 

33:2:219, 220 



Casper Weekly Mail, newspaper, 

Casper. Wyo., 33:1:9, 74; 33:2: 
156, 179, 214 

Cassidy, Butch, 33:2:192, 213 

Cassidy, — , 33:1:90 

Cassinat, Louis, 33:2:214 

Cattleman's Invasion, 33:2:179 

Catton, Bruce, The American Heri- 
tage Picture History of the Civil 
War, 33:1:114 

Cedar City, Utah, 33:2:199 

Centennial, Wyo., 33:1:47 

Central Overland California and 

Pikes Peak Express Co., 33:2:204 

Chaplin, W. E., 33:2:138, 147, 
148, 149 

Charles Ilfeld Company, The, A 
Study of the Rise and Decline of 
Mercantile Capitalism in New 
Mexico, by William J. Parish, 
review, 33:2:232-233 

Charles Sumner and the Coming of 
the Civil War, by David Donald, 

Cherokee Station, 33:1:98 

"Cherokee Pack Trail", by Willing 
Richardson, 33:1:75 

Cherokee Trail. See Overland Trail 

Cheyenne Cloud Cracker. See Mel- 
bourne, The Australian Rain 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, newspaper, 

Cheyenne Daily Sun, newspaper, 
33:1:8, 11; 33:2:142, 146 

Cheyenne Daily Gazette, newspaper, 
33:2:143, 147 

Cheyenne Daily Leader, newspaper, 
33:2:144, 145, 151 

Cheyenne Daily Sun, newspaper, 
33:2:143, 145 

Cheyenne Daily Tribune, newspa- 
per, 33:2:144 

Cheyenne Leader, newspaper, 33:2: 
138, 140, 141, 142, 146, 153 

Cheyenne Pass, 33:1:96; 33:2:169 

Cheyenne Review, newspaper, 33:2: 

Cheyenne river, 33:2:160 

Cheyenne, Wyo., 33:1:44, 55, 77, 
83, 84; 33:2:137, 138, 141, 142, 
143, 145, 146, 149, 154, 189, 214 

Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
Railway Co., 33:1:15 

Chicago Tribune, newspaper, 33:1: 
8, 10, 13 

Chicken Draw, 33:2:207 

Chittenden, Capt., 33:2:162, 164, 

Chotau, Pierre, 33:2:168 
Christie, John, 33:2:132 
Christie, William, 33:2:132 
Christman, Fred, 33:1:79, 80 
Chugwater Creek, 33:1:96 
Cies, Rev. Herbert A., 33:2:218 
Cinnebar Mountains, 33:2:162 
Civil War, 33:2:127, 137, 172 
Clark, C. S., 33:2:143 
Clark, Frank, Jr., review of The 

Indian War of J 864, by Capt. 

Eugene F. Ware, 33:2:238 
Clark, Mildred, 33:1:81 
Clay Tobacco Pipes from Fort Lar- 
amie, by Rex L. Wilson, 33:2: 

121-133; photos, 120, 124, 126, 

129, 131 
Clovis complex, 33:2:215 
Coad, Mark, 33:1:98 
Cody, Wyo., 33:2:220 
Coghill, Alex, 33:2:133 
Coghill, David, 33:2:133 
Coghill, George, 33:2:133 
Cold Springs, 33:2:225; marker, 

218, 223, photo, 225 
"Cold Wave Machine", 33:1:6 
Coles, C. J., 33:2:151 
Collins, Lieut. Col. William O., 

Colorado, 33:1:44, 84 
Colorado Chieftain, newspaper, 33: 

Colorado River, 33:2:204 
Colorado State Historical Society, 

Commercial Record, newspaper, 33: 

Commonwealth, newspaper. Mining 

Convention Edition, 33:1:45 
Condit, Thelma Gatchell, Hole-in- 

the-Wall, Part VII, Section 2, 

31:1:51-71; Part VII, Section 3, 

33:2:179-190; award, 240 
Concord, Calif., 33:2:214 
Conner, Mr. and Mrs. Glenn, 33: 

Conner, Gen., 33:1:78; 33:2:170, 

171, 172, 211 
Continental Divide, 33:2:203, 204 
Converse County, 33:2:156, 157, 

Converse County News, newspaper, 

Cooley, Myra, Meet Me On The 

Green, review, 33:1:109-110 
Cooper Cove, 33:1:91 



Cooper Cove Ranch, 33:1:89 
Cooper Creek, 33:1:89; Crossing, 

Cooper Creek Stage Station, 33:1: 

Cooper Hill, 33:1:89 
Cooper Lake, 33:1:89 
Corey, George W., 33:2:141 
Corner Mountain, Wyo., 33:1:45 
Corporation of Tobacco Spinners, 

Corps of Topographical Engineers, 

U. S. Army, 33:1:96 
Corthell, David, 33:1:73, 101 
Corthell, Mrs. Lydia, 33:1:101; 33: 

Corthell, Morris, 33:1:49 
Cotter, John L., 33:2:128 
Cotton, John, 33:1:42 
Cotton, Thomas M., 33:2:158 
Courier, newspaper, 33:2:153, 154 
Coykendall, Mrs., 33:1:89 
Cranston, Chas., 33:2:191 
C?-azy Horse, the Strange Men of 

the Oglalas, a Biography, by Mari 

Sandoz, 33:1:113 
Crazy Woman Creek, 33:1:55, 58; 

Creighton, Ed, 33:1:82. 86 
Cromer, Phil, 33:2:160 
Crook, Willie, 33:2:143 
Croonberg, Mr. and Mrs. Frank, 

"Crossing the Bar", by Tennyson, 

poem, 33:2:197 
Cunningham, Alex, 33:2:183, 184, 

Curry's outlaw trail, 33:2:182 
Custer massacre, 33:2:229 
Custer, Gen., 33:2:172 

Daily Advertiser, newspaper, 33:2: 

Daily Hornet, newspaper, 33:2:143 
Daily Leader, newspaper, 33:1:10; 

Daily News, newspaper, 33:2:142 
Daily Press, newspaper, 33:2:153 
Daily Rocky Mountain Star, news- 
paper, 33:2:140, 143 
Daily Telegraph, newspaper, 33:2: 

136, 137, 139 
Dakota Territory, 33:1:83, 86, 87 
Dale Creek, 33:1:79, 80; trestle, 44 
Daley, Frank, 33:1:98 
Daley, John R., 33:2:205, 214 
Daley, P. E. (Ed), 33:2:203 

Daley, W. A. (Bill), 33:2:203, 205; 
Mrs. 214 

Dallas, Tex., 33:2:172, 174 

Daniels, Frank, 33:2:188 

Danker, Donald F., Man of the 
Plains: Recollections of Luther 
North, 1856-1882, review, 33:2: 

Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, Jacque(s) Laramie Chap- 
ter, 33:1:85 

Davidson, Thomas, jun. and Co., 

Davis, Ella Mary, 33:1:100 

Davis, John C, 33:1:100 

Davis, John W., 33:2:240 

Davis, R. H., 33:1:100 

Dawson, Earl, 33:2:190 

Dawson, Matt, 33:1:47 

Deadman ('s) Creek, 33:1:79, 80 

Deadwood, So. Dak., 33:2:143 

Decker, Austin, 33:2:152 

Deming, William C, 33:2:144 

Democratic Leader, newspaper, 33: 
2:144, 145 

Demuth, William, 33:2:127 

Denes, Thomas, 33:2:129 

Denver City, 33:2:204 

Denver, Colo., 33:1:77, 78, 87, 90, 

Denver Public Library, 33:2:135 

Denver Republican, newspaper, 33: 

Denver Rocky Mountain News, 
newspaper, 33:1:9 

Department of Agriculture, 33:1:10 

De Smet, Father, 33:2:165, 166 

Dexter, Timothy, 33:2:128, 130 

Dickson, John, 33:2:195 

Dickerson. Capt., 33:2:170 

"Dill Pickles", dance, 33:2:187 

Dillon, Wilson, 33:2:152 

Dirty Pete. See Pete Fisher 

"Dirty Woman Station". See Wil- 
low Springs Station 

Dixon, Alvy, 33:1:92 

Dixon, Aunt Mary, 33:1:94 

Dixon, E. L., 33:1:91 

Dixon, Joe, 33:1:94 

Dixon, L. E., 33:1:92, 101 

Dixon, Mrs. Rose Mary, 33:1:92 

Dobie, J. Frank, Voice of the Coy- 
ote, 33:1:113 

Dodge City Globe-Republican, news- 
paper, 33: 1: 13 

Dodge, Maj. Gen. Grenville M., 
Biographical Sketch of James 
Bridger, reprint, 33:2:159-177; 



Donald, David, ed.. Why the North 

Won the Civil War; Charles Sum- 
ner and the Comint; of the Civil 

War. 33:1:114 
Donald, William M., 33:1:100 
Donellan, Col., 33:1:85 
Double Crossing, 33:2:205 
Dougherty, James, 33:1:90 
Douglas Advertiser, newspaper, 33: 

Douglas Creek, 33:1:45 
Douglas Republican, newspaper, 33: 

Douglas Willan Satoris Co., 33:1: 

Douglas, Wyo., 33:1:71; 33:2:196 
Downey, Mrs. Eva, 33:1:99 
Downey, Col., 33:1:45 
Downing, C. O.. 33:2:216 
Dripps, — , 33:2:162, 163, 164 
Dubois. Wyo., 33:1:35 
Duck Lake, 33:2:199, 208 
Dug Springs Station, 33:2:209, 

photo, 206 
Duncan. Tommy, 33:2:128 
Dutton Creek. 33:1:90 
Dutton, Wyo., 33:1:45 
Dynamite Kites (Tandem) sketch, 

Dyrenforth, Robert, 33:1:5, 10 
Early Prehistoric Period, by L. C. 

Steege, Midland Points, 33:1:104 
Early Printing in Wyoming and the 

Black Hills, by Douglas McMur- 

trie, 33:2:135 
Eastgate, Mr. and Mrs. J., 33:1:101 
Echo tunnel, 33:2:150 
Edison. Thomas, 33:2:191 
Edwards, W. P., 33:2:151 
Ekiund, Richard, 33:2:214 
Eleventh Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, 

33:1:78, 97; 33:2:170, 201; Co. 

