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Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"

Annals of Wyoming 

Vol. 5 JULY, 1927 No. 1 



CONTENTS 

Seth E. Ward Hoyle Jones 

Pioneering in the 70's Mrs. George Gilland 

Camp Carlin or Cheyenne Depot . J. F. Jenkins 

The Open Range Cattle Business in Wyoming W. E. Guthrie 



Published Quarterly 

by the 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 

Mrs. Cyrus Beard, Historian 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



Annals nf Ultjnmtng 

Vol. 5 JULY, 1927 No. 1 



CONTENTS 

Seth E. Ward Hoyle Jones 

Pioneering in the 70's Mrs. George Gilland 

Camp Carlin or Cheyenne Depot J. F. Jenkins 

The Open Range Cattle Business in Wyoming W. E. Guthrie 



Published Quarterly 

by the 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 

Mrs. Cyrus Beard, Historian 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Governor Frank C. Emerson 

Secretary of State ....J A. M. Clark 

State Librarian Mrs. Clare E. Ausherman 

Secretary of Board Mrs. Cyrus Beard 



Neither the State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board nor 
the State Historian is responsible for any statements made or opinions expressed 
by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. 



(Copyright, 1927) 



CHAPTER 96 
STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Session Laws 1921 

DUTIES OF HISTORIAN 

Section 6T. It shall be the duty of the State His- 
torian : 

(a) To collect books, maps, charts, documents, man- 
uscripts, other papers and any obtainable material illus- 
trative of the history of the State. 

(b) To procure from pioneers narratives of any ex- 
ploits, perils and adventures. 

(c) To collect and compile data of the events which 
mark the progress of Wyoming from its earliest day to 
the present time, including the records of all of the 
Wyoming men and women, who served in the World War 
and the history of all war activities in the State. 

(d) To procure facts and statements relative to the 
history, progress and decay of the Indian tribes and other 
early inhabitants within the State. 

(e) To collect by solicitation or purchase fossils, 
specimens, of ores and minerals, objects of curiosity con- 
nected with the history of the State and all such books, 
maps, writings, charts and other material as will tend to 
facilitate historical, scientific and antiquarian research. 

(f) To file and carefully preserve in his office in 
the Capitol at Cheyenne, all of the historical data col- 
lected or obtained by him, so arranged and classified as 
to be not only available for the purpose of compiling and 
publishing a History of Wyoming, but also that it may be 
readily accessible for the purpose of disseminating such 
historical or biographical information as may be reason- 
ably requested by the public. He shall also bind, cata- 
logue and carefully preserve all unbound books, manu- 
scripts, pamphlets, and especially newspaper files con- 
taining legal notices which may be donated to the State 
Historical Board. 

(g) To prepare for publication a biennial report of 
the collections and other matters relating to the transac- 
tion of the Board as may be useful to the public. 

(h) To travel from place to place, as the require- 
ments of the work may dictate, and to take such steps, 
not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be 
required to obtain the data necessary to the carrying out 
of the purpose and objects herein set forth. 




SETH E. WARD 



Annals of HUxjomfng 

Vol. 5 JULY, 1927 No. 1 



SETH E. WARD 

Seth Edmund Ward (1820-1903), a pioneer trader of 
the early days in the Platte River region and a freighter 
on the old Santa Fe Trail, subsequently an influential and 
prominent resident of Westport, a suburb of Kansas City, 
Missouri, was born March 4, 1820, in Campbell County, 
Virginia. His parents were Seth and Ann (Hendrick) 
Ward, both of whom were descendants of prominent Vir- 
ginia families of the Colonial period. Originally one 
Seth Ward is recorded as a bishop of the Church of Eng- 
land, and following in direct line the name of Seth was 
borne by five generations of the family of Ward. On the 
maternal side, Seth E. Ward, of Westport, is the sixth 
descendant of John Goode, who. was a soldier in the Virginia 
Colonial forces. His home was about thirty miles from 
Richmond, Virginia, and the first few years of his life 
were spent in the environment of a typical Virginia plan- 
tation. Little is known of either his parents or his grand- 
parents, but the latter were both dead at the time of his 
birth, and his father died when he was twelve years of 
age. 

In 1834, when he was fourteen years old, he made 
his way to Laport, Indiana, where it is known that he 
lived for a long time with the family of Jacob Haas. His 
mother was still living in Virginia, and in 1836 he re- 
turned there for a visit with her, making the entire dis- 
tance on foot with a journey that began in December and 
ended in May. Again he journeyed forth with his mother's 
gift of $25 as his sole possessions, and after a brief stay 
at Louisville, Kentucky, he went on to St. Louis, Missouri, 
where he first found employment in a tobacco factory. 
Shortly thereafter he is known to have travelled over the 
state of Illinois, but eventually he returned to St. Louis 
where it is evident that he began to make the most of his 
time and his opportunities. It was in June of 1838 that 
young Ward left St. Louis, and after a stop of a few days 
in Lexington, proceeded up the Missouri River to Inde- 
pendence, where he obtained temporary employment with 
a wagon-maker. Here he remained but a few weeks, and 
having come in contact with Captain L. P. Lupton, of the 



6 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Lupton Fur Company, he accepted employment with them 
and accompanied Captain Lupton on a journey which cov- 
ered the uninhabited region lying between the Missouri 
River and the South Platte. 

This trip, when he was at the age of eighteen, con- 
sumed about six weeks, and upon leaving the employ of 
the Lupton Fur Company, he drifted into what is now the 
State of Wyoming, and subsequently the center of many 
of his activities. He first located at "The Narrows," on 
the North Platte, about twenty miles east of Fort Laramie, 
and from there he trapped largely for the firm of Bent & 
St. Vrain. At that time beaver skins were sold at about 
SI. 00 per pound, large wolf skins at SI. 50 each, small wolf 
skins at 75 cents each, and fox skins at 10 cents each. 

He learned the country so well and became so skillful 
as a trapper, that he left the employ of Bent & St. Vrain 
and, through permission from the government, established 
himself as a trapper on his own account, operating from 
a place called Sandy Point, about nine miles west of Fort 
Laramie. During all of this time he was constantly in 
intimate association with various tribes of Indians, with 
the result that he became thoroughly familiar with their 
manners, customs, and language, this contact forming the 
basis of a later relationship with the Indians which proved 
of material value to him. He was quick to capitalize any 
situation of monetary value, and his knowledge of Indians 
and their customs enabled him later to "swap" with them 
in an extensive trading business from which he reaped 
large returns. He knew intimately the chiefs and many of 
the "braves" of the Sioux, Arapahoe, Cheyenne, Ute, Kiowa, 
Comanche, and other tribes. While his association with 
them was largely friendly, there were many instances of 
uprisings when he participated in Indian fights, and he 
had many experiences that made highly interesting stories 
in his later days, when he could be prevailed upon to relate 
them. 

On one occasion he crossed the Rocky Mountains to 
Green River with a company of Thompson & Craig traders 
on one of the first expeditions in that direction. In this 
particular company was the famous plainsman Kit Carson, 
whose name is known to every American reader. The two 
became fast friends, particularly after the following inci- 
dent. Kit Carson and young Ward were discussing the 
killing of buffalo, the older man having killed many and the 
younger man none. The conversation resulted in Carson 
betting Ward a horse that he could not bring down a buf- 
falo at the first atempt. Young Ward was thrown from 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 7 

his horse and rendered insensible in the effort, but he killed 
his buffalo and won not only his horse, but what was 
of more value to him, the everlasting admiration of Kit 
Carson. 

On another occasion he was in a party that was at- 
tacked by Navajo Indians, when two of his comrades were 
killed. Once, in 1844, under contract with one of the fur 
companies, he had accumulated so many furs that there 
were not enough ponies to move them over to the Platte, 
with the result that he and two Indians went to Fort Lup- 
ton to get additional horses. Southeast from the present 
site of Cheyenne, and just as they struck Crow Creek, they 
came upon some twenty-five families of Arapahoes and 
that night camped with them near what is now the town 
of Greeley. The next day they crossed the Platte and the 
Big Timbers, and although it was the first of May, the 
country experienced, beginning that night, one of the worst 
snowstorms of its history. Ward and his two Indian com- 
panions were snowed in for more than two weeks. On the 
down journey he had remarked that he had never seen 
so many buffalo and antelope in his life, and on the re- 
turn journey he was greatly surprised to find them all 
dead in the snow. In that great expanse of country, com- 
prising several hundred miles in each direction, there were 
only about one hundred white men, naturally dependent 
upon word brought in by the Indians, and it was more than 
a year before Ward learned the far-reaching effects of 
this enormous snowstorm. It is the writer's opinion that 
it was on this trip, while they were snowed in, that Ward 
and his two companions ran out of "grub" and in despera- 
tion, as Mr. Ward told the writer, killed and ate their two 
dogs. There are many stories of this general character 
which made up interesting events of his life, some with 
regard to killings, fights and massacres with gruesome 
details, about which Mr. Ward was not prone to talk. Dur- 
ing those days he lived the hard and rugged life known 
only to the pioneers of that time, and while he participated 
in episodes that are now matters of historical record, most 
of these are unknown even to those who had the privilege 
of intimacy with this grand old man in the days of his de- 
clining years. While reticent to a degree, he was so de- 
void of the aloofness that is more often the counterpart of 
this characteristic that at once he inspired a confidence 
and a friendship that was cherished by all who knew him. 
One drew the impression that he was taciturn only to the 
extent of leaving unsaid the commonplace things of the 
day. Behind his searching gaze was that look that is found 



8 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

in the eyes of the out-of-door man who has seen much and 
says little. He was a force to the men with whom he came 
in contact, and he had that beautiful religion that comes 
from association with Nature and with men who deserve 
the title. On the part of his comrades he would not coun- 
tenance the use of words that blasphemed. He told the 
writer that when he found a man whose profanity reached 
these limits it was his practice to single him out in camp 
on a night when the heavens were bright with stars and 
insist that he look up to heaven and repeat the word or 
words that had first transgressed his code of ethics. It 
was an effective plan that instilled into the souls of his 
men some semblance of the pertinency of reverence which 
more frequently had had no place in their contemplations. 
In 1844 Mr. Ward associated himself with Francis 
P. Blair, afterward a distinguished soldier and statesman, 
with whom he maintained a friendly relationship for many 
years. He returned in 1845 to St. Louis, where he came 
in contact with Robert Campbell, a man of influence and 
prominence in that city. They became fast friends, and 
the confidence which the younger man inspired in the older 
man became the first stepping-stone to the remarkable 
business career of Mr. Ward. Mr. Campbell helped finance 
him in the purchase of two yoke of oxen and a small wagon, 
when he established himself as an independent trader. This 
first lay-out, including the stock of goods to be traded, 
represented a cash outlay of about one thousand dollars, 
part of which Mr. Ward had as capital from his earlier 
trapping, and the balance of which was furnished by Mr. 
Campbell. Ward then made his headquarters at Bent's 
Fort, on the Arkansas River, and exchanged his goods for 
horses and mules. These animals were either sold or sub- 
sequently used by Mr. Ward in a highly remunerative 
freighting business which he established over the old 
Santa Fe Trail, which began at Westport, now a part of 
Kansas City, Missouri, but then a self-contained settlement 
five miles south of Westport Landing on the Missouri 
River, at the approximate confluence of that and the Kaw 
or Kansas River. All of his supplies were purchased at 
St. Louis, where he had established satisfactory credit re- 
lationships with the assistance of Mr. Campbell, and his 
goods were shipped by boat from there to Westport Land- 
ing. An early associate of Mr. Ward's in business w r as 
John Hunton, post trader at Fort Laramie, from August, 
1888 to April, 1890, when the post was abandoned by mili- 
tary authorities. Mr. Hunton, who is now living at Tor- 
rington, Wyoming, is a venerable pioneer of the early Wyo- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 9 

ming days, and is one of the few men now living to whom 
the historian may go for accurate information concerning 
the early events of that portion of the West. It is due to 
his kindness that the Wyoming Historical Department is 
in possession of a large number of Seth E. Ward papers, 
which he has preserved for half a century. These reveal 
the extensive nature of Mr. Ward's business dealings, begin- 
ning with his early purchases of supplies in St. Louis. Con- 
tained in the papers are original promissory notes and other 
documents written in clear and well-preserved penmanship, 
giving the names of prominent St. Louis firms of that day. 
These papers bear dates from the early fifties to the early 
seventies and are vastly interesting as indicative of the 
accepted forms and methods of business at the time. 

Among the St. Louis names appearing in the papers 
are James A. Dobbins, Riley, Christy & Company, A. 
Schultz, Robert Campbell, and Field and Beardslee. A 
number of the notes show that they were "Printed at the 
St. Louis Times office." Westport papers bear the names 
of Kearney & Bernard and Albert G. Boone. Philadelphia is 
represented with the name Lippincott, Grambo & Company, 
and New York with Huffy & Danforth, and George A. 
Hicks, stationer, 53 Nassau Street. There are references 
to Governor S. M. Black, at Omaha, Nebraska Territory, 
and Henry F. Mayer, of Collinsville, Illinois, who, it is 
shown, was a partner of Mr. Ward's in the building of the 
Laramie Toll "Bridge in 1853, under contract with the 
United States Government. Lieutenant R. B. Garritt, com- 
manding. There are contracts calling for the cutting, cur- 
ing and stacking of hay at $5 per ton; agreements for the 
sale of drygoods at the St. Louis cost plus 25 per cent, and 
ten cents per pound for transportation. Groceries were 
sold at the St. Louis cost plus ten per cent, and ten cents 
per pound for transportation. Sugar sold at 12 pounds for 
$4.00. Indian ponies were purchasable from the Indians in 
exchange for about $15 worth of goods, consisting of one 
red and blue blanket, four yards of woolen goods, some cal- 
ico, tobacco, and a little powder, lead and caps. Oxen were 
worth $70 per yoke ; buffalo cow robes, $3.50 ; beaver skins, 
$1 per pound; flour, 50 pounds for $10, and soap, 50 cents 
per bar. 

Among the papers is also the commission of Seth E. 
Ward from Sterling Price, governor of Missouri, dated 
April 28, 1857, by which Mr. Ward was granted authority 
to draw contracts, take acknowledgments, etc., more or 
less conforming to the present-day authority vested in a 
notary public. Reference is made to the old Fort Kearney, 



10 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

South Pass and Honey Lake Wagon Road (Eastern Divi- 
sion), and transactions in that vicinity record in part such 
names as Brevet Major General Augur, C. S. Scovell, cap- 
tain of infantry; E. W. Jones, assistant surgeon, U. S. A.; 
William Bullock, Joseph Bisenette, Thomas S. Twiss, Indian 
agent, Upper Platte; Charles E. Mix, acting commissioner 
of Indian affairs; Captain G. A. DeRussy, and John Heth, 
who became a general in the Confederate army. There are 
contracts for hauling goods, ("dangers of the plains only 
excepted") ; notes to be paid in rations of bread from the 
government bakehouse ; bills to be paid "in account of sub- 
sistence" ; copies of applications for licenses to trade with 
the Comanche, Kiowa, Apache, Arapahoe, Cheyenne and 
Sioux Indians, with the execution of bond for a faithful ob- 
servance of the "intercourse laws" and containing agree- 
ment that "no trade shall be carried on with any tribe, part 
of tribe, or individual, known or believed to be hostile to the 
United States," trades exchanging hides and furs for food- 
stuffs, horses, or oxen, etc., etc. 

In 1857 Mr. Ward became sutler at Fort Laramie, un- 
der the appointment of Jefferson Davis, secretary of war, 
and held that position until August, 1871. In his papers in 
a reappointment to this post, issued from Headquarters De- 
partment of the Platte, Omaha, August 2, 1867, being Spe- 
cial Orders No. 140, Command of Brevet Major General Au- 
gur, and signed by H. G. Litchfield, Brevet Lieutenant 
Colonel, Acting Assistant Adjutant General. Mr. Ward's 
operations as sutler were highly remunerative, and during 
the time that he held that post, he accumulated a fair share 
of the fortune which permitted him in later years to become 
an important factor in the financial life of Kansas City. 

In the exhibit of the Wyoming State Historical De- 
partment are some of the trading coins used by Mr. Ward 
as sutler. These are round thin copper pieces of the size 
of half dollars and quarters, stamped on the face, "S. E. 
Ward, Sutler, Fort Laramie, D. T. Good for fifty cents (or 
twenty-five) in sutler's goods." 

In 1860 Mr. Ward was married to Mary Harris Mc- 
Carthy of Westport, a daughter of John Harris, a native of 
Kentucky, who settled in Jackson County, Missouri, in 1832. 
Mr. and Mrs. Ward spent one winter at Fort Laramie, but 
removed to Nebraska City in 1863 so that Mrs. Ward would 
not be subjected to the privations of life as existed in the 
Fort Laramie district at that time. Their final home was 
established in Westport, in 1872, on a farm of four hun- 
dred and eighty-five acres, now in the heart of the most 
exclusive residence section of Kansas City, and including 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 11 

what until November, 1926, was the grounds of the Kan- 
sas City Country Club. Good judgment and cautious 
business habits enabled Mr. Ward to increase his holdings 
greatly and his estate still holds highly valuable parcels of 
land in Kansas City, both in residence and business prop- 
erty. His income from these investments enabled him to 
do much in a charitable way, and he expended large sums 
in aiding benevolences and contributing to the comfort of 
a large circle of relatives and friends. 

For more than twenty years he was a trustee of Will- 
iam Jewel College, at Liberty, Missouri, and at the time 
of his death, was one of the oldest members of the Board 
of Regents of that institution, of- which he was a generous 
benefactor. He was also one of the chief supporters of 
the Baptist Church of Westport, of which he and his fam- 
ily were members, and he was also a contributor to some 
of the other churches in his vicinity. 

He was very active in helping to promote the develop- 
ment of property adjacent to the magnificent farm region 
in which he lived, and he is credited with doing a great 
deal toward the introduction of Durham cattle. During the 
time of these developments he became heavily interested, 
and subsequently President of the Mastin Bank of Kansas 
City, which at that time had the reputation of being the 
largest banking house in the Missouri Valley. He was 
president of this institution for eight years. Politically Mr. 
Ward was a staunch Democrat, and he was a member of 
the Masonic order and also an Odd Fellow. 

Mrs. Ward was a woman of domestic tastes and an 
earnest worker. Born of this marriage were three chil- 
dren. The first was John Edmund, now deceased, who 
married Mary Octavia Jones. Their children are Seth E. 
and Robert Campbell, both residents of Lees Summit, Mis- 
souri, and Helen, who is now the wife of David T. Beals, 
vice-president of the Inter-State National Bank, at Kan- 
sas City. The second was Hugh Campbell (also deceased), 
who was a well known lawyer at Kansas City, who mar- 
ried Vassie James, of Kansas City, and from which union 
there was born Hugh C, James C, and Frances, all living. 
A fourth child died in infancy. 

Seth E. Ward's life was an inspiration to all who knew 
him and likewise to those to whom his activities were 
known. Beginning as a boy, with a limited education and 
without funds, his perseverance, his ability and his ideals 
carried him through the early vicissitudes of life to a posi- 
tion of wealth and prominence. His philosophy was of that 
humble type that is most appealing, and while his life was 



12 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

spent largely away from the environs of business, his prac- 
ticability and his unusual insight permitted him in later 
years to become one of the dominant figures in the business 
life of Kansas City. He was one of those men whose exist- 
ence makes the world better, and his helpful influence 
manifested itself in all his contacts. During the last days 
of his life he enjoyed the distinction of being almost the 
only survivor of those early interesting primeval days of 
the West, and he reaped some of the reward that was his 
due in the privilege of being able to witness the transforma- 
tion of his own virgin country to a continuous succession 
of highly cultivated farms and cities, free from the priva- 
tions and hardships which he had endured and which his 
progressive ideas had helped to eliminate. He died De- 
cember 9, 1903, and is buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, a 
few miles south of his home in Kansas City. 

HOYLE JONES. 

In letter of June 9, 1927, to the State Historian, Mr. 
Jones says : 

"Regarding my relationship with Mr. Ward, I am 
glad to advise you that his first son, John Edmund Ward, 
married my aunt, Mary Octavia Jones, with the result that 
in that branch of the family Mr. Ward's grandchildren are 
my first cousins. 



I am taking occasion to send you by separate mail a re- 
cent photograph of the Seth E. Ward home in Kansas City. 
It is remarkable that this house, built in the 70's, is in a fine 
state of preservation and an accepted portion of Kansas 
City's most highly restricted residence district. It is sur- 
rounded by new and beautiful homes and stands as some- 
thing of a tribute to Mr. Ward's judgment and foresight. 
Incidentally, the bricks for this building were freighted by 
wagon from St. Louis. 



Note: For information relative to the life of Seth E. 
Ward, the writer is indebted to Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State 
Historian, Cheyenne, Wyoming; Miss Stella M. Drum, Li- 
brarian, Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis, Missouri, 
and Mrs. David T. Beals (Helen Ward, granddaughter of 
Seth E. Ward), Kansas City, Missouri. Additional data 
was secured from Hyde's Encyclopedia of History of Mis- 
souri." 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 13 

FROM HUNTON COLLECTION 

Fort Laramie N. T., May 21st, 1859. 
Messrs. Grable, Green & Craig: 

Will give Mr. S. E. Ward an order on C. A. Perry & Co. 
for the amt. of toll over the Laramie Bridge, payable at 
Salt Lake. J. D. Harper. 

From Hunton collection. 



Camp Floyd U. T., Nov. 30th, 1858. 
Messrs. S. E. Ward & Co. 
Gentn. : 

Please pay to the order of Private Steen, Co. "A", 4th 
Atry, the Sum of Seven dollars & fifty cents & call on John 
Heth of Fort Kearny for the amount. 
$7 50/100 R. H. Dyer. 

Note in pencil on back: Heth became Gen'l in Confd 
Army. 

From John Hunton collection. 



Sandy Point, 20th May, 1853. 
On the first day of July next, we promise to pay 
Messrs. Bordeau Richard & Co. or order, the sum of Nine 
hundred and Thirty Dollars and forty Three cents for value 
received, with interest after that a (10) Ten per cent per 
annum. (Signature torn off). 



Saint Louis, Mo., July 6th, 1859. 
Mr. Dempsey 

Dear Sir 
I send you Forty dollars what I sold your robes for, I 
could hardly sell them at al for theer are no sale for them 
at this time of the year. I was afraid that you would not 
be satisfied but as you said sell them for what ever I could 
get I don so. I sold 8 of them to one man for twenty dollars 
and the balance I pedled out to who ever I could the whole 
of them Brought $43 and I gave a man two dollars for 
selling some of them for I had not time to tend to it. I hope 
that you are satisfied for I don the best I could if I had 
kept them until cold weather I could have got five dollars 
a piece for them. Write to me and let me Know if you get 
this. Rember me to Charley and all the Friends. 

Yours Truly 
W. A. Dempsey James A. Dobbins. 

of 
Fort Randall 

Nebrasca Territory. 



14 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Ward & Guerrier of the first part further agree 
to allow in the payment of robes one Black Calf Skin to 
each pack of ten robes. 

Elbridge Gerry and James Bordeaux of the second 
part further agree to return the 45 yoke of oxen and nine 
wagons belonging to Ward & Guerrier in good condi- 
tion and further agree that in case of lost oxen they are 
to pay said Ward & Guerrier for each yoke of oxen lost 
the sum of seventy dollars, or return good oxen in their 
place. 

Signed and Sealed in 
the presence of 
Thomas S. Twiss. 

WARD & GUERRIER, (Seal) 
E. GERRY (Seal) 
JAME BORDEAUX (Seal) 
The foregoing Articles of Agreement between Ward 
& Guerrier of the first part and Elbridge Gerry and 
James Bordeaux of the second part, for the year 1857, 
is still in force for this date and year, with these excep- 
tions, viz : 

1st — That the style of Seth E. Ward be instituted 

for the party of the first part 

2d— That Large Wolf Skins at $1.00 (one). 

That Small Wolf Skins at 50/100 (Fifty). 
3d — That Elbridge Gerry and James Bordeaux of 
the second part are responsible for thirty yokes 
of oxen and six wagons. 
4th — That the returns of the trade are to be made 
from time to time as they arrive from the va- 
rious villages without detention to Seth E. 
Ward of the first part. 
Witness— S. E. Ward (Seal) 

Witness — E. Gerry (Seal) 

Witness — J. Bordeaux (Seal) 

Dated at Fort Laramie N. T. this 4th day of Decem- 
ber, 1858. 

27 Log Chains 
12 Sheets 

Endorsed on back. Articles of Agreement. 

bet. 
Ward & Guerrier 

and 
Gerry & Bordeaux 
(From John Hunton collection. Original in State Depart- 
ment of Historian.) 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 15 



BE IT KNOWN that Seth E. Ward, of the Upper Platte 
Agency, having filed his application be- 
fore me for a license to trade with the Sioux, Cheyennes, 
Arapahoes and other Indians visiting his trading Posts all 
within the boundaries of the Upper Platte Agency and 
having executed and filed with me a bond in the penal 
sum of Five Thousand Dollars with William Le Guerrier 
and John Richard as Sureties, conditioned as required by 
law for the faithful observance of all the laws and regu- 
lations provided for the government of trade and inter- 
course with the Indian Tribes, and reposing especial trust 
and confidence in the patriotism, humanity and correct 
business habits of the Said applicant and being Satisfied 
that he is a citizen of the United States as required by 
law, he is hereby authorized to carry on the business of 
trading with the said Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapahoes and 
other Indians visiting his trading Posts, at any one or all 
of the above places, provided, however, that no trade shall 
be carried on with any tribe, part of a tribe, or individ- 
ual known or believed to be hostile to the United States, 
for one year from the 24th day of November, One thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty Seven, and to keep in their 
employ thereat the following named persons or any of 
them in the capacities affixed to their names. William 
Guerrier Antoine Janis Joseph Aymond B. B. Mills Charles 
Gurue as Traders. All of which persons enumerated I am 
satisfied from my own knowledge Sustain a fair character 
and are fit to be in the Indian Country. Given under my 
hand and Seal this 24th day of November, 1857. 

Office Indian Affairs 

January 13th, 1858. 

Thomas S. Twiss (SEAL) 
Indian Agent, Upper Platte. 
Approved 

Charles E. Mix 

Acting Commissioner. 



16 ANNALS OF WYOMING 



ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT 

Articles of agreement made and entered into this 
21st day of November, 1857, between Ward & Guerrier 
of the first part and Elbridge Gerry and James Bordeaux 
of the second part. 

Ward & Guerrier of the first part agree to sell to 
said Elbridge Gerry and James Bordeaux a certain lot 
of goods for the sole Indian trade on the South Fork of 
the Platte River and Arkansas River with the Arapahoe 
and Cheyenne Indians and White River and Sand Hill 
with a band of Sioux known as the Brule and Osage In- 
dians at the following rates: 

Dry goods at the St. Louis cost 25 per cent advance 
and 10 cents per pound transportation to be added. Gro- 
ceries at St. Louis cost 10 per cent advance, and 10 cents 
per pound transportation. 

Elbridge Gerry and James Bordeau of the second 
part agree to pay to the said Ward & Guerrier of the 
first part for the full amount of invoices rendered in a 
good average lot of Buffalo Cow Robes at $3.00/100 
(Dollars), Beaver Skins at $1.00 per pound, Large Wolf 
Skins at $1.50/100. Small Wolf Skins at 75c each and 
Fox Skins at 10c. 

Elbridge Gerry and James Bordeaux of the second 
part further agree to make aforesaid payment in the 
articles above specified on or before the first day of May, 
1858, or if unable to make full payment in robes and pel- 
tries above mentioned the said parties of the second part 
are to pay the said parties of the first part in cash on or 
before the first day of August, 1858, to the amount of 
their further indebtedness at the rate per robe which 
they may be worth where sold by the parties of the first 
part. 

A further condition mutually understood by the 
aforesaid both parties is such that in the case of the 
death or other casualty of the said Elbridge Gerry or 
James Bordeaux of the second part, the goods as per in- 
voices or the remainder, and the balance debtor in afore- 
said peltries to be taken possession of by the said Ward 
& Guerrier of the first part. 

A further mutual condition is that all disputes which 
may arise in reference to the quality of robes shall be 
settled by arbitration, the said parties of the first part 
choosing one, the parties of the second part to choose 
one, and the two persons thus chosen to select the third. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 17 

Fort Laramie N. T., March 4th, 1857. 
$3000. Twelve months after date I promise to pay to 
the order of Tutt & Dougherty (a firm composed of John 
S. Tutt and Lewis B. Dougherty) the sum of Three Thou- 
sand Dollars at the Bank of the State of Missouri in the 
City of Saint Louis, for value received negotiable and pay- 
able without defalcation or discount, bearing interest from 
due until paid at the rate of ten per cent per annum. 

Seth E. Ward. 
Ward & Guerrier Secty. 
Endorsed on face of note : Paid. 

Endorsed on back of note: Pay to Robert Campbell 
Esq. of St. Louis or order. 

Tutt & Dougherty. 
Paid Thos E. Tutt pr. 

Jno. S. Tutt $1500 

pr. Louis B. Dougherty 1500 



R. Campbell. 



Fort Laramie, Nebraska Territory, 

September 6th, 1859. 

We, the undersigned, in presence of certain witnesses, 
do agree that, Two Mules, which have been claimed by Dr. 
Johns, U. S. A., shall be shaved on such parts as are now 
visibly Branded ; and if there shall be no mark of a previous 
brand (U. S.) the said mules shall be immediately restored 
to Mr. Beauvais, until such time as proof of property shall 
be satisfactorily made, security being given to Dr. Johns, 
for twelve months, that the mules, or their value, shall be 
forthcoming. 

But if the marks of a previous brand (U. S.) be visible, 
it shall be taken and deemed as sufficient proof that such 
mules are the property of Dr. Johns, and may be legally 
detained by him. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto signed our hands 
at the place and date first above written. 

E. W. Johns, Asst. Surg, in U. S. A. 
Witnesses: G. P. Beauvais. 

C. S. Scovell, Capt. Inf. 

Norman R. Fitzhugh. 

Written on back: Arbitration Dr. Johns G. P. 
Beauvais. 



18 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Omaha, Neb., 

May 20/71. 
Dear William: 

Yours of the 12th inst. at hand, informing me of Col. 
E. Otis remittance of one Hundred dollars — better later 
than never — I am sorry that the goods I sent from St. Louis 
did not all arrive together — glad to hear that you have 
traded so many Robes — Messrs. Stephens & Wilcox in- 
formed me that they had received 40 Bales of Robes, and 
sent me a list of prices. They expected to sell it if they 
opened well and came up to the standard — I came up to look 
at them and I am sorry to say they are a very inferior lot 
and I thought it was best to let them go for the price 
offered — averaging 4.66 now take the freight on them from 
Cheyenne to this place at 20c pr. Robe and they net about 
4.46. The lot marked thus X was the most inferior lot of 
Robes I ever handled in my life, and I think them well sold 
on the whole. I am glad that the next lot you will send in 
Will be of so much better quality a good lot will bring a 
good price. Jules Ecoffey & Hunton are both here await- 
ing the awards of the contracts for Laramie & Fetterman. 

It is currently reported here that Col. E. B. Tayloy 
has the appointment of Post Trader at Laramie. I under- 
stand he telegraphed out to this effect. 

In regard to the mules you have on hand my advice is 
to sell them. It will not pay in my opinion to buy wagons 
& Harness to send up to freight as I presume the prices 
will be low on the Indian supplies to the agency wherever 
that will be — people are going crazy about Govt. Contracts 
— and it appears to me that they want to work for glory 
only. 

I would send in all the skins you have on hand of all 
kinds. Messrs. S. & W. thinks they can get 75c pr. pound 
for antelope & Deer and judging from the dullness of Trade 
through out the county the prices will not be better and 
would send them in as fast as you can. 

Will the Indians remain at Laramie until they received 
their anuity goods & supplies are there any more to come in 
with Robes. 

My regards to Cousin E. 

Yours Truly 

S. E. Ward. 
P. S. 

Enclosed I hand you a list of the robes sold. 

On back of letter: S. E. Ward 

May 20, 1871. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 19 

PIONEERING IN THE '70S 

(By MRS. GEORGE GILLAND) 

(Address before the Cheyenne Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, May 14, 1927) 

As members of what we are pleased to call our "Pioneer 
Club," we feel honored today in meeting with the daughters 
of those true pioneers to whom we owe such a rich heri- 
tage. By request, I am recalling a few incidents of early 
days in Wyoming, but at the risk of repeating much with 
which you are already familiar, yet experiences vary with 
circumstances and environment. 

I arrived here with my parents, Mr. and Mrs. A. Mar- 
tin, a younger brother, Hobert, and an aunt, Miss Phelps, 
on January 20th, 1873, the journey over the Union Pa- 
cific taking three days from Rockf ord, Illinois, as compared 
with the ninety-three days spent by my father on his first 
journey across the plains by ox team from Wisconsin to 
Denver in 1860, then as now for the benefit of his health. 

Mother's query, "Will it be safe for us to stay over 
night in Cheyenne?" was prompted by the unsavory repu- 
tation it held in the East, justified no doubt by the rough 
element which always flocks to a frontier town in the 
making. But it was then nearly six years old and its wild- 
est days were passed; we were welcomed by former Rock- 
ford friends and, to our surprise, found as fine a people as 
a class as one could wish to meet, to some of whom Chey- 
enne is still "home," — Senator Warren, Mayor Riner, Mrs. 
Durbin, Mrs. Hawes, (then, as Elizabeth Snow, a teacher 
in the original part of the present Central School), and 
Mrs. John Underwood who was my first Sunday School 
teacher here. Miss Lee, who afterward married Prof. N. 
E. Stark was also a teacher in the Congregational Sunday 
School and Josiah Strong x was the second pastor of the 
church. 

The I. C. Whipple family were among our earliest ac- 
quaintances and it was to their hospitable home that we 
were first invited to tea. The occasion made an impres- 
sion upon my young mind because we hadn't expected to be 
treated to anything so delectable as ice cream and angel 
food cake away out here on "the ragged edges of civiliza- 
tion and despair." Then there were the T. A. Douglas, 
E. P. Johnson, (the latter the parents of Mrs. H. D. Glea- 

1 Josiah Strong rose to the ranks of the foremost ministers in 
the United States and was the author of several books. 



20 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

son), the A. H. Reel, Frank Houseman and Walter Brown 
families, the Henry Conways, W. D. Pease, and others who 
were long identified with the history of the town. Per- 
haps the only true resident pioneers are Mrs. Reed and 
Mrs. Farrell, who, I understand, were here when the rail- 
road came. 

We settled in a small house on East Sixteenth street, 
which afterward became Mrs. Glafcke's first greenhouse. 
In a "lean-to" beside the kitchen mother stored our staple 
provisions; the one outside door was without lock or bar 
all winter, yet nothing was taken although of tramps 
there were plenty. 

Sixteenth was then the principal street; there were 
less than a dozen trees in town, and the brown, wooden 
houses of Fort Russell, or "The Post," as it was referred 
to, could be plainly seen, with Camp Carlin located on a 
spur of railroad near the Talbot place. This was a gov- 
ernment supply depot, and the long trains of army wagons 
laden with various kinds of freight and drawn by govern- 
ment mules were often watched until only the dust was 
visible in the distance as they wended their way through 
Fort Russell toward Horse Creek (where, at the old Good- 
win ranch twenty-eight miles out the Yellowstone Highway 
now merges with the old trail), to Fort Fetterman, Old 
Fort Laramie and other places. Usually several of the out- 
fits traveled together, sometimes with a cavalry escort from 
the Fort, yet many a brave freighter and stage driver lost 
his life to the hostile Indians. 

Father's health not improving, we shipped our house- 
hold goods to Denver in the beautiful October of 1873, and 
drove down, taking a week for the trip and visiting some 
of the mountain towns. We spent the last night out at 
a ranch eleven or twelve miles from Denver. In the large 
living room before an open log fire our hosts recounted to 
us some of their early experiences, one of which, as nearly 
as I can recall, was as follows: 

Mrs. X — let us call her — came there a bride at a time 
when white women were a curiosity to the Indians. Un- 
familiar with Indian customs and traditions, her young 
husband was amused when an Ute chieftain, accompanied 
by several braves, rode up one day and offered to bring 
some ponies in exchange for the "White Squaw." Taking 
it as a joke, Mr. X consented. Laughingly relating the in- 
cident to a neighbor, an old frontiersman, who chancedto 
call soon after, he was advised by the latter to lose no 
time in taking his wife and her sister to the settlement of 
Denver, asserting that the chief made the bargain in good 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 21 

faith and might cause trouble if not bought off. His ad- 
vice was immediately acted upon, Mr. X returning laden 
with bright-colored calico, beads, etc. True to their word 
the Indians came the next morning with the stipulated 
number of ponies, but bribed by the gaudy merchandise 
aided by the tact of the old frontiersman who was also 
on hand, they were pacified after a long parley and rode 
away. But the women remained in Denver until their 
fears subsided. 

In the spring of 1874 father returned to Wyoming, 
took up a ranch on Muddy Creek, thirty-two miles east of 
here, and in July moved his family there from Denver. 
Then it was that, for us, real pioneering began; not in 
the sense that we suffered hardship — the house father had 
built was comfortable, there was a well of sparkling pure, 
cold water at the door and plenty of flimsy old railroad 
ties for fuel, making the stoking of the cookstove in sum- 
mer and the heater in winter a perpetual performance. But 
the softer water for washing had to be carried up an em- 
bankment from the creek and of course carried out again; 
our nearest railroad station, Egbert, was two and one- 
half miles away; (incidentally Mr. E. R. Breisch 2 was, in 
the early 80's, our agent there) . Freight and passenger 
rates were almost prohibitive and we were "thirty miles 
from a lemon." 

However, mother soon learned to calculate to a nicety 
the quantity of supplies needed between our rare visits to 
Cheyenne — then an all-day trip each way since the wagon 
was loaded with ranch produce going up and provisions 
coming back. Always too she kept a few jars of preserves 
and pickles and cans of fish, so, with fresh butter, milk 
and eggs at hand an appetizing meal could be placed be- 
fore the chance guest; for those were the days when the 
coming of visitors meant much and never was work so im- 
portant that it could not be readily adjusted to the oft-un- 
heralded arrival of friends for a day or a week. 

Thus our lives passed happily and uneventfully until 
the spring of 1877 ; then came rumors of Indian uprisings, 
depredations increased and ranchers armed for protection. 
On our occasional drives at that time father would carry 
a Springfield rifle, mother a revolver, while we children 
were instructed in case of danger to crouch in the bottom 
of the wagon. None of these precautions proved necessary 
as no Indians crossed our path; yet such was the appre- 
hension that when father was away over night mother 

2 Mr. Breisch is the present freight agent in Cheyenne for 
the Union Pacific Railway Co. 



22 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

would place a gun at the head of her bed and a revolver 
under her pillow; the anxiety of those times can be appre- 
ciated only by those who passed through them. 

One evening in June, I had mounted my pony for a 
ride when a horseman rode hurriedly up, called to father 
to be on guard as a raiding party of Indians had killed 
three of Judge Tracey's men near Pine Bluffs that after- 
noon, then dashed away to the Culver ranch west of us, 
while, at father's bidding I made haste to warn my uncle's 
family, the Reuben Martins, who had come from Illinois 
and settled on a ranch less than a mile east. As I entered 
a draw half way between the two places a dusky-skinned 
horseman came riding down. Frightened, I turned my pony 
and ran for home, but learning that he was only Mr. Cul- 
ver's Mexican sheep herder I again set forth in fear and 
trembling and accomplished the errand. Everyone kept 
vigil that night but the Indians did not raid our valley. 

The next day father took his family to Cheyenne and 
left us there until the danger seemed to be over; but we 
were destined to have one more scare. One evening a 
cloud of dust arose in the west and a band of horses came 
running over the bluffs; no riders could be seen and 
knowing that the savages in raiding sometimes leaned over 
the side of their ponies and aimed from under their necks, 
the cry of "Indians" arose. Mother took us children into 
her arms and father, handing her a revolver, exclaimed: 
"If anything happens to me don't let them take you alive!" 
Soon, however, several riders and a covered wagon ap- 
peared and the mystery was explained. It was the Stone 
outfit bringing their horses back from Cheyenne where 
they had taken them for safety. 

As everyone knows, on June 25th, General Custer and 
his command were annihilated in the battle of the Little 
Big Horn. Relatives of ours had come from Illinois to 
spend the summer in Wyoming, but the gruelling anxiety 
of watching for the Indians constantly did not appeal to 
them and they soon returned to the security of civilization. 
It was not until the government troops had captured the 
marauding bands and returned them to their reservations 
under military guard that the settlers themselves felt safe 
and life resumed normal. 

Early the following spring a very near neighbor, a 
woman of high attainments, who had recently come from 
New Jersey, opened a small private school in her home, 
thus affording a much-desired opportunity for study to the 
few children privileged to attend. Another notable event 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 23 

occurred that spring: Mr. Gilland arrived from Vermont 
April 21st, 1877, just fifty years ago. 

For lack of other diversion neighbors within a radius 
of twenty miles or more decided the following winter to 
give a series of dances, each family to entertain in turn, 
the first taking place at the home of the J. R. Gordons 
near Pine Bluffs, the site of which is included in the 
present James Wilkinson ranch; the next was held at the 
home of the J. E. Ruggs, then our near neighbors, who 
later moved to the T. B. Horde ranch west of Cheyenne, 
now owned by J. T. Bell. In the early 80's Mr. and Mrs. 
Rugg moved to town and built the nucleus of the present 
Richardson house on Capitol Avenue, then called Hill 
street. 

The third party was given by Uncle Reuben and Aunt 
Mary Martin, the fourth by my parents in the evening of 
January 3rd, 1878 ; — the diningroom was cleared for danc- 
ing and at midnight an oyster supper was served in an 
"L" of the house; eleven of the guests, because of the long 
distance they had to drive through deep snow and sub- 
zero weather, stayed to breakfast. So dancing continued 
all night to the music of a string" band from Cheyenne 
supplemented by father who played old-fashioned tunes 
on his violin. 

