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An Annotated Bibliography 








Published by 


OCTOBER 26, 1962 




An Annotated Bibliography 







Peabody Museum of Natural History 
Yale University 



Published by 


OCTOBER 26, 1962 

Edited by Lillian A. Ross 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-21868 



Shimon Angress 

March 14, 1924-March 30, 1958 

Shimon Angress was a rare individual who had many abiHties and 
developed them equally over the years. Gifted in art, poetry, philos- 
ophy, the humanities, and the natural sciences, he was patiently nur- 
turing them all to intellectual maturity when his tragic death in a 
highway accident ended a most promising scientific career. 

Shimon's first 15 years were in the happy tradition of a typical 
intellectual German-Jewish family, but with the Nazi shadow darken- 
ing over them. An ardent Zionist who rightly feared the worst from 
his homeland, Shimon slipped across the Danish border on the first 
day of World War II; his parents lingered — to disappear into Ausch- 
witz. Abandoning school of necessity, Shimon and other Jewish 
youths learned farm work during the first months of the war, and 
again Shimon got away — this time to Palestine — before Denmark 
was overrun by the Nazis. 

In the youth group at Ramat David, Shimon worked with the 
livestock, and his interest in domestic animals and their origins be- 
came one more among many. Working hours were long and the labor 
hard, but some time for reading was always to be found. In 1942 he 
moved to the kibbutz of Ma'ayan Ts'wi, where he was in charge of 
the dairy cattle, but he patiently continued his self-education, read- 
ing particularly at this time in philosophy and the humanities. Four 
years thus, milking and learning, and then he was chosen by his 
group to attend the Kibbutz Teachers Seminary, where for two brief 
years he resumed his formal schooling. Here he was intrigued by the 
natural sciences, particularly zoology, and here he caught up educa- 
tionally with the lost years. 

Returning in 1948 to Ma'ayan Ts'wi, Shimon founded the first 
school there. The worth of a teacher is evaluated only over the long 
years by the achievement of his students, and one hears glowing tales 
of Shimon's breadth of knowledge, his infectious enthusiasm, his clar- 
ity of presentation, and the answering responses of the children. 
During this time he built a museum collection of zoological, geolog- 


ical, and archaeological specimens; patiently accumulated much of 
the information contained in the bibliography published here; tamed 
wild animals; joined in the activities of the kibbutz; and wrote poetry, 
drew incessantly, taught and inspired the children, and always learned 
more and more. 

So outstanding a record was not to be unrewarded; in 1954 the 
kibbutz again supported Shimon's necessity for further education. 
After several months in South America, he spent slightly more than 
a year at the University of Chicago. In spite of having had only two 
years of formal education since he was 14, Shimon received his mas- 
ter's degree (in zoology) by June of 1955, and two departments — 
Zoology and Anthropology — wanted him to continue as a graduate 
student. The sense of duty called him home, however — that and a 
desire to put his new knowledge to use — and Shimon returned to his 
teaching and his natural history at Ma'ayan Ts'wi, while, amongst 
a multitude of other activities, he continued his graduate studies at 
the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His interests in zoology, archae- 
ology, and paleontology here combined to produce a thorough student 
of the animal remains dug from archaeological sites, and his few 
technical publications are in this field. 

During this time, too, Shimon married. It was a most happy 
marriage, unfortunately brief; barely was there time for a daughter 
to be born. 

The simultaneous role of teacher at Ma'ayan Ts'wi and graduate 
student in Jerusalem necessitated much highway travel. Shimon had 
no control over his instantaneous death, no chance for decision, as 
he was not driving. 

I met Shimon Angress only once, in Chicago, in the summer of 
1954. I have met many people only once, but no other such meeting 
has led me nearly half around the world to visit the small community 
where the person had his life. It was in June of 1960 that I visited 
the small jewel of a museum that the people of Ma'ayan Ts'wi have 
built to honor Shimon Angress and to keep his collections intact. 
I went through his files, where everything is meticulously in order, 
and looked over the small library of the working-man-scholar. 
Museum and library are open for any to use, but with Shimon's 
knowledge and leadership gone, few there are who do so. 

If the museum was built in honor, the rock garden on a jutting 
promontory of cliff was built in love, for it was built by the children 
whom Shimon had taught. They took a bit of the natural land that 


Shimon loved, and left it natural, adding but a path and stairway 
and a bench by a small pool. I walked down the path in the summer 
evening with Shimon's widow and Shimon's child and looked across 
the narrow strip of green coastal plain to the sun sinking into the 
Mediterranean. Below me the cliff dropped abruptly; behind me 
rose the limestone mass of Mt. Carmel, where Shimon had spent 
so many happy days studying and collecting. Wasps came to the 
edge of the pool, gaining mud for their nests, and a variety of small 
birds flitted above. Here was Shimon's world, a world that he had 
helped to create, a world incomplete now because of his absence. 

Charles A. Reed 


In the growth of cultures, as Kroeber has pointed out, there are 
some basic factors that have profoundly influenced many societies. 
One of these fundamental elements has to do with farming and 

The taming of animals for man's use and pleasure constituted a 
revolutionizing innovation that enormously raised his subsistence 
level. Furthermore, by the process of domestication, man brought 
under control some of the natural forces about him. In effect, he 
created an artificial animal environment and by thus controlling his 
environment he assured himself of a more stable food supply and a 
great source of protein. 

Since the subject of this paper has always been of great impor- 
tance to anthropologists and since the literature is difficult for us to 
find, we welcome the opportunity to place this monograph in the 
Anthropology Series. 

We are greatly indebted to Dr. D. A. Hooijer of Leiden, who has 
abstracted some of the articles from the Dutch; his abstracts 'are 
signed "D. H." Abstracts contributed by Dr. Reed are signed 
"C. A. R." Dr. Reed also read all proofs and made the indexes to 
this volume. 

Paul S. Martin 
Chief Curator, Department of Anthropology 
February, 1962 



Introduction 13 

Acknowledgments 15 

Bibliography and Abstracts 17 

Systematic Index Ill 

General Index 118 


Origin and Descent of Domestic Mammals 


However a domestic animal may be defined, two factors at least, 
the animal itself and the human-controlled environment, must be in- 
cluded. Consequently, domestic animals, with respect to their origin 
and history, have been studied from two points of view. Origins of 
domestication, inseparably associated with the evolution of human 
civilization, have been investigated chiefly by students of cultural 
history. The descent of domestic species, their phylogenetic rela- 
tionships, and the aspects of speciation under the domestic environ- 
ment, have been considered mainly a subject for biological research. 
Additional studies on the ancestry of recent breeds have been made 
by students of animal husbandry. 

Although these types of studies, each with its own methods, have 
been devoted to particular ends, it has been evident since the days 
of Rutimeyer, who laid the cornerstone for modern research in the 
history of domestication a century ago, that a co-operation of several 
sciences is imperative, and that the combined data of archaeological, 
historical and zoological research are essential to a comprehensive 
understanding of the fascinating problem. 

At the dawn of this century, Keller (1902) included in his critical 
review the more important works that had been published prior to 
1900 on the origin of domestic animals. Since then numerous man- 
uals on the subject have been issued. A wealth of information, the 
result of extensive exploration and research, has been published; it 
is scattered through archaeological, ethnological, biological and agri- 
cultural literature, incorporated in historical and zoological treat- 
ments of general nature, and attached to reports of excavations. 
Most of the data have never been considered within the scope of 
any abstracting journal. 

The body of this report consists of abstracts and indexes of the 
ethno-zoological records published in the last five and a half decades 
that have been available to us. The work was undertaken in the 
hope that this compilation would be of some help to students of 



domestication by providing a collection of references, of subjects dealt 
with, and of conclusions reached in the study of the descent and an- 
cestry of domestic mammals. 

The nature of the study, which must include various fields of 
science, and the scope of this compilation set certain limits in the 
choice of the material to be abstracted. As indicated by the title, 
this bibliography is concerned with the study of the origin of domestic 
mammals rather than with the origin of domestication. Works based 
on zoological evidence form the primary listing, and few investiga- 
tions of pure epigraphical or linguistic nature are included. Even 
among zoological treatments only those that bear directly on the 
topic under consideration are cited. An extensive literature on the 
genetics, breeding experiments, and hybridization of domestic spe- 
cies exists but does not bear directly on the subject. A collection of 
those records would demand another bibliography equal in scope to 
the present work. The same applies to the studies on the effects of 
domestication, from which we have tried to select those presentations, 
mainly concerned with osteological effects, that may help the zoolo- 
gist to determine the domestic status of those animals whose sub- 
fossil remains have been discovered. The latter, arrayed with the 
stratigraphical and distributional data of the archaeologist, are re- 
garded as the most valuable basis for the study of the rise of domestic 
species, and thus this bibliography depends principally upon the zoo- 
logical treatments of material provided from archaeological, mainly 
prehistoric, sources and upon comparative studies of primitive liv- 
ing breeds and related wild forms in relation to those ethno-zoolog- 
ical facts. 

Even within this defined scope, this collection is probably far 
from complete. The most obvious omissions are the numerous orig- 
inal papers in the Russian language, in particular the reports of exca- 
vations from the cultures of Tripolje and Minussinsk. These, like 
a number of other references, have not been available. 

This work is merely descriptive. The view of the author is 
given without comment or evaluation. Chronologies and generic 
and specific nomenclature used in the original paper are retained 
in the abstracts, although in many cases these have been shown 
to be incorrect or inadequate by more recent evidence. Moreover, 
the recent evidence on chronology concerning the periods and re- 
gions to which most of the abstracted articles refer has been sum- 
marized by Charlesworth (1957, the Quaternary Era, vol. 11), by 
Barendsen, Deerey, and Gralenski (Science, 1957, vol. 126, p. 917), by 


Braidwood (1958, Science, vol. 127, pp. 1419-1430; 1958, Osterreich 
Akiid. Wissensch., phil.-hist. Kl., Anz., no. 19, pp. 249-259), by 
Reed (1959, Science, vol. 130, pp. 1629-1639), by Braidwood, Howe, 
et al. (1960, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, vol. 31), and 
by Clark (1961, World Prehistory in Outline). 

The determination of the correct names of the animals, with 
all the involved synonyms, is beyond the scope of the present 
work, and in no way has been attempted. For recent breeds the 
spelling recommended by Mason (1951, A World Dictionary of 
Breeds . . .) is used throughout the text. Where possible, foreign 
descriptive names have been translated, but sometimes translation 
was impossible (e.g., Heidschnucke, Pr^alpes du Sud, etc.). 

Wherever possible, the references are abbreviated in the form 
used in the World List of Scientific Periodicals, 1900-1950 (third ed., 
1952). Other references have been written out more fully. The 
date of the year under the author's name designates in every case 
the year of publication of the work. 


When I presented myself at the University of Chicago in 1954 as 
a graduate student interested in the origins of domestic animals, and 
thus in their comparative anatomy, I was assigned to the direction 
of Dr. Karl P. Schmidt, then Chief Curator of the Department of 
Zoology at Chicago Natural History Museum, and Lecturer in Zool- 
ogy at the University. Dr. Schmidt suggested the present bibliog- 
raphy and its form as an annotated list in lieu of studies on the 
remains of domestic animals from archaeological sites, pointing out 
that it would in any case be an essential preliminary to further studies 
on the origins of domestication. I am greatly indebted to Dr. Schmidt 
for aid and advice, and also to Dr. Everett C. Olson, Professor of 
Vertebrate Paleontology at the University, who took an active in- 
terest in the project. 

The study of the origins of domestication, and of domestic mam- 
mals in particular, combines essentially archaeological studies with 
zoological investigations, and these in turn must frequently refer to 
paleontological data. The study itself represents the co-operation 
between the University of Chicago and Chicago Natural History 
Museum. At the Museum, all of the resources of the Museum library 
were made available to me, and when these failed I had the ever ready 
aid of the library staff under the direction of Mrs. Meta P. Howell, 


who searched for sources from which the required books and journals 
could be borrowed. Thus this paper is based on the riches of the 
library of Chicago Natural History Museum, quite as other studies 
are based on wealth of materials in the scientific departments. I 
wish to express my gratitude to the authorities of the Museum for 
placing these facilities at my disposal. 

Shimon Angress 

I have to thank, first of all, Shimon Angress himself, whose vision 
and industry started this annotated bibliography, which I have seen 
through into final published form, working fi'om his first manuscript. 
Miss Lillian Ross, Editor of Publications at Chicago Natural History 
Museum, has borne a greater editorial load with this publication than 
she would ordinarily have to do, since the senior author was deceased 
and the junior one not always available for consultation; she has 
carried this load with cheer and fortitude. Lastly, I owe a great 
debt to Miss Roberta French, Secretary at the Peabody Museum 
of Yale University, who successfully assembled the Index in alpha- 
betical order from my numerous pages of handwritten notes. 

Charles Reed 


Adametz, Leopold 

1915. Untersuchungen iiber Capra prisca, einer ausgestorbenen Stammform 
unserer Hausziegen. Mitt, landw. Lehrk. Wien, Bd. Ill, Heft 1, pp. 1-21, 
4 pis. 

Detailed description of the skull, especially the horns, of a goat, found together 
with other Neolithic skeletal parts near Zloczow (Poland). The specimen, charac- 
terized by the homonymously twisted horns in the male, is made the holotype of 
a new form, which is named Capra prisca. 

A comparison of the crania of C. prisca and C. aegagrus shows that the majority 
of the European domestic goats agree in skull and horn features with the extinct 
C. prisca, which therefore is considered the probable ancestor of most of the Euro- 
pean domestic breeds. 

1920. Herkunft und Wanderungen der Hamiten erschlossen aus ihren Haustier- 
rassen. Osten und Orient, Ser. I, Bd. II; Wien, Verl. des Forschungsinsti- 
tuts fiir Osten und Orient. 107 pp., 24 pis., 44 figs. 

Based on the origin and the distribution of ancient Egypt's domestic animals, 
conclusions are drawn as to the origin of the Egyptian people and the Hamite 
immigration into Africa. 

The most ancient domestic breeds kept among Egyptians and also among 
Sumerians were sheep (Ovis vignei cycloceros) and goat (Capra falconeri jerdoni). 
These point to Afghanistan, Baluchistan and northwestern India, where they first 
became tamed, as the region where the cradle of the Sumerian-Hamitic civilization 
should be sought. The tamed horse, not known to the Hamites when they invaded 
Africa, was introduced from Mesopotamia during the Eighteenth Dynasty. The 
earliest domestic cattle, however, were tamed by the ancient Egyptians from the 
indigenous Bos primigenius, whose later distribution — North and South Africa — 
indicates the dispersal of the Hamite race. The same is true in the case of the 
greyhound, which was tamed by Hamites in Africa. 

1925. iJber den Schiidelbau des Rindes der Auvergne und dessen Stellung im 
Riitimeyer-Wilkensschen Einteilungssystem der Rinderrassen. Z. Tierz. 
ZuchtBioL, Bd. II, pp. 163-177, 2 figs. 

A study of eleven skulls from cattle of Auvergne (Salers, in Cantal, France) 
refutes their supposed relation to the brachycephalid type, which was suggested 
formerly for this breed. The skull characters are clearly of the primigenius type, 
and the breed seems to have originated from Bos primigenius hahni, which latter 
gave rise also to the Iberian cattle of southern Spain. The race of Auvergne is 
considered a connecting link, indicating the route of dispersal the breed took in 
prehistoric times from Spain via France to England. 



1926. Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Tierzucht. Julius Springer (Wien). 

The first chapter (pp. 5-49) is devoted to the origin of domestic animals and 
gives a short summary of information about the ancestors and history of the most 
important farm animals. 

Table 2 summarizes the origin, distribution and time of first domestication of 
mammals; Table 3 does the same for the important kinds of domestic fowl. 

1927. iJber die Herkunft der Karakulschafe Bocharas. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., 
Ed. VIII, pp. 2-64. 

A study of the origin of the fat-rumped sheep of the Bukhara, the Karakul or 
"Arabi." The radiation center for the breed is sought in the vicinity of Baghdad 
(Arabian tribes brought the sheep to Bukhara and Chiwa from Mesopotamia in 
the eighth century A.D.), its wild ancestor being of an urial type, probably Ovis 
vignei arkal. 

1928. tJber neolithische Ziegen des ostlichen Mitteleuropas. Z. Tierz. Ziicht- 
Biol., Bd. XII, pp. 65-83, 1 table, 5 text figs. 

The skull-fragment of a goat, discovered in a Neolithic cemetery (end of third 
millennium B.C.) at Zlota near Sandomircz (Poland), is identified as belonging to 
the Capra prisca type. Other Neolithic finds of C. prisca from Nauenburg, 
Schaffis (Switzerland), and Klausenburg (Transylvania) are described. 

The occurrence of descendants from Capra aegagrus among the European races 
of the domestic goat is doubted by the author, who, however, takes C. aegagrus to 
be the ancestor of certain central Asian breeds. 

1932. tJber die Stellung der Ziege von Girgentini im zootechnischen Systeme 
und ihre angebliche Herkunft von Capra falconeri. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., 
Bd. XXV, pp. 231-236, 5 figs. 

Investigation of shape and twisting of horns of the goats from Agrigento 
(Girgentini, Sicily), considered by Magliano in 1930 as a type of Capra falconeri. 
Since the anterior keel is twisted in clockwise direction (homonymous) and not 
counter-clockwise as in the falconeri type, the Girgentinian goat is regarded by 
the author as a special but characteristic form of C. prisca. 

1933. Die Bedeutung der Abzeichen des Banteng (Bibos banteng Raffl.) und 
des Urus fiir das Abstammungsproblem des Hausrindes. Biol, gen., Bd. IX, 
pt. 2, no. 3, pp. 33-47, 3 figs. 

The author refutes the suggestion of a banteng ancestry for the European 
brachyceros cattle on the basis of similar color characters. 

1936. Untersuchungen iiber den Schadelbau der Binder Bocharas mit Riick- 
sicht auf deren Herkunft und Abstammung. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., Bd. 
XXXV, pp. 239-266. 

On the basis of a craniological study of Bukhara cattle the author contradicts 
the traditional view of a brachyceros ancestry for this breed. The main characters 
of the Bukhara cattle correspond closely to those of the Pleistocene Bos namadicus 


1937. tJber die Rassenzugehirigkeit des "ziegenhornigen Torfschafes" der neo- 
lithischen schweizer Pfahlbauten und seiner Abkommlinge. Z. Tierz. Zucht- 
Biol., Bd. XXXVIII, pp. 113-129, 4 figs. 

The "goat-horned" type of the turbary sheep — previously regarded as a dis- 
tinct race — is considered as the female form of Oris aries palusiris or its derivative. 
Closely related to the turbary sheep is the southern European Zackel sheep, and 
since the latter is derived from the Asian Ovis vignei the former is also taken to be 
descended from a wild form of the urial. The primitive northern European breeds 
(Soay sheep, Heidschnucke) bear no relation to the turbary sheep but show close 
affinity to the European mouflon (Ovis musimon). 

1941. Ursprung und heutiges Vorkommen der Rasse der Girgentiziege und ihre 
Beziehungen zur Angoraziege. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., Bd. XLVIII, pp. 1-6, 
7 figs. 

The goat of Agrigento (cf. Adametz, 1932) is traced back to a screw-horned 
form represented at Ur, and the close relationship of both to the extinct Capra 
prisca is emphasized. The Angora goat of Asia Minor (cf. Vetulani, 1934) is seen 
as another surviving breed of this ancient stock, kept by Sumerians as early as 
the fourth millennium B.C. 

Adlerberg, G. P. 

1933. [On the origin of the domestic pig.] (Russ., Eng. summ.) Transcript of 
the conference on the origin of domesticated animals, held at the Laboratory 
of Genetics, Acad. Sci. USSR, Leningrad, 1932, pp. 185-209. 

On the basis of extensive, mainly craniological, material of wild boars it is 
assumed that the Asiatic pig {Sus orientalis) has to be considered as a mere sub- 
species of S. scrofa, which latter is subdivided into a western and an eastern com- 
plex. Also S. mediterrayieus cannot be seen as a separate species. All European 
and most of the Asiatic races of the domestic pig (including the Chinese pig) 
originated from S. scrofa. 

S. cristatus, the East Asian wild boar, is taken as the probable progenitor of 
the Indian domestic pig. 

S. rittatus may have had a local influence on domestic breeds of the Indonesian 
islands, which, however, also show many characteristics of European breeds. 

Albright, William F. 

1940. From the stone age to Christianity, xi 4-363 pp. The Johns Hopkins 
Press (Baltimore). 

After discussing archaeological records of the occurrence of the camel in western 
Asia (pp. 120, 121), the author concludes that its effective domestication cannot 
antedate the outgoing Bronze Age (end of second millennium B.C.), though partial 
and sporadic domestication may go back several centuries earlier. 

1950. On the taming of the camel. Z. Alttestamentliche Wiss., Bd. LXII 
(XXI), p. 315. 

It is shown that the dromedary was well known in Egypt down to the begin- 
ning of the dynastic age, after which it disappeared. It is suggested that the animal 


became domesticated during the late centuries of the second millennium B.C. in 

Allen, Glover M. 

1920. Dogs of the American aborigines. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard 
University, vol. LXIH, no. 9, pp. 431-517, 12 pis. 

A brief general outline of views on the origin of the domestic dog, in which a 
wolf ancestry is concluded, is followed by a detailed study of North American dogs 
and their origin. 

In an extensive description of the breeds of American aboriginal dogs three 
main types are distinguished: («) the large broad-muzzled Eskimo dog, (b) a large, 
and (c) a smaller Indian dog. The two latter types, both of which gave rise to 
several distinct local breeds, are compared to the large Canis ititermedius and the 
small C. palustris, respectively, found in Eurasia from the Neolithic on, and it is 
suggested that these two general types of dogs were cultivated in Asia, reaching 
Europe as well as America at a very early period with the human immigrants. 
In a similar way the Eskimo dog, of a type common to Asia and Europe, has been 
introduced into America by the Eskimos. 

Although hybridization of the larger dogs with wolf or coyote may have oc- 
curred occasionally, such crossing had no significant influence on the original stock. 

Amon, Rudolf 

1938. Abstammung, Arten und Rassen der Wildschweine Eurasiens. Z. Tierz. 
ZuchtBiol., Bd. XI, pp. 49-88, 5 figs., 4 maps, 6 tables. 

While investigating Eurasian races of the wild boar, the author also attempts 
to create a background for solving questions as to the origin of the domestic pig. 
Three forms ("Artengruppen") of Eurasian wild pigs are distinguished: a northern 
group {Sus scrofa), a southern type (S. vittatus), and a third group (S. verrucosus). 
Only the first two are regarded as "hereditarily fixed." 

The origin of new populations is explained by "mutual penetration" of the 
two groups resulting from climatic changes during the glacial periods, which ulti- 
mately also caused the restriction of the vittatus group to its recent range. 

Amschler, J. Wolfgang 

1929a. Zur Revision der Abstammungsfrage der Hausziege. Ziichtungskunde, 
Bd. IV, pp. 466-469, 1 fig. 

Two primitive types of the domestic goat — a saber-horned and a twisted- 
horned form — are described from the Caucasus. Both appear to be geographical 
variations derived from the same wild ancestor, the bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus). 

1929b. Gengeographische Studie am Hissarschaf. Ziichtungskunde, Bd. IV, 
pp. 336-341, 2 figs. 

The Hissar sheep, kept in Tadzhikistan, USSR, is seen as an example of the 
most generalized type of sheep in terms of evolution, combining almost all the main 
characters of primitive domestic races; all transitions from hairy to fleecy fur are 
found and the weight ranges from 99 up to 440 (!) pounds. 


Like the Tadzhikians themselves, the Hissar sheep were isohited for millen- 
niums and retained the characters of a type that gave rise to many breeds of 
domestic sheep in the Near and Far East. 

1931. Beitrag zur Rassen- und Abstammungsfrage der Hausziege sowie zur 
Erforschung der Urzentren der Haustierwerdung. Biol, gen., Bd. VII, 
pp. 445-468, 16 figs. 

Summary of the results of an expedition of the Siberian academy at Omsk 
under the direction of the author in the summer of 1930. 

In the Siberian Altai (including the mountains of the MongoHan boundary) 
a domestic type of Capra prii<ca is kept. Domestic forms of C. falconeri and 
C. aegagrin< are also present, and the wild ancestor of the latter is still found in 
the eastern Dzungarian mountains today. Capra pris^cn was presumably imported 
from the north, while the dispersal of (\ acgagrm and C. falconeri as domestic goats 
is supposed to have coincided with the spread of conquering armies from cen- 
tral Asia. 

The Siberian Altai is seen as the primeval center and radiation area for all 
the forms of domestic goats. 

1932. Zur Biologie und Kraniologie des Haus-Yak im Sibirischen Altai. Biol, 
gen., Bd. VIII, pp. 1-44, 15 figs. 

A morphological and craniological description of the Siberian yak follows a 
discussion of the distribution of wild and tame yaks in general and the origin of 
the latter. The center of origin is found in the Koko-Nor region (northeastern 
Tibet), whence the domesticated yak spread in two main directions: westward 
into the Hindu Kush and via the Pamir plateau to eastern Turkestan, and north- 
ward to Mongolia, to a secondary radiation center. In a map of the area under 
discussion the distribution of wild and domestic yak is depicted. 

1933. '2000-Jahrige Pferde in den Skythengrabern des Sibirischen Altai. Kos- 
mos, Jhg. 1933, Heft 11, pp. 382-387, 5 figs. 

Short description of the horses from the Scythian tombs in the Altai and the 
Sajan, found frozen and almost completely preserved and dated to the fifth century 
B.C. The author holds that all the horses belong clearly to the tarpan type, which 
fact leads him to the conclusion that the tarpan did pass the Volga-line eastward 
and has to be considered ancestral also to the horses of the Kalmucks and the 

1934. Die altesten Nachrichten und Zeugnisse liber das Hauspferd in Europa 
und Asien. Forsch. Fortschr. dtsch. Wiss., 10 Jhg., pp. 248-299, 2 figs. 

After a short survey of the archaeological evidences for horse breeding in an- 
cient European (mainly Scandinavian) and Asian civilizations (especially from 
sites in Mesopotamia and Iran, and those of the Minussinsk culture of Siberia), it 
is concluded that the inner Asian-Iranian area has to be considered as the area of 
origin of the domestic horse. 

1935. The oldest pedigree chart. A genealogical table of the horse and pictures 
of horsemen dating back 5000 years. J. Hered., vol, XXVI, no. 6, pp. 233- 
238, figs. 5, 6. 



An engraved seal from 3000 B.C., discovered by De Mecquenem near Ur, 
Mesopotamia, is taken as a pedigree record of horses representing the oldest 
known genealogical table. On the basis of this and other archaeological material 
the author concludes that horses — descendants of the Przewalski as well as the 
tarpan type — were known and used in the earliest Sumerian and Elamitic civiliza- 
tions. The supposition is expressed that the first crossbreeding between horse and 
ass took place at Ur. 

1936. Die altesten Funde des Hauspferdes. Wiener Beitrage zur Kulturge- 
schichte und Linguistik, Jhg. 4, pp. 497-516, 5 figs. 

This preliminary description of the equid material from Kish in Mesopotamia 
distinguishes two forms of true horses (Equus caballus) and also a type of ass. 
The presence of the horse in the Anau fauna (cf. Durst, 1908) is confirmed. Finds 
of horse remains from various excavations — Ur, Susa, Minussinsk (Sajan in west- 
ern Siberia), and Tripolje (Kiew, Ukraine) — are summarized briefly. 


1937. Goats from Ur and Kish. Antiquity, vol. 11, pp. 226-228, pis. V, VI. 

A horn, found among animal bones from the early dynastic levels (ca. 3000- 
2530 B.C.) at Kish, is compared with a goat's horn portrayed in a sculpture dis- 
covered at Ur, and both are identified as belonging to Capra girgentana (cf. 
Adametz, 1932). 

1939a. Die Knochenfunde aus dem Konigshiigel Shah Tepe in Nord-Iran. 
Forsch. Fortschr. dtsch. Wiss., 15 Jhg., Nr. 9, pp. 115-116. 

Preliminary report on the bone material from Shah Tepe (cf. Amschler, 1939b). 
The author emphasizes the frequency of sheep remains, the presence of bones of 
the horse and two-humped camel and especially the discovery of the wild ancestral 
type for the brachyceros cattle, named Bos brachyceros arnei. 

1939b. Tierreste der Ausgrabungen von dem "grossen Konigshiigel" Shah Tepe. 
The Sino-Swedish Expedition, vol. VIT, part 4, pp. 35-129, pis. XIV-XXVI. 
Bokf0rl. Aktieblaget Thule (Stockholm). 

A detailed discussion of the animal remains discovered in the mound of 
Shah Tepe on the Turkoman steppe, southeast of the Caspian Sea, during archae- 
ological excavations in 1932-33. The material, mainly prehistoric, from the 
fourth and third millenniums B.C., consisted of bones of wild and domestic animals. 
Among the latter, bones of sheep (30.1 per cent) were most frequent. Fewer 
remains were found of pig, horse, ass, and Bactrian camel. 

The author takes the domestic pig of Shah Tepe to be derived from the wild 
Sus scrofa attila, finding both types as well as transition forms in the material 
of the site. The domestic dog seems to be closely related to the pariah dogs of 

A special part (pp. 100-120) is devoted to the wild cattle of Shah Tepe 
(Bos brachyceros arnei) in which the author finds the progenitor of the short- 
horned domestic type (B. taurus brachyceros) present in the same strata. 

1939c. Uranfange der Tierzucht in Vorarlberg. Fosch. Fortschr. dtsch. Wiss., 
15 Jhg., Nr. 17, pp. 222-223. 


A short report on animal remains collected at Bludenz in Vorarlberg (western 
Austria), mainly from the Bronze Age and the following urn-field culture (1500- 
1000 B.C.). By far the most numerous bones were those of cattle, most of brachy- 
ceros type, but a larger form was also present about 1000 B.C. 

Sheep possessed mouflon-like horns; among the few horse remains, a pony 
type and a larger "cold-blooded horse" could be distinguished; the dog bones 
belonged to the group of the large Canis familiaris inostranzewi. Pig remains 
were absent at the end of the Bronze Age. 

1949. Ur- und Friihgoschichtliche Haustierfunde aus Osterreich. Archeol. 
Austriaca, Heft 3, 102 pp., 12 pis., 58 tables. 

A study of the domestic fauna of prehistoric and early historic Austria, 
based upon an examination of over 10,000 skeletal remains from twelve sites, 
dating from the Neolithic (Attersee, Follik) up to the Turkish period. 

Domestic species kept during the Neolithic comprised cattle, sheep, goat, 
pig, horse, and dog. The Neolithic ox belonged to the brachyceros type, the 
sheep was derived from the European moufion and is referred to as Ovis aries 
var. m)(i<imon, the prehistoric goat is considered a descendant of Capra prisca 
Adam., and the Neolithic pig was an indigenous breed of the wild European 
boar. Sits scrofa ferus. The domestic horse of the Neolithic shows similarity 
to the Oriental race, Eqnus caballus orientalis, and the dog is of the Canis familiaris 
palusiris type. 

From the Bronze Age on, there occurred two additional races of the domestic 
dog, Canis familiaris mairis optimae and C. familiaris inostranzewi, and after the 
Hallstatt period appeared cattle of the primigenius type and sheep belonging 
to the Ovis vignei group. 

Anderson, J. G. 

1943. Prehistory of the Chinese. Bull. Mus. far east Antiq., Stockholm, 
no. 15, 304 pp., 200 pis. 

Animal remains, collected from prehistoric sites in Honan and Kansu in the 
Hwang-Ho (Yellow River) valley, are identified by E. Dahr (p. 43). 

At Chih Kou Chai, one of the Ho Yin sites (Honan), the most common 
remains were those of pigs. Also well represented were domestic cattle; neither 
sheep nor goats were found. 

Bones of the domestic pig were most abundant also at the site of Ma Chia 
Yao (Kansu). The only other domesticated animal there was the dog, while 
bones of large cattle from this site belonged to the wild Bos namadicus. However, 
at Ch'i Chia P'ing (oldest of the Kansu cultures), bones of domestic dog, pig, 
cattle, goat and sheep were present. 

Andreeva, E. 

1933. [The structure of the metapoda of some wild and domestic animals.] 
(Russ., Eng. summ.) Transcript of the conference on the origin of domes- 
ticated animals, held at the Laboratory of Genetics, Acad. Sci. USSR, 
Leningrad, 1932, pp. 263-311. 


Investigation of anatomical and histological structure of metacarpals of 
wild and domestic animals. A marked difference in tissue and shape (stouter 
and with thinner walls in domestic races) is found in bones of wild and domestic 
sheep, resulting in a more efficient blood supply in the metapodials of wild forms. 
Primitive breeds exhibit intermediate character. In the horse (przewalskii and 
domestic) the osteological changes due to domestication are much less obvious 
than in sheep. 

Antonius, Otto 

1918. Die Abstammung des Hauspferdes und des Hausesels. Naturwissen- 
schaften, 6 Jhg., Heft 2, pp. 13-18. 

A short account of the paleontologic and historic evidence of the origin 
of the domestic horse. The Mongolian breed is derived from the Mongolian 
wild horse (przewalskii), and its cradle of domestication is sought either in the 
Mongolian steppe or in southern Asia among Aryan tribes, in which latter case 
the tarpan, Eqiois gmelini Ant., would be the ancestral type. An independent 
domestication of "Occidental" breeds in prehistoric central or western Europe 
is suggested. 

1919. Die Abstammung der Hausrinder. Naturwissenschaften, 7 Jhg., Heft 43, 
pp. 781-789. 

A study of the origin of domestic cattle. The first part tries to give a sys- 
tematic outline of wild bovids, recent and extinct; the second part deals with 
domestic buffalo, banteng, gayal and yak; the third section covers the wild 
forms of the genus Bos sensu stricto. 

The fourth and main part is devoted to the earliest domestic oxen and their 
origin. Domestic cattle are divided into three main stocks: (a) the brachyceros 
cattle, derived from a small, wild European bovid. Bos hrachyceros enropaeus 
( = B. longifrons Owen); (b) the primigene cattle of Europe and Africa, derived 
from B. primigenius, the large urus of Europe, North Africa, and southwestern 
Asia; (c) the zebu cattle of southern and central Asia, the ancestor being of an 
unknown race related to the urus. It is suggested that the domestication of c 
took place much later than the taming of a and b. 

1922. Grundziige einer Stammesgeschichte der Haustiere. xvi + 336 pp., 
144 figs. Gustav Fischer (Jena). 

The origin and history of the important domestic mammals are covered 
in a semi-popular manual, which is based to a great extent upon original investi- 
gations of the author. 

The first section (pp. 1-50) evaluates the various sources that supply ma- 
terials for the study of domestication, and the different methods by which the 
problem is attacked; the second section (pp. 51-71) gives an account of the 
morphological and physiological changes that followed domestication. Another 
part deals comprehensively with cattle (divided into a primigenius and a zebu 
type), sheep, goat, camel and llama; more briefly with swine (three hearths of 
domestication — two in Europe, one in Asia — are suggested); and at great length 
with the horse and the domestic dog. To the Oriental (Eqiius orientalis) and the 
Occidental (E. robustus) horses a third species (E. ferus) is added, considered 


to be a descendant of the Mongolian wild horse. The wolf is taken to be the 
true ancestor of the domestic dog. 

The book is supplemented with a wealth of photographs. 

1935a. Zur Abstammung des Hauspferdes. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., Bd. XXXIII, 
pp. 359-398, 13 figs. 

A discussion of recent views on the origin of the domestic horse. The author 
takes the tarpan ancestry as certain for the "Indo-European" breeds and as 
possible in the case of the Oriental horse, but as doubtful for the origin of the 
"cold-blooded" stock. 

Special treatment is given to the taming of the half-ass in the ancient Near 
East, and earlier archaeological and zoological identifications of "horses" from 
this area are discussed. 

1935b. tJber das Kladruber Pferd. Beobachtungen an Einhufern in Schon- 
brunn, XII. Der Zool. Gart., Heft 7, pp. 249-262. 

A study of the Kladrub breed ("a horse that belongs to the past") and its 
history. In the last section, dealing with the origin of the ancient Spanish (later 
Habsburgian) breed, the close correspondence of the Kladrub skull and dentition 
with those of the stout cold-blooded horses of Quaternary times (Equus mos- 
bachensis = E. abeli) is worked out. 

1937. On the geographic distribution, in former times and today, of the 
recent Equidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 107B, pp. 557 564. 

The author considers the geographical ranges of all known species and sub- 
species of equids (true horses, asses, onagers, and zebras) from the beginning of 
human history to the present. The story is one of continually decreasing ranges 
and diminishing populations (sometimes extermination). Of particular interest 
to students of animal domestication are the original ranges of the tarpan (Equus 
silvestris or E. gmelini), Przewalski's horse {E. przewalskii), the Syrian onager 
(E. hemionus hemippus), the Atlantic ass (Asinus "atlanticus"), and the Nubian 
ass (Equus asinus africanus), for these are the only wild equids which have been 
considered as ancestors of the domesticated ones. — C.A.R. 

1944. tfber die Herkunft der Haustiere, insbesondere des Pferdes. Verh. 
zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, Jhg. 1940/41, Bd. 90/91, pp. 294-303. 

A brief review of data on the ancestry of domesticated mammals. The 
domestic dog is considered to be derived exclusively from the wolf. For cattle 
three independent ancestors are supposed: Bos brachyceros, first tamed in Africa; 
B. primigenius, its probable domestication center on the Iberian Peninsula; 
and the Asiatic B. namadicus, which gave rise to the zebu stock. 

The Iranian plateau is seen as the cradle for the domestic goat and sheep, 
derived from Capra aegagrus and Ovis vignei respectively. Screw-horned breeds 
of goats, derived from the extinct Capra prisca Adametz, and the race of the 
"copper-sheep," a domestic form of Ovis musimon, were developed independently 
in late Neolithic or early Bronze Age Europe. 

The riding of horses, preceded by the use of equids with chariots, was intro- 
duced into Europe from the East about 1000 B.C. 


Ash, Edward C. 

1927. Dogs: their history and development. Vol. I, pp. i-xviii, 1-384; frontis- 
piece, pis. 1-108, 6 figs. Vol. n, pp. i-xvi, 385-778; frontispiece, pis. 109- 
160; 7 figs. Houghton Mifllin Company (Boston). 

The author attempts to include almost everything known about dogs, ex- 
clusive of detailed anatomy and physiology. The result is encyclopaedic but 
uncritical. Major emphasis is placed on the different breeds and their history, 
but there is much random information on the history of dogs in general, and on 
dogs in medicine, folklore, law, poetry, and art. The literature concerning the 
hybridization of dogs with wild canids is summarized. — C.A.R. 

Ashton, E. H., and Thompson, A. P. D. 

1955. Some characters of the skulls and skins of the European polecat, the 
Asiatic polecat and the domestic ferret. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 125, 
no. 2, pp. 317-333. 

Skulls and skins of the domestic ferret, Mustela putorius furo, are compared 
with skulls and skins of the European polecat, M. p. pw/orn/.s, and the Asiatic 
polecat, .1/. p. eversmanni. The domestic ferret resembles the European polecat 
in more characters than it does the Asiatic polecat, but the available data do not 
allow a final conclusion as to the ancestry of the domestic ferret. The skulls of the 
domestic ferrets are more variable than are those of the wild subspecies studied, 
primarily because of differences in human selection, since different breeders dis- 
agree on the proper form of a good hunting ferret. — C.A.R. 

Auld, Robert 

1927. Polled and horned cattle. J. Hered., vol. XVIII, no. 7, pp. 309-321, 
figs. 10-19. 

A summary of evidence about the appearance of polled cattle in ancient and 
recent times, and a discussion of the genetic factors involved. It is suggested that 
cattle were hornless when domestication started. 

Baas, Josef 

1938. Der alteste Haushund der Welt im "Senckenberg." Natur u. Volk, 
Bd. LXVI, Heft 10, pp. 469-475, frontispiece, 3 figs., 1 table. 

A dog skeleton, found near Frankfort and dated by pollen analysis to about 
9000 B.C., is regarded as the most ancient domestic dog. The animal shows a 
close relationship to Canis poutiatini and to the present Australian dingo. 

The author holds that a small type of wolf became tamed in the earliest 
Mesolithic (or even Paleolithic) times, and that this type — transition forms not 
yet found — gave rise to the European dogs of the poutiatini group as well as to the 
dingo, which was taken to Australia by man. 

Bate, Dorothea M. 

1932. A note on the fauna of the Athlit caves. J. R. anthrop. Inst., Gt. Brit, 
and Ireland, vol. 62, pp. 277-279. 

This is a first report on animals associated with the Natufian culture (Palestine, 
Mesolithic). The author rejects the possibility that the horse and ox found were 


domesticated. No domestic dog was found (but see Bate, 1937). Study of the 
Natufian culture would seem to indicate that agriculture was developed prior to 
domestication of animals. — C.A.R. 

1937. The fossil fauna of the Wady El-Mughara caves. In The Stone Age of 
Mount Carmel. by D. Garrod and D. M. Bate, vol. 1, part 2, pp. 136-240. 
Clarendon Press (Oxford). 

On pp. 175-177 (fig. 4a, b) the skull of a supposedly domestic dog from the 
Mesolithic of Palestine is described. The Palestine form seems to show closest 
resemblance to the type Canis matris optimae and to the dog from Anau (cf. 
Diirst, 1908). 

1938. Animal remains from Megiddo. Orient. Inst. Pubi. (Univ. Chicago), 
vol. 33, pp. 209-213, figs. 204-206. 

Description of animal bones from tombs at Megiddo (Palestine), including 
deposits from late Neolithic to Late Bronze II. Domesticated specimens identi- 
fied are Bos cf. longifrons, Hircus mambricus, Ovis sp. and Sus sp.; designated 
"probably domesticated" are Canis sp. and a small equid (Eqiius hemionus?). 

1942. The fossil mammals of Shukbah. Proc. Prehist. Soc, vol. VIII, pp. 15-20. 

Identification of a lower jaw of a domestic dog found among the skeletal mate- 
rial from the Mesolithic cave of Shukbah in the Judean hills (Palestine). Exca- 
vated by D. A. E. Garrod. 

Remains of oxen, probably Bos primigenius, goat, pig and an equid (Equus cf . 
hemionus?) are not considered as belonging to domestic species. 

1949. The fauna of Esh Shaheinab. Arch. News Letter, vol. II, no. 7, pp. 128- 
The author, who investigated the mammalian faunas of Early Khartoum and 
the nearby Esh Shaheinab, stresses the emergence of domestic animals in the latter 
site in contrast to the former, where domestic species were not found. From the 
presence of three forms (a dwarf goat with small horns, another goat with twisted 
horns, and a small sheep), all of which bear no relationship to local species and had 
to be imported, she concludes that stock-farming at Esh Shaheinab was a well- 
established custom. A northwest African origin of those three animals, which 
were accompanied probably by a domestic dog, is suggested (see Bate, 1953, for 
the full account of the fauna of Esh Shaheinab). 

1953. The vertebrate fauna. Pp. 11-19, figs. 2-5, in Shaheinab: An account of 
a Neolithic occupation site carried out for the Sudan Antiquities Service in 
1949-50, by A. J. Arkell. Published for the Sudan Government by Geoffrey 
Cumberlege, Oxford University Press (London). 

The site is on the west bank of the Nile, and is dated at approximately 3300 
and 3900 B.C.; the climate was somewhat more humid than at present. Numerous 
bones of a dwarf goat and rare remains of what may be a larger goat or sheep con- 
stitute the earliest known record of domestic animals from the Sudan. Many of 
the goats, as indicated by the dentition, were immature at time of death. The 
dwarf goats were of almost the same size as present dwarf Nilotic goats but are 


thought to be morphologically more like the remains of dwarf goats from Algerian 
cave-sites. Horn-cores of the dwarf goats from the predynastic site of Toukh in 
southern Egypt (cf. Gaillard, 1934) are quite different from those found at Esh 

No remains of the domestic dog were found. — C.A.R. 

Batu, Selahattin 

1939. Neue Feststellungen liber die Geschichte, Herkunft und Abstammung 
der Hausziege. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBioL, Bd. XLIV, pp. 219-229, 2 figs. 

A survey of ancient records shows that the Angora goat was unknown in its 
present distribution center (Anatolia) during the Hittite period and in classical 
times as well. The view of a Capra prisca origin (cf. Adametz, 1928, 1941, and 
Vetulani, 1934) is accepted, and the Angora goat is seen as a very ancient breed 
which originated in Asia and was already kept by Sumerians in the fourth and 
third millenniums B.C. It is suggested that the Angora goat reached Anatolia 
only in the thirteenth century a.d. with the invasion of the Turks. 

Baumler, Hans 

1921. Die morphologischen Veranderungen des Schweineschadels unter dem 
Einfluss der Domestikation. Arch. Naturgesch., Bd. 87, Abt. A, Heft 12, 
pp. 140-178, 11 tables. 

A craniological study of domestic and wild pigs, part of the latter brought up 
under captivity. The skull of the Sus vittatus type is seen as a retardation of an 
early ontogenetic stage of a primitive form, the further development of which pro- 
duced S. scrofa ferns. The skull of the European as well as of the Indian domestic 
pig resembles in its neotenic character the wild vittatus rather than the wild scrofa 

Belie, Jovan 

1939. Die Abstammung des Balkanwildschweines. Z. Tierz. ZuchtBiol., Bd. 
XLII, pp. 151 214, 30 tables, 54 figs., 12 graphical charts. 

Following an investigation of 130 skulls of wild boars from Eurasian countries 
(central Europe through southeastern Asia), the author concludes that a diphyletic 
origin of the domestic pig from Sus scrofa and S. vittatus is indicated. Both the 
latter are seen as distinct species; S. mediterraneus, however, is considered a sub- 
species of S. scrofa, and the Sardinian S. meridionalis probably a stunted form of 
the European wild boar. 

Bishop, Carl Whiting 

1933. The Neolithic age in North China. Antiquity, vol. 7, pp. 389-404, 8 pis., 
2 figs. 

The Neolithic of Europe had domestic cattle, goat, sheep, pig, and dog, but 
the Neolithic of north China had only the pig and dog. The chief activity of the 
people was probably agriculture, with no evidence of a pastoral type of life. The 
major source of protein seems to have been the pig. — C.A.R. 

1939. The beginnings of civilization in eastern Asia. J. Amer. Orient. Soc, 
vol. 59, suppl. to no. 4, pp. 45-61. 


In a brief review of Far Eastern prehistoric cultures, the earliest types of farm- 
ing in the northern Chinese plains are outlined (pp. 48-49). On all save the latest 
Neolithic sites the only remains of domestic animals are those of dog and pig. 
At later sites, bones of sheep and ox also occur. Few if any of the domestic ani- 
mals appearing prior to and around the beginning of the Bronze Age were of native 
origin. Most of the domesticated breeds — ox, sheep (derived from the western 
Ovis vignei), horse (not derived from Equus przewalskii), water-buffalo, and jungle 
fowl — were acquired as culture loans from abroad. 

1940. Beginnings of civilization in eastern Asia. Antiquity, vol. 14, pp. 301- 
316 (cf. Bishop, 1939). 

Bisschop, J. H. R. 

1937. Parent stock and derived types of African cattle (with particular refer- 
ence to the importance of conformational characteristics in the study of 
their origin). S. Afr. J. Sci., vol. 33, pp. 852-870, 1 fig., 2 tables. 