B, 210; Co. D, 170 
Eldridge, Delia, 33:2:190 
Elk Mountain, 33:1:82, 87, 95, 96, 

97; Elk Mountain Post Office, 98 
Elk Mountain Stage Station, 33:1: 

96, 98. See Ft. Halleck 
Elk Mountain Trading Company 

Store, 33:1:96 
Elk Mountain, Wyo., 33:1:93, 96 
Ellis Ranch, 33:2:191 
Ellsworth, W. E., 33:2:149 
Elston, Allan Vaughn, Sagebrush 

Serenade, review, 33 : 1 : 1 13 
Emerson, Dr. Paul, 33:2:218 
Emigrant Trail. See Oregon Trail 
Emigrant Trail Trek, No. 11, 33:1: 

73; maps, 74, 75 

Embree, — , 33:1:91 
Encyclopedia Americana, 33:2:127 
Enid, Okla., 33:2:240 
Ernest, Boney, 33:2:198 
Escalante, Friar, 33:2:161 
Esterbrook school, 33:1:50 
Esther Morris Statue Replica, 33:2: 

Evans, Capt., 33:1:78 
Evans, Capt. Lewis, 33:1:95 
Evanston Age, newspaper, 33:2 

151. 152 
Evanston Examiner, newspaper, 33 

Evanston Register, newspaper, 33 

Evanston News, newspaper, 33:2 

Evanston, Wyo., 33:2:137 

Family Portrait, A, by Mrs. Wil- 
burta Knight Cady, 33:1:42-52 

Farley, Al, 33:2:203 

Farley, Alan W., John Palmer Ush- 
er, Lincoln's Secretary of the In- 
terior, 33:1:114 

Fast Life, newspaper, 33:2:140 

Feed Rack, Kaycee, Wyo., 33:2:179 

Felton, Jerry, 33:2:208 

Feron, E., 33:2:133 

Fetterman Massacre, 33:2:196 

Fetz, H. B., 33:2:154, 155 

Fields. Henry, 33:1:71 

Fifth Cavalry Brass Band, 33:1:84 

Finley, W. P., 33:2:139 

Fiolet, L., Company, 33:2:130, 134 

First Battalion Nevada Cavalry, Co. 
B, Co. C, 33:2:211 

First Colorado Cavalry, 33:1:78, 97 

First Hundred Years, The, by Rob- 
ert Perkin, 33:2:213 

First Kansas Volunteers, 33:2:207 

Fish Creek, 33:1:80 

Fisher, Pete, 33:1:46 

Fisher, T. Joe, 33:2:142 

Fitzpatrick, — , 33:2:161, 162, 163 

Flag Ranch, 33:1:85 

Flaharty, Earl, 33:1:101; 33:2:214 

Flannery. L. G. (Pat), 33:2:218, 
222, 223, 225 

Fleming, Arnold, 33:2:128, 134 

Fleming, Lieut. Hugh B., 33:2:226 

Fleming, Colo., 33:1:15 

Fletcher, Mary, 33:1:94 

Fletcher family, 33:1:94 

Fletcher, Lizzie, 33:1:94 

Florence mine, 33:1:45 



Folsom point, 33:1:104, 105 

Folster family, 33:1:88 

Foote Creek, 33:1:95 

Foote, James, 33:1:97 

Foote, Robert, 33:1:98 

Foote, — , 33:1:95 

Fort Bridger. 33:1:30, 32, 33, 35, 

37, 93, 95, 96; 33:2:137, 139, 

150, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 176, 

199, 211 
Fort Duschesne, 33:2:199 
Fort Fetterman, 33:2:154, 156, 196, 

Fort Hall, Ida., 33:1:20, 23, 28, 29, 

30, 39 
Fort Halleck, 33:1:82, 87, 92, 93, 

95, 96, 97, 98, 99; 33:2:169, 201 
Fort John, 33:2:121, 225 
Fort John Buford, 33:1:82, 83 
Fort Kearney, Nebraska Territory. 

Fort Laramie, 33:1:82, 92, 96, 98; 

33:2:122, 125, 127, 128, 166, 

168, 170, 225 
Fort La Clede, 33:2:199, 200 
Fort Lookout, So. Dak., 33:2:127 
Fort McKinney, 33:2:217 
Fort Phil Kearny, 33:2:196 
Fort Pierre U, So. Dak., 33:2:127, 

Fort Riley, Kans., 33:2:170 
Fort Sanders, 33:1:82, 83, 84, 85, 

86, 87, 93; 33:2:139, 145, 220 
Fort Steele, 33:2:207 
Fort Saint Vrain's, 33:1:96 
Fort Stephenson, N. Dak., 33:2: 

Fort Union, N. M., 33:2:125, 128 
Fort Washakie, 33:1:20, 23 
Fort Collins, Colo., 33:1:77, 81, 82 
Fort Collins Pioneer Society, 33:1 

Fort Laramie Historical Assn., 33 

Fort Laramie Historical Site, 33:2 

Fort Laramie National Historic 

Site, 33:2:121, 240 
Fort Laramie (pipe) collection, 33: 

2:122, 125, 133 
Fort Laramie, Wyo., 33:2:222 
"Fort Sanders, Sentinel of the Lara- 
mie Plains," by Mary Lou Pence, 

Fort Scott, Kansas, 33:1:8 
Fort Steele Herald, newspaper, 33: 

Fort Union National Monument, 
N. M., 33:2:240 

Forty Years On The Frontier, by 

Granville Stuart, 33:1:114 
Fotte, Corydon Edward, With Sher- 
man to the Sea, A Driimrrier's 
Story of the Civil War, related to 
Olive Deane Hormel, foreword 
by Elizabeth Yates, 33:1:114 
Fourth Cavalry String Orchestra, 

Frack, Henry, 33:2:161, 162 
Frager, Louise, 33:1:101 
Eraser, James, 33:2:133 
Frazer, Gill, 33:1:81 
Frederick, J. V., 33:2:211, 213 
Freeman Brothers, 33:2:139, 145, 

146, 150 
Freeman, Fred, 33:1:83 
Freeman, Fred K., 33:2:138 
Freeman, Legh R., 33:2:138, 150 
Freeman, Leigh (Legh), 33:1:83 
Freezout Hills, 33:1:48, 49 
Fremont Clipper, newspaper, 33:2: 

Fremont, Capt. John Charles, 33:1: 

38, 99 
Fremont, — , 33:2:167 
Frewen, Morton, home, 33:1:8 
Friend, John C, 33:2:153. 154 
Froggatt, Mrs. James, 33:2:197 
Frontier Index "Press on Wheels", 
newspaper, 33:2:138, 139, 140, 
145, 146, 150, 151 
Frontier Times, magazine, 33:2:219 
Furley, Mr. and Mrs. Paul, 33:1: 

Galbraith, Malcolm, 33:2:133 
Gallerger, Grandma, 33:1:70 
Gallop, William, 33:2:128 
Galloway, Eugene, 33:2:215 
Galloway, Lieut. R. O., 33:1:73 
Gallowgare, — , 33:2:132 
Gambier of Paris, 33:2:125 
Gantz, Mrs., 33:2:179, 184 
Garber, Vie Willets, Big Horn Pio- 
neers, review, 33:2:234-235; 218 
Gardner, Mae, 33:1:69 
Gardner, Tom, 33:2:183 
Garland, Hamlin, Boy Life on the 

Prairie, 33:2:239 
Garrett, George A., ^^-.l-AAl 
Garst, Mrs. Doris Shannon, 33:2: 

Gates, James E., 33:2:138, 146 
Gazette, newspaper, 33:2:57 
Gealow, Peter, 33:1:79 



George, Joseph, 33:1:79 
Germany, 33:2: 125 
Gervais, John B., 33:2:161, 162 
Gilchrist. Andrew, 33:1:8 
Gillespie, A. S. "Bud", 33:1:73, 89, 

Glafcke, Herman, 33:2:138 
Glasgow, Scotland, 33:2:121, 129, 

Glasgow Clay Pipe Co.. Ltd., 33:2: 

Glasgow Pipe Manufactory, 33:2: 

Glasgow Tobacco Clay Pipe Manu- 
factory, 33:2:133 
Glasscock, Keith, 33:1:104 
Glendo, Wyo., 33:2:214 
Glimpses Into Edgemont's Past, by 

Gilbert B. Taylor, review, 33:1: 

"goat house", 33:2:189 
Goble, Ed, 33:2:184, 185 
Godin, Antoine, 33:2:163 
Gold Hill, Wyo.. 33:1:45. 47 
Gomp. Mrs. C, 33:1:101 
Goodland, Kans., 33:1:13 
Goose Egg Outfit. See Searight 

Bros. Cattle Co. 
Gordon job press, 33:2:138 
Goshen County Chapter of the 

Wyoming State Historical Society, 

Gouda, Holland, 33:2:128 
Gould, Gertrude, 33:1:101 
Grand Canyon (Yellowstone), 33: 

Grand Teton Natural History Assn., 

Grant, Nellie, 33:1:47 
Grant. President, 33:1:84 
Grant, William, jun., 33:2:133 
Graphic, newspaper, 33:2:157 
Gratiot Houses, 33:2:225, 227 
Grattan, Lieut. John L., 33:2:227, 

228, 229 
Grattan Massacre Site, 33:2:222, 

Graven, J., 33:2:133 
Gray. Cherrie, 33:1:101 
Gray, H. W., 33:1:90 
Great Salt Lake. See Salt Lake 
Greenhorn, Colo., 33:1:95, 96 
Green County, Wis., 33:1:55, 58 
Green River, 33:2:160, 161. 162, 

164, 168, 169 
Green River press, 33:2:153 
Green River Valley, 33:1:34, 35 
Green River, Wyo., 33:1:30. 33, 36, 

