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ARIOUS events have happened during the last few 
years which are calculated to bring Old Salopians more 
frequently together, and to renew or increase their interest 
in the school where they vere educated. Of these the most 
important is the foundation of the Old Salopian Club, which 
now numbers more than seven hundred members. Under 
its auspices the Triennial Dinner has become a permanent 
institution, and the "Year Book," which is sent to all its 
members, supplies them vith a valuable record of any 
occurrences connected with Shrewsbury School which are 
likely to be of interest to its past or present scholars. 
The revival of the annual Speech Day is another important 
event in the recent annals of the school. Two books also 
have appeared during the last eight years which could not 
fail to be of deep interest to Shrewsbury men. First, Dr 
Calvert's admirable edition of the Rcgestunl Scltolarium from 
z56e to 635, which was published in 892; and, secondly, 
The Life and Letters of D: Samuel Butler, edited by his 
grandson, which appeared in 896. Another book, and one 
which will perhaps excite greater interest among the younger 
generations of Salopians, may, not improbably, see the light 
before the present year comes to an end. It comprises, 
among other matters of school interest, a list of Shrewsbury 
scholars during the past century, with biographical notes, on 
which the Rev. J. E. Auden has bestowed much time and 
It remains for me now to speak briefly of the volume to 
which these xvords are intended to form an Introduction. 
When I was asked by Mr. Spencer Hill, three years ago, to 
write the Annals of Shrewsbury Sc/tool, I began m)" work 


under favourable circumstances. Not only had I in my 
possession much manuscript material, collected many years 
afro, in the hope that it might some day help to illustrate the 
earl), history of the school, but four long-lost volumes had 
recently been discovered, in which Mr. Hotchkis, the anti- 
quarian head master of the eighteenth century, transcribed 
many important documents and wrote man), valuable notes 
relating to school affairs. I need hardly say that I have 
found these Hotchkis MSS. of great service. Much light 
also has been thrown on school history from 578 to I797 by 
two volumes of school accounts, of which very little seems 
to have been known before 89o. I have made much use 
again of the school documents preserved among the Town 
Records, which the recent labours of a committee of Shrews- 
bur)" antiquarians have rendered easy of access. To one of 
these gentlemen, Mr. William Phillips, my best thanks are 
due for kindly help given me in ways too numerous to 
mention. It is a pleasant duty also to express my gratitude 
to several old friends among the assistant masters for their 
read)- and valuable assistance in writing some of the dosing 
chapters. Without the bibliographical knowledge indeed of 
Mr. T. E. Pickering it would have been impossible for me 
to do any kind of justice to the interesting library which 
belongs to the school. But to no one am I more indebted 
than to my old friend and colleague Dr. Calvert, who has 
from the first taken a deep interest in the progress of the 
book, and has done his best to help to make it a truthful 
history of Shrewsbury School. There are many Old 
Salopians again, far too many to mention by name, who 
have corresponded with me about their schooldays, whom 
I desire to thank once more for the reminiscences with 
which the)- have so kindly supplied me, and which the 
following pages will show I have duly appreciated. 


Foundatmn and Endowment of Shrewsbury School by Royal Charter, 
granted on February 1oth, 155 -- Early Head Masters, "Sir 
Morys" and John Eyton--Thomas Ashton, M.A., Head Master 
from 156z-z571 . 
Constitution and Customs of Shrewsbury School in the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries 3 
Thomas Lawrence, M.A., Head Master, 
John Meighen, M.A., Head Master, z583-635 73 
Meighen's Differences with the Bailiffs of Shrewsbury . 97 
Thomas Chaloner, Head Master, 1636-1645 3 z 
Thomas Chaloner's Vfanderings, 1644-166 

Richard Pigott, 1646-1662 


Chaloner's Return to Shrewsbury--His Death--Andrev Taylor, M.A., 
Head Master, 664-1687--Richard Lloyd, M.A., Head Master, 
1687 -  7 z 3 




Hugh Owen, B.A., t7_3-t726--Robert Phillips, D.D., t727-173 S 211 
Leonard Hotchkis, M.A., Head Master, t735-t754 22t 
Charles Newling, MA., Head Master, t754-t77o 237 
The School Library z43 
James Atcherley, M.A., Head Master, t77t-t798--Act of Parliament 
in 17qS--Reignation of Mater,* -- Appointment of New Head 
Master zSa 
Samuel ButleG D.D., Head Master, 1798-t836 . z6z 
Benjamin Hall Kennedy, D.D., t836-1866 325 
Henry Whitehead Moss, B.A., appointed Head Master in t866-- 
Public Schools Act of ,868--New Governing Body elected in t87i 
--Removal of the School to Kingsland in 88z--School Life on 
Kingsland 369 
Games and Amusements at Shrewsbury School 

39 z 

Ahton's Letters to the Bailiffs 423 
Ashton's Final Letter to the Bailiffs 427 
Letter from Sir George Bromley to the Bailiffs about the School 
Ordinances 4z 8 
Letter from Thomas Ashton to Lord Burleigh 4z 9 
Thomas Lag'rence'g Farexvell Letter to the Bailiffs 43 t 
Letter from the Bailiffs of Shrewsbury to the Master and Feliox-s o! 
St. John's College, Cambridge 



granted to Shrewsbury had been leased out in I548 for a 
term of twenty-one years, 1 were all serious impediments to 
school organization. What became of "Sir Morys" does 
not appear; but it is certain that he did not retain his 
position long, for in the accounts of the same year in which 
his name is mentioned, there occurs a further entry of 6s. 8d. 
"paid on account to John Eyton, hired to keep the free 
grammar school. ''2 Perhaps the Bailiffs were unlucky in 
their choice of masters, or perhaps they were difficult to 
please; anyway, in October, I556, we find them anxiously 
looking out for "an honest and able person to serve the 
Office of Head Schoolmaster of the Free Schoole," in order 
that they might "avoide John Eyton. ''a 
After this no further mention of the school can be found in 
local records before June 2ISt, I56I. Under this date 
Hotchkis or Blakeway found the following entry in the 
Exchequer Book of Shrewsbury: "Agreed that Thomas 
Asheton with on other lerned scolemaster shall enter hOWe at 
Mydsummer next, and for their stypend duryng the tyme 
untyll the leases be expyred, to have 4or, and for an usher 
8r, and when the leases be expyred of Mr. Byston and Mr. 
Kelton, then ye s a Mr. Asheton, fynding one other scolemaster 
and usher, to have a pattent of all these tythes belonging to 
the free-scoole, for lyre. Paying 8s. yearly to ye Queene for 
cheffe rent, and that he shall keepe all reparations of the 
scoole-house. '' This Thomas Ashton is usually reckoned 
as the first Head Master of Shrewsbury School, and he might 
almost be called its Founder ; for, by his exertions, the greater 
 St. Mary's tithes were leased to Mr. Thomas Kelton on March 3rd, x54x , 
and St. Chad's tithes to Mr. George Byston on June 22nd, I548. (Owln and 
" " Regardo et sup' comput John E)'ton conduct' ad custodiend' lib'am scol 
gammatical' 6s. 8d."--Blakway 
v " Ult' Oct.' 3 and 4 P & M. AgTced . . . that yf Mr. Bayliefl's can of 
an honest able . . . person which will serve the oice of head scolemaster of the 
Free scolc of the town and shall be thought mete . . . that then Mr. Baylifl's 
shall avoyd John Eyton now scolemaster gyving him one half year's warnynge-- 
and the s d John Eyton to haue for his wages fom Michaclma last paste x4 by 
year and not above."--B[aay 


remaining years of his mastership. But with an average 
annual entry of more than IOO the school numbers can 
hardly have fallen much below 4oo during the six years in 
Shrewsbury, it is evident, must have taken its place under 
Ashton's rule as the great Public School for the north-west 
of England. Nor can we doubt that such was the intention 
of its founders. The difficulties of travel in those days made 
it desirable that schools should be established at various 
centres to which boys residing in the surrounding districts 
might have convenient access; and Shrewsbury, as the "chief 
place of an extensive and fertile district," where the Court of 
the Marches of Wales was commonly held, and itself a town 
of considerable commercial importance, was a most suitable 
place for such a purpose, and one where a well-managed 
school would be likely to prosperJ That Shrewsbury School 
was regarded by people in general as intended for the benefit 
of the whole surrounding district, and by no means for that 
of the town of Shrewsbury exclusively, is sufficiently shown 
by the petition presented to Lord Burghley a few years later 
by the Dean and Chapter of Hereford, asking for the 
establishment of a school in that city "to serve as commo- 
diously for the training of the Youth of South Wales as 
Shrewsbury doth for the Youth of North Wales. ''2 The 
internal evidence of the school register of admittances is to 
the same effect. 
We have already seen that in the course of six years 
Ashton admitted nearly twice as many aliens as odpidans, 
and a careful examination of the names shows that there was 
scarcely a family of note in the surrounding counties which 
did not send one or more of its youthful scions to be 
educated by Ashton at Shrewsbury. Egertons, Dones, 
Leighs, Brokes, and Massies, from Cheshire; Sandys and 
Butlers from Lancashire; Harringtons from Rutland; Foxes 
from Herefordshire, and Curzons from Buckinghamshire, 
are to be found in Ashton's register, side by side with 
 See RelOort of Public School Commission,  864. 
*" See STRYPF'$ Life of 14,itgift. 




case, he did not wish it, as he tells his "little Philip," to 
be "empty of some aduices." 
.... " Let your first action be the lifting vp of your minde to 
Almighty God by hattie praier, and feelingly digest the wordes you 
speak in praier with continuall meditation, and thinking of him 
to whom you pray .... marke the senee and matter of that you 
doo reade as well as the words ..... "Be humble and obedient to 
your master, for vnlesse you frame yourself to obey others, yea, and 
feel in your selfe what obedience is, you shall neuer be able to teach 
others how to obey you. Be courteous of gesture, and affable vnto 
all men, with diuersitie of reuerenee according to the dignitie of the 
person, there is nothing that winneth so much with so little cost, vse 
moderate diet .... seldome drinke wine, and yet sometimes do, 
least being inforeed to drinke vpon the sudden you should find your 
selfe inflamed, vse exercise of bodie, but such as is without perill of 
your bones or ioints .... delite to be cleanly as well in all parts 
of your body as in your garments .... giue yourselfe to be merie 
.... but let your mirth be euer void of all seurrilitie and biting 
words to any man, for an wounde giuen by a worde is oftentimes 
harder to be cured then that which is giuen with the sword ; be you 
rather a hearer and bearer away of other mens talke, than a 
beginner or procurer of speeh ..... Be modest in eeh assemblie, 
and rather be rebuked of light felowes for maidenlike shamefastnes, 
than of your sad friends for peart boldnes : Think vpon euery worde 
that you will speake before you vtter it .... aboue all things tell 
no vntruth, no not in trifles ..... And let it not satisfie you that 
the hearers for a time take it for truth, yet after it will be knowne as 
it is to your shame, for there cannot be a greater reproch to a 
Gentleman than to be accompted a lyer ..... Remember the 
noble blood you are discended of by your mother's side, and thinke 
that only by vertuous life and good action, you may be an ornament 
to that yllustre family, and otherwise through vice and sloth you 
may be accompted, Labes generis, a spot of your kin, one of the 
greatest curses that can happen to man. Well my little Philip, this 
is enough for me, and I feare to much for you ..... Commend 
mee most heartily vnto Maister Justice Corbet, 1 old Master 
Onslowe, 1 and my Coosin his sonne. Farewell, your mother and I 
send you our blessings, and Almighty God graunt you his, nourish 
you with his feare, gouerne you with his grace, and make you a 
good seruant to your Prince and Country. Your louing Father, 
 See note on next page. 




Robert Owen, 1 the Herald-at-Arms, to whom we are in- 
debted for the interesting MS. The Arms of the Bailiffs, which 
is preserved in the school library, is another Shrewsbury 
worthy of these days whose name must not be passed over. 
No details of the inner life of the school in Ashton's time 
have come down to us, but there can be no doubt that the 
Ordinances of I578, of which Ashton was the chief author, 
present a faithful picture of the general system of school 
management during his mastership. A house and land had 
been bought from John Proude in I551 ; with this, and the 
property acquired by the Bailiffs in 1548, together with some 
adjacent buildings rented from Mr. Birrington, 8 of which the 
freehold was purchased in I576, Ashton had to do the best 
he could. No such establishments as masters' boarding- 
houses were known at Shrewsbury in those days. Boys 
coming from a distance were "tabled" by residents in the 
town willing to receive them into their houses? We are 
not told what were the position and duties of the seventeen 
boys xvhom Ashton has entered in the school register as 
"Pantlers" ; but we may fairly conclude that their status 

 lobert Omen was the eldest son of Richard Owen, Bailiff of Shrewsbury in 
1564, I568, and I573- He entered school in I57I. In after years Robert Owen 
became a Herald-at-Arms. He died in lqovember, r632, and w buried at 
St. Ch's. A hiS. llection of the Arms  the Bails, illuminated by him, 
and ntinued by other hands, w presented to the School library in 8 by 
Jeph Baes, his son-in-law, who describes Robert Owen as "authored by the 
Court bIarshaii of England, a deputy Herald for Saiop and several other adjacent 
a " Paid to John Prowde for a house and othe lands and tenemen for the free 
school 2o."Extmct from Cooration Aounts in lakeway IS5. 
 " 1576. Sept 2z. Rer Birrington. gen. s.h. Tho. B. gent. late aldean 
deced, gants to vid Lloyd John Shele d o others (whereof Richard Owen, 
jun', mercer, one) totum illud mau' messuagin' quondam voc' Shotten phce et 
unum voc' ie Grammar Schole howse in quadam venele' voc' Rotten lane prope le 
Castle te."lakeway BISS. 
 A painful incident illustrative of the system of "tabling" ys with residents 
in the town is recorded ia the Taylor 2IS. under the yr 59o. "This yeare 
and the 4 t of hIay there w a young scholler beinge about XII. or thretteen 
yres owld being burdid at mter hamons in Salop hangid himsellffe in the 
chamber where he did lye beinge a Walshe boye whose name was Reece ap John 
beinge an Idle boy and hatid the scale. ' 
 agtler is derived from pantlerius or annetats, a low tin word which 
mns properly someone in charge of reM a keeper of tke 2ant. The word 


was something akin to that of sizars at Cambridge and 
servitors at Oxford, and that they were "tabled" at the 
expense of the parents of some of their wealthier school- 
fellows, for whom in return they performed some menial 
offices. In support of this view it should be remarked that 
all the Pantlers whose names occur in the register were 
"aliens." No mention is made of Pantlers after Ashton's 
time, and, in all probability, the institution died out with him. 
Allusion has already been made to Ashton's partiality for 
dramatic performances, and his skill in arranging them. 
With such predilections it is not surprising that he should 
have made them a prominent feature of school life at 
Shrewsbury. He left it a standing regulation of the school 
that, on every Thursday, the highest form should, before 
going to play, "declaim and play one Act of a Comedy"; 
and the celebrity of the Whitsuntide Plays at Shrevsbury 
in Ashton's time is strong evidence of the pains he must 
have taken in training the boys for their performance. 
Every visitor to Shrevsbury has seen the beautiful grounds 
bordering the Severn which are known as "The Quarry." 
They must have presented a very different appearance in 
the fifteenth century, before the trees were planted, when they 
were nothing better than waste grounds outside the town 
walls. Portions of the al fresco theatre, in which the repre- 
sentations were given, are still to be seen. 
Churchyard, the poet, seems to imply that the ground 
had been holloxved out for the purpose; but it is probable 
that its architects had an old quarry to work upon. 
"There is a ground new made theator wyse, 
Both deepe and hye in goodlie auncient guise : 
Where well may sit ten thousand men at ease, 
And yet the one the other not displease. 

"A grounde most apt, and they that sit above 
At once in vewe all this may see for love ; 
At Aston's playe, who had behelde thys then 
Might well have seen there twentie thousand men." 
occurs three times in Shakespeare. "A good shallow young fellow: a' would 
have made a good pantler: a' would have chiped bead well."--Falstaff in 
Henry IV., II. ii. iv. See also lginte?s Tale, IV. iv., and Cymbehne, II. iii. 



look to the matter better, he would use his power under 
the Queen's indenture to settle the ordinances without them, 
accepting temporarily certain appointments which had been 
offered him, in order to defray the cost of such an under- 
taking. 1 
Two years later (on May Ioth, I576) Ashton wrote 
in a similar strain, reiterating his former complaints, and 
telling the Bailiffs plainly that, sooner than allow the 
business to be any longer deferred, he would "take a 
new course," and "establish the thing more surely for 
learning, though less beneficial for the town hereafter." 
These last remonstrances seem to have had the desired 
effect, and on May 22nd, I576 , Ashton was able to change 
his tone towards the town authorities, and acknowledge 
their readiness "to work all to the best." A fortnight later, 
on June Ioth, we find him promising to go to Shrewsbury 
after he had "spoken once again to her Majesty." In a year 
from this time the ordinances were completed, and on 
May isth , i577, Ashton sent the final draft to the Bailiffs 
for their approval, telling them in his letter that he had 
been obliged to entrust their last revision to "certain worship- 
ful, wise, learned, discrete personages," whose "credytt and 
judgment" would "wynne to the mater more maiestie 
and procure it more credit than yt ever could have had 
by" his "owne private doing." Finally, the ordinances were 
accepted by an" Indenture Tripartite," dated February I Ith, 
57, between the Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield of the 
first part, the Bailiffs and burgesses of the town of the 
second part, and the Master and Fellows of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, Mr. Ashton, late Head Master, and 
Thomas Lawrence, Head Master, of the third part. And 
by these ordinances the school was governed until, more 

 " Before God, if you look not better to it, I will alter all anew. My credit it 
not so much lost but if it be thought I have done what I can, and by law 
am barred to go any further, and, by that is done, some holes be espied to creep 
in at, to make a spoil, I will work upon my credit what I can to prevent it, 
whatsoever it cost me. It shall hut make me take such livings which now 
are offered, to bear the charges thereof, and to give them over when I have done." 
(See Appendix. ) 


eyther rewarde, briberie, or other covine fraude, or deceit 
whatsoever. ''1 
Provision was made by the ordinances for four school- 
masters, with stipends of ,4o, ,3o, ,2o, and ,Io re- 
spectively. The Head Master, it was stipulated, must be 
a Master of Arts of two years' standing at least, "well able 
to make a Latin Verse," and "learned in the Greeke Tongue." 
The second master was also to be a Master of Arts 
possessing similar qualifications to those required for the 
Head Master. For the third master the degree of B.A. was 
required. He was also expected to be able to make a Latin 
verse. No qualifications are specified for the fourth master, 
who was to take charge of the "Accidence School" for 
young beginners, which the ordinances directed to be kept 
under or near the grammar school. 
None of the masters were alloxved during their term of 
office to take any cure of preaching or ministry in the 
church, or practise physic or any other art or profession, 
whereby their service in the school should be hindered.  
No provision was made in the ordinances for the election 
of a new accidence master when a vacancy should occur in 
the orifice. Roger Kent, the first accidence master, died on 
November I2th, I588, and his place was left unfilled till 
January 23rd, 158-, on which day Mr. Ralph Jones was 
"chosen and elected" to succeed him by the Bailiffs and 
Head Master. a The delay was doubtless occasioned by the 
absence of any direction in the ordinances as to the mode 
of election.  Whenever one of the other masterships fell 
vacant the remaining masters were to give notice of the 
 Similar regulations were made for the other school livings. Natives of Chit- 
bury had the first preferential claim to its vicarage. 
 This regulation seems to have been almost ignored in the eighteenth century. 
 See school register. 
4 Subsequently, in March, 159x , the Bailiffs and Head Master took the 
opinion of Thomas Owen, Esq., the Recorder of Shrewsbury, Thomas Egerton, 
Esq., Solicitor General, and Thomas Branthwaite, Esq., Reader of Lincoln's Inn, 
on this and other matters in doubt, and their decision was that the accidence 
master should be elected by the Bailiffs and Head Master, and that two of 
the electors, of whom the Head Master was to be one, must agree in their choice. 
( Hotchkis /kISS. ) 


The scholars were summoned by a bell which was rung 
a quarter of an hour before each school,  and prayers were 
said at the beginning of morning lesson and at the end of 
evening lesson. 
Immediately after prayers the whole school was called 
over, the second and third masters taking their turn to call 
the roll and say prayers every other week. Every Thursday 
was a play day unless a holy day occurred in the week, and 
no other play day was allowed except by the consent of the 
Bailiffs and at the "earnest request and great entreaty of 
some man of honour, or of great worship, credit, or authority. ''2 
Before going to play on Thursday the scholars of the highest 
form had to declaim and play one act of a comedy. The 
only games permitted at the school were "shootinge in the 
longe bowe," "chesse plaie," running, wrestling, and leaping. 
Although the boys were allowed to play their games for 
limited stakes, Id. a game and 4d. a match, all betting, 
"openlie or covertlie," was forbidden; and offenders against 
this regulation were to be "severely punyshed" or else 
"expulsed for ever." 
The school broke up three times in the year--at Christmas, 
Easter, and Whitsuntide--the duration of the holidays at 
these three seasons being respectively t8 days, I2 days, and 
9 days. 
To each master was allowed 3o days' absence during the 
year, over and above the regular vacations; but only one 
could be away at a time. Masters might also absent them- 
selves from school, with the approval of the Bailiffs, if called 
by urgent btisiness. 3 

I In the school account-book an entry occurs in x579 of the payment of os. to 
William Benett, parish clerk of St. Mary's, for ringing the bell called the school 
bell, which in those days was one of St. Mary's church bells. 
a Among the school records in the Town Hall there is a formal permission, 
signed by the Bailiffs, for the boys to play on Tuesday afternoon, May 4th, 16x3. 
It was granted at the earnest request of the worshipful Mr. Francis Gibbons, 
and is addressed to Mr. Gittins. The Head Master, Mr. John Meighen, was 
doubtless away. 
* Provision was made in the ordinances for the case of a master "infected with 
any lothesome, horrible, or contagious disease," or who might, by reason of 


The scale of entrance fees was as follows 1 :-- 

A lord's son i o o 
A knight's son 6 8 
The heir apparent of a gentleman 3 4 
Younger sons of gentlemen 2 6 
Under these degrees and born outside Shrop- 
shire 2 o 
Under these degrees and born in Shropshire. i o 
Sons of burgesses dwelling in the town or 
liberties of Shrewsbury, or in the Abbey 
Foregate (if of ability) o 4 
Sons of other persons there inhabiting, o 8 

Householders in Shrewsbury and its suburbs were ex- 
pected to "cause and see" their children who xvere at 
school, and all other boys xvho might be "tabled" in 
their houses, to, "resorte to theire parishe churche everie 
sondaie and holy-day to heare divine service at morning 
and evening praier "; and monitors xvere appointed by the 
Head Master for each church to note any scholars who 
misbehaved themselves or were absent from service. In 
case of a sermon being preached in any church, all scholars 
were to "resorte thither to the hearinge thereof." 
The school books in use were-- 
For Latin Prose :- 
Tully, the Colnmentaries of Cesar, Sallust, Livy, and 
two little books of Dialogues drawn out of Tully's 
Offices and Lodovicus Vires by Mr. Thomas Ashton. 
For Latin Verse :- 
Virgil, Ovid, Horace, and Terence. 
For Greek :- 
Greek Grammar of Cleonarde, Greek Testament, 
Isocrates, and Xenophon's Cyropcedia. 

1 Sums of 3d., 2d., and yd. seem occasionally to have been accepted, 
probably on the ground of poverty, for sons of burgesses. In 158o four boys 
are credited with fees of 6d. These may have been sons of oppidans (not 
burgesses) who were excused a portion of the 8d. fee on the same ground. 