Summary of information on the derivation of African domestic cattle. The 
Hamitic longhorn is regarded as a descendant of the African urus. Bos opisthono- 
mus Pomel, which was domesticated in Egypt before and during the Neolithic. 
At the end of the Neolithic, brachyceros cattle, derived from Bos namadicus, were 
brought to Lower Egypt and forced the longhorn breeds westward. Longhorned 
zebus arrived in Ethiopia and Upper Egypt during the third millennium B.C. and 
by interbreeding with the Hamitic stock formed the Sanga type of cattle. Short- 
horned zebus arrived later, by the same route. 

Boessneck, Joachim 

1953. Die Haustiere Altagyptens. Veroff. zool. Staatssamml. Miinch., Bd. Ill, 
50 pp., 22 tables with 45 figs. 

An account of domestic and semi-domestic animals kept in predynastic and 
ancient dynastic Egypt, based mainly upon an evaluation of animal representations 
from prehistoric and early historic sites all over North Africa. An extensive bibli- 
ography and numerous illustrations are appended. 

Bogaevsky, B. 

1937. [The artifacts and the domestic animals of Tripolje.] (Russ., Fr. summ.) 
Akademiia Nauk SSSR. Gruzinskii Filial. Institut iazyka, istorii i mate- 
rial'noi kul'tury im N. lA. Marra, Leningrad. 309 pp., 18 tables, 4 pis. 

The second part of the book (pp. 144 ff.) attempts to reveal the origin and 
first stages in the development of stock-farming among the Tripolje cultures in 
the Dnieper basin. The study is based upon subfossil finds, animal representa- 
tions on vases, and animal figurines. 

Domestication began at the beginning of Tripolje B; pig and sheep (both of 
the palustris type), goat and a primigenius race of cattle were kept everywhere. 
The horse had been a rare animal among the early Tripolje settlements, in contrast 
with dogs, numerous remains of which were found in most of the sites. 

Boicoianu, C. 

1932. Studien uber das belgische Pferd. Z. Tierz. ZuchlBiol., Bd. XXIII, 
pp. 25-54, 5 figs. 


A craniological, and especially odontological, study of the origin of the Belgian 
horse. Besides characters of the "Occidental" breeds, features of tarpan-like 
("Oriental") races are evident, and a hybrid origin from both groups is assumed 
for the Belgian strain. 

Boule, Marcellin 

1910. Les chevaux fossiles des grottes de Grimaldi et observations generales 
sur les chevaux quaternaires. Ann. Paleont., Paris, Tom. V, pp. 113-135, 
7 figs. 

Description of the equid remains from cave deposits of the French Aurigna- 
cian and discussion of European Quaternary horses in general. The Quaternary 
Eqnus caballus typicus — considered ancestral to recent horses — is derived from the 
Pliocene E. ^itenonsis. Remains of ass and half-ass (E. hemionus) from the caverns 
of Grimaldi are described and compared to those of the true horse. 

Bourdelle, E. 

1932. Notes osteologiques et osteometriques sur le cheval de Przewalski. Bull. 
Mus. Hist, nat., Paris; 2nd Ser., Tom. IV, pp. 810-821, 3 tables, 

Osteometric characters of Equus caballus przewalskii are worked out and com- 
pared to those of the domestic horse and the domestic ass. Special emphasis is 
given to the limb bones, their measurements and indices. A table (no. 3) sum- 
marizes the osteometric features of the horse group as contrasted to the ass group. 

1938. Essai d'une etude morphologique des equides prehistorique de France 
d'apres les gravures rupestres. Mammalia, Tom. II, pp. 1-11, 8 figs., 2 pis. 

A study of the numerous rupestrian engravings and sculptures of prehistoric 
equids discovered in France. The author finds few representations of ass- or 
onager-like forms, but distinguishes three types of horses according to the shape 
of the cranial profile. Pointing to the same variations of profile in Przewalski 
horses kept in captivity, he finds in Equus przewalskii the common ancestor for 
all those varieties, and regards the recent Camargue horse as one of its descendants. 

Bourdelle, E., and Trombe, F, 

1946. Les dessins d'equides prehistoriques de Ganties-Montespan, Haute- 
Garonne. Mammalia, vol. 10, pp. 13-25, 20 figs. 

Equid images, depicted on gallery walls of the underground river Ganties- 
Montespan (in the Plantaurel range of the Pyrenees) and in caves frequented by 
Upper Paleolithic people, are described and analyzed. 

The authors distinguish four types of equids among the representations. 
Most frequently portrayed and most primitive in type is the Przewalski horse, 
taken as the ancestor of the Arabian as well as of the Camargue breed. Other 
types recognized are the Celtic horse (the ancestor of the Shetland pony), the 
Nordic horse, and an ass-half-ass type. 

Braidwood, Robert 

1952. The Near East and the foundations for civilization. Condon Lectures. 
Oregon State System of Higher Education (Eugene). 


Animal remains from the site at Jarmo (see Braidwood and Braidwood, 1950) 
are described briefly (pp. 26 and 30). Ninety-five per cent of the animal bones 
fall in the sheep, goat, pig and ox categories, and many of the first two are those 
of yearlings. 

1954. The Iraq-Jarmo project of the Oriental Institute of the University of 
Chicago, season 1954-1955. Sumer, vol. 10, pp. 120-136. 

On pp. 134-136, C. A. Reed outlines the necessary training and skills for a 
zoo-archaeologist who is studying, among other matters, the origin of domestic 
animals. Preliminary results are given of study of three sites in northeastern 
Iraq: M'lefaat (early village-farming). El Khan (archaic Hassuna), and Banahilk 
(Halafian). Equid remains were found at none, dog was very rare; all three had 
sheep and 'or goat (stated to be mostly domestic goat), and all three had medium- 
-sized cattle. Remains of pigs were common at Banahilk, rare at M'lefaat, not 
found at El Khan. (The supposedly domestic status of any animals from M'lefaat 
was later disclaimed: Science, vol. 130 [1959], p. 1639).— C. A. R. 

Braidwood, Robert, and Braidwood, Linda 

1950. Jarmo; a village of early farmers in Iraq. Antiquity, vol. 24, no. 96, 
pp. 189-195. 

A brief report on the first excavation (1948) of Jarmo near Kirkuk (Iraq), a 
site dated to 5270-4630 B.C., and therefore preceding the earliest village assem- 
blages of the Near-Middle East. A preliminary study of the animal bones by 
Bryan Patterson revealed remains of sheep and/or goat, cattle, pig, and dog, and 
several equid teeth. 

Breuil, M. H., and Kemal el Dine 

1928. Les gravures rupestres du Djebel Ouenat. Rev. Sci., Paris, Ann. 66, 
No. 4, pp. 105-117, frontispiece and figs. 45-62. 

Description of animal pictures found at Ouenat, a mountain mass in the heart 
of the Libyan desert. Among numerous other animals the pictures show cattle, 
horses, camels and dogs (or jackals). Besides engravings of a Paleolithic hunter- 
culture and modern additions (probably the depicted camels and dogs), the pic- 
tures range from the fifth to the first millennium B.C. and are divided by the author 
into two main cultures: V-a (proto-dynastic and Old Empire) and V-b (starting 
at about the Middle Empire). The big-horned Bos africanus is the only domestic 
type of cattle depicted in V-a; in V-b B. brachyceros appears beside B. africanus, 
which latter becomes gradually displaced. 

Brinkmann, August 

1920. Equidenstudien I, II. Bergens Mus. Aarbok 1919-20, Naturvidenska- 
belig rakke, Nr. 5, pp. 1-38, 1 fig., 3 tables. 

Osteological study of the extinct Norwegian Lofoten breed of horse, which is 
described in the first part and compared to other prehistoric types. The author 
accepts the four basic types of horses, established by Ewart (cf. Ewart, 1904, 1907a, 
1909), and considers the Lofoten horse a straight derivation from the small, broad- 
headed EcjHH.^ cahallu.^ robusius, endemic in Europe since glacial times. The second 
part is a craniological investigation of asses, in which the racial significance of the 
cranial index is emphasized. 




1921. Canidenstudien I, II, III. Vidensk. Medd. dansk naturh. Foren. Kbh., 
Bd. 7-2, pp. 1-44, 3 pis. with 16 figs., 3 tables. 

A study of several prehistoric dogs from Scandinavian sites, especially of a 
skeleton found near Errindlev (Denmark) with close affinities to a greyhound 
type. The origin of the large greyhounds is discussed. They are derived from 
the Indian wolf, Canis pallipes, the Errindlev dog representing a link between 
C. pallipcx and recent greyhounds and borzois. C. pallipes is regarded as a sep- 
arate species clearly distinct from C. lupus and its races. 

1923-24. Canidenstudien V, VI. Bergens Mus. Aarbok 1923-24, Naturviden- 
skabelig rakke, Nr. 7, pp. 1-57, 4 pis., 4 tables, 3 figs. 

An extensive investigation of the dog remains from Scandinavian Stone Age 
sites, collected by the Museum of K0benhavn and the Bergen Museum. A large 
type of dog, belonging to the Canis inostranzewi group and considered the most 
ancient domesticated dog, occurred in all Danish sites from the Azilien (pre- 
Campignien) on. Beginning with the next culture period (Campignien, the 
Danish "kitchen-midden" time), this form is accompanied by C. palustris lado- 
gensis, which by that time already showed signs of advanced influence of a domestic 
environment. Inostranzewi and palustris types are seen as the earliest forms 
of domesticated dogs, living throughout millenniums in northern Europe. The 
latter type in a dwarfed form constituted the turbary or peat-dog, Canis palustris 
proper, which either reached Switzerland by late Neolithic or developed there. 
The author holds that Canis palustris ladogensis is derived directly from a small 
type of wolf and is the result of thousands of years of domestication, while the 
inostranzewi type is identified with a wolf-dog hybrid. 

A palustris type and wolf hybrid occur simultaneously in all the Neolithic 
sites throughout the Nordic countries until recent times, where they are repre- 
sented by the gray deerhound (wolf hybrid) and the Finnish dog {palustris type) 
respectively, both the latter breeds described in detail in part VI. 

Br0gger, A. W. 

J940. From the Stone Age to the Motor Age. A sketch of Norwegian cultural 
history. Antiquity, vol. 14, pp. 163-181. 

In the chapter "Hunting, Catching and Farming," the economic foundation 
of the Stone and Bronze Age in Norway is outlined. During the first few thousand 
years of the settlement of the country, when people lived in a hunting and catching 
stage, no domestic species besides the dog was known. Only from the third 
millennium B.C., with new civihzations invading from the south, additional do- 
mestic animals (cow, sheep and pig) became known and were kept. 

Bronholm, H. C, and Rasmussen, J. P. 

1931. Ein steinzeitlicher Hausgrund bei Strandegaard, Ostseeland. Acta Ar- 
chaeol., vol. II, pp. 265-278, 8 illus. 

Remains of domestic cattle (Bos taurus domesticus) were found in a dwelling 
place dating to the end of the early Stone Age, and were identified by M. Degerb0l 

(p. 278). 


Brunton, Guy, and Caton-Thompson, G. 

1928. The Badarian civilization. British School of Archaeology in Egypt. 
X + 128 pp., 85 pis. 

Report of e.xcav^ation of the predynastic cemeteries and settlements at Badari 
(near Qau, Upper Egypt). Among the mammal remains found in the graves, 
skulls of an "ox-bufTalo" and a sheep were identified by D. M. S. Watson (p. 38). 
The faunal remains discovered at the settlements (North Spur Hamamieh, between 
Badari and Qau-el-Kebir) yielded bones of sheep (or goat), pig and ox (p. 77). 
Pottery from this site shows figures of a bovine (pi. XXXVIII). On pp. 92-94 
an account of animal burials is given. They consisted of thirteen carefully ar- 
ranged piles, composed of the remains of young oxen (connected with one of 
the heaps was the skull of an ass), and masses of dog bones beneath blocks of 
limestone. All the ontogenetic stages were represented. Intermingled with the 
dog remains were jaw parts of (domestic?) cats. 

Bryner, Jones 

1932. The origin and development of British cattle. Proceedings of the First 
International Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, London, 
pp. 151-154. Oxford University Press (London). 

An account of the origin of cattle, not only of Britain but in general. The Pleis- 
tocene Leptobos with horned males and hornless females — although descendants of a 
remote ancestor which was hornless in both sexes — is seen as the first representa- 
tive of the species from which all domesticated cattle were ultimately derived. 
From this early wild race sprang several forms, one of which. Bos primigenius, was 
domesticated at an early period in western Asia. This species has contributed 
the main share to the make-up of modern cattle in western Europe, including 
Britain, in which latter the wild Bos primigenius was found up to the Neolithic, 
although it was probably never domesticated there. From the late Neolithic 
onward there is found in abundance a smaller, more slightly built race, Bos longi- 
frons Owen, which also originated in Asia (found at Anau; cf. Diirst, 1908). It 
does not constitute a separate species but is a mere domestic breed of prehistoric 
times derived from the same primigenius ancestor. Intercrossing between the 
different forms had probably occurred already in prehistoric periods. 

Burkhill, I. H. 

1935 Origins of the cultivated plants of the Old World. Proc. Linn. Soc, 
London, vol. 164, part 1, pp. 12-42. 

In the introductory pages to a comprehensive study on the origin and dis- 
persal of cultivated plants, the author devotes some discussion to the earliest 
breeding of sheep, which probably gave rise to the first tillage, when abundant 
spring pasture inspired the herdsmen to try to increase the supply of vegetation. 

Burns, Robert, and Moody, E. C. 

1935. The trek of the Golden Fleece. J. Hered., vol. XXVI, nos. 11-12, 
pp. 433-443, 505-518. 

An account of the origin and history of the Merino stock throughout two 
millenniums is preceded by a short section on the origin and ancestors of domestic 




Bylin-Althin, Margit 

1946. The sites of Ch'i Chia P'ing and Lo Han T'ang in Kansu. Bull. Mus. 
far east. Antiq., Stockholm, no. 18, pp. 383-498, 6 pis., 18 figs. 

Report of excavations in the prehistoric sites in the Hwang-Ho valley: Ch'i 
Chia P'ing (pre-Yang-Shao period) and Lo Han T'ang (Yang-Shao period). 
The bones, examined by E. Dahr (pp. 457-498), were mainly those of domestic 
mammals (the stratigraphic conditions are uncertain). The majority of the 
bones belonged to a small form of dog (one skull similar to Canh familiar is palns- 
tris), pigs (which displayed clear affinities to Sus vittatus), and a large type of 
cattle. There were fewer remains of sheep and goat. 

Cabrera, Angel 

1922. The domestic animals. 94 pp. Libro de la Naturaleza, Calpe (Madrid). 

This popular guide to the origin and history of the common domestic mammals 
and birds and their influence upon human society is provided with numerous 
photos and drawings. 

1932. Los perros domesticos de los indigenos. Actas Cient. Congr. Intern. 
Amer., La Plata, 25 (1931). Tom. I, pp. 81-93, 5 figs. 

Brief description and discussion of bones of subfossil dog and of dog mummies 
from South America, especially Argentina. A common wild ancestor is sug- 
gested for South American, North American, and Old World dogs; the appearance 
of similar types of breeds in the Old and the New World is, however, explained 
by convergent evolution, due to similar adaptations and mutations. 

Cardas, A. 

1926. Essai sur I'origine des animaux domestiques de Roumaine. Ann. Sci. 
Univ. Jassy, Tom. XIII, pp. 409-423. 

A brief survey of the important domestic species and their wild ancestors 
with special emphasis on the Romanian races. Treated are equids, oxen, buffalos, 
sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. The primitive Romanian horses (Hutsul, Moldavian 
breeds) are derived from the tarpan with some admixture of Przewalski's horse; 
the indigenous cattle are considered as derived from Bos primigenius (the descent 
of the Montagne cattle from a brachyceros ancestor is refuted). The ancestor 
of the Tsigaia sheep is regarded as Ovis argali and that of the Tzourcana breeds 
as O. musimon. The Romanian domestic goat is derived from Capra prisca (cf. 
Adametz, 1915), and breeds of the primitive Mangalitsa pig are traced back to 
Sus ferus europaeus. 

Cardoso, Anibal 

1912. Antiguedad del caballo en el Plata. An. Mus. nac. B. Aires, Tom. XXII 
(Ser. Ill, Tom. XV), pp. 371-439, 16 figs. (Fr. summ.). 

A review of historical sources on the introduction of Spanish horses into 
South America is followed by an osteological study of the Criollo horse and of 
fossil equid remains from South America. The author concludes that Hippidium 
is the ancestor of the Pleistocene Argentinian Equus rectidens, which gave rise 
to the domestic Criollo horse, which consequently is taken as an indigenous breed. 


Carruthers, Douj^las 

1949. Beyond the Caspian. A Naturalist in Central Asia, xx + 290 pp., 22 pis. 
Oliver and Boyd (Edinburgh and London). 

In the tale of his wanderings beyond the Caspian the author deals at some 
length (pp. 41 50) with the Bukharian breeds of sheep and especially with the 
distribution and habits of the wild species (Ovis vignei and O. orientalis) considered 
ancestral to the domestic stock. A useful synopsis of the various classifications 
of the genus Ovis is appended (pp. 226-244). 

Caton-Thompson, G. 

1934. The camel in dynastic Egypt. Man, vol. XXXIV, no. 24, p. 21. 

The presence of the camel in ancient Egypt is proved by a twist of cord made 
of camel hair, found among other objects from the third dynasty during excava- 
tions in the northern Fayum. 

Caton-Thompson, G., and Gardner, E. W. 

1934. The desert Fayum. 2 vols. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland (London). 

Report of excavations at predynastic and early dynastic sites in the desert 
oasis of Fayum (northern Egypt). Remains of animals from Kom W (predynastic) 
included those of pig and sheep (or goat), cattle, and five canid teeth or parts of 
jaws which may be dog or jackal ; contrary to the assumptions of many later authors, 
there is no mention in the original report that these animals were presumed to 
be domestic. 

Among the faunal remains from the Old Kingdom site of Umm-es-Sawan 
were horn cores of typical domestic longhorned cattle from the early dynasties. 
These contrast with the shorthorned cattle from Old Kingdom levels at Hemamiah 
(cf. Brunton and Caton-Thompson, 1928). Thus rock engravings of shorthorned 
cattle may be from the Old Kingdom period, contemporaneous with those of 
longhorned cattle. 

A cord of camel-hair was found among the quarrymen's debris of the Old 
Kingdom period (cf. Caton-Thompson, 1934), suggesting fairly common use 
of camel-hair by the poorer laborers. — C.A.R. 

Chard, Thornton 

1937. An early horse skeleton. J. Hered., vol. XXVIII, no. 9, pp. 317-319. 

The earliest horse skeleton from Egypt, found in a tomb of the time of the 
Queen Hatshepsut (early in the fifteenth century B.C.), is described. On the basis 
of the skull-likeness and estimated height the author relates the specimen to the 
modern Arabian type. 

Childe, V. Gordon 

1940. Prehistoric communities of the British Isles, xiv + 274 pp., 16 pis., 
96 figs. W. & R. Chambers, Ltd. (London and Edinburgh). 

Chapter III ("The Neolithic Revolution") contains a description of the oldest 
Neolithic culture in the archaeological record of Britain, named after the site at 
Windmill Hill. Besides sheep (or goat) and pig, the occupants kept cattle, which 



were smaller than the then native wild urus but were larger and provided with 
longer horns than the later Celtic shorthorn (Bos longifrons). The origin of this 
early breed of cattle from a cross of imported shorthorn with wild indigenous oxen 
is seen as conceivable (cf. also Bryner, 1932). 

( 1941. Horses, chariots and battle-axes. Antiquity, vol. 15, no. 58, pp. 196-199. 
On the basis of equid identifications from Tepe Sialk (cf. Vaufrey, 1939) 
the use of horses in southwestern Iran in the fourth millennium B.C. is taken as 
certain. The author also finds evidence for equids in Elam and Mesopotamia 
during the fourth and early third millenniums B.C. 

ChlebaroflF, G. S. 

1929-30. Das brachycere Rodoporind in Bulgarien. Univ. i Sofia, Agronomi- 
cheski fakul'tet, Tom. VIII; special copy-print, 99 pp. 

A craniological study of the brachyceros cattle of the Balkan breeds (Illyrian, 
Albanese, Macedonian, Montenegrin) and particularly of the Bulgarian Rhodope 
cattle. It is concluded that this race could not have been derived from the European 
Bos brachyceros but is probably of Asiatic origin. The Asiatic urus (B. namadicus) 
or one of its varieties is considered as a possible ancestor. 

Chubb, S. H. 

1913. The horse under domestication; its origin and the structure and growth 
of the teeth. Amer. Mus. nat. Hist., Guide Leaflet Ser., no. 36, ed. 3, 
part II, pp. 37-60, figs. 25-38. 

An account of horse ancestry, in which the view of a diphyletic origin for the 
domestic horse is accepted. The "Norseman's" horse, from which both European 
draft horses and Shetland ponies were derived, is a descendant of the native horse 
of Europe and northwestern Asia, which in turn was perhaps a near relative of the 
Przewalski horse of MongoHa. In contrast, the "Oriental" stock (the Arabian type) 
originated from Equus lybicus in North Africa. 

Clark, Grahame 

1941. Horses and battle-axes. Antiquity, vol. 15, no. 57, pp. 50-70, 9 figs. 

The introduction of horses into Asia Minor by 2500-2000 B.C., the earliest 
occurrence of horses in the Near East, is examined from the archaeological point 
of view. The area between the Baltic and the Black Sea is regarded as the home 
of horses and battle-axe people, who originally probably used their animals only 
as pack-horses. (See also Childe, 1941.) 

1947. Sheep and swine in the husbandry of prehistoric Europe. Antiquity, 
vol. 21, no. 83, pp. 122-136. 

A consideration of the position of pigs and sheep in prehistoric European 
husbandry, based upon a comparison of animal remains from successive levels at 
various archaeological excavations. Characteristic for most of the sites under 
consideration (mainly in the British Isles, Scandinavia, and Switzerland) is a 
relative abundance of the pig in the Neolithic, and a substantial decline in its 
frequency, together with a steady increase in sheep population, in the transition 


time between the Neolithic and the Early Iron Age. It is suggested that the 
foliaceous forest, which formed the background for rearing pigs and also cattle, 
became reduced at about that period, forming thereby favorable conditions for 
sheep breeding. 

1948. Fowling in prehistoric Europe. Antiquity, vol. 22, pp. 116-130, 7 figs. 

Ancient man hunted nesting geese for food and feathers; it would seem prob- 
able that the young, after the parents had been killed, were taken to camp and 
kept alive for food and the down. In this way the domestication of the goose 
probably occurred. — C.A.R. 

Clark, J. G. D. 

1952. Prehistoric Europe, the economic basis, xix + 349 pp., 180 figs., 16 pis. 
Methuen & Co., Ltd. (London). 

A survey of animal remains from prehistoric sites in northern, northwestern 
and central Europe (pp. 108-128). It becomes apparent that cattle and swine 
were the predominant domestic forms in Neolithic times, but from the Late 
Bronze Age sheep and goats came to play a part of increasing importance, a 
phenomenon explained by changes in the flora, due to settled farming. The 
European domestic pig (Sus scrofa palustris) is regarded as a stunted version of 
the European wild pig (S. scrofa ferns) ; the earliest European dog is considered 
a small race of Canis familiaris palustris; and the chief breeds of cattle kept by 
prehistoric farmers are divided into two main groups — the primigeniiis form 
with large horns and the longifrons group with short ones, both groups derived 
from the aurochs. 

Coon, Carleton 

1951. Cave explorations in Iran — 1949. Univ. Monog. Univ. Mus., Univ. 
of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia). 

A brief description (pp. 43-52, tables III-VI) of the animal bones found in 
northern Iranian Mesolithic and NeoHthic caves (especially in the "Belt Cave"). 
During late Mesolithic times remains of gazelle and (wild?) ox outnumbered by 
far those of sheep and goat, but the latter became more abundant and were appar- 
ently domesticated in the early Neolithic period. The increase in immature 
bones of goats in the later Neolithic phase was caused by a selective slaughtering 
of the young males, while the females were kept for milking. At this time, or 
somewhat later, oxen and pigs probably became domesticated also. The upper 
Mesolithic levels of the Belt Cave (layers 24-15) also yielded fragments of canids, 
and some of these bones were identified as belonging to the domestic dog. 

1952. Excavations in Hotu Cave, Iran, 1951. A preliminary report. Proc. 
Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 96, pp. 230-249, 23 figs., 2 tables. 

A short account (pp. 243-246) of the faunal findings from the Hotu Cave 
(northern Iran). In the Neolithic levels (fifth millennium B.C.) domestic oxen, 
pigs, sheep and goats were represented. Both of the latter were present as domestic 
animals throughout the occupancy of the cave but pigs and cattle became tamed 
(or introduced) later. Remains of the wild urus, however, which apparently had 
been hunted from the very beginning, were detected in the lowest levels. 


1954. The story of man. xiii-425 pp., 32 pis., figs, in text. Alfred A. Knopf 
(New York). 

A popular account of the rise of garden tilling and animal husbandry is given 
(pp. 114-150). Archaeological data for the earliest farming, and zoological evi- 
dences for the ancestry of domestic farm animals, are summarized briefly. 

Crawford, O. G. S. 

1938. The Kish goat, Bulgaria. Antiquity, vol. 12, no. 45 (Notes and News). 
pp. 81, 82, pi. I. 

The occurrence of goats of the Capra girgentana type (cf. Adametz, 1932) 
from Bulgaria is reported. The horns correspond also to the "Kish goat" (cf. 
Amschler, 1937), and a Capra prisca ancestry is suggested. 

Curwen, E. Cecil 

1938. Early agriculture in Denmark. Antiquity, vol. 12, pp. 135-153, 4 pis. 

Bones from the Mesolithic of the Mullerup cultures (approximately 6000 B.C.) 
indicate that the dog was the only domestic animal; the domestic ox, pig, sheep, 
and goat first appear at the beginning of the Neolithic, simultaneously with wheat 
and barley, and must have been introduced from the south. The sheep is believed 
descended from a species domesticated in Turkestan about 6000 B.C., and the goat 
is regarded as derived from Capra aegagrus. The similarity between domestic and 
wild pigs was greatest in the Neolithic, with subsequent morphological divergence. 
The domestic cattle were either longhorned (thought to be derived from Bos primi- 
genius) or shorthorned (B. brachyceros) . The origin of the latter is unknown. The 
horse seems not to have reached Denmark until the Megalithic period; poultry and 
cats did not appear until the Roman Iron Age. — C.A.R. 

1946. Plough and pasture. Past and Present, vol. IV, 122 pp., 14 pis., 21 figs. 
Thomas Knight & Co. (Hoddesdon, England). 

Cf. Curwen, E. C, and Hatt, G., 1953. 

Curwen, E. Cecil, and Hatt, Gudmund 

1953. Plough and pasture — the early history of farming, xii+529 pp., 14 pis., 
24 figs. Henry Schuman (New York). 

A semipopular outline of the story of food production from its earliest begin- 
nings. In the first part of the book Curwen deals with the origin of stock-breeding 
in Europe and the Near East (chap. 3, pp. 36-48) and gives a brief review of the 
ancestry of the earliest domestic animals — sheep, goat, ox and pig. Their hearth 
of domestication is sought at some point within the area bounded by the Nile on 
the west, the Indus on the east, and the forty-fifth parallel on the north. Nomadic 
tribes — not identical with the settled farmers, who started the cultivation of cereals 
in about the same area — are considered as the first animal-breeders. Tarpan- 
ancestry is accepted for the domestic horse, and its first domestication center is 
found in southern Russia as early as the fourth millennium B.C. 

The second part, by Hatt, is a study of the economic cultures of non-European 
peoples in modern and historic times. In America (p. 199) two independent cen- 
ters of animal domestication are distinguished — Peru and Central America, llama 
and alpaca being characteristic of the former and never reaching the latter, where- 


as domestic turkeys and tame bees were characteristic of Central America but 
never were found in Peru. Old World pastoralism (chaps. 15 and 18) arose in 
Asia. The first domestication (of bovids, reindeer, horse, camel) was done by 
hunters, who developed the use of animals for transport and for dairy purposes. 

Dahr, Elias 

1937. Studien liber Hunde aus primitiven Steinzeitkulturen in Nordeuropa. 
Acta Univ. Lundensis, N. S., Avdelingen 2, Bd. 32, Nr. 4, pp. 1-63, 3 pis., 
12 tables, 5 figs. (Eng. summ., pp. 58-61). 

An osteological treatment of dog remains from pre-Neolithic ("Miolithic") 
cultures of northern Europe (from among Baltic comb ceramics and Danish 
kitchen-middens'), especially from the dwelling site at Sj0holmen in southern 
Sweden. In all these Stone Age cultures the only achievement in domestication 
is the dog, of which, however, there are several breeds, all closely related. On the 
basis of diflferences in the dentition and in other craniological features (e.g., the 
position of the orbital plane), wolves, jackals and coyotes are excluded from the 
pedigree of the Miolithic dogs, which are supposed to have been derived from an 
extinct species closely resembling or even identical with the dingo, assuming that 
the latter was represented in Asia during prehistoric times. 

1942. iJber die Variationen der Hirnschale bei wilden und zahmen Caniden. 
Ein Beitrag zur Genealogie der Haushunde. Arkiv Zool., Bd. 33 A, Nr. 16, 
pp. 1-56, 3 figs., 7 tables. 

The co-variation of length and breadth of the brain-case in wild and domestic 
dogs is investigated, and conclusions concerning the genealogy of the latter are 
drawn from the results. Neither true wolves nor typical jackals are considered 
ancestral to recent domestic dogs, which are supposed to have been derived from 
a dingo-like form, spread during early Quaternary time on the Eurasian continent. 

Dalimier, Paul 

1954. La morphologie de la chevre sous I'influence de la domestication. Bull. 
Inst. Sci. Nat. Belg., vol. 30, no. 13, pp. 1-12, 5 figs. 

Following a discussion of the opinions of Keller and of Lydekker, the author 
concludes that the domestic goats of Kashmir and Tibet, with heteronymous horns, 
are derived from the markhor, Capra falconeri; most other domestic goats (and 
particularly those of Europe) are descended from the bezoar or pisang, Capra hir- 
cus aegagruii. There are aegagrus-Aefix&d dwarf goats in Lapland and West Africa. 
Human selection has had little influence on the behavior or morphology of the goat, 
aside from the retention of the lop ear and the development of different kinds of 
pelage. This lack of change under domestication, as contrasted with profound 
changes in most domestic mammals, is ascribed to the fact that the goat has 
always been kept in small groups by the poor, never in large flocks by rich stock- 
men who might have practiced selective breeding. — C.A.R. 

Davis, Malcolm 

1954. The history of the domestication of animals. All-Pets Magazine, Feb- 
ruary, 1954, pp. 21, 32-37. 

A popular review of domestic mammals and birds and how they originated. 


Davvkins, W. Boyd, and Jackson, J. W. 

1917. The domestic animals of the Lake Village. In A. Bulleid and H. G. Gray, 
The Glastonbury Lake Village, vol. H, chap. 26, pp. 648-661, pi. XCVIL 
The Glastonbury Antiquarian Society (Glastonbury). 

Study of the faunal remains from excavations at a lake village near Glaston- 
bury (Great Britain), dated to the prehistoric Iron Age prior to the Roman occu- 
pation. Sheep bones constitute by far the most abundant remains and represent 
at least two distinct breeds. Sheep are followed in frequency by cattle (Bos longi- 
frons), while few remains belonged to the horse (a small breed, probably Equns 
agiUs), dog and goat(?). The description of the lake village fauna follows a brief 
discussion on animals in prehistoric Britain in general; all of the domestic breeds 
— horse, cattle, sheep, goat, pig and dog — are considered as introduced species, 
brought by Neolithic herdsmen from the Continent. 

Debono, Fernand 

1948. El-Omari (pres d'Helouan). Expose sommaire sur le campagnes des 
fouilles 1943-1944 et 1948. Ann. Serv. Antiq. Egypte, vol. 48, pp. 561- 
569, 6 pis. 

The pre-dynastic site of El-Omari in Egypt yielded a fauna which included 
pig, goat, a bovid (presumably cattle), and a canid. It is suggested that the 
goat and the bovid were probably domesticated. The time of occupation of 
El-Omari probably lies between the times of occupation of Merimde and Maadi. 
— C.A.R. 

Degerb0l, Magnus 

1927. IJber prahistorische danische Hunde. Vidensk. Medd. dansk naturh. 
Foren. Kbh., Bd. 84, pp. 17-60, 6 tables, 4 pis. 

Discussion of dogs from the Danish Stone Age and description of dog skulls 
from the Svardborg Moor (Ancylus period). Those skulls, remains of the most 
ancient domestic animal in Denmark, are regarded as a "palustris-svardborgensis" 
form distinct from the larger and stouter Canis palusfris ladogensis. A dog skele- 
ton from the following (pre-Roman) period is described and identified with Cayiis 
familiaris inostranzewi, the occurrence of which in the Danish Campignien is dis- 
cussed briefly. 

1933a. Danmarks Pattedyr i Fortiden i Sammenlingning med recente Former. 
(Danish mammals of old times in comparison with recent forms.) Festskr. 
i Anledning Hundredaarsdagen dansk naturhist. Foren., pp. 357-641, 
pis. xii-xxiv, 21 figs. (cf. Degerb0l, M., 1933b). 

1933b. Danmarks Pattedyr i Fortiden. (Danish mammals of old times.) 
284 pp., 21 figs., 24 pis., 50 tables in text, 13 tables appended. C. A. Reizels 
Forlag (K0benhavn). 

A detailed survey of the Danish mammal fauna from the last interglacial 
period up to the Neolithic, based primarily upon the subfossil material collected 
by the Zoological Museum of the University of Copenhagen. 

The book deals almost exclusively with wild forms, but a special part (pp. 231 - 
237) is devoted to the domestic dog, the most ancient and up to early Neolithic 


the only domesticated animal. Specimens found in Zealand settlements (Lundby 
Bog") are closely related to Conis familiaris i nostra nzewi. But beside this larger 
form the sites at Svardborg (cf. Degerbol, 1927) and Mullerup (also early Neolithic) 
yielded a smaller dog related to the palHstris type, which had been kept in Den- 
mark thousands of years before C. familiaris palustris appeared at Lake Ladoga. 
The new type is named C. fayniliaris palustris svardborgensis. The wolf is seen as 
ancestor for the large breeds of dogs, the jackal as probable progenitor for the 
small breeds. 

1939. Dyreknogler. (Animal bones.) In T. Mathiassen, Bunds0. En yngre 
Stenalders Boplads paa Als; Aarb0ger, 1939 (K0benhavn), pp. 85-198, 
3 pis., 36 figs., 25 tables. 

A detailed description and discussion of the faunal remains from a prehistoric 
dwelling place, Bundsd on Jylland (Denmark). 

Bones of the wild urus and domestic cattle were found. Among the latter, 
primigenius and brachyceros ( = longifrons) types are distinguished and their osteo- 
logical relationship is worked out in detail; trochoceros and fro ntos us forms are re- 
garded as variations of the primigenius type. Pig and sheep belonged to the tur- 
bary type (Sus scrofa palustris and Ovis aries palustris), and the few goat remains 
are identified as Capra hircus. The dogs at Bunds0 showed closest resemblance to 
Canis familiaris pahistris ladogensis. 

Dobzhansky, Theodosius 

1955. Evolution, Genetics, and Man. xi+398 pp. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

(New York). 

In chap. 9 (pp. 191-221) a domestic form is tentatively defined as one that 
regularly reproduces in captivity and whose populations are controlled by man. 
The horse is discussed as an example. The European forest horse, the tarpan of 
the steppes, and the eastern Przewalski horse are regarded as no more than sub- 
specifically distinct, and all three populations have contributed to the gene-pool 
of the domestic horse. 

A table (p. 193) of domestic mammals is presented, with the place and time of 
their domestication, as known. The reindeer is not included. — C.A.R. 

Dottrens, E. 

1946. La faune neolithique de la couche profonde de Saint- Aubin. I. Etude 
preliminaire: les phalanges osseuses de Bos taurus domesticus. Rev. Suisse 
Zool., Tom. 53, no. 4, pp. 739-774. 

Preliminary report of the cattle remains from Saint-Aubin (cf. Revilliod and 
Dottrens, 1947) and a detailed study of the phalanges from ten individuals. 

DiJrst, J. Ulrich 

1900. Die Rinder von Babylon, Assyrien und Agypten — und ihr Zusammen- 
hang mit den Rindern der Alten Welt. 94 pp., 8 pis. Georg Reimer (Berlin) . 

Animal representations in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and osteological 
material from recent African and Asiatic cattle are studied and compared in order 
to trace the history and nature of the domestic cattle kept by Assyrians, Baby- 
lonians and Egyptians. The author suggests that the domesticated longhorned 


races as well as the brachyceros breeds from the Near East, from North and East 
Africa, and from the Swiss lake dwellings originated in India, probably from Bos 
namadicns Falconer. 

1904. iJber ein neues prahistorisches Hausschaf und dessen Herkunft. Vjschr. 
naturf. Ges. Zurich, Jhg. 49, pp. 17-31, 2 pis. with 6 figs. 

Description of the remains of a new type of domestic sheep from a Swiss lake 
dwelling, but found in other European Neolithic sites as well. The stouter bones 
and heavier horns clearly distinguish this type from the turbary sheep {Ovis aries 
palustris) and it is named by the author Ovis aries studeri; since it seems to appear 
at the threshold of the Copper Age it is referred to as "copper sheep." 

The copper sheep is seen as an offspring from a cross of the turbary sheep with 
the wild mouflon. 

1908. Animal remains from the excavations at Anau, and the horse of Anau in 
its relation to the races of domestic horses. Carnegie Inst. Washington, 
publ. 73, vol. II, part 6, pp. 339-442, pis. 71-91. 

Extensive and detailed treatment of the osteological material from the pre- 
historic site at Anau in southwestern Turkestan. Domestic species identified and 
described were dog, pig, cattle, sheep, goat, camel and horse. The dog of Anau 
is of the type Canis familiaris matris optimae, which resembles the dingo as well as 
the fossil Conis poutiatini (cf. Studer, 1906) and is derived from one of them. 
Remains of pig, very common in later strata, are close to Sus vittatus and regarded 
as the oldest trace of the turbary pig. The bovid of the lower layers from Anau is 
identified with wild Bos namadicns, but during later periods a domesticated long- 
horned type of cattle originated from this wild form. Among the sheep bones 
(about 20 per cent in all levels), the author distinguishes the wild Ovis vignei arkal 
and a domestic form, O. aries palustris, which is considered a direct descendant of 
the former. Domestic goat (Capra hircus) and camel yielded few fragments and 
only in the uppermost layers; it is suggested that both were imported from the 
Iranian plateau. 

The numerous equid remains from Anau are designated as a desert type of 
horse — the oldest domestic breed of the Oriental group and named Equui^ caballus 
pumpellii. The horse of Anau, its genealogy and its connection with the other 
domestic horses are discussed in a special chapter (pp. 401-442). Three basic 
types for the domestic horse stock are suggested, all derived from E. c. fossilis 
(a recent form of which is found in the Przewalski horse) : (a) a steppe type (E. c. 
robnstus), which gave rise to the Occidental horses; (b) a forest type (E. c. neh- 
ringi), the ancestor of the Celtic pony; and (c) a desert type, the horse of Anau 
(cf. above). 

1945. Zur Frage der Herkunft des Haushundes. Anthropos, Tom. 37-40 
(1942-45), Analecta et Additamenta, pp. 318-319. , 

Serological tests showed that the jackal and the wolf have the same affinity 
to the domestic dog; both are considered ancestors. The Australian Canis dingo 
is seen as a wild, never domesticated animal, though a related form gave rise to 
the pariah type, found at a domestic stage in the Anau culture. 


Diirst, J. U., and Gaillard, C. 

1902. Studien iiber die Geschichte des iigyptischen Hausschafes. Rec. Trav. 
Rel. Phil, el Arch. Egypt, et Assyr., Paris, Tom. 24, pp. 44-76, 10 figs. 

A zoological-archaeological study of the "goat-horned sheep," which oc- 
curred in prehistoric Egypt. It was the original prototype for the famous "Ram 
of Mendes," but was replaced later, after its extinction, by a goat (probably Hircus 
mambrictiii). The study shows the similarity of the African wild Ovis longipes and 
the Egyptian "goat-horned sheep" named O. I. palaeoaegypticus, which is taken 
to be the oldest domestic form of the long-legged and horizontally screw-horned 
breeds (as represented by the recent Walachian sheep). 

Dyson, Robert H. 

1953. Archaeology and the domestication of animals. Amer. Anthi»op., vol. 55, 
no. 5, part 1, pp. 661-671. 

A brief summary of early archaeological evidence concerning the domestication 
of cattle, pig, goat and sheep, and a compilation of references to studies on their 
origin. It is concluded that a Neolithic economy, based in part on those four 
domestic animals, was first developed in the Near East, some time during or prior 
to the fifth millennium B.C. 

A comprehensive bibliography is appended. 

Epstein, H. 

1933. Descent and origin of the Afrikaner cattle. J. Hered., vol. XXIV, no. 12, 
pp. 449-462, frontispiece, 5 figs. 

The South African red Afrikaner cattle evolved from indigenous breeds by 
severe and careful selection. The nucleus was formed by the Hottentot cattle, 
which did not originate from a cross of Hamitic longhorn {primigenius type) with 
zebus, like most of the other African breeds (Zulu, Bechuana, Watusi and Damara 
cattle), but represents — according to craniological and other skeleton features - 
a pure zebu breed (derived from Bos namadicus), which is believed to have reached 
Africa via Bab-el-Mandeb and Ethiopia during the second millennium B.C. The 
author holds that the original characteristics of the zebu race are preserved in a 
purer form in the Afrikaner cattle than in the zebus of Asia, which have been 
exposed to the influence of shorthorned (brachyceros) breeds. 

Erkes, Eduard 

1940. Das Pferd im alten China. T'oung-Pao Archives, vol. 36, liv. 1, pp. 26- 
63. E. J. Brill (Leiden). 

Archaeological evidences are brought together to prove that the wild horse 
was known to man in China in early Paleolithic times and was tamed in China 
by the Neolithic. Also, on the basis of ethnological material, it is assumed that 
horse-breeding evolved in China from the taming of the indigenous wild horse. 
The ass, on the other hand, was introduced into China, together with mule and 
camel, by the Huns at the end of the third century B.C. 

Etheridge, R. 

1916. The warrigal, or "dingo" introduced or indigenous? Mem. geol. Surv. 
N. S. W., Ethn., no. 2, pp. 43-54, pis. x-xii. 



Records dealing with discoveries of post-Pliocene dog remains from the Wel- 
lington and other bone caves in New South Wales are presented, and contradictory 
views concerning the status of the dingo — whether indigenous in Australia previous 
to the advent of man or introduced by the latter — are quoted. The "WeUington 
Caves Teeth" are compared with teeth of a modern domestic dog, and with those 
of the Tasmanian wolf and the Tasmanian devil. The author concludes that a dog 
did exist in New South Wales in Post-Tertiary times, and that some of the teeth 
are those of a dog. 

Ewart, J. Cossar 

1904. The multiple origin of horses and ponies. Trans. Highl. agric. Soc. Scot- 
land, vol. XVI, pp. 230-268, 24 figs. 

An outline of the probable polyphyletic origin of domestic horses from several 
distinct species which persisted from pre-glacial times almost unaltered to recent 
days. Three distinct types of living horses are distinguished and described: the 
wild Equus przewalskii, the Celtic pony, and the Norse horse, the two latter called 
E. caballus celficus and E. c. typicus, respectively. In addition to these, several 
African and Oriental varieties are suggested as possible ancestors of modern breeds. 

1907a. On skulls of horses from the Roman Fort at Newstead near Melrose, 
with observations on the origin of the domestic horse. Trans, roy. Soc. 
Edinb., vol. 45, part 3, pp. 555-587, 1 table, 17 figs., 3 pis. 

Among the horse remains from the Roman Fort at Newstead, Scotland, dated 
to the first and second centuries a.d., three distinct kinds of skulls are distinguished. 
A comparative study of the skulls of living varieties with the skulls of Newstead 
proved that (a) long, bent skulls from Newstead are almost identical with the skull 
of Equus przeivalskii ; (b) very narrow skulls agree with those of typical Celtic 
ponies (and also some Arabian horses); (c) broad-faced skulls resemble closely the 
skulls of horses of the "forest type," frequently met with in northern Europe and 
in northern and western Africa. 

The new evidence confirms the previous view of the author on the origin of the 
tamed horse (cf. Ewart, 1904), and three groups of domestic horses are recognized: 
(a) The "steppe variety," which has either sprung from or is closely allied to 
Przewalski's horse; this group comprises the Oriental horses, including the tarpan, 
which is taken to be a feral horse, (b) The "plateau variety," which includes two 
races, the "Celtic," adapted for a subarctic habitat and widely distributed in pre- 
historic Europe, and the "Libyan" (identical with Equus caballus libycus; cf. 
Ridgeway, 1905), adapted for a subtropical region, (c) The "forest variety" 
(identical with the Norse horse; cf. Ewart, 1904), derived from the wild Equus 
robustus, found in alluvial deposits in France. 

The Arabian horses are considered partly of the steppe and partly of the forest 
type. Most of the recent breeds, which are reviewed briefly, carry blood of sev- 
eral ancestors. 

1907b. The derivation of the modern horse. Quart. Rev., vol. 206, no. 411. 

After a short review of the theories on the origins of the domestic horse, evi- 
dence is produced to show that the three types of recent horses, forest, plateau, 


and steppe types (cf. Ewart, 1907a), were already present in prehistoric times and 
go back to three distinct Paleolithic ancestors. 

1909. The possible ancestors of the horses living under domestication. Science, 
vol. 30, no. 763, pp. 219-223. 

In a brief discussion of the probable ancestors of the domestic races of horses 
the author claims a polyphyletic origin from several (at least five) Pleistocene 
forms. To the three forms previously established (cf. Ewart, 1907a, b), a "Si- 
walik" type is added, to include horses allied to Eqims sivalensis of the Pliocene 
deposits found in the Siwalik Hills of India. Slender-limbed forms are derived 
either from E. gracilis libycus (syn., E. caballus libijcus; cf. Ridgeway, 1905) or 
from a cross of the latter wilh E. robustus. 

1912. The principles of breeding and the origin of domesticated breeds of ani- 
mals. 27th Ann. Rep., Bur. Anim. Industry, 1910, Washington, pp. 125- 
186, 7 figs. 

In the second part of this article the author gives a detailed description of the 
characteristics of ancient domestic breeds and deals at length with the origin of 
sheep, cattle and domestic horses. It is suggested that some of the long-tailed 
European breeds of sheep descended from the urial or from mouflons, but the 
spiral-horned varieties were perhaps derived from the argali type (cf. Ewart, 1913, 
1914). The Celtic shorthorn {Bos longifrons) is considered to be more intimately 
related to longhorned zebus than to Bos primigenius; other British races, however 
(Galloway, Cadrow cattle), are regarded as of the primigenius type; Aberdeen- 
Angus cattle are derived from an ancient Oriental race. Gaur and banteng are 
considered as descendants of Bos aciitifrons of the Punjab. 

