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Annual, Bradford 
County Historical Society 

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braarora uounty Historical bociety U 

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Bradford County 


Papers on Local History, Reports of Officers 
and Contributions for the Year. 




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• ; i ••• • •••• 

• • ••• ••• • 

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Coh Wimam Bradford 

For wbom Bradford County 

is named. 

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Addresses Before the Bradford County 

Historical Society^ March 23^ 1912^ 

on the Centennial Celebration of 

the Organization of the County. 

Judicial Organization^ the First Judge and 
His Associates. 


On the 24th of March, 
1812, an act was passed 
which provided for the 
election of County Offi- 
cers at the regular elec- 
tion of the next Octo- 
ber, and for organizing 
the Count}' for judicial 
purposes and for chang- 
ing its name from On- 
tario to that of Brad- 
ford. Bradford was 
united with Tioga, Sus- 
quehanna, Wayrie and 
Luzerne counties to 
form the lltli Judicial 

The first regularly constituted Court in Bradford 
County convened Monday, January 18, 1813, in what 

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6 Organization of Bradford County, 

was known as the **Red Tavern," owned by William 
Means, the place designated by statute and located at 
what is now the corner of Franklin and Main streets. 
Twenty-one jurors assembled from various portions of the 
county — coming on foot and horseback, by bridle paths 
and forest roads. The commissions of the Honorable 
John B. Gibson, President Judge, and of George Scott 
and John McKean were read, the oaths administered, 
attorneys admitted to the Bar and the Courts of Brad- 
county amid pomp and ceremony were duly organized. 

Preparatory to taking up the subject assigned, it 
may be proper to state that prior to the establishment of 
the courts of this county, the Justices of the Peace as- 
sembled and perfected an organization, the commenda- 
ble purpose of which was to bring about an amicable ad- 
justment of controversies and disputes, to admonish and 
reprove wrong doers, suppress immorality and generally 
to promote the public welfare. 

Bradford county has had, including the present in- 
cumbent, thirteen President Judges: John Bannister 
Gibson, Thomas Burnside, Edward Herrick, John N. 
Conyngham, Horace Williston, David Wilmot, Darius 
Bullock, David Wilmot, Ulysses Mercur, Farris B. 
Streeter, Paul D. Morrow, Benjamin M. Peck, Adelbert 
C. Fanning, William Maxwell. 

Of this number, John Bannister Gibson and Ulysses 
Mercur attained to the exalted position of Chief Justices 
of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and the name of 
David Wilmot is imperishable in American lustory. 
The associate judges numbered twenty-two, Hon. Chaun- 
cey S. Russell being the last. This office in Bradford 
county has been abolished. 

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Organization of Bradford County. 7 

The Honorable John Bannister Gibson was the 

son of Lieutenant-Colonel George Gibson, a Revolution- 
ary officer, and born on Sherman Creek, in what is now 
Perry county. Pa., November 8, 1780. The surround- 
ings of his boyhood home were rugged in the extreme, 
and early in life he was one of nature's fondest devotees. 
It was his delight to follow the forest paths along the 
streams and make long excursions into the mountain 
fastnesses. He lived near to nature's heart, and doubt- 
less, thereby became the better fitted for the discharge of 
life's arduous duties. 

He was not only a deep thinker, a logical reasoner 
and great lawyer, but an ardent student of English lite- 
rature and the classics as well, highly appreciative of 
painting, statuary and all the fine arts. He also pos- 
sessed a thorough knowledge of medicine, and was a fine 
violinist. His violin was his constant companion when 
traveling from place to place on his circuit, and the 
day's work over served to lighten his cares and entertain 
his friends. It is said he frequently thought out his 
opinions while playing upon his favorite instrument. 

In 1816 upon the death of Judge Breckenridge, 
Governor Snyder appointed him Associate Justice of the 
Supreme Court, and May 18, 1827, upon the death of 
Judge Tilghman, he was commissioned Chief Justice of 
Pennsylvania. When the judiciary became elective he 
was chosen in 1851 as Associate Judge of the Supreme 
Court, which honorable position he filled at the time of 
his decease. 

For a period of about forty years he was on the Su- 
preme Bench, either as Associate, or Chief Justice. His 
opinions clear, forcible and convincing, were not only 

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8 Organization of Bradford County, 

declarative of the law in Pennsylvania, but carried 
weight in other jurisdictions and were among the first 
American decisions to be recognized in England. Hon. 
B. F. Junkin, a lifelong friend of Judge Gibson, relates 
that one night in 1852, in company with James X. Mc- 
Lanahan, then member of congress, he called upon 
Judge Gibson at his hotel, and in the course of the con- 
versation Mr. McLanahan said to the Judge: ''I have 
just returned from Europe, and while in London I heard 
a great compliment paid you. I was in the Court of 
Westminster in London, where twelve judges were sitting 
in banc, and a sergeant was arguing a question of law, 
and read an opinion of the Supreme Court of Pennsylva- 
nia without giving the name of the Judge delivering it." 
The Chief Justice said : **That is an opinion by Chief 
Justice Gibson." The sergeant said "Yes" ; the Cliief 
Justice replied: "Ah, sir, his opinions have great weight 
with this court." Judge Gibson was deeply affected, tears 
filled his eyes, and he remarked "that a prophet is not 
without honor, save in his own country." He was a 
man of fine physique, more than six feet in height, kind 
and genial. "His face," says David Paul Brown, "was 
full of intellect, sprightliness and benevolence, an4l, of 
course, eminently handsome; his manners were remark- 
able for their simplicity, warmth and generosity. There 
never was a man more free from affectation or preten 
tion of any sort." "Until the day of his death," says 
Porter, "although his bearing was mild and unostenta- 
tious, so striking was his personal appearance that few 
persons to whom he was unknown could have passed 
him by in the street without remark." No less a per- 
sonage than the Hon. Thaddeus Stevens said of him. 

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Organization of Btadfwd Ckmnty, 9 

''He lived to an advanced age, his knowledge increasing 
with increasing years, while his great intellect remained 
unimpaired," and mark his farther words: — ''Those who 
believe as all should believe that the judiciary is the 
most important department of government, and that 
great, wise and pure judges are the chief bulwark and 
protection of the lives, liberty and rights of the people, 
will deeply and sincerely regret the loss of Judge Gib- 

Chief Justice Black said of him "At the time of his 
death, be had been longer in oflSce than any Contempo- 
rary Judge in the world, and in some points of character 
he had not his equal on earth. The profession of the 
law has lost the ablest of its teachers, and the Court the 
brightest of its ornaments, and the people a steadfast de- 
fender of theit rights, so far as they were capable of be- 
ing protected by Judicial Authority." Upon the marble 
monument erected over his grave in the Old Cemetery at 
Carlisle are inscribed these words from the pen of the 
Hon. Jeremiah S. Black : 

**In the various knowledge 

Which forms the perfect scholar 

He had no superior 

Independent, upright and able, 

He had all the hi^^nest qualities of a great Judge. 

In the diflScult science of jurisprudence 

He mastered every department, 

Discussed almost every question, and 

Touched no subject which he did not adorn. 

He won in early manhood, 

And retained to the close of a long life, 

The affection of his brethren on the Bench, 

The respect of the Bar, 

And the confidence of the people." 

Page after page of glowing testimonials and tributes 

from the pens of eminent statesmen, judges and scholars, 

as to the character and ability of this truly great man 

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10 Organization of Bradford County. 

could be quoted, but enough has been said to give a 
glimpse of the great jurist, John Bannister Gibson, the 
first President Judge of our Courts, whose name, on this 
Centennial Anniversary, we in common with all man- 
kind, delight to honor. 

Hon. George Scott^ Associate Judge, was born No- 
vember 19, 1784, in Berkshire county, Mass. He had a 
desire to engage in educational work, and in company 
with his brother David came to Wysox in the year 1805. 
Learning of his educational equipment, a meeting of cit- 
izens was called at the home of Burr Ridgway and ar- 
rangements made for him to teach school. Later he 
purchased a lot just beyond the Brick Church, built a 
house thereon and married Miss Lydia Strope. His 
ability and fitness were recognized, and be was commis- 
sioned a justice of the peace, and later, upon the organi- 
zation of the county, appointed by Governor Snyder As- 
sociate Judge with John McKean, which position be held 
until the year 1818. He was eminently respected and 
held many positions of trust, was County Commissiouers' 
clerk from 1815 to 1820. Appointed Prothonotary and 
Clerk of the Orphans' Court, July 1, 1818, and again 
January 2, 1824, which position he held until 1830. He 
was also appointed as commissioner to superintend tlje 
distribution of funds appropriated fi/r building the State 
Road running East and West through the county. In 
January, 1823, he was appointed County Treasurer. 
From 1821 to 1823 he edited and published *The Brad- 
ford Settler." For a time he resided in Towanda town- 
ship, on what is now the Jennings farm, but the later 
years of his life were spent in Towanda borough, and re- 
sided at the tiine of his death, March 4, 1831, where the 

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Organization of Bradford County. 11 

Dr. D. Leonard Pratt mansion now stands. He was 
laid to rest in Riverside cemetery. He was a man of 
sterling integrity, active in politics, a strong advocate of 
every progressive movement having for its object the 
public good. 

John McKean^ also appointed by Governor Snyder 
Associate Judge with George Scott, was born in Hunt- 
don county, Pa., April 7, 1787. He was a son of James 
McKean, one of the early settlers of Burlington town- 
ship and a brother of Gen. Samuel McKean, one of 
Bradford county's honored sons, and whose public serv. 
ices in securing the passage of the free school law and as 
a member of the Pennsylvania Legislature, the lower 
house of Congress, U. S. Senator and Secretary of the 
Commonwealth have been of lasting benefit to the coun- 
ty, state and nation. 

Hon. John McKean was Associate Judge of this 
county for 28 years. He married Mary Minier of Uls- 
ter, Pa., and reared a large family, all the members of 
which settled near Stillwater, Minn., where their de- 
scendants still reside. The Judge, who was a local 
Methodist preacher,, resided on a farm about a mile east 
of Burlington borough, where he died in 1855, in his 
75th year, honored and respected by all. He was buried 
in the cemetery adjacent to the *'01d Church" in Bur- 


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William Bradford^ The Honored Name. 


How frequently it occurs that the subject 
most discussed, or name most used, is the 
one least understood ? The school children 
are taught that this is Bradford county, the 
second largest in the state ; the business 
man a dozen times a day directs his letters 
to Brown, Smith and Jones in Bradford county ; the 
stump speaker points with pride to great and glorious 
old Bradford; officers of the court, lawyers and justices 
execute all legal papers under the name and authority 
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, county of Brad- 
ford \ in line, no name in common parlance is used 
more frequently or pointed to with greater pride than 
Bradford ; yet, how few know and appreciate its signifi- 

After going over the different names that were sug- 
gested for the new "northern county," we rejoice in the 
wisdom of the committee, having the bill finally in 
charge, in selecting the name Bradford, as most fitting 
and at the same time bestowing a just memorial to one 
of the founders of the State and Republic. 

The name Bradford figures prominently in the colon- 
ial period and history of the Republic. William seems 
to have been the popular family name in both the Puri- 
tan and Quaker branches of the family. The founder of 
either line in America was William, and a man of note. 

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Organization of Bradford County, IS 

The former William Bradford was one of the party of 
Mayflower celebrity, and for many years the wise gover- 
nor of the Plymouth Colony. 

The other William Bradford (1) was a son of William 
Bradford, a printer of Leicestershire, England. He 
came to Philadelphia, 1685, as "printer of books for the 
Society of Friends'* in the colonies. In 1693 he removed 
to New York, set up his printing presses there and was 
appointed crown printer of the government. He found- 
ed (1725) the New York Gazette, the first journal in 
New York and the fourth in the colonies. He had mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Andrew Sowle, his employer, 
before leaving England. They had sons, Andrew and 
William, and a daughter, Tace. 

William Bradford (2), son of William and Elizabeth 
(Sowle) Bradford, for a time followed the sea, then en- 
gaged with his father in the printing business. He 
married Sytie, daughter of Abraham Santvoort (Sant- 
ford). They had children: Maria, William, Elizabeth, 
Abraham and Cornelius. 

William Bradford (3), son of William and Sytie Brad- 
ford, when a young man, went to Philadelphia, learned 
the printing business with his uncle, Andrew, and even- 
tually became a partner. He subsequently engaged on 
his own account, and in 1742 established the Pennsylva- 
nia Journal, afterwards united with the United States 
Gazette, and in 1847 merged into the North American. 
During the old French war he was in the Associated 
Regiment of Foot of Philadelphia, and is also said to 
have held a captain's commission during the French 
and Indian war. He was one of the most ardent pa- 
triots during the Revolution. Both in his paper and in- 

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H Organization of Bradford County. 

dividually, he opposed the cause of the British govern- 
ment in the Stamp Act controversy, and subsequently. 
At the outbreak of hostilities, he joined the Philadelphia 
Militia, and first as major and later as colonel, partici- 
pated in the battles of Trenton and Princton, being 
wounded in the latter engagement. He was at Fort 
Mifflin when it was bombarded by the British fleet. In 
1777 he was chairman of the Pennsylvania Navy Board, 
and in 1779 was president of a Court of Inquiry respect- 
ing certain military officers. He married Rachel, 
daughter of Thomas and Deborah (Langstaff ) Budd of 
New Jersey. They had children: Thomas, Tace, Wil- 
liam, Rachel, Eliiabeth and Schuyler. 

William Bradford (4). the subject of this address, 
son of William and Rachel (Budd) Bradford, was born 
September 14, 1756. He graduated from Princeton col- 
lege, and was admitted to the Philadelphia Bar. Dur- 
ing the Revolution, he served in diflferent commands 
with the rank of captain, major and lieutenant-colonel. 
In the old St. Mary's grave-yard at Burlington, N. J., a 
monument bears this inscription : 

*^Here lies the remains of William Bradford^ Attorney- 
General of the United States under the presidency of Wash- 
ington ; and previously Attorney- General of Peimsylvania 
and a Judge of the Supreme Court of that State. In pri- 
vate life he had acquired the esteem of all his fellow-citi- 
zens. In professional attainments he was learned as a law- 
yer and eloquent as an advocate. In the execution of his 
public offices, he was vigilant, dignified and impartial. 
Yet, in the bloom of life \ in the maturity of every faculty 
that could invigorate or embelish the human mind ; in the 
prosecution of the most important services that a citi- 

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Organization of Bradford County, 15 

zen could render to his country; perfect enjoyment 
of the highest honors that public confidence could 
bestow upon an individual; blessed in all the pleasures 
which a virtuous reflection could furnish from the 
past^ and animated by all the incitements^ which an 
Iwnorable ambition could depict in the future — he ceased 
to be mortal. A J ever ^ produced by a fatal assiduity in 
performing his official trust at a crisis interesting to the 
nation, suddenly terminated his public career, extinguished 
the splendor of his private prosperity, and on the 23rd day 
of August, 1795, in the 4.0th year of his age, consigned him 
to ilie grave — lamented, honored and beloved.'* 

Such is the epitaph of the man, whose memory we 
honor by the name of our county. In June, 1791, at the 
age of. 36 years, William Bradford was commissioned the 
first Attorney-General of Pennsylvania, which oflBce, af- 
t^r three months, he resigned to accept the appointment 
as member of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. This 
office, after serving 3J years, he also resigned to become 
(1794) Attorney-General of the United States by request 
of President Washington, succeeding Edmond Randolph, 
who followed Thomas Jefferson as Secretary of State. 
While filling the last office he was stricken with fever 
and died, 1795. Mr. Bradford married, 1784, Susan 
Vergereau Boudinot, daughter of Elias Boudinot, presi- 
dent of the Continental Congress in 1782. He died 
childless, that we might remember him as father by 
adoption. His epitaph gives us all in his beautiful 
character and worthful life. We rejoice in the name so 
full of honors, linking our history with the deeds of 
Washington and his compatriots, who by their sacrifices 
brought the Republic into existance. How fitting the 

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16 Organization of Bradford Cowity, 

name Bradford, a synonym of patriotism, the glory of 
our people, and how so nobly maintained for a hundred 
years ! 

[The picture of William Bradford, first page of An- 
nual, is from a painting in Independence Hall, Phila- 
delphia, and was copied by Charles Sidney Bradford, a 
a great-grand-nephew of William. This photograph was 
presented by Mr. Bradford to the Bradford County His- 
torical Society and exhibited for the first time on the 
100th anniversary occasion]. 


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First County Officers and Duties. 


©In the erection of an edifice of any charac- 
ter there must be a foundation, something to 
rest upon. A nation, state or county must 
have a similar foundation. The foundations 
for buildings are usually made of strong 
and lasting material so as not endanger the 
durability or permanence of the structure erected there- 
on. The foundation of a state or county has for its 
foundation, the thing to rest upon — the people that com- 
pose it or that live within its borders. Upon the charac- 
ter of the individuals, which compose the county, state or 
nation depends its permanency and character in the 
family of nations, states and counties. As the people aje 
intelligent, honest, 8ol)er and progressive, so will be the 
character of the county or state. Our nation and state 
are too large to have true democracy, but instead we 
have representative democracy; even in a county organ- 
ization there are too many of us so that we have to elect 
or appoint men to perform certain duties for us. 

In the organization of the county of Bradford the 
members of the General Assembly, elected by the peo- 
ple, made a law, providing how, when and in what way 
this new county should be set in motion. This law, so 
passed, authorized the people of this new county to des- 
ignate by their ballots, whom they wanted to attend to the 
business of the county for Uiem. At the time of the or- 

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18 Organization of Bradford County. 

ganization of the county 100 years ago there were two 
political parties — locally, as in state and nation, viz : 
Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. Nominations 
were made by these two parties for the three elective of- 
fices, to wit: SheriflF, three county commissioners and 
coroner. The Federalists won at the election held Octo- 
ber 13, 1812 and elected the sheriflF and three commis- 
sioners, but the Democratic-Republicans won the coro- 
ner and elected John Horton, Sr. 

The law at this time provided that each elector might 
vote for two candidates for the one office, and the two 
persons who received the highest number of votes for 
sheriflF were certified to the Secretary of the Common- 
wealth and the Governor, to commission one of these as 
the sheriflF. Abner C. Rockwell received 337 votes, John 
Spalding of Athens received 272 votes, and Rockwell 
was duly commissioned as sheriflF of Bradford county. 
Samuel McKean of Burlington and William Means of 
Towanda, the Democratic-Republican candidates, re- 
ceived as follows: McKeau 260 votes and Means 225, 
showing a diflFerence of only 77 votes in the leading can- 
didates. The candidates of the Federalists for county 
commissioner received the following number of votes : 
William Myer of Wysox, 454 ; Justus Gay lord, Jr. of 
Wyalusing, 388 ; Joseph Kinney of Ulster, 351, and each 
was elected. John Horton, Sr. of Wyalusing, the only 
Democratic-Republican candidate elected, received 353 
votes to 292 votes for Harry Spalding of Towanda, his 
opponent, for coroner. These were the only county offi- 
cers elected at the first election. Three auditors were 
elected at the general election in 1813. 

It will be observed that prior to the adoption of the 

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Organizcdion of Bradford County. 19 

Constitution of 1838, the offices of Prothonotary, Clerk 
of the Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace, Oyer and 
Terminer, Recorder of Deeds, Register of Wills and 
Clerk of the Orphans Court were all appointed by the 
governor. The Constitution then provided for their elec- 
tion. The duties of the district attorney prior to 1850 
were performed by a deputy attorney-general, acting un- 
der a deputation from the attorney-general of the state. 
The office of county surveyor was created by Act of 
April 9, 1850. Prior to that date the duties of said of- 
fice were performed by a deputy surveyor-general. 
We have thus observed the steps taken by the peo- 
ple of this county to become one of the impor- 
tant counties of this commonwealth, now let us glance 
briefly at the men and their characters, who had been 
elected by the majority of the people to put in motion 
the machinery, possibly in a small way, which has been 
running for 100 years. 

The chief executive officer of a county is its sheriff. 
On this officer devolves the duty of executing all writs, 
orders or mandates of its courts ; he must safely keep 
until legally discharged all persons committed to his 
custody, charged or convicted of crime ; he must keep 
and maintain the peace within' his bailiwick, or county, 
and protect the property and lives of the inhabitants 
thereof under the law. These duties are important and 
essential to the maintenance of peace and the protection 
of property, which are rights guaranteed under the Con- 
sfitution. These important and exacting duties were 
first imposed by the suffrages of the people upon a young 
mon 29 years of age, Abner C. Rockwell of Monroe 

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20 Organization of Bradford County, 

Ahner C. Rockwel] was born May 4, 1783, at East 
Windsor, Conn, and came to Monroe in 1800 ; he was 
elected the first sheriflF of Bradford county in October, 

1812 as a Federalist, and assumed his duties in January, 

1813 at the age of 29 years; he married Betsy Fowler, a 
daughter of Gordon Fowler. He built a log addition to 
his house, which during his term as sheriff was used by 
him as a "coop," for criminals in his charge, the county 
not yet having provided a jail, and this log building 
was afterwards often called the "old log jail." 

After his term of sheriff, he returned to farming and 
public improvements; he erected a framed house and 
opened it as a tavern ; this tavern or hotel had the usual 
large swinging sign of the times, on one side of which 
was painted the head and shoulders of General Lafay- 
ette, and on the other side Masonic emblems, such as the 
"square and compass," Mr. Rockwell being then a mem- 
ber of Union Lodge, No. 108, still in existance at To- 
wanda, Pa. He had a distillery, which was quite the 
custom at that time. 

Mr. Rockwell was a man of considerable ability, hon- 
est, generous and popular. He had five children : Maria, 
married to Joseph Montanye of Towanda; Zera, a farm- 
er, in Monroe; James Lawrence, who occupied the old 
homestead; William A., a merchant in Towanda for 
many years; RoUand R., who also resided many years in 
Towanda. Abner C. Rockwell died July 29, 1836, aged 
53 years, and his remains are buried in Cole's cemetery. 
The Rockwells of Monroe and Towanda are his descend- 

From the fact as related, that Mr. Rockwell used a 

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Organization of Bradford County. 21 

part of his log addition to his house in Monroe to tena- 
porarily secure some prisoners, for whom he as sheriff 
was responsible, the song, '*\Vhen Old Monroe was 
Young" was composed by the Salisbury brothers in 
1843. One stanza of that song is as follows : 

"When Old Monroe was young and Rockwell kept the jail, 
And John and Harmon, too, were there in spite of bond or bail, 
They cleared the land about the house and also on the hill, 
For grog and brandy then were free— the county paid the bill." 

William Myer of Wysox, who was elected county 
commissioner for three years at the election in October, 
1812, was of German stock and born in 1780, being 32 
years old when elected. He came to Wysox in 1802 
and erected a grist and saw mill ; he also built and man- 
aged a tavern, in which Union Lodge, No. 108 of Free 
and Accepted Masons, met and held their meetings until 
moved to Towanda. William Myer was a man of pleas- 
ing appearance and agreeable manners; he had good, 
practical experience in business affairs, was honorable in 
all his dealings and esteemed by all. He died May 15, 
1842, aged G2 years. William Myer was the father of 
the Hon. E. Reed Myer, who was a man of distinction and 
died within the last year. 

Justus Gaylord, Jr. of Wyahising, born 1757, was 
one of the early settlers, coming into the county as early 
as 1776; he later enlisted and served in Captain Ran- 
som's company of Continental soldiers, and served with 
distinction during the war. He returned to Wyalusing 
after the Revolutionary war; in 1792 he purchased 900 
acres of land which he improved; he was foremost in 
every public enterprise, extensively engaged in business 
and elected one of the first county commissioners in 1812 

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S2 Organization of Bradford County. 

for two years. Mr. Gaylord was well fitted by age and ex- 
perience in the practical affairs of life and business to 
start the new county on the road to success and promi- 
nence. He died May 23, 1830. Many of his descend- 
ants are still living within our county. 

Joseph Kinney of Ulster, now Sheshequin, was born 
in Connecticut in 1755, served with distinction in the 
Revolutionary war and was wounded, captured and spent 
some time on the British prison ships; he was a school 
teacher at Wyoming and came to Sheshequin in 1783. 
Mr. Kinney was a good reasouer, well posted and was 
particularly apt in theological themes ; he was a justice 
of the peace before this county was organized, and was 
elected one of the county commissioners for one year 
at the age of 57 years. He was often afterwards solic- 
ited to do so but refused all political preferment or office. 
He died in Sheshequin in 1841, at the age of 86 years. 
Joseph Kinney's descendants were all men of brains and 
became noted as soldiers and pioneers in Texas and Mex- 
ico, lawyei-s, editors, etc. The late Hon. Orrin Day Kin- 
ney was a great grandson. 

Charles F. Welles^ who was appointed by the gover- 
nor as the first Prothonotary, Clerk of the Quarter Ses- 
sions and Oyer and Terminer, Register of Wills and Re- 
corder of Deeds and Clerk of the Orphans Court of 
Bradford county, July 13, 1812, was born in Glaston- 
bury, Conn., November 4, 1789, and was therefore just 
past his 22nd year when appointed to this important and 
responsible position. Mr. Welles had been and was then 
a law-student and the following year was admitted to the 
Bar of Bradford county. He held these offices until 

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Organization of Bradford County, 23 

1818; in 1822 he moved to Wyalusing, where he died 
September 23, 1866, aged 77 years. 

Charles F. Welles was well educated; he was a thor- 
ough aud well read man, and is said to have known 
more of the history of the county, the men and its re- 
sources than any other man of his day. He contributed 
for the press and wrote some poetic articles, which were 
published and considered very meritorious. "His polit- 
ical articles were marked by a breadth of view and urged 
with a cogency of reasoning, that carried conviction to the 
mind of the reader, while the corrupt politician received 
scathing rebuke from his trenchent pen." 

The first entry upon the permanent dockets of Brad- 
ford county made by Mr. Welles, in a clear, neat legible 
hand-writing, as well as the form of it, is evidence of his 
fitness or qualification for these offices, and to a very 
large degree show the systematic pains-taking, conscien- 
tious characteristics of this man. He kept up his inter- 
est in public afiairs and it is said, that until within the 
last few years of his life he never missed a term of court 
at Towanda. 

At the outbreak of the Civil war Mr. Welles was an 
ardent patriot, and in every way encouraged its success- 
ful prosecution. Several of Mr. Welles' sons survive 
and are among the prominent and leading men of this 
Commonwealth ; the late Raymond M. Welles of To- 
wanda was a son, and a grandson, C. P. Welles, is one 
of our leading prominent citizens of Towanda. 

JohnHorton^Sr. of Asylum afterwards Terry, who 
was elected as the first coroner of Bradford county, was 
born in Goshen, N. Y., July 30, 1768 ; died at Terry- 

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2 If Organ izat ion qf Bradford ( ounty. 

town, April 28, 1848, nearly 85 years of age. Major 
John Ilorton, Sr. came to Wyalusing, now Terrytown, 
in 1792, where he bought land and settled permanently ; 
he had a family of six sons and five daughters, and all 
lived to maturity, Dr. George F. Horton being one of the 
sons; Mr. Horton built the first framed dwelling house 
west of the river in Terry; he was the owner of the first 
two-horse wagon in Terrytown; he owned the firt^t fan- 
ning mill and built the first framed barn in the town- 
ship. He was a wagoner in the Revolutionary war to- 
wards the close. He was major of a battalion of Militia 
at Wyalusing, frequently held township offices and was 
one of the prominent men of the place. He was univer- 
sally esteemed and at his funeral a larger concourse of 
people gathered than had ever before been seen in that 
part of the country on a funeral occasion. Our worthy 
member W. T. Horton is one of his grandsons. 

Conclusion — We have thus briefly sketched the his- 
torical events, which took place 100 years ago ; we have 
presented as best we could the men and their characters, 
who as the representatives of the voters, performed the 
first acts necessary to start this county of Bradford. As 
we gaze at these men and their acts of a century ago, we 
feel a mingling of pride and admiration for those worthy 
and venerable men. We are constrained to express the 
opinion, that the foundation laid by them has stood the 
test of time and the storms of a century; that while they 
and their successors have gone, we of the present can 
pronounce their work "well done, good and faithful ser- 
vants" of the people. 

Since the actual formation of the county of Bradford, 

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Organization of Bradford County, 25 

we can take a look backward over its history and we find 
in its people, that they have measured up to the best 
standards of the times on all questions agitating the 
public mind; they have always taken an advanced posi- 
tion in all matters tending for the general welfare, and the 
up-lift and advancement of the citizenship of the county, 
state and nation. We take a pardonable pride in our 
past history, and its future history depends upon our ac- 
tions; the acts and conduct of each one of us, therefore 
will add to or mar the future history of our county, state 
and nation. Ijet each of us therefore be such good citi- 
zens that the future generations may call us "blessed" 
for the things done by us. Let us therefore look to the 
future, not with doubt, but with hope, that the next 100 
years of our history may be still brighter, showing 
greater progress and achievement in every attribute 
which tends to make the people more happy and con- 

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Legialadfm Creating Bradford County. 


The immediate legis- 
lation which brought 
Bradford county into 
being as a separate po- 
litical community, was 
embodied in the three 
Acts of Assembly of 
February 21, 1810; 
March 23, 1811, and 
March 24, 1812. These 
Acts, however, were 
preceded by legislation 
covering a long period 
of years creating older 
counties, whose juris- 
diction successively ex- 
tended over the terri- 
tory of this county. 

The study of a stat- 
ute with reference 
merely to its language, 
intent and purpose is about the least exhilarating ptistime 
most people could indulge in, unless they follow that as 
a business. But w^hen we consider the various steps in 
the progress and development of this State, which lead 

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Organization of Bradford County, 27 

up and necessitated these Acts of Assembly, that such 
legislation marked the evolution of a large community 
into a self governing and independent factor of thiB 
State, and was the culmination of a long, arduous and 
to some extent bitter struggle of its people, then the sub- 
ject becomes interesting and worth our while. And 
there is an added interest here from the fact that Brad- 
ford and Susquehanna counties, both of which were 
constituted by the same legislation, were the last two 
counties in the northern tier to be erected into separate 
county districts. 

It is a justifiable custom in celebrating the birth of 
any one to give some attention and respect to at least 
some of the ancestors. By analogy, therefore, on this 
anniversary of Bradford county it is proper for us to in- 
quire into its genealogy by taking a brief look at the 
county organizations, which preceded it and from time to 
time gave up the territory included by this county. 
Bradford county like all well born progeny had two 
known ancestors, Luzerne and Lycoming counties, but 
the double line did not go back far, and the most of 
what came from Lycoming had only six years before 
been taken from Luzerne. 

William Penn came to this country in 1682 and one 
of the early acts that he and his Provincial Council per- 
formed, that same year, was to divide what they then 
knew of "Penn's Province" into three counties, Chester, 
Philadelphia and Bucks. I have been unable to find 
the exact boundaries as they were then given for these 
original counties. They were larger than their present lim- 
its and rather indefinite in their extent towards the 
north and west. They appear to have possessed the ca- 

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28 Organization of Bradford County, 

pacity to give off future counties reaching to the *^ex- 
tremity of the Province/* without much aflfecting their 
original size. 

Bucks county, the most easterly of the three, lay 
along the Delaware River. Its northern boundary ex- 
tended to the Kittatinny mountains (about the present 
north boundary of Northampton county), **or as far as 
the land might be purchased from the Indians." (Egle*s 
History of Pennsylvania 438). 

Northampton county was constituted by the Act of 
March 11, 1752. (1 Smith's Laws 214). This Act pur- 
ports to take all of its territory from Bucks county. Af- 
ter defining its southern boundary and then providing 
that its western boundary should be along a line which 
is the present western line of Lehigh county, the balance 
of the description is, "and thence by that line to the ex- 
tremity of the said Province.'* This description in- 
cluded the territory of Bradford county. The rather in- 
definite description "to the extremity of the Province," 
was quite often employed in those times in defining the 
boundaries of new counties, and is an indication of how 
little was then known of this part of the Province. No 
settlement nor attempt at settlement had then been 
made in what is now Bradford county so far as known. 
Easton was made the county seat. Although North- 
ampton county continued to include the lands of this 
county until 1772 and until after some settlements had 
been made here, I do not think that any of our early 
settlers were required to go to Easton to transact any 
business. But the conflict between the Pennsylvania 
and Connecticut land claimants was then in full blast, 
and the Yankees about Wilkes-Barre and Kingston not 

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Organization of Bradford County, 29 

infrequently received pressing invitations to the hospi- 
talities of the court house and jail at Easton. However, 
the long distance to travel and the high mountain to 
cross made it extremely difficult to land any of them 
there, and this fact furnished a potent reason and prime 
motive for the organization of Northumberland county. 

Northumberland county was constituted by the Act of 
March 21, 1772. (1 Sm. L. 367). It was taken oflf from 
Northampton, Lancaster, Cumberland, Berks and Bedford 
counties. The county seat was fixed at Fort Augusta, 
which was where Sunbury is now. An apparent humor 
might be found in the Act, for after reciting in the pre- 
amble, ''the great hardships they lie under from being so 
remote from the present seat of judicature and the public 
offices," they proceeded to organize a new county out of 
five other counties, vastly larger than any one of the five, 
and with an area of more than one-third of the Province. 
But probably conditions were grim enough then. This 
county also went "to the extrennty of the Province" and 
reached it on the west at the Allegheny river and ex- 
tended east along the northern boundary to the present 
west line of Wayne county, thus including, inter alia, 
what is now Bradford and Susquehanna counties and all 
south to the present south line of Luzerne county, and so 
this section remained until the organization of Luzerne 
county in 1786. 

A comparatively large number of settlements were 
made during this i>eriod in what is now Bradford county. 
Its territory was organized into Stoke township. For a 
part of the time at least the settlers here had to go to 
what is now Sunbury to vote, and Mr. Craft in his His- 
tory of Bradford County, quotes from Miner, stating that 

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so Organization of Bradford County. 

Captain Simon Spalding (who lived in Sheshequin) and 
some others made the trip for this purpose, travelling 
over 100 miles. Talk about activity in polities today! 
There is considerable real estate in this county whose 
early titles are only to be found among the records of 
Northumberland county. Most of the settlers, however, 
came in under the Connecticut title atid paid no atten- 
tion to Pennsylvania, Northumberland county, or Fort 
Aui;;u8ta as its county seat. The Connecticut legislature 
organized the disputed territory at first into Westmore- 
land township and made it a part of Litchfield county, 
Connecticut, and later constituted Westmoreland town- 
ship into a county by that name. Members from it were 
elected to and sat in the Connecticut legislature for a 
number of years and troops raised here for the Revolu- 
tionary war were accredited to the State of Connecticut. 
The Trenton decree in 1782 determined the right of 
Pennsylvania to jurisdiction over the territory but the 
dispute over the titles of individuals to their resjHJctive 
holdings contiimed as fierce as ever. 

Luzerne county was created out of Northumberland 
county by the Act of September 25, 1786 (2 Sm. L. 386), 
It, too, recites the great inconvenience to the inhabitants 
by the large extent of Northumberland county and the 
great distance the petitioners dwell from the *'county 
town." Its eastern line was the same as the present 
eastern line of Susquehanna county. It went to the 
northern boundary of the state. (It was now after the 
Revolutionary war and Pennsylvania bad ceased to be 
"Penn's Province" and become a **State"). Thence it 
went "westward along the said boundary till it crosses 
the east branch of Susquehanna; and then along the 

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Organization of Bradford County, SI 

said northern boundary 15 miles west of the said river 
Susquehanna; thence by a straight line to the head of 
Tawande© Creek; thence, etc," There is still manifest 
a lack of knowledge of the "northern boundary." The 
Susquehanna crosses the State line in three different 
places, and from which one of the 15 miles was to be 
laid off is not stated, although the last was undoubtedly 
intended. And some have thought, not without reason, 
that the draftsman of the bill confused the Chemung 
with the Susquehanna, and that the measurement should 
be from the former, but without further knowledge on 
the subject this presumption could hardly be justified. 

In the years 1786 and 1787 the State line was survey- 
ed by commissioners from the two States of Pennsylva- 
nia and New York and marked with mile-stones, (2 
Sm. L. 510). And when Bradford and Susquehanna 
counties were subsequently set off their limits were defi- 
nitely fixed by those mile-stones. 

Wilkes-Barre (the statute calls it "Wilkesburg") was 
the county seat of the new county. There all the peo- 
ple then residing in this county went to do any county 
business, attend court either as parties, witnesses or jur- 
ors; there the assessors went to make their returns and the 
collectors to pay their taxes. There the records of all 
their titles were kept; and there the early titles have to 
be searched for now if occasion requires that they be 
looked up, and it sometimes does. Jonas Ingham made 
the trip up the river from Wilkes-Barre to Wyalusing in 
1789 and described it as follows : 

**I travelled up the Susquehanna following the course 
of the river, found it had been very little travelled, 
hardly a plain track and this very crooked and hard to 

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32 Organization of Bradford County. 

follow, quite impassable for more than a man and single 
horse. Along the edges of the precipices next the river 
and other places, I had to ascend and descend from one 
ledge of rocks to another, some feet perpendicular at a 
great height from the water, and in some places ex- 
tremely dangerous. I was led into these places some 
times from taking a wrong track, for the track often 
parted, one taking from the river and the other towards 
it. I was afraid of losing myself in the wilderness if I 
left the river. The habitations of man were very few, 
and the inhabitants instead of being glad to converse 
with strangers would hardly speak to them. When I 
would ask them concerning the road they would hardly 
give an answer. The chief they would say was, *Take 
any road — you can't miss the way.' I lodged three 
nights among these kind of people before I reached Wy- 

In 1787 the legislature passed what was known as the 
"Confirming Law." This confirmed the Connecticut ti- 
tle to all lands upon which an actual settlement had 
been made prior to the Trenton decree. It was thought 
that this law and the establishment of Luzerne as a sep- 
arate county would terminate the long controversy over 
the land titles. It undoubtedly would have done so if 
the confirming law had been allowed to stand. It was 
repealed in 1790. Then the conflict broke out afresh 
and more bitter than ever. The scene shifted, however; 
very largely, from Wyoming to what is now Bradford 
and Susquehanna counties and mainly this county. The 
half-share men, or "Wild Yankees," thronged here in 
large numbers. For more than 20 years in one form or 
another this contest still continued. There were acts of 

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Organization of Bradford County. SS 

violence both by dark and daylight, there were contests 
in courts, State and Federal, civil and criminal, there 
was a great deal of legislation finally resulting in the 
Compromise Acts recognizing the Connecticut title in the 
17 townships, and the final Act of which as to titles in 
Bradford county, was not passed until 1812, the same 
year of the complete organization of the county. I have 
referred to the matter at this length for the reason that 
it undoubtedly delayed for more than a decade the set- 
ting off and organization of this county. Tioga, Potter 
and McKean counties were set off as county districts in 
1804 without anything like the population or importance 
this county had as early as 1800. 

The 15 miles from the most westerly crossing of the 
Susquehanna would locate the northwest corner of Lu- 
zerne county in what is now the easterly part of South 
Creek township. As the line ran thence to the present 
southwest corner of this county it left in Northumber- 
land county, later Lycoming, a triangular part of our 
present county with a base of about 10 miles along thd 
northern boundary and the apex at the southwest corner. 

Lycoming county was organized out of Northumber- 
land by the Act of April 18, 1795. (3 8m. L. 220). On 
the east it followed the Luzerne county line to the north 
boundary of the State, and then followed that boundary 
west as far as Northumberland extended. It thus in- 
cluded the triangle heretofore referred to and which is 
now part of this county. 

Tioga county was set off from Lycoming by the Act of 
March 26, 1804. (4 Sm. L. 171). The southerly end of its 
eastern line starts at the head of "Beaver Dam.'' This same 
Beaver Dam was also made, later, the southwest corner 

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S4 Organization of Bradford County. 

of Bradford county; so we learn something of the natu- 
ral history of the county as well as its political from this 
study. The Tioga county line went direct to the 80th 
mile-stone on the State line. It was this location of the 
eastern boundary of Tioga county that left the triangle 
mentioned as part of Lycoming. In this connection it is 
worthy of note that this part of Lycoming county then 
connected with the remaining and larger part of that 
county by just a point. This triangle was evidently 
kept in Lycoming, in contemplation of further legisla- 
tion enacted just one week later and as a nest egg for the 
addition to it then planned. 

The Act of April 2, 1804, (4 Sm. L. 187), took a por- 
tion of Luzerne county, now this county, and annexed it 
to Lycoming. It began on the State line,^ where the 
eastern bank of the Susquehanna crosses it and then ran 
south through the western part of Litchfield township to 
the southern part of Sheshequin, then southwesterly 
across the river for five miles, then southeasterly for five 
miles to about the south line of Towanda township, and 
then directly west along the south lines of Burlington 
and West Burlington, and through the northerly part of 
Granville into southerly part of Troy township to easter- 
ly side of the triangle. This was done for the purpose 
of transferring Col. John Franklin from Luzerne county, 
whence he had been repeatedly elected to the legislature, 
and locate him in Lycoming where it was not supposed 
he could be elected. This performance shows that our 
fathers understood the art of gerrymandering, even 
though the word had not then been coined. It should 
be added, however, that Colonel Franklin was elected the 
very next year from Lycoming. 

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Organization of Bradford County, S5 

When the agitation for a new county here first began 
I have been unable to learn, hut it was as early as 1801 
anyway and probably some time before that. The pop- 
ulation warranted it and and the reason for the delay, 
without much doubt, was the long and bitter contest 
over land titles. The earliest reference I have been able 
to find to such movement is given by Mrs. Murray in 
her excellent History of Tioga Point, at page 352, in 
letters from Richard Caton to Clement Paine, quoted by 
her. Caton's home was in Baltimore, but he had exten- 
sive interests at Athens, and was as enthusiastic over its 
prospects then as the modern Athenian is now. His 
father-in-law, Charles Carroll, also held the Pennsylva- 
nia title to a very large quantity of land west from Ath- 
ens. His letters give such a striking picture of the situ- 
ation that I take the liberty of quoting in part. Under 
date of January 7, 1801, he writes : 

•*By a letter from Mr. George Welles I find you intend 
being at Philadelphia on the 10th inst, with the expect- 
ation of getting signers to the petition for a County 

Town at Athens I hope you will obtain from 

the landholders at Philadelphia, holding lands in Lu- 
zerne county, the approbation of the County Town being 
fixed at Athens. It is a subject in which they are much 
interested, and will eventually add greatly to the value 

of their lands Whilst in Pennsylvania call on 

Mr. Adium. He is appointed by the legislature of 
Pennsylvania to lay off the northern part of the State 
into districts. I have written him pointing out the ad- 
vantage of Athens for a County Town That in 

case of a division of the State, the possession of a Town 
at Tioga will bean important acquisition and that 

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S6 Organization of Bradford County, 

it is at this time capable of accommodating the officers 
attached to the courts of justice, and of furnishing con- 
venient apartments for a Court of Justice " 

He writes under date of January 19, 1801: " 

Mr. Adlum has already laid off the county. He is of 
the opinion that Tioga Point will be the County Town 

He writes under date of January 29, 1801: " 

The county embracing the Point will be from the Beav- 
er's Dam of Towanda to the York line, along the York 
line about 40 miles, then to the waters of Wyalusing. up 
the Susquehanna river and up the Towanda to the Bea- 
ver's Dam. This is not the exact location but pretty 
nearly so " 

In February, 1801, he writes: '* The legisla- 
ture will not at present divide Luzerne county, owing to 
a spirit of opposition to the laws and intrusion under the 

titles of Connecticut It is truly deplorable to see 

so fine a country, as the greater part of Luzerne certainly 
is little better than a desert " 

[Mrs. Murray has put every one interested in our his- 
tory under lasting obligations for reclaiming from ob- 
scurity so much matter of great historic value and set- 
ting it forth in such splendid way and accessible form.] 

Mr. Craft, in his History of Bradford County at page 
111, states : "As early as 1802 the question of erecting 
a separate county out of the nortliern part of Luzerne 
began to be agitated. Two things lead the people here 
to desire the change : One was the great distance to the 
county seat; the bad roads and inconveniences of travel 
made it a great burden for suitors and others having 

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Organization of Bradford County. 37 

business in the courts to attend. The second reason 
was the alienation of feeling between the two parts of 
old Luzerne, growing out of the land controversies. As 
has been stated in a previous chapter, the people of this 
county were mostly half-share men and consequently 
bitterly opposed to the Intrusion and Compromise laws, 
while old settlers tn the main favored both." 

There were public meetings held at different places to 
discuss the proposition, and to try and agree on satisfac- 
tory boundaries. Mr. Craft quotes a call for a meeting 
signed by a number of citizens of Wyajiising, Wysox and 
Braintrim townships, for a public meeting to be held at 
the house of William Means (Towanda) on "the 11th 
day of November, next, to consult and agree where the 
line shall run for the purpose of having a new county 
set off." The year is not stated, but it was probably 
1806 or prior. What was done at that meeting does not 

Miss Blackman, in her History of Susquehanna 
County, page 29, states: **Early in 1808 a division of 
Luzerne county was contemplated, and a public 
meeting to favor the object was held July 13, at the 
house of Edward Fuller in Bridge water, about four 

miles below Montrose Owing to a disagreement 

as to county lines, it was proposed that all the townships 
should send delegates to a meeting to be held at the 
house of Salmon Bosworth in Rush, September 1, follow- 
ing, and then endeavor to decide the matter." There is 
no account of the result of that meeting. Salmon Bos- 
worth lived in what is now Pike township, then called 
Rush, this county. 

An Act to erect parts of Luzerne and Lycoming coun- 

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S8 Organization of Bradford CouiUy. 

ties into a separate county district was introduced into 
the legislature, March 24, 1806, and the matter in one 
form or another was before the legislature each year 
thereafter until the county was finally set off in 1810 
and organized in 1812. There were many petitions for 
it and many remonstrances against it. Some of the 
bills introduced were for fully organized counties and 
others for mere county districts, which should have 
their boundaries defined, but remain attached to the old 
county for all county business, possessing no county offi- 
cers or courts of their own. 

Some of the bills were for erecting one county out of 
the whole of the northern part of Luzerne, and some 
were for two counties. Among the different names sug- 
gested for the new county were Hiram, Morris and Lo- 
raine. In considering this matter we should bear in mind 
the conditions then existing. What are now Bradford and 
Susquehanna were both a part of Luzerne, and the peo- 
ple in both wanted to be set off and naturally would 
differ in their opinions as to how it should be done. 
The larger part of both counties was but a wilderness. 
The only roads were but little more than paths and not 
many of them. There were no newspapers published in 
the limits of either of the counties. Communications 
with different parts of the counties were not easy. The 
capital of the State at that time was Lancaster. There 
were no railroads, no canals, and probably not even a 
wagon road for half the distance, to help the travel there 
and back. 

The members of the legislature, who went from what 
is now this county, during the period of the contest over 
the land titles, and the efforts to establish the county 

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Organization of Bradford County. S9 

were as follows: Obadiah Gore, Sheshequin, 1788, *89, 
'90; Simon Spalding, Sheshequin, 1791, 1792; Col. John 
Franklin, Athens, from 1795 to 1805, except the years 
1797, 1798; Jonas Ingham, Wyalusing, 1804; Moses 
Coolbaugh, Wysox, 1806; Samuel Satterlee, Smithfield, 
1809; Henry Welles, Athens, 1809, 1810; Jonathan Stev- 
ens, Wysox, 1811. Charles Miner and Benjamin Dor- 
ranee were members from what is now Luzerne and 
took an active part in helping in the formation of the 
new county. 

In this connection I quote again from the History of 
Tioga Point, page 393, from part of a letter written by 
Samuel Satterlee, then a representative from Smithfield 
in the legislature, written from Lancaster, January 13, 
1809. He said : 

** Petitions are presented for the two contem- 
plated county districts and referred to a committee, of 
which I am a member; we shall undoubtedly report fa- 
vorable, and I have no doubts the results will be favora- 
ble unless Messrs. Miner & Dorrance create a difficulty 
respecting the boundaries. Mr. Miner, a few days since, 
presented two petitions f;*om some fellows living about 
Tunkhannock, praying to have us annexed to Luzerne 
in the event of being setoff intocounty districts. I wish 
you without any delay (if thought advisable) to draft a 
petition for an organization of our county, so far at 
least as to enable us to choose commissioners and a 
treasurer. And 1 think it will be well to ask for an or- 
ganization for judicial purposes." 

Henry Welles of Athens, succeeded Mr. Satterlee 
in the legislature, and in a letter written to his father, 
from Lancaster, under date of January 10, 1810, he 

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Ifi Organization of Bradford County, 

said : ** The name of our county is Morris, it 

does not please me; there is some talk of calling it 
Ontario in the Senate." 

In a letter to Mr. Caton, under date of February 16, 
1810, he said : **The Point cannot be a County Town. 
It is too far from the Center. The law limits the dist- 
ance at seven miles and the Point is 16." 

After many previous bills, some different and some 
exactly corresponding, Mr. Dorrance on January 17, 
1810, brought in from a special committee previously 
appointed and directed so to do the Act which finally 
set off the two new counties, but as county districts only. 
It subsequently passed both' houses, was approved by the 
governor and became a law as the Act of February 21, 
1810. (5 Sm. L. 89). 'This bill as first reported from 
the committee gave the name **Morris" to this county, 
but before passing **Ontario" was substituted for it. The 
former name was probably in honor of Robert Morris, 
the Revolutionary financier. He had been one of the 
largest holders of the Pennsylvania title to lands in this 
county. It is worthy of note that on the same day the 
governor approved the bill changing the capital of the 
State from Lancaster to Harrisburg, to take effect in Oc- 
tober 1812. (5 Sm. L. 87). 

The first section of the Act designated the boundaries 
of this county, as follows : '^Beginning at the 40th 
mile-stone, standing on the north line of the state, and 
running south to a point due east of the head of Wyalu- 
sing falls, in the river Susquehanna; thence southwester- 
ly to the nearest point of Lycoming county line; thence 
in a direct line to the southeast corner of Tioga county, 
at the Beaver Dam on Towan<la creek; thence northerly 

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Organization of Bradford County. J/.! 

along the east line of Tioga county to the 80th mile- 
stone, standing on the north line of the State; thence 
east along said line to the 40th mile-stone, the place of 

The Act went on further to provide that the name of 
the new county should be Ontario; that the governor 
should appoint three commissioners to fix the location 
for the new county seat at the place "most beneficial and 
convenient," not exceeding seven miles from the centre ; 
that the governor should also appoint three trustees to 
receive proposals from persons who would grant, convey 
or transfer any land, money or other property for such 
county seat, and to lay such proposals before the com- 
missioners, and that the said trustees should also survey 
and mark the boundary lines of the county; that the 
new county should remain attached to Luzerne and Ly- 
coming counties for all judicial and other county pur- 
poses the same as it had been, until "it shall be other- 
wise directed by law." That meant that the new county 
was to be a "county district" only. It should have no 
courts or county officers of its own, and even the taxes 
collected should be paid in to the old counties for gene- 
eral use the same as before. 

The same Act also set off Susquehanna county and 
provided that the same commissioners appointed to fix 
the location for the county seat of Ontario county should 
also locate the county seat for Susquehanna, and it also 
was made merely a county district. The Susquehanna 
county people, however, secured the Act of March 23, 
1811,(5 Sm. L. 218), providing in substance that all of the 
taxes collected in that county should be for its exclusive 
use. Why this was not also done for our county is not 

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i2 Organization of Bradford CourUy, 

clear, unless it was supposed that it would shortly be 
fully organized. 

This county as originally set off took in a large part of 
what is now Braintrim and Windhara townships, Wy- 
oming county, including Laceyville. The people in 
those communities, however, wished to remain 
with old Luzerne, and accordingly they procured the 
passage of the Act of March 23, 1811, (5 Sm. L. 219), 
providing that the trustees should be authorized and re- 
quired *'to establish a point east of the Slippery Rocks 
(so called) at the head of Wyalusing Falls in the river of 
Susquehanna, for the southeast corner of Ontario county; 
from thence a line west to the said Slippery Rocks; from 
thence a southwesterly course to the nearest point of Ly- 
coming county, is hereby established as a southern 
boundary of the said county." 

The trustees appointed by the governor to survey the 
county were Samuel Satterlee of Smithfield, Moses Cool- 
baugh of Wysox and Justus Lewis of Wyalusing. They 
employed Jonathan Stevens of Wysox, now Standing 
Stone, and deputy surveyor for the State, and later an 
associate judge of the county, to run the lines. Mr. 
Craft states that he found a map of the survey among 
Judge Stevens' papers, and that from this and other in- 
formation he concludes that the lines of the county are 
as follows, making no allowance for magnetic variation : 

**Beginning on the 80th mile-stone, running due east 
40 miles to the 40th mile-stone, this line being part of 
the northern boundary of the State; thence from the 40th 
mile-stone south 24 miles and 56 perches; thence west 
four miles to Sli[»pery Rocks; theiu^e south 16 degrees 
west eight miles, thence north 80 degrees west 33 miles 

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Organization of Bradford County. ^S 

to the Beaver Dam; thence north 2 J degrees west 28 
miles to the place of beginning/' (History Bradford 
County, 113). It would be interesting to know what 
has become of that map made by Judge Stevens, and if 
possible it should be secured for the archives of this So- 

I have been unable to find in any history of the coun- 
ty, or any records that are accessible the names of the 
three commissioners, who were appointed by the gover- 
nor to fix the location of the county seat, nor can I find 
the date at which they acted in the matter. There are 
some fairly well founded traditions as to the manner of 
their acting, but the official record of their proceedings 
does not seem to have been unearthed as yet. How- 
ever, Miss Blackman, in her History of Susquehanna 
County, states that **The site of the court house was fixed 
by Commissioners Butler, Sutton and Dorrance of Wy- 
oming Valley, in 1811." (Page 317), and on page 31 it 
is stated that it was done as early as July, 1811. As 
the Act provided that the same commissioners were to 
act for both counties, we may probably assume that these 
were the men, who stuck the stake for our county seat, 
and likely on the same trip from Wyoming Valley. 

This county was fully organized and started off in 
business for itself by the Act of March 24, 1812, 
(5 Sm. L. 854). That Act changed the name 
from Ontario to Bradford. It fixed the second Tuesday 
of October, following, as the time when its com- 
plete organization should take effect; and directed that 
on that dale its county officers should be elected. It 
provided that it should be a part of a separate judicial 
district, and that its first court should be held in To- 

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IfJf Organization of Bradford Cownty, 

wanda township in January, 1813, at the house of Wil- 
liam Means. This was at the **01d Red Tavern," which 
stood at the corner of Main and Franklin streets. 
Therefore, the real beginning of the county was the sec- 
ond Tuesday of October, 1812. The first deed was re- 
corded October 28, 1812; the first Letters of Administra- 
tion were granted November 19, 1812; the first writ is- 
sued from court was January 12, 1813; the first court 
opened January 18, 1813; the first order in the Orphans 
Court was January 19, 1813. 

The question has been asked why these counties were 
set off in 1810 as county districts merely and not fully 
organized at first. A certain answer could not now be 
given. While this method had not been generally fol- 
lowed, it had often been done. There were plenty of 
precedents. Tioga county had been set off as a county 
district in 1804, six years ahead of Bradford, and it was 
not fully organized until the same year and by the same 
statute that this county was. Potter and McKean coun- 
ties were also set off as county districts in 1804, and yet 
McKean was not fully organised until 1826 and Potter 
not until 1835. Potter remained attached to Lycoming 
county for many years. McKean, while it was taken 
from Lycoming was hitched on to Centre county, which 
furnished all the officers to do all its business until 1814 
and then it was transferred to Lycoming again. After- 
wards McKean and Potter were y(iked into a sort of 
partnership affair, by which they were allowed to have 
one set of one county officers between them, and this 
continued until their organization. There were other 
similar cases in the State. It is very likely that the 
question of population was one reason and also disputes 

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Organization of Bradford County. J^5 

over the location of county seats, holding out for persons 
or communities to donate the necessary lands and some- 
thing additional for county purposes. It is probable 
that the conflict over land titles had something to do 
with the matter in the case of Bradford county. 

There have been two movements at different times in 
attempts to divide the county. Neither of them met 
with popular favor or attained formidable proportions. 
In these days of easy communication, improved ways of 
travel, and the era of good roads just at hand, there is 
left no place for such a project, our townships and our 
boroughs are growing into one compact community, 
voicing one sentiment, **The Union, now and forever, 
one and inseparable.'' 

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Towanda, The County-Seat. 


— In the primitive days of 

our country, the first settlers 
were obliged in tlieir efforts 
to provide a place to rest 
their weary bodies and shel- 
ter themselves and families 
from the winter's cold and 
summer's heat, and as a pro- 
tection from their aboriginal 
enemies and the wild beasts 

of the forest, to erect houses of logs, they would go out 
into the surrounding forest and select the best 
of timber, from which to erect these rough places of rest 
and refreshment. So, today, the president of our Society 
has gone forth and selected the best timber to be found 
to erect into the intellectual superstructure, which I have 
no doubt this audience has been pleased to see raised be- 
fore them. He has chosen material from the sturdy 
oaks of justice and equity, ex-Judge Fanning, whose 
branches of jurisprudence has spread far and wide over 
this judicial district, sheltering us from the fierce storms 
of crime and the hot rays of injustice, and whose leaves 
of judicial decisions have been widely wafted by the 
winds of favorable notoriety to be garnered and used by 
the legal talent of the future. For the next course he 

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Organization of Bradford County, Jfl 

has taken sound timber, John C. Inghano, Esq., who, 
owing to his taUness, straightness and the graceful 
swaying of his branches, as the breezes of intellect gently 
blow through them, we will have to designate as the 
*'Tall Sycamore of the Wyalusing." Then in the further 
upbuilding we have our friend, J. Andrew Wilt, who 
from the sweetness of the sap of intelligence that so con- 
tinuously flows from his juicy brain (and we sincerely 
hope he will not take this as a left-handed compliment), 
we will call him the Sugar Maple. And to top off the 
superstructure, oni* president has taken the eminent his- 
torian and librarian of our Society^ C. F. Heverly, who, 
owing to the fact of his being a sound JacTcsonran Dem- 
ocrat, we shall have to aame as **01d Hickory" forever. 
But, after building as best they could, our primitive an- 
cestors found interstices between tho logs, and to fill them 
and shut out the cold snows and winds, and the hot 
shots of the Indian, they took any old stuff' for chinking 
and daubing,and so today our worthy president has select- 
ed me for that purpose, consequently my name is **Mud." 

In writing an article on Towanda, in which will be in- 
cluded all the territory covered by what is commonly 
called the Towandas, there is probably but little that I 
can add to what is already known, either as to its name, 
the origin thereof, or its history; therefore you will please 
excuse the brevity of my paper. Not because there is 
not much that might be written on the subject, but 
rather because of the inability of your humble servant to 
give it its just and interesting summing up. The history 
of Towanda dates back to the beginning of the history of 
this county. Its pioneer settlers were people of indomita- 

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4<^ Organization of Bradford County. 

ble courage and remarkable industry, and the present and 
all following generations cannot do too much to perpet- 
uate their memories, whether it be in song or verse, cen- 
tennial or any other manner. And I only wish it were 
possible to see the walls of the rooms of the Bradford 
County Historical Society graced by the portraits of the 
Foxes, the Meanses, the Bowmans, Grantiers, Goffs, 
Wythes, Hales, Ruttys, Fosters and many others. This 
in addition to the portraits of old pioneers we already 
have, would make a picture gallery worth going many 
miles to see. And here allow me to suggest that at some 
future date we hold a meeting of this Society expressly 
dedicated to memorial talks of these rugged first settlers 
of Towanda, with an especial invitation to all of their de- 
scendants to attend and help add interest to the occa- 

*'God rest them ! In all their last low homes, 

With all their brave compeers 

Who fought and bled or toiled and strove 

Through weary, lingering years ; 

That thus their sons in prosperous peace 

Could pleasantly review 

The many changes time has wrought 

Since this our land was bought." 

An now as to the name of Towanda and its origin, and 
first let me speak as to the melody of its pronunciation 
in all its different nomenclatures, whether as Towanda, 
which is clearly an Indian term; Awandac in the Nanti- 
coke term signifying **a burial place"; Towandcemunk, 
in the Delaware dialect, **where we bury the dead." To- 
wanda is said to be derived from Gowanda, meaning a 
"town among the hills by the waterside (which it un- 
doubtedly is), and again from Dawantaa, Iroquois, signi- 

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Organization of Bradford County. Jf9 

fying the "fretful or tedious.'* We have also hints of a 
tradition, that during the wars of the Aborigines among 
themselves they had two battles in a single day near this 
place, which was afterwards referred to in Indian lore, 
as two-won-in-a-day. But this probably has no founda- 
tion in fact. It has been remarked by some sage that 
**A man who has no music in his soul is fit for treason, 
stratagems and spoils''; and certain 'tis that he who does 
not recognize the melody contained in the diflferent 
Indian names of places and streams in this country, 
might be appropriately termed Nositur-poetic-non-jit ; 
which Latin term I will refer to some of the classical 
professors, members of our Society, for translation and 
definition, as to whether it means that a nasty poet is 
fit for anything or not. 

There is certainly a musical jingles in every Indian 
place name, that leads one to believe that in that respect 
it far excels the rich Irish brogue, or sweet German ac- 
cent of the present era. For instance, note the sweet- 
ness of Susquehanna, Sheshequin, Wysox, Wyalusing, 
Tuscarora, Meshoppen, Mehoopany, Nanticoke, Shamo- 
kin and a host of others; and even though the first syl- 
lable as it is pronounced may hit you on your think- 
tank with a sudden tunk, still the name Tunkhannock 
has a pleasureable, musical sound. No one more than 
the great poet Longfellow recognized the music of the 
Indian language as his world renowned poem **Hiawa- 
tha," which might be called a great song, as well as a 
great poem, demonstrates. I was particularly impressed 
with the beauty of Indian names, as also with their 
translation into the English language, where I visited a 
few years ago, the Berkshire Hiils of Western Massachu- 

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50 Organization of Bradford County, 

setts, and found such as Ashuelot, which means "a town 
between the rivers'*; Tontoosu, "winter home of the 
deer*'; Hoosac, "the region beyond"; Housatonic, "the 
region beyond the mountains''; Seeconk, "the home of 
the wild goose"; Taconic, meaning "forest." 

And now comes to our mind the thought from whence 
came the tones of accord, with which we cannot but rec- 
ognize these Indian names are filled. Can it be that 
away back in the past some Indian chief possessed with 
the divine poetic afflatus, passed like a summer zephyr 
over this land dropping here and there the musical syn- 
onym that best fitted the spot where it fell ? 

**If 80 he now is dead the sweet musician ; 

He the sweetest of all singers ; 

He has gone from us forever; 

He has moved a little nearer 

To the Master of all music 

To the Master of all singing 

And the melancholy fir trees 

Wave their dark green fans above him, 

Wave their purple cones above him, 

Sighing with him to console him, 

Mingling with his lamentations, 

Their complaing, their lamenting. '' 

The territory now occupied by the Towandas has the 
unique distinction of having been embraced by two 
states, Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Previous to the 
organization of Bradford county and the establishment 
of the county seat, this territory went by the name of 
Claverack, so called from Claverack on the Hudson river, 
the home of the grantees of this township, and the fol- 
lowing in relation to Claverack is recorded : **0n the 20th 
of June, 1774, the committee of the Susquehanna Com- 
pany for laying out townships, officially permit Jeremiah 

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Organization of Bradford County, 51 

Hogaboom and Solomon Strong to locate and survey a 
township five miles square in the Susquehanna purchase. 
Hogaboom made a report which was accepted, and with- 
out going into details and giving boundaries the town- 
ship of Ciaverack was laid out, containing 25 square 
miles, exclusive of the river. According to the rules of 
the Susquehanna Company, Ciaverack was divided into 
53 equal shares, or lots. It was called Strong and Hog- 
aboom's town, they owning one third of the whole num- 
ber of rights in it.'* 

This, then, we take it, was the name that our present 
Towandas went by until came the time for establishing 
the county seat, when there arose an exciting contest 
over the Dame for the future. Upon locating the site of 
the court house in 1812, a century ago, the proprietors 
laid out the town into lots and streets, which on the 
original plot was called "Overton,'* described as contain- 
ing two acres, more or less, and as being a part of a 
large tract called '*Canewood," probably owing to the 
nature of the small trees found growing upon it'. Efforts 
were made to fasten upon the inhabitants the name of 
Meansville, in honor of William Means, one of the pro- 
prietors, and it generally went by that name for several 

Jealousy and bitterness were, however, aroused in op- 
position, and the following petition for naming the 
county seat was presented to the court, May 8, 1815: 
"Upon the petition of the inhabitants of the town plot, 
laid out for the seat of Justice in the County of Brad- 
ford, to wit: Simon Kinney, Charles F. Welles, Harry 
Spalding, Obadiah Spalding, Ebenezer B. Gregory, Jesse 
Woodruff, A. C. Stewart, Adam Conly, John E. Kent, 

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52 Organization of Bradford County, 

Andrew Irvine, Burr Ridgwa}- and O. A. Holden, inhab- 
itants, and John Franklin, Joseph Kingsbury, Edward 
Herrick, Ethan Baldwin and many other citizens of 
Bradford county, setting forth that they had unanimously 
selected the name of Monmouth for the designation oi 
said town, and the Hon. John B. Gibson and his associ- 
ate judges permitted the said petition to be deposited in 
the office of the court, aforesaid. But yet the name was 
not satisfactory, and Burr Ridway in his issue of the 
Bradford Gazette, dated March 4, 1816, at "Williamston," 
says : "The name of this village having become the 
source of considerable impetuosity and unreasonable 
strife, the editor willing to accommodate all, announces 
a new name this day — may it give satisfaction and be- 
come permanent, but the strife continued. Each name 
had its advocates, and in almost any date of the Gazette 
of 1816 may be found notices signed at Williamston, 
Monmouth, Towanda and Meansville. Other names 
were tried on, but did not fit well enough to wear very 
long. The old name of Claverack was suggested, and a 
notice of sale of property was given, signed Vauxhall. 

Finally, the contest over the name assumed a political 
phase, the Democrats (for please bear in mind there 
were Democrats in these days as well as in the present), 
favoring the name of Meansville, and the opposition 
which I presume were Federalists, that of Towanda. 
But also bear in mind that the Democrats in those 
days as at the present time generally got walloped, but 
as at present they yielde<l gracefully and Towanda, 
which in the Indian dialect was pronounced Towan- 
daugh, and since by the Pools and Heemans, Town-day 
became the permanent name. It has been remarked 

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Organization of Bradford County, 53 

that a rose under another name would smell as sweet, 
but we very much doubt that we would be as proud of 
our city of promise today under another name. Much 
might be written of remarkable events, of wonderful im- 
provements, of eminent men and women who have been 
born, reared to manhood and womanhood, distinguished 
themselves in all the different walks of life, passed on to 
other lands or to the "great unknown beyond'* within the 
hundred years of Towanda's life. 


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Marie Theresa SchiVinger. 


C><*cn2F we could sleep, not as Rip Van Winkle did, 
T VT but backward* for 152 years what would be 
Ij familiar in this valley? Its homes? lis 
>CiNr roads? There were none, only the lone- 
some trait of tl)e Indian, and the smoke curling up from 
his wigwam. Even the Susquehanna at that time, how 
different! It was not wildly gnawing at its banks and 
overflowing them one season, and shrunken to a sum- 
mer's rivulet at another. Those unbroken forests sweep- 
ing down to the water's edge stored the gentle rain and 
gave up the snow gradually. We are studying in this 
Historical Society, the lands which have brought the 
changes from the forest primeval to this day of what 
seems ultra civilization, in that so many of the whole- 
some customs are passing. 

Let us to Strausburgh, where 152 years into the past 
finds every thing familiar, save for the patches of rents 
incidental to war. The chimes, which were ringing 
when Marie Theresa Schillinger was born, had been ring- 
ing for 300 years. At least, the tower of the Cathedral, 
throwing a shadow almost as long as that of the Wash- 
ington monument, had been standing guard over this 
desirable city for that long. The Cathedral itself dates 
back to 1000. This child was named by the Empress of 

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Marie Theresa Schillinger. 55 

Austria, Marie Theresa, to whom she was related. Her 
younger son, who was ray great-uncle, told me this and 
her son ought to know. At this time, Alsase Loraine be- 
onged to France, and to it was evidently the proper thing 
for the children to be sent to the brilliant capitol for 
their education. 

Marie Theresa Schillinger was one of seven daughters, 
all of whom were bundled off to Paris to school. Louis 
XVI, young, exemplary, with more heart than head, had 
fallen heir to the throne of a debauched king. His 
birthright, but what a mess of pottage ! Who would be 
king? No wonder the King and Queen fell on their 
knees and cried, weeping, **0h, God, guide us, protect 
us, we are going to reign." Being related to Marie An- 
toinette and a namesake of her mother's, it is not strange 
that Miss Schillinger was taken into the royal household 
as a maid of honor. 

What a privilege to live with one who was crowned, 
not only as queen but seemingly with all the virtues. 
One so simple in her tastes, so loyal to her friends, so 
forgiving of her enemies, and preferring her muslin frock 
and life at the Petit Trianon with the children to royal 
robes at court. What torture to have seen the suspicion 
of the people increase, the revolution creeping in; to 
have heard the mobs beating at the gates crying for 
bread; to have endured the insolent slanders against the 
Queen; to have seen the Swiss guard butchered, and fi- 
nally the King and Queen driven off to Paris in that 
horrible procession, with gory heads on pikes thrust at 
their carriage doors. Do not say life hangs by a thread! 
It hangs by steel or ropes. Neither the Royal family 
nor their friends could have lived through the reign of 

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66 Marie Theresa Schillinger, 

Hope springs eternal in the breast, and they heeded 
not the warning to make their escape until it was too 
late. When they finally made the attempt it was to be 
intercepted at Vincennes, and back to Paris and to prison. 
In January, 1793, the King was beheaded and Miss 
Schillinger made her escape. What mixed feelings she 
roust have had, as she stepped safely upon the boat, 
which was to take her from her family, her country and 
her Queen into a strange land. The boat was anchored 
a little way out, waiting, no doubt, for a favorable wind 
to fill her sails. After nightfall there swam out to this 
ship one who was probably not unknown to her, as he 
too had been in the King's service. 

It was but flying from one danger to another, as they 
were chased four days by an English vessel, which finally 
had its mast shattered by a shot from a gun called 
"Long Tom.'* What depth of sorrow and anguish lie in 
the word "refugee." What memories many of the peo- 
ple on that ship carried ! Is it any wonder they never 
talked of the scenes of bloodshed, or the events which 
made exiles of them? 

This strong swimmer was Charles Homet, whom she 
married at the end of the three months' voyage. They 
lived one year at Bottle Hill, N. J., where Charles, Jr. 
was born. With the little baby they came over the Po- 
cono Mountains to Wilkes-Barre, and up the river in a 
Durham boat to Asylum. Whether they found old ac- 
quaintances there or not I cannot say, but, at least, 
they were countrymen with a common sorrow. This 
was to be her home. Did she contrast it with the 
the grandeur of Versailles, which outlives kings and 
kingdoms? And could these log houses full of the odor 

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Marie Theresa Schilling er, 57 

of roasting wild game be hospitable and comfortable as 
those old stone houses in the city of her birth? Not 
even this semblance of civilization was left to them. 
Back into the wilderness they must go where the cries of 
wild beasts must have struck terror to those unaccus- 
tomed ears. But, thank God, there were no Jacobins, 
no Robespierres. 

There were no Titanic records of speed in those days, 
nor any mail route from the coast. With the Queen al- 
ready dead, a house was started under the supervision of 
Charles Hornet, with the hope that she might make her 
escape. When the rumors of the Queen's death had been 
verified, the Homet family returned to Asylum. After 
so many shifting of the scenes they settled down to make 
their way in farming, to them a new and difficult indus- 
try. But with true French frugality they achieved. 

After Napoleon's decree allowing the Refuges to re- 
turn, they saw nearly all their friends depart for the 
home-land. Lonely ? Verily, but there was no time to be 
mourning when there were children to be clothed and fed, 
and the many workmen to care for who were felling 
trees, building fences and making it possible to till the 
ground. There were stores, but on the shelves we saw 
no canned goods and ready-made clothing. 

She saw her three sons grow into able and exemplary 
young men. They built large houses and barns, a grist- 
mill and saw-mill, and received a grant for the ferry. 
They rafted lumber and produce from their lands to 
markets down the river. The one daughter, Harriet, 
was the mother of Mrs. William R. Storrs. Three royal 
woman — mother, daughter and granddaughter, whom I 
like to think of as being much alike. Of the nine 

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58 Marie Theresa Schillinger. 

grandsons, only one had male heirs to carry down that 
name, which very soon may be but a memory in the 
valley. But so long as there is a remnant, may it rise 
up to call her blessed, who graced the name of Marie 
Theresa Schillinger Homet. 


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Phoehe Winans Place. 


S we meet today to honor our noble and pa- 
triotic women and mothers, we must bear in 
mind that not all of our best women have 
been given a place in our histories, and in 
the lists of the royal and great, but that many who 
have lived in more humble homes and toiled for a life- 
time to make their home and fireside happy, honored 
and loyal among these, we would call your attention to 
one of small stature, silken hair, with a wiry active per- 
son, and a constitution and resolution of iron. Phoebe, 
the daughter of Jacob Winans, whose paternal grand- 
father, John, came from Holland to New Haven, Conn, 
among the early settlers and later to Elizabeth, N. J., 
where Phoebe was born December 15, 1758. Her father, 
Jacob, came to Middle Smithfield, then Northampton, 
now Monroe county. Pa., about the beginning of the 
Revolutionary war, where he served as an officer in the 
American army. 

During the war Phcebe cared for the younger mem- 
bers of the family, while her father who was widowed, 
was away in his country's service. Many were the 
nights of excitement and terror spent, as she concealed 
the smaller ones of the family in the bushes or fied with 
them to the fort to escape the prowling Red Men. They 

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60 Phfrbe Winans Place. 

saw the scalped McGinnis, when the frontiersmen re- 
turned with his body, after dispersing an Indian raid 
which increased their terror, and thereafter the least 
alarm, or when Phccbe went to a nearby spring for 
water, would send the children to the sheltering bushes 
like young partridges, where they lay concealed until 
8ister*s reassuring call again brought them forth to their 
duties or amusements. 

One dark and stormy night a colored man came and 
tapped on her window, telling her in a whisper that In- 
dians were in the neighborhood and that she must get to 
the fort as soon as possible. She quietly rose and took 
the children from their beds and cautiously withdrew 
to the woods, where she concealed them and stood 
guard until dawn began to show in the East. Then she 
hastened with them, arriving safely at the fort in the 
early morning. She was also their instructor as well as 
their protector and foster mother. 

Early in 1781 Phoebe Winans married James Place, or 
LaPlace, of French extraction, as some of the family 
claim. His ancestors were among the early New Eng- 
land settlers, and came to Middle Smithfield before the 
Revolutionary war, in which he and others of his family 
served. To James and Phoebe Winans Place were born 
six sons and five daughters. She reared and trained 
them with her own hand and labor. No sewing ma- 
chines nor factory looms to help out. She spun and 
wove her own cloth, and made by hand their every gar- 
ment, knitted their socks, hoods and mittens, while her 
husband cleared away the forest and tilled the ground, 
becoming what was then called a well-to-do man with 
several hundred acres of land. 

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Phcebe Winans Place. 61 

The 11 children of Phoebe Winans Place produced her 
115 grandchildren, the larger part of whom lived to 
marry, and of the records now available we have the 
names of some 700 great-grandchildren, with a number 
of families still unrecorded. 

Besides her father, numerous of his people were 
in the War for Independence. Several of her 
brothers also entered the war with their father and saw 
great hardships. He husband served during most 
of the Revolutionary war with some of his brothers 
and other relatives, showing practically a clear record of 
all available members of both her and her husband's 
families in the cause for Independence. Phcebe Winan 
Place's eldest son, Jacob Place, born December, 1781, 
whose father was in the Revolutionary service, gave his 
life for the American cause in the War of 1812. 

Phoebe Winans Place spent her latter days with her 
daughter, Rosannah, wife of Alexander Patterson Biles 
of Porterville, Bradford county, where she died June 9, 
1845, aged 86 years. 

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Ninth Annual Old Petiple's Meeting. 

HE ninth annual meeting of the Old People 
of Bradford county, under the auspices of 
the Bradford County Historical Society, was 
held in Towanda, Saturday, June 22, 1912. 
The day was a beautiful one, seemingly designed for the 
comfort and enjoyment of patriarchs, who wended their 
way from all parts of the county to Towanda. Every ar- 
rangement seemed perfect in detail, and there was no 
disappointment to the happy, joyous crowd. 

The forenoon was taken up in receiving the people at 
the rooms of the Society, registering and providing 
badges. There were happy meetings of old friends and 
comrades, and many pleasing pictures presented of 
younger days and sunshine. The ladies of the Village 
Improvement Society saw that all the venerable people 
were provided comfort at the Rest Room and served tea 
and wafers. 

At 1:30 o*clock the doors at Keystone opera house 
were thrown open. The old people were on hand 
promptly and ready for the afternoon enjoyments. Cap- 
tain Kilmer and his trained veterans marched down 
Main street to the step of martial music. The crowd fell 
in behind him and soon filled the opera house. Mean- 
while, Walker's orchestra was discoursing pleasing mu- 
sic. At 2 o'clock everything was ready for the historic 
performance, which was put in motion by President 
John A. Biles, who with great pleasure gave the old peo- 
ple a hearty welcome. Sergeant Jay Thomas, the de- 

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Ninth AnnueU Old People^ a Meeting. 68 

lightful old-time singer, made his bow and sang ''Little 
Old Log Cabin in the Lane." Being loudly encored, he 
responded by singing '*01d Black Joe" with equally 
pleasing effect. 

Following, Librarian C. F. Heverly took- charge of the 
program, who after fitting remarks called attention to his 
happy and busy family of old-time boys and girls ply- 
ing their tools of seventy years ago. Giving the signal 
and as the curtain went up, a scene presented, real and 
inspiring, bringing forth loud applause. Arranged in a 
semi-circle, all busy and clad in the olden style, were : 
Mrs. Daniel Heverly, spinning flax; Mrs. Lydia Bush, 
spinning wool ; Mrs. Mary Mead, operating the reel ; 
Mrs. L B. Decker, knitting; Mrs. Viletta Boyle, carding 
wool; David Horton, hatcheling flax; A. H. Kingsbury, 
churning; Justus A. Record, aged 97, fiddling; seated 
next to him was Mrs. Mary Mahoney, the aged and ex- 
pert dancer, and at the end, J. Washington Ingham, the 
venerable orator of the day. Back of the performers 
were seated Captain Kilmer and his company of veter- 
ans of the Civil War; the most venerable veteran, Seth T. 
Verguson, aged 06, and dancing veterans, John F. and 
Martin V. Lampman, occupying seats in the box. The 
other 150 old people were seated in front of the stage. 

Resting the busy operators, the head of tJie family, 
Justus A. Record, made a short address,, reciting th*^ 
changes that had taken place since his advent into this 
world nearly a hundred years ago, and concluded by 
singiiig a song of his boyhood in very good voice. 
J. Washington Ingham, aged 89, the magical little 
man, then spoke as follows : 

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64. Ninth Annual Old People's Meeting. 

Venerable Friends and Comrades : — It has been made 
my pleasant duty to welcome you to this meeting of the 
Bradford County Historical Society. I bid you welcome! 
You are deservedly honored this day — not because your 
heads are silvered o'er with age, whitened by the frosts 
of many winters — not because you have lived beyond the 
allotted time of three score years and ten ; but because 
your lives have been worth living. You have been vir- 
tuous, amiable, charitable and industrious citizens, kind 
to your neighbors, good to the poor and af9icted. Great 
changes have taken place since you were young. Our 
nation has grown immensely in area by the annexation 
of Texas, and the acquisition of a large slice of Northern 
Mexico, including California. It has obtained Alaska, 
Hawaii, Porto Rico and the Philippines. Our population 
has increased from 12,000,000 in 1830 to 95,000,000 
now. The increase in wealth has been still greater than 
the increase in population, and is not confined to the 
pockets of the Rockefellows and Astors (the vastly rich), 
but is generally diffused among all classes. The com- 
mon people, generally, have more money, better clothes, 
better houses, better food, and more of the comforts and 
conveniences of life than ever before, and they work less 
hours for higher wages. There was but little money, 
and no banks in Bradford county, when you were 
young, and the first one established, ignominously failed, 
leaving its worthless notes a dead loss in the hands of 
the people. The population was mainly along the river 
and large creeks. The fields and roads were full 
of stumps; the people, generally, were poor. The 
greater part of the county was a wilderness of woods 
well stocked with deer and venison was plenty on our 

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Ninth Anmial Old People^ s Meeting, 65 

father's tables. Bears, panthers and other wild animals 
inhabited the woods. The river in Springtime swarmed 
with shad, which were caught with seines by the wagon 
load. There were no canals, railroads, telegraphs, tele- 
phones nor rural deliveries in this county. Automobiles, 
bicycles, buggies and fine carriages were unknown. Peo- 
ple rode on horseback in two-horse wagons sometimes 
drawn by oxen. Mowing machines, corn planters, 
corn harvesters, potato diggers, hay loaders, horse rakes, 
horse forks, hay tedders, grain drills, cooking stoves, 
sewing machines, knitting machines, washing machines, 
clothes wringers, and other labor-saving implements and 
devices now so common and useful were not dreamed of. 
Many of the people lived in log houses, and the first 
school house in which I was a pupil in Quick's Bend was 
built of logs. 

The first locomotive steam put on a railroad in the 
United States was in 1828 — 82 years ago. Your memo- 
ries go back 20 years before the war with Mexico, and 
more than 30 years before the great Civil War (which we 
then called the "Great Rebellion"), that caused so much 
mourning in nearly every household. North and South. 
When you recall the many changes and vicissitudes of 
the past, its pains and its pleasures, its joys and its sor- 
rows, it seems like a long vivid, varied fitful dream of the 

Since our meeting in the court house eight years ago, 
when I had the honor of addressing you, some of our 
valued comrades who were with us then, and there, have 
departed to the unknown continent from whence no 
traveller ever returns. Chauncey Russell, John A. 
Codding, William Griffis, William W. Browning, E. 

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66 Ninth Annual Old Peaple^8 Meeting. 

Reed Myer, Major Cyrus Avery, Mrs. Eliza McKean and 
R. M. Welles have passed away to the other side. We, 
too, are on the brink of life's setting sun, and soon will 
sink down behind the impassable hills, which hide from 
view the unknown world. When the pale messenger, 
whose visits never fail, knock at our door with the sol- 
emn summons, I trust we will meet Him not as an enemy 
to be dreaded, but as a friend sent in mercy to relieve us 
of the pains and infirmities of old age. Whether it be 
true or false, whether it be a delusion or not, it is swtet 
consoling thought, that we are soon to meet our dear 
friends who have gone before, and are awaiting our arri- 
val to greet us joyfully at the Golden Gate of the Eternal 

Following the address. Sergeant Thomas sang "Silver 
Threads Among the Gold," responding to a hearty en- 
core by "Mollie Darling," with charming effect and 
sweetness. Mrs. Viletta Boyle recited a poem on a ball, 
given in Towanda eighty years ago, in a pleasing man- 
ner. The orchestra put on the finishing touches by a 
fitting selection. John F. Lampman, aged 75, and Mar- 
tin V. Lampman, aged 70, soldier brothers, then took the 
floor, the latter spatting juber, while the other on foot as 
light and graceful as a feather,performed feats in dancing, 
most pleasing and never excelled upon the stage. While 
the next was arranging, Mr. Heverly gave a short intro- 
duction of each of the performers. Then appeared the 
wonder of the afternoon, Mrs. Mary Mahoney, aged 86, 
being escorted to the stage by Mr. Record, aged 97. 
When the bow was drawn the nimble feet began to play 
in artistic movements with perfect time and skill. Her 

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Ninth Annual Old People* s Meeting, 67 

aged partner caught the inspiration, became young 
again and followed in tlie motion and figures. The 
dancers, ages aggregating 183 years, was a scene proba- 
bly never witnessed upon any other stage. Sergeant 
Thomas rendered very beautifully **The Faded Coat of 
Blue" and "The Low Back Car." After inspiring music 
by the orchestra and the pathetic song, "Just Before the 
Battle Mother," by Sergeant Thomas, came the second 
part of the program. 

Mr. Heverly explained the historic exhibition to fol- 
low, that it was fifty years since these veterans donned 
the blue and went to the front in defense of the Union, 
that the man who commanded them on bloody battle 
fields, commanded them today ; no such exhibition was 
ever presented by the soldiers of any other war in our 
history. Then at tlw«giiai to the taps of the drum 
by Reed Dunfee, Alonzo Chapman, Aaron ^Eddy and 
F. M. Vought with fife, Daniel Walborn carrying the 
flag, Capt. George W. Kilmer marched upon the stage 
with his company, consisting of D. J. Sweet, Elisha Cole, 
B. W. Bradley, Delanson Fenner, John H. Chaflfee, John 
A. Allen, J. Alonzo Bosworth, A. E. Arnold, A. C. Ham- 
merly, Juni W. Allen, David Latton, E. 0. Horton, 
Henry Maynard, Woodford C. May and I. L. Young. 
The lineup was grand and imposing, bringing forth ex- 
pressions of admiration and hearty applause. With 
wonderful exactness the old boys executed the different 
drills and maneuvers. Resting a moment, Captain Kil- 
mer sang in strong voice, "Tenting on the Old Camp 
Ground." A little more nice work by the company, then 
Sergeant Thomas joined the boys in his patriotic medley, 
including "Marching Through Georgia," "Rally Round 

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68 Ninth Annual Old People* 8 Meeting. 

the Flag" and "Johnnie Comes Marching Home." Ac- 
tion and motion of "the light fantastic" accompanied the 
words, the old veteran covering himself with glory in his 
splendid rendition. The others caught up the refrain 
and made the old walls ring with war-time melody, then 
in a gracetul manner marched from the stage. 

After a splendid selection from the orchestra, the prize 
winners were brought and seated on the stage; the oldest 
lady being Mrs. Dorcas Dayton of Towanda, born Janu- 
ary 11, 1824, and the oldest gentleman, Cornelius Bump 
of Lime Hill, born February 9, 1822. President Biles 
introduced the aged people, presenting Mrs. Dayton a 
handsome silver loving cup, and Mr. Bump a fine silver 
mounted cane. The orchestra discoursed enlivening 
music, bringing to a close one of the happiest, and most 
historic and enjoyable occasions ever held in Bradford 
county. Everybody departed with a smile, feeling 
younger, and the expression, "I wouldn't have missed it 
for a farm, will bo here next year and have my neigh- 
bors come." 


The oldest married couple in attendance at the meet- 
ing were Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Heverly of Overton, who 
have been married 62 years. 

The oldest twins present were Mrs. Mary Shoemaker 
and Mrs. H. Swackhammer of Towanda, born May 2, 

The oldest person present, Justus A. Record, Towanda, 
was born on Christmas Day, 1815. 

Isaac L. Young, Sheshequin, was born July 4, 1836, 
and Lyman C. Meracle of Rome, July 4, 1839. 

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Ninth Annual Old People' b Meeting, 69 

Saturday was also the 74th anniversary of the birth of 
Juni W. Allen of Towanda and J. F. Shoemaker, Esq. of 
Waverly, both veterans of the Civil War. 

H. S. Allis of Wysox and L. L. Post of Sheshequin 
were both born February 4, 1828. 

David Latton, Monroeton, and William T. Horton, 
Towanda, both veterans of the Civil War, were born 
April 9, 1839. 

John R. Allen of Evergreen and S. C. Kitchen, Le- 
Roy, were born November 7, 1841. Clark Slater of 
Burlington and C. A. Rubright of Corning were born 
May 14, 1842. Andrew Morrison of Ulster and A. J. 
Edsall, New Albany, both veterans, were born June 11, 

There were 175 persons over 70 yeai-s of age in attend- 
ance. The following is a list of those who registered, 
with date of birth : 

Justus A. Record, December 25, 1815. 

Seth T. Varguson, August 4, 1816. 

John Ennis, July 19, 1821. 

Cornelius Bump, February 9, 1822. 

H. S. Clark, September 14, 1823. 

J. W. Ingham, October 21, 1823. 

Mrs. Dorcas Dayton, January 11, 1824. 

Thomas Pollock, September 5, 1824. 

Lydia Campbell, January 14, 1825. 

Horace Heath, May 12, 1825. 

Mrs. Caroline Lent, November 18, 1825. 

David Horton, January 25, 1826. 

Mrs. Mary Mahoney, July 9, 1826. 

G. F. Reynolds, Sept. 26, 1826. 

Maribah Pettes, Jun^^ 5, 1827. 

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70 NiiUh AnnucU Old People's Meeting. 

A. D. Brainard, January 23, 1828. 
L. L. Post, February 4, 1828. 
H. S. Allis, February 4, 1828. 
Mrs. William Scott, May 8, 1828. 
Henry A. Johnson, May 13, 1828. 
Samantha Vincent, October 11, 1828. 
Col. E. J. Ayres, September 20, 1828. 
Daniel Heverly, October 28, 1828. 
Nancy Stoueraan, October 81, 1828. 
Mrs. Jesse Vargason, July 18, 1829. 
G. W. Shores, February 12, 1830. 
Archibald Ruggles, April 28, 1830. 
J. I. Westover, June 15, 1830. 
David Wayman, May 2, 1831. 
C. Riker, May 22, 1831. 
F. A. French, July 26, 1831. 
Daniel Heeman, October 5, 1831. 
A. H. Kingsbury, October 23, 1831. 
George J. Bird, November 12, 1831. 
H. W. Wheaton, December 9, 1831. 
Mrs. A. P. Stephens, January 18, 1831. 
A. B. Culver, April 15, 1832. 
Jeremiah Kilmer, April 26, 1832. 
J. V. Geiger, October 5, 1832. 
John V. Raymond, October 7, 1832. 
Ezra Allen, October 18, 1832. 
Isaac B. Decker, December 15, 1832. 
Joseph Vanscoter, February 19, 1833. 
Barbara Johnson, April 9, 1833. 
Hester Rhodes, May 6, 1833. 
Catharine Newell, July 7, 1833. 
W. W. Miller, August 11, 1833. 