Conveniences were few in those days, but the very 
deprivations endured served to unite people in a warmth 
of hospitality and understanding, while in illness the wom- 
en depended upon each other; never did a neighbor fail 
to give freely of her time, sympathy and skill, while the 
men ofttimes exchanged work, or willingly helped a bro- 
ther ranchman at much inconvenience to themselves. All 
honor to those sturdy men who worked so hard and en- 
dured so much and to those pioneer women whose forti- 
tude, patience and endurance in many cases surpassed any 
tale of fiction! 

Spring came early in 1878, and by March the grass 
was green; the 7th was an unusually warm day, even 
sultry; in the evening heavy banks of clouds appeared and 
rain began to fall. In the night the wind rose and by the 
morning of the 8th one of the worst storms in history 
was raging and continued for seventy-two hours — a fine 
cutting snow that swirled in fury, blinding the men who 
stretched rope from house to barn and barn to corrals 
to guide them in their efforts to reach and care for the 
stock. Even with this precaution it was a question each 
time they left the house whether they would ever return. 



24 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

But day and night they carried on; nor were the women 
folk idle in the house, — keeping hot coffee and food in 
constant readiness to revive the men, baling out wet plas- 
ter and the water that followed as the ceilings fell, for 
the snow, driven by the fierce wind, sifted under the shin- 
gles and eventually there was only one dry corner in the 
entire house. 

Cattle and horses suffered less than sheep. Father 
at that time was keeping sheep on shares for Charlie Riner ; 
nearly one-third of the herd perished, while Wallace and 
Crowley, eight miles north, saved only four hundred out 
of a flock of eight thousand. One of our men dug a sheep 
out alive after it had lain buried in the snow eleven days, 
and on the fifteenth day after the storm a lamb was found 
under a snow bank breathing and lived. 

An unusual electrical display was a feature of the 
storm; balls of fire appeared on fence post and twigs and 
hung suspended beneath the roofs of sheds. High winds 
prevailed for a couple of days afterward, then the sun 
came out and in three weeks the snow was nearly gone. 

In May, 1879, a school meeting was held at Egbert 
and School District No. 3 was organized, extending from 
Archer to Pine Bluffs, thirty-five miles east and west and 
across the state — two hundred miles — north and south; 
this was later divided. The first school house was built 
on "The Muddy" that summer; so with the close of that 
decade ended "pioneering" as we had known it in the 70's. 



CAMP CARLIN OR CHEYENNE DEPOT 

Camp Carlin, located one and a half miles west of 
Cheyenne, Wyoming, was selected by the War Department 
for the main distributing point for supplies to the various 
forts and military camps throughout the west. 

It was an ideal location. The Union Pacific railroad 
had a spur to the camp and supplies were loaded and un- 
loaded from the large warehouses that stood along the 
track. It was named for Colonel Carlin, the commander. 
Camp Carlin was established at the time that Fort D. A. 
Russell Military Reservation was selected as a post. There 
had to be some central location chosen to be used as a sup- 
ply station and this point seemed to best answer the de- 
mand. The survey was made and Camp Carlin was 
opened in 1867. 

Troops had to be maintained at Fort D. A. Russell 
to guard the Union Pacific railroad during the period of 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 25 

construction as the Indians had become very hostile, and 
would wreck trains and shoot passengers and crews when- 
ever it was possible. 

During the "Black Hills" excitement in the 70's it 
took a great many troops to protect the interests of the 
white man. 

I went to work in the Indian Department at Camp 
Carlin in 1876, when everywhere there was "Indian war" 
talk and military movements to suppress the warring In- 
dians. 

Camp Carlin had now become a great supply station. 
The first work I did was to receive goods for the Indians, 
consisting of flour, beans, rice, bacon, salt pork, baking 
powder, calico for dresses, cloth for shirts, bales of blan- 
kets, tobacco and thread. I don't remember all, but one 
shipment consisted of 1,006,000 pounds. This was freighted 
to "Red Cloud" and "Spotted Tail" Agencies in northern 
Nebraska. Much of this was loaded on wagons belonging 
to A. H. Reel and Charles Hecht, each having trains con- 
sisting of 400 yoke of oxen. The teams had 12 to 14 
yoke of oxen and drew three wagons, the front one upwards 
of 15,000 pounds, the second 9,000 pounds, the third with 
cooking utensils, tents and food for the trip. The tongue of 
the second and third wagons were cut off short and chained 
to the hind axle of the wagon in front. 

The camp contained a population of about one thou- 
sand to twelve hundred civilians, employees and superin- 
tendent and over 25,000 animals most of the time. I saw 
1000 mules unloaded one day, and 7000 tons of hay. We 
supplied sixteen military posts and all field companies. 

I transferred to the commissary department from the 
Indian department October 17, 1876. Everything was 
rushing on account of the Indians who were getting out 
to go on the war path at every point in the territory of 
Wyoming and Idaho and the state of Montana. This re- 
quired constant shipping of supplies to a great many mili- 
tary posts, where troops were stationed ready to move 
at an hour's notice. Besides the troops in the field I will 
name the forts that were shipped to at that time as many 
of them have been abandoned. 

Wyoming Territory — Fort D. A. Russell, Fort Sanders, 
Fort Fred Steele, Fort Bridger, Fort Washakie, Fort Fet- 
terman, Fort Laramie, Fort McKenzie, Rock Creek Sta- 
tion. 

Nebraska — Fort Sidney, Fort Omaha, Fort Robinson. 

Utah — Fort Douglas. 
Idaho — Fort Hall. 



26 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

After the "Thornburg Massacre" we shipped to 
Meeker, Colorado, for a long time and all the supplies 
during the campaign which took place in September, 
1879. General Wesley Merritt was in command during 
the "Thornburg" trouble. 

Camp Carlin furnished a wagon train. The train was 
ambushed by the Indians and our wagon master, McKenzie, 
was killed, and Rodney Saunders, a member of the train, 
was wounded and was a cripple for the rest of his life. 
When the news reached Camp Carlin, Perry Organ was 
superintendent of the quartermaster department and J. 
F. Jenkins was chief clerk of the commissary department. 
The War Department published a statement giving the 
force great credit for the rapid and efficient manner in 
which the troops and supplies were sent forward. 

During my position as chief clerk of the commissary 
at Camp Carlin I served under Major Wm. Nash and 
Major Elderkin. 

After the extension of the railroad north, the camp 
was abandoned, and the houses and warehouses were sold 
for junk. It had outlived its usefulness. Several of the 
former employees are living in Cheyenne, but most of 
them have "passed on." 

J. F. JENKINS, 
Captain of Commissary, U. S. A. 
Spanish-American War. 



THE OPEN RANGE CATTLE BUSINESS IN WYOMING 

At the close of the Civil War the great cattle breeding 
grounds of Texas were literally overrun with cattle; with 
no local market, and few if any of these cattle fit for beef, 
it soon became a serious problem as to what could be done 
with these immense herds. In the late 60's an outlet was 
found for a limited number of aged steers by trailing them 
to Kansas and selling them at very low prices to Kansas, 
Nebraska and Missouri feeders. From this modest begin- 
ning was finally developed that wonderful trail business so 
vividly described by Emerson Hough in "North of 36." It 
finally began to dawn on the southern cattlemen, and to 
northern business men as well, that the grasses on the 
northern prairies were far more nutritious than on the 
southern ranges, and it was discovered (and tradition says 
by a mere accident) that even in the northern country 
where severe winters were frequent, if not the rule, cattle 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 27 

would live and thrive with no other feed than the native 
grass. 

By the early 70's it had been demonstrated beyond 
question that Wyoming was the very center of the greatest 
open range country known to man; that the native buffalo 
and bunch grasses were the best to be found between the 
Gulf of Mexico and the Canadian border ; that cattle turned 
loose on the Wyoming ranges would not only live and thrive 
during the winter but would get "hog-fat" in the summer. 
So long as the number of cattle were limited and the winter 
feed not used in summer the conditions above described 
were not so far out of line. Reports of this great range 
country in Wyoming gradually spread to other parts of 
the country and cattlemen and others began to establish 
small ranches and turn small herds of cattle on the ranges, 
and in some instances with phenomenal profits. About this 
time, in the early seventies, there began to appear in east- 
ern papers and magazines, flaming articles describing the 
cattle business in Wyoming; boldly stating and indeed act- 
ually believed by Wyoming cattlemen that the annual losses 
were not to exceed two per cent; that the cost of handling 
the cattle was not more than one dollar per year and the 
profits could be safely counted at forty per cent per an- 
num. Small wonder that this propaganda drew the atten- 
tion of the outside world to this wonderful "get-rich-quick" 
cattle business. 

By the late 70's there began that mad scramble to get 
in the business that culminated in a wild boom, such as 
has rarely if ever been seen in any country at any time. 
Men from every walk in life, bankers, merchants, farmers, 
young men just out of college whose fathers were ready, 
willing and able to establish them in the business ; men who 
knew something of the cattle business and many who knew 
nothing at all about it. New York, Boston, England and 
Scotland capitalists, all seemed determined to get into the 
game. Tens of thousands of cattle were being trailed into 
Wyoming each year from Texas, Oregon, Washington, Ne- 
vada and Utah. A ready market was found for these cat- 
tle; those already established in the business were anxious 
to increase their holdings and new men with seemingly 
unlimited capital were continually "getting into the game." 
It never seemed to occur to anyone that there might be a 
limit to the number of cattle the Wyoming ranges would 
support. It was the current belief among all classes of 
citizens that whoever was established in the range cattle 
business in Wyoming was assured of a fortune. 

The "Cowboys," the Roundup, the Long Trail, the 



28 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mess-wagon, have all been celebrated in song and story by 
such writers as Owen Wister, Edgar Beecher Bronson, and 
many others; and perpetuated on canvass by those great 
artists, Remington and Russell. The very nature of the 
business, and the life of those who had actual charge of 
handling the cattle on the range, threw around it a sort 
of romance, glamour and fascination. Nearly a generation 
has passed since the real cowboy rode the Wyoming ranges, 
and yet we have with us the rather amusing if not disgust- 
ing imitations in the rodeo ; the professional broncho-bus- 
ter ; and in the "movies." Even in the agricultural dis- 
tricts of Western Nebraska where there has not been a 
roundup for for'y years, one sees would-be cowboys wear- 
ing chaps, spurs and five-gallon hats, sad commentary on 
the real cowboy as he was known and loved fifty years ago. 

The Other Side of the Picture 

The life of the "Open Range Cattle Business" in Wyo- 
ming, that is to say before the advent of barbed wire , when 
cattle were turned loose on the ranges, with no thought of 
preparing feed for winter and handled entirely by a sys- 
tem of roundups, was comparatively short and certainly 
spectacular and meteoric while it lasted, and ended in 
calamity and financial disaster rarely seen in any line of 
human endeavor. The causes which brought on this unex- 
pected misfortune were many, any one of which would have 
finally landed the business on the rocks. For instance — 
buying and selling cattle "book count" or "range delivery." 
Just how or when this custom was established in Wyo- 
ming I do not know, but in 1878 when I first landed there 
it was a well established custom. That business men 
should so far lose sight of ordinary business methods as 
to buy and sell cattle "without counting a cow," with no 
way of ascertaining how many cattle they were paying for 
except the seller's "tally books," is almost beyond belief. It 
is certain, however, that thousands of cattle changed hands, 
"book count" or "range delivery" in some instances the 
deals involving hundreds of thousands of dollars. Needless 
to say that any deal of that kind where any considerable 
amount was involved was the beginning of financial trou- 
ble. To illustrate: John Smith engaged in the cattle busi- 
ness in 1878, buying 2000 cows and turning them on the 
range; modest ranch buildings and corrals were built near 
a running stream (land not filed on), and Mr. Smith was 
established in the cattle business. During the summer of 
1879 Mr. Smith's outfit reports branding 1500 calves and 
for two or three years about an equal number, then an 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 29 

increased branding from young she stock raised. In 1883 
Mr. Smith decides to sell his ranch and cattle, his books 
have been kept in Cheyenne, all calves branded from year 
to year as reported by the foreman are added to the orig- 
inal 2000 head, and cattle shipped or sold, together with 
the two per cent loss each year, charged off, showing on 
the books of say 8000 cattle. It is soon learned that Mr. 
Smith's outfit is for sale and in due time, some one of the 
many capitalists seeking investment in this wonderful range 
cattle business gets in touch with Mr. Smith and the deal 
is closed to the entire satisfaction of all concerned, the 
price being $30 per head "book count." 

While the above is purely hypothetical, it is a fair 
statement of any number of sales that came under my own 
personal observation. Indeed, I myself was the goat in two 
different deals of this kind, having bought two small herds 
"book count" in 1879, and in 1884 was a stockholder in a 
cattle company, the president of which corporation bought 
for the company a herd of cattle, paying in cash two hun- 
dred thousand dollars and "not counting a cow." I do not 
want to convey the impression that disaster lurked in every 
deal of this kind, nor do I want to be understood as claim- 
ing that deliberate fraud was perpetrated by those selling 
cattle "book count." In most cases I believe the men who 
made these sales actually believed that they had the number 
of cattle shown by their books. The men from whom I 
bought cattle "book count" were, I believe, absolutely hon- 
est in their representations. In fact, it was but a short time 
until they "got into the game" again, buying larger herds 
than they sold to me and bought "book count, range de- 
livery." 

That every man who bought cattle "book count" got 
the worst of the deal, goes without saying; that glaring 
frauds were in some instances perpetrated does not admit 
of a doubt. One deal with which I was familiar will serve 
to illustrate : A merchant whom I knew got into the game, 
buying a herd of cattle shown by the books to be about 1200 
head. He hired the cattle "run" for two or three years at 
one dollar per head per year, the regular price at that time. 
Suspecting that he had been "buncoed" in the deal he began 
investigations with a view of compelling the party from 
whom he bought the cattle to make good some part of his 
loss. He discovered this party was completely bankrupt, 
and that all- he could do was to make the best of a bad bar- 
gain. He decided to have the cattle gathered, tallied and 
moved to a different range, and to me as manager and part 
owner of "a cow outfit" was given the job of gathering 



30 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

these cattle. This herd had been on the range a good many- 
years and naturally was badly scattered. I sent "reps" as 
far as the South Platte in Colorado, and east as far as 
North Platte, and with all roundups where the cattle were 
supposed to be located, and after two years diligent search 
less than two hundred head of cattle were found in this 
brand. Not so long ago I had a talk with an old-time friend 
whom I had not seen for thirty years. This man was one 
of a syndicate that bought a herd "book count" forty-five 
years ago, paying about a quarter of a million dollars cash. 
This friend told me, and he seemed to enjoy it as a good 
joke, that he was confident they paid one hundred dollars 
per head for every cow they got. While these two were 
possibly exceptional cases, the fact remains that in most 
cases where large herds were bought "book count" the 
purchasers were given a good start towards bankruptcy, or 
at best the loss of a large part of their investments. 

Another, and not the least of the causes that brought 
the open range cattle business in Wyoming to grief, was 
the overstocking of the ranges. That old saying, "One can- 
not eat his cake and have it," was entirely lost sight of. It 
did not seem to occur to anyone that it would be possible 
to overstock the ranges ; that the continual influx from the 
outside, together with the natural increase, would finally 
swamp the business. It would serve no good purpose to 
go further into the causes of the complete failure of the 
open range cattle business in Wyoming, or to tell of the 
frightful financial crash brought on by the wild boom and 
consequent reaction. It may be mentioned, however, that 
in many cases where cattle had been bought at $30.00 "book 
count" they were sold at S15.00 to S20.00 per head tallied. 
This tells its own story. 

The Cowboy 

The cowboys who rode the Wyoming ranges forty to 
fifty years ago, the boys and men who made it possible to 
handle the hundreds of thousands of cattle on the open 
ranges by that wonderful system of roundups, deserve a 
higher and better place in Wyoming history than is given 
them by the modern writers of lurid cowboy stories, shown 
on the movie screen and in the professional "Rodeo." The 
real cowboy of those days was far from the wild-eyed freak 
that modern writers show him, carrying two big six-shoot- 
ers, ready to shoot and kill on the slightest provocation; 
"shooting up the town," riding his pony into the saloons, 
et cetera. On the contrary, the class of cowboys on whose 
shoulders rested the responsibility of properly handling 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 31 

their employer's cattle, were an unusually fine class of 
men and boys, intelligent, honest, sober, hard working, hard 
riding and loyal to their employer's interests to a degree 
rarely found in employees as a class. It goes without say- 
ing that not all cowboys belonged to the class just described. 
The very nature of the business was such as to bring out 
the very best that was in the one class, and at the same time 
to give unlimited opportunity to that class who were natur- 
ally inclined to train with "the wild bunch." Those of the 
cowboys first described who are still on this side of the 
divide, are now the reliable, honored, prominent and suc- 
cessful business men of Wyoming and other states — of the 
other class perhaps the least said the better. 

A V/ord for the "Cowman" 

At no time in any country, in any business, did there 
ever come together a finer class of men than the Wyoming 
cowman of forty to fifty years ago. Something in the life, 
in the great open spaces; something in the very atmo- 
sphere seemed to make men broader minded; to make for 
closer and more loyal friendships. He fought a courageous 
fight and lost. His like will not be seen again in Wyoming 
or elsewhere. 

(Signed) W. E. GUTHRIE, 
Bridgeport, Nebr., Dec. 22, 1926. 



Portland, Ind., February 14th, 1884. 
Mr. John C. Friend, Esq., 
Rawlins, Wyoming. 
Dear Sir: 

Your favor of the 31st ult. duly received. 

In reply, will say that from what data I have to go by 
— an old pencil diary — I find that Companies "A" and "D" 
11th 0. V. C, landed at the site of Fort Halleck on the 30th 
of July, 1862. The companies crossed over from the Sweet- 
water Country through Whiskey Gap, passing somewhere 
near where Rawlins stands. In that spring the Noble Lo 
got on his ear and made things extremely lively for the 
Overland Stage Line, which then crossed the South Platte 
at Julesburg and then perambulated its way via Scotts 
Bluff, Fort Laramie, up the North Platte and the Sweet- 
water to South Pass and on down past Granger where it 
crossed Blacks Fork to Fort Bridger. With the handful of 
troops out there it was found impossible to protect the 
United States mail and United States citizens fleeing from 
the draft and it was by the powers that be, decided to 
leave the north route to the Lo family, and transfer the 



32 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

stages, stock, etc., to what was then called the Bridger Pass 
route, which was via Latham, Colo., where the route crossed 
the Platte, then up through Virginia Dale, Cache La Pou- 
dre, Fort Halleck and Bridger's Pass. For the purpose of 
protection to the stages, Fort Halleck was established, the 
site being chosen by General Mitchell in person, who the 
day previous to reaching the ground, met the two companies 
enroute, accompanied by his aides and guided us to the 
grounds. On the 2nd of August following, the first tree 
was cut down by Ben Lloyd of Company "A" for the estab- 
lishment of Fort Halleck. 

On the 20th day of December following, these two com- 
panies had built and completed twosets of company quar- 
ters, two stables, large enough each to hold 100 horses, 
quartermasters and commissary storehouses, post head- 
quarters hospital, officers' quarters, bake house, sutler 
store and the "jug." The post was, at first under command 
of Major John O'Ferrell, 11th O. V. C, who shortly after- 
wards becoming disgusted at finding "graybacks" on him 
resigned and went home to his wife and kids at Piqua, 
Ohio, where he still resides and where I had the pleasure 
of a chat with him a month or so ago. The command then 
fell hard upon Captain F. W. Shipley, Company "A", who 
resigned in command and robbed the boys out of about 
812,000.00 extra duty money until December 20th when his 
company was ordered to Fort Laramie. He still resides in 
Pique also,butI didn't think enough of him to look him up 
when there. At the time we landed at Fort Hallack until 
we left, the vicinity was a grazing ground for thousands 
upon thousands of elk, antelope and black tail deer in 
sight any time of any day and the chaparral along the base 
of Elk Mountain was full of cinnamon bears. Scarcely a day 
passed without a flock of antelope charging through our 
camp and upsetting tents, camp kettles, etc., before we 
moved into our new quarters. The buildings, all of them, 
with the exception of the hospital and headquarters build- 
ing, were composed of rough pine logs, notched at the cor- 
ners and put up in panels. The last two mentioned were 
of hewn logs. The lumber for the doors, window frames, 
etc., was brought from Denver by three six-mule teams, 
over which I had charge on the trip, sash, hardware, etc., 
from Laramie. When the post was disbanded I do not know. 
In your account of Fort Halleck you must not forget to 
mention how "Whiskey Gap" derived its name. It was 
thusly: In our march from Sweetwater we camped in the 
gap one night. Accompanying the command were some 
stage property in charge of a station agent at Three Cross- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 33 

ings or Split Rock. I forget which, anyhow he had with him 
a barrel of "nose paint," which he sold to the boys at $5 
the canteen full, and the night we camped in the gap several 
of the boys had became hilariously patriotic, so much so 
that O'Ferrell tied them up, spread eagle style to wagon 
wheels and ordered the barrel of whiskey to be rolled out 
of the wagon and the head knocked in, which was done, 
and the whiskey spilled on the ground and always there- 
after in mentioning that particular camp it was called 
"Whiskey Gap" by the boys, and I believe it has held on 
to the nickname until this day. 

I felled the second tree that was cut down for the 
building of Fort Halleck and don't you forget that. Harry 
Hugus was a stage driver along there at that time, I be- 
lieve. This is about all I can remember of Fort Halleck, 
except that nigger who was killed there and whom Ed 
Lewis, hospital steward, skinned. I met Ed in Laramie last 
summer and he mentioned that circumstance. 

Now send me your "mammoth" extra edition. I want 
to see it. Hoping that you may be able to glean a few facts 
from what I have written and wishing you success in your 
enterprise, I am, 

Very truly, etc., 

J. J. HOLLINGSWORTH 
From Constant collection. 



Torrington, Wyo. 
May 13, 1927. 
Mrs. Cyrus Beard, 
State Historian, 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Dear Mrs. Beard: 

I am enclosing what is to me six very interesting but 
very short papers. They are all very plain and simple 
to me and I will try in a few lines to explain them to you. 

The due bill from James Beckwourth was for goods 
he bought of Mr. Ward the last time he was at Fort Lara- 
mie. He died the next winter or spring without redeem- 
ing his paper. I never knew him. 

E. W. Raymond was the man who was with Park- 
man a great deal of the time while he was in this sec- 
tion of the country. Papin was a trader, trapper and 
hunter. Norman R. Fitzhugh was the post sutler at one 
time. 

W. Wright was a sergeant in the Second Dragoons. 
S. E. Ward was post sutler and Robert Foot had just been 



34 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

discharged from the Second Dragoons and was the same 
Robert Foot who lived at Fort Halleck, then Buffalo, 
Wyoming, and was a member of the Wyoming Legisla- 
ture. 

T. S. Twiss was at one time Indian Agent at Upper 
Platte Agency (where Glenrock now stands) and was 
also a trader and merchant. Michael Guinard was a 
brother of Louis Guinard who built the bridge across the 
Platte river at the place afterward called Fort Casper. 

The receipt of W. G. Bullock to Patrick Mullaly for 
the good behavior of William Granger was given to Mul- 
laly for cash to get Granger out of the guardhouse so he 
could continue to work. Mullaly and Granger were both 
considered rather tough characters. The order of Col. 
W. G. Bullock given by Major Joseph W. Wham to sup- 
ply Frank D. Yates with ammunition for Indians explains 
itself. Mr. Yates was the white man in charge of the 
[ndians. 

The duplicate draft on London, England, explains 
itself. The duplicate discharge of Sam Terry may be 
of some interest in the distant future. Mr. Terry worked 
for me at Bordeaux in 1871. 

Most respectfully, 

(Signed) JOHN HUNTON. 



FROM LETTERS TO STATE HISTORIAN MRS. BEARD 

The Eleventh Ohio Infantry were never in this part 
of the country. There never was a fight along the North 
Platte Valley in Wyoming between the U. S. soldiers and 
Indians in which as many as ten soldiers were killed, ex- 
cept the Grattan fight, nine miles down the river from 
Fort Laramie in which 28 soldiers were killed, August 19, 
1854, and the fight at Fort Casper, in which about 26 sol- 
diers were killed, July 25, 1865. 

During the Civil War there were many volunteer sol- 
diers stationed at Fort Laramie as headquarters and dis- 
tributed from there east and west and south. The Eleventh 
Ohio Cavalry was so employed from 1862 to the fall of the 
year 1865. Part of this time some units (detachments or 
companies) of that regiment were camped on the La Bonte 
Creek, where the Oregon Trail crosses the creek. This camp 
was designated as Camp Marshall. During the three years 
these Ohio troops were in this part of the country they 
served as far east as Scottsbluff, as far west as the head 
of Sweetwater river, and as far south as Fort Collins, Colo- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 35 

rado, which post was named in honor of Colonel Collins of 
that regiment. I think this regiment also established and 
occupied Fort Halleck. Other volunteer troops who served 
in this country included the Fifth and Sixth Iowa regi- 
ments of cavalry, the Fifth and Sixth Kansas regiments 
of cavalry, parts of Nebraska regiments of cavalry, all of 
which sustained loss of men in fights with Indians, out the 
Eleventh Ohio regiment was the greatest loser of any of 
the regiments from fights with Indians. 

Now about the "graveyard" at La Bonte. On the west 
side of La Bonte Creek, about a quarter of a mile from the 
road crossing was a burial ground in which many citizens 
and soldiers were buried, and in this burial ground were 
the remains of some twenty or twenty-five soldiers, the 
majority of them being members of the Eleventh Ohio 
cavalry. There were about thirty or thirty-five graves all 
told, including citizens. I first saw this burial ground in 
October, 1868. In 1871 I had the government contract for 
furnishing wood to the post at Fort Fetterman and had 
one or more contracts to furnish government supplies at 
Fort Fetterman from that date each year up to and in- 
cluding 1881 (eleven years) ; and during these eleven years 
I passed and saw the burial ground on an average of more 
than twelve times each year. The enclosure consisted of 
posts set in the ground, two posts close together and poles 
attached by putting the ends of the poles between the posts. 
Some of the posts were held together by having pieces of 
plank or split poles nailed to them. I and my employes 
sometimes repaired this fence, after 1876, when cattle 
were ranged in the country. The enclosure was about 18 
or 20 feet wide by 40 feet long. When I last saw the en- 
closure, during the summer of 1881, most of the poles and 
posts were lying on the ground in a decayed condition. 

During the summer of 1891 the government had the 
remains of all soldiers (except three who died of smallpox) 
who had been buried at Fort Laramie and at the site of the 
Grattan killing disinterred and reburied in the national 
cemetery at McPherson, Nebraska. Some years after that 
date the remains of all soldiers buried at Fort Fetterman, 
La Bonte, and other isolated places where bodies could be 
identified were taken up and moved to some national ceme- 
tery. I do not think the soldiers buried at Fort Fetterman 
and La Bonte, both included, exceeded forty, and I much 
doubt if there were so many. 

In March, 1868, there was located on La Bonte Creek 
a road ranch owned and run by Mr. M. A. Mouseau. There 



36 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

was a ranch at the old abandoned stage station on Horse- 
shoe Creek which was conducted by William Worrel and 
John R. Smith; a ranch at Twin Springs, four and one- 
half miles east of the last named ranch, also owned by M. 
A. Mouseau, who employed a man to run it; a ranch on 
the west side of Cottonwood Creek, where the Fort Fetter- 
man cut-off road crosses the creek, run by two men known 
as Bulger and Bouncer ; and a ranch on the east side of 
Cottonwood Creek at the same crossing. Sometime between 
the 15th and 25th of that month a war party of about 60 
Sioux Indians, under American Horse, Big Little Man, and 
other noted warriors, attacked all five of the ranches and 
destroyed and burned them. 

None of them were ever rebuilt. Mousseau and his 
family escaped to Fort Fetterman. His Twin Spring man 
escaped. Of the Horseshoe ranch party, four of the men 
were killed. Worrell was shot through one foot and Smith 
was shot through one thigh and in some way both got to 
the fort. Of the two Cottonwood ranches, the one on the 
east side of the creek, being first attacked, gave the alarm 
to the two men on the west side ranch and they escaped, but 
James Pulliam, the east side ranchman, was wounded in 
one arm and escaped by running into the brush. His Indian 
wife received a slight wound in one arm and was captured. 
Her child and young sister were killed during the fight. 
The survivors got to the fort and reported the affair as 
soon as they could. Company "A," Second Cavalry, com- 
manded by Captain Thomas Dewus, was ordered to go as 
far as Horseshoe and to repair the telegraph line and ren- 
der such assistance as they could and bury the dead. My- 
self and several other citizens (Wm. H. Brown and An- 
toine Ladue, I remember), accompanied the cavalry com- 
pany. We found and buried two of the men of the Horse- 
shoe ranch party, on the east side of Bear Creek draw, just 
north of and almost under the telegraph line. 

Most respectfully, 

(Signed) JOHN HUNTON. 



FROM COUTANT NOTES 

Wyoming Newspaper — Cheyenne Leader 

On September 19th, the first number of the Cheyenne 
Leader was issued; though intended as a daily it was not 
published regularly as such until December. It was the 
first newspaper published in what was afterwards Wyo- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 37 

ming and exerted an influence which was felt throughout 
the country. The founder of the Leader was Nathaniel 
Addison Baker. He was born near Lockport, Niagara 
County, New York, August 3, 1843, and was educated at 
Racine, Wisconsin, to which place his family removed when 
he was six years old. They were pioneers there as their 
ancestors had been in 1818 in western New York. In 1859, 
the family took up their residence in Omaha and a year 
later young Baker crossed the plains and located at Denver. 
Here he was engaged in lumbering and later in agriculture, 
became a pioneer school teacher in 1862, followed mining 
in 1863, and in the latter part of that year became connected 
with the Denver Daily "Herald" in its business department. 
After this he was business manager of the Rocky Moun- 
tain "News" in 1864, and finally in 1867, in the month of 
September, impelled by the spirit of adventure and love of 
pioneering characteristic of his family set out from Denver 
with a four horse team, carrying the press type and mate- 
rials for the pioneer newspaper of this State. 

Cheyenne was then a town of only a few weeks' growth, 
and a scene of wild pushing and bustling western activity. 
Crowds of freighters, railroad builders, adventurers, and 
of business men jostled together daily in the crowded 
streets, eagerly discussing plans for progressive operations 
and profitable results. The sound of building tools was 
constant, and the saw and hammer was heard from earliest 
dawn each and all days and until well on into the nights. 
The construction of the Union Pacific railroad had then 
progressed to within a few miles of Cheyenne and all was 
full of expectation in the breasts of the throngs that 
crowded the street of the "Magic City". Under these 
circumstances, on the 19th of September, 1867, the "Chey- 
enne Daily Leader" had its birth. The first paper was 
a four page folio of four columns to the page and was 
printed a page at a time, on a quarter medium Gordon 
press. When ready for its first issue a crowd of some three 
hundred besieged the front of the "Leader" office which 
was on Eddy Street, eager to secure a copy of the first news- 
paper. Twenty-five cents was paid for each copy of this 
issue. Startled and often unique expressions were common 
from the lips of purchasers as they eagerly grasped the 
paper and witnessed the early and unexpected evidence of 
frontier enterprise. 

Succeeding events in the experience of the papers and 
its edition were often full of exciting features. For a time 
the rougher elements of the citys population were turbulent 
and sometimes aggressive. Criticisms of the acts of evil- 



38 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

doers brought threats of violence to the editor. These 
threats were often acentuated by the display of a revolver. 

The paper was a prominent and influential factor in 
the discussion of many subjects of absorbing moment to 
the people of this region. The first Territorial establish- 
ment of Wyoming, the official appointments, legislative 
work, woman suffrage and landgrabber lynching, an Indian 
massacre in the outskirts of Cheyenne, murders and 
vigilante work, municipal and Territorial politics, the 
simultaneous visit of Grant, Sherman and Sheridan, to the 
capital city and finally in 1870, the great fire in Cheyenne, 
constituted some of the topics faithfully recorded and fully 
discussed in Baker's paper. 

The ambitions and energy of Wm. Baker in a political 
and business way prompted the establishment by him May 
1st, 1869, of the "Daily Sentinel" in Laramie City and 
about the same time of the "South Pass News" at South 
Pass City. These three newspapers were owned and carried 
on simultaneously for about one year, and were each profit- 
able ventures, despite the fact that the combined pay-rolls 
of these offices aggregated nearly one hundred dollars per 
day. 

The loss of the "Leader" office by the great Cheyenne 
fire January 11th, 1870, necessitated concentration of his 
business. The fire caused the loss of but one issue of the 
"Leader". Hiring the unusued plant of a suspended paper 
the Argus, and contracting for another building in the place 
of the burned office, Wm. Baker sped away the day after 
the fire to Chicago where he replaced the destroyed material 
by the purchase of a carload of machinery and in just thirty 
days' time of severest winter weather resumed publication 
of the "Leader" on its own types and material and in the 
new building. 

Sometime later he sold the Laramie Sentinel to Messrs. 
Hayford and Gates who had previously been connected with 
the "Leader". "The South Pass News" was also sold about 
the came time to Mr. Howe. Wm. Baker after the fire con- 
tinued the publication of the "Leader" successfully for two 
years and a half, when he sold the plant to Major Herman 
Glafcke. He returned to Denver in 1872, where he now 
resides. He has been engaged since in the publishing busi- 
ness for a time and later in stock business, farming and 
real estate business and is now practically retired. He was 
a member of the Third Colorado Cavalry, U. S. Volunteers, 
in 1864, and has been prominent in Grand Army circles in 
politics and fraternal orders in which he takes an active 
interest and pride. Coutant. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 39 

ACCESSIONS FROM APRIL 1, 1927, TO JULY 1, 1927 

Winter, Mrs. C. E Copy of Congressional Directory, 

February, 1926; Manuscript of 
original poem, "Hawaii"; Wyo- 
ming road map; pictures of Cody 
delegation to Washington, D. C. 

Hunton, Mr. John Collection of nine documents from 

Old Fort Laramie; see letter. 
Panoramic view of Fort Laramie 
taken in 1926; manuscript, "Remin- 
iscences". 

Langworthy, Mr. J. N Ranger map of the Shoshone National 

Forest, Wyoming. 

Johnson, Mrs. Jessamine Spear. .Two pictures of "Little Wolf's pic- 
ture of Custer fight painted on 
deerskin" and given by him to Mrs. 
Johnson; prints of scenes in Big 
Horn Mountains. 

Davison, Lieutenant H. W "Petty Cash Book from July 1, '84, 

to October 15, '84," was found 
at Fort Laramie. Ramrod for 
short brass howitzer used m Civil 
War times; found at Fort Laramie. 

Bruce, Mr. Robert Photograph of General Crook. Pam- 
phlet, "Custer's Last Battle," by 
Charles Francis Roe. Revised edi- 
tion. Autographed by Elizabeth 
B. Custer, June, 1927. Mrs. Cus- 
ter is the widow of General Custer. 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Centenary Medal issuedin commemo- 
ration of the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad. 

Freeborn, Mrs. J. D Collection of Indian relics — 1 pair of 

moccasins, adults; 1 pair mocca- 
sins, child's; 3 small beaded 
pouches; 1 beaded saddle pouch; 
1 toy war club. 

Jenkins, Mr. J. F Manuscript, "Camp Carlin, or Chey- 
enne Depot". 

Gilland, Mrs. George Manuscript, "Pioneering in the 70's". 

Jones, Mr. Hoyle Photograph of home of Seth E. Ward 

in Kansas City, Missouri. The 
house was built in the 70's with 
brick freighted from St. Louis. 

Smith, Mr. David G Framed picture of eleven Civil War 

Veterans. Picture taken during a 
birthday party at the home of I. S. 
Bartlett, one of the veterans. 

McFarlane, Mrs. Mary Whiting.. Manuscript account of Daniel Mc- 

Ulvan's and David McFarlane's 
encounter with the Sioux in 1876. 



40 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Elva A. McMannis "A Christmas Story". Miss Mc- 

Mannis is associate editor of "The 
Monitor," published by the Moun- 
tain States Telephone & Telegraph 
Co. 

David, Mr. B. B Copy of "The National Lincoln 

Monument," Vol. 1, No. 3, pub- 
lished at Washington, Oct. 1868. 

Bagley, Mr. Clarence B Pamphlet, "The Acquisition and 

Pioneering of Old Oregon," by 
Clarence B. Bagley. "The Quar- 
terly of the Oregon Historical 
Society," Volume V, Number 1, 
March, 1904, giving an account of 
"The Mercer Immigration," by Mr. 
Bagley. "The Washington His- 
torical Quarterly," Volume VI, 
Number 4, October, 1915, contain- 
ing "The Story of the Mercer Ex- 
pedition," by Flora A. P. Engle; 
"The Mormon Road," by Hiram F. 
White; "Jason Lee". New evi- 
dence on the Missionary and 
Colonizer. 

Mrs. Gertrude Merrill and 

Mrs. Laura C. Heath "Views of Southern Wyoming." 

Illustrated and compiled by Merritt 
D. Houghton, 1904. 

Beard, Mrs. Cyrus Bulletin of the Newport Historical 

Society No. 5, January, 1913. 

Dickson, Mr. Arthur J Pamphlet, "Zesenemeoxtoz (Chey- 
enne Songs)". Published in the 
interest of the Mennonite Mission. 

Carroll, Major G. C "The Cavalry Journal" for April, 

1927, contains western history. 
Roster of Soldiers and Sailors and 
Marines who served in the War of 
the Rebellion, Spanish-American 
War and World War. Compiled 
and issued by Charles W. Pool, 
Secretary of State, Lincoln, Ne- 
braska. Official roster of Ohio 
Soldiers, Sailors and Marines in 
the World War, 1917-18. Five 
volumes, giving names from "A" 
to "F". 

Orr, Harriet Knight A Pioneer Bride. Memories of Mary 

Hezlep Knight. 



ANNALS TO BE INDEXED 

With this issue Annals of Wyoming begins its fifth year and the volume 
begins with page 1. This change is made because an index of the previous 
volumes is being prepared and when complete a copy will be sent to all who 
receive the Annals regularly. An effort will be made in the future to index each 
volume at the end of the year. 



Annals of tUgommij 

VOL. 5 OCTOBER, 1927— JANUARY, 1928 NOS. 2 AND 3 



CONTENTS 

The Valley of the Fontenelle ■ Ella Holden 

The Naming of Mount Owen William O. Owen 

Howard Michael -- Autobiography 

Fort Bridger Alex Chambers 

>/Laramie County — P. O. Ranch Coutant 

Letters - - - Coutant 

Reminiscences H. L. Kuykendall 

Reminiscences I Al White 



$1.00 Annually 



Published Quarterly 

By The 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 

MRS. CYRUS BEARD, Historian 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



" 



Annals of llSijnmfng 

VOL. 5 OCTOBER, 1927— JANUARY, 1928 NOS. 2 AND 3 



CONTENTS 

The Valley of the Fontenelle Ella Holden 

The Naming of Mount Owen William O. Owen 

Howard Michael Autobiography 

Fort Bridger Alex Chambers 

Laramie County — P. 0. Ranch Coutant 

Letters Coutant 

Reminiscences H. L. Kuykendall 

Reminiscences Al White 



$1.00 Annually 



Published Quarterly 

By The 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 

MRS. CYRUS BEARD, Historian 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Governor - - Frank C. Emerson 

Secretary of State A. M. Clark 

State Librarian Mrs. Clare E. Ausherman 

Secretary of Board Mrs. Cyrus Beard 



ADVISORY BOARD 

Mr. T. J. Bryant - - Wheatland 

Dr. Grace R. Hebard Laramie 

Mrs. P. J. Quealy — ■ Kemmerer 

Mrs. M. M. Parmalee ■■ Buffalo 

Mrs. C. L. Vandevender Basin 

Mr. C. F. Maurer — - Douglas 

Miss M. E. Spaeth - Gillette 

Mr. Phillip E. Winter Casper 

Judge E. H. Fourt - Lander 



(Neither the State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory 
Board nor the State Historian is responsible for any statements 
made or opinions expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyo- 
ming. 

(Copyright, 1928) 



STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Session Laws 1921 

DUTIES OF HISTORIAN 

Section 6. It shall be the duty of the State His- 
torian : 

(a) To collect books, maps, charts, documents, man- 
uscripts, other papers and any obtainable material illus- 
trative of the history of the State. 

(b) To procure from pioneers narratives of any ex- 
ploits, perils and adventures. 

(c) To collect and compile data of the events which 
mark the progress of Wyoming from its earliest day to 
the present time, including the records of all of the 
Wyoming men and women, who served in the World 
War and the history of all war activities in the State. 

(d) To procure facts and statements relative to the 
history, progress and decay of the Indian tribes and other 
early inhabitants within the State. 

(e) To collect by solicitation or purchase, fossils, 
specimens of ores and minerals, objects of curiosity con- 
nected with the history of the State and all such books, 
maps, writings, charts and other material as will tend to 
facilitate historical, scientific and antiquarian research. 

(f) To file and carefully preserve in his office in 
the Capitol at Cheyenne, all of the historical data col- 
lected or obtained by him, so arranged and classified as 
to be not only available for the purposes of compiling and 
publishing a History of Wyoming, but also that it may be 
readily accessible for the purpose of disseminating such 
historical or biographical information as may be reason- 
ably requested by the public. He shall also bind, cata- 
logue and carefully preserve all unbound books, manu- 
scripts, pamphlets, and especially newspaper files con- 
taining legal notices which may be donated to the State 
Historical Board. 

(g) To prepare for publication a biennial report of 
the collections and other matters relating to the transac- 
tion of the Board as may be useful to the public. 

