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Full text of "The Annals of philosophy"

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ANNAI^ OF PHILOSOPHY; 

OR, MAGAZINE OF 

CHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY, MECHANICS, 

NATURAL HISTORY, 
AGRICULTURE, AND THE ARTS. 



BY THOMAS THOMSON, M.D. F.R.S. L. & E. F.L.S. &c 

MKMBKR or THK CSOLOeiCAI, tOCISTT, OV TBB WKKKBMAW tOaBTT, AHD Ot 1BK 
SafFSBUL MSDICO-CHIKIIBSICAI- ACADXMT Ot rBTCMBVIMSII. 

VOL. VI. 

jyX^Y TO DECEMBER, 1815. 




flottiion: 

Prtntea hif C. Baldwn^ New Bridgt-Mrut; 

FOR BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY, 
47, patebnosteh-row. 

BOLD ALSO BT 

W. BI«ACKWOOD, EDINBUBGH; and J. CUMMIN6, DUBLIN. 

1815. 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



NUMBER XXXI.-JULY, 1815. 

• ' Pare 

Some Account of the late Mr. Smithson Tednant. ....*.. ♦ i 

Of a Toad found in the Trunk of a Beech. By T. L. 6ick, Esq n 

On the R^d Sand-stone Formation. By Professor Jameson ^. . . . 13 

On the Method of illuminating the Streets by Coal Gas. By Mr. Accum 16 

Remarks, on the Older Floetz Strata of England. By Dr. Pirichard .... 20 

Sketch of.a. General Theory of the Intellectoal Functions of Man and 

Animals... By Mr. Walker sQ 

On the U^es of the Dorsal Vessel* By M. Martel de Serres^ concluded • 34 

An Essay on the Rents in the Earth. By Mr. .Longmire, continued 4 » « « 43^ 

Extract of 9 Letter from Dr. Berzelius to Professor Gilbert ; . . 4^ 

Astronotnical and Magnetical Obsenrations. By Col. Beaufoy 5 1- 

Recovery of the Aachen M3^ of Native Iron 53 

Explosion at the Success Coal-pit, near Newbottle « •........;.•; . SS 

Critical Analysis of the Transactions of the Geological Society^ Vol. II. b6 

Kotice of a new Index to the Anatomical and Medical Papers in the Phi* 

losophical Transactions '. .' 66 

Proceedings of the Royal Society, May 25, June 1, 8, and 15 ; . ibid. 

— Linnaean Society, June 6 and 20 70 

Prize Question of the Royal Medical Society, Edinburgh ibid* 

Kative Boracic Acid. . . . -• • 71 

Climate of Athens < ibid. 

Table of Passengers^ Waggons, Coaches, &c. that pass over Blackfriars 

Bridge in one Day • ibid. 

Further Obser^'ations on Mr. Lockhart's Imaginary Cube Roots 73 

Sale of Minerals » » 74 

Newcastle Collieries '...,-.... ..ibid. 

Size of the Whiflc , ibid. 

Number of Inhabitants of Ancient Rome • . . . « 7^ 

Extract of a JLetter from M. Van Mons, of Brussels. * ibid. 

Death of George Montague, Esq « 77 

School, of At hens i , ihidi 

Werner's Collections of Minerals, sold • « 4 ....*..« . . .ibid. 

Notices q( Scientific Books at Press «...«...« ibid. 

Meteor^^ical Table and Observations, May 1 to 30 ^ « . 79 



NUMBER XXXII.— AUGUST. 
Ac^putit of the late Mr. Smithson Tennantj cqnciuded .••,••«.••.•,••.• 81 

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IV CONTENTS. 

I 

Pagf 

Observations on Crystallization. By Dr. John Redmari Coxe 101 

Experiments on the Draught of Carriages. By Mr. Edgeworth 106 

On Accidents in Coal Mines. i 108 

Account of the S\inder]iahd Lin\e-^one Fonoaiion. By Dr. jReid Clanny 1 1 & 
Sketch of a Theory of the Intellectual Functions of Man and Animals. 

By Alex. Walker, concluded 4.... ..**••.. '• 118 

Memoir on Iodine. By M. Gay-Lussac» continued 124 

Magnetical Observations ?t Ifa^^ne; W\fik* By Col.< l^ufoy 132 

Crit^l Analysis of the Philosophical Transactions for 1814, Part II 134 

Proceedings of the Geological Society, May 19 and June 9. . i « • . . . 140 

Ti — I » i ■ ■ ■ Weynerian Society, Jan. 21, F«b. 4i S5, Mareh 11 

andsa....... * I4e 

rrr — m. - . ' i Royal Institute ofFsance, 1^14... I4d 

Ifeticcis of Leotnrcs ..../... 1 50 

OfYttro-Certte : ifeid. 

trr SteinhelUte ^ .........^ ibid. 

«^ FIho* Aiseoi^te of Lime ^ • ibid. 

i?f» Gadolinite »..•.........* *... IM 

itifU. Konig^oaanew Mass of Native Iroii. v.... ........ibid. 

tt: — , . i *' n " I ^ameabach'« ^'faDgeH^^nt of the Hum^ Species ibid. 

01 Orthocfiratitcin Marble 15a 

Oo theExtsactionof the Cube Roots of BinQBMjftls. % Mr. Lockhart ..1^ 

Aiplotioaat the Isabella Coal Mme, at Nenutastk. ISd 

Of NiekelrAiitiimonpra «.... 154 

-w a NevK Curve « ^ , .ibid. 

Nature xifFaUy Bodies .». 15^ 

A^ident to M. Vauquelin in a Chemical Experiment 157 

NowPateata ^... 15l» 

MjBteosoLogical Table and Observ^ions, May 31 to June S8 15^ 



NUMBER XXXIIL-SEPTEMBEaa.* 

9iQgt.aphic;A} Account nf M. Parmeotier. By M. Cuvier idl 

Q«i^n pf ^ic Caiburetfid HydrogeaGast of Coal Mixifis. By Mr. £ongmiro lyt 
Q^nn^oP^betveea the Vascular and EKtcarTAscubir Fivis of Animals. By 

Mr. Cadisle ,,t,.,.; :..,.., ..*..... 174 

Fi^rther ObserraUons on Fluxions. By Mr. Alex. Ckriatison 179 

Sllejaoir QU Iodine. By M. Gay^Lussac, concluded 18^ 

]&(penments on Tungsten. By Professor. Buchob tgg 

Descriplion of an Elementary Gakanic Battery. By Dr. Woliastbn; . . . £0S> 
Objections to Sir H- Dary't Theory of Chlorine. % Dr. BorzeKoa . . . . Qik 

Essay on the Rents in the Earth. By Mr. Longmire, continued 213 

Magnetical Observations at Hackney Wick. By Col. Beaufoy 218 

Critical Analysis of th^ Philosophical Transaetiona for 1815, Part 1 2ig 

■ - ■■ ' " ■ ■■■■ Buchanan's Treatise Qa the Maqa^j^qientof Fufl^ iSjc. 5^ 



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Critical A^^s qt AlXJm^Tv»fm flA $98 lightM •t. ... t..« ttt 

ProceedinEs of the Royal Institute of FraPP? » tt t •• t •••••••••• • • • *SM» 

polices of Lectures ............ •.,.^(^,.., ,..,«.... «.<«••» '# 9$g 

Ke3v Mode of Manufacturing Hemp ap^i FUx •. •.«.• .f*..**. •«.»».«•.»• 990 

PcQIposa] respecting the Thermometer • «%.««^ » AM 

On Chemical Nomenclature ........ ........*,^,*.^..... ibiiL 

Of Howard's Nomenclature of Clouds •« 894 

"fi^W Amalsam of M^rci^rf » 4 ..^ ..«•..«..«.;• •• . . . .Ibid 

' . ■ ! IE. Galvanic £;&peri40£9)l^ i....^.....^«. ••*«>»•*•. ,...*«.... *V..ibHi 

Further Queries respecting Gas Light ; • 235 

OfCrystalsof Arragonite ibid. 

Combustion of Carbureted Hydrogen Gas S36 

Another Accident at a Coal Mine near Newcastle. ibid. 

Carbonate of Bismuth ibid. 

Carbo-sulphuret of Mercury « . . . . 93lf 

NevirPateBai ,.,.«... ^ ibid. 

Ncdices of Scientifio Books a^ Press .....^ ..., 2^^ 

MetQoroiiegieal Tablet and Obs^nratioRs^ June tg to July 28 239 



NUMMR XXXIV.—OCTQB^. 

#R the AbsorptioB of iheGaseaby* dillerentQo^ies. By Th'eo4QrQ ^ 

SauaBuna «.. 941 

^^lialysis. of the Mineral Waters of Dunblane apd Fitcaithly, ^c;. Bj 

Dr.MaHray. ' ^ ^,.^, ^ 

Observaluina on the Analysis ef Organic Substance^, Bf Du Prout ... . . i^69 
P^ciifiHioQ of an iRstrument to Measure the {lis^ and PaU of the Ti4c* 

By CoL Beaisfoy , ,.... 1873 

New aad imporlant Combinationft with the Camera Lucida. By W> Q< 

fiocnei:^ Esq ...,...,.....,,.., $81^ 

jtkp Atiemfkt to sysiematiae Anatomy^ Physiology, and Pathology. 3l 

Alex. Walker ..:,. 29^ 

Astnmomical and Magnetioa) Observations at Hadkn^y Wick. B;|^ Cc4- 

Beaufoy , . . . , $Q^ 

CMlical Analysis of Wainewright*s Literary and Scientigc Pursuits in the 

UatTQMitjr of Cambrklge , ^94 

Sbtioea of Lectures 3Q4 

^ll^Laa^e sublimed during tho^ burning of London Bricks ,, ibid., 

{^ries.sespacting Valves, and of the Valves in the Human Bqiiy ••••-• 3Q4 

{Ugulationa for tha Examination- of Apothecaries « *••••• ^^7' 

t^lCraclsfrom the new Apothecaries* Act , 9Q% 

Vqtther Observations on Mr. Lockhart's Extraction of thjc Cube Roots of 

Binomials ...-....;;; .... .;...;........ ,. . ^0^ 

7«t of Iodine ;....;...-•... .;.... ...^U 

Sfpid iQtercQucse thfough Great Britain , . ......'..., .'. ^ • . . .V.'* . . • ibid. 



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vi contents) 

Description of the Woaps : and Obsen'ations on the Size of the Whale.^ 

ByMr,.Score»by ., 81^ 

Oa Spring, Carriages. By Mr* Edgeworth ......;... 314 

—» Carbonate of Bismttth 315 

Table Mountain at the Cape of Good Hope ibid* 

NewPatenu 3l6 

Scientific Books, in hand 317 

Meteorological Table and Observations, Aug. 1 1 to 26 ; 318 

Aog. 27 to Sept gg 319 



l^UMBER XXXV.— NOVEMBER. 

' » 

fidatiph Ikitween the Specific Gravity of Bodies in their Gaseous State 

and the Weight of their Atoms - 321 

On the Absorption of the Gases by different Bodies. By M. de Saussnre, 

eoricTuded, , 331 

Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Dunblane and PItcaithly. By Dr. 

Murray, concluded !..,.*... 347 

Geological Observations on North Wales. By Dr. Prichard 363 

Register of the Weather at Plymouth, January to June, 1816. By Mr. 

Fox, jun , 360 

Observations on Mr. Dalton's Theory of Chemical Composition. By Mr. 

Ewart.... .......ii^^i.....;. 371 

Magnetical Observatiqn^ at Hackney Wick. By Col. Beauiby 378 

On the Theory of Radiant Heat ; and on some Difficulties started against 

theTheory. By M. P. Prevost 379 

Account of a Work entitled Hints for establishing, an. Office in Newcastle ' 

for collecting Information on the State of the Collieries. By Mr. 

Thomas 385 

Proceedings of the Royal Institute of France for 18 14 387 

Notices ofLectures , 801 

The largest Diamond ibid* 

New Voyage of Discovery to Africa , 892 

DeathofGehleh -. ibid; 

Confirmatibn of Mr.Rose*s Discovery of the Absence of Urea from Urine 

of Hepatitis , ibid. 

Atmospheric Phenomenon SgS 

Queries respecting Fluxions 3^4 

Errors in the Conuoissance des Temps ibid. 

Weather in Iceland in 18 14... S95 

Population of the Canaries , . . ^ 3^ 

Teii^perature of the Atlantic ...,,,.,, ibid. 

Fucus Vesiculosus ibid. 

Animal Concretion from the Uterus •.......• • • • S97 

1 

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CONTBNTS. Vti 

Page 

^Hra of a Patient under a Courw of Mercury . . .. • « 3g7 

I^ew Patents , ibi<L 

Meteorological Table and Observations, Sept S6 to Oct 24 . . . , 3^9 



NUMBER XXXVI.— DECEMBER. 

Biographical Account of Charles Bossut. By M< Le Cheyalier De* 

lambre ..« 401 

OnSeptaria. By Dr. C. Wilkinson ^08 

Essay on Rents in the Earth. By Mr. J. B. Longmire • 411 

On the Collision of perfectly hard Bodies. By Mr. John Gough 414 

Queries respecting the Ventilation of Coal Mines 4l6 

Description of an Instronsent for ensuring the Atten|ion of Watchmen. 

By Henry Beaofoy Esq. ...i ,••. 418 

Further Observations on Fluxions. . JBy Alexander Christison, Esq 480 

Correction of some defective Statements in different Histories of the Intro* 
duction of Bleaching by Oxymuriatic Acid. By William ^Henry^ - 

M.D *......... 421 

On the Conversion of Starch into Sugar. By M. de Saussure 424 

Answer to Mr. Prevost*s Inquiries respecting the Explanation of M. B. . 

* Prcvost's Experiments on Dew. By Dr. Wells 4St 

Memoir on Iridium and Osmiu m^ By M* Vauquelin . . . . « 4^3 

Proceedings of the Royal Society, Noveisiber 9, 1 6^ 23 • • 453 

I Linnaean ^Society, November 7, and 21 46^ 

Royal Institute of France for 1814 456 

Theory of Crystals 463 

Fluxions • ."^ 464 

Account of a Meteor.. ^ 465 

Queries respecting Steam Engines and Steam ibid. 

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.. 466 

Prussic Acid « 468 

Cyanogen .* • •' 470 

Chloro-cyanic Acid . . . . » ibid^ 

Dr. Murray, of Edinburgh's, Method of preventing Explosions in Coal 

Mines from Fire-Darop ' 471 

Meteorological Table and Observations, October 26 to November 22 . . , 473 
Index*... ,••• %• 4 476 



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fLAlTKS IN VOL. V!. 



XXXVI. Oft tttdski the t/^h ,..:.. .....i... 43 

XXXVII. A f Msi! Fftb f6oftd to a StMwth of Lirfte-iSt<tt6.;;. :v. I . . ti6 

XXXVIII. On ftihis in (he eaffti .:.... :...,..:,.,'.;. '2lf 

XX^:!t. Instrument for registering the Hise add l^'all 0/ x\\t Ude.. . . .' 3^3 

XL. Variations of the Baromftt^F and Thermometer at J^Iymouth, 

January k) June^ 181^ . . . . ......# j <<...«...•.•• 3G6 

ijati. infitxu^tM (or 6iisuiifi|( xbt Altemion of Watfchuieii. . . « ^ ^. .418. 



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ANNALS 



09 



PHILOSOPHY^ 



JULY, I81& 

Article !• 
$om 4mwt ^ the ht^ $miihsm T^mmt^ Esq. 

Vi^E AnnQunccfl ip a former number the death of Smithson Tell'* 
nant, E?q. P. R. S. Professor of Chemistry jiri the University of 
Cambridj^e : we shall now proceed to lay before our readers, some 
•ccouot of his life, studies, and character. 

Mr. Tennant may be considered as one of those ^ who, without 
muqh labour, have attained a high reputation, and are mentioned 
with reverence rather for the possession than the exertion of ua-» 
common alxlities/'* Of sucn a man it is perhaps impossible to 
give an accoijint^ which will satisfy the judgment of his fri^ndl^ 
without being suspected by others of considerable exaggeration. 
Mr. Tennant is only known to the public by bis papers in the 
Philosophical Transactions, which, however admirable as sped'* 
mens of his scientific powers, afford a very inadequate idea of the 
red extent of hb genius and knowledge. These were in many 
respects so extraordinary, that it would-'be taking a most imperfect 
view of bis inteU'ectual character tp consider him only as a ipan of 
science. Some attempt therefore ought to be made to do justice to 
his other distinguished attainments ; although a certain degree of 
caution is ob^ously requisite in speaking of those quaKties, how- 
ever remarkable, which <:a^not be duly appreciated except by Ua 
particular friends. 

Smithson Tennant was th^ only child of the Rev. Calvert Tea* 
nant, younger son of a respectaole family in Wensley-dale, near 
Richmond^ in Yorkshire^ iind Vicar of S^Ib^ in that county^ where 

• Or. ^FobaspiiV Ufo tSt f^wii Sjnitii. 
Yeju.VL*PI. A ^ . 

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2 Biographical Account of [July, 

Mr. Tennant was born on the 30th of Nov. 1761. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Mary Daunt, was the daughter of a surgeon 
of the same town. 

Of hb father little is known, except that he had been » Fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge^ and was* a friend of Dr. Huther- 
forth, Regius Professor of Divinity in that University* He was 
spoken of by his son with the most affectionate gratitude for the 
care he had bestowed on his education. To this he appears to have 
devoted himself from his son*s earliest infancy; since he began to 
instruct him in Greek when he was only five yean of age. 

He had tlie misfortune to lose his father when he was about nine 
years old; and some years afterwards, shortly before he attained the 
age of manhood, was deprived «l$p of his mother, by a very me- 
lancholy accident. She was thrown from her horse^ whilst riding 
with her son, and killed on the spat/ 

Mr. Tennant's education subsequently to his father's death was 
irre^lar, and apparently somewhat neglected. He was sent sue- 
ces^vely to different schools in Yorkshire, at Scorton, Tadcaster, 
and Beverley. He is described by one who recollects him at the 
first of these places as being of a grave and pensive cast, with the 
appearance of. being indolent and dispirited, and rarely joining in 
the amdsemefits of the rest of the boys. Being an only child, and 
lender little restraint when with his mother, he appears to have left 
home with singular reluctance, and toliave had little enjoyment 
while at school. There is reasfon indeed to believe that he looked 
back upon this period with no agreeable recollections, since he very 
seldom alluded to the events of his early life; and it is in the re- 
; collection of the writer of this narrative that, on reading Mr. 
Gibbon's Memoirs, he entirely concurred In the protest which the 
historian has entered against the ^^ trite and lavish praise of the 
happipess of our boyish years." 

His talents were not suspected, and^ if they had been knowd, 
would scarcely perhaps have been understood, by those concerned 
with his education. He appears^, indeed, to have been little in- 
debted for the eminence which he afterwards obtained, to any of 
.his various instructors, and may be considered in a great measure as 
self-educated. This b perhaps more or less true of every person of 
distinguished talents or vigorous understanding. That it was in a 
remarkable degree the case of Mr. Tennant, will be evident from 
the few anecdotes, which are now recollected, of his early life. 

He gave many proofs, while very young, of a particular turn for 
, chemistry and natural philosophy, ooth by reading all books of. that 
description wliich fell accidentally in his way, and making various 
Jittle experiments which the perusal of such books suggested. His 
jSrst experiment (as he has himself related) was made at nine years 
ui age, when he prepared a quantity of gunpowder for fire-works 
^according to directions contained in the Encyclopedia, or some 
other scientific book i6 which he had .access. 

During the time he was at school at Tadcaster, he happened to 

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ISIB.] SmkhstmTennantf Esq. 3 

be presi^iit-at'si pdbKc lecture givi*n by Mr. Walker, formerly ivell 
known as a pofmlar teacher of experimeotal plilloaopby. Although 
then very youDg, he put several pertinent questions to the lecturer 
respecting some of the experiments, and displayed so much intel* 
ligent curiosity as to attract the attention of die audience, and gfve 
l^reat additional interest to the lecture. Mrl Walker, sensible of 
the efiect which the boy's presence had produced, requested that he 
would continue to attend nis lectures during the remainder of the 
course. 

Ftom Tadcasler Mr. Tennant was removed to Beverley, thea 
rather a considerable school, linder the care of Dr. George Croft; 
who afterwards obtained ecclesiastical preferment at Birminghain, 
and became known as a controversial writer. Mr. Tennant went 
sobfiewhat late to Beverley, and did not readily enter into the 
studies or discipline of the place. But, although he was singular 
in his habits, and led rather a sequestered life for a school-boy,' he 
was vjeiy far from being idle» There was fortunately a good library 
.belonging to the school, containing a great collection of miscelb^ 
neotts books, to which he devoted as much time as was in his power. 
His studies, even at that early period, were principally directed to 
works of natural philosophy ; and Sir Isaac Newton's Treatise on 
Optics was one of the books which he read with the greatest 
eagerness; 

About the time of quitting school he was very desirous of coni- 
pleting' his education under Dr. Priestley, whose reputation,' in 
consequence of His brilliant pneumatic discoveries, was then at its 
height. His mother seems to have been disposed to gratffy him in 
this particular;' but the design was found to be impracticable, in 
con^quenee of Dr. Priestley's other engagements. 

With such tastes and habits, it cannot be supposed that Mr. Ten* 
nant, at the time of his leaving school, was a very regular or accu- 
rate classical scholar. Yet for every really useful purpose he (xk* 
sessed ihe full advantages^of a classical education. He had a 
competent knowledge of Greek, and was well versed in the Latin 
language. What was still more important, he had acquired a stmng 
feeling, and rational admiration, of the great writers in those lan- 
guages, whofn he justly re^rded as the standards of true taste, and . 
models of literaty composition ; and he continued during the 
whole of his' life to be a diligent reader of the principal Latin 
Classics. 

In the choice of a professbn, his attention was naturally directed 
to the study of medicine, as being most nearly allied to his philo* 
8q>hical pursuits. He went accordingly, about the year ,1781 9 with 
that view to Ediiiburgh, where he had the best opportunities of 
gratifying his favourite tastes; and he had the good fortune to meet 
with an instructor in the celebrated Dr. Black, well calculated to 
stimulate and direct his curiosity. 

' Of his companions,: studies, or occupations at Edinburgh, no- 
thing particular is known.'. His stay, indeed, at that University, 

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4 Mhl^d^kml AmuM if {im^ 

4ta» irf M Un0 4kd^\xmc9^ far ifi Oct^be^ }?8(if h0 «M ad^' 
ihitldi a Member 4f C^hrist;^ CoUege^ Camtoidf^e^ iMit be bfgwt 
feoin that time to resides He wai at first aoleted aa a Pao^ionai'i 
IMi dittibiDg the erdiBiry discipUiie ami r outttiH of w a^d«iioiaf4 
Kfi^ be obtainad ») «xetoptbn bamrthooa nftiakiCa by tNK^QiiiNiit 
ihortly afterwards i FaB^w GovtiveikvM^ 

h, ink at this period tbal lie began fa be inti«idt4ly vMkwMk 
irith Sir fiosick Haniropdji ihe late Prodieisar of AoaMny at GaoM 
bridge, then also a Fellow Commoner of the same College. JOyring 
a king rBBidedcc id the .UniFSfsity^ Pcofi^ssdr Harwead Was fetni- 
liariy known to k vdry aiteiiaife e^le of ae(|ualritonbe) by assay af 
wiMMD be was perhaps chiefly vakied for his soekl and oMvirial 
Ijfoalities. He had other merits, however, wbich were af a iniiak 

gher order; and at the time when he first beearaeac()aakitfBd wiik 
4 T.i there weae saaia cnreumstasides odnaacted with his kAitOff 
add sitdation^ wkich gatd a peeulifw interest to his cbaractar* 

Sir B. HarwQod &i gaae awl early in life to the fiaat ][adiasb 
wkerete had obtained a eaaopetent tetuoe as k suigbon; biit keia|; 
compelted by iU heahh to return to his native obuolry, ha loH^ by tke 
misconduct of an agents nearly the whole of what he had doqaired* 
With the most okcerful and mdniy jirdasieeii he hogan egam kis 
aaneer of life ; and srith that imw kad entered hiflBiself at Calti^ 
bridge at a much more advanced age than usual, for the purpose of 
eibtatn^g a nedieal d^[pwe« His raisfiirtiineii and tiha spirit with 
wihick be roie above tbenii added to bds tibeial and benevolent dk* 
posksoD, his proctioal ski|l in medidoe, kit knt)wled|^ of anatomy 
and physblogy, and his interesting acconnts of tk* i^aiote oonn*' 
tries in whieh be had Wd, pradttoed tkebr natural eftet upon ill 




I habit% 
sincere fnendskip was soon fermed betweek them. 

[Saving entered aonewliit late at Cambridge^ tl)d being des* 
tuied for the noiedical pfo&ssiDa, Mr* TWnaai^t did hoi pay any 
great afeteotioo to Ike re^uJar caurae of adadeanieal reading:, nr de«* 
vote flMidi of his time to the sksdy of malkennrtios* He aQouite^ 
howevar, a general knowledge (rf the eLomontary patts ot tksil; 
acienoe, and nnde himaetf master of tke nrast iospoitaki pRSDOsi^ 
^na ia Newton's Princifna. But Uk atteiltion at this period vN» 
principally directed to chemistry and botany ; and it may bt 
recorded as an in^ence of his early pr^^ss in tbe fimner jdcnce, 
that about the titeie of his residence at Camkci^e he mentioned ^ 
amieof fais friends tbe sobstanoe of ao-exparimeat resfieeliiqg huLt*^ 
whtek he did not make public till more ihan Oweat^ yearn aikai^ 
wards. The eioperiment bete aUuded to consisted la a made tf 
nffecting a double distiU4tian ky the same helit, in conseiioeace of « 
diminished pressure of the air; which be oosraiiHncatad lotfaa 
Si^al Soole^ in 1614^ and fbms the saiject of kis 4aat|N^r i{Mab« 
litned in tke. PhdloBojAiical Transactions* 

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IMi^ AnMWi Tmumi, §9f^ 5 

IPkeMHnAm of tht chetnieiil worid wm «t tMi time prim?^H]r 
MSf^d *^ th^ g<^^ oi»iitr(ivci»y fMf^i^iig the amriphtogisrt^ 
liMry, 4vhkh «fcperie«etd nauch oppoBition in England, ft tamf 
prhaps be wonh mentioning that Mr. Teonant entirelf MftlsfiM 
ma§^ «f to the tnifh 0f thia ioetrine) w4ien at Cambntlge, at a 
<«ty aortf f«md^ aad long l^efene it obMised a general reception 
]|l4hia^otititry. 

JB«t ¥^e Mgagei lit tlieie acientifie pcimuts^ he was at tha- 
lime ilfliie a verf mMfal reader cf irti the «iott Intmstin'g worfasia 
fdlic^ IHerature, liiitory, melapiijfMs, and estecia)^ m poUtieal 
eaonomy, nAMn mm 4me of Iris favoaiwie studies^ and on which 
he had already made many jmst and origiaal observarrioDa. Ytft^ 
tfthough he WHS ilias mcemanrty emipkiyedy tkera was a sin« 
gAmi ^ of carelesanera and indifference in hit habits and mode of 
Wk\ and bis ivianiiers, appearance, attd eonversalion, were tha 
moat remote from «ho9e of a profeitod student. HU College roonia 
etl^Mted a airafige disorderly appeafaoee ef baoha, papers, and 
Implements of i<bemfistry, pAed iip in heaps, oriibrown in eonfasicM 
together. He had no fixed hoars or eaiabUBhed habits of privffM 
Itudy; but his tTime seemed to be at the disposal of 4>is friends | 
and lie was always ready either for books or pbiiosophical expert^ 
t»efit«, or Iw the pleasar^s of Merary aodaty, as inelinatiM ^ 
iDddent mkfbt determine. But the disadvantages arismg fiotM 
these irtegimr ^bki wcnre madh more than eour>terbaianoed by 
ettraoadiiKiry peters of meafiory and andersaHoding; and esperially 
by o iacalty, for which be was renMCbabie, of reading with great 
faptdity, and of eollecffcig 4W)tt 'books, by a slight and carsory in-* 
Ipection, whatever was most intetoafingaod valaafate in their coiw 
fenptt. 

ft was dwflag Mr. Teonatif'a rarideooe at Cambridge that his 
piinci^l frrend^hipa were formed ; and the reeollection of thosd 
Wh6 best knew him, witl dwell upon thfis happy, period of tiis HOl 
with a fond and melancholy pleasure. His heoltli was then vigorous^ 
his apidts were constant atid unwearied, and hie ttlents fbr society 
pertmpK yet mote ^kSn^ and brilliant than in bis after yearn. Ha 
was mslingairiied, even at that early peried, 'by an eirtent of bifor* 
aMtioti, and -maturity of judgment, wlUoh might hare seemed to 
be the ^esolts of a 'kmg me of study and re6eotIon ; and these ex«> 
tkaordinery attainments derived an additional interest, and peculiar 
gmce, fr6m the aimpiidty of his manaen, the playfulness of his 
wit, and the careless, fascinating beauties of bis conversatfen I 

The summer of t?^ was employed by Mr. Tennant in travel- 
Htig into Denmark and Swedeti, parriy to examine the great nrinea 
foirwMeh tbe latter country is remarkable, but priocipaUv for the 
jwtpose of vising the celebrated Scbeele, for whom be bad con- 
cdved a high admiration. He was much gratified by what be saw 
of this very eminent person ; and was particalarly struck wkh Ave 
Aoorplfdty cif 4he appavatus by which his gftac e3iparl«enta*had4l0eti 
performed. On iua return to England he had a grcatp ka i one lii 

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6 Bktgraphical Accmmi of [Jin«T« 

showing to hi^ fdends at Cambridge various iHinemlQgical ftptci- 
mens with which Scheele had presented him, and in exhibiting to 
them several interesting experinaents which he had learned from 
that philosopher. 

His next journey to the Continent, a year or two after his 
Swedish expedition, was to Paris, where he became acquainted with 
some of the most considerable French chemists. During his .stay, 
in that city he was seized with a dangemus illness; in consequence 
of which Professor Harwood, with the kindest solicitude, went imr 
mediately to join him ; but finding his friend nearly recovered, he 
accompanied hi(n on a tour through Holland and the Netherlands^ 
previously to their return to Cambridge. ' 

The latter of these countries, at the tio^e when it wad visited by 
Mr. Tennant, was in a state of insurrection against the Emperor 
Joseph II., and exhibited the singular spectacle of a bigotted people; 
resisting a philosophic tyrant, and contending for their ancient pri-r 
vileges and establishments with the zeal and ardour of an enlight* 
ened nation. — ^Holland, then free and prosperous, presented a scene 
still more interesting and congenial to Mr. Tennant's feelings. He 
saw in that extraordinary country a striking illustration of his own 
most favourite opinions. He was gratified by the triumph of intel- 
ligent and persevering industry over the greatest physical difficulties; 
and by the general ditRision of wealth and comfort, the natural efiTect^ 
of unrestrained commerce, and of civil and religious liberty. 

Such were Mr. Tennant's voluntary pursuits and occupations 
whilst in the prime and vigour of life, possessed of a competent ' 
fortune, exempt from every species of controul, and left to the sole 
guidance of his own disposition and understanding. After his 
mother's death, which happened about the time when he went to 
Edinburgh, he had no near relations, and seems from that time 
to have be^n entirely separated from his family connections. His 
college vacations (except when he was travelling) were passed with 
an intimate friend in North Wales. 

On the 13th of January, 1785,. he was elected, at a remarkably 
early age, a Fellow of the Royal Society. . Among the signatures 
to his certificate of recommendation were those of the most distin- 
guished members of that body, who were connected with the 
University of Cambridge ; namely. Dr. Waring, Dr. Milner, Dr. 
John Jebb, Dr Maskelyne, and the Bishop of Llandaff. With 
most of these Mr. T. was well acquainted ; and with Dr. Milner, 
in particular, he lived on terms of some intimacy. 

He had hitherto continued to reside at Christ's College from the 
time of his entering there in the year 1782; but Professor Har- 
wood having for some reason determined to quit that Society, Mr. 
Tennant removed with him in December, 1786, to Emmanuel 
College, of which he continued ever. afterwards to be a member. 
In the year 1788 he took his first medical degree as Bachelor of 
Physic, :and sopn afterwards quitted Cambridge, and came to reside 
in JU>ndpn. . ^ 

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1815 J] £m%thson Tennmty Esq. f 

. la. the yefir 1791 he communicated to the Royal Society his 
Analysis of the carbonic acid. M. Lavoisier had proved by decisive 
^nthetie experiments that fixed air was a compound of oxygen and 
charcoal; hut no one had yet resolved that gas into its simple 
elements. Mr. Tennant observing that phosphate of lime Was not 
decomposed, when heated with charcoal, inferred that the joint 
attractions of phosphorus ^for oxygen, and gf phosphoric acid for 
lime, exceeded those of charcoal for oxygen, and of carbonic acid 
for lime ; and consequently that phosphorus and heated marblej 
when made to act on each other, would he resolved into phosphate 
of lime and charcoal. The correctness of this reasoning was fully 
justified by the event ; and the result of the experiment was not 
merely the analysis of the carbonic acid, which was the immediate 
object of the investigation, but the discovery of a new compound^ 
consisting of phosphorus and lime, possessed of' several curious 
properties. 

The ingenuity and ekganf^e of this experiment established Mr* 
Te»[uxant's reputation as a chemist ; and there being at the close of 
that year the prospect of a vacancy in the Jacksonian Professorship 
at Cambridge by tl^e resignation of Dr. Milner, he was prevaile4 
upon by bis fripnds to become a candidate for that situation ; but 
desisted from the pursuit on finding that he had no reasonable 
prospect of success^ 

In the yenr \J9^ be again visited the Continent, with the ioten'* 
tion of travelling through France to Italy, and arrived at Paris not 
long before the memorable J 0th of August. He hardly recognized 
some of his old scientific friends^ now become Members of the 
Legislative Assembly, and deeply implicated in the revolutionary 
polhics of the times. From various circumstances, he anticipated 
some great and speedy convulsion, and was fortunate enough to 
quit Paris on the 9th of August, before the fiame actually broke 
out. 

In passing through Switzerland he visited Mr. Gibbon, at Lau- 
sanne, and was much struck with his powei's of conversation^ and 
the sagacity of his remarks on the course and progress of the 
French revolution, and on the probable issue of tlie invasion of 
France by the allied armies under the Duke of Brunswick. 

In Italy he was delighted with the softness and beauty of the 
climate, and the luxuriance of the vegetation, and was astonished 
by the wonders of ancient and modern art at Rome and Florence. 
He had hitherto been somewhat sceptical as to the degree of merit 
really belonging to the great masters in painting, whose fame he 
had supposed to be founded principally upon exaggeration. But he 
was converted from this error by the great works of Raphael and 
Correggio ; and of the former, more especially, of these distin- 
guished artists, he was ever aftprw^rds a devoted and enth(:eiastic 
admirer. 

He returned from Italy through a part of Germany, and was 
much amused with the inixture of science and credulity which he 

^..•.■'■•^ Digitized by ^OOQIC 



A Kograpkkdl AttMiA %f I!Jm.t» 

f<^UD8 hi sdme tA the German chemUti* Hie ptfiI<Mpher'ft sicme 
#iis spoken of ^ith respect; and be received from ft tnan ol 
idenee and character ah introductioh to a persoti who uras repated 
16 be in possession of that treasure. Mr. Tefitiaiit used to telfttier 
With hb owti peiculiar humour the sdemdity with which he W8$ 
teceh^d by this person : with whom he conversed In Latin, atiti 
who exhibited to him the mysterious powder, enlarging tipon \t% 
tinnst*endel]ft qualities with mach poiirp, and in flowing and scm<>^ 
ifeos peTiei^. 

On his return through Paris iti the latter ettd of 1792, 6r 1)e^ 
Mibnin^ of 1793, he was deeply ittipr^ssed with the gloom and 
3esbtat?bn arising from the system of tttt^t then beginning to pir»« 
tati hfi tifet capital j; a particular instance of which deserves, ctti 
•everiil lifccbtftit^, to be recorded. 

Aiiidng lib philosophical aocjuaintanee «t IVuis, there was tme 
distinguished by his simplicity and moderation, of whose eiccellent 
qurilAai he atways expiessed a high value. This was M. Oela« 
ttetherie, editor of the Journal de Physi^e. Upon calling iH: lita 
hous^, Mr. Tennant found thci doors and whidows <4o8ed, as if thts 
Owner was absent. Being at length admitted, he foand hb friend 
aittii^ in a. back room, by candle-'lrght, and with abutters closed, ia 
the middle of the day. On his departure^ afttt* a hurried tind 
anxious conversation, his friend conjured him not to come again, at 
the knowledge of his being there might be afftended whh serious 
l^on^^quences to them both. It should l)e mefytibnH, to the honoor 
Of this Gentleman, that tbfough all the inquisitkHis ef the revohi* 
^n he preserved for his friend property of comiderid^le valu^ 
which Mr. Tennant had entrusfed to hitr care. 

Soon after Mr. T.*$ return from the Oonthenf, he totSc^hftofbert 
in the Temple, which continued from Yhtlt tiib^ lo be hns established 
)>lace of residg[ice ; and for many years his "society was very mruch 
limited to a small circle of friends. Owing to accidental circum- 
stances, his ea^ly eonnections had been tmicfh tnore formed among 
atudents of the law than among ifhose df the profesrion Which he 
had originally designed to pursue, but to which he was gradually 
becoming more and more iiidifierent. He 'had not, however, a$ 
yet abandoned the intention Of practising medicine ; and for sevend 
jrears applied himself to the cultivation of the studies connected 
with that science, and attended regulafly at some of the princi|)al 
London hospitals ^Of his industry ^nd perseverance in ibis course 
sufficient proofs exist in the medical notes and memoranda now 
found among his papers; and it is Well known to «ome of bis 
friends that he had also ifead with great attention most of the 
standard books in that science. Among diese he always spoke of 
the Works of Sydenham (with reference to the age in which they 
^ere produced) in terms of the highest admiratfen. Curiosity had 
also led him to examine the principal medical writers of antiquity, 
whose merits and defects be correctly appreciated, and tipon whom 
be Md mad^i many curious ond valoable yeomika. He had takra a 

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I8f5.} SmiiKson Termantj Esq. 9 

cofOprehiMtttve view of the ori^n and progress of meficine, and of 
the various medical theories and opinions which liave prevailed in 
diflferent ^es and countries ; and seemed on this account peculiarijr 
weH qualified (independently of his practical knowledge) to have 
written a philosophical histoiy of the science. 

But the question was very diJEFerent^ how fer he was well qualified 
to practise medicine with advantage as a lucrative profession ; and 
the period was now arrived^ when this point was to be deter- 
mined. Several of his friends, ahhoqgh very doubtful as to the 
ultimate success of the measure which they recommended, were 
yet esitremely desfrous that he should try the effects of a regnfar 
professton ; which they considered as afibrding the best jirospect of 
giving an useful direction to his talents, and fixing his desultory 
habits. In deference chiefly to their opinion, he todk his degree of 
Doctor of Physic at Cambridge in the year 17^6, and for some 
time bad serious thoughts of commencing medical practice. But, 
after some hesitation, he wisely relinqubhed a desi^^n, which, whether 
successful or not^ was unlikely to contribute to his happiness. His 
desires were rooderacte, and his private fortune exempted him from 
the necessity of following any employment as the means of sub- 
sistence. He was at liberty, therefore, to indulge his own inclina- 
tioai ; nnd his careless, inaependent habits of life, no less than the 
general cast of his character and understanding, rendered him 
idtogei!her averse to the drudgery and restraints of a profession. It 
may be observed also as a circumstat^ce by which he was undoubt- 
edly much influenced in adopting this resolution, that he had suf- 
fered very greatly, during his attendance at the hospitals, in conse- 
quence of the acute and painful emotions he had constantly expe- 
rienced from those sights of hopeless misery \^hich he had so often 
occasioQ to witness. He justly apprehended that the frequent 
recurrence of such scenes, unavoidable in medical practice, would 
be destructive of his comfort and happiness. 

The keen and ' exduishe jsensibility, from which these feelings 
originated, was a striidng feature in Mr. Tennant's character, and 
not only gave a colour to many of his opinions, but powerfully io- 
flueucea Iris cbnduct. An instance of his practical benevolence, de- 
rived from this principle, happened about this period, which may 
perhaps deserve to be mentioned. He had a steward in the country 
m whom he had long placed implicit confidence, and who was con« 
siderably indebted to him. In consequence of this man's becoming 
embarrassed id his circumstances, Mr. T. went into the counti^, in 
order to look into his accounts. A time and place were appointed 
for him to produce his books, and shew the extent of the defi- 
ciency; but the unfortunate steward felt himself unequal to th<^ 
. i$&, of Such an explanation ; and in a fit of despair put an end to 
his own existence. Touched by this melancholy event, Mr. T. used 
his utmost exertions for the relief and protection of the family 
whom he had left, and not only forgave them the debt, but afibrded 
them pecuniary assistance^ and continued ever afterwaids to be their 
Itieud and btencfccior. Digitized by ^oogie 



10 . Midgraphical Accouni of [^Vi^y^ 

• During the course of the year 1796 Mr.' Tennant cgminunicated. 
to the Hoyal Society his paper on the nature of the Diamond. Sir 
Isaac Newton had conjectured that this body was inflammable, as 
was afterwards proved by the experiments of the Duke of Tuscany, 
and of Messrs. Darcet and Rouelle. M. Lavoisier effected its, 
oombustion \yy means of a leris, in close vessels, and obtained from 
it a gas, which precipitated chalk from lime-water. But this was. 
at an early period of pneumatic chemistry; and although he con*, 
qluded that the gas was fixed air, yet he did not consider the 
analogy between charcoal and the diamond as very intimate, but as 
depending only on their common property of being combustible. 
The merit of completely ascertaining the qature of this substance 
was therefore reserved for Mr. Tennant. He succeeded in burning 
the diamond when reduced to powder, by heating it with nitre in a 
gold tube. A solution of the alkaline salt was then poured into 
liquid muriate of lime ; and the quantity of carbonic acid which 
had been generated was infeited from the weight of the precipitate^ 
which was found to consist of carl)onate of lime. 

From experiments made upon minute quantities of diamond 
powder, not exceeding 2^ grains, he shewed, by comparing them 
with Lavoisier's experiments on charcoal, that equal weights of 
diamond and charcoal yield equal quantities of fixed air, and that 
fixed air contains between 27 and 27*8 per cent, of diamond > 
results which very nearly agreed with those of M. Lavoisier, and 
were subsequently confirmed by the investigations of Messrs, Allen 
and Pepys. 

In the course of his investigation of the diamond, Mr. Tennant 
observed that gold and platina were corroded and dissolved by heated 
nitre ; and that on the addition of water to the salt, the metals^ 
owing to the presence of nitrite of potash, were in a great measure 
precipitated. These appearances, together with some peculiar pro- 
perties of the nitrous solutions of gold, were the subject of a fur- 
ther communication to the Royal Society in 1797* 

It is worthy of remark, that Mr. Tennant had ascertained the 
true nature of the diamond some years before he made the above 
communication to the Royal Society. In conversing abput this 
time with a particular friend, whom he was attending with affec- 
tionate care during a lingering illness in the spring of IJdGy be hap- 
pened to mention the fact of this discovery. His friend, who had 
often lamented Mr. T.'s habits of procrastination, urged him to lose 
no time in making his experiment public ; and it was in conse- 

Juence of these entreaties that the paper on the diamond was pro- 
uced. A still more remarkable example of the same indolence or 
inattention occurred in the case before alluded to of the paper on 
double distillation, communicated to the Royal Society in IBH^^ 
the substance of which he had mentioned to some of his frieqds 
during his residence at Cambridge. 

These facts are memorable and instructive instances of the 
strength and weakness of Mr.^Tennant's mind. His curiosity and 
activity were incessant; he had a vigilance of obsetyadon vrfjicb 

jigi ize y O " " 



1815.] Smithson Temant^ Esq. 1% 

suffered nothing to escape him, and was continually gaining new 
information from a variety of interesting sources, fifut although 
the knowledge thus acquired was remarkable for its correctness, and 
complete for the purposes of its possessor ; yet the industry and 
perseverance, by which it ought to have been embodied and made 
permanent for the benefit of others, were too often altogether 
wanting. The ardour and energy of Mr. Tennant's mind co« 
operated, unfortunately in this respect, whh his want of method 
and of systematic habits of application ; since he was constantly 
pressing on to new discoveries, instead of arranging and bringing 
to perfection those wliich he had already made. — Kis memory was 
a great storehouse of discoveries and hints for discovery, of ascer- 
tained facts, probable conjectures, and ingenious trains of reasoning, 
refaitive to the various important subjects, upon which he had at any 
time been engaged. These he was continually treasuring up, with 
the intention of reducing them to order and preparing them for use 
at a more convenient season. But that period rarely arrived. In 
the carelessness of intellectual wealth, he neglected the stores of 
knowledge which he had accumulated, and suffered them to remain 
useless and unproductive, till his attention was recalled to them^ 
perhaps after a long course of years, by some new fact or discovery^ 
some remark in conversation, or other accidental occurrence. It 
is yet to be ascertained, by a careful examination of his papers^ 
whether any fragments of this great body of knowledge still ren 
main, which can now be converted to use; whether any of his 
various discoveries not hitherto made public (some of which un-* 
Questionably were important) are capable of being traced out and 
understood from the loose and imperfect hints which his scattered 
notes may furnish. But there is too much reason to believe that the 
iar greater part of them existed only in the mind of their author^ 
and that with him they have unfortunately perished! 

{To be continued,) 



Article II. 

Account of a Toad found in the Tnmk of a Beech. 
By Thomas Lauder Dick, Esq. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

SIR, 

Jn your Journal for this month, which has just reached me, I 
observe some queries have been proposed relative to toads found in 
rocks and trees. I agree with you, that in every such instance some 
fissure will be found communicating with the external air, nor have 
I ever heard of any well-authenticated case to the contrary. I am 
led to trouble you with this, not with any view of throwing light on 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



12 Toadjhmd in ihe Trunk of a Beech. \JiWff, 

fh!9 part of Xht ^bject^ but to state to yoa n reeent idstas^ce of eB0 
df those attiiiials beiog found in a rerj $ingulftr sitttatiod. I tva$ not 
fin eye-witness; but the person who has charge of my Iktfaet^* 
ivoods here, a man for whose imegritj I can be answerrii^e^ told tAt 
the particulars. 

A quatitity of timber being felled here, a Wright, ^dliaA ittadt 
seme purchases, came to take his trees away, and amongst Ae'teit 
a heeiM^ which had grown with a smooth, stratght, unbrancb^, 
ttem of abotrt: SO feet high, above which tt divided into two larjg^ 
limbs. As this tree was lying an the gromid, the wrfght Md faii 
mtKfi set abont cross cutting it with a saw just beldw^e^^clefi, wbeil^ 
to their surprise, the stem was no sooner divided ttCBT- it lam t^ad 
crept out of a circular hole, the upper and smaller jSHit of wdich 
bad been cut off by the saw. As mr as I ean make out from coih 
l^rsattun with the man above alhided to^ the tree had all the ap« 
pearance of being quite soHd above ; yet I liave no doribt that some 
alight, tho^b perhaps almost iropercepfible, co^munteation, mu9t 
Imve cKistedTfrom the fork into the hole where th^ toad was lodged; . 
and I am the more satisffied of tbis from iihe account which the {nan 
gWesof the appearance of the interior of the hiAe, t^hkfa seemed. 
to be sheathed all round with something resembling barfc. 

But the curious query arising from this fact is, how eame a load 
to be lodged so high ? The torn] has no power of crawiiog^perpeil* 
dk^ulady so as to have ascended the smooth bark of a straiglit tree 
to such a heiglyt. I Icnow from my own observations that treea 
grow in attitude in two ways : 1st, Something is annnaliy added lO 
the height of the tree by the new shoots : and £dly, in addition tA 
this mode of increment, the whole tree seems to stretch itself yearty 
out of rtie ground, throughout its entire teng^hy to a very .consider*^ 
able extent, as 1 have, proved by measuring the ht^ight of kQOta 
upon trees at different periods. But with all this I do not think it 
very rational to suppose tliat the cleft in question^ which may have 
once extended quite down to the hole, could have ever existed so 
near the ground x>f a size sufficient to have admitted of a toad 
crawling into it. The only way in which it appears to me that tbia 
circumstance can be accounted for, is by supposing that the spawn^ 
after being removed from the female by the obstetrical aid of the 
inale toad, must have been transporte.u and dropt into the cleft of 
the ti;ee by some bird. 

As to what Pennant and others say of the obstetrical aid afforded 
by the male to the female toad, I am led to suspect that the object 
of the operatk)n is more for the purpose of impregnating the spawn 
as it is dragged from the female than any thing else. It appears to 
lie the sskme with frogs. In the course of a solitary walk in the 
beginning of last March, my attention was excited by an uneom<« 
mon comnrotion in a shallow pool of water not much mare than 
fiHir feet square. My approadi to ascertain the cause being rathet 
too hasty, I had only time to observe it was occasioned by a parcel 
of frogs, when immedkitely on my advance they di8^>p»red under 

Digitized by 'LSOOgie 



1816.] On thi Red Sand^tmB JPbrmc/jpn. I S 

Wftter, concealit^ themelvea beneath a quantity of spawn already 

flontuig on the siuiace. Having placed myself behind an adjoining 

he^ga^ through which I eould perfectly see the pool, being about 

two yards from its surface^ and at the same time without giving any 

dfiturbance to its inhabitants^ I remained quiet for more than a 

qpMrler of an hour. At lengthy when my patience was nearly ex* 

hauaiad, I saw the head of a frog rise above water ; and on a eloser 

inspection I perceived underneath the liead of another one, which 

teemed la be embraced by the first« In this way they silently raised 

themselves pair by pair, till there were not less than 50 or 60 paifs 

of tbem in the small space I have already mentioned. In a short 

liase the little poid waa ail in action. Those frogs which were 

mounted on the backs of the others seemed to be busily employed 

with their hinder feet and legs, whilst the fore legs of each firmly 

eaiiiira«ed tlie body of bis mate. In some too a mass of spawn 

seemed to move after the pair as they altered their position in the 

pool. These violent exertions of what I took to be the males eoD» 

Umied without any intermission^ and with so much force as very 

eonliderably to agitate the little pool for some time, until the noise' 

of a person pasaiag on horseback ahrmed them, and they were all 

again under water in a moment. From the hinder pprts of what I 

took to be the female frogs having been so much under water^ I 

eQeM Mt fioaitivel^ assert the facti but I had not a doubt^ from the 

paUiff of the motions I saw, that the animals were engaged in aa 

operation similar to that which » ascribed to the toad ; and I way 

oMlfirmed in this belief by observing on my return, five or six 

hedia aftexwards^ that the quantify of spawn l^ad been nearly 

danblfd^ and though I approached the pool with the utmost eaaii- 

tiott^ I eonld not see a single frog, and had every reason to thinks 

iirom a careful examination of the shallow pool, that they were til 



I ftar the above may be very uninteresting to you ; and if so^ I 
have to s^pokigiee for troubling you with it. 

I have the honour to be, Sir^ 

Your obedient humble servant, 
^ ^.iSfe^"^^' Thos. LAUjMaE Dice. 

Jf^S, 1815. 



Article III. 

On ihi Bed Sand^stone Formatim. By Professor Jameson. 

This important formation has been met with in the most widely 
dklant parts of the gk>be, and generally occupying great tracts of 
country. It rests sometimes on primitive rocks, but mope frequently 
on those of the transition class } and in many countries it is oovered 



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* 14 On the Red Sandstone Pormaiion, {JvlY, 

'With an extensive series of newer rocks. It is distinctly stratified i 
and the strata vary from the horizontal to the nearly perpendicular 
position. The strata are sometimes waved, sometimes disposed in a 
concentric lamellar manner, but are more frequently straight. 
Sometimes vertical strata are to be seen meeting others which are 
in a horizontal position, and occasionally vertical strata are contained 
in masses of nearly horizontal or slightly inclined strata. Occasionally 
the strata in a small district appear disposed in every possible posi-^ 
tbn .; and at first sight suggest to us the idea either of great original 
inequalities^ or of violent action on the strata after their formation, 
but which, upon more careful examination and consideration, would 
seem rather to intimate that the whole mass of strata is Composed 
of a series of distinct concretions, in eaeh of which the layers 6t 
strata vary more or less in position. ' 

Red sand-stone contains many different rocks, either in hed^, 
mountain-amasses, or veins. The following are the principal kinds 
of rock I have met with in the red sand-stone of Scotland. 
■ 1. Red'CoUmred Stale^clay. — ^This rock occurs in beds that vary 
in thickness from a few inches to several fathoms. It is sometimes 
so highly impregnated with calcareous earth as to pass into niarh 
Its red colour is sometimes variegated with stripes, layers, and cir* 
cular portions of a green colour. It passes sometimes into clay- 
stone, and sometimes into clay-iron-stone. It occurs in Salisbury 
Craigs, near Edinburgh ; Pentland and Ochre Hills ; Isle of Arran ] 
Ayrshire, near Saltcoats ; Drumfrieshire; Angus-shire, &;c. 

2. Ciay-sione, — This mineral occurs in beds that vary in thick- 
ness from an inch to several yards. It alternates with the preceding 
rock^ and also with red sand-stone, and some other rocka' subdrdi- 
nate to it. It occurs in Salisbury Craigs, Pentland and Ochif Hills, 
Arran, Ayrshire, Dumfrieshire, Angus-shire, &c. 

3. Chy^iron-sttme. — It occurs in layers^ or in irregular shaped 
tnasses, generally included in slate-clay. It is a frequent mineral 
in many red sand-stone districts, as in the Island of Arran, Dum*" 
frieshire, Lothians, Angus-shire, &c. 

4. Trap Tvff. — This .singular and interesting rock occurs in the 
red'sand-stone in beds, which are frequently of great thickness: fit 
passes into clay-stone and red sand-stone. It is by no means an 
uncommon rock in several of the red sand-stone districts of this 
country, as in the Lothians, Arran, Angus shire, &c. 

5. Amygdaloid. — This rock, like the trap tuff, occurs in great 
beds or hills connected with the red sstnd-stone, and occasionally 
imbedded cotemporaneous masses of it are met with in the sand- 
stone. It passes into the tulf and sand-storie. It is ofie of the ' 
rocks of the red sand-stone districts in East Lothian and Mid-Lo- 
thiaby Islands of Bute and Arran, Angus-shire, &c. 

6. Ba5a//.-^This rock occurs in beds and veins in the red sand- 
stone of Bute, Arran, Ochils, Pentlands, Lothian, Angus-shire, &c; 

7. Clink^stone^ — ^This beautiful rock is abundant in severaf'red . 

i 



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1815.} On the Hed Sand-Stone ^armdlwa. I5 

saDd-stooe districts in Scotland, in beds, hills, and veins. The 
following are a few of the localities of this rock: Arran, East 
Lothian^ Ochils, Pentlands, Angus-shire, &c. 

8. .Green-stone. — E^eds, im.bed(]ed cotenjpqran^ous masses, 
mountain masses, hills, and veins, of this rock occur in the red 
sand-stone formation of Scotland. Thus it is met with in East and 
Mid Lothian, Ochil Hills, Arrao, Bute, Renfrewshire^ Ayrshire^ 
Angus-shire, &c. ^ 

9.. Pitch-stone. -r—Gveen and black coloured, varieties of thfs rock 
^re met with in the form of imbedded masses, beds, and vdnsj in 
the red sand-stone of the Island of Arran. 

10. Felspar. — Beds of compact felspar, often passing into clay- 
stone, occur in the red sand-stone of Arran, Pentlahd Hilts, Ochil 
Hills, &c. 

1 1 . Porphyry. — Varieties of this rock, namely, clay-stonej 
horn-stone, and felspar-porphyry, occur in beds, hills, and veins, 
in the red sand-stone formation. The Pentland and Ochil Hillsr, 
the Island of Arran, the upper ward of Lanarkshire, Angus-shire, 
afford examples of porphyry in red sand-stone. 

12. Lime-stone ana Lime-stone Conglomerate. — These rocks 
occur in beds in the red sand-stone of East and Mid Lothian, in 
that of the Ochil and Pentland Hills, of Arran, Dumfrieshire, 
Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, Angus-shire, &c. 

13. Coal. — Of this mineral several kinds occur in the red sand- 
stone, viz. glance-coal, slate-coal, and pitch-coal 3 and they are 
met with in Arran, Dumfrieshire, Lothian, &c. 

From the short enumeration just given, it is evident that the red 
s^nd-stone formation is much more mteresting than has been gene- 
rally imagined. The great variety and abundance of trap, pitch- 
stone, and porphyry rocks, contained in it, their transitions into 
each other and into the sand-stone and clay are very striking facts in 
their natural history, and deserving the particular attention of those 
who take an interest in the volcanic and neptunian theories of their 
formation. Those naturalists who are inclined to think favourably 
of the opinion which maintains the chemical formation of sand- 
stone will adduce the various kinds of structure exhibited by the 
red sa&d-stone as so many facts illustrative of its plausibility ; and 
tl)e miner and engineer, if they adopt this opinion, will probably 
obtain an easy soliition of many difficulties tnat occur in their re- 
spective arts, and practical rules of value and importance to them. 



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JC lUummtim ly C09I Ga»^ Ij^vtYt 



On the Method of lUwniuatmf the Streets. £y Cmf Gtf^ 
Bjr Mn Fredenck Aocttm. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

Youa Corrospondeot in tbe Jmuds tf Phihsophf/ for Aprils 
p. Sldj who appears to b^ farmed qmcerning the safety of tb9 
appljcatioQ oi the gas U^btallummatioDf and is desirous of obtain- 
ing informcuion conof rning certain facts relating to tbe scheme of 
wocttring light by means of carbureted hydrogen, or coal gas^ ip 
hereby informed that the explosion he alludes to was occasioned in 
consequence of a quantity or coal gas having been suffered to enter 
Snto the Imidmg where }he gazometer was erected^ and where it 
mingled with common air, and was set on fire by the approach of a 
lighted candle. I give this statement from a letter before m^ 
vritten by the proprietors of the establishment at which the acci- 
dent happened to a Gentleman in this town. They who are familiar 
wiih the system of lighting with coal gaa will readily allow that gaa 
light illumination is more safe than Uie illumination by candles or 
kmps. As a proof of this statement^ it need only be mentioned 
that the fire-oiSces engage themselves to ensure cotton-mills and 
other public works at a mi premium where gas lights are used than 
in the cases of aa^ other lights. In iact no danger can arise from 
the application of^gas lights* in anv way but what is common tp 
candles and lamps of all kinds^ ana Is the fault of none of theou 
JEven in this case the gas lights are Less hazardous. There is no 
risk of those accidents wbieh often happen from the guttering or 
burning down of candles on carelessly mmffiinig them. The gas 
fight lamps and burners must necessarily he fixed to one plaee^ and 
cannot fall^ or otherwise become deran»^^ without bemg imme- 
diately extinguished. Besides^ the gas li^ts emit no sparks, nor 
are any embers detached from them. And with regard to the pro- 
duction of the gas, it is certain that the manufacture of coal gas is 
a process perfectly safe. There is 00 moce risk in the action of a 
gas light machine proper^ cmstructed than in the action of a aleAo 
engine built on just principles. 'No part of the machinery is liable 
to be out of order. There are no cocks to be turned ; no valves to 
be regulated ; nor can the operator derange the apparatus but by 
the most violent efforts ; and when the stock of gas is prepared we 
may depend as much on its lighting power as we depend on the 
light of a certain number of candles or lamps. To obtain this gat 
the workman is not called upon to exercise his own judgment : it 
requires nothing more than what the most ignorant person, with a 
common degree of care and attention, b competent to perform* 



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Idl5.3 lUaminaiwn ly Cool Gasi 17 

The heating of the gas furnace, the. charging of the retorts with 
coaly the closing them up air-tight, and keeping tbeai red-bot, are 
^e only operations required in this art ; and these demand no more 
skill than a few practical lessons can teach to the meanest capacity. 

The diversified experiments which have been made by di&retit 
individuals unconnected with each other have now sufficiently esta« 
blisbed the perfect safety of the new lights, and numerous rnanu* 
fiictories might be named in which the gas lights have been in use 
for upwards of seven years, where nothing like an accident has 
occurred, though the appanatus in all of them is entrusted to the 
most ignorant man. 

. That coal gas, when mixed with a certain portion of common 
air in close vessek, may be inflamed by the contact of a lighted 
body, is sufficiently known. But the means of preventing such an 
•ccurrence in the common application of tliis species of light are so 
simple, easy, and effectual, that it would be ridiculous to dread 
dasgers where there is nothing to be apprehended. 

In speaking thus of the safety of this new art of illumination, it 
would nevertheless be easy t^^name instances where explosions have 
been occasioned, but solely through egregious mfetakes having been 
eonmitted in the erection of the gas light machinery, were t\na a 
subject on which I meant to speak ; but as I do not, 1 shall merely 
mei()tion, on the present occasion, that an explosion very lately took 
place in a manufactory lighted with coal gas, . in consequence of a 
lurge quantity of gas escaping (from the gazometer being over* 
ebaiged with gas) into the gazometer house, where it mingletl with 
eommon air, and was set on fire by the apptxaph of a lighted 
candle. That such an accident could happen, is an evident proof 
that" the apparatus for preparing the gas was a bad one, because 
such an accident might have been prevented effectually by adapting 
a waste pipe to the gazometer, as well as to the gazometer house. 
By this means, if more gas had been prepared by a careless operator 
than the gazometer could contain, the superfluous quantity could 
never have accumulated, but must have been transported out of the 
building into the open air, in as efiectual a manner as the waste- 
pipe of a water cistern conveys away the superfluous quantity of 
welter when the cistern is full. 

Id answer to the second question made by your Correspondent^ 
namely^ what sortof coal is to be prepared for pro4udng the ffas, 
it remains to be observed, that Cannel coal produces the very best 
gas ; or at least the gas which it affords requires the least trouble of 
being purified and rendered fit for illumination ; though Newcastle 
eoalb employed for illumination in this metropolis.* But the 

* The public boildings already illUmioated in this town with coal gas are tbe 
fbUowiog: tbe charch of St. John the Eirangelist, the avenues to the House of 
Lords and House of Commons, Wesminster Hall, the Admiralty,' the house and 
ofiees of die Sptaker of the Hoose of Commons, tbe Mansion House, the wh«l« 
liberty of Norton F^gate, &c. ;' and the total lengtb of pipe laid down as aialoi 
jO the streets of London amounts already to 15 miles. 

Vol. VI. N* I. B 



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18 Illumination by Coal Gas* \itt,Xf 

nature of the gas obtained from the same coal varies considerably, 
according to the conditions under which it is obtainable. 112 Ib^^ 
of common Cannel coal produce ^t xht minimum from 350 to 360 
cubic feet of carbureted hydrogen ; but the same quantity of the 
best Newcastle coal^ that is to say, such as coke readily^ and send 
out brilliant streams of flame^ which undergo a kind of semifusion 
when laid on the fire, produce upon an arerage 300 cubic feet of 
this gscseous fiuidy besides a large portion of sulphureted hydrogen, 
earbpnic acid, and carbonic oxide. 

Half a cubic foot of this gas» when fresh prepared, that is to 
say, holding in solution or suspension a portion of the essential oil 
which is generated during the production of the gas, is equal in 
llluminatTng power to from 1 70 to 180 grs. of tallow, which is the 
quantity of this material consumed in one hour by a well snufied 
tallow candle six to the pound. Now 1 H>. avoirdupois is equal to* 
7000 grs., and consequently 1 lb. of candles of six to the pound, 
burning one at a time in succession, would last X^ s 40 hours. 
To produce the same light, we must burn one half of a cubic foot 
of coal gas per hour ; therefore one half multiplied by 40 hours iff 
equal to 20 cubic feet of gas in 40 hours, and consequently equal to 
1 lb. of candles, six to the pound, provided they were burnt one 
after another. 

Further, 112 lb. of Cannel coal produce at the minimum 350 
cubic feet of gas, and are equal to 350 divided by 20, which last is 
equivalent to 1 lb. of tallow, making therefore 112 lb. of coal 
equal to ^ a 17^ lb. of tallow ; and 112 lb. of coal divided by 
17-^ of tallow gives six and four-tenths of cod equal to 1 lb. of 
tallow. • 

With regard to Newcastle coals, it mavbe stated that one chal- 
dron of Wall's End coal produces in this large way upwards of 
11,000 cubic feet of crude gas, which when purified diminish to 
nearly 10,000 cubic feet. But the quantity and quality of the gas, 
as stated already, i$ much influenced by circumstances attending the 
formation of it. If the tar and oil produced during the evolution of 
the gas k) its nascent state be made to come in contact with the 
sides of the red-hot iroa retorts; or, better, if it be made to pass 
through an iron cylinder or other vessel heated red-hot, a large 
portion of it becomes decomposed into carbureted hydrogen and 
olefiant gas ; and thus a mucn greater quantity of gas is produced 
than would be obtained without such precautions.- If the coal be 
distilled with a very low red heat, scarcely observable by day-light, 
the gas produced gives but a feeble light : if this distillatory vessel 
be of a dull redness, the light produced by the burning gas is more 
brilliant : if a bright, or cherry-red, heat be employed, jhe gas 
produced bums with a brilliant white flame : and if the heat be 
increased so far that the retort is almost white hot, and conse- 
quently in danger of melting, the gas given out has little illumi- 
nating power, and burns with a clear bluish flame : and if this coat 
abounds in pyrites, a large portion of sulphuraltd hydrogen gas i» 



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18l5.j tlluminatUm try Coal Gas. 19 

then produced^ which has the capital disadvantage of affordihg a 
sufibcating odour when the gas is burnt. 

I need scarcely mention that it makes no difference in what 
form the coal is used, and that the very refuse or small coal, which 
passes through the screen at the pit^s mouth, and which finds no 
market, nay, even the sweepings of the pit, which are thrown 
away, may be employed for the production of the gas. 

With regard to the pressure of the gazometer, your Correspondent 
is informed that experience has shown that a pressure of a column 
of water from an half to one inch is sufficient for regulating the 
proper supply of the gas to the lamps and burners ; but this pressure 
must be constant and uniform. It is obvious that the weight of the 
gazometer or vessel which contains the gas is constantly increasing 
in proportion as it fills with gas and rises out of the water or cistern 
in which it is immersed j and consequently, if a constant or uniform 
balance weight equal only to that of the ^zometer in the first 
moment of its immersion be employed, the gas becomes gradually 
more and more compressed by that part of the weight of the 
gazometer which is not counterpoised ; therefore insurmountable 
difficulties would follow, because it would be impossible to regulate 
the size of the flames, &c. To compensate for this increasing 
weight of the gazometer, the chain by which this vessel is sus- 
pended, or at least such a part of it as is equal in length to the 
height of the gazometer (measured at right angles to the axis of the 
wheel over which it passes downwards) must be loaded with a 
weight equal to the quantity of water which the gazometer disr 
places;^ and thus the density of the gas will be uniform, or at all 
times the same. 

The diameter of the pipes which convey the gas is not taken at 
random^ as your Correspondent imagines. Their diameters is a 
simple matter of calculation, depending upon the quantity of gas 
which they have to deliver in a given time, and the diameters of the 
branch pipes proceeding from them. 

Farther information concerning the general nature of the g^s 
light illumination, together with a description of the best machine- 
ries employed in this new branch of civil economy, your Corres- 
pondent will find in a Treatise on Gas Light, illustrated with 
copper plates, which will be published on the 10th of next months 
by, Sir, Your most obedient humble servant, 

CcmptonHrut, Soko^ FreDERICE: AcCCM. 

^|,rt^ 22, 1815. 

* yoT this elegant cootrivftnoe we are indebted to Mr. Clfgg, ^* eogiQeer of 
tfae Gal Ltght'Coiopaoy. 



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20 On the Older Floetz Sixflia of England. [Jcly, 



Article V. 

Rermrks on the Older Floetz Strata of England'. 
By J. C, Prichard, M.D. F.L.S. F.W.S. &c. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

SIR, 

I HAYS long entertained a suspicion that it naay be possible by 
comparing the organic remains found in the lime-stones, which are 
connected with coal-fields, with those which characterize some 
other rocks, to elucidate the series of secondary strata, which our 
island presents, and especially to determine the era of the inde- 
pendent coal formation. On reading Dr. Fleming's late communi- 
cation on the fossils found by him in Linlithgowshire, I was so 
strongly confirmed in this persuasion that I have ventured to submit 
the following remarks on the subject to your inspection, and to that 
of the public if you think them worth inserting in your Journal. 

It seems improbable that a single species of organized beings 
should appear in one stratum, and then vanish entirely during an 
interval, and afterwards show itself again. It is contrary to what 
we find in nature. A fossil which abounds in one formation is often 
seen more scantily dispersed through a second, in a third it is 
scarcely found, and at length withdraws itself altogether from our 
view, A continual progress seems to have been made from the 
more simple to the more complex forms. We observe no retro- 
grade changes. But if the extinction and revival of a single animal 
be thus improbable, how much more difficult is it to suppose that 
an entire assemblage of co-existent being$ should disappear alto- 
gether, that their place should be filled during an interval by crea* 
tures of a totally different character, and that these should become 
extinct to make way for a reproduction of the former class ? The 
supposition is so contrary to the usual course of our observations, 
that I think we may conclude, when we discover two formations to 
abound with similar fossils, and a third to be characterized by re- 
mains of a different description, that the two former belong to one 
fera, and that the latter is either more ancient or more recent than 
both of them. If this conclusion be allowed, it will enable us to 
ascertain the relative age of the independent coal formation, or at 
leasit of tlie coal-fields in Britain. 

I shall first enumerate the extraneous fossils found in the oldest 
class of rocks which contains any, viz. those of the transition for- 
mation, and chiefly the transition lime-stone. 

Mr. Jameson mentions among the fossils of this rock encrinite% 
madreporites, tubiporites, corallites, and trochites. 

Von Buch found in the transition lime-stone of Norway, Sweden, 
and Finland, which lies under granite, a great abundance and 

• - .^ 

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1815,] On the Older Thetz Strata of England. 21 

variety of orthoceratites, some of which were many feet in length. 
He observes that they distinguish this formation throughout Europe. 
He notices also pectinites^ the oniscus, trilobites, a number of large 
madreporites; a great many trochites, entrochites, patellfe, a few 
ammonites, and a great number of other univalves. 

Saussure found in the lower chains of the Alps, between Mont 
Blanc and Geneva, pectinites, terebratulites, gryphites, entro- 
chites, a great many corallites and madreporites, turbinites, and 
ammonites. 

I shall now mention some of the fossils found in the lime-stone 
rocks which accompany the coal formation in Britain, and which 
generally shut in or inclose the coal-fields. 

Orthoceratites, as observed by Dr. Fleming. Their existence in 
the coal-field of Linlithgowshire is not a solitary fact. I have seen 
one which was found in St. Vincent's Rode, in the boundary of the 
Somersetshire coal basin. It was in the possession of Mr. Cumber- 
land. 

Encrinites and trochites occur in astonishing abundance in all the 
rocks of this class in South Britain. Dr. Fleming has mentioned 
them in liinlithgowshire. 

A great variety of madreporites is commionly seen. 

Tubiporites are mentioned by Mr. Townsend. 

Pectinites are often found in the rocks near Bristol. 

The trilobite is well known in the lime-stone rocks at Dudley, in 
Stafifbrdshire. 

Ammonites occur, though more rarely, in the lime-stone of the 
coal formation. They are mentioned by Mr. Aikin in the coal-field 
of Shropshire. 

Terebratulites are found very commonly in all the lime-stones erf 
the coal formation. 

I might enlarge this catalogue to a much greater extent ; but 
what I have said will suffice to show that there is a general con- 
formity between the animal remains found in the trapsition lime- 
stone and the lime-stones of the coal-fields. Hence it appears that 
at the periods when these two formations were deposited, the ocean 
was filled with organized beings of the same description. The 
astonishing abundance of these relics in the rocks of both orders 
testifies the vast profusion of animal life which the sea contained at 
each of the periods in question. 

That the whole of this assemblage of animals became extinct, 
and were afterwards produced anew,' and that the ocean in the 
interval was filled with a different set of creatures, which suddenly 
vanished when their predecessors appeared for the second time, can 
scarcely be imagined. It follows, therefore, that the first floetz 
lime-stone of the Wernerian series, to which ifossils of a difierent 
character are assigned, is more recent than the rocks of the inde* 
pendent coal formation. 

This conclusion is confirmed by considering the situation in which 



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.22 On ilia Older Fhetz Strata of England. [July, 

the coal basins in South Britain are found. A considerable track 
of country in the midland counties of England and South Wales is 
occupied by a red sand-stone fprmation^ which 'agrees remarkably 
with the characters of the old red sand-stone of Werner. On this 
sand-stone several, if not all the coal-fields of South Britain, rest. 
In the neighbourliood of this tract the older formations are in many 
places to be seen, as in the range of the Malvern Hills, between 
Herefordshire and Worcestershire. Beginning from these bills, we 
easily trace the succession of rocks from the primitive to the newest 
floetz strata. I shall briefly mention the most important rocks which 
this series contains jin this part, of England. 

The Malvern Hills, of which Mr. Horner has given an account, 
form a small range rianning nearly from N. to S. They consist 
chiefly pf granitjB and syenite, in which no stratification can be dis- 
covered, perhaps pn account of their being very much concealed by 
soil. On the western side of them, beds of a very hard <:ompact 
lime-stone lie against the feet of the hills dipping towards the west. 
Ip confornoable position with these, apd frequently alternating with 
ijfiem^ fife hpd$ of a clay rock, which varies in its appearance. In 
some places it is a hard slate, and contains scales of mica in great 
abundance; in ptlv^rs it becomes a mere shale. These rocks con- 
tain a profusion of organic remains, particularly ^ncrinites, madre- 
porites, and terebratu)ijes, Mr. IJorper's ^ccopnt of them is 
Q^inute and accurate : I only mention them for tjie s^j^e of remark- 
ing their position with respect to the red sand-stone, which I have 
traced, and which appears to fix th^if place in the geological series. 

Mr. Horper copsidere^i these rpcks as befopgipg to the transition 
formation. In this opinion he was right, if, as it appears scarcely 
to be doubted, the sand-stone is the pld red sand^'stpne. 

As we approach these hills from Ross, we perceive t}iat the 
country which lies to the S. W* pf the fange is occupied by a suc- 
r^3sion of low ridges lying nearly parallel to the direction of the 
Idalverp Hills. Most of the observations which Saussure ma^e of 
the calcareous chains of the Alps 9re here verified in miniature. 
The ridges generally turn their abrupt sides towards the primitive 
range, and slope pn the other side. They consist pf the lime-stpne 
^nd clay ropk above mentioned, the beds pf which generally dip 
towards the W. and S. W. ; but at thie northern extremity of several 
ridges they turn round the hills, and dip northv^^ard. In the most 
westerly of these ridges, near Fownhope, about 13 miles in a direct 
line from thp Malvern Hills, the clay and lime-stone rock. dip at 
an angle of abput 60^ towards the S. W. H^e wc Ipse this for- 
mation. 

Immediately after passing over this western limit of the lime- 
stone, we find the red sand-stone above-mentioned lying upon it, 
and in a position exactly conformable with it. The sand-stone 
forms low ranges of hills parallel to the former. It dips to the S.W. 
i\t a considerable angle, which diminishes as we recede fropi the 

■ 4 •"■ • 



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1815.] On the Older Fheiz Sirala of England. S3 

Kme-stone. It runs hence through the greatest part of Hefeford- 
shire, generally preserving the same direction and dip.* It passes 
into Shropshire, where, from Mr. Aikin*s observations, it appears 
to pass under the coal-fields. It forms a great part of Cheshire ; 
ana, according to Mr. Aikin, contains the salt springs of Droit* 
wich, &c. and the salt deposit of Northwich^f I have followed it 
into Brecknockshire and Monmoathshire. The lime-stones which 
shut in the coal-fields every where He upon it. These I shall deno^ 
minate mountain lime-stones, for the sake of distinction. They 
may be traced from a few miles S. of Ross to Chepstow, forming 
the beautiful clifis which overhang the Wye, and in a, conformable 
position with the subjacent sand-stone, dipping to the S.W. In 
general the sand-stone consists of fine grains of quartz, with a little 
argil, and a variable quantity of oxide of iron and mica : but in the 
hills, and on approaching the lime-stone, its constituents are diffe- 
rently disposed. At the bottom of a hill we often find the common 
red sand-stone ; higher up, a stratum of pudding-stone, containing 
rounded pieces of quartz, large masses of which in loose blocks 
cover the declivities ; then there are beds of a whitish stone, the 
iron and mica disappearing, which makes a good building stone^ 
but near these there is a thin bed consisting almost wholly of oxide 
of iron, and others almost entirely of mica. All these varieties 
occur in a hill near Ross, called Herol Hill. On the top of it the 
mountain lime-stone appears ; and about a hundred yards further a 
pit is open, when the lowest bed of the forest coal rises near to the 
surface of the ground. 

This red sand-stone formation is concealed near the Severn by 
the red marl rock and the Lyas lime-^tone ; but it appears again 
near Bristol, forming the basis on which the Somersetshire coal 
basin rests, of which Mr. Gilby has given an excellent account in 
the Philosophical Magazine for last November. I have seen it lying 
under the lime-stone near Axbridge, at the southern edge of this 
ba^n. This formation would appear every where to rest upon the 

* Mr. Horner considered the MaWern Hills as affording covutenanee to tfae 
Hnttonian theory. He obserres, that the position of the stratified rocks seems to 
indicate that chey were lifted up by a force from l>eneatb. But If he bad traTersed 
the country to the westward of these hills, be would have found that the strata 
have generally a -similar position, and even dip at a much greater angle, at the 
distance of 12 or 14 miles from the MaWeni Hills. The aJ>sence of the stratified 
rocks on the eaistern tide may be accounted for by supposing that a submarine cur- 
rent flowed down the present Vale of Severn at the era when the roc^s in question 
were deposited. Many indications may be found of the existence of such a cui« 
rent ; but If none could be produced, surely the hypothesii is fully as admissible 
as the ejection of the granite masses from the abyss of Tartarus. 

+ It is very strange that, after all that has been said coneerning this salt forma* 
tion, we are yet wtthont any satisfactory accoout of the stratum in which 1ft 
occurs. Dr. Holland, in the first volume of the Geological Transactions, says, 
that it is subordinate to the sand^stone of the independent coal formation. Mr. 
A.ikln, in the same volume, informs us that they belong to the old red sand-stone i 
and Mr. Horner^ as 1 perceive by the abstract of his late memoir on the south- 
eastern part of Somersetshire, given in the last ntimber of the Jnnahy assjgui 
Aem to the newer argillaceous sand-stone termed red marl. ^,/ 

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34 On the Older Fheiz Strata Of England. [July, 

trantUion rocks. I have mentioued its relation to tliose near Mal«« 
vera. Mr. Aikin informs us that it rests, in Shropshire on highly 
elevated strata of grey-wacke; and 1 observe, by the last number 
of your Annals, that Mr. Horner has found it lying on the fii»ne 
formation near the Quantock Hills, in Somersetshire. 

The i^d sand-stone is supposed to contain no organic remains, . 
I believe, however, that 1 have seen traces of entrochites in it. 
The mountain lime-stone which rests upon it contains the Ibssib 
enumerated above, and which agree so remarkably with those of the 
transition formation. It often resembles the transition lime-stone 
in its texture, but is less crystalline, and has much thicker beds.* 

From these considerations I think it is evident that the rocks be« 
longing to the independent coal formation follow the old red sand* 
stone In the geological succession, and are more ancient than any 
ether member of tbe ficmtz series. 

But further, we may almost venture to assert that the succeeding 
formations in the system of Werner have no existence in this couon 
try, at)d that the order of floetz rocks, from the old red sand-^stooe 
np to the chalk which form the greater part of South Britain, beat 
very little analogy to the succession pointed out by that celebrated 
naturalist. 

1 have stated that the strata above-mentioned dip most eommonly 
towards the S. W. The coal, together with the micaceous sand*^ 
stone and the argillaceous stone which forms the rods, &c. of the 
coal seams^ dip conformably; but this, as well as the general incU«^ 
tion of the subjacent rock, is subject to variations. The who)« 
commonly incline at a very perceptible angle. Over these rocks 
are deposited a series of strata which lie very nearly parallel to the 
plane of the horizon. 

The first or lowest of these is that which Messrs. Townaend and 
Farey denominate red ground and red marl. It has, if 1 mistake 
not, been confounded with the old red sand^stone. lis composition 
varies; sometimes it is an ai^illaceous sand-stone, but without 
mica, and destitute of that slaty formwhich characterizes the older 
sand>stone. I never saw it contain any rounded pieces of quartz. 
In some places it becomes a marl rock, consisting chiefly of car** 
bonate of lime. This is the case on the^banks of the Severn, where 

it contains a bed of gypsum, f According to Mr. Townsend, the 

» 

* This rMemblance aceonnts for the disaf^reement we find araoB|^ high mathori-* 
ties on the subject of these liine«stones. Mr. Werner, in his litUe book on veins, 
mentions the lime-stone rocks at the peak in Derbyshire twice; once be calls then 
transit! f n rocks, and once affirms tliat they are floetz. M. firochant says they 
are tran^iition, and I understand that Mr. Jameson considen them as floetz. 

f I scarcely need observe that I have not mentioned these strata for the sake of 
claiming the discovery of them, but merely with the view of making some remarks 
on their order, and the relation which their succession bears to the series of M^ 
Werner. A very accurate account of these formations is already before the 
public, in the paper of Mr. Gilby above referred to| and aa extensive collectios 
of interesting facts respecting these and other newer floet^ rocks in South Britun 
^^^^^^ contained in the work of the Rev. I. Townseud, who mentions that be d^Tsd 
hiilknt information conccraing them from Mr. W. Smith. 

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181^0 On the Older Fheix Strata of England. ISS 

magnesian Ikne^ttoBe of Derbyriiire and the North of Eoghmd 
belongs to thb formatioD, 

Above this n the Lyas lime-^tone eaclosed ki a bed of dajr* 
This stratum abounds in shells. In this respect it agrees with tfas 
second floetz lime-stone of Werner, which is called in Germany 
muschel kalkstein. It contains pentacrinites, which are considered 
as peculiar to thia stratum. I have^ however, found them in the 
oolite rock in Gloucestershire, but the Lyas is their proper abode^ 
and they gradually disappear in the succeeding formations. It is 
here also that those large heads and bones are discovered which 
have been supposed to be the relics of crocodiles. They are 
of several species. The remains which Mr. Johnson, of Bristol, 
has collected, proves that some of them at least belong to aa 
unknown marine animal. From the account which M,. Cuvier 
has given of the cliiF at Honfleur, containing the remains of 
crocodiles, I think it is .highly probable that it belongs to the 
Lyas stratum. He mentions two species which nearly resemble 
the gavial. If any of your correspondents has seen the rock at , 
Honileur, and will favour us with an account of it, which may 
enable us to ascertain its identity with the Lyas lIme*stone rock, it 
will throw an additional interest on these remains. All the other 
fossils occurring in this stratum are oceanic, anoong which are tm^ 
monites oftm three feet in diameter. 

The Lyas formation is very extensive ia South Britain. It is well 
known at Lyme and Chasmoutb on the south coast, and traverses 
the island towards the German Ocean. I have beea informed that 
it occurs in Anglesea. 

Above tlie Lyas is the extensive calcareous formation oontainiag 
the oolite or roestone. This cannot be, on account of its poaitioDy 
the ro^enstein of Werner, which is subordinate to the second sand* 
stone^ and therefore below the muschel kalkstein. 

Above this several other rocks are enumerated by Mr. Townsend^ 
which I have not traced. Over these is the upper stratum of sand* 
stone, which supports the chalk formation. 

On the whole, I think it appears that there is very little con- 
formity between the^oetz series of Werner and that whidi occurs 
in South Britain; but the older formations, as jar as they are yet 
known, coincide with his system. We may observe that the tra- 
vellers, who in distant regions of the earth have been so powerfully 
struck with the conformity of geological phenomena with tlie ob* 
servations of the SaxonProfessor, as Humboldt and Von Buch, have 
chiefly directed their attention to the older formations. I am not 
aware that any disciple of the Freyberg school has detected the 
succession of floetz rocks, as detailed by Werner, beyond the limits 
of Germany. 

But if we are to admit any reasons grounded on speculative 
geol<^, an universal conformity in the primitive and transition 
formations is quite as much as can be expected. At the period of 
the deposition of the last^ the waters of tne ocean are supposed by 

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2S Sketch of a General Theory of the [July^ 

Werner to bave subsided, and to have formed separate basins' or 
seas. The subsequent deposits must have varied according to local 
circumstances. Therefore some variety in the succession of floetz 
rocks rather confirms than invalidates the Wemerian theory of the 
earth. I have the honour to be. Sir, 

With great respect. 
Your very obedient humble servant, 

CcUegt Green, Bristol, I. C. PrICHARD. 

May 14, 1815. 



Article VI. 

Sketch of a General Tlieory of the Intellectual Functions of Man 
and Animals, given in reply to Drs. Cross and Leach. By 
Alexander Walker, * 

f (To Dr. Thomson.) 

SIR, ' 

In the 26th number of your Annals qfPkilosof>hy, was announced 
a discovery of the use of the cerebellum and spinal marrow by Dr. 
Cross; — in the 27th number. Dr. Leach stated ** that the same 
facts, or facts that lead to similar conclusions, were published in 
Lettres de Hufeland a Portal, 1807, and Anatomie duSystfeme 
Nerveux, &c. par Gall et Spurzheim ; — in the 28th number, I, 
conceiving that Dr. Leach meant to ascribe these discoveries to Gall 
and Spurzheim, denied that they were contained in the work re- 
ferred to ; t — and in the 29th number. Dr. Leach says, '^ Permit 
me. Sir, to assure you that the letter from Hufeland to Portal con- 
tains precisely the same opinion respecting the use of the cerebellum 
as that given by Mr. Alexander Walker and Dr. Cross; but he there 
adds, that he had quoted Gall and Spurzheim's work only as stating 
these opinions to be erroneous; and, while he asserts that my 
anatomical and physiological statements are ^ inaccurate, suppo- 
sitious, and at variance with nature,^' he gives the results of his 
own " recent examinations ^' % — the conclusions which he draws 
after having ** carefully examined the structure of the spinal mass 
of nerves." § 

* Thongh this commanication is nither too long for the jinnaU of Philosophy, we 
have gWen it a place, that every one of the Gentlemen concerned in this dispute 
may he upon a footing ; but as the object of the Annah of Philosophy h not ron- 
troversy, the Editor trusts that they will see the propriety of letting this subject 
rest where it ir.—T. 

f Certainly when a Gentleman has said '' that fads which lead to similar conv 
elusions were published " in a particular work, meaning thereby to give them 
priority over another statement, it is most natural to suppose that such *was the 
•rigtnal source of these facts; and, at all events, the conclusion is unavoidable 
jdiat they are there considered bb facts — the term which Dr. Leach employs. 

t Annals of Philosophy, vol. v. p. 34^. 
.Ubid.p.346. • r- T 

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1825;] Intellectual Functions of Man and Animals. 27 

Now, Sir, however unimportant it may seem to Dr. Leach to 
investigate the origin of these statements, it seems othenncise to me, 
who imagine myself to have rather a deeper interest in them; and 
(though, in reply to this Gentleman, I shall not imitate him in the 
littleness of perpetually repeating his list of Christian names, as- he 
has done my one ; nor^ ignorant though .1 am of him, shall I, like 
Dr. Cross, designate him as one Dr. Leach; for these are tendencies 
to personality, which is the bane of rational discussion ;) yet I shall 
blend the question of the discovery of these facts with that of their 
absolute truth* The question of the discovery of the circulation of 
the blood has not been deemed unimportant : I cannot reckon that 
which regards the. circulation of nervous action less so ; ^nd into 
that question the use of the cerebellum enters. This, Dr. Leach 
will perhaps say is a comparison of very little men with great ones : 
be it so; but it is not a comparison of very little things with. great 
ones ; and to things alone do I wish to attend. No one wjll venture 
to say, that the general functions of the brain and cerebellum are 
less important than that of the heart. , * 

With regard, then. Sir, to the cerebellum, as Dr. Leach, though 
he begs to be *^ permitted to assure you that Hufeland thinks it the 
organ of volition,'' has not quoted that writer's expressions, or, what 
is of more importance his reasons for such a conclusion, I cannot 
comment on them. If, however, I may judge of the accuracy of 
this ascription to Hufeland, by the additional assertion which Dr. 
Leach now makes as to Willis also having thought so, the conclu- 
sion will be most unfavourable to the Doctor's accuracy. Dr. 
Leach, then, adds that '^ Willis considered the cerebellum as the 
source of voluntary power." Now, Sir, it is an absolute fect^ that 
Willis asserts the very opposite of this : he says it is the organ of 
involuntary power. <* The office of the cerebel," says he, " seems 
to be for the animal spirits to supply some nerves, by which inm- 
hmtary actions, which are made after a constant manner unknown 
to us, or whetker we will or no, are performed."* .And now. Sir, 
I hope you will permit me also to assure vou, that I am not a little 
surprised that any Gentleman, after accusing another of inaccuracy, 
and referring with such confidence to his own '< recent examina- 
tions," should have made so untrue a statement, in order to ascribe 
to an old author new observations. After this, I should be glad^ 
indeed, to see Hufeland's statement, and his reasons for the con- 
clusion alluded to ; and, should that writer advance any proofs that 
t)ie cerebellum is the organ of volition, or rather of those impulses 
which cause all muscular action, I shall of course readily resign to 
him the honour or disgrace of the opinion, and shall only regret 
that my reading has not been as extensive and as << accurate " as 
Jhat of Dr. Leacli. 

I am willing, however, to grant something in fsLyaut of WiUis : — 

* On (be Brain, cbap. x?. 

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M Sketch of a General Theory of the [Juty, 

he was right in ftssi^^ing to the eerebellum the involantary motions; 
but erred in excludiog the voluntary ones; for the cerebellum is the 
source of all motion, voluntary and involuntary, as I shall show in 
the sequel : while it is the source of every impulse on the muscular 
system, voluntarity is changed into involuntarity only by ganglia on 
the cerebeUic nerves. I must, however,' remark, that even if 
Willis had stated that which is accurately true, and grounded his 
statements, as he has done, only on conjecture, or on proofs which 
do not deserve the name, I should not have thought of yielding to 
him the merit of observing this truth ; for even then he would 
equally have proved that <' the dura mater administers heat for the 
distillation of the spirits,*' *^ that the pia mater does by chemical 
artifice instil the animal spirits into the brain and cerebel,'' and in- 
numerable other absurdities — all of which, as well as this one, he 
supports by ridiculous conjecture, and not by argument. Even 
truth, however, if struck out only by wild conjecture, and unsup- 
ported by proof, would not constitute discovery : the mental effort 
of rational conjecture, and the personal one of ** careful examina- 
tion'' would still remain to be performed by some one who, if 
successful, would certainly deserve the honour as well as the labour. 
And now, Sir, 1 can furnish Dr. Leach with a quotation from the 
great work of Baron Haller — a more recent and a better writer 
than Willis, which will be just as much to his purpose as his own* 
*' accurate " reference to Willis 5 but which I nevertheless deem it 
necessary to state, in order that the history of this important ques- 
tion may be completely before the reader. ^' Ck>nvulsiones artuum,'' 
says he, ^' constanter vidimus in animalibus supervenisse, quorum 
cerebellum vulneraveramus.*-£t de convulsionibus dictum est, quae 
sunt DQusculorum voluntariorum. £x cerebello etiam, si ullus, 
quintus sensui destinatus et voluntario motui nervus prodit. Quare 
colleciis omnibus^ videiur cerebellum et d cerebro nactenus parum 
differrey et graves in utrovis IsBsiones mortem inferre, leviores in 
utroque tolerari. Deind^e cerebrum ad vitalia organa et sentientem 
vim et moventem mittere> et ad partes mentis arbitrio subjectas cere- 
bellum/' Here, then, it appears that Haller, after proceeding 
upon an " it is said " as to the convulsion of the voluntary muscles; 
observing that the fifth pair coming from the cerebellum is, how- 
ever, destined both to sense and motion ; and thinking that, upon 
the whole, the cerebellum in so far differs little from the cerebrum, 
—at last concludes that the cerebrum seems to send both feeling 
and moving power to the vital organs ; while the cerebellum sends 
both feeling and moving power to the parts which are subject to the 
will. Now, from thiSj I differ by asserting, that the cerebrum sends 
^neither sensation nor motion to any part, but merely receives sen- 
sation from the organs of sense; while the cerebellum has nqt only 
nothing to do with sensation, as Haller erroneously asserts, but 
sends motion both to the voluntary and to the involuntary parts— 
or> in other words, both to the mechanical or locomotive, and to 

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1815.] Intellectual Functions of Mm and Animals. 29 

che vital or nutritive system^ which Haller inaccurately excludaf 
from its influence. The motions of the vital, are, however, not less 
important than those of the locomotive, system. 

The term volition, however, may he still applied to the function 
of this organ, whether voluntary or involuntary action be its result^ 
because the impulse of the cerebellum on which they both depend 
is one and the same, and the involuotarity is a modification of that 
impulse or of its effects produced only by ganglia on certain fibrils 
of the cerebellic nerves. This extended meaning of the word 
volition is perfectly analogous to that of the term sensation ; for 
though sensatbn does not exist separately, except in those animab 
which have no sensorium commune, — though, m man, it is inse* 
parable firom perception, yet still is the simple term sensation em* 
ployed. An improved nomenclature, however, or an extension of 
the very admirable one of Dr. Barclay, would perhaps give us new 
terms in both cases. 

I have now said, in opposition to the statement of Haller, that 
the cerebrum sends neither sensation nor motion to any part external 
to the encephalic cavity ; and, as Dr. Leach says, I have *^ neglected 
to take any notice of the cerebrum," and seems to demand what 
use I assign to it, I may *< assure him " that there still remain yery 
important uses for it to serve; and as the Doctor, not having sub- 
mitted them to any << recent examination,*' is perhaps less familiar 
with these particular functions, I may hint to him, tnat they are«— 
oteervation, reflection, and judgment. 

Lshall now. Sir, state some of my reasons for asserting, that the 
<^igans of sense being those of sensation, and the ceriebrum that of 
mental operation, the cerebellum is the organ of volition, or rather 
of all the motions of animals, voluntary and involuntary. 

1. There are three distinct intellectual organs or classes of Intel* 
lectual organs, namely, the organs of sense, the cerebrum, and 
the cerebellum. — ^That the cerebellum, though sepurated from the 
cerebrum only by membranes in man, is not on that account leas 
distinct from . it than are the organs of sense separated by bony 
plates, is rendered evident by the consideration, that membranes 
form, in the one case, as effectual a separation as bony plates do ia 
the other; that many animals* have a bony tentorium between 
the cerebrum and cerebellum, as they have bony plates between the 
cerebrum and face ; and that others (birds) have membranes be* 
tween the cerebrum and face, as they have a membranous tento- 
rium between the cerebrum and cerebellum. 

2. There are three distinct intellectual functions or classes of in- 
tellectual functions, namely, sensation, mental operation, f and 
volition. 

S. Of the organSf those of the senses are the first, the cerebrum 

* Viz. most species of the cat and bear kind, the martin (mustela marte»\ the 
cointa (urc9pUtucu9 jmhucm), and others. 

.f Including: observAtioD, reflection, and judgment, and the subordinate facol* 
tics analyzed by Gall aud Spurzheim. 

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30 Sketch of a General theory of the [JuLfr, 

intermediate, and the cerebellum ike last,— For, although the free, 
containing the organs of sense, and the cerebellum, are, in different 
animals, very differently placed with regard to the cerebrum, yet 
there is a peculiar relation between the situation of one of these and 
that of the other with regard to it. In other WQrds, although the 
free is sometimes in one situation and sometimes in another with 
lelation to the cerebrum, yet to each given variation of its situation 
with regard to that body there is a corresponding and uniformly 
accompanying' variation in the situation of the cerebellum. Thus 
as, in man, the free is placed below the anterior part of the cere- 
brum, so is the cerebellum placed below its posterior part 5 and 
precisely as, in the inferior animals, the free advances, precisely, so 
does the cerebellum recede, till, in those animals in which the face 
is placed exactly before the cerebrum, the cerebellum is placed 
exactly behind it.* 

4. Of the JiindionSi sensation is the first, mental operation in- 
termediate, and volition the last. — That sensation precedes and ex- 
cites, if it do not generate, mental operation, few will deny : that 
tnental operation, however rapid or evanescent, precedes and ex- 
cites volition, or that the motive to an action must precede the 
action, none will refuse : and that, of any one series of intellectual 
action, volition is the last stage, all must admit. 

5. As, then, the cerelellum is the last of the intellectual organs, 
and volition the last of the intellectual functions^ and as, at the 
same time, there is no organ without function, or function without 
organ, it follows, that the <:erebellum must be th« organ of volition. 

6. In perfect conformity with this truth, the inferior animals, 
however defective in intellect, possess motion ; and, in almost all 
of them which have any visible nervous system, a cerebellum, the 
organ of that motion, exists.— ^This leads me to an observation 
which seems to me to possess considerable interest and beauty. As 
we descend among animals, one of the three portions of the nervous 
system and one of its three general functions gradually disappear*' 
Now it is not the first and the last portions of the nervous system — 
it is not the organs of sense and the cerebellum, neither is it their 
respective functions, sensation and volition, which are thus lost. It 
is the cerebrum and mental operation which are. This organ is, 
among men, most conspicuous in the Caucasian race ; and we 
accordingly find that that race alone has cultivated the sciences. It 
is less even in the Mongal and Ethiop, who have ever disregarded 
them. It gradually disappears and ultimately evanishes as we 
descend among quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, &c. aiui with it 
gradui^Uy disappear and ultimately evanish the powers of thought. 
But organs of sense and a cerebellum,— sensation and volition, yet 
remain to characterize myriads of animals below these. 

f The cerebeUic caVity, moreover, seeint aniformly to commence on the inside 
of the base of the craidum exactly opposite to Ih^ place irhere the fiice, or tht 
lower jaw, tcrnxinatfs on the ourside. 

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V 



i8l5.J TntelUciual Functions o^ Mom and Animals. ZX 

7. This truth receives new confirmation when we observe, that 
the degrees of voluntary power always bear a close analog to the 
varibuis magnitudes of the ceriebellum. In fishes, for instance, 
which possess amazing locomotive power, the cerebellum is often 
larger than the cerebrum; and they sometimes possess an addi- 
tional tubercle, which seems to Cuvier to form a second cere-<. 
bellum! 

In the statement of these reasons, Dr. Leach will find obviated 
any quibble which might be founded on the various meanings of the 
word ' opposite ' which, for the sake of brevity, I formerly used. 
They will also enable the reader to correct Dr. Cross's representation 
of tbem. 

. Dr. Leach, then, endeavours to prove, that there is no propor* 
tioD between the various magnitudes of the cerebellum and the 
degrees of voluntary power.— The cerebellum, he says, is piopor-* 
tionally smaller in children than in the adult, and yet children have 
more of muscular agility than adults. Now, if by agility Dr. 
Ijcach means that, their voluntary powers are stronger, I unhesitat- 
ingly deny it ; and if he do not mean this, his example is inappli- 
cable : the truth is, he does not take into consideration the eva- 
nescent action of children and the permanent and sustained actioQ 
of adults. — A shark, he savs, which has the greatest locomotive 
power, has a remarkably mmute cerebellum. Now this instance is 
as inapplicable as the last ; for I have nowhere asserted the greater 
absolute magnitude of the cerebella of fishes; but have, in distinct, 
terms, asserted their greater proportional magnitude. — ^Tii;e same 
aoswer applies to Dr^ Leach's third example of the swallow. 

That, contrary to Dr. Leach's assertion, this is a ^^ general prin-' 
ciple" is sufficiently proved by this, that if our considerations be 
general — if wc compare the cerebella of birds with those of quad" 
rupeds, vve find the former larger in proportion to the brain con- 
sistently with their more intense, frequent, and rapid vohmtary 
motion ; and if we compare the cerebella of fishes with those of 
birds, we find the former, in both these respects, excel the latter, 
fitit if we enter into more particular examinations— if we compare 
these parts in the genera and species of animals, as Cuvier has 
done, our observations must be more particular than his— we must 
attend not only to the general magnitude of the organs, but to theif 
particular form ; for (1 now repeat an important fact which I, prior 
I believe to any other person; announced some years ago,) *•' on the 
length of the cerebral organs depends the intensity of their func- 
tion, and on the breadth of these (»'gans the permanence of theiir 
function." As liquids pass with greater velocity through the narrow 
portion of a tube than through its wider parts, precisely $0 must all 
nervous action pass between the parietes of the organs — the tubes 
of the neurilema, whether that action be performed by fluids, by 
liquids, or by globules, as proved by Prochaska and others. That 
the nervous matter is thus laterally confined by the neurilema, is 
proved by the circumstance of tiie ends of nerves expanding when 



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google 



S2 Sketch of a General Theory ^ tk^ [Jeir^ 

cot $ and tbey are, therefore^ in ao far subject to ainciilar laws with 
Uqttids coDtained in tubes. ^ 

It is, then, from CuWer'a not dSstinguisbing between the height 
and the baadth of the organs, and their corresponding intensity ot 
pennanenoe of fanedoo, that his comparison of man and the biili, 
and his scale in general, which Dn Leach lias quoted,, is of dimi- 
nished value, and quite inapplicable to the present question* This 
curious and important fact may be illustrated even from the classes 
of animals ; ix the laterally compressed and high cerebellum of 
birds corresponds admirably with the intensity of their voluntary 
powers^ and the depressed and flat cerebellum of the turtle, frog, 
salamander — in short, of all the slow but long moving reptiles, 
equally corresponds with the permanence ^ot their voluntary power. 

In reply to Dr. Cross's last observations (in the 30th number of 
the Annals)^ I need say little indeed. The strongest argument 
which he adduces in refutation cxf the preceding doctrine, is the 
ironical application, of the words ^f logical and sapient,"' and the 
direct one of the words ^^ absurd and groundless.'^ Now whether 
Dr. Cross's authority in matters of science is sufficient to render 
such words, when used by him, the very death^^warrant of a new 
doctrine, I am perfectly ignorimt; but, with me, even much 
higher mithority than the Doctor's would not constitute proof. Dr« 
Cross adds, '^ that volition ranks among the faculties of the mind, 
whose organ is the cerebrum ; " and so far as authority in general 
and. the authority of Dr. Cross in particular goes, this is another 
proof of tl>e ialseness of my doctrine. The Doctor, however, fur- 
ther adds, '' that affections of the cerebrum, while the cerebellum 
remains sound, produce palsy, which I kimdily submit is just a loss 
of volition." At last, then, the Doctor does give us an arg^uipent^ 
aad as it is a solitary one, and follows so much of mere authoritative 
determination, it must no doubt be so triumphant that the ^< humble 
submission " which the Doctor forgot when adducing his authority, 
but so generously appends to bis proof, must be intended only to 
enhance talent by modesty, and to heighten triumph by moderation. 
This is certainly very fine ; and it involves only one little awkward 
circumstance, which is, that while the Doctor's proof consists of 
two propositions, it presents precbely as many errors ! '^ A0ections 
of the cerebrum," says he, ^' while the cerebellum remains sound, 
produce palsy; " and hence he means to conclude that palsy: which 
he deems a loss of volition, and consequently volition itself is de- 
pendent on the cerebrum, and not on the cerebellum : indeed he 
actually says so in the preceding portion of the same sentence; thus 
placing the induction (logically no doubt) before the datum, and 

* It is perhaps also f.ir the same reason, that, in a galvanic battery, the m- 
tensi-ty of its action seems to correspond with the number of the plates (for tN 
igniting power is as the number), and the permanence of its action with .the mag- 
nitude of the plates. Accordingly, M. de Luc observes that the number ©f the 
plates is <inaIogous to the length of a piirap for raising water ; and the size of tbf 
plates u analogous to tfa« magnitude of the bore of the pump. 



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I€I5.]; Intelhcttud Fmetions tf Mm and- Afnmals. SS 

feducmg it to % mere assertion^ The conclusion^ however, is in^ 
accurate ; for even if palsy were jmt a* Ipss of volition, it would be 
by no. iDean$. wonderful if the functions of the cerebellum, were de- 
lafigied by an injury of the cerebrum, since two immediately con-> 
tjguoiM and intitnately contiected organs oiust powerfully influence 
coioh other. Dr. Cross must be aware that, even remote organs 
•vidtoQe this sympathy } and it may even to liin^ielf have happened^ 
ifcat a deranged state, for instanot^, of the doctor's bowels may hav^ 
faused an affection of his head \ but surely the Doctor would not 
Aei«.fore conclude that the oaus^ of the derangemeni: was in hi9 
bead. Just so it is^ that no derangement of volition caused by 
my&vf. of the cerebrum is^ any proof that thp cerebrum is the seat 
of volition. So much for one hailf of the Doctor's proo£. In the 
other, he humbly submits that palsy is jms/ a loss of volition. I 
reply that palsy is no such thing ; and as the Doctor is fond of logic^ 
I shall give him my proof in a logical form. — We cannot be con- 
scious of any mental act unless that act exist ; but volition is a 
mental act of whiph the patient is conscious in palsy ; therefore 
palsy is -not just a loss of volition ! 

Having thus, I believe satisfactorily, replied to the Doctor's 
argument against me, I must notice the claim which he sets up for 
ilim^elf. He has discovered, he says, that ** the cerebellum sup- 
plies the face with nervous, energy;" and of me he asserts " that 
there is not even the smallest hint, from the beginning to the end of 
his tract, that could at all lead in the smallest degree towards this 
discovery." Now as that and the succeeding tract show, in great 
latitude and detail, thai all ofiusQulai* parts are supplied with nerves 
from the cerebellum or the posterior columns oif the spinal marrow^ 
and naore espectally that aU those encephalic. Tterves^ which supply 
muscles of the face have at least one origin directly from the cere^ 
bellunfy it is difBeult to conceive how any Gentleman could venture 
to make so anxiamly tauiologous ao4 obviously untruje an asser^on 
as thA preceding. In d^se tracts, I have said> ^^ t^Uce thesp;:(tb9 
spinal nerves), all the encephalic nerves ime two portions-Hi cere* 
bfalaad a cerebellicy except the first, second/' &c. — p. 176 ;. and 
^ The tcansverse hsmds (these are the pons varolii^ the narrower and 
flatter band of Spurzhetm immediately beloiK it, and the much 
broader «nd ladiatid^ bist perfnitly flat band belov that, which was 
first pcnnted out by myself) seem uxuibrmly to serve the purpose of 
oonditctiJDg the cer£beUic origins of the. nerves'; "—p. 17'^^ With 
regard to thateocephaKc nerve in partfeular which is» by w^y of pre- 
eminence named/acia/, I have demoos^ated the remarkable course 
of its two portions, cerebral and cerebelticy overlooked by all other 
anatomists'^. 14&; and I have done the same with regard to seve- 
ral dtfa^ nerves.. These I think are proofis sufficiently ample to 
show how iiar the fece (though opposed, in the sense above ex- 
jdained, to the cerelielhim, that is in so far as it coatains the organs 
of sense, and. not as it is furnished with muscles) is yet dependent 
on the cerebellum for the supply of its muscular parts. These pjoots 

Vol. VI. NM. C ' 

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34 On the Uses of the Dorsal Vessel. [JuLir, 

I adduced six years ago ; and yet Dr. Cross tells me I have not said 
one word of the cerebellum receiving nervous energy from the face, 
but that he has now made the discovery ! Though^ however, the 
muscles of the face thus receive motive energy from the cerebellum, 
not one of its sensitive nerves are derived fr^m it ; for even the 
auditory nerve, after crossing the corpora restiformia, ascends to the 
cerebrum. As, then, the face receives only motive and not sensitive 
energy from the cerebellum, and as I proved this six years ago, I 
cannot divine to vtrbat discovery it is that Dr. Cross on this subject 
pretends. — Having thus done justfce to myself by exposing this ([ 
dare say unintentional) plagiarism, I leave it to some friend of Dr. 
Crawford's to do him similar justice with regard to Dr. Cross'l 
charcoal hypothesis of respiration. 

{To be fiontinutdJ) 



Article VII. 

Observations on the Uses of the Dorsal Vessel, or on the Influence 
which the Heart exercises in the Oiganization of articulated 
Animalsy and on the Changes which that Organization expe^ 
riences when the Heart or the Organ of Circulation ceases to 
exist. , By M. Marcel de Serres. 

{Concluded from Vol. V. p. ST9.) 

I. Respiration in the Air by means of Tubular Trachect* 

Division 1, — Only Arterial Trachec^, 

PcLMONARY trache» exist in the greater number of the caleop- 
teres ; but there are certain genera, as the cerambyx, blaps, and 
most of tenebrunides, in which they are not observed. These 
trachesB take air immediately, forming round the stig;mata very 
numerous bundles. But that a communication may be established 
among all the trachese, there exists a common trunk which extends 
ffom one 3tigina to another, and which opens in that part. It is 
from this common trunk that these numerous bundles proceed, of 
which we have spoken, and which distribute the air to all part$ of 
the body. The direction of the tracheae, then, is almost always 
transversal. As these vessels issue In bundles jfrom a common trunk, 
they present in some measure the disposition of a hone's tail. Id 
the genera of which we are speaking, the tracheae are very nume- 
rous in the breast; to such a degree, indeed, .that they almost 
cover the muscles of that part. We see them all presenting a 
transversal direction. As they are very near each other, they form 
on the muscles parallel streaks, so very close together that it is with 
difficMlty that any interval at all can be seen between them. These 

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1815.] On ike Uses of the Dorstd Vessel. SH 

pectoral tracheie proceed froia the common trunks which takes up 
nir ID the first stigma of the abdomen* 

In general the arterial trachese are very much branched, and give 
out an infinite number of ramifications. This dispositioti is very, 
striking in the genera of which we are speaking, and %vhich are dis- 
tinguished by the position of their stigmata. These stigmata are 
f^laced below the elyireSf and on the sides of the body in the back, 
t may be owing to the difficulty which the air finds to introduce 
itself into these stigmata, especially when they are concealed below 
immoveable elytres^ as in the blaps^ that the arterial tracheae are so 
dbposed that all parts of the body speedily enjoy the influence of 
the dr. These stigmata are formed in the common way by a 
jutting out horny border of considerable thickness. Their opening 
is ovd, and their greatest diameter is in a transverse direction. It 
is easy, by opening them, to perceive the common trunk of the 
arterial tracheae, which opens tnere. The disposition of the arterial 
tracheie in the cebrlo Imgicomis is almost the same as in that which 
we have just described. 

In the phalangium and analogous genera, only a single order of 
tracheaB is observed. The respiratory system in these genera may 
be considered as formed of common trunks^ which, situated in the 
neck, are the centre from which all the other ramifications proceed. 
These common trunks are found near the stigmata^ to which they 
send a branch ; and from this point proceed two bundles of tracheae, 
which spread over all the body, especially the intestinal viscera. 
We see even that they surround each appendix of the intestinal 
tube, and their first membrane is In part formed of these traclie^. 
The common trunks continue thus along the sides of the body, 
giving out different branches to the muscles of the legs, to the 
mouth, to the dorsal vessel, and to the organs of generation. This 
respiratory system is one of the simplest. Only two stigmata exist, 
placed on each side of the corcelet, on the same line as the fourth 
pair of legs. These stigmata are oval, the greatest diameter pro- 
ceeding from below upwards. Internally we see that they have a 
border pretty strong. They are very large, compared to the size of 
the body. 

The larvae of lepidopteres, of caterpillars, have likewise nothing 
but arterial tracheae. Lyonnei,* to whom the anatomy of insects 
is so much indebted, had already remarked this fact. However, I 
thought it wonh verifying in the caterpillars of different butterflies, 
especially in those of the cabbage and of fennel ; in the larvae of the 
lombyx pavonid major j moriy and in that of the sphinx atropcs. In 
all these I found only arterial tracheae. When there are oftly arterial 
tracheae, we see them always fon^ed by a common trunk, which 
opens into the stigmata, and froiiii which numerous ramifications 
proceed, which are distributed to all parts of the bodyil'' Thi» 
common trunk extends from one extremity of the body to another, 

* See Tratl^ Aoatomiqae dcila Chenille da Sa«le, p. lOl aa^ SS7, tab. x. fig. S. 

c 3. 

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i(y * 6n (he Uses of the Dorsal Vessel. [JtrLy, 

and its diameter is at least a millimetre (0'0S937 inch) ; sometimes 
it is even more considerable. It is from this common trunk that the 
bundles of transverse tracheiB always divided into pairs proceed ; 
the ramifications of which are generally unequal. The number of 
tliese bundles of tracheae is always twice that of the stigmata^ as two 
always proceed from each stigma. 

The insects which respire air immediately, and whidh have only 
arterial tracheae, are those in which the respiratory system is sim- 
plest. The species in which this disposition exists require to etijoy 
the influence of air as speedily as possible. Hence it is distributed 
almost as soon as it is received. 

The pulmonary tracheae of the scarites gigas originate above the 
cerebriform ganglion by a transversal branch, from which proceed 
ramifications to the upper lip, the antennae, and the eyes. This 
branch is prolonged in the head by two principal trunks, which 
extend in the eorcelet, and then in the rest of th« body. These 
trunks having reached the eorcelet, form on each side of the dorsal 
vessel a kind of semicircle, giving out nunierous ramifications to 
the dorsal vessel and tlie surrounding muscles. The pulmonary 
trunks, when they reach the breast, approach the dorsal vessel 
more and more, forming on each side erismes, semicircles^ ffom 
the centre of which proceed the branches that form a communica- 
tion between the pulmonary and arterial tracheae. The common 
pulmonary trunks continue in the same manner in the abdomen, 
where they form afterwards rings in semicircles, from which proceed 
the principal branches, which form a communication between them 
and the arterial tracheae. As to the branches that come from the 
internal side, they all go to the dorsal vessel and the muscles that 
burround it. In this place the pulmonary trunks never acquire a 
large diameter. 

The trunks of the arterial tracheae rise below the cerebrum by 
two principal branches, which distribute themselves over the man- 
dibles, and the different parts of the mouth. These branches have 
a very considerable diameter, and a reddish colour. When they 
come to the eorcelet, they unite, and form only one trunk. After 
this they send a large branch to the first pair of legs j while from 
their interior side they send branches to the trunks of the pulmonary 
tracheae, an^to the intestinal tube. The same thing takes place in 
the thorax. These tracheae diminish somewhat in size in the abdo- 
men, and keeping always at the side of the body, the external 
branches go to the stigmata, while the internal surround the intes- 
tinal tube iand the organs of generation with a fine network of tra- 
cheae. The common trunks form from ring to ring semicircles^ 
always furnishing the branches of which w6 have spoken. We 
observe that from each semicircle formed by the arterial tracheae 
"there issue two long cylindrical tracheae, which ramify to infinity 
on the intestinal tube and the organs of generation. THere are few 
species in which these tracheae are more distinct or extensive. In 
'getieral the abdominal tracheae are of a silver-whites; those of the 

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1815.] ,0/1 thi Uses of the Dorsal Fe^s^L MJ 

corcelet have a shade of red. The stigmata of this species placed 
upon the inferior sides of the ahdomen are rounded and bordered by 
a salliant fold of the coreaceous envelope. 

Several of the orthopteres exhibit at once arterial and puln(]onary 
tracheae. Of this number are the forficu]», blattse, phasmes, 
mantes, achetes, locustse, mole crickets. But as these tracheae are 
not similar in different genera^ and as their complication is not 
quite the same^ we shall make them known in those in which it 
presents the greatest peculiarity. 

The respiratory organs of the forficulae and blattse present little 
difference. They are composed of a system of arterial tracheae 
formed by a common trunk, which extends from one extremity qi 
the body to another, and into which transversal tracheae pass, which 
are distributed in a great number of parts. In the head they furnish 
the ramifications to tlie principal muscles, especially to the adduc- 
tors and abductors of the mandibles and oesophagus. They then 
extend in the corcelet by two principal trunks which lie below the 
pulmonary tracheae, but which soon divide, giving out numerous 
ramifications to the muscles of the corcelet, to the intestinal tube 
and the first pair of legs. The principal trunks continue to the 
thorax^ keeping on the sides of the body. They then send a pretty 
large branch, which passes into the opening of the trefiiaer, to take 
up the air which other ramifications distribute in the muscles con-> 
tained in the thorax, and in those of the wings and legs. It ap- 
peared to me that the arterial tracheae furnished in the corcelet and 
thorax, branches which spread in the legs, where they give out a - 
much greater number of ramifications than the pulmonary tracheae, 
which equally make their way thither. The trunks of the arterial 
tracheae communicate with those of the pulmonary tracheae by 
lateral branches proceeding from the internal sides of these tracheae. 
The same thing takes places in the corcelet, the thorax, and abdo- 
men. The same tracheae form round the stomach and its append- 
ages nets of tracheae quite inextricable. 

The arterial tracheee, after having given numerous ramifications 
in the thorax, extend themselves in the abdomen by a common 
trunk, wliich opens into the six stigmata placed on the sides of the 
body. It is likewise near theie stigmata that the common trunks 
furnish each two bundles of transversal tracheae ; so that there are 
24 such bundles in the abdomen. These same tracheae make ail 
the parts enjoy the impression of the air, distributing themselves ^ 
over the intestinal viscera, the organs of generation, and the abdo- 
minal muscles. I must observe that the communication of the 
arterial and dorsal tracheae takes place by means of transversal 
branches, which the first send off at intervals to the second. 

The pulmonary tracheae appear equally in the head, where they 
extend, round the superior portion of the cerebriform ganglion and 
round the eyes, whether single or compound. They give out but a. 
small number of ramifications in the head ; and passing through the 
superior portion of the occipital foramen, they go to the corcelet^ 

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SS On ike Uses of the Dorsal Fessek [July, 

where they spread themselves in the first pair of legs without send- 
ing out many branches. Always placed at a small distance from the 
dorsal vessel^ they pass into the thorax; where, however, they 
separate a little from that vessel, forming round it a kind of S. 
These tracheae send branches into the two last pair of legs, in which . 
they donot ramify much. When they come into the abdomep they 
approach the dorsal vessel, sending it small ramifications, as they 
do during their whole passage. These ramifications appear to coni- 
pose the first membrane of this vessel. These tracheae extend to 
the extremity of th^ abdomen, forming from ring to ring semi- 
circles more or less near each other. Such is the general distribu- 
tion of the tracheae in these two genera, in which these vessels hav^ 
a very small diameter. 

The disposition of these two orders of tracheae is not quite the 
same in the achetes as in the genera of which we have spoken. 
They have likewise a greater diameter, so that they are more easily 
followed. 

The arterial tracheae begin below the cerebrum, from which, as 
from a central point, they send branches to different parts of the 
head. These branches have cot an equal diameter; and those 
which go to the muscles of the. mandibles are remarkably large. 
These branches, penetrating into the mandibles, give numerous 
ramifications, the smallest divisions of which penetrate as far as the 
teeth of these parts. The arterial tracheae furnish equally branches 
to the different parts of the mouth, and extend by two principal 
trunks into the corcelet passing through the opening of the foramen 
occipitale. They then go towards the fore part, along the sides of 
Xh^ corcejet, and give pretty numerous ramifications to the rotatory 
muscles of the beftd, and to the ipqscles belonging to the corcelet, 
and likewise to those of the l^gs. pom^ to the base pf the corcelet, 
the arterial tracheae form a very large traqhea, which passes into ap 
opening situated on the lateral and iiiferior side ; and in this manner 
they receive directly the impression of thp external air. This 
trachea then extends to the extremity of the first pair of legs, with- 
out giving out many ramifications. The arterial tracheae then prp- 
pf^ed tQ the thorax, being always situated at the side of the body. 
They send numerous branches to the muscles of the thorax, prinr 
cipally to those of the wings, the elytres, and legs. Tliese triacheo 
furnish likewise branches to the last pair of legs, and to the pul- 
monary tracheae, to which they carry air. After having furnished 
these principal branches, and a great number of others much more 
small, the iiirteriat tracheae proceed to the abdomen, where they 
form a more complicated apparatus. Extending always along the 
$ides of that part, their trunks open into the stigmata by a ramifi- 
cation whose diameter is not so considerable. These tracheae 
towards their inside give out six principal branches:, divided each 
Into two ramificatipns, much larger, which unite in a single trunk 
that passes intp the pulmonary trache^. ^ut before uniting in a 
common trunk^ the large rao^ifications give out two lateral branches. 

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1815.] On the Uses of the Dorsal Vessel. 39 

which establish a communication of superior and inferior ramifica- 
tions. All these tracheee enjoy immediately the action of the air^ 
and distribute it into the pulmonary tracheae. It is from the first 
branch principally that the trochee proceed which spread them* 
selves on the organs of generation, while those of the intestinal 
viscera are furnished successively by the six branches. Besides these 
principal branches, the common trunk furnishes other four, one 
which precedes all the branches, and three which come imme- 
diately after them. The first spreads itself on the sunerior abdo- 
ininal muscles, and upon the intestinal tube. The otliers, on the 
contrary, give numerous ramifications to the miiscles of the abdo- 
men, and particularly to the organs of generation. 

The pulmonary trachese, more constant in their direction, rise 
above the cerebriform ganglion by a common trunk, which divides 
Into two principal branches, the upper of which go to the eyes and 
the antennae. The lower extend backwards to the foramen occipi- 
tale, traverse the muscles of the mandibles, and penetrate into the 
corcelet. There they separate a little from each other^ give out a 
branch to the first pair of legs,' and furnish a very few branches to 
the muscles of the corcelet. These tracheae then make their way 
into the thorax, where they give out two principal branches, which 
terminate in the legs, furnishing some ramifications to the muscles. 
When they come to the abdomen, they approach each other, and 
nan near the dorsal vessel, sending out a great number of branches, 
which divide themselves on the external membrane of this vessel. 
During their whole passage we see them almost always sinuous, 
forming from distance to distance semicircles, which touch each 
other by their summits. As we have already explained how these 
tracheae receiv^ air, we shall not resume the subject again. 