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Ninth Annual Old People* s Meeting, 71 

Mrs. M. E. Warner, November 16, 1833. 
Mrs. A. Maynard, November 22, 1833. 
Alex. Clark, December 5, 1833. 
Richard McCabe, January 5, 1834. 
L. H. Kilmer, January 16, 1834. 
Sergeant Jay Thomas, February 6, 1834. 
Mrs. J. W. Marcy, March 27, 1834. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Heverly, September J 9, 1834. 
Mrs. E. F. Sheltou, November 24, 1834. 

Mrs. T. E. Philips, , 1834. 

Mrs. Eliza Powers, March 15, 1835. 

Myron W. Coolbaugh, April 2, 1835. 

S. A. Allen, April 7, 1835. 

Isaac Ruger, April 22, 1835. 

Perry Vincent, June 2, 1835. 

T. J. Roof, July 11, 1835. 

Ruel W. Brink, July 27, 1835. 

Charles M. Sill, August 20, 1835. 

G. 8. Miller, September 1, 1835. 

E. V. Nichols, September 3, 1835. 

Major W. H. H. Gore, September 16, 1835. 

Mrs. C. L. Chaapel, October 18, 1835. 

S. A. ChaflFee, December 5, 1835. 

Edward A. Knapp, April 7, 1836. 

J. 0. Vought, April 13, 1836. 

Mrs. S. A. ChaflFee, April 20, 1836. 

Mrs. H. Swackhammer, May 2, 1836. 

Mary A. Shoemaker, May 2, 1836. 

W. C. Wright, May 4, 1836. 

Milo Merrill, June 26, 1836. 

Berlin Holcomb, July 3, 1836. 

I. L. Young, July 4, 1836. 

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72 Nijith Annual Old People's Meeting, ' 

William Pierce, September 13, 1836. 

George W. Bosworth, September 17, 1836. 

H. A. Vail, September 20, 1836. i, 

Charles S. Thompson, September 25, 1836. < 

L. B. Coburii, October 26, 1836. 

J. A. Bosworth, November 13, 1836. 

0. D. Wickham, December 19, 1836. ^ 

Mrs. A. Detrick, January 1, 1837. ; 

Mrs. E. J. Ay res, February 3, 1837. 

Seneca L. Arnold, February 10, 1837. I 

Matilda Price, March 27, 1837. 

A. H. Furman, April 16, 1837. I 

Mrs. S. Robinson, April 16, 1837. i 

Margaret Camp, May 27, 1837. I 

Henry Dixon, June 27, 1837. \ 

Mrs. Lydia Bush, October 13, 1837. 

P. F. Brennan, October 20, 1837. ' 

John F. Lampman, October 30, 1837. 

Jane Vandyke, December 27, 1837. 

John Forbes, December 30, 1837. 

Mrs. J. J. Newell, , 1837. 

D. T. Fleming, , 1837. -" 

Mrs. Mary C. Decker, February 18, 1838. 

Callie Kellura, May 16, 1838. 

Amanda Eagleton, June 4, 1838. 

A. T. Lilley, June 9, 1838. 

J. F. Shoemaker, June 22, 1838. 

J. W. Allen, June 22, 1838. i 

Mrs. Nancy Dyer, July 5, 1838. 

E. 0. Horton, July 14, 1838. 

Mrs. Mary A. Bosworth, August 2, 1838 
Julia Neiley, August 28, 1838. 

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Ninth Annual Old People's Meeting, 78 

H. P. Mead, September 14, 1838. 

Clayton Gerould, October 28, 1838. 

Daniel Walborn, November 21, 1838. 

H. H. Cranraer, December 13, 1838. 

Mrs. Martha Mingos, December 25, 1838. 

David Lattin, April 9, 1839. 

W. T. Horton, April 9, 1839. 

Charles Schmeckenbecker, April 30, 1839. 

D. P. Haight, May 18, 1839. 

Betsy A. Ingham, May 25, 1839. 

Clarissa Baker, June 21, 1839. 

Porter Vanness, June 30, 1839. 

L. C. Meracle, July 4, 1839. 

Mrs. Mary Mead, July 6, 1839. 

H. B. Lent, August 8, 1839. 

Nemiron Northrup, November 5, 1839. 

George Dubert, December 10, 1839. 

C. L. Stewart, January 10, 1840. 

Hon. George Moscrip, January 23, 1840. 

R. F. Cox, February 28, 1840. 

W. H. Rockwell, March 4, 1840. 

Ezra Mclntyre, April 9, 1840. 

S. G. Barner, May 5, 1840. 

Mrs. Anna Bouse, August 6. 1840. 

Miandi Cox, September 9, 1840. 

Mrs. Eleanor Frutchey, October 30, 1840. 

A. M. Phinney, December 23, 1840. 

Mrs. L. H. Kilmer, , 1840. 

Mary E. Sill, , 1840. 

G. L. Forbes, January 17, 1841. 
Lydia A. Vought, February 22, 1841. 
Rocalinda Brink, March 8, 1841. 

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74 Ninth Annual Old People's Meeting, 

B. W. Bradley, May 21, 1841. 
Thomas J. Haunon, August 4, 1841. 
Mrs. Ara Lane, October 15, 1841. 
Lueinda Kitchen, November 3, 1841. 
S. C. Kitchen, November 7, 1841. 
John R. Allen, November 7, 1841. 

Mrs. B. W. Bradley, November 15, 1841. 
Captain G. W. Kilmer, February 2, 1842. 
J. W. Whipple, February 10, 1842. 
Elisha Cole, March 4, 1842. 
Henry Maynard, March 13, 1842. 
J. H. Black, March 20, 1842. 
Mrs. Victoria Layton, March 22, 1842. 
Clark Slater, May 14, 1842. 

C. A. Rubright, May 14, 1842. 
Delanson Kellogg, May 26, 1842. 
A. E. Arnold, May 30, 1842. 

A. C. Hammerly, June 9, 1842. 
Andrew Morrison, June 11, 1842. 
A. J. Edsall, June 11, 1842. 
Mrs. H. B. Lent, June 13, 1842. 
Martin V. Lampman, June 18, 1842. 


The oldest lady and oldest gentleman, who have car- 
ried off the honors at the several meetings, were as fol- 
lows : 

1904 — Mrs. Almira Gleason, 98 years, Towanda. 

William Griffis, 90th year, Towanda. 
1905 — Mrs. Eliza McKean, 98 | years, Towanda. 
Francis Cole, 96th year, Athens. 

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Ninth Annual Old People's Meeting, 75 

1900 — Samuel Overpeck, 97th year, Herrick. 

Mrs. Emma Irvine, 89tb year, Hornets Ferry. 
1907 — John Black, 93^ years, LeRaysville. 

*Mrs. Martha Bullock, 92nd year, Troy. 
1908 — Orrin Brown, 97th year. Canton. 

Mrs. Julia Smith, 92ncl year, Ulster. 
1909— *JusTUS A. Record, 93^ years, Towanda. 

Mrs. Harriet A. Nichols, 88th year, Mon- 
roe ton. 
1910 — *Mrs. Ann Wright, 96§ years, Ulster. 

♦Samuel Billings, 94J years, Towanda. 
1911 — *Mrs. Naomi C. Irvlne, 90 years, New Albany. 

*JoHN Ennis, 90 years. Standing Stone. 
1912 — *CoRNELius Bump, 90J years, Lime Hili. 

*Mrs. Dorcas Dayton, 88^ years, Towanda. 
Those marked with a (*) are still living (1912). 

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We note with sorrow the death of the following mem- 
bers of the Society during the past year : 

Robert S. Sabin, born August 16, 1833, in Albany 
township, Bradford county, died very suddenly February 
25, 1912, at Spencer, N. Y. He was a soldier of the 
Civil War, having served as a member of Company A, 
11th P. V. Cavalry ; a gentleman of sterling worth, he 
was highly esteemed by all who knew him. 

Major Levi Wells, born October 20, 1832, in Tusca- 
rora, Bradford county, of historic ancestry, died very 
suddenly September 16, 1912, in Washington, D. C. In 
early life he engaged in school teaching and surveying ; 
was an enterprising farmer and stockman; during the 
Civil War served first as a member of the 12th Reserve 
regimental band, then as captain of Militia and lastly as 
commissary of subsistance U. S. Volunteers, being 
brevet major at his discharge; was Dairy and Food Com- 
missioner under the administration of Governor Stone, 
and since the expiration of his term had been Agent of 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Major Wells was 
a gentleman of broad information, who performed many 
important duties and a most inviting companion. 

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Library and Museum. 

The following are the acquisitions and donors to the 
Library and Museum for the year ending September, 
1912 : 


Col. William Bradford. 

Gen. John Sullivan. 

Col. Thomas Hartley. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Fox Means. 

Mrs. Lucy Gore. 

SheriflF J. Monroe Smith — Mrs. Ruth Kellogg. 
Books— Historical. 

History of York County — A. H. Kingsbury. 

History of Baptist Church of East Smithfield — Mrs. 
N. L. Bird. 

Autobiography of Rev. Thomas Mitchell and History 
of Baptist Church — Rev. Thomas Mitchell. 

History of 17th P. V. Cavalry — State Library. 

History of 22nd P. V. Cavalry— State Library. 

History of 61st Regiment, P. V — State Library. 

Report Penn's Memorial in London — Secretary Barr 

Historic Huntington — Mrs. C. E. Brumbaugh. 

Washington's Farewell Address and Speech on Perry's 
Victory — Hon. L R. Sherwood. 

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Books ' Exchanges. 

Library of Congress. 

State Library. 

Pennsylvania German. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Oregon State Historical Society. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 

Penn*a. Federation Historical Societies. 

Books— tdisceDaneous^ 

Laws of Pennsylvania, 1911 — State Library. 
SmulTs Legislative Hand Book — State Library. 
Juniata College Bulletin — Mrs. C. E. Brumbaugh. 
Reports Census, 1870— Mrs. R. M. Welles. 
School Lexicon — Mrs. R. M. Welles. 
Princeton Reviews, 3 vols. — Mrs. R. M. Welles 
Large collection educational, military and miscellane- 
ous reports — J. Andrew Wilt. 


Autograph letter of David Wilmot to Horace S. Wil- 
ley— E. O. Willey. 

Justice's docket and commission of Luman Putnam — 
Sylvester Putnam. 

Relics and Curios. 

Indian axe — C. H. Kellogg. 
Ancient kettle — Mrs. Juda W. Marcy. 
Cannon ball, Revolutionary war — James F. Hourihan. 
Indian arrow and spear points — J. H. Chaffee. 
Sword of Col. Edward Wright Morgan — Mrs. Mary M. 

Conical section solid rock — G. A. Northrnp. 

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Origin Name of Places and Streams. 


Aiha signifying white, an emblem of purity. So 
named by Noah Wilson, the first settler there, because of 
the pure clear stream of water flowing through the lo- 

Austinville so named in honor of A. B. Austin, late 
of Elmira, who, about the year 1857, began business in 
a small way in the village which bears his name. He, 
however, displayed great energy and enterprise, which 
resulted in the development of an extensive business and 
did much to build up the place. This locality was orig- 
inally known as "Cabot Hollow" and later as **Morgan 

Bdllibay is the name given to the southwest section of 
Herrick in remembrance of the former home of the first 
settlers there, who were from Ballibay, Ireland. 

Bumpville^ a section of North Rome, so called in 
memory of Reuben Bumpus, a Revolutionary soldier, 
who settled there in 1806. 

Camptown so called in remembrance of Job Camp, 
the first settler, who located at that place in 1792. 

Durelh originally the township of Durell (1842-1858, 
now Asylum) so named in remembrance of Stephen Du- 

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rell, ail early settler. The name is now restricted to the 
hamlet of Durell. 

FranklindaJet from Franklin, the name of the town- 
ship and dalCy a vale or valley — its position on Towanda 
creek. Name first used upon the establishment of a 
post office here in 1826. 

Frenchtown — After the exodus of the French refu- 
gees, that part of Asylum which had been occupied by 
them, was called Frenchtown in their remembrance ; 
the name continues. 

Ghent — Earl Mastin, a shoemaker by trade, was one 
of the earliest settlers in the Ghent neighborhood. It is 
related that '^Mastin and his wife were somewhat rare 
specimens of humanity." In one of their drunken ca- 
rousals they got into a fight, which resulting rather as a 
draw game, the belligerents agreed to a dissolution of 
partnership. After some days of sober reflection, Mastin 
came to the conclusion that he would make overtures for 
the resumption of amicable relations, but fearing the re- 
ception of terms, if presented by himself, would be prej- 
udiced, he decided to employ an ambassador, and there- 
fore applied to Silas Gore, who undertook to negotiate a 
peace with the irascible woman. Mr. Gore brought the 
parties to his own house as neutral ground, and, after 
considereble diplomacy, articles of peace and amity were 
agreed upon and the reunited pair went homo rejoicing. 
Just previous to that time articles of peace had been 
signed at Ghent in Belgium between Great Britain and 
the United States, and Dr. ZadocGillettgave the locality 
the name of 'Ghent,' which designation is still retained 
in commemoration of the reconciliation of that novel pi- 
oneer pair." 

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Gillett — Both the post office and locality are so called 
in honor of Deacon Asa Gillett, a man of enterprise and 
splendid influence, who came from Delaware county, 
N. Y. to South Creek in 1833. 

Laddsburg — Name first given to the post office estab- 
lished at South Albany in 1850, in honor of the Ladds, 
early settlers of Albany township. 

Leona is derived from the word Leonard. What is 
known as Leona was settled by Ezekiel and Austin 
Leonard in 1804, the locality for years being known as 
'•Leonard's Hollow." 

LeRaysvilht so named in honor of Vincent LeRay de 
Chaumont, a French gentleman of Jefferson county, N.Y., 
who owned many sections of land embracing the greater 
part of Eastern Bradford. 

Milan — A name said to have been suggested by Mrs. 
Guy Tracy. The place was originally known as **Mar- 
shalTs Corners," from the fact that Josiah B. Marshall 
commenced business and opened a hotel here in the 
early 30*8. The locality has also been known as *'Upper 

Merryall — **In the early settlement of Connecticut a 
a few hardy pioneers began a settlement in the township 
of New Milford, in what was afterwards the parish of New 
Preston, and having got a little rum while regaling them- 
selves by a fine cold spring, christened it with the name 
of Merryall." From this place Thomas Lewis and other 
of the Wyalusing pioneers came. In remembrance of 
their former home they called their settlement Merryall. 

Monro^ton is a contraction for Monroe-town, meaning 
the town or village of Monroe, or within Monroe, in con- 
tradistinction from the name of the township. Both the 

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village and township had the name Monroe until 1829, 
when the post office here was changed to Monroeton and 
since retained as the name of the village. 

Macedonia — ^That section of Asylum known as Mace- 
donia derives its name by reason of a sermon preached 
by Amos Ada, in which the words ''Macedonia," **Mac- 
edonian cry," "come over and help us," etc. were used 
very freely. The boys took up the phrases and called 
the settlement Macedonia, a cognomen which has ever 
since clung to the locality. 

Myershurg so named in remembrance of its founders 
and first settlers, Jacob and William Myer. 

New Albany so called to perpetuate the original 
name ("New Albany") of the township, and to designate 
between the village and the earlier organization. 

NeatK ft name given to the Welsh settlement in East 
Pike, when the post office was established there in 1870. 

Potterville^ so named in honor of Jason Potter, a na- 
tive of Plymouth, Conn., who owned a large tract of land 
in East Orwell, where he settled in 1824. 

Qwcys Bend^ the northern section of Wilmot town- 
ship, around which the river flows in a semi-circle, and 
so named from James Quick, one of the first settlers 

Sayre — When the first depot was located here it was 
named "Sayre," in honor of Robert H. Sayre, presi- 
dent of the Penna. & N. Y. R. R. The name has since 
been extended to the town and borough. 

Silvara^ so called in honor of Emanuel Silvara, a na- 
tive of Portugal, who settled in Tuscarora where the vil- 
lage, which bears his name, now stands. 

Sugar Run — Both the village and creek derive their 

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naroe from the fact that originally there were fine maple 
groves, where considerable quantities of maple sugar 
were made, at the mouth of the stream which was called 
Sugar Run. 

Terrytown was originally the settlement of the Terry 
families, and the village is so called from that fact. 

WindfalU ^^^ western section of Granville, derives its 
name from the condition of the wilderness as found by 
the first settlers. In March, 1795, a terrific tornado 
passed from the Armenia mountain to Gran- 
ville towuship, thence to LeRoy, and then onward 
in a southeasterly direction into Sullivan county. In its 
path a mile wide the timber was prostrated. 

Wetofia, so named in a legend written by A. S. 
Hooker of "Wetonah," a gigantic Oneida warrior, who 
survived the battle of Newtown and thenceforth inhab- 
ited the locality which bears his name. Wetona proper 
was originally known as "Pleasant Valley." 

Wilawana^ from the Indian Wilawanej Wilaxvaning^ 
Wilawamink, signifying the **Big Horn," where the 
Munsey Indians once had a town. 

BuJIard Creeks so named from Abner (or Josiah Bul- 
lard, an early settler of Rome, who located on the banks 
of this stream. 

Beniley Creek^ so called in remembrance of Green 
Bentley, said to have been the first settler on that stream. 

Chemung (river) corrupted from the Indian word 
"Shamunk," signifying **the place of a horn" — **big 

Dwell (creek) so named in remembrance of Stephen 
Durell, who settled at the mouth of this stream where^ he 
built one of the first saw-mills in the county. 

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Hornhrook (creek) takes its name from the large 
horn, or tusk of a mastodon, which was found near the 
mouth of that stream by Isaac Horton, an early settler 
of Sheshequin. 

Rummerfield (creek) so named in remembrance of 
Anthony Rummerfield, a blacksmith, who settled at the 
mouth of this stream in 1774. 

Susquehanna (river) is a Indian term signifying 
"winding or crooked river.'* 

Sugar Creek derives its name from the fact it flows 
through a locality where- maple sugar was made. A 
century ago there were fine maple groves along this stream 
in North Towanda. Here in 1737 Conrad Weiser visited 
the Indian settlement of **Oscului" and found the na- 
tives "living on the juice of the maple tree.*' They 
could furnish him no provisions, but supplied him 
abundantly with maple sugar. The name of this stream 
is not of Indian origin, although they may have called 
it "Oscului," signifying "the fierce." 

Schrader (creek) so called for John Schrader, a Hes- 
sian, who had served under Count Pulaski in the Amer- 
ican army and settled near the mouth of the stream 
which bears his name. 

South BrancK so called from the fact of its being the 
principal stream flowing into Towanda creek from the 

Tom Jack Creeks so named in remembrance of Tom 
Jack, a friendly Indian, who was living near the mouth 
of that stream when the first settlers came to Burlington. 

Tioga (river) corrupt€d from the Indian word "Tah- 
hiho-gah," meaning "at the forks,'* "the point of land at 
the confluence of two streams," or "the meeting of the 

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Towanda (creek) from either the Nanticoke word, 
"Awandoe," signifying *'a burial-place," or ^'Tawnadae- 
mank/' in the Delaware tongue, meaning ''where there 
is a burying or where we bury the dead." The most 
important Indian burying ground in the county, cover- 
ing several acres, was along the right bank of the Sus- 
quehanna river extending nearly to Towanda creek. 
The locality was called "Towandaemunk," corrupted into 
Towanda, from whioh the stream takes its name. 

Tuscarara (creek) same as the locality, in remem- 
brance of the Tuscarora Indians. 

Wyahishtg (creek), the same as locality, corrupted 
from "M'chwihilusing," "the place of the hoary veter- 
an"; another version is from "Wigalusui," "the good 
hunting ground." 

Wyaox (creek), the same as locality, corrupted from 
"Wisachgimi," signifying the place of grapes. Zeisber- 
ger spells the word "Wisachk,' Sauk or Saucon, a canoe 
harbor, Wy-sauk, where there is a canoe harbor. 

Wapp€iB€ning (creek) corrupted from "Wapachsin- 
ning," signifying "where there are white stones," allud- 
ing to a supposed depoeit of silver ore. 


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'adford County 


Papers on Local History, Reports of Officers 
and Contributions for the Year. 




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John B. Gihaon, 
Bradford County's First .lud^t^— lOU Years Ajru. 

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Centenary Subjects 

War of 1812. 


rttr^«"T:f|2 HEN we reckon time and learn that tlie War 

>C;l/ En 

the Constitution and only 29 y^rs after 
England had recognized the independence 
of the American Colonies, President Washington and 
President Adams, during their administrations had great 
trouble in maintaining a neutral attitude, and not be- 
coming involved in the European Wars, or becoming in- 
volved directly or indirectly with the movement of the 
French Revolution. 

In fact, the division of the Federal party and the Re- 
publican-Democratic party, was on these lines. The 
Federal party to which Washington, Adams and Hamil- 
ton belonged favored a strict neutrality; **avoid foreign 
entangling alliances'' as Washington expressed it, while 
the Republican-Democratic party lead by Jefferson, fav- 
ored the French Republic on the ground that the French 
had helped the American Colonies to get their freedom 
from England and that this country should aid in every 
way possible a Republican form of government every- 
where. This difference of views, in fact lead to the resig- 

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2 War of 1812, 

nation of Thomas JeflFerson from the cabinet of President 

Washington and Adams and their administrations 
were severely criticised for their refusal to become in any- 
way involved in the struggle of the Nations of Europe, 
but more especially that of England and France. The 
result of this attitude of the United States lead each of 
these governments to acts which were intended to em- 
barrass and irritate the people of the United States and 
its government. Because the United States as a neutral 
was privileged to trade with England and France, the 
two belligerent nations, each became jealous of America 
and began a series of acts intending to hurt our trade 
with the other country. 

England had always contended that a subject could 
not renounce his allegiance to the King of England on 
the assertion *Hhat once a subject always a subject." 
England being in need of all the sailors and seamen in 
the prosecution of the war in which she was engaged, 
therefore claimed the right to stop and search any Amer- 
ican vessel for British sailors and seamen that might be 
emplo^^ed on such ships. England also claimed that she 
had a right to search American ships bound for French 
ports for goods called '^contraband of war." England 
exercised both of these claimed rights and in this way in- 
jured* the profitable trade of America which had been 
carried on with these two nations; England by exercising 
this right otf search for seamen and contraband goods of 
American vessels, did it, in a manner so as to make it as 
offensive and humiliating as possible to the American 
and his government. 

The British government by orders of Council endeav- 

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War of 1812, 3 

ored to stop all trade of Americans with French ports. 
France (by decree of Napoleon Bonaparte) endeavored to 
stop all trade of the Americans with English ports. This 
condition resulted in the destruction and confiscation of 
much American merchandise of all kinds to the great 
injury of the people of the United States. Various means 
were adopted by the American Congress and administra- 
tions to remedy these evils, but none of them answered 
the purpose intended and injured the people of the United 
States more than the governments of England and 

These various Acts of Congress also caused differences 
of opinion among the people of the United States consti- 
tuting the two political parties then existing. Jefferson 
during his administration had all these questions and 
facts to deal with and passed them on as a political leg- 
.acy to his successor, Madison. 

Madison and his administration contended with these 
questions, affecting our commerce as best he could, but 
in spite of all efforts the difficulties became more 
acute, which finally resulted in a declaration of war 
against England on June 18, 1812. President Madison 
gave the following as the causes for the war: 

1 — Urging the Indians to attack our citizens on the 

2— Interfering with our trade by orders in Council. 

3 — Putting cruisers oft' our ports to stop and search our 

4 — Impressing our sailors, of whom more than 6000 
were in the British service. 

These reasons and causes as given strike me as about 
the same as when a school boy, who has done a series of 

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4 War of 1812, 

small acts neither one alone justifying a flogging by the 
teacher but by a continuation of these small offenses, ex- 
hausts the patienee and forbearance of the teacher, who 
iinally administers a good sound flogging to the culprit 
on the theory of cumulative oSenses. It will thus be 
observed that the underlying causes of the War of 1812 
grew out of the conditions of the European nations run- 
ning back a number of years. 

These conditions existed by reason of the wars growing 
out of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte and 
the allied powers. All of these conditions were such as 
to affect the commercial interests of the United States. 
As a new nation the United States wished to have equal 
opportunities with the other civilized nations of the earth 
in trade and commerce. For this reason ^ome historians 
call the War of 1812, "The war for commercial inde- 

Considerable preparation in a small way had been made 
by our Congress for this war. The regular army had 
been increased, volunteers asked for and the states called 
on for the militia. Soldiers were enlisted and three ar- 
mies assembled on the Canadian frontier and a campaign 
for the invasion of Canada planned. Gen. William Hull 
surrendered his army and all of the Northwest territory 
most ignominously. The year 1812 closed with nothing 

The army accomplished but little, but in 1812 and 
1813 the little American Navy accomplished wonders. 
One of the bright pages of our American history is the 
efficiency and skill of the American sailors during these 
two years. The seamanship and the gunnery of the 
American was shown to be far superior to that of the 

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War of 1812, 5 

Perry's victor on Lake Erie was an illustration of 
American coDstructive powers in the building of his lit- 
tle fleet, as well as in the inanner he fought a superior 
enemy and captivred them. The dispatch he sent after 
his victory has become historic: **We have met the en- 
emy and ihey are ours.*' 80 aljio with Lawrence, al- 
though defeated and dying, spoke the memorable words, 
**Don't give up the ship." 

At the beginning of this war, the United States had 
16 ships and JEngland had 1200. Our Navy was the 
subject of English ridicule and contempt, but before 1813 
we had destroyerd her Nayal supremacy. With the 
opening of 1814 England aent all the ships she could 
spare to America to blockade all our ports and the whole 
coast of the United States was declared to be in a state of 

In 1813 ai>d 1814 the American army under Generals 
Brown, Scott, McCorab and Harrison had won victories 
but no dedsive battles were fought. In 1814 the British 
captured and burned the capitol at Washington, D. C. 
Baltimore was also attacked and Fort Henry shelled. It 
was duriiig the shelling of Fort McHenry that Kay com- 
posed the words of tbe **Star Spangled Banner." 

In the autumn of 1814 the English had assembled an 
army of 20,000 veterans with 50 of her fiivest ships at the 
island of Jamaica. In November these ships with the 
soldiera on board sailed for New Orleans. General Pack- 
enham landed and attacked the Americans at New Or- 
leans, and on the 8th of January 1815, Andrew Jackson 
beat the English veterans with his American riHemen. 
A treaty of peaee had been signed by the representatives 
of the two imtions in December, 1814, but the news of it 

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C War of 1812, 

did not reach the United States until February, 1815. 
At that time there was no telegraph and so the news of 
peace arrived by mail and as a result, the decisive battle 
of New Orleans was fought nearly a month after the 
treaty of peace had been signed. 

In this treaty of peace not a word was said about the 
impressment of our sailors, nor of the right of search, 
nor inciting the Indians to attack our frontier, nor about 
orders in Council, all of which had been enumerated by 
President Madison as the causes for declaring war. It 
seems strange that all these things w*ere omitted in the 
treaty and especially so when men like John Quincy 
Adams, Henry Clay and Albert Gallatin were among the 
representatives of the United States who arranged the 

The treaty covered the question of the fisheries and 
the boundary line between the United States and Can- 
ada. The news that peace has been declared was re- 
ceived with gladness and rejoicing in the United States, 
as well as in England, but when the contents of the 
treaty became known there was keen regret and much 
disappointment. England was not prepared, or at least 
unwilling to relinquish in writing, **the right of search" 
but it is generally believed that there was a private 
agreement with the representatives of both governments, 
that the practice of search should cease. Since then 
England has never, at least, exercised such a right. 

It will thus be observed that the War of 1812 may not 
have resulted in all or at least much which was antici- 
pated, yet it did establish the "Commercial Independ- 
ence" of the United States in a way which has since been 
recognized by all civilized governments. Albert Bushnell 

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War of 1812. 7 

Hart in bis little book called ^'Essentials in American 
History" sums up the subject of the War of 1812 in the 
following words: 

"From one point of view the War of 1812 is a painful 
subject. The United States went into it hastily, without 
preparation either of men or money. The land war 
against Canada was badly bungled; troops did not come 
forward, supplies could not be hauled, whole armies were 
stuck in the mud for weeks because of bad roads. The 
only creditable operations on the northern frontier were 
the battles of Lake Erie, the Thames, Lundys Lane and 
Plattsburg. The seaboard was blockaded and harassed; 
our merchant marine almost exterminated; our vessels 
of war sunk, taken or cooped up in port, the national 
capital captured and ingloriously burned, almost under 
the nose of the President of the United Statis." 
- **Thi8 is less than half the story. The war developed 
three good generals, William H. Harrison, Jacob Brown 
and Andrew Jackson, the men who knew how to fight, 
even with unrestrained volunteers, and who showed that 
on the defensive the militiamen were, man for man, 
stronger than the best British regulars. And the laurels 
of the War of 1812 were won on the sea, where in thir- 
teen duels between ships of about equal strength the 
Americans won eleven. The Englishman admires the 
man who can beat him at his own game, and respect for 
American seamanship and American pluck has been a tra- 
dition in England ever since." 

This paper could no doubt have been made more in- 
teresting to many of you by going into some at least of 
the details of this war, by giving the campaigns planned, 
how executed, why they failed, the number of men en- 

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8 War of 1812. 

gaged on each side, the number of killed and wounded, 
It is one of the intensely interesting parts of this war to 
read of the victories of this or that American ship, sink- 
ing or capturing a British vessel of about the same, or 
greater fighting strength, to show the skill of our Ameri- 
can seamanship and gunnery. We might have thus ex- 
tended this paper and added zest and interest to it. 

I have aimed to give you the briefest outline of this 
war by stating its causes, some of its events and the re- 
sults with the purpose in view, if possible, to interest you 
in this important part of the history of the United States, 
and if this purpose is accomplished, each one can fill in 
all this minutia by a further reading of any good history 
of the United States. We hope that thus briefly calling 
your attention to some of the salient facts connected with 
this war which began 100 years ago, when we were a new 
nation and when Bradford county was virtually a wil- 
derness, 80 that we of this age and generation may ap- 
preciate the more, the deeds wrought and the questions 
then settled by those who then were in authority in our 
Nation, State and County. 

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Bradford County'-'War of 1812. 


ATRIOTISM as a study is not only fascinat- 
D W ing hut with us, is innate. For 300 years — 

ever since this valley was known to white 
man — it has been inhabited by a brave peo- 
ple, willing to sacrifice their lives in the protection of 
their homes. As the ideal abode of the Red man, he 
would not give it up without the hardest struggle, and 
for nearly a century many bloody scenes were enacted 
here in the conquests between the different Indian na- 
tions. Indeed, we may say that our very soil became 
impregnated with patriotism; we breathe it, and the 
winds waft it with stimulating effect over hills and 
through the valleys. 

By some unforseen force, white man, like the Ameri- 
ican Indian, became attracted to our beautiful county. 
When the time came to strike the blow for Liberty, the 
fires of patriotism were soon burning, and the back- 
woodsmen of Bradford county were early in the conflict. 
A number gave up their lives, while nearly 250 others, 
after having done their full duty in the creation of the 
Republic, returned and rest in their eternal sleep in the 
cemeteries of our county. 

In 1812 when war was declared against Great Britain, 
more than a hundred men, who had fought for Inde- 
pendence were still living within the borders of Bradford 

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10 War of ISU, 

county. Had they forgotten their hardships and suffer- 
ings in the late war? The old fighting spirit was aroused 
and tlie patriots of *76 were anxious to have another 
crack at the **tarnel red coats." The old flint-locks were 
put in order; military companies were formed and speci- 
ally drilled; even little boys caught the military ardor, 
had their companies and drilled and drummed with as 
much satisfaction as their big brothers; some of the vet- 
erans donned their old continentals and went to the 
front, others sent their sons, and many from this county 
were early in the contest. 

Up to 1814 no regular military organization had been 
sent out from Bradford county. In May of that year, 
Julius Tozer of Athens, who had served three years in 
the Revolutionary war, raised a company in the northern 
part of the county and southern New York and was as- 
signed to Swift's and Dobbin's regiment of New York 
volunteers. Captain Tozer and his men were soon in ac- 
tive service, and he severely wounded in the engage- 
ment at Fort Erie. Some of those from this county who 
served in Tozer's company were his sons, Guy and 
Samuel, the former afterwards sheriff* of the county, Jon- 
athan F. Conkling, Elishama Tozer, Wm. Vangorder, 
Solomon Westbrook, John Brown, Wm. Drown, Samuel 
Satterlee, Samuel Baldwin and several Ellises. 

After the British had burned the capitol at Washing- 
ton in August 1814, Governor Snyder of Pennsylvania 
evidently apprehensive of the dangers from the enemy 
and feeling the need of more troops for the defense of the 
state, on October loth, issued an order calling the mili- 
tia into service. Most of the Bradford county Militia 
were taken from the 144th regiment, formed into a com- 

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War of 1812, 11 

pany and placed under the command of Eliphalet Mason 
of Monroe, and was known as Mason's Company. Lei it 
be remembered that this was before the day of railroads, 
the telegraph and when only a small section of the 
county had even a weekly mail service. Yet in two 
weeks* time the Bradford county militiamen, scattered 
throughout a great wilderness, assembled at the mouth of 
Towanda creek and on a raft pushed down the river. They 
reached Danville on the 5th of November where ren- 
dezvoused until the 25th, when all danger being over 
they were discharged. For their services of 28 days each 
private received the magnificent sum of |1.87, or 6J 
cents per day. The following comprised Mason's com- 

Mason^s Company. 

Company of militia under the command of Eliphalet 
Mason, being a detachment of the 144th regiment, 9th 
Division, Penn'a Militia, called into actual service by the 
Governor of the Commonwealth of Penn'a by order is- 
sued Oct. 15, 1814: 

Lieutenant, Eliphalet Mason, Monroe. 

Ist Sergeant, Henry L. Merrill, Warren. 

2nd Sergeant, David Carter, Monroe. 

3rd Sergeant, Albegence Stevens, Standing Stone. 

4th Sergeant, Benj. Landon, Canton. 

Ist Corporal, Wm. Goft, Towanda. 

2nd Corporal, Benj. Stone, Franklin. 

3rd Corporal, Nathan Streeter, Orwell. 

4th Corporal, Ethan Baldwin, Towanda. 

Drummer, Isaac Wheeler, Asylum. 

Fifer, Joseph S. Browning, Orwell. 

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12 War 0/ 1812. ^ 

Privates, James Arnold, Warren. I 

Benj. Bennett, Asylum. \ 

Geo. Brown, LeRoy. ( 

David Benjamin, Asylum. j 

Wra. Buffington, Wysox. 

Joseph Beebe, (Susq. Co.) I 

David Bailey, Granville. 

John W. Bingham, N. Towanda. / 

Ezra Bailey, Granville. 
Amasa Bowen, Warren. 
James Brink, Pike. 
John Birney, Standing Stone. 
Stephen Beeman, Tuscarora. 
Darius Brainard, Windham. 
Wm. Bradshaw, Pike. 
Thomas Brink, Pike. 
Samuel Cole, Asylum. 
Stephen Cranmer, Rome. 
Elijah Coleman, Pike. 
Thomas Cox, Towanda. 
Aaron Carter, Monroe. 
Absalom Carr, Monroe. 
Penual Corbin, Warren. 
Wilson Canfield, Pike. 
Albert Camp, (Susq. Co.) 
George Davidson, Towanda. 
Daniel Drake, Wysox. 
Ebenezer Drake, Wysox. 
Seth Doane, Windham. 
John L. Elliott, Rome. 
Edmund Fairchild, Pike. 
Elisha Foster, Towanda. 

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War of 1812, 13 

John Foster, Towanda. 

Abraham Foster, Towanda. 

Oliver Gilbert, Asylum. 

Humphrey Goff, Towanda. 

Daniel Gilbert, Towanda. 

Samuel Griffin, Canton. 

David Green, (prob. Canton). 

Amos Goff, Towanda. 

John Head, Monroe. 

David Horton, Sheshequin. 

Jesse Hancock, Pike. 

Daniel Hill, Orwell. 

Harry Ingraham, Canton. 
Amasa Kellogg, Monroe. 
Charles W. Keeler, Pike. 
Joseph Lent, Wysox. 
James Lent, Rome. 
Horatio Ladd, Albany. 
Abraham Lent, Rome. 
Warner Ladd, Albany. 
Samuel Landers, N. Towanda. 
Lemuel Landers, N. Towanda. 
Daniel Miller, Albany. 
Edward Mills, N. Towanda. 
Abel Prince, Warren. 
Joseph Prince, Warren. 
Samuel Pickett, Rush. 
John Quick, Asylum. 
Samuel Rockwell, Canton. 
Irvine Rogers, Canton. 
Elam Roberts, Orwell. 
John Stalford, Wyalusing. 

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14 War of 1812, 

Horace Spalding, Canton. 

Stephen D. Sellard, Canton. 

Darius Shumway, Tuscarora. 

Pliilemon Stone, Wyalusing. 

Amasa Streeter, Wysox. 

John Scouten. 

Amos Strickland, Canton. 

Raphael Stone, Wyalusing. 

Isaac Smith, N. Towanda. 

John D. Saunders, Monroe. 

John Sempkins. 

Frederick Schrader, Monroe. 

Ebenezer Terry, Asylum. 

Thomas Updegraff, Wyalusing. 

Achatias Vought, Rome. 

David Vought, Asylum. 

Freeman Wilcox, Albany. 

Rowland Wilcox, Albany. 

Cyrus Wells, Wyalusing. 

John D. Wage, Orwell. 

Amos York, Wysox. 
Regimental rendezvous was on 5th Nov. 1814 and 
were discharged at Danville on the 24th and 25th Nov. 
1814. Commencement of pay Nov. 2, expiration of pay 
(including traveling pay 28 days) total, privates each 

It will be observed that this list includes some who 
had fought for Independence, a large number of sons of 
soldiers of the Revolution and many, afterwards distin- 
guished in the history of our county, being the fathers 
and grandfathers of scores of men who fought for the pre- 
servation of the Union. 

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War of 1812, 15 

But early and during the war these Bradford county 
young men entered the service: 

Burlington — William Clark, Daniel Dobbins, Timothy 
Horton Gustin, Zepheniah Lane, James McKean, Levi 

Dobbins commanded a vessel on Lake Erie at the time 
of Perry*s victory. Gustin died in the service. 

Columbia — Hieronymus McClelland (killed), Burton 

Franklin — Erastus French, James French, Wm. R. 

Erastus French was killed in battle. Their father, 
William French, served through the Revolutionary war. 

Litchfield — Joshua White. 

Orwell— Ghesi^v Hill. 

Overton — Frederick Kissel. 

Pike — Josiah Bos worth, Benjamin Pierce. 

Ridgebery — Abial Fuller, Isaac Fuller. 

Rome — Gersham Towner. 

Sheshequin — Nathaniel Fuller who never returned. 

Smithfield — Joshua Eames (died), Phineas Pierce, Jr. 
(died), Samuel Satterlee, Stephen Wilcox. 

Springfield — James Mattocks. 

Standing Stone — Eliphalet Clark, Peter Miller and 
Wm. Vaughan who commande<l a company. 

Troy — Chester Williams; Reuben Wilber who served 
as a 1st Lieutenant and afterwards distinguished in the 
political history of the county and state. 

Tuscarora — Elisha Cogswell. 

Ulster — William Curry (also soldier of tlie Revolution), 
W^illiam Curry, Jr.; Dr. Robert Russell who lost his life 
in the war. 

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16 War of 1812. 

Wells — Jesse Edsall, Richard Edsall, William Osgood 
and Shubal Rowlee, Jr. 

Wyalusing — Daniel Brewster and Alexander Lefevre 

Wysox — Solomon Tallady; Solomon Bardwell, who 
with a brother served under Perry on Lake Erie, the for- 
mer, on Perry's flagship at the time of the notable victory. 

Others who served in the War of 1812 and subsequent- 
ly settled in Bradford county and died here were: 

Albany — Timothy Coon, John Davidson, William 
English, William Sharp, Jonathan Vandyke. 

Athena — Edward Herrick afterwards president judge 
of Bradford county for 20 years. 

Burlington — Enoch Luther; Jacob Scouten also a sol- 
dier of the Revolution. 

Canton — Joseph Boyd, Maj. Jared Hunt, Thomas Man- 
ley, Eliphalet Ward, Jeduthan Withey, Joel Wright; 
William Andress who died Nov. 18, 1885 at Alba, aged 
100 years and 8 months. 

Columbia — Israel Pierce, Solomon Sherwood. 

Granville — Peter L Vroman. 

Herrick — Daniel Durand; William Rowley, private 
under Captain Deporter, 42nd regiment. Light Infantry; 
discharged March 28, 1816; died Dec, 31, 1888 in his 
95th year; buried at Stevensville. 

Litchfield — Zenas Cleveland, John Rowe. 

Monroe — John Bender, Josiah Haines, William Hart, 
Jeremiah Hollon, James Kipp, Thomas Lewis, Daniel 
Lyon, Conrad Mingos, Henry Salisbury. 

William Hart was a farrier and served under the im- 
mediate command of General Scott, whose horse he shod. 

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War of 1812. 1 7 

North Towanda — Richard Hotfmau. 

Overton — Larry Dunmore, Morgan K. Jones. 

Ridgebery — James Covell, Sturgis Squires. 

Rome — Orman Goodsell, EphraimH. Marsh, Walter 
S. Minthorn, Simeon Rockwell, Benjamin Taylor. 

Slieshequin — Sullivan Chaffee, Henry Deats, Warren 
Gillett, David Hawkins, Kelsus Heath, Thomas Johnson, 
Jonathan Thompson, George Vibbert. 

Smithfield — Luther Adams, Christopher Child, John 
Carnigie, Laben Cooper, Asher Huntington, Simeon Mc- 
Carty, Lemuel Orton, James Phillips, Capt. Nathan Rose, 
Rev. Pentecost Sweet, Geo. Tompkinson, Peter Treen. 

Child not only served through the war but iti the navy 
for 40 years. Orton was in the bloodiest part of the bat* 
tie of Lake Erie and when it ended there were only five 
men besides himself left on the vessel who had not been 
killed or wounded. Tompkinson served on the frigate 
President under Commodore Rogers. Cooper saw severe 
service on the Canadian frontier and New York, was in 
many engagements and wounded at Cnippewa Creek and 
Lundy's Lane. 

South Creek — Samuel Sample. 

Springfield — George Upham. He entered the U. S. 
navy in 1811, serving on the Arg^is, President and lastly 
on the Chesapeake, commanded by Capt. James Law- 
rence. In the action with the Shannon he was wounded 
in the leg, arm and shoulder and had his left eye de- 
stroyed. The battle was a memorable one. The conflict 
was obstinate, brief and dreadful. The Chesapeake was 
wrecked. In a short time every oflficer on board was 
either killed or wounded. Captain Lawrence himself 
was struck with a ball and fell dying on the deck. As 

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18 War of J8JJ. 

they bore liim down the hatchway his last famous order 
which became the motto of the American sailor — "Don't 
give up the ship." 

Towanda — James T. Kinsman, William Kelly. 

Ulster — Patrick Higgins. 

Warren — Richard Jillson. 

Wdls — Amos Baker, Sari Is Barrett, Joseph Casper, 
Thomas Ferguson, John Fitzsimmons, William S. In- 
galls, Partial Mapes, Israel Moore, Theophilus Moore, 
Strong Seeley, Nathan Shepard, Sr. 

Wysox — Reuben Eddy, John Lamphere. 

In reciting such a long honor roll, we must ask you to 
be content without a more detailed history. But that a 
hundred years have elapsed since these men responded 
to their country's call, we can show our appreciation 
of their services in a small way, by calling up their 
names and keeping their memories bright. Let the boys 
and girls who are learning the great events and victories 
of the War of 1812, remember that among its most ar- 
dent patriots and heroes more than 200 were from Brad- 
ford county. These men contributed to the glory of 
Scott, Brown, Perry and others, who won vsctories on 
land and sea. Glorious names, (not found in the school- 
books) are all around you. Learn them, and appreciate 
that the richest and most valuable things in history is 
found within your own county. 

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Centenary of Four Townships. 

In April 1813, the union of townships in Bradford 
county was made 13 by the addition or formation of 
Pike, Warren, Windham and Wells. The territory era- 
braced in these four new townships comprised nearly 
one-fifth the entire area of the county. The first settler 
had established himself in Pike, 1790; Wells, 1792; 
Warren, 1797; Windham, 1800. The approximate pop- 
ulation of these townships at the time of their formation 
was Pike, 450; Warren, 200; Windham, 200; Wells, 
365. The first three townships as organized were pract- 
ically the same as now, while Wells embraced the pres- 
ent South Creek and five-sevenths of Ridgebery. Who 
the brave spirits were that inhabited this territory and 
were carving out homes 100 years ago is a matter of in- 
teresting history. From the records of the Commission- 
ers' office as contained in the first assessment of these 
four townships we find the taxable ir)habitants to be as 

Pike Township. 


Reuben Atwood John Holeman 

Ambrose Allen Lebeus Harris 
John Bradshaw (heirs) John Haywood 

Salmon Bradshaw John Ingham 

Wm. Bradshaw Elisha Keeler 

Alba Bosworth Chas. Keeler 

Salmon Bosworth Amos Northrup 

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Ptkfj Warren, Windham, WelU, 181S. 

Henry Briggs 
Ezekiel Brown 
Diraon Bostwick 
Benajah Bostwick 
Zopher Piatt 
Reuben Baker 
Judah Benjamin 
Benajah Bennett 
Albert Campbell 
Thomas Burt 
Samuel Edsell 
Jesse Edsell 
Samuel Dyer 
Stephen Drinkwater 
Wm. Frink 
Ephraim Fairchild 
Edmund Fairchild 
Ephraim Fairchild, Jr. 
John Ford 
Isaac Hancock 

David Olmstead 
Asa Olmstead 
Ephraim Piatt 
Isaac Pratt 
Parsons S. Rockwell 
James B. Rockwell 
Curtis F. Russell - 
Eleazer Russell 
Jesse Ross 
Samuel Stevens 
Nathan Stevens 
Aden Stevens 
Chas. Stevens 
Jonathan Stevens 
Irad Stevens 
Christopher Shoemaker 
Alanson Taylor (dead) 
Abraham Taylor 
Loom is Wells 


Samuel Beacher 
Zina Beeman 
Josiah Benham 
Orange Bosworth 
Josiah Bosworth 
Joseph Bosworth 
Wm. Buck 
Wm. Brink, 2nd 
Wm. Brink 
Jonathan Brink 
Thos. Brink (heirs) 
Nicholas Brink 
Benj. Brink 
James Brink 
John W. Browning 
Joseph E. Browning 

Joel Cogswell 
Reuben Coleman 
John Curtis 
Stephen Evits 
Ely Fletcher 
Bela Ford 
Joseph Goreham 
Rufus Goodale 
Ralph Gregory 
Reuben Heath 
Simeon Johnson 
Wm. Johnson 
Adolphus Martin 
George Ranny 
Gould Seymour 
Isaac Seymour 

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Pike, Warren, yVindham, Wells, ISl.L 21 

Amasa Boweu Simeon Taylor 

John Bostwick Joseph Utter 

Aden Stevens, assessor; returned to Commissioners* 
office, March 21, 1814; total tax (county) $194.52. High- 
est valuations — Jesse Ross, $1,010; Ezekiel Brown, $931; 
Salmon Bosworth, $902; Elisha Keeler, $901; Samuel 
Stevens, $893; Abraham Taylor, $874; John Bradshaw 
(heirs), $782; Isaac Seymour, $756; David Olmstead, 
$706; Samuel Edsall, $669; Ephraim Fairchild, $624; 
Dimon Bostwick, $573; Jonathan Brink, $549; Alba 
Bosworth, $516; Gouhl Seymour, $511. 

V/arren Township. 

Wm. Arnold 
James Arnold 
Wm. Arnohl, Jr. 
Alfred AllVn 
Jacob Allyn (dead) 
Joseph Armstrong 
Benj. Bufiington 
Luther Buffi ngton 
Preserved Buffington 
Wm. Buffington 
James Efowen 
Abner Bowen 
George Bowen 
Moses Buffum 
Moses Coburn 
Jonathan Coburn (dead) 
Parley Coburn 
Nathan Coburn 
Ebenezer Coburn (dead) 
Amos Coburn 
LeRoy Corbin 

Relief Corbin 
Aaron Corbin 
Penuel Corbin 
Benj. Case 
Benj. T. Case 
Arunah Case 
Simeon Decker 
Lebeus Harris 
Jeremiah R. Jenks 
Livingston Jenks 
Geo Pendleton (dead) 


Obediah Merrill 
Jacob Rogers 
Chas. Sutton 
Robt. Sutton 
Elnathan SpaMing 
p]lisha Tripp 
Edward Tripp 
Joseph Tripp 
Nathan Young 

Alfred Allyn, assessor; returned to Commissioners of- 

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22 Pike, W'arre)!, Whiflhmn, WeJhj ISIS, 

fice, April 13, 1814; total tax (county), JlOl.Sl. High" 
est valuations — Benjamin Case, $1,897; Amos Coburn, 
$972; Parley Coburn, $817; Ebenenezer Coburn estate, 
$771; Chas. Sutton, $760; Joseph Armstrong, $730; Le- 
roy Corbin, $730; Win. Arnold, $629; James Bowen, 
$600; Aaron and Penuel Corbin, $554; Moses Buffum, 
$500; Moses Coburn, $439; Obediah Merrill, $474; Jacob 
Rogers, $344. 

Some Warren History. 

Ebenezer Coburn and his son. Parley Coburn, came to 
what is now Warren township iii May, 1800 and made a 
small clearing and built a cabin on a knoll opposite the 
Presbyterian cemetery. lu the fall they went back to 
their home in Woodstock, Conn., and Parley Coburn 

taught school through the winter and was married. In 
the spring of 1801 they returned to Warren, Ebenezer 
Coburn bringing his family and also his daughter, Mrs. 
Ruth Dewing and her four boys and two girls. Ebene- 
zer Coburn had a brother, Jonathan, who also came to 
Warren, but whether he came at the same time I do not 
know. By the justice's docket of Parley Coburn, dated 
May 6, 1807, I find that he was justice of the peace for 
Orwell township, county of Luzerne. Ebenezer Coburn 
was in good financial circumstances in Connecticut and 
traded his property there with Hyde & Tracy for 17,000 
acres of land, under Connecticut title in what is now 
Warren township, and when it wasdecided that the Penn- 
sylvania title was the one that held, they lost it all and 
had to buy what they could pay for over again. 

The docket of Parley Coburn mentioned the name as 
Orwell as late as 1811, but by the records of the Presby- 
terian church in 1815 it is spoken of as Warren town- 
ship. Ebenezer Coburn was a Revolutionary soldier and 

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Pike, Warren, WimUuim, Welh, ISIS, 23 

was buried in the Presbyterian burying ground, I think 
in 1814, His son, Amos Coburn, was the grandfather of 
Mrs. Senator Thomas C. Piatt of New York. 

The first church in the township was organized as the 
church of Warren and Orwell by the Rev. Salmon King 
and Rev. John Bascom, missionary, Sept. 5, 1815 and 
was connected with the Luzerne Congregational Associa- 
tion, April 3rd, 1824. The form of government was 
changed from the Congregational to the Presbyterian in 
ponnection with the Presbytery of Susquehanna, and on 
Dec. 18th, 1827 the churches were divided. The Rev. 
Salmon King was pastor of the Warren church from its 
organization till his death in 1839. The church build- 
ing was built in 1831. 

The first school house was on the corner opposite 
where the Presbyterian parsonage now stands. The first 
post-office in the township was Warrenham, and it was 
the only post-office in the township within the recollec- 
tion of (>ersons now living. It is on the old Milford and 
Owego turnpike, which was the main line of travel from 
western New York to New York city till the Erie rail- 
roa<] was built. 

Joseph Armstrong was one of the earliest settlers as he 
married Mrs. Ruth Dewing, Sept. 26, 1809. He built a 
large tavern on the turnpike on the farm now owned by 
Touhey brothers. A large four-horse stage was run on 
the turnpike, and it was the custom to blow as many 
blasts on a horn on the hill above Bear Swamp as there 
w-ere passengers for breakfast. 

Nathan Young was l)orn in Plainfield, N. H., May 2<>. 
1798. I do not know when he came to Warren, but the 
deed for his farm is dated 1814. He married Lucy Bur- 
ton, Feb. 4, 1816 and not a Merrill as stated in Craft's 
History. The Corbins were among the earliest settlers 
in this part of the township. Alexander Dewing had 
one of the first, if not the first, store and afterwards kept 
a tavern which was the stopping place for the stage. 

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rike, Wnrrett, WimUiam, Welh, IShi, 

Witliin my recollection nine farms in the northeast part 
of the township were owned by the Coburns, but no one 
bearing the name now lives here. 

Gko. F. Dkwino, Warrenham, Pa. 

V/indham Township. 

Hezekiah Barnes Garet Hamel 

Jeptha Bratnard 
Levi Brainard 
Darius Brainard 
Jeptha Brainard, Jr 
Wni. Brown 
Abel Bruster 
Oliver Corhin 
Abraham Dunham 
Hezekiah Dunham 
John Dunham 
Joanna Dunham 
Samuel Dunham 
Daniel Doane 
Seth Doane 
Daniel Doane, Jr. 
Jonah Fox 
Russell Fox 
Thomas Fox 
Daniel Hill 

Augustine Hulon 
Jonathan Pease 
Henry Qadic 
James Mapes 
Arunah Moor 
James Rogers 
Edmund Russell 
Bonj. Shoemaker 
Asahel Smith 
Jared Smith 
Stephen Smith 
Orange Smith 
Amos Smith 
Amos Verbeck 
Henry Verbeck 
Jacob Verbeck 
Thomas Wright 
Benj. Whitmash 

Ai-nold Whitford 
Amos Verbeck, assessor; returned to Commissioners' of- 
fice, March 10, 1814; total tax (county), $84/20. High- 
est valuations — Benj. Shoemaker, $716; Jeptha Brain- 
ard, $661; Edmund Russell, $569; Daniel Doane, $566; 
Darius Brainard, $426; Stephen Smith, $398; Jared 
Smith, $388; Amos Verbeck, $305; Thos. Wright, $351; 
Jacob Verbeck, $290; Samuel Dunham, $251; Thomas 
Fox, $251; Jonathan Pease, $266; James Rogers, $257. 

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PiAv, Warren J Windham^ WelU, ISLS, 


W«W« Township. 

Abisba Batterson 
Isaac Baldwin 
Vine Baldwin 
Samuel Bennett 
Thomas Branson . 
Joseph Boughton 
Elijah Buck 
Noah Bevier 
Thomas Bentley 
James Bartlett 
William Bartlett 
Stephen Bates 
Benajah Campbell 
James Campbell 
Joel Campbell 
Jonathan Campbell 
Eunice Campbell 
Nathaniel Campbell 
Silas Campbell 
William Campbell 
Joseph Castaline 
Aaron Cook 
Deliverance Cook 
Jonathan Cook 
John Cummings 
Samuel Criss 
Truman Calhoun 
Jesse Edsall 
Samuel Edsall 
Abial Fuller 
Lemuel Fuller 
Isaac Fuller 
William Fuller 
Lemuel Gaylord 

George Hide 
Reuben Horton 
Ithamer Judson 
Solomon Judson 
Jonathan Kent 
Zepeniah Knapp 
Peter Laffler 
Asa Moore 
Joseph Moore 
Jesse Moore 
William Moore 
Levy Matterson 
James Mitchell 
Griswold Owen 
Levy Osgood 
Wm. Osgood 
Asa Pierce 
Isaac Pierce 
Joseph Parker 
Joseph Parker, Jr. 
Israel Rickey 
Israel Rickey, Jr. 
George Rowley 
Peter Rowley 
Shubael Rowley 
Alberson RulifF 
Wm. Roberts 
Aaron Stiles 
Enos Stiles 
Job Stiles 
Bartlett Seely 
Benjamin Seely 
Strong Seely 
Francis Smith 

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2(5 Pike, Warren, Wimlham, Welh, ISLi, 

Jeremiah Graves Joseph Tice 

Morris Hatfield Lebeus Tubs. 

Richard Hatfield 

Vine Baldwin, assessor; returned to Commissioners' 
office, March 10, 1814; total tax (county), 8158.55. 
Highest valuations — Vine Baldwin, 81,460; Samuel 
Bennett, 81,145; Ithamer Judson, 8950; Thos. Bentley, 
8882; Wm. Osgood, 8825; Peter Laffler, 8652; Shubael 
Rowley, 8565; Solomon Judson, 8554; Jesse Moore, 8550; 
Isaac Baldwin, 8480; Lemuel Gaylord, . 8479; Israel 
Rickey, $470; Stephen Bates, 8442; Asa Pierce, 8411. 

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Columbia and Springfield 

Division of Springfield Into Three Townships. 

At a C!ourt of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace 
held on the third Monday of January, A. D. 1813, the 
petition of Samuel Satterlee and other inhabitants of the 
township of Sinithfield was read, praying that the said 
township may be divided into three townships, so as to 
suit the convenience of the inhabitants thereof, and that 
the eastern division be called Carrelton, the center divi- 
sion Springfield and the western Columbus. Whereupon 
the Court appoints Col. Joseph Kingsbury, Julius Tozer 
and Samuel Gore to inquire into the propriety of granting 
the prayer of the petitioners. April Sessions, 1813 the 
aforesaid commissioners report in favor of a division, 
and it take place by dividing the northern line of first 
township into three equal parts, and the two interior 
points formed by such division to run lines due south to 
the south line of said township, the eastern section to be 
called Smithfield, the center Springfield and the western 
Columbia. Report read and filed. And now to wit: 
August Sessions, 1813 confirmed. 

Upon petition read in Court Quarter Sessions, January 
21, 1814 the Court order that the name of Murryfield be 
reinstated in the center division of said divided township. 

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CoUnnhin and Sprluijfiehl. 

November Sessious, 1814, on i>etitioti of iuhabitauts the 
name of Springfield re-established. 

Co)tanhia'9 FirBt Tax List. 

Columbia township was set off from Smithfield in Au- 
gust, 1813. The first assessment for the new township 
was made in the spring of 1814 by Moses Wheeler, as- 
sessor. The taxables were as follows: 

Peter Button 
John Benson 
David Ball 
Samuel Ballard 
Samuel Baldwin 
James Benson (deceased) 
Oliver Besley 
Joseph Beaman 
I.saac Benson 
Oliver Canfield 
Ami Collins 
Lorenzo Chapin 
Samuel Chapin 
James Dewey 
Samuel Edsall 
Richard Edsall 
Robert Early 
David Edwards 
William Furman 
Peter Furman 
Sheldon Gibbs 
Elnathan Goodrich 
Peter Gernert 
Zacheus Hullburt (rem) 
Samuel Hullburt 
Solomon S. Hakes 
Solomon Hakes 
David R. Haswell 
David Hakes 

Shubal Maynard 
Reuben Nash 
David Parmer 
Levi Preston 
Eli Parsons 
Comfort Peters 
Eli Parsons, Jr. 
Kellogg Parsons 
Rufus Pratt 
Simeon Powers 
William Rose 
Philip Robbins 
Thomas Rexford^ 
Thos. Spencer (dec'd.) 
Aaron Squires (rem.) 
Solomon Soper 
Jabez Squires (rem.) 
John Stone 
Cyprian Stevens 
Wm. Smith (rem.) 
Samuel Strait 
Levi Soper 
Oliver Stone 
Elihu Smead 
Burton Strait 
Silas Smith 
Rodger Soper 
Adam Seelye 
Benj. Seeley 

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( 'olumbia aiul SpvimjfiehL 


Harvey Harris 
Asa Howe 
Ebeuezer HuUburt 
Stephen Hitchcock 
Asa Joues 
Stephen Jones 
Phineas Jones 
Cliarles Keyes 
Joseph Lillibridge- 
Samuel Lamphere- 
Levi Lamphere 
Joseph Lillibrid|B[e, Jr. 
Thomas Lewis 
James Lamb 
Allen Lane 
John Li I ley 
Isaac Matson 
James Matson 
Calvin Merritt 
Reuben Merritt 
William Merritt 
Daniel Miller 
Nathaniel Merritt 
John McClelland 
Benoni Morse 
Chapman Morgan 
John W. McClelland 
Allen McArthur, 
Nathaniel Morgan 
Eleazer Mulford 

Moses Taylor 
Charles Taylor 
Calvin Tinkham 
Isaac Wheeler 
John Wilber 
Moses Wheeler 
Wm. Webber 
David Watkins 
John West 
Jabez Wood 
Thomas Wright 
Michael Wolf /^ 
David Watson (rem.) 
Otis Watson 
Daniel Woodward 


David Ball 
Isaac Benson 
Jesse Edsall 
Richard Edsall 
Wareham Gibbs 
David Hakes 
Reubin Merritt 
Frederick McClelland 
Benoni Morse 
Col burn Preston 
James Parsons 
Joseph Seeley 
Wm. Webber, Jr. 
Otis Watson 

James Morgan 

The total tax for the township was $244.80 The 
number of cows taxed, 160; horses, 86; oxen, 78. Wm. 
Furman was justice of the peace, Peter Button black- 
smith, Samuel Hullburt carpenter, Charles Keyes hatter, 
Kellogg Parsons and Otis Watson, tanners; Samuel 
Chapin, Daniel Miller and Reuben Nash were the owners 

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30 ( Uylumbla and Springjleld, 

of a saw mill. Persons haviiig the greatest tax, were — 
Reuben Nash $9.18, Chapman Morgan $6.43, Samuel 
Strait $6.30, Eli Parsons $5.37, Stephen Jones $5.37, 
Wm. Furman, $5.30, David Watkins $5.27, Samuel 
Laraphere $4.74, Michael Wolf $4.70, Solomon Soper 
$4.62, Adam Seelye $4.60, James Dewey $4.41. 

Springfield* 8 Firgt Tax List. 

Springfield, first known as Murraysfield, was set oflf 
from Smithfield in August, 1813. The first assessment 
was made for Murraysfield and returned April 4, 1814 
by James Mattocks, assessor. The taxables were as fol- 

Austin Leonard 
Ezekiel Leonard, Jr. 
Ezra Long 
Asaph U. Leonard 

Thomas Alexander 

Israel Allen 

Gains Adams 

Joseph Barber 

Thomas Barber, Jr. 

Seymour Batterson (dec'd) 

Wm. Brace 

David Bardswell 

Stephen Bliss 

Thomas Barber . 

John Barber 

Conklin Baker 

Adin Brown 

Isaac Cooley 

Aaron Case 

Samuel Campbell 

Solomon Cook 

Wm. Eaton 

Abel Eatbil 

Evans and Parkhurst 

Abel Fuller - 

Elisha Fanning 

Wm. Faulkner 

Theodore Ijeonard 
Ezekiel Leonard 
Horace Lebaron 
James Mattocks 
Abner Murray 
John Nichols (rem.) 
Jacob Newell 
James Otterson 
Griswold Owen 
Robert Otterson 
Wilmot Peters 
Luke Pitts 
Austin Pennock 
Chas. Phillips 
Wm. Pierce 
Henry Parsons 
Thomas Porter 
Samuel Rockwell 
Elisha Rich 

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( 'olumbia aiid Sprhigfield, 


Philo Fassett 

Gurdon Grover 

Joseph Grace 

Oliver Gates 

Wm. Gates 

Elijah Gaylord (rem.) 

George Grace 

Abner Harkness 

James Harkuess 2nd 

Alexander Harkness 

Ebenezer Harkness 

James Harkness 

Thaddius Hastings (rem.) 

Amos Himes 

Amos Harkness 

John Harkness 

Wm. Harkness 

Abel Leonard 

Whole amount of duplicate, $168.89; number of taxa- 
bles, 79; number of horses, 53; number of oxen, 49; 
numl>er of cows, 98. Those having the highest valua- 
tion were — John Harkness, $512; Ezekiel Leonard, 
1490; Austin Leonard, $488; Gurdon Grover, $437; 
James Harkners, $427; Wm. Harkness, $418; Richard 
Sweet, $593; Elisha Rich, $452. 

Richard Sweet 
Joshua Spear 
Stephen A. Sweet 
Elihu Smead 
Joshua Thayer 
Amaziah Thayer 
Josephus Wing 
Reuben Wilber 
Thomas Wheeler 
Lemuel White 
Henry Wiltsey 


Jacob Harkness 
James G. Harkness 
James Otterson 
Robert Otterson 
Reuben Parmeter 


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1813-Co?umbia Tow>nship-1913. 


HE name **Columbia" seems to have been ap- 
plied to a portion of the territory of Bradford 
county by the claimants under the Connec- 
ticut title, but that territory not identical 
with what is now comprised within the limits of the town- 
ship. On a map in Craft's History of Bradford County, 
which in general appearance resembles a crazy quilt, the 
name '^Columbia*' is given to a nearly square section that 
must have included parts of what is now Columbia,Spring- 
field and Troy. And the boundary lines being at con- 
siderable angles with boundary lines of the county, and 
the present lines of the townships of Columbia and 
Springfield, the lines on this map looking as though a 
"cyclone** had passed over it, twisting the townships out 
of their natural position. On this map Columbia is 
bounded on the northerly side by a township called Ob- 
long, on the easterly by Murraysfield, on the southerly 
by King's Street and on the westerly by Cabot, the last 
named probably being the territory contracted for by Na- 
thaniel Morgan, and originally assigned to Elisha Hyde 
and Capt. Elisha Tracey by grant dated Dec. 25th, 1794, 
possibly a Christmas gift. 

The territory then designated as Columbia was granted 
March 15, 1795 to Elisha Satterlee and others and 

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Columbia Toivimhip. 88 

it looks as though in those cases the ^'Elishas" 
had it. All these grants being made by the Sus- 
quehanna Company under the Connecticut title, 
Murraysfield, now a portion of Springfield but 
with decidedly different boundaries, was granted 
to Noah Murray on the sam^^ day, March 15, 1795, 
showing that in many ways the history of Columbia and 
Springfield closely identified. This map referred to was 
probably issued previous to 1794. There is nothing be- 
fore me by which I can fix the date, and whether the 
Susquehanna Company ever re-arranged their map does 
not appear, but probably not. 

Apparently the western and northern lines of the then 
township of Cabot and the present township of Columbia 
are nearly or quite identical, but it does not appear how 
the western boundary of the county became fixed at that 
early date, the county line being the western boundary of 
the then Cabot and present Columbia. The Act of Assem- 
bly creating the county of Tioga not having been passed 
until March 25th, 1804 and the county not fully organ- 
ized until 1812, the territory contiguous to this line be- 
ing a part of Lycoming county until the organization of 
Tioga. And even Lycoming was not separated from 
Northumberland until April 13th, 1795, and the circum- 
stance is all the more strange as said boundary is not a 
natural but entirely artificial one. 

When Columbia and Springfield townships were sur- 
veyed and laid out under petition to the first court held 
in Bradford county the territory was then recognized as 
a part of Smithfield township. A map in Craft's History 
claiming to give the outline of the townships of the 
county in 1812, no doubt under Pennsylvania surveys, 

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.'U Columbia Toivuifhip. 

makes Smithfield extend from the western border of 
Ulster westward to the county line, and Rev. Craft gives 
its dimensions as 19 miles in length by 8 in breadth, and 
bounded on all sides by straight lines, though the appar- 
ent breadth as shown upon this map is greater at its 
eastern than at its western end. At tlie time the two 
named townships were taken from Smithfield, the three 
were supposed to be of equal breadth from east to west. 

The township of Troy organized in 1815 was taken, it 
would seem, from parts of Burlington and Springfield, 
though no mention is made that any part was taken from 
Springfield and the recited survey indicating the north- 
erly line of Troy as a straight line from the county line 
east. The southeast corner of Columbia at that time was 
in what is now Troy Boro near the Presbyterian church. 

A portion of Columbia was afterward annexed to Troy 
as indicated by present lines, but when the southern 
line of Springfield was changed to its present location I 
find no records, but certain it is that at the present time 
it is anything but the straight line the map of 1812 
shows the southern line of Smithfield to have been. 
Since the annexation of the portion of Columbia to Troy 
it is probable that Columbia's boundaries have remained 
unchanged, though if the maps are correct they would 
indicate that the southern line was somewhat modified by 
the organization and survey of Armenia. According to 
authorities examined the township at present contains, 
approximately, 27,000 acres or about 10,000 more than 
originally contracted for by Nathaniel Morgan. 

The earlier elections in the township were held at John 
Lilley's on Basket street and at Columbia Flats, now Syl- 
vania, but later were held at Cabot, or Morgan Hollow, as 

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Columbia Township, 35 

the place was somewhat indiscrimlDately called. At just 
what date this latter change was made I do not know; 
certainly before 1844 and probably many years earlier, 
and for a long time the elections were held '^at the house 
of James Morgan." There were few restrictions on liquor 
selling in the earlier days of holding elections there, and 
liquor was sold over a temporary bar in one corner of 
the house, while the election board sat in the other, and 
an election day that did not include several fights was 
pronounced "dull." 

Sylvania Boro was organized in 1854 from territory 
wholly taken from the township, so that for more than half 
the "hundred years" has bad a separate history though 
in many ways closely identified with that of the town- 

Except that from the original forests, the wealth of 
the township has been and is almost exclusively agricul- 
tural, little or no mineral of value having been pro- 
duced. Iron ore was mined for a short time at Anstin- 
ville (Morgan Hollow), but soon abandoned as unprofita- 
ble; and dairying continues to be the leading industry 
although pursued along almost entirely different lines 
from that of fifty or even twenty years ago. 

The hilltops and hillsides that at harvest time in my 
boyhood days were covered with beautiful fields of gold- 
en grain, that yielded profitable returns now lie sere and 
bare. Alternately parched by drouth and washed by 
torrential rains that glide from their hardened surface 
as from a house roof, taking with them their toll of the 
little fertility that remains, and when in the earlier days 
thousands of bushels of grain were exported. Now the 
*'calf," as soon as he is fairly able to stand alone, is 

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3(> OoJumhiu Township, 

started for market and the ''crate" in which he is trans- 
ported to the railroad station by> the farmer (probably a 
^nant farmer) returns fiUed with hags of ''feed" for the 
cows. The sheep that once dotted the hill pastures by 
the jthousands are now practically- a thing of the past. It 
bas been truthfully said that the footprints of the sheep 
are golden^ and it ie through 4}he agency of that animal 
that these hills are to be^ re-fertilized^ if ever, except as 
Nature shall reclaim them from the hand of man. 

Columbia had its hardships, its losses and its griefs in 
common with her sister townships during the Civil War. 
I have ao statistics ai hand, yet I deem it safe to say that 
while she furnished her full quota of men, she lost fewer 
of her resident dtizens by the casualties of that strife 
than did most townships of like population, and the scars 
of war' within its borders were* more quickly healed than 
in most others. - < 

The nufmber of county offices filled by her citizens is 
not large in proportion to her population, being, if I 
have enumerated correctly, one associate judge, Myron 
Ballard elected in 1848; one sheriff, Benjamin McKean 
appointed 1827; one prothonotary, Samuel Strait for a 
few months only, 1836; two registers, Dummer Lilley to 
fill vacancy, 1839 and C. E. Gladding elected 1869; four 
county commissioners, Myron Ballard 1839, Dummer 
Lilley 1-856, Daniel Bradford and John Wolf; two coun- 
ty auditors, Burton Strait 1824, Alden Keyes 1906; jury 
commissioner, B. Frank Knapp 1873; member of State 
Legislature, Dummer Lilley 1863. Dr. E. G. Tracy was 
elected to the legislature and Leander L. Gregory county 
auditor from Sylvania borough. 
^ According to the census of 1820 Columbia had 823 in- 

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( 'olninbia Townahip. .*]? 

habitants; in 1860, 1492; in 1870, 1521; in 1880, 1304; 
in 1890, 1245; in 1900, 1222 and 1910 only 976, show- 
ing a steady decline since 1870, and the township hav- 
ing with Sylvania out only 153 more inhabitants in 1910 
than in 1820, and with Sylvania included only 370 

I will not attempt to give a list of the earlier pioneers, 
as to do so and give the varied experience of each, of 
which I have more or less traditional knowledge, would 
make a "paper" entirely too lengthy for your occasion, 
but will give a random list of the more prominent ones, 
which in the center, north and east included the Mor- 
gans, the Parsons, the Sopers, theWatkins, Besleys, Bea- 
man, Wilson, Wolf, Edsall, McClellands, Gernerts, 
Slades and Purmans, while in the southern portion were 
found the Porters, Smeads, Prestons, Calkins, McKean; 
Taylors, Nash, Keyes, Merritts, Tinkham, Lilley, Glad- 
ding, Bullocks, Peckhams and Cornell, who with many 
others throughout their lifetime were identified with the 
township's growth. 

These people were of New England birth and parent- 
age, and brought with them the proverbial Yankee fru- 
gality and thrift, mixed with an occasional strain of 
Irish pugnacity and wit, and the stolid common sense of 
the plodding German, and with the permission of your 
Society I will jot down some of the many reminiscences 
of these people I have in mind, the source of which is 
largely tradition and the order of their relation entirely 

One of the peculiarities of the pioneer influx was that a 
large share of the men were masters of some craft or trade* 
so that each neighborhood had its carpenter, shoemaker^ 

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38 Columb'M Township, 

blacksmith, wheelwright, with various other trades, 
while there were not wanting those that could convert 
the easily grown rye into the exhilirating and then sup- 
posed necessary beverage. While the women were ex- 
perts not only in the more ordinary household duties, 
but were "artists** with the **great" and **little'' wheels, 
the dye tub and the loom, and produced honest and 
many times beautiful fabrics, with which the people were 
domfortably and "abundantly" clothed, the latter in 
striking contrast with some of the fashions of the present 
day. There were few doctors and no dentists in those days 
and aching molars were sentenced to summary expulsion 
by the "turnkey" route, and many such a sentence has 
my grandfather "executed" with a set of turnkeys, the 
terror of my boyhood days, that I now have in my pos- 

The rapidity of the township's settlement is somewhat 
remarkable, when we consider the difficulty of reaching 
it from the outside world, there being practically no roads 
that permitted reasonable ingress and egress up to the 
time of its organization. As an illustration of that ra- 
pidity, take what is now called Porter road from Troy to 
Sylvania, all of which was in Columbia for many years 
after its organization, and the Basket Street road from 
what was in 1813 the Moses Taylor farm to what was 
then termed Cabot Hollow. The earliest settlement on 
either of these roads probably did not precede 1800, yet 
in 1820 there were more people living on these roads 
than there are today. 

Like in all such settlements, some of these pioneers 
were merely "drifters" carried by the "flood" and only 
awaited another to move on, but the great majority were 

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Colitmbia Township. »^9 

sturdy men and women that made homes for themselves 
and transmitted them to their children; but, alas, for the 
decadence of these later days they have now largely 
passed to the possession of the stranger. 

One of the strange things in its history was the ani- 
mosity created among the people of the township by its 
"division," by which a part of its original territory was 
annexed to the township of Troy, probably somewhere 
in the early '^thirties," I have not the exact date. Up 
to the date of this "division" a considerable part of what 
is now Troy Boro was in Columbia township, the corner 
being near the present site of the Presbyterian church. 
From present point of view, there seems no valid reason 
why the division should not have been made, as the 
convenience of the people residing on the annexed terri- 
tory was greatly served, but many of the older inhabit 
tants within ray recollection could be easily aroused to 
wrath by any reference to the transaction. And there is 
little doubt that the division of Bradford county, so long 
earnestly sought by the inhabitants of its western section, 
was prevented a few years later by a "remonstrance" by 
these still indignant citizens of Columbia, and, as a con- 
sequence Troy remains a "half-shire," when but for that 
remonstrance it might have been a full fledged "county 

Like most of its sister townships, Columbia pretty reg- 
ularly went Democratic from its organization until 1844. 
In that year at the October election it gave Shunk, the 
Democratic nominee for governor, a majority of nine 
votes over Markle, the Whig candidate. It was the year 
of the Clay- Polk campaign and party feeling ran high, 
and the Democrats confidently expected to carry the 

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40 Columbia Township, 

town for Folk. And in that anticipatiou some of the 
younger members, among whom were the Morgan boys, 
had procured a stuffed coon skin which they intended to 
burn in celebration of their victory, the "coon" being 
the Whig emblem. 

Hezekiah Peckham, an ardent Whig and a brother-in- 
law of the Morgans, had in some manner found out what 
was intended and managed to steal the skin. Benjamin 
McKean, brother of Gen. Samuel McKean, whilom boss 
of the county, was judge of election, a staunch Demo- 
crat and withal '^blessed" with a happy temper, my 
father, Benjamin McKean Calkins was Whig inspector. 
In those days each party printed its own ballots, and as 
a rule they were easily distinguishable. A young 
man was seated near my father in the election room, and 
when a Whig vote was received my father would inform 
him by treading on his toe and he would second it. At 
the close of the polls this tally showed a majority of 17 
votes for Clay. With this knowledge the Whigs arrang- 
ed to have this "coon skin" ready, and when the vote 
was finally counted and the majority for Clay announced, 
the window raised and the "coon skin" came flying in, 
striking "Judge'' McKean directly in the face, while the 
roan who threw it yelled. "That same old coon is alive 
yet," and probably no madder man than the "judge" 
ever managed to exist, and with this episode and whisky 
at 25 cents a gallon or three cents a drink pandemonium 
reigned for hours. 

Among the episodes in its history there are few more 
interesting than the early introduction of Mormonism 
within its boundaries. Just how and when the seed was 
sown is and probably will remain a mystery, as so far as 

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Columbia Tofvnnhlp. 41 

I now know. There are none living that possess that in- 
formation, but certain it is that within three years from 
the time that Joseph Smith claimed to have received the 
mysterious "plates" from the hands of the ''angel," the 
doctrine was being preached and nieetings held in Co- 
lumbia township, and which continued for several years 
until the "exodus" to Kirtland and Nauvoo. 

A man by the name of Gifford had for some time been 
preaching in Rutland township, Tioga county, and had 
gathered around him a handful of followers. What pe- 
culiar creed he taught I do not know, but tradition de- 
scribes himself and followers as a shiftless, vagabond lot. 
The headquarters of Mormonism in Columbia was on 
Porter Road at the homes of Lyman Leonard and Daniel 
and Potter Bowen. They had no public meeting place 
unless possibly an occasional occupancy of the school 
house. How it came about that these "Giffordites" and 
the Mormons fraternized I have no knowledge, but it is 
certain that they did and held meetings alternately. 

The "performances" at these meetings were a subject 
of considerable scandal at the time, and but for the early 
removal of the Mormons would have been the cause of 
legal proceeding by the rest of the community, but 1 
have no doubt that religious intolerance may have exag- 
gerated the enormity of their conduct, as it was at a date 
of great religious activity by Baptists and Methodists in 
western Bradford. 

There is a tradition that Brigham Young attended 
some of these meetings, and was baptized in the creek on 
the farm then owned by Leonard and now by George H. 
Benson, but this tradition is not fully authenticated. 
It seems that their baptisms were conservative — that is, 

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42 ( *olii mbiu To ivmth Ip . 

wheQ one received a new "gift" or **revelation," he was 
baptized anew into that and thus he might be the sub- 
ject of several baptisms. 

Among the several "gifts** or **revelations" it was an- 
nounced that Leonard had received that of speaking the 
"unknown tongue*' spoken of in the Bible, and was to be 
baptized into that special "gift/' Now Lyman Leonard 
John Calkins, my grandfather and Benjamin McKean 
were brothers-in-law, Leonard and Mc-Kean having mar- 
ried sisters of my grandfather, and they lived on adjoin- 
ing farms. 

These baptisms were often the occasion of neighbor- 
hood gatherings, and at this parti<;ular baptism of Leon- 
ard both brothers-in-law were present. When Leonard 
came up out of the water, he commenced an incoherent 
talk that certainly was an "unknown tongue" to the by- 
standers, and advancing to McKean, placed his hands on 
McKean's shoulders and said "Ben, what do you think 
of it"? and McKean replied, "Lyman, I think you are a 
bigger damned fool than I ever supposed you were." 
Leonard and his wife soon after left to follow the for- 
tunes of Smith, Young and the Mormon church, and 
died in Salt Lake City at a ripe old age, steadfast in the 
faith, and she after leaving Columbia never again saw 
father or mother, sister or brother, giving up all for what 
she believed to be her religious duty. There was never 
any revival of the Mormon sect in Columbia after the 
exodus of the residents of Porter Road, and their doings 
and very existence soon became tradition. 

Columbia saw the zenith of her glory as to wealth and 
numbers many years ago. The hardy pioneers and their 
immediate descendants have passed away, their farms in 

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Columbia Townshtp, 43 

stranger hands or worked by tenants; the forests from 
which their sinewy arm carved a chance for subsistence 
and which with reckless prodigality they consigned to the 
torch have with them passed away. And the hills laid 
bare have been bereft of the '4iumu8/' that thousands 
of years of forest growth had stored by chopping and era- 
sion. Her population has diminished by hundreds and 
still on the wane, and the prospect for the century to 
come far from cheering. 

When Nathaniel Morgan came to the township in 
1798 he came, as he supposed, the proud possessor of a 
township, 17,000 acres of land, and doled out to less for- 
tunate neighbors small fortunes thereof, to induce them 
to share his fortunes in the new country. And now not 
one of his descendants reside in the township, nor is a 
foot of the land owned by one of the name or the blood. 
And this same story might also be told of many 
others, not only in Columbia but with reference to many 
of her sister townships, and page after page might be 
written in reciting the hardships and privations of these 
early pioneers. 

It is a *'fancy" from the ox sled to the automobile, 
but who shall say that with the log hut and the ox sled 
their lives were less happy or useful, than those of their 
successors of today with mansion and automobile. 


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Springfield Township. 


HIS is the one hundredth anniversary of the 
nn W organization of Springfield township. In 

the beginning of the nineteenth century 
what is now the township of Springfield was 
an unbroken wilderness of majestic pines and primeval 
forest. But one clearing of which we have information 
existed within its boundaries, the **Beaver Meadow," be- 
ginning on lands of my father, David Grace Fanning 
and embracing several acres of the Ransom Crandall es- 
tate. In the early days, traces of a dam constructed by 
the beaver could be seen, and river plum trees grew 
along the stream, some of which or their descendants 
may still be seen. The many implements of the chase 
there found indicate that it was a favorite rendezvous of 
the Indian. 

The land embraced within the limits of Springfield 
township was granted to Noah Murray, a Revolutionary 
soldier, by the Susquehanna Company, March 15, 1795 
as Murraysfield. The name was subsequently changed 
to Springfield in remembrance of Springfield, Mass., 
which had been the home of mafly of the pioneer settlers. 
Noah Murray was a Universalist minister and founder 
not only of that society in Springfield township but in 
the county of Bradford. The southwestern line of the 

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Spi'iHijfiehJ TowuKhlp, 45 

township originally ran from Long^s Mills to near the 
site of the Presbyterian church in the borough of Troy; 
thence to Columbia X Roads, but later after a spirited 
contest was located easterly in part along Oak Hill; Troy 
and Columbia townships acquiring the territory so cut 

Captain John Harkness was the first actual settler. 
He came through what is now Smithfield township from 
Pelham, Mass. in 1803, in company with his oldest son, 
Alexander, his nephew, Ehenezer and a man by the 
name of Ichabod Smith. These men were left to build 
his cabin on lands now owned by Edson Harkness, and 
in the following spring, March 1, 1804 he brought his 
family and began life in the wilderness. Ezekiel and 
Austin Leonard came by way of Sugar Creek and Tioga 
Point with their families in the autumn of 1803 to what 
is now East Troy, and in June, 1804 occupied their cab- 
ins in Leonard Hollow, now Leona, on lands selected in 

Of the early settlers who soon found their way in large 
numbers to Springfield I will not now speak, as they arc 
given by an old resident in a public address, July 4th, 
1861 from which I will later quote. Those were the days 
of the sickle, the winnowing fan, the ox-sled, the forest 
paths, the flax brake, swifts, the clicking looms and 
grandmother's spinning wheel. Men of iron nerve 
cleared little patches, and in many instances owing to 
failure of title paid for their land two and three times. 
Such was the experience of my father. If time permit- 
ted it would be interesting to speak of the indignation 
meetings held and the denunciation of land sharks, who 
palmed off worthless titles to the settlers for their hard 
earned money. 

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46 Springjiehl TmnxMp, 

Grain was carried at first for grinding, many times on 
the back, twelve to fourteen roiles to Morley's Mills at 
Tioga Point and later to Long's Mill at Troy. Luke 
Pitts put up a small grist mill just east of Springfield 
Center, which was commenced in 1813. Another mill 
was built at Leonard Hollow by Wakeman Brooks. 
This was succeeded by a large flouring mill erected by 
William T. Daly and which was propelled by an over- 
shot water wheel. The property is now owned by his 
son, Frank Daily. Here at Leonard Hollow was located 
a tannery by Wakeman Brooks and which for many 
years did a flourishing business. 

The variety of industries in Springfield in earjy days 
seems at this time incredible. There were numerous 
carpenter, wagon and cooperage shops, chair, bedstead, 
broom and rope making and pottery establishments, a 
cabinet and cofiin manufactory, carding machine and 
brick kiln. The town also had a widely known gun- 
smith, Prentiss Norman, and a clothier who made and 
dressed cloth and a few were engaged in the distilling 
business, making what was then termed ''sober water.'' 

The first school house in the township was erected at 
the forks of the road in front of where the Leona Metho- 
dist church now stands in 1813. Instruction had been 
previously given in a private house. 

Churches. — In 1813 the Methodist Society was organ- 
ized at Leonard Hollow with the following members: 
Avery Brown and wife, Adin Brown and wife, Wakeman 
Brooks and wife, Elisha Fanning and wife, Stephen 
Parkhurst and wife, and David Brooks and wife. On 
this centennial year the church, under the pastorate of 
Rev. B. G. Sanford, after extensive repairs was on Sept. 

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Spi'tnyjield Totvnt<hijt, 47 

21, 1913 rerledicated, Dr. S. F. Sanford, District Super- 
intendent of Elmira District preachiug the dedicatory 

December 15, 1819 a preliminary meeting was held to 
consider the advisability of forming a Baptist Society, 
and January 6, 1820 a council called at the home of 
John Parkhurst and a church organization perfected. 
Thomas B. Beebe of Smithfield was chosen moderator 
and Levi Baldwin clerk. The following were the mem- 
bers: Isaac Cooley, John Parkhurst, Elam Bennett, 
James Harkness 2nd, Austin Pennock, David Brown, 
Dexter Parkhurst, William Evans, Josiah Parkhurst, 
Daniel Cleveland, Joel Parkhurst, Nancy Pennock, Eu- 
nice Brown, Eleanor Brown, Cynthia Adams, Mary Ben- 
nett, Elizabeth Cooley, Rachael Parkhurst, Isabella 
Harkness, Anna Phillips and Mary Adams. 

The Pleasant Valley (Wetona) Methodist Society was 
organized in 1840 by the Rev. Ira Smith with the fol- 
lowing members: Chauncey and Betsey Brooks, David 
and Antis B. Fanning, Ambrose and Adaline Grace, 
George and Adelaide Sargeant, Quartus and Esther 
Cleveland, Clarissa Cleveland and John Ward. David 
Fanning was made class leader, which position in the 
church he retained for fifty-three years. 

Baptist and Universalist churches were erected at 
Springfield Center, Methodist churches at Leonard Hol- 
low, Pleasant Valley and Mill City now Big Pond, and 
later a Wesleyan Methodist church at Berrytown. 

James Mattocks was the first justice of the peace, his 
commission dating February 9th, 1810. 

In the early days saw mills lined the streams. On 

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48 SpiingfieUl Towut^htp, 

Mill Creek, which ran near father's home and flowed 
into Sugar Creek at the County House in Burlington, 
there were at different times eleven saw mills. The first 
saw mill was erected by Austin Leonard in Leonard 
Hollow in 1808. Springfield township had one lawyer, 
Thomas Smead, and intimately connected with the his- 
tory of the township is the name of Dr. Theodore Wil- 
der, Sr. and his son, Theodore Wilder, Jr. The latter 
practiced uninterruptedly from 1832 for more than fifty 
years. Dr. William Corey also was for many years in 
active practice. Isaac Cooley represented the county in 
the Legislature for two terms and was a major of militia. 
As will subsequently appear he was marshal at the first 
celebration July 4, 1811 and again fifty years later July 
4, 1861. 

A public circulating library was established at the 
home of Nathaniel H. Mattocks near Springfield Center. 
The books were eagerly read by young and old, stimulat- 
ing a love of knowledge and resulting in great benefit to 
the people. The schools from early days have been 
noted for their excellence, and were highly complimented 
in a written report by Emanuel Guyer, the first Superin- 
tendent of Schools of Bradford county. 