(h) To travel from place to place, as the require- 
ments of the work may dictate, and to take such steps, 
not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be 
required to obtain the data necessary to the carrying out 
of the purpose and objects herein set forth. 




ELLA HOLDEN 



JUDGE HOLDEN 



MINNIE HOLDEN 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 45 

THE VALLEY OF THE FONTENELLE 
By Ella Holden 

FONTENELLE 
(By D. G. Thomas, formerly of Evanston, but now of 
Rock Springs, Wyoming) 

"The Sun has left a golden rim 
Of Glory shining in his stead; 
Meanwhile the ocean welcomes him 
Into her broad, green mantled bed; 
The moon, attended by her maids — 
The faithful stars that love her well — 
Will soon look down into thy glades, 
Thou ever rippling Fontenelle." 

"Where can one see a grander scene 
In all of nature's vast domain? 
No picture spread upon a screen 
Could so well please the eye and brain; 
And contemplation leads the mind 
Along time's path as through a dell 
Beyond the ken of human kind 
To thy beginning, Fontenelle." 

"The mind of man with all its lore 
With all its depth and breadth of thought, 
Becomes confused while brooding o'er 
The years you saw and counted not — 
And counted not? Perhaps I'm wrong; 
The record may still with you dwell, 
May yet be read by bards whose song 
Will tune with mine, sweet Fontenelle." 

"Since Bonneville stood upon thy shore 
Thy history we clearly scan. 
But what was it in years before 
Thou were beheld by mortal man? 
But then enough is seen and known 
To charm the senses with a spell; 
You gladden us with thy rich tone 
Thou ever flowing Fontenelle." 

"Here shaggy herds were wont to graze 
Upon each green, delightful bank, 
And bending down to drink, would gaze 
And see their image while they drank; 
Unconscious of the lurking foe 



46 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Until they heard his savage yell 

When there was mingled with thy flow 

Their warm life blood, sweet Fontenelle." 

"Today where once the bison tramped 
Along this valley, rich and green; 
Where savages and trappers camped 
And clashed in warfare's frightful mien, 
Are cattle browsing round at will 
And homes where peaceful families dwell, 
Dependent on this limpid rill — 
Thy silv'ry waters, Fontenelle." 

"Oh! Winding stream! Oh! laughing rill! 
I see the willows bending low, 
As if to listen to the trill 
Thy waters make as on they go : 
The snow capped peaks that gave thee birth — 
Can ne'er a sweeter story tell, 
Can ne'er bestow upon the earth 
A richer gift than Fontenelle." 

— From Overland and Underground. 

Fontenelle Valley lies 65 miles west of Green River 
City and the creek flowing thru this valley is tributary to 
the Green River. Justin J. Pomeroy and wife established 
the first permanent home in Fontenelle Valley in the year 
1874. Of New England birth Mr. and Mrs. Pomeroy left 
their native state, Massachusetts, soon after their mar- 
riage, going first to Ohio, thence to Illinois and later to 
Kansas. The summer of 1867 Mr. and Mrs. Pomeroy 
with their family of three children (all grown) joined 
the construction crew of the Union Pacific railroad lo- 
cated at Julesburg, Colorado. The family traveled in ox 
drawn covered wagons, Mr. Pomeroy and the two sons, 
Roney and Alfred working with the construction crew. 
When the Union Pacific was built to Dale Creek, Mrs. 
Pomeroy and the daughter Alice kept a boarding house, fur- 
nishing meals for the workmen on the railroad. When the 
road was completed beyond this point the Pomeroy family 
moved on to Cheyenne, Wyoming, where a hotel was kept 
also. 

From Cheyenne the Pomeroys moved on with the con- 
struction crew to the Fish cut near Green River City. 1 At 
this point they left the employ of the railroad company 
and went to Bryan , 2 Wyoming, where they lived for two 
years. (Mrs. Roney Pomeroy who lives at Whittier, Cali- 
fornia, has the tin cup that the young man who later be- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 47 

came her husband, carried in his lunch kit while working 
on the Union Pacific Railroad.) 

During the summer months and as long as the roads 
were passable, Mr. Pomeroy and son Alf freighted mer- 
chandise on ox drawn wagons from Bryan to South Pass. 
After the roads became snow bound the oxen were driven 
to Fontenelle Valley for winter grazing as the valley af- 
forded splendid pasturage for the cattle. 

The eldest son, Roney, had returned to Chariton, Iowa, 
soon after the family had reached Bryan and was there 
married to Miss Amanda Mclllvain. Later the young peo- 
ple went to Kansas where their daughter Eva was born. 
In 1870 Justin Pomeroy and family from Bryan returned 
to Topeka, Kansas where the father and two sons, Roney 
and Alf, engaged in raising hogs, but finding this business 
slow and unprofitable after the few years lived on the 
border, the family, including Roney, his young wife and 
child, decided to go to Fontenelle, Wyoming, and raise 
cattle and on June 10th, 1874, again traveling in ox drawn 
covered wagons and trailing a few head of stock cattle, 
they joined a wagon train consisting of seventeen wagons 
routed west. 

In passing thru country infested by Indians the num- 
ber of wagons increased for safety — by one train dropping 
back with wagons following or pushing ahead to join those 
in advance as in those days wagon trains could be seen 
on every road leading to the west, so that at one time this 
train with which the Pomeroys traveled numbered twenty- 
seven wagons. 

September 20th, having been three months and ten 
days crossing the plains — the Pomeroys reached Fontenelle 
and moved into a cabin at the mouth of the creek. John 
W. Smith, the sole resident of the valley had built the cabin, 
abandoning it later to locate a claim about five miles far- 
ther up the valley. Mr. Smith owned about five hundred 
head of black faced Mexican sheep and because of this 
they called him "Sheep Smith." Mr. Smith proved to be 
a most neighborly man and heartily welcomed the new 
comers. 

Finding the shelter of the cabin and tents inadequate 
for the approaching winter, the men in the Pomeroy fam- 
ily immediately started to build a log house of one large 
room, locating the building on the north side of Fontenelle 
creek and near a cold gushing spring. A huge fireplace 
was built in one end of the room, the chimney built by 
Roney Pomeroy, who was a stone mason, having learned 
this trade while working on the capitol building at Topeka, 



48 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Kansas, where he earned the nickname of "Brick" Pome- 
roy. While cutting and hauling the cottonwood logs from 
the banks of the Green River, a cabin was found, the builder 
unknown. Tearing the cabin down the men hauled the 
logs to a point about a mile and a half farther up the val- 
ley from the first location and on the south side of the 
creek where a cabin was built for the family of Roney 
Pomeroy. While the men were laying up the logs for the 
cabin, Mrs. Roney Pomeroy was removing the loose bark 
from the logs and underneath a thick slab of bark she 
found a small folded purse fastened with a buckled strap. 
The purse contained a $2.00 bill and a tarnished, blackened 
dime. Aunt Matt, as she is now lovingly called by her old 
friends, regrets that she did not keep this find as a souve- 
nir of those old days so full of interest and romance. 

Both cabins were finished and the families comfort- 
ably housed before the winter set in. Once only, during 
the winter, did these people receive mail or news from the 
outside and this was when a Mr. John Kimball came from 
Green River City bringing accumulated mail for the two 
families and their solitary neighbor, Mr. Smith. 

The next spring Mr. Pomeroy, Sr., started a dairy 
and the son Alf put his ox teams on the road making reg- 
ular trips to Green River City hauling hay, butter and 
cheese, where he disposed of the produce at a good price. 
That fall Mr. and Mrs. Roney Pomeroy and child went to 
Green River City where Mr. Pomeroy worked in the round 
house, wiping engines, and Mrs. Pomeroy was waitress in 
the Desert Hotel, owned and run by C. W. Kitchen. 

In the summer of 1876 Mr. and Mrs. D. B. Rathbun 
and two small children Daniel, Jr., and Harriett, came 
from Green River City, locating a claim and building a 
house on the north side of the creek opposite the house of 
Roney Pomeroy. Near the Rathbun house was the grave of 
Pinkney W. Sublette. 

The winter following was extremely cold and in one 
of the blizzards a man named Edwards was frozen to death 
at Henry's Fork. 4 Later John W. Smith brought the fam- 
ily left unprotected by the death of Edwards — three chil- 
dren, Ed, Alice and Albert Edwards and their mother, an 
Indian woman called Lizzie — to his home at Fontenelle 
and kept them as his own, providing them with the kind 
consideration that this generous, warm hearted, good man 
bestowed on all who claimed his hospitality. 

My parents, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Holden, came from 
Veedersburg, Indiana, arriving at Green River City Feb- 
ruary 22nd, 1877. My parents had five children, the eld- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 49 

est a boy of nine years. Father published a newspaper called 
"The Daily Evening Press," of which I have a copy dated 
Thursday, April 12, 1877. Father used to say that in as 
much as Green River could not support a daily paper he 
might have succeeded had he published a weekly, but he 
was quite sure that an "a" should be used in spelling the 
"Weakly." Having lost the little savings he possessed in 
this venture, my father accepted the advice of Alf Pomeroy 
who proved to be our Good Samaritan as the passing years 
demonstrated. Mr. Pomeroy advised my parents to go to 
Fontenelle and offered to transfer their household goods 
with his ox teams. He also told them they could find 
shelter in the cabin built by Roney Pomeroy as Mrs. Pome- 
roy and child were then in Kansas and expected to spend 
the winter there with relatives. 

My mother had never slept out of doors and the ex- 
perience of the over-night camps along the way was novel 
and thrilling. The howl of the coyote she at first thought 
was a dog barking, then as the howl increased in discon- 
nected yaps and shrieks she called out of the darkness to 
Mr. Pomeroy asking if the sounds were cries of women 
and children. We arrived at Fontenelle October 18th and 
were glad of the shelter of the house of Mr. and Mrs. 
Roney Pomeroy. 

Scarcely a day passed that Indians were not seen as 
they traveled between reservations, often camping for sev- 
eral days, erecting their tepees in a bend of the creek. They 
came often to the home of the settler to beg and trade. 
Without knocking for admission (if the cabin door stood 
open) a warrior, his squaw and papoose would noiselessly 
enter, as the moccasined feet gave no warning of the ap- 
proach. The housewife would be startled by the demand 
for "biscuit — Injun heap hungry — see squaw hungry — pa- 
poose hungry." On one such occasion mother was so ter- 
ribly frightened that she sent my eldest brother, Charlie, 
for Mr. Rathbun, our nearest neighbor. Charlie told the 
Indians as he was leaving the house that he was going for 
a white man to drive them away and when Mr. Rathbun 
arrived at the house he found that the Indians had left. 
Mr. Rathbun explained to mother that the Indians were 
inoffensive but that they would become a nuisance if they 
were fed. A few days later an old Indian woman and two 
children came to the house begging for food which mother 
refused. Soon she was told that she had made a dread- 
ful mistake as the woman was James Calhoun's mother- 
in-law and was called "Old Mary Ann." 

James Calhoun was one of the commissioners of Sweet- 



50 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

water County and a very important business man and 
leading light in the affairs of the county. He was of Irish 
ancestry and never quite forgave mother for refusing to 
feed his children. Mr. Calhoun, with his young wife, Lu- 
cille (Indian-French) lived at a ferry on Green River. 
Louis Gruard, a Frenchman was a partner in the business. 
They also had a race track where the Indians brot their 
ponies to try their speed and gamble their blankets and 
rations on the winning horses. The place was also a 
rendezvous for trappers and the floating population of the 
country. 

I relate the following incident to illustrate the con- 
stant fear of the Indians which filled the minds of the 
settlers. 

My father left the house quite early one morning in 
August to ride for stock that had strayed, going up the 
Dry Hollow toward the foothills. Later in the forenoon 
of the same day three men, Mr. Smith, Bob Mclllvain and 
a trapper called John Day passed our cabin in a hay wagon 
drawn by Mr. Smith's lazy little team of mules. These 
men were on their way to a hay meadow a mile west of 
our home where they were engaged in cutting hay and 
hauling it to Mr. Smith's ranch which joined ours on the 
east. As the men were loading the hay on the wagon in 
mid-afternoon one of them spied several horsemen riding 
single file, traveling the road leading from Dry Hollow. 
Excitedly calling "Indians" he attracted the attention of 
the other men to the distant horsemen. Quickly unloading 
the hay from the wagon they started for home. With much 
persuasion, prodding with pitchforks, etc., the lazy mules 
were forced into a gallop and the wagon went bouncing 
and swaying over the rough ground. Mr. Smith, who was 
short and fat and had asthma, lost his balance and fell, his 
body hanging thru an opening in the hayrack, his knees 
and shoulders fortunately held by pieces of poles which 
were a part of the hayrack. Mr. Mcllvain, who was driv- 
ing the team, seeing the predicament of his friends, began 
pulling on the lines to stop the mules, but Mr. Smith 
called in a wheezy asthmatic voice "Keep 'em going Bob — 
keep 'em going — I can make it — keep 'em going." Thru the 
assistance of the third man, Mr. Smith gained a secure 
position and soon the rattling wagon was drawn to the 
side of our cabin and the excited men bade mother and her 
children to join them "as Indians were coming," and they 
would take the family to Mr. Smith's home where the wo- 
men and children would be barricaded in a back room and 
the men with rifles would do their utmost to protect them. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 51 

Mother hesitated, thinking of the husband and father of 
her children who had rode away that morning in the di- 
rection from which the supposed Indians were coming, 
feeling that doubtless he had fallen a victim. As she looked 
toward the west the galloping men came into view around 
a bend in the road. She asked if Indians rode mules. After 
a glance the men said "John Carnes' mule and Holden and 
Al Wyatt." 

Being ever apprehensive of troublesome Indians the 
long, lonely trip to Green River City for supplies was dread- 
ed by the settlers and for this reason father was grateful 
for the company of two young men (who were traveling on 
horseback) on a return trip from Green River City and 
was quite willing to haul the extra roll of bedding and other 
luggage belonging to the men in exchange for their com- 
panionship along the way. Soon after making camp one 
evening a stranger rode into camp and asked to be directed 
to Huckleberry meadow, explaining in an easy, pleasant 
tone and slow manner of speaking, which was characteris- 
tic of the man, that he, Ed Swan, with his family was go- 
ing to Big Piney with their wagons and herds, having 
driven from Idaho and that his family were to camp that 
night at Huckleberry and he wished to overtake them 
there. He had been summoned to act on a coroner's jury 
that morning at Green River, thus delaying him for many 
hours. Father gave the desired direction to Huckleberry 
Meadow, but persuaded Mr. Swan to stay all night with 
him, arguing that as a stranger in a strange land, with 
night approaching, he might have difficulty in finding his 
way and that he could leave early in the morning and with 
daylight would make much better time. Being tired, the 
four men retired early, father and Mr. Swan sleeping to- 
gether, their bed rolled out under a big cottonwood tree. 

Father's traveling companions made their bed down, 
using their saddles for pillows and all went to bed. As 
clouds gathered in the sky indicating rain, the young men 
got up and dragged their bed alongside the other bed in 
the shelter of the tree. A quietness settled over the camp, 
father soon fell asleep only to be awakened by Mr. Swan's 
elbow digging his ribs and the slow easy voice lowered to 
a whisper and saying "Mister, Mister, wake up! What is 
that?" Without raising from his pillow and as Mr. Swan 
also lay still, father reached for his rifle lying under the 
covers at his side, feeling confident that the Indians had 
crept upon them, he too whispered "Where is it?" Mr. 
Swan whispered back "Right there." Father whispered 
"Right where?" and the answer came "Right there." In ex- 



52 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

asperation, father said "Well, what is it. What does it 
look like?" and Mr. Swan calmly said "It looks like and 
I think it is a snake!" With that father's fear was gone 
and sitting up he said again "Where is it?" Mr. Swan 
pointed to a crooked thing lying between the two beds 
plainly seen in the moonlight, the clouds having cleared and 
said "Right there." Father reached over Mr. Swan, say- 
ing "It's only a stick" but as his hand neared the thing he 
said he thot the "cussed" thing might be a snake and any 
way it was on the stranger's side of the bed and he seemed 
to be calm about it, he decided to let him worry with it and 
so he lay down and went to sleep again. When daylight 
came it revealed the latigo strap from one of the saddles 
lying in curves between the beds. 

After years of association had bound the family of 
Mr. Swan and our family in ties of closest friendship the 
two men referred to the time of their first meeting as the 
night "Swan" had snakes, tho it was a well known fact 
that neither Mr. Swan nor his sons ever indulged in in- 
toxicating drink. 

In November my parents moved to a cabin four miles 
west of that of Roney Pomeroy, owned by Tom Rumsey 
then living in Green River City. As Mr. Rumsey had ap- 
parently abandoned the cabin our family took possession 
without consulting Mr. Rumsey and as he died soon after 
and no one disputed our right the land upon which the 
cabin stood became a part of the home ranch where my 
parents spent the remaining years of their life and which 
is now owned and controlled by my youngest brother, How- 
ard. The cabin was built of round cottonwood logs. There 
was a fireplace in one end of the room, one window and a 
door. Mother had a new woven rag carpet which she had 
brot from Veedersburg, Indiana, and after putting a thick 
layer of hay (donated by Mr. Smith) the carpet was fas- 
tened down by driving wooden pegs through into the 
ground as there was no floor in the cabin. The meager fur- 
niture was placed in the cabin and my parents were happy 
indeed to call this humble place home. The winding Fon- 
tenelle flowed near our cabin. The rippling waters were 
full of trout and grayling. Many dams indicated the shy 
but busy beaver and the graceful tawney deer bounding 
from the hillsides came daily to the creek to drink their 
fill and lingered in the willow glades to graze undis- 
turbed and unafraid. Father was a true sportsman and 
only when meat was needed for table use was a deer 
brought in. 

My sister, Minnie Fontenelle, was born in the cabin 
home and she has the distinction of being the first child to 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 53 

be born of white parents in the valley. Mrs. Pomeroy, Sr., 
proved a most efficient nurse in caring for mother and 
child. Miss Alice Pomeroy called frequently bringing dain- 
ties to mother and kindly assisted by brushing the tangled 
locks of the older children and tidying the home. To our 
childish imagination she seemed a fairy princss as she rode 
her pretty pony to our home. 

Mother had no sewing machine and the making of 
garments for a family of active boys and girls was an end- 
less task for one pair of hands. A sewing bee was sug- 
gested and the ladies of the little colony met at our home 
and spent the day in cutting and making clothes for the 
boys and girls constituting our family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Roney Pomeroy, Mrs. Pomeroy's brother, 
Robert Mcllvain, and wife, who had recently arrived from 
Kansas, made up an exploration party and leaving home 
early one Sunday morning they followed the old emigrant 
road north to where the road crossed the Green River about 
eight or nine miles from Fontenelle. Near this ford they 
found a meadow which had served as a camping ground 
in the days when gold seekers crossed the plains. The 
party found a pile of scrap wagon irons indicating the 
burning of a wagon train and on higher ground above the 
meadow was a group of graves marked by boards and end- 
gates of wagons. Mute evidence of a massacre. 

Many years later a Mrs. Ira Dodge wrote an article 
for publication in Recreation Magazine in which she de- 
scribed the group of graves, also sending snap shots of same 
and a copy of the then legible names on the head boards. 
Mrs. Dodge received a letter from an old lady living in the 
east in which the lady wrote that the names copied from 
one of the graves was that of her father who had left his 
home in the east to go west with a party of forty-niners 
when she was a child and that no information had the 
family received from the husband and father after he left 
South Pass. The mother had died without knowing the 
fate of her husband and the writer, a child when her fa- 
ther left, was now an old lady. Names Hill, located near 
the old camp ground, has served as a bulletin board for 
trapper, scout and gold seeker as the smooth surface of 
the hillside is covered with names and dates of those that 
passed that way. 

During the summer seasons many herds of cattle, 
horses and sheep were trailed from Oregon to Nebraska. 
The dust from the approaching herds could be seen a 
distance of over ten or fifteen miles. My brother, Char- 
lie, on seeing a column of dust would saddle his pony 



54 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and ride out to meet the herd, direct the herdsmen to 
the best camping and watering place and also advertis- 
ing by word of mouth that we had eggs, butter and milk 
to sell and that his mother would bake bread or dough- 
nuts for them if they so desired. Some of the drovers 
made annual trips trailing stock each succeeding year. 
With these plainsmen my brother became a favorite and 
he was given any thin, footsore animals that lagged in 
the herd or dropped out of the drive. Rand & Briggs 
gave father fifteen head of travel worn cattle when pass- 
ing thru on one of their annual drives. 

Four years had passed" since the first settlers had 
located in the Fontenelle Valley and the community was 
still without mail service. A petition drawn by father 
was sent to the Post Office Department asking for a post 
office and mail route. The petition was granted, mak- 
ing Mr. Justin Pomeroy, Sr , postmaster of the postoffice 
which was called Fontenelle. John W. Smith secured 
the contract for carrying the mail from Green River City 
— a once a week delivery. Several new families had 
been added to the colony. A cousin of D. B. Rathbun 

his wife arrived from New York. Mrs. Charles 
Rathbun was a teacher and also a skilled musician and 
sang beautifully. Mr. and Mrs. N. S. Miller located a 
ranch in the La Barge Valley — twelve miles north of 
Fontenelle. These people were most cordially welcomed 
by the community. A German named Harmes, but called 
"Dutch George" located one mile west of our cabin on 
what is now the Pomeroy ranch. Mr. Harmes had an 
Indian wife and several half breed children D. B. Rath- 
bun built a hewed log house of several rooms about nine 
miles west from the mouth of Fontenelle creek. This 
house was much better built and finished than the cabins 
built heretofore, and the Rathbuns were justly proud of 
their new home. They invited their friends to a house- 
warming on New Years night, 1879. 

Someone of the community proposed an opposition 
dance to be given at the home of "Dutch George" on the 
same date of the one to be given at the Rathbun home, 
choosing to dance on a dirt or ground floor rather than 
the tongue and grooved floor in the new house. Secret 
invitations were given out and every one in the Fonte- 
nelle Valley, including trappers, scouts, squaw men and 
families and all the white families excepting those of 
Mr. Rathbun and Mr. Miller assembled at the home of 
Dutch George on New Years night. Roney Pomeroy, a 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 55 

trapper named Moon, and old Wes Thurman, "fiddled." 
Alf Pomeroy called or prompted the old time quadrilles. 
The dirt floor was sprinkled frequently to lay the dust. 
Fearing that the Rathbuns might exteild invitations for 
the second night the merry throng assembled again at 
even, January 2nd. Mr. and Mrs. Miller who had been 
guests at the Rathbun home the night before also came 
to Dutch George's. This dance continued to the third 
night. This has been known as the three nights dance. 
Not from ill will or animosity toward the Rathbun's was 
this dance given but rather from fun, loving deviltry 
which prompted many practical jokes played in those 
days. 

Mr. Randall Rathbun (brother of D B. Rathbun) 
his wife and two daughters, Alice May and Claribell 
of Cincinnatus, New York, came to Fontenelle for a 
brief visit to his brother's family. They stayed on for a 
year or more. The younger daughter, Claribell, a beau- 
tiful girl of about twenty years of age, died very sud- 
denly, leaving the parents and sister, Alice, grief strick- 
en. They soon returned to New York. The mother 
lived but a short time after the return to the old home. 
After the passing of the mother the daughter, Alice, 
wrote the following poem: 

MEMORIES 

"I know a place, and know it well, 
It is the distant Fontenelle ; 
Beside its swiftly flowing stream, 
In thought again I sit and dream; 
Dream of what, do I hear you say? 
Of many and many a happy day, 
Of towering peaks, so white and grand ; 
In that beautiful, beautiful sunshine land." 

"Dream of the sage brush, gaunt and gray, 
Which once held undisputed sway; 
Where now the fields of waving grain 
Stretch outward and onward across the plain. 
Dream of the wonderful palisades 
Rising straight from the meadow glades 
Standing like sentinels, grim and tall, 
Ever watching and guarding o'er all." 

"I see again the eagles' flight 
From their nests far up on the mountain height; 



56 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Fit dwellers are they of their lonely home, 
Where never the feet of man can roam. 
Dream of roaming the rocks among 
With thoughts unspoken and songs unsung; 
Awesome the silence is, no sound 
Of beast or bird is heard around." 

"Afar from all sounds of grief or mirth, 
Where the winding Fontenelle has birth, 
Is the canyon, glorious, deep and high, 
Reaching far upward toward the sky. 
No artist, with clever eye and hand 
Has ever journeyed to this fair land, 
And pictures engraved on heart and brain 
Alone are left of hill and plain." 

"Dreaming and dreaming of sad good byes, 
Of scenes so dear to my tear-dimmed eyes; 
Fond memories fill this aching heart, 
As far from this land I dwell apart. 
Oh! for a glimpse of those hills once more 
Before I am called to that Silent Shore, 
Where time is not measured by months or years, 
And the days are not filled with thoughts and 
tears." 

(Signed) "A Dreamer." 

During the fall of this same year Roney Pomeroy 
bought the cabins and claims of Dutch George and Mr. 
Pomeroy and his family lived there thru succeeding 
years. 

While riding near Pine Grove south of Fontenelle 
on the emigrant road, Alf Pomeroy met the family of 
James Wright who had left Nebraska to locate a home 
farther west After some conversation Alf persuaded 
the Wrights to come to Fontenelle. Mr. and Mr. Pome- 
roy, Sr., had recently moved into a large new house, 
substantially built and complete in every way. This 
house still stands as a monument to a family of enter- 
prise and energy who had blazed the trail for those who 
followed. Alf Pomeroy generously offered the use of 
the original cabins occupied by his parents to the Wright 
family and his offer was accepted. The May following 
Miss Alice Pomeroy became the bride of Eugene Mathers 
of Buffalo, Wyoming. Rev. F. L. Arnold of Evanston 
traveled a distance of eighty miles to officiate at this 
marriage, the first in the history of the community. The 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 57 

wedding gown was made en train with footing of lace 
and the color was ashes of roses. Mr. and Mrs. Mathers 
reside at Buffalo, Wyoming. Six weeks later Alf Pom- 
eroy and Hattie Wright, eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
James Wright, were married and located a mile west 
of his brother Roney. 

April 20, 1880, a son was born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Roney Pomeroy, their third child and on May 12th, 
twenty-two days later, a son was added to our house- 
hold and "seven boys and girls were we." These two 
boys spent their boyhood days together, rode together 
after- their stock and were as devoted and inseparable 
as Jonathan and David. 

Due to the helpfulness and influence of Rev. F. L. 
Arnold, County Superintendent of Schools of Uinta Coun- 
ty, a school was established with ten pupils enrolled 
and taught by Teddy O'Neill. M. E. Post < 5 > and Hon- 
orable Francis E. Warren (6) brot in the Spur herd of 
about 15,000 cattle in 1882 from the eastern part of the 
State and located a ranch at the mouth of the La Barge 
Creek, a tributary of Green River, twelve miles north of 
Fontenelle. All the small herds of cattle owned by the 
settlers were sold to Post and Warren so that at that 
time they controlled the cattle industry of Green River 
Valley. Mr. Warren was a member of the F. E. Warren 
Mercantile Company of Cheyenne and from him our 
first sewing machine was purchased. Roney Pomeroy 
also bought household furniture and when the furniture, 
shipped from Cheyenne to Green River was received, two 
high chairs were sent complimentary to the Pomeroys 
for their two small children, Fannie and Frank. 

A few years later Post and Warren sold the Spur 
outfit to Reel (7) and Friend These men were also 
from Cheyenne. Joe Alford, foreman for Post and 
Warren, continued as foreman for Reel and Friend. 

No provision was made for feeding cattle thru the 
winter as owners depended on grazing in the mountains 
in summer and driving to the desert east of Green River 
for winter grazing. The Spur employed about twenty 
cowboys and during the summer roundup when repre- 
sentatives were sent in from Bear Valley, Fort Bridger 
and other distant ranges, to gather cattle that had 
strayed, there were forty or more cowboys to be fed by 
William Wilson, the Spur cook, familiarly known as "Old 
Tug." This man was truly a marvel in his line, cooking 
over a camp fire using huge camp kettles for boiling 



58 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

beef, beans and dried fruit and baking bread in a dutch 
oven. 

My brother Charlie rode with the Spur and he 
learned to love these cowboys and appreciate the ster- 
ling worth of the gallant knights of the range, generous 
and helpful, willingly giving their last penny to one in 
need and always courteous to women. When the cattle 
camp was near our house Charlie brot his most intimate 
friends to our home to spend an evening. The boys 
far from home were eager for companionship and a bit 
of family life. My father was gifted as a reader and 
from his prized book "William Cullen Bryant's Collec- 
tion of Poetry and Song" he read aloud to the apprecia- 
tive audience of cowboys. In turn our family was invit- 
ed to dinner at the cow camp. Mother would cook fa- 
vorite dishes and take butter, eggs and deserts which 
were highly appreciated by the boys accustomed to the 
camp rations. 

A United States survey was made in 1883 enabling 
the settlers to enter. filings and gain title to their claims. 
Lines were run, irrigating ditches made and fences built 
in every valley from Fontenelle to Big Piney. Many 
new settlers came, crowding out the deer and antelope 
and compelling the Indians to seek trails in the higher 
mountains. The Indian village was replaced by the 
neat ranch house and barns. 

As the county road crossed the valley thru our ranch 
and the road was about one hundred feet from our house 
it might truly be said that ours was a "house built by 
the side of the road." We were twenty-eight miles from 
Opal, a day's drive with team and wagon. Tourists came 
from the east and even from the British Isles to hunt 
big game in the mountains near the head of Green River 
and these strangers became our guests as they traversed 
between the railroad station and the hunting ground. 
To accommodate the traveling public, our house of 
hewed logs containing eight rooms was replaced by a 
frame building of fourteen rooms We met many r" 
lightful people and counted the ranchmen and his family 
dwelling within a radius of two hundred miles friends 
and neighbors. 

From 1883 my father ran a ferry on Green River 
twenty miles below Fontenelle for three consecutive sea- 
sons, going from the ranch in April and returning in 
August after the river became fordable. The cabin 
home on Green River served only as summer quarters 



ANNALS -OF WYOMING 59 

and therefore lacked the comforts afforded in the ranch 
house at Fontenelle, and when five children of our fam- 
ily were stricken with typhoid fever the second season 
at the Ferry much inconvenience and discomfort was en- 
dured. Having no near neighbors and unable to pro- 
cure a .doctor, my parents, assisted by the man who 
worked for us, nursed and cared for the sick. For six 
weeks I screamed and cried in delirium and would al- 
low no hand save mother's to touch me. Six year old 
William — delicate from birth — succumbed to the malady 
and was buried near the cabin. A message sent to Dr. 
Harrison (8) at Evanston, Wyoming, failed to bring us 
medical aid as his professional services were required in 
his home town on account of the epidemic of typhoid 
fever. In after years mother marveled at the inexhaust- 
able strength which bore her through those days and 
nights of ceaseless watching without rest or relaxation. 

Long lines of covered wagons came daily to be fer- 
ried across the river, traveling from the east to the west 
and failing to find the land of their dreams, many re- 
turned from the west after making the long journey, go- 
ing back to the old home state. Many herds of cattle, 
horses and sheep continued the drive to Nebraska as 
this was before the Oregon Short Line was built. 

Rand and Riggs, mentioned above, with a herd of 
horses came to the ferry to cross their outfit, — ferrying 
wagons, saddle horses and their riders or drovers. Catch- 
ing a boatload of small colts and ferrying them to the 
opposite bank of the river, the little animals were hog- 
tied and placed where the mothers could see their off- 
spring, thus using them to decoy the frantic dams into 
the swollen, swirling river. One of the colts stumbled 
to the rfver bank and fell in. The mare from the oppo- 
site shore of the river recognized her colt and whinnying 
shrilly, the frenzied creature plunged into the river, 
passing the struggling colt in midstream. The colt, by 
the use of its free legs, two cross legs being tied, managed 
to keep afloat and was borne a mile down stream by the 
swiftly flowing river. Here the river made a sharp turn 
and the colt was drifted to a sandbar on the same side 
of the stream from which the boatload of colts was fer- 
ried. My brother Charlie mounted a horse and rode 
down to the stranded colt which he placed on his horse 
and carried back to the house. The owners of the herd 
were impatient at the delay and swore vengeance 
against the spirited mare, a high bred Lexington Father 



60 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

offered a trade for the mare and colt which the drovers 
accepted as they were eager to get on the road. This 
colt was a dark brown in color with markings the color 
of a turtle dove on flanks and nose and because of this 
we named it Dove. When this colt was four years old 
Mr. Roney Pomeroy bought her for his wife who drove 
her single and Mrs. Pomeroy used to keep time in driving 
from her gate to ours, a distance of one mile, making 
the drive in six minutes. 

In 1898 or 1899 Mrs. Pomeroy, being a guest at our 
house for the day, proposed that a telephone line be 
built from their house to ours, a distance of one mile. 
Father sat listening to the conversation and finally said, 
"Why not make it a thru line from Opal to Big Piney 
(sixty-five miles) with branch lines in valleys tributary 
to Green River Valley." Going to Opal the next day 
he talked with the merchants there who were quite will- 
ing to co-operate in building the proposed telephone 
line. The co-operation of the people living in Big Piney 
was also secured and in less than four months from the 
time Mrs. Pomeroy suggested the building of the neigh- 
borhood line, a community line was built and in opera- 
tion supplying twenty homes with telephones. Previous 
to this, messages for medical aid, caskets to bury the 
dead and orders for cars for shipment of live stock, were 
carried by horsemen and if the emergency required great 
haste the rider was furnished with a fresh mount by the 
ranchmen living on the road from upper Green River 
country to Opal. Also a daily mail was in operation be- 
tween Opal and New Fork, the Salt Lake City and Den- 
ver daily papers were received at midday at Fontenelle. 
The Green River basin had reached a high state of de- 
velopment. Every valley was filled with homes occu- 
pied by happy, contented families. 

Another experience which occurred at the ferry 
was brot to our attention early one morning when a 
Frenchman named Louis Violette, a hired man, in great 
excitement called "Meester Holden, one tree on your 
cabull." Father dressed and quickly going to the river 
bank found that a tall green Cottonwood tree which 
had been torn from the bank by the rushing water had 
hung on the cable by one big strong root and the power 
of the swollen stream forced the top of the tree to the 
bottom of the river, the tree acting as a prop to the 
cable which had loosened the guy posts on each bank. 
How to get the tree loose from the cable they did not 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 61 

know. One of the men, there were three besides my 
father, suggested shooting the tree trunk full of bullet 
holes Fortunately they had a supply of ammunition 
and too the two men and my father were excellent 
marksmen. By the use of a glass they could ascertain 
that they were hitting the tree and finally the weak- 
ened trunk gave way and the stretched and sagging cable 
swung and splashed into the water. 

Our neighbor, Mr. Smith, offered to exchange his 
ranch for the ferry. As the Smith ranch adjoined our 
ranch on the east the exchange was made. Mr. Smith 
died soon after leaving Fontenelle, and Lizzie, the Indian 
woman, with her two sons, Ed and Albert Edwards, the 
daughter Alice having died several years before, moved 
to upper Green River country. Afterwards Ed, the eldest 
son, married Miss Minnie Kutch, a pretty half-breed In- 
dian girl and it is said that their son was the first sol- 
dier from Wyoming to give his life in France in the late 
World War. Mr. and Mrs. Edwards reside at Cora, 
Wyoming, and are held in high regard. 

The fall of 1889 father bought 250 head of cattle 
and 100 head of pure-bred Clydesdale horses from John 
B. Hunter of Buffalo, Illinois. Mr. Hunter had extensive 
holdings in land and live stock both in Idaho and Wyo- 
ming. Notes and mortgage for $15,000.00 were given 
for security for the stock. No one living at that time 
will ever forget the winter that followed. My brother 
Charles was 21 years old December 9th and to celebrate 
the event invitations were sent bidding everyone living 
in Green River basin to attend Charlie's birthday dance 
Snow fell all day preceding the party and the bidden 
guests traveled over the drifted roads, some from a dis- 
tance of forty miles. The romance which culminated in 
the marriage a year later of my brother Charlie and 
Miss Nettie Alford began at this birthday dance. Snow 
storms and blizzards continued thruout the winter. The 
cattle which had been driven to the desert in the fall 
drifted back to the valleys and the starving creatures 
wandered and trailed about the fences enclosing the 
ranches. Ranchmen had not hay enough to feed their 
own stock thru the winter so that the cattle belonging 
to Spur and other big outfits were forced to starve. The 
dismal bawling of the frenzied creatures heard above the 
shriek of the blizard, night and day, was maddening. 

Each morning my brother Clarence with a team of 
horses dragged the cattle that died at night from the 



62 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

bed ground in the lane near our barn, leaving those too 
weak to stand and which would succumb the following 
night thus making a daily task of disposing of the car- 
casses. The roundup the summer following counted 
less than 800 head of Spur cattle out of 15,000 or more 
turned on the desert the preceding fall and there were 
thirty-two left of the cattle and only ten of the horses 
which we had bought from Mr. Hunter. The horses, 
saved thru the neighborliness of Alf Pomeroy who loaned 
us hay to keep the animals alive. Father wrote to Mr. 
Hunter of the loss of the stock and when, in the spring, 
Mr. Hunter arrived and talked over the situation he told 
my discouraged parent that he could obtain a judgment 
for the debt but said that that would benefit neither of 
them as father was already disheartened and incapable 
of making a great effort to pay when he was carrying so 
great a burden of debt. "And so," said Mr. Hunter, 
as he arose from his chair, "We will just begin all over 
again." He walked to the kitchen range, lifted a lid and 
laid the notes and mortgage in the fire. Mr. Hunter 
then proposed that my parents would keep the few cat- 
tle and horses saved from the past winter on terms where 
the young stock or increase would pay for the living 
stock and forget all about the loss of the main herd. 

After brother Charlie's marriage my next older 
brother Clarence, secured the mail contract, delivery 
was made from Opal on the Oregon Short Line which had 
but recently been built. 

During the term of contract with the Government 
for carrying the United States mail, my brother Clarence 
also transferred passengers and express and one eve- 
ning in Sept. 1897, on his arrival home from Opal he 
had two passengers, Miss Cora House from Corine, Utah, 
and Thomas B. Crews, a lawyer from St. Louis, Missouri. 
While we were gathered at the evening meal, Mr. Crews 
told us that his mission to western Wyoming was that 
of locating the grave of Pinkney W. Sublette. < 9 > That 
a suit involving the estate of the family of which Pinkney 
Sublette was a member was pending in the court of St. 
Louis and that he as attorney in the case wished to as- 
certain the date of Pinkney W. Sublette's death and if 
possible to learn whether or not he had left descendants. 
Mr. Crews had the deposition of a trapper named Mc 
Kenzie who had known Pinkney W. Sublette in the long 
ago. Mr. McKenzie stated that he had been at a ferry 
on Green River near the mouth of LaBarge Creek when 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 63 

told of the illness and death of Sublette and that on go- 
ing to Sublette's camp in Fontenelle Valley he had visited 
the newly made grave where Sublette had been buried, 
situated north of Fontenelle Creek one mile west of 
where the creek flowed into Green River 

Upon hearing this my parents recalled to mind the 
lonely grave in the sagebrush dotted plain which lay be- 
tween bottom land and the foothills near where D. B. 
Rathbun's'first house had stood, but as there had been 
so many graves throughout that section of the country 
they had paid little or no attention to identification. My 
parents remembered also that this particular grave had 
been marked by an oval shaped headstone. But they 
told Mr. Crews that they thot his search would be in 
vain as the Rathbun house had long since been moved 
and for many years this plot of ground had been in cul- 
tivation and was now a meadow which extended far be- 
yond where the grave was. Not to be daunted but firm- 
ly convinced that by the directions given in the deposi- 
tion of Mr. McKenzie who had known the spot well be- 
fore the ground had been seeded to meadow grass and 
had also seen it since, and he opined that the grave was 
near the northwest corner of a hay corrall which was 
now near the center of the meadow. With team and 
light spring wagon, picks and shovels supplied by my 
brothers who were to go with Mr. Crews and assist in 
the search, the explorers were ready for the start when, 
lured by bright spring skies and the zest for adventure, 
my sister Minnie, our guest Miss House and I joined the 
three men in the drive to the field then owned by C. F. 
Roberson where the object of the search was supposed 
to be. We alighted from the buggy and after looking 
about and closely inspecting the recently mowed ground 
near the north west corner of the hay corral, Mr. Crews 
found a small piece of stone partly buried in the sod. 
Searching farther he found another piece of stone which 
fitted the first piece. Turning up a few shovels of sod 
my brother Clarence struck a flat stone and upon dig- 
ging it out of the firmly packed soil, the stone was found 
to be oval shaped at one end and was nearly a foot in 
length. Brushing the soil from the face of the stone this 
inscription was plainly discernable : "P. W. S., D. 1865." 
After digging to a depth of four and a half or five feet 
a long narrow layer of flat stones was found and lifting 
these stones a human skeleton was exposed lying in a 
V shaped trough of flat stones. The skull and larger 



64 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 




Mrs Roney Pomeroy and great-great grandchild, Frances Marguerite 
lomhnson, born November 15, 1926. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 65 

bones were intact but had fallen apart. Quietly and 
with reverence the bones were lifted and wrapped in a 
carriage robe and with the headstone were put in the 
buggy and with this grewsome find we drove homeward, 
our free happy spirits of the morning gone, each one 
filled with thots of the scout and trapper who had broken 
the trail to the west — had suffered hunger, cold and all 
the inconveniences of a life lived on the border and when 
the "long, long day was over" he had been laid in a rock 
lined grave. 

Carefully packing the skeleton in a small box and 
making a case for the headstone, Mr. Crews labeled the 
skeleton "Exhibit 'A' " and the headstone was marked 
"Exhibit 'B' " and both packages shipped to Circuit 
Court of St. Louis. 

