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ANNALS ^.^^^n 





TO THE YEAR 1823. 



9b JUeniclr oC tiie Hemuoofc Kti^iatiD* 




« Let ni read| and reeolleet, and impress upon our souls^ the Ticws and ends of our fiir*- 
ftthera, in exchan^g their native country for a dreary, inhospitable wildemesK RecoUeat 
their amazing fortitude, their bitter sufferings ! the hunger, the nakedness, the cold, which 
thay patiently tndured ! the severe labors of clearing their grounds, building thdur houses, 
and raising their provisions, amidst dangers from wild beasts and savage men."— A9AMS* 




/^•o^r; V 

U s,/i<j3:i.o. 

Rockingham, ss....] Concord, March 12, 1823. 

At a legal town-meeting, helU in said Concord on the day aforesaid — 
F^ted, That the Town-Clerk be directed to purchase of Mr. Jacob B. Moore, 

10 many copies of his Sketches of the History of Concord, about to be published, 

as will supply each family in town with a copy. 




When the compilation of the following brief no- 
tices was undertaken, the writer had no other inten- 
tion than to preserve the facts which he might ob- 
tain for his own particular use and amusement. — 
But on examination, many things of an interesting 
nature were found mingled with the concerns of 
the town, which it was conceived might be useful 
and entertaining to the inhabitants. The circum- 
stances attending the first settlement, the hardships 
endured by the settlers, and their frequent expo- 
sure to Indian warfare ; the massacre by the In- 
dians, and their depredations upon the property of 
the inhabitants ; and the tedious and perplexing 
controversy with the proprietors of Bow — were all 
deemed subjects of sufficient importance to interest 
the people of this town. The generation to whom 
these things were familiar, is rapidly passing away ; 
and there will ere long be no one, from whom 
these particulars could be collected. Even at this 
time, great difficulty has been encountered in con- 
necting the series of events, and reconciling con- 
tradictory accounts. The want of records, for sev- 
eral years, and the deficiency of a portion of those . 
we have, were also evils not to be remedied but 
by unwearied search and inquiry among the most 
intelligent aged people of the town. The writer 


has devoted much time to the collection of the ma- 
terials here embodied ; and though, from the nature 
of things, and his own inability to give the narrative 
any original attractions, he must be aware that er- 
rors and deficiencies may be discovered — ^it is be- 
lieved the good citizens of Concord will find some 
things, embraced in the following pages, worthy of 
perusal and of preservation. 

For the memoir of the tribe of Indians, who 
once inhabited this town and vicinity, the writer 
acknowledges his obligations to John Farmer, Esq. 
of this town. To the politeness of Chari^js Waj> 
KER, and Francis N. Fisk, ]Ssquires, and the Rev. 
Dr. M'Farland, he is also indebted for the use of 
sundry records and papers m their possession, which 
have been of great service to him. And to the aged 
citizens generally who have cheerfully aided him 
in completing this task, would he present the most 
hearty thanks, with the hope that what they have 
helped to accomplish, will not be found so wholly 
uninteresting as to be deemed unworthy of preser-^ 

March 1, 1824. 


Concord, the seat of the state government, an4 
shire town of the county of Merrimack, New- 
Hampshire, is pleasantly situated on both sides of 
Merrimack river, in latitude 43** 12' N. ; 45 miles 
N. 72r W. of Portsmouth, 62 miles N. 22^ W. of 
Boston, and 500 miles from Washington-City. It was 
originally known by the i^ame of Penacookj from 
that of the tribe of Indiai)||who once inhabited the 
vicinity. It is bounded onthe north-west by Can- 
terbury and Boscawen, north-east by Loudon and 
Chichester, south-east by Pembroke and Bow, and 
south-west by Hopkinton : comprising an area of 
40,919 acres. 

As the principal design of this little work is to 
present in a summary view the most interesting 
circumstances which can now be collected in rela- 
tion to the history of Concord, further notice of its 
local situation, topography, &c. will be omitted iii 
this place. 

In the settlement of new lands, emigrants have 
generally been careful to select such as were fer- 
tile, and well situated for their various pursuits. 
Hence alluvial valleys and the borders of nvers are 
sooner settled than the highlands, which, though 
often as productive, are less easy of cultivation. 
The Indians were not less sagacious m this partic- 
ular than the whites, for we find near our prmcipal 
rivers, remains of their fortifications, and other 
memorials of their residence there. The intervals 
situated on the river Merrimack early attracted 
notice ; and several parties, desirous of commencing 
new settlements, surveyed the lands a great dis- 
tance from its mouth. 



About the year 1720, Captain Ebenezer East- 
man and several others, from Haverhill, Mass. ex- 
plored the lands in this vicinity, and noticing the 
richness ^^f the intervals, resolved to procure a 
grant and commence a settlement Accordingly, 
at the session of the " General Court of the Prov- 
ince of the Massachusetts Bay," assembled at Bos- 
ton in May, 1721, a petition was presented for a 
tract of land " situated on the river Merrymake, at 
the lower end of Penacook," to contain about eight 
miles square. The petitioners were unsuccessful 
in their application imtil 1725 ; the governor dis- 
senting from all proceedings of the legislature, 
though they twice "aUpwedthe petition," in 1721 
and 1722, and in 1729 appointed a committee to 
view the lands. In the beginning of the year 1725, 
upon the petition of Benjamin Stevens, Ebenezer 
Eastman and others, in behalf of the intended set- 
tiers, a tract of land of about seven miles square 
was appropriated for a township, by the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts. The conditions of the 
grant were, that the tract should be divided into 
one hundred and three equal shares or lots ; that 
one hundred families should settle thereon within 
the space of three years; that each settler should 
build a good dwelUng-house, " comfortably to re- 
ceive and entertain his family," and break up and 
fence in six acres of land for a honje lot, within 
the term aforesaid; that the houses should be 

1725. Jan, 18. At a meeting of th^ committee of the eeneral court of Ilifaf 
Mcfausetts, for briDging forward the settlement of a plaoe ^Ad Penacook, on eac 
side of Merrimacli river, to begin ivhere Contoocook empties itself into the Mej 
rimack — present William Tailor, Elisha Cooke, William Dudley, John Waii 
Wright, Captain John Shapleigh, John Sanders, Eleazar T^nag, and Mr. Jose) 
Wilder— each admitted settler paid the committee 20#. 

. JV6. 7. '* Voted that the settlers shall well and (ruly fulfil the conditions and c 
ders of the general court. And for the effectual accomplishing the same, it is agrei 
and resolved, that such and so many of the inteuded settlers as shall fail of fallowir 
ftncing or clearing one acre of land within twelve months from the first of Ju 
naxt, shall each of them forfeit and pay the community or settlers, jCS, to be appi 
priated by tliem to their own benefit.**— Pro. RtcorAs. 


erected within twenty rods of each otber on the 
home lots, and in a regular and defensible manner; 
and that a convenient house for the puUic worship 
of God should be completely finished within tm 
time first mentioned Each settler was to pay the 
province £5 for his right ; and as soon as one hun* 
dred were admitted settlers, they were empowered 
to hold proprietary meetings for the transaction of 
the business of the settlement The remaining 
three rights were reserved, one for the first settles 
minister, one for a parsonage, and one for " the use 
of the school forever-"* The requisite number of 
settlers having been admitted, a meeting was 
holden at Haverhill, on the 7th of February, 1725, 
when the following, among other regulations, was 
adopted by the proprietors : 

" jlareed and resolved^ That no alienation on any 
" lot shall be made without the consent of the com* 
" munity. And if any of the intended settler or 
^ settlers shall alienate his or their lots or settle- 
** ments to any person or persons, without the con- 
" sent of the community first had and obtained, such 
" sale shall be declared void of itself, and the 
'' settler that shall so pretend to alienate his lot, 
" shall forfeit the same to the community."t 

The object of this regulation uindoubtedly was 
to exclude Irish settlers^ against whom a strong 
national prejudice existed, heightened perhaps 
by zeal in differing religious opinions. There 
is another evidence of tins in the last petition, 

1726. At a meeting of the "intended settlers,*' at Andover, Feb. 8, it was agreed 
and voted that a block hoase of 29 feet in breadth and 40 feet in length be built at 
Penacook, for the security of the settlers. 

June 28. Mr. Agent Dummer, at London, was instructed, as it was a{>- 

prehendcd by the government of Massachusetts, that New-Hampshire might send 
home a complaint against the grant of Penacocfli lately made, to take care and an* 
swer any complaint ; and he was furnished with||ie necessary papers.— ^Mt. 

* See Appendix No. I. 

t For the names of the original proprietors, see Appendix No. n. 


by Stevens and others : They state, " that ma- 
**ny applications have been made to the govem- 
** ment of New-Hampshire for a grant of the said 
** land, (at Penacook) which, though it be the un- 
" doubted right and property of this province ; yet 
" it is highly probable that a parcel of Irish people 
** will obtain a grant from New-Hampshire for it, 
" unless some speedy care be taken by this great 
" and honorable court to prevent it"* 

In May, 1726, a committee appointed by the 
government of Massachusetts, with surveyors, 
chainmen, and a number of the admitted settlers 
attending them, " proceeded to Penacook, and laid 
out 103 home lots or divisions on the river, in equal 
proportion, according to the quantity and quality, 
as near as the land would admit thereof, agreeably 
to the order and direction of the great and general 
court."t This year considerable progress was made 

ft II - - I ■ ■ - — - — - - •*■ - — - - , _ 

*The ie^usy preyaleat at this period of the encroachments of settlers upon un- 
appropriated lands, is also evinced in the following order of the general court of 
Massacbuietu, lelative to the settlers of Nutfield, [Londonderry] passed Dec. 1» 

^ Whereas it appears that several ftmilys lately arrived from Ireland, and others 
from this provincct have presumed to make a settlement upon lands belonging to 
this province, lying westward of the town of Haverhill, (which they call Nutfield) 
without any leave or grant obtained from this coart ; Ruslvtd^ that the said people 
be warned to move off from said lands, within the space of seven months, and if 
they fail to do so, that Ihey be prosecuted by the Attorney-General by writts of tres- 
pass and ejectment** 

t Extracts from thejounud lupt by John WainvfrigMt one qf the eommUtee, 

May 12, 1726. The committee left Haverhill, and proceeded as far as Amos- 

I2ih. " This morning we proceeded on our joumey--'very hilly and mountain- 
ous land. About 8 o'clock we passed by a fall called Annahookline, KHooksett] in 
Merrimack river, which is taken from a hill of the same name. About 10 or 11 
o'clock, we forded Suncook river, which is a rapid stream, and many loose stones 
of some considerable bignesse in it, making it difficult to pass. About 1 o'clock 
we passed Penacook river, [Soucook] pretty deep and very rocky. In a short time 
after, we came up as far as Penacook mils, [Garven's] and steered our course north 
over a large pitch pine plain, three miles at least in length, and about 5 o'clock af- 
ternoon arrived at Penacook, and encamped on a piece of intervale called Sugar- 
Ball plain, from a very large head or hill called Sugar-Ball hill, whereon was the 
first Indian fort, as we were informed, which the Indians in old times built to "defend 
themselves against the Maquois [Mohawks] and others their enemies. This Su^r- 
Ball plain is a pretty large tract of land encompassed on all parts with very high 
«nd mountainous land, as steff as the roof of an house ordinarily — only where 
the river runs round it, which encompasses the other parts of it. It is altogether 
impracticable for a team or even liorse-cartto get on the plain, the land is so moun- 
tainous round it; and there is no spring on it as we could find." 

I4th. *' Abopt 12 o'clock tliisday, Messrs, Nathaniel Weare, Kiehard Waldron» 
Jan. and TbeouorB Atkinson, a committee appointed by the governor and council of 


in the settlement, about fifty persons being em- 
ployed during the warmer season. A new path 
was cut through the woods from Haverhill to Pen- 
acook, by the way of Chester, some portion of the 
distance on the same route now travelled. The 
same year the building of a block-house, for the 
defence of the plantation, and also to serve for a 
place of public worship, was commenced — to be 
25 feet in breadth and 40 in length. 

New-Hampsbire,(ame up to our camp, (being attended with about balf a icore Irish- 
men, who kept at some aistance from the camp) and acquainted us that the govern- 
ment of New-Uampshire, being informed of our business liere* had sent them to de- 
sire us that we would not proeeed in appropriating these lands to any private or par- 
ticular person j, for that they lay in their government ; and our government's making 
a grant might be attended with very ill consequences to the settlers, when it ap- 
peared that the lands fell in the N. H. government. And then they delivered 
a copy of an order passed by his honour the lieutenant governor and council of 
New-Hampshire respecting the settling of the lands at Penacook,to which we refer. 
We made them answer, that the government of the Massachusetts Bay had sent ni 
to lay out the lands here into a township; that they bad made a grant of h to some 
particular men, and that we should proceed to do the business we were come upon, 
and made no donbt bat our government would be always ready to support and jusUfie 
their own grants; and that it was the business of the publick, and not ours, to en- 
gage In, in order to determine any controversy about the 'lands. We sent our sa- 
lutes to the lieutenant governor of New-Hampshire, and the gentlemen took their 
leaves of us, and set homewards this afternoon." 

ISih, " SviTDAT. — Mr. Enoch Coffin, our chaplain, performed divine service 
both parts of the day." 

I6ih. " At sunrise this morning, according to notification, we chose a represent- 
ative, nem. ccn, vis. Mr. John Sanders." 

18th, ** It may be observed, that divers rattlesnakes were killed by the several 
surveying companies, but, thanks be to God, nobody received any hurt from 

The committee in their report, {Jutu, 1726) say,~-" In May last, we proceeded 
to the place, in order to lay out the whole township, and the lots directed in the 
order of the Gleneral Court, beginning at the mouth of Contoocook river, where that 
joins Merrimack river, and thence run a line east seventeen degrees south four 
miles, and so at right angles at the extremes of each of the aforesaid lines, seven 
miles southerly each, and thence from the termination of the seven miles which 
completes the grant and is according thereto ; and upon view and strict survey of 
the lands on the eati side of Merrimack, we find that there is little or no watet, 
the land near the river extremely mountainous and almost impassable, and very 
unfit for and uncapable of receiving fifty families, as the court has ordered ; more 
especially considering that near the centre of the town on the east side of the river 
Merrimack, the Hon. Samuel Sewall, Esq. has a fiirm of five hundred acres of good 
land, formerly granted by this court, and laid out by Gov. Endicott. The commit- 
tee, therefore, with submission to the honorable General Court, thought it advisable 
and accordingly have laid out one hundred and three lots of land for settlements, on 
the west side contiguous to each other, regularly, and in a defensible manner, as bv 
the plot of theirs, and of the whole grant (which is hereby presented) will 
appear; and masmuch as the generality of the land answers not the grantees' ex- 
pectation, and five hundred acres laid out as aforesaid, humbly oror, that the 
like number of acres of the unappropriated lands adjacent to the township, 
may be made to the settlers as an equivalent therefor." The government of Mas- 
sachusetts therenpon empowered the grantees to make settlements on the westerly 
tide of the river at pleasure. 


The Indians who at this time inhabited the vi- 
cinity, were on terms of amity with the whites. 
During the winter of this year, two or three per- 
sons only resided in the block-iiouse at PenacooL 
The snow was very deep, the cold unusually severe, 
and their provisions were insufficient to support 
them through the season. The Indians saw 
their situation, and as soon as possible journeyed 
to Haverhill. They there called on the proprie- 
tors, and represented to them the situation of the 
families, very seriously observing that they tvould 
^oon come upon the town^ unless they were assisted ! 
A sleigh with stores soon after arrived at Penacook, 
and rescued them from starvation. 

On the 20th May, 1727, the government of New- 
JSsinipshire made a grant to Jonathan Wiggin and 
others of the tract comprised within the following 
bounds, viz: "beginning on the S. E. side of the 
town of Chichester, and running nine miles by Chi- 
chester and Canterbury, and carrying that breadth 
of nine miles from each of the aforesaid towns 
S. W. until the full complement of eighty-one square 
miles are fully made up." This grant, covering the 
greater part both of Concord and Pembroke, and a 
part of Hopkinton, gave rise to a serioius controver- 
sy between the claimants under each grant, which 
was continued in law for several years, and was not 
finally settled vmtil 1762. 

During the year 1727, the block-house was finish- 
«ed ; considerable quantities of corn and hay were 
gathered, and the wilderness reduced to some de- 

1726. Ike. 20. The memorial of the Penacook settlers was piesented, respecting 
1MMI acres of land on the E. side of the river, formerly granted to Gov. Endicott, 
•nd praying for land instead thereof on the W. Voted unanimously to grant 500 
«ere8 on the west side. This grant was confirmed by governor Burnet, Aug. 6, 
1728.--Jlf«tf«. Btcorda. 

1727. JIforcft 6. Messrs. Joseph Hall and John Pecker were *' empowered to 
to agree with a minister to preach at Penacook the year ensuing, to begin the ser- 
vice from the fifteenth of May next The said committee are directed to act witli 
all prudence, and not assure the gentleman mor« than after the rate of j^lOO per 
anaum for bis service.** •-Prop. Records. 


gree of eultivati(Mi. Several dwellings had previ- 
ously been erected ; and in the fall of this year the 
first family, that of Ebenezer Eastman, moved into 
the place.* 

Aug. 6, 1728, the government of Massachusetts, 
in consideration of a grant of 500 acres of land, 
formerly made to governor Endicott, which fell 
within the boundaries of Penacook, and was claim-? 
ed by the heirs of judge Sewall, empowered the 
proprietors " by a siureyor and chainmen on oath, 
to extend the south bounds of the township one 
hundred rods the full brfeadth of their town, as an 

Considerable improvements were made in the 
settlements in 1729 ; sa^v and grisi;raills were erec- 
ted by Nathan Simonds, with the assistance of the 
proprietors ; and a ferry was established for th6 
convenience of the settlers.! A substantial fence 
was this year built for the first time to enclose thiB 
interval on the river, " at the common charge." A 

1728. On the 15tb of February this year, the first child was born at Penacook-*- 
Dorcas, a daughter of Edward and Dorcas Abhot: she died Se))t. 28, 1797. The 
first male ciiild was Edward, son of the same parents, bom Dec. 27, 1730: he died 
in S6|>t. 1801. JohnHoit, the second male, was bom Sept. 10, 1732 — and married 
a sister of Dr. Carter, Jan. 2, 1755, The elder Mr. Hoit was of Amesbury, Ms. 

1729. Sept 4. Tlie proprietors and inhabitants of Penacook petitioned the gen- 
eral court of Massachusetts for the privileges of a town ; but no proceedings were 
had. March 6, 1730, the same petition was renewed, and referred to the consider- 
ation of a committee ; but no measures were adopted. 

* Jacob Shute drove Eastman's team, the first that had crossed tlie wildemesp 
from Haverhiii to PenacoolL. Shute*s father was a native of France, and upon the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantz by Lewis XIV. fled into Ireland. His children 
emigrated to this country. 

Though Eastman's was the first family of SQUlets, it is believed there were aev- 
eral individuals who setded previously. Dr. Rolfe was the first settler, and resided 
near the residence of the late captain Emery. He was fiitber of Benjamin Ro1£b« 
Esq. The second settler was Richard Uran, afterwards of Newbury. They passed 
the winter of 1726 at Penacook, living mostly upon the fruits of tlie wilderness and 
the charities of the Indians. 

f The gristmill stood near the present site of the factory of Messrs. I. & J. East- 
man, on the east side of tbt river ; the saw-mill about half a mile above, on the 
same stream. The mill-crank was brought upon a horse from Haverhill. Soon 
after commencing operations, it was broken. How to remedy the evil they knew 
not, as there was no blacksmith nearer than Haverhill. But necessity is the mother 
of invention. They collected together a quantity of pitch knou, fastened the 
crajik with beetle-rings and wedges, and succeeded in their attempt to weld the dis- 
jointed parti. The crank was afterwards used for many years. 


plank floor was also laid in the " meeting-house^*' 
or fort ; and the road from Penacook to Haverhill^ 
was altered and improved under the direction of 
Messrs. Ebenezer Eastman and John Chandler. 

The settlers of Penacook, like those of all the 
older towns, strictly observed the religious institu- 
tions of their fathers. Mr. Enoch Coffin, of New- 
bury, Mass. accompanied them on their first visits 
to the new lands, and other clergjonen occasionally 
preached to them.* Measures were this year taken 
*o provide for the settlement of a minister ; and at 
a meeting of the settlers in October, it was "voted 
"that every proprietor or intended settler of Pena- 
cook should forthwith pay or cause to be paid into 
the hands of the treasurer the sum of 20^. towards 
4he support of an orthodox minister to preach at 
Penacook aforesaid, the same to be paid in propor- 
tion to the preaching." At a previous meeting, 
they had appointed Deacon John Osgood, Messrs. 
John Pecker, John Chandler, Ebenezer Eastman, 
Nathan Symonds, William Barker and Joseph Hall 
" to caltt and agree with some suitable person to 
bp minister of the town of Penacook ;" and at the 
same meeting agreed to pay a salary of £100 law- 
ful money per annum to their minister when set- 
tled.J , 

* At a meeting of the proprietors* at Bradford, MaVch 12, 1728, they voted to pay 
Mr. Bezaliel Toppan SOs. *' for preaching and performing divine service at Pena- 
cook/* £4 was also voted to the heirs of Rev. Enoch Coffin, deceased, for like ser- 
vices. Mr. Enoch Coffin, the first preacher in Concord, was born in Newbury, 
Feb. 7, 1695, and died Aug. 7, 1727. He was second son of the honorable 
Nathaniel Coffin, and graduated at Harvard College. Nathaniel was son of 
Tristram Coffiji, of Newbury, whose father Tristram Coffin was son of Peter Coffin, 
of Brixton parish, 4 miles from Plymouth in Plympton hundred, and who came to 
New England in 1642, and brought with him his mother, two sisters, and four chil* 

f The mode of calling and maintaining ministers in congregaUonal societies, 
originated in an act passed during the reign of William and Mary, approved June 
«, 1692.--^d /r. TVUlwrnSfMary. 

X At the meeting of the grantees and settlers, October 14, 1730, it was " Vottd^ 
that Mr. Timothy Walker shall have J^lOO for the year ensuing, and then rise 40^. 
perannum, till it comes to JS120, and that to be the stated sum annually for his 
salary, during his continuance in the ministry, together with the parsonage so long 
as be carries on the whole work of the ministry. Provided, and it is hereby to be 
understood, any thing to the contrary above mentioned notwithstanding, that if Mr. 
Walker, by extremt old ag'e, shall be disenabled from carrying on the whole work 
of the ministry, that he shall abate so much of his salary as shall be rational.** 


The inhabitants, at a meeting in March, 1730, 
instructed the committee before named to invite 
Mr. TfiftoTHY Walker, a graduate of Ca^lbridge, 
who had just finished his theological studies, to 
settle with them. On the 14th of October, the 
proprietors renewed this invitation ; and established 
the salary for the year ensuing at £100, to be in- 
creased £2 yearly until it should amount to £120 
per annum, which, together with the use of the 
parsonage, should thereafter constitutfe the emolu- 
ments of their minister. £100 were also voted as 
a settlement To the invitation of the people, 
Mr. Walker returned the following answer : ^ 

"Penacook, Oct. 14, 1730. 



" Whereas formerly by a committee you have 
invited me to settle in the ministry in the said 
township ; upon which invitation I have advised 
with learned, pious and judicious divines in the 
ministry, wholiave jointly advised me to take up 
with your invitation, provided you vote a sufficient 
maintenance for me ; and you having this day re- 
newed your invitation to me, and done what satis- 
fies me upon the account of salary : — I therefore, 
being deeply sensible of the importance of the 
charge, and my own insufficiency to discharge the 
duties of the same, do accept your call, humbly 
relying upon the all-sufficient grace of God, which 
alone can enable me suitably to discharge the same, 
earnestly desiring your prayers, as well as all oth- 
ers of God's people, that such plentiful measures 
of His grace may be afforded to me, as may en- 
able me to discharge the duties of so sacred a 
function, to his acceptance and your edification ; 

1730. Ocf. 14.— Voted, that Mr. Catting Noyea have fifty acres of land in the 
township of Penacook— provided the said Noye9 shiall do th« blaekamUKs vtork •( 
the town from the datfthereof.«-Pn»p. Ruordss 




that so both you and I may rejoice togetlier in the 
day of the Lord Jesus. 


The ordination of Rev. Mr. Walker took place 
on the 18th of November following. The sermon 
was delivered by the Rev. John Barnard,* of An- 
dover, Mass. ; charge by Rev. Samuel Phillips, of 
Andover ; and right hand of fellowship by the 
Rev. John Brown, of Haverhill. The church was 
composed of sober and industrious inhabitants ; 
and during the whole course of Mr. Walker's min- 
istry, we do not find that any dissentions or difficul- 
ties arose. The people were united in interests 
and feelings, were educated in the same principles, 
and generally adopted like habits ; and perhaps all 
strictly united in one mode of worship, and were 
constant in the observance of religious ordinances. 

The meeting-house was this year repaired ; and 
the first burial-plade in Concord located and en- 
closed. The first bridge in the township was built 
over Soucook river. By an order of the general 
court of Massachusetts, founded upon a petition of 
the proprietors, they were empowered to exercise 
the privileges and immunities of a town in the as- 
sessment and collection of taxes, &c. But from 
some imperfection in the order itself, or some other 
cause, it was not made use of. 

Jan. 31st, 1731, the petition of the inhabitants, 
&c. of Penacook was renewed, praying for town 
privileges, and representing that there were then in 
'the settlement eighty famihes. February 1, a re- 
port was made in favor of tfie petitioners, accepted, 
and the act accordingly passed. 

The first legal meeting of " the inhabitants of 
the plantation of Penacook,'' was holding at the 

meetmg-house, Jan. 11, 1732. Capt. Ebenezer 

^. ' — ■ ■ 

There if thisjMctiliar cireumsUtnee in your seulement^hat iiis'm aplace,wbere 
Satan, some years ago, had his seat, and the devU was wont to be Jnvoeaied by for- 
saken Salvages : A Place which was the Rendezvfmt and Head Quorlerx of our 
Indian EfumieM,*'-^BamarA's Sermon, p. 29. 


£astmaB was appointed moderator ; suad the neces* 
sary town officers were chosen " to stand to the an- 
niversary meeting in March" following. This 
meeting was called by " Benjamin Rolfe, by order 
of the General Court" In the afternoon of the 
same day, after a notice for that purpose had been 
issued by the new authorities of Penacook, the in- 
habitants voted to raise £1 10 for the support of the 
ordained minister. At the next meeting, on the 6th 
of March, besides choosing town officers, the in- 
habitants voted a bounty of 20^. for every wolf 
"killed within the township;" also a bounty of 6d. 
for killing rattle-snakes, '' provided, that the des- 
troyer of such snakes shall bring in a black 
joint of the tail or with the tail to the selectmen, or 
either of them." A penny was also voted ''for 
the encouragement of Killing of black-birds within 
the township for the year ensuing, the head being 
brought to the selectmen or any of them,and burnV^ 
The proprietors this year appropriated 100 acres, 
including the privileges on Turkey river, to " any 
suitable person who would build a grist mill." 

In 1733, the "plantation of Penacook" was in- 
corporated by the government of Massachusetts as 
a town by the name of Rumford^ it being satisfacto- 
rily ascertained, as set forth in the preamble to the 
act, that " the plantation is competently filled with 
inhabitants, who have built and finished a conven- 
ient meeting-house for the public worship of God, 
and sometime since have settled a learned ortho- 
dox minister among them," &c. This name was 
given from that of a parish in England. The town 
at their several meetings this year, voted to give 
Rev. Mr. Walker £50, for building him a dwelling- 
house, provided that he gave the inhabitants and 
freeholders a receipt in full for his salary imtil the 
16th of January that year, in consequence of the 
depreciation of money, it not being equal to silver 
at 17^. the ounce. £30 were appropriated of the 
monies in the town treasury for the purchase of am- 


munition for the use of the inhabitants. It appears 
that some fears were entertained of the hostile dis- 
^ position of the Indians, although no act of aggres- 
rfon had been committed. The sum of £l6 was 
also voted for the support of a school during the 
winter and spring ensuing ; and the selectmen were 
empowered to provide a school. It was also voted 
in town meeting that the selectmen should " find 
books for the use of the inhabitants and freehold- 
ers of the town or plantation, on the town's cost, 
so far as they shall think necessary." Mr. James 
Scales, afterwards minister at Hopkinton, was em- 
ployed to teach the first school ; and after him, Mr. 
Joseph Holt, (rf Andover, Mass. 