The rugged, determined men and women who came to 
Springfield township are to be honored. Some of those 
who had served in the Continental Army participated in 
the **Boston Tea Party,'* took part in the capture of Fort 
Ticonderogn, crossed the Delaware with Washington, 
suffered at Valley Forge and performed valiant serv- 
ice in those trying days, made Springfield their home, 
where they today sleep in honored graves. Would time 
permit, it would be a pleasure to give something of their 

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Sprintjfield Towiiahlp, 49 

splendid record. The names of these Revolutionary sol- 
diers are: 

David Brown Benj. McAfFee 

Oliver Gates Noah Murray 

Capt. John Harkness John Parkhurst 

Wra. Harkness Wm. Salisbury 

Bela Kent Samuel Severence 

Simeon King Joshua Spear 

Ezekiel Leonard Nehemiah Wilson 

In connection with this subject I cannot refrain from 
calling attention to one of Springfield's heroines, Mara 
Sargeant Grace, my great-grandmother and wife of Jo- 
seph Grace, the Revolutionai'y soldier. Hers was an 
eventful experience. She was in Boston on a housetop 
when the Battle of Bunker Hill opened. Duty called 
and she hastened to the field, carried water to our sol- 
diers, cared for the dying and wounded and when the 
supply of bandages was exhausted tore up her flannel 
pf^tticoat into strips for the wounded. After the death of 
her husband, Joseph Grace, she came to Springfield and 
resided in the old red house on the Grace Road where 
she died. She was buried in the Leona cemetery. 

Addison Grace, a grandson of Mara Sargeant Grace is 
present this afternoon and it may not be out of place to 
remark that his grandfather, Joseph Grace, and two 
brothers, Benjamin and Emanuel Grace or Uncle Newell 
as the latter was called, were Revolutionary soldiers and 
participated in the battle of Bunker Hill. Just before 
the death of my grandmother, Betsey Grace Fanning in 
1814, her father, Joseph Grace, then an old man walked 
from Springfield, Springfield this county, to be with 
her in her last hours. His brother Benjamin was a Min- 

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50 Sprhifjfiehl Townahip. 

uteraan, and Emanuel an artilleryman and scout. The 
latter camo to Springfield for a visit, and from there walk- 
ed to Illinois and return after he was eighty years old. 
He applied for a pension through Squire Bullock who 
lived on the Turnpike. It did not come. He left 
Springfield when about eighty-five to ascertain from 
Squire Bullock what progress was being made, stating 
that if the report was not favorable, he would go direct 
to Washington and present his case. He did not return, 
inquiries were made and he was traced as far as Wyalu- 
sing, but that was the last ever heard of him. When, 
where and how he died and where he sleeps today no 
man knoweth. 

In the days of the Civil War more than 180 sons of 
Springfield township marched to the front in defense of 
the flag. Their deeds of daring and noble* self-sacrifice 
will always reflect honor upon the place of their nativity. 

Mount Pisgah or as named by Editor A. S. Hooker, 
**Mount Wetonah'* after a celebrated Indian chieftain, 
the subject of one of his captivating romances lifts its 
head sentinel like 2780 feet above the level of the sea, 
several hundred feet above Barclay Mountain and the 
liighest point, it is said, in Pennsylvania above sea level. 
Not far from 1876 Moses Gustin there erected the tower 
which surmounts the summit and which can be seen for 
many miles in every direction. The cycloramic view 
from this lofty summit is beyond description. Sulli- 
van's Monument is easily discernible, the sparkling wa- 
ters of Seneca Lake at times may be seen. Mountain 
Lake flashes in the sunlight, while beyond Scranton the 
Buckhorn Mountains . lift their heads. Beautiful vil- 
lages, well tilled farms, forests and streams and grace- 

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SpriU'iffield Towtuhlp, 51 

fully curving mountain cliains greet the enraptured vis- 
ion a scene fair to behold. The picture for variety and 
beauty is not excelled between the oceans. World-wide 
travelers declare the view from Mount Wetonah unex- 
celled by any they have seen in far-famed foreign lands. 

Training days were great events and called together 
large assemblages of people to admire the resplendent 
uniforms, epaulets, waving plumes, glittering swords and 
war-like maneuvers. At one three-day encampment 
held near where the Wetona Methodist church now 
stands, the populace led a charge against the militia, and 
in the encounter there were many bruised heads and the 
battle ground was littered with ramrods, clubs, torn gar- 
ments and uniforms. 

In the North Woods near Berrytown the wild pigeons 
by the million made their nests, and from many miles 
around the inhabitants gathered for the slaughter, re- 
turning with sacks, baskets and wagon boxes filled with 

July 4th, 1861 a celebration was held at Springfield 
Center, at which Elder Calvin Newell, who had been 
away for several years was the orator. July 4th, 1863 
another great celebration was held at the same place, at 
which the old war preacher. Rev. Harvey Lamkin was 
the orator. He had just returned from Troy with 
glad tidings that thrilled every patriotic heart. He grew 
eloquent and his face glowed and beamed with joy, as he 
told the large and enthusiastic assemblage that the Un- 
ion Army had triumphed, and that the invaders were in 
full retreat from Gettysburg. 

I now propose to read from a speech delivered by Rev. 
Calvin Newell, July 4th, 1861, in which he covers quite 

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52 Spr'nHjfidd Township, 

Uioroughly the early history of the township. He said: 

Mr. Presidenty Ladies and Gentlemen : 

This morning's opportunity with the agreeahle and 
pleasant circumstances with which we are surrounded, is 
peculiarly gratifying to me and I hope it may be to you. 
My gratification arises not so much on account of the po- 
sition that I occupy in this respectful assemblage, as on 
account of the pleasant reflections that the opportunity 
is calculated to produce. This township is my native 
place. Here I spent my childhood and youth. With 
some, whose faces I behold in this audience, I was famil- 
iar more than 40 years ago. And having been absent 
(except on occasional visits) for 28 years and being per- 
mitted to assemble again with you and to look upon the 
faces and exchange friendly greetings with the few who 
remain of the associates of my early life, and here, under 
these favorable circumstances, to spend an hour or two 
with them and their descendants and others is truly 

Again it is pleasant to reflect that we have the privi- 
lege on this the 85th anniversary of our national inde- 
pendence to assemble, and with the stars and stripes 
floating over our heads to commemorate that great event, 
the result of whidi was the deliverance of the colonies 
from the oppressive government of the mother country 
and the building up of our glorious national republic. 
And while a portion of the states comprising this great 
confederacy, or rather a portion of the leading men of 
those, are in open rebellion against this government and 
have trampled under foot this ensign of our liberties, nnd 
have thrown out to the breeze a Palmeto, or a flag de- 
signed to lead men on in rebellion against the govern- 
ment under which we have lived, and to which we are 
indebted for all the blessings of civil and religious lib- 
erty which we enjoy, thereby depriving the inhabitants 
of these states of the privileges which are still continued 
unto U8* And while probably 500,000 men are now 

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Spi'layfirUl Toivnt^hlp. 53 

arrayed for deadly conflict — one part to sustain the gov- 
ernment and the other to tear down this ensign of our 
liberty — is it not our duty as loyal citizens and professed 
Christians to offer at least one fervent prayer to the God 
of nations that the Star Spangled banner, long may it 
wave o*er the land of the free and the home of the brave? 
And while we pray let us bear in mind that there is 
something else for us to do. There are many ways in 
which we, as loyal citizens, may aid the government in 
the great struggle in which it is engaged. 

Again this occasion is a gratifying one, because in 
your program or order of day you have made it my duty 
to recall and present for your consideration historical 
sketches of tiie past in relation to the early settlement of 
this township. In doing this it will call up many 
pleasing reflections in relation to scenes which transpired 
in the days of my childhood and youth. It will also 
call up some mournful reflections with reference to 
loved ones who are gone and with whom we shall no 
more meet in this world. 

We will now turn our attention to the duty assigned 
to us and present for your consideration some 
historical facts connected with the early settlement of 
this township. It is quite proper to revive the past and 
compare with the present, in order that we may be able 
to appreciate our present position. Probably there are 
persons here today who are now wealthy, who have al- 
most forgotten that they were once poor, and who seldom 
call to mind the privations and hardships they endured 
in the pioneer history of this township, or if they do re- 
flect upon it, it is only for the purpose of boasting of their 
courage and of their success in the accumulation of their 

There are others who are enjoying the benefits of the 
labors and privations of these old pioneers, who have 
been nurtured in the lap of wealth, luxury and ease, who 
notwithstanding they are dressed in the highest 

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54 Spi'huifiehl To\ninhip, 

style of fashion and can drive nice horses and ride in 
fine carnages upon well worked roads, are often com- 
plaining of the hardness of their lot and frequently find- 
ing fault with father and mother or somebody else, be- 
cause they cannot have this, that or the other luxury. 
To such it might be beneficial to reflect that what they 
now enjoy has been purchased by the labor, privation 
and suffering of those who have preceded them, and for 
the purpose of awakening a principle of gratitude in 
your hearts we will take a retrospective view of the past. 
At the commencement of the present century this 
township was one unbroken forest, inhabited only by 
wild beasts and an occasional wandering tribe of Indians. 
Some idea of the wild state of this part of what is now 
Bradford county may be obtained from the following ex- 
tract from a letter written by Gen.Elihu Case of Troy,dated 
May, 1858 and published in Montrose Republican, enti- 
tled Pioneer Life in Bradford County. He says, after hav- 
ing spoken of the purchase of the farm and building of the 
log cabin, covering it with bark and making the floor of 
plank split out of basswood logs: *'In this shanty he 
(that is, his father) moved his family, consisting of a 
wife and three children on the 6th day of March, 1798, 
cutting our own road for four miles, the teams following 
with the goods. At that time there were only 18 fami- 
lies between my father's cabin and the river, what was 
then called Old Sheshequin, a distance of 20 miles along 
Sugar Creek. Our nearest neighbor was Nathaniel Al- 
len, five milas down the creek. Near the same time Na- 
thaniel Morgan with some others moved from Connecti- 
cut into what is now known as Morgan Hollow. I be- 
lieve there were four or five families of them, and the axe 
was the principle implement of husbandry in use among 
them. But they had no grindstone. Their axes would, 
of course, need grinding and by some means they learned 
that a man living about a mile east of what is now* 
known as Smithfield Center had a grindstone. And 

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Spi'iiKjfield Townxhip, 55 

they knew of no other way to prepare their tools for use 
only to go there and gnnd them. So two or three of them 
took their axes and rifles and probably their compass, 
and started, marking the trees as they went in order to 
enable them to find their way back. They went through 
probably not far from here and fnund the man who own- 
ed the grindstone. But what was their disap- 
pointment on being positively denied the privilege 
of grinding. So after traveling about 14 miles through 
the wilderness they had to return with their tools as dull 
as when they started. 

According to information in my possession the first 
settler of this township was Captain John Harkness, or 
as he was familiarly called "Uncle John." He came in 
the year 1803 and selected a place not far from here and 
moved his family the next spring. They arrived at 
their new home (if home it could be calleil) the 1st day 
of March, 1804. Mr. Harkness' native place was Pel- 
hara, Mass. The next settlers were Ezekiel Leonard and 
Austin Leonard, who came from West Springfield, Mass. 
in the year 1802 to find homes for themselves and fami- 
lies. They came up the Sugar Creek to Esq. Allen's 
and searched the surrounding country, and finally de- 
cided to locate in what is now called Leonard Hollow. 
After making some arrangements for chopping and 
building log cabins, they returned to get their families. 
They started in October, 1803 with their families. Aus- 
tin drove a pair of horses and Ezekiel two pair of oxen. 
After traveling 18 days coming through Athens, Ulster 
and up the Sugar Creek, they stopped near Esq. Allen's 
where their families remained uhtil the next June, 1804. 
Thus it appears that the Leonards were the first who se- 
lected farms in the township, but that Mr. Harkness was 
the first actual settler, he having moved his family into 
the log cabin the 1st of March, 1804 and the Leonards 
in June following. Here then we have the history of 

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5(1 SprhujfieUl TowiuJnp, 

the first settiemeut of this township or the commence- 
ment of the settlement. 

The location of these log cabins I learn by the state- 
ment of Mr. John Harkness who is now present, and if I 
am not correct he can correct me. That these families 
had no knowledge of each other until tlie spring of 1805 
and the circumstances which gave them an introduction 
was this. Tlie cattle of Uncle John strayed away and 
they followed them by their tracks through the woods 
until they found the opening made by the Leonards. 

Settlers in the order of time in which they moved into 
the place: 

Ichabod Smith, March, 1804. 

Wm. Harkness, James Mattocks, Luke Pitts, Joshua 
Spear, Oliver Gates, Henry Stever, Amaziah Thayer, 
(furdon Grover, Wm. Brace, James Harkness, in the 
fall of 1804. 

Josephus Wing, 1805. 

Nehemiah Wilson, Joseph Grace, Al>el Fuller, 1807. 

Isaac Cooley, Gains Adams, Elihu Spear, Samuel 
Kingsbury, Thomas Pemberton,, 1808. 

Noah Murray, Stephen Bliss, 1800. 

John Parkhurst, Samuel Campbell, Ichabod Smith. 

Samuel White, Major John Parkhurst, Wm. Evans, 
Adin Brown, Thomas Wheeler, Elisha Fanning, 1812. 

I have now given you a hasty sketch of the state of 
things in this township in the few years of its first settle- 
ment. By reference to a record in my possession, copied 
from one kept by a man by the name of Nevins, who 
died in the year 1810, I find that in the early part of 
that year, there were about 160 persons all told in what 
was then Murraysfield, and here I will make a remark 
in relation to the name of the township. In the year 
1806 a man by the name of Murray, who had formerly 
lived in Philadelphia purchased the tract of land which 

S. P. and Charles Mattocks have more recently owned, 
and being rather a prominent man (Esq. Murray) and I 

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Sprinyfiehl Township, 57 

believe a minister of the Univ.ersalist deuomination, 
probably out of respect to him it was called Murrays- 
field. This county at that time was connected with Ly- 
coming county. All county business was done at Wil- 
liarasport. In the year 1810 the county of Bradford was 
organized and probably the name of the town was chang- 
ed about the same time, and there being so many persons 
liere from Springfield, Mass. they selected the same name 
by which to designate the territory of their new home. 

In the month of December, 1810 my father arrived in 
this township with his family, having purchased a part 
of the possession owned by my uncle, Araaziah Thayer. 
He moved into a small log house then standing very near 
where Thomas Wolcott now lives. In that house I was 
born on the 7th day of March, 1811 and there lived un- 
til I was 12 or 13 years old, when my father built and 
moved into the building now occupied by my brother for 
a horse barn. 

I believe that Mr. Theodore Leonard came into the 
township the same year and settled on the farm where 
bis son Lafayette now lives. 

Major John Parkhurst and Wm. Evans, 1812 or 1813. 

A. Brown, 1812. 

Thomas Wheeler, Elisha Fanning, 1811 or 1812. 

Elder Bennett is also one of the old residents of this 
township, coming here in the year 1815, and I am in- 
formed that he and his companion are the only couple 
who came in that early day as husband and wife, who 
are yet living and enjoy each other's society. Others 
came in more recently of whom we can not now speak. 

We will now take a glance at the state of things in 
general at the early period to which we have referred. 

Ist. The location of the settlers. 

2nd. The state of the roads. 

3rd. The mode of travel. 

4th. General habits. 

nth. Mode of dress. 

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58 Spn'}i(jifiehl TrnvutfJup. 

6th. Recreation. 

7th. Mode of living. 

8th. The manner of going to mill and the distance. 

9th. How we obtained the luxuries and some of the 
necessaries of life, and the prices paid for them. 

It is said by authority not to be doubted, that Samuel 
McKean known to many of us as General McKean, sold 
tea at $5 per pound and paid 12^ cents for butter. 

Mrs. Mattocks at one time sent 20 pounds of sugar to 
Tioga Point and got for it 1 pound of tea. 

Salt at Tioga Point sold for $10 per barrel and rather 
poor at that. 

Pork was fattened on beachnuts and corn, and fre- 
quently the corn was minus. 

Plain cotton sheeting, .such as you now can get for 8 or 
10 cents per yard, would then cost from 40 to 50 cents per 

Calico such as you can now buy for 10 cents, then 
cost from 50 to 75 cents per yard. 

At quite an early period in the history of this town- 
ship rye whiskey became an important article of traffic. 
The first distillery erected in what is now known asSpring- 
field was built by Samuel Campbell on the farm now 
owned by Mr. Eben Parkhurst. After Major Parkhurst 
came in possession of the farm, he run the machine for 
many years and no doubt made money by the operation. 

It is said that S. Cook sold to Dr. Daniel Parkhurst 
112 acres of land for 500 gallons of whiskey valued at $1 
per gallon, but the article soon depreciated in value 

about 50 per cent. Probably the doctor made the most 
money in the operation. 

The first birth in the town occurred on the 20th of 
April, 1805. It was Hiram Harkness. The second oc- 
curred on the 21st of September, 1805. It was Alfred 
Leonard. The third October 8th, 180a, Stephen Hark- 

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Spn'i^ehf Township. 59.. 

The first death was that of Mra. Morey, the mother of 
Mrs. Kingsbury. The second was Noah Murray. 

The first preaching was by a Baptist missionary io: 
1810 or 1811. By a reference to the record of the Bap- 
tist church, I find it to have been organized on the 6th 
day of January, 1820 consisting of 14 members. Of its 
subsequent history I know but little. 

The Methodists commenced preaching here in the year 
1812. A man by the name of Abram Dawson came and 
looked over the ground and established an appointment 
in Leonard Hollow once in two weeks. A Presbyterian 
minister by the name of Porter came here from Elmira, 
at what date I am not informed, and organized the first 
church of that order in this neighborhood. 

The first celebration of our national independence took 
place in 1811 at the house of Mr. Pitts. Mr. Theodore 
Leonard was the speaker and Mr. Isaac Gooley was mar^ 
shal of the day. Thus you see that the man you have 
chosen as marshal on this occasion ofiiciated in the same 
capacity 60 years ago today. 

The Pilgrim's Return. 

[Original poem by Mr. Newell recited in connection 
with the foregoing address.] 

Dear home of njy youth where my childhood I passed, 

Where my boyhood I sported away, 
Again in my wanderings I greet thee at last 

Affections warm tribute to pay. 

How swiftly, how thickly fond memories throng. 

Welling up from the depths of my soul; 
Oh had I the strength but to utter in song 

Emotions beyond my control. 

Dear friends and loved scenes of my youth can it be 

That I am amongst you once more? 
I look but in vain the loved faces to see, 

So dear, so familiar of yore. 

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A few stil] are here like the leares that remaiu 
When the summer has long passed away, 

Still braving the night of the winter's long reign. 
Yet withered and wrinkled and gray. 

Strange faces are round me, strange voices I hear^ 

The cot of my father is gone; 
No parent, no brother, no sister is near, 

We only are left here alone. 

The thick darkling forest that girded my home 

Has fallen the woodman before. 
The Red man who loved through its shadows to roam. 

Lurks there in his covert no more. 

Yon stream ever rolling so mirthfully by, 

Enhancing my boyish delight. 
Still pours forth its crystal to gladden the eye. 

All peaceful and sparkling and bright. 

And yet with its murmur there mingles a tear, 

A wail as if mourning for those 
Who from its green borders forever are gone. 

Or 'neath their soft verdure repose. 

All is changed — I am changed, the warm pulses of youth 

Are growing enfeebled and cold. 
And the silvering hair well discloses the truth 

That the wanderer too has grown old. 

But earth's weary pilgrimage soon will be o'er. 

My years half a century tell. 
My friends I am blest to behold you once more 

But now I must bid you farewell. 

Springfield was the birthplace of William Martin, 
who planned a number of New York's beautiful parks 
was assistant engineer in the construction of the great 
Brooklyn bridge, having principal charge of the work 

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Spnngfield Township, (M 

aud for some time prior to his death chief engineer. For 
a few moments while the bells were tolling the great sys- 
tem of street railways over that famous bridge the popu- 
lace remained motionless out of respect to the honored 

Springfield was the home for some years of that great 
singer, Philip P. Bliss, whose songs have been sung 
around the world. 

Mention should be made of Theodore Leonard, one of 
the speakers at the 1811 celebration. Before coming to 
this county he edited a paper in Springfield, Mass. He 
was a historian and one of the early commissioners of 
Bradford county. Theodore Philander Wright, his 
grandson is widely known and honored as the gifted edi- 
tor in chief of the Philadelphia Record. 

Augustus S. Hooker for many years editor of the Nor- 
thern Tier Gazette, a writer of marked ability and in- 
tensely interested in historical research, added charm 
aud interest to the early history of the township by his 
Lieona and other stories written under the non de plume 
of Wirt Arland. He also was the author of many 
poems, and his writings should be secured and preserved 
as literary and historical gems. 

Many men and women have gone forth from this 
township, who have been a credit to the old home and 
have made and are making their influence felt in the 
business, social and religious world. In the progress of 
the years Springfield township has kept abreast of the 
times, and her citizens are among the most respected in 
our splendid county. 

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The Pioneer Library. 


CATTERED as the people were a hundred 
years ago through a great wilderness with 
limited means, it is a matter of interest to 
know to what extent and how they received 
instruction in the various subjects. A large proportion 
ot the settlers of Eastern Bradford were from New Eng- 
land. Many were well educated for the times and had 
become acquainted with the periodicals and books ex- 
tant. Their thirst for knowledge did not slacken after 
coming into the wilderness. Books were few and ex- 
pensive, but the ingenuity of the "Yankee*' always found 
a way for everything, and thus was created the **Wysox 
and Orwell Library Company.'* Prior to 1812 a few book^ 
had been gathered for public use, the collection being 
styled the "Orwell Library." This was the nucleus (ot 
the new and greater library, and the origin of public li- 
braries in all' this section of country. How the Wysox 
and Orwell Library was founded, of what it consisted 
and who were concerned in it will be found matters of 
decided interest. Through the courtesy of Miss Worthr 
ing of Rome, who has the original records, we are able to 
present the following valuable history: 
Conatitutional Register of the Wysox and Orwell Library 


Wysox, December 26th, 1812. 
We, the subscribers, having taken into consideration 

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The Pioneer Library. ()3 

the advantages resulting from public libraries, do hereby 
resolve to make the attempt for a library institution to 
be called the "Wysox and Orwell Library Company," 
and as a first step towards said establishment do agree 
that said library shall consist of 200 shares at $2.50 per 
share, payable in merchantable lumber or grain at the 
market prices within three months after the books shall 
have been purchased, delivered to the librarian of said 
company, to be chosen by the proprietors as soon as 100 
shares shall be subscribed, after giving ten days' notice 
in three public places in Wysox and Orwell by written 
advertisements of a meeting of the proprietors for the 
purpose of choosing a librarian and making the by-laws 
of the society, etc. 

2dly. Every subscriber before he shall have a right to 
draw books shall pay the amount of his share or give se- 
curity if required; and the librarian shall also give am- 
ple security for the faithful performance of his trust to 
the extent required by the society in their general meet- 
ing, as aforesaid. Said library shall always be kept in 
the town of Wysox in such places as shall be most con- 
venient for the accommodation of all the subscribers, 
provided a suitable and responsible person can be found 
so situated. 

3dly. It is agreed that the books of the Orwell Library 
shall be received toward subscriptions of the owners of 
said library at the valuation of judicious and impartial 
men chosen by the society. 

4thly. Several subscription papers similar to this are 
in circulation, and every person is at liberty to subscribe 
his number of shares on one or all of them, without be- 
ing accountable for more than the greatest number of 

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(>4 The Pioneer lAbvanj, 

shares he shall subscribe on any one of such subscrip- 

5thly. It is understood that every subscriber will be 
entitled to mention one book as a choice which shall be 
attended to by the purchaser, provided said book can be 
found and shall not exceed in amount more than $1; 
and two books may be drawn on each share subject to 
the regulations of the by-laws to be hereafter made. 

Othly. No transfer of shares will ever be allowed ex- 
cept on removing from the county, but books may be 
drawn on an order in writing from the owners for their 

7thly. A committee shall be appointed to select the 
books other than such as are selected by individuals by 
Article 5th. 

In testimony, we have hereunto affixed our names and 
the number of shares for which we will be accountable. 
(Each person subscribed for one share unless otherwise 
indicated by the number following name): 

S. T. Barstow (4) 
Jacob Bell 
Wm. Keeler (4) 
Adrian Manville 
Jacob Myer, Jr. (2) 
Josiah Stocking 
Jesse Allen 
Thomas Bull 
John Bull 

Wm. F. Dininger (2) 
Benj. Dresser 
Samuel Starks 
John L. Elliott 
Jacob Myer 
Thomas Elliott (2) 

Wm. Shores 
Stephen Ferguson 
John Allen 
Benjamin Hoi ley 
Daniel Holley 
Nelly Vought 
John Allen of St. Stone 
James Crooks 
Samuel Coolbaugh 
Ira Barnes 
John Gordoti 
James Holley 
Derick Huyck 
Abraham Huj'ck 
Conrad Cowell 

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The Pioneer Librnn/. 


Wilber Bennett (2) 
Wm. Myer 
Daniel Drake 
Isaac Myer 
Czar Roberts 
Wm. Allen (2) 
Polly Lent 
Abner Hinman 
Ricbard Horton 
Franklin Blackman 
Wm. Ferguson 
Joshua Horton 
£liphalet Mason 
Moses Rowley 
Benjamin Martin 
Stephen Merithew 
Joshua Moger (2) 
Eleazer All is 
Ebenezer Tattle 
Zeruiah Cross 
Robert Ridgway (0) 
Daniel Coolbaugh 
John B. Hinman 
Larman Elliott 
John Strope 
David Ridgway 
Samuel Merethew 
Henry Tuttle 
Joseph Lent 
Lemuel Atwood 
Peter Johnson 
Hiram Mix (2) 
Walter Wheeler 
John W. Browning 
Jonathan Stevens 
Truman Johnson 
Wm. Keeler (2) 

Peter Allen 
Richard Lent 
Polly Vought, Sr. 
Polly Vought, Jr. 
David Vought 
Mathew Cannan 
Elijah Tracy 
Joshua Lamphere 
Wm. G. Dennison (2) 
Peter Wheeler 
Samuel Cole 
Thos. B. Beebe (2) 
Elezur Price 
Jesse Barnes 
B. J. Woodruff 
Earnest Forbes 
Joseph Allen 
Tobias Lent 
Leb. Newton 
John Hinman 
John Parks, Jr. 
Eliphalet Clark 
Napthali Woodburn (4) 
Adolphus Martin 
John Parks, Sr. 
John Holghan 
Moses Coolbaugh 
Elliott Whitney 
Joseph Atwood 
H. D. Alexander (2) 
Daniel Martin 
Joseph Elliott 
A. L. Warner 
Nathaniel P. Moody 
Benjamin Stringer 
John Eastabrooks 
Wm. Warfield (2) 

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BenoDi Mandoville 
Nathan Streator 
Isaac Green 
James Elliott 
Silas Allis 
Moses Wood burn 
Moses Moody (2) 
John Ranney (2) 
Asahel Johnson (2) 
Stephen Cranmer 
James Lent 
Elijah Towner, Sr. 
Elijah Towner, Jr. 
Enoch Towner 
James Bowen (2) 
James Smith 
Ebenezer Smith 
John Hicks 
Abraham Lent 
Silas Gore (2) 
James Moore 
Sartile Holden 
Enos Moody (2) 
Georgfe Scott 
Jos. M. PioUet (2) 
Willard Green 
David Eiklor 

The Fioi^eer Libra i^y. 

Nath. Hickok, Jr. 

Achatius C. Vought 

Jacob Wickizer 

Joel Cook 

Elias and John Post 

Abram Wendel 

Daniel S. Browning 

Shepard Patrick 

Daniel Allen 

Smith Horton 

Isaac Strope 

Sylvester Barns 

Samuel D. Goflf 

Albegence Stevens 

Roswell Russell 

John Lent, for Matthias Lent 
till he would be of age, 
when it is requested be 
may have it in his own 

Asa Miller 

Absalom Coolbaugh 

Ebenezer Whitney 

Joseph Lent 

Arunah Wattles 

Alvin Whitney 

Officers and By-Laws, 

At a meeting of the subscribers to the Wysox & Orwell 
Library Institution, held at Jacob Myer's on a Saturday 
the 6th day of February, A. D. 1813 in conformity 
to public advertisements 16 days previously set up in 
Wysox and Orwell townships, Thomas Elliott and J. M. 
Piollet being unanimously nominated, the one modera- 
tor and the other secretary of said meeting, the business 

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The Pioneer Lihrary, (]7 

of the day was called upon which Dr. S. T. Barstow, one 
of the committee appointed to draw the by-laws and reg- 
ulations of said Library institution, made in the name of 
the committee his report, and on each article of said by- 
laws being read, discussed and adopted with such 
amendments as the plurality of the subscribers present 
thought proper to make, all the articles as hereafter 
transcribed became and are become the by-laws and 
regulations of the Wysox & Orwell Library Company. 
The next business called upon was the election of a can- 
didate for a librarian, which election having taken place 
by ballot gave for result a majority of 40 votes on 47 in 
favor of Dr. S. T. Barstow. In consequence, said Bar- 
stow was duly proclaimed the librarian of said society. 
The next and last business the meeting was called to 
transact upon was the nomination of five members to 
form the standing committee mentioned in the Article 
5th of the by-laws, according to which the nomination 
took place and the following persons duly chosen mem- 
bers of said committee, to wit: J. M. PioUet, Jacob Bell, 
Wm. Myer, Wm. F. Dininger Asahel Johnson, who are 
to meet on the second Saturday of March next (the 13th) 
at the house of Dr. S. T. Barstow for selecting the books 
other than such as are selected by the subscribers. 

The Wysox and Orwell Library Company. 

This institution answered a useful purpose for twenty 
years. Meetings were held and officers chosen annually 
in conformity with the constitution until 1834, when we 
find the last record of proceedings under date of March 
3. The association being unincorpated could not enforce 
its by-laws, and the subscribers becoming careless about 

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♦58 The Pioneei' Library, 

returning books gradually brought the library to an end. 
In 1839 the book case was empty, save one book the 
''Constitutional Register/' which passed into the hands 
of Dr. C. C. Worthing and is still in an excellent state of 
preservation. The several librarians were: 

Dr. S. T. Barstow 1813-1816 

Wilber Bennett 1816-1823 

Jacob xMyer 1823-1827 

Sylvester Barns 1827-1834 

The books were kept at the house of the librarian 
where the regular meetings of the company were held. 

Among others, John Parks, Sr. was greatly interested 
in the library and usually drew **PiIgrim's Progress." 
On one occasion that book being out, Dr. Barstow sent him 
instead "The Child of Twenty-six Fathers" and the old 
gentleman expressed himself much pleased with the va- 
riety the library contained. 

The two last surviving members of the original sub- 
scribers of the association were James Lent and James 
Elliott. The former died in Rome, May 25, 1881 aged 
99 years, 1 month and 11 days, and the latter in Tow- 
anda, Dec. 17, 1883, aged 95 years, 2 months and 7 days. 

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Tenth Annual Old People^ a Meeting. 

NOTHER gladsome day, June 21, 1913 the 
A W tenth annual meeting of the Old People of 

Bradford county under the auspices of the 
Bradford County Historical Society, has 
passed into history. There have been larger crowds but 
never a brighter and more interesting lot of old people than 
those assembled on Saturday. The day was a beautiful 
one, seemingly designed for the comfort and enjoyment of 
the patriarchs, who wended their way from various parts of 
the county to Towanda The forenoon was taken up in 
receiving the people at the rooms of the Society, regis- 
tering and providing badges. There were happy meet- 
ings of old friends and comrades, and many pleasing 
pictures presented of younger days and sunshine. The 
ladies of the Village Improvement Society saw that all of 
the venerable people were provided comfort at the Rest 
Room and served tea and wafers. 

At 1:30 o'clock the doors of Keystone Opera House 
were thrown open. The old people were on hand 
promptly and ready for the afternoon's enjoyments. 
Captain Kilmer and his Boys in Blue, bearing the old 
flag, marched down Main street to the step of martial 
music. An anxious crowd fell in behind him and soon 
filled the opera house. Meanwhile, Clancy's orchestra 
was discoursing pleasing music. At 2 o'clock everything 
was ready for the historic performance, which was put in 

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70 Tenth Antivai Old People'' m Meeting, 

motion by President John A. Biles, who gave the old 
people a most hearty welcome. Sergeant Jay Thomas, 
the venerable and pleasing old-time singer made his bow 
and sang beautifully, ^'Old Folks at Home." As he con- 
cluded the curtain went up and a scene presented, real 
and inspiring, bringing forth loud applause. Arranged 
in a semi-circle, all busy and clad in the olden style 
were: Mrs. Daniel Heverly, spinning flax, Mrs. Lydia 
Bush, spinning wool; Mrs. Paulina Gates, operating the 
reel; Mrs I. B. Decker, knitting; Mrs. Chas. M. Sill, 
carding; Mrs. John Dixon, delightfully tending baby in 
the old fashioned cradle; David Horton, churning; A. E. 
Arnold, hatcheling flax; Justus A. Record, aged 98, fid- 
dling; seated next to him was J. Washington Ingham, 
the venerable orator of the day. Back of the performers 
were seated Captain Kilmer and his company of veterans 
of the Civil War; James Schultz and sister, Mrs. Jane 
Durie, the oldest twins in the state with the venerable 
Geo. I. Norton, aged 94, occupied seats in the box. The 
other old people were seated in front of the stage. 

At this point Librarian C. F. Heverly took charge of 
the program, describing features and introducing the old 
people and their parts. J. Washington Ingham, aged 
90, the wondrous young — old man, delivered the annual 
address, full of good things, reciting the changes of the 
century and the remarkable old men of the world. Jus- 
tus A. Record, the oldest man in the county, then re- 
sponded to the sentiment, "what good we can do or 
kindness bestow, let us do it now" and concluded by 
singing in a sweet voice "There is a Land That is Whiter 
Than Snow." After music by the orchestra. Miss Fran- 
ces Chaffee delightfully entertained the audience by a se- 

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Ten/A Annual Old Feople^a Meeting. 71 

lection from Byron. Sergeant Thomas sang with much 
animation, **Ten Thousand Miles Away" and responded 
to a hearty encore. Little Clement Heverly, dressed in 
his Indian suit, at this point caused some commotion by 
quietly working his way to the cradle and stealing the 
baby and making oflF with it. He was intercepted by 
one of the soldiers, marched back with the baby, restored 
it to its mother and concluded by stepping to the front of 
the stage and making a neat little speech. *'Aunt Dole- 
ful's Visit" was superbly acted by Miss Pearl Griggs and 
brought forth lusty applause. Enlivening music by the 
orchestra prepared the way for veteran John F. Lamp- 
man, aged 76, who came to the boards and gave one of 
the finest exhibitions in dancing ever witnessed on any 
stage. Sergeant Thomas pleased the audience by singing 
"Where the River Shannon Flows." H. S. VanOrman 
made a neat address and recited "Fifty Years Ago," add- 
ing some original verses, pertinently applied to present 
^ottditions. Mr. Heverly then introduced James Schultz 
and sister, Mrs. Jane Dtim, ifaa oldttt ^wins in the state, 
son and daughter of John and Hester (Little) Schultz, 
who were born December 25, 1827 at Macedonia. They 
were given an ovation. Sergeant Thomas sang touch- 
iiigly* ''Just Before the Battle Mother" and music fol- 
lowed by the orchestra. Quietly, Little Marion Heverly 
with her basket of flowers was passing among the veter- 
ans and old people, pinning a bouquet upon the breast 
of each. 

Now was presented the most inspiring scene. After 
roll-beats and to taps of the drum by Reed Dunfee, Capt. 
Geo. W. Kilmer marched upon the stage with his com- 
pany, consisting of Geo. L. Forbes, color sergeant. Reed 

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72 Tenth Anmuil Old People* m Meeting. 

W. Dunfee, snare drum, W. C. May, bass drum, Elisha 
CJole, color guard, John H. ChaflFee, Juni W. Allen, De- 
lanson Fenner, Almerin E. Arnold, Josiah A. Bosworth, 
Llewellyn Harris, David Latton, A. L. Hitchcock, H. A. 
Vail and I. L. Young. The lineup was grand and 
brought forth expressions of admiration and hearty ap- 
plause. Then came the commands in admirable voice, 
the different drills being executed with remarkable celer- 
ity and exactness by the boys of 50 years ago. The Cap- 
tain resting his men sang "Old Black Joe" and other 
songs, the boys joining in the chorus. Reed W. Dunfee, 
the expert drummer, who has a nation-wide reputation, 
gave an imitation of a battle raging and receding. It 
was the most remarkable exhibition upon the drum ever 
heard in Towanda. John H. Chaffee, who was himself 
in the thickest of many of the hardest battles, then called 
attention that after 50 years, men were in the drill who 
had participated in the terrible battles of Chancellorsville 
and Gettysburg and that Geo. L. Forbes, bearing the 
flag, had carried the colors through all these carnivals of 
death for three years. The boys showed how they load- 
ed and fired in battle, an exceedingly interesting exer- 
cise. Sergeant Thomas joined the boys in his patriotic 
medley, including "Marching Through Georgia," "Rally 
Round the Flag" and "Johnnie Comes Marching Home." 
Action accompanied the words and the old veteran out- 
done himself in his splendid rendition. The others 
caught up the refrain and made the old walls ring with 
war-time melody, then in a graceful manner marched 
from the stage. 

Following stirring music from the orchestra, the prize 
winners were brought and seated on the stage; the oldest 

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TerUh Annual Old People' h Meetdny. 73 

lady being Mrs. Caroline Lent of Rorae, born Novem- 
ber 18, 1825, and the oldest gentleman, George I. Nor- 
ton of Rome, born August 8, 1819. President Biles in- 
troduced the aged people, presenting Mrs. Lent a hand- 
some silver loving cup and Mr. Norton a fine silver 
mounted cane. The orchestra discoursed enlivening 
music, bringing to a close one of the happiest and most 
historic and enjoyable occasions ever held in Bradford 

Meeting Notes, 

The oldest married couple in attendance, who are also 
the second oldest couple in the county, were Mr. and Mrs. 
Daniel Heverly of Overton, who have been married 63 

The oldest twins in the State, James Schultz and Mrs. 
Jane Durie, aged 86, and also Mrs. Mary Shoemaker and 
sister, Mrs. H. Swackhammer, aged 77, were interesting 
personages in attendance. 

The oldest man and the oldest twins at the meeting 
were born on Christmas, the former, December 25, 1815 
and the latter, December 25, 1827. 

The oldest veteran in attendance was Geo. F. Rey- 
nolds of Wysox, aged 87. 

Saturday was also the 81st anniversary of the birth of 
George Campbell, the jolly Scotchman of Athens, who 
thoroughly enjoyed the exercises. 

Isaac L. Young of Sheshequin was born July 4, 1836 
and Lyman C. Meracle of Rome, July 4, 1839. David 
Latton of Monroeton and Wm. T. Horton of Towanda, 
both veterans, were born April 9, 1839. 

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TtsiUh Annttal Old People^ tt Meeting. 

Wm. R. Vancise, one of the famous nine soldier broth- 
ers, was a conspicuous and jolly personage. 

While each month had its representatives, the regis- 
tration cards show that the majority of old people were 
born in September, October and December. 

The oldest native born in attendance was H. S. Clark 
of Towanda, and there were descendants of a large num- 
ber of the original families in the county. 

There were 150 persons over 70 years in attendance. 
The following is a list of those who registered with age: 

Justus A. Record, 98 
George I. Norton, 94 
Joseph Rinebold, 90 
H. S. Clark, 90 
J. W. Ingham, 90 
Thomas Pollock, 89 
Caroline Lent, 88 
David Horton, 88th 
Geo. F. Reynolds, 87 
L. L. Post, 86th 
James Schultz, 86th 
Jane Durie, 86th 
Mrs. Wm. Scott, 85 
Col. E J. Ayres, 85 
Daniel Heverly, 85 
Nancy Stoneman, 85 
Mrs. Jesse Vargeson, 84 
Edward Allen, 83 
Addison Grace, 83 
A. J. Petrie, 83 
Rev. Joel Hall, 83rd 

F. A. French, 82 
J. V. Geiger, 82 

G. J. Burd, 82nd 
C. J. Vancise, 81 
John R. Post, 81 

Wm. R. Vancise, 81 
A. B. Culver. 81 
Jeremiah Kilmer, 81 
George Campbell, 81 
Ezra Allen, 81 
I. B. Decker, 81st 
Margaret Smallev, 81st 
M. H. Rockefeller, 80 
Richard McCabe, 80th 
Sergt. J. R. Thomas, 80th 
Mrs. Daniel Heverly, 79 
Jane Vandyke, 79th 
S. L. Anthony, 78 
M. W. Coolbaugh. 78 
E. A. Knapp, 78 
Isaac Ruger, 78 
Mrs. Chas. Neiley, 78 
Clayton Gerould, 78 
S. A. Chaffee, 78th 
Mrs. S. A. Chaffee, 77 
A. B. Sumner, 77 
Elizabeth Kingslev, 77 
I. L. Young, 77 
Mrs. J. J. Webb, 77 
Wm. Pierce, 77 
H. A. Vail, 77 

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TeiU/i Annual 

J. D. Johnson, 77 
J. A. Bi)sworth, 77 
Rel>ecca Herrman, 77th 
O. D. Wiehkain, 77th 
J. J. French, 77th 
Mrs. E. J. Ayres, 77th 
Armena Rohinson, 7d 
Mary A. Shoemaker, 76 
Hannah Swack hammer, 
Mrs. M Camp, 76 
J. H. Allen, 76 
Henry Dixon, 76 
Nancy Dyer, 76 

F. E. Post. 76 
Lyciia S. Bush, 76 
Patrick Brennan, 76 
J. F. Lampman, 76 
John C. Forbes, 76th 
Mrs. I. B. Decker, 76th 

G. S. Bowen, 75 
Caroline Kellum, 75 
A. L Hitchcock, 75 

M. B. Vancise, 75 
Paulina Gates, 75 
J. W. Allen, 75 
A. T. Li I ley, 75 
G. L. Horton, 75 
Julia Neiley, 75 
Mrs. A. Maynard, 75th 
Wm. M. Black, 75th 
J. C. Ridgway, 74 
David Latton, 74 
W. T. Horton, 74 
L. C. Meracle, 74 
Mrs. C. C. Whitney, 74 

Old Feople^H Mettiny, 

W. W. Warburton, 74 
James C. Forbes, 74 
Martha Mingos, 74th 
H. S. VanOrman, 74th 
C. L. Stewart, 74th 
S. G. Barner, 73 
Mrs. M. Ackley, 73 
Wilson Murphv, 73rd 
76 A. M. Finney, 73rd 
G. L. Forbes, 73rd 
E. A. Pearsall, 73rd 
Mary Sill, 73rd 
Lydia Vought, 73rd 
S. L. Nichols. 72 
Catherine Lyon, 72 
B. B. Pendleton. 72 

A. H. Furraan, 72 
Julia Ferrister, 72 

B. W. Bradley. 72 
Catherine Furman, 72 
Darius Bennett, 72 
Catherine Scully, 72 

Elisha Cole, 71 
J. H. Black, 71 
Victoria Layton, 71 
Elizabeth Lee, 71 
Esther North rup, 71 
Myron North rup, 71 
Mrs. Darius Bennett, 71 
Frank W. Towner, 70 
Capt. G. W. Kilmer, 70 
Mrs. E A. Knapp, 70 
A. E. Arnold, 70 
Mrs. J. J. French, 70 


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76 Tenth Atinvid Old People' m Meeting. 

The Prize Winners, 

Tlie oldest lady and gentleman, who have carried otf 
the honors at the several meetings were as follows: 
1904 — Mrs. Almira Gleason, 98 years, Towanda; 
died at 99 years. 
William Griffis, 90th year, Towanda. 
1905 — Mrs. Eliza McKean, 98J years, Towanda; 
died at 101 yrs. and 8 mos. 
Francis Cole, 96th year, Athens. 
1906 — Samuel Overpeck, 97th year, Herrick; died at 
100 J years. 
Mrs. Emma Irvine, 89th year, Hornets Ferry. 
1907 — John Black, 93^ years, LeRaysville. 

Mrs. Martha Bullock, 92nd year, Troy. 
1908 — Orrin Brov^n, 97th year. Canton; died at 99 
yrs. and 8 mos. 
Mrs. Julia Smith, 92nd year, Ulster. 
1909 — * Justus A. Record, 93J years, Towanda. 

Mrs. Harriet A. Nichols, 88th yr., Monroeton. 
1910 — * Mrs. Anne Wright, 96 yrs. and 8 mos., Ulster. 

* Samuel Billings, 94J years, Towanda. 

1911 — * Mrs. Naomi C. Irvine,- 90 years. New Albany. 

* John Ennis, 90 years. Standing Stone. 
1912 — * Cornelius Bump, 90J years, Wyalusing. 

* Mrs. Dorcas Dayton, 88J years, Towanda. 
1913 — * George I. Norton, 94 years, Rome. 

* Mrs. Caroline Lent, 87J years, Rome. 
Those marked with a (*) are still living (1913). 

—The Bradford Star. 

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Delight fuJ 100th Anniversary Celebration. 

3 UN DAY, October 12, 1913 was a notable and 
gladsome day at the home of Mr. and Mrs. 
E. A. Pearsall at Saco. Not only were a 
multitude of hearts happy and rejoicing be- 
cause they could meet and pay tributes of their love and 
respect to one who had reached a hundred years of beau- 
tiful life, but all nature seemed to smile in her grandest 
form to make perfect a beauteous occasion. For weeks 
and months there has been great anxiety that Grandma 
Wright would still be with us on October 12th when we 
could join with her in celebrating her 100th birthday. 
The glad tidings came, and from early Sunday until late 
in the afternoon there was a stream of teams and auto- 
mobiles to the home of Mr. and Mrs. Pearsall, where 
Mrs. Wright lives. Expectant as to the visit of friends, 
the cheerful centenarian was up early and after a hearty 
breakfast arranged to receive her visitors. 

A delegation from the Bradford County Historical So- 
ciety, consisting of Hon. Geo. Moscrip, Justus A. Record, 
C. F. Heverly and Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Chaffee, accompa- 
nied by Mr. Hay, the photographer, arrived at 11 o'clock. 
After the exchange of greetings it afforded "grandma** 
much pleasure to have her picture taken. This having 
been accomplished with splendid results, it was then de- 
sired that • Mrs. Wright and Mr. Record, the oldest wo- 
man and gentleman in the county, have their pictures 

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78 iJellyhfj'ul lOOth Annivtumry telebration. 

MrH. Anne Wright, Cenlenarinn. 

taken together. Only a few |»leasant sallies interrupted 
when an excellent picture was secured of the good na- 
tured couple whose combined ages are 198 years. 

A grand dinner, prepared by Mrs. Pearsall and served 
by grandchildren and great-grandchild ran of Mrs. 

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Uelightful lOOih Aanivemary teleiyratian. 79 

Wright was indeed a feast of good things, enjoyed by 
more than a hundred. After the sumptuous repast Hon. 
Greo. Moscrip made fitting remarks as to the life and 
wonderous age in which the centenarian had lived and 
presented her, in behalf of the Bradford County Histori- 
cal Society, a handsome tray. She was also the recipi- 
ent of a great collection of post-cards, flowers, sums of 
money and other gifts, showing the love and esteem in 
which she is held by a multitude of friends. Mr. Rec- 
ord, who is still as cunning as a fox, contributed a sum 
of money and the old lady after thanking him, and to 
assure us we were not teasing her much, said, ''well, it 
will come good anyway." There were represented at 
this memorable celebration five generations, the great- 
great-granddaughter being Miss Earnestine Biles, daugh- 
ter of Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Biles. 

Mrs, Anne Lewis Wright^ 

daughter of John and Anne (Rees) Wright, was born Oc- 
tober 12, 1813 at Bristol, Wales, being the second child 
in a family of 10 children. The original marriage cer- 
tificate reads as follows: "John Lewis of the parish 
Bachelor and Anne Rees of the same parish, spinister^ 
were married in the church by banns this Slst day of 
May in the year 1811 by me, Lewis Evans Vicar. This 
marriage was celebrated between us, John Lewis, Anne 
Rees. In the presence of Richard James, Hugh Lewis.'' 
In 1821, when Anne was 9 years old, Mr. Lewis came to 
America with his wife and four children. He landed in 
New York at which place he was met by Wm. Gibson 
who had gone from Ulster to bring the family in with a 
ooe-borse wagon. The children took turns in walking 

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80 Delightful 100th Annivenfaty telebratiaii, 

the entire distance. He settled in Ulster on the farm of 
now M. H. Edsell, which was in possession of the family 
for over 70 years^ Mr. Lewis died at the age of 66 years 
and his wife at 83. Anne lived several years in the fam- 
ily of Thomas Overton and with others until her mar- 
riage, August 23, 1833 to William Wright. With the 
exception of five years, since coming to America, her 
life has been spent in the immediate community. Her 
husband died, 1872, aged 61 years, and for the past 12 
years Mrs. Wright has been tenderly cared for by her 
daughter, Mrs. E. A. Pearsall. She was the mother of 
11 children, four of whom are living, Laura (Mrs. E. A. 
Pearsall), John of Trout Run, Pa., James of Pine Grove, 
Nevada and Oscar of Naples, N. Y. Of her father's fam- 
ily she is the only survivor. 

Mrs. Wright has been a woman of great activity, ac- 
customed to toil and privations in early life. She has 
never suffered any serious illness and her mode of living 
has been along ordinary lines. Always of a cheerful 
disposition, she never permitted herself to fret or worry 
about her own or other people's aflfuirs. She always 
found pleasure in doing kind acts and in making others 
happy. She was truly the good Samaritan in the neigh- 
borhood and even the school children looked to Grandma 
Wright for comfort and consolation. With the excep- 
tion of impairment of hearing she is still in the posses- 
sion of her faculties to a remarkable degree. She espec- 
ially recalls events of her early life and recites them 
with decided accuracy. She appreciated that arrange- 
ments were being made for the reception of her friends 
on her 100th birthday and seemed but little wearied af- 
ter the all-day handshake and visit. Devoted to her 

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Delightful 100th Anniversary Celebration, 81 

home and family she always found most comfort there, 
and in her long life never rode on the ears. Truly a 
notable, good woman as old as the county, whose sweet 
temper may still add years to the glory of a century. 

— a F. Heverly. 

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We note with sorrow the death of the following mem- 
bers of the society during the past year: 

Hon. William T. Da vies, born December 20. 1831 in 
Glamorganshire, Wales, died September 21, 1912 in To- 
wanda, Pa. He was a son of David Davies, who came to 
America with his family, 1833 and settled in Warren 
township, Bradford county. William was educated in 
the public schools and at the Owego Academy from which 
institution he was a graduate. In 1856 he came to To- 
wanda to take charge of the public schools, and served 
as principal for four years. In 1859 he began reading 
law with William Elwell and completed his studies, 1861 
with Judge Wilmot and -his brother-in-law, G. H. Wat- 
kins. Upon the formation of the 141st P. V. in August, 
1862, he was elected captain of Company B, remaining 
until May, *63, when he was discharged on account of 
ill health. In 1864 he was elected district attorney and 
served a term of three years. He was elected state sena- 
tor in 1876 and re-elected in 1880. In 1881 he was a 
candidate for state treasurer but failed of the nomina- 
tion. He was nominated as the running mate of Gene- 
ral Beaver for lieutenant governor in 1882 but suffered 
defeat with the entire Republican ticket. In 1886 he 
was again nominated with General Beaver and elected. 
Following his retirement from office, 1891, he continued 

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the practice of his profession with marked success until 
his death. 

Robert H. Laning, born June 25, 1837 at Wyalusing, 
Pa., died September 28, 1912 in Towanda, Pa. He was 
a son of Matthias H. and Ann B. (Overton) Laning. 
The family moved to Wysox, 1842. Robert was edu- 
cated in the public schools, Dickinson Seminary and the 
Susquehanna Collegiate Institute. After attaining his 
majority, he engaged in various business enterprises, and 
gave his father valuable assistance in the management 
of his large estate. He was a practical, thorough-going 
gentleman and uniformly successful in his affairs. He 
filled many local offices and always with great care and 
fidelity. He served as president of the Bradford County 
Agricultural Society and had been many years a director 
of the First National Bank of Towanda. In everything 
liis work was well and thoroughly done. Noble hearted, 
he Iiad a kind word and ready contribution for the af- 
flicted or worthy cause. He was unpretentious, a true 
gentleman, and enjoyed his home and friends. 


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Library and Museum. 



The following are the acquisitions and donors to the 
Library and Museum for the year ending September^ 
1913. I 

Portraits. I 

♦ Col. Edward Wright Morgan — Mrs. E. W. Morgan. 

* Mrs. Nancy L. Bird— Bradford County W. C. T. U. j 
Deacon and Mrs. John Fox — Mrs. J. F. Patterson. 

Mary Edsall Marcy (silhouette) — Mrs. Judia W. 

Conrad Weiser — Society. ' 

Lydia (Strope) Scott — Society. 
Mary (Strope) Hart — Society. 
Catharine (Strope) Hewitt — Society. 
Martha (Taylor) Gaylord — Society. 

Books— Historical. 

Penna, Archives (20 vols.) — H. S. Putnann. 
History of 45th regiment P. V. — State Library. 
History of 52nd regiment P. V. — State Library. 
History of 93rd regiment P. V. — State Library. 
History of 140th regiment P. V. — State Library. 
Pennsylvania at Anderson ville— State Library. 
Proceedings 46th Encampment, D. of P. — State Li- I 


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Report 130th Celebration Penn's Landing — Colonial 
Society Pa. 

Books and Exchanges. 

Library of Congress. 
State Library. 
Pennsylvania German. 
Kansas State Historical Society. 
Oregon State Historical Society. 
Penn'a. Federation Historical Societies. 
Kittochitinny Historical Society (Franklin Co.) 
Chester County Historical Society. 

Books— Miscellaneous. 

Adjutant General's Report, Civil War — John W. Mix. 

Business Directory, Towanda (1872-73)— M. E. Chub- 

SmulPs Legislative Hand Book, 19W — Slate Library. 

Washington Theological Repertory (1820) — Mrs. Geo. 
B. Park. 

Encyclopedia America (1836) — Mrs. Geo. B. Park. 

Practical Navigator (1807)— Mrs. Geo. B. Park. 

Papers and Magazines^ 

Copies Towanda Business Item (1871) — Miss Susie 

Harper's Weekly, several Vols, and other Magazines — 
Thos. A. Curran. 


Deed from Thos; H. White to John Fox (1816)— John 
E. Fox. 

Deed from John Fox to Abraham Fox (1808) — John 
E. Fox. 

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Contract between Wm. Means and Hannah Davidson 
(1808)— John E. Fox. 

Minutes of arbitration, John Hinman vs. A. C. Hin- 
man — John E. Fox. 

Invitation to Washington Ball, 1841 — Sarah Wattles 

Relics and Curios. 

Ancient Clock — Mrs. Armena (Brown) Robinson. 
Confederate Pistol — Mrs. Cyrus Carter. 
Bullets from Gettysburg Battlefield — J. Andrew Wilt. 
Tooth of Sperm Whale — James Lewis. 
Colonial Pewter Plate — Elizabeth (Bishop) Smith. 
Confederate Bill, $500— Elizabeth (Bishop) Smith. 
Hand Sickle — Daniel Heverly. 

Sword Scabbard from battleship Maine — Clarence B. 

First Judges' Chair — J. V. Geiger. 

Large Vase and Fern plant — Mrs. Milton Huyck. 

* Edwin Wright Morgan^ eldest sou of Harry and 
Harriet (Bishop) Morgan of Wysox, was educated at 
West Point from which institution be was graduated 
with high honors, 1836. He served as a Lieutenant iu 
the Seminole war and was an important factor in the 
councils which settled the trouble with the Florida In- 
dians. After serving in the Mexican war, ranking as 
Mttjor, he resigned from the U. S. service and established 
the Kentucky Military Institute between Frankfort and 
Lexington. The school was very popular and a great 
success, but was broken up by the coming of the Civil 
War, his cadets all joining opposing armies. He was 
urged and offered the rank of general by two of his old 

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commanders, Gen. Winfield Scott and Gen. Robert E. 
Lee, if he would join the army of either. He was a 
thorough Unionist but his health having given way he 
returned to his old home in Wysox for recuperation. 
Later he accepted the professorship of mathematics at 
Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. where he was teach- 
ing at the time of his death, April 16, 1869. Colonel 
Morgan as he was known was a man of rare attainments; 
he spoke many languages and could read in sixteen; he 
was one of the most practical and learned botanists in 
the country; his private library was valued at $100,000. 
His remains repose in the Wysox cemetery. 

'Nancy L. Bird. — I am grateful for this opportunity 
of paying a tribute of love and appreciation of the great 
work done in Bradford county and elsewhere by ray old 
friend and co-worker, Mrs. N. L. Bird. Truly, as much 
"pioneer work," as did our fathers and mothers when - 
they came to tlie wilds of this country, and endured the 
hardships and blazed the way for future generations. 
The temperance cause had but few friends when she be- 
gan to advocate it, and the family had to suffer many an- 
noyances and persecutions, when she and her husband 
took up active work against the legalized liquor traffic. It 
was Mrs. Bird's good fortune to have a husband who was 
heart and soul in sympathy with her and her work, and 
the year of the Amendment campaign, 1887, he drove 
with his own horse 700 miles to attend meetings where 
she spoke for the cause. 

It was in 1884 that the state executive committee of 
the Woman's Christian Union appointed her president of 
Bradford county, there being only a few unions at that 
time. At Troy in the fall of 1886 in the Universalist 

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church, the county was organized and we unanimously 
elected Mrs. Bird as our president — a position she held 
until October, 1901 — in convention at Canton, at her 
own often expressed wish because of advancing age and 
feebleness, we allowed her to retire, making her honorary 
president for life and elected Mrs. Norrish in her place. 
Thus she gave 17 years of active service as president of 
Bradford county, during which she traveled its length 
and breadth visiting 27 towns, some of them from two to 
five times and organized 13 unions. Most always trav- 
eling at her own expense, sometimes receiving a collec- 
tion but oftener giving of her own means to advance the 

A son and his wife in the home made it possible for 
her to give her whole time to the work she dearly loved. 
Gifted as a speaker she was sought by other counties and 
other states, and a record of her work tells of 12 public 
addresses given in New York state, three in Ohio and 
five in Kansas. With wisdom and tact she administered 
the affairs of the Woman's Christian Union, and her un- 
failing faith in God and His guidance, her self-sacrificing 
effort made her well known by the state officers, many of 
whom relied on her judgement and asked for assistance 
and prayers in the crucial times, which always come in 
the early years of a great reform organization. I well 
remember being with her at a state convention, when a 
crisis came just before the election of officers and there 
was some strife and much feeling. They called upon 
Mrs. Bird to pray. It was a prayer that went straight 
up to the throne of God; the Dove of Peace descended 
upon the convention and harmony prevailed. 

When the Scientific Temperance Instruction law was 

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passed in the state, she either Tisited personally or wrote to 
every school board in the county, urging the use of the 
endorsed Text Books, sending a copy to everyone. And 
when any important Temperance bills have come before 
the legislature of our state, she has been active in using 
every influence that could be brought to bear in its favor. 
At the age of 84 she can look back upon a long useful 
life, given fully to the Master's service, and the seed she 
so faithfully planted will continue to bear fruit on and 
on, only the Lord of the vineyard Himself knowing what 
the harvest shall be. She now sits in her quiet room in 
weakness and weariness, trying to wait patiently for "the 
rest which remaineth for the people of God." As you 
look upon the sweet pictured face today with the light of 
intellect and peace shining upon it, may it be an inspira- 
tion to all to carry on the work she has so well begun, 
for God and home and native land." 

Yours in His Name and Work, 

Lottie D. C. Adarru. 

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Secretary's Report. 

To (he Officers and Members of the Historical Society of 
Bradford County: 

I respectfully submit the following report for the year 
ending this day for 1913, as your Secretary. 

Meetings. — There have been held 12 regular monthly 
meetings of the Society during the year; the attendance 
has a fairly good average. Special topics at meetings. 
The November meeting was devoted to the '*War of 
1812.*' At the December meeting, **Persons and Events 
of One Hundred Years Ago." January meeting the 
subject of "Slavery and Emancipation in Nation, State 
and County'* was considered. At the February meeting 
were considered '*The Character and Life of George 
Washington.*' The April meeting was given to the ''Org- 
anization and History of the Townships of Pike, Warren, 
Windham and Wells." The subject of "The Women" 
was considered at the May meeting. The "Old People's 
Day," the tenth one under the auspices of the Society, oc- 
cupied the attention of the officers, members and the peo- 
ple of the county at the June meeting. At theJuly meet- 
ing was discussed the "Great Peace Reunion at Gettys- 
burg," it being the 50th anniversary of the battle fought 
there by Americans. At eight of the 12 meetings of the 
Society held during the year, special subjects previously 
announced were considered. It will be noticed that all of 
these subjects treated at these meetings, were of a char- 

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acter to cause investigation and research into history of 
the Nation, State or of local matters. The subject of 
"Organization and History of the Townships" has proved 
to be an interesting subject, and by this means much lo- 
cal history has been preserved to the future historian. 

This Society has been honored by the election of one of 
its members — the Honorable George Moscrip — as Presi- 
dent of the Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Socie- 

The Lancaster County Historical Society has within 
the last year taken an interest in Stephen Brule', Cham- 
plain's Interpreter, the white man who first visited and 
explored any portion of the territory now within the • 
State of Pennsylvania. We are pleased that other socie- 
ties besides this society have found matters of historical 
interest in Brule"s visit to what is known to us an 
"Spanish HilT' within the present limits of Bradford 
county in October, 1615 to spring of 1616 with the Ca- 
rantoan Indians, which event this Society hopes to prop- 
erly celebrate in October, 1915. 

The Secretary wishes to report that he has in his 
hands checks for annual appropriation of $200 for the 
years of 1912 and 1913 from Bradford county, for the 
maintenance of the Society during those years. The Li- 
brarian's report will show a large increase of articles, 
curios, books, papers, etc. during the year just past. The 
Treasurer's report will show that with the appropriations 
now on hand, many needed improvements in the Soci- 
ety's rooms, additional cases for curios and books, shelv- 
ing, etc. can be provided. 

The utmost harmony has prevailed among the officers 
and members, but your Secretary regrets that so many of 

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the members seem to have the thought that the officers 
of the Society should do all, or nearly all, the work con- 
nected with the work of Special Topics which have been 
considered by the Society in the past year. We believe 
the work of the Society for the past year, in its consider- 
ation of local history, the discussion of subjects pertaining 
to State and National history has been such as to meet 
the approbation of the members and the public, and will 
be of incalculable benefit to the future generations. 

Your Secretary wishes again to call the attention of 
the Society to a demand during the summer months to 
visit the Museum of this Society. We suggest that some 
arrangement be made to have the rooms of this Society 
and its Museum open to visitors, on at least one day in a 
week during the summer months for the coming year. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. Andrew Wilt, Secretary. 

September 27, 1913. 

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Officers 1912^'13. 


John A. Biles 

Vice Presidents 

John H. Chaffee 

Albert T. Lilley 


J. Andrew Wilt 


Clement F. Heverly. 


George T. Ingham 

Financial Secretary 

Adolphus H. Kingsbury 

Hon. George Mosgrip 

Other Officers 
Same as Above. 

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ford County 



History, Reports of Officers 
hiitions for the Year 

towanda, pa. 
bradford star print 


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Carantouan known at Spani§h Hill 
The point tiret visited by white man in Pennsylvania, 1615, 
Athens township, Bradford county. 

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Indian History Sugar Creek 

BY J. ANDUKw \vir/r. 

N Captain Ileiidrickson's map of 1616 there 
was located a place or spot on a river, since 
known as the Susquehanna river, and the 
spot was called and known as **Ogehage.*' 
This same place was afterwards called Oscalid, and even 
later as ^^Newiychannwgy This place then located was 
at the mouth of what we call Sugar Creek in North To- 
wanda township. It was one of very great importance 
to the Indians. It is known to have been one of the sev- 
eral palisaded towns of the early Indians. It was of 
much importance as a port of entry along the Susque- 
hanna and at the junction of the great Indian path or 
trail leading from the West Branch to the North Branch. 
This Indian path entered the present limits of Bradford 
county in the vicinity of Grover thence along the To- 
wanda Creek, and in the vicinity of now West Franklin, 
crossed over to the valley of the Sugar Creek striking the 
latter at or near Luther's Mills, the main path then fol- 
lowing down said creek to its mouth where was located 
this important Indian village, town or city. Here we 
have evidence beyond doubt of this important place. 

At this place the Palatinate Germans from the Scho- 
harie valley passed and halted on their pilgrimages to 

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2 Indian HiMtoi-y Sugar Creek 

Berks county from 1723 to 1729. Conrad Weiser who was 
with said Germans returned to this same place in March, 
1737 on his mission to the Indian Nations. Weiser re- 
relates the incident that when he reached the Sugar 
Creek which was so high and swift that he did not dare 
to attempt to cross it, an Indian who thought he knew 
more than the white man insisted that they could make 
a raft and cross the creek. Weiser, just as firm as the 
Indian, insisted that the raft would be torn to pieces 
and all would perish. Weiser and his attendant 
slung their pack and started down the creek l>elieving 
that they could find a crossing below. The Indian would 
not follow the white men. Weiser and his companion 
fell a tree across the creek at a narrow point below and 
crossed the creek in safety and arrived at the Indian vil- 
lage at the mouth of the creek. Later the Indian who 
said **White man could not tell Indian anything" came 
into the Indian village, where Weiser and his conipanion 
were, all wet minus most of his pack. Upon being asked 
why he was so wet, etc., replied that he had made a raft 
and attempted to cross the creek but his raft was torn 
asunder by the swift current, he thrown into the cold icy 
waters and barely saved himself from drowning. This 
same Indian accompanied Weiser for the remainder of 
his journey to Onondaga, and Weiser relates that this In- 
dian told the In<lians with whom Weiser was to deal, 
was a very wise man, that he knew more than Indian 
and this statement helped him in arranging his mission 
\vith the said tribes on account of the wisdom he had shown 
in not crossing the Sugar Creek on a raft as suggested by 
this Indian. 

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Indian HiMonj Sufjur Crrek 3 

III 1743 Weiser with Bartrain the hotaiiist and others 
also came over this trail via Grover, West Franklin, 
crossed over to tlie Sugar Creek and sto[)ped at Oscalui 
at the mouth of the creek. In their journals they tell of 
the In<lian8 and their condition then. These journals 
give us definite information thut the Indians at this 
I>oint were living on scant food and the juice of the ma- 
ple tree, thus giving us authentic information that the 
Indians in the season tapped maple trees and utilized 
the sweetness thereof for food. The Sugar Creek then 
from these few facts is a great source of historic interest — 
with the American Indian as well as since white man 
came upon the scene. What an Historic Field? 

Along Sugar Creek valley the two, Indian and white 
man, overlapped, so to speak, each other. When white 
man came the Indian was still in the valley. When 
Ezra Rutty came in 1785 the Indian was still here, near 
the old historic town or village of Ogehage, Oscalui and 
Newtychanning, where the last of his race clung most te- 
naciously. From this point he was the last to withdraw 
forever from the old haunts, forests, valleys and hills to 
make place for a higher civilization, a progress and ad- 
vancement in everything tending to make men and wo- 
men better. We of today are enjoying the fruits of their 
hardships and sacrifices; we are the product of a century 
of this development. We today delve and hunt, we 
search and we find that this very valley of the Sugar 
Creek is viewed with impartial eyes, the richest historic 
field in Bradford county. 

When Isaac and Abraham DeWitt and James McKean 
came to what is now Burlington in 1790, they lodged 

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4 Lid fan HiMory Suf/ar CrPfk 

with the Indian known as TOM JACK. lie was married 
to an Indian squaw and had several children. One of his 
daughters became a noted Missionary among the Indians 
on the Allegheny river. She died there honored and 
respected and in after years a monument was erected 
over her grave. Tom Jack left the Sugar valley in 1794 
and died in Ohio or western Pennsylvania in 1809. 

In 1822 while digging for a cellar on the farm of Gen- 
eral McKean in Burlington, there was found a sepulchre 
flagged over with a stone. It measured 9 feet in length by 
2 feet G inches in width and 2 feet in depth. In it was 
found a skeleton measuring as it lay, 8 feet 2 inches in 
length, the teeth were sound, but the bones were soft and 
easily broken. There were two of these sepulchres in the 
apace of this one cellar and on one of these there was a 
pine tree growing over it that measured 3 feet in diameter. 
Historic field say we, yes, rich. The evidence of such 
things make us think of the time when giants of former 
times inhabited these regions. 

In 1841, William McKean of Burlington cut an old 
oak stump for fuel which had been dead ever since the 
white man came. In cutting it, about four inches from 
the heart, marks were found to indicate that an edge 
tool had been used upon it. Upon examination it was 
decided that these marks had been made with an ax. 
From a careful examination and count of the rings or 
growths of the tree, it was believed and stated that these 
marks must have been made 400 years previously. His- 
toric richness in such evidence as this? 


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The Connecticut Women of the Wyoming 




HERE (H<1 Connecticut women go? and when 
and why did these noble women leave the 
crescent shaped valley of Wyoming? Be- 
fore we attempt to solve this triple problem 
let us borrow the cue of the Connecticut Yankee, and 
ask another question. Why were the Connecticut wo- 
men in this valley at the time of the terrible Massacre? 
Well there was a good reason for their being in that lo- 
cality at a- perilous time. The territory in the state of 
Connecticut being nearly taken up, many of the people 
V>egan to turn their eyes towards some favorable location 
to make for themselves a home. 

Rumors of the wondrous beauty and fertility of the 
Susquehanna Valley and the advantages to be derived 
by settling on the banks of the beautiful Susquehanna 
river were in circulation. A few prominent men of Con- 
necticut wishing to know more of the country, sent a 
party to explore this region. The inspectors were charm- 
ed with the lower valley which they named the Paradise 
of America. One writer says that at the time of the 
bloody massiicre it was turned from Paradise into Perdi- 

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The Coimecfient Women of the Wyoming Valley 

tion. The valley with its broad plains, rich soil and 
beautiful woodland and background was to thein a Par- 
adise in comparison with the rock-bound hills they had 
just left behind them. After a favorable report brought 
back with them a company was formed and the valley 
was claimed by the Connecticut colony as early as 1753. 

It is not my purpose to go into details of the dispute 
arising between the Pennsylvania settlers and the Con- 
nacticut people over this territory for the readers of his- 
tory are familiar with the full account of it in the story 
of the Pennamite and Yankee war. It has alwuys been 
a matter of pride with me that my maternal ancestors 
were born and lived in Connecticut. Many a daughter 
of our county can justly be proud to trace her lineage back 
to Connecticut records; for Connecticut, although small 
in size, is no low down state. In the matter of education, 
Connecticut furnishes more college students in proportion 
to her population than any other state in the Union. A 
Yale pennant is sufficient to stamp the state, and we be- 
lieve that the general high cultivation of the people today 
is due to the high standard of sobriety and heroism main- 
tained by the Connecticut women, who have passed away 
and left their impress on the present generation. 

The horrors of the Wyoming Massacre lias many times 
been told in song and story, but only those who were eye 
witnesses will ever know of the barbarities perpetrated by 
the Indians and Tories. The British army was enough 
to face but the soft-footed Indian and treacherous Tory 
knew nothing of mercy. One of our distinguished gene- 
rals of the Civil War said that "war was hell,'' and I 
doubt not that the Connecticut women would have vastly 

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The ComiedieiU Wmien of fhe Wymning Valley 7 

preferred a storm of fire and brimstone to the treatment 
they received at the hands of the enemy. An eminent 
divine was asked what he thought of the American In- 
dian and he replied that at one time he had quite an ad- 
miration for some of the Great Chiefs, but after reading 
the account of the Wyoming Massacre he thought that 
the Indian was an **electrified devil" consuming or 
blighting everything in his pathway. 

After the smoke had cleared and the groans had died 
away where did the Connecticut women go? Most of the 
historians tell you that the remaining people, mostly 
women and children, fled for their lives to the forts in 
the older and heavier settlements, or took the blind paths 
through the forest. If Forty Fort and the Stewart Block 
House could have had eyes to see and ears to hear 
and a tongue to tell, many deeds of self sacrifice and he- 
roic effort would be proclaimed which have never been 
written on the pages of history. It is said that after the 
affray the men that were left hurried their families to the 
forts and went to war. The Tories made for Canada and 
the valley was again like a lonely desert. Money was 
scarce, but there were no paupers or millionaires. It was 
no light task to gather together what few belongings 
might be left and start out in the world homeless but not 

One officer of the Continental army said that although 
the valley was devastated, homes and fields burned and 
desolation reigned everywhere, yet that as the settlers 
started on their journey they would look back with long- 
ing eyes on the beautiful spot that had been their home, 
as did Adam and Eve when they were thrust out of the 

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8 The Connect icid Women of the Wyoming Valley 

Garden of Eden. And we ask again, where did the set- 
tlers go? At first it was thought best to assemble all the 
survivors at Forty Fort and there defend tlie women and 
children, but on account of scarcity of provision it 
was deemed impracticable. No sooner had the fort sur- 
rendered than the Indians began to possess themselves of 
whatever pleased their fancy. The women were stripped 
of their wearing apparel. Meanwhile tlie people were 
fleeing in every direction. As many as could find boats 
or canoes escaped down the river. Many went on foot to 
Easton or Stroudsburg. From these places of comparative 
safety they made their way to distant homes. 

It is supposed that many perished from hunger and 
fatigue or were lost in the vast forest. I do not suppose 
that every Connecticut woman returned to her native 
state. Doubtless there was just as winsome lasses and 
merry widows during the Revolutionary period as you 
will find at the present time, and if they choose to re- 
main for better or for worse, who should say nay? But 
we have record of many who did take up the dreary 
march through the forest going with no bed but the 
earth, and no covering but the star-lit sky, in constant 
fear of being devoured by the hungry wolves or pursued 
by the savage tribe. It would be impossible to give all 
the names af the heroic women we have on record but a 
few will serve to show which way the tide turned. 

Among the Connecticut settlers in the Wyoming Val- 
ley was the family of James and Hannah Loomis Wells. 
They had come from Colchester, Conn, in 1771 and had 
built for themselves a log cabin in Wyalusing, the ruins 
of which may still be seen. At the opening of the Revo- 

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The Connecticut Women of the Wyoming Valley 9 

lution Mr. Wells enlisted. In the spring of 1778 he was 
serving in the capacity of lieutenant with the army of 
Washington in New Jersey. Rumors of the dangers that 
threatened his family reached his ears and he and Lieu- 
tenant Ross obtained leave of absence and hastened to 
the defense of his loved ones. They arrived in Wyom- 
ing just in time to join the battle of July 3rd. Both 
men were killed. There was no time to be spent in grief 
for the valiant husband. Hannah Loomis Wells had 
but one horse in her posseasion, but she started at once 
with her 12 children to make her way back to Connecti- 
cut. The perils of this journey cannot l>e realixed. The 
country was hilly and almost as trackless as the ocean. 
Many times the fugitives were obliged to subsist on ber- 
ries gathered by the wayside. This was the spirit of this 
dauntless woman. She not only accomplished her jour- 
ney in safety but when the times became more settled 
she once more returned to Wyalusing where she died in 
179'). Her grave was the first to be made in the Merry- 
all cemetery and here in recent years her descendants 
erected a monument to her memory. 

Think you that this brave woman was less a patriot 
than her husband who gave his life for his country? 
Among the descendants of this noble woman are the 
great-great granddaughters, Mrs. Will Gordon and Mrs. 
Simon Rendall, and the great-great-grandsons, Dr. 
I^eonard and Dr. Manville Pratt of our town. 

The following is copied from the Stevens record pre- 
pared for their family reunion: The first Stevens of 
which I find any record was beheaded by the order of 
Cromwell for the part he took in the English Revolution. 

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10 The Conueciicnt Wimieu of fhe Wyoming Valley 

His three sons thinking that discretion was the better 
part of valor came to America. Their names were Si- 
mon, Cyprian and Stephen. They settled in Lancaster, 
Mass. (>y})rian had two sons, Simon and Joseph. The 
third son of Simon was Jonathan, and his third son was 
Asa who was born May, 1734 and came to Wyoming, 
Pa. in 1774, living the first year at the mouth of Mill 
Creek; afterward moved to where the city of Wilkes- 
Barre now stands and at that time there were onl}' four 
houses there. Asa Stevens was a lieutenant in the 
Wilkes-Barre Company. He was killed at the Battle of 
Wyoming, leaving a wife and 10 children who fled with 
the other fugitives to Connecticut. One child dying on 
the march through the wilderness a grave was made and 
the body left alone. 

"But the Angels their watch will keep 
And the little one will peacefully sleep." 

Tiie little boy Jonathun lather delicate and small for his 
years )^as dressed in giiTs clothes, his mother hoping in 
this way to shield him from danger. Mrs. Stevens reach- 
ed her Connecticut home after a long and weary journey. 
She was the wife of the great-great grandfather of ^Irs. 
Polly Stevens Felton of our town, besides a number of 
other descendants in this vicinity. 

In the burying ground at Burlington, Conn, there 
stands a monument bearing the following inscription: 
**Katherine Cole Gaylord, wife of Lieutenant Aaron Gay- 
lord, 1745-1840. In memory of her sufferings and hero- 
ism at the Massacre of Wy(»ming, 1778. This stone was 
erected by her descendants and the Katherine Gaylord 
Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, 

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The Connecticut Women of the Wyoming Valley 11 

July 3, 1895." Katherine Cole Gaylord was the wife of 
Lieutenant Aaron Gaylord of Bristol, Conn.^ who with 
his wife and three children joined a party of emigrants 
who were going to the famous Wyoming Valley. They 
settled at Forty Fort and for two years lived the usual 
frontier life. A council of war was held and Lieutenant 
Gaylord informed his wife that the garrison was going 
to tight against his will. He counselled long with his 
wife and formed plans for her escape if he failed to re- 
turn. After mounting his horse he gave her his wallet 
with all his money. As he rode away he called his son 
and bade him go to the pasture and get the hoi^ses and 
bring them to the fort, as they might need them. That 
was the last Katherine Gaylord ever saw of her husband. 
At nine o'clock she received word that her husband had 
been killed and scalped by the Indians. About mid- 
night Mrs. Gaylord and her little brood passed out of the 
fort into the wilderness. For three nights they rested 
under the trees. The tired children sleeping with their 
heads on the mother's lap, while she watched for wolves 
and Indians. They lived on berries, birch-bark, roots 
and various edible plants. A fire they dared not build 
for fear of attracting the enem3% One time they were fol- 
lowed all day by a panther. The mother was almost wild 
with terror, but happily they came upon a deserted cabin 
where they kindled a fire and remained for two days, 
and then again resumed their journey. After many 
weary weeks they reached the home of James Cole, Mrs. 
Gaylord's father, all of them in good health notwith- 
standing their perilous journey. Mrs. Gaylord lived to 
the age of 95. The boy Lemuel afterward went back to 

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12 The Coniucticiii M'omrn of the Wytnniug VaJh^y 

Wyoming, where he married a daughter of Noah Mur- 
ray. Phebe, the eldest daughter, married Levi Frisbie 
and lived in Orwell, Pa. 

This is no fancy sketch. It differs only in details, 
more or less tragic, from that of scores of other brave 
and devoted women who fled from that awful scene of 
blood and pillage. This is only a sample of the bravery 
of the Connecticut women the records of almost every 
township in our county will give you the same story. 
The brave women did not always come from Connecticut 
but they shared the same horrors at Wyoming. Marion 
Crawford, in his wondrous book *'Stradella*' says that the 
**God of war usually spares the coward, and slays the 
brave.*' This may do for fiction, but if this were liter- 
ally true, not one Connecticut woman would have been 
spared to return to her native state or go elsewhere as all 
would have been slain, for a braver *'galaxy" of women 
never existed. 

It was a hazardous undertaking to start with a large 
family of small children and tramp through woods in 
sunshine and rain for weeks, but a brave mother could 
do it and did do it. But I am inclined to think it would 
be more of a task today for a father to attempt to go to 
Connecticut with 12 small children. He would be fol- 
lowed by a posse of officers and overtaken before he 
reached the State line and accused of kidnapping chil- 
dren. One writer says that afcer the Wyoming battle 
the survivors' objective jioint seemed to be Tioga Point. 
Several families went up into Dutchess county, N. Y. 
where they had relatives, but afterward returned to the 
Susquehanna Valley, and you will find scores of the most 

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The Connecticut Women of the Wymning Valley 13 

prominent family names throughout Athens, Ulster, She- 
shequin, Towanda, Wysox and Wyalusing, who in the 
blooily massacre had a part and mourned fifather^ son or 
hr oilier. 

Wlien di<l the Connecticut women leave the Wyoming 
Valley? Some one has said, *'Stand not upon your order 
of going but go at once/* I suppose it was Shakespeare 
because he could cover more ground in a dozen words than 
any other writer past, present or future. At any rate they 
followed the advice of Lady Macbeth and like the crow 
made wings for the rooky woods. Even before the dead 
were buried and before the smoldering ashes had cooled, 
they had begun their '^Forward March'* and having put 
their hands to the plough they dared not look back. 

Why did the Connecticut women desire to return to their 
native state? Sorrow had come to them, their homes either 
destroyed or unsafe, the male members of the household 
dead or fighting for freedom. Many of them **had not 
where to lay their head** and what would be more natu- 
ral than that their thoughts should turn back to the 
homes of their childhood? Down in some remote corner 
of every human heart there is said to be a **Homeland." 
Tiny it may be, but sometime, somewhere we will be con- 
scious of its presence and be possessed with an indescrib- 
able longing to go back to our first home, the home of 
our birth. Many a gifted American whose name stands 
out in bold relief on the pages of our country's history 
has been glad to go back to the home of his childhood and 
kneel at the feet of his old and sometimes toil-worn 
mother, whose devotion and sacrifice in days gone by 
made possible his present high position. Caranation 

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14 The Coiivectietit Women of the Wymniug Valley 

Day should be observed by hira everyday of his life for 
such a mother. 

A noted statesman in making an address before an ath- 
letic club said **tliat he regretted that during his busy life 
he had allowed athletics to be crowded out/' He said I 
feel at this time of life I might have been physically 
stronger and I am fond of outdoor sport. But he said, 
do you know that for years the desire of my life was to go 
back to a distant state and visit the home of my boyhood 
and stand on the top of a certain hillock where I cuffed 
Billy Saunders "up to a peak*' for that was the proudest 
day of my life. 

As this is ** Woman's Day'* it would scarcely be cour- 
teous not to mention a woman famous during the Revo- 
lution period. She did not come from Connecticut but 
she was *'Queen of the Valley." Some smart wag said 
that **(iueen Esther was the first Woman Suffragist in 
this country"; when asked why, he said because she did 
what the Suffragette w^ould eventually do— ^'she beat the 
meny This forest sovereign was born to rule. After 
the <leath of the chief, her husband, for 25 years, her 
authority was never disputed and she ruled until her 
eldest son had earned by his bravery the right to wear 
the eagle's plume and take his father's place on the war- 
path and at the council table. In times of peace Queen 
Esther was said to have been a [)rovident and wuse ruler 
but in times of war a diabolical demon. 

In times of peace we are prepared for war. It should 
be a source of pride to every woman of our country that 
our splendid naval and military forces are equipped with 
all the modern appliances and that our loved ones go 


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The Conneeiieuf Women of (he Wyoming Valley ir> 

forth to war uo more iu a hand to hand conflict. If they 
engage in that kind of a combat it is of their own choos- 
ing. Our fine military schools are a better place to teach 
our boys the tactics of war, than for them possibly to be 
obliged to resort to the pioneer method of exchanging 
the plough-handle for a musket. In the breast of every 
American boy seems to be implanted the desire to fight. 
While still dressed in rompers the least provocation will 
bring up that little doubled fist. You have proba- 
bly heard the story of the boy, whose father desired to 
make hiui happy on his birthday. . He gave him a flo- 
bert rifle and a diary, and said, my son, be careful in 
handling the rifle and write in your diary every night 
what you have been doing through the day, and in fu- 
ture years it will be one of your most valued possessions. 
The next day it rained and he wrote "rained all day, did 
not use my rifle.'* The second day he wrote **rained all 
day, did not use my rifle." The third day he wrote 
"still raining but I shot grandmother,^^ There is no 
doubt but what the average American boy with an out- 
door life and proper physical training will at a suitable 
age be competent and willing to fall in line if the war- 
whoop is sounded. 

And as the mode of warfare has greatly changed in 
the last century, may wo not hope that the "angel of 
peace" may take the place of the "god of war." Fight 
if you must till the last foe expires, but be sure you must 
before you hurl the javelin into the enemy's camp. At 
the best the sword is a shivering instrument, and as a 
nation we are proud that it has been possible at least for 
the present to turn our glittering swords into baseball 

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10 The Connreilcut Womev of the Wyomwg Valley 

bats and our belching cannons into speeding automo- 
biles. Let us be true to our country and love 
our flag, but may we come to realize that the high- 
est form of patriotism is to be able to settle all con- 
troversies, if possible, without strife and bloodshed. A 
few weeks ago in the city of Philadelphia the mayor 
welcomed the Foreign Peace delegates at a banquet given 
in their honor. The mayor said, **this must be a world 
peace,'* insisting that it must be made universal to be ef- 
fective. It is not only our high privilege to be at i)eace 
with every nation of the earth, but may the spirit of 
peace dwell within our own borders, and if a company of 
Connecticut women ever come to Pennsylvania again, 
may we shower them with roses rather than with bullets. 


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Anti-Slavery and Movement In Bradford 



[E opposition in the free states to tlie exten- 
sion of slavery was manifested in 1820, 
when Missouri applied for admission to the 
Union as a slave state. After great excite- 
ment and a violent struggle in congress the application 
was refused. It was afterwards admitted under a com- 
promise that in all the territory of the United States 
north of 86 degrees and 30 minutes, slavery or involun- 
tary servitude, should never exist except as a punish- 
ment for crime. Within the next twenty years from the 
settlement of the Missouri question, no violent conflict 
took place between the spirit of freedom and the spirit of 
slavery in congress or any political convention, but during 
this period a new school of anti-Slavery men was growing 
up, more radical and determined, than those who resist- 
ed the admission of Missouri. They had been trained in 
the political as well as the ethical, or moral principals of 
the great controversy, and they clearly distinguished be- 
tween the powers which congress had a right to exercise 
under the constitution, and the powers which belong to 
the states, and they devoted their lives to the destruction 
of slavery by every means which they could lawfully 

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IS A)iii-Slai'ery and Moirwmf /n Ihudjovd County 

employ. They begun by demanding the abolition to 
slavery in the District of Columbia, in the territories of 
the United States, in all the ?\ational forts, arsenals and 
dock yards, where without question the extreme juris- 
diction belonged to congress. They asked congress (un- 
der its constitutional authority to regulate commerce be- 
tween the several states) to prohibit the internal slave 
trade; and they prayed that our ships sailing on the high 
seas should not be permittee! by the government to carry 
slaves as a part of their cargo under the flag of the 
United States, and outside of the local jurisdiction that 
held them in bondage. They denied that a man should 
aid in executing any law whose enforcement did violence 
to his conscience, and trampled under foot the Divine 
commands. Jlence they would not assist in the surren- 
der of fugitive slaves. 

**The party was small in number,'* says Mr. Blaine in 
his **Twenty Years In C'ongress," but its membership 
was ^'distinguished for intellectual ability, for high char- 
acter, for pure philanthropy, for unquailing courage, both 
moral and physical, and for a controversial talent which 
have never been excelled in the history of moral re- 
forms.*' It would not be practicable to give the names 
of all who were consj)icuous in this great struggle, but 
mention will be made of James G. Birney, Benjamin 
Lundy, Arthur Tappan of the brothers Lovejoy, Gerritt 
Smith, John G. Whittier, William Lloyd Garrison, Wen- 
dell Phillips, (lamaliel Bailey and Frederick Douglass. 
In the early days of this agitation, continues Mr. Blaine, 
**tli(» Al)olitionists were a prescribed an<l persecuted class, 
denounced with unsparing severity by both the great po- 

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Anti- Slavery and Mm^emcut In Bradford Count tj ID 

litical parties, condemned by many of the leading church- 
es, libelled in the public press and maltreated by furious 
mobs. In no part of the country did they constitute more 
tlian a handful of the population, but they worked against 
every discouragement with a zeal and firmness which be- 
spoke intensity of conviction. Very few even in the free 
states at that time were willing to become identified with 
the cause of the Abolitionists." 

As J. G. Blaine says, it required a large amount of 
moral courage to join the ranks of that despised and per- 
secuted party sixty years ago. To Benjamin Lundy be- 
longs the honor of having been the first person in the 
United States, who devoted all his energies in the en- 
deavor to create a public sentiment that would free the 
bondmen from their chains. He was of Quaker parent- 
age, born on a farm in New Jersey in 1789 and learned 
the trade of a saddler and harness maker. Without a 
robust constitution, without great talents for either speak- 
ing or writing and with but a limited education he had 
an intense abhorence for human slavery, and a sublime 
faith that its strong battlements could be overthrown by 
the power of truth. When living at St. Clairsville, Ohio 
in 1815 he organized an Anti-Slavery association and 
from that time forward devoted his life and fortune to 
advance the cause of emancipation. William Lloyd 
Garrison who was born in Massachusetts in 1805, be- 
came a partner of Lundy in the publication of his Anti- 
Slavery paper in Baltimore. He was a man of more 
commanding talents than Lundy, being an unusually 
forcible writer and a fluent speaker. He denounced the 
constitution of the United States, which required the 

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20 Anfl'SIavery and Movement In llradjord County 

surrender of fugitive slaves, as "A league with hell and 
a covenant with death." On that account he would 
neither vote nor hold office under it. He never acted 
with the great body of Abolitionists w^lio formed the Lib- 
erty Party which was afterwards merged into the Repub- 
lican Party. 

