Annate of OTpoming Vol. 9 JULY, 1932 No. 1 CONTENTS Sketch of the Life of Dick Parr By Louise L. Parr A Pioneer Bride By Harriet Knight Orr Medicine Bow, Wyoming By Mrs, Chas. Ellis Cope, Master Naturalist Reviewed by William Harper Davis Wyoming's Marvels Accessions Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPABTMENT OF HISTORY Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian Cheyenne, Wyo. j Annate of looming Vol. 9 JULY, 1932 No. 1 CONTENTS Sketch of the Life of Dick Parr By Louise L. Parr A Pioneer Bride.. By Harriet Knight Orr Medicine Bow, Wyoming ..By Mrs. Chas. Ellis Cope, Master Naturalist Reviewed by William Harper Davis Wyoming's Marvels Accessions Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPAETMENT OF HISTOEY Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian Cheyenne, Wyo. 646 ANNALS OF WYOMING STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Acting Governor A. M. Clark Secretary of State A. M. Clark State Librarian Mrs. Clare E. Ausherman Secretary of Board Mrs. Cyrus Beard ADVISORY BOARD Judge E. H. Fourt Lander Dr. Grace R. Hebard Laramie Mr. L. C. Bishop : Douglas Mr. Philip E. Winter Casper Mrs. R. A. Ferguson Wheatland Mr. Howard B. Lott Buffalo Mrs. P. J. Quealy Kemmerer Neither the State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board nor the State Historian is responsible for any statements made or opinions expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. (Copyright applied for by State Historical Department) CHAPTER 96 STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Session Laws 1921 DUTIES OF HISTORIAN Section 6. It shall be the duty of the State Historian : (a) To collect books, maps, charts, documents, manu- scripts, other papers and any obtainable material illustrative of the history of the State. (b) To procure from pioneers narratives of any exploits, perils and adventures. (c) To collect and compile data of the events which mark the progress of Wyoming from its earliest day to the present time, including the records of all of the Wyoming men and women, who served in the World War and the history of all war activities in the State. (d) To procure facts and statements relative to the his- tory, progress and decay of the Indian tribes and other early inhabitants within the State. (e) To collect by solicitation or purchase fossils, speci- mens, of ores and minerals, objects of curiosity connected with the history of the State and all such books, maps, writings, charts and other material as will tend to facilitate historical, scientific and antiquarian research. (f) To file and carefully preserve in his office in the Capitol at Cheyenne, all of the historical data collected or obtained by him, so arranged and classified as to be not only available for the purpose of compiling and publishing a History of Wyoming, but also that it may be readily accessible for the purpose of disseminating such historical or biographical in- formation as may be reasonably requested by the public. He shall also bind, catalogue and carefully preserve all unbound books, manuscripts, pamphlets, and especially newspaper files containing legal notices which may be donated to the State Historical Board. (g) To prepare for publication a biennial report of the collections and other matters relating to the transaction of the Board as may be useful to the public. (h) To travel from place to place, as the requirements of the work may dictate, and to take such steps, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be required to obtain the data necessary to the carrying out of the purpose and objects herein set forth. m bJO © fcJO Annate of ISEpomtng Vol. 9 JULY, 1932 No. 1 SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF DICK PARR By Louise L. Parr (His Wife) Of the many noted frontiersmen whose heroic names brighten the pages of our country's border history, none can claim so unique a place within its annals of written biographies as does the life of the renowned hero of the plains — Dick Parr. In keeping with the established fact that nearly all our sturdy frontier characters are natives of the west we find that Cephas (Dick) Parr was born in the town of Alton, Madison County, Illinois, (English Descent) on March 16th, 1843. His father an English clergyman, came to this country early in the thirties, and by his zealous labors became noted among pioneer preachers of the day. He died in the year* 1850 while serving in his pastor- ate at Keokuk, Iowa. The clergyman's widow then removed with her family to the city of St. Louis, Mo., selecting a resi- dence on fourth St. near the dwelling of Gen. Wm. Harney, the celebrated Indian fighter of two generations ago. Neighborly intercourse subsequently ensued, and young' Dick Parr became the school playmate of Gen. Harney's youthful sons, Albert and John. Up to the age of twelve years, which period of his young life marked the opening of his strangely eventful career, he was afflicted with extremely delicate health. Because of her son's frail condition and fast-waning strength, the widowed mother embraced General Harney's kind offer to take her boy with him on his extended trip to California, whither he had received or- ders to move his command. It was in the early part of the month of April, 1855, that the illustrious commander, accompanied by his staff officers, and young protege, entered the awaiting ambulance and was driven rapidly in the direction of Jefferson Barracks. A military gar- rison situated four and one half miles below St. Louis in a set- tlement known at that time as Wheat Brush — Everything be- ing in readiness Gen. Harney, with his command, immediately took passage on a Missouri river steamer for Port Leavenworth, Kans. The seven days sailing trip up old Missouri gave interest- ing pleasure and marked physical benefit to a frail boy over whom the Gen. exercised a father's care. Dick was made to share the same state room, a small cot having been ordered to be placed up against the General's Berth for the occupancy of his 650 ANNALS OF WYOMING ward. Arriving at Fort Leavenworth preparations were imme- diately instituted so as to be in readiness on receipt of orders to take up the long march across the Plains to California. "Where are all the wild Indians, General?'' asked Dick during the second day of their stay at the Fort. "I was sure we'd get a sight of them out in this far country." "Well, well, my young man or adventurer, you have made plain to me my long neg- lected path of duty, ' ' returned the General, with a hearty laugh "And we shall be off early tomorrow morning in search of the noble red man!" Little did this innocent boy dream of the meas- ure of fulfillment of his wish regarding the red men which des- tiny had in store through the future years of his life. Breakfast over the following morning, the orderly brought around the horses for Gen. Harney, his aide and Dick to mount for their proposed ride, when they quickly set out for what is at the present time Leavenworth City, then a wild tract of country that boasted of only one habitation — the Indian Agency — which occupied two log-houses connected by a roofed passageway. All expectancy the youngest member of the visiting party accom- panied the officers into the rude frontier store, where the Indian Agent was found busily dispensing government annuities to some of the Deleware Indians. At the expiration of the week — the command was moving on the line of March, Westward toward its distant destination. General Harney's command consisted of seven companies of Second Dragoons (cavalry), under Major Howe, six companies of Sixth Infantry, Major Cady commanding ; one company Tenth Infantry Mounted — each mule laden with a six pound cannon. The supply train of one hundred wagons, controlled by about one hundred and twenty-five men completed this efficient outfit. After reaching Fort Kearney, Neb. former orders were counter- manded and General Harney received instructions to lead his command on a campaign against Sioux Indians. From Fort Kearney, the march was continued to the North Platte River, following up that stream by way of Chimney and Court House rocks, which finally brought them to Ash Hollow. Here camp was formed on a small tributary, to which Gen. gave the name of Rose Creek. The cavalry were held in the canyons until ten o'clock that night, thus leaving no opportunity for the Indians to calculate upon the real strength of the invading Army. The infantry were accordingly encamped on the south side of the Stream the enemy being located opposite, three or four miles up creek on the north. At two o'clock the following morn- ing, May 15, 1855 Major Howe was ordered to go twelve miles around back of the hills to gain the Cavalry a desired position in the direct rear of the army. "On no account," charged the ANNALS OF WYOMING 651 General in his orders to Major Howe, "Allow the horses to water in the creek, as the sudden shrinkage of the stream may prompt the Indians to scout the trail for lurking foes. ' ' During the pre- vious long journey across the plains, Dick learned to handle the ambulance team with the expertness of a veteran teamster. Beg- ging his guardian for a place in the field of action, during the impending conflict, Gen. Harney assigned his youthful charge the duty of driving the surgeon's ambulance. The morning of that memorable day May 15, 1855 that was to give young Dick Parr his first baptism of fire, broke brilliantly fair, and when he emerged from the tent succeeding a healthful night's rest, he found the General already astir, busily perfecting his plans. Dick's heart was filled with admiration for his hero — General Harney — as he watched the tall distinguished-looking-commander standing six ft. four inches — in height, conversing with his staff, dressed in the resplendent uniform of his rank, which set off to advantage the clear, florid complexion, and heavy auburn hair, that curled tightly over his shapely head. It was about six o'clock in the morning when Gen. Harney had led the infantry across the fordable river, and proceeding up the creek, halted before the Sioux encampment. The Indians were taken by surprise, and commenced mak- ing hasty, futile attempts to prepare themselves for war. Sev- eral lodges were stripped of their hide coverings and fastened between the naked tepee poles were long lengths of sinew, upon which were strung buffalo hearts that, as was afterward learned had been strongly poisoned with strychnine. Prior to discharg- ing their arrows, the warriors inserted the points of them into these hearts thereby wreaking certain destruction upon their foe. The interpreter was sent out to invite Little Thunder head chief of the Sioux nation, to hold a council. While Dick was interestingly watching the novel proceedings going on around him General Harney, during the consequent interval of the in- terpreters mission, placed his arm about his young wards shoul- ders and pointing to the enemys position on the opposite side of the stream, triumphantly said : ' ' Do you see yonder encamp- ment, my boy? That will be mine before Sunset — Watch me take it!" Through the eager gaze of youth's bright eyes we behold a wonderously novel sight. Hundreds of gaily painted warriors resplendent in their native brilliantly feathered headdress bear- ing the same fashioned shield, lance, bow and arrow that their ancestors had borne centuries before, were gracefully mounted on spirited war ponies whose manes and tails were gaudily decked out for battle with feathers of various hues all of which contributed, with its brilliant luxuriant setting of the encom- passing wilderness, a matchless scene of wild, barbaric beauty. 652 ANNALS OF WYOMING Succeeding the customary peace smoke and talk, Little Thunder signified it was impossible for him to give up those Indians who might have been the principal perpetrators in the massacre of the Army lieutenant and forty men which had been committed the year before, near old John Bauves' (Beauvais) trading post, situated seven miles northeast of Fort Laramie on the Platte river. "Tell him," commanded the General, in fierce raging tones, "I will give him but five minutes to join his followers." With the fleetness of a deer the defiant warrior sped toward his wait- ing braves, when suddenly, amid the shower and noise of a volley from the soldier's guns, he fell dead before them. At the fall of their chieftan the Indians dashed forward with war-whoops and yelling rage. At the sound of the bugle charge Major Howe and cavalry surged up from the rear and over the summit of the hills behind the enemy, completely sur- rounding them by the advancing charge of the infantry. The Indians made a desperate attempt to break through at the Gen- eral 's right, but by a concerted movement of the bodyguard were fiercely cut down by the slashing sabres, complete decapitation in some instances resulting from the enforced blows. Young Dick, all the time, was^ enthusiastically watching from the seat in the ambulance the exciting scenes before him, while his slender arms, at the frequent plunge of the mules, seemed as if they would be drawn from their sockets at every pull of the lines made by the frightened team. While pursuing the savages up the hills, an arrow darted from the mouth of a cave in which knelt an Indian squaw with bow and arrow ready aimed at the advancing soldiers. Corporal John White, of Company H sixth Infantry, who bravely sprang forward to seize the dusky Amazon dropped dead at her feet, his heart pierced with a poisoned arrow. Her shrieks blended with the instant report of guns and tottering forward, she fell across the lifeless form of the young Corporal, her breasts bathed in blood which flowed from many bullet wounds. After a continued firing into the cave the return volley of arrows gradually ceased, General Harney had then requested Dick to look into the cave and report observations. Kneeling down before the entrance which measured about five feet in height and four in breadth, Dick carefully crept in the unex- plored cavity. The General followed up close to the cave and with a body of soldiers ranged up into line behind the undaunted boy intently waiting for the little explorer's report, naturally, upon turning his eyes from the bright sunlight without to peer through the darkened aperture he could not readily distinguish any object. As his vision became gradually accustomed to the interior gloom, the cave appeared crowded with lifeless Indians ANNALS OF WYOMING 653 lying as they had fallen, scattered and in heaps. Venturing a little farther within he saw several dead warriors ranged in a sitting posture against the walls of the cavern. With their glassy eyes fixedly turned upon him ; their bows and ready arrows still clasped in the nerveless fingers. A slight stir made by two In- dians from behind a feathered heap of prostrate forms caused the plucky young explorer to start violently backward on all fours while making a hasty exit to the deafening tune of his wildly beating heart. Scrambling to his feet when safely out side he breathlessly told all he had observed to the General. Or- ders were instantly given to fire again into the cave. And as no sound of life was evidenced, the command to enter and make investigations was immediately carried out. After the Indians death trap had been emptied of its ghastly contents, nine squaws and eleven warriors were found to have been secreted and killed. Nearly two hundred Indians of Ogallala and Brule bands of Sioux nation were slain, and fifty one prisoners, consisting prin- cipally of young bucks and squaws captured during the battle. The loss to General Harney's command was seven brave men. The spoils of the victorious siege were collected and conveyed to camp in wagons. They consisted chiefly of innumerable dec- orated moccasins, fine robes of otter, mink and beaver, ex- quisitely embroidered in beads of bright porcupine quills. It took six days for Gen. Harney's soldiers to reduce the entire Sioux camp with its huge store of dried buffalo meat to ashes. Upon resuming the march toward Fort Laramie General Harney commended his officers and men for their valorous bearing throughout the late conflict, and not forgetting his youthful ward, duly praised his ' ' Casabianca for sticking so determinedly to his mules." The winter encampment was finally located seven miles above Old Fort Pierre, South Dakota. From the soldiers sole subsisting diet of bacon and beans throughout the long suffering winter the garrison derived its name Camp Bacon. During the time spent at this Far Western post, Dick played and hunted with the youthful Indian prisoners and rapidly ac- quired their language. Because of his exceedingly kind treat- ment of them, notably in the way of purchasing at suttler 's store with the spending money indulged him by Gen. Harney, gen- erous repasts of dark brown sugar, sweet cakes and costly pre- serves, the Indian children conceived a deep attachment for him through this sweet road of friendship. They loved to call their pale-faced play fellow, Pa-ha-za-ze-a-ta-ca, which in Sioux par- lance signifies ' ' Brave little White haired boy. ' ' The following spring, in April 1856 Gen. Harney went up to Fort Pierre to hold treaty with the Sioux. When the presence of every band was accounted for the Sioux represented a nation 654 ANNALS OF WYOMING of thirty two thousand souls. Their encampment at this great treaty stretched for a distance of nine miles down the river and two and one half miles in breadth. While the rugged chiefs were holding councils between themselves Dick and his young Indian companions would frequently mingle with them about the camp fires and by his acquired knowledge of Sioux tongue, Dick would often return to headquarters, bearing some secret intelligence to Gen. Harney that was deemed extremely useful. While the treaty was thus being perfected, General Harney assented to his ward's request, which had, by the way, been pre- viously proposed to Dick, by his designing playmates to take a few days hunt with the Indian boys and return before their peo- ple started away for their homelands. So it happened through a simple strategem, conceived by the youthful Indians, that Dick Parr insensibly stepped across the threshold of the enlightened world and entered the wild, natural realm of barbarism. Gleefully mounting their respective ponies the merry hunt- ers galloped off together taking a northeasterly direction, going through the Black Hills, thence across the bad lands and finally took up camp on the Raw Hide River. Having hunted three or four days, leading a boy's ideal camp life, Dick was surprised early on the morning of the fifth day while making ready with his companions the needful preparations for a venison feast, in observing a vast number of Indians coming over the hills direct- ly toward their camp. The youthful Indian hunters eagerly awaited the approach of their bands, who on reaching the boy's camp made Dick the recipient of each chieftains native embrace. They had all learned of the white boy's kindness to their chil- dren, and gladly welcomed him into their nation. When the great caravan slowly defiled itself into the rugged, winding trail, which stretched like a serpent over and beyond the surrounding hills young Dick Parr felt his heart grow heavy within him — he was a captive. It was computed that nearly half the Sioux nation accom- panied the Ogallala and Brule bands down to the boy's hunting camp. Among this vast gathering of red men were many chiefs prominent in history, there being Little Thunder, head chieftain of the Sioux, who had succeeded to the rank and title of his brother, killed in the battle of Ash Hollow, under whose protec- tion the captive boy afterward remained, also Chiefs Sitting Bull, Red Cloud, Rain in the Face, and Thorny Bear, all of whom became equally proud of their Pale-faced warrior. In frequent tribal battles on the warpaths and visits in times of peace, Dick always accompanied his captors and so associated with renowned Kiowa Chiefs, Satanta and Powder Face Chey- enne Chiefs, Medicine Wolf, Black Kettle and Roman Nose, to- gether with other notable warriors of Comanche, Arapahoe and ANNALS OF WYOMING 655 Apache nations, thus gaining an otherwise unattainable knowl- edge of the tongues, customs and respective tracts of country of the unsubdued plains Indians. Conspicuous among the youthful prisoners taken by General Harney at the battle of Ash Hollow, and who devised the scheme to capture their white playfellow, was a niece and four nephews of Chief Little Thunder. In later years the niece, Wachema by name, figured interestingly before the civilized world in a Wild West Exhibition, accompanied by her husband, John Nelson, the veteran stage coach driver; while her brothers evidenced themselves with several hundred war- riors under Sioux Chief Thorny Bear. At the future Forsythe defense on Arickaree Fort of Republican River, Kansas in 1868, when their Pa-ha-za-ze-a-ta-ca was to act as guide for that celebrated expedition against the Sioux Indians. The first tribal battle engaged in by Dick's warring captors on the first season's war paths was with the Flat Heads. Also known as Sioux Mountain Climbers, as Chief Little Thunder's bands — Ogallala and Brule — wended their way in the summer of 1856 into that part of Wyoming now known as Yellow Stone Park. In one of the bold charges Pa-ha-za-ze-a-ta-ca (Dick) — cut off sixteen of the enemy's horses and, aided by one of Chief Dull Knife's sons turned them toward the Sioux Village. The White Captive having taken four scalps in that engagement, fastened them on the tail of his war horse as was customary to bear these gruesome trophies from the battle field. The Indians were very proud of his achievement and prophesied him their some-day great White Sioux brave. Succeeding the Jubilant War and scalp dance indulged in by the victorious Sioux Warriors, the march was resumed in quest of more scalp-locks and leaving the Big Horn Country they traveled to the Little Horn River, which trail led over the very ground made memorable twenty years later by the lamentable massacre of Gen. Custer and his men, all of whom were mercilessly slain by our young hero's captors, the Ogallala Chief, Sitting Bull and associating bands. Before the feet of the conquering white race roamed over the magnificent realm of Yellow Stone, the young captive boy accompanied the Sioux on their yearly pilgrimage to this locality for the purpose of having their venerated infirm braves and ancient mothers of warriors bathe themselves in and imbibe of the healing mineral waters of this, one of Nature's wonderful dispensaries. Prior to the setting in of the fall season, the youthful cap- tive's native cloth costume became insensibly reduced to tatters, so that he was compelled to don the robe and breech-cloth of his red brothers. Because of the limited quantity of ammunition for his gun he soon learned the use of bow and arrows, and in a 656 ANNALS OF WYOMING short time became a skilled marksman in the rush of battle or hunting the huge bison. By reason of his unrelenting watchfulness for a sign of de- liverance from his captor's hands during the first season of his captivity, which hope gently whispered might at any time loom up in the shape of an invading army bearing the starry banner which would restore him once more to his dear mother's arms, he gradually became reduced to a very weakened condition. One of Chief Little Thunder's wives tenderly cared for the captive boy in her own rude way, by having him recline in a wicker swag, fastened on the dragging tepee poles, drawn by the patient lodge pony on which she rode with her papoose. Under the skillful treatment of the medicine woman, Pa-ha-za-ze-a-ta-ca was finally restored to health again. Owing to a scarcity of game in Sweet Water Mountains, summer quarters of the Ogallala and Brule Sioux, in August 1860 after Dick had been held captive nearly five years by these nomads of the plains, Chief Little Thunder requested his white brave to interpret their needs for them at the nearest fort to re- lieve the starving bands. As the delirious truth thrust itself upon the joyful heart of the Sioux brave captive, he joined the Indian cavalcade and with them turned his pony's head in the direction of Ft. Lara- mie — and liberty. Escorted by Chief Little Thunder, Sitting Bull, Thorny Bear and several hundred warriors, our hero entered Fort Lara- mie at the head of his aboriginal army. Like his companions he was innocent of any covering save the breech cloth and moc- casins, his long, fair haired-scalp lock being ornamented with bright feathers and silver shields — at the same time bearing the same primitive weapons of his red brothers — the shield, the tomahawk, the bow and arrow. He was received at headquarters by General Albert Sully, in whom Dick recognized Captain Sully, of the Tenth Infantry, Gen. Harney's command, when, after a few words of explanation, Gen. Sully learned that in the tall, robust youth before him he beheld his old commander's sickly protege of nearly five years ago restored to the protecting care of his garrison, Dick found himself instantly embraced by the General's strong arms. Before the Indian trappings were removed he was enrolled into the Service of the United States Government, as Chief of Scouts, Indian Interpreter and Guide, on the staff of General Albert Sully, with an attached monthly salary of one hundred twenty five dollars. Thus far a few of the thrilling incidents be- longing to General Harney's Indian expedition of 1855 and our hero's captive life with the Indians have been briefly touched upon in this limited volume, but which nevertheless serves to ANNALS OF WYOMING 657 reveal the remarkable circumstances attending his young life, all of which so ably qualified him for the duties awaiting him in the field of Indian warfare on the frontier of the West. The chief evidence by the Indians at the loss of their former captive was remarkable in its way. For six weeks they remained encamped about the fort and stolidly refused to move their vil- lage until General Sully threatened to use force upon them. In the summer of 1860 pilgrims were massacred by Ute In- dians, near Sweet "Water Mountains beyond Fort Laramie their mutilated bodies being suspended from trees and telegraph poles along the Government trail. A scout was instantly instituted by Gen. Sully, commanding a detachment of soldiers aided by Chief Scout — Dick Parr. It was the first time in history that United States troops were ever taken into the hitherto impen- etrable Sweet Water Mountains, as inevitable death had always overtaken the pale face wanderer within the fastness of this rocky realm, either from torturing thirst at not finding the hid- den mountain springs, or from the fatal attack of lurking sav- ages. Thus from the knowledge acquired through the wander- ings in that region with his captors, Gen Sully's young guide led his commander in many successful expeditions through these formerly impenetrable mountain strongholds. During the period of his six year's service at Fort Laramie he established a flourishing trading post near Ponca Reservation, and furthermore, identified himself with the founding of the present City of Niobrara, Neb. : the original company being formed by Major Gregory, Ponca Indian Agent; Joseph Smith, of the St. Louis Fur Co., Benj. A. Harris, Benj. Wilson and Dick Parr. Leaving the employ of Gen. Sully of Fort Laramie in 1866 he went down to Fort Leavenworth, Kans. and was immediately engaged by Gen. Easton, Chief Quartermaster, Dept. Missouri to select government horses for Indian campaign service, and as wagon-master, managed the Government freight from Fort Riley to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The same year — Winter of 1866-7 he was called to Fort Harker and on arriving at that military post was informed by Major Yard — the post commander, that his services were re- quired by Gen. Hancock, who would reach Fort Harker early in the Spring. During the interim of the General's arrival, who should Dick run up against one day in Harker City but Bill Hickok (Wild Bill), whom Dick had not laid eyes on since the day, four years before, when he assisted Bill both stratagetically and financially out of a serious difficulty at Rock Creek for which Bill 's life was at stake. Bill 's chief service to the government was in the capacity of deputy Marshal, in which roll he was very successful in tracing looters of Government property. 658 ANNALS OF WYOMING Early in March, Gen. Hancock came to Fort Harker with the artillery and six companies of infantry augmented by four companies of Seventh cavalry. General George A. Cnster com- manding. Dick was immediately installed into the service on General Hancock's staff as Chief of Scouts, Indian interpreter and guide. An appointment was made with the principal chiefs and head men of the Cheyenne, Arapahoe and Kiowa nations to hold a council at Fort. Larned, at which treaty Dick was to act as Chief Interpreter. A severe snow storm set in, which caused much suffering to the troops and stock the guards having to pass the night moving along the picket lines with a whip in order to keep the horses constantly moving that they might escape being frozen to death. The Indians, however failed to keep their promise, and the commander moved his troops in pursuit of them that they might be brought to terms. In the early grey of the morning Dick located the Indian camp on Pawnee River. Stealthily through the deep snow General Hancock, advanced with his army on the sleeping Indian's camp, where a close engagement quickly ensued. Several of the unprepared red men were killed and taken prisoners. Field headquarters was later moved to Fort Hays. General Custer subsequently assumed command of that fort. Dick was employed on Gen. Custer's staff in the same capacity of Chief of Scouts, etc. rendering invaluable services to that commander in notable Indian treaties and wars with hostile red men. At the council camp, Medicine Lodge Creek, Kansas, in Oc- tober, 1867, Dick attended Gen. Custer, as interpreter, for the assembled chief representatives of the five Indian nations, name- ly, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, Commanches and Apaches. Prominent among the several peace commissioners appointed by congress to perfect the treaty was Major-General William Har- ney, which event afforded an unexpected joyful meeting between Dick and his former guardian, it being the first time they had seen each other since Dick 's capture by the Sioux nearly twelve years before. While guiding General Custer and command on a scouting expedition up the Saline River, a bunch of Indians was suddenly sighted a long distance to the Westward, which by the aid of their field glasses, appeared to the guide as a Cheyenne war party, with orders to approach. Dick swiftly charged ahead riding in a zig-zag manner, as is the ordinary way of inviting communication with parties known or supposed to be hostile, coming up to a convenient signaling distance, the Cheyenne Chiefs Roman Nose and Medicine Wolf, with their small band of warriors, advanced forward with the war sign, which is given by charging around in a complete circle, and then again half ANNALS OF WYOMING 659 the distance, when with a wild ringing war-whoop the entire band of warriors bore down npon the now boldly advancing Seventh Cavalrymen and their spirited leader, General Custer. A sharp, swift encounter ensued, which routed the Indians, whose fleet-footed ponies finally distanced the pursuing soldiers after a chase of thirty miles. Two cavalrymen were seriously wounded and three Indians were killed in the engagement. Succeeding the foregoing event Dick, acting as guide for Colonel Benteen and detachment of Seventh Cavalry on a search of hostile red men, were attacked from ambush at a sharp bend of the creek by Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle, and his party of over one hundred warriors. One of the scouts, known as Charlie Cadara, who had accompanied Dick ahead of the command fell dead from his horse under the Indian's fire, while Dick received a bullet in his right arm severely shattering the bone. With his arm hanging limp and nerveless by his side the blood flowing freely from the deep rifle wound, our undaunted hero spurred his spirited charger into the rush of battle, fighting determinedly until, overtaken by weakness from loss of blood, he was escorted back to Fort Hays by a small party of soldiers, while Colonei Benteen and troopers pursued the retreating savages for sev- eral miles. Throughout his extended service on the Plains the famous guide would visit the different Indian camps, during the times of peace and gather whatever information possible as to their future plans for the coming season's warpath, or perhaps, serve as detective for apprehending the guilty perpetrators of some recent depredation. He was most frequently detailed to this special duty while on the staffs of Generals Sheridan and Cus- ter, thus affording these commanders much valuable information for anticipating the movements of the hostile red men. While the Seventh Cavalry scouting Party, under Major Joel Elliot, were making an extended tour in the Soloman River Country in August, 1867, the little Army were confronted in their march by a severe water famine, the small springs and creeks having suddenly dried up, causing much suffering to the men and stock while pursuing the long march to the Soloman River. To their dismay, on reaching this stream, the river bed spread hot and dry before them. Seemingly equal to any emergency Dick Parr performed a notable feat by causing the river bottom to be excavated for water. At the depth of ten feet enough water was procured to relieve the suffering men, while the horses on pressing up to head waters of Turkey Creek, were saved from succumbing to the throes of unquenched thirst in the sparkling living waters of the stream. In May, 1868, Gen. Phil. Sheridan came up to Ft. Hays at- tended, by his aide-de-camp, Colonel John Schuyler Crosby. On 660 ANNALS OF WYOMING Gen. Custer departing from Fort Hays, Dick was sent over to Fort Dodge, and had just returned to his ranch near Hays, when Gen. Sheridan sought out the renowned guide and immediately retained him in the special service on his staff as Private Chief of Scouts, Indian Interpreter and Guide. Desiring to secure a competent guide to take him to Ft. Wallace Captain Kimball, then Quartermaster at Ft. Hays (now present Assistant General Quartermaster, U. S. A. 1901), who so ably conducted the trans- ports during our late war with Spain, assured Gen. Sheridan that the Chief Scout Dick Parr, was the plainsman who could render the ablest service in the office of Guide, Scout and Inter- preter. With given orders Dick started out on a tour through the Indian camps, in the summer of 1868, accompanied by his fre- quent comrade of the Plains, Lieutenant Frederick Beecher. Later, on coming to Buffalo Station, Kansas and Pacific Rail- road a telegram awaited the guide that Gen. Sheridan would meet him at Coyote Station, then terminus of the railroad. Duly arriving at the point Dick found Gen. Sheridan, and the latter 's guests, Generals Grant and Sherman, waiting for him in their special car. Succeeding an introduction to the illustrious visitors, they together boarded the train for Leadville, Colo, at which place the party stayed over night. Generals Grant and Sherman proceeded the following day to Deadwood City, while Gen. Sheridan and Dick returned to Fort Hays. Some most remarkable feats of endurance in rough riding and deeds of daring mark the famous guide's service under Gen. Sheridan. Space permits of but referring to one of these won- derful rides, which occurred early in Sept. 1868. A report came in that Ellis Station, twelve miles above Ft. Hays had been attacked and burned to the ground by Indians the employees massacred and all means of telegraphic communication cut off, the wires being dragged over the surrounding plain by in- furiated buffalo, whose horns had become entangled in the same. None would risk their lives to bear a dispatch to Ogalla Sta- tion, twenty miles farther on, that an order might be wired to move an army from Ft. Wallace against the warring savages. Unattended through that memorable moonless night, the young scout (Dick) dashed on, away several miles inland from the water courses and Government trail, where the wily Indians al- ways laid in wait for his prey, the intrepid guide spurred his faithful charger over a route no white man dare pursue, until Ogalla Station was reached just in time to deliver the message. Little Raven, his beautiful war horse, was incurably broken down, having made this journey of thirty-two miles in two hours and ten minutes. The record of these marvelous feats of horse- manship are duly chronicled on the rolls of the Government. ANNALS OF WYOMING 661 When the organizing of a band of fifty scouts was finally agreed upon, General Sheridan intrusted his Private Chief of Scouts with the duty of selecting those hardy frontiersmen who were most eligible in the way of experience for this special serv- ice. Colonel Geo. A. Forsythe was given command of the outfit with Lieutenant Beecher, nephew of the eminent divine Henry Ward Beecher, as subordinate and Dr. Moore, surgeon. After an unsuccessful search for Indians on their initial expedition, Dick Parr, by permission of Gen. Sheridan, acted as guide on the fateful second trip, bringing the little command in sight of the Indians they had previously so vainly sought, on reaching the Arickaree Fork of Republican River Kans. As the fast in- creasing war-whoops for the charging Indians revealed the mighty strength of the now advancing enemy the pack mules were instantly shot. And the little band had scarce time enough to get behind them for breast works, when the swelling horde of Sioux warriors under Chief Thorny Bear, Dick's former captor, came surging over them. Colonel Forsythe was instantly shot in both legs. Lieutenant Beecher mortally wounded and Dr. Moore killed outright in the first charge of the battle. Every morning Chief Thorny Bear, from his position on the hilltops would talk to the guide of Colonel Forsythe 's beleaguered com- mand, and declare he would have the pale faces by high noon of the day, "Not you Pa-ha-za-ze-a-ta-ca" the chieftain would as- suringly repeat, "but we want every other scalplock down there." For nine long days heroic Colonel Forsythe and his men bravely fought the savages, being finally relieved by a rescuing party from Ft. Wallace, through the trustworthy scout, John Don- ovan whom Dick at nightfall directed and set out, on the trail, under most perilious conditions to get succor for the nearly ex- hausted command. Lieutenant Beecher lingered for three days in great agony and died in Dick's arms. Afterward the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher went out to Ft. Wallace for the purpose of recovering the remains of his martyred nephew. Dick Parr with a party of his intrepid scouts repaired to the late battle field and duly returned with their sad burden to the fort. Herein is shown a part of official copy of Cephas (Dick) Parr's Claim No. 15,266 for horses killed and abandoned, and loss of saddles in Forsythe 's engagement against Indians in August and September 1868, furnished the narrater and officially signed by Samuel Blackwell, third Auditor, Treasury Depart- ment, Washington D. C. August 30, 1893. Which document proves Dick Parr's position under General Sheridan and as being the guide for Colonel Forsythe 's expedition previously re- ferred to— 15,266— Filed by W. D. Blackford, Attorney, Wash. D. C. 662 ANNALS OF WYOMING State of Kansas, Riley County, ss. On the sixth day of May, 1869 — personally appeared before me, Probate Judge, in and for the county and state above named, and by law authorized to admin- ister oaths for general purposes, C. W. Parr, a resident of Manhattan, County of Riley, and state of Kansas, aged 27 years, who, being duly sworn according to law, declares that he is not indebted or accountable to the United States on any account what ever; and he fur- ther states that he is the identical C. W. Parr, who was a guide and interpreter for Gen. Phil. Sheridan, in the command of Forsythe on the Plains, that he was em- ployed by General Sheridan as Private Chief of Scouts or or about the 18th day of May 1868 in the war with the Indians ; that when in the service aforesaid, he was the owner of six horses; that upon the application of Colonel Forsythe, I let him the said Forsythe, have said horses for the use of his command. He, Forsythe, agree- ing to pay me for the horses if any were not returned, at the appraised value thereof that said horses were all killed by the Indians when Forsythe 's command was surrounded by the Indians on the Republican River; and that said horses afterwards were appraised in due form of the value of one hundred fifty dollars each; that he also lost two saddles. All of said property was lost when Colonel Forsythe 's command were besieged by the Indians at Head Waters of the Republican River, in August 1868, and that his equipage lost, as stated, consisted of the following articles, separate purchase value of each annexed, viz : One saddle ..$18.00 " 22.00 total value horses 900.00 total value equipment.... 