From this period until 1739, the affairs of the 
town continued to prosper with little interruption. 
Some useful internal regulations were adopted — 
improvements on the lands were constantly mak- 
ing — the meeting-house was further repaired — and 
increased attention was paid to the school. In 1735, 
also, a committee was appointed to petition gov- 
ernment for the establishment of a new county, 
the county oi Essex then comprehending all the 
new grants made by Massachusetts north of Ha- 

1734. May 27.—" 20*. for each grown wolf," and »* 1*. for each rattlesnake," 
wbish should be killed this year, were voted. At a meeting holden the 14th Nov. 
of the same year, Capt. Ebenezer Eastman and Henry Rolfe, Esq. were chosen to 
petition the General Court for an order of said Court for raising of money for de» 
fray tag the ministerial charge, and the other charges of this town for this year and 
during the court's p^asure.** 

At the next town meeting, holden on the 26th day of December, £110 were raised 
for said purpose. The town clerk was also empowered to " ask and receive of 
John Wainwright,Esq. the clerk of the honorable committee of the Great and Gen- 
eral Court, appointed-to bring forward the settlement of the township, the book of 
the proceedings of the said committee, and all the other papers belonging to the 
town and proprietors," and to receipt for them. Wainwright had for several years 
been clerk to the proprietors of Penacook. .Some disagreement arising, they ap- 
pointed another in his stead, to whom he refused to deliver the records. Nor was 
the matter compromised until Wainwright i«ceived from the proprietors an entire 
lot of land in the new township— upon which he gave up the records to his succes- 
sojv The ^rant was made June 19, 1734. 


' In 1737, the controversy between Massachusetts 
and New-Hampshire was heard before commission- 
ers appointed by the Crown. Many attempts had 
previously been made without success to settle it. 
New-Hampshire took its name from grants made 
by the council of Plymouth to Capt John Mason. 
Of these there had been four or five, all containing 
more or less of the same lands. Exceptions be- 
ing taken to all of them, the controversy had turn- 
ed upon the construction of the Massachusetts 
charters. At a hearing before the king in council, 
in 1677, the agents of Massachusetts, by advice, 
disclaimed jurisdiction beyond the three miles 
north of Merrimack river specified in the original 
charter — and it was determined they had right as 
far as the river extended ; but how far it did ex- 
tend was not expressly mentioned. It seems, how- 
ever, not to have been doubted — and soon after the 
government was transferred from Old England to 
New, it was known by the name of Merrimack as 

At the meeting March 11, 1734, the necessary town officers were chosen, and 
some highway regulations adopted. The premiums on wolves and rattlesnakes 
were continued. 

1735. At a meeting of the " inhabitants and freeholders of the tows of Rumford 
on the 19th of May, 1735, it was put to vote by the moderator, whether they would 
choose a representative or not, and it passed in the negative." Benjamin Rolfe, 
Esq. was constituted attorney in behalf of the town to sue the treasurer, John 
Chandler, for monies not paid over to the town. At the next meeting, holden on 
the 22d Sept. of the same year, ** about £/&l were raised for schooling and build- 
ing part of a bridge over Soucook river," and defraying other expences of the town. 
A committee was empowered to hire a school-master for four months ** the next 
winter and spring." 

A meeting was called on the 10th. of December of this year, and a committee ap- 
pointed to superintend the building of the bridge over the Soucook, and see that 
the work was ** done well and faithfully." At the annual meeting holden March. 
9, this year, JS50 were granted Rev. Mr. Walker «* to enable him to clear a pasture 
and tobiing it to English grass," 30Z. of which was to be paid in 1736, and the re- 
maining 202. in 1737. 10^. bounty on wolves and the same sum on rattlesnakes, 
continued. Henry Rolfe, Esq. was '* chosen and desired to assist and join with 
others that are ur may be chosen for to use proper means for to get the county of 
Essex divided ints two counties." The seats in the meeting-house were ordered t9 
h% repaired, a door made for ihe pulpit, and the windows put up. 



far as Penacook. If the original charter of M as* 
sachusetts had continued, it is not probable any dif-- 
ferent construction would ever have been started. 
But in the new charter, the boundary was different- 
ly expressed, and a- construction was given which 
made the line to commence 3 miles north of the 
mouth of the Merrimack, and run west to the 
South sea, or the other possessions of the King. 

About this time, the government of Massachu- 
setts made grants of several towns between Merri- 
mack and Connecticut rivers — amongst the rest, 
Penacook, &c. And the government of New- 
Hampshire supposed that Massachusetts was taking 
this step in onier to strengthen their title by pas- 
Session. After some delay, commissioners were 
appointed to settle the line, and met at Hampton, 
N. H. on the 1st of August, 1737. Mr. Livingston 
of New- York, presided. After many weeks spent 
in hearing parties and evidence, and having doubts 
whether the Massachusetts new charter compre- 
hended the whole of the old colony, they made a 
decree, with contingencies, subject to the determi- 
nation of the King. The agents of both govern- 
ments were active at the British court — and a pa- 
tient hearing was had, though the judgment of the 
Commissioners was for some reason entirely laid 
aside. It was determined there that the northern 
boundaries of Massachusetts should be a line three 
miles from the river as far as Pawtucket falls, 
thence west to the New-York line.* 

1736. At the annual meeting in March, the usual business was transacted, and 
8om« improvements in highways, &c. agreed upon. There was also a meet* 
ing holden May 18tb, same year, called for the purpose of choosing a ** person to 
represent them at the Great and General Court to be held at the town house in 
Boston,*' on the 26th next then following; but the people declined electing. 

1737. It appears by warrants recorded that a town meeting was holden in March 
of 1737, but its proceedings are not on record. At the meeting holden May 16tfa 
following, the town again declined sending a representative to the General Court* 
It does not appear that any other business was transacted. 

• Hutch. Mast. voi. ii. p. 34S~350. 


The inhabitants at a iineeting in 1739, ordered a 
garrison to be built around Rev. Timothy Walker's 
dwelling-house. £5 were also granted Mr. Bqra- 
chias Famum, to enable him to buUd a flanker in 
order to defend his mills, on condition that he 
shoidd garrison his own dwelling-house. Their ap- 

J)rehensions were now increasing of an attack 
rom the Indians, who inhabited the wilds on the 
north and west, especially as strong parties of them 
had visited different places within a few days mar^h, 
and some offences had been committed. No disa^ 
ters, however, happened to the inhabitants of Rumr 
ford imtil the fatal attack in 1746. * 

On the 11th of June, 1740, in pursuance of a 
precept from the Government of Massachusetts, 
the first representative from the town of Rumford 
(Benjamin Rolfe^ Esq.) was elected. His instruct 
tions were to prefer a petition to his Majesty that 
the inhabitants '^ may be quieted in their posses^ 
^ sions, and remain under the jurisdiction of the 
" Massachusetts Bay; also to petition the General 
^' Court to use their influence with his Majesty in 
*^ in that behalf." At a meeting in September, " the 
^* town being informed that by the determination of 
" his Majesty in Council respecting the controvert- 
'^ ed bounds between the province of Massachusetts 

1738. The annual meeting for 1738 was on the 29th March. Galleries to the meet- ' 
tng-house were ordered to be bailt, and other repairs to be made ; also the burying 
gronnd to be fenced. The town again, at their meeting 24th May this year, reftutd 
•ending a representative. 

1739. At the meeting in March, it was voted that a school be kept within 
this town from the 20th Oct. till 20th of April 1740. A meeting was holden Nov. 
7th this year; when it was voted that there should be " a good and sufiEicvent garri- 
ton built around the Rev. Mr. Timothy Walker's dwelling h«use as soon as may be 
conveniently, at the town's cost." SI. were also granted to Mr. Baxachias Far- 
num to enable him to build a flanker in order to defend his mills, provided the said 
Fanuim shall give security to the town thajt in case he shall not keep a garjrison at 
his dwelling house, the town shall have Uberty to take said flanker and convert it 
to their own use.** Anottier meeting was holden on the 28th Dec of this yeiM^* 
and a cofflmktee appointed to inform of all breaches and projiecute for viol.^- 
tioiu 9f 'thf act for th» pr«««xvatipn of Deer, Sio, , 



^ Bay and New-Hampshire, they were excluded 
^' from the former province, to which they always 
^ supposed themselves to belong — ^voted unani- 
^ raously, to prefer a petition to the King's most 
*' excellent Majesty, setting forth their distressed 
estate, and praying to be annexed to the said 
Massachusetts province/' 
By an act of the General Assembly of New- 
Hampshire, passed March 18, 1741-2, Rumford 
was made a distinct parish or district, and authori- 
zed for six years to exercise certain necessary cor- 
porate privileges. 

The 'first school-house in this town was erected 
in 1742. About this time, the wife of Mr. Jonathan 
Eastman was taken prisoner by a party of Indians, 
and carried to Canaua. She was soon after redeem- 
ed by her husband, and returned to her family. 

The opening of the French war in 1744, caused 
a general anxiety throughout the colonies, and par- 
ticularly on the frontiers most exposed to Indian 
depredations. Gov. Wentworth, in his message to 
the General Assembly in May of this year, exhorts 
them " to consider with great tenderness the dis- 
** tress the inhabitants on the frontiers are in at 
this juncture, and to make their unhappy situation 
their own : to consider them as every day expos- 
ed to a surprize from the enemy," and that if 
provisions for their safety were neglected, they 
would " become an easy' prey to a cruel and bar- 
*' barous enemy." Measures were accordingly 

1742. The annual meeting this year was on the Slst March. Messrs; Edward Ab- 
bot, John Merrill and Nathaniel Abbot were directed " to take care and build a 
school-house for this town, as they shall in their best judgment think best — the said 
house to be built between the widow Barker's barn and the brook by the clay^ 

1744. On the 28th March, the meeting for choice of officers, &c. was holden this 
year. 20s. O. T. for each wolf, and 2f. O. T. for each rattlesnake were voted to be 
allowed for this year. A vote passed granting liberty for such persons as chose to 
hire a mistress to use the school-house, until the tovm had occasion therefor. On 
the 2l8t Jan. B. Rolfe was eleoted to repieient the district of Rumford in the Qea. 
Assembly at Portsmouth. 



taken for the safety of those towns most exposed, 
and small detachments were ordered to the aid of 
the settlements at Canterbury and Contoocook, (now 
Boscawen.) ^ The inhabitants of Rumford were as 
yet without military succour, and they empowered 
Benjamin Rolfe to petition the legislature of New- 
Hampshire " for such a number of soldiers as 
" might be sufficient with the divine blessing to de- 
** fend them against all attempts of their enemies." 
His petition* was presented m June, of that year, 
but no detachment was ordered out In December, 
the inhabitants again authorized Mr. Rolfe to peti- 
tion the Greneral Assembly of this province for aid ; 
and also " to represent to his Excellency the Gov- 
'' emor and General Court of the province of the 
" Massachusetts Bay, their deplorable circumstan- 
'' ces, being exposed to imminent danger both from 
" the French and Indian enemy, and to request of 
^' them such aids as to their great wisdom should 
" seem meet, and which might be sufficient to ^nar 
*' ble them with a divine blessing vigorously to re- 
" pel all attempts of their enemies," Lite peti- 
tions were also presented in 1745, and a detach- 
ment of men was stationed here from Billerica, 
for a few weeks, by direction of the government of 

On Friday, the 7th of August, 1746, a party of In ■ 
dians from Canada, to the number of about one hund- 
red, came into this town, and meditated the destruc- 
tion of the place on the Sabbath following. The in- 
habitants had for some time previous been expect- 
ing an attack, and had made an earnest application 

1746. A meeting of the citizens was called on the ninth of February ; and Cap- 
tain Ebenezer Eastman and Mr. Henry Lovejoy were appointed • committee 4o 
** represent the difficult circumstances of the inhabitants of Rumford to the great 
and general court at Portsmouth, respecting the danger we are exposed to both 
from the French and Indian enemy, and request of them such aid and protection ai 
they in their great wisdom shall think meet." 

* See Appendix No. III. 


to the Grovemor for military aid — and fortunately 
Gapt Daniel Ladd, with a company of forty men 
from Exeter, arrived in town the same day. There 
hadpreviously beena company stationed here from 
Billerica, for a short time, and also one from Ando- 
ver. The inhabitants were aware that a considera- 
ble body of Indians was in the vicinity, but had as 
yet discovered but few, who were out on scouts. 
The Indians themselves, hearing of Capt. Ladd's 
approach, determined to lie concealed until Sunday 
follcfwing, when they intended to massacre the peo- 
ple iassembled in the meeting-house. But the peo- 
ple on Sunday went armed to their devotions, and 
placed sentinels in different quarters to look out 
for the approach of the Indians, who had the 
night previous secreted themselves in the bushes 
adjacent to the meeting-house, which stood nearly 
on the spot now occupied by the dwelling of Mr. 
John West One party of them was concealed in 
a thicket of alders,then growing where Dr. Green's 
house now stands, and another was hid in the bush- 
es on the north, between the meeting-ho\ise and 
Mr. Emery's, near the prison. Some few of them 
were seen by a little girl during the exercises, but 
she did not make known the discovery until the 
meeting closed, when the people marched out in a 
body ; and the Indians observing their arms, con- 
cluded to abandon the attack. They then retired 

1747. ^pril 2. Capt. Eastman, from Penacook, came iuto the hoase, and mo- 
ved tliat the house would consider their circumstances at Penacook, with regard to 
the enemy, and would grant them men to hdlp them. — AssenUyly Reeordf, 

i^lpriZ S. Fated, that there be allowed to John Osgood 128, Bd. for expense 

for coffins, &c. for the men killed at Rumford last year. — JMd. 

^-— - Kotdd, that his Excellency the Capt. General be desired to gire orders for 
enlisting or impressing 144 good effective men, to be employed under proper offi- 
cers in defending the frontiers, guarding the people at woik, and scouting, to be 
posted as follows, viz. 30 at Rochester, 6 at Harrington, 10 at Nottingham, 20 at 
Oanterbury, 20 at Contoocook, 24 at PenaeooK 4rc>— lb. 

JV90. 1*2. Phineas Stevens, Ebenezer Eastman and Jeremiah Clough, In be- 
half of the inhabitants of Contoocook, Rumford and Canterbury, petitioned for 
aid against expected attacks from the Indians. JVbv. 13, orders were issued for 
enlisting 16 soldiers, five for each of said places.— lb. 


to the woods on the west towards Hopkinton, with 
the design to intercept Capt Ladd and his men, 
who they supposed were to pass that way on the 
following morning. 

On MondsLj morning, the 1 1th, seven of the in- 
habitants sat out for Hopkinton, two on horses, and 
the others on foot, all armed. They marched on 
leisurely, and Obadiah Peters^ having proceeded 
some distance forward of the others into a hollow, 
about one mile and a half from the street, sat down 
his gun and waited the approach of his friends. 
The Indians, thinking themselves discovered, rose 
from their hiding-places, fired and killed Peters on 
the spot At this moment, Jonathan Bradley and 
the rest of his party had gained the summit of the 
hill. Bradley was deceived in the number of the 
enemy, supposing the few whom he saw near Pe- 
ters to compose the whole party. He ordered his 
men to fire, and they rushed down among them. 
The whc4e body of Indians instantly arose, being 
about 100 in number. Bradley now urged his men 
to fly for safety ; but it was too late — ^the work of 
destruction had commenced. Samuel Bradley was 
shot through the body — stripped of his clothing 
and scalped. To Jonathan, they offered " good 
quarter," having been acquainted with him; but 
he refused their protection, his heroic spirit thirst- 
ing to avenge tne death of his comrades. He 
iou^ht with his gun against the cloud ot enemies, 
until they struck nim on his face repeatedly with 
their knives and tomahawks, and literally hewed 
him down. They then pierced his body, took off 
his scalp and clothes. Two others, John Bean and 
John Lufkin^ attempting to fly, were killed by the 
same fire with Samuel Bradley. Alexander Rob- 
erts and William Stickney fortunately escaped 
death, but were made prisoners and taken to Can- 
ada. Immediately after the melancholy affair took 
place, an alarm was given from Walker's* garrison 
to the people on the interval, and elsewhere, at 


some little distance. . They soon assembled and 
consulted on measures of safety. The soldiers sta- 
tioned at the garrison, and several of the inhabi- 
tants then repaired to the scene of slaughter. As 
they approacned, the Indians were seen upon the 
retreat The bodies were brought away in a cart, 
and were interred in the church-yard on the follow- 
ing day.* The number killed of the Indians was 
unknown to the inhabitants until some time after, 
when the information was obtained from Roberts, 
who had made his escape from captivity. He stat- 
ed that four were killeo, and several wounded, two 
mortally, who were conveyed away upon litters, 
and soon after died. Two they buried under a large 
hemlock tree in the Great Swamp, about half a mile 
south of the scene of slaughter. The other two 
were buried at some distance from them, near Tur- 
key river. Roberts found the two bodies under 
the log after his return from captivity. The head 
of one was taken away, it was supposed by wild 
beasts. For the skull of the other, a bounty was 
paid by the govemltnent. 

Sfickney^ after about one year's detention in Can- 
ada, found means to escape with a friendly Indian, 
and proceeded on his way home to within about one 
day's journey of the wmte settlements, when they 
fell short of provisions. The Indian directed Stick- 
ney to light a fire and encamp, while he would go 
in quest of game. After Stickney had prepared 
his camp, he went out to hunt, and in attempting to 
cross a river on a log, fell in and was drowned.t 

J&nathan Bradley was an officer in Capt Ladd's 
company, from Exeter, and stationed here for the 
defence of the inhabitants. He was about thirty 
years of age when killed ; and was the elder broth- 

|— , __ _ a x ■ I ■ - | . 1 ---- -. ■■ -—»—.,_ 

* Mr. Reuben Abbot, lately deceased at the ape of 100 yean, was fixed upon by 
the inhafMtants to bring away the bodies of his slaughtered townsmen. He pro- 
cured an OK-cart at Eastman^s fort, and brought away their bodies uodtir the guard 
of the soldiers and inhabitants. The writer \vfL& indebted to Uiis Venejuible eld 
man for the particulars of the massacre. 

t Tradition. - ■ '"■ 


er of Samuel Bradley. He vtm a man of much 
coolness and decision; and his vigorous defence 
against the overwhelming force which crushed him 
to the earth, is sufficient proof of his determined 

Samuel Bradley was a citizen of this town, and 
the father of the Hon. John Bradley, who died in 
1815. He was a most amiable and promising 
young man ; and his wife, who afterwaras married 
with Richard Calfe, of Chester, and survived both, 
in the latter years of her life, used to speak with 
great affection of the husband of her youth, and of 
his tragical end. She died Aug. 10, 1817, aged 98 

Obadiak Peters^ of Rumford, was probably a son 
of Seaborn Peters, who lived in J. Eastman's fort 
It appears that at the time of his death he belong- 
ed to a company under the command of Capt Na- 
thaniel Abbot He had been out in the expedition 
against Cape Breton, in 1 745, in the company com- 
manded by Capt. Eastman. 

John Bean was from Brentwood, and hufkin 
from Kingston. 

The initials of those who fell were soon after 
marked on a large tree, standing near the fatal spot, 
which stood the only monument of the sanguinary 
conflict, until within a few years, some person 
cut it down. It is, however, pleasing to learn that 
the descendants of Samuel Bradley are about to 
erect a durable monument over the spot where 
their worthy ancestor was killed. 

The Indians continued in the neighborhood, in 
small parties, and on the 10th of November follow- 
ing, killed a Mr. Estahrooks^ on the road between 
the street and the place of the former massacre. 

Early in February, 1747, the inhabitants empow- 
ered John Webster to apply to the General Assem- 
bly for military assistance. In his petition, he 
states that there were upwards of eighty families 
then residing in Rumford, and that they raised stn- 


nuaUy four times as much provision as was requi- 
site ^or their own support Having some reason to 
apprehend an attack from the Indians in considera- 
ble force, a petition was preferred to the Governor 
in June, stating that traces of the enemy had been 
discovered by the scouts ; that guns had been heard 
at Rumford and Contoocook at different times ; that 
from the situation of the inhabitants they were ex- 
posed to attacks from the enemy, the experience of 
the whole war having taught them, *^hat whenever 
any smart attack was made upon the settlements 
on Connecticut river, the enemy had never failed of 
sending a considerable number to visit their river," 
the Merrimack. The inhabitants at some seasons 
could .work together in bodies, so as not to be so 
greatly exposed, but haying and harvesting now 
commencing, it was ^impracticable without vast 
detriment to the whole, and utter ruin to some." 
A guard of twenty-four men was stationed here 
from the middle of March to the beginning of May ; 
and subsequently, by order of the Governor, thirty 
/soldiers were detached for the assistance of the 
inhabitants, who remained with them imtil they had 
secured their crops. 

October 23d, Dr. Ezra Carter, in behalf of the 
inhabitants of Rumford, represented by petition to 
the General Court, that they were "destitute of 
soldiers, and very much exposed both to the French, 
and IncUan enemy, and daily expect, by the experi- 
ence of the last year, invasions by them, by reason 
of their killing one man on the 10th of November 
last, and on the 19th of said November, they were 
discovered by their tracks in a small snow, and pray 
your honors to consider our dangerous circumstan- 
ces, and grant us such protection as you in your 
great wisdom shall think meet" In November, 
another guard of five men was ordered here, and 
similar assistance was afforded the inhabitants of 
Canterbury and Contoocook. 


In the fall of 1747, a large party of Indians 
again made their appearance in the south-west part 
of the town, and for several weeks continued rang- 
ing aibout the woods, and destroying the cattle, 
horses, &c. of the inhabitants. Jeremiah Bradley 
had a fine field for fall grazing, and into this many 
of the citizens had turned their sheep and neat cat- 
tle. The reports from the guns of the Indians were 
frequently heard, and numbers of cattle were de- 
stroyed. The inhabitants at length rallied in a 
strong party armed, and proceeded cautiously in 
two divisions towards the enemy. In the woods 
near the field, one party found numerous packs, &c. 
belonging to the Indians, and concluded to await 
their approach in concealment As they were ap- 
proachmg, one of the men, through accident, or an 
eager desire to revenge his losses, fired his musket, 
and alarmed the wary Indians, who, observing the 
smoke of the gun, filed off in an opposite directign. 
The whole party then fired, but with little injffry 
to their tawny adversaries. The body of an In- 
dian was, however, sometime afterwards found se- 
cretedin a hollow log, into which, it was supposed, 
having been wounded by the fire of the party, he 
had crawled, and expired. 

In August of this year died Capt. Ebenezer 
Eastman, one of the wealthiest and most active of 
the early settlers. He was bom at Haverhill, Ms. 
in 1689. His father's house and buildings were de- 
stroyed, \nth several others, by the Indians in their 
memorable attack upon Haverhill, March 15, 1698.* 
Young Eastman, at the age of 18, joined the regi- 
ment of Col. Wainwright in the expedition against 
Port Royal. In 1711, when the Bntish fleet under 
Admiral Walker arrived in Boston harbor, the land 
forces were organizing with great despatch. East- 
man now had the command of a company of sol- 
■ '-■■■ ■ ■ .. ... ... . -■ . 

* There is a tradition in the fanuly, that fomettine previous to this, Eastman's 
father and a Mr. Abbot, from Andover, were made captives by a party of the Pen- 
ncnoK Indians, and were carried to what was afterwards called ScwaU*t island in 
the river in this town. No particulars ean be coHecred. 


diers, and embarked in one of the transports. The 
fleet soon sailed up the St. Lawrence, and met with 
no accident ^ until they got up off the Virgin 
*' Mountains ; the weather then proving foggy, 
^' and the wind freshening, the Admiral asked ther 
^^ pilots what was best to do ? who advised that as 
'^ the fleet was on the north shore, it would be best 
" to bring to, with their heads to the southward."* 
The Admiral obstinately refused : and the awful 
consequence was the destruction of nine ships, the 
loss of many lives, and the total failure of the ex- 
pedition, which was designed for the conquest of 
Canada* The part which Capt Eastman acted on 
this occasion, though noticed by none of the his« 
torians, is thus related by his grandson,t now living. 
The pilots, who were perfecuy aware of their per- 
il, bemg well acquainted with the river, could not 
but be panic-struck at the orders of the admiral, 
which the captains of the transports seemed bent 
to IPoUow. East^ian, whose company was on board 
one of them, represented to the captain their im» 
minent peril, and beseeched him to ^ haul to wind- 
ward, that they might escape the breakers." The 
captain was a true loyalist^ and exclaimed ^^he 
would follow his commodore, if he went to h — ^11." 
Eastman then stated the circumstances to his men^ 
and informed them that if they would support him, 
he would assume the control of the vessel, and at- 
tempt to shun the rocks. This he accordingly did, 
by ordering the captain to his cabin, and the helms- 
man to alter his course. They escaped wreck, and 
when the following morning exhibited to the eyes 
of the astonished crew, the bodies of the dead and 
^vrecks of the vessels which covered the St. Law- 
rence, the humbled captain, on his knees, acknowl- 
edged his deliverer, and desired his friendship. In 
the morning, Capt. Eastman appeared before the 
Admiral, who abruptly asked — ^**Capt Eastman, 

* Penhallow. 

f Jonathan Eautman, Esq. 


^here were you, when the fleet was cast away ?" 
** I was following my commodore," replied he. 
*' Following your Commodore ! (said the Admiral 

in surprise.) .... You d d Yankees, are a pack 

of praying devils ; you have saved your own lives, 
and prayed my men all to h — ^11/' Capt. Eastman 
soon after his return entered with zeal into the sub- 

i'ect of a new settlement at Penacook. And during 
lis life, was a persevering, influential and uselid 
citizen. He was at the reduction of Louisbourg 
in 1745, and held a commission in the New-Hamp- 
shire forces, under the intrepid Vaughan. He die4 
soon after his return, in his house on the east side 
of the river, which was then fortified against the 
attacks of the Indians. 

From this period, it is not known that any seri- 
ous mischiefs were committed by the Indians 
against the inhabitants of Rumford, although they 
occasionally suffered some losses in cattle and 
other property, which the savages chanced to 
meet with, while ranging through the woods and 
about the farms of the setders. They were indeed 
in constant alarm, and for several years continued 
their addresses to government for the means of de- 
fence. The petition of Dr. Ezra Carter and anoth- 
er, in 1756, states, that "they had been subjected 
to great loss of tin^e, for several years past by dis- 
turbances from the Indians, and particularly for the 
two last years past, about one fourth of the inhabi* 
tants had been driven from their settlements dur- 
ing the busy season of the year, and the whole obli- 
ged to divert their attention from husbandry to re- 
pair their garrisons, and provide for the safety of 
their families." 

1740. Capt. John Chandler wail elected representative of the town of Rumford 
to the General Assembly^onthe 2d January. In March, the lines of the town wert 
perambulated and marked* 


In January, 1749, Benjamin Rolfe, in behalf of 
the inhabitants of Rumfopd, preferred a petition to 
the Governor and Council for an act of incorpora- 
tion.* The proprietors of Bow remonstrated 
against the measure, and their influence prevailed. 

A petition for the same purpose was also presen- 
ted July 14th, 1756, by Ezra Carter, in behalf of 
the citizens. An act was framed, and after being 
read in the house of Assembly, was, through the 
influence of members interested in the Bow lands, 

. On the 28th of April, 1752, Amos Eastman of 
this town, in company with John and Willicmi Stark 
of Dunbarton, and David Stinson of Londonderry, 
being on a hunting expedition near Baker's river in 
Rumney, were surprized by a party of Indians, ten 
in number, of the St. Francis tribe. Eastman and 
John Stark were made prisoners ; Stinson and 
William Stark, attempting to escape, were fired 
xipon. Stinson fell, was dispatched, scalped, and 
stripped of his wearing apparel. His comrade 
succeeded in escaping. Jonti Stark and Eastman 
were carried prisoners to Canada, and sold to the 
French. They remained in captivity about three 
months, were redeemed, and returned home. The 
Indians now exhibited signs of hostility at Can- 
terbury. Rev. Mr. Walker went up to confer with 
them, and a chief returned with him to Rumford.t 
A short time after, two persons were taken away 
from Canterbury by the Indians. 

* See Appendix, No. IV. 

t Rev. Mr. Walker, who was beloved by all bis parishioners, was alsoesteemed 
by the Indians, and when not in open war, they used to visit his house. Where they 
were always well treated. At one time, tliey came to his house, complaining ia 
anery terms that the white people possessed their lands unjustly. Mr. W. infor- 
med them that they were parchased of their ciiiefs, and that the deed, signed by 
them, was to be seen ia Boston. He finally advised them to go and see it. To 
this they assented ; and on their return, called and took some refreshments, and 
said that they had seen the paper, and were perfectly satisfied. This deed is the 
famous instrument of Wheelwriaht, now generally believed to be a forgery. Af- 
ter the peace, a number of warriors encamped near the minister's bouse. Mr. W. 
was absent, and his wife was under great apprehensions of imury. The Imllans 
nerceived this, and said to each other, ♦' minister's wife afraid. * Upon this,one de- 
livered her all the guns, and said they would call for thew il»e next day. This thtfy 
did, and were to her kind and affable. 