The respiratory organs of the pliasmie consist equally of two 
orders of tracheae, the arterial and pulmonary. These last present 
in the head four principal branches. The superior branches are the 
largest and longest. They furnish branches to the antennae, the 
upper lip, and the mandibles. When these tracheae make their 
way into the corcelet, they separate from each other, and unite with 
the branches of the inferior pulmonary trachece to penetrate into 
-the first pair of legs, where they spread themselves. The inferior 
branches of the pulmonary tracheae are situated below the preceding. 
Their trunks are more nearly straight. All these tracheae issue 
through the foramen occipitale, and unite in the corcelet, so as to 
form only two principal, trunks, more or less near to the dorsal 
vessel, but always accompanying it. When these branches have 
come as far as the second pair of legs, they send them a principal 
branch. The same thing happens when they come to the third 
pair. When they enter the abdomen, they proceed still nearer the 
dorsal vessel, to which they send numerous branches. 

The arterial tracheae have not a direction so constant as the pul- 
monary. In general, being composed of bundles of branches, they 
make all parts enjoy tb^ impression of air^ which they receive \xor 

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40 ^On Vie Uses qfihe B^sal VomI. [Jtli^AC^ 

lisediisitely. Their ^tnmon trunks^ sbmMttdbebw Ae oerebriform 
•ganglion, fumish .numerous branches to difii^reDt perls df 'the.iiead^ 
^hen in the eor^eelibts 4o the dififer^Dt rpavts of the legs. Wben they 
reach thethorarx, these -tninks throw out a .branch on^eacli nide^ 
^hich goes'fo^i^GeiYe air by th^ o{>eniQg of the*tremiter,.«nd'thfeir 
two other priudipal'bmtiches -go to the legs. These trachese^give 
likewise bmndhes to the tnuscle^ of the thorax, and to «he pu}ino»» 
nary tracheae and the 'intestinal visoera* Ilie same is the case in 
theBbdomen. 'In the abdomen the arterial traeheas give out dn 
each side as tiieny bpancfaes as there are stigmata, and'theae^comw 
municate with tfaff pulmonary^ tracheae. The direction of tbese 
branches is transterse, compared with the axis of the body, while 
the eommon.trutlks of these same tracheSB, as Weil as.df the pul- 
monary, are parallel to th^ axis of the body. 

The' abdominal arterial tracheae furnish branches to the hatestitial 
viscera and the organs of generation. They £orm on theae .parts 
very numerous networks. 

The idistribution of the tracheae is still ifiore admirable in tine 
'mantes than in the diffisrent genera that we liave hitherto studied; 
Their direction is so complicated that it is diffiouk>to describe it. 
iVe shall observe^ however, that the pulmonary traehese origioate 
above the cerebriform ganglion by a common truijk, from wiiich six 
principal brandies proceed : XS90 hteral, whi<;h go to the eyes ; tiW3 
inferior, for the upper lip j and two others for tlw antemtse. From 
■these branches there proeeed others, which proceed to the different 
oi^ns of the mouth. This common trunk then proceeds to live 
corcelet, alvVays separating more and more. When it has~got iatb 
that part itsends off a branch which unites with an- arterial trsdiea. 
These two trachea, thus forming but a single oitc, go to the first of 
the legs, and extend to its extremity, giving off nctmeroas bratidies. 

The pulmonary trai5heae, proceeding on in the corceldt, apprcuuAi 
a little to the dorsal vessel. They then enlarge cbnaiderabiy 4^po- 
«ite to the first pair of legs, sending to them a bmnch, whicli unites 
With the most external arterial branch of the trema^.. By diis 
union the two trunks form only a single one, which extends- to the 
Extremity of .th6 first pair Of legs. The pulmonary tracbee tiven 
approach the dorsal vessel, send it some'bmncfaes, as they do like^ 
wise to the inuscles of tb^ corcelet. When they have come toils 
extremity, they send out a lateral branch, wbich unites with the aeMt 
external of the arterial tracheee^ The pulmonary tracheae then become 
large, and give out at first a branch, which goes to tbeseeoad pah" 
of legs; and after having diminished in diameter, they send out 
another branch in that part. These tracheae furnish lifaewise difie- 
rent ramifications tp the dorsal vessel, and they gradually abroach 
nearer it. But when they have got as far as the first stigma. they 
separate from it suddenly, formbg a semicircle, -wfaich gives outJB 
branch that establishes a communication witbthe arterial tradies 
and with the seventh stigma. From this point tbe puhnoway 
trachea have two principal trunks ; tta§ tipost iQtemd isTe^ vM* 

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IftlS.] On the Usts of the Dmal Vessd. <4i 

ing 'and irregular; the extenud extends in ft straight line to the 
opeotog of the «eirenth stigma, where it receives the impressign of 
^e air as well as the internal trunk. These two trunks of puhno- 
<nftry trachee communicate with each other by means of the lateral 
branches, which are six in number on each side ; but besides these 
lateral branchee, there exists one at the base of the body, wiiich 
-unites the two ^stems of pulmonary trachese. This apparatus^ in 
combiniiig with that of tlite arterial tracheae, forms an admirable 
^vhole, which tlie silvery colour of the traches& renders still more 
agreeable to the eye. The internal trunk of the pulmonary tracheae 
«ends out a great many branches to the dorsal vessel, branches which 
divide themselves to infinity. We see how complicated the pul^ 
monary trachese are in this genus, and all in order that there may 
-he a greater reservoir of inspired air. 

The arterial trachese rise in the head below the cerebriform 
ganglion. They give out there large branches, which spread thera« 
selves in the muscles of different parts of the mouth. They g^ 
liifiewise to the upper part of the head, and unite with the tracheie 
-that proceed to the eyes. They then pass into the corcelet, always 
along the side of the body. The two great branches parallei to the 
eooMDOO trunk of the arterial trachesa, and which open into the 
inemaer situated at the base of the eoreelet, may be considered as 
heloo^ng to this system, though they appear to be divisions <^ pul- 
monary traehess. The external trunk of theiarterial trachece gives 
"a great many namifioations to the muscles of the thorax. \V^e have 
net given a figure of them, because we wished to render our repre- 
aentation more inteUigible ; for if we had-elbibited all the iamifi«. 
eatbns that we perceive, it would have been very difficult to have 
followed the direction of the principal trachese ; so that we should 
have run the risk of failing in jour object. The arterial trachese 
unite with the pulmonary towards the base of the corcelet. They 
then penetrate iiito the ^omx by three principal branches, and the 
twoextemal unHe, forming a kind of ovaU before which the inter- 
mediate hranth unites with the first pulmonary trachea, which goes 
to the third pair of legs. These arterial trachese form soon after 
two principal trunks, situated further down, and more externally^ 
iban the trunks of the arterial trachese. Each of diem sends « 
kteml branch, which opens into the stigmata; so that there exist 12 
lateral branches, since there are six stigmata, and each receives two. 
We may even reckon H, since the whole of the system terminates 
in the seventli stigma by two principal branches. The tracheae 
wiuch go to the organs of generation proceed from the third lateral 
fbranoh : these tradiese are very large and numerous. But besides 
these trachese, the common trunks furnish a great number to the 
intestinal viscera. We have not given figures of them^ for the 
jeason already stated. 

The deseriptaons which we have given of the various respinitoiy 
vmm in insects, mast have shown .that by means of this com^^i. 
mm appaiatus tbest is a real ciscubUion of air, in that order of 

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42 On the Uses of the Dorsal Vessel. [JuLy, 

animals. This circulation is still more evident in the mantes than ' 
in the genera that we have desoribed. The air taken in by the 
branches of the arterial tracheeB in the stigmata^ is spread^ by 
means of their comibon trunks^ into the branches of the pulmopary 
traoheffi which carry it to their principal trunks, where it is taken 
up by other ramifications, and distributed in all parts of the body- 
When the decarbonization'of the blood is effected, the remaining 
oxygen, the azote, and the carbonic acid, are driven out by the 
contraction of the elastic tracbeffi. These gases may either take the 
road by which the aiir enteredT, or a different one. All parts, then, 
enjoy the impression of air; and the pulmonary tracheae are des- 
tined to serve as a reservoir, that this impression may be for some 
time independent of the inspirations and expirations. 

The locusta exhibits likewise two orders of tracheae, but their 
Situation is different from ^hat we described as that of the mantes. 
The pulmonary tracheae extend in a straight line from one extre- 
mity of the body to the other, always keeping towards the middle 
and upper part of the body. They originate above the cerebrum, 
give some branches to that organ, then proceed to the eyes, sending 
different branches to the organs situated in the bead. 

These tracheae penetrate into the corcelet through the foramen 
occipitale, approach each other by degrees^ and become g^dually 
parallel, giving out a branch to the first pair of legs. When they 
come to the thorax they give out different branches, some of which 
go to the two last pair of legs, and others to the muscles of the 
thorax. When they reach the abdomen their diameter diminishes, 
though they receive nine branches from each side, furnished thena 
by tiie arterial tracheae. These tracheae then extend to the extre- 
mity of the body, giving out a certain number of ramifications to 
the dorsal vessel. 

The pulmonary tracheae are very conspicuous in this genus ; but 
the contrary is the case with the arterial. Originating below the 
cerebriform ganglion, they distribute themselves to different parts 
of the head, giving in particular numerous branches to the juudcles 
of the head. They extend in the corcelet by two common trunks^ 
which go along the side of the body. But when they reach as far 
as the first pair of legs, they become considerably larger, form a sort 
of tubular cavity, and take air immediately by a large oval opening or 
stigma situated in that part. This tracheae, the diameter of which 
is very considerable, extends to the extremity of these legs. Be- 
sides this great branch, the arterial tracheae furnish other ramifica* 
tions to the muscles, and which bring air to the trunk of the pul- 
monary tracheae. The arterial tracheae cotitinuing in the thorax and 
abdomen by two common trunks, send branches to the legs^ the 
pulmonary tracheae, and the muscles of the thorax. 

The arterial tracheae become very complicated in the abdomen. 
By their internal side they give off 16 principal branches, 12 of 
which proceed in pairs, while the other four are simple. The first 
branch is simple: at first very small ^ it increases suddenly, gmng 

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1815.] On the Uses of the Dorsal Vessel. . 43 

different ramifications to the abdominal muscles and the pulmonary 
trachese. The second branch sets out simple^ but speedily divides 
into two branches/ each much larger than the common trunk* Near 
the point where these tracheae unite to furnish a single branch to the 
pulmonary tracheae, they send off two branches, the superior of which 
goes to the superior branch, and the inferior to the inferior. Thus 
on each side of the abdomen are disposed the five other common 
trunks which open into the stigmata, so that these six orders of 
trachese correspond to the openings of these parts. As there are in 
all IG branches on each side of the abdomen, the arterial tracheae 
give on each side three large simple branches, which go to the 
pulmonary. They communicate with each other by means of small 
ramifications which they send to each other. All these principal 
branches have constantly a transverse direction. The bundle of 
tracheae that go to the organs of generation proceeds from the fijnst 
double branch. What is remarkable in this respiratory apparatus is 
the great diameter of all the abdominal tracheae, especially those 
with doubly branches. These tracheae are so large, and so close 
together, that they form a kind of envelope round the organs con- 
tained in the abdomen. 



Article VIII. 

jfn Essqy on the Shapes, Dimensions^ and Positions of the Spaces, 
- in the Earth which are called Rents, and the Airavgement of the 
Matter in tham. By Mr. John B. Longmire. 

{Continued from toI. v. p. 281.) 

The junctwns of bended-tabular Rents. 
' The horizontal direction of an/ rent is not parallel to this direc- 
tion of all the other rents in a formation ; and as the lengths of rent^ 
in general are much greiiter than the distance between any two 
contiguous rents, many rents must be joined to others. Two of the 
junctions of bended-tabular rents I am now to describe. 

Bended-tabular rents, according to the difference in their posi- 
tion$, are joined together in their horizontal directions, and in 
those which are at right angles to them, whether angular or per- 
pendicular. The junctions of these rents, in common language, 
are called crossings : and one rent is said to intersect and to cross 
anothet; and to disturb it by throwing or heaving it, either up- 
wards or downwards, in horizontal junctions, and either to the right 
or left hand, in angular junctions. 

- I,' Of knrizonialJunctions, 

Wheh':tbe sides of one rent, say the rent A. fig. 1, Plate XXXV., 

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44 \ An Essay on Rents. [Jxri-y, 

are joined to those of another, BB^ in a direction cd, which is bo- 
lizontal^ fhey are joined together in their horizontal directions. 

If a miner, in travelling downwards in the angular direction, al, 
of a Tent, B, meet with another rent, A, having a reverse positiooi 
and whose upper side^ fg^ is horizontally joined to both sides of 
that part of the rent in which he is standing, then the part of the 
latter rent which is joined to the under side of the former rent, will 
Join it, as at c, above the place where the part a 2^ joins it on the 
opposite side. 

Let h be remembered that the strata are always lower on the up- 
]>erside than on the underside of 6very rent of this shape, then this 
reparation of the rent B into parts win be easily accounted for. 
The lowest extremities of any one rent are generally situated in one 
stratum; hence, as the matter of the formation contracted, these 
extremities of both parts of the separated rent would necessarily 
Bink with the stratum that contains them ; but this stratum, as well 
as those above it, sunk a greater distance on the upper side, than on 
the under side of the uns^parated r^nt, and' brought down the part 
«f the separated rent which lies on the former side as much lower 
than that part of this rent on the latter side of the unsepariited rent, 
as the strata are lower on this than on that side of the last rent. 
This " want of opposition," therefore, in the two parts of one 
of the joining rents which lie on opposite sides of the other is the 
effect of that unequal contraction of the matter which produced 
the rents, and is not caused by the action of a newer rent on an 
older, as has been generally supposed. 

In every junction where the uns.eparated rent is the larger, it is as 
old as, if not older than, the separated rent 5 but when it is the 
smaller, it is always the newer of the two joining rents. I would 
in both instances, however, be understood to mean, that the for- 
mation of these rents took place during the process of the matter's 
consolidation ; and when I say one is older than the other rent, I 
only m^an that the commencement of the formation of tixe older 
Imppened before that of the newer rent; and, not that anyone rent 
was completely formed and filled before the formation of any other 
Juuj commenced. 

!?. Of angular Junctions. 

When two rents are joined together in their angular directions, 
tbey exlubit tlie s^pearance of fig. 5, Plate XXXV. ; in which the 
parts, hgy kdf of one rent. A, are joined to another rent, BB, in 
a direction, ifg, which is parallel, or nearly so, to the angular 
direction of both rents. I will at present only describe the hori- 
zontal junctions of two rents that meet each other at nearly right 
angles; one of which, the unseparated rent, contains both kinds of 
ihe earthy tabular masses, and the other, or the separated rent, con- 
tains both of the earthy associated with the metallic tabuliar masses. 
If a miner, in travellirig in the hori2X>ntal direction of a rent, a^, 
%. 2^ (w&ich figure is a horizontal view of an angular junction of 

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IS15.) . An Essay on Renis. 45 

two rents) whose under side is oo his right hand, meet with the op- 
pev side^ c by of an unseparated rent, then that part of the separated 
rent, e rf, which lies on the other side of the unseparated rent, is 
always a given distance, I rf, to his left hand. Let fig. 5. repre- 
sent the angular direction of such a junction as the roan sees it 
when Ke looks towards the unseparated' rent in the dircctton a b^. 
tig, 2. be is the upper side, and d i the under side of the unsepa- 
rated rent. The doited lines d h represent the angular figure of the 
separated rent on the under side, and the lines bfg the same figojre 
of this rent on the upper side of the separated rent. Suj^pose the 
Jine id represent a stratum on the under side of the; unseparated 
rent, then the line If will represent the same stratum on the up- 
per side of this rent. Again, let the line h k represent the stratum 
in which the lowest extremity, A, o£ the separated rent on the under 
side of the unseparated rent is situated, then the line.^ will be the 
same stratum, and one that contains the lowest extremity of the 
former rent on the upper side of the latter rent. Now a line, djp 
drawn from d, down the rent B B, at right angles to its horizontal 
direction c b^ will pass through the point^ and a similarly disposed 
line, drawn from the point h, will pass through the point g ; hence 
the psatfg is equal to the part hdj and both make a similar angle 
with the perpendicular linegc; but the top of the part^gisa 
given distance below the top of the part kd; this distance is equal 
to that which the strata are lower on the upper than on the under 
side of the unseparated rent. Continue the rent ^/upwards in its 
natural direction', till it reaches the line b c, say at b : at that place 
it is the distance b d from the other part of the rent. This hori- 
zontal distance between the two parts of the separated rent, is 
caused entirely by the strata sinking lower on the upper than on the 
under side of the unseparated rent, and carrying down with them 
the separated rent on that side lower than the strata carry its oppo- 
site part on this side of the rent ; for it is evident that, if the stra- 
tum g be elevated to A ^ and the stratum If to di, the part of the 
separated rent,yg, will be directly opposite the part, h d, of the same 
rent. 

The unseparated rent in all junctions has hitherto, for the fol- 
lowing reasons, been considered the newer rent. The tabular 
masses in the unseparated rent preserve their usual arrangement 
opposite the ends of the separated rent, while these masses in the 
latter rent end against the side of the former rent ; hence the se- 
parated rent must first have been formed and supplied with its con- 
tents, then another or unseparated rent produced across the rent, 
which, of course, would separate it, and which, in consequence of 
being formed the last, would not have its contents disturbed oppo- 
site that rent which it crossed. But such an arrangement of mat- 
ters in rents at these junctions does not, by any means, warrant 
this contusion ! For, if the separated rent he the older, the ta- 
bular masses in it must have been in such a state of solidity, that 
when the formation of the unseparated rent commrenced, they could 

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4S An Essay on Rents^ iJvhV^ 

retain their situations* But we have only to say^ that the unsepa^ 
rated rent is the older^ and that the tabular masses in it were so 
sufficiently consolidated as to preserve their situations, when the 
separated rent was formed and filled, and the arrangement of these 
masses will evidently support this, equally as well as the other as- 
sertion : this reasoning will not, therefore, of itself j decide whether 
19 the older rent. When the unseparated rent is the larger, it is 
as old as^ and probably older than, the separated rent. For, the 
formation of all rents commenced at their lowest extremities, and 
as the larger rent extends farther downwards than the smaller, if 
their respective dimensions be taken from one level, that part of 
the former which is below the lowest extremity of the latter must 
have been the soonest forming ; and it is certain that the larger 
rent would commence in the stratum containing the lowest extre- 
mity of the snialler rent, as soon as this rent commenced in that 
stratum. Whether rent took the lead upwards we cannot tell with 
certainty : but that there has not been much difference in point of 
time between those unseparated rents which contain the first and 
second-formed earthy tabular masses, and those separated rents 
which contain the earthy and metallic masses, is very probable ; 
because the first-formed earthy masses in both rents clearly point 
out the small degree of the matter's solidity at the commencement 
of the formation of both these rents. One circumstance inclines 
me to suppose that the unseparated rent is the older ; namely, the 
existence, in this rent near these junctions, of large metallic tabu- 
lar masses, which are similar to the metallic masses in the separated 
rent, and which are not found in other parts of the unseparated 
rent, except in very small quantities. For it is probable the hol- 
low places which contain these metallic masses were produced 
after those first-formed earthy masses near which they are situated, 
and that the metallic matter passed out of the separated rent into 
these hollow places in a fluid atate. Now the metallic masses in 
the separated rent being cotemporary with the first-formed earthy 
tabular niasses in it, it is clear that they were not produced as soon 
as the first-formed earthy tabular masses in the unseparated rent; 
hence, this is older than that rent. But in all junctions where the 
unseparated rent is the smaller, it is the newer rent ; and then its 
contents indicate its newness. 

There are four distinct examples of the horizontal junctions of 
bended-tabular rents, and eight angular junctions of the same rents; 
but as these junctions could not be described without reference to 
drawings, I have, for the present, omitted them. The junctions 
also of bended-tabular with all other rents, I need not at present 
describe, as excellent descriptions of many of them will be found 
in Williams* Mineral Kingdom, and as the reader will have no dif- 
ficulty in referring all their phenomena to the cause which 1 have 
already pointed out; namely, the unequal contraction of the earth^s 
matter. 

June 7} 1S15. 



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1815.} Extract of a Letter Jfim BerxeUus to GiVbert. 47 

Article IX. 

Extract of a Letter from Professor Berzelius to Professor Gilbert.^ 

Stockholm^ Oct. 6, 1814. 

Few letters have given me so much pleasure as that which I 
found from you on my return from Fahlun, where I had been the 
whole summer. I had been long without hearing from you, and 
none of my acquaintances who had been at the battle of Leipsick 
could give me any information respecting you, I was apprehensive 
in consequence that you were no longer m the land of the living* 

I have not yet answered the objections of Dr. Fischer, of Breslau, 
to ray analysis of nitrate of silver. The experiment of Dr. Fischer, 
who obtained an explosion by heating nitnc acid over muriate of 
silver, did not succeed with me. f I repeated the experiment ac- 
cording to his directions ; but no explosion followed. After Davy's 
ozotane became known, I made some experiments with it, and 
satisfied myself, from the smell, that whenever concentrated mu- 
riatic acid and concentrated red nitric acid are digested together, 
this remarkable compound is always formed ; but I have not in 
these cases observed any explosion. Warned by Fischer's state- 
ment, I always placed the vessel in which this mixture was digested 
in a separate and safe place. It is exceedingly probable that this 
peculiar body is pothing else than aqua regia quite free from water; 
for it dissolves slowly in water, and forms, as Davy likewise re- 
marked, a weak aqua regia. These few observations show clearly 
that Davy's analysis of this substance is inaccurate, and that he cor- 
rected his results in consequence of theoretical views. 

Hitherto too little attention has been paid to the combination of 
acids with acids, and to acids free from water. Hence the reason 
why so much of the wonderful has been observed in isolated obser- 
vations, which, when the whole mass of chemical facts are surveyed, 
lose every thing wonderful, and harmonise with our previous know- 
ledge. 

How much, for example, have chemists wondered at the smoking 
state of sulphuric acid ? ^et they missed observing the real nature of 
that body } for though it was known that common sulphuric acid 
contains abundance of water, and that the smoking Noidhauser 
sulphuric acid forms with water common sulphuric acid, and with 
the bases common sulphates; yet the consequence was not drawn 
that the smoking acid contains no water. 

• Translated ftoia Gilbert's Annalcn der Physik for Nov. 1814, vol. xlviii 
p. S«7. I have beeo loduced to publish it here, because it contaiiis some opiutoBf 
telative to British cheioist^ with which I think they ought to be acquainted. GiU 
bert*s Annalen contains many other similar letters.— T, 

f The explosion only takes place, as Dr. Fischer has more lately stated, (An. 
nalen, *lvi. 439,) when diluted nitric acid or aquare^ia is boiled over horn aUeu 
but not when these acids are eoDcentrated.— Gulbbrt. * 

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48: Ejsiractvf a Letter /ram BerxeUm tf> GUliert [Jtot^ 

This anhydrous sulphuric acid agrees in various points with the 
anhydrous acid formed by the action of aqua regia upon sulphuret 
of carbon. Anhydrous sulphuftc acid) this triple acid, nitrous 
sulphuric acid,, niurio-earbonic acid (phosgene gas), nitrp^muriatia 
acidi fluo-boric acid, &c. form- a complete new class of chemical 
conapounds. Some of these compounds contain no water, and 
show in consequence properties, which, from the analogy of the 
hydrous acids, we could ndt have e3qpected, and which they Io?e a& 
aoon as they come in contact with waiter. Some of them are even 
decomposed by this liquid, the water introducing a new play of 
affinities. As long,^ however, as chemists are involved in the maze 
ihto which they have been led by the new hypothesis respecting the. 
nature of muriatic acid, they will not be able to see these appi&ar- 
itaces in a proper and general point of view. 

I have published in Dr. Thomson's Amah of Philosophy an 
examination of Davy's new hypothesis, and of the old doctrine 
respecting the nature of muriatic acid, and I have produced a very 
decisive argument against Davy's hypothesis, furnished me by the 
analysis of the submuriates of copper (as well as those of lead) con- 
taining water of crystallizatioo. The proportion of these two sub- 
stances IS such that the quantity of oxygen in the water of crystaUx- 
zation is equal to that in the oxide of -copper according to the old 
theory ; but according to Davy's h.ypothesisj which supposes mu- 
riatic acid composed of one volume of hydrogen and one volume of 
chlorine, we find the corresponding quantity of oxygen in the oxide 
of copper ; but oiie-fourth of the water must be abstracted in order 
to form the muriatic acid and oxide of copper. Hence it follows 
that the oxygen in the water is to that in the oxide of copper as 5 : 4, 
Hence Davy's hypothesis is inconsistent with the doctrine of definite 
proportions. 

Both Dr. Thomson and Sir Humphry Davy have answered this 
objection in a manner that has astonished me. Dr. Thomson^s 
answer is barely this : " Berzelius's arguments are not at all hostile 
to Sir H. Davy's theory." ^ And Davy himself says, in his last 
Bakerian lecture, " I cannot regard the argumentsof my learned 



« Siace Berzeliui does not perceive tiie fallacy of his argnmeot, I fhall poial 
it oat to him here. His subrnuriate of copper is a e^mponnd of rauriatic acid, 
oxide of copper, and water. I have no doubt that his analysis of it is nearly 
accurate; anj that (be law which he points out and applies to it is cprreet. But 
#119 has nothing whatever to do with I)avy*9 theory, because the salit ia question is 
not a chloride, but a muriate. Suppose we were to convert it miIo a chloride by 
exposure to heat, (the process in the present. case would not answei* ;, but T^e may 
suppose it ;) in that case all the water would be driven dfl^ the oxygen of the 
copper would combine with the hydrogen of the acid, and fly off* in the state of 
water, and nothing would remain but chlorine and copper. "Bit^ Bcraelias's Uws 
eould not apply, because neither water nor oxygen is present in theoonpoiuuh 
It 16 amazing to me that so acute a man as Dr. Berz^ias should advance safntite 
an argument. It can only proceed from his never having made himself acquainted 
with the details of the theory which He was opposing. Muriates- extsfe as weH as 
chlorides $ though, as they always contain water, th^ are not to easily czanriadb 
All his other arguments, like this, are founded oa iiii8coeceptioB5.*-T« 

3 



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l^\5.] Extract of a Letter from Berxelius to Gilbert, 49 

friend ds possessing apy weight ^-and there is no general canon with 
respect to the multiples of proportions in which different bodies 
combine/' &c. 

My experiments upon the constant and definite proportions 
which exist in compounds I have been at some pains to get trans- 
lated into £nglish and published in Great Britain. However, suffi- 
cient attention has not yet been paid to them in that country. In a 
treatise upon the Daltonian theory of chemical proportions. Dr. 
Thomson has given the whole merit to Dalton. My laws are only 
mentioned to be refused | and when they do not immediately follow 
from Dahon's atomic doctrinei to be discarded without further 
proof. The consequence is, that my es^riments have only been 
handled in a very slight manner. A friend has communicated to 
me from London some preliminary information respecting Wollas- 
ton's treatise on Chemical Equivalents, in which he has employed a 
sliding rule for the. discovery of the requisite pf oportions. He adds^ 
^^ I have the pleasure to be able to say that. Dr. Wollaston has 
therein admitted the accuracy of your numerous labours.'' But this 
excellent philosopher, of whose friendship I am proud, has not 
named me. At present being uncertain how the oxalates are com- 
bined, he has made some experiments respecting them ; and my 
{fiend says, ^^ I have the satisfaction to find that his experiments 
agree with yours.'' — Lately attempts have been made to show that 
Higgina was the discoverer of the atomic theory, and a dispute on 
the subject has arisen between Dalton and Higgms. Dr. Thomson 
says, that even if the atomic doctrine had escaped Dalton, it would 
have been discovered by other English philosophers ; and after- 
wards, in order to correct the improper use of the word English^ he 
explains himself, by informing us that he alluded to Dr. Wollaston. 
We may see in this example how difficult it is in England to esti- 
mate foreigners correctly. ^ You need not, therefore, be surprised 
that your Annals are not better known in England. When I was 
in that country I allowed some numbers of your Annals to come 
from Sweden, that I might be able to get my papers translated out 
of them. However, had not Dr. Thomas Young, Foreign Secre- 
tary of the Royal Society, undertaken the translation out of friend- 
ship for me, 1 should have found it difficult to meet with a single 
chemist in the whole country who could have translated the papers 
in question^ Mr. Accum and Mr. Brande are Germans by birth. — 
You will receive from me in a short time a second and third ap- 
pendix to my experiments on the definite proportions in which bo- 
dies combine. 



* That novelty of matter hat more nhare in this than the circumstance of 
foret|iier appears to me evident, amon^ other things, from DaUon's vindii atian of 
Ms atomic doctrine, which does not appear groundless, and from Mr. Mier*s de« 
termioations respectinjs azotic gas, with both of which I shall shortly make my 
readers acquainted. The former terminates as follows: *' Notwithstanding this, 
vliatever may come from the pen of Berzelios on the subject will, no doubt, b^ 
worthy the attention of the chCiKical world." — Gilbert. 

Vot. VI. N° I. D r- T 

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50 Extract of a LeHer from Benelm to Gilbert. [July, 

Yoa ask me to examine what Gay-Lussac has advanced respecting 
the nitrous gas eudiometer, and to repeat the experiments on which 
his method is founded, because they are in opposition to my views' 
relative to nitric and nitrous acids. I acknowledge that I feel no 
inclination to undertake such a task. I am always averse to disputes; 
and if I were to engage in one, it must be of such a nature that it 
could be fully resolved by experiment. This is not the ci6c with 
Gay-Lussac's experiments. Dalton has already shown, whh toler- 
able accuracy, that according as there is an excess of nitrous or 
oxygen gas, a maximum or minimum of nitrous gas will be ab- 
sorbed, both measured by the quantity of oxygen gas which is like- 
wise absorbed. On this maximum or minimum usually depends* 
the formation of pure nitric or nitrous acid. The question, there- 
fore, comes to this : whether between these two points there are 
gradations, consisting of combinations of determinate proportions 
of nitric and nitrous acids, or not j and likewise whether the results 
of Gay-Lussac be thoSe which he really obtained, or whether he did' 
not correct them by his views of true theory. The solution of these 
questions is attended with too much difficulty for me to bestow upon 
them the time that would be required for their examination. 

M. Avogrado's remarks upon my electro-chemical theory I have 
already read in the Annales de Chimie. He appears not to know 
the treatise on the chemical action of the electrical pile by Hisinger 
and myself. His remarks upon my use of the terms electro-positive 
and eiectro^negattve are correct. They had been already anticipated 
in your Annals, on occasion of my experiments and those of Davy. 
I had changed them for others long before Avogrado's paper ap- 
peared, as may be seen from my papers published in England. 
Some additions to the electro-chemical theory, which these papers 
<;ontain, and which hitherto are unknown both in Germany and 
France, are perhaps worthy of your attention. You will find them 
in my treatise on the Cause of Chemical Proportions. 

Van Mons has communicated to me the discovery that he has 
decomposed the fluates at a red heat by means of hydrogen, and 
obtained compounds of fluoric acids and metals destitute of oxygen.- 
Certainly this is strange. It ought likewise to be inaccurate, accord- 
ing to his preconceived opinions. Has he obtained a fluoric oxide, 
or a compound oijiuoricum with metals ? Had he given me the 
names of the salts on which he mad6 his^ experiments, it would have 
been easy to have investigated the^ subject. But I must wait for a 
more accurate account of his experiments, which he has promised 
me, before I can repeat them. 

You say to me that diflerent persons wish that I would give an 
example how I make accurate chemical analyses on a small scale. 
This would be a difficult task ; for I believe that I possess no other 
ibethod or greater dexterity than other chemists. I seldom work 
upon a small scale. Most of my analyses are performed with tea 
or five grammes, that is to say, with 160 or 80 Numberg medicinal 
grains (154*44 and 77*22 grains troy) j and this I believe is the best 

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1815.] Astronomical and Magnetical Observations. 51 

quantity for chemical analyses. The difficulty ts increased whea 
either much more or much less is employed. In all my analyses I 
have this rule before my eyes : ^ Endeavour to find a method of' 
analysis so that the accuracy depends as little as possible upon the 
manual dexterity of the operator. When this is found, consider 
what unavoidable circumstances intervene to render the results in- 
accurate^ and whether by their means the quantities obtained are 
increased or diminished. Then make a. second analysis, in which 
all these circumstances act in a way directly contrary. If the results 
agree, the experiment is accurate.^ For example, you will find ia 
my analysis of red oxide of iron .that in one of my experiments I 
dissolved the iron in a weighed glass capsule, evaporated the solu- 
tion, and exposed the oxide to a red heat. Here no loss was pos- 
sible. In a second experiment I dissolved the iron in aqua regia, 
precipitated it .by ammonia, washed the oxide upon a weighed filter, 
and exposed it to a red heat. Here no increase was possible; 
nothing but a diminution could take place. But both experiments 
gave the same results. Hence I concluded that in the first experi- 
ment no increase of weight had taken place, from the impurity of 
the acid, or the corrosion of the glass ; and that in the second no 
remarkable loss had been sustained, in consequence of the inaccu- 
racy of the method followed. By these perpetual checks I have 
learnt to look for, and to avoid, sources of inaccuracy. I have 
pointed out several of these sources in my manual of chemistry 
under the article inorganic substances. Still, however, a good deal 
depends upon manual dexterity and long practice ; so that it is as 
impossible to make an accurate chemist by written directions as it is 
for one artist to make another a consummate tradesman by mere 
written rules. A clever student of chemistry might perhaps learn 
from me to attend to several small particulars, which he might not 
of himself remark, and yet are of importance. 
But my letter is ahready too long. Berzslius, 



Article X. 

Astfonomical and Magnetical Observations at Hackney Wick, 
By Col. Beaufoy. 

LaUtade» 5L0 32' 40*3'' North. Lpogitnde West in Time 6"i^ 

Jane'lO, Occaltation of 4 Cancri rjmmcrsioii.... 9^26' IT'lMean Time ai 
bythemooD X Emersion .... 10 9 34 J H.W. 

Jane 11, Emersion of Jupiter's fill) 33' 19" Mean Time at Hackney Wiclc. 
lit Satellite \ 1 1 33 S6 Ditto at Greenwich. 

© 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



&2 



AUrottomical and M^gnctic^ Obsefvaikns, [JutY, 



JSffagneiical Ol^servaiions. 
idia. 



MMth. 


Morning Observ.' 


Koon Observ. 


EToning Obscrr. 




Ho«r. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Mm 18 

Ditto 19 


ah 35' 

8 45 
8 45 

8 40 
8 5# 
8 ^ 
8 40 
8 40 
8 35 
8 35 
8 25 
8 10 


24« 16' 29" 
24 19 00 
24 17 10 

24 16 17 
24 16 58 
04 16 32 
24 17 » 
24 16 51 
24 15 22 
24 13 57 
^24 15 05 
24 14 16 
r24 15 18 


— h — ' 
1 30 
1 40 
1 35 
1 35 

1 h 


O _/ .^W 

24 26 03 
24 28 38 
24 26 28 
24 26 58 
24 29 27 


7'» 15' 


24° 20' 18" 


Ditto 90 

PittQ 21 

Ditto 22 
. Ditto 23 
Ditto 24 
Aitlo A5 
Ditto 26 
Ditto 27 
Ditto 28 
Ditto 29 
Ditto SO 
Ditto 31 


7 20 
7 15 
7 10 

7 10 
7 10 


24 20 04 
24 20 (a 
24 18 54 
24 18 53 
24 17 34 


1 35 


24 27 42 


7 05 
7 15 


24 10 06 
24 19 00 


1 40 
1 45 
I 40 

1 40 


24 28 50 
24 26 03 
24 26 59 
24 25 34 


7 05 

7 la 

7 15 


94 18 50 
24 18 2« 
1^ 19 45 



Magnetiocd Observations continued. 

1815. 



Month. 


Mornii^ O^senr. 


Nooa Obterv. 


<^ Eyrning Qbserv. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Juno 1 
^i^td; 2 
Ditto 3 
Ditto 4 
Pitto 5 
Ditto 9 
Ditto 10 
Ditto 11 
Ditto 12 
Ditto 13 
Ditto 14 
Ditto 15 
Ditto 16 
DUto 17 


r^ 


24* 17' 05" 
H 15 45 


-^-' 


a _ / ^ // 


7t Q5' 


24° 19* W 






7 05 


24 19 19 


8 40 
8 25 


24 17 00 
24 16 02 


1 20 


M 27 20 


. . .. 








7 05 
7 05 
7 10 

7 05 
7 05 


24 18 53 
24 18 24 
24 17 39 


8 30 
8 40 
8 80 


24 16 03 
24 16 46 

24 16 19 


1 30 
1 40 

1 SO 
1 30 
i 35 
1 15 
1 10 


24 29 15 
24 88 50 

24 25 53 
24 27 09 
94 26 40 
24 27 37 
24 26 28 


8 40 
8 40 
8 35 
8 45 


24 16 04 
24 16 39 
24 17 10 
24 15 38 


24 18 31 
24 81 07 


7 25 


24 21 34 



April. . 
May .. 





1813. 


1814. 


1815. 


fMornins 

J Noon 


24* 09' 18" 
24 21 IS 
24 15 25 
24 12 02 
24 20 54 
24 13 47 


84* 12f 43" 
24 23 53 
24 15 30 
24 13 12 
24 22 IS 
24 16 14 


24* 16' 01" 
24 27 42 


• Evenina 


, 24 17 4« 


fMornim^ 

.} Noon 


24 16 32 
24 27 OS 


\ Evenin^r 


24 19 L2 



Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



1815.] Reecvery 0f the Aachen Ma$s tf Native Iron* fS 

There appears to be a singurajr increase of the variatioa in the 
manth of Aprils more particularly so in May and June. Suspectii^ 
there mi^ht be some error, the source of which was in the instrii- 
men't, but which I eould not discover, I sent it to the maker, Mr, 
DoUond, who examined it, sharpened the point of suspension, and 

£ laced new agates in the needles, which alterations do not seem to 
ave affected the result of the observations. May it not therefote 
be justly inferred that the increase is real, and not apparent ? One 
circumstance is indubitable, which is, that the vibration of the 
msedle has been seldom, and of small extent, since the 20ih of 
February kst, on which day the needle vibrated between 28 and 29 
minutes. 

The immersion and emersion of i} Cancri was instantaneous, and 
no diminution of the star's light was perceptible. 

The dew which fell on the instrument rendered the observatioa 
on the 11th iitst. doubtful to a few seconds* 

SVaporatitii d«riii^ the wait period 2*70 



Article XI* 

Recovery of ike Aachen Mass of Native Iron. In a letter from 
Dr. Benzenberjf.* 

Kloster Britggen^ near Vrefitd^ Jkc. 15, 1814. 

You will already know that the great mass of native iron at 
Aachen, which had been lost, has been lately again found. I went 
last week to Aachen to see it, and can give you the following infor- 
mation respecting it. 

In the year 1762 Councellor Ixiber was with Maximilian Prince 
of Saxony at the baths of Aachen, as his physician. At the time 
they inhabited the bouse called Buchel, at the hew bath. Lober 
observed in the pavement an uncommonly large iron-stone. He 
requested liberty to dig it up, obtained it, and took some specimens 
of it. He gave some of the smallest to the physician Dr. Kretsch- 
mann^ in Xkesden, whose collection of minerals came into the 
possession of the University of Wittenberg. This Information is to 
be found in the Wittenberg Weekly Paper for 1773, page 56 ; 
from which it found its way into -he Memoirs of the Berlin Natural 
History Society, vol. vii. page 32S. By a mistake of the writer in 
both accounts, Aken is substituted for Aachen; and Chladni, who 
mentions this me^s of iron in his welUknown treatise, considers the 
place as Aken in Magdeburg, iictters were written to Aken on the 

f 
* Translated froikr Gilberts Annalea d6r Physlk for D^c. 1814, toI. xlvUi. p. 410. 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



$4 Recovery of the Aachen Mass of Native Iron. [JtrtY, 

subject; but tbere they knew of no mass of iron whatever. It 
was then referred to Aachen, in another paper which appeared in 
1804| on native iron. Probably the mistake was discovered by the 
reference to the baths in the original paper. 

In the year 1812 Dr. Chladni wrote to the Consistorial President, 
Frederick Jakobi, at Aachen, requesting information respecting 
this mass of iron. As Dr. Ledoinne could give no intelligeDce 
res{)ecting it, he and apothecary Monheim applied to the old town 
secretary > Couver. He recollected the diggmg up of the mass in 
1762, and that some pieces had been struck off, and deposited in 
the town-h0use, but had been soon after lost. The mass, he said, 
had been again deposited in the place from which it had been dug, 
and the surface again plastered over. Fourteen days after this in- 
formation Couver died, at the age of 78. 

Mr. Mouheim gave this information to Trommsdorf, who pub- 
lished it in his journal in 1812. PwrfessOT Weiss, in Berlin, endea- 
voured to interest the Academy in the re-discovery of this mass of 
iron in a town which belonged to the general government of 
Prussia. In consequence an order was obtained froqn tl)|B. Chancellor^ 
Prince Hardenberg to the Governor-Qeneral Sack to fulfil the 
wishes of the Academy. ^ 

The plaster being again removed, and the bottom examined for 
several days, the mass of iron was at last found, dug up amidst a 
crowd of people, and brought into the court of Mr. Biergans, Di- 
jrector oiF the Circle, where it lies at priesent, 

It is covered with iron ochre, and, like all similar masses, is of 
an irregular shape, approaching to the oval. Its length is four feet 
nine inches ; its breadth, two feet eleven inches ; and its thickness 
two feet six inches ; and its specific gravity, determine4 by a piece 
struck off from it, i$ 6'*^. The whole weight amounts to aboift 
10|0P0 lbs., supposing we reduce the size to ^ or |- in order tp conr 
vert it into a parallelogram. The coating of ochre is half a line 
thick. Under it there lies a kind of bs^rk half an inch thick, which 
may be easily separated from the stone. It is greenish, vesicular, 
and exhibits the marks of fire. Under thi^ covering lies the native 
$ron. It is extremely tough. In breaking pfi^ a few specimens, no 
fewer than eight chissels were broken. Mr. Monheim, a pupil of 
Vaiiquelin, has not yet finished his analysis of it^ but he has ascer* 
tained that it contains no nickel, but is composed pf about -J- arsenic 
and ^ iron. Perhaps also there may be a third met^l ; but it is in 
^o small quantity that Mr. Monheim has not yet determined its 
jJkture.* 

How this mass has come to Aachen, vye have no infprmatiou, 

* According to the stat«ment of Lo1?er, th^ weight pf this qsa^s of iron w^s 
]}^tween 15,000 and 17,000 lbs.,, and it was covered with acoatin; from an half tp 
one inch in thickness. It was malleable, and could be hardened and polished like 
the best Enf^lish steel. Klaproth found no nickel in the SOO lbs. of aative iron 
found at Villa, on the Colliua di Brianza } but in the 130158. froiu £Unbo|eo 6« 
fomd 2«5 per cent, of nickel.-.- Gilbert. 

^ Digitized by V^OOgie 



1815.] Explosion at the Success CoaUPit. 55 

The Goveraor-GeneFal ordered search to be made ; but the old 
chrooicles are wanting. There is a tradition among the people that 
it lay at the BUchel^ and that as long as it lay there the warm baths 
would never fail. Some are of opinion that when the castle of 
Charlemagne at Aaehen was burnt, the iron in it was melted, and 
formed this mass. Others are surprized that it was not destroyed in 
former times. My opinion is that W|S ought not, without knowing 
the conclusions of naturalists, determine any thing respecting the 
origin of this remarkable mass of iron. 



Article XII. 

An Account of the Explosion at ike Success Coal-Pit, near New* 
hottlCf in the County of Durham : draum up for the Annals of 
Philosophy. 

Another dreadful and destructive explosion of carbureted hy- 
drogen gas took place in the Success coal-pit, near Newbottle, in 
the county of Durham, the property of Messrs. Nesham and Co., 
on Friday, June 2, at half-past four o'clock, p. m. by which 5/ 
persons were killed upon the spot, besides several wounded. 

The immediate cause of this shocking catastrophe is not clearly 
ascertained ; though it is generally believed that the pitmen had 
inadvertently worked into the old workings, or some place where 
there had been a large collection of inflammable air. 

As ^11 the unfortunate labourers were instantly killed, and the 
explosion and consequent very rapid return of the atmospheric air 
after the explosion destroyed the headings and air courses, the 
whole of the colliery became so completely altered that no correct 
idea of the cause from appearances could be formed. It is also the 
opinion of well-informed persons, who were present at the time of 
the accident, that from some unaccountable circumstance the at- 
mospheric air could not be sent down m sufficient quantity, and in 
a proper direction, after the explosion, to those persons who might 
have escaped the destructive power of the explosion, who might live 
till their scanty supply of atmo^heric air became exhausted. 

When the explosion t6ok place, 7^ men and boys were at work 
at the depth of 108 fathoms; and though the greatest endeavours 
were made to relieve those distressed persons, only 15 survived^ 
some of whom are in a very precarious state. The explosion was 
so great as to carry every thing before it, till it was impeded in its 
progress by a large waggon, which, with the driver and horse, were 
dashed to pieces. 

Several men in the colliery, after they had escaped this tornado 
of fire, endeavoured to reach the shaft; but death arrested them on 
thek road ; for breathing an atmosphere surcharged with carbopic 
acid gas, their destruction now became inevitable. , ^^^^ 



56 Analyses of Books. [July, 

Some of the men survived till they were brought up the sh^ft into 
the atmosphere, when they died, perhaps unable to bear the sti- 
ibolus of the atmospheric air after the state of exhaustion in ivhich 
they had previously lived for some time, ,. 

After a considerable explosion takes place in a coal-mine, the 
pitmen dre often drenched with water, which is probably occasioned 
by the i^pid combustion of hydrogen gas in such a confined situa- 
tion, as may be readily understood by persons conversant with che- 
mistry. At the same time all the partitions and divisions bein^ 
broken down, whilst the air courses are converted into a complete 
wreck, and the whole atmosphere of the mine so much agitated, it 
is to be expected that the carbonic acid gas will be distributed 
through the bottom of the mine, and suffocation become the fiEite of 
those persons who escape the immediate effects of the explosion.-— 
Out of 19 horses only six died. 

It is melancholy to relate, that in the short space of a month 130 
useful and laborious persons have been iiumbered with the ^ead at 
Heaton and the Success collieries, leaving nearly 500 widows and 
orphans to be subsisted by charity and parochial assistance. 

It is curious, and j^erhaps worthy of remark, that Robsoii and 
Miller, accomplices with Edward Smiles in the robbery at Mr. 
Cuihbert Pye's, Scaffold Hill, some time ago, arc among^ the 
killed in the late accidents at Heaton and Success collieries; and 
upon the 3d inst., the day after the latter accident, Mr. Cuthbert 
I^e himself died at Scaffold Hill. 

The efforts at Heaton colliery, though very considerable, have 
irot yet been so far successful as to remove the water, and permit 
the interment of the unfortunates who were lost in that colliery. 

On Monday, June 5, another explosion occurred at the Tyne 
Main colliery, by which one man was severely, though not fatally, 
seorched. 

As mdst df the explosions in coal-mines have taken place in the 
summer season, it appears desirous that particular care be taken 
during the hot weather, which, perhaps, by expanding such an 
elastic fluid as hydrogen gas, may afford a facility to ^uch dreadful 
accidents. F. 

Neufcmthf June 12, }815. 



Article XIII. 

Analyses of Books^ 

1. Transaction^ of the Geological Society , Vojume 2d. London, 
William Phillip^, 1814. 

{Concludsd from Vol. v. p. 4$?.) 

XI. Account of the Coal- Field at Bradford, near Manchester. 
Py Robert Bakewcll,^TWs coal-field is about ^^o mil^lg^».^4 

jigi ize y g 



1815.] Transactions of the Geohgical Society^ Vol. 11/ BJ 

2000 yards broad* It lies orer the old red sand^stone. There are 
tea beds of coal, which dip to the south, at bd angle of about 30^< 
The other beds cotisitt of skte-clay and bitaminous shale, with 
iron-stone, sometimes in beds, sometimes in nodules. Above the 
first bed of ooal there lie three beds of lime^^stone, from two to sis 
feet in thickness, of a reddish-brown colour, and without animal 
remains; The most important bed of coal is about the middle, and 
is four feet thick. On the north side of the field, about ten yards 
from the red sand-stone, a perpendicular.bed of coal four feet thick 
rises to the surface. It terminates the coal. The space between it 
and the red sand-atone being filled with irregular fragments of rock, 
every thing shows that this perpendicular bed is the same as the 
four-feet 1^ in the coal-field. Fourteen hundred yards to the 
north of Bradford there is another coal*field. They are divided 
from each other by old red sand-stone. Mr. Bakeweil supposes that 
this sand-^one has been forced in horizontally between the two 
fields, ai^d has occasioned the change in the direction of the four* 
feet bed. He supposes likewise tbst the mill-stone grit of Derby** 
shire is a continuation of the old red sand^'-stone. 

XII. Some Acc&tmt of the Island of Teneriffe. By the Hon* 
Henry Grey Bennet, M.P. F.R^S. Pres. Geological Society. — ^ 
Tins is the principal of the Canary Islands. It is about JO milea 
long and SO broad. A range of mountains runs through its centre. 
The Peak is a little to the sooth- west of the centre. Its height is 
about 12,500 feet. The whole of the island is volcanic, and all its 
rocks are lava. Mr. Bennet conceives that formerly a very large 
crater (twelve miles in diameter) existed, the sides of which, under 
die name Ijos Faidasy may be still traced a great way. Manyt 
extinct volcanoes are to be seen every where. The crater at the top 
of the Peak is but small, and seldom in activity. The lavas vary in 
their appearance; some are composed of horn-blende and fek^r, 
without any foreign body ; these are porphyritic ; some are com- 
posed of green-stone, and contain olivine, augite, zeolites ; some. 
are basaltic. These decompose the soonest, and constitute the 
most fertile soil* There is also pumice in abundance, mfiEi, ashes, 
and a lava exactly resembling obsidian. Mr. Bennet gives *aa 
inieresting account of a journey which he made to the top of the 
Peak in 1810. 

XHL On the Junciiwi of Trc^ and Sand^stone at Stirling 
Castle. By Dr. Macculloch. — ^The appearance here described was 
laid open to view by digging a new road across the Castle Hill. 
Horizontal beds of stand-stone occur, at first thick, but becoming 
thinner as they ascend. Green-stone lies over them, and several of 
the beds of sand-stone appear forcibly bent upwards at one end, 
while the green-stone has insinuated itself below them, and filled 
up the interval. The sand-stone where in contact with the green- 
stone is converted into horn-stone, or rather flinty<^slate. This fact 
Dr. Macculloch brings forward as a confirmation of the Huttonian 
theory of the formation of green«stone. I have myself examined 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



58 Analyses of Books. [Jclt^ 

with all the requisite care the difierent spots of a similar nature 
pointed out by Dr. Button, or his foUowersj near Edinburgh, but 
never was able to perceive the force of any of their conclusions. I 
was long at a loss to conceive what was meant to be conveyed by the 
term mdurated sand-sione. At last a friend was good enough to 
show me specimens/ I found that the indurated sand-stone of Dr. 
Hutton and his followers is the mineral well known by the name of 
^inty slate. Dr. MaccuUoch mentions clay-slate as occurring in 
the rock of Stirling Castle. He obviously means slate-cla^. 

XIV. On the Economy of the Mines of Cornwall and Devon. 
By John Taylor, M. 6. S. — ^The mining concerns of Gtliat Britain 
being all under the management of individuals, without any con- 
troul whatever on the part of government, cannot be expected to 
proceed with such regularity, or to be conducted with such skill, 
as in those countries where the whole has been for ages under the 
management of men educated for the purpose, and where every 
particular relating to the mines has been from the first carefully 
recorded. Yet the improvements which have taken place in 
mining, especially in Cornwall, have been very great; and the 
vigour with which mining is carried on in that country is truly 
surprising. Mr. Taylor ascribes this in a good measure to the 
system which has been gradually introduced, and which he de- 
scribes. The owner of the soil lets the mine for 21r years to the 
adventurers, at a stipulated rate, which varies from -T^d part of 
the ore raised, to ^th part, according to circumstances. The 
mine is usually divided into 64 shares, which are parcelled out 
among the adventurers. .The mine is under the charge of a prin* 
dpal captain or agent, who has under him several subordinate 
captains. These are all practical miners of great skill and inte* 
grity. There are other subordinate persons connected wiih the 
mines, whom Mr. Taylor describes. The workmen are all emr 
ployed by the piece. The work to be done is put up to auction 
and given to the lowest bidder. These sales are open, and consi* 
derable competition often takes place at tliem. The work to be 
done is of three kinds : tutwqrk, tribute^ and dressing. Tutwork 
16 done by measure, as siuking of shafts, driving of levels, stop* 
ping ground. Tribute is payment for raising the ore, dressing it, 
and rendering it marketable. Dressing is money given for dressing 
those parts of the ore which the tributers throw away. * It is to 
this mode of raising ore by contract that Cornwall is indebted for 
the intelligence of its miners, and for most of the improvements 
in mining which have taken place in it. The ore, when dressed, 
is sold to the different tin and copper companies. 

XV. On the Origin of a remarkable Class of Organic Impress 
sions occurring in Nodules of Flint. By the Uev. William Cony* 
beare, M. G. S.-^-This substance was first observed hy Mr. Parkin*, 
son, and thus described by him: ^' Small round compressed 
bodies, not exceeding the eighth of an inch in their longest dia« 
meter and horizontally disposed, are connected by processes nearly 

Digitized by LjOOQI^ 



1815.] Transactions of the Geological Society ^ Vol. IL 59, 

bf the fineness of a hair^ which pass from different parts of each 
of these bodies, and are attached to the surrounding ones ; the 
whole of these bodies being thus held in connexion/' He classes 
them among the corals, acknowledging at the same time that they 
bear no resemblance to any known genus. Mr. Conybeare, in 
this paper, shoiit^ that they are silicious casts of cavities, which 
have been formed in different kinds of shells by some animalcule, 
which fed upon the substance of the shell, and which, after ex- 
hausting one place, made its way to another. 

XVI. A Description of the Oxide of Tin, the Production of 
Cornwall I of the primitive Crystal and its Modifications^ including 
an Attempt to ascertain with Precision the Admeasurement of the 
Angles by melans of the reflecting Goniometer of Dr. Wbllasttmi 
to which is added a Series of its crystalline Forms and Varieties. 
By Mr. William Philips, M. G. S.— This is a most elaborate and 
exact delineation of all the different crystalline figures which Mr. 
Philips has observed in Cornish tin ore, referred to the primitive 
figure of tin-stone and twelve modifications of it. But it would 
be impossible to render the paper intelligible to the reader without 
the numerous figures which accompany k, and indeed constitute 
its chief value. The primitive form is an octahedron, consisiting 
of two four-sided pyramids applied base to base. The plane 
formed by their junction is a square. The inclination of the iiicea 
of one pyramid to those of the other is 67^ 5(/. The twelve mo« 
difications, described by Mr. Philips, consist of the primitive form 
altered by various truncatures, (for the language of Rom^ de Lisle 
applies best to Mr. P's mode of describing,) on the angles and 
c^ges. The figures of the different crystals given by Mr. P. are in 
general very distinct and beautiful. 

XVil. On some neiv Varieties of Fo&sil Alcyonia. By Thomas 
Webster, M. G. S. — In the green sand- stone in the Isle of Wight, 
Mr Webster observed numerous bodies exactly resembling the 
branches of trees; in the lime-stone he observed 'small smooth 
round bodies, bearing a resemblance to eels in motion. These 
bodies occur in prodigious quantities in the romantic clifis of 
Western Lines. In that place they are found frequently termi- 
nating in bulbous heads, bearing a certain resemblance to a closed 
tulip. He considers them as casts of three or four new and hitherto 
undescribed species of alcyonia. 

XVIII. Miscellaneous Remarks accompanying a Catalogue of 
Specimens transmitted to the Geological Society. By Dr. Mac* 
calloch. — ^This long paper consists of remarks on the mineralogical 
structure of various places in Scotland. The Island of Rona con- 
sists chiefly of gneiss. There are many granite veins in which our 
author observed wolfram. Graphic granite is common, containing 
a mineral which *has been termed chalcedony. I believe it to be 
Toek crystal. Dr. M. makes some remarks on the impropriety of 
applymg the term greenstone to primitive transition and floetz 
yx)ckst His primitive green-stone is obviously syenite^ from the 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



€0 Analyses tff Books. [July^ 

description he gives of it* He will find this rock alivays the same 
in its appearanae^ whether it occur in primitive^ transition^ or 
floetz formations. Therefore^ like lime-stone^ it 'most always 
bear the same name. Good vpecimens of primitive greep-stone 
may be met with in the neighbourhood of Crieff. 1 do not recol*- 
kct to have met with them any where else in Scotland. I do nojt 
understand what is meant b]^ the floetz green-stone being inde* 
pendent of the rocks with which it is associated. If Dr. M. will 
travel from Kelso to Sutra HiU> on the road to Edinburgh^ he will 
find in the southern part of his journey^ abundance of very cha- 
racteristic specimens of floetz green-stone. As he advances north* 
ward, he will find these characters slowly and almost imperoeptibly 
bhan^ing, till at last the rock at Sutra Hill is pure grey-waicke. 
In this part of Scotland the transition from green-stone to grey^ 
wacke may be distinctly traced. What is more common than to 
find green-stone passing into basalt, into wacke, and even into 
«late-clay? Such transitions must be familiar to every person who 
1ms CKamined the rocks about Edinburgh and in Fife.. 

The Shiant Islands, near Lewes, are composed of trap ; but the 
Doctor's descriptions are not sufficiently minute and precise to 
-enable us to know the individual species* He terminates his ac^* 
count, as usual, with an invective against the inaccuracy of the 
present qomenckiture of rocks. Perhaps a more minute attention 
than be seems to have paid to the Wernerian division and descripr 
tion of trap rocksi would have induced him to alter his opinion 
4ipon this subject. It appears to me an odd way of proceeding tp 
estimate the progress which a science has made, by our own pro- 
gress in the knowledge of it. 

The Island of Rum is of so difficult access that it was only par- 
itially eitamined. The lowest rock found was a sand-stone, sup- 
posed to have^ been formed from granite. Over this was a green- 
stone, composed of augite and felspar, which Dr. M. thinks 
peculiar to Rum. It occurs, however, in East Lothian. Over 
this is An amygdaloid, containing clialcedony, heliotrope^ and 
plasma. The occurrence of these two last minerals in tms place 
had been previously pointed out by Professor Jameson. 

The Scuir of Egg, which in magnificence far exceeds the cele- 
brated columns of Staffa, was first pointed out by Professor Jame- 
son. Dr. M. says these columns are composed of black pitch-stone 
porphyry. I believe, with Professor Jameson, that they consist of 
a mineral intermediate between basalt and pitch-stone. 

Dr. M. gives an account of a very extensive lime-stone forma- 
tk)n, beginning at Assynt, and running east, and alternating with 
a quartz rock. He calls it bituminous lime-stone. This name is 
not correct. It contains carbon, and emits, when rubbed, the 
smell of sulphureted hydrogen. It belongs to the well-known 
lime-stone formation, described and analyzed by John, under the 
name of lucullite. It is not possible, from Dr. M.'s description, 
to make out its geognostic relations. I have little doubt that it is a 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



1815.] Transactions of ihe Gedagical Society ^ VoU IL €1 

transition liine*stone, as hicuHite has only been hitherto observed 
in that position. 

Our author gives a description of the linne-stone of Isia, and 
says it is the general opinion of the Scotch minerslogistt that it is a 
floetz lime-stoae. This is surely a mistahe. Mr. Jameson, in hit 
Traveis, calb it prin>itire lime-stone ; and as far as my inferiQation 
goes, this is the generabopinion at Edinburgh. How far it is oor* 
ivct, I have no means of knowbg, as I never visited the islands 

The craig of Ailsa is a well-known mountain, that rises out oftbo 
sea at the mouth of the Frith o( Clyde. Dr. M. rightly calls it a 
syenite. From its texture and resemblance to the syenite of Arran 
there can be little doubt that it is a floetz syenite. The rock of 
Syene is a true syenite. It doea not occasionally contain hornblende; 
that mineral is an essential constituent. Syenite is connected usually 
vnih porphyry, not with granite ; primitive syenite with primitive 
porphyry ; and floetz syenite with floetz porphyry. Hence the 
propriety of giving the same name to both ; and hence thcTeason 
io€ separating the rock from granite^ with which it is not con- 
nected. 

An account is given of Devar, an island at the harbour of Camp- 
bellton^ composed of felspar-^porphyry. Dr. M. says this rock 
eonstitutes the finest specimen of porphyry he has seen in Scotland. 
Much finer, however, exist in Arran. Our author's invectives 
against the word porphyry are very amusing. I am not aware that 
any ambiguity exists in the use of that term. Porphyry is a rock 
consisting of a basis containing crystals of felspar imbedded in it. 
Tliese crystals are essential to the stone, and therefore never want- 
ing. The term porphyry, like trap, is generic. The species arc 
distinguished by naming the base, and prefixing it to the term )x>r- 
phyry. Thus felspar^porphyry, clay-stone^porphyry, horn-stone^ 
porphj/ry, pilchrsione-porphyry, Incre is no ambiguity here. 
Every mineralogist knows, or ought to know, that these bases are 
connected together, and pass into each other. If I am told that a 
rock is composed of porphyry, I ask what porphyry ? The answer, 
felspap-porpnyry or clay-stone-porphyry, defines the species. It is 
true that porphyry occurs in difiS^rent- formations; so do trap and 
Kme-stone ; but it will be found that it assumes a similar position in 
all the different formations. 

Under the head Arran, Dr. M. introduces a- discussion whether 
granite ever occurs stratified or not, and terminates as follows: — 
•* We have, however, a perfect certainty that it {Arran gramte) is 
not stratified, because veins are found arising from it, and entering 
the mass of incumbent schistus in the well-known junction at Loch 
Ranza.'' I do not perceive the force of this mode of reasoning. Dr. 
M., I dare say, will admit sand-stone to be a stratified rock ; yet 
veins of it passing into the incumbent rock are not uncommon in 
quarried! near Edinburgh. 
Under the head of Portsoy, Dr. M. enters into some speculations 

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62 Analyses of Books, (Juxy^ 

about the origin of the ciy^tab of schorl, &C4 They have some* 
times the appearance of being broken^ and* sometimes are incur^^ 
vated. I conceive the broken appearance is merely, a deception 
arising. from the simultaneous formation of various crystals^ which 
are intermixed with each other. I have seen similar appearances in 
the crystallization of various mixtures of salt in my own laboratory* 
The curve must also have been the original state of the crystal which 
Dr. M. describes. . I recollect several years ago to have obtained^ 
crystallized in a common phial, large, curved crystals of muriate of 
strontian. The crystal of schorl passing through garnet must be- 
explained on similar principles. 

Craig Cailleach, a mountain near Killin, is composed of chlo- 
rite-slate, and contains veins and nodules of quartz. In thiH quartz 
crystals of rutile occur. 

Dr. M. enters into some speculations respecting the contortions in 
the strata of mica-slate visible at Loch Lomond, and infers that they 
must have been produced by the action of external forces. The 
reasoning of the Huttonians on this subject is well known. The 
• subject ought to be considered in a more general point of view thaa 
has hitherto been done. Nothing is more usual than to find granite,, 
gneiss, marble,; lime-stone, green-stone, basalt, &c. composed of 
granular distinct concretions. A section of all such rocks would 
yield the same appearance of contortions. The apparent contor- 
tions in mica-slate, and in the contemporaneous veins which Dr. 
M. has drawn, are owing to the same cause, whatever it is, that haa 
produced the granular distinct concretions in the above-mentioned 
rocks. It is impossible to ascribe this to an external force. It 
must be owing to a law connected with the original formation of the 
stone similar to that which produces the various cleavages in crys- 
tals, and depending obviously upon the same cause. 

Dr. M.'s observations on grey-wacke and transition slate appear 
to me perfectly just ; though I am not aware that they possess any 
novelty. They may, however, be useful in drawing the attention 
of English mineralogists to the definition of a term which they are 
in the habit of using with too much latitude. I do not think that 
the term mechanical, in the usual sense of the word, can be applied 
to grey-wacke. 1 believe it was originally formed in the same state 
as it exists in at present, and that it is not a true sand-stone. 

Our author terminates his paper with an account of the rocks 
about Aberfoyle and Loch Ketterin. He considers them as grey- 
wacke alternating with mica-slate. As far as I could make out these 
rocks, for I have been on the spot, they are primitive ; sometimes 
mica-slate, sometimes quartzose clay-slate. There can bei no 
doubt that the primitive rocks graduate imperceptibly into the tran- 
sition ; but so do the transition into the floetz, as may be seen very 
well in Berwickshire ; so that if this gradation were sufficient, as 
the Doctor supposes, for inducing us to confound the primitive 
and transition rocks, it would be equally sufficient to induce us to - 



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Google 



1815.] Transactions of the Geological Society^ Vol. U. fiS 

confound the primitive, transition^ and floetz rocks^ and to abolish 
all distinctions whatever. Such gradual transitions might have 
been expected, and indeed we're previously well known. 

XIX. Remarks on several parts ofScoitand whick exhibit Quartz 
Rock) and on the Nature and Connections of this Rock in general. 
By Dr. Macculloch. — Our indefatigable mineralogist describes, in 
the first place, the mountains of Jura, which are chiefly composed 
of a granular quartz. He endeavours to show that this quartz fs in 
reality a sand-stone formed of disintegrated granite : that it some- 
times contains clay, sometimes rounded grains of felspar, and some* 
times rolled masses or pebbles of quartz itself. No mode of rea* 
soning is more apt to lead into mistakes than this. And I am 
strongly inclined to believe that on the present occasion Dr. 
Macculloch has misled himself by his own Ingenuity; at least 
no specimen of this rock which I ever saw contained a single 
true fragment, or gave any evidence that it was any thing else 
than true granular quartz. He then gives an account of the 
quartz rock which occurs in Sutherlandsbire, at Schihallien, and 
in several other places. In all these, acco]:ding to him, it is eiactlj 
of the same nature as at Jura. Now at Jura it is covered by mica- 
slate; therefore mica-slate, he infers, is of later formation thaa 
sand-stone, and consequently ought to be struck out of the list of 
primitive rocks. This mode of reasoning is not accurate. Quartz 
rock occurs in primitive, transition, and floetz formations, provided 
the old red sand-stone be included under it. Primitive quartz rock 
is not a sand-stone, but a granular quartz ; so is transition quartz 
rock; but floetz quartz is a true sand-stone, at least in many cases. 
Primitive quartz rock forms beds in mica-slate as in Jura, in gneiss 
and granite in Braemar, in mica-slate in Schihallien, in clay*slate 
in Beniwhone. It occurs also in grey-wacke. It occurs in the 
coal formation, and among the floetz rocks. In this respect quartz 
rock agrees with lim^-stone, trap, porphyry. There is notliiog 
wonderful in finding this recurrence. Nor does it militate in the 
least against the doctrine of formations, or the division of rocks into 
primitive, transition, and floetz. That division is founded entirely 
upon petrifactions. None exist in primitive. They exist in traiisi* 
tion rocks ; but only the lowest classes of vegetables and animals 
are found in this position. The floetz rocks contain petrifactions 
more similar to the living beings that now exist ; and this similarity 
increases as we descend in the series. Remove these grand distinc- 
tions, and the whole doctrine of rocks is plunged into confusion* 
Retain them, and the whole is clear. When the same rock occurs 
in different classes, we have only to apply to it the name of the class 
in which it is found to keep every thing distinct : and we have only 
to abstain from applying the observations which we make upon a 
rock when it occurs in one class ta the same rock when it occurs ia 
another class, to prevent our falling ioto mistakes, and drawing 
absurd consequences. 
XX. Notice relative to the Geology of the Coast of Lairador* 



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fi4 Amhfs$s qf" Books. (J^i-Y» 

By the Rev. Mr. Steinbaueni«f-The United Brethren have visited 
this coast 9$ nissiaDaries, Tbc^y formed a aettlemttnt at Nain, in N. 
lat. 56"^ 38' ; and aft«rw«jpda two others, Okkak in lat. 58^ 43^ and 
liopeland in lat. 55^ 36\ It ia by the«a missipQaries that all the 
Labrador minerals have been mat to Eur(]f>e. The present notice 
la drawn up from the information of the missionaries. The coast is 
mountainous and nearly barren^ the rocks being bare of soil. Deep 
rifts are cpmmen^ as if they were veins not yet filled up. The 
rooks^ as far as observed, are primitive ; granite and chlorite are 
particularly meationed ; both the Hypersten and the Labrador kU 
spar seem to occur in primitive rocks. Floetz or transition rocks 
occur at Hopedale ; for lime-stone has been found there containing 
madrepores. The height of the mcmntains is estimated at 3000 feet. 

XXI. Memoranda relative to Clovellyj North Devm^-^By the 
Aev. L I. Conybeare, M. G. S.-r~This is a very interesting {laper. 
The rooks at Clovelly are grey-wacke and grey-wadic-slate. Several 
distinct drawings are given of the contortions of the beds. Who- 
ever will take the trouble to examine these drawings will see how 
Vtterly impossible it is to account for these contortions by the 
squeezing system, which has been, brought forward with such 
parade. The view of Mr. jConybeare with respect to the Cornbh 
clay-slate is the same which I myself gave in my paper on Corn* 
wall. But there are some circumstances which throw doubts upon 
the real position of the Cornish slate. The slate at Plymouth is 
undoubtedly transition ; yet it possesses all the characten of the 
killas of Cornwall. This transition slate may be traced as far west 
as St. Michael's Mount; and from the direction of the beds there 
can be no doubt that it passes under the granite, which constitutes 
the greatest part of that mount. Indeed, upon the south-west side 
of the mount it may be found alternating with that granite. Hence 
the mere appearance of the killas is not sufficient to constitute it a 
primitive rock. We have no proof at present to the contrary ; but 
the discovery of any petrifactions in it would be a decisive prooft It 
is to be hoped, therefore, tbat tl^ Gentlemen in Cornwall who are 
interested in the subject will endeavour to ascertain whether any 
such petrifactions exist in it or not. 

XXII. On Stqfa. By Dr. Macculloch.— Stafla has been so 
often described that little remains to be said respecting it. Dr. M« 
visited it^ twice, and examined it with as much care as possible* 
The columns, he says, are basalt. From the specimens which I 
have examined, I conceive that the term porphyry-slate is more 
applicable to the rock of Stafia than basalt. The Doctor refuses to 
admit the presence of trap tuff in Staffa, though there cannot be 9 
doubt that the pillars stand upon trap tuff. Trap tuff is not a 
breccia, as Dr. M. supposes. Nothing is more easy than to study 
this rock, as a considerable part of Arthurseat is composed of it. 
Its base is a reddish-^b^own clay. It contains what has the appear- 
ance of fragments of other stones ; but a careful examination will 
^tisfy any person that they are not real fragments, but mioer^Is^ 

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1815,] Transaciions of the Geohgkal Sodeiy^ VoL //• 65 

vMch have bew deposited at the same time with the clayey basis. 
t consider traptuif not as a breccia^ but as an original rock. Dr^ 
M* observed rolled masses of granite, gneiss, and other primitive 
rocks upon Stafla. He supposes that this had escaped the observa- 
tion of preceding observers. But this is a mistake. I am pretty 
sure that the same observation was made by Faujas de St. Fond; 
though I have it not in my power at present to consult his book« 
Mr. Mills mentions the same thing in his paper published in the 
Philosophical Transactions, 1790, vol. Ixxx, p. 73. 

XXIII. On Vegetable Remains preserved in Chalcedony. By Dr, 
Macculloch. — Nothing is more common than to observe in agates 
arborizations having a close resemblance to plant:.-. The same thing 
occurs in chalcedony. Daubenton many years ago wrote a paper 
on the subject, in which he even names the species of plant con- 
tained in the chalcedony which be examined. Dr. M. likewise 
collected a great many of these chalcedonies, and the result of a 
careful examination satisfied him that true plants, chiefly confervas 
and mosses, occur in chalcedonies ; though very perfect imitations 
of them are often produced by chlorite. To distinguish the true 
plant, he applies sulphuric acid to the mineral, if the acid be 
blackened he concludes that a true vegetable exists in the stone ; if 
not, he considers the appearance as owing to chlorite. It would be 
difficult.to convince me that such delicate vegetables a^ confervas 
and mosses can exist in chalcedonies, without so much as their co- 
lour or texture being altered, I am rather disposed to ascribe 
these appearances to manganese^ iron, &c. occasionally mixed with 
bitumen. This bitumen I conceive colours the sulphuric acid^ 
and leads to the conclusion that vegetable matter is present. iThe 
fact that some of the lines in agates are blackened by sulphuric 
acid, mentioned by Dr. Hamel in a late number of the Annals, 
shows that bituminous matter is a pretty frequent constituent of 
agates. , 

XXIV. On the vitreous Tubes found near to Drigg in Cimler^ 
land. Compiled by the secretaries from several communications* 
—These tubes have been found in liillocks of drifted sand at the 
mouth of the Irt in Cumberland. The first account of them was 
sent to the Society in 1812 by Mr. Irton of Irtonhall, Cumberland. 
Three were found in a single area of 1 5 yards, forming a hillock 
elevated 40 feet above the lev^ of tlie sea. The diameter of each 
was about an inch and a half. Within they consist of a very hard 
glass, which strikes fire with steel. One of them was traced to the 
depth of 30 feet without terminating, though it became smaller. 
The sand falling in prevented the continuance of the excavations : 
the sand consists of quartz mixed with grains of horn-stone por- 
phyry. By the blow-pipe urged by a stream of oxygeu gas, this 
sand was imperfectly vitrified, so as to resemble the inside of the 
tubes. The most probaWe opinion is, that these tubes have been 
formed by the action of lightning. 

Vol, VI. N^ I. £ 

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66 Proceeiingi of Pkitosdpkical Societies. [Jirtt, 

IL jin tnd$x to the Anatomical, Medical^ CMturgical and Physio^ 
logieal Papers contained in ihe Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London I from the coinrrkencement of that fVork to the end of the 
year IslSi chronologically and alphabetically arranged. Callow^ 
&c. London* 

The PhiIo60]yhical Transactions contain perhaps a greater t)um» 
ber of valuable papers on medical and physiological subjects, than 
any other publication whatever. But they are so voluminous (hat 
it k a* very difficult and laborious task to ascertain what they cotl* 
tain. Hence the utility of good indexes, which serve greatly to fa-* 
cilitate the investigations of the medical student. The present In- 
dex is very well executed, and calculated in every respect to answer 
the purposes for which it was intended. 



Article XIV. 

Proceedings of Philosophical Societies* 

ROYAL SOCIBTY. 

On Tliufsday the 25th of May, a paper by Dr. ftirry i;^^ read ort 
the cause of the pulsation of the arteries. He stated the opinion of 
Haller, which is generally received by physiologists; and that of 
Bichat, who liad rejected Haller's explanation in consequence of 
his dissections of living animals. Dr. Parry then stated the results 
which he himself had obtained by laying open the arteries of living 
sheep and rabbits. No alteration in the siz6 of the artery could be 
J)erceived, but a motion of the artery back\vards and forwards, cor- 
responding to the inspiration and expiration of the animal. Dr. 
Pany conceives that the artery is a tense tube always full of blood, 
and that when its diameter is diminished by external pressure, the 
blood makes an effort to restore the original size. Hence the pul- 
sation. I do not see clearly how this supposition will account for 
the various diseased states of the pulse well known to medical men, 
unless we ascribe the aberrations in all these cases to the heart. 

At;the same meeting, part of a paper by Mr. Donovan was read, 
giving an account of a new vegetable acid, discovered by him in the 
juice of the berries of the sorbus aucuparia, together with sorpe ob- 
servations on malic acid. He extracted the juice of the ripe berries 
by pressure, precipitated by acetate of lead, washed the precipitate 
in boiling water, and threw the whole upon the filter. A hard 
white mass remained opon the filter, and the liquid which passed 
through deposited, on cooling, fine, white, silky, needle-form crys- 
tals. Scheele had stated the acid in these berries to be the ma- 
lic. But malate of lead had never been observed to crystallize. To 
rleair up the subject, Mr. Donovan saturated the juice of ripe apples 
with potash, and precipitated the liquid by acetate of lead. The 

6 

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precipitate treatie^ ^ith boiling water, a3 in the preceding 049^, 
yielded similar silky crystaU ; but the substance remaining on tHQ 
filter was a soft magma. Gaose;berr^ juice treated in the same way 
yieldeci no crystals 3 nor raspberry juic^j^ npr the juice of elder her- . 
ries, nor of sedum tectorum, nor green apples, ^ Thus it appears, 
that acetate qf lei^d precipitates two.di&neot acids in the first two . 
li(^ds. The first aa acid not hitherto observed| which reftdily 
fgrms a super$alt with oxide of lead soluble jn hot water; an4 thi^ 
solution on cooling deposits the neutral salt in silky crystals s 
the second malie acid, which forms with osJde of lead ^ salt not 
capable of crystallizing. To obtain the n^w acid in a state of pu« 
rity, tlie colourless silky crystals are to be treated .with a quaQtiiy 
of sulphuric acid capable of saturating the greater port, but hot the 
whole^ of the oxide of lead pres/eqt. The liquid beinff filtered to 
separate the sulphate of lead, a current of sulphgreted hydrogen U 
driven through it till the whole remaining ojiide of lead is throvra 
down. The filtered liquid is now boiled for some time, and then 
exposed to the air for a few days to get rid of the i^ulphureted by^* 
dfogen. 

On Thursday the Ist of June, Mr. Dompvau's paper was conti- 
nued. To the acid thu$ obtained he gave the name of sorhic aqid« 
It possesses the following properties. It i3 colp^rless. Itis taste is 
intensely sour, and it reddens vegetable blues. It doea npt crystal- 
lize. It does not readily undergo spontaneous decomposition. Mr., 
Donovan kept a quantity of it in a phial for ^ year : no other 
change happened except the deposition of a Very small quantity 0^ 
mucilaginous matter* It combines with oxide of lead m thre^^ prp-^ 
portions, forming, 1. Subsorbate of lead, which is a Iwrd white 
insoluble powder. 2* Sorbate, which may be obtained either iq 
powder or in crystals, and which is likewise insoluble. 3. .Super<« 
sorbate, which does not crystallize. The alkaline supersorbates may 
be all obtained in the state of crystals. It forms soluble salts witj^ 
barytes, lime, aqd magnesia. It does not combine with alumina* 
Tiie3^ properties sufficiently, distinguish this acid fro^ the malic. 

Mr, Donovan likewise related his experiments on the preparatioii 
of malic acid. He found none of the methods recommexuled by 
Scbeele capable of furnishing pure malic acid. He considers Vau« 

Juelin's process for preparing malic acid from the juice of the se» 
urn tectorumas the only one that yields a tolerably pure acid. | 
may observe here, that about 10 years ago I made some experi-^ 
ments on the preparatbns of malic acid, and found that upless it 
be freed from mucilage before precipitation with lead, it cannot af«- 
terwards be separated from a considerable quantity of. gummy mat- 
ter which seenas to fall down in combination with the lead. I a5<- 
cribe most of the difEculties which have occurred to chemists in 
preparing this acid, to not animadverting to this circumstance. 

Mr. Donovan conceives it likely that the bitter principle which 
exists at first in various fruits and disappears ^ they advance tp jmr 
turity, may be the basis of some of the vegetable acids. 

^ ^ . Digitized by V^OOgle 



69 Proceedings tf PKitosopbkal Societies, . [Jxtly, 

At the same meeting a paper by Sir Everard Home', Bart, on thv 
respiratory organs of some genera of vermes that live in water^ was 
read. These organs consist of a number of openings on both sides 
of the, neck, which lead into spherical or flattened balls. Water 
passes through these openings into the bags, and is afterwards 
thrown out again. The reason why the water does not enter at 
the mouth as in fishes, is because these antmafs, as the leech, re- 
quire their mouths for suction, either to procure food oi to fasten 
themselves to other bodies. 

On Thursday theStb of June, a paper by Dr. Brewster was read 
on the multiplication of images and colours which accompany 
them in some specimens of Iceland spar. Towards the end of the 
session of the Royal Society, the nmxiber of papers presented is 
usually so great, that only a small portion of them can be read to 
the Society. On this account nothing can be added to the notice 
of Dr. Brewster's discovery relative to this subject given in the last 
number of the Armals of Philosophy, 

At the same meeting a paper by C. Babbage, Esq. was read, en- 
titled. On the Calculation of Functions. This he informed us is a 
new species of calculus, which will require new methods of investi- 
gation. But as only the introduction of the paper was read, it is 
impossible to give any farther account of it. 

At the same meeting a paper by Dr. Herschelt on the satellites 
of the Georgium Sidus, with, some observations on the space pene- 
trating power of telescopes, were also read. TT?ie object of the pa- 
per was to furnish data to astronomers to determine the number 
and orbits and periodical times of the satellites of this very remote 
planet. He described the orbits and periods of two of the sateU 
lites, supposed that another exbted within them, and probably three 
Otheis without them. 

On Thursday the 15 th June, a paper by Sir Everard Home, Bart. 
was read, on the mode of generation of the hmpree and myxine. 
He found by a great many dissections at different periods during 
the summer, that these ^animals are all hermaphrodites; those, 
which were supposed to be males, producing eggs as well as the sup- 
posed females. 

At the same meeting a paper by Anthony Carlisle, Esq. was 
read, on the connection between the extravascular and vascular 
parts of animals. Hair, feathers, nails, hoofs> are extravascular 
substances, and possess no vessels. The chief object of the paper 
was to show, that the shells of shell-fish and snails are likewise 
without vessels. They cannot be injected. Their membranes do 
Hot exhibit the same appearance as those that contain vessels. 
When a piece of snail-shell was broken o% the injury was repaired 
by a viscid substance appKed internally, and then layers of calca- 
reous matter were laid over it. 

* At the same meeting a paper by John George Children, Esq. 
was read, on the effects of a very large galvanic battery. It consisted 
of 20 pair of zinc and copper plates 6 ktt long and 2 feet 6 inches 

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191^.] Rogal Sodety. 69 

broad, joined together by straps of lead and plunged io a miztiire 
of nitric and sulphuric acids, diluted with from 20 to 40 times 
their «yeight of water. By this battery metallic wires were ignited 
in the following order, beginning with the wire most easily ig« 
ntted. 

Platinum Copper 

Iron Silver 

Gold Zioc 

Tin and lead are so fusible, that with them the experiment could 
not be tried. Mr. Children considers the ignitability as the inverse 
of the conducting power of the metals ; therefore platinum conducts 
worst and zinc besf of the above six metals. When the two poles 
of tlie battery were connected by two parallel platinum wires of dif- 
ferent sizes,' the thick wire was ignited and not the fine one ; but 
when the two wires were tied one to the end of the other^ the fine 
wire was ignited first. 

Iro)] wire was slit, some diamond powder put itito the slit, and 
this powder surrounded by iron wire above and below. The wire 
was raintly ignited. The diamond powder disappeared and the iron 
wa^ converted into steel and partly fused. This demonstrates the truth 
of Clouet's original experiment, which was afterwards verified by 
Sir George Mackenzie. Iridium was fused by the battery and re- 
duced to a porous globule of the specific gravity 18*6. Oxide of 
tantalum was fused and reduced. Tlie metal was of a yellowish 
colour and brittle. Oxide of cerium was fused without being re- 
duced. This was the case also with oxide of titanium. Oxide of 
tungsten was reduced and fused« The metal was grey /and very 
heavy. Oxides' of molybdenum and uranium were likewise fused 
and reduced, and both metals were brittle. 

The titles of the following papers were read, in order to entitle 
them to insertion in the next volume of the Transactions ; want of 
time rendering it impos^ibl^ t6 read thje papers themselves at full 
length. 

Considecatioiis on the SolutioB of Bodies in Liquids, by Mr. 
Daniell. 

On the Dispersive Properties of the Air, by Mr. Stephen Lee. 

Considerations on the Vascular System of Animals, by Dr. Philips. 

The Polar DistaOices of SO Circumpolar Stars, by John Pond^ 
Esq. Astronomer Royal. 

The Society adjourned during the long va^tion. 

N.B. In the last number ef (he AnitaU of Philosophy^ the nanerical rcmlti of 8eTe> 
jral of Mr. Porrett's analyses of Prussic aci4 and its compounds were inaccurate, 
Tht following are the correct numbers, which Mr, Porrett has been lO oblif iag as 
4o communicate. 
IjOO Prnssiate of mercury are composed of 

Prussic acid IS*8 

Peroxide of mercury... m #»••« •«•#!•••• 86*8 

1000 

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7d Sciefliific Intelligence. (Jutr, 

AAole.'. 4 ...'. ..;....* .*..\ 46-7 

Carbon. i , ,34*8 

^ H^dpf CO »..••., ^ S4-5 

100-0 
fitilphnreted cbyazicacl^iKa e<)mpound of 4 atoilis of sulphur 4- I atom Prnssic 
acid. Ferrureted cbyazic ncid U a compound of 1 atom black oxide of iron + 4 
atoms Prossic ^cid, ^ 

LlK*r^.AM SOCIETY. 

Oa 'Tuesday the 6th of June a paper by Dr. Benjanoift Smith 
Barton was read, giving an account of a singular bird lately ob- 
served in the tJnitpd States ofAinericaj which he considers as a 
pew. species of tantalus. 

On Tuesday the 20tK of June a paper by Mr. J. Murray Was 
read, cotataining experiments on the application of vegetable poi- 
sons to anknals. ' He laid bare the crural nerve and muscle of the 
hind leg of a frog, and applying the poisonous juide to the part, 
tried whether the muscle could be excited by a galvanic battery. 
Opium destroyed the excitability in 5 minutes ; but the addition of 
citfic acid restored it again^ Tincture of digitalis produced no ef- 
fect. A considerable number of similar experiments were related.. 
• . At; the same meeting a paper by Mr. Bicheno was read, describ- 
ing three native species of orchis, hitherto very frequently con* 
founded together. 

\At the same meeting a Latin paper by Sir Justly Green, Bart* 
Uras read, describing 40 species of phascum. 

'}*iie Society adjourned during the long vacation. 



Aaticle XV. 

l^tBlT^triC It9tBi»]:.l«£NC£^ AND NOTfCSS OF StJBJBCTS 
CONNBCTED WITH SCIJSNCB. 

I. R^fol Medical Society t Edinburgh 

*Rit Koyal Medical Society propose^ a« the subject of thdr prize 
|5ssay for tlie year 1816, the following question: — 

** What chatigcs of composition docs the process o^ digestion in 
quadrupeds produce, on earths, oxides, and earthy, alkaline, and 
Jtaetallic salts ? '* 

A set dr books^ pr a medals of five guineas value, will be given 
annually to the author of the best dissertation on an experimental 
subject proposed by the Society; for which all the members, 
honorary, extraordinary, and ordinary, shall alone be invited as 
candidates. 

The dissertations are to be written in English, French, or Latin, 

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and to be delivered to the Secretary on or before the 1st of Decem- 
ber of lh« wiccetding year to that in which the $uhjecta are pro- 
posed ; and the adjudication of th« prize will take place in the last 
week of February followipg. 

To each dissertation shall be prefixed a motto; and this motto is 
to pe written on the outside of a sealed packet, containing the name 
and address of the author. No dissertation will be received with 
the author's name afiixed ; and all dissertations, except the success- 
ful one, will be returned, if desired, with \\\e scaled ^pafik^X un- 
opened. 

II. Native Boracie Acid. 

Mr. Smithson Tennant first observed native boracie acid attached 
to some specimens from Lipari. Dr. Holland afterwards visited ibis 
place, and found boracie acid in large quantity within the crater of 
VolcaBO, fofrtiing a white feathery covering to the sulphur, which 
is deposited from sublimation in various parts of this ^reat cavity. — 
(Siee Holland's Traveh in Greece, p. 9.) 

III. Climate of Athens. 

It aippeftts from a note in Dr. Holland's Travels, p. 411, that at 
Attiem the thermometer sometimes rises in summer to 104*^, and 
that in winter it falls as low as 2SP. In Jrfy the thermometer k 
frequently above 90°. The average quantity of rain that falls is 
stated at only 21 or 22 inches j 1 presume French, as the observer, 
M, Fauvel, was a Frcnchmaa. 

IV. Table of Passengers^ WeggonSf &fc. that cross London Bridge 
and ilackfriars Bridge m one Day. 
The day chosen by the Directors of the Southwark bridge was ii^ 
July, 181 1. A rate is fixed for the purpose of showing the pro- 
prietors of the Southwark bridge the probable quantity of money 
that may be raised on that new bifidge :— • 





Rat«. 


Lorndoii Bridge. 


Blackfriars Br. 


Foot paiieBg^rp ••.•.....•••••.••••• 

Waggons 

Cam aad dray» . * f ••- 


d. 

I 

n 

• 4 
6 

'h 

ftc. tot 


89,640 

' 769 

2,924 

1,246 

485 

ti4 


S, s, d. 

Sis 10 

d& 12 8 

48 14 8 

3t (H 

8 1 8 

4 15 e 


61,069 

1,502 
990 
500 

822 


-254 8 4 
IT 15 4 
25 S 
24 15 


f2itre anA #a Y^<1 CaTtS .....••« 


8 d 8 


Hones • *••'•• 


6 2 


Dedact half the amount ol waggons, 


491 14 6 
5f S 1 


335 fi 9 
40 10 S 








432 12 3 


804 &8 6 



The transit over Blackfriars hridge is nearly double what it was 
six years before the above account was taken, . 



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y2 Scientific Iniettigence* [Jt7£V^ 

V. Further Observations on Mr. Lackharfs Imaginary Cube 

. Roots* 

(To Dr. Thom^ooO 
" SIR, 

Mr. Lockhart seems to have made a mistake in one of the signs 
of the root connected with / ; when corrected, his roots will stand 
thus: 



~ + V4« »V4 — r 

-T"^V-*-T --F + VT-T 

But, as Mathematicus justly observes, any quantity " in which the 
square root enters admits of two values 5 '' the above roots may be 
more conveniently expressed thus— 



"• "T + V ~ "" ~ 

In which formula, if the upjper sign be used in the first, the upper 
sign must likewise be used in each of the roots, and the contrary. 
It may be proper, before I make any further observations, to point 
out the part of Mr. L/s demonstration where the error appears to 

have oi'jgiqated. In extracting the square root of -j- — 5- -f- 
•4- — -5^ he has overlooked the ambiguity of the quantity 

i/"T "J* But a» the quantity originally squared was + ""^•^^ 



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1815,J Scieniific InteUy^mce. ^ 

and Bot "— , U it would therefore be improper, in the present 

case, to use the sign — , and consequently Mr. L/s equation 

should have been + (y - O • \/^ T =* ^ T "" "i"'^^ 

its equal - (^- 4"}-VT"^ 4" = \/t "" "S" ' **"* *«^ 
by proceeding as he has done we obtain — -| \/ T — T *^ 

3 gc y -a as"* 

vZ-j- — \/-T -gf> the same as the root given above. But 

it ought not to be forgotten that Mr. L., notwithstanding the abovie 
oversight, has the merit of being the first who has pointed out the 
method of finding the cube roots of a binomial, by means o( tl^ 
three roots of" the cubic equation with which that binomial is con- 
nected. 

If we take the equation employed -by Mr. L., viz. or' — 24 x sr 

72, where x s= 6, / = 3 + ^/ — 3 and i; = 3 — V — 3, the 

binomial and roots will be as follows : V^ 36 ± \^ 78* = i^ €4 
. ^ 8, according as the jupper or under sign is used. 

First root = -1 ± y^^ - ^ = 3 ± 1 = 4 or 2. 

Second root = - (?.Lf^) ^ y^- (^ -. + ./ZIs) 
_ - f-i^) * (UJ^j :. ^ (2 + 2 V-^) or 
.- (1 - ^/"^^. _________ 

Third root= ^ C^^=^) ^ \/- (t" + T ^^ 
•= - C-^0 =i= C-::^^!^) = - (2-2 V^)or 

-- (1 + V- 8)- 

So that When the upper signs are used^ we obtain the cube roots 
•of 64 4 but when we use the under ones, the results are the cube 
roots of 8. Hence it appears that N. R. D. was not <' too posi* 
tive '' when he said, '* it is not the cube root of 64, but of 8 ; ** 
for be used the sign given by Mr* L., and then the quantity is a 
cube root of 8, as appears from the above. The reason why Dr. 

Tiarks made it a cube root of 64, was hb using — f **" ^ "^ M 
+ ("" V/ "" (t "" T a/ — 3)J, instead of the quantity givin 



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74 Scwniific Inteiligence. ' [Jott, 

by Mr. L. ilz. - (i±^) + f ^T^fTXTE^j 

As the abdve SIX different quanthies ate, if I mjstake not, at// the 
different values of ivhicb the three formula for the roots gtAmitf it 
follows that they give all the Cube roots of both 64 and 8, which 
were before known^ and 2zo mor^^ It may likewise be observed^ that 

X as V 36 ± >• J^4'y being an equation of six dimensions^ ought, 
•ccordifig to tbe received opioion, to have six different roots ; but 
it has been shown above tnat it has just six roots^ and no more : 
thfs therefore ^rees exactly with that opinion. 

When Mr. Lockhart speaks of binomials in their vanishing state 
hftving *^ fum^tions and connections widely different from those de- 
duced from binomials which are evanescent,'^ I am not certain 
that I understand him perfectly : if he mean to tell us that 

V64-r\?^96— ^^96 IS not ifnlversally equal to 

ii/ SB -f a/ 78*^> I perfectly ogree with bim ; for the former is 

equal to 1/^^64 :p 0, and the latter to ekhe? (/ €4 or J/ 8; the 
one being an equation of three dimensions, and the other of six. 
Keither do I clearly (Jomprehend what he means, when he speaks 
about the roots of equations being preserved in some casea^ and 
extinct in others. 

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 
jfemtanf-vfxm'Tsf^f *f^*^ *6> 1816. Hbnry Atkinson. 

Vi. Sale of Minerals. 

We &r)s. infonn^d that the extensive and valuable collection of 
minerals of the Rev. R, Hennah,' late pf St. Austell, in Cornwall, 
and which is now in the possession of his son, the Rev. R. Hennah, 
cf Kymotith, consibtiug of nearly 2000 specimens of the most rare 
tmA curious productions of that county, particularly of ^s, is to 
be disposed of. 

VII. Newcastle Collieries. 

The Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
is engaged in the publication of two tracts on the means of esta- 
Uishing authentic records relative to the state of the collieries in 
that neighboQrhood, and to other points which* promise to be both 
ef locet and <nat)onal ifxipertaiice. We have no doubt that much 
ciitioQ^ and valuable information will resuk from the labours of ibis 
'Society, which include nearly aU the well-informed ikien of New* 
caistle and hs neighbourhood. 

VIIL iist^ of the Whale. 
In a paper on the whale by Mr. Seoresby^ printed in the first 
Siunber of the Anmdls 4^ Philosofiky, that Gentleman sayi, thst he 
never heard of one longer than 70 feet ; and that out of 200, which 



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1615.] Scientific Intelligence. 715 

be had himself taken, not one measured 65 feet in length. In the 
North Pacific^ however, the size is often much larger than this ; 
for Capt. Clarke measured the skeleton of one near Columbia river, 
and found it 105 feet in length. (See Traveb to the Source of the 
Missouri^ &c. by Captains Lewis and Clarke^ p. 422.) 

IX. Inhabitants An Anment Rome. 

In ancient Rome the number of insuke, or houses, standing 
separately, was 46,000 in the time of Trajan. The dontus (pro*, 
bably the principal buildings or palaces of Rome), 1800. The 
houses of Rome were usually four stories high. If we suppose, with 
Gibbon^ that each story lodged a family of six persons, each of the 
insulfls would contain 24 inluibitants. This would give us the whole 
inhabitants of Rome at 1,118,443; so that the population of 
ancient Rome, when greatest, exceeded the present po|wlation of 
London by about 60^000. (See Gibbon's Posthumous Works, v. 318,) 

X. Extract of a Letter from Mi Van Mons, of Brussels. 

I take this opportunity of sending you some curious information 
which I have just learned by a letter from the discoverer. 

If indigo in powder he thrown upon red hot charcoal or iron^ a 
Une violet coloured vapour rises, which Brugnatelli at first took 
for iodine. This vapour wlien condensed crystallizes in four-sided 

Srisma very brilliant and of a fine violet colour. To this substance 
rugnatelli gives the name of indigogeny because when united fo 
the fecula of the plant it forms indigo.* He considers it as a me* 
taly because if mercury be exposed to its vapour a combinatioQ 
takes place, which is hard or soft according to the proportion of 
the indigogen, and which possesses the properties' of an amalgam. 
Indigo deprived of this substance loses the property of acquiring a 
cupreous lustre by friction. The new substance is found in every 
variety of indigo. 

Brugnatelli has observed that ice when rasped becomes positively 
electric. This confirms the notion that its conducting power fol- 
lows immediately that of the metals. Pure water, or water exempt 
from all salt, is almost a non*conductor. Brugnatelli was unable 
^ to ctastroct a galvanic battery by uniting ice with any metal which 
he tried. 

Zambonl at present draws strong sparks, and gives shocks with 
the dry galvanic column. But 1 venture to pr^iot, that it will 
never be able to produce chemical efiects, where an abstraction of 
electricitjr is requisite. The charge may circulate without water^ 
but cannot be renewed. 

Volta has just obtained electric fluorine in considerable quantity. 
Configliachi is the editor of it.t 

Oay^Lussac believes that euchlorine or your oxide of chlorine 

*• It has been knows to chemists for many years. T. 

f I do not understftod the nieaniog of the sentence. The orisinal is ConfigU' 
pM em esf Veditiur, • 

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J6 . Scientific Intelligence. \\JvsJr, 

contains only the 5(h part of the oxygen of chloric aeid^ such as it 
exists in the detonating chlorates ; that is to say, twice the oxygen 
which we suppose to exist in oxymuriatic gas ; being capable of sa- 
turating only twice as much hydrogen as that gas^ while chloric 
acid saturates six times as much. Euchlorine would result froin an 
oxide dissolved in muriatic acid gas, of which the chlorine would 
take the oxygen in place of the hydrogen, which would be convert- 
ed into water, the metal being reduced. It is obvious tliat this 
acid cannot be formed except when the oxygen is separated by 
means, of muriatic acid, three qnai^tities taking oxygen for six quan- 
tities in exchange for water, represented by a half quantity of this 
^principle ; or two quantities of acid taking four quantities of oxy- 
gen from one quantity of, this remaining with a quantity of acid in 
the salt.' But when separated by the simple acid^ a great deal of 
acid must be necessary to render the whole salt simple,* or what 
yon long before others called chloride of potassiumy in place of 
which the term chloruret has been introduced, a name which does 
not express that chlorine, as it is called, is the vicegerent of oxygen ; 
.and this cannot be the case in the process of Davy, in which very 
little acid is employed. And Davy does not say that the euchloric 
;acid was mixed with oxygen, nor that the salt remaining was six 
times or three times oxygenated. Besides the acid characters of 
^euchlorine, and the way in which it is decomposed, do not permit 
MS to adopt the caleulatbn as accurate* M. Gay Lussac obtained 
'liquid superoxygenated muriatic acid by employing weak sulphuric 
acid and hyperoxymuriate mixed with a little simple muriate, hy 
means of the acid of what the decomposition begins, for hyperoxy^ 
iOetated chlorine united to sulphuric acid is a compound analogous 
to that which Davy formed with hyperoxygenated iodine. Gay- 
lAJssac likewise obtained this compound, and considered it as a pure 
€ttio(tine, which has not yet been exhibited in a separate state* 
Muriatic and iodic acids resemble fluoric acid, which combines 
wkh.solpburic acid and oxygen, in which water is supercombined* 

My advice has been at last followed, in decomposing the euchlo* 
rates and euiodates, namely, to put a Jittle add or simple salt along 
with the tnixtiHre. The simple acid becomes oxygenated, and then 
euacid, which is immediately se|>arated by or engaged wi& the 
sulphuric acid, unless we wish that both the sulphate and tfae«sim- 
ple salt and theoxygenated salt should be immeduitely decomposed. 
To explain acoM-ding to the new views the formation of acids 
merely bisoxygenated, we must make a great many gratuitous sup- 
. positions of •decompositions and combinations of the simple acids 
of these bodies. Besides, if it be true that iodino-chlorine allows 
oxygen to escape when heated, the .question may be considered as 
decided. 

I know at present that when a dry fluate is decomposed by a me- 
tal, we can only remove one half of the acid ; the metallic fluoride 
combines with the base thus reduced to the state of a subfluoride. 
Water separates the metallic fluoride from the, fluate, provided tfee 

* Digitized by ^OOgie 



181 5.J' Sdeniifk Intelligence. 77 

base of this salt is not soluble, or together with this base if it be so- 
luble, and then under the form of a metallo-fluoret with an oxide, 
a body analogous to the'^sulphurets and pbosphurets of the same 
substance.^ J. B. Van Mons; 

XL Death of George Montagu^, Esqi 

This celebrated British zoologist who had attained the 7^ year 
of his age ; but was still healthy and rigorous, and actively em- 
ployed in his favourite pursuits, about a fortnight ago wounded his 
foot with a nail, which rendered him lame. He was at length 
seized with locked jaw and all its concomitant horrors, and died in 
the course of the following day. In him Britain loses a zealous and 
successful zoologist. His works are well known and highly valued 
by naturalists in general. 

XII. School of Athens. 

Most of my readers are probably aware, that for some time past 
the Greeks have displayed a considerable desire to put themselves 
on a footing, in point of knowledge, with the other nations of Eki- 
rope. Schools have been erected in different parts of the country; 
books have been translated from the Italian, the French, the Ger- 
man and the £nglish, several original Greek works have appeared, 
GLreek newspapers have been regularly published for some years 
past, and even a Greek periodical work is edited at Vienna. Athens; 
formerly the seat of science and of the arts, is still a considerable 
city, inhabited chiefly by Greeks. The inhabitants enjoy a greater 
degree of liberty and are distinguished by a greater degree of spright- 
liness, intrigue, and wit, than are to be found in the other cities of 
Greece. Formerly there existed a school in Athens supported by a 
sum of money which a charitable Athenian had lodged in the bsuik 
of Venice. But when this bank was destroyed by the conquest of 
Venice by Bonaparte, the income of course was at an end, and 
this obliged the inbabitants of Athens to shut up their school. 
About six years ago Dr. Rhasis being travelling through Greece, 
was affected even to tears when be observed the state of Athens, re- 
duced to subjection and even deprived of a school. He summoned 
a meeting of the principal inhabitants, and after they had concerted 
the means of re-establishing the school, he accepted the title of 
EphoruSy or principal director of it, which the inhabitants offered 
him. On his return to Constantinople he consolidated the school 
by the privileges which he obtained from the government and the 
patriarch, and at present the school of Athens flourbhes under his 
inspection. The following is an extract of a letter from Mr. John 
Polama, Professor of the school, dated the 27th May 1814, in 
which he gives aa account to Dr. Rhasis of the solemn distribution 
of the prizes. It is published in the^Epjxi^j Aoyio^ (the Literary 

* The account of Gay-Lussac*t opitoions respecting the combtoation ef chloiune 
and oxygen in this letter is very obscure to me» probably from not un^ersUnd- 
io^ the Bomenclature of YuQ Mobs. I have tnuMlatcd it therefore as literally a» 

possible, T. digitized by LjOOglC 



7B New SdefUific Booht. [Jirvr, 

Mereiury) a peiiodieal Greek work edited lit Vienna bj Aatbimos 
Gazy. 

«< I Iiare opened/* says he, ** a literary eoncourse, and collected 
in the school the inhabitants of the first and second class, to hear 
the reading of different pieces in prose and verse, composed by the 
pupils in ancient and modern Greek. The applauses were unani- 
mous, not only of the Greeks but of the French and English tvbo 
assisted at the meeting, and who were loud in their praises of the 
scholars and of the professor who had directed them. The success- 
ful pupils were rewarded by the Society of the PhilomuseSy* which 
hss been just formed, some with gold or silver rin^, each acoord- 
iog to hb merit, some with mon^y. The poor children were evea 
supplied with clothes/' 

A Greek college has even been lately established at Melios by 
Anthimos Gazy. A school existed already in the same place, but 
it has been greatly enlarged, and the number of professors or teach- 
ers increalBed. 

XIII. Werner's Collection of Minerals. 

Werner has disposed of his invaluable collection of minerals to 
the Academy of Mines at Freyberg, It was valued by the Saxon 
Government at 56,000 dollars ; but Werner declared thelt in the 
present impoverished state of his country so great a sum ought not 
to be taken, /and therefore most patriotically reduced the price to 
40,000 dollars. He parted with his collection to the Academy under 
the following conditions : 1. That he should receive immediately the 
sum of 7)000 dollars. 2. That he should receive during his life the 
interest of 33,000 dollars, at the rate of five per cent. 3. That at' 
bis death the capital of 33,000 dollars should fail to the fund« of the 
AcQMlemy. 

Article XVI. 

Scientific Books in handy or in Ike Press^, 

In consequence of the numerous important discoveries that are daily 
making by Berzelius and others in the science of chemistry, Mr. 
W. Henley is induced to delay his promised series of Chemical Tables. 
some time longer, in order to render them as perfect as possible ; par- 
ticularly as the composition of many of the vegetable bodies is not at 
present correctly determined. 

Dr. Henry, of Manchester, is preparing for the press a new edition 
of his Elements of Chemistry. 

Mr. Huish's Practical Treatise on Bees will be ready for publication 
in a few days. 

The new edition of Dr. Hutton's Philosophical Dictionary is nearly 
ready for publication. 

The Eighth Volume of Shaw's Zoolosy, under the superintendance 
pf Dr. Leach, is in considerable forwardness. 

« The object of thts Society \n to fnrnish the fmids necessary for the.pFopa|^atioii 
of learning in Greece, for the pahlication of classical i^orks, for supporting indi- 
gem young persons educated to the sciencesy and for researches into antiquity of 

^^'J^''^^' Digitized by ^OOgie 



I«15.3 



Meteoroiogical Table* 



Article XVII. 
METEOROLOGICAL TABLE^ 





BABdMniK. 


Tbbkmombver. 




i i 


1S15. 


Wind. Max.l 


Mitt. 


Med. 


Max. 


MiD. 


Med. 


Evap, 


Halp. 




5th Mo. 




















May] 


E 


29-67 


29-66 


29-660 


67 


50 


58-5 




•MM 


c 


2 


S £ 


29^72 


29-70 


29-710 


71 


47 


690 




•13 




3 


N E 


2970 


2968 


29-690 


73 


47 


60-0 








4 


N E 


29-67 


29-65 


29-660 


67 


44 


55-5 ' 




3 




5 




29-69 


29-65 


39-670 


67 


48 


57*5 




4 




6 


S 


2970 


29-66 


29-680 


68 


49 


58*5 




3 




7 


s 


2970 


^9*^7 


29'685 


69 


49 


59-0 


1 


6 




8 


S W 


29-81 


^-67 


29-740 


70 


47 


58-5 


•61 






9 


W 


29-80 


29-79 


29-79^ 


69 


49 


59-0 




5 





10 


s w 


29-85 


^79 


29-820 


70 


51 


60-5 








11 


8 W 


29-79 


29-51 


29-650 


73 


51 


62-0 




$ 




12 


8 W 


29-66 


2964 


29-650 


67 


47 


57*0 




4 




13 


s w 


29*65 


"29-55 


29-600 


67 


43 


550 


" 


•19 




14 


s w 


29'81 


29-77 


«9-790 


66 


45 


55-5 




6 




15 


s 


29-90 


29-72 


29-760 


69 


41 


55-0 




•13 




16 


Var. 


30-23 


29-90 


30-065 


70 


40 


55-0 


•52 




D 


17 


W 


30-23 


30-19 


30-910 


71 


56 


63*5 








18 


N W 


3019 


3010 


30-145 


76 


50 


63-0 








19 


W 


30-10 


29-78 


29-940 


77 


48 


62-5 








20 


N W 


29-78 


29-51 


29-645 


76 


43 


59-5 


, 






21 


N W 


29-77 


29-51 


29640 


65 


42* 


53-5 




2 




22 


W 


29*88 


29-86 


29-865 


61 


34 


47-5 


-45 






23 


s w 


29-85 29-6? 


29-760 


61 


44 


52-5 




-20 




24 


s w 


29 97 29-72 


29*845 


66 


48 


57-0 






# 


25 


N W 


30-12 


29-97 


30^045 


71 


61 


61-0 








26 


N W 


30-12 


30-10 


30-110 


80 


47 


63-5 








27 


N E 


30-10 


29-89 


29-995 


73 


52 


62 5 








2ft 


N £ 


29-89 


29-80 


99*845 


78 


58 


68-0 




^^^^ ' 




1?9 


Var. 


29*85 


29-80 


29-825 


69 


50 


59-5 




s 




30 


Var. 


29-90 
30*23 


29-85 


29*875 


6S 


49 


58-5 


-50 






2951 


29-812 


SO 


• • 
34 


58-58 


2*08 


I'lO 



The observations in each line of the table apply to a period of twenty.four 
hours, beginniPjg at 9 A. M. on the day indicat^^d io the drat cqliinn. A 4a«h 
<lenotcs, that the result is included io the next following observation. 



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80 Meiearohgical Journal. [July^ 18I& 



REMARKS. . 

Fifth IfoMtA*— 1. Dew tkis morning: a Tcry fine day : lightoiog at night far in 
the S. 2. Dew, with rndiments of thander clouds, which io iDcreasins became 
▼cry beaatifal : a ttorm wat within hearing the whole mid-day, to 8. and S. W. : 
p. m. a heavy shower mixed with large hail, followed by lightning in the S. £. 
3. A strong breeze : thunder clouds, which dispersed in the CTcning. 4. Cumulo- 
siraiui s some showers, followed by Cirrostratus* 5. Much dew : clear morning, 
Bucceeded by Ciimu/uf, &c. : thunder to the S. : a shower in the erening. 6. Dew 
in large drops : somewhat misty and overcast : a shower in the night. 7. Windy : 
dripping at eve. 9. Cumuiostrahui a few drops by inosculation at sun-set : rain 
in the night. 10. Windy : driving clouds. 11. Dew: windy, a.m. at S. £. with 
large CSErri, and below them drrocumulWy variable and beautiful : p. m. the 
^tmuXus was added, with Cirrottratua in the region of its base: at sun-eet a 
storm in 8. W., which about nine passed us to N. £ : the lightning in violet co- 
lourdl sheets, with delicate white branched streaics on them : the thunder mode- 
mte^ rollitag out to a great length. 12. Much wind : slight showers, a. m. : clouds 
and haze at sun-set. 13. Wind and rain: at half-past six p.m., during a heavy 
chower which passed to the E., there was a perfect double rainbow, on which I 
lepeated an observation already recorded in this register, under Fif(b Month, 4, 
1813. The contrast of the space, included between the two bows, with the tint 
of the remainder of the cloud, was on the present occasion very striking. 
14. Fair and warm: a shower, p.m. with a bow: Cirrosiratu^, 15. Hollow 
wind at S. with an overcast sky: wet evening. '16. Cumuiostratus : wind, p.m« 
K.W. a milky luminous twilight: much dew. 17. Somewhat misty raorniK%: 
p. m. Cirrottrati advancing from the N. overspread the sky, without any other 
cloud. 18. a. m. .Windy at N.^ and overcast with Cumulostratus : clear and 
calm, p. m. : red sun-set. 19. A very fine day : the twilight luminous, and some- 
what ruby-coloured, followed by Cirroatratus. 20. Windy ; various clouds : the 
sky purplish round the moon at night. 21. a. m. Brisk N. W. wind: showers. 
23. Showers. 28. A brisk wind at S. £. : Cirrus^ followed by Cirr»8tratu$ : NimH 
in the 8. at sun««et : rain by ten at night. 29. Some thunder ; rainy afternoon. 



RESULTS. 

Winds Westerly, with a small portion of Easterly at the beginning and end of the 

period. 

Barometer : Greatest height , SO'28 inches. 

Least 29-61 

Mean of the period 29*812 

Thermometer: Greatest height 80" 

Least 34 \ 

Mean of the period 68*58 

Evaporation, 2*08 inches. Rain, 1*10 inch. 

From the 6th to the 22d inclusive, I made observations on the temperatore with 
an additional Six's thermometer, placed in a position nearly horizontal exposed tf> 
the sun on a grass plat, 20 yards distant from the standard one (which is near the 
house), and about ten feet lower than the latter. This second thermometer indi- 
cated, with two exceptions, a higher temperatore for the day ; tlie difference in 
one case being 10°, and the mean difference 49 : it indicated^ uniformly, a lawm' 
temperature for the night, the greatest difference being 6°, the mean difference 
4*9° 3 but the total mean of the observations differed, as 1 anticipated^ Tory little,^ 
the upper thermometer giving 57*5°, the lower 5T'1°. 

ToTTENKAMi SUeth M9tUh, 1, 1815, L. HOWARD. 

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ANNALS 

PHILOSOPHY. 



AUGUST, 1815. 



Article L 
Sbnie Account af the late Smithson TermarU, Esq^ 

XConUn^ted fiotfi p. 11.) 

That desire bf visiting reitiote countries, of viewing the pro<* 
ductions of Nature in more favoured climates^ and of ol»erving the 
practical efiects of different systems of laws and government, which 
is common to every man of talents and curiosity^ was felt with 
peculiar force by Mr. Tennant, and may be considered as one of 
his ruling passions. He was therefore much disposed^ after he had 
relinquished the intention of medical practice, to indulge this in«- 
clination, and to travel in those parts of Europe which he^had not 
already visited. But the war with France opposed many obstacles 
to continental excursions ; and the uncommon sufferings which he 
experienced from sea sickness, deterred him from forming any pro- 
ject in which a sea voyage of any considerable length was to be un- 
dertaken. He often regretted that this unfortunate peculiarity of 
his conatitution prevented him from seeing the United States of 
America; and he abandoned, but with considerable reluctance^ 
those schemes of travelling in distant countries^ to which, at this 
particular period of his life, he would otherwise have been strongly 
inclined. 

But although he Was thus prevented from indulging in a fayourite 
taste, his situation at this period was in many respects one of the 
most enviable in which a man of science could be placed. He was 
independent in his circumstances ; and being free from all profes^ 
sional avocations, enjoyed the entire coraipand of his own time. 
His residence in the metropolis gave him easy access to whatevei^. 
was new and valuable ia science and literatorej as well aa the meaDt 

Vol, VI. NMI, F 

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82 Biographical Account of [Aug. 

of constant intercourse with several of his most intimate friends, 
who were more or less interested in Bis own particular pursuits, and 
with whom he could freely communicate relative to the various sub- 
jects upon which he was coatinually employed. His philosophical 
reputation was established; his talents were fully acknowledged ^ 
and he was beginning to be known and valued in a distinguished 
circle of society for the extent i|Qd originality of his knowledge, ^ 
and his extraordinary powers of entertainment and information. 

Something, however, was still wanting to his happiness; for 
though his tiflae was agxeefby and fiseful^y $U^ i^p, fae was with- 
out any regular occupation or definitive object of pursuit ; and his 
studies, however interesting, were too desultory to fix his attention, 
or take a sufficiently permai\ex4 hold on his thoughts. The com- 
position of some literary or scientific work (of which at different 
, periods of his life he had sev^eral v^u£ an^ jloating projects) would 
have been the natural resource and occupation of such a mind. 
But although Mr. Tennaol :w^ eag^ble of great efforts on a 
sudden emergency or for a particular purpose, he had his full share 
of that indecision, and fastidiousness of taste which belong to the 
temperament of genius ; and Avhieh seldom fail, unless counter- 
acted by early habits pf self controul, to disqualify the possessor ioi 
those long continued, and persevering exertions, so iiidispensable 
to great literary undertaJ^ings,, Jbisid^efect^Qf resolution, originating 
in part from his extraordinary powers, was lamented by all his par? 
ticuiar friends^ but by no one more feelingly than by Mr* Tonnant 
himsrelf. It increased with his iacreiasing years ; and the evil wa» 
now aggravated by an unfopt^unate alteration in the state xaf fail 
health', which was beginning gradualiy to dediae^ aad ta r«quim 
eontinual attention. • ^ 

it was owing principaUy to these canses diat, within ^ ^eupy fear 
years aftar he had relinquis4ied the study of wedicine, be beoasie 
insensibly disposed to some new occupation ; and one of those acci^ 
dents upon which the fortunes of human Kfe depend, determiced 
him to engage in agricultural pursuits. He had (ov some time beea 
aeeustoni^ to take long journtes for the sake of his health ; durjj^ 
one of which he happened to pay a visit to ji Mend in Lincoli^shii^e, 
who had been much connected with his family, but with uiiain he 
was not in habits of regular intercourse* This Mitas about the year 
1797^ at an early period of those great advanees in agriculture, siaoe 
become very general, by which that part of the kingdom lias hean 
so much distinguished. His friend's Tesidence was ux a|i exteosiv^ 
tract of country, very favourable for such improvements, adjoining 
to the riyef Trent, and knpwn by the name of the isle of AxhoUne, 
where vefy considerable enclosures had lately taken place. A §ceat 
iq>int of enterpriaehad, in consequence, been excited ; ,aod the cul- 
tivation of new land (principally by the growth of rape aeed^ muB 
carried on to a great extent, and with ex^tr^ordinary viffouc^ and 
success. There was nothing in the previous habits of Mr. ']^n»a»t's 
Sfe wfaieh had particularly led lum to the study or practice of agii* 

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1311.] Smithsan* TennmU^ ^s^ ^% 

culture ; but the sight of thesp great iipprojt^nsients afforded much 
gratification to his feelings, and' was nighly interesting to his 
curiosity. His attention was very naturally directed to the ^ysteni 
of cultivation itself; and the knowledge and es^perience of hit Liii* 
CoUishire friend, who had himself practised the new husbandry 
with great intelligence and success, afforded him the best means of 
information relative to the whole of this subject. Under the in^ 
fluence of his example and advice, and after having satis6ed him* 
self that the speculation afiForded a reasonable prospect of.advaur 
tage, Mr. Tenjaant shortly afterwards purchased several allotments 
of unenclosed land in that neighbourhood, and began to cultivate 
them on his own account, entrusting the chief management of the 
concern to the skill and judgment of his friend. At subsequent 
periods he purchased other alk)tments, and made considerable addi- 
tions to this property. 

From the time of making his first purchase in Lincolnshire, Mr. 
Tenqant paid great attention to the study of rural economy ; and 
his attachment to this new pursuit gradually increasing, he became 
ide^irous of engajging in some agricultural concern upon a more ex- 
tensive scale. It was with this intention that about the year 17^3 of 
1799 he purchased a considerable tract of waste land, newly allotted 
under an JSnclosure Act, on the Mendip hills in Somersetshire. 
The purchase was originally made in conjunction ^ith a particular 
friend, who for $ome time resided on the $pot, and personally 
superintended the concern. But a partition of tlie estate afterwards 
taking place; a portion of land was aligned to Mr. Tennant, 
situated uear the weU-kitown village of Cheddar, which was re- 
tained b^ him in bis own hands, and became tbe principal scene of 
his farming operations. Here he built a small house, at which, 
during tjbie renKiinder of his life, he passed some months every 
|iummer, beaides occasional visits at other times of the yeaf. 

London, however, still continued to be the principal place of his 
residence; ^inoe his passion for j^riculture, however strong, had in 
no respect diminished his high relish for the pleasures of cultivated 
jsociety, and for the interesting object? continually afforded by the 
metropolis. Jt must be obviotts, however, that these latter tastes 
must have interfered very considerably with the due management of 
his farming concerns. Such undertakings^ in order to be profitable, 
require for the most part strict personal inspection, and a constant 
attention to minute details. This sort of vigilance it was impossible 
for Mr. Tennant to eyert ; but he kept up a constant correspond- 
ence with his agents ip the country, receiving from them such in- 
formation, and transmitting such instructions, as could be commu- 
nicated by letter^. For a certain period (as it was reasonable to 
expect), owing partly to his own inexperience, and ps^rtly to un- 
favourable seasons, and other accidents, his speculations were not 
prosperous ; and he occasionally suffered some anxiety and disap- 
pointment. But in process of time he acquired more practice and 
information, and became insensibly habituated to many trifling 

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84 Siograpkical Account of [Aug. 

Tocations, wtiicli at first had ^iven him uneasiness. The prospect 
gradually brightened ; and during the latter part of his life hb con- 
cerns were brought into better order, and appear to have been 
attended with a reasonable degree of success. 

But Vi^hether these agricultural undertakings were proiBtable or 
not| they doubtless contributed in several important respects to his 
jc^mfort and happiness. They were conducive to his health, by 
« iaffofdihg additional motives for exercbe in the open air, and for 
those long journies on horseback which his constitution required, 
and which were thus rendered less irksome. They furnished^ his 
mind with a perpetual supply of that steady, equable occupation, 
which forms so e^ential an ingredient in human happiness, but 
which possibly he would not have provided for himself from any 
other source. What was scarcely less important, these pursuits 
were the accidental occasion of his reviving a connection with one 
of his early friends, formed originally at Cambridge, but which 
distance of place and other circumstances had interrupted for many 
years. The intercourse between them was renewed soon after Mr, 
Tennant became established at the Somersetshire farm, which was 
not far from his friend's residence ; and it was productive of great , 
happiness to both parties. Mr. Tennant found in his friend's family 
those congenial tastes and opinions, which form the strongest bond 
of union ; and during the remainder of his life he invariably ex- 
perienced from them all that affectionate regard, which the greatest 
personal esteem^ united with a sincere admiration of his talents, 
could inspire. With these friends, whenever he had leisure and 
inclination, he found a constant home ; and it is highly probable 
that some of his happiest hours were passed in their hospitable 
mansion. 

The change in his habits, occasioned by his agricultural engage- 
ments, was not equally ftvourable to his scientific pursuits. His 
spirits were often exhausted, and his mind fatigued and oppressed, 
by the attention which he thought it necessary to bestow upon the 
correspondence with his agents, the examination of his farming 
accounts, and o\her details equally tedious and minute ; and it if 
impossible to reflect upon the time thus coi\sumed, without lament- 
ing that it was not employed for purposes more beneficial to man- 
kind, and more worthy of his genius and understanding. 