40.00 Amount Claimed— $940.00 (980) That the time of the loss aforesaid he was under the immediate command of General Sheridan; that he re- ported to Sheridan that he had let Forsythe have the horses. The General replied: "All Right," and ap- proved of the appraisement that was afterwards made ; that he never received from any officer or agent of the U. S. any horse or horses or equipage, in lieu of that lost by him, or any compensation for the same, and that the said horses and equipage lost, as aforesaid, were obtained and purchased of various parties and were i f ANNALS OF WYOMING 663 rode and in care of six of Colonel Forsythe's party when they were lost, and that the loss of the said horses and equipage occurred without any fault or negligence on the part of this declarant and I do hereby constitute and appoint W. D. Blackford of Washington City, Dis- trict of Columbia, my true and lawful attorney Irre- vocable, with full power of substitution, to prosecute this claim for horses and equipage lost in the military service of the U. S. My Post-Office address is Manhat- tan, County of Riley, and state of Kansas. C. W. Parr, Claimant. Two Witnesses Required — R. J. Harker — Joseph Clary — ( Witnesses ) — ( Stamp ) . The horse ridden by Wilson, the property of Parr, was abandoned on the second day out from Ft. Hays, being too weak to travel farther; whether under the circumstances it is proper that he (Parr) should be paid for said horse is a question to which the attention of the Quartermaster-General is respectfully called. Geo. A. Forsythe. Major Ninth Cavalry Brevet Brig. Gen. U. S. A. (A true copy of the original on file in this office) Sam'l Black- well, Third Auditor Treasury Dept. Aug. 30th, 1893. Names of fifty scouts selected for employment by Chief of Scouts — Dick Parr for Colonel Forsythe's command, by order of General Phil. Sheridan— Sept. 1868. W. Armstrong, Thos. Alderdice, Martin Bourke, Wallace Bennett, Barney Day, Alfred Dupont, A. D. Entsler, Hudson Farley, Richard Gant, Geo. Green, John Haley, John Hurst, J. H. Vetterer, Frank Harrington, John Lyden, M. R. Lane, Joe Lane, C. B. Nichols, Geo. Oakes, Wm. R. Mapes, Thos. Mur- phey, W. H. H. McCall, T. M. Culver, G. B. Clark, James Curry, John Donovan, C. C. Pratte, A. J. Pliley, Wm. Riley, Thos. Ran- ahan, Chalmers Smith, S. S. Stillwell, S. Schlesinger, Ed Simp- son, Wm. Stewart, W. H. Tucker, Isaac Taylor, Peter Truesdell, Fletcher Violet, Wm. Wilson, C. B. Whitney, John Wilson, Eli Zigler, Lewis Farley, Howard Morton, H. T. McGrath, Thos. O'Donnell, Lewis McLaughlin, Harry Davenport, Frank Espey. Closely following the preceding event, Dick accompanied by Frank Espey, late Lieutenant Beech er's valet, visited Chief Big Mouth's Arapahoe Camp, located at mouth of Pawnee on Ar- kansas River, about 3 o'clock in the morning the chieftain's daughter suddenly awakened the tired scouts, giving them warn- ing to save their lives ; the Indians were on the war path. Cour- iers from the Kiowas had just run in telling of their raid on the 664 ANNALS OF WYOMING settlers living on Fisher or Pipe Creek. Dick, understanding the Indian girls words, hastily pulled Frank to his feet and or- dered him to mount his horse. Without pausing to even cinch their saddles the daring horsemen made a swift rush from the late friendly camp, hotly pursued by the Indians for four and one half miles, where they turned the enemy at the toll bridge, near Walker Bros, ranch. In the bright moon light the scouts galloped their horses on past Ft. Lyon, thence pursued the long journey of seventy miles to Ft. Hays which they reached about half past ten A. M. Dick immediately telegraphed to Sheridan at Ft. Leavenworth, who came right up in a special car, arriving at 3 o'clock P. M. "Can you get an engine driver who doesn't care a rap for his life, to rush us down to Fort Harker?" in- quired the General of his Private Chief of Scouts, on the in- stant of his arrival at Ft. Hays. Engineer Jim Curry, a daring off hand fellow, who had served as one of the enlisted scouts in Colonel Forsythe's command, quickly replied to the request made to him through the Chief of Scouts, ' ' You bet I will, pard ; ain 't afraid to ride him to eternity ! ' ' Immediately the start was made, and as the "lightening" train sped along the distance of eighty-five miles to Ft. Harker, the telegraph poles, to the inmates of the flying passenger car, appeared to form a towering fence along side the railroad track. The journey was made in just one hr. 30 minutes. General Sheridan was elated over Dick's promptness in delivering the report before any news of the In- dian raid had reached the forts. In a short time Dick, with Colonel Benteen and troopers, were at the scene of depredation. In the meantime Mrs. Morgan a bride of a month and Miss White a school teacher had been carried off by the Indians. The narrator has held communication with Mrs. Morgan for the past few years and in the written words of her own statement rela- tive to her capture, the lady says: "On September 13, 1868, I was married. On October 13th, just one month from our wedding day my husband left home early in the morning to gather corn. I was alone. About 10 o'clock the horse came running back without his' master. I knew there had been an accident, quickly mounting I rode as fast as the horse could go. In going around a bend of the creek, I ran right into a band of Indians not fifty yards from me. I turned and started back, but my horse was tired, seeing the savages were overtaking me, I reeled from my seat, striking hard upon the ground, rendering me unconscious for a time. On recovering consciousness, I found myself a helpless captive ; with my fellow prisoner Miss White, we suffered a dreadful experience during the winter of our captivity (1868-69). To rescue these unfortunate white women developed the undertaking of a winter campaign under General Sheridan. It ANNALS OF WYOMING 665 was in the battle of "Washita that Dick Parr, for the first and only time, had the honor of fighting- by the side of General Phil Sheridan. Gaining the commander's consent the famons guide entered Chief Black Kettle's camp and brought away that chief- tain's raven scalp-lock. Major Elliot and Captain Hamilton Seventh Cavalry officers, under General Custer were killed in the first charge of the battle. Several Indians were taken pris- oners, among whom was the celebrated Chief Satanta, who was Mrs. Morgan's immediate captor. On April 5, 1869 Dick Parr, with forty scouts, entered the Kiowa camp, and brought away Mrs. Morgan and Miss White, when they were joyfully received by General Sheridan's awaiting command. Thus was ended the Indian wars in the Southwest. After these exciting scenes and daring exploits of his ex- perience on the vast Western Plains, we find the faithful guide in subsequent years, hunting and traveling through Colorado and New Mexico. Note: This account is verified by official records in Treas- ury and War Departments in Washington, D. C. In later years Dick Parr spent much time providing a most elevating and instructive line of entertainment by appearing with his former Indian friends and foes in an illustrated lecture of his wonderful career, and graphic exhibitions of thrilling his- toric scenes of Indian warfare in the arena of his Historical In- dian Military Wild West, This scout, survivor of many battles and much exposure of the uninhabited west was stricken with paralysis and died, Oct. 18, 1911, at the age of sixty eight. His death occurred in the small town of Clinton, Mo. There he is buried and is honored by the remaining soldiers of his day, with an American flag on his grave, they place there each Dec- oration day — (although he was not an enlisted soldier). His last request was to have the American flag draped across his body, so true to his country, even in death, his flag was his pride. He was laid to rest, with military honors, Masonic honors and with Methodist faith. (Mrs.) Louise Parr Blakeman. Daughter of Dick Parr. May 27, 1932, Kansas City, Mo. 666 ANNALS OF WYOMING A PIONEER BRIDE MEMORIES OF MARY HEZLEP KNIGHT By Harriet Knight Orr Court was not in session in the Third District, Wyoming Territory, on St. Valentine's Day, 1876. It had adjourned about two weeks before and resumed a few days later, but in the in- terval between terms there had been time for the young Clerk of the District to make the three-day trip from Evanston to Minnesota ; there to woo, win and marry his boyhood sweetheart, with whom he had corresponded for seven years. There had even been time to win over a rather reluctant mother-in-law-to-be, inclined to regard the event as somewhat of a sacrifice. That her carefully educated daughter should choose the uncertain- ties of a frontier wilderness to an eastern home left the mother almost breathless. We have a picture of "Evanston City" as it looked about the time Jesse Knight and his brown-haired bride stepped from the west-bound train that February day. There was a small "round-house", where engines, which had traveled at the ex- traordinary speed of thirty miles an hour, received needed re- pairs. There was the "Mountain Trout Hotel", serving excellent meals in "hearty western style" to overland travelers. Here, Mark Twain and General Sherman among many hundreds were refreshed ; here too, must have lunched Robert Louis Stevenson, if he were able to leave his comfortless immigrant car, when he passed through Wyoming on that search for health, of which he gives so unhappy a picture in "The Silverado Squatters". It was a gala day for Evanston when the bridal couple left the train; the word spread rapidly that a "charivari" was in order that night, and it was to be a big one, since no one in town had been more active in getting up such celebrations than Jesse Knight. Pans and kettles, cowbells and tin pails were collected, in Evanston and the nearby town of Alma and a regular mob gathered, determined that Jesse and his eastern bride should have a "suitable" welcome. It was not to be! With admirable forethought, the bride-groom hired a friend to feign sickness- to-near death ; and, as the din began, the proprietor of the hotel appeared before the revelers, and with tears begged them to dis- perse lest the blood of the dying be on their souls. So Mary Knight's first evening in Evanston was as peaceful as those snow-clad mountains among which she was to spend more than twenty years of her life. More peaceful it was, by far, than much of the little bride 's life in the new railroad town, perched on the edge of Utah, then discredited as a law-abiding territory. Within the county of which Mr. Knight was later sheriff lay the Jackson Hole country ANNALS OF WYOMING 667 long the rendezvous of highway men and robbers, nearby lay the coal-mining districts and Indian centers, seldom free from disturbance. The rumble of the immigrant trains passing through and the rattle of gunfire as drunken cowboys raced thru the streets were ever familiar sounds. Uinta County then stretched from Utah on the south and west to the Yellowstone Park. The Third District embraced more than half the territory and life was full of adventure to officers of the law. Fortunately, there was "Gummus", the "Bull Terror" as he was popularly, (or rather unpopularly) called. Brought from South Pass and "Miner's Delight", where he had been trained to guard gold from marauders, white and Indian, he had been trained never to permit anyone, even his master, to touch his head ; a swift clinch of the hideous, drooling jaws being the pen- alty of such familiarity. Gummus was a "one-man dog" and cared much less than nothing for any member of the gentler sex. But he understood the English language and he had a shrewd head and a loyal heart for a winning personality. When Gummus was introduced to the bride by his somewhat anxious master, it was in words like these : "Gummus, this is Mrs. Knight. She has come to live with us, and whatever she says to us, we must do. We must take very good care of her ; never let anyone hurt or bother her. When she calls us to do something for her, we must do it. Do you under- stand all that, Gummus?" The dog raised his intelligent eyes to his master's and licked his hand. "All right then, Gummus; go and make friends with her." Gummus went over and put his hideous jowls into the little bride's lap. Too late, her husband cried, "Don't touch his head!" her hand was already on it. The old dog winced but submitted to the caress. And from that time, she alone had the privilege denied to all others. One night, there was a soft knock at the door. When unlocked, a blear-eyed man slipped his foot into the opening. "Hello, Sweetheart!" he leered. "No, you needn't call your husband. I saw him leave a while ago. You are alone and I 'm coming in. ' ' He pushed open the door with his knee. "I'll call the dog," threatened the terrified woman. The ruffian laughed. "That's what they all say. I ain't afraid of any d d dog." ' ' Gummus ! ' ' she called. Like a bomb, Gummus was at him. Trained to spring at the throat, and with the killing of one out- law to his account, Gummus was ready. Only a slim hand hooked into his collar, saved the bully. He did not hesitate. One look at the dog's contorted face and he was away. He cleared the fence at a bound, and when Mrs. Knight finally got the excited 668 ANNALS OF WYOMING dog under control, she could see far down the street, the man still running. The barrenness of the sage-brush covered town appalled the nature-loving woman. She transplanted many wild-flowers from the hills and canyons, she sent east for slips of all the well- loved plants, shrubs and vines. Flower and seed catalogues hob- nobbed on her living-room table with "Harper's Monthly" and "Scribners". Many of her importations died as everyone fore- told they would. She had been freely warned that it was im- possible to grow anything. "It is the altitude," said one. "No eastern plants will grow 5000 feet above sea level." "The winters are much too long." "Nothing will grow in this windy country." "Too dry," said others. But the plant- lover persisted. In a year or two, ivy, geranium, heliotrope, even violets and roses bloomed in her windows. In the yard, were flowers and vegetables. "If the Chinese down on the river can make vegetables grow, " she smiled. "So can I." And she could; radishes and lettuce were rivaled by her pomgranate bush, which blossomed to the delight of all. Under her tender care, the most languid slip wearied by the long trip from beyond the Mississippi, revived and flourished. Irish ivy brought by a friend from Dub- lin Castle, climbed around the "bay window" and for years, her flowers went to deck the brides, cheer the sick-beds and lie on the coffins of Evanston. As for trees, tradition says that the first trees planted in Evanston, were brought there as a result of the babble of the first child in the Knight family. She could just talk and on a walk out toward the old Chinese cemetery, she stopped to ex- amine and admire a sturdy sprig of foxtail grass. She touched it gently, she leaned over to smell it ; she looked up at her mother with eager interest. "Mama, is this a tree?" This sad tale was reported with tears. "Jesse, our child doesn't know a tree from grass. She ac- tually hasn't seen a real tree." And the young father swore as young fathers will, that such a thing should not happen again in his family. Within a week, healthy young willows from near the river, waved their leaves around the Knight home, where some of them still stood, when last I was there. Under one of those trees, Gummus is buried where for hours he had kept watch over the baby he abhorred. He could not forgive her for absorb- ing the devotion of his adored mistress. The child never could reach him ; when she tried to pet him, Gummus growled softly, deep in his throat had moved away. But with fierce loyalty, he protected her from all possible harm. ANNALS OF WYOMING 669 Except probably Christmas and Fourth of July, Court time was the most exciting time of the year in pioneer Wyoming. The roads were dusty with the coming in of wagons filled with fami- lies and food. Day after day, the court room in the fine new court house was full of eager listeners. The testimony might be lurid or it might be dull; the oratory of the counsel might be florid or merely stupid, but the audience remained, drinking in the sensationalism, sleeping through the dullness. To the Dis- trict Clerk fell the duty of swearing in the jury. This ceremony is often performed in a hasty monotone, but Jesse Knight en- joyed the opportunity of making this a meaningful occasion. His good voice rolled out the solemn words, rising to a fine cli- max at the name of the Deity. This ceremony was greatly ad- mired by Lawyer C. D. Clark, later Member of Congress and United States Senator. "Why don't you and Mrs. Knight come over and hear Jesse swear in the jury?" he questioned his charming wife, one day. "The next time he is to do it, I'll send you word." The two ladies were delighted. Neither cared about going to court, al- though Mrs. Knight had been her husband's deputy at one time and many documents in her clear handwriting are in the records. But she had never heard her husband do so dramatic an act as swear in a jury, since he steadily neglected to notify her when it was to be done. This time the plot was secret. The notice came from Mr. Clark ; the two busy mothers in their best velvet bonnets summoned a neighbor to watch their babies, left their unfinished housework and speeded to the Courthouse at the ap- pointed time. By chance, the District Clerk met them on the stairs. Instantly, he suspected the plot and mischievously he prevented its success. He greeted them with his most charming deference : "Ladies, this is indeed an honor! You do not often come to Court, but you will find almost everyone else here. Too bad!" he added reflectively, "Too bad that you didn't come a little earlier and hear the jury sworn in. ' ' "Why Jesse Knight!" cried Mrs. Clark. "That is exactly what we came for. Clarence sent us word that you would swear in the jury at ten o 'clock and it is only ten minutes to ten now. ' ' "Well, it certainly is too bad I didn't know you were com- ing. I could just as well have waited until you got here. Won't you come in anyway?" "Oh no," was the disappointed reply. "If you have already sworn in the jury, there is no use our staying. We shall go back to the children." With further ex- pression of "regret", Mr. Knight escorted them to the court- house door and returned to his duties. At noon, Mr. Clark de- manded, 670 ANNALS OF WYOMING "Why didn't you come over to hear Jesse swear the jury? He never did it more effectively." Told that they had reached the building 1 too late, Mr. Clrak inquired what time they went. "But that was in plenty of time," he exclaimed. "Jesse went downstairs for some papers about that time. Then he came back and swore in the jury at exactly ten o'clock." It was not to be wondered at that the two ladies had not lingered. Court sessions were busy times for the wives of court officials and lawyers. There were distinguished guests from Ogden, Salt Lake, Denver, even Chicago. Formal dinners, in- formal luncheons, impromptu breakfast parties were the usual thing. It was before the day of caterers, ice-cream bricks or even bakeries. Everything from soup to coffee had to be prepared over coal stoves in the hot, little home kitchens. For young ladies, whose education had included more French than cake-mixing, more wood-carving than pastry-baking this entertaining pre- sented difficulties. But Mrs. Knight was a genuine hostess. She became an excellent cook and her dinners were famous. The most welcome guest was he, who could fill in with sparkling wit the awful pauses, when something went wrong in the kitchen. It was Judge Peck, I think who, absorbed in the good story he was telling during such a pause, reached over and appropriated a bowl of delectable flavor. The hostess, wide-eyed with dismay, watched him consume this. Perhaps, she would have said nothing about it at the time if he had not remarked : "Delicious soup, Mrs. Knight. May I have another serv- ing?" This was too much, and she replied with cutting dignity, "Unfortunately, Judge Peck, that was the gravy and there is no more." At another time, Judge Peck was carving, when the duck under his knife, flopped into the pink satin lap of the guest of honor. With admirable self-possession, the Judge ex- claimed : "Pardon me, Madam. Will you please hand back that duck?" Later, he sent the outraged lady a new gown. Among the honored guests in the Knight home none was more welcome nor more charming and sympathetic than Judge Joseph M. Carey who had been first to welcome Mrs. Knight to Wyoming, boarding the train as it passed the border from Nebraska. He used to tell, with a chuckle years later, of a chilly night, when he shivered between the bride 's linen sheets, put on his bed as a sign of great honor. Mrs. Knight had an unnatural horror of all Indians. When Rev. Sherman Coolidge preached in the little Mission Church, although she forced herself to go and had a real regard for the man, she could not be at ease. The sight of peaceful squaws, their moccasins in the ditch as they sat on the sidewalk caring in the most intimate ways for their papooses aroused in her a ANNALS OF WYOMING 671 ■■ ' u !J!'Jjf'l shivering disgust. Her feeling dated from her early childhood, when the Sioux Indians of Minnesota, where she grew up, took the opportunity during the War for the Union, to stage a hideous massacre. She had seen a boy dying of tomahawk slashes. She had heard the blood-curdling war-whoops of the savages; had seen the flames of homes and towns fired by them. She had been awakened after midnight by a neighbor pounding on the window at her side, shouting: ' ' Get up ! Get up ! The Indians are upon us. ' ' Her nat- urally tender heart turned to stone, when she saw a painted face pressed against the screen. The pathetic cry for food and for 1 ' Minne ! Minne ! ' ' although she well knew it meant only "water" reminded her of her childhood horror that they were calling her by her pet name, "Minnie," trying to lure her away from home to their filthy camps. Indians there were in plenty in pioneer Wyoming, moving from place to place, in and out of the Territory, begging, stealing, tenting just outside town, where their odorous camps and food were objects of fascination to the children of the household, but never to their mother. The cowboys, on the other hand, looked upon her as their best and kindest friend. No matter how rough, ugly or even profane and drunken he might be, if he were sick or "broke", in need of help, money, doctoring or advice, he could confidently rely upon her gentle heart, and never did one of them abuse his privilege or fail in respect and devotion to her. At times, there would be on the Knight ranch on Bear River, near where the town of Knight now stands, eight or ten men several .of them with families. At Christmas time, they would bring in the big- gest tree they could haul, set it up in the carefully swept front end of the huge town barn*, decorate the place with boughs and fes- toons of pine and wait confidently for the lady of the house to cover the tree with gay ornaments, many of them made with her own hands, with strings of popcorn and cranberries, with spark- ling "snow", wax candles and finally with gifts for every one of them. On Christmas Eve they all came, splendidly washed up and painfully attired in tight, new boots and celluloid collars, supporting their wives in trailing velveteen and bearing bashful babies, ready to burst into roars at crucial moments. They came, bearing gifts, gorgeous gifts, so full of sentiment and sometimes alas! so expensive, that no one with a tender heart (and whose was ever more tender than that of our heroine?) could refuse to accept and cherish them. Oh, the mustache cups, the scarlet plush sofa pillows, photograph albums, polished steer-horn chairs and hatracks ! They preserved the memory of those Christmas * This barn collapsed from the weight of snow, during the winter of 1931. 672 ANNALS OF WYOMING celebrations years after donors and receivers had passed into the Land of Eternal Christmas. Following the Christmas tree came dinner; usually two or three turkeys were thoroughly demolished, together with plenti- ful accompaniment of other good things to eat and of many in- struments, some musical some merely noisy. Then came the dance, with sleeping babies parked on the hay, while mothers and fathers waltzed, lanciered, schottisched and quadrilled until the sun sent them back to the ranch for milking. Schools were new and poorly equipped in those early days and a mother jealous of her offsprings' innocence and mental progress preferred to devote her mornings to the double duty of housework and teaching rather than trust her children to the un- certainties of pioneer public schools. With the latest textbooks, selected from well studied catalogues, the little mother sat down each morning with her sewing and directed the progress of her class. She scorned the limits of the usual school and led the young students into the mysteries of Latin, French, biography and poetry. Ten cents was the reward for memorizing "I shot an arrow into the air, etc." "The Psalm of Life" brought a quarter, or "two bits" as it was popularly called. For learning the entire first canto of "The Lady of the Lake" the prize was, I think, five dollars. Mrs. Knight sent for the latest book on "Ballroom Dancing" by the famous Dodworth, and calling in the neighbors' children, conducted a lively dancing class. In return for help with cleaning and sewing, she gave music les- sons, and the fact that all her own children have preferred Beethoven to jazz is certainly due to the numberless nights, when their childish eyes closed to the strains of the Master's lovely sonatas. When there was no money in the Knight budget for new books, there was the dear friend with unlimited credit at Mc- Clurg's, who was accumulating one of the finest libraries in the west. These noble books loaned generously to appreciative friends made it possible for dwellers in a small, isolated com- munity to develop a sound taste in literature and a well-balanced knowledge of the progress of the world. One wonders how many people' today scattered over the country look back with gratitude to the hours spent in Mrs. A. C. Beckwith's wonderful library, and in communion with her books. These two friends, Mrs. Beck- with and Mrs. Knight often joined by others met more or less regularly for years to read and discuss good literature. It was this broad outlook on life, this insight into the beau- tiful and the good that distinguished the life of Mary Hezlep Knight. She was so vivid, so full of humor and tenderness, so sensitive to truth, that her lovely influence reached far beyond the circle of her unassuming life. Said a friend, who knew her in the early days of illness, labor and anxiety, ANNALS OF WYOMING 673 "I never met Minnie Knight that she was not full of in- spiration to me. She had read a fine poem, had learned a noble hymn, had written a humorous letter, making fun of her diffi- culties and trials. Perhaps, she had clipped an inspiring quota- tion, which she was eager to pass along. She LIVED not just existed ; and she must pass on to others the richness of her own life. No matter how dreary the day, or how selfish the mood in which one found ones self before meeting her, we never failed to leave her with the feeling that our world is full of meaning and that the pettiness of our daily thinking is from ourselves and not a necessary part of life." This pioneer bride knew her Shakespeare well. She had learned it on her father's knee, and I have heard her quote : "The fault, Dear Brutus, is not in our stars, but in our- selves that we are underlings." Pioneer life is hard; it is not as simple as is sometimes thought, but it calls out the strongest, finest qualities in human nature, self reliance, straight thinking and sympathy. (Signed) Harriet Knight Orr. MEDICINE BOW, WYOMING Medicine Bow Station came into being when on its way to join the Central Pacific, the Union Pacific railroad crept across the vast plains of Wyoming, and neared an inviting bend in the Medicine Bow river. The object was a pumping station which would afford an abundance of water to be used in the engines which pulled the trains. The station was called Medicine Bow, after the river) on which it was situated, and the river was named in honor of the mountains in which it headed, and they, in turn, derived their name from the Indians. Tradition says that the northern tribes repaired annually to the foot of these mountains for the purpose of procuring a variety of ash timber from which they made their bows. With the Indians, anything that is excellent for the pur- pose for which it was intended, is called, "Good Medicine", hence the locality was known as the place where they could pro- cure "good medicine bows". Oscar Collister, who had served as a telegraph operator on the Overland Trail at Deer Creek, fifteen miles east of where Casper is now located, was the first agent and telegraph operator at Medicine Bow station. Later, Mr. Collister was transferred to Carbon to act as agent, and operator there, and Randall Clay succeeded him at the Bow as agent, and Mrs. Clay, (his wife) was operator. A few years later, when many herds of cattle had been brought into the country and turned loose on the range, stock- 674 ANNALS OF WYOMING yards were built at Medicine Bow and it became a shipping cen- ter for a great number of cattle that were taken to eastern mar- kets. Step by step the country became sparsely settled, and the pumping station grew from just that, into a thriving little vil- lage. As was the case with all other frontier towns, there were for Medicine Bow, more exciting days than uneventful ones. Murders and robberies occurred, and twice the village was at- tacked by Indians in a vicious attempt to destroy the depot and railroad, for the Indians considered the railroad their worst enemy. Both times the Redskins were driven away by the few citizens of the little town. Two saloons were opened in the Bow and it was there that the thirsty cowpunchers went to break the drouth brought on by miles of sun-dried prairies and a hankering to be wild. Larry Quealy and Trabing Brothers were interested in the saloon busi- ness. Quealy was a one-time member of the Wyoming legislature and the Trabings owned the TB ranch, north of the Bow and thousands of head of cattle. Many characters whose reputation bore of the unsavory, visited the Bow often, and remained there for weeks at a time. Among these were Joseph Slade, who was hung by a vigilance committee in Montana, Bill Bevins, who later met a like fate in the same state, Deaf Charlie, Mexican Mike and Jack Watkins, who shot and attempted to kill Sheriff Brophy in Laramie. Needless to say they were the inspiration for many a brawl in Medicine Bow. In the Medicine Bow mountains at the head of the river was a tie camp, where hundreds of thousands of railroad ties and min- ing props were cut every year and floated down the river to a "boom" a mile above Medicine Bow Station. This boom was made of strong chains, and here many men were employed in removing the pieces of timber from the river. Many men were also employed on the "tie drive", from the head of the river to the boom. This led them all into the Bow and these gatherings proved that when it came to staging untamed performances, cow- boys had nothing on ' ' tie hacks. ' ' On one occasion when the tie drive had reached the Bow and half a hundred tie hacks were thirsting for thrills, they went into town in the evening after their day's work was finished. Soapy Dale was drive foreman. He had derived the name from the fact that he had been in jail in a small town, and on being forgotten by the town officials had become so hungry that he had eaten a bar of soap which he found in the jail — hence "Soapy" Dale. A freight car was standing on a side track in the Bow on this particular evening and altho it was raining, the tie men "all lit up", decided to relieve this car of its cargo, and proceeded to do so. They pried the door open and began in earnest to unload the car. The depot agent hearing the noise opened the window and stuck his head out to see what ANNALS OF WYOMING 675 was going on, and he immediately received a barrage of mud balls which caused him to seek shelter safely within the depot. The tie men thinking it safest to leave the car, hastily retreated to the railroad eating house in the eastern part of town. It was almost midnight and time for the trainmen to come to eat. The smell of the coffee and beefsteak made the drunken tie hacks hungry and they ordered the cook to bring on the grub, while they noisily seated themselves around the long tables. The cook protested, but when a few bullets went whirling thru the coffee boiler, and coffee flowed freely over stove and floor, he reluctantly placed all the cooked food in the place before them. Some of them declared the steak was not dead as they had seen it move, and so they held it in their fingers at arms length and perforated it with bullets. The party grew wilder and wilder until the en- tire restaurant was topsy turvy, and bullet holes were much in evidence everywhere. During the melee the cook had made his escape and run all the way to the depot, where he reported affairs. A dispatch was sent to headquarters for assistance, which arrived several hours later in a special car. The tie hacks had hours be- fore vacated the place and sobered up enough to realize the posi- tion they would be in when the Union Pacific officials took hold of the matter. Dale's brain worked as rapidly in this case as al- ways, and dressed like a gentleman, all in borrowed clothes he went to the restaurant where he found a dozen angry men sur- veying the damage. Mr. Dale in a most obliging manner informed them that he was the owner of large bands of sheep in the vicinity of the Bow, and that he had just been informed that a number of his herders had last night been drunk and damaged the eating house and that he had come to make the matter right. A settle- ment was soon forthcoming and altho Mr. Dale had been one of the principal parties to the melee no one would have suspected as much, and he paid the damages with a friendly smile, with funds raised by the culprits, and the matter was settled indefi- nitely. . Owen Wister, famous novelist, spent several weeks in and around Medicine Bow, collecting data for his story entitled ' ' The Virginian. ' ' In this book he brot a great deal of notoriety to the little town. A general store was owned and operated in early days by J. L. Klinkenbeard, later by Judge Allen and John Pratley. Mr. Pratley was elected Treasurer of Carbon County and moved from Medicine Bow to Rawlins. A hotel on a small plan was opened in a dwelling house in the north side of the town, and meals were also served to the public at the U. P. section house. In August, 1909, Medicine Bow was incorporated according to the Wyoming state laws, and August Grimm was elected its first 676 ANNALS OF WYOMING mayor. Ed Walter, John Grooman, John Richards and George Self were elected councilmen, and Emil Grooman was appointed city clerk. The first meeting of the city council was held Septem- ber 4, 1909. At this meeting Ed Walter was appointed city treas- urer, John Kelley, city marshal, George Brimmer, city attorney, and Ed Walter was appointed chairman of the council. The Medicine Bow Telephone Company and the Johnson- Cronberg Telephone Company were both granted franchises for building and operating telephone lines within the limits of the little city. The streets were graded, and some cement sidewalks were laid. A water and sewerage system were installed. The town arranged to light with electricity. The "Virginian" Hotel was built by August Grimm, and formally opened to the public in September, 1913. The occasion was celebrated by a banquet served in courses, and an all-night ball. The hotel was then one of the finest in the state, with a truly western atmosphere. The picture decorations were draw- ings of western scenes, all by Russell. A few years later the O'Connor hotel was built and operated by Mrs. J. W. Graney and daughter, Miss Alberta O'Connor. This, too, is a modern hotel and an asset to the little town in which it stands. On account of failing health Mrs. Graney and daughter rented the hostelry and moved to Laramie, where Mrs. Graney passed away. A few years ago another hotel was added to the list, name- ly ' ' The Brown. ' ' At present a part of this building is occupied by the Bow River Store, operated by Mr. S. A. Rennard. The Medicine Bow State Bank was organized by Cosgriff Brothers in 1911. It was purchased in 1919 by a syndicate of ranchers and stockmen. The stockholders are C. F. R. Cronberg, sheepman, president; Charles Ellis, cattleman; J. P. Sullivan, sheepman ; James Home, sheepman ; John Burnett, cattleman ; John Richards, sheepman ; Rasmus Cronberg, sheepman ; N. H. Scott, merchant ; and R. R. Finkbiner, cashier of the bank, and Brimmer & Brimmer, attorneys. Three mercantile stores are operated in the Bow. The Medi- cine Bow Mercantile, which was the original Klinkenbeard store ; the Bow River Store and the Cash Store. The only drug store in town is operated by Thomas Johns. The Southern Wyoming Company owns the only individual lumber yard in the town ; it is operated by Cain Brunt. A meat market is run in connection with the Bow River store. The town has two first class garages, the Anderson Garage under the management of R. A. Cooper, and the Lincoln Highway Garage operated and owned by Werth Garretson, who is also a deputy sheriff. There are four filling stations in Medicine Bow, and the Sunset Camp Grounds are on the east edge of town. Medicine Bow is on the Lincoln Highway, and many thousands of tourists pass thru the town every season. / ANNALS OF WYOMING 677 There is a landing field for airplanes and a large guide light with many smaller ones on the south edge of town. ■ A large brick school building adds much to the beauty of the town, and houses both the grades and the three year accredit- ed high school. An Australian shearing plant handles thousands of sheep at Medicine Bow every year. Many thousands of pounds of wool are shipped annually from the Bow, for the surrounding country is adapted to stock raising, sheep far surpassing any other in- dustry. Wool buyers flock to the Bow each season to purchase the gigantic clips which are first class wool. Medicine Bow is trading center for the northeastern part of Carbon County as well as the northwestern part of Albany County and in this section are many well-to-do ranchmen and stockmen. Two interesting holdups have been staged in Medicine Bow during the past dozen years. About midnight a lone bandit who was described as being a "fat man", entered the "Home Ranch" saloon and much to the astonishment of the half dozen inmates of the place, flourished a gun and commanded all hands toward high heaven. When it was realized that he meant business the men obeyed and the bartender was told to give him the money from the cash drawer. The robber took his ill gotten spoils and faded away into the darkness never to be seen again. On the night of November 18, 1919, Union Pacific passenger train, Number 19 was held up at the Bow, by Wil liam Carlisle, who had escaped from the State Penitentiary where lie was serv- ing a life sentence for holding up two trains a year or so before. Excitement ran high, and for days afterward the little town was a seething mass of humanity, as dozens of officers, county, state, and Union Pacific, as well as a company of cavalry from Fort D. A. Russell, came to capture the robber. However, when he was finally captured it was at a ranch in the Laramie mountains several weeks later. He was sent back to prison where he is still serving his sentence. The Medicine Bow river wends its way around the little town, and city water is pumped from the river into a high steel tank. Another tank near the railroad and belonging to the Union Pacific supplies water for the trains, and that water, too, as in olden days, is pumped from the river. Ben Dalvitt was one of the pumpmen many years ago, but for the past thirty-five years, Al Beery has operated the pumping station down on the bank of the Medicine Bow. —By MRS. CHAS. ELLIS, Difficulty, Wyoming. 678 ANNALS OF WYOMING COPE: MASTER NATURALIST The Life and Letters of Edward Drinker Cope, with a Bibliography of His Writings Classified by Subject. A Study of the Pioneer and Foundation Periods of Vertebrate Paleontology in America. By Henry Fairfield Osborn, Senior Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey; Honorary Curator, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History. With the co-operation of Helen Ann Warren (and others). Illustrated with drawings, and restorations by Charles E. Knight under the direction of Professor Cope, 1931. Princeton Uni- versity Press, Princeton, N. J. (London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford Uni- versity Press). 74 Opp. $5.00. Reviewed by William Harper Davis American biography and the history of natural science are both distinctly enriched by the publication of this extensive and really adequate life of one of the country's — and of the world's — greatest naturalists and natural philosophers. The idiosyncratic quality, variety, and abundance of the subject's genius is cap- tured and exhibited for the reader with remarkable skill and gratifying success. The book is the outgrowth of years of knowl- edge and experience, of general and special studies, and figures against a uniquely suitable background of familiarity alike with Cope and with the field — or fields — of his labors. A labor of love and extreme care, it reveals the man directly, largely through his correspondence, also by happy just characterization and per- sonal reminiscences. It is a balanced book, well systematized, picturesquely descriptive, frank and personal, sympathetic yet impartial, containing a vast deal of technical information, as a guide to the student, and many highly readable pages of dra- matic narrative and the quotation of brilliant, meaty, or witty sallies by Cope himself. The preparation has been painstaking, co-operative, partly a polygenetic compilation, analyzed and synthesized de novo ; and its inclusiveness is, on the whole, all that could be desired. Even its omissions leave the reader in want of nothing essential for a proper understanding of Cope and his work. The career of Cope (Philadelphia, United States, and the world (1840-97)), his specialties, contributions, explorations, in- terpretations, personal idiosyncrasies, successes and trails, even his voluminous publications, must be here passed over without a word of summary. Cope was a poineer in exploration and discovery both in zoology and geology, especially in vertebrate paleontology, whose work in our state figures prominently in the history of American science and whose discoveries in the paleontology of the state throw considerable light upon its geological history. Wyoming, with two or three other states, figures most con- spicuously and epochally in the record of Cope's remarkable ANNALS OF WYOMING 679 career as a naturalist, a geologist and especially a vertebrate paleontologist. From Kansas he worked up into the state in 1872-3, returning now and again, notably in 1885. His work in the state centered principally in the Jurassic Morrison Forma- tion of Como and in the Eocene Wasatch and Bridger formation. Marsh had preceded him in the Eocene Bridger Basin and was bitterly jealous of his entrance into this field; as subsequently he opposed a similar entrance of Scott, Speir and Osborn. Leidy, disliking the bitter competition, voluntarily abandoned the field in which he had been the real, that is the first pioneer ; but Cope cultivated it with renewed and protracted vigor, first working in the neglected Washakie Basin. An amazing number of fossil animals of the greatest scientific significance was for the first time brought to light and swift and bitter was the warfare on account of them and their naming between the rivals, Marsh and Cope. Cope's family later met him at Fort Bridger, where his results were of the utmost importance. He worked for the Hay- den United States Geological Survey. Of 100 Eocene species found, about 60 were new to science. Many highly interesting letters from Fort Bridger, Cottonwood Creek, Church Buttes, the Green River, and Ham's Fork are published. Not only the horns Loxolophodon, but the great elephantine "dawn emperor" Eobasileus belong to this period and region. Some birds and reptiles, including 17 turtles, were found. His work here, as elsewhere, contributed much to explain the Rocky Mountain Tertiaries, geologically. The year 1879 finds Cope again in Wyo- ming ; and in 188S he writes from the Lake Valley mines, in which he had investments, and from Cheyenne of the vegetation and scenery, "the Ochotilla" in bloom, etc." Cope's Wyoming work belongs to his Golden Decade in the West ; at once comparing for importance and contrasting in character with his remarkable dis- coveries farther south in New Mexico and Texas. Wyoming looms large indeed upon the historic horizon of Cope and of vertebrate paleontology. Dolls. 8514 49/100 Saint Louis 25th August 1854 Six months after date we the Subscribers Residing at Fort Laramie in Nebraska Territory Promise to pay to the order of R. Campbell, Eighty five hundred & fourteen.. 