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Full text of "Annals of Ulster: From 1790 to 1798"

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ANNALS OF ULSTER 



[From 1790 to 1798.] 



BY 

SAMUEL McSKIMIN, 

Author of ** The History and Antiquities of the Cownty of the Town 

of CarrickferguSf** etc. 



NEW EDITION. 
With Biographioal Sketch and Notes, 

By E. J. MoCEUM. 



:iBeltadt : 

JAMES GLEELAND, 26 ARTHUR STREET; 

WILLIAM MULLAN & SON, DONEGALL PLAGE. 

* 

1906. 



IPaoK the abrupt manner in which this history t«rminaten, it in evident 
that Mr. MoSklmin h&d not completed bis narrative at the time of Bis 
death. Six years afterwards, in 1819, it was printed tjj Jehu Henderson, 
Belfast, under the title of " Annals of UlBter, or Ireland Fifty Years Ago," 
and, in 1853, a 8e:»nd edition v,ag issued by John MuUan ; but iu tMs 
edition there is nothing different from the lirat, etuept the title page, whloh 
now appeared as "A History of the Irish BebeUian." The rest of the book, 
page for page, word for word, letter tor letter, is an oiact oopy cf the first 
edition. It is, therefore, plain that the vrork was not reprinted, but wsd 
merely the pheete left over in 1849 bound up with a new title page. 

In inauiog a new edition of the n^ork I have reproduced it verbatim. The 
only change made is the onrreution of obvious mispriote, and the introduction 
o( an occaaioQal explanatory word in tquare hraeteli. The notes and indei 
which I have added in an appendii will, I hope, be found useful. Mr. 
UoSkimiu was twenty-three years of age when the rebellion broke out, and 
he had personal knowledge of much that he describee. We must, therefore, 
irigiual authority. This gives his narrativea value beyond 
s posses.wd by any modern history of these events; and, as a, matter 
it ooutaina much information not to be found elsewhere. But we 
must remember that the work had never received the author's emendations 
and wanted his care in correcting typographical errors. I desire to express 
my indebtedness to the Eev. W. T, Latimer, B.A., Vice- Pre? i dent ot the 
Boyal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, For invaluable assistance and wise 
counsel; to Mr. F.J. Bigger, M R.I.A.; Mr. A. Albert Campbell, Solicitor, 
Belfast; Mr. James Boyd, Town Clerk of Carriokf ergus ; Mr. "W, F. 
McKinney, Carumoneyi Mr. E. M. Young, B.A., J P., Eathvarna; Mr, 
P. 3. P. Burgoyne, Librarian, L.-H. Library ; and Mr. John Weatherup, 
Bayviem, Carrickf ergus. 



of fact. 



E. J. McORUM. 



Cabnmokky, June, . 




I 




OR BevcrtU years pravioua to the arrival of B>rl Fitswilliun 
SB chief govemor of this Kingdom, in 1795, the northern 
oountjea of Ulatei bud been deeply agitated by a eories of 
ilitical eventa. However, on hia lordship entering upon 
government, tlie murmuringa of the disaflected aeemed 
allayed; rumour, nitb ber hundred tonguea, proclaiming 
a redresa of the gieivances oomplained of. A reform in 
■the OommonB Houae of Parliament was pronounced as certain ; Roman 
Catholic emancipation, whieb had beoome a popular measure, was 
deemed equally sure, and even the vexatious exaction of titbea, was said 
tc be on the eve of modification. The press teemed with eulogiumf on 
this favQurita viceroy; bis portrait graced the monthly publications of 
the capital ; while many conceived that they beheld, in th£ distance, 
a better order of things. 

On the 24tlj of January, a meeting of tlie Protestant iubabitauts of 
Belfast was held ia tbe meeting-house of the third Dissenting Congraga- 
(iou, Charles Hankin, Esq. in the chair, when a petition to Parliament 
was agreed to in favour of the total emancipation of the Roman Catholics 
of this Kingdom. On a committee being appointed to prepare a petition, 
tbe; retired for a short time, returned, and said they were unable to form 
a more fit petition tlian that adopted bj the town in January, 1792, which 
was then produced, read, and approved of by a large majority, as that of 
the meeting. On the 2nd of February, this petition, with upwards of 
1,000 signatures, was presented to the House of Commons by tbe Right 
Hon. Henry Grattan ; and also the petition of the Roman Catholics of 
the County of Antrim, praying for further relief. 

While plans were also in forwardness for carrying other popular 
measures into effect, Earl Fitzwilliam was unexpectedly recalled from 
hia government. Never, perhaps, did any act of a British cabinet, 
towards Ireland, produce so deep a sensation. 

Tbe latent embers of disafiection were immediately fanned into a 
flame by the United Irishmen, many of whom, while they bitterly 
oomplained of hia recall, secretly contemplated it as a providentiij 
aoziliary to their schemes. 

For some time after, pains were taken to inBomc the public mind by 

' "" -^ - ' ' ■■ Qs entered into at county and other 

is Ei:cellency regarding hia removal. 



In Belfast, i 



ing of the iuhabitantB took piiLn 



1 the 



Ibh of Maroh. who voted au addresa to hie lordship, Bud deputed three of 
their body to preseni the samo to him in Dublin. It was also agreed that 
the daj of hie departuie Erom the Kingdom should bo observed as one 
of "National Mouiniiig," and, on the 25th of March, not a iihop or 
ooODting-Uouse was open in that town— all aeemed one noeno o£ sullen 
indignation, (a) 

On the Eame day a meeting of the freeholders of the County of Antrim 
tooit place at Ca^riukfQrga^, Hugh Boyd, Esq., one of the members of 
patiiament tor the said county, in the chair, Mr, Luke Teeling, seoretary. 

The resotutiona entered into by them were eipreesive at their regret 
at the recall of Ear! FttzwiUlara, mid their fears "that the Tecal, 
profnae and tyrannical measures of a former admiuistratioii " were to be 
persevered in. 

They likewise declared, that his lorflahip had, by hia purposed 
measures, proved himself the true friend of Ireland, "by associating. 
io his oounoilH, men o£ virtue and talent;" and they Bxpressed their 
determination to employ every constitutiooal means in their power to 
obtaiu the two great obiocts, " so essentially necessary to the peace, 
safety, and happiness of Ireland — oompleto Catholic emancipation, and a 
radical reform in the representation of the people." An addreea was also 
voted to his Excelleuoy, which the chairman was instructed, to forwaid 

Two days afterwards a numorauB meeting of the Roman Catholics of 
the same county was held in the town of Antrim, Mr. Luke Teeling, 
chairman; Mr. Charles H. Teeling, secretary. They also exptessad their 
sorrow of the recall of Earl Fitawilliam, to whom they resolved to present 
an address, in which, they said— "As frienda to mankind we regret your 
departure from power, as Iriahmen we deplore the misfortune to our 
country, and dread a revival of that system of monopoly and disunion 
BO fatally eiperienced." In their resolutions they complimented tho 
volunteers, whom they called "The immortal volunteers of UIster,''(fc) 
and declared that they would uiiiU with tbeic Protestant brethren in 
every logat and coustitutional means for prom.oliug tho good of the 



I 



B,rl FitEwUllam arrii 
ee on tho astb o! Mb 
n Dublin ou the 3Iet 



>D the Stti of Jan 



I of Earl Fitzwllllau 



a bia forehead, aad his 



le Council Cb amber. 



s proceed 



% body ti 






rrinlty 



Coll^, aftei 

oompllnientfti , ^ ..._ 

wbolarB suddenly wheeled about and retired Co Hyde's CoSee-hoUBe. where 
Ilr, Thomas Moore, Biooe distlDguiBhed as a poet, being oallDd to the chair, and 
W. H. Ellis appointed saocetary, an addteae wa> voted to the Rigiit Hon. Henry 
Grattaa, eipreeslve of their apprabaCiau ol hie prlnoiplea and Bonduot during 
Uia late administration.— flortum Star. 

Ibl These liigh comphmenta to the volUDteers of Ulater eould only relate to 
thoBo who, two years before, had been prohibited from appearing' .— -... 



. at theu 



probably have bean spared, only (1 
view. The volunteers o( 17T8-B. and 



IS disaffeo 



retore vould 
piu^iaular 



I 
I 



On the S9th □{ the Bame moiitb, a meeting of the RomEm Catholios of 
Belfast waa beld in thoir Chape!, who, after eEpresaiug their regret for Che 
departure of Earl Fitiwilliam, in their resolutions they said^" We will 
oordiSilly unite with our ProteBtant brethren, on all and every occasion, 
to resist sucli insults to our national independence, whether the attack 
oome from a British Cabinet or Irish inceadaries, — and that we will 
henceforward co-operate with them, in all due means, In obtaining (bat 
great national objeat — a representation of the people in the lagialatura. 
without which, it is onr belief, we can never be prosporous as a nation, 
or happy as a people," A few days previous, a meeting of the Roman 
Gatbolios of the County of Down waa held in Downpalriclt, John O'Neill, 
Esq., BanvUle, iu the chair, who entered into resolutions similar to those 
of Wieir brethren of Antrim. 

Up to this period the great body of the Roman Catholics throughout 
the northern counties of Ulster had kept aloof from secret aBBocifttion8.(c) 
They appeared even loyal, firmly attached to the throne, and grateful to 
tba legiislature for the repeal of some of the most hateful of the penal 
statutes ; and until this time the United Irishmen were rather fcrmldahle 
from the talents and activity of those leagued, than from their numbers. 
By the recal of Karl Fitzwilliam a powerful stimulus had been given to 
the Bsertiona of the disaffected, yet Roman Catholic emancipation and 
Parliamentary Reform were continued as the VFatcb-words, while the 
anoient bias between Protestant and Roman Oatbolio. on the score of 
religion, stemed lost in the vortex of affected liberality. 

Notwithstanding the friendly dispositiona evinced in the numerous 
addresses to Ear! Pitiwiiliatn, it is more than probable that had he been 

oontinued for a few weeka longer in his governmeDt, he would hflve 
retired as unpopular as many of his predeceasora. The leaders of the 
[s, nor were tbey admi 



I 



cslebrailng 
(he [oIlowiDg day the like rejoicing took placi 



of volantoere. the flrst embodied in 
m three Tollla?. and on tbo 4tb o( 
■ "— •■ lU'a birthday; and oa 



DabliD, entitled, ' 

raform." Williaoi Bhar 



of the eunpowdi-r plot On this night the play of "Tamorlaizie" waa u^ualJy acted 
at the tbeatce In that toon.volunteerB attending In tail dresa. On these occasions 
the tnnea of tbe "Boyne Water" and "Fmaslan Dmui" were their favourilB quli^k- 

5a lately as Nncember, 17?1, the Dublin volonCeora paraded round tlie etutue of 
■William II!. io College Grren. but In Novembsr, IJM. they "aboliBhed orange 
BoiikadBH." Hnd adopted green. In Ootober, 1181, a civil Conyention was beld In 
Bd, "The Aasenibly of Delegataa lor proinotina a parliamentary 
lan, Esq., ahalrmaQ. John T. ABhonharBt, eeiralary. wbere 
to emb&rrBEs the canee of reform bv the introdaction of 
nan CathoUca to bare TOtea far membere to 
I it were, their elahna overboard.— £el/ait 
le ; Belfatt Mtrcurv. 
ie) We belioTa the only oitceptioos were in the Baronies of Upper and Lower 
lvee«b, CountT of Down, but partioolariy in tbe neigbbnorboDd of Batlifriland, 
wher« a eavaee warfare was kept up between the defenders and peep-o'-day boys, 
alias break-o -day boys, each party accunlng tbe other of being the aggressor, 
ibe Bflv. Bamael Barber, and some other gentlecoon, IntereatiEg 

Sit an end to thoae seenea ol rapine and marder, a peace was 
e parties, wbo agreed "to forgive and forget all past injurieaand 
be good frionda." but they soon after flew to arms,— TferlAeni Slur, 



2 ANNALS OF ULSTER. 

In Belfast, a numerous meeting of the inhabitants took place on the 
4th of March, who voted an address to his lordship, and deputed three of 
their body to present the same to him in Dublin. It was also agreed that 
the day of his departure from the Kingdom should be observed as one 
of "National MourniDg," and, on the 25th of March, not a shop or 
counting-house was open in that town — all seemed one scene of siillen 
indignation, (a) 

On the same day a meeting of the freeholders of the County of Antrim 
took place at Garrickfergus, Hugh Boyd, Esq., one of the members of 
parliament for the said county, in the chair, Mr. Luke Teeling, secretary. 

The resolutions entered into by them were expressive of their regret 
at the recall of Earl Fitzwilliam, and their fears "that the venal, 
profuse and tyrannical measures of a former administration " were to be 
persevered in. 

They likewise declared, that his lordship had, by his purposed 
measures, proved himself the true friend of Ireland, "by associating, 
in his coimcils, men of virtue and talent;" and they expressed their 
determination to employ every constitutional means in their power to 
obtain the two great objects, "so essentially necessary to the peace, 
safety, and happiness of Ireland — complete Catholic emancipation, and & 
radical reform in the representation of the people." An address was also 
voted to his Excellency, which the chairman was instructed to forwaid 
to him. 

Two days afterwards a numerous meeting of the Boman Catholics of 
the same county was held in the town of Antrim. Mr. Luke Teeling, 
chairman ; Mr. Charles H. Teeling, secretary. They also expressed their 
sorrow of the recall of Earl Fitzwilliam, to whom they resolved to present 
an address, in which they said — " As friends to mankind we regret your 
departure from power, as Irishmen we deplore the misfortune to our 
country, and dread a revival of that system of monopoly and disunion 
so fatally experienced." In their resolutions they complimented the 
volunteers, whom they called "The immortal volunteers of Ulster," (6) 
and declared that they would unite with their Protestant brethren in 
every legal and constitutional means for promoting the good of the 
nation. 

(a) Earl Fitzwilliam arrived in Dublin on the Sth of January, 1795, and retired 
from office on the 25th of March in the same year. Earl Camden his successor 
arrived in Dublin on the Slst of the same month, and was immediately sworn into 
office at the Castle. The carriages of the Lord Chancellor, the Primate, and 
several others known to have been hostile to the measures of Earl Fitzwilliam » 
were pelted with stones by the miob on their return from the Council Chamber. 
The Chancellor received a blow of a stone on his forehead, and his house was 
attacked, as were the houses of Alderman Warren and J. C. Beresford; but some 
of the mob being made prisoners, and one of them being killed by a shot from the 
house of the latter, they dispersed. The provost, fellows, and scholars of Trinity 
College, afterwards proceeded in a body to the Castle, in order to present a 
complimentary address to his Excellency. On their arrival at the gate the 
scholars suddenly wheeled about and retired to Hyde's Coffee-house, where 
Mr. Thomas Moore, since distinguished as a poet, being called to the chair, and 
W. H. Ellis appointed secretary, an address was voted to the Bight Hon. Henry 
Grattan, expressive of their approbation of his principles and conduct during 
tiie late administration.— 2<rort/t«m Star, 

(b) These high compliments to the volunteers of Ulster could only relate to 
those who, two years before, had been prohibited from appearing in arms by tbe 
government, in consequence of their notorious disaffection, and therefore would 
probably have been spared, only that the parties had now sinister purposes in 
view. The volunteers of 1778-9, and for some years after, evinced no particular 



I 



With the general sdmiration of tho tnovementa ia FFance were 
intiodaced an influx of wild and levelling opinions, and bence republican 
principlea and a desiie of cbanga becamu cquall;^ prevalent; and. in order 
to giTB a warlike impulse to thoBo feelings, on the 14th of Jul;, 1T91, the 
Freuob Bevolntion naa celebrated in Belfast with aoDsidernble ecUt. 
At two o'clock the two volunteer oompanieB of tbat town assembled at 
the EiohangB, and. on completing their arrangements, they moved in 
proceBBion through the principal Btreeta. Their rear vias brougbt up by 
the Northern Whig Club, and a great number of the inhabitants wearing 
green cockadei. In their ranks flags were borne, on which were painled 
portraits of M. Mirabeau. Dr. Ben. Franklin, £c., and on a large standard 
was a representation of the releaaement of the prisoners from the Bastile. 
Three /eW'de-joies were fired by the infantry, which were acawerod by 
their artilleTy, and a deolaration of the sentiments of the meeting on 
the French Revolution was ordered to be transmitted to the "French 
National Assembly," through their prBsident, Colonel Williani Sharman. 
A long and fraternizing BDBwer was soon after received from the president 
of that body, and also from the oitizens of Bourdeaux and Nantz, It was 
intended, on this ocsa&ion, to have introduced a "collatoral reBolutlon of 
admitting the Botnan Catholics to the right of citizeuEbip, which was, 
however, withdrawn, from an apprehension that the minds of those 
present wore not yet prepared for the measure." (k) 

On the Utb of October, the first society of United Irisbmen waa formed 
is Belfast, William Simms, secretary, to which society was attached a 
select, or aecret committee, consisting of the following gentlemen — 
William Sinclair, Bamuel M'Tier, William M'Cloery, Thomaa M-Caba, 
William SihmiB, Bobcrt Siutue, Samuel Neilsou. Hettiy Hazlett, William 
Tenneut, John Campbell, Gilbert M-Ilveon, Theobald W. Tone, and 
Thomas BuGsell. The first declaration of the society was written out by 
Theobald W. Tone, an avowed republican, in which it was said— "We 
have no national govern men t."(i) A few weeks after, 19th of December, 
a similar aooiotj' was establiahed at Tempi epatrick, and on the following 
day, another at Doogh, and about the same time at Randalstown, 
Killeade, and Muckamore. The first society of United Irishmen, in the 
Count; of Down, was installed at Saiutfield, January 16th, 179Q, under 
the auspices of the Rev. ThomaB L. Birch, Lihertj-hill, Presbyterian 
Minister of Saintfied. (f) 



Latter suget 

ofA.HTSo 

(h> McNevin' 
(i) This men 

Btb ot Novembi 



he," to renew tbeir mlDds. to nbange tbeii ldes«, their lawa, (heir 
ohaDge men, thinm, words; in fine, to daatroy evBrythiug, that wo 
terythinfi anew." The revolutJooary tribunal of ParlB, scling on Uie 
;ealian had him guillotined on the Tth of December, ITBa.— ^ lilabiogTaphy 



itlng w 



GHtabllsh 



Cbose of Belfast. They also resolved thai the society 
a barp at the top, and tbonords, "I am new Strang," a 
and on the eiergne, " Society of United Iclabmea ol I 
Tom, American EiHMon, Tol. J., p. Its. 
UJ Aboat Ibis time Ur. Blrc 



a tbe Cra«n-en^. On the 



ilslied with a seal, w 



only about ilO per ai 



.."-Li^o/I-ds 
portion or tbe Begium Don 



Ti Biat, No. i and 10 



In the meantiniQ, January 4tli, 1793, the Northern Star nawspapBr 
bogan to be published in Belfast tor the purposs of propogating the 
principlaa of the United Iriahmeii, " aod finally, as the cecejiiary, though 
not avowed, conaequeuce of all thia, to erect Irelsrnd iato a republic 
ludepondeat of England."(%) 

For the first year of its eatabilshment, it was particularly dlreoted 
to prepare the minds of the people loc the rojcctioa of regSiI govecninant. 
Einga were pronounced tyrants, and ■' hereditary aucoession a burteaque 
upon monarcby," and they were told that any rasaal might be a lord ; 
aud were dBcla.red to have rights, while the rights of man were denied. {I) 
Those persons attached to the government were stigmatized as despots OT 
aristocrats, and described as a pack of mean wretches, who wished the 
nation to be oppressed for the advantage of a few. 

A democrat was represented as a good fellow — one nho merely desired 
"fair play, and equal proteotion to Bll;"(tn) yet white they talked of 
liberty and independenoo, it waa evident that the only liberty dealt out 
to others was that of adopting their plana. 

The Revolution of 1688 was said not to deserve that name, aod pains 
■were taken to turn the same into contempt, and to exoito a general 
expectation of a aeperatlon from Groat Britain. 

The stability of the government waa represented as founded on the 
ignoranse of the people, and it waa added, in italics — "71 i.' too bad." 
The constitution was likened to an old tree that had sheltered beneath its 
branches boasts of prey, and ougbt to be cut down as cumbering the 
ground. The lower olasses were taught to expect some great and inevit. 
able change, by which revolution was always plainly understood; and 
directions were given for the making of gunpowder, and for the use, 
in war, of misailes and hand weapons, and for the evolutions of battalions 
and squadrons, (n) 

The advantage of the pike, as a military weapon, was carefully 
explained, as " a safeguard against horsemen," and as " the most honour- 
able of all weapons;" and pattern pikes, said to exactly resemble those 
used in the French armies, wore handed about on volunteer parades for 
approval {o) 

PoUowiug the great model, France, every art waa U'ied to seduce the 
military from their allegiance. The common aoldiers wore told that 
" the late pitiful advance that had been made to the army, in respect 
of pay and necesaaries," bore no proportion to the advanced state of 
provisione. To their ofScere it was said — "every man knows that it Is 

(k) Life of Theobaia W. Tone, Vol, I. , page 68. 

(i) Northern 8iar, March 10th, 1792. 

Im) northern Star, Maisb 19th, 17B'2. 

(n) Nortkem BUtr, April 1st, 1192, ana December 12th, 1199. 



e, 1T9B, be saw several pikes ol Cbe saini 



KL" 



10 Frenoh. 
QBr slda a 

ipe whJcJi ^^ 



AMNALB OP UI.BTEB. 7 

utterly impoBsibJe for gentloiseii lo lire and to keep any kind of rank on 
three shillines, or three and sizpenoe par day : " and, it v/aa added, " they 
ordorlheaa things better in Franca," (p) 

In Belfast, printed hacdbilU were distributed among the soldiers, 
reflecting on the arbitaiy nature of military service, and the same was 
also published in the Northern Star al December 8tb, 1T92. In tbii paper 
we also find the following invitation to mutiny:^" The brave and honour- 
able soldiers of France refused to fire upon their fellow -citjiena, when 
ordered by the slaves of arbitary power ; through their noble forbearanoe 
the nation became free, and their own lot rendered eomfortable and 
respectable for ever. The Prussian soldiers it is said, have lately evinced 
a similar disposition." Fabricated accounts of mutinies in the army 
were also, at all times, published in the same paper. In one of these, 
it was stated, that the regiment of "Scotch Grejs" had joined the people, 
and bad taken possession of the CastJe of Edinburgh without opposition ; 
that the universal cry was "A Bepublio — No King; " and that the soldiers 
refused "to fight against liberty, sajing, they wanted It themselves, and 
thought they would be very ungrateful to injure those who supported them." 

At a meeting of the second society of United Irishmen, a few evenings 
after the pretended receipt of this news, one of their toasts was — "The 
Scotch Greys, and may all the military follow their eiample." At another 
time the Clare Militia and 9th Dragoons, then quartered in Dublin, were 
said to have refused to obey their olhcers, (q) which was equally untrue. 

On the 28th of January, 1792, a numerous meeting of the inhabitants 
of Bolfaat waa held for the purpose of conflideciog the propriety of a 
petition to Parliament in favour of the Roman Catholio claims. The 
Eev. Sinclair Kalbucne being called to the chair, aa intataating debate 
took place, as to whether the petition should be for foil and Immediate, 
or progressive emancipation. The former proposal was at length carried 
hf a large majority, and a petition to that afioct signed by nearly 800 
persona. Prom this decision, however, 265 gentlemen dissented, among 
whom were many ol the most talented and Influential persons in Belfast. 
At this meeting M. Le Btanc. a Frenchman, a tambour-worker, who wag 
reported to be an emmissary from Prance, made a short speech, in which 
he said, " It appeared to him no little ridiculous to see the inhabitants of 
a town deliberating about granting rights to others, who had no rights 
themselves." 

Ou February 8th, this petition was presented to the House of Com- 
mons by the Right Hon. John O'Neill, one of the members In Parliament 
for the County of Antrim, when Sir Boyle Ruche proceeded to load the 
petitioners wiih the most outrageous language. He said " tbeir petition 
was an airy fabric, raised upon a sandy foundation, and had, for Its basis, 
fraud and deoeit, as it meant the very reverse of what it professed. " They 
had," he said. " moved heaven and earth, in order to foment disturbanoe 
in the country ; and, at the same time they were forming their petition 
on behalf of iheir CathoUc brethren, they were holding a correspondence 
with the French National Assembly, Now, the question is," he added, 
" whether we will receive the insidious petition of a turbulent, disorderly. 

set at people whom 

" No king could govern— no Qod oould please," 



ot wbether we shall tToat it with its morited ooDtempt. For my part, T 
call upon you to diaposo of it on it desarvaB, by tosaing it over tie bar, 
and kicking it into the lobby," The petition, however, maa received with 
the single exception of the uncourtly knight, but its prayer was after- 
wards rejected hy the House, when Sir Boyle aaid, " Ttie sentiments of 
Roman Catholics were not to be cuiled from ahop-kecpera and sbop- 
lifCers. "(r) On the IBth of Febraary. Mr. O'Neill also presented to the 
House a petition, stgnod by 350 Protestant inlmbitants of the four lower 
baTonies of the County Antrim, gentlemen, clergy, and Eceeholdera, in 
which they briefly stated, that they would find themselvea happy that 
Roman Catholics would receive every immunity consistent with the spirit 
of the Constitution, and the interest of the Protestant religion. 

Meanwhile the United Irishmen were particularly buEied in estab- 
lishing their system. Active emis^iries from Belfast were despatched 
about the country for the purpose of forming new societieE. who appear 
to have been everywhere successful ; and on the 18th of April, it waa 
announced in the Northern Star, that at a meeting of the Six-mile-watet 
society of United IrishmeD, " clergymon of diRerent persuasions became 
members." As these societies gained strength, men of forward dis- 
positions were everywhere seen to take an imperious lead, and to give 
early proofs that, if their schemes succeeded, every thing deemed valuable 
in society would give way to numbers and ignorance. Many of those thus 
engaged were men o[ desperate fortunes, while others ware decoyed into 
the society by the speoioua pretest of the golden age that was to succeed 
a teform of the House of Commons, which was anxiouaty desired, being 
considered a certain remedy for every real or imaginary grievance. For, 
as it has been truly cbserved, the teat was so plausible, ■' and its expressed 
objects so constitutional and legitimate, that we cannot wonder that it 
should be taken with avidity by numbers of all classes, especially, when 
recommended by men of talent," or who had some inHuenoe in the 
country. 

From the period of the celebration of the French Revolution in 
Belfast, groat exertions were made by the leaders of the United Irishmen 
for the revival of the armed volunteer associations, for the purpose of 
giving a warlike impulse to revolutionary measures, and overawing the 
Parliament and the executive Oovernment, and dictating to both. One 
of the first steps of these new levies was to ingratiate themselves with 
the Ronian Catholics who had formerly been excluded from their ranks, 
and who had hence been led to regard volunteers rather as so many 
enemies than fcienda. In this career of liberality, the Broughsbane 
Volunteers, Captain William Duffin, led the way, by attending mass at 
Glenravel, where they " made a solemn declaration of their principles, 
and good intentions towards their Catholic brethren, " and were hospitably 
entertained by " the friar " and his hearers, (s) Soon after money began to 
be collected throughout the country for the purpose of assisting the 
French in a war with which tbey were threatened by the Emperor of 

la 27tli of February, 1792, tbe 



« 




SSI 

believed to ba 


Blf-p 


Bt Ave o'clock on the night o 
n malieroasly set on flro.— Pai 


(•J Nm-lhen 




, April SSth. ITSa. 





I 



Gennany and King of Prussia, and in Jiily those Buma were forwarflBd to 
the Preeldeat of the Frcnoh National Aseembly. The following sums 
were noticed in tile SelfoEt uevepapors as being sent :— Culeraiue and 
NewtovmUmavady, £600; Armagh City, 2,750 livroa; Newry, £300; 
Booond Socioty of United ttisbmen, Belfast, £ . not known, 

By the beginning of July, the numbers and discipline of the votun- 
teers of the oounties of Down and Antrim were deemed so respectable, 
that a review of those bodies was appointed to be held □□ the 14th of the 
above month, on the Plains, near Belfast. The Earl o! Charlemont, who 
bad usually aotod as revie wing-gen era! on stmilar occasions, was not 
invited to attend, as he was ttuown to be inimical to some of the mea- 
sures about to be brought forvracd. John Crawford, of Grawfocdsburn, 
Esq., a major in the Volunteer Army, was appointed to act in bis room. 

Though great efforts were made to have a numerous muster, only 
thirteen volunteei corps were apon the field, six of which were from the 
County of Down, (t) and the others from tbat of Antrim., amoimting in all 
to only 790 men, 194 of whom belonged to the two Belfast companies. lb 
had been given out that the Constitution Regiment. Colonel Forde, and 
tbe Union Regiment, Colonel William Sbarman, were to bave attended, 
but they did not come. 

The review passed over without anything remarkable as a volunteer 
spectacle, and on tbe return of the several corps inlo the town, they were 
drawn up and feu-de-joies fired in honour of the day; but (he great ffle 
was reserved for a grand military and civil procession. On a triumphal 
car, drawn by four horses, riohly caparisoned, was elevated the great 
standard, supported by two volunteers, on which was painted the release* 
ment of the ptiaonara from the Bflatile— motto ; "Saared to Liberty." 
The reverse eibibtted the figure of Hihernia, one band and foot in 
shackles, and a volonteer presenting to her a figure of Uberty — motto; 
" Por a people to be free, it is sufEcient that they will it." On the other 
flags were portraits of Dr. Ben. Franklin and Mirabeau. 

Tbe civil part of the procession was equally attractive. It moved in 
the rear of the volunteers, and consisted oE a oonsidei^ble number of 
persons belonging to the town, and about 180 others from tbe adjoining 
piLrisbes of Templepatrick and Carnmoney. Many of these wore green 
cockades, and green ribbons on their breasts, on which were imprinted in 
silver letters — " Fourth year, era of liberty." These also carried a green 
dog. on which was the motto ; " Oar Oallio brother was born July 11th, 
1T89 ; alas! we are still in embryo," Reverse: " Superstitious jealousy 
the cause of the Irish Baatile, let us unite and destroy it" There were 
also five other Sags carried in the proosssion, entitled those oE the five 
free nations, viz.. France, Poland, America, Great Britain, and Ireland ; 
on that of the latter was. " Unite and be free." 

Having walked through the principal streets, the whole body, amount, 
ing to nearly 5,000 persons, entered the square of the White Linen HaU, 
where, after several speeches bad been delivered in favour oE Roman 
Catholic emancipation, on address was voted to the National Assembly of 
France, and another to the people of Ireland, in behalf of the Boman 
Catholic claims, and rafonn. Three Presbyterian imnisters, of the 



Patrick, and Dromore LteLi Intantr. 
ihaDownCorpGwsrB Utile belter til 



iHOOy peep-o'-day boys. 



Synod of Ulster, took ftQ active part in the proceedings, vii., Willism 8, 
Dickson, Portafeciy; Thomas L. Birch. Samtfield; aud Sinclair Kolbame, 
Third Congrogatian, Bslfaat. 

In the evening 101 gsntlemsn, vha had taken ao interest in the aflairit 
□f the day, dined together at the Donegal Anns. Among these were 
Theobald Vf. Tone, John Keogh, Theobald M'Kenna, James N. Tandy, 
Dr. Oallwell, Ma^herafelt; W, Stotea, Jun., a Fellow of Trinity College, 
Dublin; and Beveral other noted poUtioal charaoteca (u) of the French 
revolutionary Bchool. At dinner many political toasts were drunk, and 
several aonga, written expressly for the occaaion. were stmg^ — one by Mr, 
Thomaa Btott, of Dromore. begioning with : " While tyranny marsh^B 
her minions around," was greatly applauded. The anniversary of the 
Freaoh Revolution waa likewise celebrated in the towns of BaUymoney, 
Randalatown, and Newtown lima vady. Addressoa were also voted, in the 
two former town a, to the French Hational Asiembly. 

To thia meeting the Roman Catholio Oommitbee of Dublin sent down 
a deputation of fourteen persona, " of whom one waa a priest ; (»j and 
^'~ Tone, in his journal, gives a glowing account of their reception, 
parties in honour of these gentlemen wore nnmeroua and 
and on one ol these oceaaions, " Mr, M'Teir in the chair, 
t the head of the table sat a Dissenter and a Roman 
The room was decorated nath " the four flags of America, 
France, Poland, and Ireland, but no England; (id) for though it had been 
deemed prudent that the latter should be borne in the iate processioa 
through the streets, it was deemed proper to discard it at the orgies of 
these patriotic citizens. 

On the 18th July, the Dublin delegates set out in two divisions on 
their way homeward. Mr. Tone, aacompanied by Samuel NeiUon and 
Alexander Lowry, of Linen-hill, went by Bathfriland, where a meeting 
waa held with some of the neighbouring gentlemen regarding tha best 
means of allaying the warfare kept up between the Peep-o'-day boys and 
the Defenders. After aome consultation the meeting separated on good 
terms, but without their having eilected an amicable arrangement, (x) 
Colonel James N. Tandy, and suit, proceeded by the way of Lurgan, in 
which town he was waited upon by the populace " with military music, 
decorated with green cockades, breaat ribbons, iio,," who offered to chair 
him, which he declined. Afterwards, however, the populace took the 
horses from his carriage and drew him out of the town " in a style of 
enthusiastic triumph unexempliGed," to the digtance of half a mile, 
"amidst the plaudits of the greatest assemblage of the inhabitants which 
on any occasion had been known to collect together." (y) 

The fetes and pageantries connected with the review having pasaed off 
highly to the satisfaetion of the multitude, and also of those by whom its 
movements ware arranged, immediately after numerous new oorps of 
volunteers were arrayed for the avowed purpose of improving the Oooati- 



The di 
eumptuDui 
chequered 
Catholic." 



9a;B^lj 



it HEurs-liettert same date- 



|s) In bbe following m 
perambulating the Uounl 
TbI. J., poge les. 

iy) JforOiem Star. 



^ 

n 

4 



tatiol]. These bodlex generallj adopted a gresa or blue uniCorni. (s) and 
saemad (□ vie with aeich other in their aBsumpbioD of Frenoh uameK and 
phroaee. Heuae several compaaiea were diatinguished by the Qamen of 
" National Guards," the members ol whiah adaresBed each other by the 
Frenoh [oppery tenns of " citiEen soldier." Mftaj corps had attaohad to 
their other names that of "IndapendeaC," aad some, by the way ol atill 
greater distinotion, " Real Independents, "or "Patriotic and In depend eat," 
A few look the names ol " Intrepids." and others "InviDciblee;" even the 
sorry yillage of Maghera. County of Derry, boasted of its oorps of 
"National Guards," and that of Castledawson of its " Sons of Liberty arid 
I»iyaJty." (n) 

The couotry now resounded with the sound of the spirit-stir ciag drum, 
and the ear piercing fifa. Several corps were already provided with 
camion, and some gentlemen contribated liberally to purchase tbe like 
for others, while companiea, less fortunate in wealthy palrons, entered 
into subscriptions to provide cannon for themselves. The Norlhern Slar, 
in nolieing these subacriptions, hopes that they will be patronized " by 
the friends of liberty and of Ireland " In the same paper the publia were 
informed that a plan was in agitation for procuring the beat firelocks, on 
the newest cocatniction, to bo given out to tbe " National Guards " at 
first ODSt. 

During autumu, reviews were held of such volunteer i^orps as, from 
their distance, or not having been then embodied, had been unable to 
attend the review at Belfast, On the let of August, a review was to have 
taken place on Brougbsbane moor, but on the corps coming to the ground, 
a dispute arose between the Braid and Broughahane companies as to their 
geniorit;^. aod which should taliG tbe right in the line, and each appear- 
ing determined not to yield this point, the review was adjourned sine die, 
September 11th, a review of ton corps took place at Tobemamein, near . 
Keils, Captain Edward Brioe, of the Carrickfergus True BlneB, acting 
revie wing-general. On the 19lh of the same month, eighteen compan'es 
were reviewed at Dromore, by Oolone) William Sharman. and on the 19th 
of October, twenty-seven corps, amounting to 1,169 men. by Earl 
Annealey, near Ratbfriland. December 26th, a volunteer review was also 
held at Drumbo, which presented the singular spectacle of the Rev. 
■William Stavely, Covonenting minister, and captain of the Drambraoken 
Volunteera, acting reviewing-general. (6). 

In the latter end of Octobei, some alarm was excited in Belfast, by 
seditious papers circulated among the soldiers of the garrison, and about 
tbe same time bonfires, illumiuations, and other demonstrations of joy, 
took place in almost every town and vitlage of the County Antrim, and 
in several places of the adjoining counties, in consequence of the com- 
bined Ansttiao and Prussian Aimies being eipalled from France, They 
had some weeks before invaded that oounlcy for the purpose of interfering 
in its internal government, and hence their disastrous retreat was hailed 
as the triumph of liberty over despotism; while the late dethroning of the 
Ring, and tbe savage massacres in Paris, were equally regarded as the 

W Tbv Dublin Morninij P,wi of Noven)l)ara7»h, easB, "So great ia the demand 
tor sreen olotta, to array tbe National Guards ol Ireiand, that Ibe clotb oierubanti 
oannot answer it. Orders to tbe amount of H.OOO vardH bava been given; oa mueh 
more bas been parobued." 

<a) Norl'urn Star, Deoeoiber aetb. ITN. 

tb) Nnrttitrti Star. 



glorious ebiiDtiona of fceudora, and the aubjeat ol general congratnla^on, 
Yoiunteat oorpa greeted tbe expulsion of the combined nrmiea with 
feu-de-joies, and bhs town of Balfast. with tho exoeiitioc of a few houses, 
WAS brilUantly illumiiiated, and trangpareiicies and mottos displayed, 
Hhibiting cleacl; the prevailing bias of the iohabitanCa, One of the 
foTjnGr was a gallows suspending an inverted orown, and of the latCer tlie 
following w(iro amongst tlia moat conBpiouous : — ■■ Vive la Eepuhllquo," 
"Vive la Nation." "Rights of Mao," "Imhmen look at France,'' 
"Liberty and Equality," " Pcance is free, bo may we— let ua will it," 
" May the fate of ever; tyrant be Chat of Caput." Days of thank^viDg 
were likewise beld in several Preshyteriaa oongregations for the suooesa of 
tho Frenoh arm*;— among these were those of Saintfield, Magherafelt. and 
Maghera. Political discourses were delivered on those occasions, which 
were colled volunteer eermons, and tbeir preachers were often entitled 
chaplains, (c) The altendanoa was always numeroua. 

Though dispositions for revolution were continued, and the com- 
menaement eagerly anticipated ; the cry of Roman Catholic emancipa- 
tion, and parliamentary reform was kept up to save appearances, till the 
olamour may be said to have reached that stage, so facetiously deacribed 
1^ the poet — 

"Ko sow-gelder could blow his horn. 
To geld a oat, but cried — ^reform." 

A train of untoward ciroumstances hail increased the number and 
confidence of the disaffected, even beyond the expectation of their leaders. 
Royalty had been abolished io France, and a Republic astahllshed in its 
room, while their armies were everywhere triumphant, and DQ the 19tl» 
of November the French Government passed their famous decree of 
fraternity. By this decree aesistance was offered to every nation, who, as 
it wttB expressed, were deairons to recover their freedom ; or, more pro- 
perly, to extend universally the new prinoiples of government adopted in 
Fiance. The generals at the head of their armies were empowered to 
protect such foreignera as had or might sutler in tlie cauae of liberty ; or, 
in other words, that they would assist in promoting rebellion in every 
nation in Europe. A tew days after, a deputation of English, Scotch, 
and Irish, appeared at the bar of the National Convention and felicitated 
them on their triumph of liberty, {d) 

paper;—" Aoeordlng tc 

of ariatocracT bad sbed. its biinerul it 
UoghBra aiiembled atjbeir meetiog 



I 



iDl 






ihiUited, on thii 
' and pabliB^Bp 
QterposlUcD ol 






" December Sih, 17B2." 
neeore Voinntm 
>ufly-Tll 
Corbiae) 



a. Session CleA. 



. .. Qetbis clay, wberoln tba natiini of 
siplajned In anoh a manner u marfled 

" Beojamin Adair, Lieutenant." 