From 1749 to 1766, the year after the incorpo- 
ration of the town by the name of Concord^ there 
are no records of the proceedings of the town or 
its officers. The town, in fact, existed only as a 
parish of Bow. About this time commenced the 
perplexing controversy between the proprietors of 
Bow and the inhabitants of Rumford. It is per- 
haps well known, that by the construction of the 
charter of Massachusetts, by King Charles II. in 
1677, the jurisdiction of that state extended for 
three miles to the north of Merrimack river. The 
government of Massachusetts, in 1725, granted to 
sundry petitioners the township, afterwards called 
Rumford ; and in 1728, made the grant of Suncook, 
now Pembroke, to the forty-seven soldiers, or their 
legal representatives, who were engaged with the 
celebrated Lovewell against the Indians at Pe* 
quackett These two grants comprised about thir- 
teen square miles, all lying within the supposed 
limits of Massachusetts. At the time of survey- 
ing and laying ^ut the lands at Penacook, it ap- 
pears that a committee was empowered by the gov- 
ernment of New-Hampshire, to proceed to Pena- 
cook, and request the surveyors to desist from laying 
out the lands, as they were claimed by that gov- 
ernment. They, however, proceeded to execute the 
business of their commission, and the plantation 
settled with much rapidity. In May, 1727, two 
years after the grant by Massachusetts, the govern- 
ment of New-Hampshire granted to Jonathan 
Wiggins and others, a tract of eighty-one square 
miles, which included more than two thirds of 
both Rumford and Suncook. No settlements were 
made, however, by the proprietors of Bow, nor 
did any difficulties arise in consequence of the con- 
flicting grants, for about twenty years, during 
which time Rumford and Suncook had each set^ 
tied a minister of the gospel, and converted the 
wilderness into fruitful helas. 

32 JklfifALS OF G0NCOIU>« 

Meantime the controversy between this state and 
Massachusetts, respecting the boundary line^ bad 
been carried before the Eling, and upon report of 
commissioners appointed to mark out the dividing 
line, he decided in 1740, that the northern bounda- 
ry of Massachusetts should be a curve line pursu- 
ing the course of tlie Merrimack river, at three 
mUes distance on the north, beginning on the At- 
lantic ocean, and ending at a point due north of 
Pawtucket falls ; thence due west to his Majesty's 
other possessions. By this determination, all the 
settlements on the river above Pawtucket falls, fell 
imder the jurisdiction of New-Hampshire. There 
wa,8 an express declaration, however, in the decis- 
ion of the King, that private property should be 
respected. The inhabitants of Rumford, immedi- 
ately after learning the determination of the King, 
petitioned to be restored to the province of Massa- 
chusetts; but were unsuccessful. In 1750, the 
proprietors of Bow commenced numerous suits for 
the ejectment of the settlers livin^within the lim- 
its of their grant The course which they pursued 
was extremely vexatious and calculated to prolong 
the dispute, if not utterly to ruin many of the set- 
tlers, who had made great and expensive improve- 
ments on the lands. Every action was commenced 
for so small a parcel of land, that, by a law of the 
province, there could be no appeal home.* — The 
courts and juries were interested in the lands, or 
prejudiced against the settlers ; and justice could 
hardly be expected to result under such circum- 
stances. The actions were continued to successive 

* ** But youi pttitioneis' greatest misfortune is, that they cannot have a fair, im* 
partial trial, for that the Goveraor and most of the Council are proprietors of Bow, 
and by them not only the judges are appointed, but also the officers that impannei 
the jurors ; and the people are also generally disaflfected to your petitioners on ac- 
«ount of their deriving their title fiom the Massachusetts. And all the actions that 
haYe hitlierto lieen brought are of so small value, and, as your petitioners appre> 
liend, designedly so, that by a lav»r of the province there can be no appeal from the 
judgments of the courts to your Majesty in Council ; and if it were otherwise, the 
charges that would attend such appeals would be greater than the value of the 
land, or than the party defending his title would be able to pay."— Pc«iKon of Rev. 
Jlfr. fValker «nd Benjamin Roffe, Esq, to the King, 


terms, but decided by both inferior and superior 
Courts in favour of the plaintiffs. The defendants, 
and also the inhabitants genjerally of both Rumford 
and Suncook, now petitioned to the King for an im- 
partial trial, and commissioned Rev. Mr. Walker 
to proceed to England and lay all the circumstances 
before his Majesty, empowering him to defend the 
suits at the Court of St. James. 

In 1753, upon the petition of the inhabitants of 
Rumford, the General Court of Massachusetts gran- 
ted £100 sterling, towards the expense of defend- 
ing the suits brought against them by the proprie- 
tors of Bow. The Massachusetts agent, Mr. Bol- 
lan, was instructed to use his endeavors to obtain 
such determination of his Majesty in Council, as 
should quiet the grantees of lands from that prov- 
ince in their possessions. Mr. Walker went to 
England in 1753, and again a short/ time after, and 
succeeded in obtaining a trial on appeal before a 
committee of the Lords of the Council. Sir William 
Murray, afterwards Lord Chief-Justice Mansfield, 
was his counsellor and advocate, with whom he 
formed a particular acquaintance. After a patient 
hearing of all the parties concerned, the commit- 
tee of the Council reported, that the judgments of 
the courts of New-Hampshire in the case should 
be reversed, and the appellants be restored to 
" what they had lost by means of said judgments." 
This was approved by his Majesty in Council on 
the 29th December, 1762.* 

Thus ended the disagreeable controversy with 
the proprietors of Bow, during the continuance of 
which, the inhabitants of Rumford had been with- 
out town privileges or government, and were har- 
rassed with numerous vexatious suits, and subjec- 
ted to the expense of attending almost every term 
of the courts, then exclusively holden at Ports- 

'''■'■■ I H I I. I ■!■. ■■ ■■ I *• • . I - . ■ - II 

• See Appendix, No. V. 


On the 17th June, 1765, the government of this 
State granted the charter of the town of Concord, 
comprising " a part of the town of Bow, and some 
lands adjoining thereto." The bounds, as descri- 
bed in the charter, began " at the mouth of Contoo- 
cook river, which is the S. E. comer of Boscawen ; 
thence S. 73° W. by said Boscawen 4 miles ; thence 
S. 17"^ E. 7 miles 100 rods; thence N. 73° E- 4 
miles to Merrimack river, there crossing the river 
and still continuing the same course to Soucook 
river; then beginning again at the mouth of Co»- 
toocook river aforesaid, from thence running N. 73° 
E. 606 rods from the easterly bank of Merrimack 
river, or till it shall come to the S. W. line of 
Canterbury ; thence S. E. on said line 2 miles 80 
rods ; thence S. 17 E. to Soucook river aforesaid ; 
thence down said river, till it comes to where the 
line from Merrimack river strikes the Soucook riv- 

By the provisions of the act, the first meeting 
was to be holden on the 3d Tuesday of August, 
1765, and Samuel Emerson, Esq. was authorized to 
call the first town meeting ; but in consequence of 
his neglect, no meeting was notified ; and a special 
resolve was passed by the Legislature on the 27th 
November, of the same year, for calling a meeting 
for the choice of town officers, &c. on the third 
Tuesday of January, 1766. 

1766. — ^At the first legal meeting of the inhabi- 
tants of Concord^ Lt Richard Hazeltine, who died 
in 1818, was moderator; Peter Coffin was appoint- 
ed clerk, and Joseph Famum, Lot Colby and John 
Chandler, jun. selectmen. The meeting for the 
choice of officers for the year ensuing was holden 
March 4th. On the 25th, another town meeting 
was holden, and measures taken to provide schools 
in the diflFerent sections of the town — ^there having 
previously been but one school in town. Every 
man was taxed ^' five days' work on the highways 
and pound this year." 


Dr. Ezra Carter died Sept. 17, 1767, at the age 
of 48. He was a native of South-Hampton, in this 
sta;te ; studied physic with Dr. Ordway of Salisbu- 
ry, Mass. and settled in this place about 1740. He 
was a good scholar, though not liberally educated 
— a skilful practitioner, and a man universally be* 
loved. Soon after his removal here, he was hon- 
ored by the inhabitants with civil trusts, which he 
executed with zealous fidelity. It is to be regret- 
ted that of Dr. Carter, as well as of others who 
lived at a later day, so few particulars can be col- 
lected. Enough, however, is known to warrant the 
assertion that few men excelled him in a benevo* 
lent spirit and good humored exertions to promote 
the peace and welfare of society. He was a man 
of wit and pleasantry, and when called to visit the 
sick and desponding, never failed to administer, with 
his remedies for the body, a cordial to the mind. 
Dr. Carter, though frequently menaced by the In- 
dians, never suffered from their attacks. About 
the time of the Bradley massacre, he had gathered 
into winrows his hay then cut, on the plat of 
ground extending on the west of the street, near 
me site of the Capitol. During the night, several 
Indians secreted themselves in the hay, intending 
to surprise the Doctor on the following morning. 
Providentially, a storm of rain commenced early in 
the morning and continued for several days with 
little abatement, during which the Indians retired.^ 
After peace was restored, the Indians informed the 
doctor of their meditated attack, and that conceiv- 
ing the Great Spirit to have sent the rain for his 
shelter, they dared not remain. On the 10th of 
November, of the same year, (1746) a Mr. Esta- 
brooks came for the doctor to visit a patient 
Through some difficulty in catching his horse, the 
doctor did not immediately follow Estabrooks. In 
a very short time, the alarm was given that Esta- 
brooks was killed, and a party proceeding on the 
road after him, found his body near the path* This 


was one of the last acts of Indian hostility in thi* 
section of the country. On a certain occasion, Dr- 
Carter was called to visit a sick family in Bow. Add- 
ed to their other sorrows, poverty had thrown around 
them her tatters and rags. Disease is ever loth to 
quit such company. The family were a long time 
sick — ^the doctor was their constant attendant — and 
on their recovery, the poor man felt new troubles 
coming upon him. " How, doctor," said the un- 
happy man, " am I to pay you, for all your kind« 
ness, your attention and medicine ? You see here a 
large family, destitute of every thing, save the bare 
necessaries of life." " I have been faithful to you," 
replied the doctor, " and am I not entitled to a re- 
ward ?" " You are, doctor, oh, you are !" said the 
trembling wife, " but do wait a little — ^we can't pay 
you now." " I can inform you, my good friends," 
said the inexorable physician, " that I am knowing 
to your having property enough to satisfy my de- 
mands — and moreover, that I shall have it before 
leaving the house." The poor family were thunder- 
struck — ^they knew that no friendly feelings subsist- 
ed between the proprietors of Rumford and Bow — 
but had always heard the doctor applauded as a 
man of benevolence and mercy. Tney knew not 
what to do. At this moment, away scampered a 
flock of kittens across the room, which the doctor 
seeing, caught one of them and put it in his pocket. 
" I told you I should have my pay, (said the doctor) 
— I have got it. — Good bye, and God bless you !" 
Many anecdotes of this kind are related of him ; 
and one of the last acts of his life, was equally no- 
ble. Just before his decease, he looked over his 
accounts, filled out receipts against all poor per- 
sons, who were indebted to him, with directions 
that his executors should deliver them to those con- 
cerned immediately after his death. This was ac- 
cordingly done. 

1771. — On the 20th December, died Benjamin 
RoLFE, Esq. who was one of the early settlers, a man 


of talents and education, and for many years one 
of the principal citizens. He was for some time 
the only magistrate in town, and in all its public 
transactions, we find him conspicuous. Associa^ 
ted with the Rev. Mr. Walker, whose eldest 
daughter he married, he assisted in managing 
the defence of the inhabitants against the vexatious 
proceedings of the proprietors of Bow. And in 
the various papers drawn up by him, and other me- 
morials he has left, are to be seen evidences of his 
care and ability. His widow subsequently married 
Benjamin Thompson, a school-master of this place, 
from Wobum, Who was afterwards distinguished as 
Count Rumford. Lady Sarah Thompson died in 
Concord in 1792. Of her last husband, a more par- 
ticular notice will be given hereafter. 

1772. — At the annual meetings £60 were " raised 
for making and repairing highways." Hitherto no 
specific sum had been appropriated, but the inhab^ 
itants devoted each year a certain number of days 
to that purpose. Jlpril 7, the parish voted to give 
$500 for the meeting-house, then the property of 
individuals ; and raised $50 in addition, ^^ to be 

§iven the proprietors of the meeting-house, in or- 
er to complete the bargain." Messrs. John Kim- 
ball, Thomas Stickney and John Bradley were au- 
thorized to provide materials and superintend the 
repairs of the house. 

1773. — ^At the annual March meeting, A. M'Mil- 
len, Esq. was authorized to present a petition to 
the Greneral Court, requesting " that the parish of 
Concord may be annexed to me county of Hillsbo- 
rough, provided that there might be an inferior and 
superior court held annually in said parish." 

1771. A meedag was holden the 7tb of December this year, and Aodrew l/T- 
Milieu, Esq. empowered ** to petitkm the Hon. Gen. Court of the pro?ince (in be- 
half of the town) for the privilege of layfaigoat roads, as other toiras have, and 
also that the boundaries of Cmuord might be aB ezteniiTd ai the township ef 
jftianfard formerly wait" 



1774. — ^I'he General Court of Massachusetts, in 
consideration of the difficulties and embarrass- 
ments which the grantees of Rumford had sustain- 
ed from the suits of the proprietors of Bow, grant- 
ed them a township in Maine, which was also cal- 
led Rumford, and was settled by inhabitants from 
this town. 

1775, — ^The commencement of this year was a 
period of deep anxiety and gloom. The repeated 
acts of aggression, on the part of the mother coun- 
try, had driven the colonies into measures of re- 
sistance, bold and decisive. The people were al- 
most universally inspired with the belief that a 
struggle must ensue, and the lovers of freedom 
were every where " sounding notes of prepara- 
tion." Every village, however remote from the 
probable scene of action, was filled with alarm, and 
groups of citizens were seen in almost every cor- 
ner, debating- the cause of their country. The 
alarm of the battle at Lexington spread with ra- 
pidity throughout the country. Immediately on 
the reception of the news here, a company of 30 
men, under the command of Capt Chandler, volun- 
teered and repaired to Cambriage, where they re- 
mained a fortnight Captains Abbot and Hutching 
had now recruited companies for eight months' ser- 
vice and joined the American forces. They were 
in the engagement at Bunker's Hill. One person, 
William Mitchell^ from this town, was idlled ; and 
a young man of the name of Peter Kimball^ wound- 

A committee of the provincial congress, which 
met at Exeter in January, of this year, were direc- 
ted to address circulars to the several towns, to call 
another convention. The selectmen called a meet- 
ing of the inhabitants of Concord on the 1 1th of 

1773. Lt John Chandler was the first grand juror called from Concord, appoint- 
ed Feh. 33, 1773. 

1774. At the March meeting, Peter Green, Eiq. wai directed to present a peti- 
tion to the General Court for leave to send a lepresentativt. 


May, and Timothy Walker, jun. was elected ^ to 
represent the inhabitants of Concord at the Gen- 
eral Convention of Deputies, from the several towns 
in this government, to be held at Exeter, the 17th 
of May,'* and fully empowered " to pursue such 
measures as may be jucTged most expedient to ilb- 
store the rights of the colonies" — to serve for six 
months. At the expiration of this period, he was 
again elected to serve for a year. The town at 
their meeting in December, " voted to pay Capt. A- 
biel Chandler and others, who went to Cambridge 
upon the alarm in April, at the same rates allowed 
other troops of the colony." 

There remained in almost every town some 
staunch friends of the government, who, viewing 
the attempt of the colonies to shake off their alle- 
giance as desperate and hopeless, preferred either 
to retire within the acknowledged protection of 
the King's troops, or to remain mactive and neu- 
tral. Benjamin Thompson had already adopted the 
former course ; and there were several others who 
remained in town. But neutrality is esteemed lit- 
tle better than treason in times like these. And 
to the moral habits of the people, much more than 
to their feelings, wounded as they w^re by any ap- 
parent treachery or neglect of duty, were the op- 
posers of the great cause indebted for their per- 
sonal safetr. 

1776. — Committees of safety were now appoint- 
ed in the several towns of the colony, whose instruc- 
tions were derived from the general committee ap- 
pointed by the provincial Congress. Their powers 
were extensive ; the trust one of great responsi^ 
bility — ^and none but the firmest whigs were ap- 
pointed. Messrs. Philip Eastman, Thomas Stick- 
ney^ Timothy Walker, jun. Joseph Hall, jun. and 
Richard Herbert, were appointea the committee of 
safety in Concord for this year. 

1777. — ^Measures were this year taken for the 
remuneration of soldiers engaged in the service of 


the country from this town ; and £460 were raised 
for the purpose. The sum of $100 was also ap- 
propriated for the use of the town, in the purchase 
of ammunition, &c. This year, several individualSy 
suspected of disaffection to the great cause of the 
oountrj'^, were arrested, and conveyed to Exeter, by 
a number of the citizens of this place. A short 
imprisonment, or the public denunciation of the 
people in town meeting, who declared them to be 
" enemies to their suffering country, and unworthy 
the coimtenance of its friends" — had the effect to 
subdue their loyal spirit ; and when the almost 
certain prospect of success filled the hearts of the 
patriotic multitude with joy and gratitude, they too, 
could join in the general triumph, 

1778. — ^At a town meeting in January, Col. Tho- 
mas Stickney was instructed " to use his influence 
at the next session of the General Assembly, that 
a full and free representation of the people of this 
state be called as soon as conveniently may be, for 
the sole purpose of laying a permanent plan or sys- 
tem for the future government of this state." 

In 1779, a convention, called for that purpose,, 
drew up a Plan of Government, and sent it forth 
among the people ; but so deficient were its gener- 
al provisions, that it was rejected. 

Another convention was soon called, which had 
nine sessions, and continued from June, 1781, to 
Oct 1783. Their first plan of government was 


1777. CommUlte of Safiiy.'-lAwsn. John KimbaO, Thomas Stickney, Reoben 
Edmball, Benjamin Emery and Richard Herbert. 

1778. CoL Timothy Walker was elected a member of the convention which 
met at Concord this year, llie convention met in the meeting* bouse. Meshecb 
Weare was chairman. In December, Mr. Natiianiel Rolfe was chosen to repre- 
sent the parish in the General Assembly to be holden at Exeter. 

1779. The parish proposed to give up the pew ground to any number of persona 
w)m would finish the meeting house, and add a porch ; and the value of another 
poicb ; and to be at the ezpence of building the steeple. July 19tfa, the town 
voted to raise jSll24 8 0, in addition to what had already been raised, for defraying 
the parish expenses of that year. Sept. 6, the same year, the adjourned meeting 
voted to rdse j&SOO more. The question was taken on the acceptance of the plan 
tf govenimmt ofbred to the people, and there were 36 In &vor, and S5 against it% 


•printed and sent to every town ; and the inhabitants 
were requested to state their objections to any 
particular part 

1782. — ^At the town meeting in Concord, Jan. 
.21st, " it was put to vote to see if the parish would 
accept the plan of government, as it now stands, 
and there appeared 48 against said plan, and none 
for it 

" Voted^ to have a town representation. 

" Vbtedj to have a Governor at the head of the 
legislative body. 

" Voted, that the Governor shall not have a privy 

^ Voted, that the people at large shall appoint 
their militia officers." 

A second plan was sent out by the convention 
assembled at Concord, which was most generally 
approved, but was not completed when iJie news 
of peace arrived. — ^The old form, having expired 
witn the war, was revived for one year by the votes 
of the people in town-meetings. 

A meeting of the inhabitants of Concord was 
holden Nov. 29th, for the purpose of considering 
the second plan of government, proposed by the 
conventioiL A committee, consisting of Col. Tim- 

1780. July, The town at a full meeiiDg, voted to give the soldiers that had lata- 
gaged to serve in the Continental Army, ten hushels of com per month, or 

m oney equal thereto.** In March, CoL Thomas Stickney was appointed agent to pe- 
tition the General Assembly, for tlie extension of the limiu of the town, to the ancient 
boundaries of Rumford. Major Jonathan Hale, in December, was instructed " to 
join in calling a convention to settle a plan of government for this State.** 

1781. In the beginning of this year, the General Court having called for sixteen 
soldiers, Capt. Aaron Kinsman, lieut. Ecra Carter, Lieut. Asa Kimball, and £nsigu 
James Mitchel, were appointed a committee to procure them. They were enlist- 
ed principally in this town. Feb. 6th, the town " voted to raise 1000 Spanish 
milled dollars, in order to enable the parish to procure the soldiers tliat. are bow 
called for to fill up the Continental army.** The selectmen were authorized to 
lease all the interval lands, and the honse lot belonging to the school right, for seven 
yean. Timothy Walker was authorized to petition for a lottery ,to build a bridge over 
Merrimack river ; also to support the petition for extending the bounds of the town. 

1782. At the annual meeting this year, the inhabitants voted (5 for every 
grown wolf, and $2»50 fof every whelp ; 2«. per day were to be allowed for labor 
00 highways. 


othy Walker, Col. Thomas Stickney, Capt Benja* 
min Emery, Capt Reuben Kimball, Lt Jolin Brad- 
ley, Dr. Peter Green and Mr. Henry Martin, were 
appointed to take the subject into consideration, 
and report thereon. At the next meeting, Dec. 
16th, there were 52 voters present, all of whom 
" voted to reject the new constitution, in its present 
form ;'' but proposed the following amendments, 
viz : " that the Governor and Privy Council be 
left out, and that there be a President, a Legislative 
Council, and a House of Representatives ; and that 
the powers which are vested in the Governor and 
Council be vested in the Council and House of Rep- 
resentatives." On the question of adopting the in- 
strument, with those amendments, there were 30 
votes in the affirmative. 

On the 2d September, 1782, died the venerable 
Timothy Walker, the fii^t minister, and one of the 
first settlers, of the town of Concord. He was 
born at Wobum, Mass. in 1706; and after havini 
graduated at Harvard college, in 1725, he pursues 
the usual course .of theological studies. On the 
18th of November, 1730, upon the unanimous invi- 
tation of the proprietors of the newly granted 
to^vBship of renacook, he was ordained their pas- 
tor.* After his ordination, Mr. W. returned with the 
council, and soon came up with his wife, and other 
settlers, with four of their wives. These were the 
first women that came into the town, excepting two 
who passed the previous winter in the block-house, 
(meeting-house.) Mr.W. erected his house on Horse^ 
shoe pond hSl; but after the Indiana became hos- 
tile, ne removed his house into a fort which he erec- 
ted, and remained within its waUs, with seven other 
families, until the wars, in which the Indians en- 
gaged, were ended. During this time, the house 
of worship stood without the walls of the garrison^ 

* Sea notice of Mr. Walker's setUement, p. 13. 


where the inhabitants attended armed and in com- 

Many anecdotes are related of Mr. W. which 
prove him to have been a favorite with the Indians, 
who, even in times of danger and hostilities, were 
hospitably entertained within the walls of his fort 
The merciless cruelties of the Indians, exercised 
most frequently upon the weak and defenceless, 
had created a sentiment of hostility against them, 
which now, as their extermination seemed rapidly 
approaching, rendered these little offices of fnend- 
ship very delightfiil to them. An Indian never for- 
gets a benefit, and many of them regarded Mr. W. 
as a father and friend. 

The years of Mr. W. untU the dispute between 
Bow, (or rather the government of New-Hamp- 
shire) and Concord, were passed in opening and 
improving his farm, and m the discharge of his 
parochial duties. At this time, he was chosen agent 
for the town to defend their law suits, and for this 
purpose made three voyages to England. Sir 
William Murray, afterwards Lord Mansfield, was 
his counsellor and advocate in the first cause. The 
last case detained him in England about two years. 
During this period, he had frequent interviews with 
Lord Mansneld at his Chambers, who the year, be- 
fore, was his counsel, and the conversation was 
often relative to the affairs of America. Mr. Kilby, 
an eminent merchant of Boston, was at that time 
in London, and introduced Mr. W. to many of the 
Ministry. From the manner and spirit of their re- 
marks, when they spoke of America, he was con- 
vinced, and observed to the late Dr. Chaun- 
cey, '' that nothing but the absolute submission of 
the colonies would satisfy Britain, and that, in the 
end, we must have a war with Old England and a 
league with France.'' He was ever a firm advo- 
cate for the rights of the colonies, and at the com- 
mencement of hostilities in 1775, although far ad- 
vanced in years, he encouraged the people to be 


decided and persevering in their struggle for Inde^ 
pendence. He was chosen by the town a dele- 
gate to the first Provincial Congress, and evinced 
great ardor in the American cause, and an un- 
shaken conviction of its justice and success. He 
did not live,, however, to see the truth of his predic- 
tions, and the accomplishment of his most sanguine 

Mr. Walker's zeal in the cause of his country 
was firm and untiring. When Capt. Jonathan 
Eastman returned from Bennington, bringing the 
first intelligence of the victory, Mr. Walxer came 
running out to meet him, eagerly inquiring " What 
news ? friend Eastman ! what news ?" The cap- 
tain related to him the joyfiil tidings ; and the good 
old patriot exclaimed, " Blessed be God ! the coun- 
try IS saved — ^I can now die in peace !" 

In his ministry, Mr. Walker was extremely tol- 
erant Firm in his own tenets ; yet to others of 
different persuasions, kind and charitable ; forcibly 
recommending to all, what he adopted himself, the 
Bible alone as the rule of their faith and practice* 
Under his ministry, for 52 years, the town was har- 
moniously united in one congregation, and he died 
universally lamented by a people, among whom he 
had lived in honor and usefulness. 

The constitution of 1*783 was accepted by t}ie 
people, and introduced at Concord, June 2d, 1784, 
Dy a religious solemnity. 

Until this period, the town had been styled and 
recognized in all its proceedings, as '' the parish 
of Concord,'^ being thus named, in the act of incor- 

{loration. January 2d, this year, by an act of the 
egislature, '^ a gore of land lying at the north-east 
comer of Concord, consisting of about 1050 acres^ 
in Loudon and Canterbury," was annexed to ^ the 
taum of Concord.'' 

1783. Labor on the lughwa]Fi^* pvr diem. At a mtenii( Sept 99, Uut ytac» 
** foted to receive the Oonititatioa of GoTernment as altered ' im Ji»e Uuit*** 
feu 90. Nayi VK 


1785. — ^The main*street was laid out by a com- 
mittee, consisting of Messrs. Benjamin Emery, 
Joseph Hall, John Bradley, Reuben Kimball and 
Joseph Famum. 

1786. — Though the State had now recovered 
from the anxieties and dangers of a revolution, a 
spirit of disquietude still existed among the peo- 
ple. The large debt occasioned by the war threw 
heav^ burthens upon them, and the constant de- 
preciation of the currency, aided by its frequent is- 
sue, caused loud complaints. The call for a new 
emission of paper was mcessant and clamorous. In 
almost every town, meetings were holden and the 
subject debated with warmth. The citizens of 
Concord, however, in town meetings voted, " that it 
was inexpedient for this state to maJce paper money 
on any plan whatever." Those who were zealous 
for paper currency, and against the laws which 
obliged them to pay their debts, now became clant- 
orous against the courts and lawyers : they held 
them up as public nuisances, and wished to abolish 
the one, that they mi^ht impose a sufficient check 
upon the exactions of the other. An attempt was 
made to call a convention at Concord, during the 
^session of the legislature, who should petition the 

government in favor of the plan* It was thought 
lat the presence of a large body of men, convened 
under such circumstances, woula have great weight. 
The attempt was defeated in a manner singular and 

At the first sitting of the assembly in June, when 
only five members of the proposed convention were 
in town, some wags, among whom were several 
young lawyers, pretended to have been chosen by 
the towns in which they lived for the same purpose. 
In conference vnth the five, they penetrated their 
views,and persuaded them to post an advertisement, 
requesting all the members who were in town to 
assemble immediately, it beijig of the utmost im- 


portance to present their petition as early in the 
session as possible. By this mean, sixteen pretend- 
ed members, with five real ones, formed themselves 
into a convention, choosing one of the five their 
president, and one of the sixteen their clerk. Thev 
carried on their debates and passed votes with much 
apparent solemnity. Having framed a petition^ 
complaining in the most extravagant terms of their 
grievances ; praying for a loan oi three millions of 
dollars, funded on real estate ; for the abolition of 
inferior courts, and a reduction of the member of 
lawyers to only two in each county; and for a free 
trade with all the world ; they went in procession 
to the Assembly, (some of whom had been previ- 
ously let into the secret) and with great formality 
presented theirjpetition, which was suffered to lie 
on the table. The convention then dissolved — the 

Eetition was withdrawn — ^nd when others, who 
ad been really chosen by the towns, arrived, they 
were exceedingly mortified on finding their views, 
for that time so completely frustrated. The pro- 
ceedings of this mocK convention were, for a' long 
time, subjects of sport and ridicule. 

The public excitement, however, idid not stop 
here. CJounty conventions were called— petitions 

{)resented to the legislature — and the ferment at 
ast subsided in the arrest and punishment of the 
rioters at Exeter.* 

The meeting-house was this year finished, and 
the pews disposed of. At a meeting in December, 
the town voted "to give Mr. Jonathan tFiikins a 
call to the pastoral care of the churcli ; and a salaify 
(in case he accepted) of £100, with the use of the 
parsonage, excepting the meadow lot — beside 
£200 as a settlement." Mr. Wilkins did not itccept 
the invitation. 