37. 38, 95, 96; 33:2:137, 139, 

146, 150, 152, 153, 154. 199, 212, 

Greenville, N. C, 33:1:55 

Grey, Don, 33:2:215 

Grieve Leeland, 33:1:99; Mrs., 101; 
33:2:195, 197, 198; son, 214 

Grigg, Judge, 33:2:191 

Grigg Hotel, 33:1:70; 33:2:191 

Grigg, Wyo., 33:2:179 

Grinneii. George, Pawnee, Black- 
foot and Cheyenne - History and 
Folklore of the Plains, review, 
33:2:231-232; Pawnee Hero Stor- 
ies and Folk-Tales, introduction 
by Maurice Frink, 239 

Goucher College, Baltimore, Md., 

Grouse Creek, 33:1:31 

Guffey, Mrs. J., 33:1:101 

Guffey. Mrs. J. L. and daughter, 

Guffey, Sharron, 33:1:101 

Guide to the Care and Administra- 
tion of Manuscripts, A, by Kane, 
Lucile M., review, Jesse H. Jame- 

Guild. Charles, 33:2:220 

Guildhall, 33:2:128 

Gunnison, — , "History of the Mor- 
mons", 33:2:162 

Hadsell, Kleber, 33:1:97, 101; 33: 

Hafen, LeRoy, 33:1:97; 33:2:213 

Halfway House, 33:1:84 

Halverson, Katherine, review of Bits 
of Silver, ed. and with an intro- 
duction by Don Ward, 33:2:237- 

Hail, D., 33:1:101 

Hall Mine, 33:2:212 

Halleck, Maj. Gen. H. W., 33:1:97 

Hallock Canyon, 33:1:49 

Halsey, Mrs. Edward, 33:2:197 

Hamilton, John, 33:2:133 

Hamilton, — , 33:1:38 

Handy, Fat Jack, 33:2:185 

"Hanger", trader, 33:1:94 

Hanley, Jos., 33:2:133 

Hanson, Dan, 33:2:240 

Hanson, Margaret Brock, Our 
Mountains, poem, 33:2:177; 240 

Hardinge, S. W., editor, 33:2:143 

Harriman, W. H., 33:1:79, 80 

Harrington, Jean C, 33:2:121 



Harrison, Michael, review of Man 
of the Plains: Recollections of 
Luther North. 1856-1882, ed. by 
Donald F. Danker with foreword 
by George Bird Grinnell, 33:2: 

Harrwell, Rap, 33:2:192 

"Hartville Rag", dance, 33:1:65 

Hayden, F. V., 33:2:211 

Hayden forest, 33:1:95 

Hayes, Vance, 33:2:215 

Hayford, J. H., 33:2:140, 146, 147, 

Hayward, Mr. and Mrs. James, 33: 

Hazard, Charles J., 33:2:150, 151 

Hebard, Grace Raymond, Socaja- 
wea, 33:1:114 

Hebard and Brininstool, The Boze- 
man Trail, 33:1:114 

Hee, Fred, 33:2:199 

Heenan, — , 33:2:204 

Helvey, Robert T., 33:2:220, 222 

Hen, Edward, 33:2:127 

Henderson, Helen, review of Yes- 
terday's Trails, 33:2:233 

Henderson. James M., 33:2:131; 
Jr., 131 

Henderson, Paul, 33:2:195, 198, 
206, 210, 213, 218; Mrs., 213 

Henderson, William, 33:2:131 

Henderson and Son, 33:2:131 

Henry, Andrew, 33:2:160, 161 

Henry's Fork, 33:1:33 

Hensel, H. C, 33:2:157 

Herald, newspaper, 33:2:139 

Hesse, F. G. S., 33:2:191 

Hesse, Mrs. Fred, Sr., 33:1:67 

Hesse, Vivienne, 33:2:187 

Hesse ranch house, 33:2:184, 185 

Hickok, Wild Bill, 33:1:84; 33:2: 

Hicks, Irl R., 33:1:15 

Hicks, John D., The Populist Re- 
volt, A History of the Farmer's 
Alliance and the People's Party, 

Hieb, David L., review of Indians, 
Infants and Infantry: Andrew and 
Elizabeth Burt on the Frontier, 

Hildebrand, Elizabeth, 33:1:73; 33: 

Hildebrand, Geneva, 33:2:195 

Hildebrand, Lyle, 33:1:73, 86; Mrs., 
101; 33:2:218; Mrs. and children, 

Hill, Ida, 33:1:50 

Hill, Senator of Colo., 33:2:144 

History of South Dakota, by Her- 
bert S. Schell, review, 33:2:230- 

"History of the Mormons", by Gun- 
nison, 33:2: 162 

Hitchcock, Verna, 33:1:101 

Hobart, C. W., 33:2:144 

Hoebel, — , 33:1:24, 25, 29, 34 

Holden, Judge C. W., 33:2:153 

Hole-in-the-Wall, by Thelma Gatch- 
ell Condit, Part VII, Sec. 2, 31:1: 
51-71; Part VII, Sec. 3, 33:2:179- 
190; award, 240 

Hole-in-the-Wall Bar, 33:2:189; 
country, 192 

Holladay, Ben, 33:1:82, 87, 93, 96, 
99; 33:2:199 

Holliday, Kate, 33:1:80 

HolUday, W. H., 33:1:80 

Holyoke, 33:1:15 

"Holy Road, The". See Oregon 

Home Ranch, 33:1:44, 45, 46 

Homer, Bob, 33:1:85 

Homsher, Lola M., review, Sage 
Brush Serenade, 33:1:113; re- 
view. Glimpses Into Edgemont's 
Past, 33:1:111; 33:2:218, 219 

Hooper. Silas, 33:2:198 

Hopkins, Charlie, 33:1:84 

Hopkins, Mark, 33:2:152 

Hord, (Mrs. Violet), 33:2:217 

Hormel, Olive Deane, With Sher- 
man To The Sea, A Drummer's 
Story of the Civil War, as related 
by Corydon Edward Fotte, fore- 
word by Elizabeth Yates, 33:1: 

Horse Creek, 33:2:226; Station, 223 

Horse Wrangler, by Floyd Bard as 
told to Agnes Wright Spring, re- 
view, 33:2:235 

Howard, Helen Addison and Dan L. 
McGrath, War Chief Joseph, re- 
view. 33:1:110-111 

Howard, Gen., 33:1:28 

Howell, Elizabeth Emma. See 
Knight, Emma Howell 

Hudson, Dr. Ruth, 33:2:136 

Hudson Cs) Bay Company, 33:2: 
161, 163 

Hugus, W. B., 33:2:155 

Hultkrantz, Ake, The Shoshones in 
the Rocky Mountain Area, 33:1: 

Humfreville, Capt. J. L., 33:1:97 

Hunter, John, 33:1:100 

Huntington, Laura C, 33:2:155; 
Gertrude, 155 



Hunton, John, 33:2:229 

Hurd, Mrs. Emilie, 33:210, 214, 

Hurd, Vernon, 33:2:195, 214, 218, 

Hurzler. Emil, 33:1:79, 80 

Hutchinson, Kansas News, newspa- 
per, 33:1:6 

Hutton, Charley, 33:1:86 

Hutton Grove, 33:1:85 

Hutton (Heart) Ranch, 33:1:86 

Hydrogen Apparatus, sketch, 33:1: 

Idaho, 33:1:28 
Illinois, 33:1:42 

Chiefs and Individuals: 
Bazil (Pasi), 33:1:33, 39 
"Bear Spirit". See Wirasuap 
Conquering Bear, 33:2:226, 

227. 228 
High Forehead, 33:2:226, 227, 

Man Afraid of His Horses, 33: 

Pocatello, 33:1:31, 33. See 

Sacajawea, 33:1:33; 33:2:222 
Tavonasia, 33:1:38 
Tendoy. See Tindowoci 
Tendoy, George Wince, 33: 

Tindowoci, 33:1:27 
Washakie, 33:1:23, 31, 32, 36, 

37 38 39 
Washakie, Dick, 33:1:38 
Wirasuap, 33:1:32, 33. See 

"Bear Spirit" 
Yellow Hand, 1842, 33:1:33, 


Arapahoe, 33:1:20, 22, 37, 39; 

A hsaroka , 33:1:37 
Agaidika, 33:1:25, 26, 27, 28, 

30. See Salmon Eaters 
Bannock, 31:1:20, 23, 25, 28, 

30, 33, 39 
Bannock "mountain dwellers". 

See Panaiti toyani 
Blackfoot, 33:1:22, 23, 24, 26, 

36; 33:2:162, 163, 164 
Black's Fork. See Haivodika 
Brule, 33:2:226 
Buffalo eaters. See Haivodika 

Buffalo Hunters. See Kiicun- 

Cay use, 33:1:28 
Cherokee, 33:1:93, 95, 99 
Cheyenne, 33:1:22, 37, 38, 74; 

33:2:167, 207 
Coeur d'Alene, 33:1:28 
Comanche, 33:1:24, 35 
Crow, 33:1:22, 26, 33, 36, 37; 

33:2:160, 162, 164, 175 
Diggers, 33: 1 :31 
Dove Eaters. See Eastern Sho- 
Dust Eaters. See Hukundika 
Eaters of white tailed deer. 

See Tsugudika 
Elk eaters, 33:1:29 
Fish eaters. ..See Pengwidika 
Flathead, 33:1:26, 33; 33:2: 

Gros Ventre, 33:1:26, 36; 33: 

2:163, 167 
Haivodika, buffalo hunters, 33: 

1:33; buffalo eaters, 33:1: 

21, 25, 26 
Hukandika, 33:1:31; rabbit 

eaters, 33. See dust eaters 

or Salt Lake Diggers 
Kamodika, eaters of black 

tailed jack rabbits, 33:1:31 
Kucundika, buffalo hunters, 

33:1:35; buffalo eaters. 21 
Lemhi, 33:1:19, 23, 24, 25, 38 
Navajo, 33: 1 :33 
Nez Perce, 33:1:26, 28, 33; 

Paiute, 33:1:23, 28 
Panaiti toyani, 33:1:34 
Pawnee, 33:2:171, 172 
Pia agaidika, big salmon eaters. 