In Belfast no time appears to have been lost on receipt of tliia joyoua 
Inbelligenco, as on tba 80tb of the same mouth the President of Che 
French National Conventiou read a letter from the " Society of the 
Pcienda of Liberty and Equality," in Belfast, wbictwaa also accompanied 
by an address from the same society, (e) The contents of these papers 
have not transpired; but, from the temper of the leading politioiaus of 
that town at this period, it is highly probable these greetings mere for the 
purpose of claiming their aasiatance in virtue of the above dearee, and 
this appears, in some measuce, confirmed by the following correspondence 
vith Mr. Tone. Kobert Simms, Belfast, when writing to that gentleman 
in Dublin, thus describes the progress of political affairs in hia neigh- 
bourhood ;— " We are going on here with boots of seven leagues, and will 
aoon bo at liberty and equality," literally signifying, according to the 
political vocabulary of that day, that in a short time we would bo as far 
forward as the French, That this was his true meaning ia confirmed by 
the letter of his ooUeagua, Samuel Neilson, to the same, dated from 
Belfast on the 28th November, wherein he says: "You can have no 
conception of the progress of union here, and I do assure you we are 
further forward than ever I expected in a twelvemonth. The universal 
question throughout the country is— ' When do we begin?' 'Do we 
refuse hearth-money or tithes first?'"(/) In his editorial lucubrations 
in the yoriheni Star of the same date, it Es emphatically asked — " When, 
does the revolution begin? Where will it commence first ? Such ques- 
tions are in the mouth o£ everyone." The import of this language 
oannot be mistaken ; it comes at once to the proposed rebellion. The 
Jesuitical cant about reform and emancipation were no longer deemed 
necessary ; and it was proclaimed in tba utme paper, " lot ub iSBort to a 
National Convention" — a term truly invidious, irom its obvious allusion 
to the turbulent government of France. The newspapers now teemed 
with declarations, resolations, toasts and details, of the progress of 
volunteer associations, and the several societies and clubs daily starting 
into notice. A few brief specimens of the language used by them are here 

Eiven, and as straws thrown up are said to show how the wind blows, we 
Bgin with the sentiments toasted over their cups by the sturdy citizens 
of Doagh, 

At a meeting, in November, of the Society of United Irishmen in that 
■village — William G. Owens, chairman ; William Gait, secretary — the 
following toasts wore drunk : "The French Republic." "May every United 
Irishman become a Volunteer, and every Volunteer a United Irishman," 
" May the world become a republic, and every inhabitant a citizen." 
In the resolutions of the Ballyclare independent volunteers, they said: 
" BsBolved, that the immutable laws of reason and justice saith that man, 
by natnre, is free, and that liberty is his property ; and that he or they 
who may infringe on said property shall ere long be responsible to the 
majority of the people." The Lisbum Volunteers, Captain Alexander 
Crawford, published no manifesto of their principles, but on the 2nd 
December they made a public display of their liberality by attending 
mass in that town. 

Among the interesting news of the day it was announced in the 
Noriliern Star that a man in the parish of Garnmoney, named Donaldson, 



and another, a member of the Carriakfergua True Blues, had theii infant 
sons baptized Dumouciec — the name of a then popular French general. 
Of tha lattei infant it was added. "The child maet certainly, in time, be a. 
'patriotic soldier'" The aame newspaper, of the 5th December, thus 
paints ant — "What evils will he removed, and nhat adiantages Rained, 
by a reform in parlianjent." Ist— Tithea will be abolished, and every 
man will pay hia own olergy. 2nd — Hearth-money, that abominable 
badge of slavery and oppression to the poor, will cease, Scd — We will not 
hereafter be taxed to pay pensionerfl and policemen to vote against as; 
the consequence of thla will be that tobacco, for which we now pay 16d. 
per potmd, will then be sold for 4d. per pound, and every otber article 
ol imported goods in proportion, itli — We will have no eioisa laws; 
ths merchant and shopkeeper will get leave to carry on their business 
quietly, without the intrusion of plundering revenue officers. 6th — The 
expeoses and tediousness uf the law will give way to prompt and equal 
juBtioe, gratis. Irishmen! ore these objects of any importance? Unite 
then— aesoolate — resolve— and earry your resolves into execution." 
In the same newspaper of the Stb the Buhjeot is continued, and the public 
were told that on a reform taking place, "churoh cesses won Id be no 
more." and " customs at fairs would bo abolished." The press would be 
unshackled, " for a newspaper whioh now costs twopence would be then. 
sold for one halfpenny, and the present ridiculous idea of obligation to 
landlords be done away." By such idle tales, false hopes were raised 
in the minds of the multitude, who were thus led from discontent to 
rebHllion." 

In the same month a club was establiehod in Belfast, entitled the 
"Irish Jacobins," in imitation of the Jaeohin Club of Paris, so fatally 
signalized as the inciters of the numerous massacres which disgraced 
that capital, and whose leading members were Marat, Danton, and 
Bobeapierre.jp) Strange, however, as it may now appear, the savage deeds 
of these monsterH were applauded by out Belfast Jacobins, and in the 
Northern Star the French club were called the saviours of their country. 
The declaration and resolutions of our Irish Jacoliics — signed, Bowley 
Osburne, chairman ; Samuel Kennedy, secretary — were equally violent 
and declamatory as thoiie of their Parisian brethren. They proceeded to 
proclaim that their country had no "national government," and the 
people wore advised to turn their thoughts to a "National Convention," 
in order to collect tha public opinion on the subject of reform. They 
declared their wiabes to exteml the elective franchise to aU citizens, 
and that when the mode of goverument was "not derived from all the 



n 



(e)Ti 



nred vanity, o. 



coiitltiuelilBTavii^BOC tba flocks Ions oCK.. „-. ... -,,-- 

tical eibortatloDB, in a joornal ot wbloh he was editor, began ana eoded lika the 
bowl of a blood.honnd." Robesplflrre has b&en described &e one in whose prflseace 
" virtue wtLs a crime and geniuH a foimdatioa tot BusplQlon," yet poH^eBsing little 
talent, saving a deep fond of hypocriBv. Bis Bpee<ilieB. nbettaer in the National 
Convention or Jaoobln Olnb, ware Isadnd In the Northern Star, and were also 
sametimes published In pamphlets M tlie ofBcn of that paper. It was benoe 
Bnpposed IbaC on tils belne gnillotiDod, an elegy woald have appeared in tfae 
Horthtm. Star recordJUB bis virtues and lamenting hia loaa, None, however, was 
published, tbe editor— conf ermine at Doee to the new order ot thlnss in Fnnae— 
ealinly remarldnK that bis " removal from power had become indispenaiblH." — 
Korthertt 8lar. Decnnbtr. I?3». 



I 



people clearly expreEBed, that nation has no conBtitatlon." They also 
announced their detenninBtion to form an association for the purpose of 
dJGSeminating their pFlnciptes, and iudiTiduolly and collectively, to exert 
every means In their power to carry the eame into execution, in order 
that the country might tie "liberated from the shackleH o£ tyranny."(ft) 
At the Bame time the public are informed by the newspapers, that the 
Belfast volunteer company, blue, had agreed to adopt B cbeap uniioim, 
in order to facilitate tho admiaaion of new members at "this eerioui 

The "National Guards " of Maghera, County of Derry, were equally 
explicit regarding their conduct, and the improvement of the constitution, 
aa their Jacobin brethren. They proceeded to announce "to the world 
their political principles, in order, as they declared, to oonfound euvy, 
silence the babbliuge of jealousy, Ulumiue ignorance, and inspire public 
CoiJidence." 

They went on, with all the ability which the preamble promises, to 
declare several laudable feelings and propenaitiea of theirs, and the 
moment when public resiatence is publio virtue, which was pretty 
Biguificantly told as not far off, and that they were not to he deterred 
from their duty, "nntil the country should taste the sweets of freedom, 
and pluck the fruit luxuriant from the tree of liberty." (i) 

In the resolutions of the Newtcwuards Volunteers, they said: "We 
solemnly promise and engage not to lay down our arms but with our 
livei, until we have accomplished the full redress of our grcivances," 
The Larne oorps, who appear to hare been equally a obivalrons body, 
declared that they would protect their fellow- oitizens and tbemselves 
from every "Bpcoiea of oppraasion, whethar it proceed from & mob or a 
monarch, a not or a proclamation ; " and tlie Belfast light dragoons 
published that they would continue embodied until they should obtain 
the object of their wishes, and afterwards "continue in arms to defend 
them," This pussiant troop amounted to exactly aeveuteen persoua. 

Up to this period, masonic lodges were said to have kept free from 
political discussions, but many of these now launched out into republican 
declamation, with the fury of so many Jaoobin clubs. At a meeting of 
Lodge No. 730, at Garvagh, they went on to say: "We deteat any man, 
or body of men, who sway from their country's cause, under a cloak 
of allegiance, or any other motive whatsoever." Again — "Resolved, 
That factitious titles, such as monarchy, royalty, sereuity, excellency, etc. 
are ponderous and oppresaive mountains in the great globe of despotism 
under which poor Erin sinks and groans," A word in your ear ; " Where- 
abouts is Prance at a loss for the want of either." Lodge No, 539, the 
worshipful Abraham Elliot in the chair: "Besolved — That, as masons 
and BE men, unbiassed by the subtle insinuations of government pimps 
and tbeir retainora, we profess our steady and loyal attachment to lus 
present Majesty King George the Third, and shcdl always do so while 
there is no attempt on his part to extend the executive power heyoBd ' 
the limits ol the CotistituCion." (^ a meeting of delegates from ttatM 
lodges at Lisbura, they commenced their manifesto by declaring theniT ■ 
selves "Political, but not voluntary slaves," At Dungannon, delegataa* 
from thirty lodges asaemblod, the worthipful James Reynolds, U.D., 

(4) About tbe eametlmea similar club naa entabliebed in Dublin. 



Oookatann, la the obair. Bj them the bretlirea nere ceoommeodad te 
" be peaceful, bnt powerful ; " aad it was said iu tbeir dsclaration : " Iiet 
ererji lodge in the land become a oompanj of citizsn-soldiore — let every 
volunteer oompanj become a lodge of mnaona." The resolutions of the 
lodges of Tttbermore, Castledawaoa, Combec, RandalEtona, and mejiy 
others, nere nearly similar, (j) In iiome lodges the oath of allegiance, 
which it had been usual to administer on the admission of a brother, 
was discontinued. 

While Ibe volunteers of the north continued to advance with "boots 
of seven leagues," in Dublin their af!alrs had taken an unfavourable tnra. 
The first battalion of "National Quards" of that city had been summoaed 
b; their secretary, Captain Mathew Dowllng, to assemble in Sbip-street, 
on the 9th December, to oelebrate the success of the Froncb arms, and 
the triumph of universal liberty. Their summons commenoed with the 
popular French phrase of citizen-soldier, and was dated "the last year of 
slavery ; " but on the morning of the 8th, a proclamation was issued by 
the Lord Lieutenant and Council, forbidding the assembling of armed 
bodies in the city or vicinity of Dublin, Hence no armed assemblage 
took place in that city on the 9lh, and the only volunteers who appeared 
in uniiorm in Ship-atreot, were James N. Tandy, Archibald H. Rowan, 
and William P. Carey. The dress of this regiment was copied from that 
of the French National Guards. Their coat was green, turned up with 
white; white waistcoat, striped trousers, gilt buttons impressed with a 
harp and no crown, but a device over the harp of a cap of liberty upon a 
pike — emblems truly significant of the Intentions of their wearerB, 

However, the loaders of the Volunteera in Dublin, as it to make trial 
bow far the Irish Government would suffer themselves to bo insulted 
with impunity, on the 14th of the said month, they issued a counter- 
proclamation, signed William Drennan, chairman ; Archibald H. Rowan, 
secretary. In this document the citizen-soldiers were conjured by their 
interest, their duty, and their glory, to stand to their arms. This earnest 
appeal, nevertheless, (ailed of producing the desired effect — and for ito 
dispersion the secretary was afterwards tried and found guilty of a 
seditious libel on the government and constitution of the kingdom, and 
sentenced to be two years imprisoned in Newgate, and to pay a fine of 
£600. (ft) The chairman was afterwards tried for the part taken in the 
same address, but acq^uitted. 

These ominous movements against the " National Guards " of the 
capital, excited a serious sensation among the citizen-soldiers of the 
North, wbo probably anticipated that a similar proclamation might one 
day he directed against themselves. In BelfaHl the volunteers affected 
to be highly indignant that their loyalty should be suspected, and at a 



n of tbe Dnblin _ _ 

Qnarda ' wen to have paraded, elothed like FreDobmea. Tbe 
I«id LleuMitanl had mmmoned tb .- - .- 

ilamatiaii «u iuaed, AaUiu tt 
I, with sadltioDS emu, and ai. 
'"——-■ -"ng." '■Appal-- 

1, tbODgh some few were arSBted In tbe 'Nationi 

araaing the sWeelB. with a moll orowdineal tBeirbe ' 
Dnbumg luilowed. Tbsy were bbbq, andblegaedbeGFod. they wei 
Parliamenbiri/ Dibatti; Trtalof Archibald a. liinoan: Horthe 



-^ imoned tbe OoBDell ol the Kingdom ; upon tbat eight a 

proclamatian wu iuaed, AaUiu that tbere were Intantrona to assemble men in 
arnu, with sadltioDS etgiu, and apprebaDdlng danger Iioai tl 
problblted theii meeting." "Appalled b;r tills proelamation, i 
L .. .. !_.. — i.. ., .. —„^e few were arSBted In tbe ' 






meeting of one of the corps of that town, on the 17th Deoember, they 
agreed upon an address to the VQlnnteera ol Ireland. In this addiesB they 
proceeded to comraent upon the proc)unatioa of the 8th and (he right of 
the people to carry anna. Altec some sentimental observations about 
phllanthrophy, renovation of the Constitution, emancipation, reform, and 
their prsasrvHtioii of the public peace, they said, " If bod adviaers, or tveak 
and wicked men, Hball force the people into extremity, on them let aU tbe 
iries fall of civil convulsion." On the following day a meeting took 
B of the Belfast first volunteer company, which also agreed upon 
an addresB to the volunteers of this kingdom. This thay commenoed, in 
capitals, with the astounding iutelligence of, "Fellow soldiers, your 
country ia in danger." They proceeded to oondemn the proolamation that 
had been iasued t^aiust the assembling of the •■ National Guards " in 
Dublin, and complained that the public grieTancea were almoHt innumer- 
able and intolerable. Their fallow soldieca were called upon to be Unu, 
to persevere, to uuite, to increase their numbers and to improve their 
disaipliue, with the oonaoling asEUrance that, if the; did, Ibeic country 
must be saved. (I) 

On the £5Lb oi Deoember. a numerous meeting of the inhabitants of 
Belfast was held in the meeting- hotiae of the Second Dissenting Oongre- 
gation, Charles Rankin, Esq., iu the chair; Mc. Samuel Neilson, 
Secretary, for the purpose "of expressing their sentiments on the present 
state of public aQairs, and to enter into such measures aa might be deemed 
expedient for the acoomplishing that great object — an equal represen- 
tation of the people iu Parliament." The business of tbe day was opened by 
Mr. Robert Thompson, nho. in the course of his speech, said that he had 
" preferred our government to any other with an improved representation, 
but without it any other was as good," He was followed, iu much the 
same strain, by William Sinclair and Bobert Qetty, Esqra. Mr. J. 
Monford recommended "the steady and able men of the country" to come 
forward and enrol themselves among their armed hretbren, and those who 
were iu an advanced state of life to contribute to the cause iu a pecuniary 
nay, and he hoped, by the poor coming forward at this crisis, much good 
might be done by the contrihutiona of the rich, The Rev. Sioolair 
Kelburne said. " ke did not prefer our muoh-boasled Oonstitution ; he did 
not know whether there was really an; sucb thing ; he had heard of a 
government of king, lords, and commonH. but he could never approve 
of hereditary legislators," yet he concurred in tbe present declaration, 
and preferred a reformed parliament rather than have recourse to 
violence, though be might oeteem another government more perfect. In 
the resolutiouH entered into upon this occasion it was said, " Our 
warmest thanks are justly due to the volunteers of Ireland. Soldiers of 
liberty, we chank you I Be iirm. increase yonr numbers, perfect your 
discipline." It was also agreed that those who were in an advanced state 
of life should oontribute to tbe purchase of " arms, ammunition, and 
accoutrements" for the "National Guards." and a committee of tweuty-four 
persons were appointed to receive the several patriotic Bubscriptiona. (m) 

Throughout tbe North the arming and array of tbe volunteers were 
continued with unabated activity. In a few plaoee a levy en masse was 
even contemplated, of which we have the following specimen, in an 

(I) Northtm Star. 

fm) Beltaat Polities, pages 101, 114. 



18 

eitraot of a letter from Saintfield, oa published in the Belfaii Ntwt-Letter, 
dated ou CbristmBB Day : "The Presbyterian CoDgregation met this day 
tmd entered into roaolutiona upon tbe present state of tiSaiis, It waa 
proposed at the meeting, and unanimously applauded, that the congrega- 
tion, for the defence ol tbeir falailieB and propertiee, shall immediately 
proceed to acquire the military exercise nberebj, wilh those already in 
Bcma, upwards of 500 brave feliaws will be added to the ' National 
Guards' of Ireland," In Belfast several oorps of Tolunteecs, lately 
arrayed, were formed into one body and took the title of the "First 
Belfast Hegiment of National Guards." On Sunday the 3id of February, 
1793, ttej first paraded in unifarm and attended divine servioe at 
the meeting-bo use of tbe Second Dissenting Congregation of that town. 
Their number amounted to about 360, and were divided into four 
companies. Their coat was green faoed with yellow, green waiatooat, 
white breeches, long black gaiters, and leather cap. (n) At the same time 
the other Belfast companiea were united into one regiment and took the 
name of the -' Belfast Battalion, Blue." Charles Rankin. Esq . Goloaal. 
On these arrangements, the latter regiment appointed a reoruiting 
committee of twenty-four persons, and a few days after the following 
adyertiseuieot appeared in the newspapers :— ■' Kecruits are requested to 
attend drill at the market-houEe, on the mornings and evenings of 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, at eight o'clock." It was also 
announced that two additional drummers and fiiera were wanted for each 
of these regimanta. 

The general movements of the disaffected now tended to indicate that 
their plans fast approached completion, (o) In Belfast efiorta continued 
to be made for the seduction of the soldiery from their allegiance, for 
which three inhabitants were arrested, and a printer of seditious baud- 
bills that bod been distributed among the military in garrison, kept out 
of the way. 



In the Northern Star it was said, 
the volunteer army of Ulster that a 
of volunteers have in preparation a 
exercise which is nearly identical wi 
army." On the 12th of January it v 
'■Carrickfergus True Blues" were mounting tii 
men to work them," while at tho same time i 
newspapers for the discovery of the persons « 
feloniously carried off fifty-six stand of small ai 
the Castle gate, Carrickfergus, where they had 
several districts of Down and Louth the " Defendoi 



^e feel gratified in announcing to 
nimittee of tbe Belfast regiment 
V and simple system of military 
that at present practised by the 
stated in the same paper that the 
ting their cannon and " enlisting 
I time a reward was oflered in the 
lo, two nights before, had 
ns from a bouse adjoining 

'--" — l for safety. In 

though equally 






("1 


The lolU 




aabaina captains in tbia 


rBgimi 




mas M'Cabe, He 


'"fhf^a-i'hi^" 


«8 Hynd 


man. Fran 


oisM'Craokeu 




Lptaln-Lie 


iiitenBOt.— BbI/d 








n'? 


la JftDuarr. 1TS3. tbe w 








mceeant of a 




:t corps ol 


' voliintBeTH. whi 


ohadjUBtretun 






rade, and was 




ig to som. 




St. H , Bho, 




■aninga bef. 


ire. baa bean 


ohOBe. 






leclinsd tbat bo 














coalmen C on Cb 




! almuliciCy 


"'Sl^°H— " 


obsen 






der (>ay. 


"And 8U. 




he, "J 


ou all kno 






)al«een ■ 


SUetayot 


an offlMT and 


thato: 






nodded aissant. 









I 




' tTLBTEB. 



10 



I 



and it IB equall; certain that compaistiTely fen Horaan Catholics Had 
Joined the yolunteecs, thotigli their canka weie now commonly open to 
them. It indeed appears that, with a few exct>ptioiiB throughout] the 
Korth, the CiLthoIic body continued unfriendly towards the Tolunteere, 
froi&'nhcisQ ranks they had formerly been excluded, (p) which feeling ia 
amply illOBtrated by the following fact. On the 18th of January, a 
carman coming from Dublin with arms for the Buckna Volunteers, 
Captain John Gordon, was robbed of his charge, cear JoneE^borough, by a 
body of " Defenders," though he kept lustily calling out that they 
belonged lo their Protestant brethren who lately attended mass at 
Glenravel 1 

Ahoul this time a company of artillery with several fietd-pieces and 
ammunition wagons arrived from Dublin, m Belfast, and sii Informations 
were filed in the Court of Ring's Bench against the proprietors of the 
Northern Star for the publication in their paper of the like number of 
lihellcus and seditious articles. The proprietors nere obliged to repair to 
Dublin to enter into a recogDizance, and were accompanied, in that city, 
by a retinue of Boman Catholic gentlemen ; and to demoDDtrate the 
general union that prevailed, f ach bail-bond wbh jointly executed by a 
Protealant and Roman Catholic. In the same month (January) the 
bouses and stores of several persons in Belfast were searched by the 
officers of Customs for smuggled firearms, but none were found, (q) 

On the 2nd of February a circular letter was issued by the Belfast 
Volunteer Committee for a meeting of delegates from the corps of the 
connty of Antrim to assemble in the town of Antrim on the 11th. [or the 
purpose of taking into consideration the state of their affairs. No account 
of their procecdiDge nae then publifihod, but the omission is fortunately 
supplied by the following extract of a letter from Robert Bimms, mer- 
chant, Belfast to his friend Theobald W. Tone, dated the day after: — 
"Yesterday assembled, at Antrim, delegates from thirty-five volunteer 
companies of this county, representing about 2,000 men. and unanimously 
agreed— Ist. To associate all the volunteers of the county into one body, 
and recommended similar asBOciBtions to the volunteers throughout the 
kingdom, preparatory to a union of the whole 2nd. To appoint a com- 
mittee, for one year, who are to have the sole direction of the volunteerB 
of the county, and to fix a mode of exercise, reviews, and appoint generals, 
fix the quantity of ammunition, accoutrements, and stores necessary for 
each corps. There are sixty in the county, amounting to about 3,100 
men, and will be 5,000 before Christmas. We are taking the eflectual 
steps to provide the necessary artiolea and stores for volunteers." (r) The 
progress of these armings would seem to have been seriously watched by 
the eovernment, as, about this time, an Act was passed by the Irish 
" prevent the importation of arms, gunpowder, and 
3 the kingdom., and the removing and keeping of gun- 
i, firearms, Ao., without license, under a heavy penalty, 
entertained cebeliiouB designs should be debarred from 
This prevention would appear to have become 



Parliament 1 



tliat those who e 
obtaining suppllei 



(jj) a 



Deoeaaatj, as, on the lltb of February, it was atated b; the B»rl of 
Farnham, in the House of Lords, that a lacgs quantity ol guDpowdar 
b»d baen seized on ita way to the North, (s) 

For Homo timu previous, the growiog agitation had baao heightenad in 
aoneequeace of the eleotion of parocbiale and other delegates preparatory 
to a Proyincial Oonveation, about to be held at Dungannou, for tha 
purpose, as was expreaaed. of taking into aonaidDratian the state of 
the Itingdom, and deelnriug " the sense of the people " in their levenl 
distriatH. On the IGth of February, the delegates met, at lenst some oE 
whom attended, " rather ia the hope of proveuting ili than in tha 
aahioving much gooa."(t} Their resolutions ware prefaoed by a short 
deolatation " that thsy were cordially attached to the original prinaiples 
of the British Constitution* r^retted the probability of a war with 
France ; urged the neoessity of a reform in Parliament and Bomaa 
Catholic emanoipation : declared their hoatiUty to a national militia, and 
proclaimed tbeir obligation to the volunloers, who were exhoctad to 
inoiaaie their numbers and improve their discipline," A committee of 
thirty persons was appointed, with the power of re-oonvoktng the asaembly, 
and to communicate with the other provineas, to concert measured for 
calling together a National Convention should ciraumstances render tha 
like necessary. The members of this committee, for the County of 
Antrim, were — Thomas il, Jones, James A. Farrel, Alexander M'Hanus, 
Wm. Sinclair, Hugh Boyd. County of Down— Ga wen Hamilton, 
Alexander Stewart, Joseph tollock, John Crawford. Wm. S. Dickson. 
From County ot Derry— J. Church, Hugh Lyle, Alexander Knos, Jamea 
Soott, James Achison. County of the Town of Carriekfergus — Wm. Finlay. 
The Bev. Wm. S. Dickson preached before the meeting. His text was 
Joseph's advice to his brethren ; " See that yon fall not out by the way." 

It is equally strange as true that this meeting originated with a 
number of gentlemen who were really reformers, and who hoped, by their 
influenoe and exertions, to turn the channel of revolationary principles 
by a declaration In favour of the government, with the improvement of a 
reform in the national representation, (u) However laudable the motives 
of these projectors may have been, Cliey appear to have bean strangers to 
the schemes and influence of tha United Irishmen, though, for months 
previous, enough had appeared in the newspapers to disclose their real 
intentions. It ia hence certain that this meeting failed of producing auy 
useful eQect. while their opposition to the measures of the government 
and enconiums on tha volunteers, were gratifying to many ; and it woa 
boasted in the Northern Star that, "the whole province is one great 
society of United Irishmen." In the interim, notwithstanding the 
prohibitory order of the govemtnent against the assembling of armed 
bodies in the city or vicinity oE Dublin, eSorts were made to keep up 
Tolonteec parades. On Sunday, the SSth of January, part of the 
Ooidsmiths' Corp'< assembled in Ship-street, under the orders of Thomas 
Bacon, a tailor, but who, from his volunteer rank, was commonly colled 
Major Bacon. They soon dispersed, on their being waited upon for that 
purpose by Alderman Warren. However, on the 24th of February, the 
"Dublin Rangers," under the orders of Major Askenhurst, a publio 



4 






in b; a delegate la this a: 



I of the Lordship o( Newry. 



ANHALS OP DLBIBB. 31 

noinry, also paiacled in Ship-etreet, where Aldermim Jameti desired them 
to dinperee, whicli they refused to do. On their refusal, he hasteoed to 
the Costte-guaid tot aBBistanoe, but before the arrival of the guard, tho 
volanteers were on their way to Dnimcondra, in which direction they 
were followed by the Boldiem, The former taking cover in a house, the 
guard passed on, and the volunteeis, in dropping parties, relumed to 
the city, and did not appear again in anna. A few days afterwards, 
Alderman James seized four pieces of cannon belonging to the " Liberty 
Bangers." On ihe 2nd of March, the Lawyers' Corps made a Toltintary 
Bartender of their cannon to tho government, and on the Tth of the same 
montb, some pike-heads were seised by him in Suffolk-street, (u) 

Though the volunteers throughout the North continued busied in 
strengthening their ranks, and their parades were kept up, yet from the 
state of volunteer affairs in Dublin, serious apprehcusionE wore entertained 
that the days of their appearance were numbered. Their cannon and 
stores were, therefore, secreted, and on the 2nd of March the following 
appeared in the Northern Slar: — "Caution. Volunteers who have 
cannon would do weU to take the hist from the Dublin affair and 
dispose of tbem as soon as possihle lest they lose them and incur a 
penalty of £600." Two days after, the stores of several merchants in 
Beliast were searched, ander the Gunpowder Act, for cannon and 
anunonition, but none were found. On the same day search was made 
in Lisbum, under the direction of a magistrate, for the cannon of the 
volunteers of that town, but ozilj their carriages were discovered. 
Uarch 6th, this additional " caution " was published in the same paper. 
" At the present alarming period, we would earnestly recommend it to the 
people to behave with manly coolness, and nut to suffer themselves, 
through indignation of the proceedings of the capital, to he hurried into 
any act of outrage, or resistance to the laws. By this line of conduct they 
will evince that they aro capable and worthy of enjoying national liberty, 
and that they know the difference between the demands of a nation and 
the resistance of a part. Soon vrilt Ireland speak bet cause of her present 
state, and the measures above alluded to accelerate the period. Until 
then, let the people rest quietly on their arms, and give no handle to 
their enemies wherewith to vilify them." 

In this state of things, little appears to have been wanting on the part 
of the dieaffeated, but a pretext to " cry havook. and let slip Ibc dogs of 
war," when an event took place, which was, for a lime, believed would 
have proved the harbinger of revolution. On the evening of Saturday, 
the 9th of March, a blind fiddler, playing in North-street, Belfast, wae 
desired, by some of the 17th Dragoons present, to play " God save the 
King." but a crowd of persons present declared that he should not play 
it. fSome expressions were also used against his Majesty, and those who 
would take bis part, and at the same time a stone was thrown at the 
dragoons, (u') A conflict immediately ensued between the parties, and 
the dragoons being joined by some of their comrades, the crowd was com- 
pelled to retreat, and the victors proceeded to hack, with their swords, 
the fligns of General Dnmourier. Waehingion, M Miiabeau, and Dr. Ben. 
Franklin, that bad lately been put up. During these riotous proceedings, 



I) Belfast PolltiCB, ] 



the nindons ol BeversI boltses if ere aleo broken, Bod some persons passing, 
who are said to have been In no yi9,j concerned in the riot, were weunded 
b; the horB^men. 

The riot wob booh anppresaad hy the preaenca of eome militar; offioecB, 
but as tha aflaii wa> now looked upon as a timely preteit for the com- 
mencemant of the revelation, it was determinod that it should not he 
loat, Aoootdingly, during the night, about 450 volunteora, Irearing their 
arms, assembled in the meeting-bouse of the Third Dissenting Coagrego- 
tion. while several of the "National Guards." in full uniform, wera 
despatched about tha country Co solicit tha aaaiatance of tksir brethran 
in arms. Some of those wbo kept watch iu the raeetiog-house appeared 
unwilling to wait for the erpeoted aid. Among these was an officer, who, 
braodisbing bis sword, sallied into the etreet. calling upon tboie near 
him, to drive the despots from the town! He was borne oS home by 
some of hia men, wbo having made less free with the bottle, seemed less 
(iDXioDB to open the campaign. 

The forenoon of the 10th was passed In deep suspense by those in the 
meeting-house, where a aermon waa delivered to them by its revered 
pastor. Mr. Kelbnrne. We have bean unable to learn the text or context 
of his diacourae, but presume that It was calling his hearers forth to daeda 
of arms, as a loaded blunderbusa lay on the cushion before him during its 
deli vary I 

In the evening tbe messengers from the country arrived and made 
their report. Thay were declared willing to lend their asaiatance. but 
unable to join in an imniediata warfare, as the arma of the greater number 
were unEervioeable, and many destitute of ammunition ; circumstances, 
however unfortunate, yet wero really true. In their abaenoa a meeting of 
the inhabitants had been held, and a committee of twenty-two persona 
appointed, consisting of the Sovereign, five magistrates, the high constabls 
of the barony, and other gentlemen, to inquire into tbe cause of the riot. 
Tha committee wore now waited upon by General White, commanding 
the Northern diatriot, wbo, tbree days before, had been sworn into the 
commission of the peace for the counties of Down and Antrim. He 
" was invited to attend as a member " of tbe committee, wbich be 
declined, but desired an interview with them, to whom be expressed a 
wish that the volunteera should disperse, as he had ordered a snffioient 
force to preserve the peace. At the same time he ordered tbe dragooiu 
off to other quarters ; (x) and the volunteers being aware that no aid was 
to be expected from the country, retired to their homes. Samuel Neilson, 
one of the volunteers, thus notices these proceedioga in a letter to Hr. 
Tone. The volunteers assembled to tbe number of 450 or 500 ; " this 
turned tbe scale, tbe military took tbe alarm, bowed, and begged pardon, 
and this day tbe whole regiment of horse waa ordered to leave the town 
in fifteen minutes' warning by General White. We have forgiven tbe 
troop, and permitted the offenders to dapart with the corps." liobert 
Simms, Belfast, when writing to tbe aame, regarding this aflair, saya : 
" Tha soldiers not only destroyed M'Oabe's sbop, but also the adjoining 
one belonging to Mr. Orr, a zealous volunteer, and a milliner's shop, who 
had trimmed tbe helmets of tbe Volunteer Light Horse. They dispersed 
after several of them were taken prisoners. Fortunately for them thsj 
did BO, for tbe volunteers began to assemble, and would have finished 

(z) TheNorthsmBlOT. 



I 



them," as, in » stoct time, the volunteecH were 400 strong, " The mob 
also gathered in gceat {oFce. and began to Ehreaton vecgoance. Had the 
riot Qontmued, the nelghbounng voluDteere would have come to town." 
He goes an to aaj that it was beyond a doubt the plan of the riot was 
laid in Hillsborough, and ''that aome of the officers were abettore and 
encouragars of it."|^) 

Two days after this affair a proolamation of the X>ord Lieutenant and 
Council, dated on tlio 11th of the same month, was ceoeiyed in Belfast, 
forbidding the assembling of armed bodies within that town, " and the 
several districts adjacent thereto." In this docnracnt it was stated, 
" That arms and gunpowder, to a vary large amount — much above (he 
oommoQ oonaumption — had been recently sent to Belfast and Newry,'' 
and that " bodies of men in arms " were drilled and ezeroiaed by day and 
night, and that the declared object of the said armed bodies was a redress 
of allied grievannes. In a latter of the same date from the Chief 
Seocetary, Hobnrt, to the Sovereign of that town, it was said: "And if 
any body shall again assemble in arms in Belfast and the neighbourhood, 
the magistrate mil eiert himself to prevent the same, for which purpose 
General White has directions to give every assistance in his power." 
From (his period the volunteers of Belfast, and its iromediate vicinity, 
ceased tu parade. The Northern Star, when noticing this proclamation, 
merely said : " It Is for the con si deration of the volunteers of this town 
and diatrict adjacent, whether it would be wise or patriotic in them to 
risk the peace of the country by appearing in bodies, with arms, unless to 
preserve the public peace and to aid the oivil power; is it not much more 
magnanimous to discoobinue the use of arms for the present? The time 
m&; come, &ud that ehfli'tl;, when all Ireland maj bo glad to sue the 

^viours of their country once more in formidable array." A few days 
after the Newry company of volunteers, called the " Fusiliers." Captain 
Moody, surrendered their cannon to persons appointed to receive them by 
the government. On the IGth of the same month, 225 rounds of canister 
shot, fitted for six.pounder cannon, were found in a shallow part of the river 
Iiagan. near Lisburn. They conld not have been for the cannon of the 
Lisbnrn Volunteers, which were only three-pounders, but they may have 
been for those of Belfast, and as a search for the like had been made in 
that town, perhaps those who had them in charge toot this way to dispose 
of (hem. 

On the IStb of March, the " Volunteer Standing Committee," of the 
county of Antrim, met in Batlymena, Adam Dickey, Esq.. in the chair, 
Henry Haslett, secretary. In their declaration they said: "That the 
good of the country had been their only aim, and that they would stand or 
feJl together in her defence. That obedience to the laws of the land had 
been the unalterable principles of Irish volunteers ; that they hod 
associated for constitutional purposes only," and it was to them Ireland 
was indebted for her present tranquility. They concluded by calling 
upon their brother volunteers, to join with thorn in vindicating their 
honest fame, whiob, they said, had hitherto been untainted by the breath 
of calumny. 

At the Spring Assizes, held at Dundalk, a bill of indictment was fonnd 
against James M. Tandy, merchant in Dublin, for having published a 
printed hand-biil, entitled, " Common Sense," said to contain seditious 

ID) Ufe ol Theobald W. Tone, Vol, I., page 971. 




I 



matter. He attended In oourt to take his trial, but leaniiag that a ohaiga 
n brought against him lor the part he had taken with 
a body ol defenders at GaBllebellinghaiii, among whom he was reported to 
have distributed money, he deemed it prudent to withdraw, and eooa 
alter left the Kingdom. Twelve of the defenders trere oondemned at 
this AEsiitea — two of whom suffered death on the same evening they weie 
eonvioted. (i) 

In the county of Antrim. Moses Dawson and Robert Orr, both of 
Belfast, were tried at the asBizes on an indictment cliarglng Ibem with an 
attempt to alienate the allegiance of some soldiers of the &5th regiment, 
aad aoqiiitted A bill of indiotment was also found against Daniel Blow, 
printer, of the same town, tor printing seditious libels, and uttering 
seditious words, but he did not appear. Joseph Cuthbert, tailor. Belfast, 
was tried at the same assizes, for delivering to James Rose, soldier in (he 
65th regiment, an extract from a pamphlet published by Thomas Cooper, 
refleoting on tbe arbitrary natare of military service. The trial lasted 
from tea o'clock in the morning to eight at night, when he was found 
guilty, and sentenced to stand cue hoar in the pillory in Belfast, and to 
be imprisoned in the county jail for one year. These persons were 
volunteers, who, according to their repeated deolarations, assembled for 
"Constitutional purposes." 

Early in this simuner, a conlidential agent arrived in Dublin, from 
France, with a message directed "to the papular leaders in Ireland," and 
also tor the purpose of his sounding and conversing with them. He had 
an interview with Lord Edward Fiti^gerald, aud offered to deposit in any 
Bank in Europe, the pay of 10,000 men for six months, "they being 
informed that such was the number of the Irish Volunteers," on the 
"condition that they would declare an absolute independence of 
England." This offer, however, was declined, and the emissary soon 
after retired without effecting his purpose. (a) For the leaders of the 
United Irishmen declining this oftec no satisfactory cause has been 
assigned, but it is believed to have been the imperfect state of the 
Toltrnteer associations. For though, in a popular harangue delivered 
some time before at the Rotunda in Dublin, the volunteers were rated at 
the above number, it is certain those really armed did not amount to 
one-half of those given out, and even these, with the exception of a few 
corps in Dublin aud Belfast, were nearly equally destitute of ammunitioa 
or aervicaablB fire-arms. 

The growing spirit of dieaSection throughout the kingdom was greatly 
heightened, about this period, by the arrangements goiug forward for 
Bstahlishing a " national militia." It was circulated that it was a scheme 
of the government to entrap the people into the regular army, aad in 
Beverat parts of the kingdom, serious riots took place, and id numerous 
instances, the like was only prevented by the presenoe of a military force. 
On the 2Sth of June, a meeting of the governor and deputy -governors of 
the couaty of Down was held at the hamlet of Gastlereagh, for the purpose 
of oarcyiug the provisions of the Militia Act into eSect. From some hints 
of disturbance that had beon given, the governors were attended by a troop 



of Lara Edward FttBgeTald: 




of the 17t!i dragoons, and though there waa a vast body of people present, 
the bosinoEB of the day passed quietly on. However, about the houF of 
two o'clock, the dragoons retired to eome distauca to water their horses. 
and CO Booner wore they out of sight, than a, furious discharge of stones 
was made by the people on the hoase where the govemora were met. 
its windows staved, the aentiael wounded, and his horse knoclied down. 
Shots were now £red from the house, which hoing heard by the dragoons, 
they returned with all haste, and were met by a shower of stones, 
on which they charged, and drove the rioters from the road into the 
fields, where they kept mustering, as if meditating a fresh assault. An 
MOOunt of these proceedings was immediately forwarded lo Belfast, and 
soon after the 38th regiment, and a detachment of artillery, with two 
pieces of cannon, arrived at Castleceagh, but before their arrival the 
people had dispersed. Six or seven persona from the country are said 
to have been killed on this occasion, and about the same number were 
reported to have been wounded. Throagbont the adjoining counties, 
the people were equally hostile to the establishing of a Militia, but no 
opposition was made. The Noriftem Slar of July the 3rd stated that 
743 Inhabitants of the parish of Connor— William Walkinehaw, secretary — 
hod presented a petition to the Right Hon. John O'Neill, requesting him 
to resign the command of the Antrim Militia, and to disooutags others 
from taJcing any part in that hateful measure. 

From the convention at Dungannon, it was openly circulated that a 
grand "National Convention" was about to be held at Athlone, and 
Ist SBptem.ber was, aooording to report, at length pointed out as the day 
for the meeting of that august assembly. In the interim, however, the 
&arl of Clare brought a bill into parliament " to prevent the election, or 
other appointment of conveotions. or other unlawful assemblies, nnder 
pretence of preparing, or presenting petitions, or other addresses to his 
majesty or the parliament." The bill was passed into a law on the ITth 
of July, and It, for a time, arrested the impending storm, whiob, from the 
few regular troops In the kingdom, the government appeared ill prepared 

Though the volunteers oC Belfast and its immediate neighbourhood, 
from their being, as it were, under the eye of a strong military force, bad 
□eased to parade, the drillings of many country corps were continued. 
Eimboldened hy the seeming indifiarence of the government, on the 14th 
of September [1793] . a review of these bodies was appointed to be held on 
the northern bank of the Six-mile-watsr. near Dongh, where were to have 
been assembled tbe following corps — Ballyclare. Ijallynure, Bally easton, 
Eallymena, Ballygarvy, Broughshane, Bmailee. Kella, Ihinagore, Doagh, 
Uuokamore. Roughfort, and others. A few days previous, boxes £lled 
with hall cartridges were secretly despatched Into the country to auch 
corps as were known to have serviceable arms, to enable them to rcaiat 
opposition if any were offered. 

The morning proved most tempestuous, the wind was high and oold. 
and the rain fell in torrents, yet before the hour that the volunteers were 
to have bean upon the field, the 38th regiment, Fermanagh Militia, and 
a detachment of artillery with two pieces of cannon, arrived from Belfast 
at Doagh, Intelligence of their approach had been reoeived before their 
arrival, and henoe a few companies of volunteera, on their way to the 
review, were halted, and the contemplated fete, which for weeks previous 
had been the subject of general conversation, was adjourned situ die. 



Sucli was the final exit of the Iiiah Volunteeia, a body of men wllo 
asBOciated iu 1TT8-9 for Che noblesb of purposes — the defence of their 
country— but who in 1792-3 becoming fascinated by the levelling princlplea 
of the French revolution, in imitatiou of theic "National Gusfob," 
appeared lieCerrained to become legislators— and on the ruins of the 
government, to establish a republic on the model of that of France. 