They had also the right, subject to the advice of the Bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry, of making statutes and ordinances 
for its administration. To deprive them of all voice in the 
appointment of masters, and of all share in framing the new 
ordinances, would probably have had the effect of making the 
Corporation of Shrewsbury hostile, rather than friendly to 
the school, and Ashton was too much of a statesman to run 
the risk of exasperating a body, the members of which were, 
after all, the only persons available to share with the Head 
Master the local government of the school. So, while securing 
to the college the real choice of the masters, he left to the 
Bailiffs the right to "nominate and appoint them," with the 
power of exercising a "veto" in any particular case for 
"reasonable cause." And, although the indenture of Eliza- 
beth expressly reserved to Ashton the power of making 
"rules, orders, and constitutions" for the application of the 
Great Tithes of Chirbury and other endowments to "the 
better maintenance of the Free Grammar School founded 
by the late King Edward the Sixth," and other specified 
objects--and there can be no doubt that the school ordinances 
of  57[- were, in the main, Ashton's work--he steadily perse- 
vered to the end in his fixed resolve to obtain for them the 
full assent of the Corporation of Shrewsbury before they 
were promulgated. Policy, too, rather than the interests of 
education must have influenced Ashton when he gave to 
Shrewsbury burgesses preferential claims for their sons, not 
only to livings, scholarships, and fellowships, but even to 
school masterships. For we find him, on one occasion, 
irritated by the apathy shown by the Corporation in the 
matter of the ordinances, threatening, in case of further 
delay, to take a new course, and "establish the thing nore 
surelie for learning, though less beneficial for the town here- 
after. ''t Surely this is a conclusive proof that Ashton did 
not consider local interests altogether conducive to the interests 
of learning, and that, in favouring the former, he allowed 
policy sometimes to sway his judgment. 
In all these cases, however, we find some provision made 
 This threat is to be found in Ashton's letter of May xoth, 576. 


in the ordinances to prevent undue abuse of the preferential 
claims. Shrewsbury boys, whatever their rights of birth 
might be, were not to be elected to school scholarships 
and fellowships at Cambridge, unless they were found 
"meet and apt for such preferment." Candidates for the 
cures of Chirbury and St. Mary might be sons of burgesses 
or natives of Chirbury; but, if the electors did not consider 
them to be "fit men," they were to be at liberty to 
appoint "any of like sufficiency," any clergyman, in fact, 
who possessed the other statutable qualifications of education 
at Shrewsbury School, and a degree at one of the uni- 
versities. In the case of schoolmasterships, the proviso 
that privileged candidates must be "thought worthy of the 
place" enabled the college to prevent any serious injury 
being done to the school by these preferential claims. 
James Brooke, who was elected second master in 1627, 
was not even a scholar of Shrewsbury. David Evans, 
who was made third master at the same time, though 
educated at the school, was neither the son of a burgess 
nor a native of Shropshire. .And when the college had, 
for the second time, to appoint a Head Master, the eminent 
man who, after prolonged litigation between the Corporation 
of Shrewsbury and St. John's College, ultimately received 
the appointment, was neither the son of a burgess nor a 
native of Shrewsbury. 
On the whole, the form of government which .Ashton 
instituted for Shrewsbury School seems to have been the 
best available under the circumstances. It was essential 
that the Bailiffs should have a share in it, both on account 
of their position under the Charter of Edward VI., and also, 
as the natural guardians of the various rights and privileges 
it was thought best to give to the burgesses and other in- 
habitants of the town. But the Bailiffs were changed year 
by year, and it was important to associate with them, in 
the government of the school, someone who occupied a 
more permanent position. The best man for such a purpose 
would undoubtedly be the Head Master. His interest in 
the prosperity of the school would naturally be great; 


presumably, he would be unaffected by local intrigues; 
his influence in the town, too, would be increased by the 
co-ordinate authority with the Bailiffs in the government 
of the school, which was given to him by the ordinances. 
It seems also to have been an act of the soundest policy 
in those days to confide the choice of new masters to the 
governing body of a great college, fettered though the 
electors might be by the preferential claims they were bound 
to consider. Ashton's knowledge of the world and business 
experience again had taught him the strong probability, as 
the surplus revenues of the school gradually accumulated, 
that zealous members of the Corporation would look with 
greedy eye upon the "Stock Remanent," and desire to 
appropriate it, not for their own private advantage, but in 
order to redeem tolls, to pension "poor artificers," to build 
almshouses, or to promote some other objects, interesting to 
the burgesses, but of no advantage to the school. Some 
such ideas, indeed, were afloat at Shrewsbury even before 
the ordinances were framed, as is sufficiently shown by 
Ashton's correspondence with the Bailiffs. So the College 
of St. John was made the supreme guardian of the school 
chest. It is interesting to know that Ashton, before the 
grant of Elizabeth, xvhich secured for him the right to frame 
ordinances, was made, had not only seen how important 
it was for the future interests of the school that he should 
have this power, but had written to the Bailiffs urging 
them to give it him of their own accord. The letter in 
question, which exists among the town records, but escaped 
the notice of Hotchkis and Blakeway, will be found in the 

an incidental proof, and a strong one, that Lawrence did not 
succeed to the head-mastership before  57 
Richard Atkys still taught in the third school. The 
staff of masters as thus described continued unchanged in 
Lawrence's time. The Head Master seems, though not in 
Holy Orders,  to have been a man of strong religious 
feelings. His letters have a religious tone, and Hotchkis 
quotes a petition which he and his colleague, John Baker, 
presented in the year 1579-80 to the Bailiffs of Shrewsbury, 
that they might be allowed the use of "the Stone House" 
on Sundays and holy days, in order that the boys and 
themselves might assemble there for religious purposes. The 
two masters represented that, although they were laymen, 
they could read prayers there, and all the masters could be 
present, and that they were too many for one church.  
Before Lawrence ceased to be Head Master a chapel in St. 
Mary's Church was " repaired and beautified" at the school- 
cost, in order that the masters and scholars might assemble 
there on Sundays, holy-days, and half-holidays for divine 
service and religious instruction.* 
A curious incident, in which Lawrence and Atkys were 
concerned, is related in Strype's Life of IVhitgift, and the 
story is worth repeating. On January I Sth , I578, Thomas 
Lawrence and Richard Atkys appeared before Mr. George 
Bromley, Recorder of Shrewsbury, at Eyton, near Wroxeter, 
and "uttered their knowledge" of certain disorders com- 
mitted by Lady Throgmorton and others in the house of Mr. 
John Edwards, of Thirsk, in Denbighshire. Mass had been 
said there by a priest from "beyond the seas," who had also 
given to those who were present "pardon beads" and images 
a There is no trace of John Baker's name in Cole's List of Cambridge Graduates 
in the tfarleian 211SS. A student of Christ Church, Oxford, of his names, 
graduated B.A. in I57I and M.A. in i575. But he undoubtedly went to Christ 
Church from Westminster. It is possible, though not probable, that the Shrews- 
bury boy may have gone to Westminster some time between i562 and I568. 
.o Lawrence was churchwarden of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, in i579. 
s See tfotcfikis MSS. Ashton had previously rented the Stone House for some 
unknown use. A house bearing this name still exists near St. Mary's Church. 
* See ttotckis 21SS. The letter from St. John's College, authorizing the 
necessary expenditure, bears date September 24th, I52. 


The liking Lawrence had for pageants, which seem to 
have occupied as prominent a position in his time as 
dramatic performances in the days of his predecessor, tends 
rather to make it probable that his objections to Papists 
and outlandisl priests were more political than puritanical. 
The most elaborate of these displays took place in May, 
158. Sir Henry Sidney had arrived in Shrewsbury the 
previous month in order to celebrate the Feast of St. George 
with special solemnity and splendour. The festivities com- 
menced on April 22nd, St. George's Eve, and lasted about 
a fortnight, during the whole of which time Sir Henry kept 
open house at the Council House. 
On St. George's Day the Lord President attended divine 
service at St- Chad's Church, proceeding thither in state, 
arrayed in his robes as a Knight of the Garter, and followed 
by the Bailiffs and Aldermen in their scarlet gowns, together 
with the members of the various trade companies of the 
town "in their best liveries. ''1 On May Ist the school- 
masters took their part in the entertainment of Sir Henry. 
After supper on that day they seem to have gone in 
procession to the Council House, each at the head of a 
deputation of boys belonging to his school, who bare with 
them "a brave and costly bancket" of forty dishes. As each 
group of ten boys went forward and presented its ten dishes, 
the boys were introduced by a S/zezver - in the following 
lines :-- 
These are all of Imance lore 
 Acompt hys hart above hys store. 
These x are all of backer's bande 
"L Goode wyll not welthe now to be scande. 
 Thesse x axe all in Atkys chaxdge 
Atkys, 3- "[ Hys gifts are small hys good wyll lardge. 
f Thesse x coom last and are the least 
kennt, 4- "[ Yett kennt's good wyll ys with the beast." 
extracts are given by Owen and Blakeway. The whole subject, including 
Browne's supposed connection with the Duke of Norfolk's affair, is discussed 
in a paper in the Shropshire Arcbmological Society's Transactions for I893. 
 See Taylar2grs. 
- The Shewer was in old days the title given to an oflSeer who set and removed 
the dishes at a feast: and brought water for the hands of the guests. 



son of Mr. Roger Harries, draper, of Shrewsbury, who was 
Bailiff in 15-8-79, was a lawyer of some eminence, who was 
made a master in chancery in I583, and a serjeant-at-law 
in 16o4- He represented Shrewsbury in the Parliament of 
I 386, and was made a baronet in 1622. In 161- he acquired 
the estates of Onslow and by purchase from 
Edward Onslow, Esq., and in 1619 was Sheriff of Shrophire- 
Some of his neighbours, Sir Francis Kinaston apparently 
taking the lead, formally protested against Sir Thomas's 
elevation to the baronetcy as a disgrace to them, and 
prevailed on Captain Simon Leake" who had been employed 
by the Harris family to prepare the necessary certificates of 
descent, and had been treated by them with great liberality, 
to allege in a petition to the King that the certificates 
had been unduly obtained. After much delay the Earl 
Marshal's "Court of Chival D-" was revived to try the case, 
but ultimately the matter came before the Court of Chancery, 
where it was decided in favour of Sir Thomas. 
Nathaniel Tarporley, x a mathematician and astronomer of 
some note, ** as a native of Shrewsbury, and entered school in 
15-. After graduating at Christ Church, Oxford, in I583, 
he went abroad and acted for two or three years as 
amanuensis to Francis Vieta of Fontenay, the celebrated 
mathematician. Tarporley took his M.A. degree in I59 I, 
and went into Holy Orders. In 6o- he **-as appointed 
Rector of Salwarp, Shropshire, but he seems to have resided 
almost entirely at Sion College. London, for the sake of his 
mathematical studies. On November z-t.h, 16o5, Tarporley 
was examined before the council on a charge of casting the 
King's Nativi%- for a Mrs. Heriot. Henry Percy, Earl of 
Northumberland, gave him a pension "in consideration of 
his singaalar knowledge." Tarporley died at Sion College in 
I63 -, and was buried in St- Alphege's Church_ He left his 
books and instruments to Sion College. 
Another Shropshire boy, who was at Shrewsbury in 
,58x, a plelx ill. of Szlop. ged x7- He was o/" Brasaose College whex, he 


Sir Thomas Sidney, who entered Shrewsbury School in 
I582-83 while Lawrence was still Head Master, though but 
a short time before his resignation, was the third son of Sir 
Henry. He was born in Ireland on March 25th, I569, and 
Cecil was his godfather. The Lord Deputy, writing to 
Cecil on June 3oth, i569, thanks him for "helping to 
make a Christian" of his son. Little is known of Thomas 
Sidney in after life beyond the facts that he accompanied 
Leicester to Flushing in December, 585, took part in the 
fatal affray at Zutphen, and was present at his brother 
Philip's death, as well as at his state funeral in London. 
One incident is recorded of his Shrewsbury life. On May 
25th, I584, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, accompanied 
by his stepson Robert, Earl of Essex, and Lord North, 
visited Shrewsbury and received something like a state 
reception. Thomas Sidney was one of the schoolboy 
orators on this occasion, and seems to have discharged his 
duty gracefully and modestly. 1 
On the whole Shrewsbury School does not show so 
distinctly an aristocratic character under Lawrence as in 
Ashton's time, and his scholars, as a rule, seem to have 
come mainly from Shropshire and North Wales. 2 But 
Lawrence was well entitled to feel proud, at the close of 
his career, that in the course of twelve years, through "their 
diligence in learning," and his "toil in teaching," he had been 
able to send over one hundred scholars to Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. And "a greate number" of these, he confidently 
asserted in his farewell letter to the Bailiffs, were "as likelye 
men to prove good members in the churche of God, and 
worthye instruments in a Christian commonwealthe as any 
whosoever or whatsoever." Many of these students can be 
traced, and not a few of them fulfilled Lawrence's anticipations. 

 Thomas Sidney's name was entered at school some time between November 
xTth, x582, and July gth, 583. The account of Lord Leicester's visit is given in 
the Taylor MS. (See also BOURNg'S Life of Sir Philip Sidney, and the Sidney 
State Papers.) 
* Sir Richard Chitwood, of Chitwood, Bucks, and Sir Edward Francis, who 
came from Derbyshire, were at Shrewsbury under Lawrence, but they are rather 
exceptional cases. 


the same time he felt himself "so wearied with the work, 
so tired with the toil, and overwhelmed with the care of 
the school," that he could not and would not continue 
to discharge the duties of Head Master. He expressed, 
however, his willingness to accept from his successor, 
whoever that might be, one year's stipend, if he, "of his 
own good nature," or at the Bailiffs' persuasion, should be 
willing to give it to him. Lawrence's farewell letter is dated 
July Igth. 1 In accordance with the ordinances the Bailiffs 
proposed to promote the second master, Mr. John Baker, 
of whose wisdom, learning, honesty, and experience Lawrence 
had spoken in high terms. But John Baker was too modest 
to accept the post of Head Master, and urged that the 
college should be asked to elect "a more sufficient person" 
than he held himself to be. Accordingly, on August Ist, 
the Bailiffs wrote to the master and seniors of St. John's 
College to signify the vacancy3 There can be no doubt 
that the school enjoyed a very high reputation at the time 
of Lawrence's resignation. Lawrence himself describes it as 
"a nursery of learning, an ornament to the town, and a 
singular benefit to the whole commonwealth"; the Bailiffs 
call it "the special ornament of the town and treasure of 
the country adjoining," and tell the authorities of St. John's 
College that "all gentlemen in these parts are very desirous 
to have their children here trained up in learning." And the 
college joins in the chorus of praise? 
But Camden's testimony and that of the Dean and Chapter 
of Hereford, to which reference has already been made, are 
of greater weight, as coming from persons unconnected with 
Shrewsbury or its school. Lawrence was comparatively a 
young man when he resigned, and he lived for many years 
afterwards in retirement at Wem. It is to be feared that 
in his old age he fell into poverty. An order appears in 
the Corporation Accounts for I6o2, that "Master Thomas 
Lawrence, sometime Head Schoolmaster, being grown poor, 
 The letter is given both by Hotchkis and Blakeway. 
 See History of St. Jon's College. 
 The college answer is dated September 2th, I585. 


"I believe in God, &c. 
"0 blessed Father, we give Thee most humble and hearty thanks for 
Thy manifold blessings both spiritual and temporal which Thou hast 
plentifully bestowed upon us from the beginning of our lives to this 
present day: But namely that Thou hast vouchsafed mercifully to 
preserve us this night last past from all the maliciousness of our ghostly 
enemy the devil. And now, blessed Father, as the night with its dark- 
ness is past, and the day with its light is come, and goeth on to the joy 
of all living creatures : so likewise now cause the spiritual light of the 
glorious Gospel of Christ, which is the lively image of Thee our God, 
to shine in our hearts, that we may behold Thee, our Heavenly Father, 
in Him, and that we Thy children, through this blessed light, being 
delivered from all dark ignorance and heavy sluggishness, may be made 
apt vessels for Thy Holy Spirit to dwell in. So plant in us, good Father, 
the fear of Thy Name and knowledge of Thy Will, that we, Thy poor 
children, acknowledging ourselves to be miserable sinners, may neverthe- 
less be made pure and holy by the righteousness and death of Thy only 
and natural Son Jesus Christ our eldest brother. And grant that we so 
proceed in good learning and manners, that, as we daily grow through 
Thy goodness in years and stature of body, so we may daily increase 
both in wisdom and favour before Thee our heavenly Father and before 
men, through our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom, with Thee and the Holy 
Spirit, be all honour and glory both now and for ever. Amen. 
c, Our Father, which art in heaven, &c. 
"The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, &c. 

" I believe in God the Father, &c. 
"0 most merciful Father and gracious God, without whose help all 
those studies, and all those things which we have learned this day, are 
but vain; bless, we beseech Thee, the labours of our Teachers, and 
the endeavours of us Thy tender children, and so plentifully water the 
same with the dew of Thy heavenly Grace, that, as we daily grow 
through Thy goodness in godliness, knowledge and understanding, at 
the last we may become fit instruments for Thy Church and Common- 
wealth. Give us Grace, 0 Heavenly Father, to use all those studies 
and all those things which we have learned this day in Thy fear, to 
Thy honour and glory, the comfort of our Parents and the edifying of 
our Brethren. Forgive us, 0 Lord, all the faults which we have this 
day committed either by negligence, slothfulness, or any other way. 
And endue us daily more and more with godliness, knowledge and 
understanding, and inflame our minds with earnestness and cheerfulness 


details xvhich he gives. He says that Piers Griffith sailed 
from Beaumaris on April 2oth, I588, and reached Plymouth 
on May 4th. On his arrival Sir Henry Cavendish sent him 
an invitation to dine on board Sir Francis Drake's ship, where 
he was honourably received and highly commended for loyalty 
and public spirit. There is a traditional story that Piers 
Griffith accompanied Drake and Raleigh in their cruise on 
the Spanish coast, and that he subsequently engaged in 
buccaneering practices at a time when England and Spain 
were at peace. Proceedings are said to have been taken 
against him at the request of Count Gondomar, the Spanish 
Ambassador, and such heavy fines inflicted upon him as to 
compel the mortgage, and afterwards the sale, of his Penrhyn 
estate, which was bought in I616 by Dr. John Williams, Lord 
Keeper of the Great Seal. Doubts have been expressed as 
to the truth of this story, owing to the absence of any re- 
cords of Gondomar's complaints. Piers Griffith was buried 
in Westminster Abbey on August 2Ist, I628. William 
Griffith, Serjeant-at-Arms to the King, who in his will had 
expressed a desire to be buried near his kinsman, Piers 
Griffith, was probably his brother, who entered Shrewsbury 
School on the same day as himself. 
Mention has been made of the erection of the library, 
gallery, chapel, and country school-house. The last grant of 
which we can find any mention that refers to any of these 
was made in t623. 
In the course of the same year an order was issued by 
the Corporation that a conference should take place with 
the Head Master as to the advisability of taking down 
the old school-house, which is described as built of wood, 
and building it up anew, with freestone or otherwise, 
as might be determined at the conference. The old building 
no doubt was one of those black and white half-timbered 
houses, of which many fine specimens are still to be seen in 
Shrewsbury. The result of the conference was that it was 
determined to use the same kind of freestone as that which 
had already been employed for the chapel and library. But 
the work does not seem to have been commenced till 627, 



other Bailiff refused his assent, insisting on the election being 
referred to the general voices of the burgesses of the town. 
In a letter, purporting to he written in behalf of the Bailiffs 
and Head Master to the Lord Chancellor, dated February 
-Sth, I58, it is absolutely asserted in support of this view 
that David Longdon was placed in his office by the Bailiffs 
and burgesses, the fact being that he was originally appointed 
by Ashton, and that his place was subsequently specially 
confirmed to him in the ordinances. 
This letter the Lord Chancellor answered on March 7th, 
58. He evidently had no doubt that the proposal to elect 
the School Bailiff by the general voices of the burgesses was 
contrary to the spirit of the ordinances. It was an inno- 
vation, he said, which he could not like. He added that the 
opinion of learned counsel had already been taken on the 
matter, and that they were clear that the election should 
be made by the Bailiffs and Head Master. He strongly 
advised the Bailiffs to "leave off these questions tending 
to sedition and contention within the town," and to admit 
Coyde to the place "without putting him to further trouble 
or charge." 
Coyde was ultimately elected on June 7th, 587, the 
delay, after the Lord Chancellor had so strongly expressed 
his opinion, being probably due to a pressing letter which 
arrived soon after from the Council,  advocating the claims 
of Thomas Browne, draper, who had lived long in Shrews- 
bury, and had, "whilst God gave him the means, relieved 
a great multitude of poor persons in setting them on work by 
the trade he then used of clothing." 2 The advocates of the 
burgesses' claims, though giving vay at the time, were not 
completely satisfied, and recourse was had once more in 
March, I59, to counsels' opinion, 3 which, when given, was, 
as might he expected, completely in accordance with that 
of Lord Chancellor Bromley. Mr. George Higgons and Mr. 
 This letter, which is dated March Sth, 586, and signed by Lord Burghley, 
Lord Cobham, and Sir Francis Walsingham, is given in the Appendix. 
s This is the same Thomas Browne of whom mention is made in previous 
 See Hotckis MSS. 


his room." If it were "contentious" on Meighen's part to 
resist the Bailiffs when they set the school ordinances at 
defiance, then he was, in this respect, correctly described by 
the Commissioners. But no one can examine the details 
of his various contests with the Bailiffs without coming 
to the conclusion that they all seem to have been due to 
a sincere desire on his part "to defend from violation the 
ordinances" and revenue of the school, and that in giving 
this account of his career Mr. Edward Howes only does 
him justice. Much of the remainder of the Commissioners' 
Report is devoted to Ralph Gittins. The indefinite charges 
of popish tendencies which had been made against him 
before the Archbishop, and which had since, after careful 
investigation, been pronounced by the Bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry, who vas not only his diocesan, but the Visitor 
of the school, to be "either surmises or malicious aspersions 
without good ground," are reproduced. Gittins is declared 
to have been " accounted for many years a dangerous, 
suspected papist," but the only evidence offered in support 
of these charges besides suspicion is that he "did not only 
harbour one Leach at such times as he preached many 
points of popery within the town, who has since gone 
beyond the seas, and there wrote books against the State 
of this Realm, but also countenanced and received other 
persons ill-affected to religion and dangerous to the estate." 
Great stress is laid on the facts that the Archbishop sus- 
pended Gittins from teaching, and imprisoned him in the 
Gate House at Westminster until he should find sureties that 
he would not, like his friend Humphrey Leach, "go beyond 
the seas." But from the beginning to the end of the Report 
there cannot be found the slightest allusion to the careful 
investigation which Bishop Neile had subsequently made 
into the whole business, or to his complete exoneration of 
Ralph Gittins. 
The story of the riot at the school-house, too, which we 
must bear in mind had taken place five years before, is told 
in the language of men so confident or so bitter that they 
are careless not only of consistency, but of the smallest 


against Gittins to the effect that, before the death of Mr. 
John Baker, he had " carried himself negligently" in "the 
third room," is adopted by the Commissioners. But, in the 
absence of any evidence to justify the statement, Meighen's 
emphatic testimony to his "skill and diligence," given at the 
time of Mr. John Baker's death, is conclusive against the 
gossiping tales of hostile outsiders six years later) Finally, 
the Commissioners report that they do not consider Gittins 
"a fit person to teach or supply any room in the school," and 
recommend that he should be removed from the second- 
mastership, and that some worthy man should be elected in 
his room. Of the charges against Jones and Harris, the 
Bailiffs of 161o-6i, which formed the subject matter of 
Meighen's Chancery suit, the Commissioners make short 
work. They justify the Bailiffs in breaking open the school- 
chest in order to take out CIo for the payment of Rowland 
Jenks's expenses to Cambridge and back, on the ground that 
Meighen had several times refused them the use of his key, 
completely ignoring his plea that the message to Cambridge 
about the election of a new third master need not have cost 
anything. But Meighen had made the much more serious 
charge that Jones and Harris had taken advantage of the 
school-chest lying "open to their disposition " during the 
rest of their year of office, after they had once forced his lock, 
to take therefrom not only "divers deeds, evidences, and 
accounts," but "divers sums of money," part of which they 
had expended in prosecuting a suit against him and the 
other masters. It is recorded in the school account-book by 
the Bailiffs who succeeded Messrs. Jones and Harris that the 
money which they had taken amounted to C3o, and that 
they had rendered no account whatever of the way in which 

i It is only fair to state that among the Corporation orders which have been 
preserved is one belonging to the year I6o7-I6o8, which directs some unnamed 
master to be admonished for absence and neglect of duty, and that this order 
may have been issued during the few weeks which elapsed between the admission 
of the Bailiffs to office and the death of Mr. John Baker on November 27th. 
But it seems far more likely that it was issued after Mr. Gittins's promotion had 
been proposed with the view of damaging his claims. There is no proof, however, 
that this order applied to Gittins at all. 


been disappointed too in not obtaining the office of catechist 
when the Rev. John Foorde died in I628. The Bishop 
recommended him, and the Corporation approved; but 
Meighen seems to have objected to his appointment. 1 
Ralph Gittins returned to his old post under somewhat 
unfavourable circumstances. Hardly had he resumed work 
when an outbreak of sickness in the town compelled the 
migration of the school to the new country school-house 
at Grinshill. This happened apparently soon after the 
summer holidays, and the masters and boys were not able 
to return to Shrewsbury for many months.  Of the school 
doings during the stay at Grinshill we know nothing, except 
that Meighen was prevented by sickness from attending the 
November audit in the Exchequer, and that he was re- 
presented there by Thomas Hayward, his son-in-law. 3 
It is probable that when the Bailiffs pressed the college 
so strongly to appoint Ralph Gittins once more to be second 
master they had in view his future promotion to the higher 
room. Early- in I632 Meighen permanently ceased to do 
any teaching in school. 4 His work was taken at first by 
temporary substitutes, and afterwards by Gittins.  But 
Meighen retained in his own hands the general management 
and supervision of the school. But two years' experience 
convinced the leading members of the Corporation that this 
system of divided responsibility did not work well. They 

his successor. There is no doubt that they had Gittins in their minds at the time. 
They had already written to the Lord Keeper in his behalf. (Hist. of St. 
John's College, vol. i. p. 500.) 
 See Hotchkis AI'SS. 
* The plague was still raging in Shrewsbury in x632. (OwwN and B.Aw,Y.) 
3 See school register. It is noted in the school account-book that Meighen 
borrowed a bell from St. Chad's to take to Grinshi11. 
* In the case submitted by the Bailiffs in July, x635, to the Judges of Assize 
and the Recorder of Shrewsbury, it is stated that Meighen had then "ceased to 
exercise the functions of his office for more than three years by reason of his great 
age" (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 2,o4), so he must probably have resumed work 
again after he "sequestered himself from teaching" in t63. 
3 A student named Robert 13enney, who was admitted at Gonville and Caius 
College in 634, is described in the college register as educated at Shrewsbury 
School under Mr. Simmons, and there are three or four students entered at St. 
John's College, Cambridge, in 1635, whose education is attributed to Mr. Gittins. 