At their annual meetiiig in 1788, the town voted 
to petition the legislatuipe for a new county. Col. 

Timothy Walker was appointed agent, and directed 

— *■ « 

« See BeUuup'e toeoQnt of the insunectiois ke. toL it ch. 37, Hist N. H. 


to correspond with gentlemen in other towns upon 
the subject. Sept 1, the inhabitants voted to give 
Mr. Israel Evans a call to the ministry, with £90 
salary, and the use of the! parsonage, three acres 
excepted, which had been disposed of; and also 
£l5 addition to his salary annually, instead of a 
* settlement' 

In March, 1789, Mr. Evans accepted the call of 
the chui'ch and people, and his installation took place 
on the ist July following. Introductory prayer, by 
Rev! Jeremy Belknap; Discourse, by Rev. Mr. 
Eckley, of Bostpiji; Ordaining prayer, by Rev. Mr. 
Woocujoian ; Charge, by Rev. Dr. Macclintock ; Fel- 
lowship of the Churches, by Rev. Mr. Colby ; and 
Concluding prayer, by Rev. Mr. Smith. 

Rev. Mr. Evaiis continued to preach unto the 
people of this place, until 1797. In April, of that 
year, he announced his *^ intention of resigning to 
the town their pulpit, and of finishing his work of 
the ministry in the place on the first of July." The 
to>vn signified to him their approbation of his in- 
tention, and appointed a committee to wait upon 
the Ecclesiastical Council, and lay beforeijiem the- 
proceedings of the town in that respect 4|fe Coim- 
cil approved of their proceedings ; and as no foimal 
charges had been exhibited against Mr. Evans, 
they recommended him " to the churches, and to 
the work of the ministry, wherever God in his 
providence might open a door." 

Measures were taken without delay to settle 
another clergyman, and on the 28th December, the 
town voted to invite Mr. Asa M'Farland to settle 
among tJiem. A salary of $350, with the use of 
all the improved lands of the parsonage, was voted, 
with " liberty to cut what wood and timber on the 
out-lands he might need." Jan. 27, 1798, Rev. Mr. 
M'Farland, in an affectionate letter to the church 
and people, accepted their call to the pastoral care 
of the church ; and his ordination took place on 
the 7th March following. Thie QjQ&ciating olergy- 


men, were the Rev. Stephen Peabody, of Atkinson ; 
Rev. John Smith, of Hanover ; Rev. Joseph Wood- 
man, of Sanbornton ; Rev. Zaccheus Colby, o^ 
Pembroke ; Rev. Frederick Paricer, of Canterbury ; 
Rev. Jedidiah Tucker, of Loudon ; and Rev. Jo-- 
siah Carpenter, of Chichester. Bfr. M'Farland was 
a native of Worcester, Mass., bom April 19, 1769 ; 
was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1793, and 
afterwards served as^ a tutor for two years. The 
degree of D. D. was fconfe^red upon him by Yale 
College, under the venerable Dwight, in 1809, and 
the same year, he was appointed a trustee of Dart- 
mouth College. This latter appointment, he re- 
signed in 1821.* 

On the 21st June, 1798, died Major Daniel Livers- 
more, a^ed 49. He was an active officer during the 
revolution, and in many of those important battles 
which decided the fate of the contest He was a 
useful citizen, and was repeatedly honored by his 
fellow townsmen. 

With the public transactions of the town subse-- 
quent t^^is period, perhaps every citizen is well 
acquairiHlL Its proceedings have been those 
merely which related to its internal affairs, and are 
too recent, too fresh in the memory, to need recital. 
It is interesting, however, to glance at the rapid 
improvements m business and wealth which have 
been made here within the last twenty years. In 
1798, there were but two or three trading houses in 
town ; the settlements were thinly scattered ; and 
though there were then several enterprising and ac- 
tive citizens, engaged in business, the village did 
not exhibit that outward show of prosperity 
which it does at present. The grounds where the 

* The ancetton of Dr. MTarland were among that colony of Scotf , who^ in 
the Tcicn of James L, removed to the province of Ulster, in Ireland. His grand- 
father, Andrew MTarland, emigrated to this country, and settled in Worcester, 
about the time of the settlement of Londonderry, in this State. He left three sons, 
William, James and Daniel. William died at Worcester, and also James, the 
fiither of Dr. M*F.— Daniel removed to the western part of Pennsylvania, about 
the commencement of the revohitioB, and finally settled on the MoaoagalMlAk 
when his descendants now live. 


lofty edifices erected by the State are situated^ 
were then covered with bushes and trees : and if 
the prophecy of a facetious legislator, who dread- 
ed some Egyptian visiters, had no foundation, he 
might have stated that its thickets had afforded 
shelter to far less musical animals. 

The public buildings are the Capitol, the State 
Penitentiary, the Court-House, and the meeting- 

The building of the Capitol was commenced in 
1816; and the legislature convened in its halls ia 
1819. It is situated in the centre of the village, up- 
on a gently inclined plane between Main and State 
streets, and has two regular fronts, east and west 
The centre of the buil(hng is fifty feet in front by 
fifty-seven in depth ; the wings are each thirty- 
eignt feet in front by forty-nine in depth ; the 
whole making a parallelogram of one hundred and 
twenty-six feet in length by forty-nine in width, 
with the addition of a projection in the centre of 
each front of four feet It is two stories above the 
basement, which rises five feet above the surface 
of the ground : the first story is nineteen feet ; 
the second eighteen feet in the wing, and thirty- 

1790. J3ug. 90. The town voted ^ one Mindred pounds for building a house for 
the aficommodation of the General Court," to be 80 by 40 feet, and 15 feet post. 
1792. Oct. 11. The 11th regiment, for the first time paraded on Eastman's plain^ 
1794. Dee* 8tb, The town voted ** to give, in addition to the Continental pay for 
the town's quota of minute-men, so much as shall make each one's pay eight dol- 
lars per month, and one month's pay to be advanced to each man when they shall 
be called to sBarch." 

1796. The inhabitants voted to finish the town-house, and appropriated £Q0 for 
that purpose. 

1797. At a meeting in December, it was ** voted that the men that enlist, shaU 
have ten dollars with what the Congress give, and if called into service to have 
one month's pay in advance." Also, ** voted that the selectmen give those persons 
that shall enlist, a handsome treat at the expense of the town." 

1798. This year.tha lines between Concord and Loudon, were perambulated and 
Axed by the selectmen of the respective towns. 

1800. lines between Hoplunton and Concord, and Canterbury and Concerd> 
perambulated by the selectmen ; and again in 1808. 

1805. Lines ran between Boscawen and Concord by selectmen. 
' IBIA. Bye-laws adopted itlitive to extiogiiliUB$ of fiitt. 


Qfte iflL tfce centre. The roofs of the wings are ler- 
eUeidt ^t the outer ends and rise ten feet against the 
hp43I of the centre ; the roof of the centre risea 
^J;rt;een feet, presenting gable ends ip front ; from 
tbe nii4die o^ which, the cupola rises, eighteen 
feet square, to the height of nfteen feet above the 
iiicj^e ; thpnce in ^n. octangular fprm, thirteen feet 
ia (^^fl^ter, seventeen feet, and is covered with a 
roof in the form of an inverted acorn rising to the 
b^igHib of nine feet, and surmounted with a gilt 
Wl» thirty-three inches in diameter, on which standi^ 
an ea^e six and a half feet in height, with it9 
wlog^ part^9lly expanded Each^&ont has in its 
Ipwe? Stojpy three dpors and si3^ windows, and in its" 
Sppjer ?tory, nine windows, ^yith a s^mi-ellipticaJL 
window in e^ch gable end : four windows in the 
«PMth, and two in the n^orth en.d. The outside walls 
^the building are of granite stone, hammered, and 
if'}^ in. a plain style— the only ornament being a 
Tu^c^ ^ojQLtispiece of stone wprk at each central 
li'O.nt ^QPr* The roof and cupola axe of woodei^ 
%^s^e^^ls. The roof is ornamented with a coving^ 
appropriate to the Doric order, and a bajlustrade up- 
on the winigs. The square part of the cupola isk 
ornamented with twelve Ionic columns, three at 
each corner, placed in ^ triangular position, with 
^ ajpprppriate coving and balustrsuie. The octan- 
gular part has one Ionic column ^t each con;ier> 
surmounted with an urn. 

In the second story of the centre is the Repre- 
jfentaj^ives^ chamber, with an arched ceiling rising 
thirty feet from the floor, elegantly finished with^ 
(Stucco-work. The north wing contains the Senate 
chamber, eighteen feet in height, with a beautiful 
ceiling of plaistering, ornamented with stucco-work, 
Wpporteu hj four Ionic cplmnns and an equal 
number of pilasters. This room, for its neatn^i^s 
and elegance of finishing, is not perhaps inferior to 
any in the United States. In tpe south wing are 
contained the Cpuncil c}]yai)QLl(Qr ^nd s^tirchiniber. 


hoth of which are finished in a handsome Style. 
In the same wing, in the lower story, which is di- 
vided into two parts, are the Secretary's aiid Treas- 
urer's offices, over which is a suite of cbmtnittefe 
rooms. In the north wing, under thie Senate cham- 
ber, is a spacious room intended fdr 'Jiublic 'hear- 
ings before committees of the legislatil^. Undet 
the Representatives' chamber, is an t)pen afefei, 
in which are €ight Doric 'c(Jlumns,supportiiig <hte 
jflooring abdve. This area, with the adjacent pas- 
sages in the wings, cdoledby'the current of frei^hfeitr 
passing through the spacibus'doors and winded 
opening into them, affords, in the warm molith df 
June, a delightful retreat to 'legislators, *when fa- 
tigued by long atteiition to their afdudus duties J oV 
heated by the ardor of debate, above stairs ; and 
it is by no means an uncbmmoti daiSe to ^ee^th^tn 
availing th(^m^6lves 6f the benefits of this'pl^asatft 

The lot on which the State ^House stailds con- 
tains somiething more than two- acires, Enclosed oft 
its sides with a solid Wall of hanlriiered litdrie abotJt 
five feet high ; the front fences are of itonepbMls 
and sills and iron castings, Withjgates bf^ihe sAmfe 

The expences of building this-hotise, including 
the fences, the lot of ground on which it stdrids ant 
the furniture of the Tibuse, amounted to nearlV 
eighty-two' thousand dollars. 'Few public bilildf- 
ings in the United States are superior to thisirithfe 
beauty of its cottstrtiotion, or the convenience bf its 
apartments. The atehitects were Messrs. 'Studrt 
J. Park and Levi ^Brigham ; the superintending 
committee, Mc»«.^rs. Albe Caldy, William Low 
and Jeremiah Packer. The lot of land' on whi6h 
the building stands, the stone for the hoiWe, aricl 
drawing the same, were furnished the State 'by'^ 
few public spirifed infdividusJs, ^t in'^'ipeii^e of 
about ^4000. 

The State ^Pntoh "wis erected fo Itfl^ ; atM 
cost, willx the appurtenances, about $37,000; 


since which time nearly gSOOO have been drawn 
frcfm the public treasury to defray the expense of 
additional buildings, and a new work house, the 
first one having Been destroyed by fire in 1819. 
The prison is situated on State street, north of the 
Capitol, and is three stories high, built entirely of 
granite. It is 70 feet in length, 36 feet wide, the 
walls of which are three feet in thickness. It con- 
tains in all 36 cells, the dimensions of which are 8 
feet by 9, with the exception of six in the upper 
story, for the accoi;nmodation of the sick, &c. wnich 
are 10 by 17. The yard is enclosed by a faced 
wall of 259 feet by 192, fourteen feet high, sur- 
mounted by a range of pickets ten feet in length. 
Connected with the prison, is a house for the ac- 
commodation of the warden, his family, guards, 
&c, built also of granite, four stories high, exclu- 
sive of the basement, and is 49 feet by 22. The 
officers, &c. of this institution are a warden, phy- 
sician, chaplain, deputy-warden, four guards, two 
overseers of the work-shops — ^the whole of whom 
receive their pay directly from the proceeds of the 
prison, with the exception of tiie warden, whose 
salary, $800, is drawn from the treasury. The 
Governor and Council, for the time being, consti- 
tute the board of directors, or visiters. The con- 
victs are employed in stone-cutting, coopering, 
smithing, shoe-making, weaving, and tailoring. 

The meeting-house was erected in 1751. Pre- 
vious to this, the inhabitants worshipped in the 
building, erected in 1727, for the defence of the set- 
tlement In 1802, an addition was made to the 
front of the present house^ consisting of a semi- 
circle, projectmg thirty feet, and divided into seven 
angles, with a gallery. This alteration makes the 
house one of the largest and most convenient m 
the State. 

The county Court-House was originally the town 
house, and was altered and repaired during the year 
1823, expressly for the purpose of accommodating 


the courts, at the expense, partly of the t6\^n, and 
partly of individuals. It is one of the most com- 
modious county buildings in the State* 

The Society of Friends have a meeting»-house, 
standing near the Congregational church^ Aiid the 
building of a new bricK church for the Baptists 
wa« commenced in the fall of 1823, a few rods 
south of the Capitol. 

An act of the Legislature, palssed July 1, 1823, 
constituting the county of Merrimack, establisheci 
this tOWti as the seat of justice. This measure, so 
highly beneficial to the people of the new county, 
will also prove a source of additional business to 
he town. 

During the brief period which has elapsed since 
the commencemetit of the present century, many 
estimable fend useful men have departed. Nearly 
aU the children and grand*children of the first set- 
tlers have left the i»tage ; and a new generation, ac- 
tuated by different motives, enjoying superior ad- 
vantages, ai^ succeeding them, reaping the fruits of 
their toils, their enterprize and watchfulness. It is 
to be hoped they will imitate their virtues, their 
strict inioral habits, and their persevering indostry 
in the common pursuits of life. 

ISCosrairtittal jfitotfteis* 

It will not be deemed impertinent, in closing 
these brief sketches, to notice some of the most 
distinguished citizens of this town, who have de- 
cea^d. In doing this, the writer is actuated by no 
other motive than a wish to perpetuate their good 
fame, and with it, the salutary influence of their 
examples. The memory of great and good men, 
whatev^er may have been their sphere of action, 
exalted or humble, should be warmly cherished, if 




not for the delight with which we may contemplate 
their character, and the lessons we may draw there- 
from, — at least for the rich impressions it may give 
the generations that are to come. 

If many names of worth and ui^efulness are left 
unnoticed, the apology must be, not that the writer 
was unwilling to extend these notices, but that, af- 
ter a long period of diligent research, he has been 
able to obtain no more. 


Benjamin Thompson, though not a native of this 
tow^n, spent several years of usefulness in the place. 
He was bom at Wobum, Mass. March 26, 1753. 
His father died while he was very young, leaving 
him to the care of a guardian. He received a com- 
mon school education, and was placed first with 
Dr. Hay, a physician of Wobum, where during the 
intervals of study, he amused himself in making sur- 
gical instruments, &c which he finished in a hand- 
some style. He was next placed as clerk in a store 
at Salem. His aversion to this business was soon 
manifested, and he was oftener found with a pen- 
knife, file and gimblet under the counter, than with 
his pen and books in the counting-room. He was 
fond of the study of chemistry, and enthusiastic in 
his devotion to mechanics and mathematics. At 
Salem, he undertook to prepare some fire works, or 
rockets. While poundmg the ingredients, it was 
supposed a particle of sand, treacherously conceal- 
ed in the mass, caused a scintillation, and the whole 
exploded in his face and bosom. The injury wliich 
he experienced was severe, and added to a tempo- 
rary loss of sight, the skin of his face and bosom, 
was taken away with the bandages. Such an ap- 
prentice, it might easily be perceived, would not 
answer the purposes of a merchant 

Young Thompson continued his studies and phi- 
losophical inquiries with diligence. Among otner 


things, he attempted to solve that great desidera- 
tum— pe/yefwai motion. After residing at Salein 
and Boston about two years, he returned to his 
mother in Wobum, his friends receiving him with 
imwelcome pity, impressed with a belief that he 
would never fix his mind upon any regular employ- 
ment, by which he could gain a support. 

Through the kindness of a friend, Thompson 
was admitted to the philosophical lectures com- 
menced at Cambridge about the year 1769 ; this 
was a rich feast to him, and he zealously improved 
his opportunity, making rapid advances in his fa-- 
vorite studies. In 1772, he commenced school- 
keeping in Bradford, Mass. ; and soon after remov- 
ed to this town. He taught school here with suc- 
cess ; and afterwards married Mrs. Sarah Rolfe, 
widow of B. Rolfe, Esq. and daughter of the first 
minister of Concord, by whom he had one daugh- 
ter, lately living in France. Pleased with parade 
and the beau monde, and enjoying from the good- 
ness of nature all the personal recommendations, 
which attract the admiration of the world, he nev- 
er appeared at public entertainments, or in fashion- 
able circles, without being respectfully noticed. 
In an excursion, which he made* from Concord 
to Portsmouth, with his lady, to be present 
at a military review or some holiday, his gen- 
teel appearance and manly, impressive address at* 
tracted the observation of many, and among others 
he was particularly noticed by the governor, Went- 
worth, who invited him to his party, and never 
spoke of Mr. Thompson but with delight. The 
civil and friendly manner, in which he had thus been 
treated by the Governor, was not mere etiquette, 
gs was sufficiently manifested a little time after- 
wards, by having the offer of a Major's commis- 
sion. This mark of esteem and confidence was 
peculiarly gratifying to Mr. Thompson, as he pos- 
sessed a genius and taste for military operations. 



Mr. Thompson lived with his wife about two 
years ; when the revolution commencing, an4 being 
a staunch friend of the government, he was obliged 
to quit his familj'^ and rural residence ; and he re- 
tired within the lines of the British army. In Oc- 
tober, 1775, he went to Rhode-Island ; embarked 
for Boston harbor ; and in January following, sailed 
for England. On arriving in London, he was in- 
troduced to Lord Germaine, (after^vards Lord 
Sackville) then presiding at the head of the Amer- 
ican department, who conceived a warm friendship 
for him. In his office, he enjoyed an honorable 
post, until, nearly at the close of the contest, he 
was sent over to New-York ; raised a regiment of 
. dragoons ; obtained the provincial rank of lieuten- 
ant colond, and became entitled to half-pay, which 
he received till his death. 

After his return to England, in 1784, the King 
conferred upon him the honor of knighthood. This 
event was a prelude to public honors elsewhere. — 
Sir Benjamin Thompson had become acquainted 
with the minister of one of the most respectable 
German princes. Tljis, together with his growing 
greatness, induced his Serene Highness the Elector 
Palatine, reigning Duke of Bavaria, to invite him 
into his service, and honorable terms were propos- 
ed to him. He applied for, and obtained the King's 
permission to proceed to Munich. Here he soon 
gt^tained consiaerable influence in public affairs- 
was instrumental in the introduction of various re- 
forms in the police — and enjoying the confidence 
and patronage of the Prince, he had an opportunity 
to reduce to practice his schemes of economy and 

Eublic improvement He was soon raised to the 
ighest nulitary rank, and created a Count of the^ 
Empire. The remembrance of his native land,' 
^nd of his youthful enjoyments in this town, induc- 
ed him to add to his title that of Rumford. Meiv- 
dicity had become a public calamity in many of th/^ 
German cities, and threatened the most alarming 


consequences. Conceiving the project of applying 
a remedy, and having taken the proper measures, 
Count Rumford, at a given day and hour, accom-^ 
panied by several military officers, and a body of 
troops, issued orders for seizing all the beggars at 
Munich ; and being determined to obviate me pos- 
sibility of disgrace, attached to such a measure, he 
began by ajrresting the first proper object with his 
own hands. No sooner had he done this, than the 
officers and men, without making any scruple or 
difficulty whatever, cleared the streets with prompt- 
ness and success ; but at the same time with all 
imaginable good nature — so that in the course of a 
single day, not a beggar was to be seen in the whole 
range of the metropolis. But to sweep away the 
whole mendicant tribe, would have done nothing 
effectual, had not houses of industry been opened for 
their constant employment, and \^olesome viands 
been procured them. His scheme succeeded ad- 
mirably. By active exertions, he introduced vari- 
ous manufactures, and thus affording employment 
to the poorer classes, prevented a renewal of for- 
mer scenes of indolence, suffering, and vice. — 
Wherever he went, his schemes for the public ad- 
vantage were well received ; and his fame, as a phi- 
losopher and philanthropist continued to increase. 
He received many favors from the sovereigns of 
the continent. The Elector Palatine created him 
a Count, and procured for him the order of St. Stan* 
islaus, from the King of Poland; made him aknight,^ 
chamberlain, privy counsellor of state, lieutenant 
general in his service, as Duke of Bavaria, colonel 
of his regiment of artillery, and commander-in- 
chief of the general staff of his army. He was al- 
so honored by all the learned societies of Europe^ 
and of his native country. But these high-sound- 
ing titles were mere baubles, w^hen compared to 
his^ just fame a» a philosopher. He made liberal 
bequests to different institutions in his native coun- 
try ; and died at his country seat of AuteuHt France, 


where he had spent the latter years of his life, in 
1814. An eloquent eulogy on his character was 
read before the Institute of France, by M. Cuvier, 
Jan. 9, 1815, in which a just view is taken of his 
various discoveries in science, and of his personal 
exertions and fame. 

Little did his friends, who witnessed ^ith sorrow 
his juvenile pranks, his disregard of any regular 
business, anticipate his future fame. Little did the 
scholars who attended to his instructions in this 
village in 1 773-4, and who were sometimes amused 
with his athletic exercises, and his odd experiments 
— dream that their master was to be clothed with 
the stars of princes, and acquire a fame that should 
be lasting and honorable. While contemplating his 
character, we do not stop to inquire the motives 
which induced him to abandon the cause of his na- 
tive country ; but reflect, that, though driven from 
her shores, and grown illustrious amongst her ene- 
mies, he yet bequeathed to her institutions his es- 
tate, to her citizens his fame. 


On the first day of October, 1821, died the hon- 
erable Thomas W. Thompson. He was bom in 
Boston, Mass. in the month of March, in the year 
1765. His father, the late deacon Thomas Thomp- 
son, was a native of Alnwick, in North-Britain. 
His mother, Isabella White, was born in Glasgow, 
in Scotland. The period of their emigration from 
Europe to Boston is not recollected. They remo- 
ved from Boston to Newburyport, when he was 
quite young. He was fitted for college at Dum-* 
mer Academy, in the parish of Byfield, in Newbu- 
ry, Mass, by the venerable Samuel Moody, a Pre-' 
ceptor, who was no less distinguished for talent at 
governing his pupils, than for his thorough knowl- 
edge of the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages.* 
He entered the college at Cambridge in the year? 
1782, and received the degree of A. B. in 1786. 


Soon after he left college, the insurrection in Mas- 
sachusetts, of which Daniel Shays was nominal 
leader, broke out, and he entered into the army as 
an aid to General Lincoln, commander of the army" 
of Massachusetts, and served during the whole 
campaign, in a severe winter, and until the insurrec- 
tion was quelled. He afterwards pursued the study 
of Theology, in order to qualify himself for the pul*- 
pit While engaged in that study, he was appointed 
a Tutor in the College at Cambridge ; he accepted 
the appointment, and was very much a favorite 
with the students, to whom he was rendered pecu- 
liarly agreeable by the suavity of his manners, and 
native, easy, unaffected politeness — qualities, at 
that day, too rare among the learned instructors of 
colleges. Leaving the office of tutor, he com- 
menced the study of law, under the tuition of The- 
ophilus Parsons, " the giant of the law," who then 
lived at Newburyport. Being admitted to prac- 
tice at the bar, he came into New-Hampshire in 
June, 1791, and commenced practice near tne south 
meeting-house, in Salisbury, where he remained 
about one year, and then removed to the river 
road, in Salisbury, where he continued in the prac- 
tice of law until he went the first time to Wash- 
ington, a representative in Congress. He then 
withdrew from judicial courts, though he contin- 
ued through life to give advice as a counsellor at 
law. Soon after he came into this State, his tal- 
ents, industry, integrity, and knowledge of the law, 
introduced him to a very extensive and lucrative 
practice, and he became well known at the bar, in 
most of the counties in this State. 

In the year 1801, he became a member of the 
board of trustees of Dartmouth college, and con- 
tinued such, until he resigned his seat a short 
time before his death. Of this board, he was an 
active and efficient member. He was, from 1 805 to 
1807, a Representative, and once a Senator in the 
Congress of the United States. He represented the 


town of Salisbury once or twice in the Legislature. 
After his removal to Concord, he was several times 
elected a Representative of that town. He was 
Speaker of the House of Representatives of this 
State at a time when party spirit was at its greats 
est height ; and, even at that time, his political 
opponents bore willing testimony to his cattdor, 
abmty and impartiality in the discharge of the du- 
ties of that office. 

In the year 1 809, he removed from Salisbury to 
Concord, where he ever after resided until his 
death. In August, 1819, he sat out on a journey 
to Quebec, and was on board the steam-boat Phoe- 
nix, bound from Burlington to Canada, at the time 
t)f its destruction by fire at midnight on lake Cham- 
plain. The vessel was all on fire, and the people 
on board were leaving her in two small boats, 
while he was left asleep. Waking, he saw the isit* 
nation of the vessel, and that the last boat wa? 
leaving her. He jumped into the boat, already filled 
nearly to sinking, and was the last person who 
escaped from the burning vessel. The terrors and 
fatigue of that night probably produced the disease 
which put a period to his life. 


The honorable Timothy Walker, son of the first 
minister of Concord, was bom in 1737, on the pa- 
teftial farm where he died. May 5, 1822. His ear- 
lier years were employed in the pursuits of hus- 
bandry, and the acquirement of an education ; he 
was a good farmer, and his reputation as a scholar 
stood high in the class which graduated at Cam^ 
bridge in 1756. He at first designed to engage in 
the work of the ministry, and qualified himself for 
that purpose. But the increasing complaints of his 
country were to him the premonitions of a mighty 
struggle, and convinced nim that she would soon 
need active spirits on he^r side. He resolved to re- 


linquish his favorite design, and exert himself for 
the good of his country. 

At the commencement of the revolution, a peri- 
od of much doubt and peril, when most men were 
agitated, and many trembled for the fate of the colo- 
nies — Walker was found among the most judicious, 
yet determined supporters of tl;e revolution. In 
almost every town of the country there were many 
still loyal to the British crown, and who, though in 
common with their fellow citizens they felt its un- 
hallowed oppressions, were yet willing to endure 
them. To counteract their exertions was required 
the utmost vigilance of every friend of liberty. At 
this critical moment, when the alternative presented 
of abandoning the country, or arresting her inbred 
enemies — when personal friendships must be sacri- 
ficed at the altar of freedom, and the charities of 
private life be broken off in watchfulness of public 
enemies, — ^Walker was eminently useful; and 
though he exerted himself to prevent unnecessary 
riots or tumultuous proceedings, he was vigilant in 
pursuing the proper course to subserve the inter- 
ests of the country. He was entrusted with vari- 
ous duties by the government, and in 1 776, was a 
member of the Committee of Safety for the State, 
who in the recess of Congress, exercised the pow- 
ers of that body. He commanded a regiment of 
minute-men in New-Hampshire, was ai'terwards 
paymaster of the New-Hampshire forces, and serv- 
ed a campaign at Winter-HiU under General Sulli- 
van. He was a member of the convention which 
formed ouf excellent Constitution, was afterwards 
frequently elected a Representative and Senator to 
the State Legislature, and was ever found an unde- 
viating advocate of the cause of his country. He 
was for several years chief-justice of the court 
of common pleas, and was respected for his up- 
rightness and candor. 


At an advanced age, Judge Walker retired from 
active life to the enjoyment of his farm, and domes«- 
tic ease and affluence. In private life, he was 
amiable and sincere ; in his manners, frank and 
honorable ; and in his conversation, exhibiting the 
agreeable powers of an independent and well cul- 
tivated mind. To the aged, he was a cheerful 
and kind companion ; to the young, a paternal 
friend and counsellor : and both had before them 
in his life a pattern of public and private rectitude. 


Doctor Philip Carrigain, was born in the city of 
New- York, A. D. 1746. His father, who was also 
a physician, emigrated from one of the British 
ports, to that city ; where he died after a short 
residence. From the little that has been preserv- 
ed of his history, it is known that he was for some 
time, a student, or an assistant, in one of the Hos- 
pitals in London ; and that he was in the service of 
the Pretender in Scotland, A. D. 1745 ; and from 
memorials he has left, appears to have been a fin- 
ished scholar. Dqct. C. was brought in his youth 
to Haverhill, Mass. where he studied physic with 
the late Doct Bricket. He came to Concord in 
1768, where he established himself as a physician 
and surgeon. There were then but few of the fac- 
ulty, in this section of the country ; and as he disr 
covered extraordinary skill and decision, in the 
management of the cases confided to him, he rose 
rapidly to the highest eminence in his profession, 
and for the greater part of his succeeding life, had 
a more extensive practice, than perhaps, any other 
physician of his time, in the State. He died in 
August, 1806. His lady died the December pre- 
cedfinff. She was the daughter of the late Thomas 
Clough, Esq. of Canterbury, and was remarkable 
for the strength and fortitude of her mind ; and fop 
her humanity and judgment, in attending and ad- 
ministering to the sick. 