Oq the nth of November, the Hon. Simon Butler, and ArotibaJd H. 
Rowan, Esq.. arrived at Belfast from Edinburgh, where they had been 
attending a meeting of the Scotch convention. They were splendidlf 
entertained at dinner by the gentlemen of the town, and on the lienlth of 
Kir. Rowan being given, in connection with the sentiment. " Iilaj tha 
friends of liberty ever be found virtuous and brave," he rose, and ia tha 
ceucse of a speech, delivered with great energy, he said, "If the present 
government, or any government of the country, should o&ei them • 
carU blanche to fill up their own outline of a free constitution, they 
shotUd refuse to accept of it from them, unless they were permitted to 
form their constitution on the model of the French primary ssaemblle*." 
From the high rank and honourable character of the speaker, and as aa 
influential leader of the United Irishmen, it is believed his words may be 
fairly taken aa a specimen of Che views of their leaders at that period. 
Od this occasion the four societies of United Irishmen of Belfast presented 
an address to the Hon. Simon Butler, expressive of the high sense the7 
entertained of his firm and patriotic conduct, during, and since hia 
imprisonment, to which he returned a most aatisfactory answer. 

On the 3rd of January, 1794, Hugh Boyd, Esq.. Ballycastle, was chosen, 
without opposition, one of the members in parliament far the county of 
Antrim, in room of the Right Hon. John O'NeiU, who. on the 30th ol the 
previous November, was raised to the peerage. Early in March, a bill 
that had been brought into the House of Commons by W. B. Ponsotiby, 
for promoting a more equal representation at the people in parliament, 
was rsjected by a great majority on the plea of the evils that had arisen 
from the introduction of the principles of reform in Prance, many well- 
meauing persons opposing that meaeure from a fear of the consequence 
of so sudden and great a change being the first step towards the ruin 
of the empire. 

In April, the Bev. William Jackson, an Irish clergyman of the Established 
Church, "an envoy from the French Government to the Irish patriots," 
was arrested iu Dublin for high treason, as he was about to set out tor 
Cork. His arrest excited the most serious forebodings among the dis- 
afiected in Dublin with whom he had been in confideoce, but whom tbey 
now suspected of being a spy. Under this impression, Archibald H. 
Bowan, Esq., then confined in Newgate for a seditious libel, effeoted his 
escape by duping the turnkey, fearing to be immediately charged with 
treason, lb] Mr. Bowan embarked at Sutton on board a fishing wheray, 



n 
n 

4 



lian Maeoiina for that a. 



Ih (May) was a plot 



In Green-BtreeC obambere lodging, tbn' miftlit; sore against hie will. 
In trsodoio's path long tradgiog. and using both his tongue and qdIII : 
Lived late a man. whom no one, who knew bim well, oould bear In ipite 
The lamons Hamy Bonan, who Baampered oft an May-day.nlgbt. 



and landed in France at a small bay called Boseolf, where be wbb mode 
prisoner, and detained some tiTue as an English spy. (c) 

Much specnlativD anxiety prevailed about this time throughout Ulster 
in consequence of a considerable number □£ the freeholders of the count; 
of Antrim being aummoned to Dublin to serve as jurors on the trial of the 
proprietors of ttie Norlhern Slar. for publishing D seditious libal. This 
trial took place on the 28th of May, and an the jurors being called ovet, 
two of them, Hugh Lylo and John Hftltridge, were objected to by Orown- 
lawyers. No challenges were made by the defendants. On the part of 
the Crown it was stated. " That they, the proprietors, tending to stir up 
disoontent and sedition among His Majesty's subjects, and to cauae it to 
ba Ijelievad that there is not any government legally constituted" in 
this Kingdom, did, on the l&th December, 1792, publish, or cause 
to be published, a wicked, malicious, and seditious libel, entitled the 
' Declaration and Resolations of the Irish Jacobins,' " On Iwhalf of the 
proprietors it was urged, tliat the evidence before the court oould only 
apply to the printer, John Babb, and the jury coinciding in this opinion, 
the proprietors were acquitted. Rabb being out on bail did not appear to 
surrender himself, and his recognizance was estreated, (d) For some 
time previous the leading society of United Irishmen in Dublin met in 
Taylor's Halt, Back-lane, hut on the night of the 23rd of May they vrere 
dispersed by the city sheriffa. Alderman Warren and High Constable 
CacletcQ, and their books and papers carried away. 

In Belfast eflorts were continued for the seduction of the army, and in 
June were so far successful, that a mutiny broke out in the 79th Regiment, 
quartered in that town, among whom had been distributed anonymous 
inflammatory band-htlls, tending to deceive thom, and to promote 
dlsaSectlon. Two hundred guineas reward were ofiered by the inhabi- 
tants for the discovery of the persona who had distributed these papers 
among the soldiery, but no disclosure was made. However, on the 
arrival of their colonel, a few days after, all disorder ceased, and Che 
regiment being embarked tot Bristol, this scheme for promoting ccntuaion 
ieU to the ground. 

On the 17th November, an information that h,ui been tiled against the 
proprietors of the NoTthsrn Star, for publishing the address of the society 
of United Irishmen of Dublin to the volunteers of Ireland, came on in 
the Court of King's Bench before a rsspoctable jury of the county Antrim. 
The jury, after two hours deliberation, returned a verdict of " Guilty oE 
publishing, but not with a malicious intent," which verdict not being 
accepted by the court, the jury again retired, and returned a verdict of 
not guilty- 



" Ulas Dial 



aelj kept by 1 



-f.^Slk; 



To come «itbiu aacaeadmg, on a rejoicing May-day -night. 

II wae wondered oei/day early, nliich way blie prisoner could be g( 

And was in a qoaDdary where ha bad gone on May-da y-nigbc," 



. the subject ol a severe tatite, written bj 
'aitlitnl Report or (lie Trial o( Hnrdj Qaraj."— 



I 



Having, asne conceive, demonebrabed tbab bLe leading members I]^tlw 
United IriFsbmea were, from their institution, bent ou revolutionary 
projecta, and kept up a, treasonoblB corrBBpondeaoa with PrBnoe, we 
resume our narrative where we left off, in March, 1795, whea we find the 
Northern Star thus recordiug the lormidable progrees of their friends : 
" It cannot bu( be a matter of prond exultation to the societies of United 
Irishmen, that the whole people of Ireland, with eioeptionB searoB worth 
mentioning, are now of those very opiniotis which they broached three 
years ago. and which were then CDnaiderod by the wise, the constitutional, 
the moderate, and the cautious, as symptome nob only of tnadnesB, bub of 
wickedness, in the exbreme." 

After several adjournments, on the 33rd of April, the Rev. WUliam 
JacbBDn was put upon his trial in bbe Oourb of Kiug's Bcoch, Dublin, for 
high Ireanon. It appeared ia evidence, bbat he had arrived tu Loadoa 
from Pari? jibout the end of January. L79J, on a special mission from the 
committee of Salut Public~-t.«,, the committee of public salvation. 
That he Wae instructed to wait on "the Irish patriots, and to promise, If 
the people of Ireland were inclined to cetorra the abuses of their Gorem- 
Dient by a declaration of independence, that the French Government 
would assist them in any way they might deem proper, and would desire 
no further interference." (e) Before leaving Prance he had been furnished 
■with letters of introduction from J. H, Stone, to his brother, William 
Stone, in London, John Home Tooke, and Dr. Crawford, uf the same city. 
In London he passed by his own name for an American merchant, where 
he revived an old aoqualnbanoe wibh an attorney named (Jockayne, to 
whom he diaclosed his mission, who informed the Government of his 
designs, and on the solicitation of Mr, Pitt he agreed to accompany 
Jackson to this country. Before their setting out, arrangements were 
made with William Stonu for the transmiesion of any letters that Jackson 
might have occasion to send to the continent, with the superscription. 
"Mods. Chapeau Rouge, llarohand. Hamburgh." This person waa to 
forward the letters to Mr, Beniaraio Berosford, at Basle, in Switzerland, 
who was to find means to oonvey them to Paris. William Stone in 
vnribing to Jackeon to address him by the name of Thomas Popkins, and in 
his correspondence, instead of his own mune, that of William Bnols, the 
latter part being simply that of atone reversed. 

Matters being thus digested, Jackson and hie companion set forward 
to Dublin, where thoy arrived on the 1st of April. Immediately after we 
find them in correspond enoe with Theobald W. Tone, Archibald H. 
Bowan, Leonard MuAnally, Edward J. Lewins, Hon. Simon Butler, 
James Reynolds, M.D., Cookstown, (/) and other active leaders of the 
United Irishmen. Assisted by the two former gentlemen, a memoir 
was drawn out on the state of the country, for the purpose of its being 
transmitted to Amsterdam, and from thence to Paris. On the informa- 
tion given by Cockayne, the memoir was intercepted at the post office. 



I 



I 
■ 



On the night of the 24th oE April, Jocksuu was arraated, ou which Mr. 
Rowan, then iu pciaoii, contrivsd to ffliHSt his escape. The original of 
this report was written out by Mr, Tone, but that put into the post office 
woa in the hnnd-writiag of Mr. Rowan. When, in treating of the 
different raligions aocts in this Kingdom.it was said: "Tha DiasenterB 
are the moBt enlightened body of the nation, the? are aCeady repablioajit. 
devoted to liberty, and through all the stogeB of the French HevolutioQ 
have been enthusiastically attached to It ;" and it was also stated, that on 
the French landing, " the North wonld rise to a man," and that " the 
militia, the great body of whom ware Eomaa Oatholics, would, to a. mora! 
oartainty, abandon their leaders, "(g) 

Jackson w&a found guilty of high treiison, anii on his beine brought up 
on the 30th, before sentence, he died in the dock, having that morning 
taken "a large quantity of araenic and aquafortis miied in his tea." He 
had a splendid funeral, and to the astonishment of Dublin, it was attended 
by several members of Parliament and barri«lore, "who gave this pre- 
BUmptive proof that they were friendly to his mission." (h) Although Mr. 
Tone had throughout borne a prominent part in the proceedings of 
Jackson, he was not even arrested, and through iho interest of some 
inSuential friends be was permitted to quit the Kingdom, " and to go into 

Meanwhile, by the 10th of May, the increase in the numbecs of the 
United Irishmen was such, that delegates from seventy-two societies met 
in Belfast, who, in addition to their previous plana, formed a more 
enlarged "system of committees." Thsae were divided into parochial, 
baronial, county, provincial, and national, of executive directory, and 
Ihough the membors of tha lattar were otily known to a faw, yet Iheit 
commands were implioitly obeyed. Each of these committees to meat 
once in every mooth, and to report their proceedings to their constituenta. 
At this meeting a plan was also devised for raising a oommon fusd, by 
monthly subsoriptiona, to be applied for the support of prisoners, and to 
extend the union. The obligation or test taken by United Irishmen 
likewise underwent an important revision, the words, "a full represen- 
tation of the people," being Inserted, omitting tbe words, "in the Oommons 
House of Parliament," and changing the original obligation into an oath ; 
or, as it has been expressed, " the substance was ea altered as to oorrespond 
with the progress of opinion, embracing both repablicans and reformera," 
Thus, to use the words of one of their most zealous friends, the 10th of 
May " produced the mo.it important consoquenoes to Ireland, and, as such, 
will be remembered to the latest posterity ; " (j) while the Northern Star 
proceeded to demonstrate that the people were ripe for revolution, as the 
state was ruined. 

to)TrialDf,TaoksoD. 

(A) Two of l^tae tiarrlaCeri here alluded to, were John and Henry Stiiers. In the 
Xamtna Pait or that day, Jaoksaa's father wu said to have, at oas tline, afflclated 
in the Prerogative Court, Dublin, and lila brothu to bive been Dr. Richard 
Jackeon, Vioar-Osawal bo the ArahblBbop of OHDel, For a time he bad been 

Erlvate seeratftrr Co (tie ooiobratBd DnoheBS of Klnsston, and bad been employed 
r bar in writing againat Mr. Foots, who had satiitssd her In eoine ut bis farces. 
About 1793, he was a oontrlbntor to the Horning Pott, a vln'™ii n-iniatori.! ™noi- 
pDblisbed in London. On qiiitlilQg tliiB smplayment he 
Iiarrtii0fan'i Bkeichei, Vol. fl., pagit Ul, Ua. 

(i) Lite of Theobald W. Tone, Vol. I., page ISO. 
0) MoNevln'sPieoeaof Iriib Hislory. 



io Frauce,— ironaJt 



On the 91at of the sama month, Theobald W, Tone arrived in Belf&Bt, 
on his way to the United States of America. He had probably chosen 
this circuitous route foe the purpose o£ taking leave of his Notthem 
Mends, to wbcm he imparted hia intoDtion, on his arrival in the Staties, 
Dsmely. to oblaiD a passport from the French Minister, to enable him to 
proceed to Paris, "to follow up negotiations begun with Jackson," whiob 
met "with their perfect approbation." During the Elay of Mr. Tone, 
a series of civio festivBla were held in compliment to that gentleman. 
One of these wan an excursion to Bamsisiand, and another took plaoo on 
(he summit of MoArt's fort, Cavehill, which was attended by the leading 
political cbaraoters of tijat town. And here the party took a solemn 
obligation, never to desist In their efforts until tbey had subverted the 
aatnority of England over this country, {k) 

Mr. Tone sailed front Belfast on the 16th uf June. Previous to hie 
departure he was loaded with favours by his Belfast friends, and they 
afterwards remitted him £300, as a subsidy, in order to enable him to 
carry into effect the arduous enterprise of going to France. In noticing 
this communication, ha says : " They pressed me. in the strongest manner, 
to fulfil the engagement I had made with them at my departure, and to 
move heaven and earth to force my way to the French Government, in 
order to supplicate tbei; assistance." (i) 

From the great meeting of delegates in Belfast, the proceedings of the 
United Irishmen were conducted with a greater degree of secrecy and 
oircumspeotion, while the moat sanguinary acta of the French were 
applauded as the triumphs of liberty, and furnished a constant theme of 
exultation. Their armies were said to be invincible, and speciEdly 
directed by providence for the extirpation of tyrants and kings, and hence 
they were called the advanced guard of the liberties of Europe, while their 
admirers seemed to say — 

" France shows us the way— an example how great ; 
Then like Frauoe. let us stir up a riot; 
May our name be preserved by some damnable fact, 
For who but a wretch would be quiet," 

In the progress of these events, many ol the clergy became equally 
busied as the otiier classes of the community. Among the most forward 
of these was a Roman Catholic priest, who, heedless of the extirpation of 
his order in France, perambulated the counties of Down and Antrim, 
preaching in fields. His hearers, on those oocasiona, commonly amounted 
to several thousands, and the subject of his discourses were invariably 
brotherly love, with allusions to the great work going forward for the 
renovation of maokiod. At one of Chose $eld musters, the writer 
witnessed a Presbyterian clergyman disnliss |iis flock before he bad 
commenced the religious services of the day, aotl proceed, at their head, 
to the friar, where, from the multitude assembled, scarce a word oould be 
heard of the preacher's oration. Many of the Presbyterian clergy, also, 
evinced that they were deeply infected with the popular mania, adopting, 
in the fullest extent, the levelling principles of the day, and some of their 
houses of worship were even magazines of arms, where were also matured 



their 1 



("») 

W, Tone. HI Ibid. 

DUBS at Tamplepatrich. two brass Bti-poonder oann 

EDluateers, were ereated. aod in tliat ol BaUyclars i 




TBB. Bl 

The country now reeounded with blaBphenwus rhymm, which were 
CAlled pattiotic aunga, thoogb, nith a few ex^ptiona, they neither 
poBseBsed the cdHDinon melody of song, nor amoothneaa of diotion — 
nncouth curses, stcung into equally vulgar versBs, being the order of the 
day. A lavonrite toaat at this time was: "May the skin of old Geordy — 
meaciog the king — be a drum-bead to rouse tbe republicans to arms." 

As tbe united system gathered strength, many of its votaries threw 
aside disguise, and in their inordinate love of Fraoch politjoa, avowed 
their ooutempt for every ancient right and privilege, aud determination of 
destroying whatever institutions were not truly republican. The most 
illiterate bumpkin appeared to consider bimsetf a oonaummate politician, 
and "inspired with, tbe spirit of pulling down kings and princes " In 
this levelling spirit, a division of the properties of the wealthy commonly 
bote a prominent feature, and furnished much interesting speculation. M 

It was openly said, that on a general division of Che lands of the 
kingdom taking place, they were to bo free from rent, ceas. or tithes ; in 
fact, the chimera oE uncontrolled liberty had taken root in the minds of 
the multitude, who aeemad to tMnk with Jack Cade, that " it was never a 
merry world since gentleman came up," and "the good old rale, the 
simple plan." appeared to be— 

" That they should keep who have the power. 
And tliey should get who can." 
The hair, which for many years had been worn at ils length, but tied 
either olubed or queued, now began to be crapped short in the manner of 
(he roundheads during the usurpation of Cromwell. This custom, 
however, had a direct allusion to the modern politics oE France, as so 
^rly &s January, IT93, we find, in Paris, short hair esteemed a proof of 
being a good Jacobin, (o) On the introduction of the fashion here, soma 
young persons, who prided themselves on the colour or length of their 
hair, were refractory to its being crept, but thay were soon compelled to 
submit by stratagem or force. At length crept hair was generally 
adopted, even by females, and in time the custom gave rise to the term, 
"croppy," by which name those said to be United Irishmen were called 
by their opponents. 

Among the numerous devices of tbe disaffected for promoting con- 
fidence and enthusiasm among the ignorant, were falsehoods and legends, 
which were called prophecies. These were said to be contained in an 
ancient manuscript, entitled, "The Irish Chronicle," written out fay the 
celebrated Saint Columbkille, which work, though no one ever pretended 
to have seen, all appeared to believo in its marvellous predictions, (p) 

(ti) Strange as it may appear, tbe advocates [of tbis S' 
from eitinot. lQ]836,»pampliletwaBpnbl - - ■- 
Bigbls— tor the purpose of sliowiae the u 
landhaaeolhaBollhaomiivati ' " ' 

tba only remedy tor the eompli 

w[tb an addtete to tbe people of the United States of AuioEiua, i 
" that II they do not take meaanres for proliibiCliig the Bbsomte o«a 
their freedom and bappineeB wauld silently and gradually fade i 



llsbed In Bi 

...le right I 
, ''theprlndpres o: 



<o) 



(p) The writer bai 
D the town of ADtrlm 









SS; AntobiooTiliihv iif A^ 
i lately heard that an ol< 
, bad an old Greek book. 



, In 


July, 1791, the 














laUy, nho resided 



Its fsbulons ralatlon* mere offiimed la point out great ovents about to taks 
place in Ulster, and the fortunate compleiiicii o{ tbe tiatioDBil revolution. 
The parish of Duiidonald, oounty of Down, was particularly noted aa Uia 
place were aeveral of these propheoicB were about to be iul^lled. Here m 
jouag maiden, nith two tbuiubs on her right hand, wan to sit upoD a larna 
atone, and to hold the horses of three kings dnring a great battle, in whiui 
Ireland was to he. as it were, three times lost, but at length won. During 
tluB confliut the wheel of an adjoining mill was to be three times turned 
round with the blood of the slain. Frevious to this great day the maiden 
was to have cTopBed the Atlantic Ocean three times, which, it was 
asserted, she had already accomplished. Two common briars growing 
in the some neighbourhuod. at a uonaiderable diatance from each other, 
were aleo to entwine their branches before this great battle, wbicb union 
was al&rmod to have been perfected — therefore, civil warfare was believed 
to be ot hand, 

Vialonx were also affirmed to have been witnessed at certain places, 
and many persons were reported to have bad strange and prophetia 
dreams regarding tbe landiog of the French near Belfast, and Ihsir 
victorious progress. It was also given out, that at the dread hour of 
midnight, lights had been observed in several ancient churches, and that 
a person, more hordy than his neighbours, on looking in at one of the 
windows, heard an angel read out of a green bootc the order for the 
extirpation of the English interest in Ireland I 

la several districts of the counties of Antrim and Dorry, two worthiSBa 
pamphlets, which had become rare, suddenly came into great repute. 
One of these was entitled, ■' The Prophooies of Thumaa the Bbymer." an 
unintelligable worthy of the olden time, who is said to have flourished in 
the latter end of the thirteenth century. (;) His prophecies — as they 
are called— extant, appear to ralata chiefly to the union between 
Ungland and Scotland. The other tract merely oontains an aocount of 
the wanderings, persecutions, and ravings of the Rev. Alexander Pedea, a 
Scotch Covenanter, who, about 1682, traversed tbe county o( Antrim, and 
who, like some others of his oanny countrymen, had the address to 
impress his simple hearers with a belief oi his being a prophat. The 
following interesting document proves how highly these pamphlets were 
regarded at the time: — At a meeting of a society of United Irishmen, in 
the hamlet of Rasharkin, 106 members present, 4T of whom were Roman 
Oatholios the following resolutions were unanimously entered into : — 

"Besolved — That we behold plainly the case of not every one knowing 
the prophecies of Thomas the Rhymer, and the prophecies of Alexander 
Feden, all useful to the people in the making of our laws, and as many of 
ooz brethren oannot read them, and explain them, and tell about them ; 

" Resolved— That Donald O'Kennedy will read to the county of Derry, 
and that Arohy Woods will read to the oounty of Antrim, and that they 
tell (he Frenah news to everybody, and dispute with all who dare to 
ooatrodiot them. Signed, William Wilson, Secretary." 





The fomtoT of Chess readers was a Roman Catholic, tha latter a 
Diasenter. whicli oIbhb gave a decided preference to the reading of Peden, 
while their brethren vrere equally delighted with the wild dark prediotiona 
of the Rhymer, [r) 

Iq order that nothing might be wanting on tha revolution hreaking 
out, a gnilloline wati Diade by a meobacic in the vicinity of Ellrea, and a 
list made out of those to be decapitated, or, as i( was said, "to oil first 
the wheels of the revolution for the public good." As in France, the 
properties o£ the wealthy were to have bean confiscated for the benefit of 
the republio, and hence, In the langoags of Bobeapierre, the guillotine 
wtkB to have been called the "National Mmt." a phrase much applauded 
for the ezpresHive ingenuity of the application. The Kilrea instrument 
was nearly tea feet in height, its axe sharp .and heavy, and about ten 
inches deep. It was moved up in a groove by a pulley and rope. Lead 
being scarce, from the great demand of that metal for bullets, the axe was 
loaded by a piece cut off an old millstone, A few experiments were 
made by beheading dogs and cats, which being declared satisfactory, the 
maker weis said to have deserved well of his country, and the instrument 
was carefully deposited in an ark in the corn-mill of Liscagrat. 

Early in December it was auBounoed that an election for a knight oE 
the shire for the county Antrim was about to be held in the room of 
Hugh Boyd, Esq., deceased. Accordingly, on the IQth of the same 
month, a meeting of those calling themselves the freeholders' committee, 
appointed, as they said, in 1702, to guard tha country from the baneful 
inAuenoe of the aristocracy, was held in Ballymena, Mr. William Duffia 
in the chair. They proceeded to declare, that they did " not represent, 
nor pretend to represent, any psraon but themselves.'' Regretted tbaC 
the meetings of the "immortal volunteer army," had been prohibited; 
advised the " independent freeholders " of the county not to interfere in 
contested elections, and, among other reasons given for thus withdrawing 
themselves, were declared to be the degraded state of the representation, 
the great body of the people being excluded from the elective fraacbiae, 
" but, above all, that the successive administrations who have home sway 
in this country have ever made a pretext of refusing a reform, not because 
it was improper, but becauae the people were clamorous." 

Richard G. Kerr, Redball, and John Staples, Esq., oQered themselves 
as candidates to the electors, but the former soon after withdrew. James 
Murphy, Belfast, an old debilitated toper, was also put forward by some 
persona as a fit and proper gentleman to represent the county in partia- 
meiit, and several addressls to the electors, hearing his name, appeared 
in the newspapera. On the day appointed for holding the election, Mr. 
Murphy came into court, but, like many others aspiring to be great men, 
he found himself deserted by his friends, and Mr. Staples wa9 returned 
without opposition. 

About the commencement of 1796, dategatea from the Defenders in 
Dublin arrived in Belfaat, for the purpose of promoting an amicable 
arrangement between that body and the United Irishmen, for up to this 
time, though they were equally hostile to the state, " they had been kept 
wholly distinct bodies." On the return home of these delegates they 
made tbeir report to their leaders, which being approved of, the defender 









it 300 Id tbesa parialiee could 



Bystam was new modeUed, which laid the taaodalioD of the uaioii of those 
parties, a matter of great icterest, the organization of the latter embraoing 
"the nhole peasantry of Ireland, being Roman Catholics," nhila. at the 
same time, nearly 10.000 of the army were "sworn defBnderH,"(i) 

The government were probably aware of this junction, as about the 
game time apiaa and informera were engaged to discover their secret plans, 
Bome of whom hecoming suspected of their engagements, fell by the pistol 
or dagger. New Echemes were hence devised hy the diaafiected to guard 
against the machinations oi these ruffians, and hence oommitteea of 
asaasaiiiatioc were established. (() However guilty, iunooeut, or distant, 
the accused persons might he, they were arraigned hy these tribunals, and 
as rarely any but their enemies could be heard, they seldom eaoaped 
conviction. It is nevertheless more than probable that several of the 
persona thus diapcsed of were iimocent of the Crimea with, which they 
were charged, aa it is certain acme of them were not United Irishmen, 
while the excellent character of others falsified auch aa infamous imputa- 
tion. During the winter, considerable disturbance took place in several 
parishes of the oounty of Down, particularly in thosp of Donaghcloney, 
Dromore, and Dromara, in consequence of Witeataniag letters, robberies, 
and various depredations said to arise from political causes. 

On the 21tn of March the insurrection act was passed, which excited 
a loud and general clamour among the United Irishmen. By it the Lord 
Lieutenant, in council, was authorised to proclaim, on the requisition of 
seven of its magistrates, assembled at a petty sessions of the peace, any 
county or district thereof, as in a state of disturbance, and thereby to 
invest the magistrates with an extraordinary power of seising, imprison- 
ing, and sending on board the fleet without trial, such persona aa should 
be found at unlawful assembliaa, or acting so as lo threaten the public 
tranquility. It required the registry of arms; and magisiratea were 
empowered to search for the like. The information of any prosecutor in 
behalf of the crown, who might be murdered, was made evidence on the 
trial of the accused ; and any magistrate or peace officer murdered while 
on duty, or in oonsequence of his exertions to serve the publio, the Grand 
Juries of countiea were empowered to levy money ofi the county lor his 
representatives. When the county or district was declared in a state of 
disturbance, all persons to keep within their houses, between sunset and 
sunrise. In the meantime, the leaders of the disaffected in Belfast 
continued their earnest exertions to strengthen the common cause, and as 
"the new system of organization had not, as yet, been carried into 
complete effect anywhere but in Ulster, the erfoutive committee of which 
province, holding its sittinga in that town, managed the interests of the 
whole nation." (a) 



leaders In tboii memoir, delivered by 

1TS8. The writer, bowever, has beaid their eiistence uiknowledge<3 

irbo were deeply engaged in tbe nol^tical oSaira of tbat day ; one ei wi 



in tbe nolltical a 
dent of a dab. 

re of Lord Edward Fitigerald, Vol. I 



; Lile of Theobald W. Tone, Vol. n.. 



been denied by tbeir principal 

tbe Iriab Qovemuient in Augaab, 

their eiiatanea aolinowled^ed by several 




About the eud of March, a report was induBtriousl; spread, and for a 
DFediled b; some, and pretended to bo bulioved by ma,u;, that a host 
of Orangemen (ti) weco coming from the cooaty AnnBgh to destroy Belfast, 
and also "those in the country who hod promoted tbe union of Irinhmen," 
and, in abort, all those who adhered to the divine doctrine of "Peace on 
earth, and good will to all men." Ttiia absurd rumour was so far Bredited 
that the military guards in Belfast were doubled, and the troops kept 
ready at a moment's call. During this alarm, a deputation of the late 
Belfast Volunteers waited upon the sovereign, "requesting him to inform 
General Nugent that they were willing to co-operate with the railitarj 
under his oommand,"(ui) but their aervices ware not acaepted. The editor 
of the Korlhern Star, when noticing this report, assures his readers that 
there was sufficient force in Belfast " to annihilate the entire horde " of 

Early in April, an itinerant preacher named Gibson, began to traverse 
the eounty of Antrim, 

"To preach sedition and the word." 
He was of that sect called Covenanters, and commonly lectured in the 
fields, where his hearers often amounted to several thousands. The 
religious services of the day, if such they may bs called, seldom coacluded 
in less than six tours, and his tests of scripture were always taken from 
the hook of the Revelations, the eighteenth chapter o£ which seemed to be 
his favourite. These harangues were always of a political toudeney, and 
the tests applied in such a manner as to impress his hearers that it was 
the word of God whioh inculcated upon them certain duties, while, in 
reality, they were inflamed to deeds of rebeUioD. bi^ranny, and murder. 
On entering upon his mission he at times so far forgot himself as to 
relapse for a moment into his holy hatred of popery, by introduoiog the 
antiquated dogmas of his sect, in allusions to the man of sin, and an old 
jade dressed in soarlet, dyed with the blood of the saints, said to reside 
neor Babylon. These nntimely slipB of his reverenoe were overlooked by 
the hearers with a truly Christian forbearance, for which kindness he was 
afterwards sure to make amends by pointing out tbo immediate destruc- 
tion of the British monarchy, Gibson was at length removed by his 
employers to some other circuit, and was succeeded by a preacher of tbe 
same sect named Orr, who proved himself equally zealous in the discharge 
of his missionary labours, (j:) 

Though it was notorious that seditious meetings were held, and that 
the United Irishmen continued to increase, at tbe Spring Assi;ws for the 
county of Antrim, tbe Grand Jury, stepping out of " the noiseless tenor of 
tbeir way," published an address to the inhabitants, complimenting them 





mae — 


On the aist SepWrnber, 1795, a battle look pUee near PartadowB, at a place 


'Soiled 




lormet 




LB Seld 


of battle": )>at ao asHoi^latloD of a elmllar etamp had been foroied Bomi 
previous by a pbtboq of the name ot vmaon—Kirbfatnok't OWflin of ( 




JnnyB 


l^odgei, pagei 83a, 036. 





on their loyalty to tho beat of kings, and the peftoeable atkls erf tbe 
ooODty We have been unable to diacover the object of the jntocH ia this 
addless. Were they afraid to avow Chat tbey knew treasonable praotices 
were pceaaiag forward, or did they, in the simplicity of their loyalty, 
ioukgine that they eould cajole the people to lay aside a system in which 
thJay were solemnly leaguea? 

About the end of April, a proposition waa made frem the eiecative 
directory ol the French republic, by Theobald W. Tone, then in Paria, to 
the persons then directing the Irish unioo, that they were disposed to 
aBsist tbem in their plan to revolutionize the kiiLgdom. (n] A meeting of 
the Irish executive directory was immediately convened to take into 
oonsideration this proposal, who returned for answer, that tbey accepted 
their kind ofler. This answer was deapatchud by a special messenger 
named Lewins. and still further assurances were given of the friendly 
disposition of the French Government, and that ample suocours would ho 
sent as soon as they could be got ready. To hasten theae intentions, 
in the latter end of May, Lord Edward Fitzgerald and Arthur O'Connor, 
Esq.. departed by different routes for the continent, and at Baale, 



< 



the French frontier, they had an interview with General 
believed to have been finally settled the treaty for tha 
1 in the fullowiug December, made its appearance in 



Switzerlaii 
Hoche, where i. 
armament, whi 
Bantry Bay.(j!) 

A short time prior to this communication, a meeting of delegates from 
the different half baronies of the oounties of Down and Antrim had been 
bald in Belfast, who gave in their reports to an ofEcial gentleman appointed 
to receive them, regarding the general feelings of the people in case of an 
invasion of the kingdom by the French, Theae reports were decidedly 
favourable to auob a measure, and it was declared that the mass of the 
people anxiously looked forward for the auspicious day. 

At the Summer Assizes held for the county of Antrim, the Grand Jury 
noticed that a "spirit of riot and depredation" existed in a part of the 
oounty. James Livingston, a blacksmith, was found guilty of posting up 
and publishing, on the door of his shop, at Bushmills, a seditious libel 
entitled, "Liberty and Equality," calling upon the people to plant the 
tree of liberty instead of a crown of tyranny. He was sentenoed to be 
imprisoned one year, to stand three times in the pillory, viz.. in the towns 
of Baltymoney, Ballymena and Belfast, but from the popular feeling in 
his favour the pillory seemed rather a triumph than a, punishment. 



iiad previoUBlj iiaan employnd ua a Bfrniior niiBsion to 
this Bias, was sent on a mission to (bis oouatry. I'rior 
famished him with a list of rciends lo call opoo, aw 
S. HrilaoQ, and R. S„ perbaps Robert SiuimB. M' T, 
tTom Belfast, August Is(, IT95. On ttie 1st of J 
Bandyhook, for Havre, where he arriied od the 
dirooi to Pfttis. ImniBdiatoly after we flnfi hla 
directory for the invasion of this KiDgilom, Id 
board one ol [be French shipB that entured Bant 

lJ98,ha"ailod£om'cnmMet'Sav"in ibe^Hocha 
Oetobar, takan oft the coast of Donegall bf the 



.med Absrae, who 



Tluobald n 



•.Vol. II., t 



> of Con 



iDuary. 1736, be embarked at 
jid QtFBliruary, and proceeded 
□egotiatinK with the French 

yBay, In Jul;, 1T9T, he was at 
nbeinBgivannpinBaptember, 
> wbloh eblp was, on the Iltb of 
Bdron of Bir John B. Warren.— 
imoRi, August f Jit, I7S8, Lifs of 

lee of Lords, August 3(Hh, 1198^ 



Sooa after, the oommoa fermont was greatly heightened by arreBts ia 
Belfast and its vicinity, of pereonfl reputed to be leaders of the United 
Iriafamen. On the morning of the IGth Sept-ombec. a King's Messenger, 
tba MarqaiB of Downahire, the Earl ot Westmeath. and Lord Castlerea^h(a) 
arrived in that town, InunedJately after, the numerous garrison of horse, 
foot, and artillery, were nnder arms, and tlie following persons were 
arrested for high treason : — Samuel Neilson, Thomas liussell, Henry 
Haslett, Samuel Kennedy, Daniel Shacagban, John Young, James Barclay, 
and Bawlpy Oabourne. Charles H. Teeling aed Samuel MusgraTe.biabucn, 
were also taken prisoners on the same day on a similar charge. In the 
evening all the prisoners were sent off to Dublin in post-chaises, under an 
osoort of dcBgoona. These arrests were soon aiter followed by that of 
mauy other persons in the counties of Down, Antrim, and Deiry. all on 
treasonable charges, who were mostly confined in the jails of their 
reapeolive oounties, and many fled, or, for a time, liept under oover. 

On the alarm occasioned by these proceedings having, in some degiee, 
subsided, a novel system was adopted by the friends of the prisoners to 
testify their respect for them, and their attachment to the principles (or 
which they were immured. This was striliingly exemplified in the 
numbers of those who attended to reap the com, or to raise the potatoes — 
or, in fact, any other work supposed to stand behind, or to require help 
in consequence of the absence of the owner. These assemblages uiually 
varied from 600 to 2,000 persona, among whom were always a number of 
females decorated with green ribbons, handkerchiefs, and the like, and, 
at times, a Presbyterian Minister was seen in the crowd. At Sivatragh, 
county of Derry. in raising the potatoes of a Mrs. Clarke, whose son was 
in pvieon eh&rged with seditious practices, the Rev. John Smith, Ministai 
of Kilrea, was observed busied gathering potatoes in his new castor hat. 
On finishing the labonra of the field, these bodies commonly proceeded in 
regular order, four or six men deep, through the neighbouring tovma and 
Tillages, each digger carrying his spade on his shoulder, and accompanied 
by the sounding at boms, couch shells, and long glass tubes called 
trumpets. No spirituous liquors were taken on those occasions, and in a 
few instances, where the like were exposed for sale in the fields, the 
owners retired without selling one glass. 

Throughout the previous summer several itinerant Covenanted Clergy- 
men continued their harangues in the fields, which appear, at length, to 
have created some alarm in tbe moderate portion of that community, 
as on the 3rd ot October, tbe following advertisement appeared in the 
Northern Star, but though in the language of the official paper of a seat, 
it bore no signatures : — "A SmsonabU and Necessary Information, At a 
critit^Bl period such as the present is. when the public mind is maoh 
agitated, and so many false alarms in circulation, we. the members of the 
reformed church, called Presbyterian Disaentors (reproBobfully called 
"Monntainmen"),hold it as our duty to step forward, and from oonscieuoe, 
publicly declare that we hold in the highest abhorrence and detestation, 
all tumultuous and disorderly meetings; and we utterly disclaim all 
oonnection with such, whether publicly or privately held, where anything 
is said or done that is prejudicial to the peace, the safety, or property of 

(a) la the mamoiia of %he life and Times of the Bigbt Hon. Henry OiBttao, 
Vol. I., it Is stated tbat Lord Csstlereagb was, on tlisir orlein. " »■ oKnnber ot tbe 
Society of Dnited Irishmen, and draok tlie republican taoBla of the day." 



I 



&ny individual or Bociet;. Done in the name of the Roformed Chnnib. in 
tbe couQtioH ol Antrim and Down. October 3rd. 1T96." As might have 
been eipected, this papeF had no eQect in restraining the political orationB 
of their reverences, Ekt least three o( whom were now holding forth, in 
the fieldE. 

On Che 15th oE Oatober. the habeas corpus act wad Eospended, and at 
the same time printed hand-billa were circulated about the country by the 
government, to such gentlemen as might he supposed to take a part in 
the formation of yeomanry corps ; but from the influence of the United 
Irishmen, for gome time little progress was made. On the aigbt of the 
28th of the same month, the king's stores in Betfa&t were broksn into, and 
ten casks of gunpowder carried away. About the same time caricatorea 
of the armed yeomanry were spread about by persons from Belfast, and 
printed papers were posted up at meeting-houses and othor public places, 
oaatiocing the people to be obedient to the laws, as tbeir implacabla 
enemies wished to goad them into an insurreotion. 

In order to counteract the arming of the yeomanry, which at length 
began to make some progress, the United Irishmen also adopted a military 
organization. Each regiment eonsisted of one colonel, one major, six 
captains, and 600 men. Great pains were taken to have proper men for 
sergeants, who hence were generally the moEt active and intelligent men 
in the corps. Their exertions, at this lime, were gceotly emboldened 
by the recent arrival of Lewins, their messenger, from Paris, with an 
assurance that a large fleet, with 15,(XK) land forces on board, and adequate 
annfi and stores, might soon be expected. The most strenuous efforts 
were, therefore, oontiuned to perfect tbeir arrangements to take the field. 
Pike heads were forged in large qnantities, and, in several places, the 
arms of the military were stolen from their quarters. (6) 

Among the numerous devices instituted at this time by the disofteoted 
to forward their plans, perhaps one of the most singular was societies of 
United Irishwomen. Tke chief object in establishing these societies was 
by an obligation to keep their tongues qoiet as to what they might hear 
or see regarding political afiairs, to oommnnicate such news as they 
might learn, and to collect, from each society, a subscription to the 
common fond. By their friends these meetings were commonly called 
tea-pot otubs, and some venerable matrons are said to have introduced 
their daughters into society by the endearing names of Miss Liberty and 
Misa Equality. Judging from the violent languago of these amazons, 
they were anxious for an opportunity to rival, by deeds of the dagger, the 
"Dames de la Halte," and the " Poissardos." those valuable allies of the 
French revolution (c) 

On the 6tb of Novomher, the Lard Lieutenant and council issued a 
proclamation forbidding the aRsembling of the people under the pretence 
of reaping com or digging potatoes. Nevertheless, on Saturday the 12lh 
of the same month, a considerable number of persons, with spades, met 
at Stoney-ford, and proceeded, accompanied by martial music and a 



ot the sail Drsgoo 



Komiaody, worn 
Ihrobblne bEut 



a flgbtinn wbo HliDDid, 



in this way at BallymoQej, 

irs to linve been averywhere 
tbis spirit proceed, that in 
— '■■ ■•■ - '— irthayat 



-Lady Waliaae'iLititn t 



I 



gTCBii flag, they commencBd digging up ths patntooa of SeT^ray Galway, 
againat whom n waiianb bud been isBiied for treaaonable prsoticea. 
On intelligence of this muster, tho Rev. Philip JohuBou, Derriaghj, a 
magistrate, accompanied by six dragcons and a number of armed men 
from his neighboucbood, reputed Orangemen, praceeded to diaperse them 
Forty-four potato diggers were taken prisouers, who were soon after 
liberated on their tailing the oath of allegianoe, [dj On the same day 
Lord O'Neill, governor of the County Antrim, and seventeen magiatratea, 
assembled in the town of Antrim to deliberate on the agitated state of the 
country. Their worships afterwards published some trifling resolutions, 
and met again in Ballymena on the 23rd, where their resolves were 
equally futile and uninteresting. In the interim, twenty-four magiBtratea 
of the county of Down assembled at Killyleagh, and declared the parislieB 
of Seapatriok. Moira, Maralin, Aghadcrg. Tullylisk, and Donagboloney 
out of the peace. About this time an Irishman named MoBheohy waa 
deapatched from Brest on board of an American vessel bound for Dublin, 
to acquaint the leaders of the United Irishmen with the forward state of 
the expedition designed for tiiia kingdom, (e) and, of course, with the time 
it was eipected to pat oat to sea. 

