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Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"

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LIBRARY 

DF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING 

LARAMIE 






G OVi 




Annals 




75th ANNIVERSARY 
OF STATEHOOD 

1890-1965 
44-STAR FLAG 



April 1965 



WYOMING STATE LIBRARY, ARCHIVES AND 
HISTORICAL BOARD 



Judicial 
District 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 
Member at Large 
Ex-Officio 



Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Vacant 

Mrs. R. DwiGHT Wallace Evanston 

Vacant 

Richard I. Frost Cody 

Mrs. William Miller Lu.sk 

Mrs. Frank C. Mockler Lander 

Mrs. Dl'gley Hayden Jackson 

Attorney General John F. Raper 



WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 

STAFF 

Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Assistant Director 

Mrs. Katherine Halverson Chief, Historical Division 

Mrs. Bonnie Forsyth Chief, Archives & Records Division 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and 
October and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.00 each. 
Available copies of earlier isues are also for sale. A price list may be 
obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fr.ct or of opinion made by 
contributors. 



Copyrii^'ht. 1^65. hy the Wyoniini; State Archives and 
Historical Department. 



A^mls of Wyoming 



Volume 37 



April, 1965 



Number 1 




Lola M. Homsher 
Editor 



Katherine Halverson 
Assistant Editor 



Published Biannually by the 

WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 



Official Publication of the Wyoming State Historical Society 



Wyoming Statehood 

By 

T. A. Larson* 

A few people in Wyoming were talking and writing about state- 
hood as early as 1868. They expected the Territory within a few 
years to attain sufficient population to justify statehood. 

Ever since the Ordinance of 1787 had stated that parts of the 
Northwest Territory might be considered for statehood when a 
population of 60,000 had been reached, that number had been 
regarded by many people as sufficient for statehood, and a few 
states had come into the Union with a smaller population. For 
various reasons, which are discussed by John D. Hicks in his 
Constitutions of the Northwest States (Lincoln, 1923), no state 
was admitted between 1876, when Colorado came in, and Novem- 



* Professor T. A. Larson is Head of the Department of History and 
Director of the School of American Studies at the University of Wyoming, 
where he has taught since 1936. He was president of the Wyoming State 
Historical Society, 1957-1958. The article which is here presented will 
appear, with minor changes, as Chapter 9 in his 18-chapter History of 
Wyoming, which is scheduled for publication in the autumn of 1965 by the 
University of Nebraska Press. 

■'■'(Bottom row) Left to right: 1. Louise S. Smith, official stenog- 
rapher; 2. Melville C. Brown, President of the Convention; 3. Mrs. B. 
Recker, ass't sec'y; 4. Mrs. Frances Ollerenshaw, enrolling and engrossing 
clerk; 5. Frank M. Foote 

{Second row) 6. Frederick H. Harvey; 7. Mark Hopkins; 8. H. G. 
Nickerson; 9. Louis J. Palmer; 10. John M. McCandlish; 11. Henry A. 
Coffeen; 12. Edward J. Morris 

{Third row) 13. John F. Carroll (editor Cheyenne Leader); 14. Asbury 
B. Conaway; 15. John A. Riner; 16. D. A. Preston; 17. A. L. Sutherland; 
18. Henry S. Elliott; 19. Henry G. Hay; 20. Thomas R. Reed 

{Fourth row) 21. John McGill; 22. George W. Fox; 23. W. E. Chaplin; 
24. E. S. N. Morgan; 25. J. A. Casebeer; 26. John L. Russell; 27. Mortimer 
N. Grant; 28. L S. Bartlett (newspaper reporter) 

{Fifth row) 29. George W. Baxter; 30. C. P. Organ; 31. James A. John- 
ston; 32. John W. Hoyt; 33. J. C. Argesheimer (newspaper reporter) 

(Sixth row) 34. Herman Glafcke (ass't sec'y of Convention); 35. Clar- 
ence D. Clark; 36. Stephen W. Downey 

{Top row) 37. C. W. Holden; 38. O. P. Yelton, (Sergeant-at-Arms); 
39. In the shadow against the door on the left, Meyer Frank. The children 
in the foreground: On the extreme right, Fred Post, Jr. and the first boy 
to the left with his hat on, Corlett Downey. These two boys were the pages 
in the Convention. The other children were those who came in to have 
their picture taken. 



6 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ber 1889, when four states — North Dakota, South Dakota, Mon- 
tana and Washington — were added. 

In the discouraging 1870s there was much talk of partitioning 
Wyoming Territory and giving the parts to Dakota, Colorado and 
Utah, on the assumption that statehood would never be possible. 
The economy perked up in the 1880s, permitting Governor Francis 
E. Warren to include statehood recommendations in both his 1885 
and 1886 reports to the Secretary of the Interior. Thereafter the 
possibility of statehood was often discussed. 




Wyoftiin;^ Slate Archives and Historical Department 
JOSEPH M. CAREY 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 7 

Until neighboring South Dakota and Montana entered the Union 
in 1889 Wyoming could hardly expect recognition, since both had 
better claims with their larger population. Dakotans and Mon- 
tanans understandably worked harder than th^ Wyoming people 
for statehood in the 1880s, but their desires were long frustrated 
because during the years 1883-1889 control of the two houses of 
Congress was split between Republicans and Democrats. The 
Republicans were more sympathetic to statehood pleas coming 
from the Northwest because the people there were either already 
Republican or were expected to become such. When the Republi- 
cans in 1888 won control of the presidency and both houses of 
Congress they prepared to act on their desire for more Republican 
Senators and Congressmen. The Democrats thereupon capitulat- 
ed, and agreed to the admission of North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Montana and Washington, hoping to share in the gratitude of the 
new states. 

Normally one might expect most of the people in a territory to 
want statehood, since it would open new opportunities to them. 
Two Senators and one or more Representatives provide better 
representation in Washington than one delegate in the lower house, 
and, unlike residents of a territory, people in a state can vote for 
the President. In a state there would be less dictation from Wash- 
ington, and carpetbagger appointees in the executive and judicial 
branches would be replaced by officials elected from resident 
candidates. It was usually thought also that a state would be more 
attractive to prospective settlers. 

Yet partisan considerations colored the thinking of Wyoming 
people on the matter of statehood just as it did that of Congress. 
Republicans led the statehood movement in the late 1880s, with 
Francis E. Warren and Joseph M. Carey out front. Since they 
became the first U. S. Senators it seems not unlikely that they 
planned it that way. Certainly Carey's leadership for statehood 
in 1888 was attributed again and again by Democrats to his 
ambition to become U. S. Senator. 

Wyoming Democrats as a rule were much less enthusiastic about 
statehood than the Republicans, but except for a few like Gov- 
ernor Thomas Moonlight and Editor John F. Carroll of the Chey- 
enne Leader they were not actively opposed. The Territorial 
Legislature of January-March, 1888, with Democrats in control 
of the lower house and Republicans the upper house, sent to 
Washington a petition for statehood. 

After Territorial Delegate J. M. Carey presented the petition, a 
bill for an enabling act was introduced in each house of Congress, 
to no avail. Tired of waiting, Governor Warren and his associates 
decided to proceed as if an enabling act had been passed, a tactic 
not without precedent. Under Governor Warren's guidance, 
boards of county commissioners in seven of the ten counties adopt- 
ed resolutions for a constitutional convention. Governor Warren 



8 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

then arranged for an election (July 8, 1889) of delegates to a 
constitutional convention in September. The election was on a 
nonpartisan basis; yet party affiliation was not ignored entirely. 
The Democratic Laramie Boomerang complained that working 
men were not taking much interest in the approaching election. 
They must turn out and vote, urged the Boomerang, if they did 
not want corporations to write the constitution. As it turned out, 
of the 49 men who attended the convention, 32 were Republicans 
and 17 Democrats. 

On the threshold of statehood Wyoming appeared to be Republi- 
can, since Republicans controlled the constitutional convention, 
and there was a Republican Delegate, although the Legislature was 
split. What had happened to the Democratic majority of earlier 
days? The Democrats had no leader comparable to Warren and 
Carey, who stood head and shoulders above all other Wyoming 
politicians. Republican tariff policies looked good to a majority 
of Wyoming people. The Democratic Governor Thomas Moon- 
light divided the Democrats instead of uniting and leading them. 

The Democratic party had been hurt also by a combination of 
bad luck and poor organization. Unable to agree on a gubernator- 
ial candidate, whose name they could press upon President Grover 
Cleveland in 1885, they had to wait 20 months before Cleveland 
removed Warren. They were hurt again when Cleveland after 45 
days felt compelled to remove his appointee, George W. Baxter, 
for fencing government land. 

Lack of leadership and poor organization cost the Democrats 
dearly in the fall of 1886. Their convention in Rawlins, just a 
month before the election, tendered the nomination for Delegate 
to M. E. Post, who declined, whereupon the Laramie bank presi- 
dent and stock grower, Henry G. Balch, was nominated. Not until 
almost two weeks later, long after the convention had disbanded, 
was it learned that, like Post, Balch would not run. The conven- 
tion had not obtained his prior consent. He was somewhere in 
Montana, and not until October 15 was it published that he was 
not interested. In consequence, Carey was virtually unopposed. 

Two years later the Democrats were able to come up with a 
candidate willing to run, Caleb Perry Organ, Cheyenne hardware 
merchant who had branch stores in Douglas and Buffalo. He had 
served one term, January-March, 1888, in the upper house of the 
Legislature. He was not well known; yet he appeared to have 
qualities which should appeal to many Democrats. Since his 
arrival in Cheyenne in October, 1867, as a poor mule skinner, he 
had become general superintendent of Camp Carlin and eventually 
a prosperous cattleman and merchant. The Cheyenne Leader ex- 
tolled him as a "man of the common people." 

"Honest Perry" Organ was a poor public speaker. The Sun- 
dance Farmer reported that he was making a queer campaign: 
"He takes a man along with him, who makes the speeches and 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 9 

'mc, Perry Organ,' sets on the platform, looks wise, and intimates 
to the boys, 'them's my sentiments.' " Carey, on the other hand, 
could speak at great length, cogently and effectively, though mak- 
ing no attempt at flowery oratory. The Cheyenne Leader assigned 
him to the "dry-as-dust" school of orators: "He revels in statistics 
and frolics with the dry bones of facts that havs long lost their 
vitalizing principles." 

Democratic assertions that Carey was "a kidgloved representa- 
tive of Washington for cattle barons and dudes," and that "Carey's 
hands have never been hardened by honest toil" failed to rally 
workingmen against him. Charges that Carey had called Governor 
Moonlight "a tramp from Kansas" cost him few if any votes. 
Organ carried only Johnson and Fremont Counties and lost to 
Carey by a vote of 10,451 to 7,557. 

Was statehood a significant issue in the Carey-Organ contest? 
It was an issue, but probably not a crucial one. The platform of 
the Territorial Democratic party in October, 1888, said: "On the 
question of statehood the Democrats, when the proper time arrives, 
will be found working enthusiastically in the front of the battle, 
but we do not believe in indulging in any spread eagle blather- 
skitism. ..." A few days later the Territorial Republicans stated 
their position: "We now have the taxable wealth and the popula- 
tion necessary to support a state government and being therefore 
entitled to admission into the Union we earnestly favor such con- 
gressional legislation as will enable us to adopt a constitution and 
secure the rights of statehood." In short, the Democrats preferred 
to wait, while the Republicans wanted statehood at once. 

John F. Carroll of the Cheyenne Leader was a member of the 
Democratic platform committee, and Edward A. Slack of the 
Cheyenne Sun served on the Republican platform committee. 
Their editorials corresponded to the platform statements. The 
Leader wanted delay for as much as five years; the Sun advocated 
immediate statehood. The Leader argued that statehood at once 
"would prove little short of genuine calamity. . . . This statehood 
talk is too highly flavored with [Carey's] senatorial ambitions." 
The Leader contended that Wyoming could not afford statehood, 
which, it said, would cost at least $95,000 a year more than Terri- 
torial government. Accordingly the Leader announced that "A 
vote for Judge Carey is a vote in favor of immediate statehood and 
consequently ruinous taxation." The RepubUcan Sun agreed that 
"A vote for Judge Carey is a vote for statehood." 

After three quarters of a century, when so many circumstances 
have changed, one might be tempted to think that no one could 
seriously object to statehood on the grounds that it would cost 
$95,000 a year. This would be mistaken. Many of Wyoming's 
citizens were very poor in the late 1880s, and $95,000 looked like 
a large sum to them. 

Perry Organ did not "talk down" statehood directly, nor did he 



10 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

come out for it. His campaign remarks suggest that he was accept- 
ing the Democratic platform plank on statehood without comment. 
Democratic editors in Cheyenne, Rawlins and Saratoga placed their 
candidate squarely against immediate statehood, whatever he pri- 
vately may have thought about it. in Saratoga George R. Cald- 
well put it this way: "Organ would rather see Wyoming fostered 
as a territory than wrecked as a state. Carey would have Wyo- 
ming admitted at once to the Union with all the ruinous burden of 
taxation." 

During the 1888 campaign more noise was made over the state- 
hood issue than any other; yet one senses a hollow ring in the 
Democratic calls against statehood. Most Wyoming Democrats 
probably were not really opposed to immediate statehood. Rather 
their opposition was to a statehood movement led by Carey and 
Warren, who had been champions of statehood since 1885. With 
them so strongly for statehood, and with the national Republican 
party for statehood, Wyoming Democrats were less than eager to 
climb on the bandwagon. They chose half-hearted opposition in- 
stead of the available alternative, me-tooism. A week after the 
Carey victory, the Leader maintained plausibly that the statehood 
question had not influenced 100 votes either way. 

Wyoming Democrats could not get very excited about national 
Democratic pleas for tariff reform. Nor could they defend very 
effectively against Republican assaults on Cleveland's land policies, 
particularly his holding up of land patents, more often for poor men 
than rich. Carey had the advantage of experience and the better 
ability to project his personality. 

In analyzing the election returns the Cheyenne Leader and 
Rawlins Journal focused attention on a major reason for Carey's 
victory — Republican control of the labor vote in the mining coun- 
ties. Carey won Uinta County by 837 votes, Carbon by 769, 
Sweetwater by 559. 

Beckwith, Quinn & Company controlled the hiring and firing for 
the Union Pacific mines. In Uinta County, said the Leader, Beck- 
with, Quinn & Company, at company expense, printed straight 
Democratic tickets with the single exception of the Delegate. The 
Leader and Rawlins Journal added details: Hundreds of Finns in 
Uinta and Sweetwater Counties voted as they were told, taking the 
ticket offered them and presenting it as their ballot. Carbon pre- 
cinct in Carbon County cast 909 votes with an average Republican 
majority of 400. Even the Republican editor J. H. Hayford rec- 
ognized publicly the influence of Beckwith, Quinn & Company.^ 



1. While there can be little doubt that Beckwith, Quinn & Company 
helped Carey in 1888. the Leader's assertion that the Company printed 
straight Democratic tickets except for Carey is suspect because one Repub- 
lican was returned to the Legislature by Uinta County that year, along with 
three Democrats. 



WYOMING STATEHOOD /i\0>^ 1 1 

No doubt certain reprehensible practices were prevalent in Wyo- 
ming and elsewhere in the days before the Australian secret ballot 
was adopted in 1890. The Cheyenne Sun after the 1882 election 
had reported frauds by both parties — emigrants being taken from 
trains to vote; men voting more than once, using assumed names; 
15 -year-old girls voting; and men publicly buying votes at the 17th 
Street polling place. 

Charles A. Guernsey, who was elected to the House in 1884 and 
to the Senate in 1886, has published a description of some of the 
unusual features of Wyoming elections as he observed them in 
Laramie County before the Australian ballot brought changes. - 
After the party conventions, enterprising individuals of both parties 
printed tickets, selecting candidates from the major tickets. Each 
person, society, lodge, union or company printing such a ticket, 
claimed to control a certain number of votes. A candidate could 
get on such a ticket by paying the ticket sponsor so much for each 
vote the sponsor claimed to control, or in some cases on merit 
alone if the sponsor approved him. Such printed tickets were 
accepted at the polls. Guernsey recalled that in 1884, he paid the 
Union Pacific master mechanic for the 400 votes he claimed to 
control. 

On December 11, 1888, Moonlight sent Secretary of the Interior 
Vilas a statement in which he revised radically downward his pre- 
vious estimates of Wyoming's population. He recalled that Gov- 
ernor Warren had estimated a population of 65,000 in his 1885 
report and 75,000 in his 1886 report; and that he (Moonlight) had 
estimated 85,000 in 1887 and 85,000 again in his report of Sep- 
tember 19, 1888. Now, less than three months later. Moonlight 
cut the estimate back to 55,500. He based the revision on an 
analysis of the November 6 election in which a full turnout cast 
only 18,008 votes for Delegate. Allowing three persons for each 
voter, and guessing that perhaps 500 legal voters did not vote, he 
arrived at the figure 55,500. As later events were to prove, this 
was remarkably accurate. Coming as it did, however, when the 
Republicans were hot for statehood. Moonlight's supplementary re- 
port evoked partisan derision. It smelled like a sour-grapes re- 
action to the Republican victory. 

Even Democrats thought the Governor looked foolish. Hitherto 
his champion, the Cheyenne Leader asked December 22, 1888, 
whether the Governor might not have employed himself to better 
advantage in some other way. Placing his low estimate of popula- 
tion before the whole country (it was well publicized), at a time 
when high estimates were the rule for all other territories, could 
only serve, said the Leader, to retard immigration. Editor Carroll 



2. Charles A. Guernsey, Wyoming Cowboy Days, pp. 97-102. 



12 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

related that for many months he had been shaking his head over 
Moonhght's pubHc poHcy and general behavior, but had withheld 
criticism out of party loyalty, knowing that his days were limited. 
The supplementary population report was too much even for Car- 
roll. He wished Wyoming "no better Christmas gift than the 
assurance of Governor Moonlight's immediate and precipitate 
removal." The Rock Springs Miner and the Rawlins Journal seem 
to have been the only newspapers willing to say a good word for 
Moonlight's gratuitous supplementary report. 

The A^^M' York World in January, 1889, published the results of 
interviews with prominent citizens of Wyoming on the subject of 
statehood. With the exception of Editor Carroll, who still main- 
tained that the Territory was not yet ready, all others interviewed 
favored statehood as soon as possible. Soon thereafter even Car- 
roll began to look more favorably on statehood. The closing of a 
contract between the Cheyenne City Council and the Union Pacific 
Railroad in January, 1889, calling for the construction by the 
Union Pacific of large shops and a general supply depot at Chey- 
enne in return for City promises of free water and two viaducts 
to be built by the City, caused Carroll to revise upward his estimate 
of the Territory's economic strength. In March he wrote: "The 
Leader has never frantically raved for statehood, but it believes the 
time is now rapidly approaching when the honor must come to 
Wyoming." Thereafter he did not oppose statehood. 

An anonymous attack on Governor Francis E. Warren, sent 
from Cheyenne and published in the New York Times in April, 
1889, charging him with being a fencer of government land, and a 
tool of the Union Pacific and the cattle barons, was generally con- 
demned in Wyoming. Thousands turned out for Warren's inaugu- 
ration on a wet, muddy day, April 9. The inaugural address was 
mainly a plea for statehood. Warren argued that increased ex- 
penses would be offset by greater revenues. "Let us have state- 
hood," he urged, promising rapid growth and development once 
admission to the Union had been accomplished. 

THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION.^ 

Governor Warren arranged for a constitutional convention in 
Cheyenne in September, 1889. Fifty-five delegates had been 
elected July 8, all of them men. This might seem rather odd in a 
territory where much was said about equality of the sexes. Yet it 
is consistent with the failure to elect any woman to a Territorial 
Legislature. 



3. Major source for the discussion which follows is the Journal and 
Debates of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Wyoming (Chey- 
enne, 1893). See the "Sources" section at the end of this volume for a dis- 
cussion of other materials used in preparing this chapter. 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 13 

Of the 55 delegates elected in July only 49 put in an appearance 
at the convention. Brief biographies of 47 members of the con- 
vention are available in Mrs. Erwin's Wyoming Historical Blue 
Book. Among the 47 there were 18 lawyers, 13 veterans of the 
Union Army and one veteran of the Confederate Army (Caleb 
"Honest Perry" Organ). Only three of the 47 had been born in 
the South, eight in Ohio, seven in Pennsylvania, four in New York, 
four in Illinois, six in New England, and six outside the United 
States — one each in England, Scotland, Wales, Denmark, Germany 
and Canada. The origins of the convention members correspond 
rather closely to the origins of the Territory's population as a 
whole. New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois led the states in 
supplying Wyoming's 1890 population. Only four per cent of 
Wyoming's 1890 population had been born in the South; only 94 
men were Confederate veterans as compared with 1,171 Union 
veterans. 

Laramie lawyer Melville C. Brown,* who was elected president 
of the convention, later wrote that the "convention represented all 
the business interests of the State — bankers, stockgrowers, mer- 
chants, farmers, gold miners, coal miners, railroaders and lawyers." 
The lawyers should have been at the head, not bottom, of the list 
for they dominated the convention. They did most of the talking, 
especially eight of them: Brown from Laramie; A. C. Campbell, 
E. S. N. Morgan, Charles N. Potter, and John A. Riner of Chey- 
enne; Clarence D. Clark of Evanston; Charles Burritt of Buffalo; 
and George C. Smith of Rawlins. 

Contributing substantially to the debates were these six non- 



4. Melville C. Brown was born in Maine in 1838, went to California in 
1856, and then to Boise, Idaho, in 1863. He turned up in Cheyenne and 
began to practice law in November, 1867. From Cheyenne he moved to 
Laramie in May, 1868, where he served as first mayor. In 1871-1872, as 
penitentiary commissioner, he was investigated on charges that he had 
rigged the contract letting for the construction of the Territorial penitentiary. 
The contract which he had awarded to a friend was cancelled (Department 
of the Interior Files, National Archives, Wyoming Territory, Wyoming 
Penitentiary 1871-72, "Charges concerning Superintendent of Construc- 
tion"). In 1884 the Territorial supreme court suspended for a time Brown's 
license to practice before the court. After losing a case, Brown had applied 
to the court, it was charged, "vile, opprobrious, and indecent epithets." 
GOP bellwether F. E. Warren disliked Brown. He wrote to J. M. Carey 
March 13, 1889 (Warren Letterbooks) : ". . . Personally, I would rather 
crawl on my hands and knees in the gutter a block in Cheyenne, than to see 
even the worst of our three democratic judges replaced by either Brown, 
Morgan or Seevers. . . ." Nevertheless Warren in 1900 approved (but per- 
haps to get him out of Wyoming) Brown's appointment by President Mc- 
Kinley to a judgeship in Alaska. In 1905 President Theodore Roosevelt 
dismissed Brown from the judgeship for having engaged in a water power 
venture. (C/. Jeannette P. Nichols, Alaska [Cleveland, 1924], p. 237 and 
footnote 443). After practicing law for a few years in Seattle, Brown 
returned to practice once again in Laramie, where he died in 1928. 



14 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

lawyers: George W. Baxter, Cheyenne cattleman and former 
Territorial Governor; Henry A. Coffeen, Sheridan merchant; 
George W. Fox, Laramie merchant; Henry G. Hay. Cheyenne 
cattleman and banker; John W. Hoyt, President of the University 
of Wyoming and former Governor of the Territory; and Hubert E. 
Teschemacher, Uva and Cheyenne cattleman. AH of these four- 
teen leaders of the convention had been brought up and trained in 
the States somewhere east of Wyoming. Nine of them had enjoyed 
formal education beyond the high school.'' There were four Dem- 
ocrats — Campbell, Burritt, Baxter and Coffeen — and ten Republi- 
cans among the fourteen convention leaders. 

Some members of the convention contributed little or nothing. 
A case in point is Stephen W. Downey, highly respected member 
from Laramie, who would no doubt have been a leader in the con- 
vention had he attended regularly. It was later said on one hand 
that the illness of his father kept him away, and on the other that he 
was miffed over committee assignments. 

In the election for president of the convention, after C. D. Clark 
of Evanston declined to be a candidate, the Republicans divided 
their votes between two other lawyers, A. B. Conaway of Sweet- 
water County and Melville C. Brown of Albany County, permitting 
the Democrats to tip the balance in favor of Brown. Appropriately 
Brown presided without partisanship. 

Pressure of time was obvious. Tempers were short now and 
then. On the 24th day the Cheyenne lawyer A. C. Campbell 
apologized for having lost his temper eleven days before, and asked 
that his language be expunged from the record. His apology was 
accepted and the record was changed. Fifty-one years later the 
Laramie newspaper man W. E. Chaplin, also a member of the 
convention, recalled the incident in a talk before the Cheyenne 
Rotary Club. It was, he said, "the only fireworks of a somewhat 
prosy convention." Campbell had said that he was for woman 
suffrage but believed it should be submitted to the people separate- 
ly. Henry A. Coffeen of Sheridan questioned Campbell's motives. 
As white as a sheet Campbell rose and shouted: "Any man who 
impugns my motives on the floor of this convention lies, away 
down in the bottom of his old throat." Possibly Chaplin had a 
copy of the original record; otherwise his memory of the exact 
words expunged can hardly be trusted. Chaplin recalled that 



5. Clark at the University of Iowa; Potter and Riner at the University 
of Michigan; Burritt at Middlebury; Brown at the Detroit Law School; 
Baxter at the University of Tennessee and West Point; Hoyt at Ohio Wes- 
leyan, Cincinnati Law School, Ohio Medical College and Eclectic Medical 
Institute; Coffeen at Abingdon College in Illinois; Hay at Vincennes Uni- 
versity in Indiana and a commercial college; and Teschemacher at Harvard. 
Campbell. Morgan and Smith had learned their law in offices of other 
lawyers. 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 15 

fortunately Coffeen was peace-loving, and so a personal encounter 
was avoided. 

Ironically this most violent personal quarrel of the convention 
was between two Democrats. On the day after Campbell's apology 
an "Address to the People of Wyoming" was adopted, which in- 
cluded the statement that the convention was nonpartisan in char- 
acter and without division upon party lines. The "Address" said 
further that sectional questions were at no time considered, and no 
outside influences were permitted to affect action. Despite these 
protestations a close reading of the Journals suggests that the mem- 
bers could not divest themselves entirely of partisanship, that 
north-versus-south sectionalism was present in mild form, and that 
lobbyists were on hand. Often overlooked in assessing influences 
from outside the convention were Governor Warren, Delegate 
Carey, Willis Van Devanter and Elwood Mead, who were often 
consulted and whom convention member W. E. ChapUn in 1934 
called "an invisible delegation of extraordinary power." 

PROCEDURE. 

The convention early chose nineteen standing committees of 
ten, seven or five members. Five ma'or committees had ten mem- 
bers each, with, insofar as possible, one member from each of the 
ten counties. The five major committees dealt with ( 1 ) legislative 
department, (2) judiciary, (3) boundaries and apportionment, 
(4) taxation, revenue and public debt, and (5) railroads and tele- 
graphs. 

In convention debate the Cheyenne lawyer John A. Riner once 
complained that "members of the committees take out this and that 
from the different state constitutions without taking into considera- 
tion for a moment whether they affect the local conditions we have 
or not." On the other hand, former Governor George W. Baxter 
justified borrowing by arguing that the ablest men in past ages had 
formulated the fundamental principles of liberty, justice and equal- 
ity in such clear and concise language that "it seems to me, there- 
fore, that so far as nine-tenths of our labor is concerned, we have 
only to exercise an intelligent and discriminating judgment in our 
study of the work of the constitution builders who have preceded 
us." 

Baxter's philosophy prevailed. How else could the constitution 
have been produced, in 25 working days, except by the scissor-and- 
paste method? Heavy borrowing from earlier constitutions has 
been the standard practice in state constitution making. 

The Wyoming Convention at the outset was presented with a 
model constitution. It has been drawn up by former Territorial 
Chief Justice J. W. Fisher and was presented to the convention by 
E. S. N. Morgan, former Territorial Secretary, who was a member 
of the convention. After some debate the convention decided to 



16 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



distribute the model constitution's parts to the several appropriate 
committees. What, if any, influence Judge Fisher had on the final 
product cannot be determined. 

The convention apparently had access in the Territorial Library 
to the constitutions of all states already in the Union. Five Terri- 
tories not yet admitted had recently held conventions — North 
Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington and Idaho. Gov- 
ernor Warren's correspondence shows that he wrote for, and ob- 
tained, copies of their constitutions just before the Cheyenne 
convention. 

The debates include references to the constitutions of Colorado, 
Kansas, Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, Texas and 
Washington, but the greatest obligation of the Wyoming Consti- 
tution's makers appears to have been to the constitutions of North 
Dakota, Montana and Idaho. 

A section-by-section comparison of the Wyoming Constitution 
with the Constitutions of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana 
and Idaho leads to the conclusion that Wyoming's Article III 
(Legislative Department) was borrowed for the most part from 
the Montana Constitution; Wyoming's Article V (Judicial Depart- 
ment ) appears to have been borrowed substantially from the 
Constitution of North Dakota; and Wyoming's Article XIX (Mis- 
cellaneous), Article XX (Amendments) and Article XXI (Sched- 
ule) resemble closely articles in the Idaho Constitution. 




Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 
ELWOOD MEAD E. A. SLACK 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 17 

MAJOR ISSUES IN THE CONSTITUTION. 

While the Wyoming Constitution shows heavy obligation to 
several earlier constitutions, decisions had to be made as to what 
to borrow and what changes to make in wording. The debates 
show substantial differences of opinion on several important issues. 

Some of the members wanted to make it easy to organize new 
counties. They did not want to have to travel great distances to 
reach the county seat. On voice votes, attempts to raise the com- 
mittee's recommendation of a $2,000,000 valuation for a new 
county to two and a half or three million dollars were defeated. 
The go-slow members made it necessary for the old county to be 
left with a valuation of at least $3,000,000. They also provided 
that a majority of the qualified electors of the area to be separated 
must approve before the new county could be established. 

Another issue over which there was much argument was whether 
there should be a supreme court separate from the district courts. 
The Territorial arrangement had been to combine the two. The 
Territory had three district judges who now and then sat together 
as a supreme court. In the first stage of this dispute all of the 
lawyers wanted a separate supreme court. "I believe it has been 
said that the lawyers in this convention have been talking too 
much," said Campbell of Cheyenne, but he could not resist talking 
at length in favor of a separate supreme court. Under the territor- 
ial system, he argued, an appeal is taken to a court one-third of 
whose members is already against you. "What show has the 
defeated party got?" he asked. 

The Harvard-trained cattleman Teschemacher asked if the three 
supreme court judges would not have a "soft snap" while the 
district judges were overworked. Lawyer Conaway conceded that 
this might be true at the outset, but pointed out that as a partial 
offset the committee had planned to give supreme court judges 
original jurisdiction in certain matters. 

Lawyer Smith of Rawlins asked: "What is the matter of a few 
thousand dollars compared with the rights of life and liberty?" 
He conceded, however, that were it not for the vast amount of 
travel required of the district judges "one judge could do all the 
business and not be constantly employed." In committee of the 
whole, the lawyers won approval for a separate supreme court by 
a vote of 13-8. 

When the judiciary department file came up for final reading, 
however, public opinion had been brought to bear on the conven- 
tion, and lawyer Potter of Cheyenne had changed his mind. His 
amendment, to eliminate the separate supreme court, lost narrowly, 
17 to 2L The debate over what kind of supreme court to have 
showed clearly that many members of the convention were ser- 
iously concerned about the costs of statehood. Economy was the 
watchword in the convention, although most of the lawyers be- 



18 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

lieved so strongly in a separate supreme court that they would not 
give it up. 

Before the judicial section of the Constitution was completed, 
two other problems took time. How much should the judges be 
paid? The convention left judges' salaries to the Legislature after 
debating whether the constitution should fix the salary at $2,500 
or $3,000. What should the minimum age be? Some thought 35, 
but the convention agreed on 30 for supreme court judges and 28 
for district judges. A 30-year-old Lander lawyer, Preston, a 
Democrat, argued that there weren't three Democratic lawyers in 
the state who were 35 years of age, and Democratic lawyers would 
soon be needed, he said, for the supreme court. 

Lawyer A. C. Campbell of Cheyenne tossed a bombshell into 
the convention on its 1 4th day when he moved that woman suffrage 
be offered to the electors as a separate article. No one of any 
standing in the Territory had found fault with woman suffrage since 
the 1 87 1 Legislature. Yet a group of Cheyenne people had handed 
Campbell a petition asking for a separate vote. In proposing a 
separate vote Campbell insisted that he personally favored woman 
suffrage. He said that opponents of woman suffrage had often 
told him that the people had never been given an opportunity to 
vote on the proposition, and that the Legislature had always been 
afraid to submit the question to popular vote. He believed that the 
people should have a chance to vote on the matter before it became 
the fundamental law of the new state. He thought that woman 
suffrage would be approved by a two-thirds vote. 

Campbell's proposal called forth eloquent pleas against a sep- 
arate vote from Baxter ("I yield to no man in the homage and 
adoration which I feel and which upon all proper occasions I 
gladly pay to a pure and lovely woman."), Coffeen ('T am un- 
willing to stand here and by vote or word or gesture disfranchise 
one-half the people of our territory, and that the better half. . . . 
Let us catch inspiration from the glorious features of nature about 
us, the grand valleys, the lifting mountains, the reverberating hills, 
the floating clouds so lovely above them. . . ."), Holden ("I say 
rather than surrender that right, we would rather remain in a 
territorial condition throughout the endless cycles of time."), M. C. 
Brown ("I would sooner think ... of submitting to the people of 
Wyoming a separate and distinct proposition as to whether a male 
citizen of the territory shall be entitled to vote."), Hoyt ("No man 
has ever dared to say in the territory of Wyoming that woman 
suffrage is a failure. We stand today proud, proud of this great 
experiment. . . . Why then this extraordinary proposition? ... I 
know that one-half of the members of the congress of the United 
States are in sympathy with this very principle. . . ."), and Burritt 
("If they will not let us in with this plank in our constitution we 
will stay out forever."). 

Campbell was not completely alone. Palmer of Sweetwater 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 19 

County finally rose to support his proposition, stating that there 
were many voters in his county who were opposed to woman suf- 
frage but who would like to have statehood. They would not vote 
for the constitution with woman suffrage in it. Conaway, who was 
also from Sweetwater County, denied that many of his constituents 
desired a separate vote. On the vote in the committee of the whole, 
eight votes were cast in support of Campbell's proposition, 20 
against. 

Long-winded argument preceded adoption of Teschemacher's 
provision that unless handicapped by physical disability, one must 
be able to read the Constitution to vote. Teschemacher explained 
that four earlier constitutions contained similar provisions. Despite 
spirited opposition, the educational test was included in the Con- 
stitution, with all residents who had voted before admission being 
assured that they would not be disfranchised. 

Debate raged furiously over the question of apportionment ot 
seats in the Senate. Without very much difficulty the seats in the 
House of Representatives were distributed according to population, 
but members of the less populous counties fought for equality in 
the Senate. They praised the federal plan by which each state of 
the union has equal representation in the U. S. Senate. They ar- 
gued that in the past the "little" counties had been "prayed upon" 
by the larger counties. 

Potter and Morgan of Laramie County led the attack on the 
federal plan. Potter rejected the federal analogy, insisting that the 
relation of a county to a state is not the same as the relation of a 
state to the U. S. government. A county, he said, is "Simply a 
medium by which a state conducts its business." Counties have no 
independence whereas states under the U. S. Constitution have 
reserved powers. True democracy, he maintained, required that 
every man count for as much as any other man, and that the legis- 
lature shall represent everyone equally. Morgan argued along the 
same line, "I ought to have as much right in the . . . enactment of 
laws for the government as the man who lives in a smaller county." 

Preston of Fremont County taunted Potter and Morgan, suggest- 
ing that they were afraid that the capital would be moved away 
from Cheyenne. 

Baxter of Laramie County (with interests also in Fremont and 
Johnson Counties) rejected the one-Senator idea, calling it as 
extraordinary as it would be to propose that each county should 
contribute the same amount to the general fund. He asked what 
justice there could be in permitting a man from the north to have 
five or ten times as much say as a man in the south. 

Palmer and Conaway of Sweetwater County, often at odds, were 
in agreement on this question, both holding that it would be unfair 
to give Sheridan County, with one-third the valuation and one-half 
the population of Sweetwater County, equal representation in the 
Senate with their county. 



20 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Had delegates from the five Union Pacific counties united on the 
issue it would have been no contest since they had more than twice 
as many delegates as the five northern counties. The Union Pacific 
delegations, however, did not present a united front. President 
Brown (Albany County) could see no need for two houses if the 
principle of representation in proportion to population were adopt- 
ed. He preferred a two-house legislature with the smaller house so 
constructed that it would be a check on the will of the popular 
majority in the other house. He considered the federal plan of 
representation to be "the happiest compromise that ever came to 
man." 

John W. Hoyt, like Brown, supported the idea of one Senator 
per county in the belief that it would best promote the welfare of 
the state. He thought it desirable to have a differently constituted 
Senate so that it could serve as a check on the House. Holden of 
Uinta County likened the House of Representatives to a cup of tea 
and the Senate to a saucer, explaining "You have use for the saucer 
for the purpose of cooling the beverage." 

As the showdown vote approached, the presiding officer ordered 
lobbyists to keep off the floor of the Convention. Southern dele- 
gations were worried because some of their members had gone 
home. Enough southern members who opposed the one-Senator 
idea remained, however, on the 19th day to defeat it, 17-1 1; so 16 
senators were provided for the ten counties. On the same day 
what was regarded by many as a "sop" to Sheridan, Johnson and 
Converse Counties was provided in the form of one additional 
House seat for each of them. Thus the total in the House was 
increased from 30 to 33. The ten counties therefore received rep- 
resentation as follows: Laramie County, three Senators and six 
Representatives. Albany and Carbon Counties, each two Senators 
and five Representatives. Sweetwater and Uinta Counties, each 
two Senators and three Representatives. Converse County, one 
Senator and three Representatives. Crook, Fremont, Johnson and 
Sheridan Counties each one Senator and two Representatives. 

M. C. Brown, president of the convention, led a drive to place a 
tonnage tax on coal in the Constitution. It was generally supposed 
that coal would be the state's major source of wealth. Nearly two- 
thirds of current production, Brown estimated, was shipped out of 
the Territory. The consumers would pay such a tax, argued 
Brown. He could see no reason why those who benefited from 
Wyoming coal should not help support the government. 

Brown stated that coal lands and coal corporations paid only 1.5 
per cent of the property tax, even though the coal business was the 
largest industry in the Territory. Coal interests, he said, contrib- 
uted only $ 1 ,250 per year toward the support of the Territorial 
government, at a time when it cost the Territory more than $3,000 
each year to pay a coal inspector and coal engineer. Brown 
thought that a tax of n/2 cents on each ton (one cent to the state 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 21 

and one-half cent to the county where mined) would pay half the 
expenses of the state government, and would not be unjust. 

Brown's principal antagonist was C. D. Clark of Evanston, who 
had been an attorney for the Union Pacific, and admitted that he 
was part owner of a coal mining enterprise at Rock Springs. Clark 
expressed concern lest the state find itself with a surplus every year: 
"Do you want to have a provision in our constitution that may heap 
up more money than we can honestly spend for a state govern- 
ment . . .?" Clark must have been expecting a great increase in 
production. In the late 1880s annual production amounted to 
about 2,000,000 tons. At that rate, one cent per ton would bring 
the state only $20,000 in a year, hardly a frightening amount of 
revenue. 

Clark could see no justice in placing a special tax on coal that 
did not apply to other minerals. "Why," he asked, "single out this 
infant industry . . .?" He argued that coal would not be raised in 
price to meet the tax; the burden would fall either on the mining 
company or on the miner. Another coal mine owner, John G. 
Hay, Cheyenne banker, also objected to making the "infant coal 
industry" subject to a direct tax not imposed on the output of other 
mines. 

Coffeen of Sheridan, like Brown, argued that coal lands were 
not paying their just share. He agreed that, generally speaking, 
there should be no discrimination, but coal mines were already 
developed while other mines were not. Hence the tax should be 
applied first to coal mines. 

Baxter of Cheyenne scoffed at the suggestion that the tax would 
bring a great surplus to the treasury. He explained that a coal 
mine is different from an acre of farm land which with proper care 
will be worth as much in 50 years as it is now while the mine will 
become worthless when the coal is exhausted. He thought a pro- 
duction tax justifiable on coal, "as near a proper basis for taxing 
it as you can reach," but felt that it was best to leave it to the 
Legislature. 

Brown wanted the tax in the Constitution to remove it from the 
influence of lobbyists : "As you have seen in the past men elected 
to our legislature wearing the brass collars of the great railroad 
corporation, you will see just such men wear the brass collars of the 
great monied mining corporations." Brown looked forward to 
having the coal industry produce $100,000 annually in revenue, 
almost enough to pay expenses of the state government. He 
warned that without such a tax little would be collected from the 
land before its wealth was exhausted "and you have nothing left 
but a howling wilderness." 

Palmer of Sweetwater County warned that Uinta, Sweetwater 
and Carbon Counties would not support the Constitution if a 
tonnage tax on coal was included. The controversial production 
tax on minerals was left to the Legislature. Many years later. 



22 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

speaking to a group of Cheyenne pioneers on "Constitution Mak- 
ing," M. C. Brown declared that "the most serious mistake in our 
Constitution was lack of legislation, failure to fix a tonnage tax 
upon the output of coal mined in our State being perhaps one of 
the gravest omissions/' 

The Territorial Legislature had already located several institu- 
tions. Most of the convention delegates, however, were unwilling 
to locate the institutions permanently by constitutional provision. 
Although Evanston had one of the institutions, Clarence D. Clark 
of that city opposed the permanent location of any public building 
or institution "in any one place." Coffeen of Sheridan was con- 
cerned not to locate the University permanently. Brown of Lara- 
mie objected to what he considered an attempt to put "the Uni- 
versity on wheels, to be wheeled around anywhere they may 
please at any time." He would accept location of the institutions 
for a term of years, but did not want the Legislature free to relocate 
them at any time, as dictated by logrolling. He offered the opinion 
that "there has been more corruption in legislation, more corrupt 
trades, more infamous deals instituted in legislative bodies on the 
location of these public institutions than has ever occurred in the 
legislature in any other way." Preston of Lander thought it "a 
good idea to put these buildings on wheels. When we become a 
state we want to wheel them up into the central part of the state." 

Riner suggested that other constitutions generally located insti- 
tutions for a term of years, after which they might be changed by 
vote of the people. He doubted that the University would ever be 
moved, but he felt that it would be wrong to locate any public 
institution except for a term of years. His views prevailed, and the 
convention placed in the Constitution the provision that institutions 
should be located permanently by popular vote after ten years. 

What little originality there is in Wyoming's Constitution is 
mainly concentrated in Article VIII (Irrigation and Water Rights). 
This article comprises only five short sections: 

SECTION 1 . The water of all natural streams, springs, lakes or 
other collections of still water, within the boundaries of the State, 
are hereby declared to be the property of the State. 

SECTION 2. There shall be constituted a board of control, to 
be composed of the State engineer and superintendents of the 
water divisions; which shall, under such regulations as may be 
prescribed by law, have the supervision of the waters of the State 
and of their appropriation, distribution and diversion, and of the 
various officers connected therewith. Its decisions to be subject 
to review by the Courts of the State. 

SECTION 3. Priority of appropriation for beneficial uses shall 
give the better right. No appropriation shall be denied except 
when such denial is demanded by the public interests. 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 23 

SECTION 4. The legislature shall by law divide the State into 
four (4) water divisions, and provide for the appointment of 
superintendents thereof. 

SECTION 5. There shall be a State engineer who shall be 
appointed by the governor of the State and confirmed by the 
senate; he shall hold his office for the term of six (6) years, or 
until his successor shall have been appointed and shall have 
qualified. He shall be president of the board of control, and 
shall have general supervision of the waters of the State and of 
the officers connected with its distribution. No person shall be 
appointed to this position who has not such theoretical knowl- 
edge and such practical experience and skill as shall fit him for 
the position. 

Wyoming did not originate the idea of recognizing water rights 
according to priority of appropriation for beneficial use. Cali- 
fornia and Colorado had pioneered in breaking with the English 
common law of waters, which gave all who had land along a stream 
the rights to a "full and undiminished flow." Earlier still, appro- 
priations had been permitted under Mexican sovereignty. Wyo- 
ming's major contribution lay in adopting a complete system for 
state control of water. Wyoming's achievement was such that 
William E. Smythe wrote in 1900 in his Conquest of Arid America: 
"It [Wyoming] is recognized as the law-giver of the arid region. 
It is the State which has contributed most to the working out of the 
legal institutions on which our great future civilization will rest 
throughout western America. In this respect its position of lead- 
ership is alike unapproached and unchallenged." 

Smythe's high praise for Wyoming's part in water law needs 
qualification. Later studies show that Wyoming shares with 
Colorado the leadership in working out the procedures which have 
been copied by other Western states.^ 

Three men were mainly responsible for drawing up Article 
VIII — Elwood Mead, Territorial engineer, and two convention 
members, J. A. Johnston, Laramie County farmer, and Charles H. 
Burritt, Johnson County lawyer. 

Mead, who had come to Wyoming in 1888 as the first Territorial 
engineer, had learned quickly the deficiencies of existing water 
laws. By the time of the constitutional convention he knew what 
reforms he would like to institute. Johnston was chairman of the 
committee on irrigation and water rights. Burritt was an extra- 
ordinarily effective spokesman for the committee in convention 



6. Cf. particularly Wells A. Hutchins, Selected Problems in the Law of 
Water Rights in the West (Washington, 1942), pp. 64-109. 



24 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

debate. When their report first reached the convention floor, 
Burritt made a claim, unique in the debates, that the report "In 
some respects ... is radical and different from anything that any 
state or territory in the union now has." 

Conaway stated that others must have thought when he said, 
apropos the claim that all water belongs to the state: "We may be 
claiming more than we are rightly and legally entitled to." He 
added: "I suppose it is true . . . that we cannot lose anything by 
claiming too much." 

Burritt read from a Mead report to illustrate some of the evils of 
the Territorial irrigation system. The district court, for example, 
had allowed the Carey Horse Creek ditch No. 8 to take twenty 
cubic feet of water for 190 acres when one cubic foot was adequate 
for 50 or 60 acres. 

There was much discussion about whether appropriation meant 
diverting water from a stream, the beginning of work to divert the 
water, or the appUcation of water to land. President Brown in 
support of Burritt argued that the definition of appropriation 
should be left to the courts. 

President Brown thought the right acquired by appropriation 
should be qualified or limited in some way. Elliott agreed and 
moved an amendment that after "Priority of appropriation shall 
give the better right," should be added "but shall not be conclusive 
in determining the better right." His amendment was lost, 13-19. 
When a further assault was made on the right of appropriation, 
Burritt pleaded eloquently for its retention. President Brown, who 
was not convinced, insisted that it was contradictory to say first 
that the state owns the water and then that priority of appropriation 
shall give the better right. Brown on the final vote could get only 
one supporter, Smith of Carbon County. 

On the 24th day John W. Hoyt offered a proposition which 
caused the last significant split in the convention. He moved that 
"The legislature shall make such provision by law as shall be cal- 
culated to secure the best faithful service for all minor places in the 
state, county and municipal government, regardless of considera- 
tions purely political." Hoyt explained that he had no connection 
with the civil service reform movement but was merely interested in 
securing the best public service possible. C. D. Clark rose to 
describe civil service reform as "a delusion and a snare, a lot of 
political clap trap which does not accomplish the end sought at all." 
Burritt said "amen." Sutherland chimed in that civil service was 
"one of the greatest frauds that ever was." Even when a pretense 
was made of finding the "best" man, he noticed that he "is always 
the man who had the boodle." "I am a mugwump and am proud 
of it," injected Teschemacher. He alone supported Hoyt in debate, 
although when it came to a vote the proposal was defeated only 
21-11. 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 25 

THE CONSTITUTION IS APPROVED. 

On the 25th day on a roll call vote the Constitution was adopted, 
37-0, and each member present signed the document.^ The Lara- 
mie County delegation that night was host to the other members of 
the convention at a banquet at the Cheyenne Club, after which the 
members dispersed to their homes. Aided by an "Address to the 
People," which had been prepared by a convention committee, 
they undertook to win popular approval for the Constitution. 

At a special election on November 5, 1889, the electorate ap- 
proved the Constitution by a vote of 6,272 to 1,923. It was a 
disappointingly small turnout considering that at the general elec- 
tion the year before 18,008 votes had been cast. Sheridan County 
voted against the Constitution, Johnson County favored it by a 
majority of only 44 votes, and Fremont County was less than 
enthusiastic, but the other seven counties supported the document, 
two-to-one or better. 

Following the ratification a convention committee presented a 
memorial to Congress, "Praying for the Admission of Wyoming 
into the Union of States." Delegate Joseph M. Carey then intro- 
duced a Wyoming statehood bill in the House of Representatives, 
and others introduced two omnibus bills including Wyoming. 

While they waited for Congress to act on their request for state- 
hood, the people of Wyoming watched their last Territorial Legis- 
lature, which assembled in January, 1890, engage in a slugfest 
such as occurs occasionally when the Senate is at odds with the 
Governor. The voters in November, 1888, had returned a Repub- 
lican House (17-6) and a Democratic Senate (7-5). The mem- 
bers were handicapped by lack of experience. Territorial legis- 
lators rarely sought re-election, finding their service poorly paid 
and thankless, and finding it hard to spare the time from their 
occupations. Only four of the legislators who met in January, 
1890, had been members before: R. M. Galbraith and Alexander 
H. Reel in the Council, and Thomas B. Adams and Stephen W. 
Downey in the House. 

The new wings on the capitol building were ready for occupancy, 
so there was no space problem. Governor Warren's 10,000-word 
message was comprehensive and discreetly cautious in view of the 
Democratic Council. The Leader described the message as 
"absolutely colorless" and lacking in leadership and said: "When 
he ventures an inch beyond absolutely safe grounds he makes use 
of recommendations in the reports of territorial officials ... or to 
work of the constitutional convention." 

As usual, livestock men were prominent in the 1890 Legislature. 



7. The original copy of the Constitution is preserved in the Wyoming 
State Museum, Cheyenne. 



26 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The Cheyenne Sun counted five stock raisers in the Council and 
nine in the House. W. Turrentine Jackson has counted eight mem- 
bers of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association among the 12 
members of the Council (although three of the eight were not active 
ranchers). The stock interests overcame an effort in the House 
to do away with the Board of Live Stock Commissioners, and were 
able to push through a $10,000 appropriation in aid of the stock 
commission's work. House member Thomas B. Adams, secretary 
of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association, represented the cattle- 
men effectively. 

"The watchword of the legislature should be Retrenchment." 
said the Leader, and it was. The 1886 and 1888 Legislatures had 
spent so much for institutions that the bonded debt was at the limit 
of $320,000, and the property tax had been pushed up to six mills. 
Economic conditions were not good, and few people would approve 
a higher mill levy. The Legislature did no more than the absolute 
minimum for the institutions. To complete the $100,000 peni- 
tentiary buildings at Rawlins, $70,000 was required, but nothing 
was appropriated (the federal penitentiary at Laramie was still 
adequate). Small wonder that Johnson County's request for a 
college of agriculture, Crook County's request for a normal school, 
and Sweetwater's request for a hospital were all turned down. 

The Democratic majority in the Council treated Governor War- 
ren much as the Republican majority in the Council had treated 
Governor Moonlight two years earlier. The Council refused to 
approve several of Warren's appointments. It was contended that 
the incumbent Democratic auditor and treasurer should be reap- 
pointed since it seemed unwise to replace them with inexperienced 
men for only a few months of service, statehood being expected 
very soon. To climax their battle with the Governor, the Demo- 
crats in the Council balked at a $1,200 contingent fund item for 
the Governor and a $600 item for the Secretary of the Territory. 
Reconciliation was impossible — the two houses could not get 
together — and the Legislature adjourned without approving the 
$49,939.20 general appropriation bill. 

One noteworthy piece of legislation came out of the session — the 
Australian ballot was adopted. There had been so much discus- 
sion of voting abuses in the past year, in the constitutional conven- 
tion and elsewhere, that the secret ballot, which had been gaining 
favor in the East, was instituted. 

Within two weeks after the Legislature adjourned Delegate 
Joseph M. Carey began his battle for statehood on the floor of the 
U. S. House of Representatives. On March 26, 1890, he talked at 
great length in support of his bill.'^ He declared that Wyoming had 



8. This speech is quoted in full in Marie H. Erwin, Wyoming Historical 
Blue Book, pp. 663-703. 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 27 

10,000,000-12,000,000 acres of "irrigable land" and was "rich 
in agricultural possibilities." With respect to minerals he asserted 
that Wyoming was "unsurpassed" and was "one of nature's great 
storehouses." He dwelt at length on grazing development, forest 
resources, educational leadership, splendid institutions, significant 
postal statistics, widespread railway construction, the "model" 
Constitution and the unique place of women. 

As expected, there was skepticism about th^ Territory's popula- 
tion. Governor Moonlight in December, 1888, had estimated the 
population to be only 55,500, and Governors' estimates were usual- 
ly optimistic. In answer to a direct question on the subject Carey 
placed the population between 110,000 and 125,000, twice as 
great as the federal Census a few months later would find it to be. 
The small vote in ratification of the Constitution, he explained by 
saying that no effort was made to get out the vote, and that "The 
universal exclamation in Wyoming was that day, 'Everybody favors 
the constitution, and what is the use of voting.' " 

The House of Representatives was the major hurdle. Member 
after member rose to complain that the proceedings leading to the 
constitutional convention had been irregular, the population was 
too small, the educational qualification for voting was improper 
and woman suffrage should not be permitted. The Democrats who 
raised most of the objections probably were more distressed at the 
prospect of another Republican state than they were about woman 
suffrage, but with Republicans in control of both Houses of Con- 
gress it would hardly do to argue pubhcly against adding a Repub- 
lican state. So they talked unconvincingly about the evils of 
woman suffrage. 

When Wyoming statehood passed the House on March 26, 
1890, by a vote of 139-127, victory was virtually assured. News 
of the House action reached Wyoming the next day and brought 
a great outburst of cheering in Wyoming towns. Church bells, 
train whistles, firebells, cowbells and trumpets sounded in Chey- 
enne. All the bunting in town was displayed. A spontaneous 
parade of men and women marched to Governor Warren's place of 
business and obtained comments from him. He congratulated the 
people, especially the ladies. That evening a huge bonfire of pack- 
ing boxes blazed at the comer of 17th and Ferguson (Carey), after 
which a crowd filled the opera house to hear speeches. George W. 
Baxter explained: "It means the dawning of a brighter day, the 
beginning of an era of unparalleled prosperity. ... A tide of immi- 
gration will set in. Capital will come. . . ." Governor Warren 
assured Wyoming citizens that the U. S. Senate would act within 
ten days. Three months later on June 27 the Senate voted for 
statehood, 29-18, after listening to objections from several Demo- 
crats who gave special attention to the population question and 



28 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

woman suffrage. Again there was an impromptu parade in Chey- 
enne, with "Clanging Bells, Shrieking Whistles, Incessant Yelling." 

President Benjamin Harrison signed the statehood bill on July 
10, 1890, thus setting off a third celebration the following day. A 
drizzle dampened spirits in Cheyenne but there were the usual 
bells and whistles, accompanied this time by firecrackers and 
bombs, "and the yelling was ear splitting and incessant." A 44-gun 
salute was fired in Laramie, cannon boomed in Rock Springs, 
Douglas celebrated "Louder than ever." A dispatch from Rawlins 
announced that "Rawlins Town is wild," and another from Buffalo 
said that "the great north is delighted." 

The fourth and official celebration of statehood occurred in 
Cheyenne on July 23. Committees, with state-wide representa- 
tion, had begun preparations in March for a formal observance as 
soon as possible after the President's signature. The formal 
observance, though attended by upwards of 5,000 people, lacked 
the spontaneity and wild shrieking of the first three celebrations. 
There was a two-mile parade featuring troops and two bands (Fort 
Russell and Union Pacific). There were many carriages and 
floats. On one large float rode 42 young women representing the 
older states. This float was followed closely by a small carriage in 
which rode three little girls representing the Goddess of Liberty, the 
state of Idaho (admitted July 3 ) and the state of Wyoming. A fat 
boy in a buggy advertised that he ate ice cream, fruit and candy at 
Mrs. Robinson's parlors. A "generous looking cow" represented 
the dairy where she worked, and a fat steer, properly placarded, 
represented a livestock commission house. The parade led to the 
capitol in front of which a large throng had gathered for the prin- 
cipal program of the day. 

Mrs. Theresa A. Jenkins offered the first speech, a review of the 
struggle for woman suffrage. The Leader avowed the next day 
that her address was the most forceful and eloquent of the day, 
although conceding that at one point she was carried away by a 
"fairest and rarest flight of oratory." Fifty years later Mrs. Jen- 
kins' daughter recalled for the Wyoming State Tribune that her 
mother had been heard by everyone in the audience, which extend- 
ed to a point four blocks away, because she had practiced on the 
open prairie, with her husband in a buggy riding off to greater and 
greater distances and shouting back at intervals "Louder." 

After Mrs. Jenkins' address, Mrs. Esther Morris presented to 
Governor Warren a 44-star silk flag purchased by women of the 
state. Mrs. Morris made no attempt at an address, speaking only 
two sentences. Then, after a 44-gun salute, Mrs. I. S. Bartlett 
read an original poem, "The True Republic," the last four lines of 
which ran as follows: 



WYOMING STATEHOOD 29 

Let the bells ring out more loudly and the deep-toned cannon 

roar 
Giving voice to our thanksgiving, such as never rose before. 
For we tread enchanted ground today, we're glorious, proud 

and great; 
Our independence day has come — Wyoming is a State! 

After these stirring sentiments Melville C. Brown, president of 
the constitutional convention, presented Mrs. Amelia B. Post, 
"representative woman of Wyoming," with a copy of the State 
Constitution. 

The afternoon program ended with the oration of the day by 
Clarence D. Clark, Evanston attorney, who had been one of the 
leaders of the constitutional convention, and who later would serve 
as United States Senator. Clark seems to have been a substitute 
for Joseph M. Carey who could not be present. That evening there 
was a fireworks display and a grand ball in the capitol building. 

What may be regarded as a fifth celebration of statehood took 
place three days later when Joseph M. Carey and his family arrived 
from Washington. Again there was a parade, music and a speech, 
followed, said the Leader, by a Republican caucus in Hoffman 
Brothers' saloon. No doubt Republican politicians assembled in 
some convenient meeting place, for they needed to complete their 
plans for the state's first election, which was little more than six 
weeks away.^ 



9. One prominent Republican, W. W. Corlett, could take no part in the 
Republican caucus for he had died at the age of 48 on July 22, 1890. Since 
his arrival in Cheyenne in 1867, he had become one of the Territory's out- 
standing lawyers, being referred to on occasion as "the ablest lawyer in all 
the west," and the "dean of the Wyoming bar." He was elected Delegate to 
Congress (Republican) in 1876. After serving one term he dechned to be a 
candidate for re-election in 1878, and also turned down an offer of appoint- 
ment as chief justice of the Territory in 1879. 

Along with a good many other Republicans in other parts of the country 
he could not stand the Republican Presidential candidate in 1884 — the cor- 
rupt James G. Blaine. He turned Mugwump and made a few speeches in 
support of Blaine's opponent. Democratic Grover Cleveland. Later, in 1889 
when President Benjamin Harrison, at the instigation of Joseph M. Carey, 
was about to appoint Corlett chief justice of the Territory, W. W. Peck 
settled an old score by directing Harrison's attention to Corlett's behavior in 
1884. This made Corlett unacceptable to Harrison, who gave the judgeship 
to Carey's second choice, Willis Van Devanter. 

The premature passing of Corlett cost Wyoming the services of an out- 
standing leader. Upon his death it was said that he had been too honest and 
independent for the requirements of politics. 



Qirl MUitla of Wyoming 



This photograph of Company "H" of the Wyoming State Guard 
was taken on the steps of the State Capitol Building on July 23, 
1890. 

Company "H" of the Girl Militia was actually mustered into the 
United States Army for the Wyoming Statehood celebration: 
they were disbanded after the celebration was over. They were 
drilled for two months, their drill masters being Lieutenants Walker 
and Ruhlen of Fort D. A. Russell, now Francis E. Warren Air 
Force Base. 

Company "H", Girl Guards, were the Guard of Honor of the 
State car, a magnificent float carrying young girls dressed in red, 
white and blue representing the States in the Union, except Wyo- 
ming and Idaho, which were just being admitted as states. 

The members of Company "H" had an entertainment and dance 
to raise funds for their uniforms which were of black broadcloth 
with gold cord draped in front. The cap was the regulation 
fatigue cap; they wore white gloves. 

Members of Company "H" appearing in the picture were: ( 1 ) 
Hattie Argesheimer, Captain; (2) Emma Schilling, 1st Sergeant; 
(3) Minnie Gape; (4) Gertrude Douglas; (5) Jennie Tupper; 
(6) Mamie Thompson; (7) Mabel Tupper; (8) Levina Granger; 
(9) Bertha Wedemeyer; (10) Mattie Thompson; (11) Mamie L. 
Layden; (12) Gretchen Hermann; (13) Marcelline Rouleau; (14) 
May Oakley; (15) Minnie Thompson; (16) Maude Post; (17) 
Adah Haygood, 2nd Sergeant; (18) Maria Wedemeyer; (19) Hel- 
en Fumess, Lieutenant. Not pictured was Kittie Gordon. 

The original picture is in the files of the Wyoming State Archives 
and Historical Department, Cheyenne. No photograph of Com- 
pany "K" has been located to date. 

According to the program of the Statehood Celebration two 
companies of Girl Guards, "H" and "K" took part. In the parade 
Company "K" marched as Guard of Honor to the State Flag. 
Members were: Emma O'Brien, Captain; Gertrude Morgan, 1st 
Lieutenant; Kate Kelly, 2nd Lieutenant; Bertha Spoor, Margaret 
Cahill, Alwenie Gloye, lona Davis, Eva Smalley, Jessie Recker, 
Belle Smalley, Sadie Bristol, Ada Johnston, Margaret Moore, 
Carrie Ingraham, Edna Wilseck, Clara Newman, Bessie Vreeland, 
Jessie Lee, Mamie Goetz, Mina McGregor, Isabelle Montgomery, 
Ora Cowhick, Vilette Houghton, Josie Newman, Leah Ringolsky, 
Florence Bradley and Effie Vreeland. 



Sfccerpts from 
Zhe Cheyenm Daily Sun 

The five separate celebrations of Wyoming statehood, mentioned in the 
preceding article by Dr. T. A. Larson, were given full and enthusiastic 
coverage by the press, and The Cheyenne Daily Sun, edited by E. A. Slack, 
was representative of the newspapers of the state. Selected excerpts from 
the issues of March 28, June 28, July 11, July 24 and July 27 are reprinted 
verbatim on the following pages. 

Although Wyoming became the forty-fourth state, the reader will note 
references to the "forty-third state" and a forty-three gun salute in the stories 
written in March and June. This is explained by the fact that the Territory 
of Idaho was being considered for statehood at the same time, and Wyo- 
mingites anticipated that when the U. S. Congress approved Wyoming's 
statehood, it would be the forty-third state. However, Idaho was granted 
statehood on July 3, 1890, becoming the forty-third state in the Union, and 
statehood for Wyoming was granted on July 10. 

THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Friday, March 28, 1890 

WYOMING 



Now Certain to Be Admitted as a 
State. 



"Westward the Star of the Empire 
Wends its Way. 



How the News was Received by 
Cheyenne People. 



EVERYBODY WILD WITH DELIGHT 



A Grand Jollification Held to Cele- 
brate the Event. 



The Booming of Cannon and Re- 
ports of Guns 



Start the People in Their Patriotic 
Fun. 



"The Sun," as Usual, has a Scoop on 
the News. 



34 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Hark! What the sounds that shake old mother earth? 
Lo, 'tis the people's patriotic mirth! 
Another child of freedom has had birth. 

Another star the light of life doth fling; 
Another feather plumes the eagle's wing! 
It is the new state of Wyoming. 

To liberty another portal opes, 

Woman no more in semi bondage gropes; 

She rises now to realize her hopes. 

See! Uncle Sam is boyish in his pride; 
His head is higher, longer is his stride 
For he has won to-day a blooming bride. 

J. G. B. 

Cheyenne Wyo., March 27, 1890 

Wyoming's admittance to the sisterhood of states is now an as- 
sured fact. This information was given to the people of Cheyenne 
yesterday afternoon exclusively by THE SUN. The appearance 
on the streets of THE SUN EXTRA a few minutes after the bill 
was passed in Washington showed a spirit of enterprise on the part 
of THE SUN that was in keeping with its usual course. When 
news of this character is generally announced verbally there is a 
feeling of distrust as to its genuineness, but there was never a 
question asked as to the facts when they appeared in the manner 
they did. Early in the morning some persons started the false 
report that thirty republicans had voted against the bill and 
defeated it. This report did not find many believers but still it 
made people cautious. This caution was like confining constantly 
generating steam in a boiler and when THE SUN EXTRA ap- 
peared the fun began. 

When the glorious news was exclusively received by the editor 
of THE SUN he immediately rushed out a "SUN EXTRA" giving 
the full text of the telegram. This fell upon the city like a match 
in a keg of powder. People began rushing around the streets 
shouting the glad tidings and congratulating every person within 
reach. The remark had frequently been made that there was a 
luke-warm feeling in regard to statehood among our citizens, but 
the scenes on Cheyenne's streets yesterday were enough to convince 
even McAdoo, of New Jersey, that Cheyenne people did not lack in 
patriotism. 

In th vicinity of Mayor Riner's office the crowds seemed to 
concentrate and with one impulse started out to make a grand 
demonstration and give vent to their feelings. 

The new Union Pacific band was sent for to appear in full 
uniform and a raid was inaugurated on the stores where flags were 
on sale. The stocks of these goods were soon exhausted and a 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 35 

general hunt was instituted for flags and everything else patriotic. 
From every housetop and every flagstaff the emblems of freedom 
vv'ere profusely displayed, the majority having forty-three stars, the 
extra one being the largest and brightest. 

Business had been pretty generally suspended and everybody 
turned out on the streets with a No. 43 smile and looking for some 
means to make a louder noise than his neighbor. 

Everything was decorated, even the dogs. Pete Bergersen's dog 
"Gunner" came walking down the street armed with a large flag. 
B. B. David's dog was decorated with red shields and large stars. 
The engines which pulled out the west bound train were covered 
with flags. 

In the meantime the bell on the First Presbyterian church had 
been ringing and was followed by the fire alarm and all the steam 
whistles around the railroad. The sound at this time was further 
increased by the explosion of pack after pack of firecrackers and 
the sharp reports of shotguns and rifles. Some of the militia boys 
got out their rifles and began using up blank cartridges. Captain 
Nick O'Brien, who fired a salute when Wyoming was admitted as a 
territory, sent out to Camp Carlin for two cannon with forty-three 
rounds of amunition. These quickly arrived and were mounted in 
the vacant lot opposite Library hall. Then the heavy artillery 
opened its part in the engagement and sent roar after roar to the 
skies. 

When the band was finally secured a line of march was formed, 
headed by A. R. Whiteley and H. S. Rush, carrying a large stuffed 
eagle bearing the legends, "Uncle Sam's New Daughter" and 
"Wyoming, the forty-third state of the union." Then came an 
immense flag in charge of Messrs. Birmingham, Kepler and Buck- 
waiter of THE SUN. Under the flag were hundreds of small boys 
with tin horns and other instruments capable of generating a large 
amount of noise. Then came the band headed by Gus. Jenkins. 
A number of the ladies prominent in the suffrage movement fol- 
lowed the band. They in turn were followed by the Cheyenne gun 
club in full uniform, who kept up a continuous fusillade. After the 
gun club came a long string of citizens carrying flags, brooms, etc. 

The hne of March was taken up to the residence of Hon. J. M. 
Carey, where Postmaster Masi made a short speech apolizing for 
the absence of Mr. Carey. Hon. T. B. Adams was loudly called for 
but was unable to respond, owing to the condition of his voice, 
caused by celebrating. 

After three cheers for Mr. Carey, the line of march was then 
taken up toward Governor Warren's office. Here a halt was made 
and Mr. Warren loudly called for. A loud shout and a deafening 
volley from the gun club greeted his appearance. Governor War- 
ren was introduced to the audience as "governor of the state of 
Wyoming" and in very few words expressed his joy at being able 



36 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

to address his hearers on the present subject, He said the battle 
was a hard one but was won. In referring to the suffrage clause 
Governor Warren remarked that the faces of the ladies had been 
greatly enlarged since the receipt of the good news. Governor 
Warren's remarks received frequent applause and upon their con- 
clusion he was roundly cheered. 

Mr. Masi then announced that a meeting would be held in the 
evening and the crowds dispersed. 

EVENING FESTIVITIES. 

The base of operations for the evening's campaign was at Seven- 
teenth and Ferguson streets, where a big bonfire was started. 
Stretched across the street was a large canvas bearing the the in- 
scription: "What's the matter with Carey? The state of Wyo- 
ming." The crowds began to assemble early in the evening and 
toward 8 o'clock there was such a dense jam of people there that 
persons could move only with difficulty. A few minutes after 8 
the line was again formed and was headed by the band, followed by 
Colonel Stitzer and his company of militia who carried blank cart- 
ridges. Then came a delegation of citizens wearing silk hats, fol- 
lowed by the Cheyenne gun club with double-barreled shot guns 
and blank shells loaded by Mr. Bergason [sic] with the powder 
guaranteed to make all possible noise. After them came the main 
body of citizens. 

The first stop was made in front of the Inter Ocean where several 
volleys were fired and lots of cheering indulged in. Then a move 
was made to the opera house corner where a stand was made and 
several more volleys fired. 

The opera house was thrown open and the crowd filed in, com- 
pletely filling the hall. After everybody was in the hall who could 
get in, the band rendered a selection. Mr. George W. Hoyt was 
chosen chairman of the meeting and announced the name of Judge 
Van Devanter as the first speaker. The judge had not yet reached 
the hall so ex-Governor Baxter was called upon. 

Mr. Baxter said he could see good humor and a spirit of jollifi- 
cation on the faces of everybody present and thought this a most 
proper occasion for jollification and earnestly hoped that before a 
month all the formalities necessary to admit Wyoming to the sister- 
hood of states would be complied with and the forty-third star be 
put in its place to remain forever. The admission of Wyoming, he 
said, meant that a bright day had dawned for Wyoming and also 
meant that all the latent elements of wealth in this territory would 
be developed and flourishing towns and cities would be established 
on the arid plains. 

At the conclusion of the remarks by each speaker, the band 
rendered a musical selection. Chairman Hoyt next announced the 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 37 

name of Attorney General Donzelman. Mr. Donzelman in open- 
ing his remarks said that this was an eve that may well be remem- 
bered by the people of the territory for all future to come, in view 
of the news flashed over the wires that the house had passed the 
bill for the admission of Wyoming by a partisan vote. We may all 
feel very proud of that house. By the law of congress, after the bill 
passes the senate, we will come into the sisterhood of states and 
enjoy with them the privileges of a free people and have a voice 
in the selection of a president. It would also be the only state that 
had received recognition from congress that had a constitution 
under which the female residents would be allowed to exercise 
the rights of suffrage as well as the men. He said the female por- 
tion of the residents of Wyoming, when they came to cast their 
ballots, should not forget to whom they owed their rights and 
privileges. He hoped that the good work of Hon. J. M. Carey 
would go on and receive the endorsement of the senate. 

Gibson Clark was proud to join in the jollification, for a day of 
deliverance had come, and said that this day could be looked upon 
in the future by the people of Wyoming as the day of independence. 
After the formal admission they will take their stand among the 
sovereign people of the earth with the full power to work out their 
own destinies. There was cause for congratulation in the fact that 
Wyoming goes into the union of states with a constitution formed 
by her own people and which could only be changed by a vote of 
her own people. He was proud of the fact that the suffrage clause 
stamped Wyoming as the land of equality and there was no dis- 
tinction made in the exercise of any civil or political rights between 
the male and female residents, a fact which could not be said of 
any other country or state on earth. 

General J. C. Thompson said statehood was assured, and that 
the vote of the senate would be practically unanimous. There was, 
he said, magic in a name. The name of the State of Wyoming 
would announce to the world the existence of a land of perfect 
equality with its citizens untrammelled by any laws in the exercise 
of their rights as free Americans. The meeting, he said, was 
entirely non-partisan and it was a matter of no importance how 
partisan the vote was which admitted Wyoming to the galaxy of 
states. He related an anecdote to explain his meaning which drew 
forth considerable applause. The speaker then tried to explain 
how and why the democrats in congress had fought the bill and 
said they could not feel as we did our rights and interests and did 
not represent the feeling of the democrats of the territory. He 
cautioned his hearers to remember the responsibilities that would 
rest upon them upon the formal admission of Wyoming and said 
that in the hands of the ladies rested the great responsibility of 
seeing that we have pure elections. 

Hon. T. B. Adams was the next speaker. He said he had been 



38 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

out celebrating with the boys and could not do more than make a 
few brief remarks. He thought that though the democrats in the 
house had vigorously opposed the bill they would come to their 
senses before the bill reached the senate. He said he was not afraid 
to meet the democrats in a fair and square manner and hoped that 
nothing would prevent anybody from having a free use of their 
ballot. 

Governor Warren, when he appeared was greeted with hearty 
applause. He said he desired to offer his congratulations to those 
who attended this impromptu meeting, on the passage of the bill 
through the house. 

He said it was very seldom that a man had the privilege of 
attending his own funeral but the territorial officials would have 
to step down and yield to some one chosen by the people. Not- 
withstanding that he may be required to go back into private life, 
no event had happened that gave him more pleasure than knowing 
that the bill for the admission of Wyoming had been passed by the 
popular house of the government. The matter meant a great ad- 
vantage in dollars and cents to every individual in the territory. 
To the ladies it already proclaimed for the first time in the history 
of the world that women shall have exactly the same rights as arc 
enjoyed by their masculine relatives, man. It also meant to every- 
body in the territory who had a roof to go under, that it is worth 
more in dollars and cents when they go under it to-night than it 
was this morning. He said the party of which he was a member 
had nothing to apologize for in regard to the admission of Wyoming 
as a state. The democrats in congress, however, did not represent 
in any way the party in Wyoming. We have scored the first victory 
and in ten days will have from the senate and the president a more 
decided endorsement and will then throw off the vassalage and step 
forth into the union not the least but fully equal to many. He 
advised everybody to carefully look over the situation and carefully 
build the new state, brick by brick. He said that the constitution 
provided that he should issue a proclamation for the election of 
state, county and precinct officers. He advised all to see that no 
man was nominated on either side who will misrepresent Wyoming. 
When the new star is added to the galaxy of states there shall not be 
one blot on the fair name of the glorious state of Wyoming and 
asked all to see that Wyoming can always look at and see no eclipse 
or spot upon it. 