It appears, however, from various notes and memoranda which 
are found among his [NiperS) that from the time when he first be- 
came engaged in agricultural pursuits, he was very industrious in 
procuring information from the best works upon farming, and that 
' ne made various practical remarks during his journies, and collected 
many accurate and circumstantial details relative to the modes of 
cultivation adopted in different parts of England. In the cour^ of 
these inquiries, he had discovered that there were two kinds of lime- 
stone known in the midland counties of England, one of which 
differed from common lime-stone in yielding a lime injurious to 
vegetation. He explained the cause of this difference m a paper 

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1815.] Smiikson Termani, Esq. SS 

commuDicated to the Royal Society in the year 1799 ; «bewi»g that 
carbonate of magnesia is an ingredient in the latter species of lime- 
stone, which he describes as an extensive stratum in the midland 
counties, and as being found also in many other situations, particu- 
larly among the primitive marbles, under the name of Dolomite. He 
gives the proportions in which lime and magnesia exist in many 
specimens of this lime-stone, and infers from its slow solution in 
acids, and from its crystalline structure, that it is rather the result 
of chemical combination than of a casual mixture of the two 
earths. This conjecture has since been verified by the goniometrical 
researches of' Dr. Wollaston, and by the near agreement of Mr. 
Tennant's analysis with the constitution of the mineral as inferred 
from the law of definite proportions, 

Mr. Tennant had found that grain will scarcely germinate, and 
soon perishes, in moistened and perfectly mild carbonate of mag- 
nesia; and that the injurious effects of the magnesia in agriculture do 
not depend on its property of long remaining caustic, but probably 
on some inherent quality of the earth itself. He also made many 
experiments on the germination and grtiwth of various seeds and 
plants in different mixtures of the simple earths; and transporting 
portions of soil, either from his own estates, or from different parts 
of England, to the neighbourhood of London, he tried on a small 
«cale the effects of various manures in promoting the growth of 
different vegetables, and endeavoured in this w^y to obtain hints for 
improved modes of cultivation. 

In the year 1802 he communicated to the Jtoyal Society his che- 
mical examination of Emery, which had hitherto been considered as 
an ore of iron. He showed that it consists principally of alumina, 
and that it neariy agrees with the Ck)nindum of China, which had 
been analyzed a short time before by Klaproth. 

In the month of July during the same year, in •ndeavouring to 
make an alloy of lead with the powder which remains after treating 
crude platina with aqua regia, h^ observed remarkable properties ia 
the powder, and found that it contained a new metal. But while 
he was engaged in pursuing this Investigation, the attention of two 
French chemists was accidentally directed to the same object. In 
the autumn of 1803 M. Descotils had discovered that the powder 
contains a metal which gives a red colour to the ammoniacal preci- 
pitate of platina ; an^ M. Vau^uelin having treated the powder with 
alkali^i obtained from it a volatile oxide^ which he considered as be- 
longing to the same metal. 

In the spring of the year 1804^ Mr. Tennant having completed 
the course of his experiments, communicated the results to the 
Royal Society. He shewed that the powder consisted of two new 
metals, to which he gave the names of Iridium and Osmium, and 
that these might be separated from one another by the alternate 
action of heated alkali and of acid menstrua. By crystallization 
from the acid solution, be obtained a pure salt of iridium, from 

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ite Siogrdpfiical Account of [AtJCJ. 

i^hich he determined with accuracy the real propertied of the metat 
and of its compounds ; and from a comparison with these he ascer* 
tained that the volatile oxide belonged to another metal (osmium)^ 
which he also obtained in a state of purity. 

The analysis of crude platina presented, perhaps, some of thd 
greatest difficulties with which chemistry had ever yet tentured to 
contend. Besides aflFording traces of several of the known metals, 
the ore contained, in very minute quantities, four new ttietallid 
elementary bodies, whose existence was previously unsuspected, arid 
whose respective characters were to be distinguished before th^ 
separate nature of the bodies could be ascertained. 0r. Wollastoii 
and Mr. Tennant, who were employed upon this ore at the same 
time, and whose habits of friendly intercourse led them to commu- 
nicate freely with each other during the progress of their experi- 
ments, gave proofs of their great sagacity by completely solving 
this problem ; Mr. Tennant in the manner already deScriberf, and 
Bis friend by the discovery of the two metals called Palfodiuifi ^tii 
Ilhodlum. 

On the SDlh of November, 1804, Mr. Tennant ti^d die honouf 
<jf receiving the Copley medal, which was conferred on bim By the 
Royal Society for his various Chemical i)iscoveries. 

About the year J805 and 1806^ Mr. Tennant made tWo journie^ 
during successive summers into Ireland ; going and returning oti 
both occasions by Scotland, in order to abridge as much as possible 
the sufferings attendant on a sea voyage. In the coursig Of these 
|ournies he visited most parts of Irelan4 which possfess any attrac- 
tion for a traveller, and had the advantage of viewing the Grailt*s 
Causeway,, in company with Dr. Wollaston, whom he met by i 
fortunate accident in the north of Ireland during one of these 
tours* 

His attention, however, was not confined (o scientific objects : 
for he made many remarfes on the agriculture, manufactures, and 
general state of Ireland. He was particularly struct with the vast 
population of the country, compared with that of Scotland, through 
which he had lately passed, and even with the average population 
of IJugland. , The backward state of' its irnprovement and cultiva- 
tioi), considbring its various resourcfes, arid the natural fertility of 
the soil, presented other objects of contrast, which could not faif 
to interest him^ His attention was naturally led to the causes of 
this inferiority ; but to enter into his opinions on this important 
subject, would require a wider field of discussion than is consistent 
with the limits of the present narrative. One observation, how- 
ever, selected from many others, which is strongly marked with his 
characteristic liberality and good sense, may perhaps deserve to be 
meptionedv , His curiosity had led him to inquire into the state of 
education among the lower Irish Catholics, and he was much struck 

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^\th xht nttrfow ifkid iMifaieifKl oast of most of tbei^ bocAs of popolai^ 
ifistruction. TIii6> which he jodrty considered as a ^erroos evily h^ 
tfttribtfted in fl greflt degree to a sort of ^artt spirit in the Catboli6 
clergy, which arises from the Mfortnymte alienatiof) Subsisting be- 
tween them and the Gover'nnjeirt. He observed, that if propel 
d^ans ^ere taken to cbtlcilibte th^ body, they would ^gra^ally 
relax from' theiV ^)ein«% md become better informed and mord 
eiiligtitcned; a'tid ffadt thus, without the IcyrmaUty of conversions' 
the great tnass of th^ir followers might peifhaps, by little and little^ 
iittbtbe 8 portion of the spirit of protestantism, aiM be brought t6 
partake of ttre kno^le<%e and irinproVements of thte age. 

la one of the joornies to Ireland, which has given occasion t<y 
ifce^e rettiitlw, Mr. Tenndnt wis accompanied by Mr. BrOwne,*^ 
the celebrated African fraveUei^, whh whotn he had lived foif 
sotne tfme ift haMts <A gi'eat intimacy. As Bttr. Browne, althougli? 
not much pehbntUy known, WsKi remarkable on several aceoUntv 
iXiA a man of con^derabie MveHf^ it may not be inl^^roper t6 de- 
sfcribe ^oi'tfy the Mature and origin* of this conAeeti<^n ; ^YMi Wil( 
ittso ll«bM to op^rtdflity of throwing h new light apoii i/ir. Ten^ 
naht'i character, and placing it in a partieiiiar poiAt of view^ in 
which it has not yet been considered. 

^r. Tennant was one of the most determined advocates Of cy^\^ 
ttcd life, in opposition to Ohoi^ sentirdental theWics, ^ieh extol 
simplicity, and undervalue the advantages of a refined and cultivated 
i^. The decided superibrify of |he latter^ was one Of hlfe favourite 
i^td ef eonver«it10tt ; vtA he wouM oi^eh^ dwell= with pHrticulaf 
^l^tom ^on the spirit of improveMdntdisfpla^ed in our own times, 
d^d the €Uf^ and intelligent afctivity of modem Europe, Which he 
im f8n* Of cdhf^ting With the A^thy dnd tof^r of the EtfSt. Yet 
by d6e 6f those ittebntfstendes, from which nb human n^ersiafnd* 
iibf 1^ ei^ely eiem^ty h^ took A ^bgufir interest And delight in all 
Ireeeai^t^ of Oi^idifal natk>fi^, flhd in the peeuliarittei and details of 
Aeli* ch^raetei^^ habif^, And iMtitiitibt^. The historical recollec-^ 
ftbt^ tiiA itnages df aM^Y i^enbV^^iif which ii« a^sotkved with thoaft 
iim^tt cbiibtriesi ^6 entil'e diffefei^ee of m^OiEiet^ and religions, 
and the dij^ified gm^i d^d i^^ng exterior of the present inha- 
UWt^'^ atfiu^d lind gratifiM h^ itt^agination. He ^a^ a con^itfel*- 
afbie jHiifelm^if ioA eoHectoT Of books atid engraving^ relative txo the 
Jbo^; and hid pehlk^ed With grdstt eagetne^ and curioHty all the 
A\ii^r6u8 pfublieilfloh^ re^eting Turkey, Egypt, and Persia, which 
have appeared during the last twenty years. ' 'He was also fan^Kavly 
lictjiiaihted Wi* <he pftneit)tfl Easterii fraVelfers of former tinges ; 
AYbOtog whoAi ChftWHtty Notdeft. RusSell, Ahd SfeaW, were thoise 
WhMi he particitlarly vdhiedi His knowledge of the countriei? d^ 
i^bad b^ these writer wtt& reiftarfcably afccorate aAd minute^ and 
exietided in mixvf casfes eveft tO ^grapMcal details. 
. Witli the titstes and ftelings i^^lting ftotti this turn of mindy k 
ibsty ^tuSIy be cOheel^ that Mi". Tennam had a pecuU&r gr«tificar 

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68 JStograpMcal Accmmt of . [At70* 

tion in the society of Mr. Browne. He found in that distinguished 
traveller) not only an intiquate acquaintance with those countries 
^hich 80 much interested his curiosityi but a considerable fund of 
learning and information, united with great modesty and simplicity, 
i^nd with much l^iadness of di3position. $y strangers}^ fapwever, 
Mr, Browne's character was apt to be misunderstood. Whether 
from natural temperament, or from habits acquired in the East, he 
was unusually grave and silept, and his manners in general society 
were ej^tremely cold and repulsive. Even in company with Mr. 
Tennant, to whom he became sincerely attached/ he would oftea 
remain for some time gloomy and thoughtful. Bi)t after indulging 
himself with his pipe, his eye brightened, hi^ countenance became 
animated, and he described in a lively and picturesque manner the 
interesting scenes in which he had been engaged, and to which he 
again looked forward. Of the impression left on Mr* Tennant's 
xnind by these interviews, some idea may be formed from the follow- 
ing passage of a letter written by him to an intimate friend sooa 
^fter he had received the account of Mr. Browne's death. " I 
recall/' he sayp, f^ the Nodes Ardbicce which I have often passed 
y^ith him at the Adelphi, where I used to go whenever I found 
myself gloomy or solitary ; and so agreeable to me were these sooth- 
ing, romantic evening conversations, that after ripging his bell, I 
used to w&if with ^opoe anxiety, fearfu) that he might not be at 
home," 

In the autumn of 1812, some years after his journey to Irelandl 
with Mr. Tennant, Mr. Browne took his departure from England 
on an expedition which he had long projected, to the unexplored 
Tartar city of Samarcand. He first visited Constantinople ; and at 
the instigation of Mr. Tenpant made a diligent, but fruitless, search 
for the meteoric stone, which i^ meptipp^d to have fallen at Egos- 
potaraos in the Parian Chronicle and in Pliny. Ffom Constanti- 
nople he went to Smyrnft, where he passed the winter; and from, 
thence to Tabriz ip Persia; frona both which places he w^ote 
several very interesting letter? to Mr. Tennapt* In one of these he 
mentions, that in passing through Armenia he had satisfied himself 
by mineralogical observations which he had made, that a consider- 
able tract of that country, including Mount Ararat, is of volcanic 
origin. He likewise ascertained, by measuring the temperature of 
boiling water, (at the suggestion of Mr. Tennant) that the city of 
Arzroum, the capital of Armepia, is 7pOO feet alK)ve the level of 
the sea. 

Modt unfortunately for the cause of scientific discovery, Mr. 
Browne perished afterwards (as is well known) by the hands of 
Banditti, near the river Kizzil Ozan, east of Tabriz. Previously 
to his leaving England, when he was setting out on this journey, he 
had made his will, by which he named Mr. Tennant one of tb^ 
Executors, and left him a considerable bequest. On opening the 
packet in which the will was epclosed, a paper was fpund in Mrt 

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1815.] Smiihswi Termant^ Esq. 89 

Biowoe^ft hand-writing, coDtaining a characteristic and remarkable 
passage from one of Piodar's Odes, highly expressive of that gene-, 
sous ambition, and contempt of danger and death, which are the 
true inspiring principles of such enterprizes.^ Till he saw thia 
paper, Mr. Tennant, notwithstanding his long intimacy, had never 
been fully aware of the real force of his friend's character, and of 
the powerful and deep feelings which his cold manners and habitual 
reserve had effectually concealed from observation, f 



It was before stated that Mr. Tennant's health had been gradually 
declining. His frame was naturally feeble ; and during the latter 
years of his life, though be was seldom materially indisposed^ 
he was scarcely ever entirely well. Almost always on going to 
bed be had a certain degree of fever, and was often obliged 
to get up in the middle of the night, and to obtain relief by 
exposure to the cool air. To preserve himself in any degree 
of bodily vigour, he was under the necessity of using daily 
exercise on horseback ; a practice which, though he complained of 
as a serious encroachment on his time, he hardly ever omitted in 
the severest weather. His long joumies into various parts of £ng- 
^nd and Ireland were usually performed in this manher. 

« The foUowins; is tbe passage alluded to : — 

Ti xi Tti itfwvfitw yiiptf^ f » rxvrm 
lfiatx£» ifjbfitcfoi ^ it/Ji \fi0cl fg,tt UTOQ-t 

Pindari Olymp, Carm, 1, ▼. I2i. 

; In tbe paths of dangerous fame 

^ Trembllni: cowanis never tread; 

Yet since all of mortal frame 

Must be oumber*d wiib the dead, 
Who ID dark inglorious shade 

Would his useless life consume^ - 
And with deedless years decay'd 
Sink unhonour'd to the tomb ? 
I that shameful lot disdain, 

I this doubtful list viU prove. — 

frest*s Pindar. 

+ It may be worth mentioning, that Mr. Tennant always lamented, *^^«^Jj* 
beeame acquainted with Mr. Browne's learning and talents, that his intimacy wim 
him had not commenced before the publication of his African Travels, in prew 
paring that work for the press, Mr. Browne, from an unreasonable distrust or n » 
own powers, had thought it necessary to have recourse to Tu. rary assistance ; oui 
was not happy in bis compiler. Neither the style of the Travels, nor '"^ *«"1'" 
which they are composed, is such as to do any justice to i^V"?**!.'*" "hlHT^L 
tton which they contain, or to the character and merits of the distinguisneu ww 
▼cUer whose name they bear. 



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Google 



Pb Biographical Aceduitf tf (Acr((# 

Ift <{l£ ^vtMti of 1809, a^r he #a$ ri£{)g to BrightMin^t^, fi^ 
IriH ttrith & l^itkHid aebidebf , by which his coUar bone i^as browed. 
H^ am f^m&ved to tKt h6use of hi^ friend Mr. Howard, m th6 
iiefghbbt^rhbbd olf London^y where he wa? treated with the nM^' 
dSeetioitote kMhess^ ilbd remaified till his eoniplete recovei^y. 

inuring the eaf\f period of his residence^in Londort, Mr. Tett- 
iMttt bdd M fatheir a retired life ; \^t in his more advatieed yeafV 
he went much inoife ittto the Worlds and cultivated general society •> 
He bad a particular pleasure in conversing with intelligent travellers 
newly returned from distant countries, or in suggesting rational ob- 
jects of idqirir]^ to sucfc a» i^ive dbout to visit them.^ As An instatic^ of 
the' Utter, it ttiny be mentioned, that he was at cbnsiderable paii^s iii 
iitetiMting: M. BurchaHt, a gentlemah sent out by the Africafi A^so-. 
thithh to explore the interiw ot that continent, ih the pfincrples €ft 
iiAnttAlog^. He frfequefttiy ga^e itnAli morniti^ patties dt his ehatii^ 
TieVs itf the TetripH?j #htch he refidered ^ery aftiusfAg to his frieuM 
&y t'lie eithifoitfen of ititefestirig prints and drawings, of rare sj>eciTtte6i 
ihd new stibstrtftciis ih eheniistry, or of other objects calculated i^ 
gratify an iififelKge^t and v^H-dii'ected curiosity. It hstpptheA lit 
the spring of 1812 that he had engaged to shew his mineralogic&t 
collection to a large party of his acquaintance, with a view of ex-> 
plaining to them the nature of some of the principal substances, and 
of giving them some general ideas of mineralogy. His intention being 
known, several others of his friends fequ'ested permission to be* pre- 
sent ; and he was gradually induced to extend his original plan, and 
to give a few lectures on the general outlines of mineralogical che- 
mistry. The ^undertaking was somewhat arduous, considering the 
expectations which his high ehai^ctef wAs likely to excite, his total 
inexperience as a lecturer, and the difficulty of adapting himself to 
so mixed an aud^ence; ^hich, though consisting principally of 
femalesi included many individuals distinguished for science and 
literature. It was attended, however, with complete success. Of 
Fontenelle, the first of those writers who have given a popular and 
engaging form to the lessons of philosbphy, it is said by Voltaire : — 

*• L*isDoravit reoteridif , 1e ^brftnt Tadtf ira." 

This praise was strictly applicable to Mr. Tcnnant. The great 
clearness and facility of his statements, the variety and happiness of 
his illustrations, and the comprehensive philosophical views which 
he displayed, were alike gratifying to every part of his audience, 
JSe delivered about four lectures, each of which was ofpreat 
length ; yet the interest of his hearers was never in the least sus*- 
fiended. Though bis style and manner of speaking were raised 
OYily in a slight degree above the tone of familiar conversation , their 
attention was perpetually kept alive by the Spirit and variety with 
^hich every topic was discussed, by anecdotes and quotations hap^ 
pily introduced, .by the ornaments of a powerful, but chastisra, 
imagination ; and, above all, by a peculiar vein of pleasantry, it 

1 

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once briglnal and delicate. With ^hich h^ could dnhhflfff imd eAi- 
hellish the most unpromisfiig Subjects. 

The delivery of these lietures ttiay be considered by sotte pehM^ 
atf a very trifling occari-ertce in the lifts of a man of seielM^e ^ bW 
the writer has thought it v^ell Worthy of a place Jn the pres^ftt n»* 
rative, not only as aflforditig a new proof of the eitferit and ifttrimf 
6t Mr. TennafnPs fioTfrei^, but becatide it ^sertipiifie* to h vtff 
pleasing rtjanner one of the stHking atid dmiAble p6c«Ha)rilfe!i of Vt9 
character. As he had a rertidrkably cfctir pferdeptlori cf th^ti tn^Hi 
refined scientific truths, sd Ire possessed a pow»fer of exptoirHiig' ^iMi 
fllnstrattng socli subjects, which might justly h6 d^e^rted lirtf iv&Hi^d/ 
Without any ostentation of teaming, h* fiad « peotfllar delight i» 
communicating knowledge to others; but* ^eciafHy, jtt utrfbld^ 
ing th^ principles of science to youiag pertonsr, etfpAWte anfd de- 
droXis of receiving scrch inforMafiOn ; and* be partoofc with th^ Fho»l 
fii^eff sensibility hi the emotiofts of euvtosily, pl^eafetfrtf, tind Sur- 
prise, wlVich his lessons seldom failed t» itlspire. He ei^tirely dif* 
fered frorti those who condemn as trifling and sapetfic?*!, tlitrt Jfl-i 
creasing tstste for scientific kriowledge ra the higher and ihot6 
0]f)uknt classes, to whith matty circumstances htive )dk^ty contri-s 
buted. He considered the diffiisJon of this taste among thrd youiogV 
the idle, and the wealthy, th'oogli liable in soitte cases to dfegefterAte 
Into affectation, as being in its general effects higlily beneflcisj) j 
fcoth by affording to an irhportant class of society additibyiAl sbtirde^ 
of intellectual pleasure and new objects of rational pursuit ; ^nd 
fadirectly, by obtaining" for science and its professors a greater 
diegree of public consideration and respect than they have enjoye J 
in any former age. 

In the spring of the year 1813 Mr. Tennant delivered b^for^ 
tbe Geological Society a lecture on the principles of mineralogy* 
After taking an historicaf view of the subject, and pointing out 
fhe merits and defects of the principal writers- by whom it had 
been systematically treated, he took an enlarged view of the 
science, regarding it as that brandh of chemistry which treats of 
the definite compounds that are found native in the mineral king- 
dom, and whose (crystalline forms and other properties are to be 
Studied and described in the same manner as those of any other 
chemical substance. He then noticed several artificial productions 
which are analogous to those of Nature ; and amongst the rest a 
silicate of copper, which he had formed by adding a solution of 
that metal to an acidified liquor silicumy whith he conceived might 
perhaps be identical with the Siberian mineral called Dioptase. 

Mr. "t. had communicated to the Geological Society some time 
previously (in the year 1811) tbe result of his- investigation of the 
native bbraeic acid, which he had discovered in a collection of vol- 
canic substances fl-om the Lipari Isles, and which has sitice beet! 
found in the island Volcano by Dr. Holland. This communication 
was published in the first volume of the Transactions of the Geolo- 
gical Society. 

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92 Biographical Account of [Ai7«4 

In the year 1 81S^ a vacancy happening ki the Chemical Professor* 
ship at Cambridge, he was urged by some x>f his friends resident in 
the University to become a candidate for that appointment. He 
ivas induced to accede to their solicitations, principally irom think* 
ing that the duty of delivering an annual course of lectures would 
furnish him with a motive of useful and honourable exertion. For 
a short time after he had declared himself, some opposition was 
' apprehended on the part of a very respectable candidate resident in 
the University ; and during this period the exertions which were 
made by Mr. Tennant's friends, and the assurances of support 
which he received, greatly exceeded what had ever been known on 
any similar occasion. The opposition being withdrawn, he was 
elected Professor in May, 1813. 

During the months of April and May in the following year he 
delivered his first and only course of academical lectures, which was 
attended by a very numerous class of students. I'he greater part of 
these lectures were spoken from notes containing the order of the 
subjects, and the principal heads of discussion. But the intro«* 
ductory lecture was written at length, and still remains in manu* 
script. It presents a rapid and masterly outline of the history of 
chemistry, interspersed with many original and striking remarks on 
the nature of the science itself, on its extensive application, and 
prodigious effects in promoting the civilization of mankind, and 
on the merits and discoveries of sode of its most distinguished 
professors in different ages and countries. 

. The impression made by these lectures will not soon be forgotten 
in the University ; and it is impossible, without the greatest regret^ 
to consider the effects which a continuance of these labours during 
a series of years might have produced, not only in advancing che- 
inical knowledge, but in diffusing a general love of philosophical 
research, and in promoting enlightened and comprehensive views 
on all the various subjects with which that science is more or less 
immediately connected. 

In June, 1814, his two last communications were read to the 
Royal Society : the one upon an easier mode of procuring potas- 
sium than that which is in common use ; and the other on the 
means of procuring a double distilUition by the same heat, which 
has been more than once alluded to in the course of this memoir. 

The great variety of chemical subjects on which Mr. Tepnant had 
been at different times engaged, but upon which his experimeiAs 
were left incomplete, or insufficiently recorded, has been already 
mentioned. A brief notice of some of the most important facts 
which he ascertained, and of the principal series of experiments to 
which his attention was directed, would form an interesting part of 
the present memoir; but this, owing to various causes, and espe* 
cially to the state of his papers, cannot as yet be attempted. 
Among the insulated facts, one of the latest w^ the making sugar 
from starch with oxalic acid, in the same manner as it had been 
made by M. Kirchoff with oil of vitriol ; and the last chemical in*^ 

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1815.] Smithsm Tennant^ Esq. 93 

vestigation to which he applied himself was an endeavour to ascer- 
tain from whence the Iodine found in several marine plants ts de- 
rived. On this he had laboured assiduously during the spring and 
summer of 1814 j and early in September in that year, the evening 
before he left London, he mentioned to a friend that he had de- 
tected iodine in sea water. A tarnishing which he had observed in 
silver leaf, * led him to promise himself a successful termination of 
these researches 5 but it is not known what were the decisive expe- 
riments by which he had succeeded in making this discovery, f 



Mr, Tennant had always lamented his omission io visit the Con- 
tinent of Europe during the short peace of 1802. He therefore 
took an early opportunity, after the general pacification of 1814, of 
passing over to France for the purpose of observing those changes 
which the eventful period of the last twenty years has produced, 
and of renewing his personal communications with men of science 
at Paris, from which be had been so long debarred. His own ex- 
perience had taught him how much may be known, which has not 
been communicated in books. In this respect he was not disap- 
pointed ; for in one of his letters, written a short time before he 
left Paris, he mentioned with much satisfaction how many interest- 
ing facts he had collected which would enliven his Cambridge 
lectures. 

He went to France early ih September, 1814; and the following 
passage of a letter, in which he relates his first sensations, may be 
worth transcribing, both because it afibrds somewhat of a specimen 
of his general manner, and may perhaps recall to the recollection of 
his friends several of his favourite topics and opinions. *' After a 
short and favourable passage of three hours and a half, we got into 
the harbour of Calais, with its immense pier. The difference of 
every thing struck me prodigiously. I felt quite intoxicated with 

^ The same test for iodine in iodic lalts is proposed by Sir Humpliry Davy 
in tlie PhUosopbical Transactions for 1814. 

f Amonr the different series of experiments alluded to in this memoir, upon 
wliicli Mr. Tennant had i>een engaf;ed at yarioos periods of bis life, but which be 
had not brought to a completion, the following pay deserve to be mentioned :— 

Researches on the pigments used by the ancients. 

Experiments made with a view to improve the glass employed in the constrnc- 
tion of achromatic lenses. 

Ezperimenu on the refractive powers of compound bodies compared with the 
refractive powers of. their constituents. 

Mr. Tennant had at one time very nearly obtained an insight into the wonderful 
class of phenomena belonging to voltaic electricity ; as appears from the following 
extract frOman old note-book, in which there is no date; but Mr. T, always 
spoke of the experiment as having been made many years since. 

** If a piece of silver or gi)ld is immersed in a solution of vitriol of copper, 
and the Silver or gold is foticAed with iron or zinc, the copper is diffused upon 
them around the point of contact ; upon platina, not so easily ; the iron, though 
very near, occasions no precipitate upon the silver or gold ; but if iron touches 
silver, and silver gold, the latter gets the copper." 



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P4 Biographical Accomt of [kvc* 

the noyelty pf the $cpn!eiy, the ^tl^yiwiaAcp of the country^ the 
turight blue sVy without a .cloud, apd .the broad magnificept roads. 
IvUh ^Ims, aod ^oHjptimes fruit-trees, on each side for fifty miles. I 
W^^ ^ Uttle mortified on cpppariug the diraate with our own, till I 
oh^erv^eql )t.he ifonxiy point's {n lybich its Advantages were neglected : 
ftpen fields; barvesft ppjt finished, as in England; corn full of 
Vjee^s ; and oyats pvore than onerchird inferior in quality to my owij 
q^t Mendip. On approaching Paris, the vineyards were new features 
of thfs supferiotr climate. \i Paxi&;> what strikes one most is the 
narrowness of the streets ; along which as I passed I was in constant 
expectation of getting out of the eternal narrow lanes. Now I am 
q/i^ r«co^^iIe^ tf> thei^. — ^Tfae backward state of civilized life is 
])9Qre ^ppar^t h.er<e, f hai;i in the ^country. You ar^ struck with th^ 
imperfeictjon Qf every thing, and the mixture of dirt and meanness 
ifiiu% pomp ^4 e^penqe. In the theatres, (which, however, are 
gyite inferior (to our$ in si?/e, ^d still nfiore in elegance,) you see ip 
the passage^ b^iijiiid ^he boxes, dirty pavements of bricks with wid9 
crapkf; .and the hos^s are opened by a few old \yomen, who are 
f mfdpycvsi during tl^ intervals in knitting or mending stockings^ 
The fvquaen are su^h as Height be taken fron^ a field in jSngl^nd, 
w^ieri^ ithpy woiul4 b^ ^nj^ploy^ in weeing/' 

During ^is ^t^y in France, Mr. 'jT^nnant, in the months of 
QctQ^r a^d lifpvi^jinber, p^ade ^ to^r into x\\^ spathern pjrovince^t 
which he had not before seen, and visited Lyons, Nismes, Avignon, 
Mf^f^ities, a«d Mofntpelli^r. lis wa^ n^ucb grajtifi^ by this 
jpMrx^, d^r^ng xyhich he w4^ n^any }|[U^rcisting leqaa^rks on the 
state of thf^ povmtry, p^yi% particular pitention tp )|}iqerak)gy and 
fgricfiUure. lu his letters written ab<;>ut this' time hp describes in 
fti^iking terin$ the feelings of e^joyn^pnt, wlijob he always expe- 
rienced from new scei^es aod objects, ^nd especijally from viewing 
the productions 9^ Nature in southern cj^n^tes. In fpeaking pf th^ 
W^^s4 ^9untaijQtf5 hpvf^ wljience tba Saone take$ its rise, he says^ 
** The country is the most rich and picturesque tliat can be Ima- 
gined ; but the contrast of the beggary and dirt of the towns and 
common habitations with the rich vegetation of the country i^ 
univeFsal, with the exception only of tpwns of the first rate. 1 am 
not yet sufficiently at home in the political economy of the coitntry 
to say on what this depends. In part, on its extreme population. — 
After pasnng theae o^Quntaips, a new world appears, marked with 
the characters of a southern climate. The race of people is different, 
with finer skins than in the North. The country women wear im- 
paense hat^, to defend them from the sun ; and the houses (there 
being no snow) have low pitched roofs, like those in Poussin and 
Claude Lorraine. Nothing can be more beautiful than this stylevof 
building, which continues to the Mediterranean. — Proceeding spqth> 
vines and mulberries cbiefty cover the ground ; and followmg the 
jSaonC) its mountainous banks, studded with country houses, almost 
buried in the rich vegetation of figs, mulbisrrieS| vines, andpome^ra- 



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ii^l^.} ^mUhm T^nxmf, Esq:. 9» 

Qatesj ex^tii all «&tipipQtjiQjii. Suppose tbe acf ^cypy ^f i.he bot lireUii ft 
j^ristol enit^d^ 50 j»ite9, witb a b^c^ider rafHd dv^, jbigh^r M^IH* 
taw, innder a glowing ic^juiuuq, ^d thickly $et wjtl^ wMt? «9Hagfi9r 
ioi^lided to he CQfhi by .a painter, Notbii\g U fK> fifie 95 i\^ sitiia-* 
lion of hyan^^ and th(B vievs ipto the p^rfidj/sipcal V/a}ley ff^in tbf 
mowtaiAs 00 ea^h sjde of the towp. This :i;vondefful sceQciy cQia^ 
Uauet aloQg ithe {lboi)ie by Vieime (ftpm whepce cojioe^ ti^ jQ^I 
iQtie wioe) aod Taio (from wfaepc^ Herm^^f ^) till y^ani mvi^ m 
Provence^ where the olive^ a new production of the souther;^ i^Ur- 
tf^%tG9f begins to make i^ sppiearimce. Through tbi^ riicb g^rim or 
iof^st you couve tp the ca]car^Q»$ jnoqntaiiMf which w their atw* 
vnts are wbiAe xoeky hWh coy^ered with vwild piantsy thy^^^^ r9fia* 
wary, laveoder, ilex, quercus coccifere, ajpd iinnvimerablie p^auiti 
wimm» iu qut latitude, but which { hope tp m^ in Eugl^n^ |ieji$ 
ji^r, to rieoew my impressions of 1^19 .country. The$e nipujiU^iqs 
eocloae (be yaJley of that tvx>oyderfuUy ijltuated ina«i^n$(e tf>w^ 9i 
M^rseiU^. As you (kacend, this MedkerrwQ^n app^^r^* a^d ilm 
great city with its endiisss wburto in the hoilow vaUies ^lopi^ 
towards ihe 3fia. ^ * * * it was with infinite regr^et th^t I 
left Marseilles; if I .could stay the winter^ it $bould be ther#« 
AvjgnoQ is pleasingly situated; Nismes has fine antiquities ; JVtaot- 
pellier is ij» a rich and plentiful country ; but they are all trisl^ and 
dkad xoaapar/ed with Marseilles, where every attractAOU is united/' 

On bis return from Montpellier toParis, he writhes, while stopping 
for a few day^at Lyons, ^^ At MontpelUer J had the peculiar a4¥an«- 
tage pf a most attentlye acquaintance (M. Berard)^ who is on# 
of the best chemists in France. The country affords few such; but 
he was brought up at the feet of BerthoUet, who gave me % If^tter 
U> him. tie succeeded to ^e ich^nucal works oi Clh^)tal, whiah are 
nowi^eryies^tensive, and carried on with great inteUigence.-r-Ou jmy 
return I visited the great Roman aqueduct of the Pont du Gard, sp 
striking for its antiquity, its altitude, its soUdity, and the very 
romantic situation where U passes over the valley an4 river. Pont St. 
£^prit IS hardly less interesting, being of such immense extent 
(more than half a mile), and the lowest bridgie on the Rhop^. |t 
was builty not by the Romans, but in the darkest ages by the pow#r# 
pf superstition, the great prineiple of energy and esertiop at that 
period. In 1265 the curings to the comyent of St. &prit w^H 
sufficient for this undertaking, and were thus applied by tb^ m^^kf^ 
with hojoour to themselKcs, and wiih great advantage te a I^^^EUot^ 
posterity; for the passage over it is immense at tlus tiq9^..^-r)[ 
stopped Car half a day at Tain, &om whence we have the Hei'mitagf 
wine, nothing can be more beautiful than the gold colour of the 
' vine-covered hills/ nor more extraordinary than the sand or gravel 
in whiah the plant grows. There is not a particle of soil^ but 
naiely broken, shaip fragments of granite, chiefly felspar, pe^)^ 
£9otly djean ; for though the roots of the vine are manured o^^f) f 
year, tliis {otally dis^^pears. The gmvel soil is suff^fted by wiMl^ 



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9S Biographical Aeoomt of [Auo^ 

From the top are seen endless mount^ns, which border on the 
Rhone, and which along the slopes facing the south are yellow with 
vines, in spite of the extreme barrenness of the soil. Such moun- 
tains, which are here among the most valuable parts of the king- 
dom, would not in England be worth a penny an acre. — From this 
place (Lyons) we rode the other day into the mountains near 
Arbreste to see a new copper-mine^ consisting of a blue carbonate; 
compared with which the specimens from Siberia are quite insignia 
ficant. ♦***'' 

^ Mr* Tennant returned to Paris during the month of November, 
and was to have returned to England about the latter end of the 
year. But he continued to lingef on till February following. On 
the 1 5th of that month he reached Calais ; and wrote from thence 
On the next day, to account for his long delays; which had been 
occasioned, he said, ^^ by his postponing the disagreeable exertion 
of setting off, added to the severe weather, and the odious view of 
the ocean, of which he had so great a horror, that it darkened the 
agreeable prospect of meeting his friends in England.'' 

The wind then blew directly into Callais harbour, and continued 
to be imfevourable for several days. After waiting till Monday, the 
20th, he went to Boulogne, in company with Baron Bulow, a 
German officer, who was also going to England, in order to take 
the chance of a better passage from that port. They embarked otk 
board a vessel on the morning of Feb. 22d; but the wind was still 
adverse, and blew so violently that the vessel was obliged to put 
back. When Mr. Tennant came on shore, he saidj ^* that it was 
in vain to struggle against the elements, and that he was not yet 
tired of life.'' 

It was determined that, in case the wind should abate, another 
trial was to be made in the evening. During the interval, Mr^ 
Tennant proposed to the Baron that they should hire horses, and 
take a ride. They rode at first along the sea side ; but on Mr. 
Tennant's suggestion, they went afterwards to Buonaparte's Pillar^ 
which stands on an eminence about a league from Boulogne, and 
which, having been to see it the day before,, he was desirous of 
shewing to Baron Bulow. 

On their return from thence, they deviated a little from the road^ 
in order to look at a small fort near the pillar, the entrance to which 
was over a Fosse 20 feet deep. On the side towards them there was 
a standing bridge for some way, till it joined a draw-bridge which 
turned upon a pivot. The end next to the fort rested on the 
ground. On the side towards them it was usually fastened by a 
bolt ; but the bolt bad been stolen about a fortnight before, and 
was not replaced. 

As the bridge was too narrow for them to go abreast, the Baroit 
said he would go first, and attempted to ride over it. But per-* 
ceiving that it was beginning to sink, he made an effort to pass the 
centre, and called out to warn bis coippanionof the danger; but it 



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]815.j Smkhson TdnmhU Esq:. &7r 

was too late — they were both precipiti^ed into the trench. The- 
Baron^. though much stiiuined» fortunately escaped without aoy- 
serious hurt ; but od recovering his senses, and looking round fofr 
Mft Tennant, he found him lying under his horse, nearly lifeless. . 
He was first conveyed to a. cottage, inhabited by the person wha 
had the care of the pillar ; and medical assistance being procured 
from Boulogne, it was found that his skull and one of his arm» 
were dreadfully fractured, and that there was no hope of his reco- 
very. He was taken, however, to the Civil Hospital, as the nearest 
^nd most convenient place to receive him. After a short interval, 
be seemed in some slight degree to recover his senses, and made an 
effort to speak, but without effect,^ and died within an hour. — His 
remains were interred a few days afterwards in the public Cemetary 
at Boulogne^ being attended to the grave by most of the English 
residents. ' 



Mr. Tennant was tall and slender in his person, with a thin face 
and light complexion. His appearance, notwithstanding some sinr 
gularity of manners, and great negligence of dress, was on the 
whole striking and agreeable* His countenance in early life had 
been singularly engaging ; and at favourable times, when he was ia 
good spirits and tolerable health, was still very pleasing. The 
general cast of his features was expressive, and bore strong marks 
of intel%enc^; and several persons have been struck with a general 
resemblance in lus countenance to the well-known portraits of 
Jjocke. * _ 

The leading parts of his moral and intellectual character ar^ 
apparent in the principal transactions of his life. But in this me?* 
^orial, however imperfect, of .the talents and virtues of so extra- 
^ordlnary a man, some attempt must be made to delineate those 
characteristic peculiarities; of which there are no distinct traces in 
f he preceding narrative. . 

, Of his intellectual character, the distinguishing and fundamental 
principle was good sense; a prompt and intuitive perception of 
Jtruth, both upon those questions in which certainty is attainable^ 
and those which must be determined by the nicer results of moral 
evidence. In quick penetration, united wuh soundness and accu- 
racy of judgment, he was perhaps without an equal. He saw im- 
mediately and with great distinctness, where the strength of an 
argument lay, and upon what points the decision was ultimately to 
depend; a^d he was remarkable for the faculty of stating the merits 
of an obscure and complicated quej^on very shortly, and with 
l^eat simplicity and precision. Thew<g(Si}mness and temper, as well 
ns the singular perspicuity, which K^ dUplayed on^^such^occasionsi . 
were alike admiraUe ; and seldoip failed to convinile^ the unpre- 
judiced, and to disconcert or silence his opponents. 

These powers of understanding were so generally acknowledge<i|^ 
ihat great deference was paid to his authority, not only upon quas* . 

VoL.VL NML G 

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9B M^i^hM Jcmni rf \jfkB%. 

tkms in tclifiee, but ujpoa novt otben of geaerallalerM «adl mi>» 
poitance. WImI Mr. TemMmt thought ^r said upon 80ch sulgectSy 
nb fricfidB wcve always anxious to ascertain ; and his opinions had 
that species of influence orer 4 numerous class ef society which ia 
one uJF the most certain proefr of superior talents. 

Next ta rectitude of ooderstandii^, tlie quality by which he waa 
most distinmislied, wm a lofty and powerful imagination. I^Vom 
hence multed a great expansion of mind, and sublimiiy of con** 
oeplion; which, oeing united with deep moral fe^ngs, and an 
ardent aeal for the happiness and impvoreasent of mankind, gave« 
veiy peouKar and original character to his cemrersation in his inteiw 
ooorse with fiimiliar friends. He partook with others in the plea* 
9ura derived from the striking scenes of nature ; but was Aiore par« 
ticularly aAoted by the sight or contemplation of the triumphs of 
human' genius, of the energies of inteUi|[ent and successftil in<* 
dustry, of the difiusion of knowledge and civilization, andofwhat^ 
ever was new and beautiful in art or science. The cheerful activity 
Isf a populous town, the improvements in the steam-engine, the 
ipreat Galvanic experiments, and, above all, the novelty and extent 
of the prospects affiirded by that revolution in chemical science 
which has illustrated our own age and country—these magoificen| 
object?, when presented to Mr. Tenoant's mind, excited in him 
Ac liveliest emotions, and called forth the most animated expres- 
sions of admiration and delight. 

This keen sensibility to intellectual pleasure mav be partly under* 
stood, from the following passage of a letter written bv him in January 
1809, to an intimate friend who was then abroad. After mentioning 
Ihe great phenomena of the decomposiUon of the alkalies by Voltaic 
electricity, and giving a general view of the experiments founded 
upon them, he thus concludes : *^ I need not say how prodigious 
these discoveries are. It is something to have lived to mom 
them:' 

His taste in literature and the fine arts partook, ina considen^le 
ide^ee, of the peculiar character of his imagination. His favourite 
Wnters (those whom he most valued for the eloquence of their style) 
were such «s describe ^ high actk>ns and high passions," and have 
the {)ower of exciting strong and deep emotions. Of the noets, he 
principally esteemed Virgil, Milton, and Gray; and roe prose 
writers to whom he gave the prefenence for powers of composition 
Were Pascal and Rousseau. He had a particular admiration of the 
^ Fens^es de Pascal,'' regarding it as a production altogether un- 

Suafled in energy of thought and language, in occasional passages 
refined and deep phikmnliy, and, above all, in that sublime 
melancholy, which he consimred as one of the peculiar character* 
istics of great genius. 

The same principles governed Mr. Tennant*s judgments in the 

Qne arts. Considering it as their proper office to elevate the mindi 

s[nd to excite the higher and nobler passions, he estimated the 

'^ainerits of the great masters in music and painting by their power 

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mi infpiriiif tlM< emotiom. WliaA he pcrtkuW^ fliAhtNNl to 
Siiisical oonpoBitiens wis that tone pf ttMv^^ simplitity, ahd d#eii» 
l^fog, of ivhich tke woiin of Hi^iidel and' Vtrgolai aflbrd tiMi 
finest spfm«eM.f In painting he a^aidad the superiolity to iheif 
dnrittgiiisfaed masters^ of whom Raphael ib the oNel^ who eiieel lit 
the poetical expresiion of ch^iaeter, imd in the pewtt of repiwent* 
ing with spirit^ graoe^ and di^itj^ the moet existed sentioienw 
mi aflfaglions. 

fc was atan^at a neeessaiy eoosequifsiiee of hjs intaiie aiHldei|^ 
iheUnf of thiMe hi^r faeautiefl^ that bis taste was somewhat sevef^i 
and shar his idtm ol excellence^ both in litenatiiitt and the fine arti> 
were confined within strict limits. He totally disregarded medio* 
eiity, and genre no praise tothoseioi^ord^gMfef of aeriti fiom 
erhtch be received ne gratificatioft. 

In oonseqaenee principally of the dedioing stat^ df bb hedtb> 
his lalents for conversation were perhaps less uniformly' oonspicuoui 
during his tatter years. His spirits wene less elastse, and he was tfiotw 
0fiAeei to absence or indifference in general society. But his mind 
lodt tost nofie of its ngoitr ; and he never failed, when he exl^ited 
kiosseU) to disptigr his pec<diar powers. His remarks were original c 
SMid his fcaowif dge, assistied by a aiost retentive memorv) afforded 
m perpetual supply of ingenious and welt-applied illvfltpattons. But 
me qjuality ibr which bis conversation wvs roost remarkable, and 
fjMMB wfaieb it derived one 4f its pecuiiar charms, was a sitigitiar 
0Att4if humoor, virhich, aa it was of a gentle, equable kind, and 
had nothing very pointed or prominent, is ha»d4y capable of being 
^enoplilied or described. It aetdfini appeared in the direct shape 
of what may he called pm£ humour, but was so much blended 
y^r with wi^ fcney, or has own ^uijar chatacHer, aa to be Hi 
Wiaoy «espeet»eotirefy oeiginaL It did not consist in epigrammiitio 
ttoiots, or bifUiant and Evefy saUiea; but was rather di^yed hi 
Mcifoi trains of kaagery, in natural, but ingenious and uuiex* 

Krted, tuites of tbou^t and expi^ession, and in amo^g anee^ 
ea, sKglitiy tinged with the luAorous. The eftot iff these woi 
oaoch heightened b? a perfect gawky of countenance, a quiet 
Amtliar aaapoer, and a dnwaeteristic beauty and simfitici^ df hil* 
«uage« IPhis iloassuniittg tone of eesy pleasantry ««e a viery peeo* 
&r acid diaractaiflitse colouring 4o the whole of hit convcirsatlon* 
it mhupkMl itsdf with his oasod remarks, and evien* with jiis graver 
iditcossions. it had little fc^enectp the ordhiaFy ^epies of 4lie 
dbiy, and was wholly untinetused by personality or aarcasm . ' 

It dboifld he mentkMied, among the peculiarities of Mr. Tea^ 
wnt's litesavy tait^ that in 4X>maiC(n pcrbi^ wi«h most other 

• hk Hf T. Tsnoaafi eoarenatl^as -oa tM« sabltot, lie often alUtf H to 0, remaris 
Mle vmeee ia Bwnwa«> Mf^^^ .Qiotioffftfy (ihe arUele <« QMb '*) m irhfdi tttat 
eelcbcated .vnter describes with bis. own pecttHsr e^oqiieiice the fecjliofs proAmCfi. 
Iby great musical cotapositioas, consfderiag the capacity of receiviog such emotioip 
as the true criterion of amslGal geoios. Mr. T. was also acCfatons4 to wpmk m 
ATiiea*s Xstatiisoa Musical fizprcsrioo in tcriBsefblflipraiiy; ^ 

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too Biographical Account of S« Tennantj Esq. [kt^i 

Wginal thinkeiSy be bestowed little attention on books of opinioB 
<ir theory ; but chiefly confined himself to such as abound in iacta^' 
and afford the materials for speculation. Hb reading tor many 
jeara had been principally directed to accounts of voyages and 
trav^ especially those relating to Oriental nations ; and there was 
no book of this description, possessing even tolerable merit', with 
which he was not iamiliarlv conversant. His acquaintadce with 
such works had supplied him with a great fund of original and 
euriods information, which he employed with much judgment and 
ingenuity, in exemplifying many of his particular opinbns^ and 
illustrating the most important doctrines in the philosophy of com* 
inerce and government. 

Of his leading practical opinions, sufficient intimations have been 
given in the course of the preceding narrative* They were of a 
liberal* and enlightened cast, and such as might be expected itom 
the character of his genius and understanding. Among them must 
be particularly mentioned an ardent, but rational, zeal for civil 
liberty ; which was not, in him, a mere effusion of generous feelingt 
but the result of deep reflectbn and enlarged philosofrfiic views^ 
His attachment to the general principles of freedom originated 
from his strong conviction of their influence in promoting the 
wealth and happiness of nations. A due regard to these principles 
he considered as the only solid foundation of the most importanjt 
blessings of social life, and as the peculiar cause of that dutin*' 
guished superiority, which our own country so happily enjoys among 
the nations of Europe. 

Of his moral qualities, it is scarcely possible to speak too highly. 
He described himself as naturally passionate and irasdble, and as 
roused to indignation by any act of oppression or wanton exereise of 
power. The latter feeling he always retained, and it formed a disr 
thiguishing feature of his character. Of bis irritability, a few traces 
inight occasionally he, discovered ; but they were only slight ao4 
momentary. His virtuous disposhions appeared on every occasion^ 
and in every form, which the tranquil and retired habits of his liiN^ 
would admit of. He had a high sense of hokiour and duty.; and 
was remarkable for benevolence and kindness, especially towards his 
inferiors and dependents. But his oMrits were most conspicuous in 
the intercourse of social life. His amiable temper, and unaffected 
desire of giving pleasure, no less than his superior knowledge aod 
talents, had. rendered him highly acceptable to a numerous and di^ 
tinguishjsd circle of society, by whom he was justly valued^ and is 
now n>CBt sincerely lamented. But the real extent of his privat^ 
•worth, the genuine simplicity and irirtuous independence of his chs^ 
racter, and the sincerity, warm^, and constancy of his friendship,*' 
.can only be felt. and estimated by those^ to whom he was. long and 
.'intimately known, and to whom the recollection of bis talents aid 
virtues must always remain a pleasing, though melancholy^ bond of 
uaionj. 



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1S15.] On CrjfstQUixqUiim: Wt^ 



Article IL 

Obsertfoiions on CrystaUixaiion* By John Redman Coxe» M. D< 
Professor of Chemistry, Philadelphia. 

The efficaey of temperature in augmenting the solvent power of 
liquids is laid down by most chemical writers. This is more espe« 
•ially. the case with the class of salts ; to which, however, some 
exceptions occur, as in muriate of soda, which is nearly equally 
soluble in boiline water^ and in water at the common atmospheric 
temperature^ There is, nevertheless, something as yet not well 
understood, that appears to me operative in such oases, independent 
entirely of temperature, even in the instances of our most soluble 
salts, as Glauber's, or the sulphate pf soda and some others. 

It is almost universally asserted by authors on the subject, that 
atmospheric pressure is essential to the crystallization of salts ; and 
the proof advsjiced is, that if a phial, nearly filled with a loilmg 
saturated solution of Glauber's salt, be closely corked whilst filled 
with vapour, so as to exclude the atmospheric pressure ; this solu- 
tion will remain, even when cold, perfectly fluid, and may be 
shaken without becoming solid : but if the cork be withdrawn, the 
sudden impulse, from the air rushing into ^he phial, immediately 
induces the crystallization of the mass, with a sensible evolution of 
heat. 

Now thn beautiful and interesting experiment, which is usually 
shown in every course of chemical lectures, certainly at first sight 
appears to prove the position advanced. There are, however, nu- 
merous-objections to its truth ; yet so numerous ai*e the anomalies 
that present themselves in experimenting upon this subject, that I 
am unable to form any theory or speculation on their causes. 

1. If the above position were true, then certainly, by a parity of 
reasoning^ we should expect every other saline solution, in which a 
boiling heat is employed to promote its fullest state of saturation, to 
be affected in a similar way ; but this is not the case as far as I have 
tried it. Nitrate of potash and muriate of ammonia, both nearly 
as soluble as Glauber's salt, when secured from atmospheric pres- 
surey by corking the phial, or tying a bladder over the mouth, prcr 
^ipitate in rc^lar crystals as the solution cools. This fact alone is 
sufficient to overturn the theory advanced to explain the case stated 
of the Glauber's salt; — but, 

2. A perfectly saturated solution of Glauber's salt, thus carefully 
•corked at a boiling heat, has repeatedly crystallized tliroughout, 
tvithtnd any exposure to the atmospheric pressure ; whilst a solution 
of equal strength, and prepared and secured in every respect as the 
farmer, has, whHst standing beside it, remained perfectly fluid. 

3. Saturated solutions of salts as above, uncorkedy evince the 

2 



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fame results. I have kept some vessels thus exposed to the fliB 
atmospheric pressure-£>f three days, without any consolida^on; and 
Others, during all thf int^mediate piniods, with similar results. 
Sometimes one or more will cry3tallize, whilst others continue fluid« 
I haft aiadp tbisse tt{^rimeots iti phials hoMtog from two draehmi^ 
to 16 ounces ; in receiver of a j^tmlar atid oval shape, from half 
ii pint to half a gallon ; some with short, and others with lung 
xiecb; khA in op^ti ^lass jaht of one to two inches diameter^ and 
#^1it or tiine lonj^ ; so that the /b^m 6f the vessel in no way appeiitt 
to influence thjb result, Ildr ba^ the quatttlly of solution iii thi 
4^ess^i kny ItAM^ntt^ sine^ H Is th6 ^me wh^n IIW to the top^ m 
#heit dhly filled to one-fbuf th or ope-Sfth p&rt. The result \^ thtf 
ilimb when I ettipioj^d the ebtoitttdn GIAuber'li ^tts of the sti6)^i 
(he nntufey br the drtijldal, ttiftde by thd dhect dombtnatlon 6f ih<f 
^nstittietlts. in (Mb ^ptAMixt made i^ich the artfficial sulphMI 
I filled three ^Quti tihials, two Wt)tt elglely forked, the third re» 
jhtttned opeAf and kit were blaced beside ^ch other ib cooK In 
four hours Ghe of the corkti sotutions tH^s i'e^alkrly Crystallized Vk 
Mid transparent crystals. One-fifth only df tb^ Iba^ heibg id a liquid 
Itiite, Which did bot consolidate by ihikirig:, o^ bi wiVhdhiWtng th» 
eoM:. in^t coutehts bf the ctktr mkti, ahd df tllb Un€6^M t>hial^ 
Both ebbtibuied fluid) and both became toHd by iihakuig, Without 
IMthdifawing th^ tiotk of thfe tilbAKftd oMe. 

4. Bohitions as abbvie, afteir xtmaining e^pdse^ Itiivie t^v^h oM 
{A^talli^ed wheo brii$kly shaket^^ and some tirne afttiN^fds wlthonl 
any apparent cause, have assumed the solid form. 

5. ^pliittons as above, and ehMely Secured, hMt fifOed to b^^6toe 
Mid, whep the bork has be^ drawta, or the btedd^r puhctured, Kt 
some ippmenbi and even minutes; and in a f(6w <H6M Wheh i^^ 
ftritatipn was Employed in ad(fitk>n : and fhes^, iu Kke n^aniHery 
wheQ )ea^t expected, have suddeiily crystallized. 

6. Spl(jtioMs ^ above, both cprhd ahd imcathedf have gtiMdally 
Beposited regular irafispatefA ^tn crystaTs,"* in sotf^ initants(ss two 
foches in leqgth ; hi others, in irrt^lar hsAss^, at the bcMtdtn of 
the vtssel^the fluid above, in these cases, cohtteuiiig Oet^ au^ 
iaturated ; and Whl)ni shaken, sptotttitnes cbpsolidlitin^ iii ihe usual 
Vav. 

7. Sbfution^ ft^ above, b66i coi^ hnd i^<^thij afte^ tt^us d^ipl^ 
iitihg the^r^gulttt trynBh'i^t this bottom, htfve, without pn aj^faait 
^nt ^use, become cotisolidated Hboye xHtai^ wl^^ ^M^inm^ 
Untouched. 

8. Solutions as above (especially in ^ tkiattra^ With a httk nebitf 
%Wd fe^t lonK)« have, after considenible expbsure and ft^dent agita* 
tkmj refused tt> crystalli^^ ^ vien altbofigh cp|iti|koed ti iptertds M^ 

« The orjrvtalk w^ifeb im »4MI» la *«ie Mitf sas hm tdwmi$ ef at«A, 
JMDf V, *ilkyf striated, appearaacei and dp not ezbtbif die ana, t f»n f | is iyn t ^ 
fUseyj^ ajpp^aoce of tfi9 fednuabii cr^stalf ot CS^uber's lalt. 



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I»t4 Om Qnfadiiaiiiim. \m 

WBifthkXk «A hiMir.; 5«t bjr tfaeo turning the rtmttX^ m ds to {kxit^ 
out ft Uctle JfOBi the neck^ the efjotallittrtion ha» imoieilialely qc^ 



9« The sMie SQliition in the mattrass above mentiooed has fiv« 
jf neatly become completely crystallized when left uneoiked; ate 
Othir times a bttge mass, eqtial to half the volame of the solution, 
has crystatttaed reguhirljr,. in hard transpawnt crystals^ liie ranaidder • 
of tlie solutioii comifiiitng fluid. 

. 10. Saturated mko^ solutions of nitre and GlanbetV salt, cwkeA 
dosefy, have allowed the nitre to crystattbe reguhrly at the bottom; 
vhibt the Glatdber's sak renamed fluid, and on drawing tbe ooHc 
haiMmie solid vL^ usual my* 

1 1 • Solittiooif by no imuns satutated, evinee similar resvltB widi 
ijnif abore fi»Uy aatuffalttd ones^ althou|^ not in. so strongly marked m 
wmncHr. 

12. One.of the mart sin^^lar and intefestingfac^s connected whb- 
tlMise exipeiimenis i% that m these cases in which {eiiha' in tlie^ 
Ctpiod or wmorkBd solutieos) H^olar,. firm, itHmspatieni crystals^ 
feaaa^ ao soon as the residuanf saturated aulution above them soKdi^*^ 
6oi» eidier spontaneously, ov by shakings drawing the cork, &e. an^ 
immediate (or nearly so) opalescence, or loss of transparency, ensues 
SB tboae Jksi femted crystals,, which graduaily inereases to a beau* 
tiAil poreebuaous whiteness* This I haine ahnest invariably noticed 
midec the above drcumstaaoes : 1 believe it arises from' the gradual 
ilhataaelioik of the water of ciystamzatioa of the first formed regular 
eijvtals, by the mass of secondary erystsb ;; for in one experiment 
IPMa^. 1 foood tfat: peroelainous mass^ when disieolved kv W4iter, andr 
Nguloaly reeiyataMijBed, aflbrded a quantity of tvansparent crj^b-,. 
mptrior in wm^hi to^ those I employed^ which oould only arise from 
mir^ ro^obirining tiieir dius lost water of crystaHiaation. How the 
seeondary eijnlals €)f)erate in witkdmwing this visiter ftum the firsty 
leaeeiot ban the roost distant idea* 

13. In those solutions in which spontaneous crystals have fbrmed^ 
in the course of a few days, if the seco^idary crystallization does not 
take place, a complete truncation of the summits of the crystals 
9ccttxi9ir gradually fonping a level of tbe^ wliolc, as in common 
cases ; yet in several instances the solution f^bev^ was suffioiently 
sa t u rate d to consdidlitf? when shaken, 

14. In one experiment two eqiiel slaed phials were filled to the 
lop> wstb saliirated solotiona; one was corked, the other was left 
open: in two hours the uncorked one had consolidated; th^ other 
iras observed to have contracted above onerfiMu-th of an inch, and 
continued fluid; it ciystalli^eedf however, as usual, when brisk^ 
ihaken, withbot withdrawing the cork. 

It should' p^fliaps be mentk^ned, that thin sudden crystalli^tum 
itwaj» commences at the surface. 

I have pot tbe sohitkins, both corked attd uncorked; into cold 
imtfy a» anon as made^ in order to expedite their cooling, and 
lav^famdilh^aaasf ixseha gentntty aa «vben4N2ftfed tacoolgni^ 

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1€4 On CrystallizaHafu L^tni^ 

doidly* The solution in open phiab has soniietinieB cooled downtcn 
the temperature of the cold water (about 40^), and has then re-*' 
mained fluid in it for two or three hours; it has then sometiiD^- 
crystallized in the soft spongy mass} at others in firni^ welLformed 
regular crystals. 

15. Four or five pfaiak have burst in which spontaneous regular 
crystals had formed, and over which subsequently a sudden consoK* 
dation of the residuary solution had taken place, after the change 
of colour was efiected in the first crystals (as mentioned in No. 12), 
but whether from an expansion in the first or second crystals, I^ 
know not, as I was. never present when this occurred.*^ I have 
never seen this fracture of the phial when onfy the regular cryal&ls 
had formed, nor when o7% the spontaneous solidmeati<m took ^ 
place. It is probably, therefore, somehow connected .with- the ab« 
straction of the water of crystallization from the regular by the 
spontaneous spongy mass. In the above instances the crystah i^hich 
had formed regularly were perfectly white, and were readily 'sepa*' 
rated from the superior spongy ones by a little water gently poured 
over them, leaving them of the most perfect regularity^ and formiog 
a* beautiful white crystalline preparation easily preserved^ and not 
efflorescent, as in common cases. 

In all the cases thus enumerated, such are the anomalies pre^ 
sented as to prevent my drawing one conclusion from them which 
could give me any insight into the causes that produce them. In 
some cases atmospheric pressure seems to operate, in others not $ 
agitation sometimes, but not invariably. The whole series -of ex- 
" periments is so interesting, I trust this account may lead to further 
investigation, which may finally afford an explanation, and possibly 
lead to new views on the subject of crystallization gen^nlly. - 1 can 
only add, that I never could promise myself, d prmij that any one 
case should certainly turn out as I expected ; it apjpeared a matter 
of chance in a great degrt^e, whether this or the other resuit. should 
ensue, t 

* I apprehend it mqst occur ^urip'g the abstraction of the water of cr^stalTiza- 
tion froni the prtnory by the secondary crystals, which mHBt be accompanied by a 
correspondei^t eicpanfion. 

f In speaking of the effect of atn|ospfaeric pressnre on saturated solotUMBsof 
salts, Dr. Higgins details an experiment %vhich he made in a narrow-necked glass 
nattrass of three gallons dimensions. - It was fixed in a vessel filled with asatu- 
raitd iQlation of sea s^lt; a solution of 144* oa. of Glauber's salts in 96 oz. 6f 
water, in a 8ep;|rate vessel, w^s filtered into the n^ttrass, which was filled;tw<^ 
thirds by it, and the whole was made to boil so as (o exclude ^he air by the vapour 
formed. A strip of wet bladder' secured the mouth of the qnattrass, and sustainied 
tiio atmospheric p/essurc. . ' 

Two mattrasses were thus prepared : they stopd three days at ^. lemperatnr^ hft^ 
tween40Pand 50^, and were often shaken without crystallizing; assoonastho 
Bladder was cut a few sknall concentric spicular cry^t^ls formed; and shot rapidly 
-through the liquor till it was almost solid :. tb« caloric evolved, raised Hie4«npora- 
inra/rom 60® to 90*^, and In one experiment fronv^O® to 90^*. , , . - . . j 

f^fom this experiment cc.nnected with these ab^we detailed, as alsp^ frpm ipaiw 
well-known facts, f am impelled to detty'^e ph-fidttan of 0r. Black*s ceUbfated 
4kt^ of Jattnt beati If < Will be obsalved Hikt boinng 4Mtt^yiiM<'«*UitloB9H»r 



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m^.] On CrystalUxhtum. f OS' 

yj have tried similar experiments with other salts, of which I 
shall barely state the ontlines. 

V 1. Stdpkaie of Magnesia. — Boiling isaturated solutions (rf this 
salt^ corked and uneorlced, like the before-mentioned ones, some* 
times crystallize, and sometimes continue fluid, I have never ob-* 
served the beautiful satin-like crystallization. perceptible in the sul- 
phate of soda ; but the crystals fall down in minute grains, like sand^ 
diffused through the solution, gradually sinking to the bottom. 

2. Alumf as above. — Crystals formed at the bottom; the re- 
mainder continued fluid, even when sliaken ; when the cork was 
withdrawn, shaking produced no effect for nearly a minute, when 
the same sand-ltke precipitation ensued, commencing from the top^ 
When this ceased, it appeared nearly solid \ but by standing for 21 
hours, more than one-half was fluid. ' 

3. Sulphaie of Iron exhibited an appearance nearly, similar to 
tliat of alum. 

4. Sulphate of Copper, — ^The same, with some occasional varia- 
tion, even in^ the same solution* 

5. Sulphate of Zinc .remained fluid for 24 hours, although a 
boiling saturated solution was employed, and frequent agitation. 

6. Suhcarbonale of Soda Tsal soda) boiling and saturated. In one 
cnse. {corked) itbecame nearly solid when cold, from the spontane- 
ous crystallization. The same solution subsecjuently deposited, 
whibt corked, a smaller quantity of spontaneous crystals ; and after 
drawing the cork and shaking, small gram^lar crystals speedily 
doudedthe solution. The same resulted in uncorkea solutions. 

7. Muriate of Lvme, saturated and boiling, crystallized, when 
mkedy completely throughout: subsequently, dissplved by heat 
again, and corked, it remained fluid, until shaken without uncorking^ 
when a crystallization as beautiful, and neariy resembling that of 
sulphate of soda, took place, with an extrication of more caloric ' 
than in any of the preceding cases. 

8. Muriate of Ammof^iay corked and uncorked; boiling saturated 
solutions becatne solid as they cooled, with a firm crystallization. 

9. Nitre deposits regular crystals at the bottom, both in corked 
and'ttneorked phials; but I never perceived any fur,ther result, ex» 
pept by the slow evaporation of the fluid. 

1 have tried A number of other salts, but the results are not worth 

' ♦ 

Glanber's salts have repeatedly refused to crystallize, ewtn when exposed to the 
foil pressure of the air, and that for d^ys, Nqw it is to be remembered that such 
•olutions bad cooled from' at least 21!^*^ to ne^r the freej^iog point, and yet were 
enabled to hold that portion of salt in solution, which our theoriei presume to de- 
peud on the additional temperature. What was it that thus enabled the water to 
SMuntaia its fluidity and transparency, iilthpugh ehariped with such a quantity of 
solid Bsatter, in opposition to atmospheric pressure ^d 9 diminished temperature 
of at least 150® ? Can it possibly have depended on a qimntity of latent heat only 
equal in the above experimedt of Dr. Higgins to 50° ? And is not the fact thai 
water 4tte]f bSB been cooled. down to SO* or 25» ^elow the freesiog point without 
congealing, evidence that iomething more than a certain quantum of latent heat ip 
essential to the fluidity of water, &c. Other objections to this theory preseai 
fHemselv^, .but this is not the ^lace for consideriog them. \ * 

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HMI Eatperimenis m AW Drm$§hi df Carriages, fAMi 

If pMiiif it preient» at; I ba?e not txt«n4ed my rtptiinnMrti imi 
tlieoi sufficiently. 

If what ] have Hated riiouM te suiBeiently interf«tinf> and at 
the faane tia»e cooapadUe with tha natute of jrour puUicatioi^ 1 wtl^ 
tbaak you to give it an insertion* 

JFkii0ktpllia, Jul^tl^ 1811 



Aitictis in. 

J^xperlmenh on the Draught t^ Carnages^ 
By R. L. Bdgeworthj Esq. 

Mr. Bryan presented the fbllowing Report from the Committei tt 
Mechanics and Natural Philosophy of the Dublin Society :«— 

Seaport of the Committee of Mechanks and Nahttat FkUasoplq of 
the Dublin Sodeiy. 

On Saturday^ the 22d of April, your Committee attended in the 

Erd of Leinater House, when the following cgpcriaawti were puJ>^ 
ly made by Mr. JSdgeworth :*-« 

Experiment £ 

Two fiirnilttre earts were placed at one end of tha yard, wMb 
was paved in the ordinary maener. Tiiey w^re both eoostiructed 
wpim gfawhf^per springs ; one of them waa painted yellowy tha 
other green. 

These earriages were pulled forward by the appamtua invefited by 
Bfr. Edgewortli, which consists of a two-wheeled owrii^e, drawn 
by one or two horses, upon which a wheel or puUy, of nearly ejg^ 
feet dtsmeter, is so plaeed as to torn freely in an borioontid direc* 
tion. A rope, pasatng round this wheel or puUey, is attached by its 
«Dds to the earriages that are to be eompiied $ aod, as the apparstus 
is draws forward, the two carrii^ges must Csl^^ and tbat wbiek 
goes the easiest will get foremost* ; 

This apparatus was dmiim at a modemte pace by two horses,; and 
that carriage which ran the lightest and easiest was loaded till the 
ether kept pace with it* 

Five cwt. wws then placed upon each. ' 

The springs of the yellow carriage were jnrevented from acting b} 
Uoc*ks of wood interposed lietween the springs and the body or tha 
carriage. The green carriage, the springs of which weve allowed 
to act, was now loaded with 1^ cwt. additional wdght, making a 
total of 6\ cwt. ; and the green carriage so loaded was found to get 
before the yellow carriage, the weight on whieh amounted taon^ 
5 cwt. ' 

By this experiment it appetured that the carriage npou qpriogs \m 

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1B15^} Experiments oH ihi DtOught of Carriages. Wf 

an adnRiti|e atet thut withottt spring* of me-faurth of the weight 
that was bid upon it. 

Etptrimem H. 

Two post-chuses^ weighing each 12 cwt. 7 lb« one of them' 
^inted black, the other white^ were next compared ; the perch of 
the black one was moveable^ so that it could be lengthened or 
shortened at pleasure. 

When their perches were of equal length, viz. of seven feet six 
inehes, the carriages were compared previous to these experiments, 
and their draft was equalized by an addition of weij^t to that whicb 
fan the lightest. 

The perch of the black carriage was now lengthened to ten feet 
three inches. The carriages were e36h of them loaded with H cwU 

They now nearly kept pace with each other, the one with the 
kmg perch appearing to have rather the advantage* 

Experiment IIL 

The load, which in the former experiments was placed in the 
bottom of the white carriage, was now placed in an imperial on the 
t6p. The removal of the weight four feet higher from the ground 
did not promote the progress of the carrii|gej which did not yet 
keep pace with the black carriage. 

Experiment IK 

Two simitar Scotch drays, one of them painted bkie, and th« 
*{her red, were now compared. They had been bfonght to an 
equal weight; and the blue carriage was supported upon woodeo 
springs, consisring of two pieces of elastic timber, connected with 
tne bottom of the dray by iron shackles 5 each dray was loaded with 

o cwt. 

The (blue) dray upon springs had now a weight of I^ cwt. placed 
Upon it. With this additional weight, however, it got before th^ 
(red) dray which had no springs. 

fVom thi^ experiment, the application of wooden springs to carts 
t^n pavements, or upon ordmary roads, appears to have an ad* 
imntdge in the proportion of 7t ^^ ^* '^ ^^^^ he observed, that a 
perfect coincidence of draft could not be obtained ; because the 
earriages to be compared rolled upon different tracts of the pave- 
jKdent, so that the smallest inequality of the roads must have mad^ 
tome diflerence in the rektive progress of the carriages ; but to 
make as fisir a comparison as possible between their drafts respect** 
ively, that ctirriage which was placed on the northern track, as the 
eftrriages went firofn east to west, was in its return placed on tht 
lottthem trAck. 

Some small variation of the draft might be occasioned by the 
fetetieity of the long perch, and some by the vibratofv motion of 
tte fore carriage, which was drawn by a single rope. But to tho^ 
••nvefsant with the subject, these slight variations were but of Jittte 
pcMDtnt. 

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108- On QmI Mines. . [Auo. 

The rosultof these experiments fully ptove^ in the opinion o£ 
this Committee, 

That the apparatus invented by Mr. E^geworth is adequate to the 
purpose tor which it is intended : 

That it may be considered as » sure criterion of the relative draft 
of carriages: 

That very short perches do not contribute to the ease of drafts: 

That the dangerous system of loading the tops of carriages is by 
no means advantageous^. 

' Signatures to the Report of the Committee respecting Mr. 
Edgeworth's experiments :— R, B, Bryan, Cljarles Cobbs Beresford, 
Robert Button, N. P.. I-ieader, Richard GriflSth, jun. John Patten^ 
Richard Wynne, J, Lester Foster, and P.D. LaTouche. 



Article IV. 

On Coal Mines. By.*4^tfy«A>^^ 

(To Dr. Thopason.) 



SIR, 

Thb numerous accidents which have of late years happened iii, 
the coal-mines of this district, have been productive of sorrow and 
wretchedness to many, and have excited commiseration and horroi; 
in all. To hear of 50, 6Q, nay 100, of one's fellow creatures beingj 
suddenly shut up within the bowels of the earth, a certain propor* 
tion of them instantaneously destroyed,* the rest left to perish, either 
hy hunger or slow suffocation, is such a piece of intelligence a^ 
shocks and outrages every feeling of the heart ; yet it is a calamity 
which the inhabitants of the district of the Tyue and Wear "are 
jBoomed very frequently to deplore. The risk and the frequency of 
these misfortunes are doubtless owing in no sniall degree to the 
great depth and extent to which the workings of the coal-mines 
penetrate, and the difGculty thence arising of avoiding wastes, and 
pf maintaining the air in a state fit for combustion and respiration. 
To a certain degree, therefore, they are perhaps unavoidi^ble. But 
what tends greatly to embitter the regret felt on their occurrence, is 
the alleged prevalence of a certain disinclination in those concerned 
in the working of coal-mines, either to communicate information on 
the subject in general, or to promote, with all the zeal that might 
l)e expected of them, those measures necessary for the discovery of 
the means of preventing accidents. Unhappily, the air of secrecy. 

* lo the manyiatol accidentu wbkh h«ve occurred within my knowledge frw^ 
explosions of inflamraable gas, I think I may venture to assert, that not more than 
one-fnunh of the persons they have ultimately kiHed have been the victims of their 
ImmediatcfSeflrects; tbree4uurths of them almost inyariaUlv perUb by soffoeatioifi 
^Vide First Report of the Suoderlaod Society, p. i^,) ' • , ,>. 



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l«i5J On ChdUMiniL lOd 

which they seem so desbous of roaihtaiBing, ftflR>rds but too modi 
room for censure, and subjects them to unfevourable imputatioDs^ 
of which they are probably wholly undeserving, and from which a 
different conduct would assuredly exempt them. Of their repugnance 
to grant information, both yourself and Mr. Bakewell have had 
experience, and have seen cause to complain publicly ; and it is to 
be hc^)ed that it will at last give way, if not to a spirit of liberality, 
or the power of conviction, at least to the force of necessity. In* 
stances of the loss of lives are becoming so frequent, and of such 
frightful magnitude, that proprietors, oeciipiers, and workers, of 
coal, must in the end be driven to the necessity of rousing them- 
selves in their own defence, for the benefit of their suffering work^ 
men, and of their own interest. * 

It would. Sir, require but few arguments to prove that the 
system of mystery which they are anxious to preserve, so far from 
enhancing the value of their concerns, must, in every point of view; 
operate to its depreciation ; and that the tendency must, instead of 
diminishing* be every day increasing. It would also be easy to show 
that the only mode left of averting the ruinous finale to which the 
whole is hastening, is to promote, and even to invite, investigation 
and publicity. But, Sir, it is unnecessary, if I were capable, whicti 
I certainly am not, of writing a dissertation on coal-mines. The 
subject is not new y and in the present state of our information there 
iliscaroelf anything very mteresting to be offered on it. The whole 
f that I intend at present is to draw your attention, and, through your 
means,' the attention of the public, to certain points in the economy 
of coalmines, which are already known, from which I am inclinea 
to thiok advantage mi^ be derived, if they should come to be \m^ 
^ved with that eagerness and energy which their importance so 
justly demands. I shall advert to these in the order they occiir to 
my mindj without much adherence to methodical arrangement. 

Fire-damp, or, in scientific language, the explosion of carbureted 
hydrogen, as being the most frequent, apparently the most destruc'- 
tive, and (as in the present instance) the most recent, cause of mofr 
tality in our coal-mines, naturally and fi>rcibly claims precedence 
Jt is to the prevtotion of this occurrence that the principal attentioai 
has been directed ; yet, notwithstandingrall that has been dT>ne, the 
security against its ravagies is still very imperfect. The generatioa 
of carbureted hydrogen, from whatever cause it originates, is so in* 
Cfsssant and so enormous, that with all the perfection to which venf<^ 
tilation has hitherto been carried, it is found altogether impracti*' 
cable wholly to guard against those tremendous subterranean conkf- 
bttstions, the efiects of which produce lamentation, and woe, taiid 
misery, to all in their immediate vicinity. Two years ago a society 
was established in Sunderland for the express purpose of preventing 
pceidents in coal-mines. Its first Report was lately published, coq^- 
tainiug a letter addressed to Sir Ralph Milbanke, tlie President, bjf 
^ Mr. J0hn Buddie, who is, I understand, deservedly considered one 
i^f the; m(»t scientific and experienced coal viewers in this q^uarle^. 

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no BuOd^ignA {Mm, 

That liMef dM'tsiiBcd u adcmiBi of the oitdiods noBt ftncrellf 
ponued of ventilating coal-mines, aceonupaaicd wkir dfiugMi iltai* 
trative of the different descriptions. Frolii these one may form a 
yf9wj aeeurate siotioti of the' prwoipie upon which the ventiiatibn 
proceeds, and that it of ccusse dependis upon a thorough circulation 
of atmoqolieric air being kept up through dl the different eoursings 
upd frarkiugs of the mine. ^ rapid, hoirever, is the orflioarf 
necumulotiony and sometimes so unexpected is the aecesaiem of ish* 
tammable gas, that with aU the apparatus of irentBatioo in the most 
compiele condition, it is a matter of no smalt difficulty to keep the 
air in civeuhition in a state fit Ant die various purposes, or in tbo 
language of mtneis, to prevent it from leadiing the^mg p^ini, or 
point of hydrogenous impregnation at whidb^it ezidodea when 
lueught in oontact with the flame of a candle^ The slightest inter- 
enption to the rauulaf trausmission of atmospherie air, or the leait 
imlooked-isr addttion of oafhureted hydrogen, exposes the lives of 
the miners to the most imminent jeeparc^, and the mine itself to 
the risk of total destruction. It would appear that as fiv as mecha* 
■seal means are adequate to the end, ventilation hai reached the 
utmost pojttt of perfection of which it is susceptible. Mr. Buddie 
4d some mcasuve stakes bis reputation as a viewer on the opinion^ 
that any further adtancement m the discovery of mechanical powen 
lor the ventilation of cdlieries is iinattainafale. His words a^ t 
^ Ob the strength of osy own egcperience in oc^lititoi thus cimNil^ 
ateoced, i iK^ly hazard my opinion, that any fimher ap|dicatiotf of 
mechauicai agency towards preventkig CKpkMbns io eoaUaainet 
avould he iaeilectual ; and thcMfbre conclude that the hopes of thia 
Society ever seeing its most desirable object aecompltshed must 
test upon the event of some mcdiod being diseoverod of produewf 
ouch a chemical change upon carhursted hydrogen gas as to render 
it ioueaaous as fiut as it is dtsehafged, or as k approadica the neighi> 
kmAoodcf lights. In this view of the subject, it is to scientific 
wan only that we miart loafc up for assistance m providing a ^eap 
and cSeotuid remedy/' (Report, p. 23.) These positiotis, thottje& 
periiapB act ueiy accordant to the genuine spirit of philosophy, $M 
OBBdiAg ra^er to repreai than to aninnte the zeal of discoveren^ 
may in the present ease be assuaaed as principles for the purpose of 
efanplifyk^ and fadlitatmg the tfseussion. By the pubtication^ 
^henefore; of Mr. Buddle^a letter in the Report alhided to^ our 
imowledge of this part of the subject may, in one respect, be con^ 
mABn4 as having not only advanced a step, but our perceptioAs of 
wiwt we do know, and of what remains to be done, are rendered 
inore dear and precise. According to thb view, then, we may te 
find to have arrived at a fixed point. We have reached, as it weffl^ 
V spot ftom which we can see more distinctly the route to be pur» 
eued. A person, in every rospect qualified to pnonounce a deliberate 
imd decided opinion, has dechired that all further attempts lat im^ 
proveraent in what may be called the mechanism of ventilation will 
abortive/ and that it is to scientific men that wraiu to trust: 

9 

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M1&} On CoaUAfuM. lit 

for tlie discovery tt nomt ehemieal agent which Aail eondeiise or 
neutfttlixe, 01* in^ORie way or other render hnrailess, the destructive 
Stohstaoce tt« ih«t a§ it is dnetigaged. 

But, Sir, in order to give the investigatten of ihe suhjeet by tnea 
of svwfhre any chance of being prosecuted with success, it is indis* 
penaahiy necessary that some indoeement should be held out. le 
wouid he to draw on |)hilo9ophy or philanthropy to a much greater 
aanount than • either witi be found to bear, to suppose that scientifie 
-ttien, from the mere impulse of henevoleoce, or love of the subject^ 
are to engage in a course of kborious and costly experiments, for 
the pttr{)ose of finding out that which, though it would unqocstion* 
ifibly gratify the feelif^ of every true friend of science, as well as of 
humanity, would be attended with no decided advantage to the 
discoverer hinMcK I am aware it has been laid, by a writer whoso 
authority stands deservedly high, that '^ in the present state of our 
knowte<%e, an infellibte method of obviating by chemical means tho 
deplora^ile cata9tro|)hes which occur in coal-mines, is a hopeless ae« 
quisition ; and that to hold forth any such proposal, wkh confidettt 
pretensions, would be the boast of empiricism, and not of science.*^* 
It has aflso been urged, that the limited power which art has, or 
even can be supposed to esercise over the metier operations dT 
Mttiore, leaves little room to expect that any thing can be done by 
ctiemicMii means to centroul the powers of the latter in any -consi- 
derable degree. Between these discouraging opinions, and the ono 
promulgated by Mr. Buddie, which forbids us to look for any fur* 
Iher mechanteal means, we should be left, were we implicitly to 
abide by d«m, m aueh a«(ate of utter abandonment, as would Jo 
to predode all endeavours to ameliorate the present system. To 
adduce, therefore, such dogmas as these, is to throw a damp upoa 
exertion of every kind, by a species of cold-blooded doctrine, bba* 
tHe both tofeeKng and to the interests of science, and which is tho 
mort Kkety to ohmin credence from the respoctaUe sources wfaeoco 
it derives its authority. Iq prosecuting this interesting subject, theo^ 
such gkiomy and disheartening views must positively be discaiM|^ 
and sentimenti indulged in, which shall be nciore consonant to otir 
hopes and wishes, and which shall afford to the mind a brighter aoA 
more satisfiKftory po»pect. Chemistry has in our age made rapid 
and as t onish ing advances in the pursuit of truth ; and caleulattog^ 
from post experieiiee, it does not appear why such a discoveiy ai, 
diet of preventing or counteracting the excessive generation of ear*^ 
bureted hydrogen, or of neutralizing it when formed, should bo 
placed out of the reach of chemical research. Although art caa 
certainly do Httle to regalate or subdue auy of the more stupendoue 
operations of Nature, yet in some extraordinary instances she hal 
tmdoobtedly succeeded. Besides, the ventilation of a €081*40100 is 
nothing more than the artifiml adaptation of scientific principiet to 
OieauccessfBl aeeomplishment of a great practieai result, and beam 



;• TMirAigljrta Or. Trotter's PropMsl t^r totrtfyio; Flfe^aad Ckaali ] 

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112 Qfi CAfat-Mtnes. [KvCi, 

little or XiO adalc^y'to'correspodding phenomena at tlie surface,, 
where the power of restraining the currents of air is not within the- 
guidance or governance of human agency. But even though the 
discovery of such iteansy ad shall render innocuous the whole carbu- 
reted hydrogen generated, were to be granted as unattainable, still 
the finding out a substance capable of decomposing such a propor* 
tion of it as shall bring it more within the range of human manage- 
menty need not on that account be despaired of. Let, then, some- 
suitable encouragement be offered ; such a reward as shall incite the- 
learned in this branch of knowledge, to apply themselves sedu'^ 
lously to the detection of that which, while it will constitute so in^ 
estimable a benefit to the public, may be of signal advantage to the 
discoverer himself. Let the coal proprietors, and all concerned in 
coal-mines, subscribe a sum by way of preroiu(n, or bind them^- 
selves to pay it at any future period, to the fortunate individual who 
shall discover this great desideratum.; In aid of such an object, let 
Parlian^ent, on behalf of humanity and of the country, vote a cer** 
tain sum; suppose 5,000/, lO^OOOZ., or 20,O00Z«, in the same. 
manner as is held out to the person who shall discover the longi^ 
tude; a discovery, by the way, perhaps fu|ly as. problematical as 
the one now in contemplation. . As connected very intimately with 
the accidents from fire^damp^ those from choak-dafnp, or carbonic 
* acid gas, next bespeak our attention* This substance^ though not 
SQ ostensibly hostile to life, perhaps in point of fact destroys a far 
greater proportion of tiie miners than even the fire-damp itself. It 
is the opinion of Mr. Buddie, as we have already seen, that only 
one-fourth of the people below ground at the time the carbureted 
hydrogen ignites, suffer by the immediate effects of the blast. Those 
who survive are afterwards, stifled, before the mine can be enteredp 
by the inhalation of foul air ; and a great part of this foul air con«- 
sists of carbonic acid gas, formed by the chemical effects of the 
^plosion. In reality, therefore, the consideration of the subjeet 
of choak-dajnp, though not so immediate, is not less important 
|han that of fire-damp. It need net, however, be enlarged upp9 
jn this place, as a similar experimental inquiry to that already sug* 
jgested is requisite, and probably would lead to the detection of tlif 
jmeans of preventing its formation. In truth, as the presence of -^ 
great part of the carbonic acid gas is a necessary consequence of the 
i:hemicai action produced by the ignition of the carbureted hydrogen, 
Ihe prevention of the one must infallibly obviate the generation pf 
the other. 

. Another fruitful source of fatal disasters in our collieries is waier^ 
By the last accident from this cause at Heaton Colliery, it is well 
icnown that no less than Jb men and boys lost their lives. Some of 
these were doubtless immediately drowned by the rapid influx of the 
'Water; buf others were, in all probability, doomed to one of the 
«snQSt lingering and horrible deaths of which the mind of man is 
able to form any conception. Entombed alive in the earth, at a 
depth of 500 01 600 feet j shut out from all communication :^th 

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/iSlS.] Ots Coal-Mir^s. XIS 

.Uibse St the iurfec^; driven, in their search of refuge froth the 
'Toe^tingSood, to seek shelter in sotne of the more elevated parts of 
ahe mine j there^ if th^y succeeded m escaping the torrent for the 
. moment^' :to lie- in darkfiess and despair, some of them perhaps ia 
solitude,: consdous that every hope of being rescued was for ev^r 
cutoif> widting the approach of the water to swallow them up; or 
the equally certain ravages of hunger or sufibcation ; no sound 
to be heard fou^ the dying groans of their companions. Great God 
of mercy ! what a situation for human beings to be reduced to I 
.The imagination turns away with sickening horror and afiright from 
the picture which itself has drawn ; and the only hope which evea 
•the most bienevolent heart can cherish, with any degree of patience^ 
-composure^ is, that, the noxious air, or submersion in the wat^r> 
must have speedily put a period to their miseries by terminating 
their exiistence, 

• An evevit of a similar description is said to have taken place in 
dus neighbourhood about 30 or 40 years ago. The manner in 
which this accident happens is sufficietntly well understbod, and 
notty fae easily conceived. Throughout the greater part of the Tynl^ 
and. Wear district there are indumetable wastes^ or spaces, left by 
the fermer working but of coal seams. These bid workings, oa 
account oi:the dedlri^t mieans, both cheniical and mechanical; 
posse^d by our forefiithersj are, generally speakings shallbw; wh^ti 
oomoopred with the depth to which the operations in what is called 
the Low Main now {^netrate. They therefore now constitute sb 
many :cisterns, into which the water from the surface, and from 
other soorcfes'in the silent and stupendous laboratory of Naturie^, ia 
perpetuidly'filteiring; till at last there come to be collected pro* 
4igious bodies of water, which in general overlay the stbtum bf 
coal in whibh the more modern workings are carrying on. Fibmi 
uncertainty respecting the vicinity of these wastes andLaqUeousr^ 
servoirs, from tenderness or want of power in the wall or loof .of 
thtrmine; to support the lateral or superincumbent, pressure of the 
water, or^ still moce, from ignorance or rashness ih the worktnea 
inappKmching'tob near to these vast accumulations, the side or 
foof of the mine gives way, and the overwhelming inundation taket 
place* Against such an awful and ruinous occurrence there neither 
is, nor probably cfan there be, provided any efFectual safeguard i. 
Yet'Oafrchmajr be done by way of precautwn : and here 1 must 
takd tbe liberty of mentioning a plan which was brought forwiird 
with this view by Mr. Thomas, of Denton, near ^ewcastle^ so far 
back as the year 17&7. A paper by this Gentleman on the subject 
6f establishing an .office in Newcastle for- recording plans and otheir 
particulars respecting cbal-mih^s was read at that time ; but^ frotti 
some unexplained cause, was never acted upon. On account of the 
increasing importance of, the subject, this paper Mfas again read«a€ 
the last meeting of the Literary and Philosophical Society of thia 
ijk^e. hdd bn the Bth inSt., and was ordfered to be published, 
tbgethfer with supplemeutary observations by Mr, WmV Chapm^ai 
Vol. Vt. N^ U. H 

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in On CoaUMineSn (AVft. 

, civil engineer^ calculated to put the whole into sitcb a frain as shall 
enable the public to avail themsdves of- the advantages comprs-*-^ 
lieiided in the proposal. It would only be to anticipate the ooBtents 
of the intended pamphlet^ were I now to enter upon any delnb. 
I ^tdl, therefibre, merely observe, that Ihe pla& seems adminibfy 
well suited to a most humane and useful ohje(^> and Wi)l^ I shouU 
hope, meet with every encouragement* 

There are one or two points more to which I wish to alliide, as 
meriting more notice than has yet been bestowed iqpon'them* Ote 
of these is the stat« of discipline which obtains in eoal<*mtnes. ^It 
is an aeknowledged truth, that the various- unfortunate events in oar 
collieries^ though passing under the general denomination of acdh 
dentSy are. frequently, if not always, brought about by circum^ 
stances to which the epithet fortuiinus can scarcely be afq^lied. la 
those instances where the escape of any of the miners affi»ds aa 
Importunity of: ascertaining the particulars, the accid^t eaa gene- 
rally be tracedl'to have originated in want of science in some of thie 
immediate superintendents, or ignorance of the workmen, or waat 
«f attention in the boys, to whose ciure are entrusted some 'Oif the 
most important arrangements,*^ but moie especially still, in moat 
leprehensible and over«weening confidence in all, whicb being 
tiandated, means nothing more or less than the grossest c»ek$snessi 
In fact, this latter circumstance may, to a certain degree^be ie«* 
giurded as the primary cause of all the miishaef tfaiit imfptsas 
Unless, therefore, some method be devised for pfeveiit{ii|^felBBiK 
tion in die discipline, and for instituting some ref<MrnHrtioa'>ia the 
interior economy of the mines, it is obvious that all odier meansy 
howevler perfect, must come lamentaUy short of their intended 
effect. This desirable change, however, can hardly be efiected biit 
hy.Legisbtive interference, which ii would consequently be for the 
iateiest of all pavties to see exercised. 

Atoodiep most essential object would ajqiear to be to establisiif 
same, effideot method of alarm amongst the inhabilants of: the 
mine.. From the accounts received from the survivors of Uie farter 
tenrible catastrophe at Healon eoUiery, it is evident that had a moia 
]Mrrect qrstem of alarm, as well as of discipKne, pievaBed, a con^- 
siderable proportion of the unfortunate miners m^t, nay would^* 
have been saved. Indeed, it is easy to imagine how it may happea; 
tfiat a workman, or set of workmen, in any particular diitii^of H 
driliery, shall have satisfactory evidei>ce of approaching thmger, 
and save themselves by rushing to the shaft, while they have na 
means of giving timely warning to others working at the distance 
of perhaps more than a mile from them. Hiis actually happened 
at Heaton. The men who were working at the fatal spot where thsu 

* * Mt. Baddle defloes • tritpper to be *^ the person, generaUy a boy, whd'imeas 
and Ihoa fhedoon. The trappers hare seats near thdr doon^ and reaiaiA 1^ tiiaal 
aU the time (he pit is at work. Tkh is th» first branch of pU ssork ih§ $csf$ ^ teJ* 
(Report, p« 26.) it is of some conseqaeace here to know that these doors, which 
these childi%a are employed to watch, are the apertures through which the air it 

raoiaiitted ; in other words, they appear t^ be the fMn'a cAaaaeb af vtmUaHte. 

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i^l b.) Accmmi of the Sunderland Lifne-stone F^irmation. 115 

wat^T burst through extricated themselves by hastening t6 the shaft", 
but before the'&lardi could be Spread to the tnore distant {)art$ of ih^ 
mine, where ino6t df the men appear to have l)een at work, th^ 
water had formed an .impassable barrier, and deprived them of all 
cliance of retreat. 

It may also occur in a similar manner, with respect to explosions 
of. carbtireted hydrogen, that men working at a certain part of the 
pit may be aware of danger from the state of the air in their imme-- 
diate neighbourhood, and though not able to save themselves from 
injury or death, may by early alarm be the means of saving some of 
their comrades nearer the shaft, many of whom are sacrificed simply 
from not |cnowing that danger is at hand. For the purpose, then, 
of the better guarding against these evils, might it not be advisable 
and proper to have established throughout the mine a series of 
^)eaking trumpets, or alarum bells, arranged in such order as 
niould convey with the greatest possible celerity intimations of 
dknger to its various departments ? 

These, Sir, are all th6 remarks whi^h occur to me at present, aS 
worth while to* trouble you with. There are many other con* 
tTiv;|Dces which might be proposed, and which might be adopted, 
#ith increased security to the miners^ and certainly, at a very 
mode^te cost ,to the proprietors. But I fear I have already 
trespassed at too great length to presume to encroach any 
further. One observation there still remains, to be made, thai 
will apply to aH these . diflerent causes of the loss of so man^ 
TaluablQ lives, and it is ^his, that the accidents resulting from 
tbem in coal-oiines must be daily becoming more frequent. From 
{he very nature of the case, the more numerous, deep, and exr 
tensivej the excavations become, the greater must be the difficulty 
of avoiding wastes and old workings, where reservoirs of carbureted 
hydrogen, of carbonic acid gas, and especially of water, are in a 
state of unoeasin^ accumulation. In a word, the subject is 
aasttining a fearful importance, and must very i^oon extort from the 
public, and particularly from those more nearly interested, that 
attention which hitherto seems to have been partly withheld from it. 
I am, Sir, your most obedient servant, 

Jvm 13| 1815. ' 



Article V. 

An Account of the Sunderland Lime-^tme Formation. By W* 
Reid Clanny, M.D. M.R.I.A. of Sunderland. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

DEAR SIR, Sunderland f June 12, 1615. 

When I had the pleasure of your short visit last summer, t 
forgot to show you thcPallion lime-works, ^he jrojgejrty^^ Jj^i 



1 1 $ Acficunt.of^ the Sunderland himerdcm Formaium. {Aucy 

Goo4c)iild^ £$q« whlcli are situate^ ijqpbn the Wear,, fbout a loilf 
tip the river jfrQQijthis ipwn. They.^rf the. (fec^pest wrought of tba 
^uDderland lime-stope formatioq, ' and ar^ of .great, extent and 
yajue.". ' ' .' . '^ ^ •'. ^ .:. '- ' .' . • '. • v 

I have talceii some pains in examining the Fallion lia^e.-stone^ 
»S$isted by those persons w^ho were be^t qualified to give nae the f e^ 
quisite information ; and the following sketch, which 1 have drawn 
lip for the Annals of Philosophy^ will, I expect, be found worthy 
the perusal of your readers. , . , ; 

These lime-works have afforded employment for many years to a 
great number of qu^ry-men, lime-burnexs, and sailors, many of 
whom were so advanced in years that they had little chance of con* 
$tant employmient elsewhere. The works are conducted with th^> 
greatest care and regularity; and a steam-engiue of .considerabjb 

Eower Is in constant use, to draw the lime from the quarry to.th^ 
ilns. Whether we consider the, extent or the order in which the 
different operations are carried on,, tlie Pallion lime-stone nouist be 
always considered as an object of much interest and curiosity. 
, The following are the strata of Pallion quarry : — 
Soil, from a foot to two feet. 
; Marl, containing small pieces of lime-stone of a cream-yellow 
colour, 25 feet;. 

.' A stratum, o( icommon compact. ]ime-stoi)e 18 feet in depths 
colour white, througb' which are observed a few horizontal stripes 
pf ochre-yellow. It is.massive;. fracture even, inclining to large 
conchoidal ; translucent upon, the edges ^'brittle ; easily frangible^ 
not particularly heavy ; may be scratched with duor spar, but not 
with the nail. Several horizontal indentations, slightly crystal- 
lized, run through this stratum, in jsome places having the appear- 
ance of dovetailing, and in others resembling the sagittal suture 9£ 
the human craniuni. From the chemical triaL w.hicb Ibave made^ 
I find that this stratum cpntains no magnesia. . 
] The second stratum of lime-stone is 35 feet in depth, colour 
ochre-yellow, with very frequent . cilouds of bjuishrgre^. . Thjsi 
ochre-yellow is soft, giving to the touch the sensation of indurated 
inari. The bluish-gfey is very hard and compact ; of course the 
fracture of this stratum of lime-stone is very unevea. This stratum 
contains magnesia, though in no great proportion. ' 

The third stratum of lime-stone b three feet in depth ; colour 
cream-yeilow, having many small spots of ochre-yellow inter-, 
spersed ; texture uniform ; fiacture conchoidal ; translucent upon 
the edges; hard; not brittle; cannot be scratched with the nail, 
but readily with fluor spar. In this stratum the remains of a fiat 
fish was found, a drawing of which I have taken for you : (see 
Plate XXXVII.) and near the remains of this fish I ^ have dis- 
covered several shells, which are iq soch a state of mutilation 
that evt;n with a good magnifving glass it appears impossible to 
refer thetii to any class, in which opiniofi I am^ supported by a 
well-informed conchologist of this plice. ; ' ^ 

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1815.] Account of the Sunderland Lme-stme Formation. {ij 

The lime-stone of this stratum has been much in request for the 
sculpture of coats of arms for mansion-houses. 

The fourth stratum of lime-stone is worked to the depth of 17 
feet^ and is the lowest at present wrought. 1 shall have occasion to 
offer somie remarks afterwards at the conclu^on of tin's paper, When 
I shall meikion the depth of this stratum where< it was worked 
through in sinking a coal-pit shaft. The colour- of ^his stratum is 
bluish-grey; it is massive ;r fracture coocboida] ; fragments sharp 
edged ; translucent upon thp edges ; cannot be scratched by the 
naif, though readily enough by fluor spar; it is hard, and not 
readily frangible ; contains hot 'more than fiv^ per cent, of tna^- 
iiesia-. * . . ' 

^ About two feet from the bottom of the quarry, this stratum be» 
comes so line in the texture that it has be^n sculptured for omaV 
mental purposes, and is well known under the naihe of the Pallion . 
marble. 

' The Pallion lime is much valued, lind is very extensively used for 
agricultural purposes along the whole eastern coast of England and 
Scotland. An observation of the late Dr. Anders6h, in his excellent 
Essays on Agriculture, is so much in point, 'that I shall offer no 
apology for transcribing it :-^** The only extensive lime-quarries of 
such a pure lime-stone that I have met ^ith are at Sunderland^ iot 
the county of Durhaip.^' 

^ The Pallion lime-stpne, generally speaking, is^ hard ; but when 
burnt, it is as light and soft to the touch as chalk-Hme. This limC'- 
stone accprdingly loses ,mqch' weight by calcinatipn^ apd requires n 
large proportion of water to slake it. 

- In the year 17S7 a coal sh9ft ^as sunk about half a mile south* 
west of the Pallion quarry, and upon the same estate^ The same 
Order and appearance of the strata were observed a^ in the Pallioa 
quarry, that is, as far down as the latter quarry is worked, which is 
to the extent of 17 feet in 'thp fourth stratum "of lime-stone, as 
mehttoned above. After this the shaft ^s carried through 64 feet 
of blue lime-stone, which became coarse, apd of inferior value.. 
' Immediately below thjs stratuni of )ime-stone the shaft was 
worked through a stratum of dark slate-clay alternating with blue 
slate-clay, which was 240 feet in depth. The shaft was next passed 
through a mass of green-stone (the whin-stone of this county) and 
day-slate to a considerable depth. 

Mr. Goodchild has lost the memoranda which were taken when 
the shaft was sunk ; but you may rely upon the accuracy of the 
above st^temepit^ as I had it from himself. 

I am^ dear Sir, your futbfiil friend, 

' W. Rbip Cmnny. 



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119 Sk9kh (if a Gmieral Theory 0f the £Av<^• 



Aeticle VI. , 

Sk^oh ^ a Gpieral Theory of the Intellectual FunUiem «f Mem 
>0d Miv^y^^gwen in reply to JOn, Cross and Lemh. Bj 
Alexander Walker^ 

Qn the subject of the cerebelluipi I have only to acld» that all 
the observations which Drs Gall and Spurzheim have adduced to 
prove that it is the organ of amativeness, are accountable from th^ 
oirci^qostance that the ^^ree pf. physical. love seenu to be.inore 
or lefs connected with the degree of voluntary ponrer-^tb^ proper 
function of this organ:. and hence it is th^the.man^ the^talliqOy 
and the buil^ having more voluntary power^ have also more amative^ 
Xiess and q larger cerebellnoi than the c;ttnucbf the gelding, an.d the 
<)x« With this modifi^catipn — considering the cerebellum not as the 
iorgany but as a convenient ^iifn^ of amativ^ess, tlie genen^l theory 
vv'hiph I npw delivcjr of the nervous system is in perfect harmony 
^{th the mpite particular doctrine of .(GidU and Spur^hei^p as to the 
f^rebral organs. 

My former brief paper being entitled. On the Use of the Cere^ 
h/eUum and Spiiial Marrow, it was less to the structure of these 
parts (which I conceived to be sufficiently vireU known) than to theif 
tis^ that I referred. In particular, I meant to lay w claim to th^ 
first observation of the division of the spinal marroy, either pa thf 
gn>und of its having lateral fissures, ass^rt)ef) by Soemmerring, who, 
however, will no doubt j^oyr abandon his opinion, si^oe Dir* J(jeacb 
f^ has carefully exan^ned the structuxe of the.spinal mass q{ nerve^'' 
Of on a ground which is, I believe, ,peculla^ to myself^ that thesq 
c^plumxis being laterally separated by cineriti^u^ n(^tter, that sub* 
^ai^ce serves tb^ pvippsje of insulating thea> from eaclb otb^, and 
serves a similar piucpose, and no oth^, thi;oughput the br^in* l&yc^^ 
9n this ground, which I ^eliev^ to be ^e hc^t ^ne, however peculiar 
it may b^, it was hpt my in.tention to olaia^ the ohservatioq ; but ^ 
was my intention to cons^ider as my own, the observation that thft. 
anterior columns (in which end.th/^ anterior spinal serves) terminate^ 
in the cerebrum, while the posterior cciuinns (iq whi^h begin thf 
posterior spinal nerves) commence in the ce^eb^Uunii ; as weUa$ 
that the anterior may, be termed the ascending columns and nen&f9l<, 
and the posterior the desoeoding — ^that the former may h^ call^^ 
those pf ^nsatipn or impression, which, to b^ cognizable to the' 
brain, m<^t asceiid ffotn by far the greater part of the sur&ce of 
the body I and that the posterior may be called those of volition or 
expression, which, to affect almost all the muscles, must descend 
from the head. And, to say the least of it, this is rendered highly 
probable by the circumstances that sensation and volition — ^an 
ascending and a descending motioq qmnot possibly take place in 

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18i5.J JnieUeetud Rmcims of Mm^md Mbnals. Iff 

^«aiM fibfils ot the same nerve; that consequeotly all nerves, 
haviog at once .seDsation and volition, divide into two series of 
fibrils oa joining the fi|Nnal marrow, namely, an anterior series and 
a,poateripr one; diat the anterior fierlo^ is. In form and structure, 
totally ^ifierciit from the posterior; and that the spinal marrowy 
^ided as it ia by fissures and by cineritious matter, does reaUy^ 
fiMrnfour columns whidi are joined by these series, viz* the anterior 
eohiains^ by the anterioir lasciculiy md the posterior columns^ by 
the posterior &sciculi« 

In refjy to my statement^ that the anterior columns join the 
oerebruiB, and the posterior the cerebellum, Dr. Leach says, ^^ dall 
and Spurdieim have shown that the brain and cerebellum cannot 
be conaidfii^ as the continuation of the spinal marrow, any more. 
tkaa the s{Anal marrow can that of the brain and cerebellum/' 
TliftB reply the Doctor no doubt thinks decisive; and as I have 
sboaFn ttuit he has faither too hastily, and without reason, called my 
amiiloinieal and physiidogical statement inaccurate, I must now 
ia^ke into his. The argument, then, which he here adduces, 
ftpm wiiatever source derived, is a bad one, because it proves a 
great deal too. much, as the following observation will show, — -. 
Various parts, then, of the body, have been generated separately ia 
tlie uterus or ovaria, as hair, teeth, limbs, &c.. Now, in the case 
of the lower pert of the body or the lower extremity being generated 
aloB^ or dettM^ied from the svqperior parts^ the generated parta 
WMld contain vessels as well as nerves — namely, an aorta and vena^ 
cava, car a feaKml artery and vein. But, from the Doctor's argu- 
aaen^ it would follow ^M* because in this case the lower parts of 
tkese vessels wene produced sepan^ly from the upper, therefore, ia 
the natural ^tate, these parts are not continuations of each other 1 
and that the aorta and femoral artery are not descending, and tlie 
vena cava and fcnioral veifi ascending 1 * Such, then, are the 
pncise and ^' aoeurate ** arguments em^oyed by Dr. Leach to 
piove t)iat the anterior columns and their nerves do not join the 
oerebrum, and tbe posterior the cerebellum. 

In Mply to my statement, that the anterior of the n^rvoua 
ftsdculi vmch join the apinal marorow are not nerves of sensation^ 
nor the posterior nerves of volition, Dr. Leaeh^ instead ^ proving 
mtf mmeura^f phces upon recwrd a most astonishing speamen'of km 
mm !—Dt. £each si^s, ^ The two roots of nerves of each half of 
^ 6|^aal aMiTSW^ namely, the anterior and posterior, go to dif-* 
&Mnt parts of the bo4y>"^he muscles and skin of the back receive 
^eir nerves from tiie posterkMr roots, whilst the musji^les and skin of 
the abd<»iea receive theirs from the anterior roots, and yet the forq 
and back parts of the body have sensation and voluntary motion/* 
Now certainly if this were but true, my doctrine would be not 
' '. ' \ ' ' ■ ' • * 

« This arsument is ttmi limited to the sepm-ate prodaciioa of ono part oT tiie 
body» as the trank, or the lower extremity) but obvioasly applies to any part 
whieh may ever luif ff bsea leparatcly prodacedj and avea to i£U degrees of mati- 
latioa. 

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It^ Sketch f^a Oeneral Theory Ib/ ike [Auo. 

merely inaccurate, but altogether false ; for this would prove, tlnd 
^th roots were at once nerves of sensation and of volition : but. 
not being true, the case is certainlj somewhat frltered. Unluckily 
ibr Drw Leach, it is his own statement which is inac^curate. In his 
^ careful examination of the structure of the spinal mass of nerves,'^ 
the Doctor has absolutely mistaken the branches for the rdots of 
ihese nerves i It is fronfi the branches that the nerves he alludes to 
go off; for, however lucky this may be for humanity^ since it pre^ 
vents our moving with only one half the body, and feeling only 
with the other, it is certainly unfortunate for the Doctor's.argumcnt 
that nieitber to skin nor muscles is the slightest twig given from the 
roots. ' These roots then combine, communicate, and eVen cross by 
twigs, in order to form a trunk ; and, that the Doctor ihay not be 
put to the trouble of alnother ** careful examination,'* if he will 
only cross the fingers of one of his hands between those of the" 
other, he will have a tolerable conceptk)n of the trunk' so formed,^ 
reirienibering, however, that only about half the fibrils of either 
Toot (!lo so cross, while the other half, instead of crossing to the 
opposite branch, runs onward in the branch df the tome side.' A 
rather greater number of fibrils, indeed, pass frota' the posterior, 
foot to the anterior branch than from the anterior root to the po^te^ 
fior branch, because the anterior branch, being destined to Supply a' 
greater portion of the body, requires to be larger. I do not find 
this decussation described in any anatomical hook, which T have at 
land ; but the slightest inspection will demonstrate it. The laV 
pf this decussation is maintained- even in very inferior animals ;-f6r]f 
in those which have no vertebrae and in which the spinal marrow is 
formed below the oesophagus by the union of the two crura of the 
cerebellum,' though the two fasciculi geiierally remain distinct 
fhroughout'the greater part of their length, yet they always unitei 
it different spaces by knots" whenever a* nerve is given off! ' Tbiis 
each iranch'^ U composed frbrh both roots: and it is '6n1y from the 
branches thus composed, and by no means from the roots, that the 
nerves the Doctor speaks of are distributed : hence it is not won- 
derful that they give both sensation and voluntary motion. These 
tranches, however, the Doctor calls '<« the two roots of nerves of 
each half* 'of the spinal marrow, namely, the anterior and poste- 
:por ;■*' and asserts, as' is seen above, that these identical roots, of 
each half of the spinal iharrpw «* go tb different parts of the body ! *^ 
Every anatomist and every anatomical Wbrk declares that from the 
:foots'n6 twig proceed^ either to skin or muscles; atid if it were not 
obvious that the Doctor had mistaken thd brfthcheis for the roots, I 
should be apt fo think' thaY, in his <* careful examination of die 
structure or the spinal maSs of nerves/' "th^ Doctor bad refuted the 

ivhole of them. 

I have now to mention^ that even some of those anatomists who 

• Thai, too, the I)octor after all aUows that there are a stcraal and doniA half. 

of the spinal niarrdW« *' « ' .,, .j 

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18I5.] Intellectual Ftmciions of Man ^nd Animals. 121 

•ucce^ded Willi^' conjectured that there were cerfehral and cere- 
bellic nerves. Theymdie^ oply conjectured this; and they, more- 
over, erred by dytingufehing'them into vifal and animal. The vital 
nerves, said they, are chie% derived from the cerebellum, and the 
animarfrom the cerebrum.— They have ia/i^6<f, says Haller, that 
sevei'al nerves have rbots partly from the cerebellum. But fialler 
objects thai the fifth pair arising, as he says, from the cerebellum^ 
is appropriate both to sense and to motion ; ** nor would,*' says he, 
^* Nature have so solicitously blended both species of nervous fibres 
if their nature had beeti different,'* and if, he might have added,* 
they' had been destined to supply totally distinct parts of the body. 
He shows also, that some of those nerves which they believe to 
bave^mef origin from the cerebellum, have nothing to do with 
vitality ; and he adduces various other objections. Speaking of the? 
possibility of fibrils of different kinds being in the same nerve, 
iiaUer also says, *^ Infinitum ad infinitessimum possis deponere, 
iplti hon^iaem, qui Dei consilia voluerit conjectura expiscari.** 
Even Haller, however, when speaking of the double series of roots 
of the spinal nerves, involuntarily allows some connection of that 
kind ; for he says, '* quarum nnterior altera in eodem cum cerebraU 
jiMjs nervis ordine pergit, posterior medullae propria est, et demum 
sab fine quHrti ventriculi incipit. . 

In proof, however, that the sensitive and motive nerves are per- 
fectly distinct, I can quote for Dr. Ijeach a much better authority 
than that of any old author : first, that of reason, which tells us,' 
that as sensation cannot reach the cerebrum without an ascending 
motion— a motion towards the brain ; as the consequent volition 
cannot affect the muscles without a descending motion — a motion 
from the brain ; and as it is contrary to all analogy that there should 
be motion in opposite directions in the same tubes of neurilema — .' 
for these reasons, there must be a series of nerves appropriated to^ 
each : and, secondly, the authority of anatomy, which shows us' 
that, though nerves supplying parts which are contiguous in position 
but different in nature often run in one conimou sheath, yet on 
arriving at the spinal marrow they split into two roots, as they are 
termed; that these roots are quite difierent in form, the anterior 
being more fibrous, and the posterior more simple and round ; that 
the anterior roots join the anterior columns of the spinal marrow, 
and the posterior roots the posterior columns ; that these columns 
actually do join the cerebrum and cerebellum respectively ; and thaf 
even those cerebral nerves which are at once nerves of sensation and 
volition have two roots, one from the cerebrum, and another from' 
the cerebellum. This may be most easily observied in the seventh 
pair or facial «erves, the origin of which has hitherto been mis- 
taken by all anatomists. They directly penetrate the medulli 
oblongata from its Idwer to its upper surface ; and, throughout this 
very considerable internal passage, eabh nerve consists of two per^ 
fectly distinct, silviery and glistening cords, of which one joins the 
^rebellum, and the other runs onward to the cerebrum. This majr 

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129 Sh&ich ^ a General Theory of the fAcrs. 

^gspv he seen by any anatomist who diooses to look at the s^lgeot 
itselfp instead of only making sych a ^' careful examination " «i 
Pr. Le^joh last instituted on ^' the jspinal mass of nerves/' 

The views which I have now taken enable me to answer a most 
important question on this subject, which has twice been put by. 
Soemmerring. After stating the opinion that the use of the ganglia 
is to place certain parts out of the power of the will, or to change 
voluntary into spontaneous motions, he asks why the spinal ganglia 
are formed only on the posterior roots — *^ Qua causa est," says he^ 
^ cur in radice posterlore tantum nervorum spinalium ganglia inve*^ 
niuntur, minime autem in priore } '' And again, <^ Cur ladi^c prior 
liervorum spinse medullae, adeo vicina, ganglia non immiscitur ? " 
^be obvious answer to th^ese two qu^ions is, that the anterior 
roots, as stated above, have nothing to do with mouon^are those 
of sensation alone ; while the posterior, being those of motion, il 
is on them alone that ganglia can be necessary to impede the im* 
pulse of the will, or to change, in some of th^ fib^nlsy v<rfuntarf 
into involuntary motion. 

Now as in this situation, ganglia impede voluntary motion, so in 
others do they impede sensation, and prevent the brain being dis* 
turbed by all the impressions on the viscera, which would have baea 
incompatible with thought* Such, then, arc the ganglia of diA 
viscera, &c, ; for wherever the anterior spinal branch communicates 
with the great sympathetic, there is a ganglion at the place of this 
union. Thus there are ganglia of sensation as well as ganglia of 
motion ; and these ganglia are always as near as possiUe to the 
origins oi their respective nerves :^n other words, as these sensitive 
or ascending nerves originate from the internal surfaces of the body, 
their ganglia, which prevent sensation reaching the sensorium oom^ 
mune and becoming perception, are placed nearer to their system—* 
the great sympathetic nerve, and the organs from which they arise} 
and as the motive or descending nerves originate from tbie cere«» 
bellum^ their ganglia, which prevent volition reaching certain 
muscular parts, are placed nearer to their system— -the cere- 
bellum, &c. That the ganglia are admirably adapted thus to 
impede sensation, as I have stated, and volition as conjectured bf 
Johnstone, and confirmed by these remarks, is evident from the 
observation of Cuvier, that the ganglia of red-blooded animals do 
not differ much firom nervous plexus ; that even the simple ganglia^ 
or those formed by a single nerve, are resolved by maceration into 
several filaments which anastomoze together ; and that in the crus«» 
tacea, insects, and worms, the ganglia are mere homogeneous en- 
largements of the medullary cord to whiph they belong. All of 
these circumstances are well adapted to impede the motion which 
takes place in them — ^^a motion, l>owever, which is only of this 
kind, that each globule communkates its impulse to a succeeding 
one ; and, as the last of a series of globules most thus move.Ae 
instant that the first is impelled^ the extreme velocity of nervous 
^ioo is thqs conceivable* It does not folk>w, however) tibat all the 

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IS15.^] Intelleciual Funciimi tf Man and Ammals. |2^ 

fibrils of inerves pn wUch ganglia are &rmed belopg40Hiiii(ie^ 
scQsatioa or. impeded (invjoluntary) motion; for, in the ganglia, 
many nervous fibrils are i>een running over the whole length of the 
ganglion* and forming no involvement with it. This circumstance 
of theri^ h^ing two kmds of ganglia will be found to obviate manjr 
difficulties which have bithierto attended the physiology of these 
bodies. 

The leading Keads» then^ of this new system of the intellectu^ 
functions are as follows : — 

I. That the nerves of sensation arise in the organs of sense, and^ 
by means of the anterior fibrils, terminate in the anterior column^ 
of the spinal marrow. 

2 That those nerves of sensation which do not terminate p these 
cplumns, pass directly to the cerebrum« 

3. That the anterior columns of the spinal marrow terminate also 
in the anterior part of the cerebrum. 

4. That these nerves and columns are the sensitive or ascending 
nerves and columns. 

5. .That it is jn this way that sensation becomes perception, and 
that are excited in the cerebrum the faculties analysed by Gall and 
Spurzheim. 

6. That the cerebral influence passes to the cerebellum by meanf 
of the corpora striata posteriora or thalami, the anterior peduncles of 
the cerebellum, &c. 

7. That the cerebellum is the organ which gives impulse to aU 
muscular motion^ voluntary and involuntary. 

8. -That the posterior columns of the spinal marrow originate 10 
the cerebellum. 

9. That from the cerebelltmi arise also several nerves of volition* 

10. That those nerves of volition which do not arise directly 
from the cerebellum, spring from the posterior columns of the 
spinal marrow by means of the posterbc fibrils. 

II. That these nerves and columns are the motive or descending 
nerves and columns. 

12* That as there are two great encephalic organs, two anterior 
and two posterior columns of the spinal marrow, and two series of 
serves, so there are two series of ganglia — ganglia on the sensitive 
9nd ganglia on the motive nerves. 

IS. That the intensity of tlie intellectual functions is as the 
length of theiir organs, and the permanence of these functions as 
the breadth of their organs. 

I believe that not one of these statements were ever made by any. 
one before they were made either here or elsewhere by myself; but 
4hj9uld anif of theq) have been previously made on any rational 
gsound, I shall feel no pain in resigning the merit or demerit of 
their discovery to its proper author. Still less, of course, has tbe 
general system which I now advance been thought of by any one. 

It. appears, thei[i, that there is a species of circulation in th^ 
pervous system, oif which I have sketched the general course, as 
cuiriQus aqd admirable as that which escbts iqigi)t}|?by^^$4^l($be 



124 On Todine, [Aug, 

centre of the one heing the heart, and of the other the head) ; an<i 
that there is scarcely any point of the body which this dirble does' 
not involve and Vest on, since from almost every point ascend* 
impression to the cerebrum by a nerve of sensation, th^ anterior 
nervous roots, and the anterior columns of the spinal marrow ; and 
to each returns expression from the cerebellum by the posterior 
columns, the posterior nervous roots, and the nerves of volition. 
Nothing perhaps more than this beautiful correspondence between 
the vital and intellectual systems is calculated to raise the mind to 
him of whom the wisdom is testified by all that lives, from the most 
simple to the most complex of beings — from the polyp which cati 
boast no other organ than a stomach, to man who has an intellectual 
system thus wonderfully complex and beautifully symmetrical. 

Having, Sir, been long engaged in dissections of the brain of 
fishes, amphibia, and birds, in order further to illustrate and esta* 
blish these important truths, I shall, on their conclusion, be happ7 
to communicate them through the medium of your Journal. But 
you will excuse my in future not replying to statements so hastily 
piade as those in answerip^ which I have been reluctantly com- 
{)elled to occupy so much of your present number — statements in 
which a confident reference is made to a bopk for a doctrine which' 
that book, on the contrary, most pointedly contradicts ;'and to the 
Animal body for a structure which has no other foundation than i^ 
^e writer's mistaking the branches of a nerve for its roots. 
J am, Sir, with great respect. 

Your most obedient servant, 

Alexander Walker* 



Article VII. 
^ MemoW on Iodine. By M. Gay-Lussac« 

{Continued from toI. v. p. 413.) 

Observations on Chlorine. 

The analogy which I have established between chlorine, suU 
phur, and iodine may serve to throw sonac light on some of th^ 
combinations of chlorine, as I shall endeavour here to show. 

M. Thenard and myself were the first persons who showed by a 
numerous series of experiments, that oxymuriatic acid might be 
considered as a simple substance, as there was no direct means of 
showing the presence of oxygen in it. We had even given this- 
hypothesis at full length, in a memoir which we read to the Society, 
of Arcueil, on the 26th of February, 1809 ; but it appeared so 
extraordinary, that M. Berthollet prevailed upon us to state it with 
the greatest reserve. In fact, though Davy has announced in his 
memoir on oxymuriatic acid, that this hypothesis had been ad^ 
tranced by Sulieclej -it was entirely new, and it appeared cxtr^-^ 



\B\9') On Iodine. 125 

9i|t}iDafy'0Qly..I](ec!iu$e itiwiis in opposhioa to ai'Biahperor.thlakii^ 
Voftified.by lODg habit and by many good, experiments. . It. waa 
makipg B great ^tep toward^ the knowledge of th^ real nature of 
Pl^ymurjatic acid, tp.bav^ questioned the received opinions respect«* 
jng the ns^ture of this aoid : for it is much easier to find a new truth 
than to detect an old eri-or; And we claim it as our own property^ 
tbat^ we first perceivied that oxymuriatic acjd might be considered as a 
simple body. Davy, in adopting the conclusion which we had 
drawn from our experiments, has added nothing to its certainty ; 
but we must adxnit. that lie has iUustre^ted jt at great length, and by 
the influence of his great abilities, has contributed very much to 
propagate it. I ought to observe, however, that M. Dulong and 
M. Ampere had adopted it long before Davy, and that I myself 
had always ^ated it as the most probable opinion,* in the courses of 
chemist;ry whi^'h I delivered at the Polytechnic School. At present 
the discovery of iodipe appears to have fix.ed the opinion of the 
French chemists on the, nature of o;Lymuriatic acid. I shall there- 
fore refrain from all discussion on the subject. 

Admitting then that oxymuriatic acid |s a simple body, it be* 
comes in the first place necessary to introduce a modification into 
the proportions of the n>uriates. But as this does not follow imme- 
diately, fr6m oxymuriatic acid being a simple substance, it may 
be necessary to justify it. Admitting a muriate to be a combina- 
tion of muriatic acid and' an oxide, it is possible that the hydrogen 
of the acid arid the oxygen of the oxide may not form water; but 
ipay remain in the salt. I exposed in succession barytes, strontian^ 
lime^ and oxide of zinc, to the action of dry hydFOchloric gas, in 
a glass tube, tp a temperature approaching to a red heat, and I 
always obtained a great deal of water. To Verify the same feet on 
.potash, I put about a gramme of potassium in a platinum crucible^ 
melted it, and plunged, it into a glass vessel filled witlr hydrochloric 
gas. When the combination appeared complete, I weighed the 
crucible. exactly, and then poured water on the salt, which occa- 
sioned no efifervescence. The salt.be.eng dried in a low temperature; 
injas found not to have increased in weight, nor after berog, fused 
3was. it found to b^ve lost any thing. We ought then to admit it as 
a certain fact, that the muriates are all. changed into chlorurets 
^hen melted, or. even dried, and some of them even, by being 
crystallized. We may suppose, as we have done for the iodureta, 
that the chlorurets dissolve in water without undergoing decompo* 
sition, ^nd that when. we unite hydroichloric acid with an oxide, 
the hydrogen of the acid and the oxygen of the oxide form .water.* 
Whetber this be the case or not, nothing but chlorurets dxist at a 
red beat. It is therefore of these compounds that it is. necessary to 
determine the proportions. 