A full description is given of the four types of domesticated horses distin- 
guished by the author: the forest, plateau, steppe and Siwalik types (cf. Ewart, 
1907a, b, 1909). The latter is related to the Pliocene Equus sivalensis, or to its more 
specialized relative, E. stenonis of Europe. 

1913. Domestic sheep and their wild ancestors. I. Sheep of the mouflon and 
the urial types. Trans. Highl. agric. Soc. Scotland, ser. V, vol. XXV, 
pp. 160-191, figs. 30-67. 

After referring to characteristics and distribution of the present types of 
wild sheep, an attempt is made to indicate the part that the varieties of the mouflon 
{Ovis orientalis and 0. musimon) and the urial (O. vignei) have played in forming 
modern breeds. Special attention is directed to the Shetland sheep of the peat 
or turbary type (O. aries palustris), which retains the main characteristics of 
the urial ancestor, and to the semi-wild sheep of the islands of Soay, some of 
which resemble the urial while others appear to be closely related to the mouflon 
or to its early domesticated ancestor, the so-called "copper sheep" (cf. Diirst, 
1904). It is suggested that a tame mouflon and the urial, the latter in the form 
of the domestic turbary sheep, met and blended early in the Bronze Age. 

1914. Domestic sheep and their wild ancestors. II. Wild sheep of the argali 
type. Trans. Highl. agric. Soc. Scotland, ser. V, vol. XXVI, pp. 74-101, 
8 pis. with 26 figs. 


By examining sheep remains from alluvial deposits of the Thames Valley 
and by studying skeletons of wild and domestic forms, primitive and improved, 
evidences are obtained that besides the urial and the mouflon (cf. Ewart, 1913), 
the wild argali {Ovis ammon) has also contributed to domestic breeds of sheep. 
Argali characters are found in subfossil sheep material from the Thames alluvium 
and in the fat-rumped breeds of Bukhara and Turkestan. 

Fairservis, Walter A., Jr. 

1955. Wool through the ages: A research survey on the history of wool. 23 pp. 
The Wool Bureau, Inc. (New York). 

A popular summary of the history of wool and the wool-industry, from the 
prehistoric period into the first millennium a.d. Included is a short account of 
the archeologic evidence, as known, for the origin of domestic sheep and for their 
early history (cf. Hilzheimer, 1936; Braidwood, 1952; Dyson, 1953).— C.A.R. 

Feige, Ernst 

1927. Das Haustierproblem. Naturwissenschaften, Jhg. XV, Heft 42, pp. 

A brief summary of information on the early dispersal of domestic mammals 
is followed by a discussion of zoogeographic aspects. Particular emphasis is 
given to the significance of pigmentation in relation to the original environment 
of domesticated animals. 

1928. Die Haustierzonen der alten Welt. Petermanns Mitt., Nr. 198, 121 pp., 
1 map. 

The wild ancestors of domestic ungulates and their geographic distribution 
are investigated in order to localize the areas of domestication. "Natural areas" 
of domestication are marked for the various groups in Africa, Asia and Europe 
and contrasted to "economic areas" of domestication in these continents. The 
dependence of pigments upon geographic and ecological factors is stressed (pp. 
107-117). The author holds that the morphological influence of human culture 
on domestic forms has usually been insignificant in comparison with the influence 
of the natural environment. A geographical map schematizes the "natural areas" 
of domestication. 

Flor, Fritz 

1930. Haustiere und Hirtenkulturen. Wiener Beitr. Kulturges. und Linguistik. 
Inst. Volkerkunde, Univ. Wien, pp. 1-238. 

This historical survey covers the origins of the domestic dog, reindeer and 
horse. The philological aspects are emphasized, but zoological information is 
considered. The author finds the cradle of the domestic dog (chap. 3) in the 
Protoeskimoid culture in arctic Siberia and associates with the rearing of the 
dog the earliest breeding of reindeer (chap. 4) among the Protosamojeds. The 
keeping of reindeer is considered to be the most ancient pastoral culture and it 
eventually gave rise to the domestication of the horse (chap. 6), practiced first 
in Asia by the Proto-Altaian tribes. 


Forbes, R. J. 

1955. The coming of the camel. In Studies in Ancient Technology, vol. II, 
pp. 187-208. E. J. Brill (Leiden). 

The camel and the dromedary are separate species, independently domesticated 
from different wild species. The camel was probably domesticated in central 
Asia in late Neolithic times, the dromedary in Arabia, perhaps somewhat earlier. 
Neither animal was adopted by peoples of historical cultures for several millen- 
niums, although both species were known to the Akkadians; the Egyptians, from 
pre-dynastic times onward, had rare contacts with dromedary-owning Bedouins. 

The Assyrians were the first historical people to use these animals, the camel 
from about 1100 B.C. onward, the dromedary from approximately 800 B.C. Trans- 
desert traffic by means of dromedary caravans came only with the Persian Empire. 
Although the dromedary existed wild in northern Africa in prehistoric times, there 
is no evidence that it was domesticated there, and its use west of the Nile spread 
slowly, even after its introduction into Egypt about 300 B.C. — C.A.R. 

Fraser, F. C, and King, J. E. 

1954. Faunal remains. In Excavations at Star Carr: An Early Mesolithic 
Site at Seamer near Scarborough, Yorkshire, by J. G. D. Clark, pp. 70-95. 
Cambridge, at the University Press. 

The Star Carr horizon of the Maglemosian (Mesolithic) culture belongs to 
an earlier period (a late phase of the pre-Boreal, or Zone IV) of post-glacial time 
than did the classic Maglemosian sites of Denmark and the shores of the Baltic. 
A wide variety of animal remains was found, but none were domestic species, 
although an earlier report (Proc. prehist. Soc, 1950, vol. 15, pp. 109-129) had 
suggested the presence of the domestic dog. However, all canid materials proved 
to belong to the wolf. The absence of a dog is particularly interesting in view 
of the C* determination (9488 ±350 years), which is so close to the suggested 
date of 9000 years ascribed to the dog found at Frankfort (cf. Baas, 1938).— C.A.R. 

Free, Joseph 

1944. Abraham's camels. J. Near East. Stud., vol. Ill, pp. 187-197. 

A collection of evidences (chiefly art representations) that point to the presence 
of camels in ancient Egypt in predynastic periods. Many items seem to offer 
evidence that the animals were domesticated. 

Friederichs, Heinz 

1933. Zur Kenntnis der friihgeschichtHchen Tierwelt Siidwestasiens. Alte 
Orient, Bd. 32, Hefte 3, 4, pp. 1-44, 26 figs. 

Animal representations from four sites in southwestern Asia — Mohenjo-Daro 
near the Indus, Tell Halaf in northern and Ur in southern Mesopotamia, and 
Maikop in northern Caucasia — are described, and problems of domestication in 
the fourth and third millenniums B.C. in this area are worked out. Earliest domestic 
animals of southwestern Asia, according to their representations, are Bos primi- 
genius, spread over all the area and, in Mohenjo-Daro, accompanied by B. namad- 
iciis; sheep {Ovis aries in India, O. vignei in Mesopotamia and O. orieydalis in 
Maikop); and goat. Those species are followed somewhat later by camels (at 
Tell Halaf), horses and asses, both the latter indicated by the occurrence of mules. 




Funkenstein, Daniel II. 

1955. The physiology of fear and anger. Sci. Amer., vol. 192, no. 5, pp. 74-78, 
80, 7 figs. 

Domestic mammals, mammals depending upon flight for survival, and very 
social animals such as baboons produce a high proportion of adrenalin to nor- 
adrenalin, whereas aggressive animals such as the lion have a higher proportion 
of nor-adrenalin. The domestic cat produces about equal amounts of each. Adren- 
alin and nor-adrenaUn are both hormones secreted by the medulla of the adrenal 
gland; nor-adrenalin is associated with emotional and physiological reactions 
accompanying rage, whereas adrenalin is associated with those of fear. — C.A.R. 

Fiirer-Haimendorf, C. von 

1932. Zur Frage der Herkunft der BUffelhaltung auf den Philippinen. Biol, 
gen., Bd. VIH, pp. 66-72. 

The carabao, kept as an animal of the household and for cult purposes by the 
mountain tribes of the Philippines, cannot be derived from the only indigenous 
bovid {Bo^< mindorensis). Looking for the cradle of the domestic carabao and 
discussing the date of its introduction to the islands, the author concludes that 
Austro-Asiatic invaders brought the tamed animal from the Asian continent. 

1955. Culture history and cultural development. Yearb. Anthr., vol. 1, pp. 

Based on recent archaeological evidence (cf. Dyson, 1953), there has been a 
complete reversal of ethnological theory concerning origins of domestication. 
Former ideas of the antiquity and independence of horse and reindeer breeding 
by nomads of central and northern Eurasia must be abandoned in favor of the 
concept of primary domestication of goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs by the early 
farmers (or their immediate ancestors) of southwestern Asia. — C.A.R. 

Gaillard, Claude 

1912. Les tatonnements des Egyptiens a la recherche des animaux a domesti- 
quer. Rev. Ethnogr. Sociol., Paris, Tom. IH, pp. 329-348, 19 figs. 

A survey of the domestic and semi-domestic fauna of Egypt at the time of 
the Old Kingdom as reflected by animal figurines, sculptures and paintings from 
the ancient monuments. Besides the domestication of sheep, mamber-goat and 
longhorned cattle, which are dealt with briefly, the author finds evidence in the 
animal representations for a taming of the Nubian wild goat {Ibex nubiana), 
the dorcas gazelle, the Beatrix antelope (Oryx), and the addax {Addax nasomaculata) 
during several dynasties. 

1934. Contribution a I'etude de la faune prehistorique de I'Egypte. Arch. 
Mus. Hist. nat. Lyon, Tom. XIV, Mem. IIL 126 pp., 12 pis., 55 figs. 

A detailed study of the fossils from the Paleolithic site at Kom Ombo (north 
of Aswan) and the faunal remains from a Neolithic kitchen-midden deposit at 
Toukh (Upper Egypt). Besides remains of wild horse, ass, and buffalo among 
the faunal assemblage from Kom Ombo, those of Bos primigenius and B. brachy- 
ceros were identified; both species were considered to belong to wild and indigenous 


races. Most of the species represented in Toukh are regarded as probably domes- 
ticated: they inchided cattle, pig, dog, bufTalo, goat and sheep. Cattle remains 
were most frequent and belonged to the brachijceros type, the pig was of the turbary 
race (Sus scrofa aff. palustris), sheep were identified as Ovif! longipes palaeoaegijpticus 
(cf. Diirst and Gaillard, 1902), and among the goat remains two species were 
distinguished — the mamber goat (///rr».s- mombn'cHf<) and //. reversus. 

Galbreath, Edwin C, 

1947. Additions to the flora of the late Pleistocene deposits at Ashmore, Illinois. 
Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 60-61. 

The Indian dog is listed as being present with the following extinct mammals: 
giant beaver, ground sloth, American mastodon, and an undetermined ovibovid. 
The coyote was separately identified. — C.A.R. 

Gandert, Otto F. 

1930. Forschungen zur Geschichte des Haushundes. Mannus Bib., Nr. 46, 
93 pp., 34 figs. C. Kabitzsch (Leipzig). 

An archaeological-chronological analysis of the Neolithic comb-ceramic culture 
of northeastern Europe (third millennium B.C.) is followed by an investigation 
of its domestic stock. The finds from the Russian site at Bologoe (Gouv. Novgerod) 
are described and treated in detail. The only domestic animal of this culture 
was the dog, used for hunting. It also provided food and fur. The dog remains 
belong to two forms: Canis familiaris palustris and the larger C. /. inostranzewi. 
The author opposes the view that the larger gave rise to the smaller turbary 
form and suggests that the reverse may have been true. 

Gehl, Otto 

1930. Postglaziale Haushunde aus Schleswig-Holstein — nebst einem Beitrag zur 
caniden Osteometrie. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBioL, Bd. VIII, pp. 225-288, 5 figs., 
12 tables, 4 pis. 

Remains of Neolithic canids from northern Germany, especially from sites 
in Schleswig-Holstein, are described and discussed. In the early Neolithic sites 
(Kiel, Klausdorf ) two forms appeared: Canis palustris ladogensis and C. intermedins. 
In the high Neolithic (Ellebeck, Husum) C. palustris appeared as the result of a 
more intensive domestication. A dog (the body preserved in peat) from the 
early Iron Age showed affinities to C. pallipes and a marked influence of the north 
European wolf. 

The first part of the paper contains a discussion of the customary craniometric 
methods for canids, with a guide to new ones. 

Gejvali, Nils G. 

1937-38. The fauna of the different settlements of Troy. Kungl. Humanist. 
Vetenskaps. Lund, Arsberattelse 1937-38, pp. 50-57. 

Preliminary report on the animal bones collected at Troy during the excavations 
from 1932 onward. From Troy I (early third millennium B.C.) the genera Bos, 
Sus, Ovis, Capra and Canis are recorded. In Troy II an increase in cattle breeding 
becomes evident. Equid remains, first recorded from Troy IV, belong probably 
to the domestic ass, while the horse appears only in Troy VI. 


1938-39. The fauna of the successive settlements of Troy. Kungl. Humanist. 
Vetenskaps. Lund, Arsberattelse 1938-39, pp. 1-7. 

The second preliminary report on the faunal remains from Troy (cf. Gejvali, 
1937-38) confirms the occurrence of the horse in early Troy VL The domestic 
horse seemed to become abundant soon after its first appearance. From Troy IX 
a skull of a domestic(?) cat is recorded. 

1938. liber ein Pferd aus der schwedischen Wikingerzeit. Ark. Zool., Bd. 30A, 
Nr. 17, pp. 1-16, 2 figs. 

A detailed investigation of a skeleton belonging to a domestic horse of the 
Viking period, found in Uppland (Sweden). The measurements and indices point 
to a close affinity with the Arabian horse or the tarpan. 

George, Naguib 

1950. The camel in ancient Egypt. Brit. vet. J., vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 76-81, 5 figs. 

Cervical vertebrae and ribs of camel were found in excavations at Helwan 
near Cairo, Egypt. They are regarded as evidence that the camel was present 
in Egypt during predynastic periods. 

Gerbes, Eduard 

1951. IJber die Rinderreste aus den keltisch-romischen Niederlassungen der 
Engelhalbinsel bei Bern. Rev. suisse Zool., Tom. 58, no. 1, pp. 1-23. 

On the basis of a study of the cattle remains from a Celtic site (400-58 
B.C.) on the Engel Peninsula near Bern the conclusion is reached that the stout 
bovid of this site also belongs to the brachycephalus race, as cattle of primi- 
genius type are lacking. 

Gromova, V. J. 

1927. [Material on the knowledge of the fauna of the Tripolje culture.] Yezhe- 
godik Zoologicheskogo Muzeia, Akad. Nauk SSSR., pp. 83-121 (in Russian). 

Detailed description and summary of the animal remains collected from 
five sites in the central sphere of the Tripolje culture (near Kiev, Ukraine). The 
great majority of the bones (86 per cent) belonged to domestic species, among 
which cattle were represented most frequently (37 per cent), followed by pig 
(23 per cent) and sheep or goat (15 per cent). Other animals recognized were 
domestic horse (6 per cent) and dog. The preponderance of cattle over pig, 
sheep and goat and the insignificance of horse-keeping are seen as main char- 
acteristics for the domestic fauna of this Tripolje (B) culture. 

Among the wild fauna. Bos primigenius, apparently hunted in Tripolje A, was 
identified, and most of the domestic oxen from Tripolje are taken to be the direct 
result of domestication of the wild urus, though some cattle of brachijceros type 
were recorded as well. 

Haag, Wm. G. 

1948. An osteometric analysis of some aboriginal dogs. Univ. Ky. Rep. Anthr., 
vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 105-264, 16 figs. 


The study is based on large collections of skeletons of domestic dogs from 
North American archaeological sites. These dogs resemble Old World domestic 
dogs, not native wild North American canids. North American aboriginal dogs 
are classified into 8 morphologic breeds, distinguishable primarily on a size basis 
(the husky is the largest). For any area, small size of dog is correlated with 
older archaeological horizon and also with poverty of human cultural remains. 
The necessity is stressed of making statistical analyses of large series before 
attempting conclusions. The study lends support to the idea that the dog was 
derived from a small wolf-like form not approximated by any of the living boreal 
wolves, and that domestication occurred not long before 6000 B.C. It is thought 
that the ancestors of the dog, as scavengers, adopted man long before man adopted 
and domesticated the dog. Probably the domestic dog was introduced to North 
America about 500 B.C. by a people with a late Mesolithic culture. —C. A. R. 

Hahn, Eduard 

1909. Die Entstehung der Pflugkultur. viii + 192 pp. Carl Winter (Heidel- 
In his ethnological study the author sees in religious rites and cult associations 
the origin of domestication of oxen, and, following it, the origin of plough-culture 
in general. Herd animals (and eventually pastoralism) as well as horse-breeding 
and camel-breeding came out of this early seed-and-plough agriculture, practiced 
first in Mesopotamia. 

Haltenorth, Theodor 

1953. Die Wildkatzen der Alten Welt, eine Ubersicht uber die Untergattung 
Felis. 166 pp., 10 tables, 117 figs. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft. Geest 
& Portig (Leipzig). 

A systematic treatment, based on morphology, of the Old World wild cats. 
In the last chapter the origin of the domestic cat is dealt with. The only truly 
domesticated cat is Felis silvesiris libyca Forster of Egypt, which appears in a stage 
of domestication from the beginning of the Middle Empire (2000 B.C.). When it was 
introduced into Europe, it may have mated with European wild cats occasionally. 

Hancar, Franz 

1951. Probleme und Ergebnisse der neuen russischen Urgeschichtsforschung. 
33. Ber. Romisch-Germanischen Komm. 1943-50, Deutsches Archaeol. 
Inst., Berlin, pp. 25-60, 3 pis., 10 figs. 

A comprehensive survey of the Russian literature concerned with the latest 
archaeological excavations of the Tripolje settlements, the Neolithic complex of 
the Ukrainian steppe. Special attention is directed toward the change in the com- 
position of the domestic stock from the "classical" stage (Tripolje B), in which 
tillage appeared to have been the principal economic base, to the final stage (Tri- 
polje C, ca. 2100-1700 B.C.; demonstrated by the sites at Horodsk and Usatovo), 
which is characterized by a marked increase in the number of domestic animals 
identified at Usatovo) : sheep (48 per cent), cattle (28 per cent), horse (13 per cent), 
and goat, pig and dog (only a few fragments). The great increase in the frequency 
of sheep and horse (associated with a decrease of pig) becomes evident by a com- 
parison with the faunal composition from Tripolje B (cf. Gromova, 1927). 



The author traces in detail the transition from a culture of settled farmers 
and cattle-breeders to a nomadic pastoralism, based upon the rearing of huge 
herds and change of pastures. 

1952. Stand und historische Bedeutung der Pferdezucht Mittelasiens im ersten 
Jahrlausend v. Chr. Wiener Beitr. Kulturges. und Linguistik, Jhg. IX, 
pp. 465-483. 

A compilation of ethnological, historical and zoological data forms the back- 
ground from which a picture of horse-breeding in Bactria and adjacent inner Asia 
is drawn. Such breeding reached a high level in the early first millennium B.C. 
Inner Asia is seen as the radiation center for all the mounted invaders that haunted 

Hatt, Gudmund 

1919. Notes on reindeer nomadism. Mem. Amer. anthrop. Ass., vol. VI, 
pp. 75-133. 

A collection of references on the biology of the reindeer and on the history of 
reindeer nomadism, based largely on Scandinavian literature. The nature of rein- 
deer nomadism is seen as responsible for the slight degree of domestication in the 
tamed reindeer (when compared to other domestic animals), and therefore does not 
indicate the recent origin of their domestication; however, it is not considered to 
be a very ancient achievement. 

Havesson, D. 

1933. On the domestic pigs of Tschuwasia (Russ.). Transcript of the confer- 
ence on the origin of domesticated animals, held at the Laboratory of 
Genetics, Acad. Sci. USSR, Leningrad, 1932, pp. 313-373. 

A primitive, small breed of pig from Tschuwasia (Chuvash, former Gouv. 
Kazan) is investigated (46 skulls) and compared with wild and domestic pigs 
(fossil and recent) of other races. The Tschuwasian pig exhibits a close affinity 
to the Neolithic turbary pig {Sus scrofa palustns). It is distinct from the surround- 
ing domestic breeds but resembles wild forms. Presumably the breed was brought 
in by the ancestors of the Tschuwasians (of Turkish origin) and probably it was 
originally domesticated in the area of Kuen-Lun or Tien-Shan. 

Hediger, H. 

1938. Tierpsychologie und Haustierforschung. Z. Tierpsychol., Bd. II, pp. 29- 
46, 302-313, 2 figs. 

A treatment of the psychical background of the origin of domestication. The 
author shows the transition from the wild via the tamed to the domestic stage and 
suggests the presence of a "psychical preadaptation" for the status of domestica- 
tion present in certain species and usually associated with a biological inferiority 
of those forms in their natural biocoenosis. 

Hehn, Victor 

1902. Kulturpflanzen und Haustiere in ihrem Ubergang aus Asien nach Grie- 
chenland und Italien sowie in das iibrige Europa. 7th ed., viii+651 pp., 
published and annotated by 0. Schrader. Gebriider Borntrager (Berlin). 


The work (first edition, 1870) is an attempt to investigate the history and dis- 
persal of civilization in general and of cultivated plants and domestic animals in 
particular on the basis of a study of comparative linguistics. The author comes to 
the conclusion that the domestication of numerous animals was started in the 
Orient, and that from there the idea of domestication together with the animals 
themselves spread to Greece, Italy, and later to the remaining European countries. 
Among the domestic mammals the story of the horse is examined at greatest length 
(pp. 19-54). Its cradle is found among Iranian tribes, whence it was received by 
Indo-Europeans only after they became established in their historical places of 
residence. Rabbit, cat and cattle are dealt with more briefly. 

Heinrich, E. 

1936. Kleinfunde aus den archaischen Tempelschichten in Uruk. Ausgra- 

bungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka, Bd. I. 


The animal images from Uruk-Warka (Mesopotamia) are described in detail 

(pp. 17-28) and discussed from a zoological point of view by M. Hilzheimer 

(pp. 48-54). Major emphasis is given to the domestic sheep in comparison to 

the wild form. Goat and cattle are mentioned briefly. 

Hermanns, Matthias 

1949. Die Nomaden von Tibet, xvi-f-325 pp., 4 maps, 56 figs. Herold (Wien). 

This book, based to a great extent upon original exploration, deals extensively 
with the sources and developments of the herdsmen-cultures in A mdo ( = Tsing 
Hai, northwestern Tibet) and with the origin of cattle-breeding in general. The 
cradle of stock-farming is sought in western Asia (probably western Turkestan). 
The earliest breeds are sheep and goat, followed soon afterward by domestic oxen 
(in the ancient herdsmen-culture of A mdo only sheep and yak were known as 
breeds). Somewhat later, ass and onager became domesticated; much later, camel, 
horse and reindeer. 

Appended are tables on the origin of the most important domestic breeds, 
chronological lists, maps and a comprehensive bibliography. 

1952. Were animals first domesticated and bred in India? J. Bombay Br., 
R. Asiat. Soc, vol. XXVII, pp. 134-173. 

A survey of various domestic animals of India and their related wild forms: 
gayal, banteng, water bufTalo, yak, zebu, sheep, goat, camel, pig and kiang {Equus 
onager indicus). The gayal (Bibos frontalis) is considered an offspring of the wild 
gaur male and the domestic cow. For the Indian humped cattle (zebu) a specific 
wild, probably indigenous ancestor (not Bos namadicus) is suggested. Cattle and 
sheep constituted the oldest domestic stock of prehistoric Asia, followed later by 
horse and reindeer. 

The northwest Indian highlands together with the Iranian and Tibetan plateau 
are seen as the center where cattle-breeding originated, perhaps as early as the 
Mesolithic (9000 B.C.). 

Hermes, Certrud 

1935 36. Das geziihmte Pferd im neolithischen und friihbronzezeitlichen Eu- 
ropa. Anthropos, Tom. 31, pp. 115-129. 



A compilation of data on horse remains, horse representations and finds of 
artifacts associated with horse-breeding, from prehistoric Europe. Although of a 
doubtful character, the Neolithic "evidences" and those of the Bronze Age lead to 
the assumption that the practice of horse-breeding was introduced into Europe by 
that time. 

1936. Das gezahmte Pferd im alten Orient. Anthropos, Tom. 31, pp. 364-394, 
2 figs. 

Archaeological records of equids from the ancient Near East back to the 
fourth millennium B.C. are collected, and their historical background is traced. 
The development of the harness, especially the bridle, from the primitive halter 
to the bridoon-bit, is outlined in detail. 

Herre, Wolf 

1939. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Wildpferde. Z. Tierz. ZuchtBiol., Bd. XLIV, 
pp. 342-363, 11 figs. 

A consideration of methods for solving problems of the origin of domestic ani- 
mals in general, and a study of some aspects of the distribution of wild horses and 
their relation to domestic species in particular. The author discusses the status of 
the Russian tarpan and considers it as a form of the przewalskii horse (now re- 
stricted to Mongolia). 

1949. Zur Abstammung und Entwicklung der Haustiere. I. Uber das bisher 
alteste primigene Hausrind Europas. Verhandl. Deutschen Zool. in Kiel, 
August, 1948, pp. 312-324. 

A description of the most ancient cattle of primigenius type from northern 
Europe, found in Schleswig-Holstein (Moor of Satrupholm) and dated to the early 
Neolithic (3000-1800 B.C.). The find seems to indicate domestication in northern 
Europe, and though the primigene character is dominant the skull shows also a 
slight resemblance to the brachyceros type. The author assumes that at the same 
time and in diff'erent localities primigenius and brachyceros groups were developed 
from the domesticated urus. Animals with mixed characters from the Neolithic 
are seen as the primitive material and not as results of later crosses. 

1951. Kritische Bemerkungen zum Gigantenproblem der Summoprimaten auf 
Grund vergleichender Domestikationsstudien. Anat. Anz., Bd. 98, pp. 49- 
65, 12 figs. 

A comparative study of lower jaws and teeth in wild and domestic animals. 
The author points to the great variability in size and form of teeth and in size and 
powerfulness of lower jaw bones, which characters cannot be associated per se with 
general size and skull-form of domesticated races or their wild ancestors. Effects 
of domestication are considered to be due to selection rather than to physiologi- 
cal factors. 

1952. Studien liber die wilden und domestizierten Typlopoden Siidamerikas. 
Zool. Gart., Bd. 19, Hefte 2-4, pp. 20-98, 16 figs. 

More than a hundred skulls of the wild and domesticated typlopods of South 
America — guanaco and vicugna on the one hand, llama and alpaca on the other — 


are examined, in order to find the phylogenetic relationship of both of the ancient 
domestic breeds. On the base of the craniological difTorences, the wild vicugna is 
excluded as possible ancestor, and both the llama and the alpaca are traced back 
to the wild guanaco. Llama guanicoe. 

1955. Domestikation und Stammesgeschichte. In Die Evolution der Organis- 
men: Ergebnisse und Probleme der Abstammungslehre. Herausgegeben von 
Gerhard Heberer. 2. Erweiterte Aufiage. 4. Lieferung. pp. 801-856; 
24 figs. Gustav Fischer (Stuttgart). 

This is an important summary of the literature on domestication, as evidenced 
by the bibliography of 11 pages in small print. The 44 pages of text are in them- 
selves an abstract of this literature. The subjects covered range far beyond the 
origins of domesticated mammals and birds to include much material on the effects 
of domestication upon the different species, parallel evolutionary trends under the 
influence of artificial selection, heredity in domestic animals, and other subjects. 
— C.A.R. 

Hescheler, Karl 

1920. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pfahlbautenfauna des Neolithikums. — Die 
Fauna der Pfahlbauten im Wauwylersee. Vjschr. naturf. Ges. Ziirich, 
Jhg. 65, pp. 248-322. 

The first part (pp. 248-281) gives a review of earlier investigations of the 
Swiss lake-dwelling fauna; the second part contains a description of remains from 
wild and domestic animals found in the palisade dwellings (Neolithic) of Lake 
Wauwyl in Switzerland. Goat and sheep — the former appearing in the lower strata 
more and in the upper ones much less frequently than the latter — are both of the 
turbary type; the "copper sheep" (Ovis aries studeri) is absent. Remains of the 
domestic turbary pig (Sits palustris) are very distinct from those of the wild boar 
(Sus scrofa) found in the same levels, so that a relationship is doubted. All the 
dog material belongs to Canis palustris, and cattle also are represented by the 
turbary form (Bos (aurus brachyceros) only. The few fragments of equids are 
probably those of a wild horse. 

Hescheler, Karl, and Riiger, J. 

1939. Die Wirbeltierreste aus dem neolithischen Pfahlbaudorf Egolzwil II 
(Wauwielersee) nach den Grabungen von 1932-34. Vjschr. naturf. Ges. 
Zurich, Jhg. 84, pp. 307-330. 

Report on the excavations at a settlement of lake-dwellers (Egolzwil, on Lake 
Wauwyl, Canton Luzern). The remains of domestic animals (33.4 per cent of 
the total fos.sil material) belonged to dog, pig, sheep, goat and cattle. 

1940. Die Wirbeltierreste aus den Pfahlbauten des Baldeggersees nach den 
Grabungen 1938 und 1939. Vjschr. naturf. Ges. Zurich, Jhg. 85, pp. 59 70. 

A description of the faunal remains from Neolithic (Seematte) and Early 
Bronze Age (Baldegg") sites around Lake Baldegg in central Switzerland. Among 
the remains from Seematte those of cattle are the most frequent, followed by pig 
bones; there were fewer remains of .sheep, goats and dogs. In Baldegg (Canton 
Luzernj bones of cattle are still dominant, followed closely by sheep and goat. 


Pig remains are rare. Two new arrivals, which appeared from the Late Bronze Age 
on — the horse and a new, larger race of dogs — are described in detail (see also 
Hescheler and Riiger, 1942). 

1942. Die Reste der Haustiere aus den neolithischen Pfahlbaudorfern — Egolz- 
wil (Wauwielersee) und Seematte-Gelfingen (Baldeggersee), Kt. Luzern. 
Vjschr. naturf. Ges. Zurich, Jhg. 87, pp. 313-478, numerous tables in text, 
5 tables appended. 

A systematic study of the remains of domestic animals from two Neolithic sites 
— Egolzwil (cf. Hescheler and Ruger, 1939) and Seematte (cf. Hescheler and Riiger, 
1940). Five main forms — cattle, sheep, goat, pig and dogs — are described in de- 
tail. The remains of dogs (skulls of which are the best preserved, since the animal 
did not serve for food) constituted about 9.5 per cent of the material; all belong 
to the palustris group. The turbary pig — remains of which were found in addition 
to those of the European wild boar — were 28 per cent of the total remains and were 
outnumbered only by cattle, the latter identified as Bos taurus brachyceros. Osteo- 
logical differences between the brachyceros oxen and the wild urus are worked out. 
Goats were all of the sable-horned Capra hircus type. 

Hildebrand, Milton 

1955. Skeletal differences between deer, sheep, and goats. Calif. Fish Game, 
vol. 41, pp. 327-346, 9 figs. 

This paper, useful to the anatomist working with bones from archaeological 
sites, is concerned with the post-cranial skeletons of domestic sheep and goats, 
and a North American deer, Odocoileus. The applicability of the information on 
the latter to Old World deer remains to be tested. Domestic sheep are best set 
apart from domestic goats by characters of the metacarpal, scapula, pelvis, and 
ulna. The femur is the bone least distinguishable. Individual variations are strik- 
ing, and the necessity of using statistical techniques on large series is stressed. — 

Hilzheimer, Max 

1908. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der nordafrikanischen Schakale — nebst Bemerkun- 
gen liber deren Verhaltnis zu den Haushunden insbesondere nordafriksmischer 
und altagyptischer Hunderassen. Zoologica (Stuttgart), vol. XX (1906- 
1908), Heft 53, pp. 1-111, 4 tables, 10 pis. 

After a detailed morphological (esp. craniological) examination of North Afri- 
can races of jackals and a discussion of their classification, skulls of domestic dogs 
from sites of ancient Egypt are described, and conclusions are drawn as to the origin 
of the breeds. One of the jackals, Canis liipaster, is considered to be certainly the 
ancestor for certain Egyptian domestic dogs, two others probable progenitors for 
the other ancient breeds in Egypt. 

In four tables craniological data of wolves, jackals and domestic dogs are 

1909-10. Die Haustiere in Abstammung und Entwicklung. Naturwissen- 
schaftlicher Wegweiser, ser. A, Bd. 11, 126 pp., 1 pi., 56 figs. Strecker & 
Schroder (Stuttgart). 


A popular guide to domestic mammals and birds, their origin and history. 
After an introductory chapter, presenting general trends in the evolution of do- 
mestication, the book describes each of the domestic stocks and its history. Dog 
and horse are treated at considerable length; cat, rabbit, ass, pig, camel, llama, 
reindeer, cattle, sheep and goat are covered briefly. The text is well illustrated, 
from zoological and archaeological sources. 

1913. Uberblick liber die Geschichte der Haustierforschung, besonders der 
letzten 30 Jahre. Zool. Ann., Bd. V, pp. 233-254. Wurzburg. 

A critical survey of the literature on the origin and history of the domestic cat, 
camel, llama and reindeer. A bibliographical list of the literature on the origin 
of the first two animals is added. 

1926. Natiirliche Rassengeschichte der Haussaugetiere. 235 pp., 124 figs. 
Walter de Gruyter & Co. (Berlin & Leipzig). 

Problems, evidences— based largely upon investigations by the author — and 
recent views on the ancestry of domestic mammals are brought together in a semi- 
popular manual. 

In the first section, which deals with the concept of domestication in general 
and the morphological changes in the domestic stage, special attention is devoted 
to the phenomenon of developmental arrest in skull-form due to domestication, 
which trend is traced through the various domestic groups and treated in the next 
section of the book. 

The second part deals at length with the origin of dogs, equids, cattle, sheep, 
goats and pigs. The wolf is taken as the only progenitor of domestic dogs. The 
Russian tarpan is accepted as ancestor of the Oriental breeds, the Celtic pony re- 
garded as a special type. For the domestic ass a monophyletic origin is suggested; 
any connection with the half-ass (onager) group is contested. 

A discussion of bufi'alo, Indian oxen and yak is followed by a detailed treat- 
ment of the relationship between the urus and domestic cattle and of the post- 
embryonic development of the bovine skull. The urus is taken as the only an- 
cestral form for domestic cattle, though domestication took place repeatedly in 
different localities and at various periods. Domestic sheep are derived mainly 
from the Ovis viguei group, argali and European mouflon being of only minor im- 
portance as ancestral forms. The domestic goat is traced back to Capra aegagrus, 
C. prisca and C. falconeri, the Kirghiz goat (cf. Philiptschenko, 1928) being seen 
as the only living derivation from the latter. The existence of a wild Mediter- 
ranean form of pigs (Sus mediterranaeus) is doubted, all the domestic breeds of 
pigs being descendants of Sus scrofa or S. vittatns. Camel (the question of mono- 
or diphyletic origin is left open), reindeer, cat and rabbit are treated more briefly. 

1927. Rind. In M. Ebert, Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, Bd. XI, pp. 137-141. 

A brief survey of the origin of European cattle and the cattle tribe in general. 
Since all the ancient as well as the now living races of domestic cattle (genus Bos) 
belong to the taurine group (parietals and interparietals displaced from forehead), 
all of them must be traced back to the only taurine wild ox known so far — the urus. 

All primigenius, froiitosus and longifrons ( = hrachyceros) forms are products of 
domestication; the hornless domestic forms, appearing in various groups of bovids 


(yak, buffalo, etc.), cannot be derived from a single hornless ancestor (e.g., Bos 
taurus akeratos, as supposed by Arenander). 

1928. Die Umbildung der Schadelformen der HausLiere infolge der Domestika- 
tion. — Ein Beitrag zur Rassengeschichte der Haustiere. Z. Tierz. ZuchtBiol., 
Bd. XH, pp. 85-118, 24 figs. 

Investigating the postembryonic development of the skull in domestic pigs, 
dogs and cattle, the author finds that wide variations in the form and shape of the 
skull of domestic mammals are caused by developmental persistence in different 
ontogenetic stages. This phenomenon of domestication is taken to explain cranio- 
logical distinction between certain races in spite of their monophyletic origin. 

1932. Dogs. Antiquity, vol. 6, no. 23, pp. 411-419, 2 figs., 12 pis. 

A discussion of certain problems related to the history of the domestic dog. 
The status of the dingo and of the pariah dog is examined, and a number of types 
belonging to different periods and countries — terriers from the Swiss lake-dwell- 
ings, mastiffs from the Neolithic Baltic countries, greyhounds from ancient Egypt 
— are described, mainly on the basis of pictorial evidence. It is suggested that 
all breeds of dogs, with the possible exception of ancient Egyptian races and their 
derivatives (the greyhounds), have evolved from the wolf. 

1933. Untersuchungen liber die Ziegen der Gattung Capra s. str. und deren 
Kreuzungen. — Ein Beitrag zur Stammesgeschichte der Hausziegen beson- 
ders Zentralasiens. Wissens. Archiv der Landwirtschaft. — B' Archiv fiir 
Erniihrung der Tiere und Tierzucht, Bd. VIII, pp. 323-371. 

A study of skulls and horns reveals three sharply distinct groups of wild goats: 
Capra prisca Adam., C. hircus L. and C.falconeri Wagner. Being readily crossed 
mutually and giving rise to fertile offspring, the three types could have produced 
many transitional forms by cross-breeding; only the first two, however, are taken 
into consideration as ancestors for the domestic breeds of goat. 

The goats in central Asia, with markhor horns and bezoar characters, origi- 
nated probably from a later cross-breeding with goats of the Capra prisca type. 

1934. Eine altsumerische Fauna. Forsch. Fortschr. dtsch. Wiss., Jhg. 10, 
pp. 336-337. 

Short preliminary report on the faunal remains from Tell-Asmar (cf. Hilz- 
heimer, 1941) and on the frequency of domestic species at the site. A brief account 
is presented of the position of the tamed onager in Sumer. 

1935. The evolution of the domestic horse. Antiquity, vol. 9, no. 34, pp. 133- 
139, 9 pis. 

The author deals briefly with the taming of the Asiatic half-ass (Equus hemi- 
onus) by Sumerians around 3000 B.C. and with the occurrence of the domestic ass 
in the early periods of Egyptian history; the origin and dispersal of the domestic 
horse are also examined. 

The habitats of the types under consideration — Przewalski's horse (Equus 
equiferus Pallas) and the tarpan (E. gmelini Antonius) — are traced throughout 


the critical periods, and the author concludes that both recent groups of breeds, the 
Oriental as well as the Occidental, are derived from the Russian tarpan. 

1936. Sheep. Anti(iuity, vol. 10, no. 38, pp. 195-206, 8 pis. 

A survey of the living groups of wild sheep is followed by an examination of 
archaeological and philological evidence concerning the origin of the domestic 
sheep. The author finds three possible lines of ancestry for them, all to be looked 
for in Asia: the Asiatic mouflon (Oci'-s orientaliH), the urial (O. vignei) and the argali 
(O. ommon); the latter is not considered to have been important for European 

1941. Animal remains from Tell Asmar. Stud. Anc. Oriental Civiliz., no. 20, 
xiii+52 pp., 20 figs., 8 tables. 

A study of fossil material collected at the Northern Palace in Tell Asmar 
(Mesopotamia) in 1932, 1933 and 1934-35. The position of the Asiatic onager or 
half-ass (Equus onager hemippus) — bones of which constituted 9 per cent of the 
total skeletal material — and its relationship to the domestic ass and the domestic 
horse are discussed in detail in the light of the osteological material. Other do- 
mestic species identified and treated are: Sus sp. (29.1 per cent of the total), 
Ovis sp. and Capra prisca (together 27.7 per cent), Bos taurus primigenius (13.5 
per cent) and Canis familaris palustris (8 per cent). 

Table VIII (pp. 49-51) summarizes the findings and their sources. 

Hooijer, D. A. 

1947. Protohistoric mammals from the Linderbeek, Province of Overijssel, 
The Netherlands. Proc. K. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 3- 
15, 2 pis., 13 tables. 

A collection of subfossil mammals is dated at 650 B.C. on the basis of pollen 
analysis. A large dog is recorded, of the Great Dane-Newfoundland-St. Bernard 
type. The domestic cat is listed, on the basis of right humerus and tibia and left 
OS coxae, all smaller than those of Felis silvesiris, the European wild cat. This is 
the earliest record of the domestic cat in northern Europe, and also the earliest 
record of such a large breed of dog. — C.A.R. 

Houbard, Albert 

1934. Les chiens dans I'ancienne Egypte. Chron. Egypte, no. 17, pp. 28-34, 
5 figs. 

Brief discussions of representations of dogs from ancient Egypt, starting with a 
hunting scene on a vase from the fourth millennium B.C., which shows canids re- 
sembling a greyhound type. The author holds that by early dynastic times a great 
variety of dog breeds was known in Egypt. 

Ilrozny, Bedrik 

1931. L'entrainement des chevaux chez les anciens Indo-Europeens d'apris un 
texte Mitannien-Hittite pronenent du 14*^ siecle av. J.C. Archiv Orientalni, 
Prague, Tom. Ill, pp. 430-461. 



The famous Kikkuli text from the fourteenth century B.C., found in Bogaz Koy 
(Anatolia), is translated and explained. The text — one of the earliest literary evi- 
dences of horse breeding — is written by a Mitannian and contains a detailed guide 
for the treatment of race- and draft-horses. The technical terms are, in part, of 
Indo-European origin. 

Hue, Edmund 

190()a. Etude sur un nouveau chien des palafittes de Clairvaux. Bull. Soc. 
prehist. fran?., Tom. Ill, Ann. 1906, pp. 279-295, 1 pi. 

Description of a dog-skull from the NeoHthic lake dwelling at Clairvaux (Jura) 
and a comparison with other prehistoric canid skulls {Canisf. palustris, C.f. matris 
optimae, C.f. leineri, etc.). The new dog is craniologically distinct from all the other 
forms (high, convex forehead, broad jugals, slender palate) and is taken as a new 
type, called Cam's le mirei Hue. 

1906b. Note sur une mandibule de canide des palafittes de Chalain. Bull. 
Soc. prehist. frang., Tom. Ill, Ann. 1906, pp. 441 453, 2 figs. 

Study of a mandible and teeth of a prehistoric domestic dog from the Neo- 
lithic dwelling places at Lake Chalain (Jura). Although few specific odontological 
characters are worked out, the dog is identified as belonging to the type of Cams 
familiaris palustris Rutim. 

Hummerlink, Paul 

1928. Westindische Hundetypen. Naturforscher, Bd. IV, Nr. 11, pp. 550-552. 

Some data are given about two ancient dogs from the West Indies, not dealt 
with in most treatments. The extinct "alco," remains of which were found in 
caves on Jamaica, Haiti and San Domingo, was the domestic dog of the Arawak 
Indians and is regarded as ancestral to the Mexican pug. The "xibaro" ( = hibaro) 
is very similar to the Aguara dog of Surinam (Netherlands Guiana), and its iden- 
tity with the Brasilian roe-dog is suggested. 

Isserlin, B. S. J. 

1950. On some possible early occurrences of the camel in Palestine. Palest. 
Expl. Quart., vol. 82, pp. 50-53. 

Several cases of skeletal finds (mainly teeth) belonging to camels, discovered 
at Palestine sites (Gezer, Megiddo, Taanek) from the Early and Middle Bronze 
Age, are listed and seen as possible evidence for the occurrence of the domestic 
animal by that time. 

Jackson, J. W. 

1932. Prehistoric domestic animals. Proc. First Int. Congr. Prehist. Protohist. 
Sci., pp. 154-157. Oxford Univ. Press (London). 

Evidence from Neolithic domestication in Britain and other European cul- 
tures is summarized briefly and problems connected with prehistoric animals — 
especially ox and horse — are posed. The identity of the domestic cattle of pre- 
historic England (the longifrons type) with the Bos hrachyceros stock of the Con- 
tinent is questioned. The domestic status of horses, remains of which were found 


at Neolithic sites in Great Britain (Cotswolds, Glamorgan, northern Wales), is 
doubted, and the possibility of an independent domestication of at least two wild 
species of horses — somewhere north of the Iranian Plateau and somewhere near 
or in Scandinavia — is suggested. 

1937. The osteology: Report on the animal remains. In R. Mond & O. H. 
Myers, Cemeteries of Armant, vol. I, pp. 254-258. The Egypt Exploration 
Society, London. 

Bones of ox, sheep, and pig, from cultural levels of the Amratian period in the 
prehistoric cemeteries of Armant (near Luxor, Egypt) are assumed to be those of 
domestic animals. There is a useful summary of prior finds of animals (domestic 
and other) in prehistoric Egypt. — C.A.R. 

Jettmar, Karl >^ 

1950. The Karasuk culture and its southeastern affinities. The Museum of 
Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, Bull. no. 22, pp. 83-126, 16 pis. 

In a short summary of publications (mainly from Russian literature) on the 
Karasuk culture of Minusinsk (northern Siberia), the author presents some details 
on the domestic stock as reflected by remains of animals sacrificed as mortuary 
food gifts. In graves from eighteen sites sheep constituted by far the major part 
of the remains, followed in frequency by cattle. Few bones belonged to horses. 
In one site forelegs of camels and in a grave from another site the full skeleton of a 
domestic dog were found. 

The sudden importance of sheep-raising and its predominance in the Karasuk 
culture (1200-700 B.C.) contrasted with the former (Andronovo-) period, during 
which domestic animals were distributed about equally, is emphasized and seen 
as a significant feature, showing affinities to a similar process in northern Chinese 

1952. Zu den Anfangen der Rentierzucht. Anthropos, Tom. 47, pp. 736-766. 

A review of the results of numerous Russian excavations, and a survey of re- 
cent views concerning the origin of the domestication of reindeer. All the data 
seem to prove that the taming of reindeer could never have influenced the domesti- 
cation of cattle, sheep or horses; the reverse could have been possible. 

An extensive bibliography, especially from the Russian language, is appended. 

Johansen, K. F. 

1919. En Boplads fra den aldeste Stenalder i Svardborg Mose. Aarb^ger, 
Bd. IX, pp. 106-235. 

Among the numerous animal remains from an early Stone Age settlement in 
the moors of Svardborg (near Vordingborg, southwestern Zealand, Denmark), 
identified by H. Winge (pp. 127 134), there were bones of domestic dogs. 

Jones, ¥. Wood 

1921. The status of the dingo. Trans, roy. Soc, S. Australia, vol. 45, pp. 254- 


A craniological (mainly odontological) investigation of the dingo on the basis 
of much material (22 skulls). The author concludes that the dingo is not indige- 
nous — that it arrived relatively recently in Australia. It was brought by a sea 
route by man from the Asian continent as already a variety of the domestic dog, 
and it became feral thereafter. The name Canis dingo is therefore rejected, and 
the name Canis familiaris dingo is suggested. 

Josien, Therese 

1955. La faune Chalcolithique des gisement Palestiniens de Bir Es-Safadi et 
Bir Abou Matar. Israel Expl. J., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 246-256. 