executors of the late Robert Betton, the senior alderman 
at the time of the loan, who, with Richard Berrington, the 
senior member of the Town Council, also now dead, had 
chae of the four keys by which the school-chest was un- 
locked, for misappropriation of the school funds. On 
December 24th, I646, the plaintiffs' bill, together with the 
defendants' answers and the plaintiffs' exceptions to the 
same, came before the Master of the Rolls, who ordered that 
Mr. Edward Rich, one of the Masters of the Court, should 
examine the various documents, and that, if he did not 
consider the answers sufficient, the defendants should be 
ordered to make more perfect answers. The next time we 
hear of these legal proceedings is on July 23rd , I65o, on 
which day a petition was presented by the Corporation to 
the Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal, praying for 
sequestration against the estate of Richard Gibbons, unless 
he should duly answer the plaintiffs' bill. The Court ordered 
that sequestration should issue in compliance with the peti- 
tioners' request, unless Richard Gibbons or his clerk in court 
should, after due notice given them, show cause to the 
contrary. Thomas Chaloner had, it appears, put in a more 
perfect answer to the Corporation bill of complaint, in com- 
pliance with the order made by the Master of the Rolls on 
December 24th, I646; but no second answer had been 
furnished by Richard Gibbons. 
On October 4th, I65o, Mr. Dolbye appeared as counsel for 
Richard Gibbons, and showed by affidavits that he had of 
late years suffered imprisonment in Shropshire, and that 
"since he came forth of prison he had been constrained 
to absent himself from his place of abode," and that he 
was " very much impoverished " as well as "very aged and 
infirm." The Court thereupon ordered that the conditional 
order of sequestration should be discharged. 1 Subsequently 
the High Court of Chancery appointed Commissioners 2 to 

 Richard Gibbons, the "old humorous fellow," who was offered knighthood 
by the King before he left Shrewsbury, had been for many years a member of the 
Corporation, and was Bailiff of the town in 69-2o, and again during part of the 
year 628-29. 
 The Commissioners were Richard Smith, John Hughes (?), William Cheshire, 
and Richald Taylor, gentlemen. 


or other, Chaloner got discontented with his life at Stone; 1 
and soon after June, I65O, he gave up school work altogether, 
and engaged himself as domestic tutor in the family of Sir 
John Puleston, of Emrall, one of whose sons appears to have 
been at school under him, both at Overton and Stone. Here 
he continued three years, and they do not seem to have been 
happy years. His pupils he describes as "boys of very small 
ability." Then he did not like the subordinate position which 
he held ; he had been so long a ruler that any form of servi- 
tude had become utterly distasteful to him. His thoughts 
naturally turned much at this time to the old, happy days at 
Shrewsbury, to the friends with whom he had so long been 
on intimate terms, and to the pleasant companions whom he 
used to meet at "the Sextry." It was while living at Emrall 
that Chaloner penned those lists of his old friends, of which 
mention has been made on earlier pages. Under these cir- 
cumstances it is not surprising that, when the head-master- 
ship of Ruthin School was offered him in August, I653, he 
gladly welcomed the prospect of a return to the more inde- 
pendent position of a schoolmaster. But his mind was a little 
troubled by the laughing comments of his enemies, as well as 
by the friendly hints of those more favourably disposed 
towards him, that these frequent changes of his betokened 
a roving disposition. His friends, he tells us, were beginning 
to speak of him as "lapis mobilis, cui nullus adhmreat 
muscus." His customary buoyant spirits, however, had quite 
returned when he entered on his new career on August 19th, 
1653, at Ruthin. He makes jocular notes on the names 
of the boys as he enters them on his list, bracketing together 
three brothers as "a three-branched Green," occasionally 
entering a boy as a "Petty," a name, by-the-by, which used 
to be given, and probably is still given, to boys in the 
lowest form at Charterhouse, and describing a Lloyd of 
F'enecke as "one more country boor." In one place he 
records with evident satisfaction that some boys had brought 
him a gold Jacobus, and others a "Charles on horseback," 

 His wife seems to have died about this time, and her loss had probably some- 
thing to do with his change of life. 


humour, the King declared that he saw a star in the heavens, 
it being broad daylight at the time. 
Shortly afterwards one of his courtiers, who was standing 
near, moved by the continued assertions of the King, declared 
that he also saw the star. "See, there it is," he said, "how 
brightly it shines!" Others then joined in, and declared 
that they also could see the star. But there was one by- 
stander who did not scruple to deny that the star was visible 
to him. " I have," he said," no such far-seeing eyes ; I see no 
star." " Sayest thou so ?" answered the King. "Thou art an 
honest and a truthful man, but these others are ready to 
affirm or deny anything to win favour." 
Then the preacher went on to apply his story. " I do not 
deny, for my part, that a new reformation star has risen in 
our ecclesiastical hemisphere. But if anyone from blindness 
or dimness of sight should fail to see this star, and should 
ingenuously acknowledge that he could not see it, he would 
be, in my opinion, a far honester man than those time-servers 
who, in full sail for promotion, exclaim impudently enough, 
'The star, the star!' when perhaps they can see nothing of 
the kind." 
A journey to London, and an interview with the Lord 
Protector, led to the Ruthin question being left entirely to 
the discretion of the Major-General of the district. Uncertain 
as to what might ultimately be his fate, his mind swayed 
alternately by hopes and fears, Chaloner set off homeward, 
and had nearly reached Whitchurch, in Shropshire, when an 
accident happened to him, which he describes in an amusing 
His mare stumbled, and having thrown him in the mud, 
fell with her whole weight upon the lower part of his 
body. He was able, he says, "to cry aloud and bewail 
his sins," but not to free himself "from the jaws of so 
imminent a death," and it would have been all over with 
him had not a maidservant opportunely come to his aid. 
How she helped him he does not mention, but the danger 
from which he escaped was (in his own mind at least) con- 
siderable ; for he notes in his diary that his "daily thanks are 


turned to his old assistant at Overton, David Peirce, with 
whom lVlrs. Chaloner had quarrelled, and to whom he had 
generously advanced money for his support at Cambridge. 
Peirce had subsequently obtained employment in another 
school, and Chaloner hoped that he might be able to repay 
a portion of the sum which he had advanced to him. But, 
on inquiry, it turned out that Peirce had become subject to 
attacks of "melancholia," and was likely in consequence to 
lose his mastership, his sole means of subsistence. So no 
help was to be looked for from that quarter. And vhen the 
new school at Newport was opened prosperity did not come 
to it all at once. Forty-five boys, it is true, had followed 
their old master from Ruthin ; but nev pupils xvere slow to 
appear, and some sixteen months seem to have elapsed 
before the school could be said to have firmly established 
its reputation. By that time the numbers had sufficiently 
increased to justify the appointment of a second master; 
and the post was offered by Mr. Adams to the Head 
Master's eldest son Thomas, who had graduated at Cam- 
bridge some years before, and had been for three years 
Head Master of a school near Malpas, in Cheshire, probably 
Nantwich. x 
A Newport school list, dated June 26th, I658, and con- 
taining as many as 242 names, has been preserved. It is in 
the handxvriting of the younger Chaloner, who has prefixed 
to it a brief account of his ovn appointment to the second- 
mastership, in which account his father and chief is spoken 
of in a somewhat patronizing fashion. In December of the 
same year Chaloner sent tvo complimentary addresses in 
Latin verse to Mr. William Dugard, Head Master of Mer- 
chant Tailors' School, who had recently published a Lexicon 
of the Greek Testament for the use of schoolboys. Both 
addresses are given in an edition of the book printed in I66o. 
Whatever may be their poetic merits in the eyes of modern 

a Thomas Chaloner, jun., describes the school of which he had been master for 
three years as Schola Vico-Malbanensis. This school was probably Nantwich, as 
boys from Nantwich School, admitted at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1656 
and 1659, are said to have been educated under Mr. Chaloner. 


Salopians, they are worth preserving as illustrations of the 
kindly humour of their author. 

"Plostello innixus, paulatim, parvulus infans 
Assuescit teneris terram contingere plantis, 
Brachiaque adstantis fastidit nora puellm : 
ILia videns, ridensque simul, mihi gratulor, inquit 
Taedia defessis tandem excussisse lacertis, 
Canitiem septena mihi jam lustra tulerunt 
Dictanti pueris lingum primordia Grmc, 
Ah quoties duri post tmdia longa laboris 
Hora fatigatum dimisit quinta Magistrum. 
Tu plaustrum, Dugarde, scholis puerile parsti, 
Cui tarda innitens Tironum infantia, post hac 
Figere sponte suS. gressus, et poplite moto 
Alternate pedes per Grmca volumina possit 
Neglectus gaudetque tuens meditamina Doctor, 
Ergo tibi grates debemus, quotquot ubivis 
Ingenuam facile pubem moderamur haben : 
Nemo magis, quam cujus adhuc vexata procellis 
Innumeris, perpessa minas cmlique marisque, 
Tandem tuta, Novo consedit cymbula Por/u. 

" Invit quotquot lucem videre Minervi 
Et piper et scombros plurima scripta timent. 
At tua in mternos industria parturit usus 
Quantum vis serm posteritatis opus. 
Cui frustrg quisquam curas adhibere secundas 
Spondeat, aut plagio, vendicet ista suo 
Hinc prmceptori repetendm nausea crambes 
Tollitur ;hinc stimulum Tiro laboris habet. 
Auglnina quam celeri mild parvus crescat alumnus 
Cui sic prmmansos indis in ora cibos." 

Here, in this IVew Port of which Chaloner speaks, which 
was not destined, however, to be his final haven of rest, we 
must leave him for a time, while we return to Shrewsbury 
School, which had remained meanwhile in the charge of Mr. 
Pigott, the gentleman whom the puritan authorities had, with 
a calm indifference to the school ordinances, appointed Head 
Master after Chaloner's expulsion. 



Chaioner's Return to Shrewsbury--His Death--Andrew Taylor, t.A., 
Head Master, 664-687--Richard Lloyd, t, Head blaster, I687--1723. 

FTERhMr. Pigott was released from prison it is probable 
that e resumed his duties at the schools, for the names 
of several new boys were entered during the month of 
August, and it was not till September 8th that the second 
master, Mr. Edward Cotton, "supplied the Head School- 
master's place. '' While Mr. Cotton remained in charge of 
the school twenty-five new boys were admitted and nineteen 
more were promoted from the accidence school to the third 
school. When once the Commissioners had decided against 
Mr. Pigott, all parties in the town seem to have concurred 
in the wish that Chaloner should return to his old duties at 
Shrewsbury. But he hesitated for a long time before he con- 
sented to do so, and it cannot be doubted that his hesitation 
was genuine. His exile had been long, many of the old 
faces which had been so familiar to him were gone, and 
Newport Grammar School had flourished greatly under his 
auspices. And so six months passed by before Chaloner 
made up his mind to return to his old home. And even 
then it was under the influence of pressure, and not very 
kindly pressure, that he decided to move. There were those 
at Newport whose interest it was that he should leave 
the place. Writing on March 4th, I66:]-, Chaloner expressly 
ascribes his determination to leave Newport to the "im- 
perious and crafty" behaviour of his "under master," with 
whom, he says, he could no longer bear to associate.  Poor 
Chaloner! His wife would quarrel with his assistant 
 See school register. 


He did not, hovever, remain long at Shrewsbury School, 
for we find that, towards the end of I672 , the second-master- 
ship became again vacant. Once more the Corporation 
determined to assert its claim to appoint the Shrewsbury 
masters. On receiving a notification of the vacancy the 
master and seniors of St. John's College proceeded to elect 
a new second master. Their choice fell on the Rev. Richard 
Andrews, M.A., a member of their own college, a former 
scholar of Shrewsbury School, and the son of a burgess.  
But the Corporation refused to acknowledge the validity of 
the appointment, and at once installed in the second master's 
room the Rev. Oswald Smith, B.A., of Christ Church, Oxford, 
who had only recently taken his degree.  The Mayor, no 
doubt, had the legal right to refuse his assent to the college 
nomination for "reasonable cause." But to install another 
gentleman, without asking the college for a fresh nomina- 
tion, was an act of manifest illegality. Litigation naturally 
ensued, and the contest was carried on for several years, 
much to the detriment of the interests of the school; as, 
upon these occasions, the Corporation almost invariably had 
recourse to the school-chest for its law expenses. Chancery 
proceedings commenced in I675, the matter having been 
referred to the Lord Keeper by Order in Council dated 
December I6th, I674. 
Hotchkis has preserved some interesting letters written 
from London by Mr. Francis Gibbons, who was acting as 
solicitor for the Corporation, to Mr. Alkis, giving various 
details as to the progress of the Oswald Smith case. 
The first letter is dated June 29th, I675. From it we 

 Richard Andrews was the son of Mr. Roger Andrews, a shoemaker of 
Shrewsbury. He was baptised at St. Julian's on December 2rid, 647, entered 
Shrewsbury School in 656, and was admitted sizar of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, on January 3th, 66, at the age of sixteen. He graduated B.A. in 
x667 and M.A. in 67. Iiis nomination by the college to the second-master- 
ship bears date December x2th, 672. His prospects in life were not much 
affected by the adverse action of the Corporation, as he obtained the rectories of 
Upton Magna and Withington. He died in 726. 
 Oswald Smirk was son of the Rev. James Smith, Rector of Withington. He 
graduated B.A. in 67 and M.A. in 672. Benefactor to the school library in 
69I. Died July 26th, 75. 


learn that the Lord Keeper x had appointed that day for a 
rehearing of the whole question at issue between the college 
and the Corporation. Sir Thomas Jones and Sir William 
Baldwin were counsel for the latter, and Sir John King was 
retained for the former. The heads of the case for the town 
are given, and a very poor case it was. It consisted chiefly 
of an assertion and an argument. The assertion was that the 
Corporation had a plain right to nominate masters, and the 
argument that they were the fittest persons to do so. It 
seems from Mr. Gibbons's letter that his clients were inclined 
to agree to a sort of compromise, and had expressed their 
willingness, so long as the right of appointment was acknow- 
ledged to be theirs by the college, to nominate a second 
person if the college, on examination, should judge their 
first nominee to be unfit, and to allow the college to elect 
masters when they had no duly qualified candidates of their 
own to appoint. So preposterous did these suggestions 
appear to the Corporation counsel that they refused to bring 
them before the Lord Keeper; and ,Mr. Gibbons's only re- 
course was to go to Sir John King and ask him to consent 
to a postponement of the hearing, on the ground that the 
defendants' counsel could not attend, agreeing, of course, to 
pay costs. In the meantime he sought further instructions 

from the Corporation. 
Chancery disputes, even in 
brought to an end, and the 
going on in December, I677. 
year Mr. Gibbons wrote to 

those days, were not quickly 
Oswald Smith case was still 
On November Ioth of that 
Mr. Adam Oatley, the Town 

Clerk of Shrewsbury, at the desire of Lord Newport, who 
was interesting himself in the matter, to ask for further 
evidence. But the town had no evidence worthy of notice 
to produce, and on November 3oth Mr. Gibbons had to 
tell his clients that, after reading the letters supplied by 
them, which were found to agree with those in the college 
book, the general opinion was that the Corporation had no 

a Sir Heneage Finch, Bart., was appointed Lord Keeper on November 9th, 
I672, and Lord Chancellor on December lgth, I675. In the interval he had 
been created Baron Finch of Daventry. 


petitioners that the inhabitants sent their boys to other 
schools in consequence of the masters' neglect, and that, at 
the time the information was filed, there were only eight 
boys in the highest school. 
In the decree issued by Lord Chancellor Macclesfield, 
apparently in the same term, it was ordered that Mr. Lloyd 
should be given six months time to make up his mind 
whether he would resign the head-mastership or his vicarage. 
In other respects the plaintiffs' bill was dismissed. No costs 
were given to either side? Probably Mr. Lloyd decided to 
give up the Vicarage of Sellack, as he did not resign the 
head-mastership till June, I723. He died in I733, aged 
seventy-two, and was buried in St. Mary's Church. Various 
changes took place in the staff of masters during the time 
Mr. Lloyd was Head Master, and the Corporation took 
advantage of the very first vacancy that occurred to assert 
again, in defiance of the ordinances, its right to appoint the 
schoolmasters, and to pay the cost of any consequent 
litigation out of the school funds. In 688, the year after 
Mr. Lloyd's appointment, the third-mastership became 
vacant by the resignation of Mr. John Taylor,  xvho had held 
it since x659. Mr. Henry Johnson, 3 a graduate of their own 
college and a native of Shrewsbury, was nominated by the 
master and seniors of St. John's as his successor. 
Emboldened apparently by the fact that Mr. Oswald 
Smith, in spite of the acknowledged illegality of his appoint- 
ment, had been ultimately allowed to retain the second room 
in which he had been placed by order of the Corporation, 
that body, instead of admitting the college nominee, 
proceeded to make an appointment of its own, selecting 

a See /-]otdz/s JISS. and B/akeway lllSS. In ! 722-23 a Corporation order 
was voted that one of the schoolmasters, having accepted a living, should quit the 
school. This order seems to indicate that no notice had been taken of the 
decree in Chancery by the Head Master, or else that he had resigned Sellack 
in 17I 7 and had subsequently taken another living. 
 Mr. John Taylor was buried at St. Mary's August st, 688. 
 The newly appointed master was a son of Mr. Henry Johnson, an alderman 
of Shrewsbury. He was admitted pensioner of St. John's College on May 31st, 
1682, and graduated B.A. in 686. 


proviso that this right should pass to the Bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry and the Dean of Lichfield for the time being, 
in case Ashton should die before they were framed. In 
accordance with the provisions of the Queen's indenture 
ordinances were ultimately made by Ashton after con- 
sultation with the Bailiffs of Shrewsbury, Sir George 
Bromley, Sir Henry Townshend, and other learned and 
experienced friends, and to these ordinances the Corporation 
of Shrewsbury gave its full assent on February IIth, I57. 
Now, by one of them, it was provided that, whenever an), 
of the three masterships contemplated by the ordinances 
should become vacant the master and seniors of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, should "elect and send an able, meet, 
and apt man" to fill the post, the right of disallowing 
their choice for "reasona31e cause" being given to the Bailiffs, 
and it is difficult to understand how, under these circum- 
stances, the Corporation can have been so ill-advised as 
again and again to ignore the legal rights of the college. 
Still more preposterous was the assertion made b), the 
members of that body that they were better able to make 
a fit choice than the Cambridge men. It is to be hoped 
that the Shrewsbury burgesses were more wrong-headed 
than dishonest in the matter, and that they were influenced 
by desire of power rather than by love of jobbery. But 
we must remember at the same time that the Head Master 
would be able to exercise little power as co-trustee with 
the Bailiffs of the school property were he to become a 
mere nominee of the Corporation, and that the unrestricted 
right of appointing the other masters would secure for the 
leading members of the Corporation opportunities of pro- 
viding suitable and well-paid work for such of their friends 
and relations as had received university education. Litigation 
too, we must not forget, was not carried on between the 
Corporation and the college upon equal terms; for while 
the college authorities had to pay their own law expenses, 
the costs of the Corporation were taken from the school- 
chest. And this fact accounts, no doubt, for the Corporation 
resuming the contest again and again in spite of repeated 


The resignation of Mr. Lloyd, the Head Master, in June, 
I723, was the signal for another and, as it proved, a final 
struggle on the part of the Corporation for supremacy in the 
appointment of schoolmasters.. For some time past strenuous 
efforts had been made to bring about the Head Master's 
resignation, with the view of installing in his place Mr. Hugh 
Owen, B.A., of Jesus College, Oxford, a native of Carnarvon- 
shire. Mr. Owen had not been born in Shropshire nor 
educated at Shrewsbury School, and he was not an M.A. 
of at least two years' standing. 
In order, apparently, in some way to make up for his 
entire want of statutory qualifications Mr. Owen was ad- 
mitted as a burgess of Shrewsbury in 172. Sometime 
during the year 1721-22 an order was voted by the Corpora- 
tion that "the schoolmaster having accepted a living should 
quit the school," and there can be no moral doubt that this 
order was passed with the view of enforcing Mr. Lloyd's 
resignation. It will be remembered that, when an informa- 
tion against Mr. Lloyd was filed in the Court of Chancery in 
I7I 7, Lord Chancellor Macclesfield decided that it was a 
breach of the school ordinances for the Head Master to hold 
a parochial cure with his mastership, and gave Mr. Lloyd 
six months to decide which he would resign, Shrewsbury 
School or the Vicarage of Sellack. It is almost impossible to 
suppose that, in spite of this decree, Mr. Lloyd had continued 
to hold the living of Sellack up to I72I , and Mr. Corbet 
Kynaston, I.P. for Shrewsbury, would hardly have said as he 
did in I723, that the Corporation had "unjustly endeavoured 
to oblige him to resign," if that body had merely called upon 
Mr. Lloyd to obey the Lord Chancellor's decree in the 
matter of Sellack Vicarage. It is probable that the Corpora- 
tion order, to which reference has been made, was passed 
with the object of representing the two Cathedral stalls, 
which Mr. Lloyd still held, as within the scope of the Lord 
Chancellor's decree. Two interesting letters written by Mr. 
Corbet Kynaston in I723, which have recently been printed 
in Shrewsbury Notes and Queries, prove conclusively that 
for some time before Mr. Lloyd absolutely resigned it had 


for him to accept the proffered terms and resign in such 
manner and at such time as would best suit the convenience of 
the municipal authorities. Mr. Kynaston's answer is clear 
and distinct. The Corporation would not think of offering 
terms to the Head Master if its members believed they had 
the power of removing him from his place. Any terms offered 
by Mr. 13rickdale must be looked upon with suspicion, as 
Shrewsbury rumours pointed to an engagement betveen 
Miss Brickdale and Mr. Hugh Owen, or rather to an engage- 
ment prospective on the intended bridegroom obtaining the 
head-mastership. Mr. Kynaston was decidedly of opinion 
that Mr. Lloyd could not in honour treat with the Corpora- 
tion on any terms without the knowledge and consent of the 
college, and that he xvould expose himself to very unfavour- 
able comments if he did so. The second letter, which was 
written four days later to the Rev. William Clark, does not 
throw much further light on the subject. It appears from it 
that Mr. Clark's difficulty in accepting Mr. Lloyd's pro- 
posed terms of resignation was that he was asked to give up 
a certainty in exchange for a disputed title, which he vould 
have to defend at his own expense. The college, it must be 
remembered, had only just resolved to maintain its rights in 
the Law Courts. It is evident from his letters that Mr. 
Kynaston was firmly convinced that the course taken by the 
Corporation was calculated to injure the school and to be 
detrimental to the public good. 
How Mr. Lloyd's negotiations with the Corporation ended 
it does not appear. But it seems probable that the suggestion 
made by Mr. Kynaston that he should formally give notice to 
the college of his desire to resign in favour of Mr. William 
Clark was not carried out, as the Mayor and Corporation 
would hardly have ventured to install Mr. Hugh Owen in the 
Head iXIaster's room, as they did on July 2nd, unless Mr. Lloyd 
had previously placed in their hands an unconditional resig- 
nation of his office. Of Mr. Clark's intellectual capacity his 
position as fellow of St. John's College and his published 
works are sufficient evidence. The only witnesses to Mr. 
Owen's abilities and fitness are certain anonymous "persons 

FIED .%IASTER *735--*754 


right to appoint. The first official, who was not also curate 
of St. Mary's, was Mr. Pigott, the puritan Head Master, who 
was appointed in x65 x. Since that time the office had been 
sometimes held by clergymen, and sometimes by laymen, 
but never again by the curate of St. Mary's. In 77 the 
members of the Corporation set up an absurd claim to 
appoint the official without any reference either to the 
Mayor or to the Head Master, and formally elected the 
Rev. Lawrence Gardner. But they do not seem to have 
continued the struggle any longer after Dr. Phillips had 
been duly appointed by the legal electors, t On his death, 
however, when the post again became vacant, the claims 
of the Corporation were asserted in a much more objection- 
able fashion. On March 3oth, I736, Mr. Brickdale 2 and 
Mr. Baskerville brought to the Head Master the draft of 
a lease of the official's place, which the Corporation proposed 
to grant to Mr. Ryder for the term of twenty-one years 
at the annual rent of 4os., and asked for his signature; 
but they refused to leave it for his further consideration. 
It is impossible to regard this proposed lease of the official's 
place as anything but barefaced jobbery. 8 Whether Mr. 
Hotchkis looked at the matter in this light or not is not 
apparent. His assigned reason for refusing to join in 
executing the lease was that his immediate predecessor 
had been the official. He evidently was of opinion that 
there was no good reason why he should not hold the 
office just as it had been held before by Mr. Pigott and 

a On the occasion of Dr. Phillips's election the Mayor was William Kynaston, 
Esq., a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge, and a barrister-at-law, a man 
unlikely to be influenced by those motives which seem unhappily so often to have 
swayed the ordinary members of the Shrewsbury Corporation. His father was 
William Kynaston, Esq., of Ryton, Salop. He had been at Shrewsbury School 
in Mr. Lloyd's time, and was admitted at St. John's College on June x6th, x698, 
aged seventeen, graduating subsequently, B.A. in x7o 3 and M.A. in x7o7. 
2 Mr. Michael Brickdale, no doubt. 
s To seek the Head Master's signature for the lease was practically to acknow- 
ledge his legal rights with regard to the appointment of officials, and it is hardly 
possible to suppose that the men, who were prepared to squander the school 
money in hopeless efforts to maintain the untenable claims of the C,,rporation. 
proposed to lease the oce for the pecuniary benefit of the school. 