Mr. Crews, delighted and charmed with the fresh- 
ness and freedom of our west stayed over for a week. 
Having spent all his life in St. Louis, the fishing, shoot- 
ing and horseback riding were a source of delight to the 
man from the city and on the eve before his departure 
after returning from a hike with my brother Howard to 
a high pinnacle or peak jutting out from the ridge north 
of our old home where we, as children, had played at 
keeping store and where the precious packages of our 
huge stock of imaginary groceries were still on the 
shelves of rock in the sandstone caves of the mount, Mr. 
Crews safd "I wish that my lot had been cast in Fonte- 
nelle Valley." 

The mysterious witness, Mr McKenzie, must have 
felt the same charm for the Valley as he came again 
and again after years of absence to the old rendezvous 
of hunter and trapper. Uncommunicative and alone he 
tramped along the winding stream, — supposedly fishing 
— no one knowing his name or that he had any connec- 
tion with the history of the valley before the advent of 
permanent settlement until Mr. Crews brot the informa- 
tion that this old recluse had known Sublette and knew 
his last resting place. The last time Mr. McKenzie came 
to the Fontenelle Valley he came to our house and asked 
to rest awhile in our bunk house. He was old and looked 
weak and ill. Soon after he laid down on one of the 
beds, the hired man came to us to say that the old 
gentleman was singing. We found him delirious, sing- 
ing over and over the old hymn so universally loved by 
the darkies — "There is rest for the weary — There is rest 
— Sweet rest." We had him taken to the hospital at 



66 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Rock Springs where he died' soon after his arrival. How- 
ever, he must have regained consciousness after he left 
us, as a few weeks after his death we received a letter 
from a lady in Missouri thanking us for our kindness and 
care given to Mr. McKenzie, explaining that he and she 
had been sweethearts in the long ago but giving no fur- 
ther information regarding the mysterious silence which 
the old man had always maintained in regard to his past. 

Mail was delivered three times a week from Opal 
to New York. Brother Clarence deducted a wage of 
$35.00 per month from the contract price, turning bal- 
ance to assist my parents in paying their debts and pay- 
ing household expense. My younger brother Howard, a 
boy of eleven, herded and cared for the stock and as- 
sisted in the ranch work and harvest. These were hard 
times for all of us, not only our immediate family but 
the families about us, as the hard winter had left the ma- 
jority of ranchmen in hard circumstances. But thru per- 
severance, economy and the patient kindly aid of our 
creditors, bankers and merchants, extending time on 
notes and accepting small payments on debts, the ranch- 
men were enabled to regain their heavy loss and to at- 
tain the ease and comfort so richly deserved by hard 
work and stick-to-it-ivness. My mother was a most sin- 
cere Christian and thru all the trouble and hardship her 
unfailing faith remained steadfast and true When 
obstacles blocked our way a walk under a starlit sky 
would renew her courage and cheer. 

The passing years were complete with happiness 
and contentment. We were fortunate in securing re- 
fined, intelligent teachers in the schools and nearly every 
home contained at least one musical instrument. The 
current magazines were found in the homes. No finer 
group of young people could be found than in Fontenelle 
Valley. We rode horseback, had fish fries and picnics 
in the summer and sleighing, dancing and card parties 
in the winter. Relatives, teachers and strangers who 
visited in the valley were loth to leave and usually came 
back to stay. 

Ariel Hansen and wife bought the cabin and claim 
of Shade Large who with his family went to Henry's 
Fork, Wyoming. Mr. Hansen was a nephew of the late 
A. C. Beckwith of Evanston, Wyoming. A sister, Miss 
Eva Hansen, came from Ohio to visit her brother. Miss 
Hansen was a qualified teacher and the school trustees 
were gratified when she consented to accept the posi- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 67 

tion as teacher of the district school and remain in the 
community. Miss Hansen taught two consecutive terms 
of school, then gave up the profession, to become the wife 
of George L. McCray, a nephew of D. B. Rathbun. Mr 
and Mrs. McCray located a ranche near that of Mr. Han- 
sen in the western end of the valley. However neither of 
these families felt the call of the west sufficiently to re- 
main but sold their homes to the "Kansas Boys" three 
young men who were from White Cloud, Kansas, Charles 
Birkhalter, managing the McCray ranch, Russ Forncrook 
the Hansen ranche, while the third man, Charles Sulli- 
van, made his home on a parcel of land purchased from 
Charles Rathbun situated between Alf Pomeroy's ranche 
and that owned by D. B. Rathbun. The Hansen ranche 
has changed ownership several times but is now the home 
of my brother Clarence where with his wife and daugh- 
ters he has resided since 1913. 

Alf Pomeroy bought Mr. Sullivan's land which is 
now a part of the estate owned by the heirs of Alf Pom- 
eroy. 

In 1888 a young man and wife, Mr. and Mrs. Jacob 
Herschler (Mrs. Herschler a sister of Mrs. D. B Rath- 
bun, then living), established a home near the Fonte- 
nelle Canyon in the extreme western part of the valley. 
The home is in a beautiful setting surrounded by a high 
range of mountains — the divide between the valley and 
Fontenelle basin. The canyon "glorious, deep and 
high" thru which Fontenelle creek flows cuts thru this 
range of mountains, making the view from the home one 
of grandeur and beauty at all seasons of the year. 

In the spring and summer the green groves of quak- 
ing aspen against the mountains arrest and hold the eye 
but in autumn when these same groves are splotches of 
red and gold the scene is one of indescriable beauty. The 
spirit of hospitality pervaded the home of the Herschlers. 
During the summer the house was filled with guests who 
stayed for weeks enjoying not only the privileges of the 
home but were privileged to use saddles and horses — 
all this without compensation to their hosts. Apprecia- 
tion is not always shown in such cases, but the following 
will show that recipients of entertainment received from 
these great hearted people were glad of an opportunity 
to make a return. Mr. Herschler owned several bands 
of sheep and for winter grazing these herds with neigh- 
boring flocks were driven to the desert east of the Green 
River. A dead line had been established by mutual 



68 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

agreement, the northern range for cattle, southern for 
sheep and sheep that drifted north of this line were re- 
moved by force 4 , by the cattle men often resulting in se- 
vere loss to the sheep owner. One winter sheep had 
been driven far out on the desert when a fierce blizzard 
and snow storm caused the herds of Mr. Herschler to 
drift into the cattle range. The deep snow made it im- 
possible to move the sheep and so the camp mover, after 
several days of slow traveling, as the snow was so deep 
that in drifts it reached the sides of the horse, arrived 
at the ranche and acquainted Mr. Herschler with the 
facts. With pack horses laden with bedding, food and 
grain for the horses Mr. Herschler and the camp mover 
made the return trip to the sheep camp Deeply trou- 
bled because his sheep had trespassed and anxious and 
worried too, fearing the consequence, imagine the 
pleased surprise and great relief to Mr. Hershler to find 
that the cattle men of that vicinity on ascertaining whose 
the sheep were, had with teams and bob sleds loaded 
with hay trailed the sheep to the nearest ranche where 
they were fed and cared for until the melting snow per- 
mitted the owner to remove his herds to the home range. 
Six years ago our good friend, Mr. Herschler, was called 
to the house of "many mansions" but in the hearts and 
lives of the men and women who revered and loved him 
he still lives. In problems where right and justice are 
involved these men and women are asking themselves 
"In such a case, what would Jake Herschler have done?" 
Mrs. Herschler lives at Big Piney near the two daugh- 
ters, Mrs. Fred Beck and Mrs. Jesse Fuller. Canyon 
Ranche, where the Herschlers lived for so many happy 
years, is the home of the only son, (Edgar (Ned), where 
he with his wife and young son are dispensing the same 
hospitable friendliness that has ever radiated from that 
house of the open door. 

Sheepmen and cattlemen dwelt in harmony in the 
Fontenelle valley, exchanging help in branding stock, 
threshing, etc., mingling in good fellowship. The wild 
and wooly west depicted by film, the cowboy wearing 
chaps, spurs, six-shooters and sombrero in dance halls 
and in the presence of ladies was unknown. Only two 
hold-ups or robberies were known in the history of the 
settlement. First of these occurring when Mrs. Swan 
and Mr. Leifer, early settlers in Big Piney were robbed 
of jewelry and a small amount of cash soon after reach- 
ing their new location. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 69 

August 19, 1898, D. B. Budd, (IO) postmaster and 
merchant of Big Piney, was robbed by five strangers, 
who dismounted from their horses, entered the store and 
ordered a bill of groceries which they stored in pack bags 
as the order was filled. Three men then rode away 
leading the pack horses The remaining two men went 
into the store, presumably to settle the bill, but surprised 
Mr. Budd by pulling their guns, relieving him of his 
watch and money and even searched the pockets of 
Henry, Mr. Budd's small son, finding a five-dollar bill 
which they added to the collection. The bandits then 
backed out of the store, mounted their horses and gal- 
loped after their companions. A posse followed and 
trailed the bandits into a rocky gorge. As the trail was 
fresh and easily seen the posse were trailing at a lively 
pace when they were startled by a rain of bullets from 
the guns of the bandits ambushed behind the boulders. 
One of the bullets clipped a thumb from the hand of 
Tobe Houston, one of the posse who rode in the lead. 
Realizing the futility of the chase the pursuing party 
wheeled their horses and rode for home, leaving the out- 
laws to go their way. 

Three years later the greatest tragedy known in that 
part of Wyoming occurred when brother Charlie, who 
was deputy sheriff under Sheriff Frank James, was mur- 
dered in an attempt to arrest a young man wanted for 
raising a check. By untiring energy and good business 
my brother had become one of the leading ranchmen at 
Big Piney and thru his warm-hearted cheeriness had 
won the place of general favorite in the entire commun- 
ity. My brother's wife and small two-year-old daughter 
lived in our home the greater part of the first year fol- 
lowing my brother's death and the child was idolized by 
her grandparents. But my mother did not recover from 
this terrible sorrow and passed away February 11, 1907, 
at the age of 68 years. Had she lived until March 9th 
my parents would have celebrated their golden wed- 
ding anniversary. My father, lonely and dissatisfied, 
left the old home in Fontenelle, spending the winters in 
California and returning to the ranch for the summer 
seasons. 

Father was public spirited and had held several im- 
portant offices. Was postmaster for several years, also 
served on the board of school trustees, and thru the in- 
fluence of Reel and Friend, well known thruout the state, 
he was sent as a delegate to the Constitutional Conven- 



70 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tion in 1889 and later he received the appointment of 
United States Land Commissioner in which office he 
served for twenty years and entry for the majority of 
homes in Green River valley was made before him. 

In April, 1911, father sold the ranch to my youngest 
brother, Howard and wife. My sister Minnie and my- 
self, who had continued to live under the parental roof, 
also sold our livestock and land to Howard and we ac- 
companied father to Riverside, California, whlere we 
have since resided Two years later, December 20th, 
1913, father died and his remains were taken to the old 
ranch in Fontenelle and there he was buried by mother, 
on a little knoll overlooking the valley and home where 
the happiest years of their life had been lived. It is just 
fifty years, 1877-1927 — since my parents moved into the 
cabin on the Fontenelle. Of the eleven adults who made 
the first settlement two, only, are living. Those two are 
Mrs. Roney Pomeroy at Whittier, California, and Mrs. 
Alice Mathers at Buffalo, Wyoming. May 15th of this 
year Mrs. Pomeroy celebrated her 77th birthday. Much 
of the information contained in this article was supplied 
by Mrs. Pomeroy. Father and Mother Pomeroy, Roney 
and Alf crossed to the Great Beyond many years ago. 
The two latter passing when they should have been in 
their prime. Mr. Rathbun died a few weeks before fa- 
ther died, Mrs. Rathbun having preceded her husband 
several years. 

My sister, Mrs. Charles Bird, died New Year's Day, 
1922, leaving a husband and a large family of children, 
so that only four of our family are left — two brothers, 
Clarence and Howard at Fontenelle, Wyoming, and my 
sister and self in Riverside, California 

A few years ago while in Monterey, California, I 
found the following verse written over the door of the 
dressing room in the oldest theatre in California, built 
in 1847. The lines bring to mind the actors that played 
so splendid a part in the life lived in those days in Fon- 
tenelle valley, and seem fitting to close my history — 
"Ponder just a little all ye who enter here 

And try to think what kind of plays they used to act 
in here. 

'Twas tragedy and comedy and now and then a farce 

At Xmas time a pantomine and then a social dance 

And tho the actors all have gone 

Their ghosts sometimes play here 

They make the old Theatre ring 

'Till daylight doth appear." 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 71 



FOOTNOTES 



(1) Seat of government of Sweetwater County. 

(2) In September, 1868, the Union Pacific Railway reached this 
point. Elevation 6,340 feet. A machine shop and a round- 
house of twelve stalls was built and the new town of Bryan 
became an important distributing point to the South Pass min- 
ing district. Bryan is now a "ghost town." See Crofutt's 
Transcontinental Tourist Guide. 

(3) Mr. Rathbun remained on this ranch until 1891 when he re- 
tired and moved to Evanston. He was a splendid type of citi- 
zen. 

(4) In so u thern Wyoming — tributary to the Green River. 

(5) M. E. Post, Territorial Delegate to Congress from Wyoming 
in 1881-1885. 

(6) Francis E. Warren was appointed Territorial Governor of Wy- 
oming in 1885 and again in 1889; he became the state's first 
governor, assuming his office October 11, 1890. In 1891 the 
Legislature elected him to the United States Senate which po- 
sition he still holds. His present term expires March 4, 1931. 

(7) A. H. Reel, popularly called "Heck," was a widely known 
freighter and cattleman. He was a member of the Territorial 
Assembly in 1875 and a member of the Territorial Council 
in 1881 and in 1889; served many times as member of the 
House of Representatives in State Legislature and was twice 
State Senator; he was mayor of Cheyenne, Wyoming, and a 
member of City Council. He died on his La Barge ranch in 
October, 1900. See Wyoming Historical Collections, Robert 
Morris, 1897; Progressive Men of Wyoming, page 287; Annals 
of Wyoming, October, 1900. 

(8) Dr. Harrison located in Evanston, Uinta County, Wyoming, 
in 1872 and resided there continuously until the time of his 
death, December 28, 1925, an honored and beloved citizen. He 
was the ranking physician and surgeon in the state in point 
of years of continuous practice and he had been one of the 
original five Union Pacific surgeons in Wyoming Territory. 
He had served in the second territorial legislature, was county 
commissioner for four years and county treasurer for six years 
of Uinta County. 

(9) An early day trapper and explorer in what is now Wyoming. 
He was a brother of William and Milton Sublette. 

(10) Settled at Big Piney, Sublette County, then Uinta County, in 
1880; died there in 1902 an honored and highly respected 
citizen. 



72 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

THE NAMING OF MOUNT OWEN. 

A short time ago I received a letter from a friend in 
Chicago, which made me supremely happy. He advised 
me that he had just received an official communication 
from the National Board of Geographic Names, at 
Washington, D. C, informing him that that body had, 
by unanimous vote, named one of the great Teton peaks 
for me. My friend further wrote that this great honor 
was conferred upon me in recognition of pioneering work 
and mountaineering done by me in the Teton Mountains, 
and added that I had reason to feel flattered by this 
action of the board because it is their custom not to affix 
a man's name to any geographic feature while he is yet 
alive. 

My friend enclosed a copy of the official letter. Of 
course, I was delighted beyond measure, and my joy 
was further enhanced when I observed that this official 
letter was signed by Frank Bond, as chairman of the 
board — my old high-bicycle friend of 1882-3-4 and 5! 

I am going to set down a little history in connec- 
tion with the naming of this peak in order that it may 
become a part of that which has already been written 
concerning this superb range of mountains in northwest- 
ern Wyoming. 

I was summering in Jackson, Wyoming, last year, 
Mrs. Owen and I at the time occupying cabin No. 7 on 
"Gasoline Alley," at the Crabtre-e Hostelry. There 
came to our cabin one day a gentleman who introduced 
himself as F. M. Fryxell, geologist from the University 
of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. He wished to make an 
ascent of the Grand Teton and having heard that I could 
probably give him necessary information, asked me if I 
could recommend a good man to accompany him on 
the trip I gave him the name of Paul Petzoldt, the 
youth who has made more ascents of the Grand Teton 
than any other man, living or dead. Not long after, Mr. 
Fryxell made the ascent and, as was to be expected, fell 
under the dread fascination of those truly delectable 
mountains. He immediately planned other ascents, 
and, utterly unknown to me, one of them was to be the 
sharp pinnacle about half a mile northeasterly from the 
Grand Teton for the express purpose, if he succeeded in 
reaching the summit, of naming that peak for me ! But 
an untoward turn of affairs compelled Mr. Fryxell's re- 
turn to Chicago and the ascent had to be abandoned. 

In a conversation I had with Mr. Fryxell afterward, 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 73 

he expressed the opinion that one of the Teton peaks 
should be named for me on account of my exploration 
work there and having made the first ascent of the moun- 
tain in the range. I told him that I had frequently ex- 
pressed a desire to have my name attached to the moun- 
tains in some way but did not know just how to proceed 
to bring it about. 

Did my good friend Fryxell drop the matter there? 
He did not. He kept the iron sizzling every moment, 
and by a proper showing secured official action of the 
National Board of Geographic Names whereby one of 
the great granite shafts of the Teton Range was offici- 
ally named Mt. Owen. Following is an exact copy of the 
Board's Letter to Mr Fryxell, advising him of their ac- 
tion : 

United States Geographic Board, 
Washington, 

Room 5329, Interior Building, 
October 8, 1927. 
Prof. F. M. Fryxell, 
Augustana College, 
Rock Island, Illinois. 
Dear Sir: 

You will be interested in learning that the United 
States Geographic Board, without division, at the regu- 
lar meeting on October 5th, 1927, adopted the name 
"Mt. Owen" for the lofty peak of the Teton Range lo- 
cated one-half mile north of the Grand Teton which he 
ascended so many years ago 

Very truly yours, 

FRANK BOND, 

Chairman. 
In its regular printed official circular issued from 
time to time by the United States Geographic Board, the 
issue of October 5, 1927, contains among other decisions, 
the following note: "OWEN:' Peak, (Mount Owen, 13,- 
400 feet high), Teton County, Wyoming, one-half mile 
north of the Grand Teton. After William O. Owen, who 
made the first successful ascent of the Grand Teton, 
August 11, 1898." (The black face are mine.) 

I wish to call particular attention to this statement 
of the Geographic Board for here we have the offocial 
unqualified indorsement of the highest tribunal in the 
United States of my claim that my party were the first 
human beings to reach the summit of the Grand Teton. 
There is no higher authority in this country on questions 



74 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of this character and the vote of the Board was unani- 
mous. The Geographic Board doesn't base its findings 
on hearsay and wild claims; it must have evidence from 
unprejudiced sources before making a decision. 

The splendid peak in whose christening by the Geo- 
graphic Board I have been so signally honored, is a mag- 
nificent spire of granite standing right alongside of the 
Grand Teton and is the second highest point in the en- 
tire range. It is the sharpest pinnacle of all the Teton 
spires and, in my judgment, will prove a more difficult 
climb than even the Grand Teton. Its summit is still 
virgin although several attempts have been made to 
scale it. Mt. Owen stands northeasterly from the Grand 
Teton, and, with the two great peaks southwest of the 
last named, constitutes a group that might very appro- 
priately be named the "Four Tetons." These four 
granite spires lie northeasterly and southwesterly from 
each other with space intervals of from half to three- 
quarters of a mile between them. 

Mt. Owen stands farthest north with an altitude of 
12,910; next comes the Grand Teton, 13,747; then the 
Middle Teton, 12,769 ; and last, the South Teton with an 
altitude of approximately 12,500. These four Tetons 
are the highest points in the range and Mt. Moran, I be- 
lieve, is fifth, with an altitude of just over 12,000 feet 

The altitude of the Grand Teton was determined 
to a great degree of precision by the U. S. Geological 
Survey — certainly to within five feet. Wishing to know 
the altitude of several other summits, in 1925, assisted 
by Mr. George D. Corwine, and his assistant, Leslie Peter, 
of the Wyoming State Highway Department, I made a 
series of triangulations to determine the position and ele- 
vation of several peaks in the vicinity of the Grand Te- 
ton. I had a fine base line in the valley, accurately 
measured and of ample length, and all the angles, both 
vertical and horizontal, were read by three of us, insur- 
ing a perfect check. The calculations were made by my- 
self and checked by Mr. Corwine's assistant. We agreed 
perfectly. As a result of these calculations I found the 
altitude of Mt. Owen to be 12,910 feet and that of the 
Middle Teton to be 12,769. For the position of Mt. 
Owen I found that its summit from the summit of the 
Grand Teton bears N. 33 degrees-03' E. 2478.40 feet. 

I am happy, indeed, to have my name linked with 
these noble mountains, more especially so because the 
Geographic Board bestowed this honor upon me in recog- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 75 

nition of my exploration in that country and of our first 
ascent of the Grand Teton The Wyoming people, and 
the public generally, outside of the state, have stood by 
me loyally in my long controversy with Mr. Langford 
who claims to have climbed the peak in 1872; and now 
I wish to ask them to go a step farther and give a hearty 
endorsement to the action of the National Geographic 
Board in bestowing my name on one of the great Teton 
peaks. 

I first heard of the Grand Teton in 1882. I was 
camping with Hon. John W. Hoyt at the time — one time 
Governor of Wyoming and later president of its univer-. 
sity. Whatever his peculiarities he was a thorough 
scholar, a most charming conversationalist, and one of 
the best informed men I have ever met. In a talk one day 
about the Alps we drifted to Wyoming peaks. I asked 
him if in Wyoming we had anything comparable with 
that European range. He said: "We have just one range 
— the Tetons." He asked me if I had ever seen the 
Grand Teton. I said I had not. "Well," he replied, 
"if you want to climb a real mountain just try your hand 
on that peak." "It is the greatest mountain in this 
country and has never been climbed!" Note that this con- 
versation was held in 1882 — ten years after Langford's 
attempted ascent. It didn't appear to me then that I 
was to be the first man on the summit of that peak. 

This conversation with Governor Hoyt fired me with 
an ambition to climb the Grand Teton and it finally be- 
came an obsession with me. But it was nine years after 
that talk before I made my first attempt on the peak. 
M. B. Dawson and wife, of Laramie, together with Mrs. 
Owen and myself, going in from the Idaho side, attacked 
the peak in 1891, and we all reached a point only 700 
feet below the summit. This is the first attempt ever 
made by women. On this occasion I got my first peep 
of the Jackson Hole country, and I liked it so well that 
upon my return home I applied for and secured a gov- 
ernment contract for the survey of various sections and 
township lines in that locality. It was the first govern- 
ment survey ever made in Jackson Hole — 1892 and 
1893. 

Following the year 1891 I made repeated efforts to 
scale the Grand Teton but failure was my portion till 
arrived the happy day of August 11, 1898, when four of 
us reached the summit. This was undoubtedly the first 
complete ascent ever made, and the official endorsement 



76 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of this claim, first by the Board of County Commission- 
ers of Teton County, Wyoming, next by the State Legis- 
lature of Wyoming, and now by the National Board of 
Geographic Names, at Washington, D. C, in each case 
by unanimous vote, has forever removed the question 
from the realm of controversy and put the quietus on a 
contention that raged for nearly thirty years. 

For nearly forty years now I have been telling the 
world of the magnificence and wonderful scenic beauty 
of the Teton Mountains, and the people are just begin- 
ning to realize what a prize Wyoming has in the north- 
west corner of that great commonwealth. The Teton 
Mountains, in point of scenic beauty and rugged gran- 
deur have no rival in this country. The range is about 
75 miles long and extends from Pitchstone Plateau, in 
the Yellowstone Park, to a point about six miles north 
of the grand canyon of the Snake River (the "Mad 
River" of the Astorians) through which it flows before 
passing into Idaho. In that entire distance the range 
fairly bristles with pinnacles running from ten thousand 
to nearly fourteen thousand feet above the sea. 

There is a fascination about these mountains that 
I am utterly unable to explain, fathom, or understand. 
The great feature of their impressiveness, I think, is the 
startling abruptness with which they rise from the floor 
of the valley. There are no foothills. One can step 
from a boat on the west shore of Jenny Lake and imme- 
diately begin the ascent of the Grand Teton whose east- 
ern slope rises from the lake in an unbroken sweep of 
seven thousand feet to the summit of the great peak, 
whose tip kisses the blue 13,747 feet above the sea. One 
can stand at the east base of the range, only four miles 
from the summit, right on the floor of the valley, at an 
altitude of only 6,500 feet, and see every yard of the 
south slope of the Grand Teton from base to tip ! I don't 
think you can duplicate this anywhere else in the 
United States. I have tramped, surveyed, and hunted 
over the Teton Mountains till I have come to love them, 
dream of them And I think you will pardon me for 
exulting just a little bit over the fact that I was the head 
of the first party that ever reached the summit of Wyo- 
ming's great mountain and that recognition of that 
achievement by the highest authority in this country has 
just been announced to the world. Not many of the 
Teton peaks have been named. One has been christened 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 77 

Moran, another Buck Mountain, and now to these must 
be added Mt. Owen. 

The Teton Mountains are the Alps of America. They 
have no rival in this country. Their wild and rugged 
beauty with absence of anything like foothills gives them 
an impressiveness and titantic grandeur that beggars 
description, and puts them in a class by themselves. They 
are Wyoming's noblest scenic possession and the world is 
just becoming aware of that fact. If you see them once, 
the pfcture will never fade from your mind. Nowhere 
else in this great country of ours has Nature painted so 
grand a picture. 

TO MOUNT OWEN 

From out the forest's depths of pine 
Where lakes of silvery surface shine 
You rear your form old mountain, gray, 
To catch from Sol his pristine ray. 

The billowy clouds that deck the sky 
Oft form thy crown O ! mountain high ; 
A coronet superb, I ween, 
So far above the forest green! 

Ten times ten thousand years have flown 
Since first thy mighty form was thrown 
From depths so great to heights sublime 
No mountaineer could hope to climb. 

Vast fields of snow and ice so cold 
Thine armor is, O ! Teton bold — 
Defense sufficient to this time 
To ward off all attempts to climb. 

Thy brow no human foot e'er pressed! 
No flag e'er fluttered from thy crest! 
Superb, magnificent art thou! 
No christening hast thou known till now! 

Mount Owen, Hail! We welcome thee 
To join the noble coterie — 
That rugged, granite Teton band 
Which has no peer throughout the land ! 

WILLIAM O. OWEN, 

529 West Third Street, 
Los Angeles, California. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 79 

HOWARD MICHAEL 



Dictated in August 1925 
88 Years of Age 

I was born in Virginia in 1838, leaving there when 
one year old and coming to Iowa when four years old, my 
youth being spent there. At that time Iowa was a wild 
state. In '61 I left there and crossed the Missouri River, 
leaving the Fort called Military Bridge — at that time near 
the present site of Omaha with a mule team going across 
Nebraska to Ash Hollow. This was the place where Gene 
Harney had killed all of the Indians, men, women and 
children, the Indians being very troublesome at the time. 

Ash Hollow was a canyon on the south side of North 
Platte River just across the river from the present site of 
the town of Lewellen, Nebraska, is about six miles long 
from the head of the canyon. The year of '63 it was just 
a stage station on the Overland Trail, trail going down the 
canyon and crossing the North Platte to the site at this 
place. 

It was a number of years before that General Harney 
had his fight here. Part of the Indians killed there were 
just returning from a massacre at the Big Sandy. There 
were just a few stone buildings here at this time, and part 
of the walls were still standing a few years ago, the writer 
spent his youth here. The folks moved to this country in 
'84. Can remember when skulls and human bones were 
very plentiful there, but do not know if they were Indians' 
or white men's bones. Having picked bushels of choke 
cherries, plums, currants — three kinds, and grapes here 
as they were very plentiful then. 

There were three graves at the mouth of the canyon 
on the left hand side as the road turned up the Platte Val- 
ley; the graves were there when I first went there. They 
were immigrants that were killed by the Indians. It had 
been laid out as a cemetery a few years back, and the most 
of the people who die in this part are buried there now 
where the three graves are. 

The train of 48 teams was loaded with a consign- 
ment of corn for Denver. The owners were Peck & Wood. 
At Ash Hollow I quit the outfit and stayed there until 
spring when I went back to Omaha, the trip taking four 
months. I next took a position driving stage out of Des 
Moines, Iowa, to Odell, Iowa. In March 1 quit that and 
hired out to Ben Holiday, coming to Virginia Dale in '64. 
I drove three teams over this route from Virginia Dale 



80 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

to Laramie River, close to where Wood's Landing is. In 
a short time I changed^to the route from Big Laramie to 
Rock Creek Crossing. [Rock Creek Crossing was a stage 
station on the Rock Creek at the present site of Arling- 
ton. There was a stage station and also a toll bridge 
located there on the Overland Trail. At that time all the 
buildings were on the south side of Rock Creek at Old 
Rock Creek. 

Old Rock Creek located on Rock Creek was on the 
railroad but that part of the track had been abandoned 
about 23 years ago. Later years town was on the North 
side of the Creek and ten miles from Rock River, the 
nearest point of railroad. A number of people were buried 
on the north side of the creek, about one hundred yards 
below the bridge. There were also some log cabins close 
where they were buried. All signs of graves and buildings 
are gone. The three men killed at Three Mile Crossing 
on Three Mile Creek on Overland Trail were buried here. 
I Rock Creek was a freighting station. All the Government^ 
freight was hauled from here to all the surrounding forts. A 
There were four saloons, one big hotel, blacksmith shop/ 
and store. G. D. Thayer owning store, blacksmith shop 
and hotel. A great many freight wagons were made here 
at this blacksmith shop (G. D. Thayer was a son of Gov- 
ernor Thayer.) * It was a busy place in those days. There 
was a Government Commissary located here. Thayer after- 
wards sold out when the freighting business fell through 
and went to Meeker, Colorado, and started a bank at that 
place. It was a great shipping place at that time. Ar- 
buckle and Wilds had fourteen six mule teams hauling from 
this place. Most outfits used oxen as they have greater 
endurance on a long haul and although slower, will out 
travel horses and mules on a long trip. The Indians were 
very troublesome there, having killed a number of people. 
Three were killed at Three Mile Crossing on Three Mile 
Creek on Overland Crossing. 

After five months I transferred to the route from Rock 
Creek to Medicine Bow Crossing. Medicine Bow Crossing 
was a stage station on the Overland Trail. There was also 
a toll bridge here. It was located where the present town 
of Elk Mountain now is. Mrs. Perry Townsend was the 
station keeper here and her husband drove stage days after 
having made the change with me. I asked her if she was 
not afraid to be alone, she said "No. If I was I would not 



*J. M. Thayer was Ty. Gov. of Wyo., from Feb. 10, 1876 to 
April 10, 1878. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 81 

be here." I then asked her if she did not get lonesome, and 
she said when she did she took the six shooters and went 
out and practiced at a target. After two months there I 
changed off with Perry Townsend, who was a station 
keeper and a married man, so he could be home nights with 
his wife. 

I was next sent to Bridger Pass, the owners of the line 
being unable to keep men there very long at a time. This 
was owing to the fact that it was a very dangerous country 
and the entire trip was through a canyon. However I was 
there 22 months without losing my scalp. 

In the year '67 I was transferred to Bitter Creek, driv- 
ing to Separation Rock. After three months my route was 
changed from Bitter Creek to Point of Rocks. Point of 
Rocks was then a freighting station freighting north to 
Lander and beyond. 

I then quit driving stage and going to Denver went to 
work for Major & Russell, a bull outfit freighting from 
there to Fort Phil Kearney loading with Government corn, 
half of which was loaded for Fort Mitchell on the Loup 
River in Nebraska. We were 30 days making the trip. 
I quit here and hired out to a mule outfit coming to Fort 
Laramie on the North Platte and from Fort Laramie to 
Cheyenne. 

I next loaded out for Fort Laramie a.nd on return 
loaded out for Fort Reno on Powder River) I was over 
two months on this trip and on returning the stock was 
turned out for the winter. In the spring I yoked up and 
pulled out for Fort Laramie with Government stores. Was 
35 days on the trip. Game was very plentiful here at all 
times. In those days the people lived mostly on the meat of 
elk, deer, antelope, mountain sheep and all kinds of game 
birds. | Buffalo never were west of the Black Hills except in 
small bands. What few there were were killed off in the 
hard winter of '57 when the Indians lost all of their ponies. 
Kit Carson and Jim Bridger made their stakes by going 
to Arizona buying ponies and returning and trading them 
to the Indians for furs. 

\After my return from Fort Laramie I loaded out for 
the Ked Cloud Agency and upon returning to Cheyenne 
loaded out for Spotted Tail Agency which was located 
where the present\Rose Bud Agency now is. This was 
about the year '75 ) and the Indians were making trouble 
at the Agency. We were loaded with bacon and after the 
bacon was unloaded the Indians ran their horses over the 
piles of meat, scattering it in the sand, which was about 



82 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

two feet deep. There were four companies of soldiers 
stationed there but the soldiers never made a move because 
a single shot fired would have been a signal for a massacre 
just as happened at Fort Kearney in the year '66, there 
being 40,000 warriors here. 

The Indians pulled down the flag and tore it to pieces 
before the soldiers and they were compelled to ignore it. 
(I had left Fort Kearney in the year '66 just before the 
massacre, traveling day and night with 200 wood choppers) 
The Red Cloud Agency was removed the next spring. While 
I was there I saw some of the most beautiful Indian bead 
work and I tried for several days to buy it, offering as 
high as $450.00 for it. It was on two entire hides of Buffalo 
and was a complete picture of the Fort Kearney massacre 
all done in beads. The buck said it took the squaw five years 
to make it and refused to sell it or trade it. 



(y 



.While at Fort Laramie the entire freight outfit was 
pressed into service hauling supplies for the railroad. We 
were guided by Jim Bridger, going to Rock Creek by the 
"Collins cut off". The Collins cut off went due south until it 
crossed the Big Laramie River about six miles from the 
fort. Fort Laramie was just in the fork where the Laramie 
ran into the Platte road then went due west coming up a 
canyon through the Black Hills (do not know the name). 
An army officer by the name of Trotter was the first to 
come over this route with teams. There was just a dim 
trail. He had Jim Bridger to guide him through the same 
as we had. After crossing theJiills the road or trail ran 
almost straight to Rock Creek.) Camped one night at a 
lake about four miles from Rock Creek. This lake had a 
name then, a soldier having been found dead there, he 
having deserted at Fort Laramie. He had come by way 
of the Collins Cutoff and had perished for want of water. 
I think the name came from the guide who first found this 
route. Major & Bennett had the contract for furnishing 
all supplies for the railroad company and we hauled for 
several months from the end of steel to construction gangs 
ahead until snow fell and I got caught in a blizzard and 
nearly froze to death. It was a three day storm, but I 
finally arrived in Rock Creek and turned the stock out 
for the winter. 

The next spring I loaded out Government stores for 
Fort Halleck, returning to Fort Laramie and from there 
going to Cheyenne and loaded out for Fort Reno again?) 
On this trip we had a brush with the Indians on "Moss 
Agate" hill southeast of Glenrock. There were ten teamsters 
and two others along. When the reds attacked the teams 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 83 

were coralled with a hot fire. They were stopped except 
one Indian who rode full tilt for the wagons, everyone 
shooting at him until his horse fell dead. The brave took 
refuge behind the dead horse, but all guns were turned loose 
on the dead horse shooting through him and killing the 
Indian. The horse was fairly shot to pieces. The others 
left then after this reception, coming back as soon as we 
left for the dead brave. We saw no more Indians until we 
arrived on Dry Fork of Powder River, 16 miles of road here 
being in the bed of the creek. We camped at noon under a 
bluff and while eating our dinner seated around the fire 
the redskins opened fire from the top of the bluff. One 
man fell over dead and the dinner was scattered in the 
dirt. By the time we got on top of the bluff the reds were 
gone. We went on to mouth of the creekwhere we camped 
that night, arriving at Fort Reno the next day and unloaded. 
The redskins attacked the post that evening, the fight last- 
ing about two hours. Two soldiers were wounded but we 
had no way of knowing how many Indians were killed or 
wounded as the redskins always removed their dead and 
wounded whenever they could. 

\We left the next day for the Fort and nooned where 
we nooned in the canyon the day before. We were fired on 
again but no one was hurt. Leaving there we saw no more 
Indians until we arrived at Sage Creek when they attacked 
again but were driven off by a few close by. Arrived at 
Fort Fetterman, then on to Cheyenne turning stock out 
for the winter] 

In the spring of '76 I hired out to General Crook as a 
scout. We had over one hundred head of cattle along for 
beef for the soldiers. The first night we camped on Sage 
Creek. That night the redskins crawled upon a night 
herder, Jim Wright, and killed him. The next day we 
moved to Powder River where the reds attacked again, but 
no one was injured. This was the year of the Custer 
Massacre and was the spring campaign, General Crook 
afterward being on the summer campaign when he was 
sent to the relief of Custer. Upon the fourth day after 
moving up the Powder River and while scouting along a 
pine ridge, I discovered two reds looking out from behind 
the trees. I reported this to General Crook and he said to 
pass on by them and not to let them know we had seen 
them. Going on about a mile we crossed a trail the red<- 
skins had made while crossing with 1,800 head of horses 
which were being taken to their warriors. The General 
then ordered the two companies and four scouts to follow 
their trail. We followed the trail all night, riding at a 



84 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

gallop as the moonlight was bright and the trail easy to 
follow. At dawn we came to the top of a hill. On either 
side was an arroya or deep gulch. The Indians were 
camped at the mouth. There were twenty-five lodges and 
twenty-five Indians to a lodge, as they usually lived. 

Captain Egan having charge told Major Noyes to 
charge down one ride and he would go down the other 
so as not to cross fire into each other and they would not 
let one of the Indians get away. Major Noyes, after going 
part way, ordered his men to dismount and make coffee. 
Captain Egan arriving at the agreed point, attacked, but 
having no support had a terrible fight. All the horses of 
his command were killed but one. Each soldier was sup- 
plied with two, as were also the scouts. Four soldiers were 
killed and fifteen wounded within a few moments. 

After a lull in the shooting and having had nothing to 
eat and being about starved, I thought I could get into the 
Indian camp and find something to eat. I had wormed 
myself nearly there when a number of the Indians spied 
me and cut loose from all different directions. I got in 
between two stumps and some of the soldiers seeing what 
was going on, they cut loose at the reds, and I crept on 
very carefully into the Indian camp. I found a big kettle 
of venison on the fire and took it up and started eating 
when a soldier came up and seating himself facing me, 
started to help me eat it. Seeing some rubbish keep mov- 
ing, I got up and walking over, pulled out a papoose about 
two feet long, and threw it down again. There was so 
much noise from the wounded men, Indians and horses I 
could not hear anything but these noises ; but going a little 
way found a squaw, the mother of the papoose which she 
had hidden under the rubbish. She had been shot through 
the body in spite of which she had tried to kill the soldier, 
but he killed her with the butt of his rifle. 

The redskins having all hidden behind the rocks and 
trees, the officer ordered us to pile up the tepees and 
tanned hides. They were covered with the finest bead 
work in designs and I would have liked to have kept some 
of them. I hated to put them on the fire, but had no way 
of getting them away. 

After burying our own dead we all went to where 
Major Noyes was. Captain Egan drew his sword and 
threatened to cut off Major Noyes' head, calling him a 
dirty coward and placing him under arrest. Upon his re- 
turn to the fort he was court martialed, but was not dis- 
charged from the army. (General Crook was very much 
disgusted with Noyes.) 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 85 

While there the redskins were seen running off the 
herd of 1,800 horses as we were on a ridge. Ten soldiers 
and two scouts were ordered to pick fast mounts from the 
Major's troop and re-capture the horses. We took a short 
cut over the hills and came in ahead of them on a narrow 
defile along the mountain side after a run of twelve miles. 
After a short fight the redskins were driven to cover in a 
grove of trees and were cut off from the band of horses. 
We then ran the horses over a high bank into the river 
and crossed with them to the other side, our only chance 
to get away. Cutting across the hills and avoiding all 
trails we arrived to where the troops were. 

During the next night the night herders were driven 
in by the Indians and the entire horse herd run off by the 
Indians, leaving just the horses the herders were riding. 
None of the horses were ever recaptured by the troops. 

Returning to Cheyenne I then went to Fort Fetterman 
and outfitted there for the summer campaign. On the 
summer campaign I had to drive a sixteen mule team four 
days out from Fort Petterman. Was glad of the rest. The 
wagons were loaded with whiskey for the troops, whiskey 
being a regular part of the rations those days. When 
camped on Sage Creek (the same creek camped on when 
the beef herder was killed), was sitting on a rock above 
camp. Two soldiers and an Indian were playing poker by 
a wagon when the Indians cut loose with their guns at the 
players but hit no one, the bullets kicking up the dirt around 
the players. They surely rolled to cover behind the wagon 
in a hurry. Under General Crook four companies of In- 
fantry left there. The first camp was made on Dry Creek of 
Powder River, the next night camping at mouth of river 
and staying there for two days. Left there with one com- 
pany of cavalry and one of infantry the next day and travel- 
ing day and night got to Rosbud Creek. (The troops were 
being sent out after the Custer Massacre). Other troops 
joined here, forces having been sent from all the surround- 
ing territory. 

In the morning four companies of cavalry ran into the 
Indians that had been in the Custer battle. The Indians 
were never afraid of the cavalry because they could run 
away, but they were very much afraid of the infantry 
troops because they could not run and had to stay and fight 
and they were the better equipped, having longer guns with 
more accurate and greater range. 