Meanwhile the diaoffected continued their preparations with, if posaible, 
atill greater diligence — the ami lbs in forging pikcheada, and the others in 
cutting timber at night for their shafts, and each member was to be ready 
at a moment's call. The want of powder and lead continued to be severely 
felt ; the former, however, was occaaiorially obtained, at most exorbitant 
prices, frorn smugglers who brought it over from Scotland, by the klj of 
Cantyre ; while, in the scarcity of the latter, the leaden weights'were 
taken from the country dealers' counters, the leaden statues atolen from 
gentlemeua' gardens, and the lead from the grocers' tea cheats waa 
eagerly sought after as a supply. (/) 

Early in December it was confidently asserted that a special com- 
mission was about to be isaued for the trials, at Christmas, of the State 
prisooors confined in the jail of the county of Antrim, As no aucb event 
was contemplated by the government, it is probable that this report 
originated in their expected releasa by the French, and proves in aome 
degree, how generally an invasion was looked for at that season. 

On the 20th of the same month, the following extraordinary proceeding 
took place in Kilrea: — A wretched vagrant named McCaul, who, a few 
years after, waa transported for stealing cattle, made oath before the Rev. 
John Torrens, that seven persons whom he named were captaina in the 
army of the United Irishmen. The persons accused, fully aware of the 
danger to which they were eipoaed by the machinations of such a rufBau, 
fled, and their flight was immediately proclaimed by hta reverence as an 
indubitable proof of their guilt. A few days afterwards, a detachment of 
the Kerry militia arrived at Eilrea, and, under the direction of Mr. 



(d) The Northern Star o[ tbe 14th of Novoinbor, wban i 
"They were tktBins (bii poUtoes o( a poor widow;" and 
tbe KIbI December. 1T9T, wli'n aUuding to tUalr dJaperai 
aotot tiranoyindoiitniBe, 8*yB, the pooplu were "bnay 
dJegine up tbe potatoea o! a poor womiu.^ 

(» Ltte of Tbeobald W. Toae, Vol. n., page 330. 



I tbe Qod-Uke w 



IToircenB, tha^ prooBeded ta set fire to the house of Jaraea Stewart, one 01 
the persons nho had fled. The houses of two of the others enom against 
by McCaul, being connected with others, were not burned, but their 
scanty iumitnre was carried out and consumed. During those proceed- 
ings his worship observed in a jocular way to those near him, "boys, I 
have made you agood bonfire,"(j7) The prooeedingo were brief y noticed 
at the time in the Northern Star, but except by the miserable sufferers, 
they seemed soon forgotten amidst the common femiBot occasioned by 
the report that a French fleet bad arrived at Cork. 

On tbe 2Ttb of December, it was rumoured in Belfant that a fleet of 
large ships, supposed to be French, had come to anchor in Bantry Bay on 
the evening of the SSrd. By tbe S9tb the report had increased, and 
on the morning of tlie 30th, John Brown, Esq., sovereign, eomniunicftted 
to the gentlemen on 'Change the contents of a letter that he bad received 
from the Chief Secretary of the Lord Lieutenant, confirming this alarming 
intelligence. Mr, Brown now urged thoae present to form a yeomanry 
corps on the conditions that had been prescribed by the government. 
To this it was replied, that they were ready to serve as they bad formerly 
done as volunteers, for the protection of persons and properties, hut that 
they could not, without doing violence to their consciences, talie an oath 
to support faithfully the present laws, which would include the Gun- 
ponder Bill, Convention Bill, and others of a similar tendency. After 
macb oonverBation of a like kind, it was agreed that a meeting of 
inhabitants should he held at the Bjchange oa the following day, and In 
the Jlterval it was said in the Northern Slar. " We have the pleasure at 
informing our readers, that the whole of the intelligence retpecting the 
French fleet being on the southern coast of the island is false." 

On the people again assembling, the great room of the Exchange was 
soon crowded to excess, and the sovereign, having taken the chair, stated 
to the meeting the alarming state of the country, and again submitted to 
them the propriety of their taking up arms against the common enemy. 
He was followed by the Kev. William Bristow, who urged the necessity of 
the measure, and entered into an explanation regarding armed associa- 
tions, which he alleged had been generally misunderstood. He concluded 
by hopinjj that the inhabitants would prove how ill-founded had been the 
reports circulated regarding them, and that they would be found at their 
post in the hour of need. 

It was now proposed by William Sampson, Esq., a barrister, that a 
committee should be appointed to take into consideratiou the business 
before the meeting, which motion was supported by Mr. R. Thompson 
and Arthur O'Connor, Esq. The latter spoke at great length in support 
of Councellor Sampimn's motion. He said he could not let the oppor- 
tunity escape of joining with the inhabitants, when met. to oansider 
what measures were beet to be adopted for the good of their country and 
in support of their rights. And he would take this, and every opportunity 
of showing his disapprobation of the present administration, the most 
detestable that had ever disgraced any country. He approved of the 
proposal of a committee, beoause it afiordod time for the inhabitants to 



I 
I 



«)T 



I affair » 






eKor 



BedltlOQ."— MS. 



a, OiiLt, at a 
rop«i HDUduot as a magist 



deliberate on the propriety of such measures as might be adopted : he 
wished them to be cautious in dotermiiig — but when they did determine, 
he wiahed they would ha firm. The praeent admini at ration, he remarlied, 
had oppressed the people, but he hoped the time would come when he 
would have an opportunity of vindicating their rights. It viae his 
determination, that wheneveF he could discover what were the sentiments 
of the majority of the people, with them be woald go. In oonclusion, they 
were informed that he had just received a letter from Cork, which took 
no notiae of an enemy's fleet being upon the coast. 

The qnestioD, on being put, was earried with loud acolamsitiona by a 
great majority. A eommittee waa then appointed, consisting of the 
Sovereign, Rev. William Bristow, Robert Thompson, J. C. White, William 
Tennent, Robert Simms, Gilbert Mcllvcen, William Sampson, and 
Arthur O'Connor, EsqrB, They were to meet on Sunday morning, at ten 
o'clock, to draw up such resolutions as they might judge proper ; and the 
meeting wa» then adjouruod until Monday At times this OEScmbly was 
rather tumultuous, and some opposition was made to Mr. O'Connor 
addreg^ing them, as he was not an inbabitnnt of the town ; threats were 
used of throwing the Hon. Chichester Skeffington, oolleotorof the customs 
of the port, out of one of the windows, {k) However, before the people 

dispersed, they were addressed by Tumley, Esq., who at once came 

to the chief business about which they had met. After some preliminary 
observations, he said, that those who believed that tha French ware not 
upon the coast, had nothing to fear, and might return to their homes in 
peace; but those, who, like himself, were of a contrary opinion, "be 
thought had better look to themsclveB, It was immediately proposed by 
Mr. Thomas WliJnnery, that a book shoiild be opened where those 
diapo'ed to take up arms, agreeable to the terras oflered by the govern- 
ment, should subscribe their names. This proposal being seconded by Mr, 
Tumley, about 120 namea were then enrolled, for the purpose of forming 
a troop of cavalry and a corps of infantry, For the foftner, Charles 
Rankin was chosen captain, and for the other Robert Wallace, Esq. 
Two other companies of infantry were soon after embodied in Belfast, of 
the one John Brown was captain, and of the other Robert Batt. Esq. 

Agreeable to adjournment, a considerable namber of persons met at 
the Eiohange, but that building being incapable of containing a tenth of 
those present, the meeting waa adjourned to the White Linen Hall ; but 
no arrangements having been made there to receive such a multitade, 
they assembled in front of the hall in the street. The sovereign not 
attending to take the chair, and several gentlemen mentioned as chair- 
men deoliuing the honour, Mr. Sampson proceeded to address the people 
in the following words : — " Gentlemen, as one of your oonunittee, ohosen 
by you to deliharate for you, and in your name, upon the most important 
of all suhjaotB, where and in what manner, and how far, and for what you 
arc to risk your lives. Sensible of the importance of this charge, when 
you have been sleeping in your beds, I have been awake in mine. Since 
your last meeting, two ol your committee have seceded from us, and your 
chief magistrate has lift you to yourselves, the vary gantlaman who culled 
you first together, tor what purpose, or with what views, it would best 
become themselves to have stood forth to say. I cautiot see them among 
you. It is uecBHsary for you to know this matter. It is regard to yonc 

Ci) BeltMt MoDtblT Mftguins, Vol. XI., p. S93. 



42 AKNAIJB OP DCBTBB. 

safety and your eharaeter that would alone induce me to be obtru 
HI mBtanl. Tbere are Eome men malignaiit enough to hold you out just 
now as a disorderly assembly. The shame lies on their heads who 
brought you here, and than dexerted you. But. gontlemon, I doubt not 
that your digniSed lempec and forbearance from iuTeighing even agaiost 
those that have illtreated you, will give a wholesome lesson to a few 
proud indiTiduals; themselves are but the shadow of your body, and that 
ia the good sense, the JirmneBB, and the virtue of the many is to be found 
the peace and honour oE the country. Remember that the first step 
towards reform is to reform yourselves, and that before we pretend to 
control the yiees of our rulers, we should bo able to control our own 
passions. 

I am sorry my friends to see so many wealthy and dialinguiahed men 
antongat you; 1 could have wished, if it had so happened, that you had 
all been of the poorer class, that that which among any other people, 
similarly placed, oould not have been expected, might be more eminently 
contrasted with that of those who affect to look down upon you and 
despise you. 

It is to you that are poor, thereEore, that these observationa are 
addressed by one who loves you, to guard you against the raaoorona 
calumniee and snares of those that bate you. Oentlemeii, you have 
already debated the matter, n'hether we should put ourselves under the 
command of our government and offer our lives without condition or 
qualification of any hind. To this you have been exhorted by tbe eiampls 
of .the venerable Earl of Gharlemont. I will detract nothing from the 
merits of that venerable Earl, but I see among you the genuiue originatora 
of the Irifih Volunteers; and, besides, the danger of being led by 
individual. I remiod you of this, which you well know, that it was 
Lord Gharlemont that raised the volunteeTB, it was the volunteers that 
raised Lord Charlemout ; and had Lord Obarlemont abided by the volun- 
teers, there Tould have been little occasion for a Yeoman Bill, and Uttla 
room for the deliberation we have had. By the same steps that men raiaa 
themselves upon the honest cause of tbe people, by the same steps do they 
descend when they foraafee it. Follow you the example of the volunteers, 
who adorned, preserved, and civilized their country, who, to this moment, 
arc the flower of all their country. Be like tbem, brave and generous, 
discreet and wise; stand fast together, compacted in the firm bond of 
union and aflection ; be loyal and true-hearted to each other, and the 
proudest in all this land will not be long too proud to follow you. 



4 



t the law to act as : 
Parliament has been read to you, from whic 
inferred. It were to be wished that every A 
so permed as to carry its meaning clearly to 
but I, for my part, can nee nothing in that. 



volunteer, and an Act of 
has bean 
of Parliam-ent should be 
apprehension ; 
,ny other Act to justify 



the 



the inference. You have benu threatened, unless jou forced your 
oansciences to take the oath, to have your town demolished. For some 
lime a report has been in oirculation, that the government were about to 
destroy Belfast This threat migbl determine a conscientious man never 
to take it. You have been threatened to be deprived of ihe king's peace. 
Friends, whatever share of the king's peaoe may be allowed you, keep 
peace among yourselves. I do beseech you : whilat you do so, men of sense 
and spirit will be with you. For my part, were there no man by ma, 
whose coat was better ihan the worst of yours, whilst you entrench 



43 

yonrsaWea within the line of your acknowledged righta, bo victuoUB, 
ordeFly, discreol, and wise, and may I be forsaken of everything that's 
good, if I forsake you. You are told to wipe uff the stigma affixed upon 
youi town. If any, lieBidea the enviouB and unjuBf, have received evil im- 
pressions of you, it is to be lamented ; but for the rest, when yoa oonsider 
for wbat you are calumniated, by whom and by what means you are 
calnmnialed, joo mnst fetl iboHe caluniniefl to be most exquisite praise. 
Some few have shown a forwardness to swear, and many a marked 
determination not to do so; every man must be Ihe beat judge of his own 

Erineiplee and ecniples, and we should learn to tolerate each other. We 
ave been charged to draw up such resolutions as we of your committee 
judged most likely to produce perfect unanimity. For the sake of that 
perfect union of sentiment so necessary to Ireland, and chiefly to the 
richer order, who have most at stake, we have adopted resolutions, not 
framed upon the spur ot the occasion, but long aince pteparad by grave 
and deliberate men for the adoption of this and any other counties; and, 
if I am rightly informed, with the appiobatiau of those of the highest 
station in the county," (i) 

Mr. Sampson having finished his oration, he waa unanimausly called 
to the chair, and the resolutions being read, were adopted without 
oppoaition. They were as follows ;~ReBolyed — 

iBt. "That the imperfect state of the representation in the House of 
Commons is the primary cause o£ the discontent at preeent existing in 
this country." 

2nd. " That the public mind would he restored to tranquility, and 
every impending danger eflectually averted by such a reform in Parlia- 
ment B.S \vAuld ftediire to population and property Iheir due weight in the 
soale of government, without distinction on account of religious opinions," 

3rd. That a determination firmly manifested on the part of government 
to comply with the just desires of the people — whose object is reform 
alone — and thereby constitute the only rampart of defence that can hid 
complete defiance to the eSorts of foreign and domestic enemies." 

iib. "That such a change in the syitem o£ government would give to 
property, law, and religion, and the necessary distinction of rank, 
additional BlabiOty and weight, and that no opinion can be entertained 
by the people so dangerous as Ihe despair of not succeeding in their 
constitutional exertions to obtain the most important object of Iheir 
views." (j f 

are uid to hav/been written by John, flrat'Lord O'Neill.— Nori'he™ Star. 

01 The comipt stale o( tlie Iriab roprasantation, from the time of its 
deoayedand lotten boTanghs. bad long been a, anbiect oljaaCcontnlsJotwilli those 
nail; retortnere. Bv a return of ihe state of the representat'on nia<1e by bbe 
valnateers tn 1183. it appearei?, tha,! ot 3C0 uieuiberx, of whJab the House of 
ly setenty-two were relumed by Ibe frea election of tbe 

.-, ,j ..»»., ^..j-HOQA nnniliiabfld 194 membBrH.And iDflnenoed theehoofiinff 

El otheiB, Fifty 01 

■_.. ..^ ,^ „,g „g„jg 



li«oli0lii had ni 

by the Onitf" ' 
naldenl elec 
have thlrloe 



ougbs hay 



each; n , 

1 auu, irhe whole oaiDber. 
e, and nban notice ol an e 
nay, aoiidst a drifting dosi 



Blh. "That we conceive a goyernment of King. Lords, »nd CommoiM — " 
the GommoriB being thus reformed — when wisely and honestly adminio- 
lered, capable ol aifording every happineHa a nation can enjoy." 

Blh. " That we are ready, it permitted by government, to an 
manner as ibe volunteers, whose memory we revere, and whose example 

Reaalved — " That the chairman be requested to wait on the sovereign 
with a copy of their reaolutionB, and to request him. in the name of the 
meeting, to commuaicate tbe same to the Loid Lieutenant, and solioit 
permifBion for the inhabitants to arm themselveB, agreeably to the above 
roBolutions." 

To this regneBt the sovereign refused to comply. He bad taken no 
part in the buatness of tbe conunitbBe, and the Bev, William Briatow 
had also declined having anything to do with their procesdingB. The 
committ.ee, in fact, was so constituted that it was impossible they oould 
have agreed on aoy measure for the defoncs of tbe nation. At least tvo 
of them had been notoriously engaged In promoting that very invaaiou. 
now the causa of alarm, the one by remitting money to Mr. Tone for that 
purpose, and the other l>y arranging, on the continent, the treaty for tbe 
expedition with General Hoebe, commanding the troops on hoard of the 
enemy's fleet. (i) A few days after forty tombrels, laden with ammiinitiou 





dmiral Morard de OallBi, 




■Sf-VS-iSSSftiffi 




16th December, 1796. In order to avoid the English, 


(our ot whose vessels had 


lieen obsHrved m ilis offlng on tbe previouB day, thev 




war called the Bas, where ana of their ships was 1 


ost. On the morninB but 


ty being flee they steered 


1 IBtb there was a close (og; 






!~a"i.l?™5>5°' 



e ast they were' only about four leagues from Cape Clear with s favoorable 

fleet, and on the aand she landeS an officer at Crootbaven with despatches for 
Admiral Klngsoiill, and then shaped btr Bourse For Bnoland. The admiral, on 
reaelving the intelllgeace that an enemy's fleet was upon the coast, directed tihe 

un board, and make the best of Iter vay to the nearest English land. She sai^ on 
the a4tb, but was obliged to return on Monday, otter snflerioe mnoh tiom the 
tempest. HowevBr, she sailed again on tbe296b, and after a puBBaeo of twenty-three 
hours Bhearrived at Klngsrood The"KBnBaroo" was sadiiabledbytheeComi, that 
she did not reach Portsmouth for some days after. On the mornine of the MocU 
sixteen ot the enemy's fleet, n[ne or b«ii ot which were ot tbe line, entered Bautrr 
Bay, with a strong wind at east. These were mostly of the eighteen vessela notloea 

During the night a 
in tour hours, fortj 
InteUlgeDCeotaDeD 
tbe Situ, the fleet 
progress, tbe wind I; 
again cast anchor. 



t the bay. Soon after the frigate 



of i 









^ejch 


ie'taSmirl^r^na 


land 




Tiployi 








ite, Esq., 


Seafle 


Id,nei 


sr Bontr^. rode. 


intoCi 


prb. to Q 




DaLr] 


^mple, with the 




Ibe coaBi 


1. Th. 






Uklng up the 


bay, 




hey made little 




on procei 


idings 


.hout 1 


]wo leagnes they 


It the { 


iGth, a Id 






a eight men in a 


wore II 


..ado pris 




iS 




iXlht 


,nd arth t 




ti^ed from tbe 




1, and SB' 






vessels Hrltilng 






Igopt 




ea. Their loroe 



I 



ASHLLS or ULBTBB. 45 

from Dublin, Brcived in Belfaat, and was lodged in the new hncraok ; 
■□d a proolamation of the Lord Lieutenant and caunoil declared bhs 
paiielieB of Banagher, Bovovagb. 13altagh. and Dungiven, count; of DeFry, 
under the ioBurrection act. 

This boBtile fleet haiing been faappil; dispersed b? a tremendous 
Elonn from the eaat. nhich raged with inoessant fury for above a week, 
those who anticipated the landing of their troops, the overthrow of the 
govecnioent, eBtablishment of B republic, and the oonsequent advanoement 
of tiiemaelvea and their friends, euddeul; changed their tone. They 
affirmed that uo Freuch ihips had been upon (he coast, and the report 
was merely a, trick of the British minislcr to discover if they would really 
fly to arms, in which device, it was trinmphantly added, he had bean 
disappointed. These falsehoods were likewise resounded in the Northern 
Star, from which paper of the 12th January, 1797, is copied the following : 
"The master of a tbesbI arrived in Dublin, declares, that he had been ofl 
Uantry Bay during fourteen daya last past, and never saw any part of the 
French squadron, which, with the help of good glassea, magnifying glasses 
to he suiD, was ao clearly discovered from the shore." 

Notwithstanding the failure of tbis formidable expedition, tbe Spring 
of (he following year was marked by an unabated activity on the part of 
(he United Irishmen, and, if possible, a still more rancorous hostility 
against those who failed to join their societies. The most slanderous tales 
were invented to blast their reputation, and they were commonly hranded 
as Orangemen or informera^terms equally hateful. In many instanoes 
these slanders terrified the accused to join their ranks; few persons, 
however guarded they might be against the dagger of the assassin, having; 
the hardihood to continue, as it were, outlawed by their relations, 
neighbours, and former friends, who, however amicably disposed, dared 
have no conneotion with them. At this time the number of societies of 
Hmted Irishmen in Belfast amounted to eighty, or nearly 3,000 persons. 

On the 2nd of February, Arthtir O'Connor, Esq.. then a candidate for 
the representation of the county of Antrim, was arrested in Dublin, 
charged with publishing a seditious libel inhia second address : "To those 
who wore electors of the county of Antrim," dated January 2Sth, 1797, 
in which address he justified an allianoe with France. The same day a 
king's messenger, accompanied by a military guard, seized all the books, 
papers, types, etc., in the office of tlie IVorthem Slar, and placed a guard in 
i(. Bobert and William Simms, the only proprietors of that paper out of 



Ujo oiorning of the 6tb only two at saventy-touE gnni. two (rlBates and a ontl 
were in sisht. and tbey soon after stood down the bay, wind B.E. Mr. Tone staJ 
tbal thlB armamBat baa oa board, when It Bailed, nearly 15.0«) land foccai, I 
T.OOO.OOO inubket caCrideea, t«enty.ona field pieces, nine batlering cannons, Sl.OU' 1 
barrels of ^niopowder, and 11,160 staDcl of small anus. On tbe Ist of Janaary, 119f, 



I ot Buopowdi 
ppoared at tl 



lljev appB 

paid loT.-LifB of TliaotaW IP. Tont; Hiba 
uuFnnehltevoiution; Tko ilont)n at Kilke 



Shannon, wbers tbey Ai 



is ARKALS OF [ILSTEB. 

ptiaon, were likewise arrested, and lunt oS to Dabljn. The ^ard wa8 
withdrawn from the ofBcs on the 7th, and the Northern Star began to be 
published on the 20th of the same moclb. 

About Ihis time thore began to be privately prinled and circulated at 
irregular intervale, a paper entitled The Union Star. It was ouiy printed 
on one side, and chiefly consisted of Che names and aliuse of peroonB 
hostile to the schemes of the United Irishmen, with exhortations to the 
people to risB and take vengeance upon their oppressors. Each nnmber 
oonttaenced thus : — " As the Union Star is an of&oial paper, the manogen 
promise the public that no characters shall be hazarded but sitnh aa are 
denounoed bj authority, as being the partners and creatures of Pitt and 
hia sanguinary ionrnByman Luttrell, The SlaroBeiB to public justioe the 
folloMing detestable traitors, as spies and perjured informers. Perhaps 
some one, more luoky thou the rest, may reach hia heart, and free the 
world from bond^e," Then followed the lists of prosor: 
of which is copied the following:— 

"William Bristow, savereign of Belfast, by trade a Minister of the 1 
Church of England. This infamous mountebank unites the oruelty of a 
inquisitor to all the chicanery of a vicious priest." 

"Chichester Skeffington, high-sheriff of the county of Antrim. This 
villain inherits all the vices of tyranny, as descendant of the first English. 
aetOers, robbers, and invaders ; under the patronage of what is called the 
lieod of the church, to whom he looks for rewards for committing e 
atrocity that ever corruption and villainy promoted." 

Each number of thia paper concluded with an eihortation to their "I 
friends. In No. 2 the people were called upon to "establish the empire of i 
universal beuevolenoe and fraternity from Wioklow Hills to Belfast, from 
the channel to the Atlanlia." In No. 3 it was said, "Though we are not 
advocates for assassination, we know, on the authority of history, that 
OBBassination preserved the liberties and leacued many of the ancient 
republics from the power of aspiring villains who raised themselveB o 
the necks of the people, and on the ruins of liberty. It was a positive la 
in Corinth, Rome, Athens, Syracuse, &o., that any citizen was juHtifled, ] 
and should be rewarded and honoured as the deliverer of his country, 
who would assassinate any villain aspiring to the sovereign power, or 
infringing upon the rights of the people." In No, 5, when treating of the 
virtue of assassination, it was said, " We appeal to thy noble and venerated 
name, Brutus, prince of patriotic assassins, who bravely assassinated 
the tyrant amidst his cohorts, and in the presence of his pensioned 

A proclamation was issued by the Lord Lieutenant and Counoil 
oSering a reward of £200, each, for the apprehension of persona conoemed 
in writing, printing, and publishing this paper, but no discovery was 
made. It was commonly believed at the time to have been printed in 
Dublin, and it was "broadly insinuated" by the disaffected that it was 
published "by the connivance of the Irish Qovernmont," and a part of 
the system "encouraged hy the British Cabinet" to vilify the Irish 

Eatriots. In a work entitled, "Strictures on Plowden," it is stated to 
ave been printed in Belfast, and oral record has named its editor and 
printer in that town. However, in a work just publiahcd, it is afStmed 
that its editor and publisher was the notorious Walter Oox. Be this as it 
may, it appears evident that the publishers had correspondents in both 



I 

M 

M 

i 

M 



IB a£ about eight c 
On tlifl first of Murcb, a roaetiog of tte jnagistratea of the cotmty of 
Down nag held at Saintfield, in aider to deliberate upon the distracted 
Btate of that county, The Marquis of Downsbiro buiiig called to the chair, 
he proceeded to advert to tho several barbatous murdors lately committed, 
particularly that of Mr. CammiuH, near Comber, and he concluded by 
proposing tha.t the baronies oE Arde and Caatlereagb he placed under the 
Insnrreotion Act. He was follovred in the same spirit of language by 
Lord Annesley. who moved, that instead of the baronies, the entire 
county ehould be subatitated. This motion was supported by the Earl of 
Londondorry. and opposed hy Messrs. Pottiuger, Rankin, Crawford, and 
Gordon. The motion of Lord Annesley was, however, carried by a great 
majority, and the county waa declared to be in a state of disturlunce, 
OF likely to become so, and a memorial was ordered to be forwarded to Ghe 
Lord Lieutenant and Council, to place it under the laeurrection Act. A 
few daja after, eighteen persons from the neighbourhood of Saintfield. 
were arrested and committed to the county prison, charged with "treason- 
able practices and house- racking. " [I) 

In the ruoantime, the general business of the country became, in b. 
great degree, suspended, public credit being shaken to its foundation. So 
muoh so, indeed, that the Governor and Directors of the National Bunk 
In Dublin, refused to issue cash ; and such was the common alarm, that 
during the forenoon of the 2nd of March, the Commissioners oE tha 
Revenue ^efuE^ed to receive National notes for the payment of duties, (ml 
At the same time, the utmost exertions were continued by the United 
Irishmen to take the Seld, in procuring lead, gunpowder, and arms. At 
Ballyolare, a large leaden statue of Neptune, that had stood for nearly a 
century on a pedestal in a mill-dam, waa carried off tn the night, as waa 
a cistern of the same metal, for the purpose of being cast into musket 
balls. 

Early in March, the necessity of eonciliatioa was brought forward in 
the House of Commons by Sir Lawrence Parsoua, and parliamentary 
reform and lioman Catholic emancipation recommended as the most 
likely means to allay the general discontent that existed throughout the 
kingdom : but on a division of the House, only nineteen members voted 
in support of the motion, (n) About this time, the supporters of the 
fiorlhem Slar faecame highly exasperated at the interruption that had 
been given to the publication of that paper; iu severid parls ol the 
counties of Antrim and Down, the carriers of the Bellast Neies-Letter , 
were robbed, and their papers destroyed, and warned to discontinue that 
employment. In other districts, those peisoi;s forwarding the Northern 
Slar Buffered a similar annoyance. 

Notwithstanding the strong measures adopted by the government, Che 
progress ol the disaffected continued to be marked by a succession of 
daring outrages. On the night of the 11th o£ March, a numbar o£ men. 



iB 

wUh their faoes blaokened, and otherniBe disguised, forcibly eal>ered the 
dwellicg-liuuseH of several persons in tlie town of Belfast, and carried off 
the AriBB which the inhabitants had for their protection. In coDsequenae 
of many HiioilaF outrages, and other nightly depredatioiiB, on the 13tb of 
March, a proclamation was issued from BeKast, signed G. Lsks, 
Xdeuten ant-General, oonunanding the Northern District. It called upon 
the people Co immediately surrender such arms and ammunition as were 
in their posaassion, aod rewards were offered to those who should discover 
where the like were secreted. A few days after the appearance of this 
proolamation, a violent debate took place in the Irish House of CommonB^ 
regarding the order that had heea issued for disarming the North. In 
the oourse of this debate, Mr. Qrattau declared his decided di'sapprDbatiou 
□f the measures adopted by the government. He said, "that Che officer 
who enfoFced the order to disarm Che people was guilty of robbery, and 
that if carried into general execution, it was high treftson — a levying war 
against the King." If the Goveroment of Ireland, said he, " con igsue 
such an order, and execute it, the Oovemment of Ireland is a despotiam t 
If the House sit still, and with fi^ded arms, see an English Minister carry 
it into execution, the House Is not tho representative of the Irish nation! 
they are voluntary slaves, and not an independent legialatura ! For 
himself, he would not conseut to see the North trampled upon. He did 
not defend their excesses — for excesses they had been guilty of^but those 
excesses he could not believe were so numerous as had been stated, or so 
enormous as to qualify a declaration of military law against Ibem." 

ITbe Attorney -General (Wolfe), "entreated gentlemen Co give this impor- 
tant subject an impartial and serious discussion. He was the slave of no 
administration, nor had ever beea, and whatsoever sentiments be uttered 
In that House, were Che sentiments which his heart avowed, and not the 
dictates of official bitnation. On the question before the House he was 
free to acknowledge that the measure which bad been taken by govern- 
ment was a stretch of the prerogative beyond the law ; but, at the same 
time, be declared it was a measure winch met his most hearty aon- 
ourrenoe, as being made indispensably neoessary by the daring outrages, 
the robberies, and the assassinations which had been committed in that 
part of the country, and which the civil power had been found unable to- 
restrain or punish. No man, he thought, could have a doubt in his mind 
whether that necessity existed, as it was a matter of m.ost pnbllo^ 
notoriety, that for two years back, there had subsisted in that part of ths j 
country a conspirajiy, not for reforming, but for absolutely oversetting tha j 
Oonstitution. It was a matter of equal notoriety, that the persons 1 
engaged in this conspiracy, had not been contented with poisoning the 
minds of the InhabitantiB of that province, but they had instituted 
' directing and corresponding societies.' for the purpose of propagating 
their principies and doctrines through other parts of the kingdom ; (bey 
' ' ' "ed to murder and treasou, and particularly 

s Majesty's armed subjects, the yeomanry, to 
icluded by observing, that aa the oivil power 
o rcaoh the evil, it became necessary to adopt< 



had. ii 

had compelled numbers of £ 
give up their arms," He c( 
had been found incapable b 



ind a general disarming of the people was thought tho. 



Tkougli the measucas oE the govBmmant were persiivsrcd in, oompara- 
tirely few nmis were surraDdoced in consequence of General Lake's 
proclamation, nor were the partiea of the mllitar; sent out in quest of the 
like moFS anccesaful. while their numerous depredations inSamad the 
general discontent. During their search, the properties of persons were, 
in numaroua instancea, wantonly destroyed or carried off ; trunks, chests, 
and the like, staved, while their owners stood b; offering to unlock them ; 
and torture was even inflicted to discover where arms were secreted, (p) 
If, as baa been reported, these maraudings were for the purpose of goading 
the United Irishmen into a premature rebellion, the object was in some 
degree attained, as a plan for a general cisiug of the North was digested 
at this time, but it wjs soon after given up. [q) 

Early in April, Lewina was again despatched to Paris, under the 
assumed name oE Tbompson, as the accredited agent of the Irish republic. 
At Frankfort hu had an interview with General Hoche, from which citj 
he continued his original route. He was instructed to solicit not more 
than ten ihousand troops, nor les3 than five [thousand] , but to request aa 
additional supply of arms, to make up for those taken from their friends in 
the North, and to endeavour to procure a few Irish officers who had been 
in foreign service, by oSering them higher rank (r) On the 10th ol April a 
nmuber of persons who bad been for some time confined in the artillery 
barrack, Belfast, charged with treasonable or seditious practices, were put 
on board of a prison ship moored in Garmoyle. 

Though arrests were oontinuad of persona charged with ofionocs against 
the State, the exertions of such friends as were still at large continued 
unabated. Their meetings, however, at times, were thwarted by informers, 
among whom J. Bird, aliits Smith, alias Johnaon, Frederick Duttou, and 
Edward J. Newell were, at this time, most notorious. The former ruffian 
was a member of the London corresponding society, and for some time 
passed himself off in Belfast as a personage. Button's labours were chiefly 
confined to the town and vicinity of Newry, where he acted in concert 
with the noted Major Wardle, dragging whoever they had the slightest 
suspicion of to the guard-bouse or prison. Newell was for some time a 
portrait painter in Belfast, and on his information, ahoat half-past eight 
o'clock on the night of the 14th oE April, Colonel Barber, with a party of 
the Beay Highland Fenclble Regiment, surprised two committees of 
United Irishmen, consisting of twenty-one persona, in the house of John 
Alexander, Peter's-hill, Belfast. With these committees were taken a 
number of important papers, and also the papers of another society, the 
eightieth. Copies of those were afterwards published in the Report of the 
Secret Committee of the House of Commons. By them it appeared that 
on the 11th of April, 1797, the United Irishmen in the county of Antrim 
amounted to 22,726; cannon, B; mortals, 1; guns, 2,228; bayonets, 1,748; 
pistols, 117; aworda, 397: pikes, 4,S88 ; ball-cartridges, 24,911; musket- 
balls, 90,943 ; gunpowder, pounds. 1,236 ; cash in hand, £693, Sa. SJd. The 
number of United Irishmen in the county of Down was stated at 28,S77 ; 
but the return of arms, stores, and cash in hand were not found. In the 



e pioquflt at Dowopatrloli, 



(q) Beport of the Seorat Ccmmltteo 

(r| Report ol tbe SeoFBt Cammitle 

iroe; Ufa uf Lord EdwudFltzgeroid.V 



oount; dI Dbctj the number of United IriEhniaii y/aa rated at only 10,500; 
goiiB. 1,STT; bayonets, 416; pikea, 1,230; pounds gunpowder. 1,319; ball- 
cartcidgeB, 8,5iS; balls, 650; oash, £25. is.(s) In these papers it was 
leconuuended to the different societiea to enter into voluntary subscrip- 
tions to equip those for the Add who were unable to arm themaelvee. It 
was declared impraper to hold any commaoiCBtion with perBons not in 
[the] society, and "that if any United Irishman, on a jury, was to find any 
prisoner aharged with being a brother, guilty, they ought to lose their 
existence," On the hrealiing out of the revolution, the property of those 
known to be hostile was to be oonfiacated " to the national benefit," and 
no avowed enemy to be permitted to serve in their ranks. Magistrates to 
be appointed to act in concert with the revolutionary oommitteeg of the 
aeveral districts. It also appeared that the sum paid monthly by the 
inferior societies into the baronial committees, was ouly two shillings and 
eight pence half-penny; which sum. being loo small to support the secret 
servieeB of the union, was occasionally aided by voluntary Bubacriptions 
from the higher elasEBS, 

A few days after the arrest of these committees, a conspiracy wai 
discovered in Carriclifergus to deliver that csstlo, then the principal depdt 
of military stores in the North, into the hands of the United Irishmen. 
At least twenty of the conapiratota were soldiers belonging to the diHerent 
corps then in garrison, three of "whom deserted, one turned informer, and 
eight or nine were sent off to regiments on ioreign service, a few nece 
liberated, and eeveral inhabitants charged with being concerned in the 
plot fled or were imprisoned. The greater number of the soldiers 
engaged in tins afiair belonged to the artillery, and, in fartheranae of 
their scheme, they bad extraeted the gunpowder from a tum.brel of 
BLx-poander case shot, Sittaohed to some field pieces in their charge. 

At the county of Antrim Assizes, held in April, John Story, John and 1 
AleiLander (Gordon, and Joseph Cuthbert, inhabitants of Belfast, wera I 
indicted for a conspiracy to murder, and shooting at and wounding, at 
Drumbridge, on the 8th of September, a man named John Lee, Only 
Cuthbert, however, wa^ put upon his trial, against whom Lee awora 
positively to his being the poraoo who fired the shot by which he waa 
wounded, having passed him the moment before. On the part of the 
prisoner two witnesses were produced, who swore to their having been 
drinking with the prisoner in Belfast, at the very time sworn by Lee to 
have been wounded by him. The prisoner was acquitted, hut before he 
and his colleagues left the dock, they were remanded to prison on a charge 
of high treason. In the evening they were visited by an old friend, when 
tbe events of the day became the subject of conversation, in the oourss ot 
which Cuthbert acknowledged that tbe alibi was merely a judioioos 

scheme o( his attorney, for by 6 he was the very man who winged j 

Lee t A woman named Bell Martin had given a garbled account of tbiB | 
conspiracy, which she stated to have overheard as she waited upon those 
persons in the upper room of a public-house in Sugar-house entry. Belfast, 
where they and a few others met dally, under the name of the Muddler's 
Club, She also deposed that a private soldier of the artillery was daily in 
attendancQ upon these persons, who, in fact, constituted the Belfast 
directory. The artillery soldiers were drawn out on pa " " " " 



(1) For 8Dmi 



oable to 



e nombere t 



passed up and down tbeir line in earnsat review, but was unabla to point 
out llie supposed delinquent, which shook no little the confideuce of her 
friends in her veracity. The fact was, the person sougbt did not belong 
to the atmy ; he was an old voluateer wearing tbs uniform drees of Itis 
ootpi. blue, faced with red, and honce his dress hod a great resemblance 
to that of the artillery. On this oocasion Bell was brought from Dublin 
in the custody of a king's messenger, but she was not produced upon the 
trial. At the same assizes, several persons oonilaed for seditious practices, 
were liberated without a trial, the informers having absconded, or denied 
what they had formerly awom. 

At Down Assizes, a man named John Broom was found guilty of 
admioistoriug unlawful oatha to John Waring, a soldier in the artillery ; 
and twelve persons were indicted for assembling at night, with many 
others, and ^ring into the house of Hugh M'Kee, near Ssintiield. The 

Erisoners were acquitted, and twenty-two others were liberated on giving 
ail, and about forty discharged. At the assizes held for tiis county of 
□erry, one man was fouod guilty of tendering illegal oatbs, and sentenced 
to be transported, and thrsa others charged with treasonable oSences 
were acquitted. About the same time. Dr. Alex. Crawford, Iiisburn ; 
Rev. Sinclair Kelbumo, Belfast; William McCrocken, Jaoob Nixon, 
Henry Spear, and others, from the same town, accused of offences against 
the state, were arrested, and sent off under an escort of dragoons to 
Dublin. 

On tbe 15th of May. William Ponsonby. in the House of Commons, 
after a short prefatory speech, proposed his motion on the subject of 
reform, which he then read, and which included a reform in the national 
representation, and Chat all disabilities on account of religion be for ovai 
abolished. This was opposed by Secretary Pelbam, who said that the 
House ought not, at pceseut, to enter into a discussion on those subjects, 
especially as they had been made the pretexts for treasonable practices, 
and he therefore moved a motion of adjournment, in which he was 
supported by Mr. Beresfcrd. Sir Hercules Langrishe, Mr. Jepson, and 
others. The motion for adjournment was strenuously opposed 1^ Mr. 
Stewart of Killymoon, Mr. Fletcher, George Ponsonby, Sir John Freke, 
the Knight of Kerry, Sir William Smyth, Mr, Curran, and Mr. Orattan. 
Mr. Curran proceeded, at considerable length, to answer the objections 
Ibat had been made to these measures, which he said had been "used in 
all times, in war, in peace, in quiet, in disturbance. Reform," he said, 
"had become an exception to the proverb that says, 'there is a time (or 
all things,' but for reform there is no time, because at all times corruption 
is more profitable to its author than public virtue and prosperity, which 
tbey know must be fatal to their views ; and that the objections to it were 
a compound of the most unblushing Impudence and folly. It was said 
that reform was only a pretence, and that separation was the real object 
of leaders— ii this be bo." said he, "confound the leaders by destroying 
the pretext, and take the followers to yourselves. You sav they ate 
100,000, 1 firmly believe there is three times that number." Mr. Grattan 
proceeded in the same strain, aud with his usual eloquence, but on the 
question of adjournment being put, there appeared 170 membera for it, 
and against it only 30. Upon tliis division Mr. Grattan and the other 
leaders of the opposition seceded from parliament. (() 



In tha suns maath it wa» discDvarod, through the informer NeweU, | 
that a, GoDsiderabtB Dumber of tho ilouaghaji regimeut of militia, tbeu 1 
quartered 1u Belfast, had been seduced from their allegiance, and taken, 
the United Irishmen's oath. Several of tkeae men were immediatelj 
arrested, and the regiment being drawn out in the square of the new 
barrack. 7G ol them stepped forward and acknowledged to Qeneral Lake 
their hafing taken said oath, and profeaaiug their sorrow, were pardoned. 
Seventeen, however, of those who had been previoual; arrested, were put 
upon their (rial before a general aourt-martial. and four of them were 
found guilty of mutiny, a design to murder their officerH, and to join the 
French on their landing in this kingdom. On the 16(h of Maj, these 
prisonerE were taken, under a strong guard, to the camp at Blaris. whera 
the proceedings of the court-martial being read, they were Beoteuced to be 
shot, which sentenue was immediately carried into effect. This not, saya 
Mr. Teeltng, in the sequol to his Personal Narrative, "was the first 
important blow which the national confederacy sustained." 

These unfortunate men were kept buoyed np to their last tour with 
an assurance that they would be rescued, and dispositions were actually 
in progress for that purpose. Some days previous to their execution, the 
people of the adjacent country were warned to hold themaelvet in 
readiness, as on the rescue of the soldiers the revolution would isommeiiQa. 
Agreeably to this plan, on the night of the 15tU, a meeting was held in a 
house in North-street, Belfast, for the purpose of effecting the liberation 
of the prisoners, but these Boon retired, the number who assembled being 
quite inadequate to accomplish tbeir project. 