Governor Warren was heartily applauded upon the conclusion of 
his remarks and the meeting dispersed. 

Chairman Hoyt announced before Governor Warren's address 
that there would be a meeting to-day at the city hall to form plans 
for a proper observance of the admittance of Wyoming. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 39 

THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Saturday, June 28, 1 890 

WYOMING ADMITTED! 



Senate Passes Wyoming's Bill by a 
Strict Party Vote. 



The "Sun's" Special Report of the 
Proceedings 



Will be Found Very Interesting 
Reading. 



Yellowstone Park Amendment Is 
Attached, 



And the House Will Concur on 
July 2nd. 



WASHINGTON, June 27. 
Special dispatch to The Sun. 

THE AMENDMENT 

to the house admission bill which passed the senate is a proviso at 
the end of section 2, which says: The Yellowstone park shall be 
under the exclusive control and jurisdiction of the United States, 
but the state shall have the right to serve civil and criminal pro- 
cesses therein. 

THE DISCUSSION 

in the senate, except an hour and a half speech by Morgan in oppo- 
sition to the bill, was a running debate participated in by Senators 
Piatt, Gray, Cullom, Teller, Spooner and Paine. It was good 
natured and often amusing, as Messrs. Morgan and Paine pictured 
in a ludicrous way the female senators being led by Piatt to the 
bar of the senate to be sworn in. 

To Senator Piatt the people of Wyoming owe a great debt of 
gratitude. His visit to Wyoming last fall made him an earnest 
champion. He answered every objection by citing precedents and 
facts and was cool and deliberate throughout the debate. He re- 
torted to the thrusts made at the constitution, woman suffrage, the 
smallness of the adoption rate and kept his forces well together. 
There were three yes and no votes, two on the substitutes offered 



40 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

by Jones of Arkansas and one on the final passage. The senate 
divided on strict party lines on each vote. All that were not paired 
with absent senators voted. There was no dodging. 

IN FIFTEEN MINUTES 

after the passage of the act Clerk McCook of the senate appeared 
at the house and made the formal announcement that the senate 
had passed the house bill for the admission of Wyoming with an 
amendment thereto and requested of the house a concurrence. 

The house is now under a special order considering the federal 
election bill which will last until July 2. The amendment cannot 
be considered until after that time. In a conference with the 
speaker to-night he said that nothing else can be done but wait 
until after that date. The matter will be privileged when it can be 
laid before the house. 

Wyoming is out of the woods. In a few days the world will see 
the new American star. 



J. M. Carey. 
By Associated Press. 

WASHINGTON, June 27.— The consideration of the bill for 
the admission of Wyoming was resumed and Morgan addressed 
the senate in opposition thereto. 

Payne and Gray argued against the bill and Piatt replied to them. 

The question was taken on Jones' substitute, (the enabling act 
for Wyoming, Idaho, Arizona and New Mexico), and it was 
rejected by a strict party vote: yeas 18, nays 29. 

Jones of Arkansas then moved as a substitute the enabling act 
for Wyoming alone and it was rejected by exactly the same vote. 

The bill was then passed by a strict party vote; yeas 29, nays 18. 

The first section of the bill is as follows: Wyoming is hereby 
declared to be a state of the United States of America and is hereby 
admitted into the Union on an equal footing with the original states 
in all respects whatever and that the constitution which the people 
of Wyoming have formed for themselves be and the same is hereby 
accepted, ratified and confirmed. 

The second section gives the boundaries. 

The third declares the state entitled to one representative in the 
fifty first congress. 

Other sections refer to public lands and provisions for schools, 
an agricultural college, penitentiary, insane asylum, etc. Also the 
circuit and district courts of the United States. A conference was 
asked on the amendments made to the house bill. 

The bill for the admission of Idaho was taken up and went over 
as "unfinished business" until Monday next. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 41 

THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Saturday, June 28, 1890 

THE STAR OF THE WEST 



Wyoming Adds Another Constella- 
tion to Liberty's Escutcheon. 



Cheyenne Celebrates the Event 
With Joy and Enthusiasm. 



In Spite of Determined Opposition 
Wyoming Gains Statehood. 



Flags and Festoons Decorate the 
Public Thoroughfares. 



Church Bells and Factory Whistles 
Announce the Glad Tidings. 



In spite of determined opposition by the democratic members of 
the senate Wyoming has finally gained the acme of her ambition. 

For the past week the most sanguine began to have doubts of 
the passage of the bill and anxiously call at The Sun office every 
evening for information regarding its progress. 

Thursday brought the joyful news that the bill was to be put to 
a vote at 4 p. m. yesterday. Everyone was on the tiptoe of ex- 
pectancy for the result. 

About 2 o'clock the rain poured down on the streets of Chey- 
enne, making the superstitious think it was an omen of disappoint- 
ment. The bad weather had drove [sic] everyone from the streets 
and by 2:30 there was no indication of the demonstrations of joy 
that took place after 3 o'clock. 

At exactly 3:30 p. m., the dark clouds rolled away from the 
heavens and the sun shone brightly on the city as the news flashed 
over the wires from Washington that Wyoming had become a state. 
This was the telegram: 

"WASHINGTON, June 27. — Senate passed bill for admission 
Wyoming as state. Yeas 29, nays 18. Strict party vote." 

Runners were dispatched immediately with the important news 
to different parts of the city who posted copies of the telegram on 
store windows and bulletin boards. 

Then pandemonium seemed let loose. Hundreds of men and 
boys could be seen running in every direction shouting and ges- 
ticulating as though a cyclone had just struck the city, but their 
smiling faces soon dispelled any idea of a calamity. 



42 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Business men ran to their doors and inquired of the hurrying 
pedestrians what was the matter and were informed that "Wyoming 
had become a state." 

PubUc offices, banks and numbers of business houses closed 
their doors, and officials, proprietors and clerks ran eagerly to the 
nearest place to read the bulletins. In less than five minutes the 
streets were thronged with people, shaking hands with acquaint- 
ances and offering congratulations. 

As the minutes passed hundreds of people began to congregate 
on the sidewalks, while the church bells, school bells and fire bells 
pealed forth the glad tidings. All the locomotives in the yards 
and every factory whistle in the city took up the joyful strain. 

Boys and men blew bazoos and amid the din of revelry hundreds 
were hurrying in different directions with bundles of bunting, flags 
and fireworks. Others, with more foresight, had already made 
preparations for the occasion and soon the business portion of the 
city was a flowing mass of looped streamers and flags, and fire- 
works exploded in the streets with repeated concussion. 

Vehicles of all kinds kept arriving from the suburbs of the city 
and stopping at the different stores to purchase bunting and fire- 
works, and soon the greater part of the residence portion of the 
city showed gala signs of approval and joy. 

The ornamentations were not of the petty kind often displayed 
on the Fourth of July, but enormous flags fit to adorn the capitol 
at Washington. The business men were lavish in their expenditure 
covering their awnings and looping the fronts of their buildings 
from the roof to the ground with continuous lengths of red, white 
and blue muslin covered with stars. 

The starry banner gracefully waved in the breeze from school 
house, court house, city hall, hose houses and capitol, as well as 
from numerous flagstaffs about the city. 

Children seized the contagious enthusiasm and waved their flags 
as they gleefully marched along. Others were on horseback carry 
[sic] sleigh bells that jingled their merry tones beneath the large 
flags that were converted into saddle cloths. 

The male portion of the citizens decorated themselves in differ- 
ent and tasty manners, wearing long streamers of red, white and 
blue ribbon attached to the lapels of their coats, flags wound 
around their hats, or cards stuck in the band of the hat on which 
was inscribed 'The State of Wyoming," or "Wyoming, No. 43." 
Some had the cabalistic figures "29-18" chalked on their clothes, 
while others wore little flags in their buttonholes on which was 
stamped "43." 

Hundreds of ladies and children added to their attractiveness by 
wearing tri-color sashes gracefully draped about their person. 
These were not pretty strips but regular bunting a yard wide. A 
number of ladies looked very pretty by arranging the parallel lines 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 43 

of red, white and blue in the form of a fichu on the bosom of their 
breasts and wearing miniature flags in their cuffs. 

The Cheyenne Ramblers made a beautiful and unique parade by 
entwining the wheels of their machines with the national colors, 
eliciting universal admiration. Each member of the club carried a 
rifle from which they would continually fire blank cartridges like 
a feu-de-joie as they rode around the business streets in single file. 
A great number of young men also kept up a continual rattle of 
musketry from the sidewalks and the windows and roofs of houses. 

Four-in-hands drove through the streets each horse and the 
sides of the carriage being covered with large flags, the drivers 
wearing flags around their hats and sashes over their shoulders. 
Other single and double teams attracted attention, being decorated 
in the same manner, with the spokes of the wheels being covered 
entirely with tri-color muslin, forming a charming kaleidescope as 
the wheels rapidly revolved. 

There was no limit to the enthusiastic display of loyalty for 
Wyoming, even dogs having sleigh bells tied to them and in some 
cases their hair was dyed with a succession of red, white and blue 
circles. One man carried an umbrella from the top of which pro- 
truded a large flag, while attached to each rib on the edge of the 
covering were smaller flags. 

Street cars and every kind of business vehicle were covered with 
flags. Ornamented carriages, containing enthusiasts over the vic- 
tory, were driven through the main thoroughfares by horses cov- 
ered with sleigh bells. 

The telephone was in continual use throughout the city for 
communication between those unable to leave their homes or place 
of business, but still eager to learn the news. 

The telegraph office was besieged through the day by persons 
wishing to send messages. Delegate Carey kept sending messages 
every few minutes to The Sun which were again forwarded to the 
country press of Wyoming. 

Cowboys who happened to be in town when the welcome news 
was received, galloped back to their ranches with the welcome 
information. 

State, district and county offices suspended business to join in 
the exultant throng in celebrating Wyoming's admission to state- 
hood. 

About 4 o'clock the greater part of the assembled multitude on 
the streets formed a procession headed by the Union Pacific band, 
a noticeable feature being an immense stuffed eagle that was car- 
ried by the Swedish society. Other eagles were also carried along. 

At 4:40 the artillery from Fort Russell galloped up to the state 
capitol under the command of General Mizner and Lieutenant 
Durfee and quickly unhmbered near the south entrance. Forty- 



44 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

three rounds were fired in the direction of the city to represent the 
number of states in the Union. 

All this time there was no cessation of the volley firing, cheering 
and excitement that had been kept up without intermission all the 
afternoon. 

A number of the store windows were appropriately decorated. 
A large photograph in Rhodes & Troxell's window attracted a great 
deal of attention. It represented an eagle with its wings spread, 
on which was inscribed, "Wyoming, No. 43, you bet, she's a bird." 

Young and middle aged persons, in their light-hearted exuber- 
ance, played leap frog on Ferguson street. 

The excitement, music and cheering kept up until 6 p. m., when 
the people commenced to go home for their suppers, but about 
7 o'clock the demonstrations were continued with greater energy 
and enthusiasm, fireworks exploding in every portion of the city, 
residences and places of business being illuminated with red fire. 

Buggies and carriages were drove [sic] about the streets, the 
occupants lustily cheering and burning torches of red fire or firing 
off blank cartridges from revolvers and shotguns. 

As the evening progressed a large number of gentlemen kept 
visiting the Sun office to offer their congratulations and regards 
for its fight for statehood and the enterprise shown in receiving 
special telegrams from Washington. 

About 8:30 a large bonfire was lighted at the intersection of 
Ferguson and Seventeenth streets which was frequently replenished 
by old boxes and barrels brought in wagons. Close by stood the 
Union Pacific band and the Cheyenne Gun club, who were sur- 
rounded by thousands of persons standing in the road or on the 
sidewalks. 

Above this vast concourse, on the balcony over T. A. Kent's 
bank, stood Judge Van Devanter, who introduced the following 
gentlemen as speakers: 

Hon. J. C. Baird, Judge Conaway, Judge Brown of Laramie, C. 
N. Potter and Colonel Luke Murrin. Judge Van Devanter also 
spoke, but it was impossible to distinctly understand what the 
speakers said on account of the noise. 

In an interval of the speeches Mr. Madison and five or six other 
colored men came on the platform and sang an impromptu song 
concerning Wyoming's statehood and the passage of the bill to the 
tune of "Marching Through Georgia." 

At the end of each short speech the band played a patriotic air 
and the gun club fired a volley, and rockets ascended to the sky. 
At the end of the speech making the majority of the people dis- 
persed to their homes, but a large number remained on the streets 
continuing to celebrate the greatest political demonstration ever 
held in the west. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 45 

The 27th of June will be a day embalmed in the memory of 
every loyal citizen of Wyoming to be referred to in years to come 
with respect and pride for those who participated in the glories of 
Wyoming's admission to statehood. 

THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Saturday, June 28, 1890 

MESSAGE FROM CAREY 



Statehood Bill Passed by a Strict 
Party Vote. 



The Yellowstone Park Amend- 
ment Adopted. 



The following telegram was received at six o'clock last evening 
from Delegate Carey: 

E. A. Slack, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

WASHINGTON, June 27. — The Wyoming admission bill 
passed the senate this afternoon by eleven majority on a straight 
party vote. The Yellowstone Park amendment adopted. 

Joseph M. Carey. 

THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Saturday, June 28, 1890 

GREAT DAY FOR WYOMING 



How the News Was Received at 
Other Places. 



The People Tumultuous With Joy 
Over Statehood. 



Laramie, Rawlins, Evanston and 
Douglas Celebrate. 



Laramie Very Happy. 

The following telegram was received from Laramie City last 
evening: 
To the Cheyenne Sun: 

Laramie, Wyo., June 27. — Everybody is wild with joy. Bon- 
fires blazing, balloons going up, guns booming and a solid mile of 
streets filled with men, women, babies and carriages. Shake! 

Hayford. 



46 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

THE RAWLINS JUBILEE 



Four Guns Were Fired, One for 
Idaho. 



The City Takes on a HolHday Ap- 
pearance. 



Special dispatch to The Sun. 

RAWLINS, Wyo., June 27. — The news which flashed across the 
wires this afternoon was received with joy by every citizen of 
Rawlins. At first some were inclined to doubt it as no official 
report had been received, but this vanished upon the appearance of 
the Republican extras. Flags were immediately run up all over the 
city and people gethered in crowds on the streets to congratulate 
one another and talk about the good news they had long been 
looking for. Forty-four guns were fired, the forty-fourth one being 
for our sister territory on the west, Idaho. 

This evening the band is out serenading. The city bears the 
appearance of a regular holiday and everybody is rejoicing. Long 
live the state of Wyoming! 

H. B. Fetz. 



EVANSTON ENTHUSED 



Over the Passage of the State 
Bill. 



The following dispatch was received last night from Evanston: 

Special Dispatch to The Sun. 

EVANSTON, June 27. — The news of the passage of the Wyo- 
ming admission bill was received here with much enthusiasm. The 
city is gaily decorated and bonfires, processions and impromptu 
speeches were the order of the evening. Fully two thousand per- 
sons participated in the glorification, the citizens having turned out 
en masse to assist in the celebration. 



DOUGLAS REJOICES. 



An Impromptu Celebration of the 
Good News. 



Special Dispatch to the Sun. 

DOUGLAS, Wyo., June 27. — Flags are flying, steam whistles 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 47 

blowing, and the roar of guns, anvils and dynamite greets the birth 
of the state of Wyoming. The buildings are decorated and every- 
thing will be illuminated here to-night. The Budget's flag bears a 
gigantic star and the inscription, "A vote for Carey is a vote for 
statehood." 

Bill Barlow. 



IDAHO CONGRATULATES US. 



A Telegram From Governor Geo. 
L. Shoup. 



The following dispatch from Governor Shoup of Idaho expresses 
the sentiment of the citizens of that soon to be state : 
E. A. Slack, Cheyenne, Wyo. 

BOISE CITY, Idaho, June 27. — Have just received advice of 
Wyoming's admission. Accept our sincere congratulations. 

Geo. L. Shoup. 



THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Saturday, June 28, 1890 
Editorial 

"OUT OF THE WOODS." 

In the language of Delegate Carey, "Wyoming is now out of the 
woods." The passage of the admission bill yesterday by the senate 
is a successful conclusion of nearly two years' struggle for inde- 
pendence and statehood. As we look backward over that period 
and recall the gallant fight that has been made we are pleased to 
know that THE DAILY SUN has been foremost in the contest 
and that the favorable comment of the press of the country was 
largely due to the thorough manner in which this paper has pre- 
sented the claims of the territory to statehood. But nothing could 
have been achieved had not the southern democracy been defeated 
in the presidential campaign and the house and snate also secured 
by the republican party. It was the defeat of Cleveland which 
gave our people hope of success and encouraged them to make 
the struggle for statehood. Had the result of the election of 1888 
been different Wyoming would have continued in territorial vassal- 
age indefinitely. 

As it was, without the least hope of defeating our progress the 
democratic party presented a solid front against Wyoming. Not a 
democratic vote was given for the bill either in the house or senate. 
The most frivolous objections were put forward as pretexts for 
opposition, but the real ground was this that the republicans were 
favorable to Wyoming's admission and whatever republicans ap- 



48 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

prove should, according to democratic policy, be attacked by their 
party. 

But leaving this phase of the question, let us turn to the happy 
prospects which now rise up before Wyoming. We venture to pre- 
dict that its progress will exceed even that of Colorado and Ne- 
braska upon their advent in the union of states. With its vast 
resources in coal, iron, oil and soda, its great cattle and horse 
ranches, and its irrigation projects there will also be important 
railroad extensions and such introduction of capital and labor as 
will make Wyoming one of the richest states in the union. We 
need not dwell upon this theme as the wealth of our resources is 
universally conceded. 

But in conclusion let us in behalf of the people of Wyoming 
tender their earnest thanks to Hon. Charles S. Baker of New York, 
who made a gallant fight for us in the house and to Orville H. 
Piatt, who has so well managed our case in the senate. These two 
gentlemen have endeared their names to every household in the 
new state and we venture to say that they will be commemorated in 
Wyoming. 

PROUD WYOMING. 

This is the time, 

With thoughts sublime, 
Man takes to rhyme. 

With love, not hate, 
And heart's elate, 
Proud of our state 
Knowing her fate. 

With one acclaim 
We shout her name. 
Go forth to fame! 

Wyoming! 

Oh! brilliant star, 
If distance far. 

No clouds shall bar 
Nor malice mar 

Thy brightness. 

Let all rejoice 

And with one voice 
Proclaim our choice. 

A Wyoming-ite 
For her we'll fight 
Both day and night 
In gloom, in light. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 49 

In truth, in right, 
We'll prove our might. 

The women, too. 
So brave and true. 
Not lost to view, 
Have not to sue 
Nor purr, nor mew 
For what's their due 
A departure new. 

Then this our toast. 
Uncle Sam our host. 
Humbly we boast. 

"Wyoming state, 
At present small. 
Her future: Great." 

THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Friday, July 11, 1890 

WYOMING IS A STATE 



And Her People Are Exceeding 
Glad. 



The President Signed the Bill Yes- 
terday Afternoon. 



Telegrams Received From Our 
Popular Delegate. 



Special dispatch to The Sun. 

WASHINGTON, July 10.— The new star has arisen. Wyo- 
ming, a new state, was born to-day at 5:30. "The Sun" urged the 
first advance, kept up the fight and with victory will shine brighter 
than ever before. 

JOSEPH M. CAREY. 



Acting Governor Meldrum received the following dispatch from 
Delegate Carey: 

WASHINGTON, July 10, 1890. 
Hon. John W. Meldrum, Governor: 

Proclaim to the people that Wyoming is a member of the inde- 
structible union of American states. To them extend hearty con- 
gratulations. The president signed the bill at 5:30, Washington 
time. 

J. M. CAREY. 



50 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Illustrated Edition 
Thursday, July 24, 1890 

WYOMING'S DAY. 

It was a grand day for Wyoming. This will be the verdict of all 
who witnessed the imposing ceremonies of yesterday. The Sun 
despairs of doing anything like justice to the celebration, and this 
morning's issue must be regarded only as a hasty and imperfect 
tribute to the occasion. The fact is that the preparations and 
consumation has surpassed the expectations of those who were 
most concerned about the success of the celebration. Many hands 
and many minds were at work and all have done their part so 
handsomely that we have no space for special mention, and must 
be content with giving a brief description of what transpired. 

The visitors to Cheyenne have one and all been inspired with the 
zeal and patriotism shown in yesterday's demonstration, and their 
compliments are frequent and emphatic. On the other hand our 
citizens deeply appreciate the generous manner in which their 
neighbors came to the front on this occasion and most cheerfully 
acknowledge that their attendance contributed greatly to the en- 
thusiasm of the day. 

The ladies, God bless them, were out in all their beauty and 
glory, contributing by their bright smiles and gay colors, very 
largely to the life and eclat of the demonstration. They seemed to 
realize that the celebration was equally theirs and it was generally 
remarked that the portion of the exercises assigned to them was 
carried out in a manner that did honor to the occasion. Conspic- 
uously so was the able and eloquent address of Mrs. J. F. Jenkins 
which was delivered in the open air, upon the steps of the capitol 
to an assembly of over six thousand people, all of whom could 
distinctly hear every word that she uttered. Her remarks were 
sensible and to the point, and applause was frequently elicited by 
her noble sentiments and well rounded periods. 

Hon. M. C. Brown delivered a neat and appropriate speech in 
connection with the presentation of a handsomely bound copy of 
the constitution to the ladies of Wyoming through their representa- 
tive Mrs. M. E. Post, who made an eloquent response. 

Mrs. Esther Morris presented on behalf of the ladies of Wyo- 
ming, the beautiful silk flag, with considerate remarks, and the 
response by Governor Warren, on the part of the territory, was 
fully up the occasion, eliciting hearty applause both from the ladies 
and gentlemen. 

Later on came the oration of the day, and earnest, eloquent 
tribute to Wyoming and her future, by the gifted and brilliant 
orator of western Wyoming, Hon. C. D. Clark. Commencing in a 
modest, quiet manner it, soon became evident by the noble senti- 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 51 

ments that he expressed and his masterly delivery, that the com- 
mittee of arrangements had made no mistake in their choice of 
speakers. 

The poem by Mrs. I. S. Bartlett is a gem and we publish it 
entire. We also wish it were possible to reproduce the grand 
chorus, which under the management of Prof. Pasmore was vouch- 
safed a delighted audience. 

All who were so fortunate as to hear those soul stirring strains 
will treasure the great musical event in their memories. 

We have only hurriedly touched upon the more important exer- 
cises of the day, but elsewhere will be found as full a report as we 
are able to present. As stated in the outset of this article, we only 
hope to give the readers of The Sun who were not present an 
approximate idea of the grand celebration of Wyoming's advent to 
statehood. 

CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Illustrated Edition 
Thursday, July 24, 1890 

A GREAT DAY 

Wyoming Celebrates Her Ad- 
mission Into the Union 



With All the Pomp and Cere- 
mony of a Mighty State. 



A Grand Parade. 
Eloquent Addresses! 
Firing of Cannon! 
Elaborate Fireworks! 
Reception and Ball! 



Hundreds of Visitors Flock in 
From All Directions. 



Everybody Enthusiastic and All 

Declare the Celebration 

A Grand Success. 



The Ladies Contribute Largely to the 
Brilliancy of the Occasion. 



Reports of the Addresses and Pro- 
ceedings of the Day. 



The statehood celebration yesterday was a magnificent success. 



52 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The elements were propitious. The day was bright with sunshine, 
tempered with a Hght breeze and softened by the shadows of 
occasional clouds. At an early hour people began decorating their 
dwellings as well as the mercantile houses, offices and banks in 
the business portion of the city which presented an almost con- 
tinuous array of decorations in red, white and blue, while the 
national colors were displayed everywhere. At the capitol build- 
ing a grand stand was erected fronting the main flight of steps. 
The stars and stripes waved from the top of the building at each 
wing and the interior was tastefully adorned, the vestibule hails 
and pillars being one mass of brilliant color, which showed under 
the electric lights of the evening with fine effect. 

The parade being formed at 2 o'clock moved on the route 
arranged by the marshall of the day, marching through the prin- 
cipal streets of the city and ending at the capitol building. When 
it reached that point a crowd of mammoth proportions had already 
assembled filling the streets, overflowing in the park, and crowding 
the steps, balcony and window openings of the entire building. 

THE PARADE. 

The column of march was formed with the superb 1 7th Infantry 
band and regiment at the head, under the command of General 
Mizner, whose public spirit and generous assistance on these occa- 
sions is highly appreciated by our citizens. The regiment marched 
with its usual splendid precision and soldiery [sic] bearing. Fol- 
lowing it came a line of carriages bearing the state officials, dis- 
tinguished guests, the orators, poets, committees, and the repre- 
sentative women and men of the state. In this portion of the 
parade there were ten carriages. The second carriage bore the 
flag and its standard-bearer, and was flanked on either side by its 
guard of honor and escort. Company K., girl guards, and was one 
of the great features of the parade. 

THE STATE CAR. 

Following the line of carriages came the second company of 
girl guards. Company H. presented a very fine appearance in 
their elegant new uniforms. They were the guard of honor to the 
statehood car, a magnificent float carrying a bevy of beautiful girls 
representing the states of the Union (excepting Wyoming and 
Idaho). The girls were dressed in white, with red, white and blue 
trimmings, with wreaths of flowers and shields bearing the names 
of the states. The whole effect was lovely and gay, and excited 
the admiration of all beholders. 

WYOMING AND IDAHO. 

Behind the statehood car was a diminutive pony carriage driven 
by two handsome little Shetland ponies. In this vehicle were three 
little girls, Grace Cowhick, Frankie Warren and Miss Elliot. Miss 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 53 

Cowhick represented the Goddess of Liberty, Miss Warren the 
state of Wyoming, and Miss EUiot the state of Idaho. 

MILITIA AND VETERANS. 

The next division was headed by the Union Pacific band with 
twenty-four pieces, the pride of the west. Company B, Wyoming 
National Guards, followed, and as usual they were the observed of 
all observers. The veterans of Reynolds Post, Grand Army of the 
Republic, was in line here stepping with the pride and joy which 
filled their hearts in Wyoming's new victory in the battle for state- 
hood. The Afro-American club followed — our colored brothers 
feeling a warm and patriotic devotion to the state in which all men 
and women are free and equal by the terms of its magna charta. 

THE TRADES PROCESSION. 

The trades display was a triumph. A long line of floats, barges 
and buildings on wheels represented nearly every branch of busi- 
ness and manufactures. Want of space prevents us giving this 
fine display proper mention. 

Sloan & Shaver, the popular milk men, had two noble specimens 
of the bovine race — the prides of the dairy — blanketed with appro- 
priate mottos. 

The Cheyenne Commercial company had a grand exhibit with 
seven wagons representing the different branches of their trade 
which is more fully described in another column. 

Messrs. Zehner, Beuchner & Co. came out as usual with a rare 
exhibit. 

Next followed M. P. Keefe's great display in three wagons, one 
representing brick making, another general building and construc- 
tion work. In addition Mr. Keefe in his private carriage gave a 
unique exhibition of what he called the "products of Wyoming." 
He had in the carriage five children of which he claims to be the 
father. Around the buggy were hung festoons of native flowers 
and vegetables, beets, turnips, onions, etc., but that little device 
deceived nobody. 

Arp & Hammond, the hardware merchants, followed with 
several wagons, agricultursl machinery, etc. 

Tuttle, the painter, had a pyramid wagon handsomely decorated 
with the evidences of his fine workmanship. 

Mrs. Robinson in a jaunty rig showed what she is doing in the 
ice cream, fruit and vegetable line. She had a fat boy dressed up 
gaily, with a placard on the wagon, saying: "I eat Mrs. Robinson's 
ice cream." The buggy was handsomely decorated, as only Mrs. 
Robinson, who is an adept in artistic work, could do it. 

The Bon Ton stables had a handsome turn-out in the procession. 

Frank Wilson, contractor and builder, was represented by a 
large wagon loaded with the implements and materials of his 
profession. 



54 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Following his float was a unique wagon, which was a combina- 
tion cook house. It was an I. X. L. wagon and carried a whole 
cuisine department, adapted for excursions, freighting, cattle driv- 
ers or any business on the great plains and mountains; made to 
cook in, live in, eat in and making a luxurious home for the traveler 
far away from the haunts of civilization. 

Charles McGarvey, contractor, made a very extensive and 
creditable display. In addition to his main wagon he had 12 teams 
of scrapers in the line, showing in a practical way that he was pre- 
pared for extensive business. 

A novel feature followed these, being no less a freak than the 
Arkansas Traveller. He was scraping his fiddle, had a coon skin 
banner and a large family of emigrants huddled around him. 

Following the trades display was a general concourse of citizens 
in carriages, on horseback and on foot. 

AT THE CAPITOL. 

When the procession reached the capitol the troops were drawn 
up in line, the artillery with a detachment of 20 men was brought 
from the park and placed in position at the west wing of the 
building. The governor, guests and those who were to take part 
in the exercises took possession of the grand stand. Meantime the 
crowds swelled and surged around the building and its surrounding 
streets were but a "sea of human faces." Governor Warren pre- 
sided and the programme was promptly opened by the invocation 
by Rev. J. Y. Cowhick. At its close the Union Pacific band struck 
up "Yankee Doodle'' in the most spirited measure. 

MRS. JENKINS' ORATION. 

Mrs. Theresa A. Jenkins was then introduced to the immense 
audience. Proceeding to the front of the platform, the lady in 
clear, forceful tones which penetrated to the very outskirts of the 
crowd, began and delivered without notes or manuscript an address 
which in ability, logic and eloquence has rarely if ever been 
equalled by any woman of the Land. She was grandly equal to the 
occasion. She said: 

Mrs. President, Governor Warren and gentlemen of the State of 
Wyoming: 

In behalf of the ladies present and in the name of many who are 
not with us to-day, I am requested to make this expression of our 
appreciation of the great benefit conferred upon us at your hands, 
and confirmed by the congress of these United States. Happy are 
our hearts to-day, and our lips but sound a faint echo of the 
gratitude within our bosoms. While we rejoice with you that our 
young commonwealth has been permitted to place upon this 
beautiful banner her bright prophetic star, how much more reason 
have we for enthusiastic demonstration. 

The republican spirit of 1 890, with a generosity unrivaled in all 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 55 

the annals of political economy, has admitted into the national 
jurisprudence the voice of woman. We have been placed upon the 
very summit of freedom and the broad plain of universal equality. 
Think ye that our tongues are silent or that we have no need to sing 
our anthems of praise? History chronicles no such an event on all 
its pages, and the bells of the past ring out no such victory. 

^ ^ ^ 

We have never been compelled to petition or protest; we have 
ever been treated with a patient hearing and our practical sugges- 
tions have been most courteously received and in the future we but 
desire a continuance of these favors. We ask of our law makers 
just laws for the enlargement and perpetuity of our educational 
facilities; we ask of our legislators wise and magnanimous measures 
for the erection and maintainance of our benevolent institutions; 
we ask of you, laws for the better protection of the moral as well 
as the physical natures of our boys and our girls, even though the 
maverick be neglected and taxpayers and burden bearers as we 
are, may we not expect the proper enforcement of these laws as 
well as the framing of them. 

Bartholdi's statue of liberty enlightening the world is fashioned 
in the form of a woman and placed upon a pedestal carved from 
the everlasting granite of the New England hills, but the women of 
Wyoming have been placed upon a firmer foundation and hold a 
more brilliant torch. 

* * * 

In the days of the past there came to this region a woman who 
had been reared among the hardy minds of the east. She brought 
with her, her family, her garden seeds, her doctrine of woman's 
equahty before the law. Her sons live to do her honor, her garden 
seeds have been planted and she has proven to the world that this 
desolate plain can be made to blossom as the rose, and to-day she 
sits with us at the age of 77 a free citizen equal with her sons. 
Esther Morris, like Queen Esther of old, has dared to brave the 
anger of man rather than her own people should perish. 

* * * 

We ask no trophies at our feet, no laurel on our brows, but we 
do ask for these two, Mrs. Morris and Mrs. Post, a wreath of 
immortelles fashioned in the motto of "Faithfulness," and hung on 
the walls of "Endurance," and this young girl guard of honor, 
picked from the flowers of the state, who to-day have walked 
through the dusty streets that they might be beside this beloved 
flag, may well emulate these examples, preferring ever to sacrifice 
personal comfort to duty and pride to patriotism. 

These words of thankfulness would be incomplete were we to 
neglect to utter the sentiments of all our hearts in enumerating 



56 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

among our noble friends the names of the framers of our constitu- 
tion. In the Hst, cherished in the hearts of us all, stands out that 
of M.C. Brown, president of the convention; George W. Baxter, 
who introduced our clause in the constitution; J.K. Jeffrey, chair- 
man of the committee, and J.W. Hoyt; who without malice, trickery 
or subterfuge granted us our wishes, and we claim the right to-day 
to do these heroes reverence, and in this galaxy of stars which 
every woman wears to-day a diadem of gems shines out, the fairest 
and rarest of them all, F.E. Warren and J.M. Carey, and ye who 
applaud say never again a prophet has honor save in his own 

country. 

* * * 

And as the star of Bethlehem shed its soft, effulgent rays over 
an inland plain where lay cradled a new deliverance, so to-day this 
forty-fourth star, eight pointed as we would have it, casts its 
illumination from the icy regions of the north to the magical blos- 
soms which ripen into tropical fruit beneath the radiant sunshine 
of our southern skies, from our lofty mountain ranges with snow- 
capped peaks towering through the clouds to the very door step of 
heaven, east and west to the sea-kissed shores of our continent. 

May these salty surges carry this reflection on their swelling tide 
even to the mines of Siberia, where exiled woman, groaning in 
degredation and slavery, may catch some glimmer of hope, and, 
listening, hear some note of a glad hosanna that rings out to-night 
from this, our inland plain, not, perhaps, from the lips of angels, 
but from the hearts of women as we proclaim aloud our glad 
tidings of great joy, the political redemption of our sex. 

And may that beautiful bow of color which spanned our eastern 
boundary at the golden sunset hour of July 10, 1890, be but a 
faint promise of the prosperity, the stability, the harmony of our 
magnificent domain, guided (not governed) by the hand of man 
clasped in the hand of woman. 

At the conclusion of her address Mrs. Jenkins received an 
ovation of applause and was the recipient of a magnificent basket 
of flowers. 

PRESENTATION OF THE FLAG. 

The great incident of the celebration, the presentation of the flag, 
next followed. Mrs. Esther Morris, one of Wyoming's historical 
characters, who is regarded as the "mother" of the woman suffrage 
movement in this state, and who is otherwise honored and respect- 
ed for her great ability and heroic womanhood, was by general con- 
sent accorded the post of honor, and made the presentation to 
Governor Warren on behalf of the women of Wyoming. Gathering 
the folds of the beautiful flag about her, she said: 

"On behalf of the women of Wyoming, and in grateful recog- 
nition of the high privilege of citizenship that has been conferred 
upon us, I have the honor to present to the state of Wyoming this 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 57 

beautiful flag. May it always remain the emblem of our liberties, 
'and the flag of the union forever.' " 

GOVERNOR WARREN'S ADDRESS. 

The governor on receiving the flag from Mrs. Morris, grasping 
its staff, responded as follows: 

GOVERNOR WARREN'S RESPONSE. 

It is with feelings of profound gratitude that I receive for the 
State of Wyoming this beautiful flag. 

It is seldom permitted man to stand a representative for his 
commonwealth at the time of its organization and during the period 
of its transition from a condition of territorial dependence to one 
of state independence. And it has never before, I believe, been 
vouchsafed man to represent a state as its executive officer on so 
auspicious an occasion as this. 

Here, in the open air, near the crest of the continent, Wyoming, 
forming the keystone of the arch of states extending from ocean to 
ocean, celebrates an event significant in the extreme, new in the 
history of our country, and without precedent in the world; that 
is to say, a state, in adopting its constitution, extends free and 
equal suffrage to its citizens regardless of sex. 

Wyoming, in her progress, has not forgotten the hands and 
hearts that have helped advance her to her high position; and, in 
the adoption of her constitution, equal suffrage is intrenched so 
securely that, it is believed, it will stand forever. 

In this regard Wyoming is not less elevated in her high and 
proud geographical position, than in her example to her surround- 
ing sister states. 

The figures - 44 - representing the number of our star on the 
dear old flag, the handsomest and best-beloved national emblem 
in the civilized world - will always stand with us for justice and 
equal right. 

Women of Wyoming, you have builded well in your past efforts 
and conduct; and the men of Wyoming extend heartiest greetings 
at this time. They congratulate you upon your achievements, and 
ask you to join them in the future, as in the past, in securing good 
government for our commonwealth. Your influence has always 
tended towards higher development and culture. And now, in the 
near future, when called upon to exercise your rights and your 
privileges in the selection of your officers, who must be both your 
rulers and your servants, we have confidence that you will sub- 
scribe to everything that is elevating and enterprising - a pure 
ballot - the highest moral standing and the strictest personal re- 
sponsibility in public officers - liberal educational facilities, and 
with all an economical and wise financial policy and management. 

Ladies, for and on the part of the great State of Wyoming, I 
thank you most sincerely for this beautiful stand of colors. And 



58 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

I beg to assure you it shall be cherished and protected as a souvenir 
of priceless value. 

A musical feature followed the governor's response, in which, 
with Miss Nellie Dwyer as vocalist, the "Star Spangled Banner" 
was executed by the band and a chorus of voices. 

At this point in the proceedings heavy clouds arose, the rain 
began to fall, and while the artillery were firing the forty -four guns 
in salute of the new state flag, the audience was invited to the 
interior of the building to listen to the remainder of the programme. 
The representative hall was utilized for the purpose, and it was 
rapidly filled, as well as its galleries and surrounding rooms. 

A TRUE REPUBLIC. 

Judge M.C. Brown in a felicitous introduction presented Mrs. 
I.S. Bartlett, the poet of the day, to the audience. Mrs. Bartlett 
then gave the following poem, entitled "A True Republic." The 
production was well delivered and was received with genuine 
applause. 

THE TRUE REPUBLIC. 

The first republic of the world 
Now greets the day, its flag unfurled 

To the pure mountain air. 
On plains, in canon, shop and mine, 
The star of equal rights shall shine. 
From its blue folds, with light divine- 

A symbol bright and fair. 
The flashing presence of to-day 
Startles our ancient dreams away. 

Wrapped in her shadows dim 
Old memory flees, with vivid glance 
To-day uplift her shining lance. 
Her arm is might, her brow is light. 

Her voice a thrilling hymn. 
Shine on, oh star! No flag of old. 
No standard raised by warrior bold 

In all the days of yore. 
For chivalrie or knightly claim 
For honor bright or woman's name 
Has ever shone with brighter flame. 

Than peerless forty-four. 
Fair state of honor, freedom's pride. 
There's none in all the world beside 

That wears so rich a gem. 
A commonwealth where all are free 
Where all find true equality 
First in the world, the world shall see 

'Tis freedom's diadem. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 59 

The battle's fought, the battle's won, 
With thankful hearts we say, "Well done" 

To all our champions brave. 
No carnage marked the earnest fight. 
But souls aflame and nerved with right 
Urged on the conflict day and night 
Our statehood cause to save. 
God bless our state! 
Nature rejoices too; our mountains high 
Above the clouds are touched with brighter 
light. 
A new charm fills the overarching sky 
And thrills earth's denizens with visions 
bright. 

God bless our state! 
The geysers throw their splendid watery 
plumes 
Still higher in their ancient wonderland. 
The restless mountain torrent frets and 
fumes 
More loudly on its journey to the strand. 

God bless our state! 
The very air with new fresh life is stirred. 

The free exultant birds more sweetly sing. 
And nature's changing voices ever heard 

Unto our souls new happiness shall bring. 

God bless our State! 
Wher'er her mighty rivers swiftly run, 
Wher'er her mountain peaks shall pierce 
the sky, 
Where'e her plains sweep to the rising sun. 
And peaceful valleys in the shadows lie. 

God bless our State! 
Its new career begun, let all rejoice, 
And man and woman, hand in hand, as 
one. 
With energies of body, heart and voice 
Make it a happy land where aU may come, 

If we look within the future, our prophetic 

eyes can see 
Glorious views unfold before us, of joy, 
wealth, prosperity. 

We can see the sons of Science, Music, Poetry 
and Art, 



60 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Coming to our grand dominion, in our 

growth to take a part. 
We can see the iron monster rushing fiercely 

to and fro. 
We can see the sky o'erspread with smoke 

from furnaces below. 

We can see Wyoming's mountains giving up 

their hidden stores, 
Tons on tons, by miUions pouring, of the 
base and precious ores. 

See her towns and cities rising, where the 

bison used to roam. 
And along her streams and valleys many a 
farmer's peaceful home. 

We can see great halls of learning well en- 
dowed and nobly planned, 

Monuments of taste and culture, for the 
children of our land. 

We can see the spires of churches pointing 

upward to our gaze; 
Chiming bells, harmonious sounding, call- 
ing us to prayer and praise. 

See the plains, now dry and barren, where 

the sage and cactus grow, 
Desert plains, no longer barren, then shall 

"blossom like the rose." 

Thirsty lands, no longer thirsty, filled with 
moisture wisely stored, 

Bounteous to the happy farmer, noble har- 
vests will afford. 

Happy are Wyoming's people, happier will 

our future be; 
So we sing to-day with gladness, and we 
shout for victory. 

Let the bells ring out more loudly, and the 

deep-toned cannon roar. 
Giving voice to our thanksgiving such as 

never rose before. 

For we tread enchanted ground to-day, we're 

glorious, proud and great. 
Our independence day has come - Wyoming 

is a State! 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 61 

THE CONSTITUTION PRESENTED. 

To Judge M.C. Brown, the able president of the constitutional 
convention was assigned the duty of presenting the result of its 
labors. The judge's address which follows is a thoughtful and 
eloquent production. He said: 

JUDGE BROWN'S SPEECH. 

We stand to-day on one of the mountain tops of human progress. 
Looking backward along the line of man's endeavor we behold no 
smooth or easy pathway, but here and there along the otherwise 
undulating plain arise the lofty summits of human achievement. 
As descendents of the Anglo Saxon we view again with proud 
delight the field of Runnymede, and the Enghsh barons wringing 
from the grasp of a reluctant king the magna charta of human 
rights. Here at the dawn of civil liberty it was first established 
that men were not created for government, but governments or- 
dained for men; that the right of the individual should stand above 
the right of government; that governments might protect and 
cherish but never destroy liberty. And this heritage of individual 
liberty decended to us as a natural birthright. Look again along 
the line of progress. In a new land we see scattered along the 
Atlantic coast a few hundreds of thousands of people oppressed 
by unjust taxes, denied civil and political rights, and threatened 
with bloody devasting war. Amid the clash of arms and reverber- 
ating thunders of cannon, the cry rings forth in tones that startle 
the civilized world, "All men are created equal." The Declaration 
of Independence is an accomplished fact. From the smoke and 
dust of battle, and the ashes of destroyed homes arises the young 
giant of America, and wrestling the sceptre of government from the 
grasp of the tyrannical King George, plants it on the shores of 
Columbia — liberty lives, tyranny is overthrown, and a new nation 
is born to the world. 

Look again. A dark cloud rests above our fair land. Never 
funeral dirge more solemn than the thought of our people. The air 
is hushed as of a coming tempest. On this unnatural stillness 
breaks the boom, boom of cannon and the old flag, emblem of 
freedom and liberty, goes down from the walls of Sumpter. [sic] 

Now we hear the fife and drum and the tramp of gathering hosts; 
and continent trembles beneath the tread of contending armies; but 
above the clash of arms comes the words from the grandest of rul- 
ers of men: "Thou art free," and the shouts of four million slaves 
join in happy refrain, and with joyous shouts exclaim: "We are 
free; we are free" Victory henceforth perches upon the Union 
banner, and Liberty sings his anthem of triumph. Again from the 
din of war come the words of hero captain and president as if in 
benediction: "Let us have peace," and the angel of peace, with 



62 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

her loving smile, settles down upon a united country - happy land - 
grand achievement. 

Look again. Far out across the Great American desert, and 
beneath the shade of the grand old Rockies, there springs into 
existence a new state, and the watchwork of its people are, "Justice, 
Equality" to this new state. Under the guidance of the Great 
Jehovah it is permitted to achieve the highest excellence in govern- 
ment yet attained by man. Here, unmoved by selfishness, the 
dangers of war or the appeals of non-resident reformers, but moved 
alone by the spirit of divine justice, it was ordained by the people 
of Wyoming that each citizen of the state should enjoy the same 
right guaranteed to every other citizen, whether high or low, black 
or white, male or female. 

And now, Mrs. Post, I have the distinguished honor to place in 
your hands, and you, as a representative woman of Wyoming, the 
grand privilege of receiving, this broadest guarantee of civil liberty 
ever established by the genius of man - the Magna Charta of our 
liberties - the constitution of the state of Wyoming. 

From this Nebo of history we look forward to the promised land. 
Whether it shall flow with the milk and honey of prosperity and 
happiness for woman depends solely upon herself. 

With these new privileges come new duties and responsibilities. 
"Act well your part, there all the honor lies." Your past furnishes 
the highest guarantee for the future. If you live up to the full 
measure of your high privileges, you will not only bring happiness 
to the new state, but joy to the hearts of the noble women of other 
states who are struggling for the repeal of unequal and unjust laws. 
Not only this, but your example and success will bring emancipa- 
tion to the women of the world. 

Mrs. Amelia B. Post responded to Judge Brown's presentation 
in the following admirable address: 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Wyoming Constitutional Con- 
vention. 

In the name of the women of Wyoming, I thank you for this copy 
of our state constitution, and in their name also do I especially 
thank you for that clause in this constitution which guarantees their 
enfranchisement. In the history of the world it has seldom been 
the good fortune of a body of lawmakers to be able to inaugurate at 
one stroke a movement in the interest of human rights and human 
liberties as important, as far reaching, as grand as this. And in the 
name of the women of the civilized world I am here to congratulate 
you upon the able, fearless and disinterested manner in which you 
have discharged your duties as a constitutional convention. 

This grand result of your labors - woman's magna charta - has 
now been before the civilized world about eight months. It has 
attracted wide attention and has been subjected to the keenest 
possible criticism. By narrow-minded people, cranks and bigots it 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 63 

has been universally condemned. By intelligent, broad-minded 
people, by the friends of human progress, by the advocates of 
universal liberty, it has been universally commended. As a means 
of assisting Wyoming to become one of the stars in the grand galaxy 
of liberty it has been a most helpful document. 

On some of the important questions of policy that came before 
your honorable body during the progress of your deliberations, 
there were honest differences of opinion among you, but when it 
came to the most important question of all - the enfranchisement 
of women, there were no differences of opinion, there was no 
dissenting voice. You have shown the world that as representative 
men of Wyoming you have the courage of your convictions, and 
that you are neither afraid nor ashamed to allow women all the 
rights and privileges unrestricted of American citizens. 

An ancient philosopher of the orient has said: "The veiled 
slaves of the harem can never become the mothers of a great race 
of men, but if you would produce a race of great men you must 
first have a race of great women, both as to body and mind." 

This is the true doctrine. The history of the world has demon- 
strated its truthfulness in scores of instances. Elevate the standard 
of womanhood! For there is no surer way by which to elevate the 
standard of manhood. This is to-day the most important question 
involved in the future attainment of the highest plane of human 
civilization. 

In framing this constitution, gentlemen of the convention, you 
have taken a most important step, looking to the elevation of the 
human race. And may each and aU of you live long to enjoy the 
honorable distinction this shall surely bring you. 

And now, Mr. President and gentlemen of the convention, in 
closing this brief, disjointed and very inadequate acknowledgement, 
allow me in the name of the women of Wyoming - in the name of 
the women of the civilized world - in the name of human prog- 
ress - in the name of Christian civilization - in the name of that 
grand advancing column, the cohorts of universal liberty, again to 
thank you for this most precious memorial. 

ANVIL CHORUS. 

The great musical feature of the celebration was now given - 
anvil chorus. Under the leadership of Professor Pasmore, this 
famous musical piece was produced by a combined chorus of 
trained voices, together with the Union Pacific band and anvil 
accompaniment. It was received with demonstrations of applause 
and delight by the audience and a repetition demanded. The 
encore was respected and the piece repeated. 

The benediction was then pronounced by Rev. Dr. Rafter. This 
part of the programme was assigned to Father Nugent, but he sent 



64 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

word that he was called away by pressing duties and would be 
unable to be present. 

HON. C. D. CLARK'S ORATION 

The oration of Hon. C. D. Clark of Evanston was a masterpiece 
of eloquence and proved that although he had but a brief time 
to prepare his address he was equal to the occasion and that the 
committee who secured him put the right man in the right place. 
He charmed the great audience with his strong reasoning, rich 
descriptive passages and happy oratorical climaxes. His practical 
and statesmanlike views of what Wyoming has already achieved 
and what it may hope to achieve in the future, from its present 
glorious position, were powerfully and cogently expressed. His 
tribute to woman, to her patriotism, devotion to duty, capacity for 
affairs and her equality in this state not obtained as a "boon," but 
as an unalienable right, was one of the most eloquent gems of the 
address. He also gave deserved praise to the state constitution 
and the noble body of men who framed it. 

In opening his address, he said: 

It shall be no part of my duty to-day to attempt in any measure 
to fill the part of that eminent gentleman from our sister state who 
was to have addresed you and whose absence is most deplored by 
those who at other times have been almost entranced at the magic 
of his work. Such an attempt on my part would be not only the 
height of presumption, but could only result in chagrin to the 
speaker and disappointment to the hearer. In his absence, how- 
ever, I am deeply sensible of the honor conferred, knowing that it 
came, not because of any personal fitness, but bestowed perhaps 
as upon one who might be a representative however unworthy of 
that outlying portion of our state, that district whose strength does 
and shall consist, not in the production of orators and carpet 
knights, but in that union of muscle, energy and honest sense that 
shall contribute in the highest degree to the future prosperity, 
happiness and stability of that commonwealth whose establishment 
we celebrate to-day. 

* * * 

He said this was a day whose setting sun threw its cheering and 
beautiful colors over a people secure in their future and filled with 
honest pride at being not only citizens of the freest and best govern- 
ment on the face of the earth, but citizens as well of a state whose 
fundamental law shows it to be the state granting the largest 
privilege to its people and having the greatest confidence in the 
integrity and intelligence of its citizens. 

* * * 

The privileges and rights that we have gained are those to the 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 65 

accomplishment of which the American patriots of a hundred 
years ago pledged their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor. 
Politically and in a truer sense than ever we are become a com- 
ponent part of that nation which in peace and war has shown to 
the world the true merit and stability of a government based alone 
on the will and consent of the governed. The people of Wyoming 
with no uncertain voice have gone further in the theory of equality 
in all political matters than has been before attempted; they have 
gone into this union of states with a full determination to make 
practical test of the theory that all are created equal. They have 
made essentially a new departure and have made worth alone and 
neither sex nor other condition the test of citizenship. Since the 
earliest poet woman has been the theme of minstrelsy and her 
perfections have been sung under every sky and in every tongue, 
but, wonderful to us, our infant state, the only true republic has 
been the first to say that citizenship shall mean the practical recog- 
nition of her intelligence and that our mothers, wives and sweet- 
hearts shall share with us in equal part the benefits to be derived 
from citizenship. 



Every step taken in the direction of personal and national honor 
and integrity is a step toward the perpetuity of our institutions, and 
just as true is it that every relaxation from the strict code of per- 
sonal and national morality is a step in the direction of the ultimate 
failure of our republic. As Americans indeed we have reason to 
congratulate ourselves and our country on past success, but let us 
not shut our eyes to the fact that in our greatest security may lie 
our greatest danger. It has often been said that fancied security 
has always within it the seeds of dissolution; that we must not be 
over-confident. A hundred years is but the measure of the infancy 
of a nation and our republic is as yet but little more than an 
experiment. There is no danger from external violence, but I 
firmly believe that there is danger from internal dissensions, from a 
lax code of morals, both public and private. 



The duty we owe to our new state then is plain, we must make 
good citizens of ourselves and above all look to the education of 
those who are to follow after us. We can hear the sound of the 
coming feet, the hundreds of thousands who are to be the directing 
power of this great commonwealth must be given the means of 
becoming thoroughly impressed with the beneficence of our state 
government, and with that patriotism so essential to the maintain- 
ence of free republican institutions. There may be a tendency to 
consider patriotism a mere sentiment and something intangible 
that must not interferere with the reality of our active business 



66 • ANNALS OF WYOMING 

life, but if it be a sentiment it is one that has controlled men from 
the foundation of our government, it is a sentiment that has found 
its reality in half a million patriot graves and in the bleeding hearts 
and desolated homes of a whole nation, a sentiment for which no 
sacrifice has been to great and no privation to dear. 

Let our children then be impressed and inspired with the love 
of state and love of country; let them feel that they are parts of this 
great nation and sovereigns therein; may they feel that they stand 
in the light of her great names and that the lustre is reflected upon 
them; that the future of this land depends in part upon their 
integrity and virtue, and with these teachings broadened and deep- 
ened year by year there will be no danger from the future, and thus 
shall survive and be perpetuated the state and the nation. "Strong 
in the hearts and love of its people, with its foundations laid broad 
and deep in the principles of eternal justice and equal rights, it 
shall survive all the storms of the years, and rising in strength and 
beauty and hope prove to the world the durability of institutions 
growing out of the reason and affection of the people." 

THE FIREWORKS, ETC. 

The balloon ascension which was to have come off at 7 o'clock 
was a failure on account of a defect in the apparatus. The balloon 
was filled all right, but on starting one of the ropes caught by a 
knot, holding the balloon by the top while the lower part rose and 
exhausted its hot air. There not being sufficient time to refill it, 
the exhibition was given up. 

The next thing on the day's entertainment was the display of 
fireworks and by general consent it was admitted to be the finest 
ever seen in the territory. Thousands of people gathered in the 
park and around the capitol to witness the display and no one was 
disappointed. Cheers of delight arose on every hand as the beau- 
tiful pyrotechnics were shown with all their brilliant effects upon 
the night. 

THE BALL. 

After the fireworks the ball. The capitol was brilliantly illumi- 
nated, three bands were in attendance, and every one was welcome 
to engage in the festivities of the occasion as spectators, promenad- 
ers or dancers. The dancers were in full dress. The vast crowd 
assembled enjoyed themselves to the utmost, and nothing occurred 
to mar the pleasures of the evening which were kept up until mid- 
night. 

The committee in charge of arrangements, the marshal of the 
day and his efficient aids, and all who have given their efforts in 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 67 

behalf of the great celebration, deserve and have won the gratitude 
of our people for the admirable success achieved. 

THE TRADES DISPLAY. 

The committee on trades display in the celebration were untiring 
in their efforts, the chairman, Mr. Wasserman, giving the larger 
portion of his time to its successful arrangement, and the public 
were more than pleased with its success. About thirty wagons and 
floats, handsomely decorated in the national colors, drawn by 
horses, whose harness carried every conceivable device of orna- 
ment in red, white and blue, and some splendid dairy cattle from 
Messrs. Sloan and Shafer's dairy ranch composed the fourth 
division. 

THE C. C. C. DISPLAY. 

Most prominent in the trades procession and indeed surprising 
in the excellence of the display were the wagons and floats of the 
Cheyenne Commercial Company. This enterprising institution 
with its customary energy entered into the spirit of the celebration 
in a manner that might well have been emulated with profit by 
older estabhshed houses. Followed by their six wagons Messrs. 
R. N. Heath and Albert Clark, the active managers of the company, 
led the display. After them came their south side store wagons 
filled to overflowing with teas, coffees and the smaller goods of 
the retail groceryman. This wagon carried a banner containing 
the words, South side store for south side trade. C. C. C. 

The third wagon, which carried on its banner the admonition, 
"For prompt and careful delivery patronize the C. C. C," was the 
handsome red market wagon that was recently placed on the streets 
by the company. Probably nothing in the parade was so enticing 
to the multitudes of little ones along the line as this company's fruit 
wagon, laden down with luscious fruits from all climes. It was 
drawn by two horses and bore the legend "The only wholesale 
fruit house in the state. C. C. C."' 

Then came the wholesale department float, filled with boxes of 
tobacco, canned goods, etc. It seemed to convey an impression of 
the growth of the business of the C. C. C, which during the past 
few months has more than doubled. Two banners formed part of 
this display. One. "Patronize the C. C. C," the other, "We 
lead them all." 

"This speaks for itself," was the device that an open meat market 
on wheels carried under the C. C. C. banner. The float contained 
a meat block, counter, scales, etc., and displayed on all sides were 
quarters of beef, mutton and pork ready for the block, and the 
smaller meats that usually fill up the racks of a meat market. This 
float was a miniature market, complete in every detail, not omitting 
the National cash register. 



68 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Twenty men and sixteen horses were required in this company's 
mammoth exhibit. Certainly a more fitting or appropriate testi- 
monial of the young company's rapid advancement into the front 
rank of wholesale and retail grocers could not have been shown 
than passed before the thousands of spectators yesterday. The 
same public spirit and enterprise that brought these gentlemen out 
yesterday has gained them their mercantile position, an enviable 
one indeed. 

A SILVER SERVICE. 

In anything of a public nature, and especially when the repre- 
sentative firms of Cheyenne have been called upon to do their part 
toward the success of a holiday demonstration, Messrs. Zehner, 
Buechner & Co. have been among the foremost to comply. Their 
float in yesterday's parade was a handsome exhibition of the 
jewelers' wares and manufactures' art. On the front of the float 
were placed two handsome show cases filled with silverware and 
jewelry. Behind these, working at the manufacturer's and silver- 
smith's bench, were Messrs. Buechner and Booker, while standing 
over the forge and heating furnace was Mr. Hilyer. The float was 
handsomely decorated with bunting and the stars and stripes. 
Along the route it attracted a great deal of attention, but owing to 
the value of their wares, these leading jewelers of the new state 
could not make as full a display as they would liked to have done. 
A visit to their store will show the beauties and ornaments and 
novelties that they carry. 

TAXIDERMY. 

Probably the most unique float that appeared in the trades pro- 
cession was Prof. E. Clarke's display of taxidermy in elk, buffalo, 
the many variety of deer and antelope, birds, etc. Mr. Clarke's 
float was tastefully designed, the mountings and furs being ar- 
ranged in pyramid style and showed nearly every kind of fur, skin 
or mounting that is peculiar to the state, together with many species 
that are not found in Wyoming. Among the mountings that were 
especially admired were those of a white tail and a black tail fawn 
and a remarkably handsome buffalo head. 

MUSIC IN THE AIR. 

Along the entire route of the parade the spectators were enter- 
tained by the "delights of music" that poured forth from the float 
representing Prof. George F. Inman's music store. This float, 
which was elaborately decorated, was filled with musical instru- 
ments of all kinds, some one of which the professor performed 
upon along the route of procession. The sewing machine depart- 
ment of the professor's store was also represented on this float. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 69 

This establishment deserves great credit for its novel and enter- 
taining exhibit and showed the enterprise of its proprietor. 

THE BUILDER'S BARGES. 

Two floats, the first representing a carpenter and builder's shop 
and the second brick making yards, were a novelty that were fully 
appreciated. They were placed in the parade by Mr. M. P. Keefe, 
contractor and builder. The carpenter shop was a faithful repre- 
sentation of the carpenter's kit and bench and an industrious 
shover of the plane worked steadily on the northwest corner of a 
prospective palace as the big team drew the float along. The brick 
making establishment on the second float exposed to the astonished 
gaze of the multitude the intricacies of putting clay into brick form. 
The brick yards of Mr. Keefe have recently been established and 
the progress that he is making in turning out excellent brick is best 
witnessed in the number of houses he has built this summer. The 
display was a most creditable one to our popular townsman. 

WALKER'S DRY GOODS REPRESENTATION. 

Mrs. E. Walker's dry goods store float was well filled with dry 
goods boxes which were covered with bunting of red, white and 
blue dotted with stars. The same material was used freely in 
decorating the front and sides of the wagon. 

Mr. J. A. England proprietor of the steam laundry, as usual was 
not behind the procession, but had his laundry wagon gaily decor- 
ated and covered with signs showing why a steam laundry should 
be patronized in preference to the pig tail ornamented celestials. 
From Mr. England's wagon dodgers containing a further treatise 
on the advantages of patronizing good American institutions were 
liberally distributed. 

Messrs. Lohlien & Sigwart, successors to J. S. Collins & Co., 
were well represented by a float festooned and furnished with 
saddlery and harness works. 

Messrs. Arp & Hammond displayed a string of wagons that 
seemed a sufficient display for the Studebakers. 

Among the many others represented was a gaily decorated 
wagon bearing sign work by J. E. Tuttle. 

The large two-horse float of Messrs. A. Underwood & Bro., with 
its canvas on one side portraying the fat individual who gained the 
excessive aviordupois by purchasing at their store, and a melan- 
choly looking individual who said he had not. On the opposite 
side a representation was given of Cheyenne, which under the 
advantages of statehood had grown to a large manufacturing city. 

The Cheyenne carriage works were well represented by a display 
of several carriages and buggies of their own manufacture. 



70 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN 

Sunday, July 27, 1890 

WELCOMED HOME 



Enthusiastic, Popular Reception of 
Joseph M. Carey. 



Immense Crowds Assemble at the 
Union Pacific Depot 



And Welcome Him with Cheers. 
Music and Hearty Greetings 



And Escort Him to His Home-His 
Speech of Thanks, Etc. 



The news that Judge Carey, Wyoming's last delegate to congress, 
was to arrive home yesterday noon, created a spontaneous feeling 
of enthusiasm throughout the city and by one universal and com- 
mon impulse, citizens of every class and degree turned out to meet 
him and give him a right royal welcome. Before the train arrived 
the immense platform of the Union Pacific station was a surging 
mass. Mechanics, artisans, business men and professional men 




WyomiiJi^' State Archives and Historical Department 

HOME OF JOSEPH M. CAREY 

(Built in 1884) 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 71 

left their avocations and rushed to the depot. The Union Pacific 
band marched down the street playing their most inspiriting [sic] 
music, and entertained the waiting multitude. The train arrived on 
time and as Judge Carey stepped from the cars a grand rush was 
made by the enthusiastic crowd, all eager to grasp the hand of the 
man whose untiring labors, earnest faith and devotion had done so 
much to place the new star of statehood upon our country's flag. 
While the hearty handshaking was going on the band played wel- 
coming airs and round upon round of cheers rent the air. Silken 
badges were worn by hundreds, some inscribed "Welcome Joseph 
M. Carey, July 26, 1890," and others "State of Wyoming-44." 
Everyone seemed thrilled with enthusiastic delight. As soon as the 
numerous personal greetings were over Judge Carey was conducted 
to a carriage, the band was called and placed in front and the 
crowd insisted on falling into line and escorting the gentleman to 
his residence. The line of march was then taken up, the band 
struck up "Marching Through Georgia" and the grand army moved 
up Capitol avenue, along Sixteenth street to Ferguson and up 
Ferguson to Judge Carey's residence. All along the line of march 
there was cheering, singing and jolly remarks interchanged with by 
slanders. Everybody was happy. 

On arriving at Judge Carey's residence the line divided in two 
ranks, through which the judge was escorted to the house. On his 
reaching the portico, three times three rousing cheers filled the 
air, the band struck up anew and the judge with evident surprise 
stood gazing upon the audience around him. It was a demonstra- 
tion of which any man might feel proud and grateful. As soon as 
quiet could be restored, the judge with difficulty mastering his 
emotions, addressed the audience as follows: 

JUDGE CAREY'S REMARKS. 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN: I cannot find words to express 
my feelings at the warm, hearty and generous welcome which you 
have given me to-day, and as I once more step into my own home I 
can truly say I am glad to meet you. I am glad to be home again 
among my friends and neighbors, and I am profoundly grateful that 
I can greet you in the new state of Wyoming! [Applause.] When 
I left you a few short months ago I left behind me a territory, a 
dependency, a province. I now return and plant my feet upon the 
solid foundations of a state — a state invested with all the powers, 
prerogatives and privileges of the oldest states of the Union, the 
equal and the peer of any. I greet you as the free men and women 
of an independent, sovereign state. I am happy that the auspicious 
day has come when I can rejoice with you, and we can rejoice 
together over what has been accomplished — the realization of our 
most daring hopes and proudest anticipations. 

Statehood has been achieved only by our strong, earnest and 



72 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

untiring efforts against powerful opposing forces. The young 
bark, Wyoming, was launched upon the troubled seas. It encoun- 
tered storms, it was rocked amid fierce waves, it ran upon sand 
bars and rocks of congressional ob'ections, but in defiance of 
winds and waves the good ship sailed safely into harbor, unfurled 
its flag and displayed its glorious banner with a new star upon it — 
the bright particular star "44." [Great applause.] The achieve- 
ment is yours. Your faith and your labors have upheld the hands 
that took the helm, and held the brave ship steadily through its 
tempestuous career until it bounded into the clear and peaceful 
waters of success. And I may say to you my friends, that the 
managers of that craft, in all its stormy vicissitudes never ran up 
the signal of despair. [Cheers] Your sturdy hands, your intrepid 
courage and your cheerful voices sustained them. 

What of the future? Statehood is now a living reality. What 
will we do with our advantages and environment? Congress has 
paid us a high compliment in placing us upon an absolute equality 
with the old states. It has said to us, we have confidence in your 
manhood, virtue and intelligence, in your ability to properly direct 
your own affairs. My friends, we have a bright future before us. 
We have but to look around and see what our neighboring states 
have done to gather inspiration. We have seen a state lying upon 
our eastern borders rise from a desert plain to possess a population 
of 1,250,000 people. We have seen a state situated upon our 
southern borders grow from its pioneer settlement to a powerful 
and rich state with over 400,000 souls within its domain. There 
is as much and even more in store for us, if we rightly use and 
appreciate our advantages. We have only to go forward and pos- 
sess what is our own. We will move forward and make this young 
and vigorous state a great and powerful factor in the American 
union. [Applause.] 

I thank my friends most cordially for your very kind and hearty 
welcome. I am with you to-day to take you by the hand as a 
citizen, a neighbor and as one of the people, to help uphold the 
destinies of our state and to labor for its welfare with you, until it 
shall be one of the best, proudest and greatest states of our common 
country. 

When Judge Carey had finished his remarks cheers again filled 
the air, the crowd returned to their business, many marching back 
with the band, and the impromptu reception was over for the 
afternoon. 

In the evening, however, the judge and Mrs. Carey were the 
recipients of a fine serenade from the Union Pacific band and were 
visited by hundreds of their neighbors and friends who assembled 
to pay their respects and extend their congratulations. The band 
played many beautiful airs and were deservedly complimented for 
their efforts. 



EXCERPTS FROM THE CHEYENNE DAILY SUN, 1890 73 

TO JOSEPH M. CAREY. 

The battle's fought, the battle's won, 
With thankful hearts we say well done! 

To all our champions brave. 
No carnage marked the earnest fight, 
But souls aflame and nerved with right 
Urged on the conflict day and night 

Our statehood's cause to save. 

Then welcome Carey, brave and true, 
Wyoming's people welcome you, 

Our leader strong and great. 
The struggle's o'er, the storm is passed: 
The glorious day has come at last. 
With heroes shall thy name be classed. 

Wyoming is a state! 



Wyoming's 44th Star 



What was the arrangement of the stars in the United States flag 
after Wyoming became the 44th state? This question is being 
asked by many people, and on the basis of research, no positive 
answer can be made. 

A letter from U. S. Senator Lester C. Hunt to the Wyoming State 
Archives and Historical Department written in April, 1951, stated: 

"Under the provisions of a law passed in 1818 which states that 
a new star shall be added to the blue field of the Flag on the 4th of 
July of the year following admission of a new State into the Union, 
two stars were added on July 4, 1 89 1 , thereby making provision 
for the entry of Idaho and Wyoming in 1 890. There is no statutory 
provision, however, how the stars shall be arranged and, strangely 
enough, there are practically no pictures in existence today of the 
Flag at that time." 

Regarding a drawing enclosed with his letter. Senator Hunt 
wrote, "The drawing is a reproduction of a picture of the Flag as it 
was when flown during the Chicago Columbian Exposition during 
the time when there were 44 states." (Idaho became the 43rd 
state on July 3, 1890.) That drawing showed eight stars in the 
first and sixth rows, and seven stars in the second, third, fourth and 
fifth rows with the seven star rows staggered inward. 

Forty-four star flags in the Wyoming State Museum show the 
same number of stars in each row as described above, but the 
arrangement of the stars differs in each one. The accompanying 
photographs of two of these flags show the most common arrange- 
ments of stars in the field. 



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Chcyenm-'Deadwood Zmil Zrek 

Trek No. 15 of the Emigrant Trail Treks 

Sponsored by 

WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 

DEPARTMENT 

WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Laramie County Historical Society, Goshen County Historical 

Society and Platte County Historical Society 

under the direction of 

Albert Bartlett, Lyle Hildebrand, Paul Henderson, Dick Eklund 

and Maurine Carley 

Compiled by 

Maurine Carley - Trek Historian 

June 20-21, 1964 

Caravan — 40 cars 125 participants 

OFFICERS 

Captain: William R. Bradley, Director, Wyoming State 

Highway Patrol 

Wagon Boss:..-. Lyle Hildebrand 

Announcers:.- Verne Mokler, Bill Dubois 

Guides: Albert Bartlett, Russell Thorp, George Grant, 

Oscar Yoder, Bill McConnell, Dick Eklund, 
H. E. Guard 

Historian : Maurine Carley 

Topographer : Paul Henderson 

Photographers: ..Helen Henderson, Marguerite Martin, Pete La 

Bonte 

Press: Jim Griffith, Paula Dumford 

Registrars: Meda Walker, Jane Huston 

Cooks:. Elizabeth Hildebrand, Fran Boan, and volun- 
teers 

NOTE: The stages started at the Inter Ocean Hotel on 16th and 
Capitol in Cheyenne. However, we shall begin our mile- 
age at the entrance to Warren Air Force Base. (3 M) 

After gold was discovered in the Black Hills by General Custer's 
men in 1874 it was difficult to stop white men from entering Indian 
lands, although the land had been set aside for the Indians in the 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 77 

1868 treaty. Under pressure Congress finally forced the Sioux to 
relinquish the Hills and go to their reservations which left the 
country legally open to prospectors. 

As a result of the gold rush which followed, the Cheyenne and 
Black Hills Stage and Express Line was established. Change 
stations were built at fifteen mile intervals and fine Concord 
coaches, drawn by four or six sturdy horses, were provided. The 
stages left Cheyenne and Deadwood on a daily schedule carrying 
mail, express, gold bullion (more than a half million dollars worth 
of Black Hills gold reached Cheyenne during the summer of 1 876 ) , 
and passengers. The journey was continuous with stops only for 
meals and a change of horses. The trip took three days and nights 
covering a distance of 300 miles. 

The only worry was with hostile Indians or road agents, but the 
competent drivers and their shot gun companions kept the coaches 
rolling until 1887 when the train took the place of the stages, j 

Saturday - June 20, 1964 

Guides - Albert Bartlett, Oscar Yoder, George Grant 

8:00 A.M. The caravan assembled in Cheyenne at the entrance 
to Lions Park near the Community building on a beautiful sunny 
morning. After registration and introductions, friends greeted 
each other and new members were welcomed to the trek. 

CHEYENNE DURING STAGE COACH DAYS 
By William Dubois 

The city of Cheyenne had its beginning when the Union Pacific 
Railroad gangs came into Wyoming territory in 1867. By the end 
of a decade the town had lost much of its rowdy reputation and had 
become one of culture and refinement. The Inter Ocean Hotel 
had its grand opening on September 15, 1875, and boasted the 
most elegant furnishings and finest Brussels carpets to be found 
anywhere. From its menu one could order anything from Rich- 
elieu Ragout to Whipped Syllabub or from Blanquette of Fowls 
with Queen olives a la Concle to Larded Tendons of Veal a la 
Jackmiere. There were five churches, two schools, two hardware 
stores, three large groceries, bake shops, a jewelry store, a confec- 
tionery store, tailor shops, barber shops, blacksmith shops, board- 
ing houses, two other hotels, and of course numerous saloons and 
amusement houses. 

By 1875 the news of gold in the Black Hills created excitement 
and unrest in Cheyenne which thought of itself as the gateway to 
the Hills. A freight line from Fort Russell to Fort Laramie had 
been in existence since 1867 so the ambitious Cheyenne citizens 
dreamed of a stage line continuing on to the gold fields near Dead- 
wood. Constant attempts were made to keep Cheyenne in the 
limelight. Repeated advertisements appeared throughout the East 






or A 9 lyo 









|A1^>**. Kswl»*d 



J^i M. F e It T i>IRAMlir. 



■y^ 



Ai. Cki/4yi«r4<«.r. CPfif-itr^s t 




atK. Korxe Cv««.f(lt. CA'*f*»%>. 




9-n- cttarfHttt 



Courtesy of M. Helen Henderson 
MAP OF THE CHEYENNE AND DEADWOOD ROAD, 1876-1887 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 79 

extolling the availability of Cheyenne to the Hills. In March of 
1875 an estimated distance table from Cheyenne to Custer ap- 
peared in the Cheyenne Leader. At the same time Sidney, Ne- 
braska, also ambitious, proclaimed that it was the nearest point to 
the Hills. The two jealous towns were extremely nasty to each 
other through their newspapers. 

Cheyenne swarmed with disgruntled gold seekers, weary report- 
ers and impatient men of all types waiting for the government to 
open the Hills for prospecting. Before the wheels on the trail 
could turn, the Indians had to be persuaded to give up their claim 
to the Hills. Brilliant receptions were given for Indian Chiefs in 
the East, and they were entertained royally at the McDaniels 
Theatre in Cheyenne. Five dollar certificates were handed out by 
the theatre, and the government gave each chief a $100 outfit 
which included a horse, bridle, saddle, blanket and lariat, but still 
they refused to relinquish their land. 

There were constant tales of gold in the Black Hills during this 
time, and the government had a difficult time trying to stop the 
clamor. Military orders only made the people more anxious to go 
after the gold. 

Finally Judge WiUiam Kuykendall on November 11, 1875, pre- 
sented a bill in the state legislature to locate and establish a terri- 
torial wagon road from Cheyenne to the Black HiUs. This became 
a law on December 1, and George Homan was given the contract 
for a daily stage Mne which he wished to call the Centennial Line 
in honor of the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. However he was not sure that his stage stations would be 
adequately protected, and he feared he might not get the mail 
contract which would not be given by the government until the 
Sioux problem could be solved, so he sold his business to F. D. 
Yates and Company. 