49/100 Dollars without defalcation or discount, for value received, Due PAID (Signed) Ward & Guerrier 680 ANNALS OF WYOMING WYOMING'S MARVELS Geologist Aughey Collecting Them for a Museum "I receive letters every week," said Professor Samuel Aughey yesterday, "asking where a collection of the minerals, fossils and curiosities for which Wyoming is famous can be found ; and I am obliged to write the somewhat humiliating re- ply that there is none. The only collection of any value which has ever been made is in New Orleans, boxed up, awaiting the reopening of the exposition next winter. Therefore, I am com- mencing a collection of minerals, fossils and other curiosities for a museum. I shall make the collection as rapidly as possible and rely upon the next legislature to provide a suitable place for its exhibition." Professor Aughey and his assistant, Mr. Knight, started last evening for the fossil beds in the Platte river, east of the Seminole mountains. Mr. Knight will remain there several weeks. Professor Aughey will return to Cheyenne in about a week. There is but little doubt that the next legislature will find it wise to provide for the erection of a suitable structure in this city for the exhibition of the collected marvels of the terri- tory. * # * It is true that Wyoming is the collecting ground for the United States, and in a score of museums in the country may be found valuable curiosities which have been taken from the terri- tory. It would appear that it is about time the territory should have something to show for itself. Among the passengers who went east on Tuesday were Pro- fessor G. Hambach, and Professor George W. Letterman, of the Washington university, St. Louis, and Dr. Edward Evans, of Streator, Illinois. Two of these gentlemen, Messrs. Evans and Hambach, are celebrated paleonthologists, and Mr. Letterman is a botanist of no small reputation. They left St. Louis on the 7th of July and first went to Colorado, where they spent some time in examining the peaks, mountains and canyons, after which they went to Salt Lake City and from thence, staged it 300 miles via Beaver canyon to the famous Yellowstone park, where they had the unusual good fortune to see fourteen geysers spouting in one day. Among other specimens they obtained was the perfect fos- silized skeleton of a crocodile, twelve feet long and weighing 800 or 900 pounds. This was cut into three sections for better ship- ment. A splendid palm leaf, four by four feet in size, was dug up, the veins and fibre of which were as perfect as when "mil- lions of years ago," it fell from the tree upon the soil of Wyo- ming; fossil fish eighteen inches to two feet in size. These and ANNALS OP WYOMING 681 many other rare and valuable specimens were gathered near the Oregon Short Line track. It is questionable if these two valuable fossils can be dupli- cated. — The Cheyenne Sun, August 13, 1885. Mr. Knight, Prof. Aughey's assistant, has been on the Platte for several weeks collecting fossils and other curiosities of Wyo- ming soil, and he has succeeded in making a large collection which is now boxed and ready to be placed in the territorial museum whenever there shall be a suitable place provided. It is the earnest desire of Prof. Aughey that the next legis- lature shall recognize the necessity of preserving some of the curiosities to be found on Wyoming soil for the territory's own benefit. A very handsome exhibition is already collected and in New Orleans. This will be sent back next March. Then there should be a place in which the fossils and minerals now being collected could be added to it and the whole displayed in a neat little museum. It would be valuable for reference to residents of the territory and would prove a great attraction to visitors. — The Cheyenne Sun, September 1, 1885. Fallons Bluffs Apr 1 the 1859 Due S. P. Ashcroft or order the sum of three Hundred & Forty Six Dollars 40/00 100 Fore Survaises Rendered To April 1st 59 J. M. Hockaday & Co. Written across face the pr. J. E. Bromly Ag. following : Chg. a to a/c F Endorsed on back as follows : Received on the within one company horse valued at Sixtv Dollars. June 26th 1859. J. M. Hockaday & Co. Note- $346.40 S. P. Ashcroft 60.00 286.40 Proceedings of a Council of Administration which convened at Fort Laramie D. T. pursuant to the following order, viz : Headquarters Fort Laramie D. T. General Order) Oct. 30th, 1866. No. 31 ) Extract LL ... A Council of administration to consist of Capt. D. S. Gordon 2nd U. S. Cavalry, Bvt. Major U. S. A. Capt. W. P. McCleery, 18th U. S. Inftry & 1st Lieut. H. B. Freeman 18 U. S. Infty & Bvt. Capt. U. S. A. will convene at 2 P. M. on the 31st inst. or as soon thereafter as practicable for the purpose of taxing the Sutler and transacting such other 682 ANNALS OF WYOMING business as may properly brought before it. By order of Major Van Voast. Sigd) J. Keyes Hyer 1st Lieut. 18th Infty. U. S., & Post Adjt. Fort Laramie D. T. The Council met pursuant to the above order. Present, All the Members, and resolved to tax the Post Sutler 10c per average number of Officers and Enlisted men at the Post for Sept. & Oct. 1866. Average number of Officers & Enlisted men during the month of Sept. 366 at 10c per man gives $36.60. Average number of Officers & Enlisted men for month Oct. 313 at 10c per man gives $31.30 total tax— $67.90.— (Signed) D. S. Gordon Capt. 2nd U. S. Cavalry & Bvt. Major U. S. A. (Signed) W. P. McCleerv (Signed) II. B. Freeman Capt. 18th U. S. Infty. Bvt. Capt. U. S. A. 1st Lieut, 18th U. S. Infty. Recorder. Approved (Signed) James Van Voast Major 18th U. S. Infty. Comd'g. True copy from Proceedings of Council of Administration. W. S. Starring 1st Lieut. 18th Infy., Post Adjt. Received of W. G. Bullock, Esq. ($67.90) Sixty Seven Dollars and Ninety cents. Amt. of tax imposed upon Post Sutler for the months of Sept. & October 1866, by Council of Adminis- tration at Fort Laramie D. T. October 30, 1866. W. S. Starring Fort Laramie D. T. 1st Lieut. 18th Infy. Dee. 8th, 1866. Post Treasurer. ACCESSIONS April, 1932-July, 1932 Museum Meyers, E. D. — Fossil thought to be a snake's head. Carroll, Major C. G. — Portrait of George Washington. Governor's Office — Finger print. (Steel cut). Pease, Mrs. Vera Jane Edwards — (Nurse during the World War) ■ — 1 bullet, 2 pieces of French money and 1 piece of English money, 3 World War insignia, coffee cup used by Mrs. Pease during the War, uniform gloves, coif, cuffs, apron of Eed Cross uniform, photo- graph of Mrs. Pease taken in 1932, and card advertising the Sage Brush Inn and Deaver Wyoming Camp Ground operated by Mrs. Pease from 1925 to 1932. ANNALS OF WYOMING 683 Gautschi, Mr. Hans — Lusk, Wyoming. Specimens of stone, tools taken from the "Spanish Diggings" on June 12, 1932. These are hoes, spear points, arrow points and scrapers, and have probably been discarded because of some imperfection. Picture of Mr. Gautschi 's own collection which he has found in the "Diggings" and which he has mounted in cement and keeps on display at his Filling Station in Lusk. This collection of more than six hundred arrows, blades and spears, is a fine collection and is well displayed. McCreery, Mrs. Alice Eichards — Eight photos, Wyoming Battalion, Span- ish American War. They are Captain O 'Brien, Cooks, Guard Mount at "Camp Eichards", "Co. C. Mustering In", Co. C. officers; Co. C. Co. G. shows Major Wilhelm and Gov. W. A. Eichards. One "Com- pany formation ' '. The following pictures: One photo of the flag 1st Battalion Wyo- ming Volunteers; one photo taken in 1898, Mrs. W. A. Eichards and Miss Alice Eichards hold the flag "1st Battalion Wyoming Volun- teers", with Mrs. H. B. Henderson first picture at left. Group photo of Big Horn County men, not one who was under six feet tall. They are Geo. B. McClellan, A. L. Coleman, W. A. Eichards, L. C. Thomas, W. E. Taylor. One photo taken in Governor's office in Capitol build- ing, in 1898, shows Gov. Eichards and his three daughters, Captain O'Brien, and Harold D. Coburn. Miss Alice Eichards was Secretary to the Governor. One page of "The Wave." It carries the following pictures: Major Foote and Staff; Major Foote; Co. C, Captain Thos. Millar; Co. F., Captain J. D. O'Brien; Capt. J. D. O'Brien, Capt. Thos. Millar; Capt. D. C. Wrightler; Capt. E. P. Holtenhouse; Co. H., Captain E. P. Holtenhouse; Co. G., Captain D. C. Wrightler. Original Manuscripts Waldo, Mrs. F. H. — "Troupers and Tremolos" and "Dakota Hunting." Fryxell, Dr. F. M. — "Thomas Moran's Journey to the Tetons in 1879", with the following illustrations: Picture of Thomas Moran on his way to Yellowstone country in 1871; Picture of Thomas Moran from portrait taken in 1882; Photostat of a page from Thomas Moran's journal; Beaver Dick, his Indian wife, Jenny, and their half-breed children. Camp in Teton Basin. Hanna, O. P. — "Mr. Hanna's Eeminiscences." Mr. Hanna came to Wyo- ming in 1868. Documents McCreery, Mrs. G. W. — Diary kept in 1874 by the late W. A. Eichards, former Governor of Wyoming. Treas. Office (J. A. Calverly) — Plat of Post Ft. McKinney, Wyoming, 1895. Collection of documents concerning the World's Fair of 1893 and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1903. This collection in- cludes correspondence, expense accounts, premiums awarded, scrap books, and United States Postal Service Bulletin, 1904. Calverly, James A. — Souvenir, Second United States Volunteer Cavalry, Torrey's Eough Eiders. Wyoming State Highway Department — Map of Wyoming compiled and drawn by Julius Muller, 1931. 684 ANNALS OF WYOMING Governor's Office — Freehand drawing of Christmas Greetings. Resolu- tion from Prospectors Alliance of America, San Francisco, Cali- fornia, dated December 26, 1912. Joint Resolution, 62nd Congress, May 17, 1912. Senate Bill 4016, Introduced in U. S. Senate March 2, 1898. (Ceding Public Lands to States) Senator Warren. Senate Bill 205, Introduced in U. S. Senate by Senator Warren, Dec. 6, 1899. (Ceding Public Lands to the States.) Act of Admission of the State of Wyoming July 10, 1890. Dunder, Clarence J. — Architects plans and specifications of three resi- dences in Cheyenne. 2 mail sacks and 2 boxes filled with papers and various sorts of files, ledgers, and books of several of the old cattle companies of this part of the State. Some of them are The Carring- ton-Brooks Horse Farm, Suffolk and Co., The Lance Creek Cattle Co. and Adams, Chate and Co. Most of them date back to the 80 's and 90 'a. Wills, Miss Olive — Twenty-two letters written by artists to Miss Wills which were used as source material by Miss Wills in her manuscript on Wyoming Art and Artists. McCreery, Mrs. Alice Richards — Copies of four letters written in March and April, 1896, in regard to naming the Battleship Wyoming. These letters were from Senator F. E. Warren, Mrs. Di Mc D. Van Voor- hies. R. A. Hobert, and John D. Long of the U. S. Navy. Six pencil drawings by R. Swaim. Mr.- Swaim was the artist for the Richards' party when they surveyed the South boundary of Wyoming in 1870. The diary by W. A. Richards during this survey was published in Annals of Wyoming, Volume 7, No. 4. Books Illinois State Historical Library — Brief Biographies of the 129 Figurines made by Mrs. Schmidt. Fryxell, Dr. F. M. — "The River of the West" by Frances Fuller Victor. Illinois State Historical Librarv — Transaction of the 111. State Historical Society, 1931. Fryxell, Fritiof— The Teton Peaks and their ascent— By Dr. F. M. Fryxell. (Pub. 1932). Pamphlets Pease, Mrs. Vera Jane Edwards — "More Yank Talk," a Review of A. E. F. Humor, June 1919. Univ. of Montana — Historical Reprint No. 18. Music Lathrop, Mrs. Jean Brooks — Three pieces of music, words and music original, and manuscript in the original draft. Mrs. Lathrop is the daughter of former Governor and Mrs. Brooks, and wife of Dr. Lathrop of Casper, Wyoming. Titles of music: "Modern Rustling", "Round-up", "Indians in Town." Miscellaneous Carter, Hon. Vincent — Slab taken from the United States Capitol Build- ing shortly after the burning of the Capitol by the British Army on August 24, 1814. Newspapers Governor's Office — Virginia Souvenir Number of the Alexandria Ga- zette, which is in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington. Pease, Mrs. Vera Jane Edwards — Camp Kearnev Weekly News, Volume 1, Number 33, July 20, 1918. Annate of fKHpoming Vol. 9 OCTOBEK, 1932 No. 2 CONTENTS Artists of Wyoming By Olive Wills Autobiography of Elling William Gollings, Cowboy Artist The Fetterman Massacre By John Guthrie From Fort Reno to Fort Phil Kearny By A. B. Ostrander My First Day at Fort Phil Kearny By A, B. Ostrander Frontier Cattle Days By Mrs. Cyrus Beard Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPAETMBNT OF HISTORY Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian Cheyenne, Wyo. Annate of OTpomtng Vol. 9 OCTOBEE, 1932 No. 2 CONTENTS^ Artists of Wyoming By Olive Wills Autobiography of Elling William Gollings, Cowboy Artist The Fetterman Massacre By John Guthrie From Fort Eeno to Fort Phil Kearny By A. B. Ostrander My First Day at Fort Phil Kearny.... By A: B. Ostrander Frontier Cattle Days By Mrs. Cyrus Beard Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPAETMENT OF HISTORY Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian Cheyenne, Wyo. STATE HISTOEICAL BOAED Acting Governor A. M. Clark Secretary of State A. M. Clark State Librarian : Mjs. Clare E. Ausherman Secretary of Board : Mrs. Cyrus Beard ADVISORY BOAED Judge E. H. Fourt Lander Dr. Grace E. Hebard Laramie Mr. L. C. Bishop Douglas Mr. D. W. Greenburg Casper Mrs. E. A. Ferguson Wheatland Mr. Howard B. Lott Buffalo Mrs. P. J. Quealy Kemmerer Mrs. Alburtus Brandt ' Moorcroft Mrs. C. L. Vande vender Basin Neither the State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board nor the State Historian is responsible for any statements made or opinions expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. (Copyright applied for by State Historical Department) CHAPTER 96 STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Session Laws 1921 DUTIES OF HISTORIAN Section 6. It shall be the duty of the State Historian: (a) To collect books, maps, charts, documents, manu- scripts, other papers and any obtainable material illustrative of the history of the State. (b) To procure from pioneers narratives of any exploits, perils and adventures. (c) To collect and compile data of the events which mark the progress of Wyoming from its earliest day to the present time, including the records of all of the Wyoming men and women, who served in the World War and the history of all war activities in the State. (d) To procure facts and statements relative to the his- tory, progress and decay of the Indian tribes and other early inhabitants within the State. (e) To collect by solicitation or purchase fossils, speci- mens, of ores and minerals, objects of curiosity connected with the history of the State and all such books, maps, writings, charts and other material as will tend to facilitate historical, scientific and antiquarian research. (f) To file and carefully preserve in his office in the Capitol at Cheyenne, all of the historical data collected or obtained by him, so arranged and classified as to be not only available for the purpose of compiling and publishing a History of Wyoming, but also that it may be readily accessible for the purpose of disseminating such historical or biographical in- formation as may be reasonably requested by the public. He shall also bind, catalogue and carefully preserve all unbound books, manuscripts, pamphlets, and especially newspaper files containing legal notices which may be donated to the State Historical Board. (g) To prepare for publication a biennial report of the collections and other matters relating to the transaction of the Board as may be useful to the public. (h) To travel from place to place, as the requirements of the work may dictate, and to take such steps, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be required to obtain the data necessary to the carrying out of the purpose and objects herein set forth. w t ff ,f A. -;i "3 ,8| I ^S^^j*:: -^ ifi III V '» v WM •'■«" IV. * WO ' ' \<fi ! " ^^^: ^ ' > ^ ^i- ^- ^ ^Lz j§£ Unnate of looming VOL. OCTOBER, 1932 Xo. 2 ARTISTS OF WYOMING Olive Wills Miss Wills studied in the Chicago Art Institute, New York School of Fine and Applied Arts and the Ecole d' Art Paris, France. She has published a set of still life studies, and of California trees for schoolroom use. She is a successful teacher of art in the Cheyenne Public Schools, a position she has held for sixteen years, and which position she feels entitles her to be classed with the Wyoming artists. Miss Wills travels much and always uses the opportunity that travel gives to enrich her knowledge of art. - — Editor's Note. - Do dreams come true? Surely out in this wide open coun- try hopes and dreams soar higher than in the shut-in limits of the great city, where in the fine' schools there is much to learn but not the inspiration that the vast prairies, the ^great sweeping plains, and the ma- jestic mountains stimulate. They give not only an inspira- tion for art, but a dream for many accomplishments, always a hope to attain success. We have many dreamers in Wyo- ming who are going to attain this end from the brave cowboy who lives near nature 's heart to the artist who tries to put on canvas her wondrous beauties and thus pass it on to the world. It is the writer's hope and dream that many of our Wyo- ming boys and girls will some day attain success in the art world and contribute their part to the building up of a more beautiful Wyoming, beautiful cities, parks, buildings, and homes as well as fine pictures that they may do something that will be handed down in history as the achievements of the twentieth century and may tell the people hundreds of years hence that this country at least had high ideals for the beautiful. 690 ANNALS OF WYOMING This makes up stop to think, how will the centuries to come consider our work ; no doubt it will be crude to them, but it will tell them of our life and our methods of living. Just as we now look back upon the art of the stone age of the Indians, Egyptians, and Greeks. History proves that all people have a craving for aesthetic pleasures which may be expressed in various ways. These few notes will at least tell of a few Wyomingites who are making an attempt to attain the mark. First we must take note of the stone age of Wyoming, for the art of such an age has recently been discovered and none can better describe these wonderful findings than has David Love, a student in the University of Wyoming who as- sisted in uncovering these petroglyphs in the following article. i Mlilll I Taken from "Petroglyphs of Central Wyoming" By David Love The drawings, all of which are incised, may be roughly classified into three groups. The first and smallest group con- tains the simplest drawings. Deeply incised parallel lines, generally in groups of from three to eight, drawn vertically on the cliff face are very fre- quent. They vary in length from a few inches to several feet and may be tool grooves. Single drawings of large arrows, life size bear tracks, trees, and tepees are common. The trees drawn are similar to the pines growing in the neighborhood. There is one drawing of a plant greatly resembling corn. A few signs common to many tribes of American Indians today are found on the cliffs. The symbol for rain consisting of a horizontal line with many vertical lines extending downward from it, the zigzag mark denoting lightning and the wavy line indicating water are associated together. The second group consisting of definite designs may be divided into two sub-groups — the designs enclosed in circles and those without circles. The latter and smaller group contains drawings which are usually bordered by straight lines on two sides or by rectangles. Alternating parallel and zigzag lines are the chief features of those designs bordered only by two straight lines, while the rectangles contain crosses, squares, triangles, "ladders" and zigzag lines in varying combinations. A sym- metrical figure with the same outline as the ' ' iron cross ' ' of Ger- many occurs in several places. Some rectangles contain both horizontal and vertical parallel lines so the resulting combination is similar to a coarse screen mesh. The designs enclosed in circles are by far the most carefully drawn and artistic of the glyphs. These circles rarely have a AXXALS OF WYOMING 691 diameter less than a foot or more than two feet. Many are colored varying shades of red, yellow and green. The red and yellow colors are probably derived from the hematite and limonite which abound in the vicinity but the green color is of unknown origin. Although the colors are unprotected from wind, water and sun, the oldest residents of the district say there has been no notice- able fading or weathering of the color during the last half cen- tury. Rock upon which the circles are drawn has been smoothed off previous to drawing and beneath the cliffs flat grinding stones, possibly used in this process have been picked up. Short rays about an inch in length and one half inch apart are common around the outside of many circles and often double lines have been drawn along the sides, are frequently divided into either bilaterally symmetrical halves or very similar fourths. Few cir- cles contain pictures of people but many are adorned with pictures of animals, birds and a few reptiles. Elk, deer, antelope, and moose are found in several. Mice and other small animals, the identity of which is uncertain are common. Within one circle is a figure of a head with a human face, ears and horns like a buffalo and on each side of this figure is a small rodent in a vertical position. The birds represented bear a resemblance to sage chickens, hawks or eagles and vultures. The vultures are foreign to Wyoming but the other birds are common. Suns and crescents, most of which are colored red or green, are found in attractive and symmetrical designs. Among the most artistic cir- cles are two containing turtles. One contains four small turtles, each in a fourth of the circle and separated from the other three by a green horizontal and a yellow vertical bar which radiate from a green ball at the center of the circle. The other circle encloses but a single turtle twelve inches high and nine inches broad. This is the finest individual drawing in the region. Though both sets of turtles are colored this single one is most carefully done. The shell is divided into seventy-two squares and triangles, each of which is carefully drawn and colored a different shade from the ones next to it. The color is in no case run over the section for which it was intended. On most of the divisions reddish pur- ple, green and yellow have been used alternately. Each leg- also is divided into the same number of scales and the correspond- ing scale on each leg is of the same color. The red head is tri- angular, the feet each have five claws and the long tail is in a position which shows the ancient artist must have had intimate knowledge of the habits of turtles. Upon one very smooth light pink sandstone block there is a group of thirteen well preserved circles, most of which have been colored and all of which show a superior style of workmanship. They are nearly all the same size and most have short, closely and evenly spaced rays protruding from their outer edges. Animals and birds in pairs are drawn in several circles. One contains a 692 AXXALS OF WYOMING pair of birds similar to vultures, another exhibits a pair of antelope, another a pair of mice, etc. One circle divided into four parts contains characters which suggest the four phases of the moon. Another contains a very plain drawing of the sun, moon and lightning. Still another contains a sun located in the center of the circle, a ladder leading from the bottom up to the sun and a second ladder from the sun to the upper edge of the circle. Up on a high cliff isolated from the other drawings is a lone circle containing an upright figure of a man with two shafts of light- ning striking his head and a spear in each hand. This is the only case in which blending of colors took place. Purple and green were blended together on this man's body in a very artistic manner. The third group consists of realistic drawings, such as people, animals, birds and reptiles. The second and third groups overlap in many places for often animals, birds, or reptiles are found within circles, or circles are found inside animals. Numer- ous drawings are of animals which do not, now at least, live in the neighborhood. Drawings of moose, elk or deer, antelope, and mountain sheep or mountain goat, and buffalo are plentiful and those of porcupines, badgers, and small rodents occur. Several pictures of animals resembling coyotes or wolves, bobcats and one with plates on its back and a figure like an armadillo have been found. In one place are five figures of short-legged, long bodied animals with blunt horns or bumps on their noses. Most of the animals have certain features in common. Side views were al- ways drawn although in many cases attempts were made to show both sides of the head. The profile of the head was drawn, then two eyes, nostrils and mouth divided by a vertical bar were drawn on the side of the head. The feet of the cloven-hoofed animals were shown just as the tracks of that animal looked. In no place do the pictures of horse and cow appear so it is possible these glyphs were made previous to their advent. These ancient artists attempted a. few drawings depicting the internal structure of animals. There is one very good picture of a large spiny nosed animal. The figure is 120 cm long and 53 cm high. Six coils of the intestine, the anus, duodenum, stomach, gullet and nine ribs are shown. The well carved feet displaying five claws resemble closely a street-cleaners broom. Some internal views of persons are shown but they are poorly made. Drawings of several different kinds of birds in varying postures were found. They also show two eyes on the same side of the head. In one group of five a. front view of the birds with wings outstretched was shown. These birds had long beaks and claws. One large one wore a pair of wattles on his throat and a tuft of hair on his head in the same manner as the wild turkey. Side views of some birds with their wines folded were made. ANNALS OF WYOMING 693 There are many drawings of people but all have certain features in common. Figures face directly to the front, the hands are upraised and fingers extended, and both feet point the same way. No profiles of the human face or side views of the body have been found. All figures are upright with one exception. Ten distinct types of the human figure have been described. # # # . Many of the figures are drawn with bows, arrows, or spears in their hands and a few are shown in the act of shooting. Fre- quently people are shown with arrows shot through them, or about to pierce them. Few drawings of people are colored. In some the incision was slight but the coloring very deep. Now after considerable weathering only. the color remains with a few faint traces of incision. * * * These petroglyphs are unrelated to any of the Indian tribes in the vicinity. The oldest of the chiefs of the Arapahoe and Shoshoni tribes cannot tell who made them, what they signify, how old they are ; in fact they have not even a legend about them. The Indians know of their existence — that is all. The Arapahoes tell a tale that when they came over from the old world to the new they found in this vicinity a race of pygmy cannibals living among the. cliffs. The people who made the drawings were in- telligent. They lived in tepees, used bows, arrows, and spears, were hunters and travelers. These people were no mean artists as is evinced by their attractive color schemes of red, green and yellow ; their sym- metrical designs and excellent reproductions of animals, etc. They were entirely lacking, however, in a sense of the perspective. The drawings were not all made at once but long intervals elapsed between periods of artistic endeavors. This is born out by the fact that clear-cut incised lines are found superimposed upon very faint, crude, weather-checked drawings of another type. Since the glyphs occur at various heights, some time must have lapsed since they were made, as erosion and depositions take place very slowly due to the arid climate and porosity of the soil in this region. Some drawings are fifteen feet above the present ground level while others are found within six inches of the ground and may even extend beneath the surface. 0^^^^ ' ^' r Since our knowledge of the early history of Egypt and Greece is through their wonderful buildings, let us commence the survey of Wyoming artists with the architects, a few years ago we had architects of note who left marks of their talents in some of the old buildings and residences in Cheyenne; among whom are: Mr. Anderson, who designed the Hon. J. M. Carey, and the Hayes homes and the old school which is now used as the Ad- ministrative Building; Mr. W. S. Rainsford, the Hynds, Judge Potter, C. D. Carey and Van Tassel homes; Mr. Mathews, the Commercial Block on 16th and Carey. It is interesting to note 694 ANNALS OF WYOMING how these architects had their own particular style ; each show- ing a trace of some early Roman, English or perhaps Dutch type. The artists who are with us today, Mr. Wm. Dubois, and Mr. Frederic Hutchinson Porter, residents of Cheyenne, are doing much to promote the beautiful, not only in their home town but all over the state, in our artistic state, county and public buildings, schools and homes. Mr. William Dubois had unusual advantages in his profes- sion for his father was an architect who was educated at Beaux Arts in Paris. After coming to America, one of his big projects was on the engineering work of Panama Canal. Mr. Wm. Dubois was in Chicago and had his training at the Chicago School of Architecture with Patton and Fisher, architects and N. S. Patton architect of Board of Education, Chicago. Mr. Dubois designed the following public buildings : the east and west wings of the State Capitol, court houses in Cheyenne and Laramie ; the Insane Asylum at Evanston ; Reformatory group at Worland ; Tubercu- lar Sanitarium at Basin ; the Lander Training School ; the Hos- pitals at Rock Springs, Casper and Sheridan ; Gymnasium, Nor- mal Building, Hoyt, Merica, and Agricultural Hall at the Uni- versity of Wyoming ; Orphanage at Torrington ; High Schools, Cheyenne, Rawlins, Casper, Lander, Teton and Riverton; the handsome Wyoming Consistory in Cheyenne, also the Masonic Temples, Cheyenne and Laramie; The Commercial buildings are the Hynds building, Lincoln Theater, Tribune Publishing Com- pany and Cheyenne Apartments and now we learn his plans for the new Federal building to be erected in Cheyenne have been accepted by the officials at Washington and will soon be under way of construction. Mr. Dubois is now chairman of the Zoning Commission. He also does much in promoting city improvements, planning, and landscaping. He tells an interesting story of how, when he came to Cheyenne, they had planted the first trees on Randall Boule- vard and he used to carry water by the bucketsfull to help grow them so he has helped to build up Cheyenne in more ways than one. While architecture is Mr. Dubois vocation, his avocation is music. He at one time was organist in the First Baptist Church in Cheyenne. Mr. Frederic H. Porter's first work in Cheyenne was the Boyd building erected in 1912. Since that time he has planned many handsome buildings all over the state. A few of the out- standing ones in Cheyenne are the First Presbyterian Church, the Memorial Hospital, Percy Smith's Mercantile building, Christensen Jewelry store and the United States Air Mail Field hangar and shops. Letters from presidents of school districts in Encampment, Jackson, Egbert and Gillette express most graci- ously their appreciation of his designs in their buildings. ANNALS OF WYOMING G95 Before coming to Cheyenne, Mr. Porter helped plan build- ings in Denver, Salt Lake City, St. Louis, Boston and Cleveland. His technical education was at Wentworth Institute, Boston, and design at Boston and St. Louis Ateliers. He was first winner in 1918 of the American Traveling scholarship. While architecture is Mr. Porter's profession, he gives much of his time and talents to painting portraits and stage settings — an all around artist. Mr. Porter has also started others on the path to achieve success. Eugene C. Burke, a Cheyenne high school graduate was one of his pupils and gives credit to Mr. Porter for his success, in win- ning the Scarab prize in the University of Kansas. Later he attended the University of Pennsylvania, but returned to the University of Kansas to accept a position as instructor of archi- tectural drawing. It was then he had the honor of winning a traveling scholarship and spent four months in Europe. In the summer of 1931 he was selected to assist Dr. Fulkerson of Harvard in conducting an architectural tour through Europe. Mr. Burke is now chief designer for the Grand Rapids Store Equipment Corporation in Chicago. He specializes in interior design. One of his latest achievements was designing the interior of the jewelry store in the Waldorf Astoria, New York City. He also mentioned several other noted buildings in New York that he helped to design. Joseph Watts, another Cheyenne high school graduate, took up architectural work, but has now turned to designing big steel projects. He helped plan the steel structure of the bridge across the Mississippi river at Yicksburg. Mr. Day Woodford of Laramie is now studying architecture at the University of Minnesota. He also paints landscapes; his water color sketches have been hung in the Art Gallery of the University. Mr. Harold L. Curtiss connected with the University of Wyoming as Extension Landscape Architect is now in charge of the design and construction of the George Washington Me- morial Parks which are being established throughout Wyoming. Mr. Curtiss is a graduate of the University of California. He was recently chosen as one of four western men to enter the American Academy in Rome competing for the design of a Me- morial Park. He has also done many fine water color and pen and ink pieces of work; some of which were recently shown in our State Exhibit. Where can we find a more happy setting for an artist than as a Forest Ranger and this is Mr. Alfred G. Clayton, (1) senior ranger on the Washakie forest with headquarters at Dubois. Mr. Clayton's achievements have been almost as versatile as was that of Leonardo de Yinci. Forest Ranger, author, painter and il- lustrator; he has made pen and ink illustrations for "American Forests" published in Washington, D. C, has written and il- 696 ANNALS OF WYOMING lustrated short stories and paints in oil, landscapes and figures. He writes ' ' There has to be a horse and rider in a picture before is becomes interesting to me, particularly Indians." Mr. Clayton came to Wyoming from New York City when a boy and had his art training in Chicago Art Institute and American Academy. Mr. Hans Kleiber of Dayton has been for a number of years in the United States Forest Service. His experience has been particularly interesting. He was born in Germany of Austrian parentage, came to Wyoming in 1906. In 1907, when but twenty years old, he went into the Forestry service from which he re- tired in 1924 and has since devoted his entire time to art, paint- ings and etchings. He has had several exhibits of his works in Boston and in California at the International exhibition in Los Angeles. In 1931 he had the honor of winning the silver medal and was elected member of the California Print Makers Society. The remarkable point in Mr. Kleiber 's career is that he has at- tained these honors through perseverence and natural talent hav- ing had no art instruction. His work received much favorable comment at the recent Wyoming art exhibit as did also the work of Mr. Lin Hopkins (2) and his wife, Ruth Joy Hopkins of Cas- per, an ideal companionship both having the same interests. Mrs. Hopkins attended the St. Louis School of Fint Arts and Mr. Hopkins studied in Chicago. They write "first of all we are interested in painting the story of Wyoming ; the mountains, the Wyoming sky, the sheep and sheep wagons, the bigness of it all." They are now recording the early history of Wyoming in a series of very beautiful dry point etchings. Pictures of "In- dependence Rock", "The Old Platte Bridge", and "The Mormon Pilgrimage"; also a series of the old Forts. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins also have exhibited fine oils and water colors. Mr. J. R. Wilson, a merchant of Glendo and father of our State Senator Bayard C. Wilson is one of Wyoming's outstanding artists. At a recent exhibit in Cheyenne, a New York City writer said he felt sure if his painting of Platte River Canyon were ex- hibited in Grand Central Gallery of New York it would receive not less than third prize. Mr. Wilson studied in Chicago Art Institute and St. Louis School of Fine Arts. He does wood carvings as well as paintings of Wyoming scenery. Mrs. Dorothy Dolph of Casper came west at the invitation of her uncle, Captain Henry Palmer, who served as scout with William Cody. She writes, "it was my uncle and the stories he has written of the early days that first instilled in me the interest and thrill the west holds, giving me the great desire to paint it on canvas." Mrs. Dolph studied in Minneapolis, Minne- sota; Mihvaukee, Wisconsin and Chicago Art Institutes. In recognition of her work she has received two scholarships and an Honorable Mention. ANNALS OF WYOMING 697 ' ' Rags, ' ' do you know who that is ? Mr. Ralph A. Giles for some twenty years a resident of Evanston not only well known all over Wyoming, but also all over the west for his clever cartoons. Mr. Giles studied in Chicago, first taking up sign painting. "Have painted everything from pictures on fifteen story buildings to road signs on the highway. ' ' He has been con- tributor to two National Trade Journals, also the Union Pacific magazine and at present is art editor of the Union Pacific shops and Employees Magazine. Mr. Giles now lives in Ogden, Utah, but being with the Union Pacific railroad we feel he is still a Wyomingite, and we are indebted to him for the interesting cartoon "All About Wyoming Artists." Mr. T. E. Ronne, another commercial artist whose home is in Cheyenne, had his art training with private teachers in Minne- apolis, Chicago and New York. Mr. Ronne has done some fine landscape painting. He recently had an exhibit at Young's Art Galleries, Chicago. Every summer he searches out the beauty spots of Wyoming, particularly Teton National Park. One of his pic- tures of the Tetons is now in the Stock Growers National Bank. His commercial art is sign painting and decorating public buildings. Of these he has done the Hill County and Philips County Court houses in Montana, the Masonic Temple at Havre, Montana. Sev- eral of his pictures have been used by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad to portray the beauties of that route. James L. Condit, born in Iowa, came to Wyoming in the eighties when he took up work on a big sheep ranch. In the loneliness of his life as a sheep herder, his thoughts turned to art. He studied carefully his surroundings, the mountains, the prairies, sheep, dogs and horses. Giotto one of the earliest artists of the thirteenth century was a sheep herder and made his first drawings on stone, but Mr. Condit soon became convinced that his life work must be art so he went to Cincinnati and studied in the Art Institute there, then to Boston and later to the Pacific Coast where he established a studio. His works are landscapes and portraits in both oil and water color. Mrs. Arthur Keays, (3) born in Buffalo, Wyo., has won two distinctive honors in the State ; one the design for the Wyoming State flag which design was adopted by the State Legislature in 1917. The seal of the State of Wyoming is the heart of the flag. The seal on the bison represents the truly western custom of branding. The bison was once "monarch of the plains." The red border represents "the red men 'who knew and loved our coun- try long before any of us were here also the blood of the pioneers who gave their lives in reclaiming the soil." White is an emblem of purity and uprightness over Wyoming. Blue which is found in the bluest of blue Wyoming skies and the distant mountains has through the ages been significant of fidelity. Justice and virility and finally the reel, white and blue of the flag of the 698 ANNALS OF WYOMING State of Wyoming are the colors of the greatest flag in all the world, the Stars and Stripes of the United States of America. Mrs. Keays' other honor was winning first prize for dining car decorations for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad. She received her art training at Chicago Art Institute. Frank Joseph Vavra was born in Nebraska in 1901. His family moved to Cheyenne where he attended school. From childhood he was interested in drawing and painting, but his first art experience was as window decorator in a clothing store. Frank was one of the first two Cheyenne boys to enlist when war was declared. He took part in all major battles in France, was gassed and sent to a hospital. During convalescence he studied art under a pupil of Claude Monet. On his return from France, he took up art seriously and studied under several promi- nent artists. Mr. Vavra first opened a studio in Denver, painting portraits, landscape and still life. Later he moved to Bailey, Colorado, where he built a studio and residence which is said to be the most individual and artistic studio in the Rocky Mountain region. Mr. Vavra has had exhibits in many prominent galleries all over the United States and has indeed been very successful in his work. Mr. J. E. Stimson, a resident of Cheyenne for a number of years, is a particularly successful commercial artist. His work is taking photographs and painting them, using both oil and water color mediums. Mr. Stimson brought out a most interest- ing point in a talk on his work. He told how difficult it was to select his views. He could not add a tree or a bush as other artists often do to make a better balanced composition nor could he eliminate inartistic objects. For fourteen years Mr. Stimson was with the Union Pacific railroad as official photographer. In 1904, he covered the State illustrating the industries and scenic attractions for the World's Fair Commission of St. Louis. Later, he was commissioned by the Bureau of Reclamation, De- partment of the Interior, Washington, D. C, to photograph all the industries and developments under different projects ; in the mountains and the western states, including the Boulder Dam. Many of his painted photographs look like original landscape paintings. Of these his best are perhaps Jackson Lake and the Tetons and three of Mount Moran from Elk Island. Another very successful artist in this line of work is Mrs. Elsa Spear Edwards, (4) born in Wyoming, who attended school in Sheridan, also in Washington, D. C, and California. Several of her pictures of the Big Horn mountains have appeared on magazine covers and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and Northern Pacific railroads have used them for advertising. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Carrigan are both artists of Casper, specializing in photography. Mr. Carrigan made the official poster of the Cheyenne Frontier Days in 1927. ANNALS OF WYOMING 699 Mrs. Minerva Teichert of Cokeville, a native of Utah, studied at Chicago Art Institute and at Art Students League in 1914-16 working with Robert Henri. She has exhibited in the National Academy and Mrs. Henry Payne Whitney's private gallery. For two years she lived on a ranch far from neighbors. Here Mrs. Teichert received her inspiration for artistic expression. It was at that time she wrote and illustrated a historical novel "A Romance of Old Fort Hall." One of her mural paintings is in Newhouse Gallery, Salt Lake City. Mr. Harold Curry at home now in Hillsdale, attended school in Cheyenne, then went to the University of Kansas and was graduated there in 1930. Mr. Curry paints in all mediums, but specializes in commercial art work such as business advertise- ments and Christmas cards — these last in very fine wood carving. Mr. Thomas MaKinley Wood of Big Horn has expressed his love of art in a very unusual medium, that of iron work. Of course back in early history, we see hand work in wrought iron, but of late years machinery has taken the place of hand crafts- men, but now Mr. Wood has made his own tools and has won marked success. The New York Herald Tribune published several illustrations of his work and they wrote "he revived the strenuous romance of old ranch life in his iron silhouettes. ' ' Mr. H. K. Sweney of Casper came to Wyoming when a child and at one time was a rider on Bar V ranch. Quoting the Casper Tribune, "he was an experienced rider and roper and a hunter of big game on the Wyoming mountains and plains, therefore, in his pictures, he depicts with a true depth of meaning the life of tthe plainsman. "The Stampede" is one of his master pieces. His paintings of wild animals in their picturesque mountain sur- roundings are particularly true to nature and artistic in color, sunshine and shadow. Dot Breckons now Mrs. Stanley Ladow of New York City, was born in Wyoming, and at one time lived in Cheyenne. She studied in Paris and has done some very outstanding art work, particularly in book illustration. The Cody Enterprise writes of Mr. A. A. Anderson (5) owner of Palette Ranch and of Mr. Phil Sawyer as two promi- nent Wyoming artists. Mr. Anderson had an exhibit in New York City in 1927 and Mr. Sawyer painted a large picture of Buffalo Bill portraying the great scout as a showman during his appearance in Paris where Mr. Sawyer first saw him. Mrs. Raymond R. Jones, nee Gladys Powelson, a Cheyenne high school graduate and a student of the University of Wyo- ming, also a pupil of Mrs. Evelyn Hill, paints landscapes in oil. Of particular interest is the setting she painted for the historical map designed by Dr. Grace Hebard in her ' ' History and Romance of Wyoming. ' ' 700 AXXALS OF WYOMING The life of Mrs. Monona Van Cise of Laramie shows wnat perseverance and love of the work can do in accomplishing one's desires. The following is an outline of her career as given by her successful pupil, Mrs. Evelyn Hill. In 1879, Mrs. Van Cise married Mr. Olson A^an Cise a Universalist minister. For a num- ber of years she taught art and painted portraits. She attended the Chicago Art Institute and in 1897 sent two flower studies to the annual exhibition of Pennsylvania, both of which were sold during the exhibit. In 1899 they came to Wyoming for Mr. Van Cise's health. It was then she painted the Wyoming scenes making trips to the mountains on her' bicycle. She sold many pastels, sketches and portraits and taught a class during the years she lived in Laramie. In 1911 they moved to Idaho where they spent the next ten years. When Mr. Van Cise died, Mrs. Van Cise became interested in breeding a fine strain of Leghorns and made such a wonderful success of it that she was the subject of many articles in the "Country Gentleman" and several poultry journals. The World War upset the market. She sold the farm, went to California so worn out that she thought she would never paint again, but the lure of the ocean led her back to her easel. It was then she exhibited in San Francisco and Oakland Art galleries. Mrs. Van Cise has now returned to Laramie and con- tinues her art work. Mrs. Evelyn C. Hill of Laramie has done much to promote art interest throughout the state. She recently made a collection of many of the artists' works of the state and exhibited them in Laramie. This project no doubt will soon be wide spread over the state and in every town more and more artists will be dis- covered. Mrs. Hill has had most interesting experience in her study; private lessons, then Wellsley College, Chicago Art In- stitute, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and Art Students League of New York. She specializes in landscape and has shown many beautiful Wyoming scenes. Mrs. Hill taught two years in a Fine Arts Class at the L T niversity of Wyoming; also two summer terms. Mr. Clayton S. Price whose home is now in Portland, Oregon, writes: "Will always remember my twenty years in Wyoming. I arrived in that country near the old town of Buffalo about the year 1888. Was then eleven years old and for twenty years lived there and in the Big Horn Basin, most of the time one hundred fifty miles from the railroad. Those were wonderful days and I will always think of Wyoming as my real home." Wyoming will gladly respond to this salute wishing to show its apprecia- tion of the success Mr. Price has attained in his chosen work for many art critics write in most complimentary terms regarding his work, not only in paintings, but also sculpture and wood carvings. When nineteen years of age a wealthy cattle man sent him to the St. Louis School of Fine Arts. This was his first study. AXXALS OF WYOMING 701 For some ten years lie was a member of the Artists' Colony at Carmel-by-the-Sea, California. A Portland correspondent says "Mr. Price grew up in Wyoming where he had an active out-of- door life and when he began to paint he used the subjects which he knew best, such as cattle, horses and the western riders on the plains. His technique was the conventional kind of picturization and he used usual colors with good draftsmanship. As his techni- que became more facile Price felt as have other moderns, that to be even the most skilled painter of pictures which were noth- ing more than photographic likenesses was not the object of real art. He wanted to paint his subjects as they really were and not just as they seemed to appear. Mr. Price is a tireless painter. He uses vigorous brush strokes and strong coloring. In his pictures he uses color for emphasis and to explain forms rather than photographically. Mr. Price's works here have been pur- chased for the teaching exhibition of the American Federation of Arts and the California Legion of Honor Galleries. Mrs. M. Hicks of Thermopolis has studied with several private teachers in both Iowa and Washington. She is not a professional artist. In her own words \ ' Have painted for my own amusement and for my .pleasure in giving to those I car for." She paints both landscape and portraits. One very large paint- ing of Mount Tacoma and Rainier is spoken of as her best work. While compiling this survey of Wyoming artists we have had the deep sorrow of losing one of our most noted artists, E. W. Gollings, whose home was in Sheridan ; a man much loved as a cowboy as well as an artist, affectionly known all over the State as Bill Gollings. As his autobiography appears in this number of the Annals of Wyoming we will leave his story to be told in his own words. Mrs. Helen Tyrold Carpenter, a native of Laramie and at one time art supervisor in the public schools there is now teach- ing art in the schools of Denver. Mrs. Carpenter studied at the University of Wyoming and State Teachers College, Colorado, and Columbia University from which she received her M. D. degree. She writes : " I have worked in nearly all mediums of pigments, but think I prefer water color to any of the others. I like to paint somewhat creatively and am inclined to empha- size color. I think I am more of a colorist than a draftsman." Mr. Ed. Aragon, an interesting artist of Casper, has studied and lived in the mountains of Wyoming for some twenty-seven years. At a recent exhibit his picture of the historical "Old Goose Egg Ranch" received much favorable comment. Mrs. J. Eula Wallis and Miss Lucille Snow of Laramie also exhibited some interesting paintings in this collection. Miss Snow studied at the University of California, received a B. S. degree at Columbia and taught in the University of Wyoming for two years. She is now in Colorado Teachers College. 702 ANNALS OF WYOMING Mr. Stanley P. Hunt had a number of interesting; paintings of Wyoming mountian scenery. Mr. Hunt is professor in the Engineering Department of the University of Wyoming. He writes : It was through his contact with the Department of Architecture while teaching at the Kansas State College that he became interested in painting. In 1931 he sent some pictures to the Spring Salon of the Society of Independent artists, receiving favorable comment in "Les Artistes d'anjourd'heri" a magazine published in Paris. He has studied at the Broadmoor Art Academy in Colorado Springs and with several prominent private teachers. Ralph Graham, a Cheyenne boy, attended school here and at Kearney Military Academy in Kearney, Neb., then his love of art took him to Chicago Art Institute where he was an un- tiring worker from 1923 to 1928, winning many honors during this student period. In 1924 he won the Allerton Club prize, in 1930 the Union League prize and at this time he was not thirty years of age. He has been accorded prominent places in Chicago Artists' Exhibition at Art Institute; International Water Color Exhibit ; Carson, Pirie, Scott Galleries, Chicago, and Seattle Art Institute. One of his paintings was purchased for the Chicago Public Schools. Ralph's portrait work is particularly outstand- ing, but he also does exceptional work in landscape and still life water colors, etchings and lithographs. In the recent Cheyenne exhibit three of his portraits received very high praise. Julia Sherman, also a Cheyenne school student, graduated here. The family then moved to Los Angeles where Julia .at- tended the Otis Art Institute and also studied in Paris, France. She does all kinds of art work, but specializes in interior decora- tion. She writes: "After a few months of designing ornamental wrought iron, I turned to designing lighting fixtures for a year. Some months were then spent designing drapery treatments, etc., in the shop of an interior decorator. My next position was that which I still hold, working in the design room of a mural decorat- ing company which has decorated many of the finest buildings erected in this section of the country in the past ten years. Throughout the time I have been working, I have continued my studies in sculpture, figure drawing and landscape. ' ' Mr. John Hunton, a very outstanding musician of Laramie, is also an artist of much promise. Mr. Hunton is known through- out the west for his musical compositions of western spirit which are in rythmic tune with his charming paintings of the prairies and mountains of Wyoming. Although he says he is self-taught, his work shows a remarkable ability in observation and study of the books he has read. Mrs. A. E. Roedel, of Cheyenne, one of the most outstanding water colorists of Wyoming, paints solely for her own real AXXALS OF WYOMING '703 pleasure and not from a professional point of view. Her work is truly self expression with high ideals. Mrs. Ada Branson, of Cheyenne, showed some fine landscapes at the late exhibit. Her study has been with private teachers both here and in California. Mrs. J. 0. Bradshaw, Cheyenne, is a landscape painter and also does very fine work in china painting and craft work. She has studied with several prominent private teachers and now has classes in Cheyenne. Mrs. R. K. Greenwood, now making her home with her son, Mr. James Greenwood, Wyoming Attorney General, is also a lover of art and exhibited some lovely landscapes. She studied at Franklin Academy in Nebraska, and the University of Mis- soula, Montana. Mrs. Enid M. Kelly, a newcomer to Wyoming, has exhibited some fine landscapes. She studied in Indianapolis and Los Angeles and now has private classes in Cheyenne. Miss Rose Wallasen of Casper, had some particularly fine oils at the recent exhibit in Wyoming, and in 1931 she repre- sented the Rocky Mountain Artists at Denver Art Museum ex- hibit. Esta K. Dadisman, of Laramie, is now studying in the Exeter Art School in Boston and exhibited there this spring. Miss Dawn Kennedy, head of the Art Department at the University of Wyoming, came from Washington State Normal School at Ellenburg having studied at Pratt Institute and Colum- bia University. Although she has not lived in Wyoming long, yet Miss Kennedy shows a real interest in promoting art in the State. She is chairman of the Laramie Art League and we hope she will continue to reside in Wyoming. The following Cheyenne high school graduates who are specializing in art and give promise of a fine artistic career, are Miss Dorothy Roedel, also graduated from Colorado Springs College and now for three years a. student in Chicago Art In- stitute. For a time, Dorothy was designer for a lamp shade factory in Chicago. Libbie Hoffman is studying at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Sadie Allyn, graduated at Colorado State Teachers College, and is now teaching art in Slater, Colo- rado. Margaret McDougall was graduated at Colorado State Teachers College and is now supervising art in the schools of Las Animas, Colorado. This is not the finale of the history of Wyoming artists; it is only one chapter. We hope and expect as the years roll on, to add many more names of those who have reached success in some Jine of art work. Ruskin says: "Fine art is the use of the hand, the head and the heart", so there are many branches of art work open to the lover of the beautiful. 704 ANNALS OF WYOMING NOTES TO ARTISTS OF WYOMING (1) See Annals of Wyoming' Volume 4, No. 2. (2) Mr. Hopkins presented to the State Historical Department one large etching of Independence Eock. Mrs. Hopkins gave one small etching of Platte Bridge Station 1865. (3) Mrs. Keays presented her original design of the State Flag with its legend to the State Historical Department. (4) Mrs. Edwards has contributed manuscripts and pictures to the Historical Department. (5) See Annals of Wyoming Volume 4, No. 4. AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF ELLING WILLIAM GOLLINGS, THE COW-BOY ARTIST Written at the Request of Chapter B; P. E. 0. Sisterhood Sheridan, Wyoming-, and Presented by This Chapter to Wyoming State Historical Department My memory first took root about 1881 on a large farm in Michigan, near a little town called St. Johns. I was born in what was then the Territory of Idaho in the little mining-camp of Pierce City in 1878. My mother was injured by a fall from slipping and was taken to Chicago for surgical treatment, where she subsequently died and was buried in St. Johns, Michigan. Her maiden name was Tilla A. Howell. I do not know her birth- place, but her people were long residents of Kentucky. My father's name is Ellick H. Gollings, and he was born in Norway in 1842, coming to this country in 1844. There were three brothers older than I in our family. They were Howard M. Gollings, Oliver W. Gollings, DeWitt Clinton Gollings. After my mother's death we were taken in charge by my grandmother, who was then a comparatively young woman, and who was married to the owner of the large farm in Michigan. This was her second marriage, as her first husband died some years be- fore. All the spare time that my brothers had, and they seemed to have a great deal of it, they spent in teasing me. Naturally I did the crying for all four, but between tears, I found time to store in my memory a world of recollections well worth the trou- ble to carry around. I remember that there was everything on this farm — horses, cattle, ducks, geese, screeching guinea-hens, peacocks, pigs, and sheep. There were also hired men who took a hand in teasing me. On this very large farm, also, there was the most wonderful clog in the world. He could go off in the deep-wooded pastures and bring* in the whole herd of milk-cows all by himself and never miss a cow. I have often used this dog for a pillow to take a nap on through the noon hour. It would take pages to describe this farm and all that went with it and perhaps I would not mention it at all had it not been ANNALS OF WYOMING 705 the place where my memory starts. Nothing goes on forever, and so with this farm. My grandfather had met with business reverses through law-suits and underhandedness of some disreputable sons by his first marriage, and consequently the farm vanished in real- ity, but not in memory and a new vicinity loomed up — Chicago. My recollections here in Chicago have never interested me, and how long I was in Chicago this time, is not clear. I do re- member of entering school here but of not learning anything. Our stay here was short and ended with the death of my grand- father. Then my grandmother and my three brothers and I went to New York State to a little town about one hundred miles from Albany called Cooksockie. We lived with an old maid rela- tive of my grandfather's who had a farm a mile or more from the village and who was a spiritualist and heard rappings all the time. During the cold weather when the frost popped the trees and nails in the house, the rappings were continuous. My brothers and I attended school here. I remember the school and the country about, that we traversed, but do not remember learning anything except from my older brothers, who knew how to make figure four traps and to set them for muskrats which were plentiful on the streams. They occasionally caught some. They also could make bows and arrows and sling-shots and could shoot them. These things I learned and it was all at the time that I needed to know. They often told of their experiences in the west at the mines, and as they were old enough to read ad- venture books they kept me thrilled with possible adventures of the future. They often talked of guns and how they wished they had one, as there were plenty of foxes in New York, and one could see them running along the stone-wall fences in winter or crossing the fields. Now it seems that our New York State visit was at a close. We had been there about a year, so, leaving the spirits with the old-maid relative we took the train back to Chicago. Some more schooling took place here at a. boarding school, but not for long as my father had remarried and sent for his flock. My grand- mother with many regrets and tears put us four in care of a man, who had invented some new blasting powder and was headed for the west to my father's mine to try out the explosive. This was a long trip in those days (the Northern Pacific had not been built yet as this was in the spring of 1886) in fact, it was so long that eventually the train seemed like home just as a covered wagon might seem like home after thirty days or more on the dusty trail. However, our train trip was only five or six days long. I do not remember any excitement during this trip, but events and surroundings were so new, I imagine my eyes and mouth were open a good deal. Through western Dakota and Montana territories there was certainly a lack of settlements, compared to the present day 706 ANNALS OF WYOMING and even in 1898 when I once more roamed along the Yellow- stone River, of which I shall write later, there were no settlers at all. The country was in a virgin state for miles and miles. There would only be section house or water tanks to tell one that he was in civilization. There was occasionally a herd of cattle or horses to be seen and once a dark object away off on a flat was said to be a buffalo. It no doubt was, for the last of the buffalo was killed as late as 1887 along the Yellowstone. This the settlers told me later. I do not know to this day where we left the Northern Pacific train and have never inquired, but we landed at our destination, Lewistown, Idaho, at a steamboat landing, as we came up the Snake River by steamboat, a stern-wheeler, as she was called. Lewistown, Idaho, lies at the junction of the Clearwater and Snake Rivers and was an old town then. It was full of in- terest for four boys from the East. If my eyes and mouth were open on the Northern Pacific train, I do not know what my ex- pression was here, for there was surely more to see. The town was literally full of Indians of the Nez Perce tribe. At this time there was some kind of an adjustment through the Interior De- partment at Washington with these Indians. Probably a money settlement and they were either in town to spend it or get it. Which ever way it was it was a sight worth seeing. Not the un- kempt poverty stricken Indians we see today, dressed in cast off white men's rags or the poorest working clothes, bat be- decked in the most gorgeous colored blankets, faces painted, beautiful beaded buckskin garments and lots of their old time finery. They were mostly bare headed, but occasionally a war bonnet was seen or a buffalo horn head dress. Their ponies were the pure Indian pony as there had been no draft horse blood mixture with their ponies of those days. The only blood that might have been infused would perhaps be that of a race horse, brought to the coast by the early Oregon emigrant, who had come in numbers in the sixties and seventies. All of which would not have materially changed the build of the most perfect pony in the world — that of the Indians. Besides the Indians in the town there were also Chinamen, Spaniards and white men. I mention the white men last as they were the least interesting. I had seen them elsewhere. All western towns at that time had a Chinatown and Lewistown was not forgotten, for they were everywhere to be seen in all manner of occupations. The Spaniards were not many in number, but were a distinct type and chiefly followed the "pack train" industry. There were few wagon roads in the country and supplies to the mine and out of way ranches were packed in on mules. Seventy or eighty mules constituted a train and a train was usually owned by a. man of affairs in town and operated by a couple of Spaniards. Chinamen were largely in this branch of ANNALS OF WYOMING 707 business, generally supplying Chinese miners and store keepers of other districts. The "train packing" industry was so ex- tensive that it influenced the dialect of the natives for none used the word "carry" but substituted "pack" in all cases. Previous to our coming west, my father and step-mother had taken up homesteads adjoining each other six miles east of Lewistown on the Clearwater river. Here was to be our home and shortly after our arrival in Lewistown we were taken to the ranch. I missed my grandmother a great deal and was not very well acquainted with my father, having seen him once before that I remember, when he came to visit us one Christmas in Michigan. The promise that I was some day to have an Indian pony of my own, made up for a lot of parental affection. Here I made the acquaintance of my new mother and her two daughters, Alice, who was my own age and Etta, who was younger by a year. Afterwards, my father had by his second marriage three chil- dren ; they were, Chase Gollings, Harry Gollings and Aletta Gol- lings. These new relatives proved to be very nice and companions worth having. In due time I had my pony as horses were a drug on the market and everybody had some, and many had hundreds. We had but a few, but they were better than the average range horse and were spoken of as American horses. Anything that was above pony blood or cayuse, as they were termed, were called American horses. The summer passed and fall came with the heavens alive with wild geese and ducks. One could hear the honking of wild geese all night during the fall. "Winter followed and a short one in that country. We had school on the ranch. My father had mentioned being a school teacher when a boy in Minnesota, but we just listened ; before spring we were sure he had been. There was no school in the country, although along the river the settlers were quite thick. There were many families whose children could not read and write, but my father had different ideas for his flock, consequently we went to school and I remember in this school of learning something. It was this first winter on the ranch that I took an interest in drawing. I did not do it myself, however. My brother, Oliver, the next to the oldest could do anything, it seemed to me, and among his many accomplishments was his ability to draw a horse in outline on a slate then he would put on a saddle and bridle. This ability of his seemed to fascinate me, but I did not try to do likewise. Those simple drawings, sometimes in colored pencil stick in my memory as clear as any memory I have and certainly created in me a desire to draw, but I had no idea of how to do it. The winter passed and another and the third winter we moved to town and went to school. My father now had some mechanical ideas he wanted to carry out, but lack of constructing 708 AXXALS OF WYOMING machinery in that country caused him to plan to go east. Con- sequently, he disposed of his mine and the following fall saw us on the train headed east to Chicago again. I cannot say that I was happy, but I had no say in the matter. We soon had all the boys in the neighborhood throwing lassos and playing cowboy. And the years that followed, each and all had so many plans laid of how and when we would go back to the Territory of Idaho. Why should we not go? There was everything there that we wanted ; horses and cattle, Indians and cowboys, a river to swim in and fish in, good hunting and no game laws. We had seen just the things that thrill a boy. There were old prospectors who had been forty-niners and who carried a cap-and-ball six-shooter wherever they went ; there were men left from the trapper period, whose only clothes had been buckskin and fur, Indian manu- facture, of course. We had seen "jerk-line" freight trains, flying stage coaches of the old type with six horses in a harness all be ringed and polished, and the driver the proudest man in the world as he sat on the boot with his gauntlet gloves and big hat, which belonged to the stage driver alone. We had seen a pony war dance given by the Nez Perce Indians at Fort Lapaway, a spectacle never to be repeated ; little did we know it then, how- ever. Then there were the pack trains and Chinese funerals and New Year 's festivities. Thinking of these things, Chicago did not amount to a great deal. Nevertheless we were doomed to stay for a time. Here we went to school and I learned perspective as it was taught in the schools and took a real interest in drawing. About this time, Frederick Remington was illustrating for Harpers magazine, and had been since 1889. I was much taken with his work and was sure to see all that was published. Most of the engravings of that day were on wood ; the half-tone process had just begun to be used and many of Remington's things were wood cuts taken, of course, direct from his original drawings. In the spring of 1893 I had my lank form photographed in a new suit, with a diploma in one hand and a straw hat in the other, along with the rest of my class. The diploma said in beautiful writing, that I had been through the eighth grade in Chicago Public School's measurement. I never used the diploma. I have seen it a couple of times since, but did not unroll it. It is the only one J ever received and if I never get any more use out of any I may get in the future than I got out of this one, I will not need them, I am sure. During the next three years, I worked at an assortment of different jobs, such as a boy might run across. I was a bell hop for a short time during the World's Fair, delivered groceries, worked in a drafting room making blue prints, worked on farms (the hardest work ever laid out for a man to do). On the farms, immediately after supper they lit a lantern and put in the night ; AXXALS OF WYOMING 709 they went to bed long enough to nrass it np so that whoever kept house would not run out of something to do during the day. Also I fired a switch engine and worked with a construction engineer. One early morning in August, 1896, I woke up in a chair car rolling across the plains of western South Dakota, together with a boy chum who also had the western fever. Our tickets read to some small place which was a shipping point south of Rapid City. They were stock-pass return tickets, so we were under assumed names. They carried us on to Rapid City, where I took my real name back as soon as I stepped off the train. It wor- ried me to have that awkward name hanging to me and to make matters worse, I had practiced writing it and saying it over in my mind (in case we were questioned by the conductor) until it hung to me almost as strong as my own name. Our ambition now was to get a job as we did not possess a great deal of ready cash, myself less than my chum. We hoboed back down the line to Chadron. This was the first time I had ever beaten my way and the last. There was nothing to do in Chadron and we went on to Alliance, Nebraska. There was nothing but a hot wind blowing there, so we went on to Marsh- land, a desolate place at the time. Here we bought a couple of horses and headed north. This seemed like real life, astride a horse and the Arctic Circle ahead of us. It did not take much to live, lots of the ranches would not take pay for food and a hay mow in a livery barn afforded a wonderful place to sleep. We stopped at all the towns on the Northwestern. Many of them afforded good amusement for two boys our age. They were typical western towns. In Oelrichs, South Dakota, for instance, the cowboys rode their horses into the saloon and took a drink, not necessarily to show off, for there were not many to show off to. There were no easterners to scare, but ourselves, and I did not consider myself a tenderfoot and my chum was well coached. Often men were seen with six shooters on their person. They wore them in a very matter of course way, as if it were part of their dress as it was. There were cowboys in those parts well along in years who had spent their lives on the prairies and had dressed thus all the time. This country was not Idaho, but a good substitute and I was satisfied. We spent the time pleasantly drifting north with no special point in view, but the end of the railroad held an alluring charm. Deadwood, South Dakota finally loomed up then Lead City was visited and then north to Belle Fourche. Here our first job was digging potatoes. We worked until snow flew. Belle Fourche at that time was the largest shipping point in the world. The country north was the greatest cow range, where steers mostly were shipped from Texas and Mexico ran the range. Trailing from the South was mostly over in those days as it was 710 ANNALS OF WYOMING cheaper and quicker to ship them by rail. Big cow outfits were much in evidence, some running as many as six roundup wagons. It made Belle Fourche the most typical cow town in the north. Gambling was wide open and every saloon was a gambling house and there were many of them. I must say here that Belle Fourche up to perhaps 1897 carried more of the spirit of the old west than any town in the world. The gambler type, the grim dusty riders of the range, the hitching racks lined with cow ponies and an occasional Chinaman. The dance halls and the shooting up of the town are all sights I am glad I have had the opportunity to see and remember. One other sight that I saw that fall that was worth men- tioning (as I have reason to believe it has never been seen since) was a bull team such as had done the freighting into the coun- try in the years previous to the coming of the railroad. The train was hauling freight from Deadwood to Hardin, a post- office and store on the stage line north of Belle Fourche about eighty or ninety miles and was the last trip this train was to make, I learned later. I came upon this sight as the train was camped for noon on the Red Water river. The bull-whacker seeing that I was very interested, said, "Howdy" and asked if I had ever seen a bull-train or heard a bull-whacker swear. To both questions I answered "no". "Well, kid," he said, "you stay here until I get to the top of this hill and you'll hear some- thing new. ' ' I did not need to be asked to watch him pull out, the sight was interesting enough to hold my attention for a time at least so I sat on my horse and watched him yoke up his eight yokes of oxen and then move. He certainly told the truth, for, besides calling these sixteen head of cattle each by name, appar- ently in one breath, he introduced one cuss-word after another, until the air was blue with phrases all new to me. He finally passed the top of the slope that led down to the river and thus passed into history as the last bull-team of that section. My chum and I had separated and our outfits sold and a few winter clothes bought. I spent the winter in the little deserted village of Minnesella. The railroad had passed it by and estab- lished the town of Belle Fourche. Work was hard to get and I was glad to earn my board carrying mail to a mail post on the railroad a mile and a half away. I wanted to paint now ; it grew to be a strong desire, but I had no colors nor opportunity. I did, however, make some little pencil sketches and modeled some horses' heads in laundry soap. The natives thought I was won- derful. Spring came and I wanted to punch cows, but I had no out- fit. I took a sheep herding job about ninety miles north of Belle Fourche. By September, I had enough money coming to me to have a tooth pulled and buy an outfit, which I did, and straightaway got a job with a cow outfit in the Slim Buttes coun- AXXALS OF WYOMING 711 try. All this country was worth living in ; there were antelope in abundance on the prairie and deer in the hills besides wolves and coyotes aplenty. It all seemed a paradise to me. The whole country seemed to belong to the big cow outfits alone ; there were very few sheep and horses and the grass waved over all this land. I spent the winter herding a thousand head of cattle along with some cowboys from the famous old Turkey Track outfit. We fed in bad weather as this winter was long and cold. A bliz- zard struck us in March. I have experienced many winter storms in the west, but none have compared with this. For thirty-six hours the snow blew and swirled so fast and furious that one could not see anything distinctly ten feet away. I shall leave to some good writer to describe a blizzard. Certainly the people who live in a blizzard country are the only ones who know what a blizzard means. I have heard many storms since called bliz- zards, but I could not in truth call them such. I struck out after the storm for Montana. The drifts were deep and the going slow. More storms followed and I was forced to lay over at different places several days. About the 15th of April, I turned my pony loose at a ranch on the Rosebud Creek near the Yellowstone River after three hundred miles of travel. Here my brother DeWitt, just older than I, was located, having left college some time previous. He staked me to a fresh horse and I rode forth to hunt for a. job. There were two alluring forms of excitement in the at- mosphere at this time, the war with Spain and the Klondyke gold rush. Neither one appealed to me so much as a chance to ride the open range. I realized the cowboy days were about over. The older men in the game told me as much and I longed to see and be a part of at least the last of it. Besides there was nothing picturesque about a cavalryman, and I did not need the yellow metal, so in the years that followed I rode the range and worked on a ranch or drove stage or trapped in the winter. Cattlemen at this time had begun to feed their stock in the winter to a large extent so that a rider practically rode the year round. The only difference being that one worked from ranches in the winter and a round-up wagon in the summer, although I have worked from a wagon in the coldest part of a cold winter. Once in awhile during these years, I longed to paint, but the free open life I was leading held me fast. In the early spring of 1903 I sent to Montgomery Ward & Company for some oil colors and other equipment to paint with and when the snow went off I made a few crude attempts at pic- ture making. The people on the ranch where I stayed and called home thought them wonderful. That summer I covered the mess tent with charcoal studies ; horse heads and certain characters who worked with the wagon. My brother had taken some of these first attempts to Sheridan, Wyoming, and Mr. W. E. Freeman 712 ANNALS OF WYOMING in a furniture store became interested and asked my brother to bring me over. The following spring I came over to Sheridan with my brother, who at that time had certain interests there, and brought my paints. We stayed a month and I made several pictures while at the hotel where I stayed. Mr. Freeman put them in his store where he said he would sell them. I went back to work on the roundup as usual with no special thought of pictures outside the fact that I did enjoy creating them and told myself that I would do more in time to come. I was working with a horse outfit said to be the largest in the world. I believe it was. In July we had just worked a herd and shipped and were about to get out and gather another herd, when a letter came to me from Mr. Freeman in Sheridan with a check for fifty dollars enclosed and the advice that I had better make some more pictures and send him as he felt he could sell more. I was bewildered ; I hated to quit the wagon and leave my string of horses for someone else to ride. I felt an injustice being done me from some source, but it seemed above all that I should do it, so I bid my pony and the boys goodby, went back to my adopted home and went to work ; not all picture making. I did not feel I could devote all my time to that, so I broke some horses for my brother and rode line on the Cheyenne Reservation fence and painted. The Cheyenne Reservation fence had not long been built, the white man's cattle had been taken from the Reservation (their old range), and put outside. They naturally worked back to the fence and also the Red-men liked to eat the White-men's cattle so it was up to the ranchers to keep their stock back from the fence. I gladly did it, and the ranchers were glad to have me do it, as it saved them time for their ranch work and the loss of several head of cattle. I made four or five quite large pic- tures by the time snow flew, along with my other work. Now my brother thought it was time for me to branch out, so he sent some of these pictures east for inspection. Mrs. Marion A. White, then editor of the Chicago Fine Arts Journal saw them and gave me a writeup and said that I should come east and study. My picture money and my wages had been spent for a new horse, equipment and a hair cut ; how was I to go east and study ? "I will stake you, ' ' says my brother and accordingly I took passage on a stock train and landed in Chicago, expecting to start in school very soon. I sent for money to start in on. My brother by over speculation had broke himself. I had an oppor- tunity to paint myself to freedom ; not a very bright prospect at best. I made a couple of pictures now that will always be vivid in my memory, for I sold them for two hundred dollars. The man who bought them had been in partnership with my father in his gold mine. This man was manufacturing the ANNALS OF WYOMING 713 Miehle printing press, the only press at the time that would reg- ister accurately enough to print color work. These pictures were reproduced by his press at the Portland Exhibition as an exhibit of the press ' ability to reproduce color work. The sale of these pictures now gave me a chance at school. The Chicago Academy of Fine Arts was the school I attended. I went two months, at the end of which I was informed I had won a scholarship in composition. This announcement bewildered me as I felt it was too good to be true, but it was, for it came out in the Chicago papers with a picture of someone else labeled myself. Spring had come. I wanted to go back west, but had no money to go on. I showed some men in the general offices of the Burlington Kailroad a picture, making them understand that I was willing to trade the picture for a pass to Sheridan. The men were interested and asked a lot of questions while one of them wrote something on a ticket as long as a bridle rein and handed it to me. I thanked them and boarded a train for Sheridan, where my brother met me full of enthusiasm for my future. I wanted to go back on the roundup, but he argued me out of it for a time. But I won out that fall, for I was riding a string of horses for an outfit in the northern part of the state, where I got fired for handling a bucking horse too rough. I went back to painting for the winter, sold my outfit and resolved never to ride again. Once in a while I sold a picture. The following spring I had another outfit and a job riding; taking a bunch of bulls to the Cheyenne Reservation. I was among home people again for the Cheyennes knew me well, but I was not quite satisfied as the old job was losing its charm. I drifted back to the painting game in a half-hearted way. The following' winter I took two months of study in Chicago Academy of Fine Arts on my scholarship. It seemed to be good to be in school, and I advanced a great deal. Finances were always short so school soon let out for me. I came back to Sheridan, Wyo- ming. I painted hard until summer then the old fever came back. I still had by horse goods, and relieved my mental worries by helping a horse buyer get a bunch together to ship. This stimulated me to get another job and again I found myself on the Cheyenne Reservation running the beef -issue job for the cow outfit that had the contract. This beef-issue job ended my riding for wages, for I determined to quit for good and paint steadily and have kept faith with myself to the present day with the exception of occasionally helping for a week or two some stockman who happened to need extra help and asked me to. Each summer or nearly so, I'd go to a roundup wagon and stay- ing a week or so each time, work just for the recreation and fun I 'd get out of it. 714 ANNALS OF WYOMING My inability to get down to work seriously I have never been able to explain. While I wanted to and knew that some day I would do so, nevertheless I was always easily influenced away from my work to visit different ranches, taking my colors with me of course, but practically doing nothing. I never did get settled to work until February 1909, when I built a shack and called it a studio. (The skylight in the roof gave me the right to call it such.) I have met and talked with a few of America's foremost painters ; J. H. Sharp, Howard Russell Butler, William B. Hen- derson, C. M. Russell, Frederick Remington, (now dead) and a few lesser lights. They have all had a good influence on my work. My work has had a good distribution throughout the United States and even in foreign countries. The names of my four pictures in the capitol at Cheyenne are "The Smoke Signal," "Indian Attack on the Overland Stage," "Emigrants on the Platte," "The Wagon Box Fight". I have no pictures in permanent galleries, so I do not consider the others worth mentioning. A work for the rest of my life is ahead of me with only one thing that would ever take me from it; to be younger and have the country open and unsettled as it was when I first made riding my profession. E. W. GOLLINGS, February 1923. Sheridan, Wyoming. THE FETTERMAN MASSACRE Massacre Monument, Washington, D. C. U. S. Home Fort Phil Kearny By Eye Witness of Co. C, 2nd U. S. Cavalry I will give you a little history of the Feterman Massacre, December 21, 1866. First bill for monument, in the Senate Committee on Naval Affairs, was reported without amendment — Bill 305 providing for monument to mark the site of the Fort Phill Kearny Mas- sacre — 7th February, for $500. A Bill after a short time, Bill No. H R 110006 by Congressman Mondell of Wyoming, appro- priated $80Q for a monument to mark the site, provided that the site of the proposed monument be of not less than one-fourth of an acre, situated upon the most sightly portion of the massacre hills, and shall be donated to the United States. This was a House Bill ANNALS OF WYOMING 715 with amendment. A third bill appropriates, passed Tuesday 25th February, $500. This old bill was granted at last, $500. It has been