See Agaidika 
Paivotso, 3:1:25, 28 
Pengwidika, fish eaters, 33: 

Plains, 33:1:29, 30, 37 
Pohogue, sagebrush people, 33: 

Pohorai, sagebrush valley, 33: 

Rabbit eaters. See Hukandika 
Salmon eaters. See Agaidika 
Salt Lake Diggers, 33:1:31 
Sheepeaters. See Tuduika 
Shoshone, Bannock Creek, 33: 

1:25; Eastern, 33:1:19, 22, 

23, 25, 35; Fort Hall, 33:1: 

29, 30, 31, 38; Green River, 

33:1:35; Lemhi, 33:1:35; 

Mountain, 33:1:33; North- 




Tribes (Cont.) 

ern, 33:1:25; Ohamupe, 33: 
1:38; Plains, 33:1:33; West- 
ern, 33:1:19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 
29; Washakie's, 33:1:24, 30, 
31, 32, 34, 35; Wind River, 
33:1:19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25; 
33:1:20, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29, 
30, 31, 32, 33, 35. 37, 38, 82; 
Sioux, 33:1:22, 36. 37, 39, 82; 
32:2:167, 168, 207, 225, 
226, 229 
Sonivohedika, wheateaters, 33: 

Spokane, 33:1:28 
Tagis Bannock, 33:1:38 
Tavonasia, 33:1:34 
Tendoy's Agaidikas at Lemhi, 

Tihiyadika, deer eaters, 33: 

Toyaewowici, 33 : 1 :35 
Toyain, 33:1:27, 33, 34 
Tsugiidika, 33:1:33 
Tiikudika, 33:1:20, 21. 26, 27. 

28, 33, 34, 35, 39 
Tiikiifika, 33:1:33 
Ute, 33:1:32, 33, 77. 84, 97; 

Washakie, 33:1:26 
Weber Utes, 33:1:32 
Yellowstone Park Sheepeaters, 
Laramie agreement, 1851, 33: 

Plains Indian culture, 33:1:21, 31 
Shoshone Buffalo Hunt and 

Dance, photo, 33:1:36 
Shoshone culture, 33:1:19. 20, 21 
Indians, Infants and Infantry: An- 
drew and Elizabeth Burt on the 
Frontier, by Merrill J. Mattes, re- 
view, 33:1:108-109; 33:2:213 
Indian War of 1864, The, by Cap- 
tain Eugene F. Ware, review, 33: 
Independence Road, 33:1:96 
Independence Rock, 33 : 1 :55 
Inter Ocean Hotel, Cheyenne, 33:1: 

8, 9, 44 
Isely, Elizabeth, 33:1:58 
Irving, [Washington], 33:2:164 

Jack, Bob, 33:2:198 
Jack Creek, 33:1:95 

Jack, Duncan, 33:2:198 

Jackson, W. H., 33:2:211, diaries, 

Jackson, — , 33:2:160 

Jameson, Jesse H.. review of War 
Chief Joseph, 33:1:110-111; re- 
view of A Guide to the Care and 
Administration of Manuscripts, 

Jamestown, 33:2:121, 128 

Jarrard, Jimmy, 33:2:190 

Jefferson [river], 33:2:161, 163 

Jelm Mountain, 33:1:86 

Jewell, Clayton, 33:1:15, 16 

J. M. Searle and Co., 33:2:141 

John Day River, 33:2:162 

John Palmer Usher, Lincoln's Sec- 
retary of the Interior, Elmo R. 
Richardson and Alan W. Farley, 

Johnson, A. R., 33:2:143, 147 

Johnson, Chris, 33:1:76 

Johnson, Jim Mitchell, 33:2:189 

Johnson, Louis, 33:1:96 

Johnson's Island, 33:2:196 

Johnston, Albert Sidney, 33:2:168, 
169, 176-177 

Joliet prison, 33:1:91 

Jones, Frank H., 33:1:8, 12, 13 

Jones. Henry, 33:2:218 

Jones, J. H., 33:2:209 

Jones, Johney, 33:1:96 

Jones, Stell, photo, 33:1:62 

Jones, Col. Rainwater, 33:1:10 

Johnson County Deer Ranch. See 
Simmons Bros. Ranch 

Johnson County, Wyo., 33:1:55,58; 
33:2:179, 181, 190 

Johnson, W. T., 33:2:189; Mrs., 

Joyner, Newell, 33:2:121 

J-U Ranch, 33:2:191 

Judge, O. W., 33:2:219 

Judith Basin, 33:2:161 

Julesburg, Colo., 33:1:15, 78; 33: 

Kabris, Lewter, 33:1:10 

Kane, Lucile M., A Guide to the 
Care and Administration of Man- 
uscripts, review, 33:1:111-112 

Karraker, Mrs. O., 33:1:101 

Kaycee, Wyo., 33:1:59, 63, 64, 67, 
70; 33:2:179, 180, 181, 188, 190, 
191, photo, 178 

K C Ranch, 33:2:179, 180 



Keen, Elizabeth, Wyoming's Fron- 
tier Newspapers, 33:2:235; 240 

Keenan, Mr. and Mrs. P. [Peter], 
33:1:101; Mr. and Mrs. and 
daughter 33:2:214, Mrs., 220 

Kelton, — , 33:1:15 

Ketcham, Richard M., ed. The 
American Heritage Picture His- 
tory of the Civil War, 33:1:114 

Keystone Mine, 33:1:44, 45, 47 

Keystone, Wyo., 33:1:45, 46 

Kibler, Frank, 33:1:79, 80; Mrs., 

Kimball, E. H., 33:2:156 

Kimball, W. S., 33:2:156, 157 

Kipp's Post, No. Dak., 33:2:128 

Kirtley, Lock, 33:2:181, 182 

Kirtley, Mr. and Mrs. S. L., 33:2: 

Kirtley, Ura, 33:2:181. 182, 187, 

Kirtley, Wyo., 33:2:181 

Kleiber, Hans, 33:1:102, biog., 115; 
Medicine Mountain, poem, 33:2: 
192-193; 240 

Knight, Emma Howell, 33:1:43, 
49-51, photo, 43 

Knight, Everett Lyell, photo, 33:1: 

Knight, Samuel Howell, 33:1:48, 
photo, 43 

Knight, Wilbur Clinton, 33:1:42, 
48, photo, 43 

Knight, Wyo., (formerly Bear River 
City), 33:2:150 

Knight's American Mechanical Dic- 
tionary, 33:2: 123 

Kohler, Nathan, 33:1:101 

Kortes, Mrs. Inez, 33:1:92 

KTWO, Casper, radio station, 33: 

Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa 

Fe, New Mexico, 33:1:104 
Laborette, newspaper, 33:2:154 
LaClede Station (Post), 33:2:209; 

photo, 210 
Lake Creek, 33:1:95 
Lake Hattie Canal, 33:1:86 
Lambert, Charles A., 33:1:90 
Lambertsen, Harry, 33:2:195 
Lambertsen, Mr. and Mrs. Walter, 

33:2:214, Mrs., 201, 202 
Lambertson, Mrs. Robert, 33:2:214 
Lambertson, Mr. and Mrs., 33:1: 

Lander, Wye, 33:2:197, 220 

Landers, Mr., 33:1:59-60 
Langer, Fritz, 33:2:209 
Lannon, Frank P., 33:2:152 
LaPorte, Colo., 33:1:78 
Laramie Black Hills, 33:1:82 
Laramie Boomerang, newspaper, 33; 
1:45, 49, 87; 33:2:148, 149, 154 
Laramie City, Wyo., 33:2:137, 145 
Laramie County, history of, 33: 

Laramie County, subdivision Da- 
kota Territory, 33:1:83 
Laramie Daily Chronicle, news- 
paper, 33:2:'l43, 147 
Laramie Daily Independent, news- 
paper, 33:2:141, 146, 151 
Laramie Daily Sentinel, newspaper, 
33:1:90; 33:2:140, 141, 142, 

146, 149 

Laramie Daily Sun, newspaper, 33: 

Laramie Daily Times, newspaper, 

33:2:147, 148 
Laramie Mountains, 33:2:149 
Laramie Peak, 33:1:49, 50 
Laramie Plains, 33:1:48, 77, 78, 82, 

83, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 92, 93, 96 
Laramie range, 33:1:37 
Laramie River, 33:1:96; 33:2:212, 

Laramie Weekly Sentinel, newspa- 
per, 33:2:148, 149 
Laramie, Wyo., 33:1:42, 44, 46, 47, 

55, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 88, 99; 

school board, 51; 33:2:142, 146, 

147, 148, 149, 154, 214 
Larsen, Mr. and Mrs. Gordon, 33: 

Larson, Irv, 33:2:219, 222 
Larson, T. A., review of Meet Me 
On the Green, 33:1:109-110; 73, 
101; 33:2:218; review of Histo>ry 
of South Dakota, by Herbert S. 
Schell, 33:2:230-231 
Lavoye, Wyo., 33:2:190 
Lawrence, Amy, 33:1:87 
Lawrence County, 111., 33:1:55 
Latham, Dr. C, 33:1:90 
Latham Bottoms, 33:1:90 
Lawrence, W. H., Ranch, 33:1:87, 

Lawson, A. J., 33:1:79, 80, 81 
Lawson, J. M. (N.), 33:1:73, 101 
Layne, George, 33:1:100 
Leach, S. C, 33:1:77; Mrs., 79 
Leavenworth, Col., 33:2:160 
Lee, Edward M., 33:2:140 
Lee, James, 33:2:133 
Lee site, 33:2:215 



Lemhi River, Ida., 33:1:25, 26, 29 

Lemhi Valley, 33:1:25 

Lemhix, — , 33:1:30 

Letters of a Woman Homesteader, 

by Elinor Pruitt Stewart with 

foreword by lessamyn West, 33: 

Lewis and Clark, 33:1:23 
Lewis, E. N., 33:1:98 
Lewis, Capt., 33:2:20 
Library of Congress, 33:2:135, 140 
Lincoln Day by Day, a Chronology, 