Description and evaluation of the skeletal remains collected during the exca- 
vations near Beer-Sheba (southern Israel) and dated to about 3000 B.C. The 
domestic fauna (95% of the determined material) is considered as typical for a 
semi-nomadic population at the dawn of domestication. It comprised mainly 
sheep (60.2%), followed by goat (16.7%) and ox (12.8%). Dog and horse were 
represented by a few fragments only. 

Kacrkowski, B. 

1928. Contribution to the studies of the origin of European sheep. Proc. roy. 
Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 48, part 1, no. 2, pp. 10-24. 

Serological (iso-agglutination) methods were used to determine the origin of 
the European sheep. Two main groups, A and 0, could be distinguished, the latter 
divided into two sub-groups, one with and the other without anti-A. 

Mouflons (from the zoological gardens at Vienna and Budapest) proved to 
belong to group A. Since the majority of the Polish domestic sheep belong to the 
same group, a relationship to the moufion is probable. English Southdown sheep 
show no serological affinity to mouflons. 

Keller, Conrad 

1902. Die Abstammung der altesten Haustiere. 232 pp., 81 figs. Fritz Am- 
beyer (Ziirich). 

A comprehensive manual on the derivation and origin of most domestic mam- 
mals. Chap. 1-4 explain the methods used and give the cultural background, the 
zoological aspects and a review of 19th century literature and research. Each of 
the next eight chapters is devoted to a specific animal group and is divided into 
three sections: (a) an account of the fossil and archaeological evidence; (6) infor- 
mation on the distribution of the related wild form; (c) a discussion and a phylo- 
genetic summary. 

Dogs and cattle are dealt with extensively. Races of Old World dogs are 
traced back to two species of wolves (Canis sinensis and C. niger) and the jackal 
(C. aureus); the ancient New World dogs are regarded as indigenous and derived 
from the North American wolf (Lupus occiden talis). Domestic bovines are classi- 
fied into a European (Bos taurus) group, derived from Bos primigenius, and an 
Asiatic zebu group (B. indicus), descended from the banteng (Bos sondaicus). 
The banteng is also considered the ancestor of the southeastern European brachy- 
ccros type. For sheep a triphyletic origin is suggested, for goats and for horses a 
diphyletic descent; Frank's classification of the latter into Occidental and Oriental 
breeds is retained. The camel and the domestic cat are also treated. 


A discussion of the species concept and nomenclature for domestic animals is 

1919. Die Stammesgeschichte unserer Haustiere. Natur u. Geisteswelt, No. 252; 
117 pp., 29 figs. Teubner (Leipzig, Berlin). 
A popular discussion of general problems of domestication is followed by a 
treatment of specific animals and their phylogeny. Described are the "ancient 
domestic mammals" (dogs, equids, pigs, ruminants), the "more recent achieve- 
ments" (reindeer, rabbit) and finally the domestic birds. 

1922. Die Methoden der Hauslierforschung. In Abderhalden, Emil, Hand- 
buch der biologischen Arbeitsmethoden, Abt. VII, part 1, pp. 77-90. 

Brief description of methods used to investigate the origins of domestic spe- 
cies. The author distinguishes the following methods: (a) zoogeographical; (6) ana- 
tomical; (r) prehistoric (by investigation of fossil material); (d) physiological 
(using fertile hybrids as criteria of close relationship and serological methods); 
(e) ethnographical; (/) archaeological; and {g) linguistic. 

Kelm, Ilans 

1938. Die postembryonale Schadelentwicklung des Wild- und Berkshire 
Schweines. Z. ges. Anat. 1. Z. Anat. EntwGesch., Bd. 108, pp. 499-559, 
29 figs. 

The wild boars of the scrofa-vittatus group are shown to belong to one species 
(formenkreis). Skulls of Sus scrofa scrofa (as representative of this wild form), 
from the new-born to the old animal, are compared with a corresponding onto- 
genetic sequence of skulls from the highly modified domestic Berkshire pig. Even 
at birth the skulls show a characteristic difference, but in the course of postembry- 
onic development distinct tendencies in growth cause increasing discrepancy be- 
tween the skulls of the wild boar and the Berkshire. 

The author contests a "retention of juvenile characters" as solution for the 
characteristics of domestication, which latter he seeks to explain on the basis of a 
changed balance in the endocrine system. 

1939. Zur Systematik der Wildschweine. Z. Tierz. ZuchtBiol., Bd. XLIII, 
pp. 362-369, 4 figs. 

A survey of the wild pigs of Eurasia. The scrofa-vittatus group is seen as a 
single species, the allopatric races of which form a clear taxocline from Europe (Sus 
scrofa scrofa) to eastern Asia (Sus scrofa vittatus). 

Klatt, B. 

1927. Entstehung der Haustiere. Handbuch der Vererbungswissenschaft, 
Bd. Ill, 107 pp., 15 figs. Gebriider Borntrager (Berlin). 

A comprehensive treatise, dealing mainly with the origin of domestication in 
terms of the general aspects involved. The first part ("genesis of domestication") 
tries to outline the human motives that led to the rise of domestication, and the 
zoological background that made it possible. In the second part ("effects of do- 
mestication") the general morphological and physiological trends characteristic 


of domestic animals are illustrated by rich comparative material, and an attempt 
is made to reveal the special evolutionary factors that seem to operate under the 
conditions of domestication. The third part ("history of domestic animals") is 
subdivided into a general section, which deals with the various methods of research 
(zoological, culture-historical and philological), and a specific part, wherein is out- 
lined the origin of the main domestic mammals (in particular the dog and the 

1948. Haustier und Mensch. 95 pp., 33 figs. Richard Hermes (Hamburg). 

A discussion of the evolutionary mechanism operating under domestication. 
After a short survey of the oldest historical civilizations and their domestic ani- 
mals, the pamphlet investigates the conditions of the domestic environment in 
relation to the morphological modifications recognized among domesticated ani- 
mals. The parallel occurrence of these modifications is regarded as the cardinal 
point in domestication and is explained by similar alterations of the hormone sys- 
tem, which becomes affected by the human-controlled environment. 

Koby, F. 

1954. Y a-t-il eu, a Lascaux, "un bos longifrons"? Bull. Soc. prehist. fran?., 
vol. 51, nos. 9-10, pp. 434-441, 3 figs. 

The cattle depicted in the cave-paintings at Lascaux have been identified by 
prehistorians as Bos primigenius (the large forms with curved horns) and B. longi- 
frons (smaller, thinner, and with horns shorter and more horizontal). This latter, 
however, is nothing more than the female of B. primigenius. There was no sep- 
arate small species of Bos in the European Pleistocene. If the domestic cattle of 
the Neolithic and later are actually derived from small wild cattle these must 
have lived elsewhere, probably in western Asia, but there is no evidence for this 
supposition. (Zeuner [1953, Man, vol. 53, pp. 68-69] had already mentioned, in 
a discussion of the color of Bos primigenius, that the so-called Bos longifrons of 
Lascaux was actually the female of B. primigenius; Koby was presumably unaware 
of Zeuner's paper.) — C.A.R. 

Koch, W. 

1937. Das Gehorn der Schraubenziege — Capra falconeri. Zool. Anz., Bd. 93, 
Nr. 7-10, pp. 275-278, 2 figs. 

On the basis of differences in the shape of the horns, the markhor, Capra fal- 
coneri Wagner, is excluded as an ancestral type for any domestic form of goat. 
The heteronymous twisting in the horns of the markhor is distinct from the ho- 
monymous type of the screw-horned domestic breeds, and the cross section of the 
horn (keel at hind edge) is contrary to the domestic Capra hircus type (keel at 
front edge). 

Kolesnik, N. N. 

1936. [The origin and the geographical distribution of cattle.] (Russ.; Eng. 
summ.) Akad. Nauk USSR, Leningrad, Ser. Biol., Nos. 2-3, pp. 375-414, 
28 figs., 5 tables. 

A paleozoological survey of the evolution of the Bovinae in general and the 
genus Bos in diluvial and alluvial times in particular is followed by a study of 


recent breeds of cattle, their geographical distribution, and their history. The 
author accepts the view that Boh priinig(')iiH.'< and B. brachifceros are both imme- 
diate ancestors of domestic cattle, and he adds two more species: B. indicus, which 
is considered forefather of the Asiatic humped cattle, and B. turano-mongolicus, 
which gave rise to the different breeds of central Asia (Kalmuck, Mongol, Yakut 
and Kirghiz cattle). 

Cattle-breeding probably originated in several regions, but southwestern Asia 
(i.e., Assyro-Babylonia) and northwestern India are regarded as the most ancient 
centers of domestication. 

Koppers, Wilhelm 

1932. Konnten Jagervolker Tierziichter werden? Biol, gen., Bd. VIII, pp. 179- 

In a brief discussion of the beginnings and motives of animal domestication 
the author holds that hunting tribes were the first breeders, that the first domestic 
animals were reindeer and horse, and that the cradle of domestication was the sub- 
arctic region of inner Asia; the motives were mainly practical and economic. 

Koppers, Wilhelm, and Jungblut, L. 

1942-45. The water-buffalo and the zebu in central India. Anthropos, Tom. 
37-40, pp. 647-666, 11 photos, 4 drawings. 

Anthropological observations on Indian zebus and buffalos. In conclusion 
J. U. Diirst sketches the zoological characters of both the forms and then dis- 
cusses their origin (pp. 661-666). The tame Indian water-buffalo (Bubalus in- 
dicus macroceros) is seen as the direct descendant of the wild arni buffalo (Bubalus 
arnii), which became domesticated in India and was brought to Persia, where it 
appeared in the second century B.C. Much earlier (in the third millennium B.C.), 
domestic cattle of the Bos taurus type — direct descendants of the wild Bos namadi- 
cus — were introduced into India by the nomadic Chorwa from the Anau region 
via the Zufilcar Pass, and gave rise to the zebu stock, the marked hump being a 
result of selection on religious bases. 

Kramer, Hermann 

1900. Die Haustierfunde von Vindonissa. Rev. suisse Zool., Tom. VII, 
pp. 143-272, 19 figs. 

A history of domestic animals in Switzerland, outlined on the basis of the 
faunal remains from Vindonissa, which are described. The author compares the 
species of the Swiss lake-dwellings with the later forms introduced by the Romans, 
found in Vindonissa — large types of dogs, a new kind of sheep and big-horned goats. 
The discussion is based to a great extent also on representational art from early 
Roman times. 

Krieg, H. 

1929. tJber siidamerikanische Haustiere. Zool. Gart., Heft 1, pp. 273-284. 

Information on the pre-Columbian domestic stock of South America. Llama, 
alpaca and guinea pig are dealt with briefly; the domestic dog is treated at length. 
A consideration of the dogs of the Indians from Gran Chaco, which live in a semi- 


domesticated stage, leads to the conclusion that the desired properties of advanced 
breeding in the dog are deficiencies ("defect mutants") in terms of natural selection. 

Kroll, Hubert 

1928. Die Haustiere der Bantu. Z. Ethn., Bd. 60, pp. 177-290, 6 maps. 

A detailed treatment of domestication, its role and significance, and the origin 
of domestic stock not only among the Bantu, but in southern and eastern Africa 
in general. Associated with the domestic forms all over the area, and therefore 
seen as the most ancient domestic animal, is a type of dog of African origin; only 
later a greyhound type was introduced, probably by the Hamites. 

Besides the dog, cattle and goat are considered the most ancient breeds, the 
former being the animal of the stock-farmer, the latter associated with cultivation 
of plants. The first herdsmen invading the Bantu area did not possess sheep, which 
were introduced later. Much later, the ass, pig, horse and cat were brought. 
With the exception of the ass, which was descended from an indigenous form, all 
the breeds of southern and eastern Africa (horse, cat, pig) are regarded as of 
European origin. 

Kronacher, C. 

1928. Allgemeine Tierzucht. Abt. 1, xxvii+482 pp., 366 figs. (3rd ed.) Paul 
Parey (Berlin). 

The second section (pp. 59-478) is devoted to the origin of domestication and 
to the descent and the prehistoric and historic evolution of domestic animals. 
Chap. 2 and 3 consider general aspects of domestication in terms of its origins, and 
the morphological, physiological and psychological changes caused in the process 
of domestication. In chap. 4 (pp. 183-478) extensive material on the origin of 
the important domestic species and their early evolution is brought together, and 
recent views are summarized. Horse, ass, mule, cattle, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit 
are treated at length. 

Kruger, W. 

1939. Unser Pferd und seine Vorfahren. VerstandHche Wissenschaften, Bd. 41, 
164 pp. 
A popular account of the domestic horse and the origin of its races. 

Krumbiegel, Ingo 

1947. Von Haustieren und ihrer Geschichte. Kosmos, 83 pp., 22 figs. 

In a popular pamphlet, the origin, significance and earmarks of domestication 
are discussed and a brief history of the domestic species is given. In a tentative 
table (p. 34) the ancestry of the important domestic mammals and birds is sum- 

Kuhn, Emil 

1932. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Saugetierfauna der Schweiz seit dem Neo- 
lithikum. Rev. suisse Zool., Tom. 39, no. 18, pp. 531-768. 

A survey of the Swnss prehistoric fauna, based on a study of animal remains 
from ten sites: seven Neolithic, three Celtic-Roman, and one from the La-Tene 


period. Domestic animals constituted most of the material, among which cattle 
were most numerous (often more than 50 per cent) in Neolithic times, followed by 
pigs (about 30 per cent). Sheep and goats were of minor importance. In Roman 
times sheep (the heavy-horned Ovis aries studeri), pigs and cattle constituted 
most of the domestic fauna. 

1935. Die Fauna des Pfahlbaues Obermailen am Ziiricher See. Vjschr. naturf. 
Ges. Ziirich, Jhg. 80, pp. 241-330. 

Systematic study of new animal remains, excavated from Obermeilon (Lake 
Zurich) in 1933. This was the first site of lake-dwellings, the faunal remains of 
which were described by Rutimeyer as early as 1860-61. 

The faunal assemblage points to a late NeoHthic period. Cattle and pig con- 
stitute the bulk of the domestic stock. The former is represented by two forms — 
a brochyceroi:; and a pn'nugeniuti type. The latter is identified as the turbary pig. 
All the dogs as well as the sheep belonged to the palustris type. The few equid 
remains were probably those of wild animals. 

Kuschel, Paul 

1911. Die Haustiere Agyptens im Altertum. Diss., Zootechnische Inst, der 
konigl. tierarztlichen Hochschule, Dresden, 42 pp. Publ. by "Gorlitzer 
Nachrichten und Anzeiger." 

A historical survey of how cattle, camel, sheep, goat, dog, cat, horse, ass and 
pig were reared in ancient Egypt. 

Kwaschnin, Samarin N. 

1928. Kraniologische Untersuchungen iiber das litauische Pferd. Z. Tierz. 
ZiichtBiol., Bd. XII, pp. 249-287, 14 figs. 

A detailed study of twenty skulls of the Lithuanian (Shmudic) horse breed, 
which is nearly extinct in its pure form. The skull of the Lithuanian horse shows 
it to be an autonomous, ancient branch of the Oriental group, which shows many 
affinities to Equus przewalskii and especially to the tarpan type and shows also 
some similarities to the Arabian horse. 

1931. Studien iiber die Herkunft des osteuropaischen Pferdes, hauptsachlich 
auf Grund des baltischen Materials. Acta Comm. Univ. Tartuensis (Dor- 
patensis), Ser. A, Tom. XXI, pp. 1-138, 4 pis., 30 figs. 

A detailed osteological treatment of recent Lithuanian horses and of fossil 
remains of horses from Baltic sites forms the basis for an investigation of the 
origin of the East European domestic horse, especially its relation to the tarpan 
and the Przewalski horse. 

All types of recent and prehistoric horses can be traced back to two basic 
types — Oriental and Occidental. The Lithuanian-Polish-Esthonian horse group 
is seen as one unit belonging to the Oriental type, with close affinities to the Prze- 
walski horse. The South Russian tarpan is considered a feral horse. 

La Baume, Wolfgang 

1949. Die altesten europaischen Haustiere. Verhandl. dtsch. zool. Ges., pp. 
74-90, Aug., 1948, in Kiel. 


A review of the literature on the first occurrence of domestic animals. Only 
the dog is surely known from Mesolithic time. It belonged to a culture of hunters 
and gatherers. The beginnings of all the other domestic animals (cattle, pig, 
sheep, goat and horse) are found in earliest Neolithic (proto-Neolithic) times, 
their origin probably associated with the first cultivation of plants. 

Langton, N. and B. 

1940. The cat in ancient Egypt. 89 pp., frontispiece, 19 pis. Cambridge 
University Press (London). 

Essentially a catalogue of the Langton Collection (cat figures from ancient 
Egypt), but additional comments and suggestions give a framework of the earliest 
culture of the cat. Felis chaus and F. ochreata are suggested as probable originals 
for two distinct types — one long-eared and sharp-nosed, the other short-eared 
and blunt-nosed — which can be distinguished among the images of domestic 
cats from ancient Egypt. 

Latcham, Ricardo 

1924. Los animales domesticos de la America precolombiana. Publ. Mus. 
Etnol. Antr., Chile, Tom. IH, pp. 1-199. 

An account of the domestic stock of ancient South and Central America 
based upon archaeological excavations. Treated in detail among the mammalian 
fauna are dogs (chap. 1); species of the genus Auchenida — llama, alpaca, vicugna 
and guanaco (chap. 2); and the guinea pig (chap. 4). All those animals, kept 
as domestic breeds prior to the Spanish invasion, are without exception derived 
from indigenous wild forms. The dog had the widest distribution and therefore is 
regarded as the first animal that was domesticated. It is represented among 
the various cultures by many varieties. 

Laufer, Berthold 

1917. The reindeer and its domestication. Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Ass., vol. IV, 
pp. 91-147. 

On the basis of ethnographical data (Russian and early Chinese sources) 
an attempt is made to determine where and when reindeer breeding originated. 
It is concluded that the first domestication of reindeer took place in the Baikal 
region and was practiced originally by Samoyeds in the early period of their 
history (prior to their migration into the present northern habitats). It was later 
transmitted to the Lapps. 

Lawrence, Barbara 

1944. Bones from the Governador area. Columbia Stud. Archaeol., vol. II, 
no. 1, pp. 73-78. 

A description and craniological study of dog skulls and mandibles found 
among the mammal bones discovered at Governador, New Mexico. Most of the 
bones belonged to young individuals, suggesting that the animals were used 
as food. Three breeds of dogs are distinguished: Basket Maker, Techichi, and a 
short-nosed form. 


1951. Post-cranial skeletal characters of deer, pronghorn, and sheep-goat, with 
notes on Bos and Bison. Pap. Peabody Mus., vol. 35, no. .3, pp. 7-43, 20 figs. 

This paper, with its lists of comparative characters and numerous sketches 
of the bones, is an aid to the archaeologist or mammalogist identifying fauna 
of the larger Artiodactyla from North American excavations. Only generic 
differentiation is attempted of Ovis, Capra, Antilocapra, Odocoileus, Bison, and 
Bos, except for a few characters where the mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis) 
can be distinguished. No characters of the post-cranial skeleton were found 
that would separate domestic sheep and goat, so they are grouped as a unit. 
Little or no reliance can be placed upon characters of ribs, vertebrae or many of 
the smaller bones of the carpus and tarsus, so such bones are not considered. 
Bos and Bison are very similar in their skeletal parts, although not to the degree 
of Capra and Ovis. — C.A.R. ', . 

Lebel, L. D. 

1939. Origin and quality of the Don-Danube goat. [Polish; English summ.) 
Sbornik rabot po raswed i sekr. owez, Woroschilowsk, vol. IX, pp. 63-76. 

Short account of the Don-Danube goat, which is kept all over the Don Valley 
down to the Sea of Azov, and which is markedly distinct, not only from the breeds 
of the surrounding areas but also from all the other forms described in the literature. 
The goat shows characters, especially in the skull and horns, very close to the 
extinct Capra prisca Adametz. 

Leister, Claude W. 

1943. Before Montefiore Joash sunshine. . . . Anim. Kingd., vol. 46, no. 3, 
pp. 63-70. 

Popular guide to domestic cattle, their wild relatives, and their probable 
ancestors. Urus, zebu, and Celtic shorthorn (Bos longifrons) are seen as ancestors 
of present-day (taurine) domestic cattle. Brief discussion is also devoted to the 
yak, to the Bibovine group (gaur, gayal, banteng) and to the domestication 
of the water-buffalo. 

Lengerken, H. von 

1953. Der Ur und seine Beziehungen zum Menschen. Die Neue Brehm- 
Bucherei, Heft 105, 79 pp., 68 figs. 

A monograph on the evolution of the urus and its bearing on man's civilization. 
The author deals extensively with the role of the urus as the ancestor of domestic 
oxen and concludes that all existing cattle except yak, buffalo, and Bali cattle 
originated from Bos primigenius. 

1955. Ur, Hausrind und Mensch. 191 pp., 253 figs. Deutscher Bauernverlag 


A comprehensive survey of the knowledge about Bos primigenius, its speciation 
and domestication among various cultures. Compiled from zoological and paleon- 
tological as well as archaeological and ethnological sources. Hundreds of pictorial 
representations of the urus and domestic oxen throughout all ages and cultures 
are added. 


Lhote, Henri 

1953. Le cheval et le chameau dans les peintures et gravures rupestres du 
Sahara. Bull. Inst, frang. Afr. noire, Tom. XV, no. 3, pp. 1138-1228, 20 figs. 

A detailed description of the horse and camel representations in the rock paint- 
ings and rock engravings in the Sahara Desert forms the background for a dis- 
cussion of the place of these animals in North African civilizations during early 
historical times. 

Liang, Ssu-Yung 

1934. Human, animal, and bird skeletal remains, and shell-fish remains, hi 
Li Chi and others, Ch'eng-tzu-yai [Report on the excavation of Ch'eng- 
tzti-yai, a Neolithic and, subsequently, Bronze-Age site in northeast China], 
Arch., Sinica, no. 1 [In Chinese]. English transl., 1956, Yale Publ. Anthrop., 
vol. 52, pp. 1 232; see particularly p. 152. 

Human occupation at this site in Shantung Province continued approximately 
from 2000 to 200 B.C. Nine genera of mammals were identified: rabbit, pig, dog, 
horse, sheep, ox, and three kinds of deer; only the dog, Canis familiaris, could 
definitely be regarded as domestic. The sheep and ox are assigned to extinct 
species, and horse and pig were not specifically identified. Pig and dog bones 
were most numerous, horse and ox bones next, deer and sheep bones next; rabbit 
was rare. — C.A.R. 

Linton, Ralph 

1955. Domestication of plants and animals. Chap. 8, in The Tree of Culture. 
Alfred A. Knopf (New York). 

This is a non-technical summary of what an anthropologist regards as essential 
knowledge concerning domestication. As such, there are correlations with human 
culture not always known to zoologists, as the possibility that chickens may 
have been kept originally to guard against ghosts. 

Except for the dog and the reindeer, domestic animals were tamed by agri- 
cultural people. Man's association with reindeer at first was that of herder only; 
all other domesticated animals are thought to have been kept first as young animals, 
probably as pets for children. 

There were two major centers of animal domestication in the Old World: The 
dry, open country of Egypt and southwestern Asia and the jungle environment of 
southeastern Asia. In the latter area occurred the domestication of the chicken 
and probably an independent domestication of the pig. The Bactrian camel was 
domesticated in Mongolia, and the horse on the steppes somewhere west of Mon- 
golia; possible sites for the origin of the domestic dog and water buffalo are not 
mentioned. — C.A.R. 

Lloyd, Seton 

1940. Iraq government soundings at Sinjar. Iraq, vol. 7, pp. 13-21, pis. 2-4, 
4 figs. 

The horn-cores of a water buffalo (Bubalus) are reported from the site of 
Grai Resh in northern Iraq, occurring with artifacts of the Uruk culture period. 


Lloyd, Seton, and Safar, Fuad 

1945. Tell Hassuna. J. near East. Stud., vol. TV, pp. 255-289, 21 pis. 

Account of an excavation by the Iraq government in 1943 and 1944 at the 
early site of Tell Ha.ssuna in northern Iraq. In appendix I (p. 284) there is a 
preliminary report on the animal bones. Most numerous among the remains 
were those of goat and sheep; fragments of probably domestic animals belonged to 
ox and ass. 

Lorenz, Konrad Z. 

1955. Man meets dog. x + 211 pp., illus. Houghton Mifflin Company (Boston). 

The domestic dog, as determined primarily on the basis of comparative be- 
havior, is considered to have been derived from the golden jackal, Canis aureus, 
after a long period of symbiotic relationship. As man finally moved into the 
far north, he cross-bred these jackal-ancestored dogs with wolves, C. lupus, thus 
establishing those breeds (Eskimo husky, chow chow, samoyed, and Russian Lajkas) 
which are mainly wolf-derived. 

The domestic cat is descended with little change of morphology or behavior 
from Felis ocreaia of Africa and Syria. This species is today easily tamed, even 
when caught adult, whereas the European wildcat, F. sylvesfris, can never be 
tamed, even when hand-reared from a kitten. — C.A.R. 

Lortet, L., and Gaillard, C. 

1903-09. La faune momifee de I'ancienne Egypte. Arch. Mus. hist. nat. Lyon, 
Tom. VIII, viii + 205 pp., 8 pis., 82 figs.; Tom. IX, xiv + 126 pp., 184 
figs.; Tom. X, 336 pp., 223 figs. 

A detailed study of the mummies excavated from animal graves in Egypt — 
mainly from around Roda, Thebes, Sakkara, Kom Ombo, and Gizeh — dating 
to the first millennium B.C. 

Identified among the domestic animals are dogs, cats, oxen, sheep, and goats. 
Dogs, which were found together with jackals, are mostly of the pariah type; 
a few were a kind of greyhound. Among the numerous cat mummies two forms are 
distinguished: A large type, identified with the wild, indigenous Felis maniculata, 
and a smaller type, considered the domestic derivative of the former. Cattle 
are identified as Bos africanus Fitzinger and are seen as the race that supplied 
the "steer of Apis"; sheep mummies are regarded as of two species: Ovis palaeo- 
aegypticus and a mouflon type. 

Luho, V. 

1948. iJber steinzeitliche Winterverkehrsmittel in Finnland. Acta Arch., 
vol. XIX, pp. 115-144, 22 figs. 

Finds of various types of sledges from prehistoric Finland (pre-Comb-Ceramic 
to post-Comb-Ceramic periods) are described in detail, and conclusions are drawn 
as to the introduction and taming of the draft-animals (dog and reindeer) asso- 
ciated with sledge driving. The earliest sledges from the pre-Comb-Ceramic 
sites (Heinola, Rantasalami) were probably drawn by man only; from the Comb- 
Ceramic culture on, a new type of sledge occurs (Saarigiirvi-Tarvala), together 


with an increased frequency in the remains of dogs, three breeds of which are 
already known from this time. 

The use of the reindeer as a draft-animal began later, possibly by the end of 
the late Stone Age. 

Lundholm, Bengt 

1949. Abstammung und Domestikation des Hauspferdes. Zool. Bidr. Uppsala, 
Bd. 27, pp. 1-292, 6 pis., 1 map, 9 tables, 45 figs. [Eng. summ. pp. 241-251.] 

An osteological comparison between fossil and recent wild horses and early 
domestic horses is the basis for a study of the origin of the domestic horse. Beside 
measurements collected from the literature, the author uses extensive new mate- 
rial from sub-fossil peat-bog finds — mainly from Sweden — from the Ancylus and 
Litorina time (7000-2000 B.C.) and from the Nordic Bronze Age (chiefly from the 
sacrificial site at Lake Bokarn, Uppland). 

The division of the wild horse population into two groups — an eastern group, 
comprising the tarpan and the Przewalski horse, and a western one, represented 
by late- and post-glacial wild horses from central and northern Europe — is ex- 
plained by the biogeographical conditions during the Ice Age. The domesticated 
Nordic Bronze Age horse shows a close connection to the Nordic wild horse and 
no resemblance to the tarpan, which fact seems to refute the monophyletic origin 
of the domestic horse from the latter. 

In the last chapter — "domestication and its significance" — the specific effects 
of domestication in general are traced, and their possible causes are discussed. 
A comprehensive bibliography is appended. 

Lydekker, R. 

1912a. The horse and its relatives. vi-|-281 pp., 11 figs. George Allen & 
Company, Ltd. (London). 

In chap. 2 (pp. 71-116) various views as to the relation of the domestic horse 
to the wild tarpan are examined and discussed. The author finds signs of near 
relationship between the Mongolian tarpan (Equus caballus przewalskii) and the 
existent breeds of western Europe and their prehistoric ancestors, all of them de- 
rived from one species (Equus caballus typicus), which gave rise to the Mongolian 
ponies as well. 

The differences between the eastern and western stock are only the results of 
different climatic conditions, modes of treatment and selection; "Oriental" and 
"Occidental" horses are derived from the same ancestral form. The Arab-Barb 
group, however, is regarded as markedly distinct from the original tarpan-like 
horses of western Europe and Mongolia. The origin of the Arab stock is traced 
back to Equus stenonis in the Pliocene (chap. 5, pp. 150-170). The author finds 
in this Arabian breed the original type from which both "Barb" (the Libyan 
stock) and "Turk" (the Turkoman horses of Turkestan) were early derivatives. 

When dealing with the domestic ass (chap. 9, pp. 215-225), the author accepts 
the view that the wild animal, whose original home may have been in northwest 
Africa, was probably first tamed in the eastern Mediterranean countries. 

1912b. The ox and its kindred. xi-h271 pp., 23 pis. with 46 figs., 7 text figs. 
Methuen & Co., Ltd. (London). 


The volume contains detailed information on the zoological position and struc- 
ture of the ox, the distribution and history of wild bovines, and an account of the 
origin of domestic cattle and of the chief breeds by which they are represented. 
Special attention is devoted to the history of the extermination of the aurochs of 
Europe and western Asia {Bos iaurus primigeniiis), taken as the principal ancestor 
of domestic cattle. 

Humped cattle — a distinct species, Boi< indicus — are regarded as a domesti- 
cated derivative from the wild banteng of southeastern Asia (cf. also Keller, 1902). 
Its connection with the brachyceros stock, however, is contested. 

1912c. The sheep and its cousins, xv +315 pp., 14 pis., 61 figs. George Allen 
ct Company, Ltd. (London). 

Popular information about the races of wild and the breeds of domestic sheep 
and the origin and history of the latter. The Himalayan urial (Ovis vignei) is con- 
sidered progenitor of the ancient Oriental domestic breeds and also of 0. aries 
palustris from the Swiss lake-dwellings, although a taming of the indigenous wild 
mouflon (O. a. mntiimon) by the prehistoric inhabitants of Europe may have oc- 
curred. The specialized African breeds — the longipes type of ancient Egypt as 
well as the long-legged (0. a. longipes) and long-eared (O. a. catoiis) breeds of today 
— are considered to be of Asiatic origin. 

Mackay, E. J. H. 

1938. Further excavations at Mohenjo-daro. Manager of Publication, Delhi. 

A brief summary of the domestic animals represented on the seals of Mohenjo- 
daro from the excavations of 1927-31 (cf. Sewell, 1931) is given, and the identifi- 
cations of H. Friederichs (cf. Friederichs, 1933) are discussed (vol. I, appendix 1, 
pp. 669-671). The animal that appears most frequently is a form of cattle, show- 
ing the characters of both the primigeniiis and the namadicus type, which fact may 
indicate a crossing of the two in the Indus valley. Among the figurines and model 
animals (pp. 286-292), domestic dog (of a mastiff type), cattle, horse(?), sheep, 
goat and pig are identified. 

Madsen, A., et al. 

1900. AfTaldsdynger fra Stenalderen i Danmark. [Stone Age kitchen middens 
from Denmark.) 196 pp., 11 pis., figs, and tables in text [Fr. summ. pp. 193- 
196). C. A. Reitzel (Kjpbenhavn). 

A study of the kitchen midden remains from Danish Stone Age sites (Ertebplle 
period), collected by the National Museum of Copenhagen. Skeletal remains of 
domestic mammals, identified by H. Winge, belonged to two types of dogs {Canis 
familiaris palustris and C. /. matris-optimae), pigs and sheep (both of the turbary 
type), and cattle (generally resembling Bos taurus brachyceros but with some fea- 
tures of the primigenius type). 

Mallowan, M. E. L. 

1936. Excavations at Tall Chagar Bazar and an archaeological survey of the 
Habur region. Second campaign. Iraq, vol. 4, pp. 91-154, pis. 12-19, 
25 figs. 


The area considered is part of northeastern Syria. The horse, sometimes with 
its trappings, is frequently represented by clay figurines, which, together with 
chariot wheels, are common in levels dated ca. 1900 B.C. (see Smith, 1928) and sug- 
gest the use of both draught and chariot horses. — C.A.R. 

1946. Excavations in the BaHh valley, 1938. Iraq, vol. 8, pp. 111-159. 

Report on excavations from several sites in northeastern Syria in the valley 
of the River Balih (a tributary of the Euphrates), dated to the Halafian period. 
Proof of mixed farming was obtained as far back as the Chalcolithic; cows, sheep 
and goats were kept, and the domestic dog was also at the disposal of the herdsmen. 

Some remains of domestic animals, found in or near Tell Mefesh, are identified 
by D. M. A. Bate (p. 128). They belong to a large ox, a small equid and a large 
goat with twisted horns — considered to be an example of an early stage in the 
development of the domestic Mamber goat. 

1947. Excavations at Brak and Chagar Bazar. Iraq, vol. 9, pp. 1-266, 86 pis., 
18 figs. 

These sites are in northeastern Syria. From Brak, dated as not later than 
3200 B.C., were identified a small Equus, pig, and ox; the latter two were probably 
domestic. Also from Brak, at about 2300 B.C., were identified a small Equm, and 
domestic dog, pig, goat, cattle, and probably sheep. The Equus could be either 
the domestic ass or the Syrian onager. 

Remains of a goat with twisted horns are thought to be those of the typical 
Mamber goat. A sheep is represented by a portion of a large twisted horn core, 
which resembles that of some domesticated races and differs from that of the wild 
species. Similar horn cores associated with the Mamber goat were also found at 
Megiddo, in levels dated as of Chalcolithic to Early Bronze age. — C.A.R. 

Mangelsdorf, P. C. 

1952. Evolution under domestication. Amer. Nat., vol. 86, pp. 65-77. 

The same factors that operate in "natural evolution" (mutation, genetic drift, 
hybridization, selection, etc.) were effective in the speciation of domestic animals 
and plants, though evolution directed by man led to much quicker changes than 
natural evolution. Data are taken almost exclusively from cultivated plants. 

Mason, I. L. 

1951. A world dictionary of breeds, types and varieties of livestock. Technical 
Communication No. 8 of the Commonwealth Bureau of Animal Breeding 
and Genetics, 272 pp. Slough, Buckinghamshire, England. 

A dictionary of the names which have been applied to groups of horses, cattle, 
sheep, pigs, goats, buffaloes and asses on the basis of common origin, similarity or 
geographical proximity. Synonymous names are indicated and for each breed a 
brief discussion of origin, present distribution, breed characters and relationship 
to other breeds is given. 

Mathiassen, Therkel 

1944. The Stone Age settlement at Trelleborg. Acta Arch., vol. XV, pp. 77-98, 
9 figs. 


Among artifacts from a settlement (dating from the passage-grave period) near 
Trelleborg on Zealand (Denmark), a few bone artifacts, made from skeleton parts 
of domestic oxen, are identified (pp. 81-82). 

Matthey, Robert 

1954. Chromosomes et systematique des canides. Mammalia, vol. 18, no. 3, 
pp. 225-230, 14 figs. 

Since the domestic dog has a diploid chromosomal number of 78, whereas the 
golden jackal, Titos aureus, has only 74, it is concluded that dogs cannot have been 
derived from this species of jackal. The number of chromosomes in the wolf has 
not yet been determined. — C.A.R. 

Meissner, B. 

1926. Haustier. In M. Ebert, Reallexikon der Vorgeschichte, Bd. V, pp. 216- 
221. Walter de Gruyter & Co. (Berlin). 

In the first part — a general consideration of the origins of domestication — it is 
assumed that the necessity for keeping animals as offerings for the gods had been 
the main motive for the taming of wild forms. This is followed by a brief account 
of archaeological evidences of dog, pig, and cattle from prehistoric Europe, and of 
cattle, sheep, goat, horse, ass and camel from the ancient Near East. 

Melnyk, Oleska 

1927. Das Wildrind Osteuropas und seine Domestikation. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., 
Bd. IX, pp. 475-483. 

Fossil and recent material of the genus Bos from Ukrainian museums is investi- 
gated. The East European domestic cattle are of primigenius type (although with 
great variability) and are supposed to have descended from Bos urns primigenius 
in the early Stone Age, their domestication being already very advanced by late 
Neolithic. Cross-breeding with the Asiatic urus {B. namadicus) or with the ban- 
teng may occasionally have occurred. 

1928. Die neolithischen Haustiere Siidosteuropas. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., Bd. XI, 
pp. 15-25. 

The author summarizes briefly the material (mainly figurines) of NeoHthic 
domestic animals from southeastern Europe (especially Ukraine) and concludes 
that by the fourth millennium B.C. cattle (of primigenius type), sheep, goats(?) 
and horses(?) were domesticated in this area. 

Menj^hin, Oswald 

1931. Weltgeschichte der Steinzeit. xvi-|-648pp. Anton Schroll& Co. (Wien). 

The author claims three independent civilizations, which gave rise to animal 
breeding at the threshold of the Neolithic. 

Widespread across southern Asia and southern Europe was a swine-breeding 
culture, associated with hoe-agriculture and lacking draft animals, the only do- 
mestic species besides the pig being the dog. Another civilization complex, rep- 
resented by the Anau culture, rose in western Turkestan, its domestic stock 
comprising cattle and sheep, the former derived from Bos namadicus, the latter 


from Ovis vignei arkar. Later the goat was added. A third civilization is indicated 
by the domestication of riding animals — horse, ass and camel — its origin being 
sought in central Asia. 

1933. Merimde-Benisalame und Ma'adi. In H. Junker, Vorlaufiger Bericht 
iiber die Grabungen von Merimde-Benisalame, Anz. Akad. Wiss., Wien, 
Jhg. 70, pp. 83-97. 

In a preliminary report on the excavations at the Neolithic settlement of 
Merimde-Benisalame (western Delta region of Egypt) a short account of the 
faunal finds is given (pp. 88, 89) and their significance in tracing early stock- 
farming in Egypt is emphasized. The faunal remains show close resemblance to 
those from Ma'adi (cf. Menghin and Amar, 1932), especially in the abundance 
of bones of the domestic pig. 

Pig, cattle, sheep, and goat(?) are also recorded. In spite of the great amount 
of skeletal material no trace of either equids or camels was detected. 

Menghin, Oswald, and Amar, M. 

1932. The excavations of the Egyptian University in the Neolithic site at 
Ma'adi. Egypt. Univ., Fac. Arts, Publ. 10, 59 pp., 78 pis. 

The bone material from the Ma'adian culture (ca. 3000 B.C.) in Lower Egypt 
is discussed briefly (p. 52). A considerable number of oxen, sheep, goats and pigs 
could be distinguished. The importance of the high frequency of pigs in early 
Neolithic sites from Lower Egypt, as contrasted to the few faint traces of pig- 
breeding in Upper Egyptian sites from the same era, is emphasized, and the 
marshy Delta region is considered to be the pig-breeding center of prehistoric 

Merkens, J. 

1929. Die Abstammung des Java-Madurarindes — zugleich eine Untersuchung 
iiber die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen von anderen Rinderrassen nieder- 
landisch Indiens nach der Prazipitationsmethode. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., 
Bd. XVI, pp. 361-400, 20 figs., 9 tables. 

An extensive series of precipitation tests was made, in order to investigate 
the serological relationship of cattle in the Dutch East Indies in general and of the 
Java-Madurese cattle in particular. The results confirmed the view that the Java 
and the Madurese cattle originated from a cross between banteng and zebu; both 
are related mutually as well, with the zebu on one side and the banteng (Bali 
cattle. Bos sondaicus) on the other. 

Zebu and Friesian-Dutch (Bos taurus) cattle show almost the same relation- 
ship reciprocally as each of them does with the banteng, the banteng being more 
closely related to the buffalo (Bos bubalis) than the two former. The buffalo 
shows less affinity to the bovines sensu stricto than those do among themselves. 
It is in an intermediate position between the investigated Bovinae and the sheep. 

The high titer of Shorthorn and Jersey against anti-Friesian-Dutch serum on 
the one hand and anti-zebu on the other seems to confirm the view of a diphyletic 
origin of European breeds of cattle. 


Mikesell, Marvin W. 

1955. Notes on the dispersal of the dromedary. Sthwest. J. Anthrop., vol. 11, 
no. 3, pp. 231-245. 

Wild Camelus dromedarius occurred in northern Africa and probably in Pales- 
tine and Arabia in Pleistocene and prehistoric times, but it became extinct in 
northern Africa during Early Dynastic time without having been domesticated 
there, leaving only a few early evidences of its presence. The most probable site 
of domestication was southern Arabia (Yemen and Hadramaut), where agricul- 
tural people with domestic animals (goats, cattle, asses) lived in close proximity 
to the desert. The dromedary first appears clearly in the historical record in 
Mesopotamia during Assyrian times. The domesticated animal was then intro- 
duced into Egypt in numbers by the Persians, although some individuals had 
probably been taken there occasionally before (cf. Free, 1944, and Forbes, 1955). 
From Egypt the domestic dromedary spread across the Sahara, very possibly prior 
to the first century a.d., the time usually assigned to this event. — C.A.R. 

Mirov, N. T. 

1945. Notes on the domestication of reindeer. Amer. Anthrop., n.s., vol. 47, 
no. 3, pp. 393-407. 

Early records and archaeological evidences of the distribution of the reindeer 
in past and present times are summarized, and previous investigations on the origin 
of reindeer-breeding are critically reviewed. A map visualizing the recent distri- 
bution of reindeer is added. 

Mohapl, Franz 

1914. Untersuchungen liber das prahistorische Rind Mahrens. Mitt, landw. 
Lehrk. Wien, Bd. II, pp. 75-97, 4 pis. with 8 figs. 

Skull fragments of cattle from several Neolithic sites from Moravia (especially 
from the lake dwellings near Olmiitz) are investigated. Most of the domestic 
specimens belong to the brachyceros and only a few to the primigenius type. It is 
suggested that it had been principally the small brachyceros ox that was distrib- 
uted and kept among the Slavonian settlements during the Neolithic. 

Mend, Robert, and Myers, Oliver H. 

1934. The Bucheum. The Egypt Exploration Society, London. 

J. W. Jackson reports on the remains of sacred cattle from the Baquaria and 
the Bucheum at Armant, Upper Egypt (New Kingdom and Roman period) (vol. I, 
chap. 17, pp. 137-142; pi. xcvii in vol. III). 

The skeletal parts examined resemble closely those of the Celtic shorthorn 
(Bos brachyceros=B. longifrons Owen). 

Morrison-Scott, T. C. 

1952. The mummified cats of ancient Egypt. Proc. zool. Soc. London, vol. 121, 
pp. 861-867. 

About 200 skulls of mummified cats, excavated at Gizeh and dating from 
600-200 B.C., form the basis for a study of ancient Egyptian cats and their identity. 



A craniological examination and statistical analysis lead to the conclusion that two 
forms of cat were mummified. The larger form, the domestic status of which is 
questioned, represents ^V/(',s chaus. The smaller and by far the commoner mum- 
mies appear to represent a domestic form of the wild F. libyca Forster, called 
F. libyca bubastis. 

Morse, E. W. 

1912. The ancestry of domesticated cattle. U. S. Dept. Agr., 27th Ann. Rep., 
Bur. Anim. Ind., 1910, pp. 187-239, pis. XIH, XIV, 16 figs. 

A treatise on cattle ancestry, introduced by a historical sketch of bovid evo- 
lution throughout the Pleistocene, wherein the probable progenitors for domestic 
oxen are sought. Bos namadicus is taken as the ancestor of B. primigenius, which 
gave rise to a number of domestic varieties (B. trochoceros, B. frontosus, B. longi- 
frons). Bos africanus Fitzinger, proposed to designate the ancient Egyptian cattle 
(cf. Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09), is regarded as a local race of the primigenius 
type. B. brachycephalus is seen as a derivative of a different species. 

Munro, Robert 

1902. On the prehistoric horses of Europe and their supposed domestication in 
Paleolithic times. Arch. Jour., vol. 59, pp. 109-143. London. 

A consideration of the paleontological and archaeological evidence known at 
the dawn of the twentieth century on horses of the Paleolithic and Neolithic 
periods in Europe. The author suggests that horses were not tamed in Europe in 
pre-Neolithic times, but that in early Neolithic periods domesticated horses de- 
rived from wild Asian species were brought into Europe by Aryan immigrants. 

Nachtsheim, Hans 

1929. Die Entstehung der Kaninchenrassen im Lichte ihrer Genetik. Z. Tierz. 
ZtichtBiol., Bd. XIV, pp. 53-109, 10 figs., 6 tables, 3 colored pis. 

The origin of strains in the domestic rabbit is studied on the basis of the 
genetics of skin and hair characters. The author lists twenty factors influencing 
color pattern and hair character, which rose by mutations during domestication, 
and which were fixed by breeding. 

The ancestor of the domestic rabbit is proved to be the wild rabbit of south- 
western Europe (Orydolagus cuniculus) which probably was first tamed by the 
Romans in Spain. 

1936. Vom Wildtier zum Haustier. viii + 100 pp., 50 figs. Alfred Metzner 

A survey of domestic animals and their origin. The rabbit is taken as a sam- 
ple species, and its genetic characters and mechanisms are compared with those 
found in other domestic animals. Special emphasis is given to the parallel char- 
acters which occur independently in various groups of domestic animals, and an 
attempt is made to work out their genetic and physiological background. 

1938. Vom Wesen der Domestikation. Biologe, Jhg. VII, Heft 10, pp. 321-329. 


It is explained that mere taming of wild animals never led to the stage of true 
domestication. The latter was reached only by selection of mutations, deleterious 
in the wild stage but useful for man, over many generations. 

Nehring, Alfons 

1936. Studien zur indogermanischen Kultur und Urheimat. Wiener Beitrage 
zur Kulturgeschichte und Linguistik, Jhg. 4, pp. 7 229. 

Investigating the origin of the Indo-European civilization, the author deals 
(pp. 64-117) with the sources of its domestic stock, mainly from the linguistic 
point of view. In some forms a local origin from southeastern Europe is conceiv- 
able, as in the case of goat and pig, the latter being domesticated usually from the 
wild, indigenous animal everywhere. In most cases, however — sheep, dog, cattle, 
horse — the domestic breeds are clearly of Asiatic origin. 

Newberry, P. E. 

1928. The pig and the cult-animal of Set. J. Egypt. Archaeol., vol. XIV, 
pp. 211-225, 2 pis., 6 figs. London. 

The first sections (1-3) contain a collection of archaeological, philological and 
ethnological evidences for the occurrence of the domestic pig in Egypt from pre- 
dynastic times. In section 4, which deals with the origin of the domestic pig, 
current views on the subject are given, and the point is stressed that pig breeding 
was associated with an agricultural but not with a pastoral life. Wild, domestic 
and feral pigs are compared, and the last is taken to be the cult-animal of Set. 

Newbold, D. 