suggested that the monument be built of the rough masonry rather than of more expensive material, for reasons which are no compliment to those who are likely to visit it. Sec- retary Elgerd, few years ago, when a bill of this kind came be- fore him, called attention to the fact, that a monument erected on the spot where Custer's command was destroyed had been clipped to pieces and literally carried away as souvenirs, by the curious and lawless sight seers and relic hunters. For this rea- son the monument in commemoration of the Fort Phill Kearny Massacre must be of such character as to make its replacing an inexpensive matter, or in addition to which economical provision, the Government must take the precaution of enclosing it with a substantial iron fence, and employ a watchman to guard the monument. This occurrence cost the Army the lives of three officers and seventy-six enlisted men, mostly the strongest part of the garrison at Fort Phill Kearny, detailed from Co. C 2nd Cavalry, 18th Infantry and 27th Infantry. The report of Col- onel Henry B. Carrington, commanding the post at Fort Phill Kearny, Dakota, thirty-five years ago, made a few days after the action with the Indians, remains the most harrowing account of that calamity, in the annals of Indian warfare. The little force had been surrounded by three thousand Indians who lost heavily in the encounter, but who were able to carry away their dead and wounded. Not satisfied with killing the troops, the bodies of the dead were tortured, disfigured, and shockingly butchered and mutilated, and those who survived the field after the fight were tortured, and with the realization that these Indians made a practice of taking their victims alive in their process of killing and subjecting them to diabolical atrocities and their process of killing and the desperate fight of the combatants left after the conflict cannot fail to excite public sympathy for the victims of the little pile of rocks which was the last stand of the beleaguered force at Fort Phill Kearny named Massacre Hills, and it is here that it' is proposed to erect a simple monument to the valorous dead of this memorable action. It has been suggested that the monument be built of rough masonry rather than of more ex- pensive material, for reasons which are no compliment to those who are likely to visit the tablet, Fort Phill Kearny at the junc- tion of the big and little piney forks of the Powder River, four and one-half miles from the foot of Big Horn Mountain, estab- lished 13th July, 1866, abandoned 31st July, 1868, in Dakota Territory. A little detail of the massacre : Early one morning myself and several of the boys were detailed to form a little squad which had been ordered to run the mail from the Fort to Fort Reno, 716 AXXALS OF WYOMING seventy-two miles from Fort Phil Kearny. It was during onr trip to Fort Reno on the banks of the Powder River, the Indians had attacked wood train in the valley of Big Horn Mountain at Pine Ridge Sullivan Hill Picket Bluff. My comrades and myself arrived at Fort Phil Kearny at day break. In the morn- ing Colonel Fetterman had started out for the purpose of pro- tecting the wood train. Middle of the day before the morning arrival of my comrades of mail detail, Fetterman command did not return to the Fort or to the wood train, he had taken the old Holiday coach road. Started out to find Fetterman com- mand, — it was feared that the detachment did not take enough ammunition with them, — a Lieutenant John C. Jenness of the 27th Infantry, two soldiers and myself, a driver with four mules and wagon, three boxes of ammunition, Lieutenant mounted on an Indian pony, soldiers dismounted. A little over a mile from the Fort on the Holiday coach road, near Stoney Creek ford, we found the dead bodies of the whole detachment, including Colonel Fetterman, Captain Brown, and Lieutenant Gammond, laying where the Indians had killed them. The scene baffled description, the dead bodies were horribly mutilated. So you see the detach- ment had been surrounded by overwhelming numbers of Indians, and every man killed, nothing that had life left but a gray horse, Dapple Dave of Co. C 2nd Cavalry, the only horse left on the battle field being shot with both bullet and arrow, all the other horses were captured by these Indians. Lieutenant Jenness of the 27th Infantry returned to the Fort with the news and horror of the situation. It was well understood by the garrison that if the Indians were successful in taking the Fort, it meant death for each, and every one realized the fate that awaited them. The fate of Colonel Fetterman command all my comrades of the detail could see, the Indians on the bluff, the silver flashed with the glorious sunshine, flashed in the hair of the skulking Indians carrying away the clothing of the butchered, with arrows stick- ing in them, and a number of wolves, hyenas and coyotes hang- ing about to feast on the flesh of the dead men's bodies. The dead bodies of our friends at the massacre lay out all night and were not touched or disturbed in any way again, and the cavalry horse of Co. C 2nd, those ferocious and devourers of bodies, did not even touch. Another rather peculiar feature in connection with those massacres is that it is thought by some that those wild animals that eat the dead bodies of the Indians are not so apt to disturb the white victims, and this is accounted for by the fact that salt generally permeates the whole system of the white race, and at least seems to protect to some extent even after death, from the practice of wild animals. Twenty four hours after death Dr. Report at Fort detailed we to start to load the dead on the am- munition, all of the Fetterman boys huddled together on the ANNALS OF WYOMING 717 small hill and rock some small trees nearly shot away on the old- coach road, near the battle field or Massacre Hill, ammunition' boxes we packed them, my comrades on top of the boxes terrible cuts left by the Indians, could not tell Cavalry from the Infantry, all dead bodies stripped naked, crushed skulls, with war clubs ears and noses and legs had been cut off, scalps torn away and the bodies pierced with bullets and arrows, wrist feet and ankles leaving each attached by a tendon. We loaded the officers first. Col. Fetterman of the 27th Infantry, Captain Brown of the 18th Infantry and bugler Footer of Co. C 2nd Cavalry were all hud- dled together near the rocks, Footer's skull crushed in, his body on top of the officers, Col. Fetterman with a lot of arrows sticking in him and breast cut open and scalped. Captain Brown's body hacked up and a lot of arrows in him (he had a little tuft of hair back of the ears and was nicknamed by the Indians, ' ' Ball Head Eagle") and scalped, Lieutenant Grummond of the 18th In- fantry, head nearly cut off, lot of fingers off, scalped, and lot of arrows and balls in him ; Sargeant Baker of Co. C 2nd Cavalry, a gunnie sack over his head not scalped, little finger cut off for a gold ring; Lee Bontee the guide found in the brush near by the rest called Little Goose Creek, body full of arrows which had to be broken off to load him, pet rifle gone and pony ; Bugler Metzes of Co. C, 2nd Cavalry we never found, it was thought that Col. Fetterman sent him to the Fort for reinforcements and he was cut off by the Indians and we never found the bugler's body, it was the last of brave Metzes. Some had crosses cut on their breasts, faces to the sky, some crosses on the back, face to the ground, a mark cut that we could not find out. We walked on top of their internals and did not know it in the high grass. Picked them up, that is their internals, did not know the soldier they belonged to, so you see the cavalry man got an infantry man's gutts and an infantry man got a cavalry man's gutts. We hauled them all into the Fort, and made the Guard house at the Fort a dead house. We cleaned the bodies to be buried and buried them two in a pine box, the officers in a single box. The burying ground was outside of the stockade of the Fort, near a little creek called in olden times By Bridges Bear Creek, named now Little Pinene Creek. Although melancholy describing of the conditions of the garrison, the dead respectful memorial military funeral, lamented by all sorrowing friends. The sol- diers massacred were forty-two and three officers and one guide. Soldiers killed with Major Powell at Pine Ridge after the mas- sacre. The terrible conflict at Pine Ridge took place under the shadow of Big Horn Mountain. This battle was before the troops were forwarded to the Fort and garrison after the mas- sacre. Three men and Corporal of Co. C 2nd Cavalry were on bluff duty. We had signals for the coming of Indians at Pine 718 ANNALS OF WYOMING Ridge. We had box breast works made with wagon boxes taken from the running gears of the wagons. We gave the signal that the Indians were coming. We had barely time to get into the breast works, the pines were full of Indians, when they came out of the pines and dismounted. The Indians charged our breast works in line of battle, and naked as the day they came into the world. Indians were seen with Colonel Fetterman's coat and Captain Brown's and our comrades' arms and clothes. Lieutenant John C. Jenness was shot through the mouth, the ball coming out of the back of his head, the corpse falling on top of me. He was in command of the party that discovered our butchered comrades in the Phil. Kearny massacre. Death of Lieutenant Co. C 2nd Cavalry happened in the Ponnoe or Cedar Creek fight, and the death of Noble Bingham. The post had a herd of cattle for the use of the post, and the Indians ran off one of the herds and shot arrows into a great many of the cattle. A detail of ten or twelve cavalry men, guide Bingham in com- mand, went out to look up the herd. The Indians who had stam- peded the cattle were camped in the valley near Big Horn moun- tain. The Indians had killed one of the oxen and were roasting the same. This was the time to go for the Indians. All this time we were back of the bluff, and the Indians did not see us. We shot into the Indians at the roast. This started them and they mount- ed their ponies. We got to the rear guard of the Indians. We did not see or hear until Indian ponies and cattle, all going as hard as they could go, came to a standstill. Ten Indians to one soldier. We had all we could do to keep our horses from being ripped up by the horns of the cattle. The Lieutenant was the first shot, and he fell off his horse, shot in the head. This was a bad place to be as we could not use our arms very well on the Indians. The red skins tried to save our horses for their own use. This move is what saved our lives, they tried to lasso us from the horses. They tried their bows and arrows on the back of our coldiers (soldiers'), and they were all wounded out of cartridge and powder. Bingham was found in the brush, the body shot with over fifty arrows, lying over an old stump. This happened a short time before the massacre. In all killed, in the burying grounds, eighty-two souls. Yours truly, (Signed) JOHN GUTHRIE, Old Veteran Co. C 2nd Cavalrv. ANNALS OF WYOMING 719 FROM FORT RENO TO FORT PHIL KEARNY A. B. OSTRANDER The next morning Cnrley gave me a good warm breakfast while it was still dark and I returned to the office, got my valise, box of grub and blankets and put them at the gate nearby, to await for my transportation. Very soon the wagon drove up and a mounted man was with it. I learned afterward that he was wagon-boss for the outfit and his name was Stanton. He asked if I was the boy that was going up with them and on my answer "yes sir", he said ' ' all right, I will fix you up ' '. He dismounted, untied the cord which held the canvass cover at front of the wagon and climbed up inside. He pulled down a cou- ple of sacks of corn and filled the space between them with empty gunny sacks, thus making a good seat. I handed him my box of grub and valise, which he piled up in back and as he got down I climbed in. He then handed me my blankets and told me to arrange them to suit myself. He had fixed my seat about two feet or more from the front board and loose hay was packed in the front half way to the top of the box. On top of this was spread a couple of gunny sacks and he explained, that space was arranged for the dog and he rode off. In a few minutes the Captain rode up, the dog jumping and barking around him. The officer himself dismounted and giving his pup a boost, landed him at my feet. Surveying the arrange- ments the officer remarked ' ' I guess you '11 both be as comfortable as can be expected", and right here I will say, although the men did suffer awfully and frost bites and freezings were numerous, I was not even cold at any time during that ride to Phil Kearny. The dog was more protection than hot bricks or warming pan could have been. By referring to my little memorandum book I find the fol- lowing entry : "February 21st, 1867. "Started for Fort Phil Kearny with two companies 2nd U. S. Cavalry. Thermometer 20 degrees below zero". After we got out on the prairie and away from the protec- tion of the stockade the wind was awful cold, so I tied the canvass cover down in front to a ring, and pulled the cape of my over- coat over my head. My hair was quite long and came down over my ears and neck, so with all of this protection I was the luckiest one in the whole outfit so far as protection against the elements was concerned. We reached Crazy Woman Forks that night and a place for camp was selected well down in the under brush and near a bluff 720 ANNALS OF WYOMING on the south side and thus received some protection from the cold and bitter wind. I remained in my snuggery until camp fires were well under way and then, providing myself with some crackers and a can of chicken, I got out of the wagon, but was so stiff and cramped up from the long ride in such close quarters, with a dog to hold me down, that I had to jump around for quite a little while to get limbered up and the cramps out of my legs. Finally I went to one of the fires and put my can of chicken among the coals to warm it up, of course cutting off the cover first. Just as I was beginning to eat, a soldier came over to me and said "The Captain wants to know if you'd like a cup of hot coffee?". I was very quick to answer "You bet I would" and he turned away, but in a very few minutes returned with a tin cup that held over a pint of hot coffee. I surely did enjoy that sup- per and then went over to return the cup. As I was telling the soldier to thank the Captain for me a voice spoke up from a tent near by. ' ' Come in here ; ' ' The sol- dier nodded his head towards the tent saying, ' ' Go in, he wants to speak to you ", so I entered. There was a small box heating stove, a couple of empty boxes, one of which was used as a candle stick by melting enough grease to hold the candle perpendicular, and his bedding ar- ranged on the ground. He retained his seat on the other box and I stood by the warm stove. "Captain Proctor told me that you had served under Gen- eral Phillip St. George Cooke" said he. "Yes sir; I was with him over two years" I answered. He smiled as he continued "I served under him for eight years before the war as a soldier in the 2nd Dragoons. He was our Colonel and it was he that recom- mended me for a commission". This of course brought forth quite a conversation dealing with the idiosyncracies of the old General, I remember in par- ticular he asked me if the General was still interested in trying to improve upon his "Tactics". At the beginning of the civil war "Cookes Cavalry Tactics" was the standard for Cavalry, as "Hardee's" was for the in- fantry. I told him that very much of the work I had done for the General was copying material referring to tactics. He laughed and said that more than once after the Colonel had drawn up a plan of formation or evolution, they would go out and put it into practice and sometimes there would be an awful mix up. The Colonel would grunt and swear, dismiss the drill and go back and work it all over again until he succeeded in making it nearer perfect. He concluded the interview by saying "Proctor showed me ANNALS OF WYOMING 721 a letter he had from General Cooke in which he gave you a fine character and if there is anything I can do for you up here I will be glad to do it. ' ' I thanked him, bid him good night, and returned to my wagon. When I got there I saw Stanton, the wagon-boss, stand- ing near and I asked him what the Captain's name was as I had not even heard that yet. He replied "Why, that's old Captain Patrick ; he has been in the army oyer forty years, come up from a private soldier and I guess he must be sixty years old or older 1 '. My curiosity was satisfied and I went to bed. I had a good nights sleep and was quite comfortable, but I did miss the dog ; he had remained in the tent with his master. We made camp the next night at Clear Creek and the Cap- tain again sent me a big cup full of steaming hot coffee. Nothing further of interest occurred here. We got an early start the next morning and some time in the afternoon we passed along by Lake DeSmet, crossed Piney Creek and coming around the point at base of Pilot Hill, Fort Phil Kearny was right before us. The approaches were far different from those at Reno. There, our first view of the fort had been from a high elevation and its whole interior and surroundings were visible at a glance, but here, we were in a sort of bottom or low land, and the fort was on a high plateau and only the stockade and roofs of a few of the buildings could be seen. The flag on its high staff flew out glor- ious and it was a welcome sight. Our appearance was quickly noticed and men appeared at different gates giving us a welcome similar to the one we had re- ceived on reaching Reno. AYinding our way up the hill the wagon I was in went in at the water gate and passing by a sort of corrall with hay stacks and forage piled up, we drove up to a very long and narrow building extending north and south and stopped at the door about middle of the south side. The Teamster got down and commenced to unload things from back part of the wagon. The wagon-boss rode up and told me I could put my things in there for the present. I went inside and found a large room with six or eight bunks built up ; a big heating stove and some feed boxes. He informed me the room was used by wagon-bosses only, but would fix it so that I could bunk in there until I could get located. Told me to put my traps in one of the empty feed boxes and then rode off. And so I had arrived at Port Phil Kearny. 722 ANNALS OF WYOMING MY FIRST DAY AT FORT PHIL KEARNY A. B. OSTRANDER I had secured a lodging place and having several hours to spare before bedtime I concluded to do as I had done on all pre- vious occasions where I first arrived at a new Post, — go on a prospecting tour and get the lay of the land, location of buildings etc. About one hundred feet to the west of the building in which I was located, another stockade extended across from the north to the south with an open space of about fifteen feet not far from the south end. About the center of this stockade was a two story building, one half of which was built up on each side of the stockade, with a cupola or observatory on top. Passing through the open space, or gateway, I found myself in the Fort proper. Along the south side, and at my left, was a long row of buildings, one of which I quickly discovered was the sutler's store, and beyond it was a row of stables. Ahead of me, and not far from the center, was the Com- manding Officer's house. Distributed around on three sides were barracks, and of course a flag pole in the center of the parade ground. Over on the north side, and close up to the stockade were several buildings used as officer's quarters and offices. There was a gate on the north side, just to the left of which was a building which I soon learned was the district quarter- master 's headquarters. Of course I naturally drifted into the sutler's store the first thing, and the men I met there and the acquaintances I there formed will be left for another chapter. Along after dark I returned to my bunk room and sat up until quite late listening to the conversation of those wagon bosses and packers, and right there and then I formed opinions which I have never had occasion to change. One was that they and their subordinates had not been fully appreciated, nor had public sentiment ever been expressed as to the dangerous nature of their services. The military, both officers and men, performed deeds of valor and courage, and endured all manner of privations and sufferings, and they have received honor, both in song and story and many by personal mention. The old-time scouts, guides, trappers, and mountain men made history, and writers have sought them out to preserve a record of their wonderful deed and achievements, both as in- dividuals and as a class; but who ever read of the work per- formed in those days by wagon bosses, teamsters and packers? I never have, and yet more than often they endured all that others did in addition to their regular duties. ANNALS OF WYOMING 723 In published accounts of depredations, or in Indian attacks, there has been sometimes occasional mention "a teamster was killed, but never have I seen either eulogy or public expression of credit to their service. On the trail when there were indications of an actual attack or a genuine battle with Indians, the packers and teamsters, were the ones to make the corral and keep control of their stock. Under undue excitement one or two mules might stampede a whole outfit, and a stampede under such conditions was fully as disastrous as a successful charge of wild Indians. A Sunday School teacher in a den of wild animals, in an endeavor to subdue or pacify them, would not meet with more danger or be placed in a more critical condition requiring a cool head and a steady hand. He would be about as successful as a weakling or an inexperienced person. These packers, teamsters and wagon bosses may have been considered as tough characters. They had to be, for theirs was a tough job. Many of them were hard drinkers, hard swearers and addict- ed to all the vices, but in their particular line they were a necessity and most, valuable men, — I might better say absolutely indispen- sible. In cases of necessity they always proved their efficiency and worth. It was with such a body of men that I spent my first evening at Fort Phil Kearny. Stanton, as the latest wagon boss arrival, occupied the center of interest, and was kept quite busy answering questions from those who were liable to accompany the next outfit going down the trail over which we had just arrived. His descriptions of the difficulties encountered were not only interesting to me, but seemed to impress his co-laborers as they might benefit from his information. There were several men at the store that evening who had been in charge of wood trains and other work in the vicinity of the fort and their stories were both thrilling and exciting. And yet, no public expression, giving them credit for their great and arduous work, has ever been made, to my knowledge. And so ended my first day at Fort Phil Kearny. FRONTIER CATTLE DAYS High spots in the cattle industry of Wyoming during the past sixty years are contained in a booklet off the press in August, the title of which is "Sixty Years," being a brief review of the Wyoming cattle industry. The work was pre- pared by Dan W. Greenburg of Casper, Wyoming, director of publicity of both the Midwest Refining Company and of the 724 ANNALS OF WYOMING Historical Landmark Commission of Wyoming who wrote the text and gathered Wyoming material on behalf of the Wyoming Stock Growers Association. The book is a historical work of importance to the State and touches upon the turbulent days of the range from its beginnings in Territorial days down to the present time. Much of the material was gleaned from the minute books, reports and records of the Association and also contains extracts from papers and books written by well known pioneer stockmen, both living and dead. The Stock Growers Association is to be congratulated in commemorating its sixtieth anniversary in this manner. The book will serve as a source record for those who are interested, both in the pioneer history of the Territory and State, and in the development of the cattle industry and trade which have had such an important place in our common- wealth development. Those responsible in urging the publication of this mono- graph are : J. Elmer Brock, president ; Charles D. Carey, chair- man of the executive committee ; Eussell Thorp, secretary and inspector, and members of the historical committee of the asso- ciation. ' Mr. Greenburg was prevailed upon to write the story be- cause of his keen knowledge and understanding of the history of Wyoming and that of its industries, and he has done a splendid work which is destined to be of permanent benefit to the Annals of Wyoming history. He has made an extensive research into the background of the old cattle days and has brought together facts and romance in a delightful manner. The book is beautifully printed on heavy weave linen paper with stiff cover and is illustrated with photographic reproduc- tions of old-time range scenes, pioneer stockmen and officers of the association. The cover page is illustrated with the famous sketch of the "Old Cowman" from the pen of the artist- cowboy, Will James, whose permission was given for its use. The edition is limited to one thousand copies to be sold to the public at a nominal cost of fifty cents each, but the advance orders indicate that when off the press, the issue may quickly be exhausted. Copies of the work may be secured by writing to Russell Thorp, Secretary, Wyoming Stock Growers Associa- tion, 1817 Carey Avenue, Cheyenne, Wyoming. (Signed) MRS. CYRUS BEARD, State Historian. Accessions are omitted from this number to avoid repetition as they will appear in the biennial report. ^rotate of KSJpoming Vol. 9 JANUARY, 1933 No. 3 CONTENTS Pioneer Printing in Wyoming By Douglas C. McMnrtrie Ti \]l in TT TUmiir, Wwniin^ Pioneer By Charles Lindsay ( Fort Laramie ^^^ Indian Troubles William Gay Accessions Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPABTMENT OF HI8TOEY Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian Cheyenne, Wyo. Annals; of IBEpomtng Vol. 9 JANUAKY, 1933 No. 3 CONTENTS Pioneer Printing in Wyoming By Douglas C. McMurtrie John W. Deane, Wyoming Pioneer By Charles Lindsay Fort Laramie Indian Troubles William Gay Accessions Published Quarterly by the STATE DEPAETMENT OF HISTORY Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian Cheyenne, Wyo. STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Governor Leslie A. Miller Secretary of State A. M. Clark State Librarian Mrs. Clare E. Ausherman Secretary of Board Mrs. Cyrus Beard ADVISORY BOARD Judge E. H. Fourt Lander Dr. Grace R. Hebard Laramie Mr. L. C. Bishop Douglas Mr. Philip E. "Winter Casper Mrs. R. A. Ferguson Wheatland Mr. Howard B. Lott : Buffalo Mrs. P. J. Quealy Kemmerer Mr. Dan W. Greenburg Casper Mrs. Alburtus Brandt Moorcroft Geo. B. McClellan Big Trails Neither the State Historical Board, the State Historical Advisory Board nor the State Historian is responsible for any statements made or opinions expressed by contributors to the Annals of Wyoming. (Copyright applied for by State Historical Department) CHAPTER 96 STATE HISTORICAL BOARD Session Laws 1921 DUTIES OF HISTORIAN Section 6. It shall be the duty of the State Historian : (a) To collect books, maps, charts, documents, manu- scripts, other papers and any obtainable material illustrative of the history of the State. (b) To procure from pioneers narratives of any exploits, perils and adventures. (c) To collect and compile data of the events which mark the progress of Wyoming from its earliest day to the present time, including the records of all of the Wyoming men and women, who served in the World War and the history of all war activities in the State. (d) To procure facts and statements relative to the his- tory, progress and decay of the Indian tribes and other early inhabitants within the State. (e) To collect by solicitation or purchase fossils, speci- mens, of ores and minerals, objects of curiosity connected with the history of the State and all such books, maps, writings, charts and other material as will tend to facilitate historical, scientific and antiquarian research. (f) To file and carefully preserve in his office in the Capitol at Cheyenne, all of the historical data collected or obtained by him, so arranged and classified as to be not only available for the purpose of compiling and publishing a History of Wyoming, but also that it may be readily accessible for the purpose of disseminating such historical or biographical in- formation as may be reasonably requested by the public. He shall also bind, catalogue and carefully preserve all unbound books, manuscripts, pamphlets, and especially newspaper files containing legal notices which may be donated to the State Historical Board. (g) To prepare for publication a biennial report of the collections and other matters relating to the transaction of the Board as may be useful to the public. (h) To travel from place to place, as the requirements of the work may dictate, and to take such steps, not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be required to obtain the data necessary to the carrying out of the purpose and objects herein set forth. Annate of lEpommg Vol. 9 JANUAKY, 1933 No. 3 PIONEER PRINTING IN WYOMING By Douglas C. McMurtrie Wyoming was late in settlement and development, and, in consequence, late in establishment of the printing press within its borders. It has the distinction, in fact, of being the last- state in the Union to secure for itself the benefits afforded by the art typographic. The territory lying within the present boundaries of Wyo- ming was explored by a number of men, among them John Colter, 1807; William H. Ashley, 1824; B. L. E. Bonneville, 1832, and John Charles Fremont, 1842 — the latter being guided by the renowned Kit Carson. From this time onward the favored route to the coast led through Wyoming, but there was almost no colonization. That came in the late sixties with the trans-continental railroad. Because of the depredations of the Indians, the government established several garrisons along the overland trail. Fort Kearney was established in 1848 and Fort Laramie, established earlier by the fur traders, was purchased in 1849. A few Mor- mons settled in 1853 at the trading post of Jim Bridger on the Green River, which they named Fort Bridger. In conse- quence of the military operations directed against the Mor- mons, these colonists of western Wyoming abandoned the post in 1857 and moved to Salt Lake City. It was at Fort Bridger that was made the first known use of the press in what is now Wyoming. Here was published the Daily Telegraph, but one copy of which has survived; the eighth number of the first volume being dated "Fort Bridger, U. T. June 26, 1863." H. Brundage, listed as "proprietor", was undoubtedly printer as well. This dimunitive frontier newspaper was printed on one side only of a sheet 6% by 10% inches in size. The terms of subscription were stated as $1 for one month, $10 for one year. Except for one line giving the price of gold at New York, the two columns of the surviving issue are taken up entirely with news of the war between the states. And at the bottom of the second column is the inevitable printer's advertisement: "Job Work of all kinds, done at this Office." 730 ANNALS OF WYOMING How long Brundage's newspaper continued publication we have no means of knowing, and I have found no references to it in contemporary documents or newspapers. However, we must award to Brundage the credit of being the first printer of Wyoming. There was almost continuous conflict with the Indians until 1868, when a treaty of peace was concluded in the face of a rush of immigration and transmigration. Gold, always a powerful incentive to immigration, was discovered in the Sweetwater River district in '67. Then came the most im- portant force in the colonization and development of Wyoming : the Union Pacific Railway began laying tracks through the * southern part of the state for the first railroad to connect the Pacific coast with the east. As a result, the vast territory be- tween the Missouri river and California was opened to trade and settlement. The railroad made Wyoming. On July 25, 1868, Congress authorized a territorial govern- ment for Wyoming, with boundaries as they now exist. The eastern part was set off from Dakota Territory, to which it had belonged, and the western portion was taken from Idaho and Utah. The machinery of territorial government had been organized by May of 1869 and Cheyenne designated as the capital. The right to vote and hold office was granted to women on equal terms with men. Cheyenne was laid out in July, 1867, by orders of General Dodge, in charge of construction of the Union Pacific, and by November 13 the first contingent of "Hell on Wheels", as the track end headquarters of the Pacific was known, arrived. It was greeted by a brass band, a city of 4000 people with an established municipal government, and two newspapers. Town lots were sold by the railroad company for $250 and resold for $3500. Every other building was a saloon, and every build- ing was a hurriedly constructed shack. The halcyon days of the wild west had come. Cheyenne was a city of 10,000 before the winter was over — and by May, 1868, it had shrunk to 1500. It settled down, gasped for breath, and prepared to give up as superfluous two of the three newspapers that had come with the boom. The establishment of the Cheyenne Leader by Nathan A. Baker and James E. Gates on September 19, 1867, 1 marked the establishment of the second press in Wyoming. Gates and Baker came from Colorado, where Baker had made an unsuccessful at- 1 Chaplin, p. 7, and Bancroft, p. 735, give this date. Bancroft, on p. 798, gives the date as July, 1867, as does the Bristol ms; p. 2. ANNALS OF WYOMING 731 tempt to establish a paper at Denver. 2 Their paper was the only one of the three begun during the boom days to survive after- wards. The printing office was injured in the fire of 1870 that swept Cheyenne, but it was not destroyed and Baker continued the paper until 1872 when he sold it to Herman Glafcke. Mean- while Baker had begun the first permanent paper at Laramie, the Daily Sentinel, to which he and Gates transferred their attention. Baker was also responsible for introducing the first printing to South Pass City, and at one time, according to the manuscript account of Samuel A. Bristol, first Territorial Printer, Baker owned all the papers in Wyoming. His Cheyenne Leader was continued by Glafcke and others, merging in the nineties with the Cheyenne Sun, which had been established in March of 1876, with Edward A. Slack as proprietor and J. P. C. Coulter as as- sociate editor. The Leader, first and oldest paper in Wyoming, is still published today under its original title. The other members of the boom-time trilogy were the Star and the Argus. Both were established in 1867, and the Star, pub- lished by 0. T. B. Williams, lasted for only a year. The third paper, the Argus, was published about two years and suspended in October, 1869. It was later resuscitated for a few weeks by two practical printers, Stanton and Richardson. These papers were followed scatteringly by others, but the development was slow and steady with no more periods of ab- normal inflation for Cheyenne. The Cheyenne Tribune was begun in November, 1869, perhaps with the office of the defunct Argus, and continued to appear until the fall of 1872. In the spring of 1875 the Daily News was begun by Benton and Fisher with E. A. Slack as manager. Within six months he merged it with the Sun, which he had brought from Laramie, and which was even- tually combined with the pioneer Cheyenne Leader. The Leader seemed to draw everything to itself, and the Cheyenne Wyoming Tribune begun in 1884 by a Denver printer named Hobart, exists today in combination with the Leader. Another Cheyenne paper of the Tribune's period was the Northwest Live-Stock Journal, established in 1883 by A. S. Mercer. Mercer was an Illinoisan with a unique history in the west. He went to Washington Territory in 1861 and was soon placed in charge of the new University of Washington. In 1863 he was appointed Commissioner of Immigration, and as part of his duties he imported from New England in 1864 and again in 1865 2 Baker tried to establish a Denver paper, the "Colorado Leader, " in July, 1867. Lee, History of American Journalism, p. 255. Gates was born in Canada in 1834. He came to Colorado and enlisted in the Third Colorado Kegiment in 1861. He saw service with Chiving- ton at Sand Creek. He went to Cheyenne at the time it was established. Bancroft, p. 795. 732 ANNALS OF WYOMING a large number of women, ostensibly to act as teachers, but really to provide wives for the women-hungry westerners. In 1874 he established his first paper, the Albany Oregon Granger. He soon left Oregon and Washington for Texas, where he started the Sherman Courier, which was followed by five other papers at different points in Texas before Mercer came to Cheyenne in 1883 to establish the cattle journal. With the Hell on Wheels there was a press on wheels, which printed a migratory journal, the Frontier Index, that followed the construction 3 head of the Union Pacific westward across the country. Everywhere this peculiar paper appeared it was the pioneer, but nowhere except at Laramie did it mark the perma- nent establishment of the press. Leigh Richmond Freeman and his brother Fred K. Freeman were the proprietors of this peri- patetic journal, and although it is known to have been published within the boundaries of at least four states its career was most intimately associated with Wyoming. The Frontier Index traces its history to the Fort Kearney, Nebraska Herald, established in June, 1862, by Moses H. Syden- ham. 4 He obtained a press from Boston and other materials from Chicago for the establishment of his office, the second in western Nebraska. The Herald was published only for the purpose of attracting attention to the western country. After continuing his paper for about six months, Sydenham sold it to Seth P. Mobley, a soldier in the Seventh Iowa Cavalry at Fort Kearney, and a man named Brundage, then telegraph operator at the fort. After the war Leigh R. Freeman succeeded Brundage as tele- graph operator, and Freeman, with his brother, also acquired 3 Another, and more rapidly moving, press on wheels was that em- ployed to print the ' ' Transcontinental, ' ' published daily on the Pullman Hotel Express which made a triumphal tour across the continent from Boston to San Francisco and back. It was published from May 24 to July 4, 1870, with the following date lines: Niagara Falls, N. Y., May 24; Omaha, Neb., May 26; Cheyenne, Wyo., May 27; Odgen, Utah, May 28; Salt Lake City, Utah, May 30; Summit Sierra, Calif., May 31; San Francisco, Calif., June 25; Promontory Point, Utah, June 27; Laramie, Wyoming, June 28; Grand Island, Nebraska, June 29; Burlington, Iowa, June 30, Boston, Mass., July 4. A file of the "Transcontinental" is in the New York Public Library. 4 The only satisfactory general statement concerning the wander- ings and antecedents of the "Frontier Index" is in Morton, v. 2, p. 369- 370. Morton, however, makes several statements I have not been able to confirm. He says that the "Frontier Index" was sometimes known as the Frontier Guardsman. He also says that the "Frontier Index" was published in 1866 at North Platte, in the western part of Nebraska. Possibly Morton confused the "Index" with the equally ephemeral "Eailway Pioneer" published at the Union Pacific camp near the pres- ent site of North Platte in 1866. See the Nebraska chapter, note 22. &&2&X VS&aCfc&JbVS, VOL. 1. FORT BRIBGEK, U. X JUNE, 26, 18C3. NO. 8. Terms of Subscription. One Month, * * - • $ L One Year, • ... $1(X Invariably in Advance. IT. Brundage. Proprietor. Harrisbur heights. Small rebel force at Charles- town, but It appears no considerable force this side of Winchester. New York, 20. Special to World, says: strong indi- cations Lee, ha * not only achieved the grand project of massing his whole' Governor, by autho7t7^^i7the? tren S t t i this S ide of the Potomac, but War department, will issue a- procla- ^actually within a short distance of mation to- morrow, calling for*M),OOC militia for three months, for the de fence of the State. New York, So. Cold closed firm at 44 3*4. — — o • MEMrni*, s?4. Official intdligence, from Graut\ army, to the 20th. Siege wort con tinue* to progress satisfactorily. — About a thousand Texans, made an attack on Lake Providence, on ihe 10th, but was repulsed, with seven loss. Negro troops there, tough bravely. Philadelphia, 2(>. Press, publishes special, from Har rsburg, stuteing that Gov. Curtin, re ceived a telegram from the operator a Mo. Connelsburg, that a large body, of rebels under Jenkins, entered that town, after a severe skirmish with some of Milroy's troops. Milroy is prepar iug to drive the rebels out, and a bat tie is imminent Excitement at Pitts bui$ unabated* Troops being organ ized tepidly* ■ ■ *o aa Special to Herald, advices, received from Carper's Ferry, to-night, states Lee s whole force, or the greater por- tion of it, evidently following Ewels advancing into Maryland and Pcnn. No disposition to attack our forces at Washington, having moved considera- ble force from Sbephard'stown, and A.ntietam fords, down the tow-path of the canal, c^ alt along the'foaas from Boonsboro aud Middletown, to the vi- cinity of Poolsvillc, Rushyille and tiockville. From, these points^he has direct access to the rear of YVashington, • and can by an expert movement jles- rrov R. R, Bridge between the eapitol and AnnapoU* Junction. There is cairse for the app: ehena'on Tyler:} force, which ha., been holding Mary- land height's ; though it is hardly pro- bable that Tyler has been captured. — It is possible that his communication with the army in Va., and with the forces under Gen. Sheneck, has been oroken. New York, 2o\ Champion Aspimvall, no news. Newborn advice-*, to the 22nd, says: deserters from Wjilmington, reports 2 .ebel iron-clads, with 5 inch plating on 18 inches woo^, mounting heavy guns, about to. make a raid on the blockade- ing squadron. They arc about the size of the first Meriimac. The} lay very_dcep in the water, .amlxu'* -unJjr ante to inafee liifee or four miles per hour. JOB WORK, OF ALL KINDS, Harper's Ferry, and upon MnrylandijJQUg AT THIS OFFICES. 734 ANNALS OF WYOMING the press. They discontinued the Herald and began the Frontier Index, issued from Adobe Town or Kearney City. The earliest extant copy of the Frontier Index was published at Julesburg, Colorado, in July, 1867. Julesburg is in the north- eastern corner of Colorado on the Union Pacific where it dips into Colorado for a few miles after leaving Nebraska and before en- tering Wyoming. 5 The Index continued at Julesburg until Sep- tember, 1867, when it moved to Cheyenne, Wyoming for a short time, proceeding to Fort Sanders by the end of December, 1867. No copies of the Index for this period are known, but its move- ments are traceable through notices in contemporary Denver papers. 