1809-1865, Earl Schenck Miers, 

ed., 33:1:144 
Lincoln, Nebr., 33:2:121 
Lindenmeier site, 33:1:104 
Lipe, O. W., 33:1:96 
"Listen Ladies", radio program, 33: 

Liston, J., 33:2:133 
Little Goose Valley, 33:2:171 
Little Laramie River, 33:1:87, 90; 

crossing, 86 
Little Laramie Stage Station, 33:1: 

86, 87, 96 
Little Santa Fe, Mo., 33:2:170, 

172, 173 
Little Snake River, 33:2:204 
Littler, Ray, 33:2:122 
Littleton, E. A., 33:1:106; 33:2: 

216, 217, 218, 222 
Livermore, Colo., 33:1:80; Wo- 

mens' Chorus, 81 
Llano complex, 33:2:215 
Lockwood, Norman, music for A 

Ballad of the North and South, 

Lodgepole Creek, 33:1:96; 33:2: 

Logan, W. J., 33:1:80; Mrs., 80 
Logan River, Utah, 33:1:32 
Lombard, — , 33:2:155 
London, — , 33:2:173 
Lookout Mountain, 33:1:76 
Loretto, — , 33:2:164 
Loucks, H. D., 33:2:158 
Loudin, J. P., 33:2:152 
Lovesay, G. A., 33:2:204 
Low, Rev. Thomas, M. B. E., 33:2: 

Lowie, Robert W., 33:1:19 
Lowie, — , 33:1:25 
Lowie's sketches, 33:1:19 
"Lowry & Bros.", 33:2:153 
Luce, Miss E., 33:2:149 
Luger, —,33:1:90; Mrs., 90 
"Lurid Liar of Lander." See Cald- 
well, George R. 

Lnsk Herald, newspaper, 33:2:157, 

Lusk, Wyo., 33:2:179 

Mac Adam, Mr. and Mrs. Roy, 33: 

Macfarlane, Alexander, 33:1:13 

Madison, Dr., 33:2:170 

Madison Fork, 33:2:163 

Madison, Wis., 33:2:196 

Mammoth Springs, Y. N. P., 33:1: 

Manchester, Lancashire, England, 

Manchester, N. H., 33:2:133 

Man of the Plains: Recollections 
of Luther North, 1856-1882. Ed. 
by Donald F. Danker. With a 
foreword by George Bird Grin- 
nell, review, 33:2:235-237 

Manogian, Mr. and Mrs. G., 33: 

Mandel, George, 33:1:88 

Mandel, Margaret, 33:1:84 

Mandel Phillip, 33:1:84, 86, 87, 88 

Mandel Ranch, 33:1:86, 87, 88 

March and Cooper, 33:1:89 

Marney, S. A., 33:2:144 

Marsolf, Mr. and Mrs. C, 33:1:101 

Maryland, 33:2:137 

Massachusetts, 33:1:42 

Mather and Cochran, 33:2:133 

Mattes, Merrill J., Indians, Infants 
and Infantry: Andrew and Eliza- 
beth Burt on The Frontier, re- 
view, 33:1:108-109; 33:2:213 

Matthews, George, 33:1:15 

Maxwell, Fred, Mr. and Mrs., 33: 
1:79, 81 

Maxwell, William, 33:1:80 

May, Hattie, 33:2:222 

May, lohn, 33:2:191 

Mayoworth, Wyo., 33:1:59, 64, 67, 
70; 33:2:179, 183 

McArty, Tom, 33:2:199 

McAuslan, Edward R., 33:2:205; 
Mrs., 214 

McBride, Samuel, 33:2:139 

McCain, Milton, 33:1:79 

McCandish, T. V., 33:2:155 

McClelland, Jim, 33:1:49 

McConnell, G. R., 33:1:73; Mrs., 

McCurtain County, Okla., 33:2:240 

McDermott, John, 33:2:121 

McDougall, Duncan, 33:2:132, 133 



McDoLigall Co., 33:2:130 
McFadden, 33:1:91, 94 
McGrath, Dan L. and Helen Addi- 
son Howard, War Chief Joseph, 

review. 33:1:110-111 
Mclntyre, John, 33:2:133 
McKee, Jim, 33:2:213 
McKeown, Martha Ferguson, Them 

was the Davs, An American Saga 

of the 'GJ's, 33:2:239 
McLanchlan, Thomas, 33:2:133 
McLuckie and Prentice, 33:2:133 
McMurtrie, Douglas C, Early 

Printing in Wyoming and the 

Black Hills. 33:2:135 
McMurtrie, — , 33:2:158 
McNurlen, William, 33:1:79 
Medicine Bow Crossing, 33:1:98 
Medicine Bow Mountain. See Elk 

Medicine Bow Mountains, 33:1:96, 

Medicine Bow Range, 33:1:81; 33: 

2:160, 197 
Medicine Bow River, 33:1:95, 96; 

Medicine Bow Stage Station, 33:1: 

"Medicine Bow Stage Station, Now 

Elk Mountain Post Office", by 

Willing Richardson, 33:1:95 
Medicine Mountain, Bighorns IV, 

by Hans Kleiber, poem, 33:2: 

Meeker Massacre, 33:2:203, 207 
Meet Me On The Green, by Myra 

Cooley, review. 33:1:109-110 
Melbourne, Frank, 33:1:5, 6, 7, 8, 

9, 10, 11, 12; death of, 1894, 15, 

16; sketch, 14 
Melbourne, Will, 33:1:8, 13 
Melbourne, the Australian Rain 

Wizard, by Clark C. Spence, 33: 

Melburne as Jupiter Pluvius, sketch, 

Mendenhall, C. B., 33:1:79 
Mercer, Asa Shinn, 33:2:144 
Meyer, Mrs. R. D., 33:1:92 
Michel, Mayor Everett, 33:2:216 
Middaugh, Ira O., 33:2:158 
Middle Barrel Springs Canyon, 33: 

Midland, Tex., 33:1:104 
Midwest, Wyo., 33:2:215 
Miers, Earl Schenck, ed., Lincoln 

Day By Day, A Chronology, 

1809-1865; A Ballad of the North 

and South. 33:1:114 

Millbrook, Wyo., 33:1:44 

Mill Creek, 33:1:47 

Miller, Carl F., 33:2:127 

Miller, Gus, 33:1:101 

Miller, Lael L., 33:1:73 

Miller, Neal E., 33:1:73, 101 

Miller Creek, 33:2:200 

Miller Ranch, 33:1:88, 89 

Milliken, — , 33:2:198 

"Million Dollar Contract", 33:2: 

Mills, Dr., 33:2:170 
Minneapolis Tribune, newspaper, 

Missing Link, newspaper, 33:2:149 
Mississippi, 33:2:204 
Missouri River, 33:1:92; 33:2:160, 

163, 164, 168; Upper, 161, 165, 

166; Valley, 160 
Mitchell, Doc. 33:1:67; 33:2:188; 

190; Mrs., 190 
Mizner, Capt. Harry, 33:1:82 
Mockler, Mrs. Esther, 33:2:220 
Moen, John, ranch, 33:1:80; Mrs., 

81, 88 
Mokler, Mr. and Mrs. Verne, 33: 

Monroe, Wis., 33:1:55, 58 
Montana, 33:1:23, 28, 35, 83; 33: 

Montana Archaeological Society, 

Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 

Moreland, Miriam, 33:1:101 
Morgan, Clara, 33:1:46, 47 
Morgan, George, 33:1:46 
Morgan, George, Sr., 33:1:89 
Morgan, Wyo., 33:1:89 
"More History of Virginia Dale", 

by Mrs. W. J. Logan, Sr., 33:1:80 
Morley, Mr., 33:2:205 
Mormons, 33:1:92; 33:2:165, 168, 

169, 170 
Mormon Rebellion, 33:1:87 
Mormon Trail, 33:2:168 
Mormon Trail Trek, 33:2:220 
Morris, Sid, 33:1:93 
Morrison, LeRoy W., 33:1:100 
Morrison, Moses, 33:1:79 
Morro Bay, Calif., 33:2:197 
Morrse, Maj. R. A., 33:2:207 
Mud Flats, 33:2:209 
Muddy Canyon, 33:2:204, 205; 

Creek, 207; River, 169, 204 
Mulloy, Dr. W., 33:1:23, 24 
Mumey, Dr. Nolie, 33:2:222 
Murphy, Prof. Robert F., 33:1:20 



Murray, W. sen., Caledonian Pipe 

Works, 33:2:133 
"Mushroom Papers Droop and 

Die", 33:2:136 

Nakok, halfbreed, 33:1:38 
Narry, Gen., 33:1:84 
National Archives, 33:2:207 
National Geographic, magazine, 

Dec. 1900, 33:1:47 
Natrona County, 33:2:155, 156 
Nebraska, 33:1:42 
Neihardt, John G., Black Elk 

Speaks, Being the Life Story of a 

Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux, 

Neubaur, Greta, 33:1:101 
Newburyport, Mass., 33:2:128 
Newcastle News - Letter Journal, 

newspaper, 33:2:157 
Newcastle, Wyo., 33:2:157, 197 
New Mexico, 33:2:175 
Newton and Rae, 33:2:133 
New York, 33:2:127, 137 
New York Tribune, 1891, newspa- 
per, 33:1:7, 84 
New York World, newspaper, 33:2: 

N H ranch, 33:2:192 
Nicholas, Thomas A., 33:2:220 
Niland, John, 33:2:195 
Nimmo, John, 33:2:133 
Nimmo, T., 33:2:133 
"Nineveh of the Plains", 33:2:145 
Ninth Regiment Kansas Volunteer 

Infantry, 33:1:78 
Nixon, — , 33:2:198 
Noble, Mr. and Mrs. Ed, 33:1:101 
Nolan, Charlotte, 33:2:182 
Nolan, Effie, 33:2:179, photo, 178 
Nolan, John, 33:1:70; 33:2:179, 