, I have found (Mem, d'Arcueil, ii. 168) that 100 parts of silver 
take 7*6 of; oxygen... Bersfelius instefid qf that number gives 7'44» 
Though It. be difficult, to say which is most exact, I shall adopt this 



*Se.NotcA, .^.,^,-,,,^G00gle 



126 Ovi Mine. {At^i 

hot BUtaibery and will admit farther with Bendiits, taking the 
BMaD of his results that 1 00 parts of moriatic acid free from watei* 
4M>mbine with 424*92 oxide of sriver. * Now these 424*92 ef 
«side are composed of 895*50 of silrer, and 29*42 <^ ojcygen: 
And since in the mariato the silver is in the metallic state, wfemust^ 
in order to have the weirht. of the chlorine^ add that of the oxy-^ 
gen to the weight <rf aeid which we supposed to be combined with 
the oxide* We shall thus obtain for the composition of chloruret 
of silver 

Chlorine 100 + 29*42 » 129*42 

saver 396*50 

Or Chlorine 100 



Silver 305*69 



: 



Thus, having the proportions of the muriates, we must, in ordef 
to obtain those of the chlorurets, add to the quantity of muriatic 
acid that of the oxygen supposed to be combined with the base. 

According to the preceding ratio, and the composition of muriate 
of p6tash^ as found by Berzelius, namely : 

Muriatic acid i 86*566 

Potash.......... 68*434. 

llie chloruret of potassiuin is composed of 

Chlorine 100* 

Potassium.. 111*310 

Aiflia potash of 

Potassium • . • • ••...«•..• lOO 

Oxygea » 20*426 

I have adopted this laist proportion, which differs but little from 
that obtained directly by M. Thenard and myself^ * 
' We find likewise from the same data, that the ratio of oxygen 
to chlorine is that of lO to 48*99, or in round numbers 10 to 44. 
It is therefore nearly three times as great as that of oxygen t6 
lodind. If frojn the ratio of oxygen to iodine and chlorine w6 
seek the density of chlorine, on the supposition that that of iodine 
18 8-6095, as we found it above ; we find that it is 2*427i instead of 
2*421, which was deduced from the supposition that the specific 
gravity of hydrochloric gas is 1*247- 

The great analogy which I found between iodine and chlorine 
ought naturally to lead me to believe that the ialts known by the 
name of hyper-oxymuriates, are analogous to the iodates ; that is 
to say, .that they are combinations of the alkali, with an acid com-* 
poised of oxygen and chlorine. 

* It is easy to see that on this hypothesis the acid cannot be the 
gal found by Davy, and called by him euchlorine. Chemists are 
ftearl; agreed that 100 parts of hyper-oxymuriate of potash^ when 



• Ifosml 418«S. Mem. d' Arcaeil, ii. 



fffized by Google 



IftlS.) Or bdimt. iff 

decomposed bjr hcit^ give out about 88*6^ of OKjrgeil, and tbat 
there remain 61*12 of what hu been c^asidered as neutral fmnkte 
^ potash; but which is, in fact, chloruret of potaMium. Fsoai 
the praportioos given above^ the 61*12 conjtaiA 28^924 chlorine^ 
and 32*196 potassium. Now this quantity of potassiitn wdM 
take S^SIfb of oxygen to convert it into potash. There renuiin, of 
coasequenoe, 38*88 — 6*576 a 32*304 for the 28-924 of chio* 
rine ; hence the acid which I siqipose to exist ia hyper-OKyaiuriaie 
#f potash must be composed of ' 

Chlorine 100 

Oxygen 111*6J 

and the oxygen will be to the chlorine in a preportion five timet 
greater than that which I have already given. It deserves attention 
thUt the proportion in weight of the potassium in the chloruret^ 
ioduret, and sulphuret, is nearly the same as that of the oxygen 
IB the chloric, iodic, and sulphuric acids. 

According to Davy euchlorine gas contains one volume of chlcH 
rine and half a volume of oxygen ; and taking 2*421 for the sper 
cific gravity of chlorine^ we find that euchlorine is composed by 
weight of 

Chlorine •...,.. 100 

Oxygen 22*79 

Tliis last number, multiplied by 5,. gives 113*95, and though i| 
differs from 11.1*6Q, we may, notwithstanding, conclude, that th^ 
acid existing in the hyper-oxymuriates, which I shall henceforth 
cail chloric acid, contains five times as much oxygen as euchlorine 
gas. 

If we dissolve chloruret of potassium (composed of 100 chlorine^ 
and 111*31 potassium) in water, and suppose that the water is de- 
composed, we will have hydro-chlorate of potash, admitting thq 
oxygen to combine with the potassium and the hydrogen with the 
chlorine. But if we suppose the oxygen to unite with the chlorine^ 
we form exactly euchlorine gas. I consider this gas formed by the 
combination of two parts in volume of chlorine and one of pxygeoj^ 
as analogous Xq the protoxide of azote, which contains two volumei. 
of azote and one of oxygen. Hence I propose to distinguish it by 
the name of oxide of chlorine. We mav likewise distinguish by 
the names of oxide of sulphur and oxide of iodine, combinations 
of sulphur and iodine with oxygen, in the same proportions in 
volume. The first gives by weight about 10 oxygen and 20 sul-» 
phur; the second 10 oxygen and 156*21 iodine. I think it very 
probable that chlorous and iodous acids exist analogous to the sul-* 
phurous and nitrous, which ought to be composed of one volume 
of chlcMTiae or vapour of iodine, and 1*5 of oxygen. 
' It appears to me demonstrated from the quantity of oxygen io^ 
oxide of chlorine, that this oxide does not exist in the hyper* 
oxymuriates. Davy, however, is of a different opinion, for he 

3 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



. i 28 Cu' lodihe. , . [\VQ4 

says'that <' euchlorine produces the pfaefujfneoa ik^bicti Chepevix in 

: hisr paper on oxymuriatic acid ascribd to hyper-oxymurJatic acid :" 

•Qd. that ^^ it is probably combined with , the peroxide < of < potassium 

.in the hyper-oxynauriste of potash/' . But I .shall demon^rate that 

this is not the case."* ' . » i : . u . 

We must admit it as an incontestable principle, e&taI:4^shed. hy 
Berthollet, that an acid put into a saline soktioo acts on tJie^^base 
of the salt, and separates a portion of it from its acid.- This: prin- 
ciple holds especially with the strong iacids when brought \sx oote- 
petition with the ^eak acids. On the other side, we must recollect, 
that peroxide of potassium does not combine With sulphuric acid^ 
and that as soon as these two bodies dre brought fn contact, oxygen 
is. disengaged. Hence, if hyperoxymuriate of potash were pro- 
educed by the combination of euchlorine with peroxide or potasb, 
4here ought to be disengaged oxygen gas, when diluted sulphuric 
acid is poured into a solution of this salt. Since at kast the euchlo 
rine, a gaseou$ oxide, whose acid properties, if it has any, are 
-very weak, will be partly separated by the sulphuric acid, and this 
.^acid is 'incapable of dissolving peroxide of pota^ium. But no 
pxygen is disengaged, and consequently the potassium' is hot in the 
state of peroxide in hyper-oxymuriate of^ potash. Besides, f*vea 
supposing potash super-oxygenated in the hyperoxymuriate, it ought 
to contain five times its usual quantity of oxygen,, a, conclusjoa 
which it would be very difficult to adniit. The feet is, that potas- 
sium is in the same degree of oxydation in the hyper-oxyrhuriate 
as in the sulphate, as I shall now demonstrate, by giving an account 
of the real acid which forms the fulminating salts of chldrltic. 

In consequence of the above considerations, I was led to believe^ 
that since sulphate of barytes is insoluble, and barytes is not super* 
oxydated in this salt, if sulphuric acid be put into the h^ffer-oxy- 
muriate of barytes, it would be eaisy to see if oxygen be disehgiged; 
and perhaps even to obtain chloric acid. I accordingly prepared ft 
certain quantity of this salt, employing the ingenious process of 
Mr. Chenevix, and I obtained it easily in fine rhomboidal- piismsy 
quite exempt from muriate. Into a diluted solution of this salt I 
poured weak sulphuric acid. Though I only added a few drops oF 
acid, not nearly enough to saturate the barytes, the liquid became 
sensibly acid, and not a bubble of oxygen escaped. By continuing* 



« In a preceding memoir on oxymuriatic acid, Dayy appears to doubt the' 
existence of an acid in the hy per- ozy muriates. He expresses himself in ihiA 
mahner. ♦* If we consider with attention the facte conceriiii^g the hyper-oxy- 
muiiate of potash, we can only consider it as a triple compound of ojtymari^tic^ 
acid^ potassiuln, and oxygen. ' We have no sufficient motive to eoacliide that anjr 
particular acid exists in that body, or that it contains a considerable quantity, of 
water. It is perhaps more conformable to chemical analogy, to suppose tlie great 
quantity of oxygen to be combined with the putassinm, the very great affinity of 
Wkicfl for oxygen we know, rather than to consider tbisqaaatity of oxygen as ip a 
4lai^of combination with the oxymuriatic acid, which, as far as we-knpw, has iaa 
atn^iity for that substance. And from some experiments, I am induced (o' brieve' 
that potassinm may combine directly with more o.tygcftth«s> txhif^ i» t^tarii.* 



Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



tBtftJ] Gn Iodine^ l29 

td ddSsfiiiphuric'acid'withf caeit!bn, I sacbeed^d in obtaltring an 
acid liqiM ^ntitely free fhnri sulphuric acid and barytes, arid not 
precipitttttfig nitnrte ef sHver. It was chloric acfd disisolved in 
Water, it^ ctiaract^hs ure the following. 

This acid has t\6 i^eflsibTe smell. Its isoluticto in wdtei" is pei^febtly 
tioloufless. Its fastcfk' i^ery a^id, rind it reddens Rtrfius without 
llestrayiiig the oildnr. ' It produces no alteration on solution of 
Indigo* in sulphuric acifl. Light does ndt decompose it. It may 
be cdncefntrated by a* genftleiieat without undergoing de^comptisrtion^ 
^r wi'thout evap6tttting. 1 kept it a long time exposed to tiie air, 
without peineehrkig thtt its quanlity diminisfHed sensibly. When 
concentrated it has somewhat of an oily consistency. When ex- 
j^'ed to heath is partly dfecompcifeed into oxygen and chlorine, and 

rrtly voKitllteed tvlthotft aheratfoo. Hydrodhloric acid decomposes 
in 'the ^me way at thie common temperaturt. Sdlpfhurous and 
liydi'o-iulphuric acids have the sdme property ; bat nitric acid pro- 
duces no change imon it; I combined it with amimonia, and ob- 
tmncd a Vef jr ftlmmating salt, announced fbr the first time ty Mr. 
iDheneW*; * With p6ta^ I produced hyper-oxymuriate with all its 
characters. Jt doe^ hot precipitate nitrate of silver nor any other 
itieftalitc ^^hitloni. If readfly dissolved 2inc, disengaging hjjdrogen; 
btit k itpf)eiiArfcd to me to act slowly on nhercury.* This acid with- 
out dbiibt eaumdt be otoinfed in the gaseoas state. As it contain^ 
fivi t$m^' f6 itmth oxygen as flie oxide of chlorine, which is so 
caiil jr dtefc^mp^ We eaftnot doubt that it is the water which 
fieOB ft^eleraeirts united, as is;' the case with nitric and sulphuric 
Acicb. M this'^^ttt of view the water acts the same part as the 
isiHfiiaMe bases. '6dt ai it does not neutralize the bodies which it 
hoWhi in seitil^JB, on account of the perfect equrHbrium which 
exiitt betw^tt ttVe acJdifying properties df the oxygen and the alka- 
Kfymg pl*op«¥ti^s^of the hydrogen, and because its affiriitTes are 
mudi weaker ihtHi those ef th^ bases, it serves merely to. uithe th^ 
Meib^nts, aA8 allows us to study the characters of the combrnatrons 
iriAcU it fortn^, irt if they were independent of its presence. 

The theory bf thfc dhloraftes will not now preseiit any diflScuftyi 
They ai^e sate Ibhtted by the combitiation of chloric acid with 
basei^, and are etitirSy analogous to tihe iodaftes. Some obscufity, 
however, toly Teihmn aljout the circirtnstanccs of their ibrmatioti^ 
wh^ an alkalitte sbkdton is saturated with chlorine. I shall.there- 
Jbi'e etideavour td fhr6w some light pit the subject. I shaH com- 
menee by determii^ihg theoi*eticalIy the ratio df tlie Quantities" oT 
dWorurct df potassium amd chlorirte of potash which Torm at the 
^liietim^, and theii lirtiaSl ipquir^ if it agrees with tliat whkh 
experience gives. 

• It la composed of 1 volume of chlorine and 2*5 of oxygen, or by weight of 
400 chlorine and 113*95 oxygen, supposing the specific gravity of chlorine to b€ 

Vol. VL N° II. I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



130 On Iodine. [hvor. 

I have already remarked, that frojii 100 parts of chlprate of 

potash we may obtain S8*88 of oxygen and 61*12 of qhloruret o£ 

potassium, and that thb chloruret is composed of 28*924 chlorine, 

and 32*196 metal. Further, as I have demonstrated that potassium 

is in the state of potash in the chlorate, we must give it 6*576 of 

the 38*88 of oxygen. There will remain 32*304 to convert the 

28*924 of chlorine into chloric acid. But what bypodiesis soever 

vre adopt with respect to the existence of the hydrochlorates^ the 

oxygen cap only have been furnished to the chlorine either by the 

potash or the water. On the first supposition there w'ill be formed 

evidently a quantity of chloruret of potassium, proportional to the 

quantity of oxygen which the potash has furnished to the chlorine* 

And as that obtained from the decom|)psition of the chlorate is 

neutral, and that it is equally proportional to the oxygen which its 

potassium would take to be converted into potash^ we see thi^t the 

quantity of chloruret of potassium which forms at the same time 

with the chlorate, will be to that of the chloruret obtained from 

the decomposition of the same chlorate, as 32*304 to 6*576, op 

nearly as 5 to 1 ; and the quantity of chlorate will be to that of 

the chloruret formed at the same time as 100 to 800*2. 

On the second supposition such a quantity of water will .be de« 
composed, that there will result 32*304 of oxygen for the; Qhlor 
line, that is to say, 36*59, and the corresponding hydrogen will 
form with the chlorine hydrochloric acid, which will saturate the 
potash. We will then have for the proportion of ch](»ate to hydros 
chlorate, 100 to 300*2 + 36*59; or 100 to 336*79. .We musjt 
suppose that the hydrochlorate remains in solution in wafepr ; for ^ 
have demonstrated, that as soon as the water is removed,, eveipi. \>y ft 
very gentle evaporation, it is converted into chloruret o( poMtssium.^ 
The proportion of 100 chlorate to 300*2 dliloruret, which X 
have just determined is very different from that found by expe* 
rience. Mr. Chenevix, in his paper on oxymuriatlc acid (Phil,. 
Trans, xcii. 132) finds that there are formed 16 parts of chlorate 
for 84 of chloruret. Correcting this ratio from l^\datji, and tfa§ 
results which 1 have just established, I find 14*4 of chlorate to 
85*6 of chloruret, or 100 to 595*4. M. BerthoUet (Stat. Chiii\. 
ii. 198) says, that he obtained a proportion still weaker. If these 
proportions were nearly exact, it would follow, that we have not 
attended to all the circumstances which accompany the formation of 
chlorate and chloruret ; for otherwise what hypothesis soever we 
adopt, the proportions of chlorate to chloruret and to hydro- 
chlorate, cannot differ from those whidx I have just established, 
supposing the data correct from which I set out. To determine 
this point I made the following experiments. 

1 passed chlorine into a somewhat concentrated solution of potash, 
till it refused any longer to dissolve in it.* The liquid was green-^ 

• It has been believed that tbe property vblch the chlorates have of Miif 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



iBl&s] On Jhdihe. ISL 

ish, and had a strong odour e^ chlorine, which it lost when^hcated. 
I observed that during this process a little oxygen was disengaged, 
and the liquid became alkaline. Having evafx)rated it to d^ness^ 
I put a certain quantity of the residual saline ma^ into a small glasi 
retort, to the beak of which was fitted a syphon-shaped tube, nsing 
to the upper part of the vessel Id which the oxygen gas was collected. 
I heated the retort gradually nearly to redness. When no more 
oxygeti was disengaged, and when the apparatus had sunk to iti 
original temperature, I brought the water in the jar to a level with 
that in the cistern, and withdrew the tube which had conducted the 
gas into the jar. By this method, the oxygen which remained iii 
the tube and retort was replaced by an equal quantity of common 
ain Knowing the quantity of oxygen disengaged, and of chloruret 
remaining in the retort, it was easy, on the supposition that ICX) 
parts of chlorate contain 38-88 of oxygen, to determine the quan^ 
tity of chlorate of potash mixed at first with the chloruret of potas* 
siufn, and to calculate the ratio of the one to the other. By this 
method I found that 100 of chlorate corresponded in this mixture 
to 356'5 of chloruret. On suturating with chlorine a solution of 
potash more concentrated than the preceding^ the proportion of 
chlorate to chloruret was still found sensibly the same. But when 
the potash was dissolved in about 80 times its weight of water, the 
ratio of the chlorate to the chloruret was then 100 to 512. It 
results then from these experiments, that the more concentrated 
the potash is, the more chlorate do we obtain relatively to the 
chloruret ; but that the ratio always differs from that of 1 . to 3^ 
which calculation gives us. As I remarked that the solution of 
potash, though super-saturated with chlorine, is alkaline, wheit 
the excess of chlorine is disengaged by heat, I determine* the 
quantity of alkali in excess, by saturating it with hydrochloric acid 
of a given strength. By this means I reduced the ratio of 100 
chlorate to 356-5 chloruret, to that of 100 to 349. I observe 
further, that oxygen is disengaged when we heat a solution of 
potash saturated with chlorine, and even during the saturation df 
the potash, according to the observation of M. Berthollet. But a^ 
I have not determined the quantity, I cannot say what modification 
it will introduce into the ratio. However, as it is evident that oti 
decoqnposiog by. heat the saline mass produced by the saturation of 
potash with chlorine, we must obtain a quantity of oxygen equal 
to that contained in the alkali, whether chloric acid be formed, or 
any other combination of chlorine and oxygen, we cannot ascribe 
to any other causes than those of which I have just spoken, ths- 

easiljr decomposed try heat^ and of burning most combustible b«>dies^ depends oa 
the chlorine preserTiu^; all its caloric wben it combines with potash^ At a proof, 
it was stated, that daring the combioatioii of these two bodies, the temperature 
of the solution did not sensibly vary. This caose cannot be true, for in the ex- 
periment of which I have just spoken, the teiopcratuif at tba wtammxmtMA of 
th9 sataratiofl rose from 64*^ to 274*. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ISp On bdifOiu lAvn* 

difference between tbe qu^ptity of otygen which I oughc to haH^ 
obtaioed^ and lyba^ I s^tiially ohtaiiied by experimient. 
' The AQtiofi of chloriae on thex>xi.d^ is entirely, a&^tsgous to timl 
pf ,io4ii^; ancl frblori^ iicid is produced nearly in the same cireiiin- 
stances as iodic acid* Thus f^ obtain with peioside of mercury 
and chlonm^ ohlpi^r^ and chlorate, in the fiUme skanaer as urith 
ibdiae and th^ pero^ide^ we form iodaret and iodate of mer* 
^ary* Tbes^ different objcQts requif e new i^aeiurched^ and it is to 
^ de^sed that tbey may Sx the atteiEftion of che«ist& 
. Tb^chkNTuri^ of a^ole^ ffpm its analogy with the ioduret, ought 
|o becofsp^s^ of tb#ee parts of chlorine and one part of azoie ; 
hut Dft^y ^ctstead of this found four to one. When we see azo^ 
forming wilb oblorinje a^d iodine very fulminaling coinf)ounds, we 
magr adt wl^ther fulminating gpH and silver^ and even- metoisyi, 
are not binary combinations of azote and ike sietaU Tliis is tha 
moffe protHbblo^ as gold^ silver* and aoercury, haviag very little 
affinity for oaygen^ seem by this property to approach chlorine and 
iodjoe. 

From the anakigtes wbith I Imve established in this memoir, the 
reader must be convinced that oitygen, chlorine, and iodine do not 
form an iasulafced^roup to wliich belong exclosively the property 
of apidii^ying. We ha^e seen that tbi^ property b^longalMEewise to 
salpbnr and atmie, aefd to a great number of other bodtesi ^ How- 
ayei) mcygen may be idways considered as the principal acidifying 
sahstanoe, both frofti the energy with which it possesses it, aiMl 
jTrpm the numerous acids which it forms ; and because we are only 
able la employ as sol vents liquids containing oxygen or hydrogen, 
e^apabk of dmnging lifae nature of the compounds wbi^ they dis- 
sofve^ Though dilorine does not disengage oxygen from all its 
eombinations, I think it should be placed before it, on account of 
the energy of ils pfoperties. But fluorine, which has not hitherto 
been obtained in a separate state, will, withouft doubt, stand before 
chlorine, because it disengages oxygen from all its combinations. 
Itis to M« An>peffe that we owe the first idea that fluoric acid is 
jMflkgous^o hydrpchh^i^ aoid ; that is to say, that it is. compoaed 
^'hyc^Et^gan and a body analogous to cUorine, which he proposed 
to call fluorine^ JkPjit to whom he coimnunicated that theory did 
vg^t' adopt it nor anttiMiYOui: to verify it till long aftev, whenM* 
AOi^re had answered his objections. 

(2V bt conUnued.) 



Digitized by 



Google 



l«[f«j 



MMgnSUad OUmMions. 



m 



Article VIIL 
Ma^Hcal Observaiions at Hackney WicL By Col. Beaufoy. 

lj»5. 



MCMltll, 



Moniinf.OlMrrv. 



Jfoon Obuerr. 



:, 



Hotrt*. Yarlatioii. 



Hdnr. I VarintioD* 



£v«litB|( Obsenr. 



i t I •Ti .i ■■■ |l I ■■■■■■ ^ 

Hoiir. I Variatioa. 



June 

Ditto 

Qitto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 



18 



8h 50" 



W 



19 • 

90 8 



40 94 



40 
40 
15 
40 
40 
35 
80 



?4 
24 
84 
94 
24 

94 
84 



85 IM 



90 

25 



24 
24 



28^ OS" 

18 38 

18 IV) 

16 18 

16 38 

16 40 

Id 95 

18 89 

15 52 

16 51 
15 99 
15 08 
15 19 



80' 
90 

55 
45 

80 
95 
.» 



«][ 



240 2T' 92" 
24 «5 

24 25 07 
24 94 42 



7>» 15' 
7 05 

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84 31 48. 



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7 05 



W 18! 
94 19 

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.•1'90 5ft 
24 29 IH^ 

94 1^ 99 



Magnetical Ohservatums ctnitinued^ 



^ 














*«IO. 








' ■ • 


Month. 


Mornini; ObierT. 


Noon Obiert. 


evening Obser.v, 




Hour* 


VariatroD. 


Hoiwr, 


Vartalion. 


«w. 


Variation. 


JiiJy 1 


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ly 


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t 18 


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66 


1 


85 


94 ^ is 


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I>itto A 


a 


25 


24 


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38 
21 


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94 ^ 04 


7 OP 


94 


19 00 


Ditto 4 


8 


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7 10 


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19 83 


Ditto 5 


8 


35 


24 


,18 


58 


1 


50 


24 25 40 


7 W 


24 


17 98 


Ditto 8 


8 


45 


84 


14 


8C 




95 


24 98 89 


f 00 


94 


Ml 80 


S*^ 7 


8 


35 


^ 


16 


03 


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jpicto $ 


8 


25 


It 


16 


16 




25 


24 26 54 


7 40 
7 05 


24 


18 04 


Bifto '9 


8 


20 


15 


15 




35 


24 27 10 


24 


18 50 


Dfilfo.lO 


^ 


90 


94 


15 


51 




20 


9i 94 41 


7 05 


94 


90 89 


Ditto II 


, 8 


20 


94 


14 


48 


.^ 


-^ 


— i- •♦- 


7 80 


94 


90 51 


Ditto 12 


8 


25 


24 


12 


58 




SO 


24 24 16 


7 20 


94 


17 30 


DHio 13 


8 


%9^ 


94 


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04 




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24 2ft 22 


7 00 


94 


Id 58 


Ditto 14 


8 


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^4 


15 


08 




95 


94 94 8f 


7 00 


24 


dd 40 


DUto 14 


8 


00 


94 


17 


58 




25 


94 95 19 


7 00 


94 


M 18 


Ditto 16 


8 


85 


24 


17 


25 




35 


24 24 03 


7 00 


94 


19 91 


Ditto 17 


8 


40 


24 


16 


32 


1 


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Digitized by 



Google 



ISi 



Aiu^us ^. Books. 



;[AiT«. 



Comparison of Observations. 



% 






WIS. 


1814. 


1815. 


Avril. 




rK'^.;.::::::: 


84» OfK 18*^ 
84 81 18 
84 15 85 
84' 18 08 
84 80 54 
84 IS 47 
84 18 55 
84 88 17 
84 16 04 


84- 12^ 53" 
84 83 5S 
84 15 SO 
84 13 18 
84 88 IS 
84 16 14 
84 IS 10 
84 88 48 
84 16 89 


84* 16' 01" 
84 87 48 




.M«*J 


ETenior 


24 17 48 




'Morpipg 

1 NOQO 


84 16 S2 
24 87 OS 


Evening 1 

^Moroing 

Noon ^»,^, 

, Evening 


84 1^ 18 
84 16 11 
24 87 18 
84 19 40 



In deducing the aiean of observations for June^ the Tariation of 
the morning Nervation of the 18th is rejectedj on account pf its 
uncomiDoq grefitness, 

|;ir^p«nition dwing tlie tame period 8*9 



Article IX. 

Analts£s of Books. 

philosophieal Tramactitms of the Royal Society ff Lon^on^ 
for the Tear 181 4, Part 11. 

Thia fwrt-oontains the following papers. 

I. On a new Principle ofcomtniciing his Majesty's Ships of Wat. 
By Robert Seppings^ Esq. one of the Surveyors of his Majesty^ Navy. 
— ^This meliioa, which appears to be the greatest improvement 
introduped into ship-building for many years^ consists in substituting 
triangular qr oblique b^an^s for the parallel ribs which have hitherto 
constiti|t<ed.a ship's frame. This adds prodigiously to the stiffness 
and strength. The intervals between these beams are filled by 
aclid pieces pf M'^ood driven in and calked arid pitched, so that the 
ship would swim even if the external coating of planks were removed. 
Thi$ method renders the internal coating of planks unnecessary, 
and this ^dds cqpsiderably to the size of th^ hqld.- The decks are 
not lpo$e as was thj? case ii) the old system ; but systematically con* 
nected with the sides of the ship, so as materially to increase the 
strengih of the whole. ' 

Il ^i A em ar hs-im'ihetmphtiment ofohlique Ridersy cm4 on other 
iterations in the Construction of Snips. Being the Substance of a 
Report presented to the Board of Admiralty^ with additional Dcr 
Tnonstrations and Illustrations. By Thomas Young, M.D. For. 
Sef!> R. S. — In this paper Dr. Young considers ip the first plac^ 

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1815.] Phihsophical Trantactvm, 1814^ Part 11. 135 

the different forces which act upon a ship when sailing, and the 
efieets apt to be produced by these forces. He then examines the 
different 'arrangements of Mr. Seppings, and shows that' they are 
all improvements ; though, if we understand him right, he seems 
to state that several of them are not new. 

III. Styme further Observations on Atmospherical Refraction. By 
Stephen Groombridge, Esq.; F.R.S. — In a preceding volume <rf 
the Transactions Mr. Groombridge published a paper on this im- 
portant subject, giving a formula for the mean refraction down to 
80^ from the zenith, deduced from his own observations. He has 
since continued his observations and determined the refraction as 
low down as 87% the trees in Greenwich Park preventing him 
from observing stars any nearer the horison. He has made some 
alterations in his preceding formula. The paper concludes with a 
table of the mean refraction from the zenith to the horizon. 

IV. Propositions containing some Properties of Tangents to 
Circles ; and of Trapeziums inscribed in Circles, and non-inscribed. 
Together with Propositions on the Elliptic Representations of Circles 
upon a Plane Surface by Perspective. By Richard Hey, LL. D. 
late Fellow of Sidney Sussex, and Magdalen Colleges in the Uni- 
'versity of Cambridge. — ^It is not in our power to give any intel- 
ligible account of this curious paper to our readers without the 
assistance of figures, and without introducing demonstrations not 
quite consistent with the nature of a review. We must therefore 
refer those who wish to study the subject to the paper itself. 

V. On the netv Properties of Light exhibited in the Optical 
Phenomena of Mother-of-Peart and other Bodies, to which the 
superficial- Structure of that Substance can be communicated. By 
David Brewster, LL.D. F.R.iS. Edin. and F.S.A. Edin.— The 
beautiful play of colours exhibited by mother-of-pearl, has been 
always ascribed to its laminated structure. Dr. Brewster, however, 
observed- that the same property was communicated to wax, gum^ 
tin, lead, &e., merely by pressing them against the surface of 
mother-irf-peari. Hence it is obvious, that the property is owing 
to the configuration of the surface. Dr Brewster found by means 
of the microscope, that the surface of mother-of-pearl was com- 
posed of waving lines, something like the skin at the point of an 
infimt^ finger. These lines could not be obliterated by grinding or 
polishing. They vary considerably in fineness in different speci* 
mens. Sometimes they may be seen with the naked eye, while at 
otliers more than 3000 may be reckoned within the space of an 
inch. To this configuration of the surface Dr. Brewster ascribes 
the property of mother-of-pearl to reflect various tints of splendid 
colours. Dr. Brewster found likewise, that when a rav of light 
fells obliquely upon mother-of-pearl, both the portion refleoted and 
the portion transmitted are polarized, and both in the same manner. 
This is different from what happens either in crystalli^eed or un* 
erystalUzed bodies. 

VI. An improved Method of dividing Astronomical Circles and 

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qther- InsirwmsnU. By Gaptaia H^Riy I^jomx^-^Ax \» not |p«iifail0 
tp convey an adequate idea to the Tead«r of tb« imUk)4 of fm«» 
^uating contrived by Captain Kater,. ii^h^i^ xhn awi^tane^ o€ 
figures. We must therefore refer tho^ wba wub to uifHbrst^ndi 
this important subject to the paper itself. 

. VII. Results oj some Expetivn^nU o» the Prcptrtief impressed 
upon Likhty by the Action of Glass raised h different Tewfiei^un^ 
and cookd under different Circumstances^ By Dr. Br«W8t«p»^*^Tb^ 
author found that a ray of light passed through hot. gkut. was dipo^ 
larized ; but when the glass qpqled the original pokurisfttioii wat 
restored. Prince Rupert's drQ|is ej^bibited t\t^ wne i^baQomevw^ 
together with the colotured xuxgfy whicU chamct«qsQ doubly 9»* 
fj-nciing ipryjitals. 

Vllf. Consideraiicm of various Points of Jnalff^ By Johi^ 
F. W. Hersehel, Esq. f.B^S. The subpeets tr«ali^ of m tUft 
papej preclude the possibility of abridgjng it. 

IX. Observadons on the PunUitms ^' the JBrdj^. By Sir {2]0«NMrd 
Hom«:^ Bart. F.R.S.— The author coo^oiv^a that It wovU' gSKftdy 
tend to promote our knowledge of the yscs of the pwrticiilai ywrtf^ 
of the brain, if anatomieal surgaoaa woul4 (^olleiit i!ll.th« ^hatrvii^ 
tiohs which they have an opportunity of making in caM9 of vupxtf 
of that organ. The present paper C9ntainaaa.aisangc4 collectioa 
of his own observations in the course of bi^ piactifi|9» 1. A eefftaia. 
degree of [ircssure is requisite to keep uj^ (he fqp^lioiiii of the brain* 
A diminutioB of it produces faintnessi m increase kisenaibiliiy^ 
The water in tbe^ ventricles, ma^ increase iiuiefi^ftely without in- 
juring the functions of the brain, if tb^ skuU e^fi^nda io itt SMie' 
proportion. A curious example of this is detailed* 2. Cpncsttioa 
of the brain p/oduces delirium and coma. 3» Su4den dilatHLtioo 
of the blood vessels of the cerebrum, i« «aiNi«4U^ce of QJipowire. 
to the sun, is sometimes accompanied by deliriutti^ kM$ of ^leeeb; 
and the power of swallowing. 4. Blood exiMVfiiAted Vh the lateral 
and thira ventricles w^ att^ed by reflated fita of voipitiag aadk 
coma. In other parts of the brain it produeed st«por» paialysis^ 
idiot ism. 5. The formation of pua is attended with ddifiunft. 
6. Depression and thickening of different portions of the skuU waa 
attended with heaviness, torpor, head-a£he,. 2ic, 7* Tumota bt 
different p^rts of the brain produced violent heed-acUes^ djfopiaxyf 
loss of si^Kt, epileptic fits, &c. 8. Wounds in th# enterier Inbet 
of the brain produced no sensible e&ct. I^^ oi a poiiftioo of on* 
of the hemispheres v|^as attended with difficuky of QWallowing ibr 
24 hours, and slight delirium of short dunatioQ* 9. In :a bo^ io. 
whom the tubereuVuna annulare had become iodttvated^ tb^ efleet& 
were, that th^ boy had been an idiot from, his bulh» qavf r walked^ 
sjpoko, or Understood what was said* IQ* Paeasitf^ upoOi A» mo- 
dulia spinalih produces paralysis. 

X. Further Experiments and Oiservati^s es. lodioek BySii 
H.Davy, LL.D.F.RS. V.P.R.I.— This papef 1* dinJdW into 
five sections. U On the triple compounds contaim^ iodhie and 

2 

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UIS.} Philosophical Trrnimctimi 1S14^ Part IL 137 

osygW. Wkfii lodtaA/ is dbsdved in potarii or wAm, two eom^ 
poundb are formed ; om aoaipoood of otkjgtxi, iodine, raid potato 
siom or adidiiim; the other b£ iodine asd [lotaisittin or soidfiftn,. 
Our author calls .the first oxiode of poiassium, &c. the seeoiMl 
iode of poimmmj Sue, When the atkali is saturated with icdine 
orystfljs are deposited. These aee to be digested in alcohol of 8*631 
or fk2. The undissolved portion n the triple compound* Osiode 
of potassiwun. is aleaost tasteless, has no action osi vegetable oohMrst^ 
b aetiEcely M)liible in cold water; but more so in kot water. - By 
heel it anay be dissolved in auipbuelc, nitric, and phosphoric aeids«v 
The flaHir»led solutions eoqgeal and form crystalline messes of am 
imen^ely aciil taste. When strongly heated the tripk compound is 
deeompbaed at the tempecatnre at which the acids are driven oH^ 
uid oxygen and iocUne eKhaVes. Oiiode of potassium dissohres 
leadily in phosf^rous add. When the solution it heated the aeid 
is eon?erted into the phosphovic, and iodme appears. Whei» 
thrown into muriatic: acid, an efterveseenoeis percdTed, die sraell* 
of ehioriflQ becomes setisibfe^ apd the flnid, w^en evaponrted^ yields 
chlorionic acid. Similar appearances take place with the vegetable 
adds and the oxiode ; all easily eapialned by the transfer of OKygeh 
to thn solvent. 

Sir H. Davy coneoivea oxiode of potassium to be composed ot 
one atom iodine, one atom potassium, and six atoms oxygen ; but 
his experiments scarcely^ seem sidficicne to warmnt any such eon* 
olnsion. 

He feemed IHiOwiae by « similar process^ oxiodes of barytes^ 
Ume» «nd auignesia. 

His attempts to obteia a eompoond of ooLygen and iodine were 
not attended with success. 

2. On hydrionic acid and the compounds obtained by means of 
it. Thist acid is obtained pure by beating iode of potassium and 
hydio-phosphoric acid togethev. It is slowly decomposed by heat, 
and nqaidly when heated along with oxygen gas. When cof^densCjA 
in walef it is instantly decomposed by nitric acid ai^ iodine precis 
pitated. It rapidly absorbs oxygen from the air, and becomes 
ycPew^ and at last a deep tawny orange. It will probably answer 
well as a eudiemetrieal substance. It was decomposed by all the 
metak. tried, except gold and platinum. With the alkalies and 
commoa earths it forms compounds very similar to those formed 
with the same bases by muriatic actd. 3. On other acid eom- 
poaadsof iodine. Iodine absorbs nearly one third of its weight of 
chlorine gas, and forms a very volatile compound, which acts upon 
meremy^ and is dissolved by water. Sir H.Davy supposes that 
this compound is composed of an atom of iodine and an atonv ol 
dilorine. He calls it chiorionk acid. Its colour is yellow, and it 
Bsadily dissolves iodine becoming deeper coloured. When agitated 
ia chlorine gas it becomes eokairless. In this sfate^ when poured 
into alkaline or earthy solutions, oxiodes are precipitated. If it be 
coloured a quantity of iodine appears M the same time. When^ 

• Digitized by ^OOQIC 



1S8 . Analyses of Books. [Aug, 

poured into amnumia a white powder falls, which detonates feebly, 
and affords iodine and a gas not capable of supporting combustion. 
When the add is coloured the precipitate formed is black, and 
detonates much more loudly. 

Tin and iodine, when combmed, form a body possessing acid pro- 
perties, though no hydrionic acid could be detected in it. 4. On 
the action of some compound gases on iodine. It absorbs suU 
pfaureted hydrogen and forms a reddish brown fluid. When iodine 
was sublimed in oleliant gas a little reddish brown fluid was formed. 
It produced no change on nitrous gas nor carbonic oxide ; but 
when mixed with carbonic oxide in thus gaseous state and exposed 
to the light of the sun, a combination seems to take place. 5. On 
the mode of detecting iodine in combinations, and on certain pro* 
parties of its compound with sodium. The marine productimis of 
the Mediterranean contain less of it than the sel de varec. Ashes 
of the; ulva, that abounds on the coast of Languedoc, yielded traces 
of it. As did the ashes of the following plants : fucus cartilagineus, 
iiious membranaoeus, fucus rubens, fucus filamentosus, ulva pa- 
TonM, ulva littza. 

The ashes (^ corraiines and sponges exhibited no traces of it. 
Its presence is detected by its property of tarnishing silver, and by 
tiie red fluid which alkaline leys containing it form with sulphuric 
acid, 

^k H. Dayy coooeives it possible that the superiority of bay salt 
in curing fish and meat, may depend upon the presence of this 
substance. He nibbed pieces of beef with iode and oxiode of 
sodium. They did notputnfy. The piece rubbed with the iode 
heeame brown, soft, and. tender; that rubbed With the oxiode 
hardened considerably and became paler. 

X>. Observations respecting the natural Productions of Saltpetre 
on the Walls of subterraneous and other Buildings. By John Kidd, 
M. D. Professor of Chemistry in Oxford. — ^Tbe formation of nitre 
upon calcareous stones in certain situations has been long known, 
and advantage has been taken of it to procure that imp^tant salt in 
great quiintities ; though no satisfactoiy theory of the formation of 
ttie salt itself has yet been ofiered to the public. The present 
paper contains a set of observations on the appearance of an efflo*- 
fescence of sdtpetre on the walls of the A^hmole laboratory at 
Oxford, a large ground room, sunk below the area of the street. 
Thewadbare built of Oxford lime-stone, a granular floetzlime-p 
stone containing many fragments of shells, of vegetable bodies, 
and composed of 96 carbonate of lime, and 4 of ochrey sand. 
The salt formed was nearly pure, though it contained traces of 
lime and of sulphuric and muriatic acids. Wliat was formed in 
winter contained most lime. The formation of this salt, was most 
rapid in frosty weather ; it formed slowly, and the quantity even 
diminished in moist weather after it had been deposited. £xclu« 
sbn from the air did not preclude the deposition of the salt, though 
U diminisjied it considerably. , ... -^ 

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1815.] Philosophical Transactions, ISU, Pari It. 1«9 

XII. On the Nature of (he Salts called Triple Prussiates^ and twi 
jidds formed by the Union of certain Bodies with the Elemtnts of 
the Prussic Acid. By Robert Porrett, jun. Esq. — I- have already 
given a pretty full aocoant of this important paper in the number <n 
the Annals of Philosophy for January, 1815, to which I refer the 
readers. I mtend to pub&h an abridgment of the paper in a future 
number of the AnnalSj as it contains some discoveries which I con« 
sider as important. 

XIII. Some Experiments en the Comlustion of the Diamond, and 
other Carbonaceous Substances. By Sir H. Davy. — ^Diamonds were 
put in . a small glass globe filled with oxygen gas, and kindled bj 
means of a burning-glass. When once set on fire, they were found 
to''bum, though removed out of the focus of the lens. The result 
of the experiments was, that diamonds, when burnt, produced 
only carbonic acid gas, and no alteration took place in the bulk o£ 
the gas in which the combustion was performed. Hence it follows 
that the diamond consists of pure carfaion. Plumbago and charcoal^ 
besides carbonic acid, formed also a sensible portion of water when 
l)urnt, and the bulk of the oxygen gas was diminished. Hence thest 
bodies contain hydrogen as a constituent^ though only in a veiy 
minute proportion. 

XIV. Some Account of the Fossil Remains of an Animal more 
nearly allied to Pishes tlian to any other Class of Animals, By Sir 
Everard Home, Bart. F.R.S. — These bones were found in a cliff 
on the sea coast of Dorsetshire. The skull was pretty perfect; most 
of the other bones were broken and crushed. The ribs were eo^ 
and make the skeleton 17 feet long. These bones approach most 
nearly to those of fishes, though the author considers the animal as 
pot having been a perfect fish, but as constituting one of those in^ 
termediate links so commonly observed in the animals of New South 
Wales. 

XV. On an easier Mode of procuring Potassium than that which 
is now adopted. By Smithson Tennant, Esq. F.R.S. — This 
method is to put the potash and iron turnings together into a gun- 
barrel about a foot and a half long, and covered with a lute com- 
posed of Stourbridge clay, partly in its natural state, and partly pre^ 
vtously baked. Into the mouth of the gun-barrel another iron tube 
about eight inches long is to be put, perforated at the lower extre- 
mity, and having its upper end projecting about an inch beyond 
the gun^rbarrel. The mouth of the gun-barrel is shut by another 
tube which slips over it. The mouth of it is filled by a perforated 
cork, through which there passes a bent glass tube, having in it a 
drop of mercury. This apparatus being exposed to a strong heat 
for an hour in a smith's forge, the potassium is found perfectly pure 
in the upper perforated iron tube. 

XVI. On the Influence of the Nerves upon the Action of the 
Arteries. By Sir Everard Home, Bart. F.R.S. — Our author acci- 
dentally observed that the application of stimulants to nerves pro- 
duced a Solent increase of the action of the Uood-vessels connecte4 

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t49 Processings ^ PkUasophml Socieiiet. (Avi. 

focfc is for the most pert a eompnet, sonorous, dtrb blue tftp, iiMrly 
i^kh tbeiD. He iaid bare the oarotMl aitery of a dog^ aiid upoa 
touehiog th^ intercostal oerve and par vaguin withpotasii^ a vioksat^ 
increase in the action of the artery took place^ The same expevi^ 
aaent succeeded equally in rabbits; so: diat the eivcuktioQ of the 
b)ood is not wholly depeodont upon the heart and the elasticity of 
the arteries, tbe actios of tiie nerves is necessary to r^gulalie tl^ 
dbtribution of it to the dififerent parts of the body. 

9CVIL On th^ Means of producing a doable DisiiUaiion by the 
mme Heat* By Smithson Teonant, . Esq, F.R. S.-*^The aietlml is 
to ]»ake tbe worm frooi the first still pass through a seeond, vlneh 
is air*tigbt^ and has attached to it a «'orm eoDneeting it with an mr^ 
tight receiver. Heat is applied to the. second still till the liquid ia 
it is made to boil ; the cocks are then shut, aod the diitdlatiba . 
carried on by the heat coaunuuicated by the worm from the first 
sitll. 

XVIIL An Jceouni of some Experimenks on Animai HeaU By 
John Davy, M.D. F.R.S. — ^From these experiments it appears 
(d)at there is n<i mateiial difference between tbe specific heats of 
heinous and arterial blood, except whet ariaes ftom difiereoce in the 
specific gravity; that of the former being l*04fi, and of the latter 
1*050. OUr author considers the relative specific heats as 0*913 
and 0*903 • Tiie temperature of arterial bJood is higher than thai 
'of ve«iou6> and the temperature of the left side of the heart than of 
the riglit. The temperature of parts diminishes as the distance of 
the parte from the heart. These results are incompatiUt with Dn 
Crawtbrd's theory of aiiimal heat, but agree with the theory of Di^ 
BJaekw 



Article X. 
Proceedings of Philosophical Societies, 

GKOLOGICAl. SOCIBTT, 

May 19---A notice accompaoying aa additional drawing to the 
paper on Vegetable Remains in Chalcedony^ by Dr. Macculloch, 
was read, describing a vegetable remain possessing deddedly the 
genuine characters of conferva. 

JuTie 2. — ^The Secretary repotted that a communicatbn on the 
Native Tellurium of Norway had been received from Pirofessor 
£smark, of Cbristmna. 

Dr. Macculloch's paper on the Isle of Sky, begun at a former 
meeting, was concluded; 

The principal group of mountains in Sky is the CuchuUin. Thii 
elevation probably exceeds 3000 feet, and the principal escarpments 
look east and north. It is remarkable for the spiry granitic form of 
its summits, and its ni&ed barrenness^ owing to the strong resist*^ 
imce which It opposes to the usual causes cf decomposition* The 



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I«i50 ^ological Sdchijf. ■ .\ 141 

allied to ^gteeD-atone, paastttg. someUmes into sjretiitei soift^tsaieB 
coauuDdng gksqr felspar and hypentene) and aometkncs oompcaed 
inereiy of. quartz and faoraUeode. It is traiwr&ed tfaroog^uMit by 
dykes'of basak, in' some places approaching to pilich^stone, and 
appean to rest on a very compact grey quartzy sand-stooei wkiek 
does not contain shells, and like the suparincumbeut trap, b ta^ 
versed by veins and dykes of basalt. 

Adjacent to the GucbuHin is another group, called the Red 
MoiHitidiil, of. lovi^r elevation ihm the former, prefeenttog fouoded 
OQtliDes, and so covered vfith fragments in a stale of decomposition^ 
that the oiassive rock can rarely be perceived. Thie chief constituent , 
iogiedieoit of Aese mountains b fleab-red felspar, passing into clayr 
stone, and containing a smaU and variable proportion of horoble&dc 
atid quartz. Thb rock, like that of the CucbuUin, b also traversed 
by veins of trap^ and probably by veins of granite. 

The northern portion of the bland consbts for the most part of floetz 
trap in beds approaching to horizontal, alteimating with sand-stope, 
tan presenting seams of basal dc coal generally bro^n, imperfect^ and 
of little extent. This trap offers the usual varieties, namely, basalt^ 
fctther perfect, or aipproaching to wacke, green-stone, and a)nQygda<> 
loid. Thb latter variety contains nodules of steatite, balls of fila-r 
meiitoiis mesoQqie, crystallized mcsotype, chabasite, and occasiont 
slly stilbite and icfathyophtbalmite. In some parts the shale ami 
iand*stone adjoining the trap axe indurated, and more or less altered 
the forrher in particubr being converted into lydian-stone and 
botryoidal schi^. The whole of the eastern shore of Strathaird 
exhibits (me continuous cliff of blue compact Ikne-slooe^ split by 
numerous fissures, and hollowed out into caves. 

At KilbridG, near Loch Clapin, another lime^-stoae.district oecur^ 
the ewDeetioBs of which it b very difficult to ascertain. Tliis lime* 
stone b unsmtified, contains no organic remains, b of a graaubr 
alructiBV, and b in many places a perfect marble^ more or leal 
coarse in 'its grain, of a white, Uue, atid yetlowbh*greea eoloat 
(thb latterfirwi an intermixture of serpentine), and applicable t» 
various uses In ornamental architecture. Thb lime-stone cea^ • 
totle'or two short of Bradford ; and on the shores of this latter 
water another formatiim of lime-stone, totiiUy dbtbct from tba 
other, Snakes iits appearance. Thb forms thin beds, alternating 
with sand'titone and shale, b highly bituminous,, and contains 
annonifie^ ammonits, and other dbeUs, and is traversed by tra^ 
veins. 

Betwecft Loch Oransa and the nor&empart of tlie shore neat 
fiiadford is a tract of quarts rook, which also occurs in cither parts 
•f Aa dbtrfct of Clate, acconapanied by various prima^ schislQae 
rocks, and intersected by veins of trap. 

A paper hf J's Williams, jun^. fi^. of Scorvier, describmg the 
mine of Hael Peever, ^^iraaresid. 

. HbeMB mttot Huel Pearar, in the parish of RedmtVw m ete<% 
sequence of its intersectioa by cross veii^s, by the uoderlie of a 

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142 Proceedings of Phtlosopkidul Societies. [Aud« 

pnralfol eoipper vein» and by the oblique: course of a chaDnel of' 
porphyryy was lost, and exercised the skill of the ablest Cornish 
miners for more tlian 40 years before it was recovered. A descrip- 
tion of the particular demtions produced in the course of the vein 
by each of these disturbing causes is given in this paper, and its 
aoeompanying plana and sections* 

WERNSIllAN SOCIKFT* 

At the meeting on 21st January, Mr» P. Syme laid before the 
Society an account of some remarkable atmospheric appearances 
observed by him during a thunder-storm on the 2^h of July 18 14, 
accompanied with several' beautiful drawings executed by him from 
sketches which he took at the moment. 

At the meeting on 4th February was read an essay on the germi* 
nation and physical economy of ferns, by Dr. Yule. — At the same 
meeting there was read an account of the mineralogy of the Red 
Head, by Dr. Fleming. The Red Head is a well known promon-^ 
. tory in the county of Forfar. The rocks consist of sand-stone and 
gravel-stone. The author seemed inclined to consider these rocks 
as mechanical deposits, as they bear the closest resemblance in all 
respects, except in being cemented, to beds of sand and gravel in' 
the neighbourhood. The sand-stone belongs to the old red sand- 
stone formation, in which many trap-rocks rising into hills, such 
as the Ochils, and hills of Kinnoui and Perth, occur in the form 
of great beds. 

At the meeting on 25th February, Professor Jameson read a 
shott account of the places wff^re fossil remains of elephants have 
been found, and exhibited the tooth of a mammoth discovered by 
William Auld, Esq. in Hudson's Bay,, this being the first time 
that such remains have been observed so far to the northward iin 
America. Professor Jameson also * read a notice concerning the 
indurated talc which occurs in quantity in the island of Unet, one 
of the 2Setlands, and which, he stated, might be profitably brought 
to market, the article being in demand for removing stains fi^ip 
nlks, &c. and selling at a considerable price. 

At the meeting on the 11th of March, Professor Jameson read 
the continuation of his mlneralogr of the Lothians. 

At the meeting on 25th March was read a description of a new 
species of water ouzel or dipper, found in this country by James 
Wilson, Esq. A specimen of the young bird and a drawing of the 
bird in full j)lumage were exhibited. It difiers from the common 
ousel chiefly in the deep rufous band on the lower breast bein^ 
wanting, and in the breast feathers being marked with transverse 
waved lines, from which last drcumstance Mr. Wilsoii proposes to 
call it Aqmtilis undulatus. 

• At different meetings of the Wer^rian Society in January, Fe- 
bruary and March, a paper bv Mr.-SoMPesby junior of Whitby, oh 
Polar Fee, and the Practicabibty of a J^uniey to Uie Pcde^ excited 
Biuch interest. 

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1815.] Wetnerian Smety. ' l^S 

He began with some notices as to the characteristics of \he at^ 
mosphere and the land in West Greenland and Spitzbergen. The 
atmosphere is remarkable for darkness of colour and density^ ibr 
the production of highly crystallized snow^ and for almost instantaT 
neous changes from perfect calm to impetuous storm. The lond » 
remarkable for abrupt precipices^ rising directly from the ocean, tp 
a great height: the dark-coloured rocks contrasted with the snow 
of the purest whiteness with which they are capped, produce a very 
striking .effect. Here Ha&.whiie bear {& the lord of the creation: 
seals and all other animals flee his presence. He is yearly attracted 
over the ice to the. fishing ground, by the carcases of whales, the * 
smell of which he seems to perceive at a wonderful distance. 

As to the ice^ Mr. Scoresby remarked thai Davis Straits is noted 
for enprmous ice-berss or ice-islands, and tl\at Greenland is more 
remarkable for ice-Jieuls. Some of these ice-fields are of vast ex- 
tent, perhaps 100 miles long and 50. b^oad; the surface being 
raised from .4 to 6 feet above the water^ and the base sank near 20 
feet below the water. The ice-bergs of Baffins Bay are sometimes 
nearly two miles long and perhaps 100 feet high, while their base 
must reach 4^0 feet below the surface 9f the water. Some ice- 
bergs are formed on the land; but the most huge are, in Mr. 
Scoresby's ppinioip^, produced in the deep sheltered bays of the sea, 
and formed partly of sea water and partly of snow and sleet, yearly 
accumulated .perhaps for successive ages* . * 

Mr. Scoresby mentioned, that he never cfuld;, 1^ experiments 
made in Greep|and, obtain irom se«^ water^i ice that was either, com-^. 
pact, transparent, or which yielded a fresh solution. Yet fresh- 
water ice is commpn, and the whale«fi$hing /ships frequently water 
at some ppol on the surface of an ice-berg. Sali^wattr ice is soft^ > 
porous, , white ; it is lighter than the other^ its specific; gravity bei^g 
about 0*873, while that of fresh-water ice is. 0-d37* This last hat 
a black appearance while floating in the sea, apd is tcansparenf^ 
with a green hue, when held in the air. Its edges are sharp Uke' 
glass. With pure pieces of this kind of ice Mr. Scoresby sometimes 
amused himself in forming lenses, with which he was able to. fire 
gunpowder, light the sailorsV pipes, burn ^ood^ and^even. m^k 
lead. . ,".//.' 

Ice is generated in the Northern Ot^n.enliri^ly independent of 
the vicinity of land. .1^ is formed even in roagk^ear during ^ut^nse' 
cold ; ^first producing what is cMedhy ih^s^^lovs sludgCy^and tKen 
fiat pieces of a rounded shape, and ^yraed/;up at the e4ges, i^hich 
have received the whimsical .name of pancake^. In tbe. sheltered 
openings which occasionally Occur in tjbe grea^ fields of ice^ H^'fiq^ 
is often rapidly formed : it .will bear a ipan's w;eight in 4i^^hour% 
and in a month is fully afopt thick. - Su(^6se a^ large opting tf> 
be thus frozen over, ajcid cemented on« every side, to the pld^|i<)^^"i^ 
great basin . or hollow is produced: this becomes a receptacle fb^ 
snow : next summer the^sciow is meUed,. apd d^png.the following 
winter the water is converted^ into a solid layer of frbh- wi^btc^ 

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l44 Proteeiingi fif Ptdk^Uctd Societies. |A^t>< 

Id thl« way, Mr. Scoresby thir^to, the m6^.coinpact\/feW-«<i? may 
be generated in a Few Jreaw. Ohrer ficldi are fomicd erf boArck ^ 
{>8cked ice cemented by frost. Ice-fidd» hirve an i()^v«iab}e ten^* 
aeney to drift to tbe sottffa-wv^tward, amid various or eontrary 
Urmds. TheyapfMilir in June \tk the fishing, tatitiides, and many 
are yealriy bfdfcen lip by the agitation of the waves when they 4*- 
vanic^ to the open ocean. When two fieMs come in contact^ the 
eontnssion is tremendous. 

Mr. Sicoresby^ve a descripfion of the pi^sent situation or boiin-* 
darres of th^ cifcmnpolar ice, both in ishse and in &pen seasons, — 
which it is imposslbkf it abridg^e. Soch is ^ outline, that when 
the ice touches the sottfth point of Spitsbergen, a barrier !s formed 
against acc^s to the t^n sea farther norths where whales are to 
be found. If this bafrrief cons!^ only of packed ice, and be not ce- 
mented into fields, the ihips are forced thitwgh it, with great MU 
ficulty no doubt, and not* without peril. !n June this barrier 
divides in the middle, and yben the vessels iteturn fVom the fishing, 
it frequently happens ih^t ntx ve^ge of it i& to be seen. The larg- 
est fields of icfe t^re always rnovingand cHaf^ngplac^, generally 
drifting to th,e sot|tb*West, sfkboiigh, tin account of theft vast ex- 
tent, it IS diifk;uft to e^imate the arhouot of the d^nge, A ibtp 
Itietm a field wai carried', wfth « semicrrcnlaf sWeep, between fif^ 
teen and twenty leagues in flfHr fiouis. Tw^ ^ps erhbayed in 
packe4 ice, withip^a few fuflowgsrdf 6aeh other, were separated to 
the diittatice oFisomf teagties inWtie cour^ df two* days, and yet the 
conthiuity df itte {iNtck 'of ice ^^^redf^^'tjie eye to hav^reibained 
tt^broken. 

The'^flWt* of flte io* on the athibs^hefe flf* Tery^triktegf. A 
stmng gale Mowinjga^fiist onesMe of a fa^ge 'fields b somodet^dd 
m its pa^aget oirtt fhe'tee^ l!hat Hhi! is se^rc<^ feK on ^he Oi4ier side. 
Moi^anrd 't\>mp6fsttd ^les^ ttm t?he $outbwatd, on veachtng the 
feld«, fnmijMffetely^dfi^^ theif iStipctfluous moiswrrc in the f^ni 
elf fmof^. The tifeMink is -a ctrfJoiis. Tpftenomehoo. Th^ ray^ of 
Hgbt whicjhIfefV 6tt tbi iccf ar^ fdtec^, wHle Apse wWch fafl on 
<b« intxst ai* lntt;grwit tatestfre ibic^Vlnrti. A lominons bek ttp^ 
prari iti'the-httrhwrtj cottfainingra beawflfirf map df the iee, s6itte- 
times jK> peffejct thjat a practised eye ^n determine whether #eld 
fce'(6rp(^wa ite'beyetiresemcd. 

lA'th»'\^ti>^6t bfe Mper Mi*. SfeWfafcy^treAtetf trf the prtictf- 
<Sid>H{ty rtf 'iwcJhfejfthe'^^ l^c,%ysefflt^ ofl'Aom the north of 
Spitsbergen, and 'tMvjillWg over (he *}t*e. 'fhat tWs m«y ndt ht 
l&ec' with a sttiil'^ pf tohtcnrpt, Vc'^ay m^ntSon 'thsft^ife^ reasohings, 
imd^he «»eemrtJt$ faorrl&tf od *hfe <i[Wrt «Te(?ei1en\edi went a great 
f^yitf removing t1irf-d>jtt*tldn^ Ht strtrie Df -tfce most di^trriguished 
Sfcottyn.phaoijophers. tUf. Scrorttby'has; been *eteral time* be- 
yond istf^w.-lat. ^fnd^efl; ite on ofte occ^Bfon ttviit a i^earer ap- 
proach tath6ptil*r,p(/rtrt thtitl ai^ dtht^^fidfentiflc dbs^rVei*. Caj)- 
tsito' f hipps (Wtf'MotJBfWtvti) in ij!79 rc«clie« mP'SJ^ But jn 
tmi^r. Scoresby (iheaittffftijj^'airirf^nJafe tb -bar faflter, well 

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knowD as one of the most enterprizing and intelligent captains in 
the Greenland trade) penetrated, as high as 81^^ N. a distance of 
only 170 leagues from the pole. Eyen when north winds had pre** 
vailed for days, Mr. Scoreshy did not find the cold ofSO^moch 
difierent from that of 70^ N. With woollen clothing, therefore^ h« 
thinks the cold would, not be overwhelming, and an external gar-» 
ment of varnished silk would protect the body from moistore. It 
would be impossible 'to accomplish a journey of 1300 miles (600 
going and 600 returning) without the assistance of some fleet quad- 
rupeds accustomed to harness. Rein-deer or dogs are the only ani« 
mals that could be employed^ and they must be procured from the 
coudtries where they are trained. Dogs are most hardy and trlct- 
aUe, and would on the whole be preferable. Drivers must also be 
procured from the same countries. The sledges must be lights and 
in theibrm of boats, in case of spact^ of opisn water o^uvring* 
Between a month and six weeks,. Mr. Scoresby thinks, would suffice 
for the journey.' To avoid theretardii^ effects of softsnow^'he 
suggests that the psa^iy should set out by the close of ApriK When the 
aid of the magnetic needle as a director should be lost, by its pole 
bexog directed to the zenith, the sun would be the only guide.. A 
chrojBometer would be an indispensable instrument. With a chro* 
BOHieter adjusted to the meridian of north-west Spitzbergen, the 
bearing of the sun at the time of noon (provided this could be accu* 
rately ascertained very near the pole) would aflbrd a. line of direo* 
tion for the return ; th^ position in regard to longitude b^ing cor* 
reqted twice a day. White bears are the Only living enemies to be 
expected; but they are not likely to occur in numbers very far 
ifoxthy as their food must necessarily be scarce* Mr. Scoresby has 
little expectation of mountainous land occurring, and he thinks it 
highly itnprobable that the sea will be found free from ice at the 
pole, as the Dutch navigators have asserted it to be. Mr. Scoresby's 
ample experience convinces him, that thick weather is only to be 
dreaded as the accompaniment of southerly winds, which occur but 
seldom and at distant intervals. — Such a journey must necessarily 
be ha;sardous ; but great difficulties have in former times been over- 
come in travelling the northern ice. In the Spring of 1715^ 
Alexei Marcoff, a Cossack, travelled from Siberia, in a sledge 
drawn by dogs, near 400 miles northward, over a surface of packed 
ice. He was obliged to stop about the 7^th degree, on account of 
the provisions, for his dogs falling short ; by killing some, and feed« 
ing the others with the carcases, he effiscted his return in safety* 
But if the party were to reach the pole either by means of rein-deer 
or dogsy and these entirely to, fail through cold and fatigue<» it is at 
least possible that they might be able to accomplish their return oa 
foot, drawing their provisions in a sledge;. a large party of the 
crews of the Dutch Greenland fleet wrecked in 1777 having tra- 
versed the ice for a hundred leagues, amid the severity of the arctie 
winter, and actually reached the settlemems of the Danbh misaioa- 
vies, without any suitable preparations for such a journey. 
Vol. VI. N^ll, K \ . 

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lHHf Frec^tTmgt ^FJiMmpkhef^ Sodeties. y^m^ 

4pQfiimt\^ the jAim&Tf of the Class of MatkBfnMtkal rndPhystcal 
L ^cimoei^the Ray^JmtiUde ^Frapjce 4urnig the Year 1814. 

L Phf/sical Department. By M. le Chevalier. Cuvier, Perpetual 

Secretary. 

Chbmistrt. 

tCowiimUdfrom Vol. V. p. jfi9.) 

Hif<Ari(lliaitiahynflredyeaT8i^o there had been extracted from 
the qiiar^ieBof iCBnuigeD^ near the laice of Constance, a petrified 
aheleton, which Schenchzer^ a natundiit of Zurich, had taken for 
that 'Of a 'man, and which he had engraven under the title homo 
dUmm tesiis. Atoe recent naturalists had considered it as the 
dceicton of a -fish. M. Cuvier, from the simple inspection of the 
Bgnvt pnblUhed by Scheuohzer, had considered it as an unknown 
and gigantic species ^ sabmander. Having made a journey to 
Marletn, wh.e«e thb celebrated fossil is deposited in the Teyleriui 
Museum, and having obtained permission from M. Van Marom, 
Cofrespofident of the Class, and Dkector of that Museum, to dig 
ioloAe^tone in order to eapose those parts that had beenhidierto 
concealed, M. Cuvier discovered feet, with fbeir bones and toes, 
smidl ribs, teetii along two large jaw-bones; in short, all the charao- 
Ite^istic parts; so that it is now no longer possible to doubt that the 
Aeleton really belonged to a salamander. He hae dhown to the 
€tess a figure of this fossil thu3 exposed, which he means to send^ 
tdgether with a description, to the Academy of Harlem. 

The same member 4ias exhibited a head of the last animal, called 
palaotherium medium, recently disengaged from the gypsum of 
Montmartre. This head was complete, and confirmed all the con- 
clusions hitherto drawn from isolated fragments. 

M. de Humboldt, Foreign Associate, has communicated the 
truly astomshiM history of &e volcano of JoruUo, which burst cot 
if) VJB^tLt Mexico, on a well cultivated platform, where two riven 
of cdd Water flowed, and where, during the memory of man, vo 
subterraneous noise had been heard. The catastrophe was announced 
some months beforehand by earthquakes and bellowiogs, whicii 
continued 15 or 20 days. A shower of ashes then fell, and more 
vblent bellowings took place, which induced the inhabiuinis to fly ; 
flames arose over an extent of more than half a lei^e square; 
pieces of rode were thrown up to a great height ; the orust of the 
earth rose and ^nk Kke the waves of the sea ; there arose an ianu- 
teerafUemuItitude of small con^, from six to nine feet high, which 
covered the ^urfece of the platform, and whidi still remain there. 
Finally, there arose ih the direction of S. S. E. and ^. M. £. ^ 
hills, the principal of which, still distinguished by a burning -cmter, 
» not lesi» tiban^lGOO-feet in height^ These frightful opeiutio«8-4( 
4 . ... 

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tl#l6»] Sfi^ Huikiae. l4f 

Nrtmre coBtlmiod ftoJh the month of September, 1 7M, Hill next 
nbraany. Eye-witnesses deehre that the noise w«s equd to wh^t 
imM hwe been produced by thousands of cannon, and theft it was 
at»(x>inpanied by a burning heat, part of which still eootimies ; ibr 
M/^ HumboMt found the heat of the soil 6^ Fabr. higher than 
lliat ^f ihe atmosphere. Every moroiiqf thousands of columns of 
smoke rise from the cones and the crevices of that ^reat platforid;. 
The two riv^i^ now contain hot water impregnated with suOphureted 
liyArogen ; and viegetation is only begimihag to appear upon thie 
ahMtered ^Kmntry. 

This volcano is 4^ leagues firom the sea, and nearly as ikt froth 
the nearest active volcano. On this occasion M. de Humboldt 
iMiarin that sever&l voltranoes of the New World ai« at as great a 
dbmnoe from the sea as thia ii; while in the Old Wevld we kndw 
no vdlettno that is 12 kagues distant from the sea, and the greafeir 
iMHUbtrare upon the shore. This scientific travelled Informs tw> 
Ifliewise, that all the great vtrfeanoes of Mexico are found not 
iMMly in nlmM the same line transMrsai to the dirtcnAoh of th^ 
Cordileyras, but likewise within a few minutes of the sante paralleiy 
ai if thfey wette all devated abbve a subtefratt^oirs Cf9«ic« Jwhich 
e«i6f}ds from sea to sea. Ht aseertaii^dalt these f;^ets by meabutes 
aAd>d6terminationsof polkioM, as e^aet as imuU^9()ni« >lo %ak^. 
The pubUe will see the whole details In the contimation of the 
cete^taMd work in which M. de Humboldt has const^d the i^strit 
dt bfe great Work on Ami^rica. 

M. de Humboldt^ in ii metnoir on vegetation rn the Canary M^, 
his stated some general (Hmstdertttibns to the geography of plants^ 
By eotebitttngthe Results of 6bservfation with the double influetit^e 
Which the latitude and the height hi the atmosphere produces on tlM 
tiktipemtilre, he has flked for a cei^arn number of points the limits 
at p^t^tual inow, the mean temperature of the air at that limit 
tami dutfng the whole year, and likewise the particular tempetature 
dt the wiriter and sUmiher months ; and he has shown thtft We majr 
ddhice IVom these different data the habitual distance between that 
limit and the heights on which tr^es atid e^n grow $ and that even 
the variations, apparently capricioas, which the same species of 
tfeea present in diflferfent climates, may be explained when we join 
to these data the consideration of the perkki of the year when each' 
tl'ee increases in bulk. 

' It has been kmg known that the number of stigmata is not con^ 
slant JA the family of cypereae ; nor was it bi?lieved tliat these 
vatiatfons were suSiciently important to serve as a basis for the dis^ 
. tinction tjf the genera. 

M. Schkuhr, a Germftn botanist, first observed that in the gentis 
Gf carex there exist species with two and three stigmata^ and 
that the number of tfiese organs is alwap the same as that of the 
asjgfcs of the fruit. 

• 'Oat associate, M. the Baron de Beauvois, has generalized tWs 
observation to aH the plants^of the family. He has remarked soiM 

K 2 

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148 Proceedings cf Phito^ophied Societies. [Ao«<| 

that h^Me ft>ur stigmata, and'io which the ifruit is evMesitly. qua**, 
drangular, at least in some' of iX% parts. Such in particul£^r arethe^ 
Sph(Bmt$ mariscusy the gdhnia psidacorum of M. de.la Billardk^re^ 
and a very remarkable new genus brought from tlie Cape by M. dUi. 
Petit Thouars, at>d ^ich M. de Beauvois calls teirariay.oniaLC^oiaiHf 
of the repetition of a quaternary number in the different parts of 
ita flower. 

. M. de^Beadvois concludes from his observations that the nuoibisti 
Qf 9tigniata has an importance more than sufllcient to furnish che{ 
generic characters. This will be so much tlie more advantageous^^ 
^ some 'genera of <^ypere» have very numerofus species^ very, diffi- 
Qlilt to distinguish. 

M* de Beauvois has likewise made new observations, which in; 
Kia opinion tnore and more confirm a notion which he has long, 
efitertained and supported, respecting the fructification of mosses;, 
namel^^ that the green powder' which fills the urns, and whiCil>. 
lledwig considers as the seed, is nothing else than the pollen ; aod^ 
that the true seed is contained in what botanists, term the oolumella. 
of the urn. 

. M. de Beauvois has remarked, that at first this green powder, 
like the pollen, is nothing else than, a compact, shapeless, mass^ 
which gradually acquires consistence, and at last divides into powder,, 
the grains of which are united by small filaments, and composed 
each of two or three small compartments, full of a humor com- 
parable to the aura seminalis of ordinary pollen ; and mixed with, 
other smaller grains which are opaque and ovoid. This successive 
division holds equally with the powder contained in the reniform 
bodies of the lycopodise, and in the interior of the mushrooms 
caHed lycoperdons. The little central body regarded hitherto as a 
columella, which varies in form in different genera, but preserves 
nc^arly the same shape in the same genera, and to which in all, 
cases the green powder is attached, terminates in an appendix, 
which is prolonged in the opercula of the urn, and which i^lls off. 
with that opercula ; so that the pretended columella is then open, 
doubtless to facilitate the escape of the little grains which M. de 
Beauvois has observed there, and which he considers as seeds. 

This skilful botanist has observed that in the polytricha and other. 
Inoases the small filaments which Hedwig considers as antherse are 
still perfect at a period when the powder in the urn has acquired its 
full develpfNe'ment. But the contrary ought to be the case if these 
filaments were male organs. They ought to h^ve performed their 
function and to be decayed, before the green powder, considered as 
the seed, has come to a state of maturity. Hence M . de Beauvoi/{^ ^ 
concludes that the filaments in question are rather female organs. 
The mosses, then, belong to the class of poU/gamia ; for M. de 
Beauvois shows that the small opaque grains which he has seen in 
the columella were also seen and' represented by Hedwig, at least in 
the hfyufA striatum, l^e urns of mosses, then, accprding to M« 
d^ 3eauvob, are incontestably hermaphrodite flowers. 

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1615.] •* Roi/al Instkuie, 14f 

M. du Petit-Thouars has made the Class acquainted with some 
interesting observations in vegetable philosophy. One among others 
shows very well the connexion of the leaves with the woody layer 
of the same year. When a leaf falls^ we see at the base of its 
pediclea number of. points, variable accordiog to. the form of the 
leaf^ and the number of leaflets of which it is composed. These 
are sections of as many filaments^ which are vessels, or rather 
bundles of the fibres of the. leaf. If .we examine the place from 
which the leaf fell, we discover the same points, and we may 
follow the filaments into the interior of the wood ; but if we make 
the same observation in the spring, upon a leaf newly developed, 
the filaments will be found to extend only to the surface of the 
wopd^ . Two. or three months after a new layer of wood being 
formed envelopes them in its thickness. 

The sanae bK)tanist has made curious remarks respecting th^ rela- 
tion of tbe number of stamina with that of the other parts of the 
flower, and has found that in several genera, as the polygonum^ 
rheum, &c. in which this relation seems very irregular and incon- 
stant, the number of stamina b equal to the sum of the divisions of 
the calix and pistils taken together. This is a singular fact, the 
oonniexim of which with the general structure of the flower is not 
easily seen* 

M. Desvaux has presented a memoir on a family of plants the 
fructification of which is concealed, namely, the algce^ compre- 
hending, among others, all the sea plants called fitcus. , He has 
proposed to establish in them several new genera, and has made 
experiments to ascertain if the filaments by which the fuci adhere to 
the rocks, and to the bottpm of the sea, be true roots. For that 
purpose, after having detached several feet of their natural adhesions, 
he fixed them to stones by means of cords, or other artificial me- 
thods, and plunged them again into the sea. Having visited them 
some time after, he found that they had increased very sensibly. It 
was known, likewise, that some species, as the fucus natans^ live 
and increase very w^ell without being attached to any thing. 

M. LamourouXj Professor at Caen, has sent several memoirs to 
the Class on the same plants, which his nearness to the sea has 
enabled him to observe, and to which he gives the name of thalas- 
siophytes. After having pointed out all the divisions of which they 
are susceptible, he has considered them as furnishing food to maa 
and the inferior animals, as useful in rural and domestic economy, 
and in the arts. One is astonished to learn how many useful and 
agreeable purposes they are applied to by difierent nations. Some 
yi^hem directly, or form them into a nourishing and agreeable 
]^ly: others employ them for feeding their cattle. They are all 
capable of furnishing soda, and they constitute an excellent manure.^ 
Some furnish sugar, otliers-dye stnfis. Of some mats are made» 
And drinking vessels, and even musical instruments. What is 
,^ed Corskan mass constitutes a valuable remedy^ &c. 

y Google 



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ISO Scm^: hU^Uigtnce. [hWif 



Articls XI. 

SCIENTIFIC IVTfil^LlOSNCB; AKD NOTIt^Bg (XT SVBJBCTS 
CONMBCTBD WITH 8CIJINCS. 

I. Lectures. 

The following lectures, which were formerly delivered i» Ave 
Theatre of Anatomy, will in fiiture be delivered in the Medical 
Theatre, No; 42, Great Windmill-street: — 

1. On the Laws of the Animal Economy, and the Theory- and 
practice of Physic: by George Pearson, M.D. F.R.S. senior 
physician to St. George's Hospitat, &c. &c. * 

2« On Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Medical Jurispru- 
dence : by Richard Harrison, M. D. Fellow of the Royftl College 
of Physicians^ and Physician to the Northern Dispensary. 

3. On Chemistry : by Granyill^, M. D. 

4. On the Theory and Phictice of Surgery: by B. ۥ Brod!^ 
F*R«S. Assistant Surgeon to St. George's Hospital. 

Sir Everard Home's gratuitous lectures to the pupila of St". 
George's Hospital will also be given in thb theatre. 

II. yttro-Cerite^ 

There has been lately found at Finbo, near Fahlon^ in Sweden^ 
a ]^w substance, containing 

Lime ^T^7 

Yttria l^6f> 

Oxide of cerium 13*IS 

Fluoric acid 24*46 

l^^eaisrs. Gahn and Berzelius have given it the name of fftfro^ 
cerite. It h^s been found in the form of a powder^ of a violet 
Qplpur, or paje Wue,, covering pyrophysi^lite. 

III. Steinheilite. 

Thia miner^ has. beeD> long' valued iacgUectiooS) Qo.ncQmmt.af 
ift&bUie colour, bu4 has be^ni merely coQ9idei!ed: as wi^k Cqintf 
ateinheUy Governor GenecaL of VUniani^ having^. boM^veTi ftlgig 
the. an^s ofi ^eme crystals, considered it as; sojvAtbmig di£Mll# 
ffem quartz, requested Pnofe^aorGadotin* to encamlm- it j aod hebi^ 
^und>ife to cootain a lasge quanititj^ oi. 9Lhmw^ It: 9ppefii» Ukj \» 
fCHiiediivg between quarter and sappUm. . 

• Some of Dr. P^iirson's lectnres aire diiliyered at bis theatre, in George>«tree(', 
Hanover-iquare. > t . . -. . . 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



MM] Smimlifik SuM^ce. ill 



IV. FlmhArs^iakl of lAme. 

This 19 a yellowisb substance^ which aaKMnpiMCA tbe oxide ol tn 
at Flnbo, near FaUao. It is seldom got io ImrgQ maeieaii hut is 
spcead on the quarts or felspar. It is a Gombinelion of BmiO' ttfl 
anenic acids and liflse. 

V. Gadoiiniie, 

Mr. Berzeliaffhas found that all the gadolioites coataiotcmiiai^ 
and that the yttria hitherto obtained from gadoliaite has not bc^ 
pure, but contained cerium. He has lately discoveved a metho4 of 
separating the cerium from the yttiia. 

VI. New Mass of Native Iron discovered — BhmenHacVs jlmmge^ 
ment of the Human Species. 

(To Dr. TbonuoB.) 
IfT DEAR SIR, 

If you can make any use of the felhMriiig Hotfees for the miscel- 
laneous articles of the next number of your Journal, 1 beg you will 
insert them in any manner you think proper. Being agaiikJn cor- 
respondence with Germany, I may be enabled in future to furnish 
you with other materials for that part of your publication. 

Baron Moll, of Munich, writes to me that towards the end of 
October, 1814, a mass of native iron, weighing about 200 lbs., hi^ s 
been discovered by a shepherd at Lenarto, in the comitfite of Saros^ 
on the declivity of a small range subordinfite tofthe Carpathian 
mountains. Internally it is light steel-grey, i^pproachipe to silvec^ 
white; es^ternally it is covered by a slight coat of aoark drowjpi 
rust; its surface is rough, uneven, and marked with impressions; 
only three cavities are observed, which may be called cells ; but 
they are without any of the olivine-like substance which has been 
found within those of the Siberian native >iron.' The form of this 
mass is irregular and flat, as if compressed. It is of a very close 
grain, and takes an excellent polish ; its fracture is hackly in a high, 
d^ee ; it is perfectly malleable in the cold ; its solution Jn, nitric 
acid is of a light emerald-green, colour. A complete account of it 
will be given by Professor Sennowitz, at Eperies ; and a chemical 
analysis bv Dr. Schuster, of Pesth. 

In the New Annual Register for 1813, the foHowing notice' has 
heen t^ken of the Physimo^ies Nationaies, published at Paris :— I- 
^ This, tract is drawfi up agreeably to the system of Mr. filtnnen- 
bach, who, in trutHj Has derived his classification from Gemiin 
-74«c)> with a mere variation of the names : for the Ave divisions 
under which the human species is enumerated^ by the former^, wf 
mean the Caucasian, Mongul, Amoncan, Etluopian^ and- MMogi 
ave. only the white o^an, brown man,, red man, black man, an^ 
tawny man of the latter.** Whoever fe m tte least acqnaibl^d with 
Ae respeeli^ raterits ef Ae-two Ffofeasora oonfrontad idt thb p&s* 
sage^ will probablfi qot! Ue diapiacd: torbaUeva that the'aelebmtail 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



*IM *^ Sdifi^ M^W^^ikce. [Ate. 

author of so many original works, especially relative to the history 
of the human species, should' have condescended to commit pla- 

gaf km on a writer^ who, whatever merit his laborious works may 
r allowed to possess, cannot possibly lay claim to a single original 
idea relative to the subject .in4}uestioo. The feet isj that Blumen^ 
bach published his classification of the human species as early as 
1779, in the first edition of his Manual of Natural History; and 
afterwards (1781) in a new edition of his work De Generis Humani 
•Varittatc, &c. In 1788 the same division was adopted by Gmelin 
in his edition of LinnsBUs-s Systema Natur*, t. i. p. 23, seq. where, 
without mentioning tlie source from which he has derived them, 
he substitutes five names perfectly improper for designating the 
varieties of the human. species. — Stnim cuiqfue ! 
' * Believe me, my dear Sir, 

Your very obedient servant, 
BritUhMu$eum, June 94, 1815. Charliss KoNIG. 

Vll. OrikoceratUe in a Marble. 

(To t)r. Thomsoo.) 
JOEAR SIR, 

' Those of your readers who feel interested in Dr. Fleming's inge-: 
nlous paper on Orthoceratites will find in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions for 1757^ article 104rh', a valuable description of a shell of 
the same species, discovered iif a marble table at an inn in Ghent. 
If'he marble w^ of a coarse grain, and dusky brown cMour, inter- 
spersed with latreaks of white. It was 2 feet 4-^' inches long— a 
concamerated tube, of a slender conical figure, and consisted of G6 
partitions or concamerations, all filled with the stalactical matter of 
the marble. I am. Sir, yours, &c. 

Jberdeen, 1816. M. W. 

VIII. On the Extracfton of the Cube Roots of Binomials^ 
By Mr. Lockhart, 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 
SIR, 

The utility of a method for extracting the cube roots of binomials 
being well known to your algebraical correspondents, I am anxious 
that the one which I have given should, if correct, be established 
past all doubt. 

Your correspondent, Mr. Atkinson, supposes that I have made f^ 
inistake in respect of the root relating to L Let it be tried by the 
proper te$t of ap equation,' . ' '* \ 

a* - 262 a? sb 19V6 

Where a; ss 18, / ss 12, v » 6 

Tbeo --r / ss ^ 648 + /- 172800 + vT 648 - vf - 17280Q. 
- The cube root of the first number h ^ € ^f V *-* 48, not 
•• 6 — V — 48^ as coiYectedl>y IMBr. AtkintoQ. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



-|81i^.] Saen^ InttU^me, ISS 

Proof. 



- 6 

- 6 


+ 
+ 






^« 


48 
48 


96 
T- 48 


— 


12 V 


— 


48 


.- 12 

T 6 




»2 




-^ 


48 
48 


" 72 
576 


+ 


72 
12 


a/ 


-r 


48 
4? 



648 + a/ - 172800 

In irreducible equations, <* is always greater than -j- , therefore 

-J- — ^* would be a contradiction. When the equations are re- 
ducible, i is imaginary, and consequently has no magnitude, 
lam. Sir, your obedient servauti 

FUldHead^ JmeM* 161$« JaM£« LoCKHAEt. 

IX. Another Exploskn iff a CoalrMine near Newcastle. 

y/e are sorry it should so soon s^ain be our painful duty to have 
to record another of those melancholy accidents which have so fre- 
quently of late occurred in our coal-mines. On tlie morning of the 
27th uh. an explosion of inflammable air took place in the Isabella 
bit, at Sheriff*hill colliery, by which Mr. Fogget, viewer, Robert ^ 
Fogget, iinderviewer, Geo. Fogget, deputy .overman, John Scott, 
overman, Wm. Wind, Nich. Codling, Geo. Richardson, and Jas. 
Young, deputy overman ; also Geo. Wind and Hugh Barker, boys, 
were unfortunately Icilled. During the night of the 2(ith, a fall of 
the roof, accompanied by a feeder Qf water, took place ; the water 
passing into the dip workings, fiMed them up so as to obstruct the 
current of air, and an accumulation of the inflammable gas ensued. 
When Mr. Scott, the overman, went down the following morning, 
he observed that the ventilation of the mine was nearly suspended, 
and immediately stopped the pit's crew from going in to work until 
be could investigate the cause of the stagnation. This he effected 
in a short time, and restored tlie ventilation partially. He then 
sent to Mr. Fogget for his advice and assistance, who went down 
die pit without loss of time, accompanied by his two brothers, the 
parties above-named, and John Ledger, a boy. Had Mr. Scott 
not acted with this caution and judgment, it is more than likelf 
ifaat the lives of the whole of the crew would have been lost.— Mr. 
hogget, accompanied by John Scott and the other parties, theg 
*|Mrocee€fed into the workings, to make such a change in the ventila* 
jdoa as would reatore the pit to a safe working state again* While 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



: IM .^mmUl/k ^hMlig&m. [tats,. 

they were employed in this operation, the gas badced agdnst the 
current of atmospheric air, and exploded at the lights which were 

f laced to windward of th» foul part of fhe workings. Mn George 
^ogget being ill, was obliged ta leave his. two brothers and their 
companions before the accident happened/ and nearly reached the 
bottom of the pit, accompanied by Robl. Copeland, who was em* 
ployed in the rail-way, when they felt the snock of an explodon. 
They immediately returned, and had prdceeded to within 200 yards 
of the place where Geo. Fogget had left his brothers, when (>>pe- 
knd found it impracticable to fp further with safety, on account of 
the after-damp. He then advised Geo. Fogget to return with him 
to give the alarm ; but this he refused to do, and persisted in going 
in-dy to look after his brothers,, and James Young, his son-in*Uw. 
He unfortunately fell a victim to his exertions; he died of suflToca* 
tion, and his body was found lying beside those of his two brothers* 
John Liedger, the only survivor, was within 20 yards of the candles 
at which the gas fired, and saw it fire; he was slightly hurt, but, 
fiom the effect of the after-damp, hy about ten hours in a state of 
insensibility before he could be rescued from his perilous situation. 
The above accident forms another powerful reason of the necessity 
for the establishment of some general- and permanent fund for the 
xelief of the survivors of those who suffer in the ; 



X. Nkkel^AnHfnonerz, 

This new ore of nickel has been lately analyzed by Dr. John. 
lie found the constituents as. follows :— - 

Nickel '23-3S 

Antimony, with arsenic, and a trace > g|«gg 

. of iron - • J 

Sulphur 14-16 

Unknown body, probably lead or^ ^^ 
silver, with silica J 

100-00 
XI. New Ciarve. 

(^ Ht. Thofluon.) 
SIR, 

By pnseBtfaig ta the readers of the jkmals of PhUasopby' the 
.Mkiwing cw^ve, which 1 denoBaioate.&r.aita^iap, you will oblige 

M. N. 

Genesis ef ih» Cwn/e^-^lf one eslnemity> O; of the mdiw o£ a 
drcle he made to trace the oireuflafereme,. the othen esttemity,. V, 
iDo^iBg always in the iKr0OCio& of » given^poiirt,. F,' in the caiaifli- 
|bnHic(e^ Wilt describe a curve caMed m radiatmci 

Definitum^.'-l. Thediveetiag poiiitv F, is the jS)etf5.. 2. km 
Mrright>ltne', F P' op F F, dtawn from tKej focus: to^ any point ih 
the curve k a ck^rd: 3. 'Fhe^ chords F V and Fi¥*,> wbiei^ pass 
thibugh lh<r«intrd'ef the ebcb^ aiethe bamm ttfitaaUBrixm 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



4. The extremides, V and VV of the axios am the iniericr and €x- 
terwr vertices. 5. Tbeiii^Ie contamed by a chord and the axis it 
the wftfMrai mUmdim ot ^hm dionk 

OmUory L—Hm inieriar axis b eqwlto the nditti cf Ab 
cirotej MMlfce^teribraoBaiseqpnltothnce'thati^^ ^ 




t 



Cbrcrf. a.— If radius equal unity, wy JPtcrior chord, F P, k 
equivalent to. the difference betweep tb^ . interior wah and the 
rectangle under twice that axis, and the cosine of the vertical 
inclination of that chord. 

Carol. 3. — Any exterior chord i» eqaiindieiit to the i^Dt^rSsf ludf 
pbis or minus the same rectangle, according a? the.chdrd is greater 
or less than the interior axis. 

Corol. 4<-^If a tangent, 6 H, to the circle at the focus be 
limited by the curve at G and H, it is equal to twice the interior 
axis. 

Problem.-^Any obtuse angle, A B F, being given, tt trisect it 
by means .of the radiatrix. ^ 

Produce A B one of the sides of the angle, and upon the other 
side let a segment of a circle be described^ which shall contain an 
angle equal to the supplemental angle C B F : thfough Fa»a feeus, 
and the cwtre, V, as an interior vertex, let a radiatsia be described : 
through the point P, where the curve is cut by the diameter, draw 
F P D, join D fi and D V. The angle D B P is one-third part of 
A B F 

For since D V is equal to B V, the angle, V B B: isr oifaA to 
V B D, aad the exterior angle D V P to double of the interior 
angle D B P : and because DP is in the direction of the focus F, 
D P is equaLib the radius D V : therefore the angle D P V is equal 
to D V P; qr is double of V B D. Now the angle C B F being 
equal to B DP in the alternate segment, theangfea'DScF-knd 
D P B ar^ together equal to A B F : and coiisequeody the angle 
D B P is QH^-Miri/, arid D PB two-thirds, of A RF. 

CoroUaryjCT'The excess of 60° above one-third of A^F is one- 
third of dUDIupplemental acute angle C B F. 



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^13^ BekniifU TntelRgenOk {kcQ, 

Xli. Naiure of Patty Bod^. 

M. Henri Braconnot has lately made a carioitt aet o£ esperioients 
lipoa ,tl|e fatty bbdiea^: both smimal and vegetable* -He haa^shown 
that they all cdQsist of two distinct substaoces: I.. A liquid oil: 
2. A solid substance^ analogous to wax of tallow in its appearance 
and properties. He separated these two bodies from each other by 
a mechanical contrivance. Tlie oil is imbibed by paper, but not 
the wax. He therefore compressed the &tty body in the midst of a 
sufficient quantity of paper. The oil was absorbed, while the wax 
remained m a state of purity. Then by steeping the paper in hot 
water, the oil separated from it, and swam upon the surface of the 
liquid. The wax or tallow thus ' obtained from all the fatty bodies 
closely resembles myrtle wax in its properties. If the fotty body be 
liquid, it is necessary to congeal it, by exposure to cold, before sub- 
jecting it to pressure. 

The following are the results which Braconnot obtained from 
different fatty bodies. 

Vosges butter in summer is composed of 

Oil • 60 

Tallow .* ., 40 

100 
. ^t in printer ks <^(iBiposition was 

Oil.. S5 

Tallow iS5 

100 
Hog^s lard was composed of 

Oil 6^ 

TaUow 3^ 

100 
Ox marrow, of 

Tallow ;. . . 7S 

Oil ..,.. 24 

Too 

lifanow of sheep, of 

Tallow , 26 

Oil.... 74 

100 
Goode ht, of 

Oil........ % 68 

Tallow • ' ......52 

. » -J ■— i. 

100 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



181S.] Sdenttfic JbUetligence. Uf 

Duck fat, of 

Oil i 72 

Tallow •.... 28 

Turkey M, of * 

Oil.:....; .;..;.. 74 . ! 

Tallow ..;: 2G 

100 
Olive oil, of 

Greenish yellow oil •.•.«.•.••••; 7^, 

Tallow (very white) :....... ....SS'. 

100 
Oil of sweet almonds^ of 

Yellowoil 76 

Tallow .24 

100 
Oil of coka, of 

Yellowoil 54 

Tallow .46. 

1 00 
(See Aimales de Chimie^ March> 1815.) 

XIII. Occident which happened to M. VanqtteUn. 

M. Vauquelin, wishing to examine the properties of chloric acid 
lately discovered by M. Gay^Lussac, prepai^d a quantity of it 
according to the process of Mr. Chenevix. This process consists in 
saturating barytes with chloric acid, and evaporating to dryness. 
The salioe mass b mixed with phosphate of silver, and boiled in 
water acidulated with acetic acid. Nothing remains in solution but 
chlorate of barytes, which is easily obtained in crystals. Vauquelin 
put 30 grains of these crystals into a platinum crucible, and ex- 
posed them to heat, in order to ascertain the quantity of oxygen gas 
which they contained. A violent detonation took place, and the 
crucible was broken and torn in a remarkable manner. Vauquelin 
found that these crystals were not pure chlorate of barytes. They 
contained likewise a mixtuf e of acetate of barytes. To this salt the 
combustion was owing. Hence Chenevix's method of preparing 
jdils salt does not answer. 



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JCIt ' Jjbe^ 2^/tfffte [AM. 



AntrCLE XII. 

List of Patents^ 

T0OMA8 Parrs, Batchworth Mills, Rickmattwrortjhy in the 
coun^ of Herts ; for oombining^ and applying principi^s alieady 
known for ^he purpose of producing pure fresh warm air, and of 
such mode or means of combination and application of principles 
already known to such purooses as aforesaid. March 14, 1815. 

Jonathan RiDGWAY, Manchester; for a methodof (tasti^Md 
fixing at the ^same time metallic types on the surface of metallic 
cylinders or metallic rollers ; or any cylinders or toilers having me- 
tallic surfaces j or on blocks of metal ; or on blocks having metallic 
surfaces; «r pn flat metallic plates; for the purpose of printing 
patterns on cloth made of cotton or.liaenj ^ bc^h, Afltfch 14, 
1815. 

William Bbll, Edinburgh; for certain improvements in the 
apparatus for manuscripts 6r other writings or designs. March 14, 
1815. 

Henry Houldsworth, Anderton, near Glaigow^ ^r a^me* 
thod of discharging the air and condensed steam Arom jpipes used 
for the conveyance of steam, for the purposes of lieating J)uilding$, 
or other places. March 18, 1815. 

Charlj^ Gent, Congleton, Chester, and Suuarb Clark ; for 
fi method of making a swift, «nd other apparatus thereto hetoDg^g, 
for the purpose of winding silks. March 21, 18 15* 

RicHARi> Sjf n;p, Tibbington House, JStafibsdshire; for im- 
prov.epients in smelting iron* stpne or iron ore, lead or coppmr lore, 
and ' other mineral or metallic substances ; also of ^fining qnudft 
iron^ lead, copper, gold, silver, tin, and all other metals or me-* 
tallic bodies ; and of making and m^ufacturi^g iron« March 2Q9 
1815.,. 

TqOMAIS Ba«ot, Birmingham ; for a method and mc^chiue foe 
passing boats, barges, and other vessels from a higher 10 a lower 
level) and the contrary, without loss of water* April 4, 18J5. 

WlLlOAM Vaughan Palmer, Ilminster^ Somersetshire ; for a 
ipethod of twisting and laying of hemp, flax, rqpesj twine, line^ 
thread, ODK)hair, wool, cotton, silk, and metal^ by machineqrj 
whereby considerable saving of manual labour is e£bcted. April 
4, 1815- 

. Wlluam I418K, Point Pleasant^ Northumberlimd ; for a pten 
for fire-places or furnaces for heating ovens and boilers^ and ^ 
water of other liquids contained in boilers, and for converting such 
water or other liquids into steam, for the purpose of working en-- 
gines, and for other uses in manufactures. April 8, 1815. 

Joshua Shaw, Mary-street, Fitzroy-square, London; for cer- 
tain improvements in the tool or instrument called the. ghizier's 
diamond. April 14^ 1815. 



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ims,] 



M«teeraiog^^M4e, 



m 



A&TICUE XIII, 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE. 







Baromstbr. 


Thbrmomster, 




-.~ 


1815. 


MTind. 


Max; 


Min. 


Med. 


Max. 


Min. 


Med. 


Evap. 


lUio, 




5tIrMo. 


















"^"""^ 


MajSl 
£th Mo 


s w 


29-90 


29*75 


29-825 


72 


54 


6S-0 




--• 


C 


Jiiiiel 


N £ 


30O3 


29-80 


29^91 5 


70 


38 


540 


. 






2 


N y/ 


30-03 


29*93 


29980 


72 


55 


63-5 




*ftt 




a 


w 


29.93 


29-83 


29-880 


69 


56 


625 




11 




4 


w . 


29-83 


29*55 


29-690 


73 


54 


63-5 






. ■ 


5 


s w 


29-55 


29-41 


29-480 


71 


47 


59-0 








6 


s *w 


29-46 


29-33 


29-395 


68 


45 


56-5 


''^ 


•28 


i 


7 




29'62 


29-33 


29-475 


72 


42 


57-0 









a 


M 


29-77 


29'6i 


^9-695 


72 


46 


59-0 




«w 


vx 


9 


29-78 


29*77 


29-775 


73 


42 


57-5 








10 


N W 


29-78 


29-74 


29760 


72 


45 


5S*5 






^ 


11 


s w 


29-73 


29*67 


29-700 


76 


41 


58-5 




1 




12 


s 


29-67 


29*43 


29-550 


68 


43 


55-5 








18 


Var. 


29-43 


29-21 


29-320 


67 


50 


58-5 


•JO 


•80 




14 


W 


29-42 


29-21 


29-315 


6s 


45 


5&5 







]) 


15 


s w 


29*79 


29-42 


29-605 


70 


45 


57-5 


; 


^ 




16 


£ 


29-79 


29-50 


29-645 


SO 


55 


67-5 




*23 




17 


S w 


29-53 


29-46 


29-495 


76 


54 


65-0 




^ 


( 


18 


S W 


29-63 


29-55 


29-590 


74. 


51' 


62-5 






I 


19 


S 


29*63 


29-59 


29'6}0 


7S 


55 


640 








20 


N 


29-68 


29-57 


29-625 


74. 


46 


60-0 








21 


S W 


29-81 


29-68 


29-745 


73 


50 


61-5 


'4S 







29 


N % 


29^6 


29-81 


29*835 


74* 


44 


59 




4 




23 


N B 


^9'96 


29-86 


29-910 


71 


52 


6l-5 








24 


N 


W96 


29-86 


29-910 


74. 


55 


64-5 




8 




25 
26 


N E 


30-01 


29-86' 


29'935 


67 


40 


53-5 








27 


W 


30-08 


2998 


30-03O 


75 


44 


59-5 








28 


W 


30-17 
30-17 


3008 


30-123 


79 


49 


640 


•SO 






29'21 


29-708 


80 


38 


60-10 


173 


1-85 



. ''** 5''"»W«««s 'J> each line of the table apply to »«eri«d •tUmtntrJimt 
deooto, that the roolt i. ioclnded in the next foUowlDg oU«rrMi^.(^^ 



}fiO Metmohgkat Journal. [Aug. 1815» 

REMARKS. 

Sixth Month. — A. Cloudy : windy. 5, 6. Windy, with Cumu-' 
lostratus and CArrocumulus : sfaowcnrs. 7* Heavy clouds: and at 
noon a sound like distant thunder in the N. E. : towards evening 
the dense clouds dispersed, leaving Cirri at a great elevation, and a 
most beautiful Cirrostratmy grain^id like wood, in the N. W. : 
hygrometer (De Luc*s) 30^ to 35°. 8. A grey sky, with Cirromi^ 
mtilus, &c. which formed heavy CumulostratuSy threatening 
thunder: but a few drops of.x^ falling, the whole dispersed^ 
save some Chrostratus. 9. CirrocumidiiSy with Cirroslratus : a 
fine day : much dew at liight, with 5° difierence in the thermo- 
ij^ters. 10. A very fine day : in the course of which the hygra- 
ifiecier went to 24^. 11. a.m. Clouds and wind, followed by a 
shower, p. m. 12. Overcast: hygrometer, at 8 a.m. 62?) at 9, 
55* : clouds from S. E., the wind being N. W. : a little rain : the 
evening obscure, with Cirrus hnd Cirrosiratus hanging very low. 
13. Cloudy morning : showers: after which large Cumuli^ capped 
and followed by Nimbi : from one to two, J>. m. heavy rain, the 
wind going from S. E. by S. tp N. E, then back to S. W. : some 
thunder followed, and a fine afternoon, but the drrostratus re* 
mained at night. 14. Wet morning : hygr. at 8, ^2^ ; at 9, 50° : 
after some showers, a fine afternoon. 15. Hygr. at 9, 55°: 
showers and wind : fair, p. m. 16. Hygr. at 9, 89° : a fine day : 
Cirrus : a corona round the moon. 17* Hygr. 71°: wet morning,, 
and rain in the night: a slight shower, p.m. 18. Hygr. 52*: 
rain in the night : rather cloudy. 19. Hygr. 43° : a pretty fine 
day. 20. Hygr. 40°^: rather a dull day. 21. Hygr. 55®: 
pleasant : not very sunny : about one, p. m. a clap of thunder, and 
a few large drops of rain. 22. Hygr. 49°: a dull cloudy morning: 
a little rain, p. m. 23. Hygr. 44° : morning cloudy : pretty high 
wind,- 24. Hygr. 38°: morning very dull : about 12, cleared up, 
and the sun shone very hot : p. m. cloudy again. 25. Rain in the 
night: p. m. sunshine at intervals. 26, 27, 28. Very fine daysi, 
bygr. 46** to 52°. 

RESULTS. 

Winds Variable. 

Barometer: Greatest height 30*17 inches 

I^ast.... ,. 29-21 

Mean of the period 29*708 

Thermometer: Greatest height 80° 

♦ Least 38 

' Mean of the period .... 60*10 

Evaporation, 1*83 inch. Rain, 1*75 inch. 

«^ 

•«• The observations from the 16th inclusive to the end were made, in my 
aj^sence from home, by my son, Robert Howard. 

TdrrBNHAM, L. HOWARDw 

Seventh Month, 10, 1815, 

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ANNALS 



OF 



PHIXOSOPHY- 



SEPTEMBER, 1815. 



Article L 



Biographical Accotmt of M. Pctrmentier. By M. Cuvier^ 
Secretary of the Institute. 

Jl HE sciences have made that degree of progress as no longer to 
excite such astonishment at the great efforts which they suppose^ 
and the striking truths which they bring to light, as at the immense 
advantages which their application daily produces to society. There 
is not one at present in which the discovery of a single proposition 
may not enrich a whole people^ and change the face of states ; and 
this influence, far from diminishing, must daily increase, because 
it is easy to prove that it depends upon the nature of things. 

Allow me to make some reflections on this subject, which cannot 
be misplaced, either in this hpuse or before this assembly.* 

Hunger and cold are the two great enemies of our species. The 
object of all our hearts is either directly or indirectly to combat 
them. 

This is accomplished by the combination and the disengagement 
of two or three elementary substances. 

To nourish ourselves is nothing else than to replace the parcels of 
carbon and hydrogen which respiration and transpiration carry ofil 
To warm ourselves is to retard th^ di^ipation of the heat which 
respiration furnishes. 

To one or other of these functions are devoted both the palace 
and the cottage ; both the brown bread of the poor, and the ex- 
pensive food of the glutton ; both the purple of kings, and the 
tatters of beggars. Consequently architecture anJ the libejral arts, 

* This Ulogt wai read to the French Institute. 

Yr^' vr N° JUL lb 

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1st Biographical Account of [Sept. 

agrictrltore and manufactures^ navigation, commerce^ even the 
greater number of wars, and that great developement of courage 
and genius, that great apparatus of exertion and knowledge which 
they require, have nothing else for their final object than two 
aimpfe chemical operations. Copsequeotly the smallest new fact 
respecting the laws of nature in these two operations may reduce the 
public and private expenses, may change the tactics and direction 
of commerce, may transfer the power of one people to another, and 
may ultimately alter the fundamental relations of the classes of 
aocietjr. 

This carbon and this- hydrogen, which we consume, without 
ceasing, in our fires, in our clothes, in our food, are continually 
leproduced for a new ccmsumption by vegetables which obtain them 
from the atmosphere and from water. Vegetation itself is fixed by 
the extent of the soil, by the species of vegetables cultivated, and 
by the proportion of wood, of meadows and corn-fields. It would 
be vain, therefore, for the most paternal government to increase the 
population of its territories beyond a certain limit. All i^s cares 
would be inefficacious, unless science came to its assistance. But 
let a philosopher coptrive a fire-place which saves a portion of the 
fuel. This is exactly the same thing as if he had added to the 
quantity of our territory planted with wood. Let a botanist point 
out a plant which in the same ^ce furnishes more nourishment. 
This is the same thing as if he had in the same proportion aug- 
mented our cultivated fields. Immediately there, will be room in 
the country for a greater number of active men. 

Happy conquests which occasion no efiiision of blood, and which 
repair the disasters of vulgar conquests ! Yes ! how paradoxical 
soever it may appear, it is owing essentially to the progress of the 
sciences that society does not sink under the effects of its own fury. 

Without chemistry, what would have become of all our manu- 
factures when we were shut out from the places which furnished the 
raw materials ? Has not vaccination preserved those children des- 
tined shortly to replace those that have been cut off by war ? And 
to confine ourselves solely to the labours of Parmentier and Count 
Rumford, it it not evident to all the world that the perseverance 
with which the former encouraged the culture of potatoes^ has ren- 
dered whole countries, formerly sterile, fertile and inhabitable, and 
has twice saved us wtthin 20 years from the horrors of famine ; that 
the discoveries of the other on the best method of employing com- 
bustibles have counterbalanced the devastation of our forests, and 
that, applied to the preparation of food, they support even at this 
moment, A'om <me end of Europe to the other, an infinite nuoiber 
of unfortunate persons. 

Let any person reflect for a moment on the efiect of a small im- 
provement applied to so great a scale, and he will see that it must 
be calculated by hundreds of millons. 

If I could bring before you those fathers of families who no 
longer hear around them the melancholy cries of want ; those mo- 

^ , Digitized by ^OOQIC 



1815.] M. Pannentier. 1«3 

thers who have recovered that milk of which misery was dryinj^ up 
the source ; those children who no longer perish in their first year% 
withering like flowers in spring ^ — ^if I could inform them to whon^ 
they are indebted for these alleviations of their misfortunes^ their 
cries of gratitude would render it- unnecessary for me to speak; 
there is not one of you who would not willingly exchange his finest 
discovery for such a concert of blessings. 

You will listen therefore witii some interest to the details of the 
life of this useful man — this is a tribute which you will pay to those 
labours which the progressive state of civilization requires the most 
imperiously. 

Antoine Augustin Parmentier was born at Montdidier in 17^7^ 
of a family established for many years in that city^ the chief offices 
in the magistry of which it had filled. 

The premature death of his father^ and the small fortune which 
he left to a widow and three young children, confined the first 
education of M. Parmentier to some notions of Latin, which his 
mother gave him—- a woman of abilities, and better informed than 
mostvof her rank. 

An honest ecclesiastic undertook to develope these firsik germs, on 
the supposition that this young man might become a precious subt- 
ject for religion ; but the necessity of supporting his family obligied 
him to choose a situation which would offer more speedy resouroes. 
He was therefore under the necessity of interrupting his studies; 
and his laborious life never allowed him to resume them again comr 
pletely. This is the reason why^ his works, so imponant for their 
utility, have not alwuys that order and precision which learning and 
long practice alone can giv^ to a writer. 

In 1755 he was bound apprentice to an apothecary of Montdidier, 
and next year came to continue it with one of his rektions, who 
exercised the same profession in Paris. Having shown intelligence 
and industiy, he was emplpyed in 1757 as apothecary in the hos- 
pitak of the army of Hanover. The late M . Bayen, one of the 
most distinguished members whom that Class ever possessed, pre* 
sided then over that part of the science. It is well known that he 
was no less estimable for the elevation of his character than for his 
talents. He obsen^ed the dispositions and the regular conduct of 
young Parmentier, contracted an acquaintance with him, and in- 
troduced him to M. Chamousset, Intendant General of the Hos- 
pitals, rendered so celebrated by his active benevolence, and to 
whom Paris and France are. indebted for so many useful establish- 
mentsm 

It was in the conversation of these two excellent men that M. 
Parmecitier imbibed the notions and sentiments which produced 
afterwards all his labours. He learned two things, equally unknown 
to those, whose duty it was to have been acquainted with them : the 
extent and variety of misery from which it would be possible to free 
the common people, if we were serio^dy to occupy ourselves witU 

t 2 



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IW Biographical Account of (Sett, 

their happiness ; and the number and power of the resources which 
nature would ofier against so many scourges^ if we were at the 
trouble to extend and encourage the study of them. 

Chemical knowledge, which originated in Germany, was at that 
time more general iu that country than in France. More applica- 
tions of it had been made. The many petty sovereigns who divided 
that country had paid particular attention to the amelioration of 
their dominions ; and the chemist, the agriculturist^ the friend of 
useful arts, met equally wjth facts before unknown to them. 

M. Parmentier, stimulated by his virtuous masters, took advan- 
tage of these sources of instruction with ardour. When his service 
brought him to any town^ he visited the manufactures least known 
in France ; he requested of the apothecaries leave to work in their 
laboratories, tn the country he observed the practice of the far- 
mers. He not^ down the interesting objects which struck him in 
his marches along with the troops. Nor did he want opportunities 
of seeing all varieties of things; for he was five times taken pri- 
soner, and transported to places whither his generals would not have 
carried him. He learned then by his own experience how far the 
horrors of need might go, a piece of information necessary perhaps 
to kindle in him in all its vigour that glowing fire of humanity 
which burnt in him during the whole of his long life. 

But before making use of the knowledge which he had acquired, 
and attempting to ameliorate the lot of the common people, it was 
necessary to endeavour to render his own situation less precarious. 

He returned then at the peace of 17^3 to the capital, and re- 
sumed in a more scientific manner the studies belonging to his art. 
The lectures of Nollet, Rouelle and d'Antpine, and of Bernard de 
Jussieu, extended his ideas, and assisted him In arranging them. 
He obtained extensive and solid knowledge in all the physical 
sciences : and the place of lower apothecary being- vacant at the 
Invalides in \7QSj he obtained it^ after an examination obstinately 
disputed. ' 

His maintenance was thus secured, and his situation soon became 
sufficiently comfortable. The administration of the house seeing 
that his conduct justified his success, induced the King in )772 to 
make him Apothecary in Chi&f ; a recompense which an unforeseen 
accident rendered more complete than had been intended, or than 
he had expected. 

The pharmacy of the Invalides had been directed from its first 
establishment by the Sceurs de Charitf. These good women, who 
"had made a great deal of young Parmentier while he was only their 
boy, took it ill that he should be put upon a level with them. They 
made so much noise, and put in motion such powerful interest, 
that the King himself was obliged to draw back ; and after two 
years of controversy, he made the singular decision that Parmentier. 
should continue to enjoy the advantages of his place; but should no 
longer f\ilfil its functions. 



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ISlo.] M. PiXTmeniier. IBS 

This enabled him to devote the whole of his time to his zeal (ot 
researches of general utility. From that moment he never inter- 
rupted them. 

The first opportunity of publishing some results respecting his 
.favourite subject had been given him in 1771 by the Academy of 
Besan^n^ The scarcity in 1769 had drawn the attention of the 
administration and of philosophers towards vegetables which might 
supply the place of corn, and the Academy had made the history of 
them the subject of a prize^ which Parmentier gained. He endea- 
voured to prove in his dissertation that the most useful nourishing 
substance in yegetableis is s?arch^ and he showed how it might be 
extracted fifom the roots and seeds of different indigenous plants, 
and how deprived of the acrid and poisonous principles Which alter 
it in some plants. He pointed out likewise the mixtures which 
would assist in converting this starch into good breads or at least 
into a kind of biscuit fit for being eaten in soup.^ 

There is no doubt that in certain cases some advantage may be 
derived from the methods which he proposes ; but as mo^ of the 
plants pointed out are wild^ seanty, and would cost more than the 
dearest corn, absolute famine is the only thing that could Induce 
mankind to make use of them. Parmentier easily perceived that it 
was better to turn the attention of cultivators to such plants as 
would render a famine, or even a scarcity, impossible. He there- 
fore recommended the potatoe with all his might, and opposed with 
constancy the prejudices which opposed themselves to the propaga- 
tion of this important root. 

Most botanists, and Parmentier himself, have stated on the autho** 
rity of Caspar Bauhin that the potatoe was brought from Virginia 
about the end of the sixteenth century ; and they usually ascribe to 
the celebrated and unfortunate Ralegh the honour of having first 
brought it to Europe. I think it more probable that it was brought 
from Peru by the Spaniards. Ralegh only went to Virginia in the 
year 1586 ; and we may conclude, from tbe^ testimony of Cluvius, 
that in 1587 the potatoe was common in different parts of Italy^ 
and that it was already given to cattle in that country. This sup- 
poses at least several years of cultivation. This vegetable was 
pointed out about the end of the sixteenth century by several 
Spanish writers, as cultivated in the environs of Quito, where it 
was called papoi, and where different kinds of dishes were prepared 
frona itt and, what seems decisive, Banister and Clayton, who have 
investigated the indigenous plants of Virginia with great care^ do 
not reckon the potato^ among the number ; and Banister mentions 
eipressly that he had for 12 years sought in vain for that pknt \ f 



• The memoir which gained the prize on this question ; In^igaer les Vegetaux 

2ai poorroient supplier en Temps de Disette k ceax qu^on employe commun^mex^t 
ia Nonfriture des Hommes. Paris, Knapen, 1779, ia iJSmo. 
t MoriioD, Hist, Plant. JSxet. iii. 522. 



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166 Biographical Account of [iSiSFT. 

while DombeV' focind it in a; wild state on all the Cordillieras^ where 
the Indians still apply it to the same purposes as at the time of the 
original discovery. 

The mistake may have been owing to this circumstance, that 
Virginia produces several other tuberose plants^ which from imper- 
fect descriptions may have been confounded with the potatoe. 
Bauhin^ for example^ took for the potatoe the plant called openawk 
by Thomas Harriot. , There are likewise in Yiiginia ordinary pota^^ 
toes ; but the anonymous -author of the history of that country says^ 
that they have nothing in Qomm(»i with the potatoe of Ireland and 
England, which is our pomme de terre. 

Be this as it ikiay, that admirable vegetable , was received in a 
veiy different manner by the nations of Europe. The Irish seem to 
have taken advantage of them first; for at an early period we find 
the plant distinguished by the name of Irish potatoe. But in France 
they were at first proscribed^ fiauhm states that in his time the use 
of them had been prohibited in Burgundy, because it was supposed 
that they produced the leprosy. 

* It is difficult to believe that a plant so innocent, so agreeable, so 
productive, which requires so little trouble to be rendered fit for 
food ; that a root so well defended against the intemperance of the 
seasons; that a plant which by a singular privilege unites in itself 
every advantage, without any other inconvenience than that of not 
lasting all the year, but which even owes to this circumstance the 
additional advantage that it cannot be hoarded up by monopolists-— 
that such a plant should have required two centuries in order to 
overcome the most puerile prejudices. 

Yet we ourselves have been witnesses of the fact. The English 
brought the potatoe into Flanders during^the wars of Loiiis XlV. 
It was thence spread, but very sparingly, over some parts of France. 
Switzerland had put a higher value on it, and had found it very 
good. Several of our southern provinces had planted it in imita* 
tion of that country at the period of the scarcities, which were 
several times repeated during the last years of Louis XV. Tuigot 
in particular rendered it common in the Limousin and the Angou« 
xnois, over which he was Intendant; and it was to be expected that 
in a short time this new branch of subsistence would be spread ov^r 
the kingdom, when some old physicians renewed against it the pre- 
judices of the sixteenth century. 

It was no longer aecused of producing leprosy, but fevers. The 
scarcities had produced in the south certain, epidemics, which they 
thought proper to ascribe to the sole means which existed to prevent 
them. The Comptroller General was obliged in 1771 to request 
the opinion of the faculty of medicine, in order to put an end to 
these false notions. 

^ Parmehtier, who had learned to appreciate the potatoe in the 
prisons of Germany, where he had been often confined, to that 
food, seconded the views of the Minister by a chemical examination 

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181S.] M. Parmeniier. 167 

<2f. this root^"*" in which he demonstrated that stone of its consti*- 
tuents are hurtfuK He did better still. To give the people « 
relish for them, he cultivated tliem in the open fields, in places very 
much frequented. He guarded them carefully during the day only; 
and was happy when he had excited as much curiosity as to induce 
people to steal some of them during the night. He would havp 
wished that the King, as we read of the Emperors of China, had 
traced the first furiow of his field. His Majesty thought proper ttt 
least to wear a bunch of potatoe flowers at his button^hoie m the 
midst of the Court on a festival day. Nothing mor^ was wanting 
to induce several great Lords to plant this root. 

Parmentier wished likewise to engage the cooks of the great in 
the service of the poor, by inducing them to practise their skill oa 
the potatoe ; for be was aware that the poor could not obtain pota- 
toes in abundance unless they could furnish the rich with an agree- 
able article of food. He informs us that he one day gave a dinner 
composed entirely of potatoes, with 20 difierent sauees^ all of which 
gratified the palates of his guests. 

But the enemies of the potatoe, though refuted in their attempts 
to prove it injurious to the health, did not consider themselves as 
vanquished. They pretended, that it injured the fields, and ren* 
4ered them barren. It was not at all likely that a plant which is 
capable of nourisliing a greater number of cattle, and multiplying 
the manure, should injure the soil. It was necessary, however, to 
answer this objection, and to consider tfie potatoe in an agricultural 
point of view. Parmentier accordingly published in different forms 
everything regarding its cultivation apduse^, ei^en in fertilizing the 
soil. He introduced the subject into philosophical woilcs, into 
popular instructions, into journals, into dictionaries, into works of 
all kinds. During 40 years he let slip no opportunity of recom- 
mending it. Every bad year was a kind of auxiliary, of which he 
profited with care to draw the attention of mankind to his favpurite 
plant. 

Hetice the name of this isalutary vegetable and his own have be- 
come almost inseparable in the memory of the friends of humanity. 
.Even the common people united them, and not always with grati* 
tude. At a certain period of the Revdiution it was proposed to 
give Parmentier some municipal place. One of the voters opposed 
this proposal with fury : <' He will make us eat potatoe$,'^ said he^ 
<^ it was he who invented them." 

But Parmentier did not ask the suffrages of the people. He 
knew well that it was always a duty to serve them. iSut he knew 
equally that as long as their education remained what it is, it was a 
duty likewise not to consult them. He had no doubt that at length 
the advantage of his plans would be appreciated. And one of the 



• Examen Chmique de Pomoet de Tcrre, &c. Parit, Didot, 17T3; and Ou?. 
rage Economique stir les Pommes dt Tcrre. U Monory, 1774, Both are Uie 
(edition, with different titles. 

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168 Biographical Account of [Sept. 

fortunate things attending his old age was to see the almost com- 
plete success of his perseverance. ** The potatoe has now only 
friends/' he wrote in one of his last works^ ^^ even in those cantons 
from which the spirit of system and contention seemed anxious to 
banish it for even 

But Parmentier was not one of those persons who occupy them- 
selves exclusively with one idea. The advantages which he had 
perceived in the potatoe did not make him neglect those offered by 
other vegetables. 

Maize, the plant which, next to the potatoe, gives the most eco- 
nomical food, sis likewise a present of the New World, although in 
some places it is still obstinately called Turkey corn. It was the 
principal food of the Americans when the Spaniards visited their 
coasts. It was brought to Europe much earlier than the potatoe ; 
for Fuchs describes it, and gives a drawing of it, in 1543. It was 
likewise spread more quickly; and by giving to Italy, and our 
southern provinces, a new and abundant article of food, it has 
greatly contributed to enrich them, and to increase their popu- 
lation. 

Parmentier, therefore, in order to encourage its culture, had need 
only to. explain, as he does in a very complete manner, the precau- 
tions which its cultivation requires, and the numerous uses to which 
it may be applied. He wished to exclude buck wheat, which is so 
inferior, from the few cantons where it is still cultivated. 

The acorn, which they say nourished our ancestors before they 
were acquainted with corn, is still very useful in some of our pro- 
idnces,. chiefly about the centre of the kingdom. M. Daine, In- 
tendant of Limoges, induced Parmentier to examine whether it was 
not possible to make from it an eatable bread, and capable of being' 
kept. His experiments were unsuccessful ; but they occasioned a 
complete treatise on the acorn, and on the diffefent preparations of 
its food. 

Corn itself was an object of long study with him ; and perhaps 
he has not been of less service in explaining the best methods of 
grinding and baking, than in spreading the cultivation of potatoes. 
Chemical analysis having informed him that bran contains no 
nourishment proper for man, he concluded that it was advantageous 
to exclude it from bread. He deduced from this the. advantages of 
an economical method of grinding, which, by subjecting the grain 
repeatedly to the mill and the sieve, detaches from the bran even 
the minutest particles of flour ; and he proved likewise that it fur- 
nished, at a lower price, a white, agreeable, and more nutritive 
bread. Ignorance had so misunderstood the advantages of this 
method, that laws had long existed to prevent it, and that the most 
precious part of the grain was given to the cattle along with the 
bran. 

Parmentier studied with care every thing relating to bread ; and 
because books would have been of little service to millers and 
bakers, people who scarcely read any, he induced Government to 

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1815.] M. Parmentier^ 169 

establish ailchool of Baking, firom which the pupils would speedily 
carry into the provinces all the good practices. He went himself to 
Britanny and Languedoc, with M. Cadet-Devaux^ in order to pro- 
pagate his doctrine. 

He caused the greatest part of the bran which was mixed with 
the bread of the soldiers to be withdrawn ; and by procuring them 
a more healthy and agrecQble article of food, he put an end to a 
multitude of abuses of which this mixture was the source. 

Skilful men have calculated that the progress of knowledge ia 
our days relative to grinding and baking has been such, that ab- 
stracting from the other vegetables which may be substituted for 
corn, the quantity of corn necessary for the food of an individual 
may be reduced more than a third. As it is chiefly to Parmentier 
that the almost general adoption of these new processes is owing^ 
this calculation establishes his services better than a thousand pane- 
gyrics. 

Filled with a kind of enthusiasm for arts which he appreciated 
according to their utility, Parmentier would have wished to have 
regulated by that basis alone the consideration and circumstances of 
those who exercised them. He laments particularly the condition 
of the baker, whose labours are so severe, whose industry is sub- 
jected to regulations often vexatious, and who never fails to become 
one of the first objects of the fury of the people on the least appear- 
ance of scarcity. His good heart made him forget that this is precisely 
one of the conditions of the existence of a great society, that the 
trades necessary for life should be brought to such a degree of sim- 
plicity, that.no long time nor much money is necessary to learn 
them, and that . of course those who practise them cannot demand 
great salaries. .No nation could exist if the labourer pretended to 
require the same treatment as the physician, or the baker as the 
astronomer. Besides, it does not appear that the proportion of 
recompence is so much to the disadvantage of tlie mechanics; for 
we see many more of them make fortunes than of philosophers or 
artists. 

Ardent as Parmentier was for the public utility, it was to be 
expected that he would interest himself much in the efforts occa- 
sioned by the last war to supply exotic luxuries. It was he that 
brought the syrup of grapes to the greatest perfection. This prepa- 
ration, which may be ridiculed by those who wish to assimilate it to 
sugar, has notwithstanding reduced the consumption of sugar many 
thousand quintals, and has produced immense savings in our hos- 
pitals, of which the poor have reaped the advantage, has given a new 
value to our vines at a time when the war and the taxes made them 
be pulled up in many places, iand will not remain less useful for 
many purposes, even if sugar should ever again fell in this country 
to its old price. 