1928. Rock-pictures and archaeology in the Libyan desert. Antiquity, vol. 2, 
pp. 261-291, 9 pis., 6 figs. 

The area of this study is generally west of the big bend of the Nile at Don- 
gola. The rock-carvings probably range in time from late Paleolithic to relatively 
recent historical time. In the pre-Christian era, the domestic camel was unknown 
in these deserts, and transportation was by horse, ox, or donkey. The hunting 
dogs shown are very spirited, and probably are of Dynastic times. The big- 
horned Bos africanus of proto-dynastic and Old Kingdom times is the commonest 
type of cattle represented; it was replaced in the Middle Kingdom by B. brachy- 
ceros. Some of the sites have only B. africanus represented, but others have 
both.— C.A.R. 

Nitsche, Max 

1924. Untersuchungen iiber fossile Schweinereste Bohmens und ihre Bezie- 
hungen zu dem iglauer Landschwein. Z. indukt. Abstammung- u. Vererb- 
Lehre, Bd. 35, pp. 59-94, 6 tables. 

A study of three sub-fossil pig skulls found in the vicinity of Teplitz (Bohemia). 
Two skulls from the late Neolithic, identified as those of descendants of Bus scrofa 
ferns are in a stage of primitive domestication. The third skull — a peat find from 
Tschentschitz, belonging to the Bronze Age — is considered a feral pig and shows 
resemblance to a Swedish race of the turbary pig S. s. palustris. 


1928. Untersuchungen tiber fossile Pferdereste Bohmens. — Ein Beitrag zur Ab- 
stammung der Pferderassen. Z. indukt. Abstammung- u. VererbLehre, 
Bd. 51. 

A detailed description of three equid skulls, found in the environs of Teplitz 
and Aussig (northern Bohemia). One skull belongs to a tarpan-like form (wild), 
the second is regarded as a dwarfed horse of the prehistoric type found in Spain 
(the proposed ancestor of the Kladruber breed), and the third is related to a 
dwarfed form of the "Occidental" race, close to the type Eqiius caballus fossilis 
var. germanicus Nehr. 

In the first part new craniometrical methods and indices for equids are sug- 
gested, which — though using traditional measurements — express the image of the 
skull characters actually seen. Former data from the literature are revised and 
compared on the basis of the new methods. 

Noack, Th. 

1907. Wolfe, Schakale, vorgeschichtliche und neuzeitliche Haushunde. Zool. 
Anz., Bd. 31, Nr. 21-22, pp. 660-695. 

An investigation of north African domestic dogs and of jackals and wolves kept 
in captivity shows that the new environment causes rapid changes in the skull of 
the wild animals, resembling partly the craniological modifications typical for the 
domestic dog. Jackals and wolves are therefore regarded as the only ancestors of 
the domestic dog, with pariah dogs and dingos representing feral types. 

1909. Haustiere der Altai-Kalmucken. Zool. Anz., Bd. 34, Nr. 4, pp. 683-695, 
750-760, 782, 787. 

In an investigation of the crania of certain domestic breeds of the Altai- 
Kalmucks (southeast of Biisk, the region around the head-waters of the River Ob) 
the author stresses the affinities of the Kalmuck dog with Canisfamiliaris inostran- 
zewi, of the Kalmuck cattle with Bos hrachyceros, and the resemblance of the 
Kalmuck horse to Equus przewalskii. 

The identification of the Kalmuck cat with a domestic variety of the East 
Asian Felis microbis is followed by a discussion of the origin of the European do- 
mestic cat, the cradle of which is found in northern Africa. 

1915a. iJber den mumifizierten Kopf eines Inkahundes aus dem Totenfelde 
von Ancon in Peru. Zool. Anz., Bd. 46, Nr. 2-3, pp. 62-64, 65-70, 6 figs. 

A mummified head found in a pre-Spanish cemetery at Ancon (Peru) is de- 
scribed, and the skull identified as Canis ingae (Tschudi). 

The author excludes the possibility that this type descended from an indige- 
nous South American canid and suggests a relationship to the European peat-dog 

1915b. Uber die Schadel vorgeschichtlicher Haushunde im Romermuseum zu 
Hildesheim. Zool. Anz., Bd. 46, Nr. 2-3, pp. 76-94, 9 figs. 

Skulls and skull-fragments of dogs from Neolithic finds near Hildesheim (Ger- 
many) are compared to recent and fossil canids and studied in terms of their phylo- 


genetic relationship. In the remains of three large dogs, a resemblance to the 
Indian wolf Canis pallipefi is found; this type is named C. pallipes domesticm and 
is seen as a connecting link in the evolution of the large domestic dogs. An achieve- 
ment of the Indo-European Aryans, it spread from east to west (contrary to the 
C. palustris group, which dispersed eastward) and became the ancestor of the 
shepherd-dog type. 

Oppenheim, Leo, and Hartmann, L. 

1945. The domestic animals of ancient Mesopotamia — according to the Xlllth 
tablet of the series Har.Ra-Hubullu. J. Near East. Stud., vol. IV, pp. 152- 


A translation and explanation of the famous Sumerian-Akkadian tablet which 
classifies sheep, goat, ox, and donkey, designating these animals with an abundance 
of names and attributes. 

Otto, F. 

1901. Osteologische Studien zur Geschichte des Torfschweines und seiner Stel- 
lung innerhalb des Genus Sus. Rev. suisse Zool., Tom. IX, No. 1, pp. 43- 
130, pis. iii-ix. 

A detailed study of the turbary pig (Sus scrofa palustris) from the Swiss lake- 
dwellings. In its first part the paper traces the evolution of the skull, noticeable 
in the difl'erent periods, from the earliest sub-fossils via the Celtic-Helvetian to 
the Bronze and Iron Age. In the second part, an examination of the crania of 
recent domestic pigs and wild boars, the turbary pig is represented as a probable 
derivative of the Asiatic boar Sus vittatus. 

Page, J. W. 

1939. From hunter to husbandman. 256 pp., illus. George G. Harrap & Co., 
Ltd. (London). 

A popular treatment, principally an attempt to trace the origins and develop- 
ment of pastoralism and agriculture, the ancestry of domestic cattle, sheep, goat 
and pig, and the origin and early evolution of the domestic ass, horse, camel and 

Patterson, Bryan 

1937. Animal remains from Alishar Huyiik. Orient. Inst. Publ. (Univ. Chicago), 
no. 30, pp. 294-309, figs. 248-254. 

Description of animal remains collected at Alishar Hiiyiik (Anatolia) during 
the excavations in 1927-32, ranging from Chalcolithic to Phrygian-Hellenistic 
layers. Most abundant among the bones of domestic animals were remains of 
sheep, which appeared to be represented by the "copper sheep" type in the Hittite 
levels, by a cross of the latter with the turbary sheep in the earlier strata. 

Some remains of a domestic goat resembled Capra prisca, while horn-cores 
of cattle pointed to the brachyceros type. Pig remains— present at all levels — 
indicated that the Alishar swine belonged to the Sus scrofa group. Fragments 
of domestic dogs are referred to as Canis familiaris palustris ladogensis and C. /. 
inostranzewi respectively. Equid remains, of indeterminable type, were scarce. 


Peet, T. Eric 

1914. The Cemeteries of Abydos, Part IL— 1911-1912. Egypt Exploration 
Fund (London), Mem. 34, pp. xvi + 133, 39 pis., 89 figs. 

According to the identifications of Kathleen Haddon (pp. 6-7), the Amratian 
levels from Abydos (30 km. north of Luxor, Egypt) yielded bones of large oxen, 
sheep (tentatively identified as Ov^'.s polaeoaegypiiciiK, but these could have been 
goats), part of a goat {Hircus mambricus), and a part of the mandible of a dog 
similar to that of a pariah dog. No statement as to possible wild or domestic 
status of the animals is made. — C.A.R. 

Pequart, Marthe, et al. 

1937. Teviec, station-necropole mesolithique du Morbihan. Arch. Inst. Paleont. 
hum., Mem. XVIII, 227 pp., 19 pis., 20 figs. 

In the faunal assemblage from the Mesolithic dwelling place at Teviec (on 
an island ofl' the Bay of Quiberon, Morbihan, France) examined by M. Boule 
were remains of a domestic dog (pp. 101-102). The dog resembled Canis familiaris 
palustris from the Swiss lake-dwellings and the Danish kitchen middens. 

Fetters, V. 

1934. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der siidafrikanischen Haushunde. Z. Saugetierk., 
Bd. IX, pp. 142-163, 11 figs. 

The origins of South African Kaffir dogs are described and studied. Recent 
specimens show a strong influence of European breeds, but the original type 
points to a close relationship with the North African greyhounds. 

Philiptschenko, J. A. 

1928. Untersuchungen an Haustieren im Turkestan. Ztichtungskunde, Bd. Ill, 
pp. 398-417, 1 map, 7 figs. , 

Summary of some results of an expedition to eastern Kasakstan on the Russian- 
Chinese border (1926-27). The fat-tailed sheep of Kasakstan is seen as a descendant 
of the wild argali, first tamed in this area, where once a member of the argali group 
— Ovis ammon koslovi (now restricted to the Gobi desert) — had been indigenous. 
The Kirghiz goat is regarded as belonging to a markhor {Capra falconeri) 

1933. [Contributions to the origin of the domestic pig.] (Russ., Eng. summ.) 
Transcript of the conference on the origin of domestic animals, held at the 
Laboratory of Genetics, Acad. Sci. USSR, Leningrad, 1932, pp. 157- 
185, 11 figs. 

Craniological studies led to the conclusion that three races of wild boars are 
ancestral to the domestic pig: (1) the European and Western Asiatic wild boar 
Sus scrofa, with three subspecies (S. s. scrofa, S. s. attila Thomas and S. s. nigripes 
Blanford); (2) the Eastern Asiatic wild boar S. orientalis, also with three sub- 
species (S. 0. continentalis, S. o. raddeanus and S. o. moupinensis); (3) the South- 
eastern Asiatic S. vittatus. 


Pia, Julius 

1941. Rassenkundliche Untersuchungen an Schiidelresten des altagyptischen 
Hausrindes. Z. Tierz. ZuchtBiol., Bd. XLVIII, pp. 17-55, 14 figs., 10 tables. 

Investigation of eleven skulls of domestic cattle from various Egyptian excava- 
tions, among them two from predynastic sites. On the basis of craniometrical 
comparison the ancient Egyptian cattle are taken to be of primigenius type, most 
resembling the Hungarian Grey Steppe breed. The animal sculptures confirm 
the view that this longhorned breed was dominant in prehistoric and early dynastic 


1942a. Untersuchungen liber die Rassenzugehorigkeit der altagyptischen Haus- 
ziege. Z. Tierz. ZuchtBiol., Bd. LI, pp. 295-307, 4 pis. 

A study of about thirty skulls or skull fragments of goats from ancient Egypt, 
all of which are designated as typical prisca. Animal remains and representative 
art indicate that this species (Copra prisca), characterized by homonymous twisted 
horns, was the only one kept in Egypt from the first dynasty until the Late King- 
dom. In prehistoric times, another, dwarfish breed of goat occurred in Egypt. 

1942b. Beobachtungen an Schadeln des altagyptischen Hausschafs. Z. Tierz. 
ZiichtBiol., Bd. LIII, pp. 171-179, 2 pis. 

Description of more than fifty skulls from ancient Egyptian sheep, all belonging 
to a spiral-horned, fleecy race w^iich appeared about the twelfth dynasty and com- 
pletely displaced the older, hairy, "goat-horned" race (cf. Dlirst and Gaillard, 
1902). The horns described are similar to those of the "Ram of Ammon," rep- 
sented in Egyptian art from the twelfth dynasty on. 

Piggot, Stuart 

1950. Prehistoric India. 293 pp., 8 pis., 32 figs. Penguin Books, Harmonds- 
worth, Middlesex. 

A short summary of the domestic stock of prehistoric India, as reflected by 
the finds from Harappa (cf. Prashad, 1936) and Rana Ghundai in Baluchistan 
(pp. 155-158). The cradle of the domestic horse is discussed briefly (pp. 266-267). 

Pilgrim, Guy E. p^ 

1947. The evolution of the buffaloes, oxen, sheep and goats. J. Linn. Soc. 
(Zool.), vol. 41, no. 279, pp. 272-286, 6 figs., 1 diagram. 

Essentially an outline of the evolution of the Bovidae as shown by the fossil 
record, but also an account of living representatives of wild oxen, sheep and goats 
and their probable relation to recent domestic forms. Otns orientalis is seen as 
ancestor of the turbary sheep; some domestic sheep are derived from O. ammon, 
while O. vignei is taken to be the probable progenitor of the prehistoric domestic 
breeds from Turkestan. 

Domestic goats are derived partly from the markhor and partly from the 
bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus) or from a cross of the latter with the descendants 
of the Pleistocene C. prisca. 

Pira, Adolf 

1909. Studien zur Geschichte der Schweinerassen, insbesondere derjenigen 
Schwedens. Zool. Jb., Allg. Zool., Suppl. 10, pp. 233 426, 52 figs., 10 tables. 


An extensive study of prehistoric pig remains from peat-moors and Neolithic 
sites in Ringsjon (Schonen), Goltland, Aloppe (Uppland) and Annerod (Bohnsliin). 
Osteological differences between wild and domestic forms are worked out (pp. 

The first domestic pigs appeared in the late Stone Age, where, besides the 
wild boar — Sus scrofa antiquus ("already hunted in previous periods) — a form 
occurred intermediate between the latter and the turbary pig, which in its pure 
type (S. .s'. pahtslris) appears only much later. The long chain of transition stages 
from the wild boar to the domestic turbary pig may indicate that the tamed 
races have been developed in Sweden as a result of a local domestication from 
an indigenous wild stock. 

1926. On bone deposits in the cave "Stora Forvar" on the isle of Stora Karlso, 
Sweden. A contribution to the knowledge of prehistoric domestic animals. 
Acta ZooL, Bd. VII, pp. 123-217, 18 tables. 

A study of the skeletal fragments from a typical Stone Age kitchen midden, 
excavated in the cavern of Stora Forvar on the island of Stora Karlso off the south- 
west coast of Gottland. 

Remains of domestic animals are absent or rare in the lowest layers (mainly 
seal bones), but they become by far the majority in the upper strata, comprisiiig 
bones of ox, dog, goat, sheep, pig and horse. The dog is of the peat-dog (palustris) 
type. The goat — a rare animal on Stora Karlso — is taken to be derived from 
Capra aegagrus, while the Forvar sheep (much more frequent than goat) is con- 
sidered a derivative of the mouflon (Ovis niHsimon), the rams being horned, the 
ewes hornless. Cattle are of the brachyceros type, which is regarded by the author 
as a domestic variation of the wild Bos primigenius ferns. 

Pittard, Eugene, and Reverdin, L. 

1921. A propos de la domestication des animaux pendant la period neolithique. 
Arch, suisses Anthrop. gen., Tom. IV, no. 3, pp. 259-271. 

A reconstruction of the domestic fauna in the Swiss Neolithic, based on a 
statistical review of animal remains from sites near the lake of Neuchatel. 

Five domestic species — cattle, dog, pig, sheep and goat — were present from 
the lowest levels, the frequency of the first three decreasing in the later strata. 
Horses were absent. While the majority of pig bones were those of young animals, 
the remains of the other forms proved to be mainly those of adults. 

Pohl, A. 

1950-52. Das Kamel in Mesopotamien. Orientalia, vol. XIX (n.s.), pp. 251- 
253; vol. XXI (n.s.), pp. 373-374. 

Camel representations in Mesopotamia from the third millennium B.C. are 
listed and seen as evidence that tamed camels were kept during the corresponding 

Prashad, B. 

1936. Animal remains from Harappa. Mem. Archaeol. Surv. India, no. 51, 
62 pp., 7 pis. 


A systematic description of the animal remains from Harappa in the Indus 
valley, collected during the seasons from 1924-25 to 1980-31. The material — 
dated back to the third millennium B.C. — contained skulls and other skeletal 
parts of dog, cattle, sheep and goat, besides fragments from the one-humped 
camel, the Indian pig (Sus cristatus, all parts of young animals), the domestic ass, 
the domesticated buffalo and an apparently domestic cat. 

The dog — named Canis tenggeranas harappensis — showed marked skull- 
affinities to the Indian wolf (Canis pallipes) and is considered the ancestor of the 
Indian greyhound. Cattle found were of the humped zebu (Bos indicus) and 
the humpless type, both regarded as descendants of B. primigenius. Sheep were 
identified with Oris vignei (domestic us). The goats of Harappa were regarded 
as derived from Capra aegagrus and their probable cradle of domestication is 
sought within the Indus valley. 

Pycraft, F. Z. S. 

1938. The origin of domesticated animals. 111. London News, vol. 102, p. 444. 

Popular discussion of some general aspects involved in the origin of domestic 
animals. Examples are taken mainly from domestic birds. 

Ralph, Elizabeth K. 

1955. L^niversity of Pennsylvania radiocarbon dates I. Science, vol. 121, pp. 
149-151, 1 fig. 

The C'^ determinations for certain key levels in Belt cave, northern Iran 
(see Coon, 1951, 1952) are: (1) Earliest pre-pottery Neolithic, with sheep and 
goats supposedly domesticated (7790 ±330 years ago); (2) Mesolithic, which con- 
tained bones of a large breed of domestic dog (11,480 ±550 years ago). — C.A.R. 

Randall-Maclver, D., and Mace, A. C. 

1902. El Amrah and Abydos, 1899-1901. Egypt Exploration Fund (London), 
Mem. 23, pp. xiii + 108, 60 pis. 

Amratian graves from the prehistoric site of El Amrah (north of Luxor, Egypt) 
yielded several clay figurines of cattle (pp. 16-17, 41; pi. ix), some of which were 
mounted four abreast on a single base and one of which showed a remarkably large 
udder. These figurines lack the kind of evidence (halters, ropes, stall, mangers, 
fencing, etc.) that would indicate domestication, but it would appear that the 
people who made these rough grave-goods knew the models as household animals. 
Figurines of pigs were rare; remains of goats are mentioned. — C.A.R, 

Randhawa, M. S. 

1946. Role of domesticated animals in Indian history. Sci. & Cult., Calcutta, 
vol. XII, no. 1, pp. 5 14, 4 figs. 

A popular account of the domestic stock of ancient India. The first domesti- 
cated breeds, kept by the Negritos and by the Proto-Australoid population, com- 
prised dog, elephant and buffalo; with the invasion of Aryan-speaking tribes 
(around 1600 B.C.) the elephant-buffalo culture was replaced by a horse-cow 
culture, though the buffalo was retained in certain parts throughout later times. 

Independent domestication centers are suggested for the Bactrian camel 
(central Asia) and the dromedary (northern Africa). Sheep and goat were prob- 
ably first domesticated in the mountains of Turkestan. 


Rathjens, Carl 

1955. Die tierischen plastischen Darstellungen. Mitt. Mus. Volkerk. Hamb., 
vol. XXIV, pp. 114-139, figs. 181-188. 

In his report on three archaeological surveys in southern Arabia, the author 
deals with the first occurrence of cattle, sheep, ass, horse, camel, and dog on the 
Arabian peninsula. The domestication of the ass is seen as one of the most ancient 
achievements. It was introduced from eastern Africa, where its domestication 
originated. Also introduced very early were ox and sheep, the former by sea and 
the latter by the land route from the north. The domestic horse is regarded as a 
much later introduction. 

The domestication of the one-humped camel started prior to the third millen- 
nium B.C. in northeastern Africa, where it later disappeared. It was probably 
introduced from Mesopotamia into Arabia before the beginning of the second 
millennium B.C. 

Reinhardt, Ludwig 

1912. Kulturgeschichte der Nutztiere. In L. Reinhardt, "Die Erde und die 
Kultur," Bd. III. Ernst Reinhard (Miinchen). 

A comprehensive compilation of archaeological and ethnological data on 
all animals ever domesticated or tamed in the Old and the New World. Mammals, 
birds, and fishes as well as "domestic" invertebrates are treated, and their evolu- 
tion from the dawn of civilization throughout history is outlined. The text is 
illustrated by many reproductions of archaeological and zoological nature. 

Rcitsma, G. G. 

1932. Het schaap. Zool. onderzoek d. Nederl. terpen. I. Wageningen. 46 pp., 
65 figs. Fonds Landbouw Export Bureau 1916-1918. 

All sheep bones encountered in the "terpen" (mounds of refuge in the pre- 
historic swamps of Holland) originate from one identical breed, the "Terp" sheep, 
which is still extant as the primitive "Drentsch Heide" sheep. It is not plausible 
to regard the "Terp" sheep as the ancestor of the "Frisian Milk" sheep. 

The encountered skulls and skull fragments of Ovis aries palustris have all 
belonged to females. O. a. Hiuderi never existed; the skeletal remnants ascribed 
to that breed are from male specimens of O. a. palustris. The so-called Bronze 
sheep never existed as an autonomous breed, but is merely a non-horned variety 
of the female O. a. palustris. The "Drentsch Heide" sheep is, through the "Terp" 
sheep, the lineal descendant of O. a. palustris. — D.H. 

1935. Het varken. Zool. onderzoek d. Nederl. terpen. II. Wageningen. 58 pp., 
93 figs. H. Veenman & Sons. 

In the "terpen," as well as near Swiss lake-dwellings, remains have been 
found of wild boars and domesticated pigs. The wild form is Sus scrofa, the Euro- 
pean wild pig. The domestic pig is derived directly from S. scrofa; the names 
"S. verrucosus," "S. vittatus," and "S. mediterraneus" are not to be considered, 
since these are also derived from S. scrofa. 

The remains of domesticated pigs found in Swiss lake-dwellings show no 
essential differences; such variability as is present is due to individual variation. 


difTerences in the degree of domestication, and differences in absolute size. Thus 
Sus scrofa paliistn'i< Riit. may be designated S. n. domei^ticus palustri^. The small 
deviations that have been noted between this latter and the Dutch mound-hog, 
sometimes called S. s. domesticus tumidorum, are exclusively the results of differ- 
ences in the degree of domestication and in differences of environment. Both 
represent one domesticated form of .S«.s' }<crnfa. — D.H. 

Reverdin, Louis 

192L La faune neolithique de la station de Saint-Aubin, Port-Con ty, Lac de 
Neuchatel. Arch, suisses Anthrop. gen., Tom. IV, no. 3, pp. 251 254. 

A short summary of the animal remains from two layers (III and IV) of the 
Neolithic site at Saint-Aubin (Switzerland). Domestic animals constituted about 
70 per cent of the total. Cattle {Bos brachijceros) occupied first place in both 
levels, followed by the dog in level IV, by the pig (Sus paluslris) in level III. 
Fewer remains belonged to the domestic sheep (4-9 per cent) and to the goat 
(Capra hircits) (4.4-6.6 per cent). 

1927-28. Recherches sur les mandibles de chien du niveau inferieur neolithique 
lacustre. Bull, schweiz., Ges. Anthrop., Tom. IV, pp. 18 20. 

Mandibles of ca. 54 dogs — a part of the faunal remains from the deepest stratum 
at Saint-Aubin (cf. Reverdin, 1921) — are studied. The animals were apparently 
slaughtered and eaten. Most of the mandibles are in the variation range of the 
peat-dog Canis familiaris palustris; some, however, deviate significantly in their 
jaw indices, which fact leads to the assumption that more than one form of dogs 
were represented among the Neolithic fauna of Switzerland. 

1928. Sur la faune du neolithique ancien et moyen des stations lacustres. Arch, 
suisses Anthrop. gen., Tom. V, no. 1, pp. 41-46. 

A brief summary of the frequency of domestic species out of the total faunal 
remains from Saint-Aubin (cf. Reverdin, 1921) and Cortaillod, in which the relative 
decrease of domestic animals during the transition from the early to the middle 
( — late) Neolithic is shown. In Saint-Aubin domestic animals (ox, pig, sheep, 
goat, dog) constituted 67.8 per cent of the total fauna in layer IV, and only 55.6 
per cent in layer III. At Cortaillod the corresponding percentages were 56.8 in 
layer IV and 54.5 per cent in layer III. The decrease affected especially sheep 
and goat (from 20.2 per cent to 11.2 per cent in Saint-Aubin) and dogs (in both 
sites from 11.6 to 3.7 per cent). 

1930 31. Sur la faune du kjokkenmodding Morbihannais, Er Yoh, et ses 
rapports avec celle des stations lacustres de la Suisses. Arch, suisses Anthrop. 
gen., Tom. VI, no. 1, pp. 79-86. 

A study of the animal remains from the Neolithic kitchen middens at Er 
Yoh (off the coast of Morbihan, France), the results of which are compared briefly 
with the fauna of the Neolithic sites from Lake Neuchatel. Most frequent remains 
among the domestic stock of Er Yoh were those of the turbary sheep (about 62 
per cent) and small cattle of brachijceros type (28.5 per cent); a few remains were 
of a larger type of cattle and of the turbary pig {Sus scrofa paluslris). The few 
equid remains are considered to belong to a wild horse. 


Revilliod, P. 

1926. Sur les animaux domestiques de la station de I'epoque de La Tene de 
Geneve et siir le boeuf brachycephale de I'epoque Romaine. Arch. Sci. 
Phys. nat., vol. VIII, pp. 65-74. 

The finds of La Tene — a settlement from the Iron Age near Geneva — are 
described (cf. Schwarz, F., 1918). Among 400 bones and bone fragments there 
were 148 of cattle, 149 of pig, 69 of sheep, 7 of goat and 26 of dog. All the cattle 
remains belonged to Bos (auriis brachijceros. Pigs were represented by Sus palustris 
and sheep showed affinities to the larger specimens of the Neolithic Ovis pnliistris. 
The single skull of a dog seemed to be related to Canis inostravzewi, though in 
size it resembled C. intermedins. 

Revilliod, P., and Dottrens, E. 

1947. La faune neolithique de la couche profonde de Saint-Aubin. II. Les 
ossements de Bos taunts brachijceros Rlitim. et de Bos primigenius Boj. Rev. 
Suisse Zool., Tom. 54, no. 22, pp. 459-544, 12 figs. 

A critical examination of the cattle remains from Saint-Aubin (cf. Reverdin, 
1921, 1928; Dottrens, 1946) and a discussion of the remains of large cattle from 
the lake-dwellings, identified as a domestic race of the aurochs jBo.s taurus primi- 
genius. A biometrical study revealed that sexes of the small. Neolithic brachij- 
ceros race were much less distinct than they are in domesticated cattle today, 
while dimorphism in sexual size is marked in the wild urus. 

The great majority of the remains from Saint-Aubin (stratum IV) belonged 
to the domestic Bos taurus brachijceros and the few primigenius bones are those of 
wild cattle, either males or females; no reason is seen to admit the existence of a 
domesticated race of the urus in the early Neolithic of this site. 

Reynolds, Sidney H. 

1939. The Bovidae. Monog. Brit. Pleist. Mamm., vol. 3, pt. 6, pp. 1-65, 
5 pis., 20 figs. 

Although the bulk of this monograph is devoted to a study of the distribution 
and osteology of Bos primigenius, consideration is also given to B. longifrons, the 
Celtic Shorthorn. This latter is clearly the domestic ox of the British Neolithic. 
It is unknown from the British Pleistocene, and was introduced as a domestic ani- 
mal to Ireland (which never had native cattle). The ancestry and place of domes- 
tication of B. longifrons are unknown; some think it was merely a domesticated and 
smaller variant of B. primigenius, but others think it a distinct wild species that 
became domesticated, whereas B. primigenius was never domesticated. 

In a historical review it is shown that "urus" (not "aurochs") is the correct 
common name for B. primigenius. — C.A.R. 

Rice, Victor 

1942. Breeding and improvement of farm animals, xx+750 pp., 212 illus. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co. (New York and London). 

Chapters 2 and 3, section I, deal briefly and in a popular way with the evolu- 
tion of man and the domestic animals. 


Richter, Curt P. 

1952. Domestication of the Norway rat and its implication for the study of 
genetics in man. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., vol. IV, pp. 273-285. 

The Norway rat was domesticated for experimental purposes, and changes 
during the course of its domestication are analyzed. These domestic modifications 
seem to rest upon changes in the endocrine system and are associated with a hypo- 
function of the adrenals and a hyperfunction of the gonads. 

It is suggested that a special selection mechanism may operate under the pro- 
tected and controlled environmental conditions found under domestication. 

Ridgeway, William 

1903. The origin and influence of the thoroughbred horse. xi-|-538pp., 143 figs. 
Cambridge Univ. Press (London). 

A wealth of data on horse breeding in prehistoric and ancient historical times 
is brought together (pp. 82-424). On the basis of these historical and of biological- 
morphological evidences as well, the author favors (pp. 425-477) a North African 
origin for a bay domestic horse, called Equus cahallus Ubycus. This variety devel- 
oped during a long succession of time in Libya and came to Egypt prior to 1500 B.C., 
about the same time that the North Eurasian (originally dun or white) horse was 
brought into Mesopotamia. By 1000 B.C. the Libyan horse spread into the Near 
East, and by blending with the Eurasian stock gave rise to all the improved breeds 
of the world. 

Riedel, Alfredo 

1948. Resti di animali domestici neo-eneolitici della caverna Pocala (Aurisina) 
conservati nel Museo dell' Istituto Geologico dell' Universita di Padova. 
Accad. Naz. dei Lincei, Rome; Rendiconti, CI. di sci. fis., mat. e nat., 
ser. 8 A, Tom. IV, pp. 445-459, 5 figs. 

A study of the neo-eneolithical faunal remains from the Pocala cavern (near 
Trieste, Italy), in which typical domestic forms known from the Swiss lake-dwell- 
ings were represented. 

Described are: Canis familiaris palustris, Sus scrofa palustris, Capra hircus, 
Ovis aries palustris, and Bos taurus brachyceros. 

1951. Risultati e significato degli studi di paleontologia degli animali domestici. 
Natura, Milano, vol. 42, fasc. 3-4, pp. 101-106. 

A study of the fossil remains of prehistoric domestic animals found in Italy 
shows that most of the species — dog, pig, goat, sheep, and ox — belong to the tur- 
bary types, similar to the forms of the Swiss lake-dwellings. The significance of a 
statistical analysis in treating sub-fossil material is discussed briefly. 

Ritzoffy, Nikola 

1932. Prinos poznavanju Mangulice. [Study of the Mangalitza pig.] Vet. 
Arhiv, knjiga II, nr. 8-9, pp. 342 412, 21 figs., numerous tables in text, 
2 tables append. (Ger. summ.) 

A short review of previous investigations on the origin of South Slavian breeds 
of swine is followed by a detailed craniological study of the Mangalitza pig, which 


is kept in Croatia and Slavonia in addition to the primitive Siska pig. The cranio- 
logical measurements and indices lead to the view that the MangaUtza breed orig- 
inated from a cross between the European wild boar S«.s- ncrofa scrofa and the 
Mediterranean boar S. mediterranus. 

1933. Die Rolle der Inzucht in der turopoljer Schweinerasse. Z. Tierz. Ziicht- 
Biol., Bd. XXVII, pp. 419-429. 

The pig breed from Turopolje in Croatia is derived directly from Sm mediter- 
raneus Ulmansky and as a result of inbreeding for centuries it retains ancient 
primitive characters. 

Robinson, A. E. 

193&. The camel in antiquity. Sudan Notes, vol. XIX, part I, pp. 47-69. 

A collection of records, archaeological and ethnological, on the occurrence of 
the Bactrian camel and the dromedary in prehistoric and historic times. The 
author holds that the ancestor of both forms still lived in predynastic periods on 
the frontiers of Egypt, retreating later into Asia, where it speciated and where it 
became domesticated by 1200 B.C. 

Rostafinski, Jan 

1933. Proba systemtyki malych bosidow europy. [Systematics of the small 
European bovids.J Rozpr. bid. z Zak. Med. wet., vol. XI, nr. 3. (Eng. 

A skull, found at Krzeszowice (Poland), is described and designated as a new 
race, named Bok colUceros Rostafinski, which in size and several characters occu- 
pies a somewhat intermediate position between Bos frontosus and B. brachyceros. 
In contrast with the latter the horn-cores of B. colUceros are keeled. 

Roy, C. R. 

1946. Unicorn in the seals of Mohenjo-Daro and its relation to the rehgion 
of the Indus valley civihzation. Sci. & Cult., Calcutta, vol. XI, no. 8, 
pp. 408-411. 

A discussion of the representations of the "unicorn," found in several sites of 
the ancient Indus valley cultures (Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, etc.). The author 
doubts the identification of the "unicorn" with the urus, and takes it rather to 
represent the wild ass. The wild ass is considered a native of the Indus valley 
from time immemorial, the domestic form being the result of an autochthonous 
breeding in association with cult-ceremonies. 

Riiger, Jakob 

1942. Die Tierreste aus der spatbronzezeitlichen Siedlung Crestaulta nach den 
Grabungen 1935-38. Rev. Suisse Zool., Tom. 49, no. 18, pp. 251-267. 

A brief description of the bone material from Crestaulta (Graubunden, Switzer- 
land), a dwelling place from the Middle Bronze, the culture of which was main- 
tained probably up to the Late Bronze. Domestic mammals constituted the great 
majority of the faunal remains. The most frequent species were the sheep, fol- 
lowed by cattle and goat. Much fewer remains were those of the domestic pig. 
Bones of dog and horse(?) were scarce. 


Rumjancev, B. F. 

1936. [Origin of the domestic horse.] (Russ.; Eng. summ.) Bull. Akad. Nauk 
SSSR, Ser. Biol., nos. 2-3, pp. 415 448, 21 figs., 2 tables. Moskva. 

The disputed przewalski ancestry for domestic horses is investigated by an 
extensive morphological comparison of the przewalski horse, the Mongolian do- 
mestic horse, and the tarpan. It is assumed that the przewalski horse— showing 
a marked resemblance to the half-ass group — played no part in the evolution of 
the domestic horse. The Mongolian horses are considered, together with the under- 
sized breeds of northeastern Europe (Clepper, Finnish, Vyatka horses), to be a 
special "northern group" of domestic horses, which originated independently from 
the "southern group" (represented by Equns caballus pumpellij from Anau; cf. 
Diirst, 1908) and the "eastern group," the heavy cart-horses of western Europe. 

Sankalia, H. D., and Karve, I. 

1949. Early primitive Microlithic culture and people of Gujarat. Amer. An- 
throp., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 28-34. 

Animal remains were recognized — associated with Microlithic artifacts — at the 
prehistoric site at Langhnaj (Gujarat, India). According to preliminary studies 
they comprised bones of sheep or goat, a large form of cattle, and pig, horse 
and dog. 

Sasaki, Kiyoshuna 

1934. Serological test for the blood relationship of some bovines with reference 
to the racial discernment. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., Bd. XXIV, pp. 287-300, 
8 figs. 
The affinities of some races of cattle were tested by means of the precipitine 
reaction. Two races of European cattle — Holstein-Friesian (of the Bos taurus 
primigenius group) and Aberdeen-Angus (derived by Areander from the hypo- 
thetical Bos laiirus akeratos) — could be distinguished by absorption tests. Hol- 
stein-Friesian, improved Japanese native, and their hybrids could not be distin- 
guished mutually. 

The blood serum of the South Korean cattle could be distinguished from that 
of the Holstein-Friesian, but not from that of the Formosan zebu (Bos zebu in- 
dicus planus), so that the South Korean cattle can be considered a strain from the 
Indian zebu. The Formosan zebu, however, is more closely related to the Holstein- 
Friesian than the Formosan water-buffalo. 

Sauer, Carl O. 

1952. Agricultural origins and dispersals, vi +104 pp., 4 pis. American Geo- 
graphic Society (New York). 

A review of "what man has done with the plants and animals at his disposal." 
In chap. 2 the cradle of earliest domestication is found in southeastern Asia, where 
the origin of animals of the household (dog, pig) was associated with vegetative 
planting — in contrast to herd-animals (cattle, sheep, goat), whose origin has been 
related to seed farming, practiced first in southwestern Asia. Chap. 3 (pp. 40-61) 
describes a similar process in the New World, represented by the tropical north- 
western South American (dog and Muscovy duck) and Andean cultures (llama, 
alpaca, guinea pig), respectively. 


The author accepts the view that sedentary fishing peoples became the first 
domesticators, that cult associations were the main cause of keeping herd-animals, 
and that the long and tedious work of domestication was accomplished before the 
Neolithic opened. 

The origin of a series of herd-animals (Equidae and Bovidae) is outlined 
(pp. 91-95). Four maps show the hearths of domestication and the routes of 
dispersal of the domestic breeds. 

Schafer, E. H. 

1950. The camel in China down to the Mongol dynasty. Sinologica, Zeitschr. 
fiir chinesische Kultur und Wissens., vol. II, pp. 165-195 and 263-290. 

A compilation of all Chinese records mentioning the camel, from the very 
beginning up to the Mongol dynasty (a.d. 1.369). The first appearance of the 
camel as a domesticated animal in the historic Chinese sources is from the northern 
border countries by the end of the Chou period (the end of the fourth century B.C.). 

Schmidt, Karl P. 

1938. Our friendly animals and whence they came. 64 pp., frontispiece, 11 pis. 
M. A. Donahue & Co. (Chicago and New York). 

A popular guide to the important domestic animals, their origin and their wild 
ancestors. Dog, cat, cattle, sheep, goat, horse, ass and pig are treated. The story 
of the domestic mammals is illustrated by twelve colored plates and many text 

Schmidt, W. 

1951. Zu den Anfangen der Herdentierzucht. Z. Ethn., Bd. 76, pp. 1-41. 

An examination and discussion of data and evidences concerning early herd- 
animals and their origin. Domestication of animals is seen as a gradual result of 
a primitive hunting civilization ("Urkultur"), nomadism associated with herd- 
animals being a necessary transitional stage. Man came in earliest touch with 
herd-animals in the steppe lands of central Asia, where the cradles of ancient 
domestication are sought. 

Reindeer supplied the material for the earliest domestication, practiced by 
Samojedic Sojots by Mesolithic (or even late Paleolithic) times, followed by horses, 
the taming of which was started in the fifth millennium B.C. among Turk tribes in 
Iran. Domestic sheep and goats are secondary to horse or camel, the latter itself 
originally a mere follower of horse-breeding. Cattle-breeding arose also as a sec- 
ondary element, but its geographical origin remains obscure. 

Schultze, Robert 

1934. Beitrag zur Monographic der Soay-Schafe. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., Bd. 
XXXI, pp. 229-237, 3 figs. 

A morphological investigation of the Soay sheep, kept in a semi-domesticated 
stage on the Hebrides near the west coast of Scotland (cf. Ewart, 1913). Since 
skulls and horns exhibit the same characters as those of the wild European mouf- 
lon, the straight derivation from Ovis musimon is taken to be certain. 


Schwangart, F. 

192S. Zur Stammes- und Typenkunde der Hauskatze. Arbeiter Reichs-Zen- 
trale fiir Pelztier und Rauchwaren-Forschung, Nr. 9, 32 pp., 9 figs. Arthur 
Heber & Co. (Leipzig). 

Felis silvestris and F. ocreata are seen as progenitors of the domestic cat, and 
the main characters of both species are worked out. The suggestion of a third 
ancestor, Otolobui^ mannal, is contested. 

1031. Neuere Hauskatzenforschung. Forsch. Fortschr. dtsch. Wiss., Jhg. VH, 
Nr. 4, pp. 59-60. 

The northern wild cat, Felis silvestris, is taken to be a secondary ancestor for 
the domestic cat besides the African F. ocreata. 

Schwarz, Ernst 

1922. tiber europaische fossile Pferde und den Ursprung der Hauspferde. Sitz. 
der paliio. Ges. zu Frankfurt a. M., 1921, Palao. Zeitschr., Bd. IV, pp. 132- 

Two types of true horses, which roamed in western and southern Europe during 
the early Pleistocene, are distinguished: Equiis caballus and E. stenonis (distin- 
guished by the degree of complexity in the enamel pattern). Both forms became 
displaced from Europe during the glacial periods. The latter migrated to Africa 
and could not come back to Europe, which got separated from North Africa (where 
E. stenonis persisted until the Neolithic). Several times in inter-glacial and post- 
glacial periods Eqiius caballus returned to Europe from central and eastern Asia. 

The domestic "Oriental" breeds (Arabian, Barb) are traced back to Equus 
stenonis. E. caballus gave rise to the heavy "cold-blooded" horses and to the 
small eastern breeds as well. 

1928. tJber diluviale Pferde der Equus caballus Gruppe. Jb. preuss. geol. 
Landesanst., Bd. 48. 

A comprehensive study of the fossil equid material from glacial and post- 
glacial times, collected in museums of central Europe. The European wild horses 
are divided into three groups: A small form (Equus caballus caballus, comprising 
E. robustus, the tarpan, and the Przewalski horse), an intermediate group (E.c. 
plicidens, often the undomesticated attendant of Paleolithic man), and a large 
type (E. c. robustus = E. robustus, E. mosbachensis, E. obeli). The latter forms did 
not survive the last glacial period and had no part in the origin of the domestic 
horses, which in their primitive forms were all of small stature. 

Domestication was either started independently in two centers, one in east- 
ern Europe and a second in central Asia, or in a large area comprising both the 

1935. On ibex and wild goat. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., vol. XVI (ser. 10), no. 94, 
pp. 433-437. 

The genus Capra, considered to include all the goats, ibexes and turs, is divided 
into a northern (Capra ibex) and a southern (C. hircus) group. The author sees in 
C. hircus aegagrus the most primitive type, which gave rise to the majority of 
domestic goats. 


The origin of the screw-horned breeds and their relation to C. prhca (cf. Ada- 
metz, 1915) is discussed in defail, the latter being regarded as an already domes- 
tic goat. 

Schwarz, F. 

1918. Tierreste aus La Tene. Anat. Anz., Bd. 50, pp. 457-472, 12 figs. 

Description and short summary of faunal remains from early excavations of 
the Iron Age site at La Tene near Geneva (for further excavations cf. Revilliod, 
1926). Domestic animals listed include horses of the Oriental type, brachyceros 
cattle (with possible incross of Bos brachycephalus), turbary pig (cross with the 
European wild boar may have occurred), two forms of sheep (Ovis aries palustris 
and a hornless type), a big-horned race of goat and the large palustris type of dog. 
None of these animals is considered a result of local domestication from indigenous 
wild forms. 

Schweinfurth, G. 

1912. Tierbilder und Felseneinschriften bei Assuan. Z. Ethnol., Bd. 44, 
pp. 627-658. 

Study and interpretation of the animal representations at Aswan, which date 
from prehistoric times on. Among the domestic animals are cattle, represented 
only by the longhorned form in most ancient times, and much later by a short- 
horned type, which was, however, never domesticated. Dogs are mainly of a grey- 
hound type, but pariah forms can be identified. The wild ibex is depicted fre- 
quently, but there are only few and unclear representations of a domestic goat. 
Camel images exist from the ancient dynasties. The pig is always shown as being 
hunted, which fact seems to prove its wild status. 

Scott, J. P. 

1954. The effects of selection and domestication upon the behavior of the dog. 
Jour. nat. Cancer Inst., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 739-758. 

On the basis of archaeological evidence and behavioral studies, it is assumed 
that the dog was domesticated from the wolf, Canis lupus, in Asia or northern 
Europe some time between 6000 and 8000 B.C. The jackal, C. aureus, is not con- 
sidered to be a possible ancestor of the dog. 

Dogs and wolves have identical basic traits of behavior, but as the result of 
artificial selection there is a great deal of variability in behavior in different breeds 
of dogs. The only new character, however, is with regard to the tail carriage, 
which varies from sickle-shaped to curled in the dog, but in the wolf is almost 
straight when relaxed. 

Wolves are scavengers as well as hunters, and could easily assume a com- 
mensal relationship with primitive man. The peaceful and socially cooperative 
home life of wolves would contribute to the ease of domestication once wolf pups 
were taken into the human home, where they would come to regard man as part 
of the social unit. Selection for docility and against wildness, with concomitant 
changes in the hormone production of the adrenal glands (cf. Richter, 1952), 
would inevitably follow. — C.A.R. 


Sewell, R. B., and Guhr, B. S. 

1931. Zoological remains from Mohenjo-Daro. In Sir John Marshall, Mo- 

henjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization, vol. II, chap. 31, pp. 649-673. 

Arthur Probsthain (London). 
An account of the animal remains from the excavations of 1922-27 at Mohenjo- 
Daro in the Indus valley. The considerable amount of bones from the humped 
cattle — most of them belonging to calves seems to indicate that large herds of 
this animal were maintained. The pig was present in large numbers in this area 
from the very earliest time, although its status of domestication cannot be taken 
as certain. The pig is identified with Sus cristatus. A fragment of an equid skull 
shows similarity to the "horse of Anau" (cf. Durst, 1908). 

Shaw, W. B. 

1936. Rock paintings in the Libyan desert. Antiquity, vol. 10, pp. 175-178, 
4 pis. 
The site is that of Gilf Kebir, a high plateau in the Libyan desert. The cattle 
portrayed, tentatively identified as Bos africanus, are thought to belong to Old 
Kingdom and pre-dynastic times. Some wear halters, so were undoubtedly do- 
mesticated. Prominent udders would indicate the importance of milk. 

A center of animal domestication is suggested for the Abyssinian plateau. — 

Sickenberg, Otto 

1930. Eine Wildziege der Capra prisca-Gvuppe aus dem Plistozan Niederoster- 
reichs. Palaeobiologica, vol. Ill, pp. 92-103, 1 fig., 2 tables, 1 pi. 

Description of a skull fragment of a wild male goat from the Pleistocene, 
found near Schleinbach (Lower Austria). The horns show the characters of Capra 
prisca, and are similar in shape and twisting to some domestic breeds (e.g., Pinz- 
gauer), which were considered previously of the aegagnis type. The ancestry of 
C. prisca for all European breeds is emphasized. 

Simpson, George G. 

1936. Horses and history. Nat. Hist., N.Y., vol. 38, pp. 276-289, frontispiece, 
6 pis. 
A short and popular account of the domestic horse and its history from earliest 

1951. Horses, xxi +247 pp., 13 pis., 17 figs. Oxford Univ. Press (New York). 

A discussion of the derivation of the domestic horse; a monophyletic origin is 
suggested (pp. 24-33). A brief survey of early records on horse-breeding is given, 
and various opinions on the origin of the most ancient breeds (Barb, Arabian) are 
reviewed briefly (pp. 34-41). 

Sirelius, U. T. 

1916 20. iJber die Art und Zeit der Ziihmung der Rentiere. Trav. ethnogr. 
Soc. finno-ougr., Tom. 33, pp. 1-5. Helsinki. 
The author finds the very beginnings of reindeer domestication in the use of 
tame reindeer as decoys while hunting wild reindeer; the use of the animal as a 


beast of burden came next and the keeping of larger herds came later. Based upon 
a find of a drag-sledge in the moors of Saasigaroi (Finland) from the Finnish Stone 
Age, it is assumed that the reindeer was already in use as a draft animal at that 

Slavvkowski, Wilhelni 

1933. Kleinasien, die Wiege der Haustierztichtung. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., 
Bd. XXVII, pp. 287-292. 

In a brief historical review the Hittite Empire is seen as the cradle of origin 
of certain domestic animals. It is suggested that the first domestication of horses, 
shorthorned breeds of cattle, and fleecy sheep took place in Asia Minor at the 
beginning of the second millennium B.C. 

1940. Die Haustiere Altkretas im minoischen Zeitalter. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., 
Bd. XLVII, pp. 166-178, 19 figs. 

Evidence is brought together to prove that the domestic animals of ancient 
Crete — cattle, goat, sheep, pig, horse — were all imported, mainly from Egypt and 
Asia Minor but also from Syria and Mesopotamia. The sources are animal repre- 
sentations and ancient literary records. 