Fortunately the Indians were ordered to report to their agencies 
by January 31, 1876, so the "first coach of the Cheyenne and 
Black Hills Stage, Mail and Express line stopped in front of the 
Inter Ocean hotel at 7 A.M. to pick up passengers." Doc Howard 
was holding the lines for the stage which held 7 passengers. It was 
from this same hotel eleven years later and also in the month of 
February, that the last stagecoach left Cheyenne. This time 
George Lathrop was on the box. 

On February 12 the line was sold to Gilmore, Salisbury and 
Patrick, and Luke Voorhees became the capable superintendent. 
Thirty Concord coaches, built for hard service and bad climate 
were shipped to Cheyenne and 600 horses were bought. By 1877 
$200,000 was invested in the Company and the monthly payroll 
for 80 men amounted to $7,000. 

Cheyenne boasted of supreme protection, but Indian attacks 
and later the road agents were to cause slack periods in the passen- 



80 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ger transportation. Late in 1878 a treasure coach was reinforced 
with iron by A. D. Butler of Cheyenne to make it bullet proof, and 
was named the Monitor. It might have been bullet proof but 
nevertheless it was robbed and the treasure taken. The robbery of 
this great coach caused a great flurry of posses who went out to 
capture the agents. ^ 

In 1883 Russell Thorp, Sr., purchased the line. No better 
qualified man could have been found. He had come to Cheyenne 
in 1875 and operated a livery stable on 16th street. In 1877 he 
had set up a hack and bus line from the railroad to the Inter Ocean 
Hotel, and the following year he organized the stockyards at the 
Union Pacific for all the stock in transit. In 1880 he became the 
superintendent for the stage line from Tie Siding to North Park, 
Colorado, and shortly thereafter he began his investments in sev- 
eral Black Hills mines. After he bought the Raw Hide Buttes 
Ranch it became the home station for the stages. Through many 
misfortunes including floods, fires and blizzards, Mr. Thorp kept 
the stages running and he took everything in good stride. 

The year 1878 was the beginning of Cheyenne's great gilded 
era — the period of the reign of the cattle men who invested heavily 
in the lands of Laramie County, and who brought to Cheyenne 
their impeccable social amenities and desires for the finer things in 
life. By 1884 the cattle era was at its peak, creating a most 
sophisticated culture and society in Cheyenne. The world famous 
Cheyenne Club was in full swing, wining and dining the wealthy 
in the atmosphere of an elegant English club. It was said that 
more high-priced liquor was bought by this club than by any other 
in the United States. The severe blizzard of 1886-1887 was to 
bring this period of glamor to an end. The cattlemen were forced 
to return to their homes in the East or Europe after the northerly 
blasts swept away their fortunes. 

( It was on February 19, 1 887, that the last stage coach rolled out 
from Cheyenne to the Hills. The Cheyenne and Northern Railroad 
had been built so the stages were no longer necessary or practical. 
It is indeed a strange coincidence that these two fascinating chap- 
ters of Cheyenne's history were concluded at the same time. 

9:00 A.M. The trip through the former Fort D. A. Russell, 
now Warren Air Force Base, was made possible by Major Huley 
Bray, who arranged for the Commanding Officer, Colonel W. W. 
Brier Jr., to meet us at the site of the original entrance of Fort 
Russell. The site is now marked by two trees and a stone marker 
which reads as follows: 

These two cottonwood trees mark the entrance to FORT D. A. 
RUSSELL as it existed in 1885. To the memory of the men of the 
Ninth Infantry Regiment, U. S. Army, who formed the garrison at 
that time. This marker is respectfully dedicated. U. S. Air Force 
1957 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 81 

After leaving the Fort we turned east to pass Round Top Res- 
ervoir where we could see the trail (5.4M). At6.6Mwe crossed 
the Organ ditch which first brought Crow Creek's water to Chey- 
enne. 

As we crossed Dry Ravine (9 M) we could see on our left the 
site of a road ranch called Nine Mile which was not a regular stage 
stop but accommodated freighters. 

9:30 A.M. After crossing several gentle rolling hills we 
dropped down to Lodge Pole Creek (18.3 M) and stopped at a 
monument on which was inscribed the following: 

POLE CREEK RANCH was 1st regular stop of the Cheyenne & 
Black Hills Stage 18 miles from Cheyenne. A hotel was built in 1876. 

THE SCHWARTZE RANCH OR POLE CREEK RANCH 
By Ted Bohlen 

After leaving Cheyenne and passing through a series of gently 
rolling hills, the Cheyenne - Deadwood road dropped down a steep 
slope into a valley to the crossing of Lodge Pole Creek, 18 miles 
from Cheyenne. There, Pole Creek Ranch was the first regular 
stop on the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage. Fred W. Schwartze, 
the owner, had ranched here since 1871. He owned several hun- 
dred head of cattle and horses, and had an excellent meadow from 
which he annually cut over a hundred tons of hay. He also raised 
fine vegetables, including everything from potatoes to artichokes. 

There was a large, round, frame barn close to the house, and 
cowsheds and corrals were on the opposite side of the road. Vis- 
itors were often taken to a platform at the top of the large wind- 
mill. From here they had a fine view of Pole Creek Valley, includ- 
ing Post's P. O. Ranch, four miles down the creek, and Tim Dyer's 
sheep ranch, an equal distance upstream. 

The Pole Creek Ranch was a favorite stopping place for the 
Black Hillers. In May of 1876 Schwartze constructed a fine two- 
story- hotel, in which he furnished meals at all hours to the weary 
travelers, and room accomodations. He advertised that his terms 
were "reasonable." He could stable 50 head of stock, and the 
horses of the stage line were changed here. 

From this little, wind-swept Wyoming ranch came one of the 
handsomest chorus girls in the original company which played the 
"Prince of Pilsen." Her name was Minna Schwartze. A rising 
young reporter, who first saw the show in Chicago, became enam- 
ored of the striking young actress and married her. He was Frank- 
lin P. Adams, and he later became a famous newspaper columnist 
and a well-known and respected radio performer. Some years 
later they were divorced and Minna went to live in Paris. A 
Wyoming friend remarked, "A long trail from Pole Creek to 
Paris." 



82 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Minna Adams recalled a fracas which occurred at the ranch 
when she was very small. It seems that a storm was brewing that 
day in late autumn and everyone from the ranch, including the 
bartender, was helping with the haying. Mrs. Isaac Bard, a 
neighbor, arrived with some friends for a visit with Mrs. Schwartze. 
As Mrs. Schwartze was preparing coffee for her guests, she heard 
shooting in the bar which adjoined the large dining room. The 
guests and two Swedish hired girls lost no time in dashing out of 
the house, fleeing along the porch in the general area toward the 
creek. Mrs. Schwartze, being in what was then known as a 
"delicate condition," lifted Minna to her shoulder and started to 
follow those who had already departed. As she was about to 
leave, a shot came through the door and hit a china door knob, 
deflecting across the room. At the same time, a large man, 
obviously in a drunken stupor, lurched through the door, cocked 
pistol in hand, and asked where the whiskey was. 

Minna recalled that she remembered her mother grabbing the 
big fellow by the collar, and in a most reckless manner marching 
him through the door to the bar. All the while the six-shooter was 
being waved about in a manner which, to put mildly, was far from 
comforting. Mrs. Schwartze and Minna joined the others by the 
creek and did not return to the house until the stage arrived. That 
same night Mrs. Schwartze's child was born dead. 

Efforts to track down the drunken celebrants were not success- 
ful. A rather detailed account of the affair appeared in the 1882 
Police Gazette which no doubt left its readers wondering about 
the "Great Wild West." 

10:00 A. M. Departed. The country continued to be rolling. 
At 25.1 M the old trail could be seen 100 feet to the left around the 
foot of a hill. 

10:15 A.M. The second scheduled stop for the north-bound 
stages was the Horse Creek Station (28. M) where no evidence 
remains of the former buildings. The Pagan Ranch location was 
pointed out on a meadow about 1 50 yards north of the creek. 

PAGAN RANCH OR HORSE CREEK STATION 

By Mary Elizabeth Carpender 

It might be interesting to note at this time the type of vehicle 
used for the Cheyenne-Deadwood run. The stage coaches were 
made in Concord, New Hampshire. They were huge affairs with 
no springs but were cradled on two strips of leather which extended 
from jacks in front of the front axle to jacks in back of the rear 
axle. This design was known as a thorough brace. The body 
rocked on these braces and nothing has ever been built to compare 
with the easy riding thorough-brace coach. 

Pour or six horses were used to pull these stages, depending on 
the size of the coach, the cargo and number of passengers. The 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 83 

driver, skillful in handling the reins, rode in the driver's seat. Be- 
hind him was the Dicky seat; also on top as was the China seat 
which faced the rear. A shotgun messenger, a man with a gun, 
was seated beside the driver, and when necessary for extra pro- 
tection, a couple more shotgun messengers were mounted and rode 
at the side and rear of the coach. The passengers rode inside or 
on top and the luggage, mail and express were stored in two com- 
partments, or boots, located at the front and back of the coach. 
The treasure box was under the inside front seat or sometimes in 
the front boot. 

First class tickets, Cheyenne to Custer City, were $20, second 
class tickets were $15 and the third class cost $10. Rates applied 
only to through tickets. Some people who paid only $5 had to 
walk behind the coaches on the hard pulls up steep hills. 

The stage route was divided into eight divisions from 40 to 60 
miles in length, depending upon the water situation. Within these 
divisions were stage stations or eating stations. We are visiting 
stage stations on this trek. The stations, where a change of horses 
was made and meals were provided for the passengers, were about 
16 miles apart. The average speed of the stage was about eight 
miles per hour. The drivers drove day and night. It took 48 to 
56 hours including stops, to make the run from Cheyenne to the 
Black Hills, a distance of 300 miles. Weather conditions were 
often the determining factor of the length of time. 

An eating station was set up here at Pagan's, about 28 miles 
from Cheyeime. It was usually referred to as Pagan's Ranch. 
Here Michael Pagan in the spring of 1876 completed a very large, 
solid structure containing nine rooms and a "ladies' parlor." Pa- 
gan furnished meals at 50^ each and he had stabling quarters for 
75 head of stock. He owned about 150 head of cattle and prided 
himself on raising fine watermelons, tomatoes and cabbage. Dur- 
ing two days of the big snow storm of 1876, approximately 250 
travelers slept in the Pagan kitchen, stables and outbuildings in 
addition to the regular rooms. 

Ill health forced Pagan to sell early in 1877 to Mr. Moore. 
Three years later O. P. Goodwin, married to a Sioux Indian, pur- 
chased the station. The ranch was treeless. The buildings listed 
were the house, saloon and station stable. 

Some stage stations were not as commodious as others, which 
can be seen from a notation in Ayer's diary: "In the morning the 
wind died down and it stopped snowing (March 8, 1876) but 
continued cold. We left Pole Creek at 8:30 A.M. and arrived at 
Horse Creek about noon. Here we found no wood, but stopped to 
feed and rest the horses, and we ate a cold lunch. At Bear Springs 
we paid a dollar each, for the priviledge of spreading our blankets 
on a dirt floor and sleeping in a log house." This incident was 
apparently before Michael Pagan established his ranch. 

In the Isaac Bard diary we find a couple of references to Pagan's 



84 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ranch. "Mon. Jan. 1, 1875. Had a rather poor breakfast at 
Pagan's." 

"Mon. Mar. 13. Started early for Chug and had a pleasant Day 
stopped at Poll Creek and had a glass of beer with Schwartze then 
drove over to Horse Creek and put up with Pagan for the night. 
They had a little dance during the evening Pulled out before Mrs. 
Pagan got breakfast." 

10:30 A. M. Very shortly we came to Highway 87 on which we 
traveled to the Bard Ranch (28 M) where we stopped at the 
marker which reads: 

Cheyenne, Ft. Laramie, Deadwood Trail, 1876 - 1887. Started 
from Camp Carlin and Ft. D. A. Russell on the west edge of Chey- 
enne. This road first ran to Ft. Laramie and in 1876 was extended to 
Deadwood, Dakota Territory and the Black Hills Gold fields. It also 
joined the Bozeman Road and Montana. Little Bear Stage Station, 
150 yards east, was opened as a road ranch by Isaac Bard, May 4, 
1875. It became a Stage Station in 1877. 

Verne Mokler told that he and his parents passed near Bard's 
Ranch on Arizona Crossing when it took two days to make the trip 
from Casper to Cheyenne by car in the early 1900's. 

ISAAC BARD STAGE STATION— LITTLE BEAR, 
WYOMING 

With notes from his diaries 

1874—1875—1876 

By Grace Logan Schaedel 

Isaac Bard might not have been a lettered man. His spelling was 
often completely original. Yet, Isaac Bard left a substantial heri- 
tage of Wyoming history. Like John Hunton, he v/rote a day-by- 
day diary through some of the most dramatic years of the last 
century. He filled it with laconic comments on the tragedy, hard- 
ships and trivia of raw frontier life. And he had a gift for detail 
that made his account come alive for the reader. 

Mark Chapman once owned the Bard diaries — and would have 
given them to the Wyoming Historical Department in the 1930's, 
but at that time they were not interested.* About 1942, he lent 
them to the writer briefly to read, granting permission to use notes 
on the material, covering 1874-'75-'76, the years of the inception 
of the Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage Line. 



* Editor's Note: The original Bard Diaries were purchased by W. R. 
Coe and are located in the Collection of Western Americana at Yale Uni- 
versity Library. Microfilm copies of the diaries were secured by the Wyo- 
ming State Archives and Historical Department from Yale University in 
1954 for research use in the Historical Division. 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 85 

Born in New York state in 1841, Isaac Bard came to Cheyenne 
in 1867 with a Union Pacific construction crew and when the rail- 
road moved on west, he stayed and freighted out of Cheyenne. He 
located a preemption claim on Crow Creek, now partly within the 
Cheyenne city limits, where he lived and one summer grew vege- 
tables to sell. 

In 1 876, Bard filed on a soldier's homestead here on Little Bear, 
about 3 1 miles by stage road north of Cheyenne, and here he lived 
with his wife Rose, once a New York state school teacher, and his 
mother. Here he established a stage station and public house for 
Pilgrims — or Black Hillers, as he called them. 

Clyde Snow, reared at Bear Springs, says Bard was almost six 
feet tall, a thin black-haired man. 

But to Bard's diaries. In Cheyenne in 1874 he wrote: "The 
wind blew the roof off the Cheyenne Methodist Church. Feb. 18, 
1874. The military act like they meant business. Seen 18-yoak 
teams start for Ft. Laramie from Carlin, escorted by one company 
of cavalry. Rose making her a redingote. 

"Ja. 8, 1875. Fearful cold. Froze one ear going to P O and 
back. Rose had her house plants all frozen last night. Buckets 
froze fast in well. Apples froze hard in cellar. Our pet robin 
frozen stiff last night." 

The following entry is of personal interest to the writer. "Helped 
Hawle one barrel of water up to Mr. Logan's House on the Hill 
East of Town. Reed one Dollar for it." Mr. Logan was Hill 
Logan, father of Ernest Logan and grandfather of the writer, who 
homesteaded in 1875 on what is now Alta Vista, with his house 
on the hill west of Alta Vista school. He drowned in Lake Minne- 
haha in 1878. 

"Oct. 2, 1875. Seen President Grant at Inter Ocean Hotel. 
Oct. 12. Major Glafcke's stable is burning. Oct. 13. The water 
boiled from the potatoes much sooner than usual. Good indication 
of rain. [And rain it did.] Dec. 11, 1875. Arrived at Chug 
station in time for dinner. Portugee Phillips building a stable to 
hold 24 horses. Dec. 12, 1875. Phillips killed a white spotted 
cow about 4 years old with a calf in her. A sin to kill her. Dec. 
24, 1875. Cheyenne. Bought for mother a syrcle cohmb and a 
large pare of shears. Will put them in her stocking this eve. Took 
3 ounces of gold dust to apply on acct." 

And then to 1876 on the ranch. "Two bright sundogs. indica- 
tion of continued cold. The wind blows from every point of the 
compass. Mother received a nice alpaca dress from daughter 
Mattie. 

"Jan. 26, 1876. Put up a sign board for Mr. Phillips: 'Chug- 
water Ranch by John Phillips. Hay, Grain and Stabling. 52 
miles to Cheyenne, 24 to Laramie' I think it will draw Pilgrims. 

"Jan. 27, 1876. At Chug. Mr. Brown came alone stoped for 
dinner. First trip of the Black Hills stage line . . . down mail came 



86 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

along but did not stop. Feb. 7. Mother on the war path. Every- 
thing going as smoothly as pulHng a cat by the tail." (NOTE: 
Mrs. George Snow of Bear Springs once told the writer that Bard's 
mother in her later years was half crazy. Mrs. McCarty and baby 
Ed spent the night there and old Mrs. Bard said, "1 just love babies. 
I kill 'em and drink their blood.") 

"Feb. 29, 1876. Oure Black Hills crowd all pulled out after 
laying over one day. I am very glad of it. They neaded watching 
all the time. 1 missed Saw, Hammer and hand Axe — gone to the 
Black Hills, I believe. 

"Feb. 22, 1 876. Very pleasant all day. There is 6 or 8 b Hills 
teams here. Calamity Jane is hear going up with the troops. I 
think there is trouble ahead with the Indians. Everything is crowd- 
ed hear, there is 7 companies on the road. 

"Feb. 23, 1876. Ranger Johns is here with horces he recovered 
from the Indians. They are rading on the Laramie again. 

"March 1, 1876. Blustery. Worked on the new bar room all 
day for John Phillips at Chug. March 2. The Black Hillers are 
bothering me a good Eale of late. Can't leave a thing lying around, 
for it will get the BH fever and start immediately for the Hills. A 
rough bunch. Mostly miners. Friday, March 3, 1876. The re- 
port is that Dick Latham and Daugherty is killed by Indians. 
Nothing shure. As the Indians say, we are having a heap of wind 
of late. 

"April 3, 1876. Now that the roads are all right, all of Crook's 
command are on the road, headed for Cheyenne. The Indians 
got the better of them. April 23. Found the bones of a man in 
the brush, then went prospecting for rabbits. April 25. Mr. 
Graves passed up today with a coffin for the body of Mr. Brown, 
stage driver. The Indians are having there own way. I hope it 
will not last always. It looks like oure government is of no ac- 
count, it does not protect the lives of its sitizens. April 26, 1876. 
Stuttering Brown's body passed down today. Heck Reels bull 
teams came in and camped down the crick. 

"April 28, 1876. I will now try keeping a public house if the 
Lord is willing and the Indians will let me alone. Tues., May 2. 
1876. MacFarland and Charles Clay stayed here all night, m\ 
first customers. Ed Carrington went in town to marry Mrs. Math- 
ers, but J. Owns got ahead of him and got away with her. Edward 
says that is the way they serve a man that hasn't any money . . . 
The ranch pretty well perfumed by a polecat and whiskey." 

Meantime, the Indian scare along the Black Hills Road sent 
would-be miners back in droves; most who failed to find gold were 
indulging in sour grapes. 

"May 3, 1876. Lots of Black Hillers passed, bound for Chey- 
enne. In a terrible hurry to give a bad report of the Hills. They 
got all they want of it. May 5. Men coming out of the Hills very 
fast. Some waggons show marks of Indian Bulletts. Indian news 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 87 

is looking bloody again. Shot at a wolf with a needle gun. 

"May 8, 1876. Found my stear on Horse Creek. He broke 
for the brush. My horse throughed me. Seen a polecat. My old 
black cow had two white calves. One come dead, the other doing 
well. Rose beats the devil on promises. 

"May 17, 1876. Seen General Crook today. He looks like 
some old farmer, is very sociable. They are camped down the 
crick. May 19. Took in $25 on my ranch today. It is the best 
sale yet. 

"July 18, 1876. Clear but windy. The noted Chief Spotted 
Taile called on his way to the Agency. I drank a glass of beare 
with him. He is a fine large well-built man. has been on a visit 
to the whites in Cheyenne." 

And then our notes skip to Dec. 10, 1876: "was accidentley 
shot in the leg this evening in taking down a Revolver, it slipped 
out of Scabbard and struck floor on hammer whitch rested on cart- 
ridge and exploded, the Ball entering the Inside of Small part of 
leg and ranging up, making a 6-inch wound. I suffered teribaley 
for about 3 Days, but it is now mutch easier." 

Isaac Bard himself once walked to the Black Hills, and that 
diary was the most amusing of all, Mark Chapman said. Unfor- 
tunately I never read that one. Bard lived on at Little Bear, and 
then a ranch he bought a few miles farther west, until 1914 when 
he moved to Cheyenne. He kept up the diaries a few months, but 
found little of interest to enter. The 1915 edition had more and 
more blank pages until he gave up entirely. He died in 1919. 

Bard may have minimized the hardships and dangers of ranch 
life after he got away from them, and remembered only the excite- 
ment. Possibly he then felt as Billie Lannen did when he moved to 
town from his ranch at Cheyenne Pass. Said Lannen wistfully, 
"Ah, yes. The ranch was always a little bit of heaven to me." 

10:55 A.M. We departed north on the highway for a couple of 
miles then turned east to pass the old Bear Springs Stage Station 
(38 M) named for the springs which once gushed up through the 
sandy bed of Bear Springs Creek. There, in 1875, Jose Armijo 
built his ranch and advertised it as a "first class ranch, plenty of 
stable room, hay and grain. The bar supplied with the best of 
liquors, meals at all hours." 

He later sold the ranch to his brother, Miguel, who was slow in 
making payments. On February 13, 1877, Jose rode to the ranch 
to collect his money but didn't get it as Miguel shot him to death 
during a quarrel. 

The road continued over plains and hills to the well-timbered, 
picturesque Chugwater Valley with its perpendicular bluffs on both 
sides of the valley. In Chugwater (52 M) we paused to read a 
marker placed by the former Historical Landmark Commission in 
commemoration of its importance as a division point on the stage 
line. The monument reads: 



88 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

CHUGWATER. Division Stage Station Cheyenne - Black Hills 
Trail Established March 18, 1876 Abandoned September 1887 Russell 
Thorp, Owner 

12:00 P.M. We turned on the first road in town to tiie right 
and crossed the railroad tracks to the Swan Company buildings 
where lunches were eaten on the lawn of the old hotel, now the 
home of Mr. and Mrs. Curtis Templin. Mrs. Templin graciously 
permitted the trekkers to wander through the house where all 
admired the furnishings and room arrangement. 

In 1964 the Swan Land and Catde Co. was given National 
Registered Historic Landmark status, chosen because it is an 
"excellent example of the early cattle empires that made such an 
outstanding contribution to the early development of the West." 

CHUGWATER STAGE STATION AND DIVISION POINT 
By Russell Staats, Mayor of Chugwater 

One hundred years ago there were no trees or buildings on this 
spot. Then came Portugee Phillips, Hi Kelly and Thomas Max- 
well, thrifty ranchmen, to locate on these broad meadows and make 
their homes. Phillips and Kelly were quick to see the importance 
of the stage line which passed through here so they built hotels 
and helped Chugwater to become the first division point on the 
trail. 

Phillips kept a well-stocked bar, served good meals and had 
stalls for fifty head of stock. [At this point Mr. Staats displayed 
patents for Mr. Phillips' land signed by President Ulysses S. Grant 
and Rutherford B. Hayes] . Phillips sold his holdings for $16,000. 
His hotel was torn down years ago. 

The building which stands here was the stage station and hotel 
run by Hi Kelly who came in the early 70's. His was not the 
ordinary stage station on the plains, but had the appearance of the 
home of a wealthy farmer. You can see that the exterior was 
attractive and it was as well furnished as some of the best homes in 
Cheyenne. The stable across the road from the hotel was large 
enough to hold 30 horses. In spite of constant vigilance Indians 
occasionally went into the barn and stole the horses. 

Tom Duffy, an expert reinsman and a driver with style, drove 
between Chugwater and Ft. Laramie in the 1880's. When Mr. 
Thorp, Sr. gave one of the Black Hills iron clad coaches to 
Buffalo Bill for his Wild West Show in Europe, Duffy went along 
as driver. Later he drove a coach in Yellowstone and finally as a 
very old man, he drove a little buckboard on a rural free delivery 
route. 

1 :30 P.M. Although the trail followed down the valley it has 
long been washed away so we departed on Highway 87 to the Bor- 
deaux turnoff. Many times the stage had to take to higher ground 
when the valley was flooded. 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 89 

2:00 P.M. We stopped near the spot where the John Hunton 
Hotel once stood (66 M) near Chugwater Creek which was 14 
miles from Chugwater Station by the trail. 

BORDEAUX 
By Virginia Trenholm 

One of the most historic sites in Platte County is Old Bordeaux, 
or Hunton's, as it was known during the '70's when the station 
was owned and operated by John Hunton, one of Wyoming's lead- 
ing historians. Although Bordeaux predates Hunton at this place, 
both names are reminiscent of days gone by. 

James Bordeaux was a shrewd business man. An evidence of 
this is to be found in Francis Parkman's Oregon Trail, which tells 
that through his persuasive argument he was able to talk Whirl- 
wind, the Sioux war chief, out of going on the warpath. Under his 
influence, the Indian "became tired like a child of his favorite 
plan." Bordeaux then exultantly predicted that there would be no 
war. Business could be conducted as usual. 

The blustery Frenchman, known to his wife's people as "Mato" 
(Bear), was the son-in-law of Swift Bear, a Brule Sioux chief. His 
story, recorded by his daughter Susan Bordeaux Bettleyoun and 
found in manuscript form in the Nebraska State Library, makes 
interesting reading. 

We know that he was in charge at Fort Laramie during Fre- 
mont's visit in 1 842 and Parkman's in 1 846, as both mention him 
in their journals. Although he had several road ranches, he made 
his headquarters at the one at Bordeaux Bend, nine miles down the 
North Platte from Fort Laramie. It was there that the Grattan 
Massacre took place. 

In 1867, Bordeaux found out that the War Department had 
decided to construct a fort to the south. Through Antoine Ladeau, 
a guide at Fort Laramie, he learned: (1) where Fort D. A. Rus- 
sell was to be located, (2) where the road, as well as the telegraph 
line, connecting it with Fort Laramie was to be constructed, and 
( 3 ) where the road would branch to the left, going north from Fort 
Russell to Fort Fetterman, the supply depot for Forts Reno, Phil 
Kearny, and C. F. Smith. 

The branch road, difficult to follow today since much of the 
ground has been tilled, was known variously as the Sweitzer — the 
Fetterman — the Bordeaux Cutoff. From Bordeaux it went to 
Billy Bacon's on the Laramie, to Tobe Miller's on Cottonwood, 
to the White Bridge on Horseshoe and on northward to Fetterman. 
The enterprising Bordeaux chose to establish his road ranch at the 
strategic place where the road branched. There he built a three- 
room log structure, and with supplies he had brought from Bor- 
deaux Bend, set up his store on Chugwater. After placing Hugh 



90 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Whitesides in charge, he returned to his headquarters at Bordeaux 
Bend. 

According to John Hunton, Whitesides was killed behind his 
counter the following year by an outlaw, known as Franklin, "a 
professional desperado and horse-thief/' His subsequent hanging, 
it seems, had nothing to do with his killing Whitesides. The next 
managers were Cy Williams and a man named SwoUey, who 
employed a young half-breed Indian boy, Baptiste Ladeau, pre- 
sumably the son of Antoine. 

One morning in March, 1868, the boy quit his job and started 
to Fort Laramie. On the way, he, his horse, and his dog were 
overtaken by the unscrupulous Williams and Swolley and killed. 
Six weeks later the bodies were found by soldiers. In the mean- 
time, Williams had been slain by half-breeds at the Cuny and 
Ecoffey ranch near Fort Laramie and Swolley had quit the country. 
Bordeaux was then operated by Ed Fouchs, an old bullwhacker, 
for a couple of years. In the summer of 1 870, Fouchs sold it to 
John Barrett, who in turn sold it to John Hunton, October 28, 
1870. 

The first mention of excitement in the Black Hills is found in 
John Hunton's Diary, under date of March 23, 1874. An expedi- 
tion was being sent to the Black Hills to bring the miners out. The 
"considerable excitement," to which Hunton casually refers was 
the discovery of gold that was to cause frenzied prospectors to 
rush by the thousands to "the Hills." No thought was given by 
the white man to the treaty rights of the Indians. 

Under date of April 21, Numpa, a Sioux, came to Bordeaux 
with the information that the Indians were divided on the sale of 
the Black Hills. Unless satisfactory arrangements could be made, 
the Indians would fight. A month later, a delegation of eighty 
tribal leaders under Red Cloud passed through Bordeaux on their 
way to Washington. Louis Bordeaux, the half-breed son of James, 
served as interpreter on the fruitless journey to settle the issue 
with the Great White Father. The Sioux returned, more deter- 
mined than ever not to sell but to defend by war, if necessary, 
their rights to the Black Hills. 

In July, 1875, General Crook and his command passed through 
Bordeaux going north. In November, a Cheyenne paper pre- 
dicted that by May next the Black Hills would be in the possession 
of 5,000 miners. Stage companies were quickly organized, and 
coaches, carrying gold seekers in ever-increasing numbers, passed 
through Bordeaux, while Indian resentment mounted. Sitting Bull, 
in January, 1876, was the first to go on the warpath, and Crook 
made ready his expedition at Fort Fetterman. The cavalry, mov- 
ing north, soon exhausted the supply of hay at Bordeaux. 

In spite of war clouds, business was booming at Bordeaux as 
well as at Cheyenne. In April a new dirt roof was put on the old 
roadhouse, and in May, Jim Hunton — the youngest of the three 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 91 

Hunton brothers — was killed by a raiding party. Except for fur- 
nishing hay and beef — it took six days to drive cattle from Bor- 
deaux to Fetterman — this station was not directly involved in the 
Indian wars of '76. There were, however, scares and skirmishes 
throughout the area. In October, the Indians, who had driven 
away all of Hunton's horses and mules at the time they killed young 
Hunton, returned to kill a soldier, wound two others, and steal 
four horses. 

Crook again passed through Bordeaux, this time in January, 
1877, on his way south after his major expedition against the 
Sioux. The pack trains camped on the creek just below the ranch 
buildings. 

Throughout the '70's, Bordeaux served as a mail distribution 
center for nearly all of the ranches to the west and north, as far 
away as La Bonte, Horseshoe, Cottonwood, North Laramie and 
Sybille. Except for a brief time in 1874-75, the Bordeaux road 
ranch sold whiskey and furnished meals and lodging until the 
railroad reached there in 1887. In 1881 the concrete ranch house 
was built for Blanche, John Hunton's Virginia bride. In 1887 
the hotel, the large barn, and the office building were constructed. 
They were located half a mile north and west of the original road 
ranch, which was about 250 feet west of where the LD ranch house 
now stands. The Bordeaux ranch comprised 6,000 acres of 
patented land. Hunton, who went to Fort Laramie in 1888 to 
make his home, gave up managing control in October, 1889, with 
Teschmacher and de Billier succeeding him. This location was 
favored by the latter, while his partner preferred their ranch hold- 
ings on Uva and Cottonwood, commonly known as the Duck Bar 
ranches. 

Over the years, all record has been lost of the people who lie 
buried in the unmarked graves to the north of the ranch house. 
And yet in reading the Hunton diaries we have a lively glimpse of 
happenings at Bordeaux during the '70's. Two characters, who 
stand out from among the rest, were "Little Bat" Garnier and his 
sister Lallee. Their father was a French trader and their mother a 
Sioux. Little Bat held the respect of John Hunton until he met 
his untimely death. Lallee found herself in the unhappy position 
of being a discarded Indian wife like many others who were sent to 
the reservation when white women were coming West to take their 
places in the newly settled country. Although you may have 
noticed that Mr. Hunton, like others of the time, referred to her in 
his diary by the unflattering term "squaw," he lived to regret it. 

Sometime before his death in 1928, he visited the State Library 
where he called for a government report which told how "Hunton's 
squaw" had saved the lives of eight soldiers at Bordeaux by warn- 
ing them that the Sioux were planning an attack. John Hunton, 
after verifying the report, said to the librarian, "Don't ever call an 
Indian woman a squaw. Those women were just as loyal to their 




TREKKERS GATHERED AT LIONS PARK, CHEYENNE, 
STARTING TREK 




CHUG SPRINGS, ALSO KNOW AS PATTON'S 




SITE OF EAGLE'S NEST STAGE STATION ON CHEYENNE- 
DEADWOOD TRAIL 

Courtesy of Pierre La Bonte 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 93 

husbands as any white woman could possibly be!" Although he 
followed the pattern of the time by sending Lallee to the reserva- 
tion, she had earned a lasting place in his affections, and he 
respected her in his memory. 

2:30 P.M. For the next four miles we traveled the old trail to 
Chug Springs (70 M), a stage station and a favorite spot of the 
Indians. 

CHUG SPRINGS 

By Hazelle Ferguson 

Chug Springs, located in a pleasant valley four or five miles 
northeast of Bordeaux, was used by travelers as early as 1830. 
The first reference I found to Chug Springs was made by John 
Hunton who stated that Robert Campbell spent the winter of 
1834 here when he was on his way from St. Louis to the rendez- 
vous at Green River with four cows and two bulls. 

The abundance of native meadow grass provided grazing for 
the horses and the springs furnished plenty of good water for man 
and beast. The sandrock bluffs to the north and east sheltered 
the place from cold winter winds, and wood was available from the 
willow and boxelder trees along the stream. 

Hunton also related that long prior to 1867 there was a trail 
running southwest from old Fort Laramie via Chug Springs to 
Chugwater Creek. Although this trail was used chiefly by Indians, 
some white men's wagons also traveled it. 

In 1871 a man named Patton built a small log house at Chug 
Springs, which became a road station from that time until about 
1880, when John Hunton's brother, Thomas, placed a homestead 
filing on it. The Black Hills Stage Company kept a station here 
part of the time from 1879 to 1882. 

The name of Chugwater is one to conjure with, and many un- 
doubtedly wonder how the name originated. It has been estab- 
lished that Chug Springs has been spoken of as such long before 
Chugwater Creek or the town of Chugwater were heard of. Old 
timers of the region state that the name was attached to the creek 
by the Indians. They claim that "chug" was an Indian name for 
"beef." The story goes that it was the habit of the Indians to drive 
the buffalo and antelope over these cliffs along the stream, and in 
this way, slaughter them for beef. The white man's interpretation 
is that as the animals hit the stream, the waters went "ker-chug." 
Hence Chugwater was named. 

Some highly imaginative stories are told about the happenings 
at these Springs during those early years. Gold taken from stage 
robberies is supposed to be hidden in the cliffs to the north. It 
has never been found. One man, so the story goes, was a good 
gambler and won Chug Springs in a poker game. 

A grave near the bluffs proves one true story. A young half- 



94 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

blood Sioux Indian named Baptiste Ladeau told his employers, 
Cy Williams and Swolley, that he was going to quit and go to Fort 
Laramie. He saddled his pony and started with his dog following 
him. In the neighborhood of Chug Springs he was overtaken by 
Williams. Swolley and another man chased him up the rocky 
bluffs where they killed him, his horse and dog. The remains were 
discovered by a detachment of the Fourth Infantry who were en- 
camped for the night at Chug Springs while enroute from Fort 
D. A. Russell to Fort Laramie about six weeks after the killing. 
The grave can be seen to this day. 

The historic, once-bustling Chug Springs lies sleeping in the sun. 
Only an occasional visitor now and then stops to try and recapture 
the atmosphere of an almost forgotten era. The spot is lovely and 
inviting and the bitter-sweet pungency of the sagebrush still floats 
on the soft breeze. Today the silence is broken only by the song 
of a meadow lark. 

3:00 P. M. After leaving the Springs we passed through Ante- 
lope Gap, used by the animals as they came to the creek from the 
plains now known as Slater Flats, fine wheat country. 

3:30 P.M. We stopped below high, perpendicular, sandstone 
cliffs where eagles once nested. Remains of the old Eagle's Nest 
Stage Station (77 M) can still be found at the base of the cliffs. 

EAGLE'S NEST STAGE STATION 
By Mr! and Mrs. Elvin Hudson 

When the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage Line ran north in the 
late 1 870's a stage station was established here at Eagle's Nest 
Gap. This road was used by the Cheyenne to Deadwood stage 
line, also by government freight wagons hauling freight between 
Cheyenne and Fort Laramie. Eagle's Nest was a regular stop for 
bull teams as well as for the stages. 

In the late 1 860's a branch line of the Oregon Trail was estab- 
lished. This trail branched off the Cheyenne to Deadwood trail 
at Eagle's Nest, going through this gap and winding Northwest. It 
crossed the Laramie River near Uva, and joined the old Oregon 
Trail near Fort Fetterman. This route became known as the Fet- 
terman cut-off, since it connected Ft. Fetterman with Ft. Laramie. 
Why they called it a cutoff, 1 don't know since it was a longer route 
than the one down the North Platte. However, it avoided the 
difficult drive through North Platte canyon. 

The cliffs are soft and porous, and as you see, many emigrants 
paused to carve their names. One date carved here is 1842, which 
if not faked, must have been left by a solitary trapper, as there is 
no record of wagons using the trail that early. 

These high cliffs and the narrow pass made this an ideal spot for 
road agents who harassed the line for the treasures that came out 
of the Deadwood mines. When the stage passengers and freighters 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 95 

traveling south were safely past Eagle's Nest, they heaved a sigh 
of relief, thinking they had it made. While attention was being 
concentrated on the breaking up of gangs or road agents operating 
North of Hat Creek, the stage was stopped in this new locality. On 
October 3, 1878, two men held up the stage near Eagle's Nest. 
Upon command, the sleeping passengers roused and climbed out 
of the coach to line up with their hands above their heads. By the 
light of matches, one robber searched the passengers while the 
other stood guard. A Mrs. King had hidden a roll of bills in her 
hair. She was searched twice. The second time she was com- 
pelled to take down her hair from which the men took $240. The 
wooden treasure-box was broken open and searched but no trea- 
sure was found. Some valuable papers were left undisturbed. 

Not all cargo on these stage and freight lines pertained to the 
military, or to gold mining. At the ninth annual meeting of the 
Cheyenne Bible Society in the autumn of 1876, $60 was collected 
and a committee was appointed to distribute Bibles in the Black 
Hills mining towns. Soon afterwards Reverend J. W. Cowhick, 
with the Bibles, was hsted as a passenger on the stage. 

Eagle's Nest Stage Station was kept by Remeyer, George Hawk 
and others. George Hawk was agent from 1881 to 1883. In the 
early days the Eagle's Nest Post Office was run by Mrs. McFar- 
land, a widow and mother of John and Dave McFarland. Both 
these men lived many years in this area and hauled freight over 
this route. 

Mention is made of Eagle's Nest several times in John Hunton's 
diary of 1881 : August 30, ". . . sent two loads of hay to Eagle's 
Nest." 

Since there was no water at the Eagle's Nest station, and it was 
2Vi miles down the sand draw to the spring, an attempt was made 
to get water here at the gap. A deep hole was dug by hand, but. 
sohd rock was struck and they found no water, so it was necessary 
to haul water for the station, and to drive the livestock down to the 
spring, or let them go without water until Six Mile or Chug Springs 
was reached, depending on which direction they were headed. 

The area west of Eagle's Nest, along Chug Creek, was home- 
steaded and settled at an early date, but a vast area east of Eagle's 
Nest and Chug Springs, known as Goshen Hole, was wide-open 
range for many years. The land near water was grazed by cattle, 
but a large portion of it, including this Eagle's Nest divide, being 
far from water, was grazed almost entirely by horses and antelope. 
Hundreds of fine horses, owned by various ranchers, ranged here 
where there was no loco weed, and the grass was abundant the 
year round. Tom Hunton ran from four to five hundred head of 
horses here from the time he lived at Bordeaux until about 1918, 
when all the range was homesteaded. At the time of World War I, 
Hunton and others sold many cavalry and artillery horses to the 
Army. 



96 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Years after the stage station and postoffice were abandoned, the 
Eagle's Nest Gap was still well known for the annual horse round- 
up. All the horses were brought to the Mike Loomis corrals where 
they were sorted and branded. 

In conclusion, and speaking of stage stations, you may have 
heard the story of the stage passenger who watched a freight 
wagon being unloaded. The load consisted of 20 barrels of 
whiskey and one barrel of flour. The man was heard to ask, 
"What do they want with all that flour?" 

3:55 P.M. Unfortunately from here a few cars temporarily 
separated from the caravan so all did not stop at Six Mile Ranch 
(87 M). The caravan reassembled at Ft. Laramie National His- 
toric Site (93 M), where John McDermott presented his papers. 

SIX MILE RANCH 
By John D. McDermott 

In June, 1876, the Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage Company 
established a relay station at Six Mile Ranch, one of the most 
infamous road houses ever operated in what is now Goshen Coun- 
ty. During the preceding decade. Six Mile had been the home of 
whisky peddlers, thieves, and murderers, and a continual source 
of annoyance to the Commanding Officer of Fort Laramie. 

The exact date of the establishment of Six Mile Ranch is not 
known; however, the first reference to it in the Fort Laramie post 
records occurs in February, 1867. An army messenger found a 
mail escort party, supposedly headed for Fort Phil Kearny, at Six 
Mile imbibing freely of the proprietor's liquid wares. Two soldiers 
lay drunk by the door, and the messenger reported the rest of the 
party huddled inside in a similar condition. 

Repeat performances by Fort Laramie soldiers brought a ruling 
from the Commanding Officer in November. The owner of Six 
Mile, John Hunter, received an order to discontinue the sale of 
liquor to soldiers or lose his trader's license. In December, he was 
told to destroy all alcoholic beverages in his possession. Hunter 
ceased to be a problem shortly thereafter as Bud Thompson re- 
moved him permanently from the scene with the aid of a revolver. 

Soldiers continued to frequent Six Mile much to the disgust of 
the Commanding Officer. In 1876, female inhabitants of Six Mile 
commonly wore military shirts and pants, a fact that attested to 
the visits of lonely enlisted men. 

During the period 1869-1877, six other men besides Hunter 
met their deaths at Six Mile, including John Lowry, James Mc- 
Closky, Perry Arber, and Adolph Cuny. 

George Hawk was the first stage company employee here. In 
1877, Jack Bowman succeeded him, and sometime later Curely 
Coleman managed the relay station. 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 97 

THREE MILE RANCH 
By John D. McDermott 

Early in 1872, Adolph Cuny and Jules Ecoffey constructed a 
number of buildings just beyond the borders of the military reser- 
vation on the bank of the Laramie River. In the beginning, the 
proprietors apparently planned a simple facility for travelers, but 
in a few years they decided to add some feminine attractions. 
Importing women from Omaha and Kansas City, Cuny and Ecof- 
fey catered to soldiers from Fort Laramie who sought companion- 
ship and escape from the doldrums of garrison life. Soon the 
Three Mile Ranch received the opprobrious title of "Hog Ranch." 
Harry Young, a teamster and frequent visitor, speculated on the 
origin of the term in his book Hard Knocks: 

Why [it was] so called, I could not say, as I never saw any hogs 
around .... but think perhaps it had reference to the girls as they 
were a very low, tough set. 

According to John Hunton, in its heyday the Hog Ranch con- 
sisted of a concrete dwelling, storehouse, bunk house, ice house, 
six cottages of tv/o rooms each, and a sod corral one hundred feet 
square and twelve feet high. In 1876, Cuny and Ecoffey adver- 
tised their establishment in the Cheyenne Daily Leader and report- 
ed an outfitting store, billiard hall, blacksmith shop, and a good 
corral. The owners ended their advertisement with the modest 
statement, "We Don't Blow." 

Lt. John G. Bourke visited the Hog Ranch in January, 1877, 
and didn't think much of its inhabitants: 

Three miles [from Fort Laramie] and there was a nest of ranches, 
Cuny and Ecoffey's and Wright's, tenanted by as hardened and de- 
praved a set of witches as could be found on the face of the globe. 
Each of these establishments was equipped with a rum-mill of the 
worst kind and each contained from three to half a dozen Cyprians, 
virgins whose lamps were always burning brightly in expectancy of 
the coming of the bridegroom, and who lured to destruction the sol- 
diers of the garrison. In all my experience I have never seen a lower, 
more beastly set of people of both sexes. 

According to one author, however, the meals were good and could 
be purchased for fifty cents. 

Both Cuny and Ecoffey met violent deaths. Ecoffey died on 
November 26, 1876, as the result of a beating, and Cuny died on 
July 22, 1877, as the result of a gunshot wound inflicted by the 
road agent Clark Pelton. Later owners of the Hog Ranch were 
Andy Ryan, Bob Osborne, Johnny Owens, and Henry Riterling. 



98 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

THE CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD STAGE LINE AT FORT 

LARAMIE 

By John D. McDermott 

Fort Laramie was the protector of the Cheyenne to Deadwood 
Stage Coach Trail. On occasion it provided mihtary escorts for 
the stages, it patrolled the road, and it sent out armed parties to 
track down highwaymen. Its very presence served as a stabilizing 
influence; bandits and renegade Indians thought twice before raid- 
ing stage stations or holding up coaches in the Fort Laramie region, 
because they knew that soldiers would soon be hot on their trails. 

At Fort Laramie coach passengers found some of the best 
accommodations along the road. In the Cheyenne Daily Leader 
of March 24, 1876, the following news item appeared: 

Mr. J. S. Collins has just opened to the public, under the manage- 
ment of Mr. J. H. C. Brown, the "Rustic Hotel," at Fort Laramie. 
The house is entirely newly constructed, and furnished from cellar to 
garret new throughout. The manager will accommodate all with 
clean beds and first-class meals. A large corral and ample stabling 
room are attached to the Hotel. Corn, oats, and hay for sale. 

The "Rustic" is the headquarters of the GREAT BLACK HILLS 
STAGE LINE. Red Cloud, Camp Robinson and Spotted Tail mail 
stages also leave this point, crossing the Platte river over the new iron 
bridge built by the government. The well-sustained reputation of Mr. 
Collins for enterprise and thoroughness in all he undertakes, and the 
popularity of the manager, Mr. Brown, are a guarantee to all travelers 
who will patronize the "Rustic" that they will meet with the best treat- 
ment in the new hotel. 

John Collins was the sutler at Fort Laramie and had been so 
since 1872. The hotel complemented his store which featured a 
wide variety of groceries, clothing, and hardware. Restored and 
refurnished to the period 1876-1883 when coach passengers were 
a significant part of the clientele, the Sutler's Store is open to 
visitors throughout the summer. 

Just west of the Rustic were the stage barns and corrals. J. M. 
Ford was the first agent for the stage company. John Morrison, 
Jim Hogle, George Hawk, and Tom Hawk ran the Rustic at 
various times. 

Not all travelers, however, appreciated the accommodations 
provided by the Rustic. In 1883 an Englishwoman, Rose Pender, 
stopped at Fort Laramie on her way to the Black Hills and found 
lodging in the hotel. Upon getting ready to retire, Mrs. Pender 
found that the sheets provided for her were so dirty that she was 
afraid to use them. She lay down on the bedspread, covering 
herself with her fur coat and after a time drifting off to sleep. 
Awakened by a disagreeable sensation, she lit a candle and found 
that the room was swarming with "horrid little bugs." She spent 
the rest of the night outside. In April, 1890, shortly after the 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 99 

army abandoned Fort Laramie, the Rustic caught fire and burned 
to the ground. 

5:20 P. M. The Goshen County Historical Society graciously 
planned a get-to-gether in the basement of the Community Church 
in Ft. Laramie so everyone hurried over to enjoy their hospitality, 
refreshing cold drinks and cookies. 

Campers soon had tents up and fires going in the park on the 
south edge of the town of Ft. Laramie. Non-campers left for 
motels in nearby towns. 

Sunday - June 21 

Guides - Dick Eklund, Oscar Yoder, Paul Henderson 

7:00 to 8:00 A. M. A real western breakfast of flap-jacks, eggs 
and boiled coffee was served in the camp ground by capable ex- 
perienced volunteer cooks. This is an annual courtesy extended 
by Mr. Albert Sims, one of the original organizers of the treks. 
This breakfast is considered as the Piece de Resistance of the 
treks and exemplifies Wyoming friendliness and hospitality. 

8:45 A.M. We departed promptly from Fort Laramie (93 M) 
west on Highway 26 because the old trail in the valley of Cotton- 
wood Draw had been washed away. Masses of fallen trees and 
debris testify to the occurrence of heavy flash floods. Consequent- 
ly we missed the Ten Mile Station. (103 M) 

After traveling 11 miles on 26 we traveled north on 1607 for 
2^/2 miles then took a dirt road to the right which wound through 
pine-covered hills. On the left we passed the deserted Good For- 
tune mine from which Wyoming's first shipment of iron ore was 
made by L S. Bartlett in the 1890's. The road then passed the 
Frederick ranch where one branch of the Cheyenne-Dead wood 
trail once ran. About two miles north of the ranch Indians held 
up one of the coaches, and nine of the Indians were killed. A 
couple of the graves can still be seen, but the road covers the rest 
of them. The road also passed through Hell's Gap where daring 
robbers held up the stage, and where Harvard archaeologists are 
now digging for artifacts and relics of early man in association 
with the University of Wyoming under funds granted by the 
National Geographic Society. 

9:45 A.M. After a circuitous route due to fences we traveled 
through Crescent Basin, natural meadows and wheatfields, to 
arrive at the ruins of Government Farm Stage Station (107 M). 

GOVERNMENT FARM 
By Ruth Frederick 

The building of stage stations north of Fort Laramie was a bold 
stroke as the proposed stage route lay in the path of the Indians' 



100 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

hunting trails. The first road ranch was built about 15 miles north 
of Fort Laramie on the site called Government Farm. Here log 
buildings were erected near a beautiful spring and sheltered by a 
rocky ledge. By 1 879 the station consisted of a grout house of 
five rooms, a good corral and a barn for 30 or 40 horses. It had 
200 acres of fenced land which were planted and cultivated by 
soldiers from the Fort. 

Some interesting tales are told about this old station. A sheep- 
herder by the name of Updike froze his feet one winter and died 
while working for Mr. Hamilton who lived nearby. His ghost was 
supposed to haunt the Farm. A skeptical neighbor, Mr. William 
Lank, who did not believe in ghosts, was induced to stay here 
overnight. After carefully locking all the doors he went to bed. 
About midnight he heard a clomp, clomp, clomp so went to see 
what was the matter and found all the doors wide open. That was 
his last visit to the Farm. 

A true story was related by Mr. Veihee, who, with 3 other men, 
was captured by Indians in this house and held for several days. 
The Indians hoped to starve them out and would have, but the 
men were able to dig a well under the house and so had water. 
Evidently the Indians relaxed their vigil as one of the men made his 
escape from the Farm, walked 15 miles to Fort Laramie and re- 
turned with soldiers who chased the Indians away and rescued the 
other men. 

A rather gruesome story concerned John Church (Ruth Fred- 
erick's uncle) and his friend who were scouts for the stage line. 
About two miles north of the Farm, Indians overtook them and 
killed their horses. The men quickly gutted the horses and 
crawled inside. When it became dark they made their escape. 

After a short time the stage station was moved three miles 
farther north on the flats to equalize the distance between stations. 
It was named Hoyt Station for a stock tender and old stage driver 
from New England, who always carried a stage whip wherever he 
went. Like many drivers he also took his ivory rings from the 
harness with him when he changed stations or jobs. 

10:20 A.M. As we left Government Farm we traveled through 
excellent grass land. It was very green and luxuriant with occa- 
sional out-croppings of striking rock formations of white sandstone. 
At 119 M we came to Raw Hide Buttes station, located on Raw 
Hide Creek and sheltered by pine-covered buttes. 

RAW HIDE BUTTES STAGE STATION 
By Russell Thorp, Jr. 

Because of the natural shelter offered by the buttes, this spot was 
a favorite camping place for both Indians and trappers. It was 
here the white men bargained for beaver pelts and buffalo hides. 
After being pressed, the hides were salted preparatory to shipment, 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 101 

then loaded on travois or pack horses and taken to the mouth of 
the Raw Hide where it empties into the Platte River. There they 
were loaded on boats and floated down the Platte and Missouri 
Rivers to be disposed of in St. Joseph or St. Louis. It was from 
this activity that Raw Hide Buttes received its name. 

I can recall, as a child, seeing the fur presses which were located 
at the foot of the buttes across Raw Hide Creek. Those relics of 
the past were still there as late as 1883. 

J. W. Dear, a trader at Red Cloud Agency, built the first build- 
ings in 1876. He advertised them on May 30 as follows: 

WANTED TO RENT OR SELL 
A ranche at Raw Hide Butte, on the road to the Black Hills. . . . The 
house contains 4 rooms- kitchen, dining room, sleeping room, and 
sitting room. In the sitting room there is a large and comfortable fire 
place. The remainder of the rooms will need stoves. In connection 
with the house there is a panneled corral, 8 feet high and about 100 
feet square. The ranche has a good location and plenty of wood sur- 
rounding it, and plenty of good water, with good grazing grounds and 
fine farm lands, etc. 

However, a week later the Sioux burned the ranch house so it 
was not until August, 1877, that the stage station was opened. 

The surrounding country was all open range, stocked with cattle 
as early as 1876. Nigger Baby Spring, 1 V2 miles to the south, was 
an important roundup camping spot. Prospectors came into the 
country and discovered copper ore. My father and associates 
located the Deadwood mine to the north. To the west copper was 
discovered in Muskrat canyon. Almost immediately a lively 
camp opened and development of the Michigan Mine was started. 
However, in a very short time the copper ore pockets played out. 
That ended mining in the Raw Hide Buttes area. 

In 1882 my father purchased the Raw Hide Butte ranch for 
$3,500. It was made up of the ranch buildings, a blacksmith shop 
where horses were shod at $2 each, a well-stocked grocery and 
dry goods store, a stage station, post office and a telegraph office. 
As soon as the house was more liveable my mother and I moved 
to the ranch where I spent my childhood. We entertained friends 
and travelers in true western style and the meals prepared by 
Friday, our Chinese cook, were the talk of the countryside for miles 
around. 

On May 15, 1883, my father bought the Cheyenne and Black 
Hills Stage line and made Raw Hide Buttes the Home Station. 
Those were interesting and busy days as the stages came and went 
on their way I learned all phases of stage business from making 
whips to shoeing horses as I listened to the exciting tales of road 
agents and outlaws. 

To me the stage driver was the most important man in the 
country. He was a fine reinsman and took great pride in his pro- 
fession. He was a quiet-spoken individual who wore gauntlet 



102 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

gloves, handmade boots, a silk handkerchief tightly tied around 
his neck. His shirt was buttoned up as there was no telhng when 
flying ants would hit him in the neck. What could he do if those 
flying creatures crawled down his shirt and his hands were full of 
reins? What wonderful yarns those drivers told of their days on 
the trail! 

1 1 :00 A. M. With one eye on the black sky to the west and 
one on the road we followed the old trail north through the Buttes. 
By the time we reached a steep hill the sky opened up and a flash 
cloudburst descended upon us. We slid and slithered to the top 
where we sat until the storm abated, then turned about and re- 
grouped at Raw Hide station while Paul Henderson counted the 
cars. It seemed expedient to finish the trip to Lusk on the pave- 
ment so we missed the most beautiful section of the trail. 

Our thoughtful Niobrara County friends, by patrol radio, ar- 
ranged for us to gather in a large pavilion at the Fair Grounds in 
Lusk (142 M). Lunches were quickly brought out and the crowd 
relaxed and Hstened to the three final papers as the rain pattered 
on the roof. 

If weather had not prevented the continuation of the trek on the old 
stage route, the following papers would have been given at the sites of the 
Old Mother Featherlegs grave, near the Rawhide Stage Station, between 
the old Ord ranch and Silver Springs; the George Lathrop monument, about 
two miles west of Lusk; and the Running Water Station, approximately a 
mile west of Lusk. (Ed.) 

OLD MOTHER "FEATHERLEGS ' SHEPHARD 

By Bob Darrow 

Old Mother "Featherlegs" Shephard is buried here on the south 
slope of what is known as the Divide Hill on the Ord Ranch. 
"Featherlegs" was so called by the cowboys because the long red 
pantalettes that she wore tied about her ankles fluttered briskly in 
the breeze when she dashed on horseback across the flats. Accord- 
ing to one of her visitors: "Them drawers looked exactly like a 
feather-legged chicken in a high wind." 

The woman was a go-between for road agents and other des- 
peradoes and it was claimed she kept much stolen jewelry and 
money around her place. She had come to the Raw Hide country 
in 1876 and had opened a place of "entertainment" for travelers 
in her dugout, which was located about one hundred yards west 
of her grave. A couple of tinhorn gamblers and "rot gut" whiskey 
were part of her equipment. No one at the time knew who she 
was or where she came from. 

About a year after "Featherlegs" opened up her establishment, 
a man named Dick Davis, called "Dangerous Dick the Terrapin" 
because of a certain hangdog and evil look on his countenance, 
came to live at the place. Ostensibly he followed hunting and 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 103 

trapping for a living, but most of his time was spent loafing in the 
woman's shack. The two seemed well acquainted and to have 
known each other in the past. 

One day in 1879, Mrs. O. J. Demmon, wife of a rancher who 
lived at Silver Springs on the stage road, decided to visit "Feather- 
legs," since she was the only other woman living in the vicinity. 

Upon her arrival at the dugout, Mrs. Demmon was horrified to 
find that "Featherlegs" had been murdered. She evidently had 
been shot while filling a bucket of water at the spring. In the soft 
soil about the spring were many tracks made by moccasins, the 
kind of footgear always worn by "Dangerous Dick." The mur- 
derer had fled, taking with him the fifteen hundred dollars that 
"Featherlegs" was known to have had. 

It was later learned that "Featherlegs" was "Ma'am", the 
mother of Tom and Bill Shephard, members of a gang of outlaws 
and cutthroats who lurked in the Tensas swamps in northern 
Louisiana, after the close of the Civil War. 

With the return of the paroled Confederate soldiers, the doom 
of the band was sealed and its members were hunted like the wild 
beasts they were. Both the Shephard boys died by the swift judg- 
ment of the lynching rope. The gang was wiped out with the 
exception of "Ma'am" and a fellow named "The Terrapin." These 
two succeeded in making their escape, to appear years afterward 
on the Raw Hide. 

After murdering "Featherlegs," Davis, "The Terrapin," went 
back with the plunder to his old haunts in the swamps. But there, 
after engaging in his old practices of murder and robbery, he was 
lynched within sight of where the Shephard boys had met their fate. 
Before he died, "Dangerous Dick" made a full confession and thus 
cleared the identity of the "Old Woman of the Raw Hide, Mother 
'Featherlegs'." 

In the summer of 1893 Russell Thorp, Jr. and J. Guy Bradley 
spent a vacation in and around Raw Hide and Muskrat Canyon 
and decided to dig up the remains of Mother "Featherlegs." In 
Russell Thorp's account of this venture he said, "We camped 
nearby and proceeded to do this job at night. It was a beautiful 
night. This was, as I recall, about the summer of 1893 — fourteen 
years after her death. When we removed the lid of this homemade 
pine coffin, her features were clearly recognizable, with a great 
mass of red hair. We hastily nailed the lid back down. After all 
those years the body had more the appearance of being slightly 
mummified, and the coffin was not rotted. We filled the grave." 

George McFadden and "Cousin Ike" Diapert are buried on 
either side of "Featherlegs' " grave. George McFadden was killed 
by Frank Ketchum near a dugout on Igoe Creek, not far east of 
the Ord Ranch house. Ketchum was a telegraph operator orig- 
inally stationed at Rawhide Buttes. Later he was the first tele- 



104 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

graph operator at Silver Cliff, where the first town was started 
before Lusk was platted. 

"Cousin Ike" Diapert was a roundup cook and was jealous of 
some of the miners, who came down from Muskrat Canyon to 
call on Mrs. Stiffler, who located the ranch which was later owned 
by John Bare. Ike had two small bottles, one containing flour and 
the other strychnine. It was thought by some that he was making 
a bluff and made a mistake and took the strychnine instead of the 
flour. 

McFadden and Diapert were bitter enemies so it was thought 
entirely proper that they should be buried with "Featherlegs" 
between them. 

The two-ton Rawhide Buttes granite monument at the head of 
Mother "Featherlegs" Shephard's grave along with the stones for 
George McFadden and Ike Diapert were dedicated on Sunday, 
May 17, 1964. The principal address at the dedication was given 
by Lewis E. Bates. The monument was unveiled by Russell 
Thorp. The erection and dedication of these markers was under- 
taken by Jim Griffith and Bob Darrow. 

GEORGE LATHROP MONUMENT 
By James B. Griffith, Jr. 

As far as we are able to ascertain no incident of historical im- 
portance took place at this exact location. It is doubtful if any 
driver ever reined up his team at this particular spot. No robber- 
ies, no Indian difficulties. Yet, this could be the most significant 
stop on this two-day historical trek. For it is here that we pause 
to reflect as to the heart and soul of the Cheyenne-Black Hills 
Stage Line. Here, at the grave of one Marvin M. Lathrop, it is all 
together fitting and proper that we should put the components of 
the Line in their proper perspective. For a moment let us realize 
that men, not coaches, not horses, not trails, but men were the 
main stem of the Line. 

It was men, made of flesh and blood with an extra amount of 
sinew and a generous amount of cold nerve, that made the Line 
click. If George Lathrop had known about this event today, 1 
feel certain that he would have remarked that he was only one of 
the drivers and would have thought it appropriate that this stop 
be dedicated to all the men of the Line, men like Luke Voorhees, 
Russell Thorp, Sr., Tom Black, Sid Brace, "Owl-Eyed" Tom 
Cooper, Fred Sullivan, Frank Watt and the many, many others 
who played a roll in the operation of the Line. These men were 
the astronauts of the 1870's and 80's. I feel that George Lathrop 
would have wanted it this way for those who remember him will 
tell you he was far from a glory seeker. His all-too-brief auto- 
biography reveals a modest man. 

However, in order that we not doodle in generalities let us take 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 105 

a sharp focus on George Lathrop, the man who has often been 
referred to as "one of the best drivers on the Line." 

In his autobiography "Memoirs of a Pioneer," George Lathrop 
states that he was born Marvin M. Lathrop on December 24, 1830, 
in Pottsville, Pennsylvania. This date of birth is also inscribed on 
this monument and listed as such on every other source. While 
this evidence would most likely be accepted at face value I contend 
that it is possible that the 1830 is in error. My contention is based 
on the fact that George Lathrop states in his memoirs that he ran 
away from home on July 3, 1853 and ensuing dates then fall in 
place. In the memoirs he also describes himself "as a boy" when 
he left his home. I do not believe that he would have called himself 
"a boy" had he in fact been 22 V^ years old. However, it matters 
little now whether George Lathrop was born 1 34 years ago or only 
124 years ago. The important thing is the man. 

The where, when and why of the substitution of the name 
George for Marvin has been lost in the veil of time. 

Of his youth he says simply "my troubles were plenty but they 
were my own." From those nine words we are able to garner 
something of his character. Self reliance must have been his. 
How different we often find it today when a person's difficulties 
are not his own but rather society's. 

Even as a boy he demonstrated that he was no quitter. The fact 
that he had never known want before his desertion of the family 
home, but did afterwards, and nonetheless stuck it out reveals a 
person of determination. It must have been this attribute of 
determination that enabled him to bring his coaches through 
adverse weather conditions and the other perils that are known to 
have plagued the line. 

Not all of George Lathrop's colorful life took place on the 
Cheyenne-Black Hills Stage Line. Soon after running away from 
home he met Asa Fairchild in Toledo, Ohio, and with the Fairchild 
family went to the territory of Kansas. It was in Kansas that he 
witnessed a preview to the Civil War and saw Bleeding Kansas 
develop. He became acquainted with such free-statesmen as John 
Brown. 

Asa Fairchild was stricken with gold fever in 1859 and George 
went to Colorado with the Fairchilds. No gold, but George didn't 
do so badly earning $2.50 a day in Denver. The Fairchild family 
went back to Kansas but George continued to wander, going to 
Old Mexico and most of western America. 

George had a hatred of the Indians which stemmed from the 
time he escaped a massacre by hiding in a thicket of plum bushes 
while his companions were killed and mutilated. In his autobiog- 
raphy George says, "Now some people think it strange that my hair 
is not greyer than it is at my age, but I do not think so because I 
think it died right then." 



106 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

George never married. This is posterity's loss for there ever 
has been and ever will be a need for men of his mettle. Although 
his adventures took him throughout the west the first mention he 
makes of Wyoming is when he got to Fort Laramie April 2, 1865. 

In 1 879 he delivered a herd of cattle to Luke Voorhees at Raw 
Hide Buttes (sic). As he had a good deal of experience in stage 
driving he found a ready opening on the Cheyenne-Black Hills 
Stage Line. 

He loved the espirit-de-corp which he found among the men. It 
was with pride he described his six horse teams and how each horse 
had his own harness that was never used on any other horse. The 
favorite seat on the coaches was always that by the driver. 

For a time after the railroad was built and the stage line dis- 
continued, he drove a coach from Wendover to Lusk across coun- 
try by Rawhide Buttes. This coach may now be seen in the Lusk 
Museum. 

George Lathrop has been described as honorable, faithful, fear- 
less and reliable but little given to talk. These adjectives paint a 
descriptive portrait of a man who was also called "a man among 
men." He spent his last years at Tom Black's ranch at Willow a 
few miles west and south of here and died there Dec. 24, 1915. 
In 1930 his remains were moved to this location and this monu- 
ment was dedicated on a cold and wet Memorial Day, 1930. Al 
Rundquist was the designer of this unique and impressive monu- 
ment and I am pleased to note that he is here today. 

I am not certain that when the selection of this site was made 
it was realized what an appropriate location it is. Here behind 
this marker we have the grave of one of the West's fine examples 
of a unique breed of men. Immediately to the west, in the de- 
pression which you can see, is what remains of a buffalo wallow. 
That too may also be considered a grave inasmuch as the last 
buffalo in this area was shot and killed right there. Certainly this 
is an appropriate analogy. Here we have the glory of the old 
West in a nut shell — a man and a beast. Each magnificent in his 
own right. 

RUNNING WATER STAGE STATION 
By Mrs. Helen Willson 

After leaving Raw Hide Buttes, the trail passed Silver Springs 
ranch owned by O. J. Demmon who raised horses, and Raw Hide 
Springs, a favorite camping spot for freighters, about 10 miles 
farther north. The next stage station (139 M), really "just a 
solitary, rudely constructed ranch," was called Running Water 
(L'Eau-Oui-Court ) or Niobrara River. J. W. Dear built a station 
here in the spring of 1 876, but the Indians soon burned it. The 
next building was a large stone barn, 24 by 48 feet with eight-foot 
walls and covered with a pole and dirt roof built by Jack Madden. 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 107 

The road coming in from the south that runs into Highway 20 
near the Lathrop monument is approximately the same road the 
stage hne used. It swings along just east of the Country Club 
land with here and there the old ruts visible, but it is blocked by 
fences and the railroad track now. The stone barn that housed 
the horses and the paraphemaha was almost directly north of the 
big mill put up by the Great Western Mining and Milling Company. 
The mill was on the west end of the north face of Silver Cliff hill. 

The land where the barn stood later belonged to my father. As 
it was no longer in use and a fine colt had died there when it got 
on its back in one of the mangers, he tore it down. The rocks 
stood as a pile of rubble for quite some time, but were eventually 
used in the foundation of a new house my father built in Lusk. 

In 1880 the country from Fort Laramie north to the Running 
Water began to swarm with prospectors. There were many out- 
croppings of copper, iron and silver-bearing ledges all the way 
from Raw Hide Buttes region to the Running Water. Fred 
Schwartze, stage station owner on Pole Creek, was one of the most 
enthusiastic promoters of the Running Water area. 

Two freighters. Woods and Thompson, arrived at Running Wa- 
ter in March, 1884, with machinery for the Great Western Mining 
and Milling Company at Silver Cliff near the Running Water Stage 
Station. By March 20 the mining camp bustled with activity. A 
large boarding house, a billiard hall and a store had been built. 
The Old Iron Clad store with galvanized metal on its sides and a 
tent with wooden side walls were the most substantial buildings in 
Silver Cliff. The store was owned and operated by Ellis Johnson 
who moved the building to Lusk in 1886. It is still standing and 
is the one on Main Street that houses the Episcopal Guild Shop. 

The stage station and the post office were called Running Water 
and the mine and the mining camp were called Silver Cliff. How- 
ever, a letter addressed to either place always seemed to be deliv- 
ered without difficulty. 

Silver and copper were found in the Silver Cliff mines, but not 
in paying quantities so the mines were abandoned. The buildings 
were torn down in January, 1898, and the machinery was shipped 
to New Mexico. In the intervening years from the time of the 
abandonment of the mines until the time the buildings were torn 
down, it was a favorite haunt for the young folks of Lusk. Many 
Sundays someone would say, "Let's go up to the old mill." 

Since we had not traveled the trail from Raw Hide Buttes to 
Running Water our hosts. Bob Darrow and Jim Griffith, Jr. 
brought colored slides of that section for us to enjoy. 

Mae Urbanek, historian and author, who was to tell us about 
Hat Creek graciously agreed to postpone her paper until next 
summer so that we might end our trek in Lusk because of the rain. 

Tentative plans to complete the Cheyenne-Deadwood Stage trail 



108 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



in 1965 are already underway. The trek will probably start at the 
Lathrop Monument, west of Lusk, continuing on to the state line 
where the South Dakota Historical Society will lead us to Dead- 
wood. It should be a most interesting trek. 



TREKKERS ON THE CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL - 1964 



BURNS 

Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Fletcher 
CASPER 

Richard Eklund 

J. H. Simpson 

Mr. and Mrs. Verne Mokler 

Mrs. Mary L. Corbett 

Mrs. Guy Shuffle 

CHEYENNE 

Col. and Mrs. W. R. Bradley 

Mr. and Mrs. L. L. Lowrey 

Mrs. L. C. Bishop 

Jay Bishop 

Mrs. B. W. Taliaferro 

Mr. and Mrs. William Mclnerney 

Mr. and Mrs. D. Carlile 

Rosalind Bealey 

Jane Houston 

Mrs. Paul Schwaiger 

Mr. and Mrs. James Boan & Kelly 

James Finnerty 

Robert Larson 

Maurine Carley 

Meda Carley Walker 

Louise Stimson Hallowell 

Marguerite Martin 

William Dubois 

Paula Durnford 

Winifred Bergren 

Louis K. Demand 

Grace Logan Schaedel 

Dorothy Riner Prosser 

Ted Bohlen 

John D. Corkill 

Mrs. Charles Ritter 

Mrs. A. M. Ries 

Katherine Townsend 

Mrs. Alice Erickson 

Anna Jensen 

Myrna Agee 

Russell Thorp 

CHUGWATER 

Mr. Francis Gard 

Mrs. Robert Wallenbarn 

Mr. and Mrs. Ervin McConnell and 

Bill 
Mr. Robert Pearson 



Mr. and Mrs. George Carroll 
Mr. and Mrs. Russell Staats 
Mrs. Curtis Templin 

DOUGLAS 

Mr. and Mrs. Lyie Hildebrand 
J. M. and A. M. Stevens 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Carson 
Mr. and Mrs. Dale Carson 

EVANSTON 

Mr. Charles Guild 

FORT LARAMIE 

Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Stout 
Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Rymill 
Mr. Arthur Darnall 
Mrs. Chet Hazelwood and Nancy 
Mrs. Damrow 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Sharp and 
children 

GUERNSEY 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Berry 

HELL GAP ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
EXPEDITION 

Richard Mead 
Karen Lindsay 
M. D. Perkins, Jr. 
Saralee True 
Henry Larson 
John Saul 
Sarah Keller 
Kay Irwin 
Bobbie Bauer 

HILLSDALE 

Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Towns 

LUSK 

Mr. and Mrs. Jim Griffith, Jr., and 

children 
M. C. Koan 

Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Miller 
Mr. and Mrs. Glen Willson 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry Urbanek 
Mr. and Mrs. Ed Cook 

LAGRANGE 

Mr. and Mrs. Oscar Yoder 



CHEYENNE-DEADWOOD TRAIL TREK 



109 



LINGLE 

Mrs. Myrtle Ransom 

MERIDEN 

Mr. and Mrs. Dan Kirkbride 

MIDWEST 
Rim Wilson 

MILLS 

Mrs. Helen Sherard 

RAWHIDE 

Mr. and Mrs. Bob Darrow 

TORRINGTON 

Mr. Floyd Pease 

Mr. and Mrs. Larry Sandburg 

Mr. and Mrs. P. Keenan and 

Ronald Bodin 

Debbie Young 

Mrs. Henry Bigner 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren Russell 

Mr. and Mrs. Bob Bragill 

Jack McDermott 

WHEATLAND 

Mrs. Marion Clack 

Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Grant 

Mr. and Mrs. C. J. Stafford 

Mrs. Hazelle Ferguson 

Mr. and Mrs. Bob Trenholm 



Merle and Elvin Hudson 
Mr. and Mrs. George Grant 
Mrs. John Johnson 
Pete, Gary and Mildred Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. Lester Cobb 
Lee and Linda Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. Vincent Utter 
Mr. and Mrs. D. E. Windom and 
children 

PINE BLUFFS 

Mildred McFaren 
Mrs. J. H. Schacher 
Mrs. Philip Reed 

OUT OF STATE 

John Waitman - Bridgeport, Nebr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Henderson - 
„ , Bridgeport, Nebr. 
Kathyj^^ and Mrs. George Ellis - Bridge- 
port, Nebr. 

Mr. Anthony Terpak - Taunton, 
Mass. 

Mr. Pierre LaBonte - Buzzards Bay, 
Mass. 

Steve and Mary Summers - Omaha, 
Nebr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Bartlett - Santa 
Fe, N. M. 

Mr. and Mrs. John Simis - Denver, 
Colo. 

Mr. John Mador - Crawford, Nebr. 

Mr. H. H. Dodd - Crawford, Nebr. 



Wyoming State Mis tori cat Society 

PRESIDENTS MESSAGE 

By 

Neal E. Miller 

In this, Wyoming's seventy-fifth year, we in the State Historical 
Society have a wonderful opportunity and a deep obligation. An 
opportunity to develop a more widespread appreciation of the 
State's historical heritage — an obligation to see that our historical 
material is complete and accurate and properly presented. 

This anniversary is an opportunity for every County Chapter ol 
the Society to work to the fullest extent with all others who are 
promoting their county and the State as a whole. Every document, 
ledger, map, book and historical article should be brought out for 
display and preservation. It is an opportunity to review the need 
for more county museums, to review the methods of preserving and 
protecting materials, to impress upon everyone the need for a 
larger and better State Archives and Historical Department and 
State Museum. 

Our obligation is to our children and the entire State of Wyo- 
ming. The Society is pledged to do all that is possible to aid 
Chapters and individuals in identifying, preserving and protecting 
their historic materials; to welcome and assist the Chapters nov/ 
forming over the State. 