These labours, purely agricultural or economical, did not induce 
Parmentier to neglect those more immediately conne9ted with hia 



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l7C^ Biographical Account of [Sbmv 

original proC^'sion. .He had published ib 177*^ a translation, with 
iK>tes, of Model's Physical Recreations, a work in which the phar- 
iDaceutical preparations occupy a greater space than the other parts 
of the natural sciences : add in 177^ he published an edition of the 
, Hydraulic Chemistry of Lagaraze, which is scarcely any thing else 
than a collection of receipts to obtain the principles of medicinal 
substances without altering them too much by fire. Probably he 
would not have remained a stranger to the great pn^ress which 
chemistry made at this period, had not the disputes^ of which we 
have given an account, deprived him of the laboratory of the Inva- 
lids. We may say likewise that his chemical examination of milk 
and of the blood, along with our associate M. Deyeux, constitute 
models of the application of chemistry to organized bodies and their 
modifications. 

In the first of these works the authors compare with woman's 
milk that of the domestic animals which we chiefly employ ; and in 
the second they examine the alterations produced in the blood by 
inflammatory, putrid^ and scorbutic diseases — alterations often 
scarcely sensible, and far from explaining the disorders which they 
occasion, or at least which they accompany. 

We have seen above how Parmentier, being by pretty singular 
accidents deprived of the active superintendance of the Invalids, 
had been stopped in the natural line of his advancertient* He had 
too much merit to allow this injustice to continue long. Govern- 
ment employed him in different circumstances as a military apothe- 
cary; and when in 1788 a consulting council of physicians and 
surgeons was organized for the army, the Minister wished to place 
him there as apothecary ; but Bayen was then alive, and Parmentier 
was the first to represent that b6 could not take his seat above his 
master. He was therefore named assistant to Bayen. This insti- 
tution, like many others, was suppressed during the period of revo^ 
lutionary anarchy, an epoch during which even medical subordma- 
tioi^ was rejected. But necessity obliged them soon to re-establish 
it under the names of Commission and Council of Health for the 
Armies \ and Parmentier, whom the reign of terror ba(d for a time 
driven from Paris, was spieedily placed in it. 

He showed in this situation the same zeal as in all others j and 
the hospitals of the army were prodigiously indebted to his care* 
He neglected nothing — instructions, repeated orders to his inferiors, 
pressing splicitations to men in authority. We have seen him within 
these few years deploring the absolute neglect in which a Govern- 
ment, occupied in conquering, and not in preserving, left the 
asylums of the victims of war. 

We ought to bear the most striking testimony of the cares which 
he took of the young persons employed under his orders, the friendly 
.manner in which he received them, encouraged them, and rewarded 
them. His protection extended to them at what distance soever 
they were carried 3 and we know more than one who was indebted 

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1815.] M. Parmentier. 171 

for his life in far distant climates to the provident recommendations 
of this paternal chief. 

But his activity was not restricted to the duties of his place ; 
every thing, which could be useful occupied his attention. 

When the steam-engineB were established, he satisfied the public 
of the salubrity of, the waters of the Seine* More lately he occu- 
pied himself with ardour in the establishment of economical soups. 
He contributed materially to the propagation of vaccination. It 
was he chiefly who introduced into the central pharmacy of the 
•hospitals at Paris the excellent order which reigns there ; and he 
drew up the pharmaceutic code according to which they are di- 
rected. He watched over the great baking establishment at Scipion, 
where all the bread of the hospitals is made. The Hospice des 
Menages was under his particular care; and he bestowed the most 
minute attention on all that could alleviate the lot of @00 old per- 
sons of both sexes, of which it is composed. 

At a period when people might labour much, and perform great 
services^ without receiving any recompense, wherever men united 
to do good^ he appeared foremost; and you might depend upon 
being able to dispose of his time^ of his pen^ and, if occasion 
served, of his fortune. 

This continual habit of occupying, himself for the good of man- 
kind, had evei/ affected hii external air. Benevolence seemed to 
appear in him personified. His person was tall; and remained 
erect to tlue end of his life; his figure. was full of amenity; his 
visage was at once noble and gentle ; his hair was white as the 
snow — all these seemed to render this respectable old man the 
image of goodness and of virtue. His physiology was pleasing, 
particularly from that appearance of happiness produced by the 
good which he did, and which was so much the more entitled to be 
happy that a man who without high birth, without fortune, without 
great places, without any remarkable genius, but by the sole per- 
severance of the love of goodness, has perhaps contributed as much 
to the happiness of his race as any of those upon whom Nature and 
Fortune have accumulated all the means of serving them. 

Parmentier was never married. Madame Houzeau, his sister, 
lived always with him, and seconded him in his benevolent labours 
with the tenderest friendship. She died at the time when her 
affectionate care would have been most necessary to her brother, 
who had for some years been threatened with a chronical affection 
in his breast. Regret for this loss aggravated the disease of this 
excellent man, and rendered his last days very painful, but without 
altering his character, or interrupting his labours. He died on the 
17th December, 1813, in the 77th year of his age. 



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ljr2 On the Origin of the [SepV. 



Article II. 

On the Origin of the Carlureted Hydrogen Gas of Coal-Mines* 
By Mr. John B. JLongmire. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

SIR, 

Thb carbureted hydrogen gas of coal-mines having lately at- 
tracted the attention of philosophers, as well on ac<^unt of the 
ravages it commits, when ignited, on the mines and miners, as on 
its mode of formation, I have drawn out the following essay from 
a manuscript copy of observations made on this gas in different parts 
of England, Wales, and Scotland ; and if you think it so interesting 
as to ensure its insertion in your Annals of Philosophy^ it is very 
much at your service. 

I am, Sir, your very humble servant, 

June 80, 1815. JoHN B. LONGMIBS. 

Many opinions Ijave been entertained respecting the origin of the 
inflammable air of coal-mines. Some writers attribute its existence 
in these mines to the agency of iron pyrites : the pyrites, they say, 
decomposes the water, unites with its oxygen, and becomes sulphate 
of iron or . green vitriol, while its hydrogen is set at liberty in a 
gaseous state. Other persons assert that the coal is undergoing a 
slow decomposition, and that the inflammable air and carbonic acid 
gas are given out by it in consequence. And other persons maintain 
the opinion that it exhales from the putrefying animal and vegetable 
matter in the stagnant water of coal-mines. But before we con- 
clude as to its origin, let us carefully examine its mode of entry into 
the mine. 

The carbureted hydrogen gas proceeds from the body of the coal, 
and generally entei^ the mine from the pores, sometimes from the 
seams ot^ distinct concretions, and occasionally from small rents of 
the coal. -A miner extends a common working at the rate of two 
or three yards every week ; and if he is cutting through the gas- 
yielding parts of the coal, they generally discharge all their gas, or 
as the miner calls it, '^ bleed off," as fast as he advances ; so that 
the greatest quantity of the gas always enters a working near its 
forehead. But, although the gas is exhausted in the most of these 
workings as fast as they are driven, there are many places where the 
coal continues to yield gas for several weeks, or months, after work- 
ings are driven past them. This gas, besides entering the mine 
from the coal, sometimes proceeds from small rents in the incum- 
bent strata. In many of the coal formations these rents are small, 
not numerous, and generally only simply filled with gas ; but in 
some they are large, numerous, and filled with ^, which appears 
to have been forced into thepa by a compressmg power 5 foF on 

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1«15.] Carhifeted Hyarogen Gas of Coal-Mines. 17S 

meeting with them, it issues into the mine with a considerable 
wtecity. These gas-yielding rents are frequently met with in the 
coal-mines round Newcastle-on-the'-Tyne ; and the gas is often 
discharged into these mines in such streams, as to be compared, in 
force and quantity, with the air from powerful blast furnaces ; but 
the quantity of gas discharged, however great at first, continually 
decreases till the rents cease to yield it. 

The gas-yielding parts of the coal differ considerably in dimen- 
sions ; they are situated at variable distances from one another ; and 
the quantity of gas varies very much in diflTerent parts, as well as in 
different situations in any one part. Sometinaes the gas-yielding 
parts have the characteristic appearance of the common coal, but 
occasionally they are softer, in small pieces, or dusty; in some 
parts iron pyrites is abundant; in others it is not found; water 
sometimes enters the mine along with the gas, but often the gas 
comes off alone ; but the Coal has its characteristic appearance, or 
is soft, in small pieces, or dusty, in many parts which give out 
water, but not gas ; so that the parts which produce this gas, appU" 
rentlyj are not essentially different to those which do not pro- 
duce it. 

When the carbureted hydrogen gas leaves the coal alone, it 
comes off silently ; but when acconipanied with water,*^ it always 
makes a noise. When it enters the mine, along with water, from 
many pores, in small quantities, and at intervals, various sounds 
are produced, which have some resemblance to those expertly made 
on tiie musical glasses, but which are not so loud, though more 
agreeable. If the gas escape much quicker, the sounds are consi* 
derably lower, but not so various as in the first instance: this is a 
simmering noise, and would be well imitated by the noise from the 
pipes of a few tea-kettles when boiling gently. But if the gas 
escape more copiously than in the last instance, it makes a hissing 
noise, not unlike, but not so loud, as that made by the steam 
escaping quickly from the safety valve of a steam-engine. 

If the gas is set on fire as it enters a working, when the atmos- 
pheric current is traversing the mine, its inflammation is carried on, 
close to the sides of the coal wall, under different circumstances. 
Where the gas enters the mine sparingly, but from many pores and 
seams, to set it on fire, the candle must be moved in every direction 
along the sides or forehead of a working ; then it will inflame the 
gas issuing from one pore, after it has done so with that from 
another as it moves forwards ; andt each inflammation will resen^ble 
in sound and appearance that which is produced by the firing of two 
or three grains of gunpowder. When it enters more abundantly 
after the gas from one pore is fired, the burning gas fires the gas 
from many other pores, during which the flame flies from the first 
pore in a very varying direction, and in a very fantastic and enter- 
taining manner ; for sometimes it runs horizontally for a small dis- 
tance, then bends obliquely in different directions, then perhaps 
horizontally, and then obliquely again, till it ceases* Puring these 

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174 On the Connexion between the [Sspt. 

motions the fiame of the gis issulo^ into the mute from the first 
pore touched the gas from an adjoining pore, and set it on fire,' 
which did so. with the gas from a third pore, and thus the motioii 
of the flame continued ; but as the gas issues from every pore at 
intervals, the portion set on fire at the firsts pore was consumed 
before another issued from it^ but not beforeit inflamed the portion 
of gas then escaping from the second pore, which, though con- 
sumed before another portion left that pore, communicated with 
the gas of a third pore, and so on. In this manner the flame's 
flitting motion was produced. When the gas escapes from the 
pores of the coal in constant streams, or at least in a succession of 
portions at very small intervals, the flame is statbnary at every 
pore. 

With the help of these remarks, we may make the following 
conclusions as to the origin of the carbureted hydrogen gas of coal- 
mines. It is a part of the matter of the coaly strata ; but how it is 
separated we cannot exactly determine. It may be set at liberty by 
the action of the component parts of the coal on one another ; but 
not in the way of decomposition by fermentation. Or it may con- 
sist of an original redundancy of volatile matter which has been 
kept in by pressure, but which, as soon as hollows are made into 
the coal, is suffered to escape. The gas, by either mode of forma- 
tion, may very well exist in the rents above the coal : for as thes^ 
rents were forming, room was made for the gas to lod^e in ; and^ 
to account for its degree of compression, we know that it afterwards 
escapes from the coal with a great force, and, if suffered to fill 
hollows like these rents, would leave them with a similar velocity. 



Article III. 



On the Connexion letween the Vasctdar and Extra Vascular Parts 
of Animals. By Anthony Carjisle, Esq. F.R.S. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

SIR, Soho square^ July 9, 1815. 

This following memoir having been partially made known to the 
public, I beg you to lay it before your scientific readers, as a means 
of preventing misrepresentation or piracy. 

Sir, your obedient servant, 

Anthony Cablislb. 

General or comparative anatomy, the great branch of natural 
knowledge on which the rationale of the medical art is founded, has 
lately risen in esteem, and is every day more accurately and more 
extensively cultivated. Considering how intimately the discovery, oi 
new facts, their relation to each other, and the physiological inr 

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1815.} Vascular and Extra Vascular Paris of Animals* 175 

fereoces to be drawn from them, are connected with the preyiom 
establishment of definite views> of clear intelligible terms, and of 
strict physical methods ; and feeling the importance of the present 
subject, I hasten to submit this memoir to competent judges. 

I am aware that premature generalisKitions of iaCts, as well as 
premature inductions from them, are seldom useful ; and I should 
not have troubled the scientific inquirer with this communication, 
had I not felt assured that the present state both of anatomy and 
physiology would authorise it. In my statements I shall purposely 
avoid all metaphysical pretension to dive into the hidden mystery oif 
vitality, confessing myself wholly incompetent to reduce that power 
within the rules of physical science : a power which appears to my 
judgment as allied to the natute of an inscrutable Fifst Cause, or 
as an emanation from it. 

The vast variety in the substances, texture, .bulk, and obmbina* 
tions, which the living animal and vegetable kingdoms exhibit^ 
renders it difficult to define the essential residence of life as con- 
nected with any of the modes of organic structure. Some of the 
compounds and textures of animals are knowp to be more important 
for the maintenance of life than others, as the cerebral substance 
and the muscular textures ; but there is a numerous tribe of living 
bodies that appear to be wholly destitute of those peculiar parts, of 
which the entire vegetabfe kingdom may be adduced as an instance* 
Habits of meditation and research have led me to conclude that 
some benefit may arise to physiology from more accurate discrimi-^ 
nations between the several substances of living bodies ; especially 
as to the rdative dominion of vitality, or of physical causes on those 
substance^ respectively. 

The active phenomena of life appear to be generally distinct 
from those of physical causation ; but the passive condition of living 
substances is not so.obvious. The suspended actions of torpid ani- 
mals and vegetables, and the latent vitality of many of the more 
simply constructed animal^ and vegetables during the absence of 
heat and moisture, show the intimate connections which subsist 
between vitality and physical causes. Difficult and intricate as the 
investigation may seem when extended to all the cases of vital phe- 
nomena, they are not so in the grosser examples to be now adduced; 
and if it should be found that many substances distinctly continuous 
with vital organic bodies are wholly subjected io physical dominion, 
and that several other substances are in part influenced by the one 
cause and by the other, it may perhaps open new and more precise 
views in the medical art. Those pans of living organic bodies which 
have no power of self repair, which hold no continuity with the 
fluid circulating material destined to replenish the Waste, to augment 
the bulk, or repair the accidents of the living fabric, may be justly 
deemed extra vital. The exuvial coverings and defences of animals 
are of this kind, viz, hairs, ' nails, feathers, and all other cuticular 
structures, as well as the^ epidermdd coverings or husks of the 
vegetable kingdoin* SomeM thoiBie ^bdtancei which are destined 
I 

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IJG On, the Connexion between the {Sept» 

to be worn away retain a partial continuity with the organic system 
€i circulating fluids, as the organic bulbs of hair, the roots and 
lamellae of nails -and hoofs ; whilst the other parts, which are des-« 
lined to be shed, as feathers and cuticular scales, are wholly de- 
tached from the vascular communion after their complete forma- 
tion, and only adhere mechanically to the living parts for a time. 

The most apposite illustrations, and the most positive instances^ 
of union between vital and extra vital parts are to be found in the 
testaceous tribe of animals. After a long continued and careful in- 
x'estigation, I am fully convinced that the shells of all the vermes of 
Linnieus are extra vascular from their commencement, and remain 
so during their whole connexion with the living creature. The first 
production and the growth of those shells always depends upon a 
deposit of the material thrown out from the surface of the body 
of the living animal. The figure and colours of the several parts 
of those shells in every species depend upon the shape and the 
colouring glands of the modelling organs : fractures.are repaired by 
spreading a cretaceous fluid over the inner edges, and never by any 
exudation from the fractured' parts, since they always retain the 
angular broken surfaces after such repairs. Extraneous bodies are 
equally coated with shell, whether they are in contact with the 
parent shell or not. The first may be seen in the frequent envelope- 
ment of Neides in the common oyster ; and the latter has been often 
ascertained by experiments made for the purpose of creating artifi- 
cial pearls, and which might, if skilfully practised, yet prove very 
successful. The borings of parasitical vermes into shells are never 
filled up, or the bored surfaces altered, unless such borings pene- 
trate into the cavity where the livbg animal dwells, and then the 
apertures are invariably plugged up, or smeared over with- pearly 
matter. The water-worn outer surfaces of old shelb, and other ex- 
ternal abrasions, are never repaired, which is to be seen in old 
living oysters exposed to the moving friction of currents or strong 
tides ; in the worn-oif spines of the pholas dactylis ; and in the 
convex points of the two valves of old mytUiy especially the my tills 
anatinus, I have sought in the most extensive collections of the 
metropolis for example^ of fractures, and other injuries, which have 
occurred to the shells of living vermes, and I have collected many 
remarkable specimens. They all demonstrate the same results, 
without any exception. I have made numerous experiments upon 
the garden snail {helix nemoralis), by fracturing and breaking away 
the shell in various parts ; and have always found the repairs to be 
effected from within by first smearing over an epidermoid varnish, 
and then by plastering the inner surface of that film with successive 
calc^eous laminse. 1 have in vain attempted t6 inject the shells of 
recent vermes from the vascular parts of their bodies, and am fully 
satisfied that none of their albuminous or gelatinous testaceous mem- 
branes were ever at any time permeable to vessels ; indeed they do 
not possess any of the reticular texture or arborescent pores which 
are common to all vascular parts ; b^t, microscopically e&amined^ 

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JS15.] Vascular and Extra Vascular Paris of Animals. 177 

they resemble the exuvml.or eptdermoid membranes. To these 
facts may be added the notorious eircumstancc of the ucehangeable- 
ness of the outer surfaces of testaceous shells during their growth^ 
. and the continual renewal of their other surfeces, which admit of 
contact with the liying inhabitant : next the stains and^ coloured 
transudatk>ns which they often derive ftiom metallic salts and other 
colouring materials placed in their vicinity: and, lastly, that such 
occurrences do not afifect the living animal. The mechanical con- 
nexion or contact that subsists between the living animals which 
occupy the testaceot^ shells, and their extraneous dwellings %re in 
many instances very slender. The common oyster possesses its first 
piir of valves, consisting of single lamitite, before it quits the 
parental organs. A muscle passes between the centres of the cavity 
of each shell adhering to each, and'tt acts upon the valves nearly at 
right angles. The animal has no other continuity with the shells. 
At the hinge an elastic substance is wedged in, the spring of which 
19 excited by compression, but it does not possess the property of 
extension beyond its passive state ; when dried, this substance cracks 
into cubes. As the animal gfows, it augments the margin of its 
shells, and thickens them by adding new laminse on their insides. 
The muscuhrr adhesion glides forward, still keeping to the centre of 
the valves. The elastic substance at the binge is augmented along 
its inner surfece only, and must have been always deposited during 
the expanded state of the valves, since the limit of its elastic con* 
dition is exactly adapted to that state. As the lamime of the shells 
increase, there is a gap at the outside of the hinge filled with soft, 
cruniibling, and decomposing worn-out elastic ligament. This gap 
presents two inclined planes which meet in an acute angle, and that 
space b kept free from pebbles and hard extraneous bodies by the 
presence of the decomposing ligament, as such an accident would 
prove fatal by preventing the opening of the valves. TTie growth 
of all the testaceous shells affords remarkable proofs of their extra 
vascular formation. The muscular adhesions are generally the only 
parts of continuity between the animal and its shells, and these are 
constantly changing with the augmentations of bulk. In all the 
conoid univalves which revolve upon spiral axes the successive parts 
<tf the shell are merely spread upon the older parts without any in- 
t^rmixtcire of their substances, and epidermis or eirtraneous bodies^ 
are alike involved in the successive folds. In other classes of animals 
ainnfar phenomena occur. The calcareous shells of birds' eggs are 
merely deposited upon the membrana putaminis, and the inner poi^- 
tions are regular crystallized prisms, Ae long diameters of which 
point to the centre of the egg. These shells are wholly extra vas- 
eular, and their albuminous membranes arealike cuticular; whilst 
the inner true membrana putaminis Is made reticular, and capable^ 
of vascular organization; The order of deposit iti these examples 
is like that of enamel in teeth, which appears to be precipitated^ 
upon the bone of the teeth under the guidance of a membranous' 
e^se or mould. From a disordered fowl I bav^ seen eggs producod. 
Sou VI. N^ III. M 

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178 On Fluxions. [SErt^ 

the calcareous cmsts of which were inflated with bubbles, so as to 
form a cancellated shell, in texture like pumice-stone. The roo6t 
durable substances of animal bodies, such as the bones and teeth^ 
are only partly vascular, since their calcareous materials are fixed 
by chemical precipitants, and remain under chemical laws. In- 
juries done to the boms of cattle, to the hoofs of animals, and ta 
human nails, are never restored ; these parts do not possess the 
power of self repair; and it is only by the mechanical wearing away 
that such injuries are obliterated. Indeed the beneficent construc- 
tion of animal nature is sufficiently manifested in the insensibility 
of all the exuvlal coverings, and in the organic composition of 
many parts which are exposed to mechanical attrition, as the enamel 
of teeth, the horny beaks of birds, and the cuticular or horny 
coverings of feet. The same beneficence appears to be extended to 
many parts^ of the internal organic substances, by which painful 
sensations are obviated, whilst the substances themselves being less 
directly under the dominion of the vital superintendency become 
more permanei^t ; such parts are the tendons, ligaments, cartilages, 
cellular tissue, the gelatine and lime of booes y even water is aa 
essential constituent of the animal fluids, and afibrds the necessary 
softness and flexibility to solids. But thb subject, and its connexion 
with the vegetable composition and texture, extends far beyond the 
limits of a memoir ; and I must therefore suspend my observations^ 

(To be continued.) 



Article IV. 

Further Olservatiom on Fluxions. By Alexander Christison, Esq-. 
F.R.S.E. Professor of Humanity in the University of Edin- 
burgh. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

MY DEAR SIR, Edinburgh, July 1% 1815. 

An experienced mathematician will £nd no difficulty in the 
reasoning. Annals of Phihsophy, voL v. pp. 330 and 331; a 
learner, however, will understand that reasoning better if he sup^ 
pose the accent, which is put after they at the top, to be put not 
at the top, but half way down the side of they in p.. 330, line 40 > 
and likewise wherever that letter so occurs afterwards with one or 
two. accents, unless there be two letters in the numerator;, and if 
be read i for i after the mark of equality in the last line but on^ 
of p. 330, and in the second line of p. 331. 
. You may insert the following observations. 

It is evident from fig* 2, p. 328, that the ratio of the increments 
is never the ratio of the fluxions ; for at F H, 5 minus one centiU 
lioutU to I is too small; and 5 plus one c«ntillionth to 1 is too 
^' •- C 

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1815.] On Muxions: t?9 

great. Newton's' expression, therefore, " The uhiraate ratio of 
the increments is the ratio of the fluxions,'' is incorrect, and seenoa 
to have misled tiiie Bishop of Cloytie. If a man is not a soldier, he 
may be the last of the men in a train, but, in.that train, he cannot 
be the last of the soldiers. Newton, therefore, must be understood 
rationally, not literally; the literal interpretation, indeed, is im-« 
possible. In Milton too, the literal interpretation of ** The fairest 
of her daughters. Eve," is also impossible. Such incorrectness of 
expression is frequently found in Robins. I do hot remember that- 
Maclaurin has corrected it till article 505, in the second volume o£ 
Fluxions. Maseres has rectified it more directly in p. 21 of thft 
preface to the fifth volume of the Logarithmic Writers. Euler has., 
lieillen into the same mistake in his Definition of the Difierential 
Calculus, in p. 8 of the preface. 

I am inclined to think that, in p. 468, Harvey's idea of deve-^ 
loping generated quantities is better than mine of generating them* 
k was to avoid the idea of motion that, in the; demonstration, which 
I think is new, 1 employed bisection like the ancients. I might, 
have avoided the idea of motion in the solution too ; for I might 
have solved as Lacroix does in the begidning of his Calcul in Svo* 
As the fluxional calculus was derived from the celebrated problem 
of the tangents, I think that the easiest and shortest demonstratioti 
is. to. be obtained from the same source. I consider such a demon-^ 
stration as an extension of Descartes' application of algebra to 
geometry. I think that no rigorous demonstration of the fluxional 
problem purely algebraical can be so short as that . in pp. 380 and 
5SI ; it occupies no more than twelve entire lines, as it properly 
begins at line 33, p. 330, and ends at line 8, p. 331 ; for, in order 
to prove that the limfts of a variable quantity are equal, I might 
We referred to Robins, vol. ii. p. 56, art. 120; or to Lacroix 
Calcul, vol. i. p. 18. D'Alerobert observes, that all the differential 
calculus may be referred to the problem of the tangents. 

Without the aid of a diagram, the application to tangents^ 
quadratures, cubatures, rectifications, and complanations, is much 
more difficult and tedious to a learner. This is evident from La- 
grange. 

Motion conceived may be rigorously mathematical ; not so, 
motion executed. Now in fluxions it is motion conceived only tliat 
comes under consideration. 

' With regard to Newton's second lemma, as a square is simpler 
than an obTong, if we subtract the square of A — a from that of 
A -f- a, there will remain 4 A or, of which the half is 2 A a ; and 
then as the nK)mentu.m is evidently greater than the decrement, and 
smaller than the increment, when the rate of change thus varies, 
we may prove by reduction to absurdity that the momentum of 
A A can be nehher more nor less than 2 A a ; for it may be de- 
monstrated to differ less from 2 A a + a a, the increment, than by 

2 A a 
any assigned quantity how small soever : and, in ,• if tha 

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I80f On Fk^fiians. f^Ksr^ 

iWtecBtum a be multiplied by i, an indeterminate qiianlit|ry and if 

X be subjtitul^d for A, we shall have -- ?- =s ^7?^. We nejtt, 

bjr Maelauria-» process FliVEions, art. 708, get the flindon of an 
cUong, thence that of a cttbe» &c. Thus Newtda's demonatratlan 
seems iu{toiior in bre^ty, and equal in rigour, to'tfaat of any of bis 
eoBtemponuies: and auecesaers at hotiie or abroad; for it haa evi- 
dently no dependimce whatever on motion, or on infinftesimab, as 
m, vanishing qnantkieB, or even on limits. It is wholly algebraical^ 
But may^ by a diagrani, be rendered geometricaL I think the de- 
nonstratiQa ia Newton's second lemma one of the finest pnidue-* 
tions of bis uoequdled genius^ The conception of motion^ from 
wUeh Machurin demonstrated so very tecHously,. belongs net U> 
Newton's demonstration, but to his idea of the contiaueus geneva* 
tioB of qaantity. It seems to be throagh Maclaarin that some very 
eminent foreign mailhematioians see and blame Newton. 

Ildbins^ from what Newton says himself,, observes that Newtea 
ia hia Mathematics uses the word momentum in two senses 2 first, 
fof aa infinitely small quantity^ when he solves; and secondly, 
when he deiBoastrates, for an indeterminate quanti^ which is to be 

conceived to vanish : io the first sen^e, --' s -^ for example f 

here the quantities really employed are -4-, not -— r but .it is 

evident that in the second lemma he uses the word momentum in a 
lliird lense : for it is there neither a quantity wbicb it to* be con*^ ' 
eelved to vanish, nor is it i or ^ tiH it be multiplied by an indeter^ 
minate quantity i. 

From Newton's second lemma we obtain the easiest demonstpiK 
tionof thebmomial theorem for any eaponent; because from the 
&st ftuLion we obtain the second, &e. Naw these are the sviccea^ 
sive fiuxionai coefficients* We have therefore only to multiply 
them by' the successive powers of t, and to divide the terms by 1, 
1 X 2, 1 X 2 X ^> respectively. Thk wouM not be a legitimate' 
demonsteation, if the binomial theorem had been }»eviously em^ 
ployed to find the fluxions. No one, I think, will say this is d»». 
monstmting the binomial theorem by employing the higher raathe*-^ 
matics ; for in my former paper i showed that much of fluxioDS. 
belonged properly to the very elements of geometry and a^ebra. 

From fi g. 3, p. S30^ it is easy to demonstrate that any term 

*? T" - ^ ■■ t, for example, may be not greater only, but greater 

in any proportion than the sum of all the succeeding terms ; for if 
7» 0^ "" be transferred', with the 'negative sign, to the other side^ 
and if the equation be then divided by i, the thing is evident. 
Lagrange's demonstrations are not so easy : it is extremely tedious- 
and teasing for a learner to proceed by his method to tangents, 
quadmture^ Itc. ; a proof that his metlMxl of iavest^galjoQ and de-*- 
monstration, how renned and convincing soever,. ^is not short andi 

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161S.J Off Fhixions. 181 

eg^^y^ liilt 'circuStdUs and difficult. Thus the learner mwy think witk 
reg«rd to Imgmngt^s process ^ but the iearaed i^ll adhiiirc its.ge«ie<» 
fftlity, vtfour, consistency^ and importwEit applications. Why ia 
cot the Calculus of Variations, the noble discovery of Lagrange^ 
admitted into our initiatory books ? Much of it is <juite eleinei)[tary, 
^n^ its nature is easily apprehended. V 

It appears to me also that much of tlie M^chanique An4lytiqu« 
is etementaty, and may be taught early^ Can any thing be easier 
and 6inplet than the two formulas, the one for s<»trcs, the otlier for 
dynamics ? How delightful will the study of that comprehensive 
treatise, and of Laplace's masterly work the M^chanique Gileste. 
be^ if the learoer prevk^jtly tinderstand, «8 he easily asiay» the 
INuidlelopiped of forces, the three perpendicular axes of rotatbo^ 
the three perpendicular co-ordinates, the three oo-urdkmted planes^ 
die prilidple Of virtual vebcities, and be aociistomed lo introduce 
hj substitution d^ sines and co-dines, <&c. ? iKothiiig will allure a 
leartier more than to study the way in which Euler, vol. ii. of In- 
ttoduction to the Analysis of Infinites, employs the sines mxd co- 
sines in changing the position of the co-ordinates. May not the 
student also learn early, in that line performance, the generation of 
€vaves from their equations^ and the progressive mduction of tbose 
cquatioiis without end i 
. I wish Lagrange, had bees more precise in tbe tj^s of his tw^ 
l>Ooks^ Theory oif Analytical Functions, Calculus of Functioas ; 
for, as his Theory does not include geometrical analysis, it relates 
to algebraical functions only, and not to them all ; ior it doeis iiot 
relate to common functions of known tmd unknoWb, of constant 
und variaUe, quantities ; it therefcre relates to derived functions 
4)6ly ; and not even to them all ; for kt any one consider Arbogast^c 
Derivations, and he will see that it does not relate to derived &n«^ 
tions ^bere tbe operations, not the quantities^ are derived from 
«aeh other ; it is, consequently, the thec^ of fluKional or di&reHo 
tial functions direct and inverse* 

Here let me remark, that the liews of perhaps all the writers on 
the important subject of fluxions relate more or less diirectly to dte 

doctrine of ratio^ -*?-, ^-^tf' ^ = j-^> according to liagrange^s 

own statement $ for, in every fraction, is not the numerator the 
antecedent, and the dencsninator the consequi^t, of a ratio ? 

The observations ^ Lacroix tod other emment mathematicians 
may remove the difficnkies which, leamem always find, in ccxise-' 
quence of the diffejientid and the integral notation, as the difler*- 
ences of the absciss and of the crdioale are not employed, nor the 
integer of a fraction, nor the sum of quantities $ the notation, how^- 
ever, is extremely convenient, and will not ptxz2le a learner, if Its 
defect be supplied by a very carefial explanation. 

Even variation is not a very happy word^ for variation may be 
either starting or continuous. Fluxion is the happiest word that 1 
kaow, as it marks a continaous, not a atartii^, clmnge : and smce 

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182 On Fluxioris* [Sept. 

vsiriatibhs as a calculus succeed fluxions in tHe order both of nature 
and of invention, the proper appellation, perhaps, would have been 
subfluxions^ with a suitable notation. It would be improper, how- 
ever, to propose any change. 

With regard to the fluxional notation^ -^ seems as convenient as 

' ~r^, while the latter d is preserved for algebraic operations ; and / 

seems as convenient as s for marking the fluent. In a philosophical 
point of view, there is no comparison. 

I sometimes hear mathematicians say, We ought to adopt the 
fbreign notation. Would not such adoption be to attempt, as far 
as it is in our power, to efiace the knowledge of one of Newton's 
greatest discoveries ? Would it not be also unpatriotic ? Inde- 
pendently of a natural patriotism, and of ifhe respect due to Newton, 
would a change rather unphilosophical be a change for the better > 

1st X A 
To some it may seem a digression, that the formula ^ ^ = 

j-r ^ is derivable by a boy from the simplest operation in the 

Rule of Three ; that in the eighth of a line it contains Euclid's 
fifth definition of eight lines in his fifth book ; that it comprehends 
all proportional quantities, whether commensurable or incommen- 
surable I and that Euclid^ it is probable, thus deduced the defi- 
nition. 

The mistake of a very able mathematician, Carnot, ift his M^ta- 
physique du Calcul Infinitesimal, where he> endeavours to show that 
the differential equations are imperfect, seems to arise from his not 
distinguishing sufliciently the differences or increments from the 
fluxions or differentials. 

From all that has been said we may conclude, that no demon- 
stration ought to depend on motion, if motion can be avoided, but 
that motion is either mathematical or mechanical : that no demon- 
stration of the fluxional problem can be rigorous and satisfactory 
that depends on infinitesimals and on vanishing quantities : that 
though, in compliance with custom, I said in p. 331, line 24, 
•' vanishing quantity," yet it is not strictly a vanishing quantity, but 
a quantity which, by the continued bisection of the increment of 
the abscissa, may become less than any assigned quantity how small 
soever ; that in my former paper I might without fig. 1 or 2 have 
stated and demonstrated by^ fig. 3 the doctrine of fluxion in the 
form of a theorem ; or in the form of a problem thus, prop, pro- 
blem, to find the fluxion of any function of a variable quantity : 
or thusj prop, problem, to find the rate,>&c. To find the rate of 
change in a quantity and its function. This procedure would have 
been more scientific and ejegant, not more intelligible, than that 
which I employed : that Newton's lemma consists of two parts ; 
flrst, of the conception of the generation of quantity by motion; 
apdj secondly, of tli^e demonstration which relates ^either tp moi 

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1B15.] On Mine. 18S 

lion, nor to infinitesimals^ nor to vanishing quantities, nor even .to 
limits except indirectly : that fluxions, and variations which are also 
fluxions, ought to be taught among the very elements of geometry 
and algebra.:, that curves are most easily conceived and understood 
from dieir equations, .not from the sections of solids 4 that the sec-, 
tions of cones and of other solids may be very requisite in masonry, 
carpentry, civil and military engineiering ; but that the student of 
general science, without neglecting these 'sections, ought, soon 
after he knows the fourteenth proposition of Euclid's second book, 
and a little of algebra, to acquire .the principles of fluxions, availing 
himself of that knowledge to render his progress continuous from 
Euclid through oonics, which he will do by taking the equations to 
the ellipse, &c. from that to the circle : and that, if such a method 
be followed, a diligent student will leave our Universities with a 
competent knowledge of Newton, Euler, Lagrange, Monge, La- 
place, and many others, and of any department of natural philo- 
fOphy to which their mathematical researches ar« applicable. 



Article V. 
A Memoir on Iodine. By M. Gay-Lussac. 

{Concluded from p. 132.) 

Historical Note on the Discovery of Iodine. 
It was about two years after M. Courtois had discovered iodine 
that M. Clement announced it to the Institute on the 29th Novem** 
ber, 1813, M. Courtois had observed several of its properties, and 
particularly that which it has of forming a very fulminating powder 
when treated with ammonia. He intended to have ascertained all 
its properties; but being prevented by the attention required by an 
extensive manufactory of nitre, he engaged M. Clement to continue 
his researches. M« Clement, from similar motives, could only con- 
secrate to it a few moments. However, lie obtained a great number 
of results, ,as may be seen by the note printed in the Ann. de Chim. 
Ixxxyiii. 304, He discovered that by the combination of iodine 
and phosphorus a gaseous acid is obtained ; but he concluded from 
his experiments that this acid was composed of about ^ muriatic 
acid and -J- iodine, M. Clement was employed in these experiments 
when Sir H. Davy came to Paris ; and he tljiought that he could 
not better receive so distinguished a philosopher than by showing 
him the new substance, which he had likewise ' shown to MM. 
Chaptal and Ampere. I state these circumstances to answer a 
strange assertion which v;e find in the Journal of Messrs. Nicholson 
andTilloch, No. 189, p.69;— ^< It appears that this gas (iodine) 
was discovered above two years ago ; but such is the deplorable state 
q{ scientific men iu France, that no account of it was published UU 

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184 On hdine^ [Sbpt« 

the arrival of our Englisfa philoaopber diere.'' It is Sir H. Davy of 
whiMfi they apeak. Sooo after showing iodine to Davy, and com** 
municatiog to him the result of his experimentSt M. Clement read 
his note to the Institute^ and concluded by announcing that I was 
g(»ng to continue the subject* On the 6iii of December I vead a 
note to the Institute on the subject, which was printed in the Mo* 
niteur of the 12th of December, and afterwards in the Annates do 
Chimie» Ixxxviii. 311. It is needless to say here diat the results 
which it contained determined the nature of iodine, and that I 
there established that it is a simple body analogous to chlorine. 
Nobody hitherto has dbputed that I was the first who discovered the 
nature of iodine : and it is certain that Davy did not publish hia 
results till more than eight days after having known mine. 

NOTB A. 
When we make iodine, an alkaline oxide, and water, act upon 
each other at once, there is formed in general an iodate and 
hydriodate, or, if you clioose, an ioduret. The oxygen which 
acidifies the iodine may be furnished either by the alkaline oxide or 
by the water. Let us examine which of these two in all probability 
furnishes it. When we employ potash, we may admit that it is it 
which furnishes the oxygen to the iodine ; for as iodine disengages 
oxygen from the potash at a red heat, we may conceive that the 
same thing takes place at the ordinary temperature by means of 
water ; especially if we consider that here two products are formed, 
iodate and ioduret, and that there are of consequence two forces 
which tend to decompose a portion of the potash. The same thing 
may be said of sodb> from which iodine likewise sepamtes the 
oxygen at a red heat; and of all the oxides in which the oxygen is 
but weakly condensed. But is this necessarily the case also with all 
the ^ other oxides? Iodine does not disengage the oxygen frooi 
harytes, strontian, lime, and magnesia, even at a very high^ tern* 
perature; and this circumstance, while it renders it more. difficult 
to conceive the decomposition ol a part of these alkalies by means 
of water, although there is then the concurrence of two affinities, 
lenders very probable the existence of a limit beyond which the 
united affinities of the iodine for the metal, and the iodic acid for 
the metallic oxide, cannot overcome the affinity of the metal for 
oxygen. In this case the water may be decomposed ; and I have no 
doubt that this is the foct. On the supposition that there exist only 
iodurets in solution in water, and no hydriodates, it is a necessary 
eonsequence that'the oxygen is furnished to the iodine by the me- 
tallic oxide. But if there exist hydriodates, then the oxygen will 
be furnished by the water in aU the cases in which they are formed. 
^ The question then reduces itself to this — do hydriodates exist ? We 
shall examine it. But as it is the same with the hydro^i-chlorates, 
which are better kQown> we shall turn our more particular attention 
to them. 



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18I5,J On Mine. 19S 

It mvj be woAeAf in tbe first plftce^ agttinsl tb« «%fete«M(e of 
hjdio-chlorates^ that w« moM: admft that on evapomfing tlie water 
in which ^y am dissolved, tiiey are changed into chlorureti, and 
diat by redisfioltiDg these we reji^ttce tiie bydro-^ehlorated. 

It 18 vc9ry tfue that crystallization is suffieienf to change the 
liydro-cfalorates ct potash, soda, and baryteS) into the state of ch1o«> 
Turets. But this does act hi^pan with the hydro-chlorates of ltAi« 
and magnesia. A high temperature i» neceissary to deprii^ the fimt 
of the whole of its water. And how can we affirm that a part of 
that water is not the result of the oxygen and hydrogen which co&«> 
stituted the hydro-ohtovate ? That of magnesia requires likewise a 
higii temperature to be decomposed^ and the ehlorme finds stilt 
sufficient hydrogen to be changed into hydro'ChlDric acid. 

Here then is a decided case in which hydro^chloHc acid, atid we 
may add hydriodic acid, are not able to reduce magnesia, though iti 
circumstances most favourable to their action. But if we cannot 
defiy the existence of hydro<^oh)orate and hydriodaie of inagnesiAj 
by wliat certain character can we know that those of lime cannot 
exist at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere ? 

When a solution of chloruret of calcium is mixed with subcar^ 
bonate of ammonia, the chlorine must pass to the state of hydro* 
chloric acid in order to combine whh the ammonia. And if we 
«an admit that water is decomposed at the moment of precipitation 
in order to furnish hydrogen to the chlorine, and oxygen to the 
calcium, nothii^ in that case prevents us from admitting that the 
act of crystallizing is sufficient to convert an hydro-chlorate into tt 
chloruret, and that the solntion of a chlormet in w^ter converts it 
into a hydio«>chlorate ; for it is the difference of solubility of subcai^ 
bonate of lime and hydn>chlorate of ammonia which occasions th€ 
double exchange of the bases and adds^ and consequently it is on 
accomit of that difference of solubility that the water is decomposed. 
If we mix together cbalfc and muHate of ammonia, we reproduce 
by ^eat subcarbonate of ammonia and chloruret of calcium. Tbi», 
thoujrii we refuse to admit that the chloruret of calcium is changed 
into nydro-chiorate by soiuticnii in water, we must still allow that 
the elements of water may be separated or united by a trifling 
change of temperature. What I hate jtist said of the hydro-chlo^ 
rate of lime applies to most of the other hydro^chlorates and 
hydrtodates; and I might mention other analogous facts. But I ask 
this only to be granted me, that water in certain circumstances may 
be formed or decomposed by the same forces which produce the 
double decomposition of salts. These forces being in genera) very 
weak, since a slight change in temperature is sufficient to vary tii« 
nature of doable decompositions, it will be obvious that solution in 
water and crystallization may determine the decomposition and 
formation of this liquid. Biut in that ckse the reason which I 
assigned in favour of the existence of chlorurets and iodurets dis<^ 
solved in water, does not appear to me to have the same force. 
It may be dleged, on the other Iiand, in favour of the existence 

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186 On Iodine* . [Sept. 

of chlonirets in solution in water^ that when Ihey are dissolved only 
a very slight change of temperature takes place ; while if the water 
were really decomposed^ the variation would be very great. 

The temperature produced by the solution of a solid body being 
the result of two opposite causesj it is difficult to distinguish the 
heat owing to the combination of the liquid with the solid from 
that which is owing to the change of state in the solid. JBut Jnde^ 
pendent of this consideration, I must remark,^ that, some of the 
chlonirets produce cold when dissolved in water, and others heat. 
Thus the chloruriet of sodium sinks the temperature of the water 
about 3*5°, while that of calcium raises it more than 108°. Far- 
ther, if it be demonstrated that the forces, which determine the 
double saline decompositions, are sufficient to operate the separation 
of the elements of water and their union in the circumstances of 
which we are speaking, we ought to admit that the state of con- 
dens^ation of the oxygen and hydrogen in water is little different 
from that which they experience in the hydro*cblorate, and then the 
variations of temperature owing to the separation or re-union of 
these two elements ought to be but little sensible. Besides, my 
object is not to prove that only hydro-chlorates exist in solution in 
water. I believe, on the contrary, that according to the nature of 
the substance with which the chlorine is combined, the chlorurets 
may dissolve in water without undergoing decomposition, or be 
changed into hydro-chlorates during that solution. 

To acquire still further light on th^t head, I supposed that on 
jnixing a solution of sulphate of ammonia with that of chloruret of 
calcium or barytes, there ought to be produced a great deal of heat, 
if these metals were not combined with oxygen ; for having to pass 
into the state of oxide in order to combine with sulphuric acid, the 
decomposition of the water must necessarily take place, and its 
oxygen experiencing a great condensation on uniting to the calcium 
or iMtrium, there ought to be a very sensible disengagement of heat. 
On mixing solutions of chloruret of calcium and sulphate of. am* 
monia nearly in equal volumes, the temperature scarcely rose half a 
degree, though such a quantity of sulphate of lime was formed that 
the whole mixture became solid. The solution of chloruret of 
barium treated in the same way produced an elevation of about 3*5°. 
From these facts it would seem that in the solution of chloruret of 
calcium the metal is in the state of an oxide, while, in that of chlo- 
ruret of barium the metal is still in the metallic state. 

Analogy, tp which one should not yield too blindly inchemistry, 
but which ought not to be neglected when founded on a numerous 
series of phenomena, furnishes still, as we shall see, some proba«> 
bilities in favour pf the existence of the hydro-chlorates. 

It cannot be doubted that sulphur, and even phosphorus, ap- 
proach a good deal to chlorine and iodine, and that of course their 
combinations have an analogy with each other. But if we dissolve 
in water the sulphuret of potassium, we obtain a combination the 
9df^ur pf which announces the presence of hydro-sulphuriq acid| 

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1815.] On Iodine* IdJ 

and which allows that acid to escape by the action of a moderate 
heat. In the same way, when phosphuret of potassium is dissolved^ 
phosphureted hydrogen gas is disengaged. The water then in these 
different circumstances is decomposed : in the first case, in conse- 
tjuencfe of the affinity of potassium for oxygen, and of sulphur for 
hydrogen; and in the second, in consequence of the same affinities, 
together with that of phosphorus for oxygen, since at the same tim« 
phasphorous acid is formed. Further, I have already remarked that 
among the chlorurets, iodurets, and sulphurets, it is those one of 
whose elements has more affinity for oxygen than the other for 
hydrogen, that are soluble in water. Hence after the unequivocal 
existence of hydro-chlorate and hydriodate of magnesia ; after the 
proofs which 1 have given that water, either in dissolving a chlo* 
ruret, or in abandoning it, may be decomposed or formed by the 
same forces that determine the double saline decompositions; and 
after the analogies which I have just stated, I think we may admit 
that most of the chlorurets, iodurets, and sulphurets, in solution in 
water, those at least whose metals have a great affinity for oxygen, 
may be Cbnsidered as hydro-chlorates, hydriodates, and hydro-sul- 
phates. I do not, however, deny the existence of the chlorurets, 
&c. in solution in water. On the contrary, I admit as a principle 
that we ought to have a chloruret or a hydro-chlorate ip solution^ 
according as the forces which act in order to decompose water are 
pmaller or greater than those which keep its elements united. 

Note R 

On Acidity and Alkalinity. 

All A\e combinations which bodies form inay be divided into two 
$ets. In the one there is perfect neutrality ; in the other, acidity or 
alkalinity* 

Neutrality may not only exisf in the saline combinations, but 
likewise in many others. Thus the ethers formed by the combina- 
tion of an acid with alcohol, the soaps with an alkaline or acid basis, 
are so many compounds in which the respective properties of the 
constituents disappear completely. In the acid or alkaline combina- 
tions, on the contrary, the peculiar properties of one of the consti- 
tuents still show themselves. 

From the idea of neutrality derived principally from the saline 
combinations, we regard, as performing the function of an alkali, 
all the bodies which saturate either completely or in part the pro- 
perties of acids ; and as acids, all bodies that saturate the properties 
of alkalies. We consider, farther, the neutral state as resulting 
from a certain constant ratio between the body which possesses the 
properties of acids, and that which possesses those of alkalies. la 
every other ratio the compound is acid or alkaline. But in all casea 
the acidity or alkalinity which is in excess is less than before tht 
f^pmbination^ and tbis excess may be exactly measured by the quaq-t 



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188 Qn Mine. {Sbw^ 

tiiy of »ub6taoce which it is necessary to add to obtain the neutral 
state compared with the whole of the same substance contained ia 
the- neutral compound. Let us apply these considerati(ms to thd 
acids themselveS) and to the alkalies* - 

Neutralityj or complete saturation of the acid properties by the 
alicaline, takes place lK>th betwieen two simple bodies and two com-* 
pound bodies. It b in the first case even that acidity and alkalinity 
•bow themselves in all their energy. Water and white oxide, of 
arsenic are neutral combinations, analogous in thi§ respect to the 
salts : and as it is oxygen which possesses acid properties, hydrogen 
and arsenic ought to possess alkaUne ones. When oxygen is com« 
biofid with the metal in greater qtiantity than in white oxide» then 
the compound is acid. In like manner proto&ide of aaiote ought to 
be- considered as a neutral compound; but when the oxygen is 
combined with aaote in three times or five times as great a propor-« 
tioO) the acid poperties of the okygen are no longer neutralil^ by 
the alkaline properties of the aabte^ and the combination possesses 
acid characters* ^ 

I Since niost of the oxides are alkaline, tbovgh they contain 
oxygen, the metals whose oxides have that property ought tbedl* 
selves to possess it in a much more considerable degree. It would 
aeem from this that oxygen loses or preserves its character in cooH 
bioatioiis^ according to the propcnrtion in which it enters into tb^n» 
Let us examine if these proportions should be constant or vatiable 
to produce this efiect. We shall compare the bodies according to 
their volumes in the elastic state, and not according to their ponder* 
able quantities, which have much less influence on their combina- 
tions. 

In water there enter two volumes of hydrogen and one of oxygen. 
Hence, equal volumes considered, oxygen is much more acidifying 
than azote is alkalifying; and that equal volumes of azote ami 
bydrogeQ are alkalifying in the same degree, if we can compare 
exactly the protoxide of azote with water. The oxide of carbon 
appears to me to result from the combination of two volumes of the 
vapour oS carbon with one of oxygen gas, and if w^ might consider 
the protoxide of azote and water as combinations equally neutral, w$ 
might conclude that the acidifying prqwrties of oxygen gas ate 
neutralized by a dcMible proportion of the body with which it com- 
bines* and it would be very renuurkable that azote, hydrogen, and 
carbon, possess alkalifying properties in the same degree. 

In carbonic acid we may conclude with the greatest probability 
that the oxygen is combit^ with an equal volume of the vapour w 
carbon, and in sulphurous aeid that it is combined with an equal 
volume of the vapour of sulphur. But though in nitrous gas there 
are equal volumes oi oxygen and azote, this gas does not oossesi 
acid properties. But as thes(^ three compounds contain the same 
proportions in volume, and as there is no other difference between 
them except th^t in sulphurous imd carbonic ^cids^ tlte condensation 



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amovDts to half the whole voluine, while in nrtrbu9 gas there is no 
eoadensation whatever, it would seem that this is the cause wfajr 
nitrous gas does not possess acid properties, and consequently that 
the combination of an equal volume of oxygen with a eertain class 
e£ bodies will constantly produce acids, if the condensation of the 
ekmcDts be one half of the whole volume. 

Nitrous acid is eomposed of 1 aasote and 1*5 oxygen, and nitric 
aead of 1 azote and 2*5 oxygen, and yet the acidifying property of 
tlieee two acids is the same ; for with equal quantities of -azote they 
saturate the same quantity of alkaline base. The case is the same 
with sulphufoas and sulphuric acids, the last of which contains 
1*5 more oxygen than the first, though they both saturate the sam^ 
quantity of tese. * Iodic acid is composed, 'like nitric acid, of one 
part in volume of vapour of iodine and 2*5 of oxygen ; and ehlorie 
aicid results also from the imioii of one part of ehtorine with tw^ 
and a half of oxygen. 

It is vetf remarkable to see acids very dffierent, both in the 
natiure of their radical and in the quantity of oxygen which thejr 
contain^ saturate the same quantity of alkali^ supposing each to 
cOntaii^ the same gaseous volume of radical. The fellowrn^ table 
showis this : — 



Chkfie aeid 
Ipdic afiid . • 
l^litxicacld . 
^it^Qft ftQid 



'Radical 
^Oxygen 

''Radical 



2.^ ^saturates 2 ammoom 



1 \ 

2-5 > 



2 
2 
2 



Oxygen ..... 

^Radical \ 

Oxygen 2*5 

'Radical I 

Oxygen 1*5 j" 

Sulphuric ,cid.,.{SiP-^''f/»^^^^^^ ;^ 

3«lph«rou. acid . . {S?°g;'„f /"'P;'- ; } « 

^^'-'^^"^-•jfe^:^-:::::: \ } « 

It is very pvobaUe that hydro-sulphoric add fblbws the same 
law. 

When we see such diflerent acids saturate the same quantity of 
base (supposing each to contain the same volume of radical), ought 
we not to draw this consequence that the saturating property of aa 
acid depends principally upon its radical, since only the ratio of this 
ndical to the alkaline base is constant ? 

In fact, if therfe be no doubt that oxygen, chlorine^ and iodine^^ 
possess very powerAil acidifying properties, how comes it that chloric 
acid and iodic acid do not saturate more than nitric acid, nitrou^ 
aeid>. &c. It may be answered that tlie Way iu which I here measure 



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190 On Iodine. [Sjbw: 

acidity is not fficact, and that there is a gre&t dHTefeiice between the 
property which an acid has of neutralizing a greater or smaller 
quantity of base, and the energy of its acidity. I admit this for an 
instant ; and 1 shall .even suppose ttiat the acid energy of a body 
depends upon its electric energy. Do we not admit that the electric 
energy of a neutral salt is null, or almost null ? And even in this 
case, must not the electric energy of the acid be destroyed by the 
opposite energy of the base ? If this were the case, it would be 
doubtless as remarkable to see the same quantity of base, the electric 
energy of which is constant, neutralize the energy of very different 
acids, which without doubt is variable. Besides, I must observe 
that M. Berthollet has long ago put it out of doubt that the. insolu- 
bility and elasticity, both of the acids and bases, and of the com- 
pounds into which they enter, are the principal causes of their 
mutual decompositions ; and consequently that the electric energies^ . 
though highly worthy of consideration, are here but secondary* 

But I shall venture to say that the neutralization of acids and alkalies 
in sample ratios, and that of thefr electric energies, when they form 
neutral salts, are subordinate to the property which all bodies have of 
combining in definite proportions ; and I conceive that what we call 
neutrality does not indicate a uniform degree for all combinations. 
A compound is neutral with respect to us when it refuses to unite 
with the acid or alkaline particles presented to it. But if the energy 
of the acid body which enters into the compound docs not exactly 
correspond with the energy of the alkaline body ; if it be necessary, 
in order to saturate the excess of the one or the other, to add a 
quantity of acid or alkali beyond the definite proportion in which 
the acid and alkaline body can combine, the combination of the 
portion added will not be possible, and consequently the saturation 
of the acidity or alkalinity cannot be complete, though re-actives 
indicate the contrary. Such combinations ought to preserve a cer-* 
tain energy of affinity, which is probably the cause of the formation 
of triple salts, and these salts ought to approach nearer to perfect 
neutrality than those of which they are formed. We observe, in 
fact, that the solubility of the trij)1e salts is in general less than that . 
of the salts of which they are composed ; and it is natural to think 
that, cceteris paribus ^ a saline combination ought to be the less- 
solulile the more neutral it is. 

From what has been said, we see that oxygen in general gives a 
neutral, acid, or alkaline, character to a body according to the pro-' 
portions in which it combines with it ; but that the condensation of 
volume which the constituents undergo, has, independent of pro-' 
portions, a very great influence in the determination of the cha- 
racter of the compound which they form. Thus the combination in 
volume of two parts of hydrogen, azote, or carbon, with one of 
oxygen, and a condensation of one-third of the total volume deter- 
mines the neutral character. The combination of one part in vo 
lume of carbon or sulphur with one part of oxygen, and a conden-. 
sation of half the total volume, determines the acid character* But 

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1815.] On Iodine. 191 

if the condensation be nothing, as in nitrous gas, the conipound is 
neither acid nor alkaline, though it contain equal volumes of azote 
and oxygen. It seems to result from this that neutrality betweea 
two bodies may be obtained in different ways,, by varying their pro- 
portions or the condensation of their .volumes. When the propor- 
tion of oxygen is above half the total volume, there ought for a still 
stronger reaspn to be acidity. Yet when we compare sulphurous 
with sulphuric acid, nitrous with nitric acid, and phosphorous witb 
phosphoric acid, we observe that the acidity is the same for each 
couple of acids, though they contain different quantities of oxygen. 
I consider it as very probable that the oxygen added to sulphurous 
acid to convert it into sulphuric does not change its volume, and 
that we have always the same number of compound molecules which 
combine with the same number of alkaline molecules. This view 
of the subject will explain the permanency of neutrality in the salts 
whose acid is capable of combining with a new quantity of oxygen, 
and it would msJce the neutral, acid, or alkaline, character depend 
both on the number of heterogeneous molecules which combine^ 
and on their arrangement. -^ It will explain likewise why an oxide 
saturates so much the more of an acid as it contains more oxygen ; 
for it will be sufficient to admit that the number of molecules of the 
oxide increases, on receiving a new quantity of oxygen, in the same 
ratio as the number of acid molecules which it saturated at first has 
augmented.* We shall be able to conceive likewise why two bodies, 
like chlorine and oxygen, which have such decided acid characters, 
. form, on combining in the proportion of 1 to 2*5, an acid which 
saturates no more than hydro-chloric acid, which is composed of 
equal parts of chlorine and hydrogen, though the characters of 
hydrogen be rather alkaline than acid. We shall be able to con- 
ceive likewise why fat bodies and alcohol saturate acids like alkalies, 
and why the same fat bodies saturate alkalies like acids. Lastly, we 
shall be able to conceive the possibility of forming neutral com* 
pounds with bodies which have the same acid or alkaline character, 
and we will admit without difficulty that the oxide of chlorine or 
euchlorine, though resulting from the combination of two bodies 
strongly acidifying, may notwithstanding be neutral. 

Neutrality, as I have already observed, takes place as well between 
two simple bodies of opposite characters, as between an acid and an 
alkali. We may say it takes place better ; for in the metallic oxides, 
for example, the alkalinity which they ^enjoy is the result of two 
opposite properties, the alkalifying property of the metal, and the 
acidifying of oxygen, modified both by the combination and by the 
proportions. We have easy methods of recognizing the neutral, 
acid, or alkaline, state of some combinations ; but as these methods , 
do not apply to aU, 1 shall endeavour to point out a new one. 

• It is very remarkable that in the acids the saturattDg property appears tn 
depend Dolcly on the radical, while in the oxides, on the contrary, it depeadi upoa 
tv oxygcD, which they contain. 



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192 <%» Iodine. {Seft^ 

If ve decompose nitnite of ammoaia by beat, we obtain two pro* 
duotsv-^water, which is neutral; and protoxide of azote, which 
ought to be 80 toa I say wkick ^ugki to b$ so, first, because it has 
no apid nor alkaline character } aeoondly, because it is formed in a 
nanner analogous to water, namely, twa volumes of azoto and one 
of oxygm. 

The chlorurct, ioduret, and sulphuret of potassium, give neutral 
compounds when in solution in water. If this neutrality did not 
€3U8t between their elenaents, there can be no doubt that it would 
not exbt in the solutien. If, for example, there were an excess of 
potassii^m, hydrogen would be disengaged. If the chlorine, iodide, 
OP sulphur, were in excess, their properties would be easily recog* 
Btsed. But the neutral hydpo-chlorate of potash changing into 
2)eutral chloruret of potassium because water is formed, we see that 
when two of the four elements of this neutral salt form a neutral 
compound, that formed by the two other, elements is neutral also. 
' This is the fact which I wish to generalisse, by saying that whenever 
a neutni) compound is divided into two compounds of which' the 
one is neutral, the other is so of necessity also ; for example, in the 
nevtral sulphate of ammonia all the oxygen of the acid, and all the' 
kydn^en of the alkali, forming w»ter whi<A ia neutral, the stilphur 
and azote whkh remain, and which are in the proportion of io to^ 
17*9^ will form a sulphuret of azote which ought to be neutral also, 
and which will be composed of ejqual volumes of sulphur and azote; 

Q» decomposing neutral chlorate or iodate c^ potash by beat, we 
obtain neutral chloruret and ioduret of potassium ; consequently 
tiie potassium by losing its ostygen, which necessarily (fiminished itf 
alksdioe energy, naa gained as much alkaline energy as the chlorines 
and) iodine bavo gained of acid energy by losing five times as much 
9Kygen« Here is a new proof that the acid pn^erties of a body da 
sot follow the ratio of the quantity of cmygen which combine 
with it. 

Another principle, which I think ought to be admitted, is that a 
neutral compound does not destroy the acid or alkaline enei*gy of 
another compound with which it combiner. This is proved by 
showing that when neutral compounds are mixed, the mixture re-* 
mains neutral. According to this principle, water holding in solu- 
tioD an acid or an alkali ought to remain dways acid or alkaline, 
whatever be its proportion. This liquid j considered a» a solvent, 
presents therefore this remarkable circumstance, that it overcomes 
the cohesion or elasticity of the bodies with which it unites without 
destroying their characteristic properties, which enables us often to 
observe these propertiee better than in the bodies themselves. 

In the neutral state, the acid or alkaline properties being in 
general satumted, it is evident that a neutral body ought to have 
less tendency to combine with acids or alkalies than those which are 
not so ; and we may easily explain why, cceleris paribus, the affinity 
of an oxide for acids, diminishes in proportion as it combines with a 
greater dose of oxygen. By thatit approaches more and more to a 

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f tate qS tteutEftfi^) li m^ ev«n^pf0S:il, &Xkd«BulD6 ibe oha»8t)yB 
of acids, as happens to the peroxides of tin and aQtimongr.. .-. o ^..^ 

hb what k h^te, said I havt supppsed. /il^ bsgrgeii itimiBanicates 
acidifj^iag pBopeities ta other bodies ; aad ( vmi the Ipe^r eatUied 
to maise ^hia snppostitioi^ 4)6caiiAe> thoygh-^&ir H. Davy Umks l^^ 
the ehlorat«s and iodate& contain n» axud, and are triple comp«uDd» 
of the m^tals^ oxygeii^ and ohbriiie oriodine) 1 have dkmoostiBMd 
that they are^true saks, uialogoos toitl^e sulpbates andnkratei^ and 
that chloric and iodic acids may be obtained iii a<sepaEate Btatc* .i 
do not refiise, however, to chlorine am^ ibdiii&>^.«:idif3ri]ig prm 
pferty ; I go evetn further, and awign it to stil)ihttiv which itt idy 
opinioa possesses it ia a high. degree, to.pfao9phofiis, carbon^ and 
several other bodies. I have Ipng coasideoeil ao.aeid, in its inott 
general acceptafttoD, ^as nierely la body. (wlM^her it cooXains-ooDi^ea 
or no) wbic^. netitializea alkaliDil9&^ .and^ao-aUcaU is Bierely a body 
whifib neitf rallies aoi&ty« Thus id tiie soaps the oil pevfonas. the 
fuactioQ of acid^ since Mit saturates alkfiUes ', find in cestui etheiv 
the alcohol peffonoat^e function of. an alkali, ^iaee ilsiteihiles 
acids* Knowings <the eleraents o£ %dro^^pkui|caeid.and'anH' 
anoDia, and die. observations of M. Bertiiol^et ep praiatte4)cid», wt 
tamoot refuse (t# admit that a body mav be j^cid on alhaiine without 
eaotaiiiiBg OKjrgeiy, and joonsequently mmt acidi^pand alkalinity.may 
he eommuniciited by other bodies besides oacygeD. .Thfse oliiservai* 
lioDs, liy geoemlsaing our nolbns* oi acids and alkaUesy have loilr 
defedjttiip^ definition of* thew very imper&ct ;, because addicf afid 
alkalinity are correlative terms, and one cannot be damned wtthoMfc 
jmaa36» ta the Qth^» The difficulty of tracing a linit hetweeti the 
acids aDd allcaliea is atiU incieased wha[|, we find a body sonusMnite 
perfomiog the fanctiont d an acid, sofnetimei ctf an- alkalL . Mor 
can we dinunish this difficulty by having recourse to the beaiiliful 
kw disooveied by Beiaelius, that oxygen and acids go to the poss^ 
tivepole; and bydfogen, alkalies, bM iniammable bases, to die 
Bttgative pole* We cmiaot, in faei, give the name of aoid to all the 
hodjes, which ga to the first of these poles^ and that «f alkali to 
those that go tei the sec^d 3 and if we wkhed to define the acids 
by bringing into view the nature of their ekn^ric eneigy, it ipust be 
seen that it would be necessary to comoare them with 4he electric 
energy which is opposite to them. . Thus we are always reduced to 
define acidity by the property which it has of saturacing alkalinity ; 
because acidity and aikidinity are two correlative and insepfurable 
terms. 

Whatever definition of atid we prefer, we must divide the acids 
into diSerept groups, because they do not all derive their acid cha- 
racter from the same body. We have» 

h The acids propedy sa called, in which we may consider oxygea 
e9 the acidifying principle, and which ^ntain only twp elements* 
Such are chloric, ipdicj sulphurii?, sulphurpqs, nitric, nitrpus, 
phosphoric, phosphorous, carhoMc> frs^nlc, boracic, and probably 

Vol. VL N^ ill, N 

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t94 All Jbdme. fSMt. 

ftfreatniunbetof mctellic cadim, which icaDy poatess the proper** 
ties of acids* . ^ 

' 2. The adds ibmed by hydimni and another body. Tim set com- 
|irehends hydro'Chloric, bydriodic, and by drD-salphoric acids. It 
is probable that in these acids chlorine, iodinet and sulphur^ are 
the addifyifig princi{des ; bat as h}rdropen enters into them all, I 
thought it better to deduce from it tneir general name, lliese 
dsflfemt acids may be distinguished by the naose hj/dracids» Among 
this set I conceive the nioneniiis compounds of carbon and hydro- 
gen, which possess add prpperties, ought ta be arranged. The 
elements of some of these compounds, and perhaps of idl of them^ 
UTe in the same proportioQ in yoiume as in the preceding acids; and 
their molecules are doubtless arranged in an analogous manner. 

Among the vegetable acids thore are several which draw their 
acid character bom oxygen, because that body is the greatest con- 
stituent in thenu This is the case with oxalic add.. But citric, 
aaclactic^ and acetic acids, probably owe their acid characters to the 
nibon, which they contain in the greatest proportion. We ought 
to admit this in paracular in acetic acid, which wemay concdve to 
be composed of equal parts by weight of carbon and water, or of 
three parts in volume of the va^r of carbon and two of the vapour 
of water,* I am likewise oonvmced that benagdc add does not owe 
its add properties to oxjrgen, but rather to the carboa and hydrogen. 
And I consider die classification of vegetable substances cstsblisfaed 
by M. Tbenard and myself (Recb. Physico*Chim. ii. 321,) as pre*^ 
aenting exceptions. 

• Pnnsie acid ought widtout doubt to be placed in a particular sct^ 
though near that of the bydracidsi but it would be premature to 
determine its classification without knowing exactly its nature. 
: Besides these different acids, chlorine, which was always redroned 
among the adds, while considered as % compound of nsuriatic add 
and osygen, ought still to be so, though a simple body* The same 
'dung may be said of iodine, and of various other simple bodies, 
which have the property of comlnning with alkalies. Yet it appears 
to me more convenient to continue to class them among the siinple 
bodies,, and to reserve the term acid (or the compound adds* But 
it becomes necessary to divide these bodies into as many sets as there. 
>are difierent generic characters. 

Though chhmne and iodine possess addi^ing properties, and 
tlu^gh they can form adds by combining with other, bodies, we 



* tliif compotitlon «f aceiac acid docs not difcr MniUy tnm ttot 0f «m<^ 
Mattery 'wlii«b does not possess aoy acid characters. Here, tbeo, are two bodies 
comuoied of-carboDy oxygen,, and hydrogen, in the same proportions, whose pn^ 
perties are*ijtrikingly dlfoeat. TMs Is a new proof that the arrangeokent of the 
molecttlair in a compoaad has the greatest inflaence on the acid, alkaline, or oeotial 
characters of the compound. Sagar, gtna, and <tarch^ lead to the same cooclu- 
<8ions ; foi" these substances, though composed of idcfltic elements, and la the ssne 
^poction^.havevery diffecestpffoperties. .« , 



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cnght ttot a|t j»T€{^Qt| jCGOisideriDg the small nymbei of. acid$ urbi^h 
tiiev ibnn^.aDd whose existence eveD is notsufficieotly establiAeti^ to 
be .11]^ a hurry to fo^ these acids into particular sets. We^ij^t tp 
be sp.the less because there are bodies, as carbon^ which 4^16 pcidl- 
^d by oxygen, and which ia their turn acidify otlier bodies. . Be- 
sides these considerations which I have offered oa acidity,, showing 
that it is. not proportional in an acidified body to the quantity of the 
acidifying principle^ and tliat it i% greatly modified tqr the arranger 
roent of the molecules, it is necessary to wait till experiment has 
furnished us with more light before pronouncing on its true pha- 
raeters, and on the circumstances which produce it.. We know, 
indeed, that acids and acidifying bodies have an electric energy 
which is. negative with respect to that of the alkalies and the alkaU- 
fying bodies. But this is not sufficient; and we are still far from 
being able to assign from the electric energies of compounds, if the 
character of their compound ought to be neutral, acid, or alkaline« 
Thus silver having a very weak affinity for oxygen, it would seem 
that it ought to^nroach it bv the nature of its electric energy ; and 
yet the oxide of silver, in which I have found a small degree of 
solubility, is very alkaline, for it completely neutralizes the acids ; 
and azote, which appears to approach oxygen, chlorine, and iodine, 
forms a very weak compound with hydrogen, though this la3t pos^ 
sttses a very great positive electric energy. We have more and 
more rieason, then, to admit that the neutral, acid, or. alkaline, 
.cha^Qter of a compound does not depend entire]y upon the char 
raeters of its constituents, but likewise upon their proportions in 
volume,, and, their condensation; or, in other words,.. upon the 
arrangement of their molecules. 

AoDiTicms. ' 

1 bftv^ saidi vol. v^ p. 106, that on passing water and iodine in vapour 
through a porcelain tub^ at a red neat, no oxygqn was disengwd, 
and consequently that the water was not decomposed by the io£ne. 
The same experiment repeated afterwards a second time gave me 
the same result, tl^t is to. say, thai I obtained no oxygen. Never* 
theles^ the consequence which I drew from it is not exact, as I shall 
now show.. M. Anppere having exposed during several months a 
solution of iodine in water to the action of solar light, observed that 
it wa^ entirely freed from colour, and requested me to examine what 
could be the cause of this phenomenon^ We ascertained that th^ 
water contained a mijE^ture of iodic acid and hydriodic aqid in very 
small pr(^rtk>ns : and on letting faH into it some drops of sulphuric 
acid or solution of chlorine, the water assumed an orange-brown 
colour, and gave out the peculiar odour of iodine* Sulphurous acid 
did not i^olpur it ; but hydrohsulphuric acid rendered it milky, on 
account of the sulphur whieh precipitated. These experiments de 
monstrate evidently the presence of hydriodic and Iodic acids in the 
;^splution of iodine under examination ; and we imitated it by n^ixing 
together very dilute solutions of th^e two acids. The only const* 

N 2 , 

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196 On lodme. [SEti. 

quence which we can deduce fiom this <kct Ib, xhtit water was d^ 
composed. Its oxygen formed with iodine iodic acid^ nhd ft^ 
hydrogen hydriodic acid. But the quantity of the two acids which 
can etist together in solution in water is subordinate to this condi^ 
tion^ that ^en they are concentrated to a certain degree they de-- 
compose one another. 

As we can in general substitute a certain elevation of tempera^ 
ture for solar lights I made a mixture of vapour of iodine and 
water pass again through a red-hot porcelain tube, and I attentively 
examined the products. No gas passed ; and the water condensed 
had the same intensity of colour with cold water saturated with 
iodine. I heated it^ in order to deprive it of its colour, and I suc- 
ceeded. This water, which had no smell, and no action on litmus 
any more than the water obtained by M. Ampere, had likewise aB 
the characters of it, and I easily recognized in it the presence of 
iodic and hydriodic acids. As before being discoloured by heat it 
had exactly the appearance^of a cold solution of iodine, I thought 
that both might be similar. To verify this suspicion, I slightly 
lieated a cold solution of iodine, in order to deprive it of its colour, 
an effect which may equally be produced by exposing it to the ail'. 
It then presented exactly the same characters as a solution of iodine ^ 
which had been made colourless by long exposure to light, and as 
that which I had obtained by passing water and iodine through a 
red-hot tube, and rendered colourless by boiling. None of these 
solutions was coloured by sulphu^us acid ; but all of them were 
coloured by chlorine. This is because, on the one hand, the 
liydrio<!Bc and iodic acids exist in them in very small quantity ; and 
because on the other there is five times as much iodine in the first 
acid as in the second. I have, however, succeeded in rendering the 
solution of the two acids coloured by sulphurous acid, by first satu- 
rating with ammonia, and then concentrating by evaporaticxi. 

It follows from these observations that when iodine is in contacffc 
with water it decomposes this liquid, and produces with its ekmea^ 
iodic and hydriodic tfcitts. This action <« iodine on water appears 
to me entirely independent of the soleir light : and when a muti<m 
-of iodit^e is deprived of its colotir by exposure to light folr somne 
montltt, as in the experiment of M« Ampere, I aacrfbe the eSect to 
the gradual evaporation of the iodine; It appears to me problible 
that iodine is dissolved in water only by the action of the hydriodie 
acid, which is formed at the same time that the solution takes place. 
J3ut I have already remarked that we do not succeed in dc^priviojg 
hydriodic acid holding iodine in solution of its colour by boitiog, 
while we easily do so to water which has been in contact with this 
aubstance. I presume that in this last case the hydriodic acid exer- 
cising some part of its actk)n on the iodic acid, retains the iodine 
with less energy, and of course lets it be disengaged with mote 
facility. 

I have ascertained tint on exposing to light a sohltion of cUorin^ 
-«n water, chloric acid is^ produced. - -. - 



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1815.J . On hdine, \df 

Mtiiiud Decomposition of the lodate and ffydriodaie of Zmc. 

Id speaking of the actioD of the alkalipe oxides on iodine by means 
of water^ I was led to conclude ^voh v. p. 302) that if we cannot 
form hydiiodates and iodates with the oxides of zinc^ irouj &c, 
the reason is, that these oxides do not suiBEiciently condense 
faydnodic and iodic acids to prevent them from acting on and de-r 
.composing each other. I have since verified this consequence^ by 
mixing iodate of potash with a solution of sulphate and hydriodate 
of ziaa Though the solution of these different substances was not 
sufficiently concentrated to allow sulphate of potash to be deposited, 
we may however admit, on account of the facUity of the « changes 
that take place in the solution of different saltSj that the plienomena 
ought to he the same as if we had mixed directly hydriodate of zinc 
with the iodate of the same metal. The result was, that there gra<* 
4iially deposited in the solution of these three bodies^ oxide of zinc 
which ai^eared to me pure, and iodine well crystallized, and the 
solution which contained hydrk>date of zinc in excess was very 
strongly coloured. These results can only be expbiined by supposing 
thst tlie acid of the hydriodate of zinc, and that of the iodeite 3[ 
the same naetal, supposed to exist in die solution, have mutually 
decomposed each other, and produced water and iodine, and that 
the oxide of zinc held in solution by these acids precipitated After 
their destruction. 

On the Nomenclature of the Combinations of Iodine and Chlorine 
with other Bodies. 

It may be asked why, instead of calling the cpmpound of iodine 
and potassium ioduret of potassium, I did not call it potassuret of 
iodine. I observe, in the first place, that the combinations of sul^ 
phur with the metals having the name of stdphurets, those of chlo- 
rine and iodine ought fcom analogy to receive the names of cA/b* 
rurets and iodurets. But to apply in general with certainty the 
generic termination uret^ I have taken for a principle to give it to 
that of the elements of a binary compound which nas the greatest 
affinity for hydrogen, and which combines with it when the com- 
pound produces tlie deconSposition of water. According to this 
principle, 1 call the compounds of clilorine with sulphur and azote, 
chhruret of sulphur^ chloruret of azotfii those of iodine with azote 
and potassium, ioduret of azotes ioduret of potassium i chloruret of 
iodine, the compound of chlorine and loainej and sulphuret of 
cdrlmiy ioduret of phosphoruSf the combinations of sulphur wi^ 
carbon and iodine with phosphorus^ 

On .Ammonia considered as an Oxide. 

Br. Berzeliushas concluded from his researches that ammonia 
contains oxygen, because in its combinations with acids it foUows 
the s^m^ law as the metallic oxide^^ This conclusio|i is not neces- 
^ry ;' for from the observations which I have presented} an albiU is 

6 

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198 On Tmgsthu [Sbm. 

in general a substance wbichj by the nature of it$ energy, and the 
arraDgement of its molecules, is caj>able of combining with acids, 
and of neutralizing them. I have observed, likemse, that we ought 
to consider a^^bte as appipaching by its properties the nature of 
oxygen/ chlonh^y iodine, and that, like them, it may acidify ascer- 
tain class of bodies. ))ut all acidifying substances may, as well as 
oxygen, when they combine with alWalifying substances in proper 
jproportions, form salifiable bases. Of course, ammonia ought to 
be considered as a particular alkali, in which azote performs the 
function of oxygen in the other alkalies. I consider, in the same 
m-ay, carbon in fatty ^bodies, and particularly in the margarine of 
Chevreuil, as performing the function of oxygen in the acios; and I 
consider it in alcohol $s performing the function of oxygen in 
the oxides. I shall observe, that ^incethe printing of the article in 
which I treat of hydriodip ether, I have ascertained the density of 
its vapour, and found that it does not coincide with that given hf 
calculating on the supposition that the ether is a compound of th^ 
vapour of absolute alcohol and hydriodic acid. As the same thing 
|)olds with hydro-chloric ether, the density of which found by expe^ 
riment is different from that foqnd by calculating it^ a eompound 
of th^ vapour of absolute alcohol and hydro-chloric acid ; it appeals 
to me very probable that the alcohol, which may be considered a3 
composed of equal volumes of the vapour of water and olefiant gas 
condensed into one volume, changes its nature on combining with 
the acids* I hope to be able to throw light on this subject in 9 
inemoir on vapours^ which I propose soon to pilblish. 



Article VI. 

Experiments on Tungsten^ and its Combinations pnik Oxygen, Am* 
< * fAania, and' other Sulstances, to determine ike Accuracy ^ Pf^ 
■ ceding Researches^ and to promote our Knowledge of.thu Suh* 
- stance. By Professor Bucholz.* 

Introductionl 

3oME time has el^pscfl since I formed the resolution of making a 
set of experibents on tungsten, its oxides, and their cdmbinadonSj 
in order to verify the accura'cy of preceding researches on thb sub- 
itadc€^,'andin order to promote oUr knowledge of its nature and 
properties. I was in a situatiort to make these experiments in con- 
sequence of a ^onsidefab|e stock of wolfram and 3cheele's tungstic 
acid with which t was furnished^ and for whicTi I. have chieny te 
WiKtU ihe goodriejss of mV friend Dr. Haberle. This resolution was 

» Translated from Schweigger's Keues Journal fur Oiiemie tod Pbysilr, 
•ToiHlii- p-'i. ' -'-^ ■; • ' •• ' '- •- ' 'v 

6 ■ ^ Digitized by ^OOgie 



fQBdered^tQlstfpDger in consequence of a isotiyeMUoQwhieblJiQ^ 
^kh the celebiat^ natunilist Profiwor sStefens, of Halle, wi^ 
feemed to doubt the nccucacy of the statements respecting the.greai 
specific gmvity of tungsten* The ibUewiQg' dissertation contrais 
my e^cperiments and their, results as far as the time I had would aUon^ 
me to follow them up* The eontinuation of them will follow. ^ 

(A.) ' r 

Experiments on the lest Method offyirming Tungstic4cid, orroihtr 

Tungstate of Ammonia^ 
« As my object in these experiments was in the fim place, fer very 
obvious reasons,, directed towards the reduction of tungsten, and as 
1 wanted to verUy the statement of Allen and Aikin rtiat thb metal 
may be fully melted by the plication of a violent beat to tpogstat^ 
<>f ammonia, on that acoonnt my first care was to dhcover a oonve* 
nient method of obtaining a suflicirat quantity of twgstate of am* 
monia. It was quite natural tp try in the first phce Scheele's tung* 
sUc acid,, composed of oude of tungsten, potash, and muriatic addli 
Jbecause I had a considerable stock of it in my possession. 
I Exper. 1 .—-With a view to the statement of several chemist^ 
who afiirm that in order to form pure tungsMe of ammonia it \ 
necessary to separate the pure yellow o^ide of tungsten from 
jkbeele's tu^ptie aeid by digestion in nitric acid, I m»de the foU 
lowing eqteriment : — Two ounces of the triple compound of tungv 
Stic oxide, potash, and muriatic acid, were triturated with eight 
ounces of pure nitric add of the specific gravity 1*200 ; and bcmg 
put into a glass vessel capable of holding 16 oz. of water, were 
iK>iled for nx hours, and during that time were frequently agitated. 
iThi^ process was very difficult, because the salt and oxide settling 
At the bottom of the vessel occasioned a ix>ntinual knocking of tba 
vapour, and by that means the acid was sputtered about. The oxide 
oii^ained by this process was very light yellow, without the least 
shade of lemon. This entitled me to conclude that the triple sate 
had not been completely ^deoomposed« To obtain a more complete 
•decooipositbn, the whole was poured into a pprcehun dish, and 
:evapocated on the sand-bath to the (insistence of a syrup, being • 
constantly stirred during the whole process bv a porcelain spatula. 
The whole was then diliited with 12 oz. of water, and after re- 
iuainii^ at rest for 24 hours, the milky solution was separated frona 
the heavy yellow oxide. This oxide was treated ir the siune way 
again in the f>orcelain dish with 6 oz. of nitric acid* The wAt 
obtained in this manner^ and three times washed with '» oz. of water^ 
was considered bv me a;» pure. When dried, and heated to redness, 
it assumed a light yellow colour, and «;ieighed 13 drams. After 
jev^rrt weeks, 90 gr. of the same qxide pr<sciintated from the.milky 
liquid. 
With this oxide tht foltowbg ^perimenl was madev 
JEa!p^. 2t-**3Qp gr, of ^ itrnptiftOBuda whiifsb bfd beeub^iittd 



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206 Oh TimgSien? [SBrt. 

fbi*'fi(Mttie iiirit Mxttli ift Wkitb ^IdtioA ^of ooiicentrat6ch caustic am* 
jn&ifia. In about tfo hoM the xbhture was ndsed t6 the teiUsg 
t^fftperttture^ but 1 did'Mtbf this meoilis obtain a 'cotnplete solu- 
ilMt, The mikfure was aMowdd to^remain at rest fer "some titiie ; 
and by tfat» means the Ikfttid wtis aepairated from 4be nodissolvtfl 
yellowish-grey oxide, and carefulW evaporated in a porcelain bason. 
j3y this means I obtained 47 gr, of a pea-coloured^ foliated, brilliant 
jfiass, easily separated from the porc^ain Tcsseli and possessing a 
hot bitter taste. It was tungstate of ammoilia. 
^' This Fesuft; was quite comrary to my cxpfectatiiDn^ and to the 
distortion df odier ehemials, aeedrdingto WhempuretiingsticoBEide 
Ss very easily soluble in mamcbm^ This requiTed a furtter exami* 
elation <rf tlie residuum which was ihsokcble in hmmonia. 
' Esi^. 9«^^Tfab fesidutim was trearted^tfa'8 oz. of osoatic am^* 
iiionia, in lhe«a)ne manner al above tebted; after wfaieh the liqi<d 
paH was 'sepatated :ffeiri the'^soiid .powder, wUek stBl iiada rcfy 
gi!«y appeamnoe. By evaporation the solution deposited only 27 ^. 
of a salt having^theisanfe colour as vnthepi^cemig dsgpeilment,^ 
a 'pitt^hifem app<teratice, and taking tiabavp bhtif ^tastc 
' £jtper. -4. — As i 'e(mjecfuTed that the 'tungatie (Xxide *vms someu 
mhtik deoxidi^z^d bytbe amtiionia, md- llhereby rendefed'^greyy I 
tried, by exposiBg''it to*a ned heat, to bring this ostde baeic to itk 
driginal' slate, and to obtain a ^eater proportion of it 4isaoived 4a 
Klnttionia. tfound that by tbil treatment ihe-igray oxiAe again 
liSBUfbed 'a yelldw colour, and >at]fo»Med now to only 230 gr. With 

' this^pi^derthefoUov^ingexpi^riliientwasixiade./ r. > 

-' Ei^per. 5.^-^100 gt: of the san^e oxide were mixed with 4 ox.^of 
Mttitic ammohia. and the mixture was digested for 12 hours in ^ 
%ei7'mbdenrteh6at, being often agitated during the digestion. The 
liquid pert ^as then altowed to separate from the undissolved por- 
tion, and decanted off. Thk solution by evt^poration yielded SS.giv 
df*a' white powdery which iiad a hot and >bitter taste, and possessed 
«he ptopefties of tungstate of ammenia. The yellowish^grey eoloulr 
<>f the undissolved residuum' showed that even m this case^*Doiwftb«> 

* )itandiBrgthe very' moderate heat of the ammonia, a commenconeot 
•of deoxidation had tMcen place. 

' £^/}^. G.^Fhe^id residue of the preceding experiment was 
4t«ated in the- same way once more^ith'4 oz. of caustic aBomoBia, 
Md'tbe Kquid portion separated from the undissolved (lowder, whidi 
tied a tight grey colour. This solution, when evaporated, gave 11 
^. of a pea-yellow powder, whieh wastongstateiof ammonia, and 
possessed the same taste as that (Atained in the preceding ei/jpm- 
tnents. Teould not in this Otte detemiine the '<q|uantity of matter 
that had fen^iiied 'undiKohred, taoauieia {xnrtitm of ithaid bean 
lost 

The result of theM'eKJMriffientB rtidwaustthlit our tungstic oxide, 
UteF bdag^xposed ww*$d heilt^ia'WMh difficulty sohible in caustic 



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>816.3 On Tungsten.^ 301 

aitimoniay Mid fhat by fhe action of that alkali it unda^oies a {wrtial 
deoxidizement. I resolved, theitfore, lo make experifnents on dio 
^ubtlkyiaf 'Our oxide in carbonAte of aHmonia. 

Exper. 7.«— 100 gr. of tbe oiude rendered yellow in esrperment 
44h wevebeated with ft mixture of half an ounce of suboarbonate of 
ammenriia and C C2t. distiHed water, «nd the mixture was IreqiieBtly 
agitated, A few air bubbles made tbeir escape. Hie whole being 
ixfit almost boQiiig hot for two hotirs, the undissolved powder in 
this ease^aho'became grey. 

The clear soiutbn deposited on evaporation 60 gr. of tungstate 
of ammonia, having a wfafie colour, a sharp.and bitter taste, and 
not efSetft^scing when dropped into muriatic acid ; showing that it 
eontbined too carbonic aeid. - The dried residue weighed 48 gr. 

Exper. 8.— The 48 gr. of residue in the preceding experiment 
tvere Kept in a red heat for an hour in contact with the atmosphere. 
By this t ieatm ent it again assumed a light lemon^yellew colour, 
95 gr. of it were 'mixed with half an ounce of snbcarbonate ct 
ammonia and 2 oz. of water, and the mixture was agitated for some 
hours, beif% 4fiept warm all the tiAie. A lively e^vescence took 
place at fiirst. The whole was. then gently boiled for one hour, and 
the liquid portion separated from the grey oxide by the filter. By 
evapotktirig the liquid, 20 gr. df a light reddish-grey powder were 
obtained^ Wkkdh had a sharp bitter taste. The undissolved grey 
o&ide weighed 18 gr. 

• FVdiki these- expeViments with subcarbonate of ammonia, we see 
that thei« exists the same difficulty of solution, and the same de* 
oxidizement, when tungstic oxide is treated with carbonate of am^ 
raoBia. 'But as these experiments, as well as the preceding^ with 
eaustic ammonia, contradict those of other chemists, as Sohede, 
Bergman, Klaprotb, Richter, &c. respecting the solubility of tung- 
stic oxide in ammonia, I conceived that further experiments were 
liecessary in order to clear up this discordance. 
' JSsoper. 9.—-A small 'portion, tlierefore, of tungstate of aaunonit 
was converted into yellow oxide of tungsten by digestion in ooneeii>« 
tntted muriatic acid, washing it in a sufficient quantity of water^ 
and diym^ it strongly, but \rithout exposing it to a red heat. 10 gi^ 
of this oxide were mixed with twO drams of the solution of caustic 
aiainonia. The iirhole was 'dissolved immediately without the assist- 
aneo of heat. The old observations of preceding chemists were 
confirmed by this experiment. 

Exper. 10.— In onter to obtain a larger quantity of tungstic oxide 
Mtdried in a red beat, and. therefore soluble in ammonia, 3 oz. of 
Sdiede'^'tunpitieaeid were kept boiling for an hour in 6 oz. of th^ 
same nitric acid which I employed in the preceding experiments in 
a p)(Src(^lain dish upon a sand<-liath, and during the whole time the 
nkkture was constantly stirred with a porcelain pestle. The whole 
^as -then evaporated to dryness in a moderate heat» The oxide 
obtained by' Ais* process was of a fiill lemon-yellow coloun A por- 
tion of this' being washed ^ith water^ and gently dried, dissolved 

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1J03. On Tmg^ett.:^ [Sbpt, 

iiDii>ie4^tdy in ammopiaf with the exception of a ver/small portion 
of a light white substance in powdei:. 

This success excited in me the strppgest fa^pes of ^ugceediag ia 
loy object by this method^ And led me to suspect that in all proba- 
bility the tungstie oxide had been rendered in^duble in ammonia, 
by exposing it to a red. heat, I resolved to' prove th|? truth of this 
conjecture in the followini^ way^ f, ' , 

ii/l'be tungstic oxide obtained by the^ preceding process was well 
washed twice successively, each time with 24 oz« of water^ and bj 
that means freed from the saltpetre formed during the process, and 
from the excess of acid, and obtained in a state of purity* When 
^Hected on the filter, and well dried, it weighed 2 oz. 2 dr. The 
liquiji retained a portion of oxide so light, and in a state erf such 
£ne division, that it could not be retained upon the filteiv but pes^d 
through it how n^any times soever it, was filtered. This yellowisb 
piilky liquid,. being set aside for three months^ allowed the oxide 
gradually to subside. When cpUected and dried^ it weighed 2 dn 

:■ With this oxide, which had a lemon-yellow, oolqiir passing into 
yolk of egg cokmr, the following experiments were made, in ordec 
to determine its solubility in caustic amAionia. 
. Exper* 11. — ^Two ounces of pure caustic ammonia, of the 
strength which it h^ when prepared according to the formula given 
by me in the Almanac for Chemists and Apothecaries of 1805, 
p. 20, were put i^ contact with the whole of our dry tungstic oxide* 
l,oz, and 20j^« dissolved in the ammonia^ or were at least oqsi^ 
yened into a white pulverulent Blatter, 

X From the phenomena it was evident that a much greater propoiw 
^ion of the oxide would have dissolved, or been converted into a 
white powder, by the Quantity of amnK>nia em|>loyed, more pro- 
bably than all that I had in my possession, I determined, theretore» 
to ascertain in another experiment upon a smaller scale the capacity 
pi ammonia in dissolving tungstic oxide, or converting it mto a 
whitie powder. 

, . In the mean time I separated by the filter the white, light, slimy 
/natter, which existed in the ammoniacal solution. It was wa^ed 
OA the filter with ^ oz, of caustic ammonia^ and then dried. . Its 
xieight amounted to 80gr. It exhibited the properties of a ijua- 
^dniple compo>ind of ammooia^ potash, timgstic oxide, and muriatic 
acid, with some oxide of iron and silica from which the tungstic 
oxide had not been freed, llie ammoniacal solution was evapomted 
to dryness in a porcelain vessel. 300 gr. ojf tungstate of amauuiia 
were obtained, . though by an unlucky accident a third part of the 
.^lution had been lost, 

• Exper. 12. — ^50 ^r. of a solution of caustic ammonia were 
brought in contact vvith 80 gr. of oxide ot tungsten. The misture 
became s^fi^; and it was with difficulty that some remains of the 
yellow oxide could be perceived mixed with the white mass. By 
egitatioQ in.ap9i^iderable quantity of watei> find sti.UbftJer by^.^bc 

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18i5iy On Tungsten. 20S 

addition of a little ammoiiia^ tbis portion b dissolved. This solu- 
tion being poured upon ft filter^ V2 gr. of a white matter -were ob-»; 
tained, similar in its nature to the subitance described in tlie.last 
experiment. The ammoniacal solution, being evaporated^ yielded 
83 gr. of dry tungstate of. ammonia. . ; 

Exper. iS.-*-A portion of the yellow oxide of tungsten which 
bad not been heated to redne^tr ys kept for half an hour in a mo^ 
derate red heat, by which its colour was changed into light yellow.^ 
60 gr. of this oxide bdng agitated with 1 oz. of caustic ammonia 
exhibited the same phenomena as the oxide did in the ist, 2Ay ZAj 
4th9 5th, 6th, and 7th, experiments; diat is to say, it dissolvadl 
wi^ difficulty, and when heated became grey. 

From these last experim^its, compared with the preceding one^, 
we may consider the followiog propositions as established : — 

1. That the difficult solubility m ammonia of ilie oxide, after ir 
has beea heated to redness, is owing to a portion of the triple com«^ 
pound of oxide, potash, and muriatic acid, which still remains un** 
decomposed, entering into an intimate combination with the pure* 
oxide, the parts of which cohere so strongljr together, that the wna^ 
monia makes its way through them with difficulty in order to dis- 
solve tlie pure oxide. 

2. That wjien the triple compound of yellow oxide, potash, and* 
muriatic add, is treated with nitric acid, only an imperfect s^Mira-o^ 
tion of the potash and muriatic aeid is produced ; so that a pure- 
yellow oxide of tungsten cannot be obtained by this method. This- 
will' appear hereafter in a still more striking point of view, iiom 
other experiments! which I shall state. Among others, I treated the 
triple compound six times successively with eight times its weight 
of nitric acid, and yet I was not able to obtain any pure oxide. A> 
result by which the experiments. of other chemists, particularly of 
Richter, are confirmed. 

Perhaps the "formula given by the last^mentioned chemist for 
obtainii^g pure oxide of tungsten ftom wolfram, might be employed 
with advantage, when once it has;been established by further expe-> 
riments that we obtain by it an oxide really free from lime. This I 
expect to be able to prove hereafter. . 

Richter's process is contained in the sixth volume of the Chemical 
Dictionary of Bourguet continued by Richter, p. 1S8, and is as 
follows % — One part of wolfram in fine powder is melted with three 
pr four parts of nitre, till the mass flows quietly. The potash con- 
taining tnngstic oxide thus obtained, which may likewise be obtained 
by my method, by fusing one part of wolfram and two parts car*- 
bonate of potash, is dissolved in 12 or 15 times its weight of water, 
and freed by filtration from the oxides of iron and manganese. The 
colourless solution is now mixed with a very weak solution of mu* 
riate of lime, which is added as lot^ as any precipitate foils. The 
tui^tale of lime thus obtained is carefully washed, and treated 
while still moist with nitric or muriatic acid. By this means the 
exide of tungstqi js^tiiDfii^ feedJCrcnoaUme, and obtained in a state 

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2Q4 On Tungsten:^ {E&rt. 

of purity. It is lo be washed, and gently dried, upon which it 
assumes a fioe:yellow ccdour. 

' 3. In order to obtain pure tungstate of aaamohia, it is necessary 
lohave in 4Kir possession pure oxide 'of; tungsten. Respecting this 
also further details will be given, hereafisr. 

Experiments (fn the lest Method qfobtainmg Tungsten from Tungf 
Stic Oxide by means of Tungst^ie ofAmmflniaii 

< "Exper^ 14. — SO gr. of the tungstate of ammonia formed in the 
fist experiment by treating the impure oxide of .tungsten that had 
been exposed to a red heat with ammotlia were piit into a small 
glass, which was phiced in a cnidhle, and surrounded with charcoal 
powder. The whole was -eiqMMed for an .hour to a' strong red heat, 
The interior ^of the glass, when oold, isdiibited a brownish red, 
ataiost copper-coloured, matter, of aflodcy appearance, and con* 
Biderably specific gravity. I could only consider it aa a peculiar 
oiKide of tungsten, which hitherto had not been observed by che* 
mists. 

The brown oxide thus obtained was put into a Hessian crucible, 
rubbed over with some charcoal powder. Charcoal powder was laid 
over the oxide, and the crucible, being covered by another, was 
exposed for half an hour to a strong, white heat raised by a double, 
bellows. When the crucible was cold, the brown oxide appeared 
to have been converted into a loose pretty heavy substance, which 
here and there exhibited the metallic lustre, and had an iron*grey 
eolour. ' When strongly rubbed and polished against hard and 
smooth bodies, its metallic lustre became still more distinct, and its 
colour was intermediate between that of iron and tin. The grains 
. were slightly agglutinated together, and the portion that lined the 
sides of the crucible appeared to be so more distinctly than the rest^ 
This reguline mass seemed to have been softened, and showed evi- 
dently that a stronger heat than the preceding would have melted 
it completely. To see whether it was possible to fuse it, the fol- 
lowing experiment was made. 

Exper. 15. — 20 gr. of the iron-grey metal mass Were put into a 
crucible lined with charcoal powder, as in the preceding experi- 
Bfient, covered with a layer of charcoal powder half an inch thick^ 
and tiien exposed for an hour to the strongest heat that could be 
raised in the blast furnace. No real fusion took place, but a kind 
of cementation into a mass which was easily reduced to powder, and 
this union seemed to be strongest along the sides of the crucible. 
The colour, appearance, and every thing else, were as in the pre-* 
oeding experiment. 

It follows from these experiments that tungstate of ammonia, 
when destroyed by a red heat, leaves behind it a reddish brown 
oxide, and that this oxide is deoxidized by charcoal powder long 
before the metal produced is niektd.. : v 

Ejfer^ l««*^iaOfr. of 4ttog8tate<)C aauidnia agit^jaaaeiKiad 

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tSlB.] On Tungsten: M& 

as that employed ih the preceding esqp^ifiietits, weve, as in expert- 
inent 14, exposed to a strong red heat for an hour in a, glass smr- 
rounded With charcoal in acrocible. The result differed little fronti 
that obtained in the 14th experiment* The mess which remained 
behind after the process weighed 100 gr., and had the following 
properties. When spread upon a leaf of paper, that portion of it 
which had been in contact with the charcoal appeared grey or me- 
tallic. In the middle it was dark brownish red, passing into reddish 
brown, and almost the fourth part of the mass was of a fine violet 
colour below, owing probably to a mixture of dark blue and brownish 
red oxide. 

88 gr. of this mas?, or as much as the portion of brown oxidf^ 
ankounted to, were, as in the t4th experiment, rammed into a 
small Hessian crucible, and exposed to the strongest beat of a blast 
furnace for ah hour and a half. The result of this operation was as 
follows. The oxide of tungsten was completely reduced, but was 
not in the state of a button, or in large grains, but in small graini?^ 
as fine as sand, having a strong metallic lustre, a light iron-grey 
colour, and lightly agglutinsited. The weight amounted to 75 gr» 
A few pieces of a larger size were to be found among this sand ; 
they consisted of the portions that bad adhered to the sides and 
bottom of tb« crucible. 

The metal obtained by this process possessed the following prCk 
perties. When strongly rubbed upon a hard and smooth body, k 
assumed a strong metallic lustre, and appeared very hard and brittle. 
21|- gr. of this substance, composed of grains more or less agglott*- 
nated together, and of the size of pin heads, were weighed in the 
usual ws^ in distilled water, and the specific gravity .was found to 
bei 17'40O. This result is intermediate between the specific gra* 
vi£y of tungsten as stated by the Elhuyarts, namely, 17*600; and 
by Allen and Aiken, namely, 17*200. It leaves no doubt respecting 
toe great specific gravity of this metal. 

Partly to ascertain these facts with still greater accuracy, and 
partly to obtain a greater quantity of tungsten in the metallic state 
tOft farther experiments, and lastly to put the properties of tungstate 
ef ammonia in the fire, and the nature of the oxide which it leaves 
%eyond doubt^ the following experiments were made. 

Exper. I7.r— 200 gr. of tungstate of ammonia, which had been 
obtained from oxide of tuhgsten not heated to redness in the 
manner described in experiment 10, were put into a small glass^ 
which was pot into a crucible, and exposed to a strong red heat/er 
half an hour. The oxide was*not covered with any charcoi^I 
powder.' * By this process the upper portion of the glass was meked. 
The oxide obtained had a daHk grejrish blue colour, almost slate^ 
blue, <ind had in some measure assumed a crystalline appearance. 
It weighed 173 gr. 

*- These 175 gr; wrire Crammed into a crucible lined with charceM 
powder, and covered with a layer of charcoal powder one finget 



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206 On Twigiteni [Smn. 

thick., This crucible was enclosed in a larger oncj and both were 
covered by a third crucible. In this state they were exposed for an 
hour and a half to the strongest heat of a blast furnace. The result 
appeared to me. very surprising. The whole contents of the crucible^ 
with a portion, of the vessel itself, were melted into a slag. 

This surprising result, the cause of which requires to be cleared up 
by further experiments, was probably owing to a portion of the triple 
compound of oxide of tungsten, potash, and muriatic acid, whicb 
not having been exposed to a red heat, was soluble in ammonia, and 
therefqre was present in our. tmagstate of ammonia. This was not 
the case in the first esrperiments, because the salt had been prepared 
^frorh an oxide exposed to a red heat, and was therefore free from 
this triple compound. Hence the pure oxide was reduced^ and 
gave us the good results which haye been above described. 

Eapper. 18. — 200 gr. of the same tungstate of ammonia were 
kept in a weak red heat in a long small glass vessel daced in a cru- 
cible^. till the ammonia was completely dissipated. The mass, when 
cold, weighed , 1 34 g^> and had the f<dk>wing piopertks. Its colour 
was Ugh t greenish yellow, and was in the state of a scaly powder^ 
which dissolved readily in caustic potmh with the assistance of beat^ 
without the evolution of any ammonia. The 129 gt. of this powder 
that remained were exposed for an hour to a strong red heat, whic(i 
.melted the glass in which the oxide was contained. Its weight was 
reduced to 121 gr., and it exhibited the following properties. The 
uppermost layer had a dark greyish blue colour^ which always be- 
came more and more grey as we came, nearer the bottom, and ap- 
peared to crystallize finely in stars. At the bottom of the glass itself 
there was a hard whitish grey mass^ which from its weight I was dis- 
. posed to consider as tungsten reduced to the metallic state. To 
obtain satisfactory information respecting this point, I meajp the 
possibility of reducing tungsten without the assistance of charcoa!, 
or any body containing hydrogen; the 121 gr. were reduced to fi 
fine powder, and crammed into a crucible lined with charcoal, 
covered with charcoal powder^ and exposed, as in the preceding 
experiments, for an hour to the n^ost violent heat that could be 
jraised in a blast furnace. The result was as follows* This oxide had 
partly sunk through the crucible, and was partly melted iatOwf 
porous grey su^jistance, with not the least appearance of a regulu^. 

These results leave us to conjecture how they haj^ned. They 
were beyond all doubt owing to the presence of a portion of the 
triple compound of oxide of tungsten, potash, ^d muriatic acid^ 
as was the case in, the preceding experiments. 

The existence of a portion of this triple compound in our tang* 
atate of ammonia, and the injurious effects which it produced when 
we attempted to reduce the metal, induced me to undertake a x^ 
of experiments in order to obtain pure tungstate of ammonia from 
the oxide of tungsten not exposed to a red- beat, and obtained as in 
^pertment 10. » 



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ISlS.] Ori Tungsten. 207 

■.■..• (c.) ', ; . 

Experiments m the list Method of oltahdhg pure Tungstate' of 
Ammonia Jrom the Oxide of Tungsten procured from the tripte 
Comp^mndl in the way described in Experiment 10^ and not ex- 
posed tt> a Red Heat. 

Exter. 19»-*-*250 gr. of yellow. OKide of tudgslien that had not 
been neated to redness were mixed with 1 oz. of caustic ammooia 
and 1 oz^of water, and the mixture was left for 12 hours in a mo- 
derately, warm place* The whole was then, thrown upon a moist 
filter, and the nltered liquid, being put into a porcelain dish, wto 
placed upon a stove, that it might undergo slow evaporation. After 
about the half of the liqind haid evaporated, snow-white brilliant 
prisms hegm to separate, and they continued to accumulate till the 
whole liquid was reduced to half an ounce. These crvatals,, being 
separated, were found to weigh 133 gr«^ They had not the pr<^rties 
«f pure tui^tate of ammonia, which b known to be very soluble f 
on. the contrary, these were very difficultly soluble ; and from their 
appeamice,. could be nothii^ else than a quadrufde cooopound ei 
oxide of tungsten, potash, ammonia, and muriatic acid. The existr 
cnoe of. these: substances in these crystab was ascertained, by further 
»qperimentai made with a view to ascertain thdr nature* Thua a 
portion^ being exposed to a red. heat, left after the escape of ^e 
anuttonia a blue, greenish white residuttm, which, when boiled in 
muriatic acid became ydlowbh^.like the triple. salt of which we 
teve spoken so- frequently. In another experiment the quadruple 
eompoood was dissolved m caustic potash, with the escape of a 
greitt deal of. ammonia* The potash bemg neutralized by acetic 
«Gid^ the white triple compound precipitated, which remained uur 
altered in a; gentle red heat ; but being boiled in concentmted vomr 
mtic acid, aoqonred a yellow edour. 

The white residuum of the oxide treated, as above, with ammoaia 
and water, was once more digested in 1 oz. of caustic ammonia and 
1 02. of water, and the filtered liquid exposed, as before^ to stow 
^evapomtkm iq^on a stove. When the half was evaporated,, crystab 
appeared, as before. The whole of them obtained amounted te 
43 gr. They possessed the same nniperties as those iust desoflbed* 

Tlie mother leys from which these crystab had deposited were 
enipotated separately. The first yielded 45 p. of a saline mass, forv 
the most part very soluble in water, and which possessed the pro* 
pertiesof tungstate of ammonia, containing, however, mixed.with 
It, a small portkm of the quadruple oompouod. 

The second yielded 37 gr. of a saline mass, possessing the prOf ^ 
perties of the preceding. 

These 82 gr. were macerated in 3 dr* of distilled watert and the 
undissolved white quadruple compound, which weighed 33 gr., waf 
separated from the easily soluble portion. The solutbn was slowly 
evaporated in a porcelaiadish* There remained 48 gr* dPasalt^ 

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1i96 On Tmgsim [&m 

which pa<:sessed the following properties. Its external appearance 
was similar to that of gum-arabic; but it was more easily reduced to 
' powder^ and had a peculiar bitter, bitii^^ and sharp metallic tast?. 
This easily soluble tungst^te of ammonia, b^ing exposed for an houir 
to a gentle red heat in ^ glass with a narrow mouth, left 40 gr. of a 
light blue oxide^ which at the commencement was yellow. These 
40 gr. were put into a crucible, and exposed for an hour to a strong 
white heat in a blast famabe' without ^any mixtofe o£ charcoal 
powder. It was converted into an oxide of a deep Uoe cdoan 
Being mixed with charcoal powder, and treated as ia experiment 16, 
areguluswas obtained in small grains, possenkig the properties 
mlready described. . • ' 

The salt reipainiog undissolved by the ammonia exhibited the 
properties of the quadruple compdund, only it was somewhat more 
difficultly soluble, and probably contained a greater proportion of 
pxygen. It consisted of small dear crystals, and weighed 85 gr. 

Exper^ 20.-^20 gr. of the quadruple compound were put iato a^ 
glass vessel,- and exposed to a beat rwed by degrees till. ;the .glass 
melted. The resulting substance possessed the properties, described 
in experiments 17 and 18, excepting that it was less blue, anAaiore 
inelined to grey. ^ . . 

These last experiments show us not only that the prepamtioD td 
fiure tungstate 4f ammonia, by employing yellow oxide obtained 
fpom the triple compound of oxide of tungsten^ potash, andnnir 
datic acid, is venr unprofitable ; but that in this case a kitherto 
imknown quadruple compound c^ potas(h» oadde of tungstett, anh- 
monia, and muriatic acid, is formed : and, lastly, they establish the 
conjecture hazarded in experiments 17 and 18, respeottng the reality 
of the unfitness for reduction of the tungstate of ammonia ahered 
•as de£(eribed in these experiments. This unfitness is the consequenee 
o£'a mixture of the tungstate of ammonia with the so oftea menv 
tioned triple compound, which luis been dissolved by meana of the 
ammonia, and converted into the quadruple compound. 
•' '^ , . .- ■ 

. , Me$uU& 'established by th^ Experiments related in (his^ jUdem^k^ . 

1. The statement of other ehemists, and particularly of Rio|iter, 
ire^pectiiig the ^eat difficulty, or even impossibility, of obtain^ig a 
pure yellow oxide of tungsten by treating Scheele's tungstic acid 
4fith nitric acid, is established. 

2. The employment of an oxide of tungsten obtained by the 
method described above is improper on two accounts. If we employ 
It after it has beeu exposed to a red heat, we obtain by means of k 
an apparently pure tungstate of ammonia ; but for the extraotimi of 
the oxide of tungsten which it contains, an excessive quantity of 
ammonia is necessary ^ as by the red heat the oxid^ of tungsten 9 
tinited with the undecomposed triple compound mixed with it, and 
forms a very cohesive compound, and therefore very difficultly acted 
on by ammonia. If we employ the oxide without exposing it I9 a 
red heal) w^form^ when we dissolve it in ammoitfaj a great ^[uaptiQr 

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af • 'QintdfUple compotmd (die propcrtka of which ore giveiriin '^ 
periment 10) <JOftsisting of oilde of rungS^teo, potidi, arfimonii^ 
and oiitnalic add-; aadconly ^vtty loA^A qua&tity 6f lungBtate ct 
^mm^fiia caii be obtaiiied. T.hissho^ ttt UieTieces^ify.<tf.emplpy]*fSf 
.j^e«t;^ideof tUQgsteil in iheiorinatioD tu4g$tiit<^ of amipo'iMS. . 

3. Berides the yeliow and dark blue osidei' of fu^g9t^la> th/eVi^ 
ififSiDd!Jt0;Qxdst another of ^tlark toovfrrrish red ^or fe4<ii$h bro^'i 
colour. It muly b^ oteaioed ftyrtl* it)plrfattQn of hw^o tlie ^ufiig*- 
^ateof aHfmit)ma> intioniseqflence oT lire deoKidisrfrYg property ^f 
.the ftjnmtuiiii* In xespdct to thet^^gVecof oxidatianb H^0fii|t6 
ilia 'teitwseh the ydbw and the blue psidte^^ ,< ,. 

4. The complete reduction of oxide f of tttftg^b%'^^Aavin^dicf^ 
zhovjs described <is a niuc* easier pc6c^a tjiari tlie fusiOn of tjie ife- 
4ua£dwetal. This^bolds Ifketvis^ witti ixd>lyUdei]fuixri mpfngati^^ 
fl^d bth^r (Kfficuhly fijB^ me^^ ' . 

5. It is exceedurgiy ptobaWe •that ^the failufi l^lricTi differejil 
ichemisto have e»perie«:ccd In their attempts to induce the o»ide/iiii 
.ttogatei), wffli owing to a ndxtiire of tf^ triple cottffiowd «ilfa itie 
(Oside^tndptoyed'hy theml 

e. iTht fitat^meot of tiie £Ebtl^art$ atid of Atfefi ^ Aikiil ll-^ 
specting the^^ecific gravity of this xnetal ia cbbfirtxwid; W?P waj 
.caojsider i^'4, ihe m&h rfpifeeediDgstatemaents, lusineni: the tiWrhv 
T^je other jstatemebts respecting tlie colour, duatre^ iiiirdii^s^ find 
•i^rltliet£e^9 Of oar ibetriyai'e likewise ^TO^ ^ \ 

7. 'ifeo prince dP a pOrtion of Sdheete'S tbngsUc ftiid hiW 
ixihiepf tut^tearj^revente its complete redbctiob, fU»d eaQG^ .Wf^ 
iuifr imo fi^l%; ' ' 






:Mescripti&n ^ ail Elementary Galvanic Batiein^ hv^^m^t 
^0 Dr. Thdmson,.) 




qr\_,. .^.^ 

. I^igfce 'j:he ignSion of 'met^liiC .wires is liigWy ihsthictrvje witii 
r^P^jct to the va5t^quantity Qfelef^tncity evolved during the solutioii 
or knetais, l.nVade, about three years sinbe, a series of expenitobbtl 
for the pu»posfe of ascertaining the most compendious form of appa^ 
rutvis. by jwhich visible %oitiob might be. showh* .. ^ . 

flhei'esuit of these trials was, that a single plat^ of z»nC onfe ihfca 
square, when rightly naounted, 5s more than sttffidi«flt tb ignite € 

¥bdE.. Vi, NOfll, O 



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2210 Description ofgn Elementary Galvanic Battmf^ [Sbpt. 

vrire of platina ^oW*^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^° diameter^ even when the acid 
employed is very dilute. 

But for this purpose eack surface of . the zinc must have its coun- 
terpart of copper or other metal opposed to it ; fpr when cqiper is 
opposed only to one face, the action on the posterior surface of the 
zinc is wasted to little or no purpose. 

The smallest battery that I formed of this construction consisted 
of a thimble without its top, flattened till its opposite sides were 
about -^ of an inch asunder. The bottom part was then nearly one 
inch wide, and the top about -f^ ; and as its length did not exceed 
^ of an inch, the plate of zinc to be inserted was less than I- of a 
square inch in dimensions. 

Previously to insertion^ a little apparatus of wires, through which 
the communication was to be made, was soldered to the zinc plate^ 
and its edges were then coated with sealing-wax, which not only 
prevented metallic x^ontact at 'those parts, but also served to fix the 
zinc in its place by heating the thimble so as to melt the wax. 

A piece of strong wire, bended so that its two extremities could 
be soldered to the upper corners of the flattened thimble,, served 
both as a handle to the battery, and as a medium to which the wires 
of communication from the zinc could be soldered. 
' The conducting apparatus consbted in the first place of two wires 
of platina about ^ of an inch in diameter and one inch long, 
cemented together by glass Jn two parts, so that one end of each 
wire was united to the middle of the other. These wires were then 
tinned, not only at their extremities for the purpose of being sol- 
dered to the zinc and to the handle, but also in the middle of the 
two adjacent partsiDr receiving the fine wire of communication. 

One inch of silver wire y^-q of an inch in diameter, containing 
platina at its centre -^ part of the silver in diameter, was then 
bended so that the middle of the platina could be freed of its coat- 
ing of silver by immersion in dilute nitrous acid. The portion of 
9^£T reinaiqing pn each extremity served to stretch the fine filament 
of platina across the conductors during the operadon of soldering. 
A little sal^mmoniac being then placed on the points of contact, 
the soldering was efiected without difficulty, and the two loose ends 
were readily removed by the silver attached to them. 
^ It should here be observed, that the two parallel conductors can- 
not b^ too near each other provided they do not touch, and that on 
this account it is expedient to pass a thin file between them (pre- 
viously to soldering, on the wire) in order to remove the tin from the 
adjacent surfaces. The fine wire may thus be made as short as from 
^ to ^ of an inch in length ; but it is impossible tq measure wi^ 



* For the method of drawing fine wires of platina, by coating them with a 
qiiaatity of oiUer, I mutt refer to the description which 1 have fornnerly given of 
i\uLt contrivance. Phil. Trans. 1813, p. U4. Setjinnalt of Philosophy^ vol. ii, 
p. 233.*- -^ ♦ 

8 



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J8154 Qbfectiotis to Sir H. Dttt^i Theory of Ckhrine. 21 1 

precisioiiy jsiace it oaimot be- known at what points the soldering is 
in perfect contact. 

The acid which I have employed with this battery consists of on^ . 
nieasUfe of sulphuric acid diluted with about 50 equal measures of 
water > for though the ignition effected by this acid be not penna'^ 
nent^ its duration for several 9econds is sufficient for exhibiting the 
phenomenoni and for showing that it does not depend upon mere 
contact, by which only an instantaneous spark should be expected. 
. Although in this description I have mentioned a wire ^-i^ of aa 
inch in diameter, I am doubtful whether this thickness is the best. 
K^m^ howevier^ persuaded that nothing is gained by using a finer 
wire ; for though the quantity of patter to be heated is thus less- 
ened, tlije surface by which it is cooled does not diminish in the 
same ratio ; so that where the cooling power of the surrounding 
atmosphere is the principal obstacle to ignition, a thicker wire^ 
which conveys more electricity in proportion to its cooling surface^ 
will be more heated than a thin one, a fact which I not only ascer- 
tained by trials, on these minute wires^ but afterwards took occasion, 
to confirm OB,:the largest scale by means of the magnificent battery 
of Mr. Children in the summer of 1S13. 

I remain, dear Sir, ever very faithfully yours, 

• Bucffingkam'itreeif Fitzroy-squarcy . Wm. H, WOLLASTON. 

Jug. 5, 1815. 



. Article , VIII. 

Objecticnu to Sir H. Davy*s Theory of Chlorine, fiy J* Berzelins^ 
M. D. F. R. S. Professor of Chemistry at Stockholm. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

SIR, Stockhotnty June 6, 1^15. 

I HAVB just received the English scientific journals for the last 
seven months. In one of the numbers of your Annals you express 
a wish that I should explain how the theory of Sir H* Davy respect- 
ing the nature of muriatic acid is inconsistent with the law respect- 
ing the combination of oxides with each other. 1 therefore give the 
following statement. 

• According to the old theory, muriate of lead is composed of 100 
parts acid and 410 of oxide of lead. The submuriate of lead is 
composed of 100 acid -f 410 x 4 = 1640 oxide. This salt, when 
prepared by precipitation, contains combined water, which may be 
separated by beating the salt in a retort. The quantity of this water 
amounts to 133^ parts for every 1740 parts of the dry salt. Now 
the oxygen in this water is just equal to that in the oxide of lead 
piresent. You know> likewise^ that in the subtnuriate of copper 

o2 

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2lt (»jktioiiit^Skrr:iimfiTIU(^ [Siff, 

Ido.path of tbe acid ktd cdmbln^ wiili 5&9 fkm itf 4MSi6f€t, 
copper and with 138^ of water. Here the oxygetf Itt'th^ W«tW i9 
likewise equal to tbAt ih tftb iiiAk 

You are aware^ 1 plresaiiie, th^kt AfthK^cDttv^r, isbr tbe^ pdf^dMftf 
of thi^ new thebfy, agree with th^ksj^d i^ wh^t Cfug}ii Vb be' ebU^ 
sidered as a hydro^chloratb or a chloride; Sotrii^tim&i th«y ^att tSt 
chloride of potassium^ bairiiira, i*o|)per,' iron; 86A«!me$ they gMr 
the n^me of muriate of hydit>-cfa)orat^ to th^ bodi^. Such te \^ 
loosehess of the theory^ that we ckun&t pciiut out id^y ^s^emidl Af- 
feretice between tHe hydto-clildrtted nfnd chtorid^'. (¥k if We 
confine ourselves to analogy, to ^hich the^e chfeiiii^ts^ how&P<er^ 4^ 
not seem to attach any vatue^ tbere ii^ i decided di^reride iS^iHrtf^it 
the suljphiiret of pdiemhm and tlte hvdro^sulph^rel tf pbfUih, 'Wftf 
€i whtch repre^en^ the chloride^ and the 6th6r thfe h^fb-^ih^m.) 
Therefore when we wist to discass iheir 6|i*ftfionsi ^e mtfst telWtt 
all their nxetBods of e^tfping ftom th^ ^^toinratf^ ; b^eiffls^ ]# yAl 
prove that such a bbdy c^nriot be ft chlorid^i ttiej^ Mi^ TliM it il 
fl hydfo-chlc^tei deedtjip6stng and f()rttting Mtgi* gt t!i« pt^^ih«'dF 
the hypothesis;, wkh It facilit)^ ^Ich h^§ no bthefr ^afl^t^ in Ifa^ 
whole science of chemistry ; ^r ifhe stilptrdi^iti, <pKl^^uV^tSj ttA 
tellurets, of the altutline metah^ deconlpose likewise \vater ; but 
watejr in these aises ci^not be formed at pleasure, provided the 
access of air be withheld. If we ask the partisans of the new tliecny 
what is their opinion of the composition of the submuriates in ques- 
tion, they will immedialeiy answer that they are real subhydro- 
cbloratea, composed of hydro-chloric acid^ oxide of copper, and 
waterr But if the existence of such a hydro-chloric acid be real, it 
b to be supposed that the subbjrdfb-chlorates in question are com- 
posed according to the same laws as all the other salts. 

We fhiist thefe, in order to cdriVfert the 100 jiafe W'nrtlrffiK)fMj}& 
(supposed by the bid thebVjr) Into hjrdr^'chlbnc aci&j *talle dWay the 
fourth part of the ISS^- of water, the oxygen of which constitutes 
an integrant part of the chlorine, hnti the l^drogen of which added 
to 1;he chlorjjie produces hydro-chloric acid. The weight of the 
inejalli(? o^cide remains the same. The 133*5. parts of water,^ tjien, 
which the analysiis gives,, io riot '^ist wholly in Jliesatt in We state 
of water. Oiily I00'2,j3iarts exist in tliatstate^ The remaining '^*3 
parts are produced by ihe ojperatioh when the hydrogefa of the acid 
unites to a portion of the oxygen of^the bxTde Tn brder^ to pfoiiiic^ a 
chloride. Biit the oxyg(?n of the metallic dxrdfe is I'l jf^S^'whil'e 
that of 100*2 parts of water only amoupts tto 88*''6rj that is to. say, 
precisely three-fourtKs as mucn as the oxygen of the bSs'e. 'Here, 
then, we have a body composed of an acid Without oxYgeii, of ah 
oxide base, and of water of con)bination. The pxygen of the^Vater 
ought to te in this case, as in all other salt's, botli neutral and witlj 
excess of we, a 'multiple or a subnaultiple by "^ whole niimbeirbf 
that of tilt base, JBut webave lust seen that it &n^ounts only*fo 
Alree-fourths of it. Hence it follows that either the ^yjxfthesjs of 
Davy, or the irute concerning tfie combiha'tion' of oxicteV u ioflccu* 

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r^e, Kpj ^* '^ said, the h} podiesi^ of Ba vy does not comid^r the^e 

l^pdL^ as stibhytlro'cblorates. Ttcy are coni posed b/tlie chloride 

<?f ^copper or lead, combined with the oxide of the same luetal and 

with Avatcfj so that for one atom of chloride tlicre are three atonis 

of oxide and four of water, a compositioii wliicli agrees perfectly 

^ith the laws of chemical proportions. But tjjis is a mistake/ it 

ifS confurtnablej indeed, to the atomic theory of DaUoii, which pajTj 

no attention to tlie relation of the oxygen of the dtffcrent ostides 

c9iDbiiied ; hut It is contrary to the kw ^bove stated j for it supi- 

pobes that tlie oxygen of the oxide is 88*6, aqd that of the water 

117*^ ; that is, that the former is only tiiree- fourths of the latter, I 

do not know whether the new hypothesij? admits stjill other explana- 

j^Jops ; but it is obvious that the two explanations given here arc 

contrary to the kw ij-hich determines the respective ouantkies of 

i^qjlies thftt , cflfflbine. ITherefpre either that |aw gr tlje .hyjpoffiesjs ,p 

ipfiw^fr'^- Si*" j^' J?ftyy> }^ ^p^^we ..p^ py jibJectiQijs to his ii^ffip- 

ftS^Vh iSays^ •" J ^W^J ^gW?^ these argunqients js possessing^aiy 
i^Wght ; ".an^ there is no kene^I capon with respect to the paui- 
rilple^.pf 4he pi^^^iortipps rnvvmcH^d^r^nt, bodies iopabinc." t.^ 
^:fi€lt.%\^\\ik^^t^ isadinissiWe.lhjthe s^jjpi^ces. 