180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 188, 189, 

photo, 178 
North Fork, 33:2:182, 190 
North, Capt. Frank, 33:2:172 
North Park, 33:1:95, 96 
North Platte River, 33:1:38, 55, 96, 

99, 100; 33:2:204; Crossing, 33: 

1:96, 99; 33:2:166, 167, 199, 

photo, 206 
North Platte Route (Oregon Trail), 

North Platte Stage Station, 33:1:99 
Northwestern Fur Company, 33:2: 

Northwestern Journal of Com- 

m erce, newspaper, 33:2:139 

Northwestern Livestock Journal, 
newspaper, 33:2:144, 145 

Norval, Gray, 33:2:191 

Nussbaum, Mrs. F. L., 33:1:101 

Nye, Edgar Wilson (Bill), 33:2: 
146, 148. 149 

Oberg Pass, 33:1:95 
Oberlin College, 33:1:7 
Ocmulgee National Monument. Ma- 
con, Ga., 33:2:240 
O'Day, Tom, 33:2:182 
Ogden, Peter Skeen, 33:2:161 
Ogden, Utah, 33:2:196 
Ohio State Board of Agriculture, 

Omaha, Nebr., 33:1:44, 83; 33:2: 

Ono. Wyo.. 33:2:179 
Oregon, 33:1:28; 33:2:144, 164, 

Oregon Trail, 33:1:92, 96, 97, 99; 

33:2:161, 165, 205, 226, 228; 

Trek, 220 
Oregon Trail Route, 33:1:76. 82 
Organ, C. P., 33:1:9 
Otras Co., 33:1:45 
Our Mountains, poem, by Margaret 

Brock Hanson, 33:2:177 
Overland Mail, The, by LeRoy Ha- 

fen, 33:1:97; 33:2:213 
Overland Route, 33:2:176 
Overland Stage Company, 33:1:79, 

82, 83, 96, 97, 98; 33:2:137 
Overland Stage Line, 33:1:77, 78, 

97; 33:2:201 
Overland Stage Station, 33:1:90, 96 
Overland Stage Trail, 33:1:78, 81, 

82, 83, 86, 87; 33:2:195. 196, 

200, 201, 203, 204, 205, 207. 208, 

209; Denver-Salt Lake branch, 

82; Lodgepole Creek branch, 82 
Overland Stage Trail-Trek No. 1, 

Overland Stage Trail-Trek No. 2, 

Overland Trail, 33:1:88, 89, 92, 93, 

94, 95, 96, 98, 99; 33:2:165 
Overland Trail Trek, 33:2:220 
Owen, W. O., 33:1:99 
Oxygen Apoaratus, sketch, 33:1:14 

Pacific Creek, 33:2:165 
Pacific Ocean, 33:2:160, 175 
Palm, — , 33:1:97 



Palmer, Capt. H. E., 33:2:171 

Pamolin Smoking Pipe and Manu- 
facturing Company, Incorporated, 
Pamplin, Virginia, 33:2:125 

Papago Indian Reservation, 33:1: 

Park City. Utah, 33:2:152 

Paris Exposition, 33:1:49 

Parish, William J., The Charles li- 
fe Id Company, A Study of the 
Rise and Decline of Mercantile 
Capitalism in New Mexico, re- 
view, 33:2:232-233 

Pass Creek, 33:1:98; Stage Station, 

Pathfinder Dam, 33:2:217 

Pawnee, Blackfoot and Cheyenne- 
History and Folklore of the 
Plains, by George Grinnell with 
an introduction by Dee Brown, 
review, 33:2:231-232 

Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk- 
Tales, by George Bird Grinnell, 
introduction by Maurice Frink. 

Pease. Judge L. D., 33:2:147 

Pence, Mary Lou, "Fort Sanders, 
Sentinel of the Laramie Plains", 
33:1:82-86, 87 

Peneau Creek. See Prairie Dog 

Pennsylvania, 33:2:137 

Percy, Archibald A., 33:2:133 

Percy, Wyo., 33:1:98 

Perkin, Robert, 33:2:213 

Person, Mr. and Mrs. H. T., 33: 

lettitt, Fred, 33:2:191 

Philadelphia, 33:2:137 

Phillips University, 33:2:240 

Phoenix, Ariz., 33:1:104 

Pick Ranch, 33:2:195 

Pierce. H. A.. 33:2:140 

Pierre's Hole, 33:2:162. 163 

Pine Grove Creek, 33:2:201; Sta- 
tion, 198, 200, 201, 202, 203, 
photos, 202 

Piney country, Sheridan County, 

Pmey Fort, 33:2:171 

Pipe Line Road, 33:2:200 

Pitchfork Ranch, Tex., 33:1:85 

"Platte Bridge and the Oregon Trail 
in the Civil War Period, 1855- 
1870", by Thomas A. Nicholas, 

Platte Canyon, 33:1:48 

Platte County, 33:1:65 

Platte River, 33:1:92, 95; 33:2: 
226, 228; Crossing 33:2:197, 198, 
199, 200, 204 

"Platte River Crossing", by Leeland 
Grieve, 33:1:98 

Platte Station, 33:2:204 

Platte Valley Lyre, a newspaper, 

Pleasant Ridge, 33:2:181 

Pleasant Valley, 33:2:199 

Point of Rocks, 33:2:199, 208, 212, 

Police Gazette, magazine, 33:2:156 

Pony Express, 33:1:92; 33:2:223, 
224; Centennial, 33:2:196; Sta- 
tions, 196 

Pope, Gen., 33:1:82 

Popo Agie River, 33:2:160 

Populist Revolt, A History of The 
Farmer's Alliance and The Peo- 
ple's Party, The, by John D. 
Hicks, 33:1:113 

Port Glasgow, 33:2:132 

Portor, Maj. Fitz-john, 33:2:170 

Portuguese Houses, 33:2:217 

Potter, Gen., 33:1:84 

Potts, Jesse, 33:2:179, 183 

Potts, Jim, 33:2:179, 183 

Powder River, 33:2:160, 161, 162, 
171, 179, 180; Valley, 161, Coun- 
try, 182, 211 

Powder River Commercial Co., 33: 
2:179, 183 

Powder River County, Mont., 33:2: 

Powder River, Wyo., 33:1:55 

Powder Springs, 33:1:95 

Prairie Dog Creek, 33:2:171, 172 

Prairie Publishing Co., 33:2:220 

"Press on Wheels". See Frontier 

Preuss, Mr., 33:2:167 

Prevost, Etienne, 33:2:160 

Promontory Point, 33:1:31 

Providence Plantation, 33:1:42 

Prugh, Merle, 33:2:220 

Pueblo, Colo., 33:1:96 

Puis Ranch, 33:1:89 

Pumpkin Buttes, 33:1:69; 33:2:181 

Purbeck, Dorsetshire, England, 33: 

Qnartzite Arrowhead, The, poem, 

by Hans Kleiber, 33:1:102 
Quick, O. N., 33:2:191 



Rador, Clarence, 33:2:213 

"Rain King". See Melbourne, The 

Australian Rain Wizard 
Rain Production of Frank Mel- 
bourne During the Season of 

1891, 33:1:15 
"Rainwater Jones". See Jones, 

Rankin, Jim, 33:2:203 
Rankin, Joe, 33:2:205 
Rattlesnake Creek, 33:1:98; Moun- 
tains, 55; Pass, 98 
Rauner, Charles L., 33:2:149 
Ravenscraft, Capt., 33:1:9, 11 
Rawlins Republican, newspaper, 33: 

2:154, 155 
Rawlins, Wyo., 33:2:153, 200, 203, 

204, 205, 207, 208, 214, 215 
Raynolds, Capt., 33:2:166, 172 
Red Banks, 33:1:35 
Red Buttes, 33:1:23, 47, 82, 83; 33: 

Red Desert, 33:2:161, 210 
Register Cliff, 33:2:222 
Reid, James, 33:2:133 
Reid, Will, 33:2:154 
Republican, newspaper, Springfield, 

Mass., 33:1:78 
Revolutionary War, 33:2:128, 130 
Reynolds, Adrian, 33:2:195, 211, 

212; Mrs. 214 
Rhode Island, 33:1:42 
Rich, Lieut., 33:2:170 
Richardson, Elmo R., John Palmer 

Usher. Lincoln's Secretary of the 

Interior, 33:1:114 
Richardson, William, 33:2:198, 199 
Richardson Willing, 33:1:73, 95, 

98; Mrs., 101 
Richmond, Va., 33:2:159 
Riley, Hugh, 33:2:185 
Ritter, Charles, 33:1:101; 33:2:195, 

215; Mr. and Mrs. and niece, 214 
Ritter, Vera, 33:2:195 
Rival Rain Compeller, photo, 33: 

Rock Creek, 33:1:48, 93, 98; 33:2: 

211; Crossing, 33:1:92; Station, 

Rock Dale, 33:1:92, 93, 95 
Rock Point Station, 33:2:211 
Rocky Mountain Courier, newspa- 
per, 33:2:152, 153 
Rock Springs Miner, newspaper, 33: 

Rock Springs, Wyo., 33:2:211 
Rocky Mountain Fur Company, 33: 

1:92; 33:2:160, 161, 162, 163, 

164, 175 

Rocky Mountain News, newspaper, 

33:1:6, 10 
Rocky Mountains, 33:1:92 
Rocky Mountain Sportsmen's Ass'n., 

Rowdy West, newspaper, 33:2:156, 

"Ruff, 33:2:173 
Russell, Majors and Waddell, 33:2: 

Ryckman, J. J., 33:2:152 
Rymill, Mr. and Mrs. R. J., 33:1: 


Sacajawea, by Grace Raymond He- 
bard, 33:1:114 
Sackett, Richard R., 33:2:128 
Sackett, Sandra, 33:1:67 
Sacramento, Calif., 33:2:223, 224 
Sacramento Daily Bee, newspaper, 

Sagebrush Serenade, by Allan 

Vaughan Elston, review, 33:1: 

Sage Creek, 33:1:97; Station, 33:2: 