John's College, Cambridge; and the Rev. Edward Blake- 
way, M., x fellow of bIagdalene College, Cambridge. 
One other boy who was at school in Hotchkis's time may be 
mentioned, though he left a doubtful reputation behind him. 
This is Richard Parrott, the son of a Shrewsbury distiller, 
who was entered in the third school in I738, and graduated 
at Queen's College, Cambridge, in I743. He has been de- 
scribed as a swindler, a strolling player, and a profligate 
polygamist. But he managed to ingratiate himself with 
Edward Augustus, Duke of York, and by his influence was 
made a baronet on January 3rd, I767, with patent of pre- 
cedency dating from July 1st, I716. * 

I Edward Blakeway, eldest son of Mr. Peter Blakeway, of Shrewsbury, sur- 
geon, by Dorothy, daughter of Mr. Joshua Johnson, who was fourth master at 
Shrewsbury Scbool, I7o6-I7,3. Born February 5th, I73, and educated at 
Shrewsbury and Magdalene College, Cambridge; B.A. (Wrangler) in I756 ; 
M.A., I759 ; curate of St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, I763-I794; Rector of Long 
Staunton, Cambridge, I764-I779. In 777 he was presented to the Rectory of 
Fitton, Gloucestershire, by his brother-in-law, blatthew Brickdale, Esq. ; and in 
I786 Lord Chancellor Thurlow gave him the Vicarage of Neen Savage, Salop. 
On September 3rd, I764, he married Mary, daughter of John Brickdale, Esq., of 
Knowle, Somersetshire. Died February Tth, I795- Benefactor to school library 
in 76o. (h'ICHOL'S Littrary Illustrations; OwEN and BLAKEVAY.) 
 See lakeway 1S. 


teenth century, the Rev. Rowland Hill,  known as "The 
Preacher," was also at Shrewsbury in Newling's time, though 
he was removed to F-ton College before entering at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, in I764. Rowland Hill graduated B.A. 
in I769 and M.A. in I772. While resident at Cambridge 
he was in the habit of visiting the sick and prisoners. He 
also took to street preaching, and was often interrupted and 
molested by mobs. After taking his degree Rowland Hill 
sought holy orders; but his reputation for irregular preaching 
created a prejudice against him, and it was not till after 
he had been rejected by six bishops that Dr. Wills, the 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, ordained him in 777. A similar 
difficulty met him a year or two later when he was refused 
priest's orders by the Bishop of Carlisle at the instigation 
of the Archbishop of York. After this second repulse 
Rowland Hill became a nonconformist, and a chapel was 
built for him at Wootton, Gloucestershire, where he never 
failed to officiate sometime during the year for the rest 
of his life. Surrey Chapel, in London, which was built 
for him in 783, became from that time the chief scene 
of his labours. He died on April Ith, 833. A few of 
his sermons and hymns and a tract written by him on 
vaccination have been published. 
Thomas Johnes, F.R.S., M.P., the translator of Froissart, was 
also a pupil of Newling's; but, like Rowland Hill, he re- 
moved to F-ton before going to college. He was born at 
Ludlow in 748, but belonged to an old Carmarthenshire 
and Cardiganshire family. His father, Thomas Johnes, Esq., 
was seated at Llanvairclydogan, and was elected M.P. for 
Radnorshire in 1777. His mother, Elizabeth, was daughter 
of Richard Knight, Esq., of Croft Castle, Herefordshire. 
Thomas Johnes, the younger, became Lord Lieutenant of 
Cardiganshire, Colonel of the County Militia, and Auditor 
 Rowland Zill, sixth son of Sir Rowland Hill, Bart., was born at Hawkestone 
Park. Salop, on August 23rd, I744- He seems to have been from his boyhood 
much under the influence of his eldest brother, Richard, a somewhat prominent 
politician who represented Shropshire in the House of Commons, and who was a 
strenuous champion of George Whitfield and the Calvinistic Methodists. 
 See Diet. of Nat. Biog. 

ACT OF 798 -59 

Although the preferential claims to livings and exhibi- 
tions which were given to the sons of burgesses, etc., by the 
old ordinances were retained by the Act of I798, a new 
condition was imposed that candidates must have been at 
Shrewsbury School for two years at least before going to 
college. Power was also given to the Corporation to give 
an absolute preference, if they should think fit, over all other 
candidates for school livings, to any head or second master 
who should have resigned his office. It svas, moreover, 
expressly ordained that candidates for exhibitions must be 
duly qualified in respect of learning, good manners, and 
behaviour. The selection of all masters except the second 
was for the future to be left to the Head Master. Power 
was given to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry to dismiss 
the head or second master for immorality, incapacity, neglect 
of duty, or other reasonable cause, on the written complaint 
of the majority of the Governors. Any of the assistant 
masters might be dismissed by the Head Master on similar 
grounds. It was expressly provided that the head and 
second masters should be members of the Church of Eng- 
land, and that the Head Master should fill the office of 
catechist and reader. This latter proviso made it for the 
first time practically obligatory on the electors to choose a 
clergyman in holy orders as Head Master. The Governors 
were empowered to make bye-lavs for the general govern- 
ment of the school, so long as they did not affect its character 
as a " Free Grammar School," and they were also directed to 
apply surplus revenues to the foundation of new exhibitions at 
Oxford or Cambridge. But after founding one such exhibition 
they were to be at liberty, if they should think fit, to increase 
the stipends of the ministers of any of the four school livings 
of St. Mary's in Shrewsbury, Chirbury, Astley, or Clive. 
Absolute control over the xvays and methods of teaching 
in the school was assigned to the Head Master. The 
exhibitions already founded at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, were to be retained, and might be increased in value 
if the Governors should think fit. 
The first act of the new Governing Body was to pension 


shire, whose eldest son had been a school-fellow of his at 
Rugby. Mr. Eyton was one of the chief promoters of the 
movement for bringing about a reform of the system of 
management of Shrewsbury School, and it was probably 
owing to his suggestions that Mr. Butler first entertained the 
notion of offering himself as a candidate for the head-master- 
ship when the proposed changes should be effected. 1 A few 
months after taking his degree in 1796 Mr. Butler became 
engaged to be married, and thought at first of settling down 
somewhere in the country with the view of taking pupils. 
But he was dissuaded from this by his old master, Dr. James, 
who urged him strongly to seek in preference the head- 
mastership of some endowed grammar school. The fact that 
Dr. James was in Shropshire at the time he wrote this advice 
to his old pupil reminded Mr. Butler no doubt of his former 
notions about Shrewsbury School, and made him vrite in 
return that Shrewsbury was a place where he might have 
influence to help him. Dr. James consequently made it his 
business while in the neighbourhood to learn all he could 
about the state of things at Shrewsbury, and his report to 
Butler as to future prospects was favourable. Happily for 
the school Mr. Butler made up his mind to follow his old 
master's advice, and soon after the Act of 798 was passed 
he was elected by his college Head Master of Shrewsbury.  
The gentleman chosen at the same time for the second- 
mastership was the Rev. William Adams, II.A., of Pembroke 
College, Oxford. 

 Butler's Zife and Letters, vol. i. p. x 5. 
.o The election seems to have taken place in July. Mr. Butler was already 
Head l,1aster when Mr. Sleath, the second master of Rugby, wrote to him on 
August Ist, 1798. (Add. MSS. British lIuseum, 34,583. ) 

HEAD .IAqTEI 78--x836 


some years' cessation, were again renewed during the last few 
years in which they were colleagues, must also have been a 
serious impediment to the prosperity of Shrewsbury School. 
Mr. Butler, indeed, had been nearly twenty years at work 
before the condition of the school could fairly be described 
as prosperous. It is not surprising then to find that when 
Dr. Ingles, who had succeeded Dr. James as Head Master 
of Rugby, resigned his office in I8o6, Mr. Butler was 
desirous of returning to his old school as its chief. Happily, 
however, for Shrewsbury, his candidature was not successful.  
About this time Dr. James Cornwallis, Bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry, collated Mr. Butler to a prebendal stall at 
Lichfield. He was already in charge of two cures, the 
chapelry of Berwick, * near Shrewsbury, which he had held 
since I8oI, and the Vicarage of Kenilworth, to which he had 
been presented by Lord Clarendon in I8o2. The year in 
which Mr. Butler was rejected for Rugby is also note- 
worthy for the commencement of that wonderful series of 
university distinctions which his Shrewsbury pupils were 
destined to gain. The school-room in which the ttead 
Master used to teach the sixth and upper fifth forms in 
those days was the room on the ground floor, which was 
in later times appropriated, first to the fourth form, and then 
to the shell. On the oaken panels of this room were painted 
the names of all Shrewsbury boys who gained university 
scholarships or prizes, or took first classes at Oxford or 
Cambridge. The first name inscribed on these honour 
boards  was that of Thomas Smart Hughes,* who in I8o6 
 By this time Mr. Butler was well aware that injurious reports as to his over 
severity were prevalent in Shrewsbury, and he was inclined to attribute his 
rejection at Rugby to the existence of these rumours. But his friend, 
William Hill, afterwards Lord Berwick, ascertained for him from one of the 
Rugby trustees that his suspicion was without foundation. {Bv2ler's Life and 
Letters, vol. i. p. 50.) 
u Mr. Butler retained the Berwick chapelry till April 7th, 1815. He was 
succeeded there by the Rev. Evan Griffith, one of the assistant masters, who had 
for some years shared with him the conduct of the services. 
3 The honour boards have, of course, followed the school to its new home on 
 T. & l-]ugtzes also won the Browne medal for a Greek ode in IK) and one of 
the Members' prizes in ,8o9 and 18,o. He was a son of the Rev. Hugh Hughes, 

o .: 


familiar enough at the present day; but as he was the first 
person to put them forward publicly, it is only fair to his 
memory to repeat them, much as he stated them to Mr. 
Brougham. In the first place he calls attention to Camden's 
statement, made originally in I586, that Shrewsbury was the 
best-filled school in all England. Secondly, he points out 
that the original Charter of Edward VI. was granted at the 
request, not only of the burgesses of Shrewsbury, but also 
of the inhabitants of all the neighbouring country. 
He also lays stress on the facts-- 
(3) That boys from all parts of the kingdom resorted to 
Shrewsbury School at the time of its foundation, as they did 
also at the time he was writing; 
(4) That among its distinguished scholars Shrewsbury 
could reckon Sir Philip Sidney; Sir Fulke Greville; Lord 
Brooke; and Sir James Harrington, Bart., in the sixteenth 
century ; and Dr. John Taylor and Professor Edward Waring 
in the eighteenth century ; 
(5) That boys were educated at Shrewsbury in the highest 
departments of literature ; 
(6) That the school possessed ample endowments ; 
(7) That in public honours gained at the universities 
Shrewsbury was worthy of comparison with any of the 
exempted schools ; 
(8) That there were at the time he was writing as many 
as I6o boys on the school list, a number which might be 
largely increased with better accommodation ; 
(9) And that among the existing scholars there were boys 
from twenty-eight different counties in England and Wales, 
besides several from Scotland and Ireland. 
Mr. Brougham's bills were ultimately abandoned. 1 
In IS2I Dr. Butler was appointed Archdeacon of Derby 
by Dr. James Cornwallis, the Bishop of Lichfield and 

x See BAKER'S I-J'iSl. of St..ohn's College, Cambridge (Ed. Mayor). 
 Dr..lames Cornwallis became Earl Cornwallis in 18z 3 on the death of his 
nephew, the second marquis. 


to make any grant for the purpose of doing away with the 
thoroughfare, but passed a resolution to reduce the salaries 
of the masters by 5o per cent. Up to this time Dr. Butler 
seems to have known little or nothing about the lawsuit. 
But, as soon as he learned how serious the matter had 
become, with his customary vigour he set to work to make 
himself master of all its details. His labours resulted in an 
able report, for which he received the warm thanks of the 
trustees on April 9th, I824. They asked at the same time 
for his assistance in drawing up a memorial to the Court of 
Exchequer, praying for judgment in the case. The memorial 
was presented through the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
the Visitor of the school, and the case came on for hearing 
in June, I824. Judgment was ultimately given in favour of 
the trustees on November 22nd, 825, by the Lord Chief 
Baron, Sir William Alexander. The defendants appealed, 
but on December ISth, 1825, the Lord Chief Baron, after a 
three hours' argument, confirmed the previous decision of 
the Court.  The settlement of the Albrighton case and the 
closing of the thoroughfare through School Lane were two 
benefits to Shrewsbury School on xvhich, at the close of his 
career, Dr. Butler justly prided himself. 
The year I829 is notable in the history of the school as 
the year of "The Beef Roxv, '' the second outbreak of in- 
subordination with which Dr. Butler had to deal while he 
was Head Master. From time immemorial schoolboys have 
been accustomed to grumble about their food, and Shrews- 
bury boys xvere no exception to the rule. On this occasion 
their protests were directed against the boiled beef which, 
one day in the week, was the pidce de r,;sistance at dinner. 
The chief cause of offence was its redness, which was probably 
due to the saltpetre with which the beef was cured. Having 
tried remonstrance in vain, the boys in each of Dr. Butler's 
halls, on a day fixed by concerted arrangement, quietly got 
up from table and left the room as soon as the boiled beef 

a See Butler's Life and Letters, vol. L pp. 45, 246, 63, 64, 29. 
* See COLLIN$'S Public Schools; Butler's Life and letters, vol. i. p. 353 ; and 
Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,587. 


Perhaps the most notable of all Dr. Butler's assistants was 
the Rev. Frederick lliff, who went to Shrewsbury early in 
18z 3, immediately after taking his degree at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and remained there till Christmas, 833, when 
he migrated to the Liverpool Collegiate Institution of which 
he had just been appointed Principal. He is said to have 
been a sound scholar and able teacher, strong in Aristo- 
phanes, Thucydides, and Tacitus, and a great believer in 
Matthie's Greek Grammar) For eight out of the ten years 
during which he was a Shrewsbury master Mr. Iliff had 
charge of the upper fifth, except for those lessons in which 
the higher division of that form shared the Head Master's 
teaching of the sixth. His class-room was in Bromfield's 
hall. " Although by no means Butler's equal in elegant 
scholarship, he was not inclined to give way to him on 
questions of grammatical criticism." Occasionally "in the 
course of a lesson some point would arise, upon which he 
was aware that he and his chief differed in their view, when 
he would conclude his own interpretation with the signifi- 
cant remark, 'You may perhaps be told differently lower 
down the lane, but ' and there he would stop with con- 
siderable emphasis. '' So highly did Dr. Butler value Mr. 
Iliff's services that, early in 825, he agreed to let him at a 
reasonable rate one of the houses he had recently purchased 
in Raven Street, where he was to be at liberty to receive ten 
boarders. At the same time he guaranteed him an income 
of r3oo a year from stipend and pupils so long as he re- 
tained his mastership. 3 But the rapid increase of numbers 
1 See COLLIN$'$ guli Schools. Dr. Butler's son, while still at school, was 
much impressed by lr. Iliff's knowledge of Aristophanes. [See letter from 
Thomas Butler to his father, dated November 22nd, x828, in Add. MSS. Brit. 
Mus., 34,587. ) 
- This story is given by Mr. Collins, and is believed to rest on the authority of 
the Rev. James Hildyard. A somewhat similar story is told hy an Old Salopian 
still living, who remembers Mr. Iliff saying during a Juvenal lesson, when one of 
the boys told him that Dr. Butler's rendering of a passage was different from 
his, "I have known two men in my life who could construe Juvenal ; lIadan 
was one and Dr. Butler was not the other." 
3 The draft agreement is dated February 13th , 18z 5. Dr. Butler, it is worth 
noting, expressly states in the agreement that he would not undertake to recom- 
mend parents to send their sons to Mr. Iliff's, while he had any vacancies, or Mr. 
Jeudvine had less than thirty boarders. (Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 31,593.) 


Dr. Longley, also, who had just resigned Harrow on his 
appointment to the See of Ripon, while felicitating Dr. Butler 
on his approaching relief from the arduous duties of his 
"long and most honourable career," describes it as "dis- 
tinguished by a degree of splendour and success unrivalled 
in the history of public schools. ''1 
In spite, however, of the general admiration caused by the 
many triumphs gained by Dr. Butler's pupils at the universi- 
ties, and the readiness shown by schoolmasters of high position 
to learn and adopt his methods, there were some men to be 
found at both universities xvho sneered at his system or 
ascribed his success to "cramming." 
Dr. Wordsxvorth, the Master of Trinity College, is said to 
have compared Butler's occasional visits to Cambridge to 
those made by "a first-rate London milliner to Paris" in 
order "to get the fashions. ''2 But some Oxford men xvent 
further than this, and, to Dr. Butler's great indignation, 
deliberately attributed the success of Shrewsbury boys in 
university examinations to special preparation, or in other 
words, to cramming.  This was at a time vhen the same 
school had just carried off the Ireland university scholarship 
five years running, "an unfair monopoly" as it was called by 
the detractors of Shrevsbury. It vas actually suggested at 
Oxford that the nature of the examination for university 
scholarships should be changed by the introduction of" essay 
writing," and also of additional questions calculated to "elicit 
the powers and acquirements of more advanced age and 
Some time before this Dr. Butler had been greatly annoyed 
when, in two consecutive years, three Shrevsbury boys failed 
to obtain a scholarship at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
one of whom gained a scholarship at Exeter College im- 
mediately afterwards, and another was subsequently second 
Classic at Cambridge. The Corpus scholarships, it must be 

Butler's Zife and Zetters, vol. ii. p. I4o. 
/bd., vol. i, Introd. p. 9- 
Ibid., vol. ii. p. 34- 
1bid., vol. ii. p. 49. 


and has been immortalised by Dr. Butler's biographer as the 
coiner of one of the longest words known in the English 
language. Coming into the hall one night when the boys were 
very noisy, she singled out the chief offender and told him he 
was the "rampingest-scampingest-rackety-tackety-tow-row- 
roaringest boy in the house." Then pausing for a moment, 
she looked triumphantly round the hall and added, "Young 
gentlemen, prayers are excused. ''1 A delightful letter from 
Miss Butler to her brother, when he was an undergraduate 
at Cambridge, says a good deal about "Brommy's" super- 
stitions as to dreams, and also mentions her naive 
expression of hope that a new master, who had not been at 
first very successful in disciplinary matters, would "soon 
be as great a beast" as herself. - In Dr. Butler's corre- 
spondence with his old pupils we find occasional allusions 
to "Speech Day" at Shrewsbury, and it is probable, from 
the various inquiries which he made on the subject from 
Dr. James in 18oo, that this institution dates from the early 
days of his head-mastership. The fixed time for the annual 
festival appears to have been shortly before the summer 
holidays. Dr. Butler is said to have taken much trouble with 
the speeches, training the selected boys for some time before 
the appointed day. Dr. Samuel Parr was present on more 
than one Speech Day, sitting in the place of honour next to 
the Head Master, with his pipe in his mouth and his spittoon 
before him, and occasionally signifying his approval by 
quietly tapping two fingers of one hand on the palm of the 
other, an amount of applause which Dr. Butler took care 
to assure the boys meant a great deal from so great a man. 
Of the proceedings on one of these Speech Days, the last 
indeed at which Dr. Butler presided, a detailed account has 
been preserved, which shows that the chief incidents of 

 Butkr's Life and Letters, vol. L p. 3oo. 
 See Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,586- The date of the letter, which is in fact 
a sort of postscript to one from her father, is March 9th, I826. It is further in- 
teresting as indicating the climax of prosperity attained by Shrewsbury in Dr. 
Butler's time. He had already three boarding-houses of his own, and Miss 
Butler had just been to see the new boarding-house which Mr. Iliff had recently 


of the monitorial system, the establishment of which in 
English public schools was practically his work. Schoolboys, 
in his view, should be governed as much as possible by their 
peers. To anyone inquiring about such matters of Old 
Salopians the almost invariable answer has ever been, "We 
were left pretty much to ourselves. '' But if ever cases of 
bullying came formally before him Dr. Butler was severe 
enough on the bullies. He was very angry, for example, 
when he found that some of the bigger boys had caused 
douls to excavate a hole in the hillside of the ball court, 
the diameter of which increased slowly with the depth until 
two or three little boys could be enclosed. The bullies 
would then seal up the aperture by sitting upon it, and 
so turn the excavation into a "black hole of Calcutta. '' 
Boys ran away now and then, but the number of these 
runaways does not seem exceptionally large.  Public school 
life is, generally speaking, an example in a small way of the 
principle of "the survival of the fittest," and sensitive, 
nervous, and timid boys often have a bad time of it. But 
Shrewsbury men, trained under Dr. Butler, seem to have 
possessed, as a rule, characteristics which were probably 
due in great measure to the influences and traditions of 
their school life, rough and Spartan-like as it may have 
been--independence of thought, freedom from party feeling, 
and self-reliance as distinguished from self-confidence. 
An Old Salopian, still living, has cited, not unaptly, 
"Jimmy Fraser, Bishop of Manchester, carrying his own 
bag," and "Charles Darwin pressing his own views, but 
always, to the last, with the healthy feeling that he might 
 It is evident that Dr. Butler did not approve of his house masters interfering 
much with the boys out of school hours. The Rev. Arthur Willis, who was for 
some years house master in Bromfield's hall, and who is described by Dr. Butler 
as "a disciplinarian," and "undeviating" in his "attention to the boys, both 
in and out of school" (Z and Letters, vol. ii. p. t37), is declared by an 
Old Salopian still living, who was for some years in that hall, to have left the 
boys, during the winter, from 4.3o p.m., when they were locked in, till 9 p.m., 
when they went to bed, entirely to themselves. 
* See Mr. Montagu's letter before quoted. 
a The number of runaways can be easily reckoned up from Dr. Butler's register 
of admissions. 



October, 823, he went into residence at St- John's College, 
Cambridge, having left school at the preceding midsummer. 
By this time, independently of the work done under Dr. 
Butler's superintendence, Kennedy had got through an 
immense amount of "private reading," which included "all 
Thucydides, all Tacitus, all Sophocles and Aschylus, much 
Aristophanes, Pindar, Herodotus, Demosthenes, and Plato, 
besides Cicero. '' "Private reading" was a practice which 
Dr. Butler was continually recommending to the Shrewsbury 
boys, and his brilliant young pupil had so thoroughly taken 
this recommendation to heart that he was anxious at first to 
leave school six months earlier than he did so as to have 
more time to devote to it. e 
Of Kennedy's remarkable successes at Cambridge mention 
has already been made. But his university life, happily for 
himself, was by no means that of a mere bookworm. Soon 
after he went up to college he became a member of a society 
known as "the Apostles." With some of this apostolic 
band, and notably with John Sterling and Frederic Denison 
Maurice, he formed an intimate friendship. Other friends of 
Kennedy, in xvhat Lord Lytton calls "that brilliant under- 
graduate world," were Bulwer Lytton, William Mackworth 
Praed, Alexander Cockburn, Christopher Wordsworth, Charles 
Buller, and William Selwyn. Bulwer Lytton describes him 
in his undergraduate days as "an ardent, enthusiastic youth 
from Shrewsbury, a young giant in learning. '' 
Writing to Dr. Butler in the course of his first term, 
Kennedy tells him that he has become acquainted with 
Praed and Townshend and Ord, the leading spirits of the 
Union Debating Society, and has been repeatedly invited to 
join it, but that owing to his kind advice he has resisted the 
temptation: It is probable that the writer had somewhat 
misunderstood Dr. Butler's meaning, and that his sage and 
kindly master lost no time in correcting the misunderstanding, 

Butler's Life and Letters, vol. i. p. 253. 
Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,585. 
Dict. of Afar. Bg., B. H. KINNIDY. 
Butleds Zife and Zetters, vol. i. p. 259. 