Never underestimate the value of your materials or the sources 
in which they may be found. You may be the lucky one to find 
the missing materials needed to complete a chapter in Wyoming 
history! 

May this be a successful year in all the endeavors of the Chap- 
ters — in membership, activities, and all else connected with the 
great work yet to be done. 

ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING 
Rawlins, Wyoming September 12-13, 1964 

As the members gathered in Jeffrey Center on September 12, 
they enjoyed the display of antiques. Several members entered the 
"What is It?" contest presided over by Mrs. Lovina Pierson, presi- 
dent of the Carbon County Chapter, by attempting to identify 
many unusual objects used by the pioneers which were on display. 

After the president, Mr. Neal Miller, welcomed the members, 
he announced that three workshops would be conducted. He 
introduced Mrs. Alice Messick, to lead the first workshop. She 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 111 

is chairman of the 75th Anniversary Commission, which is plan- 
ning the Diamond Jubilee celebration for Wyoming's 75 years of 
statehood in 1965. 

Mrs. Messick announced the Commission had adopted the 
theme "Historical Wyoming," and the slogan, "Go West, Go 
Wyoming," and asked that the Wyoming State Historical Society 
assist in the celebration. She showed a drawing of the Wyoming 
float which will appear in the Rose Parade in Pasadena, January 1 , 
and asked that each county prepare an eight-minute skit to be 
presented at the 1965 State Fair. She is especially anxious to find 
someone born in Wyoming on July 10, 1890, the date on which 
Wyoming became a state, so that they might receive special recog- 
nition at that time. 

The second workshop, on local museums, was conducted by 
Miss Lola Homsher, Director, Wyoming State Archives and His- 
torical Department, and Miss Virginia Schwartz, Assistant Curator, 
State Museum. Miss Homsher gave an informative talk on the 30 
museums in Wyoming, stressing the importance of fireproof build- 
ings and a coordinated statewide museum program. Since there 
is much interest in preserving historic items, a pamphlet on Small 
History Museums had been prepared by Miss Schwartz, and Miss 
Homsher, and copies were handed out. Miss Schwartz then read 
portions of the pamphlet. Suggestions offered to the members 
were: not to let museums become "county attics," that items 
brought in by children be accepted only when they are accompa- 
nied by their parents and to keep thorough and accurate records 
of all items donated or loaned for display. 

The final workshop, on the State Society and Chapter handbook, 
now in preparation, was led by Mr. Miller. He explained that such 
a handbook would outline relationships of the state society and the 
county chapters, duties and responsibilities, outline procedures, 
and in general answer numerous questions which arise, and be an 
aid in program guidance. The handbooks would be handed to 
succeeding officers. 

Mr. Miller asked that members divide into four groups, to dis- 
cuss ways and means to improve the society. Some of the sug- 
gestions that came from the groups and were discussed were : 

1. If the deadline for awards nominations were set at July 15, it 
would be possible to make decisions and notify recipients so that 
they might be present at the Annual Meeting. 

2. Junior Historical Societies are important, and local chapters 
should encourage their formation. It was noted that an amend- 
ment regarding Junior Societies would be introduced in the busi- 
ness session. 

3. Projects of chapters should be carefully determined and 
brought to completion. This encourages better and steadier mem- 
bership. 

4. bivitations to state officers to visit chapters should be made 



112 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

well in advance so the officers can arrange their personal schedules 
to attend as many chapter meetings as possible. 

5. Too many persons do not realize that membership in the 
Wyoming State Historical Society is open to all who are interested, 
and this should be more clearly explained to the public. 

6. Since so many members are of the older age group, concern 
was expressed that not enough members of the 30-40 years age 
group had been attracted, and chapters were urged to concentrate 
on getting more younger members. 

7. It was pointed out good programs attract membership and 
treks have proved to be especially good for stimulating interest. 

8. The fiscal year of the Society begins January 1, and there was 
some discussion on the possibility of prorating late dues. How- 
ever, it was pointed out that this would create many problems in 
keeping dues and membership records. 

9. Many chapters are gathering tape-recorded interviews with 
old-timers, and it was brought out that pre-interview planning was 
important to prevent rambling and bring out points of history 
which are most important and significant. 

The president appointed to the auditing committee Mr. William 
Dubois of Cheyenne, Chairman, and Mrs. P. E. Daley, Rawlins, 
and Mrs. Elsa Spear Byron, Sheridan. 

Excellent reports were given by 13 county chapters. These arc 
filed with the Executive Secretary at the Wyoming State Archives 
and Historical Department. Only a few highlights of unusual 
activities are reported here. 

Albany County Chapter has enjoyed the reading of old letters 
dated in the 1860's and old diaries of pioneers. 

Carbon County Chapter has marked all Overland State Stations 
in that county using steel pipes painted bright yellow so locations 
will not be lost. 

Johnson County Chapter had a joint picnic with the Sheridan 
County Chapter. They have made many permanent tape record- 
ings, and are adding new members to their roll. 

Laramie County Chapter has had a second edition of their Earlv 
Cheyenne Homes booklet published. They have dedicated two 
historical markers and are still trying to find a location in Cheyenne 
for the old Happy Jack Schoolhouse building. 

Natrona County Chapter members have worked with the city 
officials and committees for the celebration of the Casper Diamond 
Jubilee, observed from June 20 through August 1. 

Park County Chapter has enjoyed programs based on the area's 
rich local history. Fine programs have been given on exciting 
discoveries in Mummy Cave on the Shoshone River near Cody, on 
William F. Cody and the Whitney Gallery of Western Art. Their 
report included a tentative invitation for the Annual Meetine; in 
1965. 

Fremont County Chapter sent in an interesting statistical report 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 113 

of their meetings. They feel they are fortunate to be located near 
the Wind River Indian Reservation and several programs were 
centered around the Indians. 

Platte County Chapter was entertained at one meeting by Mr. 
and Mrs. Paul Henderson, of Bridgeport, Nebraska, who gave an 
illustrated talk on the Bozeman Trail Trek in 1963. The chapter 
holds frequent writing sessions for all of their members. They 
also had a very successful trek in August which included a visit 
to the Spanish Diggings. 

Sheridan County Chapter has placed low-cost, temporary mark- 
ers at several historic spots. They have had old journals and 
diaries read at meetings and have showed slides of local interest. 

Sweetwater County Chapter has enjoyed browsing through old 
county clerk's records, and one of their most interesting programs 
was one given by the fourth-grade students who are studying 
Wyoming history. 

Uinta County Chapter held a no-host dinner in March, at which 
time Miss Homsher spoke on the building of the Union Pacific 
through southwestern Wyoming. The Chapter is cooperating with 
the Utah Historical Society in compiling the history of sawmills 
on the Bear River. 

Weston County Chapter is developing a museum located in a 
Newcastle school building. They have remodeled cases and col- 
lected many items for display. 

Washakie County Chapter's principal efforts have been toward 
the establishment of a county museum. The Worland Woman's 
Club and the county commissioners are cooperating with them. 

The meeting was recessed from 12 to 1 o'clock. 

After roll call of state officers the president asked the members 
to stand in silence as a tribute to the members of the Wyoming 
State Historical Society who had passed away during the past year. 
Mrs. Hord then read the Necrology Report which included the 
following names: Mr. Archie Allison, Mr. L. H. Barlow, Mrs. 
Cyrus Beard, Senator Earl T. Bower, Mrs. William F. (Mary) 
Bragg, Sr., Miss Marie M. Crisler, Mr. Frank M. Elbrader, Mr. 
E. E. Fitch, Mr. L. G. (Pat) Flannery, Mrs. Jim Gatchell, Mr. 
Alex Gordon, Mr. Robert T. Helvey, Dr. Clarence D. Jayne, Mr. 
Henry Jones, Mr. Charles Elmer Lane, Mrs. Matilda Lannen, Mr. 
Hans Larsen, Judge Percy W. Metz, Mrs. Joseph C. O'Mahoney, 
Mr. C. C. Rawlings, Mr. Charles Ritter, Mr. Bert WalHs, Mr. 
James H. Walton, Mrs. Faye Yonick and Mr. W. E. (Ned) Dover. 

It was moved, and the motion was seconded and carried, to 
dispense with the reading of the minutes of the Tenth Annual 
Meeting since they were printed in the Annals of Wyoming. How- 
ever, portions of the minutes of three Executive Committee meet- 
ings were read and approved. These had previously been sent to 
all county chapters. 

The Treasurer gave the following report: 



114 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

TREASURER'S REPORT 

September 7, 1963-September 12, 1964 

Cash and investments on hand September 7, 1963 $14,096.11 

Receipts 

Dues $3,569.00 

Himton Diaries 390.50 

Colter's Hell 1.00 

Interest 594.23 4,554.73 





$4,554.73 


•isbursements 




Annals of Wyoming 


$1,807.00 


Hunton Diaries 


180.00 


Tenth Annual Meeting 


235.81 


Officers' Expenses 


178.28 


Committees, Grant-in-Aid 


395.00 


Office, postage, trek, memorial 


114.33 



$18,650.84 



2,910.42 

$2,910.42 $15,740.42 

ASSETS 

September 12, 1964 

First National Bank and Trust Company, Cheyenne $ 2,004.86 

Federal Building and Loan Association, Cheyenne 9,000.00 

Cheyenne Federal Savings and Loan 1.169.09 

Federal Building and Loan, Life Memberships 3,274.29 

Federal Building and Loan, Bishop Memorial Fund 292.18 



$15,740.42 



Mr. Miller made the following president's report: 

REPORT OF PRESIDENT 

By 

Neal E. Miller 

As Wyoming State Historical Society president I made five 
visits to chapters which had invited me. They were Sweetwater 
County, Albany County, Laramie County, Campbell County and 
Carbon County. I was not able to meet with two chapters at the 
times I was invited. I also represented the Society at the formal 
opening of Old Bedlam at Fort Laramie National Historic Site on 
August 16. 

Four Executive Committee meetings were held during the year 
to consider the Society's business and activities. In addition to 
the usual committee appointments, correspondence, financial trans- 
actions of an organization of this size and scope, we have taken 
other action on the following items: wrote and published the 
Awards Handbook; made revisions in the banking and bookkeep- 
ing procedures and established a budget; revised and stocked a 
new and more appropriate and attractive awards certificate; issued 
a grant in aid on an important segment of Wyoming history under 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 115 

the new Grant in Aid program approved by the membership pres- 
ent at the Tenth Annual Meeting; received, reviewed and rated 
about 20 junior historian papers under the new Junior Historian 
writing program; received and considered nominations for the 
Wyoming History Teacher award under the new program; insti- 
tuted a statewide competition for a seal design for the Society; 
continued the former awards program; co-sponsored a field trip. 

REPORT OF FIRST VICE PRESIDENT 

Mrs. Charles Hord, first vice president, asked that chapters 
report to her historic sites which should be preserved. She sug- 
gested that markers be placed at Mary Kelley's grave, at Boysen 
Dam and at the spot on the Bozeman Trail where the Townsend 
train was attacked by Indians on July 9, 1864. Her committee is 
still interested in preserving Tea Pot Rock. 

REPORT OF SECOND VICE PRESIDENT 

Mr. Glenn Sweem, second vice president, suggested that the 
Awards Committee be appointed from one area in the state as it is 
difficult to get committee members together when they are scat- 
tered over the state. 

REPORT OF SECRETARY-TREASURER 

Secretary-Treasurer Miss Maurine Carley reported that in addi- 
tion to her regular secretarial duties she had filed federal income 
tax forms and the annual corporation report with the Secretary of 
State and kept a record of the sales of Hunton Diaries. She also 
thanked the Laramie County, Goshen County and Platte County 
Chapters for their assistance in making the Cheyenne-Deadwood 
Trail Trek so successful this summer. 

REPORT OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 

By 

Lola M. Homsher 

Through the office of the Executive Secretary, the State Archives 
and Historical Department continues to furnish innumerable ser- 
vices to the Society. As you will recall, the Executive Secretary of 
the Society and the Director of the Department are the same person 
under the constitution of the State Society. 

Memberships received through August 13, 1964 totalled 1,111 
compared with 1,064 a year ago, or an increase of 45. Today 
membership is 1,122. Money turned over to the secretary-trea- 
surer for 1964 was an increase of $331.00 over that of 1963. 

The membership for this year included 2 new life members. To 
date there is a total life membership of 35 single and 9 joint, or a 
total of 53 life members. 

Out-of-state membership for 1964 is approximately 200. Coun- 



116 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ties having no county chapter number 7, and state membership 
from the seven counties totals 45. The out-of-state and 7 county 
memberships are handled directly by the Department, and we con- 
tinue to try to increase such memberships by direct contact and 
through correspondence. Of the 16 county chapters, the five with 
the largest membership this year are: 

Laramie 135 

Carbon 104 

Goshen 88 

Sheridan 78 

Platte 60 

The Department published two issues of the Annals of Wyo- 
ming and six issues of "History News" during the past year. These 
official publications of the Society were received by all members. 

In addition to these mailings the Department addressed all dues 
cards to all members, and made out all receipts for dues for state 
memberships. The addressed dues cards and receipts for county 
chapters were handled through the secretaries and treasurers where 
there are county chapters, and out-of-state memberships and those 
in the 7 counties without chapters were handled directly by the 
Department. Total postage costs for the Department for the year 
for Society mailings, totaled approximately $450.00, an amount 
not reimbursed to the Department. 

The State Historical Society and the Archives and Historical 
Department again sponsored an annual historic trek. Directors of 
the Cheyenne-Deadwood Trail Trek were Miss Maurine Carley, 
Paul Henderson and Albert Bartlett. Paul Henderson and Albert 
Bartlett logged the trip and Miss Carley arranged for the talks to 
be given at each historic site on the trail. The Department paid 
the expenses of the leaders of the trek with the exception this year 
of Mr. Henderson who is on the staff of the Wyoming Parks Com- 
mission and did not charge for his expenses. 

Your Executive Secretary participated with the other officers in 
the judging of the historical essays submitted in the Junior His- 
torian contest for Junior and Senior High students. 

In cooperation with Mr. Miller, President, the office of the 
Executive Secretary had the awards program brochure published. 
These were mailed from the Department to all chapters and all 
schools in Wyoming. 

I served on the Grant in Aid Committee during the past year. 
Mr. Robert Murray, Museum Curator at Fort Laramie National 
Historic Site, who submitted an excellent summary of his proposed 
study on Military Posts in the Powder River Country of Wyoming, 
1865-1894, was given the first Grant in Aid. His project is to be 
completed within a two-year period. 

As Executive Secretary 1 attended four executive meetings held 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 117 

during the past year, on November 16, 1963, and January 12, 
April 12, and July 12, 1964. Following each of the meetings 
minutes were mimeographed for the Secretary to send out to 
officers. 

During the past year I had the pleasure of meeting with five 
chapters: Albany, Campbell, Sweetwater, Uinta and a joint 
meeting of the Johnson-Sheridan chapters. Because of the pres- 
sure of work in the Department and conflicting dates it was not 
possible to make other visits this past year. 

Full reports for the above officers are on file at the Wyoming 
State Archives and Historical Department. 

GENERAL BUSINESS MEETING 

Following the reading of her report, Miss Homsher introduced 
Dr. Robert H. Burns, of Laramie, who has been appointed by 
Governor Clifford P. Hansen to complete the unexpired term on 
the Wyoming State Library, Archives and Historical Board of Mr. 
Henry Jones, who passed away on July 8. 

She showed the architect's drawings for a proposed new build- 
ing for the Archives and Historical Department and the State 
Museum, and explained the need for more room and adequate 
facilities to carry out the Department's expanding program and to 
properly preserve and interpret the history of our state. Edness 
Kimball Wilkins suggested each member of the Society should 
contact his legislators and emphasize the need for such a building. 

The president displayed the new, attractive Awards certificate 
which he had designed, and which will be used in the future for all 
awards. 

In response to a question from the floor, the president stated 
that only paid-up members in the Wyoming State Historical 
Society have the privilege of voting. 

The following highlights from standing committee reports are 
given here. The full reports are on file at the Archives and His- 
torical Department. 

Projects Committee. Mrs. Hord reported for this committee in 
her report as first vice president. Mrs. Irene Patterson suggested 
that, if necessary, the State Society and county chapters could 
match funds to complete a project. Time and effort could also be 
matched. Mr. Sweem warned that Wyoming is passing up con- 
siderable highway salvage money. Miss Homsher suggested that a 
plan should be set forth so that counties know what to apply for 
and how to obtain assistance, and that details of this can be worked 
out this fall and mailed out to chapters. 

Archaeological Committee. Mr. Grant Willson sent a written 
report which was read by the secretary. He reported that the 
Castle Gardens area is being considered for designation as a 
National Monument, and that more than fifty acres of the Kem- 
merer Fossil Fish beds are also being so considered. He reported 



118 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

that a resolution recommending the appointment of a State Ar- 
chaeologist on the staff of the University of Wyoming has been sent 
to Governor Hansen by the Wyoming Archaeological Society. 
After considerable discussion, Miss Eunice Hutton moved that the 
Wyoming State Historical Society recommend the appointment of a 
State Archaeologist not connected with the University. The mo- 
tion was seconded and carried. 

Mr. Charles Guild, of Evanston, chairman of the nominating 
committee, assisted by Miss Kathleen Hemry and Mrs. Elsa Spear 
Byron counted the ballots. 

Mrs. Katherine Halverson, Chief of the Historical Division, 
Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department gave a report 
on historical markers in the state which have been furnished by the 
Department since it assumed the program in 1959. 

REPORT ON HISTORICAL MARKERS 

Forty-three historical markers have been placed throughout the 
state by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 
since July, 1959, when the marker program for the state became 
the responsibility of the Department. 

The Department has worked directly with the county chapters 
of the Wyoming State Historical Society in planning the markers. 
Two markers have been allowed to each county, and in eighteen 
counties two markers have been chosen and completed. Four 
counties have received one marker, and only one county has 
received none. Three additional markers have also been placed. 

Results have been best in counties where a Society chapter is 
organized, as, where a chapter does not exist, it is difficult to find 
other local groups interested in working with the Department to 
mark historic sites. 

In some instances it is not possible to place markers desired by 
county groups because of highway construction now in progress or 
planned for the future. 

Of the total number of markers, three are of cast aluminum, 
rather than wood, used for the majority of the signs. They are 
more expensive to purchase, but are more attractive, allow more 
flexibility as to inscription and design, and require less care and 
expense for upkeep. 

The aluminum markers have been placed in Laramie, Albany 
and Sheridan counties. Counties who may desire additional mark- 
ers, although they may already have received two, are invited to 
let the Department know, submit a legend to us and we will con- 
sider all that we can within the allocated funds. However, we will 
have to have these requests by early in 1965, so that all the signs 
can be completed before the end of June, 1965. After that time 
the program will come under the jurisdiction of the Wyoming Parks 
Commission. 

The president read and explained the proposed constitutional 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 119 

changes. To effect the desired changes, the following deletions 
and additions are necessary: 

In Article V, Section 1 : Delete the words "and one delegate 
from each duly chartered county chapter of the Society" 

In Article V, Section 1 : The addition of a second paragraph : 
"A Special Executive Committee shall be composed of the fore- 
going elected officers, the Executive Secretary, and one delegate 
from each duly chartered county chapter of the Society." 

In Article V, Section 2: The addition of a line to state when 
the Special Executive Committee shall meet: "A meeting of the 
Special Executive Committee shall be held at least once a year to 
consider problems and plans of the Society." 

Mr. William Mclnerney moved adoption of the changes. The 
motion was seconded and carried. 

The president read the proposed changes in the by-laws, which 
would provide for Junior Historical Societies. Mr. Gene Brown, 
Laramie, explained that the Albany County Chapter helped draw 
up a Junior Historical Society constitution and sponsored the 
Junior Society in Laramie. After discussion about the number of 
students necessary to form a junior group, Mrs. Paul Durnford 
moved that the provision for a specific number be deleted and the 
remainder of the report be accepted. The motion was seconded 
and carried. The changes in the by-laws, as accepted, are as 
follows : 

A new section (No. 3) to Article III (which pertains to the 
chartering of County Chapters of the Society ) . 

Section 3. The Society will charter, assist in organization, and 
support in endeavor of a historical nature, those junior and/or 
senior high school students who wish to organize junior historical 
societies in The State of Wyoming. 

Prior to charter, the group must draft and adopt a constitution 
and by-laws which do not conflict with the Articles or By Laws 
of the State Society or the County Society where the group is to be 
chartered. 

Prior to charter, the group must establish dues or membership 
fees in their junior society and make adequate provision for the 
receipt, banking, and withdrawal of their own funds. 

A letter request for charter should be directed to the Executive 
Secretary of the Wyoming State Historical Society and should be 
signed by the officers of the new junior historical group, accom- 
panied by a copy of their regularly adopted constitution and by- 
laws. 

The junior historian group must purchase in the name of their 
society no less than one membership in the County Chapter of this 
society and the State Society, and fee for this membership shall 
accompany the letter request for charter. 

Annually, prior to the spring dismissal of school, the junior 
group must, elect one delegate to the annual meeting of the State 



120 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Society who will represent their one or more group memberships 
in the State Society. This shall not limit the attendance at the 
annual meeting by those individuals who hold memberships in the 
State Society. 

Mrs. Wilkins moved that the secretary be instructed to buy the 
same number of Volume 5 of the Hunton Diaries as have been pur- 
chased of previous volumes in the past, for resale to members. 
The motion was seconded and carried. 

Mr. Dubois, chairman of the auditing committee, reported that 
the treasurer's book had been audited and found correct, and 
moved that since $2,000 was in the checking account, $1,000 be 
placed in the savings account. The motion was seconded and 
carried. 

In the absence of the Chairman, Mr. Norman R. Dickinson, 
Riverton, Mr. Burton Hill, of Buffalo, presented the report of the 
Resolutions Committee as follows: 

REPORT OF RESOLUTIONS COMMITTEE 

WHEREAS the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society has been outstanding and remunerative in both mind and spirit, and 

WHEREAS we owe tribute to General John A. Rawlins for his endeavors of 
some 97 years ago which same instituted the city of Rawlins, and 

WHEREAS ninety years ago John C. Friend shipped a carload of "Rawlins 
Red" pigment for use on the Brooklyn bridge, and 

WHEREAS the early citizens of Rawlins preserved the integrity of the city 
by disposing of "Big Nose" George Parrot and, "Dutch" Charlie Burris, and 

WHEREAS the local membership has been such a gracious and hard-work- 
ing host, providing for our every need and furnishing entertainment and 
colorful decorations, 

THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Wyoming State Historical So- 
ciety is unanimous in its praise and thanks to the Carbon County Chapter. 

Mr. Hill also read a resolution approved at the 1963 Annual 
Meeting, in which it was resolved that the legislature be petitioned 
to provide an adequate and functional building for museum, ar- 
chives and history, with bombproof vault for security storage, to 
be built to properly preserve and further develop our Wyoming 
heritage. The membership voted to reaffirm this resolution. 

The meeting was adjourned at 4:15 p.m. 

BANQUET 

At seven o'clock on Saturday evening a smorgasbord was en- 
joyed in Jeffrey Center. After introduction of officers and guests 
at the head table, a trio composed of Harriet Carlson, Betty Paul 
and Mona Chandler, of Rawlins, entertained with songs appro- 
priate to the history of Wyoming. 

Mr. Miller read the name of those receiving Junior Historical 
Awards. They were: 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 121 

Senior High School: First Award, $25, Anita Bartholdi, Rock 
Springs; Second Award, $10, Terri Agnes Burgess, Rawlins. 
Junior High School: First Award, $25, won jointly by Betty Jean 
Murdock and Gary Glen Brost, Owl Creek Route, Thermopolis; 
Second Award, $10, Robin Elaine Rider, Cheyenne; Third Award, 
book. Soldier and Brave, Marianne Harris, Evanston. 

Mr. Miller presented the award to Miss Burgess, who was able 
to attend the banquet as a guest. He also presented the first Wyo- 
ming Teacher Award given by the Society to Mr. Gene Brown for 
his organization of a successful Junior Historical Society in Lar- 
amie. 

Mr. Sweem, second vice president, and chairman of the Awards 
Committee, presented the following awards: 

Leora Peters, Wheatland. For historical articles on Wyoming 
history published in newspapers over the state. 

Dr. Harold McCraken, Cody. For his contribution to Archaeol- 
ogy for promotion and supervision of the exploration, excavation 
and preservation of information and artifact materials from Mum- 
my Cave near Cody. 

Bradford Brinton Museum, Big Horn. For conducting guided 
educational tours through the museum. 

Wyoming Tradesman, newspaper, Casper. For publication of a 
series of articles on Wyoming history. 

Whitney Art Gallery, Cody. For collecting and exhibiting 
Western Art for the benefit of people of Wyoming and from all 
parts of the world. 

Gladys Housman, Guernsey. For composing the music and 
writing the words of the song "In Wyoming." 

Francis Seely Webb, Casper. For her published writing of 
people, places and events in Wyoming's past. 

Mabel Brown, Newcastle. For her outstanding series of articles 
on history of Wyoming published in magazines and newspapers of 
nation-wide circulation. 

Mrs. May Dow, Newcastle. For her life-long work in promoting 
and preserving Wyoming history through research, writing and 
teaching. 

Charles B. Erlanson, Sheridan. For writing the book. Battle 
of the Butte, a story of General Nelson Miles' battle on Tongue 
River, Montana. 

Frank Bowron, Casper. Honorable Mention for publication of 
Casper's Diamond Jubilee booklet, for which he wrote the legends, 
collected the photographs and sold the advertising. 

Sublette County Artists' Guild. For publishing the book Tales 
of the Seeds-ke-dee. 

Casper Zonta Club. For compiUng and publishing the book 
Casper Chronicles, a collection of historical events. 

Mr. Charles Rawlings, Ranchester. Posthumous. For his life- 




Gene Brown of Laramie Receiving Wyoming Teacher Award from Neal 
Miller, President, Wyoming State Historical Society 




Terri Agnes Burgess, Rawlins, Receiving check as second place winner, 
Senior High School Division, Junior Historian Award 



WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 123 

long contributions to history through research, writing, exploration 
and collecting. 

Mr. Miller announced that Mr. Orman Pratt of Sheridan, was 
winner of the contest to design a seal for the Wyoming State 
Historical Society. Many entries had been submitted in the com- 
petition and it was difficult to make a decision. 

Mr. Charles Guild, Chairman of the Nominating Committee, 
announced that the following officers had been re-elected for the 
coming year: 

President Mr. Neal Miller 

First Vice President Mrs. Charles Hord 

Second Vice President Mr. Glenn Sweem 

Secretary-Treasurer Miss Maurine Carley 

Mrs. Lovina Pierson announced the winners in the "What is It?" 
contest. Out of the 25 items Mr. Walter Lambertsen named 21 
correctly and Mr. Glenn Sweem recognized 20. Mr. Lambertsen's 
prize was a large thermos jug and Mr. Sweem received a year's 
membership in the Wyoming State Historical Society. 

The Bank Notes, barbershop quartet, royally entertained the 
gathering with both harmony and humor. 

The speaker of the evening, Mr. Nelson Olmsted, of Los An- 
geles, gave a very entertaining and informative talk about his work 
with the Pacific Power and Light Company. He has narrated five- 
minute authentic historical sketches on radio for many years. He 
delighted his Rawlins audience by giving a preview of the Decem- 
ber 7 program which appropriately will be on the life of General 
John A. Rawlings, for whom the town was named in 1868. For 
the series of historical programs the Pacific Power and Light Com- 
pany received awards last year from both the Wyoming State 
Historical Society and the American Association for State and 
Local History. 

SUNDAY - SEPTEMBER 13 

Promptly at 7:45 a.m. a caravan of twenty cars left Rawlins for 
Fort Steele where a hearty western breakfast of hot cakes and 
antelope sausage was served at the river by the Carbon County 
Chapter. Following breakfast, the group returned to Fort Steele, 
where Mr. Charles Vivion gave a short history of the old fort and 
the sheep industry of later years, and the persons who acquired the 
Fort property. 

After the talk the caravan folowed a well-marked route for 20 
miles to the Platte River Crossing on the Overland Stage Trail, 
where Mr. Edward McAuslan presented a paper on that historic 
spot. Graves and names cut in the cliff were inspected before a 



124 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

lunch was served by the competent men who had moved their 
cooking and serving equipment from Fort Steele. 

Everyone declared this one of the best Annual Meetings, and 
they sincerely thank the Carbon County Chapter for two fine days. 

Maurine Carley 
Secretary 




Designed by Orman H. Pratt 

The official seal of the Wyoming State Historical Society, adopt- 
ed on September 12, 1964, at the Annual Meeting of the Society 
held at Rawlins, is reproduced here. It was the winning design in 
the competition for a seal sponsored by the Society, and Mr. Pratt 
received a certificate of recognition at the meeting. The design 
contains an Indian, a pioneer, a covered wagon, a book and quUl 
pen. Mr. Pratt explained the seal was so designed to depict the 
Indian and pioneer past of the state. The book represents the 
written record of the past, and the quill pen and wagon represent 
the tools which were important to the progress of the west. The 
seal will be used on letterheads and other documents of the Society. 



^00 k Keviews 



The Shoshonis. Sentinels of the Rockies. By Virginia Cole Tren- 
holm and Maurine Carley. (Norman: University of Okla- 
homa Press, 1964. Illus., index. 320 pp. $5.95.) 

Until recently no really complete account of the Shoshoni tribe 
has appeared although occasionally one might run across a fine 
article here, a revealing anecdote there. Yet the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy's Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (edited by 
Frederick Webb Hodge in 1912) referred to the Shoshonis as the 
strongest and most prominent tribe on the upper Plateau. 

It remained for Virginia Cole Trenholm of Wheatland, Wyo- 
ming, and Maurine Carley, of Cheyenne, to compile the first Sho- 
shoni chronicle which is broad in scope, pertinent and penetrating 
in treatment. 

This treatise is not related simply to the Wyoming Shoshonis as 
we know them, although Chief Washakie's colorful picture on the 
dust jacket might lead one to expect that. Rather, it covers the 
broad sweep of land inhabited over the decades by that whole 
tribal group — from the desert region of Cahfornia, eastward across 
Nevada, Utah and Idaho, as well as western Wyoming. 

Here is no "arm-chair" narrative, hastily written by persons 
whose knowledge of the subject is scanty and purely vicarious. 
The Shoshonis has been many years in the making. Rest assured, 
Carley and Trenholm spent countless hours among dusty book- 
shelves, doing documentary research. They carried on voluminous 
correspondence with noted authorities in the field. They made 
several visits to the Wind River Reservation. There they asked 
Shoshoni tribal leaders about the legends and the folklore of their 
forefathers; they sought information about the Shoshoni approach 
to modern living. As evidence, witness the generous footnotes 
scattered throughout the book, together with a well-classified, 27- 
page bibliography at the end. 

Nor is this just a chronicle of the Shoshonis alone! The ap- 
proach is ethnological, not simply historical, in nature. Compara- 
tive cultures of neighboring tribes, whose lives were too interwoven 
for separation, are closely examined. Tribes such as the Crow, 
the Sioux, the Cheyenne, the Paiute, the Blackfoot and the Ban- 
nock. 

Considerable space is granted to the impact of the white man's 
influence on Indian ways of living. Several chapters are devoted 
to the mountain men, the missionaries and the emigrants. 

This is a book which will attract persons of varied tastes. When 
Mrs. Trenholm finally sat down to write it, she consistently kept 



126 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

in mind two groups of readers — those trained in the use of source 
materials; those interested chiefly in anecdotes and legends. Her 
style throughout is direct, terse and readable. 

An overwhelming curiosity impelled this reviewer to dip first 
into the Trenholm treatment of two commonly controversial sub- 
jects before settling down to a full cover-to-cover reading of the 
book. 

First, she asked herself, are the claims to fame made by Nevada's 
Sarah Winnemucca accepted wholeheartedly here, or are they 
challenged? 

Second, is greater credence given to the Wyoming, or to the 
South Dakota, version of how and where the Bird Woman, Saca- 
jawea, spent her declining years? 

Results? A concise footnote (pp. 83-84) seems to cover the 
Winnemucca challenge quite satisfactorily. 

On the other hand, one could wish for a more detailed treatment 
of the Sacajawea story (pp. 219-20). Only one reference (Lut- 
tig's Journal) is cited in support of the South Dakota theory; even 
that is brushed aside as inconclusive. A few other South Dakota 
references might bear close reading. Too bad they were over- 
looked! 

Two fine contributions made by the Shoshoni book, however, 
should improve our knowledge of Chief Washakie. 

The authors make no attempt to paint as glamorous a picture of 
this man as did several of their predecessors — Hebard, Vaughn and 
Reynolds, for example (p. 252). But Washakie emerges an even 
finer figure of a man because The Shoshonis claims his close 
friendship with the white man was due less to blind personal devo- 
tion; was due more to his principle of adhering to his word, once 
given. 

Refutation is given also to the oft-repeated statement that the 
chief was present at the "Battle of the Rosebud" (p. 247). And 
this too is done quite convincingly! 

Use of the word "Shoshonis" may bother some Wyoming read- 
ers, accustomed as we are to "Shoshones." Please don't let it! 
Remember that, within the boundaries of this state, we have a 
town named "Shoshoni" as well as a "Shoshone" National Forest. 
Hodge's Handbook (previously cited) enumerates (p. 558) a 
number of varied spellings for this tribal name. They include 
"Shoshon," "Shoshonay," "Shoshones," "Shoshonee," "Shosho- 
nis," "Shossoonies" and even "Shothones." Take your pick! 
Modern writers, backed no doubt by the Bureau of Ethnology, 
seem to prefer "Shoshonis." 

As an eminent authority in the Indian field recently remarked 
of the Trenholm-Carley treatise, "I don't care how they spell the 
word! It's an excellent book, any way you look at it!" 

Laramie Clarice Whittenburg 



BOOK REVIEWS 127 

The Beaver Men. By Mari Sandoz. (New York, Hastings House 
Publishers, 1964. 335 pp. $5.95) 

This new volume from the prolific pen of Mari Sandoz, written 
and published in the thirtieth year of her distinguished career, was 
planned several years ago to be the first volume of her series of 
major historical works dealing with the Great Plains. The first 
volume written was Old Jules in 1935, though it is, if I have listed 
them correctly, sixth in the series. The others, written at varying 
points in the years between Old Jules and The Beaver Men, and 
listed in, I hope, the correct order are, after The Beaver Men, 
Crazy Horse (1942), Cheyenne Autumn (1953), The Buffalo 
Hunters (1954), The Cattlemen (1958), Old Jules, and the last 
volume yet to be pubhshed which will deal with our own era. 
These five previous volumes are a most valuable and significant 
contribution to our understanding of the development of the Great 
Plains and the West, and The Beaver Men makes a sixth worthy to 
stand with them. 

The era it covers (the early 1600's to the early 1800's), and the 
fur trade (which was the beginning of the opening up of the Great 
Plains and the West) are familiar to most readers from the many 
books preceding The Beaver Men (an excellent bibhography of 
which Miss Sandoz includes at the end of her volume), but The 
Beaver Men is a re-telling which seems new because it is filled with 
life, colored by her particular insight, told in her inimitable and 
beautiful prose, and permeated everywhere by her broad human 
sympathies and her scorn for the ruthless element behind any Great 
Plains enterprise in the treatment of the Indians and in this book 
also of the coureurs de bois (to whom the book is dedicated). It 
is a very readable book, clear, concise, controlled, with the proper 
highlights, and all of it carefully researched. 

The several sections devoted to the nature of the beaver and his 
history are fascinating and enlightening. This "orderly, inoffensive 
creature," as Miss Sandoz calls him, was nearly exterminated to 
satisfy the white man's greed, but fortunately fashions shifted and 
he was spared to remain one of the most interesting animals in 
nature. Before this, however, the fabulously successful quest for 
this orderly and inoffensive animal, the quest for beaver gold, she 
writes, "fired the appetite for empire in the great courts of Europe 
and dictated their foreign policy over much of America and Europe 
too, so long as the beaver lasted." This, of course, she finds to be 
the pattern in the settlement of the Great Plains, materialistic im- 
pulses which have brought about endless destruction yet have 
resulted also in the development of the area until the pattern is 
finally changed — a matter which she will take up in the last book 
of the series, "the one," she says in the brief and significant "Fore- 
word," "that is to illustrate the rise of Plains-rooted power that 



128 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

grasps for wealth anywhere in the world and often molds the 
nation's foreign policy . . ."" 

Thus the series of books, of which this is the first, will end, and 
anyone who goes through them can expect what Miss Sandoz her- 
self expects — "to understand something of the white man's incum- 
bency on the Great Plains from Stone Age Indian to the present, to 
understand something of what modern man does to su::h a region, 
and what it does to him." 

University of Wyoming Richard Mahan 



Standing Up Country. The Canyon Lands of Utah and Arizona. 
By C. Gregory Crampton. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf 
and University of Utah Press in association with the Amon 
Carter Museum of Western Art. Illus. bibl. index. 191 + 
vpp. 1964. $15.00.) 

If one is interested in that area of beauty and mystery which 
includes southwestern Utah and extends eastward to the four- 
corners area of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona, this is a 
book which is a must for one's library. This is sandstone country 
of mesas, buttes, canyons and plateaus sculptured by nature into 
fantastic shapes of erosion. Because of its great expanse, and the 
danger of attempting to enter it without proper knowledge and 
preparation, only segments of it are generally familiar to the public, 
such as Bryce Canyon, Zion National Park and the Grand Canyon 
of the Colorado. 

C. Gregory Crampton, professor of history at the University of 
Utah and author of the book, relates how the book and the country 
received its name: "The intricately sculptured country looks like 
a tableland, but unless you know your way, don't try to cross it . . . 
Move toward the center of the canyon country from any direction. 
Soon you may find yourself standing on top of a wall, that is, the 
edge of a mesa or the rim of a canyon which is dropping away 
below you a hundred feet, a thousand feet, or more. You can go 
no further; you have been 'rim-rocked' to use a good canyon- 
country verb. You are on the edge of the world and you probably 
have spread out before you a natural spectacle of surpassing mag- 
nificence. As someone expressed it years ago: There is as much 
country standing up as there is lying down.' " 

This reviewer has found the spectacle awe inspiring when flying 
over a few portions of this area. It takes a hardy explorer and time 
to enter the vast area for a closer look. Next best is to sit down 
with this book, read the excellent text full of the fascinating history 
of the area and enjoy the 126 beautiful photographs which illustrate 
it, 16 of which are in full color of rare beauty. The author's notes 
and a fine bibliography accompany the text. 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 



BOOK REVIEWS 129 

Old Forts of the Southwest. By Herbert M. Hart. (Seattle: 
Superior Publishing Company, 1964. Illus., index. 192 pp. 
$12.50.) 

This is the second volume of Herbert M. Hart's "Forts of the 
Old West" series. 

He visited the sites of sixty-two frontier Army posts scattered 
through present-day Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New 
Mexico, Arizona and California in assembUng material for this 
book. Early-day drawings, photographs and plats of each post in 
the period of its garrisoning as well as present-day photos of eacli 
site and its location accompany the narrative. 

In the early and middle 1800's explorers, trail blazers, gold 
seekers, settlers and soldiers vied with each other in their enthusi- 
asm to cut new ways across the southwestern plains, particularly 
after the end of the Mexican War. The Indian tribes of the South- 
west, Apache, Navajo, Kiowa, Comanche and Cheyenne, bitterly 
opposed every incursion into their traditional hunting grounds, and 
it was not until 1 900 the Army could close its records on the Indian 
Wars. During this period the United States established a line of 
forts stretching between 1,300 and 2,500 miles and ranging from 
30 to 300 miles apart. Oftentimes they were hastily and poorly 
constructed, isolated, undermanned. Scourges of fevers, cholera, 
scurvy and dysentery made dreadful inroads on many garrisons. 
Drunkenness and desertion posed two problems always present in 
the frontier Army. During the Civil War several of the Southwest 
Forts were manned by both Union and Confederate forces. 

In his detailed research the author came across many interesting 
facts and anecdotes which he includes in the narrative dealing with 
each Army post. 

General Robert E. Lee, who was stationed at several posts in 
Texas immediately following the Mexican War and from 1855 to 
1857, would never bring his family to the frontier, and he once 
wrote to his wife back in Virginia, "If officers of the Army will get 
married, I think they should insist that their wives have no children. 
This will help the matter much." 

Fort Fillmore (New Mexico) was at one time unofficially com- 
manded by the wife of an officer, Mrs. Lydia Spencer Lane. All 
of the garrison was ordered on a patrol, including prisoners in the 
guardhouse, and Mrs. Lane, with a sergeant and ten men, was left 
in command. 

Jefferson Davis was stationed at Fort Gibson (Oklahoma), and 
it was there that he was court-martialed in 1834 and left the Army. 
A lieutenant at the time, he was accused by the Dragoon com- 
mander of faihng to attend the reveille formation. When pressed 
for a reason for his failure, the official court-martial record charged 
that "the said Lt. Davis did in highly disrespectful, insubordinate 



130 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and contemptuous manner, abruptly turn upon his heel and walk 
off saying at the same time, 'Hum!' " Davis was found not guilty 
of the charge. 

A corrupt Indian agent at Fort Tejon (California) did not 
bother to issue trousers to his charges. He suggested instead that 
the Indians paint green or red pantaloons on their legs, mainly out 
of respect for the sensibilities of settlers who passed by. One 
government inspector angrily but facetiously suggested that striped 
blue shirts painted on the Indians' upper bodies might be cool, 
economical, and picturesque. 

In 1855 came the famous camel experiment; Secretary of War 
Jefferson Davis was the man behind this scheme. Hart explains, 
"Tales are told that the camel business failed because the soft pads 
on their feet could not take the rough rocks and foliage of the 
American West. Not so. They could march cross-country with 
the best the Army had to offer, and leave them behind. They could 
go days without water and tote a load that would have foundered a 
mule. Their swaying gait presented a smoother platform than a 
horse's from which to fire a rifle. And in every impartial test 
patrol they made, they passed with flying colors — and usually, a 
few riders. But it all came to naught. Jeff Davis was the man 
behind the scheme, and in post-Civil War America anything with 
his tag was hopeless. The camels were sold or permitted to 
'escape.' Some wound up in circuses, some in ill-fated private 
transportation schemes." 

Such well-known names as Christopher ( Kit ) Carson, Philip H. 
Sheridan, George Armstrong Custer, Elizabeth B. Custer, Albert 
Sidney Johnston, Wesley Merritt and Ranald S. Mackenzie appear 
from time to time in this book, along with many Army men and 
women, settlers, Indians, preachers, teachers, prostitutes, pimps, 
gamblers and thieves. It was of course through the combination of 
these diverse elements that the West was explored, won, and 
settled. 

The author generously acknowledges the cooperation and assist- 
ance of many members of staffs of libraries, historical societies, 
museums and other individuals in assembling and editing the ma- 
terial for "Old Forts of the Southwest." He cautions, "If the read- 
er is tempted to visit any of these sites, a few words of caution may 
be in order. Many are privately owned. Permission should be 
requested from the owner before investigating, and the courtesies 
of the west always should be observed. This means, leave things 
as they are found, close all gates, do not frighten the livestock, and 
do not carry off any souvenirs. In rattlesnake country, take 
appropriate precautions ... In desert country, take along a shovel, 
some boards, some gunnysacks and chains. And do not try to 
navigate the back roads in the family car; a jeep, pickup truck, or 
foot travel is recommended." 

Herbert M. Hart is a Major in the Marine Corps, a graduate of 



BOOK REVIEWS 131 

Northwestern University's Medill School of Journahsm, and is 
currently serving as an intelligence officer with the Navy's Atlantic 
Fleet. To assemble the material for this book he and his wife, 
Teresa, covered fifteen thousand miles in 1963 in a camper accom- 
panied by their three children, Bridget, Erin and Bret, all under 
four years of age, without whom, Hart says, the book would have 
been finished in half the time. 

"Old Forts of the Southwest" is a volume to read and re-read, 
to enjoy and to cherish. 

Cheyenne Robert R. Larson 



Western Ghost Town Shadows. By Lambert Florin. (Seattle: 
Superior Publishing Company. 1964. Illus., index. 189 
pp. $12.50.) 

This fourth book of Lambert Florin's Western Ghost Town ser- 
ies has not lost any of the freshness of his first book, and the author 
apparently has lost none of his enthusiasm for hunting out old 
towns and sharing them with his readers. 

The subject of ghost towns is ideally suited to the increasingly 
popular pictorial treatment of history. Most of the dozens of 
superb illustrations are the author's own photographs, although 
he utilizes a good many historic ones where they best serve his 
purpose. A professional photographer and florist when he is not 
searching out ghost towns, Florin produces pictures of truly 
artistic composition which unfailingly capture the mood and atmos- 
phere of the solitary, decaying old towns and settlements. 

The brief historical sketches tell a great deal in relatively few 
well-chosen words. The humor in many of the terse statements 
is refreshing and adds much to the enjoyment of the book. Cut- 
lines for an old photograph, "Belle of the Yukon — 1898," a rather 
Junoesque young woman, which reportedly hung in every saloon 
in Dawson City, Yukon Territory, conclude with this comment by 
the author: "Subject seems to show effects of long winter diet of 
salt pork, beans and flapjacks." 

Along with good sound history, Florin interjects many amus- 
ing anecdotes and incidents typical of the new, unrestrained west. 
One story begins: "Divorce lawyers were not as greedy in the 
80's as they are today. You could even get unhitched by slot 
machine. The ad in the Corinne, Utah, Reporter said so. 'Di- 
vorce Secured — Presence Unnecessary — Fee $2.50.' Above the 
legal firm name of Johnson and Underdunk was the message 
that any disenchanted mate was invited to use the elaborate and 
complicated machine in the offices of the firm. The suing party 
simply inserted a $2.50 gold piece in the maw of the contraption, 
gave the crank a turn and presto, in hand was a beautifully pre- 



132 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

pared divorce decree signed by the Corinne City Judge. When the 
names of both parties were filled in the blank spaces the document 
was legal." 

This is a delightful book, with enjoyment to be derived equally 
from the pictures and from the text. 

Cheyenne Katherine Halverson 



Picture Gallery Pioneers. By Ralph W. Andrews. (Seattle, Su- 
perior Publishing Company, 1964. Index. 192 pp. $12.50.) 

This book is a pictorial study into the history of early day pho- 
tography, and perhaps more important, the early day photographer. 
The book is divided into six parts and covers the illustrious careers 
of at least twenty-nine enterprising photographers who did their 
work in the West between 1850 and 1875. 

The author gives a brief biographical sketch of each photog- 
rapher and shows the high quality photographs produced by each 
under the most difficult conditions. 

For instance, the first portion of the book dwells on the photog- 
raphers who accompanied government survey expeditions from 
1867 to 1873. Such photographers as T. H. O'Sullivan and Wil- 
liam Henry Jackson accompanied expeditions into the remote and 
relatively unexplored regions of the West, took pictures and 
developed them in dark rooms made of tents. They transported 
their equipment, including cameras, developing chemicals, and 
glass plates down rivers, over mountains and through canyons. 
Many of these pictures taken under these conditions are equal to 
pictures taken with modern equipment. 

Other portions of the book dwell on the portrait and studio 
photographers such as C. E. Watkins of California, Peter Britt of 
Oregon and William G. Chamberlain of Colorado. Mr. Watkins, 
along with William H. Jackson and A. A. Hart, a noted photog- 
rapher of the Central Pacific Railroad, did a large portion of their 
work in stereographs which were so popular in early homes. 

In this book can be seen high quality pictures of early gold- 
mining activities in California, Colorado, Montana, and Oregon; 
scenes of frontier cities and towns; many beautiful views of moun- 
tains, rivers, canyons and other landscape views; and pictures of 
such events as the Cherry Creek Flood in Denver in 1864 which 
was photographed by George D. Wakely who had a studio in 
Denver for a time in the 60's. 

In writing this book, Mr. Andrews intended to bring to light the 
fact that photography and photographers are not recent products 
but have been around for quite some time, longer then most real- 
ize. The author also wanted the reader to realize how courageous 



BOOK REVIEWS 133 

and undaunted these early technicians were to brave the perils of a 
yet unsettled country and still be able to produce high quality 
pictures. 

Cheyenne Virginia Schwartz Wilcox 



The Custer Album. A Pictorial Biography of General George A. 
Custer. By Lawrence A. Frost. (Seattle: Superior Publishing 
Company. 1964. Illus., index. 192 pp. $12.50) 

This book is a continuation of a series by Superior Publishing 
Company, bringing the old West to life through period photog- 
raphy. Many of the pictures in this volume will be familiar, having 
received wide publication over the past few years. Some are sel- 
dom seen, but the high point is in the rare, first publication photo- 
graphs from the Battlefield, the Custer Room of the Monroe 
County, Michigan, Museum, and the author's collection. There 
are about 250 photographs supported by some 70 paintings and 
sketches. Of the total, 81 are concerned with the Little Horn 
operation. 

The book is prefaced by fifteen black and white reproductions of 
"Last Stand" paintings, including three by J. K. Ralston. If this 
section could only have been printed in color! 

The author. Dr. Frost, a foot specialist, chose as his subject a 
cavalryman "through the fate" as he calls it, of living in Custer's 
home town. Considering this and his avocation as the Curator of 
a large portion of the existing material on his subject (the Custer 
Room), he may be excused for his exceedingly uncritical approach 
in the narrative portion. To stay in proper perspective, it would 
be well to compare, as an example, his very subjective treatment in 
Chapter 9, "Kansas and Court Martial," with Robert Murray's 
objective account of "The Custer Court Martial" in the October, 
1964, Annals of Wyoming. 

The bibliography is considerable (257 items) but not compre- 
hensive since it should not be very difficult to find nearly a thou- 
sand. The photographs are not the complete Custer either, as the 
Battlefield still has a number yet unpublished, which probably per- 
tains also to the Monroe Museum and others. A remark in the 
preface by the author was interesting. "Many wonder why I 
bother to study the life of a soldier when there is so much material 
available about statesmen like Lincoln." 

The wealth of illustrative material that it does have, however, 
makes it a worthwhile book. From birthplace to West Point, from 
the Civil War to Texas, to the plains, to the Black Hills, (with the 
everpresent and very charming Libbie) and finally to the sage- 
covered slopes of Montana, the pictures, and contemporary sketch- 



134 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

es and paintings, transmit an awareness of the time and of the man 
unavailable through any other media, 

Sheridan Alan W. Bourne 



The Custer Battle Book. By Herbert A. Coffeen. Edited by Don- 
ald and Grace Coffeen. (New York: Carlton Press. 1964. 
65 pp. $2.00. ) 

This little book is a welcome addition to the libraries of the 
many who are interested in the Battle of the Little Big Horn, 
wherein the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians soundly trounced the 7th 
Cavalry, under Lt. Col. George A. Custer on June 25, 1876. 

The book, an anthology, contains eye-witness accounts of the 
battle, is the work of the late Herbert A. Coffeen, and is edited by 
his son, Donald H. Coffeen, and his wife. The articles in the 
book are reprints of those which appeared in a monthly magazine, 
published by Herbert Coffeen, called the "Teepee Book.'" The 
magazine is now out of print, and there have been so many inquiries 
for numbers of the publication that his son decided to publish the 
stories which appeared in the commemorative issue of June, 1916. 

Herbert A. Coffeen, a real pioneer of Wyoming, came to the 
state at the age of 15, and settled with his parents in Big Horn, 
where they operated a ranch and store. Later, he opened a store 
in Sheridan, where he became acquainted with many of the par- 
ticipants in early-day Wyoming history. In 1915 he started the 
"Teepee Book," in which he published actual stories obtained by 
personal interviews, and reproduced already-published rare ac- 
counts of Indians, army officers and other pioneers, from whom he 
received permission to reprint the articles. 

The present book contains stories by such well-known partici- 
pants in the Custer scrap as Captain Edward S. Godfrey, a 7th 
Cavalry officer who served under Benteen and who fought with 
Reno, the Crow scouts, and officers who viewed the site shortly 
after the fight. One of the interesting stories, which appeared in 
The Outlook, October, 1906, issue, was authored by Dr. Charles 
Eastman (Ohiyesa), a full-blooded, well-educated, Sioux, and 
relates the story of Rain-in-the-face, a Sioux warrior who was 
ungroundedly charged with the death of Captain Tom Custer. In 
his narrative the old warrior again denied the charge. 

The book gives the stories of Curley, White Man Runs Him, 
Hairy Moccasin, Goes Ahead and the narrative of Red Horse, a 
Sioux participant in the fight. Also included are the statements 
of Reno soldiers who were interviewed at the National Soldiers 
Home in Washington, D. C. The story authored by John A. 
Cockerill glorifies the Custer troops and states that Custer's body 



BOOK REVIEWS 135 

was not mutilated, but every other body on the field "was hacked 
and mutilated." This is, of course, incorrect, as there were many 
bodies found on the field which had not been subjected to 
mutilation. 

It would be untimely to deal with the different accounts of 
those whose comments are contained in the work. The only fault 
which can be now found in the book is the lack of identification of 
those whose experiences are related. The readers who are familiar 
with the details of the battle would not need to have the narrators 
identified. Those who are not too familiar with the fracas might 
not know who the various commentators were or what constituted 
them as authentic. 

Although Mr. Coffeen, as he informed this reviewer, sent to the 
pubUsher a large number of the rare photographs which he has, the 
publisher did not use them. These photographs would have 
dressed up the volume considerably, and would have been of 
genuine interest to all readers. 

However, the work is of value as an addition to libraries of all 
Wyoming and Montana historical fans. The typography is excel- 
lent and the contents surely exceptional. Mr. and Mrs. Coffeen, 
who are members of the Wyoming State Historical Society, are to 
be complimented for making these stories available to interested 
readers at a very modest sum. Captain Godfrey's account is more 
than worth the price of the book. 

Sheridan F. H. Sinclair 



Smoke Across the Prairie. By James L. Ehemberger and Francis 
G. Gschwind. (Golden, Colorado: Intermountain Chapter, 
National Railway Historical Society, 1964. Illus. $4.95.) 

The story of the steam locomotives of the Union Pacific's Ne- 
braska Division is told in Ehernberger and Gschwind's excellent 
book, "Smoke Across the Prairie." This division of the UP 
extends westward from Council Bluffs, Iowa, to Cheyenne, South 
Torrington, and La Salle, with a number of branch lines in the 
state of Nebraska. It was the home of the famous 9000 series 
"Union Pacific Type" 4-12-2 three-cylinder locomotive, an experi- 
mental design no other railroad in the country could afford to 
operate. Unsuited for the curves and hills west of Cheyenne, over 
a hundred of these monsters were assigned in their later years to 
fast freight service on the prairies of Nebraska and eastern Kansas, 
operating as far west as Cheyenne and Denver. 

The authors are well qualified to present the Nebraska Division 
in book form to the public. Francis Gschwind is a resident of 
Callaway, Nebraska, and an authority on Union Pacific branch 



136 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

line operation in that state. Jim Ehemberger, a former resident of 
Cheyenne, was an employee of the UPRR at that point during the 
later days of steam locomotives. Both are railroad photographers 
of note. 

Beginning with a historical sketch, maps, and description of the 
various component lines of the Nebraska Division, this volume 
becomes a photograph album of steam power in action on the 
UPRR east of Cheyenne. These excellent views rival those in 
other albums of trains on famous Sherman Hill. A black and 
white reproduction of Otto Kuhler's oil painting of Union Pacific 
locomotives entitled "Harvest Haulers'" is included along with two 
detailed drawings of modern steam power by Joe Barros. 

For those desiring the still-type photographs of steam locomo- 
tives, a section entitled "Steam Motive Power on the Nebraska 
Division" has been included. Detailed descriptions of the various 
engines and their services precede the locomotive portraits, and we 
find that nearly every type of locomotive the road ever owned 
eventually found its way to the Nebraska Division. Included were 
displaced engines from the Oregon Short Line, Salt Lake Line, 
and the OWR&N. Even the famous "Big Boys" (4000 series 
articulated type) turned to Nebraska during a coal strike. 

In order to complete the steam story of this section of the rail- 
road, an excellent chart of locomotive tonnage ratings for trains is 
furnished along with a main line profile chart showing important 
ruling grades and elevations. 

The authors set out with a purpose and have certainly convinced 
this reader that the Nebraska Division of the Union Pacific was a 
mighty rival of Sherman Hill and the Wyoming division when it 
came to railroading with steam. This work is well done, contains a 
wealth of accurate material, and fortunately furnishes no mislead- 
ing information nor gross exaggerations found in many other rail- 
road books published today. 

Smoke Across the Prairie is recommended for anyone interested 
in steam locomotives and especially for all students of Union 
Pacific history. 

Green River Richard E. Prince 



Cowboy. By Ross Santee. (New York: Hastings House Inc., 
1964. Illus. 257 pp. $4.95.) 

Cowboy is one of the classics of Western Americana. First 
published in 1928, the critical reception was immediately favor- 
able. The New York Herald Tribune wrote "From beginning to 
end the reader is made at home in a world of unique standards, 
customs and preoccupations as interpreted by a boy who absorbs 



BOOK REVIEWS 137 

them with a quick keen ardor." The Saturday Review called it 
"Wild West narrative that is literature." Cowboy remains one of 
the two best books on the life of the cowboy at work in the Amer- 
ican West. The text in the new edition is identical with the 1928 
edition. Illustrations have been added by Ross Santee which catch 
the spirit of the West in the same manner as do the words. Any 
collection of Western Americana which does not include the earlier 
edition will want to add this volume. However, $4.95 is a high 
price to pay for the illustrations if the earlier volume is available. 

Cheyenne John Andrew^ Fisher 



The Gathering of Zion. By Wallace Stegner. (New York: Mc- 
Graw-Hill Book Company, 1964. lUus., index. 331 pp. 
$6.95.) 

It is difficult to appraise a book with the scope of an historical 
sequence such as this, especially when one begins the reading of it 
with two things in mind: one, that it is apparently the author's 
intention to present an historical treatise of the westward trek of 
the Mormon people, and two, by acknowledgment in the introduc- 
tion his emphasis is to be "not primarily the route, but the people 
who travelled it, and how and why." 

From the outset the problems involved are the limitations im- 
posed on a writer who does not actually or imaginatively accept 
the frame of values of the society he is dealing with, consequently 
he must needs be strictly historical. To be historical, one must be 
a chronicler and objective. Our author dealt with a group of 
people — how and why they could make such almost super-human 
sacrifices to find a promised land, and so of necessity he was forced 
to deal with motives and at least an implied evaluation of those 
motives. The minute thoughts and motives are put into the mind 
of any ciiaracter, regardless of how solidly historical the character 
might be, he becomes for that moment at least, a character in 
fiction. And so very soon the reader becomes aware and readjusts 
his approach to the book, accepting it for what it is — fictionalized 
history. 

We become involved in the struggle of a people facing danger 
and death at every turn and sense the sympathy and even great 
admiration of the author for these displaced, driven persons, and 
yet somehow Stegner repeatedly negates his work by reducing, who, 
to the Mormon people, was their inspired prophet and leader of 
the trek, Brigham Young. One of his techniques is by making 
asides, and of course no historian who is mature and responsible 
would do this. 



138 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

One aspect of his purpose the author dramatically and effectively 
conveyed, the "how" they made the trek — with faith, sweat and 
tears. His chapter on "Ordeal by Handcart" was descriptive and 
moving. 

Finally there is left the last facet Stegner has wished to empha- 
size — the "why". Sadly enough the reader closes the book with 
this very frustration — why did they sacrifice so much? Our author 
has too often said both implicitly and explicitly through innuendo 
that the followers of Brigham Young were sincere, but the more 
sincere the more duped. The trek then, really was catastrophic, 
not the triumphal moral victory which would have given the book 
a great theme. We are left believing that at best the migration 
was a spectacular feat, a physical accomplishment of gigantic 
material proportions. The suffering of the courageous Mormon 
women whom he admires right to the last sentence of the book 
becomes pathetic instead of tragic. How ironical that these admi- 
rable women are, by the circumstances of implied illusion, denied 
any kind of real triumph. It would have helped if this fictionalized 
history could have gone all the way and left us at least with tragic 
heroines, if not tragic heroes. 

Cheyenne Johnnie Belle Williams 



Legends and Lore of Southern Illinois. By John W. Allen. (Car- 
bondale: Southern Illinois University, 1963. lUus., index. 
404 pp.) 

Legends and Lore of Southern Illinois is a collection of folklore, 
historical fact, biographical sketches, cultural and economic his- 
tory, detailed information on pioneering, and stories both factual 
and legendary — all focused on the past of one portion of Illinois. 
The book's author, John W. Allen, is a native of the region, born 
in a log cabin around 1887 and raised in a background of frontier 
settlement. This fact, combined with the author's varied careers as 
farmer, logger, teacher, construction superintendent, World War I 
marine in France, sociology student at the University of London, 
faculty member at Southern Illinois University, and regional col- 
umnist, suggests that Mr. Allen is a man who possesses a unique 
mixture of experiences, interests, and talents. The result is an 
unusual volume of what the author calls "lore, legends, sometimes 
strange beliefs, and bits of . . . history." His stated purpose in 
preparing the book is twofold: "to have those living in the region 
made more conscious of the heritage it offers and to see it as an 
essential part of the mosaic that is America" and "to have those 
living outside the region come to know it better." 



BOOK REVIEWS 139 

Actually Mr. Allen's book often goes beyond the southern 
Illinois area, for the frontier was a society of movement and 
change, with people coming and going within a given region, fam- 
ilies drifting farther west, and events and customs linking up from 
place to place. And although southern Illinois' past was unusually 
rich and varied — involving the early French settlements, various 
Indian tribes, riverboats and boatmen such as Mike Fink, Abraham 
Lincoln and the slavery issue, wars and the farming frontier — the 
histories of many western regions were, to a degree, similar. This 
makes Legends and Lore of Southern Illinois of more widespread 
interest than its title suggests. A reader intrigued with early times 
and ways, and the development of a society from wilderness to 
relative civilization, will find Mr. Allen's book quite worthwhile. 

The type of book written by John W. Allen should be compiled 
on Wyoming and other western areas. Wyoming folklore, for 
example, has not received much serious attention, though it is a 
part of various publications and the collection edited by B. A. 
Botkin, A Treasury of Western Folklore. Many books touch on 
legends and lore related to the West in general, but a minimum of 
attention has been given to specific areas such as Wyoming. And 
a large proportion of the fiction and non-fiction treating the state 
deals with a few sensational or seemingly romantic aspects — the 
fur trappers, the Sioux Indians, the cowboys, and the Johnson 
County War. Neglected are many significant, revealing threads 
in the rough fabric of the state and its past — schools, business 
enterprises, place-names, religious movements, logging, oil devel- 
opments, sheepmen past and present, dude ranching, Indian poli- 
cies, courts and concepts of justice, communities, rivers, and 
landmarks. . . . 

Mr. Allen's approach in Legends and Lore of Southern Illinois 
is comprehensive and shows one way in which important aspects 
of a region can be put before the public in readable form. Perhaps 
other writers would limit their focus in dealing with a particular 
area of the West, as has been done in many fine regional works 
such as Struthers Burt's Powder River, in the excellent Rivers of 
America series, Ghost Towns of Wyoming by Homsher and Pence, 
and John Burroughs' Where the Old West Stayed Young. In any 
case, despite the amount of Western Americana being published, 
the stories of Wyoming and other western states have only been 
partially told in fiction, non-fiction, and poetry. Much more will 
be done, but in the case of folklore, legend, and fact, the time is 
quickly passing when individuals with first-hand knowledge of 
frontier times are alive to record their stories, songs, and im- 
pressions. 

Legends and Lore of Southern Illinois is quite readable and 
wide ranging in its gathering of source material; of necessity some- 
what superficial in treating some materials, loosely organized, and 



140 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

choppy; often colorful in its storytelling; and almost always in- 
triguing and entertaining in its presentation of a region's imag- 
inative and factual past. 

University of Wyoming Robert A. Roripaugh 



UNIVERSITY PRESS REPRINTS 

The following reprints in paperback editions are now off the 
press and may be obtained through bookstores. 

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA PRESS 

Bison Books 

The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Express Routes. By Ag- 
nes Wright Spring. (First published in 1948.) 418 pp. 
Illus., index. $1.50. 

High Country Empire. The High Plains and Rockies. By Robert 
G. Athearn. (First published by McGraw-Hill Book Com- 
pany, Inc. 358 pp. Illus., index. $1.50. 

Vanguards of the Frontier. By Everett Dick. (First published by 
D. Appleton-Century Company, 1941.) Illus., index. $1.85. 
574 pp. 

Land of the Dacotahs. By Bruce Nelson. (First published by 
University of Minnesota Press, 1946.) 354 pp. Illus., 
index. $1.60. 

Last of the Great Scouts. The Life Story of Colonel William F. 
Cody. By Helen Cody Wetmore. (First published Duluth 
Press Publishing Company 1899.) 296 pp. Illus. $1.50. 

California Gold. The Beginning of Mining in the Far West. By 
Rodman W. Paul. (First published in 1947.) 380 pp. 
Illus., Index. $1.60. 

The Gila. River of the Southwest. By Edwin Corle. (First pub- 
lished by Holt, Rinehart and Winstron, Inc., 1951.) 402 
pp. Illus., index. $1.60. 



CoHtributors 



T. A. Larson, associated with the University of Wyoming since 
1936, is Professor of History, Head of the Department of History 
and Director of the School of American Studies. 

His writings, in addition to his forthcoming history of Wyoming, 
include the book, Wyoming's War Years, 1941-1945, and articles 
in various professional journals. 

A native of Nebraska, Dr. Larson attended schools in that state, 
and also attended the University of Colorado, the University of 
Chicago, the University of Illinois, where he earned his Ph. D., 
and took post-doctoral work at the University of London, England. 

A member of numerous honorary and professional organiza- 
tions, he has also served as a member of the Council of the Pacific 
Coast Branch of the American Historical Association, a member of 
the Executive Committee, Mississippi Valley Historical Associa- 
tion, and is a past president of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. 

Dr. Larson and his wife and daughter make their home in 
Laramie. 



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Annals 
of Wyoming 




Kirkland Photograph 
Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 

CORNERSTONE LAYING CEREMONIES. WYOMING STATE 
CAPITOL, MAY 18, 1887 



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WYOMING STATE LIBRARY, ARCHIVES AND 
HISTORICAL BOARD 



Judicial 
District 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 
Member at Large 
Ex-Officio 



Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Mrs. Leonard Stensaas Rock Springs 

Mrs. R. Dwight Wallace Evanston 

Mrs. Cecil Lucas Gillette 

Richard I. Frost Cody 

Mrs. Virgil Thorpe Newcastle 

Mrs. Frank Mockler Lander 

Mrs. Dudley Hayden Jackson 
Attorney General John F. Raper 



WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 

STAFF 

Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Assistant Director 

Mrs. Katherine Halverson Chief. Historical Division 

Mrs. Bonnie Forsyth Chief, Archives & Records Division 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually in April and 
October and is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. Copies of current issues may be purchased for $1.00 each. 
Available copies of earlier issues are also for sale. A price list may be 
obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor does 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 
contributors. 



Copyright, 1965, by the Wyoming State Archives and 
Historical Department. 



A^mls of Wyoming 



Volume 37 



October, 1965 



Number 2 




Lola M. Homsher 
Editor 



Katherine Halverson 
Assistant Editor 



Published Biannually by the 

WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 



Official Publication of the Wyoming State Historical Society 



m% 






U 



— X 



A Qirl Called J^ettie 

By 
Burton S. Hill 

The story of Nettie Wright was suggested to me by my long-time friend 
Fred. W. Hesse, soon to be 79 years old, who is a pioneer resident of Buffalo 
and Johnson County. While most of the details were gained by my study of 
the records in the Johnson County Court House, Mr. Hesse was able to fur- 
nish much additional help. His recollection of stories about Nettie from 
early residents of Buffalo during the period of 1880-1885 was invaluable. 
Not even the oldest present-day residents of Buffalo, or Johnson County, 
could have known Nettie personally, since her era was too long ago and 
they would have been too young. I want to take this opportunity to thank 
Mr. Hesse for his generosity in allowing me to use the information he had 
assembled over the years, and for his willing help in the writing of this 
article. 

I also would like to give credit to Shirley Brock, a talented artist, for her 
sketch of Conrad's Store in 1884, and also to Rev. Stewart D. Frazier for 
his indispensable assistance in preparing photographic material for this and 
previous articles. 



Since Johnson is one of the oldest counties of Wyoming, its 
first officially recorded land transfer can well arouse more than 
ordinary interest, as most ancient firsts usually do. In this case it 
was a quit claim deed from Nettie Wright to Charles McLead, 
dated April 21, and recorded May 21, both in 1881. It conveyed 
a one-half interest in a piece of residence property of Buffalo, the 
new county seat, just south of Clear Creek, known as McLead's 
Saloon. The description given is not explicit, which may give rise 
to some speculation, but later transfers show it to have been a large 
one-story structure facing Laurel Street, now Angus, forty-five feet 
west of its intersection with Main Street. At the present time this 
property is owned by the Standard Oil Company, and its station 
stands squarely on the spot where Nettie Wright's residence former- 
ly stood. 

As for Nettie herself, no resident of Johnson County, nor of 
Buffalo, had ever heard of her until one day in the fall of 1880. 
She had pushed her way up the Bozeman Trail, and on that day 
climbed down from a wagon in front of Trabing's store, just across 
the street from the place she afterwards owned. Buffalo was then a 
rough log town where Main Street was either a morass of mud or 
a choking lane of dust between two rows of saloons, stores and 
palaces of pleasure. Yet, on the day of her arrival, even after her 
long journey, Nettie was unwearied and neatly clad. She had a 
winsome smile for the unkempt and unshaven mule skinners and 
bull whackers who had been loitering about the store front, but 



148 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



now suddenly alive with courteous and genteel efforts to help the 
comely new arrival. Then at thirty-five Nettie was still pretty. 
Slight of build, and scarcely over five feet in height, with open blue 
eyes and neatly braided hair the color of taffy, she would have been 
attractive any place. Added to this there was a slight but per- 
ceptible Scandinavian accent which was both soft and pleasing. 

Nettie had immigrated to the United States from her native 
Norway either in 1864 or 1865, and within a few months after her 
coming married a man named Stewart, and lived at or near Des 
Moines, Iowa. Nothing is known of Stewart, except that he was 
killed some ten years after his marriage to Nettie. In the meantime 
they had lived a quiet farm life, raising two sons, and doing well 
enough; but, as a widow, Nettie had her problems. Trying to rear 
two small sons and make ends meet finally brought her to her wit's 
end. Since something had to be done, she purchased a little farm 
with the last of her savings and gave it to a couple who agreed to 
take it and raise the boys. In 1877, or the following year, she left 
Des Moines for the big city. Where she went or what she did is not 
recorded, but it appears certain that she did not return to Des 
Moines, and never saw her sons again. 

After leaving Des Moines and before arriving at Buffalo, it is 
very probable that she married a Charles Wright, but that part of 
her life is obscure. At all events, she came as Nettie Wright, and 
on November 12, 1880, placed a note of Charles Wright in the 
hands of Attorney N. L. Andrews with orders to collect it. The 
note was for $250 and Andrews, who was Buffalo's first lawyer, 
charged her five percent for securing the money. It is probable 
that she used it for the purchase of the Laurel Street property. 
Since this transfer came before Johnson County was organized, 
there is no record of the transaction or from whom she bought it. 
However, the price she had to pay would not have been great. 
Charles Wright never showed up in Buffalo so far as known, and 




Court CSV Burton S. Hill 



CONRAD'S IN 1884 
Sketch by Shirley Brock 



A GIRL CALLED NETTIE 149 

Nettie never said anything about him. She continued to be known 
as Nettie Wright, although on some occasions she was called Nettie 
Stewart. 

Just why Nettie chose Buffalo as the next stop on her hegira 
has never been told. At the time of her arrival there were less than 
700 people in all of Johnson County; and the ways and customs 
of the country would hardly be considered conducive to the well- 
being of an unattached female coming without friends or security. 
In 1880 there were some very superior pioneer women in Buffalo, 
but they were the wives of the frontier settlers, or otherwise 
attached and protected. Even so, there were three men to every 
woman. It was probably on this account that Nettie selected 
Buffalo, and also because of Fort McKinney three miles to the 
west on the mesa. She knew there would be pay days there, and 
an opportunity to entertain soldiers with money. Nettie knew 
about these things. She never gained the reputation of being 
among the really first people of Johnson County, but she never 
made any such claim. She was not the kind of woman to have 
been invited to join the newly organized reading and social club 
formed by the ladies of Buffalo and Fort McKinney. For one 
thing, Nettie could neither read nor write, but she would not have 
been invited anyway. She did not belong to that kind of society, 
and no one knew it better than Nettie herself. Yet, her shortcom- 
ings in education and social culture had nothing to do with her 
native intelligence and resourcefulness. She knew she would be a 
success at the entertainment of those ready to enjoy the night life 
of Buffalo, of which there was plenty. 

It is not known what kind of an arrangement she had with 
McLead who had a saloon in the building she owned at the time 
she sold him a one-half interest. After this transaction the place 
continued to be known as McLead's Saloon, but Nettie was an 
equal partner. During those days she did not appear to be greatly 
in prominence, but all this changed on and after December 21, 
1881. Early that morning Bill Heaton, one of the partnership's 
bartenders, kicked open the door to a room where Charley McLead 
and Nettie were visiting, and during the ensuing loud and name- 
calling quarrel, shot Charley dead. Nettie, who was a witness to 
the brawl, apparently did nothing to stop it, or to immediately 
report the shooting, which gave Heaton a chance to escape. All 
this gave rise to some questions. And then, there was evidence 
from the coroner's inquest that Heaton killed McLead in a burst 
of jealousy involving Nettie's affections. After the shooting he 
rode to Fort McKinney and requested the sentry at the gate to give 
him asylum in the post guard house, all of which the lady in the 
case may have known about. 

Nothing more happened until July 10, 1882, when the untutored 
and guileless Nettie found herself confronted with three separate 
indictments. The most serious charged her with being an acces- 



150 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



sory to the murder of McLead, and the second with the grand 
larceny of his gold ring and other effects. The third was against 
her jointly with Jud Braziel on a moral charge. Since they had 
practically been living together they pleaded guilty to the charges 
and each paid a fine of $25. Jud was the one Nettie really cared 
about. With the two more serious charges it was not quite so 
simple as the payment of a small fine, but without delay James M. 
Lobban and Harvey A. Bennett came to her rescue. These gentle- 
men went Nettie's bond on both informations set at $200 each, 
and the much gratified lady went free. 