Four days after the tragical scene at Blaris, a few sergeants and 
corporals of the Monaghan regiment, proceeded with an address and 
declaration of their loyalty to the office of the Northern Star for insertion 
In that paper. Its insertion was refused, utilesa they would oousent to 
expurge the following paragraph reflecting upon the tonn :— " We entreat 
them (the public) to Fecollecl our former good character, and as soma 
palliation for our lata disgrace, we have been a considerable time quartered 
in a town remarkable for its seditious practices.'' («) On this refusal, the 
soldiers retired grumbling, but they soon returned, accompanied by a 
considerable number of the same regiment, and likewise of other corps, 
carrying sledges and other inBtnimeuts of destruction, and proceeded ti> 
destroy or carry off all the effects in the office of the Uortkem Star, 
From this period that paper ceased to be published. At the following 
assizes for the county of Antrim, the proprietors of the Northern Star 
sought to recover damages for the destruction of their printing-office and 
property, by a number of men in military dress. The damages were laid 
at £4,000, but on one witness being esamlned, their claim was fouud not 
to come within the statute. 

This outrage proved merely the prelude to several similar depredations, 
or as such robberies were then called^rackings ; and for weeks afterwards, 
Belfast seemed as given up to a licentious soldiery, whose destruction 
of private property appeared rather the acts of a savage mob. than those of 
an army levied for the support of good govariunent, and the protection 
of the inhabitants. 

According to public notice, about the same lime, a 
of the freeholders of the county Antrim was held 

(u) The Idle and CaufossionB ot Ednnrd J. Newell. 



Ballytaena, tbe Hon. CMclieater SkoMugton, high-ahorii!, in the chair, 
Mr. Luke Teeimg. aecratary. The btisinesfi of tha day was opeped bj 
the ahairmiiii reading over the requisition presented to him to call the 
meeting, and stating that as freeholders alone were called ho hoped no 
others would interfere. 

The meeting was than addressed by Edward J, Agnew, Esq.. ona of the 
members in parliament for the county, who, in a brief apeaoh, said — 
he was particularly gratified In meeting so numeroas and rcspectahle a 
body of his constituents, and he proceeded to comment with Heierilj 
on the eieoutiya government of the country, which he stigmatized as 
" profligate " in the extreme, having added greatly to the public burdens, 
and taken away more of the rights and privileges of the people than any 
other administration had ever done before them. He concluded by 
proposing a petition to the oiovm, which, was seconded by Dr. Alesander 
Halliday, Belfast. The petition being now read, James AgcewFarrelI.Esq., 
in a speech delivered with considerable vehemence, supported the prayei: 
□f tbe petition. He declared (hat measures of conciliation alone could 
only save the country. After a few short and rather dull speechea of a 
similar tendanoy had been delivered, it was moved that the petition bo 
put paragraph by paragraph, which was accordingly done. During its 
reading, opposition was made and amendments proposed, but these ware 
afterwards withdrawn or not seconded, and the petition, after aume debate, 
agreed to, with only seven dissentients. It implored his majeHty "by that 
great covenant which binds the sovereign and the subject," not to shut 
his ears against the dangers of the empire, or tbe miseries of the people. 
They went on to say, that his majesty's ministers had laboured to 
^'destroy the third estate o£ the legislature, and the government to an 
arbitrary despotism," and the " right of being free from arbitrary arrests 
and imprisonments," while a licentious miUtary force had been let loose 
upon the eouDtry. That the people were put out of the protection of the 
peace, by which nombers had been banisbBd, without even the form of a 
trial, or crowded into dungeons, "and this only, bei?ause they had dared 
to unite together in the yindication of common right." They conch ' ' 
by preferring their complaint against bis majesty's "wicked and 
principled ministers," and praying him to dismiss them from hi! 
and councils for ever. The chairman was instructed to transmit a copy 
of this petition to the Earl of Moira and the right Hon. Uharles J. 
Poi — Ihay to present the same to His Majesty. (f) 

This meeting having passed over highly to the satisfaction of the 
United Irishmen, immediately after, efforts were made to get up a similar 
one in Down. The high -sheriff, Thomas Waring, however, refused to coll 
a meeting of the freeholders, on which a notice appeared in the public 
papers, signed by the Protestant Bishop of Down and Connor, and thirty 
magistrates and freeholders, oalling upon the freeholders to assemble in 
Downpatrick. to deliberate upon the alarming state of public afiairs. 
In the interim it was confidentially reported that it was intended to 
disperse this meeting by the military, on which printed handbills were 
circulated, signed by sixteen magistrates, cautioning the freeholders not 
to assemble at Downpatrick. Nevertheless, on the day previous to that 
which had been appointed, twenty-five of the persons who had signed the 
requisition, met in Ballinahinch — Arthur Johnston, chairman ; Eldred 
Pottinger, secretary. These persons afterwards published an address, 



in nhlcb thay regretted the refusal of the sheriff to call a meeting, &a the; 
had "a perfect relianca an the poacea.b[B and orderly conduct o( the 
froeholdecs." After some brief remarka regarding their staunch loyalty, 
and the r(>t<litade of their intentions, they oonclnded by saying: "And we 
do hereby pledge ourselves to the oountry, to take the most effectual 
measures in our power of colieoting the sentimenlH of the freeholders, and 
conveying them to his majesty. We do further doolare, that we will not 
rslaz in our exertions, by every 1(^1 and constitutional means, to obtain 
a full, fair, and adequate representation of the people of Ireland ia 
parliament. without regard to diSerenoe of religious opinions; and that wa 
are fully convinced that the plan of reform lately laid before parliament, 
if acceded to, would effectually satisfy the public mind, and reatore peace 
and tranquility to the nation." They afterwards forwarded a petition to 
His Majesty, signed by 4,80B Crcoholdcra, which was presented to him by 
Charles J. Fox, in which petition it was complaineii, among a list of 
grievances, that "the right of hearing arms had been grossly violated, 
not only by a series oE laws repugnant to the written and aclniowledged 
compact between the crown and the people, expressed unequivocally in 
the bill of rights, but in a late iustanco, by an act of state, avowedly 
illegal." They concluded by entreating Hia Majesty to dismiss his present 
ministers from hia councils, and to cail to his councils such men as would 
assist the people in obtaining a reform in parliament, embracing avery 
religfoua perguasion. 

The high respeotability of the greater number of those who attended ■ 
these meetings, and their attachments to the principles of the constitution, I 
rendered them above even suspicion of their being engaged in revolutionary I 
schemes. Yet. from their 1it>era] use of the phraseology of the diaaSeeted,, 
it would aeem that they had either, for a time, been deceived by their 
speciotis language, or fsared to deviate from it, though for years previotw, 
■ ' 3 that if ever for a moment reform had bean, oontem- 
lee ripened into rebellion. (iu) It is nevertheless oertain, 
i previous, many of the higher classea had become 
,t the progress of the United Irishmen— and though 
comparatively few of these had, as yet, joined their ranlcs, a sudden fear 
hod spread over the country, that, as in France, from law brealiers they 
might become law makers. Hence they deemed it expedient to seem 
friendly disposed, or at least passive, as the pistol or dagger hod denounced 
the danger of an active opposition. It is equally certain that alxiut this 
time some cautious persona took an oath of secrecy, that is, not to disclose 
what they heard or saw passing towards the meditated revolution, and 
that a few wealthy confidential friends, who objected to oatha, were even 
admitted into soctsty, without their having taken any tost or obligation 
whatever, (c) 



t had bee. 
plated, it bad lor 
that for some 
Beriously alarmed a 



BOOletyln hisDelghbODrhaocI, to 
military orgaoiaatierc, aafiureb . 
eiiiaaelj>a(i{oa or pailiamBntary i 
at all f imea. being e separation 



o writer, v 
Cheii last. 











je*llng. 






l.«ir 1 






















and the 








rrfs 


'Si.- 


etriii 


ingly 


"ctTl 




.gianates 


e^om 













I 



For some montba previoue to the time of which we havo been treating. 
Defenderism hod been making rapid progreBB in the counter of Antrim, 
iiQ aotive agent named Stanley, team Armagh, being deputed on this 
special service. Jo their oath taken on admiaaloa, they were called 
lojalistB, and the obligation contained no direct expresBionB against the 
ciown, while the bettor to mask their intentions, there wai introduced a 
clause to bo true to the king while under his government. 

About tbJB time, a proclamation was issued by the government oSaring 
pardon, with a few eiceptionB, to those who had been "guilty "of outrage 
tmd rebellion." and should surrender themselves within one month, and 
give aecority foF their future good behaviour. This pioclamatioii failed of 
prodnoing any useful effect, as few, however disposed, dared to come 
forward in the manner preBcribed, and the few who did so, were pointed 
out as objects of derision by their neighbours. The warlike preporationa 
of the disaffected were hence continued unabated, and at Belfast, two 
persons caught in the act of forging pikeheads, were paraded tiimugh that 
town with the pikes on a rope about their ueckfi, and thej were afterward* 
put on board of B tender. 

By the beginning of June, a special commisBion was issued, as it wai 
expressed, for the trial of such state priooners as were confined in the jail 
of the county of Antrim, Bud on the Sth of that month, two judges of 
assizes arrived in Carrickfergus, as was believed, for that puipose. The 
following day was spent in opening their court and arraigning the 
prisoners, all of whom, except two, declared they were ready to take their 
trial. No trials, however, were proceeded with, and their lordships, after 
administering the oath of allegiance to a considerable number of persons, 
sdjoumed the court to Belfast, where many persona also took gaid oath. 

For some weeks after, the magistrates throughout the county of Antrim 
were busied in administering the oath of allegiance to those persons who 
presented themselves for that purpose, who, on taking the oath, usually 
received a certificate Co (hat eSect, To some, the takiog this oath proved 
a seasonable pretext for withdrawing from tlie societies of United Irieh- 
men, and. perhaps, from an ofBce they were anxious for an excuse to get 
rid of. By the greater number, however, it waa merely taken as a 
protection against their committal to the military guard-house, the 
tender's hold, or the county prison. At Ballycastle, 832 persons took this 
oath, accompanied by a surrender of a considerable number of Brms, 
among which were 134 pikes, the only ones, we believe, voluntarily given 
up in the country. At this time the number of United Irislimen enrolled 
in Ulster was rated at 160,000. (y) 

Notwithstanding the general swearing of all^iance, many of the 
dlEaffccted continued unabated in their warlike preparations, and hence 
arrests were continued of persons charged with oOenees gainst the state ; 
the principal of these were Rev. Samuel Barber, Eatbfriland ; David 
Annstrong, Ballinahinch; Jehu Biruie, Salntfield ; Bev. Sinclair Kelbume, 
Belfast ; li«v. William Stavely, Knockbracken ; and Thomas Houston, 
Surgeon, Belfast, In searching the drawing-room of the latter gentlemao. 
a Hliding board was discovered in the fioor, on removing which, many 
Donstltutlons of United Irishmen, and political pamphlets were found, (z) 



{J/I H 



iota 



le House of T^rd 



Thongh the search for, or aurrender of armfl, under General Iioke's 
pioclamation, haA weakened tha means of Ihe United Iriahmen, in 
numecous instilncea they bad eladed the intecCioiia of the militaFy. md 
retained their arme, while those carried od were in a great meaBure 
replooed by pikes, and hencaa rming in the North continued to be seriouBly 
oonteniplated as at hand. In furtheranoe of this plan, some Irish o&aeta, 
who had been in the Austrian eervice, arrived in Dublin to assiat in the 
revolution, and two of these, Colonel j^ames Plunkett and his nephew 
Captain O'Gornian, were now despatolied una tour of observatiDn. On the 
evening of the 16tb of June, they reached Hillsboroogb. where, by 
appointment, they met Messrs. Hughes and McCabo from Belfast. Tha 
evening pasi^ed in sooiol hilarity — several improvemonts on the meditated 
rising were Buggeated — and on the following morning the party walked 
ont by dillerent routes, for the purpose of examining the defenBive stats 
of the camp at Blaris. 

At dinner much conversation took pI».co regarding tha strength of the 
encampment, which all, eicept the cqIodbI, pronounced as very stroog 
and dilScult to be assailed. "As the first steps towards its reduction," 
said the colonel, " I would seize the cannou that I see here so Btenderly 
guarded. These secured, I would soon clear the ground. The river and 
oanal, on which you lay so much strength, would prove but a slender 
defence against a well directed Sre of round shot. I would soon render 
the post untenable." The projected capture of the camp occupied the 
attention of the company till a late hour. In the morning they were 
much surprised on seeing the military basy in removing the cannon and 
storaa from HiUsborotigh into the camp. This, for a moment, excited a 
auspioion that their conversation had been overheard, or that a traitor 
was in the company, but the former was declared by all impossible, and 
they were all honourable men; the removal of the cannon was therefore 
deemed accidental, and tha conversation soon took another turn. 

In tha evening the colonel, occompanied by bis Belfast friends, 
continued bis route by way of Cnimlin, where they had aa interview 
with Mr, James Diokey, jun. After some conversation regarding the 
prosperous state of their affairs, and the patriotic feelings in the North, 
on the suggestion of Diokey it was agreed that the colonel and Hs suite 
should pass the night in Orumlin. That Dickey should assemble as many 
as possible of his regiment, in order that the company might witness the 
excellent state ol their discipline, and the progress made by their 
conmiander in the evolutions of the iield. 

Agreeably to this arrangement, the clouds of evening had scarcely 
thickened in the grey West, when Dickey, accompanied by his friends, 
passed into an adjoining field where some 160 men wore assembled, each 
armed with a pike or musket. The winds were hushed as if listening to 
the warlike dispositions going forward. Not a leaf rustled in the hedge- 
rows, OF trembled on the branches of the tallest trees, and the ailenae 
was only broken by the footateps of some stragglers as they fell into the 
rank or the harsh coll of the corn-crake in the fields 

The corps bad been tctd ofi into grand and subdivisions, and their 
ranks dressed, when Dickey advanced in front for tha purposa of putting 
them through a few movements, in which ha deemed them moat expert. 
The word "attention" bad just been given, when the quick pace of 
horses was heard in the distance, and a deep hum passed along the line, 
"it's the Antrim dragoons." "Steady," now repeated by their commander, 



I 



iNSALS OF tTLBTER. 87 

odIj served to increase the oonfusion ; a lev man frees Been to fall out in 
Ihe rear; the nest moment ttej appeared to reel from centre to flanks, 
and Boon spread aver tbe field. Dickey UBdd every effort in liia power to 
reetore order, ho stormed, swore, collared Bume, knocked donn others, and 
snatching a pibe from one of the rnnawaya, he oompelled a few to tura 
baok. but ranning in pursuit of ether fngitives. those taken again fled, 
and at length all attempt to restrain tdeir flight was given up. 

The oolonel retired highly disgusted with the soene he had just 
witnesBBd, while Diokey followed, overwhelmed vrith confuaion. At 
length he so far recovered as to offer some apology for the etraugo panio 
that had seized his men. by the relation of simitar cages, whieh. he said, 
had occurred to veteran troops, (a^ 

On the succeeding morning the colonel and his friends continued their 
journey to Randalstowu. where a meeting of the provinoial oompiitteo 
was to be held to receive the report of the county of Antrim colonels, who 
wore to assemble upon that day at Fackgate, on the important question 
of peace or war. 

Among the representatives of Ulster, met on this interesting occasion 
at Randalstown, were BBrtholoraew Teeliog, Dundalk; Rohert Moore, 
city of Derry ; John Hughes, Belfast; Thomas McOabe, of the same; 
William Dunn, Larne ; Alexander Lowry, Linen-hall, neat Hathfriland ; 
and the Ret, Arthur McMahon. Holywood. The latter was also a member 
of, and delegate from tbs national executive or directory. Dunn and 
McMabon did not arrive for some time after the others, having been 
detained at Farkgale to receive the flnal decision of the colonels theis 
met. {b) On proceeding to business, the report of the colonels was read 
by Dunn, in which they declared in the most solemn and implicit benua, 
that they deemed it imprudent that a rising should take place without 
foreign aid. Yet, if their brethren in Down persisted in that enterprise, 
and would not pub it off, they of Antrim would assist them with nine or 
ten thousand men. The remainder of the report was of little interest, 
and it was aifirmed that the meeting at Parkgate broke up much 
dissatisfied in consequence of their division, several being warm iu 
support of the measures proposed by those of Down, McMahon further 
stated that on the previous day he had attended a meeting of the Down 
colonels in Saintfield, and that he was instructed to inform those of 
Antrim, they were ready to take the field, (c) To this intelligence little 
attention was paid, and, after some desultory conversation, the meeting 
broke up as discontented as those at Parkgate ; and Messrs. Dowry, 
Tennant, and Tooling, seeing their schemes frustrated, and alarmed lest 
they should be arrested, retired to Hamburgh, while Bohert B. Reid. 
Hastings, Mason, and McMahon, took a boat at Bangor, and passed over 
to Scotland, (d). 



asioaed b; a few 



(b) 1 



and « 






B probationer ol the ] 



ia Bernadot' 






Q, then 



One of bbeae wan named Dninin and the othir UcMabon 
tbatthe laCtec iieraon liad raadeved hiois ~' 
M France, lie noB not emploied by n»rnn 

I'oJ./I..po((M£9S, «6 ' """ 

U) Ibid. (ElJ Ibid. Idfe of Lord Edward FlIsgBrald, 



ri^kjy Home I 



t H&iitbtirgli, a 



of (.beii leaders appear to hnva eonlinued 
. the 22Dd of June, a paitial rising of about 
n locik place near Ktlkeel ; but "the man 
teaming that a body of diagooDH was 
imore. It has also bean slated that theii 
I John Maginnis, and that the dragoona 
■OBB the country, but were unable to come 



58 ASS, 

In Down, nevertheless, Bomr 
disposed to take the field, ando 
twelYB or fourteen hundred m 
□[ Mourns " soon dispersed oi 
advancing upon them from Di 
leader, upon thia ocuaaiou, na 
pursued him for some miles ai 
up with him. (e) 

These eoxahinationB of unfavourable circumstances appear to have 
produced a general apathy in the ranks of the United Iriahinell, as at the 
next mcetmg of the ptoviuolal eommittee, only four eounties, viz., 
Antrim, Dawn, Tyroue, and Donegal, were represented. In a great 
degree the common ferment also subsided. Many of the inferior socfetieB 
throughout the country eviiU ceased to meet, so that it required all the 
zeal and addriKS of their leaders to keep the uuion alive. At one time 
serioun fears were entertained that notwithstanding the frequent cajolingg 
and mutual eipresflions of "brotherly love," that the Roman Catholioa and 
Dissenters ivouid become separate parties; and some of the Presbyterian, 
leaders in Down and Antrim were reported anEioua to inanloate the notioa 
that they could dispense with OathoUc aid. (/) 

About the beginning of July, Dr. William J. McNevin, a member ol 
the national execntiveT and secretary to that body, was despatched to 
Paris, with some instructions which they bad overlooked, or [were] unable 
to give, at the departure of Lewina, Among other matters, he woa to uiga 
the promised succours, but the number of troops sought were lessened, aa, 
from the aggrandizing policy of France upon the Continent, they feared 
the effect of a foreign army competent to keep possession of the country ; 
or, to use the words of one of their most zealous friends : the ilrish 
directory desired, "just sufficient to liberate their country, but incom- 
petent to subdue it,'' (5) He was likewise to endeavour to negotiate a loan 
of half a million of money in Prance, or, if that sum could not be prootirad 
there, to address himself to the Court of Spain, and to assure the French 
Government that the expense of fitting out the armament would bs 
eheerfully repaid as soon as the Irish republic was established, [h) 

On the 1st of July. Jamea Burnside, and other state prisoners from 
Belfast, confined in Dublin, were brought into the Court of King's Bench, 
when their indictments for high treason being read, their trials were 
appointed for next term. On 13th July, the Orangemen made a 
formidable display of their numbers in Belfast, amounting, by common 
estimaUun, lo upwards of 6,000, but a considerable number of these were 
iu military or yeomanry uniform. General Lake oonimanding the 
Northern District, accompanied by his stoS, paEised along their hne as if 
ia review, after which he prooeedcd to Lurgan, where upwards of 100 
lodges were met. The lodges in Belfast afterwards walked through the 
principal streets of the town, bearing orange flags, and accompanied by 
martial musio, playing the "Prussian Drum" cir"Boyne Water." Perbapa 



< 



(.) MnEgrnva's HiatDry ol 



leBebellion. The writer t 






ir tbe Secret Commtttee of the House of Lorde, AuEUBt 13th. 1799.— 
V< Of ijora niLward Fitsgtratd, Vol. II., "page 0. 

(jl A Brief Btateiiient, by SamiiBl Neilson, Printed at Newgate, IKB. 

Ih) Seport of the Secret Committee of tbe House ol IiordB. August 13tb, IIBB. 



DO (rait on Tecord bo Eully digplajs the dietraotion of theaa times as tbe 
following ; — Among th-oae who walked in this prooeBaion wearing oranga 
oookades and toaRCing the glocioua and immortal memory of William III., 
md who, from thsir dress. mighC well have been supposed toyal, were 
Mveral United Irishman, who only B few weeks before bad been engaged 
in treason of tbe deepest d;e. 

Earl? in August a deapatub was reoeiTed by the national directory 
from Lewins, aQtioancing that the expedition fitting out in Holland, at liie 
Texel, was destined for thia kiogdoin (i) From the journal of Mr. Tone 
it appears that be, Alexander Lowry, Linen-bill, and John Tennant, 
Belfast, were, on the 5th of August, on board of the Admiral's ship the 
"Vryheid." He also states that the troops, amounting to 13,514 men, 
were embarked, and that tbe expedition consisted of fifteen aail of the 
Use, ten frigates, and twenty-aeven transports, and only waited a fair 
wind to put to sea. About the same time a considerable quantity of amiB 
that had been seized or surrendered in the counties of Antrim and Down, 
were brought into Belfast, and several state prisoners confined in the 
barrack of that town were Uberated on taking the oath of allegiance and 
giving bail. 

The auspicioaa tidings regarding tbe expedition at the Texal after- 
wards became damped, in conaequetico of its not arriving as soon as had 
been expected. During the months of August and September, the 
intentions of the Dutob admiral to leave the port were baffled by light or 
contrary winds, and the aeaeon beooming rough and tar advanced, it was 
feared that the expedition was given up. Their friends becoming 
impatient at this delay, and the provincial directory being accused of not 
being suffiejeotly on the alert, a few spirited men in Belfast, Bubscribed 
COO guineas to send a messenger to France, to hasten the s^ing of the 
French fleet, (j) The deep wailioga of tbe North, in consequence of this 
delay, are tboa pathetically described by a late author : " Tbe expedition 
of (he Dutch comprised the entire ^ipoeable force of Che Bataviau 
Republic, and wae ofiiciallj announced to the United Irishmen, and tbe 
oonntry prepared tor ita Immediate reception ; and never did the public 
mind appear more deeply interested, impatiently waiting its issue. Many 
a longing eye was directed to the coast, but, alas! the winds o second 
time frustrated an invasion, and for upwards of two months, every 
attempt of the fleet to put out to sea proved abortive." {k) During this 
■uspenM, Dr. McNovin arrived in Dublin, from Paris, and made tbe 
nport of his mission to the directory, in which they were assured that 
they might, with confidence, continue to rely on the promised support of 
the French Republic, (I) From the silence observed regarding a money 
loan, it would seem that he hod been unable to obtain any. 



«-) Ibid. 

U] JobnTesnalilarberwardBbeosmOBa 
Uie Cattle of LelpEtg, fought, October 13th, 
OapUlnoribc''-" t7„,„_» _j 



e trill) 



le Ballyrai 



3r la tbe E^eneb army, and fell e 
. Aleiandar Lowry, hi 1T93, «b 

. . _ inMnioii of Tliaobald W. Tom 

I being given av by the French QoTersjiieat, be nei 

, through the InUtast of Lord Cisllaraatib, he obtalne 

re to return home. The vasbbI In wbleh hs had taken his vasBage boiog drive 

} a port Id Noiwa;, be tbers married a young lad;, nhom lie brouglit wit 

1 to Iruland, whtre lie died a few days after. 

(ft) Sequel m TeeliQB'a Fenonal Narrative, page 13. 

(1) Beiiort o/ tlie B*cteC Committee ot the House of Lords, Augnst 13th, 1798. 



In Seplentber, al Ihe Bseizas held for the coonty of Antrim, Wil^am 
Orr, a reepoctable farmer from tho neighbourhood of Antrim, was found 
guilt; of adrntaktetiDg ths Q&th of a. United Irishmai) to Jajnea Wheatly 
and John Lindsay, soldiers of the Fifeshire Penoihla Regiment. By the 
Insurreotion Act, under which he was tried, this offence had. been made 
felon;, and from the extreme severity of his sentence, great interest was 
made to have it oommuted, but though three times respited, he was 
executed on the 14th of October. Pew persons from the country wem 
present on this melancholy occasion, but a considerable military fores, 
with four pieces of cannon, were under anna. At the plaoe of exeeution, 
he distributed a printed paper, wherein he declared his innocence of the 
crime of felony, and concluded by hoping that his "virtuous countrymen," 
would liear him "in their kind remembrance, and continue faithful to 
each other," as he had " been to all of them." The colour of his coat at 
the time he su9erod became a kind of uniform dress with mAuy, amS. 
finger rings were worn, on which were engraved inside, or wrought with 
silk or hair, " Remember Orr." (in) 

At Down Assizes, the Rev. Thomas L. Birch was indicted for soma 
Beditious expressions said to have been uttered by him ; he was acquitted. 
A considerable number of prisoners charged with seditious practices, oe 
minor oBences against the state, were put upon their trial, a few of whom 
were found guilty. Armagh Assizes presented the singular spectacle of 
Captain J. St. Ledger, of the Qlth Dragoons, being found guilty of haviEtg 
taken the oath of a United Irishman, and of having administered the oaS 
to his troop. He was transported. 

Contrary to conunon expectation, the troops on board the fieet at tha 
Texal were disembarked, and the Admiral ordered out to fight the 
Bnglish. No sooner had they put to sea, than Admiral Duncan had 
notiee, and on the 11th of October they were attacked, drawn up in line 
npou their own coast, the laud being only about five miles distant. The 
action lasted nearly two hours and a-holf, and was gallantly contested by 
the Dutch Admiral, who, nevertheless, was compelled to surrender. The 
result of this memorable action is well known, and it efiectually settled 
the hopes of tha disaHected as to aid from that q^uartec. (n) A subicription 
was entered into for the relief of the widows and orphans of the seamen 
who fell in this action on board Admiral Duncan's Qeet. The several 
subscriptions in the county of Antrim amounted to £70i Ss. 5d. 

Though the United Irishmen were again interrupted in their favourite 
project of invasion, they did not abandon themselves to despair, nor relax 
in their endeavours, but, with assiduity, continued their exertions aa if' 
nothing imfortunate to their interests had taken place. Their frequent 



>) The 1 



□r the 



Cnitod ItiBhuien, having an 
amoontinB to 3,800 njen, w 
BUXory of the French Sew 



and B,8ia m 
Britieb Iobi 






irly ■ prlmi 



objeo 



a tha 



IBS aocideDtally dlacovi 
Derry, wherein IheEO i 
beir having lakes Cbe i 
of twBOly-a! 
rriea l,3B&_gi: 



ih Ouaida, 
.uiu,™.— rhir— ■- 
of Wheatly 



I 



driUiugs in bama were, tharelors, continued Bnder the direction of 
deserters from the army, hut their evolutiona were performed hy moon- 
light, on heaths, or in fields at a distance from the public roads. On 
these Qocasioiis eham battles were fought, in nhich the oolumn called the 
French army were always victorious. The charges with the pilte were 
made at a brisk trot. 

On the 8th of November, llie state prisonera from Belfast, wlio had 
been arraigned in Dublin in the previous July, were again brought into 
Court, and their trials again put aS at the instance of the Crown, A few 
days after, Eetaral of these priBDuBrs were liberated on giving bail. 
On the Ilth of tbe above month, a provincial meeting was held in 
Armagh. Returns formerly ordered of the nmiiber of military in the 
difierant coimties of Ulster were here presented. In the county of Antrim 
were 4,000, 700 of wliom were reported friends ; in eounty of Down were 
1,100, of whom 1,000 were rated friendly to their caase.(o) About a 
fortnight after, Robert Simms was chosen by the Belfast Directory — then, 
it would appear, composed of the following persons : Wm, Teonant, Robert 
Hunter. Olotwoithy Bicnie, John Coulter — general aud commander-in- 
chief of the county of Antrim, and about the same time an execative 
committee was established in each of the four provinces; the national 
directory, however, continued to sit in Dublin {p) 

December Tth. BejoicingB took place in the town of Qallinahinch, 
to cetebrate, as was given out, their patriotic landlord's (Earl of Moira) 
biith-day. The good citizens of that town appear to have also had other 
objects in Ticw, as during their hilarity the military on duty were made 
dmnk, and the ammunition in charge of the detachment carried oB.{q] 

1798, Thia eventful year oommenGed with the usual eourceB of 
discontent, agitation, and alarm, which had so luxuriantly been fermenting 
the two preceding years. On the 3rd of January, the prisoners, eighty- 
seven in number, on board the ship moored in Garmoyla, endeavoured to 
regain their liberty. Their watchword was " Blood, blood ! " and in the 
souffle that ensued, two of the offiaera of the ship were wounded, and sis 
of the guard, and one of the prisoners leaping overboard was shot in the 
water, and several were so badly wounded that they were sent on shore to 
an hospital. The attempt was chiefly frustrated by the hurry of those in 
the press-room to mount the ladder to get upon the deck, as by their 
weight the ropes by which it was suspended were broken. At a meeting 
in Armagh, on the 14tb, of twelve proTioclol delegates, it was announced 
that a messenger had arrived from Paris with intelligence that the 
French government were determined to invade the tliree Mngdoms at the 
game time, and that on no account would they desert the interests of 
Ireland. They were also informed, that )n order to keep up a regular 
communication between the countries, eleven Irish delegates then passed 
between Paris and Hamburgh.(r) 

At this period the growing ferment was greatly heightened by 163 of 
the most respectable freeholders of the county of Antrim being summoned 
to Dublin to serve as jurors on the trial of the state prisoners from that 






of tl 



iC an. 



at NetBt-Lettcr, Augnat 10th, 1798. 

:b of the Earl of Clare in tbe House of Lords, Febraary ISth, 1TS8. 

;t ol the Secret ComtQittee in tbe House of OonimotiB, AagastBlBt, 



county, given out as abouC lo luke place. Ou the Qitb of Jkuuai;, tha 
pciaoDsra veie brougbt Into couct, wbea a list of the fraaholden 
Birniinoned was produced by Mr. Curran, coonsel for the prisooeTS. QD. 
nhiob list was marked their several political obara^terg. The first eighty 
names were marked good, the Dext nineteen timid, aad tbe remaindM 
btated. " bod iu every seaee of the word." Mr. Curran prooeaded to 
challenge the array of tbe panel, as sot being duly and impartially 
returned by the high-iberil!. Tbe Court tben ordered tbe faot of 
partiality to be tried before two freeholders of the county there present, 
Mr. O'Hara aad Mr. Joy, and it was mutually agreed by the respeotiyo 
counsels that they should be sworn to try tbe fact, and tbe; ware 
aoeordingly sworn. General L. Barber, who had been summoned on the 
part of the priaonera, being sworu, acknowledged that he had seen a "liat 
of names with a gentleman in Belfast," and was told by the person who 
Bbowed him the list, that a number In it, "to the number of atioiit 140, 
were of a very extraordinary character, hj which ha understood was 
meant that they were disaSeotod. The person who showed him the Ittt, 
he believed, had been engaged in aome office connected with the Sheriffi 
department," and that his name was Moore. The Sub-Sherifl of the 
county of Antrim was now called in support of the challenge, but ha did 
not appear. The Court th^n proceeded to reoapitulate to the triers the 
evidence, and expreaiied their opinion on it, that it did not support the 

L challenge, and tbe triers gave their verdict "for the array, and against 
the cballenge." The trials of Burnaide and Barrett were then proceeded 
with, who were acquitted, there being no prosecution, and 3. Kennedy 
and a few others were immediately liberated, John Bird, alias Smith, alisa 
■Tohnson. the informer, having taken fight from Dublin two days before. 
The triala of others were put off by affidavit, "that Henry Jo^MoOraoken, 
evi 
trii 
wil 
Sh: 
:." 
fre 
alB 
Fti 
fitt 
the 
Qu 
wil 
wh 
Oei 
wh 



a material witness, was seriously indisposed iu Belfast, without whose 
evidence they could not. with safety to thEit lives, put themselves on 
trial." (s) Newell, tbe informer, a few days previous, had made his ^eoce 
with the prisoners from Belfast, during a visit to Kilmainham prison, 
and deserting the service of tbe government, about the 20th of Febmaiy, 
in company of Robert Orr, chandler, and a few olher old friends, he 
again made his way lo ihe North. (() 

February 1st. Tbe Ulster committee, or directory, met at McClean'a, 
e's castle— nine members present. A messenger from Dublin gave 
g detail of the success that they bad obtained over the government 

n tbe late trials. He said, " By h s I he would now speak his mind 

freely, for he was not afraid, as delivery was now certain." They were 
also informed that their friend Priest Quigloy had lately returned from 
France, who confirmed the intelligence regarding the progress made hi 
fitting out the expedition, which, they were assured, would be ready bj 
the end of April, or early in May, It was likewise stated that Priest 
Quigtey and the Tiev. Arthur McHahon had opened a communication 
with the United Britons, a matter deemed of great importance. But, 
what was still more flattering, that delegates from, that august body bad 



iDtbeLifaot Nen 
il Barber and bimi 



It thBBO namen ■ 



J. kmtistl 



language of that Say, eat 



arrived to the national directory, whoaa address rTS.5 laid before the 
meeting, anil that slreadj' legiBlators wore appointed for tba three king- 
dolua, to act as an eieoutive for the whole. The members were instruated 
to catise theic men to hold themselves in readiness, and to males out lists 
of (heir enemies and their places of abode. Bj a return oF the SStb of 
this month, it appears tliat the number of armed United Irishmen in 
Ulster was 110.S90, and in (he kingdom about treble that number, (u) 

At this period, the exertions of the disaSocted in the northern counties 
of Ulster, were auch 68 to Call forth the warmest enoomiums from the 
national executive. On theic meeting on the 2Tth Febraary, it was 
decreed, that the patriots of theae counties deserved well of their oountry, 
"tor the many oSers of emancipating her directly, but that they be 
req^uested to baac the shackles of tyranny a little longer, until the whole 
kingdom l>e in suoh a state of organization, as will, by their joint oo- 
□peiation. eSect without loss that desirable object which they stated was 
drawing to a criaiH," (v) Upon the same day the provincial committee 
again assembled in Armagh, to whom it was announced that a delegate 
had just arrived from France to hasten the complete organizatioi 



i the ] 



rench directory had a 



L the expedition 

lat the national 

B of the delegates, 

t provinces — tlw,t in 

,9 greatly complained 

' ' .wn, 600 of the 



which sum they intended to levy off the differe: 

Ulster by a voluntary loan. The want of money w 

of, and (he lottery for raising money could not ye 

tieksts remaining unsold, (id) On the 28th of this month, Arthur O'Connor, 

alias Colonel Morris, which name he had for a time assumed; James J. 

Euigley, alias O'Coighley, alias Priest Qnigley, alias Captain Jones, alias 
Lmes John Fevey ; Mr. Williams, alias John Binns, an active member of 
the London corresponding society ; John Allen, who passed for a servant 
of Mr. O'Connor, and Jeremiah Leer, really servant to that gentleman, 
were arrested at Margate on the point of embarking for France, as was 
believed, to accelerate the meditated invasion of the^^e Icingdoms. In a 
pocket-boot faund in a great-coat pocket, banging up io a room where 
Qnigley was at breakfast, was discovered a paper purporting to be an 
address, "From the secret committee of England to the executive directory 
of Prance." Among other espcesBiocs in this paper, it was declared, that 
"With the tyranny of England, that of Europe must fall," and it was 
added, " Haste, then, great nation, pour forth thy gigantlo force ; let those 
base despots feel their avenging stroke; and let our oppressed nation call 
forth the praises of France at the altar of liberty." In the baggage of 



»ndy, EdworJ J 

Teoling, Arthur MoMaha 

lureesa, McKBnna, MiEuiH 

lecby, Dnckett, WUllam Hamilt 

CommitUe of Ibt Boitte of Oommoiit, 

e Secret Comuiltbee ol the Hoase o 



Report of the Sccrt 



line antiiorisy, it appeara that this loltory coniia 
ea each ; that Jabo Caldwell, Beltaet, was treasuri 
' be H.ppUeil "to the genera! syetein of Uaited li 
CJomnuttsi of Oil HouM of Commoiw, AUDuttSliI, I 



9, Anguataist, 
listed of a.DOO 



the party was also [cuiid " papara eipreGBive of Cbeir being a, sort of 
ambasEadors from the United Irisbmen to the directory at Patie," bat 
thej denied that any o( the baggage was theirB-fiC) 

On theSSth of FebmsTj. Ouner&l Sir Ralph AberoToiubie, Commander- 
in-Cbief, addressed a, letter to tbe military oommauders throughout tbe 
kingdom, in reprobation of tbe irregularities committed by the troops; 
but tills reroonstcanoe failing of prodUQing any eSect. a few ireehs aner 
he made a resignation of hie office, in wbiob he said tbat the Irish army 
" had become contemptible to its enemies, and formidable only to Its 
ftiends." 

On the 12th of Match, through tbe information of Thomas Reynolds, 
of Killcea Castle, county Kildari:. a colonel in the united army, fourteen 
delegates, composiog the Leinster committee, with their papers, were 
Beized by Mr. Swan, a magistrate, in the house of Mr, Oliver Bond, 
Bride-street, Dublin; and, on tbe same day, Mr. Bond, Thomas A. 
Smmet, William J. McNevin, John Sweetman, Henry and Hugh 
JackEon, n'ere arrested: and warrants were issued for tbe appreheneion of 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Richard McCormic, and William Sampson ; the 
latter was soon after taken to Carlisle, [y) By Ihie disaster the affairs of 
the disaffected in the capital were thrown into some confaeioil, and, in 
order to prevent a despondency, a few days after, a handbill was oircolated 
in DubJiu, in which were announced the safety of the arrested, a ten-fold 
activity in tbe leaders, and a perfect organization of the city, with a 
caution against preoipitate measures. 

March 95th, The Ulster committee met at the house of Samuel 
Qraves. Moy, but an alarm being given, they adjourned to Blackwatertown, 
nhsre, being again alarmed by tbe appearance of some dragoons, they 
rotited to Armagh, where they concluded the business of the day. Among 
the business transacted on this occasion, was the appointment of a 
Bsvolutionary Staff and Adjutant- Qonerals, to transmit to the National 
KzDcutive the state of their respective corps. At this meeting, a delegate 
from the Leinster committee reported (hat they had completely recovered 
the late severe shock, and in tour days after their friends were taken, they 
had the whale province in a perfect state of organization. Tbat ft friend 
had arrived from France with the glad tDtelligenoe that the French 
nmence the embarkation of their troops on the let of April, 
eeting of the committee to be hold in Belfast on that day, (i) 

On the committee again assembling, the persons' names were reported 
whom the national executive had selected from tbe lists furnished to 
them o( those qualified for the ofSoe of Adjutant- General, bat only those 

si of Mr, O'Connc 




pablialied SeptamlwT SSth. iT9T, □□ tbo plan of tUs Nnrl/wn, Slur, "wbou 

inDlatar." it professed to be: tbe loat number wae dated Uarota 

tb, 1T98. ItBdoatinflammatorypapera wareatlecworciBpubliahed.a " 



an otber edition 



."TbeBeantlai 

,-, J of a aeditiouH 

r-.— . ,irinted in Cork. eDtitled, "Tbe Harp ol Erin," were also Mrtled off 

by the slienffa ol tbat olty— Lift of Lord EittiiaTd FiUaerald, roi, II., page 17 : 
Trial o/^rlhuj- O'Cminor, 

(v) Life ol Lord Edward Fitigerald, Vol. 11., page IT; Eeport o! tbe Secrak 

'— — It the Houio of Commons, Aaguat Hat, 1798. 

s House ol Couinions, Augual 12, 



of four coontieB were returned, the others not having fotwFirded thair 
lists. Id the ovening a delegate nho held been despatched to Dublin some 
days previous arrived and Joined the company. He said that the Leinater 
committee had received a letter from Bartholomew Teeling, then la Paris, 
stating that the French troops would oertainty be on board by the middle 
of April ; the Brest fleet, he said, nas destined for Ireland, and mould use 
every stratagem to avoid that of tha British, whose fleet would probably 
be thus drawn oH their own const, while the troops embarked at the other 
porta wou2d make a desoent oo England. He further stated that there 
were loarteen peraona from tha North in Dublin, "supposed the moat 
active men in the kingdom," and that Samuel Neilson, in particular, 
"was riding about night and day organizing the people." That it was 
the determination of the executive, in case of the French expedition being 
l^nln frustrated, to make a rising theBUBelvea, as the citizens of Dublin, 
with the asaistance of their friends in the army could aeoura the capital 
at any moment. (a) This statement was probably true, as to such lengths 
had the seduction of the army proceeded, that early in May we Gad 
Gucgeon Lawless holding a conferenca in Dublin on tha subject of a 
riaing, with delegates from all the militia regiments in Ireland. 