W^. cfijp^^d ciepik h^ t^iepadvaa^^ sme^pj^iy, 

jjind ^1^ pi;^ispf)S|^d ^ge reader^to t^heye that six years Qtlabot^r qa 
MY/ P^r* :^o ^Pa :^P^;fP o'?*i*'^!jsK;)?y ^Spi^^^Ws. experimefits the law, 
4«(||i;chf^/g(y,s 4^§es not .cjjist, )j^y^e ^een lost yvithout 'fruit/ ^^^^ 
)]^sie, ;l}0|^er9 j^t he will one ^ay c|o me tUe jpsti^e to talce tlje 

4^1e. jb .ppo^YP i^y . ^SP?rio^^ttHat 1 . I^i^e i^p^jved mj^etf )f^;^© 

' 1 tb^.I^m^^ewr^fig^ 



■ ^U ' iiiL ' .i i.i,^[,j) ' j{*f^ S? 



^m ifie^(fth,wfiichqre ^aft^ Refits, hid i/i£ ^rff^me^eni't^ 
.Matter in,ihem ; with tne\pefimtion'and Caweof^tralifyaim 
^y^r. ^ohn B. V?pgpiif e. 

{Continued from p. 46.) 

U AddiiiondtJtemarh on, the ^Positions of the Strata near BtndQd- 

A.fMJ^. WP^e Jppl it, dqwn^ ^g«?fi!^,???e Mtfee^i^m^ 
#HiWSOrA^^;{?¥*;.V^.i^JW,??^ P^ <>Pposi^e ades of /pei^d^ 
.iSP^ k^MABS t*^,^^^^P£.]^ ^J^^i^tj^JtaV jvhjch/cpmpiences .at the 
*^Jl9Wf;?\^r(fTO&^^^^ yicrf^es jofthej^^^ to, 'and 



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214 An Essay m Rents. [Sept. 

19 tlie general mode^ and one'*that is subject to some modifications, 
there is another mode by which this difference of level is produced. 
Miners often find the strata, any dbtance from a foot to more 
than 40 fiithoms asunder, in poidt of altitude, on opposite sides of 
bended-tabular rents, in places where these strata are not bent ; 
but sti«iight,'as the stratum abed, Plate XXXVIII, fig. 1, and the . 
stratum c, along with the strata B A, fig. 2, are represented. In 
the fiht mode^ the distances^ which the strata are asunder, on oppo* 
site sides of these rents, are obtained by the bending of the strata, 
and always continue, and sometimes increase, during many tern* 
porary suspensions of this bending ; but in the second mode, it takes 
place without any bending of the strata. 

I will give one cKample to illustrate each mode. Let fig. 1 be 
representatiye of the first mode. ^ The stratum ad h horizontal, 
notwithstanding the part a ^ is the distance b c below the part c d. 
Above this stratum, at the rent A, the strata are straight for;a certain 
distance, and then they are bent ; and below this stratum they are 
also bent, at first slightly, but with a gradually increasing ratio, that 
reaches its maximum at the stratum k ?i ; whose two parts k I and 
m n are the distance m I asunder, which is equal to the distance /g, 
and to the distance b c, and which is acquired by the bending of the ^ 
part m n above the line / n. The strata close to the side p g c st 
this part of the rent are thicker than close to the side Ifb : they are 
also thicker at m p than at q n, and that additional thickness 
throughout the whole of the rent, below the stratum k w, gave rise 
to the bending of the part m n of that stratum), in the mataner which 
has been shown in my first communieation on rents ; but the strata 
above the stratum m n where close to the side m c oi the reiit, 
though thicker than the opposite strata on the side / b, are not so 
thick as they are at the line nd; in consequence, the bending, as 
$een at m n, gradually decreases upwards till it ceases. Let us take, 
by way of illustration, the effect on the stratum c /i, of thb altera-* 
tion in the thickness of the strata : as much as the strata which ^e 
situated between the strata k n and c A are thicker at the line n k 
than at ft e, so much is the distance n h greater than the distance 
k e, (say by the distance k o,) and so much is the stratum g h beat 
less than the stratum inn, say by the distance i r. The bending of 
the strata above the stratum c h also diminishes upwards, from the ^ 
same cause, till it ceases at the stratuni a d, which is straight. At 
first sight the position of the stratum a d, considering how much 
one part is higher than the other^ appears to be irreconcileable wij(h 
that arrangement which 1 have considered the general one ; bat 
when its connexion with tiiat of the strata below is traced as we 
have now done, its difference from that which is the conimon one 
is easily accounted for. In fact, the arrangement of the elementa|y 
matters in this part is such, that the strata have contracted less, 
instead of more, at the line n d than close to the side m c of the 
rent j and by doing so have gradually given the stnu^t^ instead 'o( 



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J^n4. 



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Fig. 6. 




fi^S. 



Kg?6. , 





c/^/r/y ///.'//' r/^ ..,i.^fy//j /^.j 



■Et^^wtdArJX'n^mtm^t.iiumlr.,^ %^f\\ OtuiiH^- t^/hinJiU^^^erJ^^Ji^^'iJi^ 



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1^15,] An Essajf en Renisi 215 

the bended position to the strata of this, part : while these strata 
close to the rent have contracted, as usual, less on the under side 
p c than on the upper side / b. Hence also the distance between 
the straight strata on opposite sides of this rent is equal to that be- 
tween similar parts of the bent strata. 

An example of the second mode is that which follows. Some- 
times the strata near bended-tabular rents are all, or nearly all, 
straight, notwithstanding they are situated at different levels on 
opposite sides. Thus the strata ABC, fig. 2, and those which He 
between them, are straight on both sides of the rents D E ; but the 
parts of the strata bfk and e in are higher on the under sides than 
the parts eg I and dhm on the upper sides of these rents. The 
strata in this figure, as well as those near all rents of this shape, are 
thicker on the upper than on the under sides; and by this greater 
thickness the stratum A is higher sit be than, at c d^ the stratum B 
at/i than at g A, and the stratum C at A n than at / m. Now, as 
has been before shown, this difference in the thickness of the strata 
is a consequence of the unequal contraction of the stratified matter; 
that is to say, the strata have contracted more near the upper sides 
than near the under sides of these rents. But although they have 
contracted with different ratios on different sides, yet in the example 
before us the ratio on any one side has been uniformly the same 
throughout the strata^ instead of being, as in general, the least 
near the rents, and the greatest at given distances from them,. In 
consequence, then, of this uniformity in the ratio of contraction 
of the strata, when taken on -one side onh/^ they are straight on both 
sides of some rents, although they are situated at different levels on 
opposite sides of such rents. 

It may be proper to remark here that, though the strata are 
straight, and higher on one side of a rent than on the other, when 
seen in a cross section, as in fig. 2 ; yet when a view is taken at 
right angles to this section, or when a person faces the rent, every 
stratum then separates at one horizontal extremity into two parts, 
one inclining very gently upwards, and the other downwards, till 
opposite the middle of the rent ; then the higher part dips dowao 
wards, and the lower part rises upwards, till they meet again at the 
other horizontal extremity of the rent. 

2. Observations m the Upper Extremities of large Bended-Tabular 
I Rents. 

The upp» extremities of some rents are altogether situated in 
the solid rock, and at considerable distances below the surface. 
Many large rents extend downwards from the surface of the solid 
rock, or that of the solid strata, to great depths ; but some of them 
reach above the solid, through the alliivial matter, to within a few 
inches of the earth's surface. 

Some of the rents which reach nearly to the surface are precisely 
of the same dimensions in Uie alluvial clayi a3 in' the aolid tock 

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l^lotir r ^imti^ U more rdtnlkrk«M6 In tbe lowdr btttf <{f ^Hft knd^ 
yia) olay, they are sombtiiiie$ filkd wjfb ^(^r andlbe YftiMl Odkit^tifcl 
f^^jUB i«nt», 9A«l:ip.*e ufpKr hafrjt wi^ clfey dtf^fpty tii^ei \^ith 

ji|i|(tt<>r they are filled with iron tiAged 'ctey ; in l^th h|ik;liibc^6 '<h^ 
i^tp are 4mei$A wit^ o^)^ tUin Wtm of soih In thik SteDf^^ire 
ra^-£ii|nbeHaj)d con,] ibraitftiotis I tiave i^«d I'eijf^ so ciiirum^ts^tflM: 
A^ the eartji's surface ; sidd it h^pi Hltls* in Sci|;ftl^tid, if) e6i^fM(ti)r 
jivit^ Mr. Martin of that place, I iri^ Mrith tvd^^ch fe^li, t^ttnt 
ai^u^tccj in tlie ripwh, side of tKe ysrltfey arid to ijbe \v<&t <if thjk 
Susannah v^ln^ C^Aer rents t h^t tjBMh to dtity: V t^ irt(^He$ iii!k^«^ 
^^ surface are a^ wid^ in the ttUuW^t' cHly «j|ist i^jlioye <|l^ tdp df tH^ 
hpind i^fc?» they are below;, but tipwiarHs, they ititirtaiste iti Widfli' 
in^auch a mtio thai each side deviates itotti ^0^ to SO^fldm ii^leir^ 
pieodit*ti<lar line. OpposUje the aHiiVial tpimr th^y eoikVBin, dUfy 
m]»e6 throiigbo^' with large cobbl^^ Whi^h W alhe Vei^'fiUfaiWJoij^ 
Atjfhe tottbm.* The QOntenjts ih these paVte appear as If ttt^ MA 
Ji^n washed Jhto the ineilta, I have Ifeen sUcih ftents Jb Corm^H^ 
'S^uis reaching through the alUivial- tUtitt^r cfxist m6n ablindieiiitfy U^ 
Itiw aod dipooth oiolshtainoiu dUtl4cts> 3tl^ d» eotnWall Hnd IIAH 

wh ; ' ■■ 

The exiati^ooiB of fent^iti alfoml! letter, though* niii^ tt> itiilfti^ 
tN^ljshce, ii» a very ioit^rtliDt Taot. It sbo^ us t^Mit iitedhiv&ii 
Qiatt^ must have bej^n fbrmeid befdris^ tKn^se rent^; otK^i^fi^, irfkap 
a^hitig the auri^ of the ptespnt roeks) Uhe renAs cOttUwHii^ 
^a^ssed through the ahu vial tnatter* It^bb$ho\^s us that fbe allthrl^' 
faajtep wasrforined feom thjB matter beld^j whcti: tfti» matl^r^Wft 
idi^. teast aUe to ^esls^a disintegrating force : 'akid by it ^^ %ti€% 
^fit< the alliiyial matter h«8 not beeh retuot^d ' At^e th^n« 'H^ce 
titi6 ivcks or strata undern<gt(th 6ii^h>parf3 tia^ iiOt bee&^th the Ifilet 
W««ed by the ele»entav 

II. Oil STOATXriCATB09«. 

% have^saW that the ;pheno'rneii6h bf ^kmtTfWati61ri'/in-(ttite^^^ 
ini^, IS an cflfect 6f the uncial cbritraction ofniee^fiV^WMfir^ 
i; Vill ripw 'git'emy ji^«ioh? 'fer tftfe'ilsscrtiou. «tt^ ]^^ft'»|«^ 
bV previous^ necessary to give *a difibitioh ;6f tBe tehb. ^ptASShtL^ 
tipi;. consists i^ that assemblage of tabular masses,^ wherein any one. 
'^s$ 'is pqral&l (o ifiat next' dlbve^' dnd to IMt Mtt tSStnu^ h. '^ 
4>rmation that is entitled to be e^ed stratified mu^t have this ar- 
lingem^nt of partseveiywhef©/ According to fhlrdcfltt}ri<fti,^all, 
erdearly all, the remand While^iaRd-stone,; arid* sonde of the lim^- 
«tbne fermeriOQs. a^e sti^ti8<§d/bur Aefermatipfis of^i^nltft/tutiJa^ 
<4l1at<9,;&c. ar^ rK>t strmified^ tn^t^a th^lle in hoUiMs/ft^ ihejF 
«b^«t|tnes d9> oq tJhe primitive ^d uiii9flMtBi»I 'Mdis. flif(Mm^Cai«^ 
divided) in a feu; places, into tabulae ^tto6t'*«6il(ft4tidns, Ka»e 
^eti^ea been called 'sfrattfied'i^ tfdt lo'pb^ff^ss thf^ sfrtiotttfe they 
«^t%e «vj»ty^vrH.e£e dlViGfediK^'^tabteir |kl|t^'1»bieh:1sa;f9' tl^ 



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same relation to one anotl^er as I have shown tabe necessaxy to con« 
stitute stratification. 

After the matter on ^i(A ^M *A«tetfied formations rest lia4 
assumed a snmH degree of solidity, it contracted unefoaliy. Hence 
^ f^ -etf its lurfede %\iiik IxfWtt #iiin MMbSfr^ ^n^ Ht^OmilHf 
formed a number q( hollows, into which as gredpaTly entered 
originaltylffieiia inattier, 'tinn'mt^ gt^y cpmmini)teMiMl*fnecha-r 
nically suspended jn water. ^ ' , 

Let us endeavour, to ^Ilpw the fonnation of a hollow thrqqgh «' 
few stages. Let A, fig. 3, be the firslt stage. Here a Ihollow, sajr 
of a few feet fn depth, Is ctbsefved, wWch ^ais "Vkeki jmAaMj 
formed Ifey the slnRiftg of jone "part a Ibwer^lhanHie ,part tf e. Let 
H foe the-seeond sta^«. The 4iolfow has-now-g^t-a n adJlUiwal ar ea? 
maited &, fed is'fwi^e fte depft t*<at it wHs at^he^d^df Ot^^first 
stage. With an equal 'increase pf didaensioas sjidewars. IBeiween 
this '6tag^ sM'fhe 'first the hollow has %eetii gmiuttltyiittereMteg }i^ 
dinKftisfeis by ^he-simkiag-of-tbe part "a b'tatft^ iheLtilti^WitCde. 
C is th^ (hhd'stk^e; in wliic'h atibth^r^ce ^'is a!^^ to the 
hotldw. 'In thi8*n«ann«r the e«;ten»UMi 0I the hoUoiw would continue 
as loDgTistheTnjmercoiWniiW H©»coft«ra<^utftq«^^ the 

earth had acquired its )>r^nt dej|re^ of stolidity. ISbn^e hollows are 
filled whh^n^attertyf'ODedeBOBNnation, as while (sand-stone, iSec*; 
othets tiith ifhMofvitHbiJs deno»iiniitiot)s, a^ in th^codllbmitttions. 
The master Vihe foi'aierlnAm^Se has^jitQ^ede^ fr^m one^ooree;^ 
in the latter, frptm diffentnt iK>urees. Some hollows, again, were 
filled with matter while Ibrmiqg; others not till after th^y were 
totally, or at least nearly^ formed, "[^iit all'h6IIows so produced^ 
and filled, and such space»Qnly^*fsccept a few rents, contain matter 
having the stratified structure* The slow hut..gRulual entiy-inta 
holloiws<^of mmef either flftM iir^echanicaMk smperideid in water, 
b cc.i^Tiny*necessar^^ Structure ; 

but if these -boUpws had not been'fbk'mediiy tfaeoineqiialcontsae- 
tiomaif nhe-matteHbef Aw^fhdfm, 'Ae » p^ehV strtltffifed*Wibttei«<^rould 
hav^'remaFriedTor ever ih'lts^otiginal kitHatifen. rStriitifielitiOn,)then, 
in this point k>fA'iew, ^13 M 0fifecf>of<thefii«f(lual e^ntiaiittiotticf th^ 



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^19 



M<ign^ieal Obsetvaims. 



CSsmr* 



Article X. 

Magnetkal Observations at Hackney Wick. By Col. Beaufoy. 

Latitude, 5lo 38* 40-S" North. Longitude West in Time ef'-^^ 



1815. 



Manth. 


MorniDg Observ. 


Noon Obserr, 


Evening Obsert. 




Hoar. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


July J8 

Ditto 19 


8h 30' 


84* 16' 35" 


Ih SO' 


840 86^ 48" 


7'» 10' 
7 00 
7 00 
7 05 
7 00 
7 00 
7 15 
7 00 

7 00 


240 gty 30" 
84 80 17 
84 19 56 
84 80 IS 
84 20 SO 
24 20 34 
24 19 18 
84 19 li 

84 18 53 


Ditto 80 
Ditto 81 
Ditto 88 
Ditto 83 
Ditto 84 
DHto 25 
Ditto 86 
Ditto 87 
Ditto 88 
* Ditto 89 
Ditto SO 
Ditto 31 


8 45 

8 40 

9 SO 
8 30 
8 35 
8 85 
8 85 
8 25 
8 20 
8 SO 
8 36 
8 SO 


84 81 85 
84 19 06 
84 17 81 
84 17 38 
84 17 06 
84 13 15 
84 16 55 
84 16 04 
84 15 56 
84 15 58 
84 18 80 
84 16 56 


1 85 

1 SO 
1 85 


84 89 14 

84 85 16 
84 26 36 


1 SO 
1 45 


84 86 35 
84 85 35 


1 SO 
1 80 
1 35 


84 86 08 
84 '86 00 
84 84 20 


7 05 
7,00 
7 00 


84 18 58 

84 80 ST 
84 18 10 



J^agneiical Observations continued. 



1815. 



Month. 


Morniag Obaerr. 


• NoenCNMerT. 


Eveniiig Observ. 




Hbnr. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Aug. 1 
Ditto 2 
Ditto 3 
Ditto 4 
Ditto 5 
Ditto 6 
Ditto 7 
Ditto 8 
Ditto 9 
Ditto 10 
Ditto 11 
Ditto 12 
Ditto 13 
Ditto 14 
Ditto 15 
Ditto 16 
Ditto 17 


8k SO' 
8 40 
8 15 
8 85 
8 SO 
8 85 
8 85, 
8 85 
8 15 
8 15 
8 15 
8 80 
8 80 
8 80 
8 85 
8 35 
8 35 


84» 16^ 43" 
24 17 27 
24 15 53 
24,19^.18 
24 16 40 
24 16 01 
24 14 84 
84 15 46 
84 17 41 
84 IS 54 
84 15 34 
84 13 48 
84 15 09 
84 15 18 
84 17 84 
84 17 16 
84 17 13 


1* 86' 


84» 84' 49" 


—A — ' 


^0 _« ." 






6 65 


84 18 58 

... -. , ,, 


1 80 
1 30 
1 30 
1 86 
1 85 
1 30 
1 85 
1 40 


84 87 83 

84 85 53 
84 85 09 
84 88 48 
84 86 84 
84 86 38 
84 86 00 
84 81 31 






6 60 
6 66 
6 56 
6 66 
6 66 
6 65 
6 56 

"5 66 
6 66 


84 19 34 
84 17 38 
84 17 38 
84 80 11 
84 17 88 
84 19 84 
84 18 47 

84 18 ^ 
84 18 48 


1 16 
1 45 
1 05 
1 85 
1 80 


84 81 18 
84 83 68 
84 85 40 
84 81 10 
84 83 86 


6 66 


84 17 86 



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1815.J 



Magnetical Observations. 



210 



Comparison of Observations. 



1813. 



r Morning 
April J.^oon.... 

(_ Evening. . 

r Morning 
Hay } Noon .... 

(^ Evening.. 

r Morning 
June } Noon ..,. 

(^Evening 

r Morning 
July } Noon .... 

(^ Evening. , 



24* Oy 18'' 

S4 21 12 

24 15 25 

24 12 02 

84 20 54 

24 13 47 

24 12 35 

24 22 17 

24 16 04 

24 14 32 

24 23 04 

24 16 43 



1814. 



1815. 



84- 12r SSf* 

24 23 63 

24 15 30 - 

24 13 12 

24 22 13 

24 16 14 

24 13 10 

24 22 48 

24 16 89 

24 13 29 

24 23 44 

24 17 00 



24P W OH 

24 27 A% . 

24 17 48 

24 16 32 

24 27 OS 

24 19 18 

24 16 li 

24 27 IS 

24 19 40 

24 15 51 . 

24 25 45 

24 19 42 



In deducing the mean of the observations in July, the morning 
and noon observations are rejected^ on account of the great raria^ 
tion. 

July 30. — The needle, after being steady for several weeks, 
vibrated 2^ 15'^ The vtrind blew fresh from the north, and thp 
peedle has continued unsteady. 

Bvaporation daring Uie same period 3*65 

Since the instrument was constructed with which these observa^p 
tions were made, Mr. George DoUond, of St. Paul's Church Yard, 
has so much improved the construction, that the instrument which 
be now makes combines the advantages of a theodolite, transit, and 
equal altitude instrument and variation compass, and is equaliy 
pprtable with mine. 



Article XI. 

. Analyses of Books. 

h Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Lcmdonjbr 

1815, Part L 

This volume contains the nine following papers :•— 
1. Additional Observations on the Optical Pr<^ierties and Struc^ 
ture of heated Glass and tmannealed Glass Drops. By David 
Brewster, LL.D. F.R.S. Edin. and F.A.S. Edin— In a former 

Sper the author had shown that glass, when heated, acted on light 
je crystallized bodies; and that Prince Rupert's drops possessed a 
similar prqperty. On examining these drops carefully, lines were 
rbible in them, forming imperfect c)eavages^ and rendering ibc 

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crystalline structure more evident. The specific gravity of the uo** 
annealed and anneAk4.4r^ wap ftftUSi^ 4^ :^ nearly the same, 
S!27& aUcn^anfi^.^dog .made for the cavities contained in the un- 
annealed drops, Tbiese vaicuities.are occasioned by the contraction 
4if^ Jntei]|at.|:a]lSjQf tbejdcop wMle cooling. They disappear 
nirhenlihe ^rop-is beated to redness. It Appeai^y idian^ that beat 
produces ;aciysjyiUin;e ag^etiire in^glf^s^ which vaniidif» fts ibe giass 
cwls, 

the Involution pnd Pvoltdion of ^N^ihb^s. By i^Peter M. Roge^ 
MfD.^^TSiisi instriuDent conijsts in \a irery conveiij^pt. add ijfgj^ 
BMusiy contrived tlsdtiig rule, Mihieh fuust be i^neliil jin a great 
variety of cases. 

a. l)Exf)eriments^on the Depol^rizgtion of Lighf, flSj^ibiied % 

"vorwus 'Minernly Animal^ and ^egetabk Substances, tmitt n refers 

.eme Mf ihe^Phemm^a Ao ike ^gmeii^hPrirmpks ,of J?Qj^r^i^on. 

IByJ>r.JBreveiter.-rtln this paper J)r.:Br«w^tjer;gives^ list of ;5^ 

substances, animal^ vegetable, and minet^l, which depolarize light; 

aiid.of 63 substances, -which, haii^e ,po effect jn difpolawng J^ght. 

'He !then ;gives iybat;be calls.avtheory ^f the,d^pohii:i2;atipn,o<f .Ijgl^^. 

The various modes in which bodies depo]arl;pejjgbtip3y be rj^4uc^^ 

to seven, I, When the crystal possesses neutial axes, and forms 

two images which are capable of ,b.eipg,r^pj^ed visible, as incaU 

careous spar, topaz, :iuc. In j ikh> case the^hows that the apparent 

depolarization or the pencil is nothing more than -4he polarizing of 

it in a new plane. 2.. When the crystal possesses neutral axes,.and 

exhibits • otily a sipgle image, ,as Jn the du^nm M^^f ^^ variqus 

'^Jransparent Jilms. This he considersas ^xsictly the same with tlje 

?first case, excepting .that'the two images ibrmcd by the human haij", 

'&6.' being produced by the.sa;ne, .or nearly the same, refractive 

-power cannot be rendered visible by any contrivance. S. 'When the 

iprystal has no neutral axes, but depolarizes light m every position,, 

as in gum arahic, camtchoucy tortQise-^heU, &c. These bodies are 

composed of thin plates lying above each other. Each of these 

plates possesses neutral axes, and depolarizing axes. But as these 

different axes do not coinei|}e wttb^eacJvolher in the different plates,, 

the consequence is, that the compound body depolarizes in every 

direction. 4. When. there* israa-^^iprQaph taa neutral axi^ as in 

ffoUUJbeaiers^ skin, &e. In this case the body is composed oS thia 

^»ms,^'l!ke the preccfding; but thevpeii^al 4ffies^df>>ea«||»iai&inieaDly 

coincident. 5. When the crystal depolarizes or re3tores only a part 

of the f6]mg^ifM^^,^v&\m^fk^lmfiiomtmiffl^^ 

AiwfctehxTpbssesa^ia. pB^pe^ty.^^«8i^^g^f^»tly.i8r3«rtg 
itnjwtlilhacd. iS^'^fiNkm . the iixyslaMei^l^rizes ,^n;i|Qpus,^^;^|^\^f 
f|||^«bus*Jlight^^a8»ihe:>oi^ ofi^mfit^. \ SA^m^^Htlf^m^^^ i^^'^^ 
« Iimdiwed,^edQesia0tottaiiptitQiii«»pto 
MMcaiiiirilyiliiUoHts^irom the jAQPfimeP^^^WJier^^M^itt^pJ^^ 

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14n».} Phitosophkai 1¥^mM!ttm^ ISlSj Pari t 

dU'iH^thlf #(d^Uti6btf tb«?4Mtoitfeoi]8 spcv. £v«f}f body trtikli^ 
posseli^ mii klxid irf ^mpdkikmAcm fornw <Mier a bright m4 i^ 
iMSteK^ti^ )Mi)fi^» o)r a mn^ uki^) the l|glic of wbiA k Oi fiolar' 
ized in Am mii€ inMtie%» 

4fj (M' m EMib/i^ &nd ttdwifig SPhmrf^ dUtmetdi If i&i^mg i0 
itk i4irim'^ BHdUrtgmi. % John Storer, M.]X---iti di« y<!ar 
i«1 1 it batirlg WM «l8fde k^ the iMrbO«ir of BruHlhg^oti, in oMkr t9 
a&Hfe^mitt tbi Ibkkta^is tt tiie beA of day «rhieh ^ottdtitutes fli^ 
iJWf^i. Tt^ W&rliinM h*v)i]^ bot^ thtough 08 fe^ of very solid 
dfy) Ma4fl6imE#dfribikMgh 15 ^t of a cratM«iou9 flinty gni««l oP 
a very concrete texture, tiie auger wad pereei?^ to 6tnke against 
tte tolM t6l«k^ A(^ tbey imk utmbk to itiate any hnpl«9»{oii upon 
thjs feclk, ttie yi^a^ i^hs ^'re« up fe? that tide, mthont Any appear-* 
2»tt itf ¥^ttt^. Bot <^ jiit g>radttally fttkd wMi fresh water $ and 
^^ tfte lid<d MH6 witltin 4t or 50 kiefaes of %he mduth df tke bot«^ 
^is mt^t mtf9miidimA ^Gbbtifmed lo do a^ tiil tlia tide had 4A>bed 
56tti1bM4&^^&iriitolido^fhetedythof thefa(»^e. This pit 
im am^frat^A MiiMm»A f«to it italic and It conthntes totn^eiflow 
vAih \Jh6 Mtti« Y<^gdlai% a* M first. Mr. MUne, CoHtfctor cff the 
eMomil ftt BriALff^n, hfts fot«toed %h« follo^itfig theory to aceocirit 
i&t tWii ^t^iochi pl4«tH^e¥iott. The bed of t!lay, h6 eoneeivcs, eii«- 
tm6h to SaRith'«i4ck tt^ml, Hvhkh fafim a bbf «ciMs the opemog of 
tte>bik)^4 ^oiut ^ciA ttiW^h fiy>m the qday in a s4fifMh-eas«efly direi^ 
dl9ft. Tte i«ki witter 'iViul^h ftdws bdo^'this claycaHfim bedis-* 
i^H^edtiH ft'lilHve^at ttie ledg^crf rdeks i^bei>e fbe elay 4«tMA^ 
rilft^. fts l^iie iVil)4MlN^ <»ith ttioto^ 1^» 're9ktafU!e^ •a^i^tsofdingito 
tift 'dej)tlh trf tiie i^ ¥rt»^r. i4«nce the reason vAvf ih6 ^felt wcr- 
Mfv^^^V^ Hide. l%^re k a eihcu AMtitoee ^hMii Dr. Slorer thmka 
iSllD^rt^ iAg*kfet "M^ hyp6!h(!«i9. Aft^ grtttt mkis, the c^mh •«( 
«t^rtr^';NRM«rf5'^ev«[ted, tod thfe ^disx^harge prolon^^tlritrgett^ 
trd^. His'thtitte^he subje^^'thight be eh]dda«ed by a ittore peyfbft' 
il^(lfif^.ti^6e ^vfth ¥be t}eculhMrittts^ the springs efH tfiis pait of^^ie 
coast which are called ^/piie^. 

h. '^Ue^BffibibW^rMpie Presmr^ in predtidftg-^hM Sp^Hes of 
€¥yitvilbieiii<mi>uhimjhhm Ht^ oppositely ^Polatizeid Imagi^Sf mi 
mtHfHsihe cM^liHfentittyCoimtrs by Pokrha^d 'Light. By9r^ 
SldWIt^r.-^fte ^«F(hOr Ibuhd thist ealPs^^^iQit jeVly and Isii^ass^ 
^^ii^firik'jgleMKMftM, €{d nbt possess the property of dep^rkfni; 
1^-; btft <^^y ^ftfdiuldly^eqvrirbd it- by lEee{!lng^ andiitt&iediMi^ly 
l^'bi^siS^e iMttw^^ ltvb^l«res of ^a^s. 

«-* -Si^pl-^^Wc^WS? ^ttJffe tt;itt ttiew'to (Bt^Mrttitin tkePrhttipieM 
ismkt/ie Oiftkh ^tf'eHe'mtifi Hepeiids, ctiid the itela^m whieh- 
subsists between that Organ and the Nervous System. 'ByAJP*- 
Wilson Phih'p, Physician in Wbrtcster. — From these experiments 
k appears tbtil the brain or spinal marrow, or both of them, may 
B^ U M W»a^W < j ft i tte^dfly, o^ de^rthy^ slowly, ^Whi^t impeding 

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Sit Anahfsefs of Booh. [Sspn 

that when stimuli (akobol^ opium^ tobacco,) are ap{4ied to the 
braiaor spinal jnarrow, the action of the heart 19 greatly increased; 
and that when the brain or spinal marrow is destroyed at once by 
crushing them, the action of the heart is destroyed or impeded. 

.7» Experimenis to (^certain the Influence of the Spinal Marrow' 
en the Action of the Heart in Fishes* By Mr* William Clift;<— 
From these experiments it appears that the heart of a carp continues 
to beat for several hours after the pericardium is laid opeo ; that if 
tbe-fish be left in the water, this action ceases much sooner than if 
the fish be allowed to remain quiet in the open air ; that the spinal 
marrow may be destroyed, and the bmin removed, without injuring 
the action of the heart ; but that this action is somewhat injured by 
suddenly destroying the brain » 

8* Some Experiments a;nd Observations on the, Colours used in 
Painting by the Ancients. By Sir Humphry Davy, LL. D. F. H- S.« 
— ^The. author, while in Italy, had an opportunity of eicaminjng. 
spme pigments found in the baths of Titus, and some dug up^from^- 
Pompeii. He made experi^nents also upon the fresco paintings in 
the baths of Titus. Tlie following are the iacts which he ascer* 
tained :— -^I.^The red colours employed in these pabtingn were red 
kad> verjnilioD, an^ iron ochre. . 2. Th^ yellows were yellow ochie, 
in some cases mixed with chalk, in others with red lead. The 
ancients, likewise employed orpiment and massicot asyelfew paipts* 
3. The Hue was a pounded glass, composed of soda, silica, lime» 
and oxide of copper. Indigo wa& likewise employed by the ancients, 
and they employed cobalt to make blue glass,* 4. The greens vfeie 
compounds containing copper; sometimes the carbonate mixed with 
Qhalk, sometimes with the blue glass.^ In spme cases they consisted 
of the green earth of Verona.- Verdigris was likewise used by. the 
ancients, 5. The purple colour found in the baths of Titus was 
dither an animal or vegetable substance, perhaps the colouring 
matter of the murex combined \K?ith alumina. 6. The blaeks were 
carbonaceous matter; the browns, ochres often containing manga- 
nese. 7* 1"^^ whites were chalk or clay. White lead was known 
likewise to the ancient painters. 

9. On the Laws which regulate the Poktrixation of Light by 
Ejection Jrom Transparent Bodies. By Dr.^ Brewster. — This 
paper may be considered as a treatise on the subject. The author 
ascertained by experiment that the index of refraction is the tangent 
of the angle of polarization* From this law he shows how all the 
phenomena may be deduced, and the result of all the experiments 
determined beforehand. But from the great conciseness of the 
paper, and the mathematical dress in which it has been put, it is 
out of our power to convey to our readers an intelligent abridg- 
ment of it. 

II. A Treatise on the Econoiny of Fuel and Management of 
Heaty especialh/ as it relates to tieating and Drying by means of 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



1815.] Prw^eiings of 'Phiiosopkical Societies.' 22$ 

Steam : injbur Parts. !• On:the Effects of Heat j the Means of 
measuring tt, the comparative Quantity of Heat produced by d0s». 
rent Kiim ofFuel^ Gas Light, Sfc'. 2. On heating Mills^ Dwells 
ing'hoMses, Baths, and Public Buildings. S, On drying cmd hedt" 
ing by Steam. ' 4. Miscellaneous Observations^ Wuh manynsefid 
Tdbles. Illustrated by Plates. With an Appendix :' containing 
Observations on Chimney Fire-places, particularly those used m 
treland — on Stoves-^on Gas Li^hts^-^-on Lvme-Kilns^-^en Fkemaces 
and Chiftmeys usedfifr rapid Distiliation in the Distilteries ofScot^- 
land — on improved JBoilers for evaporating Liquids. By Robertson[ 
Buchanan, Civil Engineer. — Glasgow^ 1815. 

This ample title-page is isufficieat to inform the reader what he 
may expect to find in this useful little work, which is of too miscel- 
laneous a nature to admit of an analysis within any reasonable com- 
pass. The roost valuable part of it cpnsists in the details with which' 
It furnishes us respqcting the modes of warming buildipgs by steam 
employed by manuiacturers in different parts of Great Britain. 

. III. A Practical Treatise on Gas Light: exhibiting a summary 
Description of the Apparatus and Machinery best calculated for 
Illuminating Streets, Houses, and Manufactories, vAth Carbureted 
Hydrogen or. Coal Gas : with Remarks on the Utility, Safety , and 
General Nature of this new Branch cf Civil ^Economy. By' Frede- 
rick Accuth, Operative Chemist, Lecturer on Practical Chemistry, 
on Mineralogy, and on Chemistry applied to the Arts and Manu- 
factures, Member of the Royallrish Academy, -Fellow of the Lin- 
naean Society, Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences at 
Berlin, &c. &c. — London, 1815. 

This contains a perspicuous and popular view of the subject, and 
may be of considerable utility to those wlio, without l)eing ac-. 
^ ^uainted with chemistry, wish to have some general notion of the 
nature of gas lights. 



Article XII, 
Proceedings of Philosophical Societies. 

ROYAL INSTITUTB OF FRANCS. 

Account of the Labours of the Class of Mathematical and Physical 
Sciences of the Royal Institute of France during the Year 1814. 

(Continued from ^. H9.) 

' M. Auguste de St. Hiiaire, several considerable botanical disser- 
tations by whom we have formerly mentioned, has given us one this 
year on diffisreot fiimilies of plants, in which the placenta, that if 

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iW rt^« the If ^^ ii|iel£ tp piw^tTat^ ^l|e pl^ceim « ^^ basje^t §^4 

primulaceiB, the ^or/j^^f^, MmWPhnil^^i jf^W^»V^W» *^ 
l^llicfi IP A .inore dii^ct way. For tUis purpose t^p^ f?S^ts fi^ first 
v^ry fine vessels, proceetling ivom the ba^ of th^ fityie tp the 
sumipit (4 tilt* placenta. These filamcntf a^-e destroyed alter |pC3fth;^ 
4AtiQn^ »nd tliea only tlie summit of the pl^deia^ jSfcomes ^e, *" 
JM^, fje St. nilaipe conceives al^Q that mete ai ways exist^ ^ i^p^nt 
w a por^^^iffercnt from the uuihtlicui, by wMch^tlie 'f]^n<^^ 
fressels arrive at the grains and to which M. Tdirpiu,' as wie^ have 
inentioned ik one of ^uar pr-eca4ii^«epOrts^ faaB glvea ibe naine of 

l^re^^tf joaaujj cjeta^^cl pbs^ry^io^js (unjfqrt^oat^ mf:<^ f^VS^^ 
jbk of ftwl/si^) op th^ ^articMl^ pJ^Qter«.Qf e^xtfi^ ]^t§ .of^ 

«ep«^ a? tfpee fqr pufv geperft, m^ m&^ QmxXiQ f0 i|^p|a|pi|^ 
4'4fer^t km ^l^oufi ^^ wJdioli ipcQu^l^w Gfi^^\i^s};^^ ^^^P^ 
placed riiW^ '. . 

of the i>eight of a tree^ very rema];]^al]|Ie f^r tp^ ei^inp^ sji^p ;^ 
i^« leaves^ and pelehrat^ for the i^tility of its fruits, which turn^^ies 
tb the ioh^bitaBt^ of the torrid zone one of tji^ priticipa} ani^ciles of 
th^r/ood.. Theccdtivalion of it has multiplied the vanities to slicB; 
^ degree^ that there Me probably as nrany ^orts as ^we ppssess oi 
apples or pears ; and it is equally difficult to di&dngulsh among 
ihem the primitive species* Accordingly botanists diflFer very mucU 
in their enurneration of the species^ and ifi the characters which they 
assign to thein. 

M. Desvaux, ^ho has cqflJecte^^U tUa^ observers say of the dif'* 
Cetent plantains^ of the difference of their fruits and of their uses^ 
thinks that there >re 44 v^ieties in :ithe qem)ixKvi ^cies, or mma 
paxadisiaca of Linnaeus ; and three distinct species of this plaotf 
tamely, the mysa sapienlum^ Lin. the mtisa occtnea^ pretty conunotf 
^tvprfim^t in o,«r;gf ^cxi-lipuses, ^nd the ^r^eie^ ^4^(ixi\^ ^ JSi«WP. 
in ^ 4f9urney |o tt^e 3pui::c^^ the Nile. 

The fig is a tree, the fruit of which has undergone still greateif 
modifications by culture than the plantain. M. le Marquis de 
Si«£GRSp> wfaa jUv)es in, Provence^ . a /Oou|:itry anciently cekjbs^d &t 
tfie;g$i9doe5s tof its figs, pefcelving that the .cukivators and pco**? 

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.able tp j^^k «>y W>d cw^b rfsjl^wiw, wl l^t ijljcy ,4p ^Jtf ,dff Jf frpjp 

cpltiyi^e^ pn Ibp CQ^ 9f tb^ jyje^itencfttiWJ, f;:Wi G^pp^ tp Pgr- 
jfVgnftn, He ba^ i^lie^);)!/ Collected qplpu^ed '^^^ wjl Wfide nfi 
exact ^s^QripUpn, pf 472 v»j;i^i€s^ i^d ^3 ip0jerjil jr^vi^WjU W^ 
yet t<wiBuiiatfid^ fi» lie ba» Jftpt c;i;bAMJ^t€;d t*V^ »*9^c >9f Pf^^^Pp ,fW 
has not ypt visiti^ the «oast pf l^BiVif^^Qfi. 

Xhe part of jhis ModeartfiWiPg wlvcb b^s >€|w ,conw«wnifiatcd tp 
the Cl^^.^Qouaoe^a work sv.V^b viQ beirjpiv,ii9(Bliil tp^jir^M^h^ 
clefartpifiiM^ .especially if tfa^ wtjior fi,iA tb» r^^uisite detail? ^ 
spoctiQ^ tbe leaves aodbuds^ ^d if ^e coin^let^ t)ie cb^j^teiis if 
accviratie. comparisons of the difierept varieties With eac)[i pthi^r. 

M» Tbiebaut de Berbeaux, who proposes to give ^.^fim^XWi^ 
latjQp pf the workf pf Theqpbr^ujs, md wkoj.in.pr^^r fy Jgpow 
uipyRc fi^jcMjr^t^ty tbe riai^t^ o/ wbicb t^at .c^t^^^fed svqcp^r ,qf 
A^i§tptTeii»s .^li;ftn, W pl^Vd^ ^^ jwtljr ^ej^eps^tfld^ jpurQeai 
Into live pQii^tnes ,wDere4^ei§e yegeil;siW«.s gsovuh^pxmnXQ^ t9 W 
Cla^ jsoipe ,Qf tj^e re^iults wbiebj^e b^>ii;e«dy ^b^aiped, ,f^«t^f^ 
iTespcctii)^ tb? ^ecies indfc^ted.by JTbeopbr^tus, ,hqt lik^wisp .i;er 
fipecting;those .abput ivtujcb .^bfire.i^ ♦qjwestipn in the ,p;;ber.<2r4^ >m/l 
Mtmambors. 

Xhw? the cAfl(r//5 ?*^hfcb tbe soldi w,pf,Cflp?VtdiacoJcei5ed>^fo|p- 
pily under the walls pf Pyxx9QhlW!^f ^^ ^ '^^ -9^ wWjfb |W 
servi^d tbc;i\[iffcoia faoupe^ de^erv^^s tp ,1^ ^ac?er,taiped. i^tl^ent 
tbbimime 13 givejo tp a sc^all ^qu^tic ^pUpt, if^rjiich .c^rt^^ly ]us ^t 
capable of npurUhing aoy j^ersqp: aud re^pectw^ iljfB di^ra pf 
C^m^^ %\i^xfi ate ^lino^t ^ vasmf c^iiu»^s ^ DUegce ^c JptoiU^ii^M^ 
bave:«rtlejqd/ed to ihe siil^ect. 

iM. dpBei^iefiiujK, ftft^r h^ijjgj^j^n^d ^m^^ifitiqatpd ^cqi?^- 
ivety jiU .tbgs;e ppinipijs, .sii^cfjip qjm;, ,af .wiueb .Cluvi^ alppei)id 
spoip ^yi^picipp. ^e ahows xW the chftra m.m .be 91 ,^ws.ijf 
cabb^^,\apd tHi^tbAt.ijt.jEas ti)^ pl»Qt )cpovi^p ^t ^present by.t^e 
.OAme pt crmnkeiQTifVKia. J'tis |pHwt,grp.ws jabwdaptly in tte j^a- 
triropsiof 3)jfBi^(4utHnj> wd;fP allili^ngaiy «nd Tqrkey. Its^WJts 
are v^r^ Jqpg jmi Jftrgc, .firm, ,^^d ^f * fppd t^ste, wWoh ,^jce .^atea 
both TA^wd Implied .JP ;ajyi the.opumfi^;qf ,wbi«bweJi^«e spofcRp, 
and iwhiQb are.pf ^pceat ia\ppTtaoce iip tiipea.of ^(a^rcit/.. 

Several XatijojiMtbprs dwtipgpijh.by the j^aroe pf \3\vfi di%cqRt 
marshy pl^pts; ,but{tbpy*dUtii}gv\i$b particiUariy .by,tb^t^ivir^ Piye 
plant,' .wHicli .fprnisbes, .t(\ey ^^ .ejicellewt food rfQr,shiefp. ,^s 
atto^gfaquafiPljl^pt^, there ,isj3cai«ety otjier tbmi i\kt Jesi^ufifL 
flidians, whiqh.is /sp^ghtiafter by ;?Wpj wd as this grasfi cov,ei;a^ 
^eat jpart ,of the u^arsjies^ia Ital)?, ¥• ide Sjer^eiaif^ ponc^^ t\v^t 
,it ponetitMtes .that J jjficuli^rj^eicies of ^^Ifja. M^ 5 shp«(» ithat ^aii thp 
Bassagi^ jp vfhich it 13 .paj^njipqed ajppfy veiy ,i^(^]l tp Xkfi ij^tuwi. 
He shows also that this is the grass which Theopbrastuif aKi4 ^y^ 
6reeksidj«tii\giwsbedbjth(B.flweipf fetf>^a. * , 

Tlie ^pjclfints, boast ini»Qb pf the.iisj^ul;BrpMrtii^}itf .^ 
VoL.VI.NMII. P ^'T -^ 

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226 Proceedings of Philosophical Societies. [Sept. 

but they describe it only imperfectly ; and the modems have formed 
different opinions respecting the plant to which the name should be 
applied. Some have supposed it to be the medicago arlorea. M. 
At Berneaux, who has made an elaborate examination of the sub- 
ject, thinks that it is the cytisus laburnum. But as Pliny speaks 
dearly of this tree under the name of laburnum, and as he con* 
siders it as different froai the cytisus; and as some parts of the de- 
scription which Dioscorides gives of the cytisus does not agree with 
it entirely; it would seem that M. dfe Berneaux' opinion on this 
subject is still attended with difficulties. What is always of great 
importance in such discussions, neither Pliny nor the other ancient 
naturalists were so accurate that they may not sometimes speak of 
the same plant under different names, or of different plants under 
the same name. 

M. Dutrochet, a physician at Chateau-Renaud, interesting obser- 
vations by whom on the egg of (he viper we mentioned in 1812, 
has generalized his researches, and has presented the results to the 
Class in a memoir on the envelopes of the foetus. We shall here 
communicate some of the propositions, remarking that they have 
not yet been constated by the Institute, because circumstances did 
not permit them to investigate the sdbject in the season which would 
have been suitable fof the purpose ; yet- an extract of this memoir 
must be gratifying to physiologists, and may occasion new observa- 
tions on a subject obscure, though interesting. 

The author says that he has observed that at first the foetus en- 
closed in the egg has an opening at its abdominal walls and its 
amnios, through which passes an extension of the bladder, wliich 
formS'the chorion and the middle membrane ; so that the umbilical 
vessels are only a production of those, of the bladder. According to 
him, the egg of reptiles is a vitellus deprived of albumen, and in 
the viper the membrane of the cock of an extreme thinness disap- 
pears about the middle of the gestation, and then the naked chorioa 
contracts adhesions with the oviducts without forming a'true pla- 
centa. Thus this membrane of the cock would be analogous to the 
tnemlrana caduca of maaimifeTQVis animals. He aiErms that the 
tadpole does not throw off its skin in order to undergo a metamor- 
phosis, but that the anterior feet pierce that skin, that the jaws tear 
It, and the openings cicatrize. . The egg of the frog, and of this 
class of animals in general, is a vitellus, the emulsive matter of 
'which is contained in the intestine itself, which, at 6rst globular, is 
elongated by degrees in a spiral tube, such ^s we see it in the tad- 
pole. M. Dutrochet has likewise very particular ideas about the 
respiration of the foetus, and particularly about the bronchiae of 
tadpoles, which he considers as placed in the cavity of the tym- 
panum. We shall speak of them at greater length when it shall be 
m our power .to verify them, and to throw some light on theh 
nature. ' 

Comparative Anatomy had not determiiied the nature of the re- 
v^pu^tory organs of thecloportse. It was kuQwn that these animals 

6 

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1815.] Royal Institute; fi27 

.have, an analogous stri^cture with crustaceoiis aDlhials« There was 
reason toJbQlleve that the plates, placed under their fkin were sub- 
servient to their respiration, as they are in the. fresh water shrimps^ 
which approach very nearly to the clopori^e. But the fact remained 
tp be established^ and an apparatus ren^ained to be.showny eithef at 
their surface, or in their interior, proper for this function* - » . 

M . Latreille, Correspondent, who has been lately iiafned> ai 

member of the Class, has filled up this gap in zoology, . He has 

shown on four of the plates in question a little yellow part, pierce^ 

.with .a hole, and containing within it small filamedtsj a part which 

hq compares to those which, though differently placed in the spiders 

and scorpions,, have, however, an analogous structure,^ and fulfil the 

same iunction. However, notwithstanding this partial resemblance^ 

. and notwithstanding the existence of a sort of spinning apparatus^ 

which he has observed in the cloportse, and which is analogous to 

that of the spiders, IVl. de Latreille still leaves thccloportsk ajfnong 

.the. crustaceous animals, on account of the much more numerous 

relations which they have to that class. . 

The insects haver for a long time been divided into two categories^ 

according to the structure of their mouth ; one set having jaws well 

developed, and capable of dividing solid food ; and another having 

only a kind of suckej*, fit only to draw in liquids. There are some 

.iqsects which at diff^^rent periods of their life have eadi.of these 

forms of mouth, and whiqh become suckers in their perfect state; 

, though they were bruisers or chewers in their state of larvae.- Such, 

for example, are the butterflies, which employ for nourtsbment a 

double trump, usually in a spiral form, . which they unroll to intro- 

. duce into the bottom of the corolla^ of flowers, and to suck up the 

nectar there. contained. While the. caterpillars, which are merely 

butterflies not yet developed, have mouths ai^med with strong man-> 

dibles, with which they cut. the hardest leaves. It was believed that 

.. the caterpillar, on assuming the wings,, the long feet, the. beautiful 

, antennse of the butter^y, assumed also its trump^ and lost entirely 

its jaws. 

M. Savigny, Member, of the Institute of Egypt, has proved by 
delicate and long, continued researches tiiat ibis is not entirely the 
^ case ; but that Nature in this circumstance, as in many others^ 
. confines herself to diminibh eertain parts, and to increase others^ 
, and that she arrives at effects entirely opposite by this sjniple change 
. of proportions. He has discovered at the battom of the trump of 
, butterflies two organs exceedingly small, but which represent the 
mandibles of the caterpillars. At the back of the. support of this 
same trump he has found two very small threads, which, appear to 
.him analogous to the maxillary/ })^lp^ ; so that the. two. plates of 
, which the trump is composed are, according to M. Savigny, the 
extremely elongated points of the maxillas, that is to say, of the 
. inferior pair of jaws. Finally, the great palpffi known to.all natu- 
ralists are the paipae of the inferior lip« The two sn^iall maxillary 

P 2 



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tn Proceedings ^ PkUokiphkal Societies. [SuPt. 

ptkpm kdi beeh already obser««d in womt nwths $ but it is to M. 
wtgny that itw owe tiie kodtvledge titat th^y eaist in Itba vtMt 
fcmilyw This aUKil tobaervcr ba% iik^vrnt ^estMhMA 4t marti^d 
anal^nr betwton the ailk and i^ome other Mndl parte wineh osMMjr 
aeccoikipeay the ^tnfeker of iosects m«h two ^nti^y and the mandibtii) 
and maxiUie of cfaemug insects $ go that the ^truouire 4)f this mi- 
fndtms x\mt ^animals ^ei« ift this impettatit ^rt of too^gaMuza- 
tiotn iiii umifbitniity more salikihctdry thsfii ti^ Men hkherto s^ 
^Nised. 

M. Savigny has jtkte^be exaniiiidl ^ m^t^ «f instds Hvhieh 
|oito to j^^irs evjdecitly tdigodv^rabte as such a trBm}) farifyed (yjr ^ 
fitokttgtiilkm of the vitder ii^. The fDOi»«eiiiarkaMe ef iSiese in^e^te 
ate tb^ lieea. }t waa aappoied ihtu the opisHiog^f the filbaiytix wis 
aittiated below «hns trwop and Idiiftlip, t«4i]te in Ae drditiary ehewtiPs 
it ft ^ohted ab€^. Bbt sliis was « %riMakfe. *rbe ipharyna' is vilways 
"on «be1«ae of the mtmp^ Md Aqs e^en environed ^h paita iiite^ 
mting^ jsnoun^ and of ^ch M^ Sa«j^ny itttt^givena deseripfkte. 
His memoir is destined for tbesgipdia ^^kim 1§3^9 '<tlie li^raffma- 
tion of arbicrh ^ft shall soon osv^e «o tbt MMirous Kmnifioettee <af the 
King. 

M. Guvier has exstmte^^moibetr class of steittiab, wh^se mcwth 
fveaeiita 'Kket\rise^ at.kast ia ^ppeamnce, tiMierdos afndimdies'; 
«ai»ely^ fiAes. We fiad4nth«iii %t hmmn dl ehe parts tviHch 
belong 'to the zmouA yi qnadMpeds ; but *soiae of theai are 4iMte 
ftibAvided, and ti part '4af thek saMivi^^ons are sofntftiiMS vedee^ 
toMsowtbasi^e^ that eheyioan wot ftiill'ihe)r1bneth)ns, andthdtit 
4s-|^n diffioailt to peroeive «heth. By f^er the -gtttact number ef 
iBsbes hkve intdramxillarieb and tnaniUaries that aie vevy vniUe ; but 
^Aicse 4)0iies'dilfiar nMik ^tn^adh eiber in prenpoi^ion. The -maKii- 
-iarits especMlly imseAm^ itiiike4|)aA of the border of die jaw, 
and 'carry the tt^fa ; a^ffletiinti; they ai^ placed more behind, ntd 
dtfry no teeth; ftom ^idi ob^mnstanee tclftbyokfdsts <have net 
ncogaiMA ilumn ^^r labtft i^y utt, btft bgnre called them noyijiaMt 
or labial bones. These differences furnish the author with generic 
'dhhracters "very <oonvenkm -for .fotoringti mei« Dituiral distnbiltion 
xtf' the species; bttt^eveatmot^etve^todistingtiiisb 'the orders. Ter 
tbis'last object M. Ca«ier%ai recourse ^to \xmt striking diflbrenees, 
weh es the eoaliifon or sector of the inexillaries to the interma^dl- 
jaries, Which tafces:pla;ee, for example, in^the /e/racfc^,th6'Co^Y^i 
'the 'SoUstie; ortfhe4isaf]^amng >of ^he one or the other, 'and the 
"dbligasion in whii^h Natifre is to 'ettiploy the patattne benes to ^kftta 
'the 'upper Jaw. ^is ^we obstefve in the rap, the skari, uid^the 
dtber tbovdf^tevigi^. 

The author Wte unable to discover other diaMbters tiifin'^ese- to 
^c^tablish^afipit distiifoution Of -the class <fi ^hes. In consequence, 
»be pleoes<ftasoiig eirdlnaiv iB»fa<^ the genera f^hieh, having thesMBe 
'Structuve^ month and 4)roneli)8>, had, ho^ve^er, 'b^n 'pleeed 
^laaMMig^tila^itlo&s^fifihes,.^ a<^tim^)f sdme sittguftaritiea in^beir 



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is (5.) Sdeniifie Intelligence: 

external torm^ or because t^eir skeletoB hiirdens a UuU mart slowly 
than the others. Such are the centrisques^ the bmhvuesy th^ 
icjiclopteresy the kjbadogasieref, &c. 

M. Ciivier has rounoed on these views, a&d or other snnilar one^, 
the peculiar method according to which the fishes will be arranged 
in the work which he is preparing on comparative anatomy. 

^ 'f he same naturalist hasi presented to the Class researches on a 
pretty considerable number of fishes which he has observed in three 
journeys made at three difierept times on the coast of the Mediter- 
ranean. Some of them are new ; some of them had beon wrong 
placed, or wrong named, by authors. Several have ofiered inte- 
reding oWrvations relative to their structure, or occasioned the 
es^abli3hment of new genera, or the subdivision of old genera. 
These details cannot enter into a report of this kind ; but naturalists 
will find them in thfi first volume of the Memoirs of tlie Mgseuifa 
of Natural H^tory, of which a part has already appeared. 



A|ITICL« XIII. 

aciiurriBic iNTS^i'KiWCJB; anp NoricKa of soajsct$ 

CWNBCTKD WITH aC|E^CS. 

I, Lecture. 

' Medical Theatre^ St. Bwrihoiomeu/s Hospjtat.-^The following 
Courses of Lectures will be delivered at this theatre during the 
ensuing winter : — On thf Theory and Practice of Physic ; by Dr. 
Hue. — On Anatomy and Physiology ; by Mr. Abernethy. — On the 
Ttheory and Practice of Surgery; by Mr. Abernethy.— On Chf- 
mistryj by Dr. Hue.— On Midwifery; by Dr. Gooeh.-^Anatomical 
Demonstrations ; by Mr. Stanley. The Anatomical Lectures will 
comnyence on ^ondav^ Oet. 2; at two o- clock. 

Medical School qf St. Thomases and Gkj^s HostHals.yr^The 
Autumnal Courses^ of Lectures at these adjoining Hospitals will 
commence the beginning of October, viz.: 

At St. Thomas' s.— Anatomy and the Operations of Suigery ; by 
Mr. Astiey Cooper and Mr. rfenry Cline. — Principles and Practice 
of Surcefy ; by Mr. Astiey Cooper. 

At Ouy^s, — Practice of Medicine ; by Dr. Babington and Dr. 
Currjr.-^hemistry ; by Dr. Babington, Dr. Marcet, and Mr, 
Allen. — Experimental Philosophy; by Mr, Alien.--^Theory of Me- 
dicine, and Materia Medica ; by Dr. Curry and Dr. Cholmeley -^ 
Midwifery, and Diseases of Women and Children ; by Dr. Haigh- 
ton. — Physiology, or Laws of the Animal Economy; by Dr. 
Haighton. — Structure and Diseases of the Teeth ; by Mr. Fox. 

N. B. These sevend lectures are so sffrangei), that no two of them 



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£30 Scientific Intelligence* [Sept. 

ihteffere in the hours of attjendance ^ and the wlK)le h calculated to 
form a complete Course of Medical and Chirurgical Instruction. 

Dr. Clutterbuck will begin his Autumn Course of Lectures ori 
the Theory and Practice pf Physic, Materia Medica, and Chemistry, 
on Wednesday, Oct. 4? at ten o'clock in the morning, at his house, 
No. I, in the Crescent, New Bridge-street, Blackfriars. 

Dr. Clarke and Mr, Clarke will commence their Lectures on 
Midwifery, and the Pisease§ of VVoipen and. Children, on Wedr 
nesday, Oct. 5.* The lectures are read every morning from a 
^quarter past ten* to a quarter past eleven^ for the convenience of 
^tudenl§ attending, the hospitals. 

H. Nepu Mode of rr^nufqciuring Hemp and Flax. 

About two years ago Mr. Lee took out a patent for obtaining 
Jiemp and flax directly from the plants by a new method. He has 
established a manufactoi^ for the purpose at Old Bow, on the river 
Lea, near London, where his method, and the result of it, may be 
seen. . I consider Mr. Lee's invention as the greatest improvement 
ever introduced into the linen business, and as likely to occasion a 
total change in the whole of our bleach-fields. Hitherto the only 
way of obtaining hemp and flax has been to steep the plants in water 
till they begin to rot. They are then exposed for some days to the 
sun spread out upon the grass, after which the. woody part, now 
become very brittle, is removed by the flax mill, the nature of 
which is too well known to require any description. By Aese pro- 
cesses the fibres of the flax are weakened, and a considerable portion 
of them is altogether destroyed and lost. The flax, too, acquires 
a greenish yellow colour^ arid jt is well known that a very expensi^ 
and tedious bleaching process is necessary to render it white. Mr. 
liee neither steeps his flax, nor spreads it on the grass. When the 
plant is riper, it is pulled in the ,psual way. It is then thrashed, by 
placirfg it between two grooved wooden beams shod with iron. One 
of these is fi!(ed ; the other js suspended on hinges, and is made to 
Impinge with some forde on the fixed beam; the grooves in the one 
beam corresponding with flutes in the othc^r. By a mechanical 
contrivance almost exactly similar, the wopdy matter is beaten o(F, 
and the fibres of flax left. ' 3y passing these through hackles, vary- 
ing progressively in fineness, the flax is very speedily dressed^ and 
rendered proper for the i|se for whicli it is intended* The advan- 
tages of this process are manifold. The expepse of steeping and 
Spreading is saved ; a much greater produce of flax is obtained ; it 
is much stronger ; the fibres may be divided into much finer fibres, 
so as to obtaih {it once, and in -any quantity, flax fine enough for 
the manufacture of lace. • But the greatest advantage of ^11 remains 
yet to be statfed. Flax manufactured in this manner requires only 
to be washed in pure water in order to become white. The colour- 
ing matter is not chemically combined with the fibre, and therefore 
is removed at once by water. It is the steeping of the flax and hemp, 



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181 S.J. ^ S^tific Intelligence.. 23 1 ;. 

which unites the colouring matter with th^ fibres, and renders the 
subsequent bleaching process necessary. . Thus/ by Mr. Lee's; 
process, flax and hemp are obtained in much gieater quantity, of 
uiuch stronger quality, and much finer in the fibre than by the 
common method, and the necessity of bleaching is altogether 
superseded. The great importance of such an improvement must 
be at once obvious to every one. 

III. Thermometer^ 

(To Dr. Thomson.) ^ 

MY DEAR SIR, J»7^ 24, 1815.^ 

In consequence of a bill that. is coming before the House of 
Commons for the universal regulation of weights, I beg leave to 
suggest, through your Journal, my ideas for the regulation of the 
thermometerandf pyrometer, which is k) different as to require, 
when reading off various temperatures, some calculation before you 
can perfectly understand it ; beside the liability of mistake that may 
arise from quoting different thermonaeters, as Fahrenheit, Reaumur, ' 
&c. My ideas on the subject are for all thermometers to begin with 
0, or zero^ for water just iTee;sing (as I do not s^e any reason why it' 
^ould be called 32^), and continue it down to mercury freezing, 
and upwards to water boiling, which might be called 200®, as there 
would then be only 20^ difference between the present ^nominal 
temperature of boiling water and the new one ; and also to continue 
it upwards as high as mercury would admit, which, for exampIe,^ 
say 500^. The pyrometer (Wedgwood^s) might then commence by 
calling the first decree 1^, equal to 501® of the mercurial. The 
degrees of temperature would |)e then understood by the mere' 
number written, without the addition of Fahrenheit or Reaumur, 
&c. and the higher <legrees would, by comparison with the numbers 
of the lower, be easier, as the equivalent of Fahrenheit to any de<*: 
grec, say 50° of Wedgewpod, is known to very few. I think it might; 
perhaps be an improvement to make the mercurial thermometers in 
two scales; that is, one up to 220®, or thereabouts, for common 
purposes; and the other to 500®, or any other number that may be.' 
thought proper. I merely beg leave to suggest the above ideas, as 
I am thoroughly aware it must be a matter of courtesy whether the* 
foreign chemists will ^dopt it, wl^en made, in preference to Reaumur 
or Celsius; as the great use of the improvement would be materially^ 
done away with by their refusing the use of it ; and 1 know no 
means so likely to bring it into use as coming from you, through the 
medium of your Anmds of Philosophy. If you consider the above 
remarks worthy a place among a number of far more worthy papers, 
I shall feel myself honoured by your compliance. 

I remain. Sir, yours respectfully, 

R. W. 

P.S. In a paper which I sent you some time since, I promised 
spme experiments with regard to the nature of bees, waspsj and 

jigitizedby^OOgie 



232 SdMii/id tnieUigiHc^ [ii,i^\ 

b6nde&, wKicK f hAve Hot ^H hadf tin&^ (6 <^ofix^ef([$, (^c^pt iMi 
tks^cxio liorn^ts. Their c^lis t bave ^ve^ feasooi to suppose are 
obmposed oi a Single I^y^r ol* division only ; fdr as they are made of 
li£rg;e pi^c^s (ab6ut' th^ Ait of U pin*s head) 6f rotten wood, itie 
silttejpi^ces thhi be seed oh both sidte of the cell ; which refutes 
pr. Batclay'i id^as of tfitelr being composed of two layers stuek 
together by an animal glue. 

The diflerent graduation of thermometers in various countries is 
certainly an inconvenience ; but, like the different weights and 
measures, it is an inconvenience hardly capable of bMng retn^died. 
jF'iAiMftkeit #lis the fir^ ptt^n wb6 employed m^eurjr Id thertto- 
itieter^ ind n^ho n&ade tb^te itt^mAj ^ithsi^i^ikig wtib ctieh 
otb^ro His t#o ftsl^d points w^re> the teinpetattff^ of boiling watit, 
arid the tetrip«ihil!tft« proddCed by tfiikibg together tti<m iM M« 
ammoniac. Hfe conceivdt tiki m^reni^ to be dii^ide^ iAto lljf24 
fktf» i9\iM ^OhrOUnded ^Mh sfiti^ aiM sal-aiMhotliad. Wti^ put 
ifit^ butting mxet^ \i% fcnftid fl^t it expabdeii sd Ibie^i^ lo> 6« ec^a) 
to i}^ I £4 -f 2^12 jMim. On that A6eduM be Avld^d tb<$ iMteryi^ 
ItftWI^ii the two pmlfts imo 21 9 ][MkiH <» M^h^. ¥ki mAtked th^ 
li^W 0, Md fhiS dth^ 9l2 ; ii& tb*t ttii^ degr^ of F^^^tib^t 
dnm^ not 6nly ilie («ti)ti«^MtTfiSi bbt iHt tk^^tk, of itf^i^iiry 
fj^Ofb bis zem to tb« poSrtt itidic^itd. Thiis 'S^ n ibe fCe^i^ii^ |k^f 
dt mi^t, arid v^,i^ k the Mpabsiotl t^Bi^b th« nl^tttify Utid^^ga^ 
wbetf Heilted ff<$m 6 to 32^; thi^ mdidMtiJ» df tb^ expail^idn ifr ^li 
a4<^dnt^ wliicb fi6 mhk!t the^oihefrfc^t scale pdS^^ $ and ougbf^ 
I ibiok, to }ftAie« tft to paii^ brf6ref W« res61^ 10 hy it aside. Th« 
dttiimal kate^ wntlt^ tbii^ Md^iiotage, tbotigb K ()dss<4i«^ soiV^e otti^ 
of ochMiderdblc^ imp^itknke. Dt Lu(i iftforjto ti^, in hb ll^bei^b^ 
sttf la Mbdifit^tibfll tf^ rAtiEiids[>here (t. i^ pi 943)^ that t^bttt i» M 

G^fit cill^d th6 6emi^^fc ttierihotheter wM i6 ebmfnoh iM ib 
ndw wbeil hfe #iiw«. His book was {)db%b^d ib l^l^i K fbB 
vttfs the cud^^ h ti^ia b6 ^uHoii^ to kb6# whilt ibdtte^d tb^ BHri^H 
pkilosophets to MMfdm it. 1 eaiin6tfinAfliiittlny«u«% ttMYMmcft^t 
id i^mplbyed b^ ihe #rtf^s in th^ Phildto(>hid|tl TMtts^ttons^ 

The duly j^iU^ tStkiMi of cHilhging odlr tb^nhoniet^f ^dUM be 
to (lenti&de the tb^keH to Axti llh« g^dciaiiob. If both the tetk- 
t^radift and Ffth^hheit dbriSibhs itrefe marked ob the scMfe^ I tbitik 
it would bib 4b ittiptbirei^i^nt. 

IV. Chemicid NinnenpkturBp 

i^o tk. ¥hilnlio)i.) 
SIR, 

As a philosophical jourmilist^ you ai!e Insomt dbgtee ittvM^d with 
the character of arliiter of technical nomenclature; and as chemists 
^re . ihdebted to you for the introduction of the useful terms proi- 

3xide, &c. you may do some good by protesting against the intfo- 
tictibfa of ^itniliElt' telrms li^ading t6 cfohfusion ini^tead of perspicuity, 
im^j^i&^StypUw, /rroc^loride, &c, Buirely ^Mfs bfeetlMt^c 

Digitize.d by ^QOQ IC 



litS.'l ScieiUific tniettigence. ^3 

so qmrthl 4( iheir pen^ ai to omit Ae shorf satiable vihkh would 
give the v;6rd iis^ime roeatning ; proio is ixitel1i(gibte : tbe other majF 
be taken for tlie Il^titi wo«d pn). In ajdothec respect, however^ thi 
term is dtjecfionabte ; for even i^ written /)fo/osulptmte, it wouldl 
seem to tlenoto a subsblphatA^ tboiq$k il k naant i6 stand for sul- 
phate of protoxide. A. r^ulaf use dF the modtfn self^oa^Bimn-y 
nomencbliire is extremely us^l t » carekss uto of it readtn tisk 
terms worse tban arbitrary. 

Aire you aware that the word €omplimemi haiP sometimes tbe word 
complimeni ^t^titut^d (ox it in the Atamb : also Iba worA.tadiel^ 
for radical? It would puzaie a botanist to find radicli^ 9ffi\itA to 
muriatic add; thdwb radical^ an acl^tive^ used sahatittitiv^yi 
would at once be understood to mean the radical basa^ 

Your obedient servant^ 

Spkcul^oa. 

If my Correspondent pay the requisite attedtioh to the ptcjs^frt 
AMidoesfc fsr fiew w&td^^ liy which ehtuMi and trtid^mlogists in 
gtWiA ate actuared^ hd ^XA speedily b^ eotivideedth^t ttny tetMn^ 
Mmte oft my pari wottM Ymt little eiFect in itemmidg the cnrrettt. 
The fetttift pt^ulpMte^ ptrsu^hate, &e. dio tiot strike me ^ so 
dhgeotiotiabto a» lh#y do ttiy Cbn««poftd6nit« It is Mw w«ll know^ 
that in a great vari^ cf cases moM than one oxide of the same 
m^ial is €apabl« pt comfAtUig with ac^tdii. Thus both the bl^ck at^d 
the red onid^ of iroft combine witb iulpburlc acid. It is necessary 
to distinguish each Of the^ salts by a tiMit *, abd do ittode seems 
simpter dr more natural tltad to prefix to the old name of the salt 
tba Am syllable of this respective names of the oxides. If the black 
oiaide of ii^ be ciilted prdlodcid^^ thea the combination of it with 
sttlphuric acid may be kdowo. Without ambiguity^ by taking its htt 
syllable pt^ktA prefixing it to Mlpbate of irod. Pnmlphate rfirM 
means a coitipdUHd of sulpkuric acid add protoxide of mm. TYbto- 
sulphate of iron I think more objectnmable^ becaase proto is not the 
first syllable of the word pfoioxtde. In like manner, the persulphate 
of iron means a combination of solphdric acid with the per^xuie or 
red oxide of iron. When various proportions of an acid combine 
with a base, it i^ now kooWii that these pronortiona follow a very 
slm|)le law. 4f wc suppote the quantity of^base fixed, then the 
ou&ntities of acid in the super salts are multiples of the quantitv in 
the neutral salt ; namely, double or quadruple. Thus in sulphate 
of potash, if we denote the base by a^ and tne acid by b, the com-* 
position of supersulpbate of potash will be a + 2 &. Wliat is called 
^b^rbOnate 6f potash ts composed of a + ^ (a being the base, b 
the ^cid), and the cmtallizejtl carbonate of a + 2 k Hence we 
hktt a isimple mode of distinguishing these salts. Let the salt com- 
posed of A + £ be dmply designated by the old name, as sulphate 
of potash, carbonate of potash : let the salt composed of a + ib 
be dbtioguished tiy prefixing the syllable lis^ or bi, or bin ; thus 
bisutphiaej bicarbonate^ binoxalate. By using liatin terms for such 

2 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



234 Scientific Intelligence. [Sbpt*. 

combinations^ ivliile Greek terms are employed for the combina- 
tions of the different oxides, all ambiguity is avoided. Both these 
modes of haming I have employed in the tables of the salts pub- 
lished in the preceding numbers' of the Annxils of Philosophy. 

V, Howard's iNomenclntnre of Clouds. 

The same Correispondeht suggests 'the necessity of giving an* ex-- 
planation of the terras employed by Mr. Howard in his Meteorolo- • 
gical Journal td denote the various modifications of the clouds. I 
beg leave to inform him that this has been done already. He will 
find it in the Anno Is of Philosophy, vol. i. p. 80. 

For an explanation of the term polarization, which he also re- 
quests, I refer him to the Annals^ vol. i. p. S02, where he will find 
one already given. 

VI. New Amalgam of Mercury. 

I lately received the following piece of information in a letter 
from M. Van Mons : — . 

" M. Dobereinei^ decomposed water in contact with miercury by 
means of the galvanic battery. Oxygen was evolved at the positive 
pole, but no hydrogen from the negative pole. Instead of it there 
was formed a solid amalgam of mercury, not decomposed by agita- 
tion ; but, when heated, resolved into running mercury and by-, 
drogen gas. M. Dobcreiner considers hydrogen gas as a metal dis-: 
solved in caloric, and constantly in a state of expansion. The 
absence of caloric, and the nascent ;state of the hydrpgen^ enable it: 
in the above experiment to amalgamate with mercury. 

^^ M. Dobereiner has likewise made sulphur undergo consider* « 
able changes, having obtained it in the form of a blue powder, 
similar to ultramarine, by depriving it of its hydrogen by means of, 
a process which he does not describe. Phosphorus changes into a - 
scaly matter, having the brilliancy and colour of gold when burnt : 
under a glass while exposed to the direct rays of the sun." ,. , 

VII. New Galvanic 'Experiment. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 
SIR, 

The following experiment on animal galvanism lo me is per- 
fectly new; if it should be so to you, perhaps, you will give it a 
place in your Journal. At present I shall merely state the experi-. 
ment, though the importance I attach to it arises solely from the 
theoiy by which it was suggested. After trying every experiment 
mentioned in most systems of animal galvanism, I made a pile of 
thin slices of brain and muscle, which by a single piece of metal 
produced the most violent agitation in the frog, inconceivably 
greater than any otlier usually exhibited. It even produced a slight 
effect without any metal ; but I have never been able to succeed in. 
any of Aldini*s experiments without metal, as he asserts. 
I am. Sir, yours most respectfully, 

Ediniurghy July 20, 1816. , Ji. A^ 



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1815.] Sfiientifie ^ielltgence^ 235 

VIIL Fariher Queries respecting Gas Lights. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) , • 

DEAR SIR, 

Yours and Mr. Accum's reply to my .queries respecting the method 
of producing illumination by gas, instead of lamps or candles, arc 
very satisfactory. I possess his new treatise on the subject ; but I 
do not find any directions for choosing pipes of a diameter suitable 
to produce a gi^en effect. He gives no rule concerning the drame- 
ters ; nor does he give sufficient directions concerning the lime used 
for purifying the gas. I hope he will be so obliging as to supply 
these deficiencies through the medium of yoxix Annals, stating at 
the same time the places where pipes, &c. may be purchased on the 
terms mentioned in his book. Mr. Accum being a chemist, I con- 
clude he does not supply apparatus of this magnitude. Is it Mr. A.'s 
opinion that lighting a private house in the country by coal gas 
would be less expensive than by candles or oil ? 

Your obliged, 

J^ 17, 1815. A. M Ki 

IX. Crystals of Arragonite* . 

It is well known that the crystalline form of the arragonite is 
different from that of calcareous spar. M. Stromeycr, after disco- 
vering the presence of carbonate of strontian in that mineral, con* 
ceived that the arragonite derived its crystalline forms from car- 
bonate of strontian. . But as carbonate of strontian had never been 
found in regular crystals, that conjecture could not be verified. 
Gehlen has. lately announced that he and Professor Puchs observed, 
among specimens of barytes from Salzburgh, crystals of carbonate 
of strontian having exactly the same form as those of arragonite 
(Schweigger's Journal, xi. 392) ; so that there seems to be no doubt 
that the crystalline figures of carbonate of strontian and of arra- 
gonite are the same. But this coincidence of form does not appear 
to me to clear up the difficulty. That one part of carbonate of 
strontian should oblige 50 or 100 parts of carbonate of lime to 
assume its own form of crystal appears quite inexplicable. If the 
shape of the crystal depends upon that of the integrant particles of 
the crystallizing body, the crystallization should either be confused 
when two different sets of integrant particles crystallize together, or 
they must combine and form a new integrant particle : 5)9 parts of 
carbonate of lime mixed with one part of carbonate of strontian 
ought, one should think, to assume the crystallioe form of car- 
bonate of lime. The gres des Fontainllois, which has been consi- 
dered as similar, is not even analogous. In it we have crystals of 
calcareous spar mixed with grains of sand ; but in the present case 
both bodies must have been ip a liquid state, and both are capable 
of crystallizing. 



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236 Sciemific ihteHigefice. p3«w. 

X. Cbmiustim of C^bm^iml Mjdr^mi G<t$. 

I have been requested tp ei^plain why the steel-mills^ as they are 
called (which consist of a piece of steel nibbing aguast a kind of 
gnlicl*at<me^ and c«iiiciit)g a ptod^out «in»bev of ^fmrks) do not 
set fift l» a niaHitfe of cvt bweted bydiqf^ gas 9abA ccmmon air. 
It IB not easy to assign a v^ry s^wSei^fsf vaason. The beat of the 
wpmVm 19 acftainiy siiSoiwI fev the j^rpesie ; for il you collect them 
ycM fittd thmi m gfebulea (hat tove qnd^rgiMAe fission. Now the 
bladi oftide of iioft viH not inelt, eob^pc at a much bigheir tenope* 
fature tbaa ia anAoieBt to> set fire to aucjh a mixture. I never was 
able la buca a nuxUne (ff carbi|t^e(ed l^ydio^a gits ain] cobh^q^^ air 
by passiag electrie Iparks ihtQMgb it \ b«t if yo^ bring i^ red-hot 
bar of iro«k in contacd wtilh the mixture, it 6res iq9liiediMely<i Tbesa 
fiMfts iHdvce tak to suspeet that the t&m depcuulf upoa the svie pf 
thi^ ignitedi body, A very imaU s|)aik is probi^bly pot ffipi^ble of 
impelling a sufficiem mnnber (rf parfiel^ of oq^gen «gi|i«ist i| par* 
tide of carbureted l^drogen to produce instant combination, which 
I conceive oceasipns the combustion. Sometimes it is well known 
that the mixture is exploded by the steel-mills. In such cases^ I 
conceive, the sparks are uncommoitly hirge. 

XL Another Aceiieni ai « Goal-^ine near Newcastle. 

On Monday, the 3 1st of July, attdther mcjaricholy accident hap- 
pened at Messrs. Kesham and Co.^i colliery, at Newbottte, in the 
county of Durham. The proprietors had provided a powerful loco- 
motive steam-engine, for the pui^^^e of drawing 10 or 12 coal- 
waggons to the staith at one time ; and Monday Demg the dny it 
ivas to be put in motion, a great number of persons belonging to the 
colliery had collected to see it ; but unfortunfltely, just as it vftts 
going off, the boiler of the machine burst. The ^ngiKte-man was 
dai^^d to pieces, and bis mangled remains blown 114 yards; tbe 
top of the boiler (nine feet square, weight 19 cwt.) was blown 100 
yards ; and the two cylinders 90 yards. A little boy was also thrown 
to a great distance. J3y this accident 67 persons were killed and 
woun^d, of whbm 1 1 were dead on Sunaa^ night, and several 
Tcmain dangerously ill. The cause of the accident is accounted for 
as follows : tbe engine-roan said, '* as there were several owners and 
viewers there, he would make her (the engine) go in grand stile," 
and he bad got upon the boiler to loose the screw of the safety 
valve, but being overheated, it unfortunately exploded. It will be 
recollected, that at the fatal blast which recently took place at this 
colliery, tbe first who arrived at the bank, holding by a rope, was a 
little boy, about six or seven years of age. The poor little fellow is 
among the Quipber dead. 

XII. Carlonale of 'Bismuth. 
A new species of ore has been lately discovered in Cornwall, the 



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fltftomi^ of tiipHidi. Fr«m ^ ver^ $imH sgeci^Mf^ of j^ .wlui:h | 
have seen, I am led to •suspect timt it i^ Ibe 4aiB« ixwecal iC^Ued ly 
the^nu^ himttUh M>ck^ tW cpl^ui^ ifvctim^ A»d ln^ue^ are 
similar. The sjp^dfic jfavilp is l«si, tijmg Vnfy >'^^i l^t IJM? 
tegment ^HPaiikiiibd ^a^ ko^ loixcd wtb «ki|^* 

2HH. Cnfio-^Sulpkitret gf M&mcrg. 

JBohereioer has l^te]^ jmopunc^d t]»i thece<exi3t9a4PMitlve xynn* 
sQua4 1:^ tVL^nu^.W) stiH>btt£et 4Q!f ^avboiu tie calls it fufifi^-' 
(jererz {ore of merctiry). I sliiDuld not \^ ^Uqnuaed j^ 4Ub iKare tb^ 
cpouapu oce pf JUri% ffallod quecksiUier^klerem i^epaiicure ffsner- 
airy) ; for Klajpr«lh &und <chisi^ore to .contain Mth giikibiir iiad 
carhoQ, nearly lo ^be |»qp0ition lo wluch tliey «Kist xa Jplphurtt of 
carbon. jDoberdiaer jays, ihat when tbe oxe is tUstiUed» sulfAjuiret 
of carboD is obltained. He iivforms us tiiat sulpburet oT cafboa 
unites with all the«»tals> ^fidiwns ^lam/'tkm of bodies. 



A^-nc^ XIV. 

£*i^ of Vaietifts. 

William Bell^ Birmingham ; for a method df.mftlcinf aod 
jBcmMfeoiumg wiie4^<^<erj^d6Siii^ioja^ A^pril HB^ 1815. 

tUfC^a^mLSAhUBm^vsx^ fiowlisg |r0ii Work^ YrOibaUtt; i* 
improvements in the steam-engine. April 20, 1815. 

•SUilihBL itcHuN ^MXUBx^ Ckmug Cross, London^ and IfttXRs 
E«G, Stnndy.gnD'BiaB«betilren; for certain :aei!ial ooqvi^iwkss ami 
*w»A lo 'be^foincl by ifAUoso^ical, or chomie^}, or mecbcBaical 
toieaaB, and <wfaidi moms ane ^li& apfAicabie tOithevpropeUiogtof 
^easda ^broagii Mrater, 'and eanriages or>atiier cbnvqmces'fay ianl. 
April 25, 1«1'5. 

JiMiMi Wii:soM, Weibecdc-^ftiseet, dLoadon, oaiuntt- tnaker und 
4ifAK)lBUii«r ; i0t cwkam fitiprovemeats 'in /bedsteads wsd ^foroityiii. 
April 27, 1W«. 

*Wfi;LiAii Bush, Saffmn W8ldeQ,£se9ex,wnnB]MiramdiMilHer; 
4tnr a meti^ <tf prev^tlttng aecideilts from ^iimas'ikltitig 'Wkh two^ 
-wheeled earriages, especially on isteep declivities^ supeiitor -Iptfqjr 
hitherto known or in use. April 29, 1815. 

BBrfsa !KlAittfN£AU, Canonbury House, Islington, .and Joqn 
Maiitinbap, Stamford Hill ; , for fhoir new method or mefhodsv^^f 
xefinii^ and clari^ii^g certain ve^table substances. TSh^ 8, i81i5. 

JoAK JjjftBs ' JLuiaBAfNASR JSUccAftrHTj <AcIiqgtojisrtKi^ 
J^Dodon, JGiilptori; .{orr atSf^ethod of [pavii^ pitching, ^ <9¥fll^i^g, 
.fltinee«i, iNiada, and^waya. iMagr 11* 1616. 

JflBirtwhEs (Bwrr,.gtfand, ^London.; s&r bisapediad^or Bitthfl&iiir 
the secusHy.imd^iib^Qviveyffipe^if .'StiiaUi^^ 



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238 New Scientific Books. [Sept. ' 

^ of property of ev^ery desrcription^ and also for the security in the for- 
mation or appendage of shoes. May 11, 1815. 

Samuel Pratt, No. 119, Ho)born*bilI^ London^ tnink-'maker; 
for a wardrobe tru«ijc for travellers. May 1 J, 1815. 

Archibald Kenrick, West Bromwich, Stafford, founder; for 
certain improvements in the mills for grinding coffee, malt, and 
other articles. May 23, 1815. 

John Pugh, of Over, Whitegate, Chester, salt proprietor ; for a 
new method of making salt-pans upon an improved principle, to 
save fuel and iabbur. May 26, 1815. 

Jonathan' RiDG WAY, Manchester, plumber; for a new method 
of pumping water and other fluids. May 26, 1815. 

John Kilby, York, brewer; for his improvement or improve* 
ments in the art of brewing malt liquors. June 1^ 1815. 



Article XV. 

ScieMific Books in hand j or in the Tress • 

The New Edition of Dr. Henry's Elements of Chemistry, ^itfi 
very considerable Additions and Improvements, will be, ready on the 
ist df October. 

The Rev. P. Keith, F.L.S. is about to publish a System of Physio- 
logical Botany, in 2 vols. Svo. with Plates drawn and engraved by Mr. 
Sowerby. 

Mrs. Bryan is printing A Compendious Astronomical and Geogra- 
phical Class Book, for the Use of Families and Young Persons. 

Mr. Rootsey is about to publish a Volume, entitled The Bristol 
' Dispensatory, the object of which is to establish the Nomenclature of 
Pharmacy upon a permanent basis: and to explain the advantages of 
a new method of expressing the Composition of Medicine. 

Sir F. C. Morgan, Physician, is preparing for the Press, Outlines of 
the Philosophy of Life : which has for its object the diffusion of a more 
general knowledge of the fundamental facts of philosophy. 
• Arthur Burraw, Esq; is preparing for the Press, Some Account of 
the' Mediterranean, 1810 to 1815, Political and Scienti6c, Literary and 
. Descriptive. The work will appear in Royal 4to with Engravings, and 
the first Volume will be chiefly confined to Sicily. 

Mr. Accum has in the Press a Second Edition [Stereotype] of his 
:, Practical Treatise on Gas Light ; Exhibiting a Summary Description 
of the Apparatus and Machinery best calculated for illuminating 
Streets, Houses, and Manufactories with Coal Gas, &c. With Re- 
marks on the Utility, Safety, and general Nature of this new Branch 
. of Civil Economy. Illustrated with Seven Coloured Plates showing 
^he Construction of the large Apparatus employed for illuminating 
' die Streets and Houses of this Metropolis^ as well as the Smaller Ap- 
paratus employed by Manufacturers and Private Individuals. 



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1815.] 



'Meteorological Table, 



239 



Article XVI. 
METEOROLOGICAL TABLE^ 







Ba^okbtbr. 


TBBlmoilETBIt. 




>. 


— 


1815, 


Wind. 


Max, 


Win. 


Med. 


Max. 


Min. 


Med. 


£yap. 


Rain. 




6ih Mo. 


^ 














^ 


June 29 


S W 


3b-i7 


30-11 


36-.140 


77 


4^' 


61-5' 






c 


30 


N W 


30-11 


3002 


36;o65 


77 


. 53 


55-6 




* 




7th Mo. 




» 










■ ■ 1 


; 






July 1 


N E 


3003 


3002 


30:025 


75 


49 


62-0 








2 


N E 


30-03 


29-92 


29-975 


71 


49' 


'60-0 




•; 




3 


W 


S9-92 


29-85 


29-885 


67 


46 


56-5. 








4 


• N 


29.96 


29-85 


29*905 


72 


42 


57-0 




mmma 




5 


Var. 


29-98 


^9-9^ 


29-950 


70 


52 


61-0 








6 


Var. 


29*88 


29-86 


29-870 


•70 


50 


60-0 




•10 





7 


N E 


30*00 


29-88 


29-940 


64 


42 


53-0 








8 


N W 


30-00 


29-96 


29-980 


69 


54 


62-5 




1 




■ 9 


N- W 


30-04 


30-00 


30-020 


70 


52 


61-0 








10 


N W 


30-05 


3004 


30-045 


75 


51 


63-0 








11 


E 


30-05 


29*99 


30-020 


75 


48 


6l-5 








12 


S W 


2999 


29-93 


29-960 


79 


49 


64-0 


-62 






13 


8 W 


29-97 


29-87 


29-920 


77 


57 


670 




v^ 


D 


14 


S W 


29-97 


29-92 


29-945 


79 


61 


70-0 




, 




15 


S W 


29-88 


29-85 


29'S65 


77 


57 


67-0 




• 




16 


w 


29-95 


29-84 


29*895 


75 


56 


65-0 




_ 




17 


w 


29-84 


29-70 


29-770 


80 


54 


67-0 




1 




18 


s w 


2970 


29-62 


29-660 


75 


49 


62-0 




, , 




19 


N W 


29-65 


29-47 


29-560 


68 


52 


6o-0 




'69 




. 20 


N W 


29*82 


29-65 


29-735 


65 


49 


57-0 


-70 


-31 




21 


N W 


30-00 


29-97 


29-985 


68 


47 


57-5 






• 


22 


N E 


30-00 


29-95 


29-990 


.68 


52 


600 








23 


N W 


3004 


29-98 


3P-Q10 


68 


,53 


60-5 




6 




24 


NT W 


3013 


30-04 


30-085 


69 


56 


62-5 








25 


N W 


30-13 


30-13 


30-130 


71' 


52 


61-5 




•21 




26 


N W 


30-18 


30-13 


30-155 














27 


N W 


30-19 


3018 


30-185 


66 


42 


540 




, , 




. 28 


N W 


30-18 
30-19 


30-17 


30-175 


74 


47, 


60-5 


•68 






29-47 


29-961 


80 


42 


61-36 


200 


1-38 



The oVservations in each line of the table apply to a period of twenty-four 

5?„"';''^X.'""'?«** ^^'^' «»*»»« *J^y indicated- in the first column/ A Zh 
denotes, that the result is included in the next following observation. 



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24P MetMTplQgical Joumd. [Sept. \m^ 



SixeA JfotilA.— 29. A Tery fine day : Ihe western iky in tlie twilight, bright 
orange near the borison, with a purple glow above. 90. Cloudy morning: after 
which sunshine ^ int^l^l^ 

Senwih Month.^\. Heavy' CumuIostraUf p.m. 8. Windy, cloMy, a.m.: 
. dmuj passing to Cirrocwnuhu, &c. ^m»i u. Iwninoos twilight, the clouds mnfli 
coloured. 3. a. m. Windy, with Cianviottraiu$. 4. Cloudy : a few drops, p. m. 
|>. f P b wMil s Jl raftit, ^wrmed^ £ ir ro cii f n^. I». The Irtnd tiasted -tMs monring bgr 
$.(. to $.W. but settled at N.W. irith various dpuds: ruin fe|l in the oig^t. 
17. ffetlliisammiiig csrty^ andmlndy at N. ^.s p.|a. fait;, with (C^mivlbstrafid. 
jB. ptfrntflut, a«m. with iphrrotirtatu : cloudy evening: «ome n^n by night. 
9. fPummUmnUMi : oiapf^ Itwili^t* Hi- A Tery .fine 4i^ : jpiink-caloured Cirri at 
tun^set. !!«• Sultry i a..m« OfmnMn^ns bjr inflscuWipp. About noon, an ap- 
peiraacetof dktant rain in the N. £., iwhich continnefl till evening : tl»e wMe of 
^nr own clouds griUbnUly dM»|ppeiM«d, i^ijtl^ ^ smid^ li. W- iMwese. At sna-set it 
fwa» clear, and somewM orangeroolwvupl to N. W,, Imt ffbsciivie, with Gmt«- 
Vfr^fus to N. £^ |3. Itftfge m^efi««d !<;ir«t, ffvitj^ lousetfit Oimtiil, and afterwards 
iCIftvcHfMptef, at a iJteM hei^t, papsed^o Mie JH.Jfi. with ft fr^ bf^^eze : a litMe 
rai|i fell In the ev«n|Q(g. Bjpr. iab«)9it.4a*>:thiBse t|u|fe,|i|!SinM«gs,p^ U. Various 
i«iujni^ tlireatenii^ ^ifi aft i|itervfi|^, iwbleh <fpllow€d ^^ in j^^otity scarce^ 
(snfllckot to lay |ti|e dufll: srifn^g^* ^. ik»ip. ^hmufm* ^oeafk fiirrottralu$: 
•wii^y : rsome light ^howey, mi t^ Im^ «r the fatebftw,, fit fttUrset. 16. |L 
tslight shower, a. pi. Hff- Viiripus Qlofi^, ».'ii. : rti !faf|r 'tlrqps, *.^m.: at eve»^ 
ling, a tendency to the (Tapl^ tfcnriMM^ii ^ iCirimA^niilMi vthe 4ens^ clouds at the 
maqie time exhibiting a (be^utlfal grud«liiui of .colp.«rs : twHigbt oiyvige. 18. Ijn 
ithe morning, jan oxtcupUre sbuettof Hiuugr ^m»ti9tim^f which ioon moved away. 
iH^gr. ^t 9 a. m. 89*. About |10 y.m, JCh^ ispme AW ^ e1ood<: « low murky 
• sky. 49. A steady laln, a.gn. J^gr. HH^^ "Pip.m. «p. /Ovcroast, with Cm- 
mtklMk w ff u i windy. ^-i«*S|l. HlogflyfCloady^ jonasionulihowcrs. i97, 28. Fine. 



Prffaili|ig\W|p48 iWe^tfltly, OT« <lira^ffSi|rJh» Jii^ 

Baromeler^. ^firqattstlpei^t.*; lS0«19ind^s. 

I^enst «9:47 

^cMi^ the period (29-961 , 

Hiermomoter :;fsrfa^t be*^t.. ....... ,. i^ 

Le^st ., ..,..,,.. ASt 

.Mq^u.of Jtli^^peri«ida...v..<<^..4«..* ?%1'36 

JQrup«raliOD, (io ^ 9*yf, fromitbelUh.iffdus&vt',). .^ ^^fioches. 

.Hain....;.. 1:38 inch. 

«»* The observations from the Slst inclusive are those of my friend Job* 
Gibson, at the Laboratory. 

iTtfTTEmuK, *Bi§htKMmh, 4^, 1#15. L. HaWARD. 

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ANNALS 



dF 



PHILOSOPHY^ 



OCTOBER, 1815. 



Article L 



Observations en the Alsoi-ption of th Gases ly different Bodies* 
By Theodore de S'aussure. * 

Vt E pos9e<» at* present nb accurate ejcperiments on tlie questrbrt,* 
^fHiether en gas, when it penetrates into the ^res of a solid body, 
imdergoes any diminution of bulk in consequence of tfiis penetra- 
tion, even when no chemical union takes place betwieen the gas and! 
tlM soKd body? It is> ioit example, still unknown whether azotic 
CMT oxygen gas, which do not combine chemjcially with silica, Un- 
dergo a din)inution of their butk when they penetrate itato a porous 
siKeious stone, as opal, hydrophane, or even saiid-stone. If we 
allow tfaftt such dimmution of bulk takes place, a number of other 
questioiis immediate^ present themselves. What infitience has the 
ske of the porM on this condensation .? Are all gases equaHy con- 
densed by the same bodies? And what influence has the density of the 
gay on this condensation ? These inquiries become still more inte- 
resting wh«n dHTerent gases are employed together. When two 
gases mixed equally are presented to a solid body, does it absorb 
them in equal quantities or not ? And do the mixed gases, wheii 
condensed in solid bodies, enter into coihbinations which they would 
not form in a free state ? It is obvious that such investigations may 
lead us to discover whether our atmosphere, when it penetrates into 
the interior of earthy bodies, becomes condensed merely in conse- 

* I bsire traiislated this importatit paper from Gilbert's Annaten der ^hysiK« 
Tol« xlvii. p. U2, July, 1814. The original was read io the Geneva Society oh 
the 1601 of A{>ril, 1812, But I do not know where it wai first published. Gilbert 
ioforras us that it was translated into German by Professor Horner, of Zurich.— T, 

Vol. VI. N« IV. Q 



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'242 ObservaiUms w the Absorptim of [Oct. 

quence of this penetration^ and forms water^ and nitrous or ainmo- 
niacal salts. 

The experiments which I have made in order to answer some of 
these questionis I shall arrange in three sections. The first section 
contains my experiments oq the condensation of pure unmixed 
gases by solid bodies ; the second^ my'experiments on the absorp- 
tion of mixed gases by solid bodies; in the third, 1 shall state som« 
observations on the absorption of gases by liquids. 

Sbction First. 

absorption of unmixbd gasbs by solid bod ibs. 
1. Amount of the Condensation of different Gases by CharcoaL 
^ Of all solid bodies, charcoal is the most remarkable in its action 
on the gases. It was a discovery of Fontana that red-hot charcoal^ 
• cooled by plunging it under mercury, or by any other method which 
precludes the contact of the air, possesses the remarkable property 
of absorbing more than its own volume of various gases. Count 
Morozzo remarked that this absorption is different according to the 
dififerent gases and to the kind of charcoal used ; and he made ex- 
periments which, when properly repeated, place this truth in a 
clear point of view. He allowed various gases, in exactly the same 
circumstances, to be absorbed by charcoal and other porous bodies^ 
as pumice, brick, &c. It appeared to him that the gases absorbed 
by these last bodies underwent no condensation. Hence the con^ 
densation produced by charcoal was considered as a peculiar acticm* 
of that body, the full clearing up of which was left to future natu- 
ralists. 

Morozzo, Kouppe, and Norden, employed various methods in 
their experiments to cool diarcoal without plunging it under mer- 
cury ; but the unavoidable introduction of atmospherical air was 
injurious to the accuracy of their trials. It was in their power, 
indeed, to try the absorption of gases by charcoal over water ; but 
the presence of water, as I shall show hereafter, diminished the 
condensation of the gases, and introduced some inaccuracies inta 
their experiments. 

In my experiments the red-hot charcoal was plunged under mar- 
cury, and introduced into the gas to be absorbed after it was oool^ 
without ever coming in contact with atmospherical air. All my 
experiments were made with the charcoal of box-wood. Its powers " 
of absorbing are not only very remarkable, but it absorbs so little 
mercury during the cooling that it still readily swims on water. 

The following experiments were made between the temperatures 
of 52^ and 56^, and under a barometrical pressure of 28j- inches of 
mercury. The numbers are almost always means of several experi- 
ments ; for two pieces of the very same charcoal introduced into the 
sKme gas seldom give the same absorption. The numbers refer to 
the volume of the charcoal^ which is considered as unity. 



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1815.] the Gases by different Bodies. 243 

Charcoal of box-wood absorbs, of 

Volmtfei. 

Ammoniacal gas 90 

Muriatic acid ; 85 

Sulphurous acid 65 

Sulphureted hydrogen . . . ; 55 

Nitrous oxide 40 

Carbonic acid 35 

Olefiant gas 35 

Carbonic oxide 9'42 

Oxygen 9'25 

Azote , 7'5 

Oxy-carbureted hydrogen* , .... 5 

Hydrogen Vl^ 

Box-wood charcoal absorbs 38 times its volume of nitrous acid 
gas ; but as a portion of this gas is decomposed, the result cannot 
be compared with thQse contained in the preceding table. 

In all these gases the absorption terminated at the end of 24 or 
ZB hours, so that it was not increased by allowing the charcoal to 
remain longer in contact with the gas. Oxygen gas alone consti* 
tutes an exception to this general rule ; for its absorption seems to 
continue for several years. The reason is, that a small quantity of 
carbonic acid is always forming, of which charcoal absorbs a much 
greater quantity than it does of oxygen gas. This formation goes ^ 
on so slowly at the common temperature of the air, that several 
years elapse before as much carbonic acid gas is generated as is 
sufficient to saturate the charcoal. 1 shall state below, in a note, 
the facts which led me to this conclusion, f It is exceedingly pro- 

* I obtained the ox^ttrhureted hydrogen^ which 1 employed in all my expert- 
Ments, by difitiliini^ moist charcoal. Its specific gravity, after separating the car- 
booic acid, was 0*8326, that of air being 1. 100 measures of this gas require for 
c<nnbu8tiOD 60*78 measures of oxygen gas, and form 3] '5 measures of carbonic 
acid gas. Hence its composition is as follows : 

Carbon ,..., 3952 

Oxygen 2895 

Hydrogen 16-90 

Azote 14*63 

10000 

t Oft the Formation of Carbonic Add Gas at the common Ttmperature from Charcoal 

and Oxygen, 

It has hiihertQ been supposed that charcoal only unites with oxygen at a tempe- 
rature not much below a red heat : but I think that I have remarked that the 
.^mmon temperature of the air is sufficient for this union. As this observation is 
important, and may 'be contradicted, it will be permitted to me, I presume, to 
Biaie more particularly the nature of my observations. 

A volume of box-wood charcoal quenched in^mercury that in 24 hours had ab- 
•orbed 9^ volumes of dry oxygen gas, was left for 18 months in the same gas 
standing over mercury. In two months the absorption was 11 volumes; in 14 
months it was 13 volumes. It always became slower as the time advanced, and 
fras not completed in 18 months. I put an end to the experiment in order to 

O 2 , 



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2ii Observations on the Ahsofrplion of (Oct* 

bable that the true absorption of oxygen gas, like that of the other 
gases, is cooipleted in 36 hours ; that tlus absorption amounts to 
9^ volumes ; and that during that time no perceptible quantity of 
carbonic acid gas is formed. On this account^ in the subsequent 
details into which I shall enter I shall take no farther notice of this 
formation of carbonic acid gas. 

2. Influence of Water on the Absorption of Gases by Box-wood 

CharcoaL 

The results above stated suppose and require that the charcoal 
before and during its action on the gases be dry. If the charcoal^ 
after being cooled under mercury, be moistened with water, the 
absorption, of all those gases that have not a very strong affinity for 
water is distinctly diminished. * 

Bos-wood charcoal <:ooled under mercury, and drenched in water 
while still under mercury, is only capable of absorbing 15 volumes 
of carbonic acid gas ; although, beibre bein^ moistened, it could 
absorb 35 volumes of the same gas. The moistened charcoal like- 
wise takes a longer time to complete its absorption than the dry 
charcoal. Thus charcoal that when dry absorbs 35 tx>lumes of car- 
bonic acid gas in 24 hours^ requires when moistened with water 14 
days in order to absorb 15 volumes. 

The effect of moistening charcoal upon Its power of absorbing 
gases becomes more striking when we allow dry charcoal in the first 
place to saturate itself with a gas, and then bring it through mer^ 
cury into a jar filled with mercury^ and containing a quantity of 
water about equal to the bulk of the charcoal. In 48 nours the 

examine the residiml gas. I found it as pure as before the lutrodtictton of tll6 
charcoal, and containiog no traces of carbonic acid gas. It is, however, probable 
that carbonic acid gas had been formed, and that it was contained in the pores of 
the charcoal. It is likely that the diminution would have gone on till the absorption 
of gas amounted to 3b volumes, as that is the quantity of carbonic acid gas ab* 
sorbed by dry charcoal ; and tliat, after this, free carbonic acid gas would imirm 
been formed. But as 20 years might have elap&ed before a notable quantity of 
carbonic acid appeared, when the experiment was conducted in this way, I short- 
ened the process, by introducing moist charcoal instead of dry/ The consequence 
was, that in abaut a year part of the surrounding oxygen gas was changed into 
carbonic acid gas at the common temperature of the atmosphere. We shall see 
hereafter that one volume of box-wood charcoal quenched in water absorbs only 
}5 volumes of carbonic acid instead of theS5 which are absorbed by one Tolame 
of dry charcoal. A volume of wet box-wood charcoal put into oxygen gas stand- 
ing over mercury diminished the volume of the gas for 10 moilths, and till tb« 
diminution amounted to 15 volumes, and during this time no carbonic acid could 
be deteeted in the residual gas. But after the absorption ceased, carbonic acid 
began to appear, and in four months amounted to half a volume. The charcoal 
itself being plunged into lime-water rendered it very milky. I thought I de(ee(e4 
a trace of carbureted hydrogen gas likewise in the residual gas, but am not quite 
sure, as the quantity was so small as to be within the limiu of error in the experi- 
ments. 

• At least with regard to charcoal, which has the property of absotbiog a great 
deal of gas. With regard to some other bodies which have the property or ab- 
sorbing but little gas, their power of absorbing gas ii rather increased by moisten- 
ing them with water. 



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1^1$.] the Gases ly different Bodie^^ 845 

i))Hiiea»l glv«a m% «U the gm which w^ chfo'coal i$ npt able to 

In \h^ WW manoer one voikiiive of dry f^harcoal^ which ba4 
9lMMVt>9<l 33 voluofi^s of ctrhoqic acid gas^ when it waa drenched jn 
iVQtec, gBttVt ovt 17 volumes of thia gas, aod of course retained anljr 
16 vQliinaea. This ia nearly the same proportion aa in the fir^l; 
eq^fiment. A volume of dry hox-wood charcoal, which had 
»tooi4ied 7i volunea of a30tic gai^ when dreoched in water gav^ 
out ^ vohwes^ And of eourse retained only one volume of this 
gas, A volume of dry bos-wood charcoal, which luid absorbed 9-^ 
volumes of oocygen gas, gave out when put into water 3^ volumes; f 
and one volume of charcoal saturated with hydrogen gas retained, 
after being put into water, only 0*65 of a volume of this gas, We 
shall endeavour hereafter to employ these results. 

If charcoal which has already given out its excess of gas by being 
placed in contact with water, be put into a retort filled with waterj 
and exposed to a boiling heat, « considerable quantity of fresh gas 
sepiMr^tes from it ; but this temperature is not sufficient to drive off 
ik» whole of the gas which it had absorbed^ 

The gs^ driven out by water, though it had remained for several 
days in the charcoal, did oot appear in tbs least altered in its pro- 
prties. In oxygen gas I observed no earlK)nic acid, no carburete4 
hydrogen gas in hydrogen gas, Qor carbonic oxide Iq carbonic acid 
fps. The ga^es were always contaminated with a small quantity of 
a^tic £^s,t which probably had previously existed in the red-hot 
charcoal. Oxygen gas alone, as I have already observed, whie^ 
charcoal remained in it for sonie months, contained a small mixtun^ 
of carbonic acid gas : a process which waa still farther promoted bjf 
the pi^esence of water* 

S. Heat which is disengaged ht the Condensation of the Gases hj 

Caarcoal. 

When boxwood charcoal, or any other species which rapidly 
absprbs gases cooled in mei:cgryi is introduced into any ga^^ there is 
evolved during the condensation of the g«^ a quantity of beat often 
sensible to the feelings and si#cient to raise a thermoQoieter who^ 

* The water, by penetrating into the charcoal, drives out the gas with such 
f»rce, that in dose' vessels, and vvhen a sufficient quantity of charcoal is employed, 
the expelled gas is in a state of compression. This oircomstance may beeaiployed 
in a great scale in the preparation of very concentrated artificial soda-water^ 
especially when fermenting tuns are at hand. We have only to place wUbin 
tliese b,aso.ns filled with red-hot box-wood charcoal, and when the charcoal is satu* 
rated with the gas it is to be putmto thick and strong vessels, and brought in con- 
tact with wMcr. We must take care that the -charcoal does not come ia 'Contact 
whh the atmospheric air, nor must It be mixed with the water till the vessels are 
m^d^ air-tight. I have myself, without attending to these necessary precautions, 
and at the terapersture of dO^, prepared in a vessel, a fourth part of which was 
filled with box-wood charcoal, and two-thirds of it with water, and which I ren- 
dered air-tight, a soda-water which contained more than its own bulk of carbonic 
acid gas. 

f La Medierie obtained a similar result ^eo employed in theie axperiments* 
See Joumal de Physique, vol. zx:^ 

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246 Observations on the Absorption of [Oct. 

bulb is in contact with about ^ of a cubic inch of charcoal sevc^ral de- 
grees. The heat, as might have been expected, appears to increase with 
the absorbability of the gas. Charcoal becomes hotter in ammo^ 
niacal than in carbonic a^id gas, and hotter in this gas than in the 
less absorbable oxygen gas. Hydrogen gas, which is the least ab- 
sorbable of all, gives out so little heat, that the methods which I 
employed were not sufficiently delicate to detect any. * This evolu- 
tion of heat depends much more upon the rapidity with which the 
absorption takes place than ujion the degree of the condensation ; 
since, according to Gay-Lussac's experiments, different gases when 
equally compressed give out different quantities of heat. 

4. Influence of the barometrical Pressure on the Condensation of 
Gases by CharcoaL 

Hitherto heat only has been employed to render charcoal fit for 
absorbing gas. I have tried to produce the same effect by means of 
the air-pump, and have obtained nearly the same results. 

A piece of box- wood charcoal, which had stood exposed to the 
liir for some days, was put into a receiver fixed to a small portable 
plate by means of tallow, and screwed upon the plate of the aii;- 
pump, so as to be air-tight, f The air being pumped out of the 
receiver and charcoal by an exhaustion amounting to 0*16 inch of 
mercury, the transferrer with its receiver is brought into the mer- 
curial trough, and the cock of the transferrer being opened under 
the mercury, that liquid flows in and fills the receiver, and the 
transferrer may now be removed. The charcoal is now, without 
coming in contact with the external air, introduced into another 
receiver filled with carbonic acid. The absorption at the tempera- 
ture of 53^° amounted to 31-J^ volumes. Charcoal heated red-hot 
produces in the same circumstances an absorption amounting to 35 
volumes. 

I repeated the same experiment with oxygen gas. The absorptioa 
produced in this way amounted to 8^ volumes of the charcoal, while 
charcoal heated to redness absorbed 9^ volumes. Charcoal freed of 
air by the air-pump absorbed seven volumes of azotic gas in place 
of 7t volumes which charcoal heated to redness absorbed. 
. As the charcoal which was employed in these experiments had 

• The bulb of my Iheimometer was 2} lines in diameter. The tube was bent, 
in the form of a V. The end on which was the bulb was introduced through the 
mercury into the receiver. The outer arm held the scale ; and seryed both to bold 
the tostriiment and to bring the bulb in contact with the charcoal. 

f Instead of this transferrer, the following method,may be employed. A small 
receiver containing the charcoal is tied by strings to a dish which is filled with 
mercnry, and placed under the common receiver of the air-pump. When the air 
tias been pumped out of the large receiver, and likewise out of the small, a com«i 
municatlon is opened betweep the inside of the large receiver and the external air* ~ 
The mercury in the dish is now forced into the small receiver, and fills it. The 
string is now untied, and the small receiver standing on the dish is conveyed to the 
mercurial trough. But the exhaustion produced in this way is not qnite so great aa 
in the other, on account of the resistance made by the mercury in the disli to the 
escape of the air from the small receiver. 

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1815.] the Gases hy different Bodies* 247 

absorbed some moisture from the air, which might prove iojurious 
to the absorption, I repeated them with charcoal, which, after being 
dried in a red heat, was introduced into a glass receiver full of 
common air standing over mercury. In this case the absorption of 
the charcoal was somewhat greater than before; but it always re- 
mained smaller than when charcoal was used that had been heated 
to redness, obviously on account of the air left behind in the char- 
coal by the incomplete vacuum produced by the air-pump. 

To ascertain what influence the density of a gas has upon the 
volume which charcoal is capable of absorbing, I introduced a piece 
of charcoal, which had been saturated with gas under the common 
pressure of the atmosphere into a torricellian vacuum in the top of 
a "barometer tube, the inner diameter of which was O-78 inch. As 
soon as the charcoal came into the vacuum, it allowed a portion of 
its gas to escape, which caused the barometer to fall a great way^ 
from wliich the density of the gas set free was easily deduced. From 
the bulk of the portion of the tube occupied by this gas, and this 
bulk subtracted from the whole volume which the gas absorbed by 
the charcoal would occupy in this new situation, it was easy to de- 
termine the quantity of gas still remaining in the charcoal. I 
wished to make these experiments also under other pressures of the 
atmosphere; and on that account allowed determinate.quatitities of 
gas to enter into the barometer tube. 

Exper. i. — A piece of box-wood charcoal, which under the 
barometrical pressure of 28*91 inches, and in the temperature of 
65®, had absorbed 84^ volumes of carbonic acid gas, was put into 
an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas, the density of which, after the 
separation of the gas from the charcoal, was equivalent to the pres- 
sure of 10*26 inches of mercury. Under this pressure the 344. 
volumes of gas, supposing them completely extricated from the 
charcoal, would have occupied the bulk of 97*21 volumes. ^Of 
these 28*16 volumes had escaped out of the charcoal. It still re- 
tained 69*06 volumes. Hence it follows that charcoal absorbs a 
greater bulk of rarified carbonic acid . than when it is of its usual 
density. 

Exper. 2. — I left the charcoal in the barometer tube, and in- 
creased the density till it equalled the pressure of 15*9 inches of 
mercury. At this density the 34^ volumes of gas amounted to 62*7^ 
volumes. Of these 12*83 volumes had escaped ; so that the char- 
coal still retained 49*91 volumes. 

I made several other experiments, which gave me <iimi|ar results. 
It follows from the whole that the absorption of gases, if it be esti- 
mated by the volume, is far greater in a rare than in a dense atmos- 
phere ; but if we reckon this absorption by the weight, it is more 
considerable in the latter than in the former state of the atmos- 
phere. These observations, however, apply only to those gases 
that are absorbed in considerable quantities. The difference is 
scarcely perceptible when the absorption amounts only to about one 
volume. 

When these experiments shall have been prosecuted, it is pro- 
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248 Observqiions on the Ahsorpticm of [Oct* 

bable tbat the relatiQn betvjreen the at^orption of the gases, and th^ 
height of the barometer, will be discovered. 1 have not prosecuted 
the subject ; nor have I made any trials upon the change producer, 
in the absorption by equal increments of temperature. 
' The same cause, which nfiakes the charcoal become hot wh^n it 
absorbs gas, must produce a diminution of temperature on the sepa- 
ration of this gas. A cylinder of box*wood charcoal, 3*15 inches 
long, and 1 57 inch in diameter, was, with a thermometer ^t^^A ia 
it, placed in a very small receiver ; and then its air was drivep off 
by means of the air-pump, that it might be saturated with carbonic 
acid gas. When I afterwards separated this gas from the charcoal 
by means of the air-pump, the thermometer fell in a fev^ ipinutea 
7'2^.* The same experiment was repeated with comippn air; tl^ 
thermometer fell from 5*^ to 7^» 

5* The Property of condensing Gases is common to all Bodies which 
possess a certain degree of porosity. 

That the property of absorbing gas^s has hitherto beea obaerve4 
only in charcoi^l is owing partly to experiments having been made 
with no otbei^ svihstance of the requisite texture, and partly to no 
accurate observations on the absorption having been made. I have 
fo^nd no body v^hich possesses the property ia so high a degree as 
charcoal. 

In all the experiments which I have made on this subject, I have 
made use of the air-pump to free t^e porous bodies firom atmos* 
pherical air, and to make them capable of absorbing ga^s. The 
method of heating to redness succeeds well only with charcoal, be- 
cause, on account of its coi^dbusti^iUty and its small specific heat, it 
xns^ be taken out of the fire and plunged under mercury while stilt 
w|u^ hot. The other porous bodies, which are not combustible, 
st|0er oq tbat account^ when they a^e small, very varicMis degrees of 
cooling di^ring their passs^e from the fire to the mercioy, w^h 
h^vf; a sensible effect upon their power of absorbing gases. Beside^ 
the air-pump put it in my po\yer to empby animal and vegetaUe 
fiubstanpes, which are totally destroyed in the fire. 

Exper, 1, Absorption of Gases by Spanish Meerscbaum.f — ^As 

* By the absorption of carbonic autd gas by charcoal freed f^«m air, the tem- 
perature was raised 85°. 

f I'he variety of meerschaum employed came from Valecas, near Madrid. The 
specific gravity, porosity, and proportion of water contained in it, vary in diffe- 
rent specimens. The piece which I nseil lost 0*2S of its weight in a red heat. Its 
specific gravity, ascertained by plimgiog it in mercury, which did not penetrate 
into the pnrei>, was 8)i6, Meerschaum from Natolia, according fo l^faj^roth, V 
composed of . ' ' 

Silica 50-50 

Magnesia 17*25 

Water 1^-00 

Carbonicacid 5;00 

Lime ., 0*50 

Um .. 1-75 

10Q9Q 

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181^.] the Ga$e$ ly differ&U Bc^i. 049 

this stone, even when it se«»ns perfectly dry, elwaya conltins soaie 
water, I put it first into the' fire, H^i then introduced it under thm 
air-pump while still warm. Having freed it from its air, I initio*^ 
duced it'first into ammoniacal gas, and ascertained how much of 
this gas it absorbed. This experiment I repeated with the flame 
piece of meerschaupa for each of the other g^, first putting it 
into the fine, then introducii^ it under the air-pump, and laadjr 
putting it into the gas to b^ absorbed; so that the same piece of 
meerschs^ura was bro^ght successively in contact wilii all the gasei* 
The size of the meerschaum was 21- cubic inches; and this size 
made it possible for me to observe small variations in the absorption. 
A repetition of these experiments, the same way, and with the same 
piece of meerschaum, gave similar results. The following table 
exhibits the mean of these two sets of experiments, giving the 
number of volumes of each gas absorbed by one volume of the 
meerschaum at the temperature of 51)^, atid under a pressure of 
28' J4 inches of mercury. 

Volumes. 

Ammoniacal gas ^ •••••••• 15 

Sulphureted hydrogen ....•• 11*7 

Carbonic acid gas f • 5*26 

Nitrous oxide , • • 3*7^ 

Olefiant gas ^ f. • • • 3*7 

i\zotic gas . . . • • • .«•••••••••. 1'^ 

Oxygen gas .... , , « . 1*49 

Carbonic, oxide ,..••• 1*17 

Oxy-carbureted hydrogea 0*85 

Hydrogen 0*44 

As these absorptions were produced and destrayed .by means of 
the air-pump alone, without the help of fire, this is a proof ihaX 
the gases contract no unbn with the stone, which is equivalent ta 
the atmospherical pressure. Besides, in these experiments, as in 
those with charcoal^ no alterations in the temperature or barometrical 
took place. 

I repeated these experiments with another piece of raeerscham 
from Valecas. It produced a smaller absorption. When dried in 
the air, it absorbed three volumes, and when heated to redness only 
24* volumes, of carbonic acid gas. 

Meerschaum, Kke charcoal, absorbs a greater bulk of rare than 
dense gas. Thus a mass of meerscliaum of the bulk 15*87 absorbed, 

« When the iqeencbaom is employed as djry as it can be procured ib the common 
temperature of the atmosphere, but without being: heated red-het, it absorbs 15 
volumes of ammoniacal gas, hut requires to do that several daj^s. On the con- 
trary, virhen it has been heated to redness, the absorption is completed in five or 
i\x hours. Charcoal gives a similar result. It follows from my experiments that 
a very small proportion of water greatly increases the power of meerschaum to 
absorb carbonic acid |;as, but a great proportion of water diminishes that power. 
The absorption of cai'bonic acid gas is always slower when the meerschaum con- 
tains water than when it is dry. 

f When the meerschasra was not heated to rednessi the abiorption of carbonic 
acid gas amounted to IS volumes. 



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1J50 Observations on- the Absorption of [Oct. 

under a pressure of 28*46 inches of mercury, only 42*5 of carbonic 
add gas ; but when the pressure was reduced to 9*37 inches, the 
absorption amounted to 50*5. 

Eocper. 2. Absorption of Gases by the adhesive Slate of MentU 
montant.* — ^I did not introduce this mineral into the fire, because 
it splits, and contracts itself so much as not afterwards to absorb a 
sensible quantity of most of the gases. A volume of adhesive slate, 
freed from air by means of the air-pump, absorbed, at the tempe- 
lature of 59^^ the following proportions of the different gases : — 

VoluDies. 

Ammoniacal gas « . • • 1 1*5 

Carbonic acid •...•.... 2 

defiant 1*5 

Azotic 0*7 

Oxygen • 0*7 

Carbonic oxide • 0*55 

Oxy-carbureted hydrogen 0*55 

Hydrogen ' 0*48 

These absorptions are still smaller than those by meerschaum, 
and the differences in most of the gases to small that they cannot be 
accurately estimated. Besides, I must remark that when two gases 
in these experiments appear xo be equally absorbed by asolid Gody, 
this does not entitle us to conclude that they have been absorbed by 
it with equal force. It is much more rational to ascribe the equality 
to the insufficiency of the experiments, which, had they been made 
oh a larger scale, would, probably have shown sonie difference. 

Exper. 3, with ligniform Asbestus from the Tyrol and Rock Cork* 
—-The ligniform asbestus which I employed resembled splinters of. 
But- wood, and liad a specific gravity of 1*42. When heated to 
rddness, it lost 0*19 of its weight. The rock cork was white, of the 
specific gravity 0*6 ; and when heated to redness lost 1^ per cent, of 
its weight. Both minerals were dried by exposure to a red heat ; 
they were then deprived of air by the air-pump, and at the tempe 
rature of 59^ absorbed the following proportions of gas : — 

Ligniform Asbeslus. Rock Cork. 

Volumes. Yolomei. 

Ammoniacal gas 12*75 2*3 

Carbonic acid 1*7 0*82 

Olefiant 1*7 . , 0*82 

Carbonic oxide 0*58 0*78 

Azotic 0*47 0;68 

« The specific gravity of this stone is 0'95. It is composed, according t» 
Klaprotb, of , 

SUica 62-5 

Magnesia 8*0 

Oxide of iron 4*0 

Water 82'0 

yriih some atoms of alumina, lime, and carbon*- - 

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IftiS.] ike Gases ly different Bodies. 251 

lApxxform Asbestiu. Rock Cork. 

Volumes. Vblunies. 

Oxygen 0-47 0-68 

Ox'y-carbureted hydrogen, 0'41 » , . , QrGS 

Hydrogen ,.,. 0*31 0-68 

It is worthy of attention that rock coric, thongh much more 
tpongy , shows a smaller difference in the proportion of the different 
gases absorbed. Amianthus squeezed forcibly together exhibited no 
sensible difference in its absorption. 