It is of interest to note that her benefactors were two of the most 
highly respected and influential citizens of Buffalo. James M. 
Lobban became probate judge in 1882, and was associated with 
the firm of John H. Conrad & Company who bought out Trabing 
Brothers on March 8th of that year. While with the Conrad firm 
Judge Lobban ably supervised the banking house of Stebbins & 
Conrad, and in 1884 helped organize the First National Bank of 
Buffalo, going on to be one of its early presidents. On April 6, 
1886, he married the popular and beauteous twenty-three year old 
Fannie M. Green, who had been fastidiously raised and educated 
in Georgia. At the time of his marriage Judge Lobban was thirty- 
four and in very comfortable circumstances. 

While not as prominent as Judge Lobban, Harvey A. Bennett 
was a highly successful and respected merchant of Buffalo, and also 
an associate in some of the Lobban enterprises. In 1884, upon the 




Courtesy Fred W. Hesse 
COWBOY SALOON, BUFFALO, 1880 
None of the men in the picture can be identified 



A GIRL CALLED NETTIE 151 

incorporation of Buffalo as a city, Bennett became its first mayor. 

Nettie was not found guilty of being accessory to McLead's 
murder, nor of the theft of his gold ring and other effects; and the 
murder charges were never pressed against Heaton. But when it 
was all over Nettie ended up owning McLead's half interest in the 
property he had purchased from her. She bought it back from his 
administrator, being very careful that the whole transaction was 
legally done. In spite of her experience at the law with Jud Braziel 
as one of the principals, he went on to become her business repre- 
sentative and confidant. He was part owner of the very famous 
and popular Cowboy Saloon and Billiard Hall, and just the kind of 
a man Nettie needed for special advice and counsel. The record 
shows that he did his part. 

At last being clear of all entanglements, and the sole owner of 
the Laurel Street property, Nettie proceeded to go in business 
for herself in a first class manner. To enlarge her house and make 
it more attractive, she added a second story and had the building 
painted. It is not known what the building project came to, but 
the paint job cost her $50, which was a goodly amount for such 
services in the 1880's. The downstairs portion of her place was 
fashioned into a large dance hall with an ample bar at the southern 
end away from the entrance. The upstairs became Nettie's living 
quarters where she lived comfortably and in some degree of ele- 
gance. There a maid served her breakfast in the morning, put her 
apartment in order, arranged her hair in the afternoon, and looked 
after her expanded wardrobe. The maid also took care of her 
personal laundry, but the washing was done by Buffalo's pioneer 
launderer, Sam Lung. 

To serve her more discriminating friends, Nettie bought a full 
set of Dresden china from the sutler at Fort McKinney, for which 
she paid $100. Although she did not operate a restaurant, these 
guests she entertained in her apartment; and for her very special 
friends she brought forth her sterling silver and hnen table cloths. 
Her windows draped with lace curtains, and her carpeted rooms 
furnished with horsehair chairs and sofa lent an atmosphere of 
considerable elegance and even refinement. It was during this 
period that her acquaintance, Frank M. Canton, distinguished 
sheriff of Johnson County, assisted in keeping undesirables from 
her front door. With prosperity on her side, Nettie had become 
somewhat choosy. And when Charles H. Burritt came to Buffalo 
in 1883 to become its best lawyer, and one of its very prominent 
and able citizens, she frequently called upon him for counsel and 
advice. She had learned that it stood her in a more favorable light 
to be on good terms with the gentry, even though this class did not 
always frequent her establishment. 

Nettie was proud that her place was in a good neighborhood, 
and to her credit it can be said that she used every influence to 
keep it respectable and in good standing. Just across Laurel 



152 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 




^,^Jp Wlr9^^ 




Courtesy Jim Gatchell 
Memorial Museum 

CHARLES H. BURRITT 



Courtesy Jim Gatchell 
Memorial Museum 

N. L. ANDREWS 




Courtesy of First 
National Bank. Buffalo 

JAMES M. LOBBAN 



Courtesy of B. H. Turk 
FRANK M. CANTON 



A GIRL CALLED NETTIE 153 

Street, facing Main, was the Senate Saloon and Billiard Hall, 
owned and operated by Nat James, first sheriff of Johnson County, 
very popular, decorous and genial. Directly north was Stumbo's 
Restaurant, well conducted and clean. The dental office of Dr. R. 
E. Holbrook was next door. For his period he was very good; at 
least very busy. Directly across Main Street, facing west, was 
C. P. Organ & Company, hardware dealers, always reputable and 
helpful. Just next door south came George L. Holt's drug store, 
upon which the entire county depended in time of need. Next was 
John H. Conrad & Company, famed for courteous treatment and 
fair dealing. Both James M. Lobban and Harvey A. Bennett had 
interests there. Not in the immediate area, but on the west side 
of Main Street a short distance south of Clear Creek, stood the 
always popular and well conducted Cowboy Saloon and Bilhard 
Hall, with Jud Braziel and O. J. Smythe the proprietors. Next 
door south the Buffalo Echo edited and distributed Buffalo's pio- 
neer newspaper. J. D. Hinkle, still mentioned as one of the best 
pioneers of frontier Buffalo, was the enterprising editor. 

While Nettie lived somewhat lavishly in her frontier habitat, it 
does not mean that she lived lazily. Even with the help of Jud 
Braziel, who assisted in the management of her affairs, she usually 
found most of her time devoted to the management of her dance 
hall, parlor house and saloon. This required both a discerning eye 
and a careful regard for her military as well as her civilian cus- 
tomers. To keep her bar well stocked she called upon Jones & 
Harrington, Buffalo's pioneer liquor dealers, for supplies and re- 
placements. She bought whiskey at $3 a gallon, blackberry wine 
at $2.50 a gallon, imported champagne at $18 a dozen bottles, 
and cigars at $2 a box, or $6.50 for 100 long, black stogies. For 
the more plebian tastes Nettie bought beer in quart bottles at 
32 cents each. She got them by the dozen, but served no barrel 
beer as did the other bars. Yet, with all this outlay, there is no 
evidence that Nettie did any drinking herself. At least, she could 
not have done very much. 

With her three entertainers, Mattie Kellogg, Kitty Murphy and 
Essie Woods, this tiny proprietress kept too busily engaged to 
indulge in much merriment. Each evening, Nettie and these three 
young women, gracefully gowned in the height of fashion, appeared 
on the dance floor to insure an agreeable time for those present. 
With the closing of Ed O'Malley's Lone Star dance hall to give 
ground for the new Johnson County court house, Nettie's establish- 
ment became the best attended. At the same time, her place did 
not appeal to the rowdy, or any who engaged in rowdyism. While 
the guests were encouraged to enjoy themselves, she tolerated no 
drunkeimess or disorder. This made her place more inviting than 
some of the others. 

Kitty Murphy proved to be money wise and took charge of the 
receipts and banking. While she was as untutored as Nettie her- 



154 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

self, she did know money. She was both saving and frugal on her 
own account, and at times made loans to her employer. Essie 
Woods was more literate, and accompanied Nettie when there was 
legal business and papers to sign. She could read and explain them 
in such a way that Nettie felt justified in making her mark, or not 
doing so as the occasion demanded. To some of these documents 
Essie signed as a witness. Mattie Kellogg, never strong and in 
really good health, died in Buffalo while yet a young woman. For 
her funeral Nettie bought slippers, lace and ribbon from Has- 
brouck's store. It may have been that no one else would have 
taken that much interest. In the summer of 1884 Mollie Bigham 
became Nettie's personal maid and housekeeper. In that capacity 
she did much of the purchasing and shopping. Like Essie Woods, 
she could read and write, and could be depended upon. 

On occasions Nettie would hire a team and rig from Jim Con- 
very's livery stable and ride out. It is not recorded where she went 
at these times, but more than likely she found her way to Fort 
McKinney where she had many friends, or it may have been that 
she wanted to do some shopping at the sutler's store. Since she 
was not given to fresh air outings, or anything of the sort, it can 
hardly be concluded that she was simply enjoying a ride in the 
Wyoming sunshine. There is little evidence that Nettie ever 
engaged in many pastimes or sought outside social enjoyment. She 
kept very much to herself and minded her own business, but in so 
doing had many admirers. She had a pleasing smile for everyone, 
and when the occasion demanded she put herself out to do a good 
turn or to lend a helping hand. It appears that Nettie retained 
her more delectable feminine qualities, and never became coarse 
and brash as many did who followed her line of endeavor. 

Early in February of 1885 Nettie added to her dance hall what 
may have been Wyoming's first roller skating rink. Jud Braziel 
ordered for her forty-five pair of good roller skates at $1 a set, 
which were freighted from Kansas City. There is no record of 
the manner in which the rink was received, but it is a safe assump- 
tion that the enterprise was a successful one. 

To finance her expansion Nettie was obliged to put a mortgage 
on her property. For this purpose she sought her benefactor 
Harvey A. Bennett, and on January 24, 1885, had no trouble in 
negotiating a loan of $400 from H. A. Bennett & Company, a 
co-partnership composed of Bennett himself, James M. Lobban, 
C. W. Hines and J. A. Jones. The latter was also a member of the 
Jones & Harrington firm from whom she purchased most of her bar 
supplies. She had good credit there, as well as at the Conrad store, 
and at the Mitchell coal mine from which substantial quantities of 
fuel had been furnished her during Buffalo's rigorous winters. In 
December, 1884, alone 4,500 pounds had been delivered to her 
property at a cost of $9. 

While Nettie had been a wiry, tireless sort of woman, the work 



A GIRL CALLED NETTIE 155 

load she was carrying, together with her late hours and the lack of 
fresh air and sunshine, began to tell on her. Late in 1884 her 
health began to fail, and as the days passed along she did not 
improve as she hoped she might. She finally sought the advice of 
Dr. John C. Watkins, Buffalo's pioneer doctor and surgeon, who is 
still remembered and even today often spoken of. It did not take 
him long to discover that Nettie's life was being threatened by what 
was then known as galloping consumption. Today we call it 
tuberculosis, which can be arrested. At the present time we hardly 
every hear of the galloping variety, but that was not so in the 
1880's, or even much later. 

Nettie's condition worsened rapidly with no hope of recovery 
even for a short time. This continued until March 25, 1885, when 
she quietly died at the age of forty. The following day in Buffalo 
the pioneer furniture firm of Daly & Smock furnished her burial 
casket, gloves, rosettes and cape, and Nettie was laid to rest in the 
orginial cemetery on the hill a short distance east of town. But 
burials there were discontinued long ago, and the remains of those 
who had gone before were removed to Willow Grove. 

Nettie's funeral was large, and attended by folks from all seg- 
ments of Johnson County's citizenry. Dr. Watkins, who was in 
charge of the arrangements, found it necessary to engage special 
conveyances from Convery's stable to carry those to the graveside 
who were without transportation. It is not recorded who con- 
ducted the funeral services or who the pallbearers were, but Dr. 
Watkins was adamant in his efforts to lay Nettie away in dignity 
and serenity. All of this was done for a dance hall operator who 
never even learned to write her own name but made a simple mark 
instead. In spite of all her shortcomings Nettie always had lasting 
friends in all walks of Ufe, who remembered her kindness and 
generosity. Her brushes with the law had been forgotten, and no 
one took any note of the fact that she had never been to school. 
They remembered only a diminutive, fair-haired Norwegian woman 
with a noticable accent, a winsome smile for everybody, and whose 
good points far outnumbered anything unfavorable in her character 
or way of life. 

Dr. Watkins became the administrator of Nettie's tangled estate, 
and sold her property to pay the debts she had left. Considerable 
of her belongings went to Jud Braziel, to whom she owed a sub- 
stantial amount, and O. J. Smythe, Braziel's partner, bought her 
Dresden china. Her hobby was clothes, and she had many of 
them. In her wardrobe trunks, there were colored waists of wool 
and in materials with polka dots. She had black wool skirts, and 
two of black and red cashmere. There were also skirts of linen, 
both for summer and winter, and of different coloring and tailoring. 
All of these were sold, along with her beloved sterling set. Every- 
thing went, but when it was all over there remained forty-five pair 
of roller skates which could not be sold at any price. Dr. Watkins 



156 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

had them on his hands, but what he did with them has never been 
told. 

Through a missing persons finding organization in Des Moines, 
a determined effort was made to locate Nettie's children, but noth- 
ing could ever be learned about them, or the people who had taken 
them to raise. If their mother had known anything about them 
she never mentioned it. Nettie has been criticized for what appears 
to be a neglect, but that may not have been. The full story will 
never be known. Little could ever be learned about her life prior 
to that fall day in 1 880 when she first stepped foot in Buffalo. She 
never mentioned Stewart, her first husband, or Wright, who may 
have been her second. She was careful never to give any of the 
details and no one ever knew. 

After Nettie's funeral Dr. Watkins had a little fence built around 
her grave and provided a head stone properly inscribed. This 
monument was placed with great care so that its permanency 
would be assured. It may have stood a few years, but when the 
cemetery was removed to Willow Grove in 1893 or 1894, Nettie's 
new grave was not marked. Before that time Dr. Watkins himself 
had died, and most of her other friends had either died or gone 
from Buffalo. There was no one left to take much interest, and 
as it often happened with other forgotten remains removed from 
the old cemetery, she was buried in an unmarked grave. 

Long years ago Nettie was forgotten, and today no one knows 
much about her life in Buffalo, and much less before her arrival. 
But she was one of Buffalo's first feminine personalities, and from 
1881 to 1885 the undisputed queen of its night life. The story of 
Nettie is just a vignette of old Buffalo, and about a girl who was 
not all good and not all bad, but quite different. After all this time 
there is little that can be said about her, and all that remains are 
the records in the Johnson County court house. Vox emissa volat; 
lit era scrip ta manet. 



Ifosepk M^ Cdrcy 
and Wyoming Statehood 

By 
Lewis L. Gould 

The passage of the act admitting Wyoming as a state in 1890 
was the single most important achievement of Joseph M. Carey's 
Congressional career.^ Yet, this accomplishment has never been 
placed in the context of Wyoming or national politics, so that 
Carey's feat has been given less attention by historians than the 
debates of the Wyoming Constitutional Convention. Whatever 
the virtues of that conclave, its deliberations would have been 
meaningless if Delegate Carey had not, almost single-handed, 
managed to guide the Wyoming statehood bill through Congress in 
the winter of 1889-90.- 

A lack of contemporary source material has been the most diffi- 
cult obstacle to an appreciation of Carey's work. This problem has 
been solved, to some extent, by the discovery of letters written by 
Judge Carey in the period in which the statehood bill traveled 
through the Congress. Sent to the Chief Justice of Wyoming Terri- 
tory, Willis Van Devanter,'^ these letters provide a first-hand pic- 



1. Born in Delaware, Carey had come to Wyoming as a United States 
Attorney for the Territory in 1869. Representing the classic merger of 
business and politics in the west, Carey invested in cattle, irrigation projects, 
and banks. Elected delegate for the first time in 1884, Carey served through 
the remainder of the territorial period, becoming Wyoming's first Senator in 
1890. Defeated in 1895 for re-election, Carey did not make a political 
comeback until his election as governor in 1910. Heavyset, bearded, and 
balding, Carey looked the very picture of a frontier statesman, though some 
of his constituents found him a trifle aloof. The need for an adequate 
biography of Joseph M. Carey has not been met by George W. Paulson, 
"The Congressional Career of Joseph Maull Carey," Annals of Wyoming, 
35(April, 1963), 21-81. 

2. Henry J. Peterson, "Statehood for Wyoming," Annals of Wyoming, 
13(July, 1941), 195-201, covers only the period up to the Constitutional 
Convention, while I. S. Bartlett, ed.. History of Wyoming, I (Chicago, 1918), 
208, has only one sentence on Carey's work for statehood in Congress. The 
best general account of the campaign for Wyoming admission is Carey's 
own, "State of Wyoming," in W. A. Goodspeed, ed.. The Province and the 
States, VCMadison, 1904), 369-380. 

3. Willis Van Devanter had come to Wyoming in 1884 and, through 
Carey's influence, had become Chief Justice of Wyoming Territory in Sep- 
tember, 1889. Van Devanter's later rise to the Supreme Court in 1910 was 
the result of his allegiance to Senator Warren and his own ability, but, in 
1890, he still held a portion of Carey's confidence. 



158 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 




Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 
JOSEPH M. CAREY 



JOSEPH M. CAREY AND WYOMING STATEHOOD 159 

ture of the legislative and political problems which Carey faced.^ 

Statehood agitation in Wyoming had begun as a partisan issue in 
the territorial election of 1888. Conscious of the electorate's dis- 
gust with Grover Cleveland's western policies and the administra- 
tion of the territorial governor, Thomas Moonlight, the Republi- 
cans pledged themselves to work for home rule if Benjamin Harri- 
son gained the Presidency. The voters in Wyoming obliged by 
returning Carey as delegate, while Harrison won a narrow victory 
in the presidential election.^ 

The first fruit of Republican triumph was the appointment of 
Francis E. Warren as governor in March, 1889, but Carey's central 
problem remained the effort to bring Wyoming in as a state. ^ 
Unfortunately, the action of the Democrats in Congress frustrated 
that hope in 1889. Aware that the Republicans would control 
both houses of Congress in the Fifty-First Congress, the Democrats 
introduced an omnibus statehood bill in December, 1888, by which 
they hoped to trade three Republican states for the admission of 
New Mexico. A separate bill to admit Wyoming was also sub- 
mitted.' 

By the time the omnibus bill passed in February, 1889, Repub- 
licans had eliminated New Mexico, and the measure admitted the 
solidly Republican territories of Washington, Montana, and the 
Dakotas. The Wyoming bill never reached the floor. Naturally 
disappointed, Carey would have to wait until Congress reconvened 
in December, 1889, but meanwhile Wyoming could act to promote 
its statehood fortunes. Under the provisions of the unsuccessful 
statehood bill, Wyoming, like the Omnibus States, would have to 
hold a constitutional convention to qualify for admission. Senate 
Republican leaders assured Carey that, if Wyoming fulfilled the 
provisions of the defeated measure, the territory's chances for 
admission in the Fifty-First Congress would be enhanced.^ 

Returning to Wyoming, Carey persuaded the various county 
commissioners to ask Governor Warren to apportion the territory 
and call an election to choose delegates to the convention. This 



4. The letters on which this article is based are contained in the Willis 
Van Devanter Papers, currently on deposit in the Library of Congress with 
the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise. I am indebted to Mr. Winslow B. Van 
Devanter for access to his father's papers. 

5. See, for instance, the Cheyenne Daily Sun, October 20, 1888, and 
Francis E. Warren to Thomas Sturgis, November 8, 1888, Francis E. Warren 
Papers, Western History Research Center, University of Wyoming. 

6. William T. Jackson, "The Governorship of Wyoming. 1885-1889: A 
Study in Territorial Politics," Pacific Historical Review, 13 (March, 1944), 
1-11, and Warren to Carey, December 12, 1889, Warren Papers. 

7. Frederic L. Paxson, "The Admission of the 'Omnibus' States, 1889- 
90," Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1911, (Mad- 
ison, 1912), 77-96. 

8. Ibid. 



160 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

was done in July, 1 889, and the convention met in September. 
The deUberations were completed by October, and Carey prepared 
to return to Washington to begin his task of vote-gathering, per- 
suasion, and bill-managing.'-' 

Historians of Wyoming, like their counterparts in most western 
states, have portrayed the statehood process as a deep popular 
movement. This, as Carey's letters make clear, involves serious 
distortions. First, there were partisan political overtones which 
could not be ignored. Wyoming Democrats recognized that their 
original opposition to statehood had cost them dearly, and they 
further knew that if Wyoming won admission, the Republicans 
would claim the credit. This would probably mean a Republican 
victory in the first state election, so in order to counteract this 
disadvantage, the Democrats did as little as possible for statehood 
and prepared diligently for the election. 

Republicans, in turn, had their own reasons for inaction. Since 
the movement for the constitutional convention had been, osten- 
sibly, non-partisan, the GOP did not want to engage in any overt 
political activity which might give the Democrats ammunition. 
More important, the Republicans had everything to gain if Carey 
succeeded by himself, and there was little incentive to allow the 
Democrats to participate, if it meant sharing the political glory. 
As Governor Warren put it, "if the republicans could get more 
credit and the democrats less at the end of this bill, we shall be in 
much better condition here to go into the statehood fight. "^'^ 

The general apathy of the Wyoming populace to the prospect of 
statehood complicated the problem. Regarded as a poUtician's 
movement, the effort for the admission of Wyoming aroused little 
enthusiasm until it was on the brink of success. While this attitude 
drove Carey and Warren to distraction, it was characteristic of 
much political activity in the west. Politics operated in a vacuum 
for most citizens and they watched with detached amusement the 
antics of their representatives. 

When Carey arrived in Washington in December, 1889, the four 
Omnibus States had completed their constitutions and had been 
admitted to the Union. Eager to follow, Wyoming, Idaho, New 
Mexico, and Arizona, presented themselves to the Fifty-First Con- 
gress for action.^' 



9. Henry J. Peterson, "The Constitutional Convention of Wyoming," 
University of Wyoming Publications. 7(May 1, 1940), 101-130. 

10. Francis E. Warren to Joseph M. Carey, February 26, 1890, Warren 
Papers. 

11. All of Senator Carey's letters, excerpts from which form the basis of 
this article, can be found in the box marked "Miscellaneous Correspond- 
ence" in the Van Devanter Papers. There are ten letters in all, covering the 
period August, 1889-June, 1890. 



JOSEPH M. CAREY AND WYOMING STATEHOOD 161 

Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming December 5, 1889 

There is no news here. Surface indications look well for State 
government. Senate and House have adjourned until Monday. 

Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming December 20, 1889 

I feel that I have made a good head way in the State matter, and 
so far as the Republicans are concerned the way will be compara- 
tively smooth. If the prominent Democrats of the Territory do 
their duty, we will get into the Union. 

I am satisfied that Harrison's administration is growing in 
strength here every day. Less growling, and the Republicans real- 
ize that they must pull together or they will loose [sic] the elections 
next fall. 



Carey had introduced the Wyoming bill in the House on Decem- 
ber 18, 1889, and it was referred to the Committee on the Terri- 
tories. While it was being considered there, Carey sought the 
assistance of Wyoming's territorial officials for his campaign.^- 



Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming January 24, 1 890 

The State matter is moving along. I think I am making a point 
every day and from the present outlook the bill will go through the 
Senate very soon with little or no opposition. There may be, 
however, a fire smouldering that will burst out when the attempt is 
made to push the bill through the Senate. 

I have sent a copy of a letter to Gov. Warren which I have re- 
quested him to show to you alone. I notice that the Republicans 
have honored Pickett^" with the position of Speaker pro tem, of the 
House of Representatives. I want sent here immediately a short 
Memorial with conclusions of facts only, (avoid all argument and 
platitudes) praying for the admission of Wyoming under the Con- 
stitution adopted. The Memorial may set forth that the people are 
satisfied with the Constitution, and in short sentences the strong 
points of the Constitution. 



12. Congressional Record. Fifty-First Congress, 1st Session (December 
18, 1889), 261-262. 

13. W. D. Pickett, a Democrat, represented Fremont County in the last 
territorial legislature and the second state legislature, serving on both occa- 
sions in the House. His election to the state senate in 1897 from Big Horn 
County was successfully contested by A. L. Coleman. 



162 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

I need not state to you the necessity of this after you have read 
the copy of the letter that I have sent to Gov. Warren. I feel that 
I am receiving but Httle assistance from the people of Wyoming 
in this fight. This city has been full of Idaho people since the 
opening of Congress. Gov. Shupe [sic],'^^ the present Governor, 
Gov. Stevenson the last Democratic Governor,^"' Mr. Ainsley [sic], 
the last Democratic Delegate;^'' the Editor of the chief Republican 
newspaper, head the Idaho column and are here to stay until some- 
thing is done. There is a crowd from Arizona, among them the 
Governor,^' Charlie Wright;^^ Christ(y),^'' a member of the Nation- 
al Committee, and several others. The men from New Mexico are 
coming in force. I understand the differences as to the line of 
conduct between the Delegates of that Territory and the Territorial 
representatives of New Mexico have been settled; that the Repub- 
licans will abandon their Constitution and will ask for an Enabling 
Act. Now I do not care whether a man comes here from Wyoming 
Territory, but I am entitled to the assistance of the press and of the 
Wyoming Legislature in this fight. I am far ahead of the others 
in the fight, though I have had to go it single handed. 

The bill will pass the Senate I believe with little friction. And I 
believe if it is necessary I can pass the bill through the House with 
the Republican vote that is in the House, as soon as some additions 
have been made by reason of decisions in contested cases. You 
and Gov. Warren can fix memorial. 



On February 15, 1890, the House Committee on the Territories 
reported the Wyoming statehood bill favorably. With this hurdle 
cleared, Carey had to arrange matters in the House so that the 
Wyoming measure might be considered. Here he faced the deter- 
mined opposition of the Democrats, led by William Springer of 
Illinois, the minority leader on the Territories committee, who 



14. George L. Shoup, later Senator from Idaho, had been appointed by 
Benjamin Harrison in 1889. James H. Hawley, ed., History of Idaho, 
KChicago, 1920), 219-220. 

15. Edward A. Stevenson, one of Grover Cleveland's few resident ap- 
pointments, served as territorial governor of Idaho from 1885-1889. Haw- 
ley, History of Idaho, 217. 

16. George Ainslie, a resident of Colorado, had moved to Idaho in 1862, 
and served as delegate from 1878-1882. Hawley, History of Idaho, 182. 

17. Lewis Wolfley, a Republican, had succeeded Governor C. Meyer 
Zulick in 1889. J. H. McClintock, Arizona, IKChicago, 1916), 339-34L 

18. Charles Wright of Tucson was active in Arizona politics. McClin- 
tock, Arizona, 347, 362. 

19. Probably William Christy of Prescott, who served as territorial 
treasurer and chairman of the Republican territorial committee. See, 
History of Arizona, Biographical. IV( Phoenix, 1930), 168. 



JOSEPH M. CAREY AND WYOMING STATEHOOD 163 

disapproved of Wyoming, woman suffrage, and the admission of 
new Republican states.^" 

Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming March 5, 1890 

To day I heard, I get it direct, that Springer is organizing oppo- 
sition as best he can, to the Wyoming measure. He pretends that 
he did not know how our Constitutional Convention was organized; 
that he thought it was under the convention called under an act of 
our Legislature. He further said that he was going to fight the 
suffrage proposition in our state and also in Idaho. Barnes of 
Georgia-^ has also joined with Springer in the Committee on Terri- 
tories this morning in the tirade. But I believe we will win. 
Springer and his crowd notwithstanding. 

The Democrats had a Delegation down here; they ran around 
and saw two or three men and left. It is just as well. 

If it were not for the Oklahoma bilP^ I believe our bill could be 
gotten through the House next week, but this like the Education 
bill-"^ in the Senate remains from day to day the unfinished business 
of the House. Both measures are monstrosities, they will not kock 
[sic] down, but hang on indefinitely. The Oklahoma bill is legis- 
lation on every conceivable subject, with over 40 sections, the 
opponents proposing amendments to each section, calling aye and 
nay votes, so you see the journey for it may be a very long one. 

Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming March 15, 1890 

The State matter, up to this point is in the best possible shape. 
The matter is under consideration in the House. We consented 



20. For the action of the Committee on the Territories, see House Report 
39, Fifty-First Congress, 1st Session, (Washington, 1890), 1-62. Springer's 
career is outlined in Dumas Malone, ed.. Dictionary of American Biography , 
17(New York, 1935), 483-484. Springer's interest in Wyoming statehood 
had ended when it became apparent that only the Republicans would 
benefit from admission. 

21. George T. Barnes sat in the House of Representatives from 1885- 
1891. Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949, (Wash- 
ington, 1950), 816. The Wyoming constitution contained a provision for 
woman suffrage and this proved to be the main focus for opposing attacks 
on the statehood bill. 

22. A bill to organize the newly-opened Oklahoma Territory had been 
introduced in December, 1889. 

23. The Blair bill to appropriate money for the improvement of public 
education, especially in the South, was a perennial issue in Congress from 
1884-1890. C. Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877-1913, 
(Baton Rouge, 1951), 63-64. 



164 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

that the Oklahoma bill should be disposed of yesterday and to-day, 
and a rule was reported by the Committee on Rules to that effect. 
Springer is trying to make a compromise with us delaying the mat- 
ter until week after next, as there are several contested election 
cases. I am in favor of accepting his proposition on certain con- 
ditions, viz: that the admission bills shall be considered in the 
House where debate can be limited and the previous question 
ordered at any time; that the Democratic party shall make no 
dilatory motions, and that the case shall be disposed of in one or 
two days after consideration is commenced. Springer is willing to 
do this, but he wants to put some conditions on the Committee on 
Territories that they will not stand, viz: that they will report at 
once bills for Arizona and New Mexico. Speaker Reed-^ sent for 
me and said under no circumstances to agree to any kind of 
compromise, but to go ahead that the Democrats wanted to pro- 
voke debate against the admission of a State, and it would do them 
no good in the country at large, and certainly could not do them 
any good in Wyoming, that the Wyoming measure had the right of 
way and to hold the fort, but there are some questions arising that 
may make it wise to accept Springer's proposition, which will avoid 
a long and protracted debate. The session is well-advanced, the 
Blair bill hangs on in the Senate, and Senators are growing very 
anxious about their individual matters, and I want to get it through 
the House so that Senator Platt^^ will have an opportunity to take 
up the House bill at the earliest possible moment. 



Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming March 24, 1890 

I am glad to get such good news from Gov. Warren, Mr. Slack-^ 
and others. It shows that our people will get into line when the 
time comes and that we will be able to make a successful fight. 
Just as soon as I can get time I will write you very fully and candid- 
ly and without mental reservation, about the political preferment 
for myself in case the State bill should become a law. I have not 
the time nor the inclination to even talk about it now. 



The House debated the Wyoming bill on March 26, 1890, and 
Carey made an eloquent speech on behalf of his measure. After 



24. Thomas B. Reed of Maine. 

25. Orville H. Piatt of Connecticut. 

26. E. A. Slack was editor of the Cheyenne Daily Sun, the journalistic 
voice of the Wyoming Republican party in Cheyenne. 



JOSEPH M. CAREY AND WYOMING STATEHOOD 165 

all the arguments had concluded, the House, acting on strict party 
lines, passed the bill, 139-127, and sent it to the Senate.-^ 

Senate prospects looked favorable and Carey turned to the 
political problems in Wyoming. The first state election would 
follow admission, and if the Republicans failed to win, the value 
of statehood would be nullified. During the winter of 1890, the 
Democrats had begun their preparations for the first canvass, while 
the Republicans struggled through the last session of the territorial 
legislature, in which the Democrats controlled the upper house. 
By the spring, Carey viewed, with some foreboding, the Demo- 
cratic efforts and he urged Van Devanter and Warren to make 
plans to capitalize on the expected success of statehood. 

At the same time, Carey had to make a decision about his own 
fate. If the Republicans triumphed, he would be the logical candi- 
date for one of the two seats in the United States Senate. Warren 
and Van Devanter, anxious for RepubUcan success to further their 
own ends, sought to ascertain Carey's wishes as to his own political 
rewards. The Republican campaign would be strengthened if the 
party could claim that a vote for the GOP was a vote for Carey as 
Senator. 



Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming April 8, 1890 

You indicate that you consider that it would be wise for me to 
announce myself with respect to a United States Senatorship — this 
matter has been called to my attention of course almost every day 
since the statehood fight took shape and form. I have never want- 
ed to consider myself a prospective candidate for the Senate or any 
other place that would be open by reason of Wyoming becoming a 
state. I have put this matter off as something to be decided by the 
circumstances that might hereafter arise. My great ambition for 
the last two years has been to see the territory admitted as a state. 
As soon as that is accomplished, my most earnest desire will be to 
have the state take its place in line with the party that shall have 
made its admission possible. I do not expect to stand in anybody's 
way, while I do expect to assist in carrying the new state into the 
haven of the Republican party. I have not felt it wise for the 
Republican party to talk much about candidates. In other words, 
the first state convention should be left untrammeled in order that 
it might be free to select the strongest and most available candidates 
for the respective offices. I believe that it will be best to have a 



27. Paulson, "Congressional Career of Joseph M. Carey," 37-51, is a 
convenient digest of the speech. For the vote, see Congressional Record, 
Fifty-First Congress, 1st Session(March 26, 1890), 2710-2712. 



166 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

frank talk about all these things before anybody gets into a groove 
or feels that he has a mortgage or right to any place. We must 
fight to win and sink all personal aspirations. If I know myself, 
I am perfectly free to do as I have now suggested. If possible let 
us learn of the plans of the Democrats before we make our own. 



Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming April 21, 1890 

Now you ask me to talk to you very freely about everything. I 
am disposed to be entirely frank about every question that affects 
the Republican party in Wyoming Territory. So far as my own 
actions are concerned, in commencing the State agitation last sum- 
mer, I acted upon this basis, (and as you know, went to most of the 
counties and secured the passage of the resolution calling for the 
apportionment of the Territory, and the issuing of the proclama- 
tion by the Governor to call into existence a Constitutional Con- 
vention [sic] ) that it was necessary that our people should be 
united in their efforts for State government. The Democratic 
party have gone crazy and I think are making fools of themselves 
to day. If they are not fools, the great mass of the people of Wyo- 
ming Territory are. They abandoned their effort to make a State 
out of the territory and are caucusing about the plunder in case the 
Territory should become a state. In this movement the great body 
of the people are not engaged. I have failed yet to see a man 
whose name is connected with the movement at Rawlins, who has 
up to this time ever been able to bring any influence at the right 
moment to secure party harmony or victory, with the possible 
exception of three or four men. These exceptions include Mr. 
Beckwith-"' and Mr. Holliday.-'* 

The debate on the Wyoming bill, copies of which I will be able to 
furnish you in full within a few days, will be most interesting read- 
ing to the people of Wyoming Territory. If the Democratic party 
can get any satisfaction out of the falsehoods stated on the floor of 
the House by members of their party with reference to Wyoming, 
they will be able to drink a very bitter draught. The time has come 
now to commence work in one way; put the Democratic party on 
the defensive; our campaign is to be the offensive one. You can 
have the newspapers of the Democratic party inside of ten days, 
trying to explain the conduct of the party as a party, and the con- 
duct of its individual members. . . 



28. A. C. Beckwith, of Evanston, combined his extensive business inter- 
ests with an active part in Democratic politics. 

29. W. H. Holliday, a Laramie businessman, was the unsuccessful Demo- 
cratic candidate for governor in 1894. 



JOSEPH M. CAREY AND WYOMING STATEHOOD 167 

I recognize the fact that Mr. Corlett-^" has a personal following, 
but sore-heads never carry much weight while they will antagonize 
some of the good and faithful in the Democratic party. The mo- 
ment the newspapers have taken up the cudgel for our side, viz: 
the Statehood party, do not place too much emphasis on the name 
of the Republican party, and drive the Democratic papers to 
defining the position of their party, not only here but in Wyoming 
Territory, you will find that our ranks will close up and many of 
the lukewarm of the Democratic party will act with us, as they have 
in the past. We do not want a slate now. We do not want our 
first Convention to meet with the idea that anything is cut and 
dried. The people of the Territory will make the slate; they will 
select the men that they want for officers, and on this basis we can 
win the victory alike creditable to the Republican party and the 
people of the new State. 

I cannot attend to these things now, but I shall stand in this way 
with reference to the campaign, to perform a duty wherever I may 
be called to do it, and I shall make an effort to reach Wyoming 
before the Governor issues his proclamation calling an election. 



Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming May 10, 1890 

The Wyoming bill I have no doubt will pass. Senator Beck's^' 
unexpected death took away from us our time Monday and Tues- 
day. The silver business will commence on Monday and it is 
difficult to tell how long it will proceed but we may get in in the 
middle of it.-^- 



Willis Van Devanter 

Cheyenne, Wyoming June 11,1 890 

In reply to your letter I will state to you, had I understood the 
full purport of Mr. Hay's-^-^ telegram to me, I should perhaps have 



30. W. W. Corlett, a noted Wyoming lawyer and long-time Republican, 
had been disappointed in his quest to be named Chief Justice of the Terri- 
tory in 1889 and, in disgust, he went over to the Democrats in April 1890. 
I have omitted several paragraphs where Judge Carey discusses the political 
affiliations of various Wyoming newspapers. 

31. James B. Beck, of Kentucky, father of the Wyoming Democrat and 
promoter of Cody, Wyoming, George T. Beck. 

32. Carey is referring to the discussion of the silver question which re- 
sulted in the passage of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act. 

33. Henry G. Hay, a Cheyenne banker and politician, served as state 
treasurer from 1895 to 1899, and in 1903. A staunch Republican, he con- 
tributed money and energy to his party's campaigns in the 1890's. 



168 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

answered it in a different way. I was not responsible for the delay 
in its reaching the meeting. '^^ I was engaged at the time I received 
it in going from man to man in the Senate for my own more certain 
satisfaction. I sent the dispatch early in the afternoon of the day 
on which it was received at Cheyenne, which should have been 
there on Cheyenne time, about 2 or 3 oclock. To be frank with 
you if influence should come here that would be powerful with the 
Democratic Senators, of course it would hasten a conclusion in the 
Senate. But I do not know of a United States Senator on the 
Republican side that will vote against the measure. I do not even 
suspect one. I am assured by many of the leading men that there 
is not one. You know there are many men who do not like to say 
in advance previous to the consideration of a bill just how they are 
going to vote. This is natural, and right. But every Republican 
so far as I have been able to see them, and I have seen about every 
one here, of course there are some away or sick, wants Wyoming 
admitted. 

It looks to me as if the Democrats in Wyoming are doing just 
what I imagined they would do, exhausting themselves now, mak- 
ing fools of themselves. If they can exert any influence here with 
their party why in the world do they not do it. Judge, I treated 
every man that came here from Wyoming on the State matter with 
the greatest kind of courtesy. I went farther perhaps than I was 
required to do, in my endeavor to do all I could. I used my rights 
on the floor of the House and Senate and by personal appeal took 
men off of the floors outside where they could be seen and talked 
to. But no one that came here seemed to me to mean business 
except Mr. Holliday. He was in dead earnest, he wants State 
government. To ask you and other members to come here now 
would be an ungracious thing upon my part, as the weather is 
intensely hot, and I do not see really where a point could be made, 
unless it would be in showing the Republicans our anxiety and 
assuring them of our faith in ourselves. There is an indication now 
of an end to the silver question. The Republicans have agreed in 
caucus, the outside world does not know this and I do not care for 
you to say anything about it, that the Wyoming measure will be 
taken up as soon as the silver bill is disposed of. 

On June 27, 1890, the Senate passed the Wyoming bill, 27-18, 
and President Harrison signed the measure on July 10, 1890. 
After the celebrations had concluded, the Republicans began prep- 
arations for the state election in September. With Warren running 
for governor, and the assurance that Carey would be elected to the 



34. Probably the mass meeting on June 5. 1890, at which Judge Van 
Devanter presided. See, Cheyenne Daily Leader, June 6, 1890. 



JOSEPH M. CAREY AND WYOMING STATEHOOD 169 

Senate, the Republicans won easily on the statehood issue, electing 
a clear majority in both houses of the legislature.'^'* 

Carey's election to the Senate followed on November 15, 1890. 
This honor, a tribute to Carey's successful campaign for statehood, 
marked the high point of Carey's political career in Wyoming. 
Within four years, a combination of circumstances, including the 
Johnson County War, the Democratic victory in 1892, the silver 
issue, and the superior political skill of Francis E. Warren, cost 
Carey his Senate seat. Despite the political reverses of the 1 890's, 
however, Joseph M. Carey, in his campaign for Wyoming admis- 
sion, had performed a signal service to his constituents and terri- 
tory, an achievement which no electoral defeat could diminish. ^^ 



35. Congressional Record, Fifty-First Congress, 1st Session(June 27, 
1890), 6589. For the election campaign, see Francis E. Warren to W. C. 
Irvine, September 20, 1890, Warren Papers. 

36. Paulson, "Congressional Career of Joseph M. Carey," 53-63, 77, 
gives the usual interpretation of Carey's failure to win re-election to the 
Senate. In my view, the belief that Carey's opposition to free silver was the 
sole cause of his defeat over-simpHfies the complex history of Wyoming 
politics in the 1890's. 



170 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 




Courtesy of M . Paul Holsinger 
WILLIS VAN DEVANTER 



Willis VanDemnterz 
Wyoming Ccader, 1884-1897 

By 

M. Paul Holsinger 

Willis Van Dsvanter represented the state of Wyoming as a 
member of the United States Supreme Court from 191 1-1937. As 
one of that Court's most prominent "judicial conservatives" during 
an era permeated by conservative thought. Van Devanter was 
extremely important in formulating American constitutional theory 
and practice. Even though today many of his more conservative 
ideas have been replaced by newer interpretations, the Justice's 
record remains one to which students of government must turn if 
they are to understand the development of the American consti- 
tutional system. 

In the years between 1884 and 1897, Van Devanter also played 
a powerful major role in the affairs of the territory and state of 
Wyoming. Most historians have, however, tended to ignore this 
period of the Justice's life, concentrating instead on his later years. 
This article has been prepared in hopes of providing more com- 
plete information on the background of the future Justice, a man 
whom many students of Wyoming and the Far West have for too 
long forgotten. 

Wilhs Van Devanter came to Wyoming Territory in July, 1884, 
less than a year after his marriage. He and his young bride had 
left their home in Marion, Indiana, in hopes of finding their fortune 
in the Far West. They first explored the possibilities of both 
Arizona and southern California, but they finally decided on 
Cheyenne, where Van Devanter's brother-in-law and former law 
partner, John W. Lacey, had just received the appointment of Chief 
Justice of the Territorial Supreme Court from President Chester 
A. Arthur. 

The Van Devanter family soon felt right at home. Though 
still a part of the untamed "wild west", Cheyenne had many of the 
luxuries usually associated with a much larger city of the East — 
electric Mghts, running tap water, a municipal opera house, tele- 
phones, ready access to other areas of the nation via train, and 
even large and well-stocked mercantile houses such as that headed 
by future Governor and United States Senator Francis E. Warren.^ 



1. Agnes Wright Spring, The Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and Ex- 



172 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Within a week after his arrival the twenty-five year old Van De- 
vanter opened a law office downtown. His practice apparently 
went well from the start,- but the desire for advancement soon led 
him to form a partnership with two older attorneys in the Territory, 
Hugo Donzelmann,'* and Charles W. Stewart.^ The new firm was 
short-lived; within a few months the partnership was terminated."' 
It is impossible today to know exactly what caused this break, but 
it can be assumed that personality conflicts, particularly between 
the easy-going Donzelmann and the more energetic Van Devanter, 
were major causes of the disagreement.*' 



presx Routes (Glendale, California: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1949), 
p. 323. Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, 
1540-1888, Vol. XXV of The Works of Hubert Bancroft (San Francisco: 
The History Company, 1890), p. 798, and Velma Linford, Wyoming — 
Frontier State (Denver: The Old West Publishing Company, 1947). p. 302. 

2. Van Devanter's incomplete fee books and records for these years 
make it impossible to gain a completely accurate picture of his business 
activities. It was not until early 1885 that he began a systematic attempt to 
keep a record of his correspondence, but letters from this period would 
seem to support this statement. See, for example, WVD to Frank M. Joyce, 
April 23, 1885. 

3. Hugo Donzelmann was born in Germany in 1848, immigrating to 
America at the age of seventeen. After service in the United States Army 
in the Indian Wars, he resigned in 1869 and began to study law in Alexan- 
dria, Virginia. Four years later, he moved to Wyoming, where he contin- 
ued to study law at night while holding various positions during the day. In 
1882, he was admitted to the bar. After working with Van Devanter, he 
later served as Attorney General of Wyoming Territory and then, after the 
election of 1896, and with Van Devanter's support, as American counsul to 
Bohemia from 1897-1901. He returned to private practice in Wyoming in 
1901 and spent the remaining years of his life there. See I. S. Bartlett, 
History of Wyoming (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 
1918), volume 3, pp. 421-422. 

4. Charles W. Stewart was another Republican politician who had held 
minor Territorial positions under Governor William Hale. Before joining 
Van Devanter, Stewart served as Territorial Ordinance Custodian, Yellow- 
stone Park officer, and, in 1884, as Territorial Deputy Auditor. He lived in 
Cheyenne until at least 1886, at which time his name disappears from Wyo- 
ming records. No further biographical material is available. Letter from 
Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department to M. Paul Holsinger, 
March 30, 1962). 

5. A record of the actual termination date of this partnership no longer 
exists. In a May 12, 1885, letter inquiring about having his name inserted 
in J. H. Hubbell and Company's next legal Dictionary, Van Devanter makes 
no mention of any partners, and, on December 1, 1885 in a letter to J. B. 
Martindale, he notes that the firm of Donzelmann, Stewart, and Van De- 
vanter, as the partnership had been officially known, had "long since been 
dissolved." 

6. For Van Devanter's attitude toward Donzelmann, with whom he was 
to work in Republican politics for many years, see the Van Devanter letters 
in the Francis E. Warren collection in the University of Wyoming Archives 
for the years 1890-1897. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 173 

Legal practice in territorial Wyoming was a challenge to even 
the best of men. Fifty years later Van Devanter reflected: 

The Wyoming Bar was strong because the drones didn't come this way 
and those with any pronounced weaknesses didn't live long. Wyoming 
had no system of jurisprudence and as a result drew on the whole line 
of the best decisions. This practice made lawyers out of lawyers. 
They studied and they studied profoundly." 

During his stay in Wyoming, Van Devanter had occasion to go 
into every county, often to areas accessible only by horseback or 
stage, '^ to plead cases for clients. In some remote areas, he was 
one of the first lawyers to appear in court sessions, many of which 
were held in improvised store rooms. ^ Though most of his work 
was routine — drawing up mortgages, wills, deeds, acting as a 
notary pubhc, or preparing contracts and partnership agree- 
ments — all of it provided him with a firm grounding in the many 
technicalities of the law, subjects in which he was to excel in later 
years. 

As a lawyer, most important and prestigious of Van Devanter's 
work was his dealing with the many growing cattle companies in 
the territory, especially with Wyoming's major livestock concern, 
the Swan Land and Cattle Company. ^^ In August, 1885, Van 



7. Winslow B. Van Devanter, "Willis Van Devanter," p. 4. "Typewritten 
manuscript in Van Devanter papers." This statement is taken from a speech 
Van Devanter gave in Cheyenne in 1933. 

8. In May of 1886, for instance, Van Devanter made a round trip to 
Fort Laramie on business. His fee book shows the total cost of the two day 
trip to be $23 — $20 for transportation and $3 for the cost of meals. Willis 
Van Devanter, Ledger Book, p. 34. 

9. In 1885, for example. Van Devanter argued five cases in Lander, 
where district court was being held for the first time. (WVD to William L. 
Simpson, May 8, 1936). Records of these and similar cases cannot be 
located, however, and thus the historian is deprived of sources necessary to 
evaluate the real scope of Van Devanter's contribution. For a list of some 
of the cases in which he participated, however, see his fee book for 1885- 
1887. 

10. For several years before Van Devanter's arrival in Wyoming, Alexan- 
der Swan and his brother Thomas had been buying grazing land outside 
Cheyenne. In 1884, with combined American and British support, the new 
company was capitalized at $3,750,000 and in July, the same month that 
Van Devanter arrived in Cheyenne, the new concern announced the pur- 
chase of 550,000 acres of land from the Union Pacific. Since the federal 
government was unable to prevent encroachment on its adjoining property, 
the company could state with some pride that over one million acres had 
been obtained for grazing purposes. The Cheyenne press asserted that this 
was the largest purchase of its kind ever made in the United States. Within 
a few months the company had over 130,000 head of cattle roaming an area 
which extended 100 miles from east to west and from forty-two to one 
hundred miles north to south. Maurice Frink, et al., When Grass Was 
King (Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado Press, 1956), p. 205, 
and pp. 166-167, and E. S. Osgood, The Day of the Cattleman (Chicago: 
The University of Chicago Press, 1957), p. 98. 



174 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Devanter, acting as an agent for his father-in-law, negotiated the 
purchase of a one-third interest in a new venture of the Swan Com- 
pany for the sum of $20,000.'' The investmeijit seemed excep- 
tionally sound. In 1883, the directors of the parent company had 
paid a nine percent dividend; in 1884, ten percent,^- and a large 
return on the family investment seemed assured. In the winter, 
however, a major blizzard hit the open range. When spring al- 
lowed cowboys out again, they found as much as 85 percent of 
some herds frozen in the ravines or piled along fences.'-'' Many of 
the large firms were shaken or forced out of business; the Swan 
Company survived, but on a reduced scale. 

Throughout the spring and summer of 1886, Van Devanter, to 
whom all the family affairs in the Territory had fallen after the 
sudden death of his father-in-law in November, negotiated with the 
Swans to protect the family money. In September, with his 
mother-in-law's permission, he sold the family's stock to Alexander 
Swan for $24,000 of promissory notes. '^ Swan was so influential 
in the Territory and so prominent in financial circles that Van 
Devanter made no effort to obtain security for the notes^"' assum- 
ing that everything would improve during the coming months. 
The winter of 1886-1887, however, was even more disastrous 
than the previous year. Between January 28 and 30, a severe 
blizzard hit the plains, isolating thousands of cattle and forcing 
everyone off the range for the season. Some companies lost as 
much as 80 to 90 percent of their herds. Thorough studies of this 
period indicate that, in the Territory as a whole, not much above 
15 percent of the herds were lost, but even this was too much for 
many companies, and the "cattle kingdom" in Wyoming, which 
had existed on borrowed capital for years, came to an abrupt end.'*' 

On May 28, 1887, the Swan Land and Cattle Company, having 
suffered losses of over $100,000 in 1886,^' declared itself bank- 



11. Letter from Willis Van Devanter to Peckham and Brown, Chicago, 
May 18, 1887. Hereafter letters to or from the future Justice will simply be 
designated WVD. Unless specified, all such material will be from the 
personal papers of the Justice which are now in the possession of his son, 
Mr. Winslow B. Van Devanter of Washington. D. C. 

12. Frink, When Grass Was King, p. 241. 

13. Osgood, The Da\ of the Cattleman, p. 220. 

14. WVD to Peckham and Brown. May 18, 1887. 

15. Ibid. 

16. Frink, Cow Country Cavalcade; Eighty Years of the Wyoming 
Stocki^roMers Association (Denver: The Old West Publishing Company, 
1954), p. 59. 

17. Frink, et al.. When Grass Was King, p. 257. The company's actual 
loss was 27,112 pounds. The blizzard had decimated many of its herds. 
Louis Pelzer in his The Cattlemen's Frontier (Glendale, California: The 
Arthur H. Clark Company, 1936), p. 114, notes that in the spring of 1887, 
the company gathered only 100 three-year old steers from a herd of 5500. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 175 

rupt. That evening, in an effort to save his mother-in-law's inter- 
est, Van Devanter posted a $100,000 bond and had himself ap- 
pointed receiver for the firm.^'^ For over a year he worked unsuc- 
cessfully to straighten out the complex legal and financial affairs 
of the company. Instead of money, however, Van Devanter re- 
ceived from the company only the books and one empty fireproof 
safe. Finally acknowledging his inability to recover the family's 
losses, he resigned his post in June, 1888. Despite his failure, 
however. Van Devanter's rule as receiver as well as his legal 
dealings with many of the smaller companies in the Territory went 
far toward making him known throughout all of Wyoming. With 
his background as a stepping stone it was far easier to climb in 
prestige in the following years. 

POLITICAL PARTY AFFAIRS 1884-1890 

Extremely important in making Van Devanter influential in 
public affairs was his connection with the Territory's Republican 
Party. It was natural for Van Devanter to join the G.O.P. in 
Wyoming, since he had been brought up in an atmosphere of 
Midwest Republicanism. At the same time, since most of the 
business leaders of the Territory were Republicans, the obvious 
economic benefits which came from belonging to the party were 
not overlooked by Van Devanter.^'' 

Early in 1885 Van Devanter offered his services to Francis E. 
Warren, the new Territorial governor. Warren's appointment, 
one of the last made by outgoing President Chester A. Arthur, had 
been generally approved by both political parties in Wyoming, 
since Warren was the first resident of the Territory to hold the 
office of governor.-" Warren, who knew little about the law, 



18. WVD to Peckham and Brown, May 30, 1887, and WVD to Rachel 
Burhans, May 30, 1887. Van Devanter obtained twelve surety signers on 
this bond, including ex-Governor Francis E. Warren, the owner of Chey- 
enne's largest mercantile house and a leader in Republican party affairs. 

19. WVD to T. H. Van Devanter, February 24, 1897. In the succeeding 
years, he added, he had become "an ardent Republican" and "from present 
judgement and choice I remain one." 

20. Francis Emory Warren was born in Massachusetts in 1884. After 
serving throughout the Civil War, he came to Cheyenne in 1868, and by 
1877 he was in sole control of the largest mercantile house in the city. An 
active participant in the cattle, horse, and sheep raising enterprises in the 
Territory, he rose quickly to political power, becoming mayor of Cheyenne 
and treasurer of the Territory in 1884. Governor from early 1885 to late 
1886, he was renamed to the post in 1889 and served as the last governor 
of the Territory and the first governor of the State of Wyoming. He was 
elected to the United States Senate in 1890 for a two-year term but defeated 
in 1893 after the combined Democratic-Populist victories in the state elec- 
tions. Named again, however, in 1895, he remained in office until his 
death in 1929, becoming the senior member of the Senate in his later years. 



]76 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

called on the younger Van Devanter for legal advice, introducing 
him at the same time into the Republican organization. A close 
friendship between the two men soon developed which was to last 
until Warren's death in 1929 and which was to be directly re- 
sponsible in later years for Van Devanter's advancement to the 
United States Supreme Court. 

When the Territorial legislature met in January, 1886, Wyoming 
had no capitol building, and the legislature was meeting in halls in 
downtown Cheyenne. Warren invited Van Devanter to join Re- 
publican leaders in conference on proposed legislation to remedy 
this situation. From one of these meetings came a request for the 
young lawyer to draw upon his legal talents in drafting a special 
appropriation bill.-^ The bill he prepared was an elaborate one, 
consisting of 55 sections, the chief provisions of which were that 
$150,000 should be spent to begin construction of the present 
capitol in Cheyenne, and another $50,000 to establish a University 
at Laramie.-- Introduced originally into the House by a regular 
member, it quickly passed both branches of the legislature with 
little difficulty and was signed into law by Governor Warren early 
in March. -'^ For the rest of his life Van Devanter never ceased to 
be proud of the small yet extremely significant role he played in 
the creation of both the capitol building and the university.-^ 

Several days after the adjournment of the legislature, in March 
1 886, Warren appointed Van Devanter one of three commissioners 
to revise the laws and statutes of the Territory. -'• Working with 
him were two other prominent Republicans, Isaac P. Caldwell 
and J. W. Blake.-*' The laws, when they were finally finished, 
were largely patterned after the statutes of the state of Ohio which 
Van Devanter had studied at Cincinnati Law School six years 
before.-' These revised statutes, which were voted into effect by 



21. WVD to Marion L. Rice, November 19, 1932. 

22. Wilson O. Clough, A History of the University of Wyoming, 1887- 
1937 (Laramie, Wyoming: University of Wyoming, 1937), p. 14. 

23. Territory of Wyoming, Legislative Assembly, House Journal of the 
Ninth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Wyoming, 1886, pp. 76, 194; 
Council Journal of the Ninth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Wyo- 
ming, 1886, pp. 208, 235 (Cheyenne, Wyoming: The Leader Book and Job 
Printing House, 1886). 

24. WVD to A. G. Crane, April 26, 1932: "My interest is perhaps 
deeper . . . than you know." Since he had drafted the bill which established 
the school, he added, "naturally I have always had a real interest in what 
was accomplished by that effort." 

25. WVD to Rachel A. Burhans, March 23, 1886. Van Devanter was 
appointed on March 11, 1886. 

26. Bancroft, History of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, 1 540-1888, 
p. 755. Bancroft mistakenly says "Black" instead of "Blake." 

27. WVD to Robert Hunter, June 7, 1886. Van Devanter commented 
that "fully nine-tenths of the code ... is taken from the Ohio code ... of 
1880." 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 177 

the legislature of 1888, were in turn used by the Constitutional 
Convention of 1889 in formulating the new constitution and laws 
for the state of Wyoming. 

At the Laramie County Republican Convention on October 2, 
1886, Van Devanter and ten others were chosen as delegates for 
the Territorial convention at RawUns.-'^ There, on October 6, he 
was nominated as a candidate for the Territorial House of Repre- 
sentatives which was scheduled to convene in January, 1888.-^ 
He set out energetically to win the election. "I have unfortunately 
gotten into politics," he wrote a prominent rancher four days after 
his nomination, and "now that I am in for it, I am anxious to be 
elected and to get as good a majority as possible. "•^^' Stressing the 
fact that he was the only attorney in the Territory to be nominated 
for the House,-^^ Van Devanter traveled the vast area of his district 
from the Colorado to the Montana borders. Such efforts paid off 
well for him. His total of 2,312 votes within the county, made 
him the leader of the Republican ticket; he received more votes 
than even the popular former mayor of Cheyenne, Joseph M. 
Carey, who won re-election as the Territorial representative to 
Congress. ^^ 

During the fourteen months interim period between the election 
and the convening of the legislature, Van Devanter became actively 
involved in city affairs. Through an appointment from Mayor 
John Riner, in early 1887, he was named Cheyenne's city attor- 
jjgy 33 jjjg pQst p3J(^ a stipend of $750, $250 more than Riner 
himself received but $50 less than the city sexton. =^^ Though the 
duties of his position were minor, the position brought Van De- 



28. News item in the Cheyenne Democratic Leader, November 7, 1886. 

29. Ibid. Van Devanter's name was one of twenty-two suggested for 
the seven candidates from Laramie County. Apparently his name was on 
top of the final list. The fourteen month lapse in time between the election 
and the actual convening of the legislature was originally created by the 
1879 legislature. Anxious to get away from odd-year elections, it changed 
the time for holding the next general election to November, 1880, and every 
two years thereafter. Elected officials were to take office the next January. 
The legislators, however, made the scheduled time for the convening of the 
next legislative session, January, 1882, thus creating, apparently inadvertent- 
ly, the fourteen month lapse. This very inconvenient system was changed 
by the 1888 legislative assembly, to which Van Devanter belonged. (Ban- 
croft, History . . . of Wyoming, 1540-1888, p. 796.) 

30. WVD to W. W. Irvine, October 8, 1886. 

31. WVD to Jesse Knight, October 12, 1886; WVD to Virgil S. Grout, 
October 15, 1886. 

32. Van Devanter was elected as a representative from the combined 
district of Laramie and Crook Counties. Crook County was at the time 
still unorganized, and all administrative functions were performed by 
Laramie County. 

33. I. S. Bartlett (ed.) History of Wyoming (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke 
PubHshing Company, 1918,) II, 29. Van Devanter's appointment is dated 
January 18, 1887, though he was apparently appointed several days earlier. 



178 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

vanter into closer contact with all of Cheyenne's important leaders. 
During his tenure in office, which lasted just over one year, he 
became the city's legal representative both in and out of court. 

Van Devanter also formed a new law partnership during 1887 
of important significance. In an attempt the year before to secure 
the legal business of the Union Pacific Railroad in the Territory, 
Van Devanter had learned that the company preferred to deal only 
with large and established firms. His choice of a partner soon 
settled on Charles N. Potter, a former city attorney. Their part- 
nership, which lasted until 1889, proved to be quite remunerative 
and business increased to the point where Van Devanter could 
write to a friend in Ohio, 'T should say that there is but one firm 
in Wyoming having a better practice than ours."-^"' The fortunes 
of the Territory's Republican party prior to the legislative session 
of 1888 did not fare as well as Van Devanter's private practice. 
In the first year and one-half after the inauguration of Grover 
Cleveland as President in March, 1885, Warren had been allowed 
to govern. On November 5, 1886, however, he was suspended 
from office, accused by the President of having illegally fenced the 
public lands. •^•' Appointed to succeed him was George W. Baxter, 
a young Democratic cattleman. Complaints soon reached Wash- 
ington accusing him of the same offense as Warren, and though 
Baxter was temporarily exonerated before the end of his second 
month in office, the embarrassed Cleveland was forced to ask for 
his resignation.-^'' Then, in a departure from his announced policy 
of appointing residents of the Territory as governor, the President 
named Thomas Moonlight, a Kansas Granger, to fill the post 
Moonlight was committed to breaking "the stranglehold of the 
cattle kings" on Wyoming affairs-^'^ and in the next year he con- 
stantly antagonized the Republican leadership, composed in large 



34. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader. January 12, 1888. 

35. When in July, 1887, his brother-in-law John W. Lacey, resigned the 
Chief Justiceship to form the immediately successful firm of Corlett, Lacey 
and Riner, Van Devanter determined to imitate its success. Charles N. 
Potter was born in New York in 1852. At the age of twenty he moved to 
Cheyenne and in 1878 was appointed city attorney, a post he held until he 
was named county attorney three years later. After the severance of his 
partnership with Van Devanter in 1889, Potter served as a member of the 
Constitutional Convention, as secretary of the Republican State Central 
Committee from 1890-1892, as Attorney General of Wyoming from 1891- 
1895, and as Justice of the Wyoming Supreme Court from 1895 until his 
death in 1927. (Bartlett, History of Wyoming. U, 100, 103). 

36. W. Turrentine Jackson, "The Governorship of Wyoming, 1885-1889: 
A Study in Territorial Politics," The Pacific Historical Review. XIII (March, 
1944), 3; W. Turrentine Jackson, "The Administration of Thomas Moon- 
light," Annals of Wyoming. XVIII, No. 21 (July, 1946), 139. 

37. Jackson, "The Governorship of Wyoming, 1885-1889," p. 6. 

38. Jackson, "The Administration of Thomas Moonlight," p. 140. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 179 

part of prominent members of the stock industry. When the 
legislature met in January, 1888, Republicans in that body could 
be expected to pose problems. In the forefront of the Republican 
leadership was the twenty-eight-year-old representative from Lara- 
mie county, Willis Van Devanter. 

From the opening day of the session, Van Devanter was in the 
public eye. Even though the House was controlled technically 
by Democrats, he was named the chairman of the credentials com- 
mittee and led the unanimous vote to elect a Republican speaker, 
Nat Huntington of Johnson County.-^-* He then launched a bitter 
attack on the Democratic nominee for clerk of the House, Major 
Herman Glafcke, which accomplished nothing (for Glafcke was 
easily elected) except to shove Van Devanter further into the lime- 
light. The Democratically orientated Cheyenne Weekly Leader 
spent a long editorial column attacking him publicly. 

"Mr. Van Devanter ... is a young man of smooth address [the editor 
wrote in part], with no false modesty about asserting his own claims 
to recognition, and a well-defined purpose of shoving himself ahead in 
the world. He has political ambitions ... If Mr. Van Devanter were 
a level-headed man — and we can no longer believe that he is — he 
would have known without being told that an outrageous attack upon 
the private character of a political opponent, unwarranted by estab- 
lished facts, would have made the blood of every decent man boil with 
indignation. But apparently he didn't know these things and his 
demagogic efforts to crush Major Glafcke have reacted upon himself 
with a terrific force of a boomerang. The blow which he intended 
for his victim he received squarely between his own eyes."^o 

If this "blow" was indeed given. Van Devanter, however, suffered 
none of its effects, for the next day, the paper's assembly reporter 
noted that Van Devanter "appeared smiling and composed, speak- 
ing in his usual suave tones. "^^ The attack served, as he well 
realized, to make him a leading spokesman for the Republican 
members of the House. 

Several days later. Van Devanter introduced House Bill No. 1 
which called for the adoption of the Revised Statutes of 1887. 
After a quick first, second and third reading, the bill carried.^- 
Van Devanter was then named chairman of the Judiciary com- 



39. Territory of Wyoming, Legislative Assembly, House Journal of the 
Tenth Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Wyoming, 1888 (Cheyenne: 
The Leader Book and Job Printing House, 1888), p. 6. Huntington was 
apparently popular but the reason the Democrats did not choose to elect a 
member of their own party to the position of Speaker remains a mystery. 
Party lines, however, were not as sharply drawn as today, and it is probable 
that Huntington was elected simply because he was well liked. 

40. Editorial in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, January 19, 1888. 

41. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, January 19, 1888. 

42. Wyoming, House Journal, p. 22. 



180 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

mittee, a post he held throughout the session, as well as a member 
of several other lesser committees. ^'^ 

Van Devanter voted constantly with the Republican Party until 
February 1 1 when he split with the party's leaders to vote against 
House Joint Resolution 8, the important proposal which called for 
the formation of a constitution and the organization of a state 
government. In an apparently non-partisan 17-4 vote, the House 
overwhelmingly approved the bill. Only Van Devanter, the new 
speaker, L. D. Pease, and two Democrats voted against the bill's 
passage. ^^ Van Devanter's reasons for voting against the idea of 
statehood when the majority of Territorial residents were in favor 
of it, are today inexplicable. It may be that Van Devanter was 
more realistic than to allow his politics to blind him to the fact 
that, as Governor Moonlight also believed, Wyoming was not ready 
for statehood and would be far better off as a Territory for several 
years more. But if this was so, no records exist to substantiate it, 
and several months later Van Devanter himself became as strong 
an advocate of statehood as any other member of his party. 

As the session drew to a close, a great many bills were hurriedly 
introduced. One of the most important was a bill presented by 
Van Devanter which called for several more public buildings in 
the Territory, including a $150,000 addition to the capitol. The 
bill passed only to be vetoed by a strongly-worded message from 
the Governor.^"' Calling for a discussion of the veto, Van Devanter 
in a speech "replete with sound argument,"^*' called for an over- 
riding of the veto. The other members apparently agreed, and the 
bill was enacted into law.^" 

On the last day of the session, March 9, the legislature passed, 
among other acts, a bill introduced by Van Devanter to set up the 
first Territorial fiscal agency.^'' A night session then began at 
10:20 P.M. The general appropriation bill providing for in- 
creased Territorial expenditures passed the House with amend- 



43. Ibid., p. 26. Speaker Huntington resigned several days later because 
of increasing illness, and reassignments were made. Van Devanter was 
then reappointed to the chairmanship of the Judiciary Committee. There 
was considerable criticism of this appointment from outside sources, mainly 
because Van Devanter was a Republican. The Cheyenne Weekly Leader, 
for instance, objected to having a Republican appointed to a chairmanship, 
but unlike its bitter attack of a few weeks before, the editors added, "We do 
not wish to be construed as casting any aspersions upon . . . Mr. Van 
Devanter's character. It would be simply ridiculous to assert that . . . [he] 
is not eminently qualified to fill the position assigned to him." (Che\enne 
Weekly Leader, February 2, 1888.) 

44. Wyoming, House Journal, p. 129. 

45. Ibid., p. 237. 

46. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, March 8, 1888. 

47. Wyoming, House Journal, p. 244. 

48. Ibid., p. 307. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 181 

ments proposed by Van Devanter to establish three new counties.*^ 
The upper house, the Council, voted for the bill also, and, hoping 
to embarrass the administration through a higher budget, sent it 
to Governor Moonlight's office. Moonlight predictably vetoed the 
bill, but Van Devanter raUied the Republicans and many dissident 
Democrats in an effort to override. The clock in the hall was 
stopped, and, with Van Devanter acting as floor leader, the bill 
passed the House, 14-2. The Council followed suit early the next 
morning, thus not only providing money with which to run the 
Territory, but, on the basis of Van Devanter's amendment, creating 
at the same time the three new counties of Converse, Sheridan, and 
Natrona. ■^'^ Finally, at "about the time people were returning home 
from church Sunday noon," the legislature adjourned after 45 days 
in session. ^^ 

On the whole the legislative session was a disappointing and 
frustrating one. Charles Guernsey, a RepubUcan Councilman, 
later wrote that "nearly everything we favored [Moonlight] was 
against, and otherwise, likewise. We fought day and night. Little 
was accomplished, much left unfinished. "'^^ For Van Devanter, 
however, the session served to push him even more into the fore- 
front and as Governor Moonlight began to antagonize more and 
more of his fellow Democrats, because of his desire to curtail both 
statehood and the large cattlemen, Van Devanter and the Republi- 
cans loomed larger as the men who would soon be back in power 
again. 

Necessary to bring about any change in administration, how- 
ever, was a Republican victory in the national election of 1888. 
As a Territory, Wyoming could not vote, but Van Devanter and his 
colleagues did everything they could to build up public opinion for 
the G.O.P. while depreciating the Democrats. Both as a delegate 
to the Republican Territorial Convention and as a campaigner. 
Van Devanter threw himself wholeheartedly into the election fight 
When the local elections were held, the Republicans won an over- 
whelming victory, carrying not only the Congressional delegate's 
post but most of the other elective offices as well. In the national 
election, despite President Cleveland's popular majority. General 
Benjamin Harrison was elected President by a majority of electoral 
votes and Republicans in Wyoming had every reason to anticipate 
that, after March, 1889, they would regain control of the admin- 
istration of the Territory. Even Democratic papers conceded this 



49. Ibid., p. 32L 

50. Ibid., pp. 325, 327, and Bancroft, History of . . . Wyoming, 1540- 
1888, p. 758. 

51. Charles A. Guernsey, Wyoming Cowboy Days (New York: G. P 
Putnam's Sons, 1936), p. 46. 

52. Ibid., p. 48. 



182 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and pushed vigorously for the reappointment of Francis E. Warren 
as Territorial governor. The Cheyenne Daily Leader commented 
in December, "We've had enough [of the Moonlight administra- 
tion]. . . . We could wish Wyoming no better Xmas [sic] gift 
than the assurance of Governor Moonlight's immediate and pre- 
cipitate removal.""''^ Twenty-four of the twenty-seven newspapers 
in the Territory supported, either openly or tacitly, Warren's 
return.''^ 

On March 29, 1889, President Harrison reappointed Warren to 
the post of governor, in partial fulfillment of his campaign pledge 
to support home rule.'''' With Van Devanter serving on the inau- 
guration committee, Warren was inducted into office eleven days 
later, and the Republicans took over administration of the Terri- 
tory.-''^ There was one important exception — the Chief Justiceship 
of the Territorial Supreme Court. Lacey had been replaced in 
1887 by William L. Macginnis, a Democrat from Ohio, and the 
new chief justice showed no sign of wanting to leave office only 
half way through his four-year term. Nevertheless leaders of the 
Republican party put pressure on Van Devanter to take the office 
if Macginnis could be forced to resign and if President Harrison 
could then be induced to appoint him. Though dubious at first, 
Van Devanter had convinced himself by early April of the advisa- 
bility of accepting the post. 

My practice is such [he wrote a friend] that it will be a sacrifice for 
me to take the Chief Justiceship, but the position being a highly 
honorable one, and furnishing, as it does, ample opportunity to devel- 
op one's best ability, I shall be especially pleased if the appointment 
is given to me."'" 

No Wyoming resident had ever been appointed to the post of 
Chief Justice, and party leaders, in an effort to change this practice, 
sent recommendations to Harrison favoring Van Devanter. ^'"^ Fur- 
ther endorsements came in from all over the Territory; in Converse 
and Fremont Counties every attorney went on record for Van 
Devanter; in Carbon and Crook Counties combined, only two 
lawyers declared themselves in favor of anyone else.''-' Harrison's 
hands were tied, however, until late July when, with support 
mounting for Van Devanter, Macginnis resigned. One month 



53. News item in the Cheyenne Daily Leader, December 23, 1888, 
quoted in W. T. Jackson, "The Governorship of Wyoming," p. 9. 

54. Ibid. 

55. W. T. Jackson, 'The Governorship of Wyoming," p. 11. 

56. Ibid. Also see a copy of the inauguration program in the Van 
Devanter papers. 

57. WVD to Alfred S. Bright, April 4, 1889. 

58. WVD to Tom Hooper, April 12, 1889. 

59. WVD to Thomas M. Gotten, April 24, 1889; WVD to Charles Allen, 
April 24, 1889; WVD to F. H. Harvey, April 24, 1889. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 183 

later, on August 31, 1889, Harrison gave the Territorial Repub- 
licans their final plum by signing Van Devanter's commission.*'" 

CHIEF JUSTICE OF WYOMING TERRITORY: 1889-1890 

The Wyoming Supreme Court in 1889 was composed of three 
members, one of whom served as chief justice. In actuality, how- 
ever, the position of justice was really little more than local since 
each man's main responsibility was to serve as presiding judge 
over one of three not-too-equal districts."^ The chief justice auto- 
matically was required to live in the First District, which at the 
time was made up of Laramie, Converse and Crook Counties,^^ 
and after 1890 and its creation by the legislature, of Weston 
County too. That service within the district was the most impor- 
tant was realized by Van Devanter even before he assumed the 
Chief Justiceship. Writing to a friend he noted. 

The fact that there were 200 days of court in this County [Laramie] 
alone last year and only about 10 days of Supreme Court, argues that 
the position is essentially a District Judge-ship and essentially a Dis- 
trict office.*'"* 

In the slightly over one-year period that Van Devanter remained 
Wyoming's Chief Justice, he more than continued the pattern that 
his predecessors had started. 

On October 2, 1889, before the attorneys of Cheyenne and a 
few friends. Van Devanter, at thirty years of age, took his oath of 
office. In doing so, he thus became one of the youngest justices 
in the federal court system. Both major newspapers in the city 
were highly complimentary,^^ and even the Cheyenne Weekly 
Leader, which less than two years before had been so highly 
critical of him as a legislator, now noted that he possessed "a dig- 
nity which inspires respect."^'^ 

From the first meeting of district court late in October, the cases 
Van Devanter handled as a trial judge were a mixture of the routine 
and the dramatic. The grand jury during that first sitting, for 



60. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, September 5, 1889, re- 
ports that it had predicted Van Devanter's appointment for over three weeks. 

61. The three judicial districts were: First — Laramie, Converse, Crook, 
and (after 1890) Weston Counties; Second — Albany, Natrona, Johnson, and 
Sheridan Counties; Third — Carbon, Sweetwater, Uinta, Fremont, (and, 
after 1890) Big Horn Counties. 

62. Bartlett, History of Wyoming, II, 29. Bartlett adds Weston County 
here, thinking in terms of Van Devanter's total term. 

63. WVD to B. F. Fowler, April 13, 1889. 

64. Typed sketch in the Van Devanter papers for September, 1889, with 
a note that it is taken from the one appearing in the Cheyenne Sun during 
that month, or news item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, October 3, 1889. 

65. Ibid. 



184 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

instance, handed down an indictment in a knifing case, one for 
grand larceny, several for attempts to kill with dangerous weapons, 
and some for cattle rustling.*"'" Van Devanter became known for 
his lectures from the bench. The newspapers described his talks 
as "kindly," "fatherly," "quite plain," "timely," or simply "good 
advice.""' He showed himself hard or lenient as the occasion 
demanded. In December three convicted cattle rustlers were sen- 
tenced to four, five, and seven years in jail respectively, marking 
th first time in over two years that any suspected cattle thief had 
been convicted."'' In larceny cases he was particularly severe, 
since he believed that the West was a land of opportunity for every 
man. No one physically able to work, he told a convicted thief 
just before sentencing, "need steal in Cheyenne.""^ 

Early in 1890, the Territorial Supreme Court met for the first 
and only time with Van Devanter as chief justice. When the court 
sat in late January and early February, only eleven cases were 
heard, all of which dealt with minor technicalities in the law."" 
The effect of these cases was to provide Van Devanter with an even 
broader understanding of the law's intricacies, but little else in 
prestige or fame. 