The reverend Israel Evans, the second clergy- 
man settled in Concord, was bom in Pennsylv^pp* 
in 1747 ; received his education at Princetoiwol- 
lege, where he graduated in 1772 ; was settled 
here July 1, 1789; resigned his pastoral charge 
July 1, 1797. He was engaged previous to his set- 
tlement here, in the capacity of chaplain in the rev- 
olutionary army, and was the only chaplain, who 
continued in service during the whole struggle. 
He was with Montgomery before Quebeck — at the 
capture of Burgoyne — accompanied Gen. Sullivan 
on his Indian expedition, and witnessed the surren- 
der of Comwallis at Yorktown. His zeal in the 
cause of his country frequently led him to expose 
his life in battle ; particularly, in Sullivan's engage- 
ment with the Indians, where he acted as an aid to 
the general. He died on the 9th of March, 1807, 
at the age of 60 years. 


Col. Thomas Stickney died in this town on the 
26th of January, 1809, in the 80th year of his age. 
He was a native of Bradford, Mass. and son of 
Lieut. Jeremiah Stickney, who settled in this town, 
when the former was but two years of age, about 
the year 1731. In common with others of his fel- 
low-citizens, Stickney was exposed to the dangers 
of Indian warfare, and was useful to the settlement 
in forwarding active measures of defence. His 
brother, William Stickney^ was taken by the In- 
dians at the massacre of the Bradleys, in 1746, and 
was accidentally drowned on his return from cap- 
tivity. Thomas, at the dawn of the revolution, was 
appointed to the command of a regiment of militia ; 
and besides several local military services, he was 
at the battle of Bennington, under the heroic Stark, 
and acquitted himself as a man of bravery. 



Gordon HuTcinNs was a son of Ephraim Hutch- 
#u, and born at Exeter in 1733. At about the age 
bi fk, he accompanied his father, who commanded 
a company in the expedition against Louisbourg, in 
the capacity of waiter ; but subsequently, held a 
lieutenancy in the army. Returning from the war,he 
married and settled in Harvard, Mass. ; from which 
place, in 1773, he removed to Concord. On hearing 
of the battle of Lexington, Lt. Hutchins repair- 
ed to Cambridge ; and soon afterwards, enlisted a 
company, which served an eight months' campaign. 
In 1777, on learning the perilous situation of the 
northern frontiers, Capt. Hutchins, who had again 
been at Cambridge, returning on a Sunday morn- 
ing, entered the meeting-house ; addressed the 
minister, (Mr. Walker,) and after briefly stating the 
intelligence he had received respecting the situa- 
tion of the northern armies, urged his fellow-citi- 
zens to volunteer in defence of their country. The 
appeal was seconded by their worthy and patriotic 
pastor, and a company of about thirty men was en- 
rolled, and with them, he sat out on the following 
morning. Before their arrival at Bennington, 
Stark had immortalized himself, and averted the 
threatened danger ; but they had the satisfaction to 
witness the surrender of Burgoyne and his army at 
Saratoga. Previous to this, Capt. Hutchins had 
been at White-Plains, where he was promoted to 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel. From Saratoga, 
Col. Hutchins returned to domestic life, and died 
at Concord, December 8th, 1815, aged 82 years. 
He married two wives, and by them had twenty 


Capt. Nathaniel Abbot was one of the earliest 
settlers of this place, and a very efficient citizen. 
He was bom in 1696, at Andover. At the com- 
mencement of the French war, in 1744, he entered 


the service, and joined the Rangers under Major 
Rogers. He was at the capture of Cape Breton 
in 1745 — was subsequently in most of the san- 
guinary conflicts on the northern frontiers ; and 
endured almost incredible hardships.''^ He held a 
commission in the corps of Rangers, and' was in 
every station, a brave and useful officer. He died 
in 1770.t 


CapL Joshua Abbot, son of the preceding, ac- 
companied his father during the latter part of his 
stay with the army, x^it the commencement of the 
revolutionary contest, he entered with zeal into the 
public service, and continued a firm and un- 
deviating patriot to its close. He was a man of 
fine constitution, enjoying uninterrupted health, 
and he made every exertion in his power, in com- 
mon with his compatriots in arms, for the achieve- 
ment of our independence. He died in thiji town 
in 1815, aged 74. 


The honorable John Bradley was a son of Sam- 
uel Bradley, who was massacred by the Indians in 
1746. He was about two years of age at the 
time of his father's death. He settled in his native 
town, and amongst her citizens was distinguished 
as one of the most enterprizing and useful. Pos- 
sessing a sound mind, and great dignity of charac- 

* A ftithful picture has probably never yet been drawn of the species of warfare 
prosecuted by the Rangers — or of the hardships and privations endured by the 
soldiery in the old French wars. Mr. JoHir Shvte, now living in this town, at 
the age Qf 89 years, and whose memory and faculties are unimpaired, was a soldier 
under Rogers in the ranging service ; and an hour spent in listening to his ac- 
count of that service, and his own sufferings and adventures, is by no one regretted. 
Mv. S. is a son of Jacob Shute, who came with the first family of settlers to 

f George Abbot, the paternal ancestor of the families of that name, came out of 
England, and settled at Andover, Mass. about 1645. where he died Oct. 5, 1681. 

1671 ; settled at Andover, and died D|L jI, 1749. His son, Mithaniely bom in 


He bad 10 sons and 3 daughters. ^aJhutmh his youngest son, was bom July 15, 

.... . . -- J^i--- - ----- 

1686, settled in Concord, and died inWiOw Ffit son, JosAtio, was born. at Con- 
4H)rd in 1741, and died in 1815. ^aihaniel Abbot, his son, is now living in thi» 
town, and if of the fifth generation from Capt. CTaoi]ge Abbot. 


ter, as well as integrify of principle, he was 
frequently invited to public stations, and served in 
both branches of the legislature. In the discharge 
of his official, no less than his private duties, he 
was firm and consistent, acting independently, 
and according to his deliberate convictions of jus- 
tice. He lived to a good old age, and died on the 
3th day of July, in the year 1815. 


Deacon John Kimball was a native of Bradford, 
in Massachusetts, and bom February 16^, 1739» 
He settled here at an early period of his life, and 
soon became an active and valuable citizen. He 
discharged every official duty with promptness and 
fidelity, and in his private walks, was a pattern of 
christian meekness and charity. He was a mem- 
ber of the church for nearly sixty years, and sus- 
tained an office in the church in this place during 
about forty years. He died on the 31st of Decem- 
ber, 1817, aged 79. He had been married 52 
years, and reared a numerous family, during which 
time no death occurred beneath his roof. Mrs. 
Kimball, his wife, died March 5, 1819. 


Lt. Richard Herbert died on the 17th July, 
1823, aged 94. His father, James Herbert, a ship- 
carpenter, was a native of England,married his wife 
in Kowley, and settled at Salisbun^, where Richard 
was born December 31, 1729. Mr. Herbert came 
to this town in 1752, and purchased the first lot of 
land sold by the proprietors on the street.* He 
was industrious in business, and soon became a use- 
ful citizen. He was among the first volunteerst 

*Tbis lot consisted of about two acres, and was the ground owned by the late 
Capt. Dearborn. Mr. Herbert gave j^lO dollars for bis land, then apparently a 

sand-heap, and was frequently rallie^y his neighbor land-holders for bis singular 
t The first person in Concord who acc^ed a commission under the provincial 

p urchase. He lived, however, to proSb|ritf> increase in value. 

congress, was Capt RxvBEV KiMBALt.. He was a zealous friend to the revolu- 
tionary cause — raised a company, and was at Saratoga, when the aiuiy of Buff- 
goyne surrendered to the Americans. He died June 13, 1814, aged 84. 


from this town in 1775 — was an officer under Stark 
at the battle of Bennington, and proved himself a 
brave and useful man. After the victory, he re- 
turned to Concord, and spent the remainder of his 
life in industry, inofFensiveness and peace. 

It will be perceived, that among the first objects 
of the early settlers of Concord, was the settle- 
ment of a minister of the gospel. A church, con- 
sisting of eight individuals,* was formed on the 18th 
of November, 1730; at which time the^Rev. Mn 
Walker was ordained. Their place of public wor- 
ship, was the log-house, erected in 1 727, and used 
also as a garrison for refuge, in times of alarm and 
danger. Mr. Walker was a man well fitted to meet 
the sufferings and privations of the wilderness, and 
to build up, by sound precept and encouraging ex- 
ample, a united and prosperous church. He was a 
good farmer, an efficient citizen, and an exemplary 
christian. In common with his parishioners, he 
shared the difficulties of their situation, and met, 
' mthout shrinking, every emergency of want or 
danger. The troubles which the inhabitants ex- 
perienced from 1730 to 1770, seemed to have pro- 
duced an habitual union, which continued for a long 
time after these troubles had ceased. During a 
period of more than eighty years, there were no 
visible differences among the people on religious 
subjects. For a few years previous to 1816, there 
had been a respectable society of Friends, who 
worshipped separately. In 1818, societies of Epis- 

* JVameg of those who formed the first congregational chwrch in iMs 

place^ embodied J^ov. 18, 1730. 
Timothy Walker, 11 William Barker, 

John Merrill, 
Samuel Burbank, 
Jeremiah Stickney, 

David Barker, 
Aaron Stevens, 
John Russ. 


copalians and Baptists were formed, the latter of 
which is still in a prosperous state. 

Rev. Mr. Walker continued the pastor of the 
congregational church until his death in 1782. 
From this period until 1 789, the church was with- 
out a minister, though the ordinances were pretty- 
regularly administered and attended. Rev. Mr. 
Evans was installed in 1 789 ; continued to preach 
until the summer of 1797, when his pastoral rela- 
tion to the church was by mutual consent dissolved. 
The present incumbent. Rev. Dr. M'Farland, suc- 
ceeded to the care of the church in 1798. 

This church is independent in its form — its gov- 
ernment agreeing with the principles of those who 
fled from persecution in England, to enjoy in this 
then inhospitable land their religious opinions. It 
admits the principle of a communion of churches 
according to the Cambridge platform ; but it has 
never yet had occasion to call in the aid of other 
churches to settle difficulties. No ecclesiastical 
council has been called here, except for the pur- 
pose of ordaining or dismissing a minister. The 
church has a standing committee, whose duties are 
to assist the pastor in examining candidates for ad- 
mission, and in endeavoring to settle difficulties, 
that may arise between individuals, without an ap- 
peal to the whole body of the church. Every 
member has a right to the judgment of the whole 
body ; and, as a last resort, each has a right of ap- 
peal to a council of the neighboring churches. 

This church, if not the largest, is one of the 
largest in the state — the number of communicants 
at present being about 340. 

During the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Walker, 
the recorded admissions to the church are 34 males ; 
61 females — ^Total, 95; but this undoubtedly falls 
far below the actual number. Mr. Walker died in 
1782 5 and of the admissions to the church during 
the ministry of his successor, Mr. Evans, from 
1789 to 1797, no record can be founds The 



foUo^ng table, drawn iFrom the records of Rev. 
l)r. M'Farland, will shew at a glance the number 
oif baptistns, marriages, and admissions to the 
church, since his ordination, in 1798. 































|13| 61 8|11|12|22|25|22|17|26|26|20|23|14 

{Admissions,^ | 51 4| .31 2|16| 1| 8| 3| 1| 6|10| 8| 8169 











«— • 









Baptisms, 144 20.113 13| 82 35 12 12 78 34 18|15 715 

Marriages, 23 14|19|21| 2014f22| 9 19 14 11|15 414 

Admissions, |36|.6|12| 4|108|13| 6| 8|86| 9| 7| 9| 436 | 

* There is a record of about 90 baptismB during the ministry of Rev. Mr. Evans, 
but f>robably imperfect 

t There are only 8 marriages by Rev. Mr. Walker, on record — those previous to 

X This includes those admitted in the usual form, and such as were added by le^ 
ters from other <!hurches. 

Deacons in the Congregational Churchy since its organization in 


John Merrill, 
Ephraim Famum, 
George Abbot, 
John Kimball, 
Dayid HaU, 

Joseph Hall, 
Jonathan Wilkins, 
Abiel Rolfe, 

Thomas W. Thompson, 
Nathaniel Ambrose. 

This town comprises a tract of nearly 41,000 
acres, of which 1800 are water. The surface is 
uneven, though it presents none of the rude accliv- 
ities or deep valleys seen in some of the neighbor- 
ing towns. There are five ponds in Concord, two 
on the east of the Merrimack, and three on th^ 
west The largest is Turkey pond, in ^e 90Uth^ 



west part of the town, containing about 700 acres f 
tiie waters ptoirhich form the Turkey river, a stream 
of some importance, passing east into Bow. I^ng 
pond, in the west part of the town, contains about 
500 acres, the waters of which pass into the Merri- 
mack below Sewall's island. Turtle pond lies east 
of Long pond, and near the line of Loudon ; it con- 
tains about 200 acres, and its waters pass into the 
Merrimack through the valley east of the river. 
The others are Snow's pond, north-west of Turtle 
pond, and Horse-shoe pond, near the meeting- 
house. The river Soiicook forms the south-east 
boundary of Concord, from Chichester to its junc- 
tion with the Merrimack below Garven's falls. 
The Contoocoofc is a considerable river, entering 
near the west comer of the town, and uniting with 
the Merrimack on the north-west hne, forming at 
its junction the island celebrated as the spot where 
Mrs. Duston made a desperate escape from a party 
of Indians, in 1698. The design below pre- 
sents a tolerably accurate view of the island, 
though it rapidly changes in its appearance, irom 
the action of the freshes of the river. 

The Merrimack is the principal river of this 
region, and is not onJy the ornament and beautifier 
of the landscape, but the source of health and 
profit ito the inhabitants. It meanders nearly 
through the centre of the town, enriching the 
tracts of -interval on its borders. The intervals 
here are of considerable width, Hnd of great value 


to the town ; though perhaps inferior in extent and 
beauty to those on the Cfonnecticut. Soon after 
entering the town, the Merrimack passes over the 
rapids called SewalPs falls, below which is situated 
SewalPs island, thus called from an early propri- 
etor. The current of the river from this island is 
not rapid, and has no natural obstructions, until it 
reaches Turkey and Garven's falls at the south-east 
extremity of the town. Locks are here construc- 
ted, and the navigation of the river has been open 
during the boating seasons for several years. The 
river is here about 100 yards wide, but occasionally, 
the spring and autumn freshes have covered the 
interval adjoining the principal village, presenting 
to the eye a body of water of a mile in width. 
These freshes, though often destructive to crops, 
fences, &c. are of no disadvantage to the soil, on 
which they deposit a rich sediment. During the 
greatest freshes, the river has risen nearly 20 feet 
above the ordinary level, but this is imcommon. 
There are two bridges thrown across the river in 
this town : the Federal, or Upper Bridge, and 
Concord, or Lower Bridge. At these bridges, are 
situated the store-houses of the Boating Company 
on the river. " The intercourse with Boston, open- 
ed by way of the canals on the Merrimack, has 
been of considerable advantage to the country. 
The navigation to this town was opened in 1815,* 
and the quantity of goods annuallv brought up has 
averaged 1000 to 1500 tons. The freight downward 
has been more extensive, consisting of the produce 
of the country, lumber, and other heavy or bulky 
articles. For the first three years, the business on 
the river exceeded that for the three last ; but 
there is a prospect that it will hereafter be much 
increased. The principal village, and the seat 
of most of the business of the town, extends 
along the western bank of the Merrimack nearly 

*The first boat of the Merrimack company, arrived at the landing here, Jane SS, 
1815, in 3 1-2 days from Boston. 


two miles from south-east to north-west It ia Vjeiy 
pleasantly situated, and from its convenient situation 
nas become a place of considerable trade. The 
state-house,* state-prison, court-house and meetings 
house are situated m this village. There are 175 
dwelling-houses, 20 stores, 8 taverns, several me- 
chanic shops, 5 printing-offices, 5 bookstores and 2 
book-binderies. On the east side of the river, is 
another considerable village, very pleasantly situar 
ted ; and a village is also forming m the west part 
of the town. The soil of this town presents all 
the varieties common to this region, and is" in some 
parts fertile. The highlands, extending back froiaa 
the river are very productive, and were originally, 
covered with oak,chesnut, maple, &c. Theplam&are. 
alluvial, and, covered with a growth of pine. Large* 
masses of excellent grajaite are found in this town, 
and the public edifices here, are erected of this, 
material. This granite affords an admirable ma- 
terial for building ; and large quantities, wrought at 
the State Prison, are annually transported, to Bosr 
ton for architectural purposes. It derives its supe* 
riority over the granite of many other countries, 
from the circumstance that it contains no sulphuret. 
of iron, which, by the action of atmospheric agents, 
produces an iron-rust stain, that destroys the beau- 
ty of the material. Iron ore is found here in small 
quantities, near the Soucook river, and on the 
branches of the Turkey river. It was wrought by 
the inhabitants during the revolution ; but to no. 
great extent. Excellent clay abounds in several 

E laces, and extensive potteries have for some years . 
een established. 

*• S^e description of pabllc buUdings, p. 49. 


HHtnioiir of ifxt ^rnacoalt KnftUinis. 

Whatever relates to the aboriginals of our coua* 
try, those early proprietors of the soil T^'hich; we 
inherit, must be interesting to posterity. The 
lands which we cultivate, tiie forests, the^ rivers 
and mountains around us, once swarmed with a 
distinct race of the human family. They whose 
character once stood so lofty and independent, are 
hardly seen among us, and if seen, are seen. " beg- 
ginff the price of their perdition.'' — ^They who, 
might have exterminated the Europeans on theii! 
arrival, have themselves become exterminated, and 
most of their memorials have perished with them. 
Much is it to be regretted, that there has been no( 
historical account of the various tribes residing, on. 
Merrimack river, and particularly of the one iu-^^ 
habiting the town of Concord, known at an early- 
period of our history as acknowledging allegiajQce 
to the far famed sachem, Passaconaway. But 
there have been causes why this has not been done. 
*' The horror proceeding from the cruelties. of their 
warfare, forbade the calmness of investigation, A» 
long as they were formidable, curiosity was over^ 
powered by terror ; and there was neither leisure, 
nor inclination to contemplate their character as dr 
portion of the human family, while the glare of 
conflagration reddened the midnisht sky, and the^ 
yells of the savage, mingling with the shrieks of, 
butchered victims, rode, as portentous messengers^ 
on. every gale. But that state of things has longi 
ceased to exist. The white men of America have; 
become too numerous to fear any longer the eflfectSr 
of savage barbarity, and the tales which once car* 
ried terror to the stoutest heart, are now scarcely • 
heard beyond the precincts of the nursery. In the 
room of. fear, there should now arise a sentiment 
of pity."* 

'■ ' ;. ' .'■* ' ! ■ ' ' i 8" Uiy 

* B«v. Dr. Jarris* address balbrethe New- York Hist. So 



When our fathers arrived in this country, ttcjr 
found within the confines of New England, five 
principal nations of the Indians ; viz. the Pequots 
inhabiting Connecticut ; the Narragansetts, who 
inhabited Rhode-Island and the adjacent country ; 
the Pawkunnawkutts, who lived on Nantucket, 
Martha's Vineyard, and in Plymouth colony ; the 
Massachusetts, who lived about Massachusetts bay; 
and the Pawtucketts, who constituted the " fifth 
and last great sachemship of Indians.'' " Their 
country lieth north and north-east from Massachu- 
setts, whose dominion reacheth as far as the Eng- 
lish jurisdiction or colony of the Massachusetts, 
doth now extend."* 

To this general division, belonged the Penacooks, 
or those Indians, who inhabited Concord, and the 
country for many miles above and below on Merri- 
mack river. There were several " smaller saga- 
moreships" which were included under the i^ation- 
al name of Pawtucketts — such as the Agawams, 
Naamkeeks, Pascataquas, Accomintas and some 
others. All these subordinate tribes formed orig- 
inally but one great nation, and acknowledged sub- 
jection to Passaconaway, who was called " the 
great sachem of Penacook." 

The Penacooks were probably among the most 

Eowerful of these subordinate tribes, though their 
istory is but little known, and at this distance of 
time, cannot be given with any degree of minute- 
ness. Passaconaway was the first sagamore of 
whom we find any account in our historians. If 
the Wheelwright deed be not a forgery, he was liv- 
ing as early as 1629, and it appears from Hubbard's 
nan-ative, that he was alive in 1660. In that year, 
the Indians had a great dance and feast, on which 
occasion, this powerful sagamore, being grown old, 
made his farewell speech to his children and peo- 
ple, in which, as a dying man, he warned them to 

* Gookin, ia Coll. of Mass. Hist. Soc. Vol. 1, page 149, first series. 


takte heed how they quarrelled with their English 
neighbors ; for though they might do them some 
damage, yet it would prove the means of their own 
destruction. He told them he had been a bitter en- 
emy to the English, and by the arts of sorcery, 
had tried his utmost to hinder their settlement and 
increase, but could by no means succeed. 

Wonolanset succeeded his father as sachem of 
Penacook, and observed his dying advice. When 
the war with Philip commenced in 1675, he with- 
drew himself with nis people to some remote place, 
that they might not be drawn into the quarreL 
The Penacooks appear to have maintained a friend- 
ly disposition so long as they were under the con- 
trol of Wonolanset. 

About the year 1684, Lieut. Gov. Cranfield form- 
ed the project of bringing down the Mohawks, from 
New-York, in order to destroy the Penacook and 
Eastern Indians. This measure had once before 
been resorted to, but proved very pernicious in its 
effects, as that ferocious and warlike people made no 
distinction between those tribes which were at 
peace with the English, and those which were at 
war. Some of the Penacook Indians, who had been 
to Albany soon after Cranfield made a journey to 
the province of New- York, reported on their re- 
turn, that the Mohawks threatened destruction to 
all the eastern Indians, from Narraganset in Rhode- 
Island to Pechypscot in Maine.'* The Penacooks 
were about this time under the government of 
Hogkins, a sachem who succeeded Wonolanset. 
From the articles of Peace between the English in- 
habiting the province of N. Hampshire and Maine, 
and the Indians of these provinces, agreed upon 
the 8th day of September, 1685, it appears, that 
Kancamagus was his Indian name, and that Hog- 

* ** Four Indians came from fort Albany to the Fort at Pcnnicooke and informed 
them that all the Mokawkes did declare they wonld kill all Indians from Uncas at 
Mount Hope to the eastward as for as Pegyj»8Cut»" Report to Waller BarefooU, 
Esq, and Covncil. 

■ I 

76 MEMOIR or Itftt PiSNAiDOC^. 

kins or Hawkins was the English name be had as- 

In the spring of 1685, he informed Cranfield of 
the danger the Penaeooks apprehended,* and 
implored assistance and protection, but was treated 
with neglect. 

In August, 1685, the Penacook and Saco IndianH 
gathered their com, and removed their families, 
which gave an alarm to their Ekiglish neighbors, as 
if they were preparing for war. Messengers be- 
ing sent to demand the reason of their movement, 
were informed that it was the fear of Mohawks, 
whom they daily expected to destroy them ; and 
being asked why they did not come in among the 
English for protection, they answered, lest the Mo*^ 
hawks shotQd hurt the English on that account. 
Upon this, they were persuaded to enter into an 
agreement ; and accordingly the chiefs of the 
Penaeooks and of the Saco Indians being assem- 
bled with the Council of New-Hampshire, and a 
deputation from the province of Maine, a treatf 
was concluded, wherein it was stipulated, that aU 
future personal injuries on either side should, upon 

* His letter to Gov. Cranfield at this time will explain bis litaation and his 
fears, and may be regarded as a curiosity. T)i« original is preserved in the Recor- 
der's office in N. H. 

May 15th, 1685. 
*• Honour goiumor my friend^ 

You my friend I desire your worship and your power, because I hope you can do 
soni great matters this one. I am poor and naked, and I have no man at my plac« 
because I afraid allwayes Mohogs he will kill me every day and night. If your 
worship when please pray help me you no let Mohogs kill me at my place at Mal- 
amake river called Panukkog and Nattukkog, I will submit your worship and youK 
power. And now I want pouder and such alminishon, shott and guns, becauiie I 
have forth at my horn and I plant theare. 

This all Indian hand, but pray do you consider your humble servant, 


Simon Detogkonij 

Joseph X Traske^ 

King Jt Hary, 

Sam ji Linisj [aL 

Wapeguanat ^ Saguachuwash 

Old Robin jt 

Mamanosgues q Andra^ 

Peter 3 Robin^ 

Mr Jorge + Roddunrumvkgus. 

Mr Hope X Hoth^ 

John + Tonch^ 

John a Canowa^ 

John X Oioamosimminj 

Haionill t Indian.^ 

These were probably some of the principal m^n of the tribe. Two ethtr let- 
ten from HogkioB to Cranfield ace piesexved in. k Belkwi^ 346. 

Itomait OF iviE PSNAjCoosflb 7T 

eomplaint, he immediately redressed ; that infor- 
mation should be given of approaching danger 
from enemies ; that the Indians should not remove 
tjieir^ families from the neighborhood of the Eng- 
lish without giving timely notice, and if they did, 
it should be taken for a declaration of war ; and, 
that while these articles were observed, the Eng- 
lish would assist and protect them against the 
Mohawks and all other enemies. 

From this time, peace continued without inter- 
ruption till 1^89, when a confederacy was formed 
between the tribes of Penacook and Pequawkett, 
and the strange Indians, (as they were called) who 
were incorporated with them, to attack the settle- 
ment at Dover. The Penacooks were among the 
four hundred Indians, who were seized at Dover 
by Major Waldron in 1676, and were dismissed 
at that time, probably on account of the friendly 
disposition of Wonolanset Notwithstanding they 
experienced the clemency of Major Waldron, in be- 
ing permitted to depart in safety, they did not for- 
get the conduct of the Major to their allies, and 
were easily seduced to join the confederacy by 
those, who had, for about thirteen years, cherished 
an inextinguishable thirst of revenge against the 
brave, but unfortunate Waldron. The plot formed 
against the inhabitants of Dover was disclosed by 
two of the Penacooks to Major Hinchman, of 
Chelmsford, who immediately informed Mr. Dan- 
forth, a member of the council of Massachusetts, by 
the following letter, the original of which is on file 
in the Secretary's office in Massachusetts. 

" HorCd Sir, 

This day, two Indians came from Pennacook, viz. 
Job Maramasquand and Peter Muckamug, who 
report that damage will undoubtedly be done with- 
in a few days at Piscataqua, and that Major Wal- 
dron, in particular, is threatened ; and that Juli- 
matt fears that mischief will quickly be done at 



Dunstable. The Indians can give a more parUcu-^ 
lar account to your honor. They say, if damage 
be done, the blame shall not be on them, having 
given a faithful account of what they hear ; and are 
upon that report moved to leave their habitation 
and com at Pennacook. Sir, I was very loth to 
trouble you, and to expose myself to the censure 
and derision of some of the confident people, that 
would pretend to make a sport with what I send 
down by Capt. Tom, (alias Thomas Ukqucakussen- 

I am constrained, from a sense of my duty, and 
from love to my countrymen, to give the informar 
tion as above. So with my humble service to your 
honor, and prayers for the safety of an endangered 
people — ^I am. Sir, your humble servant, 


June 22. 
Hon. Thomas DanfartV^ 

Mr. Danforth was detained from the meeting of 
the council. He however, on the same day, comr 
municated Major. Hinchman's letter to Governor 
Bradstreet, who, with the council, ordered a mes- 
senger to be sent to Cochecho, with the following 
disclosure of the plot in a letter, written by Secre- 
tary Addington. 

" Boston, 27 June, 1689. 

Honble Sir, 

The governor and councill haveing this day 
received a letter from Major Henchman of Chelms- 
ford, that some Indians are come in to them, who 
report that there is a gathering of some Indians in 
and about Penecooke, with designe of mischiefe 
to the English. Among the said Indians, one 
Hawkins is said to be a principal designer, and that 
they have a particular designe against yourself and 
Mr. Peter Coffin, which the councill thought it ne- 
cessary presently to dispatch advice thereof to give 
you notice, that you take care of your own safe- 


guard, they intending to betray you on a pretention 
of trade. 

Please forthwith to signify the import hereof to 
Mr. Coffin and others, as you shall think necessary, 
and advise of what informations you may at any 
time receive of the Indians motions. By order in 
Councill. ISA : ADDINGTON, Sec'y. 