The reds defeated the cavalry this morning, the in- 
fantry being in the rear several miles which was unusual. 
General Crook sent orders for the infantry to mount mules 



86 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and get to the place of the fight at once. As soon as the 
infantry arrived the tide of battle changed, and owing to 
the fear of the Indians for the infantry, they were soon 
defeated. The troops also had two gattling guns and six 
field pieces along, but they were in the rear and were never 
brought into action, but if they had been the entire tribe 
of Indians could have been wiped out as they were in a sort 
of basin at first. Four soldiers were killed and eleven 
wounded. This was called the battle of Rose Bud. Major 
Noyes was with the cavalry here. When the fight was at 
its worst Major Noyes was standing with several on a hill 
where he had been ordered, and the bullets were flying 
thick, throwing gravel and dirt in every direction. Seeing 
General Crook coming he ran up to him saying, "I report 
for orders." General Crook replied, "I have my eye on you. 
Get back to you men and stay there." 

After the dead soldiers were buried we left for Goose 
Creek on the trail of the Indians. Passing there we camped 
on Milk River, the Indians going into Canada. 

I quit the expedition here and returned to Medicine 
Bow, then Old Carbon, a noted place at this time. Old 
Carbon was the first coal camp in the State of Wyoming, 
and the Union Pacific got all their coal there for a number 
of years. All the first engines were wood burners. I was 
there when Dutch Charlie was hung. Was about three 
feet away when Frank Howard kicked the barrel away 
from under him. Howard was the leader of the gang that 
Dutch Charlie belonged to. Howard had been the leader 
of the gang that held up and robbed the George Trabing 
store at Medicine Bow. After the rope was put on Dutch 
Charlie's neck and he stood on the barrel he turned and said 
"Joe Manoose" (a French name) Howard kicked the barrel 
from under him to keep him from talking and giving away 
his part in the gang. Howard had been employed by the 
railroad and had previously turned State's evidence and 
made the arrest .of Dutch Charlie. Howard immediately 
left town, walked out a mile and caught a freight. After- 
wards he went North to Fort McKinney, where he was 
shot down by John R. Smith. Upon my return I took a job 
freighting to Fort Fetterman, making three round trips on 
that trail with a horse and mule outfit, then laid up at Fort 
Fetterman during the winter. The next spring I drove 
oxen for Jack Hunton from Medicine Bow to Fort Fetter- 
man on trips taking twenty-two days loaded and eighteen 
days empty on this trail. ] The Indians had all been driven 
out of the country at this time. I have been living in 
Albany and Carbon counties most of the time since. I 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 87 

hunted for Hunt who in the 70's had a camp on the Bow 
River at the old Camp place about four milesf rom Medicine 
Bow town. Hunt had a number of men hunting for him, 
and shipped game 'to all parts of the world for a number 
of years. The hunters killed the game and other men 
hauled the game into camp. They used six mules or oxen 
hitched to the front wheels of a wagon with two poles drag- 
ging to load the game on. This method was used as they 
could go most any place with that outfit. The game torn by 
the coyotes or wolves was taken to avoid trouble with the 
Indians who did not like to see game wasted and who 
generally made trouble for any one who did so. 

One time over on the La Prele the Indians made a 
raid, stealing all the horses in that country and leaving 
everyone afoot. At that time, under a treaty, no whites 
could cross north of the Platte River. The Indians could 
come across and steal, but no one could go across the river 
after them. A man by the name of Persimmon Bill, a 
slippery cuss, said he would get them. So swimming his 
horse across at night he got into their camp, cut all the 
hobbles and picket ropes, and then giving a war whoop, 
stampeded the entire band of horses into the river and 
across to the other side. Having a cabin in the hills, he 
took them there into a valley. The next morning the chief 
came up to the bank of the river and signalled to the fort 
to be ferried across for a pow wow. After the talk the 
officer in command ordered a sergeant to go and get the . 
horses for the chief. Another man being with Persimmon 
Bill and hearing this, told Bill they were driving off the 
horses. Bill, having a horse standing there, mounted and 
headed them off, taking them away from the soldiers and 
the chief drove them back. Persimmon Bill's true name 
was said to be William Chambers. 

In a short time the man saw the horses going again 
and he had to head them off again. The third time it hap- 
pened, Bill told the soldier to leave them horses alone and 
the soldier replied, "I guess you need a little shooting," and 
started to raise his rifle, which he was carrying across his 
saddle. Bill went for his six gun, shooting him through 
the body and then cut loose with his rifle at the Indian, but 
the Indian got away. Driving back the horses he then 
went to the Fort, walked in among them, took a drink of 
whisky and then rode away. He stopped and took $430.00 
from the dead soldier, leaving $40.00 to bury him with, so 
he told me later when he came over to pay me $80.00 he 
had borrowed from me. He wanted to give me the soldier's 
rifle, but I refused the gift. The next day all the soldiers 



88 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

from the Fort were out looking for Bill and Bill rode with 
them and hunted for himself. None of them knew him. 
He had been known to get away with a number of horses 
around Laramie and Sheriff Brophy was after him at 
times. One time he had taken a bunch from near Laramie 
to the Green River country and sold them and sat in the 
hotel reading the item about the sheriff being on his trail, 
he having already disposed of the horses. He had been 
known to go to a Fort, pick a horse from a bunch at the 
rack, mount and ride away with the horse. 

Along in the seventies I was staying alone and was 
cutting wood for the Fort about fifteen miles from Fort 
Fetterman at a place called the Blacksmith Shop. A man 
named McDougall had a cabin about one-half mile above 
me. He was cutting wood too. After going to dinner one 
day was returning to work with my splitting outfit and 
had so much to carry had left my rifle and shells hid in the 
bush. Had just got up to rimrock and looked off toward 
McDougall's camp when I saw some horsemen come in 
sight. McDougall was at work on a tree trimming the 
branches. I thought it some white men, the glimpse I 
had of them, and so I sat on the rock waiting for them to 
come around the trail. A gun cracked and McDougall 
threw up his arms and fell dead. I had left my splitting 
outfit in the trail so rolled over behind a rock and watched 
an Indian come out and scalp the man then a bunch came 
up. They took his gun and shells and rode past me just 
a few feet away. As soon as they were past I got back 
to where my gun was and went across to another camp 
where a bunch of men were working and went back and 
got the body and sent it to the Fort for burial. 

The first cattle, Texas stuff, came into the country in 
'67, but the big herds came in the early '70's till the country 
finally became so overstocked grass for the freight teams 
was hard to find until along about '84 the grass was so 
scarce a great many of the herds were driven north into 
Canada. 

The freighting business gradually fell away with the 
abandonment of the different Forts. I fired on the rail- 
road, was a brakeman and also ran an engine. Freighted 
wood when railroads burned wood, cut ties, trapped at dif- 
ferent times. I trapped with Jack Watkins just below Elk 
Mountain on the Bow River. He was an easy person to get 
along with. There was a saw mill on Elk Mountain, the 
first in the country. It was on the head of Mill Creek, and 
was started about 1868. The next Mill was on the West 
Fork of Wagon Hound Creek. Do not remember the 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 89 

owner's name. I was in Colorado and worked in a number 
of saw mills around Cripple Creek and other districts in 
the eighties, I was down there about ten years returning to 
Wyoming where I still reside. 



Ash Hollow, Nov. 12th, 1857. 
Mr. Ward 
Dear Sir 

I have obtained from Mr. Hines 6 lbs of sugar 
and 7 lbs of coffee which you will settle with Messrs Rus- 
sell & Wadell, Agent at your Post and charge the same 
in your bill against Wm. Magraw. 

Respectfully yours 
200 Obt. Servant 

162 

B. F. Burche. 

367 



MOUNTAINS OF WYOMING 

NAME Mtn. Range Altitude (Ft. 

Big Horn 8,000 to 12,000 

Bradley's Peak Seminoe 9,500 

Chimney Rock Wind River 11,853 

Cloud Peak Big Horn 12,500 

Mt. Doane Yellowstone 10,118 

Elk Mountain Medicine Bow 11,511 

Fremon't Peak Wind River 13,790 

Grand Encampment Park 11,003 

Grand Teton Teton 13,747 

Index Peak Yellowstone 11,740 

Laramie Peak Laramie 11,000 

Laramie Range 7,000 to 9,000 

Medicine Peak Park 12,231 

Medicine Bow Range 8,000 to 12,000 

Mt. Moran Teton 12,000 

Park Range, in Wyoming 11,500 

Phlox Mountain Owl Creek 9,136 

Pilot Knob Yellowstone 11,977 

Quien Hornet Uintah 9,300 

Sailor Mountain 10,046 

Seminoe Mtns. (highest) 10,500 

Washakie Needles 12,252 

Mt. Washburn 10,388 

Yount's Peak Yellowstone 12,250 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 91 

Fort Bridger, Wyoming, Jan. 4, 1885. 
Mr. H. H. Bancroft, 

San Francisco, 
California. 
Dear Sir: — 

In reply to your letter of November 18th last, I en- 
close herewith such records as the founding, history, etc., 
of this post as can be compiled from existing post rec- 
ords: 

Yours very respectfully, 

(Signed) ALEX CHAMBERS, 
Lieut. Col. 21st Infantry 
Comdy. Post. 
Location, Etc. 

Fort Bridger is situated 10.6 miles south of Carter 
Station on the Union Pacific Railroad, on a delta formed 
by several branches of Black's Fork of Green River. Its 
latitude is 41 degrees, 15' 37" North, longitude 110 de- 
grees 22' 39" West from Greenwich, and altitude 7010 
feet, (barometrick measurement). 

History 

The vicinity of the post seems to have been a ren- 
dezvous for trappers as early as 1834, the neighboring 
branches of Green River abounding in Beaver at that 
time. During the summer of that year a number of 
trappers in the employ of the North American and 
Rocky Mountain Fur Companies (then consolidated), 
assembled here and dividing into parties proceeded in 
various directions on Beaver trapping expeditions. 
Among these trappers may be mentioned: Wm. Sub- 
lette, Fitzpatrick Fontenelle, Basil La Jeunesse, W. M. 
Anderson, James Bridger and Jack Robinson. 

The Snakes were then the dominant tribe of Indians 
in this vicinity. 

James Bridger (familiarly known as Jim Bridger), 
from whom the post derives its name, settled here in 
1842, building a log block house and establishing a kind 
of outlying trading post. In 1854, Bridger sold out his 
establishment to one Lewis Robinson a Morman, who in 
1855, built old Fort Bridger, which consisted of a boulder 
stone wall, 100 feet square and 14 feet high, with cylin- 
drical corners, and a corral 82 feet wide. This locality 
was at the time a part of Utah Territory. For some 
time afterwards the Mormons maintained outlying settle- 
ments in the neighborhood. 

The military history of the post begins in 1857. The 



92 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Mormons (then dominant in this region) had rendered 
themselves obnoxious to the U. S. Government by inter- 
ference with the duties of such territorial officials as 
were not of their own religious faith ; many of the latter 
being in consequence obliged to leave the territory. 
President Buchanan therefore appointed Gov. A. Cum- 
ming, a gentile, to succeed Brigham Young, then Gover- 
nor of Utah, and made some changes in other territorial 
officials; and, in the spring of the same year (1857), an 
expedition consisting of the 5th and 10th regiments of U. 
S. Infantry, and Phelp's and Renos' batteries of the 4th 
Artillery was sent to Utah Territory, as escort for and, if 
necessary, to establish the authority of the newly ap- 
pointed territorial officials. This expedition under the 
immediate command of Col. E. B. Alexander, 10th in- 
fantry, started West by the usual trail along the Platte, 
and reached Henry's Fork of Green River at a point 
about 30 miles east of the present post, early in October, 
and there went into camp, where they remained until 
some time in November, awaiting instructions from 
Washington ; Brigadier General Harney, who had been 
originally designated to command the expedition, having 
been detailed by political troubles in Kansas and never 
having joined. 

While thus encamped, a detachment of Mormon 
cavalry cut off and destroyed five supply trains, of 25 
wagons each, which were designed for the expedition, 
thus virtually making war upon the U. S. Government. 
Shortly after this event Brigadier General A. S. Johnston 
arrived and took command of the expedition in place of 
General Harney. The expedition then moved westward 
to Black's Fork of Green River and established winter 
cantonment and what was known as Camp Scott, about 
2 miles south of the present post. The command re- 
mained in camp during that winter, undergoing some 
privation on account of shortness of supplies and losing 
a number of animals from scarcity of forage. 

In the spring of the following year (1858), Major 
Wm. Hoffman, 6th U. S. Infantry arrived with reinforce- 
ments and ample supply trains. Thereupon Gen John- 
ston selected the site of the present post of Fort Bridger, 
designated certain companies of Infantry and placed 
Major Hoffman in command (Special Orders No. 41 
Headq'r's Dept., of Utah, same year). The Mormons 
who had previously occupied this valley had meanwhile 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 93 

abandoned the neighborhood after destroying everything 
that would have been of any use to the troops. 

At about this time Brigham Young, on the part of 
the Mormons, consented without further resistance to the 
transfer of his office to Governor Cummings, and to the 
occupancy of the territory by the U. S. troops, and Gen- 
eral Johnston, with the bulk of the command, marched 
westward and established Camp Floyd, about 40 miles 
south of Salt Lake City, leaving Maj. Hoffman with the 
companies designated as the garrison at Fort Bridger to 
commence the work of construction. The building of 
quarters, etc., was at once begun, the labor being per- 
formed by the troops. The old cobble-stone Mormon 
fort, heretofore referred to, had meanwhile been taken 
possession of and was converted into store houses. 

2nd Lieut. Joseh H. Taylor, 1st Cavalry, was the 
first post Adjutant and 1st Lieut. B. F. Smith, 6th In- 
fantry, the first deport quartermaster of the post. 

On the 17th of August, 1858, Brevet Lieut. Col. E. 
R. S. Canby, Maj. 10th Infantry, relieved Maj. Hoff- 
man in command, the latter joining the companies of 
the 6th Infantry, which shortly left the post en route for 
California. During the administration of Col. Canby, 
and in the same year, the building of the post was for 
the most part completed. 

On March 7th, 1860, Major R. C. Gratton, 7th In- 
fantry, relieved Col. Canby in command, the latter going 
to Camp Floyd, Utah, and thence with the command to 
New Mexico. 

On June 4, 1860, Maj. Gatlin, having also been or- 
dered to New Mexico, was relieved from command of the 
post by Capt. Alfred Cumming, 10th Infantry. 

Captain Frank Gardiner, 10th Infantry, relieved 
Captain Cumming, August 9th, 1860. At the outbreak 
of the Civil War, the former officer took a seven days 
leave of absence, started east and joined the Confederate 
forces. He was therefore dropped from the rolls of the 
army as a deserter. 

Captain Jesse A. Gore, 10th Infantry, took com- 
mand May 29, 1861, and so continued until the with- 
drawal of troops from Utah in aiding in suppressing the 
rebellion. At about this time Camp Floyd (already re- 
ferred to) was abandoned, the troops under command 
of Col. Cooke, 2nd Cavalry, being marched to this post. 
By direction of the latter officer, most of the subsistence 
stores then at the post and such of the quartermaster 



94 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

stores as were not needed elsewhere were sold at auc- 
tion. Captain Gore, with the bulk of the garrison, 
joined Col. Cooke's command, which early in August, 
1861, started for Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; Capt. J. 
C. Clarke, 4th Artillery, with a few soldiers whose terms 
of service had nearly expired, being left in charge of the 
post. In December of the same year Captain Clarke 
was ordered east, leaving Ord. Sergt. Boger and a few 
privates at the post. 

For about a year from this time the post was with- 
out a garrison or a commissioned officer, during which 
period the property was under charge of Ord. Sergeant 
Boger. This was a somewhat critical period in the his- 
tory of the post. The Shoshone Indians were at that 
time hostile and the Mormans, since the withdrawal of 
the troops, were regarded as still more dangerous ene- 
mies. The latter set up claim to the land on which 
the post was located, on the ground of a conveyance 
from James Bridger, who was said to hold a Spanish 
grant for the same. (It is to be remembered that this 
region was originally in Mexican Territory). Fearing 
trouble and for the protection of property as well as for 
personal security, Judge W. A. Carter, the post trader, 
organized a volunteer company of mountaineers from 
the surrounding country. 

On December, 1862, Captain M. G. Lewis, with 
Company 19th, 3rd California Infantry Volunteers, ar- 
rived at the post and took command. 

During several succeeding years the post was gar- 
risoned by companies of California and Nevada Volun- 
teers, and various changes occurred from time to time. 

On July 13th, 1866, the command devolved upon 
Bvt. Maj. A. S. Burt, Capt. 18th U. S. Infantry. At 
about this time the volunteer troops were mustered out, 
and the garrison then consisted of Co.'s "F" and "H", 
1st batallion, 18th U. S. Infantry. 

When the Territory of Wyoming was formed in 
1868. this post and vicinity were included in the terri- 
tory/ 

f In 1868-69, the project of a railroad across the con- 
tinent was in contemplation, and, during these years, 
portions of the garrison (then consisting of Co's. "B", 
"C", "F", "H", and "I", 36th Infantry under command 
of Brevet Col. Henry A. Morrow, Lieut. Col., same regi- 
ment) were from time to time engaged in escorting engi- 
neers of the U. P. R. R. A portion of the garrison was 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 95 

also employed in guarding the overland stage route, 200 
miles east of Green River. During this period additional 
storehouses and quarters were built and the old ones re- 
paired by labor of the garrison under the direction of 
Maj. J. H. Belcher, Post Quartermaster. 

The post was abandoned in May 1878 per G. O. No. 
4; 1878, Headquarters Dept. of the Platte, and remained 
without a garrison until June 1880, when it was rees- 
tablished by S. O. No. 57, Headquarters Dept. of the 
Platte, dated June 18, 1880. The new garrison consist- 
ing of Co.'s. "F" and "H" 4th Infantry arrived at the 
post the latter part of the same month. 

In 1881, a road over the mountains from Burnt Fork, 
a mail station about 35 miles south of the post, to the 
site of Fort Thornburg, Utah, was constructed by civilians 
in the employ of Judge Carter, the post trader. J 

In the summer of 1883, the work of building addi- 
tional barracks and quarters was commenced, with the 
view of increasing the garrison which then consisted of 
Co.'s "B", "C" and "G", 9th Infantry, under command 
of Lieut. Col. T. M. Anderson, same regiment. Some of 
the old barracks were in a dilapidated condition and no 
longer used as company quarters. 

(In June of the same year, a batallion consisting of 
Co'sT "B" and "C", from this post, and Co's. "B" and 
"G", 7th Infantry, from Fort Fred Steele, Wyoming and 
under command of Maj. I. D. De Russy, 4th Infantry, 
left the post, and was engaged for about two months 
repairing and improving the road to Fort Thornburg, al- 
ready referred to. ] 

On August 7th, 1884, the garrison was increased by 
Co's. "D" and "H", 21st Infantry. 

On August 31, 1884, Lieut. Col. Anderson was re- 
lieved from command of the post by Lieut. Col. Alex. 
Chambers, 21st Infantry. 

/ TOWNS 

\ "With the exception of the small station called Car- 
ter, on the Union Pacific R. R., there are no towns or 
settlements anywhere in the vicinity of the post, j 

(Signed) C. C. MINER, 

2nd Lieutenant 9th Infantry, 
Post Adjutant. 
From files of Dr. Hebard. 



96 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

LARAMIE COUNTY— P. O. RANCH 

While civilization lasts horses will be in demand and 
any effort to improve the breed to meet the requirements 
of progress will meet assistance, has always done so with 
just encouragements from an appreciative public. This 
is true no less in the improvement of racers than of draft 
horses. Within the last decade, experiments have proven 
beyond questions that the Perchion race of horses is su- 
perior to all others for general utility and that the prair- 
ies of the western Territory is the cheapest and most 
advantageous section to raise them. 

The latter proposition has been demonstrated by 
Messrs. Post and Brown, at their ranch near Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, but appreciating the advantages of associated 
capital they have determined to form a corporation under 
the laws of Wyoming, which are liberal and made with 
reference to the demands of stock raising in that time. 

Their present investment represents over $500,000 
actual value in horses, lands and improvements, an item- 
ized statement of which follows. 

They propose to sell a one half interest in this prop- 
erty and to capitalize on such basis as will provide treas- 
ury stock, when sold sufficient to largely increase the 
breeding capacity of the herd, to add a number of Perch- 
eron Norman mares and stallions, by importation and to 
complete such improvements on the ranch as may be re- 
quired by reason of such addition to the herd. With this 
statement we beg to request your examination of the 
accompanying description of their ranch and herd of 
which is based upon actual value. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming, September 1st, 1884. 

Memorandum. — Description of ranch improvements, 
and stock owned by Post & Brown situated in Laramie 
County, Wyoming Territory. The ranch under control of 
this firm is north of the City of Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
from which its southern boundary is distant about six 
miles, it includes a tract of country of one hundred thou- 
sand (100,000) acres of which over (45,000) are in- 
closed by a barbed wire fence and the remainder it is 
proposed to inclose by the same kind of fence during 
the season of 1885. The land mentioned above as being 
under our control is owned one half by our firm includ- 
ing the part lying along the water front at Lodge Pole 
Creek (a stream running through this land) and the re- 
mainder by the Government of the United States. As 
the land owned by the Government is in the limits of 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 97 

our range and is unsuited to agriculture without water 
to irrigate and in consequence of the absence of seas- 
onal rains, our firm owning and controlling all the land 
to the streams, any interruption to our holding is there- 
fore extremely improbable. Title to the Government 
land can only be secured under the pre-emption and 
homestead acts in tracts of 160 acres for each location 
and two dollars and fifty cents per acre. (This being sit- 
uated within the 20 mile limit of the Union Pacific 
Grant) . Our ownership of the water front practically 
controls the Government land. There is about 3,000 
acres of this land under this fence which is very valu- 
able meadowland. This we use for cutting hay. This 
range was located in 1872 when we had the first choice 
of this vast country, and was selected after much inves- 
tigation as being superior to all others of which we had 
any knowledge. At the period of its location the Ter- 
ritory of Wyoming consisting of 98,000 square miles was 
practically unoccupied. At the time mentioned it was 
regarded as the finest in the territory for its amazing 
pastoral properties, and at the present time one of the 
most valuable in the country — no less for its proximity 
to a populous centre and location on the line of the mar- 
ket, than for its great fattening properties. The grasses 
are the Gama, buffalo, bunch gramme, wild hay or oats 
and a multitude of other valuable varieties while for ad- 
ditional winter food there is the far famed white sage 
in great profusion. It is impossible to over estimate 
the value of these wonderful grasses, which are cured 
on the ground by the long dry summer and are infinitely 
super in nutrive quality to the finest hay, in fact, it is 
computed that one ton of such food is equal to five times 
that amount of cut hay. The range is covered in the 
most luxurious abundance by these grasses and herds 
put out to graze at great distances from this spot gravi- 
tate to it with absolute certainty. Lodge Pole Creek, a 
fine mountain stream, runs entirely through this range 
from West to East, a distance of about seven miles from 
the southern boundary furnishing a convenient and am- 
ple supply of water from the southern part of the 
range. The tributaries of Horse Creek penetrate the 
range in various directions and it may be stated gener- 
ally that a sufficiency of water exists over the range. The 
natural shelter of thecountry formed by the rolling char- 
acter of the prairies render the range a desirable winter 
residence for stock. Thehome ranch is situated on Lodge 



98 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Pole Creek. An abundant stream of the finest water 
about one and one half miles above the eastern boundary 
where are located fine barns, stables, sheds, blacksmith 
shop and tool house, also large and convenient corrals. 
The main barn is 150 feet long, 35 feet wide, built of 
the very best material conveniently arranged for breed- 
ing purposes with large box stalls for stallions built on 
the most improved plan and complete in all details. The 
blacksmith shop, carriage house and tool house are 
equally complete. The corrals are very extensive, con- 
veniently arranged and ample to handle five thousand 
(5,000) horses; two miles above the home ranch on the 
same stream are located large stables, sheds, house and 
corrals and outbuildings formerly used as a home ranch 
and are very complete and ample in all respects, two 
miles above this ranch on the same stream is located an- 
other ranch with house, barns, corrals, etc., conveniently 
arranged. There is also another station on Trail Creek 
in the northern part of the range with house and corrals 
thus making four breeding ranches. The bulk of the 
horses now on this ranch have been bred up in Nevada 
Territory for the last 18 years from the very best class 
of stallions. There are also included in the number 
several thoroughbred mares and their young stock; the 
herd will compare favorably with any band of breeding 
horses in the states. These animals bred on the prairie 
and unused to open air life in all seasons without shelter 
or grain, are not only much hardier and more enduring 
but they retain their vitality to a much older age than 
those raised on a more heating diet under different con- 
ditions. The mares will breed until past 25 years of age, 
there are already on the ranch 15 imported Percheron 
Norman stallions of the very best quality and five stal- 
lions of different breeds. 

It is proposed, however, to substitute the important 
Percheron Norman stallions in place of the latter there 
being a ready market at Cheyenne for the stallions as 
well as for all other classes of horses. 

APPORTIONMENT OF BREEDING 

One thousand mares breed 66 per cent of colts. 
The mare colts of two years of age breed 66 per cent of colts. 
Fifty per cent of the colts will be mares, the total will be at 
the end of two years as follows: 

1st year 1000.00 mares, increase 330 

2nd year 1000.00 " " 330 

5rd year 1000.00 " " 330 

330.00 " " 108.90 Total 480.90 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



99 



ith year 


1000.00 


>> 


» 


330 




>> >> 


660.00 


»> 


» 


217.80 Total. 


547.80 


5th year 


1000.00 


)} 


» 


330 




}> }> 


990.00 


» 


jj 


326.70 




» >> 


108.90 


» 


>> 


35.94 Total. 


692.64 


6th year 


1000.00 


>> 


>j 


330 




>> >> 


1320.00 


>} 


jj 


435.60 




t> i> 


326.70 


» 


>j 


107.82 Total. 


873.42 


7th year 


1000.00 


>> 


jj 


330 




» >> 


1650.00 


>> 


jj 


544.50 




j> >> 


653.40 


» 


jj 


215.62 




» »> 


35.94 


j> 


jj 


11.87 Total. 


1101.99 


3th year 


1000.00 


j> 


» 


330 




j> jj 


1980.00 


>> 


jj 


653.40 




>> j> 


1089.00 


» 


jj 


359.37 




>> >> 


143.76 


>> 


jj 


47.48 Total. 


1390.25 


9th year 


1000.00 


>> 


jj 


330.00 




» >> 


2310.00 


j> 


jj 


762.30 




>> >> 


1633.50 


>> 


jj 


539.05 




>> jj 


395.38 


» 


jj 


118.70 




>> j> 


11.87 


>> 


jj 


3.96 Total. 


1754.01 


10th year ....1000.00 


J! 


jj 


330.00 




>> >> 


....2640.00 


>> 


>> 


871.20 




jj >j 


....2286.90 


JJ 


jj 


714.67 




jj >> 


.... 718.72 


l> 


jj 


237.40 




»> >> 


.... 59.38 
p rolt.s 


>> 


jj 


19.60 Total. 


2212.87 


Mar 


9671.88 


Total number of mare colts.... 






9671.88 


Total nu 


mber of horse colts.... 
ai increase 






9671.88 


Tot; 


....19343.76 


Original 


mares 








.... 1000.00 


il number of mares and colts at end of 10 years.. 




Tots 


....20343.76 


Inventory of horses owned by Post and Brown at ' 


their ranch 


near Cheyenne, Wyoming territory, ! 


September 1st, 1884: 


No. 


Ages 


Mares 


Price 


Amount 


1000 


2 to 11 


>> 




$ 175.00 $175,000.00 


60 


Unclassified 


u 




100.00 


6,000.00 


250 


One past 


jj 




80.00 


20,000.00 


150 


4's and up . 


Geldings 


125.00 


18,750.00 


100 


3's 




jj 


100.00 


10,000.00 
19,200.00 
15,000.00 


240 


2's 




jj 


80.00 


250 


l's past 




jj 


60.00 


25 


Saddle stock 






60.00 


1,500.00 


5 


Stallions 






250.00 


1,250.00 


15 


Imported Percheron . 












2000.00 


30,000.00 


600 


Colts this season crop. 




50.00 


30,000.00 




Over 200 of 


which are one 


-half 












2695 








$326,700.00 


50,000 acres of land the title 


to be 


completed in due 




course 








200,000.00 













The above includes improvements of every descrip- 



100 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tion consisting of about 45 miles of barbed wire fenc- 
ing, several miles of irrigating ditches, buildings already- 
described, also wagons, harness, mowing machines, tools 
of all kinds, cows and young stock and everything per- 
taining to the equipment of a first class ranch of this 
character. There are between three and four thousand 
acres of this land covering the water courses, that is 
worth upwards of ($100,000.00) one hundred thousand 
dollars outside of the improvements. The ranch has tele- 
phone connections with Cheyenne. 

Coutant. 

Denver, Colorado, January 10, 1897. 
Mr. G. C. Coutant, 

Laramie, Wyo. 
My Dear Sir : 

Yours of 5th inst. is at hand. I enclose you some 
additional thoughts that occurred to me after our con- 
versation, and a page from the family scrap book which 
contains the cut of the Overland Mail & Express Com- 
pany" instead of Wells Fargo & Co. Holladay's name 
is indissolubly connected with the Overland Mail busi- 
ness. Wells Fargo & Co. were in the stage business less 
than a year. I send you a page of the scrap book so 
when you return it it can be fitted back into its place. 
It also has the clipping from the North Platte paper. 

I want to give you under the head we might say of 
some notable events on the Overland an account of the 
fight with the Indians on the Sweetwater River near 
Split Rock when a party of the Overland men nine in all 
with two coaches loaded to the guards with mail were 
attacked by a large war party of Indians. The fight 
was a desperate one and lasted all day and part of the 
night, also I want to tell of the great feat of moving 
over 650 miles of a Daily Stage line stock, rolling stock 
all moveable parts of stations such as windows, doors, 
etc., and never losing a mail, that is putting every mail 
through on schedule time. It was an unparalleled feat, 
and was the wonder of that day, old plainsmen said it 
could not be done without a stoppage of the mails for 
about a month. And I want to give you a few more 
names of persons connected with the Overland. We 
did not name any drivers. I want to give you the names 
of some of the notable drivers and skilled reinsmen of 
the Overland Mail line, also an account of the attack by 
Road Agents on the mail and treasure coach in Port 
Neuf Canon in which three men were killed and all but 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 101 

one or two out of a dozen men wounded and $75,000 
in gold dust taken. Two well known business men, mer- 
chants of Hutchison, Kansas, were amongst the killed. 

In regard to my photo I have not had one taken in 
25 years and just now I do not care to go to the expense 
of one. You can see I am a very busy man. I have 
given you considerable of my time cheerfully when you 
was here and in writing this and what I propose to 
write if you want it and you feel that you can be at the 
expense I will sit for the photo. 

(Signed) D. Street. 

P. S. Also if you desire it I will give you the facts 
connected with the location of Fort D. A. Russell by the 
military authorities and the town of Cheyenne by the 
railroad authorities on the 4th of July, 1867. 

The New St. James, 

Denver, Colo., 

Fred W. Bailey, Manager. 
Mr. Coutant, 

My Dear Sir: You did not give me your address 
but can when you write. I will send you the clipping 
from the North Platte paper and the cut of the Over- 
land Concord Coach. After you are through with them 
I would like them returned. Remember to put on the 
coach instead of Wells Fargo & Co. as it is now "The 
Holladay Overland Mail and Express Company." The 
upper line on coach can remain "Overland U. S. Mail". 
Among the superintendents you might put George K. 
Otis and amongst agents the names of W. L. Halsey and 
J. Harvey Jones and Robt. L. Pease and amongst divi- 
sion agents Dug Ayres, division agent of the Omaha line, 
Omaha to Ft. Kearney and Phil Elkins, or as he was 
familiarly known, "Pap Elkins," the father of Senator 
Steve Elkins, and head the list of superintendents with 
Gen. Ben. Ficklin, afterwards in the Confederate Army 
in Virginia. He managed the Overland just prior to 
Ben Holloday's connection with it and in the most try- 
ing ordeal, and did it well, he was thoroughly versed 
in the stage business having staged through the south. 
We neglected to give the names of the express messen- 
gers — for they were a worthy set of men and their busi- 
ness in charge of the treasure and valuable express mat- 
ter was a great responsibility and exposed them to great 
risk, and they passed through some of the most trying 
scenes on the Overland. Amongst them was C. M. Pol- 
linger or "Gus Pollinger" as he was called, John May- 



102 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

field, Chas. Parks, Billy Hudnut, Nastor Thompson, Mc- 
Causland, Billy McClelland, George Mastin, late of Chey- 
enne. I can recall more names later on in all the de- 
partments and you can insert them — I neglected to men- 
tion the mountain lines in Colorado from Denver to Cen- 
tral City and Black Hawk which from the day it started 
until the present narrow guage railroad was built (for 
about 12 years) was the best paying 41 miles of stage 
road in the United States or the world for that matter, 
for it never missed a day summer or winter of making 
a trip loaded to the guards both ways, and frequently 
two coaches each way. 

Then the line from Denver up the Pltate Canon to 
Breckenridge, 150 miles long. It afterward became the 
property of Billy McClelland and Bob Spotswood and 
it formed the nucleus of the great stage line from the 
terminus of the South Park Railroad in Platte Canon 
to Leadville in the palmy days of the Carbonate Camp, 
and it made the fortunes of its owners. The transpor- 
tation or freight department of the Overland was a large 
business of itself it required a great many ox and mule 
trains and men to do the heavy business of transporting 
the grain, fuel and supplies of every kind. When Hol- 
laday took the line this work had been done by contract, 
one contractor's pay for one season's work (as the work 
could only be done on gross, except in exceptional in- 
stances when a mule train would be rationed with 
grain) was near $90,000. The company owned trains 
of its own, but Mr. Holladay thought the freight busi- 
ness should not be mixed up with the stage business, a 
good stage man was not always a good freight man so 
he preferred to separate it and made a proposition to 
one of the freighting firms of the Carlyle Bros, to form 
a partnership under the name of Holladay & Carlyle 
to be known as the freighters for the Overland Mail 
line and to do all of it. He made a liberal proposition 
to the Carlyle Bros., he was to put in all the trains of 
the Overland Stage line and the Carlyles to put in all 
of their trains to be credited on the books of Holladay 
& Carlyle at their appraised value, it proved a great 
success. 

The manager of this business was Henry Carlyle, 
one of the best known and most popular men on the Over- 
land. He was a tyical Kentuckian, honest, brave, whole- 
souled and genial to overflowing. Mr. Holladay's great 
success was largely due to the men he had with him, 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 103 

he had the faculty of getting the right man in the right 
place, they were brave, honest, efficient and made his 
interests their own, and they cheerfully faced all hard- 
ships and perils in his service. 

I can furnish you with Ben Holladay's signature and 
an autograph letter. At the same time Ben Holladay 
owned the Overland he owned a line of steamships on 
the Pacific Coast making weekly voyages from San Fran- 
cisco to Portland on Van Couver's Island stopping out- 
ward bound at Portland, Oregon, and from San Fran- 
cisco to Yuymas on the Mexican Coast. This business 
was enormously profitable. Each voyage of a ship bring- 
ing in from 10,000 to 25,000 dollars, a voyage consuming 
from eight to 100 days. 

REMINISCENCES 

By H. L. Kuykendall. 
Arrival in Cheyenne 

Since the arrival in Cheyenne, Wyoming, of my 
mother and the coutier caravan she had with her, con- 
sisting of the J. R. Whitehead family, my Uncle Samuel 
Montgomery, two negroes who had been what had been 
termed slaves until a short time previous to my mothers 
parents, J. M. Kuykendall my brother and myself and 
last but by no means least, two Blackhawk Morgan 
horses, named Kit and Joe also two Durham cows, the 
four later proved to be the moving spirits and the source 
from which a large part of our maintainance was de- 
rived. 

Owing to the unsettled condition existing around 
Platte City, Missouri, which was then my parents home 
and where I was born, during the year of 1865, my fa- 
ther deemed it advisable and for his future existence 
to try a change of climate so migrated west with others, 
who were situated in about the same predicament he 
was, when the caravan over which my mother was Cap- 
tain and conceded to be "BOSS" arrived in Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, on April 17, 1867, there was a nice house 
awaiting them to move into ; this house was built by the 
untiring efforts of my father and had not been completed 
when we arrived but assure you it was a marked change 
for the better, of our home conditions as the past year 
had been very trying on all the female members of our 
household. 

Arrival of First Train in Cheyenne 

The first train arrived in Cheyenne, Wyoming, some 



104 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

time during the month of November 1867. You will 
note that I was one of the many who was there to greet 
its arrival. I doubt very much if there has ever, since 
that date, been congregated together in one spot, such 
a conglomeration of humanity and beasts. The princi- 
pal mode of entertainment, of the humans, for each 
other, with a few exceptions, was to see how many they 
could aid in making unfit for work the next day, and in 
many cases, for many days thereafter. 

Oft times in my leisure moments, when left alone 
to reminiscence, my thoughts drift back to those days 
and I have arrived at decision, never again will such a 
crowd be placed together showing such a marked con- 
trast in make-up hysically, mentally and spiritually, pro- 
rating them with present population of the United 
States, will have to state, the individuals, from standpoint 
of Manhood, is many times in favor of those who volun- 
teered their all to lay the foundation and aid in develop- 
ing and making of what is now one of the Greatest Com- 
monwealths and States in America, Wyoming. 

Father Time, without any respect for individuads 
has about completed his work and at this writing there 
remains with us but a few of those characters who de- 
serve all that our Maker has to give to the Best of His 
children. 

Of late years, when I learn that one more of those 
Pathfinders and Kingdom builders has gone to the 
"Happy Hunting Ground," I have no feeling of sorrow 
or regret as that type of man was always faithful to his 
Calling, done his work well and would not quit until 
his task was completed, you can rest assured that such 
characters never cease to exist and when their spirits, 
indomitable will, energy and wonderful line of thoughts 
and acts cease to exist on this Earth in the material, all 
of those qualities and quantities are needed elsewhere 
to further an end that only such individuals are cap- 
able of executing and bringing to a successful end or 
issue. A fit epitaph for all of such characters is: 

Here lies the remanents of one who made good 
During short stay he remained on this Earth; 

There can be no doubt, to where he has gone, 
As a higher Power guided him since his birth. 

We note in the daily papers issued in American, 
that funds are asked for the erection of monuments to 
keep before the present and coming generations the 
memories of deeds or acts done by some individual. How 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 105 

much more fit and appropriate would it not be to have 
a monument of magnitude erected to the chivalry, appi- 
tude and devotion of OUR PIONEERS, by so doing we 
would not specialize as is now being done in other sec- 
tions of this continent but would honour and try and 
keep before future generations no one individual but a 
number of individuals who aided, with their untiring 
efforts and devotions in making Wyoming the Greatest 
State in the United States of America. 

Indulging on your patience, I will narrate an occur- 
rence which happened to me one day several years ago. 
I was driving, over what is now known as the Lincoln 
Highway, with a man who had been raised and passed 
the first thirty years of his life on the range in Wyoming. 
We were approaching the town of Medicine Bow, to my 
surprise this party broke the silence by saying, we are 
getting into a man's countryy. I asked him how he ar- 
rived at that decision. His reply was, you see tin cans 
and bottles wherever you go. We still have the tin cans 
but alas, the bottles have went, I believe we give the best 
part away. 

Vigilantes. 

Shortly after the arrival of our carivan in Chey- 
enne our household was awakened from our slumbers 
by a noise that was startling and appalling to all of us, 
gathering together and then going in search of source 
from which it seemed to come, no person not having 
experienced the feeling derived from the deep mutter- 
ings and sayings of a mob or crowd of human beings, 
who gathered together to take human life, can under- 
stand our feelings of dread at that time. Such a situa- 
tion greeted our eyes when we arrived at source from 
which came that never to be forgotten noise. It proved 
to come from what was then termed and known, also to 
be avoided, provided you were not one of the Inner 
Circle, as the Vigilantes, to enlighten those who are not 
familiar with the power invested, in those days in that 
name, I will here state they were composed of Judge, 
Jury and Executioner, when that body decreed you was 
to die or you was advised to seek other environments 
or surroundings, you right then might as well go off and 
die gracefully or make your escape immediately or by 
the time given you by their representative to do so. That 
order, like the individuals that composed it, never re- 
tracted but did the work that was set for them to do. 
To our amazement, we found congregated in the vicinity 



106 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

of one hundred masked men who proceeded to break 
down the door of the house adjoining the one in which 
we lived, and proceeded to bring forth an individual who 
went by the name of Jack Martin, this person had been 
found to be undesirable as a citizen by the Vigilantes 
Committee and he did not profit from the advice given 
him by that body, so when we awakened the following 
morning, not to our surprise, we were greeted, when 
looking out our front window, with a sight never to be 
forgotten, three telegraph poles lashed together at their 
tops and Jack Martin's bodyy hanging in the space be- 
tween them. 

Many will feel that such acts should not be coun- 
tenanced by any law abiding community but it was con- 
ceded by all good citizens who was in that community 
during the reign of the Vigilantes, that the justice dealt 
forth by that body was fair to all and most decisions 
handed down and executed by that body was proven or 
showed more leniency than is now practiced of late 
ears by the courts in power, as all cases that deserved 
and required the attention of the Vigilantes when 
brought to their notice or attention, was acted upon im- 
mediately and justice was forthcoming without the long 
drawn-out delays that are in vogue and practiced now. 
To withhold the execution of justice to your fellowman 
in any form is doing him a rank injustice. 

I at this time cannot recall one incident where pun- 
ishment was wrongfully bestowed but do remember 
many acts of charity performed by that body. 

Arrival of Trains. 