During the next few months of 1890, after the adjournment of 
the Supreme Court, Van Devanter continued his activity as district 
judge, presiding in Converse County at Douglas, in Crook County 
at Sundance, and in newly created Weston County at Newcastle."^ 
At the latter session. Van Devanter sentenced the man who had 
shot and wounded Mayor Frank W. Mondell of Newcastle. '- 

Several years after he left the bench. Van Devanter summed up 
the first chapter of his judicial career in a letter to Francis E. 
Warren : 



66. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, November 14, 1889. In- 
dicative of the still partially "wild west," the paper noted that the man 
indicted in the knifing case was "supposed to be the man who stabbed Mike 
Ciannan in Klett's saloon three weeks ago." 

67. I hid.. December 12, 1889. 

68. I hid.. December 5, 1889; December 12, 1889. 

69. /hid. 

70. These cases were: Black v. Territory. 22 P. 1090 (1890); Perkins v. 
McDowell. 23 P. 71 ( 1890); Wolcotr v. Bachman. 23 P. 72 (1890); Bohurg 
V. Prahe et al.. 23 P. 70 (1890); Wyoming Loan and Trust Company v. W. 
H. Hollidav Company. 24 P. 143 (1890); Union Pacific Railroad Company 
V. Jarvi. 23 P. 398 '(1890); Palmerston v. Territory. 23 P. 73 (1890); 
Menardi v. Omalley, 23 P. 68 (1890); Stamper v. Gay et al, 23 P. 69 
(1890); Howard v. Bowman. 23 P. 68 (1890); First National Bank v. 
Swan et al.. 23 P. 743 (1890). 

71. News items in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader. December 19, 1889, 
February 27, 1890; Winslow B. Van Devanter, "Willis Van Devanter," p. 5. 

72. Bartlett, History of Wyoming. II, 29. Mondell later became United 
States Congressman from Wyoming and a good friend of Van Devanter. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 185 

When Chief Justice of the Territory, I by virtue of that position also 
held the District Courts in the First District. During that time many 
important civil and criminal cases were tried before me and no appeal 
from my decision was ever taken in a criminal case, although I sen- 
tenced a great many offenders from murder down. In civil cases there 
were perhaps a dozen appeals, but my decision was affirmed in every 
case. ... In this respect my record is better than that of any Territorial 
Judge, not even excepting Lacey."^ 

During the period of Van Devanter's Chief Justiceship, his most 
important role was nonjudicial. A leading Republican politician 
as well as a judge, Van Devanter played an active part in the drive 
of the G.O.P. to achieve statehood for Wyoming. After the pas- 
sage of the bill in 1888 calling for the establishment of a state 
government, Joseph Carey, the Territory's representative in Con- 
gress, introduced a statehood bill in the House only to have it left 
in committee. Though various bills were presented to Congress, 
during the next year, nothing came of the Territory's request for 
admission to the Union. In 1889, however. Congress passed the 
so-called Omnibus Bill, paving the way for the admission of the 
states of North and South Dakota, Washington, and Montana. 
Wyoming, therefore, had reason to hope for like success. 

In early April, 1889, Governor Warren urged Wyoming resi- 
dents to begin to prepare for statehood and five months later a 
constitutional convention was called. The convention was in ses- 
sion from September 2 to September 30, with the Republicans 
holding a slim majority. Van Devanter as Chief Justice was not a 
delegate, but a pass to the floor of the meeting remains in his 
papers, and it is not unrealistic to assume that he also played an 
important behind-the-scenes role in drawing up the state constitu- 
tion. On November 5, 1889, the constitution, having been sub- 
mitted to the people, was approved by a popular vote of 6272 to 
1923, a majority of slightly more than three to one.^^ This vote, 
however, presented problems for the Territory. Idaho, which was 
also seeking admission, had just voted in favor of its new consti- 
tution by a majority of eight to one; Montana had approved one, 
twenty to one, South Dakota, by twenty-three to one.'"' There 
were many Congressmen in Washington, consequently, who argued 
that the people of Wyoming really did not want statehood, since 
the percentage favoring the constitution seemed slim in comparison 
with that of other territories. Carey had been predicting a popula- 
tion of between 110,000 and 125,000 when Wyoming was ad- 



73. WVD to Francis E. Warren, January 21, 1897. 

74. John D. Hicks, The Constitutions of the Northwest States. The Uni- 
versity Studies of the University of Nebraska, Volume XXIII, Nos. 1-2 
(Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1925), p. 148. 

75. Ibid. 



186 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

mitted,''' yet only over 8,000 had voted in a territory which per- 
mitted universal adult suffrage."^ 

In Washington Carey was despondent. Though he countered 
all the charges against Wyoming to some degree by a speech in 
Congress, he confidentially wrote to Van Devanter in January, 
1890: 

I feel that I am receiving but little assistance from the people of Wyo- 
ming in this fight for statehood. This city has been full of Idaho 
people since the opening of Congress. . . . The men from New Mexico 
are coming in force. . . . Now I do not care whether a man comes 
here from Wyoming Territory, but I am entitled to the assistance of 
the press and of the Wyoming Legislature in this fight. I am far 
ahead of either of the others in the fight, though I have had to go it 
single handed.*'^ 

Van Devanter now took an active role in the Republican drive 
to win the people of the Territory to the cause. At bar association 
meetings'" he spoke on the subject,"^" and he addressed various 
"monster mass meetings" called in Cheyenne to promote state- 
hood.'^^ By April, Carey was more encouraged about the Terri- 
tory's chances, but he still expressed concern over Democratic 
opposition. In another personal letter to Van Devanter, he wrote: 

The Democratic Party have gone crazy, and I think are making fools 
of themselves. If they are not fools, the great mass of the people of 
Wyoming Territory are. ... If the Democratic party can get any 
satisfaction out of the falsehoods stated on the floor of the House by 
the members of their party with reference to Wyoming, they will be 
able to drink a very bitter draught [should the statehood bill be de- 
feated]. The time has come to commence work in one way; put the 
Democratic party on the defensive; our campaign is to be the offensive 
one."^- 

After several false starts. Congress finally admitted Wyoming 
as the forty-fourth state on July 10, 1890, exactly one week after 
the admission of the state of Idaho. Five days later. Governor 
Warren announced that the first general state election would be 
held on September 11. A period of no more than thirty days was 



76. United States Congress, 51st. Congress, 1st Session, Congressional 
Record (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1889 [.v/c]), volume 
21, p. 2679. 

77. The population of Wyoming was at the time just under 60,000 
persons. In every other territory more persons, both actually and propor- 
tionally, had voted in favor of their constitutions than had the residents of 
Wyoming. 

78. Joseph M. Carey to WVD, January 24, 1890. 

79. Van Devanter had been one of the founders of the Wyoming Bar 
Association in Cheyenne in 1889, a group which lasted but a short time 
due to the excessive distances in the Territory and later State. 

80. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, February 6, 1890. 

81. News item in the Chevenne Weekly Leader, April 3, 1890. 

82. Joseph M. Carey to WVD, April 21, 1890. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 187 

allowed for campaigning.^-^ The Republican State Central Com- 
mittee met on August 14 in Cheyenne to nominate candidates. 
Though he was not present,*^^ Van Devanter was selected together 
with H. V. B. Groesbeck and Arthur Conaway, to run for the 
three justiceships on the state supreme court. Francis E. Warren 
was named by the Republicans as their gubernatorial candidate. 
The Democrats nominated ex-justice Samuel Corn, P. Gad Bryan, 
and Henry S. Elliott for Supreme Court Justices. ^^ 

Charges by the Democrats that Warren would resign to accept a 
United States Senatorship for which he was expected to be chosen 
were of little avail. Warren was easily elected governor and Van 
Devanter and his running mates won overwhelmingly, as did all the 
other Republican candidates for state offices. In the state Senate 
only three of the sixteen members were Democrats; in the House 
of Representatives, only seven out of thirty-three.^^ The Cheyenne 
Democratic Leader dejectedly reported the election as a "landslide, 
clean sweep, snow storm or soup festival" for the Republicans. 
Democratic headquarters looked, it said, "like a cave of gloom." 
At the Republican headquarters, on the other hand, "the hilarity 
was unrestrained and the faithful swarmed to the place to celebrate. 
. . . They sang and danced and shouted until weary, and chaffed 
every democrat who appeared."^" Not even a Democratic con- 
stable was elected in Laramie County, and throughout the state 
the Republicans had almost equal success. 

Early on the morning of October 11,1 890, one month after the 
election, the votes were canvassed with Van Devanter as Chief 
Justice acting as a member of the board. When it was officially 
declared that the Repubhcans had captured all the state adminis- 
trative offices. Van Devanter and his fellow justices drew lots to 
decide the length of their terms as provided for by the new state 
constitution. The terms of the justices were to be staggered, one 
for four years, one for six, and one for eight. The justice who 
drew the short term was to become the Chief Justice. Van De- 
vanter found himself the holder of the four-year term and thus 
the new Chief Justice of the state. A few minutes before midnight, 
he, his associates on the Supreme Court, and other Republican 



83. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, September 11, 1890. 

84. News item in the Cheyenne Weekly Leader, August 14, 1890. Van 
Devanter was at Sundance, near the Montana border, opening a session of 
District Court on that day. 

85. News items in the Cheyenne Democratic Leader, August 27, 1890, 
and September 7, 1890. 

86. Frances B. Beard, Wyoming, From Territorial Days to the Present 
(Chicago: American Historical Society, 1939), I, 476. 

87. News item in the Cheyenne Democratic Leader, September 13, 1890. 



188 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

leaders met Warren, who had been out of town, at the raihroad 
depot, rushed him to the capitol, and with him all were inau- 
gurated. '''' 

Four days later, without any advance warning, Van Devanter 
resigned his position to return to the private practice of law. 
Under the provisions of the constitution. Governor Warren was 
empowered to appoint a justice to sit until the new general elec- 
tion; he named Homer S. Merrill, a Republican. Justice Groes- 
beck became Chief Justice. The reason for Van Devanter's sudden 
resignation cannot be definitely determined. It is possible that he 
resigned because of the inadequacy of the salary, still only 
$3,000.''^ More probable, however, he realized that if he wished 
to advance quickly, the best hope for the future lay in open par- 
ticipation in political activities from which he was barred as a 
member of the Supreme Court. The fact that he resigned so 
quickly would also seem to indicate that it had already been 
determined that he would do so, and that his name, an important 
drawing card, had been used simply to guarantee a complete 
Republican sweep in the voting. If this is true, it will probably 
never be verified since many of Van Devanter's papers pertaining 
to his political activities were destroyed at his orders some years 
after his elevation to the United States Supreme Court.^^ 

When the first legislature of the state met in special session to 
elect the state's two United States Senators, the choices ran as 
predicted. Joseph M. Carey, was quickly named and though it 
took seven ballots, the Republican-dominated legislature finally 
also picked Governor Warren to be the second Senator. Despite 
his repeated vows to the contrary, Warren resigned his office as 
Governor to accept the Senatorship. He was succeeded by the 
Republican Secretary of State Amos W. Barber. ^^ 

Warren's decision to become Senator was to be highly advan- 
tageous for Van Devanter, who now became the recognized resi- 
dent head of the Republican party in Wyoming. The next few 
years were to be vitally important to Wyoming's development but 
even more so to Van Devanter's drive for future preferment. 



88. Bartlett, History of Wyoming. I. 214. 

89. This is the reason which Van Devanter gave for his resignation, and 
certainly he may have felt impelled to earn more money to support himself 
and his family. See Winslow B. Van Devanter, "Willis Van Devanter," p. 4. 

90. WVD to R. H. Repath, January 1, 1917. 

91. Fenimore C. Chatterton, Yesterday's Wyoming: The Intimate Mem- 
oirs of Fenimore C. Chatterton, Territorial Citizen, Governor, Builder 
(Aurora, Colorado: Powder River Publishers and Booksellers, 1957), p. 
45. Wyoming had no lieutenant governor and thus the secretary of state 
was the next ranking official. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 189 

THE YEARS OF STATEHOOD 

The years from 1890 and 1897 mark clearly the beginning of 
Van Devanter's ascent from the position of small-city lawyer on 
the frontier to a seat on the United States Supreme Court. There 
were two separate and yet complimentary aspects of his rise to 
national prominence — his political activities and his legal work 
before the various courts of the state. Of these certainly the most 
well-known was his legal activities. 

Soon after resigning his post as Chief Justice, Van Devanter 
formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, John W. Lacey.^- 
The partnership of "Lacey and Van Devanter" became Wyoming's 
most prominent law firm. Few firms in any state would boast two 
former Chief Justices of the Supreme Court or such a successful 
practice. Not only did the two men manage to obtain the business 
of many of Wyoming's leading personalities, but they also became 
the new state's legal representatives for the Union Pacific. The 
business which had eluded Van Devanter four years earlier now 
became his and for the next six years Van Devanter, as the rail- 
road's counsel, defended the company in many court cases. ^'^ 

In later years Van Devanter was to be severely criticized for this 
connection with the railroad by many persons who were afraid that 
he would make no attempt to be impartial whenever the railroad 
was concerned. As early as 1897 and then afterward until his 
appointment to the United States Supreme Court, Van Devanter 
was continually forced to defend himself against these allegations,^^ 
as well as from the charge that, as an agent for the company, he 
was guilty of corruption. Not even the most superficial evidence 
supported these attacks, but facts were valueless in preventing 
their constant repetition. 

Most of Van Devanter's cases during the nineties were routine 
and, relatively speaking, commonplace. Two, however, stand out 



92. John W. Lacey was born in Indiana in 1848. At the age of fifteen, 
he joined the Union Army, remaining in service until 1865. Six years later 
he began the study of law under Isaac Van Devanter and was admitted to 
the bar in 1875. He married Justice Van Devanter's sister Elizabeth in 
1878, the same year he entered into partnership with Isaac Van Devanter. 
Appointed chief justice of Wyoming in 1884, he held that post for three 
years and then returned to private practice, first with the firm of Corlett, 
Lacey, and Riner. Corlett had died in 1890 and Riner had been appointed 
United States District Judge for Wyoming opening the way for Lacey and 
Van Devanter's partnership. After severing his connection with Van De- 
vanter, he continued in practice by himself, becoming for the next thirty- 
two years one of the top lawyers in the West. 

93. See Redman v. Union Pacific Railway Co., 29 P. 88 (1892); Schenck 
V. Union Pacific Railway Co., 29 P. 741 (1892); White et al. v. Hinton 
et al, 30 P. 953 (1892);LmA' v. Union Pacific Railway Co., 45 P. 508 
(1896). 

94. See for example, WVD to Francis E. Warren, March 11, 1897. 



190 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

not only because of their extreme importance to Wyoming, but 
because both were in so many ways connected with Republican 
party politics. Van Devanter's most widely publicized, and cer- 
tainly most sensational, case as a lawyer was his defense of the 
leaders of the so-called "Johnson County War" of 1892. The 
basic facts of this episode of Wyoming history are well known by 
even the amateur Western historian, but Van Devanter's role is 
usually ignored and it is here that a reappraisal is necessary. 

Shortly after the cattlemen and hired Texans who had gone 
north were rescued by soldiers from Fort McKinney, they were 
moved for their own protection from Buffalo, where they had been 
initially interned, to the Laramie County jail in Cheyenne to await 
trial for murder. ••'' In early summer Van Devanter, his partner 
Lacey, and eight other attorneys were chosen to defend them. It 
was Van Devanter, who soon assumed preeminence among the 
attorneys. In a letter to Senator Warren several days after the 
northern raid, he had stated his attitude about the situation: 

You have doubtless read the sensational reports in various newspapers 
and even in those at Cheyenne, concerning the war in Johnson County. 
So far as I have observed fully ninety percent of the telegrams appear- 
ing in the press are either entirely false or so much so as to give 
a grossly inaccurate impression of the expedition which went North 
and the results which attended it . . . There is no question but that 
the expedition was either poorly managed or committed many grievous 
errors; none, however, so grievous as the error of going at all. How- 
ever, it is true in this case as in others that public opinion largely goes 
with the successful party and had the expedition been successful in 
the purpose which is attributed to it by the press, it is probable that 
the present opinion would be somewhat modified.^** 

Within several weeks after their transfer to Cheyenne, pressure 
was placed to have the cattlemen and their Texas hirelings tried in 
Johnson County where fever pitch ran high. Van Devanter was 
adamantly opposed to such a move. In a letter to Senator Joseph 
M. Carey, he clearly stated his position: 

... so long as I have anything to do with the defense I do not propose 
to see their necks put into the noose by having them tried in some 
county where there will be a certain conviction, unless the jury is 
bought, and neither do I expect to have anything to do with, nor will 
I permit, the buying of a jury. It is all nonsense to say that these men 



95. Among the captured cattlemen were W. C. Irvine, later president of 
the Stockgrowers Association and a member of the State Board of Livestock 
Commissioners; H. W. Davis, former president of the Association and a 
member of the legislature; W. J. Clarke, state water commissioner; Frank 
Canton, deputy United States marshal for Wyoming; and H. E. Tesch- 
macher. longtime member of the executive committee of the Association 
and a Harvard graduate. (Osgood, The Day of the Cattlemen, pp. 251- 
252 fn. ) 

96. WVD to Francis E. Warren, April 20, 1892. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 191 

can be tried in any county. The most favorable one will undoubtedly 
prove a dangerous place.^''' 

After much persuasion and legal maneuvering, Van Devanter 
was able to get a change of venue, and, on August 7, 1 892, the men 
were placed on trial at Cheyenne. Throughout the summer the 
prisoners had enjoyed all the comforts of home in the Laramie 
County jail; in fact, several of the men had been allowed to go 
home when they chose and others had even taken a business trip 
to Denver. Many persons began to say openly that considering 
their influence, the cattlemen would never be tried. While a jury 
was being selected, the Laramie County sheriff suddenly asked the 
presiding judge, Richard Scott, either that he be relieved of the 
responsibility of keeping the prisoners at county expense, or that 
Johnson County be required to pay the total cost of the bill. 
Whether or not Van Devanter suggested this action is today a moot 
point. Johnson County was bankrupt as everyone well knew and 
Scott could not force it to pay any part of the bill. Since Laramie 
County refused to provide for the prisoners, and there were no 
other alternatives open to him, Scott had to release the men on 
bail until the next term of court scheduled in January, 1893. 

When the case was called to trial again, the hired Texans had 
fled the state to escape prosecution, leaving only twenty-three 
cattlemen to be tried. The selection of jurymen began on January 
6. For the defense, Van Devanter was allowed twelve challenges 
per defendant, or a total of 276 in all. The prosecution had six 
challenges per man, or 138. On the first day, forty-one men were 
excused or challenged;""' the second day, fifty were excused;'-*-' and, 
on January 8, 129 more.^^'^' By January 20, a total of 969 pros- 
pective jurors had been dismissed by the court or challenged by 
either Van Devanter or the prosecution attorney. Question about 
the availability of more men, the Laramie County sheriff admitted 
that there were not more than 2,100 eligible jurors in the whole 
county and that to secure many others would mean going miles 
outside the city.^"^ 

On the 21st, with still not one acceptable juryman in the box, 
prosecuting attorney Bennett, anticipating ultimate defeat, con- 
ferred with his chief opponent and agreed to dismiss all charges. 
Opposing this on the ground that it would then be possible to try 
the men in Johnson County, Van Devanter insisted on continuing 
the trial. After further consultation, however, Bennett agreed to 



97. WVD to Joseph M. Carey, June 27, 1892. 

98. News item in the Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 6, 1893. 

99. Ibid., January 7, 1893. 

100. Ibid., January 8, 1893. 

101. Ibid., January 20, 1893. 



192 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

accept a specially picked jury, and Van Devanter approved the 
plan to dismiss the charges against everyone, including the missing 
Texans. A jury was impaneled and the motions were quickly 
passed, thus ending one of the most famous episodes in Wyoming 
history.'"- Van Devanter's role as a defense lawyer was thus 
victorous. Many years later, he justified the acquittal of the cattle- 
men on the ground that nearly all of them were either leading 
citizens in Wyoming or from fine families. Despite the fact that 
the "war" was "pretty raw," the rustling needed to be stopped, 
he felt, and, in the long run, the threat of further invasions without 
punishment had that effect.'"'^ 

As a lawyer. Van Devanter devoted proportionally more of his 
time to cases dealing with political matters than with any other 
topic. His position in each of these cases depended on whether or 
not the Republicans were in control of the state's administration.'"^ 
Probably the most famous of these, however, had nothing directly 
to do with politics, though before the various trials were over, both 
the Republicans and Van Devanter's prestige were deeply involved. 
In July, 1895, the legislature passed a law establishing hunting 
seasons in an effort to curb the rapid extermination of the state's 
wildlife. This act was aimed in large measure at the state's In- 
dians, who, as wards of the federal government, claimed immunity 
from Wyoming law. On October 3, Race Horse, a Bannock 
Indian, was arrested by Sheriff John Ward of Uinta County and 
charged with violating the new act by killing seven elk out of 
season. Kept in custody for four days, owing to his inability to 
raise bail. Race Horse, through the United States attorney in Wyo- 
ming, instituted a habeas corpus action in the United States Dis- 
trict Court in Cheyenne. Van Devanter, Wyoming's Attorney Gen- 
eral B. F. Fowler, and one other lawyer acted as counsel for the 
state. 

The United States, on behalf of Race Horse, based its case on a 
February 24, 1869, treaty which gave the Bannocks the right to 
hunt upon unoccupied lands of the United States. Van Devanter 



102. Ibid., January 22, 1893. In all. 1064 prospective jurors were 
examined and dismissed before the end of the trial. 

103. Interview of Willis Van Devanter in The Denver Post, April 26, 
1936. 

104. See, for instance: State ex rel. Bennett v. Barber et al., and State 
ex rel Chapman v. Barber et al., 32 P. 14 ( 1893); State ex rel. Henderson v. 
Burdick. 35 P. 125 (1893) and State ex. rel. Holcome v. Bitrdick, 33 P. 131 
(1893); State ex rel. Henderson v. Burdick, 33 P. 128 (1893); State ex rel. 
Miller v. Barber, 34 P. 1028 (1893); Slavmaker v. Phillips, 40 P. 971 
(1895); Christian v. McReynolds, 40 P. 979 (1895); State ex rel. Blyden- 
haugh Y. Burdick, 46 P. 854 (1896); and People ex rel. Richardson v. 
Henderson. 35 P. 517 (1894), all of which Van Devanter won. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 193 

and his colleagues argued that Wyoming's admission to the Union 
had abrogated the treaty within the boundaries of Wyoming, but 
Judge John Riner decided for the federal authorities and Race 
Horse. 1"'^' 

Wyoming immediately appealed the case to the United States 
Supreme Court, and Van Devanter, as one of the few lawyers in 
the state who had been admitted to practice before that court, 
became the state's chief attorney in the case.^"'' With an election 
year under way, Van Devanter took a special interest in the case. 
One week before it was to be argued, he wrote Senator Warren : 

Of course you know that my interest in this case is altogether on 
account of the Governor [W. A. Richards], and political considera- 
tions ... If the Governor's course can be sustained by the Supreme 
Court, it will help his Administration and help us politically all over 
the State, and will do us untold good in the northern half of Uinta 
County and in portions of Fremont County. i'*" 

When the case of Ward vs. Race Horse^"^ was argued before the 
Supreme Court on March 11-12, 1896, Van Devanter presented 
the oral arguments for Wyoming. Opposing him was United States 
Attorney General Judson Harmon. Two months later, on May 25, 
Associate Justice Edward D. White delivered a seven-to-one opin- 
ion of the Court favorable to the state. White's decision followed 
closely Van Devanter's earlier arguments, thus not only giving the 
state of Wyoming a big boost but giving Van Devanter in his first 
Supreme Court case an impressive victory. Van Devanter's expec- 
tation that the Republican party's participation in this case would 
help earn votes in Uinta and Fremont Counties was, however, not 
realized. When the elections were held in 1896, both areas con- 
tributed heavily to the Republican defeat.^"** 

In these cases and in all his many others. Van Devanter's ability 
as a lawyer in private practice during Wyoming's early statehood 
period is unquestionable, if ability can be gauged by success. His 
presentation of cases showed all the thoroughness which was to 
characterize his decisions on the United States Supreme Court. 
This legal success, reinforced by his activities as a Republican 
politician in the state, helped him to achieve more lofty heights 
after 1897. 



105. In re Race Horse, 70 F. 598 (1895) 

106. WVD to J. M. Dickinson, February 29, 1896, and WVD to Jesse 
Knight, March 2, 1896. The clerk of the Court refused to list either of the 
other two attorneys who were connected with Wyoming's case because they 
had not been admitted to practice before the Supreme Court. 

107. WVD to Francis E. Warren, March 3, 1896. 

108. 163 U. S. 504 (1896) 

109. See below 



194 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

POLITICS, 1890-1897 

Political affairs in Wyoming during the 1 890's were based to a 
large extent on local needs or demands. All parties, Republican, 
Democrats, and, after 1892, the newly formed People's Party, had, 
in many cases, common planks. Elections became personal battles 
and depended far more on individual popularity than on ideological 
differences. It was the Republican party which controlled Wyo- 
ming during the first two years of the 1 890's. There was at first 
little reason for the people to repudiate the party responsible for 
gaining statehood, but party control was anything but concrete. 
As early as December, 1 890, Van Devanter, now the unofficial 
G.O.P. spokesman in the absence of Warren and Carey, noted in a 
letter that "the political waters take turns of being turbulent, then 
semi-turbulent, and then quiet; one extreme, sooner or later, fol- 
lowing the other."' ^" Despite the fact that Governor Amos W. 
Barber was not a very forceful leader, the Republicans managed 
before early 1892 to build up their power to the point where Van 
Devanter could hazard the statement: 

Wyoming is a Republican State, but the majority is so narrow that 
nothing save excellent work will at all times keep it in the Republican 
column. A majority of the people coming to Wyoming are, however, 
Republicans and in the course of a few years it is probable that the 
Republicans will have a safe majority. m 

Events of the next few months, however, were to dim, at least tem- 
porarily, even this mild optimism. 

Wyoming's economic development had lagged for several years, 
and by early 1892 a hint of depression was already evident. Many 
people in the state were prone to blame the Republicans for failing 
to counteract the unfavorable economic conditions. In March, 
Senator Warren voiced his concern in a letter to his party lieuten- 
ant. After asking Van Devanter whom he thought should run for 
office in the state, Warren added with some foreboding that "it 
seems to me we have many unfortunate features to overcome" 
before the election.''- 

For Republicans, matters went from bad to worse. In April, the 
Johnson County War occurred, and, though the Republican admin- 
istration had been aware of the impending trouble, nothing had 
been done to prevent it. The Republicans denied having any 
knowledge of, or connection with, the cattlemen's action, but 
Democratic charges of complicity were hard to refute, especially 
since most of the cattlemen were leaders in the G.O.P. From 
Washington, Senator Warren wrote Van Devanter: 



110. WVD to Francis E. Warren, December 24, 1890. 

111. WVD to O. A. Baker, February 24, 1892. 

112. Francis E. Warren to WVD, March 19, 1892 (Warren Papers). 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 195 

I have worried much over the situation and am quaking now with 
apprehension, not knowing how this matter is to end or what will be 
its result. The worst feature is the cattle contention creeping into 
politics, with primaries, conventions, etc., adopting platforms for or 
against ... It will be harder to eradicate the evil and to secure peace 
and good government [now] . . .^^^ 

The Populist Party, which had gained momentum by early 1 892, 
also capitalized on the "war." At its first national convention in 
July, 1892, in Omaha, Nebraska, the party drew up, along with its 
regular platform, a resolution condemning "the recent invasion of 
the Territory [sic] of Wyoming by the hired assassins of plutoc- 
racy, assisted by federal officials. "^^^ By the time of the Wyoming 
party's nominating convention in September, it had gained enough 
strength to be on a bargaining level with the Democrats. After 
some political maneuvering, the two parties worked out a "fusion" 
ticket, similar to those being formed in Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, 
and North Dakota. The Populists agreed to support the Demo- 
cratic state candidates, John Osborne, the mayor of Rawlins, who 
had been nominated for governor, and Henry A. Coffeen, a Sheri- 
dan banker nominated for United States Congressman, in return 
for Democratic support of the Populist presidential electors in the 
state who were pledged to General James B. Weaver. 

Van Devanter, whom the Republicans named as party chairman 
at their convention in Laramie on September 14, and the other 
party leaders were initially untroubled by the move. They nom- 
inated a "strong" ticket of Edward Ivinson, a pioneer Laramie 
banker for governor and Clarence D. Clark, the incumbent, for 
Congress. In an effort to keep Wyoming "in the RepubUcan col- 
umn where it belongs,"^ ^•'' Van Devanter and the state central com- 
mittee^^^ set to work to push their candidates. 

Despite Van Devanter's argument on behalf of the G.O.P. that 
"the result of the present election not only affects our State govern- 
ment, but also that of the National government,"^^^ it soon became 
apparent that the combined Democratic-Populist Party, with its 
attacks on alleged Republican corruption and inefficiency, was 
cutting sharply into the ranks of the G.O.P. The Democratic 
candidate for governor, John Osborne, traveled the state, picking 
up support wherever he went. In contrast to Ivinson, a lackluster 
campaigner, Osborne was an active and dynamic speaker and his 



113. Francis E. Warren to WVD, April 15, 1892 (Warren Papers). 

114. Edward Stanwood, A History of the Presidency (New York: 
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1912), P. 509. 

115. WVD to Frank M. Foote, September 20, 1892. 

116. The executive committee of Wyoming's Republican party in 1892 
consisted of Van Devanter as chairman. Senator Joseph Carey, Otto 
Gramm, Benjamin Fowler, and Frank M. Foote. 

117. WVD to Frank M. Foote, September 20, 1892. 



196 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

work, and the increasing unrest over the ineffectual prosecution of 
the cattlemen invaders who still had not been brought to trial, 
began to show. Van Devanter tried at first to discredit the im- 
portance of the fusion of the two opposition parties: 

ft seems to me The wrote in September] that both of these parties 
surrendered their alleged principals [sic] and joined in an arrangement 
to cry calamity throughout the state and to ride into office that way, if 
possible^ ''^ 

By the first of October, however, he was openly worried. To a 
member of the Republican State Executive Committee, he noted: 

We are going to have a hard fight in Wyoming . . . The Democracy 
are doing all that they can to belittle Wyoming, to undermine its 
business interests, and to sow calamity everywhere, in order that they 
may create a prejudice which will be of temporary advantage to 
them. 11'' 

To counter some of the inroads being made by the opposition. 
Van Devanter, as state G.O.P. chairman, offered to send "sub- 
scriptions" of $ 1 00 each from Republican campaign funds to news- 
papers in Buffalo, Saratoga, Lander, Casper, and elsewhere, if the 
local papers would guarantee consistently strong Republican edi- 
torials. He emphasized, however, that he was not attempting to 
bribe the newspapers, since he was stipulating that each edition 
send free copies to non-subscribers.^-" Party leaders also made 
efforts, at Van Devanter's request, to get the names of the Repub- 
lican presidential electors placed at the top of the ballot in every 
county. ^-^ To obtain extra money for the campaign, Van Devan- 
ter turned again and again to the candidates themselves. In the 
middle of October, for instance. Van Devanter wrote to Senator 
Warren (who was hoping to be re-elected by a Republican-con- 
trolled legislature after the campaign)- "Exigencies of many 
kinds . . . have arisen which will make it absolutely necessary that 
Mr. Ivinson shall give us $10,000 straight, and that you shall give 
us $5,000. There is no other alternative whatever. "^2- To others, 
he stressed the need for hard work. "Overconfidence in the re- 
sult," he wrote, "is the greatest obstacle in the road to success. "^-'^ 
Nevertheless, on the same day, he exhibited some of that same 



118. WVD to Charles Burritt, September 22, 1892. 

119. WVD to Otto Gramm. October 1, 1892. 

120. WVD to Gertrude Huntington (The [Saratoga]Lvrc), October 7, 
1892; WVD to John H. Lott {The Buffalo Bulletin), October 7, 1892; WVD 
to W. A. Deniecke (The Natrona Tribune), October 8, 1892; WVD to Matt 
Borland (The [Lander] Wyoming State Journal), October 8, 1892. 

121. WVD to Fenimore Chatterton and others, October 10, 1892. 

122. WVD to Francis E. Warren, October 19, 1892. Emphasis Van 
Devanter's. 

123. WVD to John Storrie, October 19, 1892. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 197 

overconfidence when he wrote to a friend that "the Repubhcans are 
going to carry the state without any question whatever. "^-^ 

The fight for votes went down to the wire. Stiff battles took 
place in the western and northern counties, where the Democrats 
had made greater headway than in the more populous south. The 
Republicans were, nonetheless, confident of victory when election 
day came on November 8. The results of the voting were therefore 
all the more staggering to them and to Van Devanter. Republican 
presidential electors carried the state, but by a margin of only 700 
votes out of 16,700 cast.^^''' The state election, however, brought 
the crushing blow. The Democratic party won the governorship 
by almost 1,800 votes, the one Congressional seat by 500 votes, 
and one Supreme Court seat.^-*^ After the election, the legislature, 
which had been overwhelmingly Republican, consisted of twenty- 
two Republican, twenty-one Democrats, and five Populists, who 
had been elected separately despite the fusion ticket. ^^" 

When the legislature met in late January, 1893, its main concern 
was the election of a United States Senator to a full six-year term, 
Wyoming's first. Van Devanter and the Republican leadership 
still hoped to re-elect Francis E. Warren, but problems with their 
own party made the chances slim. Five Republicans were abso- 
lutely pledged not to vote for Warren, ^-*^ but they were hopeful of 
electing some Republican, preferably Clarence D. Clark. On the 
first ballot, fifteen candidates were nominated. Warren was the 
leader in votes, but he received only eight of the necessary twenty- 
five for election. Day after day other ballots were taken; votes 



124. WVD to Jesse Knight, October 19, 1892. 

125. Walter Dean Burnham, Presidential Ballots, 1836-1892 (Baltimore: 
The Johns Hopkins Press, 1955), pp. 29, 880-883. The Republicans car- 
ried Albany, Carbon, Converse, Fremont, Laramie, Natrona, and Weston 
Counties. The Populist electors carried Crook County by 117 votes, John- 
son County by 252, Sheridan County by 8, Sweetwater County by 28, and 
Uinta County by 28. 

126. News item in the Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 1, 1893. In the 
Supreme Court contest, Gibson Clark, a Democrat, easily defeated C. H. 
Parmalee, the Republican candidate. 

127. The combination ticket had resulted in at least a partial upset vic- 
tory and even in losing the presidential election, the Populists won a great 
deal of prestige. Because of fusion, they won over forty-six per cent of the 
state's vote. In only five other states did they score higher. John D. Hicks, 
The Populist Revolt. A History of the Farmer's Alliance and the People's 
Party (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1931), p. 263. In 
Nevada the Populists got 66.76 per cent of the vote; in Colorado, 57.07 
per cent; in Idaho, 54.66 per cent; in North Dakota, 48.96 per cent; in 
Kansas, 48.44 per cent; and in Wyoming, 46.14 per cent. 

128. The five were Fenimore Chatterton, DeForest Richards, and B. B. 
Brooks (all later Republican governors of the state), Joseph Hazen, and C. 
C. Hamlin. These men's counties had voted Democratic in the presidential 
election and they felt duty bound to vote against the established Republican 
leadership. (Fenimore Chatterton, Yesterday's Wyoming, p. 47). 



198 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

traded indiscriminately, but no one came within less than nine 
votes of a majority.^-'' 

On the evening of February 3, at a conference of Republican 
members and party leaders, Senator Fenimore Chatterton of Car- 
bon County suggested that, since it appeared certain that the five 
Populist representatives who held the balance of power would not 
vote for either Warren or Clark, the Republicans should cast a 
solid vote for some other prominent Republican in the hope of 
bringing the necessary three additional votes over to their side.^'^" 
This proposal was accepted, and on the morning of the fourth, 
Republican block voting began. After voting vainly for five differ- 
ent men, the Republicans, on February 1 1 , proposed Van De- 
vanter for the Senate. He, too, however, got only the same 
twenty-two party votes. On February 19, after thirty-one ballots, 
the legislature finally gave up and adjourned without electing any- 
one.'-^' Immediately after the session, Governor Osborne appoint- 
ed his own candidate, A. C. Beckwith of Evanston, but the United 
States Senate refused to seat him.^'^- As a consequence, Wyoming 
had but one Senator, Carey, for the next two years. 

The years between 1893-1894 were uneventful for the Repub- 
lican party. With the Democrats in administrative control of the 
state government. Van Devanter as Republican state chairman 
could only attempt to build up party strength while undertaking a 
campaign to alter the unfavorable image which the party had 
acquired from the Johnson County fiasco. Paying his own ex- 
penses in part, he made frequent tours through the state to build 
support for the G.O.P.^'^'^ 

The national depression after 1893 was damaging to the Demo- 
cratic party in Wyoming as was the Democratically-supported 
Wilson-Gorman Tariff which drastically lowered tariff rates. 
Among the items placed on the "free list" was wool, and to the 



129. Chatterton, the senator from Carbon County, stated that on one 
occasion when a member of the legislature rose to change his vote, a 
Democrat who favored another man pressed a gun in his back with the 
admonition "sit down you, S. B." {Ibid., p. 50). 

130. I hid., p. 50. 

131. The full story of the balloting can be found in news items of the 
Cheyenne Daily Leader, January 25 to February 19. 

132. Chatterton, Yesterday's Wyomini^, p. 51. The Senate engaged in 
what one historian has called "a prolonged debate" on whether or not to 
accept Beckwith's appointment. Before it ruled officially, however, Beck- 
with sent in his resignation, thus preventing the Senators from making a 
definite decision. (A. C. Hansen, "The Congressional Career of Senator 
Francis E. Warren from 1890-1902," Annals of Wvoming, XX (January. 
July, 1948), 16). 

133. WVD to J. B. Okie, January 2, 1893. "Our State Committee," 
Van Devanter wrote, "is without means — in fact, myself and another have 
had to respond more liberally than we could well afford in order to dis- 
charge the obligations incurred during the campaign." 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 199 

many persons in Wyoming connected with sheep raising, this was 
disastrous. Van Devanter and other RepubUcans had every reason 
to anticipate a reversal of the results of 1892. At their state con- 
vention, the Republicans nominated W. A. Richards for governor 
and Frank Mondell, the ex-mayor of Newcastle, for Congressman. 
Van Devanter, who was renamed state chairman, began to plan 
the campaign. To one of his colleagues, he stated his belief that: 

If Wyoming drifts into uncertain channels again as it did two years 
ago, it will become an uncertain state in politics and will bid fair to 
follow in the footsteps of Nevada instead of in the pathways of the 
more progressive states of the West. The result of this election means 
much to us as Republicans, and more to us as citizens and indi- 
viduals. 1^4 

The following week he added: 

As a Republican and as a citizen, I am very much interested in 
Republican success this fall. I always endeavor to be true to my 
friends, and for the same reason I endeavor to be true to my party. 
I would rather see any Republican made United States Senator than 
to see a Democrat elected to that position. i^-t 

When the Democrats ineptly produced a platform which sup- 
ported both the Cleveland administration and the unpopular low 
tariff the main problem facing the Republicans was to obtain 
money to insure their almost certain victory. Van Devanter 
worked tirelessly in this effort and by the first of October, he was 
able to give an optimistic report: 

Everything is looking well, and all signs point to a splendid victory 
for the Republicans this fall. In fact, I am of the opinion that every 
county in the State will be carried by the Republicans. i^e 

Silver played an important role in the election; for a while it 
threatened to split the Republican party in two. At their conven- 
tion, the Republicans had gone on record, as they had in all past 
elections, in favor of free coinage of silver at the ratio of sixteen 
to one. Senator Joseph Carey, however, had been swinging grad- 
ually toward the national party's concept, the gold standard; his 
speeches and roles in Congress had tilted that way repeatedly. 
When the campaign opened in Wyoming, Carey wrote to Van 
Devanter that he wanted to stump the state for the party as he had 
done so many times in the past. The Republican leaders had 
already secretly decided to withdraw their support from the Sena- 



134. WVD to M. C. Barrow, August 30, 1894. 

135. WVD to M. C. Barrow, September 4, 1894. Since there was 
already one vacancy in the Senatorships of the state and Carey's term was 
now expiring, there were two Senators to be chosen. The necessity of 
having a Republican-controlled legislature was therefore imperative if the 
party hoped to elect its choice. 

136. WVD to T. S. Benton, October 3, 1894. 



200 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tor, and Van Devanter now replied as tactfully as he could that, 
under the circumstances, it might be better for Carey to remain in 
Washington, especially since a majority of the state's citizens 
favored the party's free silver plank. "We should do nothing," he 
wrote Carey, "which will erroneously cast upon the party any 
suspicion of insincerity in this matter."'-'' Carey insisted on cam- 
paigning, however, and Van Devanter, as party chairman had to 
refuse to allow him to do so under official party auspices. 

Despite the potentially open split in party ranks. Van Devanter 
was able to hold the voters together. To a man who wrote that, 
because of Carey's stand on silver, he would vote against the Re- 
publican party unless Van Devanter could assure him of the party's 
loyalty to the silver plank. Van Devanter wrote: 

I feel that you can absolutely endorse the entire Republican ticket 
without sacrificing your views as to Senator Carey. I say this, because 
Wyoming is a free silver state, and in my judgement will not elect 
any Senator who is not a free silver man.i-'^^ 

Such arguments paid off. The general election resulted in a land- 
slide victory for the Republicans, with the party carrying almost 
every office. W. A. Richards was easily elected over Democratic 
gubernatorial candidate, W. H. Holliday (Osborne had refused to 
run for re-election ) ; Mondell overwhelmed Coffeen for the Con- 
gressional seat; and the Republicans carried forty-eight of the fifty- 
five legislative seats. '•'^" The Populists, who had refused to join 
with the Democrats as before, were completely routed, drawing 
only eleven percent of the vote, lowest in all the West with the 
exception of Nevada.'"*"' 

The question of the selection of the two United States Senators 
still hung in the balance. Van Devanter's name was frequently 
mentioned, but he quickly stifled the idea in a newspaper inter- 
view.'^' The Republicans determined to push for the election of 
Warren and Clarence D. Clark, and Van Devanter enthusiastally 
supported this decision. Senator Joseph Carey, however, finally 
realizing that he was to be excluded for the "party good," would 
not give up without a battle. He bitterly attacked Van Devanter 
and all the other "regular" Republicans,'^- but, completely unper- 
turbed by the attacks. Van Devanter arranged for free transporta- 
tion on behalf of Senator Warren for legislators on both the Bur- 
lington and the Union Pacific. The election results did not disap- 



137. WVD to Joseph Carey, October 9, 1894. 

138. WVD to M. W. Pettigrew, October 12, 1894. 

139. News item in the Cheyenne Sun, November 24, 1894. 

140. Hicks, The Populist Revolt, pp. 332, 337. The Populists lost every 
state in the West which they had carried in 1892. 

141. News item in the Cheyenne Sun. November 13, 1894. 

142. WVD to B. F. Fowler, December 8, 1894. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 201 

point him, for both Warren and Clark were voted into the Senator- 
ships. Carey, who had done so much for the state and territory, 
was ignored. 

In the months between January, 1895, and the summer of 1896, 
Van Devanter, still serving as the state's Republican chairman, 
was occupied with preparing the state for the coming presidential 
election. An avowed McKinley supporter, he also personally 
faced the task of winning members of his own party over to the 
McKinley side. As early as 1892, he had been president of the 
Cheyenne Republican League Club, ostensibly a McKinley organ- 
ization^*^"* and had thereafter continued his activity in the move- 
ment. In the late spring of 1895, he and other delegates from the 
state attended the national convention of the League in Cleveland, 
Ohio^^"* and he constantly endeavored to gain converts for the 
McKinley cause. Many of the state's Republicans, however, 
favored Senator William Allison of Iowa, a supporter of free silver, 
and Van Devanter moved quickly, if not necessarily truthfully, to 
squash suspicions that McKinley was unsound on the silver ques- 
tion. Wyoming should declare itself for him early, Van Devanter 
said, because 

McKinley's views upon the silver question more nearly accord with 
those of Wyoming than do those of any other presidential candidate, 
and the question arises whether it would be better for us to squarely 
declare our preference and declare ourselves without waiting until the 
question is elsewhere settled beyond doubt. ^45 

Wyoming RepubUcans had far more to worry about than the 
matter of the presidential nomination. The chief problem facing 
the party was the continuing national depression. The threat was 
imminent that the "ins" would get the blame for hard times. Gov- 
ernor Richards, Van Devanter, (who was accused by some of 
being both "political boss" and "governor de facto" ),^^*^ and other 
Republicans bore the brunt of the attack. Populism, which had 
seemed moribund, now revived, and 'the Democrats, ripe for 
breaking with their national leader, President Grover Cleveland, 
gained in strength in Wyoming and the surrounding states. Repub- 
licans found themselves in trouble; by the summer of 1896 the 
outlook was dark for the Wyoming G.O.P. 

Van Devanter was confident, nevertheless, that if McKinley 
and a strong Republican ticket were nominated, the state party 
could sweep to power on the national surge. To help quarantee 
this, he put himself in the running for the position of Republican 
National Committeeman, a position which Carey had held for 



143. WVD to Theresa Johnson, June 18, 1894. 

144. Note in the Van Devanter papers dated June 16, 1895. 

145. WVD to M. C. Barrow, March 22, 1896. 

146. News item in the Rocky Mountain (Denver, Colorado) News, July 



202 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

twenty years. He moved as rapidly as possible to achieve his goal. 
By the middle of March, he was stressing the need for a man of his 
background and beliefs on the national committee. The thought 
of Carey on the committee, he told a colleague 

is sufficient to put one well on his guard. If the Republicans succeed 
in the coming presidential contest, as seems highly probable, what 
kind of a "monkey and parrot" time do you suppose we would have in 
Wyoming in connection with federal patronage? Warren, supported 
by Clark and Mondell, would probably be opposed at every time by 
the member of the National Committee and vice-versa. Under such 
circumstances the patronage would in all probability be a curse and 
not a blessing. ^^" 

In each county delegates were elected to the state Republican 
convention which was to be held in Sheridan that year. The loca- 
tion had been suggested by Van Devanter in the hope of showing 
"the people up there [in northern Wyoming] that they are a part 
of us and we are a part of them."^^'^ Van Devanter's wooing of 
supporters paid off. Even before the elections, he was supremely 
confident. "The indications," he wrote to a supporter, "are that 
Carey will be beaten in every county in the selection of dele- 
gates."'^-' The best thing for Carey and his backers to do would be 
simply to withdraw from the race, he added to another friend 
several weeks later, but they probably would not, since they did 
not seem to "recognize a coming defeat when they see it."^'''" 

The election results proved Van Devanter to be an apt prog- 
nosticator. In Cheyenne, even with a snow storm raging on elec- 
tion day, April 16, his supporters won an overwhelming victory. ^•''^ 
On hearing the news, Senator Warren quipped that 

the Carey outfit [has] burnt their bridges behind them and their fall 
was much like that of the tumble bug. ... I do not now recollect 
among our many fights and scrimmages anything more decided or 
more neatly done than the killing and burying of 'his nibs.'!-""'- 

state that the supporters of ex-Senator Carey had been completely 
defeated.'"'-^ At Sheridan, the delegates went on record in favor of 
McKinley and appointed Van Devanter as one of six delegates to 
the national convention.'"'^ From Mark Hanna, McKinley's cam- 



8, 1897. Clipping in the Van Devanter papers. 

147. WVD to M. C. Barrow, March 19, 1896. 

148. WVD to B. B. Brooks. February 19. 1896. 

149. WVD to John M. Thurston, March 22, 1896. 

150. WVD to M. C. Barrow, April 1, 1896. 

151. WVD to Francis E. Warren, April 17, 1896. 

152. Francis E. Warren to WVD. April 20, 1896. (Warren Papers). 

153. WVD to E. Dickinson. May 1. 1896. 

154. Francis E. Warren to Mark Hanna, May 15. 1896. The other 
delegates were B. B. Brooks, B. F. Fowler, Otto Gramm, J. E. Davis, and 
C. C. Hamlin. 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 203 

paign manager, came a telegram of "congratulations upon your 
splendid work."^^'^ 

Van Devanter, however, was unable to go to the St. Louis 
National Convention. In May, shortly after the state convention, 
he contracted a severe case of typhoid fever, and it was feared for 
a while that he would not live.^^*^ With Senator Warren leading 
the delegation to St. Louis and casting Van Devanter's proxy vote, 
Wyoming backed McKinley and the Republican platform of 
"sound money" even though it initially cast its six votes against the 
currency plank in the platform. Unlike Colorado and Idaho, 
whose delegates walked out of the convention, or Utah, Nevada, 
and Montana, whose delegates spUt their votes, Wyoming remained 
solid in its support of the regular Republicans and the party 
nominees, McKinley and Garret Hobart.^'"^^ Van Devanter was 
unanimously elected by his colleagues as Wyoming's national 
committeeman. 

The election in Wyoming presented a number of problems for 
the G.O.P. Van Devanter's illness, lasting until about the first of 
October, deprived the party of its chief organizer for most of the 
campaign. The party was also at a great disadvantage because of 
the national platform's opposition to free silver. Surrounded by 
pro-Wilham Jennings Bryan states, the Wyoming Republicans tried 
desperately to win votes. For a few days after the election, the 
result was, surprisingly enough, in doubt. Nevertheless when the 
final tabulations were recorded, the Democrats had carried the 
state. 

The results proved, in many ways, a moral victory for the 
Republicans. Even with Carey opposing the entire Republican 
ticket,^^*^ the vote was exceedingly close. Democratic nominee 
John Osborne defeated Congressman Frank Mondell by only 266 
votes and Samuel Corn defeated Supreme Court Justice H. V. B. 
Groesbeck by 576. The RepubUcans scored a striking victory in 
winning the legislature, thirty-seven to twenty. ^'^^ In the presiden- 
tial vote, the mountain states' Democrats carried eighty-one percent 
of the total vote; in Montana, Idaho, and Nevada, they won by a 



155. Mark Hanna to WVD, May 15, 1896. 

156. WVD to John N. Tisdale, January 20, 1897. 

157. Republican National Party, Official Proceedings of the Eleventh 
Republican National Convention. Held in the City of St. Louis, Missouri, 
June 16, 17, 18, 1896. (Minneapolis, Minnesota: Charles W. Johnson, 
1896), p. 123. 

158. WVD to Francis E. Warren, August 29, 1897, quotes defeated 
Supreme Court Justice Groesbeck, "You do not know, but I do, that Carey 
opposed the whole ticket at the last election. He and his wife had me at 
their house after my defeat and talked very plainly to me, and I know just 
what I am talking about." 

159. Bartlett, History of Wyoming, 1, 228. 



204 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

four-to-one margin; in Utah, by five-to-one; and, in Colorado, by 
six-to-one. In Wyoming, however, the Democrats won by only 
304 votes out of the 21,093 cast.^*"'" Thinking back over the elec- 
tion. Van Devanter later commented that "with a week or ten days 
more in the campaign [I] believe that the educational work could 
have been carried to such an extent as to have assured the State 
for McKinley."^*'^ 

At the victorious Republican headquarters in Canton, Ohio, the 
newly-elected Republican administration had reason to take notice 
of the work of the Wyoming Republicans. Even in losing, Warren, 
Van Devanter, and othsrs could well feel entitled to certain favors 
for their efforts and Warren, who had been constantly pushing Van 
Devanter for more important positions, moved to obtain at least 
one. Long before the Republican National Convention of 1896, 
Mark Hanna, the key man in McKinley's campaign, had written 
local politicians throughout the country that if they would organize 
their areas for McKinley, they would be consulted after the election 
with respect to appointments. ^*'- Warren had begun even then to 
push Van Devanter for the Solicitor Generalship of the United 
States, ^"'^ and, after McKinley 's election, Warren now began to try 
to collect on Hanna's promises. 

Being a practical politician, Warren informed Van Devanter 
that the post of Solicitor General might be unavailable, but he 
would try to get either that or an Assistant Attorney General's post 
for him. To McKinley, Warren praised Van Devanter highly and 
added "There is absolutely nothing which will be so kindly received 
and so thoroughly appreciated by the Republicans of the State of 
Wyoming, and by my colleague and myself, as this appointment. ^*^^ 
Letters of recommendation for Van Devanter came to President- 
elect McKinley from Senator Clarence Clark and Representative 



160. E. E. Robinson, The Presidential Vote: 1896-1932 (Stanford 
University, California: Stanford University Press, 1934), p. 52. The total 
vote was Democratic Party 10,376, Republican Party 10.072, and others 
(mainly Prohibition), 645. Of the 154 counties in the mountain region, 
141 voted Democratic, and only thirteen went Republican. Eight of these 
thirteen were in Wyoming. Ibid., p. 63. The Republicans carried Albany, 
Big Horn, Carbon, Converse, Fremont, Laramie, Natrona, and Weston 
Counties. The Democrats won in Crook, Johnson, Sheridan, Sweetwater, 
and Uinta Counties. 

161. WVD to John S. McMillin, (Undated, 1896). 

162. Herbert Croly, Marcus Alonzo Hanna, His Life and Work (New 
York: The Macmillan Co., 1923), pp. 185-186. 

163. Francis E. Warren to Mark A. Hanna, April 24, 1896. (Van 
Devanter Papers) Francis E. Warren to WVD, May 2, 1896. (Warren 
Papers) 

164. Francis E. Warren to William McKinley, January 21, 1897, (United 
States Department of Justice, Appointment Papers — Willis Van Devanter, 
MSS in the National Archives, Washington, D. C.) 



WILLIS VAN DEVANTER: WYOMING LEADER 205 

Mondell.^^'' Another letter bore the signatures of "all the Senators 
and members of Congress from Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and 
Idaho who were true to the Republican Party during the last cam- 
paign. "^^^ Wyoming Republican officials from Governor W. A. 
Richards to the state and federal judges also added their names to 
the requests. ^^" 

For several months, however, chances seemed slim that Van 
Devanter could be appointed. The rumor cropped up that as 
attorney for the Union Pacific, Van Devanter had been engaged in 
corrupt activities. Warren sought to reassure the new Attorney 
General Joseph McKenna and other important government offi- 
cials that there was no truth in the rumor. When nothing had been 
done by the time of McKinley's inauguration, Warren confessed to 
be "sweating blood and foaming . . . inside" at the thought of being 
blocked now so close to his objective. ^*^^ At seemingly the last 
minute, however, everything turned out satisfactorily. On March 
12, McKenna and the new Secretary of the Interior, Cornelius 
Bliss, told Warren to have Van Devanter come to Washington on 
the "first train if possible," for an interview. ^"^^ Two days after- 
ward. Van Devanter received notification of his nomination to the 
important post of Assistant Attorney General assigned to the 
Department of the Interior, a position which gave him, indirectly, 
legal authority over the public lands of the nation. ^^^ On March 
18, the United States Senate ratified the nomination, and Van 
Devanter quickly wound up his business ties in Wyoming and pre- 
pared to start on a government career that was to last for the next 
forty-four years. 

In leaving Wyoming, Van Devanter's connection with the state 
and its leaders was not severed. From 1897-1900, he remained 
Wyoming's Republican Committeeman and he was responsible for 
obtaining many important appointments to national positions for 



165. Clarence D. Clark and Frank Mondell to William McKinley, Jan- 
uary 28, 1897 (United States Department of Justice, Appointment Papers — 
Willis Van Devanter, MSS in the National Archives). 

166. There were only six in all: Warren, Clark, Mondell, Edward O. 
Wolcott, Arthur Brown, and George L. Sharp. 

167. Ibid. Among the men who gave Van Devanter their backing were 
Richards; B. F. Fowler, the attorney general; Amos Barber, the ex-governor; 
A. B. Conaway, chief justice of the state supreme court; C. N. Potter, Van 
Devanter's old partner and an assistant justice on the court; and John Riner, 
United States District Judge for Wyoming. 

168. Francis E. Warren to WVD, March 11, 1897. (Warren Papers) 

169. Francis E. Warren to WVD, March 12, 1897. (Warren Papers) 

170. Van Devanter had been hopeful of being named first Assistant 
Attorney General in the Department of Justice, where he would have had 
the opportunity to argue cases regularly in the courts, but if he was greatly 
disappointed by the appointment he received, his letters fail to show it. 



206 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Wyoming residents. ^^^ As he climbed up the ladder of preferment, 
first as Assistant Attorney General ( 1897-1903), then as Judge of 
the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals (1903-1910), and finally as 
Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1910- 
1937), Van Devanter represented the state of Wyoming well. 

Today, nearly twenty-five years since his death in 1941, and 
nearly seventy years since his important role in Wyoming affairs 
ended. Van Devanter has been generally forgotten by residents of 
the state. He deserves something better. 



171. Among the more important Wyoming appointees to federal jobs 
were: Hugo Donzelmann, Van Devanter's old law partner, who was 
named American council to Bohemia; W. A. Richards, who received the 
post of Assistant Commissioner of the General Land Office in 1899; H. V. 
S. Groesbeck, Van Devanter's successor as chief justice, who, though now 
almost completely deaf, became an assistant in Van Devanter's office; F. W. 
Mondell, who served from 1897 to 1899 as Assistant Commissioner of the 
General Land Office; and Estelle Reel, one of Wyoming's leading Republi- 
can women, who, in 1898 was appointed the first woman Superintendent of 
Indian Schools for the United States. 



Zhe Self-made Mdn in Wyommg 



The career of DeForest Richards, Wyoming's fourth governor 
(1899-1903), contains no element not duplicated in the lives of 
many other nineteenth and early twentieth century Americans who 
migrated from their native east to become successful in business, 
the professions, and politics. Growing with the west, these men 
often saw in their own rise to prosperity and influence the triumph 
of virtue and hard work over the adversities of a new and un- 
tamed country. Their sagas appeared to them to be in the best 
tradition of the self-made man in America. It was further char- 
acteristic of this self-made man that he readily identified the 
sources of his obvious success within himself and said so.^ 

Richards was born of Puritan and Huguenot ancestry in Charles- 
town, New Hampshire, on August 6, 1846.^ After graduation 
from Kimball Union Academy at Meriden and a year at Phillips 
Andover, he accompanied his family at the end of the Civil War 
to Alabama. While his father, a Congregational minister, assumed 



1. Irvin G. Wyllie, The Self-Made Man in America: The Myth of Rags 
to Riches (New Brunswick. N. J., 1954), passim, for example 21, 29-30, 38, 
40, 45, 83-84, and chapter VII. 

2. Harry B. Henderson, Sr., "Governors of the State of Wyoming: III, 
DeForest Richards," Annals of Wyoming, 12:121-23 (April 1940), and 
Who Was Who in America, I, 1897-1942 (Chicago, 1942), 1028. 



208 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the presidency of Alabama State University,'' young Richards fol- 
lowed a political career suggesting Carpetbag tendencies during the 
Reconstruction era. His first essay in business led only to debts 
which he managed to pay off by subsequent success in merchandis- 
ing in Camden. In 1885 he removed to Chadron in northwest 
Nebraska, and very shortly he crossed over into Wyoming, ex- 
tending his merchandising and banking interests first to Douglas 
and then to Casper. His fortune and his reputation developed 
spectacularly when, following the heavy cattle losses from the 
storms of 1886-87, he brought sheep into the Platte River district, 
trailing them from Oregon and selling to the ranchers of Converse 
County. 

Support from livestock and other business interests facilitated 
his Wyoming political career, which began with membership in the 
Constitutional Convention of 1 890, included service as state 
senator and mayor of Douglas, and was climaxed by election to 
the governorship in 1898 as a Republican. Reelected in 1902, he 
died on April 28, 1903, not long after entering on his second four- 
year term. He had been seriously ill for only two weeks with a 
kidney disease, but had actually been in poor health for some time 
from a heart condition.^ 

Richards' biographer describes him as less a politician than a 
safe and conservative businessman, as reflected in his state papers. 
As a banker it was said that he believed in a borrower's honesty 
and ability, and lent him money with sincere trust and the faith 
that he was assisting him to achieve prosperity."' 

The intimate letter that follows — apparently written to a young- 
er cousin of childhood acquaintance soon after his inauguration as 
governor — confirms both the broad outline of his career and his 
observed characteristics." It glows with a simple and open pride in 
personal achievement and family, then so usual but now often con- 
strued as naive. It views life as a struggle of good against evil, 
wherein sound money conquers false heresies, ample fortune re- 
wards the diligent, and an office seeker triumphs without deals. 
But in halting his westward movement in frontier Wyoming — 
population 62,555 at statehood in 1890, only 92,531 ten years 
later while he was governor — Richards had chosen wisely, for 
there the kind of society he pictured himself as inhabiting could, 
indeed, appear to him a reality. 



3. Walter L. Fleming. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (N.Y., 
1905). 613-14, suggests that Richards' father profited handsomely as a 
Carpetbagger. 

4. Obituaries in Wyoming State Tribune and New York Times, April 29, 
1903. 

5. Henderson, loc. cit., 122. 

6. Letter in possession of this writer. 



THE SELF-MADE MAN IN WYOMING 209 

Mrs. Harriet C. Budd 
101 E. 69th St, 

New York City Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Jan. 27th 1899. 

My dear Hattie : 

I was very much delighted to get your letter of the 20th forward- 
ed to me from Douglas, and to know that you feh some pride over 
the high honor bestowed upon me by my fellow citizens. Some 
honors of this kind are of questionable value, but coming as mine 
have after a bold and hard fight for honest money, and in a section 
so tinctured by false heresies that it seemed a forlorn hope, I feel 
that I have a right to experience a little pride myself at the outcome, 
and I would be more than glad if the sainted and noble spirits of 
our ancestors could look down with approval upon me, for I love 
and adore their memories. Very many of my old friends who had 
lost all track of me are writing me from very widely scattered 
sections congratulating me over my preferment. 

I feel gratified for my good fortune, for I have certainly been 
favored with strength and health, and with as fine a speciment of 
womanhood and manhood as I have in my two children, with 
ample fortune which I have earned every cent of, and now this 
honor — what more can a man ask for. 

Hattie I never write such letters as this, but as I write, my mind 
has gone back to the days when I used to fight for my little cousin, 
and I felt like telling you something of myself as I thought you 
would perhaps like to hear it. 

I am busy with the burdens of many, many appointments, and a 
legislature in session, but I am untrammeled by any promises or 
pledges, and so the prospect is not so serious as it otherwise might 
be. I wish you would write me how Kenneth is getting on. Robert 
Bartlett is now here doing some R.R. work which we hope may 
make him a strong man. 

Much love to all, 

Affy, 

De F. Richards 



Ccst We J or get 

By 

Timothy J. Mahoney 



Flow bravely, bright River, 
As in days when you flowed 
Past the Platte Bridge log fort, 
On the Old Mormon Road; 
Where emigrants, faring 
In quest of a dream, 
Often rested at night 
By your soft-singing stream. 

Flow bravely, bright River, 
Past mountain and glen 
Hard won through the struggles 
And faith of strong men. 
Who staked fate and fortune 
On wagons and teams — 
And builded an empire 
From out of their dreams. 

Flow proudly, bright River, 
Past this noble site 
Where once, long ago. 
In an Indian fight 
Caspar Collins died nobly 
Defending a friend — 
And hallowed, forever. 
This proud river bend! 

Flow gently, kind River, 
Nearby lie the graves 
Of volunteer soldiers 
And Indian braves — 
They fell, here, defending 
The things each loved best! 
Let them rest here, in peace — 
In the heart of the West! 



Wyoming > Earliest Place J^ antes? 

By 

Wilson O. Clough 

Any study of Wyoming place names must begin with the re- 
minder that there was no territorial Wyoming until after the Civil 
War (1868), and that this region was until after 1800 part of a 
vast inland mountain area still unexplored. Indeed, it was the last 
major region of central North America to be penetrated by the 
white man. Hence names now familiar to Wyoming begin farther 
east, like Missouri or Platte or Wyoming itself, and creep westward 
with the first explorers, so that specific dating is difficult. I do not 
intend here to repeat previous studies, such as Mr. Dee Linford's 
"Wyoming Stream Names," in Wyoming Wild Life for 1942-43, 
reprinted in Annals of Wyoming, 1943-44. What interests me for 
the moment is the data supplied by the first two volumes of the 
magnificent five-volume project of Carl I. Wheat, a collection of 
trans-Mississippi maps from the beginning down to 1861.^ 

The earliest names for this region are, therefore, likely to be lost 
in history. This is true not only for Indian names, perhaps applied 
to stream or mountain long before the white man, but also for 
French and English names which may or may not have been trans- 
lated from Indian terms already in use. Again, some western place 
names must have been in oral use among traders or trappers long 
before they found a place on some map; or they may have moved 
westward, as a Lac de Sioux is found on a French map of 1701 on 
the upper Mississippi, or as Big Bellies (Gros Ventres) Indians 
may be mentioned long before the name appears in western Wyo- 
ming. 

Take, for example, the word Missouri, found on Wyoming's 
Little Missouri. Perhaps the first printed appearance of Missouri 
is on a French map of 1688 (FranqueUn), shortly after La Salle's 
exploration of the Mississippi. On that map a western affluent is 
vaguely shown entering the Mississippi with the words "La Grande 
Riviere des Missourits ou Emmissourittes." But a century would 
pass before the great reach of the Missouri would be recognized, 
and more before the Little Missouri could even be noted. Shall 



1. Carl I. Wheat. Mapping the TransMississippi West, 1541-1861 San 
Francisco. The Institute of Historical Cartography, 1957 — . 5 Vols. Maps 
reproduced are listed at the front of each volume, and are not further foot- 
noted here. Unless otherwise indicated, authority for statements about them 
is also from the text of Professor Wheat. 



212 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

we date this place name, then, as 1688, or as 1736, when Veren- 
dreyes reached the Mandan villages, or 1785, when Peter Pond's 
map reads "'Hereabouts the Missouri takes its source out of the 
mountains;" or shall we take Antillon's Spanish map of 1802 which 
shows a brief stream blank at either end, labelled "Rio Missouri, 
descubierte in 1790 por Mr. Makai," even though Mackay was 
there in 1787? Or shall we say more accurately that Little Mis- 
souri does not appear in the now Wyoming area until Lewis and 
Clark? At any rate, Wyoming's Little Missouri is one of the oldest 
place names of this region. The same might be said next of the 
Platte, which appears on maps farther east long before anything is 
known of its source or of its two major branches. 

A study of the early maps reproduced in Wheat emphasizes the 
long ignorance of this immense Rocky Mountain watershed com- 
plex. Remember, for example, that the Spanish were in Mexico 
city by 1521, and had penetrated to the upper Rio Grande by 
1581; and that the French had reached the upper Mississippi 
region by the 1670's. Yet, as far as Wyoming is concerned, maps 
are masterpieces of guesswork and confusion even after the Lewis 
and Clark expedition of 1 804-06. 

One of the earliest maps of North America, Gestaldi's of 1546, 
shows a vague Atlantic coast line, a river somewhat resembling the 
St. Lawrence and the legend, "Tierra de los Bretones," i.e., the 
Breton fishermen of France. Farther south is La Florida, and 
above Mexico city is Nova Hispania. There is no Rio Grande, no 
information on interior North America, and the continent is vague- 
ly joined to Asia in the far northwest. Such were the beginnings. 

While the Atlantic coast is more accurately mapped after 1600, 
and old Mexico and central America take form, the interior re- 
mains long a mystery. Though the name California may go as far 
back as 1540, and Hakluyt's map of 1587 takes advantage of 
Drake's daring voyage of 1580 to label north of California as 
"Nova Albion, inventa ab Anglice," nevertheless California con- 
tinued to be shown on many maps, even as late as 1660, as an 
island, extending from the bay of San Francisco to the Gulf of 
California. The Spanish Onate remained in Santa Fe from 1598 to 
1608, and explored eastward to the Pecos and the Arkansas, and in 
1604 to the lower Colorado river, not yet named. Yet maps for 
years showed the Rio Grande as emptying into the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. Not until the 1685 map of Penelosa is the Rio Grande 
shown as flowing south to El Paso, and as being the same as the 
Rio Bravo, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. And though Santa 
Fe, Isleta, Zuni and Acoma appear on his map, adjacent spaces are 
labelled merely Apaches. By 1690 Father Kino had shown that 
California was not an island, and had put at least the mouth of the 
Rio Colorado on the map. Yet we may truthfully say that as late 
as the American Declaration of Independence, 1776, the Spanish 
had done little to extend their knowledge on maps much north of 



WYOMING'S EARLIEST PLACE NAMES? 213 

Taos. By virtue of their possession of Louisiana later, they devel- 
oped some interest in the rivers from the west into the Mississippi; 
and a map of 1757 (Venegas) indicates the Mandan villages on 
the Missouri and the mouth of the Platte; but from there to San 
Francisco is mostly a blank. 

What of the French? Cartier penetrated the St. Lawrence as far 
as Quebec in 1534, yet the Great Lakes were not known much 
before 1630, and then left open on maps to the west. Joliet and 
Marquette touched the upper Mississippi in the 1670's, and La 
Salle's explorations came in the next decade. Even so, the mouth 
of the Mississippi is often shown almost as far west as the Pecos; 
and the intervening territory to the Pacific is cramped on their 
maps to one third of its actual width. 

French curiosity about the far west increases after 1 720, first in 
seeking a land route from Louisiana to Santa Fe, then by trying 
the same from the Missouri river. Thus in 1714, Etienne de 
Bourgmond went up the Missouri by boat to the Platte, apparently 
not yet so named; and in 1739 the Mallet brothers went from the 
Platte south to the Arkansas through what is now Kansas and 
southeast Colorado, and so to Santa Fe. Neither of these voyages 
saw the mountains to the west. 

Wyoming history has long looked to Verendreyes as a pioneer 
in this region. His first route (1731) was via Lake Superior to 
Lake Winnepeg. Later (1736) he visited the Mandan villages on 
the Missouri; and from there his sons explored farther westward, 
how far we do not know.^ They may have seen the Black Hills. 
Some think they viewed the "Shining Mountains," a name perhaps 
applied to the Big Horns. If so, their route would have been up 
tributaries of the Missouri or the Yellowstone. 

Thus we come to the mid-eighteenth century; yet as far as the 
vast mountain region is concerned, the story north of Taos is best 
expressed by the words on the Venegas map of 1757: "Ignoro, 
Nescio, Yo no le se," in short, "I do not know." 

Yet the Spanish took one important step, after a century and a 
half of almost static rule in New Mexico; namely, the Escalante 
expedition of 1776, accompanied by a cartographer, Pachecho, in 
search of a route from Santa Fe to Monterey on the Pacific. This 
expedition touched near modern Durango and Grand Junction in 
southwest Colorado, and went through the modern Wasatch moun- 
tains to the present Sevier and Green rivers, and Utah Lake. They 
apparently heard of the Great Salt Lake, but did not see it. The 
Green they named the Buenaventura, a name long a puzzle to map 
makers, who had it rising east of the Rockies, or flowing directly 



2. See the Verendreyes story in Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 17, No. 2 (July 
1945), 106-147. 



214 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

west into San Francisco Bay or into the Columbia. Escalante 
turned back from the Grand Canyon region, northeast, and then 
southeast back to Taos. He recognized the watershed character 
of the Rockies, and something of their width. 

In 1779, Governor Anza of New Mexico fought the Comanches 
to the northeast, and mapped the upper Arkansas (still confused 
with the Red river), named the San Luis valley, and saw South 
Park, returning from north of the Arkansas probably by La Veta 
Pass. Though Spanish traders may have penetrated farther north, 
this appears to be about the extent of Spanish mapping by 1800. 

The British, as we know, came later, moving westward with the 
expansion of the Hudson's Bay Company. Yet a 1755 map 
(Mitcheirs) shows "Head of the Mississippi not known," and the 
Missouri as "reckoned to run westward to the Mountains of New 
Mexico, as far as the Ohio does eastward;" and another map of 
1 763 shows west of the Mississippi as merely "Great Space of Land 
Unknown." However, Hearne explored the Great Slave Lake by 
1771; and in 1785 a Yankee employee of the Company, Peter 
Pond, brought the U.S. government a map showing the Great Slave 
Lake as emptying much too easily into the Pacific to the west. 
Both British and American ships were touching the mouth of the 
Columbia by 1792, another incentive for a land route across the 
continent; and other Britishers touched the upper Missouri in the 
1790's. 

We can see, then, from this backward glance what a problem 
confronted Jefferson in his long-cherished wish to see the continent 
crossed, and to furnish Lewis and Clark with all possible informa- 
tion. The Louisiana purchase of 1803 served as a tremendous 
stimulus to westward exploration; and President Jefferson wel- 
comed every scrap of information. He had, however, very little 
more than the above. Mackenzie's exploit of crossing via the 
Canadian Rockies in 1793 had not touched on the Missouri; 
MacKay and Evans had mapped portions of the upper Missouri 
in the 1790's - these maps Jefferson had in 1804; and another 
map, author unknown, of 1797, also available to Lewis and Clark, 
showed the Rio Missouri, a brief stretch of the Rio Platte, and 
above the Mandans the R. des Roches Jaunes (Yellow Stones). 
Also the Missouri, though it is shown as rising too far south, pro- 
gressed northward to a bend and a "chute" or falls. But there is 
nothing westward to the Pacific, and the intervening space is much 
too narrowed. Another map of 1796 (Collet) gave a southwest 
branch to the Platte, rising too near Santa Fe, with both north and 
south branches coming vaguely from a very thin line marked 
mountains. Collet also showed a large branch of the Missouri as 
coming from the south, labelled "Rock or Crow River," probably 
intended for the Yellowstone. To the west a label reads, "Stony 
Mountains, according to Mackenzie, or Yellow Mountains accord- 
ing to the Indians dwelling on the Missouri, and supposedly a con- 



WYOMING'S EARLIEST PLACE NAMES? 215 

tinuation of the Cordilleras." And one other item: Governor 
Wilkinson of the Louisiana Territory in 1 805 forwarded to Jeffer- 
son a savage's map on a buffalo pelt showing "a volcano . . . 
on the Yellowstone River and a flinty substance which cuts iron, 
on a branch of the Missouri;" perhaps the first hint of the Yellow- 
stone park area.'^ But of Wyoming proper, almost nothing was 
known. 