6 The next located copy of the Index was printed in March, 1868, at Fort Sanders in Wyoming between Cheyenne and Laramie. Fort Sanders was listed as in Dakota Territory, as Wyoming had not then been created, and the Index was published there as late as the end of March, 1868. In April, 1868, the Frontier Index introduced the printing art into Laramie. "Gem City of the Mountains," where inside two weeks 500 buildings sprang up, chiefly devoted to the more gaudy types of sin and pleasure. "For three happy months Laramie roared; within six months it had passed the sear and yellow-leaf stage. History had been repeated, the farther erst- while solitudes had conceived, in turn, and out of unholy alliance with some cockatrice the changeling Benton had been cast. ' ' The Freeman press on wheels left Laramie in July, 1868, and no more printing was done there until the following spring when Laramie obtained its second wind and followed Cheyenne in settling down to a slower but more solid growth than it had previously known. According to Chaplin, "in the fall of 1868 the Frontier Index passed on with the railroad to the town of Benton," for a short time headquarters of the Union Pacific during the months 5 The single located copy of the "Frontier Index" printed at Jules- burg, Colorado, is that of an issue for July 26, 1867, volume 1, number 16. It is framed and on display in the Union Pacific Historical Museum at Omaha. It carried a note on page three: "The Index is one day behind time, on account of waiting for our printing paper to come, but we are at least disappointed, and compelled to issue on brown wrapping paper or none at all." 6 The Julesburg "Frontier Index" "of the 10th inst. " was cited in the "Weekly Denver Gazette" of September 18, 1867. In the "Daily Denver Gazette" of October 2, 1867, appeared this: "From the lules- burg "Index" we extract the following item: The "Frontier Index" rolls on to Cheyenne tomorrow." The "Dailv Denver Gazette" of December 31, 1867, cited the "Frontier Index'' of December 24, 1867, as saying: "Our exchanges will please address the Index at Fort San- ders. Remember, we are on wheels — fifty miles west of Cheyenne. ' ' ANNALS OF WYOMING 735 of July and August. 7 There is no specific record of the Index at Benton, nor at Rawlins, the next temporary station. July 7, 1868, the Index was still at Laramie, and by August 11, 1868, it had reached Green River City. Whether it appeared and where it appeared in the meantime is not known. Green River was another city conjured from the plains, but more in spirit of Cheyenne, which the railroad found ready and waiting for it. Former Mayor Hook of Cheyenne had selected and erected Green River in advance of the coming of the tracks. Permanent adobe buildings had been put up and a population of 2000 people assembled before the trackend reached town. Most of Hell on Wheels made the jump direct from Laramie to Green River without stopping at Benton and Rawlins, and probably the Freeman brothers did the same. 8 They published the Frontier Index at Green River City from August through most of October, 1868, and it was there that the imprint was changed from "Da- kota Territory" to "Wyoming" as a result of the act of Congress creating the new territory. Leigh R. Freeman, editor of the Index, is said to have first suggested the name Wyoming for the new Territory, taking it from the Wyoming valley in eastern Pennsylvania. 9 Bear River, now Knight, in the southwestern corner of Wyo- ming marked the end of the peregrinations of the Frontier Index across the Territory. It began publication at Bear River in Octo- ber, 1868, and the last issue located is that of November 17, 1868. Shortly afterwards the entire plant was destroyed in the Bear River riot of 1868. The riot grew out of the general lawlessness of the place, and the Frontier Index was destroyed as an exponent of law and order. 10 Leigh Richmond Freeman and Fred K. Freeman, publishers of this remarkable pioneering press, were Virginians. Leigh Freeman at least had served with the Confederate forces during the Civil War, and both brothers were "Democrates of the strong- 7 Chaplin, p. 10, locates Benton as "where Fort Steele now stands. " Mrs. Cyrus Beard, state historian of Wyoming, writes me under date of July 9, 1931, that this location is not correct. According to her, Benton stood three miles east of where the present oil town of Parco stands, and not at old Fort Steele. 8 A notice in the "Daily Denver Gazette" of September 30, 1868, makes it clear the "Frontier Index" was publishing at Green River before the rails had reached there: "The ' Frontier Index' says: Dan Casement, the partner of General Jack, who has just left us, was at the Jenks House last night. He says the track will reach here even earlier than was ever anticipated by the veteran track layers. It will require but fifteen days more for the smoke to be ascending from the nostrils of the iron-hoofed horse at the metropolis of Green Eiver. " 9 Morton, v. 2, p. 369. 10 Ibid. 736 ANNALS OF WYOMING est secessionist kind. " . As has been said, nowhere in Wyoming- except at Laramie did their coming mark the permanent establish- ment of the press, but they brought with them, even though tem- porarily, the trappings of civilization as represented by the print- ing art. What happened to them after the destruction of their press at Bear River is uncertain. According to one account they resumed publication of the Index and took it on across the coun- try to Washington. Another story places them in Montana several years later, with a paper similar to the Index, but with another name. Because of the contradictory accounts of the Frontier Index and the Freeman brothers after the fall of 1868 the matter has been dealt with extensively in the notes. 11 11 The only file of the "Frontier Index" located is in the Bancroft Library at Berkeley California. It contains the following numbers: March 6 and 24, 1868, published at Fort Sanders, D. T.; April 21 to July 7, 1868, published at Laramie City, D. T.; August 11 to 21, 1868, pub- lished at Green Eiver City, D. T.; August 25 to October 13, 1868, pub- lished at Green Eiver City, Wyoming; and October 30 to November 17, 1868, published at Bear River, Wyoming. Published first at one place and then another, the "Frontier Index" has a decidedly elusive history. It may have been actually a "press on wheels," printed in a railway car at some times. We know that this was not the case during its period of publication at Laramie, where its office was in the rear of an old hotel. Leigh R. Freeman and his brother are said to have appeared at vari- ous unsuspected, and unlikely, places with their paper, including Mon- tana about 1885, and Washington in 1855. James Melvin Lee in his ' ' History of American Journalism, ' ' Boston and New York, 1923, p. 322-323, gives an account of the "Frontier In- dex": "Though published at twenty-five different places along the line of Western advance, it was founded at Old Kearny City, Nebraska Terri- tory, in May, 1866, by F. K. and L. E. Freeman, two brothers who had come West from Culpeper County, Virginia. It was printed on an old- time hand-roller press which had been abandoned by General Joseph E. Johnston, who prior to 1861 had been in command of the United States troops in the Far Western territories. ' ' The 'Frontier Index' in the fall of 1866 was taken by three ox teams driven by Mexican greasers to a temporary terminus of the Union Pacific Construction Company at North Platte. As soon as the site was laid out for this mushroom terminal station, some four thousand adventurers flocked there to live in tents and portable houses, and 'The Index' did a 'land office' business in printing . small circulars for which it charged twenty dollars for one hundred words. The next move was to Julesburg in January, 1867. In forty-eight hours North Platte was depopulated after the inhabitants moved to the new terminus which 'The Index' was the first enterprise to reach. Another place of publication was Lar- amie City, one hundred and five miles west of Cheyenne. While pub- lished at this place 'The Index' received a large subscription list and an extensive advertising contract from Brigham Young, of Salt Lake City. To continue the trail followed by the 'Frontier Index' would be to pub- lish a list of the temporary terminals of the Pacific railroad. On one of two occasions when 'The Frontier Index' was being moved its wagon train was held up by Indians, who took no pains to conceal their disgust when they found that the ox carts contained nothing except the print- ANNALS OF WYOMING 737 The earliest recorded book imprint for Wyoming is also the only known book which can be credited to the Freeman's press in Wyoming-. 12 It is A Vocabulary of the Snake, or, Sho-Sho- ing outfit. The trail ended for 'The Frontier Index' at North Yakima, Washington. ' ' Frank A. Boot, in "The Overland Stage to California," p. 262, note, also gives an account of the Index: "In Bancroft's History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, page 532, credit is given the man whom the historian supposed started the first newspaper on the frontier, as follows: " 'In connection with the newspaper history of the country, L. E. Freeman should be mentioned. In 1850 he took the first printing press that crossed the Missouri Eiver above St. Louis to Fort Kearney, on the Platte. With the advance of the Pacific railroad he pursued his way westward, publishing his paper, The Frontier Index, at Kearney, North Platte, Julesburg, Laramie, Bear Eiver, and Ogden. In 1855 he was at Yakima, in Washington, making his way to Puget Sound. No other newspaper in the United States has so varied a history as the Index. ' "Mr. Sydenham explains this matter as> follows: " 'The above statement is all false from top to bottom, and from the beginning to the end. Here you have the positive facts — for I am personally knowing to everything. I was the first publisher of a news- paper west of the Missouri valley in Nebraska; anyway, west of Fre- mont, which is situated about forty miles west of the Missouri river. I am not certain whether there was any paper there then or not in 1862 — the year I published my Kearney Herald, at old Fort Kearney. Mr. Leigh E. Freeman came to Fort Kearney about the year 1864 or 1865, just after the war was over; for he had been an operator within the Confederate lines, and he and his brother were Democrats of the strongest secessionist kind. I was the very opposite in politics. Free- man came to take charge of the telegraph office at Fort Kearney. He was not even a printer, and had no press or type whatever to cross the Missouri with. Before he came to Fort Kearney I had sold my press and printing outfit to Seth P. Mobley, of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry, who purchased it to do printing for the army and publish a paper be- sides. L. E. Freeman purchased the outfit of Mobley, and then started his paper The Frontier Index, which was published for a while at Fort Kearney and Kearney City (old Dobytown), and then started it along at the terminal stations of the Union Pacific railroad — for a time at Plum Creek, then at North Platte, and then at Julesburg, Laramie, etc., till he finally stopped at Butte, Mont. Until that time, while on the railroad, his paper was named The Frontier Index on Wheels. When he arrived at Butte, or sometime after, I think he changed the name of his paper to The Inter-Mountain, or something like that'." 12 An eight page pamphlet entitled "Colonel Carrington's Official Report of the Phil Kearney Massacre. (Published by permission of the War Department.) Headquarters Post, Fort Philip Kearney, Dacotah Territorv, January 3d, 1867," suggests itself as the work of the Free- man press before it left Fort Kearney. Morton, v. 2, p. 370, says that the "Frontier Index" had left Kearney for North Platte in 1866. He may have been incorrect. Copies of both the Fort Kearney imprint of 1867 and the Green River City imprint of 1868 are to be found in the Huntington Library in San Marino, California. 738 • ANNALS OF WYOMING Nay Dialect by Joseph A. Gebow Interpreter. This was a second edition, revised and improved in January, 1864, and printed at " Green River City, Wg. Ter. : Freeman & Bro., Book and Job Printers. 1868. ' ' It comprised twenty-four pages. What has been generally considered the first book printed in Wyoming was the General Laws, Memorials and Resolutions of the Territory of Wyoming, Passed at the First Session of the Legislative Assembly, convened at Cheyenne, October 12th, 1869. It was certainly the earliest official book printing. It bore the imprint: "Cheyenne, W. T., S. Allan Bristol, Public Printer, Tribune Office. 1870." Bristol was a New Englander who came to Wyoming in 1869 and went into a Cheyenne newspaper office as printer. In November, 1869, he established the Wyoming Tribune in his name, although it was actually owned by Edward M. Lee, then Territorial Secretary. Bristol was the author of an unprinted history of Wyoming newspapers. N. A. Baker, the first publisher in Wyoming, was official printer for the second Territorial Assembly, met in 1871 and his documents had the imprint: "Cheyenne, W. T. : N. A. Baker, Public Printer, Evening Leader Office, 1872." Herman Glafcke who succeeded Baker on the Leader was the third Territorial Printer, and he printed the records of the Third Territorial As- sembly over the imprints: "Cheyenne, W. T. : II. Glafcke, Pub- lic Printer, Daily Leader Office. 1874." A second press began operations at Fort Bridger in 1868. At this point, in the southwestern corner of the state, the Sweet- water Miner was established in February, 1868 by Warren and Hastings. Its chief purpose was to encourage immigration to that region. 13 After the Frontier Index left Laramie in the summer of 1868 there was no other press there until May, 1869, when the Laramie Daily Sentinel was begun by N. A. Baker, a pioneer of the print- ing art in Wyoming. The Sentinel was edited by James H. Hay- ford, who with James E. Gates, Baker's partner in establishing the first Wyoming press, purchased the paper from Baker at the end of its first year. In addition to the daily there was a weekly edition which began its second volume May 1, 1876, and which presumably began issue a year earlier. In the issue of May 15, 1876 appeared this entertaining note : ' ' The Laramie Weekly Sentinel is the only weekly paper printed and published in Wyoming Territory. Of course we don't count the patent concerns gotten up and printed in Chicago and sent out here for distribution. ' ' From 1876 to 1879 Bill Nye, famous Wyoming humorist, was city editor of the Sentinel, and it was during this period that 13 Bancroft, p. 732. ANNALS OF WYOMING 739 he developed his style and his reputation. The Sentinel was con- tinued until 1895. Edgar Wilson Nye, better known as Bill Nye, belonged to the school of American journalistic humor of which Will Rogers is the present chief exponent. Nye's specialty was enlarging on some local item of trivial importance. His humor was entirely dependent on his own personality. Coming to Wyoming in 1876, he went to work on the Sentinel, later deserting it for the Laramie Daily Boomerang, which was begun in 1881. This was a paper established by Bill Nye's friends to provide an organ for the Republican party, and also to give Nye an opportunity to indulge his own curious style of writing. It was named after Nye's pet mule. The paper was not a financial success, and after a year a retrenchment policy was adopted for purposes of economy. This involved moving the office to the second floor of a livery stable, where the fumes from below almost asphyxiated the staff. Nye was little bothered by this unpleasantness, and he gave visitors the cheerful advice to ' ' twist the gray mule 's tail and take the eleva- tor." Although the Boomerang continued financially unstable it became a popular success, quoted throughout the country, and plans were made in 1883 to begin a national humorous weekly under the same name. Unfortunately, Nye's health failed and it became necessary for him to leave Laramie and abandon the ven- ture. The Boomerang was continued as a general paper. Nye was also forced to resign the position of postmaster, which he then held, and his letter of resignation is one of his most famous pieces of humor : "Postoffice Divan, Laramie City, W. T., Oct. 1, 1883. ' ' To the President of the United States : ' ' Sir : I beg leave at this time to officially tender my resigna- tion as postmaster of this place, and in due form to deliver the great seal and the key to the front door of the office. The safe combination is set on the numbers 33, 66, and 99, though I do not remember at this moment which comes first, or how many times you revolve the knob, or which direction you turn it at first in order to make it operate. "There is some mining stock in my private drawer in the safe, which I have not yet removed. This stock you may have if you desire. It is a luxury, but you may have it. I have de- cided to keep a horse instead of mining stock. The horse may not be so pretty, but it will cost less to keep him. "You will find the postal cards that have not been used under the distributing table, and the coal down in the cellar. If the stove draws too hard, close the damper in the pipe and shut the general delivery window. * * * 740 ANNALS OF WYOMING "If Deacon Hayford does not pay up his box rent, you might as well put his mail in the general delivery, and when Bob Head gets drunk and insists on a letter from one of his wives every day in the week, you can salute him through the window in the box delivery with an old Queen Anne tomahawk, which you will find near the Etruscan water pail. This will not in any manner surprise either of these parties. "Tears are unavailing. I once more become a private citi- zen, clothed only with the right to read such postal cards as may be addressed to me personally, and to curse the inefficiency of the postoffice department. * * *" Bill Nye returned to his home in Wisconsin, where he wrote syndicated articles for the papers and published several books of his humorous essays. In 1885 he toured the lecture platforms with James Whitcomb Riley. One wonders whether Bill Nye might not have chewed a wad of gum and swung a rope, after the style of our own actor- journalist, Will Rogers? In 1871 the materials of the South Pass News were brought to Laramie by Edward A. Slack and T. J. Webster, and the Laramie Daily Independent was established with Slack as editor. In the spring of 1875 Webster was supplanted by Charles W. Bramel, and the paper became the Laramie Daily Sun. A year- later Slack became sole owner and moved the plant to Cheyenne where he issued the Cheyenne Daily Sun, continuing it until 1895 when it was merged with the Leader. After leaving the Sun, Bramel began his own paper in Laramie, the Laramie Daily Chronicle, in May, 1876. 14 A year later Webster, formerly of the Independent, together with A. R. Johnson and George A. Garrett took over the Chron- icle until 1877 when it was taken to Cheyenne as the Cheyenne Daily Gazette. Another Laramie paper was the Laramie Daily Times, also begun by Bramel in 1879, this time in conjunction with L. D. Pease. It was in opposition to this paper that Nye established his Boomerang. After Fort Bridger, Cheyenne, and the group of towns vis- ited by the Frontier Index, South Pass City, at that time county seat of Sweetwater county, South Dakota, was the next printing point in Wyoming. The prolific N. A. Baker established the 14 In 1876 James Thorne took the complete outfit of the Nebraska City, Nebraska, ' ' Chronicle ' ' to Cheyenne, intending to take it from there to Deadwood, South Dakota. Hostile Indians made Deadwood difficult to reach, and so Thorne took his printing equipment to Laramie, where he sold it. Morton, v. 2, p. 348. Bramel was undoubtedly the purchaser. Bancroft, p. 799, says the press came from Plattsmouth, Nebraska. AXXALS OF WYOMING 741 South Pass News in 1868. 15 Churche Howe acquired the paper, and he sold it to C. J. Cowles and E. A. Slack. Slack was operat- ing it at the time a fire in South Pass destroyed most of the office, and in December, 1871, he took what was left of the materials to Laramie to begin the Laramie Daily Independent. He con- tinued it there until 1876, when he moved the plant to Cheyenne and merged with the two-year-old Daily News of that city as the Cheyenne Sun. It seems likely that the next printing point in Wyoming was Evanston in the southwest portion of the state near Fort Bridger. In 1879, Bramel and Pease began the Times at Laramie. This paper is said to have come from Evanston, although the exact date of its publication there and its name are not known. It was originally a Danish paper published at Salt Lake City, and was removed to Evanston, and then to Laramie. 16 The Evans- ton Age was in the first volume of its third series in 1876, No. 41 being dated Tuesday, October 3, so it was evidently begun some time before. William E. Wheeler was editor and proprietor. There was also a Uinta County Argus published at Evanston. 17 In 1881 printing was introduced at Rock Springs by the Rock Springs Miner, and in 1883 an attempt was made to estab- lish a paper at Buffalo. The first attempt was not successful, but a second was more so, and the Buffalo Echo was established. Lander had a press in 1884 18 with the establishment of the Wind River Mountaineer. 15 Lee, op cit., p. 255, says the "News" was begun in the spring of 1868. Chaplin, p. 10, gives the date of establishment of the "South Pass News" as "about the same time that N. A. Baker established the Laramie Daily Sentinel," which was May 1, 1869. The Bristol ms., p. 4, says, "At South Pass City in 1867 or 1868 a paper was started called the 'News'." 16 Bancroft, p. 794. Bristol ms., p. 6. 17 Bristol ms., prefatory list. Bristol notes, however, "The above list was picked up from miscellaneous sources, some of which may be doubtful authority." 18 N. W. Ayer & Sons "Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals,'^ 1930, p. 1092, gives the date as 1884. But a letter to me from Ed R. Wynn of Lander, in July, 1928, says the "Mountaineer" was estab- lished in 1885. 742 ANNALS OF WYOMING There is no satisfactory single authority on Wyoming print- ing, and none of those quoted is concerned with anything but newspaper publication. Bancroft's account is scattering; it is based in great part on the Bristol manuscript. Morton gives some of the history of the Frontier Index. Chaplin's article leaves much to be desired, but it covers the general outlines better than any of. the others. Bartlett's article is a reworking of Chaplin and Bancroft. Sabin has almost nothing to say on printing but gives a fine pic- ture of Wyoming in the boom days of the Frontier Index. WYOMING BIBLIOGRAPHY Bancroft, Hubert Howe. History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyo- ming. San Francisco, 1890. p. 732, 735, 794-795, 798-799. (Works: v. 25.) Bartlett, I. S., ed. History of Wyoming. Chicag-o, 111. ; 1918. v. 1, p. 450-461. Bristol, Samuel A. Newspaper Press of Wyoming. Cheyenne, 1884. 8 p. (Manuscript in Bancroft Library, Berkeley, California.) Chaplin, W. E. "Some of the Early Newspapers of Wyoming." In Wyoming Historical Society Miscellanies, Laramie, Wyo., 1919. p. 1-24. Morton, Julius Sterling. Illustrated History of Nebraska, Lin- coln 1907-13. v. 2, p. 348, 369-370. Sabin, Edwin L. Building the Pacific Railway. Philadelphia, 1919. p. 264-274. "Wyoming Paper's 50th Anniversary Recalls Journalistic Career of Immortal Bill Nye," in Publishers Auxiliary, Jan. 31, 1931, p. 1; 6. ANNALS OF WYOMING 743 JOHN W. DEANE, WYOMING PIONEER Charles Lindsay (On Aug. 11, 1931, Prof. Lindsay was accidentally drowned near Byron while swimming in the Shoshoni River). John W. Deane, pioneer, rancher, and late mayor of Meeteet- se, who passed away at his home in Meeteetse on Jnne 13, 1930, had witnessed the development of Wyoming since he first came West in 1872. So far as I have been able to learn, no man living in the Big Horn Basin in 1930 was there as early as Mr. Deane, who first saw its broad panorama from the summit of the Owl Creek Mountains in the spring of 1876, when he was carrying government dispatches from old Fort Washakie to troops on the Little Big Horn. It was thus the fortune of Mr. Deane to see the various frontier stages of northern Wyoming pass before his eyes; the penetration of the region by pioneer miners, the open range industry, the coming of the settler, and finally the oil boom. If for no other reason than his long and intimate association with these episodes, Mr. Deane deserves a mention in Wyoming history. John W. Deane was a true westerner in that he came from the East. He was born in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, in 1856, the son of Isaac Deane and Jane Clift. His father was born in Devonshire, England, and came to America when a youth. As a young man John attended the elementary schools of Pennsyl- vania, never a very long period at a time. He has said that a year would cover all the time he ever attended school, and the only school subject he ever cared for was geography. Perhaps it was the descriptions of distant lands that made geography fascinating for him, for he was always, in imagination, concocting strange adventures and achieving fame in distant regions. As a matter of fact it was the West that most delighted young Deane. Here were romance, Indians, buffalo, and perhaps in the end wealth — for strange rumors of western gold were cir- culating throughout Pennsylvania. Books told the boys of his community about fame and fortune in the West. Indeed, Mr. Deane attributed his going West to a thriller that a friend of his let him read when he was fifteen years old. Even at that tender age he viewed the possibilities of the relatively thickly populated state where he lived with something like dismay. His parents were poor people, and he was only one of a large family. He de- termined to leave home and take his chances in a newer country where opportunities would open for a young man with industry and determination. He found a friend who sympathized with his scheme and agreed to follow him in carrying it out. It thus fell out that John W. Deane, with his friend, Eddie Post, ran away from home and eventually found himself on the western 744 ANNALS OF WYOMING cattle trails. He was, according to his own account, fifteen years old. The shipping of Texas longhorns east from Abilene was the result of a revival of the languishing cattle trade which had be- gun in Texas prior to the Civil War. The Kansas Pacific Railroad reached Abilene in the spring of 1867 and furnished Joseph G. McCoy his inspiration of making that place a great cattle depot. McCoy's idea was put into operation with such dispatch that about thirty-five thousand Texas cattle were marketed at Abilene in the fall of 1867. 1 The next year seventy-five thousand head of cattle were driven over the Chisholm Trail — a range thoroughfare that was to become celebrated. If Deane was on the Trail or in Abilene in 1872 he missed Wild Bill Hickok by one year. Wild Bill had been marshal of Abilene in 1871, having followed Thomas James Smith, who was killed while executing the duties of his office. In 1872, however, Wild Bill was in the environs of Kansas City, though his name was fresh on the border, and one that Deane heard mentioned often enough. The next year he followed the lure of the mining boom into the Black Hills. 2 The Long Drive which Deane experienced for a single summer continued for several more, but he did not remain to see its decline. He drifted that fall into Wyoming. Having pro- cured a horse, saddle and outfit, and having secured his wages in a strong leather belt, he turned toward his future home. His trip to the Wyoming frontier was not without incident of in- terest. He learned that some prospectors had struck pay dirt in the vicinity of Atlantic City and determined to go there. It was on this journey that Deane had his first experience with Indians. One evening he came upon a large encampment of Indians on what he later learned was Lodge Pole Creek. The greeting he re- ceived was not unfriendly, and he was invited to unsaddle his horse and remain for the night. This he did turning his pony out to graze with the horses that belonged to the Indians. There were some eighty or a hundred lodges or tepees set in an irregular semicircle near the bank of the stream. Deane was greatly interested in the whole affair, as he had not yet seen enough of Indian life to get the romantic eastern notions out of his head. But the following morning brought with it another aspect of the situation. When the night herder brought in the ponies, his own was missing. Investigation revealed the absence also of his saddle and outfit. As a matter of fact he was with a friendly band of thieving Cheyennes whose inclinations to harm only extended to robbery. Mr. Deane believed that he spent no 1 Edward Everett Dale, " Those Kansas Javhawkers," Agricultural History, II, 178 (October, 1928). 2 Stuart Henry, "Conquering Our Great American Plains," (New York, 1930), 270. ANNALS OF WYOMING 745 less than five months in this Indian village. The tribe was on its annual buffalo hunt, gathering great stores of meat, cutting it into long strips, and preparing it for future use. The meat, after being cured, was pounded into powder between stones, and stuffed into the entrails of the buffalo. This with corn procured from the Nebraska Indians constituted the sole diet, a menu of which Deane became thoroughly tired. As spring approached, the band moved north and west toward South Pass. One day when Deane was taking a long hike looking for signs of civilization, he observed the tracks of a pair of hob- nailed boots in the snow along the bank of a stream. In relating this adventure, Mr. Deane declared, "I almost broke down and cried, so great was my relief at seeing even this sign of a white man." 3 After trailing the tracks for several miles, he came in sight of a camp. It proved to belong to a trapper, Charlie Smith, who had first come to South Pass in 1849 ; had later spent some years around Fort Bridger, and had returned to the Atlantic region in 1869. The next morning Smith took Deane to Atlantic City. Ex- isting chiefly as a supply post for prospectors, this place exhibited the usual marks of a frontier mining community. The first effec- tive strike in this region had been made in 1867, immediately fol- lowing the Indian hostilities along the Bozeman Trail, 4 which culminated in the Fetterman Massacre of December, 1866. 5 The men who made the discovery had come from Virginia City. For a time after this strike, the Sweetwater district experienced a con- siderable boom. Indeed, the desire for gold so seized the popula- tion that distant fields were sought. In 1870 the Big Horn Ex- pedition set out from Cheyenne, amid considerable enthusiasm, but no gold worth mentioning was reported. When Deane reached Atlantic City in 1873, therefore, the mining boom was on the wane. Nevertheless, the dozen log houses he found there looked like a. metropolis to him, after having for months lived with the Indians. The "city" could boast of two saloons and, according to Mr. Deane, "sufficient gambling joints to take care of all miners who 'struck it rich'." There were also a post office, a rooming house, and a general store conducted by Jim Kime. Sup- plies and mail were brought in from Green River. The years immediately following Deane 's arrival in this sec- 3 This quotation and others given in this paper are taken from a stenographic record of an interview the writer had with Mr. Deane at his residence in Meeteetse, Wyoming, in the summer of 1928. 4 Rossiter W. Raymond, "Statistics of Mines and Mining in the States and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains," 41 Cong., 2 Sess. (1870), House Ex. Doc. No. 207, p. 327 (Serial 1424). 5 The official report of this tragedy is in 40 Cong., 1 Sess. (1868), Sen. Ex. Doc. No. 1308 (Serial). 746 ANNALS OF WYOMING tion were occupied in "bull whacking", carrying dispatches for government troops, and finally establishing a private mail route into the Big Horn Basin. A new military post had just been es- tablished on the Popo Agie, in the vicinity where Lander is now situated. This post was set up in June, 1869 ; two years later it was moved fifteen miles north, on the south fork of Little Wind river. It was first called Camp Augur, but in March, 1870, the name was changed to Camp Brown, in honor of Captain Brown, who was killed in the massacre of Fort Phil Kearney. In Jan- uary, 1879, the name was changed to Fort Washakie. 6 When Deane reached this vicinity, building materials and supplies for the new post were being freighted from the Union Pacific Railroad, and he was given a job of driving bull teams. A team consisted of eight or nine pairs of oxen, according to Mr. Deane, these being yoked two and two, and pulling two wagons with a load of from six to nine tons. The roads were poor and the going was slow; fourteen miles was a good day's drive. Point of Rocks, the station on the Union Pacific Railroad from which the materials and supplies were procured, was something like a hun- dred and fifty miles distant. This gives some idea of the under- taking in equipping a frontier post, even in the seventies. Later on, Deane was employed at the new fort. All the offi- cers of the earlier period were known to him, among others, Col- onel Mason, Captain Burke, Captain Bates, and somewhat later Captain Torrey. The Second Cavalry was stationed at this post, it having arrived in the fall of 1873 under the command of Major E. M. Baker. One of the earlier surgeons was Dr. Thomas G. Maghee, who made the first test of the mineral springs at Ther- mopolis, 7 and later remained in Lander to become one of the best known physicians in northern Wyoming. Mr. Deane claimed to have planted the first trees, mostly cottonwood saplings, that were set out on the military yards. Mr. Deane was at Fort Washakie, or Camp Brown, as it was then called, during the Indian uprisings in 1874 and 1876. The story of these campaigns has often been told and need not be repeated. Perhaps the only authentic, detailed first hand account of Bates' Battle now extant is to be found in the diary of the late Dr. Thomas G. Maghee. Dr. Maghee was present and par- ticipated in this affair, which occurred on July 4, 1874, in the No Wood region of the Big Horn Basin. As a government dispatch carrier, Deane frequently visited other frontier posts, Forts Steele, Fetterman, and Bridger. He 6 Fort Washakie Post Kecord, p. 1-171. 7 Dr. Thomas G. Maghee, MS. Diary, August 13, 1874. See also Charles Lindsay, "An Early Chapter of Thermopolis History, " Ther- mopolis (Wyoming) Independent Record, September 6, 1929. ANNALS OF WYOMING 747 also carried dispatches from the Popo Agie to the Yellowstone, when Federal troops were occupied in the Sioux Wars. Usually he had one or two friendly Shoshonies with him, and he acquired a fluency of the Shoshonie tongue which few surpassed. It is in- teresting to note that though Deane was with the Cheyennes for a period of something like five months, according to his own ac- count, he acquired no lasting mastery of that language. He told the writer that he was in constant fear during the whole period and could think of nothing but a way of escape. But with the Shoshonies, the matter was quite different ; Deane was older, formed many friendships with them, and learned their ways. He was intimately acquainted with Chief Washakie, who up until his death regarded Deane as a firm friend. His position of friend- ship with these Indians continued throughout his life. He had no difficulty in securing the assistance of the Shoshonies when he made his moving picture, "Wyoming Territorial Days," only a few years prior to his death. It was on one of his missions from the Wind River to the Yellowstone for Federal troops that Deane first viewed the Big Horn Basin. According to his account, it was in the spring of 1876, the same year that General Custer met with disaster on the Little Big Horn. If Mr. Deane erred in this date, it is prob- able that he was not far from the exact time, as it is well known that he was present at Fort Washakie during these years, and was engaged a considerable part of the time as a dispatch carrier. On the trip in question, Deane ascended the slopes of the Owl Creek Mountains, from the summit of which he surveyed the Big Horn Basin for the first time. His impressions of what he saw were given many years later : "From my point of vantage I could see the Big Horn River and trace its course for many miles by the line of cottonwood timber along its banks. The Pryor Mountains were dimly visible, and the Big Horn Range, with snow-capped Cloud's Peak rising in its midst, was easily discerned. Close at my feet, apparently, and in reality only a few miles beyond the smooth northern slope of the range on which I stood, lay the peculiar, brick-red, conical hills of the hot springs region, in which the town of Thermopolis was later to spring up. Not a human being, nor a sign of human habitation, was visible in all the valley. ' ' The route followed by Deane on this trip took him, for a part of the way, at least, along the old Bridger Cut-Off. In the late seventies, Deane established his private mail route in the Basin, without a doubt the first mail service to enter the region. His customers were pioneer miners, who paid him a flat rate to deliver letters and newspapers, and receive any mail that they might have to send out. A little later the early cattlemen 748 ANNALS OF WYOMING were entering the country, and these were added to his patrons. His route took him over the Owl Creek Mountains to the Embar ranch, then up the Greybull River and north to the Shoshone and into Montana. Fort Washakie and Stillwater, Montana, were the southern and northern termini. "When he made his first trip he met Otto Franc, who was looking over the country with a view to establishing a ranch. Franc became, within the course of the next few years, one of the largest cattlemen in northern Wyo- ming. When Deane delivered his first mail in the Basin, J. D. Woodruff and Ben Anderson were operating the Embar ranch. This later came into the possession of Captain Torrey. At Big Grass Creek, Deane found George Baxter, later, for a time, Gov- ernor of Wyoming. Baxter was making plans for a large cattle ranch on the Big Grass Creek. These plans materialized into the famous L. U. ranch, and Baxter become identified intimately with the Wyoming Stock Growers' Association, the largest and most powerful organization of its kind in the world. As a matter of fact, Deane 's mail route venture paralleled the stocking of the Big Horn Basin with its first great herds of cattle, and in a very short time Deane himself sensed the significance of this move- ment. Before leaving this part of Deane 's life, it is not out of place to relate one of his experiences, not because of its intrinsic sig- nificance, but solely for its interest. Let Mr. Deane himself tell this story: "As I rode over a slight rise of ground at the head of Sage Creek, I distinctly heard the strains of l Arkansas Traveler ' com- ing from the hollow just beyond. For a moment I wondered if the solitude of the prairies was affecting my mind, as it is said to do with sheep herders who spend months alone. After a slight hesitation, I went on over the hill in the direction of the music. There in front of a crude tent sat an old, bearded man, sawing away at a fiddle for all he was worth. It was George Marquette, trapper and fiddler, the Basin's first musician. Marquette had already spent several years trapping in the Basin, and in the region around Sheridan, across the Big Horns. For many years after this, he was the leading fiddler in northern Wyoming, and officiated at all ranch and saloon dances during the eighties and nineties. His ranch was at the forks of the Stinking Water above Cody. He appeared glad to have company when I rode into his camp, and invited me to spend the night with him. I contrib- uted the contents of a demijohn to the evening's refreshments. My friend enjoyed it, and it appeared to improve his music. That night we sat outside the tent for a long time, while he played 'After the Ball', 'Home Sweet Home', and other old songs I asked for." ANNALS OF WYOMING 74& Marquette became something of an institution in the Big Horn Basin; other men Deane met during his mail days were Jim Corbett, Captain Belknap, Col. W. D. Pickett, men who are included in any pioneer list of northern Wyoming characters. In 1884, Deane took up a ranch on the upper Greybull, later called Sunshine. He planned to accumulate a small band of cattle while working for the larger outfits. In this he was fully successful. For years he was one of the reliable employees of Otto Franc, owner of the Pitchfork Ranch. Deane witnessed, during these years, the ascendency of the cattle king; saw the ranges stocked to capacity ; watched the surveyors stake out the towns of Meeteetse, Cody, Thermopolis, Otto, Burlington, and in fact, every town in the Basin ; saw the farmer take out patents on likely spots along the rivers and streams ; experienced the days of the range war, and finally the complete decline of the open range cattle business. The story of the open range industry in the Big Horn Basin cannot be retold here, even though Mr. Deane was a very close observer of it. Something can, however, be said of the range war, as experienced by Deane in the early nineties. The crowded condition of the range, the shortage of grazing lands, and the encroachments of the granger farmer, all agree, contributed to bad feelings between the cattle barons and the farmers. People like Deane, who were participants in these events, are usually reticent when speaking of them. The invasion of Johnson County took place just prior to the affair in the Basin which resulted in the killing of Burch and Bedford. Deane was with Franc in the Pry or Gap at the time. He resolutely refused, in speaking of this matter in after years, to attribute responsibil- ity of any kind to Franc, though he noticed during this trip that the Pitchfork outfit was unusually well armed, as though expect- ing an attack. Likewise, there was very close contact between Franc on the one hand, and Lovell, owner of the large M. L. ranch near the mouth of the Shoshone River, on the other. But all this could be accounted for, as Mr. Deane pointed out, with- out implicating in any way the large cattlemen in the killing of the alleged rustlers. None the less, the incidents associated with the war seemed, according to Mr. Deane, to have a permanent ill effect on Otto Franc. As he grew older, he became very nervous. For long periods of time, he employed Deane to sleep in his room at night as a guard. Franc died in the fall of 1903 in a manner that has never been explained to the full satisfaction of everyone. He was in the habit, according to Deane, of going out just before supper and shooting rabbits that were spoiling his garden. On the eve- ning in question, his gun apparently discharged and killed him 750 ANNALS OF WYOMING while he was crawling through a fence. Few residents of the Big Horn Basin knew Otto Franc as intimately as did John W. Deane. On the matter of Franc's death, however, Mr. Deane refused to commit himself other than by a bare recital of the facts as given above. Mr. Deane, like many other cowboy, accumulated a. consider- able band of cattle of his own while working for Otto Franc and operating at the same time his ranch, known from his brand as the * ' Butcherknif e, ' ' at Sunshine. He threw his shipping cattle in with Franc's and sent them to eastern markets, frequently accompanying them. During these years emerged on Meeteetse Creek, the town of Arland, unique in frontier communities. It preceded Meeteetse, Burlington, Otto, and Cody in making its appearance, and for a period in the '80 's was a cowboy rendezvous of considerable im- portance. It was named for Vic Arland, who, in fact, owned the place. Later on, when Meeteetse took root on the Greybull River, Arland declined and soon left no trace of its once buoyant days save for the scattered graves that line its neighboring ridges. 