Petitions for the abolition of Slavery in the District of 
Columbia and the internal slave trade were frequently 
presented in congress after the year 1836 by different 
members, and particularly by John Quincy Adams, who 
had been President of the United States and was then a 
member of the House of Representatives from Massachu- 
setts. He was not in sympathy with the Abolitionists but 
believed in the right oi the people to petition their gov- 
ernment for redress of grievances, a right which no king 
had ever denied to his subjects. Notwithstanding the 
advocacy of the right of petition by this distinguished 
man, a rule was adopted by which Anti-Slavery petitions 
were laid on the table, without being read or referred. 

In the year 1831 some Anti-Slavery meetings were 
held in Terrytown, which were addressed by Dr. Horton 
and Eben Terry, both speakers holding that slavery was 
wrong and ought to be immediately abolished. Five 
years later the subject was warmly discussed in public 
meetings throughout the county and particularly in the 
townships of Pike, Wyalusing and Asylum, the latter 
then comprising the territory which now constitutes the 
three townships of Asylum, Terry and Wilmot. 

Anti-Slavery meetings were frequently held and gen- 
erally well attended in the church at Merryall and in 
most of the school houses throughout the townships 

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A nil' Slavery and Movement In Bradford County 21 

afore mentioned. The injustice of slavery to tlie en- 
slaved, the cruelties of the masters, the injury to free la- 
bor and the certain displeasures of Almighty God unless 
the great national sin was repented of and put away, 
were dwelt upon by the speakers (mostly residents of the 
county) with great earnestness and effect. ** Abolitionist" 
was a term of contumely and contempt, and here as in 
otiier places it required great moral courage for a person 
to announce that he was in favor of the immediate 
emancipation of the slaves. Many who believed that 
slavery was wrong and desired its removal hesitated 
about incurring the obloquy, which they knew they were 
sure to receive by joining the Anti-Slavery movement. 
Abolitionists were called "fanatics," "incendiaries," 
"monomaniacs" and people with but one idea. If a 
speaker quoted the Declaration of Independence that all 
men were created equal, he was quite sure to be interrupted 
with the question: "Would you have your daughter 
marry a negro?" At that period with but few exceptions, 
the churches, pulpits, newspaper press, colleges, cham- 
bers of commerce and political conventions in the free as 
well as in the slave states, denounced the discussion of 
the subject of slavery, censured the Abolitionists for thus 
disturbing the peace and harmony of the country, and 
demanded that an immediate stop should be put to fur- 
ther agitation. 

The Wyalusing Society was organized in 1837, its 
first president being John McKinney, who had a store in 
Merryall, and its first secretary Justus Lewis, one of the 
most prominent and respectable citizens in the town- 
ship. The Bradford CJounty Anti-Slavery Society was orga- 

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22 Aiitf'Slamy and Moremeni In liradjurd County 

nized soon after, Deacon Giles N. DeWolf being its first 
president and Deacon Ciiarles Stevens its first secretary. 
Among the earlier and most active Abolitionists, when the 
name Abolitionist was a term of reproach, were the follow- 
ing who were residents of Asylum township: Dr. Geo. F. 
Ilorton, (ieo. (lamble, Thomas Ingham, Francis Viall, 
J. It. Kmery, Jeremiah Kilmer, James Gamble, Nathaniel 
N. (iambic, John K. Gamble and J. W. Ingham. The 
following were residents of Wyalusing: Justus I^ewis, 
Gapt. John Keeler, Milton I^wis, Elisha Lewis, Isaac CJ. 
Palmer, John McKinney, Joseph Ingham and Nelson 
Atwood. The following were residents of Herrick: Isaac 
Gamp, Clark Gamp, Charles Overpeck, Abel Bolles and 
William Gamble. The following were residents of Pike: 
Deacon (tiles X. DeWolf, (Japt. Isaac Nichols and James 
DeWolf. The following of Wysox: Abner Ilinman and 
Daniil C<))lbaugh. In Towanda William Watkins an<1 
Henry Booth were staunch Abolitionists but their law 
practice recjuired so much of their time they were not ac- 
tive in the cause. John Geiger, the gunsn)ith, was also 
an Abolitionist but was a modest man and did not make 
himself prominent. Miles Carter, the grocery man and 
Solonjon Cooper (the colored barber) were not residents 
of Towanda when the Anti-Slavery movement first took 
its rise, but when they came they took an active part. 
In Burlington the two most prominent Abolitionists were 
Benjamin Stevens and Ze{)haniah Lane. There were 
others in the county wliose names cannot now be re- 

In the winter of 18.11) in pursuance of a call a Anti- 
Slavery meeting assembled in the court house at Towan- 

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Aittl-Shirrry iind Movement la Ihadjonl i onntij 23 

da. Soon after the meeting was organized 40 or 50 of 
the town residents apparently of the rowdy class came in 
together and instead of taking seats, of which there were an 
abundance, remained standing in a body near the door. 
The meeting was opened with prayer by Deacon Giles N. 
DeWolf. Wliile the prayer was going on, the rowdies who 
had provided themselves with a crooked stick and placed 
it on the tioor kept it moving and rolling with their 
feet. It could be rolled with their feet with scarcely any 
movement of their legs and made a noise very annoying 
and apparently as mysterious as the spiritual rappings of 
the Fox family. When the prayer was ended the presi- 
dent stated that Mr. Chase, the speaker who had been 
expected from Philadelphia was present and would address 
the meeting. Then the customary calls were made for 
**Chase,*' **Cha3e,'' Chase" from the Anti-Slavery people, 
but the disturl)ers of the meeting commenced shouting 
"yes. Chase him out!" "Chase him out of the house!" 
Mr. Chase arose and attempted to speak but the noise 
and uproar increased so he could not be heard and he 
sat down. 

Presently a new idea entered the heads of the rioters 
and they commenced calling for "John Carter," a colored 
resident of the t.own, who with several others of his race 
had modestly taken a back seat in the vicinity of the 
mob. John who knew them well and believed they had 
c^me there to make disturbance and break up the meet- 
ing did not respond to their call. Thereupon they seized 
hold of him, dragged him from his seat, stood him on a 
chair and told him to "go ahead." Forced to speak 
against his will, John commenced by saying that he had 

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li\ Antt-SIavpry and Movement fn Brndfonl County 

not expected to be called upon, was unj)repared and at any 
rate could not be expected to fill the place of a good 
speaker like Mr. Chase. He then to the surprise and 
chagrin of those who had got him up, commenced mak- 
ing a good Abolition speech, but was not allowed to go 
on. They had not come thereto hear Abolition speeches 
and they did not intend to. **That will do!" cried one. 
**Nutt'8aid!** exclaimed another. **Getdown!" yelled the 
third. John, who had got warmed up to his work, did 
not instantly obey their command and the chair was 
kicked from under him. He fell to the floor, not much 
hurt, but badly scared. After yelling and howling 
awhile they cried, ^^F'etch on the fruit!" and accordingly 
a basket of rotten apples was brought from the rear and 
they commenced throwing them first at officers of the 
meeting, then at Mr. Chase and the other Abolitionists 
present. Had they been practiced baseball pitchers they 
could hardly have thrown straighter. Searcel}^ a man 
was neglected or missed. I was hit square in the face, 
said Mr. Gamble afterwards, but did not feel at all in- 
dignant, for I thought they were helping our cause 
along. ^'Persecution makes converts, the blood of the 
martyrs is the seed of the church." Before the decayed 
fruit was all gone they commenced throwing at the can- 
dles and soon had them all extinguished and the room 
in Egyptian darkness. Then with Indian whoops and 
unearthly yells they hurried down stairs and out of 
doors. Some of the candles were re-lit, but believing 
that the mob would again return to disturb the meeting, 
if an attempt were made to go on, they concluded to ad- 

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A lit I' Slavery and Movement In Bradford County 25 

Some of them expected that more rotten apples and 
possibly brick-bats would be hurled at them as they came 
out of the building, but they were not further molested, 
no one was to be seen. The rioters had undoubtedly 
gone into the nearest groggery to boast of their exploits 
and take something to increase their valor for another 
attack. Two newspapers were printed in the village at 
that time, but it is an astonishing fact that no more 
mention was ever made of the meeting in either of them, 
than if it had never taken place. The reason is obvious. 
The publishers were in sympathy with the rioters, had 
probably given them private encouragement, and of 
course did not like to censure their unlawful acts. On 
the other hand they did not want to justify or defend 
them, less they might lose a few subscribers, so they said 
nothing. One of the histories of Bradford county says 
that David Wilmot was present at the aforesaid meeting 
and made a speech against the Abolitionists, but not 
counciling the violence resorted to by which the meeting 
was broken up. I think that is a mistake. My account 
was received from my father, Thomas Ingham and George 
Gamble who were present at the meeting and I am sure 
they did not not mention Wilmot's name which they 
would have been likely to do had he been there. Prob- 
ably expecting the meeting would be broken up, he was 
shrewd enough to keep away. 

The following winter the friends of liberty called an- 
other meeting to be held in the same place in the day- 
time. The former meeting had been held in the even- 
ing, and it was thought that a day meeting would be less 
likely to be disturbed by the pro-slavery element. When 

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20 A}ifl'Sfai'ei*y mul Movrmmt In Jlvtulford County 

IDV father and I arrived at the place appoiuted we found 
a little crowd of friends standing outside the building 
and laboring under considerable excitement. They said 
the court room was locked, and that the sheriff who lived 
in the basemeiit had refused them the key— saying that 
his wife had it and that he did not think she would let him 
or anybody else have it for the purpose of holding an AIk)- 
lition meeting. They had been to the county commis- 
sioners, who were supposed to have control of the court 
house and had been told that tlie building had cost a 
good deal of money and they did not wai»t to have it 
torn down or burned by a mob. While our people were 
standing around the court house debating what to do, I 
went into Bartlett's tavern. Very soon after a man came 
in and said: "The Abolitionists are thicker down around 
the court house than bees in ." The place he men- 
tioned is believed by some to be located in a warm cli- 
mate and by others to have no existence at all. The 
proprietor of the tavern said slavery was a St^te insti- 
tution with which we ha<i no right to interfere, that as 
there were no slaves in Pennsylvania there was nothing 
we could do, that the Abolitionists were craxy and did 
not know any more about the compromises of the consti- 
tution and of our obligations under it **than that boy'' 
(pointing towards me.) Being thus introduced, I felt it 
my duty to say that the constitution of the United States 
gave to congress the right **to exercise exclusive legisla- 
tion in all cases whatsoever" over the District of Colum- 
bia and the territories of the United States. The tavern 
keeper was a little disconcerted at first but soon rallied 
and said: "There, what did I tell you." I then went into 

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A nti'Slave)*y and Movement In Bradford County 27 

the Eagle hotel where I saw our friends congregating. 
The two speakers who had been expected, Ralph B. Lit- 
tle, a young lawyer and Rev. Albert L. Post, both of 
Montrose, Susquehanna county were there. 

David Wilmot of Proviso fame came in. At that time 
he was the county leader of the Democratic party and 
had no fellowship with Abolitionists and no desire for 
restricting slavery. He came in not to encourage and 
assist the friends of the slaves by his presence and words 
but to discourage and oppose. He soon got into an argu- 
ment with Mr. Little in regard to the power of congress 
over slavery in the District of Columbia, declaring that 
congress could not abolish slavery there except in viola- 
tion of the understanding with Virginia and Maryland, 
the states by whom the District was ceded. 

An influential member of the Whig party (I think 
Elhanan Smith) had either from a sense of justice, or to 
make capital for his party obtained a large number of 
Whigs in the village to sign a petition to the county 
commissioners, asking them to let us have the use of the 
court house to hold our meeting. The petition was 
shown to Mr. Wilmot and he was asked to circulate a 
similar one among the Democrats. He positively de- 
clined, saying that he had not influence enough to get a 
single Democrat to sign such a petition. It is but just, 
however, to say that after he had served in congress and 
seen the despotic rule of the slave power and its determi- 
nation to extend and perpetuate slavery by obtaining 
new territory from Mexico, he changed his view and said 
this: "Dr. Horton and the early Abolitionists were em- 
phatically right about slavery and we did not know it." 

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28 Anti'Slarei-y and Movement In Jhadford Cotnity 

There were several churches in the place and the trus- 
tees of all of thenn were applied to and the money ten- 
dered for the use of their buildings, but the applications 
were declined. Mr. Coe, proprietor of the Eagle hotel, 
very generously offered us the use of his parlor to hold 
our meeting, but it was considered too small to hold the 
{>eople who desired to attend. The weather was very 
pleasant and extremely warm for winter and a Mr. 
Tlitwmas, a farmer who lived in Wysox where Robert 
Inning now resides, said he had a good clean comforta- 
ble barn in which he could soon place some board seats 
and where we could hold our meeting in welcome. It 
was but a mile distant, the sleighing was good and the 
river could be crossed on the ice. It was decided to go. 
We found the barn as Mr. Thomas had stated and it was 
but a moment's work to carry in boards and make seats. 

A very res[>ectable congregation soon gathered in, the 
meeting was organized and the speaking commenceil. 
Elder Post showed that the eiiormous wickedness of slav- 
ery could not be justified from the Bible, although slave 
holders and their a[>ologists had endeavored to do so, 
that slavery was as John Wesley had said, **the sum of 
all villainies," that it was a national sin which our na- 
tion must repent of and put away, or the Almighty 
would punish it with awful calamities. Mr. Little show- 
ed that congress had established slavery in the District of 
(*olumbia, that it could not exist there a single day with- 
out its authority, that congress had the constitutional 
right to abolish it, and that the people were responsible 
for the neglect of their representatives in failing to abolish 
it. He said that congress had exclusive jurisdiction over 

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AtUi-SUivet^ and Movement In Bradford County 21) 

the territories of the Uiiited States and could and should 
prevent the pollution of their free soil by slavery. Mr. 
Post and Mr. Little acquitted themselves well and gave 
excellent satisfaction to the Anti-Slavery part of the aud- 

But it is probable that the most eloquent and impas- 
sioned speech ever made in a barn was made by a Meth- 
odist preacher named Smith. His speech was volun- 
teered. His name was not on the bills, because he was 
a stranger who had just come on the circuit and our 
friends had not invited him because they did not know 
he was "one of themselves" and a **host in himself." In 
answering the objection that we could do nothing for 
slaves, because they were held under State laws with 
which we had no right to interfere and because their 
masters having become accustomed to a life of indolence 
and ease would never give them up,hesaid: "Archimedes, 
the great geometrician and inventor of war machines, de- 
clared that if he only had a hold in the heavens, where 
unto he could affix a lever, he could move the world." 
"The Christian has that hold"; he exclaimed. "What 
the great inventor lacked, the Christian has got. He has 
that 'hold in the heavens* and the power of Almighty 
God to assist him at the long end of the lever. The 
strongholds of paganism fell before the preaching of the 
gospel, the shackles of the slaves will be broken by the 
prayers of the saints and the power of moral suasion." 
He was only partly right. Moral suasion and the moral 
suasion of the ballot box created a public sentiment in 
the free State which elected an Anti-Slavery president. 
The slave states, because they could no longer control 

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30 AntiSlavct'y and Movement In llradj'ord County 

the government, rebelled against its authority and levied 
war upon it. They risked slavery on the struggle and 

The Rev. George Printz who had been installed as 
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Merryall in 1832, 
was an avowed colonizationist and from the first had en- 
deavored to prevent the agitation of the slavery question, 
l)elieving it would divide the churches and endanger the 
union of the states. In person he was tall, straight as an 
arrow with dark complexion, dark hair and eyes. He 
was very industrious, always having a good garden which 
he cultivated with his own hands and some times assisted 
his neighbors in their haying and harvesting. He was 
well educated and his reasoning [)Owers were good, but 
his oratory was poor. His voice though strong was not 
agreeable. He was not fluent in speech and usually 
wrote his sermons which were read as if suffering bodily 
pain, frequently shrugging his shoulders and drawing 
his face out of shape. Evidently, nature had never in- 
tended him for a public speaker, he had mistaken his 
calling. There had been several debates on the subject 
of slavery held in the Wyalusing school house which un- 
til recently stood back of the cemetery, in which Dr. 
Horton, C. F. Welles, Jr., Isaiah Bartley and others par- 
ticipated, and it was understood that Mr. Printz was 
willing to take a part in a debate on the question, **Is 
the Colonization Society better calculated to remove 
slavery from the United States than the Abolition So- 

Accordingly a debate was arranged which took place 
in the school house aforementioned in the winter of 

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Antl'Slave)^ and Movement hi Bradford County 31 

1840, George Gamble, a prominent Abolitionist and an 
excellent debater had come to the meeting expecting to 
take a part, but was ruled out by the colonizationists, on 
the ground of an agreement that the speakers should all 
be residents of Asylum and Wyalusing townships. As 
Mr. (iamb!e had recently moved from Asylum into Wy- 
oming county, he was much to his disappointment debar- 
red from speaking. His son, John K. an exceedingly in- 
telligent young man, who was teaching a writing school in 
the schoolhouse and whose fine specimens of penmanship 
framed under glass adorned the walls was desirous to 
take a part, but was refused because he had not been 
long enough in the place to gain a residence. Your lec- 
turer went prepared to speak, if called upon, but did 
not much expect to get a chance in, as he was under 18 
years of age and there were enough older and abler 
speakers. Just before the debate was about to open. Dr. 
Scofield came to him and said there was a speaker lack- 
ing on the Abolition side and asked whether he could 
take a part. The reply was yes, if it is agreeable to all 
parties. The doctor said he had spoken to them and it 
was. The judges who occupied the pulpit were William 
Terry, Sr. of Terrytown, Wm. Camp, Sr. of Camptown 
and Chester Wells of Spring Hill. Mr. Terry presided. 
Mr. Printz opened the debate. He said that American 
slavery was a moral and political evil, which it was de- 
sirable te have removed, but it was not a sin, that the 
Southern i^eople would never consent to free their slaves 
and have them remain in this country, that many, if not 
all of them, were willing to emancipate their slaves as 
fast as means could be provided for their removal to Af- 

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32 Anti't^lavery and Movement fit Bradford Couuiy 

rica the home of their ancestors. The slaves were will- 
ing to go, the masters were willing to send them and all 
that was necessary to remove this great evil from our 
country was for the people without regard to [)arty or 
creed to join heart and hand in this great henevolent 
and Christian work of colonization. He gave a glowing 
account of the prosperity of the colony of Liberia, tlie 
richness of the soil, the variety and value of its produc- 
tions and its possibilities in the future. Africa was an 
immerise continent producing besides gold, diamonds and 
ivory valuable timber trees such as mahogany, rosewood, 
ebony, canewood and a great variety of dye woods. He 
dwelt on the commercial advantage it w^ould be to our 
country to have a prosperous colony on the western coast 
of Africa to trade with the natives and obtain their valu- 
able products. But last and most important, coloniza- 
tion w^ould be the means of civilizing and christianizing 
Africa. The American slaves were mostly Christians 
and many of them would no doubt become missionaries 
to the heathen tribes in the interior and white missiona- 
ries would go with them to assist in the w^ork of evange- 
lization. His speech, like his sermons, w^as mostly writ- 
ten and read. 

Much to his surprise, J. W. Ingham's name was called 
next not that he was considered a match for Mr. Printz 
but (as he always supposed) they wanted to keep their 
best speakers for the last and Dr. Horton desired to speak 
after C. F. Welles, Jr. whom he feared more than any 
other speaker on the Colonization side. Mr. Ing- 
ham commenced his address with a little preface when 
Mr. Printz arose and said: "I call the young gentleman 

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AiUirSlavet*y and Movement In Bradford iJomUtj 38 

to order, he is not speaking to the question and as there 
are a number of speakers to be heard it will be very late 
before we get through." When he sat down, Mr. Ing- 
ham addressing the judge said: ''I acknowle4ige that I 
had not got quite to the question but if allowed to go on 
will proceed directly to the point.*' No objection being 
made, he then quoted from the last census table of the 
United States showing the annual increase of the slave 
population was 60,000 and that to remove slavery from 
this country, that number at least must be transported 
every year to Africa. He showed from the published re- 
ports of the Colonization Society that during the 20 
years it had been in ezistance, it had only colonized 
about 4,000 persons, many of these being free negroes 
from the free states. Taking from the Society's reports 
the cost per head of colonizing these 4,000 persons, we 
computed the cost of colonizing 60,000 a year, making 
an immense number which must be added the cost of 
arms to defend themselves against the natives and slave 
traders, and a year's provisions to support them until, 
they could raise crops for their own sustenance. 

Here Mr. Printz arose and said: "I must correct the 
young gentleman it only requires six months' provisions 
to support the colonists in Liberia until they can become 
self supporting." Well, continued Mr. Ingham, accept- 
ing the correction to be valid, the cost of the Colonization 
Society nor any other society could endure it for a single 
year, to say nothing about the unknown number of years 
it would require to remove slavery by the slow process of 
merely colonizing the yearly increase. If the slave own- 
ers follow the dictates of self interest, they would only 

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*M Anti'Slavery and MovemeiU In Bradford County 

manumit their older slaves who would soon be past the 
period of profitable labor and retain the young and vig- 
orous of both sexes, so that population would not be di- 
minished and slavery never removed by merely coloniz- 
ing the increase. 

C. F. Welles, Jr. followed. In person he was a man of 
fine presence, rather above the common size and at that 
time not corpulent. As a public speaker, he had a good 
voice with excellent articulation. As a debater, he was 
courteous, witty, shrewd and adroit. He was never dull 
and prosy, his speeches were interesting even to those 
who did not agree with him. He commenced by saying 
he would not waste his time in replying to the young 
gentleman who had preceded him as he "had answered 
himself as went along." He said in part, that by what- 
ever light slavery might be viewed, whether as sin or a 
political evil, America was not responsible for its exist. 
ance. It had been forced upon the colonies by Great 
Britain and to her alone the name must be ascribed. 
Many of the colonial legislatures had more than once pro- 
hibited the introduction of slaves within their limits but 
their prohibitory laws had always been vetoed by the 
king or abrogated by parliament. The institution was 
with us and the all important question was how to re- 
move it with the least danger and in a constitutional 
manner. He agreed with Mr. Printz that the southern 
people would never consent to free their slaves and have 
them remain in this country, and he did not believe that 
the majority of the northern people would agree to it any 
sooner than the southern. The negro race although able 
bodied was inferior to the Caucasian in intellectual en- 

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A tUi'JSlavery and Movement In Bradford Loanty 35 

dowments and naturally averse to labor. The slaves in 
the Unite<l States were lazy and would not work except 
under compulsion. Indolence had been bred into them 
for countless ages by their ancestors in Africa who lived 
in idleness, poverty and degredation. If set free in this 
country, they would refuse to work and would live by 
appropriating other peoples' property. Many of them 
would come north to seek their Abolition friends whom 
they had been told were instrumental in obtaining their 
freedom, and whom they vainly supposed would be happy 
to see them, give them a generous support and perhaps 
marry them to their sons and daughters. It would not 
be long after emancipation took place before all our jails 
and prisons be full of black oriminals and in the south a 
race war would begin which would not end until the ne- 
groes were all exterminated. The only feasible method 
of removing slavery was by colonization. 

The next speaker was Justus Lewis. His address was 
carefully written and read from manuscript, which has 
fortunately been preserved and through the kindness of 
the Rev. M. L. Cook and his mother, Mrs. Adelia Cook 
and Mrs. Kennedy, I am enabled to quote from it verba- 
tim as follows: "We fully recognize the sovereignty of 
each state to legislate exclusively on the subject of slav- 
ery,' we concede that congress under the present com- 
pact has 'no right to interfere with slavery in the 
states'; but we maintain that congress has a right and is 
solemnly bound to suppress the domestic slave trade be- 
tween the several states and to abolish slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and in those portions of our com- 
mon territories which the constitution has placed under 

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»it> Anti'Slavery and Movement In Bradford County 

the exclusive jurisdiction of congress. We roaintain that 
the highest obligations are resting on the people of the 
free states to remove slavery by moral and political ac- 
tion as presented by the constitution of the United States/' 
To show the terrible crime of slavery he quoted from the 
laws of several slave states, particularly from Louisiana 
which read as follows: "A slave is one who is in the 
j)ower of his master to whom he belongs. The master 
may sell him, dispose of his person, his industry, his la- 
bor. He can do nothing, possess nothing, nor acquire 
anything but what must belong to his master." In ans- 
wer to the assertion that negroes will not work except un- 
der the compulsion of the task, he sliowed from official 
records, that with the exception of Great Britian and 
Russia, the trade of the United States with Hayti was 
greater at that time than with any other country in the 
world. He said: **It thus appears that of all the coun. 
tries with which we have commercial relations (with but 
two exceptions), the one inhabited by free negroes buys 
the most from us and sells the most to us. Surely this 
is a strange result from people who won't work and for a 
country whose laws forbid the lash." In regard to the 
claim that the Colonization Society would remove slav- 
ery, he said: **The Colonization Society does not aim to 
do anything but remove the free blacks to Africa. They 
utterly disclaim all attempts to interfere with slavery. 
The free blacks in the slave states are an eye sore to the 
8lav« holders. They tend to make the slaves uneasy and 
discontented, when they see those of their own color en- 
joying freedom, and the slave holders want them removed 
out of their midst. He said that the pastor of the church 

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Anti-Slavery and Movement In Bradford County 37 

at Merryall had once favored a resolution of the Susque- 
hanna Presbytery which declared that the discussion of the 
subject was **unjust,unscriptural and pernicious." He was 
glad his pastor had since then changed his mind and was 
now willing to discuss it publicly in a friendly Christian 
spirit. In conclusion, he relied on free discussion, moral 
reason and the power of public opinion to remove the 
loathsome leprosy of slavery. This is an age in which 
public opinion has snatched the scepter from kings and 
senates. It called for the abolition of the slave trade and 
the traffic in human flesh, which for centuries had been 
encouraged and protected by law, was declared to be pi- 
racy. Our measures are only the opposition of moral 
purity and moral corruption, the destruction of error by 
the potency of truth, the overthrow of prejudice by the 
power of love and the abolition of slavery by the spirit of 
repentance. We shall enlist the pulpit and the press in 
the cause of the suflfering. We may be personally de- 
feated, but our principals never. Truth, Justice, Reason 
and Humanity will triumph. 

Dr. Scofield responded to the call of his name in a 
short speech which differed from the other colonization 
speeches in his statement that in addition to the negro 
race having a black skin, flat noses, thick lips and matted 
hair, they had a peculiar smell, especially when perspir- 
ing, which though not disagreeable to each other was 
very offensive to white people and if they were obliged 
to inhale the disagreeable odor for any considerable 
length of time it would surely make them sick. That 
white men never could stand it to work by the side of 
negroes in field or factory. 

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»i8 Anti'Slavety and Movemetit In Bradford County 

Nathan B. Harrison, who was teaching school in Wya- 
lusing that winter, replied to Dr. Scofield. He said that 
the offensive odor described by the last speaker was 
caused altogether and entirely by the habitual use of to- 
bacco and the neglect of proper cleanliness, that the same 
sickening scent eniinated from some white people who 
continually used the filthy weed and never used a bath- 
tub; he had worked, eaten and slept with negro men who 
did not use tobacco and kept themselves and their 
clothes clean and they were a.s inodorous as anybody. 
To show that Liberia was not the Utopia on the dark 
continent, or the base for a grand missionary station, as 
represented by colonizationists, he read a letter from a 
newspaper correspondent resident in Liberia describing 
an attack by the natives on a fort the Liberianshad built 
for protection. Their charge on our works, said the cor- 
respondent w^as quickly repulsed by our deadly fire and 
when the naked savages turned to run we pepi>ered their 
hams well with buck-shot. 

Lewis Mann for a short time a resident of Wyalusing 
spoke next. He was a tall, fine looking man, apparently 
about 2o years of age, well educated and had had excel- 
lent opportunities for observation, but his speech was a 
disappointment to his friends. He commenced by saying 
that the Abolitionists were practicing a system of duplic- 
ity. Publicly professing their purpose to use only moral 
means to abolish slavery, they really intended to incite a 
slave insurrection with its awful consequences of blood 
and carnage, in comparison with which Nat. Turner's in- 
surrection in Virginia and the horrors of St. Domingo 
would be as nothing. The literature which they sent 

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AtUi-JSlavery and Movement In BradjoM County 39 

South in the mails was not intended to convert tht) mas- 
ters, but to incite the slaves and produce a general up- 
rising. Dr. Horton here interposed the question: "Have 
you any evidence of this?" "Certainly," replied Mr. 
Maun. I have seen some of the most prominent Aboli- 
tionists in the country come to my father's house and he 
and they would sit down, put their heads together and 
confer for hours in low tones and whisper about their se- 
cret plans, he waved his hand and nodded his head as if 
he had overheard things which were too horrible to re- 
late. "I call the gentleman to order," said Dr. Horton. 
**\Vhat for?" asked Mr. Mann, "you are reflecting on the 
character of a good man," replied Dr. Horton. On the 
character of whom? Of John Mann of Mannington. Oh 
no, my dear sir! I would not do that, he is my father! 
There was a faint attempt to laugh, but every one in the 
house saw that he was either telling an untruth, or was 
injuring the character of his father. 

Dr.. Horton's speech was probably one of the best ever 
delivered in that school house by anybody. He was a 
talented man well read in all the public questions of the 
time and particularly well informed on the subject of 
slavery which he had studied and lectured upon for sev- 
eral years before. He did not have the rich sonorous 
voice of Henry Clay, the smooth musical voice of David 
Wilmpt, or the clear silver tongue of Wendell Phillips, 
but his voice was fairly good with considerable compass, 
full of intense earnestness and candor. No one could 
listen to him without believing that he was thoroughly 
sincere and devoted to the cause he advocated. His dis- 
courses were never dry, always logical and when he got 

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40 ' Ant {'Slavery and Movement hi Bradford County 

warmed up with his subject he was truly eloquent. 
His oratory was of the Demosthenes style, forcible, fiery, 
vehement. He never used the weapons of ridicule, irony 
or sarcasm, not because he could not have done so had 
he thought proper, but because he desired to convince 
and convert his hearers with candid arguments addressed 
to their reason and common sense. He never tried to 
be humorous, or told stories to cause a laugh, like 
most political orators, for the reason that he considered 
the subject of slavery too serious for jesting or laughter. 
It would be impossible to give even a fair synopsis of his 
speech on that occasion, as he went over a great deal of 
ground and replied to the speakers on the colonization 
side. The tenor of his argument was the inalienable 
right of all men without distinction of race, color or con- 
dition to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, the 
barbarism, injustice and sinfulness of slavery and the 
danger to our country from its continuance. He declared 
that immediate emancipation was safe and practicable, 
that it was always safe to do right, that the experiment 
had been tried in the British and West India Islands, 
that in the two islands of Bermuda and Antigua, where 
emancipation was immediate, there was greater prosper- 
ity than in the island of Jamaica where the apprentice- 
ship system was adopted and emancipation was gradual. 
In answer to the argument that the slaves if freed would 
flock to the free states, he said they had the same love of 
home that white people had, they liked a warm climate and 
when paid for their labor there was no more danger of 
their coming North in any great numbers than of white 
people going South, that their labor was needed where 

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they wepe and. tl)6: offer x)t* wages ,would keep then) theire.., 
He said that emaucipation. would be a, benefit to.the . 
slave owners and aJl.the people, in tlie Soutli, that, slavery 
was an incubus, which was ^retarding the prospenty of, 
tlie states where it existed, keeping tdjeti) behirxd the fi:ee ^ 
states^ in .(K)pulation,. weal tl), education aiad everything 
desirable in a. nation. that slave states settled at the .same,, 
tiiue and with superior advantages of climate, soil and 
productions had fallen behind the free states froip no. 
other cause than the withering cause of slavery. 

He soade a statement which he said that in ciase it, was 
disputed, lie could prove by documentary evidence.. .I^ere. 
be was interrupted by; John HoUenback who said: ^^Fetch; 
on your documents, Doctor!*' ., C. F. Weljes, Jr. ^rose 
and said he believed Mr. HoUenback was too much, of ]a 
gentleman to interrupt a speaker , unnecessarily, that he 
had' no doubt Dr. Horton had, the. documents, oi: be iwould. 
nob say so. . "Who, are you?" exclaimed HoUjenback.wh^, 
feel yourself competent to > admonish, met The. Doctor 
said he had the documents - at home and wopld bring 
them here anytime that: was. desirable. ,In replying to 
aonbetbing Dr. Soofield had said which was not compli- 
mentary to the Anti-Slavery Society, he said he had un- 
derstood that ttie Doctor before settling berei had joined . 
the Anti-Slavery Society in Susquehanna county and, had 
never withdrawn from it, therefore he considered Lim a. 
brother in <a three-fold sense, brother by the common ties 
of huD>anity, brother by the pill bags and brother Abor^ 
litionist. ' The time of the speaker had been limited at 
thebeginning of the debate and before Dr. Horton bad; 
concluded^' Mr.. Printz. arose and. said) ''Doctor^ .^q/av t^mf , 

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Ifii AtUi'iSlavtii'if and Jduvement In Uradjord County 

is up," and the Doctor iiuinediately sat down. **Not so!" 
exclaimed Nathan Harrison in a loud voice, others looked 
at their watches and said the Doctor had about four mine 
utes left. *'I beg pardon," said Mr. Printz, '•! was mis- 
taken." Here the debate closed. The most notable 
thing al>out it was the apparent nervousness of Mr. Printz 
and his impatience in listening to the speakers of his op- 
poner»ts. Two of the judges decided in favor of Coloniza- 
tion and one for Abolition. 

The succeeding historical events must l>e pat^sed over 
briefly as I have wearied you too much already. Martin 
VanBuren was defeated for re-election in 1840 by General 
Harrison. The Liberty, or Abolition party made its first 
appearance that year and polled nearly 7,000 votes for 
James G. Birney for President. The presidential cam- 
paign of 1840 had been unusually hot and excited but 
that of 1844 was hotter and more fiercely contested. 
Martin VanBuren was the most prominent candidate for 
the Democratic nomination but was cast aside by the 
slave-holding interest because he was op[>osed to the an- 
nexation of Texas and James K. Polk was nominated. 
Henry Clay was the candidate of the Whig party. He 
announced that he was opposed to the annexation of 
Texas but qualified his opposition by saying that he 
would be glad to see it annexed without war, without 
disunion and with the common consent of the people. 
The Liberty party candidate was James G. Birney. A 
few days before election the Whigs (of the vicinity) held 
a meeting in Sugar Run which was addressed by Charles 
F. Welles, Sr. and was attended by WMlliam Terry, Sr., 
George Terry and others of Terrytown. Mr. Welles was 

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Anti-^SIuvtry and Movtiiaent la Hradfhrd Utntnty Jfi 

II fine 8[>eaker although it was not generally known as he 
had seldom made political speeches. He appealed 
strongly to the Abolitionists present to vote for Henry 
Clay to prevent the annexation of Texas, which if con- 
suintnated he declared would so strengthen the slave 
power as to make emancipation for ever impossible. 
Gideon Fitch of Sugar Run made a speech and during 
its delivery, paused and said: "I don't know as I am 
grammatical!" **Never mind/* said Mr. Welles, '*you are 
emphatical which is better." 

James K. Polk was elected over Henry (Jlay by a 
small majority he received in the state of New York, 
which that year was the decisive point and turned the 
scale in his favor. James G. Birney's vote was increased 
from 7,000 in 1840 to 60,000 in 1844. Sixteen of them 
being ca^t for him in Asylum township and not less than 
200 in the county. When a large territory was acquired 
from Mexico at the close of the war, David Wilmot 
whose feelings towards Slavery had greatly changed 
since 1839, offered in congress his famous "Proviso/* 
which passed the House but failed in tlie Senate. In 
1848 Martin VanBuren who professed to be in favor of 
excluding slavery from the territories, was nominated as 
the Free-Soil candidate for President and received most 
of the Abolition votes, although Gerritt Smith was the 
Liberty party candidate. Mr. VanBuren received enough 
Democratic votes to defeat General Cass, the Democratic 
candidate, which no doubt was his main object in run- 
ning, as he afterwards went back to the Democratic party 
and supported all its measures. 

The infamous Fugitive Slave law which made the free 

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44 Anti'Slavery and Movement lu Bradjord Cmiuiy 

states a cruel bunting ground for slave holders whose 
**chattels*' had disappeared and required every person 
when called upon to assist in arresting fugitive slaves, 
was passed in 1850 and then commenced the era of slave 
hunting amidst exciting scenes and sometimes bloodshed. 
In 1852 Franklin Pierce was the Democratic candidate 
for President, Gen. Winfield Scott, the Whig candidate 
and John P. Hale, the candidate of the Free Soilers and 
Abolitionists. Pierce was the favorite of the slave inter- 
est and was elected. The slave power which had full 
control of the government and having obtained all the 
benefit it could derive from the Missouri Compromise, 
repealed it in 1S54 in order to get slavery north of the 
Compromise line and make Kansas and Nebraska slave 

The "popular sovereignty" bill for organizing the terri- 
tory of Kansas which was passed in 1854, gave to the first 
settlers the power to decide for themselves whether they 
would have slavery in it or not. It might have been known 
that the right of deciding such a momentous question by 
the first residents, would cause the strife and bloodshed, 
which it did. At the first territorial election, the free 
state residents outnumbered the pro-slavery residents two 
to one, but on the day before election a small army of 
Missourians came in, took possession of the polls, elected 
the pro-slavery candidates for the territorial legislature 
and the next day returned home to Missouri. This 
fraudulent legislature, elected by non-residents assembled 
and passed laws establishing slavery in the territory and 
making it a death penalty to assist slaves to escape. 
President Pierce and President Buchanan, his successor, 

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A uti'Slavery and Movement In Bradjord County 45 

recognised these bogus laws as legal and endeavored to 
enforce them upon the people but the free state residents 
among whom was Old John Brown deprived of their 
rights at the polls, maltreated by roving bands of Mis- 
souri border ruffians, arose in their might and by force of 
arms, drove out the roving hordes banditti from Missouri 
and South Carolina and made Kansas a free state. 

Id 1856 James Buchanan was the presidential candidate 
of the Democratic party and John C. Fremont of the Re- 
publican party which had been formed by the union of the 
Liberty party, the Free Soil Democrats and the great 
body of the Whigs in the free states. The Republicans 
carried 11 states with 114 electoral votes but James Bu- 
chanan, a favorite servant of the South was elected. 
Not much more needs to be said I have kept you too 
long already. Abraham Lincoln was elected President 
by the Republican party in 1860. The fairness of his 
election was not disputed, but 11 slave states arose in re- 
bellion and levied war for four years against the govern- 
ment of the United States in order that they might es- 
tablished a great slave holding confederacy in which the 
accursed institution would be secure, supreme, perpetual. 
Their soldiers fought bravely and well in a bad cause. 
They risked everything for slavery in the wager of bat- 
tle and lost. It is believed that the people of the South 
are now as loyal to the union as the people of the North 
and the West, and that the star spangled banner floats 
over a united country, "the land of the free and the 
home of the brave.** 

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Residents At County Organization. 


*HE taxable inhabitants (all males 21 years 
old and over and females owning propi rl\) 
at the organization of Bradford «onnty 
(1812-13) as ascertained from assessment 
rolls, voting lists and other sources v;ere as fvdlows: 


hdvdiBff TMtcar*ra, WibMt, Ttrry nd Farts •( Asjlaoi ami StaBdiaff Staca. 

Benjamin Ackley 
Lloyd Ackley 
Ambrose Allen 
James Anderson 
Roswell Babcoek 
Seymour Beeman 
Stephen Beeman 
Ebenezer Bigsbv 
Eli Billings 
Joseph Black 
Linas Brister 
Allen Brown 
Daniel Brown 
('harles Brown 
Humphrey Brown 
Jabez Brown 
Israel Buck 
Elijah Cam;* 
Job Camp 
William Camp 
James Carr 

Ebenezer Lewis 
Jeremiah l^wis 
John Lewis 
Justus I^wis 
Benj Marsh 
Eliphalet Marsh 
Sidney Marsh 
Simeon Marsh 
Sylvaims Mai.sli 
Widow Marsh 
Andrew Merritt 
Daniel Merritt 
Gilbert Merritt 
John Miller 
Lydia Oviatt 
Alexander Park 
Joseph Preston 
Cornelius Quick 
James Quick 
Abraham Reeder 
Nathaniel Sabin 

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Hesidents at CmuUy Organization 

Stephen Chariot 
Edward Cogswell 
Elisha Cogswell 
Julius Cogswell 
William Crawford 
Dyer Crocker 
Isaac Custard 
Williaui Custard 
William Daltou 
Daniel Dodge 
Edmond Do^lj^e 
Oliver W. Dodge 
John Elliott 
Joseph Elliott 
John Gamble 
John Gamble, Jr. 
Justus Gaylord 
Lud Gaylord 
Timothy Gaylord 
Oliver Gilbert 
Samuel Gilbert 
Elihu Hall 
George Hall 
Abraham Hess 
Jacob Hoff 
Jacob Hoff, Jr. 
John Hoff 
John Hollenback 
Charles Homet 
Ebeuezer Horton 
John Horton 
Benj. Hurlbut 
Moses Hurlbut 
John Ingham 
Jonas Ingham 
Jonas Ingham, Jr. 
Joseph Ingham 

Nathan Scovell, Jr. 
Walter Seymour 
David Sharrick 
John Sharts 
Darius Shu m way 
Reuben Shumway 
Michael Smith 
Benj. Stalford 
John Slalford 
Joseph Stalford 
Albegence Stevens 
Raphael Stone 
Samuel Sturdevant 
John Taylor 
Jonathan Terry 
Joshua Terry 
Nathan Terry 
Nathaniel Terry 
Uriah Terry 
William Terry 
Joseph Thompson 
Thos. Updegrove 
Anthony Vanderpool 
Anthony Vanderpool, Jr. 
Peter Vanderpool 
Richard Vanderpool 
Samuel Vanderpool 
William Vanderpool 
Amos Vargason 
Ezekiel Vargason 
Elias Vaughn 
Justus Vaughn 
Shubal Vincent 
Hiram Ward 
Amasa Wells 
Cyrus Wells 
Guy Wells 

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HesidenU at County i/rgamzaiioiu 

Nidiolas Jolinson 
Richard Johnson 
Alexander Laft?vro ' 
Anthony Lafevro 
Bartholomew Laporte 

fiuniuel Wells ■ 
Isaac Wheeler 
Thos. W. Wigton 
William Wigton 
M. Miner York 


Harry Ails worth 
John Alger 
Jesse Allen 
Peter Allen 
Stephen Allen 
William Allen 
Jedediah Atwood 
John Atwood 
Joseph Atwood 
Lemuel Atwood 
Sylvester Barns 
Gamaliel H. Bar^t^>w 
Selh T. Barstx)w 
Ilichard Beehe 
Thom^8 lieeln* 
Joseph Bell 
Gideon Bennett 
Nathan Bennett 
Wilber Bennett , 
Henry Birney 
John Birney 
David Blackman 
Franklin Blackmail 
Cyrus H. Brookins 
Benjamin Brown 
Daniel Bruster . 
Willard Buck 
William BuflSngtou 


Rmm nA StaWiig StMt. 

Truman Johnsou 
William Keeler . 
Abraham Lf^nt 
John Lent 
Jo8e|4i I^nt 
Tobias Lent 
Adrin Manville 
Benjamin Martin , 
Daniel Martin 
Ralph Martin 
Ferdinand MrDuffea. 
Stephen Merithew , 
Peter Miller 
Hiram Mix 
Joshua Moger 
^SamneI Moger , 

Eiios Moody 
-AloseS Moody , 

. James Moor^ 
Harry Morgan 
,Elihu Mott 
Jacob Myer 
William Mj'er 
,Abel Newell 
sLeb Newton 
/Chintz Paine , 
John Parks • 
John Parks, Jr. 

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He%idenJU at Omnti/ OrgatwuUum 


Jtihn Bull 
Thomas Bull 
Reubeu Rumpus 
Walter Butler 
Andrew Caiman 
Mdtiliew Cannan 
El ward dgswell 
Daniel Cuolbaugb 
Moses Coolbaugb 
Peter Coolbaugb 
Samuel Coi»lbaugb 
Christopher Cowell 
Timothy Culver 
John Doltcm 
William F. Dininger 
Diiniel Drake 
Ebenezer Drake 
James Drake 
James Drake, Jr. 
William Diake 
Benj. Dresser 
Jacob Dutc'ber 
Sarah Duti-ber 
J4»hn Dver 
David Biklor 
Frederick Eiklor 
James Elliott 
John Elliott 
John L. Elliott 
Joseph Elliott 
Thomas Elliott 
William Elliott 
Elnathan Ellis 
William Ferguson 
Russell Gibbs 
Samuel D. Qoff 
Isaac Green 

Shepard Patrick 
Josiah Pierce 
Shepard Pierce 
Joseph M. Piollet 
John Post 
Peter Post 
Zachariah Price 
Jacob Primer 
David Ridgway 
Robert Ridgway 
George Scott 
John Shales 
Caleb Shores 
Joshua Shores 
Nathaniel Shores 
Samuel Shores 
William Shores 
Je^se Smith 
Jonas Smith 
Asa Stevens 
Jonathan Stevens 
Josiah Stocking 
Amasa Streator 
Jac<ib Strickland 
Benjamin Stringer 
Catharine Strope 
Henry Strope 
Margaret Strope 
Henry Tallady 
John Tallady 
Elijah Tracy 
Peter Tutch 
Ebenezer Tuttle 
Henry Tuttle 
Jacob Tuttle 
Joel Tuttle 
Josiah Tuttle 

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Risidtn'a at Louniy Organization 

Willard Green 
John Gordon 
Silas Gore 
George Hannis 
Abner C. Hiiiinan 
John Hinman 
John B. Hinman 
John Holghan 
Daniel Holley 
James Holley 
Gilbert Horton 
John Horton 
Smith Horton 
Lorenzo Hovey 
William Huyek 
Peter Johnson 

William Tuttle 
Henry Vankuren 
David Vargason 
li^aac Vargason 
Rufns Vargason 
David Vought 
John Vonght 
Abraham Wandle 
Adonijah Warner 
Walter Wheeler 
Elliott Whitney 
Jacob Wiekiaer 
John Wood 
John Wood burn 
Moses Wood burn 
Naphtali Woodburn 


IbcIm^I Mobtm, Alb«qr» OrtrtM nA Farts •! kxjimm wmi PmUiB. 

Amos Ada 
Benjamin Ada 
Adonijah Alden 
Timothy Alden 
Sarah Alger 
Isaac Allen 
Solomon Allen 
Benjamin Ashley 
Enos Bailey 
Ethan Baldwin 
John Bates 
Jonathan Benjamin 
John Benjamin 
Richard Benjamin 
Amos Bennett 
Amos Bennett, Jr^ 

Gurdon Hewitt 
Wheaton Hewitt 
Sartile Holden 
Stephen Horton 
Job Irish 
John E. Kent 
Frederick Kissell 
Ephraim Ladd 
Horatio Ladd 
Warner Ladd 
Lemuel Landers 
John Leavenworth 
Williams Lee 
James Lewis 
Archelaus Luce 
Eliphalet Mason 

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li&ndenU at County Orgaiiizatiou 


Amos Bennett, 3rd 
Benjamin Bennett 
Ozias Bingham 
David Blanchard 
Erastus Blunt 
Geori;»? Bowman 
Jacob Bowman 
John Bown)an 
Charles Brown 
Cynthia Carpenter 
Elisha Carpenter 
Ahsalom Carr 
Ed sail Carr 
Aaron Carter 
Usual Carter 
Buekley Chaapel 
Samuel Chilson 
Ebenezer P. (Mark 
Elisha Cole 
Solomon Cole 
Adam ('only 
Amos Cook 
Benjamin Coolhaugh 
William Coolhaugh 
William Coolbaugh, Jr. 
Nathan Coon 
Calvin Cranmer 
Josiah Cranmer 
Keturah Cranmer 
Noadiah Cranmer 
Samuel Cranmer 
James Daugherty 
Samuel Daugherty 
Richard Davidson 
Daniel Drake 
Nathaniel Edsall 

Amos V. Matthews 
William Means 
Hezekiah Merritt 
Daniel Miller 
Shadrach Miller 
Edward Mills 
John Mintz 
Samuel Needham 
Oliver Newell 
Abijah Northrup 
James Northrup 
John Northrup 
Lemuel Pason 
Samuel Pellet 
W^illiam Pepper 
John Pierce 
Burr Ridgway 
George Ringer 
Jacob Ringer 
Michael Ringer 
James Roals 
Abner C. Rockwell 
Moses Rowley 
Ezra Rutty 
Ezra Rutty, Jr. 
Henry Salisbury 
John D. Saunders 
Harmon Schrader 
John Schrader 
John Schrader, Jr. 
Silas Scovell 
Samuel Seely 
John Simkinson 
Seneca Simons 
Harry Spalding 
Noah Spalding 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


HeudtiUs at Louidy Organization 

Peter Edsall 
Isaac E' Is worth 
John Felton 
William Finch 
Abiel Foster 
Abraham Foster 
Isaac Foster 
Rufus Foster 
Austin Fowler 
Jonathan Fowler 
Russell Fowler 
Abraham Fox 
John Fox 
John Franklin 
William French 
William French, Jr. 
Jonathan Frisbie 
Nathan Frisbie 
Daniel Gilbert 
Moses Gladding 
Amos Goft 
Humphrey GofF 
Richard GofF 
William Goff 
John Goodwin 
John Green 
Andrew Gregg 
Ebenezer B. Gregory 
Ezekiel Griffis 
Reuben Hale 
Jonn Head 
Daniel Heverly 
John Heverly 

Obadiah SpaMing 
William B. Spalding 
Jabez Squires 
Rees Stevens 
Alphonsus C. Stewart 
Martin Stratton 
Timcithy Stiatton 
Isaac Sutton 
ElcHzer Sweet 
Solomon Talludy, Jr. 
Daniel Thompson 
EHhs Thompson 
William Thompson 
Jacob Wagner 
Moses Waiford 
Jane Watts 
Charles F. Welles 
Williston West 
Parley White 
Ananias Whitman 
Solomon Whitman 
Daniel Wilcox 
Freeman Wilcox 
R(»wland Wilcox 
Sheffield Wilcox 
Sheffield Wilcox, Jr. 
Stephen Wilcox 
Ziba Williams 
Amasa Withey 
Jared WiM)druff 
Jesse Woodruflf 
Joshua Wythe 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

KesidenUf at County Organization 



hdodiBf LeRoy nA Parts of FraakliB nA GruTilU. 

Davi<l Allen 
Nehemiali Allen 
David Andrus 
James Armstrong 
James Armstrong, Jr. 
Benjamin Babcock 
Joseph Bahcoek 
Nathaniel Babcock 
David Bailey 
Ezra Bailey 
Seoville Bailey 
Smith Bailey 
Timothy Bailey 
Abel H. Blackman 
Luther Brinks 
Charles Butterfield 
Isaac Chaapel 
Jonathan Clark 
William Clark 
Isaac Cole 
William Cole 
John Crandle 
James C Crofnt 
Seeley Crofnt 
Joanna Emmerson 
Samuel Eve ret 
Elizabelh Granteer 
Jacob Granteer 
J<»hn Granteer 
Samuel Griffin 
Isaiah Grover 
Simon Grover 
John Haxton 
Luther Hinman 

Jesse Morse 
Philip Packard 
Abraliam Palmer 
Elam Parker 
Samuel Parker 
Abraham Parkhurst 
Amy Platner 
Zoroaster Porter 
David Pratt 
David Pratt, Jr. 
Ebenezer Pratt 
Jesse Roberts 
Nathan Roberts 
Elias Rockwell 
El)enezer Rogers 
Roswell R. Rogers 
Zepheniah Rogers 
Zepheniah Rogers, Jr. 
Isaac Rundell 
Samuel Rutty 
Benjamin Saxton 
Orr Scovell 
Orr Scovell, Jr. 
Henry Segar 
Stephen Sellard 
Isaac Simons 
John Smiley 
Ezra Spalding 
Horace Spalding 
William P. Spalding 
Jeremiah Smith 
Benjamin Stone 
Daniel Stone 
Nancv Strickland 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Hrsidenls at County OrganiztUion 

Hugh Ilolcomb 
S eriing Hulcomb 
Daniel Ingrahain 
James Ingralmm 
Jacob Kingbbnry 
Aaron Knapp 
John Knapp 
John KnH[)p, Jr. 
Samuel Knapp 
Benjamin Landon 
Ezra Lantlon 
Laban Landon 
Lal)an Landon, Jr. 
Levi Landon 
Peter Latimer 
David Lindley 
Augustus Loomis 
Henry Mercur 
Gurley Marsh 
Thomas B. Miles 

Stephen Strickland 
Nathan B. Tal>er 
Reuben M. Taber 
Reuben Tower 
Aziel Taylor 
Jeremiah Taylor 
Adam VanValkenburg 
John Wntts 
David Way 
Charles Wiliox 
Daniel Wilcox 
Daniel Wilcox, Jr. 
Nathan Wilcox 
Samuel Wilcox 
Noah Wilson 
Noah Wilson, Jr. 
Oliver Woodward 
Isaac Wooster 
Philo Wooster 


iBcludiag West Bvliiiftoi, Troj and Parts of GranTiUt tnd Ntrtk Towoda. 

Amos Abbott 
Jeremiah Acker 
Adolphus Allen 
Nathaniel Allen 
Benjamin G. Avery 
Eason Bagley 
John Bailey 
Joshua Bailey 
Thomas Bailey 
John Ballard 
Nathan Ballard 
Nathaniel Ballard 

Tilly Leonard 
Daniel Loomis 
Ezra Long 
Abisha Marks 
Jesse Marvin 
James McDowell 
Benjamii! McKean 
James McKean 
John McKean 
Robert McKean 
Samuel McKean 
James Merritt 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

KesiderUs at County Organization 

Tliomns Ballard 
Churchill Barnes 
Uriah Baxter 
Jesse Beach 
(ieoige Bloom 
(leor^e Bloom, Jr, 
Joseph Bloom 
James Calkins 
Joel Calkins 
John Calkins 
Moses Calkins 
Zt»ra Calkins 
Cephas Campbell 
David Campbell 
Jamts Campbell 
James Campbell, Jr. 
William Campl)ell 
Elihn Case 
Reuben C-a^e 
Samuel ('ase 
Robert Claflin 
John Clark 
William Clark 
Jeremiah Cole 
Samuel C/onant 
Francis Cronkrile 
William Cronkrite 
Samuel Davis 
Abraham DeWitt 
Paul DeWitt 
J<»hn Dobbins 
William Dobbins 
William Dobbins, Jr. 
Zina Dunbar 
Gustavius Ellsworth 
Jehial Ferris 
John Gamage 

Thomas Merritt 
Daniel Miller . 
Derrick Miller 
Isaac Miller 
William Millet . 
Walter Minthorn 
Oliver Nelson 
William Nichols 
Stepheu Palmer 
Hannah Phelps 
John Phelps 
Nathaniel Phelps 
Beriah Prati 
Calvin Pratt 
Ephraim Pratt 
Elias Pratt 
Gilbert Pratt 
Jedediah Pralt 
William Pralt 
(Chester Prouty 
Elijah Prouty 
Benjamin Reynolds 
Charles Reynolds 
Elisha Rich 
David Ross 
John Ross 
Reuben Rowley 
David Rundell 
William Simson 
Benjamin H. Sleeper 
Elihu Smead 
Francis Smea<l 
Reuben Smead 
Silas Smith 
David Soper 
Levi Soper 
Howard Spalding 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


KetidtuU at ikmnty Urganizaium 

Ezra Giuldard 
Esra Uodilard, Jr. 
Luther Ooddard 
Luther Goddard, 2nd 
Mary Ooddard 
Eliphalet Gustin 
Tiiiiotliy H. Gustin 
George Head 
Adrial Hebard 
James Hick(»k 
Stephen Hirkok 
Lawson Heminway 
Isaac Halstead 
Charles Hutchins 
8. Henry Johnston 
Ebenezer Kendall 
Alexander Lane 
William Lane 
Horace Lebaren 

Cephas Stratton 
Joel Stevens 
Bethuel Swain 
Isaac Swain 
Isaac Swain, Jr. 
Jacob Swain 
Jacob Thomas 
Jeremiah Travis 
Aldrick Ward 
Eliphalet Waid 
James Ward 
David White 
Keul>en Will>er 
Ansel Williams 
Caleb Williams 
Da\id Williams 
Joseph Wilis 
Jeduthan Withey 


bcMyif K«al •i SWtkefdB n^ Part •! Um$. 

Joseph Atwood 
Christ<»pher Avery 
Daniel Avery 
Peter Barnard 
Samuel Bartlett 
Timothy Bartlett 
James Bid lack 
Henry Boice 
Ebenezer Brague 
Beijamin Brink 
Daniel Brink 
Amos Butler 
George W. Buttson 

William Knapp 
Edmond lx)ckwood 
Samuel Marshall 
Thomas Marshall 
Abraham Minier 
Daniel Minier 
Daniel Minier, Jr. 
Elias Minier 
John Minier 
Cyrus Niles 
Ezra Niles 
Samuel Niles 
Clark Nobles 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

KendeTat iU (Jounty Organvsatian 


Calvin Garner 
Lodowick Carner 
Luther Carner 
Isaac Cash 
Nathaniel Catcham 
John Church 
Ezekiel Curry 
Benjamin Clark 
William Clark 
Jabez Fish 
Ernest Forbes 
J. Christian Forbes 
Avery Gore 
Obadiah Gore 
Samuel Gore 
Samuel K. Gore 
Roderick Granger 
Henry Hebard 
Alexander Hebard 
Thaddeus Hemenway 
George Hicks 
John Hicks 
Henry Hiney 
Alpheus Holcomb 
Eli Holcomb 
Jared Holcomb 
Truman Holcomb 
David Horton 
Elijah Horton 
Isaac Horton 
Joshua Horton 
Richard Horton 
William Horton 
Gamaliel Jaquay 
William Jones 

Thomas Overton 
Richard Pemberton 
Russell Pemberton 
Thomas Pemberton 
Joseph C. Powell 
Mary Powell 
William Presher 
Wanton Rice 
David Rogers 
Matthew Rogers 
Robert Russell 
Elijah Saltmarsh 
Ebenezer Segar 
Ebenezer Shaw 
James Shores 
Adrial Simons 
Elijah Simons 
Jed u than Simons 
Henry Smith 
John Smith 
Joseph Smith 
Joseph Smith, Jr. 
Lockwood Smith 
John Spalding 
Obadiah Spalding 
Simon Spalding 
Peter Snyder 
William Snyder 
Jonathan Thompson 
Abraham Towner 
Samuel Tread way 
Josiah Tuttle 
Abram Westbrook 
Cherrick Westbrook 
Joseph Westcoat 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ht9Hle7it» a^ 3 CoutUy iJr^wnvuUiirn 

Daniel Kellogg 
Joseph Kingsbury 
Gieorge Kinney 
Joseph Kinney 

Ziha Westcoat 
Thomas H. White 
Jonathan Wilkinson 


lacfaidiBg Parts •{ Herrick and Rmis. 

Eleazer Allis 
Eleazer Allis, Jr. 
Silas Allis 
Jesse Barries 
Joel Barnes 
Amasa Browning 
Daniel Browning 
William Browning 
William Bush 
Luther Chaffee 
Nathaniel Chuhbucl 
Eliphalet Clark 
Anson Collins 
J( el Cook 
Joel Cook, Jr. 
Uriah Cook 
David Conklin 
John Cowles 
Stephen Cranmer 
Zeruah Cross 
Abel Darling 
Theron Darling 
Amasa Diinmick 
John Diramiek 
Simeon Dimmick 
John Dyer 
Abel Eastabrooks 
Jesse Easterhrooks 
John Easterhrooks 

James Howe 
Philo Ilowe 
Uriah Howe 
Alvin Humphrey 
Artemus Johnson 
Asahel Johnson 
Truman Johnson 
Catharine Lent 
James Lent 
Richard Lent 
Harry Knolton 
Beiu)ni Mandeville 
Benajah Martin 
Nathan Maynard 
Nathaniel P. Moody 
Drtvid Olds 
Nathan Payson 
William Payson 
Lucinda Pierce 
John Ranney 
Czar Roberts 
Elam Roberts 
Libbens Roberts 
Curtis Robinson 
Dan Russell 
Hezekiah Russell 
Hfztkiah Russell, Jr. 
Michael Russell 
Roswell Russell 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

HesiderUt at Omnty OrganiaoMon 


Stephen Easterbrooks 
William S. Easterbrooks 
Caleb Emery 
Chauncey Frisbie 
Levi Frisbie 
Cyprian Grant 
James Grant 
John Grant 
Josiah W. Grant 
Lysena Grant 
Oratio Grant 
Orente Grant 
Zachariah Grant 
Amos Green 
Chester Gridley 
Nathaniel Hiekok 
Nathaniel Hickok, Jr. 
Daniel Hill 
John Hill 
Isaac Howe 

Ebenezer Smith 
James Smith 
Samuel Starks 
Lemuel Streator 
Nathan Streator 
Thomas Thatcher 
Stephen Utter 
Achatias Vought 
Daniel Vought 
Godfrey Vought 
Joseph Vought 
John D. Wage 
William Warfield 
Arunah Wattles 
Dan Wattles 
John Wattles 
Samuel Wells 
Hezekiah West 
B. I, Woodruff 
Samuel WoodruflF 

Ambrose Allen 
Reul)en Atwood 
Reuben Baker 
Samuel Beacher 
Zina Beaman 
Josiah Benham 
Judah Benjamin 
Benajah Bennett 
Benajah Bostwiek 
Dimon Bostwiek 
John Bostwiek 
Alba Bosworth 


Part •{ Htrrkk. 

Ely Fletcher 
Bela Ford 
John Ford 
William Frink 
Rufus Goodale 
Joseph Gorham 
Ralph Gregoiy 
Isaac Hancock 
Jesse Hancoc'k 
John Hancock 
John Haywood 
Reuben Heath 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


KesidfnU at VoufUy UrganizatUni 

Joseph Bosworth 
Jositth Boswortii 
Orange Bosworth 
Salmon Bosworth 
Amasa Bo wen 
Salmon Bradshaw 
William Brad»liaw 
Henry Briggs 
Benjaniin Brink 
James Brink 
James Blink, Jr. 
Jonathan Brink 
Nicholas Brink 
Thomas Brink 
William Brink 
William Brink, 2nd 
Ezekiel Brown 
John W. Browning 
Joseph E Browning 
William Buck 
Thomas Burt 
Albert Campbell 
Joel Cogswell 
Reuben Coleman 
John Curtis 
Stephen Drinkwater 
Samuel Dyer 
Jesse Edsejl 
Samuel Edsell 
Stephen Evits 
Edmund Fairchild 
Ephraim Fairchild 
Ephraim Fairchild, Jr. 

John Holeman 
Simeon Johnson 
William Johnson 
Elisha Keeler 
Charles W. Keeler 
Samuel Lnckey 
Adolphus Martin 
Amos Northrup 
Asa Olmstead 
David Olmstead 
Ephraim Piatt 
Z pher riatt 
li>aac Pratt 
George Ranney 
Jesse RoFS 
James B. Rockwell 
Parsons 8. Rockwell 
Curtis F. Russell 
Eleazer Russell 
Matthias Scrivens 
Gould Seymour 
Isaac Seymour 
Christ<ipher Shoemaker 
Aden Stevens 
Charles Stevens 
Irad Stevens 
Jonathan Stevens 
Nathan Stevens 
Samuel Stevens 
Abraham' Taylor 
Alanson Taylor 
Simeon Taylor 
Joseph Utter 
Loomis Wells 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

iCesidenU at CourOy Organitaktni. 



hdUuf LitafieM mk Parts •! Ridfcb«r7 and SWtkaqni. 

Oliver Arnold 
Joseph Ballard 
JosihI) Ballard 
Jeptha Batierson 
Joseph Batterson 
David Bos worth 
Solomon Boswortb 
David Briggs 
Timothy Biighara 
Erastus Brookins 
John Brown 
Samuel Campbell 
Samuel Campbell, Jr. 
John Chandler 
Elijah Clark 
Biazttia Cook 
Adams Crans 
Andrew Crans 
Philip Crans 
William Crans 
Amos Credit 
Josiah Crocker 
Eiisha Decker 
Jeremiah Decker 
Polly Decker 
Asahel Dutton 
Abel Eaton 
Dan Elwell 
Nicholas Everson 
Arthur Farlin 
Joseph Farlin 
William Farlin 
Nathaniel Flower 
Zephou Flower 

Solomon Merrill 
Elias Middaugh 
Andrew Miller 
Johnston Miller 
William Miller 
Danit^l Moore 
James Moore 
John Moore 
Isaac Morley 
Isaac Morley, Jr. 
Thomas Munce 
David Murcb 
Abner Murray 
Nehemiah Northrup 
Daniel Orcutt 
John Orcutt 
Samuel, Ovensbire 
Clement Paine 
David P^ine 
Enoch Paine 
Daniel Park 
Moses Park. 
Samuel Park 
Thomas Park 
Isaac Pierce 
Asahel Porter 
Nathaniel Porter 
John O. Prentice 
James Rath 
John Redington 
Levi Rice 
M. Abisha Rice 
William Roddy 
Curtis Root 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ICeHdtfUn at -Ou^Vity ihyanuation 

John Franklin 
Stephen Fuller 
William Gernert 
Alpheus Gillett 
Freeman Gillett 
Alfred Granger 
Elijah Granger 
Asa Grant 
Benjamin F. Greene 
Harry Greene 
LfOdowick Greene 
Samuel Greene 
John Griffin 
Ahner Darkness 
Alpheus Harris 
Jonathan Harris 
Samuel Harris 
George Head lock 
Eilward Herrick 
James Herrington 
Samuel Hilman 
Stephen Hopkins 
Benoni Hulett 
Thomas Huston 
Parley Jennison 
Peter Jennison 
Twiss Jennison 
J. A. Jacob Johnson 
Stephen Johnson 
Isaiah Jones 
EInathan Lewis 
Erastus Loomis 
Theodorus Loomis 
Wright Loomis 
Jacob Marcellius 
Constant Matthewson 

David Ross 
Elizabeth Saltmnrsh 
John Saltmarsh 
Daniel Satterlee 
Elisha Satterlee 
Jobn F. Satterlee 
Nathaniel Satterlee 
John Shepard 
John Sliippey 
Asahel Smith 
Francis Snechenberger 
Abraham Snell 
AViraliam Snell, Jr. 
Jacob Snell 
John Snell 
Samuel Snell 
Ozias Spring 
Nathaniel Squires 
Peter Squires 
J(»hn Spalding, 2nd 
Margaret Spalding 
Chester Stephens 
Ransom Stephens 
Sibyl Stephens 
John Swain 
William Tharp 
Julius Tozer 
Absalom Travis 
Francis Tyler 
James VanAllen 
Samuel Vangorder 
William Vangorder 
John Watkins 
William Watkins 
George Welles 
Henry Welles 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

HmderUi at 

County . Orgc^ny^i^ 


Elizabeth Mattliewson 

Jolin Westbrook 

Rt)l)ert MeAllioes 

Josiah White 

S.imuel MrAlhoes 

Thomas Wilcox 

- • * ' 

Daniel McDutfee 

Elijah Willoby 

Daniel McDuttee, Jr. 

Samuel Wilson 

Hugh McDuffee 

Thomas Wilson 

John McDulfte 

William Wisner 

Neil McDuffee 

Elijah Wolcott 

Samuel McKinney ' 

John Wolcott 

William Mead 

Silas Wolcott 

Eleazer Merrill 

Benjamin Wynkoop 

Eleazer Merrill, Jr. 


Jaraes Arnold 

Nathan Coburn 

William Arnold 

Parley Coburn 

William Arnold, Jr. 

Aaron Corbin 

Alfred Allyn 

LeRoy Corbin 

Joseph Armstrong 

Penuel Corbin 

Benjamin Buffington 

Relief Corbin 

Luther Buffington 

Simeon Decker 

Preserved Buliington 

Lebeus Harris 

William Buffington 

Jeremiah R. Jenks 

Abner Bowen 

Livingston J^nks 

George Bowen 

Obediah Merrill 

James Bowen 

George Pendleton 

Moses Buflum 

Jacob Rogers 

Arunah Case 

Elnathan Spalding 

Benjamin Case 

Charles Sutton 

Benjamin T. Case 

Robert Sutton 

Amos Coburn 

Edward Tripp 

Ebenezer Coburn 

Elisha Tripp 

Jonathan Coburn 

Joseph Tripp 

Moses Coburn 

Nathan Young 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


ICmdenii at Vomitty Oryanvuuian 


Hezekiah Barnes 
Darius Brainard 
Jeptba Brainard 
Jeptlia Brainard, Jr. 
Levi Brainard 
William Brown 
Abel Bruster 
Oliver Corbin 
Daniel Doane 
Daniel Doane, Jr. 
Setb Doane 
Abrabam Dunbam 
Hezekiab Dunbam 
Joanna Dunbam 
Jobn Dunbam 
Samuel Dunbam 
Jonab Fox 
Russell Fox 
Tbomas Fox 
Garret Hamel 

Augustus Hulon 
Parley Jobnson 
James Mapes 
Arunab Moore 
Jonatban Pease 
Henry Quadic 
James Rogers 
Edmund Russell 
Beiijan)in Sboemaker 
Amos Smitb 
Asabel Smitb 
Jared Smitb 
Orange Smith 
Stepben Smitb 
Amos Verl>eck 
Henry Verbeck 
Jacob Verl»eck 
Arnold Wbitford 
Benjamin Wbitmarsh 
Tbomas Wrigbt 

Isaac Baldwin 
Vine Baldwin 
James Bartlett 
William Bartlett 
Stepben Bates 
Abisba Batterson 
Samuel Bennett 
Tbomas Bentley 
Noab Bevier 
Joseph Bougbton 
Tbomas Brunson 


Reuben Horton 
George Hyde 
Itbamer Judson 
Solomon Judson 
Jonatban Kent 
Zepbeniah Knapp 
Peter Laffler 
Levi Matterson 
James Mitchell 
Asa Moore 
Jesse Moore 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

ICeiidentB at Omnty OrgimimUiofi 


Elijah Calhoun 
Ut^iiHJah Campbell 
Eunice Campbell 
James Campbell 
Ji>el Campbell 
Jonatiian Campbell 
Nathan Cau)pbell 
Silas Campbell 
William Campbell 
Joseph Castaliue 
Aarou Cook 
Deliverance Cook 
Jonathan Cook 
Samuel Criss 
John Cummings 
James Dewey 
Jesse Edsall 
Samuel Edsall 
Abial Fuller 
Isaac Fuller 
Lemuel Fuller 
William Fuller 
Lemuel Gaylord 
Jeremiah Graves 
Morris Hatfield 
Richard Hatfield 

Joseph Moore 
William Moore 
Levi Osgood 
William Osgood 
Griswold Owen 
Joseph Parker 
Joseph Parker, Jr. 
Asa Pierce 
Isaac Pierce 
Israel Rickey 
Israel Rickey, Jr. 
William Roberts 
George Rowley 
Peter Rowley 
Shubael Rowley 
Alberson Ruliff 
Bartlett Seely 
Benjamin Seely 
Strong Seely 
Francis Smith 
Aaron Stiles 
Enos Stiles 
Job Stiles 
Joseph Tice 
Lebeus Tubs 

David Allen 
Samuel Allen 
Thomas Barrows 
John Bassett 
Caleb L. Beals 
David Beals 
Jesse Beals 
Joseph Beals 


Reuben Mitchell 
Israel Morse 
Solomon Morse 
Solomon Morse, Jr. 
Elias Needham 
Elias Needham, Jr. 
Francis Needham 
Timothy Needham 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


JieHdtnto at Vvunty Organization 

Reuben Beats 
Darius Bullock 
Ezra Califf 
Stephen Culiff 
Thomas Chaddon 
Thomas Coleman 
William Complon 
David Couch 
•Drtvid Couch, Jr. 
Kinney Dt-Wilt 
James DeWolf 
Asahel Dutton 
Isaac Eames 
Joshua Eames 
Zepheniah Eames 
Christopher Eld ridge 
Jabez Fletcher 
Jonas Ford 
Noah Ford 
Ephraim B. Gerould 
Jahez Gerould 
George Gerould 
Ziba Gerould 
Asa Hackett 
Oliver Haj's 
Oliver Hays, Jr. 
Chauncy Kellogg 
Samuel Kellogg 
Isaiah Kingsley 
Sloan Kingsley 
Anson Mitchell 
Edward Mitchell 

Abner W. Ormsby 
Levi Ormsby 
Ebenirzer Pease 
Jared Phelps 
Jared Phelps, Jr. 
Ralph Phelps 
A hi ram Pierce 
John L. Pierce 
Phineas Pierce 
Jdhn Randeil 
Ste[>hen Randeil 
Dutee Rice 
James Satteilee 
Samuel Satterlee 
Samuel Salterlee, Jr. 
Asahel Scott 
Jcihn Sc(»tt 
William Scott 
A'vin Storking 
Tiniothy Stratton 
Mary Sumner 
David Titus 
Stephen Titus 
J. Olmstead Tracy 
Neheminh Tracy 
EiiJHh D. Walker 
Selh Ward 
Addihon Williams 
Constant Williams 
Moses Wood 
Samuel Wood 
Charles Wood worth 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

HetidentB at OmrUjf OrganiMoHoh 



laclsdiaf a Scctuni of Troy. 

Thomas Alexander 
Israel Allen 
Gains Adams 
(Jonkliii Baker 
John Barber 
Joseph Baiber 
JSolomon Barber 
Tltomas Barber 
Thomas Barber, Jr. 
Ddvid Bardswell 
Seymour Batterson 
Siephen lilies 
William Brace 
Adin Brown 
SSamuel Caiiipbell 
Aaron Case 
Solomon Cook 
Isaac Coolly 
Abel Eaton 
William Eaton 
William Evans 
Elisha b'anning 
Philo Fassett 
William Faulkner 
Abel Fuller 
Oliver Gates 
William Gates 
Elijah Gay lord 
George Grace 
Joseph Grace 
Guidon Giover 
Josepli Grover 
Abner Uarkness 
Alexander Harkuess 

James Uarkness, 2nd 
James R. Ilaikness 
John Harkness 
William Harkness 
Thaddeus Hastings 
Amos Hnues 
Abel Leonard 
Asaph U. Leonard 
Ezekiel Leonard 
Ezekiel Leonard, Jr. 
Theodore Leonard 
James Mattocks 
Jaci»b Newell 
John Nichols 
James Ottei*son 
Robert Oiterson 
John Parkiiurst 
Reuben Parmeter 
Henry Parsons 
Austin Pennock 
Wilmot Peters 
Charles Phillips 
William Pierce 
Luke Pitts 
Thomas Porter 
Samuel Rt)ckwen 
lihabod Smith 
Elihu Spear 
Joshua Spear 
Richard Sweet 
Stephen A. Sweet 
Amaziah Thayer 
Joshua Thayer 
Thomas Wheeter 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


HeddMiU at Ocmnty Urganmoum 

Amos Harkness 
Ebenezer Haikness 
Jacob Harkness 
James Harkness 
James Harkness, Jr. 

Lemuel White 
Nehemiah Wilson 
Henry Wiltsey 
Joseph us Wing 

Simon Baldwin 
David Ball 
Samuel Ballard 
Joseph Battcrson 
Joseph Beaman 
Isaac Benson 
James Benson 
Oliver Bensley 
John Bixhy 
Peter Button 
Oliver Canfield 
James Chapin 
Lorenzo Chapin 
Samuel Chapin 
Ami Collins 
Robert Early 
Richard Edsall 
David Edi<all 
Judson Furman 
Peter Furman 
William Furman 
Peter Gernert 
Sheldon Gibbs 
Wareham Gibbs 
Elnathan Goodrich 
David Hakes 
Solomon Hakes 
Solomon S. Hakes 


hcli^if a S«ctiM of Traj. 

Calvin Merritt 
Nathaniel Meiritt 
Reuben Merritt 
William Merritt 
Daniel Miller 
Chapman Morgan 
James Mctrgan 
Nathaniel Morgan 
Benoni Morse 
Eleazer Mulford 
Reuben Nash 
David Palmer 
David Palmer, Jr. 
Eli Parsons 
Eli Parsons, Jr. 
James Parsons 
Kellogg Parsons 
C^ilburn Preston 
Levi Prt-ston 
Comfort Peters 
Simeon Powers 
Rufus Pratt 
Thomas Rex ford 
Philip Robbins 
William Rose 
Adam Seeley 
Benjamin Seeley 
Joseph Seeley 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

JCesidentB at Vaunhf Organitatwn 


Harvey Harris 
Daviil R. Haswell 
Stephen Hitchcock 
Asa Hiiwe 
Ebenezer HuDburt 
Samuel Hullburt 
Zacheus Hullburt 
William Johnson 
Asa Jones 
Pliiiieas Jones 
Stt'pheii Jones 
Charles Keyes 
James Lamb 
Levi Lamphere 
Samuel Lamphere 
Allen Lane 
Allen Lane, Jr. 
Thomas Lewis 
John Li I ley 
Joseph Lillibri<1ge 
Joseph Lillibri<lge, Jr. 
Isaac Mats<m 
James Matson 
Shulml Maynard 
Allen McArthur 
Frederick McClelland 
John McClelland 
John W. McClelland 

Silas Smith 
William Smith 
Levi Soper, Jr. 
Roger Soper 
Solomon Soper 
Thomas Spencer 
Aaron Squires 
Jabes Squires 
Cyprian Stevens 
John Stone 
Oliver Stone 
Burton Strait 
Samuel Strait 
Charles Taylor 
Moses Taylor 
Calvin Tinkham 
David Watkins 
Otis Watson 
William Webber 
William Webber, Jr. 
John West 
Issac Wheeler 
Moses Wheeler 
John Wither 
Michael Wolf 
Jabez Wood 
Daniel Woodward 
Thomas Wright 

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Bradford County Centenarians. 

HE December meeting (1913) of tLe Sockly 
jP Vt was devotid lo llie cdisidt tatit ii (I Biad- 
ford Com ty CiiittnaiiaiiS. The mljtct 
was ii.tnductd hy Librarian C. F. Hixerly 
who unvtihd lie gnup ol loitiaits, giviig a sl»c rt 
sketch of each of the ctntenaiians witli con n.cnt as lo 
marked characterislics. He was folhiWtd by M. E. 
ChubLuck wlio rtciUd inlcrtsting nniii.iscii cis of liis 
great uncle, Era&lus Lovttl. Mis. Sihiyvei gave lecol- 
lections of her giai.dfaiher, Johliua Sl^tTts ami a veix in- 
teresting letler was read wiilUn Ij Mis. Wni. S. Biles, 
aged 8P, the only turviving menibtr of ihe J<.^bua 
Shores family. Justus A. Record, the ohlett man in ihe 
county, gave a very clear and inbrcstii g hitloiy if his 
own life. Twelve desctudants of the ccnltnariai.s were 

The county centenarians of wlicm proof of age has 
been established ^tre in cider as follox^s: 


Mrs. Elizabeth Myers 

172y— August 22, 1834. 
Mrs. Sarah (Crawford) KorthrupIIowdek 

1732— March 5, 1837. 
Sartile H olden 

1760— July 1, 1850. • 
Ebenezer Shaw 

Se^t. 6, 1771— Dec. 17, 1871. 

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Bradford County Centenariana 71 

Abraham Mack 

June 4, 1775— October 9, 1875. 
George Murphy 

Sept. 30, 1778— January 27, 1879. 
Joshua Shores 

August 4. 1780— Nov. 8, 1880. 
Mrs. Elizabeth (Wclber) Du.nning 

January 26, 1780— February 13, 1884. 
William Andrbss 

March, 1785— November 18, 1885. 
Erastus Lovett 

Decern l>er 18, 178G— January 19, 1891. 
Mrs Betsey (Morley) Lewis 

Mirch 18. 1801— January 29, 1903. 
Israel Parshall Burt 

March 1*.). 1801— Dec. 27, 1904. 
Mrs. Eliza Ann (Merry) McKean 

Nov. 14, 1807— July 18. 1909. 
Samuel Overpeck 

Jany. 25. 1810— July 4, 1910. 
Mrs. Anne (Lewis) Wright 

Oct. 12. 1313— Living (Dec. 1914). 

The Shaw family is the only one contributing two 
centenarians, Ebenezer and his sister Hannah [Mrs. 
Townsend ] 

Sartile Holden was a Soldier of the Revolution and 
Win. Andresi and Erastus liovett sohliers of the War of 

Erastus Lovett was the bachelor centenarian while 
Richard Vanderpool was twice married and the father of 
20 children. 

Mrs. Dunning and Mrs. Cranmer were each three 
times married, the former at the age of 16. Abraham 

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79 Bradford C&unty Centenarians 

Mace married when 45 years old and Mrs. North rup the 
second time at the age of 98. 

The ages of the centenarians date back to 1721. 
Those of whom pictures have been obtained are Eben- 
ezor Shaw, Abraham Mace, Joi^hua Shores, Mrs. Dunning, 
Erastus Lovett, Richard Vanderpool, Israel P. Burt, 
Mrs. McKean, Samuel Overpeck and Mrs. Wright. 


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Eleventh Annual Old People's Meeting. 

yy^C^NOTHER flny of joy, pleasure and sii 
II A II June 27, 1914, the eleventh annual 
\\ ^ // ing of the Old People of Bradford 
2l}x-#^xUj under the auspii^os of the Bradft>rd 

NOTHER day of joy, pleasure and sunshine, 

lUal meet- 
auspii^os of the Bradft>rd County 
Hifttt»riral Stuiety, has passed into history. The day was 
ideal an<l the ciowd, an ui u>ually bright and ha[ipy one, 
just the right size to reap the fullest enjoyment. Some of 
the old faces weie mi^sing but there were many new 
onis to take their place and nearly every section of the 
county uas representtd. The forenoon was tiken up in 
receiving the old people at the rooms of the Society, 
registering and providing badges. Old friends and com- 
rades spent a busy, ]»Iiasant hour. The la<lies of the 
Village hnprovement Sciciity in a gracious manner 
boktd to the comfort of the venerable |)eoi»leand served 
tea and cakes. 

At 1:30 o'clock the doors of the Keystone Opera House 
were thrown open and the old people were promptly on 
hand to perform their parts and enjoy the pleasures of 
the afternoon. Veterans of the Civil War, under com- 
mand of Sergeant John H. Chaffee, bearing the old flag 
and headed by the Boy Sct>ut2» drum corps, assisted l»y 
Kted Dunfee, Andrew D. Ipeuch and F. M. Vought with 
drums and fife, marched down Main street to the step of 
martial music. Upon their arrival everything was ready 
for the historic performance, which was put in motion by 

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IJf Eleventh A^niuul Old People's Meeting 

Secretary J. Andrew Wilt who in a fitting and happy 
manner, heartily welcomed the old people and made 
them feel at home. Sergeant Jay Thomas, the 80-year 
old veteran with powerful and pleasing voice, sang "Old 
Folks at Home** and responded to a hearty encore with 
"Nellie Gray." As he concluded the curtain went up 
and a scene presented, real and inspiring, hringing forth 
prolonged applause. Arranged in a semi-circle, all busy 
and clad in the olden style were Mrs. Daniel Heverly 
spinning flax and next to her, her aged husband with 
whom she had s[)ent 64 years married life ; Mrs. Mary 
Shoemaker spinning wool and her 77-year old twin 
sister, Mrs. Hannah Swackhammer, operating the reel; 
Mrs. Mary Decker knitting and beside her Mrs. Emeline 
Leavitt, the oldest D. A. R. in the state ; Mrs. C. A. Mc- 
Intyre delightfully tending baby in the old fashioned 
cradle; David Horton churning; I. L. Young hatcheling 
flax and Elisha Cole carding. Justus A. Record, the 
oldest man in the county, occupied a seat in front and 
next to him was seated the venerable J. Washington 
Ingham. Veterans of the Civil War occupied seats back 
of the performers. Mrs. Jane Durie, one of the oldest 
twins in the state, Josiah Rinebold and Mrs. Evaline 
Bennett occupied seats in the box. The other old peo- 
ple were seated in front of the stage. 

At this point of the entertainment Librarian C. F. 
Heverly took charge of the program, describing features 
and introducing the old people and their parts. Mr. 
Record, aged nearly 99 years, responded in well chosen 
words and concluded by singing in excellent voice **In 
the Sweet Bye and Bye." He was lustily applauded. 

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Eleventh Anrnuil Old People's Meeting 75 

Miss Frederica Schmauch gave a delightful violin solo 
and Sergeant Thomas sang "Shelling Green Peas" and 
again being called ^rendered with action **The Gay 
Cavalier." Little Clement Heverly, dressed in his Indian 
suit, at this point, caused merriment by quietly working 
his way to the cradle and stealing the baby and making 
off with it. He was intercepted by one of the soldiers, 
marched back with the baby, restored it to its mother 
and conluded by stepping to the front and reciting 
"Grandpa's Spectacles." H. S. VanOrman of Warren 
drew some political pictures in rhyme that were both 
amusing and fitting to present conditions. Mrs. Leavitt 
of Canton, aged 80, recited beautifully of the olden times 
and was greatly enjoyed by all. " Massa's in the Cold 
Ground" was sung with true pathos by Sergeant Thomas 
and the orchestra followed with a pretty selection. Miss 
Helen Davis, a trained elocutionist, recited beautifully 
and was generously applauded. H. B. Iveson of Warren 
very fittingly addressed the old people and gave inter- 
esting reminiscences of the advent of his father's family 
into this country and Warren. Quietly little Marion 
Heverly with her basket of flowers was passing among 
the veterans and old people, pinning a bouquet on the 
breast of each. 

The Boy Scouts made a fine appearance and acquitted 
themselves with credit in their drill under Gen. Joseph 
M. Califf, who gave a brief history of the organization, 
object and accomplishments. Lively music by the 
orchestra and "Silver Threads Among the Gold," beauti- 
fully rendered by Sergeant Thomas, were introductory to 
the most inspiring scene. After roll-beats and taps of 

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76 Elevtnth Annual Old Feople^s Meeting 

the drum by Reed Dunfee, Sergeant John H. CbaSee 
commanding, marclied upon the stage with his company, 
consisting of Andrew Morrison, color sergeant, Reed W. 
Dunfee snare drum, Andrew J. Delpeuch bass drum, F. 
M. Vought, fifer, Henry Dixon, color guard, Juni W. 
Allen, Josiah H. Bosworth, Delanson Fenner, David 
Latton, Smith D. B.irnum, Elisha Cole, Woodford C. 
May, Embeiy A. Peareall, H. A. Vail and I. L. Young. 
The lineup was grand, inspiring and brought forth ex- 
pressions of admiration an<l prolonged applause. Then 
came the commands in ringing tones, th« different brills 
being executed with remarkable celerity and exactness 
by the boys of 50 years ago. Resting the company 
Sergeant Thomsis sang very louchingly **While in the 
Prison Still I Sit." Commander Chaffee called attention 
to the touching picture and having its living representa- 
tives in the men standing on the stage, the horrors and 
bloody experiences they passed through and that 
exactly 50 years ago today they were facing the enemy 
before Petersburg. As he pointed to the colors the boys 
gave three lusty cheers for the old flag, the audience 
joining in the demonstration. After further exhibilion 
with gHns, Sergeant Thomas joined the boys in his patri- 
otic medley, "Marching Through Georgia," "Rally Round 
the Flag," and "Johnie Comes Marching Home." Action 
accompanied the words and the old veteran handled 
himself like a boy in his teens in his splendid rendition. 
The others caught up the refrain and made the old walls 
ring with war-time melody, then in a graceful manner ' 
marched from the stage. 

Following stirring music from the orchestra, the prize 

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Eleventh Annual Old People's Meeting 77 

winners were brought and seated on the stage; the oldest 
lady being Mrs. E\raline Bennett of Athens, born August 
22, 1827, and the oldest gentleman, Josiah Riuebold of 
Sayre, born May 2, 1823. Librarian Heverly gave a 
short history of each of the aged people, presenting Mrs. 
Bennett a handsome silver loving cup and Mr. Rinebold 
a fine silver mounted cane. The orchestra discoursed 
enlivening music, bringing to a close a most happy and 
historic event. 

Meeting Notes 

Josiah Rinebold, who won the silver mounted cane, 
and his wife are the oldest couple in the county, having 
been married May 21, 1847. 

Nearly all the soldiers participating in the drill Sat- 
urday are great-grandsons of patriots of the Revolutiou, 

Smith D. Barnum of Waverly, who was in the soldier 
drill, went out with the Bradford county boys in the 
141st and was promoted to captain of U. S. colored troops. 

The oldest native born in attendance was H. S. Clark 
of Towanda and the oldest soldier of the Civil War, Dan- 
iel Heverly of Overton, the youngest soldier being his 
cousin, J. Andrew Wilt of Towanda. 

Saturday was also the 77th anniversary of the birth of 
veteran Henry Dixon, color guard on the stage. 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Heverly of Overton, who took 
part in the exercises have been married 64 years, and 
have 28 grandchildren and 16 greatgrand-children. 

There were about 150 persons over 70 years in attend- 
ance. The following is a list of those who registered 
with date of birth: 

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78 Elevtuth Aii7iuul Old People^ 8 Meeting 

Justus A. Record, Dec, 25, 1815, Towanda. 

Josiah Rirtebold, May 2, 1823, Sayre. 