The fact is that Lewis and Clark were truly explorers of a high 
order, not only proceeding into the almost unknown, but exercising 
extraordinary judgment as to the Indians, who might easily have 
wiped out the expedition more than once without a trace of their 
documents for the future historian. Again, as far as modern 
Wyoming is concerned, we may assert that up to about 1805 there 
were almost no place names appropriate to its history, aside from 
the still remote Missouri and Platte, and hearsay on the Yellow- 
stone, the Black Hills, the Big Horn mountains, and the Cheyenne 
river. 

II 

The Lewis and Clark story is well known and well documented. 
Our interest here is simply what additions they may have made to 
names familiar within Wyoming geography, though they did not 
touch Wyoming proper. From St. Louis to the Mandan villages, 
the party could proceed on previous information. Beyond that was 
chiefly speculation and original discovery. The explorers must 
have underestimated the distance to the Pacific, as every map to 
date had done. That some French traders had penetrated beyond 
the Mandan villages seems certain, and is verified by a few entries 
in the Lewis and Clark Journals. Indeed, some French appear to 
have been living with the Mandans; and, in an early entry, on 
reaching the mouth of the Platte on July 21, 1804, Clark records:^ 
"I am told by one of our party who wintered two winters on this 
river that it is much wider above." On October 1, 1804, the party 
"passed the river Chien," and a Mr. Jon Vallie "informs us that he 
wintered last winter 300 leagues up the Chien river under the Black 
mountains ... 100 leagues up it forks. One fork comes from the 
S., the other at 40 leagues above the fork enters the Black moun- 
tains . . . The Black mountains he says is very high and some parts 
of it has snow on it in the summer." (Journals, I, 176) Mr. Vallie 
told also of animals "with large circular horns." The reference 
would seem to be to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Further, we 



3. Wheat, op. cit., II, 33-34. 

4. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1805-1806. 
Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites. New York: Antiquarian Press, 1959, 
8 Vols., I, 87. 



216 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

have no way of knowing whether the Frenchman spoke from per- 
sonal knowledge, or from such evidence as Indians often gave by 
means of crude maps in the sand or on pelts. 

The expedition spent the winter in the Mandan villages, and 
Lewis prepared a summary of information to date. In this he 
mentions a stream "usually called the Paducah's fork; it heads with 
the Big Horn river branch of the Yellowstone in some broken 
ranges of the Rocky mountains," and, he adds, passes through the 
Black Hills "to join the Platte."' (Journals, VI, 40-41). Here we 
have not only one of the earliest mentions of the Big Horn, but also 
a stream which would seem to refer to the Sweetwater and the 
upper Platte, indicating again earlier penetration into these areas. 
On some early maps, the Paducah is put on the Platte. 

On April 12, 1805, we are told by Lewis that "The little Mis- 
souri . . . takes it rise in a broken country West of the Black hills 
with the waters of the Yellowstone river, and at a considerable 
distance S.W. of the point at which it passes the Black hills." 
(Journals, I, 298). The information is not too precise. On April 
26, 1805, the Yellowstone is reached, and Lewis records: "The 
Indians inform us that the Yellowstone is navigable for perogues 
and canoes nearly to its source in the Rocky mountains ... Its 
extreme sources are adjacent to those of the Missouri, river Platte, 
and I think probably with some of the south source of the Colum- 
bia river . . . This river in its course receives the waters of many 
large tributary streams principally from the S.E. of which the most 
considerable are the Tongue and Big Horn rivers. The former is 
much the largest, and heads with the river Platte and Big Horn 
river, as does the latter with the Tongue and the river Platte." 
(Journals, I, 337, 340). It is such indefinite information as this 
which accounts for later maps placing the headwaters of the Mis- 
souri, the Platte, and the Rio Grande within a very few miles of 
each other. 

Eventually Lewis and Clark reached the Three Forks, here 
abandoning the name Missouri and giving the names from West to 
East of Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin rivers. Lewis on July 27, 
1805, climbed a cliff from which he could view all three streams, 
see the distant snow-clad peaks to the southeast, and speculate on 
the next move. (Journals, II, 267). Ascending the Beaverhead 
fork, and with the help of the Shoshone, they managed to reach a 
stream that led to the Columbia. 

On their return, Clark, with a party of twenty, returned to the 
Three Forks and went up the Gallatin and across to the Yellow- 
stone by way of the present pass from Bozeman to Livingston, 
Montana, chosen on recommendation of the Indian woman, Saca- 
jawea. Clark's was thus the first exploration of the Yellowstone 
from this point to the Missouri, where he rejoined the others of the 
expedition. Clark's Fork, which he at first mistook for the Big 
Horn, was named on July 24, 1 806. Camping that night just 



WYOMING'S EARLIEST PLACE NAMES? 217 

below Pryor's stream, named from a Sergeant Pryor in the party, 
they reached the Big Horn on the 26th of July. Of this river Clark 
writes: "I am informed by the Indians and others that this river 
takes its rise in the Rocky mountains with the heads of the river 
Platte and at no great distance from the Rochejaune and passes 
between the Cote Noir [Clark writes Coat Nor] or Black Moun- 
tains and the most easterly range of the Rocky Mountains." 
(Journals, V, 297). On July 29, Clark mentions the "Lazeka or 
Tongue river," and later the Redstone, called Powder river on 
Lewis' map of 1806. 

So far no one has touched on what is now Wyoming territory, 
aside from possible adventurers implied above. Thus we may say 
that so late as 1806 or 1807, no one has mapped an inch of actual 
Wyoming territory, though reports indicate scattered visitors, or at 
least, some knowledge of its rivers and mountains. Up to this 
point, that is, a few geographic names point to Wyoming, such as 
the Platte (named before 1740), the Black Hills (possibly from 
Verendreyes' time), the Yellowstone (known by its French name 
by the 1790's), the Little Missouri and the Cheyenne rivers and 
the Big Horn, mentioned by 1805. We may also add the Rocky 
Mountains, loosely referred to as the Stony and Rocky at various 
times from Verendreyes on, and perhaps at first signifying the 
Black Hills or the Big Horn range. By 1806, Clark's Fork is 
named, and slightly later the Big Horn, Tongue and Powder rivers 
identified. For any actual mapping of Wyoming territory we must 
wait until 1807. Our first true on-the-spot place nances date from 
1807. 

Colter and Drouillard returned in 1807 from the Lewis and 
Clark expedition to join with Manuel Lisa at the mouth of the Big 
Horn on the Yellowstone. Colter's much-disputed soUtary expe- 
dition into the Yellowstone Park region may have led him even to 
Jackson Lake, or even the upper Green river area, as well as to 
the Big Horn river and the Stinking Water (in 1902 officially 
made the Shoshone). If Colter made any maps they are lost to us 
today. George Drouillard (usually spelled Drewyer in the Jour- 
nals), however, left what, says Wheat, "so far as known is the first 
accurate sketch map of the Yellowstone-Big Horn country. "•'* 
Hence, we may now safely assert that the first actual Wyoming 
place names on any map are: Clark's Fork, the Stinking Water 
river. Hart [sic] mountain, the Big Horn river, the Little Big Horn 
river, and the Tongue river, all dated 1807. Of these the Stinking 
Water and Hart mountain appear for the first time. The others 
are first recorded but a year or two earher. 

George Drouillard, half Indian and a sturdy figure, set out in 



5. Wheat, op. cit., II, 52-53. 



218 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

1 807 and 1 808 to assist Lisa's post by making contact with the 
Indians to inform them of the opportunity to trade. He was killed 
by Indians in 1810. Colter had apparently gone up Pryor Creek 
over a gap to the Big Horn or Stinking Water and so to the Yellow- 
stone region. Drouillard went first to Clark's Fork, then to the 
Stinking Water by its north fork, to the Big Horn and Hart moun- 
tain, and back by Pryor Creek; and on his second trip, via Pryor 
Creek to the Big Horn, then the Little Big Horn and the Tongue 
rivers, and back to the Big Horn." His rude map he gave to Clark 
in 1 808 in St. Louis. On it he showed also a north fork of the 
Platte, a "branch of the Platte;" no doubt the Sweetwater, which it 
is unlikely that he had visited. His map also implies that Indians 
could and did trade with the Spanish settlement by 14 days from 
Lisa's fort, or with families by 1 8 days from the Stinking Water, 
perhaps via the Green (not yet named or shown). 

By the time the Lewis and Clark map appeared officially in 
1814 (Lewis having died before that date), new information was 
already available, and was added to the published map. For 
example, Zebulon Pike left St. Louis in 1 806, went up the Osage 
to its source, then to the Kansas and the Arkansas rivers, following 
the latter up to where Pueblo now stands, and so to the peak which 
bears his name. He identified a branch of the Platte, but confused 
the Canadian and Red rivers, and thought the Yellowstone rose 
behind Pike's peak. His worst error was to camp on the Rio 
Grande and get arrested by the Spanish. 

More important for the Wyoming area was the organization of 
the Missouri Fur Company in 1808, and the influx of trappers 
into the upper Yellowstone and western Wyoming regions. Thus 
Wilson Price Hunt named Hoback canyon in 1811, and named the 
present Tetons the Pilot Knobs. Robert Stuart crossed the South 
Pass area in 1812, thereby sketching the future Oregon trail, and 
touching the Sweetwater and the Platte, and naming the Pathfinder 
canyon. The Sweetwater was certainly so named by Ashley in 
1823, if not before. Ashley also changed the Spanish river to the 
Green river. Other early explorers left their names on Wyoming's 
later map: Henry's Fork, Jackson Lake, La Barge, Fort Bridger, 
Sublette, etc. 

A preliminary Lewis and Clark map of 1 809 is able to indicate 
not only "Highest Peak" (Pike's), but also Eustis Lake (later 
Yellowstone Lake), and Lake Biddle (later Jackson Lake), as 
well as "Manuel's Fort in 1807." It shows the Platte river as run- 
ning straight east, and the headwaters of the Platte, Arkansas, Big 
Horn, Missouri and Yellowstone as all much too nearly from the 
same ceneral area. 



6. M. O. Skarsten. Gcorqe DrotiiUard (Glendale: Arthur H. Clark 
Co., 1964). 



WYOMING'S EARLIEST PLACE NAMES? 219 

The official map of 1814, "By Order of the Executive," shows 
the improved information on the Missouri, Yellowstone, and Big 
Horn rivers, and the Columbia reaches more nearly its proper size. 
Yet the Platte still runs straight east, and is not yet divided into 
north and south forks, and there is too little space between the Big 
Horn and the Arkansas. Mountains are vague, and indicated on 
the upper Cheyenne river. Yet Gap Creek is shown into the Big 
Horn (the route from Pry or over to the Big Horn), and a Salt 
Fork into the Stinking Water, with a "Boiling Spring" at their 
junction. Heart mountain is placed. The Yellowstone river is 
shown as coming from Lake Eustis (Yellowstone Lake), but the 
Big Horn is erroneously given as coming from Lake Biddle (Jack- 
son Lake), below which close by is the head of the Platte, and the 
Arkansas just south of that. Even the Rio del Norte (the Rio 
Grande) is shown rising just west of Lake Biddle! No room is left 
for the Buenaventura (the later Green). In fact, what is now 
northern Colorado, southern Wyoming and the general mountain 
area is almost squeezed from the map. Indeed, such cramping of 
the map prevails, with changes, even to the time of Fremont 
(1841 ). For many years maps show rivers running blindly to the 
west. On one (Robinson's, 1819), the Platte and the Big Horn 
both rise behind Pike's Peak. 

Long's exploration of the front Rockies in 1821 added Long's 
Peak, and the identification of the South Platte to the Rockies; yet 
he added confusion by putting the source of the Lewis Fork of the 
Columbia behind Pike's Peak, probably assuming that the front 
range was the continental divide. He did, however, give the North 
Platte as rising in "Bull Pen" (North Park), though he turned it 
eastward too soon. 

The Great Salt Lake, though shown vaguely on maps from 
Escalante's time onward, sometimes as Great Bear Lake, was 
apparently not actually seen for record until by Etienne Provost 
from New Mexico and Jim Bridger from South Pass, both in 
1824-25. 

The big day of the furtrappers was from 1820 to 1840, and 
information trickled out to the map makers, each copying errors 
from previous maps, but changing an item now and then. Ashley 
was accompanied in 1822-23 by that strange figure, Jedediah 
Smith, who without instruments and despite difficulties, corrected 
many misconceptions. He had wintered in 1823 in the Wind 
River country, found South Pass, and reached the Green, which he 
called (as did Capt. Bonneville later) the Seeds-ke-dee. In 1824 
he met Ashley at Henry's Fork, and later formed a partnership with 
Jackson and Sublette. Smith saw that the Green ran into the 
Colorado. He wintered again in 1829 on the Wind River, prob- 
ably so named before this date, and was also west of the "three 
Tetons," as well as on the Popo Agie, and in 1830 on the Yellow- 
stone. Whatever maps he made appear now lost, though others 



220 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

must have used them. Some of his namings are still in use; for 
example: Shell river, Greybull, Medicine Lodge river, Nowood 
Creek, Badwater Creek, Wind River, the Popo Agie; and Jackson 
Lake is so named by this time, and known now not to be the source 
of the Big Horn. Thus we may add the above names as from about 
1822 to 1829.' 

Not a great many new names seem to appear between 1 829 and 
1841, the date of Fremont's expedition into Wyoming. We find a 
French map of 1833 which gives the "Ne-Braska or R. Platte," 
and beneath it in French "little depth of water or water without 
much depth." The Black Hills are now clearly distinguished, and 
yet the Platte is still shown as coming from west of the Big Horn. 
Arrowsmith, greatest of British mapmakers of the period, by 1834 
shows the "Youta or Great Salt Lake;" and Thrall's map of 1834 
appears to be about the first to show "Larimer's Peak," the spelling 
also on Hood's map of 1834. 

Thus by 1 840 on-the-ground knowledge would seem to be well 
ahead of the map makers; and yet the U.S. is just beginning to send 
out trained men for observation and information. Overland emmi- 
gration is starting to Oregon, to Texas even earlier, and by the mid- 
1840's to Utah and to California. By 1841, the Wilkes' map, 
probably taking advantage of Fremont's notes, shows the Laramie 
plains, the Laramie river, the Medicine Bow mountains, and 
Independence Rock. Fremont's expedition of 1841 adds a num- 
ber of further names along the Platte and elsewhere. His map of 
1 846, for example, and we shall stop here, shows Laramie river 
and plains. Fort Laramie, streams named Bitter Creek, Horse 
Shoe Creek, La Bonte, La Prele, Deer Creek, Black Hills west of 
Laramie peak. Medicine Bow Creek running into the Platte, the 
Sweetwater and Sweetwater mountains, and Devil's Gate. We find 
also South Pass, Little Sandy, Big Sandy, Green River, Wind River 
chain of the Rocky Mountains, Fremont's peak. Black's Fork, 
Ham's Fork, Muddy Fork and Bear River; while the country be- 
tween the Green and the Platte is labelled: "War ground of Snake 
and Sioux Indians." 

When the Mormons met Jim Bridger in 1847, he told them that 
he could correct all the maps of the western world. Perhaps he 
could have at that time. But from this date on names are added 
too fast for even Jim Bridger to keep up. 

Such are the earliest names in the territory covered by the name 
Wyoming. 



7. Wheat, op. cit., II, 119-132. 



My Cowboy 8}cperieHces 
in the J 890 's 

By 

G. W. ROSENTRETER* 

I was bom in Schoenlanke, Germany, January 31, 1874. Be- 
fore coming to the United States in 1890, I had studied Latin, 
French, and Greek in school when I was taken ill with typhoid 
fever. 

I did not return to school, and found that an elderly gentleman, 
Mr. Plaga, (A. R. Plaga's grandfather) and his daughter were 
coming to America. I wanted to come with them, and my parents 
agreed and bought me a ticket to Laramie, Wyoming. It was a 
long ride on trains and the ship. 

When we got over on the United States soil, I looked for Indians 
but was disappointed. Later I got to see a good many out west 
and had lots of experiences with them. 

We arrived at Laramie on June 13, 1890. Mr. Plaga and his 
daughter stayed there. 

From Laramie I went to O. R. (Dude) Henke's ranch on North 
Sybille Creek and batched there that winter. It is now the Tom 
Moore Ranch. 

One bright moonlight night I heard a coyote howling close to the 
house. I spotted Mr. Coyote and killed him and even skinned him 
right away. 



* Mr. Rosentreter, now 91 years old, still lives on the homestead that he 
filed on in 1895. Through the years he added more land to it and it is a 
very modern and well-improved ranch today. It is located on South Sybille 
Creek on Highway 34, about 28 miles southwest of Wheatland. 

His lifelong admiration and liking for good horses has never dimmed. 
He still rides horseback and is happiest when he is out on his horse looking 
over the cattle. He makes his home with his son, Floyd, and daughter-in- 
law, Helen. 

Mr. Rosentreter's other son, Laurence, and daughter-in-law, Marie, are 
ranchers too, and have a very good ranch on Deadhead Creek. His daugh- 
ter. Myrtle Flaharty, and husband Earl, are retired ranchers and live in 
Wheatland. He has five grandchildren, Larry Rosentreter of Sheridan, and 
Mrs. Clyce McCulloch, Modesto, California, who are Laurence's children; 
Floyd's son, Eugene Rosentreter, who lives in St. Petersburg, Florida; and 
Myrtle's children, Clifford Flaharty, of Denver, Colorado, and Mrs. Elwood 
(Myra) Hanna of Wheatland. He has three great-grandchildren, Brently 
and Troy McCulloch and Susan Hanna. — Myrtle Flaharty. 



222 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



One time Dude had to go to Laramie for supplies and the next 
day it snowed and he did not get back for several days. I was just 
a green kid, sixteen years of age, and did not know much about 
ranching yet, but I fed the livestock and myself. Dude was satis- 
fied when he gpt back with the way I had handled everything. 

One day Otto Driesen came to the ranch. He stayed several 
days with us and said something about being lousy. Sure enough, 
after he left I felt a little itchy, but I went to the brush next to the 
creek and with soap, sand and water got rid of the lice by scrubbing 
like sixty and burning my clothes. 

The people on the Sybille got their mail at the Waechter Ranch, 
now owned by Mrs. Edna Hay whose son, Alex Jr., lives there. 
The mail came from Cheyenne to Iron Mountain and was carried 
by horseback from there to the Waechter Ranch. One day as I 
was coming back from Waechter's with the mail I was surprised by 
a sudden hail storm. No shelter being close, I made up my mind 
to get off my horse and take it. One stone about the size of a 
walnut hit my head and kind of dazed me. I got the saddle off my 




Courtesy G. W. Rosentreter 
GUS ROSENTRETER ON HIS HORSE, RAVEN, 1916 



MY COWBOY EXPERIENCES IN THE 1890'S 223 

horse as quick as I could and used it for shelter but had a deuce 
of a time to control the horse. 

Another time a blizzard came up and I got lost. Being close to 
a brook I figured out if I could find out which way the water was 
running I could find my way, and I did get back to the Henke 
Ranch. 

The next season I stayed at the Rudoph Henke Ranch, now 
owned by his grandson, Raymond Henke. I helped with the 
ditches, grubbing sagebrush and irrigating and got acquainted with 
the pitchfork. 

Hank Langhof and I dug a well for Rudolph. I broke a horse 
that turned out to be one of the best running horses I have ever 
seen. He reminded me of a greyhound, keeping his head close to 
the ground, watching where he was going all the time. He never 
made a blunder and it seemed that he could run all day. 

One day when I rode in to the Plaga Ranch, now operated by 
Bob and Thelma Garton and their boys, I found the Two Bar 
manager, Al Bowie, and Tom Horn there. They were watching a 
neighbor who was butchering Two Bar cattle. They wanted me to 
go with them to arrest several men who were butchering cattle 
illegally. I told them that I did not care about going but Raymond 
said, "You had about as well make up your mind to go as Tom 
Horn will deputize you anyway." When we got to the place they 
had several beeves hanging up in a shed. One man had a big 
butcher knife in his hand and talked big. Tom Horn told him, 
"Drop that knife or I'll put a bullet through your head." The knife 
dropped and the show was over except for watching the prisoners. 

I was told to go to several of the Swan Company ranches — 
Jones Ranch, Two Bar, and Mule Shoe — and tell the ranchers to 
be ready early next morning with their teams. They took the beef 
and the prisoners to Laramie. That was all I had to do with it. 
I heard later that one of the party was sent to the penitentiary for a 
year and the rest of the guilty ones left the country. 

By now I was getting a little bigger and my clothes were tighter. 
I decided to do something about it and looked around for a job. 
I found that a man was wanted on the McDonald Ranch, where I 
got a job mixing mortar (lime and sand) for building. All I had to 
do was mix the stuff, put it in a hod and carry it up a ladder to the 
stone mason. 

My next job was at the Mudd Ranch now owned by Raymond 
Gushing. I worked on fences, digging post holes and getting posts 
ready. 

I then worked at the Ferguson Ranch now owned by the 31 
Slash Ranch Gompany and operated by Leo and Nedalyn Wilhelm. 
We started out cleaning ditches with scrapers (slips they called 
them) and I got acquainted with a team of mules. I had to throw 
stones at them to make them go and after they were going I could 



224 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

not hold them. That lasted several days; I guess the boss was 
watching and felt sorry for me. He told me to work Babe and 
Prince, a driving team, on the scraper. After that I was the biggest 
feeling man on the works. All I had to do was hang on to the lines. 
They were always ready to go. After ditch work we started haying. 
We put up hay for the Two Bar at Sand Creek and the Wyoming 
Development Company on the Wheatland flats. The company had 
a farm to show people what could be done in this country. 

I wanted to be a cowboy, and after working a while in Wheat- 
land, I got a job at the HR Connected Ranch, a Milwaukee outfit 
managed by Alexander Hunter. George Bennett was boss, Sam 
Woods was night hawk, and Fritz Sandercock, Fred Runser, Billy 
Barker, Dave Dewey, Joe Rutherford, and Fergie Mitchell also 
worked for the HR connected. 

We started with two wagons and horses. Ed Held was cook and 
drove the cook wagon and was some driver! Sam Woods drove 
the bed wagon. The first night when we made camp at Chug- 
water a sandstorm came up and blew the tepee down. We worked 
lots of country as there were big open spaces everywhere. 

Once we were camped just above Fort Laramie on the Laramie 
River when a hail storm came up. Some of the chunks of ice were 
as big as both of my hands. I never saw anything like it. Some 
of the calves were killed. 

Of course we wanted to see the Fort. We rode around but it 
was in ruins except old Bedlam and a few other buildings which 
are being restored now. 

While we were camped near Uva, I was on herd one day and 
noticed Ned Yates passing by on his way to our camp. When I 
got relieved and went in to eat, Ned and a bunch of cowboys were 
there. Ned spoke up and said, "When I passed Buster, (meaning 
me) he was sound asleep. I hollered at him and he got up and 
shouted 'Four Aces by God'." He was always pulling jokes on 
somebody. 

Another time south of the Ranch, Dave Dewey and I were hold- 
ing a bunch of cattle near a bunch of antelope. Dave said, "Watch 
me rope one." Sure enough the horse he was riding was very fast 
and he got his antelope. Before we set it free we cut a hole in one 
ear and tied on a red ribbon. That antelope was seen after that 
with the red ribbon. 

Dave Brice was agent for the Colorado and Southern Railroad 
at Uva. At that time Wheatland had only a platform to unload 
freight on. I went with a shipment of HR cattle to Omaha. Every 
boy in the outfit wanted something — overcoat, boots, pants and so 
on. I went shopping in Omaha and when I got all the things 
together, it was quite a lot of stuff, so I bought a small trunk and 
put everything in it, except the overcoat. When I got back to the 
ranch all the boys were satisfied with the goods. 

After roundup Dave and T took a bunch of cattle over to Horse- 



MY COWBOY EXPERIENCES IN THE 1890'S 225 

shoe Creek to John Moran. When we got there he invited us in 
and I noticed him looking under his bed. His hand went under 
and a jug came out with it. It being a raw day we did not object. 

The boys were talking of giving a dance at Uva, and women 
were very scarce at that time. They didn't think that they could 
get enough to have a dance. I told them that I would get some on 
the Sybille and bring them to the dance. I Uned things out and got 
three girls to go. I had to get an outfit together, and got one horse 
and harness from Mr. Henke, another horse and buggy from Lou 
Roved, which made a good outfit. They were the two best driving 
horses I knew of at that time. I picked up the three teachers and 
we arrived okay at the dance which was a surprise to the boys. 
The next day we stopped at Wheatland, at Mark Johnston's. Mrs. 
Johnston fixed it so the girls could rest and after feeding us, the 
team was ready to take us home, and of course everyone had a 
good time. 

At another dance on Horseshoe Creek, the host had cherry wine 
in a dugout and every time he took one of the fellows down he 
would drink with him. So it went on for some time. After awhile 
I noticed that it was harder for the host to make the trip and, by 
golly, next thing I knew he was down and out. We fixed a nest 
for him and he slept it off. 

In 1893, I headed for the Ogalalla Ranch, northwest of Douglas, 
to be one of the cowboys. J. Y. Lucas and I stopped at Douglas. 
We put our horses in the livery stable and went up town. The first 
place we entered was a saloon. Several fellows were there. One 
man spoke up and said, "Everybody come up and have a drink on 
me." I was the only one who stood back. The man who invited 
us to drink with him had his gun out quickly and said to me, "You 
come and get your drink." I answered him, "Not me." I found out 
later that he was a bad man and just about ran the town. I saw 
his name on a tombstone in the Douglas cemetery years later. It 
read: 

George W. Pike 
Underneath this stone in eternal rest 
Sleeps the wildest one of the wayward west 
He was a gambler and sport and cowboy too 
And he led the pace in outlaw crew 
He was sure on the trigger and staid to the end 
But he was never known to quit on a friend. 
In the relations of death all mankind is alike 
But in life there was only one George W. Pike. 

I learned that George Pike and Kurt Sears had a good many 
horses and they ran their own wagon to look after them. 

When we got to the Ogalalla Ranch we found a good many cow- 
boys as the outfit ran three wagons at that time. Billy Irvine was 



226 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the big boss. Joe Chambers, Bill Rodgers, and J. Y. Lucas were 
wagon bosses. 

After a big snowstorm that winter was over I found that one of 
my horses got tangled up in a fence and died. After the storm the 
outfit had some boys fix fence and get things fixed around the 
ranch. I was with a bunch to go to the hills to get firewood ready 
for the teamster to haul to the ranch for the winter supply. We 
started out and when we made camp, Big Ed, our boss, said to me, 
"You can do the cooking." I told him that I had never cooked 
any, but he was nice and said, "I'll show you and help you get 
started." I was cook for about a week and found out about dried 
apples and rice, how they would swell and overrun the pot. We 
had plenty of potatoes and meat and Ed showed me how to make 
biscuits. The boys seemed to be satisfied with my cooking. 

When we got back to the ranch we got ready for the roundup 
work. I went with Joe Chamber's wagon to meet the CY (Carey's 
outfit) over on Salt Creek. While we were there waiting for the 
CY we heard about a fair or show at Casper. Most of the boys 
went and I was one of them. The crew wanted me to ride in the 
bucking contest. They said they would back me, but I did not 
enter. 

They were drilling for oil at that time and we got our drinking 
water from an oil rig as the creek water was very bad. Some of 
the boys in our outfit were George Hiatt, Billy Montgomery, Billy 
Coffman, and the Beattie Brothers. One was big, the other small. 
Everybody called the big one "Little" and the small one "Big." 
John the Sailor and Pinhead were a few of the nicknames because 
among cowboys most everybody had a nickname. 

Billy Montgomery, nicknamed "Bullhead," and I were on herd 
one day with a bunch of cattle. We had them scattered out in 
rough country. Not seeing Billy for awhile I was curious about 
what he was doing, and when I rode up on a hill I spotted him 
He had roped a bull and the bull was taking horse and man right 
along. It was a funny sight and I had to laugh. That made him 
mad but I told him if he would cool off I might or might not help 
him. Anyway we got Mr. Bull down and Billy got his rope back. 

Once when we were camped on dry Cheyenne Creek working 
cattle, some one hollered, "A big flood!" Sure enough the river 
was bank full. We were on one side with the cattle and our wagon 
was on the other side. When night came the river was still bank- 
full and lots of driftwood was coming down. We built a big fire 
and waited for the flood to go down, but it lasted a long time. The 
next day about noon everybody was getting pretty hungry and John 
the Sailor offered to risk crossing and get us some grub. We fixed 
ropes for him to take over so he would have help coming back with 
the eats that the cook was fixing for us hungry hounds. John was 
a good swimmer and made it in good shape and we got filled up 
once more. Just before dark the second day we decided that we 



MY COWBOY EXPERIENCES IN THE 1890'S 



227 



could cross. My horse stampeded when he hit the water and, when 
he hit the bank on the other side, he came over backwards and I 
got a muddy bath. 

Billy Coffman told us about his horse, an outlaw about twelve 
years old when he broke him. He said that he could go out and the 
horse would come to him if he had a whip. The boys did not 
believe him but he showed us. He was pretty well built and 
seemed gentle. Billy sent to the Meanea Saddle Company for 
some aluminum stirrups. He put them on his saddle and when he 
saddled a bronc, the horse threw himself and mashed one stirrup. 
That made Billy mad; he took the stirrups in the blacksmith shop 
and pounded them to a mess. Then he sent them back to the 
company. His father was head man for Meanea. 

One time we had a train load of big steers in the Gillette stock 
yards. When the train came and the engineer tooted his horn, the 
steers broke out of the yards and quit the country. Next day we 
started after them. We found the main bunch, but according to 
tracks there were some more ahead. The boss told Billy Mont- 
gomery and me to look for them. When we found them we were 
a long way from camp and we had to go slow so the steers would 
not play out going back. That made me very late — about 10:00 
o'clock that night. We found our night horses tied to the bed 




Courtesy G. W. Rosentreter 
MR. ROSENTRETER WORKING CATTLE ON HIS RANCH, 1940 



228 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

wagon, which meant for us to stand night guard. That made our 
day much longer. But such was a cowboy's life. We lost out on 
sleep lots of times. 

One rainy day the Keeline outfit and the Ogalalla outfit laid over 
and did not roundup. The boys were lost for something to do. 
One of the Keeline boys wanted to ride a bronc that was kind of an 
outlaw. All the boys watched the circus getting the outlaw sad- 
dled. When the boy got on him he started to buck and ran into a 
bunch of horses and they piled up. It hurt the boy seriously and he 
died while they were trying to get him to a doctor. 

One rainy day one of the boys and I were to relieve some other 
boys on herd. 1 had my horse ready to go but he had trouble 
getting his so I roped his horse, my horse started to buck, his ran 
the other way and when he got to the end of my rope I heard the 
saddle pop as the tree broke. It was a California D. E. Walker 
saddle, and I had to send it back there to have a new tree put in. 
The night herder was good enough to let me use his saddle. Soon 
after the saddle came back to Douglas, Lucas said he heard about 
some Ogalalla horses and he was going after them. He used my 
saddle and put it on one of the horses. When he got back to our 
wagon he said that the horses got away from him including the one 
which my saddle was on. He had played his horse out running 
after them. Well, I was a sick kid and I could imagine my saddle 
under that horse's belly and was sure that he would kick it all to 
pieces. Several days later we found the horse with saddle still on 
his back and not ruined. 

One night a big storm came up, thunder and lightning and rain- 
ing like the devil. Lightning was playing on the catties' horns and 
on my horse's ears. It would be pitch dark, then again blinding 
light, and this stampeded the cattle. That was a real bad night 
and next morning I was some distance from camp but still had the 
bunch of cattle. 

I first saw the Devils Tower when we camped on the Belle 
Fourche River. It looked to me like an old stump. I never gave it 
another thought until years later a parachutist lighted on it and had 
a bad time getting down. Now it is one of the best known scenic 
spots in Wyoming. While in that neighborhood I saw thirteen 
different outfits camped on one creek. It made quite a picture, 
all those wagons and horses and lots of cowboys of all sorts. 

Next spring after spending the winter on the Sybille, I started 
north again. I had two good horses, Ginger and Blue. I worked 
for the Ogalalla outfit again, only with a different wagon. J. Y. 
Lucas was the roundup boss and we headed out to meet another 
roundup outfit, but did not know where exactly to find it. Lucas 
told me to take one of my best horses and look for the roundup. 
I covered lots of country that day. Toward evening I rode on a 
knoll and spotted something. It turned out to be a store building 
on Hat Creek. The storekeeper let me stay there that night. I 



MY COWBOY EXPERIENCES IN THE 1890'S 229 

was sure pleased as my horse was not too gentle and I was afraid 
he would quit me if I had to camp out. There was a corral there 
so I did not have to worry. The storekeeper told me where I could 
find the roundup and I succeeded about noon the next day and had 
dinner with that outfit, then went back to look up our layout. We 
got together and there was plenty of roundup work for quite a spell. 

A fellow we called Swede and I heard of a steer outfit (Pugsly), 
Lazy P, wanting men. We thought it would be nice to change and 
not have to work so hard. We went over and got a job and started 
breaking broncs for them. 

One day I helped Swede saddle his horse. When he got on, the 
horse started to buck and threw him off, but one foot caught in the 
stirrup. I was on the fence taking in the performance. It scared 
me when I saw the horse dragging Swede, but his foot soon came 
loose and he got up and could walk all right. I jumped on that 
horse and showed Swede how to do it. After that I tackled my 
bronc. He was supposed to be nine years old but I got him going 
and he made a good mount. 

Most of the Lazy P outfits' cattle ran close to the Big Horn 
Mountains on Powder River. After helping make several ship- 
ments of the longhorns the roundup season was about over, and 
Swede and I planned a trip to Yellowstone Park. I had a good 
outfit, two good horses, my bed and all my belongings. Swede 
bought a horse from the Lazy P outfit to make the trip. Just 
before we were ready to start, Swede went to the post office and 
got a letter from his folks who wanted him to come home right 
away. 

After planning the trip, I started out for the park by myself and 
headed for Sheridan. Soon after crossing Powder River I noticed 
something that looked like a roundup. When I got closer I looked 
for riders and could not see any. Soon I could see that a bunch 
of wolves were circling around the cattle. When they saw me they 
sneaked away. There were some real big fellows in the bunch. 
I had heard some of the boys talking about such things and now I 
saw it myself. 

I stopped at the U Cross outfit (Leiter's) on Clear Creek. It 
was a well improved place. It was said Leiters controlled the 
wheat market at that time. 

When I got to Sheridan I was told that there was a better and 
shorter route from Buffalo to cross the Big Horns so I came back 
to Buffalo which was not too far from the TA Ranch and the 
Hole-in-the-Wall. I was curious and wanted to have a look at 
them. First I went to the TA Ranch near Crazy Woman Creek, 
where the settlers and cattlemen had their fight. Before I got to 
the buildings I noticed a bunch of people coming out, particularly 
a man with a pearl-handled six-shooter in his hand. The bunch 
were target shooting. Some of the dudes made a bet with the 
fellow who had the pearl-handled six-shooter and he beat the dude 



230 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

who used his rifle. I felt that the man with the rifle had more 
money than shooting ability. He acted like he had taken a drink 
or two besides. It was fun to watch them perform. I stayed at 
the TA Ranch that night. 

Next day I took a look at the Hole-in-the-Wall. The wall is 
very steep and perpendicular with only one passage in the wall for 
miles each way. I heard that cattle thieves did use that passage 
quite often and would feel safe on the other side because it was a 
big open country. 

I had to find a way over the Big Horn Mountains. I found a 
trail leading to a ranch on No Wood Creek. There was no wood 
but plenty of big sagebrush, the biggest I have ever seen. I stayed 
at a ranch that night and the people who lived there told me how to 
get to Thermopolis Hot Springs. When I reached the springs I 
found several people camped there in tents. I made camp there 
and looked around and found a dugout where some one had 
ditched the water from the springs to the dugout. I took a bath 
there just to try it out and found it was just right. It was a sight to 
see the hot water from the spring run into the river. 

I wanted to cross the Big Horn River, but it was high and people 
there told me that six men had drowned the last two weeks trying 
to get across. Some who drowned were trying to get cattle across. 
I found out that someone was building a store at the mouth of Owl 
Creek down the Big Horn River on the other side and that they had 
a boat. So down the river I went and found the place. By shout- 
ing and motioning with my arms I made the men who were 
working on the building understand that I wanted to get across. 
One of the men rowed the boat over. I put my bed and saddle in 
the boat and led the horses behind. They had to swim and one of 
them went under out of sight. I was sure that he would drown but 
once in awhile his nostrils would come up and he reminded me of a 
whale spouting water as he would blow the water high. Anyway 
he made it across. He must have walked on the bottom of the 
river and come up occasionally for air. 

I stayed there awhile then headed up the creek for the Bar M 
cow outfit which was located at the head of it. It was uphill all the 
way. The higher I went the colder it got and there was snow 
farther ahead and the people at the Bar M advised me not to go on 
to Yellowstone Park so late in the season. I turned back and 
headed for the Sybille country. 

One afternoon I came to a sheep wagon. The herder happened 
to be close and I camped with him that night. There were lots of 
sage chickens around there and the herder and I killed several 
young ones. The way the boy cooked them, they were sure good 
eating and I filled up once more. I came by way of Casper, then a 
one-street town, and Glenrock, which was a small place. 

When I crossed the La Prele Creek I found a bunch of Indians 
camped there. It looked like a town with so many tepees. I 



MY COWBOY EXPERIENCES IN THE 1890'S 231 

Stopped and they wanted to trade horses with me. They told me 
the one they wanted to trade was "Hip good, run fast." I asked 
them to take the saddle off. They hesitated at first but I insisted. 
When they took the saddle off the horse he had a big lump on his 
back. I told them, "No trade." By that time a good many Indians 
had gotten around and more were coming. Anyway my hair com- 
menced to raise so I got close to my horse and stepped on him 
quickly and beat it. I figured if they did try to follow me I could 
outrun them. I kept looking back from time to time but they did 
not follow me. 

I always came by the HR connected, Mitchell's ranch, on my 
trips going and coming from up north. It seemed like home to me. 
I was really treated nice there many times. On one of my trips 
going north my horse got lame when I got to the HR. Fergie 
Mitchell was there and I asked him if I could get a horse from 
them. He said, "We are short of horses but you can have Stock- 
ings." He was a horse that we used to work on the bed wagon 
and was condemned as not fit for a saddle horse when I worked 
for the HR before Mitchells bought the outfit. I told Fergie, 
"O.K., just so it has four legs." They got Stockings in for me and 
he and I got along first rate. Everybody at the ranch watched me 
leave on him. I returned him to them, and in later years Fergie 
told me that Stockings stepped in a prairie dog hole and broke his 
leg and they had to shoot him. 

Another season Emery Bright and I headed for the Quarter 
Circle L Ranch about 30 miles north of Gillette. W. P. Ricketts 
was the big boss. The outfit ran three wagons and Collens, Bur- 
nett, and Bright were the wagon bosses. After Emery and I got 
there the first thing was to get ready to receive a bunch of steers at 
Orin Junction. The Quarter Circle L had big holdings in Texas 
and raised their own cattle there. They shipped the steers up 
north. We received them and started them on the trail back to the 
company's range. 

That summer I watched a bunch of horses stampede. It was 
cool and very early in the morning. We had several hundred head 
of saddle horses and some work horses in one bunch near the 
Pumpkin Buttes country. They started out to run and play, and 
some of the younger horses got scared and they ran in all direc- 
tions. I got some of the gentle ones back, but it took several days 
to get them all. We even found several later on the roundup. One 
day when we were rather near the Quarter Circle L Ranch and 
were getting short on grub the boss decided not to work and we 
went back to the ranch. That morning we heard some wolves 
howl in the direction that we were going toward the ranch. When 
we got on a knoll we spotted two. One was an extra big fellow. 
Most of the boys started after the big wolf. Emery was mounted 
on a good horse and he started after the other one. When I saw 
him do that I decided to help him. He was gaining right along and 



232 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

turned him my way. Then I took a bee line and turned the wolf 
his way. This we kept doing. All at once he disappeared in a 
gully washout. Emery went one way and I went the other. I 
found him and killed him. We took his hide as there was a bounty 
on wolves. We split the bounty. The other boys failed to get the 
big wolf. 

Another wolf experience was one evening when I was riding 
along a trail between the Cuny Hills and Squaw Mountain. My 
horse seemed uneasy and I soon spotted a wolf coming along the 
trail, followed by others. I counted over twenty in that pack. 
There were three different sizes. I figured three litters. The 
country was quite level so I got my rope down and gave them a 
chase. I got one and of course the others circled around me. One 
was extra large and bolder than the others. I got off my horse and 
threw rocks at them as I did not have my gun. The day before I 
had stopped at a sheep camp and the herder wished for a gun, as 
coyotes were killing some of the sheep. Of course, I had my gun 
with me and I traded him the gun for a new watch that he had 
gotten at Douglas a day or so before. I sure wished for my gun 
when I came upon this wolf pack. Anyway the wolves closed in 
and my hair began to rise so I decided to turn Mr. Wolf loose. I 
was about to let him go when I got surprised — the bunch left. I 
waited quite awhile before I took his hide. Betwixt and between 
I had lost the ring off my new watch. When I got to the Henke 
Ranch I found out that they were going to Laramie City the next 
day. I sent the wolf hide with them to get the bounty also the 
watch to have a new ring put on. When they got back they said, 
"The hide paid for having your watch fixed." 

One of our boys worked with the CY (Carey) Outfit that sum- 
mer. When he came back he told us about a fight between the 
cowboys and the rustlers. Bob Devine, the CY foreman, wanted 
to take his outfit into the Hole-in-the-Wall country. The rustlers 
were trying to stop him but he was determined to go anyway. So 
the shooting started, one of the rustlers got killed and our boy 
from the Quarter Circle L had his horse shot. After that the 
rustlers took a big bunch of cattle and horses and moved into 
Canada. 

In the spring Dude Henke and I started out to go to the Quarter 
Circle L Ranch. I had a real good three year old horse that T 
figured could make the trip. Dude had a buckskin horse that was 
older. We took it easy for several days. I knew a fellow who had 
a ranch close to Pumpkin Buttes and figured on stopping there that 
night. We had several miles left to go when Dude's horse quit on 
him. He seemed to be played out. We had to make camp but it 
was not very attractive. The country was very bleak and it was a 
cool night. We gathered some brush and cow chips which made a 
little heat. We bedded down but before morning we were 
shivering. 



MY COWBOY EXPERIENCES IN THE 1890'S 233 

Next morning, as luck would have it, two riders happened along 
leading an extra horse. I knew the boys, Al Hophof and Johnny 
O'Bryan. They let Dude ride the extra horse and all the buckskin 
could do was to keep up with us loose. 

When we got to the Quarter Circle L Ranch I found my bed-roll, 
unrolled it and crawled in and stayed there several days. I was 
sick after being so chilled that night we camped out. The boys 
would ask me if they could do something for me. One of them 
said, "I know what you need." He brought me a bottle of sage tea 
that he had brewed. It tasted real good to me and to this day I 
think it helped, because in a few days I was fit to go to work. 

That summer I was riding a bronc and had gotten to a place 
where there were lots of cactus and prairie dog holes. My horse 
was going a fast clip; he dodged one hole but stepped in another 
and we up-ended. I landed in a cactus bed and got cactus all over 
me. Some were in my back where I could not get them and some 
of the boys had to use a knife to get them out. 

At the end of this season I realized that I had seen and covered 
lots of territory on different roundups, and, as I was now old 
enough to make a filing on a homestead and try and work for my- 
self, I gave up the cowboy hfe. I filed on my homestead in 1895 
and settled down on the South Sybille. 



234 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 




LESTER C. HUNT 



ARTHUR G. CRANE 




FRANK A. BARRETT C. J. (DOC) ROGERS 

Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 



governors of the State 
of Wyoming 1943-1965 

Biographical sketches and pictures of Wyoming's Territorial 
and State governors through 1940 were published in ths Annals of 
Wyoming, October, 1939, through October, 1940. The series of 
articles was written by Harry B. Henderson Sr., of Cheyenne, and 
concluded with Wyoming's Golden Anniversary Governor, Nels 
H. Smith. 

The following article brings up to date biographies of Wyoming's 
governors through this 75th year of Statehood. The material was 
compiled by Mrs. Viola A. McNealey, Assistant Archivist, Wyo- 
ming State Archives and Historical Department. 

GOVERNOR HUNT 

Lester Calloway Hunt was born in Isabel, Illinois, July 8, 1892. 
The family moved in 1902 to Atlanta, Illinois, where he finished 
high school in 1912. By securing a position with the Pennsylvania 
Railroad in East St. Louis, he worked his way through college, 
entering St. Louis University College of Dentistry. He was grad- 
uated in the spring of 1917. He came directly to Cheyenne, where 
he took the State Board examination for a Commission in the 
Dental Reserve Corps of the United States Army. To practice his 
profession he located in Lander in July, 1917, but practiced only 
two months when he was called into the armed forces as a First 
Lieutenant in the Dental Corps. He was on active duty with the 
Army until May, 1919, when he was honorably discharged from 
the Dental Corps with the rank of Major. He returned to Lander 
to resume his dental practice. 

He met his future wife, Emily Nathelle Higby, in Lander, where 
he had gone after graduation from high school as a pitcher for their 
baseball team. They were married February 3, 1918. They had 
one daughter, Elise Nita, (Mrs. Russell Chadwick), and a son, 
Lester, Jr. 

He was elected to the House of the 22nd Wyoming State Legis- 
lature in 1932; elected Secretary of State in 1934 and re-elected to 
the same office in 1938; elected governor in 1942, taking office 
January 4, 1943. He was governor of Wyoming from 1943 until 
1949 upon his election on the Democratic ticket to the United 
States Senate in 1948 and his subsequent resignation as governor. 
He was chairman of the Governor's Conference held in Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, in June, 1948. He served in the United 



236 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

States Senate from January 3, 1949 until his death in Washington 
D.C. June 19, 1954. Interment was in Beth El Cemetery in 
Cheyenne. 

GOVERNOR CRANE 

Arthur Griswold Crane was born in Davenport Center, New 
York, September 1, 1877. From the time he received his B.S. 
degree in 1902 from Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, he 
was devoted to the field of education. He received his M.A. 
degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1909 and ihe Ph.D. 
degree from Teachers College, Columbia University, New York 
City, in 1920. In 1946 the University of Wyoming conferred upon 
him an honorary LL.D. degree. 

Among his many achievements in the field of education was that 
of organizing and building the State Normal School, (now State 
Teachers College) Minot, North Dakota, between 1912 and 1920. 

During World War I he was commissioned a Major, Sanitary 
Corps, Office of the Surgeon General, Washington, D. C. During 
1918 and 1919, while on a sabbatical leave, he was director of the 
Educational Service Division of Physical Reconstruction, United 
States Army. 

Dr. Crane was principal of the State Normal School, Edinboro, 
Pennsylvania, from 1920 to 1922. 

During his tenure as president of the University of Wyoming 
(1922-1941) the enrollment tripled, and his building program 
resulted in the construction of six additional buildings on the 
campus. 

In 1939 he was president of the National Association of State 
Universities and from 1936 to 1941 he acted as chairman of the 
National Committee on Education by Radio. During World War 
II he was appointed to the three-man National Railway Labor 
Panel. 

He was elected Secretary of State in 1946 and became acting 
governor in 1949 when Governor Hunt resigned following his 
election to the Senate of the United States. He served as governor 
until 1951 and was instrumental in bringing about the construction 
of the State Office Building. 

In addition to numerous educational articles he wrote "Educa- 
tion for the Disabled in War and Industry" and "Modern Uses of 
Wyoming Coal." He was responsible for the formulation of the 
specifications of the courses of study for the re-education of dis- 
abled soldiers and sailors which was published in "Rehabilitation 
Monographs, War Department." 

He was a member of the National Education Association, 
Rotary Club, American Legion, Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Delta Kappa, 
Delta Sigma Rho and was a 33rd degree Mason. On February 8, 



GOVERNORS OF WYOMING 1943-1965 237 

1950, he was made President Emeritus of the University of 
Wyoming. 

He was married to Lura May DeArment, August 23, 1904. 
They had two children, Paul and Mary. Dr. Crane died August 
11, 1955, at the Veteran's Administration Hospital at Cheyenne. 
Interment was on August 15 at Beth El Cemetery, Cheyenne. 

GOVERNOR BARRETT 

Frank A. Barrett was born in Omaha, Nebraska, November 10, 
1892, the son of Patrick J. and Elizabeth A. (Curran) Barrett. He 
received his A.B. and L.L.B. degrees from Creighton University 
in Omaha, Nebraska where he worked as a letter carrier from 1911 
to 1916 earning his way through college. He was an active mem- 
ber of Delta Theta Phi, legal fraternity. He was awarded an 
honorary LL.D. from the University of Wyoming in 1958. 

Governor Barrett served nearly two years in World War I in the 
"Balloon Corps" of the air service. In 1919 he married Miss Alice 
C. Donoghue and soon thereafter went to Lusk to practice law. 
Several years later he bought a large sheep and cattle ranch and 
entered into a partnership under the firm name of Brooks and 
Barrett. His ranching activities caused him to become interested 
in the problems of the wool industry which later enabled him to 
give invaluable service to the wool growers while serving in 
Congress. 

He served as County Attorney for Niobrara County from 1923 
to 1932. He was a member of the State Senate from 1933 to 1935 
and was a member of the Board of Trustees of the University of 
Wyoming from 1939 until 1943. He was elected to the House of 
Representatives of the 78th Congress in 1942 and reelected to the 
79th, 80th and 81st Congresses. There he served on the Interior 
Committee and Chairman of Public Lands. In the 81st Congress 
he was a member of the U.S. Territorial Expansion Memorial 
Commission. He was the 15th man to be elected Governor of 
Wyoming when he was sworn into office January 1, 1951. 

In 1952 Frank A. Barrett was elected to the U.S. Senate from 
the State of Wyoming. Thus, he served Wyoming as Congress- 
man, Governor and Senator, one of the few men in this country 
so honored by their state. He served on the Interior and Armed 
Services Senate Committees. While in the Senate, he was the 
recipient of Honorary Doctor of Law Degrees from his Alma 
Mater, Creighton University, and from the University of Wyoming. 

He served as Commander of the Lusk Post American Legion, 
Director of the Wyoming Reclamation Association, member of 
Wyoming Council of Boy Scouts, member of the Wyoming Stock 
Growers Association, Farm Bureau, Wyoming and American 
Bar Associations, the Lusk Lions Club and on the State Historical 
Advisory Board. 



238 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Frank and Alice Barrett were the parents of three children. 
Frank, Jr. chose medicine as a profession and practices surgery in 
Cheyenne; James E. Barrett is an attorney in Lusk; Marialyce 
(Mrs. Richard Tobin) is a member of the Wyoming Bar Asso- 
ciation and is engaged in legal work in Casper. 

His first wife died in 1956. In 1959 he married Mrs. Augusta 
K. Hogan, widow of Bill Hogan, Lance Creek oilman and close 
personal friend. 

President Eisenhower named Governor Barrett Chief Counsel 
of the United States Department of Agriculture in 1958. Gover- 
nor Barrett died in Cheyenne, May 30, 1962. Services were held 
in Lusk, where he was buried on June 2. 

GOVERNOR ROGERS 

Clifford Joy "Doc'' Rogers held his first position in state govern- 
ment in 1928 when he entered the Motor Vehicle Division in the 
office of Secretary of State A. M. Clark. When Mr. Clark became 
Acting Governor in 1931, Mr. Rogers served as his secretary. In 
1933 he accepted a position as Deputy Secretary of State. In 
1946 he was elected State Treasurer for a four year term and in 
1950 he was elected Secretary of State. Upon the resignation of 
Governor Barrett in 1952, when he was elected U.S. Senator, Mr. 
Rogers, as Secretary of State, was automatically elevated to the 
acting governorship. In 1958 Mr. Rogers was elected State Trea- 
surer for a second time. 

Born December 20, 1897, in Clarion, Iowa, Governor Rogers 
was orphaned at the age of seven and was raised by an uncle who 
held degrees in both medicine and dentistry and was on the faculty 
of the University of Iowa for 50 years. Governor Rogers attended 
school in Iowa City and at the University of Iowa where he 
majored in liberal arts. 

Having joined the army in 1916, he served in the Mexican bor- 
der incident and overseas in France during World War I. Follow- 
ing his discharge from the service in 1919, he homesteaded in 
Campbell County between Gillette and Buffalo. He was a mem- 
ber of the American Legion and of the Veterans of Foreign Wars 
and was the first member of the V.F.W. to become governor of 
Wyoming. 

He coached the first Gillette High School football team and 
taught briefly in the Gillette schools before moving to Sheridan, 
where he was employed by the Veteran's Hospital from 1924 to 
1928. 

His first wife, Edna J. Rogers, who had three children by a 
former marriage, died in 1936. He later married Mabel B. Rogers 
who had one daughter at the time of their marriage. Governor and 
Mrs. Rogers owned and operated their own business, a motel in 
Cheyenne. 



GOVERNORS OF WYOMING 1943-1965 239 

On May 18, 1962 while serving in the office of State Treasurer, 
he died at Memorial Hospital in Cheyenne. Burial was in Beth 
El Cemetery, Cheyenne, May 22. 

GOVERNOR SIMPSON 

Milward L. Simpson is a native son, the second governor of 
Wyoming to claim this distinction. He was bom November 12, 
1897, in Jackson, Wyoming, and was raised on the Wind River 
Indian Reservation and in Lander, Meeteetse and Cody. Gover- 
nor Simpson's background in Wyoming dates back to 1865 with 
the arrival of his grandfather, Finn Burnett, who came with the 
Powder River Expedition. His grandfather, John Simpson, who 
came to Wyoming in 1884, started the first store and post office in 
the famous Jackson Hole area. His father, W. L. Simpson, was an 
attorney in Wyoming for 50 years. 

The first Wyoming governor to be graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Wyoming, he was outstanding there as an athlete, debater, 
student and editor. He continued his law studies at Harvard and 
financed his education by working as a coal miner, a day laborer, 
cook on a road construction crew and as a ranch hand. In World 
War I he served in the U. S. Army as an Infantry Lieutenant. 

He established a law practice in Cody, and also engaged in the 
oil business. The youth of the nation has always been of vital 
interest to Governor Simpson. He was a member of the Cody 
school board for six years, and from 1939 until 1955 he was a 
member of the Board of Trustees of the University of Wyoming, 
and was president of the Board from 1943 until 1955. His 
accomplishments on behalf of the University have been recognized 
nationally, and he served a term as president of the National Asso- 
ciation of Governing Boards of State Universities and Allied 
Institutions. 

In 1927 he served a term in the House of Representatives in the 
Wyoming State Legislature from Hot Springs County. He took the 
oath of office as Governor of Wyoming in January, 1955, and 
remained in that office until 1959, having been defeated when he 
ran for re-election. In 1962 he was elected Senator from Wyoming 
to the United States Congress, in which position he is now serving. 

In 1929 he married Lorna Kooi, daughter of a pioneer family, 
and they have two sons, Alan, who practices law in Cody, and 
Peter, who is an instructor in history at Eastern Oregon College at 
Le Grande, and associate professor of history at the University of 
Oregon, Eugene. 

GOVERNOR HICKEY 

John Joseph "Joe" Hickey, who took office in January 1959, 
was the third native son to serve Wyoming as governor. He was 



240 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 




MILWARD L. SIMPSON 



J. J. HICKEY 




JACK R. GAGE CLIFFORD P. HANSEN 

Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department 



GOVERNORS OF WYOMING 1943-1965 241 

bom August 22, 1 9 1 1 , in Rawlins, of a pioneer family who came to 
Wyoming prior to 1873. His father, a Union Pacific Railroad 
employee, died in 1914, and "Joe" began assisting the family 
finances at an early age as a newsboy and later by working as a 
blacksmith apprentice, theater usher and tire repairman. He 
attended public schools in Rawlins, and in 1934 he received his 
Law Degree from the University of Wyoming. In the same year 
he opened his law office in Rawlins. 

Besides practicing law. Governor Hickey has been active in 
political affairs and has served in city, county and federal offices. 
In 1935 he was appointed City Treasurer of Rawlins, a position he 
held for five years under Democratic and Republican administra- 
tions. In 1938 he was elected Carbon County Attorney, resigning 
in 1942 to enlist in the U.S. Army. In 1946 he was again elected 
County Attorney and served until 1949 when he was appointed 
U.S. Attorney, at which time he moved to Cheyenne. He has 
served as a director of the Carbon County Memorial Hospital; 
County and State Chairman of the Cancer Fund; Post Commander 
of the V.F.W. Post 2311; Department Commander V.F.W. for 
Wyoming; Trustee of the Engstrom-Duncan Post of the American 
Legion. He has been active in community and church organiza- 
tions and has worked actively for the Red Cross, Girl Scouts and 
Boy Scouts. In 1954 he was elected Democratic State Chairman, 
and that year he guided the successful campaign of Joseph C. 
O'Mahoney which returned him to the U.S. Senate from Wyoming. 

Governor Hickey spent 42 months in the U.S. Army in World 
War II, 28 months of which he served overseas in the European 
Theatre. Entering the army as a private, he rose to the rank of 
captain and received his honorable discharge in 1946. 

Upon his return to Rawlins in 1946, he was married to Winifred 
Espy, a member of a pioneer Carbon County family. They have 
two sons, John and Paul. 

He resigned as governor in January of 1961 and was appointed 
to the United States Senate seat left vacant by the death of 
Keith Thomson, Senator-elect, and was appointed U.S. Senator by 
Acting Governor Jack Gage. 

He was defeated in the 1962 election in his bid for re-election as 
U.S. Senator and returned to Cheyenne, where he practices law in 
the offices of Hickey, Rooney and Walton. 

GOVERNOR GAGE 

Jack R. Gage, a native of Wyoming, became Acting Governor 
on January 2, 1961, upon the resignation of former Governor J. J. 
Hickey, who sought appointment to the United States Senate term 
following the death of Senator-elect Keith Thomson. He is the 
eighth Wyoming Secretary of State to be elevated to the office of 
the Governor in the history of Wyoming. 



242 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Governor Gage, born in 1899, was reared in Worland. He 
was the only child of Dr. Will Vernon Gage and LaVaughn Phelan 
Gage. Dr. Gage practiced medicine in Worland, Wyoming, for 
many years. Governor Gage attended Worland schools, and re- 
ceived his B.S. degree from the University of Wyoming in 1924. 
He is the first graduate of the University of Wyoming to hold any 
state elective office, having been elected Superintendent of Public 
Instruction in 1934. 

He taught vocational agriculture in the high school at Gillette, 
in 1924-25, was an instructor of geology and biology in the Sheri- 
dan High School from 1929 to 1934 and served as State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction from 1935 to 1939. He is a former 
postmaster of the Sheridan, Wyoming post office and resigned that 
position to run for the office of Secretary of State on the Demo- 
cratic ticket, being elected in November, 1958. He was serving 
a four-year term in that capacity when he assumed the office of 
Governor, taking the oath of office in January, 1961. He was 
defeated in the 1962 election. 

Governor Gage served as a Private First Class in the Artillery 
branch of the service in World War I. He is a past governor of 
Rotary International, past President of the Postmaster's Associa- 
tion in Wyoming, a member of the Future Farmers of America, the 
American Legion, Masonic Order, Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, 
and is affiliated with the Episcopal Church. He participated in a 
peace mission to Moscow, Russia, in June, 1957, and received a 
Bronze Medallion for an international peace plan submitted in 
1953. He is a well-known lecturer and recently was the recipient 
of an historical award from the Wyoming State Historical Society 
for his book. Ten Sleep and No Rest. He is also author of Geog- 
raphy of Wyoming, published first in 1940 and of a new edition 
published in 1965. 

Since 1963 he has been affiliated with a national lecture circuit, 
speaking throughout this country and in Australia. In September, 
1965, he began regular weekly appearances on radio station 
KFBC, Cheyenne, giving short sketches of Wyoming history. 

Jack Gage is married to the former Leona Switzer and is the 
father of two sons, Jack R. Jr., and Dick C. All are graduates of 
the University of Wyoming. 

GOVERNOR HANSEN 

Clifford P. Hansen, Republican, became Wyoming's twenty- 
sixth Governor at inaugural ceremonies held January 7, 1963. He 
was born in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, October 16, 1912, the son 
of Wyoming pioneers who settled and homesteaded in Jackson 
Hole in 1897. His father, Peter C. Hansen, helped organize Teton 
County and later served in the Wyoming State Senate. 

Governor Hansen attended grade school in Jackson and was 



GOVERNORS OF WYOMING 1943-1965 243 

graduated from the University of Wyoming in 1934. He has a 
cattle ranch at Spring Gulch near Jackson. 

Governor Hansen became a member of the University of Wyo- 
ming Board of Trustees in 1946, was elected President of the 
Board in 1955 and reelected in 1962 resigning just prior to his 
inauguration as Governor. He is a member of the Episcopal 
Church, Masonic bodies, including Consistory and Shrine; Rotary 
International; Sigma Nu social fraternity; Alpha Zeta, honorary 
agriculture fraternity; Delta Sigma Rho, honorary forensic frater- 
nity; and Phi Kappa Phi, honorary scholarship fraternity. 

In addition, he is a past President of the Wyoming Stock Grow- 
ers Association; has served as Vice President of the American 
National Cattlemen's Association; Vice President of the Pacific 
Northwest Development Association; Water Compact Commis- 
sioner for Wyoming on the Snake River; Compact Commissioner 
on the Columbia Interstate Compact Commission; Chairman of 
the National Livestock Research and Marketing Advisory Com- 
mittee to the United States Secretary of Agriculture; and is present- 
ly a member of the Board of Directors of the Wyoming Develop- 
ment Association. He helped organize the Jackson Chamber of 
Commerce and has served on the Jackson Hospital Board of 
Trustees. In 1965 he was named to the Executive Committee of 
the National Governors' Conference as well as to the Executive 
Committee at the Western Governors Conference. 

Governor Hansen is married to the former Martha Close of 
Sheridan, Wyoming. They have a daughter, Mrs. Peter Mead, 
living at Jackson, Wyoming, and a married son, Peter, a 1964 
graduate of the University of Wyoming. 



Wyoming Summits, 
Softly QliHting 

By 

Hans Kleiber 

Wyoming summits, softly glinting, 
Far beyond the moil of throngs, 
Blooming meadows, virgin forests. 
Silent partners of my songs. 

Always, somewhere, in the distance, 
Shimmer ranges flecked with snow, 
Tossed at random by their mother, 
Heedlessly, long, long ago. 

Lofty nurseries of rivers. 
Spawning rills, not meant to stay, 
Bidden wanderers by nature. 
Seeking oceans, far away. 

Summerdays, and snows of winter. 
Add but luster to your peaks, 
Break of dawn, and golden evenings, 
Harried mankind blindly seeks. 

Wyoming summits, softly glinting. 
Have a way of gathering toll. 
Once the call of dormant ages 
Wakens echoes in your soul. 



^0ok Keviem 



The Necessary Earth. By Wilson O. Clough. (Austin, University 
of Texas Press, 1965. lUus., index. 234 pp. $5.00.) 

To Wilson Clough fans and doctors of philosophy and literature. 
The Necessary Earth may well be Mr. Clough's most important 
book. While it is not lazy reading for a summer afternoon, with a 
shelf of reference books and poetry collections in reach, it could 
serve as a mind-stretcher for a whole lifetime of study. In part a 
critique of the early West, it is primarily a book for the serious 
novelist who aspires to write western Literature with a capital L. 
It is here reviewed in terms of Wyoming history. 

Mr. Clough's chief concern is "Why has not the west produced 
its national classic, its great American novel?" He stresses the 
importance of the western writer keeping in touch with the funda- 
mental values of life, achieving solitude, keeping his feet on The 
Necessary Earth, and yet not letting his affection for the young, 
young land cloud his purpose. He must be dispassionate. Senti- 
ment is deadly. 

No novel can be mature literature, maintains Mr. Clough, unless 
it is, like the Russian novel, a great tragedy. The real obstacle 
the western novelist must fight is ". . . this western optimism, this 
disgraceful cheerfulness . . . this youthfulness of spirit." 

He grants western writers the privilege of not using the tired old 
European vocabulary, metaphor, symbolism or classic literary 
disciplines, ill-fitted to the frontier. Yet he cannot condone a new, 
more vigorous and optimistic western philosophy. Old world 
gloom-and-doom are a must. Tragedy is a must. "Wait for the 
scar tissue to accumulate ... for the deeper tragedies to sear." 

He also warns serious writers against peopling their novels with 
the cowboy badmen of the West, those escapees from the East, 
"The callous, suUen, reckless masters of the six-shooter, the 
cankered symbols of something summoned up as 'the good old 
days.' " And in even more colorful language, those "ghouls of 
casual bloodshed" who shot their way to fame. 

He argues that they have been glorified into heroes by writers of 

the western pulp story and stick-'em-up television drama and 

worshipped by journalists, tourists and — let's face it — the "rank 
and file" of westerners. Just whom he includes in the "rank and 
file", he does not specify, but we could each ask, "Who, me?" 
(Had he written his book in 1965, he might have included the 
dregs of womanhood, glorified out of all good taste by recent 
celebrations of our 75th anniversary of statehood.) 

The great 1961 surge of westerns on television has luckily been 



246 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

mitigated a bit since Mr. Clough's chapter first appeared as an 
essay in The Texas Quarterly, but it is nevertheless still rampant 
upon the land. 

We wonder why Mr. Clough singles out the television viewer of 
the West as the special enthusiast of the western. Television pro- 
ducers would not dramatize badmen ad naiiseiim unless their vast 
market in the thickly populated East gobbled them up — and the 
products they promoted. Rocky Mountain westerners are simply 
not numerous enough to influence Madison Avenue. 

Instead of interviewing old-timers, readily available in or near 
Laramie, Mr. Clough has read himself into the position of an 
authority on gunslingers and badmen in print, citing author, title 
and page, from Billy the Kid to northwestern Wyoming's Earl 
Durand. He skips Laramie's own train robber, Bill Carlisle, who 
prospered on the strength of his bandman reputation. 

Opinions on the western cowboy differ, depending on which 
books one reads and on the old cowboys one has known and loved 
In his Fijty Years on the Old Frontier, James H. Cook, 1 857-1942, 
well-read Nebraska rancher and host to world-famed paleontolo- 
gists, wrote, "The majority of the cowboys of the West were not a 
drunken, gambling lot of toughs. Their work required clear heads, 
brave hearts and strong bodies to handle the great trail herds or the 
cattle on the ranges." 

To the daughter of an early Wyoming cowboy, stagecoach 
driver, traveler with Gruard, friend of Cook's, and collector of 
earthy, rock-bottom authentic books on the frontier, who cut her 
second teeth on Andy Adam's The Log of a Cowboy, The J. W. 
Schultz Indian books. Cook's autobiography, and the memoirs of 
Mrs. W. W. Chapman and Mrs. George Gilland, these and contacts 
with the actual pioneers were all prime sources for character, stage 

props, vernacular and a make-the-best-of-it philosophy, far 

above "westerns" or War and Peace, The Lower Depths and 
Uncle Vanya. 

Certain sections of the Clough book, abounding as they do with 
thirty-some isms (existentialism, egalitarianism, transcendentalism) 
send the plain newspaperwoman and amateur historian scurrying 
for her reference books. In contrast, the more enjoyable pages of 
The Necessary Earth are the early chapters on Emerson and 
Thoreau, and Mr. Clough's interpretation of Robert Frost and 
other poets. Here his own gift for poetry comes through in flow- 
ing, rhythmic prose. 

Cheyenne Grace Logan Schaedel 



BOOK REVIEWS 247 

Fair Fights And Foul. By Thurman Arnold. (New York, Har- 
court, Brace and World, 1965.) 

Few persons who are alerted to its contents will want to miss the 
latest book of Thurman Arnold, one of Wyoming's leading citizens 
(until recently he had his name on a Laramie law firm's door as 
"of counsel"). His Fair Fights and Foul is an intriguing medley 
of autobiography, legal exposition, economic treatise, and politics, 
seasoned with philosophy and wit. Despite the difficulties of 
combining such varied topics, the reader is immediately aware that 
Mr. Arnold is uniquely qualified to discuss dozens of interesting 
and vital subjects. He has either had the lead in or occupied an 
orchestra seat at many of the nation's star performances in the last 
half century. The author is a product of many factors: his mis- 
sionary ancestors provide a pious backdrop; his lawyer-father, the 
principles of Blackstone; his early ranch life, pride in self-reliance; 
an ivy-league education, culture via the shock treatment; and his 
experience with the law, a practical approach to life's problems, 
both individual and governmental. Brilliant and perceptive, the 
author interweaves personal experiences with occurrences in Wyo- 
ming and the nation from the time of World War I to that of the 
Great Society. No one else ever had the vantage point of being a 
rancher, lawyer, mayor, state legislator, law teacher, dean, govern- 
ment supernumerary, government policymaker, trust-busting at- 
torney general, federal judge, and outstanding private counsel. 
During all of these stages, he has had the audacity to think his own 
thoughts and the ingenuity to inject them, oftener than not, in high 
places. 

Fair Fights and Foul is, as might be expected, a sequel to the 
earlier Folklore of Capitalism and Symbols of Government, but, 
besides the inclusion of colorful anecdotes and autobiographic 
touches, is more comprehensive and panoramic than its predeces- 
sors, and it relates the metamorphoses in government to diverse 
forces ranging from the religious philosophies of St. Thomas 
Aquinas to the avoidance of specifics by political opportunists. 
Importantly, the book is not the mouthings of a Monday morning 
quarterback, for the author has had an integral part in the occur- 
rences of the nation. He was a professor at Yale Law School 
when, as he says, "the cross fertilization of intellectual disciplines 
. . . made ... [it] a hot bed of legal realism." He was an idea man 
for Franklin D. Roosevelt, and later an assistant attorney general 
in forcing the long dormant antitrust act and changing the eco- 
nomic currents of the nation. In that capacity — and later — he has 
undoubtedly participated in as many controversies before the 
United States Supreme Court as any living advocate. In his 
official position he was successful in altering the practices of great 
corporations but unsuccessful in his efforts to limit the monopolies 



248 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of unions. After his re-entry of private practice with Abe Fortas 
(now on the United States Supreme Court) he became an attorney 
for the underdog-criminal, and the harassed government employee. 
Advice for and against cartels has been his forte. Regarding all 
of these subjects, the author with modesty but frankness freely 
expresses his analyses and views, recounting pungent happenings 
and peppery excerpts. Like the telecasting of an athletic event by 
a star athlete, it carries the punch of experience. 

Although Mr. Arnold has a great love for his profession and 
its potential in "its rule of law above men" he is not averse to an 
occasional barb at the barrister, i.e., "Legal learning is ths art of 
making simple things complicated, which should be a simple task 
for anyone." Basically, however, he is preoccupied with the 
national economy, challenging what he considers to be the poli- 
ticians' hobgoblins, which envision the dangers of government 
planning, inflation, the loss of states' rights, and a large national 
debt resulting from an unbalanced budget. His thesis is that the 
government should, uninhibited by states' rights or the fear of 
overspending, use the full productive capacity of the nation. 

An admitted dissenter and often labeled an iconoclast, Thurman 
Arnold in his book presents a different slant on many national 
problems. He is controversial; that is his stock in trade; but even 
those whose ire he arouses must admit he presents a refreshing 
challenge. 

Cheyenne Glenn Parker 



Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem. By James C. Olson. (Univer- 
sity of Nebraska Press, 1965. Illus., index. 375 pp. $5.95.) 

Red Cloud, the much-discussed war chief of the Oglala Sioux, 
was a constant thorn in the side. Sometimes in the side of the 
military who fought him; but just as often in the side of his own 
people who seemed to hold him in respect even though they didn't 
understand him. Just how important a problem this Indian leader 
presented is excellently displayed in Dr. James C. Olson's newest 
work, Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem. There are times when 
the reader is forced to wonder just which of the many problems 
Dr. Olson's title is addressing: the army's conflict with the Sioux, 
the Indian Commission's problem with the army, or the Sioux 
problem with Red Cloud. All are discussed in some depth. 

The hostility of two diverse people would have been enough to 
cover the plains with violence. But added to this normal hostility 
was, on the one hand, the bureaucratic nightmare of conflicting 
agencies which controlled United States policy toward the Sioux, 
and on the other hand, the vast and never completely understood 
political undercurrents of Indian cheiftainship. 



BOOK REVIEWS 249 

These forces all came to bear on Red Cloud whose role as war 
chief, diplomat, senior statesman, and rebel caused both sides to 
see him as hero and villain. Dr. Olson has produced a penetrating 
work on these problems by combining a biographical study of this 
Indian leader, an intriguing investigation into the poUtical structure 
of the Sioux nation, and an amazingly clear discussion of the 
United States Government "policy." 

Much has been written about both Red Cloud and the Sioux. 
This work is a welcome addition. Dr. Olson's study is not a 
"definitive account of the relations between the Sioux and the 
United States Government during the years after the Civil War", 
(dust jacket) but it is a scholarly and well-written investigation of 
one of the key blocks in the structure of such post-war relations. 
The author has not tried to cover all phases of the Sioux problem 
nor has he attempted to assimilate areas in which relationships 
between the Sioux and the United States were being handled with 
greater success. The Santee and Wahpeton Sioux had found a 
fairly workable solution. However, Olson has done a remarkable 
job of showing some of the domestic problems of Indian leadership 
and how this affected the consideration of treaties proposed. 

I agree with the author that the source of Red Cloud's name "is 
of small moment" in such a study (p. 18) and wonder why, if this 
is the case, he devoted four pages to discussing it. 

While this work is obviously well researched and documented. 
Dr. Olson is very quick to use as sources authors and works that he 
has previously found reason to discredit. Sheldon's Red Cloud, 
Chief of the Sioux, and Hyde's Red Cloud's Folk, whose reliability 
has been questioned, seem to serve him as a key to his research. 
On the other hand he does not qualify the Eli S. Ricker interviews 
which he uses often. Utley, The Last Days of the Sioux Nation, 
and others feel that there is no small amount of fanatasy in Ricker's 
interviews, (p. 288) 

As a parting comment let me thank Dr. Olson for adding the 
weight of this fine study to the side of those historians who still 
insist on locating footnotes at the end of the page where they can be 
used rather than at the end of the book where they can save the 
publisher money. 

Cheyenne Paul M. Edwards 



Nathan Addison Baker (1843-1934). By Nolie Mumey (Denver: 
The Old West Pubhshing Company. 1965. Illus., index. 
160 pp. $15.00) 

Nathan Addison Baker contributed to the early history of Wyo- 
ming and Colorado, but little has been written or remembered 



250 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

about him. Dr. Nolle Mumey, who recently acquired Baker's 
diaries for 1865, 1866, and 1867, has researched into his career 
and has, in addition to publishing the diaries, given a brief sketch 
of his life. 