Far Mr. Richard Waldron and Mr. Peter 
Ckjffinn, or either €f thenij att Cochecha ; 
these with all possible speedJ*\ 

This letter was despatched from Boston by Mr. 
Weare ; but some delay he met with at Newbury 
ferry prevented its arrival in season. The same 
day, after the mischief was done, the preceding let- 
ter fell into the hands of Maj. Waldron's son. Had 
it been seasonably received, it would probably have 
saved the lives of twenty-three persons, who fell a 
sacrifice to Indian cruelty, besides preventing the 
capture of twenty-nine others, and the destruction 
of much valuable property.* 

Upon the depredations at Dover, vigorous meas- 
iu*e8 were immediately adopted. A party under 
£apt Noyes was despatched to Penacook, to inflict 
summary punishment upon those who were con- 
4cemed in the affair at Cochecho ; but the Indians 
ull escaped. They, however, destroyed their com. 

It appears that after this, the Penacooks continu- 
ed to exist as a distinct tribe for many years ; 
though as a separate tribe, they ceased to oe for- 
midable after this event We find that they are 
mentioned in Penhallow's Indian Wars, (page 2,) 
where there is an account of a conference neld by 
Governor Dudley at Casco, in 1703, with delegates 
from . several tribes. The Norridgewocks, Penob- 
scots, Pequawketts, Penacooks and Ameriscoggins 
assured the governor, at this meeting, that ^^ as high 
as the sun was above the earth, so &r distant was 

* For a purticultr accoimt of the attack od Dover, see Belknap^s Hii. N. H, foU 


their design of making the least breach of the 

At the same time they made this declaration, they 
were meditating hostilities^ which commenced on 
the 1 0th of August, 1703. After this period, we 
hear little or nothing of the Penacooks, as a sepa- 
rate tribe. Those of them who were hostile to the 
English, probably mixed with the eastern Indians, 
between whom and the Penacooks, was a close af- 
finity. As the governor of Canada had encouraged 
the Indians who inhabited the borders of New- 
England, to remove to Canada, it is likely that 
some of them went thither, and were incorporated 
with the tribes of St Francis. But those wno con- 
tinued friendly to the English, of which there had 
always been a small number, remained here untfl 
1725, and were highly useful to the first inhabitants, 
supplying them with food when almost in astate 
of starvation. 

The Penacook Indians were a more warlike tribe 
than the Pawtuckett, or Wamesit Indians, who liv- 
ed around Pawtuckett Falls, in Chelmsford. They 
were opposed to the introduction of Christianity a- 
mong them, and " obstinately refused to pray to 
God." Before the year 1670, a party of them went 
down the Merrimack, and built a fort at Pawtuck- 
ett They also erected a fort on Sugar-Ball Hill, 
so called, in Concord, as a protection against the 
incursions of the Mohawks and other enemies. A 
considerable number of them joined in an expedi- 
tion against that formidable nation, and were prin- 
cipally destroyed. Tradition says, that there was 
once a very obstinate engagement between the Mo- 
hawks and Penacooks on the river in this vicinity, 
but the time, place and circumstances are unknown 
to the present generation. The Tudians of the most 
peacefiil character among the Penacooks, were iJie 
Kobin family, a part of which lived in Chelmsford, 
and owned a hill in that town, which, for almost 
two hundred years, has been known by the name of 
Robin's Hill. 

[NO. L] 


The Committee appointed to consider what is proper for thit 
Court to do on the petition of Benjamin Stevens and others, are 
humbly of opinion, that it will be for the interest and advantage 
of this Province that part of the lands, petitioned for by the said 
Benjamin Sevens and company, be assigned and set apart for b 
township ; provided, that the same be done in a good, regular and 
defensible manner, to contain seven miles square, and begin 
where Contoocook river fells into Merrimack river, and thence 
to extend upon a course east seventeen degrees south four mileSi 
to be the northerly bounds of the said township ; and from the 
extreme parts of that line to be set off southerly at right angles, 
until seven miles shall be accomplished from the said north, 
bounds. And that the petitioneni may be encouraged and fully 
empowered to prosecute their intended settlements — Ordered, 
That the Hon. William Tailer, Esq., Elisha Cooke, E8q.,Spencer 
Phipps, Esq., William Dudley, Esq., John Wainwright, Esq., 
Capt. John Shipley, Mr. John Saunders, Eleazar Tyng, Esq., and 
Mr. Joseph Wilder, (any five of whom to be a quorum) be a Com- 
mittee to take special care, that the following rules and condi- ' 
tions be punctually observed and kept by all such as shall be ad* 
tnitted to bring forward the proposed settlements, namely : 

That the aforesaid tract of land be allotted and divided into 
one hundred and three equal parts and shares as to quantity and 
quality ; and that one hundred persons or families, such only as 
in the judgment of the Committee shall be well able to pursue 
and bring to pass their several settlements on the said lands 
within the space of three years at farthest from the first day of 
June next That each and every intended settler, to whom a 
lot, with the rights and privileges thereto belonging, shall be 
assigned, shall pay into the hands of the Committee, for the us& 
of the Province, at the time of drawing his lot, the sum of ^^^ 
pounds, and be obliged to build a good dwelling house, fit com- 
fortably to receive and entertain a family who shall inhabit the 
same ; and also break up and sufficiently fence in six acres of 
land for their home lot within the term aforesaid. And that the 
first fifty settlements shall be begun and perfected upon the east- 
ern side of the said river Merrimack, and the several houses shall 
be erected on their home lots not above twenty rods the one 
from the other where the land will possibly admit thereof, in the 
most regular and defensible manner, the Committee, in their best 
prudence, can project and order ; the houses and home lot) on 


each side of the river to he alilce suhjected unto tiie ahore men- 
tioned conditioHS. That a conyenient bouse for the public wor« 
)hip of God be completely finished within the term aforesaid, 
for the accommodation of all such as shall inhabit the aforesaid, 
tract of land^upon such part thereof as shall be agreed upon bj the 
said Committee, for the ease of the community ; and that there 
•hall be reserved, allotted, and laid out for the first minister that 
shall be lawfuly settled among them, one full right, share, and 
proportion of and in the aforesaid tract of land, with all rights 
and privileges thereto belonging. His house lot to be laid out 
next adjoining to the land whereon the meeting house shall 
Stand. One other full right, share, and proportion of and in the 
aforesaid tract of land, to be appropriated for the use of the 
school forever ; and one other ministerial lot of equal value 
with the rest, the home lot appertaining thereto affixed near to 
the meeting house. And for the better enabling the intended 
settlers to perfect what they are hereby enjoined, and empower- 
ing them to remove all such lets and impediments as they may 
meet with in their progress and lawful undertaking, that when 
and so soon as there shall be one hundred persons accepted and 
allowed by the Committee to go on and improve those lands for 
the ends and uses above specified, upon application made to the 
ilforesaid Committee, it shall and may be lawful for them to no- 
tify the undertakers to meet at some convenient time and place, 
they being seasonably notified of such meeting, who, when as- 
sembled, shall make such necessary rules and orders as to them 
shall be thought most conducible for the carrying forward and 
effecting the aforesaid settlement ; provided, that three-fourth 
parts of the persons present at such meeting aie consenting to 
what rules or orders shall be then proposed and agreed upon, 
two or more of the Committee to be present at such meeting, 
who shall enter into a fair book, to be kept for that purpose, sdl 
such rules, orders, and directions agreed on as aforesaid, and give 
out copies thereof when required ; the whole charge of the 
Compiittee to be paid by the settlers. And that when they shall 
have performed the conditions above expressed, provided it be 
within the space of three years as before limited, that then the 
said Committee for and in behalf of this Court execute good and 
sufficient deeds and conveyances in the law, to all such settlers 
for the aforesaid tract of land, with all tiie rights, members, 

trofits, privileges, and immunities thereon standi)^, growing, or 
eing for the sole use of them, their heirs and assigns forever, 
with a saving of all or any former grant or grants. 
By order of the Committee. 

In Council, January 17th, 1726. Read and ordered that thin 
Heport be accepted. 

"Sent down for concurrence. 

J. WILLARO, Sec'rj. 



In the House of Representatives, January 17th, 172& Read 
and concurred. 

WM. DUDLEY, Speaker. . 
Consented to, 


[NO. II.] 
Names %f the Original Proprietwa of the town ofRuinford. 

Nathaniel Abbot 

John Austin 

Samuel Ayer 

John Ayer 

Jacob Abbot 

Obadiah Ayer 

Zebadiah Barker, alias Edw. 

Thomas Blanchard 
William Barker 
Nathaniel Barker, alias Solo. 

Joshua Bayley 
Moses Boardman 
Nathan Blodgett 
John Bayley, alias Samuel 

Nathaniel Clement 
John Chandler 
Benjamin Carlton 
Chiistopher Carlton 
Nehemiah Carlton 
Richard Coolidge, alias 

Samuel Jones 
John Coggin 
Edward Clark 
Enoch Coffin 
Thomas Coleman 
Nathaniel Cogswell 
Moses Day 
Joseph Daids 
Samuel Davis' 
David Dodge 
Ephraim Davis 
Ebenezer Eastman 
Jacob Eames 
Stephen Emerson 
John Foster 
Ephraim Famua 

William Foster 

Nathan Fisk, alias Zachariah 

John Grainger 
Samuel Grainger 
Benjamin Gage 
William G?itter8on 
Nehemiah Heath 
Ephraim Hildreth 
Joseph Hale 
Moses Hazzen 
Jonathan Hubbard, alias Daniei 

Richard Hazzen 
Joseph Hall 
Timothy Johnson 
John Jaques 
Nathaniel Jones 
Robert Kimball 
Samuel Kimball 
David Kimball 
Nathaniel Lovejoy 
Ebenezer Lovejoy 
Thomas Learned 
John Merrill 
John Mattis 
Andrew Mitchel 

Benjamin Nichols 
John Osgood 
Stephen Osgood 
Benjamin Parker 
Thomas Page 
Robert Peaslee 
Joseph Parker 
Nathan Parker 
Nathaniel Page 
Samuel Phillips 
James Parker 



Jonathan Pulsipher 
Nathaniel Peasiee 
John Pecker 
Joseph Page 
John Peabody 
Samuel Reynolds 
Henry Rolfe 
John Sanders 
Ebenezer Steyena 
John Sanders^ jr. 
Benjamin Stevens 
Nathaniel Saunders 
James Simonds 
Zorobabel Snow 
Jonathan Shipley 

Nathan Simon^i 

Samuel Tappan 
Bezaleel Tappas^ 
Richard Urann 
Ebenezer Virgin 
John Wright 
William White 
Nicholas White 
Ammi Ruhamah Wise 
Isaac Walker 
David Wood 
William Whittier 
Thomas Wicomb 
Edward Winn« 

[NO. III.] 

To His Excellency Benning Wentworth, Esq, Captain General and 
Governor in Chief in and over his Majesty* s Province of JVcw- 
" Hampshire^ in JSTew-England^ the Honorable the Council, and the 
House of Representatives, in General Court convened. 

The Memorial and Petition of Benjamin Rolfe, in the name 
and behalf of the inhabitants of the town of Rumford, in said 
Province, humbly sheweth — That the said tQwn has been settled 
by his Majesty's subjects about seventeen years, and a gospel 
minister ordained there about twelve. That the settlers had an^ 
eye at enlarging his Majesty's dominions, by going into the wil- 
derness, as well as at their own interest. That many thousand 
pounds have been spent in clearing and cultivating the lands 
there, and many more in erecting mansion-houses, out-houses, 
bams, and fences ; besides a large additional sum in fortifica- 
tions, lately made by his Excellency the Governor''8 order. That 
the buildings are compact, and properly formed for defence, and 
well situated for a barrier, being on the Merrimack river, about 
fifteen miles below the confluence of Winnipishoky [Winnepisi- 
ogee] and Pemissawasset [Pemigewassetj rivers, both which are 
main gang-ways of the Canadians to the frontiers of this Prov- 
ince. That the breaking up of the settlement will not only ruin 
the memorialists, but in their humble opinion, greatly disserve 
his Majesty's interest, by encouraging his enemies to encroach 
on his dire'lict dominions, and be all-hurtful to the Pr< evince, by 
contracting its borders, and by drawing the war nearer to the 
capital. That it was by a long and importunate intercession of 
this Province, Tand not of the memorialists' seeking) that they 
are cast under toe immediate care of this government, which, 
they apprehend, gives them so much the better right to its pro- 
tection. That the memorialists have hitherto cheerfully paid 

their propdrtifotiate pftft of the public taxed assigned them by 
the general court, even without being privileged with a repre- 
sentative in said court. That, as war is already declared against 
France, and abrupture with the Indians hourly expected, your 
memorialists, unless they have speedy help, will be soon obliged 
to evacuate their town, how disserviceable soever it may be to 
the Crown, dishonorable to the government, hurtful to the Prov- 
ince, and ruinous to themselves. 'W herefore your memorialists, 
most humbly supplicate your Excellency, the Honorable Council, 
and House of Representatives, to take the premised into your 
wise and mature consideration, and to grant them such season- 
ablie relief as may enable them to maintain his Majesty's domin- 
ions in so well situated a barrier, and so ancient and well rej^- 
lated a settlement, as well as to secure their own lives and for- 
tunes against the ravages and devastations of a blood-thirsty and 
merciless enemy. And your memorialists, as in duty bound, &c. 


Portsmouth, June 27, 1744. 

[NO. IV.] 

To His Excelhncy Benning Wentworthj Esq* GGvernor and C<m-' 
mander in Chief in and over His Majesty^ s Province of AVaw- 
Hampshire^ in New-England^ and U the HonoraJble His Majesty's 
Council of said Province, 

The Memorial of Benjamin Rolfe, in th^name and behalf of 
the inhabitants of Rumford, in said Province, humbly shetveth, 
That your memorialists are settled on a tract of land granted by ' 
the General Court of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, in 
New-England, Anno Domini, 1725, and that the said tract of 
land was erected into a township by an act of said General Court, 
Anno Domini) 1733. The bounds of said township being af 
follows, viz. : Beginning where Contoocook river falls into Mer- 
rimack river, and thence to extend upon a course east seven- 
teen degrees north three miles, and upon a course west seven- 
teen degrees south four miles, which is the northerly bounds of 
the said township ; and from the other parts of that line to be 
set off southerly at right angles until seven miles and one hun- 
dred rods shall be accomplished from the said northern bounds. 
And that his Majesty in Council taking the said act into consid- 
eration, Anno Domini, 1737, was graciously pleased to declare 
his approbation thereof;' and by the late settlement of the 
boundaries between the said Provinces, by his Majesty in Coun- 
cil, the said township is within this Province. And by an act of 
the General Assembly of this Province, of March 18th, 1741-2, 
Rumford aforesaid was made a district, it not being incorporatedi 
within any township or parish within this Province ; and by said 
act your memorialists were subjected to pay a tax towards the 



support of this goyemment, which they hare piroctuallj Kiid 
cheerfully done every year since, pursuant to acts of this goy^ 
eminent And your memorialists, by power given th^m by the 
district acts, so called, for about six years last past, have annu- 
ally raised money for defraying our ministerial, school, and other 
necessary charges of said Rumford, and taxed the inhabitants ac- 
cordingly ; but the district act expiring sometime last summer, 
there is now no law of this Province whereby your memorialists 
can raise any money for the year current, for the charges afore- 
said. And your memorialists have abundant reasop to think that 
the Rev. Mr. Timothy Walker, who has been settled with us as 
our minister for about twenty years, (unless we can speedily be 
put into a capacity to make a tax for his salary) will be neces- 
sitated to leave us, which will be to our great loss and inex- 
pressible grief ; for he is a gentleman of an unspotted character, 
and universally beloved by us. Our public school will also of 
course fail, and our youth thereby be deprived, in a great meas- 
ure, of the means of learning, which we apprehend to be of a 
very bad consequence. Our school-master, who is a gentleman 
of a liberal education, and came well recommended to us, and 
lately moved his family from And over to Rumford, on account of 
his keeping school for us, will be greatly damaged and disap- 
pointed. And your memorialists, under their present circum- 
stances, are deprived of all other privileges which a well regu- 
lated town (as such) enjoy. 

Your memorialists, therefore, most humbly pray, that your 
Excellency and Honors would take our deplorable circumstances 
into your wise and mature consideration, and afford us relief by 
incorporating us into a township by our ancient boundaries as 
aforesaid, and by endowing of us with such privileges as any of 
the towns in this Province by law do or ought to enjoy. And 
your memorialists as in duty bound shall ever pray. 


Portsmouth, January 24, 1749. 

[NO. v.] 

Docummts relating to the Controroersy between the Proprietors of 

Rumford and Bow, 


Lately decided at the Superior Court of New-Hampshire^ between 
The Proprietors of Bow^ Plfs. and John Merrill^ Def [1760.] 

The action was ejectment brought by said proprietors against 
him for the recovery of about eight acres of land, situate in Bow, 
and particularly described in their writ, with the buildings and 
appurtenances thereof, to the inferior court of common pleas, 
holden at Portsmouth, December, 1750, and at the defendants 
request continued to the next term of said court, he being a pur- 


chaser of parf of the land he holds, to vouch in his warrantor. 
But as he did not appear, the said John was obliged to defend 
himself, or give up the land demanded, on which some of his 
buildings star. I He therefore gave an issuable plea, and there- 
upon obtained judgment, from which the plaintifis appealed to 
the then next superior court, entered their appeal, and after 
several continuances, parties had an hearing, and judgment was 
rendered for the plaintiff to recover the premises demanded. 
This judgment the defendant reviewed. But judgment was again 
rendered for the plaintifis. From which judgment he would have 
appealed to the king in council, or to the governor and council 
here in a court of appeals ; but both were denied, as the premises 
demanded were not of sufficient value to allow either, according 
to the province law in such cases. But as there is much more 
than what is of value sufficient to allow either of those appeals, 
depending upon the same title, the defendant is aggprieved at the 
denial as well as at the judgment he would have appealed from. 
It is proposed here to take notice of the most remarkable things 
offered by each party. But as it is a known rule in these cases, 
that the plaintiff must recover (if at all) by the strength of Ms 
own title, and not by the. weakness or defect of the defendant's, 
it may not be amiss more particularly to consider the title of 
these plaintiffs and the objections made against it on the part of 
the defendant ; and then briefly to mention the defendant's title, 
and the objections the plaintifis offer to that, with what U said In 
behalf of the defendant in reply to those objections. 

The plaintiff lurge, that the right to all the lands in the prov- 
ince was originally in the crown. That by a special clause in 
the governor's commissions for this province, from time to time, 
they were authorised, la grant these lands to the inhabitants, with 
the advice of the council, in order to the regular settlement 
thereof. That in the absence of the chief governor, this power, 
with others contained in the commission, devolved upon the 
lieutenant-governor. That under the commission to governor 
Shute, this happened to be the case. And in his absence the late 
lieutenant-governor Wentworth, being commander in chief, on 
the 20th of May, 1727, at Portsmouth, with the advice of the 
council, by a charter of that date, granted to sundry of his Majes- 
ty's subjects, then inhabitants of the province, whose names 
were contained in a schedule annexed, a tract of land in said 
province, bounded as follows, viz. : ^^ Beginning on the south- 
east side of the town of Chichester, and running nine miles by 
Chichester and Canterbury, and carrying that breadth of ni^e 
miles from each of the aforesaid towns south-west, until the full 
complement of eighty-one square miles are fully made up," with 
sundry privileges and limitations therein. That about twenty 
months after the date of this charter, a committee of the grantees 
entered, surveyed the land granted, and marked out the bounds, 
as appears by a return under their hands, in what manner they 
proceeded. And this transaction, they say, gave the grantees the 


actual seisin and possession of the whole. Though they alsosaj, 
that this as to the purpose of giving them the seisin, is ex ahur^ 
. danti^ for the grantees \^ operation of law, were seized imme- 
diately upon the executing their charter. But this entry and 
f urvey were especiaUy designed that they might know and dis- 
tinguish their township from others^ That as they were thu« 
seized of the whole hy consequence of thb premises demanded, as 
. these are confessed to be within the aforesaid bounds. That 
' about five years after this, they enclosed a parcel of this land, 
on the easterly side of Merrimack river, by conjecture about 
three miles square. All which facts, they prove by sundry tes- 
timonies in the case. Four of which amount to nothiiig more of 
any consequence than is declared in the return of the said survey. 
But take them altogether, the plaintiffs allege, they prove an ac- 
tual entry on and possession of part, which they say is construc- 
tively a possession of the whole, and that continued so for the 
term of five or six years ; and from that time to this, (about a 
year) they have been improving of part of said land, which gives 
them a right to oust any person, who has enteied and possesses 
any part within the bounds of their charter, in any other right or 

What they further offer, is cither by way of reply to the defend- 
ant's objections, or as objections to the defendant's title. 

Now lo this title the defendant objects, and urges sundry con- 
siderations. In the first place he submitted, and would again, 
upon a new trial, be glad to submit the point to be adjudged, 
whether the plaintifls have proved their declaration. They de- 
clare, " that on the 12th day of June, 1727, they were seized of 
the premises, with others their common lands in said town of 
Bow, in fee, taking the profits thereof to the value, &c. and con- 
tinued to be so'seized thereof for one year then next ensuing, 
and ought now to have quiet and peaceable possession thereof ; 
yet the said John, within 23 years last past hath, without judg- 
ment of law, entered into the premises demanded, disseized the 
plaintiiis thereof," &c. To say nothing of the peculiarity of this 
declaration, the seisin which the plaintiffs allege they had, must 
mean (if it has any meaning) a seisin in fact, for no person ever 
took the profits by virtue of a seisin in law only. Now they nev- 
er sat a foot on the lands contained within the bounds of their 
charter, till the aforesaid survey, and how their seisin on the 
12th of June is proved by an entry above twenty months after, 
is difficult to conceive. Besides this, the settlers of the planta- 
tion, called Pennlcoke, which comprehei^ds the lands in question, 
had been in possession of it above a year before the date of this 
charter, (as will appear beyond dispute, when we consider the 
defendant's title,) at present, only observe what is proved by 
sundry testimonies produced by the defendant, viz. That the 
April and May before the date of Bow charter, there were fifty 
men at work on the said plantation, clearing land, hewing tim^ 
ber for a meeting-house, and pursuing other measures, in order 

.APPENJHS. ;' 89 

: to aettJIe ^ town. ,there. That, they ,profi«cuted the affair with 
. juch vigor, as to have a miai9tar ordained and a church gather- 
,cd in the year 1730. But thev were clearing the land, there 
^, almost two year9 hefore any of the proprietors of Bow had seen 
^iAeirland ; and alt they did, when they entered, was only to run 
, a chain, and m^rk some trees, at a. great distance, round these 
Jahorers. They. never so much as saw the land now demanded, 
^ where the settlers of Pennicoke were at work. And it appears, 
^ that thei^. hegan to clear the land id, question, when they first en- 
tered,^ because it is pne o( their housorlots, or home4ots, as they 
,are commonly called, and in the nature of the thing, that should 
.1^ first done. This possession has been continued without in- 
terruption to this day ; and Indeed may well be computed (by 
^ the plaintiffs^ , rule of possessing land by walking round it) from 
two years before April above mentioned. 

Now upon these facts, concerning the manner of entry and 
. possession of these parties, it is easy to see with what propriety 
the plainti0s could declare upon their own seisin ; and with what 
.regard to truth: it can be said to be proved. 

But to proceed. Upon supposition the lands, which the plaii- 
tiffs claim were the King's,, at the time their charter was madei 
(which was not the case in fact) yet the plaintifis have not de- 
rived . that right to themselves, for this obvious reason — The 
Govemor-s authority to grant the King's lands was limited by the 
right of jurisdiction, and that^ by the commission to that part of 
the province of New-Hampshire, lying and extending itself 
from three mil^s northward of Merrimack river, or any part 
{thereof, to the province of Maine, (now the county of York) 
which is the easterly boundary of the commission. The wester- 
ly boundary of which, is the line running three miles northward 
of Merrimack as aforesaid. Now the land demanded by the 
plaintifis in this suit lies on the westerly side of Merrimack riv- 
er, more .than three miles without the Governor's jurisdictioD, 
by this commission, and consequently, he had no power to grant 
it ; for if it should be supposed he might grant the Kill's lands, 
out of his jurisdiction, where should he 9top ? by what limitB 
could he be restrained ? From the reason and necessity of the 
thing, therefore, it must be allowed, that the right of govern- 
ment, and the granting of lands was limited to the same ter- 
ritory. And the words of the commission necessarily imply, it 
did not extend over all that was called New-Hampshire. If it is 
conceded, then, that these lands are within the province of New- 
Hampshire, and were so at the date of the plainti£fe' charter, 
yet that concession will avail the plain tifis nothing in this case. 

Another objection to the plaintifis' demand arises firom the 
manner of their running out the bounds of their township. By 
their charter they were to beg^n on the south-east side of the- 
township of Chichester. Instead of that, they began on the 
eouth-tive«t side^ as their return sets forth. Now what could jii»> 
tifjT thw proceeding in this maimer ? If the Umd where tjbej 


were to begin was appropriated before, that could not authorize 
tiieiB to he their own carvers, ]to take what they are pleased to 
estimate an equivalent, without a new grant, which they never 
had, nor did they ever make a return to the authority from 
whence they derived their title, for confirmation of what they 
had thus unwarrantably assumed ; for by their running, they take 
in a considerable tract of land, really without their charter, and 
which belongs t9 others. And if there was a mistake to their 
prejudice in the bounds given them, that is no new thing — the 
King himself is sometimes deceived in his grants. In such a 
case they should have applied to the grantor for redress* They 
allege they could not begin on the south-east side of Chichester, 
because it joined to Nottingham on that side ; but if it was so, 
-what necessity of going four miles on Chichester before they 
began their measure ? Their return, indeed, says, they were 
directed to leave four miles, &c. ; this is no more than their own 
tale, for nothing appears to discover by whom, when, or where, 
this direction was given. But a verbal direction was not suffi- 
cient in this case ; they should have taken their land according 
to their grant ; and 'tis as probable as any thing they say as to 
this matter, the true motive for making this leap, (not in the 
dark) was to get better land. Now the defendant avers it to be 
fact, tha^ if they had run as they ought, from the southerly cor- 
ner of Chichester, they would not have reached the land de- 

But now to come closer to this title, as derived from the 
Crown, the defendant says that the right to all the lands the plain- 
tiffe claim as contained in their charter, was long before g^ranted 
by the council of Plymouth, in whom the right of the Crown to 
them was vested, to Capt. John Mason, (if there had been no 
preceding grant from said council) which was confirmed by King 
Charles I., and has been recognized by every crowned head to 
King George I., from whose time till lately nothing was said of 
it, by reason of the absence or minority of the heir. By all 
which it appears that this right of Mason was always adjudged 
good. Now as the said lands were all waste or unimproved, ex- 
cept what the settlers at Pennicoke had done upon that which 
they claimed of them, they, beyond all question, belonged (agree- 
able to Queen Anne's orders and the concession of the Assembly 
here) to those who had Mason's right. And if this was the case, 
the (xovernor's grant could be of none effect as to these lancb ; 
for the power of the Governor extends only to the right of the 
Crown, of which the Crown was long before divested. Hence it 
follows, the plaintiffs' title under the government cannot serve 
them, of which the defendant may take advantage ; for it is a 
well known rule that a defendant may plead any man's title 
against the plaintiff. 

And here the plaintiffs agree with the defendant, and allow the 
right was Mason's, and that they cannot avail themselves of the 
charter aibresaid, only as a description of what they claimed, ami 

were in possession of ; btit say, they have that rights fot that Mf. 
Mason's heir sold to ll>eodore Atkinson, Esq. and others, bj 
deed, dated the 30th of July, n46^ and that the purchasers, by 
their deed of release, dated 31st of July aforesaid, conveyed their 
rifftt to the plaintifis, among others. And here the defendant, 
not willing to be in arrears, will in his turn at present agree 
with the plaintifis, that they have Mason's right to their lands^ and 
make no question whether the right of Capt. John Mason is now 
in his heirs or Allen's. But then must quere how a right, ac- 
quired in 1746, could give an actual seisin of the lands, ^he right 
to which was then purchased, so long before the purchase a» 
1727 ; that is, whether a man, by virtue of a deed made to-day, 
could be in actual possession of the land conveyed by it nineteen 
years ago ? Moreover, the defendant must deny a right was con- 
veyed by this release to the lands demanded, and whatever else 
is within the bounds of Rumford, that is the plantation of Pen- 
ulcoke, for this reason. It is common learning on this subject, 
that a release operates only to those in possession, and the plain- 
ti&' own declaration shows they have been out of possession 
above twenty years.* What benefit then have the plaintifis by 
this release as to the lands aforesaid ? 