199, 200, 201 
St. Joseph, Mo., 33:1:76; 33:2:223, 

St. Louis, Mo., 33:1:81; 33:2:159, 

160, 161, 162, 172 
St. Omer, Pas-de-Calais, France, 

33:2:130, 134 
St. Patrick Day dances, 33:2:184 
Salmon City, 33:1:27 
Salmon River, Ida., 33:1:26, 27; 

Mountains, 30 
Salt Creek, 32:2:181, 182 
Salt Creek oil field boom, 33:2:190 
Saltiel, Em.anuel H., 33:2:140 
Sah Lake, 33:1:23, 31, 33, 35; 33 

2:160, 161, 169, 172; Basin, 162 
Salt Lake City, 33:1:37, 94, 96; 33 

2:170, 204 
Salt Lake Tribune, newspaper, 33 

1:9, 10 
Salt River, 33:2:162 
Salt Wells, 33:2:211 
Sandburg, Larry, 33:1:101; 33:2: 

Sand Butte, 33:2:213 
Sanders, Gen. William P., 33:1:83 
Sandoz, Marie, Crazy Horse, the 

Strange Man of the Oglalas, 33: 

San Francisco, Calif., 33:2:214 
Santa Fe, 33:2:161, 162 
Santo, Giovine, Homme d'esprit, 




Saratoga Sun, newspaper, 33:2:204 
Saratoga. Wyo., 33:1:99; 33:2:154, 

Saskatchewan River, 33:1:24 
Satoris, Frank and Lionel, 33:1:44, 

45, 47 
Schafer Ranch, 33:1:80 
Scharbauer, Clarence, 33:1:104 
Scharbauer site, 33:1:104 
Schell, Herbert S., History of South 

Dakota, review, 33:2:230-231 
Scotland, 33:1:98 
Scott, Jennie Simmons, 33:1:58, 

photo, 62 
Scott, Lieut. John, 33:1:84 
Scottish Pottery, 33:2:128 
Scroggie, J., 33:2:133 
Scrymser, — , 33:1:47 
Searight Bros. Cattle Co., 33:1:55. 

See Goose Egg outfit. 
"Seaside Gallop", dance, 33:2:187 
Second U. S. Cavalry. Troop F, 

Second Missouri Artillery, Co. 1, 

Sederling, Louis, 33:1:96 
Semper Fidelis, newspaper, 33:2: 

Sentinel, newspaper, 33:2:147, 149 
Seven Meadows, 33:2:204 
'"76" Ranch (old), 33:2:191 
Shaffer, WiUiam T.. 33:2:152, 153 
Shaw, John, 33:2:133 
Shenandoah, la., 33:1:71 
Sheridan Enterprise, newspaper, 33: 

Sheridan Post, newspaper, 33:2:158 
Sheridan, Gen., 33:1:84 
Sheridan, Wyo., 33:2:215 
Sherman, Gen., 33:1:84 
Sherman Reporter, newspaper, 33: 

Sherman, Wyo., 33:1:80; 33:2:149 
Sherry, Sgt. John, 33:1:83 
Shian [Cheyenne], 33:2:140 
Shimkin, D. B., 33:1:19 
Shingleton, Ella, 33:1:101 
Shingleton, Mr. and Mrs. L. W., 

Shingleton, Lyle, 33:1:101 
Shoshone Falls, 33:1:30 
Shoshone River, 33:1:37 
Shoshones in the Rocky Mountain 

Area, by Ake Hultkrants, 33:1: 

"Short History of the Cooper Creek 

Area", by A. S. Gillespie, 33:1:89 
"Shriners Old Time Band", Sheri- 
dan, 33:1:67 

Sidney, Nebr., 33:2:214 
Silver Cliff, Wyo., 33:2:157 
Silversmith, Julius, 33:2:139 
Simmons, Albert, 33:1:58, 62 
Simmons, Charlie, 33:1:64; (Char- 
ley), 58 
Simmons, Charlton Jackson. 33: 

Simmons, Clarence, 33:1:58, 66, 

photo, 62 
Simmons, Edgar H., 33:1:53, 55, 

57, 58, 59, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 

70, 71, photos, 56, 62; 33:2:185, 

186, 187; Mrs. 33:1:58, 59, 60, 

64, 66, 71, photo, 56 
Simmons, Edward, 33:1:55, 57, 64, 

photo, 56 
Simmons, George, 33:1:55, 65, 67, 

photo, 62 
Simmons, Ida, 33:1:64 
Simmons, Mary Allison, 33:1:55 
Simmons, Stella, 33:1:66 
Simmons Bros. Ranches, 31:1:55, 

61; map, 54; photos, 56, 62. See 

Johnson County Deer Ranch 
Simpkins, Mrs. L., 33:2:121 
Sims, Albert, 33:1:73, photos, 100, 

101; 33:2:208 
Sinclair, Wyo., 33:2:214 
Sisters Hill site, 33:2:215 
Six Mile Prairie, 33:2:159 
Slack, Col. E. A.. 33:2:142, 146, 

151, 154 
Slade. Joseph A. (Jack), 33:1:76, 

Smith, E. N., 33:2:191 
Smith, G. Hubert, 33:2:121 
Smith, Jedediah S., 33:2:161 
Smith, Thomas, 33:2:127 
Smithsonian Institution, 33:2:121, 

Snake River, 33:1:28, 29, 30, 31; 

33:2:162, 165, 166 
Society of American Archaeology, 

Soldier Creek, 33:1:83 
Sommers, Fay, 33:2:158 
South Dakota, 33:2:183 
South Pass City, 33:1:34, 83, 92, 

96; 33:2:140, 146, 150, 151, 154, 

160, 176; Route, 204, 213 
South Pass 1868, by Lola M. Hom- 

sher, 33:2:219 
South Pass News, newspaper, 33: 

2:140, 146, 151 
South Platte, 33:1:96; 33:2:169 
Speier, Rev. Lamar, 33:2:216 



Spence, Clark C, Melbourne the 

Australian Rain Wizard, 33:1:5- 

18, biog., 115 
Sphor, Adolph, 33:2:220 
Spiegel, Sydney, 33:2:218 
Spindler, Will H., Yesterday's Trails, 

review, 33:2:233 
Spottswood. Robert, 33:1:77; 33: 

Stafford, Isaac, 33:1:79 
Stanley, Martha, 33:1:101 
Stansbury, Capt. Howard, 33:1:96, 

99, 100; 33:2:198, 209 
Stark, A. H., 33:1:74 
State Archives and Historical De- 
partment. Cheyenne, 33:2:135, 

State Historical Landmark Commis- 
sion, 33:1:100 
Steege, L. C, 33:1:104 
Stephenson, Robert L., 33:2:121 
Stevens, Mrs. Alice, 33:2:217 
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 33:1:91 
Steward, Julian H., 33:1:19, 25, 26 
Stewart, Elinor Priott, Letters of a 

Wyoming Homesteader, 33:2:239 
Stimpson, Mr. and Mrs. Wm., 33:1: 

Stockade Journal, newspaper, 33:2: 

Stockton, Mary E., 33:1:100 
Story, Wyo., 33:1:67 
Stotts, J. L., 33:2:157 
Stover, W. C, 33:1:79 
Stratton, Mrs. Anthony, 33:2:214 
Straw Berry, 33:2:199 
Stuart, A. E., 33:2:199, 200, 213 
Stuart, Granville, Forty Years On 

the Frontier, 33:1:114 
Stuart, — , 33:1:31 
Stubbs, Jim, 33:2:192 
Sublette, John, 33:1:95 
Sublette, Milton G., 33:2:161 
Sublette, William L., 33:2:160, 162 
Sulphur Creek, 33:2:150 
Sulphur Springs Station, 33:1:98; 

33:2:201, 202, 204, 205, 207, 

208, photo, 206 
Summers, Billy, 33:2:191 
Summit House, 33:2:149 
Sun Dance, 33:1:37, 38 
Sussex, Wyo., 33:1:64; 33:2:179 
Swan Testing and Sampling Co., 

Cheyenne, 33:1:44 
Swazey, Edward L., 33:2:198-199 
Sweem, Glen, 33:2:215-217 
Sweetwater Chieftain, newspaper, 

33:2:155, 156 

Sweetwater Gazette, newspaper, 33 

Sweetwater Historical Society, 33 

Sweetwater Mines, newspaper, 33 

2:150, 151 
Sweetwater River, 33:1:38; 33:2 

168; Valley, 168 
Swift-Miller Home, 33:1:89 
Table Mountain, 33:1:76, 77 
Taylor, Bob, 33:2:185, 186 
Taylor, Cora Simmons, 33:1:58 
Taylor, Gilbert B., Glimpses of 

Edgemont's Past, review, 33:1: 

Taylor, R. E., 33:2:191 
Taylor, William S., 33:1:77 
Teit, — , 33:1:24 
Telephone Canyon, 33:1:96 
Temple, Tex., 33:1:13 
Tensleep, Wyo., 33:1:57, 67 
Teton Basin. See Pierre's Hole 
Teton mountains, 33:1:29, 34 
Texas, 33:2:144, 172 
Thees, — , 33:1:88 
Then Was the Days, An American 

Saga of the 'GJ's, by Martha Fer- 
guson McKeown. Introductory 

notes by Royce H. Knapp, 33:2: 

Thomas, John M., 33:2:133 
Thompson, David, 33:1:23 
Thompson. Mrs. Edith M., 33:2: 

Thornburg, Maj., 33:1:84 
Thornburg Massacre, 33:2:205 
Thorp, Russell, 33:2:220, 222 
Thorsen, Lieut. Wade, 33:2:210 
Three Forks, 33:2:161 
Tierney, E. M., (Ed), 33:2:199, 

207, 209, 214 
Tie Siding, 33:1:81 
Tilden, Samuel J., 33:2:147 
Times, newspaper, 33:2:148 
Tipton train robbery, 33:2:213 
Tisdale, John, 33:2:191 
Tisdale, Mart, 33:2:187 
Tisdale, Robert, 33:2:191 
Tongue River, 33:2:170, 171, 172; 