After the Union Pacific Railway established its 
schedule of trains which that corporation used its best 
efforts to maintain and make, the arrival of those 
trains proved to be the social event of the day as every 
person would make an effort to be at the depot and at 
the G. M. Jones Hotel upon arrival of trains and remain un- 
til their departure, many pleasant and odd incidents oc- 
curred during those times and occasions one of which left 
a very marked impression on my mind when it was told 
me. All passenger and also what was known as the 
emigrant trains remained in Cheyenne long enough to 
permit their passengers to eat and you can rest assured 
that the G. M. Jones Hotel or what was commonly re- 
ferred to as the Railroad House, was a busy place during 
those periods of time. Now for the incident that im- 
pressed me, the dining room at the Jones Hotel was large 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 107 

and the right number of tables were completely set to 
care for the number of parties on train that stated they 
would eat, there was in the employ of Mr. James as por- 
ter and general utility man a man and character by the 
name of Pat Hanigan. He was raw boned and of immense 
frame and strength, one of his duties was to serve the 
soup during train hours or meals. This proved to be such 
a task, necessitating many trips back and forth to the 
kitchen, that he conceived the idea of having made a 
soup syringe of immense size, so forthwith he hiked to 
what was known as the Schweickert hardware store and 
had made such a weapon and immediately after its com- 
pletion proceeded to place same in execution upon ar- 
rival of trains he would proceed to load, with the con- 
glomerate that was to be served, his annihiliator and 
with much assumed authority proceed into dining room 
and begin his duty of soup serving, he would approach 
a party who was seated at a table and say, "Will you 
have soup," not waiting for a reply, he would proceed 
to use his soup ejector and extractor and fill, to parties 
amazement, their plate with mixture his vessel con- 
tained, in case the party should say yes, then Pat would 
pass on to next person and go through same formula, in 
case party stated they did not care for soup then Pat 
proceeded to place the nozzle of his ejector and extrac- 
tor in their plate and withdrew the portion he had just 
served. Shortly after Pat placed in execution his novel 
money saver, Mr. Jones was able to add very materially 
to his herd of hogs. 

There was expected and due in Cheyenne in those 
days, each day, one passenger train going west and one 
east also one train going same directions, known as the 
freight or emigrant trains. The passenger trains were 
composed of one car of three compartments, mail, ex- 
press and baggage and two or three coaches and were 
pulled from Cheyenne to Sidney, Nebraska, by two four 
wheel drive Rodger make engines and their numbers 
were 68 and 72 and their engineers were Fred Post and 
"Red Pat," or better known as the "Wild Irishman." The 
emigrant trains was composed of a string of freight cars 
and on rear end of train there would be four or five 
would-be passenger coaches, in same the people were 
packed like sardines in a can. 

From the patronage of those passengers "Prairie 
Dog Arnold" laid the foundation of a snug fortune from 
the sale of that tireless little rodent "the prairie dog," 



108 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

which thrived so prolifically in region surrounding Chey- 
enne. The custom or way then used to capture that 
small pest was to pour water in their holes and make 
them come out ahead of the water to the door or opening 
of their residence, then they were placed in captivity and 
disposed of to the highest bidder by Mr. Arnold. At 
present date we pay money to have destroyed "the 
prairie dog," — such a transformation. 

I cannot leave this subject without paying due re- 
spect to one of the principle performers of the Union 
Pacific Railway. It was known as the only switch en- 
gine used in those yards for an indefinite number of 
years and the faithful manner in which it performed its 
duty proved a marvel to all who watched it during its 
long stay in those yards. This engine should hold a 
place in history or records of that corporation and if 
any parts of that wonder remains it should be placed 
in one of the most conspicuous places in any exhibit that 
corporation has, as it certainly did its part in helping to 
make the greatest railroad system on this globe today. 
Let's all of us treasure the memories of old No. 1, and 
profit by the example set by that piece of machinery, do 
our work' well and faithfully. 

Before closing this chapter I cannot resist making 
a comparison between the present day equipment used 
and employed by the Union Pacific Railroad and what 
was then in use and vogue in those days, such strides 
are almost beyond a man's imagination, but it is here 
and will be improved on. 

During the days referred to in this chapter, the 
trains at different times were halted and sometimes com- 
pletely stopped by large herds of buffalo passing across 
railroad tracks between Cheyenne and Ogallalla, Ne- 
braska. 

Indians. 

In the early seventies residents of eastern and 
northern Wyoming was kept on edge by the sudden ap- 
pearance at different times of small bands of hostile 
Cheyenne and Sioux Indians and loss of lives, stock, 
homes were of frequent occurrence and those who com- 
mitted those atrocities, some of those acts proved to be 
so fiendish that we at present stage of civilization can- 
not believe that such fiends could have existed, in cases 
where the bodies of their victims was not mutilated en- 
tirely by being burned to the stake or debauched and 
mutilated beyond recognition, those fiends to show their 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 109 

defiance, leave their calling card or mark by taking a 
part of the scalp from top of their victim's head. 

The weapons used in those days by the Indians was 
the bow and arrow and tomahawk, the proficiency they 
acquired in the use of those weapons can hardly be be- 
lieved at this time as it does not seem possible to acquire 
such efficiency in marksmanship. The time devoted and 
required to make some of those weapons must have cov- 
ered a long period, the wood, steel and gut string had 
to be of very best material, shaped to the minutest de- 
tail so as to do work required of it, seasoned by some 
process known only to the Indians, in fact, I now often 
wonder, in what direction will all of that talent be turned 
and used at present day, it certainly would accomplish 
some pronounced end and good results if turned in that 
direction as the persistency shown and used by the Amer- 
ican Indians, especially the tribes herein referred to, 
could not fail in attaining anything legitimate they would 
start to attain or accomplish. 

During the summer months, Crow Creek in vicinity 
of Cheyenne would go nearly dry, next to high bluff, 
close to where formerly stood the Hammond Packing 
Company plant, there was a dam built across Crow Creek 
and a house erected to hold ice to supply wants of city of 
Cheyenne, ice was gathered from pond formed by said 
dam. This pond was also used as a swimming pool by 
the Cheyenne children. A bunch of these arabs was 
down there one summer day performing their usual 
stunts, during the time they were there, two Indians 
were waiting on bluff just above them until they had 
gone home then they proceeded to execute the errand 
they came on, they killed the keeper of the ice house, 
I remember distinctly the bringing of his remains to town 
and to the L. F. Iliff home which was used at that time 
as the only hospital in Cheyenne, the remains had an 
arrow sticking straight out of his body, he had been shot 
through the heart. 

About that time, through the efforts of my father 
and others who were aroused by reports they heard of 
the untold riches of the Miners Delight region and coun- 
try farther north and west, organized a company of sev- 
eral hundred men who met at Cheyenne with the view of 
exploring that region, the expedition formed on Seven- 
teenth street and it had an air of strength and excite- 
ment, all persons who participated in this venture were 
afoot excepting my father who rode a small white pony 



110 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

as he was captain. All luggage and provisions were 
hauled by several strings of oxen composed of eight yoke 
steers and four wagons to the string. Attached to last 
wagon of this train was a small brass canon. 

With unforseen trouble from Indians en route they 
reached as far northwest as the Big Horn river country, 
they were met there by a company of the United States 
Cavalry and was informed that, orders had been received 
at Fort Washakie to bring that expedition back as its 
presence was causing unrest with the Shoshoni and other 
tribes of Indians and those tribes were congregating for 
a massacre, since that date there has been but little done 
to develop that region from mineral standpoint owing to 
its having been and is now in an Indian reservation. 

Much has been written about Custer, Thornburgh 
and other massacres executed by different tribes of In- 
dians, their mode of warfare was mostly from ambush 
and complete surprises as they would seldom come out 
in the open and attack and they usually outnumbered 
their opponents many times as they usually had a good 
check on numbers who would oppose them. 

Early Seventies. 

Cheyenne in the later sixties and early seventies 
was composed of mostly saloon, dance halls and houses 
of ill repute and killings were of frequent occurences. 

The principle hotels then were Tim Dyers, Ford Ho- 
tel, which was built and run by a colored man who after- 
wards built what was known as the Inter-Ocean which 
stood on corner now occupied by the Harry Hynds build- 
ing, Simmons House and Ames Hotel. A multitude of 
saloons, one of the most famous was "Red Pats." This 
saloon had the patronage or was the haunt of the soldiers 
stationed at Ft. Russell and <Camp Carlin. It took a man 
of untold nerve and fighting ability to conduct that place 
in anything like an orderl ymanner but fortunately it 
had the right man in the right place as Pat Hannifan 
knew no fear and was a nonpareil at the rough and tum- 
ble game. 

One of the most noted dance halls and variety the- 
atres that ever existed in America was located in Chey- 
enne and did a most thriving business. It was known 
as McDaniels Theatre and was owned and conducted 
by one of the most eccentric and erratic individuals I 
have ever seen. Every evening, Sunday not excepted, 
about eight o'clock a band of about twenty pieces would 
form a circle on the street in front of this theatre and 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 111 

play many of the then latest popular selections, from all 
parts of the town the male faction would come to listen 
to the beautiful melodies poured forth by the members 
of that congregation, the leader of that sympathy organi- 
zation was termed "Smitty with the Coffee Pot," the lat- 
ter part of his cognomen referred to the cornet he played. 
When the band finished its evening outdoor performance 
on the street, its members would disband and most of 
them begin doing certain duties on inside of theatre and 
as would be kept busy until the break of day and oft- 
times later. 

Along about this time the Black Hills excitement 
broke out and daily six-horse Concord stages were run 
to Custer City first, then Deadwood. I remember one 
of the flashy drivers who had the run out of Cheyenne, 
his name was Johnnie Denny. 

During that excitement the Road Agents became 
plentiful, their raids necessitated the running, once a 
week or thereabouts of what was known as the Treasure 
Coach; this was a smaller coach than those used on the 
regular runs and was lined with sheet steel to above 
height of a man's head sitting on the inside, in center 
and fastened to its floor was a trreasure chest, in addition 
to the driver there accompanied this coach two or more 
guards who were looked upon as men of iron nerve and 
quick on the trigger. Even with this precaution this coach 
was robbed and treasure stolen. 

On one occasion as this coach was making its run 
Between Custer City and Deadwood, a man jumped out 
in the road in front of the horses and commanded the 
driver to hault. The team became frightened and start- 
ed to run. The man in the road shot and killed the driver, 
named Johnnie Slaughter. The latter's remains were 
brought to Cheyenne and buried and the six horses he 
drove when killed hauled his remains to his last resting 
ground. 

My Uncle, Samuel Montgomery, passed most of his 
time on a ranch taken up by my father and located one 
and one-half miles east of Cheyenne on Crow Creek, af- 
terwards owned by Organ and Hammond. My uncle 
being an old bachelor and on ranch alone most of the 
time decided to let stop with him during the winter of 
1874 two parties named Duke Blackburn and Fonce 
Ryan. When green grass started they suddenly disap- 
peared with four of our best horses, Winchester rifles 
and bedding. Duke Blackburn turned out to be the 



112 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

leader of the road agents that infested the Black Hills 
region and as a commander he proved a success but like 
the majority of such characters, he died with his boots 
on, finally run down and killed by the officers of the 
law. 

(Signed) H. L. KUYKENDALL. 

REMINISCENCES OF AN INDIAN WAR SOLDIER 

WHO SERVED IN DAKOTAH TERRITORY, 

NOW WYOMING, FROM 1865-1868. 

To All Whom It May Concern: 

Late in December, 1865, two companies of the first 
battalion 18th U. S. Infantry arrived at Fort Dodge, 
Kansas, after marching on foot in about two feet of 
snow from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, about four hun- 
dred miles, taking in about twenty-five days march, when 
before we arrived at Fort Dodge, Kansas, one of our 
men lagged behind the command from sore feet also blis- 
tered feet, and as we were passing through a ravine, the 
Indians in the brush cut him off from the command, and 
shot him and then took his scalp on the top of his head, 
size about four inches long, and three inches wide. That 
was the first Indian warfare I saw commencing my three 
years service. So it thrilled the blood in my veins, being 
only eighteen years of age, so that made me a daring 
soldier to show no quarter to the hostile Indians when 
at war with the whites. When we arrived at Fort 
Dodge, Kansas, there was no barracks built there, noth- 
ing but a haystack, which grass was mowed and saved 
and put up by the 48th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 
for to sleep in the hay stack, in size about one hundred 
feet long, twenty feet wide and about ten feet high, so it 
was a warm place for them to sleep in while on duty. 

The barracks they had to sleep in at night was holes 
in the ground on the bank of the Arkansas River, about 
four feet, above high water mark size, about six feet in 
length, eight feet wide and three feet high, the bunks or 
beds cut at each side out of the dirt and floor in center 
about two feet wide between the two bunks or beds cov- 
ered over by brush and gunny sacks and dirt, on a level 
with the top of the ground. We had a fine door on our 
c&bin instead of a wooden door, an old gunny sack, 
fronting the river, sidewalk about three feet wide to 
protect us from walking into the river which was frozen 
to a depth of about four feet. So you see the fine man- 
sions of sleeping quarters we had at Fort Dodge, Kan- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 113 

sas, in the pioneer days of trial and hardship for the 
Indian war soldier. Had to go for wood for fuel about 
twenty-five miles to keep us warm and for cooking and 
making coffee and bean soup. Wood was poor, water 
seeping out of it. The boys called it Pussy Elm, so you 
can imagine the hardships we endured in the commence- 
ment of our military service for (Uncle Sam) even the 
few months in Kansas before reaching Dakotah Terri- 
tory, now called State of Wyoming, where the Sioux In- 
dian warriors controlled the prairies of Dakotah with 
their brother Indian (Arapahoe) Commanches and 
Cheyenne tribes (all in arms). 

Early in the spring of 1866, our captain got orders 
to pull up stakes and report to the commanding officer 
at Fort Caspar, Dakotah territory, now Wyoming, for 
duty, with two companions. We had a long and tedious 
march to undertake through a country where the wild 
Indians roamed at pleasure seeking to exterminate the 
whi+e man who encroached on their hunting grounds. 
We passed through Denver, Colorado and camped for 
a few days on the north side of the South Platte River 
for recuperation and intermission so as our sore and 
blistered feet would then receive some medical treat- 
ment, but we had not much time to get it, as all the In- 
dian tribes in that country were on the warpath, mas- 
sacreing all the white settlers who were traveling in 
wagon trains, so we pulled up stakes again and passed 
through Fort Collins, then to Fort Laramie, Dakotah 
Territory, where we rested for a few days in order to 
wash our clothes and get ready for another March, so 
we pulled up stakes again, for the march passed through 
Horseshoe Creek and passed in sight of Fort Fetterman 
but did not stop there. This fort was called after Col- 
onel Fetterman, the daring Indian fighter who was 
killed with all his men, seventy-three all told, at Piney 
Creek, three miles east of Fort Phillip Kearney, in De- 
cember, 1866. Finally we reached Fort Casper, Dako- 
tah Territory, on the banks of the south side of the 
North Platte River, early in the spring of 1866, and re- 
mained there fifteen months. 

We had to fight the Indians on our march all along 
the south for every foot of ground from Horse Shoe creek 
to Fort Casper, Dakotah Territory, all along the wagon 
route which had to be close to the North Platte River in 
older to get water for their stock and also for cooking. 
There is near by an Indian war soldier buried along the 



114 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

route on every foot of ground, with a piece of wood 
at his head marking his grave, company regiment in- 
scribed in it, and will remain there until the day of final 
retribution, to give an account of his good services which 
he performed for his country, even giving his life, if nec- 
essary, in clearing off the Indians who controlled at that 
time all Dakotah, now three states, of which Wyoming 
is one of the most prosperous states in the Union, which 
about fifty-eight years ago was a territory mostly inhab- 
ited by the Red men. We gave our lives, if necessary, 
for one purpose, in order that the white settlers, or the 
pale face, as the Indians called us, might settle down and 
take up homesteads for themselves and their families, 
and generations yet unborn might live in peace and pros- 
perity and be protected from Indian warfare in their 
old and declining years, in a territory which was once 
the home of the Indian and his hunting ground. Nothing 
to see but the wild buffalo, mountain lion, wolves, deer 
and antelope. What a change in about fifty odd years, 
turned into one of the most wealthy and prosperous 
states in the union, now called Wyoming. 

When our command arrived at Fort Casper, Dako- 
tah, on the North Platte River, we had to build log bar- 
racks and haul the wood from the Black Hills, about 
eighteen miles, in the fall of 1868. Nothing to be seen 
but wolves and mountain lions, howling all night, also 
Sioux Indians on the war path, seeking to get a chance to 
attack a small squad of soldiers guarding wagon trains 
or carrying the U. S. mail from one fort to another, from 
sixty-five miles to ninety miles apart. While on these 
duties, not more than eight or ten soldiers, and a non- 
commissioned officer could be spared from the small 
garrisons at that time, as some forts had only two com- 
panies, and then not filled up to the regular standard, 
some on detail duty and some in hospital, some on secret 
duty; had to carry forty rounds of ammunition in our 
belt, carry a knapsack for hardtack and bacon, also a 
canteen can and a loaded musket; sleep in our clothes 
and shoes, our rifle by our side, one blanket to wrap 
around us and a stone or a piece of dirt for a pillow 
sham ; nothing to eat but hardtack and rusty bacon and 
coffee, not knowing the moment you would be scalped, 
and, if taken prisoner, burned to the stake. I think our 
Company was stationed at Fort Reno, Dakotah Territory, 
at the time of the massacre at Piney Creek. Colonel 
Fetterman and seventy-three of his men were all killed 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 115 

hand to hand fight, overpowered by Indian warriors, 
one hundred Indians to one soldier, but I think our Com- 
pany was escorting wagon trains to Fort Reno and hap- 
pened to be there at that time after the massacre, so 
you see what the soldiers who won the West endured. 
So I remember once what my good old mother used to 
tell us at the fireside when kids, that the hare, an ani- 
mal similar to the rabbit, always sleeps with his eyes 
open, so that was the way we Indian war fighters had 
to do in Dakotah Territory at that time, always on the 
alert. If I recollect good, I think I stood guard one 
night over the remains of Colonel Fetterman, when his 
relatives were taking his body to the East for burial. 
He was captain of A Co., 2nd Battalion 18th U. S. In- 
fantry but brevetted, his body all cut up in pieces and 
the drummer boy staked to the ground with a piece of 
wood driven through his mouth ; nobody left to tell the 
tale. The battle was fought in the ravine at Piney 
Creek, three miles East of Phillip Kearney, under the 
bluff, or as we call it, the hill. The boulders in the 
creek were red with blood as it is supposed that there 
were about six thousand Sioux Indian warriors in that 
fight. It is not known how many Indians were killed, as 
they carried off their dead after the battle, but I pre- 
sume there were at least two thousand dead Indians 
slaughtered, as it was a hand to hand fighting at the 
end. So our government built a monument of the boul- 
ders in commemoration of the soldiers who lost their 
lives, called Devil's Tower, on the top of the bluff. You 
can see by the naked eye several miles Big Horn and 
Little Horn Rivers, also the Rosebud reservation, when 
General Custer and Major Reno lost their lives in 1876. 
The boys always called it Reno Creek on account of him 
being killed there. I was once on an escort carrying 
U. S. mail along Powder River. We camped late in 
the evening to rest for the night. It was a stormy night 
in the fall of 1866. We heard a great noise a few miles 
down the river bank, so a few of us took our guns to see 
what it was, as we thought some Indians might be craw- 
ling upon us and scalp us, so it turned out to be the re- 
verse, it happened to be a dead Indian hanging on a 
limb of a tree and all his fighting arms hanging with 
him, also the head of his pony hanging. This was the 
custom of some Indians to bury their dead. So we were 
glad it turned out so, as the Powder River Country at 



116 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

that time was the fighting ground for the Sioux Indian 
warriors. 

Our company was recruited up in full three times 
during our service in Dakotah Territory, so a great many 
of my comrades lie buried along the banks of Powder 
River and North Platte River, to sleep the sleep of peace. 
I was always to the front in defense of my country for 
civilization, but I was one of the lucky ones who was not 
scalped or burned to the stake, as that was the death 
of an Indian war soldier, if he was taken prisoner by 
the Indians from 1865-1868 in Dakotah Territory. So 
in the summer of 1868 we came back southward, down 
the Big Horn and Reno valleys, close to the mountains, 
had to fight Indians all the time through the Rosebud 
country, and finally our company arrived at Fort D. A. 
Russell in the fall of 1868 to guard the Union Pacific 
Railroad which was being built at that time a little west 
of Cheyenne, the Indians setting fire to the wooden 
bridges and destroying property all along the road from 
Cheyenne to Omaha City, so I was doing duty at Fort 
D. A. Russell for about three or four months before ex- 
piration of my services in the Indian war country. 

So, after three year's service in the Indian war coun- 
try, Dakotah Territory, on Powder River, North Platte 
River, also the Black Hills, carrying U. S. mails from 
one fort to another, guarding emigrant trains, and build- 
ing log barracks, sleeping out in the snow, and wading 
creeks, you can imagine what we soldiers, who won the 
West, went through, when all Dakotah Territory was a 
wilderness with the exception of a few places, and there 
are not many of us alive now who cleared the Dakotah 
Territory of the savage Indians, in order that white set- 
tlers might take up homesteads for themselves and their 
families and for generations yet unborn, that they might 
live in peace and prosperity in their old and declining 
years. 

After three years Indian warfare in Dakotah Ter- 
ritory, now the State of Wyoming, from 1863-1868, got 
honorably discharged at Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming, 
November 14, 1868. 

FRANCIS CARRE, 
National Military Home, 

Danville, Illinois. 

Co. D. 

Late Corporal A Co., 1st Battalion, 18th U. S. Infantry. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 117 



REMINISCENES OF AL WHITE 

Dictated by Mr. Al White of Cheyenne, May, 1919 

I came to Cheyenne in 1869, when but 15 years of 
age, and with John Underwood and Abe Underwood 
became a waiter in the Ford Hotel which was located 
on 16th street, between what was then Eddy and Fergu- 
son Streets, now Pioneer and Carey Avenue, respective- 
ly, just east of where Fred RoedePs hardware store is 
now situated. I received $75.00 per month as waiter, 
and received tips of from one to five dollars from each 
traveler. It was the usual custom to give tips of not 
less than a dollar at that time. I attended Sunday 
School where the Methodist Church now stands and 
there was nothing but prairie between the Ford Hotel 
and this school house. Each morning a stage drawn by 
six horses left the Ford Hotel for Denver, and a simi- 
lar one would arrive from Denver each evening. After 
working at this hotel for six or seven months I returned 
to Omaha, and remained there for about six years. At 
the end of that time I again returned to Cheyenne, and 
became a clerk in the grocery store owned by Erasmus 
Nagel which was located at the corner of 17th and Ferg- 
uson streets, now Carey Avenue, where the Palace Phar- 
macy now stands. It was at this time that the Black 
Hills excitement was on, and I saw the first "Bull Train" 
composed of three wagons and drawn by 16 to 20 oxen, 
all driven by one man, leave the Ford Hotel for the Black 
Hills. During these times we often sold as much as $5,- 
000 worth of supplies per day from the store of Eras- 
mus Nagel. 

B. L. Ford, a colored man, was proprietor of the 
Ford Hotel, and later built the Inter-Ocean Hotel which 
he afterwards sold to Chase Bros. 

Cheyenne was called the "Tent City" in 1869, two 
years after the Union Pacific Railroad came through. 
McDaniels Variety Theater was situated where Dineen's 
Garage "now stands. 

In 1880 I married Mary Hutt of Moline, Illinois, 
and later we came to live in our home which was situated 
on two of the lots where the Capitol Building now stands. 
These two lots I purchased for $300 and three years 
later sold them to the Capitol Building Commission for 
$1,000. They measured 66x132. Hi Kelly and Mrs. 
Argensheimer owned the other lots on which the Capitol 
is now situated. One summer Mrs. White and I picked 



118 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

30 quarts of strawberries of just the common variety, 
not ever-bearing as we have now, from our garden on 
this site. 

The Union Pacific deeded the ground to the city 
which is now used as a park, for this express purpose, 
and Henry Altman and Major Talbot donated some of 
the trees which were set out at that time. I believe the 
first trees planted in Cheyenne were set out in front of 
where the Cheyenne Fire House now stands. 

I purchased the circulation of "The Sun" from 
George Jennings in September of 1887. E. A. Slack 
was the owner of this paper whose office was located 
on Eddy, now Pioneer Avenue and 17th Streets where 
the I. O. O. F. or Woodmen's Building is now located. 
In those days we received $1.00 per month for the paper 
which was a daily of eight pages. "The Sun" was the 
Republican paper, and the "Leader" then owned by 
John Carroll and (Tom) Breckons was the Democratic 
paper. Judge Carey established the "Tribune" in the 
Old Opera House Block, after purchasing the John Shin- 
gle Tribune and another paper. 

F. E. Warren and Converse had a little furniture 
store just west of the present Hynds Building in the 
early 70's. 

Hellman had a clothing store where Washington 
Market is now located. 

When we lived on the site where the capitol now 
stands there was one night that we could not sleep be- 
cause of the noise caused by men beating on the doors 
of the county jail in order to have Mosher turned over 
to them because he had murdered two men in order to 
rob them, who were occupying a camp wagon on the 
edge of town, so about five o'clock in the A. M. we start- 
ed down to the Court House and were met by Mr. and 
Mrs. Thomas Durbin who said the masked mob had just 
hanged Mosher to a telegraph pole on the corner of 19th 
and Eddy Streets, now Pioneer Avenue. Mr. Ed Smalley 
is able to give a detailed history of the Mosher hanging. 

The Kirkendall and Code families lived in the house 
where Myers Dry Goods Store and Niveth's Jewelry 
Store now stand. 



NOTICE 

Owing to conditions which could not be controlled, the October 
1926 Annals was not issued but we are now issuing a double number 
containing the same amount of history which would have been 
published in two numbers. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 119 

ACCESSIONS FROM JULY 1, 1927 TO JANUARY 1, 1928 

PEASE, MRS. VERA JANE EDWARDS — Collection of 215 post- 
card views of scenes in France; 18 unmounted photographs of 
pageants directed by Mrs. Pease; 9 mounted photographs of 
scenes in Japan; two photographs of Mrs. Pease; framed photo- 
graph of Mrs. Pease; 16 programs of pageants directed by 
Mrs. Pease; 15 unmounted photographs of war zone; 29 un- 
mounted kodak views of scenes in France; 16 shells; 12 pieces 
of French paper money; samples of soft white stone from 
French trenches; American Red Cross Disk No. 4352; pano- 
ramic view of Shakespeare Pageant in Seattle directed by Mrs. 
Pease; German wooden shoe found in dugout of Germans; 
large knife found in dugout of Germans; veil worn on head of 
American Red Cross workers in France; Red Cross flag used 
on Red Cross hut in France; United States flag which was used 
at funeral to cover the bodies of dead soldiers in France, A. 
E. F. ; candles used on altar at funerals of Catholic soldiers; 
silver bowl of artificial flowers used on the altar of funerals 
of soldiers in France; two large shells and cover for shell; col- 
lection of letters, official papers, clippings, etc.; seven publi- 
cations issued in France during World War; five booklets of 
postal cards, views of France; roll of crepe paper decorations 
used in Red Cross hut in France; five booklets of songs and 
prayers used in France; sign used on Red Cross huts in France 
and two insignia; large poster with picture of Mrs. Pease which 
was on door of hut in France; three post cards received by Mrs. 
Pease from delegates to American Legion convention in Paris 
in September, 1927; kodak picture of neglected graves of pio- 
neers in Thermopolis, Wyoming; kodak pictures of Wilbur 
Cornwall, overseas veteran, who is doing fine Americanization 
work among the settlers on the Frannie project. 

WATTS, A. E. — Cap and ball pistol carried by Captain Jenks 
(father of Mrs. Luke Voorhees), in the fifties to California 
via the Isthmus of Panama; framed picture of Cheyenne, 45 
years ago — shows office of Denver Home Brewing Co., and 
loaded wagon with drivers and spectators in front; framed pic- 
ture of Algers Light Artillery, Spanish War Veterans, taken 
on porch of home of Captain Palmer, 1711 Warren avenue, 
in 1898; book "The Volunteer Quartermaster" governing the 
quartermaster's department of the United States Army and 
in force May 9, 1865. Has signature of Col. C. A. Reynolds, 
who was quartermaster at Camp Carling, one and a half miles 
west of Cheyenne in 1871 in front of book; book "A Treatise on 
Surveying" containing signature of J. O. Mill, one of the Sur- 
veyors of the Union Pacific Railroad. 

LOGAN, E. A. — Old hatchet found buried in basement of the Dyer 
Hotel, the first hotel erected in Cheyenne. Its appearance 
would indicate that it was very old. 

HALE, MISS DOROTHY — Two applications for money orders, 
dated December, 1880, two applications for money orders 
dated January, 1881; two registry bills, 1881 and 1888, all 
found at old Fort Laramie; letter from Thos. J. Haynes to 
John Hunton. 



120 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

MILLS, MRS. S. L. — The Wyoming Farmer, Vol. 1, No. 1, July 
4, 1888, the Sundance Gazette, Vol. 1, No. 1, October 25, 1884. 
Both papers published in Sundance, Wyoming; picture of 
George W. Laney located ten miles from the Devil's Tower, 
where he lived for 29 years. 

SCHILLING, ADAM J. — Tinted photograph of President Roose- 
velt and escort on occasion of his visit to Wyoming in 1903; 
photograph of Battery "A" Volunteers, Wyoming Light Artil- 
lery, taken August 24, 1898. 

HERRON, RALPH — Two kodak views of the opening of the Cody 
entrance to Yellowstone Park. 

CRAWFORD, L. C— Book "Rekindling Camp Fires," by L. C. 
Crawford, superintendent of the State Historical Society of 
North Dakota; pamphlet "Sakakawea," by Helen Crawford, 
daughter of Mr. Crawford. 

RIETZ, MRS. C. F. — Piece of Linsey Woolsey made by Mrs. 
Amanda Cox in Salem, Dent County, Missouri, in 1884. Mrs. 
Cox sheared the sheep, carded the wool, spun and wove the- 
yarn. She colored the brown in the material with walnut 
bark, the green with sumac berries and the red with the old 
red aniline dye. Mrs. Cox, who is an aunt of Mrs. Reitz, was 
born in 1833 in Tennessee. She came overland with her par- 
ents to Missouri in 1836. 

PERKINS, ADAM C. — Song-sheet music designed and published by 
Mr. Perkins, "United States Flag Hymn." A tone for each flag 
in the order of their admission to the Union. 

FAVILLE, A. D. — Two views of Fort Laramie taken in September, 
1927. 

GRAND TEMPLE OF ORDER OF PYTHIAN SISTERS OF WYO- 
MING — Book History of the Order of Pythian Sisters. 

ADAMSKY, MRS. RALPH— Pamphlet, "The Boseman Trail," by 
Lillian Van Burgh. 

FRYXELL, F. M. — Eight views taken by Dr. Fryxell and party while 
making an ascension of the Grand Teton; five views of Old 
Fort Bridger; ten views of Independence Rock; four views of 
Old Fort Laramie; view of the mysterious grave on Jim Imeson 
homestead above the mouth of the Hoback on Camp Creek; 
view of the Gros Ventre Slide after the flood "August, 1927; 
three views of the historic Goose Egg Ranch, twelve miles up 
from the North Platte; picture of W. 0. Owen taken in Aug- 
ust, 1927; pamphlet, "The Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyo- 
ming," by Mr. Fryxell; manuscript, "The Green Tree," by Dr. 
Fryxell. 

GARRETSON, M. S.— Pamphlet, "The American Bison," for use in 
the schools, by Mr. Garretson. 

LUSK, FRANK— Certificate No. 23, "Monitor, Wyoming," Silver 
Service Fund, showing that Mrs. C. M. Lusk, Lusk, Wyoming, 
was a subscriber to the fund for the purchase of a Silver Serv- 
ice to be presented to the Monitor named in honor of the State 
of Wyoming. Certificate signed by DeF. Richards, Governor 
of Wyoming, and Vivia B. Henderson, secretary of the fund. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 121 

CARROLL, MAJOR C. G. — "The Citizen Soldier," Volume 2, num- 
ber 1, for August, 1927, giving history of the 148th Field Ar- 
tillery. Five volumes of the "Official Roster of Ohio Soldiers, 
Sailors and Marines." This makes ten volumes received by the 
department. When the set is completed there will be 27 vol- 
umes. 

WHEELER, EVA FLOY — Original manuscript. "Wyoming writers; 
a Preliminary Survey." This is a thesis in partial fulfillment 
of the requirements for an M. A. degree from the University 
of Wyoming. 

HOLDEN, MISS ELLA M. — Original manuscript "In the Valley of 
the Fontenelle." 

BEACH, MRS. CORA M. — Address on Hat Creek, given by Mrs. 
Beach at the dedication of the marker at that place by the D. 
A. R. 

SAMPLE, MRS. HAZEL HARPER— "Why the Meadow Lark was 
Chosen State Bird of Wyoming," by Mrs. Sample. 

MRS. SCOTT DAVIS — Hobbles used by Scott Davis at time he led 
defense of the Treasure Coach from the Black Hills in 1878, 
when five bandits attacked it at Cold Springs. One of the 
guards was killed and several others, including Mr. Davis, were 
injured. It was after this episode that the Wyoming Terri- 
torial Legislature passed a resolution citing Mr. Davis for, brav- 
ery; handcuffs used by Mr. Davis when he was deputy sheriff 
at Deadwood, South Dakota; hunting pipe given Mr. Davis 
about 45 years ago by Hunter, a man who came west from 
New York and posed as a mining expert, forging a check for 
$10,000.00. Mr. Davis captured him at Pierre, South Dakota, 
before he had a chance to dispose of the money; shotgun and 
rifle used by Mr. Davis while guarding the Treasure Coach; 
cartridge vest and belt used at the same time; pair of field 
glasses used by Mr. Davis when he was freighting to Custer; 
lash of whip used by Mr. Davis when at "the age of 14 
he drove a bull team from Fremont, Nebraska, to the Black 
Hills; old hand-made Mexican spurs; two old hand-made 
bridles; one bridle with engraved bit used by Mr. Davis; old 
skinning knife; Indian war club picked up near Custer battle- 
field shortly after the battle; tomahawk; pair of martingales. 

RAY, MR. CARL — Complete film of the arrival by air of Colonel 
Lmdburgh in Cheyenne on September 2, 1927. Presented to the 
Governor of Wyoming, Governor Emerson, by Carl Ray, to be 
placed in the archieves of the State. This film is between 200 
and 210 feet long. 

BUFFALO BILL MUSEUM ASSOCIATION— Book, "Anecdotes of 
'Buffalo Bill' " by Dan Wingert. Wingert was a boyhood chum 
of W. F. Cody. 

EDWARDS, MRS. ELSA SPEAR — Kodak picture of what is pre- 
sumably a community dance floor in Medicine Wheel. 

BICKFORD, CHARLES — Penny dated 1864 bearing United States 
shield and words "Union Forever." 

The following collection of war trophies is part of the allotment 
made by the United States Government to the State of Wyoming. 
Through the activity of the Francis E. Self Post No. 6, this collec- 



122 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

tion was obtained for the State Historical Department: 

1 box belt for German machine gun, 6 "Got Mit Uns" buckles, 
1 container for coffee and tea, 1 fuse-timer, 1 lantern, French; 1 
machine, belt loading; 2 ornaments, eagle; 1 saw, flexible; 1 shell, 
150 M.M.; 1 shell, 170 M.M.; 1 armour body, 3 bayonets, plain; 2 
bayonets, sawtooth; 1 grenade thrower; 3 canteens, infantry; 1 
sword; 1 canteen, medical; 3 sabers; 1 case cartridge brass, 77 M. 
M.; 6 assorted rifles; 1 case cartridge brass, 150 M.M.; 1 rifle anti- 
tank, 13 M.M. ; 1 case cartridge brass, 210 M.M. ; 1 gas mask; 2 
helmets, steel; 2 (assorted) machine guns, M. 1908; 1 helmet, Uh- 
lan. 

CARROLL, MAJOR C. G. — Original manuscript — "History of Wyo- 
ming National Guard." 
BANKS, MRS. E. M. — Commission issued by Thomas Moonlight, 
Governor of the Territory of Wyoming to M. F. Knadler, as 
Captain Company "A" First Regiment Infantry, Wyoming 
National Guard or "Laramie Greys." Dated the 28th day of 
May, 1888. This was the beginning of the Wyoming National 
Guard and the first commission issued for captain. Mr. Knad- 
ler lived in Laramie, coming there in 1869 as a soldier at Fort 
Sanders. He was afterwards a first lieutenant in the Span- 
ish-American War. He died in Laramie in 1921. 
EDWARDS, MRS. ELSA SPEAR — Original manuscript by J. T. 
Williamson, entitled, "An Outing in the Big Horn Mountains 
of Wyoming." 
MILLS, MR. H. E. — Collection of relics from Old Fort Stambaugh, 
including the following articles: Burro hoof and shoe; hand- 
made martingale decoration; stable hook from old fort; sol- 
dier's cap strap; Indian stone hatchet; army wagon endgate 
rod holder; officer's epaulette; burro shoe; ox shoe; part of old 
Sharp's carbine; hand-made nails; collection of broken arrow- 
heads; old Sharp's 50-cal. shells. Bullets picked up on prairie 
south of Stambaugh; collection of four Indian hide scrapers 
from Sweetwater. 
ACKLEY, MR. C. S. — Gun owned by Fred Habig or "Winchester 
Pete," who lived on London Flat for the last forty years or so. 
At one time he held the state engineer off, not allowing him 
to make a survey across his place. At another time he defied 
the U. S. R. S. (United States Railway Surveyors) and kept 
them from running their lines through his land. At one time 
he had a fight with Joe Wilde at Fort Laramie in which he 
shot Mr. Wilde with this gun. 
CALVERLY, J. A. — Panoramic picture of Machine Gun Company, 

Third Wyoming Infantrv, Fort Russell, Wyoming. 
MARCYES, C. O. — Historian's Annual Report of the Society of Mon- 
tana Pioneers. Clark Edition, 1927. 
MORSE, MR. C. H.— Book "Frontier Days," by Judge W. L. Kuy- 

kendall. 
VON BLESSING, C. A. — Ox shoe found in the mountains of north- 
ern Wvoming. 
CASPER CHAMBER OF COMMERCE— Pamphlet "The Casper 

Pathfinder," an Industrial survey. 
SLOAN, MRS. AUSTIN — Autobiography of W. K. Sloan. This is the 
original manuscript contained in an old day book; reprint of 
"The Declaration of Independence" — the reprint printed on 
the Old Ephrata Press at the Continental Exposition, 1876. The 
original Declaration of Independence was printed on this press 



ANNUALS OF WYOMING 123 

in 1776. The press was loaned by the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania to Messrs. Rex and Bockkus, inventor of printing 
presses and exhibited by them in contrast with modern ma- 
chinery at the Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, May 10th 
to November 10, 1876, at which exhibition this sheet was print- 
ed upon it. T he sheet gives a list of the notable works which 
have been printed on this old press. 

HALE, MRS. J. R. — Typed copy of original manuscript diary of 
Charles Wickliff Hale, kept during his residence near Fort 
Laramie from February 22, to December 31, 1884. 

OWEN, MR. W. O. — Original manuscript "The Naming of Mount 
Owen," written by Mr. Owen describing how his name had 
been selected for one of the peaks of the Teton range. The fol- 
lowing articles which were used by Mr. Owen and his party, 
which included Frank L. Spaulding, Frank L. Peterson and 
John Shive, upon the occasion of their making the first ascent 
of the Grand Teton on August 11, 1898: Original metal ban- 
ner which was planted upon the summit; staff to which ban- 
ner was attached, the small cylindrical metal box attached to 
the rod contained a slip of paper bearing names of party, date 
of ascent, etc. The record was intact when found by Black- 
burn and his two companions when they made their ascent in 
August, 1923 (the first ascent after that of August 11, 1898) ; 
aneroid in leather case which was carried by Mr. Owen and the 
ice axe used in chopping their way through. Five large photo- 
graphs of the Tetons as follows: No.l — The Grand Teton, 
looking west from an altitude of 10,800 feet. Peak is only one- 
half mile from the camera. This photo was taken in 1923; No. 
2 — The Grand Teton from "near Deadman's Bar, on Snake Riv- 
er. Looking West. Snake river in the foreground. The peak 
is about 12 miles distant from the camera; No. 3 — Grand Te- 
ton and Mount Owen from the old Jimmy Mangus ranch. Look- 
ing westerly. About six miles distant. Mount Owen is the sharp 
pinnacle just to the right of the Grand Teton; No. 4 — The Te- 
tons from near Struthers Burt's ranch on Snake River. Look- 
ing west, about six miles distant. The Grand Teton is in the 
middle. The snowy summit to the right of the Grand Teton 
is Mount Owen, 12,910 feet, and the first peak to the left of 
the Grand Teton is the Middle Teton — one of the renowned 
"Trois Tetons" of the old French trappers. The south Teton 
of this noted group is hidden by nearer summits. Snake River 
is in the foreground. No. 5 — Group of Tetons from point on 
the Yellowstone highway looking southwest, about six miles 
away. The Grand Teton is the middle peak, and the one next 
to the right is Mount Owen. The point to the left of the 
Grand Teton has no name. It is a rough old crag and seem- 
ingly as high as the other two, but is fully 3,000 feet lower 
than the Grand Teton. This photo was taken in September, 
1927. Copyright on this photo has been applied for. All other 
pictures are fully copyrighted. 

MILLER, MR. LESLIE A. — Framed certificate of naturalization 
of George Bauman (Bowman), Great-great-great grandfather 
of Mr. Miller, dated October 16th, 1765. 