H, S. Clark, Sept 14, 1823, Towanda. 

J. W. Ingham, Oct. 21, 1823, Towanda. 

Rev. A, B. Schermerborn, March 29, 1824, Asylum. 

David HortoD. Jany. 25, 1826, Sheshequin. 

Evalioe Bennett, Aug 22, 1827, Athene, 

Jane Durie, Dec. 25, 1827, Wysox. 

John Lenox, April 12, 1828, Monroeton. 

Anna Scott, May 8, 1828, Towanda. 

Daniel Beverly, Oct. 25, 1828, Overton, 

Theodore Watson, Dec. 26, 1828, Waverly, N. Y. 

Elizabeth Shaffer, , 18J8. Overton. 

Mary Vargason, July 18, 18*29. Towanda. 
John I. Westover, Jany. 15, 18.30, Towanda, 
Addison Grace, July 11, 18.'30, Asylum. 
Michael Mcintosh, Dec. 23, 1831, Michigan. 
Jeremiah Kilmer, April 26, 1832, Sheshequin. 
John B. Raymond, Oct. 1, 1832, Smithtield. 
1. B. Decker, Dec. 15, 1832, Wysox. 
J. W. Bonney, Jany. 30, 1833, LeRoy. 
E. H. Jacoby, May 12, 1833, Asylum. 
C. P. Pendleton, July 5, 1833, Warren. 
Alexander Kinney, July 24, 1^33, New Albany. 
Richard McCabe, Jany. 5, 1834, Rotue. 
John R Thomas, Feby. 5, ia34, Williamsport. 
Elizabeth Brink, Sept. 30, 1834, Towanda. 
Elizabeth Heverly, Sept. 19, 1834, Overton. 
Charles Rutty, Oct. 4, 1834, Towanda. 
Emeline Leavitt, Oct. 22, 1834, Canton. 
James E. Hardy, Nov. 5, 1834, Kentucky. 
Isaac Vincent, Mch. 14, ia35, Towanda. 
M. W. Coolbaugh, April 2, 1835, Towanda. 
P. E. Woodruff, May 28, 1835, LeRaysville. 
Thos. J. Roof, July 11, 1835, Standing Stone. 
8. A. Chaffee, Dec. 5, 1835, Orwell, 
Dr. E. D. Payne, July 3, 1836, Towanda. 
I. L. Young, July 4, 1836, Sheshequin. 
G. W. Bosworth, Sept. 17, 1836, LeRaysville. 
H. A. Vail, Sept. 20, 1836, Towanda. 

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Eleventh Annual Old People's Meeting 79 

Wm, Pierce, Sept 30, 1836, Pike. 

J. D. Johnson, Oct. 26, 1^36, Towanda. 

J. A. Bosworth, Nov. 13, 1836, Wysox, 

Daniel Walborn, Nov. 21, 1836, North Towanda. 

Mrs. E. A. Sec^raves, Jany. 8, 1837, Camptown. 

Armena Robinson, Apr. 16, 1837, Rome. 

Mary Shoemaker, May 2, 1837, Towanda. 

Hannah Swackhammer, May 2, 1837, Towanda. 

W. C. May, May 1, 1837, Towanda. 

Margaret Camp, May 27, 1837, Towanda. 

J. H. Allen, June 6, 1837, Rome. 

Henry Dixon, June 27, 1837, Ulster. 

P. P. Brennan, Oct 20, 1837, Liberty Corners. 

Mrs. Sterling Dixon, Nov. 3. 1837, Towanda. 

Rebecca Herman, Dec. 7, 1837, Wysox. 

Mrs. Mary C. Decker, Feby. 18, 1838, Wysox. 

Callie Kellum, May 36, 1838, Towanda. 

Jos. T. Hested, May 23, 1838, New Albany. 

A. T. Lilley, June 9, 1838, LeRoy. 

J. F. Shoemaker, June 22. 1838, Waverly. 

J. W. Allen, June 22, 1838, Towanda. 

H. B. Iveson, July 1, 1838, Warren. 

Nancy E. Dyer, July 5, 1838, Wysox. 

Mrs. Robert Neiley, Aug. 27, 1838, Asylum, 

H. P. Mead, Sept 14, 1838, Towanda. 

H. H. Cranmer, Dec. 13, 1838, Monroe. 

Wm. T. Horton, Apr. 9, 1839, Towanda. 

David Lattin, April 9, 1839. Monroe ton. 

G. a. Bowen, April 13, 1839, Warren. 

R Brague. Apr. 29, 1839, Towanda. 

D. P. Haight, May 18, 1839, Burlington. 

Mrs. James Ely, May 25, 1839, New Albany. 

Mrs. C. C. Whitney, July 7. 1839, Wysox, 

James Forbes, Sept. 28, 1839, Say re. 

Martha Mingos, Dec. 25, 1839, Monroeton. 

H. S. VanOrman, Jany. 9, 1840, Warren. 

Chas. L. Stewart Jany. 10, 1840, Towanda. 

Diton Phelps, Mch. 5, 1840, Smithfield. 

Daniel Vanderpool, Mch. 10, 1840, Terry. 

Capt. S. D. Barnum, Apr. 20, 1840, Waverly. 

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80 Eleventh Anntud Old People's Meeting i 

Malita Corson, Apr. 20, 1840, Standing Stone. \ 

S. G. Barner, May 5, 1840, She8hequio. I 

C. T, Arnold, May 16, 1840, Windham. ' 

Clarissa Baker, June 21, 1840, Burlington. 

W. F. Merrick, Aug. 15, 1840, Moiiroeton. 

W. M. Kintner, Nov. 10, 1810, Towanda. 

Hugh Crawford, Nov. 28, 1840, Canton. * 

T. S. Brennan, Dec. 26, 1840, Monroe. 

Mary A. Huflf, Jany. 1. 1841, Wysox. 

£. A. Pearsoll, May 28, 1841, Uistt-r. 

Sarah Preston, May 10, 1841, Towanda. 

Mrs. I&aac Vincent, Mch. 18, 1841, Towanda. 

C. L, Pratt, May 19, 1841, New Albany, 

B. W. Bradley, May 21, 1841, Litchfield. 

T. J. Hannon, Aug. 4, 1841, Towanda. 

Ava P. Lane, Oct. 15, 1841, Towanda. « 

John R. Allen, Nov. 7, 1841, Albany. 

J. C. Anderson, Dec. 29, 1841, Wysox. 

Elisba Cole, Mch. 4, 1842, Towanda, 

Geo. R. Allis, March 20, 1842, Rome. 

Victoria Layton, Mch. 22, 1842, Towanda. 

Elizabeth Lee, May 18, 1842, Camptown. 

Delanson Kellogg, May 26, 1842, Monroeton. 

Andrew Morrison, June 10, 1842, Ulster. 

Aaron J, Edsall, June 11, 1842. Albany, 

H. P. Terry, Aug. 3, 1842, Wyalusing. 

Eliza Rundell, Aug. 22, 1842, North Towanda, 

Rebecca Mann, Sept. 4, 1842, W>sox. 

George Corson, Dec. 8, 1842, Standing Stone. 

J, L. Morris, April 29, 1843, Rome. 

Jacob A. Kniffin, May 29. 1843, Smithfield. 

John H. Chaffee, July 13, 1843 bhehhequin. 

Thomas Lym h, Aug. 23, 1843, Towanda. 

Judson B. English, Nov. 10, 1843, New Albany. 

Henry H. Bentley, Nov. 15, 1843, Towahda. 

Reed W. Dunfee, Jany 8, 1844. Monroeton. 

Delanson Fenner Feby. 7, 1644, lo^^ai da. 

Abbie Williams, June 23, 1844, Towanda. 

Wm. Spangenberg, June 24 1844, Sheshequin, 

Martha Park. Wyalusing. 

Gen. Joseph M. Califf, Towanda. 

Seneca L. Arnold, Towanda. 

James Lewis, Towanda. 

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Eleventh Annual Old People^ s Meetivg 81 

The Prize Winners, 

The oldei't lady and oldest gentleman (and age at date 
of winning prize) who have carried off the honors at the 
several meetings, were as follows: 

1904 — Mrs Almira Gleason, 98 years, Towanda; 
died at 91) years. 
William Guiffis, 90th year, Towanda. 
1905 — Mrs. Eliza McKkan, 98 J years, Towanda; died 
at 101 yrj*. and 8 mos. 
Francis Cole, 96th year, Athens. 
1906 — Samuel Overpeck, 97th year, Herrick; died at 
100| years. 
Mrs. Emma Irvine, 89th year, Hornets Ferry. 
1907 — John Black, 93i years, LeRaysville. 

Mk«. Martha Bullock, 92d year, Troy. 
1908 — Orrin Brown, 97th year, Canton; died at 99 
yrs. and 8 mos. 
Mrs. Julia Smith, 92nd year, Ulster. 
1909 — * Justus A. Record, 93 J years, Towanda. 

Mrs. Harriet A. Nichols, 88th year, Monroe- 
1910 — *Mrs. Anne Wright, 96 yrs. and 8 mos., Ulster; 
living at 101 yrs. 
Samuel Billings, 94J years, Towanda; died 
at nearly 99 years. 
1911 — *Mrs. Naomi C. Irvine, 90 years. New Albany. 

John Ennis, 90 years, Standing Stone. 
1912 — Cornelius Bump, 90 yrs. 4 mos., Wyalusing. 

Mrs. Dorcas Dayton, 88J years, Towanda. 
1913 — George I. Norton, 94 years, Rome. 
♦Caroline Lent, 87J years, Rome. 
1914 — *JosrAH RiNEBOLD, 91 yrs and 2 mos., Sayre, 
*Mrs Evaline Bennett, 86 yrs and 10 mos., 
Those marked with a {*) are still living (1914). 

—The Bradford Star, 

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A Remarkable Meeting 

Thursday, October 1, 1914 was a notable occasion at 
the home of Sergeant John H. Cliaffee, president of the 
Bradford Countj^ Historical Society, in Hornbrook when 
he royally entertained three comrades who had served 
with him in the same company and all sergeants. It 
was most remarkable that four sergeants out of the same 
company could meet in reunion oO years after their ter- 
rible trials, but more remarkable still that each of these 
sergeants bore the scars of battle, had been at the fore in 
many of the fiercest engagements of the w; 
for meritorious conduct and served until 
conflict. Sergeant Chaffee*s guests were 
worth of East Towanda, Nelson C. Dj 
Kansas and Robert Hatch of New Alba 
formation of the 141st P. V. in August, J 
boys enlisted in Company B and were wit 
regiment" three years or until the end, 
surrender of General Lee. Chaffee, Dv 
were wounded at Chancellorsville and B 
tysburg. Dyer was again wounded at 
and Chaffee before Petersburg. All h; 
breadth escapes and it would, indeed, 1 
umns to recite their brave acts and thrilli 
All jolly good fellows made the most of army life and 
have ever since looked upon rhe bright side of things. 

Another phase of this notable reunion was that the 
wives of the four sergeants were also present to enjoy the 
day and listen to the tales of the humorous side of army 
life recited by their mischievous soldier husbands. Af- 

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Four Notable SergganU 

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ter all partook of a magnificent chicken dinner and the 
spirit of gladness was at its height, Photographer Ott of 
Towanda appeared in auto. Levelling his camera the 
veterans never flinched and when he pulled the string 
they were still in order, primed with good nature as the 
gentlemen above. Then to complete the scene the wives 
of the veterans were placed in^position and all pictured to- 
gether. It truly was a joyous day and v.dien the end 
came all were loathe to separate, fully realizing that it 
was probably the last time they would ever meet. Mr. 
and Mrs. C. F. Heverly of Towanda enjoyed the day 
with the veterans and their wives. 

It is worthy of note that the four sergeants are all de- 
scendant from pioneer and patriot families of the county. 
Following is the order of age: 

J, Alonzo Bos worth was born November 13, 1836 in 
Wysox, being the eldest of the eleven children of Jack- 
son K. and Mary (Codding) Bosworth. Most of his life 
was spent in Pike but the last few years he has been a 
resident of East Towanda. 

Nelson C. Dyer, one of the twelve children of Ephraim 
and Melinda (Taylor) Dyer, was born August 15, 1840 
in Pike. He went to Illinois in 186.7 and in 1877 re- 
moved to Abilene, Kansas which has since been his 
home and where he has amassed a fine fortune as a 

Robert Hatch, son of James and Alzina (Marvin) 
Hatch was born June 9, 1842 in Albany township which 
has practically always been his home and where he has 
engaged in farming. 

John H. Chaftee, the host, son of Charles and Adaline 
(Horton) Chaffee, was born July 13, 1843 Upon the farm 
which he owns and occupies in Hornbrook. He is 
widely known for his activities and eminent success in 
many capacities. — C F. Heverly. 

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We note with sorrow the death of the following mem- 
bers of the Society during the past year; 

Hon. George Moscrip, born January 23,1840 in Green- 
ock, Scotland, died Dec. 5, 1913 in Towanda, Pa. after a 
protracted illness. He was a son of Andrew and Fanny 
(White) Moscrip and came to this country with his par- 
ents when an infant. They settled in Herrick township 
where he grew to manhood. He obtained his education 
in the public schools and the LeRaysville academy. He 
worked on the farm and at the age of 16 began teaching 
school, which he continued until be was 30. A portion 
of his teaching was in Berks county among the "Penn- 
sylvania Dutch." Though without knowledge of the 
German language he learned to speak it fluently and in- 
struct the German youth in his mother tongue. He en- 
gaged in farming in Windham until 1874 when he was 
elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly and served with 
credit and honor to both himself and constituency. In 
addition to farming, from 1877 Mr. Moscrip had engaged 
in the sale of school text books He had been an active 
member of the Grange nearly 40 years. 

In 1906 he was again elected to the Legislature and 
re-elected in 1908. He made a most excellent record, 
serviiig the people with signal ability and fidelity. Never 
once did he falter in his duty, and for the boss's lash he 
had no fear. Mr. Moscrip was a gentleman of broad in- 

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formation and sterling character, whose worth, encourag- 
ing words and kindly deeds are appreciated by scores of 
younger men and women who have profited thereby and 
succeeded in life. He was a great teacher, for in every- 
thing be sought the truth; and had a wonderful faculty 
of imparting knowledge. He was also deeply interested 
in historical matters, being at the time of his death pres- 

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ident of both the Pennsylvania Federation of Historical 
Societies and the Bradford County Historical Society. 
His last public duty was on October 12th when he per- 
formed the graces at the centennial celebration of Mrs. 
Anne Wright. Honest, conscientious and unostentatious 
he was a fine example of exalted manhood; truly, one of 
nature's noblemen. His splendid citizenship and kindly 
deeds will live long in the hearts of a multitude of people. 

J. Valentine Geiger, born October 5, 1831 in Tow- 
anda, died suddenly Dec. 23, 1913 in East Towanda, Pa. 
He was a son of John E. and Sarah (Shockey) Geiger, 
both of German descent. His father, a gunsmith, located 
in Towanda, 1830 and pursued his vocation until 1857 
when he was succeeded by his son, J. Valentine. The 
latter carried on the business until a few years since 
and was one of the best known smiths in the country. 
Mr. Geiger was a careful chronicler of events and always 
vigilant in the gathering and preserving of articles and 
pai)ers associated with the past and historic personages. 
He took great interest in local history and was ripe in 
reminiscences which he was fond of reciting. He was 
an original and the oldest member of Franklin Fire 
Company No. 1, having belonged since 1854. He always 
took an active interest in politics and was for many years 
secretary of the Republican county committee. Jolly 
and genial he was popularly known to his many friends 
as the *'Boss." 

David T. Evans was born June 11, 1844, at Remsen, 
Oneida county, N. Y., died April 4, 1914, in Towanda, 
Pa. He was a son of Thomas T. and Mary L. (Lewis) 
Evans, natives of Wales. He received his education in 

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the Rome, N. Y., graded school, hut while yet a lad took 
his first lessons in merchandising as errand hoy for Spen- 
cer & White, dealers in dry goods and carpets. At the 
age of fifteen years he began clerking for H. Keeler, 
dealer in dry go( ds at Rome, with whom he remained 
about five years. In 1867 he became a member of the 
dry goods firm of Williams, Evans & Co., at Rome, which 

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partnership continued three years. He came to Towanda 
in 1870, and in October of that year in partnership with 
Henry C. Hildreth, under the firm name of Evans & 
Hildreth, opened a dry goods and carpet store in the 
rooms now occcupied by McCabe & Stevens on Bridge 
street. In February, 1876, the business was moved to 
where L. Marks' clothing store now is, and continued for 
eighteen years. In the meantime, September, 1888 — Mr. 
Hildreth dying, Mr. Evans became the sole proprietor 
and had since conducted the business in his own name, 
though his sons Ims been associated with him. la 1894 
he purchased the Codding & Russel block and the same 
year moved his stock there where he continued in busi- 
ness until his death. 

In his long experience of 55 years he attained mastery of 
the dry goods trade and earned a wide reputation for his 
reliability and the quality of his goods. Socially, Mr. 
Evans was a most genial gentleman, having the entire 
confidence and esteem of all his townsmen and a wide 
circle of friends. He took a deep interest in all things 
tending to promote Towanda's welfare and was generous 
with his time and purse. He had long been a faithful 
member of the Presbyterian church and affiliated with 
the Masonic and other beneficient organizations. 

CoL. Enoch J. Ayres, born September 20, 1828 in 
Sussex county, N. J., died August 21, 1914 in Towanda, 
Pa., after a long illness. He was a son of John and 
Anna (Vansickle) Ayres and of Scotch and English 
descent. His paternal grandfather was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary war. The early life of our subject was 
spent in the usual varied tasks of a farmer's boy, which 

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was bard work nine months in the year and three months 
attending the district school in the winter. In 1855 he 
located at Paterson where for some years he engaged in 
the mercantile business and served his townsmen as 
alderman. Upon the breaking out of the Civil War, in 
the formation of the 25th N. J. volunteers, he was elected 
Lieutenant Colonel and served in that capacity during 
the enlistment of the regiment. In 1866 he came to 

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Bradfford county, locating in Macedonia where he pur- 
chasifed a 200-acre farm which he improved, making it 
one lof the best in the county. In 1882 he was elected a 
Representative from Bradford county and proved himself 
able and fearless in his advocacy of those measures in- 
tended for the public good. He was one of the few who 
dared to stand up and fight for the equalization of tax- 
ation. He was a true champion of the farmers' cause 
and his efforts for their relief from the burdens of tax- 
ation, won their confidence and praise. 

Colonel Ayres was a model farmer, thorough and prac- 
tical. For years he was prominently connected with the 
Grange and other agricultural organizations and always 
an active and influential member. As a fitting compli- 
ment to Colonel Ayres for the many services he had ren- 
dered his fellow toilers, upon the organization of the Pat- 
rons of Industry into a State body, he was made its first 
president and afterwards honored by a re-election t o the 
same office. In 1899 Colonel Ayres sold his valuable 
farm, retiring from active duties and purchased a property 
in Towanda where he could more conveniently enjoy the 
fruits of his labors in his closing years. Still as an old 
man he was always young, giving his power and strength 
to all worthy causes — the church. Grand Army, Historical 
Society and inculcating good citizenship. Genial, kind, 
true, he was a model and **a grand old man." His words 
were those of wisdom, his patriotism intense and up to 
the last he spoke as "the old man eloquent." His kind 
deeds were many, and he will live long in the memory of 
us all for he was a friend to everybody. 

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Library and Museum. 

C. F. Heverly, Librarian. 

The following are the acquisitions to the Library and I 

Museum for the year ending September, 1914 : I 

Portraits. . ) 

Bradford County Judges, 1813-1913— Society. j 

Bradford County Centenarians — Society. 

Books — Historical. 

Philadelphia in Civil War — State Library. 

Pennsylvania at Cold Harbor — State Library. 

Proceedings 47th Encampment D. of P. — State Library 

Historical Report, 1910-12 — Kansas State Historical 

Proceedings and Addresses — Snyder County Historical 

Proceedings and Collections, volumes VIII, IX, X, XI 
— Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. j 

Books and Exchanges. | 

State Library. 

Library of Congress. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Oregon State Historical Society. 

Pennsylvania Federation Historical Societies. 

Tioga County Historical Society. 

Snyder County Historical Society. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 

Kittochitinny Historical Society (Franklin Co.) 

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Books — Miscellaneous. 

Laws of Pennsylvania, 1913 — State Library. 

Vetoes of Governor — State Library. 

Smuir« Legislative Hand Book, 1913 — State Library. 

Congressional Globe, 1855 — John H. ChaflFee. 

Blackstone, published 1796 — J. Andrew Wilt. 

Introduction of the Law, 1741 — J. Andrew Wilt. 

Book of Captain Ebenezer Coburn, 1793 — Sidney 

Scott's Family Bible (2 vols.), 1817— Mrs. Harriet M. 

Nine volumes various old books — Mrs. T. B. Johnson. 


Docket of Parly Coburn, J. P. (1807-1820)— Sidney 
Commission, Parley Coburn, J. P. — Sidney Pitcher. 
Records Stevens Post, G. A. R. — John A. Allen. 
Old township records, Sheshequin — Wm. Lent. 

Relics and Curios. 

Mammoth hand-made shoes, 100 years old — Mrs. T. 
B. Johnson. 

Hand- knit mittens of Rev. H. Q. Blair — Mrs. Sarah 

Old double barrel shotgun — Chas. M. Culver. 

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Secretary's Report. 

Officers and Members of the Historical Society of Bradford 
County : 

Your Secretary respectfully submits the following 
report for the year ending this date. 

Meetings, There have been held during the year nine 
regular monthly meetings and one adjourned meeting. 
At the July and August meetings the officers were present, 
but as no business other than routine, was transacted, 
and no program to be taken up, your secretary does not 
account for them as meetings. At the time for the Nov- 
ember meeting the president, Hon. George Moscrip, was 
seriously ill, and your secretary w^as also confined to his 
house by sickness. There was no notice for a meeting 
called and none held. 

The president, George Moscrip, died Decembers, 1913. 

The December meeting was especially devoted to the 
centenarians of Bradford county and portraits of nearly 
all were unveiled. 

The special topics considered at the February meeting 
were Washington and Lincoln, Rev. J. S. Stewart made 
an address on the former and John C. Ingham, Esq., on 
the latter; both addresses were excellent. 

The April meeting was adjourned until May 9, when 
portraits of the 13 President Judges who have presided 
over our County courts w-ere unveiled and short sketches 
of their lives and characters given, mostly by members 
of the Bradford county Bar. 

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The regular May meeting was devoted to "TheWomen," 
the program of exercises having been arranged by a com- 
mittee of Clymer Chapter, D. A. R. 

The June meeting was the 11th time this society has 
devoted that monthly meeting to "The Old People" of 
of the county. The attendance of the old people was 
about as large as usual. 

The attendance at meetings when special topics were 
considered, has been good. 

Besides the death of the president of this Society during 
the year, Hon. E. J. Ayres a former president for two 
years passed away, on August 21, 1914. 

The report of the Treasurer will show a healthy 
financial condition of the society. 

Your secretary in response to a circular letter dated 
June 2, 1914, issued by the Pennsylvania Historical 
C(»mmi8sion, reported the historical importance to all of 
Pennsylvania, of Spanish Hill within the county, as a 
spot that should be marked by said commission, to com- 
memorate the "Advent of the White Man** within the 
present limits of Pennsylvania. (Read report.) 

Your Secretary suggests that a committee of three or 
five be appointed to urge upon this Commission the im- 
portance of this place and that the event be suitably 
recognized by some monument, and this society take 
steps through this committee to observe the three hun- 
dredth anniversary of Stephen Brule's coming to the 
Indian town of the Carantouannais Indians in September 
1615; that such event be celebrated in September, 1915. 

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That 8uch committee supersede the committee which was 
appointed for a similar purpose several years ago. 

Your secretary suggests that necessary repairs, especi- 
ally in the way of papering the rooms of the Society be 

Respectfully submitted, Sept. 26, 1914. 

J. Andrew Wilt, Secretary. 


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Treasurers Report. 

G. T. Ingham, Treasurer, Dr. 

To balance per auditor's report $362.89 

*' Annual Appropriation Bradford County Com- 
missioners for 1912 200.00 

" Annual Appropriation Bradford County Com- 
missioners 1913 200.00 

March 9, 1914, From Secretary Kingsbury $6.00 

9,1914, •* G. T. Ingham on dues 3.00 9 00 

March 28, 1914, received of C. F. Heverly for annuals 3.50 

*• Daniel Latten, dues 1.00 

" C.F. Heverly 1.00 

*' Daniel Heverly 1.00 

*• " Mrs. Daniel Heverly 1.00 

" " Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Chaffee 4 00 11.50 

May 5, 1914 " '* John W. Mix 2.00 

♦* Jno.N. Califf 2,00 

" Mrs. M. A. Watkins 2 00 

" " James H. Codding 5.00 

" " Dr. E. D. Payne 2.00 13 00 

May 6, 1914 ** '» J. W. Ingham 2.00 

May 7. 1914 " '* Mrs. R. H. Lanning 2.00 4.00 

May 9, 1914 '* " Hon. F. N. Moore 2.00 2.00 

Man 12, 1914 •' " Mrs. M. E. Ro^entield 2.00 

'» Chas. L. Stewart 200 4.00 

May 14, 1914 " " Mrs I. P. Kendall 1.00 1.00 

May 20, 1914 » " Mrs. F C. Rosenfield 1500 

May 23, 1914 *' '* Mrs. Wm. Scott, Towanda 2.00 18.00 

June 16, 1914 " " Matilda Eilenberger 1.00 

Aug. 11,1914 »* " Capt. G. W. Kilmer 2 00 

Total 1827.39 


By Orders Paid 1319.09 

Balance in Treasury $508.30 

which includes $200 Old People's Fund. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Geo. T. IiroHAM. Treasurer. 

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Bradford County 



t) Papers on Local History, Reports of Officers 

and Contributions for the Year. 




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Stanaiof Stoie— The Coaaty's Oldeit Laodmark 

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A»5T0ft, LF.NOX AMD 

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The Kingsley and Slocutn 

Frances Slocum, the Captive 


iJf^C^ATHAN Kingsley, a native of Scotland, 

If TLT 11 Windham county. Conn., married Roccelana 
j\ "^^ // Wareham of Windsor and removed to Wy- 
uK^<^a(j oming about the year 1772. He was one of 
the original proprietors of Springfield and came to Wya- 
lusing in 1776. In the month of March, 1778 he was 
captured by the Indians and remained a prisoner nearly 
a year. While in captivity he secured the friendship and 
confidence of the Indians by his skill in doctoring their 
horses. He was, in consequence, allowed considerable 
liberty and permitted to go into the woods to gather 
herbs and roots for his medicines. Seizing a favorable 
opportunity, he made his escape and reached Wyoming 
in safety. During his captivity, his family which had 
been removed to Wyoming was given a home with Jona- 
than Slocum of Wilkes- Barre. On the 2nd of Novem- 
ber, 1778, while Mr. Kingsley was in captivity, his son, 
Nathan, was killed by the Indians and a younger son 
and Frances Slocum carried away by them. Mr. Kings- 
ley served as a lieutenant in Capt. John Franklin's Wy- 
oming Company (1782), 5th Regiment of Militia, state of 
Connecticut. In 1775 he was appointed one of the com- 
mittee of inspection of Westmoreland, and in May, 1776, 

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^ The Kingsley and Slocum Families 

was chosen lieutenant of the 9th, or Up-River company 
of the 24th Connecticut Militia. At the close of the 
war, Mr. Kingsley, his wife and surviving son, Ware- 
ham, returned to the old home at Wyalusing. Upon the 
organization of Luzerne county in May, 1787, he was 
commissioned one of the judges, which office he resigned 
in 1790. Mr. Kingsley is described as **a large, tall man 
of more than ordinary intelligence, deeply interested in 
the prosperity of the community and the development of 
the county. He built a distillery, fell a victim to the 
habit of the times and in his old age lost his property." 
He died in Ohio in 1822, aged 80 years. Mrs. Kingsley 
died in Wyalusing and is buried in the old cemetery 
there. Wareham, the son, married Urania Turrell and 
had children, Lydia (Mrs. Jabez Brown), Roswell, Na- 
than, Chester B., Abigail and Roccelana. 

Among the enterprising emigrants from the East to 
the Wyoming Valley was Jonathan Slocum, a member 
of the society of Friends, from Warwick, Rhode Island. 
He emigrated with his wife and nine children in 1777, 
locating near the fort in Wilkes-Barro. Mr. Slocum be- 
ing from principle a noncombatant, considered himself 
and his family comparatively free from danger by attacks 
of the savages. His son, Giles, not practicing upon the 
principles in which he had been trained at home took up 
arms with the settlers in defense of their hearthsand homes 
against the attacks of the Indians and Tories. He was 
in the famous Indian battle in 1778, anfl it is supposed that 
this circumstance was the occasion of the terrible veng- 
eance taken upon the family. The battle had taken 

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The Kingsley and Slocum Families S 

place in July and thenceforward, until the conclusion of 
peace with England, parties of Indians continued to visit 
the Valley to steal, make prisonei*s, kill and scalp as op- 
portunity offered. On November 2, 1778, a party of 
Delaware Indians visited Wyoming and directed their 
way to the Slocum residence. When the Indians came 
near, they saw the two Kingsley boys grinding a knife 
before the door. Nathan, the elder, aged 15 was dressed 
in a soldier's coat. One of the savages took deadly aim 
at him and he fell. The discharge of the gun alarmed 
Mrs. Slocum and she ran to the door when she saw 
the Indian scalping the young man with the 
knife he had been sharpening. Waving her back with 
his hand, he entered the house and took up Ebenezer 
Slocum, a little boy. The mother stepped up to the sav- 
age and reaching for the child said: **He can do you no 
good, see he is lame.'' With a grim smile, giving up 
the boy, he took Frances, her daughter, aged about five 
years, gently in his arms, and seizing the younger Kings- 
ley by the hand, hurried away to the mountains; two 
savages who were with him, taking a black girl 17 years 
old. This was within 100 rods of the Wilkes-Barre fort. 
Alarm was instantly given, but the Indians eluded pur- 
suit and no trace of their retreat could be found. Mr. 
Miner says: **The cup of vengeance was not yet full. 
December IGih, Mr. Slocum and Isaac Tripp, his father- 
in-law, an agetl man with William Slocum, a youth, were 
foddering cattle from a stack in the meadow in sight of 
the fort, when they were fired upon by the Indians. Mr. 
Slocum was shot dead; Mr. Tripp wounded, speared and 
tomahawked; both were scalped. William wounded by 

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i The Kingsley and Slocum Families 

a spent ball in the heel, escaped and gave the alarm, but 
the aleit and wily foe had retreated to their hiding place 
in the mountain/' 

Frances^ Captivity Search and Discovery 

Mr. Miner continues: "The widowed mother heard 
nothing from her child. Peace came and prisoners re- 
turned, but no one had seen or could tell aught respect- 
ing her. As to those whom she knew were dead, they 
were at rest; the lamp of hope, as to them, had ceased to 
burn; and she bowed as yeai*s passed away, in melan- 
choly, but calm resignation, for those who could not re- 
turn. But not so as to Frances; she might survive. She 
did live the cherished object of in tensest love in the 
imagination of her fon 1 mother, rendered ten-fold dearer 
by the blighting sorrows that crushed her house, when 
they were parted. Her first waking thought in the 
morning was for lost one; her last on retiring to rest, 
was for her child, her lost child. After the conclusion 
of peace and intercourse with Canada was opened, two of 
her brothers, then amongst the most intelligent and en- 
terprising young men in the Valley, led by their own 
sense of propriety and affection, and urged by a mother's 
tears, determined, if living, to find Frances and return 
her to home and friends. Connecting business with 
their search, they traversed the Indian settlements and 
went as far as Niagara, making careful inquiries for 
Frances. The Indians, whom they saw and inquired of 
in great numbers, <lid not know, or more probably would 
not reveal, the place of her location. High rewards, 
suflBcient to teni{)t Indian cupi<lity were offered in vain, 

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The Kingsley and Slocum Families 6 

aud the brothers came to the conclusion that she must be 
dead, probably slain by her merciless captors; or, surely 
she would have been heard of; some one must have seen 

"Still, the fond mother saw in her dreams the cher- 
ished object of her love. Playful, smiling, as in infancy, 
she appeared before her. Frances was not in the grave; 
she knew she was not. Her afiSicted soul clung to the 
idea of recovering her daughter, as the great and en- 
grossing object of life. At length news came. A woman 
answering to the description was found, and claimed to 
be the child of Mrs. Slocum. About the proper age, she 
had been taken away captive when young; knew not her 
parents, nor her own name, but had been carried ofif from 
the Susquehanna river. Mrs. Slocum took her home and 
treated her with all possible tenderness and care. But 
soul did not answer to soul; the spirit did not respond to 
spirit; that secret and mysterious sympathy which exists 
between a mother and her offspring did not draw them 
together. It might be her daughter, Mrs. Slocum said, 
but it did not seem so to her. 'Yet the woman should 
be ever welcome.' The unfortunate person, no impostor, 
an orphan, indeed, simple and upright in intention, felt 
a persuasion in her own mind that these were not her 
relatives, and taking presents, voluntarily returned to her 
Indian friends. At length time obliterated the last ray 
of hope and Mrs. Slocum at an advanced age descended 
to the grave. 

**In August, 1837, fiity-nine years after the capture, a 
letter appeared in the Lancaster Ivtelligerictr, written by 
G. W. Ewing of Logansport, Indian^, dated January 20, 

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The Kingnley and Slocum Families 

1835, stating: There is now living near this place, 
among the Miami tribe of Indians, an aged white wo- 
man, who, a few years ago told me that she was taken 
away from her father's house, on, or near the Susque- 
hanna river, when she was very young She says her 
father's name was Sloeum; that he was a Quaker and 
wore a large brimmed hat, that he lived about half a 
mile from a town where there was a fort. She has two 
daughters living. Her husband is dead. She is old and 
feeble and thinks she shall not live long. These consid- 
erations induced her to give the present history of her- 
self, which she never would before, fearing her kindred 
would come and force her away. She has lived long 
anl happy as an Indian, is very respectable and wealthy 
sober and honest. Her name is without reproach.' 

*'The sensation produced by this letter throughout 
Wyoming can scarcely be im:igined. *Is it Frances? 
Can she be alive? How wonderful!' Not an idle hour 
was lost. Her brother, Joseph Slocum, though near a 
thousand miles intervened, moved by affection, a sense 
ol'duty and the known wishes of a beloved parent, made 
iinmediale preparations for a journey. Uniting with his 
younger brother, Isaac, who resided in Ohio, they hns- 
lened to Logansport where they had the good fortune to 
meet Mr. Ewing. Frances, who reside 1 about a dozen 
miles from that place wns soon apprised of their comiiijr. 
Wiiile hope predominated, doubt and uncertainly, 
amounting almost to jealousy or sus[)ieion, occupied her 
mind. She canie into the village riding a liij^h -spirited 
horse, her two daughters, tastefully dressed in Indian 
cos-tume, accompanying Tier, with the husband of one of 

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The Kingsley and Slocum Families 7 

them, the elite among Indian beaux. Her manners 
were grave, her bearing reserved; she listened, through 
an interpreter to what they had to say. But night ap- 
proached. Cautious and prudent, she rode back to her 
home, promising to return the coming morning. At the 
appointed hour she alighted from her steed and met them 
with something more of frankness, but still seemed 
desirous of further explanation. It was evident on all 
sides that they were almost prepared for recognition. 
Joseph Slocum at length said, what he had so far pur- 
posely kept back, that their sister at play in their father's 
smith-shop with the children, had received a blow on the 
middle finger of her left hand, by a hammer on the an- 
vil, which crushed the bone, and mother had always said 
that would be a test which could not be mistaken. Her 
whole countenance was instantly lighted up with smiles, 
while tears ran down her cheeks as she held out the 
wounded hand. Every lingering doubt was dispelled. 
Hope was merged into confidence. The tender embrace, 
the welcome recognition, the sacred, the exulting glow 
of brotherly and sisterly aflFection, filled every heart 
present to overflowing. Her father! Her dear, dear 
mother! Did she yet live? But they must long since, 
in the course of nature, have been gathered to their na- 
tive dust. Her brothers and sisters? The slumbering 
affection awakened to life, broke forth in almost earnest 
inquiries for all whom she should love. 

"She then related the leading events of her life. Her 
memory, extremely tenacious, enabled her to tell, that, 
on being taken, her captors hastened to a rocky cave on 
the mountain, where blankets and a bed of dried leaves, 

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8 The Kingsley and Slocum Families 

showed that they had slept. On the journey to the In- 
dian country she was kindly treated, the Indian carrying 
her, when she was weary, in his arms. She was immed- 
iately adopted into an Indian family and brought up as 
their daughter, but with more than common tenderness. 
Young Kingsley, who was located near them, in a few 
years died. About the time she had grown to woman- 
hood, both her Indian parents, whom she loved and 
mourned, were taken away, and not long afterwards, she 
married a young chief of the nation and removed to the 
waters of the Ohio. Treated with respect and confidence, 
few of the burdens women in the savage state are com- 
pelled to bear, were imposed upon her; and she was so 
happy in her family and connexions, that the idea of be- 
ing found and returned to live with the white p)eople, 
was dreaded as the greatest evil that could befall her. 
On the death of her Chief, she married her last husband, 
but had been a widow for many years. After stating, 
though with much more minuteness, the principal events 
of her life, with great solemnity she laised her hand and 
looking up, said: *AI1 this is true as there is a God (or 
Great Spirit) in the Heavens.' 

*The next day the brothers with the interpreter rode 
out to visit their sister. Numerous cattle grazed in the 
meadows, fifty horses pranced proudly over the fields. 
The house was half way between the Indian wigwam and 
tiie more finished mansion of a farmer. An oven, well 
baked cakes of flour, venison nicely prepared and honey, 
aflbrded an excellent repast. But the absence of milk 
and butter, so easily commanded in profusion, lold of 
savage life. As a token of entire confidence b^ing e-tab- 

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The Kingsley and Slocum Families 9 

lished, Frances placed a piece of venison under snow 
white cloth, when one of the brothers lifted it up, and 
this was regarded as a formal covenant of recognition and 

The brothers remained at Peru three days and had 
frequent conferences, during which the following request 
and reply were made: **We live where our father and 
mother used to live on the banks of the beautiful Susque- 
hanna and we want you to return with us; we will give 
you of our property and you shall be one of us and share 
all that we have. You shall have a good house and 
everything you desire. Oh, do go back with us!" **No, 
I can not. I have always lived with the Indians; they 
have always used me very kindly; I am used to them. 
The Great Spirit always allowed me to live and die with 
them. Your wah-puh-mone (looking-glass) may be 
larger than mine, but this is my home. I do not wish 
to live any better, or anywhere else and I think the 
Great Spirit has permitted me to live so long because I 
have always lived with the Indians. I should have died 
sooner if I had left them. My husband and my boys are 
buried here, and I can not leave them. On his dying- 
day my husband charged me not to leave the Indians. 
I have a house and large lands, two daughters, a son-in- 
law, three grandchildren and every thing to make me 
comfortable; why should I go and be like a fish out of 
the water?" 

The brothers returned to their homes with mingled 
emotions of pleasure and pain. They had found their 
long lost sister Frances, but they had found and left her 
an Indian, with almost every trace of Christian civiliza- 

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10 The Kwgdey and Slocum Families 

tion erased, bolh from her soul, body and being. She 
looked like an Indian, talked like an Indian, lived like 
an Indian, seated herself like an Indian, lay down to sleep 
like an Indian, thought, felt and reasoned like an In- 
dian; she had no longings for her original home, or the 
society of her kindred; she eschewed the trammels of 
civilized life, and could only breathe freely in the great 
unfenced out doors which God gave the Red Man. There 
was, however, this to comfort the Slocums; their sister 
was not degraded in her habits or her character; there 
was a moral dignity in her manners entirely above the 
ordinary savage life; her Anglo-Saxon blood had not 
been tainted by savage touch, but bore itself gloriously 
amid the long series of trials through which it had pass- 
ed. She was the widow of a deceased chief; she was 
rich; all that abundance and respectability could do for 
a woman in savage life was hers. Such was the former 
Frances Slocum of Wyoming, now Ma-con-a-qnay the In- 
dian queen of tlie Miamis. 

But Mr. Slocum was not quite satisfied with his visit. 
He consequently resolved upon another, and this time 
took with him his eldest and youngest daughters. The 
journey was made to Peru in September, 1839. They 
tarried some days and had an artist make a portrait of 
Frances. Before leaving, Frances made a serious effort to 
prevail upon her brother to come and live with her. Not 
to be outdone by her brothers, who had made such liberal 
offers if she would come and live with them, she told 
Mr. Slocum that if he would come to her village and 
live, she would give him half of her land, and her sin- 
cerity and earnestness were affecting. 

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The Kingsley and Slocum Families 11 

When arrangements were being ma(Je by the govern- 
ment to settle the Indians of Indiana west of the Missis- 
sippi, Mr. Slocum did not forget his sister. He petitioned 
Congress in her behalf and succeeded in enlisting power- 
ful support. Hon. B. A. Bidlack took charge of the bill 
and John Quincy Adams made one of the strong speeches 
in its support and it became a law. The bill provided 
that one mile square of the reserve embracing the house 
and improvements of Frances Slocum, should be granted 
in fee to her and her heirs forever. 

During her last sickness, which was brief, Frances 
Slocum refused all medical aid, declaring that as her 
people were gone and she was surrounded by strangers, 
she wished to live no longer. She departed this life 
March 9, 1847. She had Christian burial, a prayer be- 
ing made at her house and her remains conducted to the 
grave by a clergyman. Her daughter, the wife of Cap- 
tain Brouriette, overcome with toil and grief, followed her 
mother to the Spirit land four days later. Frances Slo- 
cum sleeps upon a beautiful knoll near the confluence of 
the Missisinewa and the Wabash by the side of her chief 
and her children. (A picture of Frances and the scene 
of her captivity is among the collection of the Bradford 
County Historical Society.) 

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First Event in Pennsylvania 
History Commemorated 

300th Annwersary of the Coming of Stephen 

Brule, the First White Man, to Carantoiunu 

Unveiling of Marker^ Imposing Exercises. 


RIDAY, October 15, 1915, will he recorded 
TJ* )\ as a day both of history making and com- 
'^ memorating. It was the 300th hnniversary 
of the advent of white man into Pennsylva- 
nia whi(ih was celebrated by patriotic and historic bodies 
in capping Carantcman, or Spanish Hill in a blaze of 
glory. This was the acbievement of the Bradford Coun- 
ty Historical Sucitly which had labored long and stead- 
fastly until the object was attained. The day was not 

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The Kingsley and Slocum Families IS 

ideal, dark and misty clouds overbauging hill and dale 
discouraged a multitude from attending. Nevertheless 
about 500 people climbed the heights of Carantouan and 
braved the storm unflinchingly while the program was be- 
ing carried out. The assemblage comprised citizens, 
school children of Waverly, South Waverly and Sayre, 
Hull Post, G. A. R., Waverly, representatives of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, Elmira, Daughters of 
tlie American Revolution, Binghamton, Corning, Waver- 
ly, Sayre, Athens and Towanda, and comrades of the 
G. A. R. from Sayre, Athens, Sheshequin, Towanda and 
Monroeton. The drum corps, consisting of Reed W. 
Dunfee and Woodford C. May, veterans of the Civil War, 
with drums and Frank M. Vought with fife, was early 
on the ground and as they discoursed martial strains, 
echoing down the valleys, participants hastened to reach 
the summit and be in line for the exercises. The his- 
toric and patriotic bodies were formed in a semi-circle 
around the marker and all were in readiness at 2 o'clock. 

The assemblage was called to order by Wm. T. Hor- 
ton. President of the Bradford County Historical Society, 
who in a very clever and fitting manner welcomed all on 
the extraordinary occasion, then introduced C. F. Hev- 
erly. Librarian of the Bradford County Historical So- 
ciety in charge of the unveiling. 

Mr. Heverly said : Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentle- 
men. Behold the beauteous prospect, where wondrous 
nature for centuries has charmed and attracted man ! 
Here was the refuge and abode of the American Indian. 
Here 300 years ago white man for the first time set foot 
upon Pennsylvania soil and enacted the initial event in 

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H First Evtnt in Pennsylvania History 

the proud history of the Keystone State. Here, this pic- 
uresque mound like the link in a mighty chain unites 
two great Commonwealths that share alike in the glory of 
what transpired here three centuries agone. From this 
height were uttered songs of chivalry and the red men join- 
ed with the first white man in jubilation. The fires of patri- 
otism which blazed from this summit left a warmth and 
inspiration which have ever possessed and distinguished 
the people within this broad and beautiful panorama. 
Today after a span of 300 years, citizens, historical and 
patriotic bodies of two states are met to listen to the 
thrilling story of Stephen Brule, the remarkable people 
he found here and to commemorate this spot as the 
scene of the first event in Pennsylvania history. We 
have borne to this summit a granite block, suitably in- 
scribed, that the historic memories clustering here may 
be transmitted for the enlightenment of future genera- 
tions. In the spirit of patriotism and union, virtue, lib- 
erty and independence, Pennsylvania joins hands with 
her sister state. New York, in lifting the veil, in com- 
memorating this spot and beautiful work of God and 

As Mr. Heverly repeated "Pennsylvania joins hands 
with her sister state. New York," John W. Morgan, a 
Civil War veteran of the 29th N. Y. Inft. and native of 
Tioga county, standing north of the marker, grasped 
hands with John H. Chaffee, also a Civil War veteran of 
the 141st P. V. and native of Bradford county, standing 
south of the marker. At the same moment the two 
large flags lying across the marker were raised by Mrs. 
J(seph W. Bishop of Tioga Chapter D. A. R. and Wra. 

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First Event in Pennsylvania History 15 

C. Buck of Newtown Chapter S. A. R. and held crossed 
above and behind the two veterans. This pretty scene 
representing union and patriotism in the fullest sense to- 
gether with the others in the semi-circle was pictured by 
Photographer F. H. Ott of Towanda. 

The granite marker is placed within the fortifications 
of Carantouan on the eastern border near the summit and . 
bears this inscription : 

^^Site of the Indian towiiy 


visited by 

Stephen Brule\ French explorer 

in 1616, 

Erected by Bradford County Historical Society, 1915P 

Following the unveiling, the school children, led by 
the South Waverly school, sang very effectively, 



Pennsylvania forever, wonderful Keystone State; 
Beautiful, rugged, glorious, fashioned sublime and great; 
Verdure clad hills and mountains, rich with abundant store, 
Tower in grandeur silent, battlements evermore. 


Pennsylvania native land, Pennsylvania dear and grand; 
Endless praise we give thee, service, valor and loyalty; 
liail all hail to the flag and Pennsylvania. 


Freedom kneels at thy altar, peace is thy corner stone; 
Liberty guards thy ramparts, learning and culture thy throne; 
Valley Forge bled for the nation, Gettysburg rescued the slave; 
Brotherly love the slogan, rousing the strong and the brave. 


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16 First Event in Pennsylvania History 


Valleys, meadows and hillside waving with ripening grain, 
Feed all the happy millions, toiling with hand or with brain, 
Factories, mills and railroads, daily their anthems raise! 
Crowning our land with plenty, filling our hearts with praise. 



Thou who rulest the nations, author of liberty; 

Keep us in sacred nearness, honor and unity; 

Fill thou our store with abundance, guard us from famine and foe; 

Wisdom and mercy and justice, on all our rulers bestow. 

It was the pleasure of Secretary J. Andrew Wilt to in- 
troduce Thomas L. Montgomery, State Librarian and 
Curator of the Historical Commission of Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Montgomery who is a very pleasant and entertaining 
gentleman, spoke briefly owing to the fact that he had 
to take the next train. He expressed his delight at be- 
ing able to be here even if for only a short time to repre- 
sent the Governor and the officials of the Commonwealth; 
that the Keystone state was endeavoring in various ways 
to mark all historic spots within its borders. He con- 
gratulated the Bradford County Historical Society in 
marking such a spot as this, where the first white man 
came within its borders three hundred years ago, and 
people who were present to participate in these exercises. 
He paid high tribute to Stephen Brule as an explorer 
and as the able assistant of Champlain; thanked the peo- 
ple for their enthusiastic welcome, and assured bis audi- 
ence and the Historical Society that he as an ofiicial of 
the State, was at their service in marking any and all the 
historic places, and in such exercises as were being held 

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Stephen Brule^ the First White Man 17 

at Spanish Hill. Following Mr. Montgomery's address 
the veteran Drum Corps struck in with enlivening and 
patriotic music. 

Stephen BrnJe, the First White Man. 

J. Andrew Wilt, Secretary of the Bradford County 
Historical Society, who had labored so zealously for the 
success of the observance and had been assigned the chief 
theme, then addressed the assemblage, as follows: 

The events which we commemorate here today occur- 
red many years ago. The facts and incidents which 
then took place here were not chronicled by telegraph, 
telephone or wireless. The facts are that the white 
Frenchman, who was here in contact with the people 
who then inhabited these regions, did not make his re- 
port to his superior, Champlain until two years after his 
return to the Hurons in Canada. Tbe mode of travel or 
communication was such, that this was the earliest time, 
Stephen Brule could make his report to him. It is gen- 
erally agreed by writers that Brule did not make a writ- 
ten report to Champlain; that he reported verbally and 
tliat Champlain made a written note of Brule's report, 
and he, Champlain, thus made full report of the travels 
and discoveries of Stephen Brule. It is therefore said by 
authors who have written on this subject that Stephen 
Brule "left no written records" and therefore we must 
content ourselves with the information given by others 
about this interpreter and explorer. 

Three hundred years ago this territory, which we call 
the state of Pennsylvania and the state of New York, was 

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18 Stephen Bruhy the First White Man 

inhabited by a strange and we would call them uncivil- 
ized people; these people as we have already learned 
have possessed, occupied or owned all these regions. 
These strange or uncivilized people were divided into 
tribes, families or nations and as such, for various reas- 
ons, had misunderstandings, or disagreements and as re- 
sult made war upon each other. These families, nations 
and tribes were found by the French in Canada to be in 
a state of war with other tribes and nations, when they 
first came to Canada. The French came to this new 
Continent with two purposes in view, namely: To es- 
tablish their control over this newly discovered country 
and to extend the power and influence of their Church. 
With these two motives in view, they sent over soldiers 
with guns and swords and the priests with the Cross. It 
is alleged by an eminent author, that in instances where 
these people refused to adopt the practices and beliefs of 
the Church they were killed. * * * 

However, much that was valuable then and thereaf- 
ter, was done in America by these French explorers and 
French Missionaries, representing the Holy Catholic 
Church. Stephen Brule was only a boy 10 or 18 years 
old when he came to Canada with Champlain in 1(508. 
This boy's name was "Aye tee-ane-Brulay," generally 
and commonly called Stephen Brule'. 

Champlain made arrangements with an Indian Chief 
named Iroquet to have Brule go with the Indians 
in exchange for a young Indian who was to accompany 
Champlain to France and return the following year. 
Brule went with said Indian Chief, by whom he was 

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Stephen Bruhy the First White Man 19 

treated as his own son, and the following year said Chief 
with Brule again met Champlain, when the young In- 
dian, who had made the voyage with Ohamplain to 
France, was returned to the Chief and Brule to Oham- 
plain. We can only conjecture the influence this year's 
stay with said Indians had on young Brule. The new 
mode of life, the customs, language which he had to 
adopt and to learn, however, all fitted this young man 
for bis more arduous duties and the feats which he after- 
wards performed in the service of his country among the 
Indians. Champlain wisely placed four other young 
men between 1608 and 1620 with the Indians, so that 
they might learn the different dialects of their language, 
thus to prevent any misunderstanding between the 
French and these Indians, With Brule and these other 
young men understanding the Indian language, commu- 
nication between the French and the natives became ac- 
curate and easy. ^'During the ensuing four years, that 
is, from 1611 to 1615, we hear little of Brule." He evi- 
dently was not idle during this time. 

Champlain, wishing to establish as much trade with 
the natives as possible, to learn the geography of this re- 
gion, the number and condition of these natives and the 
possibilities for trade, kept young Brule busy during 
these years. As Lieutenant Governor of Canada, one of 
Champlain's purposes was to draw as much of the fur 
trade as possible to Quebec and Montreal. Champlain 
as such had almost unlimited powers. The allied In- 
dian tribes of Canada, generally called Hurons, were not 
on friendly terms with the Indian tribes, who inhabited 

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20 Stephen Brnlc, the First White Man 

the regions south and east of Lakes Ontario and Erie, gen- 
erally call the Iroquois or Five Rations. The Five Na- 
tions then and afterwards occupied the territory now 
comprising the state of New York. 

The Indian tribes inhabiting the territory, south of 
the Irocjuois or Five Nations, were allied with the Huron 
Indians and were also enemies of the Iroquois or Five 
Nations. The Huron tribes of Indians with Champlain 
and a few Frenchmen had made a successful campaign 
against the Irocjuois along the lake, which was given the 
n \me of that noted Frenchman, and to this day is know^i 
as Lake Champlain. Champlain is ?aid to have killed a 
chief of the enemy and wounded several others with one 
shot from his Arquebus, which fact caused a stampede iu 
their ranks and heightened in the minds of the Huron 
Indians the power and prestige of Champlain. 

Having thus been successful against the Iroquois In- 
dians, the allied tribes of the Hurons proposed to Cham- 
plain another incursion into the country of the Iroquois, 
to take and destroy a fort or stronghold of the Onondaga 
tribe, who constituted one of the tribes of the Five Na- 
tions. This stronghold or fortified place palisaded and 
ditched, w^as located in the interior of what is now the 
state of New Y(»rk, and was at a point near the present city 
of Syracuse. Others have fixed it at the town of Fenner, 
Madison county, N. Y. To reach this Onondaga fort the 
Huron Indians were compelled to take a circuitous route 
around the northeastern point of Lake Ontario and thence 
make their way southwestward to reach this fort. It is 
claimed that this route required these Huron Indians as 
lead by Champlain, to travel by river, lake and overland 

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Stephen Brule, the First White Man 21 

from 1000 lo 1500 miles to reach this Iroquois Fort and 

Before starting for this march to capture this Onon- 
daga fort these Huron Indians had learned that their 
friends, the Indians south of the Iroquois, called Caran- 
touannias, sometimes called Andastes, were willing to en- 
gage with them in subduing this Onondaga Fort. It be- 
came necessary for the Hurons to inform the Carantou- 
annias Indians of their intention to march with their 
forces to capture this Onondaga Fort and request them 
to join them in so doing at a given date or time. To 
carry this message devolved upon Stephen Brule. He 
with twelve Huron Warriors undertook the task. One 
way to reach these friendly Indians, then occupying this 
territory, was to travel southwestward up the Niagara 
river and around the western end of Lake Erie and 
thence eastward to this point. By taking this course 
their enemies, the Iroquois, would be avoided, but the 
time required would be so great that the message could 
not possibly reach their friend and allies to the south of 
the Five Nations, in time to join them in their contemp- 
lated attack of this strong-hold. The other way to reach 
their friend with this message was to travel from a point 
south and west of Luke Ontario, somewhere along the 
Niagara river, thence in a southeasterly direction. This 
latter course, however, would traverse the country of tlie 
Iroquois, their enemies, and would be extremely danger- 
ous, but if Brule and his escort could get safely through, 
would be in time to get the aid of the warriors of the Ca- 
rantouannias Indians in their campaign against this fort. 

Brule and his twelve IIun)n Indians undertook the 

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S2 Stephen Brule, the First White Man 

task and decided to take their chances and if possible 
cross the country of their enemies and reach their allies 
to the south, then inhabiting this region. On Cham- 
plain's map of 1632 he indicates the course taken and 
traveled by Brule and his twelve Huron companions, 
across the country occupied by the Iroquois to reach 
their friends and allies, and also shows the palisaded 
town of the Carantouannias, located where we now are. 
No historian questions the fact that the main town or 
stronghold, fortified town, of these Indians which Ettene 
Brule visited 300 years ago, was located on this hill 
where we now stand; these same Indians had other pali- 
saded towns, but it is conceded by all writers that here 
at the junction of the two rivers was located the princi- 
pal one, named Carantouan by the French. Brule and his 
escort succeeded in making this dangerous journey from 
some point on the Niagara river to this place, thus trav- 
ersing the western counties and those along the southern 
tier of the state of New York; he being thus the first 
white man to have seen and visited this portion of the 
Empire State. 

We of today, can but conjecture the hardships and pri- 
vations of this white man, Brule, and escort of twelve 
Huron Indians in traveling through the country of their 
enemies. To travel this distance afoot, to cross rivers 
and streams with rafts improvised for the occasion, and 
subsist as best he could, would today be considered a 
task; but then it must have been much more difficult, 
when we consider that the territory traversed was the 
land of their enemies, the Iroquois, who fished and hunt- 
ed along the rivers and streams and occupied the borders 

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Stephen BruUj the Pint White Man 2S 

of the small lakes. Brule and and his escort arrived 
safely the latter part of September and were received by 
the Indians occupying this territory at a town or village 
called Carantouan. "The fortified town of Carantouan 
was the largest of the three towns of the Carantouannias 
and its exact site has been identified as located near or 
on top of what is now called Spanish Hill in Athens 
township, Bradford county, Pa., about five or six miles 
north of Tioga Point, the junction of the Tioga and Sus- 
quehanna rivers." (Chas. A. Hanna's Wilderness Trail, 
Vol. I, page 31.) 

Brule and his escort made known to their allies their 
mission. As was customary among the Indians of all 
tribes, certain ceremonies, incantations, or consultation of 
the chiefs and the Medicine Man was necessary before 
starting on the war path with 500 warriors; all this as 
well as sending to the outlaying places for the warriors 
to assemble, prepared to go to the aid of the Hurons, re- 
quired time. Champlain told Brule, when he would be 
at the Indian fort, with his Huron warriors to attack 
the fort, and Brule, unquestionably made all possi- 
ble speed, so far as within his power to have his 500 
Carantouannias Indians there and in readiness to attack 
in conjunction with Champlain and his Huron Warriors. 
On account of the delay in getting started and other de- 
lays in going, Brule with his 500 Indians did not arrive 
at the place designated until two days after Champlain 
had been repulsed by the occupants of the Onondaga 
strong-hold. Brule and his array of 500 Indian war- 
riors had no choice but to return to Carantouan. 

Some writers claim to fix the date of the arrival of 

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^4 Stephen Brule^ the First White Man 

Cliamplain at the Onondaga fort as October 10, 1615; 
whether this was the date fixed by Cham plain for Brule 
to be there too, we know not. Chanaplain was wounded 
in the battle and was carried by his faithful warriors 
from the field and on his return to the Huron country. 
Stephen Brule was now among his friends, the Carantou- 
annias Indians; there was no chance for his return to the 
Hurons and Champlain. It was late in the Fall of the 
year with many hundreds of miles of the country of their 
enemies between him and his Huron allies. He decided 
to explore the river on which tijis town was located. 
When he started, how he went, is not stated but left to 
conjecture. The facts he stated to his master Champlain 
when he met him; he explored the river to the "sea" 
and mentions the many tribes of Indians, the climate, 
etc. Some writers contend that he went by canoe or boat, 
others that he went down by canoe and returned by 
walking; others conjecture that he traveled by boat or 
canoe and walking; we have no information on this 
point, but he undoubtedly traveled across the whole of 
the present State of Pennsylvania from this point to the 
Chesapeake Bay, along the Susquehanna river, and thus 
is given credit for being the first white man to visit all of 
tlie counties along the Susquehanna river. 

When he returned to Carantouan in the Spring of 1616 
we know not. We of today wish that Stephen Brule had 
made a record of his travels and explorations of the wilds 
along the Susquenanna river of 300 years ago. After 
Brule's return to Carantouan in 1616 he decided to at- 
tempt to return to the Hurons in Canada by again cross- 
ing the Iroquois country, instead of making the great de- 

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Stephen Brule^ the First White Man £5 

tour west around Lake Erie. On this return journey 
Brule was again accompanied by a number of friendly 
Indians who were to act as guides and an escort to the 
Huron country. 

One writer assumes that Brule started on his return 
journey during April. "On the way they met a party of 
Iroquois (Senecas), who at once charged Brule and his 
friends, who promptly took to flight. The guides found 
each other and continued their journey, but Brule who 
had kept aloof from his Indian friends in the hope of 
more easily escaping, found himself unable to return or 
go forward. For three or four days he wandered througli 
the woods, half famished and almost hopeless until at 
length he found an Indian trail which he followed, 
chosing rather to throw himself on the tender mercy of 
the Iroquois than to perish from starvation. Before long 
he came upon three Indians with fish. He approached 
and shouted; they turned and seeing him would have 
run, but he laid down his bow and arrows in token of 
peace. Upon coming together Brule related his plight 
to them, how he had not tasted food for several days. 
They pitied him and he was offered the pipe of peace and 
after the smoke, he was taken to their village and feasted 
and made comfortable, but his arrival created a great stir 
and great numbers quickly gathered to see him. He was 
questioned closely. Where do you come from? What 
brought you here? How did you happen to lose your 
way? Are you not one of the French, who are our ene- 
mies? He answered all these questions as best he could, 
but was particularly anxious to make them believe he 
was not a Frenchman, but belonged to a better nation 

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^6 Stephen BrulCy the First White Man 

who were anxious to be their friends. But the wily Iro- 
quois saw through his subterfuges. They fell upon him 
and plucked out his beard, burnt him with live embers 
and tore out some of his finger nails, all against the pro- 
test of their chief" 

**It was very evident that all this was preliminary to 
the torture at the stake. Brule was a Catholic, but we 
nowhere learn that he was much troubled by religious 
scruples, but he wore upon his breast an Angus Dei, at- 
tached by a cord to his neck. This was seen and an at- 
tempt was made to take it from him; he resisted and 
said : *If you take it and kill me, you will yourselves im- 
mediately die, you and all your kin.' The day was hot 
and one of those thunder gusts which often succeed the 
heat of a summer day was rising against the sky. Brule 
pointed to the inky clouds as tokens of the anger of God. 
The storni soon broke and as the celestial artillery boom- 
ed over the darkening forests, the Troquois were stricken 
with supernatural terror and all fled from the spot leav- 
ing their victim still bound fast, until the chief, who had 
endeavored to protect him, returned and cut the cords 
and leading him to his lodge, dressed his wounds. 
Thenceforth there was neither feast nor dance to which 
Biule was not invited." 

**After several months' sojourn with these new friends, 
he started for the country of his old friends, the Hurons, 
but before leaving the Iroquois he assured them that he 
would bring about better relations between them and the 
French and the Ilurons. He was well received by the 
Hurons, but he learned that Champlain had returned to 
Quebec, having left instructions for Brule to continue his 

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Stephen Brule, the First White Man ^7 

explorations upou his return." **But he seemed to be 
tired of his recent hard experiences and after remaining 
among the Hurons many months, he concluded to return 
to his own countrymen on the St. Lawrence. So in the 
Summer of 1618 after eight years of continuous service 
in the wilderness, he joined his Indian friends, who were 
ready to make their annual trading trip to the French 
settlement, and on July 7 greeted Champlain at the town 
of Three Rivers, after nearly three years* absence since 
parting with him in the Huron country, and related the 
story of what he had seen of distant regions, and of what 
he had suffered in his journeyings." 

The Indians had told Champlain and Brule of a great 
sea to the North-West. Champlain, hoping that this 
might be the way to China, encouraged and urged Brule 
to undertake the quest and verify the indefinite state- 
ments of the Indians. Stephen Brule accompanied by 
another Frenchman, after seeing much with varied ex- 
periences, stood on the shores of Lake Superior. It was 
the North Sea, the Indians had been telling Champlain and 
Brule about, which they hoped might lead them to China, 
but alas, for these hopes, the water was fresh. A long 
time was passed in exploration and then the return trip 
was made, Brule reaching Quebec in July, 1623. 

Brule continued his visits to various Indian tribes 
from year to year, exploring and learning. **Trouble 
had been brewing in Europe. Hostilities broke out be- 
tween France and England, owing largely to religious 
complications, and as a result in 1629 an English squad- 
ron was sent into the St. Lawrence to capture the French 
Settlements. This English squadron captured a large 

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28 Stephen Brule, the First White Man 

quantity of food supplies which had just arrived from 
France and there was great distress and want. Men, 
women and children are said to have gone to the woods 
and gathered acorns and dug up roots on which to sub- 
sist. Some joined the Hurons and others the Algon- 
quins.** There were four Frenchmen who went over to 
the English and aided them. Brule was one of these. 
Thirteen others were induced to remain and live under 
English rule. 

Brule was censured for having aided the English. It, 
however, was a choice of living at liberty under English 
rule or ^oing as a prisoner to England. Then again for 
a period of twenty-one years, KJOS to 1()29, Brule had 
served Champlain with dog-like fidelity. Most of this 
time he had lived among savages, living like them, on 
the products of the woods and streams. His services to 
France was greater than that of any other Frenchman, 
save Champlain himself. The recompense was less than 
5200 annually fer a few years. Brule was not an enlist- 
ed soldier, and when the French towns were captured he 
had a right to look out for himself The charge, that he 
was a bad man because of this action, is not sustained. 
For years he was Champlain's most trusted agent, always 
reliable and to be relied upon. Brule made the best of 
a bad situation and gave himself the benefit of the doubt, 
if he had any. 

In a few years a treaty of peace was concluded between 
England and France, and New France, as the Canadian 
French territory was then called, was again turned over 
to its founders, the French. "After what had occurred, 
it was of course impossible that Brule should seek or even 

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Stephen Brule, the First White Man 29 

desire further service under the French government. He 
had now reached the age of 36 years, 18 of which he had 
spent almost exclusively among the Indians. To all in- 
' tents and purposes he had become like one of them. It 
was only a few months which from time to time he had 
spent in (iuebec and other French towns. He was as 
fully qualified to spend a month or a year in the wilder- 
ness as any living man, red or white, between the St. 
I^wrence and the Delaware." 

Brule took up his residence among lifelong associates, 
the Hurons, at a place which seems to have been his fa- 
vorite resort when with the savages. Here he was bar- 
barously and treacherously murdered by his former 
friends, the Hurons, to whom he had been of immense 
service for so many years. The reason for this blood- 
thirsty deed is not known. Whether he had given some 
unpardonable offense to his lifelong friends, whether the 
deed was incited by outside agencies or whether it occur- 
red in some drunken orgie, it is impossible to tell. He 
was clubbed to death. But his foul assassins did not stop 
there. In their uncontrollable ferocity to take revenge 
on their hapless victim they feasted on his lifeless re- 
mains. It may fairly be inferred that Brule was neither 
better nor worse than the hundreds of others, who, like 
him, have spent their lives among the savages of Amer- 
ica, but we deem it unfair to cast any slurs upon his 
memory." Thus at the age of forty years or less, this 
Frenchman, this explorer and interpreter ended his 
earthly career. 

That his conduct may not always have comported to 
our present day ideals, is admitted; he worked and lived 

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30 Stq>hen Brule, the First White Man 

with savage tribes of Indians; he adopted their language, 
raodes of life and necessarily acted much as they did. 
With all his shortcomings, possibly in character or con- 
duct, we must credit this Frenchman with the phys- 
ical and mental qualities which enable him to travel 
over land, by canoe on lake and river, and thus explore 
and report to Champlain, the first glimpses not only of 
our present State of Pennsylvania but of the Great Lakes 
of the North-West, and by these the first report of all 
this vast and now rich and valuable territory of the 
United States and of Canada. In recognition of these 
valuable services rendered, the hardships endured as well 
as in commemoration of a race who traversed these hills 
and valleys, free and independent as the very air they 
breathed, unlettered and untaught, 300 years ago, we 
commemorate this event at this place. 

Let us of the present, civilized, educated and cultured 
as we are, learn from the past from the sacrifices, hard- 
ships and sufferings of those who in our American his- 
tory did their part in the years gone by, as best they 
could, to discover, settle and build a great Continent and 
a great Nation. All honor to those men and women, let 
us forget their foible and recall their virtues and good 
works, and each here present today endeavor to meet 
faithfully, loyally and conscientiously the duties as citi- 
zens of a groat Republic. * The address was followed 
by enlivening music by the Drum Corps. 

* Authorities : — Authors from which the above statements 
are taken : Brule's Discoveries and Explorations, by Consul Will- 
shire Butterfield and authorities therein cited Broadhead's His- 
tory of New York. History of Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal 
— Jenkins. Early White Man in Lancaster County — F. R. 
Diffenderfer. Early Athens- Mrs. Louise Welles Murray. Prof. 
Parkman's Books. 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events SI 

Lociil Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events^ 

Capt. Chas. L. Albertson of Waverly, who very gener- 
ously assisted in many ways in making the occasion a 
great success and who is a very entertaining and fluent 
speaker, in the closing address said : 

Mr. President, members of Bradford County Historical 
Society and visiting societies, ladies and gentlemen : 
Certainly this is an important historical event, in the 
most beautiful natural setting, possible to conceive. Some 
wag in describing the beauties of the scenery in and near 
his home to a friend remarked, **You know the Great 
Creator builded the earth in six days, and the first five 
were spent in this immediate vicinity." If his residence 
had been in the vicinity of Spanish Hill, I should give it 
some credence. 

Spanish Hill, the gem of the valley, must be seen to 
be appreciated, it cannot be described. That it is a nat- 
ural formation is self evident to any who desire to inves- 
tigate, by visiting the extensive excavation on the north 
front, as it shows that the formation is sedimentary and 
glacial drift; and that at some former time the whole, or 
that part of the valley in this immediate vicinity was 
filled to a level with the top of the hill at the present, 
and eventually washed away by streams running at its 
sides and base. The entire valley was at one time an 
inland sea, the water flowing in from the north, the 
larger stones being shingled at that point, gradually de- 
creasing in size as you go south; and sand appearing in 
large quantities around east of Milltown. 

At the time Brule visited Spanish or Carantouan Hill, 

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S2 Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events 

the Indian name of the village was Oo-non-teo-gha. The 
entire top of the main portion was enclosed with a pali- 
sade of logs set on end into the ground close together; 
the logs being of considerable size. The fort or stockade 
of this tribe in Southern Pennsylvania was constructed 
in the same manner. At the bottom of the west side of 
the hill there is an everflowing spring, which supplies a 
large amount of water, and present indication show that 
there had in times past been a covered passage way 
from the top to the spring. Mr. John W. Storms, the 
present owner, who has so kindly granted permission to 
plant this marker here, informs us that when he came 
here many years ago, that there was a distinct embank- 
ment, entirely around the outer edge of the plateau, 
which has been levelled by the plow. This embank- 
ment was undoubtedly due to the dirt having been 
thrown up against the logs which were placed in the ground 
endwise, to strengthen their support; this embankment 
is described by many early writers. The name of the 
village of Carantouan in the Susquehanna language 
was Oonon-teo-gha, sometimes spelled with a final e in- 
stead of a. The problem of the name ^^Spanish Hill" is 
a more complex proposition, and as yet, unsolved. I 
have hoped for years that in my research something 
might be found that would throw some light on the sub- 
ject, but fear it will ever remain conjecture. 

The earliest known occupants of this region were the 
mastodons with the unpronounceable name. That they 
were here in considerable numbers is proven by the fact 
that many]of their skeletons have been unearthed. That 
noble octogenarian. Miles C. Baldwin, who died about four 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events SS 

years ago, aged nearly one hundred years, informed me 
that when they were constructing the Chemung Branch 
Canal from Athens to Elmira, while excavating the 
channel at a point directly south of the Chemung depot 
where the Canal entered the river, vast quantities of 
their bones were discovered, in a fair state of preserva- 
tion, but when they became exposed to the atmosphere, 
immediately disintegrated. This was evidently at a 
point, where they came to the river to drink, and became 
mired and were unable td extricate themselves. 

The next occupants of this valley, perhaps contempo- 
rary with the mastodon; was that almost unknown pre- 
historic race, known as **The Mound Builders," from the 
fact that they left a vast number of earth formations, 
which they had constructed over a large part of the pres- 
ent limits of the United States east of the Rocky moun- 
tains. That they were a numerous people is evidenced 
by the vast number of mounds in many localities. They 
must have been a pastoral or agricultural people or both, 
as they could not have subsisted by the chase. Wm. E. 
Stone, Sr. quotes Joseph Brant, the famous Mohawk 
chief, as stating that their Indian traditions informed 
them that they had pale faces. The best authorities do 
not believe they were the ancestors of the Aborigines 
that were found here by the white man. Who they 
were, whence they came, and the cause of their disap- 
pearance will ever remain a mystery, we fear. Those 
wishing to know more of the subject will find much to 
instruct them, as much has been written by able authors 
about this strange people. 

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S4 Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events 

It is extremely difficult to trace Indian history. Be- 
fore the white man came we only have their legends and 
traditions, but as a rule they are fairly reliable among 
primitive peoples. After the arrival of the white man, 
it is still difficult, as the French, Dutch and English all 
arrived at about the same time and frequently each gave 
the same tribe a different name. The tribe on Spanish 
Hill was known by four different names. Champlain 
called them the Caranioxians; the Dutch called them the 
Minquas; the Jesuit Missionary Andastes and the Eng- 
lish the Susqaehannocks; therefore, you can readily see 
how much confusion ensued. Also when a territory be- 
came over populated, and game scarce, a portion of the 
tribe would start out for themselves, under the leader- 
ership of a popular chief, like a swarm from the hive, 
locating in a tier thickly populated territory or conquer- 
ing another tribe, and frequently adopting what remain- 
ed; thus a tribe disappears. When the Jesuit Missiona- 
ries arrived, much of the previous confusion disappear- 
ed, as they kept a record of all important events, and 
these have been collected and published under the title 
of Jesuit Relations," which is a monumental work and 
has been of great help to historians. It was from this 
that Parkman obtained most of the material for his great 

Tradition informs us that the earliest ancestors of the 
red men who occupied this territory came from the far 
distant North West, crossed the Mississippi and eventu- 
ally reached this point; they were known as the Lein 
Lenape, Many of the ablest writers and students of In- 
dian history believe that the red man found here origi- 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events S6 

nally carae from Eastern Asia by the way of Bebring 
Strait. Tbe science of Etbnology teaches that all of the 
red men in tbe present United States originated from the 
same ancestry. We frequently bear of tbe extinction of 
tbe savage, when in fact, there are as many today as 
ever, largely due to tbe fact, that they are not permitted 
to war on each other. 

In 1G15 nearly all of tbe territory east of the Rocky 
Mountains and north of Central Tennessee and Virginia 
was occupied by two Indian nations, the Algonquin and 
the Iroquois Confederacy, and tbe Algonquins occupied 
all of tbe above mentioned territory except that part of 
New York state possessed by the Five Nations. The 
Susqueban nocks, a tribe of the Algonquins, at tbe time 
of tbe arrival of Brule, occupied both sides of tbe Susque- 
hanna from here to its mouth at tbe Chesapeake Bay, 
and for some distance up tbe river but bow far does not 
seem quite clear; it probably varied from time to time, 
depending upon the fates of their wars with the Five Na- 
tions. It is also very evident that their domain extended 
as far as tbe south, now tbe Delaware river, at times. 

Captaiu John Smith, the early explorer and historian, 
states in bis **General History," Vol. I, page 119, in 
speaking of the Susquehannocks that he met them near 
tbe mouth of tbe Susquehanna in 1608. **But to pro- 
c#ied, sixty of these Susquehannocks came to visit us, 
with bows, arrows, targets, beads, swords and tobacco 
pipes for presents. Such great and well proportioned 
men are seldom seen; they seemed like giants to tbe En- 
glish, yea and to tbe neighbor, yet seemed of an honest 
and simple disposition, with much adieu restrained from 

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SG Indian Tribes and Early Hisiorical Evcids 

adoring us as gods. Those are the strangest peoples of 
all those countries, both in language and attire; for their 
language raay well beseem their proportion, it sounding 
from them as a voice in a vault.'* At another plac« 
Smith describes them as being seven feet tall. Their 
extraordinary height seems to be corroborated- by the 
size of an Indian skeleton now in the Athens Museum; 
found when excavating for the museum building or near 
by, if I remember correctly. Smith also states that they 
had the reputation of being cannibals, eating the flesh of 
their enemies boiled, also that one of their religious cus- 
toms required them to sacrifice one of their children 
every fourth year. lie also mentions that the "League 
of the Iroquois" was reputed to be cannibals, and we 
know that the Hurons were for they devoured the re- 
mains of Brule, boiled. 

Tradition informs us that the nucleus of the Five Na- 
ions originally lived near the present city of Montreal. 
That when there, they were conquered by the Hurons 
and Adirondack?, and came over and settled in the val- 
ley now known as the Mohawk. At this time they were 
few in numbers, and here they remained until they grew 
in population, and were compelled to spread to the west- 
ward to obtain subsistence, and became five separate and 
(liirtinct tribes, frequently being at war with each other. 
Here they remained probably for centuries, as very many 
words of each tribe had changed and were dissimilar 
from any of the other tribes, and it must have taken 
nges to bring this about. Eventually they formed a 
league and their traditions inform us that I)a-ga-no-we-da 
was the founder. lie was the Solon of their race. And 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events S7 

the Indian name of the league is Ho-da-no-sau-nee, 
which, being translated into English signifies, "The peo- 
ple of the Long House." The English names of the five 
different tribes or nations, as they were sometimes called, 
were as follows: The Mohawks resided in the valley of 
the same name. The Oneidas were on Oneida Lake. 
The OnondagHS were the next to the westward, on the 
river of the same name. The Cayugas on Cayuga Lake, 
and the Senecas east of the Genesee river, later conquer- 
ing the Neuter and Erie Tribes and occupying their do- 
main to the Niagara river and Lake Erie. The Onon- 
dagas being the central nation, they were placed in 
charge of the League's Long House, which was their cap- 
ital and was near the present city of Syracuse. 

It is an impossibility to describe the league, even in 
outline at this time. I can only say it was a democracy, 
a wise and scientific form of government, well balanced 
so as to lifeguard the liberty of the masses. They were 
governed by fifty Sachems who were elected by the peo- 
ple. They were divided into clans and could not inter- 
marry into the s ime clan, therefore understanding some- 
what the law of Eugenics. They also had equal suff- 
rage; their women being allowed at times to vote. At 
one of their treaty councils with the whites, I believe the 
one at Bath, N. Y., when the chiefs and whites were un- 
able to agree and were abi)ut to separate, the women met 
and voted in council ihat the chiefs should come to an 
agreement with the whites, which was done. All stu- 
dents and statesmen should read Lewis H. Morgan's 
**League of the Iroquois," which is the best work on the 
subject, but unfortunately a scarce and rare volume, now 
difficult to obtain. 

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SS Indian Tribes and Early Huiorical Events 

Champlain committed a grave error soon after coming 
to this Continent by joining forces with the Hurons 
a<^ainst the Iroquois, who ever after hated the French, 
and eventually entered into a treaty witfi the English 
which later resulted in the French losing all of their do- 
main on this side of the water. The League and the 
Susquehannocks were at war almost continuously from 
the earliest known time, but the latter seem to have 
reached the zenith of their power at about the time of the 
arrival of Brule, at which time some authorities claim, 
that they could muster as high as 1600 warriors, and 
possessed forts or stockades of considerable strength in 
several places. War seems to have been a pleasure with 
them, for at one time when the Colonists tried to bring 
about peace between them and a southern tribe, they re- 
fused on the ground that their young men would have 
no pastime. One of the very early customs was to leave 
a club or some token near the body of those they had 
slain, so that no innocent person would be wrongfully 
accused of the crime. They nearly exterminated the 
Mohawks early in the seventeeth century. 

In 1642 the Commonwealth of Maryland declared war 
against the Susquehannocks, which continued until 1652, 
when the latter begged for peace and wished to form an 
alliance with the colony against the league, who were 
waging an energetic war against them, since the previous 
year. This war continued in a desultory manner until 
1662, when the league came down with a force of 800 
men besieged the Susquehannocks in their fort in lower 
Pennsylvania. When unable to overcome their enemies 
by force the league resorted to strategy, hoping to obtain 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events S9 

an unfair advantage in this manner. They requested 
permission for twenty-five of their warriors to enter the 
fort; alleging as their object, to treat for peace, and ob- 
tain sufficient provision to carry them home. The gates 
were opened, and as they entered, all were made prison- 
ers, and burned on platforms in full view of their friends. 
The league immediately raised the siege and hastened 

About this time smallpox, the white man*s disease, 
broke out among the Susquehannocks and made sad 
havoc. The league continued the war, in 1603, going 
down 1600 strong to attack the Susquehannock strong- 
holds; the Marylanders voted to assist them with arms, 
ammunition and men, as they began to fear the power 
of the league. Their war continued until about 1674 or 
1675, when the Susquehannocks were subdued, nearly 
annihilated, and forced over into Maryland, where they 
were from time to time unfairly treated. In 1675 Mary- 
land declared war against the remnant of the tribe, kill- 
ing 70 of them at one time. In 1676 Major Truman of 
the Maryland forces, besieged some of them in one of 
their strongholds and when five of their chiefs came out 
to treat for peace, caused them to be killed. For this act 
he was severely censured by the Maryland Assembly, 
and an effort made to punish him upon the charge of 
murder. After or about this time, the Susquehannocks 
ceased to exist as a tribe, but few remaining and they 
scattered about. They do not appear again in this im- 
mediate vicinity, except a few passing to and fro, as 
about 100 of them were a<lopte(l by the several Iribes of 
the League. 

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4.0 Indian Tribes and Early Hutorical Events 

About 1700 the League reached the aenith of its power, 
at which time they probably had a population of about 
20,000, and had subjugated all of their territory from 
the Conne(^tieut to the Mississippi river and from central 
Virginia and Tennessee, nortli to and including part of 
C^anada. There is no doubt that their sway was a bene- 
fit as a whole, as they used all possible effort to prevent 
the tribes over which they had control from warring 
witli each otiier, frequently placing a colony of the league 
among the more turbulent one, and had the whites ar- 
rived on the scene, it is safe to say that the wisdom that 
formed and controlled the league would have obtained 
grand results among the Aborigines of this land. 

The Shawanese came and settled in the Wyoming Val- 
ley soon after the expulsion of the Susquehannocks. 
Some authorities say in 1673, others in 1678. They 
were certainly here in 1682 as at that date they took an 
important part in a treaty. Before the tixne of Colum- 
bus they were a strong tribe and lived in the Cumber- 
land River valley, but where they lived just previous to 
their arrival here is not well established. They were a 
small tribe; and evidently came from the South, as the 
word Shawanese means "Southern Indians." They evi- 
nently came from above Central Virginia, originally, as 
they spoke the Algonquin language. They remained 
about 70 years, then gradually migrated to Western 
Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. 

About the time that the parent stock of the Jjcague of 
the Iroquois was forced away from their home near Mon- 
treal, a part of the original tribe migrated westward as 

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Indian Tnbes and Early Historical Events 4,1 

far as the Mississippi, then southeasterly to the bead- 
waters of the Tar and Neuse rivers; here they remained 
for centuries, eventually becoming a strong tribe, con- 
sisting of six large towns. About 1712 they had troub- 
les with their white and Indian neighbors, and battles 
ensued in which they were depleted, and many of their 
warriors slain, and many others sold as slaves. They 
made peace with the colony, and received a grant of land 
from North Carolina, permitting them to settle in Bertie 
county and moved there, where they remained until 
1715, when troubles having again developed with their 
neighbors, the most of them came North, and settled first 
on the Susquehanna river between the Unadilla and 
Chenango rivers, eventually extending their domain 
down the river and covering this territory. They came 
with the consent of the league, and in 1722 became the 
sixth nation in the confederacy, without the voting 
privilege. Some of the descendants of this tribe now 
live on a reservation in the western part of the state of 
New York, and an industrious and enlightened people, 
having a well supported church, and a temperance soci- 
ety organized in 1844. 

The Indian villages located in this vicinity at the time 
of the arrival of the white man, so far as known were as 
follows: At the time of Brule's visit Carantouan on 
Spanish Hill. The same tribe had a large village at the 
mouth of Towanda Creek, and another 2i miles west of 
Elmira on the Chemung river at what is known as Fort 
Hill. That they had many smaller villages in this imme- 
diate vicinity is very probable, but we have no evidence 
of them, other than the plow of the early settler, which 

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42 Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events 

turned up the soil blackened by the camp fire in by -gone 

When Sullivan arrived with his army in 1779 there 
was a village at Newtown, midway between the present 
city of Ehnira and the village of Lc»wman. The village 
of New Chemung was beyond the upper narrows, just 
east of the brick house on the State road, known as the 
Asa Parshall homestead. This village consisted of about 
sixty log houses and was destroyed by General John 
Sullivan, August 13th, 1779. The old village of Che- 
mung was on the ridge of ground just east of the Che- 
mung depot, extending up along the ridge beyond the 
residence of Mr. James Owen. For some unknown rea- 
son this village was abandoned in 1776. The old and 
abandoned dwelling south of and near Mr. Owen's resi- 
<lence is the first frame house built in the town of Che- 
mung. It was the ancestral home of the Buck family 
who were among the earliest settlers, Mr. William C 
Buck, our genial Erie agent, is a descendant of this fam- 
ily. Chemung was for many years known as *'Buck- 

Another Indian village occupied t)y the Willawannas 
was located where the village of the same name is now- 
situated. There was a village at or near the present vil- 
lage of Athens, also another on the west side of the Che- 
mung river, where the river flt»ws into the Susquehainia, 
which was known as Queen Esther's village or castle. It 
(onsisted of about sixty houses, and was destroyed by 
Colonel Hartley when he came up the river in 1778 after 
the battle of Wyoming. There w*as also a village on the 
south side of the Siii-(iu(hanna river, midway between 

- > 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events J^S 

the present villages of Barton and Smithboro. Also an- 
other on Owego Creek one mile from its mouth. This 
village had previously been where Owego is now located. 
On the west side of the Chemung river near Tozer's 
bridge there was a small village of the Tutelows. 

There has been soma controversy relative to the three 
Dutch traders having visited this immediate vicinity 
previous to the arrival of Brule. I have given the mat- 
ter much study and have been unable to obtain any evi- 
dence of their ever having been here, and it is a well 
demonstrated fact that they were captured and ransomed 
in 1616, the year after Brule arrived. John Romeyn 
Broadhead was one of the ablest and most painstaking 
historians that ha? written on early Amsterdam, and the 
one th^t bad the best facilities for obtaining information, 
as he was sent by the State of New York to copy all rec- 
ords in Holland, France and England, relative to Amer- 
ica, and who devoted three years from 1841 to 1844 to 
the performance of that task. After he returned and his 
records were published, he wrote a history of the State of 
New York which was published in 1853, and on page 78, 
Vol. I of this history, the following appears under the 
heading of 1616: **Anxious to explore the unknown re- 
gions, of which only a vague idea had been gathered 
from the imperfect explanations of the Mohawks, three 
traders in the service of the New Amsterdam Company, 
seem to have adventurously set out from Fort Nassau on 
an expedition into the interior and downward along the 
New river to the Ogehage, or the Minquas, the enemies 
of the northern tribes. The route of the party is not ac- 

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4^ Indian Tribes and Early Historical Evaiis 

curately defined, but they perliaps followed the trail of 
the Esopus Indians to the source of the Delaware, the 
waters of which they descended to the Schuylkill. At 
this point of tlieir progress, they appear to have heeii 
taken prisoners by the Minquas, and the news reaching 
the Dutch on the Muuiitius river, arrangements were 
promptly made to ransom the captives, as well as under- 
take a more thorough cxaminativ)n of the country where 
they were detained. 

'^Accordingly, the yacht Restless, which Block on his 
return to Holland had left in charge of Cornelius Hen- 
drickson, was dispatched from Manhattan southward 
along the coast of New Jersey to explore the New river 
from its mouth to its upper waters. The voyage was en- 
tirely successful. Sailing into the Bay which Hudson 
had first discovered seven years before, Hendrickson ex- 
plored the adjoining coast and discovered three rivers 
between the 38th and 40th degree of latitude. * * * 
Proceeding up the channel of the main river, beyond the 
confluence of the Schuylkill, Hendrickson opened a 
friendly intercourse with the Minquas, who inhabited 
its biiiks and ransoiiied from these savages his three 
ca{)tive countrymen, giving in exchange for them kettles, 
bfads antl other merchandise. 