•But now if we look into the release, we shall find it is made as 
much to the defendant as any person whomsoever. For he is an 
inhabitant of Bow, as the plaintifis themselves style him, and this 
release is made to the inhabitants as well as to proprietors, of 
what they possess ; and as the defendant had possessed so long 
in his own right, he must of necessity be quieted by this release, 
if it has any effect at all, and it would be doing the greatest vio- 
lence to the words of it, to give them any other construction as 
to this point ; and if so, it is submitted whether the plaintiff or 
defendant has Mason's right. But what may further be objected 
to the plaintifis on this head, and indeed is what first occurs, it is 
a well known point of law, a chose in action or a mere right 
cannot be transferred, and Mason's title was no more, as to all 
the lands in the possession of those who were not parties at the 
time of making the said deed to Atkinson and others. The lands 
demanded, as well as all the plantation of Pennicoke, had been 
near twen^ years in the possession of entire strangers to that 
transaction. And then what title can the plaintifis derive to 
themselves under this conveyance to the lands in question ? This, 
and much more, the defendant conceives may well be ofiered in 
his defence, sufficient to defeat the plaintifis' action, upon sup- 
position he had no title. But that is not the case. — We shall now 
consider the defendant's title. 

In the year 1725, upon the petition of Benjamin Stevens and 
others, a tract of land of seven miles square, at a place called 
Pennicoke, by the government of the Massachusetts Bay, was 
appropriated for a township, the bounds of which were as fol- 
lows, viz. " To begin where Contoocoke river falls into Merri- 
mack river, thence extending east seventeen degrees north 
three miles, and west seventeen degrees south four miles, whick 

92 AFPEimnc. 

is the northerlj bound of said township ; and from the extreme 
parts of that line southerly at right angles till se^en miles are ao 
complished from the north bounds." Now it is agreed on all 
hands, that within these bounds the lands demanded are contah^ 
ed< And as the proprietors of Bow have run the bounds of tflP 
lands thej claim, they take in something more than two-thirds of 
what is contained within the bounds above described. And, there- 
fore, as they have recovered part, they expect to recover the 
whole that Ues^Within what they are pleased to call their limits ; 
for other parcels of which there are several other actions now 
pending. And here it may not be amiss to take notice of the 
vexatious method they take to recover what they claim, by 
prosecuting a great number of actions, each for a small parcel 
of land, that they may prevent an appeal home, and that they 
may have the advantage of the ignorance and prejudice of com- 
mon juries. And with a view to weary out and dishearten the " 
defendants, who live at a great distance from Portsmouth, where 
all the courts are held, with the expense of charges occasioned 
to them by such a number of suits. Whereas they might as well 
have taken an action for all that lies in common, in the name df 
the proprietors of Bow, against the proprietors of Rumford, as 
well as the action against the present defendant, and others of 
the like kind. But to return. Among those who were to settle 
this town, is the name of the defendant and one Nathaniel Page,* 
under whom he purchased a part of what is sued for. In tn^ 
year 1726, a division of lots of upland and interval was laid out 
to the settlers, to hold in severalty, among which was the land 
demanded, part of which is that the defendant purchased of one 
Joseph Davis. These settlers prosecuted the settlement with 
such vigor, that in the year 1730 they had a minister settled, 
and a church gathered in said township. And in the ^ear 1733, 
they were incorporated into a town, by the name of Rumford, 
(it not being the custom in this government to incorporate a tract 
of waste land without an inhabitant, but first to settle the land, 
and then make the settlers a corporation.) The act, by which 
this corporation was made, was confirmed by the King after* 
wards, in the year 1 737. And notwithstanding their distance 
from other settlements, vidthin, and none without them, the <diffi- 
culties and hardships which necessarily attend those who first 
set down upon land in a perfect wilderness, where there is not 
the least sign that ever English foot had trod the ground before 
them ; and especially the danger, expense, and fatigue of an 
Indian war, which they encountered.* Notwithstanding all these 
and other discouragements, these settlers have stood their 
ground ever since their first entry ; have persevered in their 
resolution, have planted a fine town, supply themselves and many 

* Besides an actual war, they have been frequently driven into garristtns, ami 
kept in continual fears for years together, or at least the whole summer seascHi^ 
which was occaaoned afain the next, by tba throats and snrly temper of the 


others iivithin them with provisions, afford other places both de- 
fence and sustenance, and are likely to be a great advantage to 
the province of New-Hampshire in general. Yet these are the 
people the proprietors of Bow would eject ; wo aid oust, not only 
of their all, but of that all they have thus dearly purchased. For 
what the said proprietors claim takes in all (within a very trifle) 
of the said improvements, which they would now cruelly, (I may 
say) ravish from them, after they themselves, with folded arms 
and indolence, have stood by a long time, and seen the others, 
with the greatest toil and expense, make these improvements. 
And the only reason that can be given for it is, they want some- 
thing of this kind^ and having none, they have made of their 
own ; they take this as the shortest way of obtaining it. For 
to this day these proprietors of Bow have not settled five fam- 
ilies within their whole township ; and there is a great part of it 
clear of any dispute, and that part too which is nearest to the 
settlements within, yet nothing is done there, but they must^ 
needs overlook that, to come at this, the mark at which their 
whole view was directed. In short, they have not in the Am of 
twenty years done as much towards settling a plantation^ as they 
might, and as the others did, in two years ; yet they are so par- 
tial to themselves, so blinded by interest, as to think, that be- 
cause they once run a line round this land, &c. above twenty 
years ago, they have an indefeasible right to it, which yet they 
are unwilling to have brought to the test, and decided fairly in 
the cheapest way, but endeavor, by piece meal, to destroy the 
possessors. In fine, it seems they have set their eyes and hearts 
upon this vineyard, and perfas aut nefas they must have it ; for 
the, actions they have recovered (which are several) have been 
against common right, the common known principles of law, and' 
plain common sense. So much do they find their account in, 
and means to obtain juries, entire strangers to these things, or 
under the influence of a principle worse than ignormce. 

But the plaint] fls object to the defendant's title several mat- 
ters. That which they pretend to be very material is first — 
The land called Rumford lies not within the bounds of what is 
now the province of the Massachusetts Bay, according to the last 
settlement of the line, the defendant himself will own ; and that 
settlement was not a new boundary now first made, but is to be 
considered in this view, viz. A declaraUon of his Majesty, of 
what was always the true boundaries of these provinces, that 
the province of New-Hampshire was always supposed to join to 
the Massachusetts, wherever the dividing lines should be fixed, 
and the lands now under consideration, lying in New-Hampshire, 
the government of the Massachusetts had no jurisdictioB, or, 
which amounts to the same, if these lands were out of their 
jurisdiction, (^^ and the right of granting of lands was limited to 
the right of jurisdiction'^ their grant was void ab initio ; and 
therefore the settlers under them could derive no title to them- 



ielves, but must be looked upon as, or actually were, disseisors. 
But as their entry was recent when Bow was granted, the pro- 
prietors might lawfu41y enter upon them ; especially considering 
the government of New-Hampshire had forewarned and forbid 
the committee, who were on the business of beginning the set- 
tlement of Pennicoke, to proceed in the name of the govern- 
ment of New-Hampshire. So there was really nothing in the 
way of the proprietors of Bow, anymore than if there had been 
nobody there. 

Before notice is taken of the principal objection, it cannot 
escape the most superficial observer, how weak it is for the 
plaintiffs to lay stress on this forewarning, by order of the gov- 
ernment of New-Hampshire, and in the next breath, as it were, 
to confess, that the government had nothing to do with it ; that 
the land was private property to which this related, an hundred 
years before. But as to the grand objection the defendant re- 
plies — When the land was appropriated as aforesaid for a town- 
ship, the government of the Massachusetts had the jurisdiction 
in lacfe Suppose it not to be de jure^ to whom were they answer- 
able for maladministration ? not to the proprietors of Bow, nor 
even the*government of New-Hampshire, for that government, 
by the commission then in force, did not reach to the plage now 
under consideration, by several miles, as was hinted before ; 
then they could have nothing to do or say in the case. Who then 
was to correct this usurpation ? The King was so far from 
charging them with any imputation of that kind, that he approv- 
ed and confirmed the act by which the inhabitants of this planta- 
tion were incorporated ; and as to the proprietors of Mason's 
right, they were glad they had such good neighbors, for every 
acre these inhabitants cultivated, doubled the value of as many 
acres of those proprietors. Moreover, the government of the 
Massachusetts exercised all the powers and authorities of govem- 
mejpit, both l^slative and executive, over all places, to the line 
three miles northward of Merrimack aforesaid, till the said last 
settlement, which were jiever annulled, or declared to be void, 
as must have been the case, had this notion been entertained, 
which these plaintiffs advance, that the Said settlement of the 
line was only a declaration of what was always the true bounda- 
ries of these provinces ; or that all which the Massachusetts had 
done in this regard, was a mere nullity. And if the King has 
not seen it proper to nullify all those acts of government, what 
have the piaintiflfs to do in the case ? It seems necessaiy that 
all should be deemed valid, or all void ; or by what rule can a 
distinction be fixed ? Besides, the settlement of this line, was on- 
ly to settle the jurisdiction, and not to affect private property ; 
nor was it ever designed to furnish a rule whereby that should 
be determined. And the acts done by either government with- 
in their respective limits, as exercised and used before the set- 
tlement, must be held valid to all intents, to avoid that confusion 
which the contrary notion would necessarily introduce, and 


which arises from connectiDg ideas which have no necejBsary con- 
nexion. That is, that the rights of government and the rights 
of property are always united, or that* the latter has a necessary 
dependance on the former ; which, with respect to this very 
line, has in fact stirred a multitude of suits. If this opinion was 
true, the jurisdiction of a government ought never to be altered, 
without first hearing all parties whose properties would be 
thereby affected, which must be all those who have any real 
* estates between the old and new line. And in what case of this 
nature was this ever done ? And yet if settled witheut it, that is 
Without hearing such parties and determining their respective 
rights, this position would, in case of such alteration, (which 
frequently happens) be productive of the greatest mischief to 
private persons, not only by exposing them to suits, but by th« 
ruin of those who held under the government whose jurisdic- 
tion should be contracted. Suppose the alteration in this cas« 
fas it might) had been, by fixing the line ten or twenty miles 
ibrther eastwards, would the notion that such a settlement was 
only a declaration of what was always, &c. then have prevailed ? 
and that all the real estates lying westward of the line must be- 
long to the inhabitants of the Massachusetts, and the old posses- 
sors be seat a grazing, or to look out and subdue new lands, and 
perhaps by that time they should be well settled, the like event 
might happen. Besides, where shall we stop ? Many or most of 
the ancient inhabitants within the towns of the same govern- 
ment, have derived their estates from town grants, which aie 
laid out on any of the commons not before laid out in severalty, 
or appropriated. And by this rule, upon an alteration of the 
bounds of any two towns contiguous, there must arise the like 
transmutation of property and endless controyersies ; for these 
towns are to many purposes distinct governments, and the gov- 
ernments are only larger corporations. Now the cases here put 
are the same in kind, and differ only in degree. From all which 
considerations, and many more that might be added, it follows, 
that the grants made by the government of the Massachusetts, 
before the settlement of the said line, within the jurisdiction 
they then ha^ in fact, as well as other acts of government, must 
be held good, and the grant under which the defendant holds 
among the rest. Besides all this, with respect to the property of 
the soil, there is another matter to be considered. It appears 
by the present charter of the Massachusetts, that the property of 
the soil from forty to forty-eight degrees of north latitude, was 
granted to the council of Plymouth, and is a fact so well known, 
it is needless to offer evidence of it. 11 also appears by the re- 
cital in said charter, that the said council by their deed, dated 
the 19th of March, the third of Charles I. granted to Sir Henry 
Roswell, and others there named, their heirs and assigns, and 
their associates forever, all that part of New-England, &c. com- 
prehending the whole tract of land, which was called the Colony 
tf the Massachusetts Bay, under the old charter. That about a 


yearaflter, King Charles confirmed this grant hj a double recital, 
first bj referring to the deed made by the council, and then by 
the particular bounds in that deed, and made the grantees and 
others their associates, a corporation on the place. That many 
years after this, in the latter part of the reign of King Charles it 
this corporation was dissolved, by vacating the letters patent of 
King Charles I. 

Now from these facts it may be observed, that the council 
of Plymouth, having the fee, conveyed the same, of all the land 
within the bounds of their deed of the 19th of March aforesaid, 
to Sir Henry Roswell, &c. as private persons, it being made a 
year before the corporation had existence, and had no relation 
to any corporate capacity. That the confirmation of the Crown 
aforesaid admits that the grantees of the council had the fee oi 
the soil, which is the thing they designed to convey, and i£ it 
had not been done, there was nothing for the confirmation to 
work upon, for a confirmation of a void conveyance is also void« 
That the judgment, by which the corporation was dissolved, re- 
lates wholly to the King's letters patent, by which the corpora^ 
tion was erected, and has no manner of reference to the deed 
made by the council of Pljnnouth. The quere here is then upoir 
annulling the charter of incorporation, what became of the fee 
of the land purchased by some of the members of that corpora- 
tion as private persons, before the corporation was in esse ; or 
how could the vacating or destroying a particular political rela<p 
tion, an ens rationis any ways affect the right of property ? If it 
is said, that the said judgment nullified those letters patent as a 
deed of confirmation : Suppose it — ^but what follows ? Nothing 
as to this point For the rule is, a confirmatipn is to bind the 
right of him who makes it, but not to alter the nature of the 
estate of him to whom made. Now if the grantees in the first 
deed had the fee by that, the confirmation, when in force, did 
not alter the nature of their estate, nor when annihilated, (if it 
could be so in that respect) did that affect it. Upon the whole, 
as to this point, it is submitted whether the dissolution of the 
corporation affected the right of property any more than it did 
the moral state of those who were the particular members. The 
consequence of all is, the right and property of all the lands 
within the bounds of that deed, was in those grantees, and still is 
in those who hold under them. How far those bounds extended, 
the ju^ment of the King in council, according to the opinion of 
the Lords Chief Justices upon the complaint of Mason and Gorges, 
in the year 1677, is an irrefragable determination. That as to 
that part of the bounds which relates to the lands of |lumford, it 
was to run parallel to the river at the distance of three miles 
northwardly of it to the head, or as it is in the report, to the iU' 
most extent of the river, &c. ; whereby it run a long ways beyond 
the said township of Rumford, so that there can be no doubt 
whether it took in those lands. Now, supposing this right to 
remain still in private hands, what have the government of New- 


Hampshire, or Mason either, to do with it ? And here again the 
upplication of the rule above referred to offers itself. The land 
is neither the plaintiffs' nor defendant's. How then shall the 
plaintiffs recover ? Not by the known established rules of law, 
but bj a new method ; the land the plaintifis demand is not the 
defendant's, therefore they will have it. But here a question 
arises. Supposing all to be true with respect to this right that 
has been alleged, which way did it ever come to be the govern- 
ment's again ? And if the property still remains in private per- 
sons, what have the government to do to parcel it out, and put 
ivhom they please in possession ? There is no doubt but the re- 
incorporation restored the government to all they had before, 
not expressly excepted in the new charter ; and as they had the 
King's confirmation as a corporation, while that capacity con* 
tinued, they must be supposed to hold by that ; but when that 
was annulled, they were remitted to their ancient right, which 
they had before the corporation was created. And it is submit- 
ted, whether by necessary operation of law, a corporation dis- 
solved, and afterwards incorporated by a new charter, either by 
the same or a new name, is not of course restored to all its old 
rights and privileges, without express words in the new charter 
for that purpose ;'and if it is, the question is answered. How* 
ever the government has been in possession of, and has exercit* 
ed the right of granting the lands to the inhabitants more than 
sixty years, and if any particular person or persons might once 
liave claimed it, such right seems to be extinguished by non- 
claiming the possession or exercise aforesaid. The deed made 
by the council of Plymouth is not in the case, nor is it to be 
found, nor any record of it, only by way of recital, it being prob- 
ably consumed, and the record of it, with many other papers of 
a public nature, by the violence of a fire that destroyed the 
State-house, vdth a great part of the town of Boston, in the year 
1711. But by the recital in the charter it may be depended 
upon as undoubted fact, that there was such a deed. 

There is another objection made by the plaintifi% to the de* 
fondant's title, which is, that the committee anpointed by the 
General Court to have the care of settling thesenlancb at Penni- 
coke, were to execute deeds to the settlers, which does not 
appear to have been done, therefore they have no title. 

The answer to which is, there was no need of it, for the land 
was designed for those who would settle there ; the conmiittee 
determined who they should be, took a list of their names, then 
the lots severed were drawn in their names, and set off to them ;, 
and by the terms proposed, if they perfected the settlement, the 
land was to be theirs. And by the act or law of the province, by 
which they were incorporated, past the seventh of Bis Majesty's 
reign, it appears that they had fully complied with the terms 
the General Court had fixed. So that the executing such deedsi 
as it would have been a considerable trouble and charge, so it 
would have been ex abundanti^ and was therefore omittecL The 


government conceded, the settlers had their rights and the com- 
mittee could have given no more ; and as to the method of con- 
veyance, it is immaterial. Nor was it ever customary to pass 
deeds in these cases ; and was mentioned rather to stimulate the 
settlers to comply with the terms, that they might be entitled to 
the land, than a thing necessary to be done. — And now to sam 
up all in a few words. 

The defendant has entered, subdued, and cultivated the lands 
demanded ; reduced them from the rough condition in which 
nature left them, to the state of a garden, in which labor he has 
spent more than twenty years, while the plaintifife have beeil 
looking on, neither asserted their claim, nor attempted to settle 
any other part of their lands. And whether the defendant has 
any title or not, the plaintifis ought not to recover, if they do 
not make out the title they set up. For melior est coTiditio pos- 
sidentis^ the government of New-Hampshire did not extend to 
the place where these lands lay on the westerly side of Mer- 
rimack river, and therefore no right could be derived from 
them ; and if the government had reached so far, the Crown had 
long before divested its«lf of all right to the soil, which was 
afterwards vested in Sir Henry Roswell, &c. That if that was 
not the case, it was Mr. Mason^s, or those who have his right ; 
from whom the plaintiffs have derived no title, because the de- 
fendant was in possession at th« time of making the deed and 
release aforesaid. That if the release operates as to these lands, 
it is in favor of the defendant. That the defendant has a good 
right under the government of the Massachusetts Bay, as they 
had the jurisdiction in fact, and moreover had the right of the 
soil by the deed and other matters aforesaid. Add to all that, 
whoever settles land in the wilderness, and of that which before 
served only as a shelter and nursery for wild beasts, and a lurking 
place for the more savage animals, the Indians, not only pur- 
chases it at a dear rate, and has a hard bargain, though the land 
is given to him, but does public service. In which regard the 
whole iovm of Rumford merits the thanks of the government, 
instead of beinc turned out of doors. And what may be said in 
behalf of the ^fendant in this case, may, with the same proprie- 
ty, be urged in behalf of those other inhabitants of Rumford, 
with whom these proprietors, or those who derived their right 
from them, are now contending, and have actions in the courts 
under continuance. 

[The foregoing document was draw up by the late Judge Pick- 
ering, and formed one of the papers upon which the controversy 
was decided in 1762. Though of considerable length, it will be 
interesting to the people of Concord, who will here see the en- 
tire ground occupied by the parties fully explored. The decision 
of the King in Council follows, which, though referring to other 


appeals, Is applicable to the whole. The dispute, however, was 
not completely settled, until the proprietors of Bow had extorted 
lai^e sums from the inhabitants of Rumford, by way of compro- 

At the Court of St. James, the 29th day of December, 1762. 


The King's Most Excellent Majesty, 

Earl of Huntington, • Viscount Falmouth, 

Earl of Halifax, Mr. Vice Chamberlain, 

Earl of Northumberland, George GrenViile, Esq. 

Earl of Egremont, Henry Fox, Esq. 

Earl Delaware, Welbore Ellis, Esq. 

Upon reading at the Board a Report from the Right Honorable^ 
the Lords of the Committee of Council, for hearing appeals 
from the plantations, dated the 17th of this instant, in the 
words following, viz. : — 

Your Majesty having been pleased, by your order in council 
of the 15th of February, 17 — , torefei unto this committee the 
humble petition and appeal of Benjamin Roife, Esq. Daniel Car- 
ter, Timothy Simonds, John Evans, John Chandler, Abraham 
Colby, and Abraham Kimball, setting forth, amongst other things, 
that in 1721, Benjamin Stevens and others petitioned the General 
Court or Assembly of the Massachusetts Bay, for a grant of land 
at Pennicook, upon the river Merrimack, which petition, having 
been referred to a committee of both Houses, and they reported 
in favor of the application, that it would be for the advantage of 
the province that part of the land petitioned for should be as- 
signed and set apart for a township, to contain seven miles square, 
and to begin where Contoocook river falls into Merrimack river. 
And they appointed a committee to bring forward the said set- 
tlement, and laid down several special directions with regard 
thereto. And amongst others, that the lands should be divided 
into one hundred and three lots or shares ; and that one hundred 
persons or families, able to make their settlement, should be 
admitted, and each settler to pay for his lot five pounds for the 
use of the province, and be obliged to build a good house for 
the family within three yeats, and break up and fence in a cer- 
tain quantity of land, and the houses and lots to be on each side 
the river ; and that a meeting-house should be erected and finish- 
ed, which was to be assigned for the use of the minister and for 
the school, and the charge of the committee was to be borne by 
the settlers ; which Report was agreed to by both Houses of the 
Council and Assembly of that province, and concurred in by the 
€k>vemor. That in 1726, the town of Pennicook was laid 
OQt| and divided into lots amongst the proprietors, who began 


and carried on a settlement there with ^eat difficulty and cost, 
it being above twenty miles np into the Indian coiintrj, beyond 
any English settlement then made, and being a perfect wilder- 
ness, haying not the least sign that human foot had ever trod the 
ground there, and notwithstanding the difficulties they were un- 
der in establishing a new town in so remote a desert, they pur- 
sued their undertaking with such industry and pains, clearing^ 
the land, building houses, sowing corn, &c. that within a few 
years a town was erected, and the place capable of receiving 
their families, who were then removed up there. 

That on the 6th of August, 1728, in consideration that five 
hundred acres of land, wMch Hid prior to the aforesaid Pen- 
nico<^ grant, been granted to Governor Endicott, fell within the 
Pennicook boundaries, the Assembly of the Massachusetts Bay 
came to a resolution, which was concurred in by the Governor 
and Council, that the Pennicook settlers should be allowed and 
empowered, by a surveyor and chain-men upon oath, to extend 
the south bounds of their township one hun<h:ed and thirty rods 
the breadth of their town, and the same was accordingly granted 
and confirmed to them as an equivalent for the said five hundred 
acres of land. And in a few years they had so far erected and 
settled a town, that in 1 733, the Governor, Council, and Assem- 
bly of the Massachusetts Bay passed an act for erecting the said 
plantation of Pennicook into a township, by the name of Rum- 
ford ; which act was confirmed by his late Majesty in council ; 
and the said settlers having ever since, at great costs and labor, 
gone on improving the lands within the said township of Rum- 
fi>rd, by building, cultivation, and otherwise ; and having been in 
continual possession thereof for above thirty years past, and the 
same is now become a frontier town on that part of New-Hamp- 

That on the 6th of August, 1728, David Melvin and WiHiam 
Ayer petitioned the General Court or Assembly of the Massachu- 
set^ Bay, for themselves and others, who had served as volun- 
teers under Capt. John Lovewell, praying a part of the province 
land might be granted to them ' for a township, in consideration 
of the service they had done, and the great difficulties they had 
undei^ne in the war ; which petition being read in the House 
of Representatives, it was resolved, that six miles square of land^ 
lying on each side of Merrimack river, of the same breadth from 
Merrimack river as the township of Pennicook, and to begin 
where Pennicook new grant deterAiines, and from thence to 
extend the lines of the ^ast and the west boun^ on right angles, 
until the six miles square should be completed, be, and it is there- 
by g^nted to the forty-seven soldiers, and the legal represent- 
atives of such of them as were deceased, who marched with 
Capt. Lovewell, (himself included) when he engaged the enemy 
atPigwacket. That on the 9th of July, 1729, the said David 
Melvin and others, petitioned the Assembly of the Massachn- 


setts Bay, setting forth, that ihey had caused the said tract of 
land to be suryeyed and platted, and praying a confirmatioA 
thereof, arfd that the grantees might be empowered to assemble 
and choose a clerk, pass votes, and be empowered to admit the 
persons ia Capt. Loveweirs first march, to be associated with 
him ; and the survey or plan of the said tract, which is annexed 
to the petition, and mentions it to begin at the south-east comer 
of the said other town of Pennicook^ and from thence to ma 
out according to the grant. It was ordered, that the land describe 
ed in the plan should be confirmed to the petitioners and their 
associates, and their heirs and assigns forever, provided it ex- 
ceeded not six miles square, nor interfered with any former 
grant. And the Assembly, on the 23d of September following, 
ordered a preference to be given to those soldiers who were ac- 
tually with the Captain in the engagement when he killed sev- 
eral of the Indians, and the said resolutions of the Assembly went 
concurred in by the Governor and Council. 

That the Suncook proprietors carded on their said settlement 
which adjoined to Pennicook, otherwise Rumford, in like man?* 
ner as the Pennicook or Rumford settlers had done ; and in 1737, 
had a minister settled there, and by their industry, labor, and 
charges, it became a good parish, filled: with inhabitants^ 

That some years since, upon a dispute about the boundajcj 
line between the provinces of the Massachusetts Bay and: New- 
Hampshire, his Majesty was pleased to issue a commission to 
mark out the dividing line between the said province of New- 
Hampshire and Massachusetts Bay, but with an express de- 
claration, that private property should not be affected thereby. 
Apd upon he;iring the Report of the commissioners appointed to 
settle the said boundary, his Majesty was pleased, by his order 
in council, made in 1740, to adjudge and order that the northera 
boundary of the said province of the Massachusetts Bay are and 
be a similar curve line, pursuing the course of Merrimack river 
at three miles distance on the north side thereof, beginning at 
the Atlantic ocean, and ending at a point due north of a place 
called Pautucket falls, and a strait line drawn from thence due 
west cross the said river, till it meets with his Majesty's other 
governments ; by which determination two-third parts at least 
of the said river Merrimack, with the lands and settlements 
thereon, and among the rest, the said towns of Pennicook or 
Rumford, and Suncook, would lay upon the said river censor- 
ably above the said Pautucket falls, were excluded out of the 
•aid province of Massachusetts Bay, in which they had before 
been thought and reputed to be^ and thrown into the said other 
province of New-Hampshire. That notwithstanding his Majes^ 
had been pleased, at the time of issuing the said commissioa 
to fix the said boundary, to declare the same: was not to affect 
private property. Yet, certain persons in New-Hampshire, 
dei&rous to make the labors of others an adiiantage to themselves, 



and to possess theraselyes of the towns of Pennicook, otherwise 
Rumford, and Suncook, as now improyed by the industry of the 
appellants and the said first settlers thereof, whom th^y seek to 
despoil of the benefit of all their labors, did, on the first of Nov- 
ember, 1759, by the^name of the proprietors of the common and 
undivided lands, lying and being within the township of Bow, 
brought an ejectment in the inferior court of common pleas, 
holden at Portsmouth, in New-Hampshire, against the appellants, 
by which ejectment the respondents, under the general denomi- 
nation aforesaid of the proprietors of Bow, demand against the 
appellants the possession of about one thousand acres of land, 
alleging the same to lie in Bow aforesaid, and to be described 
and bounded as therein mentioned and set forth in the eject- 
ment, their grant of the town of Bow, dated the 20th of May, 
1727, from John Wentworth, Esq. lieutenant-governor of New- 
Hampshire ; and that by force thereof they were seized in fee 
of the lands thereby granted, to the extent of eighty-one square 
miles, and they had afterwards entered thereon, pursuant to 
their grant, and were seized thereof, and alleged they were 
entitled to the one thousand acres of land sued for, as part of the 
said eighty-one miles square of land, and that the same lay with- 
in the said town of Bow ; but that the ap][)ellants had entered 
therein and ejected the respondents, and withheld the same 
from them. To which action the appellants severally pleaded 
not guilty, as to so much of the lands sued for as were in their 
respective possessions. 

That on the 2d of September, 1760, the cause was brought on 
to trial in the said inferior court, when the jury gave a verdict 
for the respondents, and judgment was entered up accordingly 
with costs, from which the appellants prayed, and were allowed 
an appeal to the next superior court. And on the 2d Tuesday in 
November, 1760, the cause was brought on s^ain to trial in the 
superior court, when the jury gave their verdict for the respond- 
ents, and the judgment was thereupon entered up, affirming the 
said judgment of the inferior court with costs. That the appel- 
lants conceiving themselves to be thereby greatly aggrieved, 
prayed, and were allowed an appeal therefrom to your Majesty 
in council, and humbly pray, that both the said verdicts and judg- 
ments may be reversed, and that they n\ay be otherwise reliev- 
ed in the premises. 

' The Lords of the committee, in obedience to your Majesty's 
said order of reference, this day took the said petition and ap- 
peal into their consideration, and heard all parties therein con- 
"cemed, by their council, learned in the law, and do agree hum- 
bly to report as their opinion to your Majesty, that the said 
judgment of the inferior court of common pleas of the province 
of New-Hampshire, of the 2d of September, 1760, and also the 
judgment of the superior court of judicature of the 2d Tuesday 
in November, 1 760, affirming the same, should be both of them 
reversed, and that the appellants should be restored to what 
they have lost by means of said judgments. 