AULTMAN, ALMA H. — Newspaper clippings: Frontier week rodeo 
held at Cheyenne, Wyoming, July, 1927; Airport, Cheyenne; 
Beautification of Fort D. A. Russell. These articles were writ- 
ten by Alma H. Aultman and published in the Indianapolis 



124 ANNUALS OF WYOMING 

Star. Mrs. Aultman is the wife of General Aultman, com- 
manding officer on station at Fort D. A. Russell. 
WORKING, MR. D. W. — Letter from L. L. Bedell of the firm of 
L. L. Bedell & Co., proprietors of The Cheyenne Daily Argus, 
addressed to "Friend Stanton" and dated September 5th, 1868. 
Mr. Working writes: "The Stanton referred to (addressed) 
was a civil engineer and rather prolific writer in the early 
days in Denver. Much of his writing was for a paper which he 
published for a time in Denver. He also wrote many letters 
for the Rocky Mountain News, he being one of the earliest 
advocates of controlling the floods of Cherry Creek, which 
stream, as you may know, has been one of Denver's real pro- 
blems since the disastrous flood of 1864." The letterhead shows 
that the office of the Cheyenne Daily Argus was located at the 
corner of Ferguson and 17th Streets and says "Plain and 
Fancy Printing, In All Its Varieties, Neatly Executed, on the 
Shortest Notice." 

PURCHASED BY THE DEPARTMENT 

"What I Saw in California," by Edwin Bryant. Published in 
1849. Being a journal of a Tour by the Emigrant Route and South 
Pass of the Rocky Mountains in the year 1846. 

''Over the Range to the Golden Gate." A complete tourist's 
guide. By Stanley Wood, published in 1901. 

"The Great West," by Henry Howe, published in 1857. Con- 
tains narratives of the most important and interesting events in 
western history, sketches of frontier life, etc. 

Good Housekeeping Hagazine for August, September and Oc- 
tober, 1927, containing article by Ex-Governor Nellie Tayloe Ross, 
"The Governor Lady." 

"Women of Wyoming," compiled by Mrs. Cora M. Beach. 

"Autobiography of John Ball," by Lucy M. Ball. Mr. Ball was 
a member of Captain N. Wyeth's party which crossed the plains in 
1832. 

"Report of a Reconnaisance of the Black Hills of Dakota made 
in the summer of 1874," by William Ludlow. 

"The Outlaws of Cave-In Rock," by Otto A. Rothert. 

"Narrative of a Journey Across the Rocky Mountains to the 
Columbia River," by John K. Townsend, published in 1839. 

"Oregon Territory." by the Rev. C. G. Nicolay, published in 
1846. 

"The Narrative of Samuel Hancock of His Overland Journey 
to Oregon in 1845." Includes map of Oregon Trail. Published in 
1927. 

"Sport and Life in Western America and British Columbia," 
by Baillie-Grohman. Contains an account of hunting big game in 
Wyoming. 

■"Caspar Collins," by Agnes Wright Spring. Mrs. Spring was 
at one time the state librarian of Wyoming. 

"Riata and Spurs," by Charles A. Siringo. Contains much Wyo- 
ming history. 

Wylie's map of the Western Hemisphere, 1832. 

Universal Indian Sign Language, by William Tomkins. 

From the West to the West, by Abigail Scott Duniway. 

Fremont's Life, Explorations and Public Service, by Charles 
Wentworth Epham. Published in 1856. 



JVtmals of pigommg 



Vol. 5 JUNE, 1929 No. 4 



Grace Raymond Met 
s«. loth strait 



CONTENTS 

The Story of Deadman's Bar F. M. Fryxell 

Reminiscences Edward Ordway 



Published Quarterly 

by the 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 

Mrs. Cyrus Beard, Historian 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



JVtmals of Jfflgamhtg 



Vol. 5 JUNE, 1929 No. 4 



^ Raymond Rebard 

31S So. 10th Street 



CONTENTS 

The Story of Deadman's Bar F. M. Fryxell 

Reminiscences Edward Ordway 



Published Quarterly 

by the 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 

Mrs. Cyrus Beard, Historian 

CHEYENNE, WYOMING 



STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Governor Frank C. Emerson 

Secretary of State A. M. Clark 

State Librarian Mrs. Clare E. Ausherman 

Secretary of Board Mrs. Cyrus Beard 



ADVISORY BOARD 

Judge E. H. Fourt Lander 

Dr. Grace R. Hebard Laramie 

Mrs. C. L. Vandevender Basin 

Mr. C. F. Maurer Douglas 

Mr. Phillip E. Winter Casper 

Mxs. R. A. Ferguson Wheatland 

Mrs. Willis M. Spear Sheridan 

Miss Spaeth Gillette 

Mr. P. W. Jenkins Cora 



Neither the State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board nor the 
State Historian is responsible for any statements made or opinions expressed by 
contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. 



(Copyright, 1929) 



CHAPTER 96 
STATE HISTORICAL BOARD 

Session Laws 1921 

DUTIES OF HISTORIAN 

Section 6. It shall be the duty of the State His- 
torian : 

(a) To collect books, maps, charts, documents, man- 
uscripts, other papers and any obtainable material illus- 
trative of the history of the State. 

(b) To procure from pioneers narratives of any ex- 
ploits, perils and adventures. 

(c) To collect and compile data of the events which 
mark the progress of Wyoming from its earliest day to 
the present time, including the records of all of the 
Wyoming men and women, who served in the World War 
and the history of all war activities in the State. 

(d) To procure facts and statements relative to the 
history, progress and decay of the Indian tribes and other 
early inhabitants within the State. 

(e) To collect by solicitation or purchase fossils, 
specimens, of ores and minerals, objects of curiosity con- 
nected with the history of the State and all such books, 
maps, writings, charts and other material as will tend to 
facilitate historical, scientific and antiquarian research. 

(f) To file and carefully preserve in his office in 
the Capitol at Cheyenne, all of the historical data col- 
lected or obtained by him, so arranged and classified as 
to be not only available for the purpose of compiling and 
publishing a History of Wyoming, but also that it may be 
readily accessible for the purpose of disseminating such 
historical or biographical information as may be reason- 
ably requested by the public. He shall also bind, cata- 
logue and carefully preserve all unbound books, manu- 
scripts, pamphlets, and especially newspaper files contain- 
ing legal notices which may be donated to the State His- 
torical Board. 

(g) To prepare for publication a biennial report of 
the collections and other matters relating to the transac- 
tion of the Board as may be useful to the public. 

(h) To travel from place to place, as the require- 
ments of the work may dictate, and to take such steps, 
not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be 
required to obtain the data necessary to the carrying out 
of the purpose and objects herein set forth. 



Annals trf pigflmtng 



Vol. 5 JUNE, 1929 No. 4 

THE STORY OF DEADMAN'S BAR 

By F. M. Fryxell 

INTRODUCTION 

Jackson Hole, widely reputed to have been the favored 
retreat and rendezvous of cattle thieves, outlaws, and "bad 
men" in the early days, has long enjoyed the glamour which 
goes with a dark and sinful past, and this reputation has by 
no means been lost sight of by those who have been active 
in advertising the assets of this fascinating region. But 
when the dispassionate historian critically investigates the 
basis for this reputation he is surprised to find so little 
evidence wherewith to justify it, or to indicate that pioneer 
times in Jackson Hole were much different from those in 
other nearby frontier communities ; and he is forced to con- 
clude that the notoriety of Jackson Hole, like the rumor of 
Mark Twain's death, has been slightly exaggerated. Doubt- 
less the geographic features of the valley have encouraged 
the popular belief for from the standpoint of isolation and 
inaccessibility Jackson Hole might well have been a para- 
dise for the fugitive and lawless. 

But, in fairness to the old idea, which one is reluctant 
to abandon, it must be conceded that among the authentic 
narratives, that have come down to us from pioneer times, 
there are one or two which hold their own with the choicest 
that wild west fiction has dared to offer, and these bolster 
up to some extent the rather faltering case for Jackson 
Hole's former exceptional badness. Such a narrative is the 
story of Deadman's Bar. 

There are few residents of the Jackson Hole country 
who have not heard of the Deadman's Bar affair, a triple 
killing which took place in the summer of 1886 along the 
Snake River and which gave this section of the river the 
name of Deadman's Bar. 1 It is the most grim narrative and 

1. I have never seen Deadman's Bar marked on any map, nor previously re- 
ferred to in the literature of the region, so with reference to the spelling of the name 
there appears to be no definite precedent to follow. In keeping with the practice of the 
United States Geographic Board, "Deadman's" is here spelled as a single word. The 
plural form "Deadmen's", is the logical one, but it has never come into use in 
Jackson Hole so far as I am aware, and therefore the singular form is retained in 
this paper. 



130 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

the most celebrated in the pioneer history of the valley, and 
its details are sufficiently bloody to satisfy the most san- 
guinary tourist, thirsty for western thrills. In comparison 
with this true tragedy the movie tragedies that have in 
recent years been filmed in Wyoming (one of them in Jack- 
son Hole, on the very ground of Deadman's Bar!) strike 
one as pale and commonplace. 

It is but natural that contradictory and garbled ver- 
sions of this incident should have gained local currency : the 
story lends itself well, too well — to the fireside, and conse- 
quently it has been retold innumerable times during the last 
four decades, without ever being recorded as a matter of his- 
tory. While probably the details lost nothing of their vivid- 
ness in the telling (story-telling being a fine art here in the 
heart of the dude ranch country), it is to be feared that they 
suffered somewhat with respect to accuracy, there being no 
written account at hand to inconvenience the scald or curb 
his imagination. 

Impressed with the desirability of getting at the facts 
of the Deadman's Bar affair, Colonel H. C. Ericsson, Mr. 
W. O. Owen, and the writer, while associated in Jackson 
Hole during the month of August, 1928, determined to make 
an investigation and preserve such scraps of information 
as remained after the lapse of 42 years. It was still possible 
to obtain a first-hand and reliable account from the late 
Emile Wolff, one of the first settlers in Jackson Hole and 
the only individual alive who was directly involved in the 
matter. 

By good fortune Mr. William Crawford, veteran trap- 
per of Jackson Hole, who for many years has been living in 
retirement in Los Angeles, California, chanced to be visit- 
ing in the valley and was able to add some facts of great in- 
terest, and to assist materially in unraveling the story. 
Two visits were made to Deadman's Bar, and the setting of 
the event reconstructed. Some months later, the writer 
enlisted the interest and co-operation of the Court officials 
at Evanston, Wyoming, and of Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State His- 
torian of Wyoming, with the result that unexpected in- 
formation was discovered. 

The story of the affair at Deadman's Bar, as secured 
from these sources, is set forth in successive chapters. It 
will be seen that the several versions are in substantial 
agreement. No attempt will be made to reconcile the minor 
discrepancies which the reader will doubtless discover from 
time to time. 

The writer expresses his great obligation to Colonel 
H. C. Ericsson, Mr. W. 0. Owen, Emile Wolff, Mr. William 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 131 

Crawford, Mrs. Cyrus Beard, Judge John R. Arnold, Mr. 
Clarence Cook and Mr. James Brown whose assistance made 
possible this rescurrection of the true story of Deadman's 
Bar. 



Emile Wolff's Narrative 

When Colonel Ericsson, Mr. Owen, and the writer vis- 
ited Emile Wolff on August 9, 1928, we found him stricken 
with the infirmities of old age and confined to what proved 
to be his deathbed. 2 Nevertheless his senses were alert and 
his memory concerning the period in question keen and ac- 
curate. The account he gave checked in every detail with 
one he had given Colonel Ericsson a year earlier, and his 
recollection of names and dates agreed in most cases with 
evidence obtained later from other sources. In his en- 
feebled condition, however, Wolff was so weakened by the 
telling of his story that the interview had perforce to be 
cut short and certain questions left unanswered. A few 
questions Wolff declined to answer with the statement that 
there were features of the affair he would like to forget if 
he could, and there were others he had never told anyone 
and never would. What he had told other men, he said, he 
would tell us. 

Concerning himself 3 Mr. Wolff stated that he was 76 
years old and a German by blood and birth, having been 
born in 1854 in Luxembourg. He received an education 
along medical lines in the old country ; and when still a very 
young man, only 16, emigrated to America, where he served 
for some years in the United States Army in the far West, 
part of the time as volunteer doctor. His first visit to the 
Jackson Hole region was in 1872 when he came to Teton 
Basin (Pierre's Hole) for a brief period. In 1878 while serv- 

2. Word of Mr. Wolffs passing on November 7, 1928, was received on the day 
this chapter was written (November 17 1. 

3. To this brief account of Emile Wolff's life may be added the following 
obituary notice which appeared in the issue of the Jackson Hole Courier for No- 
vember 15, 1928 : 

"Emile Wolff was born in Luxemburg in the year of 1854 and came to this 
country at the age of 16 and enlisted in the U. S. Army. He served for years, act- 
ing as hospital steward for a time. He served his last enlistment at old Fort Hall, 
Idaho. 

"After being mustered out of the army he located on a ranch on Moody Creek 
about six miles from Rexburg, Idaho, where he lived several years. Selling that 
property, he moved into Teton Basin, where he located another ranch and went into 
the cattle business, finally coming to Jackson Hole in the summer of 1888. He lo- 
cated on what is now known as part of the Government Game Refuge on Flat Creek 
near the present Jackson town site. 

"In 1891 Mr. Wolff returned to his old home in Luxemburg and in the following 
year returned with a wife. The couple located on Spread Creek, the present family 
home. To the union four children were born, two boys and two girls, who with their 
mother survive. 

"For several years Mr. Wolff held the position of Forest Ranger. He was honest 
and upright in his dealings, a good citizen and neighbor, and highly respected by all." 



132 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ing under Lientenant Hall he came into Jackson Hole, his 
detachment being sent to carry food to Lieutenant Doane's 
outfit, which had lost its supplies in the Snake River while 
engaged in a geological survey of the Jackson Hole area. 

In 1886, Wolff stated, he came to the region to stay, 
settling first in Teton Basin. It was in this year that the 
Deadman's Bar incident took place. The account of this 
affair which follows is pieced together from the facts given 
by Wolff; no information gained from other sources has 
been introduced, and there have been no changes made in 
the story other than the rearrangement of its details into 
historical order. The account as set forth has been verified 
by both Colonel Ericsson and Mr. Owen, who were present 
at its telling. 

In the spring of 1886 four strangers came into Jackson 
Hole to take up placer mining along Snake River, whose 
gravels were then reputed to be rich in gold. The new out- 
fit had been organized in Montana, and originally had con- 
sisted of three partners, Henry Welter, (T. H.) Tigerman, 
and (August) Kellenberger — "the Germans" as they came 
to be called. Henry Welter, who had previously been a 
brewer in Montana, proved to be an old friend and school- 
mate of Emile Wolff's from Luxembourg. Tiggerman was 
a gigantic fellow who had served on the King's Guard in 
Germany ; he seemed to be something of a leader in the 
project, claiming — apparently on insecure grounds — that 
he knew where placer gold was to be obtained. August Kel- 
lenberger, also a brewer by trade, was a small man who had 
two fingers missing from his right hand. The trio of pros- 
pective miners had added a fourth man to the outfit, one 
John Tonnar by name, also a German, under promise of grub 
and a split in the cleanup. 

The miners located near the center of Jackson Hole on 
the north bank of the Snake where that river flows west for 
for a short distance. They erected no cabins, according to 
Wolff, but lived in tents pitched in a clearing among the 
trees on the bar, within a few hundred yards or so of the 
river. Occasional visits to the few ranchers then in this 
portion of the Territory brought them a few acquaintances. 
Once they ran out of grub and crossed Teton Pass to Wolff's 
place to get supplies. Wolff recalled that they paid for their 
purchases with a $20 gold piece. They wanted a saw, and 
Wolff directed them to a neighbor who had one ; this they 
borrowed, leaving $10 as security. 

On the occasion of this visit they spoke of building a 
raft to use in crossing the Snake at their workings, and 
Wolff tried to dissuade them from the project, assuring 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 133 

them that they did not appreciate how dangerous the Snake 
could be when on the rise ; but they laughed off his warn- 
ings with the statement that they had built and handled 
rafts before, and knew their business. 

Wolff learned little, until later, concerning the mutual 
relations of the four men on the bar, nor concerning what 
success, if any, they had in finding gold. 

Late that summer when haying time was at hand in 
Teton Basin, Wolff was surprised to see a man approaching 
his cabin on foot. "Seeing any man, and especially one 
afoot, was a rare sight in those days," commented Wolff. 
It proved to be the miner, Tonnar, and he asked to be given 
work. Curious as to what was up between Tonnar and his 
partners, Wolff quizzed him but received only the rather un- 
satisfactory statement that Tonnar had left the three min- 
ers while they were making plans to raft the Snake in order 
to fetch a supply of meat for the camp. 

With hay ready for cutting, Wolff was glad to hire 
Tonnar for work in the fields. For a month the two men 
slept together, and during this time Wolff noticed that Ton- 
nar invariably wore his gun or had it within reach, but 
while he suspected that all was not right he made no further 
investigation. Wolff retained a mental picture of Tonnar 
as being a small, dark-complexioned man of rather untrust- 
worthy appearance and manner. 

Once Tonnar instructed Wolff to investigate a certain 
hiding place in the cabin, and he would find some valuables 
which he asked him to take charge of. Wolff did so and 
claims that he found a silver watch and a purse containing 
$28. 

Then one day late in August a sheriff and posse came 
to the cabin and asked Wolff if he could furnish informa- 
tion concerning the whereabouts of the miner, Jack Tonnar 
(at the time Tonnar was absent, working in the fields). 
Briefly the posse explained that Tonnar's three partners had 
been found dead, that Tonnar was believed guilty of their 
murder, and that the posse was commissioned to take him. 
Horrified to think that for a month he had sheltered and 
slept with such a desperate character, Wolff could only re- 
ply, "My God! Grab him while you can!" Tonnar was 
found on a haystack and captured before he could bring his 
gun into play. 

From the posse Wolff learned that a party boating 
from Yellowstone Park down the Lewis and Snake rivers, 
under the leadership of one Frye, 1 had stopped at the work- 

4. Wolff seems to have been in error with respect to the spelling of this name, 
as this man is doubtless the Frank Free referred to in Chapters III and IV, a 
witness at Tonnar's trial. 



134 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

ings of the miners but had found them unoccupied. Just 
below the encampment, at the foot of a bluff where the 
Snake had cut into a gravel bank, they had come upon three 
bodies lying in the edge of the water, weighted down with 
stones. They had reported the gruesome find, and the ar- 
rest of Tonnar on Wolff's place resulted. 

Wolff, Dr. W. A. Hocker (a surgeon from Evanston), 
and a couple of Wolff's neighbors from Teton Basin hurried 
to the scene of the killings, a place which has ever since 
been known as Deadman's Bar. They readily identified the 
bodies, Tiggerman by his size, and Kellenberger from the 
absence of two fingers on his right hand. They found that^ 
Kellenberger had been shot twice in the back, that Welter 
had an axe cut in the head, and that Tiggerman's head was 
crushed, presumably also with an axe. Wolff gave it as 
their conclusion that the three men must have been killed 
while asleep ; and that their bodies had been hauled up onto 
the "rim" and rolled down the gravel bluff into the river, 
where they had lodged in shallow water and subsequently 
been covered with rocks. Probably the water had later 
fallen, more fully exposing the bodies so that they had been 
discovered by Frye's men. 

Wolff and Hocker removed the heads of Welter and 
Tiggerman and cleaned the skulls, preserving them as evi- 
dence. Wolff denied that they buried the bodies, but 
claimed that they threw them back in the edge of the water 
and covered them again with rocks. 

Tonnar pleaded not guilty and was taken to Evanston, 
the county seat of Uinta County (which then embraced the 
westernmost strip of Wyoming Territory), and here he was 
tried the following spring before Judge Samuel Corn. Wolff 
was called on to testify at the trial, mentioning, among 
other things, the incident of the watch and the purse, both 
of which he was positive Tonnar had stolen from his mur- 
dered partners. 

To the general surprise of Wolff, Judge Corn, and oth- 
ers present at the trial, Tonnar was acquitted by the jury, 
despite the certainty of his guilt. What subsequently be- 
came of him is not clear. Wolff was questioned on this 
point, and at first declined to speak, later, however, ex- 
pressing the belief that Tonnar probably went back to the 
old country for fear that friends of Welter, Tiggerman, and 
Kellerman might take the law into their own hands since 
the jury had failed to convict him. 

Concerning the question of motive for the killing, 
Wolff stated that he knew Tonnar and the three men quar- 
reled. The original partners planned to turn Tonnar loose 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 135 

when his services were no longer needed in sluice digging, 
etc., minus his share in the cleanup. To discourage his per- 
sisting with their outfit they had beaten him up badly a few 
days prior to the murders; but instead of leaving Tonnar 
had stayed at camp, nursing his bruises and plans for re- 
venge, finally carrying out the latter to the consummation 
already described. Wolff did not believe that robbery was a 
factor of much importance in instigating the crime. 

II 
William Crawford's Narrative 

William Crawford's story constitutes a brief sequel to 
the foregoing account. Crawford was one of the first trap- 
pers in Jackson Hole, spending several trapping seasons in 
the region during the '80's when its vast fur resources were 
yet scarcely touched. 

Crawford relates that late in the summer of 1886 he 
set out on a journey northward through Jackson Hole, with 
Jackson Lake as a destination, following the Snake River in 
order to locate favorable beaver signs preliminary to the 
fall trapping. His route brought him to the stretch along 
the Snake now called Deadman's Bar, and just below the 
great Huff eroded from the east banks of the river his at- 
tention was arrested by the remains of a camp which gave 
evidence of having been very recently abandoned. Hanging 
from the limb of a cottonwood about ten yards from the 
river he discovered a large cast-iron kettle. This interested 
him because, as the old trapper naively put it, 'Thinks I to 
myself, here's where I gets me a nice cooking kettle !" But 
when he unhooked it he found that it contained a mass of 
putrid flesh and tangled hair that smelled so horribly he was 
glad to make his escape, leaving kettle behind. Obviously 
he made no further investigation as to the nature or origin 
of the offensive contents. 

About ten yards farther in from the river and imme- 
diately at the foot of the bluff Crawford noticed a large 
mound of boulders, recently heaped together. He was posi- 
tive that burials had recently occurred here, on the out- 
skirts of the camp before the latter had been abandoned; 
but whether the interment was of human or animal remains 
he could not be sure, although he suspected the former since 
burying animals was in those days regarded as needless 
bother. 

But his quest was for beaver signs, so without troubling 
himself further about the mystery Crawford continued up 
the Snake ; and it was not until several months later, in No- 



13(5 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

vember, that he got back to the settlement and learned 
what had happened on the bar that summer. The camp he 
had stumbled on was that of Hocker and Wolff, and the 
kettle he had coveted was the one they had abandoned at the 
conclusion of their ghastly task of preparing the skulls of 
— \ Welter and Tiggerman for court exhibition. • 

Despite the statement of Wolff that he and Hocked did 
not bury the bodies but put them back in the edge of the 
river and covered them with stones, Crawford is emphatic 
in his belief that the fresh mound he found near the camp, 
about 20 yards from the edge of the river, represents the 
burial place of at least Welter and Tiggerman, and very 
likely all three of the victims. 5 



On August 12, 1928, Crawford went with Colonel Erics- 
son and the writer to the scene of the above incident, which 
he felt sure he could readily locate because of its position 
at the lower tip of the great eroding bluff. We had had 
previous occasion to test the veteran trapper's phenomenal 
memory and keenness of observation, so were well prepared 
to have him lead the way unhesitatingly to an old forked 
Cottonwood which in appearance and location answered to 
the description he had previously given us. Hanging from 
the lower limb of this tree, he informed us, he had found 
the iron kettle. There was, of course, no vestige of the 
camp, and the loose gravel from the bluff had slid down to 
such an extent that the grave mound could no longer be dis- 
tinguished. Nevertheless, if Crawford is correct in his in- 
terpretation of what he found — and after considering all the 
evidence, Colonel Ericsson and the writer are inclined to be- 
lieve he is correct — the resting place of the ill-fated placer 
miners of Deadman's Bar was determined within a possible 
error of not more than a few yards. Cairns were erected at 
the base of the tree and at the bottom of the bluff for future 
reference. 



5. The contradiction between the accounts of Wolff and Crawford with regard 
to the disposition of the bodies may be only apparent. Possibly Wolff's words "in the 
edge of the river" should not be taken too literally : we could not get an exact 
definition from him. It may be that Wolff did not care to reveal the exact spot. 
It is possible, too. that Wolff's recollection on this point may have been somewhat 
hazy, or that the shifting of the shoreline between high and low stages of the river 
may help to explain the discrepancy. Certainly Crawford's discovery seems highly 
significant, and its evidence cannot be summarily rejected because contradicted by 
Wolff's story. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 137 

III 
Account Published in the Cheyenne Daily Sun 

Our files of the few newspapers published in Wyoming 
Territory and adjacent regions during the middle '80's are 
very incomplete, and consequently the search of the State 
Historical Department for evidence bearing on the Dead- 
man's Bar affair resulted in the discovery of only one refer- 
ence. This account, which follows, appeared in the Chey- 
enne Daily Sun for April 17, 1887, and" is, fortunately, quite 
complete. 

"Evanston, Wyoming, April 15. The trial of John Ton- 
nar, a German, charged with the murder of three of his 
countrymen, was concluded here today, the jury bringing 
in a verdict of 'Not Guilty.' Intense interest has been mani- 
fested during the trial, and the result is looked upon very 
much as in the case of the Mcintosh brothers, tried in Chey- 
enne a few months ago. The case was very ably prosecuted 
by C. D. Clark of Evanston, and H. B. Head, the County At- 
torney; but Messrs. J. W. Blake of Laramie, and C. M. 
White and J. H. Ryckman of Evanston, succeeded in obtain- 
ing an acquittal on the ground of self-defense, no living eye 
having witnessed the killing except the prisoner at the bar. 

"It will be remembered that John Tonnar was arrested 
at Lapham, Idaho, and brought here last September charged 
with having murdered three companions with whom he was 
engaged in placer mining on Snake Rivei , in Jackson's Hole, 
a few miles south of the Yellowstone National Park. The 
evidence showed that in the month of May, 1886, four Ger- 
mans, A Henry Welter, August Kellenberger^T. H. Tiggerman 
and the defendant, John Tonnar, were residing in Butte 
City, Montana, and that they entered into a sort of partner- 
ship to prospect the country for gold in the neighborhood of 
the Teton mounains, Uinta County, Wyoming. 

"Tiggerman was the leader of the party, having pros- 
pected in that locality before. After buying the necessary 
outfit, they hired a teamster, leaving Butte City on the 12th 
day of May, 1886, and arriving at Lapham, Idaho, in about 
three weeks. Here they dispensed with the services of the 
teamster and made preparation to cross a range of the Teton 
mountains. They spent several days at the ranch of Emile 
Wolff, who was an old schoolmate of Welter's, and who as- 
sisted them in purchasing a couple of pack horses. He also 
accompanied them to the base of the mountains, when he 
returned to his ranch. This was in the latter part of May, 
and the party, after traveling several days over the moun- 
tains, a distance of sixty miles, located a permanent camp on 



138 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Snake river, building a little shanty and engaging in sluice 
mining. As soon as they were settled Tonnar and Kellen- 
berger went back for a part of their supplies, which they 
had left with Mr. Wolff. They informed him that they had 
found good prospects and returned immediately to the camp. 
Mr. Wolff heard no more of the party until the 19th day of 
July, or about six weeks, when Tonnar returned to^the 
ranch, stating thaTwVelter, Tiggerman and Kellenberger had 
gone out hunting, and as he was feeling lonesome he thought 
he would come over and visit him. Tonnar remained here 
three weeks, during which time Mr. Wolff noticed that his 
conduct was somewhat peculiar, but in no way did he reveal 
the terrible crime which had been committed. 

"Frank Free, one of the principal witnesses of the 
prosecution, testified that he lives in lone, California, and 
is a conductor on the Southern Pacific Railroad. That while 
in company with several other gentlemen hunting and fish- 
ing in the Teton mountains in August last, he discovered 
evidences of a camp having been suddenly deserted. He 
says : T was fishing, in the river and noticed some lumber 
which led me to believe it was a mining camp. I looked 
around a little and it seemed the parties had left rather 
hastily. I went back to the river and followed down the 
stream for nearly a mile when I noticed a stench come up 
the stream. I followed down with the current to a high 
bluff where I noticed the stench was much stronger. I 
looked around and noticed where there was a little mound 
from ten to fifteen inches high made of stone boulders. On 
examining it a little closer I could see clothing between the 
rocks and a man's hand. I was satisfied that some one was 
buried there, but did not disturb the grave. I went back to 
camp and reported what I had seen.' A party of four went 
back that evening and made a further examination of the 
mounds, and were satisfied that a murder had been com- 
mitted. The next morning they took a complete inventory 
of everything in the deserted camp, including papers be- 
longing to^Henry Welter and T. H. Tiggerman and a lot of 
clothing and tools. On opening the mound farthest up the 
stream they discovered a man about five feet eight inches 
tall with the top of his skull broken in. He had on a pair of 
blue overalls, dark brown hair and was in his bare feet. The 
same grave contained a large man over six feet high with 
brown whiskers. His head appeared to be smashed to 
pieces and was tied up in a grain sack. This man had on a 
pair of shoes and was afterward identified as Tiggerman. 
The other grave was about twenty feet further down the 
bank of the stream, near the water's edge. It contained a 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 139 

man about five feet five. He had on old government^hoes 
and a white shirt similar to the ones found in Welter's valise 
at the camp. There appeared to be a bruise on his head, but 
the bodies were too far decomposed to make any examin- 
tion of the flesh. This was on the 9th day of August, and 
notices were posted up in several places with the intention 
of notifying the authorities as soon as possible. When they 
arrived atlLapham several days afterwards they told their 
story, and Tonnar, who was known to be one of the party 
of miners, was immediately arrested at Wolff's ranch. He 
had a preliminary examination before a justice of the peace, 
after which he was brought to Evanston. 

"The testimony given by Tonnar before the jury yes- 
terday and day before was substantially as follows: He 
swore that the was a native of Luxemberg and came to the 
United States in 1876. That he knew Henry Welter when 
he came to Butte in 1884, but made the acquaintance of 
Kellenberger and Tiggerman only a few days before they 
started out on a prospecting tour. In regard' to the quarrel 
and subsequent killing he says: 'We were building a dam, 
and had a quarrel on the 15th of July about dumping the 
dirt high enough on the willows. I and Henry Welter car- 
ried dirt with a hand barrel. The other boys, Tiggerman 
and Kellenberger,' / were throwing rock with their hands on 
the willows. In some way the barrow tipped over, Tigger- 
man struck me, and held me under the water a long time. 
He told me that I couldn't be a partner any longer; that I 
was a lazy and a bossing cuss or dog, or something like that. 
When Welter and I started to load again he told me he 
didn't want me any more as a partner. He rushed up and 
took the shovel away from me, jerked it out of my hand and 
raised it up to strike me over the head. I warded it off 
with my hand, and got hold of his legs, and shoved him on 
his back so that he could not strike me. As he fell over I 
got my hand in his mouth, and the mark is there on my 
finger. He got his two arms around me and shook me for 
a long while choking me. I felt my face swelling, and my 
eyes getting all black, and I could see nothing. Something 
struck me on the head. I don't know what it was but think 
it was a rock. Then he let me up. I struggled away but I 
felt in my throat as if something was broke. I then went 
down home and changed my clothes which were all wet, and 
laid down in bed. I was feeling sick. It was between 3 and 
5 o'clock when I got up to fix the fire for supper. I thought 
to make friends with them and do the same as before. We 
had supper all together but there was not a word said to 
me that night. Henry Welter cooked the breakast the next 



140 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

morning. Tiggerman went to a box outside the tent and 
took out some tools that belonged to me. Kellenberger went 
to water the horses. A little after breakfast we all got 
ready to go to work. Tiggerman told me that I was not to 
be a partner^ Kellenbegrer and Welter were there. I asked 
them, "Boys, can I go along to work this morning?" I 
asked them to forget about the quarrel the day before. They 
told me they didn't want me any more in partnership, and 
Tiggerman didn't want me any more as a partner. Henry 
Welter was putting on his boots and I told him, if I couldn't 
work in partnership any more them boots belonged to me; 
that he could not have the boots any more. I got hold of 
them and told him I paid for those boots, they belong to me. 
He came up to me and tried to get hold of me and called me 
a s — of a b — . I backed up and says you can't have them. 
He got hold of my shoulder and tried to throw me down. I 
threw the boots away, got hold of him and we clinched. He 
tried to strike me on the head, but I guarded the blows off. 
Then Kellenberger kicked me in the rear, and he swore he 
would kill me if I touched anything in the camp, break my 
neck. We were clinched together about two minutes when 
I heard Tiggerman cry, "Kill the s — of a b — ." He had just 
come up from the river. As soon as he hollered out "Kill 
the s — of a b — ," he ran to a shovel lying there in camp and 
tried to come up to us. I jerked loose, rushed away and ran 
for the gun to hold him off. The gun was lying at the foot 
of the bed in the tent. When I got the gun he was up to 
me within five or six steps. I turned around quick to hold 
him off so that nobody could get hold of me. Tiggerman 
was up close to me with the shovel raised to strike me, when 
I raised the gun and shot him in the head. Kellenberger 
came towards me with an axe in his hand, and when he was 
seven or eight steps from me I fired and shot him in the 
neck. Henry Welter was a little ways behind and tried to 
get hold of me and knock me down. I shot at him to stop 
him and hit him in the breast. I fired four shots, one going 
off accidentally. 

" 'I ran away as soon as the last shot was fired in the 
brush and stayed there about an hour and a half or two 
hours. I was thinking about killing myself, but came back 
and threw a gunny sack over Tiggerman's face. I didn't 
want to see the flies in his mouth, and I didn't like to look 
at him. I didn't like to bury them there, or let them be 
there, as somebody might find them out before I got to an 
officer. I took Kellenberger first and loaded him on the 
horse. When I got him on the horse I went upon a high 
bluff about a mile down the river and threw him over. I 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 141 

thought that was the easiest place to put them and nobody 
would find the bodies until I got to an officer.' The defend- 
ant stated that he loaded the other bodies in the same 
way and threw them head foremost over a steep rocky 
precipice twenty-five or thirty feet high, when they rolled 
down to the river, a distance of nearly two hundred feet. 
This is the way he accounts for the injuries on the skulls of 
the two men, but it seems very strange that Doctor Hocker 
at the coroner's inquest discovered no other bones broken 
in their bodies. Tonnar then came down and covered the 
bodies up with boulders, burying two in the same grave. 
On returning to the camp he says he stowed away most of 
their things in the cabin, burned up some of his clothing, 
which was covered with blood stains, and built several fires 
to obliterate the stains of blood on the premises. After 
hiding the bodies, Tonnar says he felt better, having them 
out of his sight, and if somebody came he would tell them 
that they had gone out hunting. He said at this time he 
was not in his right senses, and if somebody had come he 
intended to make that excuse. He remained there until the 
next day, when he desired to go to Emil Wolff's ranch and 
tell him all about the affair. Mr. Wolff he found busy put- 
ting up hay, and when Wolff asked him about the boys he 
told him about the shooting and remained there three weeks, 
until he was arrested. After his arrest he told Wolff about 
the killing, substantially as narrated above, only that he 
confessed that he had hidden a purse containing $8.50 and 
a watch belonging to>Kellenberger in Mr. Wolff's cabin. 
He told Wolff that he could have the money, but to destroy 
the watch by hammering it to pieces. Mr. Wolff's state- 
ment about the money and destroying the watch was flatly 
contradicted by Tonnar. 6 The prisoner also contradicted 
several other witnesses in minor matters, but in the main 
his testimony was remarkably clear. Where he lied about 
killing the partners he says it was to protect him from the 
wrath of the people in that country, and until he could get 
the protection of the officers of the law. 

"Tonnar is a small, wiry man, about 40 years of age, 
a little over five feet in height, and weighing 135 or 140 
pounds. He has a rather abnormally developed forehead, 
with small, dark, restless eyes, a corrugated brow and small 
features. In general appearance he would make a picture of 
an ideal anarchist. 



6. Wolff mentioned finding this watch, when we interviewed him, but made no 
reference to its being destroyed. 



142 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

"The coroner's jury sent from Evanston to examine 
into the killing of the three men, in the Teton country, by 
Tonnar, returned a report prejudical to the prisoner. 

"This case will also be continued in Cheyenne Demo- 
cratic Leader, September 23, 1886." 

IV 

Court Records of Tonnar's Trial at Evanston. 

After an investigation of the Uinta County court rec- 
ords at Evanston for the years 1886 and 1887 with refer- 
ence to the John Tonnar case, Judge John R. Arnold, Mr. 
Clarence Cook (Court Reporter), and Mr. James Brown 
(Clerk of the District Court) submitted the following re- 
port of their findings: 

Territory of Wyoming,! In the District Court 

Us. 
County of Uinta J Third Judicial District 

Territory of Wyoming! 
vs. \ 

John Tonnar J No. 256 Memorandum 

Defendant. 

At a term of the District Court begun and held at 
Evanston, within the County of Uinta, on the 6th day of 
September, 1886, the Jurors of the Grand Jury of the County 
of Uinta, "good and lawful men, then and there returned, 
tried, empaneled and sworn and charged according to law" 
to inquire into and for the body of the County of Uinta, at 
the term aforesaid, upon their oaths aforesaid, in the name 
and by the authority of the Territory of Wyoming, did pre- 
sent and find that : "John Tonnar, late of the county afore- 
said, on the 16th day of July, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-six, with malice, force 
and arms, at the county and territory aforesaid, did feloni- 
ously, wilfully, deliberately and of his malice aforethought, 
premeditatedly kill and murder one August^ellenberger, 
Henry Welter and\lT. H. Tiggerman, whose real and full 
given name is to these jurors unknown; then and there be- 
ing found contrary to the form, force and effect of the 
statute in such case made and provided, and against the 
peace and dignity of the Territory of Wyoming." 

The above indictment is signed by H. B. Head, County 
and Prosecuting Attorney and filed in said court Septem- 
ber 15, 1886, by Jesse Knight, Clerk. Indorsed on said in- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 143 

dictment is the following: "Defendant pleads not guilty." 
"Witnesses examined: Frank Free, William Mobery, D. C. 
Radcliff." 

Attorneys C. M. White and J. W. Blake appeared for 
the defendant, Samuel T. Corn being Presiding Judge. 

September 15, 1886, a bench warrant was issued addressed 
to any Sheriff in the Territory of Wyoming, reciting 
that an indictment had been found on the 15th day of 
September, 1886, charging John Tonnar with the crime 
of murder and commanding the arrest of said defend- 
ant and the bringing him before said court to answer 
the indictment. The return made by the Sheriff, J. J. 
LeCain, Sheriff of said County, by J. H. Newell, Deputy 
Sheriff, recites that the said defendant was under ar- 
rest and in custody within the jail of said county sub- 
ject to the order of said court. 

March 14, 1887, the defendant filed an affidavit for wit- 
nesses, averring that Charley Stoffer and Colonel Taun- 
ton were material witnesses for said defendant and that 
said witnesses reside at or near the city of Butte, in the 
Territory of Montana, and that said affiant is without 
means to procure the attendance of said witnesses, 
whereupon the said Judge issued an order that a writ 
of subpoena issue for said witnesses. 

March 17, 1887, subpoena was issued for H. Heider to ap- 
pear as witness on April 11, 1887. The return was 
made by W. W. Turney as Deputy Sheriff, Territory of 
Montana, County of Deer Lodge, reciting that he had 
served a copy of the said subpoena upon the said Henry 
Heider, March 28, 1887. 

April 12, 1887, subpoena was issued for Dr. W. A. Hocker, 
Frank Free, Emil Wolf, A. H. Bisbing, and Charles 
Stoffel to appear as witnesses. Same date subpoena 
issued to Judge C. E. Castle to appear forthwith as a 
witness. At this time J. H. Ward was Sheriff of Uinta 
County. 

April 13, 1887, subpoena issued for Bill Davis to appear 
forthwith as a witness. 

April 15, 1887, the jury found as follows: "We the jury 
find the defendant not guilty. Signed Ernest C. White, 
Foreman." 

Among the papers is also found a commission to take 
depositions addressed to James W. Forbis under date of 
March 26, 1887, to take the depositions of John T. C. Taun- 
ton, Dr. J. C. B. Whitford, Charles Beekner and other wit- 
nesses in such cause on interrogatories thereto attached; 



144 ANNALS «0F WYOMING 

that said witnesses reside in Silver Bow County, Montana 
Territory, and they cannot attend at the trial of said cause 
and are material. The interrogatories all relate to the de- 
fendant's reputation for peace and quiet. The return shows 
that O'Dillon B. Whitford testified that he was 52 years of 
age, residing in Butte City, Silver Bow County, Montana 
Territory, and engaged in practicing medicine and surgery, 
and also interested in mines; that he was veiy well ac- 
quainted with John Tonnar; that he first became acquainted 
with John Tonnar in the spring of 1885 while he was em- 
ployed as engineer-machinist at one of the smelters, and 
further that "at that time I was repairing the Clipper 
Quartz Mill, with a view to operating the same myself. John 
Tonnar was so highly recommended to me by many that I 
employed him. He worked for me during the spring and 
summer of 1885 and about three months as manager of the 
engineering department of the Slipper Mill ; he always 
bore the very best reputation for peace and quiet here while 
I knew him." John C. C. Thornton, age 52, of Butte City, 
also testified that "the defendant's reputation in that com- 
munity while I knew him was simply unimpeachable both 
for peace and quiet and every other quality which goes to 
make up a good citizen." 

The trial was held for three days, April 12-13-14, 1886. 
The jurors were as follows: Ernest C. White, Foreman; 
0. D. Marx, J. B. Moore, Joseph Krousee, James Clark, Ste- 
phen Harmon, Alma Peterson, Windom Thomas, George 
Guild, Joseph Guild, John W. Caldwell, and James Foote. 

A verdict of "not guilty" being found by the jury, the 
testimony taken at the trial was not transcribed by the 
court reporter. The foregoing is about all that can be 
found in the files. 