836, Dr. Butler's anxiety on the subject was set at rest 
by a private and unofficial intimation vhich he received 
from the master of St. John's College, to the effect that the 
seniors had quite made up their minds to appoint Mr. 
Kennedy as soon as the vacancy should occur, and some 
time in June he was formally elected Head Master of 
After the Midsummer holidays the new chief, who had 
in the meantime taken his Doctor's degree, entered upon his 
duties at Shrewsbury with the same staff of assistant masters 
that Dr. Butler had left. It is not surprising that the 
prospect of his resignation should have caused a diminution 
in the school numbers during the last few years of Dr. 
Butler's stay at Shrewsbury. The school had reached its 
culminating point of prosperity in 1832, when the names 
of 295 boy sl were on the lists. From that time the numbers 
began to diminish, and when Dr. Kennedy commenced work 
in I836 they had fallen to 228. - Although the main features 
of Dr. Butler's system of school management--half-yearly 
examinations, promotion by merit throughout the school, 
merit-money, school bounds, and regular callings over at 
fixed intervals--were retained unchanged by the new Head 
Master, he recognized the advisability of introducing reforms 
in various matters. A remarkable letter, which was written 
by Bishop Butler to Edward Strutt, Esq., ILP., on November 
-8th, I836 , on the subject of education, shows that the great 
classical schoolmaster had now become convinced that the 
time was come for English public schools "to pay attention 
to modern languages and modern history," and, in general, to 
"keep pace with the advancement of mankind." It was by 
Dr. Butler's advice, as well as at his own desire, that Dr. 
Kennedy at once made French a regular part of the school 

a It is so stated by Dr. Kennedy. But it appears from Blr. John Bather's 
evidence before the Public School Commissioners that the maximum numbers 
attained by the school in Dr. Butler's time were somewhat greater than this. 
lVlr. Bather said that there were at one time, between 1829 and x837 , as many 
as 3oi boys at Shrewsbury. 
2 See Dr. Kennedy's evidence before the Public School Commission. 


done so since they had been at school.  The customary 
long-lie on Sunday was also abolished, and henceforth 
there was always a first lesson on that day, comprising some 
form of religious instruction. Some Old Salopians, at any 
rate, still speak with gratitude of the Greek Testament 
lessons which were now for the first time given in the 
higher forms. 
Another important institution which is due to Dr. Kennedy 
is known to Shrewsbury boys as Top Schools?" Long before 
his time his predecessor had been recommended by Dr. James 
to send the boys into school to prepare their lessons under 
the charge of one of the masters--at any rate, until studies 
had been provided, s But Dr. Butler does not appear to 
have followed this advice. An Old Salopian, who boarded 
in Bromfield's hall, speaks feelingly at the present day of 
the inconvenience arising from the fact that during the 
winter months the boys were locked up in their respective 
houses from 4.3o p.m. till bedtime without any precaution 
being taken by the house master to pay occasional visits to 
the hall to see that those boys who wished to work should 
be allowed to do so. "Willis, ''4 he writes, "hardly ever came 
among us during locking-up time." Nor did Dr. Kennedy 
make any change in this respect until he had been Head 
Master for some years, and the new arrangement was for a 
time partial in its application. 
Preparation of lessons in the presence of a master appears 
to have been carried on at first in Jee's hall, and only the 
junior forms were required to attend. But from I848 or 
thereabouts all boarders below the sixth form had to go to 
"preparation" in the big school-room every evening, for two 
hours in the winter and for a shorter time in the summer, 
to prepare their lessons and write their exercises for the 

i See Dr. Kennedy's evidence as above. Early in September, 837, Bishop 
Butler held a confirmation in the school chapel, at which sixty-eight boys were 
confirmed. {Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,59I-) 
 This institution, though always popularly described by the boys as Top 
Schools, seems to have been officially known as lrearation or leading-room. 
s Butks Zife and Zetters, vol. i. pp. 25-39. 
a The Rev. Arthur Willis was house master in Bromfield's hall. 


folloxving day, one or other of the masters being always 
present to preserve order. 1 
The compulsory use of the college cap by all boys below 
the upper sixth is a change introduced by Dr. Kennedy 
which seems to require some explanation. The truth is 
that when he became Head Master in x836 he found drink- 
ing to be a vice prevalent to a somewhat serious extent in 
the middle forms. Writing to Dr. Butler a few months 
after his arrival in Shrewsbury, in reference to a particular 
case of drunkenness in which he had been obliged to inflict 
a severe punishment, Dr. Kennedy expressed a fervent desire 
that Parliament would make it a penal offence for tradesmen 
to encourage such evil habits among the young. * In default 
of some legislation of that kind it occurred to him after a 
time that the boys would find it more difficult to obtain 
admission to hotels and public-houses if they were at once 
recognisable by their dress as schoolboys. He hoped also 
that the knowledge that their caps marked them out so un- 
mistakably as belonging to the school would tend to make 
self-respect some check upon the evil tendencies of the boys 
themselves. This was the origin of the use of the college 
cap at Shrewsbury, and in after years Dr. Kennedy always 
attributed excellent results to this little reform? It was 
inevitable that some of the changes made by the new Head 
Master should be regarded among the boys generally as 
innovations. But Dr. Kennedy has left it on record that 
he found his sixth form ready from the first to co-operate 
with him in carrying them out. 4 One happy change there 
 Dr. Kennedy always considered that the responsibility for the discharge of 
this duty rested with himself and the second master as holders of the only 
boarding-houses, and one of the assistant masters received a special stipend for 
taking the Head Master's share of Top Schools. After a time, however, this 
master was relieved of a somewhat burdensome duty three or four nights in the 
week by the volunteered assistance of his colleagues. 
2 Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., 34,59 o. 
 See Dr. Kennedy's evidence in Report of Public School Commission. The 
square caps or "mortar boards" appear to have been first adopted in i838. The 
boys did not at all relish the change. One of them, after all these years, writes 
indignantly, "Oh why, oh why did he introduce the college cap? It was a 
lowering of the school. Oh, the rage of the boys, and the smash-up they made 
of them when they were brought into the hall !"  /bid. 


reasonably be expected from an anonymous assailant, and 
it is evident that the writer of the letter was very imperfectly 
acquainted with theological questions. The sermon to which 
he referred had been preached by the Rev. William Linwood, 
the distinguished scholar, who was then an assistant curate 
of St. Chad's, and appears to have been an able exposition of 
the teaching of some of the most honoured theological 
writers whom the Church of England has known since the 
The incident is chiefly noteworthy as affording an illus- 
tration of the loyal support which Dr. Kennedy invariably 
extended to his colleagues, as well as of the intense 
dislike which, like his predecessor, he felt for meanness, 
intolerance, and narrow-mindedness. Much of the corres- 
pondence which took place on the subject is printed in 
Dr. Kennedy's letter to the Bishop of Lichfield, to xvhich 
reference has already been made. 
Mr. Linwood, whose undergraduate career at Oxford was 
one of almost unparalleled brilliancy, had been for about two 
years an assistant master at Shrewsbury School, and to him 
Dr. Kennedy had given up much of the teaching of the 
sixth form, while he himself exercised a general supervision 
over the instruction of the rest of the school with the view 
of raising the standard of teaching in the lower forms. Of 
this master Dr. Kennedy said that he was "one of the best 
scholars, and most upright and single-hearted men," it had 
ever been his lot to know. 1 But Mr. Linwood was not the 
only master whom Dr. Kennedy associated with himself in 
the teaching of the sixth form. Mr. T. F. Henney and 
Mr. W. J. Kennedy  had both been in the habit of taking 
the sixth forprivate lesson on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Mr. 
Gifford did the same when he became second master in 1843. 
Mr. T. S. Evans is also said, during some years of his stay 
at Shrewsbury, to have added to the regular teaching of the 

 See letter to the Bishop of Lichfield, by B. H. Kennedy, D.D., I84Z. 
 blr. Henney left Shrewsbury in 838 , and was succeeded by the Rev. W. 
J. Kennedy, the youngest brother of the Head Master, who only remained about 
two years. 

But the trustees appealed to Lord Chancellor Cottenham, 
who heard the case on November xoth, 849, and on 
November zth delivered judgment, reversing the decision 
of the Vice-Chancellor, and directing that the scheme should 
be referred to one of the Masters in Chancery for his report. 
The Master to whom this work was entrusted was Mr. John 
Elijah Blunt, and somewhat prolonged negotiations took 
place between the various parties interested in the school 
before the Master's report was made and the order of the 
Court was issued promulgating the new scheme. The main 
objects which the trustees seem to have had in view were to 
get some ambiguities in the Act of 798 explained, and to 
obtain from the Court greater powers in dealing with surplus 
revenues. By the Act of Parliament in question it was 
ordained that the surplus revenues of the school should be 
applied as a rule to the endowment of new exhibitions at 
Oxford or Cambridge. But this ordinance was subject to 
a somewhat ambiguous proviso that, after one such exhibi- 
tion should be founded, the trustees might, if they should 
think fit, with the consent of the Bishop of Lichfield, in- 
crease the value of the existing exhibitions, or augment 
the stipends of the Vicar of Chirbury and the curates of 
St. Mary's, Shrewsbury, of Astley, and of Clive. For the 
exhibitions, so to be founded, no scholars of Shrewsbury 
were to be eligible who did not possess preferential claims, 
() As legitimate sons of burgesses, born in the town or 
its suburbs ; 
(2) As natives of Chirbury ; 
(3) As natives of Shropshire. 
No one could be elected to an exhibition, moreover, who 
had not been at the school for at least two years immediately 
preceding the time at which he would have to go to college, 
were he appointed exhibitioner, or who should not be found 
on examination to be duly qualified in respect of learning, 
good morals, and behaviour. Should no election be made 
to a vacant exhibition, it was further provided that the 
unapplied income for the year should go to the fund for 
endowing new exhibitions. 


(8) sExhibitions. 
(a) All exhibitions to be of the annual value of ,5 o, and to be 
tenable for four years. 
(b) All exhibitions, except the six founded before  798, which were 
reserved to St. John's College, to be open to any college at Oxford 
or Cambridge. 
(c) In default of preferential candidates found eligible on examina- 
tion, the trustees allowed to elect other boys educated at the school 
to vacant exhibitions. 

(9) Scale of Annual zWayments to be made to tAe Incumbents 
of School Livings. 
(a) St. Mary's, Shrewsbury ,3oo. 
(b) Chirbury ,2oo, and 8o for a curate. 
(c) Clive . ,9o. 
(d) Astley 7o. 
Permission, however, was given to the trustees, with the consent 
of the Bishop of Lichfield, to increase or diminish from time to 
time these stipends. They were also allowed to expend annually in 
support of the parochial schools- 
(e) In each of the parishes of St. Mary, St. Chad, and Chirbury, 
a sum not exceeding ,'5. 
(f) In each of the parishes of Clive and Astley, a sum not 
exceeding ,5- 
(  o) zWlayground. 
The trustees were, in addition, empowered to pay such rent 
as they might find necessary in order to procure a suitable play- 
ground for the boys. 

On July x8th, I86L a royal commission was issued to 
inquire "into the nature and application of the endowments, 
funds, and revenues of certain specified colleges, schools, and 
foundations," the systems under which they were managed, 
and "the course of studies respectively pursued therein." 
The institutions specified in her Majesty's commission were 
Eton College, Winchester College, the College of St. Peter, 
Westminster, the Charterhouse School, St. Paul's School, 
Merchant Taylors' School, Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury, 
and the Commissioners appointed were the Earl of Clarendon, 


Lord Lyttelton, the Hon. E. T. 13. Twisleton, Sir Stafford 
Henry Northcote, Bart., the Rev. William Hepworth 
Thompson, l.a., and Henry Halford Vaughan, Esq., M.A.; 
Montague Bernard, Esq., B.C.L., being nominated as secretary. 
On the zznd and 23rd of May, 1862, the Commissioners 
inspected the school buildings at Shrewsbury, and examined 
orally Dr. Kennedy and some of the other masters, the 
trustees and the Bailiff of the school, the trustees of 
Millington's Charity, and a deputation of the Corporation of 
Two years later the report of the Commissioners, commonly 
called the Public School Commissioners, was published as 
a parliamentary blue-book. Much of this report dealt, as 
was natural, with matters of common interest to all the 
schools included in the inquiry, such as the relations of the 
Head Master to the Governing Body, the constitution of that 
body, the subjects of instruction in the various schools and 
the stimulants to industry of which they made use, the 
monitorial system, the encouragement given to games, the 
fagging question, the want of good preparatory schools, and 
the inconvenience arising from the varying dates of the 
holidays, and many recommendations vere made of general 
application. But in addition to their general report the 
Commissioners made a separate report on each of the nine 
schools, and many of their specific recommendations, though 
based on the same general principles, vary in accordance 
with the varying circumstances, history, and traditions of the 
different schools. It will be convenient to note briefly the 
most important of the recommendations which were made 
in the case of Shrewsbury School. 
These were :-- 

x. That the annual tuition fee should be raised from fifteen to 
twenty guineas. 
2. That all local preferential claims to exhibitions and scholar- 
ships should be abolished. 
3. That the right of gratis education, which had been enjoyed 
since i798 by the sons of burgesses, should be at once limited to 
forty boys, and, after twenty-five years, should be entirely abolished. 


boys and carefully trained by an efficient organist, and 
the Sunday services from that time became, as a rule, more 
or less choral. Hitherto there had been no music at all 
in chapel. Once before Dr. Kennedy had tried the experi- 
ment of providing instruction in choral music on the Hullah 
system, and this was taken up zealously by the boys for 
a time. But their zeal soon died out, and the choral music 
was given up after a year. Now, however, the establishment 
of the chapel choir was lasting in its good effects. Not only 
were the services made more interesting and attractive to the 
boys, but the choir did much to cultivate a taste for music 
throughout the school. Both in the Doctor's hall and in 
Jee's hall the boys began to get up occasional concerts and 
readings, to which, after a time, the masters and their 
families were invited. And so matters progressed till, on 
May Ist in the following year, a most successful concert was 
given in the Music Hall before a crowded audience. From 
that time to the present the school concert has been an 
annual and most popular institution. 
In I868 an Act of Parliament was passed, commonly 
known as the Public Schools Act, which embodied most 
of the recommendations of the Commissioners, and among 
other enactments constituted new governing bodies of a 
representative character, to which extensive powers of 
framing new statutes for the management and government 
of their respective schools were given. But before the 
passing of this Act Dr. Kennedy had ceased to be Head 
Master of Shrewsbury. Towards the end of I865 he signified 
his intention of resigning at the following Midsummer. Old 
Salopian committees were immediately formed, both at 
Shrewsbury and at Cambridge, to consider the steps which 
should be taken to commemorate worthily Dr. Kennedy's 
long and most remarkable career at Shrewsbury. Un- 
fortunately, as it seemed at the time, much difference of 
opinion manifested itself among his old pupils as to the 
form the memorial should take, some advocating the founda- 
tion of a professorship at Cambridge which should bear 
Dr. Kennedy's name, and others holding strongly that the 


Munro's testimony is the strongest. He speaks of the 
change effected by the new Head Master in I836 in a few 
months' time as marvellous. All of the boys under his 
immediate instruction who were "able and willing to learn" 
soon felt that he had given them "such an insight into the 
Greek language, and such a hold of its true principles and 
idiom, as to render further progress easy and agreeable." 
And this great and immediate success the Professor ascribes 
partly to "knowledge" and partly to "method united with 
kindness and enthusiasm." 
But it was not only in his Greek lessons that Kennedy's 
teaching was so effective. To everything he taught he 
managed to give "life and meaning and interest. "1 His 
"strues," as Shrewsbury boys call them, were always fasci- 
nating, partly from the wealth of illustration which he drew 
from local occurrences and passing events, or from the 
profound historical knowledge with which his mind was 
stored, 2 and partly from the effect due to dramatic instincts 
which seemed absolutely to carry him away, when he was 
translating, to the theatre, the law courts, or the battlefield. 
One of his pupils, in recalling memories of the pleasure 
sixth form boys used to take in Kennedy's translations, 
writes that it is difficult to say which gave them the greatest 
delight as the words poured forth from his lips, the Homeric 
roll, the pathos of /Eschylus, the music of the Odes of 
Horace, or the fun of Aristophanes.  
was that a boy who knows Thucydides and Sophocles may say he knows Greek. 
Aristotle was never done in form, but the Head Master occasionally read it with 
some of the abler boys as "extra work." 
 See the Dedication in Munro's edition of Lzgmtius. 
: Professor T. S. Evans, who was much Dr. Kennedy's junior as a Shrewsbury 
boy, but was for six years an assistant master under him, sys that he never knew 
anyone who surpassed him in "width of knowledge and variety of information, or 
in power of speech, or in tenacity and exactitude of memory." {See ,Itmoir of 
T. S. Evam, Z).Z)., by JoslzPH WAITS.) 
- It was Dr. Kennedy's custom at the end of each translation lesson to construe 
through the whole himself, giving "an extempore version of it, not elaborately 
finished, but pointed and vigorous and sonorous." One of the most distinguished 
among the pupils of his last five years at Shrewsbury has called it "an education 
in itself to watch this version coming to the birth and gradually developing 
itself." (See Journal ofEducalian for May, 1889. ) 


a phenomenal state of things must be sought in that 
magnetic influence which, as Mr. W. G. Clark and others 
have said, Kennedy appears to have exercised over the 
minds of the eider boys in intellectual matters. One of 
his old pupils calls him "a splendid master whom the sixth 
form adored"; and certainly much of the maffnetic influence 
in question was due to the affection which so many of his 
pupils felt for him. And so it came about that the im- 
pression Kennedy's manner often produced on the boys, 
that it positively gave him physical pain when they wrote 
bad or careless exercises, and his manifest pleasure in good 
work, a pleasure which he often evidenced by striding up 
and down the room, exercise in hand, exclaiming "Wonder- 
ful, wonderful!" had really much effect in stimulating his 
pupils to greater efforts to please him. But their efforts, 
we must not forget, could never have led to such results 
had it not been for the exquisite models of verse compo- 
sition which were always accessible to them in the Sabrinw 
Corolla, many of the most striking of which, as Dr. Kennedy 
would have been the first to remind us, came from the pens 
of Butler's pupils, Marmaduke Lawson, James Hildyard, 
Robert Scott, Richard Shilleto, Thomas Saunders Evans, 
and B. H. Kennedy himself. So Butler's good work has 
been always producing its effect at Shrewsbury, not only 
through the system he established, but through the brilliant 
compositions which were the result of his scholarly training. 
Nor would it be fair to omit all mention in this connection 
of the succession of able men by whom Dr. Kennedy was 
assisted in carrying on the work of the school--T. F. Henney, 
J. I. WeIldon, William Linwood, T. S. Evans, E. H. Gifford, 
and others. Of Dr. Gifford one distinguished Old Salopian 
has said, "My first love of classics was started in the fifth 
form when Gifford came to be master. He first showed me 
the beauty of classics when he translated Thucydides to the 
form .... The classical lessons of Kennedy and Evans and 
Gifford are things to be remembered with delight." The 
same authority,  it should be added, attributes much im- 
i The Rev. Robert Burn. 


portance to the Latin essay which was frequently required 
from the sixth form and the daily repetition lessons from 
the best Greek and Latin writers, both in verse and prose. 
Dr. Kennedy had a singularly powerful voice, and was 
often an object of terror to small boys until they discovered 
what a tender-hearted man he really was. Old Salopians 
who were in the lower forms in 84o-842, at the time when 
the Head Master surrendered the teaching of the sixth form 
to his brilliant assistant, Mr. Linwood, and took sometimes 
one and sometimes another of the remaining forms, still 
remember the fear and trembling which seized them when 
their form was summoned into Top Schools that the Head 
Master might hear them their lesson. But, though im- 
petuous in manner and impulsive in act, Kennedy had, as 
we have said, a most tender heart, and little children found 
him out at once. Sometimes, and perhaps it might be said 
frequently, his impulsive temperament led him to inflict 
punishments which, if not altogether undeserved, were out 
of proportion to the offence. But such punishments were 
practically never carried out. 
The Head Master was the most generous of men, and 
never allowed false pride to prevent him from ackno'ledging 
himself to be in the wrong and apologising for his error. 
In his manner he was uniformly courteous. He had a way 
too, in his social intercourse with the elder boys, of treating 
them as equals and asking their opinion or advice, which 
not unnaturally exercised a great charm over them. As 
one of them once said to the writer, "This probably went 
to our hearts more than anything else." Certainly our 
public schools have known few Head Masters who have 
cast such a spell over their pupils as Kennedy. Everyone 
has a score of amusing stories to tell about him, but all 
speak of him in tones of the warmest affection. It is 
impossible for anyone who has known him intimately ever to 
forget him, he was so absolutely unlike anyone else. The 
very uniqueness of his character was no doubt in some 
measure the cause of his attractive influence. One of his 
most distinguished colleagues and pupils has said of Kennedy, 


"It is no easy task to describe the union of enthusiasm and 
generosity, almost sublime, with a childlike simplicity, at 
which it was impossible sometimes not to smile. ''a 
But it is this childlike simplicity of mind which was in 
reality the keynote of his life, explaining, as it undoubtedly 
does, much that would be otherwise inexplicable in a man of 
such generous disposition and such marvellous intellectual 
power. His inability to keep a secret, and the difficulty he 
sometimes seemed to find in seeing that there may be two 
sides to a question and that a man may be partly right and 
partly wrong, his impulsive acts, his impetuosity, and his 
impatience in literary controversy were all the direct outcome 
of the childlike simple-mindedness that remained with him 
to the end of his life. For household management Dr. 
Kennedy had no taste. But, like Dr. Butler, he was happy in 
having a wife who, throughout his long head-mastership, 
admirably discharged the domestic duties connected with the 
care of two large boarding-houses, and enabled him to show 
to friends and colleagues and boys that genial hospitality 
which it always delighted him to exercise. Mrs. Kennedy is 
no longer with us, but there are many Old Salopians who 
gratefully remember her "calm and gentle spirit" and the 
"kind and affectionate sympathy" with which she was "ever 
ready to soothe the troubles and share the joys of boyhood. ''2 
The warm interest too which Mrs. Kennedy, and indeed 
every member of the Head Master's family, took in all the 
school games and amusements did much to increase the 
enjoyment they gave to the boys at the time, and to add 
to the store of happy recollections which so many Salopians 
of Kennedy's days are wont to associate with their school life 
at Shrewsbury. 

 The Rev. E. H. Gifford, D.D. 
2 See speeches of Mr. W. G. Clark and Dr. E. H. Gifford at the Tercentenary 
Festival in 

kHV. H. W. IOSS 


Henry Whitehead Moss, B.A., appointed Head Master in s866--Public 
Schools Act of t868--New Governing Body elected in t87t--Removal 
of the School to Kingsland in t88z--School Life on Kingsland. 

HEN Dr. Kennedy resigned in I866 the master and 
fellows of St. John's College, Cambridge, were again 
able to find a Shrewsbury scholar of great distinction to 
appoint to the head-mastership without going outside the 
walls of their own college, although he did not bring to his 
work at Shrewsbury the scholastic experience which his 
predecessor had gained both at Shrewsbury and Harrow 
before he succeeded Dr. Butler. Mr. Henry Whitehead 
Moss, the new Head Master, had been educated during the 
early years of his boyhood at Lincoln Grammar School, but 
he subsequently migrated to Shrewsbury, where he had for 
three years the benefit of Dr. Kennedy's brilliant and effective 
teaching. In October, I86O, he proceeded in due course to 
St. John's College. His university career fulfilled the promise 
of his school-days. While an undergraduate he was awarded 
the Porson Prize for Greek verse on three separate occasions. 
He also carried off a Browne Medal in 863 for Greek 
elegiacs. In I862 Mr. Moss was elected Craven university 
scholar, and in I864 he graduated as Senior Classic. In the 
course of the same year he became a felloxv and lecturer of 
his college. 
Little need be said of the fifteen years which elapsed 
between the appointment of the new Head Master and the 
removal of the school to its present home on Kingsland. 
Almost every year that passed brought with it in the form 
of classical distinctions gained by Shrewsbury men at Oxford 
2 B 369 


and Cambridge additional evidence that the high standard of 
classical scholarship which the school had attained under 
Butler and Kennedy was not likely to deteriorate under their 
successor. Of the Shrewsbury men who went up to Cam- 
bridge between x867 and I882 twenty-two gained a first class 
in the Classical Tripos, two of whom were Senior Classics, 
and three were Chancellor's Medallists. During these same 
fifteen years Shrewsbury carried off ten of the principal 
university scholarships, one Bell scholarship, three Powis 
Medals, eighteen Browne Medals, and nine Porson Prizes. 
In addition to these classical distinctions Shrewsbury men 
obtained two first classes in the Law Tripos, one in the 
Theological Tripos, and one in the Natural Sciences Tripos, 
while two of their number were awarded the Chancellor's 
Medal for an English poem, and another won the Maitland 
Prize for an English essay. Although Shrewsbury successes 
have always been less marked at Oxford than at Cambridge, 
they included at the former university during the fifteen years 
in question three university scholarships, twelve first classes 
in Classical Moderations, and four in the final Classical School, 
one first class in modern history, and the Chancellor's Prize 
for Latin verse. Three years elapsed after the passing of the 
Public School Act of I868 before the members of the new 
Governing Body of Shrewsbury School, for the constitution 
of which provision was made in the Act, were duly elected 
by the persons or the corporate bodies to whom this duty 
was entrusted. 
The following tables give the names of the Governors 
originally elected in 87 I, as well as of those who were in 
office in January, I898 :- 

Rev. W. H. Bateson, I.I., 
Master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge . 
JohnLoxdale, Esq. . } The Mayor and Corpora- { 
Henry Keate, Esq. tion of Shrewsbury 

John Bather, Esq. 

Rev.Charles Taylor,D.D. 
Master of St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 
George Butler Lloyd, 
E. Cresswell Peele, Esq. 
The Lord Lieutenant of  Stan|ey Leighton. Esq., 
Shropshire. . . t .I. P. 


Governing Body the great expense which would have neces- 
sarily attended the purchase of sufficient land for their 
purpose in the neighbourhood of the old school-buildings, 
the impossibility of providing suitable playgrounds within 
reasonable distance, and the manifest objections which could 
not but be felt by all who knew anything of school life 
to the retention of the boarding-houses within the town 
at all, if Shrewsbury were again to hold its own numerically 
among the great schools of England, seemed decisive argu- 
ments in favour of removal. The site originally selected for 
the erection of the new school-buildings was at Coton Hill, 
and there is no doubt that this choice offered many advan- 
tages. The daily life of the boys would still be passed amid 
scenes which had been familiar to Shrewsbury scholars from 
the time of the foundation of the school--the boarding- 
houses would be quite outside the town and only accessible 
from it by one road, and yet the journey which day boys 
would have to make to school for each lesson would hardly 
be lenhened by ten minutes. But as soon as the intentions 
of the Governing Body became publicly known an energetic 
opposition was set on foot, which was carried on mainly 
through the instrumentality of public meetings, pamphlets, 
and newspaper articles. A memorial on the subject was also 
signed by no less than 60o Old Salopians, and was presented 
to the Governing Body in December, 873, by the Rt. Hon. 
H. C. Raikes. A similar address, in opposition to the pro- 
posed removal, emanating from a meeting of townsmen, held 
in the previous October under the presidency of the Mayor, 
was also presented at the same time by the Earl of Powis. 
One plausible objection to the Coton Hill site was urged 
by the townsmen of Shrewsbury. They represented that in 
time of floods Coton Hill would practically be isolated, so 
far as day boys were concerned. Now such a state of 
things, though by no means common, did in former days 
sometimes exist in Shrewsbury, and happily the Governing 
Body was ultimately able to procure a site against which this 
objection could not be urged, and so excellent in every respect 
that much of the town opposition gradually subsided. 