Etcper. 4, with Saxon Hydrophancy* and Quartz from Fauvert.f 
— *-The Saxon hydrophane was dried in the open air, the quarts 
from Vauvert by exposure to a red heat, A volume of each of them 
freed from air by the air-pump absorbed the following pro{)ortioQS 
of gases :— 

Hydrophaot. Qaartx, 

Volumes. Volamei. 

Ammoniacal gas 64 iO 

Muriaticacid 17 , 

Sulphurous acid 7*^7 •••••••« 

Carbonic acid ...^ •• 1 •• 0*6 

defiant O'S 0-6 

Azotic 0-6 0-45 

Oxygen 0-6 0-45 

Hydrogen 0-4 0-37 

The swimming quartz from St. Ouen, of the specific gravity 
0*468, gave, when treated in the same way^ no perceptible differ- 
ence-in its absorptions. 

Exper. 5, with Sulphate of Lime. — It was in the state of cal- 
cined g3rpsum, hardened by water, and dried in the open air. Its 
specific gravity was 036. One volume of it freed from.air absorbed 
the following quantitiesof gases : — 

Volume. 

Oxygen gas 0*58 

Azotic 0*53 

Hydrogen -...•. 0*50 

Carbonic acid , 0*43 

Exper. 6, with swimming Carbonate of Lime, or Agaric Mine^ 

* According to Klaproth, Saxon bydrophane is composed of 

Silica , 93 

Alumina 1*6 

Water 525 

The ^ecific gravity of my specimen was 1'7, and its volume 0'2 cubic inch French, 
Hence the observations could not be very precise. The stone spUt& in a red heat } 
therefore it was not put into the fire. 

-f This quartz is found in rolled flints at Vauvert, near Nimes, and appears 
t|> be pure quartz coloured red by oxide of iron. It is at times so light as to swim 
19 water. The specific gravity of my specimen was M8. 100 parts of it lost in 
the fire ;i*35 part0. 



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952 Qhervatiims en ihe Absorption of JOcrt^ 

ral* — A volume of this mki^al djried in the air absorbed the fol- 
lowing proportions of gases : — 

Carbooio aeid gas • • • 0*87 

Azotie . • « 80 

Hydrogen • . h 0-80 

Oxygen • 0*67 

Exper. J, tuiih different Kinds of fFbods. — ^The wood was dried 
in the open air» and then small pieces of it were kept liar several 
weeks in large flasks containing muriate of lime. Yet some hygfo-» 
metrical water remained in it, which beeame evident when the mod 
freed from air was introduced into ammoniacal gas, a watery vapour 
spreading i^lf during the absorption, wbieh the heat disengaged 
chftring the process forced out. The same appearances look plaoe 
when adhesive slate^ linen^ wool, and silk, were exposed to tile 
same treatment. All these bodies again absorbed the vapour. The 
linen threads were firmly pressed together in bundles of the specific 
gravity 0*78. One vohime of the feUowing substances absorbed the 
following proportions of the different gases : — 



Ammoniacal gas 

Carbonic acid . . .« • 

Olefiant 

Oxy-carburete'd hydrogen. 

liydrogen 

Carbonic oxide 

o«yg«i 

Azotic 



Haael. 


Mulberry. 


Fir. 


100 


88 


__ 


11 


o*4a 


11 


«-71 


m^ 


x* 


0*58 


_ 


— 


••58 


0*46 


0*75 


0-58 


.—. 


... 


0-47 


0-a4 


0-50 


0-21 


0-18 


21 



Uaeo Thread. 

68 
0-62 
0*48 
0*36 
0*«5 
0-^ 
0^35 
0-83 



Exper. 8, with r0$Af Silk and with WooL^^The specific gravity <Rf 
tbe skein of silk w^ 0*731, of the wool 0-6» Before tht espenk 
ments both were dried over muriate of lime. Hie tempenitiuw was 
as in the preceding experiments. One volume of each absorbed the 
following proportions of the different gases :— ^ 

Wool. Silk. 

Volumes. Volumes. 

AnMHoniacal gas 78 

Carbonic aci^ gas 1'7 • I'i 



Olefiant 0-57 

Oxygen 0'4a 

Carbonic oxide *.••,•••••.. 0*3 

Hydrogen 0*3 

Azotic 0-24 



0*5 

0^4 

0-3 

0*3 

0-125 



• This very light variety of challc is found *n Jara, and baa only the spedie 
gravity 0*465. VOO parts of it dissolve completely in nitric acid, aiid giv« oat'SS 
parts of carbonic acid gaa, which anraonte to 68 parte of oarbonateofliMe.- 'i^iMT 
remaining IT parts ar^ ^hiefiy water $ which always esist in a ^mtter orcmaHer 
proportion in all stones possessed of a certain degree of porosity. • 



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}glS.J ihs Gases ly different Bodies. £63 

All the bodies wkh \vbich these experimeDts were inade^ ex«* 
cepti^s clutfGodi and hydraphane, fhun the way in whieh I treated 
them before the absorption of the gases, imbibed a good deiJ of 
Hiercury» No attention was paid to this^ as it appears that the 
volumes absorbed of the little absorbable gases are smaller than the 
suie of the pores of the absorbing bodies. 

6. Irifluence of the J^nity and Elasticity of the Gases f and of the 
Porosity of the solid Bodies on the Ahorption. 

The rate of absorption of different gases appears to be the same 
in ail bodies of similar cbemioal properties. All the varieties of 
asbestos condense more carbonic acid gas than oxygen gas ; woods 
condense more hydrogen than azote. Bat the condensations tbem« 
selves in.difierent kinds of asbestus, or wood, or charcoal, are very 
&r from being cquaL Ligniform asbestus absorbs a greater volume 
of carbonic acid gas than rock cork ; so does hydrophane than the 
swimming quartz of St. Ouen and the quartz <rf Vauvert ; and the 
absorption of gases by box-wood charcoal is much greater than by 
fir charcoal. These differences are not in the least altered i^ 
instead of equal volumes, equal weights of charcoal he em^ 
ployed. 

. Connt Morozzo thinks he has observed that the most combustible 
charcoal, and. that which is most proper for the preparation of ^n«« 
powder, possesses the smallest power of absorbing gases ; and con^ 
ceives that this may be owing to a chemical difference in the com- 
position of charcoals. But as the analysis of charcoals of very 
different absorbing powers shows always the same constituents, thia 
explanation roust be renounced; and we must rather ascribe the 
cause of thb difference to the physical state of the charcoal, as^ 
for example, to the number and size of the pores which it oon«' 
tains. 

To be aUe to determine the influence which the porosity or the 
tele of aggregation of solid bodies has upon their power of absorb* 
ing gases, I compared with each other the quantities which the 
same piece (rf boXf-wobd charcoal absorbed when whole, and wheft 
ledueed to an impalpable powder. The piece of charcoal weighed 
2*94 grammes (45*4 grains troy), and had a volume of 4*92 cubic 
centimetres (0*3 cubic inch English), and absorbed, when freed 
from air by the air-pump, 35^ cubic centimetres (2*731 eid>io 
inches), or about 7-}- times its volume of atmospherical air. It waa 
now rubbed to an impalpable powder, and put into a ghss tobe^ 
both the ends of which were shut up with gauze. In this state its 
weight was the same as before; but its volume was 7'd cubic centl* 
metres (0*445 cubic inch) ; and when freed from air by the air- 
pump, it absorbed only 20^8 cubic centimetres (1*355 cuUc inch) 
of atmospherical air. Thus it absorbed about three tiines its voinme 
in a pulverized state, and about 7t times its volume when whole s 
so tbaX kf destroying, opening, wad widening, the snudl eefls-of the 



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254 Otservaii&ns en the Ahsorption of [OcT. 

charcoal, its power of absorbing is distinctly weakened. The con- 
densation of gases in solid bodies appears to us to be an analogoan 
result with the rise of liquids in capillary tubes. Both are in the 
inverse ratio of the size of the interior diameters of the tubes or 
pores. 

The absorbing power of most kinds of charcoal increases as the 
specific gravity increases ; and it is obvious that this last must be- 
come greater in proportion as the pores become smaller and nar* 
rower. Charcoal from cork, of a specific gravity not exceeding 0*1, 
absorbed no sensible quantity of atmosplierical air. Charcoal from 
fir, of the specific gravity 0*4^ absorbed 4^ times its volume of 
atmospherical air. Box*wood charcoal, of the specific gravity 0-6,r 
absorbed 7t times its bulk of air ; 'and pit coal from Ru8stt)eig, 
which was of vegetable origin, and of the specific gravity 1^826', 
absorbed 10^ times its volume of air. If we were to go on trying 
coals of always greater specific gravities, we should soon come to a 
limit when the pores would be too small to allow gases to enter: 
then all absorption would cease, though the specific gravity in* 
creased. Thus the. hlack lead from Cumberland, which contains 
0*96 of carbon, and may therefore be considered as a coal, though 
its specific gravity is 2'17> produces no alteration on atmospherical 
air. The same was the case with a coal of nearly the same weight : 
which I obtained by distilling volatile oil through a red-hot porce* 
kin tube. 

But this correspondence of the power of absorbing with the spe* 
cific gravity is only accidental. More accurate experiments show 
remarkable deviations from thi^rule. The different kinds of char- 
coal, whether of similar or dissimilar specific gravities, always difier 
from each other in their organization. Tliey cannot be considered 
as resembling a sponge^ whose pores and density may be modified 
by pressure. 

• I expected to be able to render those bodies capable of absorbing 
air, which, like the black lead of Cumberland, are too dense, and 
have too few pores, to allow a passage for gases, by reducing them 
to a fine powder. But my expectations were disappointed. The 
pores, formed by reducing a solid body to powder, appear to be tt)0 
light, too open, and in too small quantity, to be able to conden^^ a 
sensible quantity of carbonic acid, azote, oxygen, or hydrogen. 
But they seem to act upon elastic fluids^ which lose their elasticity 
by a small increase of pressure ; for I know no body which in the 
state of a fine powder is not capable of absorbing moisture from the 
atmosphere ; as is shown by the loss of weight which all powders 
capable of standing the action of fire undergo when heated. 

From the experiments hitherto made, it appears that the power 
which the gases possess of being condensed in solid bodies is within 
certain limits in the inverse ratio of the internal diameter of the 
pores of the absorbing bodies. 

But^ besides the porosity, there are two other circumstance 



3 



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1815.] the Gases by different Bodies. 355^ 

wliich must be attended to in these absorptions : K The diflferent 
affiDities which exist between the bases of the gases and the absorb- 
ing bodies ; and 2. The power of expansion of the gases, or the oppo- 
sition which they make to their condensation in different degrees of 
heat and atmospherical pressure. 

We find an example of the action of this affinity in the different 
orders in which the gases are absorbed by different bodies. Charcoal 
and meerschaum absorb more azotic than hydrogen gas ; wood, on 
the other hand, more hydrogen than azotic gas. The influence of 
elasticity shows itself in this, that the condensation of the gases is 
not always proportional to the affinity of their bases to the absorbing 
bodies. Thus carbonic acid gas is absorbed in greater quantity by 
charcoal than oxygen gas, although the affinity of oxygen saturated 
with carbon to charcoal can only be weak. To the elastic fluids, 
absorbed most copiously by porous bodies, belong for the most part 
those which, by a known diminution of temperature, or increase of 
pnessure, lose their gaseous state. Thus the vapour of water is 
absorbed in great abundance by all porous bodies capable of absorb- 
ing gases. Ammaniacal gas is always absoj^bed in greatest abun- 
dance.; and the vapour rf sulpkwric ether, which is absorbed in 
great quantity, by charcoal, meerschaum, ligniform asbestus, and 
all bodies which have the property of absorbing gases. 

Wben the gases have a greater inclination to retain their elastic 
state than to unite with porous bodies,. the difference of the affinities 
between their bases and these bodies does not appear. This takes 
place in all cases when the condensation does not correspond with 
the known affinity. On the contrary, when the affinity of the bases 
of the gases for the porous bodies surpasses or destroys their elasti- 
ci^, the absorption corresponds with the known affinity. 

From these observations it follows, that the condensation of gases 
by porous bodies, abstracting from the influence of the pores, depends 
upon two powers: 1. The attraction, by means of which the 
bases of the ^es and the porous bodies endeavour to unite toge- 
ther : and 2. The elasticity of the gases, or the affinity of their bases 
to heat. These two powers oppose one another ; and the absorption 
of the gases by solid bodies is the result of their difference. These 
two powers have long ago been considered by Berthollet, who 
showed th£it» the elasticity of the gases is a power which opposes 
their chemical combinations. I have here merely applied the doc- . 
trine of this celebrated chemist to the object which I had in view. 

{T0 be continued.) 



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as* Anakfsif of ih& Mineral Heaters [Ott. 



AltnCLB IL 

An Analysts of the Mineral Waters of Dunbldne and Pitcalt/il^ j 
wUh UMertU Ohservaiions on the Analysts of Mineral VPhtbrs^ 
and the Composition of Balk Water^ Vc. By Jolifi Af u^raVj, 
M.0. F.R.S.K. 

{Read to ike Royal Society of Edinburgh, Niw. 20, 1814.) 

I PROPo$B to submit to the Society the analTsis ot a miaeMtf 
water of the saline class, which has lately been discovered in the 
neighbourhood of Dunblane. The subject onqr have ntlher more 
interest than usually belongs to researches of tbis nature, fromi the 
composition of this water being such as promises to afibrd a sprkig 
oi considerable mediciDal eflScacy, and from its resemblaace W 
another mineral water of some celebrity — ^tbaC of Pitcaithly, llbe 
analysis of which I have, from thb circumstancey been aho ted to' 
undertake. The investigation, too, may afibrd some IHintratiODS of 
the different methods that may be employed in the analysis) of 
waters of this class, and of the facility and precision whichf are fiveii 
to these researches, by the results tmt have been establiriied with 
regard to the definite proportions in which many bo£es oomfbiney 
ai^ the uniformity of the relations which thus exist between the 
compounds they form. And it has led to some views with regard 
to the constitution of mineral waters of fhe saline class^ whieh £ 
have applied to the composition of some of the most eelebrateA 
mineral waters* In performing the principal eq>eriments on ibM 
Qunblane water, I had the advantage of Mr. Ellis's co^operaitiotiL 

I. — ^ANALYSIS OF THE BUNBLANB WATJfiR. 

This water was discovered last summer, and was first taken noti66 
of from the circumstance of the frequent resort of flocks of pigeoils 
to the gfotmd where it breaks out. It appears in two ^rirtgs, hi 
the distance of nearly half a mile Arom each other, in a neld about 
two miles to the north of Dunblane, the propei'ty of the Earl of 
Kinnoul. This district is at no great distance from the range of the 
Gitempians, to which it ascends ; masses of the primitive rocks are 
spread over the surface, and are found in the beds of the streams ; 
among which the conglomerate rock that seems to skirt the Gram- 
pians is abundant. The prevailing rock of the district itself is the 
red sand-stone, and it is generally covered by a bed of gravel, in 
many places of considerable depth. It is firom this sand-stone that 
the water appears to issue. The spring, however, in both the places 
where it breaks out, has been laid open only to the depth of two or 
three feet from the surface, and has not been traced to any extent. 
Its proper source is theiefoie unknown^ and it also remains uncer* 



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18l5f] of DimllaTW and PUctUhly^ 25/ 

tain how far it may be dilated with water from the surface, or from 
other springs. The water : from the lower, or what for distinction 
may be named the south spring, is weaker in .taste than the water 
of the. north spring; and from the subsequent experiments is proved 
to contain rather less foreign matter. The ingredients, however, 
are the same; and the difference therefore probably. arises from the 
water of the lower spring being farther diluted in its course. This 
difference led to the analysis of the water of both springy. It is 
proper to remark, that both have b^en submitted to examination 
after a season unusually dry. 

.Analyds of the JVdter of the North Spring. 

The taste of this water is saline, with some degree of bitterness* 
As |]^rocured from the principal pool at which it issues, it is free 
from smell; procured^ however, from some other pools, at the 
distance only of a few feet, its smell is slightly sulphureous, pro- 
bably.owing to impregnation from matter at pr immediately under 
the soil. Its sensible operation on the system is that of a diuretic 
and purgative. The former effect is usually obtained when. a quan* 
tity is taken by an adult, from an English pint to a quart ; the 
latter, when more than a quart is taken. The specific gravity of 
the water is 1*00475. It suffers no change in its sensible qualities 
from exposure to the air. 

The state of the spring is at present such, that any gaseous im- 
pregnation of the water cannot be determined with precision* 
Bubbles of air frequently rise from the bottom of the pool, but this 
is merely atmospheric air: transmitted through lime-water, it. pro- 
duced no sensilale milkiness ; nor does the water appear to contain 
any free carbonic acid. 

The usual re-agents present with the water the following appear- 
ances: — 

1. The colours of litmus, violet, and turmeric, are notsctnalbly 
affected. > 

2. Muriate of barytes produces an immediate .turbidness, and 
rather copious precipitation, which is very slightly, if at all, rer 
moved by nitric acid. 

3. Nitrate of silver gives a very dense and abundant precipitate** 

4. Water of potash produces a turbid appearance^ not very con- 
siderable. 

5. Carbonate of potash throws down an abundant precipitate, 
which disappears with effervescence on adding nitric acid. 

6. Lime-water causes no change. 

7. Ammonia does not cause any precipitation, nor doesjt even 
impair the transparency of the water. 

8. Oxalate of potash, or of ammonia, occasions a copious pre* 
cipitation. 

9. Tincture of galls has no immediate sensible effect ; but after 
an hour or two a purplisli tint is exhibited, which deepens from ex"- 
posuro to the air, and inclines to olive-green. 

Vpt. Vi. N« IV. R 

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2SS Analysk rf the Mineral fyiOers {Octt. 

These results establish the following conolasionB :-^ 

Exp^. I; proves that do free acid or alkaline matter is present^ 
tior aoy alkaline carbonate. 

Exper. 2y denotes the presence of sulphuric acid. 

Esper. 3) indicates the presence of mariatic acid. 

From Exper, 4 and 5, may be inferred the prasencs either. of 
lime, or magnesia, or both. 

Exper. (> and 7> prove that magnesia is not present,, nor argil* 

Exper. 8, proves the presence of lime. 

Exper. 9, mdicates a minute portion of iron. 

The saline taste of the water, and the precipitation so abundant 
by nitrate of silver, render probable the presence of muriate of 
soda^ and it is accordingly obtained, when the water is evaporated 
nearly to dryness, eubioil crystals of it forming in the salioe liqiud. 

From;the whole, therefore, the principal ingredients of this water 
may be inferred to be muriates of ff)da and lime, with a smaller 
portion of a sulphate, and a minute quantity of iron. These Goai«- 
elusions suggested the following method of abalysis.. 

An English pint of the water was evaporated to dryness ; and tke 
solid residuum was exposed to a heat approaching to redness, undi 
it became perfectly dry. It weighed wliile warm 47 gnuns. II 
quicklv attracted mobture from the air, so that its surface soon be** 
came humid ; and on leaving it exposed foe 24 hours, a ooosidex^ 
able portion was dissolved, forming a dense liijucMr, while a portion' 
remained undissolved. 

The whole solid matter, being rendered dry^ was submitted to 
' the action of alcohol, with the view of separating by sohitien the 
muriates of sodc| and lime, of which it was supposed to be pcioci<^ 
pally composed. It is well known that this method is liaUe, in 
snmQ degree^ to two sources of error } the one,, that a little mudate 
of soda is dissolved by the alcohol with the muriate of lime; the 
iptber, that even when a large qoantity of akohol is employedy the 
undissolved muriate of soda retains a small. portion of niiiriate of 
lime. In estimating the quantities from tke results^ these errors, 
inde^, in some measure counterbalance each either; but still they 
may exist in different degrees, according to the. quantity and strengidi 
of the alcohol, and it is necessary therefore to obtain perfect preci- 
sion, to obviate them as far aa possible. 

With this view the entire matter was digested with repeated por^ 
tions of alcohol, of the specific gravity of 836, until about six times 
its weight had been employed ; the solvent action being aidied hf 
frequent agitation, and an occasfonal heat of about 100^. It was 
then lixiviated with a small portion of distilled water, to remove 
more effectually from the muriate of soda any adhcying muriate of 
lime. The different Uquors, being mixed, were evaporates! to 
dryness; and this dry mass was again submitted to the action of 
alcohol, more highly rectified, (being of the specific gravity of 
d:25,) and in smaller quantity, so as to dissolve only that part of it 
which was muriate of lime. A small portion of muriate of soda. 

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ISIS.] qf Bunikm and PUcoithly. 068 

which had beeo dissolved ict th^ first dige&tioQ, nr^s thua obtaii3e4» 
and wafi added to^ the residue of that operatioo. The whole undis- 
solved matter beiog dried at a low red heat^ weighed while warm 
28*5 grains : itr was in small grains^ having a taste purely saline. 
The alcoholic solution afibrded^ by evaporatioDi a matter which 
entered into fusion, and whieh« after being dried at a heat approach* 
ing to redness, weighed while warm 18'2 grains. It was highly 
ddiquescent, so as to increase (^lickly in weight, aiMl in a &horC 
lime became humid on the surface. 

These two products were evidently priaclpally muriate of soda 
and muriate of lime. But it was necessary to ascertain if they were 
entirely so, as both of them might contain small portions of other 
ingredients. ^ 

The matter dissolved by the alcohol, supposing it to he muriate 
of -lime, would require for its conversion into sulphate of lim^ aboiit 
16 grains of sulphuric add of the usual strength : 18 grains were 
added with a small portion of distilled water, ai^ heat was afqplied | 
vapours of muriatic acid were discharged: to render the muliual 
action more complete, small portions of water were successively 
added, the soft a»ss being frequently stirred]^ and when the vapours 
bad ceased to exhale, the heat was raised to redness, to expel any 
excess of acid* The dry matter weighed 2St grains, piiecisely thi 
quantity that ought to be obtained from 18 grains vof muriate of 
lime* 

1% was diffosed in a quantity of water, which it at first aUorbed 
^vith a hissing noise* ^ The water, after having been added in suc^ 
cessive quantities, with fregue^ agitation, being poured off, the 
undissolved matter was dried at a k»w red heat: it weighed 1^*9 
grains, and formed a soft whhe powder, free from taste. The 
water poured off was very slightly acidulous. This was tieutraljzed 
by ammonia } it was then evauorated to dryness, and the solid 
matter was heated to redness. On again submitting it to the a^ioa 
of a small quantity of water, a portion remained undissolved, whieh 
weigJbed when dried 2 grains. 

There were thus obtained 20*5 grains of sulphate of lime, a 
quantify equivalent to 16*7 pf dry muriate of lime. The sm^U 
portion of liquor which remained in the last operation had a bitterish, 
taste: by spontaneous evaporation, it formed acicukr crystals } di- 
luted with distilled water, it became slightly turbid on adding o^ca-^ 
late of ammonia, and more sp oo the addition of alcohol ; but ii| 
the laitter case, the transj)arency was restored on adding water. With 
a minute portion, therefore, of sulphate of lime, it appeared to b^ 
priacipally sulphate of soda, derived from i little muriate of sodai 
which, notwithstanding the precautions that weire employed, ^i^id 
adhered to the muriate of lime. 

Th« matter wluch remained undissolved by tha aloohpl weighed, 
it has been stated, 28*5 grains. It remained to ascertain if it wer^ 
entirely muriate of soda. 

Being agitated with about half an ounce of distilled watei> tht 

% 2 

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260 Analysis of the Mineral Waters [Ocr* 

greater part was dissolved. The portion which remained' undis- 
solved, after being washed with small quantities of distilled watery 
and dried, weighed 2*4 grains. To this matter a little diluted nitric 
acid being added, a slight eflFervescence was excited : a thin crustt 
too, adhered to the sides of the small glass globe in which the last 
stage of the evaporation had been performed, which was dissolved 
with efFervcs(*ence by a weak acid. The quantity of carbonate of 
lime thus indicated may be estimated at 0*5 grain. The remainder 
of the undissolved residue being washed and dried, was lieated with 
two of three drops of sulphuric acid, and w^ thus rendered soluble 
in water. When netitralized by ammonia, the solution became 
milky 5 but its transparency was restored by adding more water ; it 
became quite turbid on adding oxalate of potash, and a precipitate^ 
Was thrown down by alcohol. It was therefore sulphate of lime, 
Itsjrua'ntity may be stated at two grains. 

Tiie solution had a taste purely saline. The test of oxalate of 
ammonia, however, showed the presence in it of a small quantity 
of lime ; the addition of the oxalate was therefore continued as long 
as any precipitation took place, and the precipitate was collected 
and dried. It weighed 1*3 grain. This production of oxalate of 
lime evidently arose from the presence of a small portion of muriate 
of lime, which, notwithstanding the precautions that had been em* 
ployed, had adhered to the muriate of soda. Supposing that thil 
had not escaped the action of the alcohol, but had been dissolved 
by it, and in the subsequent stage of the experiment,, been con- 
Terted into sulphate of lime. It would have increasei the quantity 
of this sulphate about 1*2 grainy maftihg'it therefore 21 '7^ equiva- 
lent to 17*6 grains of dry muriate dflime^ which the pipt of'wat^r 
contains. .» ,. ,- 

The solution contained also a minute quantity of sulphuric acHj 
for after removing any sliglit excess of oxalic acid that might have 
been present, it still gave a precipitate on the addition of ''muriate 
of barytes. Supposing this, as well as the rest of the sulphuric acid, 
to have existed in the water in the state of sulphate of lime, it will 
tnerease the quantity of that ingredient (calculating from the weight 
<>f the precipitate of sulphate of haiytes obtained), from the two 
grairifs formerly rioticfed to 2*9;. 

There appeared now to remain nothing but pure uiiiriate of soda. 
The solution by slow evaporation afforded that salt in cubical crys- 
tals," which, dried at a low red heat, weighed 124*5 grains. Allowing 
0*8 of this as the portion of product formed by the action of the 
muriate of barytes, it leaves 23*7 grains. And if to this be added 
one grain, as the equivalent of the small portion of sulphate of. 
soda, already noticed as foniied by the action of the sulphuric acid 
on the muriate. of soda adhering to the muriate of lime after the 
opei^ation of the alcohol, it gives the quantity of muriate of soda at 
24'7 grains. ^ ' 

From these results, the solid ingredients in a pint of this water 
appear to be, • -• - 



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IjilSj of Dtmblane and PiicaUhfy. , ?61 

Grains. ' 

Muriate of soda • 24*7 

Muriate of lime 17*6 

Sulphate of lime 2-9 ; 

Carbonate of lime •....; 0^5 

With a trace of iron, ■ 

45-7 

- Having compkted the analysis in this manner, I wished to con- 
firm it by a different method. A very simple one presented itself—* 
to reduce by evaporation to dryness — obtain the sulphate of lime as 
before-^then, dissolving the mixed mass of muriate of lime and 
. muriate of soda in water, decompose the muriate of lime by oxalate 
of ammonia, so as to find the quantity of it present, and after eva- 
poration to volatilize the muriate of ammonia by heat, and thus 
obtain the muriate of soda. The results in this mode ought to cor- 
respond with those in the former; and the one, therefore, afford 
a confirmation of the other, or lead to the discovery of any fallacy 
if it exist. 

A pint of the water was evaporated to dryness, and afforded, as 
before, 47 grains, of solid matter. This being submitted to the 
action of a small quantity of distilled water, was dissolved, with the 
exception of a residue of sulphate of lime, which weighed 2*6 
grains, and a little carbonate of lime, which miky be estimated, as 
before, at 0*5 grain. 

Tp the clear solution a solution of oxalate of ammonia was sdded 
as long as any turbid appearance was produced ; and after the pre- 
cipitate had subsided, the liouor was heated nearly to boiling, to 
render the mutual action ana4he precipitation more perfect. The 
precipitate being repeatedly washed with distilled water, was dried 
by the heat of a sand-bath raised gradually, and kept lower than a 
red heat. It weighed 21 gr. The quantity of muriate of lime which 
would be equivalent to this cannot bie inferred with certainty from any 
previous analysis of oxalate of lime ; for as the oxalate cannot be 
exposed to a red heat without decomposition, it cannot easily be 
jsubjected to a precise degree of heat, by which we can be certam of 
obtaining it in an uniform state of dryness.^ It is necessary, there- 
fore, that in every case the quantity of lime should be found in the 
oxalate that is operated on. The above quantity of 21 grains was 
converted by calcination into carbonate of lime ; and x\\U being 
decomposed by muriatic acid> the quantity of muriate of lime ob- 
tained, dried at a low red heat, and weighed while warm, amounted 
to 1 8 '3 grains. 

. The liquor poured off from the precipitate was evaporated to 
dryness ; and to expel the muriate of ammonia formed by the action 

* Referring to those analysed which may be supposed to be most accurate, 21 
irrainS'of oxalate of lime wHl be found etjjuiv&leDt to variou3 proportional from 
i7 "5 to i9'9 of muriate of lime, ... j. -. ; 

* ' Digitized by V^OOQIC 



m AfiiLigM 6f the Mineral Heaters .{Oct. 

of the oxalate of ammonia on the muriate of lime, the heat was 
continued while any vapours were disengaged, and at the end was 
iraised nearly to redness. The diry mass weighed^ while warm, 25 
grains. Being dissolved in water, its solution was rendered very 
slightly turbid by the addition of muriate of barytes, showing the 
presence of a minute portion of sulphuric acid. A quantity of pre- 
cipitate was. collected, which, when dried, weighed 0'8 grain. Sup- 
posing the sulphuric acid of this to have originally existed in the 
water, along with the other portion of tfus acid, in the state of sul- 
phate of lime, it gives a proportion of that sulphate of 0*5 grain, 
and of course increases the quantity of it from the 2*6 grains ol>- 
tained by evaporation to S*l gnaios. An equivalent quantity must 
at the same time be subtracted from the proportion of muriate of 
lime, whtdi may thef«fare be reduced to 18 grains. By evaporation 
of the liquor, muriate of soda was obteined, weighing, when it had 
]3fpm ibiod at a low red heat, 24*3 grains. Of this a small portion 
(0*4) would be formed by t)k muriate of barytes, which reqoires to 
be deducted ; but then the sulphuric acid which exi9ted in the mass, 
could, after the action of the oxalate of ammonia, and the exposure 
to a red heat, exist in it only in the state of sulphate of soda, in the 
prpductiondf trfaioh an equtfalent portiob of iliariate of soda would 
be decomposed. The quantity of muriate of soda obtained, there- 
fore, by the evaporation, may be regarded as the just proportion 
indicated by the analysis. 

The results, then, by this method, agree very nearly with thoia 
]>y tlie othear ; being of solid ipgredieots in a pint of the water, 

Craitis. 

Muriate of soda . . . . , < • « . • 24*3 

Muriate of lime , 18 

Sulphate of lime , ,^ 3*1 

Carbonate of lime ,..,,... 0^5 

With a tr^oe of iibn^ — — 

45-9 

With regazd to Mh analyses, a small correction ia to be made in 
the proportion of sulphate of lime. The mode of ascertaining it, 
by evaporation, being rather imperfect, I afterwards determined it 
by the more accurate methpd of precipitation by muriate of barytes ; 
applying this re-agent with a sli^t excess of acid, so as to prevent 
any precipitation of carbonate. The quantity of precipiti^te thrown 
do^n from a pint of this water amounted, after drying at a low red 
heat, tp 6*1 grains, equivalent to 8*5 grains of sulj^ate of lime. 
As th.e portion of su^hate of lime thus <^tained above that obtained 
by the evaporation would reipain priiicipally mixed with the muriate 
of soda, the quantity of that ipgredient falls to be reduced a little, 
and may therefore be stated at 24 grains. 

, It .ren^ained to ascertain the proportion of iron. The quantity, 
however, ivas evidently so small a^ to present a \difficulty. Succinate 

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mi*] ^ DurMane and Piimifify. Mi 

of Minwia tmd baizoate of soda produced little of oa cftct on the 
wa4!er in its naiturtil state. Infusion of galls produced, after somd 
hours, a dark colour, and a precipitate very slowiy subsided. This 
method has been eai[^yed to ascertain minute quantities of irori^ 
nod I endeavoured to avail myself of it— adding to the water 
infusioe of galk, in small successive portions, at the interval of a 
day.<>r two, as long as the colour af^peared to be rendered deeper; 
leaving it exposed to the air for a longer time, that the whole matter 
remlered in^vble might subside ; and, lastly, washing the precis 
pttaie, drying and calcining it> to consume the vegetable matter^ 
and obtain the oxide of iron. The difficulty, however, attending 
this method^ i$ that of precipitating entirely the iron, the liquor 
never becoming colourless. In one experiment^ conducted with 
much care, the quantity of the calcined product from two pints 
amounted to 04 grain ; but it consisted partly of carbonate of lime. 
To remove tbi9, pure niuriatic acid diluted was added in excess, and 
a moderate heat was applied ; the precipitate was entirelv dissolved, 
and the liquor acquired a deep yellow colour. Being further diluted, 
a little pure ammonia v^sis added (o it, in a dose phials to precipitate 
the oxide of iron, while the lime should remain dissolved. The 
quantity thus obtained, when dried, amounted to 0*27 grain. 

This method being liable to the above objection,^ I employed an- 
other : two pints of the water were evaporated : when reduced to 
about two ounces, a brownish-coloured sediment was deposited, 
which was removed ; the evaporation was carried to dryness, and 
the dry mass was redissolved m distilled water. The insoluble re* 
sidue was of a greyish colour, and to this the deposite formed during 
the evaporation was added. It was known by previous experiments 
that the greater part of the iron was separated in this way ; the in- 
soluble matter, when digested with muriatic acid, affording a liquor, 
when diluted with water, which gave, after neutralisation with am* 
monia, a deep coloor with tincture of galls. To ensure, however, 
the more perfect separation of the iron, ammonia was added to the 
solution of the solid matter which had been procured by evapoi^* 
lion, and care being taken that the ammonia was free from carbocJo 
acid, -little or no precipitation could take place but of oxide of iron* 
A yellowish flocculent precipitate subsided slowly, which, after being 
washed, was added to the insoluble residue. 

The insoluble matter tlius collected consisted, as the preceding 
ateps of the analysis establisli, chiefly of sulphate, with a smaller 
portion of carbonate of lime, with which was mixed the oxide of 
ubn. A drop or two of sulphuric acid was added, to convert the 
carbonate into sulphate of lime ; and heat was applied to expel any 
exceas of acid. A little pure nouriatic acid was then «dded to dis* 
solve the oxide of iron, and to form with more certainty the red 
muriate, soluUe in alcohol, a drop Of nitric acid was added along 
.with it. On applying heat, with the addition of a little water, to 
favour the action, a yellow colour was acquired. When the excess 
of acid was nearly dissipated, the mass was r^atediy lixiviated wl^ 
2 

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264 Analysis of the Mineral Waters '[Oct. 

alcohol, ia which sulphate of lime being insoluble, the wuriftte of 
iron only would be dissolved^ * The alcohol acquired accordingly a 
yellow colour. Being evaporated by a gentle heat, it gave a resi- 
duum which, on a drop lof nitrous acid being added, became of a 
deep reddish brown colour, «nd after being heated strongly, weighed 
0*34 grains Redissolved in muriatic acid, it formed a rich yellow* 
coloured solution, and gave a deep colour with tincture of galls. 

Even in this way thc' whole iron is not obtained ; for the solution 
of the saline matter*, though ammonia had been added to it, to pre* 
cipitate the if^on, still gave a weak colour with galls. The quantity 
therefore is rather under-rated. Taking the above, however, as the 
proportion, the whole composition will be, in a pint of the Water 
of the north spring, 

Grmiiu« 

Muriate of soda 24 

Muriate of lime ; 18 

Sulphate of lime 3*5 

Carbonate of lime 0*5 

Oxide of iron 0*17 

46-17 

Analysis of the Water of the South Spring. 

The water of this spring has a taste similar to that of the other, 
but rather weaker : it produces similar medicinal effects. In the 
'present state of the spring its strength is more variable, according to 
the state of the weather. From this circumstance, and from its 
being rather weaker, it has probably a greater intermixture of sur- 
face-water, or of the water of other springs. When taken up after 
/continued dry weather, it afforded, by evaporation, 42 grains of 
solid matter from a pint ; the other affording, at the same time, 47 
grains. Its specific gravity was found to be 1*00419. It was in this 
«tate, the strongest in which it was found, that it was submitted to 
the following examination. 

The application of re-agents produced the &ame appearances as 
with the water of the north spring, indicating, therefore, the pre- 
sence of the same ingredients. To determine this with more pre- 
cision, and to ascertain the proportions, the same methods of ana- 
lysis were employed which had been used with regard to the other. 
It will be sufficient to state the results by one method — ^the second 
of those before described. 

A pint of the water was submitted to evaporation, and afforded 
•rf dry matter, weighed while warm, '42 grains. This was redis- 
solved in distilled water. There remained undissolved a portion 
;which, when thoroughly dried, weighed 2*5 grains. This suffered 
-a very flight effervescence with muriatic acid, similar to that excited 
in the insoluble matter of the water of the north spring j a similar 
thin crust, too, had formed on the sides of the glass capsule, which 
^as removed With effervescence by a drop of muriatic acid. The 

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1815.] of DwiUane and Pitcdiihfy. 265 

relature proportions, therefore, of shiphate and carixMiate of lime 
may be regarded as the same :. and the insoluble residue will thus 
consist of 0*3 of carbonate and 2*3 of sulphate of lime. By prer- 
tnpitation by muriate of.barytes from another pint of the water, 
similar results were obtained. 

To the clear liquor oxalate of ammonia was added as long as it 
produced any turbid appearance. The precipitate cdlleeled. and 
dried, being, converted by calcination into carbonate of. lime, 
afforded, when acted on by muriatic acid, 16 grains of dry muriate 
of lime. 

. The solution poured off from the precipitate was evaporated to 
dryness, and the dry mass was exposed to. a heat gradually raised to 
redness, until it ceased to exhale any vapour. The muriate of 
ammonia formed by the action of the oxalate ^f ammonia on the 
muriate of lime was thus expelled, and the muriate of soda of the 
water remained. It weighed 22*5 grains. 

The results, then, by this method, are from a pint of the water, 

GratASk 

Muriate of soda , .. 22*5 

Muriate of lime • 16 

. .. Sulphate of lime 2*3 . 

Carbonate of lime 0*3 

Oxide of iron 0*15 

41*25 

The proportion of iron I have stated as similar to that of the 
north spring, from the colour produced by the tincture of galls 
being nearly the same. 

From the almost perfect similarity in the composition of the two 
waters, with regard to the proportions of their ingredients, there is 
every reason to conclude that they are from the same spring; the 
weaker being either mixed with surface water at the pool, or being 
diluted in its course. 

The' determination of the composition of this water suggests the 
question whether this is sucli as to account for the medicinal effects 
it produces. It acts, as has been stated, as a diuretic, and in a 
larger dose as a cathartic. This water, and the mineral water of 
Pitcatthly, present in some respects a peculiarity. The greater 
number of saline waters which have a purgative quality contain 
magnesian salts, to which, as they are known to act as cathartics, 
the effect is obviously to be ascribed. Of the . ingredients of the 
Dunblane and Pitcaithly springs, muriate of lime is scarcely known 
to have any purgative power in its pure form; and if muriate of 
soda possess it, it is only in an inconsiderable degree. Still there 
can be no doubt that it is to this impregnation that their operation is 
owing ; and they afford a proof, therefore, of what is indeed suHi* 
ciently established, that, the powers of mineral waters are often 
much greater than could be expected from the nature and quantity 

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266 AtMcfym of the Minertd Waters [Oev« 

of their ingneAents, and diftt the actkMi of tttlioe sabstaiKrei bio^ ^ 
opeased,. and coasideiaUy modified . when th«y aK in a slirte of gveat 
dihrtipn. 

lodqittident of its poq^tive opemtioo, and its adaptation to Ac 
treatment of diseases in which this is advaDtageovs, its composition 
may piobabty vender it a remedy of efficacy in some constitutional 
a ifa cao a s y partionbrly in scrofula. Muriate «f lime has attained 
aone celebmy in the treatment of this disease ; it is a substance of 
eonsidcrable aedvitp in its efibcts.on the living «yslem ; and it will 
probably operate with more effect, and more advantage, in tlieatate 
of diiutioQ in which it is presented in a mineral spring, iJian when 
givlm in a more concentraded form. The muriate of soda may exm* 
oide with it in efficacy, and will be of advantage from its grateful. 
tBStej|*and its simulant action on the stomadi : and the chalybeate 
imprKgnation will ooouminioate some degree of tonic power. When 
employed in such cases, it probably ought to be given in smaller 
doses, tbfltt when the advantage to be derived from it depends on its 
purgative operation ; and it may even prove hiore advantageous if 
given in a state of greater dilution. I shall in the sequel have to 
state a view of hs composition, which connects it with some mineral 
springs of great celebrity, and particularly with the Bath waters. 

Dunblane, as a watering place, would be possessed of considerable 
advantages. Situated between the range of the Ochil Hills and the 
Grampians, it is well sheltered, and hence enjoys a mild atmosphere; 
and the soil, from being a bed of gravel for a number of miles 
around, is extremely dry — an advantage inestimable in a moist cli- 
mate. 

If.*— AWALYSTS OP PrfCAITHLT WATSR. 

The wa,t^ of Pitcaithly may be regarded as the principal mineral 
water of the saline class in this country. Dr. Donald Monro showed 
that, along with a little mild calcareous earth, it conlained muriate 
of soda, with a deliquescent salt, which he inferred to be chiefly 
^' a calcareous marine," that is, muriate of lime.^ An analysis of 
it was publislied a number of years ago, executed by Messrs. Stod* 
dart aiid Mitchell, of Perth. There are different springs, the waters 
of wliich they found to be somewhat different in strength. The 
nature of tlie impregnation is in all of them, however, the same, 
^electing the stroi^est, it contains, according to their analysis^ the 
£pllowing iogredientD in an English pint : — 

Atmospheric air 0*5 cub. in. 

Carbonic acid gas 1 

Muriate of soda 12*5 grains 

Muriate of lime 22*5 

Sulphate of lime oy 

Caihonate of lime 0*6 f 



^ Phflosopliical Transactions, vol. Ixii. 
i ataUtticM Account of SooUand, vol. tIH. 



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l«f S.] ^J Du^hne mi Ptkdikiff. ftBJ 

The cotnpCKrition of this waler^ ftceording to this analjsisy is verf 
afikynkir to tfatt eft the JDanbhtie water. No aecount is given, how- 
ever, so ftr as i have been ahle to discover, of the manner ki which 
If hard been executed, and it is therefore uncertain to what state ot 
dryness the ingredietits had been brgnght to which their propoitiens 
are referred. Hence tio comparative estimate can b^ made of it 
with My otter mineral water; and this led me to undertake ita 
analysis, in the same manner as that of the DunUane water* 

Htcaithly is situated in the valley of Strathem, and thewgh at 
mther a greater distance /rem the front range ^ the Grampians 
tlian DunUane, it is not improbable that the spring may have a 
similar origin with the DunUane one, and may rise from the red 
sand-stone which appears to form the first rock on descending from 
the primitive rocks, and to extend over all this district. 
' The taste df this water is saHne, and sontewhat bitter. Comparing 
it with the Dunblane water, both being tasted at the same time, the 
taste of the Dunblane water is stronger, and in particular more 
saline than that of the other. The medicinal operation of the Pit» 
caiAily water, in tlie sensible effects it produces, is diuretic and pur- 
gative. 

The ^seous hnpregnation of the water could be examined pro* 
pcrly omy aftihe spring, which I had not the oppoitunityof domg. 
But having procured a quantity of the water, I submitted k to the 
same examination as in the preceding analysis, to ascertain its solid 
contents. The usual re-agents produced the fellowfng appear* 
ances : — 

1. The cok>urs of litmus, violet, and turmeric, were scarcely 
arfibcted. If there were any change, it was that of the litmus be- 
coming more blue, and tKat of the viUet^green $ but this was so 
slight as to be rather doubtful. The turmeric underwent no change* 

2. Muriate of barytes produced a turbid appearance and precipi- 
tation ; but this was much less considerable than in the Dunblane 
water. The transparency was not restored by nitric acid. 

3. Nitrate of silver produced a very dense and copious preci« 
pitate. 

4. Water of potash gave a milkiness not very considerable. 

5. Carbonate of potash threw down a copious precipitate, which 
disappeared with eflervescehce on adding nitric acid* 

6. Lime-water had no sensible effect 

7. Ammonia, when perfectly free from carbonic acid, caused no 
turbid appearance. 

8. Oxalate of ammonia produced an abundant precipitation. 

9. Tincture of galls, added in a very minute quantity, did not 
immediately produce any effect ; but after a few hours, a dark colooir 
appeared, which gradually deepened, inclining to an olive-green. 

With all these tests, the general results are the same as those 
from the operation of the same tests on the Dunblane water. Ba 
experiment ^ih^ tbe amn^onia^ if not perfectly fn?e {jtom e^rbonip 



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2S8 Analysis of the Mineral Waters [OcTk 

a<?id, produ««d a slight turbid appearance ; and even when in its 
purest state, a very slight opalescent hue was pei:haps apparent; but 
this obviously depended on the presence of a little carbonic .acid ^r 
for when a drop or two of nitric acid was previousiv added, and the 
water heated, no such appearance was produced; or, if boiled 
strongly, without any addition of acid, on restorii^ the original 
quantity of liquid,, by adding distilled water, the tjnmsparency was 
not inthe slightest degree altered on adding pure ammonia. The 
alight precipitate, too, which did occur in any case was dissolved by 
|he most minute quantity of muriatic acid with effervescence; and 
this solution became turbid oji adding oxalate of ammonia, proving 
tbe precipitate to have been carbonate of lime. 

The same general conclusions, then, with regard to the nature of 
the ingredients, are to be drawn from the preceding results. as from 
the application of the, same tests to the Dunblane water. They 
suggest of course a similar mode of analysis. 1 preferred the 
second of the methods above described, as being the ipost simple 
and easy of execution. 

An English pint of tbe water .was submitted to evaporation. Be- 
fore the matter became dry, numerous cubical crystals were formed, 
indicating tbe presence of muriate of ^oda ; when dry, the solid 
pfiatter entered readily into fusion with effervescence, denoting the 
];)redominaace of muriate of lime. The dry matter was highly de« 
liquesceattf After exposure to a heat, inferior rather to redness, it 
weighed while warm 35 grains. 

This dry matter was redissolved in about ten times its weight of 
distilled water. A small portion remained undissolved, which, being 
washed and dried, weighed I-^ grain. A little diluted muriatic acid 
dropt upon this excited slight effervescence ; but the greater part 
remained undissolved, and weighed, after washing and exsiccation, 
O'd grain. It was sulphate of lime. A very thin crust adhered to 
the sides of the glass globe in which the last stage of the evaporation 
had been performed. This was dissolved with effervescence by di- 
luted muriatic acid, and the solution became quite turbid on adding 
oxalate of ammonia. The quantity of carbonate of lime thus indi- 
cated, adding the portion abstracted, as above, from the sulphate, 
. .cannot be estimated at more than 0*5 grain. These results were 
con6rmed by precipitation from another portion of the water by 
muriate of barytes, the proportions indicated being, nearly the 
isame. 

The liquor poured off from the insoluble residue being diluted 
with distilled water, oxalate of ammonia was added to it as long as 
^y tucbid appearance was produced; and after the subsidence of the 
•precipitate, the liquor was boiled a little, to render the decomposition 
and precipitation complete. The clear liquor was then evaporated 
40 dryness,. and the dry mass was exposed to heat, to volatilize the 
muriate of ammonia, th.e product of the action of the oxalate of 
.amm^a on the muriate of lime ; the heat being continued as long 



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1S15.] of Dunblane and Piicaitftli^ 269 

as any vapours exhaled, and fft the end being raised to redness. TTitf 
muriate of soda thus obtmned weighed 13*4 grains. By solution 
and crysfailization it was obt^ained in cubes. 

The precipitate of oxalate of lime having been thoroughly washed, 
was exposed in a sand-bikth to a heat short of redness, until it had 
ceased to exhale any vapours, and appeared perfectly dry; it 
weighed 23*8 grains. l*he portion of muriate of lime equivalent to 
any quantity 6f oxalate of lime cinnot, as has been already re-* 
marked, be exactly assigned, from the difficulty of bringing the 
oxalate to one uiiiform state of dryness. But, according to the most 
accurate ailcAyses, 23*8 grains of dry oxalate are equivalent to 20 
grains of dry'tnuria'te. To avoid any error, however, the oxalate 
was conVWtfed irttd*cafbonatfe*6f Hme by calcination ; and this, de- 
compo^ by ^(friatic acid, afforded I9'5 grains of dry muriate of 
lime. 

The proportions, then, of the saline ingredients in an English 
pint of the Pitcaithlywater are, according to this analysis, 

Grains. 

Muriate of soda . . . . • • . • . . 13*4 

Muriate of lime ..•••« 19*5 

Sulphate of lime 0-9 

Carbonajte of linie • 0*5 

34^3 

To which are to be added of aerial ingredients. 

Cubic Inch. 

- Atmospheric air.. 0*5 

Ckrbonic acid gas • • • 1 

It also gives slight indications of the presence of iron ; but as far 
as can be judged from the shade of colour produced by tincture of 
galls, the quantity is much smaller than in the Dunblane water. It 
does not admit, therefore, of being determined with much aecurficy 
by actual experiment. 

After I bad completed the preceding analysis, a view occurred to 
me with regard to the composition of these waters, diffefc^t.from 
that which has been stated above; and which, if just, may lead to 
conolusions of some interest with regard to the constitution of mincf- 
ral waters of the saline class. This I have lastly to illustrate. 

{To be continued,) 



Article IIL 



•■■■'' .• • • - 

Soime OlservcUions on the Analysis of Organic Substances. 
By Dr. Prout. 

Berzelius has lately extended the doctrine of definite propor- 
tions to the principles of organic nature, and has very satisjfactorily 

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iJJO On the Analysis uf^Orgmdc Substances* [Oknv 

sfao^m that it holds equally good witb respect to tbeiii» with aonae 
slight modifications only, as with inorganic compouodi^* His ad^ 
mirable paper on this subject ba» thrawn a Q«ir light on the consti- 
tatioa of utunil object^ and at tbe sane time opened a field of in- 
nstipliiKi no less difficult than iotereatiiig. My object at present is 
cliie% to paiat out the imoortant assisteoce whicb may be derived 
la similar researches fpam the use of the invaluable scale of cbemiqal 
e^ivaleots eomrived by Dr* WoUaston^ a Act well known to jits 
wtinguished author, and many others } bat wbidi, peVbafM^ is not 
so geneffally so as it ought to be. On thesufipositioii tnat this inatmr 
pient beiiorrect, or nearly so, which no one ean do«bt» and that 
•organic substances be really formed on the principles of definite 
proportions,, we are enahlfMl by its oieans to apprcnLimiile in most 
instances) with almost absolute certainty, to tbe OMmherof atoms 
of each element entering into the composition of a ternary or qua^ 
ternary compound. The data requisite for this purpose are, I. The 
knowledge of the proportions of at least two of the elements enter*- 
ing into an organic compound ; and, 2. The knowledge of the 
weight of its atom, or some multiple of it. Of these two, the first 
b by far the roost important ; the second is not absolutely necessary. 

To render this scale adapted for our puipose, it is only necessary 
to extend it a little, which may be conveniently done by pasting two 
slips of drawing paper on its edgesy which must he of such a breadth 
as just to lap over and cover the margins containing the names of 
the chemical substances, and to. coincide with the. graduated edges 
of the slide. On these slips of paper are then to be marked the 
multiples of an atom of oxygen, hydrc^en, and carbon, from one 
to ten; aiid of a^ote, fiom one to four or five, or more. Thus 
prepared) it will be fit for our use; and to those who are unac- 
quainted with the principles of tbe instninent, the foUowing ex- 
amptes will show the mode of applying it : to others these examples 
will be probaUy uniiecessary. 

Example 1. — Suppose we had found the weight of a partkle of a 
ternary compound to be 46*5, oxygen being 10, and tbit 4%'& parts 
ef it contained 15«15 earbon, 1*34 hydrogen, and consequently 
30*01 oxygen. To find the number of atoms of eaeh of these 
elements, we have only to place 10 on the slide opposite oxygen, 
and then opposite each of tne numbers respective^ wa haire the 
number of atoms of each elelnent required. Thus ofiposke 15- li 
carbon, we have 2 carbon; opposite 1*34 hydrogen, 1 hydrogen; 
and opposite 30*01 oxygen, 3 oxygen. Such a compound, then, 
will consist of three atoms oxygen, two atoms carbon, and one atom 
hydrogen. 

Again : supposing we were igtM>mnt of the weight of an atom of 
this ternary (impound, but had found tliat 100 parts of it contsuned 
32*4 carbon, 2 8 hydrogen, and consequently 64*8 oxygen ; to find 
the number of atoms of each element in this case we have only to 

« See jemmikifPJ iHmpe$ y vcfl. iif. p. SSS^ elit^Mot. 

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1815.] Qn ihe Amlysis of Organic Substance. £71 

iDiw^ tbe9lid« tUl the Bikmbers represeotiog tbie qumUtie^of eack 
elenmnt coincide witU wome multiple of these elements wuied oa 
the 8aale ^ and these multiples, or some subinukiple of them, wiU 
represeat the nutinber of atoms required*^ Thus we find wfaeo $2*4- 
carbon stands oppopite two or four atoms qf carbon, 2*8 bydrogea 
win coincide with one ^r two atoms of hydrogen, and ^*3 oxygen 
with three or sis atoms of oxygen. Of couRse we adcfittbo leaser 
number% which are the same as those obtained before* 

Example 2. — Soppcjse we had found the weight ^f ao atom of a 
quaternary principle to be 97*^^^ and that 97*82 parts of it coa«> 
tained 37'Q6 carbon, 17*5-2 aseote, and consequently 42*65 o«ygeB 
and hydrogen : to* find the number of atoms of eacb> we place, as 
beibre, 10 on the slide opposite oxygens then q)ppsite37'65 will 
be found S carbon; opposite IT'^^f ^ azote j opposite 40, 4 
oxygen ; and opposite 2-65, 2 hydrogen 5 ^ the number of atoms 
required. 

Or supposing that we bad not been able to ascertain the weight of 
a particle of the compound in question, but had found that 100 
parts of it contained 38*5 carbon, 17*9 azote, and consequently. 
43*6 oxygen and hydrogen : to find the number of atpms of each, 
we proceed just as before, and still find that 38*5 carbon will stand 
opposite five or ten atoms of carbon^ when 17*9 azote coincide with 
one or two atoms of aa^ofee ; f and that 40*9 oxygen will be opposite 
four or eight oxyg^ ; and 2*7 hydrogen, opposite two or four hy- 
drogen ; which agree with the former result^. 

These examples are .doubtless mcare th^n sufficient to sliow how 
this admirable instrument may be made to facilitate and verify 
axiJEilyses, ^n the practical part of which some observations now re*- 
main to be made. 

I. The depriving organic substances of water .witliout decom* 
posing then has always constituted a great source of difficulty in 
the prosecution of this department of chemistry. The method 
adopted by- Berzetiits, and which is founded on tlie happy applica-^ 
tion of a well-known principle by Mr. Leslie, is certainly one of the 
b^t that has beeo proposed. This consists in exposing the substance 



' * These two nombers viftke op 42*65, the qaantity of oxygen and hydro^n 
preient. Arno solid substance, probably, will be found (o contain more than six 
«r even fovralfint of hydrogeit, it will perhaps be sufficient in practice to diride 
«i often as jfossible the quantity of oxygen and hydrogen by the weight of a par* 
tide of oxygen, and to consider the quotient as representing the number of par- 
ticTes of oxygen, and the remainder as hydrogen. Thus in the present instance 



j^ — 4, with a remainder of 2*65 for hydrogen, and ID X 4 n 40, the quan- 



tity of oxygen. To prevent ambiguity, however, it will l>e better tq have re- 
course to experiment, whic|| withoi^t any great nicety will enable one to decide 
between one and eight atoms of hydrogen, as in the above Instance between 2*^ 
bydrogen and 12*66 hydrogen. 

f It is extremely probable that azote never enters into a compound more than 
4n oae, or carlaialy imC more than in two, proportions. The knorwledge of this 
iwiU DacilitaH Ih^ pcooess^ as the quaatUy of azote found may be aX oace placed 
opposite one aMUir 4 i 



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272 On the Analysis of Organic Substances. [Oct* 

,to be dried to a temperature of 212 in a vacuum with sulphuric acid* 
^or effecting this more easily, I had the following apparatus itiade> 

. which answers the purpose very effectually, and at the same time 
will be found simple and convenient. — A- (Plate XXXIX. fig. 1,) 
is the flat circular plate of an air-pump, on which is placed C^ 
a saucer containing sulphuric acid. B a low receiver communicating 
with'the inner vessel G by means of the pipe F. H is a brass cap^ 
capable of being made air-tight by means of a screw and leather 
collar, having a square nut L adapted to a key by which it may be 
unscrewed, &c. when necessary.. The outer vessel K contains water, 
which is kept at the boiling temperature by means of the lamp E, 
which slides upon the tube F, and can thus be raised or depressed 
at pleasure. Tlie substances to be dried are put into little glass 
vessels I of the-^hape of . buckets, and are placed in the vessel G, 
and removed from it through the. aperture H by means of a hooked 
wire. D is a stop-cock, which, when the cap H is removed, may 
be turned, and thus the air prevented from entering the receiver B, 
and the trouble consequently saved of being perpetually obliged to 
exhaust the whole apparatus. 

In using this apparatus it is proper to introduce as little superfluous 
water as possible ; or if this cannot be avoided, care must be taken 
not to exhaust all at once, but by slow degrees, otherwise ebullition 
triil take |rface, and the substances be forced out of the glass backets. 

2. For finding the weight of combination, or of an atom of an 
organic compound, no general rule can be given, as the ' process 
must vary with the nature of the substance. A careful study of the 
ingenious modes pursued by Berzelius will scarcely fail to suggest 
others. It may sometimes be more conveniently done after an in- 
sight has been obtained of the constitution of the substance under 
examination. But upon the whole, it will perhaps be found one of 
the most difficult steps to effect, and sometimes even impossible. 

3. It is a difficult task, and requires great care and nicety, to 
arrive at an accurate knowledge of the quantities of the elements 
entering into an organic compound. The best mode at present 
known is undoubtedly combustion with oxy muriate of potash in an 
apparatus somewhat similar to Berzelius's. * I have tried this, and 
found it succeed completely. The only objection to it is its being 
rather too complicated ; and in general, perhaps, it will be found 

.better to rest satisfied with the knowledge of the quantity ^ of one 
clement, and to make separate experiments for each of those whose 
quantity we may wish to ascertain. . In a ternary compound, carbon 
and' hydrogen are the elements whose quantities are most easily 
found. Perhaps, however, the real quantity of hydrogen will be 
always somewhat larger than indicated, because the gases extricated 
during combustion must necessarily "be in the driest possible st|ite. 



* I have tried also the ingenious node adopted by Mr. PmrM In his icnalysis tif 
pru8sieac4d; namely, of adding multiples of-' oxy fi:eu< Tbit, however, thovglrit 
succeeded in that instance, does not seem capable of imivenal spplicatloAi 
4 



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ii flj M M M i"#~i~l I ' 1 I - ^ ^jj I !» t I I 1 I I r 1 . » I I I I i_ 







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1816.] On the Analysis of Organic Substances. ^73 

and in this state they will dissolve^ and retain water with great ob- 
stinacy. The mode, therefore, adopted by Berzelius was probably 
inadequate to separate the whole of the water formed ; and this may 
account for the small quantity obtained by him on burning oxalic 
acid. The remark, however, if founded in truth, applies equally 
to all the substances analysed by him. In a quaternary compound, 
carbon and azote are pherhaps the elements whose quantities we can 
most easily arrive at a jtist knowledge of. 



Article IV. 

Description of an Instrument to measure and register the Rise and 
. Fall of the Tide throughout the whole Flow and Ebb* By Col. 
Beaufoy. ' . 

The parts of this instrument which are devoted io measuring thd 
height of the- water consists of a copper tube placed in the water of 
the sea or river in a vertical position, and provided with a float nearly 
filling its bore, at the same time that it is freely at liberty to rise and 
fall upon the surface of the water, which is admitted into the lower 
end of the tube by a small opening, or by a pipe, and will therefore 
preserve the same level as the external water of the sea or river, and 
prevent the float being affected by the undulations of the water. 

A small line is attached to the float, and carried up to a wheel or 
roller, round which it makes several turns; and the line of a balance 
weight, being wrapped upon the axis of the wheel on the opposite 
side of the centre, will cauA the wheel to turn one way or other as 
the float rises or falls upon the surface of the water in the tube. 
This motion is communicated by wheel-work to a second wheel or 
cylinder, upon the surface of which a sheet of paper is fastened. 

The reg^tering part of the instrument is an eight-^lay pendulum 
clock, which at every ten minutes lets fall a small hammer to make 
a mark on the sheet of paper wrapped upon the cylinder ; in consc'^ 
quence, this sheet will be covered with a succession of marks, and 
the intervals between them will show on a reduced scale the quantity 
pf rise or fell of the water during the interval, ten minutes, which |ias 
elapsed between the diflerent marks made by the clock. 

The general action of the machine being understood, the detail of its 
construction will be explained by the drawing, in which PL XXXIX. 
fig. 2, represents the whole machine mounted upon a tripod A A sup- 
ported upon three feet screws a a, by means of which it can be so 
adjusted that the clock will beat correctly, or in other words, that the 
escape of the teeth of the swing-wheel will take place at equal dis- 
tances from the perpendicular on the opposite sides ; the tripod sup- 
ports a mahogany table B, which is represented on a larger scale in 
figurea S and ^1, the first being a side view, and the other a front view. 
Upon this table are erected standards C D E for the support of the 

VOJ..VI. N^^IV. S 

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27^ Insimment to measure and - register >^ [0€t# 

wheels or cvlinders: the most elevated of these» marked F| is that 
upon which the line h is wound to suspend the float G in the tube 
H : upon the extreme end of the axis of the wheel F is a small 
cylinder R to receive the cord d of the balance weight I, which is 
such as so far to balance the weight of the float as to keep Che line 
b always extended : on the opposite end of the axis of th^ upper 
wheel is fixed a long pinion k of SO teeth ; this gives motion to tb^ 
cylinder K, upon which the sheet of paper is wrapped, by means of 
a wheel pf 360 teeth. As the wheel and pinion are in the propor- 
tion of twelve to one, it follows that any motion which is given by 
the float line b will be communicated to the cylinder K upon the 
scale of an inch to a foot ; that is, a rise or fall of one foot in the 
float will produce a motion of an inch ii> the paper with which* this 
cylinder is covered, or one inch of the paper will pass by the 
peticil, which is to mark by the hammer of the alock L. 

This clock is mounted upon four pillars e from the table ;^is the 
weight of the clock, and g a small counter-balance, which, being 
pulled down, will draw up the great weight to wind it up, and will 
then serve for eight days ; the hour-ban^, which is seen ia ihi 
front,, is carried imnnedialely by the arl^ot of the bairrel of the ckick^ 
and shows 24 hours; xhe cirele above this,^ divided into 10, shows 
ihe minutes, as it makes its revolutioD in 10 mimites; and thtt 
upper circle is for tlie seconds. 

The disposition of the train of wheeKwoik, far the dock 
not being at all essential, is not therefore iiiown in the drawing | 
but any clock-niaker to whom the constructioD is committed will 
be dble to make a proper ck>ck from the number of tbe wheels^ 
which are as follows. 

The great wheel on the barrel, wbidk carries the hoor'-liaQd, 96 
teeth, revolves in 24 hours. 

The centre wheel, pinion, eight leaves, and the centre wheel 84 ; 
these will revolve in two hours. 

The tliird wheel, pinion,, seven leaves,, and the third wheel 70 
leeth ; they complete their revolution in tan minutes ; and the arbor 
carries the minute-band. 

Lastly, the pinbn of the swing-wfaeel having seven leaives, it 
will revolve in one minute, carrying the second-hand and swings 
wheel, which having 80 teeth, and acting with two anchor pallets, 
they will suffer the wheel to advance ^ a tooth at every vibratbn of 
the pendulum N, which is performed ina second. 

The train must be made rather stronger than usual to enable it to 
carry a greater weight f, in order that the regularity of the motion 
may not be deranged by tbe resistance of lifting the hammer O 
which makes the marks upon the cylinder K. This hammer is fixed 
upon an arbor extended between tlie clock plates, and has two arm? 
or levers proceeding from it, one to reach tbe third wbed, and tile 
other to the centre wheel. The former wheel, which revolves once 
in ten minutes, has one pin fixed in its circumference, and the bitter 
has 12 pins. Now as it turns in two hours, it is plain ^t one pin 

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I^ISJ] ihe l&f^ and F^U qf the Tide. 27^ 

of mch of th6s« lirh^^b will p«n by i^dir resp^ctivt arms or levtis 
of the hantiaiet in tfaesntne period^ ^z* 10 iniautefl : they thorsfiny 
l^roduce a comttion effect of lifting the hammer and kttiog it fall u 
every 10 minutca. The reason for employing two motions for ^hU 
purpose ia^ that^ if it was entrusted to the third wheel to raise k 
With one pin, it might retard the motion of the clocks because thtt 
wheel has so slight a powmr; and^ on the other band, the IS pins la 
the centre wheel would not be equally certain to drop the hammer 
exactly at the 10 minutes, because as it moves slovi^ly any small in^ 
Equality in the arraogeoMnt of the pins would make a cdnsiderKble 
difference in t;he time when the hammer was let lalL The pins of 
the centre wheel are therefore made to act firsts and the wheel has 
anffieient ppwer to lift the hammer i^ithout injury to the motion of 
the clock ; but just before this pin would let the hammer &]ly the 
pin in the third wheel takes its lever and raises it up a very Kttle 
hi^r) or rather holds it up at the same elevation, till the cin of 
the centre wheel has passed, and then at the expiration of tne 10 
ninutea it lata the hammer fall. 

The mark is made on the paper of the' cylmder by a sfnall ptece 
of blaek lead pencil, tvhicb is fastaned in a tube at the end of the 
hammer by a clamp screw : p is a small aUding weight upon the 
arm of the hamaMr, which can be fixed at any distance ftom the 
«9entre by a clamp screw, and will thud make the pencil strike vrilh 
more or less force^ as is found by experience to be necessary to make 
a clear and defined mark : one of the levers or arms of the arbor of 
the hammer must be made to fall open a spring to stop the descent 
of the hammer. This will yield s«ifficiefitly to allow the pencil to 
floark when &Uin^ with the blow^ but will afterwafds keep up the 
point so thai it will not streak the paper. In this manner the pencil 
will make a row of dots round the cylinder as thd tide rises, and the 
aaoie aa it falb 3 but to prevent the two rows falling i^n the same 
Une , by which they would eonfuse each other, a traveraidg motion 
is given to the cylinder at the same time that it turns round 3 this is 
effected by a worm P fiJoed upon the axis of the Krheel^ and a cock 
r pit)|eeting from the standard D to earry a fixed pin which acts 
against the worm. By this means the row of dots, when the tide 
xises, is asarked diagonally ; but when the tkle falls, the cook r 
firils the spiral, and the row of dots are niarbed circularly* The 
axis of the wheel is made with long pivot^ whioh slide eddways, to 
allow the side motion ; bvt the frictioo is sufficient to keep one sjde 
of the spiral worm in contact with the pin which acts against it 
whilst ttie wheel turns in one direction, add quits it when it turns 
in the contrary dtrectton^ 

As the paper must be changed about eve#y IS hours, the bearing 
at the top q( the standard C is made to ^pm en a joiat* that the 
wheel may be tsuken out ; the sheet of paper is only confined by 4 
hoop or wire sBpped over if | it is therefore easily dianged ; aittl the 
crnly care is to midce the end of the slip of paper to corrcapand with 
a line drawn upon the cylinder to represent the point from wh^ 
the measurement is tdken, or point of coimnlenoeaaent. The tnbe 

S 3 Digitized by "LjOOgie 



276 InsirumerU to measure and register [Oct* 

H containing the float, although represented in the figure, must of 
course be placed beneath the floor upon which the tnpoi is placed : 
h should be as long as the greatest rise and fell which is expected. 
The present machine is adapted for 27 feet of rise ; the circum* 
iSerence of the cylinder K being rather more than 27 inches, and its 
diameter S\ : the wheel F is the same diameter^ and the line b 
must make 12 turns upon it for the whole 27 feet. For situations 
where a greater fall is desired, the diameters of the wheels must be 
proportionably increased. 

The only adjustment this instrument requires is, that the clock 
be put in beat by levelling the feet, and regulated to keep good 
time, the line b must be lengthened or shortened until the float 
liangs level with the assumed fixed point from which the heights are 
to be measured. 

If the clock wants altering, it must' be stopped when the minute- 
hand points at 10', and the second-hand at 6&*; and then the hour* 
band must be set at the requisite division; for if the aheratiOQ be 
made at any other period, the pencil will not mark when the mi- 
nute-hand arrives at I (/• 

The instrument is made to take to pieces for convenience of car- 
riage. The table B can be removed from the top of the tripod by 
two milled head screws ; the pendulum detached from the clocks 
and fixed close to one of the legs of the tripod ; and the weights 
and float to the base ; in which state the whole can be put into a 
moderate sized packing case. I am very much indebted to Mr. 
Gary, mathematical instrument-maker, in the Strand, for the 
trouble and pains he took in executing this instrument. 

It is generally admitted that theory alone afibrds no practical con* 
elusions concerning the flowing and ebbing of the tide^: recourse 
must therefore be had to numerous and accurate observations for 
practical rules to find the times of high and low water. This ma- 
chine will register every ten minutes, with little trouble to the ob- 
server, the variation which takes place from high water to low water, 
and vice versa. As this instrument marks the ascent and descent of 
the water every ten minutes, sufficient datum will be given for find- 
ing the nature of the curve described by the tide : and if a register 
of the strength of the wind, and the point of the compass it blew 
.from, was fdso kept, it might determine whether the wind most 
affected the velocity or the altitude of thetide. If instruments of 
this description' were used in different parts of the world, and tables 
of the flux and refiiix of the tide preserved for a period of 18^ years, 
the length of time in whidi most of the lunar irregularities of mo- 
tion take place, little doubt can , be entertained but that as accurate 
tide tables might be made for the rest of the world as have been cal- 
culate for Liverpool by Mr. Noldens, and for the Thames by Capt. 
Huddttt. 

Expense, generally speaking, is an objection against purchasing 
an instrument. The one here described, being simple, is propor- 
tionably cheap : and ibe cost might still be reduced by making the 
«ciocfc and the other wheels of wood. As few persons are furnbhed 

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1815.] the Rise and Fall of the Tidei . 277 

with instruments for measuring the force and velocity of the wind, 
the following remarks, the result of many observations^ may serve 
as a guide to judge of the rate at which the wind is blowing. 

When the wind blows at the rate of 12 geographical miles per 
hour, or 20*29 feet in a second, the power of the wind on a plane 
one foot square at right angles to the current is equal to 13'5G7 oz. 
avoirdupois ; and the generality of vessels upon a wind blowing at 
this rate can barely carry top-gallant sails. 

When the wind blows 24 geographical miles per tour, the force is 
3*541 lbs. avoirdupois, and vessels are under close reefed topsails. 

When the wind increases to 31*16 geographical miles in an hour, 
vessels are under their courses, and the power of the wind is equal 
to 6 lbs. 

When the force of tlie wind is 8 lbs. on a square foot, its velocity 
is 35*931 geographical miles in an hour, and may be denominated 
half a storm. 

When the strength of the wind is 12 lbs. on a square foot, its 
velocity is 43*918 geographical miles in an hour, and may be called 
a full stoirm. 

Whilst on this subject, I have subjoined some experiments on the 
resistance of air and water, which prove how very erroneous the 
theory of resistance is, and the small advantage it has been to prac- 
tical meq. 

Experimented Resistance (f Air to^ different shaped Bodies. 



¥t)tU 


Plane. 


CyUndcr. 


Cone. 


Vertex. 




Wedge, 


Vertex. ' 


1 


0-032 


0028 


0-029 


002P 


0022 


0-032 


0-023 


2 


0129 


0-116 


0120 


0086 


0-090 


0-129 


0-089 


S 


0-294 


0-268 


0-274 


0-198 


0^3 


0-291 


0-197 


4 


0-525 


0-485 


0-492 


0-358 


0-364 


0-518 


0-346 


5 


0-825 


0-768 


0-175 


0-567 


0-571 


0-810 


0-537 


6 


1-191 


1-118 


1-122 


0-826 


0-825 


1168 


0-769 


t 


1-027 


1-637 


1 535 


1-135 


1-127 


1-490 


1041 


8 


2131 


2-024 


2-013 


.1-494 


1-476 


2070 


1-354 


9 


2-704 


2-580 


2-564 


1-905 


1-873 


2-634 


1-707 


10 ' 


3345 


3-206 


3167 


2-268 


2*317 


8-253 


2-100 . 


11 


4055 


3-902 


3-843 


3-017 


2809 


3-939 


2-533 


12 


4-834 


4-668 


4-586 


3-610 


8-348 


4-690 


3-01)5 


13 


5-683 


5-506 


5-395 


4-066 


S'936 


5-5»06 


3-£a8 


14 


6-601 


6-413 


6-271 


4-737 


4-572 


6-389 


4-069 


15 


7-588 


7-393 


7-231 


5-462 


5-255 


7-337 


4-661 


16 


8-644 


8-445 


8-295 


6-289 


5988 


8-351 


5-292 


IT 


9-771 


9-570 


9-302 


7-068 


6-767 


9-430 


5-961 


18 


10-966 


10-767 


10-447 


7-952 


7-595 


10-576 


6-670 


W 


12-232 


12-038 


11-660 


8-890 


8-472 


11-787 


7-419 


20 


13-567 , 


13-378 


12-940 


9;882 


p-397 


13-064 


8-207 


P- 


2-0201 


2-0611 


20809 


2-0619 




2-0057 


1-9676 


1 


S 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 



The area of the plane and base of each of the bodies is exactly 
one superficial foot ; and the altitude of the cylinder, cone, and 
wedge, equ^I to half the diameter of their respective hE»esj; xmjisi 



e-f 



2JS JnstTwment to mea$iur€ and regUitr [Oct* 

auently when the cone $tn4 wedge moved with the apex ibreiQQ^t 
ie air impinged at an angle of 43®, 

Column I contains the velocity with which the mr struck tht . 
different bodies. 

Column 2f the resistance to the plane in ounces avpirdupaici. 

Column 3, the resistance to the base of the cylinder* 

Column 4, the resistance to the base of the cone. 

Column 5, the resistance to the vertex. 

Column Sy the resistance to the plane reduced in the proportion 
of radius to the sign of the angle of incidence 45^. 

Column 7i the resistance to th^ base of the wedge. 

Column 8|» the resistance to the. vertex: and in th« last harixoatj4 
line but one is set down the exponents of the resistance. 

3y looking at the experiments^ it is evident that the \me% oi the 
cylinder, cone, and wedge, are less resisted than the plane ; and 
that the cone and wedge, when moving with their bases foremost,, 
are less resisted than the cylinder; therefore a otore increase of 
length decreases the resistance to the plane, but not so much as by 
altering the shape of the hinder extremity. Witb respect to the 
resistance to the apex of the cope and wedge, it ia evident that the 
resistance to the former figure i8 not widely different from the re-* 
sistance set down in column 6 : and could experiments be made 
free from errors, the resistance would decrease precisely as the log. 
sine of half the cone's angle ; but with the wedge it is otherwbe, 
the reaistance decrea^itig in a greater proportion. 

JEKperirnented Resistances of Water to a Piqne containing one 
superficial Foot immersed to the Meem Depth of 6 Feet belmu the 
Surf(xce of the Water, 



Feet 


IFfeet. 


Lbs. 


l.b|. 


Us. 


Lbs. 


Lbi. 


Itzfioiiapfi. 


1st 


2d. 


W. 


4tb. 


5tb. 


ath. 


7th. 


8tb, 


1 


0*0150 


0-9750 


1-2949 


11329 


1620 


0-1570 




2 


00621 


3-3860 


4*9863 


4-3585 


0-6278 


0-9725 


1-9289 


S 


01399 


87450 


10 931 


9-5640 


1-3670 


0-8190 


1-8956 


4 


0-248T 


15-543 


19048 


16-687 


2-361 


1144 


1-8699 


5 


0-3880 


24-287 


29-279 


25-688 


8-591 


1-401 


1-8465 


6 


0-5590 


34-975 


41-585 


36 540 


5-046 


1-565 


1-8266 


' 7 


0-T616 


47-603 


55-927 


49 220 


6-707 


1-617 


1-8065 


8 


9940 


62-175 


72-270 


63-707 


8-5G3 


1532 


1-7854 


9 


lt590 


78-690 


90-590 


79-983 


10-607 


1-293 


1*768^ 


10 


1-5544 


97M50 


U0 86 


98040 


12-82 


0-890 


1-7448 


11 


1-8806 


117-82 


133 05 


117-66 


15-19 


0-040 


1-72881 


19 


2-2383 


139-90 


157-20 


139-49 


17-71 


0-590 


1-7081 


13 


26270 


164-18 


183-40 


164-73 


18 67 


0-450 


1-6857 


14 


30476 


190-42 


211-51 


190-39 


21-12 


0030 


1-6630 


15 


3-4974 


fl8-59 


241-54 


217-89 


23-65 


0-70P 


1-6380 


la i sT97a 


248-71 


273-48 


247-23 


26-25 


1-486 


1-6198 


17 


4-4923 


* 280^77 


307-33 


278-40 


28-93 


2-270 


1-5977 


18 


50363 


314-77 


343-05 . 


311-39 


31-66 


3-380 


1-5764 


19 


5-6114 


350-71 


380-16 


345-73 


34-48 


4-980 


1-5534 


SO 


6-2177 


388*61 


42Q-16 


382-98 


37-24 


5690 


1-5312 








1-9243 


1-9474 


' 














' ' ' 


Jig 


tizedbyMji 


jo>2ie 



1815.] ihe Rise and Fall of ike Tide. 1279 

Coiaom 1 contains the velocity of the plane in feet per second/^ 

Column 2 contains columns of water, the base of each of which 

Uros one square foot, and the respective altitude equal to the space 

through which a body must ikll to acquire the velocity of one, two, 

tluree, four, five, six, &e. feet per second. 

Column 8 contains the weights of the dififerent columns of water 
in pounds avoirdupois. 

Column 4, the resistance to the plane by experiments 
ColunHi 5, the plus pressure found by subtracting the minus 
pressure contained in column 6th from the tfltal resistance set down ' 
in column 4th. 

Column 6, the minus pressnre found by experiment, 
Co4umn J, the difFerjence between the calculated resistances con- 
tained in column 3d and the plus pressure in cokimn 5th. 

Column 8, the exponents of the minus pressure 5 and in the last 
horizontal column the exponents of the total resistances and plus 
pressure. 

' Wind, it appears by table 1st, when moving with a velocity of 
20 feet in a second, exerts a force on a square foot placed at right 
angles to its direction equal to 13-567 ounces; and water, by table 
2d, when running one foot per second, acts on the same surface, 
similtTly placed, a power equal to 1'2949 lbs. or 207 18 oz. To 
find the velocity water nnist have to produce equal effect with wind, 
Vm •. vm :: R : r, V being equal to one foot or 12 inches, r to 
13-567 oz., K to 20718 oz., and the exponent m to 1 '9243, whence 

80 X 12 

r is 9'6301 inches, the required velocity. Then ^^^^^^ is equal to 
24*922, the celerity of the wind to produce the same ei&ct as water; 

20*718 

and Q gives 649*48 : consequently if wind and water move 

wkh equal velocity, wind has nearly 650 part less power than water. 
As air i» 860 times lighter than waler^ and supposing the velocity of 
w ater to be 1, and the resistance as the square of the velocity V ;=s 
V 860 ss 29*326, whidi by no means accords with the result de^ 
iiiced from experiment, and the e&ct of air in lieu of .^ part is 
.^4^ ^lixperimentalso proves that the most advantageous angle for 
the sail of a windmill to be set in motion in is 60^, instead of 35^ 
16% reckoning from the plane of its motion, or the wind should 
strike the sail at an angle of 30^, and not S4P 44^ ; and the most 
qdvantageous angle for the rudder to make with the keel, when the 
impulae of the water is given, I beUeve to be 30^. After the im-> 
pake is giv^, and the vessel turns, the angle should be altered, if 
the rudder coincides with the curve described by the stern, because 
then it is evident the rudder would be of no use. 

In the Examen Maritime by Don Georges Juan, traduit de 
TElspagnol, the resistance of fluids is supposed to be, as their den- 
sities, as the sur&ce opposed to their action, and as the square root 
of the depth to which tfie opposing obstacle is immersed. That the 
first supposition is not well founded, will, I think, appear from the 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



280 Instrument to measure and register [Oct* 

experiments stated : and that the third supposition is not, is evident 
from the following experiment. The plus and minus resistance of 
a parallelopipedon one foot square immersed to the depth of very 
nearly six inches, and moving with a velocity of 12 feet in a second, 
is 152*62 lbs. avoirdupois ; and in table 2d, the resistance of a plane 
containing one superficial foot immersed to the depth of six feet, 
and moving with a velocity of 12 feet, is 157*20 lbs., which is not 
widely different ; and this variation of 4*58 lbs. may partly be attri- 
buted to the longer body being less resisted than the plane. 

The first column of the following table contains the velocity in 
feet per second ; and the second column contains the friction of 
water against 100 superficial feet of wood immersed to the depth of 
six feet ; and great pains were bestowed in rendering the surface of 
the wood as even and smooth as possible. 

The third column contains the increase of the friction by sinking 
the surface one foot lower. If the friction be required for nearer 
the surface than six feet, the numbers in this line must be subtracted 
from those in the first line ; but if lower be wanted, the numbers 
in this line must be added.' These numbers v^ere determined from 
actual experiment. 

By this table a ji^dgmept may be formed what is the friction of 
the water on the bpttpm pf a large ship ; or, more properly speak- 
ing, what is the.mbiroum of the friction ; for it is almost imprac-* 
ticable to rendef the immersed part of any vessel so eyep on the 
surface as that with which the experiment was made. 

A second rate man-of-war has 15,000 superficial feet immersed 
under the water, if the draft of water be 24 feet. Supposing the 
vessel sails at the rate of 20 feet per second, and that the friction is 
calculated at the depth of 1 2 fpet, or half the draft of water, thep, 
121-86 + 24-668 == 146-53, which, multiplied by 150, gives 
21979 lbs. or somewhat more than nine tons ; but in fact this addi-^ 
tibnal resistance to the division of the fluid must be far greater, as 
a vessel when coppered is, comparatively speaking, a very uneven 
surface ; an^ any contrivance to diminish the friction would be very 
desirable. Rolled or milled copper sheets being smoother than those 
hammered, if one of his Majesty's ships had one side cqipered in 
the usual manner, and the other side with rolled or milled copper; 
* pains being taken to lay the sheets on as evenly as possible, and the 
heads of the nails countersunk ; if this vessel so prepared were sent 
to sea in company with another, and under favourable circumstances, 
the two vessels, by setting more or less on the same tack, had equal 
progressive velocity ; and the two vessels put about, and run on the 
other tack with the same quantity of sail; the difference of the 
^jiiiing will show the advantage Of the two modes of coppermg. 



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1815.] 



the Rise mid Fall of the Tide. 



281 



Friction of the Water against 100 Feet^ at the mean Depth <^ 

6 Feet. 



JFect. 


Lbs. 


Lbs, 


Fcef. 


Lbs, 


Lbs. 


1 


0-3716 


0-0067 


11 


88-630 


0-8451 


« 


1-4892 


0025S* 


12 


45-684 


1-0532 


3 


S-1350 


0-0474 


13 


53-298 


1-2751 


4 


5-4672 


00809 


14 


61-462 


1-5569 


5 


8-4284 


0-1297 


15 


70-180 


1-8771 


6 


11-991 


01934 


16 


79-443 


2-2388 


7 


16- 154 


0-2767 


17 


89-247 


2-6420 


£ 


20-906 


0-3805 


18 


99-588 


30911 


9 


26-288 


0-5074 


19 


110-46 


3-5817 


10 


S2152 


0-6618 


20, 


121-86 


41113 



From these experiments, it is evident that the resistance a body 
meets with when moving in water consists of three parts— the head 
resistance, the minus pressure, and friction. 

The shape <rf the solid of the least r^istance is still to be ascer- 
tained, which experiments alone can determine ; though perhaps no 
shape will answer in every velocity. 

I remain, my dear Sir, 

Yours very sincerely, 

Mark Bsaufoy, 



Article V. 

New and important Comlinations with the Camera Laidda. 
By W. G. Horner, Esq. 

(To Dr. Thotoson.) 

SIR, Baih^ Aug. 15, 1815. 

^ Ths numerous inventions of Dr. Wollaston in various depart^ 
ments of philosq)hy are marked by that precision and completeness 
which constitute the true idea of elegance. They seldom leave to 
succeeding experimenters any hope of adding an improvement, and 
are only capable of being enhanced in estimation by multiplying the 
useful purposes to which they may be applied. These remarks are 
eminently appropriate to the Camera Lucida. As a corrective of 
the erroneous decisions of the eye, or a succidaneum to the labour 
of educating that organ, the utility of this beautiful little machine 
is well known. These advantages^ offered by the instrument in its 
simple form, have been proved by the geologist, as well as by artists 
in miniature, landscape, and architecture ; but I am ignorant if any 
philosopher has been struck with the still more extensive uses to 
which it may be adapted in combination with the microscope and 
telescope. 



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082 New Comlinaiions with the Camera Laicida* (Oof • 

.Maoy circumstance? ocpur to recommend these adaptations^ with- 
out^ncluding the superior gratification of being able to copy \i^ith 
certain correctness the forms of minute or inaccessible and distant 
objects; when compared with that of retailing appearances, which 
are open to every beholder^ . The great difBciiky which even an 
experienced artist finds, in representing with tolerable accuracy a 
telescopic or microscopic image viewed in the usual constrained and 
interrupted maniier, will render this improvement highly desirable.^ 
The astronomer, and even the nailitary officer engaged in recon- 
noitring, would derive important assistance from the use of the 
graphic telescope. 

The patent for the Camera Ijiucida remains, I believe, with the 
illustrious inventor ; and his sagacity, which has perhaps anticipated 
the hints conveyed in this paper, will immediately discover the best 
fliethods of applying them to esperiroient. Those melbo^ wbic^ I 
take the liberty of jooticing are simpk, and such as I have partially 
submitted to trial. 

. The cbviouB principles^^hiob require i^tteutttiOQ in both the adapt a- 
Iflons recommended ai^, to immerge the obje^-face of the prisnn 
into the cone of distinct rays which iisue froo tb$ eye*gbfia of the 
other instrument, further than is permitted by the usual eye-piece ; 
and to allow a close appro^ich of the eye to the upper surface of the 
pri»m. These precautions evidently tend to secure a sufficient extent 
to the field of view. 

The graphic mieroscbpe would perhaps be constructed in the best 
manner by attaching a single microscope to the object-face of the 
prism. The appendages of pliers, &c. might he made applicable 
to the shaft or style of the camera. The vertical structure, and 
other properties of the compound microscope, present obstacles 
which It would not be easy to surmount. And the solution of these 
difficulties is the less necessary on account of the facility afforded 
by the construction of the camera lucida itself, for enlarging or 
contracting the dimensions of the apparent image at pleasure. 

In the telescope the perforated cylindrical cap, which is screwed 
over the eye-glass, may be exchanged for a shorter^ conical, or 
cuneiform cap, having a larger aperture. This cap might carry an 
arm, perforated to admit the axis of the prtsm. A stili prefenhle 
method is, to take off the perforated cap, and attach a hollow tubc^ 
to the side of the eye-piece. In this tube, which must of course 
be shorter than that in which the stem of the camera sSdes, a 
similar stem most be inserted bearing the prism : in short, the 
original instrument, cut off at one third of its length, must be 
attached to the tube which coptains the eye-glasses of the telescope. 
The telescope being adjusted to a proper focus, and the stem of the 
camera drawn out to a due length, and turned, to bring the prism 
opposite the axis of the telescope, the afperture of the eye-piece of 
the prism being also placed in such a manner as to exclude, if re- 
quisite, the superfluous ray»; the objects toward which the instru- 
ment is directed will appear, on looking through the; prism^ to be 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



1815/] New Combinations with the Can^a Lucida. 283 

di«tribut^ oyer the paper whiek is placed to receive the design. 1 
\KiU be iiecesssary to support the paper as aearly as posiiMe paralle 
iQ ihe 9L%i$ of the telesootie. 

If you judge these observations deserving of publio difliision^ 
they are much at your service ; and a candid notiee of them in your 
Journal, wiU oblige, 

Sir, your most obedient servant, 

W. G. HOBNER. 



Article VI. 

An Attempt to systemaiixe Anatomy^ Physiology^ and Pathology. 
By Alexander Walker. 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 
SIR, 
Tbu value you yourself have attached to the syslematizatlon^ 
cbefuistry convinoes me that you wiU not view with disregard « 
similar attempt in analomy« To you I need not say that the pkeing^ 
on the title-page of a work the wxxd " Sjrstem,** does not convert 
the ill^arranged facts and- reasonings of any science into a real 
sy^tam* That word expresses the arrangement of these facts and 
reasonings according to their natural relations^ and in that sense 
there b certainly no system of Anatomy. In that science, the dis- 
covery of these natural relations has long been an object of my in- 
vestigation I and the views I have taken in the present paper being 
to me oaope satisfactory than any which have hitherto suggested 
themselves to me, I shall be happy if they prove not unsatisfactoiy 
to your readers. 

The arrangements of the present paper being intimately allied 
\ntb, and in a great measure founded upon, the fiEicts and reason- 
ings contained in my Sketch of a General Theory of the Intelkctual 
Fmetions of Man and Animals, inserted in two of your former 
nutnb^is, the simplicity^ the accuracy, and the extensive applica- 
IMiiyy f^f these arrangements^ wUl afford the iest and most striking 
pro^'at once of the truth and of the originality of that theory. 

It is unquestionable that a correct arrangement of anatomy and 
physiology, or rather of the organs and functions which they con- 
sider, ought to indicate, at a single glance, the relations of all these 
organs and functions to, and their dependence upon, each other. 
Yet is this principle uniformly violated by the best anatomical and 
piiysiological writers. 

A single remark will at once point out the errors of arrangement 
which I deprecate, and show the originality of the plan which I 
propose. It is evidently unnatural to consider the brain before the 
prgans of sepse whence impressions are transmitted to it; the orgaas 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



284 Attempt to systematize [Oct. 

of generation, before the glands whence they derive the generative 
liquid ; the glands, before the arteries whence is received the liquid 
they transmute ; the arteries, before the heart which is the source 
of the bliXKl they circulate ; the heart, before the absorbents whence 
the materials of the blood— the chyle and lymph, are derived ; the 
absorbents, before the stomach where is digested the food whence 
the chyle jand lymph are elaborated; ot the muscles, before the 
ligaments, by which their motions are limited, and without which 
they cannot be understood. Yet are more or less of these errors 
committed by Soemmerrlng, Blomenbach, Hildebrandt, Winslow^ 
Sabntier, Cuvier, Chaussier, Boyer, Dumas and all the best anato- 
mical and physiological writers. 

Nor is this all : not only do ihey, with regard to the organs and 
functions, reverse, often to a great extent, the order of their de- 
pendance,: but they widely separate objects which are in nature 
closely connected, and blend together others which, belonging even 
to distinct classes, have little natural relation. If the arrangement 
of the author of the Tables Synoptiaues de TAnatomie, in parti- 
cular, were to be considered, as all arrangement ought to be^ 
namely, as indicating the relations and dependance of the functions^ 
so absurb is it, that absorption, instead of the cause, would be the 
result, of nutrition ; genention, the result of absorption 3 and 
digestion, the result of generation. 

Thus by arranging efiects in the place of causes do physiolq^ts 
confound the relations of the functions^ and reverse the very order 
of their dependance. 

Tlie general arrangement of the functions into external, relative^* 
or animal, and internal, assimilating, or vegetative, as anciently 
proposed by Aristotle, and successively adopted by BuA)n, Grimaud, 
and Richerand, is replete with error. 

For, first, under the term external, relative, or aninial functions, 
are thus involved, not only the intellectual actions, consisting of 
sensation, thought and volition, but the locomotive actions by which 
we move from place to place ; yet these actions differ from each 
other in every respect. They do not resemble each other in their 
intimate nature ; for tb^ intellectual take place longitudinally,* and 
are altogether invisible ; while the locomotive are performed angu- 
larly by means of levers, f and are of the most conspicuous kind. 
Neither do they agree in being both external} for the locomotive can 
alone be considered so, while the intellectual are as internal as the 
animal or vital, on which these physiologists have improperly con- 
ferred that epithet. True it is that the eye and the ear, which are 
intellectual organs, receive impressions from external objects ; but 
so do the absorbent surfaces, which are vital organs. If it be urged 
that the absorbed matter is carried inward to the heart, so m'ust it 

• In the inhes of the nearilema« f The bones. 

^ Digitized by ^OOgie 



1815.] Anatomtff Phgstohgjfi mi Pathology. 2S5 

be replied are the sensations to the brain ; and if it be argued that 
from the brain volitions are propagated externally^ so must it be 
rejoined are secretions from the circulating system. 

Thus the first error of this method is to bring under one head, 
organs and junctions which are totally distinct. The second is to 
separate others which are altogether similar. For while Ricberand 
places in one class the organs and functions mentioned above, he 
places those of generation in another. Now from those which I 
have above termed vital, these do not differ either in their intimate 
nature or in their general object. The vital organs are all tubular, 
and the action of all is the transmission and transmutation of liquids: 
the generative organs are all also tubular j and all of them also are 
employed in similar trammission or transmutation. The general 
object of die vital actions is the maintenance of life; that of the 
generative is its propagation : in this only do they differ. They may 
therefore be different orders of the same class : they cannot form 
diJTerent classes. 

Such, as its inspection will testify, are the great and general errors 
of the system of Richerand. Less important ones 'are numerous. 



I consider the system of Bichat after that of Richerand, because^ 
though it may have had the precedence in publication^ and the 
merit or demerit of that peculiarity which is common to both, yet, 
being more detailed and minute, it involves a greater number of 
errors, and is moreover connected with a doctrine respecting certain 
simple organic textures, which demands particular consideration. 
V Krst, I may remark, that all the great and general errors — the 
involving in one class the intellectual and locomotive functions, and 
the forming a separate class of the generative ones, committed by 
Richerand, — are Ukewise committed by Bichat, by whom the in- 
ternal or assimilating functions of Richerand, &c. are termed 
organic. 

While auch great and general errors as these pervade the system 
of Kchat, I need scarcely mention that he improperly places' al>* 
sorption sifter circulation ; nor need I xlwell on minuter considera- 
tions. 

As to his simple organic textures, he has chiefly derived them' 
from Malacarne, who seems first to have set the example of this 
ridiculous method which, by distributing the body into common 
systems, general systems, universal systems, and partial S]rstems ; 
and by dividing and subdividing these with a profusion which sets at 
utter defiance the most felicitous memory, has, instead of simplify- 
ing, inextricably embarrassed, the study of anatomy. This writer, 
Bichat has been ambitious to rival in his Anatomic G^nerale; where 
the mania of subdivision, guided by the most superficial reflection, 
and urged with the most impertinent verbiage, has made as many 
systems in the body as there are organs. 

Not even contented with one system for a^et of organs, he make& 



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28€ Mempi to sgstenMiza \^ tOcr* 

two oat of it I and has accordingly two muscular and two nervous 
systems ! He has a particular system for cartilages, another for 
tendons and ligaments^ and a third, which holds a middle sort of 
place between these two ! He has not merely a system for the 
tones themsehesj but a synovial system at their extremities, and a 
medullary system within them ! He has a pilous or hairy system ob 
the surf&ce of the body, a dermal or skinny system, and an epi- 
dermal or scarp-skin system I Curiously enough this last of bis 
organic systems is an inorganic substance, destined to preserve 
organic parts from the immediate contact of external objects i it 
possesses neither life nor sensibility ; and be might as well have 
ranked among the number of his organic systems the layer of paint 
which coven the skin and envelopes all the systems oi the native 
American. 

Unsatisfied, however, with his imaginary simple systems, Bichat 
has created as many simple, functions. His animal life and organic 
life, animal sensibility and organic sensibility, animal contractility^ 
organic sensible contractility, organic insensible contractility, and a 
multitude of others, will satisfy those who believe in them that they 
who ascribe nine lives to some of the fieline genus have only fallen 
short, instead of exceeding the number ; and will to others afford 
only another proof that confusion and error never yet were sepa- 
rated* 

Respecting Iiis plan^ I have only to add, that his Anatomic Go- 
n^rale presents the most signal abandonment of nature, and of its 
best characteristlcs--^simplicity and intelligibility. If Kant ba4 
wished to do for physiology the same sort of service he has done for 
metaphysics, he could not have done it more completely than M* 
Bichat, who has so nicely perplexed the science as often to akrm 
the young for their own incapacity, and to satisfy tlie old of its 
author's. 



. One of the most striking ill consequences of tUa want of arrange- 
ment is the difficulty which not only the student, but even the ex^ 
periepced anatomist, feels, of obtaining for himself, or communi-^ 
eating to another, any short and simple notion of the animal orgam 
and functions. 

'. A simple notion of a complex subject can be obtained or commit 
nicated only by means of generalization ; and if this be abandoned, 
it cannot be obtained or communicated at alL In anatomy and 
jihysiology such, generalization is not even attempted; the organs and 
functions are enumerated in an insulated, irregular and disorderly^ 
manner ; aiid neither the person who makes the enumeratiots aof 
(e who hears it, is often satisfied that he has enuoierated the wbole* 
If an anatoipist be. asked to give a short account of the structure 
of the body by enumerating its various organs, be tells you that it 
Consists of bones, and muscles, and ligaments, and arteries, and 
veins,,and nerves, and glands^ and a hma, wi organs pf senses (9oi 



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i^iS«] Analormf^ Pbysiokgf^ ^ani Bathology. MJ^ 

pecfecUy fecollecimg toy more,, be. pepbaps aildp)--ft]Kl of varioii» 
viscera** If you wish to know what these vwcera ar^^ he probably 
tells you that they are such pam as the bean and livags, the stomaeb 
and the intestines ; and in innumeratipc these jiotestioes, which he» 
finishes with the re^tum^ he jierhaps add^i that the brain also, end 
the eye, and the ear, ar^ called viscerai—thati in short, it is a name 
expressing many objects of thai kind, which it b unnecessary for 
him to enter into a minute detail of. Perhaps^ after all, he recolr 
lects that in enninenui^ the organs, be might indeed have mea" 
tionedsome such parts as absorbents, and cartilages, and mem-* 
branes, and na forth — in fine, rather perplexed, and slightly 
ashamed — be scarce know9 why — of the account be has giren, be 
in general very properly adds, that siuch enumerations are of no great 
use^ and that, m order to understand any thing of anatomy, it is 
necessary to enter into a particular study of it« 

True it is, that such enumerations (and the very best which arei 
given in books ate no belter) can be of oo use. JBut it is not less 
true that) in fewer woids, as will be seen in the sequel, a very simpld 
and satisfiietory notion may be given of the animal system* 

The developeoMnt of the relatkms of the organs and functions to^ 
and of their dependanee opcm, one another, is the basis of the 
system I propose. 

. In viewing, then^ the organs ia a general manner, a class at once 
obtrudes itself, from its consisting of an apparatus of levers^ from 
its performing motion from place to place, or locomotion^ and from, 
these motions being of the most obvioHs kind* — A little more obserr 
vation presents to us another class, which is distinguished from the 
preceding by its consisting of ofUndrkai tubes^ by its transmitting, 
and transmuting Ik^uids, or performing vascular action^ and by ita 
motions being barely apparent^-r-FfKihev investigation discoveis a 
thirdy which differs essentially from both these, in its consisting oC 
nervous particles^ in its transmitting intpressions from external ob*^ 
jects, or performii^ nervous action, and in tliat ^tion being tdi^ 
gether invisible* 

. Thus each of these classea is distinguished from anotb^ by the 
STRUCTURB of its parts, by the purposes which it serves, and by 
the greater €tr less obviovsnsss of its motions. The first consists 
of Z^er^f the second, of cylindrical tubes ; and the third, of nervous 
particles* The first performs motion from place to place, or loeor^ 
motim ; the second, transmits and transmutes lifuids, or perfiwon 
vascular action ; and the third, transmits impressions from external: 
olgects, or performs nervous actk>n* Tlie motion of the £f^ ia eapr 
tremely obvious > that of the seoood is barely apparent ; imd that oC 
tbe third is altogeiker invisible. 

. ]^t one of them can be confoundf d with another t fof tliat whioh^ 

. * Tkft it a term to abinrdl> a|pp>M» at to admit of aa inafai deanMaear 

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S88 Aitempi io systematize [Ocr. 

performs loconnotien neither tnmsmits liquids nor sensations; that 
which transmits liquids neither performs motion from place to place, 
nor is the means of sensibility; and that which is the means of 
sensibility neither pcsrforms locomotion nor transmits liquids. 

Now the oigans employed in locomotion are the bones, liga-^ 
merits and muscles i tnose employed in transmitting liquids are 
the absorbent, eirculating Md secreting vessels \ and those employed 
about SENSATIONS are the organs of sense, cerebrum and cerebellum, 
with the herves which connect them. Tlie first class of organs may 
therefore be termed locomotive or (from their very obvious action) 
mechaDical ; the second, vascular, or (as even vegetables from their 
possessing vessels have life) they may be termed vital ; and the third 
may be named nervous or intellectual. 

Mechanical action, indeed, appears to be only less minute than 
vital action ; and it is probable that nervous, as well as chemical^ 
action are only yet more evanescent. All the organs and functions, 
therefore, may perhaps be termed mechanical. . But whether thi? 
be so or not is of little consequence in this case; since, in adopting 
these terms, 1 mean thejn merely to express the obvious and im- 
portant distinctions which are mentioned above. 

An arrangement of anatomy and physiology, however, according 
to a precise dependance of these systems, is not possible: for» 
though the nervous system, being considerably independent of the 
muscular and vascular, might with this view be placed first, yet we 
cannot, consistently with maintaining this precise order, next men- 
tion the muscular, because all muscular action is in a certain mea- 
sure dependant on the action of vessels; nor can we next mention 
the vascular, because all vascular action is in a, certain measure de-" 
pendant on the action of muscles. In short, in animals all. the 
systems influence one another, just as in vegetables the two which 
exist in them—- the mechanicd and vital, are reciprocally affected. 

The order, then, of greatest Independence, is that which places 
the mechanical organs first, because in minerals, the simplest b^ngs^ 
where mechanical structure alone exists, it is uninfluenced by any 
irttal ; the- vital organs next, because in vegetables — the beings next 
in complexity, they are uninfluenced by any intellectual; and the 
intellectual last, because they exist only in animals. This, then, is 
the order of their greatest independence. 

The advantages of this arrangement are, first, its enumerating 
the organs in the order of the obviousness of their functions: 
secondly, its enumerating them in the order of the three natural 
classesof beings— minerals having mechanical structure; vegetables^ 
meehanical and vital ; and animals, mechanical, vital and intellec- 
tual : thirdly, its connecting this portion of science with science in 
general; fdr, from the mechanical and vital organs, common to 
animals with the inferior classes, we pass through the intellectuaV 
vwhicb are proper to them, to the consideration of intellect itself, 
and of those signs of ideas which language affords. Thus we past 
naturally; from the last of the physiod sciences^ considering the 

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1815.] Anatcmiff Physiology^ and Pathology. 289 

structure of beings gradually increasing in perplexity, tlirotrgh the 
portions of anatomy and physiology^ to tiie first of the literary and 
moral ones. 

The disadvantages which would result from the abandonment of 
tbit order of the organs would be, that we should lose sight of thiii 
natural independence, that we shouM reverse the order W the ob- 
Tiousiiess of the functions, and that their reference to the three 
natural classes of lyings, and their relations to science in general, 
would altogether disappear— that the sciences of anatomy and phy-> 
siology would at once be insulated add deranged. 



iThe- human body^ then, consists of organs 6( three klnd^. By 
the first kind, motion from place to place^ or mechanical action^ is 
effected ; by the second, nutrition, or vital action, is maintained ; 
and by the third, thought, or intellectual action, is permitted. 
Anatomy I therefore divide into three parts ; namely, that whi' h 
considers the mechanical or locomotive organ?, that which considers 
the vital organs, and that which considers the intellectual organs. 

Under the mechanical or locomotive organs, 1 class, first, the 
bones, which support the rest of the animal structure; second, the 
ligaments, which unite them } and third, the muscles^ which move 
them. 

Under the vit!il organs, I class, first, the external and internal ab- 
sorbent surfaces, find the vessels which absorb from these surfaces, 
or the organs of absorption ; second, the heart, lungs, and blood- 
vessels, which derive their contents (the blood) from the absorbed 
lymph, or the organs of circulation; and third, 'the glands and 
secreting surfaces, which separate various matters from the blood, or 
the organs of secretion. * ' . 

Under the intellectual organs, I class, first, the organs of sense, 
where impressions take place ; second, the cerebrum, or organ of 
thought, where these excite ideas ; and third, the cerebellum, where 
volition results from the last. 

To some it may appear that the organs and functions of digestion, 
respiration and generation, are hot involved By this arrangement j 
but such a notion can originate only in superficial observation. 
Digestion is a compound function easily reducible to some of the 
simple ones which I have enumerated. It consists of the motion of 
the stooiach and contiguous parts, of the secretion of a liquid from 
its internal surface, and of that heat which is the common result of 
all action, whether locomotive, vital, or intellectual, and which is 
better explained by such motion than by chemical theories. Simi- 
larly compound are respiration and generation. 

Thus there is no organ nor function which is not involved by the 
simple and natural arrangement I have sketched. 

Compound, however, as the organs of digestion, respiratioi) and 
generation, are, yet as they form so important a part of the system. 

V0L.VI. NMV. T 



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79d Aitempi to sysiematissr X<%r. 

it may be asked^ '^ with which of these classes they are most a}lie4r 
The answer is obvious. AH of them consist of tubular vessels of 
various diameter; and all of them trai^mit and transmute liquids* 
Possessing such strong characteristics of the vital sy^eup^y they are 
eyidei^tly most allied to it. 

In shorty digestion prepares the vital matter, which is i^k^n ^gt 
by absorption — the first of the simple vital function ; respiratim 
renovates it in the very middle of its course-^between the two por? 
tious of the simple function of circulation;. and generation, de- 
pendant on secretion — the last of these fonctions, communicatee 
this vital matter, or propagates vitality to a new series of beings. In 
such arrangement the digestive organs therefore precede, and the 
getierative follow, the simple Vital organs; whik the respiratory 
occupy a middle pkce betweeii the veifious and thQ arterial circular 
tioQ. Nothing, however, can be more improper, as the pjreceding 
observations show, than considering arty one ^ these as a distinct 



The preceding is a natural arrangement of the anatomy of man 
and the higher animals ; ^and its peculiar simplicity is illustrated by 
ks involving, in appfication, that of minerals and vegetables, and 
by its being capable of instant adaptation to physiological sci^nce^^ 



In order to arrange animal Physiology, it is only necessary to 
substitute the term ^< functions '* for '^ organs ; '^ and that science* 
will likewise involve, in application^ the physiology of mineral and 
vegetable bodies, and be in its turn capable of instant adaptation to 
znedical science. 

Thus the functions also are divided into mechanical^ vital^ and 
intellectual. 

The mechanical functions are subdivided into that of support, 
that of connexion, and that of locomotion. 
. The vital functions are divided intathat of absorption, that of eir* 
culation, and that of secretion. 

The intellectual functions are divided into that of sensation, that 
of mental operation, and that of volition.- 

A circle of functions, I may observe, thus exist in animals, which 
exist not in minerals or vegetables, because volition, the last of the 
intellectual functions, connects itself to the mechanical ones by ren- 
dering them subservient to it in locomotion. Thus the first and the • 
last of these functions are as intimately cpnn^cted as any of the in^^ 
termediate ones, and a beautiful circle <rf organic function and- 
organic influence is formed. 

Thus, th^n, there are three orders both of organs and functions — 
the locomotive, the vital, and the intellectual ; and of each of these 
orders there are also three genera, namely, of the first or locomor 
tive, those organs and functions which support, conne,ct, and move; 
of the second, or vital> those which ab^Qrb> circulate^ and secrete^ 



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i815.] Anatonof^ Phyrnhgy^ and Pathology. *291 

and of the test, or intpllectiial, those which feel, think, and will; 
and by the latter of these the former is in locomotion affected. 



In prd^F, to -arrange Pathplqgt, for >' the term ^^ healthy itino 
tions," the subject of physiology, it is only necessary to substitiiUi 
th^ term ^' diseased function?/* 

The classes of disease are> therefore, like those of knatcmiy 'and 
physiology, three ; namely, diseases of the mechanical or loGomottve 
functions, diseases of the vital functions, and diseases of intellectual 
functions. 

The orders of the first class, as affecting the functions of the 
bones, the ligaments, and themuscleff, are three, vi^. diseases cf 
(upport, disieases of connexion, and diseases of locomotion. 

Those of the second nlais, as affecting the functions of the ah*- 
sorbent, the circulating, andfthe secreting, vessels, are likewise three, 
viz. diseases of absorption, diseases of circulation, and diseases of 
aeeretion. 

Those of the third class, as afiecting the functions of the organi 
of sense, of the brain, and of th^ nerves, are also three, viz. diseases 
of impression, difieaaes of judgment, and diseases of volition. 

The genera under each order consist of diminished, depraved^ 
and increased, functions. 

Precisely in the same wfiy would I c1a«s the aiti^ea Qf the Ma* 
TKRiA Mkp^ca ; first, as operfiting upon the mechanical, vital, or 
intellectual, organs; and then as either increami3g> rendering je« 
gular, or diminishing their action^ 



It is not unusual to consider the body as ben)g divided into the 
head, the trunk, and the extremities; but in consequence of .the 
hitherto universal neglect of the natural arrangement of the organs 
and functions into mechanical, vital, and intellectual, the beauty 
and interest which may be attached to this division has equally 
escaped the notice of ^latomists. 

It is a curious fact, and strongly confirmative of the preceding 
arrangements, that one of these parts— the extremities, consist 
almost entirely of mechanical organs, namely, of bones, ligaments^ 
and muscles ; that another — the trunk, consists of all the greater 
vital organs, namely, absorbents, blood-vessels, and glands ; and that 
the third — the head, contains all the intellectual organs, namely, th^ 
organs of sense, cerebrum, and cerebellum. In perfect consistency 
with my assertion, ^^ that though the organs of digestion, respira- 
tion, and generation, were really compound, still they were chiefly 
vital, and properly belonged to that class," it is not less remarkable 
that in this division of the body they are found to occupy that part — 
the trunk;^ in which the chief simply vital organs are contaX"^ 

T U 

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292 Attempt io systematixe Anatomy^ fie* [Oct , 

This also shows the impropriety of reckoning any of these a separate 
system from the vital. 

It is a feet not less curious, nor less confirmative of the preceding^ 
arrangements, that of these parts those which consist chiefly of 
meclMnical organs — organs which, in the sense already explained, 
we common to us with the hwest class of beings, namely, mmerals,* 
are placed in the lowest situation, namely^ the extremities ; that 
which consbts chiefly of vital organs — organs common to us with a 
higher class of beings, namely, vegetables, f is placed in a higher 
situation, namely, the trunk ; and that whiph consists chiefly of 
intellectual organs — organs peculiar to the highest class of beings^ 
namely^ animals^ :]: is placed in the highest situ^Liioa, namely, the 
head.,.. It is not less remarkable, that this analogy is supported 
even in its minutest details : for, to choose the vital organs contained 
in the trunk as an illustration, it is a fact that those of absorption 
and secretion, which are most common to us with plants — a lower 
class of beings, have a lower situation--in the cavity of the abdo- 
men ; while those of circulation, which are very imperfect in plants, f 
and more peculiar to animals — a higher class of beings, hold a 
higher situation — in the cavity of the thorax. 

It is moreover worthy of remark, and still illustrative of the pre- 
ceding arrangements, that in each of these three ^situations the 
bones difier both in position and in form. In the extremities they 
are situated internally to the soft parts, and are generally of cylin- 
drical form ; in the trunk they begin to assume a more external 
situation, and a flatter form, because they protect vital and more 
important parts, which they do not, however, altogether cover; and 
in the head they obtain the most external situation and the flattest 
form, especially in its highest part, because they protect intellectual 
and most important organs, which in some parts they completely 
invest. ^ ^ 

The loss of such general views is the consequence of arbitrary 
methods. They did not present themselves to me till I had traced 
this outline of the natural system. 

Alexander Walker. 

4» The bone«» moreover, eootain the greatest quantity of mineral matter. 
*f It is the possession ^f vessels which coostitates the vitality of vegetables. 
i In animals alone is nervous matter discovrrable. 

% Plants have no real circilation, nor passage of their ntttritifc liquid through 
the saaie point. 



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1815.] Astronomical and Magneiicat Ohservatkm^ 



29S 



Article VIL 

jisironomical and Magnetical Observations at Hackney Wickm 
By Col. Beaufoy. 

Latitude, 5 10 32' 403" North* , Long ifude West in Time 6"-A?5^. 
Sept. 12, iinmersivD of a small star in S^i^ittariiy 8^ 59^ 04" Mean Time fit B. W^ 

Magnetical ^Ob$ervattm$^ 



Month. 


MomiDg Observ. 


Noon Obierr. 


Evening Obserr. 




Hour. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Hour. 


Variation. 


Aug. 18 
Ditto 19 
Ditto 20 
Ditto 21 
Ditto 22 
Ditto 23 
Ditto 24 
Ditto 25 
J)ttto 26 
. Ditto 27 
Ditto 28 
Ditto 29 
Ditto 30 
Ditto 31 


8h 20' 


24« 15' 23" 


U 15' 
1 50 
1 30 
1 15 
1 55 
1 55 


240 83/ 40" 
24 23 40 
24 25 41 
24 25 47 
24 24 54 
24 23 34 


e** 50' 


24^ 17' 45'^ 


8 35 
8 15 
8 20 
.8 2$ 
8 35 
8 35 
8 35 
8 25 


24 16 24 
24 16 42 
24 15 45 
24 13 16 
24 15 38 
24 15 24 
24 i4 42 
24 18 08 


6 55 
6 55 


24 18 48 
24 18 03 


G 50 


24 17 15 


1 40 

1 30 

1 40 

1 55 

— — 


24 29 39 

24 23 06 
24 24 12 

24 21 46 


7 65 
6 45 
6 5Q 

6 50 
6 45 


24 17 2ft 
24 18 19 
24 17 53 


8 35 

8 40 
8 30 


24 15 14 
24 15 18 
24 17 18 


24 19 34 
24 18 05 



Magnetical Observaiions cotdinued^ 

1815. 



Month. 



Sept. I 
Ditto 2 
Ditto 3 
Ditto 4 
Ditto 5 
Ditto 6 
Ditto 7 
Ditto S 
Ditto 9 
Ditto 10 
Ditto 11 
Ditto 12 
Ditto 13 
Ditto 14 
Ditto 15 
Ditto 16 
Ditto 17 

1" • ' -r "" 



Morning ObscrT. 



Hour. Variation. 



Sh 20' 
8 25 



25 
25 
20 
3j 
40 

3a 

30 Jl 
15 



40 24 



25 



25 24 
25 
30 
25 



30 



24 



16' 54' 

17 04 

15 IS 
14 45 

.13 57 

14 33 
17 06 

16 08 

15 56 
15 58 

17 42 
15 84 
15 08 

14 34 

15 50 
13 17 
15 00 



Noon Observ. 



Hour. Variation. 



\^ 35' 



«4« 25' 22" 



1 25 

4 40 

1 45 

I 30 

1 35 

1 15 



1 20 
T 40 



1 45 

1 40 

1 30 

1 30 



24 -22 

24 26 

24 23 

24 22 

24 22 

24 25 



24 21 
24 22 



24 23 

24 21 

24 23 

24 23 



Evening Observ. 



Hour. Variation. 



6h 45' 



240 14^ 26" 



6 20 

6 40 

6 25 

6 3G 



24 17 31 

24 17 03 

24 18 07 

24 18 82 



6 30 

6 20 

6 20 

6 15 



6 


25 


24 


18 


22 


6 


30 


24 


19 


33 


6 


25 


24 


15 


59 


6 


20 


24 


17 


42 



24 17 19 

24 J7 39 

24 17 23 

24 17 08 



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894 



Analyses df Books» 
Comparison of Observations. 



[Oct, 



{Morniog 
NooD .... 
Eveiiiog. . 
r Morniog 

May i Noon .... 

l^Evefling. . 
r iMoruing 

fvint } Noon . .. , 

(^Evening 
fMoroiug 

July } Noon .... 

(^ Evening.. 

{Morning 
Noon . . . 
Bvcning. 



1813. 



S4» Oiy 18" 

S4 81 12 

U 15 25 

24 12 02 

84 80 54 

V4 13 47 

24 12 35 

24 22 n 

24 16 04 

24 14 32 

24 23 04 

24 16 43 

24 15 53 

24 23 32 

24 16 08 



1814. 



24« 12' 53" 

24 23 53 

24 15 30 

24 13 12 

84 82 13 

24 16 44 

24 13 10 

24 22 48 

24 16 29 

24 13 29 

24 23 44 

24 17 00 

24 14 13 

24 23 48 

24 16 31 



1815. 



24«» 16' 01" 

24 27 A2 

24 17 48 

24 16 38 

84 87 03 

24 19 18 

24 16 11 

24 27 18 

24 19 40 

24 15 51 

24 25 45 

24 19 42 

24 16 01 

24 24 07 

24 18 22 



Wo;« foliar, C Between noon of the Ist Aug.) , q.,, . . 
Rain fallen J ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j^. ,^^ ^^^ 1845 ircb. 

Evaporation daring the same period 3*420 

JErrata in the Uut Number <tf ih$ Annals of Philosophy. 

In t^e renmrlcs on the yariatioo, after the words ^* the morning and noon observa-? 
tions," insert *' on the 20th." 



Article VIII. 

Analyses of Books. 

The Literary and Scientific Pursuits which are encouraged and 
enforced in the University of Cambridge briefly desaibed and vindi- 
cated: with various Notes. By the Rev. iktham Wainewriglit, 
A.-M. F.A. S. of Emmanuel College, ii> that University, and 
Rector of Great Briclchill, Bucks. London. Hatchard. 1815. 

The outcry which has been raised against the English universi- 
ties^ and the very general opinion entertained for some time pas( 
that they are rather theatres, of dissipation than of learning and 
science, have been attended with several good effects. They have 
produced, it is said, a reform in Oxford, where the defects, if we 
believe Gibbon, and some others who have written on the subject^ 
ivere great, ^nd almost intolerable : and this reformation, if our in- 
formation respecting that University be correct, might be carried 
still further, with considerable advantage to the young men who 
frequent it. They have Occasioned ^ike^ise the present publication, 
whicli makes us acquainted with the mode of education followed at 
fCambridge, the sister University, lon^ celebrated for the atteatioa 
lyl^cti she pays. to mathematics apd the mechanical scf^nces. 

' • jigitizedby^OOQlC 



1815.] Wainewrlght tm Education at Cambridge^ 29^ 

Though this little work was intended by its author as a full aeoount 
of the mode of education followed at Cambridge, and though we 
have no doubt that it is written with as much candour as is con- 
sistent with the character of a professed eulogist, we regret that 
several circumstances are omitted which would have been requisite 
to convey to us, who are quite unacquainted with the forms of £ng« 
iish Universities, an adequate idea of the value of the informatioa 
'which is communicated to the young men by the tutors. In the 
Universities of Scotland, and we believe in all those on the conti- 
nent of Europe, every science taugfit is confined to a particular in- 
dividual, who is called the Professor of that science, and whose 
business it is to collect a correct outline of the whole department of 
Icnowledge committed to bis charge, and to lay the best arranged 
and most luminous view of it, which he can, before his pupils. But 
in the English Universities the case is very <lifferent. In every 
college a certain person is appointed under the name of tutor^ under 
whb^e care the students at that college are placed, and to whom they 
are indebted for all the academical infoi'matidn which they receive* 
Now in order to form a judgment of the way in which these tutors 
are likely to discharge their duty (on which every thing depends), it 
would be requisite to know whether one tutor teaches all the 
sciences, or whether a particular tutor be appointed for each pcuti^ 
cular science 5 whether the tutor receives any fees from his pupils, 
and whether his emoluments depend chiefly at least upon the 
number of students that enter his particular college. Now upoa 
these very material points no information whatever is comraunicated 
by Mr, Wainewright. 

If every college is restricted to only one tutor, the probability, oi^ 
almost the certainty, is, that he will have a stronger bias to one de* 
partment of knowledge than :to the others. The three great depart- 
ments which constitute the range of a Cambridge education are, 
1. Latin and Greek, including Belles Lettres. 2. Mathematics, 
and the Mathematical Sciences. 3. Metaphysics, Morals, and 
Theology. Now it is very unlikely that a thorough Greek and Latin 
scholar, or a professed poet or critic, should at the same time be a 

food mathematician and a profound metaphysician. Who eve^ 
card of a poetic mathematieian ? Unless Halley and Boscovich 
are to be considered as examples. Now to whatever science the 
tutor has particularly attached himself, there is every reason to 
suppose that to it he will naturally turn the chief attention of his 
pupils, and that the information which be has to communicate oa 
the other branches of knowledge will be comparatively of little 
Talue. Hence the probability is, that whatever branch of know-* 
ledge has become fashionable in the University, to that branch the 
attention of the stud^ts wll be generally directed. I conceive thi^ 
to be the reason why Greek and Latin constitute the chief objects 
df study at Oxford, and mathematics at Cambridge, I once met 
iiith an Oxford student in a stage-coach, a very young man, wlua^ 



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'296 Analyses of Books. [Oct.. 

told me that for his part he would rather enjoy the reputation of 
Person than that of Newton. 

If there be a tutor ap|)ointed for every particular science at Cam- 
bridge, the objection wliich 1 have stated will be obviated ; but un* 
luckily Mr. Waitiewright has given us no information whatever on 
the sui)3ect. 