Slijper, E. J. 

1948. Mens en Huisdier. [Men and domestic animals.] 2nd ed. pp. i-vi, 
1-410, 22 pis., 298 figs. W. J. Thieme (Zutphen). 

This book is intended for the intelligent layman; scientific terms, unsolved 
problems, and conflicting opinions are avoided as far as possible. The first few 
chapters deal with the history of the earth and its fauna, the vertebrates in par- 
ticular. One chapter is then devoted to each of the domestic animals: horse, cattle, 
goat and sheep, pig, dog, and cat. There are further chapters on the behavior of 
animals (particularly domestic animals), on the prehistory of the Netherlands, and 
on evolution. The book is well-edited and profusely illustrated, and has extensive 
bibliographies. — D.H. 

Smith, Sidney 

1928. Early history of Assyria, to 1000 B.C. xxvii-|-418 pp., 24 pis., 22 figs., 
7 maps. Chatto & Windus (London). 

A discussion (pp. 213 ff.) of the rise to power of the Mitanni kings and their 
nobles in what is now northern Syria; the date is ca. 1750 B.C. The Mitanni were 
the first to introduce the domestic horse onto the historical scene, although it had 
undoubtedly had a long prior history of domestication to the north (of. Hrozny, 
1931). Linguistic evidence indicates a previous and common Irano-Sanskrit ex- 
perience with horse-domestication, and the building of a technical vocabulary. 
— C.A.R. 

Solanet, Emilio 

1930. The criollo horse. J. Hered., vol. XXI, no. 11, pp. 450-480, 20 figs. 

A richly illustrated paper on the South American criollo horse, its origin and 
history. The author emphasizes the derivation of the criollo breed from the 
Spanish horse only. 


Sommerfeld, Kurt 

1927. Das Madurarind. Z. Tiorz. ZuchtBiol., Bd. VITT, pp. 65-112, 9 figs. 

A morphological comparison of banteng, zebu and Java-Madurese cattle. The 
last constitutes the most widespread breed in the Dutch East Indies and is a 
hybrid oil'spring of the others. The banteng is derived directly from the indige- 
nous Bos sojidaicus, which was domesticated on Bali. 

Sowerby, Arthur 

1935. The domestic animals of ancient China. China Journal, vol. 23, no. 4, 
pp. 233-243. 

Popular account of the domestic stock of the ancient Chinese from the Shang 
dynasty (1776 B.C.) on, based mainly upon animal pictures on the "Oracle bones" 
and other Chinese artifacts, especially bas reliefs and tomb figures. Special dis- 
cussion is devoted to horse, cattle (three distinct breeds already recognized in the 
Han period), and sheep, all of which are considered introduced forms, and to the 
pig of ancient China, which, in contrast to other breeds, is derived from the native 
wild boar. 

Staflfe, Adolf 

1938. iJber einen Hausschweineschadel aus dem frlihdynastischen Agypten. 
Z. Tierz. ZiichtBioL, Bd. XLI, pp. 107-115, 4 figs. 

A pig skull, found in the tomb of Hetep Heres (6th dynasty, 2400 B.C.), is 
described and considered to belong to a domestic form. In a brief discussion, the 
East Asian (vitiaius) origin for the Egyptian domestic pig is contested. The latter 
is seen as a descendant of Sus mediterraneus. 

1939. Die Haustiere auf den nordafrikanischen Feldbildern. Forsch. Fortschr. 
dtsch. Wiss., Jhg. 15, Nr. 27, pp. 344-346. 

A study of the origin of the important African domestic breeds in the Hght of 
the rock paintings from eastern and western North Africa. The author accepts 
the view that domestication originated on a religious basis and sees in the repre- 
sentations primarily an illustration of sacrificial animals. 

Both the primigenius and the brachyceros types of cattle are found from the 
prehistoric periods on; zebu representations are lacking. Two types of horses, the 
Oriental and the stouter Occidental, are distinguished, the latter dominating in 
earlier periods; an ancient domestication center for horses in northwest Africa is 
suggested. Sheep and goat are almost absent, a fact explained by their association 
with nomadic life, a settled culture being a basic condition for the practice of rock 
painting. One of the most frequently depicted domestic animals is the one- 
humped camel, which fact leads to the suggestion that the dromedary may have 
been a widely used beast of burden and a riding animal in North Africa in ancient 
times (from the third millennium B.C.). 

1940. Die Frage der Herkunft des Kameles in Afrika. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBioL, 
Bd. XLVI, pp. 135 141. 

The domestication of the camel in Africa in prehistoric times is questioned by 
the author, who postulates an invasion of camel-breeding tribes from southern 


Arabia (via Bab el Mandeb) into eastern Africa during the third or second mil- 
lennium B.C. 

1943. iJber zwei Funde vorgeschichtlicher Kurzhornrinder in Spanien. Z. 
Tierz. ZiichtBioL, Bd. LIV, pp. 99-104, 10 figs. 

Skull fragments from a Neolithic site at Tartaren (Lerida), from the Central 
Spanish grottos culture, are identified with a typical brachyceros type. The 
brochi/ccroii breed is regarded as the earliest stock of domestic cattle kept in Iberia, 
long before the appearance of primigenius derivatives. 

Stegmann von Pritzwald, F. P. 

1924. Die Rassengeschichte der Wirtschaftstiere. viii-|-371 pp., 108 figs. 
Gustav Fischer (Jena). 

Archaeological and zoological records concerning the origin and domestication 
of farm animals are summarized and examined in terms of their significance for 
studies in human history and civilization. The book deals with most of the do- 
mesticated ungulates and also with the elephant and the rabbit; numerous illus- 

Steinbacher, G. 

1953. Zur Abstammung des Alpakka-Lama Pacos. Saugetierk. Mitteil., Bd. I, 
Heft 2, pp. 78-79. 

On the basis of distinctive behavior, two groups of South American tylopods 
are distinguished: Alpaca and vicugna on the one side, llama and guanaco on the 
other. The domestic alpaca is derived from Vicugna vicugna. 

Stekelis, M. 

1950. A new Neolithic industry: the Yarmukian of Palestine. Israel Expl. J., 
Jerusalem, vol. I, pp. 1-19. 

Among the finds of a Neolithic culture (8000 B.C.) near Sha'ar ha-Golan in the 
Jordan Valley, remains of calves, goats, sheep and dogs were found (p. 16), which 
are considered evidence that pastoralism was known by that time. 

Studer, Th. 

1901. Die prahistorischen Hunde in ihrer Beziehung zu den gegenwartig leben- 
den Rassen. Abh. schweiz. palaont. Ges., vol. 28, pp. 1-137, 9 pis., 16 figs., 
numerous tables. 

A comprehensive investigation of the crania of subfossil and recent dogs, from 
which it is concluded that all the domestic breeds of today can be traced back to 
three main prehistoric forms, represented by Canis familiaris palustris, C. f. in- 
ostranzewi and C. /. leineri Studer, the latter being the ancestor of the deerhounds. 

Views on the status of the pariah dogs and the dingo are reviewed briefly. 
A dingo-like ancestor (resembling Cania tenggeranus of Java) is suggested for the 
southern breeds of domestic dogs (pariahs, greyhounds, Tibet mastiffs), while the 
Palearctic breeds are thought to be derived from a small canid {Canis ferufi Bourg) 
or from its cross with the wolf. An extensive 19th century bibliography on dog 
origin is appended. 


1906. IJber einen Hund aus der paleolithischen Zeit Russlands. Zool. Anz., 
Bd. 29, Nr. 2, pp. 24-35, 2 pis. 

A skull and other skeletal remains of a dog, which were found associated with 
Mousterian artifacts near Bologoie (Russia), are compared with remains of other 
fossil canids and with the dingo. The dog of Bologoie, which resembles the dingo 
in shape and size, is named Canis poutialini and regarded as a diluvial type, the 
first to become tamed by man; it is thought to have given rise to C. matris optimae 
(ancestor of the shepherd dogs) as well as to C. intermedium (progenitor of the 
hunting dogs) from the Bronze Age. By crossing with the wolf the breeds of large 
domestic dogs (mastiffs, deerhounds) originated, while a dwarfed form of the wild 
hound (C. mikii) gave rise to the Neolithic C. familiaris palustris. 

1907. Schadel eines Hundes aus einer prahistorischen Wohnstatte der Hall- 
stattzeit bei Karlstein, Amtsgericht Reichenhall. Mitt, naturf. Ges. Bern, 
Jhg. 1907, pp. 155-168, 2 pis. 

Description of a dog skull from the Hallstatt period, found near Berchtes- 
gaden. The skull is taken to represent the first example of a prehistoric mastiff 
type and shows close affinities to Canis inostranzewi. 

Swanton, John R. 

1940. The first description of an Indian tribe in the territory of the present 

United States. In Studies for William A. Read: A Miscellany presented by 

some of his Colleagues and Friends. Edited by Nathaniel M. Caffee and 

Thomas A. Kirby. pp. 326-338. Louisiana State University Press (Baton 


On the basis of information derived from members of a Spanish expedition to 

South Carolina in 1521, and from an Indian taken back to the West Indies by 

that expedition, Pietro Martire de Anghierra, in his De Orbe Novo, reported that 

the Indians of the region had domestic deer. These deer, it was said, were milked, 

and cheese was made of the milk. 

Although many other parts of this early account are shown to be accurate, 
Swanton denies this history of domestic deer without offering any reason for his 
opinion; presumably the lack of any confirmatory evidence from later periods 
leads him to his conclusion. — C.A.R. 

Szalay, A. B. 

1930. Polyphletische Rinderabstammung. — Eine historische Studie. Z. Tierz. 
ZuchtBiol., Bd. IX, pp. 165-232. 
Various views on the origin of domestic cattle (whether mono-, di-, or poly- 
phyletic) are reviewed and examined in the light of historical evidence. The 
author holds that the primitive domestic environment — essentially not distinct 
from the wild habitat — could not have caused great morphological changes (such 
as dwarfing) in the types of cattle, and concludes that at least five different species 
have been tamed in Africa and Asia, three of which (Bos primigenius, B. nnmadicus 
and B. hrachyceroif) are known. Zebus are regarded as derived from two or three 
independent groups, not related to the other European bovids. 


Teilhard de Ghardin, P., and Young, C. G. 

1936. On the mammalian remains from the archaeological site of Anyang. 
Palaeont. Sinica, ser. C, vol. XII, fasc. 1, 86 pp., 8 pis. 

A systematic study was made of the mammalian bones recovered at Anyang 
(northern Honan), the old capital of the semi-historic Shang culture (ca. 1400- 
1100 B.C.). Remains of the dog, a "curious" pig and a massive water-buffalo were 
abundant. Less frequently found were bones of sheep, goat, ox, elephant and tapir. 

The pig is considered to be a highly specialized breed of southern origin (called 
Sus littatKs var.fronfalis var. nov.); the ox is taken to be a domesticated race of the 
urus; and the primitive-looking buffalo (Bubalus mephisiopheles Hopw.) is regarded 
as the descendant of a Pleistocene Chinese buffalo, raised by man. The elephant 
was apparently imported from southern regions. 

Tackenberg, Kurt 

1954. Zum Siedlungswesen der Tripolje-Kultur. Anthropos, vol. 49, fasc. 1-2, 
pp. 67-87. 

Summary of the Russian excavations of the Neolithic Tripolje civilization 
between the Sereth and Dnieper rivers. Among the skeletal material the remains 
of cattle, the domestic status of which was pointed out by numerous representa- 
tions and figurines of bovids, were by far the most numerous; in two sites they 
amounted to 67 per cent of all the animal bones. On the average (summary of 
five localities) cattle constituted 37 per cent of the remains, pigs 23 per cent, sheep 
and goats 15 per cent, and dogs 5 per cent. The remainder belonged to wild ani- 
mals. In the latest period a marked decrease of pig bones became obvious, while 
— besides oxen — sheep and goats became more numerous. This process seemed to 
be associated with a decline in grain culture and an increase in pastoral economy, 
which is explained by the bioclimatic changes during the Neolithic. 

Teodoreanu, N. 

1924. Recherches sur 2 cranes de Capra prisca. Bull. Sect. sci. Acad, roum., 
Tom. IX, pp. 21 24, 4 figs. 

Two skulls of goats, found together with a skull of Ovis aries at Kronstadt 
( = Brasov, central Rumania), are described. In the circumference of the horn- 
cores and the nature of their twisting, the skulls are similar to that of Capra prisca, 
which is seen as ancestral for all the breeds of domestic goats now distributed over 
central Europe, Hungary and the Balkan Peninsula. These goats also have horns 
twisted from outside inward. 

1926. iJber ein Quartarpferd aus Siebenbiirgen — Equus transilvanicus. Z. Tierz. 
ZiichtBiol., Bd. VI, pp. 269-276, 5 figs. 

Two skulls — one of a horse, the second belonging to a dog — both from the 
Bronze Age, were found near St. Georghe-Bedehaza (Transylvania). The dog is 
identified as a variety of Canis poutiatini, and consequently named C. p. var. tran- 
silvanicus. The horse skull proved to be distinct, especially in its dental charac- 
ters, from all other Quaternary horses described, and is termed Equus transilvanicus. 

1929. Beitrage zum Studium liber die Abstammung der dobrudschaner Rinder. 
Z. Tierz. ZuchtBiol., Bd. XVII, pp. 444-479, 9 figs., 8 tables. 


An investigation of the crania of cattle from Dobruja (Rumania) and a dis- 
cussion of their origin. The skulls examined showed no affinity to that of Bos 
iaiirus primigcniu!<, but exhibited the typical characters of the brachyceros type. 
It is suggested that the brachyceros cattle were brought in prehistoric times from 
the southern Balkan to the Danubian region by Gothic and Thracian tribes. 

Thevenin, Rene 

1947. Origine des animaux domcstiques. 127 pp. Presses Universitaires de 
France (Paris). 

In a popular pamphlet, views on the origin of domestication and the rise of 
the domestic breeds are summarized. The first four chapters (pp. 5-24) are con- 
cerned with questions of general nature — definitions, motives, place and time of 
earliest domestication. Chap. 5 deals with the "companions and auxiliaries" of 
man (dog, cat, horse, ass, camel, llama and reindeer). In chap. 6 are discussed 
the origins of those animals (cattle, sheep, goat, pig and rabbit), reared for ali- 
mentary and industrial purposes. 

Thilenius, G. 

1900. Das agyptische Hausschaf. Recueil de Travaux Relatifs a la philologie 
et a I'archeologie Egyptiennes et Assyriennes, Ann. XX, n. s., Tom. VI, 
pp. 199-212. 

In a survey of animal representations from predynastic and early dynastic 
Egypt, an attempt is made to trace the ancestry of the domestic sheep kept in 
North Africa during prehistoric and ancient historic time. It is concluded that 
the wild Barbary sheep {Ammotragus tragclocephahis), an autochthonous breed, 
was domesticated in the Neolithic period and constituted the first domestic sheep 
of the Egyptians. By the end of the Old Empire the fleecy sheep had been 
introduced from Babylonia and the autochthonous breed gradually became dis- 

Uhden, Richard 

1929. Zur Geschichte des Kamels in Nordafrika. Petermanns Mitt., Jhg. 75, 
p. 307. 

Brief account of camel representations in Egypt and Libya to show that camels 
were known and kept in Egypt during all the dynastic periods. 

Ulmansky, S. 

1914. Untersuchungen liber das Wild- und Hausschwein des Pfahlbaues im 
Laibacher Moor und liber einige von diesem Schweinen abstammenden 
rezenten Rassen. Mitt, landw. Lehrk. Wien, Bd. II, pp. 17-74, 6 tables, 
4 pis. 

Identifications of remains of wild and domestic pigs found in the kitchen mid- 
dens in a lake-dwelling in the moors of Laibach (Austria). The wild boar exhibits 
an intermediate ("independent") form between the scrofa and the vittatus types, 
and is termed Sus mediterraneus. The domestic pig is seen as a direct derivative 
from this wild form and shows close affinities to the turbary pig from the Swiss 


Van Buren, Elizabeth Douglas 

1939. The fauna of ancient Mesopotamia as represented in art. Analecta 
Orientalia, vol. 18, xi+113 pp., 23 pis. 

An account of animals reproduced in Mesopotamian art from the earliest 
times to the fall of the Assyrian empire. The various species are treated in their 
systematic sequence, and archaeological as well as zoological aspects are discussed. 
The domestic animals dealt with include dog, horse, ass, mule, camel, goat, sheep, 
cattle and pig. 

Van Giffen, A. E. 

1914. Die Fauna der Wurten. Tijdschr. ned. dierk. Ver., ser. II, Deel XIII, 
pp. 1-166, 9 pis., tables in text. 

Comprehensive treatise on the faunal remains from the kitchen middens of the 
"terpen" (the artificial proto-historic hills in the lowlands along the Dutch and 
Frisian shore). The first section gives a topographical and chronological descrip- 
tion of the terpen. The second section deals in detail with the wild fauna; domestic 
animals are mentioned only briefly (see, however. Van Giffen, 1929). 

Most frequent among the domestic mammals were cattle, followed by sheep, 
dog, horse, pig (in this sequence); remains of goat were rare. On the basis of a 
statistical study it is shown that primigenius and brachyceros cattle cannot be 
derived from two distinct ancestors. 

1929. On the oldest domestic animal and its significance for palethnology. 
Koninklijke Akad. van wetenschappen te Amsterdam, Afd. nat., Proc. Sec. 
sci., vol. 32, pp. 321-329, 5 pis. 

Statistical studies of three large populations of subfossil dogs from the Meso- 
lithic Danish kitchen middens, the Neolithic and Bronze Age Swiss lake-dwellings 
and the Frisian and Groningen terpen (late Iron Age; cf. Van Giffen, 1914); for 
comparison recent dogs and related wild canids (wolf, jackal) were added. It is 
shown that the terp-dogs, which appeared to betray much wolf blood, displayed 
smaller divergencies than recent dogs, but more than the lake-dwelling and kitchen 
midden specimens. 

The earliest known European dogs (from the kitchen middens) have nothing 
in common with the analogous Asiatic forms (represented by the Anau material; 
cf. Diirst, 1908), which are derived from the Indian wolf Cams pallipes. The origin 
of the kitchen midden dogs is obscure, but they were not derived from C. palustris 
of the Swiss lake-dwellings. The terp-dogs, on the other hand, are taken to be the 
probable progenitors for the Cimbric-Megalithic and the recent Arctic dogs. 

Vaufrey, R. 

1939. Faune de Sialk. Mus. Louvre, Dept. Antiq. Orient., Ser. Archaeol., 
Tom. IV, vol. II, pp. 195-197, figs. 22, 23. 

Short description of the skeletal remains found at Sialk (west of the city of 
Kashan, Iran), the lowest layers of which are estimated to belong approximately 
to the fifth millennium B.C. 


The domestic animals from Sialk I (transition from the Neolithic to the Aeneo- 
lithic) included sheep, K<';it and cattle. From Sialk II on (already with copper 
artifacts), pig, dog and horse also appear. The sheep belongs to the Ovi'.s vignei 
group, the goat is of the Capra acgagrus type and the horse is identified with 
Equus caballus piimpeUi. 

1951. Etude paleontologique. I. Mammiferes. Arch. Inst. Paleont. hum., 
Mem. 24, pp. i;)S 217. 

In a discussion of the fauna associated with Natufian (Mesolithic) culture at 
the site of El-Khiam in eastern Palestine, the goat is listed as domestic, a small ox 
as probably domestic, and the pig as perhaps domestic. The goat, Capra hircus, 
is represented by three horn-cores (resembling those of C. aegagrus) and a variety 
of limb-bones. Bos sp. by a fragment of mandible with two milk teeth, and Bus sp. 
by a single phalanx. — C.A.R. 

Vetulani, Th. 

1928. Tarpan und polnisches Landpferd (Konik). Beitrag zur Herkunft des 
europaischen Hauspferdes. Biol, gen., Bd. IV, pp. 387-402. 

A critical examination of the skull material of fossil equids leads the author 
to set up a new subspecies of the Russian tarpan called Equus gmelini Ant. ssp. 
silvatica, or the "forest tarpan." This form is regarded as the part of the steppe 
tarpan population that remained when most of the group retreated into southern 
Russia because of climatic changes in post-glacial times. 

An analysis of the skull of a Polish country horse revealed characters of both 
tarpan types and also additional features peculiar to the Przewalski horse. 

1934. Beitrag zur Characteristic und Abstammung der anatolischen Hauszie- 
gen. Z. Tierz. ZiichtBiol., Bd. XXIX, pp. 243-286, 6 tables, 29 figs. 

The two races of Anatolian goats — the common Anatolian goat (kil-keci) and 
the Angora goat (tiftik-keci) — are described and investigated as to their origin 
and relationship to the Anatolian wild goat, Capra aegagrus. It is shown that the 
latter form cannot be considered as having any part in the ancestry of the Ana- 
tolian domestic breeds, which are regarded as two races of the Capra prisca type; 
the "kil-keci" race resembles the fossil skulls from Zloczow (cf. Adametz, 1915), 
and the Angora goat is related to the fossil goats from Zlota (cf. Adametz, 1928) and 
from Schleinbach (cf. Sickenberg, 1930). 

Vittor, D. R. 

1933. Etude zootechnique de I'elevage et I'exploitation des bovins du Sud- 
Indochinos en Cochinchine. Bull. econ. Indoch., Nov.-Dec. 1933, pp. 947- 
971, 44 figs. 

An account of the wild bovids still existing in Cochin-China (southern Indo- 
China). A detailed description of the recent domestic stock of this area is followed 
by a short discussion of the origin of the latter. 

Except for some introduced cattle, the main dairy stock kept in Cochin-China 
is derived directly or indirectly from Bos indirus. Domestic gaur and banteng are 
descendants of the wild Bibos gaur us and Bibos sondaicus respectively. 


Vofiel, R. 

1933. Tierreste aus vor- und friihgeschichtlichen Siedlungen Schwabens. Teil I : 
Die Tierreste aus den Pfahlbauten des Bodensees. Zoologica (Stuttgart), 
Bd. 31, Heft 82, Lief. 1, vii+109 pp., 14 pis., 3 tables, 4 figs. 

An extensive osteological treatment of the faunal remains from the Neolithic 
lake-dwellings around Lake Constance, especially from the site at Sipplingen exca- 
vated by H. Reinerth in 1929-30. The domestic stock is composed of dog, cattle, 
sheep, goat and pig. The great speciation of the dog — the only animal not used 
for food purposes — seems to point to its very early domestication. The majority 
of the remains fall into the Canis familiaris paliistri^ group, but those are often 
accompanied by a larger type (C /. intermedius) and a dwarf form, identified with 
C. /. spaletti. 

The small sheep (Ovis aries pahistris) possessed horns in both sexes, which fact 
seems to exclude a mouflon ancestry but points toward an origin from the non- 
European 0. vignei. A few remains were those of the domestic goat {Capra hircus, 
a screw-horned type), but the great number of bones from domestic cattle indicated 
their economic importance. The skeletal material is in part of primigenius, in part 
of brachyceros, and sometimes of mixed character. 

The domestic animal found by far most frequently was the pig, the rearing of 
which was probably favored in prehistoric times by the then dominant oak forest. 
The pig is of the scrofa type and, showing no affinities to the Oriental Siis vitta- 
tus, is brought by the author in direct relationship to the European wild boar, 
S. scrofa ferns. 

In the Bronze Age levels a few remains of a domestic horse appeared. 

Wagner, K. 

1930. Rezente Hunderassen. Vidensk. Akad. Skr. i Oslo; Matem.-Naturv. KL, 
Bd. IIL pp. 1-157, 36 figs., 12 pis., 14 tables appended. 

The osteological racial peculiarities of recent domestic dogs are examined 
in detail and compared. No conclusions are reached regarding the origin of 
the domestic dog, but archaeological findings and their earlier treatments are 
evaluated by means of the new comparative material. 

Walz, Reinhard 

1951. Zum Problem des Zeitpunkts der Domestikation der altweltlichen 
Cameliden. Z. dtsch. morgenland. Ges., Bd. 101 (n. ser., Bd. 26), pp. 29-51. 

A compilation of archaeological material on the early history of the one- 
humped camel {Camelus dromedaries) in the Orient. On the basis of the records 
collected, the author assumes that the domestication of the dromedary probably 
originated in central Arabia in the last half of the second millennium B.C. 

1954. Neue Untersuchungen zum Domestikationsproblem der altweltlichen 
Cameliden. Beitrage zur Geschichte des zweihockrigen Kamels. Z. dtsch. 
morgenland. Ges., Bd. 104, Heft 1, pp. 45-87. 

Data on the ancient history of the two-humped camel {Camelus bactrianus) 
are given, and historical as well as zoological aspects are examined. The evidence- 
results of archaeological excavations and early records from the areas under 


consideration (China, western Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia) — seem to point 
to a central Asian origin of the domestic Bactrian camel. 

Watson, D. M. S. 

1931. The animal bones from Skara Brae. In V. G. Childe, Skara Brae, 
a Pictish village in Orkney, pp. 198-204, pis. Ivii lix. Kegan Paul, Trench, 
Trubner & Co. Ltd. (London). 

A study of the animal remains found during the excavations at Skara Brae, 
a Neolithic dwelling place in Orkney (Scotland). Among the numerous cattle 
bones three groups were distinguished, taken to be representative of bulls, cows 
and bullocks of a single breed, not corresponding with longifrons or with primigenius 
cattle from other Neolithic, Bronze or Iron Age sites. Abundant also were bones 
of a slender-limbed sheep, resembling the sheep of Soay (cf. Ewart, 1913). Very 
rare remains of pigs (uncertain whether domesticated) seemed to indicate lack 
of oak or beech woods in Skara Brae times. 

The three characteristic features of this faunal assemblage, the abundance 
of sheep, the scarcity of pigs and the complete lack of dogs, are all features con- 
trary to those of Neolithic camps in England. 

Weidenreich, Franz 

1925. Domestikation und Kultur in ihrer Wirkung auf Schiidelform und 
Korpergestalt. Z. ges. Anat., Z. KonstLehre, Bd. XI, pp. 1 52, 5 figs. 

To determine the factors that caused the specific phenomena of domestication 
(and of human civilization as well), the nature of domestication and the parallelism 
between the changes produced by it are analyzed in different domestic animals. 
The author shows that the specific domestic adaptations were originally patho- 
logical (brachygnathy, dwarf forms) and were caused by the injurious factors 
of the changed environment, w^hich led eventually to a racial fixation of body 
reactions to adjust this injury. 

Werth, E. 

1939. Grundsatzliches zum Problem der Haustierwerdung. Naturwissen- 
schaften, Bd. 27, Heft 17, pp. 271-274. 

From the chronological succession of important stages in human civilization 
conclusions are drawn as to the history of domestic mammals. Domestic breeds 
are completely lacking in the Paleolithic, but dogs and artiodactyls (bovids and 
pigs) were kept from the Mesolithic on. It is only in the Neolithic that the horse — 
first in Asia, later in Europe — was added to the domestic stock. 

1940. Zur Verbreitung und Geschichte der Transporttiere. Z. Ges. Erdk. 
Berl., Hefte 5-6, pp. 181-204. 

An account of the origin and dispersal of the common pack and draft animals. 
Bovids are regarded as the most ancient transport animals, appearing in the 
late Paleolithic and dominant throughout early history from the Caspian to 
southeastern India and also in northeastern Asia. Their center of origin is found 
in India. Cattle were replaced by horses in central Asia (considered the area 
where horse-taming originated) and northeastern Europe, while Ethiopia is seen 
as the original home of the domestic donkey. 


Two other transport animals — yak (Tibet) and llama (Peru) — were only of 
local significance. The use of reindeer rose probably by association with the 
domestication of the horse, and the northeast Asian dog-sledge was an outgrowth 
of the Mongolian plough-culture. 

Wettstein, Ernst 

1924. Die Tierreste aus dem Pfahlbau am Alpenquai in Zurich. Vjschr. naturf. 
Ges. Ziirich, Jhg. 69, pp. 78-127. 

Description of animal remains in a lake-dwelling, recovered from the bottom 
of Lake Zurich. Most of the bones belonged to domestic species. Most frequently 
represented were cattle, closely followed by pigs; fewer remains were those of 
sheep (or goat) and dogs, with few bones of the horse. Among cattle three races 
could be distinguished {primigenius, brachyceros, and an intermediate type, 
resembling Bos trochoceros). Sheep were chiefly of the "copper" type (though 
hornless forms were represented). The goat was Capra hirca. The pigs of Alpen- 
quai exhibited the characters of the palustris form, the equid remains were closest 
to Equus caballus celticus, and all the dogs were identified with Canis familiaris 

Whitehead, G. Kenneth 

1953. The ancient white cattle of Britain and their descendants. 174 pp., 
48 pis. Faber and Faber, Ltd. (London). 

The theory that the wild white cattle of Britain are direct descendants of 
Bos primigenius is rejected, as this latter species was probably extinct in England 
and southern Scotland by 1000 B.C. Instead, it is thought that longhorned white 
cattle were brought from Italy by the Romans, who may have kept and bred 
them for sacrificial purposes. With the collapse of Roman power and the turmoil 
of the Germanic invasions, these herds became feral in the forests, from where 
they were subsequently driven into enclosed parks, beginning in the thirteenth 
century. These cattle are unknown in Ireland. 

The white color is genetically dominant. Only the Chillingham herd produces 
100% white calves; it is the only herd that remains pure-bred and is representative 
of the wild white forest cattle of the post-Roman, pre-Norman period. 

The domestic polled white cattle ("British Whites"), which are today a 
commercial breed, may be derived from the Fjallras cattle of Scandinavia, brought 
to England by the Vikings. — C.A.R. 

Wiklund, K. P. 

1918. Om renskotselns uppkomst. [On the origin of reindeer.] Ymer, Arg. 38, 
Heften 3, pp. 249-273. 

Reviewing archaeological and paleontological evidence on the early sledge 
cultures, the author finds that reindeer-breeding arose independently among 
Chukchi and Koryak (Lapps), but in the Tungusian and Soyotian areas it was 
a result of cultural influence from Turko-Mongolian horse-breeding. 

Wilckens, Martin 

1905. Grundziige der Naturgeschichte der Haustiere. Revised and rewritten 
by J. U. Durst, xi + 408 pp., 85 figs. Richard C. Schmidt (Leipzig). 


A summary of information on the morphology, origin, and history of the 
domestic animals. The introduction contains a classification of the domesticated 
species and deals with their geographical distribution. An attempt is made 
to cover all the animals ever considered to be domestic^ — among them various 
birds, fishes and insects. 

Major attention is directed to domestic mammals, which are treated according 
to their orders: odd-toed ungulates (horse, ass, mule), even-toed ungulates (pig, 
camel, llama, goat, sheep, cattle), rodents (rabbit) and carnivores (cat, dog). 
An outline of the zoological characters of each group is followd by a discussion 
on its origin and taming, and finally by an account of its domestic breeds. 

Wilson, James 

1909. The evolution of British cattle and the fashioning of breeds, pp. viii + 
147, text figs. Vinton & Company, Ltd. (London). 

No British cattle are directly descended from Bos primigenius, which was 
extinct — at least south of the Highlands — by the Bronze Age. B. longifrons 
were small black domestic Neolithic cattle, introduced from the mainland. The 
famous wild horned white cattle of Britain are descended from domestic white 
Italian cattle, which became feral after the Roman withdrawal. English medieval 
horned red cattle were introduced by the Angles and Saxons, and the small dun 
polled cattle of many coastal areas of Britain and Ireland were brought by the 
Norsemen. None of these cattle are economically important in the 20th century 
breeds, which are descended from Dutch importations, beginning in the 17th 
century. — C.A.R. 

Winge, Herluf 

1904. Om jordfundne pattedyr fra Danmark. [On excavated mammals from 
Denmark.] Vidensk. Medd. dansk naturh. Foren. Kbh., Arg. 1904, pp. 
193-303, pis. vii-xiii. 

An account of mammal remains from prehistoric Danish sites, listed in 
systematic, geographical and chronological sequence. Among the faunal remains 
from the early Stone Age appear domestic dog and cattle; by the later Stone 
Age pig, sheep and horse occur, and in the Bronze Age, in addition to the former, 
the domestic goat. 

1919. Dyreknogler fra bronzealders bopladser. [Animal bones from Bronze Age 
settlement.) In S. Miiller, Bopladsfund fra Bronzealderen, Aarbpger for 
nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historia, Bd. 9, pp. 93-101. 

Brief account of animal remains discovered at seven sites from Danish Bronze 
Age settlements. The domestic species identified comprised dog, ox, sheep and 
pig in all the sites; in five sites also was found the horse, among whose remains 
the author distinguishes members of the Oriental as well as of the Occidental race. 

Winkler, Hans 

1938-39. Rock-drawings of southern Upper Egypt. Vol. I, 44 pp., 41 pis., 
1 map; vol. II, 51 pp., 39 pis., 1 map. Egypt Exploration Society (London). 


The early inhabitants of the desert valleys east and west of the Upper Nile 
are studied in the light of their rock-drawings. Vol. I deals with the eastern 
desert between Quena and Aswan, vol. II with the western parts — the regions 
of Kharga, Dakhla and Uwenat. The author distinguishes two cultures that 
occurred in the desert valleys in predynastic times. The most ancient population 
consisted of hunters who kept the dog as their only domesticated animal. Those 
were followed by mountain dwellers (believed to be Hamites), who had cattle 
and some of whom became herdsmen in isolated pasture oases. 

Wissler, Clark 

1945. The domestication of animals. Nat. Hist. N.Y., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 200- 
In a popular survey of domestication, its sources and the possible motives 
that caused it are discussed. The author considers it conceivable that not man's 
activity but the behavior patterns of the animal to become domesticated may 
have been the first causes of domestication. Dog and pig are regarded as the 
first animals domesticated, next in order cattle and reindeer were tamed, then 
sheep followed by goat, still later ass followed by horse, and finally camel and 

Woolley, C. Leonard 

1934. The royal cemetery. Ur Excavations, vol. II. Oxford University Press 


A report on the animal remains discovered at Ur (Mesopotamia) is given 

by R. I. Pocock (pp. 409-410). Material from cattle, pigs and sheep is described 

briefly. No definite remains of goats and no trace of bones from horses or asses 

were detected. 

Yetts, Perceval 

1934. The horse: a factor in early Chinese history. Eurasia septentrionalis 
antiqua, Helsinki. Vol. IX, pp. 231-255, 11 figs. 

The author gives a short summary of archaeological and ethnological evidences 
of horse-breeding in most ancient China. Until the second century B.C. the 
only horse kept by the Chinese was a domesticated variety of the small, indigenous 
steppe horse, a breed which was shared with the nomadic neighbors. About 
126 B.C. superior breeds were introduced from the "countries of the West" (prob- 
ably Bactria). 

Zeuner, F. E. 

1950. The cat. Oryx, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 65-71. 

The three commonly accepted species of Old World small cats — Felis sil- 
vestris Schreber, of the forests of Europe and Asia Minor; F. manul Pall., the steppe 
cat of central Asia; and F. constaniina Forst., the yellow cat of Africa and southern 
Asia — are hardly more than geographical and ecological subspecies of a single 
species. The majority of specimens cannot be distinguished osteologically, nor 
can the domestic cat usually be separated from these wild cats except by char- 
acters of the pelage. The cat is psychologically the least domestic of animals, 
and it has undergone the least anatomical change. The cat was first domesticated 
in Egypt- — some claim as early as the Fifth Dynasty — but clear evidence of do- 


mestic status is lacking until the New Kingdom (16th century B.C.). The Romans 
carried domestic cats throughout much of Europe, where they have persisted and 
interbred with F. silvestris. — C.A.R. 

1954. Domestication of animals. In A History of Technology, Vol. I, pp. 327- 
352, "From Early Times to Fall of Ancient Empires." Ed. Charles Singer, 
et al. Clarendon Press (Oxford). 

Domestication arose as a natural symbiosis between two species of social 
animals, the less inteUigent of which became dependent upon the more intelligent. 
In the primary stages of domestication, there was no concept of purpose involved, 
as man could not foresee, several generations ahead, the values to be derived. 
Later, as v\ith reindeer domestication and attempts during Old Kingdom times 
in Egypt to domesticate gazelles, antelopes, and hyenas, purposive planning is 

Social animals that could become scavengers if the opportunity were pre- 
sented are the ones most likely to have become domesticated. The dog might 
best be derived from one of the smaller southern wolves, which tend to scavenge 
more and hunt less than do the larger northern ones. With the establishment of 
agriculture, there arose opportunities for symbiotic relations with the ungulates. 
Pet-keeping and use of pets as decoys to capture other individuals can perhaps 
e.xplain the earliest phases of domestication in ungulates, but the species in- 
volved have to be psychologically adapted to breeding in captivity, must be 
physiologically adapted to surviving under difficult conditions (including almost 
complete neglect), and must then be so bred that they will become practically 
insensitive to the opportunity for personal freedom. 

All domestic animals except the reindeer have become adapted to man's 
behavior; with regard to the latter, however, man's culture has become adapted 
to the behavior of the deer. 

Much of the article is concerned with the effects of artificial selection upon 
different domestic mammals. — C.A.R. 

1955. The goats of early Jericho. Palest. Expl. Quart., Apr., 1955, pp. 70-86, 
37 figs. 

Animal bones from the pre-pottery Neolithic of Jericho, Palestine, are identi- 
fied as wild cattle (Bos pri mi genius), gazelles, antelopes, wild pigs, domestic goats, 
and domestic dogs. Neither sheep nor ibex has been identified. The goats 
are of the Capra aegagrus type, with straight and upright horns. One male 
and two female horn-cores were recovered; comparison of these with a large 
series of cores from known wild and domestic straight-horned and screw-horned 
goats indicates that the horns of the females are useless in attempting to determine 
domestication. The male core is much thinner and with lateral, medial, and 
posterior surfaces more rounded than in any wild male C. aegagrus, and is corre- 
spondingly ovoid-shaped, instead of being irregularly angular. This cross section 
of the Jericho male horn-core more closely resembles that of domestic goats than 
that of the wild C. aegagrus, and so it is very possible that the goat of pre-pottery 
Jericho was domesticated. 

The Neolithic goat with straight horns was replaced by goats with twisted 
horns early in the Bronze Age, throughout the areas of the Fertile Crescent and 
the eastern Mediterranean. — C.A.R. 


Zurowski, Josef 

1930. Neue Ergebnisse der neolithischen Forschung im siidwestpolnischen 
Lossgebiet. Priihist. Z., Bd. XXI, Hefte 1-2, pp. 1-26, 16 figs. 

Among finds of Neolithic sites from Zlota (Sandomierz, Poland) animal 
bones belonging to cattle (hornless and shorthorned breeds), pig, dog, sheep, 
and horse were identified. 


Adda :c n a so macidata 

Gaillard, 1912 
Ammotragus tragelocephalus 

Thilenius, 1900 

Lawrence, 1951 
Asinui> atlanticHs 

Antonius, 1937 

Latcham, 1924 

Bibof! banteng 

Adametz, 1933 
Bibos frontalis 

Hermanns, 1952 
Bibos gaitrns 

Vittor, 1933 
Bibos so7idaicus 

Vittor, 1933 

Lawrence, 1951 

Gejvali, 1937-38 

Kolesnik, 1936 

Lawrence, 1951 

Melnyk, 1927 
Bos sp. 

Vaufrey, 1951 
Bos acutifrons 

Ewart, 1912 
Bos africamis 

Breuiland el Dine, 1928 

Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 

Morse, 1912 

Newbold, 1928 

Shaw, 1936 
Bos bracfujcephalus 

Gerbes, 1951 

Morse, 1912 

F. Schwarz, 1918 
Bos brachyceros 

Antonius, 1944 

Breuil and el Dine, 1928 

ChlebarofT, 1929-30 

Curwen, 1938 

Degerbol, 1939 

Durst, 1900 

Epstein, 1933 

Gaillard, 1934 

Gromova. 1927 

Herre, 1949 

Hilzheimer, 1927 

Jackson, 1932 

Keller, 1902 

Kolesnik, 1936 

Kuhn, 1935 

Lvdekker, 1912b 

Mohapl, 1914 

Mond and Myers, 1934 

Newbold, 1928 

Noack, 1909 

Patterson, 1937 

Pira, 1926 

Reverdin, 1921, 1930-31 

Rostafinski, 1933 

F. Schwarz, 1918 

Staffe, 1939, 1943 

Szalav, 1930 

Van Giffen, 1914 

Vogel, 1933 

Wettstein, 1924 
Bos brachyceros arnei 

Amschler. 1939a, 1939b 
Bos brachyceros enropaeus 

Antonius, 1919 
Bos bubalis 

Merkens, 1929 
Bos colliceros 

Rostafinski, 1933 
Bos front OS us 

Degerb0l, 1939 

Hilzheimer, 1927 

Morse, 1912 

Rostafinski, 1933 
Bos indicus 

Keller, 1902 

Kolesnik, 1936 

Lydekker, 1912b 

Prashad, 1936 

Vittor, 1933 
Bos longifrons 

Antonius, 1919 

Bate, 1938 

Bryner, 1938 

Childe, 1940 

Clark, 1952 

Dawkins and Jackson, 1917 

Degerbpl, 1939 

Ewart, 1912 

Hilzheimer, 1927 

Jackson, 1932 

Koby, 1954 

Leister, 1943 

Mond and Myers, 1934 




Morso, 1912 
Reynolds, 1939 
Watson, 19:n 
Wilson, 1909 

Box mindoroiiiix 

von Kurcr-Haimendorf, 1932 

Bos namadicKX 
Adametz, 1936 
Anderson, 1943 
Antonius, 1944 
Bisschop, 1937 
ChlebarofV, 1929-30 
Diirst, 1900, 1908 
Epstein, 1933 
Friederichs, 1933 
Hermanns, 1952 
Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
Mackay, 1938 
Melnvk, 1927 
Menghin, 1931 
Morse, 1912 
Szalay, 1930 
Bos opisfhonomus 
Bisschop, 1937 
Bos primigenius 
Adametz, 1920 
Antonius, 1919, 1944 
Bate, 1942 
Bogaevsky, 1937 
Bryner, 1932 
Cardas, 1926 
Clark, 1952 
Curwen, 1938 
Degerbdl, 1939 
Epstein, 1933 
Ewart, 1912 
Friederichs, 1933 

Gaillard, 1934 

Gerbes, 1951 

Gromova, 1927 

Herre, 1949 

Hilzheimer, 1927 

Keller, 1902 

Koby, 1954 
Female of 
Color of 

Kolesnik, 1936 

Kuhn, 1935 

Lengerken, 1953, 1955 

Mackay, 1938 

Melnyk, 1928 

Mohapl, 1914 

Morse, 1912 

Pia, 1941 

Prashad, 1936 

Reynolds, 1939 

Staffe, 1939, 1943 

Szalav, 1930 

Van Giflen, 1914 

Vogel, 1933 

Watson, 1931 

Wettstein, 1924 

Whitehead, 1953 
Wilson, 1909 
Zeuner, 1955 
Bos primigenius ferns 

Pira, 1926 
Bos primigenius hahni 

Adametz, 1925 
Bos sondaicus 

Keller, 1902 

Merkens, 1929 

Sommerfeld, 1927 
Bos tour us 

Keller, 1902 

Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 

Merkens, 1929 
Bos taurus akeratos 

Hilzheimer, 1927 

Sasaki, 1934 
Bos taurus brachyceros 

Amschler, 1939b 

Hescheler, 1920 

Hescheler and Riiger, 1942 

Madsen, 1900 

Revilliod, 1926 

Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 

Riedel, 1948 

Teodoreanu, 1929 
Bos tauriis domesticus 

Bronholm and Rasmussen, 1931 

Dottrens, 1946 
Bos taurus primigenius 

Hilzheimer, 1941 

Lydekker, 1912b 

Madsen, 1900 

Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 

Sasaki, 1934 

Teodoreanu, 1929 
Bos troclwceros 

Degerbpl, 1939 

Morse, 1912 

Wettstein, 1924 
Bos turano-mongolicus 

Kolesnik, 1936 
Bos urus primigenius 

Melnyk, 1927 
Bos zebu indicus planus 

Sasaki, 1934 

Lloyd, 1940 
Bubalus arnii 

Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
Bubalus indieus macroceros 

Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
Bubalus mephistopheles 

Teilhard de Chardin and Young, 

Camelus bactrianus 

Walz, 1954 
Camelus dromedarius 

Mikesell, 1955 

Walz, 1951 




Gejvali, 1937-38 
Canis sp. 