On the Hereford side of the Severn, immediatety opposite 
to the beautiful grounds known as "the Quarry," where 
Shrewsbury boys used to act their annual Whitsuntide Play 
in Ashton's days, there is a considerable expanse of table- 
land known as Kingsland, some of which formerly belonged 
to private owners, though the greater part was the property 
either of the Corporation or of the united parishes of Shrews- 
bury. Twenty-seven acres of this land were purchased by 
the Governing Body in the summer of 875, and upon this 
singularly beautiful site the present school-buildings were 
ultimately erected. But before the arrangements for the 
purchase of Kingsland could be carried out it was necessary 
to obtain the abolition of the ancient show, 1 which had been 
held there every year for more than three centuries. In- 
teresting as this curious old pageant was to antiquarians as 
an illustration of the influence and importance of the old 
trading companies of Shrewsbury, it had been for many 
years an excuse for dissipation and a fertile source of trouble 
 The Shrewsbury Show undoubtedly took its origin from the religious observ- 
ance of the Feast of Corpus Christi by the Trade Companies of Shrewsbury. It 
was for many years the custom on that day for all the incorporated companies, 
bearing their various colours and devices, to accompany the Bailiffs, Aldermen, 
and Council, in solemn procession, to Weeping Cross, a place about two miles 
distant from the town. After duly bewailing their sins at Weeping Cross the 
members of the companies reformed their procession, and the whole party 
returned to St. Chad's Church, where High lIass was celebrated. Three days 
in the following week were always dedicated by the companies to recreation. 
After the Reformation, when the festival of Corpus Christi ceased to be observed, 
the old procession was kept up at the same season of the year, although it no 
longer possessed any religious signification. About I591 it became the custom 
for the procession to go to Kingsland, where a small plot of land was allotted to 
each company. These plots were enclosed by a hedge and were called arbours, 
and most of them were provided with a covered buildingof wood. In the course 
of the seventeenth century buildings of a more substantial character were erected 
by some of the companies. The Shoemakers' Arbour, which was the largest, 
was put up in I679. In modern days the procession consisted in part of men and 
women on cars, or on horseback, dressed up to represent Henry "VIII., Queen 
Elizabeth, Bishop Blasius, St. Catharine, St. Crispin, St. Crispianus, Rubens the 
painter, Vulcan, and various other characters, historical or mythical, who, for one 
reason or another, were regarded as figurative of the various trades. It used to 
be a great ddight to the boys to seat themselves on the wall of School Gardens as 
the procession was passing down Castle Gates and fire at the stately personages as 
they went by with pea-shooters, an amusement that generally earned for them a 
liberal allowance of detentions. 


and mischief, and most of the respectable inhabitants of the 
town gladly welcomed the day when an order in Council 
was issued which put a final end to the show. 
Some years elapsed after the purchase of the property 
before suitable boarding-houses and class-rooms could be 
provided and other necessary arrangements made for the 
accommodation of the masters and boys on Kingsland, 
and it was not till July 28th, I882, that the new school- 
buildings were formally opened. Old Salopians mustered 
in great numbers for the opening ceremonies. 
The proceedings commenced with the celebration of Holy 
Communion in St. Mary's Church at 8 a.m., followed by 
morning service at  1.3o, with a sermon from the Bishop 
of Manchester. The offertory at this service, which was 
devoted to the fund for building a school chapel on Kings- 
land, amounted to c246. Shortly afterwards there was a 
general move to the Corn Exchange, where guests, masters, 
and boys were entertained at luncheon by the Governing 
Body to the number of 500. The opening ceremony took 
place in a large tent which had been put up on Kingsland 
for the purpose, and which had a raised platform at one 
end for the accommodation of the Governing Body and the 
principal guests. The chair was taken by the Head Master, 
and the school-buildings were formally declared open by 
Lord Cranbrook in a most interesting speech, which con- 
sisted chiefly of reminiscences of his school life. After this 
the prizes were given away, and other speeches followed. 
Among the speakers were the Bishops of Lichfield, Hereford, 
Manchester, and Bedford, Lord Chief Justice May, Sir James 
Paget, Lord Powis, Professor E. C. Clark, the High Sheriff of 
Shropshire, and the Deputy-Mayor of Shrewsbury. In the 
evening the day's festivities were brought to a close by the 
annual school concert, which took place as usual in the 
Music Hall. Two years later the school chapel was com- 
pleted and ready for use. 
It has been already mentioned that in December, I865, a 
Committee was appointed with the view of erecting a new 
chapel as a memorial of Dr. Kennedy's head-mastership. A 



beneath record their names and the dates of their birth and 
death. There is also a memorial window to a boy who died 
at school on the north side of the chancel. The east window 
and the other windows in the chancel, as well as those on 
the south side of the nave, are by Mr. Kempe. The re- 
mainder of the stained glass is the work of Burlison and 
Grills. The walls beneath the windows on both sides of 
the nave have been recently covered with oak panelling of 
singularly beautiful design, for which the school is also in- 
debted to Mr. Kempe's artistic skill. One effect of this 
recent improvement has been to bring into somewhat dis- 
agreeable contrast the boys' seats in the nave, which are of 
pitchpine ; but this incongruity will, it is to be hoped, speedily 
be remedied. 
Until the new chapel was completed the boarders con- 
tinued to attend service on Sundays at St. Mary's Church. 
On January 27th, 884, they assembled there for the last 
time, when a farewell sermon was preached by the Vicar, 
the Rev. T. B. Lloyd, from the text, " For my brethren and 
companions' sake I will now say 'peace be within thee.'" 
The first sermon in the new chapel was preached by Bishop 
Walsham How. 
At the time the Kingsland property was acquired by the 
Governing Body there stood on the brow of the hill, facing 
the quarry, a large building, originally erected in I765, at a 
cost of more than ci2,ooo, as a "Foundling Hospital" in 
connection with the well-known institution in London. The 
hospital was closed in I774 for want of sufficient funds for 
its support, and the building was used for a time during the 
American War for the confinement of Dutch prisoners. In 
784 it was purchased by the united parishes of Shrewsbury 
for the shelter of the poor, and for this purpose it was used 
under the name of "the house of industry" until the work- 
house was built at Cross Houses. After much consideration, 
and a favourable report from Mr. A. W. Blomfield as to the 
stability of the building and the excellence of the materials 
of which it was constructed, it was determined to remodel 
the interior, so as to make it available for general school 



purposes. The chief room in the building, as it is now 
arranged, is about I2O feet long. It is divided into three 
parts by movable partitions, the largest of which is known 
popularly in the school as "Top Schools," and is used for 
the same purposes of "preparation" as "Top Schools ''* vas 
in former times in the old school-buildings. Besides an 
ample supply of class-rooms, in which are included four 
rooms set apart for the study of natural science and a school 
for drawing, the central school- building contains a gym- 
nasium, a common-room for day boys, four sets of rooms for 
assistant masters, and two libraries, one of which is devoted 
to the valuable books which used to be kept in the old 
school library. The portraits of Edvard VI., Sir Philip 
Sidney, Leonard Hotchkis, and others, which formerly hung 
on the library walls, have been placed in the Head Master's 
The chief entrance of the school-building opens into a 
fairly spacious hall, on the walls of which, as well as on 
those of the broad stone staircase which leads upwards from 
the hall to the class-rooms, the old honour-boards have been 
fixed. There are staircases also at both ends of the building ; 
by that at the west end access is obtained to the masters' apart- 
ments. All the class-rooms are warmed by hot water. As 
at present arranged the roof consists of a lead flat, which is 
railed in and surmounted in the centre by a large zinc-covered 
cupola. Fine views can be obtained from here of the triple 
summit of the Breidden, of the Stiperstones, Caer Caradoc, 
the Long Mynd, the lion-like form of Pontesbury Hill, 
Grinshill, Hawkestone, Haughmond Hill, and the Wrekin 
on the one side, and of the Severn, the Quarry, and the 
greater part of the town of Shrewsbury on the other. The 
old red brickwork of the "Foundling Hospital" has been 
cleaned and repointed, and string courses and window 
dressings have been introduced, and the general appearance 
of what is now the chief school-building is fairly imposing. 

1 Two other rooms are also used for "preparation" in the evening. The 
institution itself, though popularly known as "Top Schools," has always had 
besides the more dignified appellation of " Reading-room." 


Mr. Blomfield was also the architect of the Head Master's 
house, which was the only boarding-house built at the cost 
of the Governing Body. It has accommodation for about 
sixty-six boys, and harmonises fairly well, architecturally 
speaking, with the central school-building. Other boarding- 
houses were, however, built at the same time on ground 
included within the school property by two of the assistant 
masters, the Rev. G. T. Hall and the Rev. C. J. S. Churchill, 
of both of which Mr. William White, '.s..., was the architect. 
According to existing regulations the number of boarders 
which an assistant master is allowed to take is limited to 
forty-two, and two of number, it is provided, must 
always be the holders of house scholarships worth 3o a 
year. No limitation is put by statute or regulation on the 
number of the Head Master's boarders. Since 1882 several 
other houses have been built or rented by assistant masters 
outside the school gates in which boarders are now received. 
The largest of these, which belongs to Mr. E. B. Moser, is 
built, like Mr. Hall's and Mr. Churchill's houses, from the 
designs of Mr. William White. All three houses are admir- 
ably adapted for their purpose as regards their interior arrange- 
ments. Externally, also, they present features of considerable 
architectural merit. Mr. A. F. Chance, Mr. F. E. Bennett, 
Mr. W. D. Haydon, and Mr. C. J. Baker are the other masters 
who take boarders. It is provided by the regulations of 
tb.e Governing Body that no boy shall attend the school 
as a boarder unless he board with one of the schoolmasters ; 
or, as a day boy, unless he reside with his parents or 
guardians, or with someone who has received a licence from 
the Governing Body to take boys to lodge and board in 
his house. An ample supply of water for general school 
purposes is procured from a reservoir in the school-buildings, 
into which the water is forced by means of a small engine. 
The source of this supply is a well near the Head Master's 
house. The Kingsland property has also been connected 
by pipes with the old conduit spring, and the excellent water 
which comes from this source is available for all residents. 
A school shop was started soon after the removal to the 


present site, and has, up to this time, been a great financial 
success. It is managed by a committee of boys, on which 
every boarding-house is represented, with a master for 
chairman. The cricket pavilion adjoins the shop. It has 
been recently enlarged, and boards have been placed on 
the walls of the principal room recording the names of the 
boys in the school cricket and football elevens for each year 
from x88_9. An excellent swimming-bath has been presented 
to the school by the Head Master. It is seventy feet long 
by twenty-five in breadth, and varies in depth from three 
feet and a half to six feet and a half. Almost adjoining 
the bath a carpenter's shop has been erected, vhich is 
supplied with two lathes and all the necessary apparatus 
for instruction in the work of the carpenter, the joiner, and 
the turner. The Sanatorium is situated about a quarter of 
a mile from the boarding-houses. Allusion has already been 
made to some of the ordinances framed by the Governing 
Body for the regulation of school affairs, by which previous 
ordinances have been in some degree modified; but it will 
be well to state briefly some of the chief changes that have 
been made. The new ordinances consist partly of statutes 
and partly of regulations. By one of the new statutes all 
masters are now appointed by, and hold their offices at 
the pleasure of, the Head Master. He is bound, however, 
whenever he may dismiss a master, to notify the fact and the 
reason for it to the Governing Body. 
The Act of I798, while placing the appointment of all 
other masters in the hands of the Head Master, and giving 
him power to displace, remove, or discharge any of them for 
immorality, neglect of duty, incapacity, or other reasonable 
cause, had left his former independent position to the second 
master, although expressly reserving to the Head Master the 
general arrangements for the teaching and discipline of the 
school. Other important changes have also been made dealing 
with the rights which burgesses of Shrewsbury formerly pos- 
sessed of free education for their children, and the restrictions 
which had been been placed by the school ordinances or 
by founders' wills on the appointment to exhibitions or 


scholarships of boys educated at Shrewsbury School. In the 
first case, subject to the rights of persons who were bur- 
gesses at the time of the passing of the Public School Act 
of 868 to send their boys to school without the payment of 
any tuition fee, the burgess claim to gratis education given 
by the Act of 798 has been entirely abolished. As re- 

gards school scholarships and 
to particular colleges at Oxford 
removed, and all limitations as 
the parentage or lineage of the 

exhibitions all restrictions 
and Cambridge have been 
to the place of birth and 
candidates have been done 

away with, except in the cases of the exhibitions founded 
by Dr. John Millington, and the tnvo exhibitions founded by 
the Rev. R. B. Podmore and lIrs. Noneley respectively. 
The preference to which the sons of Mrs. Laura Seraphina 
Beddoes were entitled in respect of the exhibitions founded 
by Dr. John Millington, their ancestor, is expressly reserved 
to them. The Podmore exhibition is still confined to 
Shropshire boys, and can only be held at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. The Noneley exhibition can only be held at 
some college in the university of Oxford. The preferential 
claims which certain persons and classes of persons had to 
the Vicarage of Chirbury and the curacies of St. Nary, 
Shrewsbury, Astley, and Clive have also been abolished. 
No provision was made under Ashton's ordinances that the 
Head Naster should be in holy orders. We know, indeed, 
that two Head Masters appointed in the sixteenth century, 
Thomas Lawrence and John Meighen, were laymen. But the 
Act of  798, in requiring that the Head ?,Iaster should hold 
the office of catechist and reader, practically made holy 
orders a necessary qualification. No such limitation exists 
in the present statutes. The only requirement for candidates 
for the post is that they should be lIasters of Arts, or of 
some equal or superior degree in one or other of the 
universities of Oxford and Cambridge. None of the school- 
masters were allowed under Ashton's ordinances to "take 
the charge or cure of preaching or ministry in the Church," 
or to "practise physic or any other art or profession, whereby 
their sen'ice in the school should be hindered." But no 




similar regulation is to be found in the Act of I798 by which 
Ashton's ordinances were repealed, and, as a matter of fact, 
Dr. Butler held ecclesiastical preferment nearly the whole 
time he was Head Master. The old restrictions have, how- 
ever, now been practically restored so far as the Head 
Master is concerned, for one of the new statutes provides 
that he shall not hold any ecclesiastical or other office to 
which any emolument is attached without the consent of the 
Governing Body. Provision is made in the regulations that 
divine service shall be celebrated in the school chapel by 
the Head Master, or by some person appointed by him, at 
which all boys shall be required to attend subject to the 
operation of a "conscience clause" which applies not only to 
religious worship, but to all religious instruction. General 
power is given by the regulations to the Head Master 
to dismiss from the school any boy vho has been guilty 
of gross misconduct and to forbid the return of any boy who 
has been persistently idle ; but he is required to report to the 
Governing Body every term the number of cases in which he 
may have exercised this power. All boys on the foundation 
have a statutable right of appeal to the Governing Body 
against any such sentence of dismissal by the Head Master. 
Subject to such modifications as the changed conditions in 
its new home and the educational requirements of the present 
age have rendered necessary, the school may be said to 
remain much the same as regards hours and methods of dis- 
cipline as it was in Dr. Butler's and Dr. Kennedy's days. 
The praepostorial system, for the introduction of which 
at Shrewsbury Dr. Butler was responsible, and which was 
described by Dr. Kennedy as "the very bone and sinew of 
public school education," remains practically unchanged. 
Theoretically the authority exercised by Shrewsbury pra:- 
postors over the other boys has always been of a strictly 
limited character, and the only punishment which, up to the 
end of Dr. Kennedy's time, they were recognized as having 
the right to inflict, was that of setting small impositions. 
But of this right very little use has ever been made, though 
doubtless the prapostors have found other means from time 


to time of enforcing their authority besides those of moral 
suasion. The privileges of prmpostors, as they were 
described by Dr. Kennedy in I862,  were to wear a hat 
instead of the regulation college cap, which was worn by 
all the other boys until some years after the removal of the 
school to Kingsland ; to carry a stick when out walking ;* to 
be independent of the ordinary rules as to bounds, and to doul 
the younger boys for the service of Head-room. For this 
latter purpose four boys were put on the roll each week as 
general fags for Head-room, the duties which they had 
to discharge being chiefly those of fetching and carrying at 
meal times. Dr. Kennedy, whose rooted objection to in- 
dividual fagging as practised at most of our old public 
schools has been already mentioned, seems to have seen 
some distinction between the two customs. There is still 
no recognized system of fagging, although there undoubtedly 
exists at the present time, as there always has existed, a 
certain amount of irregular fagging. The number of pra- 
postors in 82 was only eight. But this number was 
increased a few years afterwards to twelve, and twelve 
remained the normal number until the recent removal of the 
school to Kingsland. 
New boys are never made prapostors. But when a boy 
gets promoted after examination into the upper sixth he 
becomes a prapostor at once, however young he may be. 
It sometimes happens that a prmpostor is beaten in examina- 
tion by a boy in the lower sixth. In such a case, though 
losing position in the form, he retains his rank and privileges 
as prapostor. Boys who occupy a distinguished position on 
the modern side, or in science, or in the army class, are 
generally made prmpostors. The Public School Com- 
missioners regarded the recognition by the Head Master of 
the prmpostors as a sort of senate representing the school 
and entitled to negotiate with him on matters of common 
school interest, and to give pledges and enter into conditions 
 See evidence in Report of Public School Commission. 
* The tall hat is no longer worn except on Sundays, but the pr:epostors 
continue to cart-), sticks as a mark of distinction. 


which contains but four houses, each house plays three 
matches. The house winning most matches in its own 
division is said to be head of that division, and plays the 
headof the other division in theflna/. Should there be any 
ties in either division they are of course previously played 
off to decide which house is head of its division. The winning 
house holds a challenge bat, and each member of the winning 
eleven a silver bat,  for the year. The second elevens also 
play in heats for a similar trophy. 
.At football the first and second elevens of the different 
houses compete with one another on the league system, and 
the trophies are silver bowls. Ordinary games at football are 
classified, as in cricket, as Senior, Middle, Junior, and Junior 
House Games. Various arrangements have at different times 
been made to prevent the "juniors" being sxvamped by 
older and bigger boys, who, not being very good, prefer 
these games to the other school games. The latest plan 
has been to make out a list of those qualified to play in 
"Junior House Games," and to forbid other boys to take 
part in them. 
Boating goes on more or less the whole year, and there are 
races of one sort or another in each term, the most important 
of which, the bumping races for first and second house 
fours, are rowed in the summer term. These races are con- 
ducted on precisely the same lines as those at Oxford and 
Cambridge. Great pains are taken by some of the masters 
interested in rowing in coaching the house fours, and a 
supply of oarsmen is thus provided from which the trial 
eights and ultimately the school eight are selected. The 
thoroughness with which the system of instruction is carried 
out, combined with the proximity of the river and the pros- 
perity of the Boat Club, have made Shrewsbury of late 
years a good nursery for rowing, and large numbers of 
Old Salopians are to be found year by year pulling in their 
college crews at Oxford and Cambridge. 
There are also annual house competitions in athletics 
 The silver bats were presented to the school by the Naab Vikar al Ulma of 
1 lyderabad. 


1872, have both done good work at Cambridge as tutors 
and lecturers of their respective colleges.  The latter has 
examined for the Classical Tripos no less than twelve times. 
John Henry Onions, 2 i.A., of Christ Church, Oxford, after 
gaining the Ireland and Craven scholarships, and a st class 
in Classical Moderations, became Senior Student in 876 and 
tutor of Christ Church in 878, but his useful educational 
work at Oxford was brought to a premature end by his death 
in 1889. 
The Rev. R. F. Horton, D.D., minister of Lyndhurst Road 
Chapel, Hampstead, late fellow of New College, Oxford, who 
gained a st class in Classical Moderations as well as in the 
Final Classical School, acted as lecturer in history for his 
college from 879 to I883 . 
William Joseph Myles Starkie, who was head boy at 
Shrewsbury 879-8o, had a distinguished career both at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and also at Trinity College, 
Dublin. Of the latter college he was elected a fellow in 
I89O, and seven years later he was appointed a member of 
the Academic Council of Dublin University. Mr. Starkie 
was made a Commissioner of Education for Ireland in 189o. 
He is now President of Queen's College, Galway. 4 
Among the modern Salopians who, after distinguished 
careers at Oxford or Cambridge, are now doing valuable 

a In accordance with Dr. Kennedy's method of classification bit. Heitland 
and Mr. Archer Hind are included among Mr. Mom's pupils as having been 
under his tuition for at least one year before going to college. But it is right to 
mention that both of them were for three years in the sixth form under Dr. 
 21lr.J. l-I. Onions took a tst class in Classical Moderations in 873 ; Ireland 
scholar, 875 ; Craven scholar, 876. He was at Shrewsbury School, 1867-187. 
B.A., 876 ; M.A., 
3 Mr. 17. F. l-lotion was born in 855, and was at Shrewsbury School 
to 879 ; B.A., t878 ; M.A., 88t ; fellow of New College, 879 ; Chairman of 
the London Congregational Union, 898. Dr. Horton has published several 
books, chiefly theological. 
4 [r. IV../r. [. Starkie was born at Sligo in 186o. First c/ass in the Classical 
Tripos at Cambridge in I883. At Dublin he gained the Berkeley Gold Medal for 
Greek and many other prizes and distinctions. While still an undergraduate at 
Trinity College, Dublin, from I853 to 886, Mr. Starkie was acting as Professor 
of Classical Literature in the Roman Catholic University of Ireland. 


Two other Shrewsbury men have distinguished themselves 
of late years as adventurous travellers and daring sportsmen 
--Charles St. George Littledale, to whom the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society has recently awarded its gold medal; and 
E J. Jackson, now Acting-Commissioner and British Vice- 
Consul in the Protectorate of Uganda, who led the first 
caravan of the British East Africa Company. Mr. Jackson 
vrote the account of " Big Game Shooting in Africa" in 
the Badminton Library, and was the donor of a valu- 
able collection of African birds to the South Kensington 


the delights of the runs were intensified by the fact that they 
were carried on in complete contempt of all school regula- 
tions as to bounds ; and their popularity was further increased 
by the perpetual feuds which they caused with the neigh- 
bouring farmers. 1 Except for a gap between I846 and I849 
the history of the R.S.S.H. has been regularly recorded in 
the run books from the year 842, but the institution itself 
is of much earlier origin. Old Salopians are still living who 
remember the runs in Dr. Butler's days, and relate with 
pride their attainment of the honour of being pronounced 
killing hound or killing gentleman. These honours were 
gained, then as now, by the hound or gentleman who 
" killed"; that is to say, who came in first in a race at the 
finish the greatest number of times during the season. At 
one time there used to be two separate packs of hounds-- 
one in Jee's hall and the other in Iliff's-O--and these were 
hunted at different hours on the same day. Dr. Butler does 
not appear to have interfered with the runs, or to have made 
any attempt to put them down; and it is confidently stated 
by an old Shrewsbury boy, who was at school from 834 to 
I84O, and had a long experience as hound, gentleman, whip, 
and huntsman, that they met with no hindrance in the early 
years of Dr. Kennedy's head-mastership. For a long time 
indeed Dr. Kennedy does not appear to have been aware 
of the extent to which the runs were carried on "out of 
bounds," and before 85o no record exists of any members of 
the hunt being punished on that account. His eyes, how- 
ever, were opened to some evils connected with the runs in 
I843 or 844 by the disappearance of a large number of 
copies of the new Latin Grammar, s which had taken the form 
of scent, and a temporary check on the operations of the 
hounds ensued. Between x85o and x856 some spasmodic 
efforts were made from time to time to stop the practice 
a On one occasion a complaint as to the hounds "trespassing" led, first, to a 
general punishment, then to broken windows, and lastly to the whole school 
being sent home a week before the holidays. 
s Accounts of the runs made by Mr. Iliff's hounds in 83I are still in existence. 
 The first edition of Dr. Kennedy's Elementary La2in Gravtmar was published 
in t843. 