Valley, 171 
Torrington, Wyo., 33:2:122, 214, 

Totten, Gen., 33:2:172 
Towner, B. W., 33:1:89 
Townsend, H. M., 33:1:73, 101; 

33:2:195; Mr. and Mrs. and 

boys, 214 
Trapper Creek site, 33:2:215 
Tribune, newspaper, 33:2:145 



True West, magazine, 33:2:219 

TTT Ranch. 33:2:191 

Tubb Town, Wyo., 33:2:157 

Turk Burial site, 33:2:215 

Turkey, 33:2:125 

Twin Groves, 33:1:95 

"Two Oceans Pass", 33:2:165 

Tyler, John, 33:2:159 

Tynan. T. T., 33:2:158 

Union Pacific Railroad, 33:1:47, 

77, 83; 33:2:137, 138, 145, 149, 

150, 160, 204, 213 
United States Geological Survey of 

Wyoming, 1872, 33:2:211 
University of California, 33:1:20, 

University of Chicago, 33:1:44 
University of Nebraska, 33:1:42, 

44; Preparatory school, 42 
University of Missouri, 33:2:199 
University of North Carolina, 33: 

University of Oklahoma, Norman, 

University of Texas, 33:1:113 
University of Wyoming, 33:1:44, 

48-49, 50; Third Annual Report 

of, 58; Summer camp, 51; 33:2: 

196, 240 
Uinta County, 33:2:151 
Uinta County Argus, newspaper, 

Uinta County Chieftain, newspaper, 

33:2:152 " 
Uinta Range, 33:2:169 
Uintah Mountains, 33:1:35 
Uintah Valley (Utah), 33:1:32 

Vance, Wyo., 33:1:67 
Vandenburg, — , 33:2:162, 163, 164 
Vasquez, Benito, 33:2:167 
Vaughn, W. L., 33:2:151 
Ventana Cave, 33:1:104 
Verdling Ranch, 33:2:223 
Vincent, Ida., 33:1:58 
Vincent, Tip, 33:2:203 
Virginia Dale, 33:1:75, 76, 77, 80, 

92; store and postoffice, 81 
Virginia Dale Home Demonstration 

Club, 33:1:79 
Virginia Dale Stage Station, 33:1: 

73, 76, 78, 80; 33:2:195, 201 
"Virginia Dale Stage Station on the 

Overland Route", by Edith R. 

Williams, 33:1:74 
Vivian, Robert, 33:2:195 

Voice of the Coyote, by J. Frank 

Dobie, 33:1:113 
Von Begal family, 33:1:84 
Voorhees, post office, 33:2:181 
Vorhees' Ranch, 33:2:181- 182; 

horses, 182 

Wagon Hound Creek, 33:1:95 
Wagner, Bert, 33:2:156 
Waite, J. Enos, 33:2:155 
Waldie, John, 33:2:133 
Waldo Station, Mo., 33:2:173 
Walker, Mrs. Graham, 33:1:101, 

Wallace, Mrs. Nancy, 33:2:219 
Wallace, Otis, 33:1:80 
Wallis, Burt, 33:1:90 
Wallis, Ollie, 33:1:90 
Walton, James H., 33:2:144 
Wamsutter, Wyo., 33:2:208 
War Chief Joseph, by Helen Addi- 
son Howard and Dan L. Mc- 
Grath, review, 33:1:110-111 
Ward, Don, Bits of Silver, review, 

Ware, Capt. Eugene F., The Indian 

War of 1864, review, 33:2:238 
Warren, F. E., 33:2:144 
Warren, J. Edward, 33:2:150 
Waschman, Mrs. Virginia, 33:2: 

172, 173 
Washington, 33:2:137 
Washington Evening Star, newspa- 
per, 33:1:10 
Waskie Station, 33:2:205, 211; 

photos, 206, 207, 208 
Watkins Creek, 33:1:94 
Watts, Stubbins, farm, 33:2:174 
Webb, Anita, 33:1:69 
Webb, Lou, 33:2:183; Mrs. 33:1: 

Webber, Mrs. C. W., 33:1:80 
Webber, N. T., 33:1:79, 80 
Weber River, 33:1:30; 33:2:150 
Webster, T. J., 33:2:140, 143, 146, 

Weekly Sun, newspaper, 33:2:142 
Welch, Warren W., 33:2:220 
"Welcome and History of Arling- 
ton", by L. E. Dixon, 33:1:92 
Wesley Club, 33:1:85 
Westminster College, New Wil- 
mington, Pa., 33:2:40 
Weston, Mo., 33:2:172 
Westport, Tex., 33:2:173, 174, 175 
Wheatland, Wyo., 33:2:214 



Wheatridge, Colo., 33:2:214 

White Co.. 33:2:130 

White, E. E., 33:2:209 

White, J. S., 33:1:100 

White River Country, 33:1:95 

White River Road, 33:2:207 

White, William, 33:2:132 

White, William and Sons, 33:2:132 

Whitfield, Maj. J. W., 33:2:225 

Whitman, Dr. Marcus, 33:2:164 

Whitmire, Olive, 33:1:67 

Whitney Art Gallery, 33:2:220 

Whittenburg, Clarice, 33:1:101: 33: 

Whv the North Won the Civil War, 
e"d. David Donald, 33:1:114 

Wild Rose Station. See Dug Springs 

Wilkins. Dr., 33:1:81 

Wilkins, Mrs. Edness Kimball, 33: 
2:217, 219 

Willan, Douglas, 33:1:47; ranch, 44 

William White Company of Glas- 
gow, 33:2:128, 129 

Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Bill. 33:1: 

Williams, Mr. and Mrs. C, 33:1: 

Williams, Edith R., 33:1:74 

Williams, O. T. B., 33:2:140 

Williams, Roger, 33:1:42 

Williams, William Richard, 33:1:80 

Willis, G. A., 33:2:195, 214 

Willow Creek, 33:1:81 

Willow Springs Station, 33:1:81 

Willson, Grant H., 33:2:214 

Wilson, Charles F., 33:2:149 

Wilson Price Hunt Expedition, 33: 

Wilson, Rex L., Clay Tobacco Pipes 
From Fort Laramie, 33:2:121- 
133, 216, 240 

Wilson, Susan, 33:2:121 

Wind River, 33:1:37; 33:2:160, 
161; Basin, 33:1:37; country, 34, 
36; Mountains, 22; 33:2:160; 
Rendezvous, 161; Reservation, 
33:1:28, 37, 38, 94; Valley, 33: 

Wind River Mountaineer, newspa- 
per, 33:2:155 

Winingar, Fred and John, 33:2:179 

Winter, Zita, 33:2:209 

Wisconsin, 33:1:68 

With Sherman to the Sea, A Drum- 
mer's Story of the Civil War, 
related by Corydon Edward Fotte 
to Olive Deane Hormel, foreword 
by Elizabeth Yates, 33:1:114 

WLS, radio station, Chicago, 33: 

Wolf Mountain Range, 33:2:171 

Wood, William C, 33:1:133 

Wood, W. Raymond, 33:2:128 

Woodward, Arthur, 33:2:121, 125, 

Woolworth, Alan R., 33:2:128 

World, newspaper. 33:2:158 

World of Willa Cather, The, Mil- 
dred R. Bennett, 33:1:113 

World's Fair, Chicago, 1893, 33:1: 

Wright, Mrs. Otis. 33:2:220. 222 

Wright, Col., 33:2:170 

Wyeth, Arthur J., 33:2:163 

Wynkoop, Maj., 33:1:97 

Wyoming, 33:1:84; naming of, 83 

Wyoming Archaeological Notes, 
33:1:104; 33:2:215 

Wyoming Central Railroad, 33:2: 
156, 157 

Wyoming Daily Morning News, 
newspaper, 33:2:141, 142 

Wyoming Derrick, newspaper, 33: 

Wyoming Farmer, newspaper, 33:2: 

Wyoming Hereford Ass'n., 33:1:89 

Wyoming Hereford Ranch, 33:1 

Wyoming News, newspaper, 33 
'141, 142 

Wyoming Pioneer Ass'n., 33:2:196 

Wyoming State Archives and His- 
torical Department, 33:2:218, 
219, 222; State Museum, 218 

Wyoming State Historical Society, 
33:1:73; 33:2:195, 196, 220-221 

Wyoming State Journal, newspaper, 

Wyoming Tribune, newspaper, 33: 
2:141, 142, 144, 154, 156 

Wyoming's first United States Sena- 
tor. See Judge J. M. Carey 

Wyoming's Frontier Newspapers, by 
Elizabeth Keen, 33:2:135 

Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches, by 
Burns, Gillespie and Richards, 

Yampa River, Colo., 33:1:32 

Yates, Elizabeth, foreword to With 
Sherman To The Sea, A Drum- 
mer's Story of the Civil War, 
related by Corydon Edward Fotte 
to Olive Dean Hormel, 33:1:114 

"Yellowstone National Park, The", 

Yellowstone Park, 33:1:34, 38; 33: 
2:161, 165, 172 


Yellowstone Park Plateau, 33:1:34 Ymer. 1941, structure and content 
Yellowstone River, 33:1:36; 33:2: of culture of the Wind River 

160, 161, 162, 165, 166, 171; Shoshones, 33:1:20, 21 

Lake, 161, 162, 176 Young, Brigham, 33:2:170 

Yesterday's Trails, by Will H. T^Tf i?' S'.^o '/il^ 

c«;«^i^^ r^„;^,„ 11. o. Til Zindel, Mr., 33:2:184 

bpmdler, review, 33 2 233 -7- j i o i t-i i mi 

^ ' Zmdel Saloon, 33:2:191 


The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its func- 
tion the collection and preservation of the record of the people of Wyo- 
ming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out of its 
function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve records and 
materials now in private hands where they cannot be long preserved. Such 
records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, account books, auto- 
biographical accounts. 

Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agricul- 
ture, railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business establishments, 
and of professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, dentists, ministers, 
and educators. 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, manuscript 
materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religious, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications such 
as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any significant 
topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on western 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout the 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, Indian 
artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyoming and with 
special events in the State's history.