From parties who heard the trial it appears that there 
were no eye witnesses to the tragedy, save the defendant. 
Therefore the prosecution was compelled to rely solely on 
circumstantial evidence. The theory of the attorneys for 
defendant was that the three deceased persons were pros- 
pectors, without funds, and that they represented to the de- 
fendant that they had discovered a valuable mining claim 
and induced him to put up considerable money to grub-stake 
and furnish necessary funds to work the claim ; that soon 
after these men were on their way to the Jackson Hole coun- 
try they began to pick quarrels with the defendant ; that on 
the day of the shooting one of the prospectors remained in 
camp with the defendant, and the other two went away to 
do some prospecting; that the one who remained in camp 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



145 



picked a quarrel with the defendant and the defendant was 
compelled to kill him in self-defense; that towards evening 
the other two were returning to the camp and while they 
were coming up an incline some distance apart the defend- 
ant shot them in self-defense. It was recalled that after 
the verdict was rendered the defendant got out of town 
in a hurry, taking the first freight train ; that Attorney 
Blake was the principal trial attorney for the defendant, 
and that he afterwards stated he never got a cent for sav- 
ing the neck of the defendant, who had promised to send 
him some money as soon as he could earn it, and that he 
had never heard from him. 




146 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

V 

Deadman's Bar 

There has been some uncertainty as to the exact loca- 
tion of the historic spot which is the subject of this investi- 
gation, the name "Deadman's Bar" having been loosely as- 
signed to various places on both sides of the river between 
the mouth of Buffalo Fork and Menor's Ferry. Following 
our interview with Emile Wolff on August 9 and with his 
descriptions fresh in mind, Colonel Ericsson and the writer 
explored the portion of the Snake River banks believed to 
be the correct one. All doubts were immediately set at 
rest for we at once found traces of the diggings, camp, and 
road constructed 42 years ago by the luckless company of 
miners. 

Below the mouth of Buffalo Fork, the Snake River 
flows in a general southwesterly direction for seven miles, 
then turns due west for a mile and one-half, after which it 
flows south for a mile before resuming its general south- 
westerly direction. Deadman's Bar, strictly speaking, lies 
on the northern banks of the east-west portion of the river, 
along the western third of this one and one-half mile 
stretch. 7 The so-called "bar" consists of a narrow flat 
(really a series of low river terraces) that lies between the 
river on the south and the steep front of the gravel plain on 
the north. Its width nowhere exceeds a quarter of a mile, 
and its length is about half a mile. The western end of the 
bar has been cut off where the Snake, as it turns south, eats 
into the gravel plain; and here a conspicuous bluff, the 
"eroding bluff" repeatedly referred to in this account, rises 
sheer from the brink of the river to a height of over 125 
feet. The bluff receives head-on the full current of the 
Snake and before this attack crumbles away steadily, re- 
treating noticeably year by year. 

The sluice ditch of the miners is not hard to find, 
though now overgrown with brush and partly filled with 
gravel. Originally it tapped a beaver dam located a short 
distance above the bar, and from this source it conveyed 
water downstream, hugging the bluff as it rounded the 
bend, traversing the full length of the bar and discharging 
into the Snake where the eroding bluff begins. Thus its 
total length was over half a mile. At present it is dry. 
Where well preserved it is seen to be four or five feet wide 
and two or three feet deep. The gravel removed in its ex- 

7. On the map of the Teton National Forest and on the Grand Teton Quadrangle 
of the U. S. Geological Survey, Deadman's Bar is seen to lie on the north side of the 
Snake, in the SWVi of Sec. 23, T. 44 N, R. 115 W. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 147 

cavation is heaped along side in ridges, so serving to in- 
crease the depth of the sluice. In several places trees which 
obstructed the course of the ditch had been sawed off, the 
stumps still standing. 

Additional workings are to be found above the beaver 
dam in the shape of ditches, a dam, and gravel ridges, all 
imperfectly preserved but clearly enough the work of hu- 
man hands. They once directed a continuous stream of 
water from a side-channel of the Snake into the beaver dam, 
thus insuring a constant flow of water into the sluice. 

Prospect pits are numerous on the bar, but at least 
some of these appear to be more recent affairs than the 
sluice ditch, and are believed to have been dug by some of 
the prospectors who, we know, worked up and down the 
Snake in later years. 

All the working now observable speak graphically of 
the expenditure of much hard labor from which returns 
were never forthcoming. 

The camp of the miners, according to Wolff, had been 
located in an open clump of pines and cottonwoods at the 
western end of Deadman's Bar, that is, near the lower end 
of the sluice ditch. We found this portion of the bar to be 
covered with a rather close stand of trees, mostly half- 
grown ones but including a few belonging to an older gen- 
eration. The trunks of some of these larger trees were 
scarred by axe cuts and initials," now mostly illegible, and it 
seems likely that the camp must have been pitched here. 
An opportunity was later afforded us to compare these axe 
wounds with some which William Crawford had made in 
1886 in trees outside his cabin, two miles east of Moran, 
and the extent of healing over was found to be about the 
same, indicating that the old cuts found on the trees of 
Deadman's Bar were in all likelihood made by "the Ger- 
mans" and not by campers of a later period. 

Wolff had stated that years ago he found Welter's 
name carved on one of the trees in this group, and in our 
examination of the many faded records on the trees, we 
came upon one work, presumably a name, which began with 
an indistinct letter most closely resembling an "H" but 
which may have been a "W", followed by "E" and "L" and 
other letters not legible. This may have been Welter's 
name. 

The old wagon road, still clearly defined, runs east- 
ward from the camp site and can be followed up stream for 
perhaps a quarter of a mile, where it turns up the bluff 
and, by means of terraces and low places on the "rim", 
makes its way up to the level of the bench. The road is 



148 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 



well planned, and if a new one were to be built down to the 
bar it could hardly improve upon this old route. 

One cannot but admire the excellent judgment which 
the miners showed in their selection of a camp site. No 
more attractive or protected spot for the purpose is known 
to the writer along the Snake River anywhere in Jackson 
Hole. The view of the Teton peaks from Deadman's Bar is 
superb, nothing short of spectacular. Hunting and fishing 
are still excellent here and must have been better then; 
water and shade are present on the bar in abundance, 
though absent on the gravel plain above it; and the great 
bluffs which encircle the bar shelter it from the strong 
blasts that come out of the west and north. 

The tranquility and beauty which one now finds on 
Deadman's Bar are difficult to associate with an event so 
grim in its past. F. M. FRYXELL. 

Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois, November 21, 1928. 




Col. H. C. Ericsson I left l and William Crawford (right l at Deadman's Bar. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 149 

REMINISCENCES 

Edward Ordway 

Near the close of a bright spring day of the year 1866 
I jumped down from the stage amidst a hustling throng 
gathered about the Wells Fargo office in Denver, Colorado, 
the first town out from the Missouri River, six hundred 
miles away. At that day Denver could hardly be called a 
metropolis reckoned on a basis of a numerous population; 
but it was cosmopolitan in the broadest sense of the word. 
A jolly, surging crowd of very human beings welcomed the 
incomers with a heartiness that could not be mistaken, 
whether coming from the prospector rich in expectation, 
or the possessor of the last big strike. All were imbued 
with the same brand of friendliness from the Governor of 
the Territory down to the little boot-black who had crossed 
the plains with a freight outfit and whose highest ambi- 
tion was to be able to swing a long whip and make it pop 
with the easy grace of his patron saint, the big Missouri 
bull-whacker, who with the stage driver, were the heroes 
that all looked up to. 

At that time a large amount of travel came through 
from Nebraska City, though most of the staging was done 
over th$ Smoky Hill Route. Many work cattle used in 
freighting were wintered in the nearby sheltered valleys 
along the foot of the mountains, and were in good working 
order for moving the westbound freight, held by the for- 
warding houses for early shipment to points in Utah and 
Nevada. 

Before the railroad came one could look backward over 
the plains and across the wide valleys and see a long line of 
approaching trains, the far end hidden in a cloud of dust, 
and at times where the wheeling was hard, the crack of bull 
whips, to the uninitiated, sounding like a battle. 

I had made the acquaintance of a young man named 
Riley. I do not now remember his given name, and perhaps I 
never knew, as in those long ago and somewhat forgotten 
days one name was considered enough for any man who 
was propelled along the busy walks of life unaided by the 
shouters and kneelers that assist the great; and no matter 
what name a man answered to, no one asked if it was his 
right name, or by what name he went back in the States. 
All such ungentlemanly curiosity was thought to be un- 
called for. 

One morning I met Riley in Groves' Gunshop. We met 
there for the same purpose — gun cleaning. He had a Henry 



150 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

and I a Spencer carbine. As there were some other men 
there, who were engaged in trying to make themselves be- 
live the stories they were telling, conversation turned to a 
discussion of the merits and defects of firearms in general. 
The majority were of the opinion that they would not lay 
down a muzzle-loader for any machine gun. One man in- 
sisted that given a hundred and fifty yards start he could 
outrun all the sixteen shots in a Henry. Another fellow 
would not take the gift of a Spencer carbme for the good 
reason that the luckiest man on the earth was never known 
to hit anything he shot at. Others offering their testi- 
mony along the same line, caused us to adjourn to a corral 
outside of town that was built of pine lumber with plenty 
of knots in the boards. I offered to bet a ten dollar hat 
that I could knock out seven knots that I would mark at 
thirty yards off hand, and do the trick in less than twenty 
seconds with the seven shots in my gun. One skeptic in the 
crowd gleefully accepted the bet and sorrowfully paid it. 

Riley asked me if I could do that every time, and I 
told him that with a fair amount of luck I could. Then he 
told me that he was part owner of a bull train and boss of 
the same, and that it was on the way to the northern forts, 
and he was to meet it at Fort Laramie, and if I was game 
enough to take the chances he would take me on as an 
extra, naming a remuneration that struck me as so very 
liberal that I did not hesitate to accept it, although he ex- 
plained that on account of the Government not keeping its 
agreement with the Indians to remove Forts Reno, Phil 
Kearney, and C. F. Smith, there was liable to be plenty of 
trouble. 

Three days later we took the stage for La Porte, Colo- 
rado, where he had left some saddle horses the fall before 
to be cared for by Ben Clagmore. Finding the horses in 
fine shape for travel, the next morning found us on the old 
Fort Bent and Fort Laramie trail, arriving at the last named 
place the evening of the third day. There was a mule outfit 
of twelve teams camped near by and some horse teams be- 
longing to parties going to Montana that had come across 
from Omaha under escort of two companies of Infantry, but 
the Post Commander would not allow them to proceed until 
reinforced by some outfit that would promise a fair pros- 
pect of safety. 

Riley's train had not arrived and no trustworthy news 
from it since it left Fort Kearney, Nebraska, but as there 
were two trains traveling together making a company of 
over sixty men, there was not much to worry about. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 151 

The Indians never started out on an expedition in force 
enough to attack an outfit of that size until their ponies 
had begun to recover from the effects of the winter and had 
exchanged their long haired coats for the sleek shiny skins 
that come with the warm luxuriant days of early June. It 
is then that their cavorting steeds, with heads and tails in 
air, are in harmony with the high and warlike pose of their 
gaily dressed and painted riders. Then, when conditions 
are right and they know of some desirable plunder that 
requires a large force to capture, they send out a small party 
of scouts — the war party following later in small bands by 
different trails, all planned to meet at a rendezvous some- 
where near the object of attack. By that method they pass 
through a sparsely inhabited country generally unnoticed, 
never disturbing any small object that they can avoid, al- 
ways preparing to spring upon their prey with all the silent 
stealth of a cat after a bird. 

There was an aphorism often used, "You are never safe 
from Indians except when they are in sight." 

We waited two days to give our horses a rest and then 
started down the river and had the good luck to meet the 
train opposite what was then called Mitchel Bottom, where 
three or four years later Red Cloud's Agency was estab- 
lished. 

Everything about the train was in as good order as 
could be expected. They had only met with the usual delays 
and difficulties that heavily loaded teams always encoun- 
ter, and three days later camp was made near Fort Lara- 
wie where there was a ten days delay as there were yoke 
chains and parts of wagons to be repaired. Four wagons 
were loaded with government goods for the Fort that had 
to be unloaded and all the loads on the other wagons light- 
ened and the surplus transferred to the empties. 

After everything had been put in good order we rolled 
out, crossed the river and proceeded on our way rejoicing, 
made doubly happy by the genial sun above our heads and 
the kindly breeze that met our every breath. Young, strong, 
glowing with health, was it a wonder that we were careless 
of what fate might be before us ? The present was our day, 
let tomorrow take care of itself. 

The mule train and horse teams were ordered to ac- 
company us, which did not please us, as the reinforcement 
of twenty men was an asset that would not balance the 
liability of the mules and horses. 

Cattle, the Indians had no use for, but anything in 
the horse line they were bound to have if they could get it ; 
but we had to make the best of it as the Commander of a 



152 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

frontier post was monarch of all he surveyed as well as of 
things invisible. 

The Indian always coveted horses and would take as 
many chances to obtain them as would the prospector in 
quest of free gold on the bed rock. 

The white man has no corner on greed — the savage has 
his share of it and it takes* horses and then more horses to 
satisfy it. 

All went along smoothly until we were within a day's 
drive of where the road leaves the vicinity of the river and 
turns northward. 

The morning of that day, when daylight was beginning 
to show objects at a short distance fairly well, the stock was 
all in a corral except a fine blooded race horse belonging to 
one of the owners of the horse outfit. He had staked it out 
about a hundred and fifty yards away from the corral, had 
slept by it all night, but had it the length of the stake rope 
on the fresh grass, thinking it would be safe there while 
everyone was moving around on the alert. Advised that he 
had better bring it in close by, he replied that he would take 
a chance. The grass nearby is always somewhat trampled 
by the work stock, in this case numbering over eight hun- 
dred head, so that any animal not out with the night herd, 
if the camp happens to be where the grass is not very good, 
sometimes has a poor chance outside for rough feed. 
^Especially is this true if it is considered too valuable to be 
driven in what the bull-whackers call their cabellero which 
included extra cattle as well as horses. 

The men were all busy hitching up, when like a streak 
of light a young brave dashed out from nowhere and cut the 
racer's rope and was gone with it and doubled the distance 
before anyone could comprehend the trick. Several shots 
were fired at him but they all missed. 

I had been out helping the night herders bring in the 
stock and we were busily eating breakfast when it hap- 
pened, but before we could get around the end of. the corral 
he had disappeared behind a little hill. The owner of the 
horse went wild over his loss and called for men to follow 
and try to recover it, but Riley said "No." 

The man, however, insisted until a Pawnee scout, who 
was with us said to him, "All you find over the hill is a 
trap. You never come back." 

It seems to be a law of nature that there shall be at 
least one croaker in every gathering of human beings and 
right here he bobbed up and consoled the man with the 
assertion that he was out of luck anyhow because if the 
Indian had not taken the horse, he would have lost him in 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 153 

the races; and that it would bring us all bad luck from 
then on. 

Afterward we scouted the hills and creek but no signs 
of Indians did we see, not even the wave of a feather or 
glitter of a mirror on distant hills. But that was not con- 
sidered a favorable sign, for as the old timers put it all in 
one terse sentence, "You are never safe from Indians until 
you can see them." 

After crossing the divide between Cheyenne and Pow- 
der Rivers, one morning pony tracks were seen near a small 
creek some distance above where the road crossed. The 
sign proved that a small party of Indians had been there the 
day before. 

The road was then near the hills and it was several 
hours travel before the train reached an open plain where 
camp could be made where extra good grazing near by was 
found. An expected attack usually came just before day- 
light. That time passed, it was usually considered safe for 
a train to roll out, for if anything of the kind had been 
planned the enemies' plans had miscarried and no trouble 
need be looked for that day. 

However, as all know, no one really knows what the 
other fellow is going to do next, and especially so if he hap- 
pens to be out of sight. It is not a good plan to trust alto- 
gether to luck, and Riley was too old a hand in the game to 
take a needless chance. One of his wagons had for a part 
of its load, arms and ammunition, and among the lot were 
some cases of Henry rifles. 

I do not suppose at this late day that there are now 
living many who remember anything about that long ago 
discarded firearm, nor that it was the legitimate parent of 
all the magazine guns in use now. It was short ranged and 
could do but little damage beyond two hundred yards, but it 
was as near mechanically perfect as any machine gun could 
be made, and in the hands of men of that day sixteen shots 
could be fired with astonishing rapidity. 

Riley broke open some boxes and dealt out two rifles 
and ammunition to each man in the outfit. Every one real- 
ized that the horses and mules were an irresistible tempta- 
tion to our enemies. Therefore, it was as one old bull- 
whacker expressed it, "Them Indians hain't been keepin' 
cases on us for the fun they are gittin' out of it, and they 
hain't agoin' to give it up, til they hev had a smell of our 
powder, and by the looks of these patent guns they are 
likely to git aplenty of it." 

There was a moon that night until about one o'clock, 
which required half of the men on guard with the stock 



154 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

until it went down, then the danger was over until daylight 
began to show in the east ; but at that time all of the stock 
was in the corral, and every man at his post ready for what- 
ever might happen. 

The sun came up and everything seemed as peaceful 
as a Sunday morning back in God's country, when three 
companions and myself got in from off picket duty. 

By the time the sun was fairly up the train was roll- 
ing along, the whips popping like firecrackers on a Chinese 
New Year. 

Of the scouts sent out that morning, the Pawnee made 
one on the payroll, but in what he knew about the tricks of 
the ancient enemies of his tribe amounted to a good many, 
and the long remembered wrongs that he harbored in his 
bosom amounted to very much more. 

Many years before the Sioux Indians corralled a party 
of his tribe on one of what has since been known as the 
Pawnee Buttes. They stand not far south of the corner 
monument that marks the place where the east and west 
line of Wyoming and Nebraska join on the north line of 
Colorado. The butte they climbed is about five hundred 
feet high. The north side, though not an easy task, can 
be climbed by any active person, but others less gifted must 
be assisted, which made a safe place for defense except 
from their worst enemies — hunger and thirst, which they 
stood off for three days, then they cut up their clothing 
and made a frail rope and went down the opposite side, 
which was perpendicular and not guarded, and escaped, 
taking with them all of the ponies belonging to the Sioux. 
A white man would not forget an experience of that sort. 

About ten o'clock they discovered a war party of 
seventy-five or eighty quietly waiting in a small valley and 
the Pawnees' telescopic eyes soon made out another party 
coming to join the others. 

The Pawnees knew that they were planning to make 
a surprise attack and they lost no time in getting back to 
the train. A few words from them to Riley and the order 
was given, "Corral!" 

The bull teams swung around into place with the mules 
and horse teams in the center. The wagons chained to- 
gether, wheels locked and everything made fast, with but 
a short space of time to spare until the Indians came in 
sight and but few seconds elapsed until the men were under 
the wagons, each with his rifle at rest through a wheel. 

They did not come on in a bunch, but scattered out over 
a wide space. When they saw that everything was ar- 
ranged for their reception they all rounded up and appeared 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 155 

to be holding a council of war. They had evidently planned 
to make the attack while the train was strung out on the 
road, and perhaps, but for the daring of our scouts, it might 
have happened that way. As the case then stood they had 
to change their tactics, which they did in short order and 
began the offense in the old way by circling around, making 
feints at charging, and all the tricks wherein they were 
devilishly proficient, for the purpose of drawing our fire at 
a long range, and then charging in on empty guns. 

That they got no reply from the old muzzle-loaders and 
not knowing the rod we had in pickle for them was posi- 
tively a puzzle they could not solve, but kept drawing a little 
nearer until perhaps their patience became exhausted and 
no resistance against their maneuvers, they made a simul- 
taneous dash on all sides and coming within the limits of 
the rifle range the Henrys began to play a tattoo the like 
of which they had never heard before. The Pawnee had 
thrown the sheet back and was standing on top of a wagon 
that was loaded to the top of the bows with light goods, 
making all manner of insulting gestures to let them know 
that there was a Pawnee on the job. 

I think that the pleasure he got out of the reception 
his hated enemies received, though the attack lasted but a 
short time, reckoned by moments of enjoyment, would have 
equaled a lifetime of ordinary existence. 

To say that the Indians were astonished at the storm 
of lead that met them would be but a weak expression. A 
gatling gun would not have surprised them more. It was 
but a very few minutes after we began to fire until they 
were gathering up their dead and wounded and nothing 
short of total anihilation would have stopped them from 
doing that — and they were scurrying away toward the 
shelter of the hills, wiser if not happier Indians. 

The magic of the white man's guns was a long way 
past their understanding. They let us alone while in their 
territory. In less than an hour after the last shot was 
fired the train was rolling along as merrily as though 
nothing had happened. 

All that season and the year follwing there was fight- 
ing until a new treaty was made and the forts were re- 
moved. 

I went on with the train to its destination, remaining 
in Montana and Utah till the fall of '67, and about the mid- 
dle of November got back east as far as Cheyenne. At that 
time Dakota and Wyoming had not been organized, and I 
do not remember of hearing anyone speaking of a new 
territory that was to be made until the following winter. 



156 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Cheyenne was the end of the railroad and was a busy 
town. The survey of the railroad had been completed and 
there were many points where the locations were known. 
Two places in particular, one seven or eight miles east 
of old Fort Halleck that stood at the base of Elk Mountain, 
and the other about thirty miles north where a bridge over 
the North Platte would be built. A young man, Frank 
McCurdy, who came down from the west with me — we had 
crossed the Plains in '65 with Col. Sawyer's expedition sent 
out by the Government to locate a shorter route from Fort 
Yankton to Bozeman — and another young lad from Missouri 
whom for short we called Quantrell, after much summing 
up of probabilities, we concluded that Halleck was the place 
to go to for a good chance to make a stake. We had camped 
there over night on our way down from Utah. That win- 
ter ended with a storm that filled the town with snow up 
to near the second story windows. The snow remaining on 
the ground several days caused us to wait for it to go off 
and the ground to dry up. 

But we got our baggage on the first team that left for 
Denver and worked our passage by walking behind it to 
Whitcomb ranch on the Box Elder. Finding our horses 
that we had left there for the winter in good condition, we 
were saddled and packed the next day after arrival. 

But as our horses were soft, we only got to Virginia 
Dale the first day, and the next camped on the Little Lara- 
mie. At Rock Creek we found a lot of men, most of whom 
had been camping there all winter. Some were prospectors, 
but the larger part were timber men, all of whom were 
waiting for the snow to go off from the lower slopes and 
flats where the timber was easy to get at. 

The next day we were at our journey's end. The old 
deserted fort was in a very dilipidated condition. The ware- 
houses and soldiers' quarters had been built, not in the usual 
way, but with the logs set endwise in a trench with a very 
heavy pole and dirt roof, and many of the logs were balsams 
and had rotted near the ground and by the added weight of 
snow to their over burden of roof, had fallen down, but we 
chose one that appeared to have been built for a warehouse 
and seemed to be all right and made our camp in the front 
end of it. There was yet much snow on the mountain, and 
the fort being located near it, though the days were warm, 
the nights were cold. Some shelter at night was needed. 

The old Sutler store standing three or four hundred 
feet away on the east side of the road was occupied by 
Messrs. Foot & Wilson, the same parties that had catered 
to the needs of the garrison before the troops were re- 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 157 

moved to Fort Sanders that was located near the southern 
end of the Laramie Plain. 

At that time travel on the Overland through the sea- 
son was very heavy, making it necessary for the old store 
to carry a large stock of goods consisting of everything 
that could be found in a dozen town stores. Robert Foot 
was a Scotchman endowed with all the aptitude for con- 
ducting successful business that one would expect of a rep- 
resentative of the people he sprung from, and was also a 
good fellow and as bonnie a fighter as ever came out from 
that land of heroic people. George Wilson was born in Old 
Kentucky, a son of an army officer and a gentleman under 
all circumstances. A part of the business that he did not 
like was selling whisky. One cold winter day a trapper 
came in with a big catch of furs, and in accordance with the 
customs, a bottle and glass was set out on the counter for 
him to warm up on. But when the man poured the golden 
fuid into the glass there was a faint clinking sound that 
did not escape the keen ears of the hunter, and he ex- 
claimed: "Hey George, this yer whusk is half ice! What 
for you put water in it ? Old Man Bush down at Rock Creek 
gets it out to a feller good and strong." George replied: 
"I know he does Jim, but it is cheap stuff that he makes 
himself, and you know if a man gets full of it he goes right 
out and kills a tame Indian which makes the other Indians 
mad and we all have to suffer from the effects of Bush's 
bad liquor. We sell the best goods that we can get right 
pure from a Kentucky still with some good water added, 
complying with a promise I made my father when he staked 
me to go into this business, that I would sell whisky of a 
quality that would not injure any man." 

The foregoing paragraph is to explain how it came to 
pass in what I am about to relate, that there were so many 
casualties and no capital crimes committed. 

Some time in April Carmichael's railroad grading out- 
fit moving west to work on a contract in Echo Canon, Utah, 
his force numbering over 50 men who were natives of all 
the civilized nations of the earth. Rock men, pick and shov- 
elers and all other necessary helpers in railroad grade mak- 
ing, at that time as a class known as Navvies. With sixty 
trains loaded with tools, supplies, etc. 

The teamsters were of a different class, mostly of the 
muleskinner variety. All stout, healthy men, and as for 
their social standing or moral turpitude, all that is necessary 
to say is that nature had created them for a special pur- 
pose that people more delicately organized were unfit for. 
The whole crowd, generally speaking, not having had an 



158 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

opportunity to spend their winter's wages, was bound to 
be a bonanza for the old Sutler Store, equipped as it was 
with all manner of goods needed. There was something 
doing from start to finish. But it could not fairly be said 
that pandemonium reigned, for the propelling power was 
not the old road ranch stuff of home made evil spirits, but 
the very best of high power goods, which started things 
going all the same as a falling body gathering momentum 
on its downward course. Among those who were inclined 
to be sports of the squared circle, disputations about who 
was the best man were many but short. But clog dancing, 
jumping and pitching horse shoes were among the amuse- 
ments of the greater part of those who were more peace- 
ably disposed. 

But in the first watches of the night, with the quieting 
rays of the bright big moon, a change came over the con- 
ducting power that ruled the performance. Then from all 
parts of the wide spread camp the low notes of harps — 
jewsharps — and harmonicas came floating across on the cool 
night air. But later on, when the more vigorous actors 
came straggling in hunting for their beds, a service of song 
began, including many of the popular ones of that day, all 
rendered regardless of harmony and most of it might be 
charged in contempt of tune. But every one seemed to be 
doing his best according to his lights — perhaps lungs would 
be the proper word — and if those in the audience preferred 
something better than such gems as "Brinon on the Moor", 
"Whoops Along, Luiza Jane" or "Pat Maloy" and many 
others of the same brand, they must wait till their turn 
came. One fellow who had camped down near our quarters 
awakened and joined in with "How Are You Horace Greeley, 
Does Your Mother Know You Are Out" but switched off on 
"0 Islands there are on the face of the deep, where the 
leaves never fade, nor the skies never weep," but was 
drowned out by a passing gang bawling "I'm a rambling 
rake of poverty, the son of a gambolier." 

After a surfeit of the horrible there must be a change 
to something pleasant or mankind would go mad. And 
suddenly the reverse happened. Inspired, perhaps, by the 
myriads of shimmering stars in the great dome above, as if 
by magic sweeping backward the shadow on Time's old dial 
to a long ago day, a quartet of grand voices broke forth ren- 
dering in perfect harmony Hayden's magnificent song, "The 
Heavens Are Telling." After the last enchanting notes 
ended silence prevailed, and I in my heart repeated the 
prayer of Cervantes' simple hero, "God bless the man who 
invented sleep." 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 159 

Next morning while Old Sol was kindly warming up 
the earth, the revelers were getting busy renewing and 
trying to improve the exercises of the day before, the east 
bound stage came galloping in and as there was a post office 
in the store, a stop had to be made there long enough to 
throw off and take on the mail, then going on with as little 
delay as possible. A stage team, although wild it may be, 
soon becomes accustomed to swinging up to the stopping 
places and coming to a halt when it feels the brake go on. 
But that morning just as the usual thing was about to 
happen a mob of navvies all lit up like a burning gas well 
rushed out of the door in front of the team. That un- 
expected interference caused it to jackknife to the right 
and had not Mac, Quantrel and I on our way to -the store, 
been right there at that time, the coach would have been 
overturned, but we caught the leaders and near swing horses 
just in time to prevent it. The horses being fat and rollicky 
pitched and struggled, making it some job to quiet them 
down, but we all being about the same quality as the 
bronchos soon had everything straightened out on the road, 
the driver letting go his brake, the team went off on the 
jump, the passengers on the outside waved a parting salute, 
and a bright, fine looking girl on the seat with the driver 
threw us a kiss which would have been ample reward for the 
small service rendered had it not been ever after a breeder 
of contention as to which one she had intended to hit. 

About nine o'clock Hook & Moor's mule train rolled past 
consisting of thirty six-mule teams loaded with government 
supplies for Fort Douglas, Utah, and under an escort of a 
troop of cavalry. 

The driver of the lead team was an athletic young Irish 
lad, Fitzgerald by name, who served as a Denver policeman 
winters, and as a skilled muleskinner summers. He was 
recognized by a party of four navvies that had, or thought 
they had, a righteous grudge against him and being well 
ribbed up with spirits distilled in an atmosphere of ructions 
and feuds they might perhaps be pardoned for imagining 
themselves in the condition that was described by Robert 
Burns as "Wi' two penny ale we fear no evil. Wi' Usquebaa 
we wad fight the devil." And being as they probably were, 
more or less human beings, they went boldly forth to make 
an attempt to get even with him. Fitz, not waiting for 
them to attack, jumped off his saddle mule and with four 
good punches put them all to sleep in about that many 
seconds, the train passing on to its noon camping place. 
After an hour had passed the men had revived and rein- 
forced their courage with a few more drinks. Each with a 



160 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

big rock in his hand started out to hunt him up, not up to 
his camp, the only place where he could possibly be, but 
around the old fort building, and finally got around to a 
cabin where the stage company's hunter, Old Man Lea, 
lived. He, at the time was out on a hunt, but his wife was 
very much at home, who was a pleasant enough woman 
when not on the war path, but otherwise a she-devil that 
had been chased back to earth from across the River Styx. 
And the third time the fellows called to Fitz to come out 
and fight they heard a blood curdling yell as the door opened 
and like a hideous Jack from his box, the old girl jumped 
out, an Indian head dress on her head, a quiver full of 
arrows on her back, a bow in her hand from which she sent 
an arrow through one's coat, then driving another into the 
ground that just missed another fellow's foot, yelled: "Git, 
you ." Her furious assaults and most awful uncom- 
plimentary remarks against her antagonists were pardoned 
by all who knew her because unto the sick and wounded she 
was an angel of mercy. They did not wait for more, but 
got in the best order their fright permitted, and after ab- 
sorbing enough booze to drown their animosities retired to 
peaceful oblivion. 

About this time the gang bosses, assisted by the men 
that remained sober were doing their best to get the outfit 
started on the road, but without success, till the captain 
brought the soldiers back from the Hook & Moore Camp, and 
by a liberal use of sabers succeeded in rounding up those 
that were able to walk. But the road was very wide, caus- 
ing great annoyance to those whose heads were uncomfort- 
ably light, or heavy, as the case might be, while others 
struggled along with arms linked or leaning affectionately 
on each other, working models of the old motto, "United we 
stand, divided we fall." 

They managed to keep moving and when the tail end 
of the column disappeared beyond the first turn of the road 
we thought the curtain had gone down at the end of the 
performance. But we soon discovered that there was a 
side show left. Five of the crowd had retired to the stable 
and had not been missed in the roundup till a count had been 
made at the next camp. A smoke began to exude from the 
stable that smelled not like the dried navy or Arkansas long 
green, but like stable litter and pine wood. The men had 
crawled out at the back door not badly scorched, but there 
was no alarm till the discovery was made by some one at 
the store. 

(Continued in October Number) 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 161 

NOTICE 

Mrs. Cyrus Beard 

In January, 1928, the publication of Annals of Wyoming was 
discontinued because the appropriation made by the previous Legis- 
lature was so meager that the work of the Historical Department 
suffered from lack of funds. There is an insistent demand for 
Annals from Educators, Institutions of Learning, Historical So- 
cieties, Research workers and lovers of history as well as from our 
own State. This has influenced us to make another attempt to give 
out our own absorbing history as contributed out of the fullness of 
personal experiences. 

In the Fifth Biennial Report the Accessions were carried down 
to November 20, 1928. A copy of this Report was mailed to every 
person who receives Annals. To avoid repetitions the Accessions in 
this number begin with November 20, 1928, and are carried to June 
1, 1929. 

With this issue Volume 5 of Annals is completed. Volume 6, 
Numbers 1 and 2, will be issued as a double number in October, 1929, 
and thereafter — as long as funds are available — Annals will appear 
as a Quarterly. 

No responsibility will be assumed by the State Historical Board, 
the Advisory Board or the State Historian for any statements made 
or opinions expressed in Annals — assuming that an individual has a 
right to tell his own story in his own way. 



ACCESSIONS FROM NOVEMBER 20, 1928, 
TO JUNE 1, 1929 

Warren, Mrs. Francis E. — Oak and plate glass cabinet, suitable for 
a display case. 

Carroll, Major C. G. — Synonyms of Organizations in the Volunteer 
Service of the United States, 1860-1865. Published in 
1885 Volumes 16 to 19 of the Official Roster of Ohio 
Soldiers, Sailors and Marines. 

Smith, Mr. — Saddle buckle and four shells and bullets from site of 
old Benton on the Union Pacific Line. Picture of the 
Oregon Trail marked at Independence Rock and picture 
of powder house at Fort Steele. 

Voorhees, George — Gold mounted driving whip awarded to Mr. Voor- 
hees, First Premium, Single Pony, at the first State 
Fair held in Cheyenne in 1885. 

McLean, H. E. — Paper money for the amount of $10.00 on the Bank 
of Wilmington, North Carolina. Date of issue and sig- 
nature are worn off. 

Patee, Fred — The first asbestos shingle made in Wyoming and be- 
lieved to be first one made in the world without Port- 
land cement. It is made of rock and asbestos fibre com- 
bined, a new process, and is more than 90 r /r pure. As- 
bestos is mined on Casper Mountain, Natrona County, 
Wyoming. 



162 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

Finfrock, W E. — Silver mounted cane inscribed with the words 
"Shiloh, Apr. 6th and 7th, 1862. Captain Finfrock, 64th, 
0. V. I." Captain J. A. Finfrock came to Wyoming in 
1864 and was one of the first trustees of the University 
of Wyoming and one of the first surgeons of the Union 
Pacific Railroad. Cane given by son. 

McCarthy, Frank C. — Collection of Photographs: Four of Pine Grove 
Stage Station on the Overland Trail in Carbon County; 
three of scenes on the Oregon Trail in Fremont County; 
four of Sulphur Stage Station on the Overland Trail in 
Carbon County; two of the ford of the North Platte on 
the Overland Trail in Carbon County; two of old stone 
block house at Wind River Agency northwest of Lan- 
der; four of old Rongis Stage Station (Fletcher's ranch) 
in Carbon County on the Rawlins-Lander Stage line; one 
taken on Brown's Canyon road showing lakes and Semi- 
noe Mountains; one of powder house at Fort Steele; one 
of Bridger's Pass; one of Soda Lake and old Rawlins- 
Casper road, taken from top of Independence Rock. 

Adner, A. J. — Five million mark note. Dated August 20, 1923. 

Fryxell, F. M. — Original manuscripts — "Deadman's Bar" and "The 
Codys' in LeClaire". 

Symon, Harold — Picture of the presenting of the Collier trophy. It 
was given to the state that had the greatest percentage 
of registered voters going to the polls. 
Cheyenne Street Railway ticket, given away by Stone 
& Covert with each cash purchase of One Dollar. Gives 
time table of the line on the back of the ticket. (Line 
was never built). 

Rhodes, Mrs. O. E. — Pictures of Indian pieces belonging to Mrs. 
Rhodes. 

Mentzer, Frances — Letter to Fred J. Stanton, of Denver, from S. 
Sternberger, a dealer in tobaccoes, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 
in reply to a bill for newspaper advertising. It is dated 
Cheyenne, Wyoming Territory, December 12, 1868. 

Hadsell, Mrs. Frank — Photographs of Judge Homer Merrill and 
President William McKinley. Manuscript — "Railroad- 
ing Under Difficulties," by R. M. Galbraith. Two pic- 
tures of the United States District Court Room at Chey- 
enne, Wyoming. Group picture of John Maddin, George 
Wright, Ben Northington, John Foot, James Rankin, 
Mike Murphy, Joe Rankin, Tom Sun, Boney Ernest. 
Trunk containing letters, books, papers, etc., which be- 
longed to Mr. Frank Hadsell. 

Gay, Mrs. Guy — "Wyoming Worth Knowing," a pamphlet issued by 
the State Department of Commerce and Industry. 

Fellows, Miss Nelson— A walnut desk used by Colonel E. B. Carlin, 
while stationed at Camp Carlin in the late sixties. The 
camp was named for Colonel Carlin. 

Historical Society at Montana — Two views of the Sweetwater Dam 
and the first overflow, taken in March, 1889. 



ANNALS OF WYOMING 163 

Dana, Mrs. A. G. — Original manuscript, "Easter in the Holy Land." 

Washington State Historical Society — Publications of Washington 
State Historical Society, Volume II, 1907-1914. 

Reckmeyer, Clarence — The Latter-Day Saints' Emigrants Guide, 
from Council Bluffs to the Valley of the Great Salt 
Lake, by William Clayton. This book is printed from 
photographic plates of the original book which was 
printed in St. Louis in 1848. Photostat map of the 
Mormon Trace. 

McCahan, Mrs. J. T. — Seventeen photographs taken by M. D. Hough- 
ton at Rawlins in 1882 and 1883. Pictures show Rawlins 
in early days — Round Up Scenes, Indians, etc. 

Coe, W. R. — Journal and Letters of Major John Owen, Pioneer of the 
Northwest, 1850-1870, by Dunbar and Phillips. Auto- 
graphed by Mr. Coe. Two volumes. 

Hebard, Dr. Grace R. — Photograph of Mrs. Justice Morris (Esther 
Morris) the first woman justice of the peace in the 
United States. 

Wells, Mrs. L. M. — Documents concerning removal of Governors Bax- 
ter and Moonlight. 

Lovejoy, Fred — Land office certificate of land purchased by Elias 
Bedford, in Tippecanoe County, Indiana. Dated April 
5, 1822. 

Carter, Vincent— Stars and Stripes, September 20, 21, 22, 23, 1927. 
Daily Mail Continental, Souvenir Edition. 

Thompson, Mrs. John Charles — A bit of bunting used to decorate the 
town at the time Statehood was declared, July 10, 1890. 

Department of Missions of the National Council of the Episcopal 
Church — A silver-mounted saddle presented by General 
Grant to Chief Washakie for valor. 

DeBarthe, Mrs. Harriet — Original manuscript — "Forty-one Years in 
Wyoming." 

American Legion — Gavel and gavel block made from the hull of the 
United States Frigate Constitution, keel laid in 1794 
and rebuilt in 1927. 

Captain Boyd F. Briggs, A. S. A. — 15 Sols. Printed in 1793. This 
was given to Captain Briggs by a French Captain. 

Trone, J. W. — A ticket to the Concert given by Miss Margaret Wilson, 
daughter of President Wilson, at Nancy, France, on 
May 5, 1919. Tickets issued by the Government in order 
that the soldiers might purchase bread and sugar. 

Johnson, Arthur C. — An address delivered by A. C. Campbell on De- 
cember 20, 1928, before the Laramie County Bar Associ- 
ation at Cheyenne. The Denver Daily Record Stockman 
— The Annual Show Edition, 1929. Book — "Glimpses of 
an Earlier Milwaukee," by Bill Hooker. 



164 ANNALS OF WYOMING 

W. T. K. Club of Wheatland, Wyoming — Original Manuscript entitled 
"Adventures of an Itinerant Librarian," written by 
M. Wilkinson, County Organizer. 

Cody Club — Four ounce sample of the first gallon of gasoline from 
The Texas Refinery at Cody, Wyoming. 

Dendinger, John — Original manuscript on the "History of Cheyenne." 

Emery, Mrs. Maud M. — Pictures of Yellowstone Park, Hawaiian 
Islands, and of the Chinese Dragon Parade on their New 
Year's Day, February, 1898. Scrap book — Origin of the 
Trans-Continental Highway, later called The Lincoln 
Highway, and the Origin of the Yellowstone Highway 
and the Highway System of Wyoming. 

Calverly, J. A. — Invitation to the Ninth Annual Commencement Ex- 
ercises (1899) at the University of Wyoming. 

The Russell Family — General Russell's sword and sash. Picture of 
General Russell. Letters written by General Russell — 
Feb., 1860; Dec, 1861; May, 1862; April, 1863; Nov., 
1863; Sept., 1864; Dec, 1845. Scrap book. Badge worn 
by Cornelia Russell Simmons at the unveiling of a monu- 
ment in memory of General Russell. Ft. D. A. Russell 
was named for General Russell. 

Bruce, Robert — A picture of General Custer's initials cut on the top 
of a mountain in the Black Hills known as Inyankara. 

Evans, Mrs. D. P. — Two magazines — "James Nasmyth, Engineer." 
(An autobiography); The American Portrait Gallery. 
The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, May, 1887; 
Photographs of the Hawaiian Islands, published in 1898; 
The Century War Book, Nos. 5, 11, 12, published in 
1898; Our Country, published in March, 1894. 

Heuett, Mrs. B. F. — Copy of the New York Mirror, dated 1838. 

Kendrick, Senator John B. — The pen with which President Coolidge 
on February 26, 1929, signed "S. 5543, An Act to estab- 
lish the Grand Teton National Park in the State of 
Wyoming." 

Jackson, W. H. — Book entitled "The Pioneer Photographer," written 
by W. H. Jackson and Howard Driggs. Mr. Jackson 
was the official photographer of the Hayden Expeditions. 



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