Bate, 1938 
Canis aureus 

Keller, 1902 

Lorenz, 1955 

Scott, 1954 
^ Canis dingo 

Durst, 1945 

Jones, 1921 
Canis fa miliar is 

Liang, 1934 
Canis familiaris dingo 

Jones, 1921 
X) Canis familiaris inostranzewi 

Amschler, 1939c, 1949 

Degerbol, 1927, 1933b 

Gandert, 1930 

Noack, 1909 

Patterson, 1937 

Studer, 1901 

Wettstein, 1924 
Canis familiaris intermedius 

Vogel, 1933 
Canis familiaris leineri 

Hue, 1906a 

Studer, 1901 
Canis familiaris matris optimae 

Amschler, 1949 

Durst, 1908 

Hue, 1906a 

Madsen, 1900 
Canis familiaris palustris 

Amschler, 1949 

Bvlin-Althin, 1946 

Clark, 1952 

Degerbol, 1933b 

Gandert, 1930 

Hue, 1906a,b 

Madsen, 1900 

Pequart, 1937 

Reverdin, 1927-28 

Riedel, 1948 

Studer, 1901, 1906 

Vogel, 1933 
Canis familiaris palustris ladogensis 

Patterson, 1937 
Canis familiaris palustris svardborgensis 

Degerbpl, 1933b, 1939 
Canis familiaris spaletti 

Vogel, 1933 
Canis ferus 

Studer, 19ai 
Canis ingae 

Noack, 1915a 
Canis inostranzewi 

Brinkmann, 1923-24 

Revilliod, 1926 

Studer, 1906 
Canis intermedius (or intermedium) 

Allen, 1920 

Gehl, 1930 

Revilliod, 1926 

Studer, 1906 
Canis le mirei 

Hue, 1906a 
Canis lupaster 
^ Hilzheimer, 1908 
Canis lupus 

Brinkmann, 1921 

Lorenz, 1955 

Scott, 1954 
Cam's matris optimae 

Bate, 1937 

Studer, 1906 
Canis mikii 

Studer, 1906 
Canis niger 

Keller, 1902 
Canis pallipes 

Brinkmann, 1921 

Gehl, 1930 

Noack, 1915b 

Prashad, 1936 

Van Gifl'en, 1914 
Canis pallipes domesticus 

Noack, 1915b 
Canis palustris '^ 

Allen, 1920 ^ 

Brinkmann, 1923-24 

Gehl, 1930 

Hescheler, 1920 

Hescheler and Riiger, 1942 

Kuhn, 1935 

Noack, 1915b 

Pira, 1926 

F. Schwarz, 1918 

Van Giffen, 1929 
Canis palustris ladogensis 

Brinkmann, 1923-24 

Degerb0l, 1927 

Gehl, 1930 
Canis poutiatini 

Baas, 1938 

Diirst, 1908 

Studer, 1906 
Canis poutiatini transilvanicus 

Teodoreanu, 1926 
Canis sinensis 

Keller, 1902 
Canis tenggeranus 

Studer, 1901 
Canis tenggeranus harappensis 

Prashad, 1936 

Gejvali, 1937-38 

Lawrence, 1951 

E. Schwarz, 1935 
Capra aegagrus 

Adametz, 1915, 1928 

Amschler, 1929a, 1931 

Antonius, 1944 

Curwen, 1938 



Hilzheimer, 1926 

Pilgrim, 1947 

Pira, 1926 

Prashad. 1936 

Sickenberg, 1930 

Vaufrev, 1939, 1951 

Vetulani, 1934 

Zeuner, 1950 
Capra falconcri 

Adametz, 1932 

Amschler, 1931 

Dalimier, 1954 

Hilzheimer, 1926, 1933 

Koch, 1937 

Philiptschenko, 1928 
Copra falconeri jerdoni 

Adametz, 1920 
Capra girgentana 

Amschler, 1937 

Crawford, 1938 
Capra hircus 

Degerbpl, 1939 

Durst, 1908 

Hescheler and R tiger, 1942 

Hilzheimer, 1933 

Koch, 1937 

Reverdin, 1921 

Riedel, 1948 

E. Schwarz, 1935 

Vaufrey, 1951 

Vogel, 1933 

Wettstein, 1924 
Capra hircus aegagriis 

Dalimier, 1954 

E. Schwarz, 1935 

Capra ibex 

E. Schwarz, 1935 
Capra prisca 

Adametz, 1915, 1928, 1932, 1941 

Amschler, 1931, 1949 

Antonius, 1944 

Batu, 1939 

Cardas, 1926 

Crawford, 1938 

Hilzheimer, 1926, 1933, 1941 

Lebel, 1939 

Patterson, 1937 

Pia, 1942a 

Pilgrim, 1947 

E. Schwarz, 1935 

Sickenberg, 1930 

Teodoreanu, 1924 

Vetulani, 1934 


Mallowan, 1947 
Equus abeli 

Antonius, 1935b 

E. Schwarz, 1928 
Equus agilis 

Dawkins and Jackson, 1917 

Equus asinus africamis 

Antonius, 1937 
Equus caballus 

Amschler, 1936 

E. Schwarz, 1922, 1928 
Equus caballus caballus 

E. Schwarz, 1928 
Equus caballus celticus 

Ewart, 1904 

Wettstein, 1924 
Equus caballus fossilis 

Durst, 1908 
Equus caballus fossilis germanicus 

Nitsche, 1928 
Equus caballus libycus 

Ewart, 1907a, 1909 

Ridgeway, 1905 
Equus caballus nehringi 

Diirst, 1908 
Equus caballus orientalis 

Amschler, 1949 
Equus caballus plicidens 

E. Schwarz, 1928 
Equus caballus przewalskii 

Bourdelle, 1932 

Lydekker, 1912a 
Equus caballus pumpellii 

Durst, 1908 

Rumjancev, 1936 

Vaufrey, 1939 
Equus caballus rob}(stus 

Brinkmann, 1920 

Diirst, 1908 
Equus caballus tijpicus 

Boule, 1910 

Ewart, 1904 

Lydekker, 1912a 
Equus equiferus 

Hilzheimer, 1935 
Equus ferus 

Antonius, 1922 
Equus gmelini 

Antonius, 1918, 1937 

Hilzheimer, 1935 
Equus gmelini silvatica 

Vetulani, 1928 
Equus gracilis libycus 

Ewart, 1909 
Equus hemionus 

Bate, 1938, 1942 

Boule, 1910 

Hilzheimer, 1935 
Equus hemionus hemippus 

Antonius, 1937 
Equus libycus 

Chubb, 1913 
Equus mosbachensis 

Antonius, 1935b 

E. Schwarz, 1928 
Equus onager hemippus 

Hilzheimer, 1941 



Equus onager indiciis 

Hermanns, 1952 
Equui^ oricntalis 

Antonius, 1922 
Equns przewolskii 

Andreeva, 1933 

Antonius, 1918, 1937 

Bishop, 1939 

Bourdelk', 1938 

Ewart, 1904, 1907a 

Herre, 1939 

Kwaschnin, 1928 

Noack, 1909 

Rumjancev, 1936 
Equus recddens 

Cardoso, 1912 
EquHS robusfus 

Antonius, 1922 

Ewart, 1907a, 1909 

E. Schwarz, 1928 
EquuH i<ih'eslriii 

Antonius, 1937 
Equus siixdensis 

Ewart, 1909, 1912 
Equus stenonis 

Boule, 1910 

Ewart, 1912 

Lydekker, 1912a 
Equus transilvanicus 

Teodoreanu, 1926 

Felis chaus 

Langton, 1940 
^ A'lorrison-Scott, 1952 
Felis constantina 

Zeuner, 1950 
Felis lihyca bubastis 
^ Morrison-Scott, 1952 
Felis monieulafa 

Lortet and Gailiard, 1903-09 
Felis manul 

Zeuner, 1950 
Felis mierobis 
^ Noack, 1909 
Felis ochreaia (or oereata) 

Langton, 1940 

Lorenz, 1955 

Schwangart, 1928, 1931 
Felis silvestris 

Hooijer, 1947 

Lorenz, 1955 

Schwangart, 1928, 1931 
^ Zeuner, 1950 
Felis silvestris libyea 

Haltenorth, 1953 


Cardoso, 1912 
Ilircus mambrieus 

Bate, 1938 

Durst and Gailiard, 1902 

Gailiard, 1934 

Peet, 1914 

[fire)(s reversus 
Gailiard, 1934 

Ibex mibians 
Gailiard, 1912 


Bryner, 1932 
Llama guanicoe 

Herre, 1952 
Lupus occidentalis 

Keller, 1902 

Mustela putorius eversmanni 
Ashton and Thompson, 1955 

Mustela putorius furo 

Ashton and Thompson, 1955 

Mustela putorius putorius 
Ashton and Thompson, 1955 


Hildebrand, 1955 

Lawrence, 1951 
Oryetolagus cuniculus 

Nachtsheim, 1929 

Gailiard, 1912 
Otolobus manual 

Schwangart, 1928 

Carruthers, 1949 

Gejvali, 1937-38 

Lawrence, 1951 
Ovis sp. 

Bate, 1938 

Hilzheimer, 1941 
Ovis anmwn 

Ewart, 1914 

Hilzheimer, 1936 

Pilgrim, 1947 
Ovis ammon koslovi 

Philiptschenko, 1928 
Ovis argali 

Cardas, 1926 
Ovis dries 

Friederichs, 1933 
Ovis aries catotis 

Lydekker, 1912c 
Ovis aries longipes 

Lydekker, 1912c 
Ovis aries musimon 

Amschler, 1949 

Lydekker, 1912c 
Ovis aries palustris 

Adametz, 1937 

Bogaevsky, 1937 

Degerb0l, 1939 

Diirst, 1904, 1908 

Ewart, 1913 

Kuhn, 1935 

Lydekker, 1912c 

Reitsma, 1932 

Riedel, 1948 



F. Schwarz, 1918 

Vogel, 1933 
Ovis aries studeri 

Diirst, 1904 

Hescheler, 1920 

Kuhn, 1932 

Reitsma, 1932 
Ovis canadensis 

Lawrence, 1951 
Ovis longipes 

Durst and Gaillard, 1902 
Ovis longipes palacoacgupticus 

Diirst and Gaillard, "l902 

Gaillard, 1934 
Ovis mnsimon 

Adametz, 1937 

Antonius, 1944 

Cardas, 1926 

Pira, 1926 

Schultze, 1934 
Ovis orientalis 

Carruthers, 1949 

Ewart, 1913 

Friederichs, 1933 

Hilzheimer, 1936 

Pilgrim, 1947 
Ovis palaeoaegypticns 

Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 

Peet, 1914 
Ovis paliistris 

Revilliod, 1926 
Ovis vignei 

Adametz, 1937 

Amschler, 1949 

Antonius, 1944 

Bishop, 1939 

Carruthers, 1949 

Ewart, 1913 

Friederichs, 1933 

Hilzheimer, 1926, 1936 

Lydekker, 1912c 

Pilgrim, 1947 

Vaufrey, 1939 

Vogel, 1933 
Ovis vignei arkal 

Adametz, 1927 

Diirst, 1908 

Menghin, 1931 
Ovis vignei cycloceros 

Adametz, 1920 
Ovis vignei domes ticus 

Prashad, 1936 


Gejvali, 1937-38 
Sus sp. 

Bate, 1938 

Hilzheimer, 1941 

Vaufrey, 1951 
Sus cristatus 

Adlerberg, 1933 

Prashad, 1936 

Sus ferns europaeus 

Cardas, 1926 
Sus mediierraneus 

Adlerberg, 1933 

Belie, 1939 

Hilzheimer, 1926 

Reitsma, 1935 

RitzofTy, 1932, 1933 

Staffe, 1938 

Ulmansky, 1914 
Sks meridionalis 

Belie, 1939 
Sus orientalis 

Adlerberg, 1933 

Philiptschenko, 1933 
Sus orientalis continentalis 

Philiptschenko, 1933 
Sus orientalis moupinensis 

Philiptschenko, 1933 
Sus orientalis raddeanus 

Philiptschenko, 1933 
Sus palustris 

Bogaevsky, 1937 

Hescheler, 1920 

Reverdin, 1921 

Revilliod, 1926 

Wettstein, 1924 
Sus scrofa 

Adlerberg, 1 933 

Amon, 1938 

Belie, 1939 

Hescheler, 1920 

Hilzheimer, 1926 

Patterson, 1937 

PhiHptschenko, 1933 

Reitsma, 1935 

Ulmansky, 1914 
Sus scrofa attila 

Amschler, 1939b 

Philiptschenko, 1933 
Sus scrofa antiquus 

Pira, 1909 
Sus scrofa domesticus palustris 

Reitsma, 1935 
Sus scrofa domesticus tumulorum 

Reitsma, 1935 
Sus scrofa ferus 

Amschler, 1949 

Baumler, 1921 

Clark, 1952 

Nitsche, 1924 

Vogel, 1933 
Sus scrofa nigripes 

Philiptschenko, 1933 
Sus scrofa palustris 

Clark, 1952 

Degerbpl, 1939 

Gaillard, 1934 

Havesson, 1933 

Nitsche, 1924 

Otto, 1901 

Pira, 1909 



Reitsma, 1935 

Reverdin, 1930 HI 

Riedel, 1948 
Siis t^crofa ncrofa 

KelnV, 19;}8," 1939 

Philiptschenko, 1933 

Ritzofty, 1932 
Sus scrofa vittatus 

Kelm", 1939 
Sus verrucosus 

Amon, 1938 

Reitsma, 1935 
Sus vitiafus 

Adlerberg, 1933 

Amon, 1938 

Baiimler, 1921 

Belie, 1939 

Bylin-Althin, 1946 
Diirsi, 1908 
Hilzheimer, 1926 
Otto, 1901 

Philipt.schenko, 1933 
Reitsma, 1935 
Staffe, 1938 
Ulmansky, 1914 
Vogel, 1933 
Siis viHatns frontalis 

Teilhard de Chardin and Young, 1936 

Thos aureus 
Matt hey, 1954 

Vicugna vicugna 
Steinbacher, 1953 


A, blood-group, sheep; Kacrkowski, 1928 
Absence of: 

dog, Star Carr, England; Fraser and King, 1954 

northern Scotland, Neolithic; Watson, 1931 
horse, prehistoric northern Iraq; Braidwood, 1954 
primigene cattle, Celtic period, Switzerland; Gerbes, 1951 
Adaptations to domestication; Weidenreich, 1925 
Addax, Egypt; Gaillard, 1912 
Adrenalin, role in socialization; Funkenstein, 1955 
Aggressive animals; Funkenstein, 1955 
Agricultural association with pigs; Newberry, 1928 
Agricultural people and domestication; Linton, 1955 

and dromedary, Arabia; Mikesell, 1955 

China; Bishop, 1933 
Denmark; Curwen, 1938 
preceding animal domestication; Bate, 1932 
world; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
Allopatric races, pig; Kelm, 1939 

Alpaca; Curwen and Hatt, 1953; Herre, 1952; Krieg, 1929; Steinbacher, 1953 
Amnion, Ram of, Egypt; Pia, 1942b 
Anatomy, general: 
cats; Zeuner, 1950 

cattle, East Indies; Sommerfeld, 1927 
horses; Rumjancev, 1936 
sheep, Soay; Schultze, 1934 
Anatomy, detailed: 

brachygnathy; Weidenreich, 1925 
brain-case, canids; Dahr, 1942 

craniometrical methods and indices, equids; Nitsche, 1924 
craniometry, cattle; Pia, 1941 
dentition; Herre, 1951 
dingo; Jones, 1921 

Equus transilvanicns; Teodoreanu, 1926 
horses; Boicoianu, 1932; E. Schwarz, 1922 
dwarfing, cattle; Szalay, 1930 
dwarfism; Weidenreich, 1925 
endocrine balance, domestic animals; Klatt, 1948 

pigs; Helm, 1938 
gonads, hyperfunction, rat; Richter, 1952 
horn-cores, goats; Bate, 1953; Teodoreanu, 1924; Zeuner, 1955 

keeled. Bos colliceros; Rostafinski, 1933 
hump, zebu, origin of; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
mandible; Herre, 1951 

dog; Hue, 1960b; Reverdin, 1927-28 
metapodials, of wild and domestic sheep; Andreeva, 1933 
osteology, animals in Switzerland; Vogel, 1933 

cattle; Degerb0l, 1939; Hescheler and Riiger, 1942 

dogs; Dahr, 1937; Wagner, 1930 

goats; Hildebrand, 1955 

horse; Kwaschnin, 1931; Lundholni, 1949; Brinkmann, 1920; Cardoso, 1912 

Odocoileus; Hildebrand, 1955 

pig; Pira, 1909 



Anatomy (continued): 

sheep; Hildcbrand, 1955 
urus; Reynolds, 19.39 
osteometrv, cattle; Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 
dogs; Haag, 1948 
equids; Bourdelle, 1932 
pathological characters; Weidenreich, 1925 
phalanges, cattle; Dottrens, 1946 
precipitine reaction, cattle; Sasaki, 1934 
serology, canids; Dlirst, 1945 

cattlb; Merkens, 1929; Sasaki, 1934 
sheep; Kacrkowski, 1928 
skeleton, cattle; Epstein, 1933 
skeletons, Artiodactvla; Lawrence, 1944 
skull, cattle; Herre,"l949 
dog; Hue, 1906a 
Don-Danube goat; Lebel, 1939 
goat; Sickenberg, 1930 
growth, cattle; Hilzheimer, 1926 
domestic animals; Hilzheimer, 1928 
skulls, asses; Brinkmann, 1920 

canids; Gehl, 1930; Hilzheimer, 1908 

canids, effects of captivity; Noack, 1907 

cats; Morrison-Scott, 1952 

cattle; Chlebaroff, 1929-30; Noack, 1909; Teodoreanu, 1929 

developmental arrest; Hilzheimer, 1926 

dingo; Jones, 1921 

dog; Lawrence, 1944; Degerbpl, 1927; Noack, 1909; Studer, 1900 

equids; Vetulani, 1928 

goats; Pia, 1942a 

growth, pig: Helm, 1938 

horse; Kwaschnin, 1928; Noack, 1909; Boicoianu, 1932; Nitsche, 1924 

pig; Otto, 1901; Philiptschenko, 1933; Ritzoffy, 1932; Baumler, 1921; Belie, 

variability, ferrets and polecats; Ashton and Thompson, 1955 
statistical studies, cattle; Van Giffen, 1914 
statistics, dogs; Van Giffen, 1929 
teeth (see dentition) 
Ancestry of cattle; Morse, 1912 
Ancient domestic mammals; Keller, 1919 
Anger, physiology of; Funkenstein, 1955 
Animal behavior; Slijper, 1948 
Animal breeding, independent; Menghin, 1931 

Animal representation: rock-drawings, figurines, paintings, seals, art, etc : 
Africa, north, rock-drawings, horse and camel; Lhote, 1953 
north, rock-paintings, domesticants; Staffe, 1939 
northeast, representations of camel; Uhden, 1929 

northeast, rock-drawings of domesticants; Breuil and Kemal el Dine, 1928 
Asia, southwestern, representations of domesticants; Friederichs, 1933 
China; Sowerbv, 1935 
Crete; Slawkowski, 1940 
Egypt, engravings, cattle; Caton-Thompson and Gardner, 1934 
figurines, cattle; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 
figurines, sculptures, paintings, domesticants; Gaillard, 1912 
representations of cats; Langton, 1940 
of dogs; Houbard, 1934 

of domesticants; Pia, 1941, 1942a, b; Schweinfurth, 1912 
of fauna; Boessneck, 1953 
of sheep; Thilenius, 1900 
rock-drawings, dog and cattle; Winkler, 1938-39 
Europe, representations of horse; Hermes, 1935-36 


Animal representation {continued): 

France, cave-paintings, cattle; Koby, 1954 

representations of equids; Bourdelle, 1938; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946 

Indus Valley, seals, domesticanls; Mackay, 1938 

Mesopotamia, images, domesticants; Heinrich, 1936 
representations of camel; Pohl, 1950-52 
of domesticants; Van Buren, 1939 

Near East, representations of cattle; Durst, 1900 

Palaearctic, representations of dogs; Hilzheimer, 1932 

Sudan, rock-drawings, domesticants; Newbold, 1928 

Sumeria, sculpture of goat; Amschler, 1937 

Switzerland, representations of domesticants; Kramer, 1900 

Ukraine, figurines, cattle; Tackenberg, 1954 
figurines, domesticants; Melnyk, 1928 
representations of domesticants; Bogaevsky, 1937 
Antelope, Beatrix, Egypt; Gaillard, 1912 

domestication of, Egypt; Zeuner, 1954 
Anti-A, sheep; Kacrkowski, 1928 
Apis, steer of; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 
Archaeological sites (see Local place names) 
Arni buffalo; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 

Denmark; Mathiassen, 1944 

Mesopotamia, with water buffalo; Lloyd, 1940 
Artiodactyla, bones of. North America; Lawrence, 1951 
Aryans and origin of dog; Noack, 1915b 
Asino-hemion, type of equid; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946 
Ass, domestic; Antonius, 1918; Bourdelle, 1932; Lydekker, 1912a 

Asia, central; Menghin, 1931 

China; Erkes, 1940 

Egypt; Hilzheimer, 1935 

Iraq; Lloyd and Safer, 1945 

Syria; Mallowan, 1947 
Ass, half-ass; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946 
Ass, wild: 

Africa, northwestern; Lydekker, 1912a 

Egypt; Gaillard, 1934 

France; Boule, 1910; Bourdelle, 1938 

Indus valley; Roy, 1946 
Aurochs (see Urus; also Reynolds, 1939) 
Autochthonous domestication, pig, Sweden; Pira, 1909 

Baboons; Funkenstein, 1955 

Banteng; Adametz. 1933; Ewart, 1912; Keller, 1902; Melnyk, 1927 

East Indies; Merkens, 1929; Sommerfeld, 1927 

Indo-China: Vittor, 1933 
Battle-ax; Childe, 1941 

Battle-ax people, Europe, eastern; Clark, 1941 
Beatrix antelope, Egypt; Gaillard, 1912 
Beaver, giant; Galbreath, 1947 
Bees, Central America; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
Behavior, dog and wolf; Scott, 1954 
Bergen Museum, dogs in; Brinkmann, 1921 
Bibliography of camel; Hilzheimer, 1913 

of cat; Hilzheimer, 1913 

of dog, 19th century; Studer, 1900 

of domestic animals. Near East; Dyson, 1953 

of fauna of ancient Egypt; Boessneck, 1953 

of horse; Lundholm, 1949 

of reindeer; Jettmar, 1952; Hatt, 1919 
Bibovine group; Leister, 1943 
Biocoenosis, natural; Hediger, 1938 
Biogeographical conditions, glacial; Lundholm, 1949 


Biological inferiority and domestication; Ilcdigpr, 1938 
Birds, domestic; Reinhardt, 1912; Wilckens, 1905 

origin of; Pycraft, 1988 
Blood-groups, sheep; Kacrkowski, 1928 
Bones, identification; Lawrence, 1944 

individual variation; Hildebrand, 1955 
Bovidae, evolution; Pilgrim, 1947 
Bovids, wild; Antonius, 1919 
evolution of; Morse, 1912 
Lido-China; Vittor, 1988 
Bovinae, evolution; Kolesnik, 1986 

inter-relationships among; Merkens, 1929 
Breeds of domestic animals; Mason, 1951 
Bridoon-bit ; Hermes, 1986 
Buffalo, African, in Egypt; Gaillard, 1988 
water; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
China; Bishop, 1989 
East Indies; Merkens, 1929 
Formosa; Sasaki, 1984 
Iraq; Lloyd, 1940 
Philippines; von Fiirer-Haimendorf, 1932 

Camel and /or dromedarv; Forbes, 1955; Hilzheimer, 1913 

Africa, north; Lhote, 1933; Staffe, 1939, 1940 
northeast; Robinson, 1936 

Arabia; Walz, 1951 

Asia; Robinson, 1936 

central; Menghin, 1931; Walz, 1954 

China; Erkes, 1940; Schafer, 1950 

Egypt; Caton-Thompson, 1984; Free, 1954; George, 1950 

Mesopotamia; Pohl, 1950-52 

Near East; Albright, 1940; Mikesell, 1955 

Palestine; Isserlin, 1950 

Sahara; Newbold, 1928 
Camel-hair, Egypt, early Dynastic; Caton-Thompson, 1934 
Camelidae, South America; Herre, 1952; Latcham, 1924; Steinbacher, 1953 
Canids, wild. North America; Haag, 1948 
Captivity, effects on skull; Noack, 1907 
Carabao (see Buffalo, water) 
Caravans, desert travel by; Forbes, 1955 
Carbon-14 determinations, Iran; Ralph, 1955 
Cart-horse, Europe, west; Rumjancev, 1936 

Cat; Haltenorth, 1958; Hilzheimer, 1913; Lorenz, 1955; Schwangart, 1928, 1931; 
Zeuner, 1950 

adrenal physiology; Funkenstein, 1955 

Anatolia; GejvaH, 1938-89 

Asia, central; Noack, 1909 

Denmark; Curwen, 1938 

Egypt; Brunton and Caton-Thompson, 1928; Langton, 1940; Morrison-Scott, 

Holland; Hooijer, 1947 
Cattle-breeders, Ukraine; Hancar, 1951 
Cattle, breeds and or types; Lydekker, 1912b 

Aberdeen-Angus; Ewart, 1912; Sasaki, 1984 

Afrikaner; Epstein, 1988 

Albanese; Chlebaroff, 1929 80 

Bechuana; Epstein, 1983 

brachycephalid; Adametz, 1925 

brachyceros, Egypt; Bisschop 1987 

brachyceros-type; Adametz, 1933 

British white; Whitehead, 1958 

Cadrow; Ewart, 1912 


Cattle, breeds and /or types (continued): 

Celtic shorthorn; Chlldc, 1940; Ewart, 1912; Mond and Myers, 1934; Reynolds, 

Damara; Epstein, 1933 
dun-polled; Wilson, 1909 
Fjiillras; Whitehead, 1953 
Eriesian-Dutch; Merkens, 1929 
Galloway; Ewart, 1912 
Hamitic longhorn; Epstein, 1933 
Holstein-Friesian; Sasaki, 1934 
horned red; Wilson, 1909 
Hottentot; Epstein, 1933 
Hungarian Grey Steepe; Pia, 1941 
identification of; Bronholm and Rasmussen, 1931 
Illyrian; ChlebarofT, 1929-30 
Japanese native; Sasaki, 1934 

Java-Madurese; Merkens, 1929; Sommerfeld, 1927 
Jersey; Merkens, 1929 
Kalmuck; Kolesnik, 1936; Noack, 1909 
Kirghiz; Kolesnik, 1936 
Korean, south; Sasaki, 1934 

longhorn, Hamitic; Bisschop, 1937; Epstein, 1933 
long-horned; Caton-Thompson and Gardner, 1934; Curwen. 1938; Durst, 1900; 

Newbold, 1928; Schweinfurth, 1912; Pia, 1941 
longhorned white; Whitehead, 1953; Wilson, 1909 
Macedonian; ChlebaroJf, 1929-30 
Madurese; Sommerfeld, 1929 
Mongol; Kolesnik, 1936 
Montagne; Cardas, 1926 
Montenegrin; ChlebarofT, 1929-30 
oriental; Ewart, 1912 
polled; Auld, 1927 
polled white; Whitehead, 1953 
Rhodope; ChlebarofT, 1929-30 
Sanga; Bisschop, 1937 
short horned; Caton-Thompson and Gardner, 1934; Curwen, 1938; Epstein, 

1933; Schweinfurth, 1912; Slawkowski, 1933; Merkens, 1929 
Watusi; Epstein, 1933 
wild white; Whitehead, 1953 
Yakut; Kolesnik, 1936 

Zulu; Epstein, 1933 ^ ^^^^ ^ 

Cattle, domestic and /or possibly domestic; Antonius, 1919; Durst, 1900; Ewart, 
1912; Hahn, 1909; Hilzheimer, 1927; Koby, 1954; Kolesnik, 1936; Leister, 
1943; von Lengerken, 1953, 1955; Lydekker, 1912b; Morse, 1912; Pilgrim, 1947; 
Sauer, 1952; Szalay, 1930 

Africa; Bisschop, 1937 
south; Epstein, 1933 

Anatolia; Slawkowski, 1933 

Balkans; ChlebarofT, 1929-30 

British Isles; Reynolds, 1939; Whitehead, 1953; Wilson, 1909 

Bukhara; Adametz, 1936 

Denmark; Bronholm and Rasmussen, 1931; Mathiassen, 1944 

East Indies; Merkens, 1929; Sommerfeld, 1927 

Egypt; Adametz, 1920; Winkler, 1938-39 

Egypt, southwest; "Shaw, 1936 

Eurasia; Brvner, 1932 

Europe; Clark, 1947; Jackson, 1932 

Europe, northern; Herre, 1949 

France; Adametz, 1925 

Holland; Van GifTen, 1914 

Indo-China; Vittor, 1933 

Indus Valley; Sewell and Guhr, 1931 

Iran; Amschler, 1939a, b 


Cattle, domestic and or possibly domestic (continued): 

Iraq: Lloyd and Saber, 1945 

Mesopotamia; Heinrich, 1936 

Moravia: Mohapl, 1914 

Pakistan: Mackay, 1938 

Palestine: Vaufrev, 1951 

Spain: Adametz, 1925; Staile, 1943 

Sudan; Newbold, 1928 

Switzerland: Dottrens, 1946; Gerbes, 1951; Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 

Turkestan, western; Menghin, 1931 

Ukraine; Melnvk, 1927 
Cattle, wild: Lvdekker, 1912b 

Egypt; Gaillard, 1934 

Eurasia; Bryner, 1932 

France; Kobv, 1954 

Palestine; Bate, 1932, 1942 
Chariot-horses; Mallowan, 1936 

Cheese from deer milk, South Carolina; Swanton, 1940 
Chicken (sre Fowl, jungle) 
Chromosome number, canids; Matthey, 1954 
Chronology of domestication (see Sequence of domestication) 
Civilization, general; Hehn, 1902 

Africa, north; Lhote, 1953 

Indo-European; Nehring, 1936 
Civilization and cattle; von Lengerken, 1953 

and domestication; Stegmann von Pritzwald, 1924; Weidenreich, 1925 
Civilizations, independent; Menghin, 1931 

Classification of animals, Sumeria; Oppenheimer and Hartmann, 1945 
Climatic change, Sudan; Bate, 1953 

and pig distribution; Amon, 1938 

and tarpan distribution; Vetulani, 1928 

Ukraine, Neolithic; Tackenberg, 1954 
Color similarities, banteng and brachyceros cattle; Adametz, 1933 
Commensalism, wolf and man; Scott, 1954 
Convergent evolution: Cabrera, 1932 
Co-operative social life, wolves; Scott, 1954 

Co-variation, length and breadth of brain-case, canids; Dahr, 1942 
Coyote; Dahr, 1937; Galbreath, 1947 
Cross section of horn of goat; Koch, 1937 
Cult-animal of Set, Egypt; Newberry, 1928 
Cult-association, oxen; Hahn, 1909 
Cultivated plants; Mangelsdorf, 1952 
Cultivation of plants, Africa, and goats; Kroll, 1928 
Cultural background, domestication; Keller, 1902 

loans, China; Bishop, 1939 

Amratian. Egypt, cattle figurines; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 
domestic animals; Jackson, 1937 
fauna; Peet, 1914 

Anau, Turkestan, SSR, domestic animals; Menghin, 1931 

Andronovo, northern Siberia, domestic animals; Jettmar, 1950 

Badarian, Egypt, fauna; Brunton and Caton-Thompson, 1928 

comb-ceramic, northeastern Europe, domestic animals; Gandert, 1930 

Ertebole, Denmark, domestic animals; Madsen, 1900 

Halafian, Syria, domestic animals; Mallowan, 1946 

Karasuk, northern Siberia, domestic animals; Jettmar, 1950 

Maglemosian, England, fauna; Eraser and King, 1954 

Minussinsk, Siberia, origin of horse; Amschler, 1934 

Mullerup, Denmark, domestic animals; Curwen, 1938 

Natufian, Palestine, dog; Bate, 1937 
fauna; Bate, 1932, 1937; Vaufrey, 1951 

Protoeskimoid, arctic Siberia, dog; Flor, 1930 

Protosamojed, arctic Siberia, reindeer; Flor, 1930 


Culture {continued): 

Sh'xriK, northern China, fauna; Teilhard de Chardin and Young, 1936 

Tripolje, Ukraine, domestic animals; Bogaevsky, 1937; Hancar, 1951 
fauna; Gromova, 1927; Tackenberg, 1954 

Uruk, Iraq, water buffalo; Lloyd, 1940 

Yarmukian, Palestine, domestic animals; Stekelis, 1950 
Culture, swine-breeding, southern Asia and Europe; Menghin, 1931 

adapted to reindeer behavior; Zeuner, 1954 

Dairy purposes and origin of domestication; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 

Dawn of domestication, Palestine; Josien, 1955 

Deer, domestic. South Carolina; Swanton, 1940 

Defective mutations, dogs; Krieg, 1929 

Degree of domestication, pigs; Reitsm.a, 1935 

Desert travel by animals; Forbes, 1955 

Desert valleys, culture of, Egypt; Winkler, 1938-39 

Dingo (see Dog, breeds, dingo) 

Diphvletic ancestrv, horse; Chubb, 1913 

Diphvletic origin of cattle, Europe; Merkens, 1929; Morse, 1912 

of dog; Noack, 1907 

of goats; Keller, 1902 

of horses; Keller, 1902 

of pig; BeUc, 1939 
Dispersal, routes of; Sauer, 1952 
Docility, selection for; Richter, 1952; Scott, 1954 
Dog, breeds and 'or types; Ash, 1927; Hilzheimer, 1932 

African, ancient; Kroll, 1928 

Aguara; Hummerlink, 1928 

aico; Hummerlink, 1928 

Arctic; Van Giffen, 1929 

basket maker; Lawrence, 1944 

borzoi; Brinkmann, 1921 

Brazilian roe-dog; Hummerlink, 1928 

Cimbric-Megalithic; Van Giffen, 1929 

deerhound; Brinkmann, 1923-24; Studer, 1901, 1906 

dingo; Baas, 1938; Dahr, 1937. 1942; Diirst, 1945; Etheridge, 1916; Jones, 1921; 
Noack, 1907; Studer, 1901 
Russia; Studer, 1906 

Egyptian; Houbard, 1934 

Eskimo; Allen, 1920 

Finnish; Brinkmann, 1923-24 

gray deerhound; Brinkmann, 1923-24 

Great Dane-Newfoundland-St. Bernard; Hooijer, 1947 

greyhound; Brinkmann, 1921; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09; Studer, 1901 
Africa; Kroll, 1928 
Egypt; Schweinfurth, 1912 
Indian; Prashad. 1936 
North African; Fetters, 1934 

husky; Haag, 1948 

Kaffir; Fetters, 1934 

Kalmuck; Noack. 1909 

mastiff, Pakistan; Mackay, 1938 

mastiffs; Studer, 1906, 1907 

Mexican pug; Hummerlink, 1928 

"pilustris-svardborgensis;" Degerb0l, 1927 

pariah; Amschler, 1939b; Durst, 1945; Noack, 1907; Feet, 1914; Studer, 1901 
Egypt; Schweinfurth, 1912 

peat-dog; Brinkmann, 1923-24 
Sweden; Fira, 1926 
Switzerland; Reverdin, 1927-28 

pug, Mexican; Hummerlink, 1928 

roe-dog, BraziHan; HummerHnk, 1928 


Dog, breeds and/or types (coHlinued): 
shepherd; Noack, 1915b; Studer, 1906 
short-nosed; Lawrence, 1944 
Techichi; Lawrence, 1944 
terp-dogs; Van Giffen, 1929 
Tibetan mastiffs; Studer, 1901 
turbary; Brinkmann, 192;3-24; Gandert, 1930 
Dog, domestic and or possibly domestic; Ash, 1927; Cabrera, 1932; Hilzheimer, 

1932; Linton, 1955; Lorenz, 1955; Matthey, 1954; Scott, 1954; Studer, 1901; 

Wagner, 1930 
Africa, north; Noack, 1907 
China; Bishop. 1933, 1939; Liang, 1934 
Denmark; Degerbol, 1927, 1933; Johansen, 1919 
Egypt; Adametz, 1920; Hilzheimer, 1908; Winkler, 1938-39 
England; Eraser and King, 1954 
Eurasia; Dahr, 1942 
Eurasia, southern; Menghin, 1931 
Europe; Dahr, 1937; Hue, 1906a; Van Giff'en, 1929 

northeastern; Gandert, 1930 
Finland; Luho, 1948 
France; Hue, 1906b; Pequart, 1937 
Germany; Baas, 1938; Gehl, 1930 
Holland; Hooijer, 1947 
Illinois; Galbreath, 1947 
Iran; Bate, 1937 

North America; Allen, 1920; Haag, 1948 
Palestine; Bate, 1932, 1937, 1942; Zeuner, 1955 
Russia; Studer, 1906 
Scandinavia; Brinkmann, 1921, 1923-24 
Siberia; Flor, 1930 
South America; Krieg, 1929 
Sudan; Bate, 1949, 1953 
Switzerland; Brinkmann, 1923-24 
West Indies; Hummerlink, 1928 
Dog head, mummified, Peru; Noack, 1915a 
Dog, wild, Australia {see Dingo) 
Dogs, semi-domesticated. Grand Chaco; Krieg, 1929 

used as food; Gandert, 1930; Lawrence, 1944; Reverdin, 1927-28 
Domestic animals, surveys of: 

General: Adametz, 1926; Antonius, 1922, 1944; Cabrera, 1922; Coon, 1954; 

Curwen and Hatt, 1953; Davis, 1954; Dobzhanskv, 1955; Feige, 1927, 1928; 

Hehn, 1902; Herre, 1955; Hilzheimer, 1909-10, 1913, 1926; Keller, 1902, 1919; 

Klatt, 1927; Kronacher, 1928; Krumbiegel, 1947; La Baume, 1949; Linton, 

1955; Page, 1939; Pycraft, 1938; Reinhardt, 1912; Rice, 1942; K. P. Schmidt, 

1938; W. Schmidt, 1951; Slijper, 1948; Stegmann von Pritzwald, 1924; 

Thevenin, 1947; Werth, 1939; Wilckens, 1905; Wissler, 1945; Zeuner, 1954 

Africa, east; Kroll, 1928 
north; Staffe, 1939 
south; Kroll, 1928 

Anatolia; Gejvali, 1937-38; Patterson, 1937 

Arabia; Rathjens, 1955 

Asia, central; Hermanns, 1949 

southwest; Friederichs, 1933; von Fiirer-Haimendorf, 1955 

Austria; Amschler, 1939c 

British Isles; Childe, 1940; Dawkins and Jackson, 1917 

Central America; Latcham, 1924 

China; Sowerby, 1935 

north; Anderson, 1943; Bylin-Althin, 1946; Teilhard de Chardin and 
Young, 1936 

Crete; Slawkowski, 1940 

Denmark; Curwen, 1938; Degerb0l, 1939; Madsen, 1900; Winge, 1904, 1919 


Domestic animals, surveys of (continued): 
Regional : 

Egypt; Adametz, 1920; Boessneck, 1953; Brunton and Caton-Thompson, 
1928; Caton-Thompson and Gardner, 1934; Debono, 1948; Gaillard, 1912, 
1934; Jackson, 1937; Kuschel, 1911 ; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09; Menghin, 
1933; Menghin and Amar, 1932; Peet, 1914; Schweinfurlh, 1912 
Eurasia; Meissner, 1926; Nehring, 1936 
Europe; Clark, 1952 

France; Reverdin, 1930-31; Revilliod, 1926 
Holland; Van Giffen, 1914, 1929 
India; Hermanns, 1952; Randhawa, 1946; Sankalia and Karve, 1949 

northwestern; Piggot, 1950; Prashad, 1936 
Indus Valley; Sewell and Guhr, 1931 

Iran; Amschler, 1939a, b; Coon, 1951, 1952; Vaufrey, 1939 
Iraq; Braidwood, 1952, 1954; Braidwood and Braidwood, 1950 
Italy; Riedel, 1948, 1951 
Libyan Desert; Breuil and el Dine, 1928 
Mesopotamia; Hilzheimer, 1941; Oppenheim and Hartmann, 1945; Van Buren, 

1939; Woolley, 1934 
Near East; Dyson, 1953 
Norway; Br0gger, 1940 
Pakistan; Mackay, 1938 
Palestine; Josien, 1955; Stekelis, 1950 
Poland; Zurowski, 1930 
Roumania; Cardas, 1926 
Scotland; Watson, 1931 
Siberia, northern; Jettmar, 1950 
South America; Latcham, 1924 
Sweden; Pira, 1926 

Switzerland; Hescheler, 1920; Hescheler and Ruger, 1939, 1940, 1942; Kramer, 
1900; Kuhn, 1932, 1935; Pittard and Reverdin, 1921; Reverdin, 1921, 1928; 
Ruger, 1942; F. Schwarz, 1932; Vogel, 1933 
Syria; Mallowan, 1946, 1947 
Turkestan, southwestern; Diirst, 1908 

Ukraine; Bogaevsky, 1937; Gromova, 1927; Hancar, 1951; Melnyk, 1928; 
Tackenberg, 1954 
Domestication, dawn of, Palestine; Josien, 1955 
definition of; Dobzhansky, 1955 
determination of, by goat horn-cores; Zeuner, 1955 
Domestication, effects of; Antonius, 1922; Feige, 1928; Herre, 1951, 1955; Hilz- 
heimer, 1926; Klatt, 1927; Kronacher, 1928; Lundholm, 1949; Weidenreich, 
1925; Zeuner, 1954 
dog, behavior; Scott, 1954 
goat; Dalimier, 1934 
pig; Pira, 1909 

crania; Baumler, 1921 
Domestication, mode of origin; Keller, 1919, 1922; Klatt, 1927; Kronacher, 1928; 
Lundholm, 1949; Weidenreich, 1925 
agricultural people; Linton, 1955 
behavior of domesticable animals; Wissler, 1945 
decoy-use in hunting; Sirelius, 1916-20; Zeuner, 1954 
economic use of young; Clark, 1948 
hunters; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
hunting tribes, importance of; Koppers, 1932 
nomadism, importance of; W. Schmidt, 1951 
pet-keeping; Linton, 1955; Zeuner, 1954 
psychological factors; Hediger, 1938 
reindeer, herding of; Linton, 1955 
influence of; Jettmar, 1952 

on horse-breeding; Werth, 1940; Wiklund, 1918 
religious; Meissner, 1926; Roy, 1946; Sauer, 1952; Staffe, 1939 

with cattle; Hahn, 1909 
scavenging, in dog; Haag, 1948 


Domestication (contintied): 

selection, artificial, after taming; Nachtsheim, 1938 
social factors, man and animals; Zeuner, 1954 
symbiosis, natural; Zeuner, 1954 
taming, followed by selection; Nachtsheim, 1938 
Domestication, origins of; Meissner, 1926 
Domestication, site of; Feige, 1927, 1928 

Abyssinia; Shaw, 1936 

Anatolia; Slawkowski, 1933 

Asia, southeastern; Linton, 1955; Sauer, 1952 

Asia, southwestern; von Fiirer-Haimendorf, 1955; Linton, 1955; Sauer, 1952 

Egvpt; Linton, 1955 

Orient; Hehn, 1902 

South America; Sauer, 1952 

sub-Arctic; Koppers, 1932 

Turkestan, western; Hermanns, 1949 
Domestication, studv of: Antonius, 1922; Braidwood, 1954; Herre, 1939, 1955; 

Keller, 1902; Klatt, 1927 
Domestication of various animals: 
alpaca, Peru; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
ass, Africa, eastern; Rathjens, 1955 

Ethiopia; Werth, 1940 

Mediterranean area, eastern; Lydekker, 1912a 
banteng, Java; Sommerfeld, 1927 
buffalo, water, India; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
camel, Asia, central; Forbes, 1955; Randhawa, 1946; Walz, 1954 

Mongolia; Linton, 1955 
cat, Africa, north; Noack, 1909 

Egypt; Zeuner, 1950 
cattle, Asia, southwestern; Kolesnik, 1936 

Bactria and periphery; Hermanns, 1952 

Europe, north; Herre, 1949 

India; Durst, 1900; Werth, 1940; Kolesnik, 1936 
dog, Egvpt; Hilzheimer, 1908 

Russia; Studer, 1906 

Siberia, northern; Flor, 1930 
domesticants, earliest. Near East; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
dromedary, Africa, north; Randhawa, 1946 

Africa, northeastern; Rathjens, 1955 

Arabia; Albright, 1950; Forbes, 1955; Mikesell, 1955; Walz, 1951 
fowl, jungle, Asia, southeastern; Linton, 1955 
goat, Turkestan; Randhawa, 1946 
"herd animals," Asia, southwest; Sauer, 1952 

South America; Sauer, 1952 
horse, Africa; Ridgeway, 1905; Sommerfeld, 1927 

Asia; Flor, 1930; Linton, 1955; Werth, 1940; Jackson, 1932 

China; Erkes, 1940 

Eurasia, north; von Fiirer-Haimendorf, 1955 

Europe, eastern; Clark, 1941 

Iran; Hehn, 1902 

Oriental, Africa, north; Chubb, 1913 

Russia, southern; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 

Scandinav'ia; Jackson, 1932 

sub-Arctic; Koppers, 1932 
"household animals" Asia, southeast; Sauer, 1952 
llama, Peru; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
pig, Asia, southeastern; Linton, 1955 
pig, Tschuwasian breed, Tien-Shan; Havesson, 1933 
rabbit, Spain; Nachtsheim, 1929 
reindeer, Asia, central; Laufer, 1917 

Siberia, northern; Flor, 1930 

sub-Arctic; Koppers, 1932 


Domestication of various animals (continued) : 

sheep, Africa, north; Thilenius, 1900 
Asia, central; Philiptschenko, 1928 
Turkestan; Randhawa, 1946 

turkey. Central America; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
Donkey (see Ass, domestic) 
Dorcas gazelle, Egypt; Gaillard, 1912 
Draft animal; Menghin, 1931; Werth, 1940 

dog used as; Luho, 1948 

reindeer used as; Sirelius, 1916-20 
Draft horses, European; Chubb, 1913 

northeastern Syria; Mallowan, 1936 
Drag-sledge, use with reindeer, Finland; Sirelius, 1916-20 
Drift, genetic; Mangelsdorf, 1952 
Dromedary {sec Camel) 
Dromedary, wild, extinction of; Mikesell, 1955 

North Africa; Mikesell, 1955 
Dry environment and domestication; Linton, 1955 
Dwarf dog; Brinkmann, 1923 24 

Switzerland; Vogel, 1933 
Dwarf goats; Dalimier, 1954 

Egypt; Bate, 1953; Pia, 1942a 

Sudan; Bate, 1949, 1953 
Dwarf pig; Clark, 1952 
Dwarfed horses, Bohemia; Nitsche, 1924 
Dwarfed hound. Neolithic; Studer, 1906 
Dwarfing in cattle; Szalay, 1930 

Ecologic factors, pigmentation; Feige, 1927 

Ecological subspecies, cats, wild; Zeuner, 1950 

Economic areas, domestication; Feige, 1928 

Elephant, China, north; Teilhard de Chardin and Young, 1936 

Elephant-buffalo culture, India; Randhawa, 1946 

Environment, arid, and domestication; Linton, 1955; Klatt, 1948 

differences in, and variation in animals; Reitsma, 1935 

effect of; Weidenreich, 1925 

original, of domestic animals; Feige, 1927 

of primitive domestication; Szalay, 1930 
Equid, wild, Europe; Boule, 1910 

Palestine; Bate, 1942 
Equids, distribution; Antonius, 1937 
Ethnological data, horse; Hancar, 1952 
Ethnology and domestication; von Furer-Haimendorf, 1955 

of cattle; Hahn, 1909 
Evolution; Slijper, 1941 

of Bovidae; Morse, 1912; Pilgrim, 1947 

of Bovinae; Kolesnik, 1936 

convergent; Cabrera, 1932 

of domestic animals; Kronacher, 1928; Reinhardt, 1912; Rice, 1942 

under domestication; Mangelsdorf, 1952 

of man; Rice, 1942 

natural; Mangelsdorf, 1952 

parallel; Herre, 1952 
Evolutionary factors in domestication; Klatt, 1927, 1948 
Extermination of urus; Lydekker, 19r2b 
Extinction of wild dromedary; Mikesell, 1955 

Farmers, Ukraine; Hancar, 1951 
Farming, Europe; Clark, 1952 

mixed, Syria; Mallowan, 1946 
Fauna, wild, China; Liang, 1934 
Fear, physiology of; Funkenstein, 1955 


Feral canids; Noack, 1907 

Feral cattle, British forests; Whitehead, 1953 

British Isles; Wilson, 1909 
Feral dog (dingo), Australia; Jones, 1921 
Feral horse, Russia; Kwaschnin, 19.'n 
Feral pigs of Set, Egypt; Newberry, 1928 
Ferret, domestic; Ashton and Thompson, 1955 
Figurines, cattle, Egypt; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 

domestic animals, Indus \'alley; Mackay, 1938; Melnyk, 1928 

horse; Mallowan, 1936 

pigs, Egypt; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 
First known appearance, dating, etc.: 

cat, northern Europe; Hooijer, 1947 

dog, Denmark; Degerbol, 1927 
Germany: Baas, 1938 

large type, northern Europe; Hooijer, 1947 
Iran; Ralph, 1955 

domestic animals, Denmark; Curwen, 1938 

dromedary, Assyria; Mikesell, 1955 

goat, Iran; Ralph, 1955 

horse, southwestern Asia; Smith, 1928 

sheep, Iran; Ralph, 1955 
Fish, domestic; Reinhardt, 1912; Wilckens, 1905 
Fishing peoples as first domesticators; Sauer, 1952 
Flight for survival; Funkenstein, 1955 
Flora, Europe; Clark, 1952 
Food, dogs used as; Gandert, 1930; Lawrence, 1944; Reverdin, 1927-28 

gifts, mortuary; Jettmar, 1950 
Forest, Europe; Clark, 1947 
Forest tarpan, Russia; Vetulani, 1928 
Fort, Roman, Scotland; Ewart, 1907a 
Fowl, jungle (poultry, chickens); Adametz, 1925 