''To Cornelius Hendrickson unqutslionably belongs 
the honor of having been the first to explore the bay and 
liver, which novy unju'!)tly bears the name of Lord Dela- 
ware. * =K * Hq probably ransomed the Dutch 
lapLives near the very spot where Philadelphia was 
founded just (j(> years aftei wards, 10S2. The river above 
low received the name of The New or South river, to 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events ^5 

distinguish it from the 'Mauritius* which soon became 
better known as the North river.** Tliere is a crude map 
known as the Block and Hendrickson map, which is be- 
lieved to have been drawn from information given by 
Kleynties, one of the tliree Dutch prisoners after their 
ransom, and Hendrickson, who sailed around to his res- 
cue, which is a fairly good map of the Delaware river 
and has no resemblance to the Susquehanna river what- 
ever. The Indian word *'Ogehage,'* spelled in several 
ways, and translated or corrupted by the early historians 
into **Tioga," also spelled by them in many ways, was 
used by the Indians to indicate many different places 
where rivers joined, or one flowed into the other. The 
literal translation of the word meaning, *'at the meeting 
of the waters.** And the writers who argue, or claim that 
the three Dutch traders visited here, seem to infer that 
the word *'Ogehage** meant this particular place, thus the 

I am unable to find any record of white men having 
visited this locality between 1015 and 1723; but it is 
very probable that there were many. In 1723 a colony 
of Palatines under the leadership of Conrad Weiser*s 
father, who had become dissatisfied with the conditions 
t)n the Mohawk river where they had settled sometime pre- 
vious, came across to the headwaters of the Susquehanna 
river and floated down to Swarta Creek, ascended this 
stream, crossed over the divide between the Su^quelianna 
and tlie Schuylkill rivers, and settltd in the beautiful 
and fertile valley of Tul[)ehocken, where their dej^cend- 
ants now reside on much of the ancestral land. Two 
more parties of their neighbors and friends followed 

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If^O Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events 

them within three or four years, and with one of these 
parties on a visit to his parents, was he, who was to be- 
come the great Indian interpreter and diplomat, Conrad 
Weiser, the man who had greater influence with the 
League of tlie Iroquois and all other Indians in the states 
of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware and Virginia, than 
any other man of his time, with perhaps tlie exception of 
Sir William Johnson, England's agent with the Iroquois. 
Weiser commenced to represent the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania in 1737, and while in their employ passed 
up and down this valley many times during the remain- 
der of his eventful life, and it was standing at his grave 
in 1793, that Washington said, "His service had been 
rendered in a difficult period, and posterity would not 
forget him/* 

About 1744 or 1745, the Moravian missionaries com- 
menced to appear upon the scene. Among them, Count 
Zinzendorf, Heckewelder, Spangenbtirg, Zeisherger, Cam- 
erhoff and probably others. In 1743 John Bertram, the 
noted botanist, in company with Lewis Evans and Con- 
rad Weiser passed through here. Soon after this period 
the whites commenced to come so fast that we have no 
time to enumerate them. 

A history of this part of the valley would not be com- 
plete without mention of the Montour family. Madam 
Montour as she was known was a white French woman — 
some say her mother was a squaw, who was stolen by the 
Iroquois Indians from her home in Canada when she 
was ten years of age, and she passed the remainder of 
her eventful life among the Indians in this vicinity, on 
or near the Susquehanna valley. Conrad Weiser visited 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events 1^.7 

her in 1737, when she lived at the mouth of Loyalsock 
Creek and she gave him food as he was in a starving 
condition. Count Zinzendorf visited her in 1742, when 
she stated to him that her father was a Frenchman liv- 
ing in Canada. Zinzendorf described her as a beautiful, 
intelligent white woman. She married Caraudowana, an 
Oneida Chief and had five children, who retained the 
name of their mother, which was the Indian custom. 
Andrew the interpreter; Louis known in history as The 
French Spy; Henry, also Margaret who married a Mo- 
hawk Chief known as Peter Quebeck. They had five 
children, Nicholas, Catherine, Esther, Mary and proba- 
bly Rolland, who was in command of the 60 Indians 
who ambushed General Hand and his forces west of the 
new village of Chemung, and killed five of his sol- 
diers August 13th, 1779. Catherine married Thomas 
Hutson, a Seneca Chief, and lived at Catherinestown, 
near the present tity of Montour Falls. Mary married a 
chief called White Mingo. Esther married a chief 
known as King Eghohowin, who died in 1772, after 
which she was known as (iueen Esther. 

Queen P^sther lived on the west side of the Chemung 
river, directly opposite the point where the Susquehanna 
and that river join, on what is now known as Queen Es- 
ther's Flats. The beautiful glen east of the village of 
VVillawana is still known as Queen Esther's Glen. It 
was she who figured so conspicuously at Wyoming on 
the evening of the battle. On page G3 *'Life and Ad- 
ventures of Moses VanCampen,'* edition of 1843, there is 
a statement of what occurred at that time. This state- 
ment was made by Lebbeus Hummond who escaped 

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^<y Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events 

from the rock. While he was sitting on the ground with 
other prisoners awaiting their fate, tlie following occur- 
red : "While thus anxiously awaiting its issue, an old 
squaw came in, bearing a b(»y about 12 or 13 years of age 
on her back. He was a young fifer named William 
Buck, whose father held the office of captain in one of 
the regiments, and he had gone out as a musician in the 
company under his father. He was a beautiful and 
sprightly lad, and is said to have been one of the most 
promising boys in the settlement. While the squaw was 
thus carrying him along in evident delight on her back, 
intending no doubt to adopt him into her own family, 
another of her own sex came up behind, and planted a 
hatchet in the boy's head. Young Buck fell off the old 
squaw's back and sank upon the ground dead. Immed- 
iately after there succeeded a contest between these two 
females. The one fell upon the other with the fury of a 
maniac and others came up and joined in the struggle. 

**The combatants were soon separated, ami the war- 
riors returned to their places, but directly after she who 
had been the first aggressor, and called (ineen Esther, 
came to the ring and placing her two hands on the shoul- 
ders of two of the prisoners, causing them to lean one 
side and she stepped between them into the ring, and 
advanced toward the center with a deadly weapon in her 
hand. She came directly towards Mr. Hammond. He 
supposed she had maiked him for her victim. But as 
she continued to advance, her eyes seemed to turn towanl 
the one a little to his left, and coming up planted the 
hatchet in his head. He sank back upoti the ground 
without a groan. The squaw moved on a little further 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events ^9 

towards his left and kept on going thus about the ring. 

**When she had gone about half way around Mr. Ham- 
mond resolved to make an effort for his life; as the un- 
seemly executioner kept on her way, Mr. Hammond 
perceived that when raising the hatchet the eyes of all 
each time were turned toward her. He drew his feet up 
little by little until he had them pretty nearly under 
him, and when the hatchet was raised over the head of 
the third one to his right, he started with a bound and 
ran with the utmost speed directly towards the ring of 
savages pursuing a line straight forward, and to his sur- 
prise the Indians oi)eneil to the rigiit and left and for a 
moment seemed bewildered by his unexj>ected move- 
ment. He passed through them without being cut down 
as he expected, and continued to run at his utmost speed. 
He had not gone over three or four rods from them before 
they began to send tiieir hatchets after him.*' Eventu- 
ally Mr. Hammond and one other, Joseph Elliott, es- 
caped. If the above statement be true, and we believe 
it is, the story of (iueen Esther, having killed 14 men on 
the rock, is fact not fiction, as has at times been alleged. 

There could be no excuse for committing this inhuman 
crime, but this untutored woman believed she had plenty 
of reason for so doing. The conduct of the whites from 
the time of their first landing had been of the most cruel 
and inhtiman character. Tiiere iiad been no crime they 
had not committed. Then^ is much evidence to prove 
that at her home near here, Q leen Esther had ever been 
kind otherwise. At one time running great risk, in 
helping prisoners to escape who would have been sacri- 
ficed, were it not for her heroic efforts. The day previ- 

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50 Indian Tribes and Earlij Historical EveiUs 

ous to her cruel revenge her only son had been killed at 
Kxeter near the scene of her crime. 

From a historic view point, as well as that of justice, 
it is more than unfortunate that the Indian's enemies 
have written his history. Tiiat they were cruel in their 
revenge is a fact, but war makes brutes of men. We 
need only to look across the water this day to prove that 
men who were a short time ago cultured gentlemen, are 
now committing acts to destroy their fellowmen, that the 
American Indian would not have resorted to. 

That the red men who occupied this valley when the 
white man arrived had many sterling qualities is 
a well proven fact. One has only to read **Heckewel- 
der's History Manneis and Customs of the Indian 
Nations'' to prove my assertion. He lived with them as 
a Moravian Missionary before the white man's rum and 
habits had destroyed their habits. He states that they 
were in their homes kind, loving and indulgent hus- 
bands and fathois, good neighbors, hospitable to a fault, 
and loyal friends. Many of the crimes committed by the 
white men they had no word in their language to de- 
scribe, showing conclusively that it was unknown among 
them. They had no code of laws among them, only cus- 
toms wl)ich produced the best of results. I have yet to 
find the first record of an Indian having insulted a fe- 
male prisoner. As a rule the original Indian's word was 
carried out with fidelity. In my day in the Indian Ter- 
ritory, when an Indian had been tried and convicted of 
murder and the day set for his execution, when thecouit 
wou!<l parole him upon his promise to return at a time 
specified, that he might go and settle up his business and 

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Indian Tribes and Early Historical Events 51 

bid his friends and family farewell, I do not know of any 
case where they failed to return. I fear that white mur- 
derers would not have done as well as the savage. Our 
courts have never attempted the experiment. 

I have found in looking over a vast amount of early 
records, many petitions from the Indians to the colonial 
governors and assemblies requesting that the traders be 
forbidden and prevented from bringing rum amongst 
their people. They evidently foresaw their danger and 
impending doom. The Indian ever responded to kind 
treatment from the white and seldom if ever, the first to 
violate their treaty. They have been severely censured 
for taking sides with the English during the Revolution, 
but they were only carrying out their agreement made 
many years before. We may blame them for the meth- 
ods used but not for taking part. As an illustration of 
their appreciation of fair treatment, the Indians coupled 
the name of Washington with that of their Manitou or 
Great Spiiit, because of his just treatment of them after 
the close of the war. This is the only case ever known 
of their having done this with red or white man. 

In conclusion, my friends, I have tried as best I can 
to present the theme allotteJ to me. I have endeavored 
to be fair t© the departed occupants of this beautiful val- 
ley. We are nut here to alone commemorate the arrival 
of Stephen Brule, the first wliite man, but to describe the 
passing of the old and the coming of the new. The pass- 
ing of barbarism, the coming of civilization. The pass- 
ing of the Indian, the coming of the white. The passing 
of the wilderness and wigwam, the coming of the farm, 
cottage, village and city. The passing of the Indian 

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o J Iniilan Tribts anil Karhj Historical Events 

trail and the warpatli, tlic coming of the higliway, canal, 
rdilroad, autoinohilo and aeroplane. The pasting of the 
scrub j)ine yonder and the coining of that immense ma- 
chine shoj), the largest on earth. It behooves us as a na- 
tion to so conduct ourselves, that someone in the far dis- 
tant future may not be compelhd to deliver an address 
describing our departure. 

Capt. Albertson's address was greatly enjoyed, at the 
conclusion of which, Librarian Ileverly in behalf of the 
Historical Society, thanked all who had aided in making 
the exercises possible and interesting and especially John 
W. Storms, for permitting tiie marker to be placed on his 
land, "without money and without j^rice," then all joined 
with the school children in singing "America," followed 
with inspiring music by the Drum Corps, bringing to a 
close a most successful celebration of the iirst event in our 
state history. 

The celebration w'as arranged and successfully carried 
out by the following committee: J. Andrew Wilt, C. F. 
Heverly, John A. Biles, John H. Chaffee and Geo. T. 


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Bradford County Chronology 



HE first white man (1015) to visit what is now 
Bradford county was Stephen Brule, a 
Frenchman, who was an explorer and inter- 
preter for Samuel Champlain. Champlain 
had secured the friendship of the Ilarons who occupied 
the territory adjoining Lakes Huron and Erie. The 
Carantouannais were the allies of the Hurons. The 
country of this people was the upper waters of the Sus- 
quehanna. Their principal town, Carantouan, was lo- 
cated at what is known as Spanish Hill, just above the 
present village of Say re. It was palisaded and contained 
800 warriors. In 1615 Brule was sent with twelve Hu- 
rons to arrange with the Carantouannais for a force of 
500 warriors to co-operate with Champlain and the Hu- 
rons in an attack upon the Onondaga stronghold. They 
reached Carantouan the latter part of September, where 
they were "welcomed with great joy, being entertained 
by banquets and dances for some days.*' After the ex- 
pedition, Brule returned to Carantouan and explored the 
surrounding country. The next year (lOlG) he went 
down the Susquehanna to the sea, being the tirst white 
man ever to perform this journey, and tlie first white 
man to set foot upon the soil of Pennsylvania. Brule's 
life for twenty-four years among the Indians was full of 

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5 4 Bradford Coiudy Chronology 

thrilling interest. Fiimliy, he was treacherously mur- 
dered by the Hurons who feasted upon his remains. 

1723 — Emigration. — From the time of Brule, so far as 
we have any record, it was more than a hundred years 
before the next white man passed down the Susquehanna 
Valley. The sufferings of the Gt-rman Palatinates hav- 
ing been rehited to Governor Keith, his interest and sym- 
pathy were at once aroused. lie offered them a home in 
Pennsylvania, where their titles could be clear and their 
land free fiom Indian claims. Accordingly in the Spring 
of 172.') thirty-three families prepared to make the trip 
from (he Schoharie Valley. With their meager house- 
hold gooils i).icked on horses and on their own backs, 
over mountains, valleys and through forests, they reached 
the headwaters of the Susquehanna. Here they con- 
structed rafts upon which they placed their women and 
children and under the most thrilling and adventurous 
experiences, floated down the river about 200 miles to 
the mouth of Swarta Creek below Ilarrisburg. Here 
they met the men who drove the cattle and horses along 
the river bank, then proceeded to the Tulpehocken Val- 
ley in Berks county, where they formed a settlement. 
During the six years following a large number of other 
Palatinates from Schoharie came down the Susquehanna 
and joined their friends at Tulpehocken. While these 
people did not locate in Bradforcl county, the route 
opened by them brought into the county its first settler.-^. 

1737 — Mission Among Indians. — Governor Gooch of 
Virginia desired the province of Pennsylvania to mediate 
between the Six Nations and Southern Indians. Conrad 
Weiser was selected to perform this mission. lie started 

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Bradford County Chronology 65 

on his journey with a German companion, Stoffel Stump, 
and an Indian guide, reaching the county by the way of 
the Loyalsock. Crossing the divide they came down Su- 
gar Creek, arriving at the Indian village in North To- 
wanda, March 29, 1737. Here and at Tioga Point they 
found the Indians on the verge of starvation. Their own 
provisions were exhausted, but a small supply was se- 
cured and they proceeded on their mission. The journey 
was one of severest hardships through a dense wilderness 
of 500 miles. It should be stated, however, that this was 
not Weiser^s first visit among the Indians in this section, 
as he himself says, **I was here twelve years before*' 

1743 — Visit by Men of Science. — In July, 1743, Conrad 
Weiser was sent again to Onondaga with a message from 
the Governor of Virginia to arrange a place of meeting 
with the Six Nations to form a treaty in regard to dis- 
puted lands. He was accompanied on this expedition by 
John Bartram, a celebrated English traveler and botan- 
ist, Lewis Evans, geographer for the proprietaries of 
Pennsylvania, and Indian guides. The trip was made 
on horseback from Philadelphia. The party entered the 
county by the Lycoming route, encountering many diffi- 
culties in their passage through the wilderness. A stop 
was made at the Indian village at Tioga Point. Here, 
as at other points, observations and examinations were 
made by Bartram and Evans, who were the first men of 
science to visit this section, and the journey, the first one, 
made across the country on horseback. 

1745 — On Indian Mission. — In June,1745,Spangenburg 
and Zeisberger passed through the county and the Indian 

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S6 Bradford County Chronology 

villages at North Towanda and Tioga Point on their jour- 
ney to the capital of the /ro|/«o?s confederacy, a journey 
for both political and religious purposes. They were ac- 
comi)anied by Weiser, Shikellimy, a Cayuga sachem, and 
the Iroquois viceroy at Shamokin, one of his sons, and 
Andrew Montour. Their object was to induce the Six Na- 
tions to conclude a peace with the Cataivbas, to make sat- 
isfaction for murders perpetrated by the Shawancae and to 
obtain permission for the Christian Indians to begin a set- 
tlement at Wyoming. At this time but few Indians were 
observed at Oscalui (North Towanda); but they found 
many picturetl trees about the place, it being on the 
great war-path. War parties were, in this way, accus- 
tomed to record the results of their campaigns. The 
bark was peeled off one side of the tree and on this paint- 
ed certain characters by which they understood from 
what tribe and of how many the war party consisted, 
against what tribe they had fought, how many scalps 
and prisoners they had taken and how many men they 
had lost. 

1750 — Missionaries on Journey. — In the Spring of 
1750, Cammerhotf, a bishop in the Moravian church, in 
company with Zeisberger, passed up the Susquehanna 
from Wyoming to Tioga en route for Onondaga in order 
to negotiate with the Great Council for the establishment 
of a mission among the Iroquois, They were accompa- 
nied by a Cayuga chief and his family. When the party 
reached the vicinity of Wyalusing, the remains of an old 
town were still visible, which the Cayuga said was called 
''Go-hon-to-to," inhabited by Andastes upon whom the 
Five Nations made war and wholly exterminated them 

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Bradford County Chronology 67 

— the greater part being slain, a few only being taken 
captive and adopted by some of the families of the Cay- 

1752 — March 11, Northampton county (which in- 
cluded Bradford) constituted by Act of the Provincial 

1752 — Indian Town Re-eatablished, — In 1752, Papun- 
hank, a Monacy chief of some note from the Minisink 
country, with a number of families, came to Wyalusing 
and built a new town a little below the site of the old 

1754 — All that part of Bradford county from a line 
ten miles east of the Susquehanna river was contained in 
Susquehanna Company's Indian purchase at Albany in 
1754; the balance of the county's territory was within 
the Delaware Company's Indian purchase also of 1754. 

175G — Treaty with Indians. — Diahoga (Athens) like 
Easton was favorite treaty ground, and many important 
councils and treaties were held there with the Indians. 
In 175G Governor Morris sent Captain Newcastle (an In- 
dian adopted by Morris) with a message and to treat 
with a number of Indian chiefs at Athens. The meeting 
was an important one and a treaty effected. The next 
year and frequently thereafter representatives of the pro- 
prietary government met the Indians at Athens on vari- 
ous missions. 

1750 — First Military Expedition. — The French expe- 
dition of 1750 against Fort Augusta (Sunbury) **returned 
to Canada by way of the Indian trail up Lycoming 
creek." This evidently was the first military force ever 
to pass through Bradford county, as the old Indian trail 

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68 Bradford County Chronology 

from the headwaters of Lycoming creek passed down To- 
wanda creek, tlience northward to Tioga Point on the 
line of the great trail to Canada. 

1756— The first known white person to have died within 
Bradford county was Susanna Nitchsraan, a Moravian 
girl of Mahoning, who after being captured by the In- 
dians, was carried captive to Tioga Point. Here she 
died in May, 1750. 

1700— On May 20, Christian Frederick Post, one of 
thr most zealous missionaries, on his way to attend a 
council of the Western Indians, spent a night in the In- 
dian town at Wyalusing and preached to the Indians in 
their own language. This is regarded as the first gospel 
sermon ever heard in the Susquehanna valley above Wy- 

1763 — May 23-27, Zeisberger preaches and labors 
among the Wyalusing Indians; in June, Zeisberger and 
John Woohnan (a Quaker evangelist) preach to them; 
council selected Zeisberger as teacher; June 20th, Pap- 
unhankf the Indian chief, was baptized by Zeisberger and 
named John. This was the first time this holy ordinance 
was ever administered in the county. 

1765 — MoQ'avian Mission Established. — After the inter- 
ruption caused by Pontiac's war, the Christian Indians re- 
turned to Wyalusing in May, 1765. They were accom- 
panied by Zeisberger and Schmick (another missionary) 
and Schmick's wife, who were to remain with them and be 
their resident religious instructors. Log cabins, bark 
covered huts, a commodious meeting house and mission 
house of unhewn logs were erected. At the close of the 
year there v;ere connected with the mission 146 souls, of 

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Bradfbrd County Chronology . 59 

whom 33 were communicants.. In 1767 the town was re-' 
built on higher ground under the supervision of the Mo- 
ravian missionaries and' the name changed' to Friedens- 
hiUteUy signifyhig ^iiutsof peace." It consisted of 29 log 
houses, 13 huts and 7 stables for horsed, besides a new 
church, 24x32 feet, constructed of squared white pin© 
timber, with shingled roof and glazed windows, sur- 
mounted by a cupola containing a -^ bell. The mission 
Indians had several hundred acrescleared on which tliey 
raised crtrn, oats, other grains,- hay and vegetables; also 
had started a peach and apple orchard and owned horses, 
cattle, sheep, hogs and fowls. They were industrious, 
rich, contented and happy, except for the fear they might 
be obliged to leave their homes at the command of the Six 
Nations, the Oonnedicut- people or the governor of Penn- 
sylvahia. During the continuance of the mission 139 had 
been baptized and 7 couples married, the first of whom 
were two converts, named Thomaa and Rachel, Dec. 23, 
1766, the first Christian marriage celebrated within the 
county; in June, 1772 all (211 including those from She- 
shequin) removed to the Tuscaroras Valley in Ohio. 

1765' — The first trading post in Bradford county was 
established at Ulster by John Anderson and tlie Ogdens 
as early as May, 17G5. For the next four or five years 
he and the Ogdens from Wyoming made two trips leach 
year, visiting the villages on the Susquehanna, buying 
peltry of the Indians, or exchanging for rifles, ammuni- 
tion, trinkets and rum. 

1766-^L'7«/er Mission. — Soon after the close of Pon- 
tiac's war, Echgohund with a few Monsey families, settled 
at the mouth of Cash creek in the present village of Uls- 

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6) Bradford County Chronology 

tcr. This being but a day's journey by water from Wy- 
alusing, the inlmbitants of one town were frequent visi- 
tors at the other. From the first Echgohund, the chief, 
inanif(sted deep interest in the success of the mission. 
On his return from Cayuga town, Zeisberger tarried here 
over night, May 4, 1706, and at the request of the Indians 
preached io quite a company of them, who gathered at 
the lodge whera he stopped; John Ettwein, Zeisberger 
and Sensemann visit them and hold religious services, 
May 10-12, 17GS. John Roth was appointed to the 
Sheshequin (Ulster) mission, arrived February 4, 1769 
and preached his first discourse llie following day. From 
this time religious services were maintained with great 
regularity, morning and evening of each day. For the 
first year the congregation repaired to Friedenshutten for 
the sacraments and festivals of the church. Ulster being 
regarded only as an outlying station of the Wyalusing 
mission. February 16, 1769, missionary's house erected 
of squared pine logs. This served also for a church un- 
til July of the next year (1770), when a chapel was 
erected, surmounted by a cupola containing a bell. The 
mission continued to increase in numbers and usefulness 
until the migration (1772 with those at Wyalusing) at 
which time it numbersd 60 souls. 

1768 — Treaty of Fort Stanwix, November 5, 1768, at 
which time the proprietaries of Pennsylvania effected a 
purchase from the Six Nations of a tract of land, begin- 
ning at Owego, thence following the left bank of the Sus- 
quehanna as far as the mouth of Towanda creek, thence 
up the Towanda, along the Burnett hills, down Pine 
creek to the West Branch and across to the Ohio. (It 

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Bradford County Chronology 61 

included a large part of Bradford county). "This was 
called the new purchase and opened a wide field of ad- 
venture to the hardy pioneers of Pennsylvania. It was 
a vast school, too, in which some of the bravest soldiers 
of the subsequent wars were reared.** 

17G9 — Replying to the petition of John Papunhank 
and Joshua, the Mohican, in behalf of themselves and 
their friends at Wyalusing, John Penn, acting governor, 
under date of June 21, 1769, says: *'One thing I must 
tell you, that I expect you will not give encouragement 
to the New E^ngland people who have taken possession of 
the proprietaries' land at Wiawamack (Wyoming). If 
you expect to be protected by this government, you must 
not encourage the New England people, who are endeav- 
oring to take the land from the Proprietaries." 

1770 — In May, Rudolph Fox, the first permanent set- 
tler within Bradford county, pitched his cabin near the 
mouth of Towanda creek. His daughter, Elizabeth, born 
September 1, 1770, was the first white child to see the 
light in the county. 

1771 — On May 28, the Susquehanna rose to an unpre- 
cidented height, inundating both the towns at Sheshe- 
quiu and Wyalusing. At the latter place great damage 
was done by the water sweeping off fences and stock. At 
Sheshequin (Ulster) the inhabitants were compelled to 
take to their canoes and retire to the wooded heights back 
of the town. 

1772 — March 21, Northumberland county (which in- 
cluded Bradford) constituted by Act of the Provincial 

1772 — Missions abandoned at Wyalusing and Ulster; 

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6'?^ Bradford County Chronology 

two white families iu tlie county, Rudolpli Fox at To- 
wanda and Peter Shoefeldt in Asyilum. , • 

1773 — Stropes and VanValkenburgs locate first (May, 
1773) ;at Indian Meadows in Wyalusing, and perma- 
nently, 1776, in Wysox. 

1774— Thisr year, Connecticut formally assumed juris- 
diction over the disputed /erri/orj/ (which included. Brad- 
ford county), by organizing the town of Westmoreland 
and attaching it tothe county of Litchfield. 

1774 — Connecticut surveys begun by Samuel Gordon, 
surveying the first of the Susquehanna Company's town- 
ships in Bradford county, heing the Lovg Ihwiiship, ex- 
tending south from Standing Stdne 30 miles down the 

1774 — James Wells and Amos York, thp first settlers 
to locate in Wyalusing, under Connecticut title. 

1774 — Benjamin Budd locates and makes the first im- 
provement ill Terry. 

1774 — Lemuel Fitch and .Anthony Rummerfield, the 
fiist settlers in Standing Stone. 

1775 — Joseph Wharton, the first settler of Tuscarora, 
under Pennsylvania titJe. 

1775 — Samuel Cole and sons mi^ke the first permanent 
settlement in Asylum.. 

1775 — During this year and the next, a considerable 
nuinber c»f Connecticut people, Loyalists and Squatters 
locate along the river. 

177G — War retards settlement; a number of inhabit- 
ants join the American army. 

1777 — March, Rudolph Fox of Towanda carried into 
captivity by the Indian?. 

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Bradford County Chronology 6S 

1777 — December 6, Indians and refugees plunder the 
house of Robert Fitzgerald in Standing Stone and drive 
off his stock. 

1777 — December, Colonel Dorrance's expedition into 
the county after Tories. 

1778 — January, Lemuel Fitch of Standing Stone taken 
to Canada by the Indians. 

1778 — February 14, Indians and Tories plunder the 
home of Amos York at Wyalusing, drive off his stock 
and take him into captivity. 

1778 — March, Nathan Kingsley of Wyalusing taken to 
Canada by the Indians. 

1778 — May 20, Indians surprise the Stropes and Van- 
Valkenburgs at Wysox, burn their house, drive off stock 
and take both families into captivity. 

1778 — September, Col. Thomas Hartley with a force of 
200 men fights Indians and destroys Queen Esther's town 
and all other Indian towns in Bradford county. 

1778 — September 29, engagement at Indian Hill be- 
tween Hartley's men and the Indians in which the for- 
mer had four killed and ten wounded, the Indians leav- 
ing ten dead upon the field. 

1779 — August, General Sullivan crosses the county in 
his notable campaign against the Six Nations. 

1779 — In August soon after reaching Tioga, General 
Sullivan ordered the construction of a stockade fort, 
which was called "Fort Sullivan**; four blockhouses were 
built for the defense of the boats and garrisoned by 250 
men and invalids, Col. IsraelJ Shreve commanding; 
here all unnecessary baggage was left, also two 6pound- 

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6i Bradford County Chronology 

1779— On August 22, Gen. James Clinton's division, 
consisting of four regiments and numbering about 1,500 
men, coming from the Mohawk by the way of Otsego 
Lake, arrived al Tioga, where they were welcomed with 
salvos of artillery and escorted into camp by Proctor's 
military band. The army now numbered about 5,000 
men, one-third of the whole American army. This was 
the largest and most imposing military force ever gath- 
ered on the soil of Bradford county, as the expedition 
was the most remarkable undertaking during the Revo- 
lutionary war. 

1779 — Tlic first English sermons preached in Bradford 
county were at Tioga Point by Rev. \Vm. Rogers, a Bap- 
tist chaplain in Sullivan's army. Seven soldiers had 
been killed in the engagement at "Hogback Hill." Their 
bodies were brought back to camp and buried (August 
14) with military honors together with a "funeral oration 
and prayer' l>y Parson Rogers. While waiting at Tioga 
Point, Dr. Rogers also delivered (August 18) a discourse 
in Masonic form on the death of Captain Davis and 
Lieutenant Jones, Freemasons, who had been killed 
near Wilkes-Barre. "General Sullivan and family. Gen- 
eral Maxwell and family, the 11th Penna. Regiment Ar- 
tillery, members of Lodge No. 19 and many other gen- 
tlemen of the army were present." 

1779 — September 30, on the return of Sullivan and 
Clinton with their armies at Tioga they were received 
with military honors. On October 2 General Sullivan 
made an elegant entertainment and invited all the 
field officers to dine with him. In the evening to 
conclude the mirth of the day, an Indian dance was 

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Bradford County Chronology 66- 

held. October 3 Fort Sullivan was demolished and the 
following day the army marched from Tioga to Wy- 
sox, encamping on the same ground as on August 8th 
and 9ih. On the morning of October 5th all the troops 
embarked on boats, except a number to drive the cattle 
and take down the pack horses. 

1779 — County became depopulated. Owing to the va- 
rious hostile movements from 1779 to 1783 there was 
left neither Whig, Tory nor Indian within the bounds of 
the county. 

1779-80 — Winter memorable for its great severity. 

1780 — April 3, Moses VanCampen and companions at 
Wysox turn on their Indian captors, slay them and es- 

1781 — March, James Thompson of Buffalo Valley 
makes thrilling escape at Towanda from Indians. 

1782 — April 14, desperate engagement at Lime Hill 
l>etween the Franklin rescuing party and Indians; Mrs. 
Roswell Franklin killed. 

1782— r/^e Treiiton Decree.— In 1779 the Assembly of 
Pennsylvania passed an Act, assuming to itself the juris- 
diction over the entire country granted to Penn, the 
Commonwealth thus becoming a party to the control 
versy with Connecticut. The Supreme Executive Council 
petitioned Congress in November, 1781 stating the matter 
in dispute between the two states and praying for a court 
to be constituted to hear and iasue the case. In August, 
1782, it was announced that commissioners had been 
mutually agreed ui)on by the delegates of the respective 
stales; Kach party having l)een duly notified, the Court 
commenced its seasions at Trenton, N. J., November 12, 

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66 , Bradford County Chronology 

1782. Tlie proofs having been offered and the various 
points agreed, the Court after passing a resolution to 
give no reasons for their decision and that the minority 
should agree to make the judgment unanimous, pub- 
lished December 30, 1782, the following decision : "We 
are unanimously of the opinion that Connecticut has no 
riglit to the lands in controversy. We are unanimously 
of the opinion that the jurisdiction and pre-emption of 
all territory lying within tlie charter of Pennsylvania, 
and now claimed by Connecticut, do and of right belong 
to the state of Pennsylvania." This decision became his- 
toric as the Trenton Decree. Prior to the decree four 
townships, Springfield, Standing Stone, Claverack and 
Ulster, in Bradford county, had been granted by the 
Susquehanna Company. 

1783— May 30, Gen. Simon Spalding and little band 
of patriots make the first settlement in Sheshequin. 

1783 — The first store in the county opened at Tioga 
Point by Matthias Hollenback. 

1783 — Benjamin Patterson, the first settler in Athens, 
the first permanent settler being Jacob Snell in 1784. 

1783 — April, Stoke township (which included Brad- 
ford county) of Northumberland county formed. 

1784 — In the spring of 1784 occurred the notable Ice 
Flood. The damage was particularly severe in the Wy- 
oming Valley. **The breaking up of the Susquehanna 
river on the 15th of March, greatly distressed the inhab- 
itants who had built their houses on the lowlands near 
the banks of the river. The uncommon rain and large 
quantities of snow on the mountains together with the 
amazing quantity of ice in the river, occasioned by the 

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Bradford County Chronology 67 

uncommon inclemency of the winter season, swelled the 
streams to an unusual height — ten and in many places 
twenty feet higher than it had ever been known since^the 
settlement of the country. Horses, cattle and other ef- 
fects of the settlers were swept down with the torrent and 
forever lost." 

1784 — All that part of Bradford county, north of To- 
wanda creek and west of. the Susquehanna river was in- 
cluded in the purchase made October 23, 1784 of tlie Six 
Nations at Fort Stan wix by Pennsylvania. 

1785 — Ezra Rutty, Abial Foster, Rufus Foster, Jonas 
Smith and Nathan Smith, the first permanent settlers on 
Sugar creek in North Towanda. 

1785 — Benjamin Clark and Adrial Simons, the first 
permanent settlers in Ulster. 

1786 — Thomas Keeney, the first permanent settler in 

1786 — September 25, Luzerne county (which included 
Bradford) created by Act of Assembly. 

1786 — The oldest town in the county is Athens. A 
survey and plan of the town was made by surveyors of 
the Susqtiehanna Company in 1786 — the one after which 
the village was built. 

1786 — Early in October, when the crops of corn and 
pumpkins were still on the ground, continuous rains pro- 
duced a freshet which had seldom been equalled. Crops 
were swept away and the bosom of the river was covered 
with floating pumpkins. The loss was severely felt and 
mauy cattle died the succeeding winter for want of sus- 
tenance. For years this freshet was designated by the 
old inhabitants as the Pumpkin Flood. 

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68 Bradford County Chronology 

178G--'87 — The first grist-mill in the county was put 
up on Cayuta creek in Athens township in 1786"'87. It 
was known long afterwards as Sbepard*s mill. 

1786-87— The parallel of 42° north latitude raarks the 
Northern Boundary of Bradford county and the State. 
The survey establishing this line was made in 1786 and 

1787 — Jonathan Terry, the first permanent settler in 
Terry township. 

1787 — March 28, the Pennsylvania Assembly passed 
what was called the Conjirming LaWy in which it was pro- 
vided, *'that all rights or lots lying within the county of 
Luzerne, which were occupied or acquired by Connecti- 
cut claimants who were actual settlers there at or before 
the termination of the claims of the State of Connecticut 
by the Trenton Decree, and which rights or lots were 
particularly assigned to the said settlers prior to the said 
decree, agreeably to tlie regulations then in force among 
them, be and they are hereby confirmed to them, their 
heirs and assigns." Provision was also made for com- 
pensating the Pennsylvania claimants out of the unap- 
propriated lands of the Commonwealth. 

1788 — Thomas Park, the first permanent settler in 

1788 — The first houses of public entertainment in the 
county were kept by Isaac Hancock, who was licensed a 
''taverner" for Springfield (Wyalusing) and Thomas Mc- 
Clure for Tioga (Athens) in 1788. 

1781) — Samuel CVanmer, the first permanent settler of 

]7Sd— Public Roads.— As early as 1788 the settlers 

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Bradford County Chronology 69 

sent petitions to the court of Luzerne county, setting 
forth that public roads were necessary in various districts 
and asked that action be taken in relation to the same. 
The first petition on which action was taken by the 
court was for a "Road from Wysox to Tioga," presented 
at June sessions, 1789. Commissioners appointed, report 
at March sessions, 1790 that **they have viewed and laid 
out said road.'* This road had the general course of the 
Sullivan road (1779). 

1790 — James Rockwell, the first permanent settler in 

1790 — March, Wyalusing township formed from Stoke. 

1790 — The most celebrated Indian treaty within Brad- 
ford county was that held at Tioga Point, November 16- 
23, 1790. The nations present, either collectively or by* 
representation, were the Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas, 
Cayugas, Chippewas and Stockbridge Indians. The 
chiefs who took the most active part in the council were 
Red Jacket, Farmer*s Brother, Little Billy, Captain Hen- 
dricks, Aupaumut, Fish Carrier, Good Peter and Big 
Tree. The United States government was represented by 
Col. Timothy Pickering, as commissioner. He was a 
distinguished soldier of the Revolution and afterwards 
Postmaster-General, Secretary of War, Secretary of State 
and U. S. Senator. Thomas Morris, son of Robert Mor- 
ris, **the financier of the Revolution,*' was present on the 
occasion and adopted into the Seneca nation as sachem 

1790 — 200 families living in Bradford county; popu- 
lation, 1100. 

1790 — First improvements made in Burlington and 

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70 Bradford Couniif Chronology 

settled, 1791 by Abraham DeWitt, Isaac DeVVitt, James 
McKean and William Dobbins. 

1791 — June 9, CoL Arthur Erwin shot and killed, 
while sitting in the house of Daniel McDuffee at Alliens 
by a dastardly villain, supposed to bean ejected squatter. 

1791 — The Jirst church organization in Bradford county 
was the "Church of Christ at Wysox on the Susquehanna 
river in the State of Pennsylvania." It was organized 
October 3, 1791 at the house of Jehial Franklin in Wy- 
sox. The original members were Isaac Foster, Jonas 
Smith, Wm. Coolbaugh, Daniel (iuthrey, Huldah Hickok 
and Rufus Foster, all of whom "entered into a solemn 
covenant with God and with one another by signing 
their names to a solemn covenant, as in the presence and 
fear of God.'* Rev. Jabez Culver was present and offici- 
ated. At the same meeting, Jehial Franklin, E. M. 
Franklin, John Newell, Jonathan Arnold Franklin, Abi- 
gail Franklin, Nathan Smith and James Lewis were "re- 
ceived by vote into full communion with the church." 

1792— Rev. John Smith, the first settler in Wells 

1792 — First improvement made in Smithfield by 
Isaiah G rover, the first permanent settler being Reuben 
Mitchell in 1794. 

1793 — June 30, the first Preshytei^ian church in the 
county, organized in a log school house at Wyalusing by 
Rev. Ira Condit. The organization consisted of the fol- 
lowing thirteen members: Uriah Terry, Lucretia York, 
Justus Gaylord, Jr., his wife, Lucretia, Zachariah Price, 
his wife, Ruth, Mary Lewis, Abigail Wells, Sarah Rock- 
well, Anna Camp, James Lake, Thomas Oviatt and Han- 

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Bradford County Chronology 71 

nah Beckwith. Uriah Terry was at the same time or- 
dained and installed Ruling Elder. 

1794 — French refugees arrive at their new home in 

1794 — Daniel Wilcox and sons, the first settlers in 

1794 — In March, a terrific windstorm^ or hurricane, 
swept through the southwestern pari of the county and 
in the path of a mile in width, left scarcely a tree stand- 

1795 — February 18, a large and enthusiastic meeting of 
the Susquehanna proprietors (reported at more than 1, 
200) was held at Athens, at which, it was resolved to 
take vigorous measures to prosecute the claims of the 
company; •*to prevent any ill-disposed person, without 
due authority, unlawfully intruding upon, surveying or 
attempting to seize and settle any of the aforesaid lands, 
afiford a just protection to the property of the real owners 
and such settlers as enter on the same land peaceably, in 
due course of law and under real proprietors thereof, be- 
ing fully determined, in a constitutional and legal man- 
ner only, to maintain and defend the title and claim 
which the aforesaid company have to the aforesaid lands; 
and also to recover such parts thereof as are possessed in 
opposition thereto.'* 

1795 — April, Wysox township formed from Tioga. 

1795 — Nathaniel Allen, the first permanent settler of 
Troy township. 

1795 — The first improvements made in Canton by Jo- 
nas Gere and Jonathan Prosser, the first permanent set- 
tler being Ezra Spalding in 1796. 

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r? limJfoTiVConniy. Chronology 

1705 — Hugh ami Sterling Ilolcomb, the first perma- 
nent settlers in Lellny. 

1795— Duke ]-.iancourt, a celebrated French traveler, 
and Talleyraixl, the famous French diplomatist, visit the 
colony at Asylum. 

1795 — April 11, the Lttrusion Law passed by the leg- 
islature, inflicting heavy fines and imprisonment upon 
any convicted of taking i>os8ession of, entering, in- 
truding or settling ^'on any lands within the limits of the 
counties of Northampton, Northumberland or Luzerne, 
by virtue or under color of any conveyance of half-share 
right, or any other pretended title not derived from the 
authority of this (Vjmmonwealth, or the late proprietaries 
of IVnnsylvania before tl»e Revolution,*' making it a 
crime to combine or conspire to convey, possess or settle 
any such lands under any half-share right, but excepting 
the land within the seventeen townships. 

1790 — Dan Russell and Francis Mesusan, the first set- 
tlers in Orwell, the former, permanent. 

1796 — Louis Philippe, afterwards King of France, 
si>ends a week at Asylum. 

1 796 — By the close of this year, nearly every foot of 
land in Bradford county was held by both Susquehanna 
Company rights and Pennsylvania warrants. 

1796 — The oldest secret society in the county is Rural 
Amity Lo.lge, No. 70, Free and accejited Masons; char- 
tere<l July 6, 179(5 and instituted May 21, 1798 at the 
house of Cieorge Welles at Tioga Point (Athens). 

179(» — First public road built up Towanda creek, from 
Silas ScovelPs to Daniel Wilcox's in Franklin; extender! 
to (^anton, 1708. 

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Bradford County Chronology 7S 

1797 — Nathaniel P. Moody, the first settler in Rome 

1797 — William Arnold, James Bowen and William 
Harding, the first settlers in Warren. 

1797 — January, Athens township and Ulster township 
formed by the division of Tioga. 

1 798-99 — The first public road up Sugar creek, from 
the river to Thomas Barber's, built 1 798-^99. 

1799 — Jeremiah Taylor, the first settler in Granville. 

1799— Nathaniel Morgan, Eli Parsons and Eli Par- 
sons, Jr., the first permanent settlers of Columbia. 

1799 — By Act of April 4, commonly called the Com- 
jjcnsation Law, commissioners were appointed to ascertain 
the quality, quantity and situation of lands in the 17 
townships held by Pennsylvania claimants before the 
Trenton decree, to divide the land into four classes and 
aflBx the value of each class. To lands of the first class 
a sum not exceeding f5 per acre; the second class, J3; 
the third class, J1.50; the fourth class, 25 cents per acre, 
for which certificates were given on the release of the ti- 
tle to the State, receivable as specie at the land-office; no 
certificates were to issue until 40,000 acres were thus re- 
leased and till Connecticut claimants to that amount un- 
der their hands and seals agreed to abide by the decision 
of the commissioners. All disputes between Pennsylva- 
nia claimants were to be decided in the usual way, by 
the boards of property, from which an appeal could be 
taken to the courts. 

1800 — First postofiices established in the county at 
Wyalusing and Alliens. The mail was brought in by 
carriers on foot from Wilkes-Barre, once in two weeks. 

1800— Population of Bradford county 3,500. 

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Twelfth Annual Old Peoples Meeting. 

ITH the dawn of Saturday, June 26, 1915 
TxrVT was usliered in the most beautiful dny of 
* summer, seemingly, both fitting and inspir- 
ing to the old people ol Bradford county, 
who in a larger number than ever before, made pilgrim- 
age to Towanda to participate in the Twelfth Annual Old 
Teople's meeting under tlie auspices of the Bradford 
(vounty Historical Society. The old people began to ar- 
rive at 9 o'clock and for three hours poured in from all 
parts of the county. After registering and being pro- 
vided with badges, the forenoon was taken up in happy 
reunions with old friends and in viewing the beautiful 
I>ictures and collections of the Historical Society. That 
no comfort or consideration should be overlooked, the la- 
dies of the Village Improvement Society took the vener- 
ablt; people in charge, and in a queenly and gracious 
manner entertained and served tea and cakes from 11 to 
12 o'clock. 

After an hour of rest all assembled at Keystone Opera 
House to enjoy and participate in the annual exercises. 
As the signal that the historic perfDrinance was about to 
begin, a large company of veterans of the Civil War under 
command of Jt»hn H. OhaH'ee and Wm. H. Nutt, headed 
by Reed Dunfee and Andrew Delpeuch with snare drums, 
Woodford C. May, bass drum and F. M. Vought with 
fife, marched down Main stieet to the step of martial mu- 

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Twelfth Annual Old People's Meeting 75 

sic. The scene v;as grand and patlietic and will never be 
forgotten by tlie multitude who witnessed it. Upon the 
arrival of the grizaled boys in blue, everything was 
ready for the afternoon performance, which was put in 
motion by Secretary J. Andrew Wilt, who, in happy and 
fitting words, heartily welcomed the old people and made 
them feel at home. Serg. Jay Thomas, the wonderful 
old veteran, with powerful and pleasing voice sang **01d 
Folks at Home" to the delight of all. Librarian Hev- 
erly then made a short presentation of notable old people 
who were given conspicuous places upon the stage. In 
the center of the stage was seated Justus A. Record, the 
centenarian, and next to him on his right, Mr. and Mrs. 
Daniel Heverly, the society's oldest couple (65 years 
wedded) and on his left, James Schultz and sister, Mrs. 
Jane Durie, the oldest twins in the state. The balance 
of the semi-circle was made up of persons between 80 and 
90 years, six nonogenarians occupying the boxes. X'^eter- 
ans of the Civil War occupied seats back of the old peo- 
ple. More than a hundred people over 70 years of age 
filled seats in front of the stage. At the conclusion of 
his remarks, Mr. Heverly escorted Mr. Record, the oldest 
person who had ever appeared upon the platform in To- 
wanda, to the front of the stage, when the centenarian to 
the surprise of everybody delivered a very eloquent ad- 
ilress in favor of woman suffrage. While his voice was 
not strong, owing to recent illness, his thoughts were clear 
and logical. He was warmly applauded. 

Following a fine piano selection by Miss Alice Smith, 
Little Dorothy Vogt recited most delightfully **The Good 
Old Days of Adam and Kve," and was vigorously applaud- 

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76' Twfljili Annual OiJ Peoples Meeting 

ed. Levi W. Towner, a sweet old time singer, saug beau- 
tifully "Tommy, Don't Go'* and made a most decided hit. 
Then came Wm. C. Marsden, who was a boy declaimer Go 
years ago, but who before he had finislied, it was found, 
was still an artist in rendition in both the serious and 
comic. His selections, one pathetic, the other comic, 
w^ere superbly recited and acted to the full enjoymeut of 
all. Sergeant Thomas sang in a most touching maner, 
''Mother Kissed Me in My Dream,'* Little Clement 
IJeverly stepped to the front of the platform and recited 
to the delight of the old veterans, **My Granddad Was a 
Soldier." Little Helen Yogi followed and sang with the 
sweetness of a bird, 'The G. A. R." Both tlie little peo- 
])le were generously applauded. Drawing a little nearer 
to the appearance of old veterans, Sergeant Thomas 
thrilled the audience by a splendid rendition of **The 
Red, White and Blue." To roll-beats and taps of the 
drum, the company of veterans of the Civil War, com- 
manded by Wm. H. Nutt, formed on the stage for drill 
and entertainment. Serg. Chaffee called attention to the 
fact that all had been under fire and some specially dis- 
tinguished in their country's service. The company was 
made up as follows: Reed W. Dunfee and W. C. May 
(drums), Elisha Cole (color bearer), Wm. H. Nutt, John 
IL Chatfee, Daniel S. Boardman, J. Alonzo Bosworth, 
Sanford ])ii!ion, Delanson Fenner, Juni W.Allen, Henry 
S. Forbes, H. A. Vail, Joseph H. Taylor and Henry P. 
Maynard. The commands rang out in military tones, 
the diilerent drills being executed with remarkable celer- 
ity and exactness by "the boys" whose ages averaged 
nearly four score years. Led by Sergeant Thomas all 

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Twelfth Aanual Old People's Meeting 77 

joined in singing **Rally Round the Flag/* closing with 
three cheers that fairly made the old walls tremble. The 
company marched from the stage while Serg. Thomas con- 
tinued the rendition of popular war melodies. The drum 
corps closed the military performance by martial music 
that thrilled and aroused the patriotism of all. 

The prize winners were quickly brought and seated on 
the stage; the oldest lady being Mrs. Catherine Green of 
Wysox, born September 12, 1825, and the oldest gentle- 
man, Asa M. Kinner of Wysox, born March 25, 1820, 
being the oldest veteran and native born citizen of Brad- 
ford county. President Chaffee, in brief fitting words, 
presented Mrs. Green a handsome silver loving cup and 
Mr. Kinner a fine silver mounted cane. The pianist dis- 
coursed enlivening music, bringing to a close a most joy- 
ous and notable historic occasion. There were about 170 
persons over 70 years in attendance. The following is a 
list of those who registered with date of birth: 

Justus A. Record, Dec. 25, 1815, Towanda. 

Asa M. Kinner, March 25, 1820, Wysox. 

Josiah Rinebold, May 2, 1823, Monroe. 

II. S. Clark, Sept. 14, 1823, Towanda. 

J. Washington Ingham, Oct. 21, 1823, Towanda. 

Thomas Pollock, Sept. 5, 1824, Ulster. 

Mr5!. Catherine Green, Sept. 12, 1825, Wysox. 

David Horton, Jany. 25, 182G, Sheshequin. 

Mrs. Eveline Bennett, Aug. 22, 1827, Athens. 

James Schultz, Dec. 25, 1827, Wysox. 

Jane Durie, Dec. 25, 1827, Wysox. 

Julia A. Dunn, Jany. 15, 1828, Towanda. 

L. L. Post, Feby. 4, 1828, Sheshequin. 

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7S Tadjik Annual Old Peoples Meeting 

Daniel Ileverly, Oct. 25, 1828, Overton. 

Mrs. Nancy Stoneman, Oct. 31, 1828, Towanda. 

Mary Varguson, July 18, 1829, Towanda. 

(leo. J. Burd, Nov. 12, 1831, Towanda. 

J. K. Post, March 30, 1832, Wysox. 

A. B. Culver, April 15, 1832, Tuscarora. 

William Frazer, Nov. 5, 1832, Monroeton. 

C. F. Pendleton, July 5, 1833, Warren. 

W. W. Miller, Aug. 11, 1833, Rome. 

Martin H. Rockefeller, Dec. 27, 1833, Orwell. 

Mary A. Huff, Jany. 1, 1834, Wysox. 

Jay Thomas, Feby. 5, 1834, Williamsport. 

Mrs. Judia W. Marcy, March 27, 1834, Monroe. 

Mary Ross, April 20, 1834, Orwell. 

Elizabeth Brink, Sept. 10, 1834, Towanda. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Heverly, Sept. 19, 1834, Overton. 

Elbie Wo(Mlin, January, 1835, Towanda. 

Myron W. Coolbaugh, April 2, 1835, Towanda. 

L. A. Bosworth, May 30, 1835, LeRaysville. 

Samuel D. Russell, July 1, 1835, Windham. 

Ruel W. Brink, July 27, 1835, Rome. 

Mrs. Miles Bennett, Nov. 14, 1835, Stevensville. 

Solomon A. Chaflee, Dec. 5, 1835, Orwell. 

Martin Fee, Jany. 9, 183G, Camptown. 

Seneca Arnold, Feby. 10, 1836, Towanda. 

Jonas S. (iray, Feby. 21, 1830, LeRaysville. 

Mrs. D. I. Powei-s, March 15, 1836, DuBois, Pa. 

Mrs. Rachel A. Decker, May 27, 1836, Towanda. 

1. L. Young, July 4, 1830, Sheshe(|uin. 

(i. W. Bosworth, Sept. 17, 1836, LeRaysville. 

If. A. Vail, Sept. 20, 1836, Towanda. 

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Twelfth Annual Old Peoples Meeting 79 

J. A. Bos worth, Nov. 13, 1836, Wysox. 
Rebecca Herrmaii, Dec. 7, 1836, Towanda. 
Harvey H. Cranmer, Feby. 13, 1837, Powell. 
Edwin A. Knapp, April 7, 1837, Towanda. 
Armenia Robinson, April 10, 1837, Rome. 
Hannah Swackhammer, May 2, 1837, Towanda. 
Mary A. Shoemaker, May 2, 1837, Towanda. 
Daniel S. Board man, May 26, 1837. Athens. 
Henry Dixon, June 27, 1837, Ulster. 
David T. Fleming, June, 1837, Rummerfield. 
Erastus Wilson, Sept. 12, 1837, New Albany. 
P. F. Brennan, Oct. 20, 1837, Monroe. 
Mary C. Decker, Feby. 18, 1838, Wysox. 
Sanford Dimon, March 29, 1838, LeRaysville. 
Uvi W. Towner, May 12, 1838, Rome. 
Callie Kellum, May 16, 1838, Towanda. 
Margaret Camp, May 27, 1838, Towanda. 
Mrs. A. M. Egleton, June 0, 1838, Monroeton. 
Albert T. Lilley, June 9, 1838, LeRoy. 
Mrs. P. Pratt, June 11, 1838, Herrickville. 
J. W. Allen, June 22, 1838, Towanda. 
Nancy E. Dyer, July 5, 1838, Wysox. 
William W. Warburton, Aug. 24, 1838, Forks. 
Mrs. Robert Neiley, Aug. 27, 1838, Asylum. 
Harrison P. Mead, Sept. 14, 1838, Towanda. 
Wm. T. Horton, April 9, 1839, Towanda. 
David Lattin, April 9, 1839, Monroeton. 
C. H. Allen, April 25, 1839, Towanda. 
Mrs. Mary Huff, July 6, 1839, Standing Stone. 
John H. McMillen, Sept. 5, 1839, Monroeton. 
Sarah Allyn, Nov. 1, 1839, Towanda. 

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80 Tarljlh Aunual Ohl People's Meeting 

Mrs. A. Maynard, Nov. 20, 1839, Towanda. 

Mrs. A. J. Eastabrooks, 1839, Towanda. 

Chas. L. Stewart, Jany. 10, 1840, Towanda. 

A. II. Furman, April 15, 1840, Towanda. 

Diton Phelps, March 5, 1840, Smithfield. 

Daniel Vanderpool, March 10, 1840, Terry. 

S. G. Barner, May 5, 1840, Sheshequin. 

('. T. Arnold, May 10, 1840, Windham. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Hornet, July 22, 1840, Hornets Ferry. 

Mrs. A. H. Furman, Aug. 11, 1840, Towanda. 

William F. Merrick, Aug. lo, 1840, Monroeton. 

Frances M. Smith, Sept. 8, 1840, Towanda. 

J. II. Taylor, Sept. 25, 1840, Wyalusing. 

James T. Mapes, Sept. 28, 1840, Wilmot. 

Martin V. Cranmer, Oct. 9, 1840, Towanda. 

Eleanor Frntchey, Oct. 30, 1840, Hornets Ferry. 

William Kintn^r, Nov. 10, 1840, Towanda. 

Timothy Breiman, Dec. 2G, 1840, Liberty Corners. 

William C. Marsden, Feby. 28, 1841, Towanda. 

J. Wesley Harvey, March 3, 1841, Columbia county. 

Rosalinda Brink, March 8, 1841, Rome. 

Mrs. Sarah Preston, March 10, 1841, Towan<la. 

Franklin Jones, May 10, 1841, Camptowih 

Mrs. Anne Trumbull, June 11, 1841. 

Mrs. William Frazer, June 29, 1841, Monroeton. 

M. D. Baldwin, July 9, 1841, LeRaysville. 

Thomas J. Haimon, Aug. 4, 1S41, Towanda. 

John R. Allen, Nov. 7, 1841, Evergreen. 

Mrs. A. T. Liiley, Nov. 14, 1841, LeRoy. 

James Ada, 1841, Towanda. 

(Jeorge W. llorton, Feby. 8, 1842, Sheshequin. 

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Tweljth Annual Old PeopWs Meeting 81 

Eliza M. Wilson, March 3, 1842, New Albany. 
Elisha Cole, March 4, 1842, Towanda. 
Henry P. Maynard, March 13, 1842, Rome. 
Victoria Layton, March 22, 1842, Towanda. 
Ellen Quigley, May 22, 1842, Towanda. 
Andrew Morrison, June 10, 1842, Saco. 
Aaron J. Edsall, June 11, 1842, New Albany. 
Mrs. H. B. Lent, June 13, 1842, Hornbrook. 
Lucina Kitchen, Nov. 3, 1842, LeRoy, 
Mrs. Franklin Jones, Nov. 17, 1842, Camptown. 
Matthew V. Greening, Dec. 19, 1842, Ulster. 
Thomas J. Davis, Jany. 2, 1843, Ulster. 
Amanda Mclntyre, Jany. 4, 1843, Towanda. 
E. H. Brigham, Jany. 10, 1843, Ulster. 
Mrs. E. A. Knapp, April 1, 1843, Towanda. 
George E. Cowell, April 27, 1843, South Branch. 
Jesse Morris, April 29, 1843, Rome. 
Jacob A. Kniffin, May 23, 1843, Milan. 
J. H. Chaffee, July 13, 1843, Hornbrook. 
Thomas Lynch, Aug. 23, 1843, Towanda. 
Juilson G. Howell, Sept. 16, 1843, LeRaysville. 
B. J. Hausknecht, Oct. 4, 1843, Overton. 
Samuel C. Kitchen, Nov. 7, 1843, LeRoy. 
Henry Bentley, Nov. 15, 1843, Towanda. 
Reed Dunfee, Jany. 7, 1844, Monroeton. 
H. S. VanOrmun, Jany. 9, 1844, Warren. 
Henry R. Babcock, March 26, 1844, Rome. 
Violetta Boyle, April 16, 1844, North Towanda. 
Mrs. Elsie M. Means, April 11, 1844, Towanda. 
Rufus W. Child, April 12, 1844, Smithtield. 
George B. Armstrong, May 12, 1844, Herrick. 

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8ii Tweljth Annual Old People^a Meeting 

Frauk Granger, June 11, 1844, North Towanda. 

Mrs. Tabby Williams, June 23, 1844, Towanda. 

H. C. Spencer, Aug. 4, 1844, Burlington. 

Mrs. Lucy Merrick, Aug. 8, 1844, Monroetou. 

Hannah Camp, Oct. 8, 1844, Monroeton. 

Melvin Morris, Oct. 10, 1844, Rome. 

Louise Strunk, Nov. 24, 1844, Lime Hill. 

Mrs. C. A. Mclntyre, Nov. 29, 1844, North Towanda. 

C. H. Kellogg, Dec. 30, 1844, Monroeton. 

Mrs. Sarah J. Fenner, Dec. 31, 1844, Towanda. 

Delanson Fenner, Feby. 7, 1845, Towanda. 

Warren Fitzwater, May 26, 1845, Canton. 

John A. Schultz, June 1, 1845, Wysox. 

John C. Forbes, Rome. 

Henry S. Forbes, Sheshequin. 

E. A. Pearsoll, Saco. 

Woodford C. May, Towanda. 

George Corson, Standing Stone. 

Mrs. George Corson, Standing Stone. 

C. B. Tyrrel, Athens. 

Wm. H. Nutt, Athens. 

The Prize Winners. 

The oldest lady and oldest gentleman (and age at date 
of winning prize) who have carried off the honors at the 
several meetings, were as follows : 

1904 — Mils. Almira Gleason, 98 years, Towanda; 
died at 99 years. 
William Griffis, 90th year, Towanda; died at 
93 years. 

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. Tweljth Annual Old People's Meeting 83 

1905— Mrs. Eliza McKean, 98 J years, Towanda; died 
at 101 yrs. and 8 mos. 
Francis Cole, 96th year, Athens; died at 96 
yrs. and 9 mos. 
1906 — Samuel Overpeck, 97tli year, Herrick; died at 
100 J years. 
Mrs. Emma Irvine, 89th year, Hornets Ferry; 
died at 89 yrs. and 2 mos. 
1907 — John Black, 93 J years, LeRaysville; died at 
94 yrs. and 10 mos. 
Mrs. Martha Bullock, 92nd year, Troy; died 
at 96 yrs. and 10 mos. 
J908 — Orrin Brown, 97th year. Canton; died at 99 
yrs. and 8 mos. 
Mrs. Julia Smith, 92nd year, Ulster; died at 
94 yrs. and 11 mos. 
1909 — * Justus A. Record, 93| years, Towanda. 

Mrs. Harriet A. Nichols, 88th year, Monroe- 
ton; died at 88 years. 
1910 — Mrs. Anne Wrioht, 96 yrs. and 8 mos., Uls- 
ter; died at 102 yrs. and 7 days. 
Samuel Billings, 94 J years, Towanda; died at 
98 yrs. and 10 mos. 
1911 — Mrs. Naomi C. Irvine, 90 years. New Albany; 
died at 94 years. 
John Ennis, 90 years. Standing Stone; died at 
93 yrs. and 3 mos. 
1912 — Cornelius Bump, 90 yrs. and 4 mos., Wyalus- 
ing; died at 92 yrs. and o mos. 
Mrs. Dorcas Dayton, 88J years, Towanda; 
died at 90 years. 

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)'4 Twtljth Annual Old People 8 Meeting . 

1913 — George I. Norton, 94 years, Rome; died at 94 
yrs. and 9 mos. 
^Caroline Lent, 87 i years, Rome. 
1914 — *JosiAn RiNEBOLi). 91 years, Say re. 

*Mks. Eveline Bennett, 87 years, Athens. 
1915— *AsA M. KiNNER, 95J years, Wysox. 

*Mrs. Catherine Green, 89^ years, Wysox. 

Those marked with a (*) are still living (1915). 

— The Bradford Star. 

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We note with sorrow the deatli of tlie following beloved 
member of the Society during the past year : 

Mrs. Anxa Scott, born May 8, 1828 in Towanda. a 
daughter of William B. and Delight Spalding, died May 
29, 1915 in Towanda after a protracted illness incident 
to age. She was married May 19, 184G to William Scott 
of Towanda with whom she lived in sweetest harmony 
for more than 64 years, until February 11, 1911 when 
Mr. Scott died, aged nearly 91 years. For many years 
they were the oldest native born couple living in Tow- 
anda. Mrs. Scott was a woman of beautiful life and 
character and the oldest member of the Towanda Presby- 
terian church. She was deeply interested in the work of 
the Historical Society and a faithful attendant at its 
meetings. We all miss her, but there will ever remain, 
a cherished memory of this winsome and noble woman. 


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Library and Museum. 


The year marks great improvement throughout the 
building. The lower rooms have been handsomely re- 
papered and painted, shelves added, all pictures properly 
inscribed and arranged and the books in the library 
classified. On the second floor, the natural history room 
has been tastefully repapered and decorated, painted and 
reorganized generally, making it a nook of unusual inter- 
est and attraction. The display in the large room of 
relics and curios has been greatly enhanced. The fol- 
lowing are the acquisitions to the Library and Museum 
for the year : 

Portraits and Pictures. 

Frances Slocum and Captivity — Society. 

Stephen C. Foster — Society. 

Philip P. Bliss— Society. 

(Jornplanter, Brant and Red Jacket — Society. 

Elijah Montanye — Helen Powell. 

Stephen Powell — Helen Powell. 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Heverly — Presented by them. 

Henry Strope — Society. 

Dolly (Stevens) Strope — Society. 

Civil War Soldier Group (20)— Society. 

Rev. John D. Bloodgood — Lillian N. Barnum. 

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Carantouan and 300th Anniversary Celebration, ad- 
vent of Brule' — Society. 

Scene of first permanent settlement, 1770, in county — 

Animals of Pioneer Days — Society. 

Books —Historica). 

Bradford Settler, 1823--'26— Mrs. 0. A. Baldwin. 

Bradford Settler, 1827-'29— Mrs. 0. A. Baldwin. 

Northern Banner, 1833-'35— Mrs. O. A. Baldwin. 

Northern Banner, 1839-40— Mrs. O. A. Baldwin. 

Bradford Porter, 1840 .'41— Mrs. 0. A. Baldwin. 

Bradford Porter, 1841"'42— Mrs. 0. A. Baldwin. 

Bradford Reporter, 1844-*45 — Mrs. 0. A. Baldwin. 

9 Catalogues S. C. T. — Rodney A. Mercur. 

Contributions Students S. C. I. — Rodney A. Mercur. 

Semi-Centennial Towanda Presbyterian Church — Rod- 
ney A. Mercur. 

Historical Discourse Wyalusing Presbyterian Church 
— Rodney A. Mercur. 

Black Forest Souvenirs — By author, Henry W. Shoe- 

Pennsylvania Mountain Stories — Henry W. Shoema- 

Pennsylvania Bison Hunt — Henry W. Shoemaker. 

Pennsylvania at Culpepper C. H. — State Library. 

50th Anniversary, Battle of Gettysburg — State Library. 

3 vols. Pennsylvania at Gettysburg — State Library. 

Proceedings 48 Encampment D. of P. — State Library. 

School Reports — H. S. Putnam. 

School Reports— C. F. Heverly. 

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Proceedings and Addresses Snyder County Historical 

42 vols. American Historical Review?^ — J. Andrew 

15 vols. Annual Reports American Hist. Assc. — J. 
Andrew Wilt. 

43 (Juarterlies Oregon Historical Society — C. F. Hev- 

8emi-Centennial N. B. Assc. Universalists — Mrs. M. E. 
Rosen field. 

Books and Exchanges^ 

State Library. 

Library of Congress. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Oregon State Historical Society. 

Pennsylvania Federation Historical Societies. 

Tioga County Historical Society. 

Snyder County Historical Society. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. 

Kittochitinny Historical Society (Franklin Co.) 

Chester County Historical Society. 

Berks County Historical Society. 

Lebanon County Historical Society. 

Washington County Historical Society. 

Books— Idiscenaneous. 

Collection Reports, Documents, etc. — George Moserip 

2 vols. Statutes of Pennsylvania — State Library. 
Smuirs Legislative Hand Book — State Library. 
Message of (Jovernor to Assembly — State Library. 

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Inaugural Address Gov. Brumbaugh — State Library. 
Laws Pennsylvania, 1915 — State Library. 
Appropriation Acts, 1915 — State Library. 
Vetoes by Governor, 1915 — State Library. 


Confederate Bond with Coupons — Col. Jos. H. Horton. 
Masonic Certificate of Membership — I). T. Lyon. 


Claverack Township, made in 1800 — Mrs. M. P. Mur- 

Relics and Curios. 

2 Historic Pin Cushions — Mrs. E. A. Segraves. 
Dress Indian Warrior — D. V. Campbell. 
Mallet from Ft. Augusta — Mrs. I. M. Goss. 
Enumerator's Badge — J. Andrew Wilt. 


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Secretary's Report. 

J. If. ChaffeCf President^ Officers^ and Menibei^s of the 
Historical Society of Bradford County : 

Your Secretary respectfully submits the following re- 
port for the year, ending September 25, 1915: 

Ten regular meetings were held at which business was 
transacted, papers read or talks had during the year just 
pist; at one meeting the President, St^cretary and Libra- 
rian were present, but the additional number to make 
the requisite quorum did not appear. (October, 1914). 


At the November meeting the organization of the 
original Asykun township was considered, which brought 
out a good attendance. 

On March 27, 1915, Francis Slocum and the Kingsley 
family were considered and a picture of the capture of 
Francis Slocum was unveiled; this meeting was a very 
interesting as well as an instructive one. 

The May meeting was devoted to the topic of "The 
Women,'* the program being arranged by Clymer Chap- 
ter, Daughters of the American Revolution. This meet- 
ing was largely attended, and the papers read were ex- 

The ** Annual Old People's Day" was held as for many 
years at the June meeting; the attendance of people over 
70 years old was as large, or larger than on previous 

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years, but the attendance of the public at the Opera 
House was not quite so large as formerly. 

The meeting for the Old Folks was however very much 
of a success. The Society has been to considerable ex- 
pense in repapering and painting the rooms of the Soci- 
ety, as well as supplying additional cases for books, all of 
which were very much needed. 

The appropriation for the years 1914 and 1915 have 
been paid by the County recently, which will enable the 
Society to make additional improvements ajid procure 
additional books and cases. 

The matter of vital historical importance, which the 
Society has had under consideration for several years, 
which it is hoped to partially consummate on October 
15, is the observance of the 300th anniversary of the 
coming of Stephen Brule' to the Indian town, Caran- 
touan, at Spanish Hill in this county. 

Brule' being the first white man definitely known to 
have come within the present limits of the State of Penn- 
sylvania, we believe the event is of such importance to 
Pennsylvanians, that the committee having this matter 
in charge and the officers of this Society have provided a 
small granite marker to be placed on said hill, to mark 
the place where this Indian town was located when this 
French explorer first visited them on a mission in 1615; 
this marker will be unveiled as a part of the exercises on 
October 15, 1915. 

It is hoped that the Historical Commission of Penn- 
sylvania, which has for its purpose to mark and preserve 
historical places in this Commonwealth, will in due time 
provide and erect a suitable monument to commemorate 
this event. 

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Tliis Society has also a committee to consider the 
French Settlement of Asylum, which was made within 
our county, and this Society will do credit to itself by 
permanently marking the place where these French Ref- 
ugees planned and planted a town for their future homes. 

By marking such historic spots, even with a small 
marker, this Society can and will preserve for the future 
these sites of such historic events, as will in due time in- 
terest not only the present, but the generations yet un- 

Your Secretary would again impress on all, the imi)or- 
tance of arranging to have the Society's rooms and Mu- 
seum open to the public on certain d«ys of a week or 
month, for at least during the summer months. Your 
Librarian, Secretary and the janitor during the summer 
months are constantly called upon by people of our 
county, as well as strangers interested in such things, to 
visit our rooms and our exhibit. Were it known by all 
that the Museum and rooms would be open at certain 
times, and some one in charge of same at such times, we 
will be doing a kindness and benefit to those visiting 
same, as well as to save the annoyance to the officers of 
the Society, when each feels that their business needs 
their time and attention. 

The interest in the work of this Society sometimes 
seems lo I;ig, but when special subjects or topics are to be 
considered, there is no lack of interest by its members or 
the public. 

Your Secretary is therefore forced to the conclusion, 
that the more special topics arc considered, on given 
days, the greatest interest there will be for its members, 
as well as by the public generally. 

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The "Annuar' for 1914, containing papers read before 
the Society and much other historical information, was 
published, but its value and worth not fully appreciated, 
even by some of the members. 

We suggest that a fuller and greater exchange list 
with the other Historical Societies of the State be estab- 
lished, and thus our ^'Annual" in exchange will enable 
this Society to procure the publications of these other so- 
cieties, and giving our members the means to know and 
learn what and how other societies are doing things to 
preserve the history of our great Commonwealth. 

We may all look backward over the year just past with 
some pleasure as well as profit; our labors have not al- 
ways been productive of the results aimed at. We have 
made mistakes; we will make some again; all of us do 
make them, but we have endeavored to do the best we 

Another year is before us; we hope the officers and 
members will do better work than heretofore; the aver- 
age attendance at meetings in the past year has been 
good; the working officers have been faithful in attend- 
ance and in their duties, yet we do hope the membership 
will remember that the fourth Saturday afternoon is the 
time for the regular monthly meeting, and arrange to at- 
tend and participate in its proceedings, and add interest 
and enthusiasm to the combined work of preserving the 
doings of our people, and the history that has been 
made and we are each day making as individuals and 
a nation. 

The Secretary extends thanks for past favors. 

J. Andrew Wilt, Secretary. 

Towanda, Sept. 25, 1915. 

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Treasurer's Report, 

G. T. Ingham, Treaburer, Dr. 

Sept. 1914— To balance as per Auditors' report $508 tV) 

To amonnt Dues, etc. received since 32 35 

To Appro*n Bradford Co. Commissioners, 1914... 2U0 00 
To Appro'n Bradford Co. Commissioners, 1915... 200 00 

Total to be accounted for $940 65 

By Orders drawn, Nos. .394 to .329, inclusive, including No. 

2a3 not in last audit $.329 77 

By cash in Bank (see Bank book) 410 88 

By Certificate of Deposit, First National Bank, Towanda 200 00 

$940 65 

Assets in Treasurer's Hands, Sept. 25, 1815. 

CertiHcate of Depasit |2oO 00 

Cash in Bank 410 88 

Accrued interest , 5 50 

$616 .38 
Submitted and approved. 
Sept. 25, 1915. 


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Officers ISlS-'ie 

Wm. T. Horton 

Vice Presidents 

John A. Biles 

Hon. a. C. Fanning 


J. Andrew Wilt 


Clement F. Hevkrly 


George T. Ingham 

Financial Secretary 

John H. Chaffee 


The fourtli Saturday of each month : 19J6, January 22; 
February 26; March 25; April 22; May 27; June 21; July 
22; August 26; September 23; October 28; November 25; 
December 23. 

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Bradford County 




Papers on Local History, Reports of Officers 
and Contribudons for the Year 





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The Hartley Expedition^ 1 778 

The Battle of Indian Hill 

)!!£ most daring and eflfectual movement 
against the Indians within Bradford county 
was the expedition of Col. Thomas Hartley 
in September, 1778. In fine, the campaign 
planned by Colonel Hartley and sp admirably executed 
was one of the most brilliant exploits of the Revolution- 
ary War. So thorough was its accomplishment that hos- 
tile Indians were never ^gain able to establish homes in 
Bradford county; it broke up and ended savage suprem- 
acy. It, moreover, so encouraged Congress that the 
greater Sullivan expedition was organized and sent 
against the Six Nations in 1779. Locally, the Hartley 
expedition was the most resultful incursion into this sec- 
tion during the Revolution, and on the 29th of Septem- 
ber, 1778, Hartley won a decisive victory over the In- 
dians, in the most desperate battle between Indians and 
white men ever fought within the confines of Bradford 
county. The story of the ex|i«dition is best told by Col. 
onel Hartley himself in his report to Congress. It fol- 
lows : 

^'Sunbury, Oct. 8, 1778. 
The Honor a hie. Congress of the 
Lniied States of America : 
**With a frontier from Wyomin<^ to Allegnny, we were 

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2 The Hartley Expedition 

sensible the few regular troops we had could not defend 
the necessary posts. We thought, if it were practicable, 
it would be best to draw the principal part of our force 
together, as the inhabitants would be in no great danger 
during our absence. I to make a stroke at some of the 
nearest Indian towns especially as we learnt a handsome 
detachment had been sent into the enemy's country by 
the way of Cherry Valley. We were in hopes we should 
drive the savages to a greater distance. With volunteers 
and others we reckoned on 400 rank and file for the ex- 
I)edition, besides 17 horse, which I mounted from my 
own regiment under the command of Mr. Carbery. 

"Our rendezvous was Fort Muncy on the West Branch, 
intending to penetrate by the Sheshecunnunk path to 
Tioga at the junction of the Cayuga with the Northeast 
branch of the Susquehanna, from thence as circum- 
stances might require. The troops met at Muncy the 
ISth Septtmber, when we came to count and array our 
forces for the expedition, they amounted to about 200 
rank and file. We thought the number small, but as we 
presumed the enemy had no notice of our designs, we 
hoped at least to make a good diversion if no more, whilst 
the inhabitants were saving their grain on the frontier. 

**0n the morning of the 21st at four o'clock, we marched 
from Muncy with the force! have mentioned, we carried 
two boxes of spare ammunition and twelve days' provis- 
ions. In our rout we met with great rains and prodigi- 
ous swamps; mountains, defiles and rocks impeded our 
march; we had to open and clear the way as we passed. 
We waded or swam the river Lycoming upwards of 20 
times. I will not trouble your honorable body with a 
tedious detai^, but I cannot help observing that, I imag- 

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The Hartley Expedition 3 

iDe, the difficulties in crossing the Alps or passing up the 
Kennebec could not have been greater than those our 
men experienced for the time. I have the pleasure to 
say they surmounted them with great resolution and 
fortitude. In lonely woods and groves we found the 
haunts and lurking places of the savage murderers who 
had desolated our frontier. We saw the huts where they 
had dressed and dried the scalps of the helpless women 
and children who had fell into their hands. 

*^0n the morning of the S6thy our advance party of 19 
met with an equal number of Indians on the war path, 
approaching each other, our people had the first fire, a 
very important Indian chief was killed and scalped, the 
rest fled. A few miles further we discovered where up- 
wards of 70 warriors had lay the night before on their 
march towards our frontiers, the panic communicated 
they fled with their brethren. No time was lost, we ad- 
vanced toward Sheshecunnunk, in the neighborhood of 
which, we took 15 prisoners from them; we learnt that a 
man had deserted from Captain Spalding's Company at 
Wyoming, after the troops had marched from thence and 
had given the enemy notice of our intended expedition 
against them. We moved with the greatest dispatch to- 
wards Tioga, advancing our horse and some foot in front, 
who did their duty very well; a number of the enemy 
fled before us with precipitation, it was now dark when 
we came to ihat town, our troops were much fatigued; it 
was impossible to proceed further that night (26th). 

**We took another prisoner, upon the whole information 
we wereclear ihe savages had intelligence of us some days 
— that the Indians had been towards the German Flats — 

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4 The Hartley Expedition 

had taken 8 scalps and brought off 70 oxen intended for 
the garrison at Fort Stanwix — that on their return they 
were to have attacked Wyoming and the settlements on 
the West Branch again — that Colonel Morgan nor no 
other person had attempted to penetrate into the enemy's 
country, as we had been given to understand, and that the 
collected force at Chemung would be upwards of 5Q0 and 
that they were building a fort there. We also were told 
that young Butler had been at Tioga a few hours before 
we came — that he had 300 men with him, the most of 
them Tories, dressed in green— that they were returned 
towards Chemung, 12 miles off, and that they determ- 
ined to give us battle in some of the defiles near it. 

**It was soon resolved we should proceed no further, 
but if possible, make our way good to Wyoming. We 
burnt Tioga, Queen Esther's palace or town and all the 
settlements on this (west) side; several canoes were taken 
and some plunder, part of which was destroyed. , Mr. 
Carbery with his horse only, was close on Butler, who was 
it) possession of the town of Shawnee, 3 miles up the 
Cwyuga branch, but as we did not advance, he returned. 
The consternation of the enemy was great, we pushed our 
good fortune as far as we dare, nay, it is probable the 
good countenance we put on saved us from destruction, 
as we were advanced so far into the enemy's country and 
no return but what we could make with the sword. We 
came to Sheshecunnunk that night (27th). 

**Had we had 500 regular troops and 150 light troops 
with one or two pieces of artillery, we probably might 
have destroyed Chemung, which is now the recepticle of 
all villainous Indians and Tories fiom the different tribes 

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The Hartley ExpedUion 5 

and states. From this they make their excursions 
against the frontiers of New York, Pennsylvania, Jersey 
and Wyoming and commit those horrid murders and de- 
vastations we have heard of. Niagara and Chemung are 
the asylums of those Tories who cannot get to New 

**0n the morning of the 28th we crossed the river and 
marched towards Wyalusiug, where we arrived that 
night at eleven o'clock; our men much worn down — our 
whiskey and flour was gone. 

"On the morning of the 29th we were obliged to stay 
till eleven o'clock to kill and cook beef. This necessary 
stop gave the enemy leasure to approach. Seventy of 
our men, from real or pretended lameness, went into the 
canoes, others rode on the empty pack horses; we had 
not more than 120 rank and file to fall in the line of 

**Lieut. Sweeny, a valuable officer, had the rear guard, 
consisting of 30 men, besides five active runners under' 
Mr. Camplen. The advance guard was to consist of an 
officer and 15. There were a few flankers but from the 
difficulty of the ground and fatigue, they were seldom of 
use. The rest of our little army was formed into three 
divisions, those of my regiment composed the 1st, Captain 
Spaliling's the 2iid, Captain Murrow's the Srd. The 
light horse was equally divided between front and rear. 
The pack horses and the cattle we had collected were to 
follow the advance guard. In ihis order we moved from 
Wyalusing at 12 o'clock, a slight attack was made on our 
front from a hill, half an hour afterwards a warmer one 
was made on the same quarter, after ordering the 2nd and 
3rd divisions to out-flank the enemy, we soon drove them, 

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6 The Hartley Ikpedition 

but this, as I expected, was only amusement, we lost as 
little time as possible with them. 

**At 2 o'clock a very heavy attack was made on our 
rear, which obliged the most of the rear guard to give 
way, whilst several Indians appeared on our left flank. 
By the weight of the firing we were soon convinced we 
had to oppose a large body. Captain Stoddard com- 
manded in front; I was in the centre; I observed 
some high ground which overlooked the enemy, 
orders were immediately given for the 1st and 3rd 
division to take possession of it, whilst Captain 
Spalding was dispatched to support the rear guard. 
We gained the heights almost unnoticed by the barbari- 
ans; Captain Stoddard sent a small party towards the 
enemy's rear: at this critical moment Captains Boone 
and Brady and Lieut. King with a few brave fellows, 
landed from the canoes, joined Mr. Sweeney and renewed 
the action there. The war whoop was given by our peo. 
pie below and communicated round, we advanced on the 
enemy on all sides, with great shouting and noise; the 
Indians after a brave resistance of eome minutes, con- 
ceived themselves nearly surrounded, fled with the ut- 
most haste by the only passes that remained, and left 10 
dead on the ground. 

**Our troops wished to do their duty, but they were 
much overcome with fatigue, otherwise, as the Indians 
imagined themselves surrounded, wa should drove the 
enemy into the river. From every account these were a 
select body of warriors, sent after us, consisting of near 
200 men. Their confidence and impetuosity probably 
gave the victory to us. After they had drove our rear 
some distance their Chief was heard to say in the Indian 

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The Hartley ExpedUian 7 

language, that which is interpreted thus: 'My brave 
warriors, we drive them, be bold and strong, the day is 
ours,' upon this they advanced very quick without suf- 
ficiently regarding their rear. We had no alternative 
but conquest or death, they would have uQurdered us all 
had they succeeded, but the great God of Battles pro- 
tected us in the day of danger. We had 4 killed and 10 
wounded. The enemy must have had threble the num- 
ber killed and wounded. They received such a beating 
as prevented them from giving us any further trouble 
during our march to Wyoming, which is more than 50 
miles from the place of action. 

"The oflRcers of my regiment behaved well to a man. 
All the party will acknowledge the greatest merit and 
bravery of Capt. Stoddard, I cannot say enough in his 
favor, he deserves the esteem of his country. Mr. Car- 
bery with his horse was very active and rendered impor- 
tant services till his horses were fatigued. Nearly all 
the other officers acquitted themselves with reputation. 
Captain Spalding exerted himself as much as possible. 
Captain Murrow, from his knowledge of Indian affairs 
and their mode of fighting, was serviceable. His men 
were marksmen and were useful. The men of my regi- 
ment were armed with muskets and bayonets, they were 
no great marksmen and were awkward at wood fighting. 
The bullet and three-swan shot in each piece made up in 
some measure for want of skill. 

**Tho we were happy enough to succeed in this action, 
yet I am convinced that a number of lighter troops un- 
der good officers are necessary for this service. On the 
3r(i the savaj^es killed and bcal|ed three men who had 
imprudei tly left the gairison at Wynniing to go in search 

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8 The Hartley Expedition 

of potatoes. From our observations, we imagine that the 
same party who had fought us, after taking care of their 
dead and wounded had come on towards Wyoming and 
are now in that neighborhood. I left half of my detach- 
ment there with five of my own officers, should they at- 
tempt to invest the place when their number is increased, 
I make no doubt but they will be disappointed. Our 
garrisons have plenty of beef and salt, tho flour is scarce 
at Wyoming. I arrived hore with the remainder of the 
detachment on the 5th; we have performed a circuit of 
near 300 miles in about two weeks. We brought off 
near 50 head of cattle, 28 canoes, besides many other ar- 

"I would respectfully propose that the Congress would 
be pleased to §end a Connecticut regiment to garrison 
Wyoming as soon as possible, it is but 120 miles from 
Fish Kills. I have done' all I can for the good of the 
whole. I have given all the support in my power to 
that post, but if troops are not immediately sent, these 
settlements will be destroyed in detail. In a week or less 
a regiment could march from Fish Kills to Wyoming. 
My little regiment with two classes of Lancaster and 
Berks county Militia will be scarcely sufficient to preserve 
the posts from Nescopake Falls to Muncy, and from 
thence to the head of Penn*s Valley. 

I am with great respect. 

Your most obedient 
Humble Servant, 
Thos. Hartley, Col, 
Commandant on the Northern Frontiers of Penna.'* 

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' The BarOey Expeditim 9 

Features of Expedition 

In bis march from Muncy, Hartley followed the In- 
dian trail to the headwaters of Lycoming Creek, crossed 
the divide to the headwaters of Towanda Creek and fol- 
lowed the main trail down said creek to the vicinity of 
LeRoy then took a cross-trail to Sugar Creek, thence the 
hill trail to Ulster and from thence the main trail up 
the river to Tioga. In his return he crossed the river at 
Ulster and followed the main trail on the east side down 
the river and out of the county. 

Hartley reached the south-western corner of the county 
on the morning of September 26th and had his first en- 
counter with the Indians about half way between the 
present villages of Grover and Canton where an import- 
ant Indian Chief was killed and scalped. A few miles 
further on (in the neighborhood of LeRoy) he came upon 
the ground ' Vhere upwards of 70 warriors had encamped 
the night before on their march towards our frontier." 

In the neighborhood of **She8hecunnunk" fifteen pris- 
oners were taken from the enemy. This was at ot near 
the present village of Ulster. Hartley advanced to Tioga 
(Athens) that night, having marched across the county, 
a distance of nearly 40 miles, in a day. 

The 27th on his return Hartley burnt Tioga, Queen 
Esther's town (above Milan) and the Indian village at 
Ulster. Several canoes and a quantity of plunder were 
taken. On the morning of the 28th Hartley crossed the 
river at Ulster and reached Wyalusing at 11 o'clock at 
night, after a march of 30 miles. 

The sharp and decisive engagement of September 29, 
described by Colonel Hartley, took place in the southern 
part of Tuscarora township at a point ever since known 
as ^'Indian Hill." Hartley's loss was 4 men killed and 
10 wounded; the enemy left 10 dead upon the field, only 

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1 Ths Hartley Expedition * 

a portion of their loss, which Hartley thinks was three 
times his own. 

It will be observed that Hartley reached Bradford 
county on the 2(>th, crossed it in a north-easterly direct- 
ion to the New York state line, driving the Indians be- 
fore him; in his return he crossed the county in a south- 
easterly direction, leaving it on the 29th. He covered 
fully 80 miles of march within Bradford county. His 
entrance into the county was signalized by an engage- 
ment with the enemy and his departure by a more pro- 
nounced one. All Hartley's operations against the In- 
dians in this campaign were within Bradford county.* 

The Captain S[)alding mentioned by Colonel Hartley 
was later known as Gen. Simon Spalding, who led a lit- 
tle band of patriots from Wyoming and settled Sheshe- 
qnin in 1783. Capt. John Franklin, distinguished in the 
history of Wyoming and Bradford county, commanded a 
small com|)any of Wyoming Militia in this expedition. 
Besides Spalding and Fraiiklin several others in this cam- 
paign afterwards made Bradford county their home. 

Co). Thomas Hartley . 

who commanded this notable expedition into Bradford 
county was born September 7, 1748 in Berks county. 
After receiving the rudiments of a classical education at 
Reading, he went to York and took up the -study of law. 
He was admitted to the Bar and commenced the practice 
of his chosen profession in 1769. Young Hartley was early 
a distinguished and warm friend of his country, and sig- 
nalized himself both in the cabinet and field. In 1774 
he was elected by the citizens of York a member of the 
Provincial Meeting of Deputies, held at Philadelphia in 
July of the same year. The following year he became a 
member of the Provincial Convention, held in the same 
city. The clangor of arms now began to resound in the 

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The Hartley Expedition 1 1 

East. Hartley espoused the cause of liberty aud soon 
distinguished himself as a soldier. The Cornmitiee of 
Safety recommended a number of persons to Congress 
for field officers of the Sixth Battalion ordered to be 
raised. Ck)ngre8S on the 10th of January, 1776 elected 
William Irwin as colonel and Thomas Hartley, lieuten- 
ant-colonel and as such he served in the Canadian cam- 
paign. Hartley was soon afterwards promoted to the full 
degree of colonel. After three yeart' service he WTote to 
Congress, asking permission to resign his commission and 
his resignation was accepted February 13, 1779. In 1778 
he was elected a member of the Legislature from York 
county; in 1783 he was chosen a member of the Council 
of Censors, and in 1787 he was a member of the State 
Convention which adopted the Constitution of the United 
States. He was elected to Congress in 1788 and was 
continued a member of that body for twelve years. In 
1800, Governor McKean commissioned him a major- 
general of the Fifth Division of the Pennsylvania Mili- 
tia. Soon after receiving this appointment, he died at 
York on the 21st of December, 1800, in his 63rd year. 


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Bradford County Chronology 

(Continued from Annual No, 9) 

ISITATION of Pe8t8.—A.i different per- 
iods great destruction has been caused by 
pests which have visited this section. In 
1800 locusts appeared and devoured every 
green thing before them. At first a worm that worked 
itself out of the earth in vast numbers ap])eared. The 
ground was alive with them. A shell next formed, 
which after a little time, opened on the back and the lo- 
cust came out with wings and legs, resembling the grass- 
hopper, but much larger. They soon flew to the trees 
and bushes in multitudes and devoured the foliagf, but 
passed away the same season. They also swarmed through- 
out the wilderness in 1795,1814, 1829 and 1846. In 1856 
the wheat crop was almost entirely ruined by the weevil. 
In many sections the grain harvested was not sufficient 
for the next year's seeding. In consequence, for a year at 
least, the people had to subsist almost wholly on corn and 
rye bread. Grasshopf)ers and potato bugs seem to have 
been more of a modern creation but close rivals of the 
locust and weevil in their destructive propensities. 

1800 — Thomas Fox, Daniel Doane, Jonah Fox and 
Russell Fox, the first settlers in Windham. 

Pioneer Mail Service — A post-nmte from the East 

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Bradford Omnty Chronology 13 

was established and maintained by private subscription 
The post-ridf*r made his trips every two weeks, bringing 
the mail to Wyoming thence up the river. Prince Bry- 
ant, an early settler at Sugar Run, was one of the first 
post-riders. During the occupation of Asylum by the 
French, tbey established a weekly post to Philadelphia, 
the postman making his trips on horseback. The Act of 
Congress, April 23, 1800, established the first post-roads 
in the country, being from Wilkes-Barre by Wyalusing to 
Athens and from Athens to Newtown, Painted Post and 
Bath to Canandaigua. Post-offices were established at 
Wyalusing and Athens and commissions issued Jany. 1, 
1801 to Peter Stevens and Wm. Prentice as postmasters 
respectively. In 1803 Charles Mowery and Cyril Peck 
carried the mail from Wilkes-Barre to Tioga, on foot, 
once in two weeks. 