The reports of the fulfilling o£ the prophecies of 9t. Columbkille 
were now revived, with several new and intereating additioua. Roman 
Catholica, in particular, were seriously alarmed by an account of their 
eitirpation by a murderous hand called the Black Militia, which was 
always construed to mean the Orangemen. Reports were also spread In 
~' "ntrim, and other Roman Catholic diatriots, that 

iming at night to massacre them in their beds, 
mpaot to wade knee-deep in their blood, (c) At 
ks pretended to have been accidentally diacovered 
as to have taken place, and the Roman Catholios 
lay armed about the ditchoa, on the toad by which it was believed the 
aBsassins must pass, determined on giving them a warm reception. On 
those alarms, man, woman, and child, deserted the houaas and took to 
the fields, ond at one time considerable [ears were excited by the shaking, 
by the wind, of aoma luxuriant r^weeds that were, for a time, mistaken 
for the advance of tha Orange legions. Their not coming at the times 
given out was always pretended to be, by tha Orangemen having, by some 
means, learned how well their intended victims were prepared. About 
thia time several houses were racked at night in the neighbourhood of 
Glenavy by persons reputed to be Orangemen. 

In the counties of Derry and Donegal, it waa reported, and commonly 
believed, ihat whan (he chapel of Convoy should ba nailed up by tha 
Black Militia, such persona as repaired to Glanfin would ba safe, and 
on taking a stocking of meal with them for food, it would do them to the 
end of the ware. Some weak-minded females, however, not waiting for 
the nailing of the chapel, repaired to Glenfio with their stocking, but ita 
ocntents soon beocming exhausted, in nober sadneas they returned to 
their homes. About this time a printed hand-biU was sold about the 



the dlynns, county of S 
tha Orangemen were oi 

haying entered into n oc 
several times, the night w 
n which this 



m'°\^all 



>1 the 



of Oon 



QB. AnBuat SI, 



I am able, the Calbolics ol Ireland." 



country, headed with an unnesed print, " A Zebra Foal." which stated ' 
that at a certain place in Ireland, now forgotten ij the writer. a4 
animal had heon toalad, beautifully striped, whiah iounodiatelj after 
repeated audibly the following distich:— 

" A wet Winter, a dry Spring, 
A bloody Summer, and no King," 

To strengthen these fabulous atluaious on the minds of the Ignoratlt, ■ J 
boob wae published in Dublin, entitled, " A Paraphrase on the Propheeie 
of Daniel and John." Id (hia work these prophecies were affirmed t 
be one and the same ; and the beast there mentioned, was said to be 
"absolute tyrannical monarchy in a hereditary line," the total annihila- 
tion of which was triumphantly pointed out as at hand, (d) AC a visitation 
of Trinity College, Dublin, whioh ended on the 21st of April, nineteea 
students were expelled, some for refusing to answer questions put to them, 
otliers for being United Irishmen. 

At the Assizes held in April for the county cf Antrim, Charles 
MoClean, weaver, Belfaat, was indicted, under the Whiteboy Act, foe 
administering an illegal oath to Fntriek King, soldier in the Mouaghon 
regiment of militia. He was found guilty and senteticed to ba 
transported, John Story, printer, Belfast, was also tried for administering 
the oath of a United Irishman to Owen Forrel of the same militia, and 
aaguitted. At Downpatrick Assizes. John Molutyre was put upon hia 
trial for seducing and administering an unlawful oath to Lawrence 
Qleeson. soldier in the Carlow militia, and for endeavouring to seduce 
■fames Farrel and Patrick Dillon, of the same oorpjj ; the prisoner waa 
acquitted of all the charges. The Rev. Thomas L. Birch was iudioted at 
the instance of Joseph Harper, for offering said Harper £50, providing he 
would forbear prosecuting United Irishmen ; also with assaulting Hichard 
Harper, son of Josephine prosecution. A record for damages was tried 
at this Assizes, wherein William Davison, of Newry, was plaiotiS, and 
Gastavus Matthews aud William Saul, ofHoers in the Moume Yeomanry, 
were defendants. The damages were laid at £200 for the latter having 
ordered their men to set fire to and bum the plaintiS's promises. The 
jtt(y gave a verdiot for £196, with aosts. On the 28th of April several of 
the state prisoners from Belfast, confined in Dublin, were put upon their 
trial and liberated, there being no prosecution. 

May 10th. The Ulster committee met in Armagh, eleven members of 
whom were present, (ej A raessenger from Dublin (/) reported that no 
intelligence had been received from France since that of Mr. B. Teeling, 
but that a delegate was hourly expected. That the national executive 
hod been changed three times within the last ten days, in order to get 
good patriots and men of ability, and a plan was laid to seize the City of 



(d)ltia 
mspirat. 






s) Tbe ] 



e foil 






IS of (he 
»■ 

loni ore reooidoil as boinc present on this 
i, tor county ot AnWim : John Connallan, 
.__. . ,..„,.,.__. =ngbBni, 

imUtf 
irs, aud take oharge ol 



iQteraiting oocasi 

for county ot MooMlian; Williaio 'nfKeivet, for county ot Derrv; J 
(oroity of Darry; .Tohn Wiltion, for city ol Dorry.— Keporl of the iSecrs\ 
iff the Moiae of aomiaons. AugTHl, n, I79S. 

I attended each proiinclal meellnff, 



I colieDted. 



I 

I 

I 



Dablin, Ghapetizod, au3 Laughlinstown camp, at the aajne moment. 
The executive, he said, required ths names of the persoHB cho.;en by the 
respectivB counties to be added to those about to oompoae the QBlional 
convBobioQ of Ireland. 

Seven oE these peTsoiis were then reported SA already appointed, vis. : 
a silver-smith for Armagh, a Frosbyteriau Minister for Tyrone, a proba- 
tioner Presbyterian Clergyman for Donegal, a farmer for Louth, an 
Adjatant-Oeneral for Derry, a cloth merchaitt for Antrim, and a farmer 
for Monaghan.(fr) On or about the same day a letter was received in 
Dublin by Lord Edward Fitzgerald, from Lewina, the agent in Paris, 
stating that the promised expedition could not be ready for four months. 
On this intelligence, a resolution was taken by the directory to prepare 
for a genaral rising, and messages to that effect were transmitted to all 
parts of the union ; and it was afterwards announced that on the night of 
the 23rd of May tbe general movement was to take place. (/i) 

In furtherance of the proposed measurea, the Ulster provincial 
committee again assembled in Armagh, when two members who had been 
deputed to assist ths provincial executive in their contemplated plans, 
made their report, the substance of which was, that the citizens of Dublin 
were to rise and seize upon the government, and the mail-coaches to 
he stopped and deEtioyed, as a signal for thoii friends to act. It was 
complained that the Ulster directory had taken no stepd to put the people 
in roadineaa, and that when required to summon the provincial delegates 
together, they neglected. The reporter declared that he thought it the 
duty of the present committee to denounce tbem, and also to vote them 
out of office, and they were accordingly divested of their charge. 

The committee then chosen were to assemble in Ballvmena on the 8tb 
of June. It was likewise agreed that the adjutant-generals of Down and 
Antrim should meet on the following day, to form a plan for rising 
en masse : a copy of this plan to be forwarded with all deKpatch to the 
different adjutant-generals throughout the province, but that If the rising 
was again put off. this meeting waa to assemble is Belfast on the 24th of 
June ; the new addition of one member from each county to the provincial 
executive, however, to meet at Banbridgo, in the house of one Stirling, 
on the 4l.h of the said month, and it was announood that a printer of 
Belfast was to furnish them with a press for the better issuing of their 
orders and proclamations. After some other matters o£ minor import 
had been discussed, it was finally determined that Biaris Gamp and the 
town of Belfast should be taken at the same moment ; the three counties 
of Ulster not to rise until they should hear of the capture of these, (i) 






le ol Cominooi, August 2lEt. 



3f the House of Com 



Id of May. Arthur O'Cod 



uguitted. I 
rarriier, a fc 
of Qnlfily n 



.par, purporting to bo an addrosB "From Ihi 
tie executive diteetory of Fraoai," Id which it w 



In the □DUDt; ol Down the progreaa o[ rebellion w&s deemed eqoallj 
aabixfoobory. At B county meeting of aoited delegates, held in Saintfield 
on the iBt of March, il was resolved that the ootonole of reguaents be 
Bummoued to mt;ot, and that ofUcem bu appointed in tho room of those 
who had left tlia kingdom. Agreaablj' to this resolution, on the 9th of 
the eamo month, seven colonels met in Belfast, who, amoog other 
business, appointed throe adjutant-gone rats ; and at a, meeting of ten 
colonels, bsid in SaiDtfleld on the last day of May, they determined to 
put their cocps in readiness to take the field. A strange irFBaoltlticm 
appears afterwards to have pervaded their councils. One of the generals 
sent in Ills resignation, and at a meeting-of colonels, a few days sftar, 
only Iwo of them declared for an immediate rising, the others refusing to 
aot without tho promisect assistance from France. It was, nevertheless, 

Eivan out that one of the adjutant-generals was about to establish hia 
ead-quarters at Ballinahinch, and that the patriots of the county of 
Antrim intended seizing upon the magistrates as hostages, at the opening 
of the campaign. By the 5th of June. afTaiis in Down had taken a mora 
warlike turn, the colonels, in a message to the chief adjutant- general, 
urging him to put the troops in motion, or they would find a man who 
would. (}) 

While matters were thus progressing on the part of the disafleoted, 
the friends of the government were equally on the alert. At military 
posts the guards were doubled— the yeomen were placed on permanent 
duty — parties of whom were daily hastening to Belfast or Carrickfergua 
for ammunition or arms, (k) Patrols of cavalry traversed the roads at 
night, and no persons were permitted lo bo abroad from nine o'clock in 
the evening until five in the morning. The names at the inhabitants of 
each house wore ordered to be pasted on their outer doors, and the names 
of such strangers who should arrive to bo immediately added. This roll 
to be called over at any hour the civil or military authorities might deem 
Si, to see that none were absent. None were permitted to go from home 
without a pass, signed by a magistrate, or some military officer. 

In this distracted state of things public credit became shaken to tbs 
foundation, and the common ties of the community seemed hastening to 



nation; pour forth thy i 


gland, that 


of all 


p. 


t fall 


Haste (hen areat 


"esntic tor 


e. Let the base 


laapot 


fael thy av^R 


BtrokB, and let our oppr 


esBd uatio 


eara 


forth tha 




oi Prance at tba 


altar of Ubsrlf.*' Quigly 


was found 


guilty 


of hlHh trea 




d he was eiaautad 


at PanningtoQ Heatli, nei 








the CathoUos and 


bean oomparativelj trlfli 


said, tha 








man, deep 








sides— nauJd bay* 


e, had it n 








tions of that truly 


d anligblB 




dy^th^'m 




thus'^^^^n^T 


ADtrim, bat chiefly, and 








wntense ot death waa pa 


l^lf°^" "' 


huDw 


"^ tbt, attM 




1 b^ for'^BaUaat! 


evenubbraatowiBbmy 




„ y 


had eipies 


e^TwlBh that his bona. 


■hould rest at Betfast, bu 








iveof 












DiingB 


deeply engaged In 


tha pOUI^of t»e counlr 


, he bad re 










U) Tho chief dutloB o 


tha adjuta 


.•r,?"" 


ralBwrato 


btain 


returns of tha state 



-,. ,B Of the : 

village; and w' 



louB patoriolB.— BopUTl of Ua Sreret Committal of the JiouM o/ Oommonii, 






I 



ft convulsive diaaolutioo. Frienda, when diilaring in politioal oreada, 
Gftnoelled at once the Eriendship of youth, and the mutual ohIigatioD ol 
yean, and in uumeroua instanoea reJatioD ships vrere equally disregarded 
from B, aimilac cauae. Though the usual busineea of the country was in a 
great meaHure suspended, this scaroely appeared a matter of regret with 
the working classes, and it waa said that in a short time, witb (bose who 
wrought and with those who played, it would be all the same. 

On intelligence that (he northern mail oaaoh had been stopped and 
burned at Sautry by the rebels, on the night of the S3rd of May. the Cork 
coaoh at Naaa, that for Athlone at Lucon, and the Limerick ooach at 
the Curragh, the above regulations were atriotly eoforoed. Pour days 
after, martial law was proclaimed throughout the north ; many suspicious 
persons were arrested; some firo-arma were surrendered; and a court- 
martial assembled in Belfast for the trial of such prisoners as should be 
brought before it. On the 28tb, John Kelso, charged with being a United 
Irisbmau, and with having coucealed arms, received 200 lashes in the 
street, by the sentence of thia court, and on the same day another man 
waa also flogged on Kelso's extorted information. A few days afterwards. 

three persons, Thompson, Hanna, and — — Smith, wore alao 

flogged in the streets of Belfast, charged with seditious practices. On 
the 30th, two brass field-pieces, six-pounders, the property of the late 
Belfast Volunteers, were found in a cow house oS North-street, Belfast, 
and two other pieces belcngieg to the some corps, and of the like calibre, 
were dug up on the Short-itrand near that town. Two hraaa cannon, 
three -poundera, of the Lisburn Volunteers, bad been surrendered to the 
military on the previous day. 

Unawed by the presence of the □amerous m.ilitary everywhere lb 
arms, the United Irishmen oontinued indetatigably to perfect their 
arrangements. Meetings of their committees oontinued to be held — 
confidential agents, bearing verbal messages, traversed the country— and 
on the 29th of May a circular notice was issued by the Oommander-in- 
Chief of the county of Antrim, for the ofUcora composing the military 
committees tc meet him, on the 1st of June, at Farkgate, on matters of 
the highest import. This summons was duly attended by most of the 
□Qtninittee, but when about to proceed to business, they were alarmed by 
a report from one of their scouts that a body of dragoons waa advancing 
from Antrim, on which they immediately dispersed. The dragoons, 
however, passed on without halting, but such a train of fears had been 
cited that the committee did not again assemble at Farkgate, but 



er, to Templepatrick. Here the general, 
lade a resignation of bis high office. The 
such an unlocked for eveut, which tbey 
lew not where to find a proper suaaessor. 
ir, proposed, and their respective merits 
3 still lingered in their decision. Three 
persons were at length proposed, each of whom appeared to enjoy their 
confidence; but as these were absent, it was linaUy agreed, that ha of 
these who should be first found, hy persona (hen appointed (o deliver bis 
□barge, should be the honoured man. (I) It waa likewise determined (hat 



on addressing the assembly, n 
coDunittee waa astounded at 
regretted the more as they ki 
Several persons were, bowevi 
discussed, bnt the 



{!} One of Ibes 



L9 tbe uniortnnata Henry Mnoroe, 
Uia aetghbonihood ol Larue. 



ill order to come to a final deciflion on ilia great question of peaoe or Wfti 
that the Fomnianders of corps should meet od the second day after, o 
tba DortbeiD side of Ballyboley Mountaia, at a Eecluded place called the 

On the same day, four delegates from the neighbourhood of RandaU- 
towD, met. by appointment, at Caatledawson; siit delegates icam the 
TJllagea or ton'us of Garvagb, Kilrea, aud M^hera : those from tiie latter, 
were William McKeiver, and Walter Graham. These porsons detormined 
that riHings fihould take place at those towns, at the tiame hour as at 
Toome and RandalHtonn, In order to distract tbe attention of the armj, 
Tbef were also to secure and disarm, the yeomen and Orangemen of tbair 
respective districts; and, if necessary, afterwards tu form a junction witb 
the patriots of Antrim, with whom a daily correspcndence was to ba 
maintained by way of Toome. 

June 4th. His Majesty's birth-day was celebrated in Belfast by a 
generol illumination. A notice had been issued by General Nugent, 
commanding the military in that town, that condles should not be placed 
in Khop windows, nor the lower apartments of houses; yet many persons 
bad their shop or parlour windows broken by tho military and yeomen 
bacauae these windows were not lighted. It being reported that a rising 
would take place on that nighli, late in the evening a strong detachment 
of bbe military, witb cannon and Hgbted matches, were marched through 
the principal streets. 

In aeoordance with the decision at Templopatrick, thirty-five oolonels, 
or representatives of corps, met at the appointed lime and place. Tho 
business of the day commenced by on inquiry if that the persons 
appointed to wait upon those deputed to the chief command, had delivered 
their oharf;e. It was briefly answered in the negative, which produced 
some severe leflectiaiis regarding their indifierenco to tho natioDB,! 
interest, in the course of which altercation it was urged that a rising 
should immediately take place without waiting for foreign aid, as thej 
had now. for the third tim.e, been disappointed. 

This was strenuously opposed on the ground that their forces, thoogh 
numocouB. were imperfectly organized, and hence unfit for immediate 
warfare. The observations were followed by a warm debate, and on the 
question being put to the vote, it was decided that they should continue 
to wait for the arrival of tbe Preuoh. Several, however, protested loudly 
against any further dolay, and stigmatised tbe whole proceedings as 
dastardly in tbe extreme, hostile to the rights af man and liberties of 
Ireland, and retired growling from the hill. 

The greater number cf the meeting prooeeded homeward by the village 
of Ballyeastan, where a few members baited, and where was then waiting a 
number of inferior ofScers, with a leading gentleman belonging to Belfast, 
all anxious to learn the decision of Che day. On this being known, the crowd 
buret forth into an open uproar, and Bhouts of "aristocrats," "despots," 
"cowards," "villains," and even "traitors," were heard from the multitude. 
The unpopular leaders sought shelter from tbe "pelting of the pitiless 
storm." Amidst horrid threats and confusion, a meeting was convened 
anew, at which the Belfast gentleman presided, the decision at the Sheep- 
rcB was reversed, and the sovereign people declared they were appeased I 

Harmony being restored, the day of the insurrection was fixed upon as 
had been originally projected, viz., Thursday, the 7th June. A mora 
distant day would have been preferred, but as the magistrates of the 



I 

I 



I 



cotint; were to meet upon that i&j in tlie town of Antrim, it v/t,s 
determined not to let slip the opporlunity of securicg tliem as hostages. 
Messages to this eReat v/ete forwarded to each colonels as were absent at 
this important juncture. The following copy of one of these laconic 
epistles is taken from " Teeling's Personal Narrative," page 232 : — 

"Army of Ulster I To-morrDW we march for Antrim, drive the 
garrison of RandalEtown before yoa, and liaalen to form a junction wilh 
the commander-in-chief. First year of liberty. 6tt day of June, 1798. 

"HbNBY Joy MoCSACKBK." 

Of the persons who had thus hurried the country into a civil war, and 
now hailed the near approach of the revolutionary storm, not one of them. 
veie oE the landed proprietors, merchants, or influentia) gentlemen of the 
county. With a few eTiceptions thej were men of principles as desperate 
as their foFtuneB, and who, hence, perhaps imagined that iii the confusion 
incident lo a civil war, some events might spiing up that mould advance 
their interest. Several of the most active on this occasion were common 
tradesmen, who, for years previous, bad neglected their own affairs to 
attend to those of the State, while th^ made no secret of bettering their 
condition by the plunder of the wealthy, and heuce preferred the orgies of 
their miiinight eabiiiEt to the humble vocations of the last or the loom. 
In fact, on a review of the body by whom war was now raged, the Batirtcal 
saying that "Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel," seemed, in 
many instances, really Uus, 

From this period, the glorious reign of equality was said to be at hand, 
and nothing was talked of but preparations for [he eventful day. Fire- 
arms were brought from wbare ihey had been secreted, aod piiie-lieada 
were shafted, and others continued to be forged, while workmen — 
" With busy hammers closing rivets up, 
Qavo dreadful note of preparation," 

Females were equally busied, many in baking oaten cakes, and other 
culinary preparations, while others sewed up cloth into small bags to 
carry three dajs' provisions, wliicb was commonly believed would be 
sufficient for the campaign. 

Throughout the country these preliminary preparations were easily 
managed ; but in towns where the military or yeomanry were quartered, 
they were matters of no little difliculty and danger. In Belfast, though 
the streets were patrolled by the military at all hours, guards placed on 
all the public roads leading out of the town, and all suspicious persons 
examined or arrested, such was the daring enterprise of the diaaSected, 
that a sack containing flints, swords, and a green flag, was passed oat to 
the country on a car. in the wake of another car guarded by yeomen, 
returning home with amuiunition. 

The sack containing these articles was imtied, and thrown carelessly 
on an empty ear, and from the mouth of the sack projected weavers' old 
heddlea. Mingled with the yeomen was a countryman, owner of the horse 
and car ; of these, however, he seemed to take no notice ; and beneath bis 
old great coat was suepended. by a rope resting upon his shoulders, 
eighteen swords. On passing the guards stationed on the roads, he 
whipped his horse, and parted company with the yeomen. 

The state of society at (his period broadly displayed those featuies 
' --■■ -notion so truly depicted by the poet, as characteristic of 

vuIsioD, viz., " Rich men look sad, and rufSans d»nce and 



teftp," and thougb Bonga and laaghtec were also oocasionally heard from 
the young and thoughtleas. it waa easy to psrceive. from the loobi of 
maay, that all was far from at ease withio. As the time of the liaing 
approached, an ominoua gloom aeemed to steal over BDoielj, and to 
outward appearance all Heemed unusually calm ; it was, however, eooh 
a calm as mariaerB aagur to forhode the coming hurricane, or tlBTellsit 
the aamiel of the desert — 

" Or, as we often see, against some storm 

A silence in the Heavens, the rack stand atill, 

The bold wind speeobteas, and Ibe orb beloff 
As hush as death — anon the dreadful thunder 
Doth read the region," 
Agraeible to concerted measures, on the mxtmingof theTthof June, the 
green flag was displayed at the hamlet of BoughEort, about aix miles from 
Belfast. Some twenty persons were here assembled in arms, among 
whom appeared, as leader, Henry Joy MoOrackeG. from Belfast; but 
though the people of that neigbbouibood were, in tbe language of that 
day, esteemed good patriots, and bad been apprized of the rising, the 
tbhrnesa of tbeir present muster testified that danger ia "more often 
found than sougbt." 

For some time these persons kept moving about, evidently nndetet- 
mined how to aot. when a man on horseback was seen posting towaida 
them from the hamlet of Carnmoney, and in a few minutes drew up hia 
steed near the flagstaff. He proved to be a well known emissary, last 
from Ballynure, who briefly stated that victory had already crowned their 
eSorts ; that tbe patriots of Larne had led the way ; the military in that 
town had been defeated and compelled to surrender; he bad hastened hither 
to proclaim the glorious news, and everywhere as he passed, the national 
flag was unfurled. This intelligence produced an immediate effect; the 
weTldn rang with three hearty oheers, and messengers were despatched 
about tbe adjoining oountiy to summon to the field thofe who still 
lingered, to share in the glories of the day. 

Presently a number of men, armed with pikes or muskets, were seen 
hastening towards the flagstaff, who, as they arrived, were heartily 
cheered. While thus mustering, they were joined by a numerous corps 
from Carnmoney, under the orders of a young farmer named Blackbnm; 
and the whole toing soon after formed Into line, they moved off to form a 
junction with their friends at Templepatriok, where we shall now Isbtb 
them, and proceed to notice the progress of the rising in other places. 

In Lame, where hostilities first commenced, the ineurgente began to 
assemble In arms by eleven o'clock on the night of the 6th, at a place near 
that town called the Gold Well. Their numbers amounted to about 250, 
at least sixty of whom were armed with muskets, and the otberH,witha few 
eiceptions, carried pikes or pitchforks. Ofienaive operations were, for 
some time, retarded by the absence of their chief commander, who, on 
inquiry, was discovered to have sailed the previous evening for the lale of 
Man. This difficulty was at length surmounted hy the promotion of 
another officer in hia room, and about two o'clock on tbe morning of tbe 
7th, they advanced into the town in two diviaiona, tbe greater number of 
whom took post near the Pound. In the tovra were then quartered an 
officer and twenty men of tbe Tay Scottish Fencible Regiment, who 
occupied a house in the town aa a "barrack. On the evening of the 6th, 



I 



I 



I 



they had heen apprized that a ciaing of the disaffected would certainly 
take place on that nigbt; the officer had, therefore, made aome suspiciouB 

EBrsons prisoners, and with a lew loyatifilB, by whom he had been joined, 
ad heen on the alert, without having observed any movementB to 
oounteniiDce the reports received. However, at half-past two o'clock, 
aome persons were observed oroBsing the street In a hurried manner, oa 
whiok ihff officer with a few man proceeded in that dlreetioii to see if 
there was really an unusual stir. They soon found themselves assailed by 
the main body of the insurgents, and from the great disparity of numbers, 
tha soldiers ware soon compelled to retreat, leaving three of their number 
dead, and having the like number wounded, one of whom was their 
commander. Only one of the lebels is said to have been killed, but several 
were severely wounded, one of whom, died a few days after. 

On the retreat of the military, they ooccentrated their small and 
dispirited force at the barrack, expecting every moment to bo attacked. 
No dispositions ware however made by the insurgents tn follow np their 
advantage, but on George A. McClaverty, Esq., a neighbouring magistrate, 
being brought in prieonec, it was proposed that he should be sent into the 
barrack with a summons, demanding the immediate surrender of the 
soldiers. Mr. McClaverty protested loudly against bis being the beorer ol 
such a message, on which it was suggested that he should be pub in front, 
while a party in his rear advanced to attack the soldiers. This barbarous 
proposal was also rejected, but a uummona was sent into the barrack by 
another hand, but it was returned unopened, the ofEeer declaring that 
they would defend themselves to the -last extremity. This message 
seemed to parolyEe the exertions o£ the insurgents, who now retired to 
the Mill-brae, where Mr. McClaverty ventured to hint that they should 
return to their homes, while he would use his best interest with the 
government for their pardon. 

About this time they were joined by Edward J. Agnew. Esq., of 
Kilwaughter, who had been sent for on the request of ^Ir. McClaverty, 
in hopes that he would have been enabled to persuade the people to 
give up their arms, and to cease further warfare. However, his aJvioe 
and entreaties were equally unsuccessful, and after his most earnest 
endeavours, all tha favour obtained was leave to return lo Kilwaughter. 
The insurgents were now joined by several straggling parties, the greater 
number of whom had been brought from their hiding places. 

At the same time an account was pretended to have been received of 
the capture of the Castle of Corrioktergus that morning by their friends, 
on which three hearty cheers were given, and about eleven o'clock they 
moved ofi in high spiriiawith their prisoner for the appointed genor^ 
rendezvous on Donegore hill. 

At the village of Ballycarry, four miles from Carrie kfergus, the in- 
surgents assembled on the morning of the Tth, in considerable force, a 
party of whom were immediately despatched to Rodhall to secure some 
fire-arms known to be in that mansion. This service being soon effected 
(he entire body proceeded for Larne for the purpose of forming a juuotion 
with their friends in that town. Near the hamlel of Qlynn they were 
met by a few armed stragglers, who annoimced their victory at Lame, 
and the departure oE the main body some time before for the camp. 
Mutual congratulations having passed on the suocesses of the auspicious 
day, those bodies also moved for Donegore, bringing with them two 
pdaonere, the oue a soldier, the other a farmer — the latter not having 



taken (he oath of a United ItishmaD daclured he had no eight to " tarn 
oiit,"(m) Near tlouctbilJ the CaFrickfergus Yeomeu Cavalry were seen on 
KDOthec road about half a mile distant, on which each part; halted, and 
those of the insurgents with fire-anna were ordered in front. No farther 
hostile dispositicna were made on either side, and after gazing on each. 
other for some time they resumed their respective routes. I 

At the towns of Bollyalare, Ballyeoston, Ballynure, and their respectiTS I 
diBtriots the lebels muatered in great force on the morning of the Tth. i 
Many, neverthelees, were reported absent, tha greater niunber of whom ' 
were esteemed veteran patriots, who for years previous bad declared that 
their highest ambition was to serve in the army of the Irish Bepublic. On 
inquiries made regarding the numerous defaulters, some were reported to 
have been suddenly seized vrith the moat violent bowel complaints, othera 
with cramps or rheumatic pains; the wives of several were given out as at 
the point of death ; some only the night before were said to have bod their 
ankles strained : but for the abaeoce of the greater number not even a 
pretext was assigned. Parties were immediately sent out in search of the 
fugitives, some of whom were discovered and compelled to "tttra out" 
from their hiding places, while others, on being dragged forth, protested 
they would not go to fight, and if they muet die. they would rather die 
where they were. Some of these, notwithstanding their piteous wailiogs, 
were forced along to the ranks, while others, after a few hearty kicks, were 
Boflered to remain. 

In BB.llyolare their chief commander was a mheelwriglit, with whom 
was associated a nmn who had^ceii for some time in the regular army, 
and hence ha waR believed to be an adept in martial tactics. About half- 
post ton o'clock this body was joined by a regiment from Ballyeaston and 
Ballyboley, under the orders of a. respectable dealer of ihe former ^taoa. I 
The bodies were now formed into sections, every thirteenth man of whom. | 
was an officer of one rank or other. Doting these arrangements account! , 
were said to have been received of the capture of the Castle of Carriok- i 
ferguB that morning by storm. This news appeared to give new life to 1 
their proceedings; shouts of joy reverberated throughout the line, whila J 
during these deafening cheers orders were given to march, and the whole 1 
took the road leading to Antrim. These corps bore with them the colours J 
or flags of their former volunteer companies. On that of Ballyeaston wat 
in large capitate, "liberty and our Country; " and on Ballyclare, "Fearm 
Danger." By the way, many were pressed into the service, and near 
Doagh they were joined by another corps, commanded by a farmer of that 
neighbourhood, Their progress waa marked by songs, cheers, and peala of 
laughter, and all seemed to say— 

" Blithe souls and merry hearts have we." 

The Ballynure regiment proceeded by a diSerent route, joining by the . 
way those from Larne. Just before their junction the following incident 
took place, which afterwards became the subject of coi 
front of the line, on horseback, rode Larry Dempsey, a di 
S4th Dragoons, who, on this occasion, flourished a rusty sword, by whiok 
he at times appeared to direct the movements of the corps. The pride of 
of&oe, for Larry was now an adjutant, had thrown him oft his guard, and 
he exclaimed, in a rich Munster brogue, " By J — s, boys, we'll pay the 



S ■ 

m 

i 

■ 



(m) In 61 
)mn]oi.ly tl 



;" ibe OBll used at (be tii 



rarely called 



belUon,bat 

who appeared tacdj 



rascals this day lor the Battle ol the Boyne." This untimely slip of 
Larry exoiled no little uneasiness, and he was calmly cautioned bj a 
brother officer, and told not to use auoh language, bs it would not do ! 
Tha buBtla that now look place in congraiulating the heroes of Lacoe on 
their glorious victory saved Larry from further rebuke, but alluslous 
□ODtinued to be made id Ms words until they arrived in tha vicinity of 
Donegore Hill, when the novelty of the scene changed the convBrsation 

In the towns of Belfast, Lisbum, and Carrickfergus, the disaSeoted 
CTere aned into submission by their numerous gariisons, yet some days 
previous several zealous adherents from these towns passed into Ihe 
country and ware actively engaged in the insurgent rnnka; and on 
the night of the 6th June, at a meeting of United Irishmen held near the 
latter town, it was, with a few exceptions, determined not lo attempt a 
rising until they should learn the result of the forthcoming day. In fact, 
in almost every town, village, or hamlet in the oouuty of Antrim, hostile 
movements in a greater or lesser degree took place, but as several of these 
bodies were not engaged in the assault on the towns of BandaJstown, 
Antrim, ot Ballymena we proceed with an account of the aolions at these 
places, afterwards fallowing up the lesser events of the day in detail. 

In the parishes of Drumaiil, Duneane, district of Grange, and part of 
the pariah of Connor, the insurgents assembled in great force on the 
appointed day, for the purpose of co-operating iu an assault upon the town 
of liandalstown. In that town were then quartered about fifty of the 
Toome yeomanry under the orders of Captain Henry Ellis. On the 
preceding day he had been apprized of aoipe hostile preparations iu his 
neighbourhood, and during the night a few cavalry sent out to patrol were 
made priBanera on the Ballymena toad. 

About twelve o'clock a.m. the insurgents' coltunn was seen advancing 



I 



ay ( 
merely United Irishmen were i 



shaft; those of the Defenders 
with white or yellow — a large yellc 
were ornamented in a fanciful mi 
ciown, and on at least one was wro 
Armagh." The reguli 



, their political orders 
uers or flags ; the ensigns of those 
f pieces of green stulf attached to a 
vere of the same material, but edged 
V cross in the field. Seme of these 
nner with a yellow harp without a 
rrought, in Ilomau capitals, " Remember 
of the leaders of the Defenders in the 



county of Antrim, in round numbers, only amounted ti 

On the arrival of these bodies near the town some delay took place as 
to which should advance first to the attack, and at length it was deter- 
mined that they should advance together, which they did. The chief 
commander until this time appeared to be a person named Henderson, 
hut be now deserting his post, [it] was filled up by another named Dickson, 
who afterwards behaved with fearless intrepidity. Their number at this 
time has been estimated at 3,000 man, but though very numerous they 
have probably been over-rated. 

At this time they (the yeomanry) were drawn up across the street, 
between whom and the inBUrgenta, who had advanced by the Tooma road, 
firing immediately comjnenoed, but the farmer being also about to be 
assailed in their rear, retreated into the market-house, and, securing the 
gales, retired to the upper atory, while the insurgents, taking possession 
of the opposite houses, a desultory warfare was for some time kept up, with 
little eSect on either side. Judging from the firing kept up during this 
confiiot, never were oombatanta leas disposed to deeds of blood. Seldom 



eight : the mttzilea of the guna wece merely 
Iher by thoBS protected hy the window jamu, 
Boor. During thin contest Eome, however, of 
ote to the walls of the m&rket-housa. and aB 
t their pieoee to fire tbey knocked them aside 
nonly unneoeBBary M 
thao the roof of the 
wounded they had 



» 

did any of either appear 

seen, and they were flred oi 

or who lay aquatted on tl 

the influrganta ventured ii 

their opponents pointed 01 

with their pikes. Thie cautmn, however, was B{ 

the contentB of their guns rarely desoended li 

adjoining house, so that if any person was killed 

themselves ti> blame. 

The warfare had nontinued for obom forty minutes in this way, when 
a woman brought out some burning straw from ao adjoining house and 
thrust it through the iron gratings of the market-house. This firs being 
likewise fed with straw by those without, and also by some of the like 
material lying about within, the place was soon eoveloped in smoke and 
Same. The yeomen now ceased firing, and cried out that they had 
surrendered, and the stairs leading to the loft having; been burnt down, 
they were relieved from their perilous Eituation by ladders raised ogftinW 
the windows from the street. In this affair three o£ the yeomen were 
killed and five wounded ; of the rebels two were killed, but their wounded 
oould not be ascertained. 

Immediately on the surrender of the yeomen, they were disarmed and 
unt off under a strong guard to Orogan Island, an insurgent encampment 
then forming about one mile distant ; and on the following morning theie 1 
officers, Ellis and Jones, were forwarded under an escort to Botlymens, ■ 
which, at this time, was regarded as head-quarters. 1 

The capture of Bandaistown being thus effected, a strong division,'^ 
chiefiy consisting of those from Duneane and Grange were ordered home 1 
to throw down Toome Bridge, lest they should be attacked in the rear by 
tioops from the county of Derry. At the same time a numerous body 
under their respective leaders, Orr, Dickson, Maginnis, and Halliday, the 
former of whom appeared chief commander, hastened to assist la the 
meditated attack upon the town of Antrim. 

The Toome column had scarcely proceeded about one mile and a-half 
homeward, when they were met by a messenger, by whom they wen 
informed that some cavalry from Derry, had already passed the liridga, 
and were on tbeir way to Randalstown; on which intelligence Ibey moved 
off the great road, and took post nearly a mile distant in the fields. 
Presently the horsemen came in sight. They soon distinguished to 
be the Salteratown yeomen troop, under the orders of Captain Patterson. 
On them observing themselves so near an armed host, they slackened their 
paoe and wheeled about to return. 

At this moment a shot was discharged by one of the insurgents, from 
a long fowling-piece. The ball hit one of the cavalry, who fell, while bja 
horse on looking at his fallen rider, brought up the rear. A hard run was 
now made by a number of the inaurgents towards the fallen horseman; 
BUd a furious struggle took plaoe for bis boots and buckskin breeohea, 
which were torn off as quickly as they could have been by so many 
Cossacks or Arabs, He proved to be a young man named Hall, from 
Magterafelt, who died two days after from his wound. The oorp« 
continued their route, to execute the service on which tbey had been 
deputed, and, about six o'clock in the evening, commenced the destruction 
of the bridge. From its excellent masonry it proved a work of no little 
difficulty and labour, and resisted, for nearly fourteen hour«, the most 



leaders, aud bi 

During the i 
despatched tc * 



euneet application at the crow-bar, spade, and piak-aie ; when a little 
after eiglit a'alock, on the morning of the 8th, the centre arohfell into (ho 
river with a tremendous crash. 

In the evoDing, the Randalatown insurgants, alarmed by the report of 
the defeat of theit friandfl at Antrim, avaouated that town, and retired 
to (heir enoampment at Gcogan Island, and in the course of the night 
monj stole home. Many, however, were merry over their bottle, and 
some omens of dissension were even vieible. the Protestant party 
toasting Bnccess to the Iriah Union, while the Roman Catholics merely 
drank Bucoess to the real defenders— meaning themaelves. 

Agreeably to preconcerted arrangements, on the night of the Tth a 
rising look place at Moghera, county of Derry, to the amount of at least 
6,000 men, about 500 of whom had firearms ; the others were aTm.ed with 

Eikee. pitchforks, and tnrf spades. On the evening of the 6th one of the 
lilrea delegates joined the yeomen and turned informeF, hence do rising 
was attempted there, but a parLJal rising look place at Garvagh, but not 
roas as had been expected they were deserted by their 
n after dtsperstid, 

'it of the 7th two messengers from Maghera were 
a to learn if that their forces were wanted in Antrim ; 
estructed to hasten thither with all speed. They were 
scarce!; gone homeward when accounts reached Toome of the defeat at 
Antrim on the 7th and the wounding of their respected landlord. Lord 
O'Neill, and that General Knox and Colonel Leigh were advancing npoa 
Maghera and Castledawson. In this dilemma it was determined to 
redouble their efforts to throw down the bridge and to let the Maghera 
people shift for themselves. In the meantime, the insurgents at Maghera 
had received intelligence that the army were advancing upon thorn, and 
that the Bovevagh cavalry, under Captain Keyland. were already seen at 
Home distance. The whole legion assembled fied, leaving their leaders (o 
make the best terms they could. The chief leaders upon this occasion 
were William M'Keiver, William Harper, and Walter Graham. The two 
former efiected their escape to America, but the latter was betrayed at 
Newtownlimavady into the hands of the military, [and] suffered the 
extreme penalty of the law, as did a person named Hardy. 

While hosts were thus pressing forward to Antrim, Major Seddona, 
commandant in that town, bod about nine o'clock on the same morning 
received a message from General Nugent acquainting him that the town 
was ahout to he attacked by the relwls, and that troops were ordered to 
tuM support. The garrison of Antrim at this time consisted of one troop 
of the 22nd Dragoons, a company of yeomen belonging to the town, and 
about forty other inhabitants who had been summoned that morning to 
take up arms— but on the services ol many of these no dependence oould 
be placed. The common alarm was greatly heightened by the discovery 
that several of the disaflected had left the town that morning, as was 
believed, to assist in the meditated attack. On searching the promises of 
some of these, pifceheads were found, on which two of their houses weca 
set an fire and consumed. At the same time thirty^five suspected persotu 
were arrested, and lodged in the great room above the market-house. 

About eleven o'clock several persons came into the town from the 
eountry, each of whom brought a varying tale. They, however, agreed 
tfaat the people were everywhere in arms, aud concentrating their numbers 
on Donegoco Hill, where they proposed an encampment. Soon after 



leroral magiatrBtes arrived to attend the proposed meotittg. amoDg whom 
were Jamos S. Mooie and Ii<'bert Gamble, Esqcs, They had come from 
BallymBDa that morniDg, wlioce tbuj had loft all quiet, but thay had been 
■EEailed by aome Bcmed men near KellB 

At half-past one o'clock the drsgoonn iitationed on the lookout reported 
that immenEe bodies of armed men were advanoing on the Ballyclare and 
Teroplepatrick roada, and Boon after these halted near the head of tbs 
Scotch Quarter or eai^t end o£ the town. In each CliIudui those armed 
with muEksta were in front, and were mostly old volunteers ; in the rear 
of the Templepatrick division wa9 a brasa six-ponnder cannon fixed on 
the wheels of an old chaise, ai^d HUod to the muzzlo with musket bolla. 
This piece was under the direction of deserterH, chiefly from the artillery, 
but the; had neither alow match nor portfires — peat, carried b; one ol 
the gunners, In an iron pot, serving for both (u). This column consisted I 
chiefly of the Carcmonej, Koughfart, and Templepatrick regiments, ui& J 
had been joiaed at Aluckamore by tboae of that district, Cnunlin, and ■ 
Killead^and now filled the road, tUeir pikes appearing above the adjoinlnff 4 
hedges BE far as the eye could reach, I 

This halt was occaaioued by the smoke BtiU issuing from the boaees 
that had been set on fire, the cause of which they were ooxioUE to learn 
before the; entered the town. During tbis delay messengers passed several 
times across the flelds between those on the different roads, and a little 
after two o'clock the whole were again in motion, amounting to upwards 
of 7,000 men. Notwithstanding these numbers, from their coming within 
about a mile of Antrim, their forces had been dimiuished on variotts 

Sretences, some by baiting, oh the; said, to ease nature ; others by sitting 
own pretending to take gravel out of tbeir aboes ; and man; made off 
without assigning an; cause whatever, none of whom ever again joined 
the ranks ; these were, however, comparatively few compared with those 
who threw away their arms on the order given to advance, and who 
scampered off without minding in the least the threats or scoSs of their 
companions. The desertions from the Ballyclaro division in particular 
has been computed to amount to nearly one-fifth of tbeir original number. 
Those on the Templepatrick road moved down by the Scotch -Quarter 
or east end of the main street. Their advanced division was told off for 
street firing; in their rear cams the fleld-piece, and behind it were the 
numerous pikemen, Tboae on the Ballyclare road did net enter the town, 
but turned off to their rigbt across the fields, and defiled down the north 
side of tbs town, for the purpose of entering it by Bow-lane. A division 
from Bandalstown was also to have entered by Pedie's-lanc ; by these 
arrangements it was proposed to place the military between two fires, by 
which, it was believed, the; must immediatel; surrender, or be cut to 
piecea. 