Schoolboys are very conservative about old customs, even 
when they are tainted with abuses, the existence of which they 
themselves are ready to acknowledge, and several days passed 
before the prepostors consented to agree to Dr. Kennedy's 
very reasonable propositions. But they did agree at last, 
although it is to be feared that in subsequent years the 
conditions were not religiously observed by the boys. 1 There 
are, or used to be, two dangers connected with the runs 
at Shrewsbury, which no faithful historian should omit to 
mention. In the first place, one of the runs certainly, "the 
Long Run," and perhaps also "the Albrighton," was a severe 
trial of the physical strength and endurance of growing boys. 
Secondly, it used to be the custom for some of the gentlemen, 
at any rate, to carry with them stimulants, and their use 
occasionally produced results almost as deleterious as those 
due to over-exertion. In November, I866, a very serious 
case of exhaustion occurred, one of the hounds remaining 
in a state of unconsciousness for twelve hours after the 
conclusion of the run, in spite of the unceasing efforts of the 
medical men in attendance to rouse him from his stupor. 
Happily the boy ultimately recovered, and he has since 
attained celebrity both as a traveller and as a sportsman. 
Mr. Moss, who had only recently become Head Master, 
was, not unnaturally, seriously alarmed by the occurrence, 
and at once issued an edict to the following effect :q 
t. That " the Long Run" should be altogether given up. 
2. That "the Albrighton Run" should not take place in the 
current season. 
3. That the Head Master should in future be furnished by the 
huntsman with a written statement of the length and direction of 
any proposed run on the day before it was to take place. 
I In his evidence before the Public School Commissioners, given in I$62, Dr. 
Kennedy stated that this arrangement about the hounds' slay was the last formal 
agreement into which the pr,'epostors had entered with him on behalf of the 
school. No mention is made in the run book of the hounds' slay as the subject of 
one of the conditions of the agreement made in I$56. But there is little or 
no doubt that Dr. Kennedy was referring in his evidence to the arrangement 
of x856. In acknowledgment of the stand made at this time by the praepostors 
in defence of the runs, it was resolved that prmpostors should henceforth be made 
"gendemen" ex offcio. This institution of "gentlemen postors" lasted until a 
few )'ears ago. 




In 186o the R.S.S.H. was presented xvith a horn and 
whip, bearing suitable inscriptions, by the members of a 
Shrewsbury velocipede club at Cambridge, who, true to 
Shrewsbury traditions, called themselves tl, e Taclyflods. The 
subscriptions of the members of the club xvere mainly 
devoted to the formation of an insurance fund intended to 
protect them from the dangers of proctorial fines on their 
return from long country excursions, and when the club, 
after a short-lived but active existence, came to an untimely 
end, they shoxved their affection for the R.S.S.H. by em- 
ploying the balance of their insurance fund for its benefit. 
The runs of the present day no longer possess the 
umvholesome attractions of illegality vhich formerly dis- 
tinguished them, but they are carried on with plenty of 
zeal notwithstanding. Another noticeable difference lies in 
the disuse of paper scent, which, from the precision with 
which the line of country to be taken in each particular 
run is now arranged, is no longer necessary.  
Boating comes next to the R.S.S.H. as an old and 
honoured institution at Shrewsbury School. The story that 
has been told in a former chapter of the verses which 
Richard Shilleto laid upon Dr. Butler's desk one day when 
the Head Master was denouncing boating in vigorous terms, 
is a sufficient proof that up to Shilleto's time, I825 to I828, 
the boys used to hire their boats from Harwood, whose ferry 
and boat-house were on the Hereford side of the river, about 
three or four hund'ed yards from the site of the boat-house 
now standing immediately below the school-house on Kings- 
land. But soon after 183o they became possessed, somehow 
or other, of two six-oars and one four-oar of their own, which 
were kept at Harwood's. Although Dr. Butler still retained 
his dislike of the boating, it had become by this time an 
understood thing that he would not strenuously oppose it. 
Certainly he must have given up his old practice of flogging 
the younger boys who were caught in the act, for in 83o , 

 The old ' Long Run" was subsequently revived, and is still continued, on 
condition that the boys taking part in it are conveyed from Kingsland to the 
'* throw off" and from "the finish" back again to Kingsland, in a brake. 


first named is the best known to fame as an oar. He went 
up to college in October, I839, and his rowing powers quickly 
gained him the sobriquet of t/e Stea Engine at Cambridge. 
He pulled in the University race in I84 and I842, and 
would also have been in the Cambridge crew of 84o had 
he not been prevented by a family affliction. 
From the time of the first regatta in 1839 boating became 
a recognized institution at Shrewsbury with a regularly 
elected captain, who was responsible to the Head Master for 
the fulfilment of certain engagements. All boys above the 
fourth form who had learned to swim were allowed to boat, 
but boating was limited to that portion of the river which 
lay between the English bridge on the one side and the 
Welsh bridge on the other, except on the day of the Shelton 
In spite of this regulation, which remained in force for 
several years, adventurous spirits used occasionally to row 
as far as Haughmond Abbey on the one side and Berwick 
Wheel on the other. 
Once a year luncheon was provided by Mr. Powys for all 
boys who had made their way to Berwick by the river, when, 
it may be presumed, special permission was given for the 
excursion. But after a time boating in the Shelton direction 
was legalised, though there seems great doubt in the minds 
of Old Salopians whether the practice of going down to the 
Quarry (which was out of bounds for all boys except 
prepostors), after first or second lesson, in order to pull 
the boats up to the Flash, was ever distinctly recognized 
as legitimate. 
In the latter days of Dr. Kennedy's head-mastership 
modern outriggers began to take the place of the old 
tub-like craft, and it became the custom for old boys or 
boating masters to give some aid to boating boys in the 
form of instruction in the principles of rowing. 
In 1864 a boat race was arranged with Cheltenham College 
which took place in the Quarry, and resulted in a defeat for 
1 Most of these details as to Shrewsbury boating are given on the authority of 
either the Hon. and Rev. L. W, Denman, or the Rev. Edgar Montagu. 


Shrewsbury by three or four seconds. Shrewsbury, however, 
had its revenge in the two following years, winning a well- 
contested race at Tewkesbury in 1865 by two or three feet, and 
gaining a comparatively easy victory in 1866 at Worcester. 
Since that time Shrewsbury has rowed many races with 
Cheltenham, and latterly with unvarying success. So one- 
sided, indeed, has been the contest of late years that 
Cheltenham has given up the struggle, and an annual race 
is now rowed with Bedford Grammar School instead. The 
results of all these races will be given most conveniently 
in a tabular form. 
But some mention must be made of the foundation of the 
School Boat Club, an event of moment in the history of 
rowing at Shrewsbury. Up to  866 the whole management 
of boating had been vested in the "captain," an officer whose 
main business it was to hire a boat for the use of any five 
boys who agreed to make up a crew for the season. By this 
time the old limitation of boating to the part of the river 
between the two bridges had been modified, and the crews 
rowed up to Shelton and back every other day. The racing 
programme at the regatta consisted of a sculling race and 
a competition between house fours, which were practically 
scratch fours, for the "Captain's Cups." 
But in I866 the enthusiasm created by the victories over 
Cheltenham in that and the preceding year gave rise to a 
desire to make the boating more systematic, the outcome of 
which was the formation of the School Boat Club. 
This club was founded on the lines of a college club, with 
a captain, secretary, and treasurer elected by the members. 
Boats of their own were gradually acquired by the members 
of the club, and funds were collected for the erection of a 
boat-house, which, after a delay of many years, due to the 
impending removal of the school, was ultimately built in 
88I on the site of Evans's boat-house. A second boat- 
house and a supplementary shed have since been added 
to meet the requirements of the club. The boys now own 
three "eights," some twenty-five "fours," and a large number 
of "pairs," "whiffs," and "canoes." 


of bounds" were once more resumed by the R.S.S.H. It is 
not surprising, therefore, to learn that for some years after 
the old difficulties in the way of football had been removed 
the game was neither flourishing nor popular. But about 
I846 or I847, for some unexplained reasons, it began once 
more to excite a keen interest among Shrewsbury boys, an 
interest which they retained subsequently at Oxford and 
Cambridge. Between I854 and ,86o there were few better 
players at Cambridge than Shrewsbury men. Some of them 
shared with Etonians and Carthusians the credit due to 
expert dribbling, and many of them were vigorous forward 
players. No eleven would have been considered represent- 
ative of Cambridge football in those days without a 
sprinkling of Shrewsbury men. And since that time the 
game has never been allowed to languish at Shrewsbur): 
In the course of the year x86! some old Cambridge 
friends, resident in Shropshire, who had learned their foot- 
ball at Charterhouse or Harrow, and had kept it up with 
vigour and success on Parker's Piece afterwards, were 
venturous enough to get up an eleven to play the school 
at football. The experiment thus made was often repeated 
in subsequent years, and these matches did much to foster 
and improve football at Shrewsbury. 
Many Old Salopians will remember what a number of 
brilliant football players the school produced between 86o 
and 87o. But it was not till the season of 876-77 that 
Shrewsbury played its first football match with another 
school eleven. Since that time many other matches have 
been played, some with Rossall, some with Repton, and 
some with Malvern. In these matches the results have 
been on the whole decidedly favourable to Shrewsbury. The 
most distinctive features of the game, as formerly played at 
Shrewsbury, were these :-- 
(I) There was no crossbar between the goal posts, and 
a ball kicked between the posts counted as a goal, however 
high it went. 
(2) The offside rule was strict, and no loitering was allowed 
between the ball and the opponents' goal. 


Newport, and Wenlock. Home and home matches with 
two different clubs were permitted during the cricket season, 
one of the conditions of the out matches being that a master 
should accompany the eleven. But his presence did not 
alvays prevent the occurrence of evils similar to those 
against which Dr. Kennedy had to contend in the cases of 
"hounds' slays," "leaving breakfasts," and other school insti- 
tutions. And when it was proposed, about 1864, that the 
out matches should be altogether given up, and that no 
limitation should in the future be put on the number of 
home matches to be played during the season, provided 
they were played on half-holidays, and did not begin till 
after second lesson, Dr. Kennedy gladly agreed to the 
change, which was all the more velcome from the fact that 
the proposal emanated from the captain of the Cricket Club. 
About the same time, or perhaps a year or two later, arrange- 
ments were made for the boys to play their matches on the 
ground belonging to the Shropshire Cricket Club, which, 
besides being nearer to the school, was, of course, kept 
in much better order than was possible with the Coton 
Hill playground. 
But although Shrewsbury did turn out some good 
cricketers in Dr. Kennedy's time, among whom " Teddy 
Dowson" occupied the most prominent place, only three 
of them ever found their way into a university eleven, S. N. 
Micklethwait, William Inge, and E. L. Horne. At the 
present time Shrewsbury can boast a cricket ground which 
is probably truer, as well as more extensive, than that 
possessed by any other public school. The first occasion 
on which Shrewsbury ever played cricket against another 
school was in I854, when a match between the Shrewsbury 
and Birmingham elevens resulted in a "draw." No other 
school match was played before 187i , except one in 866 
with Bradfield, of which the details are not forthcoming, 
when Shrewsbury was easily beaten. 
Since 87o a match has been played nearly every year 
either with Malvern or with Rossall. On one occasion also, 
when the Uppingham boys had migrated temporarily to 



Borth, there was a match between their eleven and Shrews- 
bury. The results of all these school matches, which have 
been for the most part unfavourable to Shrewsbury, are as 



Drawn match. Birmingham lost no wicket 
in the second inning 
Bradfield beat Shrewsbury easily 
Malvern won by five wickets . 

18741 Malvern won by ten wickets . 

1875 blalvern won in one inning, with 1Ol runs f Shrewsbury 
to spare ( Malvern 

1876 Uppingham won in one inning, with forty- (Shrewsbury 
six runs to spare  Uppingham 

1876 Malvern won by one wicket 

1877 Malvern won by 179 runs 

1878 Malvern won in one inning, with II7 runs fShrewsbury 
to spare [ Malvern 

1879 t Malvern wou in one inning 

(Shrewsbury {I3I 
 Birmingham { 16 
|t'Shrewsbury ) 1o8 
I 90 
 r[alvern I I2875 
c I 54 
t 58 
(Shrewsbu { 8 9 
"t Malvem {112 
fShrewsbu { 55 
3 z 
( Malvern {i48 
fShrewsbury { 8832 
( Malvern I21 

1882 Drawn match. Shrewsbury lost eight (Shrewsbury { 8998 
wickets in the second inning ( Rossall 205 
J I46 
I 39 


Rossall won by ten wickets 
( Rossall 
a No school match was played in I87:, 1873, 188o, or 18St. 



amusement at Shrewsbury School. For several years alter 
Dr. Kennedy became Head Master the boys had been allowed 
as a general rule to have a fancy dress ball at some time 
shortly before the Christmas or Midsummer holidays. 1 It 
took the place of the annual play at Christmas, which had 
been the great school festival in Dr. Butler's time and a very 
popular entertainment. Some carping critics, however, had 
spoken of Shrewsbury boys as no better than strolling players, 
and the new Head Master was unfortunately somewhat over- 
sensitive of criticism. So the annual play was given up and 
the fancy dress ball was started instead. 
For some time before the day fixed for the ball it was the 
custom for Mr. Bourlay, the dancing master, to go to the 
different halls two or three times a week to give the boys 
lessons in his art. On the day of the ball the assistance of 
the town hairdresser and some of the maids in the different 
houses was procured, and those boys who seemed best 
adapted to play the rdle were dressed up as girls. Old 
Salopians who remember these balls describe them as 
"amusing and pleasant." But the fancy dress ball expired 
as a school institution in 1846, though temporarily revived 
in I851 in honour of the Tercentenary. 
In the following year, I847, the boys had for their annual 
entertainment a performance by a company of Ethiopian 
serenaders, whose songs were then quite a novelty, and this 
was probably much more to the taste of the majority among 
them than the fancy dress ball would have been. On one 
subsequent occasion, December 6th, t848, the Play, which had 
been so long a feature of Shrewsbury school life, was revived 
in the modified form of acted charades. The same year, I846, 
in which the fancy dress balls came to an end saw also the 
death of another school institution, which dated back to 
Butler's earliest years, the annual speeck day. But happily 
the speech day has risen again from its ashes during the last 
few years, and brings every summer to the beautiful school 

 An Old Salopian who was at school 1839-4z does not emembe any fancy 
dress ball being given in his time. But there is no doubt that the ball took place 
in 843 and in subsequent years up to 1847. 

grounds on Kingsland a goodly assemblage of Old Salopians 
and other distinguished persons. Perhaps on these occasions 
it would be an advantage if there were more speeches from 
the boys and fewer from the visitors. Schoolboys are rarely 
quite contented with their lot, and latter-day Salopians have 
sometimes been heard to whisper sotto voce that they have 
almost heard enough about Sir Philip Sidney. But speech 
day is an excellent institution, even though Old Salopians 
who revisit Shrewsbury on these occasions may sometimes 
be tempted when they look around them to ask, "Why did 
not these changes come in our days ?" 
Pleasant it is too to all who cherish affectionate recollec- 
tions of their old school home on Castle Hill, in spite of its 
many inconveniences and drawbacks, to recognize the praise- 
worthy efforts that have been made to keep up old school 
traditions under such altered circumstances. Many of the 
stones of the walls which bounded School Gardens, engraved 
with the names of generations of former scholars, have been 
carefully removed to Kingsland, and now help to form a con- 
necting link between the past and the present. Old Salopians 
cannot remember much that was beautiful or interesting in 
John Meighen's school chapel, but the little that deserves to 
be called either the one or the other has been preserved. The 
oaken pulpit still serves its old purpose at Kingsland, and the 
fine carved woodwork that once formed a screen at the 
entrance of the old chapel is now to be seen at the western 
end of the new. But some institutions have vanished. Batflves 
is a game unknown to the present generation of Shrewsbury 
boys, and yet it was an excellent game, and had probably 
been played at Shrewsbury for at least a hundred years. 
Seven courts for Imndflz,es, built on the well-known Eton 
model, two of which are covered in with glass and are con- 
sequently available in wet weather, have, it is true, been 
provided at Kingsland ; and on one of these courts a match 
was played for the first time in x897 between Shrewsbury 
and Uppingham. 1 Still, old Salopians may reasonably ask, 
"But why not a court for batflves as well ?" 
 The Uppingham boys were the victors, as they were also in a second match 
played at Uppingham in x898. 


meetings at Shrewsbury that it became an established 
custom in the school in Dr. Butler's days to commemorate 
the two great horse-races of the year, the Derby and the 
St. Leger, by a general sweepstakes. The amount of each 
boy's stake was not large, nor was the practice one of which 
Dr. Butler would be likely to take a very severe view. At 
any rate there is no record of his having ever interfered with 
it. The St. Leger sweepstake was probably soon dropped; 
but the " Derby lottery," as the boys called it, seems to have 
been kept up during the whole of Dr. Kennedy's head- 
mastership, and for some years afterwards, without any 
interference by the authorities. 
Another old school institution, "boxing and singing," to 
which the short amount of time that was available on Friday 
evenings between tea and top schools in Jee's hall, and 
between top schools and bedtime in Doctor's hall, was for- 
merly devoted, has been for some years a thing of the past. 
The proceedings in both halls were under the direction of 
"the hall constable," and were intended mainly to promote 
the discomfort of new boys, though now and then two 
older boys would condescend to put on the gloves. 
The new boys' races, which used to take place on the first 
Monday after the holidays in School Gardens, are still carried 
on, though under more favourable circumstances and in a 
less confined space, at Kingsland. 


yearly an account to be made to the Bailiffs, Aldermen and Common 
Council of the said town for the time being at their yearly audit. 
This is my request; consider of it as ye shall think good. 
"Your servant and suppliant in this behalf, 
"Thomas Asheton." 

" Oct. 271h, t573, from Chartlty." Hotchkis gives an abstract of 
this letter. Ashton writes :-- 
"My Lord's affairs and my Lady's case is such as I cannot satisfy 
your request with my presence," and adds that he is "entangled and 
tyed now by the Prince more streightly." The chief purport of the 
letter was to threaten the Bailiffs that he would discharge himself of 
all further care about the school, and refer it to Mr. Lawrence, then 
Head Master.--Ashton complains that he had been reflected on for 
charging .6 for his expenses in London and Cambridge in con- 
sultation about the Indenture and Ordinances.--He tells the Bailiffs 
that with the first money that should come in they must buy an iron 
chest, and that they must call on his servant David Longdon to give 

The next letter to which Hotchkis refers is dated Nov. 7th, I573. 
Ashton tells the Bailiffs that if they would agree at a Common 
Hall to alter the ordinances, and that what was to go to poor 
artificers or poor scholars in the university should be converted 
to the finding of a Third Master, and frame orders accordingly, 
he would be willing to agree to whatsoever they should think good. 
... Else, he would frame ordinances himself and appoint a 
third schoolmaster .... 
".Feb. 2o/k, I57 . 
"Whereas your Worships have requested me to alter the Orders 
for the Assistant and to place a second Schoolmaster who may have 
yearly for these Six Years Sixteen Pounds, without respect of a 
dead Stock for the School, the use whereof the poor Artificers 
of the Town should have had, I have agreed to your request, and 
as time will serve have satisfied the same. If you like of it you 
may ingrosse it and annex it to the former Schedules. If you 
mislike it, correct it as you think good. I will set my Hand unto 
it as most of you shall agree thereupon. My Life is short and 
therefore I would it were done out of Hand. Yet as my Duty 
requireth I will Eve you some Reason of my doing. Seeing your 


minds be to have the School's Money to serve only the School's 
use (Howsoever pity moved me to apply it otherwise) I have now 
done the same, yet reserving a Surplusage still, first, to the use 
of the School to be first served; after, as it will appear by the 
Orders, I reserve the Surplusage to this end, to have provision 
made in either University for such your Children as come out of 
the same School thither: for you see how the poor are forced to 
give over their Learning and Study, for that they can have no place 
in neither University, in any Colledge, in default neither the Shire 
nor the School aforetime hath made provision therefore. Seeing 
then you will have all applied to the School use, I agree thereto, 
and have made Surplusage first, to serve that use, neither have 
disannulled the Orders in the Schedules before (that only excepted 
of the Assistant) but reserved them to the time when the School- 
masters are all first discharged. My reason I make or would make 
so large a Surplusage is this. I think all that may arise of the 
School's Rent is too much to go to the Salaries of the three School- 
masters, and the Reparations of the School, for if one Schoolmaster 
have in the end .4o, another ;2o, the third .io, I think no 
School in England hath a Salary exceeding this. And seeing we 
exceed others, Let us know when we be well. The principal care 
then is to make provision for those which shall go out from this 
School, for their further Learning and Study, and if the Town be 
benefited by the School, should not the Children rejoice to help 
their Fathers ? And now for the dead Stock of the School of .2oo, 
this is my reason. You know that the School is old and inclining 
to Ruin, also casualty of Fire may happen. The Stock is ever 
ready without hindering the Town to build a new School Yet 
this was not only my reason, which now I will declare unto you. 
I have considered many dines with myself in what an Evil Place 
the School doth stand in, both for place of Easement whereby the 
Fields is abused to the annoyance of them that pass by there, as 
also for that they cannot have access thither, but that it must be 
by the Prisoners, whereby great Inconvenience cometh. My 
meaning therefore was in time to have bought that plot of ground 
S r Andrew Corbett hath on the other side of the Street, and to have 
builded a fair School there with the dead Stock of the School, and 
to have had a door through the Town Walls, and Stairs or Steps 
with great Stones down to Severn, where a fair House of Office 
might have been made, &c. Thomas Asheton." 


JWay 22nd, x576. To Mr. Lloyd ] Bailiffs. 
Mr. Okell J" 
Ashton reminds them that he had before complained of their 
delays, two years and more, and then continues... "Now, 
receiving your letter whereby I find you so ready to work all to 
the best, I am glad of it, and after I can come to the sight of 
the Tripartite Indenture (which I will send for or fetch from 
Cambridge) and have taken further counsel with the learned of 
the Law, you shall shortly after understand what I will say to 
these Orders and platform of the school sent to me by you, for 
seeing you will have the other taken from the Indenture, as reason 
is, the perusing, correcting and altering of these now, and adding as 
shall be thought good, requires time to consider thereof, which 
God advise .... " 

jrune ioth, x576. To David Lloyd  Bailiffs. 
John Okell 
It appears from this letter that the Bailiffs had written to 
press Ashton to come to Shrewsbury for the full establishment 
of things pertaining to the school, and he now replies that he could 
not come till he had spoken once again with her Majesty. 

"2lay lsth , 577- 
"Right Worshipfull, 
"Vhen that chardge ofyo r schole yo u trusted me wi th all, 
I upon just consideracon, forced wi th sykenes, remitted the same 
againe, to be perfected, to worshipful wise learned discrete person- 
ages, whose credytt and Judgment might both wynne to the mater 
more maiestie and p'cure yt more credit than yt ever could have had 
by myne owne private doing: and perusing ther travailes therein 
fynd yt so substanciallie gone throughe w th all, that I have iust 
cause geavan me to lyke and allowe of the same, I do both signifie 
unto yo u my good lyking of ther labours and also most earnestlie do 
wische yo u to consent to the same, that the thing w th all speede may 
have his perfection. And thinke and persuade y'selffe this that yt 
was the good providence of God w h made yo u committ the credit of 
such a mater to a weake person at the first whos purposed power 
 .Blake'way .IIS. The original is among the town records. 


shuld geave streingth to the same at the last. And so lastlie I leave 
yo u ever to be gyded w th God's most holie spirit in all yo r affaires, 
that all faction sett apart, yo  loke w th a sy--le eye to yo r gou'ment, 
that God's wrathe pacified, yo u may enioye the fruites of blessed 
concorde w th great contentacioun of mynd in this world, and the 
participacon of immortalitie promised in another world for which I 
continue dailie praing w t all fervencye of spirit vnto death that God 
may geave yo u the spirit of wisdom in all knowledge of himselffe, 
and lighten the eyes of yo  mynd to see the hope yo u are called 
vnto and to see the excedyng riches of the inheritance provided for 
the sancts, flare you well fro keiston  the XV May, i577. 
"Yo'* as ever, Thomas Asheton. 
"To the right woshipfull Mr. John Dawes and Mr. Richard Owen 
Bailiffs of Shrewsbury, to the Aldermen and common Counsell of 
the same." 

"Jan. 9th, t577. 
"My most hearty commendations unto you remembered. I 
understand by my friend Mr. Asheton that you make some question 
whether any sums of money which should rise upon the revenues 
of the lands granted for the maintenance of the School might be 
employed for the purchasing of lands for Scholarships and Fellow- 
ships in the University in such sort as is set down by the Ordinances 
of the School which I lately penned. These are to let you under- 
stand that at the time I penned those Ordinances I had the sight, 
as well of the two Patents granted by King Edward VI., as of those 
granted by the Queen's Majesty that now is, and then it seemed to 
me that those Ordinances (whereof buying of Scholarships and 
Fellowships in the University for the maintenance of such as should 
come from that School is one) might be well enough performed and 
done without any danger of forfeiture or prejudice to the said two 
Patents, whereof I have thought good to advertise you. And thus, 
wishing you most heartily wall to fare, I commit you to God.--From 
my house at Hallon, the 9th of January, i577. 
"Your assured loving friend, "George Bromley." 
 Keiston was a manor house in Huntingdonshire belonging to the Earl of 
Essex, whither Ashton had gone from Cambridge to recruit his health. 
o_ This letter is among the town records. 


whereuppon she hath made humble suite unto us, that forasmuch as 
it is not nowe in our power to renew hit estate in the sayd tithes 
according as we used to extend like favors to our tenantes upon 
surrenders, the same being passed from us to you, and that it hath 
bene left to hit by her late husband for a stay and relief both to hir 
during hir life and afterwards to hir children, to whom their father 
deceased hath left but small living besides, so as if this were taken 
from them they were like to fall in distress.--We have in considera- 
tion thereof been moved to recommend her suite unto you, that 
is, that upon surrender of her present estate you will make unto her 
a new lease of the said tythes for the term of 3o yeares at the rent 
accustomed, and without fine, as at our request which we think we 
may the rather require at your hands, for that both the said parcel 
of tithes and many other things were in our late grant freely and 
without charge by us given to you. And, therefore, we do look that 
this so reasonable a request being for the relief of a widow and 
fatherless children shall not be denied, but rather granted, with 
such favour and expedition as we may have cause to think our late 
benefit to you bestowed on thankful persons." 