The Pedohaptist Congregational Church of East 
Smithfield was organized February 11, 1801 at Poult- 
ney, Vt. by Rev. Elijah Norton and Rev. Lemuel Haynes, 
the celebrated colored preacher. The members were 
Solomon Morse, Samuel Kellogg and Nathan Fellows. 
They chose Samuel Kellogg their moderator and were 
commended to the grace of God. Their articles of faith 
were penned by Rev. Haynes. With their families these 
three gentlemen started for the "far west," arriving the 
same month in what is now East Smithfield. The first 
record of the church, May 16, 1801, is the baptism of Je- 
mima Almira, daughter of Solomon Morse, Rev. James 
Thomas officiating. The first business was August 16, 
1801, when Sarah Kellogg and Jemima Morse were re- 
ceived into the church on profession of faith. 

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14 Bradford County Chronology 

Perished in the Wilderness— FehvueLty 15th, 1801, 
Henry Lent of Rome made a trip to Athens and on his 
return through a blinding snow storm, following a foot- 
path from Sheshequin, when reaching what is now 
Towner Hill, he became bewildered and exhausted by the 
darkness and intensity of the cold and was frozen to 
death. He was found a few days afterwards near a tree, 
around which he had run in vain attempt to prevent freez- 
ing, So many times had he gone around the tree that a 
crease was cut in the bark by the rim of his hat. 

1801 — Mt. Zion township organized from Athens and 
Ulster, changed to Orwell, 1802. 

1801 — Ephraim Ladd and sons, the first settlers in Al- 
bany township. 

July 4th^ 1801 — The first general celebration of 
American Independence at Wyalusing was an occasion 
of great interest. People assembled from all parts of the 
country. Such a gathering had never been witnessed 
there before. John Hollenback presided at the meeting. 
Jonas Ingham made an address on ^'Disputed Land Ti- 
tles," in which he defended the claims of the Connecticut 
settlers and denounced with great severity the adverse 
legislation of Pennsylvania. Uriah Terry composed an 
ode on the death of Washington which was sung by Polly 
Sill. The whole celebration ended with a barbecue. A 
huge bear killed that morning and roasted whole pro- 
vided meat for the entertainment. Towanda, then Wy- 
sox, also celebrated. **\Vm. Means provided an enter- 
tainment, the style and elegance of which reflected great 

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Bradford County Chronology 15 

credit on his taste and industry. An oration was deliv- 
ered by Reed Brockaway. After dinner a number of ap- 
propriate toasts were drank." 

Rev, Thomas Smiley and Wild Yankees—In 1801 
Col. Abraham Horn was appointed agent for the Penn- 
sylvania land holders to put the ^'Intrusion Law" in 
force. In June he came into Bradford county, but ap- 
prehending danger from the violent opposition of the 
people, stopped at Asylum. Rev. Thomas Smalley had 
been appointed a deputy agent and furnished with the 
necessary papers. By July 7th he had obtained the sig- 
natures of nearly forty settlers to their relinquishments 
(Connecticut title) and submissions, and started for Asy- 
lum. A meeting was held and the "Wild Yankees" de- 
termined that the business must be stopped. About 
twenty men from Sugar Creek, Ulster and Sheshequin, 
armed and disguised, started in pursuit. Mr. Smiley, 
hearing the arrangements of the conspirators, went down 
to Joshua Wythe's near Monroeton, where he remained 
until dark, and then stopped for the night at Jacob 
Granteer's, near the mouth- of Towanda Creek. The 
party, learning of his lodging place, followed him, broke 
into his room, compelled him to burn his papers, took 
him near the creek, poured a bottle of tar over his 
head and beard, then adding feathers, after giving him a 
kick told him he might go, but must leave the country. 
Several were arrested for participation in this ignomin- 
ous affair, but the proof being insufficient, "not a true 
bill" was returned by the grand jury. It was asserted, 

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16 Bradford County Chronology 

also, that the man who carried the bottle of tar was one 
of the jurors who acted in the case. In 1819 the legisla- 
ture granted Mr. Smiley $250 in compensation for bis 

1802 — A.pril, Burlington township organized from 

Connecting Line Opened. 1802 — The first outlet 
from the county, leading to the West Branch, seems to 
have been along the old Indian path, down Lycoming 
Creek from Canton. Wallis and Harris in 1777 made an 
extensive survey on the headwaters of Little Loyal-Sock 
Creek and the South Branch of Towanda Creek, covering 
a good part what is now Colley, Cherry and Forks in 
Sullivan and Albany in Bradford county. It was neces- 
sary for these surveyors in doing so large a job to have a 
supply road from the nearest settlement to some point 
convenient to their work, and it is. probable that the 
Wallis Road, running from the West Branch near Muncy 
to the Forks of the Loyal-Sock, was first opened as a 
pack-horse route for this purpose. Subsequently the 
French Refugees who had settled at Asylum, wishing a 
more direct communication with the Muncy Valley 
marked out and opened from the termination of the 
Wallis Road, near the Forks of the Loyal-Sock, to their 
settlement what was afterwards known as the French- 
town pack-horse road. This completed the first through 
route for pedestrians or equestrians from the West to the 
North Branch, but was never opened for general travel. 
In 1802 the Qenesee Road which afforded the first thor- 
oughfare was opened. This road started from Millstone 
Run in Monroe, thence in a southwesterly course passed 

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Bradford Couriiy Chronology 17 

through the central part of Overton to Eldredsville 
thence to Muncy. This road was of use only to travel- 
lers. For a decade it was the main and in fact the only 
thoroughfare between the North and West Branch of the 
Su&quehanna. It was called the Genesee Road because 
it afforded the first thoroughfare to emigrants from 
Southern Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia to the 
rich valley of the Genesee river, then the popular rage. 

Pioneer Perishes hy CoUr-In the winter of 1802-^3, 
Wm. Harding and Wm. Arnold of Warren made a trip 
to Sheshequin for provisions. These secured, each with 
a pack of 50 pounds thrown over his back, started for 
home. A heavy snow fell and closed iheit track. Near 
where Potterville now is, Mr. Harding gave out and 
could proceed no further. Mr. Arnold went for help but 
when he returned found his companion a stiffened corpse. 

1803 — Capt. John Harkness, the first settler in Spring- 
field township. 

Great Fever Epidemic — In the early summer of 1803 
a fever, which baffled the skill of the best physicians, 
swept through Wysox, Sheshequin, Ulster and Athens. 
The disease proved fatal to many young people of both 
sexes; it abated during the fall but broke out with viru- 
lence the following winter. 

First Murder Trial— In June, 1803 Amos Hurlbut 
of Wyalusing had some words with John Daltou, who 
struck him across the head with a sharp instrument 
Causing his death. Dalton was tried for his life, the fol- 
lowing being the record of proceedings, courts of Luzerne 
county : 

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18 Bradford County Chronology 

**Republica vs John Dcdton: Indictment for the OQurder of Amos 
Hurlbut with count for voluntary oianslaughter; true bill, August 
16, 1803. The defendant being charged at the bar, pleads not guilty 
and thereof puts himself on the county for trial; at'torney-general 
likewise, and now, August 17, 1803, a jury being called came to wit* 
James Atherton, Noah Taylor, Solomon Johnson, Oliver Pettibonei 
Zebulon Marcy, Daniel Ayres, Caleb Wright, Joseph Sweatland* 
Joseph Reynolds, Abraham Shurtz. Roger Searle and Case Cort- 
landt, who being duly sworn and affirmed to try the issue aforesaid 
on their oaths and affirmations, respectively, do say that they find 
the defendant guilty of murder in the second degree Whereupon, 
the court, to wit, on the 19th day of August. 1803, sentence the de- 
fendant to undergo an imprisonment at hard labor for the period of 
18 years; and that he be fed and clothed and that in all respects 
treated, according to the direction of the 'Act to reform the penal 
laws of the State; and that he be placed and kept three years out 
of the 18 in the solitary cells in the penitentiary house in the city 
of Philadelphia and fed on low and coarse diet; and that he pay 
the costs of prosecution and stand committed until this whole sen- 
tence be complied with.** Dal ton was pardoned by Governor Mc- 
Kean in 1808. He died soon after in a Philadelphia hospital. 

1804 — August, Canton township organized from Bur- 

1804-:— Post-offices established in Wysox and Sheshe- 
quin with Burr Ridgway at the former place and Avery 
Gore at the latter. 

1804 — Jesse Moore, the fiist permanent settler of 
South Creek township. 

A Convention of Churches of Smillifield, Wysox, Or- 
well, Wyalusing and Braintrim was held at Wysox, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1804 at which a resolution was passed against 
Sabbath-breaking, profanity and gambling, and offenders 
were threatened with the rigors of the law il they did not 

Colonel Franklin and Division of County — Colonel 

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Bradford Couniy Chronology 19 

John Franklin, the earnest and persistent advocate of the 
Connecticut claim was vary popular with the New Eng- 
land men of Luzerne county by whom he was elected 
every fall to represent them in the legislature, where 
every opportunity was seized by him to vindicate the 
justness of the Connecticut title and protest, in most bit- 
ter language, against the greed of the Pennsylvania land- 
holders and the unusual severity of the measures taken to 
secure their titles. He was a continual thorn in the side 
of the Pennsylvania land-jobbers, who at that time pos- 
sessed controlling influence in the legislature and they 
determined to get rid of him — legislate him out of the 
House. To effect this, the northwestern part of Luzerne, 
including the residence of Colonel Franklin, was attached 
to Lycoming county. An Act, approved April 3, 1804, 
provided that that part of Luzerne county beginning 
where the nortlieast branch of the Susquehanna crosses 
the State line, thence southerly to the northeast corner of 
Claverack, ' thence by the northerly side of Claverack to 
its westerly corner, thence in a direct westerly direction 
to the line of the county, be attached to the county of 
Lycoming. In 1805, however. Colonel Franklin was 
elected by the people of Lycoming, and to the chagrin 
and mortification of his enemies he appeared again at 
Lancaster and took his seat. 

1804— Jonas Ingham of Wyalusing elected to the Leg- 
islature from Luzerne county. Through his efforts the 
**Intrusion Laws" and '^Territorial Act," which were ob- 
noxious to the people, were repealed. 

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£0 Bradford County Chronology 

1805— Isaac Fuller and Joel Campbell and their sons, 
the first settlers in Ridgebery township. 

The Great Hunt — There were two ''big hunts" in this 
county in 1818, but tlie GREAT HUNT, an event une- 
qualled in this or any other country,took place in 1805. At 
that time there were less than 5,000 iuhabitanis in what is 
now Bradford county. There were a few small villages, 
but the settlers were generally scattered about on farms. 
With the exception of these clearings, the country was 
still an unbroken area of dense forest. Wolves, panth- 
ers and bears had hardly thought of retiring before the 
encroachments of the settlers. Deer roamed the woods 
in herds and the elk still browsed in the mountain fast- 
nesses. The backwoods clearings were constant foraging 
grounds for wild beasts. The few sheep, swine and cat- 
tle the pioneers possessed were never safe from these ma- 
rauders and it frequently happened that these raids left 
the settlers' stock inclosures entirely empty. Although 
hundreds of wild animals annually fell victims to the 
traps, snares and guns of the pioneers, their depredations 
still remained a serious obstacle to the welfare of the set- 
tlers. In 1805, at the suggestion of a long-suflFtring 
farmer named Buck, it was resolved to organize a syste- 
matic and combined raid on the haunts of the animals, 
whose destructiveness, individual efforts had but slightly 
checked. Buck^s idea was to enlist every one in the at- 
flicted settlements who was old enough to carry a gun 
and with this small army form a circle around as large 
an area of country invested by the animals, they desired 
to assail, as the number of men warranted. The party 

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Bradford County Chronology 21 

was to be divided into compaDies of 10, under the lead 
and command of an experienced woodsman and hunter. 
When the hunting ground was surrounded, each party 
was to move forward simultaneously toward a common 
centre, the march to be conditioned on such obstacles as 
streams, swamps or hills that might intervene. As the 
raid was to be merely of extermination, deer, elk and 
other unoffending animals were not to be ruthlessly nor 
indiscriminately killed. Every hunter, however, should 
be bound to lay low every panther, catamount, bear, wolf 
or fox, young or old, that crossed his path. 

The pioneer's suggestion was unanimously adopted at 
the meetings of settlers held at convenient localities, and 
it was resolved to make two raids during the year. One 
was to be in June, when the animals they sought would 
generally be found with their litters and family of young 
brought forth in the spring, thus affording opportunity 
to put much future trouble out of the way with ease, and 
the other raid was fixed for November, during the nut- 
ting season. Every arrangement for the successful and 
smooth working of the novel campaign was perfected 
during the winter and spring and when the day came for 
the grand raid to commence, 600 men, each armed with 
his flintlock, a hatchet und a hunting knife and provided 
with two days' rations, v;ere ready for the march. 

The number of men who were to participate in the raid 
was known for days before the appointed time and war- 
ranted the selection of a wide area of country to hunt 
over. A wild region, which was known to furnish all 
the requirements of the animals to be proceeded against. 

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22 Bradford County Chronology 

extending from the headwaters of Wyalusing Creek and 
taking in portions of Lycoming and Luzerne counties, it 
was thought could be profitably and thoroughly scoured 
by a large party, and a circle of hunters, five to a mile, 
was formed in tliat region. This gave an area of 40 
miles across, or 120 miles around, to close in upon. 

The day before the day appointed, each command of 
10 men had received orders to beat a place designated at 
6 o'clock in the morning and to be in position to start 
forward half an hour later. The arrangements were all 
successfully carried out. The circle was to he reduced 10 
miles the first day. Each hunter had strict orders not to 
shoot, except when he saw some animal plainly and 
within easy range, to avoid the danger of shooting a fel- 
low-hunter in mistake for game moving, but not seen, in 
the brush. During the first day's march through the 
woods and swamps, all round the great circle of hunters, 
the result of the raid, according to the returns of the 
hunters, whose shots Imd been successful, was as fol- 
lows, old and young: Panthers, 40; wolves, 58; bears, 
92; foxes, 20; catamounts, 13. The second day's march 
brought the hunters close together at the center of the 
area and also drove into close quarters a large immber 
of wolves, bears and panthers, besides many deer and a 
few elk. The hunters stood in ranks five deep about 

The panthers yelled furiously from the tree-tops as 
they leaped from branch to branch to escape, but rifle 
balls met and followed thtm in all directions. Bears 
liuddled together, covering their cubs with their bodies, 

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Bradford Couniy Chronology 23 

growling fiercely and showing fight even against such 
fearful odds. Wolves sneaked and snarled about, show- 
ing their great white teeth and looking a fierceness they 
did not possess. The frightened deer and elk ran wildly 
to and fro within the circle and frequently noade despe- 
rate rushes and cleared the wall of hunters at a bound. 
Short work was made of the corralled beasts of prey and 
when the slaughter was over the record for the two days' 
hunt stood : Panthers, 72; w^olves, 90; bears, 145; foxes, 
37; catamounts, 28. A number of deer and elk were 
also killed by hunters who could not resist the tempta- 
tion. Scores of both could have been slain with ease. 
Foxes and catamounts, being less belligerent than bear 
and panther and more wily, escaped with less slaughter, 
although very numerous in the woods. The bounty on 
the animals killed amounted to $550. The skins had an 
aggregate value in these days of not less than |2,500. 
Then the bears killed yielded at least 35 pounds of high- 
ly prized food to each hunter. But tiie benefit that re- 
sulted to the farmers from the raid in protecting their 
pastures and farm-yards overbalanced ten-fold all other 
profit there w»s in the hunt. The November raid proved 
also very successful and the destructive prowlers of the 
woods never regained the foothold in the region they had 
so long enjoyed. 

Move Towards New County — At a meeting of del- 
egates from Wysox, Wyalusing and Braintrim **it was 
thought necessary to give inhabitants of the north part 
of Luzerne and the east part of Lycoming notice to ap- 
I oint one delegate from tach district to meet at the house 

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24 Bradford Cmmty Chronology 

of William Means on Tuesday, the lltb day of Novem- 
ber next, to consult and agree where the line shall run 
for the purpose of having a new county, set off." Signed 
by John Taylor, John Horton, Jacob Strickland, Jona- 
than Terry, William Means, Asa Stevens, Thomas Whee- 
ler, B. Lnporte, Amasa Wells, Justus Gaylord, Jr., Josiah 
Grant, Reuben Hale, Eleazer Gaylord aud Job Irish. 
March 24, 1806, 'an Act to erect parts of Luzerne and 
Lycoming counties into a separate county district" was 
read the first time, and **ordered that it he recommended 
to the attention of the next Legislature." 

The Dark Day or total eclipse of June 6, 1806, filled 
the people with awe. Birds sang their evening songs, 
disappeared and became silent; fowls went to roost; cat- 
tle sought the barn-yard and candles were lighted in the 
house. Many persons believing that the end of all 
things had come, betook themselves to religious devo- 
tions. There was an earlier historic dark day, May 19, 
1780, extending all over New England. 

Visit of Celebrated Preacher — **A queer specimen 
came to the Burlington settlement in June, 1806, dressed 
in Quaker drab and broad-rimmed hat, and took up his 
abode at Mrs. Jane McKean's. He announced preaching 
in the church that evening and a general notice was sent 
throughout the settlement, accompanied with a faithful, 
if not an exaggerated, description of the preacher. A 
large congregation assembled to hear and see the un- 
known oddity. He had not given his name, nor the lo- 
cality whence he came and until he ascended the pulpit 
every one was ignoraiit of all things concerning him. 

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Bradford County Chronology 25 

He then announced: ''My name is Lorenzo Dow; my 
business is to save souls from hell, and for this purpose 
I have brought my credentials, which are these — '60 ye 
into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature. 
He that believeth and 18 baptized shall be saved, but he that 
believeth not shall be damnedJ A strong and lasting im- 
pression was made by his sermon, and the eccentric went 
from house to house exhorting the people and in the eve- 
ning preached from the text — 'Beware of wolves in sheep's 
clothing,' intimating rather strongly that they had better 
inquire into his antecedents and ascertain if it was not a 
wolf, who had robbed a Quaker sheep of his garb, who 
was warning them from the wrath to come." 

Great Snow Storm — Beginning March 31, 1807, 
snow fell continuously three days and was between four 
and five feet deep. For several days it was cold, blowing 
weather, then the sun shone out and the snow melted 
rapidly, causing a great flood, one of the most notable in 
the Susquehanna river. 

1807— April 3, Union Lodge, No. JOS, R & A. M., the 
second oldest secret society in the county, instituted at 
the house of Amos Mix in Wysox with the following 
charier members: James Grant, David Scott, Wm. B. 
Whitney, Ebenezer B. Gregory, Abner C. Rockwell, 
James Swartwout, Eliphalet Mason, Amos V. Matthews, 
Cyp Grant, Orente Grant, Oratio Grant, Josiah Grant, 
Asahel Johnson, Amos Mix, Ebenezer Tuttle, George 
Scott, William B. Foster and William Myer. 

State Road, E&st and West— In 1807-8, pursuant 
to an Act of the Legislature a road was surveyed, **be- 

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2G Bradford County Chronology 

ginning at a point where the Coshecton and Great Bend 
turnpike passes through the Moosic mountains, thence in 
a westerly direction to the western bound of the State." 
This road, which was several years in building, passed 
through the towns of Pike, Herrick and Wysox, crossed 
the river at Towanda, thence up by Gregg's, through 
East Troy and Covington in Tioga county. 

1808 — Ephraim and Nathaniel Piatt, brothers, the 
first settlers in Herrick township. 

1808 — January, Towanda township organized from 
Wysox and Wyalusing. 

1808 — November 16, Burlington Baptist Church or- 
ganizedj the original members being Elisha Rich, Sr., 
Elisha Rich, Jr., Russell Rose, Moses Calkins, James 
Mattison, Phoebe Rich, Peggy Rich and Lydia Rose. 
March 25, 1809, Aaron Case, Elisha Rich, Jr., John 
Barber and Eli Parsons appointed a building committee. 
May 6, 1809, the church entered a very commodious 
liouse of worship for the time, built of hewn logs with 
galleries on three sides, on lands given by Elder Rich, 
east of Troy village, now the site of Glenwood cemetery. 

1809 — Great July flood in the Susquehanna river; ex- 
tensive damage to growing crops. 

1809 — December, Smithfield township organized from 

1810 — Daniel Heverly and sons, the first settlers in 
Overton township. 

An Association of Magistrates — A. meeting of the 
justices of the peace in the northern part of Luzerne 
county was held February 8, 1810 at the house of Jona- 

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Bradford County Chronology 27 

than Stevens in Wyalusing, "for the purpose of forming 
a society and fixing certain precedents to govern said so- 
ciety." Henry V. Champion was chosen president and 
George Scolt secretary. Among the resolutions passed 
was one in which they declare "that we will use our best 
endeavors to suppress all pettifogging wherehy it appears 
they do it with an intention to stir up and encourage lit- 
igation." The second meeting was held in Wyalusing, 
June 12, 1810. A constitution was adopted which pro- 
vided that the name of the society should be the "Asso- 
ciated Magistrates resident in the north part of Luzerne 
county." Among the requirements in this article of its 
members were "to use every precaution to suppress law 
suits and to bring about a reconciliation between the par- 
ties: to reprove persons of immoral character of every de- 
scription and by all proper means to suppress every species 
of vice and immorality." Those signing the constitution 
were Henry V. Champion, Josiah FHSsett, Isaac Brown-* 
son, Guy Wells, Salmon Bosworth, Parley Coburn, Wil- 
liam Myer, George Scolt and Eliphalet Mason. After 
1811 there were no records of the society and it is be- 
lieved that the association ceased to exist with the 
changes that grew out of the organization of the new 

Ontario and Susquehanna — On January 17, 1810, 
Mr. Dorrance brought in from a special committee, prev- 
iously appointed and directed so to do, the Act which fi- 
nally set off the two new counties (Bradford and Susque- 
hanna), but as county districts only. It subsequently 
passed both houses, was approved by the governor and 

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28 Bradford County Chronology 

becarne a law as the Act of February 21, 1810. The 
bill as first reported from the committee gave the name 
*'Morris" to Bradford county, but before passing 'Onta- 
rio" was substituted for it. Among the other things the 
Act provided that Ontario **should remain attached to 
Luzerne and Lycoming counties for all judicial and other 
county purposes Ihe same as it had been, until it shall 
be otherwise directed by law.'* In 1812 Bradford became 
a separate judicial district or county. 

Mail Service 1810— Conrad Teeter (1810) contracted 
with the government to carry the mail once a week in 
stages from Sun bury to Painted Post, by the way of 
Wilkes- Bar re, Wyalusing and Athens. However, he 
did not always drive his **coach and four,'* as he was ac- 
customed to call his stage and team, going on horse-back 
or with a one-horse wagon when the mail was small or 
the passengers few. August 8, 1810 the Towanda post- 
office was established with Reuben Hale postmaster. The 
office was kept by E. B. Gregory whom Mr. Hale had 
appointed his deputy. When the stage arrived on the 
east side of the river the mail-carrier would blow his 
horn when some one would be sent across the ferry for 
the mail which would be left in a hollow stump. This 
was usually carried over in one's pocket or a pillow-case. 

'New Baltimore — In anticipation that the county-seat 
of the new county would be at Wysox, in 1811 a town 
plat was surveyed, streets marked and named and the 
place called Neiv Baltimore. The people of Wysox were 
very much disappointed when in 1812 the trustees se- 
lected Towanda as the site for the court house. 

Counterfeiting Gang — In 1811 a gang of counter- 
feiters were operating in what is now Bradford county. 
They had a retreat under an ovei hanging roik up Mill- 
stone Run in Monioe township, known at **the cave," 
used to conceal their spuiious coin and bills, as also 

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Bradford County Chronology 29 

themselves in times of danger. In the same locality they 
had their "money-mill" where spelter coins were cut and 
dyed from German silver plates which were brought into 
the country by the gang. The counterfeit paper money 
was made and obtained in the city. The mode of swin- 
dle follows: **A smooth tongued sharper approaches an 
inhabitant, exhibiting to him a full hand of genuine sil- 
ver dollars and half dollars and with great assurance in- 
forms the Puritan where such new and shining coins can 
be obtained for half price. The unsuspecting man in- 
vests ^5 in the hands of the sharper and at the stipulated 
time receives the $10, all bright with apparent new coin- 
age (but counterfeit). Unsuspicious next invests all he 
has, can find or borrow and induces his neighbors to de- 
posit in this unseen bank for themselves, exhibiting the 
gains that he has made so easily. In this way the un- 
suspecting are induced to contribute largely to tliis new 
money-making institution, and nearly all the available 
funds of the whole population are gathered into the 
hands of the sharpers in a private way. The rascals 
made a pile in a final strike and their dupes empty 
pockets and some of them empty homes." After the or- 
ganization of the county Sheriff Rockwell broke up the 
combination and scattered them in all directions. In the 
"great scare," one man fled to Canada and others to New 
York and Ohio. The arrests and prosecutions were 
chiefly for meddling with counterfeit paper money. 

Springjieid' 8 First Celebration, 1811 — The first and 
a grand 4lh of July celebration in Springfield townshi[) 
was held at the home of Luke Pitts; the speaker was Theo- 
dore Leonard and Isaac Cooley marshal of the day. Ex- 
actly 50 years afterwards Mr. Cooley officiated in the 
same capacity at a celebraiion in Springfield. 

Young Ladies^ School — The first school exclusively 
for females in this section of country was opened in To- 
wanda, 1811, by Mrs. E. B. Gregory at her own house as 

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Bradford County Chronology 

a boarding school for young ladies and girls. Mrs. Greg- 
ory was very strict but an accomplished lady and excell- 
ent teacher. She gave instructions only in the rudimen- 
tary branches. One of her pupils says: "We did our 
studying on the second floor^ wliich to reach, we had to 
mount a ladder.'' The school was continued two or 
three year?. Among the pupils were Hannah Ridgway, 
Eliza Warner, Eliza and Nancy Hale, Zilpha and Roxy 
Mason, Vesta, Augusta and Miranda York. 

1812 — Coal discovered in Bradford county on Coal Run 
in Barclay townsliip by Absalom Carr while hunting. It 
was first used by Jared Leavenworth, a blacksmith 

Bradford County Organized — The bill to organize 
the county for judicial purposes was repotted favorably, 

^ January 11, 1812, passed by the 
House, March 10 and the Sen- 
ate, March 24 and the same 
day approved by the governor. 
The Act fixed the second Tues- 
day of October, following, as 
the time when its complete or- 
ganization should take effect 
and directed on that date its 
county officers should be elect- 
ed; it provided that its fii*st 
court should be held at the 
house of William Means in To- 
wanda townsliip and changed 
the name (»f the county from 
Ontaiio to Bradford in honor of 
Col. William Bradford. Wil- 
Ham Bradford for whom the 
county is named was a de- 
scendant of William Bradford, 
a printer, who came from England to Philadelphia, 
1685, as a printer of books for the Society of Friends in 

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Bradfwd County Chronology 31 

the colonies. Both Colonel Bradford and bis father were 
distinguished patriots of the Revolution. He was the 
first attorney-general of Pennsylvania, a judge of the 
Supreme Court of the State and attorney-general of the 
United States, being appointed by President Washing- 
ton, 1794. While filling the last office he was stricken 
with fever and died, 1795 at the age of 39 years. He 
left no children. 

First Political Parties — With the organization of the 
county came the lining up of the political forces to cap- 
ture the offices. The parties locally, as in the state and 
nation, were Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. 
Representatives from different parts of the county of each 
of these parties at a meeting or convention, decided upon 
a county ticket which was recommended to the voters. In 
1812 the Federalists presented the following ticket: For 
sheriff, Abner C. Rockwell of Towanda township and John 
Spalding 2nd of Athens township; for county commis- 
sioners, William Myer of Wysox township, Justus Gay- 
lord, Jr. of Wyalusing township and Joseph Kinney of 
Ulster township; for coroner, Harry Spalding of Towanda 
township and John Taylor of Wyalusing township. The 
following was the opposing Democratic-Republican ticket* 
For sheriff, Samuel McKean of Burlington township and 
William Means of Towanda township; for county com- 
missioners, Samuel Gore of Ulster township, John Salt- 
marsh of Athens township and George Scott of Wysox 
township; for coroner, John Horton of Wyalusing town- 
ship and John Miuier of Ulster township. 

The First Election in and for the county of Bradford 

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32 Bradford County Chronology 

was held Tuesday, October 13, 1812 for the election of 
sheriff, county commissioners and coroner. At said elec- 
tion candidates for congress, state senator and assembly 
were also voted for. The districts participating in the 
first election and their own election boards follow: 

Athena and Ulster: Judges — Zephon Flower, Ebenezer 
Shaw and Charles F. Welles. 

Burlington: Judges — John McKeau, Isaac Swain and 
Ebenezer Kendall; Inspector — Nathan Ballard; Clerks — 
Howard Spalding, Churchill Barnes and David Ross. 

Canton: Judges — Luther Hinman, Samuel GriflBn 
and Samuel Rutty; Inspector — Daniel Ingraham; Clerks 
— Horace Spalding, Isaac Chaapel and Orr Scovell. 

Orwell: Judges — Chester Gridley, Edward Russell 
and Josiah Bos worth; Inspector — Cyp Grant; Clerks — 
Oratio Grant, Benj. J. Woodruff and Josiah W. Grant. 

Rush (Rindaw district) : Judges — Benajah Bostwick, 
John Hancock and Jesse Ross; Inspector — Asa Olmstead; 
Clerks — Jesse Hancock and Samuel Edsall. 

Smithfield (Cliflsburg) : Judges — Samuel Campbell, 
Austin Leonard and Ichabod Smith; Inspector — Wm. 
Furman ; Clerks — Samuel Satterlee, Jr. and Moses 

Towanda: Judges — John Felton, Jacob Bowman and 
Charles Brown; Inspector — Eliphalet Mason; Clerks — 
Ethan Baldwin and Ebenezer B. Gregory. 

Wyalusing : Judges — Jonathan Terry, Humphrey 
Brown and Wm. Camp; Inspector — Amasa Wells; Clerks 
—Joseph Ingham, Justus Lewis and Uriah Terry. 

Wysox: Judges — Jesse Allen, Wilber Beniiett and 

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Bradfi/rd County Chronology " 33 

Wm. Myer; Inspector — Ralph Martin; Clerks — Harry 
Morgan, Jacob Bell and Hiram Mix. 

One of the judges from each district met the other 
judges at the house of William Means in Towanda town- 
ship, October 16th, canvassed the returns and certified as 
to the result. At the election there was much independ- 
ent voting. Local candidates were generally given the 
preference. The result was very close, neither party be- 
ing entirely successful. The Federalists elected sheriff 
and commissioners and the Democratic-Republicans, 
coroner. The vote stood as follows; Sheriff — Rockwell, 
337; Spalding, 272; McKean, 260; Means, 225; John 
Taylor, 149; John- Mints, 108. In addition to the fore- 
going complimentary votes were cast for 33 other per- 
sons. John Doe receiving 9 votes and Richard Roe, 15. 
Each elector voted for two candidates and the names of 
two receiving the greatest number of votes were forward- 
ed to the Secretary of the Commonwealth, one of whom 
the governor commissioned to be sheriff. The same rule 
applied to coroner. County Commimonera — Myer, 454; 
Gaylord, 388; Kinney, 351; Gore, 349; Saltmarsh, 315; 
Scott, 303; Clement Paine, 84; David Scott, 17; Elipha- 
let Mason, 14. Complimentary votes were cast for 6 
other person?. Myer having the largest vote was de- 
clared elected for 3 years; Gay lord, the next largest, for 
2 years and Kinney, the smallest, for 1 year. Coroner — 
Horton, 353; Minier, 345; Spalding, 292; Taylor, 235; 
Reuben Hale, 87. Complimentary votes were cast for 17 
other persons. The total number of votes cast in the 
county was 791. Owing to the fact that there were .but 

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34 Bradford County Chronology 

nine polling places in the county, roads few and in bad 
condition, it is surprising that even so large a number of 
persons should have voted, many being required to go a 
distance of 15 miles through the wilderness. 

Other First Officers — Under the Constitution of 
1790, only a part of the county officers were elective. 
The State administration in 1812 was Democratic-Re- 
publican. Governor Snyder accordingly selected for the 
iippointive offices in the new county persons in harmony 
with his administration. John R. Gibson had been 
given the appointment of president judge of the district, 
and as his associates for Bradford county, Governor Sny- 
der commissioned George Scott of Wysox and John Mc- 
Kean of Burlington. Charles F. Welles of Athens was 
appointed clerk of the several courts, prothonotary, 
register of wills and recorder of deeds. The county 
commissioners (Federalists) had two appointments, that of 
county treasurer and commissioners' clerk. These officers 
were given respectively to Harry Spalding of Towanda and 
Joseph Kingsbury of Sheshequin. The Federalists were 
in possession of the sheriff's office while the coroner was a 
Democratic-Republican. It will thus be seen that when 
the machinery of the county went into operation, the first 
administration was about equally divided between the two 

First Of ficial Acts— Vudtr date of July 13, 1812, 
Charles F. Welles was commigsioned recorder of deeds, 
register of wills, prothonotary and clerk of the several 
courts. He took the oath of office, October 14th and on 
that date filed the first papers. The first instrument 

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Bradftprd County Chronology 35 

placed upon the records, under date of January 20, 1813 
is the commission, issued October 14, 1812 by Governor 
Simon Snyder to John B. Gibson, as "President of the 
Courts of CJommon Pleas of the 11th judicial district or 
circuit, consisting of the counties of Bradford, Tioga, 
Wayne and Susquehanna/' The first deed recorded, 
October 25, 1812 was that from Stephen Pierce of Smith- 
field to Helmont Kellogg of Goshen, Conn, for 206 acres 
of land in Smithfield. The first letters of administration 
were issued November 19, 1812 to John D. Saunders up- 
on the estate of John Cranmer, late of Towanda town- 
ship. The first will recorded December 23, 1812 was 
ihatof Ezra Rutty of the township of Claverack (Tow- 
nndu). Tiie first proceedings in the Orphans* Court, 
January 19, 1813, petition of Elsy Ridgway asking for 
the appointment of a guardian for her son, William Mo- 
ger, a minor. 

The second officers to qualify were the County Com- 
missioners. The original entry in their journal reads: 
**Noveml)er 10, 1812, Commissioners met for the first 
time in the ci»unty of Bradford; present, Joseph Kinney 
Justus Gaylord and William Myer together with the 
Trustees of said county; convened on account of ihe do- 
nations made relative to the seat of justice, at the house 
ofEbejiezer B. Gregory.*' Several succeeding meetings 
were held to consider the same subject. January 10, 
1813 Harry Spalding appointed treasurer for one year. 
January 19, 1813 Joseph Kingsbury appointed Commis- 
sioners' clerk for one year at the rate of $1.33 per day. 

Abner C. Rockwell was commissioned Sheriff* for three 

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t^G Bradford County Chronology 

years **from and after the second Tuesday of October, 
1812." He furnished bond in the sum of $5,000 with 
Jacob Bowman, Silas Scovell and Charles Brown as 
sureties; recognizance taken and bond filed December 1, 
1812; took oath of office, December 22, 1812 and entered 
upon his duties. 

The County P?at— Upon locating the site of the . 
court house in 1812, the proprietors laid out the town 
into lots and streets, which on the original plat was called 
Overton and is so called in the deed conveying the public 
or court house square and a lot on State street, below 
Main, for county offices, to Joseph Kinney, Justus Gay- 
lord and William Myer, commissioners of the county and 
their successors in office, in trust for the use ot the coun- 
ty, described as being a part of a large tract called 
**Canewood" and patented to William Kepple, May 17, 
1785, who conveys the same to Adam Kuhn, August 24, 
1795, and he to Thomas Overton, October 24, 1810, be- 
ing the tract of land where the stake was stuck for the 
county town of Bradford county, now called ^Overton," 
containing two acres, more or less. 

Pioneer Libraries — A century ago a large proportion 
of the settlers of Bradford county were from New Eng- 
land. Many were well educated for the times and had 
become acijuainted with the periodicals and books ex- 
tant. Their thirst for knowledge did not slacken after 
coming into the wilderness. Books were few and ex- 
pensive, but the ingenuity of the Yankee always found a 
way for everything and thus was created the "Wysox 
and Orwell Library Company.*' Prior to 1812 a few 

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Bradford County Chronology 37 

books had been gathered for public use, the collectiou 
"being styled the '-Orwell Library." This was the nucleus 
for the new and greater library, and the origin of public 
libraries in the county. Under date of December 26, 1812, 
154 persons residing in Wysox, Orwell, Rome and Stand- 
ing Stone, being the subscribers, set forth as follows: 
"Having taken into consideration the advantages result- 
ing from public libraries, do hereby resolve to make the 
attempt for a library institution to be called the Wysox 
and Orwell Library Company, and as a first step towards 
said establishment do agree that said library shall con- 
sist of 200 shares at $2.50 per share, payable in merch- 
antable lumber or grain at the market prices within 
three months after the books shall have been purchased, 
etc.** The 200 shares having been fully subscribed, a 
meeting was held February 6, 1813, at which by-laws 
and regulations were adopted, Dr. S. T. Bar&tow elected 
librarian and J. M. Piollet, Jacob Bell, William Myer, 
William F. Dininger and Asahel Johnson as standing 
committee. March 13th following standing committee 
met and selected books, *'other than such as are selected 
by the subscribers." This institution answered a useful 
purpose for 20 years. Meetings were held and officers 
chosen annually until 1834 when we find the last record 
of proceedings under date of March 3. The association 
being unincorporated couM not enforce its by-laws and 
the subscribers becoming careless about returning books 
gradually brought the library to an end. 

Soon after the establishment of the Wysox and Orwell 
library, another on a similar basis was organized at To- 

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3b Bradford County Chronology 

wanda as will be seen from the following notice, under 
date of May 1, 1814, appearing in the Bradford Gazeltt: 
^'LIBRARY NOTICE : All persons owning shares in 
the Towanda Library, known by the name of th^ 'Orient 
Library,' are requested to meet at the house of Elisba 
Cole in Towanda on the third Monday inst., at 2 o'clock 
in the afternoon. All persons holding books are desired 
to return thera on or before the said day. Eliphalet 
Mason, Samuel Cranmer." The next was the Athens Li- 
brary started about 1815 by David Paine. 

The First Court in Bradford county was held at the 
bouse ("Red Tavern") of William Means in Towanda. 
The original entry of proceedings follows: 

''January Sessions, 1813. 
Bradford County, ss: 

At a Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, holden at 
Towanda in and for the county of Bradfoid on the 18th day of Jan- 
uary anno domini, one thousand eie:ht hundred and thirteen: The 
outumis>siun of Honoiable John B. Gibson, Esquire, appointing him 
to be President of the several Courts of the llth Judicial District in 
i'ennsylvania, was read with a certificate of his having taken and 
subscribed the requisite oaths of office; and also the commissions of 
John McKean and George Scott, Esquires, his associates; the com- 
mission of Abner C. Rockwell, sheriff; the deputation of Henry 
Wilson as prosecutor for the Commonwealth; and the commission 
of Charles F. Welles, appointing him to be Prothonotary, Clerk of 
Quarter Sessions, Clerk of Oyer and Terminer, Clerk of Orphans* 
Court and Register and Recorder in and for the said county of 
Bradford, and their several official oaths were respectively read ; 
whereupon came the said Abner C. Rockwell, High Sheriff, as 
aforesaid and before the said President and Judges made return of 
several writs and process to him directed, here this day returnable. 
Among which he produced a certain venire facias jurators with a panel 
thereto annexed which being called over, the following persons ap- 
peared, to wit : 

1. James Ward, Foreman 

2. Jonathan Stevens 12. Ezra Spalding 

3. John Spalding 13. Jesse Allen 

4 Isaac Chapel 14. Moses Calkins 

5. Adonijah Warner 15. Parley Coburn 

6. Isaac Foster 16. John Harkness 

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Bradford County Chronology 39 

7. David Rundle 17. Reuben Hale 

8. Samuel Cranmer 18. Humphrey Brown 

9. Jonathan Fowler 19 Robert Kidgway 

10. Austin Leonard 20. Jonathan Prisby 

11. Zephon Flower 21. Elisha Rich 

who were duly sworn and affirmed for the Commonwealth and the 
body of the county of Bradford. 

**On motion of Mr. Wilson, Ebeneser Bowman, £8q. admitted 
as attorney in the Courts of Bradford county and sworn. 
Whereupon Mr. Bowman moved for the admission of Messrs. Pal- 
mer. Graham, Scott. Mallory and Stuart as attorneys to practice 
in said courts, which was granted accordingly and the usual oaths 
administered. The oath of office was then administered to Mr. 
Wilson; and on motion of Mr. Wilson, Ethan Baldwin was admitted 
as a practicing attorney in the courts above mentioned andqualiiied 
according to law.** 

The first case listed in the Court of Quarter Sessions 
was that of the CoDomonwealth vs Wm. B. Spalding. 
The first case tried was that of the Commonwealth vs 
John Head; indicted for assault and battery upon the 
l)odyofJohn D. Saunders; true bill presented January 
19, 1813; January 20 jury called — find the defendant 
not guilty and that the prosecutor, John D. Saunders pay 
the costs. The first case listed in the Court of Conrimon 
Pleas was that of Eihan Baldwin ts Andrew Gregg; ca- 
pias, case issued January 12, 1813. The first judgment 
entered, Enoch and David Paine vs Ebenz. B. Gregory, 
transcript from the docket of John Shepard, Esq. where- 
in judgment was rendered February 3, 1813 in favor of 
plaintiflT for $101.40. 

New TowfiBhips — In April, 1813 the union of town- 
ships in Bradford county was made 13 by the addition or 
formation of Pike from Rush and Orwell; Warren from 
Rush and Orwell; Windham from Orwell, and Wells from 
Athens. The territory embraced in these four new town- 
ships comprised nearly one-fifth the entire area of the 

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40 Bradford Cminty Chronology 

county. In August, 1813 there was an addition of two 
other townships, Columbia with an area of 43 square 
miles and Springfield with an area of 44 square miles, 
both taken from Smithfield. 

The First Newspaper in the county, the Bradford 
Gazelle, was established August 10, 1813 by Thomas 
Simpson and published every Tuesday at Towanda at $2 
per annum. It was four pages, 16 inches long, five col- 
umns to the page. In his announcement, the publisher 
says : 

*'The necessity of a weekly publication in this county being suf- 
ficiently obvious, it is presumed there will be no impediment to the 
general patronage of this paper, when the public are fully assured 
that its object is not disunion and domestic animosity, but the ac- 
celeration of local bu<«iness, diffusion' of national intelligence and in 
all these matters, which are generally comprehended within the lim- 
ited view of a newspaper—the amusement and benefit of our sub- 
scribers. Situated as the United States are it is impossible for any 
man who interests himself in the affairs of the country, should be 
impartial between its two great political sects. He who pretends 
to be impartial is no more than a pretender. The editor is a Re- 
publican and his paper will bear that character in the editorial de- 
partment, but its pages will be at all times free to well written 
communications of whatever political nature, provided they be not 
calculated to wound private feelings, or estrange the free and gene- 
ral intercourse of neighborhood. The editor's intention is to serve 
the whole and to please all without violating his duty or abandon- 
ing the above professions."^ 

On account of the difficulties attending the publication 

and distribution of his paper, Mr. Simpson issued his last 

number, August 23, 1814 and sold the plant to Burr 

Ridgway. Mr: Ridgway resumed publication of the Ga- 

zetUy April 13, 1815 and con tinned. same until 1818 when 

he sold the press and material to Lemuel Streator and 

Edwin Benjamin, who changed the name of the paper to 

The Settler. Tlie second paper in the county was The 

Washingtoniarij established September, 1816 at Towanda 

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Bradford County Chronology 41 

by Lewis P. Franks. It was ably edited as an advocate 
of the Federal party but appeared only for a little more 
than a year. 

1813 — Considerable excitement and interest over the 
war with England. Many from the county enter the 
United States service. 

The Second Election for county oflBcers was held Oc- 
tober 12, 1813. The candidates put forward by the 
Democratic-Republicans and Federalists received votes 
as follows: County Covimissioner — Burr Ridgway (D. R.) 
365; JoH'i'h Kingsbury (F.) 257. County Auditors — 
Clement Paine (D. R.) 372; Moses Coolbangh (D. R ) 
363; Jonathan Stevens (D. R.) 363; Parley Cohurn (F.) 
253; Aden Stevens (F.) 258; Russell Fowler (F.) 250. 
The Democratic-Republican candidates for the Assembly 
received a majority in both the Lycoming and Luzerne 
sections of the county. The result was a complete Dem- 
ocratic-Republican victory. Referring to the election, 
the Bradford Gazette says: "The Democratic ticket has 
carried in Bradford, Tioga, Susquehanna and Luzerne 
counties; not a single Federal elected in either of these 
counties, some of which formerly gave a large Federal 

The First Jail in the county was a log addition^ 
built to his house by Sheriff Rockwell at Monroeton. 
Here the prisoners were kept, 1813 to '16. 

1814 — April 25, Athens Academy opened with Prof. 
Sylvenus Guernsey of Harrisburg, first teacher. 

Grand Celebration at Smithfield — "The inhabitants 
of Sraithfield and vicinity convened on July 4, 1814 at 

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42 Bradford County Chronology 

the house of James Gerould to commemorate this event- 
ful era. At 11 o'clock the procession was formed and 
escorted by Lieut. Hayes, the officer of the day, to an 
adjacent grove, where the ceremonies of the day were 
performed in the following manner: Introductory 
prayer by Elder Ripley; reading Declaration of Inde- 
pendence by Col. Samuel Satterlee; Charles Woodworth 
delivered an oration, appropriate to the occasion. Rev. 
Mr. Stone closed the ceremony by prayer. The process- 
ion then moved back to the house and. partook of an ex- 
cellent repast, the American flag waving 70 feet over 
tlieir heads. After the cloth was removed 22 toasts were 
drank, attended by music and the firing of musketry^ 
the company then retired with cheerful hearts without 
an instance of irregularity." — Bradford Gazette. 

''The Cold Plague''— 'In the fall of 1814 a disease 
called the 'cold plague' made its appearance among the 
people of the Sugar Creek valley, the premonitory symp- 
toms being an intense ague, the shaking continuing 10 
or 12 hours. * This was succeeded by an exudence of a 
yellowish slime from the loins and the abdomen, and the 
patient would fall into a collapse, become unconscious 
and generally die in about 40 hours from the first attack. 
Scarcely one-twentieth of those attacked recovered, men 
seeming to be more liable to the attack than women, and 
all persons under 15 years, being wholly exempt. The 
disease subsided and disappeared as the weather grew 

1814 — November, original Asylum township organized 
from Wyalusing. 

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Bradford County Chronology 43 

1814 — During this year, company *of volunteers re- 
cruited by Capt. Julius Tozer of Athens, go to the front. 
Militia of the county called out by the governor placed 
unrder the command of Lieut. Eliphalet Mason of Monrpe 
and proceed to Danville, Pa. 

Political Matters^ 1814 — There was but little ex- 
citement over politics in the county this year. The 
Democrats put forrward Clement Paine for county com- 
missioner and Samuel McKoan, Eliphalet Mason and 
John Hollenback for county auditors. The Federalists 
nominated John Taylor of Wyalusing for county com- 
missioner and David Paine, Athens, W. F. Dininger, 
Wysox and Salmon Bosworth of Pike for county auditors. 
At the October election following the Democrats won on 
State officers, county commissioner and one auditor, 
while the Federalists elected two auditors. The vote 
follows: Governor— Snyder (D.) 331; Wayne (F.) 277. 
Co?*^ms— David Scott (D.) 308; Wm. Wilson (D.) 306; 
Jared Irvin (F.) 303; John Boyd (F.) 281. CommiS' 
9ionei-—¥Bi\ne (D.) 321; Taylor (F.) 2<;9. Auditors— 
Hollenback (D.) 283; Mason (D.) 318; McKean (D.) 
306; Paine (F.) 294; Dininger (F.) 308; Bosworth {F.) 
308. Candidates for state senator and assembly were 
also voted for. The Luzerne section of the county was 
in one senatorial and assembly district and the Lycoming 
section in another. The only local candidate was Julius 
Tozer of Athens who stood as a Democratic candidate for 
assembly. He was defeated. 

Severe Winter 1814-^15 — **This year there was 
heavy snow and a hard winter. The wolves were driven 

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44 Bradford County Chronology 

down from the mountains in search of food and many 
sheep were devoured by them. They could be heard 
howling at all times of night. The inhabitants were much 
in fear of them and were afraid to pass from Milltown to 
Athens, even in the daytime. There was no traveling 
after dark, so great was the fear and danger. The sheep 
were often called into the door-yard and lights were kept 
burning for their protection. Bears and panthers wore 
sometimes seen between the rivers. Bounties were off- 
ered for killing these animals and those that were not 
killed retired to the mountains. — From Journal of John 

Towanda and Wysox Celebrate — "On Tuesday, 
July 4, 1815, in pursuance of previous arrangement, a 
respectable concourse of citizens assembled at Mr. Has- 
lett's inn in Towanda village for the purpose of celebrating 
the 39th anniversary of our national independence, in a 
manner consonate with the joy and gratitude they felt on 
that occasion. At one o'clock p. m. a procession being 
formed they marched to an adjoining grove where an 
oration was delivered by Ethan Baldwin, Esq. The ut- 
most order and harmony prevailed. The procession 
then returned and partook of a repast prepared for the 
occasion. After the cloth was removed a number of 
toasts were drank. The day was spent in that joy and 
conviviality which friendship and unanimity alone can 
inspire; the wine, which flowed plenteously, could scarce- 
ly by its exhilarating powers add to the hilarity and 
merriment, when such was the cordiality of hearts, and 
such was the occasion. No disturbance or scene of in- 

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Bradford County Chronology 45 

tozicatioQ occurred to interrupt or mar the pleasures of 
the day. * * * The citizens of Wysox and vicinity 
without any distinctions of party met at the house of J. 
M*. Piollet to celebrate the 89th anniversary of Independ- 
ence. William Myer was appointed president of the day 
and Abel Eastabrooks vice president. An oration was 
delivered by Rev. Mr. York, the company than sat down 
to an excellent dinner provided by Mr. Piollet. When the 
fare was over 23 toasts were drank, accompanied by the 
discharp;e of guns and the hilarity of the festive board.'' 
— Bradford Gazette. 

Terrific Windstorm — In July 1815, the most fear- 
ful windstorm ever known in the eastern part of the 
county, swept eastward across Orwell, tearing up trees 
and leaving a wake of destruction nearly half a mile 
wide. Timber on thousands of acres was blown down. 
The house of Luther ChaflFee was carried from its founda- 
tion, thrown completely over and left standing on the 
roof. The school house at North Orvyell, built of hewed 
logs, was blown to pieces and some of the roof found 
nearly four miles away. An eye witness to the storm 
says: "The scene was one of awful grandeur. The air 
for a great distance was full of limbs and tree tops, 
whirling in every direction, something like the flakes of 
snow in a March snow squall." 

The First Court House was a frame structure about 
30x40 feet, occupying the site of the rooms of the Brad- 
ford County Hibtorical Society and extending some feet 
farther north; it was two stories high with basement, 
standing lengthwise with the river; in the center of the 

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46 Bradford County Chronology 

crown of the gable roof was a small cupola coDiaining a 
bell. The entrance to the building was by the door in 
the center on the west side, facing the public square. 
The basement was the jail and a couple of rooms on the 
first floor were also used for keeping prisoners, the bal- 
ance of the floor being occupied by the jailor. ' The court 
room was on the second floor. Peter Egner of North- 
umberland was the contractor and builder who erected 
and completed the superstructure in 1815; the masonry 
had previously been done under the supervision of the 
Commissioners. The total cost including contributions 
was about $7,000. The court house was first occupied 
January 9, 1816 and was used continuously until March 
12, 1847, when it was destroyed by the great fire of that 

The Wysox Fishery was one of the most celebrated 
on the river and was a source of considerable profit to its 
promoters for many years. According to the deed, 1815, 
from William and Joel Tuttle to M. Miner York, Moses 
Warford, Jacob and William Myer, Ralph Martin, Wm. 
Coolbaugh, Elisha Cole and George Scott the land em- 
braced in the fishery on the Wysox side was contiguous 
to what was called the ^'Narrows fishing." 

1815 — September 5, the Church of Orwtll and Warren, 
organized as a Congregational church by Rev. John Bas- 
com and Rev. Salmon King with eight members; changed 
to Presbyterian, 1824. 

1815 — December, Troy township, organized from Bur- 

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Bradford County Chronology 47 

Merchandising — In 1815 the most extensive merch- 
ant dealer east of the river was Wm. Keeler, located at 
what is now Myersburg. Following was his advertise- 
ment in the Bradford Gazette: 


Oentlemen and Ladies please to call at my Store in Wytox, a 

few doors below Fenealer Castle, and on the south side of Pond 

Lane and west side of SSquahhle Hill street, where I have on handj 

{Just received by the fast sailing boat Rose-in- Bloom, Cape, 

Oriffin^ in a iihort passage of seven days from Wilkes- Barre,) 

A New and General Assortment of Goods, suitable to the sea- 
son, consi idling of Dry Goods, Groceries, Queens & Glass 
Ware, Hat dware and Cutlery, Stationery, 

Gentlemen^s and Ladies^ Saddles and Bridles, 
Portmanteaus, Hats, etc., 
all of which uill be disposed of cheap for 
Cash, Lumber or Produce. 
Cash paid for clean Cotton and Linen Bags, 
My customers have my sincere thanks for their past favors, and 
I again solicit their patronage. WAI, KEELER. 

Wysox, Sept. 2S, 1815. 

Political Contest^ 1815 — The delegate system was 
inaugurated this year and especial effort made by both 
Democrats and Federalists to strengthen their organiza- 
tion by binding resolutions and an appeal, or ''address" 
to the voters. This, however, did not prevent a third or 
independent ticket being put in the field. These were 
the nominations: Democrats — For state senator, Henry 
Welles, Athens; assembly, Samuel McKean, Burlington; 
sheriff, Julius Tozer, Athens; commissioners, John IIol- 
lenback, Wyalu?»ing and Samuel Satterlee, Smithfield; 
coroner, Reuben Wilber, Troy; auditor, Ethan Baldwin, 
Towanda. Federalists — For state senator, John Frank- 
lin, Athens; assembly, Joseph Kingsbury, Sheshequin; 
sheriff, John Spalding 2nd, Athens; commissioners, Sal- 

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48 Bradford County Chronology 

mon Boswortb, Pike and Nathaniel Allen, Troy; coro- 
ner, E. B. Gregory, Towanda; auditor, Theron Darlingf 
Orwell. Independent or ^^Merino>^ — Assembly, Samuel 
McKean, Burlington, sherifr, William Allen, Wysox and 
John Mints, Towanda; commissioners, Charles Brown, 
Towanda and Jonathan Stevens, Standing Stone; coroner, 
Reuben Hale, Towanda; auditor, John Hancock, Pike. 
Candidates at the October election received votes as fol- 
lows; State Senator — Henry Welles (D.) 572 ; Samuel 
Stewart (F.) 266; Welles was chosen in the district which 
included the counties of Bradford, Clearfield, Center, Ly- 
coming, Potter, McKean and Tioga. Assembly — Samuel 
McKean (D.) 444; Joseph Kingsbury (F.) 447; McKean 
was elected in the district including Bradford and Tioga 
county. Sheriff— John Spalding 2nd (F.) 433; Julius 
Tozer (D.) 411; John Mints (M.) 80. Commissioners — 
Salmon Boswortb (F.) 404; Nathaniel Allen (F.) 395; 
Samuel SatterUe (D.) 374; John Hollenback (D..) 389; 
Jonathan Stevens (M.) 60; Charles Brown (M.) 70. Cor- 
07ier— Reuben Wilber (D.) 421; E. B. Gregory (F.) 308. 
Auditor— EihsLU Baldwin (D.) 415; Theron Darling (F.) 
382. In speaking of the outcome the Bradford Gaxette 
says : *'It appears from the above had it not been for 
the reduction which they suffered by the Merino ticket 
the Democrats would have carried every candidate by 
considerable majority." 

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Whence Counties Get Ncmtes. 

AdaviB in honor of President John Adams. 

Allegheny same as river; Allegheny from the Delaware 
and O-hee-o in the Seneca language, both meaning fair 

Armstrong in honor of General John Armstrong who 
marched against the Indians of Kitanning in 1766. 

Beaver from Beaver river in which beavers formerly 

Bedford in honor of the Duke of Bedford of England. 

Berks from Berkshire in England where the Penn 
family held large landed estates. 

Blair in honor of John Blair, a pioneer and man of 
mark and enterprise. 

Bradford in honor of Col. Wm. Bradford, a Revolu- 
tionary oflBcer and Attorney-General of the United States 
under President Washington. 

Bucks so named by Penn from Bucks or Buckingham 
in England, whence came a number of the passengers by 
the Welcome. 

Bxdler in honor of Gen. Richard Butler who was killed 
in the defeat of St. Clair. 

Cambria from Cambria in Wales whence many of the 
early settlers came. 

Cameron in honor of Gen. Simon Cameron. 
Carbon from its carboniferous deposits. 
Centre from its location in the State. 

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50 Whence Counties Oet Name 

Chester in rememberance of Chester in England. 

Clarion from Clarion river, a beautiful clear stream. 

Clearfield from a large clear space or field in the forest 
when first known. 

Clinton for Governor Dewitt Clinton of Erie Canal 

Columbia probably in memory of Christopher Colum. 

Crawford named in honor of Col. Wm. Crawford, one 
of the heroes of the frontier, who was burned at the 
stake by the Indians at Sandusky. 

Cumberland from the English Kimbriland, county of 
Cumberland, once inhabited by the Kimbrie or Keltic 

Dauphin in honor of the eldest son of the King of 
France who bore the title Dauphin. 

Delaware from the Delaware river in honor of Lord 

Elk from the elk and deer which formerly roamed in 
that region. 

Erie in memory of the Erie Indians, primitive inhabit- 

Fayette in honor of General Lafayette. 

Forest from the **old forest.*' 

Franklin in honor of Benjamin Franklin. 

Fulton in honor of Robert Fulton, inventor of the 

Oreene in honor of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, a trusted 
counselor of Washington. 

Huntingdon after Selina, the godly countess of Hunt- 

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Whence Counties Oet Name 61 

ingdon, who did so much for the advancement of Chris- 

Indiana in memory of the Indians. 

Jefferson in honor of President Thomas Jefferson. 

Juniata takes its name from the Juniata river within 
its boundaries. 

Lackawanna from the Delaware tongue Lechau-Han- 
neck, signifying the forks of a river or stream; name of 
county same as river. 

Lancaster from Lancashire, England, the former home 
of John Wright, a noted pioneer of the county. 

Lawrence from Perry's flagsliip in the battle of Lake 
Erie, which was named in honor oi Captain James Law- 
rence U. S. N. 

Lebanon, a scriptural name signifying "White Moun- 

Lehigh, river and county from the Delaware tongue 
Le'ChaU'Wiech4nk, signifying **at the place of the forks of 
the road," and shortened by the German settlers to Lecha^ 

Luzerne in honor of Chevalier De la Luzerne, minister 
of France to the United States. 

Lycoming, county same as creek, which is from the 
DeJMware word Legani-hanne, signifying "sandy stream/' 

McKean in honor of Governor Thomas McKean. 

Mercer in honor of Gen. Hugh Mercer who was mor- 
tally wounded at Trenton, 1777. 

Mifflin in honor of Governor Thomas Mifflin. 

Monroe in honor of President James Monroe. 

Montgomery in honor of Gen. Kiehard Montgomery, 
killed in the attack on Quebec, 1770. 

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62 Whence Counties Get Name 

Montour in memory of the Montour family (French- 
Indian), habitant of the locality. 

Northampton from Northampton in England. 

Northumberland from Northumberland in England. 

Perry in honor of Captain Oliver Hazard Perry, hero 
of the battle of Lake Erie, 1813. 

Philadelphia, county and city, signifying **brotherly 

Pike in memory of Gen. Zebulon Pike, explorer, wlio 
lost his life at York, War of 1812. 

Potter in honor of Gen. James Potter, an officer of the 
Revolution and a distinguished Pennsylvanian. 

Schuylkill from river of same name. 

Snyder in honor of Governor Simon Snyder. 

Somerset, perhaps from Somerset, England. 

Sa///ra7i in honor of Gen. John Sullivan of Revolu- 
tionary fume. 

Susquehanna from river of same name, signifying 
''winding or crooked river." 

Tioga, county and river, from the Indian word Teahoge, 
metning *'at the forks." 

Union, conferred as a fitting name. 

Venango, a corruption from the Indian word In-nan- 

Warren in honor of Gen. Joseph Warren, killed at the 
battle of Uunker Hill. 

Wasliington in honor of President Goo. Washington. 
Wayne in honor of Gen. Anthony Wayne. 
Westmoreland, probably so called from its location in 
the State. 

Wynndng, being a pait of and in memory of the W^y- 
oming Valley, famous in song and story. 
York, evidently for the Duke of York. 

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Events Celebrated. 

Centenary Justus A. Record. 

OWANDIANS have had raany joyous Christ- 
mases but the oue most memorable was that 
of 1915 when the populace, full of gladsome 
spirit, surrounded Justus A. Record, the 
village patriarch, to honor and bestow their blessings in 
appreciation of his attainment of 100 years of useful life. 
For months a wish was expressed by all that **the grand 
old man" (ever with abiding faith that he w^ould be a 
centenarian) might be with us on Christmas, his 100th 
anniversary. Universal anxiety gave way to rejoicing, 
when the glad tidings were heralded over the town, Sat- 
urday morning, that Mr. Record arose at his usual hour, 
5:30 o'clock, dressed himself, ate a hearty breakfast and 
would join in the festivities of the day. 

Mr. Records who resides with his daughter, Mrs.Almeda 
A. Terry on State street spent the moriiing in receiving 
relatives and hiends and sitting for pictures, alone and 
in combination with five generations of the family. By 
one o'clock he was ready for the splendid dinner which 
had been so perfectly prepared and arranged by his gra- 
cious daughter. Sitting at the head of the table, sur- 
rounded by four generations, other relatives and old 
time friends, he was pleased and animated, ate with a 
hearty relish and bade us all "to take hold" with the 
same earnestness. The feast over, his thoughts turned 
to the recef>tion which was to follow at the roonjs of the 
Historical Society and he was ready at the minute. 

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Picture on 100th Anniversary 

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EverU9 Celebrated 56 


At the Historical rooms, the post of honor, the big 
easy chair, entwined and topped with the national colors, 
bad been reserved for the venerable member. As the 
hour approached young and old soon filled the rooms. 
When Sheriflf Albert McCraney, who kindly conveyed Mr. 
Record and his daughter in his car, blew his horn, an- 
nouncing his arrival, there was a quick lining up for the 
salutation within. As the centenarian entered the door 
sweet and impressive music fell upon his ear, Miss Elea- 
nor Mitten singing and Miss Frederica Schmauch with 
violin rendering most beautifully, "A Hundred Years To 
Come.'' The audience arose and remained standing until 
the music was concluded and the centenarian had taken 
his seat, where he was supported by his daughter, aged 77 
years, on his right and veteran C. L. Stewart on his left. 
It was the great pleasure of President Wm. T. Horton to 
introduce the remarkable patriarch. Following, Libra- 
rian C. F. Heverly advanced and grasping hands with 
the centenarian, said : <'My good friend and brother in 
extending congratulations a very pleasant task has been 
assigned me in remembering you our beloved member 
who has attained the remarkable age of 100 years. We 
can scarcely realize what has transpired within the period 
of your long life. Your span of years marks the most 
marvelous epoch in our history and the history 
of the world. You were born at the close of the 
second war for Independence under the fourth President 
of the United States. Our country was then in its in- 
fancy and the United States literally a great wilderness 

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56 ' Eventt CeUbraUd 

with a population of 8^ millions now multiplied to 100 
millions, but five states bad been added to the original 
union and no state had been formed west of the Missis- 
sippi. When you first saw the light almost everything 
was in a primitive state. Only two of the great inven- 
tions, the cotton-gin and steamboat, had been made. 
Since then the inventive genius, the master minds and 
wizards of science have literally transformed and amazed 
the world by their wonderful discoveries and inventions, 
in which the very elements of nature have been har- 
nessed and utilized for the profit of man. In no other 
age has there been so many and such wonderful changes, 
nor such spilling of human blood, raging as is today 
across the waters, the most terrible war the world has 
ever known. You are one in 800,000 who has lived 
through this wonder, history-making period and enjoys 
the signal honor of attaining 100 years. You are also 
the 25th person who . has ever lived in Bradford county 
to reach this distinction. And now as a climax to your 
glorious attainment, allow me to bedeck you with a badge 
of honor and distinction, expressive of the love and es- 
teem of the Bradford County Historical Society, with the 
further wish that many more happy years are before you 
and that you will distance Noah Roby who died at 129 
years.'* The beautiful gold mounted badge placed upon 
Mr. Record's breast bears this inscription : 

Justus A. Record^ 

December 25,, 1916 

B, a K s. 

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Evenii Celebrated 57 

Then, as one of the speakers facetiously put it, followed 
an old fashioned Metliodist love feast. D. C. DeWitt, 
Esq., who is very fond of his venerable neighbor, was 
very happy in his remarks, contributing to the joy of the 
centenarian. John C. Ingham, Esq., Judge Wm. Max- 
well, Hon. A. C. Fanning and the venerable J. Washing- 
ton Ingham all paid beautiful tribute to the patriarch, 
reciting incidents of his life and the wondrous changes 
within his memory. Mr. Record heard almost every 
word and his heart overflowed with gladness and appre- 
ciation in the consideration shown him. At the conclu- 
sion of the addresses, the audience formed in line and 
every person in turn shook hands with the centenarian, 
expressing his personal regards and extending Christmas 
greetings. The aged gentleman was very apt in recog- 
nizing friends, in acknowledging honors shown and had 
a kind word for every one. After 200 people had be- 
stowed their blessings, the beautiful exercises which had 
been arranged by Mrs. E. L. Smith, C. L. Stewart and 
C. F. Heverly were brought to a close and the centena- 
rian conveyed to his home. Mr. Record was but little 
wearied by the strain of the afternoon. He ate a good 
supper, retired at 6 o'clock and slept without interrupt- 
ion during the night. Commenting upon what trans* 
pired Christmas, he says, **life is worth while and his 
crowning joy was extended him on his 100th annivers- 

The Centenarian — Justus Allen Record, the son of 
James and Huldah (Allen) Record, was born December 
25, 1815 at Nine Partners, Dutchess county, N. Y. Hia 

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58 £A;enU Celebrated 

ancestors on both sides were of English descent and 
among the early settlers of New England. In his boy- 
hood, Justus obtained a good common school education 
and learned the cooper's trade with his father. This vo- 
cation he followed until he became of age. In the fall 
of 1835, he saddled a horse and started out from Grafton, 
where the family had moved, on a prospecting tour. 
Drifting into Bradford county he found in Terry town- 
ship a desirable timber tract and a sawmill which be 
purchased. Returning to Grafton on the 27th of April, 
1836 he was united in marriage with Miss Susan M. 
Jones. Soon after, he loaded his effects and young wife 
in a two-horse lumber wagon and left for their home in 
the new country, being nearly a week on the road. In 
getting a start they passed through the struggles incident 
to pioneer life, but with true courage overcome every ob- 
stacle and succeeded. Mr. Record gave his attention to 
lumbering, clearing and improving land until 1845 when 
he sold his interests in Terry and came to Towanda. He 
engaged in farming on Towanda flats four years, then 
sold and purchased another farm in Wysox where he re- 
mained until 1854 when he came to Towanda and for \i\ 
years engaged in the mercantile businei^s. Since 1870 
Mr. Record has given attention to his farm on the flats 
and looking after his other properties in Towanda. In 
all his his business transactions he has been very pru- 
dent and successful. He has always taken an active in- 
terest in public affairs. He cast his first vote for Martin 
VanBuren in 1836 and has voted at every Presidential 
election since. He espoused the Baptist faith and was 
baptized in the Susquehanna river in 1849. In 1861 he 

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Events Celebrated 69 

became a member of Bradford Lodge No. 167, I. O. 
O. F., has filled all the chairs and is still an active mem- 
ber. Mr. Record is a student. He has read the Bible 
through many times and can quote the Scriptures read- 
ily. He watches political movements very closely and 
for years has been a strong adoocate of equal suffrage. 
Of late Mr. Record's physical powers have been giving 
way but his mentality and reasoning are as accurate as 
ever. He is indeed a remarkable man. 

Is there any key to unlock the secret of his long life? 
He has not been a teetotaler, using liquor, however, only 
judiciously or for medicinal purposes. He both smoked 
and chewed tobacco until he was 80 years old when he 
quit the habit. He has observed no special hygienic rule 
or food preparation. In his active years he got up early 
and quit only when the task was done, sometimes early 
and sometimes very late at night. He has been a good 
liver, always insisting on three meals a day of whole- 
some food, well cooked, without any fancy trimmings. 
Mr. Record has never been a fretter. He has taken 
things as they have come and been content. He does 
not pretend to know what special thing has contributed 
to his long life. His father died at the age of 79 years, 
his mother at 52. Of his brothers and sisters, only one 
reached the age of 65 years. 

Mr. Record is the father of four children, Almeda A. 
(Mrs. Terry), Almon (since deceased), Dr. Henry A. and 
Rosetta L. The last named died at the age of 14, the 
others are Ijving. Mrs. Terry, the eldest,. being in her 
78th year. Mr. Record has besides 6 grandchildren, 21 
great-grandchildren and 2 great great-grandchildren. He 
has been a widower since 1885 when his wife died at tli& 
age of 69 years. — Bradford Star. 

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Another Centenarian. 

May 31, 1916 marked a most important event in the 
life of Walter Scott Newman, Canton's oldest citizen as 
he celebrated the paesing of the 100th milestone in his 
life's journey, enjoying good health and with faculties 
unimpaired he was able to receive a delegation Daughters 
American Revolution and visit with many of his old time 
friends, who called to congratulate him on the important 
event. His mind is keen and he still retains a remark- 
ble memory, still able to shave himself and to keep track 
of current events by reading the newspapers. 

Mr. Newman was born May 31, 1816 at Eaton, Wyom- 
ing county, the son of Elisha Newman*, who died at the 
age of 101 years, 4 months and 26 days. His grand- 
father, Ezekiel Newman, was a soldier of the Revolu- 
tionary War, fought under General Washington and died 
at the age of about 100 years. 

In 1846 Mr. Newman removed from Smith boro, N. Y, 
to Canton, where in company with his brother, Samuel 
Newman, he engaged in the mercantile business. In 
1849 when the discovery of gold in California set the 
country on fire, he got the gold fever and made the jour- 
ney across the country by wagon train in 1850. He did 
not personally engage in mining but run supply stores in 

* Elisha Newman was born September 27, 1791. He married, 
October .SI, 1813, Martha UardiDg and was the father of eleven 
children. He spent his last years in Herrick township, Bradford 
county, where he died February 23, 1893, aged 101 years, 4 months 
and 26 days. 

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Events Celebrated 61 

mining camps and ''grub-staked" miners for an interest 
in their findings. In this business he was very success- 
ful and returned to Canton in 1852 with about $100,000. 

Upon his return to Canton he became associated with 
Iiis brother Ezekiel and constructed the Newman block, 
corner of Main and Lycoming streets, which is still stand- 
ing with little change and still bears his name, and at 
this spot he and his brother engaged in the mercantile 
business. He retired from active participation in busi- 
ness about 1870 and since then has taken life easy. 

In 1866 he married Artemisa Hicks, who died in 1910. 
They had two sons who died in childhood. Edward 
Newman of Canton, a brother, is very active at 93. The 
only infirmity that bothers the centenarian is his hear- 
ing, being almost totally deaf. He eats heartily of any- 
thing that he wants and takes great comfort with his 


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French Refugees Commemorated. 

On the afternoon of June 14, 1916 several hundred 
people visited the picturesque Frenchtown valley along 
the Susquehanna to witness and participate in the inter- 
esting exercises of unveiling a monument to the memory 
of the French Royalists who found a refuge in the wil- 
derness of Asylum from 1794 to 1801. The monument 
is a handsome boulder, standing five feet high,, with a 
bronze tablet containing this inscription : 

This Mimument is Erected 

To (Jommennrrate and Ptsrpetuate 

Tlie Memory and Deeds of 

The French Royalist Refugees 

Who Escaping From France 

Aiid the Honors of Its Revolution 

And From the Revolution in San Domingo 

Settled Here in 179S 

And Jjocated and Laid Out the Town of 


Under the Auspices of the Viscount de 

Noailles and Marquis Antoine Omer Talon 

In 1796 Louis Fhillippe, Duke of Orleans 

Afterwards King of France. Visited Here 

The Prince de Talleyrand 

The Duke de Monfpensier, Count Beaujolais 

The Duke de la Rochefoucauld de Liancourt 

And Many Other Distinguu'hed Frenchmen 

Were Visitors or Residents For a Shore Time 

At Asylum 

Erected in 19 Its by John W. Mix 

And Charles d^ Autrtmont, Jr. 

Descendants of French Refugee Settlers 

Land Donated by George Laporte Heirs. 

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EventB Celebrated 63 

The unveiling was under the auspices of the Bradford 
County Historical Society, assisted by George Clymer 
Chapter D A. R. The exercises in charge of President 
Wm. T. Horton, commenced at 2 o'clock and were splen- 
didly carried out in the following order: 

Bugle Call— Assembly Edward Walker 


Invocation Rev. C. S. Stevens 

Unveiling By Angelique and Jane Spalding 

La Marsellaise Young Ladies* Chorus 

Presentation to Bradford County Historical Society 

John C. Ingham 

Acceptance Geo. T. Ingham 

Address Hon. A. C. Fanning 

Flag Salute 

Benediction Rev. C. L. Stevens 

Following the address of Judge Fanning, the ground 
occupied by the various French families was pointed out 
by John A. Biles, adding interest to the history recited. 
Rev. G. P. Donohue, secretary of the Pennsylvania His- 
torical Commission, spoke most interestingly on the 
wealth and importance of Pennsylvania history. Pho- 
tographer F. H. Ott of Towanda pictured the monument 
and unveilers. Altogether the afternoon was one of 
grand achievement, filled with pleasures that will not 
soon be forgotten. 


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Thirteenth Anntiol Old People's Meeting. 

Many happy days have come and gone, but the one 
of sunshine and gladness that will long be remembered 
as the most history-making, was Saturday, June 24, 
1916, the 13th annual reunion of the old people of Brad- 
ford county under the auspices of the Historical Society. 
The dark rain clouds that had been hovering over us 
for weeks gave way and let Old Sol l>eam forth in all bis 
majesty as if to inspire and encourage the old people in 
making their annual pilgrimage to the county seat to 
again partake of the joys in meeting friends of bygone 
days. The venerable people including 100 veterans of 
the Civil War began to arrive early, coming from ail 
parts of the county, a number from adjoining counties 
and long distances. The point of rendezvous was the 
rooms of the Bradford County Historical Society and the 
Court House grounds, which for a hundred years have 
been the rallying point for great demonstrations in our 
civil and political history. It would take a volume to 
recite the history that has been enacted here, but no day 
or assemblage was so memorable or uill be so long re- 
membered as the venerable people and what they did 
here Saturday. 

After registering and being proviihd with badges, the 
forenoon was taken up in happy reunions with old 
friends and in viewing the beautiful pictures and collec- 
tions of the Historical Society. Entertainment and 
amusement was furnished by the fife and drum corps, 

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Old Court House and Public Square 

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66 Events CeUbrattd 

and the **old boys" ou the green. That no comfort or 
consideration should be overlooked, the ladies of the Vil- 
lage Improvement Society took the venerable people in 
charge, and in a queenly and gracious manner entertained 
and served tea and cakes from 1 1 to 12 o'clock. The base- 
ment of the court house was utilized by the veterans for 
assembly. At 1:30 o'clock, the grand patriarchal col- 
umn of 100 veterans of the Civil War under command of 
Maj. W. H. Nutt assisted by Sergt. John H. ChaflFee 
formed in the rear of the court house, headed by Daniel 
Walborn with the colors and the drum corps, consisting 
of Reed W. Dunfee and Andrew Delpeuch with snare 
drums, Woodford C May, bass drum and Frank M. 
Vought with fife. To the taps and the command, "For- 
ward march," a military air pervading, the old boys felt 
young again and took step with an alacrity that was 
amazing. The other old people, led by A. H. Kings- 
bury, aged 85, carrying the flag, followed the soldiers in 
the march around the square. A great crowd of people 
lined the streets to witness the beautiful pageant of pa. 
triarchs, which in its movements won loud and admiring 
applause. Having made the circuit, the veterans were 
formed in double column, next the court house with 
their most aged and the other old people seated in front 
of them, when the gioup (f 200 was pictured by Ott & 
Hay, photographers. 

Following the taking of the picture, a company of 15 
veterans, armed with Springfield rifles proceeded to the 
green and went through military maneuvers and the 
manual of arms as they Inul in Civil War days to the 
delight of children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren 

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Events Celebrated 67 

and the multitude assembled to wituess the performance. 
At this juncture, Librarian C. F. Heverly in charge 
of the exercises in his hurry down the grassy slope, slip- 
ped and fell, injuring his ankle and received such a 
shock that he was unable to proceed further, and passed 
the program over to Secretary J. Andrew Wilt and Pres- 
ident Wm. T. Horton. President Horton welcomed all 
in a happy vein and prepared the way for the enjoyment 
of an expectant audience. Sergt. Jay Thomas touched 
the crowd by his splendid rendition of "Old Folks at 
Home" and was heartily applauded. Mrs. Viletta 
Boyle, widow of John Boyle, a hero of the Kearsarge, 
followed, reciting a description of "When Our Country 
Was New." The picture presented was most pleasing 
and given in a graceful manner, the audience responding 
in generous applause. A pretty violin number was 
very skillfully executed by Mrs. Samuel Marks and 
greatly enjoyed. Appreciation was expressed by rounds 
of applause. Levi W. Towner, the old singing master, 
who still possesses a very sweet voice, sang touchingly, 
"Why Don't They Sing of Father." This beautiful trib- 
ute so eflfectively rendered brought tears to the eyes of 
many. D. C. DeWitt, the venerable attorney of com- 
manding presence and speaker of national fame, took the 
platform and for 15 minutes held tlie audience in rapt 
attention in a timely patriotic address, ending in a beau- 
tiful peroration and tribute to the veterans and old peo- 
ple. Mr. Towner was again called and delighted the 
audience with a popular old time song. The prize win- 
ners were brought upon tlie stage and after remarks by 

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08 EvenU CdebraUd 

President Horton, he introduced Mrs. Betsey Ford of 
Rome, born October 5, 1827 and presented her a silver 
loving cup, and Harry S. Clark of Towanda, born Sep- 
tember 14, 1823 a silver mounted cane. Secretary Wilt 
gave historic phases of the meeting and thanked veter- 
ans and all who had contributed to its success and en- 
joyment. He concluded by introducing Justus A. Rec. 
ord over 100 years old, Mr. Record told of the days of 
Andrew Jackson and sang in a low sweet voice. Seated 
next to Mr. Record were Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Heverly, 
the oldest couple, who have been married 66 years. Ser- 
geant Thomas sang a popular melody and the audience 
joined in '^America.," when the most memorable and 
joyoUs meeting of patriarchs ever assembled in Bradford 
county came to a close. Expressing words of apprecia- 
tion and fond **good byes'* to one another, the venerable 
people departed for their several homes, feeling that there 
is still a bright side to life and that there are no friends 
quite so dear as the old friends. 

The following comprises the roll of Civil War veterans 
aid other old old people, participating in the exercises: 

Gtorge R. All is, D, 17 P. Cav. Rome 

John R. Allen, B, 58 P. Albany 

Juni W. Allen, G, 57 P. Towanda 

Wm. W. Allen, G, 67 P. Towanda 

John Ada, H, 57 P. Towanda 

Jacob A lies, K, 194 P. Towanda 

Almeron E. Arnold, B, 141 P. Rome 

Ira C. Aldrich, E, 51 Mass. Wysox 

J. Frank Ammerman, D, 106 P. Ulster 

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Eveni8 Celebrated 69 

Spencer S. Brainard, D, 77 N. Y. Warren 

Cyreno E. Barrowcliff, G, 36 P. M. Tuscarora 

George A. Benjamin, C, 12 N. Y. Cav. Asylum 

Henry H. Bentley, K, 58 P. & D, 4 U. S. Art. Towanda 

Darius Bennett, B, 207 P. New Albany 

Bethuel W. Bradley, C, 141 P. Litchfield 

Stephen G. Barner, D, 1 N. Y. Cav. Sheshequin 

J. Alonzo Bosworth, B, 141 P. Wysox 

Geo. J. Burd, B, 7 P. Cav. Towanda 

Fred F. Cole, C, 141 P. Asylum 

John H. Chaffee, B, 141 P. Sheshequin 

George Corson, G, 107 P. Monroetou 

Albert Chilson, C, 141 P. Towanda 

Harvey H. Cranmer, K, 50 P. Powell 

Solomon A. Chaffee, E, 179 N. Y. Orwell 

Myron W. Coolbaugh, B, 210 P. Towanda 

Reed W. Dunfee, K, 50 P. Monroeton 

Thomas J. Davis, E, 97 N. Y. Ulster 

Heury Dixon, D, 17 P. Cav. Ulster 

Daniel Ely, I, 6 P. R. Wilmot 

Aaron J. Edsall, C, 141 P. Albany 

Delanson Fenner, C, 141 P. Towanda 

Alonzo H. Furman, F, 92 111. Towanda 

Geo. L. Forbes, I, 141 P. Rome 

Ira S. Fanning, C. 7 P. Cav. Springfield 

Jeremiah J. French, F, 6 P. R, Sheshequin 

John C. Forbes, H, 57 P. Rome 

Fred M. Hicks, L, 5 N. Y. Cav. Rome 

Daniel Herbst, 1 P. L. Art. Wysox. 

Jacob S. Hankinson, G, 1 N. Y. Cav. Standing Stone 

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70 Events CeUbraUd 

J. Wesley Harvey, F, P. R. Wilkes-Barre 

Green Henley, B, 58 P. New Albany 

John Henley, B, 58 P. Towanda 

Daniel Heverly, F, 61 P. Overton 

Geo. W. Horton, A, 35 P. M. Sheshequin 

Thos. J. Hannon, A, 202 P. Towanda 

Chas. S. Harmon, C, 53 P. Towanda 

Bishop Horton, C, 141 P. Towanda 

Wm. T. Horton, A, 141 P. Towanda 

Wra. H. Jones, G, 176 N. Y. Sheshequin 

Thos. B. Johnson, H. S., U. S. Army, Towanda 

Francis Johnson, A, 57 P. Asylum 

Samuel C. Kitchen, A, 82 P. LeRoy 

Delanson Kellogg, K, 50 P. Monroe 

Wm. M. Kintner, I, 11 P. V. Cav. Towanda 

Edwin A. Knapp,I, 89 111. Towanda 

Elmer F. Lewis, A, 141 P. Terry 

Edward Lynch, A, 45 P. New Albany 

David Lattin, E, 86 N. Y. Monroeton 

John Meredith, F, 78 P. Towanda 

Francis McNeai, B, 210 P. South Creek 

Andrew Morrison, B, 7 P. Cav. Ulster 

S. E. Maynard, B, 88 P. Towanda 

Henry Maynard, K, 1 N. J. Rome 

Wilson Murphy, D, 17 P. Cav. Rome 

Woodford C. May, E, 52 P. Towanda 

Melvin Morris, C, 10 N. Y. Cav. Rome 

Richard McCabe, I, 141 P. Rome 

Wm. W. Miller, I, 141 P. Rome 

Orlando S. Northrup, I, 6 P. R. Oklahoma 

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Events Celebrated 71 

Wm. H. Nutt, F, 141 P. Athens 

Smith L. Nichols, B, 50 N. Y. Eng. Burlington 

Embery A. Pearsall, I, 6 P. R. Ulster 

Geo. W. Page, F, 6 P. R. C. Waverly 

Charles Robinson, B, 1 P. Cav. New Albany 

Wm. P. Rockwell, I, 3 N. Y. Cav. Rome 

Charles Rutty, A, 141 N. Y. Towanda 

H. A. Ross, 149 P. Waverly 

Lewis T. Smith, I, 141 P. Albany 

Frederick A. Smith, K, 161 N. Y. Ulster 

Nathaniel Strope, II, 57 P. Burlington 

John H. Schoonover, A, 35 P. M. Terry 

Chas. H. Stephens, I, 6 P. R. Athens 

John H. Simmins, B, 93 P. Towanda 

Geo. W. Smith, I, 141 P Rome 

A. P. Sexton, H, 76 P. Waverly 

Sevellon Travis, C, 188 N. Y. Towanda 

Joseph H. Taylor, G, 50 P. Wyalusing 

James Terry, D, 8 U. S. I & C, 2 P. H. Art. Albany 

Charles Terry, K, 50 P. Terry 

John R. Thomas, F, 2 N. Y. H. Art. Williamsport 

Daniel Vanderpool, D, 16 N. Y. Art. Terry 

Jesse D. Vargason, D, 141 P., Towanda 

Horace A. Vail, C, 1 D. C. Towanda 

Frank M. Vought, musician, Sheshequin 

J. Andrew Wilt, L, 18 P. Cav. Towanda 

Gardner Welch, F, 107 P. Towanda 

James M. Wilcox, K, 50 P. New Albany 

Henry W. Whitehead, A, 97 P. Burlington 

Daniel Walborn, A, 97 P. North Towanda 

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72 Events Celebrated 

Erastus Wilson, I, 45 P. New Albany 

Isaac L. Young, A, 35 P. M. Sheshequin 

The ages of the foregoing veterans, who participated in 

the march, ranged from 68 to 88 years, the oldest being 

Daniel Heverly of Overton. 

The following are the other old people who registered 
with date of birth : 
Justus A. Record, Dec. 25, 1815, Towanda 
Harry S. Clark, Sept. 14, 1823, Towanda 
J. Washington Ingham, Oct. 21, 1823, Towanda 
Thomas Pollock, Sept. 5, 1824, Ulster 
Eveline Bennett, Aug. 22, 1827, Athens 
Mrs. Betsey Ford, Oct. 6, 1827, Rome 
Jane Durie, Dec. 25, 1827, Wysox 
Elizabeth Wood, March 13, 1831, LeRaysville 
A. H. Kingsbury, Oct. 23, 1831, Towanda 
Jeremiah Kilmer, April 26, 1832, Sheshequin 
Mary Ross, April 20, 1833, Potterville 
Elizabeth Brink, Sept. 10, 1834, Towanda 
Elizabeth Heverly^ Sept. 19, 1834, Overton 
J. L. Woodburn, Jany. 8, 3835, Rome 
S. L. Anthony, April 1, 1835, Milan 
Isaac Ruger, April 22, 1835, Tuscarora 
Mary E. Bennett, Nov. 14, 1835, Pike 
Mrs. D. I. Powers, March 15, 1836, Monroeton 
Mrs. R. A. Decker, May 27, 1836, Towanda 
Mary A. Shoemaker, May 2, 1837, Towanda 
Hannah Swackhammer, May 2, 1837, Towanda 
P. F. Brennan, Oct. 20, 1837, Liberty Corners 

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Events Celebrated IZ 

Mrs. Sterling Dixon, Nov. 3, 1837, Wysox 

Charles Kisner, Nov. 19, 1837, Towanda 

Levi W. Towner, May 12, 1838, Rome 

Callie Kellum, May 16, 1838, Towanda 

A. T. Lilley, June 9, 1838, LeRoy 

Paulina M. Gates, June 20, 1838, Staten Island, N. Y. 

Nancy E. Dyer, July 5, 1838, Wysox 

Julia A. Neiley, Aug. 27, 1838, Asylum 

H. A. Smith, Feby. 2, 1839, New Albany 

John W. Kline, Feby. 4, 1839, Towanda 

Mrs. A. Maynard, Nov. 26, 1839, Towanda 

J. W. Young. July 14, 1840, Springfield 

Eleanor Frutchey, Oct. 30,' 1840, Hornets Ferry 

Anna B. Whitehead, Dec. 15, 1840, Burlington 

Timothy Brennan, Dec. 26, 1840, Liberty Corners 

Mrs. L. L. Moody, Jany. 29, 1841, Smithfield 

Mrs. Erastus Wilson, March 3, 1841, New Albany 

Clarissa Baker, June 21, 1841, North Towanda 

Ava P. Lane, Oct. 15, 1841, Towanda 

Helen Northrup, Feby. 3, 1842, Powell 

Victoria Layton, March 22, 1842, Towanda 

Caltha T. Lent, June 13, 1842, Hornbrook 

Henry F. Terry, Aug. 31, 1842, Terry town 

Abigail Bennett, Oct. 30, 1842, New Albany 

Lucina Kitchen, Nov. 3, 1842, LeRoy 

Mary Ann Huff, Jany. 1, 1843, Wysox 

Frances A. Knapp, April 1, 1843, Towanda 

J. L. Morris, April 29, 1843, Rome 

Wm. S. H. Heerinans, May 12, 1843, Towanda 

Jacob A. Kniffin, May 23, 1843, Smithfield 

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74 Events Celebrated 

Thomas Lynch, Aug. 23, 1843, Towanda 

Mrs. J. J. French, Dec. 21, 1843, Sheshequin 

Esther Vancise, Aug. 12, 1844, Rome 

Viletta M. Boyle, April 16, 1844, North Towanda 

Rachel Russell, Nov. 13, 1844, Burlington 

Chloe A. Mclntire, Nov. 29, 1844, North Towanda 

Sarah J. Fenner, Dec. 31, 1844, Towanda 

Mrs. Francis Johnson, June 17, 1845, Asylum 

Mrs. S. S. Ormsby, Jany. 20, 1845, New Albany 

Mrs. J. H. Schoonover, Oct. 13, 1845, Terry 

A. C. Haverly, Nov. 9, 1845, Overton 

Mrs. H. Roof, Dec. 10, 1845, Standing Stone 

Allen Hover, March 2, 1846, Hornets Ferry 

Mrs. G. W. Smith, March 19, 1846, Rome 

Sally S. Coolbaugh, March 19, 1846, Towanda 

Mrs. H. H. Cranmer, March 28, 1846, Powell 

Margaret Blend, Muy 2, 1846, Monroeton 

Dennis O^Neill, Aug. 27, 1846, Say re 

J. A. Kilmer, Say re 

Mrs. G. C. Fellbush, Towanda 

John F. Hatch, Albany 

A. L. McKean, Towanda 

The Prize Winners 

The oldest lady and oldest gentleman (and age at date 
of winning prize) who have carried off the honors at the 
several meetings, were as follows: 

1904— Mrs. Almika Gleason, 98 years, Towanda ; 
died at 99 years. 
William Gkiffis, 90th year, Towanda; died at 
93 years. 