The delay occasioned bj the smoke proved highly fortunate for the 
garrison, as, in the interim, a reinforcement had arrived from Liaburn, 
consisting of two troops of the 22nd Dragoons, a troop of yeomen cavalry 
(Maragel) and a detachment of artillery with two pieces of carmoo. 
These were under the orders of Colonel Lumley of the 22nd Dragoons, 



I ol the Belfast voli 



II eeoreteil 



d to retBam niiac nheri 



I 

i 



who had hastened Eorwari] before the 4th Light Battalion under Colonel 
Clttvaiiy, from Blaris Gamp, ere the troops on their icay from Belfast 
oould possibly arrive. The Bctillery took pout in Iho (itroet, in a line with 
the weat side of tUe entconce from Belfast, by MaBsereena Bridge; (lie 
jeonten of the town, in eschaloo, were stationed on their flanks, and the 
cavalry were drawn up in their rear on the sides of the street, to be ready 
to act as ciTcum9tances might appear to require. 

By the timo these momentary diEpositiong were completed, the head 
of tbe insurgent column, which moved down the main street, ha^ halted 
about eight or ten perches above the church, and immediately fired a 
voUey. This was the iieit raonieot answered by that of the artillery and 
yeomen, but though the distance was scarcely WO yai'ds. with little efieot 
on either aide. The artillery continued to £ce several rounds of grape- 
shot with great rapidity, which, had their guns been Judiciously laid, must 
have swept their opponents oft the stceel; bnt so ill were they directed, 
that the only injury fell by the insurgents from their fire, was the eltat 
casting up some gravel in the street ; while the tiro of the yeomanry is 
reported to have been almost equally inefUcaoious. 

That no impression hod been made on the enemy by the fire of the 
oonnon, hud probably been observed by those who had them in charge, as 
at this time a bombardier was kilted by a musket-ball, in the aot of laying 
anew one of the guns. The rebel musketeers perhaps anticipating mora 
fatal eBects from an alteration making in the direcdon of tbe guns, made 
a sudden rush from the street over the wall of the adjoining cburcb-yard, 
which, at the pan where they paaaed over, was only about four feet high — 
lower down, however, the wall was much higher, and it also commanded, 
in a gieat meafluie, the ndjainiag street. At this time, the slight 
current of air sticriiig, carried the smoke raised by the firing on the faces 
of the military, wlm were thus, for a time, deprived oE seeing what was 
passing in their front. Hence the slackening of the fire of the insurgents, 
OS they clambered over the wall, had been mistaken for their having fallen 
into contusion or retreat, and the cannon and yeomen were ordered to 
oeaee firing; about eighty of the dragoons were formed into a line, and, 
headed by Colonel Lumley, they made a furious charge up the etreel. At 
setting out, they were met by a discharge from the six-pounder cannon o( 
tbe rebela, which, until this time, hod been unobserved. Wlien nearly np 
with this gun, it was again diacbarged with still more fearful efloot. while, 
at the same time, they alao sustained a destructive Sre from those in the 
church-yard. One of the wheels of the rebel cannon was broken down by 
this last shot, or, according to another account, from one of the wounded 
horses having fallen upon it. Be this as it may, it was rendered unfit 
for further service, and after an attempt made to prop up the broken 
wheel, it was abandoned. 

Notwithstanding tbe severe loss sustained, the charge was vigorously 
continued, until they became entangled among the numerous pikemen 
who filled the street, who closing upon them, their swords wore found a 
very ineOicacioua weapon, where, perhaps, a doson pikes were at once 
directed against the rider or his borse. From this unequal contest they 
were soon compelled to retire, and they again sufiered some loss as they 
passed the ohurch, from the fire of those in the yard. The greater 
number of the horsemen retreated by Maasereene bridge, the artillery 
retired further down the street, nearly opposite the entrance from 
Bow-lone, and the yeomen hastened their retreat into tbe garden of 



Haaaereene Cci^tle, the wall of nbich < 
DonmtaiDded, in a great degreo, the ra&li 
These movenientB had become imperativt 
that they were about to be attaclied in the 
troe; and the force was the Ballyclac 
□erted measures, nere appoioted to ent 

StogresB. a compauy were ordered to 
ohn Story, about to enter by Fedie's-laue, but by this timo the firing had 
oommenced by those of Templepatrick, and the eatreaties and tbreaba of 
Story were equally unavailing, bis men, one and nil, refused to quit the 



1 excellent detenoe. and 
lam Etreet as far as the church, 
•ive, as it was confidently asserted 
;he rear. Thia report proved really 
a diTision, who, agreeable to con- 
ar the town by Bow-lana. In theii 
t oorpi under tbe orders of 



a, and gi 



o the al 



t(p) 



At lepgtb the head of the Ballydare column entered the main street, 
where they were met by a volley from the yeomen about to enter the 
Castle garden — and also by the Sie of those called loyalists who lined 
the garden wall. Appalled by the fall of a number of their men, in 
tumultuoua confusion those who had entered the street fied back iato the 
lane, many of whom oenlinued their fligbt across the fields. However, 
about one-half of the column, as if ashamed of their timidity, halted in 
the adjoining gardens, and after some consnltabion they determined to 
make another effort to enter the town, which they did by passing by the 
rear of some ruinous bouses, and came into the main street a little east 
of the market -house. 

From the situation of this building in the street they were also ia a 
great measure covered from the fire which continued to issue from the 
garden nail, on the least clianoe of its doing execution ; while at the same 
time chance shots were beard from those in the churchward. 

Thoae from Ballydare, aa they entered, were ranged on tbe northern 
Bide of the street, and such as had fire-arms oonmienced firing upon some 
wounded and straggling horsemen who remained a little farther down 
on tbe opposite aide, [and] who.aEable to oSer opposition with anyobanoa 
of suooess, retired by Bow-lane ; wbite the artillery, having two of their 
number killed, and without any support, fled, leaving their cuns and 
tumbrels in the street. On their retreat a party of rebels rushed forward , 
with loud cheers to seize the eacnon, hut every man of these ia said to 
have been killed by the fire from those in the garden, and no further | 
attempt of the kind was made. At length a woman belonging to the 
town, of herculean strength, named Gordon, ventured out and seised the 
straggling borsea. Sbe yoked them to the tumbrels, and drew them in 
onder cover cf the garden wall, which having secured of herself, with the 
help of a brave artilleryman who had not left his charge, they dragged 
the two guns alongside tbe tumbrels. Not a shot was fired at ter during 
this service, very few of tbe insurgents being in sigbt at the time. 

At this time only a few shots were heard from the garden wall, those 
within only firing when persons appeared in the street- Thus grievously 
annoyed by their fire, by which many had been killed and wounded, it 
was proposed by McCracken, who was now engaged in rallying his troona, 
that a detachment headed by himself should pass down by the north side 
of the town and through a small wood, force the garden gate in the rear, 
and cut otl tbe rascals in tbe garden, from whom they had suBered so 
much. In Bow-lane, as observed above, were then colleoted a number 
of tbe scattered dragoons, who, on seeing a considerable body coming, as 



(pi Tri. 



of John Story, Bel/aii Ntwt-liettn; July 3rd. 1T9B. 



I 



I 



81 

fhej believBd, to attack them and to cut oS thoir retreat, set off on tbe 
RandalstowD road at full gallop. At ilits time a large body of men, the 
ohiet coroinander of whom was Samuel Orr, had advanoed from Kandala- 
(own, who had cow hailed, and their other lenders — Dioksou, Halliday, 
and Maginnis — not then knowing that the town was in poBseaaiou of 
the insurgents, were engaged in an angry disousaion as to which of the 
diviBiooB should enter the town at Patie's and which by Bow-lane. At 
the height of their diicussion, the dragoons hove in sight, and those from 
Randalstown supposing that their friends in Antrim had been defeated, 
immediately fled, each man deeming himself lucky in effecting bis escape. 
This strange scene had been obserred by the part; of McOracken, wha 
were seized with panic, and they refused to go farther. He, however, 
insisted on their advancing, hut fair words or threats were equally dis- 
regarded, and, seizing a pike, be swore he would destroy the first one who 
oSered to run away. This threat, however, only served to increase the 
confusioQ, and, in attempting to stop some who were making oS, he was 
thrown down by tbe preEsure of the crowd, who letting fall their weapons, 
scampered away in promlsououB confusion. 

On this occurrence being known, a person named McQivern, holongiug 
to the town of Antrim, and one of those who had left it that morning for 
the purpose of assisting in its attack, volunteered to lead a party against 
the yeomen ou the service purposed by McCracken. After some time 
fifty-tbree persons armed with muskets proffered their service, but as 
they were about to march off, it was announced that the army from 
Belfast were at tbe head of the town, and. In a moment after, the whole 
party, with their numerous friends who were regaling themselves in the 
Adjoining heusee, were in tumultuous retreat. This roinforoement was 
under the orders of Colonel James Durham, of the Fifeabire Fencible 
Begimeot, and consisted of one troop of the 22nd Dragoons, the Belfast 
yeomen cavalry, about 300 of the Monnghan militia, and a detachment of 
artillery with two field sii-pounders. Some round shot were fired by 

these in their advance down the a' ' ' 

were mostly clear of the town, and i 

It heing reported that many of the ii 

single mes of men ware sent down ir 

proceeded by the street, and many of the inhabitants fled into their 

gardens, and by not having kept their houses lost their lives. 

Ahout twenty minutes after their arrival, the 3rd Light Battalion 
arrived from Blaris, bringing with them some thirty prisoners whom they 
bad taken by the way, with arms in their hands, who were disposed of in 
B very summary manner, as were such wounded as were found ahout tbe 
gardens and streets. This battalion remained in the town for the night, 
and the artillery were ordered to take post in Shane's Castle. In the 
course of the night they amply justified the public opinion formerly given 
by GeTLeral Aborcrombyof the disordered state of discipline in the British 
army, of whom at present it is enough to say, that throughout the night 
their conduct exhibited ample proofs. Soon after their arrival in that 
mansion, a sergeant was sent to the adjoining village to purchase bread 
and other refreshments. On passing a little thicket on bis way, two stout 
tellowa rushed out. made him prisoner, disarmed him of bis sword, and 
I forcibly along, before, in his surprise 



but by this time the insurgents 

of ihe way of either shot or shell. 

ictswere secreted in the houses, 

of the houses aa tbe main body 



3ok about. They carried him off that e' 



Sells, where he was kept to their final dispersi 



g toni 



n the following Saturday. 



Wa aluUl here leave tham, and proceed to cotioe the progress of 
tnaurreotioQ in other parts of the country. 

At Glonann the relwUion began on the 7th bj the inBurgenta taking I 
prisoners some yeomen and Ipjaliats in retaliation for aorae of tbaii 
trieods arrested by the former on the previoua day. Immediately after, 
the rebels began to aesemble in considerable numbers on Bellavie Hill, 
□ear that town, while the yeomen corps took post in the oastle of the 
£srl of Antrim, in its immediate vicinity. During the day. some 
loyalists from Larne, who were hastening to Olenarm, not being aware 
tbat it was in the hands of the insurgents, were made prisoners by a ' 
party of insurgents, and carried to Bellavie. and threatened to be shot. I 
On their inquiry by whosa order they were detained, they were answered I 
by a fellow named Itourke. " by the authority oE the Hepablic." On tha j 
8th an exchange of prisoners took place, man for man. Among thoM 
liberated by the yeomen was the Bev, Robert Aohison, Presbyteriui 
minister o£ Olenarm, who immediately after took the chief oonunand 
of the insurgents. On the arrival of Achison in the camp it wba 
proposed by the leaders from the Glynn that they should inunediatelj 
inarch for Che general rendezvous at Doncgore, but this proposal, after 
gome debate, was laid aside, and it was agreed that they should wait to 
the following day. The number upon Bellavie Hill ou this evening was 
oompated at 1,800 men, besides many women, hoys, and children, and m 
report being spread that Belfast and Blaris oomp had been taken on the 
7th by the troops of ■' the Bepublin," the time passed in all the fabled 
festivities of the tented field. At dusk, however, their mictb was turned 
to sadness. Some fugitives arrived, who announced their defeat on the 
evening of the 7tb, at Antrim, and by the morning of the 9th not 
one person remained on Bellavie to testify where this famous muster 
had been. 

At Ballymena, the report of an insurrection breaking out had been 
whispered for some days previous to the 7th of June; and on thB6th,maay 
of the disaffected of the town and neighbourhood were busied in shafting 
their pities and flinting their firearms. By the morning of the 7th the 
alarm had become general, which, about twelve o'clock, was much increased 
by two prisoners being brought la by some yeomen from the neigbboui- 
bood of Fortglenone; two had been taken that morning in the aot of 
warning the people to rise in rebellion. At two o'clock it was reported that 
the insurgents were advancing upon the town on the Broughshane road. 
and soon after, the Bev. William McClaverty, a magistrate, accompanied 
by four yeomen cavalry, set out in that direction to learn if this report 
was true. About a mile forward the insurgents were seen advancing in a 
dense column, who imroediotely commenced firing, ou which the cavalry 
Boampered off. Mr. MoClaverty's horse taking fright and becoming 
restive, he was thrown oS, and while lying from the effects of the fall he 
was barharously beaten by some of the insurgents. Ho was at length 
enabled to rise, and though wounded and besmeared with blood and dirt, 
was brought into Ballymena amidst the most savage yells of exultation. 

A little before Mr. McGlaverty's setting out, about thirty of the moat 
respectable inhabitants, who. a few days before, had set down their names 
to assist, when necessary, in defence of the town, were soinmonad to attend 
at the market-house to take up arms. A few of these were really zeaiouB 
loyalists, but the greater number hEkd been called thither lest they should 
be available to the rebels, rather than from any aid expected from their 



I 



I 



saFvioea. Their fidelity vas sooner put to the teat than hod beau axpsctad, 
for, on the repoct being spread of the capture of Mr. McCIaverty, the 
greater Dumber of those collected, fled, while those who remained, with 
aoma four or five yeomen, entered the market-house, and Beouring the 
gates, took post in its upper or seooud story. 

Presently d most discordant Sourish of hums, oonch-shells, and glasi 
trumpetfl or tubes, announced the entry of the insui^cntB at the head of 
the town or Cburch-Etreet. Their frout division were entirely armed with 
muskets, and weie chiefly composed of the "Soya of the Braid," a district 
fonaerly pre'aminent for the number of its Volunteer corps. Their uiuubeis 
filied the street irom eide to Bide, and, as seen from the market-hoasa, 
conld not foil of impressing upon the few within the folly of opposition. 
Some one, therefore, ventured to suggest the propriety o£ their immediate 
surrender, in case they were offered good terms. The mention of 
snirender roused the fiery indignation of Thos. Dickson [Davison?] 
a school -master, and a most determined loyalist, between whom and the 
disaffected of the town, there had for long existed the most inveterate 
hostility. He declared, with great ve hem Enca, that however others might 
be disposed, he would never surrender his arms to rebels, and he prooeedad 
to poiut out that they hod nothing to fear, having plenty of ammunition 
and arms, and within good stone walla. His harangue was here broken 
ofi by a volley from those without, which, however, from the low situation 
of the assailants, did do damage except breaking the gloss of the windows, 
their shot liaving lodged Id the ceiling of tha room. 

This aalnte was immediately answered from the Market-bouso, but 
from their height above chose in the street, their balls passed harmlessly 
over theic heads, though at the time, they appeared to have " done the 
State some service, " Alarmed by the oBtonnding peal and whistUng of 
the balls overhead, those nearest the Market-house endeavoured to get 
away, and, in the confusion that ensued, were thrown down. Their cries 
served to increase the confusion among the crowd, aed many others, is 
their baste to get ofl, were also overthrown, and others again falling over 
them, several thousand persons were thus sprawling od the street, the 
greater number of whom supposed that all were stain, or at least "kilt," but 
themselves I During this confusion a considerable number are reported 
to have made oB home, but the multitude, on recovering from thair 
panic, and linding themselves really alive, as if ashamed of the strange 
contuaion into which they had fallen, seemed auiioua to renew their 
attack on tha Market-house, which, however, was again suspended by an 
equally unlooked for event 

On that morning, a detachment of yeomen cavalry quartered in the 
town, hod, with the exception of some six or seven. left it for the purpose 
of escorting two of their ofQcers, who were m^strates, to Antrim, ta 
attend a meeting of the magistracy, caUed by the governor of the county 
on that day. This service being performed, they had hastened hack, and 
aiiivad at the end of the bridge leading into the town as the insiirgentiB 
were about to arrange matters to renew their attack. Astonished at the 
appearance of sueb a vast ooocourse, where, a few hours before, they had 
left all quiet, they stood undetermined bow to act. To advance or retreat 
appeared equally hopeless and impracticable. Before them was an armed 
host, and in their rear, they had seen the people everywhere in arms. 
While thus amazed, the pikemen rushed forward with savage yells, to 
whom the yeoman officer surrendered his sword, his men did the like, and 



3 Cbe black -hole, and their oonunui^ei: to bh 
■djoining ole-liouBe. InunediaiCBly after this aohievemont b; the pike- 
men the musketeerg. in high spirits, Fesumed their nsfoult upon the 
Hftrket-house. HoireTer. fot Bome time they seemed to have scaroelj 
aiumounted their former (ears, firing only when sheltered bj the jamba of 
doorl, and the comers of streets; but they at length took post in the 
apposite houses, trom the windows of which they ware euahled to fire into 
thoBS of the Market-house with greater safety and effect. 

Throughout this warfare, the intrepid Davison, by his example, 
endeavoured to keep up the spirits oE his companions, aud fearing that 
balls might fall short, he husbanded his stock by Bring from his bluader- 
huas, buttons cut from his coat, and nails taken from tbe walla. The 
iron gates below were at leugtb forced open by sledges, and shots were 
discharged by those below np through tbe loft, and down in return, but 
without either producing any deadly efiect. At this time a tar-barrel was 
klso set on fire for the purpose of its baing carried in beneath the loft, but 
OB this service was deemed a kind of forlorn hope, the barrel was for some 
time Buflered to waste its flame in the street. 

At this time a man was observed sitting in the street, on a basket, 
with his head reclining upon bis knees, and appeared neither to see, 
hear, nor take an interest in the busy scene passing around him. Hs 
was OS his way from Dublin, where he had been defeated in a tedious 

LlaW'Suit, and had come from Belfast that morning, bringing with him 
some flax on which he now rested. On coming into the town he had 
been taken prisoner by the United Irishmen, with whom he had no 
connection : a pike bad been put into hia bands, which now lay beside 
him, and he wished for any chance to mend his life. " or to be rid on't." 
His downcast and disordered looks hod attracted the n 
those near him, one of whom gave him a hearty swill from a ]ug of whiskey, 
telling him, at the same time, to keep up his heart " for the sake of ould 
Iceland," in whose cause they were now fighting. The spirits taken hod 
b^on to operate upon him as a cry was raised, " Will no one serve his 
ooontry and carry the barrel under the Market-house before it bums 
out 7 " Housed by this appeal, he darted forward, seized the barrel, now 
half enveloped in flames, and threw it beneatb. the loft. Tbe admiring 
crowd gave three hearty cheers, and while they yet sounded, 1 „ . 
Ms basket, the crowd made way, and the next moment ho was on his way 
to the aiynn I 
The flame being fed by other persons, soon made its appearance 
through the floor, when all. except the heroic Davison, ca!led out that 
they bad suiiendered, and ceoi^ed to fire. The flcing, however, was still 
maintained from without, on which some of those within slided down by 
a window in the rear, or made to descend into the street. In this attempt 
three persons were shot, as has been reported, through the obstinacy of 
Davison, wbo had not given in, but as the men killed had no arms, and 
hod held up their hands to testify their submission, the tale appears an 
iU-foundad excuse for their barbarity. However this may have been, 
Davison was at length secured, and amidst the savage yel^ of exulting 
thousands, consigned with the other prisoners to the dungeon. In this 
■flair, four of the loyalist party were slain, and several wounded, Only 
one of the rebels is said to have fallen, and of tbe number of their 
wounded no account has been obtained. 




nhich were m^niSed into great 
ime mora Qoiay and ferooiouB, aod ngrBeably 
liberty and equality," deemed thsmaelvea an 
of their schemes. One fellow, who, during 
apicuous for his vociferation thsn deeds of 



1 by thi 
TietorioB, the multitude bei 
to their received nolions of ' 
the eve of tbs coDHummatio 
the day. had been more cc 

arms, fired a ball through tbe gate leading to tbe mansion oE Mr. Adair, 
lord of the Boil, cxolaimiDg that it should no longer be called Adair's 
place, but by bia Qsme. The wife of an old nailer, concluding that the 
grand revolution, so long talked of, was come at laat. ordered her husband 
to look out for a " better house for folk to teeve in," bat not to take an 
adjoining mansion near the brewery, " as it was a doomed hole," but to 
get one at the Hilihead, We do not learn how far her orders were 
complied with. 

About eight o'clock in the evening, James Dickey arrived from 
BandaliitowD, but last from Ahoghill, bringing with him a reinforaement 
from the latter village. He was on horsebaok, dressed in a green jacket, 
and wore a horseman's helmet, and carried a aabre. and from biB 
expresEioas and bustling activity, appeared to take a great interest in 
afiaira. Though the defeat at Antrim must have been known to him, he 
seemed in high spirits, and if he made any communioations to thateilect, 
it must have been to very few. 

The close of the evening passed in the noisy demonstrationa of the 
vietora, and the joyous tidings of their buccbssoh being aptead abroad, the 
aurrounding districts, during tke night, poured forth their marshalled 
legions to Ibe common rendezvous. At the same time several of the new 
provincial executive director}', or, as they were called, committee, 
arrived at tbe bead inn. Guards were formed, and sentinels placed oa 
tbe different roads and avenues leading into the town, and none were 
permitted to depart witbout giving the countaraign, which, on this night, 
woa " Fitzgerald in the dark." 

The Etreeta were patrolled throughout Che night by several thousands, 
accompanied by tbe beating of old drums, sounding of horns and conoh 
shells, and, in fact, anything that could make a noise, the discordant 
Bounds of which were drowned at times by the screaming cheers of the 
multitude. Though Ibe night was clear, the windows of each house were 
lighted up by order of the committee ; while the glare and clashing of the 
rusty arms, as they passed, and their blasphemous songs and sbouts of 
liberty, recalled to tbe minds of some, the most ferocious scenea, as 
depicted in the public prints, of the Parisian rabble. The only thing 
wanted to complete the picture, was a few dead bodies lylog about, wbioh, 
though overlooked at the time, were, nevertheless, forthcoming on the 
folio wine day. 

On the previous evening, the dungeon or black-bole, beneath the 
Market-house, had been crowded with prisoners almost to suffacation. 
Early on tbe morning of the Stb, their cries for water and air were 
so excessive as to soften the hearts of some of tbe less obdurate of the 
guards, and the door was thrown open, while a strong guard was drawn 
up in its front. 

On these arrangements, a cry was raised by tbe crowd, " We'll murder 
Davison," and a number of the most ferocious rufHans advanced into the 
dungeon for the purpose of dragging him out. In this attempt they were 
completely foiled, as Davison defended himself so valiantly with a knife 
that he hod seoreted up his sleeve, that seven or eight of the cuf&ans wore 



Beverely woanded, and compelled to make a precipitatQ retreat. DeCeated 
Id this attempt, [loiie athers dared to advaoce againgt so fomtidable an 
opponent, but a aumbec, with tbeir guns oocked, ventured to tbe door of 
the dnngeoD, and with the most horrid imp recall on a, swore that they 
would fire into it, and destroy the nhole, unlosa Davison waa put out. la 
the distraction and terror of tbe moment. DsviBOn wab expelled, and hie 
murderecs were seen struggling nitb pikes, bayonets, and swords, who 
eonld pieroe bim first. Far some hours after, his bod; lay exposed in a 
filthy puddle, and while yet writbing in tbe agonies of death, gome of 
those passing, who had not been present at this civic treat, gave bim a 
■tab, aa tbe; wittily said, " to try their pikes upon him." 

A tew hours afterwards, JameB Dickey arrived from Connor, where he 
had that morning murdered Samuel Parker, an inhabitant of that viUoge, 
by stabbing bim through tlie breast with a sword. The only charge 
■gainst bim was bis being a loyalist. Dickey, on his arrival, repaired to 
the committee, and, soon after, accompanied by a feroeiouB armed crowd, 
repaired to the black-bale, and tbe priEoneTs were called out, as was said, 
to receive their sentence. William Orawford, a constable belonging to 
the town, on being stabbed by him, attempted to escape, calling for mercy, 
but be waa knocked down by a pike, and while lying, his head was nearly 
atmok ofi by Dickey with bis aword, who holding it up, exclaimed, " See 
what a clean cut I have made.' ' The dead body was cast into the channel 
beside that of Davison, but they were soon after thrown on a ear, and, 
amidst the fiendish czclamationB of the multitude, cast into a pit that 
bad been made to receive them, in the church-yard. It was observed that 
■with these murders, the demand for green, or national cockades, greatly 
increafcd. and the cloth shops being soon cleared of their ribbons of that 
colour, some webs of green stuff were cut up into stripes, in lieu, to answac | 
the demand. 1 

About one o'clock, a.m., a great preis and bustle among the crowtl, ■ 
accompanied by tremendous cheering, proclaimed the entrance of b I 
nomerous column from the neighbourhood of Ballymoney. Their leaden 
were CEillwell and Gunning, the former of whom rode, with a drawn «word, 
fa] front, and judging from his looks he was highly gratiSed with his new 
situation. They bad assembled on tbe hill of Kilraught. where they had 
spent the previous night. On their way hither they bad been joined by 
considerable bodies from EillymurriH. Lougbguile, Clougb, and their 
respective neighbourhoods, who bad gathered on the hill of Drumlurg, 
which, from that incident, has since been usually called the Fike-hill. 
These divisions appeared to have been more provident than any of those 
by whom tbey had been preceded, bringing with them severai oars laden 
with provisions, and wines taken from the cellars of somo opulent 1 
aristocrats. These were said to he for the camp at Doncgore, hut it ia I 
certain that no part of this good cheer reached that depot; tbe bamperi ' 
of wine were soon emptied of their contents, tbe beads oE the bottles 
struck o3, and the wine drunk oi spilled in the streets. The hams and 
other provisions were disposed of in an equaOy summary manner. On 
hampers of wine, which had lain for many years in 
1 of Mr. Adair, were also brought out 
Their contents, however, did not give 
I that might have been reasonably 
itage, as some of them swore that tbey would 
or " bunyramer" i 



the secluded cellars of the 
to the street, and goon dispo 
that satisfaction 
expected from its ancient vi. 
rather have had buttermilk. 



I 



I 



iNHALS OP ULSTEB. 87 

The Dumber of insurgents iu Ballymena on this daj, has been 
estimated B,t about ten thousaod men. of whom, hy far the grealer 
number hsfb armed with pites, aud the arms ot mao; of the others as 
imperfeot and rude as can well be imagined. Some carried old guos. 
which appeared most daugeious to those by whom thej would have been 
disobacged, and some were even without looka, which had perhaps fallen 
oH. A few carried peat spades or Eoytbes tied on a pole, some old 
reaping hooks, harrow pins, or bajoneta, fastened in a similar manner; 
others carried pitchforks — one was observed with an iron spindle tied 
upon an undressed stick — and some 150. who, from their unprepared 
state, bad probably been preBsed into (he service, were withoat any 
ofiensite weapons whatever. In fact, the whole, from their cooduot. 
aeemed rather a eavage horde let looaa, than men Oome, as they said, 
to look for (heir rights. 

The junto or executive, who directed all movements, and received all 
messages, acquainted with the defeat at Antrim, had probably begun to 
contemplate the desperate state of their alTaiFs. as upon this day they 
remained close in ttiM iun. and rarely appeared at the door or in the 
streets. It was even whispered, that discord already pervaded their 
oounoila, those merely United Irishmen blaming ibose who were 
Defenders for having goaded them into a premature insurreotion, which 
they now alleged must lead to their inevitable ruin. 

About three o'clock p.m., an active-looking man in gonteol apparel 
oame posting into the town on horseback inquiring tor the committee, 
and was immediately taken to their quarters. 

In a few minutea after he appeared on the street with two members 
o( that l>ody, who announced to the wondering crowd the surprise of the 
Castle of CarrickferguB by their friends, and bis dear friend on his 
right was the bearer ol the happy news. This joyous intelligence was 
proclaimed by the deafening shouts of thousands, and bad probably come 
in good time, for, in spite ot all the care taken by the committee to keep 
any disastrous news from being spread, it bad been given out by some 
stragglers that their friends had been worsted at Antrim ; and the evasive 
answi^ra made to the inquiries of its truth had served to conGrm the 
reports that had been raised. 

Soon after, the stranger, whom rumour now honoured with the rank 
ol a general from the enemy's ranks, come from the inn accompanied 
with the members of the committee, and the commanders of corps were 
ordered to muster them in the street. As many as could be found wore 
formed into line, when the stranger took the command and proceeded 
to arrange and exercise in their turn both gunmen and pikemen with 
all the alertness of a regular disciplinarian. 

At dusk, two of the committee, accompanied by the stronger, rode out 
to examine the outposts, which in the evening had been further extended 
in order to prevent surprise. Talking over Che occurrences of the day 
and their projected plan of detenoe, they had exceeded the line of posts 
on the Bandalstown road, when their companion, perceiving that they 
would go no farther that way, put spurs to his horse, and was soon out of 
sight, while his late friends, not a little alarmed, returned in haste to 
their quarters. 

This night proved much quieter than the preceding, as the patrolling 
in the utreets had been nearly laid aside. Ihe defeat at Antrim was 
generally known, and several groups stole off from the aervioe. into 



thai)' li 



which all now declared thay had been presaed by paraonB they knew 
not whom, who came from they kuew Dot where. Some tetuiers, also, 
took ooUDEOl from the general growing {care, and also madu off, aod, t 
use a poetic phrase, 

" Fled full soon, and bade the rest keep fighting." 
On the morning of the 9th, though the committee etill continued in J 
their quarters at the inn, confusion there also began to reign, and the 
memheFB were seen Funniug in and out like rahbita in a warren, making 
inquiries about news at ereryone they met. and whispering with one 
another. Afl the day advanoed the disorder was heightened by a report 
that the light battalion which had been encamped at Shane's Castle on 
the evening of the 8th were obout to advance upon Ballymena by way of 
Toome. Bodies of hundreds were seen making oB without ceremoDj ; 
but thoosanda still lingered in the streets, evidently overwhelmed with 
confusion and undetermined how to proceed. At twilight a shout 

1 raised, " Let thoas who are foe the camp at DoDagore hold np 
laods." and after much sturdy shouting in this way, about 200 
i, all bearing fire-nrms, took the road leading to Donegore, while 
each road leading from the town appeared equally thronged with the 
promiscuous (light of the fugitives, among whom were seen some of 
the grand committee. 

At Kells they determined on halting for the night, and a report being 
ipread that the army was advancing from Antrim an ambuscade was laid 
for them, under the direction of Larry Dempsey, but as no part of the 
army came his preparations for their reception were in vain. 

By the 10th their numbers were still farther reduced, several having 
retired during the night, and on a consultation h^d of the parties, various 
plans were proposed, but, none of them meeting with general approbation, 
others also m^ ofl, to shift as they could. Ninety-nine persona, all of 
whom were believed good man and true, however, still remained with 
their leader. Henry Joy McCraoken, hut these stilt appeared equally 
undetermined what course to pursue; but at length it was determined 
to eeek shelter, until they should learn farther news, in the fastneaaeB of 
Slemiah, about five miles eaet ol Kails. 

On the morning of Sunday, (he lOth, not a stranger was to be seen in 
Ballymena, though some of the Icadacs of the insurgents were secreted 
in the neighbourhood, being afraid to return home. Few inbobitanta 
were seen on the streets, though the public were in a ooustant state of 
alarm by reports that the army were coming to burn the town for the 
part thay had taken in the rabellion ; though all now declared that 
the rebels were utter strongers, who had come from no one knew where, 
and had gone off none knew whither. At length, on the llth, these 
reports wore in a certain measure realised ; the light battalion, under the 
orders of Colonel Olavering. of the Argyle fencihles, entered the town, and 
were halted on the lawn in front of the mansion of Mr, Adair, and the 
gate closed. Immediately after, the inhabitants were required to furnish 
a refreshment for the troops, but tbis order not being attended to, they 
were informed that if provisions ware not immediately sent in, the 
soldiers would be permitted to find provisions for themselves. This 
intimation soon produced an ample supply, and in about an hour 
afterwards the troops were again in motion, retiring by the same road 
they came. 



I 



I 



Tbe email pairt; of McOiacken cantmued several days in the vicinity 
of Slemisb, aad in a, mftrBty spot faeneath the southern brow of this 
mountain they dug a well called by their leader's name, and on Bome 
stoaea adjoining are Btill seen hie initials and those of some of his 
followers. During their stay the heath was their bed, and the sky their 
only canopy, and each night their numbeia were thinned liy desertion, so 
tliat in a few days they were reduced to about thirty. On the evening of 
the Ilth a special meBseoger named illcCann arrived from the instirgent 
camp near Saintfield. who announced In glowing colours the prosperous 
state of their aSairs in Down. The party in joyous expectation 
immediatcty decamped for the purpose of passing inlo Down by Shaw'a 
bridge, by which route the mesaengex had come. At duak they reached 
the mountain of Little Collin, and a report being spread that they were 
come to organise a new " turn out," the men actually fied as if an army 
hod bean at their heels, though at this time the numbeis of McCracken 
were reduced to twenty-two persons. 

In their progress they purposed to pass a little westward oE Ballyclare, 
and on coming near that town they heard ths sentinels of a guard, 
composed of the inhabitants, who were placed on the road, challenging 
such persons as advanced. This proceeding roused the indignation of 
our travellers, for though this guard was formed for the ostensible 
purpose of opposing the rebels, without one exception, the members had 
been only a few days before deeply engaged in the rebellion. 

A halt was now colled by McCracken. and on counting their numbers, 
one was found absent, and as he was above euspicion of having run away, 
it was supposed that, being a stranger, he had missed his way down the 
fielde, and hud fallen into the hands of the guard. Determined, therefore, 
on the rescue of their comrade, they advanced briskly, and in a few 
minutes disarmed the sentinels and guard. This accomplished, it was 
purposed by some to inflict an exemplary punishment on some of those 
Budaoioua apoatatea, but after some threais, the design was given up, and 
it being evident that their comrade had taken French leave, the party 
proceeded on their way. 

Slanting across the country in the direction of Houghfort. about 
daylight they arrived on the confines of the parish of Deriiaghy, where 
they were informed of the defeat of their friends at Baliinahinch. Their 
situation was now deemed by all desperate in the extreme, and after a 
short consultation, it wds agreed that they should disperse, on which the 
greater number buried or threw away their arms, each man shifting for 
himself aa he could. 

A few days afterwards, McCracken and two of his associates. Watt and 
Queeny. were accidentally taken hy the Carrickfergus Cavalry, when 
crossing the commons near that town. The former was immediately tried 
by court-martial, and suffered the extreme penalty of the law in Belfast 
on the 17th of July, and his two companions were, by the same court, 
sentenced to be transported, but after a long imprisonment, were 
permitted to transport themselves to America. 

In the northern parts of the county of Antrim, none of the disafiected 
appeared in arms until the morning of the 8th. At Ballycastle, that day 
was spent in mustering their forces, while the yeomen corps of the 
neighbourhood, unable to offer resistance to such an host, retired to 
Coieraine. In that town were then quartered the Manx fencible regiment, 
and some corps of yeomen, who had retired thither. The InhabitantK 



I 



90 ANNALS OF ULBTBB. 

subsoribing £150 to repair the old earthen ramparts of the town, and the 
military being on the alert, the disaffected were thus awed into subjection, 
and no hostile assemblage of the insurgents took place in that neighbour- 
hood. At Ballycastle the insurgents were no sooner in arms, than they 
began to turn their thoughts towards the property of their neighbours. 
Immediately after, and while they were only mustering, one of their 
leaders, in passing a gentleman's house, struck the door a sharp slap with 
his sword, exclaiming, in a loud voice, " This is mine." In his process, 
he passed the Chapel of Ease, which he struck, using a similar expression — 
adcUng, that he would put out the present parson, and put in another, 
whom he then named. Thus proving, although a Eoman Catholic, 
that he had no intention of destroying the church, but only to change its 
patronage. 

At Portglenone, Basharkin, and their neighourhoods, the United Irish- 
men were in a great measure overawed by the yeomen and loyalists. The 
latter were chiefly engaged in guarding the pass over the river Bann, 
at Port-neal bridge, and afterwards in an attempt to barricade, or throw 
that bridge down, the rebels being reported to be in great force in the 
county of Derry. However, on the dispersion of the insurgents on the 
morning of the 8th, at Maghera, their numbers at the bridge were greatly 
increased, thousands flocking thither, under the pretext of being loyalists, 
but who had really been wielding the pike only a few hours before at 
Maghera. 

Finis. 