".July 19th, 613 .t 
"Whereas, in the Term of the Holy Trinity, in the o th year 
of the reign of our Sovereign Lord James the King's Majesty that 
now is, John Meighen, Chief Schoolmaster of the Free Grammar 
School of Shrewsbury in the county of Salop, exhibited his Bill of 
Complaint into this most honourable Court of Chancery against 

 The original document is not to be found among the town records. But 
Hotchkis made a transcript of it which is here reproduced with some alterations 
of the spelling. Mr. Blakeway gives an abstract of Hotchkis's transcript in his 
MSS. in the Bodleian. The decree recites the substance of Meighen's bill of 
complaint and of the report or certificate of the Commissioners. The only 
document bearing on the subject, which has been found among the town records, 
is what appears to be a faithful copy of the decree, leaving out those parts of it 
which recite the contents of bleighen's bill and of the Commissioners' report. 
It is endorsed " Mr. Ottley," and is evidently part of the Corporation case in 
the litigation with St. John's College about the right of appointment to the 
second-mastership which commenced in 167 z. 


Thomas Jones and Hugh Harris, then I Bailiffs of the said town, 
defendants showing thereby that the late King Edward the Sixth 
founded the said school, and, for the maintenance thereof, gave 
divers tithes to the Bailiffs and Burgesses of the said town of 
Shrewsbury, and that the late Queen Elizabeth of famous memory, 
for the better maintenance thereof, gave unto them among other 
things the Rectory of Chirbury, and that the Corporation did 
covenant with the said Queen to employ the revenues thereof 
according to such constitutions as Thomas Ashton, then Head 
Schoolmaster of the said school, should make, who accordingly 
made divers ordinances, i 't for the valuation and employing of the 
revenues of the said school: 2 navy that there should be 3 school- 
masters in the said school ; the Head Schoolmaster who should 
have yearly 4o, the second :3 o, the third eo, yearly; 3 foxy 
that there should be a Bailiff for the collection of the rents, who 
should have yearly 4, and enter into a bond of 3oo or more 
for the answering of his charge; 4 thly that the Bailiff should yearly 
give an account of all things within his charge before the Bailiffs 
of the town and Head Schoolmaster; 5th that the surplusage 
remaining upon the foot of the accounts should be called the Stock 
Remanent, and be put into a strong chest under 4 locks in the 
Exchequer of the said town ; that the Bailiffs should have the 
keeping of one key and the most ancient alderman, the second 
key; the Head Schoolmaster, the third key; and the most ancient 
of the 24 Councillors of the said town, the 4 th key; 6 thly that the 
Eailiffs of the said town should yearly take their oaths for the true 
accomplishment of so many of the ordinances as concerned the 
demising of the revenues of the said school, and the employing 
thereof according to the ordinances, at which time the Chief 
Schoolmaster should be present. And the complainant also showed 
that one George Phillips was lawfully elected School Bailiff, and 
that there was an iron chest in the Exchequer with 4 locks, and the 
keys disposed as aforesaid, and that the business of the school had 
been managed by the Bailiffs and Head Schoolmaster jointly and 
only ; likewise that there was of the Stock Remanent in the school 
chest 4o4 17s. 7d., which was to be employed for the buying of 
land for the making of the schoolhouse and lodgings for the school- 
masters in the country, in the time of common plague or other 

x It was of course a mistake to speak of the defendants as then Bailiffs. They 
were Bailiffs in 61o-I I. 


same ordinances, it was thought meet by this Court, and, on the 
4 tb day of February in the o th year of his Majesty's Reign, ordered, 
that a Commission should be awarded unto Sir Edward Bromley, 
Knight, one of the Barons of his Majesty's Exchequer, Sir Richard 
Lewkener, Knight, Chief Justice of Chester, and Richard Barker, 
Esq., Recorder of the said town of Shrewsbury, giving them, or any 
two of them, whereof the said Recorder to be one, authority to call 
the said parties before named before them, and to examine witnesses 
in the same Cause, and thereupon to consider and understand of 
the matters contained in the said Bill and Answer, and of the said 
ordinances for the good of the said school aforesaid, and to see 
and take order that nothing should be done in breach of the 
said ordinances, but that all things might be done according 
to the intent and true meaning thereof, and so end and determine 
the said Cause, if they could ;--if not, that then they certify unto 
this Court their proceedings in the said Cause ; and, for the better 
effecting thereof, the Lord Chancellor would be pleased to write his 
honourable letters to the Commissioners before named for the 
purpose aforesaid. According to which commission and letters 
to them directed as aforesaid the said Commissioners made 
certificate unto the Right Honourable the Lord Chancellor and 
to this honourable Court on the io th day of April, Anno Domini 
I63, now last past, that on Thursday in Easter Week, being the 
8 b day of April, Anno Domini 63, they repaired to the Town 
Hall of the said town of Shrewsbury, and, having called the said 
parties, Plaintiff and Defendants, before them there, they bestowed 
two several days in the full hearing of the said Cause and of all the 
said parties and of their learned counsel, and having viewed the Bill 
and Answer of the parties aforesaid, and examined such witnesses 
as were produced in the said Cause, and considered of their proofs 
and allegations, and also of the ordinances of the said school, 
and of some disorders contrary to the same ordinances, they did 
endeavour themselves finally to end and determine the said Cause 
with the liking of the said parties ; which because they could not 
perform accordingly, they thought it fit in duty to signify unto this 
Court their proceedings concerning the same, as by the said com- 
mission, order, and honourable letters, they were required ; Videlicet ; 
--that they found the estate of the said school was much decayed 
by the froward and ill carriage of the said Meighen, being a very 
contentious person, and of a turbulent and mutinous spirit and 


disposition ; and that whereas, by the true meaning of the ordinances 
of the said school, no persons were to have or receive any stipend 
or wages for teaching in the said school, but only such as should be 
elected or placed schoolmasters thereof according to the said 
ordinances; and that, so often as any of the two upper rooms or 
places of schoolmasters of the said school should happen to be 
void, the room so vacant to be supplied by preferring of the next 
inferior schoolmaster of the said school thereunto, if he were 
qualified for the same as by the ordinances in that behalf is 
prescribed; or otherwise, by election by the Master and Fellows 
of the College of S t John the Evangelist in the University of 
Cambridge, to whom the Bailiffs of Shrewsbury. for the time being, 
within o days next after notice unto them given by the schoolmaster 
or schoolmasters then remaining of such vacancy or avoidance, were 
to send for one to supply the said room or place ; and that the 
second room or place of the Second Schoolmaster of the said 
school became void in November, Anno Domini 6o7, by the death 
of John Baker, the then Second Schoolmaster thereof; and that 
thereupon the said ieighen and the other schoolmasters then 
remaining gave notice to the then Bailiffs of the said vacancy ; 
and that then the said Bailiffs, upon good advice, for just causes 
then proved before them, and manifested unto the said Meighen, 
being present, did deny to give their consent for the preferring of 
Ralph Gittins,  then Third Schoolmaster of the said school, to the 
room or place of the said schoolmaster there, (without whose consent 
the said Gittins by the ordinances of the said school could not 
have the Second Place); and that aftervards, within 3o days 
next after notice given by the remaining schoolmasters as afore- 
said of the vacancy of the Second Room, the then Bailiffs of 
the said town sent to the said Master and Fellows of the said 
College for the supplying thereof  according to the said 
ordinances ; and that, although the late archbishop had in the 
presence of the said Meighen, censured the said Gittins to 
be unworthy of the Second Place in respect of his wavering 
 Meighen has left it on record in the school register that iS, lr. Andrew Lewis 
did give his consent, though "' doubtfully." It was Mr. William Jones only who 
"flatly" refused to agree. 
 There is no record in the College archives of any such application, and 
Meighen distinctly states that, up to January 22nd, 6o, no course had been 
taken up by the Bailiffs for supplying of the school. It was on December 9th 
that Meighen formally proposed the promotion of Ralph Gittins. 


the then Bailiff's of the said town, and of the Master and Seniors 
of St. John's College in Cambridge, and of Thomas Lawrence, 
the Chief Schoolmaster of the said school, one Chapel, part of 
the Parish Church of St. Maw in the said town of Shrewsbury 
(within which parish the said school and schoolmaster's lodgings 
be), the said Church being the King's Free Chapel and the Lord 
Chancellor Visitor thereof, was repaired and beautified upon the 
school charges, to the intent that, upon all the Sabbath Days, 
Holy Days and half holidays, the schoolmasters and scholars of 
the said school should resort thither to hear Divine Service and 
to sit upon seats in the Chancel of the said Church to hear public 
sermons ; unto which Chapel and Chancel both the schoolmasters 
and scholars of the said school, from the repairing thereof as 
aforesaid until about 7 or 8 years last past, did so come accordingly, 
to the great good of the said scholars and comfort and contentment 
of the inhabitants of the said town and of all other persons which 
resorted thither, and that, according to an interpretation and 
exposition of some of the ordinances of the said school made 
by the Lord Chancellor and others in the 34th year of the late 
Queen, out of the Stock Remanent of the said school there might, by 
the true intent and meaning of the ordinances, be defrayed 
and bestowed money and charges upon the reparation of a Chapel 
for the schoolmasters and scholars of the said school and main- 
tenance for one to read Divine Service and catechise there, the 
said Commissioners do think it fit that the schoolmasters and 
scholars of the said school, as heretofore in the time of the said 
Lawrence, being Head Schoolmaster of the said school, and for 
many years after in the time of the said Meighen they did so; 
hereafter they should, upon every Sunday, Holy Day and half 
holiday, resort unto the said Chapel to hear Divine Sen-ice and 
the said scholars to be instructed in the principles and grounds 
of true religion; and that, at such times as there shall be any 
sermon in the said Church upon any Sunday or Holy Day, that 
both the said schoolmasters and scholars go likewise unto the same ; 
and for want of a sermon in that Church, then unto such Church 
in the said town where there shall be a sermon, as heretofore they 
have used and accustomed ; and that the said Chapel and seats 
there be from time to time repaired at the charges of the school 
revenues for the uses aforesaid ; and that such reasonable allowance 
or maintenance out of the school revenues be given to the Curate 


pay or disburse any of the rents or revenues of any of the heredita- 
ments given for the maintenance of the said school, or otherwise 
whatsoever concerning the said school, without the consent of the 
Bailiffs of the said town for the time being and the Schoolmaster. 
And whereas, the Bailiffs and Burgesses of the said town stand 
bound unto the King's Majesty by force of a covenant made with 
the late Queen, her heirs, and successors, to employ and bestow 
the rest and residue of the revenues and profits belonging to the 
said school, not specially, by the Letters Patent of the said late 
Queen, limited to be otherwise paid and bestowed, according to 
such orders and constitutions as should be taken in that behalf 
by Thomas Ashton, alias Aston, then schoolmaster there, and that 
thereupon, in the 2oth year of the Reign of the said late Queen; 
the said Thomas Ashton, alias Aston, then made ordinances for 
and concerning the employing and disposing of the revenues of the 
said school, and the Bailiffs and Burgesses of Shrewsbury, with the 
advice and consent of the then Rev. Father in God, the then Bishop 
of Coventry and Lichfield, and of the said Mr. Ashton, alias Aston, 
at the same time made other ordinances concerning the election, 
placing, direction, rule, ordering and government of the school- 
masters and scholars of the said school, the said ordinances being 
all the ordinances of or concerning the said school and contained in 
the three several schedules tripartite, bearing date the  th day of 
February in the 2oth year of the Reign of the said late Queen 
Elizabeth, made between the then Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield 
on the first part, and the Bailiffs and Burgesses of Shrewsbury on the 
second part, and the Master, Fellows and Scholars of St. John's 
College in Cambridge, and the said Thomas Ashton, alias Aston, 
then late Head Schoolmaster of the said school, and Thomas 
Lawrence, then Head Schoolmaster of the said school, on the third 
part, by which tripartite indenture all the parties thereunto, saving 
the said Aston and Lawrence who covenanted only for themselves, 
and their several successors respectively, did covenant, each with the 
other, truly to perform and observe all the said ordinances which 
they and every of them were respectively to observe and perform ; 
and that, by one of the ordinances of the said school, the Bailiffs of 
the said town were yearly, at the time of the taking of their oaths for 
and touching the execution of their office of Bailiwick, to take their 
corporal oaths for the true accomplishment and execution of such 
and so many of the said ordinances as concerned the demising, 


for the time being (and the Recorder of said town for the 
time being) should be only interpreters and expounders of all and 
singular the aforesaid ordinances; and that such interpretations, 
expositions and directions as they from time to time should set 
down in writing, under their hands and seals, of or concerning any 
of the ordinances touching the said school or the reforming of any 
ordinance concerning the said school, upon the petition of the 
Bailiffs of the said town and Head Schoolmaster of the said school 
for the time being, or any two of them, should stand and be ob- 
served. And lastly, forasmuch as the said defendants had been at 
great charges, as well in this suit prosecuted against them without 
any just cause, for anything appearing unto the said Commis- 
sioners to the contrary, as also in the discovering and manifesting 
of many disorders and abuses contrary to the said ordinances--as well 
in the misemploying of the said revenues of the said school and 
in the teachers of the said school, as also in the rule and govern- 
ment thereof and otherwise, the Commissioners thought it fit (under 
the favour of this Court) that their reasonable expenses should be 
allowed them out of the revenues of the said school in respect of 
their good service in that behalf, as by the said certificate of the 
said Commissioners more at large it doth and may appear.--Now, 
forasmuch as the matter coming, by the appointment of the Right 
Honourable the Lord Chancellor, to be heard before his lordship, 
and upon the opening thereof by the counsel learned on both 
sides, and reading of the certificate aforesaid, it is, this present 
day, being Monday, the 28  of June, in the t t th year of the 
Reign of our Sovereign Lord, James, by the grace of God, King of 
England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. ; 
that is to say, of England, France and Ireland, and of Scotland, in 
the 46 th, by the Right Honourable Thomas, Lord Ellesmere, Lord 
Chancellor of England, and the High Court of Chancery, ordered, 
adjudged and decreed that the said certificate and all the matters 
therein contained (except the cause and matter between Nicholas 
Gibson and Thomas Hill, therein specified, which his lordship hath 
reserved for further hearing in open Court) be performed by the said 
parties to all intents and purposes according to the tenor and true 
meaning thereof, with such further reservations and exceptions as are 
hereafter expressed in these points following wherein his lordship 
is pleased of his honourable providence for the good of the said 
school more at large to explain himself. First, for that it is 


person to perform her duty as she desireth : she is also at this time, 
by occasion of the schools being here, a most necessary victualler 
for the use of... us, the members thereof, so as we cannot be 
without the opportunity of her service, as the case standeth for us, 
she being thereby occasioned, for supplying our necessities, to strain 
herself to do more in her trade of life than otherwise she would do 
or heretofore hath done, neither yet doth she keep any house of 
evil rule by entertaining of company resorting unto it or otherwise 
by any disorder used in it. 
"And therefore also our special desire is, both on her behalf, 
being a poor aged woman without other means to maintain her, 
and likewise on our own (she being so necessary a help to us, as 
hath been said) that at the least during the time of the schools' 
continuance here, you will be pleased to tolerate with her: and, if 
you think good, as at our requests to vouchsafe her such further 
favour as she hath been wont to obtain at the request of others 
formerly to other bailiffs, your worships' predecessors, and we shall 
rest At your vorships' command, 
Jo: Meighen. 
Ra: Gittins. 
Da: Evans. 
Hughe Spurstowe." 

"From St. John's College, 
" x7 .Feb., 163,. 
"Accordinge to this yr 2nd intimation by letters dated 
x8 Jan. x636 , with request to choose and send you a fitt man and 
able to teach in the room of 1W Meighen. In our election we 
have endeavoured to dischardge the chardge and truste lyeinge 
upon us by virtue of the Royal Ordinances ratified under the seales 
of both our bodyes. Wee neyther had before nor have 'ee yet 
any endes of our owne in eyther the former or this followinge 
Election but God's glorye, the good of yrselves, yr countye, this 
Church and Realme, which wee doubte not but this our electe and 
presented M r Challoner in tyme will make good. To whose further 
qualification as shall appear in his instrumente we referre you 
hopinge that neyther amonge you nor us any will be found desirous 
to stirr up smoake, duste and collusions betwixte us. It is justice 


"Sir,--I was favoured with yours of the Igth, and never till then 
heard upon what terms it was Mr. Lloyd agreed to resign the 
Schooles to Mr. Clarke, or how they came to break off, for I under- 
stood it was upon the College not coming to a resolution to defend 
their right ; and should he have resigned his fellowship and accepted 
of the schools upon terms with your father, upon a contested 
nomination, to be contested at his own expense, I should have 
thought him much to blame. 
"But as the College is now come to a resolution to defend their 
right, I hope you will pardon me if I shall think Mr. Lloyd can't in 
honour treat with the Corporation (who unjustly endeavoured to 
oblige him to resign) on any terms but what are by the privity and 
consent of St. John's College. 
"And much less if they are only terms offered by Brickdale, 
who on a promise Owen has made him to marry his daughter if he 
will make him head Schoolmaster, is now making interest with the 
Corporation, if he gains his point with Mr. Lloyd, to admit Owen 
in his place, in defiance of the College's right of nomination, 
thinking the violence of the times a favourable opportunity to 
contest the matter with the College should they dispute the power 
of the Corporation. 
"This was the talk when I was in the country, and, if I am not 
misinformed, some friends of Mr. Lloyd made him very generous 
offers if he would tamely resign to his enemies : but whether that is 
a fact or not the most favourable construction his friends can put 
upon his resigning on terms from Brickdale or the Corporation, 
without the consent of the College, will be that he is justified to sell 
his place for a small consideration to his enemies, to give them a 
favourable opportunity of taking the advantage of his resignation 
against the College that nominated him. 
"For it is certain, if the Corporation thought they could possibly 
remove him and place whom they please in his stead, without his 
resigning to them, they would never offer him terms ; that made me 
give those hints in my letter to Mr. Peugh, and your letter still 
further confirms me in the same opinion that I was then, for I find 


by the ordinances there is no form of a resignation prescribed. 
That being the case it is reasonable to think, as the College, by the 
ordinances, has the nomination, that it was understood that the 
schoolmasters would have so much regard for the College and the 
good of the Schools, as not to make a vacancy by surrendering, till 
they have given the College notice to nominate in their roome, 
which, I believe was the manner of Mr. Taylor's resigning, and in 
my poor opinion, the only justifiable manner of resigning. 
"When I wrote to Mr. Peugh I thought the head schoolmaster 
was to be admitted by the College, therefore an actual vacancy 
before they could do anything ; but since they only nominate, the 
only proper method is for them to do it upon their receiving notice 
from the schoolmaster that he desires to resign to any person they 
shall nominate to be appointed, and admitted by the Corporation, 
pursuant to the ordinances, which notice is proper to be expressed 
in the body of the nomination from the College, as the cause of 
their nomination. 
"And should the Corporation upon offering them to resign to a 
person so nominated, being duly qualified, refuse to accept of his 
resignation, and to admit the person so nominated without showing 
any general cause, the College or person so refused may un- 
doubtedly bring a mandamus against the Corporation: and I do 
verily believe it will be impossible to remove Mr. Lloyd till the 
Corporation are forced to admit the persons nominated by the 
"And though I never spoke to Mr. Clarke on the terms he 
agreed with your father I doubt not but he will readily comply with 
them j yet in case he has quiet possession, which is all that I think 
can be expected from him, and will I verily believe be as much to 
Mr. Lloyd's advantage as of any terms he can make with 13rickdale ; 
and certainly it will be much more to his satisfaction than securing 
a small sum at the expense of his character and reputation in the 
"I beg pardon for thus freely telling you my thoughts, but do 
assure you it proceeds from the very great regard and respect I have 
both for your father and yourself, and I shall be extremely glad to 
hear of this matter being settled to both your satisfaction and 
advantage ; being most sincerely 
"Your faithful humble Servant, 
"C. Kynaston." 


had elected a person to that office ; Ordered, that the Town Clerk 
write to the Master and Fellows of the said College to enquire 
whether they had made such Election or not ; and if such Election 
was made, to signify to the College that they have been wanting 
in proper respects to the Mayor in not apprizing and giving him 
notice of such Election. 

" Cambridge, z4 Nov., 783. 
"Sir,--The Master of St. John's College has received the Paper 
signed by you, complaining of a Want of Respect to the Mayor 
and Corporation of Salop, in not giving them notice of the Election 
of a Third Master of Shrewsbury School ; and I am directed by 
the Society to inform you, that they are much surprised both at the 
Ignorance on which the Censure is founded, and at the Insolence 
of the manner in which it is conveyed. 
"All proper regard was immediately paid to the Mayor's Letter 
of Notification, which was laid before the Society very soon after 
it came to hand. Understanding from Mr. Atcherley's Letter that 
Mr. Matthews would be agreeable to the Mayor and Corporation, 
as well as to himself, and having good reason for believing that he 
was in all respects a proper person,, they determined to elect him. 
"The Certificate to the Bishop of Lichfield, and the Instrument 
of Appointment were accordingly drawn up, and sealed pursuant 
to the forms prescribed, and sent to Mr. Matthews, imagining that 
the Mayor would like as well to receive them from him, as by the 
post. He will find that the Instrument itself is the proper answer 
of the Society to his Letter of Notification, and that they have 
done everything that was incumbent on them to do ; and have not 
been wanting in any respect due from them to him, or the Coorpora- 
tion of Salop. 
"I am, Sir, 
"Your most obedient Servant, 
"Thos. Lambe." 


"I say that the person or persons who wrote Edward's charters 
could not possibly intend to use the word libera in the sense of 
'gratuitous' (x) for the simple and cogent reason, that the adjective 
liber never had, at any time, borne, or been used in, such a sense. 
All that is said in the charter is, that the school shall have for its 
title' Libera Schola Grammaticalis Regis Edwardi Sexti.' There 
is no explanation of any word. Therefore the words must have 
been well known and commonly used. 'Grammaticalis' was a 
word well known: it could only imply a School for the teaching 
of 'Grammatica,' the science of language, one of the 'trivial' 
sciences. The meaning of the word libera must have been 
at the time equally known and used. What that meaning was 
will be the second head of my inquiry. At present I affirm that 
it was not 'gratuitous.' This meaning has, I repeat, never belonged 
to the word liber: (a) not in classical Latin ; (3) not in post- 
classical Latin; (c) not in mediaeval Latin. For (a) as respects 
classical Latin, any competent person may satisfy himself by refer- 
ence to the best dictionaries, as those of Facciolati and Scheller. 
By reading through the examples of lier and its adverb liere, 
and especially by comparing with them the examples of 'gratuitus' 
and its adverb 'gratis' he will find that the two former words are 
never used in the sense of the two latter. Zi3er means 'unre- 
strained,' ' uncontrolled,' or 'exempt,' and of course we may add 
a word signifying 'expense' or 'payment,' and say that a person 
or thing is 'exempt' from this ; but never will the word liber 
be found to describe 'a thing not to be paid for.' Again, (3) 
post-classically, we have ample proof in the Latin Vulgate translation 
of the Bible (about ,.D. 4oo) that lier does not mean gratuitous. 
Let us look at the passages which stand in the English Bible as 
follows : Matthew x. 8, ' Freely ye have received ; freely give.' 
Romans iii. 34, 'Justified freely.' Rev. xxi. 6, 'I will give of the 
water of life freely'; xxii. 7, 'Let him take freely.' Does the 
Vulgate give li3ere in any one of these passages? In none. 
What it gives is 'gratis.' And in a concordance of the Vulgate 
I find forty-six references to the word libere, in all of which it 
means' unenslaved,' and in none' gratuitous.' Again, (c) mediavally, 
we have for reference the valuable glossary of Ducange and 













R. Taylor 
F. W. J. Rees . 
E. S. Moseley . 
F. H. McLaughlin 
Arthur Yardley 
C. D. Maclean . 
S. II. James 
E. B. Steedman 
C. E. Marindin 
W. R. Barry 
G. A. Grierson 

B. G. Geidt 
S. W. Edgerley 
E. T. Lloyd 
1 I. !'. Todd Naylor 
C. R. Roper 
E. E. P. Rose . 
C. A. H. Townshend 
C. L. Alexander 

1873 (Ist). 
873 (12th). 
875 (Sth). 
1879 (Sth). 
1881 (znd). 



!I. D. Laffan.t [ 1895 
J. de C. Laffan. [ 1895 
E. A. Edgell.t 1897 
J. F.W. Johnson.'t 1898 
tl. E, C. Cowie. 898 
J. Grose. 1 1898 
D. Champion Jones. I 1898 

j. P. v. Hawksley. 
R. G. I'onsonby. 
A. W. Stokes. 
G. P. MacClellan. 
A, M. Twlss, 
J. M. R. Itarrison. 
13. S. Browne. 

Gained the Pollock Medal while at XVoolwich. 
Took the first place in the Woolwich examination for commi.bions in the Royal Engineer,. 



General Literature, . 
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Fiction, . 3.3 
The Shilling Novels, . 37 
Books for Boys and Girls, 39 
Novels of Alexandre Dumas, 39 
Methuen's Sixpenny Books, 39 

MARCH ,9o7