8 "With the coming of the farmer, the introduction of exten- sive irrigation works, and the paralleled decline of the open range industry, the general character of frontier life with which Deane had been so long acquainted passed away. His early friends were also gone. William F. Cody, who was one of the leaders in initiating the irrigation projects at Cody, was an intimate friend of Mr. Deane, and dubbed him the World's Champion Barbequer, a title to which Deane undoubtedly had full right. He claimed to have conducted one hundred and one successful barbeques, and probably few people in the Big Horn Basin could be found today who would not testify to his skill. The last one over which he presided was witnessed by Miss Caroline Lockhart, and was included in his moving picture "Wyoming Territorial Days." If one were looking for a great railroad builder, a captain of industry or a great politician he could pass Mr. Deane by. His long life on the fringe of the frontier is not significant in matters of this kind. History has paid more attention to industrial and political figures than to the mass of humanity which makes them possible. But a new history is in the making, and it promises a much better proportion, for it deals with the "history of the peo- ple. ' ' And after all, the state builders are the people. John W. Deane was one of them. He created no great name in science, in- dustry, or politics, but he lived well enough the small part he cut out for himself. In the end he achieved and maintained the full esteem of his own community, electing him its mayor. 8 Charles Lindsay, "Arland: A Cowboy's Paradise, " Prairie Schoon- er, III, (Fall, 1929). ANNALS OF WYOMING 751 Local intimates of Mr. Deane will hint at the reputation he acquired for being a hard man to best in an argument, whether it retained a verbal character or assumed the form of physical combat or gun play. It is also whispered that Deane "got his man, ' ' and that marks and scars on his body testified to a rough life and "close calls." Of these matters little of certainty can be recorded. It would not be astonishing, however, if Mr. Deane did receive a few gun wounds, or even if he did ' ' get his man. ' ' Certainly he was credited with shooting straight, and he lived through the years in Wyoming when rough life and gun play were not uncommon. Yet though the writer spent considerable time with him, studied his papers, examined every newspaper account of him extant, and interviewed most of his early asso- ciates who were still living, evidence of a positive character which would throw light either one way or the other was sought in vain. A knowledge of these episodes, if they took place at all, went, in all probability, to the grave with Mr. Deane. In appearance Mr. Deane was stocky and square built, in later years acquiring a tendency to corpulency. He had a large, well shaped head, broad shoulders, deep chest and lungs, giving evidence of years in the out of doors. He had bright twinkling eyes that sparkled when he told his stories of dry humor. He possessed a marked appreciation for the funny story, and a con- siderable aptitude for telling it. During a story of this kind, Mr. Deane would qualify along the lines laid down by Mark Twain, for he never smiled; if the story fell flat (which it rarely did) it received no help from its author. Mr. Deane 's story telling proclivities are well known in north- ern. "Wyoming. Perhaps it was this ability which gave him the name of "Josh" among his friends. Josh Deane is by far more celebrated in northern Wyoming than is John W. Deane. Never- theless, friends and strangers alike testify to the integrity of Mr. Deane. If he told "large" stories he could be relied upon for the ' ' facts, ' ' when facts were in order. His contacts acquired for him friends the country over. The late James Dahlman, Mayor of Omaha, counted Deane among his best friends, and the writer has examined the correspondence between Mr. Deane and Mr. Dahlman which amply justifies this assertion. Mr. Deane married Miss Lily Siipple, of Phoenixville, Pa., in 1916, and she survives him. With the death of Mr. Deane ended the career of a man whose life reflected many phases of Wyoming's history. With the development of the Big Horn Basin, he was especially fa- miliar, having, as has been indicated above, been present from the days when it was inhabited chiefly by Indians until the time when it was cut up into irrigated farms. 752 ANNALS OF WYOMING FORT LARAMIE Head Quarters Fort Laramie D. T. May 21st, 1866 Major Roger Jones Asst. Insp. Gen'l U. S. A. Insp. Genl. Mil. Div. of the Miss. Sir: In reply to your printed circular of May 10th 1866, I have the honor to return the following answers to questions therein propounded. First — Fort Laramie is situated at the confluence of the Platte (North Fork) and Laramie Rivers. It is in the midst of an extensive valley containing nearly 5000 acres, susceptable of cultivation with the aid of artificial irrigation which could be had from the Laramie River but at an expense greater per- haps than would be justified until the valley is settled, at pres- ent nearly the whole area of the valley is included in the military Reserve which extends five (5) miles in each direction from the Centre of the Post. Fort Laramie is in Lat. 42° 15" N. Lon. 104° 35" W. from Greenwich. Its elevation is about 4500 feet. These figures are approximate, as there are no records at the Post of the Surveys and Observations of Captain Reynolds, Lt. "Warren, and Lt. Maynadier made from 1857 to 1860, but they are near enough to be practicably useful. Second — The nature of the Country briefly described, is this. Surrounding the valley at the confluence of the Laramie and Platte Rivers, the site of the Post, are low broken hills, composed principally argicallecous material in the form of in- durated clay and clay stone. Some of the latter is suitable for building purposes. Westward at a distance of Twenty-five to Fifty miles is a range of the Black Hills running North and South, and connecting with the range in which Laramie Peak is the principal object. This Peak is nearly due West of the Post, and distant about Sixty miles. Limestone has been found within 15 miles of the Post, and Lime burned from it, but it contains so much clay and magnesia that the Lime is not strong enough for good building purposes. Adobes are the best build- ing material, as the clay is stiff and hardens readily, and adobe buildings [do not] stand well where they are plastered the plastering is soon forced off by frost and rain and it will be better to leave any building to be erected hereafter without plastering. The mineral products of this section of the country which immediately surrounds Fort Laramie within a radius say ANNALS OF WYOMING 753 twenty miles are of little value, although it is supposed that gold and silver may be obtained in the Black Hills and Lar- amie Mountains, no explorations have yet been made which justifies the supposition. Coal of an inferior quality has been found about one hundred miles west of the Post, near the mouth of Deer Creek a tributary of the Platte. It has been used in forges in addition to charcoal but is not fit for use as fuel for domestic purposes. Probably when the vein is opened to a greater depth good coal will be found. The supply of Fuel for the Post is derived from the adjacent Hills and their Cannons. It is yellow pine and cedar, at present it is hauled from 8 to 15 miles. It is rapidly being consumed and will not probably last more than four or five years more. The supply of water to the Post of Fort Laramie is not only inadequate but of great expense and labor, all the water now used is hauled in barrels from the Laramie River occupy- ing the entire time of a six mule Team and ten or fifteen men. Water could easily be brought in to the Garrison and at com- paratively small expense. "Wells have not answered well r owing to the sandy nature of the ground, after the clay surface has been passed and water found at low depths is not as good as the River water. For ordinary domestic uses the supply of water is very well kept up by the present method, but in case of fire it would be lamentably deficient. The plain surrounding the Post, is incapable of cultivation, except with irrigation that can readily be obtained. Gardens have been cultivated by the Troops, in the vicinity of the Post but with great labor, and no commeasurable benefit. I believe that nothing more than a temporary supply of vegetables has ever been raised while the great necessity is to have sufficient to last through the winter for antiscorbutic purposes. An effort is being now made to carry out this object by cultivating two farms, one by the Troops, and one by a citizen, who pays a proportion (five per cent) of his produce. The success of the enterprise remain to be seen. Vegetables are frequently brought here from Denver, but are necessarily held at high prices. The only Timber in the vicinity of the Post is at Laramie Peak, 60 miles distant, all nearer is short scrubby and only fit for firewood. The main road of travel up the North Platte and thence via Salt Lake City and Landers Cut off to California and the Northern Mines passes the Post. Another road from the South comes from Denver following the valley of the Laramie River. 754 ANNALS OF WYOMING There is every probability that a new road to Montana will be opened this year, which will give increased importance to this Post. Third — The Storehouses Quarters and other buildings at Fort Laramie are old and worn out, no repairs of consequence have been made for several years much improvement could be made in a new arrangement, and reconstruction of the Post. The store houses are built of yellow pine lumber, very combustible and although sufficient to protect their contents against rain, utterly useless against the decay and destruction produced by the excessive cold of winter and the ardent heat of summer. Nothing about the Post requires more immediate atten- tion than a reconstruction of the Storehouses. Buildings with thick stone or adobe walls are the only ones suitable for pre- serving stores especially provisions in this climate. The Stables are built of wood and are old and need repairs. The Garrison will accommodate properly two Companies of Cavalry and two of Infantry, of the Minimum strength. The Officers Quarters are all out of repair, badly constructed and planned. One very important duty devolves upon the Commanding Officer of this Post : that of establishing and maintaining proper control over the Indians who are around the Post to the num- ber of 5000 Warriors and 20,000 souls including women and children. They are now perfectly peaceable and it is expected and hoped that the Treaty soon to be made will secure a last- ing and permanent peace. With the great number of persons who now annually cross the Plains and pass this Post, it is highly important that it should be kept in a strong condition by repairs and alterations and be always defended by a sufficient Garrison, I have the honor to be Very Respectfully Your Obedt. Servt. (Signed) W. H. Evans Major 11th Ohio Cav. Vols. Post. True Copy. W. S. Starring, 1st Lieut. & Adjt. 1st Batt. 18th U. S. Infty. ANNALS OF WYOMING 755 INDIAN TROUBLES (Communications on Indian Troubles of 1872-1874) Fort Laramie, Feb. 28, 1872. To Gen. G. D. Ruggles, Ornaha. I am advised that a war party of thirty Sioux left the Agency on the 26th inst. for the Pawnee village. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, March 23, 1872. To A. A. General, Dept. of the Platte, Omaha. Latest reports from the Agency are that all is quiet, bnt I deem it my duty to inform you that the temper of many of the Indians is decidedly hostile and that no time should be lost in preparing for any emergency. Last evening some ten or twelve Indians attacked some herders in the Chug Valley and shot one horse and slightly wounded one man. One company of cavalry should be camped on the Chug with instructions to scout the country down to the Laramie. Red Cloud was at the Agency yes- terday and received his goods and to carry his point had them brought on south side of the Platte for distribution to his follow- ers. Other Indians, those who remain at the Agency, complain and say that he should not be permitted to do so. To drive him away would give them a pretext for breaking out. I will do all that I can to prevent a conflict. Captain Henry with three companies of cavalry have reported. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf., Commdg. Post. Fort Laramie, Oct. 15, 1872. Gen. G. D. Ruggles, Omaha. Am watching Indians who are moving. Will not keep them longer than absolutely necessary. Nails telegraphed for on 10 inst., verv much needed. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, Oct. 23, 1872. Gen. G. D. Ruggles, Omaha. On the night of the 21st Agent Daniels sent an urgent re- quest for troops to protect life and property at Agency. Major Wells' company with Captain Egans were immediately sent down. Upon his arrival yesterday morning he found the whites barricaded and momentarily expecting to be attacked as the In- dians are very much excited by having one of their number killed by some white men who were selling whisky on this side of the river. I have Capt. Monahan's company at this Post in hand to send down if necessary. Daniels has telegraphed to the 756 ANNALS OF WYOMING Interior Dept. asking that troops be stationed at the Agency. If I do not get a favorable report today will go down tomorrow. No collision with the troops had occurred up to the time of Major Wells' report last night. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, March 7, 1873. Gen. G. D. Ruggles, Omaha, A war party of 40 or 50 Sioux Indians are reported to be on their way to the railroad in vicinity of North Platte. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, March 25, 1873. Gen. C. Grover, Fort Fetterman. I send out today two detachments of cavalry to scout the country above as far as Elk horn. Can you send your cavalry on north side of the Platte on the road as far as mouth of Horse Shoe with instructions that if they find the trail of the war party crossing the river to follow it and attack them wherever they may find them on the south side of the river. If they should not dis- cover their trail when they arrive at or opposite Horse Shoe to cross over and return on the south side. If you send furnish a Guide Courier. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, March 25, 1873. Gen. G. D. Ruggles, Omaha. Gen. Grover reports a war party of Sioux out. I have sent out two detchments of cavalry to scout the country west and re- quested Gen. Grover to co-operate. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, Wyoming, April 12, 1873. Gen. G. D. Ruggles, Omaha. Spotted Tail with large party of his people reported to be camped on the South Platte on his way to Republican country. I do not know by what authority if any. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Headquarters District of the Black Hills. Fort Laramie, Wyoming, May 14th, 1873. You will march with your company via Hunton Ranch to the mouth of the Chug near where you will establish a camp. Make requisition on depot quartermaster for transportation. Cav- alry will not move until grazing is better. By order of Col. Smith. Wm. W. McCammon, 2nd Lieut. 14th Inf. A. A. A. G. ANNALS OF WYOMING 757 Headquarters District of the Black Hills. Fort Laramie, Wyoming Try., May 14, 1873. Captain Guy V. Henry, 3d Cavalry, Cheyenne, Wyoming Try. Cavalry will not move for several days. Grazing insufficient. By order Col. Smith. Wm. W. McCammon, 2nd Lieut. 14th Inf. A. A. A. G. Fort Laramie, Wyoming Try., July 12, 1873. Gen. G. D. Ruggles, Omaha. A party of seventy Arapahoes started on the 8th inst. for Rawlins Springs to avenge the killing of four of their people recently. They were dissuaded and all but twenty, the relatives of the ones killed, turned back. The twenty have gone on osten- sibly to bury their relatives. I have no doubt they will kill an equal number of whites and steal stock. If they could capture the men who committed the outrage no harm would be done but I fear innocent parties will suffer. The line being down could not communicate sooner. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, July 5, 1873. Genl. Ruggles, Omaha, The following reed, from Gen. Grover in reply to my inquiry if he has any information concerning the trouble with the Ute Indians : ' ' There are no Indians about here now that know any- thing about the matter. A party of Arapahoes crossed the north side of the river on the 3d on its way to Laramie and the Agency. Rock Bear, a Sioux, met it about ten miles below here and came in and reported that ten or twelve Arapahoes had met with an armed party of whites near Rawlins Springs and the whites fired upon them and killed three Indians and wounded another and took several ponies from them. Interpreter to whom the Sioux made this report is now in the office. C. Grover." Fort Laramie, Aug. 19, 1873. Commanding Officer, Camp Stambaugh. A war party of about forty Sioux left their camp on Powder River a week ago on their way to Wind River valley. It is de- sirable that this party should be severely punished if possible. They had a hand in killing the two women in your vicinity re- cently. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf., Dist. Black Hills. Fort Laramie, Wyoming Try., Feb. 10, 1874. Major Chambers, Fort Fetterman. Send at once every available man and horse or your cavalry with three days rations to scout on the south side of the Platte river as far as the Cottonwood with instructions to spare no In- 758 ANNALS OF WYOMING dian found and to co-operate with Capt. Egan who left here last night. If possible find out what Indians they are. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, Wyoming Try., Feb. 11, 1874. General Ord, Omaha. Lieut. Robinson and Corpl. Coleman, Company K, 2nd Cav- alry, in charge of the lumber train were killed last Monday by Indians (supposed to be forty or fifty in the party but not known) twelve miles east of Laramie Peak on the Little Cotton- wood. Their bodies were found yesterday p. m. Both cavalry companies from this Post and company from Fetterman are out. It is time the present f arcial Indian policy should end. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, Feb. 12, 1874. Gen. E. 0. C. Ord, Omaha. "We have fifty four thousand musket and sixteen thousand carbine ammunition. Send twenty thousand more carbine. Capt. Egan returned last night. Did not overtake Indians. Company from Fetterman failed to find them also. A report just received from Fetterman states that Indians attacked a wood party near there this morning. Sent out twenty five men to their relief. No further particulars. Have just received information that arms and ammunition is en route to the Agency furnished by the In- terior Department. Have ordered Capt. Egan out to intercept the train and bring arms and ammunition to this post. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, Feb. 19, 1874. Gen'l Ord, Omaha. It would be impossible to estimate the force we may meet. I am satisfied their members are grossly exaggerated at the Agencies. I think two thousand warriors is the most they could concentrate but more is possible. Chambers telegraphs me that he thinks the Cheyennes and Arapahoes are keeping out of the way of trouble and I have not heard of any Indians south of the Platte between here and Fetterman since last Tuesday. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, Feb. 14, 1874. Gen'l Ord, Omaha, Col. Chambers telegraphs that the Cheyenne w T ho came in says the Cheyennes and nearly all the Sioux have left the Agency and that the Uncapapas report abundance of buffalo in the Big Horn country and thinks the Sioux will go there. The Agency Indian Sioux will probably unite with the Minne- conjous and Uncapapas. The Cheyennes and Arapahoes that ANNALS OF WYOMING 759 were at the Agency, about one hundred and fifty lodges, must be near here, probably within fifty miles. They are going to send or come in. Only Red Cloud and Man Afraid of His Horse were left about twenty miles north west of Agency about seventy lodges. My messenger sent to the Agency night before last has not returned. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Ft. Laramie, Feb. 14, 1874. Gen'l Ord, Omaha, My estimate yesterday was based on a less force than now contemplated. Eight companies of cavalry, five hundred and eighty horses forage in fifteen clays one hundred and four thousand pounds. Five hundred thousand ammunition. Fort Laramie, Feb. 16, 1874. Gen'l Ord, Omaha, Messenger just returned from Agency. Dr. Saville writes that the northern Indians have all gone to Tongue River and that they alone have committed the depredations recently, that the Ogallas have faithfully guarded the Agency since Apple- ton was killed and that they will prevent the northern Indians from coming to the Agency or passing through the country. Dr. Saville also says that the Indian who shot Appleton was killed by the Brules who also recaptured the mules stolen by the Minneconjous from Col. Genreux. Agent Howard writes to Dr. Saville that Spotted Tail has a guard over his Agency. The party which killed Lieut. Robinson consisted of Minne- conjous, Uncapapas and Sans Arcs. Jno. E. Smith, Col. 14th Inf. Fort Laramie, Feb. 23, 1874. Gen. W. T. Sherman, "Washington, D. C. Gen. Ord and myself arrived here yesterday. The news from the Agencies yesterday was alarming. The troops are now en route from Cheyenne to this place and will leave here for the Agencies Saturday morning. The weather changed about a week ago from warm sunshine to cold windy storms with snow not very deep. The men are now well equipped and can stand it. The greatest suffering is scarcity of wood for fires at night. This will be overcome when they reach the Agencies where wood is abundant. I will start on my return to Chicago today. P. H. Sheridan, Lieut. Gen. 760 ANNALS OF WYOMING To Gen. McCook, Fort McKinney, Wyoming. Following just received: To General McCook, Fort Douglas, Utah. Gen. Boulanger and suite of the French Army in this coun- try as guests of the nation at Yorktown. Will leave here to- morrow for San Francisco. They will stop at Cheyenne to visit Fort Russell and then go to Salt Lake City. They want to see Fort Douglas and I request that you extend to them an invitation and commend them to your attention and courtesy. P. H. Sheridan, Lieut. Gen. Article of Agreement Thos. Conroy & Robt. Williams Style _ Conroy & Williams Fort Laramie, Mar 2 1859 We the undersigned, Robert Williams and Thomas Conroy, have agreed and by these presents do hereby agree, to become co-part- ners together in the trade of Blacksmithing, and in all things thereto belonging; also in buying selling and — ding all cattle, Horses, Mules &c, and also in buying and selling all sorts of Goods, Wares &c, with the full understanding that each and both of us are to be responsible for the acts of the other, and to share with each other all Profits arising from the business, share and share alike ; — Further agree that neither one is to speculate from the business one upon the other. Given at Fort Laramie N. T. this 2d Day of March 1859 Thomas Conroy (S) Robert Williams (S) Witness. N. R. Fitz Hugh. WILLIAM GAY (Coutant Notes) Born at Washburn, Mo., 1837. AVas employed by Slade in Feb., 1862 as messenger from Julesburg to Sweet Water bridge. The duty of the messenger was to look after the welfare of passengers, assist wherever help might be needed and if anything happened to driver he was ex- pected to take his place and do general superintendent's work. At Split Rock Station, 24 miles west from Sweetwater bridge on a night during the early fall of '62 when changing off with a west division messenger, Mr. Gay's coach came into Split Rock blowing the horn for the stock tender as usual, and wonder- ANNALS OF WYOMING 761 ing why its stock was not in readiness. The tender came to the door and with hushed tone told that the Indians had driven off the stock, killed a colored blacksmith and shot a white man through the leg. The coach lights were blown out and the same train driven to the next station where the stock had shared the same fate. Again the same train was driven on to Sweetwater Bridge where a larger force had saved the stock ! Many times the Indians indulged in the apparent sport of running the coaches and enjoying the fun of shooting at the drivers, perhaps with a desire for horse flesh more than a desire to kill, when Mr. Gay would have to take part in the pleasantry, and help to keep his red friends from getting uncomfortably close. ACCESSIONS Sept., 1932— Jan., 1933 Museum Bonser, W. A. — Old cow-boy boot found by W. A. Bonser under the floor of one of the oldest houses in South Cheyenne. Bruce, Robert — Two small pictures from his book "The Fighting Norths and Pawnee Scouts", one picture is of Captain L. H. North, 1846, with short account below the picture; second picture of Major Frank North, 1840-1885, with brief account. Two cuts, from which the pic- tures were made, of Captain L. H. North and Major Frank North. Governor's Office — Large banner advertising Wyoming State Fair — " Re- store Faith, Confidence, Courage — Wyoming State Fair, Douglas, September 13, 14, 15, 16, 1932." David, Charles — One Howe sewing machine, in black walnut, bearing patent dates 1846, 1852, and 1867, with detachable top and mother- of-pearl inlay. Crowe, George R. — Assistant Park Naturalist, Yellowstone National Park. Copy of old negative of the original Baronett Bridge, Yellowstone River, on Cooke City Road. Logan, Ernest — Cedar board made from tree in Medicine Bow region. Riford, Irene D. — -Programme of 5th Annual Dress Drill and Ball, Co. "C" 1st Infantry, W. N. G., at Hasbrouck's Hall, Buffalo, Wyo- ming, New Year's Eve, Dec. 31, 1894, and owned by R. J. Daley. Decker, C. L. — Stone of Custer monument. Bullets found on Battle Field in 1885, by C. L. Decker. Schnitger, Mrs. William R. — Gavel presented to Mr. Schnitger as presi- dent of the senate in the first legislature after Wyoming was ad- mitted to the Union. Star in the badge of Mr. Schnitger as City Marshal presented to him by the city officials. On the reverse side of the star are engraved the names of the men under him. 762 ANNALS OF WYOMING Original Manuscripts Greenburg, Dan W. — Original work copy of ' ' Sixty Years ' ' presented by the author. Manuscript is bound in book form. Willson, Mrs. Eugene B. — Original manuscript "Our Trails" by Mrs. Willson, dedicated to the Eock Springs Conference D. A. E., Sept. 2, 1932, and with thanks to Miss Hebard, Theo. Eoosevelt, I. S. Bartlett (from books) and to Mrs. Cyrus Beard, State Historian, for "plums of historic incident." Newton, L. L. — Original manuscript of Edward J. Earlow for the Wyo- ming State Journal, Lander, of which Mr. Newton is the editor and owner. Mr. Farlow 's associations with the Indians related in manu- script. Documents David, Charles — Certificate of contribution to the Bunker Hill Monu- ment Association, instituted in 1823, issued to Mr. B. B. David. Carries copies of interesting signatures of prominent men. Green, Dr. Wilbur — Green Pharmacy Certificate, dated September 12, 1888, Sheridan, Territory of Wyoming. Chapman, Mark A. — Photostat of the Proclamation of the Governor of Wyoming, John E. Osborne, on 2d day of December, 1892. Boy Scout Troop 21 — "The 'Bill' Hooker Monument, interesting his- toric correspondence between Albert W. Johnson, well-known his- torian and F. W. Lafrentz, pioneer cattle ranchman and legislator (of Wyoming), and New York financier". This document concerns Bill Hooker and the monument erected to him. Well framed and let- tered in bronze, the work being done by the Boy Scouts. Eiford, Irene D. — Letter to Mayor and City Council, Eawlins, May 8, 1895, Caspar W. Collins Corp., No. 13, W. E. C, from Minnie E. Kingsford, Pres., and M. L. Jennings, Sec'y, representing the orig- inal spirit of Memorial Day. Mrs. M. L. Jennings was at that time Sup't of Schools of Carbon County. Newton, L. L. — Letter to Mr. Newton, Jan. 13, 1933, by Fin. G. Burnett, concerning his life in Wyoming, date of arrival, etc., experiences, friends, and other good history. Logan, Mrs. J. S.— (1) Copy of letter, Nov. 24, 1931, to Mrs. J. S. Logan concerning Major McLendon and his article in American Legion Monthly, "The First Shot", written by John J. Noll, Associate Editor of the American Legion Monthly. (2) Copy of letter, Dec. 8, 1931, to "Miss Swan" — Mrs. Logan, giving interesting account of the "war souvenir" — wounds, received during the World War by Major McLendon. Letter written by Major McLendon. Mrs. Logan was Major McLendon 's nurse in Mesves. ANNALS OF WYOMING 763 Books Bruce, Eobert, and Ellison, Eobert S. — The Fighting Norths and Paw- nee Scouts, by Eobert Bruce. With compliments of Mr. Bruce and Mr. Ellison. This book contains narratives and reminiscences of military service on the old Frontier, from extensive correspondence with Captain L. H. North, 1929-1932. Carroll, Major C. G. — First four volumes of Official Eoster of North Dakota Soldiers, Sailors and Marines, 1917-1918. Volume V, 1932, Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors and Marines in the Civil War. David, Charles — 1903, Wyoming Historical Society, Third Eeport, by Eobert C. Morris, for the two years ending Dec. 31, 1902. (Pictures, showing Historical Society when it occupied entire third floor of Capitol building.) The ll National Portrait Gallery of Eminent Americans, with Biographies, 1862", complete in two volumes. Old account book with names and date of 1870, used as scrapbook for clippings of a medical nature generally, book entitled " General Journal — B. ' ' University of Nebraska — The Big Horn Basin, bv Charles Lindsay, in University Studies, Vol. 28-29, 1928-1929. Eoberts, E. N. — Duplicate set of Indian religious books, in the Arapahoe and Shoshone languages. Lindsay, Prof. Charles — Book on "The Big Horn Basin" by Charles Lindsay. Given by Mrs. Dorothy Lindsay. Pamphlets Fryxell, Fritiof M. — "The Grand Teton by the North Face", reprinted from the American Alpine Journal, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1932; by F. M. Fryxell. Smith, Harlan I., Archaeologist, National Museum of Canada — (1) An Un- known Field in American Archaeology, by Harlan I. Smith. Con- tains references to Wyoming. (Eeprinted from Bulletin of American Geographical Society, Vol. XLII, July, 1910). (2) A Vast Neglected Field for Archaeological Eesearch, by Harlan I. Smith. Eeferences to Wyoming. (Eeprinted from Boas Anniversary Vol., 1906). Crowe, George E. — "Eesearch and Education in the National Parks", by Harold C. Bryant and Wallace W. Atwood, Jr. Carroll, Major: 1. The 200th Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- ington, an Address by President Calvin Coolidge Before the United States Congress (69th Congress, 2d Session, Senate Document No. 249). 2. Washington's Farewell Address, Declaration of Independence (65th Congress, 3d Session, Senate Document No. 410). 3. The Last Will and Testament of George Washington. (62d Congress, 1st Ses- sion, Senate Document No. 86). Eichardson, Miss Laura V. — 1. Finding List of the Laramie County Pub- lie Library, No. 1, 1887. 2. First Supplement to Finding List No. 1, Laramie County Library, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 764 ANNALS OF WYOMING Magazines David, Charles— The Burr Mcintosh Monthly, April, 1907— Vol. XII, No. 49, with illustrations. Sixteen numbers, comprising the complete set of the Historical Fine Art Series, called the Magic City, a port- folio of original photographic views of the Great World's Fair and its treasures of art including a graphic representation of the famous Midway Plaisance; Jan. 15, 1894-April 30, 1894. Hinrichs, O. W— The Goldenrod, Volume 2, Number 4, Fall, 1932. Armis- tice and Thanksgiving number. New York Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation — Indian Notes and Monographs, No. 48, A Series of Publications Relating to the American Aborigines. This number being Archaeological Ex- ploration of a Rock Shelter in Brester County, Texas, by Edwin F. Coffin. Mead, Elwood — Magazine, Hoover Dam, ten articles reprinted from the Dec. 15 issue of Engineering News-Record commemorating the com- pletion of the first stage of the work and the start of foundation construction. Newspapers Wendt, Harold J., editor Wind River Mountaineer — Newspaper, Wind River Mountaineer, Vol. 1, No. 2, Lander, Fremont County, Wyo- ming, Jan. 8, 1885. Contains interesting account of The Lost Cabin Mines. Decker, C. L. — Two copies of The Buffalo Echo, Vol. IV, Buffalo, Johnson County, Wyoming, January 7, 1887, No. 24. Contains much interest- ing early day history on Johnson County, Buffalo, etc. Miscellaneous David, Charles — Old valentines, found in old books. One white ribbon with words in black — " Welcome Joseph M. Carey. July 26, 1890." Purchased Accessions "The Pathbreakers from River to Ocean," the story of the Great West from the time of Coronado to the present, by Grace Raymond Hebard, Ph.D., 6th edition, revised and enlarged with four maps and 93 illus- trations, many by William H. Jackson. "Last Winter in the United States", by F. Barham Zincke. 1868. "Sitting Bull", by Stanley Vestal. Biography. "On the Border with Crook", by Bourke. "Across the Continent", A Summer's Journey to the Rocky Mountains, the Mormons, and the Pacific States, with Speaker Colfax, by Samuel Bowles. 1865. "The Fur Trade of America", by Agnes C. Laut. With maps of fur trade and fur sections of the country. "Sacajawea", Guide to the Lewis and Clark Expedition, by Grace Ray- mond Hebard, Annals nf Mgnmtng Vol. 9 APRIL, 1933— JANUARY, 1935 No. 4 DEADWOOD TO THE BIG HORNS 1877 A Diary Kept in German by the Late Herman Bischoff of Deadwood, South Dakota in 1877 Translated, 1931 by Edna LaMoore Waldo, Bismarck, N. D. On July 4, 1877, I arrived for the second time in Dead- wood in the Black Hills, at that time Dakota territory. I had with me a lot of merchandise, rented a store, and soon was open for business. My intention was to make money, to get rich; at that time no one was here for pleasure. The excitement was great; to find gold men washed the sands, dug shafts to the bed rock. The prospectors bought their supplies with gold dust and the merchants, saloons, and dance houses did a rushing business. On a certain day an old prospector named Charles Lyon called on me, showed me a small sack with gold dust which he claimed was found near the three forks of Shell Creek in the Big Horn mountains. "We worked for about a month," he said, "when the Indians attacked us and killed my partner." He gave a full description of his escape from the attack and said he came to the Black Hills to organize a party to locate the gold fields, build a town, and give everyone a chance to make money. His description of the diggings and the pros- pect of building up a new country set a good many men in excitement and some of the prospectors made ready for the trip. On the next day, I nailed a sign on my store, "FIFTY PASSENGERS WANTED FOR THE BIG HORN MOUN- TAINS." I traded the majority of my stock of merchandise for four wagons, 14 horses and mules and one saddle horse. On July 20, I had 30 passengers, including 6 Chinamen with about 4000 pounds of baggage for which I charged ten cents a pound freight; $10 each for each passenger. I loaded my goods and the others on the wagons and left 20 ANNALS OF WYOMING Deadwood on the 23rd of July. The next day we arrived in Spearfish where we waited for other teams and men. I took down the names of my passengers and found among them 6 Irish, 3 English, 4 Germans, 1 Frenchman, 6 Chin- ese, 5 Americans, 3 Danes, and 2 Swedes. Among them were a number of rough and desperate looking men and I saw a troublesome time before us. July 26 a man rode into our camp and reported that a number of Indians had killed two haycutters about ten miles from camp and were liable to come our way. This report caused excitement among our people and careful preparations were made to protect ourselves. The next day fifteen men gathered on horseback; their object was to at- tack and drive the Indians from our neighborhood. In the evening the men returned with five bodies.. This mourn- ful spectacle made a dangerous outlook for our trip. I called a meeting of my people, took an inventory of our arms and ammunition. The Chinese had only one revolver and a broken gun. I requested that they equip themselves with more firearms for their own protection; thereupon one Chinaman, Quing Wu, stepped forward and said, "We Chinese and Indians good friends." He said it in such queer broken English that all the bystanders laughed and one of them said, "Let the Chinese go with us; we know they are better washing clothes than fighting." To make my outfit complete, I hired a cook and two men to herd the horses nights. In the evening a meeting was called and we found that our outfit consisted of 60 wagons with 140 men and five women and 2 girls and it was agreed to start in the morning. July 27 Early in the morning everything was ready for the start and the visitors not joining in our trip to the moun- tains shook hands and wished us farewell, good luck and prosperity. Soon thereafter one could see a line of covered wagons about a mile long moving westward. We passed along a gulch through high hills on both sides covered with pine trees on the side of the road near the clear stream known as Spearfish. Everything looked beautiful and no doubt everyone looked at the bright future before us. In the evening we reached the Redwater creek, pulled our wagons in a circle, turned the horses out under the pro- tection of the night herders, and everyone made prepara- tions for supper, which was soon completed. ANNALS OF WYOMING 21 Afterward a meeting was called to elect a foreman and four captains ; Charles Baird was chosen and he divided the outfit into four companies, A. B. C. and D. with fifteen wagons in each. Each company elected a captain and to my surprise the boys chose me. I took the names of every one of the company and counted 55 men; the other com- panies only had about 25 each. I received orders to furnish six night watchmen. July 28 Co. A, all wagons drawn by oxen made the start at 4 a. m. and each company left about a half an hour later, so regulated that each company traveled about one mile from the other. The road became more difficult; we had to pass over several high hills; made 15 miles and camped near the Belle Fourche river. July 29 Everything was in readiness early in the morning for a start. My company B had to make the beginnings. The trail we followed brought us through a gulch with beautiful flowers on either side and large trees. Made 18 miles. We had several musicians with us and after we made our camp the women and girls gathered in the circle of the wagons. A dancing floor was ready and soon several couples were dancing the beautiful waltz. July 30 The road began to be more difficult to travel, rocky hills, and dangerous obstructions opened in our way and at noon we reached a hill which we had to descend; found it necessary to let the wagons down on ropes and chains. In doing this one of my wagons broke the reach half way down the hill and to make the repair, I used a chain, lying under the wagon to fasten it. It slipped and split my upper lip so that, bleeding and half conscious, I was pulled out from under the wagon. I soon found a man who undertook to stitch the wound with a needle and silk thread. After all this difficulty of letting 60 wagons down the hill we found it necessary to climb one where it took twelve horses to pull one wagon to the top. At last after long and tiresome work we made camp after making only five miles during the day. July 31 We followed the Belle Fourche during the day for some distance and on account of my sore lip, I gave charge 22 ANNALS OF WYOMING to one of my assistants and used the time to get acquainted. In doing this I noticed a young man with light hair driv- ing a span of mules hitched to a small light wagon. He was known as Joseph; his partner, a young person with long curly hair was called Joe's brother. They made it a practice to keep by themselves and always traveled the last wagon in the outfit. They never placed their wagon in the circle at night with the others and made their camp at a small distance. Several times I requested them to join my company, but they refused every time. The road was good and we made 20 miles. August 1 The banks of the Belle Fourche are steep in many places; we had to cross the river three times during the day. We followed an Indian trail which led us to a vacant Indian camp, only recently abandoned. 24 miles. August 2 Rough roads; noticed a number of deer and antelope. Crossed the river twice. August 3 We followed the river for some distance; passed a coal deposit. About noon there was an altercation between several men and Joe. One called Joe and his brother cow- ards and told them to join one of the companies or stay away altogether. They were sitting eating; Joe seemed deeply affected. Suddenly he jumped up angrily and at- tacked the speaker, but his brother jumped between and with tears in his eyes, succeeded in parting the two men. In the evening after we made camp I noticed that Joe and his brother were not with the outfit. We had seen signs of Indians during the day and not thinking it safe for them to be away from us, I retired to my tent in deep anxiety. About 2 a. m. the cry, "Indians! Indians!" woke me. I took my gun which I always had near me and ran out; everyone was busy driving the horses and oxen into the circle of the wagons. The Night Watchman came in and reported that they had heard shots fired. There was great excitement, especially among the women and girls. At last we had the horses in the circle and 100 men stood ready to attack the Indians. Not one could be seen and we decided they had attacked Joe and his brother. Calls were made for volunteers to investigate and give assistance and at 4 a. m., 25 men on horseback with guns left the camp. I was with them. ANNALS OF WYOMING 23 August 4 About two miles from camp we found Joe's wagon, flour, sugar, coffee, beans, etc., spilled on the grass. Under the wagon there were four rifles, but where was Joe and his brother? "God grant they are alive"! cried an old miner, but all too soon the opposite was found to be true. In a slope of the hill, we found Joe lying in a pool a shot in his arm and one through his head. Not far away lay his brother and there was still a spark of life in him. He opened his eyes and pointed toward the hill. No one knew what he wanted to say until finally someone saw in the distance 6 Indians carrying away their dead. Joseph's brother had a terrible flowing wound in his side, we found, with tears in our eyes, but no hope. He opened his eyes once more and then it was all over. To the great surprise of all it was found that Joe's brother was a girl, perhaps his sister. It must have been a hard fight that Joe fought. The bodies were brought to camp, put in a coffin as well as we could, and buried to- gether in one large grave. Joseph and his brother .... or rather, his sister .... were no more. God give them peace. We moved on at 2 p. m. from this sad place. About 8 after a long search we found a slough with bad, stagnant water, 14 miles. August 5 We filled a barrel with water in case we should find none and fortunately, too, for after a twenty mile journey we had to make camp without having water nearby. We divided the 160 quarts we had brought along between 35 men and 9 horses. The water was bad, but worth its weight in gold. August 6 In the night the horses were very restless, the longing for water probably the reason. It was impossible to hold them in a band for their only thought was to get on toward water. It was a clear, bright night; the full moon let its light spread out in a clear circle and a cool west wind blew lightly through the long grass. At 1 a. m. the signal was given to start and we set out at a slow pace. The only thought was water. At 4 a. m. we reached the great cir- cular Pumpkin buttes, a great mountain formed just like a circle. A rider had found water, but it was bitter as gall and white as milk. We had a dry breakfast and went on. 24 ANNALS OF WYOMING Water, water, was our only word. I did not feel well; a bad headache troubled me. Luckily for me I had saved some water for myself and my brother, but the more I drank the worse I felt. At last about two in the after- noon "Water" was called ; they found it only in a bad slough and hardly fit to use. We had made 35 miles or 55 without good water. August 7 We started afresh at 4 in the morning. A wide desert appeared and far in the distance we saw the mountains decked with snow. I felt worse and was afraid of a serious illness coming on. I had made my bed in the wagon and gave my brother Moritz charge of the outfit. At 2 p. m. we reached at last Fort Reno. We saw houses for the first time in ten days. It was as if one saw land after a long journey on the sea. There were 3 companies of soldiers stationed here and we found among them several acquaint- ances. Camping on Wind river; had my wagon fixed and horses shod. Was rather sick and took some medicine. 