Asia, southeastern; Linton, 1955 

China; Bishop, 1939 

Denmark; Curwen, 1938 
Freedom, avoidance of; Zeuner, 1954 

Garden tilling; Coon, 1954 
Gaur; Ewart, 1912 

Indo-China; Vittor, 1933 
Gayal, India; Hermanns, 1952 
Gazelle, dorcas; Gaillard, 1912 
Gazelles, domestication of, Egypt; Zeuner, 1954 
Genealogical table, horses, Ur; Amschler, 1935 
Geographic distribution of Bovinae; Kolesnik, 1936 

of domestic animals; Feige, 1927, 1928 

of wild equids; Antonius, 1937 
Genetic characters, independent occurrence of; Nachtsheim, 1936 
Genetic dominant, white, in cattle; Whitehead, 1953 
Genetic drift; Mangelsdorf, 1952 
Genetics, polled cattle; Auld, 1927 

rabbit; Nachtsheim, 1929, 1936 
Germanic invasions and British cattle; Whitehead, 1953 
Ghosts, chickens guard against; Linton, 1955 
Giant beaver; Galbreath, 1947 
Goats, breeds and 'or types: 

Anatolian; Vetulani, 1934 

Angora; Adametz, 1941; Batu, 1939 

Angora, Anatolia; Vetulani, 1934 

Asia, southwest; Zeuner, 1955 

big-horned; Kramer, 1900 

Don-Danube; Lebel, 1939 

Girgentinian goat; Adametz, 1932, 1941 


Goats, breeds and/or types {continued): 

Kirghiz; Hilzheimer, 1926; Philiptschenko, 1928 

Mamber; Gaillard, 1934; Mallowan, 1946, 1947 

Pinzgauer; Sickenberg, 1930 

screw-horned (.^ee spiral-horned) 

spiral-horned; Antonius, 1944; Bate, 1940; Koch, 1937; Mallowan, 1946, 1947; 
E. Schwarz, 1935 

straight-horned, Asia, southwest; Zeuner, 1955 

twisted-horned {see spiral-horned) 
Goats, domestic and or possibly domestic; Adametz, 1928; Dalimier, 1954; Hilz- 
heimer, 1933; E. Schwarz, 1935 

Altai; Amschler, 1931 

Anatolia; Vetulani, 1934 

Asia; Batu, 1939 

Caucasus; Amschler, 1929a 

Egypt; Adametz, 1920; Pia, 1942a; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 

Europe; Adametz, 1915 

Europe, central and southeastern; Teodoreanu, 1924 

Iraq; Lloyd and Safer, 1945 

Kashmir; Dalimier, 1954 

Mesopotamia; Heinrich, 1936 

Palestine; Vaufrey, 1951; Zeuner, 1934 

Poland; Adametz, 1915 

Sicilv; Adametz, 1932 

Sudan; Bate, 1949, 1953 

Sumeria; Amschler, 1937 

Tibet; DaHmier, 1954 

Turkestan, western; Menghin, 1931 
Goats, wild; E. Schwarz, 1935 

bezoar; Amschler, 1929a; Bate, 1942 (possibly ibex); Dalimier, 1954; Pilgrim, 
1947; Vetulani, 1934 

markhor; Dalimier, 1954; Koch, 1937; Phihptschenko, 1928; Pilgrim, 1947 
Gods, offerings for; Meissner, 1926 

Golden Fleece, history of Merino sheep; Burns and Moody, 1935 
Goose; Clark, 1948 

domestication of; Clark, 1948 
Grain-culture, decline of, in Ukraine; Tackenberg, 1954 
Grave-goods, figurines, cattle, Egypt; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 
Graves, Amratian, animal figurines; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 

animals; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 
Ground sloth; Galbreath, 1947 
Group A and Group O, sheep; Kacrkowski, 1928 
Guanaco; Herre, 1952; Steinbacher, 1953 
Guinea-pig; Krieg, 1929; Latcham, 1924 

Hair, rabbit, genetics of; Nachtsheim, 1929 

Half-ass (see Onager) 

Halters, cattle, Libyan Desert; Shaw, 1936 

Hand-sledges; Luho, 1948 

Hare (see Rabbit) 

Har. Ra-Hubullu tablet, Mesopotamian animals; Oppenheim and Hartmann, 

Hatshepsut, Queen; Chard, 1937 
Herders, reindeer; Linton, 1955 
Herdsmen, mountain, with cattle, Egypt; Winkler, 1938-39 

Syria; Mallowan, 1946 
Herdsmen-cultures, Tibet; Hermanns, 1949 
Heredity, domestic animals; Herre, 1952 
Heteronymous horns, goats; Dalimier, 1954 
Heteronymous twist, horn of goat; Koch, 1937 
History and domestication; Stegmann von Pritzwald, 1924 
History of domestication, 19th century; Keller, 1902 


Hoe-agriculture; Menghin, 19.'31 
Homonymous twist, horn of goat; Koch, 1937 
Horse-breeding, Bactria; Hancar, 1952 
Europe; Hermes, 1935 36 
hterary evidence of; Hrozny, 1931 
Horse, breeds and or type; Lydetcker, 1912a 

Arabian; Bourdelleand Trombe, 1946; Chard, 1937; Chubb, 1913; Ewart, 1907a- 

Kwaschnin, 1928; E. Schwarz, 1922; Simpson, 1951 
Barb; E. Schwarz, 1922; Simpson, 1951 
Belgian; Boicoianu, 1932 

Camargue; Bourdelle, 1938; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946 
Celtic; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946; Ewart, 1904, 1907a 
Clepper; Rumjancev, 1936 

cold-blooded; Antonius, 1935a, b; E. Schwarz, 1922 
criollo; Cardoso, 1912; Solanet, 1930 

eastern; E. Schwarz, 1922; Lundholm, 1949; Rumjancev, 1936 
Finnish; Rumjancev, 1936 
forest tvpe; Ewart, 1907a, b, 1912 
Hutzel; Cardas, 1926 
Indo-European; Antonius, 1935a 
Kalmuck; Noack, 1909 
Kladrub; Antonius, 1935b; Nitsche, 1924 
Libyan; Ewart, 1907a; Ridgeway, 1905 
Lithuanian; Kwaschnin, 1928, 1931 
Lithuanian-PoHsh-Esthonian group; Kwaschnin, 1931 
Lofoten; Brinkmann, 1920 
Moldavian; Cardas, 1926 
Mongolian; Antonius, 1918 

Nordic; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946; Lundholm, 1949 
Norse; Ewart, 1904, 1907a 
Norseman's; Chubb, 1913 
northern group; Rumjancev, 1936 
Norwegian Lofoten; Brinkmann, 1920 
Occidental; Antonius, 1918; Boicoianu, 1932; Hilzheimer, 1935; Kwaschnin, 

1931; Nitsche, 1924; Winge, 1919 
Oriental; Antonius, 1935a; Chubb, 1913; Ewart, 1907a; Hilzheimer, 1935; 

Kwaschnin, 1928, 1931; Schwarz, 1922; Winge, 1919 
Plateau variety; Ewart, 1907a, b 
Polish country horse; Vetulani, 1928 
Przewalski; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946; Cardas, 1926; Chubb, 1913; Ewart, 

1907a; Hilzheimer, 1935; Kwaschnin, 1931; Lundholm, 1949; Rumjancev, 

1936; E. Schwarz, 1928; Vetulani, 1928 
Shetland; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946; Chubb, 1913 
Shmudic; Kwaschnin, 1928 
Siwalik; Ewart, 1909, 1912 
"southern group"; Rumjancev, 1936 
Spanish; Antonius, 1935b; Solanet, 1930 
steppe; Yetts, 1934 
steppe variety; Ewart, 1907a, b, 1912 
Vyatka; Rumjancev, 1936 
western group; Lundholm, 1949 
tarpan: Amschler, 1933; Antonius, 1918, 1935a; Cardas, 1926; Curwen and 

Hatt, 1933; Dobzhansky, 1955; Ewart, 1907a; Herre, 1939; Hilzheimer, 1935; 

Kwaschnin, 1928, 1931; Lundholm, 1949; Lydekker, 1912a; Nitsche, 1924; 

Rumjancev, 1936; E. Schwarz, 1922; Vetulani, 1928 
Horse-cow culture, India; Randhawa, 1946 
Horse, domestic and 'or possibly domestic; Bourdelle, 1932; Ewart, 1904, 1907a, b, 

1909, 1912; Herre, 1939; Hilzheimer, 1935; Kriiger, 1939; Lundholm, 1949; 

Lydekker, 1912a; Sauer, 1952; E. Schwarz, 1922, 1928; Simpson, 1936, 1951 
Africa, north; Lhote, 1953; Ridgeway, 1905 

Anatolia; Clark, 1941; Gejvali, 1938-39; Hrozny, 1931; Slawkowski, 1933 
Asia; Flor, 1930 


Horse, domestic and/or possibly domestic {continued) : 

Asia, central; Amschler, 1933; Menghin. 1931 

Asia, southwest; Smith, 1928 

Asia Minor {see Anatolia) 

Bactria; Hancar, 1952 

China; Erkes, 1940; Yetts, 1934 

Egypt; Adametz, 1920; Chard, 1937 . 

Eurasia; Amschler, 1934, 1936; Antonius, 1918; Jackson, 1932; Rumjancev, 1936 

Europe; Hermes, 1935-36; Munro, 1902 
east; Kwaschnin, 1931 

India, northwestern; Piggot, 1950 

Iran; Amschler, 1935; Childe, 1940 

Mesopotamia; Childe, 1940; Ridgeway, 1905 

Scythia; Amschler, 1933 

Sumeria; Amschler, 1935 
Horse, harness, riding, etc. 

bridle; Hermes, 1936 

chariots; Antonius, 1944; Childe, 1941 

chariot wheels; Mallowan, 1936 

harness; Hermes, 1936; Mallowan, 1936 

riding; Antonius, 1944 
Horse, wild; Herre, 1939; Lundholm, 1949; Lydekker, 1912a; E. Schwarz, 1922, 
1928; Simpson, 1951 

China; Erkes, 1940 

Egypt; Gaillard, 1934 

Eurasia; Dobzhansky, 1955 

Europe; Brinkmann, 1920; Chubb, 1913 

France; Reverdin, 1930-31 

Palestine; Bate, 1932 

Pyrenees; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946 
Hunters with dogs, Egypt; Winkler, 1938-39 
Hunting pigs, Egypt; Schweinfurth, 1912 
Hybridization; Mangelsdorf, 1952 

"banteng and zebu; Merkens, 1929 

Bos primigenius and B. namadicus; Mackay, 1938 

cattle; Melnyk, 1927 

dogs; Ash, 1927 

gauer and cow; Hermanns, 1952 

turbary sheep and mouflon; Diirst, 1904 

wolf and dog; Brinkmann, 1923-24 
Hyena, domestication of, Egypt; Zeuner, 1954 

Ibex; E. Schwarz, 1935; Schweinfurth, 1912 

Egypt; Gaillard, 1912 
Identification of bones, Artiodactyla; Lawrence, 1944 
Indians (American) and domestic deer; Swanton, 1940 
Indices, mandibles, dogs; Reverdin, 1927-28 
Indo-Europeans and origin of dog; Noack, 1915b 
Inferiority, biological, and domestication; Hediger, 1938 
Insects, domestic; Wilckens, 1905 
Introduction and/or dispersal of: 

buffalo, water, to Persia; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 

into PhiHppines; von Fiirer-Haimendorf, 1932 
cat into Europe; Haltenorth, 1953 

cattle, Auvergne breed, to France and England; Adametz, 1925 
brachyceros, into Egypt; Bisschop, 1937 
longhorn, out of Egypt; Bisschop, 1937 
taurus, to India; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
dingo into Austraha; Baas, 1938; Etheridge, 1916; Jones, 1921 
dog, greyhound, into eastern Africa; Kroll, 1928 
dog into North America; Haag, 1948 
dogs, Eurasia; Noack, 1915b 
into Europe; Allen, 1920 


Introduction and 'or dispersal of (continued): 
dogs, into Finland; Luho, 1948 

into North America; Allen, 1920 
domestic animals, into Africa; Adametz, 1920 

into British Isles; Dawkins and Jackson, 1917 

into Europe: Hehn, 1902 

into southern Arabia; Rathjens, 1955 
dromedary. North Africa; Mikesell, 1955 

into eastern Africa; Staffe, 1940 
goat. Angora, into Anatolia; Batu, 1939 
goats, Asia, central; Amschler, 1931 
horse, into Anatolia; Clark, 1941 

into Egypt; Ridgeway, 1905 

into Near East; Ridgeway, 1905 

to historical peoples; Smith, 1928 
pack and draft animals, Asia; Werth, 1940 
reindeer to Finland; Luho, 1948 

to Lapps; Laufer, 1917 
sheep, fat-rumped, to Bukhara; Adametz, 1927 
yak, Asia, central; Amschler, 1932 
zebu, into northwestern Africa; Bisschop, 1937 

into Africa; Epstein, 1933 
Invaders, mounted; Hancar, 1952 
Invertebrates, domestic; Reinhardt, 1912 

Irano-Sanskrit v^ocabulary and horse domestication; Smith, 1928 
Italian white cattle, British Isles; Wilson, 1909 

Jackal; Dahr, 1937, 1942; Degerb0l, 1933b; Durst, 1945; Keller, 1902; Matthey 
1954; Noack, 1907; Scott, 1954; Van Giffen, 1929 

Africa, north; Hilzheimer, 1908 

Egypt; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 

Palestine; Bate, 1937 
Jungle and domestication; Linton, 1955 
Jungle fowl (see Fowl, jungle) 

Keel of horn, goat; Koch, 1937 
Kikkuli text; Hroznv, 1931 
"Kish" goat; Crawford, 1938 
Kpbenhavn Museum, dogs in; Brinkmann, 1921 
sub-fossil materials in; Degerb0l, 1933b 

Linguistic evidence and domestication; Nehring, 1936 

Linguistics, comparative; Hehn, 1902 

Lion; Funkenstein, 1955 

Literary evidence of first horse-breeding; Hrozny, 1931 

Llama; Curwen and Hatt, 1953; Herre, 1952; Hilzheimer, 1913; Krieg, 1929; Stein- 

bacher, 1953; Werth, 1940 
Local place names, archaeological sites, etc.: 

Abydos, Egypt, fauna; Peet, 1914 

Agrigento, Sicily, spiral-horned goat; Adametz, 1932, 1941 

Alishar Huyuk, Anatolia, domestic animals; Patterson, 1937 

Aloppe, Sweden, pigs; Pira, 1909 

Alpenquai, Switzerland, domestic animals; Wettstein, 1924 

Altai Mts., Siberia, goats; Amschler, 1931 
horses; Amschler, 1933 

Anau, Turkmen SSR, dog; Bate, 1932; Diirst, 1908; Van Giffen, 1929 
fauna; Diirst, 1908 
horse; Amschler, 1936; Rumjancev, 1936 

Ancon, Peru, mummified head of Canis ingae; Noack, 1915a 

Annerod, Sweden, pigs; Pira, 1909 

Anyany, northern China, fauna; Teilhard de Chardin and Young, 1936 


Loral place names, archaeological sites, etc. (continued): 
Armant, Egypt, cattle; Mond and Myers, 1934 

domestic animals; Jackson, 1937 
Ashmore, Illinois, U.S.A., dog; Galbreath, 1947 
Asmar (see Tell Asmar) 
Assuan (see Aswan) 
Aswan. Egypt, animal representations; Schweinfurth, 1912 

rock-drawings; Winkler, 1938-39 
Athlit caves, Palestine, fauna; Bate, 1932 

Badari, Egypt, shorthorned cattle; Caton-Thompson and Gardner, 1934b 
Baldegg, Switzerland, domestic animals; Hescheler and Riiger, 1940 
Balih (valley), Syria, domestic animals; Mallowan, 1946 
Banahilk, Iraq, fauna; Braidwood, 1954 
Beer-Sheba, Palestine, domestic animals; Josien, 1955 
Belt Cave, Iran, Carbon-14 determinations; Ralph, 1955 

fauna; Coon, 1951 
Berchtesgaden, Germany, dog; Studer, 1907 
Bern, Switzerland, cattle; Gerbes, 1951 
Biisk, central Asia, domestic animals; Noack, 1909 
Bir Abou Matar (see Beer-Sheba) 
Bir Es-Safadi (see Beer-Sheba) 
Bludenz, Austria, fauna; Amschler, 1939c 
Bogaz Koy, Anatolia, Kikkuli text found; Hrozny, 1931 
Bokarn (Lake), Sweden, horses; Lundholm, 1949 
Bologoie, Russia, Canis poiitiatini; Studer, 1906 

dog; Gandert, 1930 
Brak, Syria, domestic animals; Mallowan, 1947 
Bukhara, Turkestan, fat-rumped sheep; Adametz, 1927 
Bunds0 on Jylland, Denmark, fauna; Degerb0l, 1939 
Chagar Bazar, Syria, horse; Mallowan, 1936 
Chalain (Lake), France, dog; Hue, 1906b 
Ch'eng-tzu-yai, Shantung, China, fauna; Liang, 1934 
Ch'i Chia P'ing, Kansu, China, domestic animals; Bylin-Althin, 1946 
Clairvaux, France, dog; Hue, 1906a 

Constance (Lake), Switzerland, domestic animals; Vogel, 1933 
Cortaillod, Switzerland, domestic animals; Reverdin, 1928 
Crestaulta, Switzerland, domestic animals; Riiger, 1942 
Dakhla, oasis, Egypt, rock-drawings; Winkler, 1938-39 
Djebel Ouenat (see Ouenat) 
Dobruja, Rumania, cattle; Teodoreanu, 1929 

Egolzwil, Switzerland, domestic animals; Hescheler and Riiger, 1939, 1942 
El Amrah, Egypt, cattle figurines; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 
El Khan, Iraq, fauna; Braidwood, 1954 
El-Khiam, Palestine, fauna; Vaufrey, 1951 
Ellebeck, Germany, dog; Gehl, 1930 
El-Mughara (see Wadi El-Mughara) 
El-Omari, Egypt, fauna; Debono, 1948 
Engel Peninsula, Switzerland, cattle; Gerbes, 1951 
Er Yoh, France, fauna; Reverdin, 1930-31 
Errindlev, Denmark, dogs; Brinkmann, 1921 
Esh Shaheinab (.see Shaheinab) 
Fayum, Egypt, camel hair; Caton-Thompson, 1934 

fauna; Caton-Thompson and Gardner, 1934 
Frankfort, Germany, dog; Baas, 1938 

Ganties-Montespan river, Pyrenees Mts., horses; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946 
Gezer, Palestine, camel; Isserlin, 1950 

Gilf Kebir, Libyan Desert, animal representations; Shaw, 1936 
Girgentini (see Agrigento) 
Gizeh, Egypt, cats; Morrison-Scott, 1952 

mummified animals; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-1909 
Glamorgan, Wales, horses; Jackson, 1932 

Glastonbury, Great Britain, domestic animals; Dawkins and Jackson, 1917 
Gottland, Sweden, pigs; Pira, 1909 


Local place names, archaeological sites, etc. (con(inHed): 
Governador, New Mexico, U.S.A., dogs; Lawrence, 1944 
Grai Resh, Iraq, water buffalo; Lloyd, 1940 
Grimaldi, caves of, asses; Boule, 1910 
Groningen, Holland, terpen dog; Van Giffen, 1929 
Gujarat, India, domestic animals; Sankalia and Karve, 1949 
Habur (vallev), Svria, domestic animals; Mallowan, 1946 
Halaf (.see Tell Halaf) 
Harappa, Indus \'alley, domestic animals; Piggot, 1950; Prashad, 1936 

unicorn; Roy, 1946 
Hassuna (see Tell Hassuna) 
Hebrides, Scotland, Soay sheep; Schultze, 1934 
Heinola, Finland, hand-drawn sledges; Luho, 1948 
Helwan, Egypt, dromedary; George, 1950 
Hemaniah {see Badari) 
Hildesheim, Germany, dogs; Noack, 1915b 
Hotu Cave, Iran, fauna; Coon, 1951 
Husum, Germany, dog; Gehl, 1930 

Jarmo, Iracj, fauna; Braidwood, 1952; Braidwood and Braidwood, 1950 
Jericho, Palestine, goats; Zeuner, 1955 
Kashan, Iran, domestic animals; Vaufrey, 1939 
Kharga (oasis), Egypt, rock-drawings; Winkler, 1938-39 
Kiel, Germany, dog; Gehl, 1930 
Kiev, Ukraine, fauna; Gromova, 1927 
Kish, Mesopotamia, equids; Amschler, 1936 

Girgentini goat; Amschler, 1937 
Klausdorf, Germany, dog; Gehl, 1930 
Klausenberg, Transylvania, Capra prii^ca; Adametz, 1941 
Koko-Nor, Tibet, yak; Amschler, 1932 
Kom Ombo, Egypt, fauna; Gaillard, 1934 

mummified animals; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 
Kom W {see Fayum) 

Krzeszowice, Poland, Bos colliceros; Rostafinski, 1933 
Kronstadt, Rumania, Capra prisca; Teodoreanu, 1924 
Ladoga (Lake), Denmark, dog; Degerb0l, 1933b 
Laibach (moors), Austria, pigs; Ulmansky, 1914 
"Lake Village" {see Glastonbury) 

Langhnaj, India, domestic animals; Sankalia and Karve, 1949 
Lascau.x cave, France, cattle; Koby, 1954 

La Tene, France, domestic animals; Revilliod, 1926; F. Schwarz, 1918 
Lerida, Spain, cattle; Staffe, 1943 
Linderbeek, Holland, dog and cat; Hooijer, 1947 
Lo Han T'ang, Kansu, China, domestic animals; Bylin-Althin, 1946 
Lundby Bog, Denmark, dogs; Degerb0l, 1933b 
Ma'adi, Egypt, fauna; Menghin, 1933; Menghin and Amar, 1932 
Maikop, Caucasus Mts., animal representations; Friederichs, 1933 
Mefesh (see Tell Mefesh) 
Megiddo, Palestine, camel; Isserlin, 1950 

goat; Mallowan, 1947 
Merimde-Benisalame, Egypt, fauna; Menghin, 1933 
Minusinsk, northern Siberia, domestic animals; Jettmar, 1950 
Minu.ssinsk (Sajan), Siberia, horse; Amschler, 1936 
M'lefaat, Iraq, fauna; Braidwood, 1954 
Mohenjo-Daro, Indus Valley, animal representations; Friederichs, 1933 

domestic animals; Mackay, 1938; Sewell and Guhr, 1931 

unicorn; Roy, 1946 
Morbihan (see Er Yoh) 
Mullerup, Denmark, dog; Degerb0l, 1933b 
Nauenberg, Capra prisca; Adametz, 1941 

Neuchatel (Lake), Switzerland, domestic animals; Pittard and Reverdin, 1921 
Newstead, Scotland, horse; Ewart, 1907a 
Obermoilen, Switzerland, domestic animals; Kuhn, 1935 
Olmiitz, Moravia, cattle; Mohapl, 1914 


Local place names, archaeological sites, etc. (continued): 
Omsk, Siberia, Academy of; Amschler, 1931 
Ouenat, Libyan desert, fauna; Breuil and Kemal el Dine, 1928 
Pocala (cave), Italy, domestic animals; Riedel, 1948 
Quena, Egypt, rock-drawings; Winkler, 1938-39 
Rana Ghundai, Baluchistan, domestic animals; Piggot, 1950 
Ringsj0n, Sweden, pigs; Pira, 1909 

Roda, Egypt, mummified animals; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 
Rantasalami, Finland, hand-drawn sledges; Luho, 1948 
Saasigaroi (moors'), Finland, drag-sledge; Sirelius, 1916-20 
Saint-Aubin, Switzerland, cattle; Dottrens, 1946; Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 

dogs; Reverdin, 1927-28 

domestic animals; Reverdin, 1921, 1928 
St. Georghe-Bedehaza, Transylvania, dog and horse; Teodoreanu, 1926 
Sakkara, Egypt, mummified animals; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 
Salers, France, cattle; Adametz, 1925 
Sandomierz, Poland, domestic animals; Zurowski, 1930 
Satrupholm Moor, Germany, cattle; Herre, 1949 
SchafRs, Switzerland, Capra prisca; Adametz, 1941 
Schleinbach, Austria, goat; Sickenberg, 1930; Vetulani, 1934 
Seematte, Switzerland, domestic animals; Hescheler and Rliger, 1940, 1942 
Sha'ar ha-Golan, Palestine, domestic animals; Stekelis, 1950 
Shaheinab, Sudan, fauna; Bate, 1953 
Shah Tepe, Iran, fauna; Amschler, 1939a, b 
Sialk, Iran, domestic animals; Vaufrey, 1939 
Sinjar (see Grai Resh) 

Sipplingen, Switzerland, domestic animals; Vogel, 1933 
Sj0holmen, Sweden, dog; Dahr, 1937 
Skara Brae, Scotland, domestic animals; Watson, 1931 
Star Carr, England, fauna; Eraser and King, 1954 
Stora Forvar (cave), Sweden, fauna; Pira, 1926 
Stora Karlso (island), Sweden, fauna; Pira, 1926 
Strandegaard, Denmark, cattle; Bronholm and Rassmussen, 1931 
Susa, Iran, horse; Amschler, 1936 

Svardborg Moor, Denmark, dogs; Degerb0l, 1927, 1933b; Johansen, 1919 
Taanek, Palestine, camel; Isserlin, 1950 
Tall Chagar Bazar (see Chagar Bazar) 
Tartaren, Spain, cattle; Staffe, 1943 

Tell Asmar, Mesopotamia, domestic animals; Hilzheimer, 1934, 1941 
Tell Halaf, Mesopotamia, animal representations; Friederichs, 1933 
Tell Hassuna, Iraq, fauna; Lloyd and Safer, 1945 
Tell Mefesh, Syria, domestic animals; Mallowan, 1946 
Tepe Sialk. Iran, equids; Childe, 1941 (see also Sialk) 
Teplitz, Bohemia, horses; Nitsche, 1928 

pigs; Nitsche, 1924 
Teviec, France, dog; Pequart, 1937 

Thebes, Egypt, mummified animals; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 
Toukh, Egypt, fauna; Gaillard, 1934 

goats; Bate, 1953 
Trelleborg, Denmark, cattle; Mathiassen, 1944 
Tripolje, Ukraine, horses; Amschler, 1936 
Troy, Anatolia, domestic animals; Gejvali, 1937-38, 1938-39 
Tschuwasia, Kazan, pig; Havesson, 1933 
Turopolje, Croatia, pig; RitzofTy, 1933 
Umm-es-Sawan (.see Fayum) 

Ur, Mesopotamia, domestic animals; Woolley, 1934 
Ur, Sumeria, animal representations; Friederichs, 1933 

Girgentini goat; Amschler, 1932 

horse genealogy; Amschler, 1935 

spiral-horned goat; Adametz, 1932, 1941 
Uwenat (oasis), Egypt, rock-drawings; Winkler, 1938-39 
Vindonissa, Switzerland, domestic animals; Kramer, 1900 
Wadi El-Mughara caves, Palestine, dog; Bate, 1937 


Local place names, archaeological sites, etc. (continued): 

Wauwyl (Lake), Switzerland, domestic animals; Hescheler and Riiger, 1939 

fauna; Hescheler, 1920 
Wellington caves, New South Wales, dingo; Etheridge, 1916 
Windmill Hill, P:ngland, fauna; Childe, 1940 
Wurten, Holland, fauna; Van Gilfen, 1914 
Zloczow, Poland, Copra priaca; Adametz, 1915 

goats; Vetulani, 1934 
Zlota, Poland, Capra prisca; Adametz, 1928 

domestic animals; Zurowski, 1930 

goat; Vetulani, 1934 
Zufilcar Pass, cattle through to India; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
Zurich, Switzerland, domestic animals; Wettstein, 1924 
Lop ear, goat; Dalimier, 1954 

Man, evolution of; Rice, 1942 

Man's behavior adapted to reindeer behavior; Zeuner, 1954 

Markhor horns; Hilzheimer, 1933 

Mastodon, American; Galbreath, 1947 

Mechanism of evolution and domestication; Klatt, 1927, 1948 

Mendes, Ram of; Durst and Gaillard, 1902 

Migrations, dog; Noack, 1915b 

Milking, cattle, Libyan Desert; Shaw, 1936 

deer. South CaroHna; Swanton, 1940 

goats; Coon, 1951 
Mitanni kings and introduction of horse; Smith, 1928 
Mixed farming, Syria; Mallowan, 1946 
Modifications of cranium, dog; Noack, 1907 
Monophyletic ancestry, cattle; Van Giffen, 1914 

origin, horse; Lundholm, 1949 
Mortuary food-gifts; Jettmar, 1950 
Mounds of refuge, Holland; Reitsma, 1932, 1935 
Mounted invaders, radiation center of; Hancar, 1952 
Mousterian artifacts with dog, Russia; Studer, 1906 
Mule, Asia, southwest; Friederichs, 1933 

China; Erkes, 1940 

first occurrence; Amschler, 1933 
Mummies, animals; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-1909 

dogs, South America; Cabrera, 1932 
Mummified cats, Egypt; Morrison-Scott, 1952 
Mummified head, dog, Peru; Noack, 1915a 
Mutations; Mangelsdorf, 1952 

defectiv'e, dogs; Krieg, 1929 

deleterious in wild; Nachtsheim, 1938 

in domestication, rabbit; Nachtsheim, 1929 

selection of; Nachtsheim, 1938 

Names of breeds; Mason, 1951 

Natural area, domestication; Feige, 1928 

Natural evolution; Mangelsdorf, 1952 

Neolithic cattle, British Isles; Wilson, 1909 

Neoteny, pig; Baumler, 1921; Kelm, 1938 

Nomadic pastoralism, Ukraine; Hancar, 1951 

Nomadic, semi-, population; Josien, 1955 

Nomadism, reindeer; Hatt, 1919 

Nomads and domestication; von Flirer-Haimendorf, 1955 

Nomenclature, domestic animals; Keller, 1902 

Nor-adrenalin, role in socialization; Funkenstein, 1955 

Nubian wild goat; Gaillard, 1912 

O, blood-group, sheep; Kacrkowski, 1928 
Oases, cattle in, Egypt; Winkler, 1938-39 


Offerings for the gods; Meissner, 1926 
Onager; Rumjancev, 1936 

France: Boule, 1910; Bourdelle, 1938 

Mesopotamia; Hilzheimer, 1934, 1935, 1941 

Near East; Antonius, 1935a 

Syria; Mallowan, 1947 
Ontogenetic sequence, pig; Kelm, 1938 

stages; Hilzheimer, 1928 
Oracle bones, pictures on; Sowerby, 1935 
Orbital plane, canids; Dahr, 1937 
Origins of domestication; Meissner, 1926 
Ovibovid, Illinois; Galbreath, 1947 

Ox-buffalo, Egypt; Brunton and Caton-Thompson, 1928 
Oxen (see Cattle) 

Pack animal, reindeer used as; Sirelius, 1916-20 

Pack animals; Werth, 1940 

Pack horses, Europe, eastern; Clark, 1941 

Parallel characters, domestic animals; Nachtsheim, 1936 

under domestication; Weidenreich, 1925 
Parallel evolution; Herre, 1952 
Parallel modifications; Klatt, 1948 
Pastoral culture; Flor, 1930 
PastoraHsm, Asia; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 

and domestication; Page, 1939 

increase of, in Ukraine; Tackenberg, 1954 

lack of, in China; Bishop, 1933 

not associated with pigs; Newberry, 1928 

Ukraine; Hancar, 1951 
Pasture oases, cattle in, Egypt; Winkler, 1938-39 
Pathological characters, fixation of; Weidenreich, 1925 
Pedigree chart, horse, Ur, Mesopotamia; Amschler, 1935 
Pelages of cats, wild and domestic; Zeuner, 1950 

Akkadians, camel; Forbes, 1955 

Arawak, "alco" dogs; Hummerlink, 1928 

Aryan tribes, southern Asia, horse; Antonius, 1918 

Assyrians, cattle; Diirst, 1900 
camels; Forbes, 1955 

Babylonians, cattle; Diirst, 1900 

Bantu, domestic animals; Kroll, 1928 

Bedouins, dromedary; Forbes, 1955 

Chorwa, southwestern Asia, cattle; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 

Chukchi, reindeer-breeding; Wiklund, 1918 

Egyptians, origin of domestic animals; Adametz, 1920 
cattle; Diirst, 1900 
dromedary; Forbes, 1955 

Hamites, dispersal, Africa; Adametz, 1920 
Egypt, cattle-herders; Winkler, 1938-39 
greyhound into eastern Africa; Kroll, 1928 

Koryak (Lapps), reindeer-breeding; Wiklund, 1918 

Lapps, acquiring of reindeer; Laufer, 1917 

Mitanni, introduction of horse; Smith, 1928 

Negritos, India, original domestic animals; Randhawa, 1946 

Persians, dromedary into Egypt; Mikesell, 1955 

Proto-Altaian, central Asia, horse; Flor, 1930 

Proto-Australoids, India, domestic animals; Randhawa, 1946 

Romans, cats into Europe; Zeuner, 1950 

Samoyeds, origin of reindeer domestication; Laufer, 1917 

Sumerians, Girgentinl goat; Adametz, 1941 
onager; Hilzheimer, 1934, 1935, 1941 


Peoples {coHtiHued): 

Sumerians, sheep and goal; Adametz, 1920 
Physiological adaptations to survival, domestication; Zeuner, 1954 
Physiological background of domestication; Nachtsheim, 1936 
Physiological factors in domestication; Herre, 1951 
Pig-breeding center, Egypt; Menghin and Amar, 1932 
Pigmentation of domestic animals; F'eige, 1927, 1928 
Physiology : 

absorption tests, cattle; Sasaki, 1934 

adrenal production, wolf and dog; Scott, 1954 

adrenals, hypofunction, rat; Richter, 1952 
Pigs, breeds and or tvpes: 

Berkshire: Kelm, 1938 

Dutch mound-hog; Reitsma, 1935 

MangaHtza; Cardas, 1926; Ritzofly, 1932 

Siska; RitzofTv, 1932 

South Slavian; Ritzofly, 1932 

Tschuwasian: Havesson, 1933 

turbarv; Gaillard, 1934; Havesson, 1933; Madsen, 1900; Nitsche, 1924; Otto, 
1901; Pira, 1909; Ulmansky, 1914 
Pigs, domestic and or possibly domestic: 

Austria; Ulmansky, 1914 

Bohemia; Nitsche, 1924 

China; Bishop, 1933, 1939 

Egvpt; Menghin, 1933; Menghin and Amar, 1932; Newberry, 1928; Randall- 
Maclver and Mace, 1902; Stafle, 1938 

Eurasia; Adlerberg, 1933; Belie, 1939; Philiptschenko, 1933 
southern; Menghin, 1931 

Europe; Clark, 1947; Reitsma, 1935 
central; Ritzofly, 1932, 1933 

Holland; Reitsma, 1935 

Indonesia; Adlerberg, 1933 

Iran; Amschler, 1939b 

Palestine; Vaufrev, 1931 

Sweden; Pira, 1909 

Switzerland; Otto, 1901 
Pigs, wild: 

Eurasia; Adlerberg, 1933; Amon, 1938; Belie, 1939; Kelm, 1939; Philiptschenko, 

Europe; Reitsma, 1935 

Palearctic; Kelm, 1938 

Palestine; Bate, 1942 

Sweden; Pira, 1909 
Pisang (see Goat, bezoar) 
Place names, local (see Local place names) 
Plants, cultivated; Mangelsdorf, 1952 
Plough-culture; Hahn, 1909 

Mongolian; Werth, 1940 
Polecat, Asiatic; Ashton and Thompson, 1955 

European; Ashton and Thompson, 1955 
Polled cattle, genetics; Auld, 1927 
Polyphyletic ancestry of cattle; Szalay, 1930 
Polyphyletic origin of horse; Ewart, 1904, 1909 
Pony, Mongolian; Lydekker, 1912a 

Shetland; Bourdelle and Trombe, 1946; Chubb, 1913 
Post-glacial climatic change and larpan; Vetulani, 1928 
Poultry (see Fowl, jungle) 

Pre-adaptation for domestication; Hediger, 1938; Zeuner, 1954 
Precipitation tests, cattle; Merkens, 1929 
Protein, pig as major source, China; Bishop, 1933 
Purpose, lack of in origin of domestication; Zeuner, 1954 


Purposive planning, domestication, Egypt; Zeuner, 1954 

Queen Hatshepsut; Chard, 1937 

Rabbit, Europe; Nachtsheim, 1929 

Racial fixation of characters; Weidenreich, 1925 

Radiation center, mounted invaders; Hancar, 1952 

Rage, endocrine factors in; Funkenstein, 1955 

Ram of Ammon, Egypt; Pia, 1942b 

Ram of Mendes; Diirst and Gaillard, 1902 

Rat, domestication of; Richter, 1952 

Refuge mounds, Holland; Reitsma, 1982, 1935 

Reindeer; Flor, 1930; von Fiirer-Haimendorf, 1955; Hatt, 1919; Hilzheimer, 

1913; Jettmar, 1952; Laufer, 1917; Linton, 1955; Luho, 1948; Mirov, 1945; 

W. Schmidt, 1951; Sirelius, 1916-20; Werth, 1940; Wiklund, 1918; Zeuner, 

Riding animals; Menghin, 1931 
Routes of dispersal; Sauer, 1952 

Saarigarvi-Tarvala sledge; Luho, 1948 
Sacred cattle, Egypt; Mond and Myers, 1934 
Sacrificial animals and domestication; StafiFe, 1939 
Sacrificial purpose for breeding cattle; Whitehead, 1953 
Sahara Desert, transportation across; Newbold, 1928 

and dromedary; Lhote, 1953; Mikesell, 1955 

and horse; Lhote, 1953 
Scavenger wolves as potential dogs; Zeuner, 1954 
Scavengers and domestication of wolves; Scott, 1954 
Sculpture, animal, Egvpt; Pia, 1941 
Seals, Sweden; Pira, 1926 

domestic animals on, Indus Valley; Mackay, 1938 

with horse pedigree, Ur; Amschler, 1935 
Selection; Herre, 1951 

artificial; Epstein, 1933; Herre, 1952; Klatt, 1927, 1948; Mangelsdorf, 1952; 
Nachtsheim, 1929, 1938; Richter, 1952; Scott, 1954 

artificial, religious; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942 45 

natural; Krieg, 1929 
Selective breeding; Dalimier, 1954 
Selective slaughtering, goats; Coon, 1951 
Semi-domesticated dogs. Gran Chaco; Krieg, 1929 
Semi-nomadic population, Palestine; Josien, 1955 
Sequence of domestication; Werth, 1939; Wissler, 1945 
Set, cult-animal of, Egypt; Newberry, 1928 
Settled culture and rock-painting; Staffe, 1938 
Sexual difl'erentiation in cattle; Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 
Sheep, breeds and/or types; Lydekker, 1912c 

bronze; Reitsma, 1932 

Bukharian; Carruthers, 1949 

copper; Antonius, 1944; Ewart, 1913; Durst, 1904; Patterson, 1937 

Drentsch Heide; Reitsma, 1932 

English southdown; Kacrkowski, 1928 

fat-rumped; Adametz, 1927; Ewart, 1914 

fat-tailed; Philiptschenko, 1928 

fleecy; Slawkowski, 1933 

Forvar; Pira, 1926 

Frisian milk; Reitsma, 1932 

goat-horned; Adametz, 1937; Pia, 1942b 

Heidschnucke; Adametz, 1937 

Hissar; Amschler, 1929b 

long-tailed; Ewart, 1912 

merino; Burns and Moody, 1935 

Montagne; Cardas, 1926 


Sheep, breeds and/or types (continued): 

peat (see turbary) 

Polish; Kacrkowski, 1928 

primitive; Amschler, 1929b 

screw-horned (see spiral-horned) 

Shetland; Ewart, 1913 

Soay; Adametz, 1937; Ewart, 1913; Schultze, 1934 

southdown, English; Kacrkowski, 1928 

spiral-horned; Diirst and Gaillard, 1902; Ewart, 1912; Mallowan, 1947 

terp; Reitsnia, 1932 

turbarv; Adametz, 1937; Durst, 1904; Ewart, 1913; Madsen, 1900; Patterson, 
1937; Pilgrim, 1947 

twisted-horned (see spiral-horned) 

Tzourcana; Cardas, 1926 

Wallachian; Durst and Gaillard, 1902 

Zackel; Adametz, 1937 
Sheep, domestic and or possiblv domestic; Burkhill, 1935; Burns and Moody, 1935; 
Ewart, 1912, 1913, 1914; Fairservis, 1955; Hilzheimer, 1936; Lydekker, 1912c 

Africa, north; Thilenius, 1900 

Bukhara; Adametz, 1927 

Egypt; Adametz, 1920 

Eurasia; Adametz, 1937 

Europe; Clark, 1947 

Holland; Reitsma, 1932 

Iran; Amschler, 1939a, b 

Iraq; Lloyd and Safer, 1945 

Mesopotamia; Adametz, 1927; Heinrich, 1936 

Siberia, northern; Jettmar, 1950 

Sudan; Bate, 1949, 1953 

Sumeria; Adametz, 1920 

Switzerland; Diirst, 1904 

Tadzhikistan; Amschler, 1929b 

Turkestan, western; Menghin, 1931 
Sheep, wild; Carruthers, 1949; Heinrich, 1936; Hilzheimer, 1936; Lydekker, 1912c. 

argali; Ewart, 1912, 1913, 1914; Philiptschenko, 1928 

Barbarv; Thilenius, 1900 

mouflon; Adametz, 1937; Diirst, 1904; Ewart, 1912, 1913, 1914; Kacrkowski, 
1928; Pira, 1926 

urial; Adametz, 1937; Ewart, 1912, 1913, 1914 
Sites, archaeological (see Local place names) 
Skin, rabbit, genetics of; Nachtsheim, 1929 
Sledge, dog; Werth, 1940 

use with reindeer, Finland; Sirelius, 1916-20 
Sledge-cultures, Eurasia, north; Wiklund, 1918 
Sledge-driving; Luho, 1948 
Sledges, Finland; Luho, 1948 
Slender-limbed horses; Ewart, 1909 
Small wild cattle, Eurasia; Koby, 1954 
Social animals' adaptations to domestication; Zeuner, 1954 
Social animals and adrenal hormones; Funkenstein, 1955 
Social life, wolves, cooperative; Scott, 1954 
Speciation of camel, Asia; Robinson, 1936 

of domestic animals; Mangelsdorf, 1952 
Spirited dogs, Sudan; Newbold, 1928 
Statistical analyses of sub-fossil materials; Riedel, 1951 
Statistical study, cattle ancestors; Van Giffen, 1914 
Statistics; Dahr, 1942 

of cat skulls; Morrison-Scott, 1952 

large series; Hildebrand, 1955 
Steer of Apis; Lortet and Gaillard, 1903-09 
Steppe tarpan, Russia; Vetulani, 1928 
Stock-farmer, Africa; KroU, 1928 
Stock-farming, Egypt; Menghin, 1933 


Stunted pig; Belie, 1939 

Subspecies, ecological, of cats; Zeuner, 1950 

Surv^ival by flight; Funkenstein, 1955 

Swine (,s-ce Pigs) 

Swine-breeding culture; Menghin, 1931 

Tail carriage, dog; Scott, 1954 

Tamed horse, Paleolithic; Munro, 1902 

Tamed reindeer; Hatt, 1919 

Taming, domestication not following; Nachtsheim, 1938 

Taming of wild animals; Meissner, 1926 

Tasmanian devil; Etheridge, 1916 

Tasmanian wolf; Etheridge, 1916 

Tapir, China, north; Teilhard de Chardin and Young, 1936 

Taurine cattle; Leister, 1943 

Taxocline, pig; Kelm, 1939 

Teeth, Wellington Caves, New South Wales; Etheridge, 1916 

Terpen, dogs from, Holland; Van Giflfen, 1929 

fauna of, Holland; Van Giffen, 1914 

pig from, Holland; Reitsma, 1935 

sheep from, Holland; Reitsma, 1932 
Tillage, Ukraine; Hancar, 1951 
Transition stage, pig, wild to domestic; Pira, 1909 

Transport purposes and origin of domestication; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
Transportation, Sahara, pre-Christian; Newbold, 1928 
Triphyletic origin of sheep; Keller, 1902 
Turkey, Central America; Curwen and Hatt, 1953 
Tylopoda, South America (see Camelidae, South America) 

Udder of cow, figurine; Randall-Maclver and Mace, 1902 

Udders, cattle, Libyan Desert; Shaw, 1936 

Ungulates, domestic; Feige, 1928 

Unicorns, Indus valley; Roy, 1946 

Urus; Clark, 1952; Hilzheimer, 1927; von Lengerken, 1953, 1955; Lydekker, 1912a 

Africa; Bisschop, 1937 

Asia; Chlebaroff, 1929-30; Melnyk, 1927 

British Isles; Childe, 1940; Whitehead, 1953; Wilson, 1909 

Denmark; Degerb0l, 1933b 

Europe; Hescheler and Riiger, 1942; Herre, 1949 

France; Koby, 1954 

Indus Valley; Roy, 1946 

Iran; Coon, 1952 

Switzerland; Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 

Ukraine; Gromova, 1927 

Variability, skulls, polecats and ferrets; Ashton and Thompson, 1955 
Variation, cattle; Melnyk, 1927 

in behavior, dogs; Scott, 1954 

individual, bones; Hildebrand, 1955 

individual, pigs; Reitsma, 1935 

range of, in dog mandibles; Reverdin, 1927-28 

sexual, cattle; Revilliod and Dottrens, 1947 
Varieties {see Breeds) 

Vegetative planting and domestication; Sauer, 1952 
Vicugna; Herre, 1952; Steinbacher, 1953 
Viking invasions and British cattle; Whitehead, 1953 

Water buffalo (see Buffalo, water) 

White, genetic dominant in cattle; Whitehead, 1953 

Wild animals, taming of; Meissner, 1926 

Wildness, selection against; Richter, 1952; Scott, 1954 


Wolf; Antonius, 1944; Baas, 19:?8; Brinkmann, 1923-24; Dahr, 1937, 1942; Deger- 
bpl, 193;ib; Durst, 1945; Hilzheimer, 1908, 1932; Keller, 1902; Mallhey, 1954; 
Noack, 1907; Van Giffen, 1929 
England; Eraser and King, 1954 
PJurasia; Scott, 1954 
Europe, north; (Jchl, 1930 

Indian; Brinkmann, 1921; Noack, 1915b; Prashad, 1936 
Wool; Fairservis, 1955 

Tadzhikistan; Amschler, 1929b 

Yak, Asia, central; Amschler, 1932 
history of; Amschler, 1932 
Tibet; Werth, 1940 

Zebu; Epstein, 1933; Ewart, 1912; Szalay, 1930 

Africa; Antonius, 1919; Bisschop, 1937 

Asia; Kolesnik, 1936 

East Indies; Merkens, 1929; Sommerfeld, 1927 

Formosa; Sasaki, 1934 

India; Koppers and Jungblut, 1942-45 
northwestern; Prashad, 1936 

Indo-China; Vittor, 1933 

Indus Valley; Sewell and Guhr, 1931 
Zoogeography (see Geographic distribution) 

Publication 959 

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