The diaries are made up of brief notations, giving weather, short 
notes as to some of his business and social activities, occasional 
references to events of the day, and were written while a resident of 
Denver and later of Cheyenne. These give some interesting side- 
lights such as the offerings given by the theatre and of prices of 
commodities in the frontier cities. 

One chapter is devoted to his activities as a Wyoming journalist. 
Baker started his first newspaper, the Colorado Leader, in Denver 
on June 6, 1867. He began publishing the Cheyenne Leader on 
September 19, 1867, and later started the Laramie Daily Sentinel 
and South Pass News. The Leader was the first permanent news- 
paper established in Wyoming and a complete set with the excep- 
tion of one year ( 1 898 ) is located in the files of the Wyoming State 
Archives and Historical Department in Cheyenne. Bound in with 
Volume I is a fragmentary copy of Volume I, No. I of his 
Colorado Leader. 

Volume I of the Laramie Daily Sentinel has never been located, 
but a complete set following that volume beginning in May, 1 870, 
is located at the Carnegie Public Library in Laramie, Wyoming, 
and is on film in the State Archives and Historical Department. 
Of the South Pass News, few are still extant, but a few issues of the 
rare newspaper are located in the State Archives and Historical 
Department. 

In his later years. Baker, in corresponding with Dr. Grace Ray- 
mond Hebard of the University of Wyoming, wrote some rem- 
iniscences of his early life in Wyoming. Some of his statements in 
this correspondence, published verbatim, are questionable due to a 
faulty memory at an advanced age. For example he is mistaken 
as to when the Leader was issued tri-weekly, on later ownership of 
the Daily Sentinel, and he insists that the Frontier Index, the 
itinerant newspaper which crossed Wyoming as the railroad was 
built, was not a true newspaper. He also misses the distance and 
location of South Pass City from Rock Springs, which was not 
founded until a few years after the construction of the railroad. 

Dr. Mumey has included in this volume inserts of facsimile 
copies of Volume I, No. 22, November 9, 1867. of the Cheyenne 
Leader; Volume I, No. 16, September 2, 1869, of the South Pass 
News; Volume I, No. 1, July 6, 1867, of the Colorado Leader; 
Volume I, No. 2, April 26, 1879, of Colorado Rural Life, and a 
map of a proposed Atlantic-Pacific Railway Tunnel, a project in 
which he was greatly interested. The latter dream became a reality 
later at the nearby site of the Moffat Tunnel, proving his dream 
had been practical although he had no part in its accomplishment. 



BOOK REVIEWS 251 

Baker's life was spent in Colorado following the sale of his 
Wyoming interests in the early 1870's and this work deals largely 
with that portion of his life, touching on his business promotions, 
interests and work in that state. 

The book is illustrated with a number of rare photographs. Of 
special interest in Wyoming is one of the Cheyenne Leader office 
which later burned in January, 1870, and an insert, a facsimile 
copy of the "First Carrier's Annual Offering to Patrons of the Daily 
Evening Leader, City of Cheyenne, January 1, 1868," a poetical 
offering for a Happy New Year extolling Cheyenne. 

The book is published in a limited edition of 500 by Fred A. 
Rosenstock of The Old West Publishing Company in an attractive 
format. 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 



The Buckeye Rovers in the Gold Rush: An Edition of Two 
Diaries Edited with an Introduction by Howard L. Scame- 
horn. (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1965. $5.00) 

In April, 1849, a company of Ohioans who called themselves 
the "Buckeye Rovers" set out across the long trail to California to 
seek wealth in the Mother Lode country. They traveled up the 
Platte and North Platte Rivers, pausing at the newly established 
military post of Fort Laramie, and spending a month along those 
streams before reaching the Sweetwater. After climbing South 
Pass, they moved on up the old Oregon Trail and down the Snake 
River before cutting south to the Humboldt and the California 
Trail. After the usual privations and hardships of the overland 
trek, the party reached California where they concentrated in the 
Northern Mines region above Sacramento in order to work for 
gold along the Bear, American, and Yuba Rivers. Here they 
would remain for more than two years. 

Two among the Buckeye Rovers recorded the outstanding inci- 
dents and impressions of their journey in diaries. John Edwin 
Banks and J. Elza Armstrong both wrote of their experiences 
across the long road to California. Banks' diaries are the more 
important for they continue the emigrants' story in the California 
Mines, while Armstrong terminated his entries when they arrived 
in the gold fields. Furthermore, Banks recorded a wealth of detail 
that failed to impress Armstrong. Nevertheless, Armstrong's ac- 
count is valuable as it serves to corroborate Banks' comments as 
well as to add an occasional bit of information Banks failed to 
record. 

Unfortunately, one of the three volumes in which Banks made 
his entries was lost long ago, but the first and third nonetheless 



252 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

give some idea of experiences in the interim. Once in California, 
Banks ceased to make daily entries in favor of one entry per 
week, a schedule he followed quite faithfully. Throughout, his 
comments show much more perception and insight than Arm- 
strong's. The passages dealing with the years in the mines are 
particularly interesting, for here Banks recorded all the hopes, 
fears, and frustrations which plagued the average miner, as well as 
myriad aspects of life in the Northern Mines. His diaries reflect 
the harsh toil of gold mining, the antipathy towards Chinese immi- 
grants, the overcrowded conditions in wealthy lodes, and finally, 
a measure of success in the area around Grass Valley in Nevada 
County. 

In editing these two diaries, Howard Scamehom wisely com- 
bined Banks' and Armstrong's trail diaries to present a chrono- 
logical account, with two entries per day where possible. The 
combined entries provide a clearer picture of the journey of this 
wagon train than separate publication of the two diaries would 
have afforded. The editor has enhanced these original sources 
with a thorough, though brief, introduction, and with an epilogue 
which traces the Ohioans return to their native state and their 
subsequent history. Mr. Scamehom has also done a competent 
job with the footnotes, which are collected at the end of the book. 
Additional credit is due the publisher for attractive design and 
good printing. 

In all respects. Buckeye Rovers is a valuable addition to any 
collection of Western Americana. 

Fort Laramie National Historic Site Gordon Chappell 



Philo White's Narrative of a Cruize in the Pacific to South America 
and California on the U. S. Sloop-of-War "Dale" 1841-1843. 
Edited by Charles L. Camp. (Denver, Colo.: Old West 
Publishing Co. 1965. 84 pp. Illus. index. $15.00.) 

In Wyoming in 1842 the fur trade had reached its concluding 
years and the first real emigration to the Oregon Country and 
California was beginning. In our concern with the history or what 
was to become Wyoming and which was then a wilderness area 
with only one established fur trading post. Ft. Laramie, located 
within its present boundaries, and with the start of the Oregon 
Trail in this period, we overlook the civilization long established 
and flourishing along the Pacific Coasts of North and South Amer- 
ica. Cruize in the Pacific is a fascinating account written by Philo 
White in 1 842-43 of his activities and observations while purser on 
the sloop-of-war "Dale" as it sailed around the Horn and stopped 
at ports in South America, Mexico and California. 



BOOK REVIEWS 253 

Philo White, a traveler, newspaper man, politician and intelligent 
observer, brings to life the first stirrings of the U. S. Pacific miUtary 
squadron, forerunner of the great battle fleets of later years, as well 
as pointing up the importance of the area to the United States and 
its trade. The duty of the U. S. fleet was to forestall the English 
navy along the California Coast, for Oregon Territory was under 
dispute, and the British were still empire building. As a result of a 
misunderstanding on the part of the fiery Thomas ap Catesby 
Jones, Commander of the U. S. fleet, a seldom-heralded incident 
occurred in his abortive "capture" of Monterey in October 1842. 
He mistakenly believed the U. S. and Mexico were at war and, as a 
result, for 24 hours the stars and stripes flew over this Mexican 
possession. Once the true situation became clear, Jones imme- 
diately restored it to Mexican sovereignty. 

White describes the apprehensions of the scattered American 
settlers and their fear that England was waiting to grasp both 
Oregon and northern California, and he touches upon the way of 
life among the Spanish settlements, the conditions of the Indians, 
and the decline under Spanish rule. 

Wyoming, remote as it was, was affected by these events, since 
in 1 842-43 its western areas were then claimed by the British under 
Oregon Country rights and by Mexico. The great transcontinental 
highway, the Oregon Trail, which developed in the years imme- 
diately following, was to witness the vast migration of emigrants 
to the Pacific which turned the tide of history and stretched the 
boundary of the United States to the Pacific Ocean. 

Philo White's diary is important to the history of the period, and 
of special interest is the fact that it was located in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, the property of Mrs. Albert Walton. Philo White had 
married into the Goodrich family, and was a great-uncle by mar- 
riage of Mrs. Walton. It had remained in the family for more than 
a century. 

Mr. Fred Rosenstock, well-known dealer and authority on West- 
ern Americana, acquired the diary and is the publisher of this 
account, which was edited in an able manner by Charles L. Camp. 

Designed and printed in a beautiful format, the text is accom- 
panied by illustrations, including the taking of Monterey, from the 
journal of William H. Myers, 1841-42, located in the Bancroft 
Library, and by a portrait of Philo White. It has been published in 
a limited edition of 1000 copies. 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 



254 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Smoke Over The Divide. By James L. Ehernberger and Francis 
G. Gschwind. (Callaway, Nebraska: E & G Publications, 
1965. Illus. 64 pp. $4.95) 

The steam locomotives of the Union Pacific are now represented 
in three accurately prepared volumes that can be recommended- 
Kratville's Big Boy in clothbound edition, Ehernberger and Gsch- 
wind's Smoke Across the Prairie, and now their new book entitled 
Smoke Over the Divide. These are publications for the historian, 
railroad man and buff, alike; and all three are priced within reach 
of the average po::ketbook. 

Smoke Over the Divide, published only last summer, is already 
a favorite among the railroad men of the Union Pacific's Wyoming 
Division. Rightly so, for it is the story in pictures and words of 
their line when steam ruled the railroads. Represented in this 
volume are big hogs handling tonnage over Sherman Hill and up 
Weber and Echo Canyons. Sleek passenger trains are included 
along with the branch line local freights. Nearly every portion of 
the Wyoming Division is covered from Denver and Cheyenne 
through Ogden. A large double-page spread is devoted to a 
dramatic view of steam power at the Laramie coal chute and 
roundhouse. 

Edd H. Bailey, Union Pacific's president, has written a favorable 
introduction for the book. 

Besides the many fine photographs of trains, a brief history is 
included describing the various sub-divisions and branches of the 
Wyoming Division. Another section covers the different types 
of engines used over these lines in later years with description and 
pictures of each class of locomotive. And finally, to make one 
better acquainted with the territory covered, three fine maps, an 
old time table page, and profile diagram utilize other available 
space in the book. Anyone who liked the first two books that we 
have mentioned should add this new volume to his library. 

Green River R. E. Prince 



GPH: An Informal Record of George P. Hammond and His Era 
in the Bancroft Library (Berkeley, The Friends of the Ban- 
croft Library, University of California, 1965. 1 19pp). 

To mark the occasion of George P. Hammond's retirement The 
Friends of the Bancroft Library have published this handsome 
festschrift (designed and printed by Lawton and Alfred Kennedy) 
consisting mainly of encomia contributed by eight long-time asso- 
ciates. 

Since 1946, Dr. Hammond has been Director of the famous 



BOOK REVIEWS 255 

Bancroft Library. Before that, he taught history and served as 
dean of the graduate school at the University of New Mexico. 

There can be no doubt that Dr. Hammond has led a busy and 
useful life. At the Bancroft he has improved the organization of 
the vast collections, and added considerably to them. Just after he 
arrived at the Bancroft he "brought into being" The Friends of the 
Bancroft Library "to raise funds for the purpose of supplementing 
the ordinary funds" of the Library. The money-raising ability of 
The Friends, who number about 1,000, is awe-inspiring. Among 
the purchases made possible by their solicitations is one costing 
close to $500,000 — The Robert B. Honeyman, Jr. Collection of 
Early California and Western Pictorial Material. 

In 1950, Dr. Hammond established a research project in Eng- 
land, setting Dr. Robert H. Burke and two photographers to work 
locating and filming business records of British firms active in the 
West and Mexico. Other Bancroft agents have rounded up micro- 
film facsimiles in France, Holland, Spain, Portugal, Mexico, and 
other countries. Dale L. Morgan (who has been on the Bancroft 
staff since 1954) quite rightly calls Hammond "the most eminent 
living student of the Spanish Southwest," and, certainly, Hammond 
has not passed up opportunities to acquire manuscripts dealing 
with his first love. Yet, as Robert H. Becker, Assistant Director 
at the Bancroft, declares, Hammond has the "ability and willing- 
ness to put the interest of the Library ahead of his own, rather 
than the reverse, as is often the case." During his tenure at the 
Bancroft, for example, Hammond has given considerable attention 
to collecting literary manuscripts and political papers of recent 
California leaders, such as Culbert L. Olson and Hiram Johnson. 

Besides collecting assiduously, Hammond has taken significant 
steps to make the Library's vast collections more accessible to 
scholars, organizing and calendaring them, and publishing a com- 
prehensive guide (only the first volume is in print, but the second 
soon will be, also). 

Directing the Library would be a full time job for most persons, 
but not for Dr. Hammond. He has continued to teach and publish 
regularly. Excluding book reviews, his publications list includes 
87 titles. He is best known for his scholarly editing of the Quivara 
Society publications (13 volumes), the Coronado Cuarto Centen- 
nial series (12 volumes), and the Larkin papers (10 volumes). 

Withal, Dr. Hammond is a quiet, patient, modest, affable gentle- 
man. May he enjoy his retirement and, freed from administrative 
duties, find it possible to carry out the writing he has planned for 
himself. 

University of Wyoming T. A. Larson 



256 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Peter Hurd. A Portrait Sketch from Life. By Paul Horgan. 
(Austin: University of Texas Press for the Amon Carter 
Museum of Western Art. 1965. Illus. $7.50) 

This reviewer has been an admirer of the art of Peter Hurd since 
acquiring one of his lithographs while in New Mexico in the late 
1930's, and has watched with interest the development of his work 
throughout the years. 

This brief biography of the artist, written by the prominent 
author and historian Paul Horgan, gives more intimate glimpses of 
Hurd than could most biographers, for Hurd and Horgan have 
been close friends since their cadet days in 1919-1920 at the New 
Mexico Military Institute at Roswell. 

Horgan sketchily follows Hurd's career from his cadet days to 
the present: from his first drawings made as a cadet; through 
his trial period of decision as to whether to continue at West Point 
and follow an army career or break with the military life and devote 
himself to art; and through his various phases of development as 
an artist. 

Peter Hurd is a truly Western artist and in his paintings he has 
captured with understanding and sympathy the beauty and mystery 
of his beloved southwest country. His use of lights and shadows 
and of colors is outstanding, and through his art he gives a true 
feeling of what the southwest is. Through his more recent mural 
work he has gone farther and given with great understanding the 
history of the area: what the southwest was, what it is, and how it 
has come to be what it is now. 

The book contains 16 black and white plates covering his paint- 
ings from 1936-1961. Six color plates, with one exception, are 
all of the 1960 period. All are excellent examples of his work. 

This is another of the fine contributions through publication 
being made by the Amon Carter Museum of Fort Worth, Texas. 

Cheyenne Henryetta Berry 



UNIVERSITY PRESS REPRINTS 

The following reprints in paperback editions are now off the 
press and may be obtained through bookstores. 

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA PRESS 

Bison Books 

Pawnee Bill, A Biography of Major Gordon W . Lillie, White Chief 
of the Pawnees, Wild West Showman, Last of the Land 
Boomers, by Glenn Shirley. $1.50 

The West That Was. From Texas to Montana. By John Leakey, 

as told to Nellie Yost. $ 1 .50. 



Contributors 



Lewis L. Gould, a graduate student and acting instructor at 
Yale University, has done extensive research on several prominent 
political figures in Wyoming. The subject of his Ph.D. thesis is 
Willis Van Devanter in Wyoming politics. His article on A. S. 
Mercer and the Johnson County War appeared in Arizona and the 
West, Spring, 1965, published by the University of Arizona Press. 

Dr. M. Paul Holsinger, native of Philadelphia, earned his 
B.A. degree at Duke University, and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees 
at the University of Denver. He is now an assistant professor of 
history at Oregon State University, and he and his wife and two 
young children make their home in Corvallis. Previous published 
writings include an article, "Amache" (Japanese Relocation in 
Colorado, 1942-1945) in The Colorado Magazine in 1964. 

Frederick I. Olson is contributing for the first time to the 
Annals of Wyoming, but he has had articles published in the 
Milwaukee Journal, the Wisconsin Magazine of History, Mid- 
America, The Mississippi Valley Historical Review and the Dic- 
tionary of Wisconsin Biography. Dr. Olson was born in Wiscon- 
sin, attended Harvard University where he received his B.A., M.A. 
and Ph.D. degrees, and since 1946 has taught at the University of 
Wisconsin-Milwaukee and its predecessor institutions. He is now 
professor of history at that institution and associate dean (Mil- 
waukee), University Extension Division, University of Wisconsin. 
Dr. Olson is a member of numerous professional organizations and 
his hobbies include golf and collecting Lincolniana stamps, coins 
and books. Dr. and Mrs. Olson have three children. 

Dr. Wilson O. Clough, long-time professor of Enghsh at the 
University of Wyoming, has since 1956 been the William Robert- 
son Coe Professor of American Studies, and Professor Emeritus 
since 1961. He has authored the History of the University of 
Wyoming as well as several other books, among them Our Long 
Heritage, now in paperback as Intellectual Origins of American 
Thought, and most recently The Necessary Earth. He has just 
completed, for future publication, the translation of a Frenchman's 
letters written from Colorado, Cheyenne and Fort Laramie in 
1867. 

Charles B. Erlanson, Sheridan rancher, has lived in Wyoming 
since 1911, having immigrated from his native Sweden, where he 
was bom in 1891. In his youth he estabUshed friendships with 
many Cheyenne Indians on the Cheyenne reservation in Montana, 



258 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and is still looked upon as a tribal member. His hobby is western 
history. 

Timothy J. Mahoney, retired stockman, rancher and merchant, 
has lived in Wyoming most of his life. Born in Denver in 1893, 
he attended schools there, including Sacred Heart College, now 
Regis College, and moved to Wyoming in 191 1. He writes poetry 
as a hobby and has had historical articles published in the Casper 
newspapers. 

Burton S. Hill. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 34, No. 1, 
April, 1962, pp. 131-132. 

Hans Kleiber. See Annals of Wyoming, Vol. 33, No. 1, April, 
1961, p. 115. 



/// t//e West-Jn My U^^st 

By 
Charles B. Erlanson 

I've lived all my life in the West — in my West, 

And I know not the world beyond my own little nest. 

But strangers who ask me if I know what I miss. 
To live in this far West, I answer like this: 

"When you rise in the morning, at the break of the day; 

When the sunbeams are driving the shadows away, 
And you're filling your lungs with the pure mountain air, 

Perfumed from the flowers that bloom over there; 

And the robins are singing their sweet melodies. 
In the joy of the freedom — there high in the trees, 

If the call of 'the open' has entered your breast. 

You'll then know the reason why I love the Far West." 

When I ride all alone, in the hours of the night, 

When the moon and the stars throw their wonderful light, 

With the landscape in silver — the world seems at rest — 
I feel nearer to God — out here in the West. 



Qeneml hdez 



Adams, Franklin P., 37:1:81 

Adams, T. B., 37:1:35, 37 

Afro- American Club, 37:1:53 

Allen, Charles, 37:2:182 

Allen, John W., Legends and Lore 

of Southern Illinois, review, 37:1: 

130-140 
Allison, Archie, 37:1:113 
Alta Vista (1875), 37:1:85 
Andrews, N. L., 37:2:148; photo, 

152 
Andrews, Ralph W., Picture Gallery 

Pioneers, review, 37:1:132 
Antelope Gap, 37:1:94 
Antillion's Spanish Map (1802), 37: 

2:212 
Arber, Perry, 37:1:96 
Argesheimer, Hattie, 37:1:31 
Argesheimer, J. C, photo, 37:1:5 
Arizona Crossing, 37:1:84 
"Arkansas Traveller", 37:1:54 
Armijo, Jose, 37:1:87 
Armijo, Miguel, 37:1:87 
Arnold, Thurman, Fair Fights and 

Foul, review, 37:2:247 
Arp & Hammond, 37:1:53, 69 
Arrowsmith Map (1834), 37:2:220 
Awards, Junior Historical, 37:1:120 
Ayer's Diary, 37:1:83 



Bacon, Billy, 37:1:89 

Badwater Creek, 37:2:220 

Baird, J. C, 37:1:44 

Baker, Charles S., 37:1:48 

Baker, Nathan Addison, 1843-1934, 
by Nolle Mumey, review, 37:2: 
249 

Baker, O. A., 37:2:194 

Balch, Henry G., 37:1:8 

Ball, Statehood Celebration, 37:1: 
66 

Balloon ascension, 37:1:66 

Ballot, adoption of secret, 37:1:11 

Bancroft, History of Nevada, Colo- 
rado and Wyoming, 1540-1888, 
37:2:176 

Bancroft Library, The Friends of 
the, GPH: A n Informal Record of 
George P. Hammond and His 
Era in the Bancroft Library, re- 
view, 37:2:254-255 

Bar M outfit, 37:2:230 



Barber, Amos W., 37:2:188, 194, 

205 
Bard, Isaac, (Diaries) 37:1:83, 84 
Bard, Mrs. Isaac (Rose), 37:1:82, 

85 
Bard, Mattie, 37:1:85 
Bard, Mother, 37:1:86 
Bare, John, 37:1:104 
Barker, Billy, 37:2:224 
Barlow, Bill, 37:1:47 
Barlow, L. H., 37:1:113 
Barnes, George T., 37:2:163 
Barrett, Alice C. Donoghue, 37:2: 

237 
Barrett, Mrs. Augusta K. Hogan, 

37:2:238 
Barrett, Frank A., 37:2:234; photo, 

237 
Barrett, James E., 37:2:238 
Barrett, John, 37:1:90 
Barrett, Marialyce (Mrs. Richard 

Tobin), 37:2:238 
Barrow, M. C, 37:2:199, 201, 202 
Bartholdi, Anita, 37:1:121 
Bartlett, Albert, 37:1:75 
Bartlett, I. S., photo, 37:1:5 
Bartlett, Mrs. I. S., 37:1:51, 58, 99; 

37:2:172, 177 
Bates, Lewis E., 37:1:104 
Battle of the Butte, by Charles B. 

Erlanson, 37:1:121 
Baxter, George W., photo, 37:1:5, 

8, 15, 18, 19, 21, 36, 56; 37:2:178 
Beard, Mrs. Cyrus, 37:1:113 
Beard, Frances B., 37:2:187 
Bear Springs Stage Station: 37:1:83, 

87 
Beattie Brothers, 37:2:226 
Beaver Men, The, by Mari Sandoz, 

37:1:127-128 
Beaverhead Fork, 37:2:216 
Beck, James B., 37:2:167 
Beckwith, A. C, 37:2:166, 198 
Beckwith, Quinn & Company, 37:1: 

10 
Bennett v. Barber, 37:2:192 
Bennett and Company, H. A., 37: 

2:154 
Bennett, George, 37:2:224 
Bennett, Harvey A., 37:2:150, 153, 

154 
Bennett, Prosecuting Attorney, 37: 

2:191 
Benton, T. S., 37:2:199 
Bergersen, Pete, 37:1:35, 36 



260 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Berry, Henryetta, Peter Hard. A 
Portrait Sketch from Life, review, 
37:2:256 

Bettlyoun, Susan Bordeaux, 37:1:89 

Beuchner & Company, (Zehner) 
37:1:53, 68 

Biddle Lake, 37:2:218, 219 

Big Horn River, 37:2:216-219 

Bigham, Mollie, 37:2:154 

Birmingham, — , 37:1:35 

Black Hills, 37:2:217, 220 

Black Hills Stage Coach, Cheyenne, 
photo, 37:1:76 

Black Hills Stage Company (1879- 
1882), 37:1:93 

Black V. Territory, 37:2:184 

Black, Tom, 37:1:104, 106 

Blake, J. W., 37:2:176 

Blydenhaugh v. Burdick, 37:2:192 

Bobiirg V. Prahe et al., 37:2:184 

Bohlen, Ted, The Schwartze Ranch 
or Pole Creek Ranch, 37:1:81 

"Boiling Spring", 37:2:219 

Bon Ton Stables, 37:1:53 

Booker, — , 37:1:68 

Bordeaux, by Virginia Trenholm, 
37:1:90, 95 

Bordeaux, James, 37:1:89, 90 

Bordeaux, Louis, 37:1:90 

Borland, Matt, 37:2:196 

Bourke, St. John G., 37:1:97 

Bourne, Alan W., The Custer Al- 
bum, A Pictorial Biography of 
General George A. Custer, re- 
view, 37: 1 : 134 

Bower, Senator Earl T., 37:1:113 

Bowie, Al, 37:2:223 

Bowman, Jack, 37:1:96 

Bowron, Frank, 37:1:121 

Brace, Sid, 37:1:104 

Bradford Brinton Museum, Big 
Horn, Wyoming, 37:1:121 

Bradley, Florence, 37:1:31 

Bradley, J. Guy, 37:1:103 

Bradley, William R., 37:1:75 

Bragg, Mrs. William F., Sr. (Mary), 
37:1:113 

Bray, Major Huley, 37:1:80 

Braziel, Jud, 37:2:150-155 

Brice, Dave, 37:2:224 

Brier, Col. W. W., Jr., 37:1:80 

Bright, Alfred S., 37:2:182 

Bright, Emery, 37:2:231 

Bristol, Sadie, 37:1:31 

Brock, Shirley, 37:2:147; sketch by, 
148 

Brooks, B. B.. 37:2:197, 202 

Brooks & Barrett Ranch, 37:2:237 

Brost, Gary Glen, 37:1:121 

Brown, Gene, 37:1:121, photo, 122 



Brown, J. H. C, 37:1:98 
Brown, Mabel, 37:1:121 
Brown, Melville C. (Judge), photo, 

37:1:4; 5, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21, 22, 

24, 29, 44, 50, 56, 58, 61 
Brown, — , (stage driver) "Stutter- 
ing", 37:1:86 
Bryan, P. Gad, 37:2:187 
Buckeye Rovers in the Gold Rush, 

edited by Howard L. Scamehorn, 

review, 37:2:251 
Buckwalter, — , 37:1:35 
Budd, Harriet C, 37:2:209 
"Buenaventura" (Green River), 37: 

2:213, 219 
Buffalo Bill, Wild West Show, 37: 

1 ■ 88 
Buffalo in 1884, photo, 37:2:146 
"Bull Pen" (North Park), 37:2:219 
Burgess, Terri Agnes, 37:1:121; 

photo, 122 
Burhans, Rachel, 37:2:175, 176 
Burnett, — , 37:2:231 
Burnett, Finn, 37:2:239 
Burritt, Charles H., 37:1:24; 37:2: 

151; photo, 152; 196 
Butler. A. D., 37:1:80 



Cahill, Margaret, 37:1:31 
Calamity Jane, 37:1:86 
Caldwell, George R., 37:1:10 
Caldwell, Isaac P., 37:2:176 
Camp Carlin, 37:1:35, 84, 85 
Camp Robinson (Nebraska), 37:1: 

98 
Camp, Charles L., Philo White's 
Narrative of a Cruize in the Pa- 
cific to South America and Cali- 
fornia on the U. S. Sloop-of-War 
"Dale" 1841-1843, review, 37:2: 
252 
Campbell, A. C, 37:1:14, 17, 18 
Campbell, Robert (1834), 37:1:93 
Canton, Frank M., 37:2:151; photo, 

152; 190 
Carey, Joseph M., 37:1:7, 9, 10, 35, 
37, 40, 43, 45, 47, 49, 56, photo 
of home, 70; Joseph M. Carey 
and Wyoming Statehood, by Lewis 
L. Gould, 37:2:157-203; photo, 
37:1:16; 37:2:158 
Carley, Maurine, 37:1:75; and Vir- 
ginia Cole Trenholm, The Sho- 
shonis: Sentinels of the Rockies, 
review, 37:1:125-126 



GENERAL INDEX 



261 



Carpender, Mary Elizabeth, Fagan 

Ranch or Horse Creek Station, 

37:1:82 
Carrington, Edward, 37:1:86 
Carroll, John P., photo, 37:1:4, 5, 

7, 9, 12 
Casebeer, J. A., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Casper Chronicles, by Casper Zonta 

Club, 37:1:121 
Celebration of Wyoming Statehood, 

37:1:35 
Chadwick, Mrs. Russell (Elise Nita 

Hunt), 37:2:235 
Chambers, Joe, 37:2:226 
Chaplin, W. E., photo, 37:1:4; 5, 14 
Chapman, Mark, 37:1:84 
Chapman v. Barber, 37:2:192 
Chappell, Gordon, The Buckeye 

Rovers in the Gold Rush, review, 

37:2:252 
Chatterton, Fenimore C, 37:2:188, 

196, 197, 198 
Cheyenne Bible Society (1876), 37: 

1:95 
Cheyenne and Black Hills Stage and 

Express Line, 37:1:77; map, 78; 

79, 94, 96, 98, 101 
Cheyenne Business houses, 1875 

listing, 37:1:77 
Cheyenne Club, 37:1:80 
Cheyenne Commercial Company, 

37:1:53, 67 
Cheyenne Daily Sun, Excerpts from 

the, 37:1:33-73 
Cheyenne-Deadwood Stage Line at 

Fort Laramie, 37:1:98 
Cheyenne-Deadwood Trail Trek, 

37:1:75-109 
Cheyenne During Stagecoach Days, 

by William Dubois, 37:1:77 
Cheyenne Gun Club, 37:1:44 
Cheyenne and Northern Railroad, 

37:1:80 
Cheyenne Pass, 37:1:87 
Cheyenne Ramblers Club, 37:1:43 
Cheyenne River, 37:2:217 
Christian v. McReynolds, 37:2:192 
Chug Springs, by Hazel Ferguson, 

37:1:93 
Chugwater Stage Station, by Russell 

Staats, 37:1:88 
Chugwater Valley, 37:1:87, 88 
Church, John, 37:1:100 
Clannan, Mike, 37:2:184 
Clark, Albert, 37:1:67 
Clark, Clarence D., photo, 37:1:4; 

5, 14, 21, 22, 24, 29, 50, 64; 37: 

2:195-205 
Clark, Gibson, 37:1:37; 37:2:197 
Clarke, Prof. E., 37:1:68 



Clarke, W. J., 37:2:190 

Clark's Fork, 37:2:216-218 

Clay, Charles, 37:1:86 

Close, Martha, 37:2:243 

Clough, Wilson O., 37:2:176, Wyo- 

niing's Earliest Place Names?, 

211-220; The Necessary Earth, 

review, 245; contributor, 257 
Coffeen, Donald and Grace, editors 

of The Custer Battle Book, re- 
view, 37: 1 : 134 
Coffeen, Henry A., photo, 37:1:5; 

14, 15, 18, 21, 22; 37:2:195, 200 
Coffeen, Herbert A., The Custer 

Battle Book, review, 37:1:134 
Coffman, Billy, 37:2:226, 227 
Coleman, Curely, 37:1:96 
Collens, — , 37:2:231 
Collins, J. S. & Company, 37:1:69, 

98 
Colter, (John), 37:2:217, 218 
Company "B", Wyoming National 

Guard, 37:1:53 
Company "H" of the Girl Militia of 

Wyoming State Guard, photo, 

37:1:30; 31, 52 
Company "K" of the Girl Militia of 

Wyoming State Guard, 37:1:31, 

52 
Conaway, Arthur, 37:2:187, 205 
Conaway, Asbury B. (Judge), pho- 
to, 37:1:4; 5, 14, 17, 19, 24, 44 
Concord Coach, 37:1:77, 79 
Conrad and Company, (John H.), 

sketch by Shirley Brock, 37:2: 

148, 150 
Constitutional Convention, photo, 

37:1:4; election of, 8; 15, 17, 25 
Convery's Livery Stable, 37:2:154 
Cooper, "Owl-Eyed" Tom, 37:1:104 
Copper Mine, 37:1:101 
Corlett, Lacey and Riner, 37:2:178 
Corlett, W. W., 37:1:29; 37:2:167 
Corn, Samuel, 37:2:187, 203 
Gotten, Thomas M., 37:2:182 
Cottonwood Creek, 37:1:91 
Cottonwood Draw, 37:1:99 
Cowboy, by Ross Santee, review, 

37:1:136 
Cowboy Saloon, Buffalo (1880), 

photo, 37:2:150 
Cowhick, Grace, 37:1:52 
Cowhick, J. W., 37:1:95 
Cowhick, Rev. J. Y., 37:1:54 
Cowhick, Ora, 37:1:31 
Crampton, C. Gregory, Standing Up 

County, review, 37:1:128 
Crane, Arthur Griswold, 37:2:176; 

photo, 234; 236 



262 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Crane, Lura May DeArment, 37:2: 

237 
Crane, Mary, 37:2:236 
Crane, Paul, 37:2:237 
Crescent Basin, 37:1:99 
Crisler, Miss Marie M., 37:1:113 
Crook, General George, 37:1:87, 

90, 91 
Cuilom, Senator, 37:1:39 
Cuny, Adolph, 37:1:96, 97 
Cuny Hills, 37:2:232 
Cuny Ranch, 37:1:90 
Cushing, Raymond, 37:2:223 
Custer Album, The, by Lawrence A. 

Frost, review, 37:1:133 
Custer Battle Book, The, by Herbert 

A. Coffeen, review, 37:1:134 
CY, (Carey) outfit, 37:2:226, 232 



Darrow, Bob, Old Mother "Feather- 
legs" Shephard, 37:1:102-104 

Daugherty, — , 37:1:86 

David, B. B., 37:1:35 

Davis, Dick, 37:1:102 

Davis, H. W., 37:2:190 

Davis, lona, 37: 1 :31 

Davis, J. E., 37:2:202 

Deadhead Creek, 37:2:221 

Deadwood Mine, 37:1:101 . 

Dear, J. W., 37:1:101, 106 

Demmon, Mrs. O. J., 37:1:103, 106 

Deniecke, W. A., 37:2:196 

Devine, Bob, 37:2:232 

Dewey, Dave, 37:2:224 

Diapert, "Cousin Ike", 37:1:103 

Dickinson, J. M., 37:2:193 

Divide Hill, 37:1:102 

Donzelman, Attorney General, 37: 
1:37; 37:2:172, 206 

Douglas, Gertrude, photo, 37:1:30; 
31 

Douglas Rejoices, by Bill Barlow, 
37:1:46 

Dover, W. E. (Ned) 37:1:113 

Dow, Mrs. Mae, 37:1:121 

Downey, Corlett, photo, 37:1:4; 5 

Downey, Stephen W., photo, 37:1: 
4; 5, 14 

Driesen, Otto, 37:2:222 

Drouillard, George (Drewyer), 37: 
2:217, 218 

Dubois, William, Chevetine During 
Stage Coach Days, 37:1:75, 77-80 

Duck Bar, 37:1:91 

Duffy, Tom, 37:1:88 

Durfee, Lieutenant, 37:1:43 

Dwyer, Miss Nellie, 37:1:58 

Dyer, Tim, 37:1:81 



Eagle's Nest Gap, 37:1:94, 96 
Eagle's Nest Stage Station, by Mr. 

and Mrs. Elvin Hudson, 37:1: 

94-96 
Ecoffey, Jules, ranch, 37:1:90; 97 
Edwards, Paul M., Red Cloud and 

the Sioux Problem, review, 37:2: 

249 
Ehernberger, James L. and Francis 

G. Gschwind, Smoke Across the 

Prairie, review, 37:1:135-136; 

Smoke Over the Divide, review, 

37:2:254 
Eklund, Dick, 37:1:75, 99 
Elliott, Henry S., 37:2:187 
Elbrader, Frank, 37:1:113 
Elliot, Miss — , 37:1:52 
Elliott, Henry S., photo 37:1:4; 5 
Emigrant Trail Trek No. 15, 37:1: 

75-109 
England, J. A., 37:1:69 
Episcopal Guild Shop, 37:1:107 
Erianson, Charles B., Battle of the 

Butte, 37:1:121; contributor, 37: 

2:257-258; In the West-In My 

West, poem, 37-2:258 
Espy, Winifred, 37:2:241 
Eustis Lake, 37:2:218, 219 
Evanston, Celebration of Statehood, 

37:1:46 



Fagan, Michael, 37:1:83, 84 
Fagan Ranch or Horse Creek Sta- 
tion, by Mary Elizabeth Carpen- 
der, 37:1:82 
Fair Fights and Foul, by Thurman 

Arnold, review, 37:2:247 
Featherle^s (Old Mother) Shephard, 

by Bob Darrow, 37:1:102 
Ferguson, Hazelle, Chug Springs, 

37:1:93 
Ferguson Ranch, 37:2:223 
Ferguson Street, 37:1:35, 44, 71 
Fetterman Cut Off, 37:1:89, 94 
Fetz, H. B., The Rawlins Jubilee, 

37:1:46 
Fisher, John Andrew, Cowboy, re- 
view, 37:1:136-137 
Fitch, E. E., 37:1:113 
Flag, U. S. 44 Stars, sketch, 37:1:74 
Flaharty, Clifford, 37:2:221 
Flaharty, Myrtle and Earl, 37:2:221 
Flannery, L. G. (Pat), 37:1:113 
Florin, Lambert, Western Ghost 
Town Shadows, review. 37:1:131- 
132 
Foote, Frank M., photo 37:1:4: 5; 
37:2:195 



GENERAL INDEX 



263 



Ford, J. M., 37:1:98 

Fort C. F. Smith, 37:1:89 

Fort Fetterman, 37:1:89, 90 

Fort Laramie, 37:1:84, 85, 88, 89, 
96, 98, 99 

Fort McKinney, 37:2:190 

Fort Phil Kearny, 37:1:89 

Fort Reno, 37:1:89 

Fort Russell (D. A.), 37:1:43, 80, 
84, 89 

Fouchs, Ed, 37:1:90 

Fowler, Benjamin F., 37:2:183, 192, 
195, 200, 202, 205 

Fox. George, photo, 37:1:4; 5 

Frank, Meyer, photo, 37:1:4; 5 

Franklin, — , (Outlaw), 37:1:90 

Frederick Ranch, 37:1:99 

Frederick, Ruth, Government Farm, 
37:1:99 

Freight Line, Fort Russell to Fort 
Laramie (1867), 37:1:77 

Fremont's Expedition, 37:2:220 

Friday, (Chinese Cook), 37:1:101 

Frink, Maurice, 37:2:173 

Frost, Lawrence A., The Custer 
Album. A Pictorial Biography 
of General George A. Custer, re- 
view, 37:1:133 

Furness, Helen, photo 37:1:30; 31 



Gage, Dick C, 37:2:242 

Gage, Jack R., photo, 37:2:240; 

241, 242 
Gage, Jack R., Jr., 37:2:242 
Gage, La Vaughn Phelan, 37:2:242 
Gage, Leona Switzer, 37:2:242 
Gage, Dr. Will Vernon, 37:2:242 
Gallatin River, 37:2:216 
Gap Creek, 37:2:219 
Gape, Minnie, photo, 37:1:30; 31 
Gamier, Lallee, 37:1:91 
Gamier, "Little Bat", 37:1:91 
Garton, Bob and Thelma, 37:2:223 
Gatchell, Mrs. Jim, 37:1:113 
Gathering of Zion, The, by Wallace 

Stegner, review, 37:1:137-138 
Gilmore, Salisbury and Patrick, 37: 

1:79 
Girl Called Nettie, A, by Burton 

Hill, 37:2:147-156 
Girl Militia of Wyoming, Company 

H, photo, 37:1:30; 31; Company 

K, 37:1:31 
Glafcke, Major Herman, photo, 37: 

1: 4; 5, 31; 37:2:179 
Gloye, Alwenie, 37:1:31 
Goetz, Mamie, 37:1:31 



Gold Bullion Shipments (1876), 37: 

1:77 
Good Fortune Mine, 37:1:99 
Goodwin, O. P., 37:1:83 
Gordon, Alex, 37:1:113 
Gordon, Kittie, 37:1:31 
Goshen County Historical Society, 

37:1:99 
Goshen Hole, 37:1:95 
Gould, Lewis L., Joseph M. Carey 

and Wyoming Statehood, 37:2: 

157-169; contributor, 257 
Government Farm, by Ruth Fred- 
erick, 37:1:99 
Governors of the State of Wyoming, 

1943-1965, compiled by Mrs. 

Mrs. Viola A. McNealey, 37:2: 

235-243 
GPH: An Informal Record of 

George P. Hammond and His Era 

in the Bancroft Library, by The 

Friends of the Bancroft Library, 

review, 37:2:254-255 
Gramm, Otto, 37:2:195, 196, 202 
Granger, Levina, photo, 37:1:30; 31 
Grant in Aid Program, 37:1:115 
Grant, Mortimer N., photo, 37:1: 

4; 5 
Grant, President Ulysses S. (1875), 

37:1:85 
Graves, — , 37:1:86 
Gray, Senator, 37:1:39, 40 
Great Western Mining and Milling, 

37:1:107 
Green, Fannie M., 37:2:150 
Griffith, James B., Jr., George 

Lathrop Monument, 37:1:104 
Groesbeck, H. V. B., 37:2:187, 188, 

203 
Grout, Virgil S., 37:2:177 
Gschwind, Francis G. and James L. 

Ehernberger, Smoke Across the 

Prairie, review, 37:1:135-136; 

Smoke Over the Divide, review, 

37:2:254 
Guernsey, Charles A., 37:1:11; 37: 

2:181 
"Gunner," a dog, 37:1:35 



Hamilton, — , 37:1:100 
Hamlin, C. C, 37:2:202 
Hammond, Arp &, 37:1:53, 69 
Hanna, Mrs. Elwood (Myra), 37:2: 

221 
Hanna, Mark, 37:2:202, 203, 204 
Hanna, Susan, 37:2:221 
Hansen, CHfford P., photo, 37:2: 

240; 242 



264 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Hansen, Martha Close, 37:2:243 
Hansen, Peter, 37:2:243 
Hansen, Peter C, 37:2:242 
Happy Jack Schoolhouse, 37:1:112 
Hard Knocks, by Harry Young, 37: 

1:97 
Harmon, Judson, 37:2:193 
Harris, Marianne, Soldier and 

Brave. 37:1:121 
Hart, Herbert M., Old Forts of the 

Southwest, review, 37:1:129-131 
Hart Mountain, 37:2:217, 218 
Harvey, Frederick H., photo, 37:1: 

4; 5; 37:2:182 
Hat Creek, 37:1:95 
Hawk, George, 37:1:95, 96, 98 
Hawk, Tom, 37:1:98 
Hay, Alex, Jr., 37:2:222 
Hay, Mrs. Edna, 37:2:222 
Hay, Henry G., photo, 37:1:4; 5; 

37:2:167 
Hayford, (J. H.), 37:1:45 
Haygood, Adah, photo 37:1:30; 31 
Hazen, Joseph, 37:2:197 
Heath, R. N., 37:1:67 
Heaton, Bill, 37:2:149, 151 
Held, Ed, 37:2:224 
Hell's Gap, 37:1:99 
Helvey, Robert T., 37:1:113 
Henderson v. Burdick. 37:2:192 
Henderson, Harry B., Sr., 37:2:207, 

235 
Henderson, M. Helen (Map), 37:1: 

78 
Henderson, Paul, 37:1:75, 99 
Henke, O. R. (Dude), 37:2:221, 

222, 223, 232 
Henke, Raymond, 37:2:223 
Henke, Rudolph, 37:2:223 
Hermann. Gretchen, photo, 37:1: 

30; 31 
Hesse, Fred W., 37:2:147 
Hiatt, George, 37:2:226 
Hickey, John, 37:2:241 
Hickey, John Joseph, 37:2:239; 

photo, 240 
Hickey, Paul, 37:2:241 
Hickey, Rooney and Walton, 37:2: 

241 
Hickey, Winifred Espy, 37:2:241 
Hicks, John D., Constitutions of the 

Northwest States, 37:1:5 
Hildebrand, Lyle, 37:1:75 
Hill, Burton S.. A Girl Called Net- 
tie, 37:2:147-156 
Hilyer, — , 37:1:68 
Hines, C. W., 37:2:154 
Hinkle, J. D., 37:2:153 
History of Wyoming, by T. A. Lar- 

.son,'37:l:5' 



Hoback Canyon (1811), 37:2:218 

Hog Ranch, 37:1:97 

Hogan, Bill, 37:2:238 

Hogle, Jim, 37:1:98 

Holbrook, Dr. R. E., 37:2:153 

Holcome v. Burdick, 37:2:192 

Holden, C. W., photo, 37:1:4; 5, 
18, 20 

Holliday, W. H., 37:2:166, 168, 200 

Holsinger, M. Paul, Willis Van De- 
vanter: Wyoming Leader, 18S4- 
1897. 37:2:170-206, contributor, 
257 

Holt's Drug Store, (George L.), 37: 
2:153 

Homan, George, 37:1:79 

Homsher, Lola M., Nathan Addison 
Baker (1843-1934), review, 37:2: 
249-251; Philo White's Narrative 
of a Cruize in the Pacific to South 
America and California on the 
V. S. Sloop-of-War "Dale" 1841- 
1843, review 37:2:252-253 

Hood's Map (1834), 37:2:220 

Hooper, Tom, 37:2:182 

Hophof, Al, 37:2:233 

Hopkins, Mark, photo, 37:1:4; 5 

Hord, Mrs. Charles (Violet), 37:1: 
115 

Horgan, Paul, Peter Hurd, A Por- 
trait Sketch from Life, review, 
37:2:256 

Horn, Tom, 37:2:223 

Horse Creek Station or Pagan 
Ranch, by Mary Elizabeth Car- 
pender, 37:1:82 

Horseshoe Creek, 37:1:91; 37:2: 
225 

Houghton, Vilette, 37:1:31 

Housman, Gladys, song, "In Wyo- 
ming," 37:1:121 

Howard v. Bowman, 37:2:184 

Howard, Doc, 37:1:79 

Hoyt, George W., 37:1:36, 38 

Hoyt. John W., photo, 37:1:4; 5, 
14, 24, 56 

Hoyt Station, 37:1:100 

HR Connected Ranch, 37:2:224, 
231 

Hudson, Mr. and Mrs. Elvin, Eagle's 
Nest Stage Station, 37:1:94 

Hunt, Emily Nathelle Higby, 37:2: 
235 

Hunt. Lester Calloway, U. S. Sena- 
tor, 37:1:74; 37:2:235-236; pho- 
to, 234 

Hunt, Lester, Jr., 37:2:235 

Hunt, Wilson Price, 37:2:218 

Hunter, Alexander, 37:2:224 

Hunter, John, 37:1:96 



GENERAL INDEX 



265 



Huntington, Gertrude, 37:2:196 
Huntington, Nat, 37:2:179, 180 
Hunton, Blanche, 37:1:91 
Hunton, Jim, 37:1:90 
Hunton, John, (Hotel), 37:1:89,90, 

95, 97 
Hunton, Thomas, 37:1:93, 95 
Hard, Peter. A Portrait Sketch from 

Life, by Paul Horgan, review, 

37:2:256 



Igoe Creek, 37:1:103 

liidian Chiefs, receptions for (1875), 
37:1:79 

Ingraham, Carrie, 37:1:31 

Inman, Prof. George F., 37:1:68 

Inter Ocean Hotel, 37:1:36, 77, 79, 
80, 85 

In the West-In My West, by Charles 
B. Erlanson, poem, 37:2:258 

Iron Mountain, 37:2:222 

Iron ore (1st shipment from Wyo- 
ming), 1890, 37:1:99 
• Irvine, W. C, 37:2:190, 225 

Irvine, W. W., 37:2:177 

Ivinson, Edward, 37:2:195 

IXL Wagon, 37:1:54 



Jackson, W. Turrentine, 37:2:178 

James, Nat, 37:2:153 

Jayne, Dr. Clarence D., 37:1:113 

Jefferson River, 37:2:216 

Jeffrey Center (Rawlins), 37:1:110 

Jeffrey, J. K., 37:1:56 

Jenkins, Gus, 37:1:35 

Jenkins, Mrs. J. F., 37:1:50 

Jenkins, Theresa A., 37:1:28, 54 

John the Sailor, 37:2:226 

Johns, Ranger, 37:1:86 

Johnson County War. 37:2:190, 
194 

Johnson, Ellis, 37:1:107 

Johnston, Ada, 37:1:31 

Johnston, James A., photo, 37:1: 
4; 5 

Johnston, Mark, 37:2:225 

Jones and Harrington (liquor deal- 
ers), 37:2:153 

Jones, Henry, 37:1:113 

Jones, J. A., 37:2:154 

Jones Ranch, 37:2:223 

Jones, Senator of Arkansas, 37:1:40 

Joyce, Frank M., 37:2:172 



Keefe, M. P., 37:1:53, 69 

Keeline outfit, 37:2:228 

Kellogg, Mattie, 37:2:153, 154 

Kelly, Hi, 37:1:88 

Kelly, Kate, 37:1:31 

Kelly, Mary (grave), 37:1:115 

Kent, T. A. Bank Building, photo, 

37:1:32; 44 
Kepler, — , 37:1:35 
Ketchum, Frank, 37:1:103 
King, Mrs. — , (robbed), 37:1:95 
Kleiber, Hans, Wyoming Summits 

Softly Glinting, poem, 37:2:244 
Klett's Saloon, 37:2:184 
Knight, Jesse, 37:2:177, 193, 197 
Kooi, Lorna, 37:2:239 
Kuykendall, Judge William, 37:1:79 



La Bonte Creek, 37:1:91 

Lacey, John W., 37:2:171, 178, 182, 
189 

Ladeau, Antoine, 37:1:89 

Ladeau, Baptiste, 37:1:90, 94 

Lane, Charles Elmer, 37:1:113 

Langhof. Hank, 37:2:223 

Lank, William, 37:1:100 

Lannen, Billie, 37:1:87 

Lannen, Mrs. Matilda, 37:1:113 

Larson, Robert R., Old Forts of the 
Southwest, review, 37:1:131 

Larson, T. A., Wyoming Statehood, 
37:1:5-29, 33, contributors, 141; 
GPH: An Informal Record of 
George P. Hammond and His Era 
in the Bancroft Library, review, 
37:2:254-255 

Latham, Dick, 37:1:86 

Larsen, Hans, 37:1:113 

Lathrop, George (Marvin M.), 37: 
1:79; George Lathrop Monument, 
by James B. Griffith, Jr., 104-105 

Layden, Mamie L.. photo, 37:1:30; 
31 

LD Ranch, 37:1:91 

Lee, Jessie, 37: 1 :31 

Legends and Lore of Southern 
Illinois, by John W. Allen, review, 
37:1:138-140 

Leiter outfit, 37:2:229 

Lest We Forget, by Timothy J. Ma- 
honey, poem, 37:2:210 

Lewis and Clark, 37:2:212, 214-215 

Library Hall, 37:1:35 

Linford, Velma, 37:2:172 

Link V. U.P.R.R., 37:2:189 

Lisa's Post, 37:2:218 



266 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Little Bear Sta^e Station, by Grace 

Logan Schaedel, 37:1:84 
Little Big Horn River, 37:2:217, 

218 
Little Missouri, Wyoming's, 37:2: 

212, 217 
Lobban, James M.. 37:2:150-154, 

photo, 152 
Logan, Ernest, 37:1:85 
Logan, Hill, 37:1:85 
Lohlien & Sigwart, 37:1:69 
Loomis, Mike, 37:1:96 
Lott, John H., 37:2:196 
Lowry, John, 37:1:96 
Lucas, J. Y., 37:2:225-226 
Lung, Sam, 37:2:151 



Mac Farland, — , 37:1:86 
Macginnis, William L., 37:2:182 
Madden, Jack, 37:1:106 
Madison, Mr., 37:1:44 
Madison River, 37:2:216 
Mahan, Richard, The Beaver Men, 

review, 37:1:127-128 
Mahoney, Timothy J., Lest We 

Forget, poem, 37:2:210 . 
Manuel's Fort, 37:2:218 
Map, Cheyenne-Deadwood Road 

(1876-1887), 37:1:78 
Masi, Postmaster, 37:1:35-36 
Mathers, Mrs. — , 37:1:86 
"Mato" (Bear) Bordeaux, 37:1:89 
Maxwell, Thomas, 37:1:88 
McAuslan, Edward, 37:1:123 
McCandlish, John M., photo, 37:1: 

4; 5 
McCarty, Mrs. and baby Ed, 37: 

1:86 
McClosky, James, 37:1:96 
McCracken, Dr. Harold, 37:1:121 
McCulloch, Brently and Troy, 37:2: 

221 
McCulloch, Mrs. Clyce, 37:2:221 
McDaniel's Theatre, 37:1:79 
McDermott, John, The Cheyenne- 
Deadwood Stage Line at Fort 

Laramie, 37:1:96-98 
McDonald Ranch, 37:2:223 
McFadden, George, 37:1:103-104 
McFarland, Mrs. — , 37:1:95 
McGarvey, Charles, 37:1:54 
McGill, John, photo, 37:1:4; 5 
McGregor, Mina, 37:1:31 
McLead, Charles, 37:2:147, 149- 

151 



McNealey, Viola A., Governors of 

the State of Wyoming 1943-1965. 

37:2:234-243 
Mead, Elwood, 37:1:15, photo, 16; 

23-24 
Mead, Mrs. Peter, 37:2:243 
Meanea Saddle Company, 37:2:227 
Medicine Lodge River, 37:2:220 
Meldrum, Acting Governor John 

W., 37:1:49 
Menardi v. Omallev, 37:2:184 
Merrill, Homer S.,'37:2:188 
Methodist Church, Cheyenne (1874), 

37:1:85 
Metz, Judge Percy W., 37:1:113 
Michigan Mine, 37:1:101 
Miles, General Nelson, 37:1:121 
Miller v. Barber, 37:2:192 
Miller, Neal E., President's Message, 

37:1:110-124; photo, 122 
Miller, Tobe, 37:1:89 
Minnehaha, Lake (1878), 37:1:85 
Mitchell, Fergie, 37:2:223, 231 
Mizner, General, 37:1:43, 52 
Mokler, Verne, 37:1:75, 84 
Mondell, Mayor Frank W., 37:2: 

184, 199, 202-205 
Montgomery, Billy "Bullhead", 37: 

2:226-227 
Montgomery, Isabelle, 37:1:31 
Moonlight, Thomas (Gov.), 37:1: 

7-8, 11; 37:2:159, 178, 180-182 
Moore, — , 37:1:83 
Moore, Margaret, 37:1:31 
Moore, Tom, 37:2:221 
Moran, John, 37:2:225 
Morgan, E. S. N., photo, 37:1:4; 5, 

14 
Morgan, Gertrude, 37:1:31 
Morgan, Senator, 37:1:39 
Mormons met Jim Bridger (1847), 

37:2:220 
Morris, Edward J., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Morris, Mrs. Esther, 37:1:50, 55-56 
Morrison, John, 37:1:98 
Mudd Ranch, 37:2:223 
Mule Shoe Ranch, 37:2:223 
Mumey, Nolle, Nathan Addison 

Baker (1843-1934), review, 37:2: 

249 
Mummy Cave, 37:1:112 
Murdock, Betty Jean, 37:1:121 
Murphy, Kitty, 37:2:153-154 
Murrin, Colonel Luke, 37:1:44 
Muskrat Canyon, 37:1:101, 103-104 
Mv Cowboy Experiences in the 

I890's, by G. W. Rosentreter, 

37:2:221-233 



GENERAL INDEX 



267 



Nathan Addison Baker, (1843- 

1934), by Nolie Mumey, review, 

37:2:249 
Necessary Earth, The, by Wilson O. 

Clough, review, 37:2:245 
Nettie Wright's Dance Hall, photo, 

37:2:151 
Newman, Clara, 37:1:31 
Newman, Josie, 37:1:31 
Nickerson, H. G., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Nigger Baby Spring, 37:1:101 
Nine Mile Road Ranch, 37:1:81 
Niobrara River (L'Eau-Qui-Court), 

37:1:106 
North Laramie River, 37:1:91 
North Park, Colorado, 37:1:80 
Nowood Creek, 37:2:220 
Numpa (Sioux), 37:1:90 



Oakley, May, photo, 37:1:30; 31 
, O'Brien, Emma, 37:1:31 

O'Brien, Nick, 37:1:35 

O'Bryan, Johnny, 37:2:233 

Ogalalla Ranch, 37:2:225, 228 

Okie, J. B., 37:2:198 

Old Bedlam, Fort Laramie, 37:1: 
114 

Old Forts of the Southwest, by Her- 
bert M. Hart, review, 37:1:129- 
131 

"Old Iron Clad" Store (Silver Cliff), 
37:1:107 

Ollerenshaw, Frances (Mrs.), photo, 
37:1:4; 5 

Olson, Frederick I., The Self-made 
Man in Wyoming. An Autobio- 
graphical Fragment from Gover- 
nor DeForest Richards, 37:2:207- 
209; contributor, 257 

Olson, James C, Red Cloud and the 
Sioux Problem, review, 37:2:248 

O'Mahoney, Joseph C, 37:2:241 

O'Mahoney, Mrs. Joseph C, 37:1: 
113 

Ord Ranch, 37:1:102 

Oregon Trail Branch, 37:1:94 

Organ, Caleb Perry, photo, 37:1:4; 
5, 9-10; 37:2:153 

Osborne, Bob, 37:1:97 

Osborne, John, 37:2:195, 198, 200, 
203 

Osgood, E. S., 37:2:173 

Overland Stage Trail, 37:1:123 

Owens, Johnny, 37:1:86, 97 

Owl Creek, 37:2:230 



Paducah (Platte), 37:2:216 
Paine, Senator, 37:1:39, 40 
Palmer, Louis J., photo, 37:1:4; 5, 

18, 19, 21 
Palmerston v. Territory, 37:2:184 
Parker, Glenn, Fair Fights and 

Foul, review, 37:2:248 
Parmalee, C. H., 37:2:197 
Pasmore, Prof., 37:1:51, 63 
Pathfinder, Canyon, 37:2:218 
Patrick, Salisbury & Gilmore, 37: 

1:79 
Patton, Mr. — (1871), 37:1:93 
Pease, L. D., 37:2:180 
Pelton, Clark, 37:1:97 
Pelzer, Louis, 37:2:174 
Pender, Rose, 37:1:98 
People's Party, 37:2:194 
Perkin's v. McDowell, 37:2:184 
Peter Hurd. A Portrait Sketch 

from Life, by Paul Horgan, re- 
view, 37:2:256 
Peters, Leora, 37:1:121 
Pettigrew, M. W., 37:2:200 
Phillips, (Portugee) John, 37:1:85, 

86, 88 
Philo White's Narrative of a Cruize 

in the Pacific to South America 

and California on the U. S. Sloop- 

of-War "Dale" 1841-1843, edited 

by Charles L. Camp, review, 37: 

2:252 
Pickett, W. D., 37:2:161 
Picture Gallery Pioneers, by Ralph 

W. Andrews, review, 37:1:132 
Pierson, Mrs. Lovina, 37:1:110 
Pike, George W., 37:2:225, poem 
Pilot Knobs (Tetons), 37:2:218 
Place Names, Wyoming, 37:2:211- 

217 
Plaga, A. R., 37:2:221 
Plaga Ranch, 37:2:223 
Piatt, Orville H., 37:1:39-40, 48; 

37:2:164 
Platte River Crossing, 37:1:123 
Platte River (Place Name), 37:2: 

212, 214, 217-219 
Pole Creek Ranch, 37:1:81 
Pond, Peter (Map), 37:2:212, 214 
Popo Agie River, 37:2:219 
Populist Party (revolt), 37:2:195, 

197 
Post, Amelia B. (Mrs. M. E.), 37:1: 

29, 50, 55, 62 
Post, Fred, Jr., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Post, Maude, photo, 37:1:30; 31 
Post, M. E., 37:1:8 
Posts p. O. Ranch, 37:1:81 
Potter, Charles N., 37:1:17, 19, 44; 

37:2:178, 205 



268 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Powder River, 37:2:217 
Pratt, Orman, (Wyoming State His- 
torical Society Seal designer), 37: 

1:123-124 
Preston, Douglas A., photo, 37:1:4; 

5, 18, 19, 22 
Prince, Richard E., Smoke Across 

the Prairie, review, 37:1:135-136; 

Smoke Over the Divide, review, 

37:2:254 
Proud of Wyoming, poem, 37:1:48 
Pryor's Stream (Creek), 37:2:217- 

218 
Pugsly (Steer outfit) Lazy P., 37: 

2:229 
Pumpkin Buttes, 37:2:231 



Race Horse (Bannock), 37:2:192 

Rafter, Rev. Dr., 37:1:63 

Raw Hide Buttes Ranch, 37:1:80, 

101 
Raw Hide Springs, 37:1:106 
Rawhide Buttes Stage Station, by 

Russell Thorp, Jr., 37:1:100 
Rawlings, C. C, 37:1:113, 121 
Rawlins Jubilee, by H. B. Fetz, 37: 

1:46 
Recker, Mrs. B., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Recker, Jessie, 37:1:31 
Red Cloud, 37:1:90 
Red Cloud Agency, 37:1:98, 101 
Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem, 

by James C. Olson, review, 37:2: 

248 
Redman v. Union Pacific Railway, 

37:2:189 
Reed, Thomas R., photo, 37:1:4; 5; 

37:2:164 
Reel, Heck, 37:1:86 
Remeyer, — , 37:1:95 
Repath, R. H., 37:2:188 
Reynold's Post (G.A.R.), 37:1:53 
Rhodes & Troxeil, 37:1:44 
Rice, Marion L., 37:2:176 
Richards, DeForest, 37:2:197, pho- 
to, 207; 207-209 
Richards, W. A., 37:2:193, 199-201, 

205 
Richards v. Henderson, 37:2:192 
Ricketts, W. P., 37:2:231 
Rider, Robin Elaine, 37:1:121 
Riner, John A., photo, 37:1:4; 5, 

15. 22, 34; 37:2:177, 193. 205 
Ringolsky, Leah, 37:1:31 
RiterMnc, Henry, 37:1:97 
Ritter, Charles, 37:1:113 



Robinson, Mrs. — , 37:1:53 

Rodgers, Bill, 37:2:226 

Rogers, C. J. (Doc), photo, 37:2: 

234; 238-239 
Rogers, Edna J.. 37:2:238 

238 
Rogers, Mabel B., 37:2:238 
Roripaugh, Robert A., Legends and 

Lore of Southern Illinois, review, 

37:1:138-140 
Rosentreter, Eugene, 37:2:221 
Rosentreter, Floyd, 37:2:221 
Rosentreter, G. W. (Gus), My Cow- 
boy Experiences in the 1890's, 

37:2:221-233, photos, 222, 227 
Rosentreter, Larry, 37:2:221 
Rosentreter, Laurence, 37:2:221 
Rosentreter, Marie, 37:2:221 
Rouleau, Marcelline, photo 37:1:30, 

31 
Roved, Lou, 37:2:225 
Rundquist, Al, 37:1:106 
Running Water (Niobrara River), 

37:1:106 
Running Water Stage Station, by 

Mrs. Helen Willson, 37:1:106 
Runser, Fred, 37:2:224 
Rush, H. S., 37:1:35 
Russell, John L., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Rustic Hotel (Fort Laramie), 37: 

1:98 
Rutherford, Joe, 37:2:224 
Ryan, Andy, 37:1:97 



Salisbury, Gilmore & Patrick, 37: 

1:79 
Sand Creek, 37:2:224 
Sandercock, Fritz, 37:2:224 
Sandoz, Mari, The Beaver Men, re- 
view, 37:1:127-128 
Santee, Ross, Cowboy, review, 37: 

1:136 
Sawmills, History of (Bear River), 

37:1:113 
Scamehorn, Howard L., The Buck- 
eve Rovers in the Gold Rush, re- 
view, 37:2:251 
Schaedel, Grace Logan, Isaac Bard 
Stage Station — Little Bear, Wyo- 
ming, 37:1:84; The Necessary 
Earth, review, 37:2:246 
Schenck v U.P.R.R., 37:2:189 
Schilling, Emma, photo, 37:1:30; 31 
Schwartze. Fred W., 37:1:81, 84, 

107 
Schwartze, Minna, 37:1:81 
Scott, Judge Richard, 37:2:191 



GENERAL INDEX 



269 



Seal, Wyoming State Historical So- 
ciety, sketch, 37:1:123-124 
Sears, Kurt, 37:2:225 
Seeds-ke-dee, 37:2:219 
Seeds-ke-dee, Tales of the, by Sub- 
lette County Artists' Guild, 37:1: 

121 
Self-made Man in Wyoming, The, 

by Frederick I. Olson, 37:2:207- 

209 
Shaver, Sloan &, 37:1:53, 67 
Shell River, 37:2:220 
"Shining Mountains," 37:2:213 
Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rockies, 

by Virginia Cole Trenholm and 
Maurine Carley, review, 37:1:125 
Shoup, Gov. George L. (Idaho), 

37:1:47 
Sigwart, Lohlien &, 37:1:69 
Silver Cliff, 37:1:104, 106 
Silver Springs, 37:1:103, 106 
Simpson, Alan, 37:2:239 
Simpson, John, 37:2:239 
Simpson, Lorna Kooi, 37:2:239 
Simpson, Milward L., 37:2:239; 

photo, 240 
Simpson, Peter, 37:2:239 
• Simpson, William L., 37:2:173, 239 
Sims, Albert, 37:1:99 
Sinclair, F. H., The Custer Battle 

Book, review, 37:1:134 
Sitting Bull, 37:1:90 
Six Mile Ranch, by John D. McDer- 

mott, 37:1:95-96 
Slack, E. A., 37:1:9, photo, 16; 33, 

45; 1,1:1:\6A 
Slater Flats, 37:1:94 
Slaymaker v. Phillips, 37:2:192 
Sloan & Shaver (Shafer), 37:1:53, 

67 
Smalley, Belle, 37:1:31 
Smalley, Eva, 37:1:31 
Smith, George C. 37:1:17 
Smith, Jedediah, 37:2:219 
Smith, Louis S., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Smoke Across the Prairie, by James 

L. Ehernberger and Francis G. 

Gschwind, review, 37:1:135-136 
Smoke Over the Divide, by James L. 

Ehernberger and Francis G. 

Gschwind, review, 37:2:254 
Smythe, O. J., 37:2:153 
Snow, Clyde, 37:1:85 
Snow, Mrs. George, 37:1:86 
South Pass (1812), 37:2:218 
Spanish River, 37:2:218 
Spooner, Senator, 37:1:39 
Spoor, Bertha, 37:1:31 
Spotted Tail, Chief (Sioux), 37: 

1:87 



Spring, Agnes Wright, 37:2:171 
Spring Gulch, 37:2:243 
Springer, William, 37:2:162-164 
Squaw Mountain, 37:2:232 
Staats, Russell, Chugwater Stage 

Station and Division Point, 37:1: 

88 
Stagecoach (1876-1887), photo, 37: 

1:76; 77 
Stage Drivers, 37:1:101 
Stamper v. Gay et al, 37:2:184 
Standing Up Country, by C. Greg- 
ory Crampton, review, 37:1:128 
Statehood, Wyoming, 37:1:5-29, 33; 

37:2:157, 169 
Stebbins and Conrad, 37:2:150 
Stegner, Wallace, The Gathering of 

Zion, review, 37:1:137-138 
Stewart, — (husband of Nettie 

Wright), 37:2:148, 156 
Stewart, Charles W., 37:2:172 
Stiff ler, Mrs. — , 37:1:104 
Stinking Water River, 37:2:217-218 
Stitzer, Colonel, 37:1:36 
Storrie, John, 37:2:196 
Stuart, Robert, 37:2:218 
Stumbo's Restaurant, 37:2:153 
Sullivan, Fred, 37:1:104 
Sutherland, A. L., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Swan, Alexander, 37:2:173-174 
Swan Company, 37:1:88; 37:2:223 
Swan Land and Cattle Company, 

37:2:173 
Swan, Thomas, 37:2:173 
Sweem, Glenn, 37:1:115 
Sweetwater River, 37:2:218 
Sweitzer, Cutoff, 37:1:89 
Swift Bear (Sioux Chief), 37:1:89 
Switzer, Leona, 37:2:242 
Swolley, —,37:1:90 
Sybille Creek, 37:1:91; 37:2:221 



Tea Pot Rock, 37:1:115 
Teller, Senator, 37:1:39 
Templin, Curtis, 37:1:88 
Ten Mile Station, 37:1:99 
Teschemacher, Hubert E., 37:1:17, 

19; 37:2:190 
Tetons (Pilot Knobs), 37:2:218- 

219 
Thirty-one Slash Ranch Company, 

37:2:223 
Thompson, Bud, 37:1:96 
Thompson, — (Freighter), 37:1: 

107 
Thompson, General J. C, 37:1:37 



270 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



Thompson, Mamie, photo. 37:1:30; 

31 
Thompson, Minnie, photo, 37:1:30; 

31 
Thomson, Keith, 37:2:241 
Thorp, Russell, Jr., Raw Hide 
Buttes Stciqe Station, 37:1:100- 
103 
Thorp, Russell, Sr., 37:1:80, 88, 104 
Thrall's Map (1834), 37:2:220 
Three Mile Ranch, by John D. Mc- 

Dermott, 37:1:97 
Tie Siding, Wyoming, 37:1:80 
Tisdale, John N., 37:2:203 
Tobin, Mrs. Richard, 37:2:238 
Tongue River (Lazeka), 37:2:216- 

218 
Townsend Train, 37:1:115 
Trabing Brothers, 37:2:147, 150 
Trenholm, Virginia, Bordeaux, 37: 
1:89; and Maurine Carley, The 
Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rock- 
ies, review, 37:1:125-126 
Troxell, Rhodes &, 37:1:43 
True Republic, The, 37:1:58, poem 
Tupper, Jennie, photo, 37:1:30; 31 
Tupper, Mabel, photo, 37:1:30, 31 
Tuttle, J. E., 37:1:53, 69 
Two Bar Ranch, 37:2:223-224 



U Cross outfit, 37:2:229 
Underwood, A. & Bro., 37:1:69 
Union Pacific band, 37:1:34, 43, 53, 

54, 63, 71, 72 
Updike, — (Sheepherder), 37:1: 

100 
Uva, Wyoming, 37:1:94 
Uva Creek, 37:1:91 



Van Devanter, Willis, 37:1:36, 44; 
37:2:157, 165, photo, 170; Wyo- 
ming Leader, 1884-1897, 171-206 

Van Devanter, Winslow B., 37:2: 
173. 174, 184 

Veihee, — , 37:1:100 

Verendreyes, — , 37:2:212-213, 217 

Vivion, Charles, 37:1:123 

Voorhees, Luke, 37:1:79, 104 

Vreeiand, Bessie, 37:1:31 

Vreeland, Effie. 37:1:31 



Waechter Ranch, 37:2:222 
Walker, Mrs. E., 37:1:69 
Wallis, Bert, 37:1:113 
Walton, James H., 37:1:113 
Ward vs. Race Horse, 37:2:193 
Ward, Sheriff John, 37:2:192 
Warren, Governor Francis E., 37:1: 
6. 7, 12, 35, 38, 50, 54, 56-57; 
37:2:159-204 
Warren, Frankie, 37:1:52 
Wasserman, — , 37:1:67 
Watkins, Dr. John C, 37:2:155-156 
Watt. Frank, 37:1:104 
Weaver, General James B., 37:2: 

195 
Webb, Francis Seely, 37:1:121 
Wedemeyer, Bertha, photo, 37:1: 

30; 31 
Wedemeyer, Maria, photo, 37:1:30; 

31 
Western Ghost Town Shadows, 
Lambert Florin, review, 37:1: 
131-132 
Wheat, (Carl Irving), 37:2:211, 217 
Whirlwind (Sioux Chief), 37:1:89 
White Bridge on Horseshoe Creek, 

37:1:89 
White, Edward D., 37:2:193 
White et al v. Hinton et al, 37:2: 189 
Whiteley, A. R., 37:1:35 
Whitesides, Hugh, 37:1:89, 90 
Whittenburg, Clarice, The Shosho- 
nis: Sentinels of the Rockies, re- 
view, 37:1:125-126 
Wilhelm, Leo and Nedalyn, 37:2: 

223 
Wilke's Map (1841), 37:2:220 
Williams, Cy, 37:1:90 
Williams, Johnnie Belle, The Gath- 
ering of Zion, review, 37:1:137- 
138 
Willow (Post Office), 37:1:106 
Willson, Mrs. Helen, Running Wa- 
ter Stage Station, review, 37:1: 
106 
Wilseck, Edna, 37:1:31 
Wilson, Frank, 37:1:53 
Wolcott V. Bachman, 37:2:184 
Woods, Essie, 37:2:153-154 
Woods, — (Freighter), 37:1:107 
Woods, Sam, 37:2:224 
Wright, Charles, 37:2:148, 156 
Wright, Nettie, 37:2:147-156 
Wright's Hog Ranch, 37:1:97 
Wyoming Development Company, 

37:2:224 
Wyoming's Earliest Place Names?, 
by Wilson O. Clough, 37:2:211- 
220 



GENERAL INDEX 



271 



Wyoming's 44th Star, photo and 

article, 37:1:74 
Wyoming National Guard, "B" 

Company, 37:1:53 
Wyoming State Guard, Companies 

"H" and "K", 37:1:31 
Wyoming State Historical Society, 

President's Message, by Neal E. 

Miller, 37:1:110 
Wyoming State Historical Society 
Seal, 37:1:123, sketch, 124 
Wyoming Statehood, by T. A. Lar- 
son, 37:1:5-29 
Wyoming Summits, Softly Glinting, 

by Hans Kleiber, poem, 37:2:244 



Yates, F. D. and Company, 37:1:79 
Yates, Ned, 37:2:224 
Yellowstone Park Amendment, 37: 
1:39, 45 

Yelton, O. P., photo, 37:1:4; 5 
Yoder, Oscar, 37:1:99 
Yonicic, Mrs. Faye, 37:1:113 
Young, Harry, Hard Knocks, 37:1: 
97 



Zehner, Beuchner & Co., 37:1:53, 
68 



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WYOMING STATE ARCHIVES AND HISTORICAL 
DEPARTMENT 



The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its func- 
tion the collection and preservation of the record of the people of Wyo- 
ming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out of its 
function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve records and 
materials now in private hands where they cannot be long preserved. Such 
records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, account books, auto- 
biographical accounts. 



Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agriculture, 
railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business establishments, and of 
professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, dentists, ministers, and 
educators. 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, manuscript 
materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religious, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications such 
as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any significant 
topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on western 
subjects. 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout the 
State. 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, Indian 
artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyoming and with 
special events in the State's history.