His Majesty this day took the said Report into consideratioo, 
and was pleased, with the advice of his privy council, to approve 
thereof, and to order, as it is hereby ordered, that the said 
judgment of the inferior court of common pleas of the province 
of New-Hampshire, of the 2d of September, 17(jO, and also the 
judgment of the superior court of judicature,- of the 2d Tuesday 
in November, affirming the same, to be both of them re- 
versed, and that the appellants be restored to what they may 
have lost by means of the said judgments, whereof the Governor 
or commander in chief of his Majesty's province of New-Hamp- 
shire, for the time being, and all otiiers whom it may concern, 
are to take notice and govern themselves accordingly. 

[No. VI.] 


Synopsis of the Bills of Mortality for the town of Concord^ from 
the year 179B to 1822. — By Th#mas Chadbourne, M. D. 












25, 2w. 17' 70, 4m, 4. 2. 1. 40, 53' 38, 7' 67' 7. 4m. 

49, 2. 0. 8. 2. 66' 0. 43, . 

3. &. 57' 81' 51' 1. 80' 8m. 8. 60' 30, 32, lOd. 21' 60, 
lOw. 20' 50* 83' 78' 88' 13. 18m. 46, 8m. 18m. 2. 2. 

4. 60' 0. 91' 7. 9. 4. 1. 0. 0. 
4d. Id. 31, 0. 82, 21' 18m. 18m. 80' 21' 4d. 20d. 49, 

22, 6m. 70' 45, 20' 49, 97, 2. 37, 28, 

70, 37, 56' 48, 24, 0. 73, 83, 1. 5. 2. 3. 53, 3. 3. 18m. 
4. 2. 5. 9. 19' 82, 

86, 80' 63, 60, 85' 2. 6. 0. 65, 66, 3. 23, 28, 4. 6. 0. 

67' 43' 65' 0. 18m. 30' 3. 33, 80' 0. 18m. 69' 19' 2. 

29' 0. 0. 0. 0. 53' 
70' 40' 3. 19' 0. 0. 72' 1. 0. 66' 53, 68' 2. 66' 25, 1. 

1. 89' 2. 1. 45' 88, 0. 0. 

71, 50, 36' 68' 0. 0. 22, 0. 90, 64' 0. 20, 1. 8. 45, 22' 
22' 1. 45' 10. 64' 0. 67, 57, 10. 0. 92, 

79' 2. 66' 0. 0. 0. 59' 22, 32' 24, 57, 92, 63, 

18, 76' 0. 18, 60' 20, 0. 66, 84' 70' 0. 35' 0. 10. 86' 

0. 0. 83, 5. 14, 28, 3. - . - 

0. 0. 80' 2. 16, 68, 63, 36, 20, 17, 0. 18m. 27' 6. 40, 

0. 50' 45' 95' " 

80' 2. 8. 0. 0. 0. 82, 29' 4. 70' 71, 22, 2. 27, 2. 1. 0. 

9' 65, 33, 45' 2. 14, 31, 92' 32' 0. 22, 17, 65, 63' 
41' 82, 1. 11. 4. 74' 86, 19, 0. 32' 74' 31' 27' 64' 74' 

6. 0. 37' 70' 3.31, 25,0. 46' 0. 3. 0. 0. 32* 0. 70, 3. 

25' 59, 50' 0. 47, 73, 82' 11, 33, 

From December 1811, to January 1819, inclusive, 
there were 250 deaths — there is no record of the ages 
to be founds 













Total, 578 



Diseasts and Camaltiu during the yeanr 1819, 1820, 1821 and 


Angina Maligna 

Infantile Fever 
Inflammation of 

the Brain 
Spina Bifida 

Old Age 

Petechia sine 

Ferer Pulmonia 
' « Typhus 

" Puerperal 
Infaoitile disea- 


Delirium tremens} 49* 27' 
Intemperance I 40' 60' 51' 

40, 27, 22' 37, 28, 61' 40' 32, 29' 51, 16, 
34, 25, 28' 15' months, 30, 28,46' 30. 
19' 30, 28, 30, 23, . . - 

84' 65, 


18m' 6w' 6m' 12w' 8w' 3y. 18m, 

59' 2' 6d' 

19, 27' . • - - - 


16' 51, 

521 74c It 46^ 50' 71, 3' 10* 

68, 78, 80' 91, 86' 69, 78' 81' 35, 96, 
78, 88' 70, 81' 85, 80' 77, 75' 96' 82' 
78' 86' 72, 86' 99' 76' 70^ 86' 77, 73' 
76' 80, 70, ... - 


20' 35' 

20 30* 69* - - - . 

26^ 18' 18' 36' 66' 30' 47*25,68' 40' 32' 
40 30 27' - - - - . 
1' 3w' 2d' 6w' 3d' 6w' 2d' ly* 4m' Im' 201* 

2' 3. 
1' 8' 7' 2' 6d' - - - - 

Abdominal In- 



65' 60, 1^, 17' 

S»Om' - - - - 

73' 43' - - - - 
51' 2' 32' 0, 0, 2' 17' 8' 0, 0' 28, 














Total 160 

It is ascertained that from Jan. 1792^ to Dec. 1797, there ^ere 
117 deaths, which makes the whole number of deaths during the 
last thirty years, 803. 

The above table is correct as to the number of deaths, bat ki 
very imperfect in other respects. In many instances in the re- 
cord of infants, there is no distinction of the sex, and in some 
cases, the age of iafants is not inserted. Such are distinguished by 
a cypher thus, 0. A comma after the age denotes the females, and 
the inverted comma the male sex. Those cases where no record 
of sex was made are distinguished by a point. 

AtfmDtx. 105 

From 'die abord abstract of the ttiseases and deaths, for the 
last thirty years, it is reasonable to infer that the inhabitants en- 
joy an unosnal exemptio^i from disease. Scarcely any infections 
disease has ever been known in this town ; and very few cases of 
consumption, in comparison with other low situated places, occur 
here. Each momisg in the summer season the land contiguous 
to the river is covered with a thick fog : this fog in frosty sea- 
sons prevents the destruction of vegetables ; and b supposed to 
cleanse the air of impuritits, which are swept to the ocean by 
the current of the Merrimack. 

About the commencement, and during the war of- the revolu- 
tion, the Small Pox often appeared in different sections of the 
country, owing, probably, to the frequent communications with 
Canada, where the disease then prevailed ; to the free intercourse 
that was necessarily held by the people with the soldiers and ar- 
my, and in some instances it was supposed to have been sent into 
the country as a means of annoyance by the enemy. 

In July, 1775, Dr. Carrigain visited a patient in a neighboring 
town, who proved to be sick with the Small Pox. He took it the 
natural way. The nature of his disease was not discovered, un* 
til John, the son of Mr. Nathaniel West, who lived on the oppo- 
site side of the street from Dr. C. also took the disease. The 
Doctor inoculated his own family, then consisting of hve mem- 
bers, who all recovered. Mr. West's family consisted of nine^ 
six of whom had the disease the natural way, the others escaped. 
Mr. West, aged 58, died. It was first known on Saturday that the 
Small Pox was in the town ; so great was the alarm, that the next 
morning (Sunday) the inhabitants assembled, en masse^ and com- 
menced the erection of a " Pest House" in a retired grove west 
of the late residence of Capt. Benjamin Emery, and such was the 
fseal and activity with which they applied themselves to the 
work, that by night a convenient house to consist of four rooms 
had been hewed, framed, and raised, and the boards for covering, 
and brick for the chimney were drawn on to the ground. Dr. 
Carrigain and his family remained at their own house opposite 
to where Charles Walker, Esq. now resides ; fences were run a- 
cross the street to cut off all communication, and a road was open- 
ed through the fields. Mr. West's family was conveyed to the 
Pest House. None of the inhabitants were inoculated. The 
house afterwards served occasionally for the reception of transient 
sokders of tibe army, who either had or were suspected to have 
the disease. 

The question naturally arises, why were not all who were ex- 
posed to tke infection immediately inoculated ? A law was then 
in force ^' for the prevention of the spread of the Small Pox,'' 
which forbid under a penalty any person inoculating without 
leave from court, and tke people in those days were brought up 
in the belief that laws were made to be obeyed. 

In 1793, the Small Pox again appeared in a family in the west- 
erly part of th« towA. The fandly consisted of thirteen mem- 


bers, all of whom had the disease without inoculation. Mr. 
Jonathan Stickney, the father, and an infant child, died. The 
manner in which the Infection was conveyed to this family nerer 
has with certainty been ascertained. 

In the winter of 1812-13, when the disease known by the dif- 
ferent appellations of Malignant Pleurisy^ Spotted Fever^ BUiotts 
Pneumonia^ &c. spread so generally through the N. £. States, 
this town was risited in common wifli others. The character of 
the disease was that of a Typhoid Pneumonia^ not alarming at 
first, but in its progress discovering a malignancy that too often 
rendered ' ineffectual all the boasted reme(ties of our profession. 
It was, however, confined principally to the soldiery, then Quar- 
tered in the town — but few of the citizens fell victims to it* 

■ In the winter of 1816-17, the disease appeared again in the 
westerly section of the town, preceded by a season, remarkable 
for its coldness, long droughts and frequent frosts, that almost de- 
stroyed the hopes of the husbandman. It now assumed a charac- 
ter different from its appearance in other places. Its accession 
in the worst cases was by an erysipelatous inflammation of the ex-^ 
tremities, that soon ran into gangrene, and generally destroyed 
the patient. 

The summer of 1816 was uncommonly cold throughout the 
United States, and throughout Europe, except some of the most 
northern parts of it. Vegetation was very materially affected 
by this state of the weather. The small grains generally were 
in abundance, and very good, but the crops of hay were deficient, 
and Indian com, by the frosts in August, was almost lost. But for 
the inclemency of the season, the inhabitants were compensated 
with a greater share of health than had ever been known since 
the settlement of the town. 

Those who are in the habit of noting the effects of the vaiia- 
tions of the weather on the human constitution will recollect that 
hot and dry summers are uniformly unhealthy — hot and wet sum 
mers less so. — This season, which was cold and dry was the most 
healthy throughout the United States of any in the recollection 
of the oldest physicians. 

The number of inhabitants in this town in 1767, was 752; 
1052 in 1775; 1747 m 1790; 2062 in 1800; 2393 in 1810; 
2838 in 1820. The average number of deaths for the last thirty 
years has been 27. Of the whole number of deaths about one 
12th part have lived to the age of 80 years and upwards — seve- 
ral to nearly 100. The names of 85 aged persons, are found a- 
mongthe records of deaths kept since 1798, whose ages amount 
to 6634 years. In the year 1815, there were living in this town 
60 persons, whose ages amounted to the sum of 4320 years. 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ » ■ — ■•■ 

* The Spotted Fever, in 1813. made its appearance March 10, an J continued iin' 
til the middle of May. 

Cases of tlhs inhabitants, ... 98 deaths 6 

Regular Soldiers, . . 49 '* 7 

YolttBteers, ... 100 " 11 

%tl - 84 


[NO. yiL] 

JVames of the Physicians^ Attorneys cmd Justices of the Peace who 

have resided in Concord. 


1. Dr. Ezra Carter, from South-Hampton, settled here in 
1740 ; died in 1767. — Seepage'^b, 

2. Dr. £mery, who suterwards settled and died at Frye- 

burgh, Me. 

3. Dr. Ebenezer H. Goss, son of the Rev. Thomas Goss, of 
Bolton, Mass. He married a daughter of Rev. Mr. Walker, and 
now resides in Paris, Maine. 

4. Dr. Philip Carrigain, bom in New-York, settled here i* 
1768, and died in 1806.— -^fc^ page 62. 

5. Dr. Peter Green, A. M., .M. M. S. Hon. Soc. was born at 
Lancaster, Mass. in 1 745 ; graduated at Harvard Coll. 1 766 ; re- 
moved to Concord in 17*72, and has practised successfully more 
than half a century. 

6. Dr. Samuel Adams, M. D. from Lincoln, M& practised here 
a short time. 

7. Dr. Zadok Howe, M. D. from Franklin, Ms. practised here 
several years; removed to BiUerica,in 1814. 

8. Dr. Thomas Chadbourke, M. D. commenced practice here 
in 1814 ; and is one of the present physicians. 

9. Dr. MosEs Long, from Hopkinton, practised in this town 
several years, and removed in 1823. 

10. Dr. Moses Chandler settled here in 1816, and is a prac- 
tising physician. 

1 1 . Dr. Henry Bond, M. D. practised a few years, and remov- 
ed to Philadelphia, in 1820. 

12. Dr. Samuel Morril, from Epsom, removed into this town 
in 1820 ; and is in practice. 

13. Dr. Peter Renton, from Scotland, settled in this place in 
1822, and is in practice. 

^William Pickerings H. 1797. 
Samuel A. Kimhall^ D. 1806. 
Samuel Fletcher ^ D. 1810. 
George Kent^ D. 1814. 
Richard Bartlett^ B. 1815. 
Amos A. Parker^ D. 1819. 

attorneys at law. 

*Peter Green, 

*Edvvard St. Loe Livermore, 

jSamuel Green, 

Charles Walker^ H. 1 793. 

llPhilip Carrigain, D. 1794. 

*Thomas W. Thompson, H. 1786. 

Moody Kent, H. 1801. 

'Deceased. fNow Associate Justice of the Superior Gourt. ||Reniov«d f 
Chichester. §State Treasurer. 


In Concord, since the adoption of the constitution in 1784, ipsith the 

date of their appointments, 

*Peter Green, * || Dec. 25, 1784. 
♦Timothy Walker,* jj Dec. 25, 1784. 

109 AfJPfiNDlX. 

* Aaron Kinsman, Jan. 4, llQl. 

♦William Duncan, May 16, 1791. 

*John Bradley * May 16, 1791. 

William A. Kent, * || June 18, 1796. 

♦Thomas W. Thompson, * Dec. 1, 1796. (1) 

Jacob Abbot* June 20, 1797. (2) 

Samuel Green, ♦ || Dec. 6, 1800. 

Stephen Ambrose, * Dec. 8, 1800. 

Jonathan Wilkins^ June 19, 1802. 

Albe Cady, * June 19, 1802. (3) 

PhiUp Carrigain, * June 12, 1 805. 

Isaac Emery ^ Dec. 12, 1808. 

♦Peter C. Farnum, Dec. 13. 1808. 

Timothy Carter^ Dec. 13, 1808. 

Samuel Morril, Dec. 12, 1808. (4) 

Charles Walker,* June 15, 1805». 

Ballard Haseltine^ May 31, 1809. 

Jonathan Eastman^ Sept. 20, 1810. 

William Pickering, Sept. 20. 1810. (5) 

Samuel Sparhawk, * May 30, 1811. 

*Paul Rolfe, June 15, 1812. 

John Odlin, June 18, 1813. 

Samuel A. Kimball, Sept 17, 1813.(6) 

Moody Kent, * Jan. 31, 1814. 

Isaac Hill, Not. 5, 1819. 

Amos A. Parker, 1819. 

Isaac Dow, June 22, 1821. 

Richard Bradley, June 28, 1823. 

Jonathan Eastman, Jr. do. 

Samuel Fletcher, June 29, 1821. 

Richard Bartlett do. 1821. 

Oeorge Kent, da. 1821. 

John Farmer, May 16, 1823. 

Robert Davis, Nov. 1823. 

(1) Then residing »n Salisbury,— (2) Now of Brunswick, Me. — (3) Then residing 
in PlainfieW.— (4) Then of Epsom.— (5) Tfeenof Greenland — (6)TbeB of Dover. 

Tho9t preceded by a * are dead ; those in Italicks are not in commission ; those 
folUnoed by a * were afterwards JusticM •/ the Peace and Quorum^ and those with 
a H were Justices throughout the StcUe. 

[NO. VIII.] 

Names of Town-Clerks ^Selectmen and Representatvves^ smee <Ae yeor 



1732 Benjamin Rolfe, Jan. to March. 

Timothy Clement, fiOm March. 

1733—1745 Benjamin Rolfe. 

1746—1749 Ezra Carter. 

i 749 to 1766 Interregnum— no town ofli- 

1766—1769 Benjamin Rolfe. 
1769— 177a Timothy Walker, jt. 
1778—1787 John Kimball. 
1787—1796 Caleb Ghase. 
1796— laia John Odlin. 

cers. 1 1819 to Francis Jf* Fi^ 




173S.->Jan. to Martha £benezer EastmaH, Jobs Merrill, Edward Abbot. 
1732.-~Jlfar(A. Ebenezer Eastman, John Chandlar, Jeremiah Stickney, Joseph 

Eastman. Edward Abbot. 
1733. — Ebeneze r Eastman, Benjamin Rolfe, Epbraim Famum. 
1734. — Benjamin Rolfe, Jeremiah Stickney, John Merrill. 
1735. — Beniamin Rolfe, Ebenezitr Eastman. Jeremiah Stickney. 
17g6.^Benjatuin Rolfe, James Osgood, Joseph Hall. 
1737.— Benjamin Rolfe, John Chandler, Richard Hazeltine. 
1738 — 1739. — Ebenezer Eastman, Benjamin Rolfe, Barachias Famum. 
1740 — 17-^1. — Benjamin Rolfe, John Chandler, Ebenezer Eastman. 
1742—1743. — ^Benjamin Rolfe, Ebenezer Eastman, Jeremiah Stickney. 
1744 — Benjamin Rolfe, Baracbias Farnum, John Chandler, 
1745. — ^Benjamin Rolfe, John Chandler, Jeremian Stickney. 
1746. — John Chandler, Ebenezer Eastman, Richard Hazeltine. 
1747 — 1748. — Ezra Carter John Chandler, Richard Hazeltine. 
1749 — John Chandler, Ezra Carter, Jeremiah Stickney, Ebenezer Virgin, Henry 

[From 1749 to 1766, there were no town officers appmnted.j 
1766— Benjamin Rolfe, Joseph Farnum, John Chandler, jr. ^ 

1767. — ^Richard Hazeltine, Philip Eastman, Amos Abbot. '' 

1768. — Benjamin Rolfe, Ebenezer Hall, Reuben Kimball. 
1769.— Reuben Kimball, Ebenezer Hall, Timothy Walker, jr. 
1770. — Timothy Walker, jr. Reuben Kimball, Benjamin Emery. 
1771.— Philip Eastman, Timothy Walker, jr. Benjamin Emery. 
1772.— Tiipothy Walker, jr. Joseph Hall, jr. Phinehas Virgin. 
1773.— John Kimball, Amos Abbot, Timothy Walker, jr. 
1774 — Timothy Walker, jr. Reuben Kimball, Thomas Stickney. 
1775. — ^Timothy Walker, jr. Reuben Kimball, Benjamin Emery. 
1776-1777.— Reuben Kimball, Amos Abbot, John KimbalL 
1778. — John Kimball, Joshua Abbot, Joseph Hail. 
1779.— .Timothy Walker, Ezekiel Dimond, John Kimball. 
1780. — John Chandler, James Walker, Thomas Wilson. 
1781. — ^Timothy Walker, John Kimball, James Walker. 
1782. — Timothy Walker, Beajaoiin Emery, Thomas Wilson. 
1783-1786. — ^Timothy Walker, Reuben Kimball, Thomas Stickney. 
1787. — Joseph Hall, Henry Martin, Thomas Wilson. 
1788. — Timothy Walker, Beniamin Emeiy, Chandler Loyejoy. 
1789-1790.— Reuben Kimball. Timothy Walker, Asa Herrick. 
1791-1793. — Timothy Walker, Reuben Kimball, Benjamin Emery. 
1794. — ^Timothy Walker, Reuben Kimball, John Bradley. 
1795-1796.— Timothy Walker. John Bradley, Henry Martin. 
1797-1798.— John Odlin, Richard Ayer, John Eastman. 
1799. — Timothy Walker, John Odlin, Henry Martin. 
1800. — John Odlia, Jonathan Wilkins, Henry Martin. 
1801. — Jonathan Wilkins, John West, Stephen Ambrose. . '^ 

1802. — ^Timothy Walker, John West, Stephen Ambrose. 
1803. — Jonathan Wilkins, John West, Stephen Ambrose. 
1804-1805.— Jonathan Wilkins, John West, Amos Abbot, jr. 
1806-1807. — ^Ebenezer Dustin, Enoch, Coffin, Edmund Ltayitt. 
1898. — Enoch Coffin, Samuel Butters, Thnothy Carter. 
1809. — ^John Odlin, Amos Abbot, jr. Nathaniel Abbot. 
1810. — Nathaniel Abbot, Edmund Leavitt, Sherburne Wiggin. 
1811.— Nathaniel Abbot, Edmund Leavitt, Abiel Walker. 
1812.— Ntthaniel Abbot, Amos Abbot, jr. Abiel Walker. 
1813.— Nathaniel Abbot, John Odlin, Amos Abbot. 
1814. — Nathaniel Abbot, Nathaniel Ambrose, Nathan Stickney. 
1815. — Nathaniel Ambrose, Joshua Abbot, Richard Bradley. 
1816-1817. — Joshua Abbot, Richard Bradley, Samuel Rannelf. 
1818. — John Odlin, Nathaniel Abbot, Nathaniel Ambroso. 
1819. — ^Abiel Walker, Joseph IValker, Jeremiah Pecker. 
1820. — ^Richard Bradley, Isaac Famum, Jeremiah Pecker. 
1821. — Richard Bradley, Isaae Famum, Jeremiah Pecker. 
1822. — Albe Cady, Isaac Famam, Isaac Dow. 
1828L — Jenroiah Pecker, Isaac Faraum, Isaac Dow. 




1775. May U. — ^Timothy Walker, jr. elected delegate to the proTincial con- 
greis. [ He was one of the committee who ia 1776, drew up a declaratioiL 
of Independence bv tliii State.] 

1777. Gordon Hutchins. [Col. H. being absent thik year in the army. Col. Thom- 
as Stickney was appointed. ] 

1778. Timothy Walker, jun. 1 

177!). Nathaniel Kolfe. —Jonathan Hale and Timothy Walker, jr. delegates to 
convention in Sept. — Thomas Stickney delegate in December. 

1780. Jonathan Halo. 

1781. April. Timothy Walker, delegate to convention for forming constitution. 
1782—1784. Timothy Walker. 

1785. Pfcter Green. 

1786, 7. John Bradley. 

1788. Peter Green. — Benjamin Emery, delegate to god? ention fur adoption of con- 


1789. Peter Green. 

1790. John Bradley. 

1791. Timothy Walker. 

1792. John Bradley. 

1793. William Duncan. 

1794. 5. Dauiel Livcrmore. 

1796. John Bradley. 

1797. William A. "Kent. 
1798—1800. Jacob Abbot. 

1801. William A- Kent 

1802. John Bradley. 
1803—1805. William A. Kent 
1806—1808. Samuel Green. 
1869, 10. Stephen Ambrose. 

1811 — 1813. Stephen Ambrose and Tliomas W. Thompson. 

1814. TLiomas W. Thompson and Kichard Ayer. 

1815. Richard Ayer and George Hough. 

1816. George Hough and John Odlin. / 

1817. John Odlin and William A. Kent 

1818. William A. Kent and Thomas W. Thompson. 

1819. Abie) Walker and Nathan Ballard, jr. 
1830, I. Stephen Anbrosc and Nathaniel Abbot. 

1822. Steolien Ambrose and Samuel MorriL 

1823. Stephen Ambrose and Samuel Fletcher. 

[NO. IX.] 


Garrisons in 1746. 

1. On the E. side the river, at Capt. Eastman^s. 

2. At Rev. Mr. Walker's, near Horse-shoe pond. 

3. At Capt. Lovejoy's, where L. Hutchins now lives. 

4. At Mr. Edward Ahbot's, where the Souther house stands^ 
pn this ancient building, now owned by Porter Blanchard, the 
first male and female children were born, viz. Edward and Dor^ 

cas Abbot.] 

6. At Capt Stickney's. 

6. At James Osgood's — near the site of Bullard & Waterman^s 


7. At Capt. Timothy Walker's. 

8. At Dcac. Joseph HalPs — the WiUdns plac«. 

9. At Jonathan Eastman's, on the miil-road. 


10. There was subsequently a garrison at ibeac. Abbotts, near 
the late residence of Mr. Thompson. 

It is said, these were the only garrisons, or fortified housesiy. 
erected in this town during the Indian wars. 

Newspapers published in Concord. 

The first newspaper published in this town was the Courier of 
New-Hampshire^ commenced by George Hough, Jan. 6, 1790 ; and 
discontinued Oct. 30, 1805. 

2. The Mirror^ by Moses Davis, was commenced Sept 6, 1792; 
and discontinued in 1 799. 

3. The New Star^ by Russell and Davis, was commenced la 
April, 1797. It was published in an octavo form weekly about 
six months. 

4. The Republican Gazette^ by Elijah Russell, was commenced 
Feb. 5, 1801; and discontinued in 1802. [Mr. Russell died at 
Washington, Vt. May 25, 1803.] 

6. The Concord Gazette^ by William Hoit jr. and Jesse C. Tut- 
tle,was commenced July 6, 1 806 ; and its publication continued un- 
til 1819 — during which time several changes took plac^ in its pro- 

6. The American Patriot was commenced Oct. 18, 1808, by 
William Hoit, Jr. and published until April, 1809 ; when Isaac Hili 
purchased the establishment, and altered the name of the paper 
to the New-Hampshire Patriot. It was published from 1811 to 
181 4, by Isaac and Walter R. Hill; and from 1819 to 1823, by 
Isaac Hill k Jacob B. Moore. It is now published by Isaac Hil]^ 
under the name of New-Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 

7. The Concord Observer^ by George Hough, was commenced 
Jan. 1,1819, and continued to April 1, 1822 ; when John W. Shep-' 
ard purchased the establishment, and the paper is now published 
by him under the name of New-Hampshire Repository, 

8. The New-Hampshire Statesfnan was commenced by Luthet 
Roby, Jan. 6, 1 823 ; and is still published by him for Amos A. 
Parker, the editor and proprietor. 

Concord Musical Society, 

In 1801, Deae. Joseph Hall, **froin a desire to encourage and promote the prae. 
tice of sacred musick in Concord," made a donation to this Society, which had 
been previoasly incttrporated,* of j580 in the U. S. six per cent, stock. The orig- 
inal sum was to be kept entire, and the interest accruing to be applied to the benefit 
of said society, in such manner as a majority shall direct. 

*IneorporalUdJune 15, 1799* 


11 • 

^dtt$ on' the Weather^ ^e, 

[No regular journal of the weather has ever been kept bj any 
person in Concord, and it is impossible therefore to give an ac- 
curate account of the extremes of heat and cold. The follow- 
ing notices are copied from a blank leaf in an old account book 
belonging to Mr. Benjamin Kjmball, who lives near the river 
on the eastern shore.] 

1762. The winter of this year was very severe. Snows ware frequent, aad so 
deep as to prevent passing in any direction for two months — being nearly 6 ftet on 
the level. 

1772. In January, occurred a great flood. Thick masses of ice passed down the 
rif er and were left upon the intervals. 

1789. UncommoiUy pleasant winter — grain sowed in December'->and boatini^ 
centinued until 29th Jan. 1790. 

1795. Boatii^ across the river 17th January. 

1796. The last boating 30th November. 

1797. Nov. 25, passing on the ice. 

1798. First boating April 2. 

1799. First boating April 6. Spring very backward— May scarcely exhibiting 
the usual mildness of April. 

1800. First boating April 3 ; last boating Dec. 10, and immediate passing on the 

1801. First boating March 12. 

18(KZ. April 4, good passing on the ice with horses. 

1804. First boating April 7. 

1805. Ditto March 7. 

1810. Considerable frost July 18. 

1812. April 13, snow fell to the depth of 6 inches. May 4th and 5th, cold snovr 
ftorm. June 5, appletrees in full bloom. 

1815. Snow fell first week in December, and it continued good sleighing until 
March following, without rain. Sept. 23d of this year will long be remembered for 
the violence of a gale, which extended over the whole of New>£ngland, and wai 
very destructive. 

1816. Cold season — the hopes of the farmer cut off. 

1817. First passing on the ice with horses, Dec. 23. 

1818. March 1, commenced a heavy fall of rain, and on the 3d, the water rose 
above the banks of the river. 

1819. Mild winter— -journeying with wagons, &c. the whole season. 

April 5, great fresh, and Federal Bridge swept away by the ice. 

. May 19, extraordinary high fresh, the intervals entirely flooded, and 

looking like an inland sea. 

1820. May 26, apple-trees in bloom — a cold storm of hail and rain-t4iail two 
inches deep. 

Oct. 17, the highest fresh for 36 years. 

1824. Feb. 10 and 11, great thaw and rain. On the I2th the river suddenlj 
icfse about 15 feet, the ice being very thick, and swept away the Federal and Con- 
cord Bridges, in part. The ice in immense masses covering the in.tervals along the 
river, presented a curious spectacle. 


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