14 miles. August 8 Lay in camp in order to give horses and men a rest. We had some Odd Fellows who belonged to the great order of brotherhood who heard of my illness and took care of me as well as possible. August 9 Became worse each day and my day book began to look very neglected because of my illness for I could not record the daily happenings. Went through a stretch of 28 miles without water and reached Crazy Woman's Fork, a branch of the Wind river. The river had got its name from the Indians. The water was fairly good, but tasted of soda. August 10 Was very sick. A family with two daughters from Minnesota invited me to ride in their wagon; they made it very comfortable and took care of me like a child. The daughters did not leave my side. Made 25 miles to Clear creek. August 11 Went on with the Minnesota family ; in the evening we reached the ruins of Fort Kearney, a fortification on the ANNALS OF WYOMING 25 Pine river destroyed by the Indians. My passengers showed themselves very discontented. 15 miles. August 12 21 miles to Goose creek. Began to feel better. August 13 The Odd Fellow named Roper who had sat up with me at night lost 6 horses out of 23 which the Indians had driven off during the night. By good luck none of mine were gone. I let this Roper take my saddle horse to hunt for his horses. After four hours riding he ran into a band of about 30 Indians who were herding the horses. Roper did not want to ride back to get help for he saw his horses grazing by the river and wanted to drive them off. He had hardly gone 50 feet farther when a bullet hit him in the head and he fell lifeless to the ground. The horse ran away and his companion brought the sad news back to camp. They armed 20 men to go after the body, but the Indians had already disappeared. He had $2500 on him. It was a strange event to me. My saddle horse was gone and I thought I would never see him again. Made 12 miles to the Tongue river. August 14 My passengers seemed dissatisfied; some wanted to go to Fort No. 1 on the Big Horn river where the Little Horn flows into the Big Horn; others wanted to go other places in the mountains. They wanted to take some of my horses when I would not take them where they wanted to go. Of them all, only the Chinese seemed friendly. The next noon I called them all into a circle around me, said in a few words that it was my purpose to go where the majority wanted. They took a vote and the majority was for Fort No. 1. This forced me to go on alone with my four wagons. All the other wagons wanted to go on to the gold fields, in the opposite direction from our destina- tion. I promised them I too would join them there when I got rid of my passengers. I gave the signal to start. "Good luck"! and Goodbye" sounded from many throats as my small train started off. In the distance were seen those who remained behind, their white kerchiefs flutter- ing in the breeze, but soon we had disappeared from their sight. Now a veritable Paradise unfolded itself before our eyes. The wheels of our wagons could hardly be seen for the high grass which we were driving through. Prairie chickens and rabbits flew or sprang up from all sides 26 ANNALS OF WYOMING around us and everyone killed his share of them. At eve- ning we reached the Little Horn river after about an 18 mile journey. August 15 My fever had gone down, but I still felt very weak My present position was no easier. Here I was in a wild country alone with a company of 35 rough men (as one so often finds in western America especially) . Fortunately I had my brother Moritz and other old acquaintances with me but what were we against so many? I began to have more fear of my passengers than of all the Indians. We crossed the Rosebud where we broke the wagon, but it took only a little while to repair it. Toward evening we drew up beside the Little Horn river and made our camp after a 14 mile journey. We caught some fish and among others was a turtle about two feet long and one and a half feet broad. "Turtle soup" ! cried my brother Moritz when he came running toward me with it. I had already eaten turtle soup in Chicago and thought it was one of the finest delicacies. But the recipe for making it would not come into my head. It was cooked the whole night through, how- ever, and Moritz was the cook. August 16 One of my friends brought me the glad news that my saddle horse had been found again. He had come neighing in the night and had joined the herd. Nothing came of the turtle soup for a Southerner said that river turtles were not good to eat and so no one would touch Moritz' fine soup. We traveled along the Little Horn. It was a beautiful river, the banks covered with fine timber. I counted nine different kinds. On both sides of the river one could see for miles, fine prairie land with the finest grass three feet high, cherries, currants, wild strawberries, gooseberries, and wild grapes all about in profusion. About noon we noticed five Crow Indians who seemed to be friendly. We had stopped for dinner and they wanted to come into our camp, but one is better off if he keeps to himself as much as possible. We gave them a pound of sugar and it seemed to please them and they went away. We moved down a branch of the Little Horn again which should bring us to the Little Horn. Made 15 miles. Put out ten guards and tied all the horses to the wagons for I did not trust the five Indians and knew we had to watch out for them. ANNALS OF WYOMING 27 August 17 Everything was in good shape. I felt strong and mounted my horse for the first time since my illness. Ac- cording to the map we must be near the battlefield where the gallant General Custer was massacred with his three hundred soldiers by the Sioux Indians in June, 1876. No survivor of those brave men came back and no one but the Indians can tell how it happened. All the newspapers were full of the frightful affair, and I believe you in the dear Fatherland must even have heard of it. I was eager to find the place and therefore rode ahead and had hardly gone a mile when I found in the space of the next two miles a number of saddles, field kitchens, tin pails, canteens, tin plates, overcoats, caps, and such military goods. Every- thing had been ruined. The tin ware had been run through with a tomahawk. Farther west I saw a number of tent poles and the remains of an Indian camp. Everything was useless. I took some tin plates and canteens as souvenirs. Soon my wagons came up and I let them have several hours rest in order that everyone might have an opportunity to visit the battlefield. We looked for sometime for the graves but at last found what we sought on the other side of the river. Oh, it was a terrible sight! I counted 69 graves, not dug, but with only a little layer of earth thrown over. Here and there the wolves had been digging up the bones. Under one tree we found a skull in an army cap. Two others found one in the grass. All around lay human bones and farther west we found the remains of about one hundred horses, all in one pit. It seemed as if the soldiers had used the horses as a barrier. What a frightful smell they gave off. My pen fails and I am not able to describe the terrible sight. The tears stood in my eyes and with shudders I hurried to my wagon and drove on. We left this sad place at 4 p. m. and went 8 miles; 20 miles in all. August 18 A terrible dream disturbed the whole night. I saw in my dream hundreds of Indians and heard all around me their terrible war whoops. They tore to pieces every- thing that came near them. Then at last I found myself in dear beautiful . . . (evidently a place in Germany) sur- rounded by my dear mother and all the other dear ones who stood at my side welcoming me and my hope revived. I awoke in the morning to see beautiful scenery stretched out before my eyes and I could not restrain a happy laugh. 28 ANNALS OF WYOMING After breakfast we started out afresh and at evening reached the vicinity of the new Fort No. 1 or Fort Custer. Made 20 miles. August 19 Loaded all the passengers' goods in one wagon and drove it to Fort Custer where I unloaded the things, sent the wagon back to go on with the other wagons to the Big Horn river. I would overtake them. At the fort, several headquarters and barracks buildings stood near- ing completion, about a hundred carpenters busy at work. They had picked out a fine location for this fort; on the left side ran the swift Big Horn and on the right the Little Big Horn. From the fort a splendid view was offered; far in the distance the mountains covered with caps of snow. Splendid meadows extended to the rivers. Below in a hollow I could see the soldiers, camps, hundreds of tents pitched in regular rows between which troops of soldiers marched with their gleaming arms. So impressive was it that it made me sorry that I had none of my friends with me to share the pleasure. I stood there as if in a dream and hardly noticed that a young man on horseback was approaching and was not a little surprised when he called out to me in good German, "Where to, countryman"? I would never have believed that one would find a German so far out in the wilderness. Soon we had gotten acquainted and he gave his name as Wechsel, said he was a scout for the commander and invited me to come with him to his tent. I accepted the invitation and my new friend led me to a neat, attractive tent, The walls were decorated with fine pictures, among them Kaiser, Wilhelm, Moltke, Friedrich Karl, and others and I was not a little astonished when a young Indian girl appeared in the tent and threw her arms around Mr. Wechsel's neck and kissed him. Like one made of stone I stood there and was unable to guess what the relations were between them until he introduced her as his newly married wife .... just since yesterday. She could speak no German and very little English. She was a wild figure in her Indian dress, a full round face of brown with red cheeks, coarse black hair. I thought her not older than sixteen. I exchanged only a few words with her and she said she was the daughter of the Indian Chief Whitebull. They invited me to dinner and I must say I spent a very amusing hour in the German- Indian family; would have been there yet, but the bugle aroused me. When I left the young wife presented me with ANNALS OF WYOMING 29 a watch ribbon for remembrance, made of a buckskin embroidered in red, white and blue. It was a welcome gift for I was wearing only a poor string on my watch and I valued it very much because it came from the hand of an Indian girl. Soon I sat in the saddle, bade farewell to my hosts, gave my horse the spurs and soon found myself alone in the wide loneliness. I rode a full ten miles with- out seeing the wagons and believed that either I or my people had taken the wrong direction when at last an hour before sunset I saw them and we went into camp. They had spent all day trying to find a place to cross tjie river for the banks were very steep in most places. August 21 In the morning the cook found an Indian bridge which fortunately led to good water. After some delay we got three wagons over, but broke down with the fourth and had to spend valuable time making repairs and reloading goods. There are now seventeen men left in the outfit, four drivers and the cook, Hermann and Moritz Bischoff, two guards, two remaining passengers, and the six faith- ful Chinese. August 22 We reached the ruins of old Fort C. F. Smith about two miles from the foot of the mountains. Three wagons of the original train, bound for Bozeman, were already there. As soon as he saw me a Mormon whom I had got acquainted with on the trip out ran up and asked for help. He had goods in the train on which he owed $200 freight; the leaders had changed their plans and would not go where they had promised nor would they give him the goods without payment. He did not want his property un- loaded on the prairie nor did he wish to accompany them to Bozeman. "How can I go with them?" he cried, almost in tears, "when I have three wives with children waiting for me in Salt Lake? They are out of money and supplies by this time. I must get there!" One would be enough trouble, I thought, but promised to do what I could. All we could gain was a promise to wait three days on the other side of the river for the rest of the train to come up. (Free translation through here). August 23 The party scattered to hunt and fish and to hunt for gold; each took a different direction. I made about two 30 ANNALS OF WYOMING miles up the canyon when I heard a shot which broke into a hundred echoes. I looked for the cause and saw my brother 300 hundred feet below making ready for his sec- ond shot. I hurried to the place and saw a great buffalo grazing on a little slope. The second shot resounded but the buffalo did not let himself be disturbed and grazed quietly. My brother shot eight or ten times, but did not seem to hit him. I saw that he was reckoning wrong and after a while the beast went away, unhurt. The gold seekers came back; they had found some nuggets but not worth the trouble. August 24 We started at 4 a. m. on a trip to the mountains, carry- ing guns and £ood; followed a little creek in a southwest- erly direction. After four miles we led the horses; saw a herd of buffalo in the distance. At 9 a. m. we had to stop and look for a place to get down into the canyon. Joe and Bob, two of the drivers, were with us; Joe was an old mountaineer, brought up in the mountains and used to climbing; he took the lead today. His sharp eyes saw each dangerous place and warned us with a sign. He dis- covered a buffalo trail which made it easier for us. At 1 p. m. we reached a silver clear lake which had made a basin for itself between the hard stones; here and there was a water fall where the water fell down from places ten to fifty feet high with a wonderful crash; snow white foam filled all the water in between. Above in the high masses of rock eagles had built their nests. Joe and Bob went on to hunt and I wanted to explore until they came back. I made my way through the brush ; berries of all sorts were there in abundance; I saw several big snakes darting through the grass like arrows. Not three feet from me I saw something coiled together in the grass and shot at it twice; I had killed rattlesnakes, but this was the largest — about four feet long and with nine rattles; this meant it was nine years old. I took them off for a souvenir. Then I sat down on a big stone in the water and could not catch the fish quickly enough ; caught about 60 pounds in an hour and a half. The sun sank and I w T anted my comrades to return. When they came they had shot a buffalo and a bear, but had not been able to bring them back ; they had a piece of the buffalo meat and a bear's claw. We lost our way and got back to the horses at dark, dead tired. We did not know which way to turn. There was ANNALS OF WYOMING 31 a cold wind and the wolves howled. It was a terrible night; I will never forget it. We had decided to stay on the Mountain when we heard Joe's voice, "Here's the way. This way!" We saw a fire below and could not believe it was our camp, but "On to the fire !" I called, "It doesn't matter whose fire it is!" We had to go around a long way; the horses were tired and their legs almost failed under us. At 12:30 we reached the camp; it was really ours; they had made a big fire so we could see it. But it was only luck that we had found it. They had hot coffee waiting. We were ready for rest when the guard reported a little fire across the river and everyone heard a call. We sent two men over in a raft ; they soon came back with the Mormon who explained that the freighters were going to shoot him and he had come for help. He had brought his bedding, weapons, and several smaller things. He had hid himself in the thick brush during the night. I too lay down finally and slept soundly after this memorable day. August 25 Early in the morning the Mormon's freighters found that he had disappeared and that was all they wanted for when I went with him to the other side of the river they had gone and had taken all his goods. Soon four men and I were on horseback and followed as quickly as we could. About ten miles from our camp the wagon tracks led to a narrow place, a great hole, and it did not seem safe to go farther for the freighters would undoubtedly have re- ceived us with a volley of shots. We turned back; the Mormon was inconsolable when we returned. Still the wagons were not to be seen. I wanted to see the Minnesota family with the two daughters again, but no one knew how long we would still have to wait. Therefore we de- cided to go on to Rottengrass creek where the prospector said the gold was to be found. At 1 p. m. we started on. The horses were fresh and lively again ; they had gotten fat in the high grass. The Mormon stayed with me, but my cook, the Frenchman, and a German wanted to go in the boat to Fort Custer to look for work. We made five miles to Grasslodge creek where we shot a big wolf. August 26 Waited till noon for the train, but as there was no sign of it went on to Rottengrass, ten miles, over steep hills; discovered a salt and an oily spring. I watched the horses during the night for one guard did not feel well. Between 11 and 12 I noticed two men on horseback coming 32 * ANNALS OF WYOMING over the hill. I could not see who they were in this wilder- ness and in the deep night. It was too dark to tell whether they were Indians or whites. They came nearer and were soon close. I called out but got no answer. I called a second time. No answer. I got my gun ready and the third time I called as loud as I could. The answer came, "Good friend!" As though lightning had struck me, I let my gun fall and was unable to say a word until the men had come up and shaken my hands. They were two of the train which was about thirty miles back. The leader had sent them ahead to warn us not to go on alone as a large num- ber of Indians had been seen in the neighborhood. I made some coffee and roasted some meat for my night visitors. The other guard came to relieve me. August 27 Our guests wanted to go back to the train and I de- cided to go along. I left the care of the horses and wagons to my people and rode back toward Fort Smith. The cook, the Frenchman, and the German were still at the place. August 28 Still no train to be seen. Waited the whole day. August 29 At last toward noon, the train came. "How do you do, Captain!" everyone called to me. The greetings made me feel good, but I told them not to call me captain as I had long ago lost my company. The family with the girls was still there; they asked me to eat with them and naturally I could not refuse such an invitation. I promised to stay at Rottengrass until they came. I rode back to my camp, reached it at evening, and found everything in good order. August 30 Killed a bear and had bear steak; a great delicacy. August 31 On Rottengrass creek found many cherries, plums, strawberries and huckleberries. Joe brought a second bear into camp. September 1 One of the drivers shot a deer; we now had so much meat that we had to salt it down. The Chinese liked the bear steak ; they had lived mostly on rice and had gone the whole time on fish, berries and bread. In the evening three men came from the train and announced that they would be up the next day. They also said that there had been a sad accident in the train. Young Carl Schwartz, a German, ANNALS OF WYOMING 33 cleaning his revolver, pointed it at a wagon; it went off and hit a young man from Chicago named Thomas Randal in the head and killed him. There was great excitement over it in the train. Some wanted to hang Schwartz for his carelessness until at last it was decided to give him half an hour to leave camp. This order he obeyed and no one knew where he had gone. They buried the body in the old churchyard at Fort Smith. September 2 Now began a splendid life for us. We lived without care; our horses grazed from morning till night on a little place. We had meat in abundance, fresh bread baked every day, and nothing to do. I played chess often with the Mormon. We did not know what day of the week it was, but decided it was Sunday and prepared a Sunday dinner. There was buffalo soup, venison, ducks and par- tridges roasted, bear meat, raisin spice cakes, coffee and tea; for dessert, strawberries, huckleberries, and cherries cooked in sugar. We had enough, only no potatoes and bread had to take its place. We were ten men. Cigars finished off this feast in the garden of nature. At last at five in the evening the train came. September 3 Charles Lyons, the prospector, said that we were only 35 miles from the gold diggings and he wanted to go to find a way where the wagons could get through. I had already lost confidence in the man for an old friend at Fort Reno had warned me about him and therefore I did not believe that he knew where the gold fields were. But as we were nearly there I wanted to find out for sure. Six mountaineers wanted to make a trip to the mountains and I sent Joe with them. I sold about $100 worth of goods to the people from the train. A guard got a young deer. At evening we noticed a great prairie fire about ten miles from us. September 4 The prairie fire worried me for it came nearer and nearer. The wind drove it toward the bare places ahead. Thick smoke clouds rose toward heaven and darkened the sun. Toward noon we noticed a number of deer, antelope, rabbits, wolves, and other animals that the fire had driven before them seeking safety from the devouring fiend; they came very close to us. The fire could have run over the camp before we could stop it and this was an easy possibility. Therefore I called the ten men and we went MP iii; 34 ANNALS OF WYOMING to backfiring. It was only a mile from us. We beat out the fire on our side with long green branches in an hour and a half s work and it passed the camp by. Toward eve- ning a black cloud came up over us and a terrible thunder storm broke. About midnight the strong wind blew my tent down and the rain drenched me to the skin. The Chinese had a tent of light material which the wind car- ried high in the air. Hard thunderbolts followed one after the other, shaking the earth. The lightning illuminated the scene every few moments and showed the six Chinese with their long pig tails running about in great confusion. Everything was wet. September 5 Early in the morning Charles Lyons returned and re- ported that he had been to the gold fields, but it would be impossible to get up there with the wagons, therefore he proposed that we go to the other side of the Big Horn with the train in order to get to the mountains and the gold fields. This made a great change in the expedition; all the wagon leaders agreed to follow the prospector. Only I did not and one other wagon. We saw clearly that everything was a fraud and that the prospector with several of his friends wanted to mislead the train and possibly to plunder it. As I had much merchandise with me, they tried their best to get me to go along, but with short words I held them off. I wanted to wait for the report of the mountaineers and then see what to do. Wishing us much luck, the train left and we were alone except for one wagon that wanted to follow us. September 6 The mountaineers came back and called to us from afar, "No gold!" They had tried each little stream; had been up as far as the snow on the mountains and had found only several grains of gold. Therefore all our air castles had dissolved into nothing and our next move was back to civilization. Translator's note: — The remaining page or so of the diary was much abbreviated and not as well connected. They evidently went home by way of Laramie and Cheyenne, reached it September 30, but very little was written on the way. Bischoff spoke of selling goods to the soldiers, probably at Laramie. The translation is literal for the most part as I have tried to leave it as much as possible just the way he wrote it. — E. L. W. ANNALS OF WYOMING 35 GOLD A Story of the Plains in 1850 By John Birney Hill* CHAPTER I "The love of money is the root of all evil," — with the love of some other things added. I did not catch the gold fever until February, 1850, and I had it bad; it struck in on me. I did not have enough money to pay my way, but Mr. Joseph Eversole, an old dry goods merchant of Living- stone, Clark Co., Illinois, said to me, "Where there's a will, theres a way," and I find this saying good to this day. I had the will and found the way by going in with Dr. W. Ogle, Elijah Montgomery, Sidney Young, John Kirby, and James Hale, of Prairieton, Vigo County, Indiana. We had six mules and a twelve ox and cow team, besides one horse and one mule extra, and picked up a round yellowish dog at Quincy, Illinois, and named him Curley, as he had curly hair. Ogle, Montgomery, and Hale had charge of the mule team, while Young, Kirby and myself had charge of the cow-ox team, (eight oxen and four cows). We started from Prairieton for the gold mines in California March 25, 1850. In Terre Haute we bought a sheet iron cook stove then crossed the Wabash and went into camp at Maxville. That night it snowed two inches deep, but by ten o'clock next day it had melted and caused the National road to put on a thick coat of yellow clay mud, as it does to this day after a heavy rain. *Note: — John Birney Hill was born in Indiana and made the trip to California in 1850. He later settled in Coles County, Illinois and engaged in the meat packing business which he conducted to the end of his life. He died in 1919. His family has been socially and financially prominent in Charleston. Mr. Hill was a regular con- tributor to the Charleston papers. The oldest brother of Mr. J. B. Lutz of Cheyenne married Mr. Hill's youngest daughter. The His- torical Department is indebted to Mr. Lutz for this part of the story. 36 ANNALS OF WYOMING CHAPTER V After traveling around Scott's Bluff, we could see Laramie peak, a hundred miles away, south of west. It is a young mountain and had a patch of snow on it near the top, on the north side. On June 11th we forded the Laramie river near its junction with North Platte and about a mile east of Fort Laramie. The fort is on high ground between the rivers and was well arranged for defense against the Indians. On Sunday, June 16th, we were camped on a creek eighteen miles northeast of Laramie peak, resting our mules and cattle. There is plenty of timber on this creek and some grass. In the afternoon I crossed the creek to look after our oxen, and while I was up a small ravine, I came to a bunch of drifted hail that had fallen two inches deep on Friday, and I filled my hat with hail, took it to camp with me and made hail ice water. It hailed on us but very little, as we were on the east edge of the storm only a few miles west of the fort. The next five days were among the Black Hills, which is a very rough country, and the ridges were covered with fine sharp gravel and made our oxen foot-sore. One day we drove twenty miles over a rough road ; next day we had to drive twenty-nine miles on account of water, and about dark we got to a large creek with plenty of timber, but no grass near, and our oxen tired and foot-sore, were in a pitiable condition. Next morning the front feet of three oxen were swollen, and they could scarcely walk; one ox was out and gone, and we hunted a half day up and down the creek, but never found him. One cow gave out the next day and we had to leave her. We had an old wagon, and the tires got loose, and we had to buy another one, but it cost us only ten dollars. I began to feel blue, as many nights the oxen had nothing to eat but brush, for the grass had all been eaten off by stock belonging to trains ahead of us. June 21st we ferried our wagons across the North Platte, and had to pay five dollars for each wagon. It took nearly all next day to make our oxen swim the river. We drove them three miles above the ferry, as that was said to be a more favorable place to make them swim across, and we could wade two-thirds of the way. I led a cow to deep water, and the oxen followed all right, until they got into swimming water ; then they turned back. We slashed them over their heads, but they would not go across, and ANNALS OF WYOMING 37 drifted down the river to a bluff bank. They could not get out until we drove them down the river about three miles. They would stop along the bluff bank, and we had to follow them in the water to make them go. The river was undermining these banks and they were caving off every little bit. I came near being buried alive by a landslide from the bluff, for I had not been from under it a minute when a thousand wagon loads of dirt came crashing down where I had just left; but it was not my time to be buried. About noon we got the cattle below the bluff bank, and they got out of the river. They had been swimming nearly constantly for four hours, but would not cross over. In the afternoon we drove the oxen into the river, just below the ferry, and they pulled out for the other shore, and we cheered and laughed to see them go; but they got nearly across and then turned to come back. It made my heart sink, and it quit throbbing, for other trains had been there for three days trying to make their oxen swim over. In a few moments, however, they turned for the west shore, as it was nearer to them, and over they went, and I was happy on the way for a while. If you are traveling with cattle and come to deep water, drive them in as soon as possible and they will cross over; but if you let them lay over night, you will have trouble to make them swim across. This is the last of Platte river. Now for the alkali country, which is the best place for a soap factory in America, provided you have the grease; you can dip the lye out of ponds into your kettles and melt your grease in hot lye and let it cool, and you have soap. No lie in this. Just over on Sweet water you can gather salaratus off of acres of ground in flakes a half inch thick. If you dig a hole in the ground, the earth smells and looks like strong wood ashes. This is the country where so many cattle get alkalied and die, unless you pour grease down their throats very soon. Now for Independence Rock on the banks of Sweet- water river. This covers about five acres and is over a hundred feet above the river bottom. There was neither dirt nor grease on it. When you are ten miles east of it, it looks like a kettle, bottom up minus the legs, or like an Indian mound that you read of. Five and a half miles farther up Sweetwater you come to Devil's Gate, which is a channel cut through a ridge of 38 ANNALS OF WYOMING rock, about one hundred feet wide, and four hundred feet high, and the walls are so nearly straight up and down that they hang over a little. This ridge of rock was lifted up by volcanic force, and left a fissure in the rock, or else the river cut a channel in the rock while it was soft. I was not there when this gate was made or I could tell you more about it. I do not believe that the devil had any- thing to do with this natural water gate, and why it was named after him I do not know, for there is nothing that looks bad or evil about it. This is a gate that has not been shut for a million years, as far as I know, but I think that Uncle Sam will close it in time, and hold the water for irrigating his land, and that will be putting it to good use. "For there was nothing made in vain." Just before I got to Independence Rock, I saw more grasshoppers than I ever saw before or since. They were trimming a swath six miles wide and leaving nothing but stubble and leafless sage brush. They were in no hurry to get through, for there was no gold for them at the end of their journey. They travel all summer to get something to eat, and we traveled all summer for the love of gold. We are now in the east edge of the Rocky mountains, and going up grade all the time. There are immense piles of naked rock to the right and left, looming up five hundred feet or more above the river. You go up one long slope or hill, then another, then cross a valley, up over a ridge, and up another long hill, and you begin to think that you will never come out on top. But you are in South Pass, on the Rocky Mountains before you know it. CHAPTER VI Sunday, June 30th, we were resting our oxen and mules on a creek in the east end of south pass in the Rocky moun- tains. Two miles up the creek we found plenty of grass, and strawberries were in full bloom. Ice was a half inch thick this morning in our water bucket. Mr. Barnett killed a black-tailed deer two miles south of the road and he came to camp, got a horse, a mule and one of the men, and they went after the deer and brought it to camp and we had a great feast. One of our cows either strayed or was stolen Sunday night as we never found her, and it took a half day to catch two of the small mules. The mules were all fat and ANNALS OF WYOMING 39 saucy and our dog was in good condition, for we hauled him nearly all the time. I expected to find the south pass a narrow passage or canyon, with high mountains on both sides, and forty miles through it, and very difficult to drive a train of wagons through. But it is a comparatively level table land, with a lofty mountain many miles to the north, called Fremont's peak, and no mountain in sight to the south. This pass is part of the backbone and watershed of North America. The water flows from here to the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans. Near Pacific springs the left hand road goes by Salt Lake and the right hand road goes by Soda Springs. On July 4th we crossed Big Sandy, and entered the fifty mile desert, (so called) ; no water but plenty of grass half way across. Soon after leaving Big Sandy, we came to a perfectly level road for twenty miles, and the dust was about six inches deep all the way. I had to blow the mud out of my nose often, as I had to drive the ox team, and the wind was blowing from the west all day and kept the dust in my face. The sage brush grew on both sides of the road, so you had to keep in the road near the team. Of course you can go between the sage, but it tears your pants and scratches your legs, for it was three feet high. Wild sage grows from one to six feet high, and resembles garden sage, but it is as bitter as gall. The west side of this dessert is very hilly, and a big bluff to go down to Green River. We made our mules and oxen swim Green River, and ferried our wagons across. The ferry-man allowed too many passengers to get into the boat, and the water came within two inches of the gunwale. He ordered every man to stand steady, and we stood, as the boat was liable to swamp at any minute. A rope with pulleys on it was stretched across the river, and the current carried the boat across. When we were nearly across, the upper edge of the boat dipped a sheet of water an inch deep, from end to end, and I thought the boat would be swamped instantly, turn over upstream, cover all of us under water and drown the last one of us, but instinctively a few of us jumped to the lower side of the boat, and it was righted at once, and we escaped a watery grave. At that time Green River was booming as the snow was melting away up north in the mountains, and the water was very swift, muddy and cold. 40 ANNALS OF WYOMING West of Green River it is mountainous, and the road winds around, up, and down, and over them. We passed through a grove of beautiful spruce pine and soon went down one of the mountains, spoken of by the "forty-niners." It is over a mile from the top to the bottom, and is about as steep as the roof of a house. The wagon pushed the oxen along down, and it had both hind wheels locked, the dust was knee deep, and there was no fun going down this mountain, but there might have been in rolling a big rock down it. We are now in Bear river valley, and it is a splendid fertile valley, surrounded with mountains, and was full of game, Indians and prairie dogs. I killed ten half -grown prairie dogs with a single barrel pistol at eleven shots, and the other men killed ten more. We dressed them and as we went into camp before night, I had them nicely stewed for a daylight supper, and a nicer stew I never tasted. Montgomery said that he would not eat dogs, but he looked at the rest of us eating them very wishful, until there was but one left, and he said, "I am a mind to taste one." He put a wee morsel into his mouth, then a little more, until the little dog disappeared. He pronounced it very good, and he knows, for he was a splendid cook. At this camp, Kirk, James, and a man from Canada hitched up their teams and went on and left our train. They had traveled with us from St. Joe to this camp. We had to go up, over, and down another mountain, then had level roads to Soda Springs. Soda Springs was a noted place, and just west of a cedar grove, the road passing between them. They are pools of water about ten feet deep and fifteen feet across, and great bubbles as big as your hat are continually com- ing up from the bottom to the top, and flash or burst and disappear. The water is about as sour as sweet cider, and with a little sugar in it, it is very palatable, and tastes very much like sweet beer. Just south of these springs, Bear river makes a short turn around the west end of the mountain, and runs south to Salt Lake a hundred miles away, and enters Salt Lake at the north, and the lower half flows south. There was a Frenchman living with the Indians in the cedar grove by Soda Springs, who had lived on that country twenty-nine years, and we sold him three pints of sugar for three dollars. ANNALS OF WYOMING 41 CHAPTER VII We are now in the great interior basin, said to be two thousand miles around it so you see it would take an ocean of water to fill this basin. There are indications of its having been full of water at one age of the world, but that was before my time, or I could tell you more about it. All the rain and snow that falls in this basin runs into creeks and rivers, then into lakes, and spreads out over thousands of acres of land, evaporates or sinks into the ground, as there is no outlet to the sea, and this is the cause of all the large lakes being salty. A few miles west of Soda Springs, the left-hand road is Sublet's Cutoff, the right-hand road is the Oregon Trail by way of Fort Hall and quite level. We took the right- hand road and traveled about twenty miles and came to the largest spring I ever saw. It comes rushing up from among the rocks, and makes a creek twelve feet wide and two feet deep, and would furnish enough power to run the Wing flouring mill. Oh, it is a "gusher" as pure and clear as crystal. I killed a young sand hill crane about four miles north- east of this spring, and before I was aware of Indians, I was within a hundred feet of their camp among the willows. I turned neither to the right nor left, but I left them as soon as I could and returned to my train. I dressed the crane, and Montgomery stewed it along with a piece of bacon, and it was far superior to any chicken stew I ever tasted. Its flesh was white, tender, juicy and delicious. Before we got to Fort Hall we had to go through seven miles of deep sand, then came to a good level road, and we could see Fort Lowren five miles north of the road and five miles above Fort Hall. There are several small lakes east of the Forts, and it is swampy near the Lewis fork of the Oregon road, and the home of the mosquito, but I will say more about them farther on. Off to the northeast of the fort we could see the "Three Buttes." They are small round mountains, several miles apart, out on a level plain, and looked like three big hay stacks as we were thirty or forty miles away from them. We traveled down the river and crossed several deep creeks that came down to the mountains east of us. On July 9th we camped on the east edge of a tula marsh, that covered about two hundred acres, and just at sundown 42 ANNALS OF WYOMING the little hungry black mosquitoes came out of the marsh by the millions, and they were so thick around us that when we stuck out our arm and drew it back, it would leave a hole free of mosquitoes the size of our arm. Tfyey did not do as the mosquitoes do on the Wabash, light on your face and arms, raise their bill and feel around for an easy place to bite; but they lit and bit at the same time. We made smoke of green sage, and the oxen and mules would stand in the smoke ; but they were too much for the mules, and away they ran down the road, and it took two hours to get them back on the road to camp. Then we took them to the top of the bluff, a quarter of a mile away from the wagons and tied them, and we got a little sleep by covering up our head and ears. My hands and face swelled up and were very painful all night. Before daylight we were on the road getting away from the tula marsh ; but who should care for mosquitoes when they are going for gold. The American Falls of Lewis Fork is running about one hundred feet, fall about forty feet, and at the foot of the falls the water drops ten feet or more. The water is quite rough on the falls as the rock bottom is not smooth. There is a big black rock in the middle of the falls, standing fifteen feet above the water. The above description is what I gave it in my diary, when I was passing it. I had to guess at the height. Consult your nearest school teacher for further information about the American Falls. On Sunday July 21st we caught 125 small fish. They filled two buckets, and we feasted on fresh fish three days. We left the river, (the Oregon road continues farther down the river) , and soon came to the road called Sublet's Cutoff. In this part of the plains the black crickets were as numerous as the locusts of Egypt. They were great, big, fat, black, and cherry-colored fellows, and when roasted would make a good bite for a young squaw or a starving gold hunter. About this time we overtook Mr. James and the Can- adian, our old comrades who left our train, the day we ate the prairie dogs. They were making a cart for one yoke of oxen as Mr. Kirk claimed the other and had left them to shift for themselves. On a long journey "every fellow for himself, and the devil for the hind-most one."