^^^^^^^^^^^Sbx^^^^^^^^^^^^B 




Achiaon, Rev. Eobett - - 82 


OovenanterB - - 11,35,37 


Agivew, Edward J. ... 63 


Crawford, John, of Orawfotds- 


Annesley, Earl of - - 11 


burn - - - - 9, 20 


Antrim - 19, 33, 36, 71, T!. 78 


Crawford, Captain Aleiandar - 13 


Armagh - - 9, 36. 61, 63. 66, 67 


Croppies ----- 31 




Crown Entry . - - - S 


Ballycarry - - . - - 73 


Ccumlin - - . - - 78 


BallycaBtle- 


- 26, 55, 89, 90 


Curran, John P. - - 51, 62 


Ballyclara - 


25, 30. 74. 78, 89 


Outhbert. Joaoph - - - 50 




- 74 




Ballymeaa - 


- 25,33.67,82 


Davison, T. - - 83. 8*. 85, 86 


Ballymoney 




Defendara - - - 19, 33, 56 


Ballynahiucli 


53. 6l! 89 


DempBey, Larry - - - 88 


BaUynure - 


- 74 


Derry - - - 20.32,90 


Barber, General - - - 62 


Dorriaghy - - - - 39, 89 


Barber, Rev. Samuel - - 3, 55 


Diokaon, Rev. W. S, - - 10, 90 


Belfast, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, 13. 18, 32, 


Dickey, Adam - - - - 28 


34, 3G. 49, 52, 61, 66. 67, 75 


Dickey, James, jun. - 66,86,86 


Birch, Rbt. T, L. - 5. 10, 60, 66 


Directory, The Irish - 36, 68, 61 


Bird, J. ----- 49 




Blackburn of Garmnonej - - 72 


Doagh 36 


Blaris - - - -52,67 


Donagtcloney - - - 34, 89 


Blow, Daniel - - - . 24 


Donaldson of Cammoney - - 13 


Bond. Oliver - - - - 64 


Down, Co. of - - 47. 53, 89 


Boyd, Hugh - 2, 20. 26, 33 


Drennan, Wm. - - - 4, 16 




Dromara ----- 34 


H MaBS 8 


Dromora - - -11.34 


K Brioa, Captain Edward - 11 


Doaegore - - - 12.73,77,86 


■ Bristow, Rev, Wm. - 40,41,46 


Downing, Capt, Matthew - - 16 


■ Btovra. John - - . - 40 


Drmnaul 75 


■ 


Dublin. 2, 10. 16, 17, 21, 28, 33, 45, G6 


OftldweU, Dr. - - - - 10 


Duflin, William- - - 8, 33 


Camden, Earl . - - - 2 


Dunoan, Admiral ■ - ■ CO 




Dundonald 32 




Duceane 75 


OastledawBon . - - - 77 


Dungannon - - 15, 20, 25 


Oastlereagh - - 24, 3fi, 37 


Dumouriez. General - - 14, 21 


Oastlereagb, Lord - - - 37 




Cave Hill ----- 30 


Ellis. Captain Henry- - 75 


Oharlemont, Earl of - - 4, 9, 43 




Clare, Earl of . - - - 25 




Ooleraine - - - - 9, 89. 90 




Comber 16 


French Revolution - - - 6 


Connor - - - 7S, 86 


French in Bantry Bay 36, 40, 46 



. ^"^^1 


GaUos, Morard do ■ - 44 


MoKonna, Theobald - - lO^H 


GbU, Wilbam - - - - 13 


McMahon, Rev. Arthur - 67. 69 '^H 


GBrVQgh - - ■ 15, 77 


McNeTin, Dr. William James ^^M 


Qarmoyle ----- 61 


5, 21,34, 58, 59, U^^H 


Qatly, Robert; - - - - 17 


MoTeir. Mr. . - - - lO.^^I 


Gibaon, Bav. William ■ 36 




Glenarm ----- 82 


Maghera - - - . 77, 90 ^H 


Glendy. Rev. John - - - 12 


Magberafolt - . - 10. IS^^H 


Graham, Waltat - • 70, 77 


Masonio Lodges - . - - Ig ^^M 


Grattan, Rt. Hon. Henfj, 1, 37, *8, 61 


Mass, Volunteers attend - 8, I»^^H 


Grogan Istaod ■ - - 76, 77 




GuiUotine made at Kilrea - - 33 






13,36,36-48 ^^ 


Hftslett, Henry - - ■ 18, 23 


Moira, Barlof .... 61 


Hearth -money - - - - 14 


Monford.J. ... - 17 


HiUBboirough - - 23,56 


Moore, Thomas ... - 3 




Moy 61 ^_ 




Mnckamore 6, SU! .^H 


Informers - - - 39, 49, 53. 64 


Muddlers' Club - - BO^^M 




Munro, Henry - - . . Oi'^H 


Insurrection begins - - - 71 


Musgrave, Sir Richard *^^M 




Mu^rate, Samtiel - . - 3T ^^ 


Jackson, Rot. William 26, 28, 39 




Jacobin Club in Belfast - - 14 


National Guards 11, 15, 16, 17, 18 


Johnston, Rav. Phillip - - 39 


Neilaon, Samuel, 5, 10, 13, 17, 22, 36. 65 


Newell, Edward J. - 49, 52, 69 


KilhuruB, Rey. Sinolaire, 7, 10, 17, 32, 

51,55 

KBogb, John - . - - 10 

Kilkeel 68 


NortHrn Star. 6, 8, U, 13, 18, 21,27,37 


Northern Whig Club - - - 4.6 
Nugent, General - 35, 70. 77 


Kllead - - - - 6, 78 
Kilrea - - - 33, 37, 39, 77 


O'Connor, Arthur, 36, 40. 46. 63, 64, 67 


O'Neill. Right Hon. John (O'NaiU, 




Lord) - - - 7, 8, 26, 39 


Lake, General - - 48, 49, 52 


Ocai.gemen - - 36,39.68 
Orr, Samuel - - - 76, 81 


Lame - - - - 15, 72 


Lanlase, Surgeon William- 65, 67 


Orr, WiUiam - - - - 60 


Lee, John - .... 60 


Osbume, Rowley - - - 14 
Owens, William G. - - - 13 


Lewins, Edward J., 28, 49, 68, 59, 67 


Lisburn - - - -21,76 




Liebura Volunteem attend Mass 13 


Patkgate 69 

Parliament, Irish - - - 43 


Lowry, Aleiandar - 10, 57, 69 


Lumley, Colonel - - 78, 79 


Parliamentary Reform, 4, 20, 44, 47. 61 




Peden, Rev. Alei. - . 32, 33 


McAnaliy, Leonard - . - 28 


Peep-'o-daj BojB - - . 3 
Pelftioni - - - 1. 7, 8, 26. 64 


McAct'sFott - - . - 30 


McCabe, Thomas 5, 18, 22, 56, 67 


Pikes 6, 21 


McClaverty, Goo. A. - - - 73 




MoCia-verty, Rey, Wm, - - 82 


Presbyteriana - - - . 30 


McGraokoD.H, J„ 6S, 71, 72, 81, 88, 89 


Prison ship ... - 61 


McKee, Hugh .... 61 




MoKeiver, William - - 70, 77 

* J 


Prophecies . . - 32, 33, G5 



Wf^l 


EZ - 93 




Tandy. Jamas N. - 10, 16. 23 


Itantin, ChatlM - - -1,17,19 


Teapot Clubs - - - - 38 






Teeling. Charles H. ■ - 2. 36, 37 
Teeling, Luke - - - 2, 53 


RathfriUnd - 


10, 11 


ReyuoldB, JamsB, M.D. 


15.98 


Teoling, Bartholomew - - 65 


KeynoldB. Thomaa - 


- 64 


Templepatrick - - 30, 69. 78 


Reviews - . - 


9,11 


Teonent, John ... - 69 




Tannent, William - - 41. CI 


14, 31, 33 


Thomas the Rhymer - - 33, 33 


Roman CatholicB - - 3.29 


Thompson. R. - - - 17. 41 


Roman Calholio Emancipation 


Tithes 14 


1.2,9, 11,13,47 


Toasts - - - - 7. 13, 31 


Ronaii Catholics admitted to be 


Tone.T. W„ 5. 10, 13, 19. 22, 28, 80, 36 


Voluntaera - ... 8 


Toome - - - - 70, 77 


Roughfoct - . - 26. 72, 78, 89 


Toomc Bridge - - - - 76 


Rowan, A, H. - - 16.26,29 


Torreafl, Rev. John - - 39, 40 


RuBsell, Thomas - - . 5 


Torture 49 




"Turnout" - - - 74,89 


St. Etienne, Rabaud da - - 4 




Saintfield - - 6, 12. 18, 47, 68, 89 


Union Star . - - - 46 


Sampson, Witliam, 27, 10, 41. 43, 64 


United Irishmen, 1, 3, 6. 13, 27. 38, 


SeddocB, Major . - - - 77 


29, 33, 88, 45. 49, 66. 62, 66, 71. 72, 


Shanes Caatle - - - - 62 


81. 88, 89. 90. 


Bharman, Colonel Wm. 3. 6, 9, 11 


United Iriahmen, Ulster Com- 


Shcara, John and Henry - - 29 


mittee of - 57,62.64,66,67 


QliaaT^.ratk ^ ^ ■ ■ * 70 




JJUHep'EBC ' ' ■ - * JU 


SimmB. Robect. 5. 13, 19, 22, 36, 4S, 61 


Volunteer Sermons - - ■ 22 ^^H 


Bimms, WiUiam - - S, 15 


Volunteers, The Ulster, 2, 3, 4, 9. 11, ^H 


Sinolair. William 


17,20 


15, 17. 19. 36, 27 ^H 


Six-Mile- Water - 


8, 2S 


Volunteers cease to parade 26 ^^^| 


Smitb, Rer, John - 


- 37 






34,64 
- 33 


Waidle, Majot - ... 49 ^H 
White. General ■ - - 32, 23 ^H 


Blaplas, John 


Btavely. Rev. W. 


- 65 


White linen HaU, Belfast- 9,41 ^H 


Stokes, Wm.ian, 


- 10 


Wolfe, Arthur - - - 16, 48 ^H 


Stone, J- H. and WilUam 


- 38 


Wright, ReT. John ■ - - 12 ^H 


Stonejford 


- 38 




Sogaihouse-entry - - - SO 


Yeomen - - - -38,83 ^H 



BIOQBAPHICAL SKETCH. 



C AMDBL McSKIMIN, the well-known historiau of Carrickfergus, wae 
born in tha year 1775. in the neighbourhood, of Balljolare, County 
Antrim. Early in life he settled in Carriokfergus, and carried on business 
aa a grocer la the Irish Quarter of thut anoient and historio tonn. He was 
probably an only sou, as there is Do reuord of the death of any brother or 
Bister. Hla father, Samuel MoSkimin, died in November, 1808, aged fifty- 
four, and hia mother, Nancy, in May, 1S20, aged eighty year«. When 
twenty-seven yeare of age he married Nancy Goodacre (April 4lh, 1802), by 
whom he had six children. His daughter Elizabeth vFas married to Hugh 
Catherwood, Kuockagh, CarrickfergUB. OE the eleven children born of tbi« 
marriage two sons and three daughters are alive, and numerous grand- 
children. In ISiS Samuel McSkimiu was enrolled, by gpeoial favour, a 
Freeman of the Corporation of Corrickfergus, Sir William Kirk being then 
Major. He was a Presbyterian, and a metaber of Dr. J. Seaton Reld'g 
oon|;;rogtttion. 

He held some position in connection with the yeomanry, and in 1S21 was 
nominated by the Mayor and Recorder of CarrickCergus. and again in 1831 
by order ot the Government, to take the census. He died at Carrickfergus 
on Friday, 17th February, 1813, aged ajity-nine years, and waa interred in 
St. N icbolaa' Churchyard. His bouse in the Irish Quarter ot Carrickfergus, 
where he resided, is still standing. Here he colleoted the materials for hie 
famous book, "The History and Antiquities of the County of the Town 
of Carrickfergus," a book of great merit, and especially rich in local family 
history. The Qrst edition appeared in 1811 as a small ISmo. volume, 
printed by Hugh Eirk, Belfutit. A seuond edition, much enlarged, was 
printed by Joseph Smith in 1823, and a third in 1S29. Some addenda 
were printed in 1833 and an appendix in 1839. 

He communicated articles to the OentlenKin't Magazine, one on 
" Bltdoct Birds," another on the " Bound Towers." In Frmer'i Magatine 
appeared an article of his on "The losurrectiou of 1803." He also 
contributed to the Bubiin Penity Jimrnal, the IfortAtrn Whig, the Belfait 
Magaiiae, and other papers, bei^ides which be collected a good deal ot 
maUrial relative to 1793. which will be found in the foregoing pages. He 
corresponded with several well-known antiquariaoB, including Dr. K. K. 
Madden, Dr. James M'Donnell, Dr. John O'Douovan, T. Croftou Groker, and 



96 

Bobert L. MacadaiD. After his death bia oollection of MSS.and books n 
broken up and scattered by bis xon J&mes (who married and emigrated to I 
Quebee). Part of them beoame the propertj of the Bev. J. S. E«id, D.D., 
others nere purchaMd by the Bev. Classon Porter of Lame, a 
of the most curious, iDcludiag ao annotated cop; of the autobiography I 
of Newell, the informer, came into Dr. B. S. Madden's ])ossessbo, whi> 1 
published it in the sacoud edition of his United Irishmen. 

Dr. KeeTe» sajs of Mr. McSkirain: — "He possessed a niarvellouB ti 
and faculty for archa;ological pursuits. His history of Carrickfergua is » I 
book of great merit, and especially ric:h in family history " ; and Dr. BeeTeft J 
thought that his manuscript coUeutions should have been sold as a whole, I 
to be deposited in soma public library. 

The Belfast NeKt-Ldler of February 2lBt, 1843, contains the following- I 
aotice of his death ; — " We regret eiceedingly to learn that, o 
ot the 17th lust., Mr. Samuel McStimin, the author of many small essays of 
great antiquarian merit and exbenslTe research, expired at the age of sixty- 
nine years. Mr. UoSkimin, like the Eltrick shepherd, owed little t< 
advanta^ of primary education; but untiring persecerance and i: 
oeivable industry, joined to mental powers of a high order, quickly 1 
overcame the difficulties created by early circumstances, and ii 
of a few years, he raised himself to the rank of one of the best local ] 
antiquaries in the North of Ireland. His manuscript collections of this I 
description are truly astonishing, but then he spared neither labour n 
expense in their acquisition, Ihougb his pecuniary means were far from | 
ample. In regard to the 'History of the Irish Icsurrection ot 1798,' 
possessed more information than has ever been published or will ever 
published by any other historian. On this subject in particular h!i 
collections may yet furnish invaluable materials for history. His bo(A 
information on all matters of rarity or curiosity, especially in reference b> 
history and antiquarian ism was truly extraordinary. 

Samuel McSkimin was mild and gentle, though, as some would term it, 
oocssionally eccentric iu his mancers ; but he was an excellent friend and a 
highly exemplary member of aociety. His judgment was aoute and bia 
taate good, though his mind was seen t^i more advantage in his written 
compositious than conversational displays. His ' History of Carrickf ergus ' 
is a work that will live ; and for contributions ot infinilively less value to 
their native towns many men have been honoured with oommemorativ» | 



APPENDIX BY THE EDITOR. 



I 



The Bdljast Vohjhtbbbs. 
PAQ« 3.— Tha Belfast News-Letler ol April 24th, 1778, stataa ;— 
" April 16 being the aDcivarsary o! the Battle of Culloden. the eurvivors 
of the Volunteer Company of this town, to the otimbec ol BistBen, dined 
together at tha Donegall Arms. The intention of tha meeting was to 
give their countenance and approbation to the spirit now springing up 
in the town for self -de fence, BJmilar to that which appeared here and in 
most towns In the North of Ireland In 1T4G. After dinner tha toasts 
were expressive thereof, and of loyaltj and oonatltutional liberty. There 
ate now two compaaieB of volunteeia in the town training — aav conaiats 
of aboat ninety and the other sixty men, and the nambera of both are 
daily increasing." 

PaoB 4.— John Paul Rahaut de St, Etienne was born at Nismes in 
1714, and became a clergyman of the Reformed Church of France, which 
is Presbyterian in its organisation. Ha wai a man of learning, and was 
greatly distuiguiBbed as a public Bpoaker. In 1TS9 he was chosen by 
Nimes as deputy to the Constituent Aasembly, of which he became 
President. Ha favoured the Revolution, aud cast his lot with the 
Oirondlets, who opposed the excesses of the party of Robespierre, and 
refnaed to vote for the death of Louis XVI. This proved his destruction, 
as he was arrested, and on Sth Deoembei, 1T93, was guillotined. — 
Histoire dea Froteslanta de Fratue, par M. De Felice, pp. S8V-5S4. 

Faoe 6, — MoBt authorities say that tbia meeting was held in (he honao 
situated in Sugarbouse-entry, now known as the Bambridga Hotel ; hut 
OB Mr, MoSkimin was acquainted with many persona who knew all about 
the formation of the society, it is more than probable that be made careful 
inquiries with regard to the place of meeting. Mr. David Bigger's house 
was in H[gh-8treet, running back to Crown-entry ; probably some meetings 
wera held there. 

Pasb 5, ^Thomas Russell was bom at Botsborough, in the Parish of 
Eilshanick, Co. Cork, on 21st November, ITCT. Hia father, John Russell, 
is described, by Wolfe Tone, as a gentleman of most charming manners 
and conversation. Like his father, Russell waa originally intended for 
the church, but, like him too, became a soldier. In 1791, Russell's 
regiment waa quartered in Belfast, and in this way he became aoquainted 
with the leading men of liberal politics in the town. About (his time he 
was forced to sell his commission. In 1794 he was appointed librarian to 
the Belfast Library, at a aatory of £30, shortly afterwards raised to £50 
a year. On the 16th September, 1796, he was arrested, at Belfast, with 
Neilson and other prominent United Iiishmen. He was liberated, but was 
again arrested, at Dublin, on the 9th September, 1803, and removed to 
Kilmainham. On the 12th October, he was sent to Downpatrick, and 
was tried on the 30th October, and being found guilty, was eentenced to 
be executed the following day. His Greek Testament, his sole earthly 
he gave to Mr. Forde, the clergyman, who attended him on 



the BcafTold, He was buried is Downpatriok Parish Church.- jard, and 
Miss McCrackeu bad a atano slab put on Mb grave, inscribed, "This is 
the grave o£ RuBsell." — Dielionary of National Biography, Vol. XLIX.; 
Yowng's "Old Belfast" ; Madden's " Uniled Irishmen." 

Faq& 5. — Samuel Neilson was tha third aou of a Presbytcriao miaiBter 
of Ballyioney, near Ratbiriland, hiamotber was Agnes, daughter oE Samuel 
CaraoQ. (Mrs. Carsoa was twice married. By her Grat husband, William 
Fiolay, of Kiiockagh, she bad one daughter, who, on the 29tb of JtUy, 1746, 
married William Bigger, Blggerstowa). Wben Neilson was about siztaen 
years of age, be became an apprentice to bJB elder brother. John, it 
woolleu- draper in Bellaat. He was founder of the firat society of United 
Irishmen in Belfast (1 jth October, ITBl). and he was present at a great 
convection held in Ducgannon Presbyterian Church, on the 16th of 
February. 1793, in which all Ulster was represeuted. He was arrested on 
the 16th ol September, 1796, and removed Co Dublin, bnt was released on 
the S2nd February, 1798. Being again arrested, be was sect to Fort Gaorge. 
After a confinement of more than four years without trial, Nailson was at 
last, on the 10th of March, 1802, released on condition of emigrating to 
America. He died at Poogbkeepsie, a small town on the Hudson Blver, 
oa tho 29th of August, 1803. — Latimer's " Ulster Biographies." 

A descendant of Samuel Neilson. Thomas Neilson Underwood, a native 
□f Strabaue, was a barrister-at-law. He took a prominent part in the 
Fenian movement. He and Denis Holland, of the Irishman, fonnded 
the Brotherhood of St. Patrick, He wrote prose and poetry for the 
Irishman aud other papers, and a drama entitled "The Youthful Martyi." 
Underwood died about 1876, and was buried at Qlasnevin. — >< Notet on tht 
Literary History of Strabane," by A. A Ibert Campbell. 

Page 6,— Theobald Wolfe Tone was born at Dublin in 1765. Having 
studied at Trinity College, he was called to the bar in 1789. He came ta 
Belfast to asaiat at the forroatton of the Society of United Iiishmen. 
In the paper written by him on the formation, of this society, he laid 
down the principles of the new society, which was to unite all creeda in 
Ituland on the basis of a, common nationality. It was to take the plane 
of the Whig Club, which seemed to Tone and bia frienda insincere and 
timid. The emancipation of Ireland from English rule, and the eardtal 
union of all creeds, were the initial objects of this society. He vas 
arrested on the"Hocbe,"a French ship which had arrived off Lough. 
Swilly, on October lOtb, 1798, and was taken to Dubliu, tried by court- 
martial, and sentenced to be hauged next morning, having begged in Tain 
to be accorded the death of a Boldter. That night, with a penknife, he 
inflicted a wound on his throat, of which be died on November 19, 1798, 
having reached the age ot thirty-four. 

Page 5. — In 1793, Mr. Birch having been arrested, was tried and 
condemned , but through the influence ot his brother, a doctor in New- 
townards, who was a loyalist, and also of his son who adhered to ttie 
principles of his uncle, Mr. Birch received permission to emigrate to 
America. There he settled in western Pennsylvania, where he remained 
until his death,—" Records of the Qeneral Synod of Ulster ; " Witherom's 
"Historical and Literary MemoriaU af Irish Fresbyterianism," II., 285; 
MeSkinun's USS. in"nislfrin'98" by R. M. yov.ng. 



I 

I 



Paoh 6. — Samuel Neilson nas first pari proprietor and afterwards sols 
proprietor and editor of the WortJurs Star, the organ of the United 
IriBDmen. This paper appeared tnioe a week, and its price was twopence. 
The first cop; was issued on the 4th of January, 1792, JdIiq Rabb, printer. 
In March, 1797, it was printed by T. A. Corbitt, Hieh-Btroel, Belfaat, 
It was EUppresBed bj the military on the 20th of May, 1797. the proprietor 
being in prison at the time. 

Pagb 7. — Bov. Sinclair Kelhurue was ordained as clergyman of the 
third PreBbytecian congregation of Belfast on the 8th of February, 1780. 
Being an ardent advocate of oiyil and religious liberty he became a 
volunteer. During the troubles of 1798 he was arrested and kept in prison 
BO long that bis health was greatly injured. He was at last liberateii, but 
never recovered hie strength, and died in 1802. — Lalimer't '• History of 
Preibyierians." WitheToio's"Memorials," "Old Records of Synod of Ulster." 

Page 12, — Rev. John Glendy, D,D„ was ordained Presbyterian olergy- 
tnan of Maghera on 16th December, I77S. and it was he who baptised the 
celebrated Dr. Henry Cooke. Mr. Glondy having become involved in the 
troubles of I79S, emigrated to America, where he roaa to a prominent 
position, t)ecoming minister of a congregation in Baltimore. He was 
chosen as chaplain to the American House of Representatives, and 
afterwards to the Senate. He died in lS^2.^-3pragne' s 'Annals of the 
American Fulpit," Vol. IV., pp. 339. 336. 

Paqb 13. — The florih^m Star gives the tollowii^ aoconnt of how 
the vlotory of the French waa celebrated at Molusb, betfreea Caru- 
monoy and Templetatrick : — " On the 30th October, 1792, at the 
Trench Bridge, Molusk, a number of country boys assemble with a 
green flag, arms, and music, and proceeded to the neighbouring 
house to acquaint the people with the intention of their meeting, that 
they might not be alarmed. When they arrived at the door one of them 
addieBsed the persons present in the following words : — ' Friends and 
Feltow-Countrymun^The inhabitants oE Belfast are this day employed 
in rejoicing at the iuocess of the French arms, and as our sentiments are 
similar lo theirs, we are assembled to testify our pleasure at the defeat 
of the united tyrants who hod invaded France. May despotic tyrants 
ever meet such a fate as the Duke of Brimswick has met in France. May 
the arms o£ the French and of liberty everywhere triumph till slavery 
ha no more. It is by mere show only that we ought to eipress our 
satiafaction at the above glorious event; our heaccs ought to he inspired 
with the most lively emotions of joy at such a depression of tyranny and 
such a happy elevation of liberty and equality. This eveut is at present 
distant, hut you may be assured that its efiects will be present In a very ' 
short time, and that we, even we, will feel them very forcibly. The 
French are not only fighting their own cause ; they are fighting the oause 
of Ireland ; they are fighting the cause of all mankind ; all maukiud 
ought therefore to rejoice at their success — all mankind will tberefoco 
rejoioe at their success, except the ignorant, the iaterestsd, or the 
insensible.' After firing several rounds, they received a genteel treat 
from (he mistress of the house (Mrs, David Bigger'), when ' The Empire 
of Reason as constituted by the Author of Nature was given as a toast, 
and drunk amidst the repeated exclamations oE all present. The above 
incident tends to ahow that patriotism is extending with amazing strides." 
* IlIra.BiggervBB granilntatlier of FraDDla Joseph Bieger,M.R.I.A..ATdrigh,BeirBBt 



100 APPEKDM. 

PiQB IG.^Dc. Wm. Drannfin was born in the year 1754, and reriaod 
at Cabin Hill, about tbree miles from BciUaat, on tbs Duiidonald-rood. 
Like many otbor Protestants of those dajs, bis Bympatbios were nitb Me 
oppressed coimtr^meD. Dr. Drennan wrote a number of politicBl poems, 
one OD the " Wake of William Ore " had more tbao a lociJ reputation, as 
1q London political oircles it created a great sensation. In another poem 
entitled "Erin." the term. "Emerald Isle," was first applied to Ireltuid. 

Faob 20. — Willism Steele Dieksou. D.D.. was bom on Obristmas Day, 
1744, at the Old Kiln, Ballycraigy, Parish of Carnmonej. He became a 
matricolated sttident of Glasgow Universitj in 1763, when about nineteen 
years of age. In 17S4 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was oonfarred 
upon him by the same University. His arrest on ihe eve of the rebellion 
of 1798 left the rebels in Down without a leader, he having, it is said, been 
ohosea to aot in that capacity in RoaBeU's stend. Evidence being wanting 
for his capital conviction, he was removetl to Fort George in Scotland, 
and kept there three years as a Stale prisoner. After his liheratioo he 
oblaineii, wilb some difficulty, a call from the Congregation of Second 
Keady, which, in 1816, he was obliged to resign from bodily infirmity. 
Ha died on the 27(h of December, 1824, at the age of eighty yeara. and is 
interred in a nameless grave in the old burying-ground in Cljfton- 
Btreet, Belfast,— Latimer's " Hiitory of ihe Irish Presbyterians " ; " Ulster 
Biographies" ; Looal Tradilion. Sasaion Book of Cammoney. 

Paqs 26. — The proclamation of the Lord Lieatenant alluded to on 
page 23 had rendered armed meetings of the Volunteers illegal aoid 
dangerous. 

Page 31. — If Mr. McSkimin were now alive he would he astonished lo 
Bse that what ho ihought impossible ia about to be accomplished. Before 
many years the Irish tenant farm.ers will all be owners of the lands they 
cultivate. 

Paoe 32. — Alexander Faden was a native of Som, in Ayrshire. He 
was born about the year 1626, and after he had passed through the Qsual 
course oE learning at the university, was for some time employed as school- 
m.aster, precentor, and sesaion-clerk, lo Mr. Guthrie, miaiater of Tarbolton. 
About 1679 he came to Ireland but did not ata^ lorg, he seema (o have 
returned the following year, but came back again in the year 1682. and 
coming to the house of William Steel in Olanwhorry, county Antrim, 
he inquired of Mrs, Steel, if they wanted a servant to thresh the victual. - 
She said, they did, and asked what his wages were o-day and a-week. 
He said, the common rate was a common rule, to this Mrs. Steel assented, 
and ho stayed a oonsidarable time in the plane. — Die. " Nat. Bio.," Vol. 
44; " Biographia Scoticava." 

Paos 32 — Thomas the Rhymer was a Scottish poet, noted In folk-lora, 
and as a guide to the mysterious halls beneath the Eildon Hills. He 
flourished from about 1220 to 1300. It ia to Sir Walter Scott that tihe 
latter-da; reader is indebted for the facts regarding him. He owned, we 
are told, no less than " twenty hookes clothed in blaok and red," a 
wonderful library for a Border laird of the time of Alesandor the Third; 
he was wont to sit up in a nook in his tower reading and writing till tha 



4 



smftll haute of the morning. The ruin of hla yenenblo toner etill Btaada 
Earlaton. A uumbar of jaara ago 111 was purchased by the Bdia- 
" ' " who havB resolved to pcesecve it. — 



I 
I 



burgh Border Countiea 
Dictionary Natitmai Biography, 

Pa OB 35. — Rov. William GibaoD was ministeT of tbe Beforuied 
PrBBbyterian [Coven on ting] Chucuh of KellEwatoc, Oo. Antrim. Having 
tokon part with the United Irishmen in the trouble that preceded the 
cebellion, he emigrated in 1T9T lo America nith his family. In the limd 
of his adoption he became pastor at Ryegate, Vermont. His eon, (be 
Rev. Robert Gibson, was a very distingaiehed clergyman in the American 
Church, being pastor of a congregation in New York. — Ferguson's " Britf 
Biographical Sketches." Spragtie's " Annais of the jimerican Pvlpit," 
Vol. IX. " Reformed Preibyterians." p. 71. 

pAon 37. — " Sivatragh " is evidently Swataragh, Co. Deny, Thomas 
Clarke of Snatecagh, by orders of Lord Cavan, reoeived 600 laahes for 
"disorderly practices." A few days afterwards he died in priBon.—IiatinMr'i 
" History of the Irish Presbyierians." 

Paob 41. — William and Joha Tennent were sons of the Rev. John 
Tennent, Secession minister of Roseyards, Co. Antrim. William Tennent, 
bom in 1760, resided in Eelfast, was auccBssful in huBines-i, and bought 
an ostato near Tempo. His wife was daughter of Hugh Jackson of 
Oremorne, and a cousin of Mrs. Bond and Mrs. Johnston of Tullyliah. 
mother of fiev. Dr. JobDHtou, Belfast. Her daughter was married to 
James Emerson, who assumed the name Tennent. It ie related that 
once, when Ihe Secession Synod met in Belfast. Mr. William Tennent 
gave them dinner, and afterwards proposed as a boast " The last Chapter 
of the Book of Rings." — " History of ContrrHraftofu." iittddetii " JJm,tid, 
/ruthjnen," 

Paob 47.— On the 13th April, 1829. the Roman Catholic Emancipation 
Bill passed. By this Act Roman Catholics obtained the right of sitting 
in either the Lords or the Commons, upou taking a certain oath, which 
did not imply anything against their principles, and became entitled to 
hold any civil, military, or corporate office, except the position of Regent, 
Lord Chancellor and Lord Lieutenant. 

On the 7tb March, 1631. Lord John Russell brought in the first of the 
English Reform Bills. A second hilt was brought in 13th December, IB31, 
which was ultimately passed and received the Royal assent on the 7th 
June, 1832. The leading features of the measure wore (1) suppression of 
rotten boroughs, and (S) the fixing of the franchise qualification st £S0 
of annual rent, ot £10 of freehold in couulios and £10 of rent or hoWing 
in cities and boroughs. A aimilar hill for Ireland was proposed on the 32nd 
May, 1S32, which received the Rojal assent on the 7th of August, 1632. 

Paob 60. — This Inn, in Sugarhouse-entry, was kept by Peggy Barkley, 
who subsequently owned the "Stag's Head," at the corner of Suttermi^ 
Losney, Shore-road ; now called Skegoniel-avenue. The "Muddlers' 
Club," which met in Sugarho use -entry, was broken up in 1796. 



103 

Page 55. — Dr. Thomafi UouaMn was a grand-imcle of Thomas 
Houston, Aehlej Honae, CatninoDey, Sod Willam HonEton, Balljearl. 
On the day ot the Battle of Antrim, Dr. HouBton was caUcd away to 
attend a sick wuman, and did not ratnrn to Carutall until two o'clock, 
when he left for Antrim, with a man named Baiterabj, who carried his 
bag. A few dajt a.lter the battle. Dr. Hoastoij extracted sereial bullats out 
of Samuel Barron, Ballylinnej. — Local Tradition. 

Page 56. — The Rev. William Scavely, Knock brocbcD. was orreBted On 
the 25th oS June. 1T97. by a party of dragoons who come into his meeting- 
bonse duriug the timo of divine service. About b month after ha nag 
liberated, but on the 13th dI June. 1798. he was sgun Brrested by a pofty 
of soldiers who burned his house and carried away fumitare and other 
property worth two hundred pounds. Mr. Stavelj was then taken to the 
common guard boiiEe, and afterwards to a "prison ship." He was 
subsequently liberated, after several months confinement.— tail mer'j 
" HUU/ry of the Irish Frtsbyterianx." page 400. 

Pagb 5T ' — Rev. Arthur McMahou had been licensed by the Presbytery 
of Antrim, but in 1789 be was ordained minister of the Synod of Ulster 
Congregation in Kilrea. From Eilrea ha removed, in 179J, to the 
Presbytery of Antrim Cougr^ation in Holywood. When he became an 
exile, it is said that he entered the French army, where be attained to a 
high rank. Mr. UcMohon was a good classical scholar, and had at one 
time been tutor in the family of Lord liondonderry, where he taught 
Latin to his Lordship's son, afterwards Lord Caatlereogh. — " Rearrdi of 
Synod of Ulster" ; Dr. Reid's " History of Ike Fresbylerian Church." 

a, halter from I!)ublin, and 
I'Sfi," by B. M. Yaa-KQ. 

Page 60.~WiIiiam Orr, from Farransbane, near Antrim, was tried at 
Carrickfergns in September, 1797. The court was crowded to excess; but 
even Cnrran, the greatest forensic orator whom Ireland has ever produced, 
failed to save the accused. At seven o'clock in the evening the jury 
retired to consider their verdict; and they remained in their room tiU 
six In the morning. How they spent the night is a matter of history. 
It is recorded that numerous bottles of whiskey were passed through the 
window into the juryroom. When the sentence of death was passed 
Judge Yelverton wept freely. After the execution, his remains were 
interred in the old graveyard in Templepatrick by bis Maflooic brethren, 
of wbieh honuurable craft he was a member. A stone wbicb marks 
the spot is inscribed, " Here lieth the body of Aley Orr (a favourite 
sister), who deparled this life January a6th, 1791. Memorial cards were 
seoretljprinled,ono ot which is in the Belfast Museum, — " l7Zs(w in '9S," 
6y R.M. Ymmg. " Nortlum Leaders of '98," " Kemember Orr," by F. J. 
Bigger. M.R.I A. 

Page 64— Oliver Bond is said to have been son of a Dissenting 
Clergyman in Co. Donegal. His father was probably ihe Bev. Thomaa 
Bond, minister of 3t. Johnston from 1734 till 1783. Oliver Bond was 
married to a daughter of Henry Jackson, Dublin. Mrs. Bond's cousin 
Fanny, daughter of John Jackson of Creeve, was mother of the Kcv. 
Dr. Johnston, Belfast.— " JWo/Men'a Lines" Vol. IV. ; Latimtr't "Ulster 
Biographies," pays i8 ; Haxteell's " Iriih Kebellion," page 18. 



4 

I 




Pace 65.— In 1823, the late Sir Abraham Bradly King, refuaed t 



flinch from hia poaitioi 
charged with having se 
Jtoman Catholics. He n 
this charge he denied ii 
Bfttisfied with this solan 



1 Orangprnoii, Tlie Ocacge Institution w 

et oaths, pledging them to the extermination of 

IS examiiied at the bar of tlie House of Commons, 

1 the moat solemn manner. But the House, not 

. _ n declaration, insisted that it had a dgbt to make 

him diaclose the secret signs and passwords. He reaiated the demand, 
and ultimately stioceeded. — Appendix to Corrigan'i History oj the 
Bebeliion. in Ireland. 

Paoe 6S.— Eallj in May, 1798, fourteen persons ol the town of 
Oarrickfergua and neighbourhood were taken prisoners, and without any 
apocifio charge put on board a prison skip then lying in Garmojle. A 
few days after a guard was stationed in (he market-house ; the Carriok- 
fergus yeomen cavalry were placed on permanent duty; the inhabitants 
here ordered to put up their names on their doors, to be called oTer as 
often as the military might deem proper ; the arrival of atrangera to be 
inunediqtely added and atmounced to the Mayor or commanding officer ; 
and none to be out of their houses from nine o'clock in the evening till 
five in the morning. All pecaona were atrictly commanded to surrender 
every kind of firearms, pikea, swords, or ammunition under pain of 
military eKeaotion.^JfcSftiwin's "HUUrry and /tntiqwities of tlie County 
of ike Town of Carrichfergua," page 97. 



-It T 



i James Hope who c 



r here described by Mr. McSklmln. 



eyed the sack filled with 



Paqbi 72. — The name of this man «aa John McEinney, who wai bom 
in 1761, and died in 18SG. His son Thomas George McKinney was 
married to Isabella Ftllton, daughter of Hugh Oiffen and Janet Bigger, 
who naa the only daughter of William Bigger of Biggerstowu. and grand- 
mother to William Fee McKinney, Sentry Hill, Carnmoney, well known 
as an antiquarian, and Dr. Samuel Bigger GifFen McKinney, London, the 
writer of fieveral well known medical and philosophical works. Mra. 
Oiflen had eight brothcra who have numerous deacendanla throughout 
Ulster and beyond the aesG, among whom is P. J. Bigger, Ihl.K.I.A., 
F.R.S.A., editor of the " Ulster Journal of ArehEeoiogy." 

Paob 78.— These guna had belonged to the Blue Battalion of the 
Belfast Volunteers, and were brought from Belfast in Mr. Blow's cart to 
the Dunadry Paper Mills, and thence to Dr. Agnew's hoixse in Temple- 
patrick, from which they were taken by night and bidden in the 
Templepatriok mealing-boase, under the scat that waa then occnpied by 
Mr. Bimie, of the bleaoh^reen. The Birnies were relatives of the 
MaoNeitlys of Carn-greine. 

This church is at present In connection with the " Remonatranl Synod 
of Ulster." 

Paqh 89.— Henry Joy McCracken, was born in High-street, Belfast, 
on the 31st of August, 1767. Hia father, John McCracken, was captain 
and part owner of a vessel that traded between Belfast and the West 
Indies. On the I7th of July, 1798, hia trial took place in the Exchange, 
Belfast. At five o'clock, MoCracken was ordered to the plac ' 



the old Harket-houae, which stood at the comer of Oom-market and Kgh- 
atreet, and which had been given to the town by hia groat-grandfather. 
When all was over, his body was given to his fnends. His temains were 
bttrfed In the graveyard beside the Episcopal Chnccb in High-alreet. 
Some years aftermards many of the graves were levelled, and the ground 
sold for building pur^ses. The dust of the patriot lies under one ol the 
houses erected on thia site.— Latimer's nister Biographies. 

Two aniforma formerly worn by Henry Joy McOracken — one of them 
at the Battle of Antrim—are in the Belfast Museum. These nnifonnfl 
were presented, in J892, by Christopher l-tchisoii, J.P., Loanhead, 
Midlothian, a conneotion by marriage to H. 3. MoCracken. The 
volaateer uniform is an all-nool cloth, emerald-green colour, slashed 
with gold braid and gilt bnttona; the facings and lining arc of white 
twilled worsted serge, while the lining of the ateeves is a pure, soft, 
domestic grey cahco All the material was ol home manufacture. The 
ondreas imiiorm is of a coarser, heavier cloth, evidently home-made, 
emerald-green colour, and faced with yellow, and yellow epauleties; it 
has silver-plated buttnns, with initials " N. V. [Natioual Volunteers], 
Belfast Regiment," skirt faced with yellow, turned up, with aheart at the 



Faqb 89, — On the " Monaghan Men " marching back through Temple- 
patrick they burned almost the entire village; hut spared the Srat house 
they come to, which belonged to a widow and her daughter, because she 
bad placed on the roadside crocks of cream with plenty of oaten bread 
and butter. The rest of the village was burned because the Insu^ents 
had bidden several pieces of brass cannon in the meetiug-bouao. At the 
time it was burned there were ninety linen weavers' looms iu It, and 
tlie mun street extended almost to the place where the present vicarage 
is bailt.— Appendix (by A. Fedcji} to the "History of Teraplepaltick ," 
pp. 67. Local Tradition. 

PiGK 90. — About the beginning of July, 1796, a court-martial aasembled 
In the County of Antrim Courthouse, Carrtckfergus, for the trial of persoOB 
charged vrith rebellion. By their eeoteuce four persona received dreadful 
flagellatioa, and one lad was executed. None of these persons w«re 
inhabitants of Carrickfergus ; nor was a house burned or destroyed in tha 
County of the Town during the rebellion. — UeSkimin's "Bialory q^ ■ 
Carriekfergiia." 



Prinlo] by Liute * Mcl-lcia. 



71 Chan:li Lane. Bdbn 



Hosal Society ot antiquaries oT JielanO. 



I 



On the 4th of July, 1905, the Boyal Society of AotignariGB 
of Ireland drove from Belfast to Molusk,— -where the pataiots 
Hope and Bigger are buried — Roughfort, where the Inaurgenta 
aBsembled on the 7th of June, 1798, and with Henry Joy 
McCiackeii as their lettder niarched to Antrim. They lunched 
at the Templepatriclf Arms, and afterwards drove to Donegore, 
where Mr. IVancia Joseph Biggar, M.R.I. A,, F.E.S.A. — who 
conducted the party and described the places visited — delivered 
a short address ou the lives and works of Sir Samuel and 
Lady Ferguson, at their graves in Donegore Church-yard. 
After some time spent at Donegore, which was the rallying 
place of Henry Joy McCracken and the Insurgents after the 
Battle of Antrim, the party left for Antrim, passing through 
Farranshane the home of WUUam Orr. In the evening the 
Quarterly Meeting was held in the Council Chamber of the 
City Hall, Belfast (by kind permisaion of the Lord Mayor 
Su: Daniel Dixon, Bart.), John Eibton Garstin, D.L., M.A., 
F.S.A., M.B.I.A., President, in the chair. 



" On Craigarogan Fort, 
They were mustered in good sort, 

While the green and gold abore the bushes she 
And by Templepatrick's grave. 
Met five hundred lads as brave, 

With a cannon on a gig before them drawn." 



MIDLAND RAILWAY 

(Northern Counties Committee). 

The district served by this Bailway coDtains many places of great 
historical interest, and some of the finest Coast and Glen Scenery in 
Ireland. During the Summer Season, tickets at estremely low fares 
are issued, for Excursions and Circular Tours through localities 
mentioned in the preceding pages of the " Annals," and others 
posseaaing remarkable scientific or picturesque attractions. 



BALLVOARRY (16J) Station for visiting the Gobbins cMs and cavas. 

BALLYCASTLE (69^) Seaside resort and a coavenient centre for visiring 

Fair Head and Camck-a-Rede. 
BALLYMENA (33J) About 8 miles from this town rises Slemish Mountain 

where tradition says St. Patrick was kept in bondage. 
OARRIOKFERQUS (9^) Ancient Castle, Gate, and Walls. Stone at Harbour 

on which King William 111. is said to have stepped when he landed in 

Ireland in i6go. 
DUNADRY (18J) Villa|;e on the Sii-mile water. An hour's walk from Done- 
gore Moat. 
LARNE (23^) Seasids resort and port of the shortest sea route between Great 

Britain and Ireland. Ruins of Olderfleet Castle at Harbour. 
LONDONDERRY (95) The "Maiden" City famous for its siege. The old 

walls still retain almost their original form. Cathedral contains relics of 

the siege. 
PORTRUSH (67i) Finest sea-side resort in the North of Ireland. Ruins of 

Dunluce Castle about 3J miles and the celebrated Giant's Causeway 8 miles 

from [his Station. 



TEMPLEPATRIGK (ICJ) Cast le Upton and »■ 



It Churchyard. 



JAMES COWIE, Traffic Manager. 



liiliiiRii 

a blDS DID 35b 703 



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