If the emoluments of the tutor depend upon the number of stu- 
d^nts attending his particular college, and if that number be deter-* 
mined by the reputation of the tutor, then it is obvious that a strong 
apotive is held out to him to discharge his duty as faithfully as pos«- 
sible ; bepnuse the higher his reputation, the greater will his income 
becopDe. The salaries of the medical professors at Edinburgh (ex- 
cluding two or tjiree ]ate appointmjpnts by the Crown) amount to 
iiOL a year divided among hve individuals, or 4/. per annum eacli* 
I^ence their whole eipoluments depend upon their students. If they 
neglect their duty, they will be sure to lose their class, and then the 
Professor's chair will not b^ worth filling* But if the income of the 
Cambridge tutors does npt depend upop their pupils, if they receive 
the same sura y^hether they do their duty pr npt, whether the 
number of their pupils be great or small, then in that <:ase ttue- 
powerful fipeling of self-interest will be wantiiig to stimulate their 
exeftion,_and the chapce pf indplenc^ and carelessqess will bp 
greatly enhanced. The indolepce of the established clergy haf 
long been proverbial, while the activity of the dissenting clergy has 
always be^n conspicuous, because their success in life depends upon 
the opinion entertained of them by their hearers. 

It would have been very desirable if Mr. Wainewright had con-: 
veyed information to us upon these two most material points, be<t 
cause upon them the value of Cambridge as a place of ^ducatioi^ 
must chiefly depend* 

Another piece of information scarcely less important is also want- 
ing. We should have been told how great a portion of each year it 
is necessary for the student who means to reap the proper advantages 
pf the institution to reside at Cambridge. I have known some 
per^on> keep their terms, as it is called, and yet reside but a very 
short part of the year at an English University. If this be a common 
practice, or if it may be followed by every person ad lihttunij it is 
obvious that the University is converted in a great measure into a 
mere political establishment. 

But perhaps the most important information of all is the sum of 
money per annum which a student at Cambridge requires to put him 
on a footing with his associates, I hftve been told by a young Gentle- 
man, a frie.nd of mine, a student at Cambridge, that 300/. a-year 
was the least that he could ever spend. Suppose this to be considerf 
ably above the minimum, it may serve to give us some idea at least 
pf the style of life which the generality of the students lead. Now 
a moment's reflection must convince any person that if a young mai\ 
resides p^ of the year at CambridgCi and spends during that timi^ 



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181 5«] Wamewfight 4m Educatim nt Camhriige. S9f 

300£, bis imnd must be taken up about sometbiog else tban studj 
otherwise the fees exacted must be shamefully and improperly higfai 
1 icoosider the cheapness of education as the most important advan* 
tage^bicb any nation can possess. No people can ever make a 
figure in science or literature if the terms of education are so high 
that it is necessarily confined to the higher ranks of society ^ because 
|>roficiency in science is the result of long and laborious exertion, 
which few will be capable of making who already feel tbemseives 
sufficiently distinguished by their rank pr their wealth. If we take 
a view of the literary characters who have given lustre to Great 
Britain, how small a numbejr shall we find who had either rank or 
wealth to boast of ? Have they not in general risen from the lower 
ranks of society ? Nature endowed them with talents, accident gave 
them the requisite education $ and that noble eqiulation, that desire 
of distipction so strongly attached to genius and talents, urged them 
on to exert the requisite industry, and emerge from the obscurity ia 
ivhich chance had placed them. 

During each of the years 1788, 1/89, and 17^0, I resided sis: 
months at the University of St. Andrews : my expenses during each 
year (including every thing) did not exceed 14/. The next tea 
years 1 spent at the University of Edinburgh. Here my expenses 
were greater, because I resided in that city during the whole year, 
and because 1 had to pay for lodgings, which was not the case at St. 
Andrews. But even in Edinburgh the annual expenditure did not 
exceed 50/* It will be higher at present in both places ; because 
the prices of every thing have risen greatly since the period to which 
I allude. But even at present I should consider 30/. or 40/. a suffi« 
dent allowance for St. Andrews, and 100/. for Edinburgh. 

Perhaps indeed it is of more importance that the grammar school 
education should be cheap and accessible to all ; because here the 
hoy of genius becomes first aware of his talents, and feels the charms 
that attend the acquisition of knowledge. ' These charms are so 
powerful, and the new views which education opens so efficacious, ' 
that when a boy has once felt their influence he will make wonderful 
exertions to enable him to advance in the same career. I know a 
Gentleman who at present makes a very respectable figure in the 
literary world, and enjoys a ^ery handsome mcome. He was the 
sou of a hind in the south of Scotland. During summer he hired 
himself out to the farmers, and during winter put himself to school 
with the nooney which he hadi thus earned. By degrees he got the 
situation of a parish schoplmasfer ; and continuing his assiduity, and 
rising by slow progression, he now occupies one of the most lucra- 
tive literary situations which Scotland possesses. I might mentipa 
other instances of a similar nature. A poor Berwickshire boy was 
jin the habit of travelling during the summer as a pedlar, and during 
the winter he put himself to school with the fruits of his summer'^ 
earnings. In this manner he contrived to give himself an excellent 
education. He then /set out for London to push his fortune. His 
^rst ^tuation Iq tbt^t capital wa$ that of povx^t to a bookseller* Th 

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' f fti Analyses of Bodh. ' [dcr. 

g€iitleinaa had two-sdns learning itiatheibatics, and the new porter 
made out for them some exefcises which were very much applauded. 
An inquiry wa^ made, the qualifications of the porter were disco- 
vered, the bookseller recdmmended him to some friends whom he 
had in a particular University. He went, and \^as enabled by the 
kindness of those gentlemen to complete his education; and he now 
&h a most respectable literary situation in England. ^ 

Nor let it be supposed that the money requisite for these purposes 
. was great. I myself was educated at one of the best grammar 
schools of Scothind ; and the whole expense of my grammar school 
education amounted exactly to 305., of which I myself afterwards 
paid 205. after I had grown up, and had begun to provide for my- 
«elf. I think it will be admitted that in proportion to the population 
of the two countries, there is at present a greater number of literary 
Scotchmen than Englishmen. Now the sole reason of this differ- 
ence is the cheapness of education in Scotland, and the existence of 
a grammar school in every parish. The meritorious exertions of the 
ipromoters of the Lancasterian schools in England will probably soon 
destroy this difference, at least in part ; though I am apprehensive 
that they scarcely go far enough. The mere knowledge of reading 
. and writing is very valuable ; but the principles of morality and 
religion are npt less so ; because wherever they are wanting, know- 
ledge proves rather a bane than arn advantage, it is much to be 
wished, likewise, that means were taken to distinguish those chil- 
dren who happen to be poss^essed of uncommon genius, and to afford 
them the requisite facilities for completing their education. — But 
llhis digression has been carried fer enough. 

The subjects taught at the University of Cambridge are divided 
hy Mr. Wainewright into three heads ; namely. Classics and Ge- 
l^ral Literature ; Natural Philosophy and Mathematics ; Moral and 
Political Philosophy, Metaphysics and Theology. 

1. During that part of each term which requires attendance, the 
classics are regularly read. They consist of the Greek tragedies^ 
Plato, Herodotus, Thucydides, Aristotle's Poetics, Cicero, Tacitus, 
&c. These books are not barely read ; but the peculiarities of ex-p 
|>ression, the beauties of diction, the singularities of construction, 
the prosody — every thing of importance is pointed out by the tutor 
to the attention of the young men, so as to render them not merely 
accurate linguists, but scholars and critics. 

There are 14 scholarships or exhibitions in CJambridge; and in 
filling them more regard is paid to proficiency in Greek and Latin 
than in mathematics. Various annual prizes exist for declamations 
in Latin and English, themes, poems, &c. ; all of which have a 
tendency to excite emulation, and to promote the cause of general 
literature^ Finally, there are examinations twice a year, which are 
eonducted with rigour and impartiality. - 
- 2. Very particular attention is paid in Cambridge to natural philo* 
aophy and mathematics. As the young men have seldom any pre- 
yitm knowledge of tkese bnmcbes iof' science trfiea they jototbi 

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181&.] WainewriglU on Education at Cambridge. 299 

University, the tutors fiod it necessary to commence at the very 
beginning.'. The branches of mathematics taught are, geometry^ 
trigonometry, algebra, conic sections^ fluxions; and the four mathe- 
matical departments of mechanical philosophy, namely, astfotiomyy 
optics, hydrodynamics, mechanics. Professors Vince and Wood 
have drawn up text books for these diflerent departments, which 
save a great deal of trouble, both to the tutors and pupils. Finally, 
Newton's Principia is thoroughly studied and explained. Mr« 
Waitiewright explains at considerable length the nature of the 
public examinations which take place beibre the distribution . of 
degrees, shows the prodigious emulation which they exoite, and the 
great advantages with which they are attended* I have no doubt 
wiiatevet that these disputations are of considerable service, and 
occasion the acquisition of much useful and important knowledge, 
atid the developement of abilities which would otherwise have lain 
dormant. 

The present scarcity of. eminent mathematicians in Great Britain 
has been wondered at by some persons^ and Mr. Playfair has ascribed 
it to the mode in which mathematics is taught at Cambridge. Mr* 
Wainewright endeavours to refute this opinion. I have no doubt 
jEnyself that it is to b^ assigned to another cause, or rather to a 
variety of other causes. One cause is the kind of education to which 
those taught in the great grammar schools are exclusively confined. 
I .mean Greek and Latin. I have met with an excellent classical 
scholar from an Eiftglidi school, near 20 years of age^ who could 
not repeat the multiplication table. Unless the drudgery of alge«> 
bfaic calculationsjs got Over at an early age, we can scarcely expect 
.'the generality of mankind to acquire much dexterity in it ; for my 
readers, I presume, are aware that i( is in a great measure a mecha- 
nical art. That a knowledge of Greek and Latiii is of considerable 
importance to every literary man, is what every person will very 
readily allow. They afford us the finest models of style and compo- ' 
sition, and furnish much valuable information in history, mathcr 
xnatics, and moral philosophy. But to consider a knowledge of 
ihese languages as constituting the whole of a liberal education^ 
appears lughly preposterous. A knowledge of arithmetic alone ii^ 
pf more real service to every man than all the Greek and Latin 
which the most profound scholar ever possessed. Arithmetic and 
mathematics ought to constitute a part of every school education, a^ 
ivell as Gree'k and Latin. They ought to be as assiduously taught, 
^nd considered as an equally necessary preliminary to a eourse at 
the University as Greek and Latin; If this were the case all over 
£ogland, we should soon see a change in the figure we at present 
make as a mathematical nation. Many individuals of the first rate 
mathematical genius, who' at present pass through life without being 
piware of their powers, would acquire the requisite preliminary know-^ 
ledge, would become conscious of their qualifications, and would 
proceed the greatest length in that career thus happily opened. I- 
yife<} not say that mathematics confititvtes a p^ of the early ^ikt 

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300 Analyses of Books. ' (Oct. 

tion »ri France. • To this circumstance entirely is to bje ascribed tht 
.^reaternumber of mathematicians which that country has lately 
produced than our own. 

Another circumstance wanting in this country for the flourishing 
.of mathematical science is a proper encouragement on the part of 
ijovernment. In some departments of science the number of cul- 
tivatots, or at least of amateurs, is so great, that a book published 
.<m theitl is pretty certain of selling at least sufficiently to defray Its 
own expenses j so that a man may cultivate these departments, and 
lay his discoveries and observations on them before the world, with- 
out much risk of pecuniary loss. But this is far from being the case 
in mathematics. The number of readers in this departipent has 
always been so small that a mathematical book, unless indeed it be 
a school book, caqnot be expected to defray its own expenses by the 
extent of the sale. The consequence must be that none but the 
rich can venture to publish in the higher department of mathematics. 
JBut tinfortunatelv lew rich men are likely to cultivate this difficult 
department of saence, and still fewer are disposed to dedicate their 
ivealtb to the advancement of knowledge. Mathematicians, then, 
will in general be deterred from publishing, and of course have but 
little chance of acquiring that reputation which attends the success- 
ful cultivators of the other sciences. Thus the great, the principal 
stimulus to exertion is withdrawn. No wonder, tlierefore, that but 
few MboiMrers venture to cultivate so rugged and unpromising a-field. 

In Friince, in Prussia, and in Russia, this formidable objection 
has been obviated by the scientific academies established in these 
countries. In tl>em a certain number of mathematicians receive 
salaries, which leave them at liberty to devote the whole of their 
time to their favourite science ; and the expesse of their respective 
publications is defrayed by Government. Hence, the great number 
of niathematical papers which fill the Memoirs of the Paris, Berlin, 
and Petersb^rgh JVcademies, and the various mathematical disco- 
veries which adorn the 18th century. In England the Royal So- 
ciety indeed affords the means of publishing valuable mathematical 
pat>ers free of expense. To that noble institution we owe all the 
mathematics tliat still lingers in Great Britain. But as the mathe- 
maticians in this oountry are obliged to provide for themselves with- 
out any assistance from Government, they are compelled to devote 
the greatest' part of their time to the laborious occupation of teach- 
ing, or to the compilation of school books, and little leisure is \th 
them for the cultivation of the higher branches of the science. 

1 have some reason to suspect that but little attention is paid at 
Cambridge to the recent mathematical improvements made upon 
the Continent ; for I have met with some good mathematicians from 
Cambridge who were quite unacquainted with these improvements. 
At the same time I admit that I have met with others who were 
acquainted with them. 

3. The third department of knowledge cultivated at Cambridge 
is moral and political philosophy, metaphysics and theolo^. T^ 

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l6l5#] WainewTtght on Education at Camlriige^ 801 

text-books employed in^ these departments are P«ley s Principles of 
Moral and Political Philosophy, and Locke's Essay. Mr. Waine* 
Wright informs us that the writings of Reid, Beattie, and Stewart^ 
especiallv of the last, are also frequently referred to by the tutor, 
though theif singular doctrine of common sense is far from being 
admitted. This singular doctrine to which our author alludes is this^ 
that in the science of mind, as well as in every other, there are cer- 
tain first principles or laws of human thought which cannot be 
proved, but must be taken for granted ; otherwise the science itself 
cannot be establbhed. One of these first principles is, that, the 
external world exists, . Dr. Reid, to whom alone we are indebted 
for this doctrine, gave these first principles die name of common 
sense, because they have been always admitted by the common sense 
of all mankind, wl^ile every person who rejects them is considered 
as a lunatic or madman. Sav the English metaphysicians, we will 
not admit the existence of the external world as a first principle. 
We cannot indeed prove its existence, but we think it ought, to be 
proved. If it cannot, the doctrine of Berkeley and Hume must be 
allowed to be sound. For my own part I want no evidence whatever 
of the existence of an external world, and would consider any. 
attempt to prove it as silly trifling. We are so constituted that we 
must, whether we will or nor, give credit to the senses, and admit 
the information which they communicate as first principles. Such 
is the doctrine of Dr. Reid ; and instead of being a singular .doc* 
trine, I will venture to affirm that it has been maintained by 999 
thousandth parts of all mankind in every age. It is singular enough 
that, thougn I never met wuh any Englishman that would admit 
the truth of Dr. Reid's principles, I never found any one who 
seemed to be acquainted .with these principles, or to have perused 
the works of this acute philosopher. Mr. Wainewright shows ys 
that at Cambridge this ignorance is universal ; for he says that the 
tutors refer especially to the writings of Dugald Stewart. Now Mr. 
Stewart is an elegant writer, and has ^illustrated the philosophy of 
Reid in a very beautiful manner ; but he has made very few addic- 
tions to it. In point of arrangement he b rather deficient, which 
injures considerably his writings as a whole. Tutors acquainted with 
the subject would rather refer to the original discoverer than to his 
illustrator and commentator. 

Besides the knowledge communicated by the tutors, there are 
likewise lectures on the following subjects, which I presume the 
students are all at liberty to attend : — 

On modern history. 

On the laws of England. 

On the Ropan civil law. 

On i^xperimental philosophy. 

On chemistry. 

On the application of chemistry and natural philosophy t<rmanii« 
ftctures, agricidtjure, and tbQ arts. 



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802 Analyses of Books^ [Ocrr. 

• Oh inmenik)^. 

On anatomy. 

On domestic medicine. 

On theology. 

Such, then, is a view of the knowledge which may be acquired 
at Cambridge : and every person will readily acknowledge chat it 
is very considerable, and that a young man in such an University 
may very well lay a sufficient foutidation for future eminence. One 
advantage must be still added, which I c6nsider as more important 
than all the rest put together. Every student has free access to a 
library containing above a hundred thousand volumes, from which 
he may borrow ten books at oncje, merely by obtaining a Master of 
Arts' order. This advantage must give Cambridge a prodigious 
superiority over Oxford. 

Had 1 not already extended this article beyond the requisite 
length, I should have wished to have noticed a few particulars 
which have always struck me as disadvantages attending the English 
Universities, though it would scarcely be possible to remove themi 
without introducing changes which could not easily be acceded to. 
I shall barely hint at one or two circumstances. 

The English Universities were established during the dark ages 
when learning was confined entirely to the clergy. The consequence 
was, that the sole object in view seems to have beeii to form clergy-* 
men. Hence the numerous regulations which assimilate these 
Universities to Monasteries. A dissenter, I understand, cannot be 
admitted into them. Now though I admit that the education of the 
clergy is a very important point, yet I think that' the 'education of 
the rest of the community is of at least equal importance. It is 
preposterous to give all mankind the same education exactly, be- 
cause they are intended for different professions ;- and what is of 
first rate importance to one man is of no use whatever to another. 
Human life is too short to enable every individual to run the com- 
plete career of the sciences ; yet it is of infinite importance that a 
young man should be made acquainted with the first principles of 
the profession to which he is to devote himself. The lawyer re- 
quires one education, the physician another, the clergyman a third. 
Where in England can a merchant or manufacturer go to acquire 
those branches of knowledge which he ought to possess ? 

At the University of Edinburgh there are lectures delivered. on 
the following subjects, ^hiph I divide into sets for the greater per- 
spicuity: — 

I. General Literature and Sciencf. 

1. Greek. 6. Mathematics. 

' ?. Latin. 7* Natural philosophy. 

3. Logic. 8. Astronomy. 

4. Rhetoric; . 9. Natural history, 

5. Moral philosophy. 10. Agriculturv 

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161s5.] WIAnewright (m Education at Cambridge. 80^ 

II; Medicine. 

1. Chemistry^. 6. Theory of physic. 

2. Anatomy. 7* Practice of physic. 

3. Botany* • 8. Surgeryl 

4. Materia medica. 9. Clinical surgery. 

5. Midwifery. 10. Medical jurisprudence* 

III. Law. 

' f ' ' ' ' • . ,. . 

1. Universal history. 3.-GiviHaw. 

2. Scots' law. 4, Public law. 

• IV. Theology. 

^ 1. Pivlnity, 3. Hebrew; - 

2. Church history. - 

Now any individual that chooses may attend any one of thesf 
classes without paying attention to the rest ; so that every person 
has it in his power to select those subjects that are most likely to be 
of service to him. The consequence is^ that in Scotland every 
country gentleman, every merchant and manufacturer, has enjoyed 
the advantage of a University education.. In England, on the con- 
trary, this advantage is confined to a comparatively small number. 
You .will find more profound scholars, and perhaps men of deeper 
science, in England than in Scotland. But in the latter country 
every person has a little, and there is therefore more knowledge 
upon the whole. It would be a prodigious advantage to England if 
this . eclectic .mode of acquiring knowledge ivere to be introduced 
into the Universities. But I am sensible that as long as they are 
powerful political engines, and possessed of such prodigious patron^ 
age and power, this can never be the case. Science can never 
thrive where It is united to politics : the union is unnatural, de- 
grading, and destructive. 

*** We cannot dismiss this article without reprobatini^, in the strongest terms, 
the manner in ivhic[i the Universities, and other Public Libraries, have availed 
themselves of ah Act of Parliament passed in the session before last, reviving an 
obsolete law, whereby anthors and publishers are compelled to give 11 copies of 
every book, arid of -ewery new edition to which there is any alteration or addition. 
We forbear to notice the injustice of a law which inflicts a severe tax on one set of 
individuals for (he exclusive advantage of another. We shall merely speak of the 
extent to which these public bodies avail themselves of the power' vested in them ^ 
and particularly the richly endowed University of Cambridge, to which more par- 
ticularly literary men are indebted for the revival of this tax. ■ We are informed 
that, with (he exception of one or two of the libraries, which affect to omit Novels, 
eyety book is demanded, however expensive, or useless, or unfit to be placed on 
the shelves for which they are dettined. New edidons are demanded, howevef 
imatl the alteration from the former. V^e know an instance in which the 11 copiey^ 
of a bookj price U. lOs., were demanded and received in. April of the present 
year, and another 1 1* copies of a new edi(iQn in August* . There is. every reason 
t« believe that the partiei who arc entrusted to mftke Um demands do not know 

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Jt04 Scientific Tnielltgence* [Ocn 

-what books they order 9 beinf gatisficd with retarning signed the vefy litis which 
they receive from the clerk or the Stationen* Company. Had tiie Uoiversities been 
leqtttred to pay a sum however small, even a tenth of the price of each book^ 
this taa nppa Itieratiiw would have been eiaeted with much ttu severity. ^ 



Article IX. 
sciENTiFrc intelligence; and notices of subjects 

CONNECTED WITH SCIENCE. 

I, Lecturesm 

The Lectures on Midwifery, and the Diseases of WomeQ and 
Childreir, at the Middlesex Hospital, by Mr. Merriman, Physician 
Accoucheur to that Hospital, and Consulting Physician Accoucheur 
to the Westminster General Dispensary, will recommence on Mon- 
day, Oct. 9. 

A Course of Lectures on Chemistry will be commenced at the 
Chemical Theatre, No. 42, Windmill-street, on Tuesday, Pet. S, 
at nine o'clock in the morning, by Wro. T^ Brande, F.R.S. L. 
and E. Prof. Chem. R.L &c. 

The Winter Courses of Lectures at the School of Medicine in 
Ireland, on Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Surgery, Chensistry, 
Materia Medica, Institutes, and Practice of Medicine, will com- 
mence on the 6th of November, at their respective hours. — ^Anato- 
mical Demonstrations will commence the 1st of December. 

Dr. Gordon's Lectures on Anatomy and Surgery commence at 
Edinburgh on Wednesday, Oct. 25, at eleven o clock forenootr ; and 
his Lectures on Institii^tions of Medicine, consisting of Physiology, 
Pathology, and Therapeutics, on Monday, Oct. 30, at one o'clock 
afternoon. Both Courses will be continued till April, five Lectures 
being delivered weekly in each. 

II. Substance sublimed during the Burning of Jjondcn Bricks. 

Many of my readers are probably aware that the method of 
burning bricks in the neighbourhood of London is different from 
what is practised in any other part of Great Britain, and probably 
of Europe. The fuel employed is the ashes or cinders which fall 
from the common fires in the different houses in London, and which 
are collected daily by the dust- carts. Hie greatest part of this fuel 
18 mixed with the unburnt bricks; the remainder is strewed between 
the layers of brick. The kilns are built so as to exclude as much 
of the air as possible. The consequence is, that the combustion 
goes on very slowly; three months being frequently re(juisite to 
complete the burning of a single kiln. It is to thb exclusion of the 
air that the yellow colour of the London bricks is owing: the outer- 
most row of bricks is always red. 
4 



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1815.] S^ieniij^ htelHg^e. SOti 

I mentioQed id ti preceding velunle or the A»meis 9f PhUmopkif 
tbtt Mr. Trimmer had given me a salt wbicli commooly tubCmas 
during the burning of the London bricks. This salt I found to be 
sal-amanoniae. l^e same Gentleman ktely (Hit in(jo my hands an* 
other substance, which sublimes likewise during the same process^ 
thou^ in much smaller quantity. This substance is usually crya^ 
tallized in long slender needles. It has the roetallie lustre, and m 
hluis^'whtte colour; hut is so delicate in its texture that it can 
scarcely be collected without Calling to powder. In its common atat« 
this substance has a bhie colour somewhat reaembliog that of wvlichf 
aprii^;% and it lua but little bf the metallic lu^re* 

It possesses the following properties. When heated in nitric acid^ 
it effervesees, and is converted into a white powder. Before tlie 
bbiw*plpMe it readily melts y and if in a state of purity, is speedi^ 
fcdnced into a white metallic globule, This globule is soft and 
malleable $ it dissolves with effervescence in dilute nitric acid. The 
ariurioii is ookaurless ; it orystalGzes, and throws down a white 
powder when mixed with sniphuric acid or with prussiate of potash. 
The globule is therefore lead. When the substance in queatbn it 
not pure, but mised with earthy matter, it readily melts before the 
Mow*pipe into a dark-coloured glaze \ but no metallic globule "of 
lead separates from it, though the heat be kept up a considerable 
time upon charcoal. These focts are sufBoient to demonstrate that 
tliis substance sublimed during the burning of London brkks is 
gnlena, or sulphuret of lead, faideed, it has exactly the appearance 
of the gidena after it has been roasted. 

This galena must be derived from the cinders of the coals used 
for burning the bricks. It is very common to observe small strings 
of galena running through coal beds $ apd unless I am misinformed, 
such strings have been frequently observed in the beds of Newcastle 
coal. As galena is not volatile, at least dt the temperature at which 
bricks are burnt, we must ascribe its sublimation, in the present case 
to the sal-ammoniac, which no doubt carries it along with it. This 
salt is well known to have the property of carrying along with it 
those metallic bodies with whk^h it happens to come in contact. 

III. Queries respecting Valves^ unth a Description of Uie, Valves in 
the ttutmfi Bodj/.^ ; " * • 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 

tin, ^ 

In tills age of imi>rovement and discovery, every mite that is con- 
tributed to a public journal, if it is only to open the eyesj and afford 
any degree of stimulus for others to improve froni, must be gene- 
rally considered worth acceptance ; and it is principally with this , 
latter bc^e that I submit the following remarks to your reiiders. 

What I am about to communicate has considerably engaged my 
attaition for some time past, and has been the means of ipy con- 
sulting every author on hydrostatics possibly within my command, 
but' wholly without affording me the least satisfiiction as to what I 

Vol. VI. N^ IV. U 

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SOG Scientific Intelligence. [Oct* 

sought after, which consists in the construction of a valve applicable 
tQ this part of science, that must be in a great measure very com- 
plete. I mean those after the manner of the valves of the human 
body. I believe it is an indisputable maxim that the nearer we 
s^pproach to the mechanism of the vital frame, and to the operation 
of nature, in all of our endeavours, the nearer we conceive and find 
we reach to perfection. 

The valves of the human body every anatomist must he fully 
aware are constructed on an inimitable principle; and for what an 
infinite space of time do we often behold those most important organs 
performing their oJBce uninterrupted and unimpaired. I cannot but 
ifnagine that this plan must have been contemplated by many, and 
even put into practice ; but being unable to discover any account of 
i^ bemg attempted, I should feel myself under a great obligation 
to you, or any of your correspondents, that would give i&e the 
necesssyry information. 

A few weeks since I constructed a temporary model of a pump on 
the plan alluded to, by fixing the valve within a piece of large 
barometer tube, by which means its action could be plainly per* 
ceived : and as I conceive many of your ingienious readers may not 
perfectly comprehend the manner in which the valves I alluded to 
are constructed in the human body, I have subjoined a slight sketch 
oj them, and hope it may prove sufficiently illustrative. It is 
greatly with the hope that some more able mechanic than myself 
will devise a proper plan for securing the valve, and discover those 
materials that will best answer the purpose, and erect one on a large 
and useful scale. 



r. ' 


Fig. 1. 
a h 


c 


m 


g. 2. 

n||flM| 


llillilB 



The materials of which the valve itself must be composed appears 
to be the greatest obstacle to their general employnieiit. 1 firmly hope 
that this is within the reach of many : and if this paper should be the 
means of drawing any able person's attention to the subject, I doubt 
not but their labours would be deservedly crowned with success. 
"' The substance I used was that of a bullock's bladder, as being 
the strongest and most flexible substance capable of being moulded 
to the proper form, that I could then procure to make my experi- 
ments ; but this substance we know is subject to a very rapid decay, 
especiidly when immersed in many fluids. 



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1915J Scientific Inielligdke. SOf 

' Fig. 1 shows the Valve as supposing the cylinder to be slit open 
and laid flat, and which may be supposed to be three bags,, a, b^ 
and Cy the latter of which is here divided : one side of each bag \i 
iGxed to the side of the. cylinder, and the edges of each bag meet^ 
or are even allowed to lap over each other, to be certain of their being 
in contact. The opposite side of the bag to that fixed to the side of 
the cylinder is not so deep, as seen at d, with a small projection or 
looseness of substance in the centre of each. lndeed> the three 
parts must be made a trifle more than sufficiently large to fill th^ 
diameter of the tube, as it will thereby be strengthened, and be more 
able to surround and inclose any foreign substance that may bappea 
to stop between it, and not be so liable to be stretched. 

Now when the water rises in the pump by the action of the piston^ 
which has another valve of the same construction attached to it, the 
bags of the lower valve contract and become emptv, and allow the 
water to pass freely ; while those of the upper valve in the piston 
are full and distended, and put on the appearance of fig.^2, and 
vice versa. 1 proved in one of my experiments the great utility of 
these valves over those in general use. I put a quantity of sticks^ 
straws, &c. into the water, and observed that on the action of the 
piston a large piece stuck between the valve, but it so completely 
inclosed it that not a drop could possibly escape. This happened 
several times, and as often was it perfectly secure. 

The astonishing strength it possessed wfts beyond what I should 
have conceived. For the trial of this I inversed the valve in the 
piston ; and after raising it, I did not possess sufficient musculai^ 
power to burst or even displace either of the valves, though only 
luted to the sides ^ the cyhnder by a strong gum water, which of 
course became after a time dissolved. 

From the little I have seen of its operation, I am persuaded that 
its erection on a large scale, with proper materials (whether leather 
would answer the purpose I am not competent to decide), would be 
attended with in^nite benefit and utility to mankind. 

I am. Sir, your most obedient^ 

HeUten, Sipi. I, 1815. M. MotLBi 

IV. Regulaiions f&r the Examination of Apothecaries. 

The Court of Examiners chosen and appointed by the Mastet^, 
Wardens, and Assistants, of the Society of Apothecaries, of the 
City of' London, in pursuance of a certain Act of Parliament, 
** For better Regulating the Practice of Apothecaries throughout 
England and Wales,'* passed in the 55th year of the. reign. of his 
Majesty King George the Third, has determined i 
. That every (lerson wlio #hall be admitted to an examination for a 
certificate to practise as an apothecary, shall be required to produce 

Testimonials of having served an apprenticeship of not Jess t^an 
five years to an apothecary ; of having attained the full age of 21 
years, and being of agood moral conduct. 

V 2 



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9(M Sdeniific InteUigmce. [Oct. 

He b expected to posset a competeat knowledge of theLatiQ 
language, and to produce certificates of having attended not lest 
than ■ ■ -, 

. Two Counes of Lectures oi^ Anatomy and Piiysiology t 

Two Courses of Lectures on tlie Theory and Practiee of Medicine 3 

One Course of Lectures on Chemistry : and 

One Course of Lectures on Materia Medica, 

A certificate of attendance (ot six months at least on the medical 
practice of somie pubUc Hospital^ Infirmary^ or Dispensary. 

The Court has also determined tliat the examination, for a certifi-* 
cate to practise as an apotliecary shall be as fdlows i^r- 

1.' In translating (Mirts of the Pharmacopoeia Loodiiiensisi and 
Physicians^ Prescriptions. 

2. In the Theory and Practice of Medicine. 
^ 3. lii Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 
/ 4. In the Materia Mediea. 

RegillatioHs for ike ExaminaHon t)f jissisiofUs.^^Thsit every 
Jperson who shall be admitted to an examination for a certificate to 
act as an assistant to any apothecary, in compounding or dispensmg 
m^icinesi shall be required to translate parts of the Pharmacopoeia 
Londineosis, and Physicians' Prescrt|itions ; and shall be einmiiied 
^ to his knowledge of Pharmacy and Materia Mediea. 

Notice. — Every, person intending to qualify . himself under the 
Regulations of this Act to practise as an apotheoary, or to act a& an 
assktant, must give notice in lirrilkig (post paid) addressed to .the 
Cktk of tfae Society of Apothecaries, Apothecaries' Hall, LondoDj 
at leaat six days previously to the day of examination. 

The Ccmrt will meet ia the Hsill on Thursday the 3d of August, 
at two o'clock of the afternoon pitoiseiy^ and on every fallowing 
Iliursday at the same hoiir. 

By order of the Court, 

LmidM^ J^ SI, 1815. John Watsom, Secretaiyi, 

It is express! V ordered by the Court of Examiners that no gra* 
tuit^ be iweived by any officer from any person applying for infiir- 
mation relative to the business of this Court*. 

Y. Extracts from the Act for letter Jugulating the Practice of 
f Apothecaries throughout England andJf^aks. 

That from and aftek* the 1st day of August, 1BI5, it shall not be 
kwful ibr any person or persons (except persons already in practice 
as sudi) to practise ds an apothecary in any jpnt of £nghind br 
Wales, unless he or they shall have been examm^d by^ilhe Court of 
~ hammers, or the major part of them, and have received ii eerlifi- 
eace of has or theh: being duly qualified to pmctsse aatfirefa iMvm ^e 
ilaid Court of Examiners; who are au^risod and required to 
examine all person and persons applykig to thenh fer the purpese 
of ascertaining the skill and abilities of si»cb pefson or persons in the 



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1815.] Scientific Intelligence. S09 

science and practice of medipine, and bis or their fitness and qxiaili* 
ficatlon to practise as an apothecary. 

That from and after the 1st day of August, 18 15^ it shall not be 
hwfttl for any person or persons (except the persons then acting as 
assistants to any apothecaries^ and excepting persons who have 
actually served an apprenticeship of fiv^ years to an apothecary) to 
act as an assistant to any apothecary^ in compounding or dispensing 
medicines, without undergoing an examination by the Court of 
Examiners, or by five apothecaries, so to be appomted as herein- 
after is mentioned. 

That it shall and may be lawful to appoint five apothecaries in any 
county er counties respectively throughout England and Wales (ex- 
cept within the said city of London, the liberties or suburbs tbi^reof, 
or within 30 miles of the same,) to act for such county or counties, 
or any other county or counties near or adjoining ; and suph five 
apothecaries are authorized and empowered to exanaine all assistants 
to apothecaries throughout the county or counties in regard of which 
such apothecaries shall have been so appointed as aforesaid. 

That if any person (except such as are then actually practising as 
such) shall, after the s^id Ist day.of August, 1815, act or practise as 
an apothecary in any part of England or Wales, without having 
obtained sueh certificate as aforesaid, every person so oflfending shall 
{pr every such ofience forfeit and pay the sum of 201. ; and if any 
person (ei^cept such as are then actmg as such, and excepting persons 
who have actpally served an apprenticeship as aforesaid) shall, after 
the 1st day of August, 1815, act as an assistant to any apothecary, to 
compoiind^and dbpense medicines, without having obtained such 
o^ificate, every pe^oa so offending shall for every soch ofiehce 
forfeit and pay the sum of 5/. . 

That no apothecary shall be allowed to recover any changes 
elaifned by him in any Court of Law, unless such apothecary riiall 
prove on the trial that he was in practice as an apothecary prior to, 
or on the said 1st day of August, 1815, or that he has obtained a 
eeiftificate to pisactise as an apothecary. ' 

That the said Master, Wardens, and Society of Apothecaries, do 
inake a;inually, and cause to be printed, an exact list of allandl 
every person who shall in that year have obtained a certificate to 
practise as an apothecary, with their respective residences attached 
to their respective names. 

VI. Farther Ohmvatims en Mr. I/Kkhctrfs Extracticn of ike 
Cube Roots ^ J^inomiah. 

(To Dr. Thomson,) 

.On examining my letter of June 16, I observe that I have 
omitted to state that the correction which is there pointed out b 
only applicable to equations which are reducible by Cardan's rule, 
Mr. Lockhart's roots bdng correct if the, equation belong to the 
irreducible case. In my letter, instead of saying << Mr. Lockbar 

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i^lO Satentific IfUjslUgence* [Oct. 

seems to have made a mistake in one of the sigtis of the root con-r 
nected with / ; when corrected, &c/' I should have said, " Mr. 
Jjockhart seems to have made a mistake in one of the signs of the 
jroot connected ivith /, when the eauation is reducible by Cardan's 
rul e : when corrected , &c.*' Sfo ^hat the fppts of 

4/ g ± 4/ i — g;j' , if the given equation a?* 7- i •» ss c, be 

f^ducible^ will })e ' but if irreducible, the rpot^ 

' ^ will be 

i . ./*« ft 

^ _ 2 * V * ^ "5" 

. ^ /I? T- ^ "Vj 1 

~ T =*= VT "• T 

You will perceive that, when the above omission is supplied, the 
pbservations in Mr* L/s last letter lose all their weight, and the 
jBonclusions I have come to in my former letter remain in full force. 

I am afraid, however, that T have not expressed myself with that 
perspicuity which I ought to have done, when pointing out the part 
of Mr. Lockhart's demonstration, where the error appears to have 
originated ; for if I had jexpressed iriyself properly, Mr. L. must 
Ibave seen that there was to be a distinction tetweeq equations whicli 
are reducible by Cardan^s rule, and those belonging to the irre- 
ducible case : but that he did not perceive it, is manifest froni the 
pbservations in his last letter. 

la endeavouring to supply the above defect, I shall begin by 
prembing, that in equations belonging to the irreducible case, fi is 

always greater than -, but Ipss when the equation can be nedyced 

By Cardan's rule. Hence in irreducible equations the quantity 

{fi rr ^ j isaliyays /)05i/tt/e} but in reducible equations, nega^u;^. 

. Mr. J^., in No. 30 of your Annals, has shown that -^ — — ^ 

+ j--|f=4:--27»«*, which IS the ?avfip thing, (— -r- -y- 

+ '•) ^ (t ^ "s ) ^ 1r "^ If' ^®^ ^^ extracting the square 
root of these equal quantities, it is plain that the roots on both sides 
pi the equation must be of the same kind ; that is, if one be a 
positive quantity, the other must be positive also; or if one be 
peg^tive, the pther mus t be ne gative likewise. Now the roots are 

rt (^ ^1) ?^ ± \/t - i -"«^ * ^ (t ; -&) • B"* •* 

yf^ been noticed before, that the quantity {t* * - j is in itself f) 

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1^15.] Scientific Intelligence* 811 

negative quantity whenever the equation can be reduced by Cardan's 
rule. Hence, that the roots may be both positive or both negativcj 

we must take the sign of (^* — « } contrary to the sign of 
(\/^ "" j) * *° *^*^ ^^^ equation in tliis case will be qp (<* — j) . 
X ± ^(J-^) = ±>v/(4 -■§■)• but if the equation be- 
long to the irreducible case, the quantity (/• — -j being then po- 
sitive in itself, both parts of the roots on the left hand must have 
the same signs. Hence the equation will be ± (/• — - J x ± \/ 

(~ — J j ss ± a/ (-J 2^) : and by proceeding with these two 

equations as Mr. L. has done in the letter a lluded to, we obtaia 
from the first of them, "" g — \/ "i — s ^ 
V 8 ^ V/ "i — "ir > ^'^ ^xxMe as- the root given in my former 
letter ; and from the second we get — ^ -f \/ "j — « = 

' / c / ^ ^ 

a/ 2 + 4/ -^ — — , the same with Mr. L»*8 root. 

. With respect to the two roots connected with x^nd r, I have 
only to observe, that they are obtained in the very same manner as 
that connected with /, only there is no ambiguity in the two quan- 
tities (x* — - j and (1/* — r- J, the former being always a positive, 

and the latter a negative, quantity* 

Before I take leave of this subject, it may not be amiss to observe, 
that by inspecting th e formulae for the cube root s of the two ima- 

ginary quantities y/ 1 + ^^ - g- and y/^ - y/t"^ 
when the given equation x^ -^ Zr x = c is irreducible, it is manifest 
that their sum will always be a real quantity ; for the imaginary 
parts in the roots of the first;, of these quantities are the very same as 
the imaginary parts of the roots belonging to the second, but having 
contrary signs. It likewise appears that the real quantities arising 
from tdcin^ tlieir £um will always be the three roots of the given 
oihic equation* 

. This appears to me to be a more direct and satisfactory demon- 
stration, that C^dan's theorem, though apparently an imaginary 
auantity, exhibits truly the roots of equations belonging to the irre- 
ucible case, than the^ one generally had recourse to, viz. to expand 
each part of the root in an infinite series by nxeans of the binomial 
theorem. 

It likewise appears from these formulae that whenever any one df 
the roots of a cubic equation admits of a finite va)ue> th^ two part% 
l>f Cardan's theorem are both perfect cubes, 

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Sia SdmU^ Jntdi^ence. [Oct. 

I flMter ttiysdf that VMir Correspondetit Mn L. vnXl now peroeiv>e 
that he ^as rather too »|stv in mnctadmg that ^ all oanibttrs have 
four imaginaiy cube roots. And further, as it appears that it was 
not impossible or imaginary quantities which led ^* to such difference 
of seBtimeot^' in this case, Mr. L. will not now perhaps think it 
^' wise to abandon them altogether," particularly as it is known that 
lasoane cases tbey lead very feadily to results which are veiy troubleo 
fome to obtain by any odier method yet discovered. 

I am, Sir, yotnr obedient servant, 

vrmotaak, Jtmg. 1% isia. H. AMipisaif. 

P .S. In my letter < rf Jime 1 6, p. 73, line ^ fro m the top, for 

from the top, for i/ ^6 i V 784 « .^ 64 v^ 8, read 
V 36 ± V 784 « V' 64 or V' 8- 

VII. Test ff Iodine. 

Stromeyer has announced that starch is so delicate a test of iodine 
when in an tmcombined state, that it assumes a perceptible bhie 
tinge when no more than ^^^'^^fl th part of iodine is present in the 
liquid examined. I have not tried this test myself; hut suppose 
that in most cases it will be requisite to add an acid to the liquid in 
«»tkr to disengage the k)dine from its combination. The blue com* 
)K)and of iodine and March was first made known to chemists fay 
MM. Colin and <jealtier de Claubry. 

Vtlf . Bapid Xntenourse through Grent Britain. 

The rapid intercoune which at present exbts between every part 
t)f Great Britain and the capital most have struck every person who 
lias travelled through this conntiy. We meet with no mariced dis- 
tinctions in the drbss or nnainers of the diffinrent provinces. The 
iftshions in tlie most remote parts of the country are quite the same 
^as in 'London, ^fhis rapid intercourse began during the seven years, 
war wlien Britain first became v^great commercial country, and it 
has been increasing ei^er 'shrce. It is owing in a great measure t6 
the goodness of the roads, whidi have been 'made over the whole of 
Great Britain, and to the navigable canals, whkh have in 'som^ 
measure united the most distant mamriacturing towns with each 
other and with the capital. Before the year 1760, the inland towns 
t>f Great Britain, such as Manchester, Leeds, Halifax, Ac. chiefly 
txirried on tl^ir business through the medium ef travelling pedlars, 
and afterwards on pack-horses. The journey in this manner froaii 
Manphester to London occupied a fortnight ; and it was not unosuid 
for a trader going for the first time on this expedition to take the 
precaution of making his will. At present the stage coaches perform 
the journey in about a <lay and an half. 

In the )4ar 1725 t4iere was not a cart in the whole county of Mtd 
I/>thian. The farmers in the neighbourhood of Dalkeith carried 

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1815.] Scienitfic ttiteHigence. 8i» 

mi the stable manure from Edinburgh on the batlcs of horses ; and 
a joufney from Dalkeith to Edinburgh (six miles) for this manure^ 
and back again with the load, occupied a whole day. I myself re- 
member when the vessels trading between Leitli and London took up 
two months io the voyage, and they were constantly laid up during 
the winter. At present an average passage h less than a week, and 
they sail regularly twice every week dl the year round. For this 
very great improvement in the coasting trade, we are indebted to 
the inhabitants of Berwick-upon-Tweed. They first employed 
smacks, and were thus enabled to perform their voyage in a short 
apace of time. The consequence was, that almost the whole carry- 
ing trade between Edinburgh and London fell into their hands ; and 
about 50 waggons %vere constantly employed in carrying the goods 
between Berwick and Edinburgh- The proprietors of the Berwick 
smacks, in order to save the expense of this land carriage, made 
their vessels sail directly from London to Leith, and from Ldth to 
London. This continued for several years ; till at last the inhabitants 
of Leith and Edinburgh built smacks of their own, and drove the 
Berwickers out of the trade. 

IX. Description of Ike Wbaps : and Observations on the Size of 
thefVhale. 

(To Dr. Thpmios.) 
SIR, WMtby, Jug. It, 1815. 

Tour publication being peculiarly adapted for the dissemination 
of facts which are not of sufficient importance to be expanded into 
a distinct volume, I beg leave to present to you the following, which, 
if new, you will oblige me by inserting in the Annals of Philo" 
sof^. 

There is a phenomenon familiar to the fishermen of the east coast 
of England, resembling a distant cannonading, which I do not re- 
collect of ever seeing noticed in any scientific work. It consists oi 
distinct reports, like those of guns, which sometimes are heard 
singly, or at distant intervals ; at others they follow each other so 
regularly and closely as to resemble a ship saluting. It cannot, be 
distinguished from distant cannon, but that it often occurs when no 
vessel whatever is within sight, though the horieoh be perfectly 
clear. It is most commonly heard by the crews of the farm boats 
or cohlles^ when anchored upon the Doggerbank, or other situations 
at a distance from the shore. It is never observed but in the summer 
season : it then occurs most frequently in cloudy weather, and about 
the .time of sun-rising. It is not attended by any light, flash, 
smoke, or ^othei* visibk consequences. It is occasionally heard 
from the shore, but by no means so frequenOy as at sea. The phe- 
nomenon is probabljr electrical. Our Yorkshire fishermen attribute 
.it Xojoul air, and distinguish it by the name of woaps or whops, 

I consider it my duty at this opportunity to offer a few remarkr 
upon the size of -the whale^ in reference to some observations pub- 

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S14 Scientific MeUigence. [Oct. 

lished in No. 31 of the Annals. There. is doubtless no branch of 
zoology so much involved as that which is now entitled Cetology. 
To the world at large several genera of this class of animals bear the 
general name of whales : and from the circumstance of many of the 
species being rarely, if ever, caught, they are in a great measure 
unknown. Thus it is that the mysticetus physalis, and musculus, 
of Linnaeus, are generally confounded. The first is probably the 
most bulky animal of the creation, but the second is undoubtedly. 
the longest. The balaena pbysalis, or razor-back of the whale- ' 
fishers, is often seen apparently of the length of a ship ; that is^ 
from ^0 to 1 10 feet : and of this species, most probably^ was the 
skeleton alluded to b^ Capt. Clarke. From the quantity of mysti- 
eeti which 1 have seen caught, and the immense number which I 
have seen at liberty in the Greenland seas, I feel the greatest confi- 
dence in asserting that the northern whale fishery has not afforded, 
during the last 15 years at least, a single individual of the species 
pf the length of 80 feet. 

1 am^ Sir, your humble obedient servant, 

^ William SpoRssBY, jun. 

X. On Spring Carriages. 

(To Dr. Thomson.} 
SIR, EdgewoHhstown. 

In your Annals of Philosophy^ No. 32, for August, 1815, there 
IS an account of some experiments which were shown by me before 
a Committee of the Dublin Society, on the 22d of last April. 

I beg that you will have the goodness to notice at your leisure a 
toiistalte which occurred in that Report. In the experiment No. 1, 
tried with two furniture carts that were sustained on grasshopper 
springs, the result is stated to be in favour of the spring carriage, 
viz. as one-fourth of the weight 4hat was laid upon it. This state- 
pent was inaccurate, because the experiments were exhibited before 
500 spectators,, whose remarks and inquiries prevented a minute 
attention to the summing up the results with accuracy. The weight of 
the furniture carts was forgotten, which should have been included in 
the comparison which was made of their drafts, lliese experiments, 
hqwpveVy were announced as the means of making a general im- 
pression |jpon the public to remove the mistaken predilection for 
nigh and short carriages, and to recommend the use of springs for 
carriages of burden, hut not wuh a view of establishing the exact 
jratio of advantage that might be gained b^ different constructions of 
parrfage^. 

The Dublin Society had most handsomely appropriated 100/. for 
frying, before the Conmnttee of Natural Philosophy, experiments 
upon wheel carriages under my conduct. I have ever since that 
time been employed unremittingly in preparing a set of accurate 
^experiments to be submitted to them, when I have satisfied myself 
pf their being worthy their attention. When they have been conj* 



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)S15. Scumii/ic Inielligence. 315 

pleted^ the Report of the Committee shall be transmitted to your 
Jfournal. 

I am J Sir, your obedient servant, 

RlCHARB LOVSLL EdGBWORTH, 

XL On Carlmate of Bismtdh, 

(To Dr. Thomson.) 
SIR, 

I observe in the last number of your Armals a notice relating to 
the. discovery of the carbonate of bismuth in Cornwall. I am in- 
duced to trouble you with a few words upon the subject, because I 
find it mentioned nearly six years ago, and some particulars relatitr^ 
to it, with a coloured engraving, given in a work which, notwitlh? 
standing its general utility, and the encouragement it has met widi, 
has perhaps in scarcely any instance been cited by mineralogical 
writers : 1 mean Sowerby's British Mineralogy, containing coloured 
engravings of the minerals oi Great Britain, accompanied by de* 
scriptions and remarks. From the account given' of the substance 
in question in that work,* it appears to have been detected by the 
Rev. W. Gregor, and that it was brought from St. Agnes. It is a 
white earthy substance, rather harsh to the touch, with scarcely any 
lustre ; and the specimen sent to Mr. Sowerbjr was considered bv 
Mr* Gregor, from his chemical examination of it, to be mixed witii 
oxide of iron and stony matter. The folio wmg passage, taken from 
Sowerby's account, will serve as a reason that this substance should 
bavjc escaped detection before the latter part of the year 1809, the 
period iat which the specimen was forwarded to Mr. S. ^^ We think 
it of much consequence to figure such a substance as the present ; 
ioT by remembering the figure we shall not too hastily pass ov^ 
things which at first have common appearances, but examine them 
vith attention, which will habituate the judgment to the easy discri* 
xnination of obscure characters, and teach us to suspect what is not 
quite usual, and therefore to examine it, if necessaiy, by means of 
^heoiiicaUg^Qts/' 

9ept. 9, 1815. G. B. 

XJI. Tai& AJoitntam at the Cape of Good Hope* 
From a description of this mountain by Capt. Hall, published in 
the last volume of the Edinburgh Transactions, it appears that the 
lower part of it is composed of granite, that the granite at the 
bottom is covered with clay-slate, and that veins of granite pas^ 
through this slate. The summit of the mountain consists of red 
^nd-stone. 

• Vol. W. p. 77, pi. S44, published Dec. 1, 1809. 



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S19 New Patents^ [Oct. 

Article X. 

Lisi of Patents. 

John Lingford, Woburn-place^ London ; for his anatomical 
self-reguIating trass, consistiog of a diree quarter or circular spring, 
with an angular moveable joint and end piece, with joint and addi- 
tional springy to act occasiooaliy with a moveable pad of various 
shapes, agreeable to the form of the afflicted part of the body, and 
with elastic spring coverinr. June 1, 1815, 

Bbnjamin Stbvbns, 1m. 42, Judd-street, St, Fancras, London) 
for his improved method of making marine and domestic hard and 
soft soap. June S, 1815. 

Richard Trevithick, Camborne, Cornwall, Esq. ; for certaia 
improvements on the high pressure of steam-engines, and the ap* 
plication thereof, with or nrithout other machinery, to useful pur- 
poses, June 6, 1815. ' 

JuLiBN JoRBTT, Wclls-strect, 5weep*washer ; John Postei.^ 
Great Suffolk-street,. Charing Cross ; and Lewis Contbsse, Bate* 
man-buildings, London, jeweller ; (in consequence of a communi- 
eation to them by a foreigner residing abroad) for a method of ex- 
tracting gold and silver from the cinders of gold refiners and other 
substances, . by meaos of certain curious machinery, June 8, 1815. 

John Taylor, of Stratford, Essex, manufacturing chemist; for 
a mode or means of producing gas to be used for tlie purpose of 
affording light. June 14, 1815. 

Charles Whitlow, New York Coffee-house, Sweetings Alley, 
London, botanist ; for working or making of certain manufactures 
from certain plants of the genus urtica and asclipmsf growing in 
North America, and not heretofore used in this realm, Whereby the 
fiibrks or products usually had, made, or obtained, from hemp, flax, 
cotton, silk, and other fibrous materials, or the seeds or the partu 
thereof, may be beneficially had, made, or obtained, June 14^ 
1815. 

BoBBRT Brown, Burnbam Westgate, Norfolk, ironfounder ; for 
certain improvements upon the swing of wheel ploughs, plough 
carriages, and plough shares. June 14, 1815. 

James Gardner, Banbury, Oxford, machine maker ; f<Mr isi<» 
provements on a machine for cutting hay and straw, June 14, 1815* 

William Pope, St Augustin's place, Bristol, perfomer; fo 
eertain improvements in or oo wheeled c^riages, a&d also tba 
method or methoda of making the said carriages go with or witb* 
out the assistance of animals, which method or methods may be 
applied to other purposes. June 14, 1815, 

Grace Elizabeth Service, Arnold-place, Newington, Lon- 
don, spinster ; for her new methods of manufacturing straw with 
gauze, net, web, and other similar articles, for the purpose of making 
into hats, bonnets, work-boxes, work-bags, toilet*boxes, and other 
rrticles,^ June 17, 1815* . ninimr> 

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1815:] . iVeii/ SeiMyit BeCtks. "' itl7 

_ , Article XL 

Scientific Books in hand^ or in the Pres^. 

A New Edition o£ Dr. Welis's Essay on D^w is in the Press, And 
will appear in October. 

Mr. Sowerby has announced his intention to sell separately Coloured 
Prints of such British Plants as are introduced into the last Edition of 
the Materia Medica. A great part of the ^ftots recommended in the 
Materia Medica of the last edition of the rJbahnacopaua Londinensis 
are indigenous to Great Britain, and are described in Sir J. E. Smith's 
Flora Britannica, and figured in English Botany. Many of these by 
experience are understood to supersede the use of some of the Foreign 
ones, tlie identity of which miist be certainly more dubious. The 
Royal College of Physicians have very c^mmendably decided upon the 
propriety of medical practitioners havfng a sufficient knowledge of 
Botany to distinguish those plants which are more particularly useful in 
medicme : wherefore it has been thought desirable by some to procure 
such figures of medical plants as are published in English Botany ; and 
Mr.* Sowerby considers it his public duty to say, that he will furnish to 
those professional persons who desire it, plates only of the 54 medical 
plantp figured in English Botany. 

Mr. Anderson, of West Smithfield, has announced a Catalogue of an 
extensive Collection of Books in Anatomy, Surgery, Medicine, Mid- 
wifery, Chemistry, &c. New and Second Hand, including a valuable 
assortment of. Medical Works recently imported from the Continent. 
1o wiiich is added a List of the' Lectures delivered in London, with 
their terms, hours of attendance. Sec. 

' Mr. Hanson, of Manchester, will shortly publish a Folio Chart, en- 
titled. The Meteorologist's Assistant, accompanied with a Card, ex- 
planatory of the Mode of Notation. The chart will serve for any year 
and p^ace required : but the principal object, of it is to bring into one 
view a year's observations of the weather, by means of curves and cha- 
racters. Of course it will focilitate a comparison of cotemporaiy 
potations of remote places. 

Mr. Crewe, Surgeon in the Royal Navy, will publish in a few days 
a Chemical Table, exhibiting an elementary view of Chemistry, in-^ 
tended for the use of Students and yoiing Practitioners in Physic, also 
tOi revive the Memory of more experienced Persons, being very con- 
venient for hanging in Public and Private Libraries. 

Mr. Carpue's Work on the Nasal Operation, with Plates, will appear 
in a few days. 

During the ensuing month will be published the Ninth Volume of 
General Zoology, bems a continuation of the Birds^ by I. Stephens, 
E^ who will finish the history of that class* The Mollusca will be 
written by Dr. Blainville, of Paris, who has devoted a ccmsiderable 
ponton of^his'time to the study of that interesting type of animals : and 
the Crustacea by Dr. Leach, who is now gone to rsLTis for the purpose 
of obtaining a more perfect knowledge of the species Thus the com- 
f letioa of this lAteresling work, commenced, and carried as far as the 
eighth volujae» by the late Dr. Shaw^ may be speedity expected. 



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SIS Meieopological Table and Jwrnat. 

Article XI^. 
METEOROLOGICAL TABLE. 



[Oct* 







Barometer. 


TBERMOMBTraU 


Hypr.at 


1 




1815. 


Wiqd. 


Max. 


Min. 


Med. 


Max. 


Min. 


Med. 


9 a.m. 


Rain. 




Stb Mo. 






















Aug. 11 


N W 


29-44 


29-35 


29395 


^9 


44 


56-5 


50 




c 


12IN W 


29-68 


29-44 


29-566 


67 


50 


58-5 


50 






ISjS Wl29-93 


29-68 


99*805 


71 


49 


60-0 


50 






U 


S W,29-94 


29-93 


29-935 


78 


59 


68-5 


47 


7 




15 


S Wk994 


29-64 


29-790 


75 


59 


67-0 


48 


2 




\6 


N W 29-77 


29*51 


29-640 


78 


50 


64-0 


49 


•35 




J7 




29 89 


29-87 


29-880 


70 


50 


60-0 


42 






18 


Var. 


29-87 


29-60 


29735 


72 


54 


63-0 


6& 


•28 




19 


W 29-77 


29-58 


29-675 


67 


45 


56-0 


49 







20 


N W29 86 


29-77 


29-815 


68 


47 


575 


43 






21 


Var. 


29 86 


29-70 


29-780 


69 


49 


590 


45 






22 


Var. 


29-70 


29-58 


29-640 


75 


59 


67-0 




.^ 




23:N W 29-91 


29-58 


^9-745 


72 


58 


65-0 


52 


•86 




24S Wl30-02 
25S W.29-99 


29-99 


30-005 


79 


55 


67-0 


53 






29-89 


29-940 1% 


63 


695 


46 


— 




26 


S W 


30-001 


2989 


29-945 


75 


50 


62-5 


5S 


•16 





REMARKS. 

' Eighth Month, — II. Windy: Cumulostraii: and in (be evening Nimhi^ with a 
little rain. 12. Mnch wind^ with Cumuloitratus x thunder and rain from 'M.twice^ 
p.m. after wiiich more calm. 13. Fine: mnch wind, with Cumtdast coloured 
Cirrif evening. 14. Cloudy morning : temp. 7P at nine: hvgr. at eight, 60^ s 
Hiodyt a smart shower by night. 15. Windy; Cumulus capped, and Cumuh^ 
Mtratut : lunar corona at night, followed by rain. 16. Fair and windy, a. m. with 
clouds. About four^ p. m. at the precise time of the barometer's turning to rise» 
came a very he<ivy shower, with two claps of thunder. 17. Fair: somewhat 
windy: large Cumulostfati. 18. Rain till nine a.m. after which fairs brilliant 
MO-set and moonlight. 20. Cumutostratus, low and stationary. 81. Cumufus^ witb 
CArrus above^ having little motion : p. m. the wind went to N. £., and the cloudg 
descended, showing a corona round the moon. 22. Overcast, a.m. with thunder 
clouds, the wind 8. E. : very heavy sudden shower before one: wet, p. m. 29. Rain 
and wind early this morning, with thunder, tlie wind S, K. : after which sweeping 
phowers from N. W., «ind much wind by night. 24. Fair, witb N.W. wind, and 
Cumulus: then S. W., vi'ith Cirrocumulus, 25. Fine day: Cumulus^ with Cirrus i 
strong breeie. 26. A little rain early : heavy showers, evening. 

RESULTS. 

Barometer : Greatest height (in 16 days) 30-02 inches. 

Least 2d'35 

Thermometer : Greatest height (in 1 6 days) 79^ 

Least 44 

Rain .'in 16 days) .^ 1*74 inch. 

About 0*75 inch of rain appears to have fallen in the 13 days during which the 
•bwrvations have been interrupted. . The column heretofore given to the results of 
the evaporation guage will now be allotted to the whalebone hygrometer of 0e 
Luc, n«ted at nine a. m. The instrument employed was previously adjusted, to. 
that its sero represents the hygrnmetric state of air long exposrd in a close vessel 
to quick-lime, and 100^ that of air similarly exposed to water. • It is found to 
tangeat present 15^ or 20^ from the mean state, in which it is noted^ towards the 
moist extreme in the night, and the dry in the day. 

TorrsNUAMy NirUh Month, 18, 1815. L. HOWARD. 

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1^150 



Meteorological Table*. 



319 



METEOROLOGICAL TABLE {continued). 







Barombtbr. I 


Tbermokbtbr. 


Hygr. at 
9 a. IB. 




^ 


1815. 


Wind. 


Max. 


Mio. 


Med. 


Max. 


Mio. 


Med. 


RaiR. 




8th Mo. 






' 














. 


Aog. 27 


s 


30-00 


2975 


29-875 


76 


54 


65-0 


65 




• 

c 


28 


N W 


29-81 


29-72 


29-765 


71 


50 


60-5 


55 


5 


^ 


29 


S W 


29*97 


29-81 


29-890 


68 


43 


55-5 








30 


S W 


29-97 


^^9^97 


29-970 


70 


51 


60-5 


47 






31 


s w 


30-05 


^9-91 


30010 


72 


49 


605 


56 






9th Mo. 


t 




















Sept. 1 




3002 


29-98 


30000 


73 


50 


6l-5 


65 






2 


w 


29-96 


29-86 


29910 


76 


54 


65-0 


52 


^^^ 




3 


29-96 


29-88 


29-920 


72 


56 


64-0 


54 





• 


4 


N W 


29-95 


29-86 


29-905 


73 


40 


56-5 


51 


6 


5 


N W 


29-97 


29-95 


29-96O 


63 


40 


51*5 


48 






6 




30-06 


29-97 


30-015 


62 


31 


46-5 








7 


N E 


30-11 


30-06 


30085 


61 


32 


46-5 








8 


8 W 


30-11 


30-08 


30-095 


65 


38 


51-5 


60 






9 


S W 


30-08 


30-04 


30-060 


6S 


36 


52-0 








10 


N W 


30-05 


3000 


30-025 


72 


47 


59-5 


59 




y 


11 


N W 


30-07 


30-00 


30-035 


74 


46 


60K) 


55 




12 


S E 


30-07 


29-92 


29-995 


70 


42 


56-0 


6T 






13 


S 


29-92 


29'80 


29-860 


78 


39 


58-5 








U 


S £ 


29.80 


29-75 


29^r75 


79 


45 


620 








15 


S £ 


29-75 


29-67 


29710 


77 


54 


65'S 


62 






16 


Var. 


29-80 


29-67 


29735 


75 


47 


61-0 


65 


9 




^7 


s w 


30-01 


29-80 


29-905 


70 


50 


60-0 


58 




18 


s 


3005 


3004 


30-045 


74 


51 


62-5 


56 







19 


Var. 


3004 


29-94 


29-990 


68 


43 


55-5 






20 


S E 


29-94 


29-87 


29905 


60 


34 


47-0 








21 


S 


29-87 


29-69 


29780 








49 






22 


s 


29-69 


29-57 


29-630 


71 


50 


60-5 


69 


•11 




23 


V w 


29-57 


29-50 


29-535 


S9 


38 


48-5 


68 






24 


s w 


29-77 


29-46 


29'6l5 


58 


37 


47-5 


72 


•26 




25 


8 W 


29 80 
30-n 


29-75 


29-775 


61 


43' 


52-0 










29-46 


29-892 


79 


31 


57-0 


58 


•57 





The obsenratioos in each line of the table apply to a period of twenty A.n. 
b.u«, beBinniogat 9 A.M. on the da, Udicat'eS In the Sn" coW ^^h 
doBol«, that the resdt i. included in the next following ob,erVatioT 



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99ff Meteorohpcal Jmtnud. [Oct* 1815* 



REMARKS, 

Eighth Month,'-^9t, Cirrus, passing to Cirrocmnutui and Cirrtstratus^ S8. Shower 
early, aad agaio p. m. 99. Liglitntng, in elonds to the £., bctif een three apd 
foor, ar. m. with moonlight trrstward : a Ibir ifay, with Cuimului, II>gr. at seren, 
a.m. 70^. 30. Much dew t CfumuloUralua during the day. 31. Grey mornings 
thea heavy Cumutostratui : very clear night. 

jVtiiM Month, — 1. Misty morning: Cmndostratua^ which gave p]a<feat night to 
the Straint, 3. A little fine rain early : various clouds followed, and some drops, 
p. m. $ a Cirroatraius exhibited the prismatic colours at sun-set, and some elevated 
<%Ti remained loQg red after It. 4. Cvmafoffrafvf, after targe Cirri: showers at 
evening : raipbow t iMUliant twilight. 5. Strong breeze : ill the evening the new 
mooa aippeared with a well defined disk, and a pale phokphnrlc light, becoming 
afterwards gold coloured. 7. Hoar frost: hygr. 78^ at se?en, a,m. 6. After a 
fine day, nearly calm and cloudlcds, the smoke settled over the opposite valley, 
yhicb was soon afterwards filled with a Stratus, 10. A veil of light clouds, a. m. : 
somewhat hazy air, with a smell of electricity. 12. A Stratus. 13. Much dew : 
the evening twilight of late has bijen generally coloured, and at times streaked 
with converging shadows, the origin of which could not be traced to elouds Inter- 
cepting the light. 14. Cirrii4only, which increased during the day, and mostly 
disappeared in the night : the extremes of temp, near the ground were 83^ and 
4'SP I the hygr. receded nearly to 22^: 15. Clear, a. m. : in the evening Grri^ and 
Obscurity to the W. : after which Cirrostrattts, and a very distant flash of lightning 
ih the S.W. 16. A Mttle rain, a.m.: much more cloud than of late has been 
usual: a Nimbus forming io theS.W. : in the 'evening steady rain. 17. Large 
Cirr^s^ pt^jof to Cirrocsmulus: at sun.«et a sheet of compound Cirrostratus^ while 
increasiog by rapid propagation from N.W« towards S. £. was most beautifully 
kindled up, for a short time^ with flame colour and orange on a purple ground. 
18. Fair, With the lighter modiflcatiuns. 19. Much wind at R. N. £. this morn- 
iAg : hygr. 40^ at half-past ten, a. m. 80. ^oar fk-ost i strong breeze : hygr. 30^ 
at tbreof p. m. 21. Cirrus, followed by the intermediate modifications. 22. The 
sky filled gi;adiuilly with clouds, both above and below: in the evening they grew 
black, hut llie rain came on without any explosion of electiicity here. A ^re- 
hallocn, which I discovered near the S. W. horizon this evening, appeared to be 
impelled by different currents in rising, but passed the zenith going at a great rate 
and elevation towardi the £. 83. Cloudy : wind N.W. : then N. ; small rain. 
24w Early overcast with Girros^atet : the swallows went off; as it appears, thit 
morning : after a murmuring sound in the wind, usual before southerly showers, we 
had a drizzling day till evening : the hygr. did not recede past 68^. 25. A fine 
day : hygr. went to 87® in the night. 



RESULTS. 

Windf light and variable. 

Barometer : Greatest height JSO'll inches ( 

I'east., 29-46 inches; 

Mean of the period 29*892 inches. 

Thermometer; Greatest height 79* 

i-east ^^1« 

Mean of the period 57*00* 

Hygrometer^ aeafi degree, 58o. Rain, 0*57 inch, • 

• « • A fiery meteor of the first magnitude was seen here to pass from the N. E. 
tn the N. on the 29th nit. near eight, p. m. s of which a further account from as 
.af^fl^rate observer will he aceopcable. 

• ToTTEXHAM, Ninth Jfon/ft, 26, 1815. t. HOWARD. 

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ANNALS 



ov 



PHILOSOPHY. 



NOVEMBER, 1815* 



Article I. 



fo» ihe Relation between the Specific Gravities of Bodies in then- 
Gaseous State and the Weights of their Atoms^ 

The author of the following essay submits it to the public with 
the greatest diffidence; for though he has taken the utmost pains to 
arrive at the truth, yet he has not that confidence in his abilities a$ 
tu experimentalist as to induce him to dictate to others &r superior 
to himself in chemical acquirements and fame. He trusts, howevei*^ 
that its importance will be seen, and that some one will undertake 
to examine it, and thus verify or refute its conclusions. If these 
should b^ proved erroneous, still new facts may be. brought to light, 
or old ones better established, by the investigation ; but if they 
riiould be verified, a new and interesting light will be thrown upon 
the whole science of chemistry. 

It will perhaps be necessary to premise that the observations 
libout to be offered are chiefly founded on the doctrine of volumes 
as first generalized by M . Gay-Lussac ; and which, as far as the 
ffUthor is aware at least^ is now univeisally admitted by chemists. 

On the Specific Gravities of the Elementary Gases. 

1. Oxygen and Azote. — Chemists do not appear to have consi- 
dered atmospheric air in the light of a compound formed upon 
chemical principles, or at least little stress has been laid upon this 
circumstance. It has, however, been long known to be constituted 
by bulk of four volumes of azote and one volume of oxygen > and 
if we consider the atom of oxygen as 10, and the atom of azote as 
17'5, it will be found by weight to consist of one atom of oxygen 
and two atoms of azote, or per cent, of 

Vol. VL N® V. X Digitized by GoOglC 



822 Relation between the Specific Gravities of [Nov. 

Oxygen 22*22 

Azote , . . . . i . • • . 7777 

Hence, then, it must be considered in the light of a pure che- 
mical compound ; and indeed nothing but this supposition will 
account for its uniformity all over the world, as demonstrated \yy 
numerous experiments. From these data the specific gravities of 
oxygen and azote (atmospheric air being 1*000) will be found to be^*^ 

Oxygen . • 1 • J 1 11 

Azote -9722 

2. Hydrogen. — ^The specific gravity of hydrogen, on account of 
its great levity, and the obstinacy with which it retains water, has 
always been considered as the 'most difficult to take of any other 
gas. These obstacles made me (to speak in the first person) despair 
of arriving at a more just conclusion tlian had been before obtained 
by the usual process of weighing ; and it occurred to n^e that its 
specific gravity might be much more accurately obtained by calcu- 
lation from the specific gravity of a denser compound into which it 
entered in a known proportion. Ammoniacal gas appeared to be the 
best suited to my purpose, as its specific gravity had been taken 
with great care by Sir H. Davy, and the chance of error had been 
much diminished from the slight difierence between its sp. gr. and 
that of steam. Moreover, Biot and Arrago had obtained almost 
precisely the same result as Sir H. Davy. Thesp. gr. of ammonia, 
according to Sir H. Davy, is -590164, atmospheric air being l-OOO. 
We shall consider it as *5d02 ; and this we are authorized in doing, 
as Biot and Arrago state it somewhat higher than Sir H. Davy. 
Now ammonia consists of three volumes of hydrogen and one volume 
of azote condensed into two volumes. Hence the sp. gr. of hydrogen 
will be found to be •06S4,t atmospheric air being 1*0000. It will 
be also observed that the sp. gr. of oxygen as obtained above is just 
16 times that of hydrogen as now ascertained, and the sp. gr. of 
azote just 14 times, t 

3. Chlorine. — The specific gravity of muriatic acid, according 
to Sir H. Davy's experiments, which coincide exacdy with those pf 

♦ Let ar « sp. gr. of oxygeo. 22'28 = a 
y = sp. gr. of azote. 7T'77 — b 

Then -— ^ = 1. . 

o 
▲nd jr : 4 V :: a : ft. 

4 a f 

Hence 5 — ^y ^ — r — 



And y « — — — ^ '^TW. And # « 6 - 4y - MllII. 

' 4 a + 4 6 

•f Let * = sp. gr. of hydrogen. 
. Then LfL^ , .5902. 

Hence >-V'»°^--^^^ -0694. • 

3 
t I'lUU *7 *0694 » 16. Aad*9782 ^ •0694 ^ 14^ »^'i. .,.. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1815.] Gaseous Bodies and the Weight of their Atoms. 823 

Biot and Arrago, is 1'278. . Now if we suppose this sp. gr. to be 
erroneous in the samp proportion that we found the sp. gr. of 
oxygen and azote to be above, (whicbj though not rigidly accurate^ 
may yet be fairly done, since the experiments were conducted in a 
similar manner), the sp. gr, of this gas will come out about 1*2845;* 
and since it is a compound of one volume chlorine and one volume 
hydrogen, the specific gravity of chlorine will be found by calcula* 
tion to be 2'5.t Dr, lliomson states, that he has found 2'4S3 to 
be near the truth, % and Gay-Lussac almost coincides with him. § 
Hence there is every re^on for concluding that the sp^ gr. of chlo- 
rine does not differ much from 2*5* On this supposition, the sp. 
gr. of chlorine will be found exactly 36 times that of hydrogen. 

On the Specific Gravities of Elementary Sitlstances in a Gaseous 
State that do not at ordinary Temperatures exist in that State. 

1. Iodine. — I had some reason to suspect that M. Gay-Lussac Iiad 
in his excellent memoir rated the weight of an atom of this sub* 
stance somewhat too high ; and in order to prove this 50 grains of 
iodine, which had been distilled from lime, were digested with 30 grs. 
of very pure lamellated zinc; The solution formed was transparent 
and colourless ; and it was found that 12'^ grains of zinc had been 
cjissolved. 100 parts of iodine, therefore, apcording to this experi- 
ment, will combine with 25*8 parts of zinc, and the weight of an 
atom of iodine will be 155, || zinc b^ing supposed to be 40.. From 
these data, the sp. gr, of iodine in a state of gas will be found by 
calculation to be 8-Gl 1 1 1 1, or exactly 124 times that of hydrogen.** 

2. Car Ion. — ^I assume the weight of an atom of carbon at 7*5. 
Hence^the sp. gr. of a volume of it in a state of gas will be found 
by calculation to be '41G6, or exactly 12 times that of hydrogen. 

3. Szdphur. — The weight of an atona of sulphur is 20. Hence the 
specific gravity of its gas is the same as that of oxygen, or 1*1 1 1 1, 
and consequently just 16 times that of hydrogen. 

• As 1104 I Mini :: 1'278 : l-SSC. 
• Aad as '969 : -9729 :: 1*978 : 1-283. The mfan of these 1> 1*2845. 
f Let X » sp. gr. of chlorine. 

^^ jr+*0694 , «^^^ 

Then = 1-2845. 

2 

And s = 2*569 — '0694 = 2-5 very nearly. 

i AnnaU of Philosophy^ vol. iv. p. 13. 

% Ditto, vol. vi. p. 120. 

II As 25-8 : 100 :: 40 : 155. According to ezperimeDt 8th, stated below, 
the weight of an atotn ef ziiic is 40. Dr. Thomson makes it 40'9, which differs 
▼cry little. See Annals of Philosophy, vol. iv. p. 94. 

** One volume of hydrogen combines with only half a volume of oxygen, 
but with a whole volume of gaseous iodine, according to M. Gay-Lussac. The ratio 
in volume, therefore, bet\veen oxygen and iodine is as ^to 1, and the ratio in 
weight is as 1 to 15*5. Now -5555, the densitv of half a volume of oxygen, mnlti- 
plied by 15-5, given 8*61111, and S-6UI1 ^ 06944 == 124. Or generally, to 
find thesp. gr. of any substance in a state of gas, we have only to multiply half 
the sp. gr. of oxygen by the weight of the atom of the substances with respect to 
•zygen. See AimuU ofPhihtQphyy vol. v. p, 105. 

X 2 



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S24 Relation lelween the Specific Gravities of [NoY*.' 

4. Phosphorus, — I have made many experiments in order to ascer- 
tain the weight of an atom of this substance ; but, after all, have 
not been able to satisfy myself, and want of leisure will not permit 
me to pursue the subject further at present. The results I have 
obtained approached nearly to those given by Dr. Wollaston, which 
I am therefore satisfied are correct, or nearly so, and which fix^ 
phosphorus at about 17"5, and phosphoric acid at 37*5,* and these 
numbers at present I adopt. ^ 

&. Calcium^— Dtb Marcet found carbonate of lime composed of 
43*9 carbonic acid and 56*1 lime.t Hence as 43*9 : 56*1 :: 27*5 
: 35-1, or 35 very nearly; and 35 — 10 = 25, for the atom of 
calcium. The sp. gr. of a volume of its gas will therefore be^ 
1*3888, or exactly 20 times that of hydrogen. 

6. Sodium. — 100 grains of dilute muriatic acid dissolved 18*6 gr^. 
of carbonate of lime, and the same quantity of the same dilute acid 
dissolved only 8*2 grs. of carbonate of lime, after there had been 
previously added 30 grs. of a very pure crystallized subcarbonate of 
soda. Hence 30 grs. of crystallized subcarbonate of soda are equi- 
valent to 10"4 grs. of carbonate of lime, and as 10*4 : 30 :: 62*5 :. 
180. Now 100 grs. of crystallized subcarbonate of soda were found, 
by application of heat to lose 62*5 of water. Henc?e 180 grs. of the 
same salt contain 1 12*5 water, equal to 10 atoms, and 67*5 dry 
subcarbonate of soda, and 67*5 — 27*5 = 40 for the atom of soda, 
and 40 — 10 = 30 for the atom of sodium. Hence a volume of it 
in a gaseous state will weigh V6666y or exactly 24 times that of 
hydrogen. 

7. Iron. — 100 grs. of dilute muriatic acid dissolved as before 18*6 
grs. of carbonate of lime, and the same quantity of the same acid 
dissolved 1045 of iron. Hence as 18*6 : 10-45 :; 62*5 : 35-1, or 
for the sake of analogy, 35, the weight of an atom of iron. The 
sp. gr. of a volume of this metal ^ina gaseous state will be 1*9444, or 
exactly 28 times that of hydrogen. 

8. Zinc. — 100 grs. of the same dilute acid dissolved, as before, 1 8*6. 
of carbonate of lime and 11*85 of zinc. Hence as 18*6 : 11*85 ::: 
62*5 : 39*82, the weight of the atom oi zinc, considered from 
analogy to be 40. Heiice the sp. gr. of a volume of it in a gaseous 
state will be 2'22Ty or exactly 32 times that of hydrogen, 

9. Potassium^-^lOO grs. of the same dilute acid dissolved, as before, 
18*6 carbonate of lime ; but after the addition of 20 grs. of super- 
carbonate of potash, only 8*7 carbonate of lime. Hence 20 grs. of 
super-carbonate of potash are equivalent to 9*9 carbonate of lime ;, 
and as 9*9 : 20 :: 62*5 : 126*26, the weight of the atom of super- 
carbonate of potash. Now 126-26 — 55 + 11*25 = 60, the 

• Same of my ezperiments approached nearer to SO phosphorus and 40 phos- > 
phoric acid. 

f I quote on the authority of Dr. Tbomson, uinnaU of Philosophy, toI. ti»» 
p. 376. Dr. VToUaslon makes it somewhat different^ or that carbonate of lim* 
consisU of 43*7 acid and 56*3 lime. Phil. Trans, vol. civ. p. 8. 



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1 81 5.] Gaseous Bodies and tie Weight of tlieir Atoms. 325 

weight of the atom of potash, and 60 - 10 = 50, the weight of 
the, atom of potassium. Hence a volume of it in a state of gas will 
weigh 27777, or exactly 40 times as much as hydrogen. . 

|0. Barytium. — 100. grs. of the same dilute acid dissolved exactly 
as jmuch again of carbonate of barytes as of carbonate of lime. 
Hence the weight of the atom of carbonate of barytes is 125; and 
125 — 275 = 97*5, the weight of the atom of barytes, and 97*5 
— .10 = 87'5, the weight of the atom of barytium. The sp. gr. 
•therefore, of a volume of its gas will be 4-861 1, or exactly JO 
times that.of hydrogen. 

With respect to the above experiments, I may add, that they 
were made with the greateist possible attention to accuracy, and 
moBt of themi were many times repeated with almost precisely the 
same results. 

The following tables exhibit a general view of the above results, 
and at the same time the proportions, both in volume and weight, 
in which they unite with^xygen and hydrogen : also the weights of 
«ther substances, which have «pt been rigidly examined, are here 
«t£^ed f com analogy. 



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526 



Relation between the Specific Gravities of {Nor. 






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1815.J 



Gaseous Bodies and the Weight of their Atoms. 



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1S15-] Gaseous Bodies and the Height of tJieir AIoths. 82^ 

TABLE IV. — Substances stated from Analogy, but of which we 
are yet uncertain. 







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8 


8 


10 


10 6S» 


» Bcr2<?lia8. 


Magnesiuin .... 


12 


12 


15 


14-6 « 


« Henry. Bcrzelius makes it 15-7T. 


Chromium .... 


18 


IS 


22-5 


23-6 3 


3 Berzelius. 


i«fickel 


28 


28 


35 


36-5* 


4 Ditto. 


Cobalt ........ 


28 


28 


35 


S6'6» 


5 Rolhoff. 


Tellurium 


32 


32 


40 


40-27 « 


* Berzelius* 


Copper........ 


32 


32 


40 


40 » 


? As deduced by Dr. Thomson. 


Strontium 


48 


48 


60 


59 « 


« KlaproCh. 


Arsenic... «.... 


48 


48 


60 


609 


9 Berzelius. 


MolyNeuum ., 


48 


48 


60 


6013 «« 


"• Bucholz and Berzelius. ,. 


Manganese .... 


56 


56 


70 


7115»» 


" Berzelius. 


Tin 


60 

72 


60 
72 


76 
90 . 


73-5 »« 
. 89-94 >3 


»« Ditto. 


Bismuth ...... 


»3 Ditto. 


Antimony 


88 


88 


110 


lU-11 »4 


»4 Ditto. Dr. Thomson makes it 112-49. 


Cerium 


92 


92 


115 


114-87 '5 


»5 Hisinger. 


Uranium 


96 


96 


120 


120"^ 


»fi Bocholz. 


Tungsten 


96 


96 


120 


121 '21 »7 


»7 Berzelias. 


Platinum 


96 


96 


120 


121-66 >8 


»8 Ditto. 


Mercury 


100 


100 


125 


125 »9 


*9 Foftrcroy and Thenar d« 


JLead 


104 
108 
120 


104 
108 
120 


130 
135 
150 


1295 «• 
185" 
14903 »» 


^ Berzelius. 


Silver 


« Wenzel and Davy.- 

^ Berzelius. 


Rhodium 


Titanium 


144 


144 


180 


180-1 «3 


«3 Ditto. 


Gold 


200 


200 


250 


249-68 a* 


M Ditto. 



Observations. 

Table L — This, as well as the other tables, will be easily under- 
stood. In the first column we have the specific gravities of the 
difierent substances in a gaseous state, hydrogen being 1 : and. if 
we suppose the volume to be 47*21435 cubic inches, the number* 
will at the same time represent the number of grains which this 
quantity of each gas will weigh. In tlxe third column are -the cor- 
rected numbers, the atom of oxygen being supposed, according to 
Dr. Thomson, Dr. Wollaston, &c. to be 10 : and in the fourth, 
the same, as obtained by experiment, are stated, to show how 
nearly they coincide. Of the individual substances mentioned, I 
have no remark to make, except with respect to iodine. I made but 
one experiment to ascertain the weight of the atom of this sub- 
stance, and therefore the results stated may be justly considered as 
deserving but little confidence ; and indeed this would be the case, 
did not all the experiments of Gay-Lussac nearly coincide in the 
same. 



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830 Specific Gravities of Bodies. {Not, 

TalU IL — ^This table exhibits many striking instances of the near 
coincidence of theory and experiment. It will be seen that Gay- 
Lussac's views are adopted, or rather indeed anticipated, as a good 
ideal of this table was drawn up before 1 had an opportunity of seeing 
the latter part of that chemist's memoir on iodine. That table also 
exhibits one or two striking examples of the errors that have arisen 
from not clearly understanding the relation between the doctrine of 
volumes and of atoms. Thus ammonia has been stated to be com- 
posed of one atom of azote and three of liydrogen^ whereas it is 
evidently composed of one atom of azote and only \'5 of hydrogen, 
which are condensed into two volumes, equal therefore to one atom; 
and this is the reason why this substance, like some others, appa* 
tently combine in double proportions. * 

Table IlL — This table likewivse exhibits some striking examples 
of the coincidence above noticed. Indeed, I had often observed 
the near approach to round numbers of many of the weights of the 
atoms, before I was led to investigate the subject. Dr. Thomson 
appears also to have made the ssfhie remark. It is also worthy of 
observation, that the three magnetic metals, as noticed by Dr. 
Thomson, have the same weight, which is exactly double that of 
azote* Substances in general of the same weight appear to combine 
readily, and somewhat resemble one another in their nature. 

On a general review of the tables, we may notice, 

1 • That all the elementary numbers, hydrogen being considered 
as 1, are divisible by 4, except carbon, azote, and barytium, and 
these are divisible by 2, appearing therefore to indicate that they are 
modified by a higher number than that of unity or hydrogen. Is 
the other number 16, or oxygen ? And are all substances com- 
pounded of these two elements ? . 

2. That oxygen does not appear to enter into a compound in the 
ratio of two volumes or four atoms. 

3. That all the gases, after having been dried as much as pos- 
sible, still contain water, the quantity of which, supposing the 
present ^riews are correct, may be ascertained with the greatest 
accuracy. 

Others might doubtless be mentioned ; but I submit the matter 
for the present to the consideration of the chemical world* 

* Bee G8y*Liissac*s memoir on iodine, Annals of FkUoaofhy^ ti. 189» 



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I8t5«], On the Alsorption of the Gases. Sai 



Article II. 

Observations on the Absorption of the Gases by different ^odies^ 
By Theodore de Saussure. 

(Concluded from p. 855.) 

SfiCTioN Second, 

SIMULTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF DIFFERENT 6A8BS BT A SING LB 
SOLID POROUS BODY. 

The experiments hitherto made relate to the absorption of r 
single gas not mixed with any other. I come now to the more in- 
tricate problem, to examine whether when various gases have been 
absorbed by a porous solid bodyj their absorption corresponds with 
that which takes place when the gases are m a separate state. I 
have made these experiments two diiFerent ways : 1 . I put the solid 
body freed from air into a mixture of two gases. 2. I brought the 
solid body first in contact with a single gas ; and when it was satu- 
rated with this gas, I transferred it into a second gas. The eudio- 
metrical examination of the air remaining behind after this second 
absorption enabled me to know the proportion in which both gases 
had been absorbed. 

7- Condensation of mixed Gases by Charcoal. 

Messrs. Rouppe and Norden have informed us (Ann. de'Chim. 
t, 34) that when charcoal, saturated at the common temperature 
with hydrogen, is put into oxygen gas, water is seen condensing 
itself on the sides of the receiver in drops, whereby heat is disen«- 
gaged, and oxygen gas absorbed. The same thing takes ptac^, 
according to their statement, when the experiment is reversed, by 
introducing charcoal saturated with oxygen gas into hydrogen gas. 
In these assertions, which have never been contradicted, there is 
nothiiig contrary to the generally received opinions. It is reason- 
able to think that the condensation which the gases experience in 
the charcoal facilitate the union of their bases. It is therefore quite 
contj'ary to my expectation that I see myself obliged to call in ques- 
tion the statement of these Dutch chemists. 

1 made my experiments with oxygen gas^ hydrogen gas, azotic 
gas, and carbonic add gas, mixed together two and two. For the 
sake of perspicuity, I shall first state the general results which I 
obtained, and then enter into more particular details, in order to 
show which of the gases in these experiments was absorbed in the 
greatest quantity. 

(A) — When a piece of charcoal saturated with one of these gases 
is put into another, it allows a portion of the first gas to escape, in 
larder to absorb into its pores a portion of the second gas. 

^cording 93 the condensation of the gas first absorbed by the 

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Z32 Olservalions on the Absorption of {Nov, 

charcoal is greater or smaller than that of the gas into which it is 
put, the atmosphere surrounding the charcoal is increased whereby 
cold is produced, or diminished whereby heat is disengaged. We 
have seen, for example, that charcoal absorbs much more carbonic 
acid gas than hydrogen gas. When a piece of charcoal saturated 
with carbonic acid is put into hydrogen gas, the bulk of the gas in- 
creases very remarkably, and the charcoal becomes colder. There 
is absorbed only a very small quantity of hydrogen gas into the pores 
of the charcoal, while a far greater proportion of carbonic acid gas 
is disengaged; and this small quantity of hydrogen occupies in the 
pores of the charcoal exactly the same space as the carbonic acid 
gas disengaged did. Suppose, on the contrary, that a piece of 
charcoal saturated with hydrogen gas is put into a receiver filled 
with carbonic acid gas, the bulk of the gas is diminished, and the 
charcoal becomes warmer. A considerable proportion of carbonic 
acid gas is absorbed by the charcoal, while only a very small quan- 
tity of hydrogen gas is disengaged 9 and the former occupies exactly 
the space which the latter left. Oxygen gas (according to para- 
graph 1) is absorbed in greater propcnrtion by charcoal than hydrogen 
gas. These two gases, therefore, exhibit the same phenomena. A 

{)iece of charcoal saturated with oxygen gas being put into hydrogen 
ets a greater proportion of the former gas go than it absorbs of the 
latter. Hence the bulk of the gas is increased, and cold produced. 
On the other hand, when charcoal saturated with hydrogen is put 
into oxygen gas, the volume of air is diminished, and heat pro- 
duced. In this way, from the table given in paragraph 1, of the 
rate of condensation of the pure gases by charcoal, the consequence 
may always be foretold in every one of these experiments. The 
absorbed gas in these cases separates itself from the charcoal pre- 
cisely as it does from water impregnated with the gas, wh^n thi^ 
liquid is placed in contact with another species of gas. 
' (B) — ^The volume Of gas expelled from charcoal by another gas 
varies according to the proportion in which both gases exist in the 
unabsorbed residue. The quantity expelled is always the greater, 
the more there is an excess of the gas which produced it. Yet it is 
not possible in close vessels to expel the whole of one gas out of 
charcoal by means of another; a small quantity always remains in 
the charcoal. 

(C) — ^Two gases united by absorption in charcoal often experience 
a greater condensation than each would in a separate state. For 
exaoTpIe, the presence of oxygen gas in charcoal facilitates the con- 
densation of hydrogen gas ; the presence of carbonic acid gas, or 
of azotic gas, facilitates the condensation of oxygen gas; and that 
of hydrogen gas, the condensation of azotic gas. let this effect 
does not take place in all cases with the four gases now mentioned; 
for the presence of azotic gas in charcoal does not promote the ab- 
sorption of carbonic acid gas. 

(D) — When the absorption of one of the four hamed gases has 
been facilitated by another of them^ no perceptible combinalioii 

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1815.] the (ia^es by different Bodies. 'SSi!' 

l)etweea the two takes place, at least within the interval of some 
days. So, for example, notwithstanding the assertion of Rouppe 
and Norden, no separation of water appears when charcoal satu- 
rated with hydrogen at the common temperature is put into oxygea 
gas^ or when the experiment is reversed. As little was it in my 
power in this way to unite azotic and hydrogen gases into ammonia^ 
or azotic and oxygen gases into nitric acid. 

I shall now give a more particular account of some of these expe- 
riments, which all gave me analogous results, differing from .each 
other only in degree. 

Introduction of a piece of Charcoal saturated with Hydrogen into ct 
Receiver full of Oxygen Gas, 

A volume of box- wood charcoal, which had absorbed 1*75 times 
ks bvlk of hydrogen, was at the temperature of 52? put into 20*45 
times its bulk of oxygen gas, which contained ^-J^ of azote. The 
charcoal reduced this atmosphere 6*5 volumes.* A thermometep 
brought in contact with the charcoal^ when the absorption was at its 
greatest rapidity, rose 4*4°. f This elevation of temperature i» 
smaller than that which is produced by the absorption of oxygenr 
gas. In vain did I endeavour in these experiments, and in others 
Blade with a larger piece of charcoal, to perceive some of the water 
which, according to Rouppe and Norden, ought to be formed. 

The gas remaining in tiie receiver was no longer pure oxygen gas» 
\5ut contained, when examined by Voltals eudiometer, a volume of 
hydrogen gas. Oxygen gas, at the same time, had been absorbed 
by the charcoal, and had driven off* more than the half of the, 
hydrogen formerly contained in the charcoal. Notwithstanding thisy 
the gas in the receiver was diminisheil 6-^ volumes.. Hence the 
charcoal had absorbed 64- + * =^ 7t volumes of oxygen, andon& 
volume of hydrogen had been driven oftl 

It may be asked now, whether these changes of space are in the 

• The change of volume was ascertained 24 boars after the charcoal had been, 
yttt into it. The receiver in which the absorption took place was a wide g^as* 
tube, not much larger than the diameter of the charcoal, the bulk of which wa» 
about 2*5 cubic centimetres (0*152 cubic inch English). 

t Rouppe and Norden have ascribed this elevation of temperature to the com- 
bhiation of the oxygen and the hydrogen, and the formation of water, of which^ 
according to them, a perceptible quantity is evolved. They did not perceive that 
this heat was occasioned by the condensation of the oxygen gas. Both reason and 
experiment are against the possibility of the water being visible, even if it were 
formed } for in my experiment!*, as well as ^n those of these chemists,, the charcoal 
had absorbed less than twice its bulk of hydrogen : now that at most could fornv 
DO more water than the five-thousandth part of t<he weight of the charcoal. But 
experiment informs us that a well dried charcoal, like that which I employed in 
my experiments, can absorbvmere than the tenth part of its weight of water, and 
yet remain dry, and allow no perceptible portion of that liquid to escape, at the 
temperature of 122* or 140<*. Besides, I obtained the same result wiien I operated 
lipon pieces of charcoal ten or twelve times larger. The heat was indeed some>- 
vhat greater ; but always less than what w«s gi^nenUed by the absorption o£ 
•xygen alone by the lame piece of charcoaU 



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SSi Observations on the Absorption of [Nor, 

same proportion ia which the bulks stand, which the single gases 
occupy in the charcoal ? According to paragraph 1, one volume of 
box-wood charcoal freed from air absorbs 9*2 volumes of oxygen 
and 1*75 of hydrogen gases. According to these proportions, 7-5" 
volumes of oxygen ought to have expelled 1*42 volumes of hydrogen. 
But as the quantity expelled was only one volume, we see that the 
presence of hydrogen gas increases the condensation of oxygen gas 
in charcoal, which retains at the same time 0*7^ of hydrogen and 
7'5 volumes 0f oxygen gas. It will be obvious, without my pointing 
it out, that the bulks 0*75 and 7*5 are by no means in the requisite 
proportion to one another for forming water. 

To follow out this subject still further, I put a piece of charcoal 
saturated with the two gases (without allowing it to come in contact 
with the air) into a jar filled with mercury, and containing a little 
water* The charcoal absorbed this water ; and in 48 heurs allowed 
3*11 volumes of oxygen and 0*13 of hydrogen gas to escape. Now 
according to paragraph 2, charcoal which has absorbed 9*2 volumes 
of oxygen when placed in contact with water lets go 3*2 volumes, 
and still therefore retains six volumes. While in the present case, 
in consequence of the presence of hydrogen in charcoal of the 7*^ 
volumes of oxygen, 3*il volumes are disengaged by the water, and 
only 4*39 volumes remain behind. These two gases, therefore, 
have not united in the proportions which constitute water. Besides 
^this, I have extricated an additional quantity of oxygen and hy-» 
drogen gases out of the same charcoal, by boiling it in water. It is 
true that the temperature is not sufficiently high to expel the whole 
of the gases : but this is the case likewise when only one gas is 
present. 

The following experiment, which is the reverse of the preceding, 
still further increases the doubts about the formation of water by 
the union of oxygen and hydrogen in charcoal at tne ordinary tem* 
perature of the atmosphere. 

luiroduction of a piece of Charcoal saturated with Oxygen into « 
Receiver containing Hydrdgen Gas, ^ 

According to Messrs. Rouppe and Norden, the appearances which 
they describe take place likewise in this case. There is the same 
diminution of the bulk of the gas in the receiver, the temperature 
of the charcoal increases, water is formed, which first appears in 
vapour, and then fulls upon the sides of the receiver in drops. But 
I have obtained quite different results. The quantity of gas round 
the charcoal increased, the thermometer sank, and no formation of 
water was perceptible. 

A volume of box-wood charcoal, which, after exposure to a red 
heat, had absorbed 9*2 volumes of oxygen at the temperature of 
62^, was put into 15*() volumes of hydrogen gas. The bulk of the 
gas Increased 3*21 volunies; so that it amounted to 18*SI volumes i 
and a thermometer, which at the beginning of the process had bee» 



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1815.] the Gases ly different Bodies. 9!SS 

placed io contact with the charcoal, fell 0*9°.* By a chemical 
analysis of the gas^ I found that the receiver contained hydrogen 
and 4*55 volumes of oxygen gas, which, subtracted from 18-81 
volumes, leaves 14*26 volumes of hydrogen. Hence there was 
absorbed by the charcoal 15*6 — 14*26 = 1*34 volumes of 
hydrogen gas: and this quantity had expelled 455 volumes of' 
oxygen gas. 

As we have seen above that charcoal free from air absorbs 9*2 
volumes of oxygen, or 1*75 of hydrogen gas, it is evident from the 
rate of absorption that r34 volume of hydrogen occupies the same 
space in the coal as 7*03 volumes of oxygen gas ; instead of which 
only 4*55 volumes of oxygen gas were expelled by the hydrogen. 
Til the present, as well as in the reverse experiment, the condensa- 
tion of the hydrogen gas was promoted by the prese^nce of the 
oxygen* 

When the same piece of charcoal, containing 1*34 volume of 
hydrogen and 4*75 volumes of oxygen gas, was put into a receiver 
filled with mercury, and containing some water, it gave out 0*74 
volume 'of hydrogen and 0*23 volume of oxygen gas. But out of a 
piece of charcoal saturated with hyd'rogen (1*75 volume) alone^ 
water disengages 1*1 volume, and of course 0*65 volume remains 
behind. Our charcoal, on the contrary, saturated with both gases, 
left only 1*34 — 0*74 = 0*60 volume of hydrogen behind. The 
<oxygen gas present in it prevented it from retaining the whole 
hydrogen, which it otherwise would have done. The oxygen, 
therefore, could not l>e present in the state of water. 

As we have no method of separating the whole of either a single 
gas or of two gases absorbed by charcoal without destroying it, I 
cannot show decisively that a very small quantity of water is not 
formed in these cases ; but all appearances, as we have seen, are 
against that supposition. 1. The absorption of the oxygen and 
hydrogen are in quite different proportions from those that form 
water. 2. The temperature sinks when the hydrogen b absorbed 
last. 3. Both gases are driven off by water in very different pro- 
portions from what would be requisite to form water. 

I must now observe that the quantities of oxygen and hydrogeo 
gases which a piece of charcoal absorbs, vary according to the pro- 
portions of both which remain behind in the receiver, and that both 
of these stand to each other in a determinate ratio. Thus when a 
piece of charcoal saturated with oxygen is put into 15*6 volumes of 
hydrogen giis, 4*55 volumes of oxygen are disengaged, in place of 
which 1*34 volunje of hydrogen is absorbed. But if the same 
charcoal be put into 11 volumes of hydrogen ga^, only 3*12 volumef 
of oxygen is evolved, and 0*76 volume of hydrogen absorbed. The 
residual gas in this case contains a greater pro[K)rtion of oxygen than 

* The charcoal had nearly the same bulk as in the preceding experiment. If 
larger pieces he employed, the change of temperature is more remarkabie. Bat 
tb« exBeriments are made more easily, and with mora accuracy, with •■lall pof* 
tioat or gas, aocf udaII plecei oC charcoal. 



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is6 Observations on the Absorption of '[NoV; 

in the former. This free communication between the gases in the 
i^harcoal^ and those surrounding it, is a proof that the gases mixed! 
in the charcoal do not form any lasting combination, as would be 
the case if water were formed j but that, in consequence of their 
mutual contact in the charcoal, they are merely a little condensed. 

If charcoal free from air, but drenched in water, be brought in 
oootact with oxygen gas, carbonic acid gas, or azotic gas, these 
gases, while they penetrate into its pores, drive out a portion of the 
water. It is to be presumed that Messrs. Rourae and Norden took 
this disengaged water for new formed water. This is the more pro- 
bable, as in their experiments the gases stood over water, of which 
the charcoal, while it absorbed the gases, must have imbibed a 
certain portion. 

I pass over the detail of the experiments which I made respecting 
the mutual expulsion of gases from charcoal with hydrogen aild 
azotic gases, oxygen and azotic gases, and oxygen and carbonic 
acid gases. They were made with the same care as those with 
Gsygen and hydrogen gases ; and they furnished similar results, with 
the exception that azotic and carbonic acid gases, when in contact 
in charcoal, do not appear to increase the condensation of each 
other. In all other respects, as may be easily conceived, these 
mutual expulsions are so much the more conspicuous, the greater 
the diiference of condensation is which both gases undergo when 
absorbed by charcoal. Hence it is very striking when the gases are 
hydrogen and carbonic acid; and most of all, when they are am- 
monia and hydrogen. 

From this action of the gases on each other, which expel each 
other from a porous body, it is evident that a porous body which bai 
saturated hself with a.tmospherical air, and which is put into a gas 
without being deprived of air, may either increase or diminish the 
volume of that gas, according as it is absorbed in greater or smalle]^ 
.quantity than common air. In like manner, a piece of charcoal or 
of meerschaum saturated with common air will perceptibly diminish 
a given volume of carbonic acid, and increase that of hydrogen gas, 
in which it is put. It is highly probable that the odoriferous vapours' 
of bodies rendered evident by moist air, and likewise the smells of 
flowers, depend upon such mutual expulsions of gaseous bodies. 

If a piece of charcoal free from air be put into a mixture of 
oxygen and hydrogen gases, an absorption takes place, which holds 
the same proportion with respect to the two gases as when the char- 
coal is first saturated with the one, and then placed in the other. I 
placed, for example, a piece of box-wood charcoal free from air 
into 16 volumes of a mixture containing ^ oxygen and |. hydrogen^ 
gases ; so that both gases were in the proportions requisite for the 
formation of water. Of this mixture, very neeirly three volumes of 
oxygen and one volume of hydrogen were absorbed. This result 
corresponds very well with the proportion of single gases that would 
have been absorbed, and likewise the relative proportion in Which 
they were mixed before absorption. 

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.1815.] the Gases ly different Bodies. SSy 

When a piece of box-wood or beech charcoal free from air is 
exposed to common air, it absorbs more oxygen than azote, so that 
the air is injured by it ; but not much^ as the difference between the 
quantity of these gases absorbed by charcoal is not great. Hence 
that this consequence, which Messrs. Rouppe and Norden deny, 
may take place, the volume of residual air, in comparison of that of 
the charcoal, must be small. 

8. Simultaneous Absorption of various Gases ly different Bodies. 

In general all porous bodies exhibit the same appearances in 
respect to the mutual expulsion and condensation of the gases 
coming in contact with them as charcoal does. Yet these expul- 
sions may take place in an opposite order when the affinity of the 
body for the gases 'k different. In this respect the results are 
striking which meerschaum^ ligniform asbestus, adhesive slate of 
M esnil Montant, ^nd Saxon hydrophaiw^ give when they are brought 
in contact with mixtures of carbonic acid * or ammoriiacal gas with 
oxygen, hydrogen, or azotic gas. A mixture of the two or three 
last gases requires more attention, and the consequence is not 
always perceptible. As in these experiments it appears of no con- 
sequence whether the porous body be first saturated with one gas^ 
and then put into the other ;^ or whether it be put into a mixture of 
the two gases; I shall describe here only the results which lob- 
tained in the last way, as it is the shortest. The experimerits were 
ifiade in temperatures ijetween 69° and 62®. The same pieces were 
employed in all of them; and each porous body was allowed to 
remain 24 hours in the mixture before the residual gas was exa- 
mined. 

Meerschaum in a mixture of Oxygen and Hydrogen Gases. 

A volume of meerschaum freed from air was put into 2|^ volumes 
of gas, one half of which was oxygen, and the other hydrogen. It 
absorbed 0*57 volume of oxygen and 0'44 of hydrogen; therefore 
more of the first than of the last. This is conformable to the order 
of iibsorption of the gases when not mixed. When we compare the 
bulk which both gases occupy in the meerschaum, with the sum of 
their bulks when single, we perceive that the presence of the oxygea 
has promoted the condensation of the hydrogen gas. 

The same experiment was made with the adhesive slate of Menil 
Montant. A volume of this stone absorbed 0*7 of the mixture. 
The proportion of each gas absorbed was the same, though the 
stone absorbs more oxygen gas when alone than it does of hydrogen 
gas. The difference was either too small to be perceptible", or the 
presence of the oxygen had promoted the condensation of the 
hydrogen to such a degree as to make its bulk equal to that of the 

* Perhaps the small quantity of carbonic acid which some porous stones, as the 
ineerschaum of Katolia, contain, is only accidental, or what the watar in then i^ 
aUe to retain by means of capillary attraction. 

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^S8 Ohervatkms m the Absorptum of [Nor» 

oxygen. la the same way, meerachaum did not sensibly alter the 
composition of atmospherical ur. 

Meerschaum, Charcoal, and Wood, in a Mixture of equal Volumes 
ofJxoik and Hydrogen Gases. 

A volume of meerschaum free from air absorbed, from 2*5 
volumes of such a mixture, 0*61 voluaie of azote and 0*42 voluoae 
of hydrogen ; therefore more of the first than of the last. These 
two gases seem to have been rendered somewhat denser by their 
contact in the stone. A Volume of box* wood charcoal free from air 
absorbed, from 16 volumes of su9h a mixture, 3*5 volumes of azote 
and 9 of hydrogen. * A volume of fir-wood free from air ab- 
sorbed, from four volunies of the mixture, 0*34 volume hydrogen 
and 0* 1 1 azote. Wood, then, produces just the opposite effect upon 
these gases that meerschaum does ; yet the absorptiqn of the mix- 
ture by the wood agrees with its absorption of the gases separately. 

All my attempts, in these experiments, and in others which I do 
BOt mention, to detect the formation of water, ammopia, or nitric 
acid, were entirely abortive. I employed no other heat to assist me 
but what was disengaged by the ateorption of the gases f yet my 
experiments were not sufiiciently varied, nor continueu long enough, 
to destroy all hopes of meeting with cases in which such a forma* 
lion nuiy take place ; especially when we employ the intermediate 
action of water, and such absorbing bodies as haye a chemical affi« 
nity for these fttoduets. 

Section Third. 

absoilption of thb 6asbs bt liquids. 

9. DaUon^s Theory, 

That all gases are absorbed by liquids, and that most of them are 
again separated by heat or the dimmutioq. of external pressure, h^ 
been long known. We nbw possess accurate results respecting the 
rate of this absorption. For a 9et of careful and regular experiments 
on this subject we are indebted to Dr. Henry, of Manchester. Mr. 
Dalton has a little altered some of these results ; and by means of 
them has contrived a theory which not only esqilains the abs(»ption 
of gases by w*ater, but by all other liquids ; but it is in opposition to 
most of the results which I have obtained by means of solid porous 



According to him, those gases which separate from liquids when 
the pressure of the atmosphere is removed are merely held in 
mechanical union, and are by no means in chemical combination 
with these liquids. He. affirms, further, that water, at a medium 
temperature, and under a medium pressure of the atmosphere, can 

» lo this experiment the gases and charcoal rem^iined in contact fire weeks; bat 
after the first day the yoliime of the mixture was not altered in the least. On im* 
mersing the charcoal in cold water, S*55 voloinea of azote and 0*64 of hydrofni 
If ere difiven oat. 



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J sis.) the Gases h/ difetent SodieSi 339 

only absorb gases accoi^ing to the ifollowing law. It abs6rt)s either 
a volume of the gas equal to its own volume, as is the case with 
carbonic acid^ sulphureted hydrogen, and nitrous oxide; or to 4.0^ 
its volume, as is the case with olefiant gas ; or to ^^ of its volume^ 
as is the case with oxygen and nitrous gas ; or to ^.of its volume^ 
as is the case with azote, hydrogen, and carbonic oxide : 3o that the 
volumes of absorbed gas in these four divisions may be represented 
by die series (|)% (^)', (-J-)', (^)', the volume of water being repre- 
sented by !•* The same law holds, according to Daltoti, for all . 
liquids that are not glutinous, as for alcohol, acids, and solutions of 
salts in water ; though between the solution and some gases an 
affinity may perhaps exist, as between a solution of an alkaline 
sulphuret and oxygen gas. Finally, he establishes, from some ex- 
periments of Dr. Henry, that water which, has absorbed one gas^ 
and is placed in contact with another, always allows as much of the 
first to escape, and absorbs, on the contrary, so much of the other^ 
that the mixture of gases, which after this exchange remains behind 
in the water, is exactly in the same proportion as would have been 
produced by the absorption of each of them singly by the water^ 
' supposing each of the density which' it has in the gaseous mixture. 
According to this, water would absorb, from a mixture of two gases 
in equal proportions, only one half of the volume of each which It 
would absorb if the gas were in a separate state. 

The following experiments will epable us to examine the accuracy 
of these propositions. 

10. Absorption of unmixed Gases ly different Liquids^ 

I endeavoured to free the liquids which I used in my experiments 
from air as completely as possible, by long and violent boiling. 
Those which would have been altered or dissipated by the applica- "^ 
tion of such a heat, as oils and some salt solutions, were freed from 
air by means of the air-pump. Neither of these methods is capable 
of freeing liquids completely from air ; and the more volatile the 
liquid is, they succeed the more imperfectly, because they can only 
be exposed to a lower temperature, and the pressure of the vapour 
which rises from them under the alr*pump prevents the escape of 
their air. 

To produce a speedy and complete absorption, I put a large 
quantity of those gases which are absorbed only in small quantity 
by liquids, as of azote, oxygen, and hydrogen, with a small quantity 
of the liquid, into a flask, which was furnished with an excellent 

f'ound stopper, and agitated the flask for a quarter of an hour« 
his is a difficult method, and requires much attention, f With 
taspect to all the gases of which the liquid absorbs more than -j- of 

• According to faio^ 100 Yolames of water, at the temperature of 61*, absorb 
100 volumes of the first three gases^ IS'5 volumes of olefiant gifts, 3*7 of oxygen 
and aoote, and 1^56 of the last three gases. 

f More wUl bitiaHl on this subject In the Appendii. 

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SU) Observaiwns en the Msorpthm of , {Nor* 

its bulk, I proceeded, on the -contrary, in the following manner. 
I placed them over mercury in a tube four centimetres (1*575 inc^) 
of internal diameter, and let up a column of the absorbing liquid 
five or six centimetres (17^ to 236 inches) in length. The ab- 
sorption was promoted by agitation, and its quantity was not deter- 
mined till the gas and the liquid had been in contact for several days. 
The following table exhibits the quantity of the different gases 
al^sorbed, according to these experiments, by water and alcohol. 



Sulpburoas acid gas . ^ ^ •• . . 
Sulpbiireted hydrogen* . . . ., 

Carbooic acid . . . ..' 

Kitrous oxide 

Olefiant gas 

Oxygen gas 

Carbonic oxide 

Oxy-carbureted hydrogen..' 

Hydrogen 

Azote ..>.... 



100 volumes of 
Water. 



Volumes. 
4378 
253 
106 
76 
)5S 
6-5 
6-8 
61 
4-6 
41 



100 volumes of 

Alcohol. 
Sp. Gr. 0-84. 



Volumes. 
11577 
606. 
186 
153 
127 
16*2i» 
14-5 
70 
51 
4*2 



A hundred volumes of water absorb about five volumes of atmo- 
spherical air, when the mass of air is very great^ in comparison of 
that of the water. 

From these experiments it appears^ contrary to Daltbn's assertion^ 
that the absorption of gase3 by different, not glutinous liquids, as 
water and alcohol, is very far from being similar. The alcohol, as 
we see, often absorbs twice as much of them as water does; la 
gases which are absorbed in small quantities, this difference is not 
so striking; because with respect to them the absorptions of the 
alcohol can be less accurately determined, on account of the air 
which still remains in it after being boiled. Those gases which are 
absorbed in great quantity suffer but little opposition from this air. 
In the remaining gases, its influence becomes the liiOre striking the 
more nearly the absorbability of the gas and the air approach to a 
state of equality. 

These experiments agree no better with the law, which Dalton 
thinks he has ascertained in the absorption of different gases by one 
and the same liquid ; for I find too great a difference between the 
quantity of carbonic acid, sulphureted hydrogen, and nitrous oxide 
gases, absorbed by the same liquids .^which Dalton considers as 
completely equal), to be able to ascribe it to errors in the experi- 
ments. 

• It was, according to the direction of Gay-Lnssac and Thenard, prcparfd 
from sulphuret of antimony by meani of nuriatic l^Gid, wid ii| thf tl|lBQr|^tioa iA 
mercury was kept out of pUy» , 



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1815.] " ihe Gases by different Bodies. 341 

11. Influence of Chemical Affinity on the Absorption of Gases. 

If such an influence did n6t exist, the gases would be absorbed 
by all liquids in the same order. As I had not perceived any distinct 
difference between water and alcohol in this respect^ I tried other 
Kquids, and I confined my experiments to four gases, namely, car* 
bonic acid, nitrous oxide, olefiant gas, and carbonic oxide. I ex-^ 
cepted oxygen gas from these experiments, becau3e it forms perma«> 
nent compound^ with most of the liquids to be employed, which are 
not modified by the pressure of the atmosphere. Azotic and 
hydrogen gas were also excluded, because they are absorbed in such 
small quantities that the difference in the rate could not be accu* 
rately ascertained. The experiments were made at the temperature 
of 64-5^ 

A hundred voluincs of rectified white and transpnrent native 
oaphtha, of the specific gravity 0*784, absorbed 

YQluipcf, 

Olefiant gas.... «... 261 

Nitrous oxide 254 

Carbonic acid «... 169 

Carbonic oxide • • • 20 

A hundred volumes of fresh distilled essential oil of lavender, of 
^e specific gravity )()«S8, absorbed ' 

yolumes. 

Nitrous oxide ^ 275 

Olefiant gas. 209 

Carbonic acid • 191 

Carbonic oxide 15*6 

\ hundred volumes of olive oil, 

Voliimei. 

Carbonic acid 151 

Nitrous oxide » 150 

. Olefiant gas 122 

Carbonic oxide 14*2 

A hundred volumes of a saturaited solution of muriate of potask 
in water, ..»■•■ 

Volamei. ' 

Carbonic oxide 6 L 

Nitrous oxide 21 

Olefiant gas • • 10 

Carbonic oxide • • ...••.(. ^ 6*2 

It follows from these experiments, that in liquids, as well as in 
solid bodies, great. differences take place in the order in which gases 
are absorbed by them, and that in consequence these absorptions ar^ 
always owing to the influence «f chemical affinity. 



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942 



Observations w the Msorptim of 



[Not* 



Sdlid bodies appear^ under the same circumstances^ to produce a 
greater condensation of all gases in the contact of which they are 
placed than liquid bodies do. I have met with no liquid which 
absorbs so great a volume of c^bonic aqd, olefiaqt gas^ azotic gas^ 
carbonic oxide, and nitrous oxide, as charcoa) and meerschaum do. 
The difference is probably owing to this circumstance, that liquidsr^ 
in consequence of the great mobility of their parts, cannot com? 
press the gases so strongly as is necessary for greater condensation ; 
certain cases excepted, where very powerful chemical affinities 
come to their assistance ; as, for example, ^he affinity of ammonifi 
and nouriatic acid for water. Only in these rare cases do liquids 
condense a greater quantity of gases thap solid bodies** While ia 
fbese last bodies the size of the pores determines the space occupied, 
by the absorbed gas, the parts of liquid bodies, in consequence of 
their seps^ration frpm each other, haVe a disposition to increase thpir 
distance, in proportion as the gases are absorbed, f 

12. Influence of the Visddity and of the Specific Gravity fyf Liquids 
on thek Absorption of Oases. 
In my experiments on the influiehce of the physical state of the 
liquid upon its power of absorbing, I have employed carbonic acid 
gas, which I have placed in contact with a great number of liquids^ 
very different both in their liquidity and in their specific gr^ivity. 
The following table exhibits the result of these experiments : they^ 
were performed at the temperature of 62-5^: apd likewise the bulk 
pf carbonic acid g^ absorbed by one volume of the different 
liquids : — 



Iiiqoids. 


Sp. Gr. 


Volume of gas 
absofbed.. 


100 parts of the solution contain 


Alcohol 


0-803 
0-727 
890 
0-800 
0*84 
0-784 
0-86 
0d4 
0-915 
1-000 
1078 
. 1-092. 


2:6 

2-n 

1-88 
1-87 
I-§9 
I'M 
1-56 
1-61 
1-06 
0-75 
0751 . 


' "• ■.'... 


Snlphnric ether 

Oil of lavender 

Oil of thyme i , . . . 




Spirit of wine, 

Aectified naptha , . . . . ^ 
Oil or turpentine .... 
Ijn^eed oil .......... 




Olive oil 




Waier... 


' 


^al^mmoniac ........ 

Gnm-arabic 


27-53 crysUfalt. Sat. soUiiioa. 
25 ipim. 



« According to Thomson, iiratrr in the ^e^n temperature of the atmosphere 
iibsorbs $19 times its bulk of miiriatic acid gas, and 780 times Us ^ulk of ammo? 
Qjacal gas, 

+ Water by absorbing gases iacre^es in Yolume, and a pervepCihle heat it 
evolved, ipv hen the quantify absorbed ^t least equals the volume of the absorlMnjg- 
liquid. Tb6 specific gravity of a liquid saturated with gas js therefore smaller 
t^an it ought to be, calculating from the quantity' of gas absorbed. Thomson ilc^vt 
H^ arf umeat from this ag^igst the opinrpn pf mere n)ei^i^)ica| peoetratl|»ii. . • 



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1815.] 



Me Gases Itf dif^rent Bodks. 



843 



Liqaidf. 


8p.Gr. 


Volume of gas 
absorbed. 


100 parts of the solution contaiar 


Sugar 

Alum i.. 

Sulphate of ptftash.... 
Muriate af potash . .« ^ 
Sulphate of soda ...... 

Kitre... 

Nitrate of soda 

Sulphuric acid 

Tartaric acid 

Common salt .« 

Muriate of lime 


M04 

1-047 

1*017 

MOS 

1*105 

1*139 

1-206 

1*84 

1*285 

1-212 

1-402 


0-72 25 sugar. 
0-7 9-14 cr. al. Sat. sol. 
0-08 9*42 c. 8. Sat. sol. 
0*61 20 c. 8. SatsoL 
t)*58 11*14* 8. Sat. sol. 
0*57 20*6 c. 8. Sat. sol. • 
45 26*4 cs. Sat.soU 
0*46 

0*41 53*37 c acid. Sat. sol. 
0*329 29 8. Sat. sol. 
0*261 40*2 salt dried io a red heat. Sat. 
1 sol. 



Injkuence of Fiscidity.-^When n liquid body passes into the state 
of A solid body ^uite filled with matter^ or having all its sensible 
pores filled up, it loses the power which it had of abscMrbing gas in 
a liquid state. Viscidity, tiierefore^ is nothing else than a more or less 
complete transition from a liquid to a solid state. It is to be pre- 
sumed, therefore, that the different degrees of liquidity will always 
have an obvious influence on the condensation of the gas. But how 
important soever this conclusion may be at the Umit between solidity 
and liquidity, it has but very little influence, according to my ex- 
periments, in the middle states jof liquids ci different kinds. Thus 
we see tbat the fat oils,^ though much less liquid, absorb a much . 
greater portion of carbonic acid than water. The absorption, like- 
wise, of carbonic acid by gum and sugar water, exceeds in quantity 
that preduced by the much more liquid solutions of sulphate of soda 
and muriate of potash. The solutions of muriate of potash, saU 
ammoniac, and nitre, possess as much, or nearly as much, liquidity 
as pure water; yet this last liquid absorbs a much greater proportion 
of carbonic acid gas than they do. On the other hana, we find 
likewise liquids which absorb more of this gas than others possessed 
of smaller liquidity; as is the case, for example, with alcohol and 
ether when compared with water, and with this liquid wJ^en com- 
pared with several saline solutions. 

Though the influence of the viscidity of a liquid upon the great- 
ness of its absorption appears to be small, yet it is striking, as &r as 
the time is concerned which is required that the liquid may be fully 
saturated with the gas. Viscid liquids, as^ the fat oils, the solution 
of muriate of lime, gum-water, &c. require, supposing their power 
of absorbing the same, a much longer time to be saturated with a 
gas than the more perfect liquids, such as water, naphtha, alcohol, 
ether, and the essential oils. 

Infiwence of Specific -Gravity. — ^The density of liquids appears to 
have a great influence on their power of absorbing gases. My ex- 
periments, as stated in the preceding table, show that in genenl 

^ -The salt was dried in a red heat. 



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344 Observations on the Absorption of [Nov. 

the lightest liquids possess a greater power of absorbing gases than 
those the specific gravity of whicli is greater. Scarcely sjoy other 
liquids are excepted from this rule but those the specific gravities of 
v\fhich differ but little; and these exceptions are^ without doubt^ the 
consequence of peculiar affinities.* 

Probably the specific gravity of the gases themselves has an in- 
fluence on the quantity of them which a liquid is capable of absorb- 
ing, and on the time requisite for that purpose ; for all gases which. 
are evidently heavier than atmospherical air are absorbed in greater 
quantity by water than azote^ hydrogen, oxygen, and carbonic 
oxide : aiid of two' gases which are absorbed in equal volumes by a 
liquid, the lighter rejquires a much longer time than the heavier. 
Tiius naphtha absorbs olefiant gas much more slowly than it does 
.nitrous oxide. 

13. influence of Barometrical Pressure on the Absorption of Gases 

by Liquids. 

Dr; Henry caused carbonic acid in different states of density to 
be absorbed by water, and found that in all cases the liquid ab- 
sorbed its own bulk of the gas, whatever its density might be. He 
concluded from this that the space which a gas occupies in water is 
in the direct (inverse?) ratio of tl?e pressure. I have ascertained 
the accuracy of this conclusion by means of the contrivance de- 
scribed in paragraph 4, not only with respect to carbonic acid, the 
most absorbable gas employed by Dr. Henry,' but likewise with re- 
spect to sulphurous acid^gas, the absorption of which is nearly 50 
times greater. A volume of water which, upder a barometrical 
pressure of 28*74 inches, and at the temperature of S2\^f absorbed 
44 times its bulk of sulphurous acid gas, still absorbed the same 
volume of that gas when the barometrical pressure was reduced to 
14*33 inches, while the temperature continued the same. Oil of 
lavender, under a barometrical pressure of 6*89 inches, absorbed 
1 '9 volume of carbonic acid : it absorbed the same bulk when the 
barometrical pressu