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Eveni$ Celebrated 75 

1905— Mrs. Eliza McKean, 98J years, Towanda; died 
at 101 yrs. and 8 mos. 
Francis Cole, 96th year, Athens; died at 96 
yrs. and 9 mos. 
1906 — Samuel Overpeck, 97th year, Herrick; died at 
lOOi years. 
Mrs. Emma Irvine, 89th. year, Hornets Ferry; 
died at 89 yrs. and 2 mos. 
1907 — John Black, 93J years, LeRaysville; died at 
94 yrs. and 10 mos. 
Mrs. Martha Bullock, 92nd year, Troy; died 
at 96 yrs. and 10 mos. 
1908 — Orrin Brown, 97th year. Canton; died at 99 
yrs. and 8 mos. 
Mrs. Julia Smith, 92nd year, Ulster; died at 
94 yrs. and 11 mos. 
1909 — *JusTus A. Record, 93J years, Towanda. 

Mrs. Harriet A. Nichols, 88th year, Monroe- 
ton; died at 88 years. 
1910 — Mrs. Anne Wright, 96 yrs. and 8 mos., Uls- 
ter; died at 102 yrs. and 7 days. 
Samuel Billings, 94J years, Towanda; died at 
98 yrs. and 10 mos. 

1911 — Mrs. Naomi C. Irvine, 90 years. New Albany; 
died at 94 years. 
John Ennis, 90 years. Standing Stone; died at 
93 yrs. and 3 mos. 
1912 — Cornelius Bump, 90 yrs. and 4 mos, Wyalus- 
ing; died at 92 yrs. and 5 mos. 
Mrs. Dorcas Dayton, 88 J years, Towanda ; 
died at 90 years. 

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74 EventB CeUbrcUed 

1913 — George I. Norton, 94 years, Rome; died at 94 
yrs. and 9 moa 
Caroline Lent, 87 J years, Rome; died at 90 J 
1914 — JosiAH RiNEBOLi), 91 years, Sayre; died at 93 
♦Mrs. Eveline Bennett, 87 years, Athens. 
1915 — *AsA M. K inner, 95 J years, Wysox. 

Mrs. Catharine Gheen, 89J years, Wysox ; 
died at 90 1-5 years. 
1916 — Harry S. Clark, 92f years, Towanda; died at 
93 yrs. and 88 days. 
Mrs. Betsey Ford, 88f years, Rome. 
Those marked witli a (*) are still living (1916). 

—The Bradford Star. 

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We note with sorrow the death of the following mem- 
bers of the Society daring the past year : 

Emery J. Kerrick at St. Petersburg, Florida, where 
he had gone for the benefit of his health, February 29, 
1916, aged 54 years. He was a son of Wilson and Eliza 
(Emery) Kerrick and was born in Asylum, Bradford 
county. He was educated at the Susquehanna Collegiate 
Institute and Lafayette College and for some time en- 
gaged successfully in school teaching. Twenty-five years 
ago he located in Philadelphia and engaged as a civil 
engineer and general contractor in which he was very 
successful. His wife, one son and a daugliter survive. 
The remains were entombed at Homets Ferry. 

Dr. Edward D. Payne died March 24, 1916 at his 
home in Towanda, after a protracted illness, aged 81 
years. He was the second son of Rev. Thomas and Eliz- 
abeth (Wilson) Payne and was born at Reading, Conn. 
He spent his youth with his parents in Connecticut, New 
Jersey and New York, and the principal part of his edu- 
cation was gained at Wilson Collegiate Institute. As a 
young man, in 1850, he came to Northern Pennsylvania, 
and at Towanda found employment in the drug store of 
Dr. H. C. Porter, remaining there four years, studying 

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medicine in his leisure. In the winter of 1855-56 he at- 
tended Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia. On 
his return to Towanda at tlie close of the college year, he 
engaged in the drug business with Hon. J. G. Patton, the 
firm being Patton & Payne. He returned, however, in 
the autumn of that year to Jefferson Ck>llege and gradu- 
ated in 1857. He continued his business with Mr. Pat- 
ton until 1860, when severe illness compelled him to re- 

When the war clouds had at last gathered among 
those who were stirred by patriotic impulses and desired 
to go in defense of their country was Edward D. Payne. 
During the summer of 1861, he received an unsolicited 
permit to appear before the army medical board and was 
urged by Dr. H. H. Smith, surgeon-general of the State, 
to apply to the Navy Department. Accordingly on the 
20th of September he was appointed assistant surgeon in 
the navy and assigned to duty at the Naval Asylum, 
Philadelphia. On December 17th following, he was or- 
dered to the IJ. S. frigate Congress, Hampton Roads, and 
was in the battle, March 8, 1862, when the Congress and 
Cumberland were destroyed by the rebel Merrimnc. On 
his vessel out of a crew of 250, 100 were killed and 30 
wounded. The commanding officer was killed, the j'Ur- 
geon disabled, the vessel on fire beneath the magazine 
and the duty of caring for the wounded, getting tliem on 
shore and into a hospital, devolved upon Dr. Payne. He 
was detailed to bring the wounded to Hygiea hospital, 
Old Point Comfort, which was accomplished on the 
10th, the steamer Adelaide being placed at his disposition 

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for that purpose. For gallant services on that occasion, 
be received high recommendations from Surgeon Ship- 

On Sunday, March 9th, he witnessed the contest be- 
tween the Monitor and Merrimac^ tlie first battle ever 
fought by iron-clad ships. In the following June he was 
ordered to the Powhatan and joined the blockading 
squadron off Charleston and witnessed the first iron-clad 
attack on Fort Sumter. In May, 1863 he was invalided 
and sent North, but in a few days reported for duty and 
was appointed to the Naval Rendezvous, Chicago. On 
August 15th he applied for surgical duty and ordered as 
surgeon of the U. S. S. Metacomet and in her joined the 
West Gulf blockading squadron, under Farragut. At the 
battle of Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 1864, thei7a?(/brd,Farragut's 
fiagship and Metacomet led the line of battle, lashed side 
by side. When opposite the fort the Metacomet received 
orders to cast loose and engaged the rebel vessels. She 
pierced the Gaines with shot, which sent her disabled 
under the walls of Fort Morgan, chased the Morgan be- 
hind the defenses, below the city and captured the Selma- 
Here again Dr. Payne was highly commended for his 
conduct by the commander of his vessel to the admiral, 
as appears in the reports to the Secretary of the Navy. 
In January, 1865 he was ordered North and March 6th 
to the Naval Rendezvous, Philadelphia. While there he 
was examined lor surgeon and on the 28th of that month 
was promoted to passed assistant surgeon. In July he 
was ordered to the Pacific station, Panama, where he 
joined the ship Farallones and went to the Straits of Ma- 

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gellan to meet the squadron under Commodore Rogers; 
returned to Panama in April '66 and in May was sent to 
the SL Mary^B and in this ship to. San Francisco, thence 
was ordered home via Panama. Dr. Payne remained in 
the naval service, performing many imp 
til April 1876, when he was placed on t 
Upon returning to Towanda he open 
until recent years, engaged actively in tl 
profession. Dr. Payne was a student, 
literary tastes and refinement. He ? 
member of the Bradford CJounty Med 
State Medical Society, the G. A. R., the 
Historical Society and other aidful and 
tutions. Of kindly nature he possessed 
qualities and had long been a member ' 
ian church. One daughter, Miss Mary 
Interment was in Oak Hill cemetery, T< 

Herbert S. Putnam who had been 
died suddenly April 10, 1916 at his hoir 
his 54th year. He v;as a son of Alfi 
(Saxton) Putnam and was born Septc 
Granville township, being descendant oi 
triot families who were among the most 'prominent of 
Western Bradford. As a boy he showed great aptitude 
in acquiring knowledge and with only the advantages af- 
forded by the district school, at the age of 16 he had so 
far advanced himself as to be able to successfully pass a 
teacher's examination and began teaching school. He 
completed the college course at the Susquehanna Colleg- 

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iate Institute then resumed teaching. From teacher in 
the district schools in Granville, East Troy and Sheshe- 
quin he was called to the principalship of the Wyalusing 
and LeRaysville schools. He was for four years assist- 
ant principal of the Towanda High School and then 
principal from 1892 to 1896. 

In 1896 he was elected County Superintendent, a po- 
sition he had filled to the time of his death by successive 
re-elections. For 38 years he was identified with the ed- 
ucational interests of Bradford county as teacher and su- 
perintendent. During his administration the public 
school system had been almost revolutionized, new con- 
ditions met and his work greatly enlarged. He was 
equal to the test and exercised great genius and remark- 
able constructive ability in his work, bringing the schools 
of Bradford county up to a high standard. Superintend- 
ent Putnam stood high in the estimation of the leading 
educators of the State and was frequently called outside 
the county on special missions. Lafayette College con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts. 
Withal he was a ready and entertaining speaker, always 
aiding in educational meetings, farmers' institutes and 
social gatherings. He was prominently identified with 
the Bradford County Historical Society, the Masonic or- 
der, Odd Fellows, Sons of Veterans, P. 0. S. of A. and 
Patrons of Husbandry. Mr. Putnam married Miss Emma 
Stewart, who with two sons and two daughters survive. 
The remains were inhumed in Oak Hill cemetery. 

Coh Joseph H. Horton, distinguished and beloved 
soldier and citizen, died August 13, 1916 at his home in 

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Buffalo, N. Y., aged 74 years. He was a son of Major 
John and and L3'dia (Kimball) Horton and was born 
June 2, 1842 at Terrytown, Bradford county. After 
availing himself of the schools of his native town, in his 
16th year ho entered upon the English and the com- 
mercial courses of study in the Susquehanna CJollegiate 
Institute in Towanda, remaining in that school during 
the terms of 1858 and 1859. He then worked as a clerk 
in his father's store until August, 1862. 

The Civil War burst 
upon the nation and 
Joseph Horton's heart 
was ablaze with enthu- 
siasm for|the Constitu- 
tion and the Union. On 
August 7, 1862 he en- 
listed at Wyalusing un- 
der Capt. Geo. W. Jack- 
son in Company A, 
141st P. V. A week 
later he was elected 
1st Lieutenant of the 
Company. The regi- 
ment was assigned 
to the First Brigade of Birney's Division in the 
Third Army Corps. It was almost immediately put into 
service. Five days after his first battle, that of Freder- 
icksburg, Lieutenant Horton was made captain of his 

On May 4, 1863 his regiment engaged in the battle of 

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Chancellorsville, Va. Captain Horton led his company 
in this engagement which resulted in the death and 
wounding of 234 members of the regiment, which went 
into the engagement with only 419 men. General Bir- 
ney and General Graham both warmly complimented 
Captain Horton for his bravery and constancy during 
this battle. 

Of his services at Gettysburg, Colonel Madill says: 
Captain Horton though severely stunned by concussion 
of shell remained on the field, and I am greatly indebted 
to him for his services as he was the only Captain left 
with the regiment." On the 31st of January, 1864 Cap- 
tain Horton was commissioned major and February 28 
following lieutenant-colonel, commanding his regiment 
until Tree's surrender. At Spottsylvania, May 12, '64 he 
was wounded by a gunshot through his left forearm and 
his left hip. While convalescing he was appointed on 
several courts-martial and also had charge of several con* 
voys of new men, conducting them to new posts along 
the southern seaboard. With his regiment he was hon- 
orably mustered out of service at the close of the war. 

Honorably freed from his military service. Colonel 
Horton hastened home to be the business stay of his aged 
father and was actively engaged in mercantile pursuits 
up to 1871. From 1871 to 1874 he was superintendent 
of the Sullivan Anthracite Coal Co. In 1875 he went to 
Ithaca, N. Y. to take charge of the Lehigh Valley Coal 
Company's business. He was appointe<l general north- 
ern sales agent in 1884 for the same company with 
headquarters at Buffalo, a position he occupied for 20 

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years, since which time be had conducted an extensive 
private business as a shipper of coal. He was a member 
of the Loyal Legion, the JJnion Veteran Legion, the G. 
A. R. and was a 32nd degree Mason. The very valua- 
ble collection of Civil War relics and curios in the mu- 
seum of the Bradford County Historical Society was con- 
tributed by him» 

Colonel Horton was a courtly gentleman and had 
hosts of friends among his old comrades and acquaint- 
ances in his native county. He married in 1866 Miss 
Abbie H. Newcomb of Worcester, Mass. He left one 
daughter, Mrs. 6. R. Trowbridge of Buffalo. Interment 
was at Worcester, Mass. 


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Library and Museum 


The following are the acquisitions and donors to the 
Library and Museum for the year 1916 : 

Portrcdts and PictitreB 

6 groups, Native Birds — Society. 

1 group, Animals — Society. 

1 group, Fishes — Society. 

Haying Scene on Farm — Society. • 

Our Flag and Its History — C. F. Heverly. 

Drawing of Wood Duck — M. Elliott, Jr. 

Pictures of Justus A. Record and Walter S. Newman, 
Centenarians — Society. 

View Battle-Ground Indian Hill — Society. 

View Asylum, Memorial Dedication and Celebrated 
Frenchmen — Society. 

View Friedenshutten, Plan, and Moravian Monument 
— Society. 

•^Spirit of 76*' and List of 300 Bradford County Sold- 
iers and Patriots of the Revolution— Society. 

Paintings by John F. Bender, being Landscape, Collec- 
tion of Fruit and Bunch of Flowers — C. F. Heverly. 

Books— HiBtorical 

Collections Kansas State Historical Society, 1913-14. 
Pennsylvania Society of Colonial Government — Mr. 
and Mrs. Edwin S. Balch. 

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2 Vols. Frontier Forts of Penna. — State Library. 

9 Vols. American Historical Review — J. Andrew Wilt. 

142 Vols. Congressional Records and Globes — Rodney 
A. Mercur. 

5 Indices to Vol. VI Penna. Archives — State Library. 

Ancient Law Book, 9 School Reports, 2 12 State Col- 
lege Reports, State OflBcial Documents, Catalogue S. C. I.i 
1854-*55, Catalogue Teachers' Institute, Canton, 1858 — 
C. F. Heverly. 

4 Penna. School Reports, 3 Honor Rolls, Soldiers Civil 
War— J. Andrew Wilt. 

14 Penna. School Reports, 50*s, 60's and 70's— State 
Souvenir and Descriptive Pamphlet Scranton, Pa. 

Books— Miscenaneous 

National Parks Portfolio — Dept. of Interior. 
Report State Librarian, 1915. 
Report Library Congress, 1914, '15 and '16. 
2 Governmental Statistical Reports. 
16 Miscellaneous Books. 

122 OBScial and Semi Official Documents Bearing Upon 
the European War. 

Armenian Bible — Mrs. W. H. Simpson. 
SmulTs Legislative Hand Book — State Library. 

5 Miscellaneous Reports — J. Andrew Wilt. 

Cobb's Speller, 1836; Walker's Dictionary, 1821; 
"Meditations and Contemplations," 1798; History of De- 
monetization — J. H. Orcutt. 

13 Geological Reports, 4 Mines, 1 Mineral Resources, 
2 Internal AHairs, 15 Agricultural, 1 Forestry, 1 Fishe- 
ries— C. F. Heverly. 

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Copy Ist Issue New York Tribune— Mrs. Jeanette Sax- 

29 Copies Institute Record — C. F. Heverly. 

Copy Bradford Argus, 1845 — Mrs Geo. W. Blackman. 

2 Vols. Bradford Star, 1914-1916 -C. F. Heverly. 


Parchment Deed, 1796 — J. H. Orcutt. 
Deeds, Letters and Papers Connected with EJarly Wysox 
— Mrs. Louis Piollet. 

Ledger Col. Jos. Kingsbury, 1799-1802; His Journal 
in Account with Mr. Leray and Leray Letters to Him; 
Letter of Col. Kingsbury to Wm. H. Harrison — A. H. 


Plot of New Baltimore (Wysox), 1811 — Mrs. Louis 

Relics and Cttrios 

Mounted Peacock — Mrs. N. C. Conklin. 
Nest of Humming Bird — M. Elliott, Jr. 
Old Cow Bell and Ancient Prayer — A. H. Kingsbury. 
Confederate Bill — Chas. Sinsabaugh. 
Stone Curio — J. A. Bosworth. 
*«hinplasters," 1862— Mrs. A. J. Fisher. 
Old Fashioned Hats and Carpet Bag — Mrs. W. H. 

Passes to U. S. Senate, Impeachment Trial President 
Johnson — Fred Smith. 

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Barclay Coal — James Frazier. 
Gray Limestone — D. V. Campbell. 


Three Cases have been added for Books, which now 
with Pamphlets, number 3500 volumes. 

Old Maps and other articles mounted for exhibition. 


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Secretary's Report 

W. T, Hartont Preiidenif Ojfficers and Memhenqf ike 
Bradford County Bidorical Society: 

Atiother mile-stone in the history of the Bradford 
County Historical Society ban been reached. Has this 
Society during the past year properly filled its purposes 
and objects? Has this Society taken the proper steps to 
preserve history, local and otherwise? Have the mem- 
bers of the Society been interested? Have the members 
been ready and willing to perform the work assigned to 
them, when called upon? All of these questions can be 
answered in the Afiirmative. 

One of the objects in the preservation of historical 
spots, and thereby causing the study of American His- 
tory, within the limits of Bradford county, was the erec- 
tion of a •*Marker" on Spanish Hill and a proper celebra- 
tion of that event on October 15, 1915. The erection of 
this marker, and the history connected with the event, as 
presented in the addresses on this occasion, has been far 
reaching. Stephen Brule^'s coming into Pennsylvania 
had been known to historians, but had not been given its 
proper place until several years ago this Society, 
through our Librarian, C. F. Heverly, who read a paper, 
began to assert facts, and took steps to hold a suitable 
celebration to commemorate the three hundredth anni- 
versary of that event. To this Society, then should be- 

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long the credit, not of making this history, but of calling 
attention to these early historical events, within our own 
State and county, marking the spot, and gathering facts 
as to its history. 

Through the generosity of John W. Mix and C. d' Au- 
tremont, descendants of the French Ilefugees, a very fine 
monument in commemoration of the Asylum settlement, 
was erected and suitably dedicated with public services 
on June 14, 1916 under the auspices of this Society. 

The Old People's Day, this year had an added feature, 
in the fact that one hundred survivors of the Civil War 
had a large share in the exercises. This annual gather- 
ing on the fourth Saturday of June of this year was a 
complete success. 

The meetings have been well attended when any spec- 
ial topic was to be considered. 

During the last year the rooms of the Society have 
been much improved and renovated, which adds to the 
appearance as well as the proper use of the rooms. 

The Librarian's report will show the additions to our 
books, relics and curios. 

For the coming year, the work of erecting a suitable 
marker or monument to mark the spot where Rudolph 
Fox, the first permanent settler located and erected his 
habitation, is well under way. 

By a proper assistance of the Committee having this 

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project in hand, the event of the dedication of such a 
monument can be made another bright spot in the record 
of the Bradford County Historical Society, this current 

The officers and members who have thus assisted in 
the work of the Society for the past year, are hereby ten- 
dered our sincere thanks. 

Very respectfully submitted, 

J. Andrew Wilt, Secretary. 

Towanda, Pa., Sept. 23, 1916. 

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Officers 1916-17 

President — Wm. T. Horton 

1st Vice President — John A. Biles 

2nd Vice President — Hon. A. C. Fanning 

Secretary — J. Andrew Wilt 

Librarian — Clement F. Heverly 

Treasurer — Geo. T. Ingham 

Financial Secretary — John H. Chaffee 

Standing Committees 

Finance — John H. ChafiFee, Chas. L. Stewart and 

John A. Biles 
Library and Museum — 0. L. Smiley, Mrs.. John M, 

Rahm, A. C. Fanning 
Membership— Geo. T. Ingham, Mrs. M. E. Rosenfield, 

Mrs. E. L. Smith 
Publication— J. Andrew Wilt, C. F. Heverly, J. C. 



The fourth Saturday of each month : 1917, January 
27; February 24; March 24 ; April 28; May 26; June 
23; July 28; August 25; September 22; October 27; 
November 24; December 22, 

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Bradford County 



Physical and Geographical History 

of Bradford County 

Historical and Geographical Review 




TOWaNDa, pa. 



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For years we have realized that one of the most valuable phasep 
of our county history, the physical and geographical, had been sadly 
neglected and never put in concrete form. Hence, during the past 
year it has been our special work to examine records bearing upon 
the subject, making excerpts, classifying and presenting the whole 
in such form as to preserve and give due prominence to the physical 
and geographical history of Bradford county. And finally, to learn, 
and fasten the salient features of Bradford county history in the 
mind, as can be done by frequent review, we have arranged in chro- 
nological order a set of questionaries with answers, covering all sub- 
jects, and believe they can be used with profit by teachers, students 
and members of the Historical Society. 


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Standing Stone— Our Oldest Landmark 

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Physical and Geographical History 
Bradford County. 


I^OSITION and Extent— Beglnmng with the east line of 
-*' State, Bradford is the third in order of the Northern tier coun 

tier counties 
of Pennsylvania. Susquehanna county borders it on the east; Tioga 
coanty on the west; Sullivan and lijcoming on the south; Chemung and 
Tioga counties in the state of New York on the north; and the north- 
west angle of Wyoming enters its southeastern corner. But for this re- 
entrant angle Bradford county is nearly a parallelogram upon the map. 
Its northern line is the line of the state, 42° north latitude, and its east 
line is nearly coincident with the meridian 0°, 48^' east from Washing- 
ton. Ite greatest width from east to west is 40 miles and from north to 
sonth 32 miles. It is the third largest county in the state, containing 
1160 square miles. 

Surface and Elevation — The area forms a part of the Allegheny 
Plateau that has been deeply dissected and carved by the Chemung and 
Susquehanna rivers and their local tributaries into a condition of topo- 
graphical relief varying from rolling and hilly to rough and mountain- 
ous. The highest point in the area is Mt. Pisgah, 2260 feet, in the 
western part of the county, while the lowest is 660 feet, along the Sus- 
quehanna river at the point where it leaves the county, giving a maxi- 
mum range in elevation for the county of 1600 feet. Ooe-half of Brad- 
ford county is a high rolling hill country into which enters two ranges of 
flat-topped, coal-measure, synclinal mountains, connected with the great 
mountain plain of Lycoming county to the southwest and, south. 
Bloseburg mountain crosses the west line and occupies Armenia town- 
ship. A few high hills in Springfield and Smithfield of which Mt. Pis- 
gah is the principal are all that is left of the mountain along the trough 
which it formerly occupied. Towauda mountain forms the salient fea- 
ture of the county. Being very broad' and flat where it comes out of 
Lycoming county, it is split lengthwise into two by the deep canyon of 
the Schrader creek; is cut across transversely by the gorge of the South 
Branch creek; and was cut through in early ages by the Susquehanna 
river. Through Standing Stone, Wyalusing, Tuscarora, Herrick and 
Pike townships its ancient existance is testified to. The summit of the 

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Towanda monntain al the old Barclay mlne» is 2,038 feet. At Green- 
wood where the Scbrader flows into Towanda creek the elevation is 820 
feet. The height of the mountain above Towanda creek, which flows in 
a deep narrow valley of erosion at its northern foot, is therefore over 
1,200 feet, and the depth of the gorge which splits the monntain is not 
far from 1,000 feet, the sides being very precipitons and crowned with 
dififs of conglomerate, sometimes 100 feet thick. The high belts in the 
county vary from 1,200 to 2,000 feet in elevation, while the low belts 
range from 800 to 1,200 feet. 

Drainage— 'The Susquehanna river traverses the connty, entering 
a little east of the center and flowing nearly south to Towanda in a 
comparatively straight line, thence in a south-easterly direction with 
nine horse-shoe bends until it enters Wyoming county. In its. total 
length of something over 45 miles in Bradford county the Susquehanna 
(about 800 feet above tide at state line) drops 113 feet, or about 2^ feet to 
the mile in a uniform descent. It is joined by the Chemung river flowing 
from the northwest five miles south of the state line. The greater 
part of the northern section of the county is drained by northwardly 
flowing streams tributary to the Chemung in the western and to the 
Susquehanna north of the state line in the eastern part of the county. 
The central and Eouthern parts of the county are drained directly into 
the Susquehanna. The main streams are Sugar, Towanda and Sugar 
Run creeks west of the river with Wysox and Wyalusing creeks east of 
it. Sugar Creek flows along the northern side of the third belt from the 
north but its tribatary streams on its north side head on the southern 
border of the second lowland belt, cutting valleys entirely through the 
second ridge. Towanda creek drains the north and central part« of the 
third ridge and the southern part of the third lowland belt, the water- 
shed between it and Sugar Creek lying wholly within this belt. Sugar 
Bun creek is a small stream lying within the southernmost lowland 
belt. A considerable part of the latter belt, however, is drained by the 
South Branch of Towanda creek which heads in and flows northward 
from it across the third ridge. East of the Susquehanna Wysox creek 
has a southwestward course across the general trend of the main tope- 
graphical features. Wyalusing creek, however, lies wholly within the 
third lowland belt. There are a number of small lakes and ponds in 
the county, situated in depressions at high elevations, the most impor- 
tant being Mountain Lake in Burlington township, Lake Wesauking in 
Wysox township, Lake of Meadows in Warren township and Lake 
Nepahwin in Canton township. These lakes are typical of a glaciated 
country and result from the blocking of the drainage channels. 

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Order of Strata —The earth's crust, or surface rocks of Bradford 
county belong to the Cuemuxg, the Catskill and the Carboniferous 
periods. These presenting, as they do, a variety and series of rook for- 
mation have been subdivided by Pennsylvania geologists and named, 
beginning with the topmost: 1. Glacial; 2. Coal Measures; 3. 
Mauch Chunk ; 4. Pocx)NO; 5. Catskill ; 6. Upper Chemung ; 7. 
Lower Chemung. 

RoclcM are classified as Ingeous, Aqueous or Stratified, Fo&silifer- 
oos, Metamorphic, etc. Stratified rocks are so called because they ap- 
pear in sheet-like masses called strata, each stratum having a uniform 
thickness. FossUiferom rocks are stratified rocks which contain the 
casts of **petrified bodies'* of animals or of other vegetable growths. 
The various strata were at first in horizontal layers; but on account of 
the contraction of the earth's crust in cooling they are frequently in an 
oblique position. Sometimes they occur in folds and often they are 
greatly crumpled and broken. 

Record of The AgeM — The process by which the edges of strata 
have been laid bare through natural causes is called erosion. It is in 
this way that the book of the world's history has been opened so that 
the story may be read from its pages. Each stratum is a chapter in the 
story of the world. The position of strata can generally be told by the 
fc^sils contained within them and the dififerent groups of strata are 
named from the character of the fossil plants and animals they contain. 
Thus the rock lowest in relative position is called Azoic, The earth's crust, 
as we reckon time, was hundreds of thousands of years in forming. 
The different groups of strata, each, covering tens of thousands of years, 
have been classified into geological ages, namely: 1. Azoic (first forms 
of life); 2. Silurian (age of shell fish, sponges and corals) ; 3. Devo- 
nian (age of fishes) ; 4. Carboniferous (age of coral plants and am- 
phibians); 5. Mesozoic (age of reptiles); 6. Tertiary (age of mam- 
mals); 7. Age of Man. 

Devonian Age embraces the Chemung and Catskill periods, 
whence local geological history begins. During this, the age of fishes, 
an animal having a back-bone appears for about the first time on earth. 
Shell-fish were still abundant and they were also of a higher type. 
Land plants and forest trees thrived and for the first time insects ex- 
isted. The Devonian age passed almost insensibly into the 

Carboniferous Age^ the period when coal plants and amphibious 
animals began their existence. The coal plants, which included horse- 

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tails, Iree ferns and reeds of enormoas size, were the chief features of 
this age. These plants flourished, died and were covered by the sedi- 
ments of successive floods till in some parts of the globe the various 
strata of coal exceeded two miles in thickness. Reptiles began to ap* 
pear during this age. Fish, shell-fish, corals and insects also aboanded« 
The climate of the carboniferous age was moist and tropical. 

MeMOZoic Era^ or age of Reptiles, followed the Carboniferoas 
age. Enormous lizard-like reptiles, crocodiles and turtles were the 
principal life-characteristics of this era. Birds for the first time ap- 
peared. A few species of these are remarkable for their having, instead 
of beaks, jaws set with socket teeth. 

Tertiary^ or Age of Mamma?*— During which appeared shrabe 
and trees that flower and fruit, animals in great numbers of sea and 
land that suckle their young, herbivorous and carniverous, the mastodon 
and man among the number. Before the dawn of this era, nil of the 
species of gigantic reptiles had perished. They were replaced by 
smaller species of crocodiles, turtles, snakes and frogs. Europe and 
North America at this time were regions of perpetual summer. A pro- 
fusion of tropical plants flourished, and tropical animals in multitudes 
lived and covered the earth. 

Glacial Epoch — About the middle of the Tertiary period, a change 
of climate throughout the whole northern hemisphere occurred and the 
tropical climate, that had lasted so many ages, gave way to one of icy 
coldness. During this epoch. North America and Europe were scored 
in every direction by glaciers which grated over the surface of these 
continents. The sharp tops of the mountains were rounded ofif, canyons 
and ravines were cut deep into the rocks and the plains were ct>vered to 
a great depth by loose drift pcraped off the mountain sides. With the 
coming of the glacial epoch, large numbers of animal species disap- 
peared from the face of the earth. There survived, however, the cave 
bear, the cave lion, the horse, the reindeer and the wolf. 

The Mastodon lived during the latest portion of the Tertiary 
age. It was larger than any existing land animal and was nearly allied 
in structure and habits to the elephant. The remains of the mastodon 
have been found in many parts of the United States and most abund- 
antly where the animal seems to have perished by sinking into the soft 
marshy ground. It was the largest animal that ever existed in this 
locality. Its bones or tusks have been unearthed along the Chemung 
and ihe Susquehanna in Bradford county. 

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Man — Jnst when the age of man begins is a controvertible qaes- 
tloD. However, from the few scraps of nnwritten history which he has 
left, primitive man seems to have been a savage of the lowest type. He 
lived in caves and eked out an existence by fishing and hunting. He 
neither cultivated the soil nor did he have any domestic animals. The 
earliest pre-historic people to have inhabited this section of country 
were the Mound Builders, who constructed and left a great number of 
bnrial and fortification mounds. Borne of these earth works, or 
mounds, have been located in Southern New York and the northern 
part of Bradford county. The Mound Builders were succeeded by the 
American Indians who occupied the land until the arrival of white 


Coal is fossil fuel, the concentrated residue of luxuriant vegetation 
which flourished millions of years ago. It was first converted into peat, 
then buried under accumulations of sediment and transformed by heat 
and pressure into coal. The Coal Measures of Bradford county lie 
withiu the townships ef Barclay, LeRoy, Overton and Armenia. The 
Barclay mountains, or Barclay Coal Basing is the great coal bearing dis- 
trict. Thin and isolated outcroppiugs have also been found in other 
parts of the county. Mines have been operated only in the townships 
of Barclay, LeRoy and Armenia. History— The discovery of coal in 
Bradford county was made in 1812 on Coal Run, Barclay township by 
Absalom Carr while hunting. Soon after, it was first used by Jared 
Leavenworth, a blacksmith. Originally coal was brought down the 
mountain on sleds. The demand grew, different beds were fouud and 
opened, notably the Mason and Cash mines, to which roads were built 
and the coal hauled away in wagons to supply blacksmiths in Northern 
Priinsylvania and Southern New York. However, mining did not be- 
come an important industry until after the completion of the Barclay 
railroad in 1856. That year the Barclay Coal Company took men and 
equipment to the mountain and began working the original mine. In 
1864 the Fall Creek Coal Company was organized and the first ship- 
ments made from the Fall Creek mines in 1865. The Carbon Run 
mines, operated by the Schrader Coal Company, were opened in 1874 
and the Long Valley mines, operated by the Towauda Coal Company, 
in 1880. Barclay was at its height in 1875 when three mines, Barclay, 
Fall Creek and Carbon Run, were in operation, producing 380,000 tons 
of coal annually. There were five mining villages, Barclay, Fall 
Creek, Qraydon, Dublin and Fuot-of-PIane besides Carbon Run on the 
line between Barclay and LeRoy. Barclay and Carbon Run, numbering 
several hundred inhabitants each, were the most important, with stores 

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shops, clinrches and schools. The Fall Creek mines were cloeed in 
1875, those at Carbon Run in 1885 and thcs^ at Barclay in 1890. Up 
to the time of discontinuing operations in December 1890, there had 
been mined and shipped frpm the lands of the Barclay Coal Company, 
4.256,924 tons of semi-bituminous coal. A considerable village was 
established at Long Valley where mining operations were continaed 
until 1909. Since then mining in the Barclay field has been eondacted 
only in a small way as an individual enterprise at Long Valley and in 
the Carbon Run district. In Armenia no thick veins have been foand 
and coal mining is restricted to local demands. As yet only thin un- 
workable veins have been determined, in Overton. 

Limestone— A. rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate and 
yielding lime when burned. It sometimes contains also magnesium 
carbonate and is then called magnesian, or doloraitic limestone. Crys- 
talline limestone is called marble. Limestone is sometimes formed by 
chemical precipitation, but chiefly by accumulation of organic remains 
such as sliells, coal, etc. Its color, texture and purity vary greatly. 
Lime as applied in crop production is called mineral vtanure. Lime- 
stone, generally of the Chemung formation but sometimes found in the 
Catskill and I^ocono sandstones, is quite widely distributed over Brad- 
ford county. The most extensive bed is a calcarious stratum forty feet 
or more in thickness near Burlington village. It is almost a solid muss 
of sea-shells containing nearly 50 per cent lime. It makes a gray, but 
very strong lime, well adapted to agricultural purposes. Smaller beds 
of the same nature as the Burlington limestone are found in the town- 
ships of Fiaiiklin, Herrick, Pike, Wyalusing and some other localities. 
Other varieties of limestone abound in various parts of the county. 
More than fifty years ago, farmers learned the value of Bradford 
county limestone in its application to land. Lime-kilns were con- 
structed, the stone quarried, burned and slaked, and the lime pur- 
chased and hauled away hy neighboring farmers. Kilns, where a largo 
amount of lime vvas produced, were those at Franklindale, Burlington, 
East Canton and Lime Hill. After a time the lime industry fell into 
disuse, but in recent years has been revived in Burlington, Pike and 

Iron is the most widely diffused of metals, and iron ores are fonnd 
in every laud. It enters into the composition of nearly all mineral 
substances, and is generally combined with oxygen and occurs less fre- 
quently as a carbonate or sulpburet. Iron ore is found in a large sec- 
tion of Bradford county west of the Su.-^quehauna river. The thickest 
veins and best quality of ore lie in the townships of Canton, Columbia 

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and LeBoy. Ore less abundaut is foand in Barclay, Monroe, Overton, 
Springfield, Smilhfield, Bidgebery and other localities. In 1872 a vein 
of ore 7 feet thick, 34 per cent iron, was opened at Aastinville, Colum- 
bia township and a large number of men employed in mining. Several 
thousand tons of this ore were transported in wagons to the furnaces in 
Elmira. Ore at the Canton beds, 3^ to 8 feet thick, containing from 
28^ to 32 per cent iron, was mined, also, for a time, and several hun- 
dred tons taken to the furnaces in Lycoming county. There has been 
no other mining of this mineral, whieh some time, it is believed, will 
become a valuable resource of the county. 

Copper^ next to iron, is the moRt important metal and is found in 
nearly all parts of the world. It is the only metal which occurs native 
abundantly in large masses, but is found also in various ores. Traces 
of copper have been found in some parts of Bradford county, and a 
considerable quantity in Albany township, where mining operations 
were started in 1853 but abandoned. In 1900 and 1908 other tests were 
made and excellent pre obtained, but the expense of operation was 
deemed too great to continue the enterprise. 

Clay consists of a mixture of siliceous and aluminous earth. It is 
tough, highly plastic and generally of a lead blue color. It is al- 
ways stratified and is the result of decomposition of granite and similar 
rocks. The peculiar property which clay possesses of being easily 
moulded when moist, together with that of hardening on being baked, 
is the foundation of the pottery and brick industries. Quite extensive 
beds of clay are found in different parts of Bradford county. Clay was 
first utilized in the manufacture of brick about the year 1800 by James 
Rockwell of Pike who opened the first brick-yard in the county and 
supplied the surrounding country. Later as the building demands re- 
quired, brick-yards were esUiblished in dififerent localities and brick- 
making became a profitable industry in the county. Beds of a fine 
quality of fire clay have also been found in the Barclay mountain. 

Mineral Paint — Beds of rock substance from which mineral paint 
is made have been found in some localities in Bradford county. The 
most valuable deposit of this material was discovered in Tuscarora 
township about sixty years ago. In 1852 (!)yrus Shumwa}' and Henry 
Montgomery established a paint factory and engaged somewhat extens- 
ively in manufacturing. A peculiar property of the paint was that af- 
ter a short exposure it became as hard as slate. About thirty years ago 
E. B. Montgomery of West Burlington erected a mill on his farm and 
also engaged in the manufacture of mineral paint. It proved to be of 
inferior quality and the business was soon discontinued. 

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Stone Quorryin jf- Stratified rooks of exoellent quality f or fla|^- 
giDg aud building purposes are found la sectious of the county. The 
most valuable beds were located and opened in the townships of She- 
ghequiu, Tuscarora and Standing Stone more than forty years ago, and 
quarrying the stone for local and city use became an important indus- 
try. Good flagging has been quarried also in Asylum, Terry, Troy 
and other localities. 

Other Minerals that have been found in small quanfty in the 
county: Black Oxide of Mag)iese (1867) in Canton township; Zinc 
(1880) in Rilgebery; Saltpetre (1895) of inferior quality in Tuscarora; 
also traces of Silver aud a few other minerals. 

Mineral Springs— The water of many springs in trickling through 
porous rock, dissolve and retain the more soluble minerals, such as 
^alt, carbonate of soda, lime and various combinations of sulphur. 
They are commonly called **mineral springs," and a number and variety 
of them have been found in Bradford county. The first to be sought 
by the pioneers were the Salt Springs, quite a number of which were 
located. Those in the upper part of Pike township were most highly 
charged and deemed of such value that a company was chartered in 
1S34 for working them. However, '*the brine proved to be too weak 
to manufacture salt in paying quantities." In the early 40's the Sul- 
phur Springs at North Rome received wide attention and became the 
resort of many persons for the improvement of health. The Minnequa 
Mineral Springs two miles above Canton, long known for their medical 
virtues, came into prominence in 1869 when Peter Herdic purchased 
the property, erected a hotel and made the place a popular resort for 
several years. In 1870 there were 16 known mineral springs or wells in 
Bi-adford county as follows: Towanda— James Elliott's, I well; To- 
wanda township — Pattou farm, 1 well and 3 springs, Griffith & Patton 
farm, 1 spring. Minto farm, 1 spring, Frank Gregg's, 1 spring; North 
Towauda— Charles Brown farm, 1 well, Taylor farm, 1 well; Asylum — 
Cole farm in Bend, 1 spring; Wysox — Coolbaugh farm, 1 spring; Rome 
—Mrs. Whalen's, 1 spring; near West Franklin, 1 spring; near Troy, 
1 spring; near Canton (Minnequa), 1 spring. These springs are gen* 
erally sulphurous. 

Petroleum and Gas— Mineral oil or petroleum is a product of 
vegetaltle matter. The process of formation is similar to that of coal 
deposits, but it is not found in the same strata with eoal. Natural 
GaSy produced by the distillation of organic matter in the earth crust, 
is of general occurrence in connection with petroleum. For half a cen- 
tury it has been a debatable question whether Bradford county is in the 

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oil and gas belt, and large snms of money have been spent in prospect- 
ing. The first tests were made iu 1865 when compauies were formed 
and wells put down at Burlington, Alba, 8} Ivauia, Tusearora and in 
Athens township. The only favorable indications were at Sylvania and 
in Tusearora, these wells producing considerable gas and some oil. In 
1884 tests were made at Weston in Monroe township and at New Era 
in Terry township, gas and traces of oil being found in both wells. A 
test without results was made at Laddsburg in 1886. In 1899-1900 
wells were put down at South Branch in Monroe township, one 
of which produced a strong flow of gas. Several tests were made at 
Troy and vicinity in 1900, two of the wells producing a limited amount 
of gas and oil. In 1901 operations were conducted in Asylum town- 
ship and some gas and oil found. In 1914 the last well was put down 
at Overton to the depth of nearly 3,000 feet without results. 

Trees^ Beasts, Birds and Fishes. 

Forests— Plants were among the earliest forms of life to appear on 
the earth, and though nearly all of the first species are now extinct, 
they have been replaced, not only by similar species, but also by higher 
ones. When Bradford county was first viewed by white man it was a 
great wilderness of many varieties of trees, wild plants and flowers. 
The hills were covered generally with hemlock, pine, beech, birch and 
maple, and the bottom lands with sycamores, butternut, black walnut, 
hickory, elm and maple. The following comprise the native trees and 
sbrobs of the connty: 


Thorn Apple 
Wild Crab apple 
Black Ash 
Mountain Ash 
Prickley Ash 
White Ash 

Water Beech 
Black Birch 
Red Birch 
White Birch 
Yellow Birch 
Button wood 

Bed Elm 

Slippery Elm 

White Elm 

Sweet Fern 

Balsam Fir 

Balm-of Gilead 







Bush Huckleberry 

Iron wood 


Deer- tongue Laurel 



Black Maple 

Hard Maple 

Red Oak 
Burr Oak 
Rock Oak 
Swamp White Oak 
White Oak 
Yellow Oak 
Green Ozier 
Red Ozier 
Norway Pine 
White Pine 
Yellow Pine 
Wild Plum* 
White Spruce 
Poison Sumac 

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Cedar Mountain Maple Smooth Sumac 

Black Cherry Soft Maple Spice-bush 

Choke Cherry Striped Maple Tamarack 

Fire Cherry Moose wood Tulip 

Chestnut Mulberry Black Walnut 

Cucumber Nannyberry Willow 

Dogwood Nightshade Black Willow 

Box Elder Black Oak Witch-hazel 

Ked Elder Black bear Scrub Oak Winterberry 

Sweet Elder American Yew 

Demolitfon of For^«ts— When the pioneers took possession their 
first effort was to clear away the tioiber and make room for fields and 
crop?. The- trees on thousands of acres were felled, cut into logs, heaped 
and burned. The first attempt to manufacture lumber was made before 
the Revolutionary war by Anthony Rummerfield who built a saw-mill 
near the mouth of Rummerfield creek in Standing Stone. Between 1790 
and 1800 saw-mills with small capacity were constructed on Towanda 
creek, near its mouth. Little Wysox in Wysox, Wyajusing creek in 
Wyal using. Sugar Run creek in Wilmot and Cash creek in Ulster. 
During the next decade mills multiplied rapidly on the river and all the 
larger creeks until they conld be counted by the hundreds in the county. 
For many yeai s the manufacture of lumber and shingles was largely 
carried on. These were hauled to the river or larger creeks, rafted 
and fioated down the river to the several markets below. Every spring 
the river would be thickly dotted with rafts of various kinds and sizes, 
bearing the fruits of the winter's work, running the hazard of being 
Btran<led or bein^ crushed by some mismanagement, to find a market at 
Harrisburg, Middletown, Baltimore or Philadelphia, when many times, 
the proceeds would scarcely be sufficient to pay for the rafting and run- 
ning. For more than half a century^ lumbering and agriculture were 
the most important industries. To-day all that is left of the once valu- 
able forests of Bradford county are a few small tracts in Overton and 

WiW Anima?«— Evidently, nearly a century before the advent 
of the pioneers, this section was frequented by the American bison, or 
buffalo, his grazing places being well defined. He seems to have been 
succeeded by the elk which was found here in considerable numbers 
when the settlers came. Destructive beasts, the panther, catamount 
(rarely), wolves, bears anl wildcats were numerous. Deer were with- 
out number and the beaver, otter and other smaller animals abounded. 
The elk, panther, catamount, wolves and beaver disappeared decades 
ago. Locally, animals, past and present, have been: 

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Bison (buffalo) 





(gray rabbit) 



Varying Hare 



(white rabbit) 


Black Squirrel 



Plying Squirrel 

Wild Cat 

Gray Squirrel 



Red Squirrel 




The lodiaoB subsisted chiefly bj hunting and Ashing. Their in- 
Btruments of destraotion being crade and uncertain little impression 
was made on the great number of animals roaming in the forests. The 
first settlers brought guns with them and it was an easy matter to keep 
a well supplied larder of elk, deer, bear and raccoon meat. Panthers, 
bears, wolves and wildcats were hunted and destroyed to save the 
farmers' flocks. A few of the pioneers were hunters and trappers, but 
most of them used the gun only as necessity required. 

Birds -Our greatest variety has always been in feathered crea- 
tares, and with the exception of the wild turkey, raven and wild pig- 
eonSy (he birds of Bradford county are almost the same as the birds that 
lived in the wilderness when the first settlers came. Birds, past and 
present, have been: 

Blue Bird 


Ked- winged Black-bird 


Cedar Bird 

Cow- bird 


Brown Creeper 

Yellow -breasted Chat 

American Crossbill 

White-winged Crossbill 

Black-billed Cuckoo 

Yellow- billed Cuckoo 

Mourning Dove 

Wood Duck 

Ruffle-head Duck 

Bald Eagle 


Pine Finch 

Purple Finch 

Arcadian Flycatcher 

Crested Flycatcher 

American Goshawk 

American Goldfinch 

Wild Goose 



King- bird 

Belted Kingfisher 

Golden-crested Kinglet 


Meadow Lark 

Purple Martin 


Red- breasted Nuthatch 

Bartramian Sandpiper 
Solitary Sandpiper 
Chimney Swift 
Barn Swallow 
Bank Swallow 
Cliff Swallow 
White-bellied Swallow 
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 
Brown Thrush 

White- breasted NuthatchUermit Thrush 

Baltimore Oriole 
Orchard Oriole 
Barn Owl 
Barred Owl 
Screech Owl 
Long- eared Owl 
Short-eared Owl 
Saw-whet Owl 
Great-horned Owl 
Wild Pigeon 
Wood Pewee 
Quail (Bob-white) 

Wilson's Thrush 
Wood Thrush 
Water Thrush 
Gray- cheeked Thrush 
Olive-backed Thrush 
Scarlet Tanager 
Wild Turkey 
Tufted Titmouse 
Blackcap Titmouse 
Green- winged Teal 
Red -eyed Vireo 
Yellow- throated Vireo 
Parula Warbler 
Yellow Warbler 

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firoDsed Qrackle 
Purple Qrackle 
Cardinal Grosbeak 
Evening Grosbeak 
Pine Groebeak 

Common Rail 
American Redstart 

Rose-breasted Grosbeak Snowflake 
RulBed Grouse (pheasant) Field Sparro? 

Bonaparte*s Gull 
Red-Uiled Hawk 
Sparrow Hawk 
Snarp-shinned Hawk 
Green Heron 
Great blue Heron 
Humming Bird 
Indigo Bunting 

Tree Sparrow 
Fox Sparrow 
English Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Song Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 
White-crowned Sparrow 
White-throated Sparrow 
Yellow-winged Sparrow 
Common Snipe 
Northern Shrike 
Logger-head Shrike 

Magnolia Warbler 
Bay-breasted Warbler 
Chestnut-sided Warbler 
Blue-winged Warbler 
Black-and-white Warbler 
Worm-eating Warbler 
Brk-throated bl. Warbler 
Brk-throated gr. Warbler 
Maryland Yellow Warbler 
House Wren 
Carolina Wren 
Winter Wren 
American Woodcock 
Downy Woodpecker 
Hairy Woodpecker 
Red-bellied Woodpecker 
Red-headed Woodpecker 
Pileated Woodpecker 

Fishes — One of the main depeodeDcies of the early settlers was the 
innumerable quantities of shad, which in their season, were found in 
the Susquehanna river. As soon as the ice went out of the river the 
shad started on their journey to the fresh water creeks for the purpose 
of spawning, returning to the sea late in the season. They came in 
very large schools and from time Immemorial the natives of the forest 
had been in the habit of taking them in large quantities in their brush- 
nets. So plentiful were these delicious fish that they were caught hy 
the barrel and salted for summer use, besides large quantities being sold 
to the back- woods settlers. When the dams were thrown across the 
river the shad were prevented from ascending, thus depriving the peo- 
ple of a great luxury. Next to the shad in abundance aijd esculent 
were the brook trout that swarmed all the creeks, now being confined 
to only a few streams in the county. A few fish have been planted in 
the streams and lakes; native and planted include: 

Calico Bass Red horse 

Rock Bass Brook Lamprey 

Large mouthed black BassYellow Perch 
Small-mouthed black BassHickerel 

Horned Chub 
Common Catfish 
Long-jawed Catfish 
Black-nosed Dace 
Red-bellied Dace 

Banded Pickerel 
Little Piikerel 
Chain Pickerel 

Blue Pike 


Susquehanna Salmon 
Striped Sucker 
Big-jawed Sucker 
Blue Sunfish 
Black-banded Sunfish 
Stone Toter 
Brook Trout 
Brown Trout 
Rainbow Trout 

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' Seti>enfkhn"d Amphtbian^— Only iv^o'vetiota^ tbe 

copperhead and ra^ttlesnake, are found mJBradfor^ cpffpty^^ rTl^jOiWj 
snakes are the 'blackknaVe', garter 8qakeJ8i^ttea'.j^{^*tf.i; e/i^p,, §tripea 
garter snake^^Vaiss snake, piil^ (?^.^^?i)»» PAIq*? red- 

l^llfed snaWe; riiVg-neikM snake/ Water, snake apd a; fe\y p^)ie}rs,7arel7. 
The Amphibians include the salamanders/ toads/ trog's and peepers. 

I. M^atiand Moi«ttirc-^The olimate iof a conwtr^ w its'coa'dition 
^th r^speotto lieat and>imoi8lmre.'<*BradfoFdi county -enjoys a wide 
rangp of temperature^:, tbe extreiiiBS beiogabobt ICK^^iti^ summer and 
a^ut 25^' bejow ^ero in winter : •( tliei flatter ^eidom, vea-^h^ but^ome- 
tim^ exceeded), ^January and// February i are >ri)e<icol0^t'Ki(ynths and 
July and. Aivgnstt the (iwarmest. ;.IFh.6 ^uormalimiean' tem^peratline^^f the 
eonatyfor Jthe.y<ear.isiabout r48^, .beln^ 26°/Wfnt«r oioivths, 47** »i^pring 
ipoi^jbhs, 69?:rSumaier.>im)nth8fand Sl° fall mo«tl)S. • The"BoruiBl>mean 
precipitation foi^t. the? year is: about.. 36i.inobe9/ being 7 indies winter 
moiLtbs, O.inoheSiSprJAgsmouthsi ]li9>chesiSuiii<Ber>moDt1i8ahMi>9 fnches 
fall months.!. The average growiu^g; season (between kiUtilg* frosts) is 
about 140 days: ii^tbetiialleyfi and 125idt^ye on the hilte;{ < ' '> u 

Wmii?rs--'Cpmpfete ' records' of ^\i pur wi^iters^andi'.s^'aans can 
not be found. . We have examiDed wi^h much. <^f|e ql^ (lifi;;i^;s and 
ne'wspftper 'files 'for more,thauja tup^^ find jttj^jt^fglj^^ unu- 

sual of eiftreme' Wyatter conditioiis* were jipted jhat '^hgrj^j^^^jnany 
omissions and therefore^ coneliitfe'tliarthe ^** missing seasons*^ were sen- 
erftlJy ^fgm;dpd;ftpardi:narj^or.«oi:maL! Followiing'ia the'reodr&-aks^t&^^ 
toiy of Bradford county winters: i .;. -: . • i i . , i // n*; .ii^ifonij 

1779-'80— Oue.of the sev,erest wiqters ^ver kuorwiu ,• ,, ,^ ,^„ y , v » i^<ut 

1 783-' 84— A cold arid severe winter, followed by the great Ice Fjopd 

,f». in.Marchi- •'' .- ^'•• • '••- i«» ' " -• ' '-'' u» . ^jm-iu/- -.r! P <5\: -i -81 

1814-'16'^''»eeavy srlbtc' ^rid'^ hard "ivfh tier;' the' \^b)y1&8 Vere'ijriven 
* • dowtt frt>nT tiife^ moiiti tains 'iti d^iii*3h oTTdod^ffnil' many sheep 

were'de8trfyyird"by'theta;i Th>y ddiVld 'b^'b'^a^dlldwlfngat all 
.^ . . tiifies of nigl^|i. ,^,he. iiiil^?ibita(nts.,weiie' njncb. ii?//ear i«f jt,b«|jt: a«d« [ 

were afraid tp pa^ ffoqi. Mijlto.w|i) t0|. AM^^av^van iajthi^lday- 
! ' time.' jThere>j^,a8, no )ir^Ye^Jjng. after ^l«ir^iii^fl»g 

aftd danger. The sheep'^were often called into the doqryai^ and 

lights were kept burning for their protection. Bears and panth,- 
i . .ers ware sbmjettmcs 'seen* betu'eenth^'i-i vers'. ' BoU^tifes wei'te b&^'^^ 

ered for killing, the^e aikimals tvnd thos^ that vi'ere n'ot killed re- 

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tired to the mounlaiDS."— From journal of John Sbepard. 

1815-'16— Very dry with ground dry and dusty until March when the 
weather turned cold and boisterous. The succeeding months 
were cold and frosty and the period long remembered as *'The 
Year Without a Summer." 

1816-']7—Mrs. Clement Paine in her diary says: ^'February 15, 1817, 
the cold is very intense. Mr. Smith says it is the most severe 
winter we have had for 38 years. There are many sufferers on 
account of it. The extreme distress it brings is such as I have 
never known. Yesterday the cold really terrifying. The 
streams being frozen, a famine almost prevails and I am under 
serious apprehension that some will actually perish from want 
We have baked our last bread, but it is not for myself that I 
fear. It is for those who have no bread nor other comfort, and 
many such there are around us. March 2nd, cold, famine and 
pestilence seem every day to increase and threaten desolation. 
The oldest persons of our acquaintance remembers no such time. 
A mother thinly clad came 3 miles through the storm to beg a 
trifle for her children to eat. I have partially relieved three 
families to-day. The one best provided for had nothing save 
some frozen potatoes and milk— a family of nine children. 
March 5th, the very great and extreme severity of the weather 
has abated. It has been remarked by elderly people that such a 
severe winter has not been known since 1780." 

1821-'22 — The snow which fell in the beginning of November continued 
through the winter. — The Settler. 

1823-'24 — A very mild winter with only a few biting cold days. 

1827-'28— The autumn of 1827 was one of the coldest ever remembered, 
but it was followed by one of the mildest winters that had oo- 
curred in 27 years. There was scarcely any snow and much 
rain. In January the average temperaiure was 37 degrees. 

1829-*30 — A mild winter until the 23rd of January when the weather 
became intensely cold. However, on November 15 there was a 
8now*fall of about a foot, affording continuous sleighing until 

lS3i-*32 — ^'A very severe winter, hardest experienced since that of 
1779-'80.''— Lieut. Samuel Gore, Sheshequin. 

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1835-'d6^ Winter remarkable for a ^reat fall of buow and intense cold 
weather. January 8, 9 and 10, 1836 snow fell without ces- 
sation and was followed by a heavy wind, which in many places, 
piled the snow iu drifts from 15 to 20 feet deep. Again on the 
24th and 25th of January snow fell more than a foot, making^ 
▼rith the previous faU a covering of about four feet on the level. 
The weather continued extremely cohl five weeks and many cat* 
tie and other animals perished. There was still good s!e'gbiug 
on the 23rd of March. Teams crossed the river on the ice at To- 
wanda the 28th, then there was a sudden change and the ice in 
the river went out on March 80, doing little damage. 

18d7-'38 - A remarkably mild winter until the last of January when 
winter commenced iu good earnest and the weather continued 
intensely cold, the greater part of the time, until the 5th of 
March. April following was very cold. 

1842-'43— The winter was severe and bitter cold with snow three feet 
deep. The supply of hay and straw became exhausted and 
much stock perished. Winter began early in the fall and did 
not break up until the 6th of April. In the fall of 1842 myriads 
of black squirrels migrated through the wilderness. The Brad- 
ford Porter of April 12, 1843 says: '*The past winter has been 
one of unusual severity and is still lingering in the lap of spring 
as if determined to reign over the entire season of sunshine and 
flowers. The month of March was one unbroken period of cold 
weather, deep snows and good sleighing. April thus far is bnt 
little better. The snow is still lying in our fields more than a 
foot in depth and the weather is cold and freezing. The ice 
w^ut out of the river without any unusual rise on April 6th. 
April 8th was pleasant and melted the snow considerably, caus- 
ing a moderate freshet at- this time. From every quarter we 
hear great complaints of the scarcity of fodder and the conse- 
quent suffering aud loss of cattle, sheep, etc. It is said that 
some farmers have lost their entire stock of cattle for want of 

1848-*44 — No snow or sleighing until the early part of February. 
Spring opened uncommonly early. 

1848-'49 — **While most of December was spring like without any snow, 
the memory the oldest inhabitant is necessary to the recollcctioo 
of a winter as severe as has been the present. The past winters 
have been mild and given rise to the belief that old fashioned 

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seasons of snow and ice had passed away. The present, how* 
ever, knocks the theory into a cocked hat — old Boreas himself 
could not desire a colder season. '' — Reporter, February 21, 1849.. 

1853-*54-— Notable for the total absence of snow.— Eeporter. 

I854-'55 — A warm fall, farmers ploughing up til in December when snow 
fell and continued on the ground with sleighing until April. Ice 
in the river at Towanda broke up April 6, 1855. 

1855-'56— A long winter of biting cold and many snow storms in Janu- 
ary, February and March. On March 10, the temperature was 
19 degrees below zero. Ice in the river at Towanda passed out 
April 11. 

1862-^63 -Memorable as the winter of much snow with little sleighing. 

18C4-'65 — Long cold winter with deep snow, followed by the great 
March (17th) flood. 

1865-'66— An open winter with little snow, and not enough at any time 
to make sleighing. 

1866-'67 — Winter commenced December 16 with a heavy snow fall; 
very cold nntil the middle of February. On May 8th e»ow fell 
to the depth of 8 inches, and during the month it rained 23 days. 

1867-'68 — A long cold winter with deep snow banks; cu the bills con- 
tinuous good gleighing from early in December nntil the middle 
of April. 

1868-'69— A mild winter with much tine Weighing. 

1869-'70— A heavy fall of snow December 18, but winter open and 
mild; most of January and February was spring-like weather, 
although 15 inches of snow fell on February 8, and 2 feet fell on 
March 15 and 16. 

1870-'71 — Winter open and mild with little snow. Plowing was car- 
ried on during the greater part of January and all of February, 
The tirHt week of March people sat in their homes without fires 
and with doors and windows open. 

1871-*72— Winter was comparatively mild. The coldest weather was 
in March and tlie coldest day of the season, March 4, when ther- 
mometers registered 12 degrees below zero. Short intervals of 
good sleighing followed the snow falls of February 3 and April 
15, Ice in the river broke up and passed out April 5. The 

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winter was memorable for a severe and protected dronghl. 
Spriogs, wells and creeks went dry. Many people were com- 
pelled to melt ice to get water for ordinary purposes, and stock 
had to be driven long distances for water, or supplied from water 
drawn in barrels. 

1872-'73- First snow fall, December 19; January 17, ico in the river 
broke up and passed out; January 30, 26 degrees below zero; 
March 27, snow so deep in the woods that sugar makers were un- 
able to gather sap; April 21 and 22, snow fell to the depth of 
nearly two feet; May 3, snowed on the highlands. 

1873-'74 —Winter was open and mild, although snow had fallen on Oc- 
tober 6th and there was a run of sleighing the last two weeks in 
November. The fore part of January was as mild and balmy as 
May. February 26 snow fell to the depth of several inches. 
March came in warm and so continued until the 19th when a 
heavy rain fell and was immediately followed by a snow storm 
and some good sleighing. The heaviest snow fall of the season 
was on April 9th, being 10 inches deep. April continued unusu- 
ally cold and no farming was done until after the 8th of May. 

1874-'75— Winter was preceded by a summer-like fall and ploughs were 
kept running until the 10th of December, after which, there was 
a general freeze-up. January was a bitter cold month as was 
February until the 22nd when warm weather succeeded^ The 
ice in the river at Towanda broke up and passed out on February 
27. The heaviest snow-fall of the season was March 9th and 
sleighing was gi>o6 on the hills until March 27. On April 13th 
there was a heavy snow, followed by several days of very cold 

1875-'76— Winter was warm with light scows and rains. January 1, 
1876 broke all heat records for the first day of the year. Plow- 
ing was done in January and February and many pieces of 
oats were sown by the first of March. The summer of 1876 was 
warm and the year an exceedingly fruitful one. 

1876-'77 — Long run of good sleighing, on the highlands lasting from 
the last of November till the first of April. The deepest bnow- 
-fall was on January 6 when there was a deposit of 12 inches. A 
snowstorm, conimencing March 12, lasted 36 hours, but the fall 
was light. On the morning of January 9, local thermometers 
regi3tere<l 20 degrees below zero and on March 18, 15 below zero 
—the coldest days of winter. 

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1877-'78— Wiqter was open and mild without sleighing until the mid- 
dle of February; only a few cold days, about the middle of Jan- 
nary; l^ the 10th of March the snow had entirely disappeared, 
the weather was warm and ^he blue birds were here; plaotin^ 
was done early. There were severe frosts in May and on June 
6 there was a frost with ice. 

1878-'79 — Winter was mild. The first week in January was cold but 
the last of the month was warm. The first snow storm was on 
NoTember 6 when it ^nowed all day; the deepef>t snow-fall, 10 
inches, on February 17; snowed every day the last week in Feb- 
ruary. There was good sleighing nearly all of January and 

1879*'80— Winter was one of the warmest and most remarkable ever 
remembered; it was open with much rain and little snow. There 
was a light snow-fall Octobf^r 24 ayd again on December 21 and 
25. February 3 there was a heavy snow fall, making sleighiug 
for about ten days— the only run of winter; the last snow fell 
March 11 and 15. Only on two days. December 20 and February 
ly did the thermometer indicate at or below zero. There were 
many summer-like days in January and February; considerable 
plowing was done in January, and sugar camps were operating 
in January and February. Blue birds and robins appeared the 
first week in March and most of the month was beautiful weather. 
Spring opened early and warm, although there was a heavy frost 
on the 13th and 14th of May. 

1880*'81— Winter was long and cold with much snow; first snow storm, 
November 18 and the last April 12; during the winter 98 inches 
of snow fell, the heaviest single fall being 10^ inches, the latter 
part of December; December 30 thermometers registered 8 below 
zero and on February 7th, 19 below zero. The winter was a 
most unhealthful one, spring not ap[)eariug until after the mid- 
dle of April. 

1881*'82 — Winter was warm and open with little snow and only a short 
run of nleighing— the fore part of February. There was a flurry 
of snow on the 4th of November but the weather soon became 
warm and December was remnrkablv summer-like. The second 
week in January the weather turned cold and there was a snow- 
storm on the 19th. The coldest day was January 24 when ther- 
mometers stood at 10 below zero. On February 4 and 6 snow 
fell to the depth of 8 inches — the heaviest fall of the season; 
sleighing was of short duration, and February a month of uuu- 

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saal mildnew. Most of March was warm while April preeenled 
all sorto of weather with snow squalls. 

1882-'83— Wioter was moderate and broken, following a fine fall. 
There was a short run of sleighing the last of November; Decem- 
ber was cold and dry but no further sleighing till the middle of 
January, then the snow remained for a month. January 23 was 
the coldest day, thermometers registering from 10 to 14 below 
zero. Blue birds and robins appeared March 1st and most of 
the month was beautiful weather. Spring opened early, bud 
there was frost May 12, 13 and 14. May was memorable fer 
numerous and severe thunder storms. 

1883-'d4— Winter was cold with several weeks good sleighing from the 
middle of December until the first of March. There was a bliz- 
zard on January 3. and on the 10th the weather was below zero; 
on January 21 thermometers in the county ranged from 6 to 16 
below zero, and on January 26 from 10 to 30 below zero, being 
23 below in Towanda. On February 6, ice in the river broke up, 
but on the 29th thermometers in the county registered from 6 to 
10 below zero» On the 20th of March snow was still a foot deep 
in the roads on Armenia. 

1884-'85— Winter was a celd one. There was a snowfall of 67 inches, 
and generally good sleighing from the latter part of December 
nntil in March. February and March were notably cold months; 
February 11 thermometers in the county ranged from 13 to 24 
degrees below zero, and on February 22, 25 below zero was re- 
ported; March record was — I8th, 18 below zero, 17th, 16 below, 
18th, 22 below, 20th, 14 below, 2l8t, 16 below, 22Qd, 13 below, 
23rd,' 6 below and on the 24th thermometers still indicated zero. 
The ice which was of unusual thickness broke up and passed out 
of the river on March 31 without doing any damage. 

1885-'86— Winter was a peculiarly unseasonable one. On October 15th, 
the highlands were covered by a light fall of snow, the record* 
breaker coming on November 28, 24 and 25 when snow fell to a 
depth, ranging from two to three feet; the snow soon disap- 
peared. December was mild and New Year's was a beautiful 
summer-like day, but not so warm as January 1, 1876. It 
turned cold the second week in January and on the 13th ther- 
mometers registered 12 below zero; the cold weather prevailed 
about two weeks with good sleighing. Most of February and 
March was mild. April was warm and spring remarkably early. 

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by Easier time (25th April) oberry and peacb trees were in 

1886-'87 — Winter was moderate; 77 inches of snow fell in many light 
storms, bat there was little good sleighing, save the fore part of 
January. On Il^ovember 12 snow fell to the depth of several 
inches but quickly disappeared; on April 18 there was a big 
storm, snow falling to the depth of 14 inches. The coldest day 
was January 4 when thermometers registered 15 below zero. 
Blue birds and robins appeared the last of February. There 
were many warm days in February and March but most of April 
was cold with many showers and snow squalls. May opened 

]887-'88— Winter locally was noted for blizzards, culminating in the 
terrible blizzard of March 12 and 13. There was good sleighing 
from the middle of December until the latter part of February. 
It was intensely cold the middle of February then turned warm 
and ice in the river passed out. Following the great blizzard 
there were some warm days in March, but on the 16th of April, 
6 inches of snow fell on Barclay mountain. 

1888-'89 —Winter was open and mild. There was little snow with 
practically no sleighing at the county seat all winter. October 
had been a month of notably bad weather and there were heavy 
rains in December. Most snow fell on February 18 but it 
quickly disappeared. Considerable plowing was done in January 
and crops were put in early. 

1889-'90— Winter was open and warm; at Christmas grass was as green 
as in summer and not a cold day until the 22nd of January; 
there was a snow storm on the 7th of February, but no sleighing 
until the first week in March, when it turned cold, freezing the 
river over and a poor crop of ice was harvested — this was the 
only week of real winter. Blue birds appeared on the 27th of 
February and gardening and farming opened earl3', although the 
first two-thirds of May were continuously rainy with little sun- 

1890-'91--Winter was a long one of deep snow, there having been a 
fall of 97 inches. The firpt snow fell on election day, November 
4, but no sleighing until in December. There were heavy snow 
storms the last of December which covered the ground on the 
highlands and in the woods with a mantle 3^ feet deep. Big 
drifts in the roads and deep snow in the woods made it difficult 

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for travel and lomberiDg operations. There was abundance of 
good sleighing for many weeks. March was typical of wind, 
snow and rain. Blue birds appeared the last week in February, 
although the unfavorable weather continued until the first of 
May; farm operations necessarily late. 

1891 -'92— Most of December was very mild. There was good sleighing 
the first week in January, then rain, and sleighing again after 
the 18th when it turned cold, the mercury falling 7 degrees be- 
low zero on the 20th. It was verv cold February 2 and 3, in 
some places, 14 degreeis below zero. A big snow, two feet deep, 
fell from February 29 to March 2 and snow drifts were numer- 
ous on the hill roads until the first of April. March was ^he 
month oi mot<it snow and good sleighing, April cold and windy. 
Spring was late and no garden-making until about the middle of 

1892-'93— December was very mild until the last week when it turned 
cold, the mercury falling 8 degrees below zero on the 27th. 
Some light snow squalls in December but no sleighing on the 
hills until the first week in January. Most of January was se- 
vere with good sleighing generally. On February 15 it snowed 
all day without cessation, but turned warm on the 16th and the 
snow soon disappeared. The night of February 19 was one of 
memorable terror, the wind blowing a constant gale and the 
weather intensely cold. There was good sleighing until about 
the middle of March when heavy rains fell. April was cold and 
boisterous with snow and hail on the 6th, thunder-storm on the 
8th and a terrific wind-storm on the 20th. Bluebirds on March 
13, nevertheless spring was very late and ihere was no garden- 
making until about the middle of May. On May 7 in many 
places it froze ice. 

1893-'94— October, November, December and January were unusually 
warm for the season of the year with scarcely a cold day. About 
the first of February it turned cold and so continued several 
days; on the 17th temperature in the county ranged from 12 to 
16 degrees below zero; mild weather followed, then another cold 
snap on the 25th when thermometers indicated from 13 to 24 
below zero—the latter at Camptown. There was good sleighing 
the last of February and the fore part of March. On the 8th of 
March bluebirds and robins appeared and the boys began to shoot 
marbles. Nearly all the month it was warm and delightful 
spring weather. April came in cold and on the 10th commenced 

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a aolable sDOW-storm lasliog three^ days. FoUowiog there was 
good sleighing for three days then the sdow melted away. 

1894-*95— There were light snow-falls Id November. The first 22 days 
of December were anasaally warm. Cold weather then set in with 
a snow-storm oommeuoing on the 26th and lasting a day. The 
morning of the 29th was the coldest of winter when temperature 
in the county ranged from 16 to 24 degrees below zero. January 
was very cold and sleighing was continuous from the last of De- 
cember until long after the big four-days* storm and blizzard 
from February 7 to 1 1. February was likewise cold and a month 
of tremendous snow-drifts and public blockades. Ice in the river 
passed oat March 2. The first thunder-storm occurred on March 
25 and the last soow-Fquall on April 15. 

1895-'96— Although there was a flurry of snow on October 9, fall was 
warm and farmers continued plowing until in January. There 
was a freeze-up about the middle of December but it soon turned 
warm and the last of the month was summer-like weather. On 
January 6 the temperature fell below zero, being 12 below at 
South Hill and 18 below at LeRaysville. Snow followed the 
cold wave but not enough for sleighing. On February 0th there 
was a thunder-storm with lightning, and on the 8th a snow-fall, 
making sleighing. Warm and rain again on the 15th, followed 
by the coldest blast of win tor, when on the morning of the 17th 
temperature in the county ranged from 14 to 25 below zero. 
Only sleighing on the highlands until the 11th of March when 
the deepest snow of wintor fell. Zero weather on March 13, be- 
ing 20 below at Foot-of- Plane. March 29, 30 and 31 were beau- 
tiful spring days and robins were warbling their welcome songs. 
Aftor the first week, it turned warm in April, the tomperatore 
rising to 100 at Towanda on the 13th. 

1896-'97— 'Wintor was open and mild with little snow. There was a 
light snow-fall on November 12-13 but not enough for sleighing. 
Thanksgiving was an ideal summer's day. It turned colder the 
first of December and the snow on the 22-23rd afforded the first 
and short sleighing. The 28th December and the 1st February 
were the coldest dajs of winter .when the temperature fell below 
zero. Another snow-fall on February 12-13th made sleighing 
for a day or two. Bluebirds and robins appeared early in March 
and there was a thunder shower on the 20th. Many farmers 
were plowing the last of the mouth. The 19th of April it froze 
ice an inch thick. There was a heavy frost on the night of the 

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26tb and an inch of snow in some places on the 27th. A heavy 
frost OD the uight of May 21 did some damage to early gardens 
and fruit. 

1897-'98— Winter was moderate. The first snow-fall, not sufficient for 
sleighing, was November 22. On December 31 there was a big 
snow which afforded excellent sleighing most of January and 
February. The fore parUof March was warm; a thunder shower 
on the 19th was followed by a snow-storm. April came in cold 
but moderated towards the middle of the month when farmers, 
generally, sowed oats. May was wet with 17 rainy days. 

1898-^99 — A beautiful fall and many ripe red raspberries were picked 
the fore part of October; first killing frost 23rd October. Bnow 
the first week in December affording good sleghing on the high- 
lands. January came in cold and blustery, the temperature be- 
ing 3 below zero on January 1 and 10 below zero on January 2. 
A storm of sleet on February 3 covered the roads with a glaJ'e of 
ice and made travel dangerous; a snow-storm followed. The 
memorable cold wave reached this section on the night of Feb* 
ruary 8 and continued five days. On the 9th temperature in the 
county ranged from 12 to 20 degrees below zero; on the 10th 
from 20 to 30 below zero; on the 11th from 18 to 34 below zero; 
on the 12th there was a heavy snow-fall with weather severe and 
biting; a strong wind on the 13th piled the roads full of snow, 
cutting off traffic and mails from every quarter. There was 
good sleighing until about the first of March when heavy rains 
set in. Bluebirds and robins appeared the fore part of March, 
and by the middle of April farmers were busy plowing and sow- 
ing oats. May was a month of delightful weather. 

1899*'00~An open and mild winter with little snow and heavy rains. 
October alternated in hot and cold waves and month concluded 
with heavy rain. November 14, 3 inches of snow fell but it 
quickly melted. A heavy rain December 11 and 12. The mid- 
dle of January snow fell sufficient for a short run of sleighing on 
the highlands. A thunder storm on February 22 was followed 
by a cold wave. Heavy rains the last week in February caused 
high water iu the larger creeks and considerable damage was 
done by washouts. Snow fell on March 16 and enabled people 
in the valleys to enjoy their first and only sleigh-ride of the sea- 
son: the last snow fell at Barclay on May 4. Oats were sowed 
about the middle of April. The foro part of May was dry and 
forest fires raged in the townships of Overton and Barclay, dam- 
aging thousands of acres of timber. 

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1900-'01 — Ao open winter with little snow bat remarkable for rain and 
windstorms. A severe drought was broken by heavy rains the last 
week in November. A destructive windstorm swept over sections 
of the county on November 21 and another hit North Towanda on 
December 23. Several inches of snow fell January 25, affording 
the first sleighing of winter, and continued most of February. 
February 23 was the coldest day v^en th6 temperature fell to 8 
degrees below zero. March 3 a destructive wind storm hit the 
valley of Towanda Creek and on March 10 a heavy rain-fall 
caused a sudden rising of streams which with the breaking up of 
ice at various points created floods and overflows, doing much 
damage to bridges and other property. The heaviest snow- fall 
was on April 2, being 18 inches deep in some parts of the county. 
Too wet for farming, until the last of April. May was remark- 
able for heavy rains, with wind, thunder and hailstorms, the 
most notable of these occurrinj: May 23. 

1901-'02 — A winter of rain, snow and destructive floods. First snow- 
fall November 14. Turned cold the first of December and on 
the 6th temperature in the county ranged from 6 to 20 degrees 
below zero; terrific do\fnpour of rain (3 inches falling) on the 
14tb, caused the memorable and destructive December flood. A 
snow-fall of several inches the first week in January afforded 
good sleighing for several weeks. More snow and a blizzard on 
February 17, drifting the roads badly. The heavy rains of Feb- 
ruary 28 and March 1st, caused the 2nd most notable and destruc- 
tive March flood, when water rose 26 feet above low water mark 
at Towanda. Bluebirds appeared the first of March, and on the 
5th there was a heavy snow-fall, being 18 inches deep in South- 
ern Bradford and with a strong wind filled the roads; heavy 
rains on the 16th caused bad washouts on the Bern ice branch 
K. R, Fine weather the last of March and most of April. May 
was cold and dry; on the 9th ice froze to the thickness of ^ inch 
in some places, but fruit escaped uninjured; on the 28th snow 
flakes were flying in Towanda and meu were on the streets in 

1902-'03 — Winter of considerable snow, and good sleighing the last half 
of December and in January and February. Flurry of snow 
October 29 and first snow-storm November 30; rain December 2, 
soon followed by snow-storms. February 17 was the coldest day 
of winter, temperature ranging from 17 to 24 degrees below zero 
in the county; tbel6tb, 17th and 18th February were cold with 

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BDOw and wind which badly drifted roads. Bains the first week 
in March carried away the enow; fine weather followed and oats 
were sown the last of the month. Most of April was wet and 
cold. A cold wave the first week in May, but corn-planting was 
generally finished by the 20th. 

1903-'04— Winter remarkable for the coldest weather eyer recorded in 
the county. There were two zero waves ia January; the first on 
the 3rd, 4th and 5th and the 2nd on the 18th and 19th. On 
January 5th local thermometers in the county registered from 25 
to 40 degrees lielow zero— the lowest temperature ever known in 
this section; the mean temperature for January was 16.3 above 
zero. Fall closed with a killing frost October 24 and snow on the 
26th On December 3 there was good sleighing on the highlands 
and on the 9th a snow-fall of 8 inches; December 27th tempera- 
ture fell to 12 degrees below zero. Good sleighing nearly all of 
December, January and fore part of February, with deep snow 
and badly drifted roads on highlands in January. A thunder 
shower on February 7, follo«»ed by a week of cold, windy 
weather. Robins and bluebirds appeared the first week in 
March. Thaw and rains put the river and smaller streams 
on rampage, March 7 and 8, and again on the 27th and 28th 
when the Suquehanna reached the 18-foot mark. April was 
•old with a light ^now-fall on the 19th. lu some places on May 10 
it froze ice. Oats not generally sown before the middle of May 
and corn planted tbe last of the m<mth. 

1904-'05— Winter about normal as to temperature and snow. Novem- 
ber 8 an ideal summer-day but before midnight changed to the first 
snow-storm of the season. November 11 snow-storm, followed 
by wind and snow drifts on highlands. For the first time in 
years people of Towauda enjoyed excellent sleighing on Christ- 
mas. January 1 with temperature at 54 was the warmest New 
Year's day in nine years. A blizzard prevailed on the 25th, 
followed by five cold days, Iteing 2 degree j below zero on the 
26th, 10 below on the 27th, 11 below on the 29th and 30rh and 
10 below on the 3l8t. January was the coldest month, having 
a mean temperature of 21 degrees. First week in February also 
cold, being 1 des^ree below zero on the lat, 3 below on the 2nd, 
4 below on the 3rd, 3 below on the 4th and 10 t)elow on the 5th. 
* Between November 13 and February 23, 35 suow-storms with a 
fall o( 55 inches of snow were reported. March weather was 
above normal, the coldest day being the 5th at 9 below zero; the 

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29th with temperatare at 82 degrees was the warmest March day 
ever recorded here. Ice in the river broke np and robins and 
bluebirds appeared the middle of March. Most of April was 
cold with light snows the fore part. May came in with a Harry 
of snow and was cold until the 3rd when there was a change to 
mid-summer weather; a thunder storm on the 8th and frosts on 
the highlands the 8th and 9th. 

1905*'06— An open winter with little snow and notable warm spells. 
October was summer-like and no killing frost until the 25th. 
There was a snow-squall on November Ist but most of the month 
was fine weather until the 28th when there was a snow storm. 
December was remarkably warm; the coldest dny being the 18th 
at 8 degrees above zero, and the warmest the 28th and 2*Jth with 
temperature at 54; one party in Herrick had a run of sap and 
made syrup. January was a record-breaker: from the middle of 
the month until the 24th it was mid-summer weather with ther- 
mometers standing from 70 to 80; on the 21st and 22nd birds 
were singing from the trees, men working without coats or vests 
and in some parts of the county people were busy tapping trees 
and making sugar; month ended with a light fail of enow on 
31st. February came in cold and so continued about two weeks 
with some snow and sleighing; on the 6th temperature in the 
county ranged from 6 to 12 below zero and on the 11th, 13 below 
zero; warmest day of month 24th at 60; ice in the river went 
out 23rd; bluebirds and robins appeared the last of month, and 
sugar-making was begun. Snow storms of March 11th, 15th and 
19th left a deposit of more than -a foot of snuw, affording fine 
sleighing; the month was cold, being 10 degrees below zero on 
the 23rd and 8 l>elow on the 26th; warmest day 27th at 53; total 
snow-fall 24.6 inches. Some fine weather first half of April; 
snow-fall of 5 inches on the 22nd and a thunder-storm on the 
29th. Most of May was cold with a heavy frost on the 10th and 
a killing frost throughout the county on the 20th. 

1906-'07— An open winter with little snow, sleighing on highlands in 
February but practically none in valleys.- First killing frost Oc- 
tober 1st and snow-squall the lltb; 27th severe wind and thun- 
der storm. November normal. December 3 and 24 were the 
coldest days of the month with temperature above zero; rain 
storm 3l8t. New Year's came in mild and cloudy, temperatUVe 
rising to 7Q on the 7th, followed by a heavy rain on the 8th; 
last of month was eold, beiiig 10 below zero on the 24th and 19 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


below on the 27feh. Febrnary cold with a raixtnre of wind and 
BDOw storms. First of March cold with a blizzard on the 5th, 
ice in the river broke up on the 15lh and bluebirds and robins 
appennd; 22nd temperature rose to 80. Snow squalls and disa- 
greeable weather first three weeks in April. First part of May 
wet with snow and heavy frost on night of lOtli; heavy frost also 
29th; oats not generally sown until after middle of May and bat 
little corn planted by 1st Juno. 

1907-'08 — A winter of variable weather of snow, rain and cold with 
considerable good sleighing. First killing frost October 8; much 
fine weather during month but 2 inches of snow fell on 20th. 
Fine weather in November until 24th when snow fell but disap* 
pearod before Thanksgiving. Heavy rain December 9 and 10 
put the Susquehanna to hi^h water mark; 14th, 10 inches of 
Huow felly affordiufif (ine sleighing until 23rd when ruined by 
heavy rain and again causing high water. January 7th snow- 
fall of 12 inchps; 9th temperature 10 degrees below zero and 
month continued cold. February 5, coldest day of winter, tem- 
perature in county ranging from 10 to 20 degrees below zero and 
on 10th temperature from 10 to 15 below zero. Following a 
heavy rain ice in the river broko up and passed out February 15. 
Bluebirds and robins appeared the first week in March and a se- 
vere thunder storm on the 19th. Farm operations begnn first 
week in April; during month heavy winds as also in May. 

1908-'09- One of the mildest winters ever remembered; severe days 
did not exceed half a dozen , coldest being January 19, tempera- 
ture in county ranging from 6 tf> 16 below zero; in the valleys 
around Towanda ground so slightly frozen plowing could have 
been done every day of winter; no sleighing in the valleys and 
only a short run on the hills fore part of January. February 16 
a heavy thunder storm and on 25th Susquehanna river was at 
high water mark. Bluebirds and robins appeared first week in 
March and most of month was fine weather. April had some 
warm weather, heavy winds and a 5-inch snow-fall on the 29th. 
May 6 a wind and thunder storm with favorable weather gener- 
ally during month. 

1909-MO — A sliort winter of cold, rain and snow. First killing frost 
October 12 vcith a flurry of snow on the 14th. On November 24 
snow fell to the depth of 8 inches but soon disappeared owing to 
the warm weather. Heavy rain on December 13 broke drought 
which had prevailed since October 12; ChristmaS| snow with a 

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strong wind, drifting country roads; December 29 temperature 
6 degrees below zero. January 16 temperature about z;^ro all 
day and on the 17th ranged from 6 to 11 below z?roin the county; 
' fine sleighing first two weeks in January, followed by thaw and 
rains, the ice in the river passing out on the 2Ii5t. Cold waves 
the first and last of February, temperature on the night of 6 -7tli 
ranging from 6 to ]5 helow zero in the county and on 24th, up- 
per end of county, 19 below zero. Hains and thaw again aud on 
March 2nd Susqurhauna river rose to ISfoot mark at Towaiida. 
Bluebirds and robins appeared the first week in March; the 
month was the driest ever rsmembered; a costing of ice which 
formed and covered the ground early in wiiiler, prevented the 
rain and moisture from soaking into the eartli and made a glary 
road-bed on which sleighs were used more than 70 days. April 
4, boys loathing in the river; 5th temperature at 84 aud 7th .*^now 
squall; rain 19th and on the 23rd, 24th and 25th was a ?ictable 
rain-fall of 4 inches, raising the creeks and causing washouts and 
damaging bridges. Spring was comparatively early. On May 
15 a h<avy frost, freezing ice in some places, did little damage; 
the last of the month was wonderful growing weather. 

1910-'ll— Five months winter but moderate. October was warm; first 
killing frost 12-13th and flurry of snow 29th; warmest day 6th 
with temperature 84 aud coldest 29th at 40. November 3 and 4 
snow-fall of 8 inches but sleighing only for a day; after the 1st 
there were 16 successive stormy clays in November, and a total 
snow-fall of 18 inches during tiio month, the heaviest since No- 
vember 1886. Coldest December in 22 j-ears; average tempera- 
tare 22 1-5; 15th temperature from 5 to 8 below zero, and 16th, 
11 below zero. Kobius appeared the first; week iu January; 
temperature above normal; coldest day January 5 being 5 de- 
grees below zero, warmest 2ud at 51 degrees. February temper- 
ature above normal ; 19 inches of snow fell during month. 
March 16 a cold wave and blizztrd prevailed. April 13th snow 
that fell eaily in November still on the ground in Orwell. Lit- 
tle plowing done until the last of April and farming from two to 
three weeks late. May 2 snow-fall in nearly all sections of the 
county; 23rd a thunder storm with heavy wind, doing considera* 
ble damage, passes over Southern Bradford. 

1911-'12 — Winter of intense cold, little snow and only one day's sleigh* 
ing, March 22, along the river. Firf*t flurry of .«uow Novemher 
2 but fine weather until after middle of December. January 6 

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temperature from zero to 6 below; 13th from 20 to 30 below zero 
in county; llth. 10 below zero, 16fch from zero to 5 below. Feb- 
ruary cold wavo-9lb from 3 to 5 below zmo, 10th, 9 to 14 be- 
low, lltb, 8 to 13 b(*lo\v; 21st tliunder-storm with lightning; 
27th ice in river passed oat. March 30 river at Towanda 16 feet 
above low wuter mark and following heavy rain 15J feet April 3. 
April 6 mid-summer and April 8 jnid-winter weather. Spring 
nearly a month belated; middle of May scarcely any oats 80wu 
and few potatoes planted. 

1912-'13— Remarkably warm winter and almost snowless. Along the 
Sucquehauna at no time did the temperature reach zero nor was 
ihcie a day's sleighing. liCss snow fell than in an\' other win- 
ter in 42 years, being for November, December, January, Feb- 
ruary and March 23.3 inches. First snoAV flakes November 2, 
wtalher warm during month with snow on ground Thanksgiving 
(28lh). December also warm with light coating of snow Christ- 
mas. Hoavy rain storms with thunder and lightning January 3 
and 18. Nearest ap|>roach to winter first week in February. 
March 21 teirific windstorm Northeastern Bradford; heavy rains 
caused Hood in Susquehanna, being M*arch 27th, 21^ feet above 
low water at Towanda — the highest in eleven years. Rain-fall 
of 2^ inches April 27. 

1913-'14 — A severe winter with deep snow-falls. Heavy rain and 
wind-storm November 9th in Eastern Bradford; first snow on 
10th. December 25 and 26 a foot of snow fell throughout coun- 
ty; 28th temjerature from 4 to 6 degrees below zero. January 
13th temperature 10 degrees below zero and 16 below on 14th; 
eleven inches of snow fell during month; four weeks continuous 
fine sleighing until last of January when taken away by rain and 
sunshine. Ft^bruary made the record for the lowest mean tem- 
perature (16 J) and the greatest snow fall; on 12 days below 
zero, coldest being 9tli, 5 to 9 below zero, 12th, 14 below, loth, 8 
below, 10th, 14 belowJSth, 9 below, 24th, 13 below, 25lh,ll below 
26th, 15 below; great February snow-storm on 13th and 14th, 
the deposit varying in depth from 20 to 30 inches in county; on 
February 2Uth another snow storm which turned into a fearful 
blizzud, prevailing many hours, completely blockading outside 
communication and being several days before public roads were 
opened, Kains and melting enow on March 28 caused Susque- 
hanna to rise 21 feet abovii low water mark. April 8 cold and 
rainy ending in snow storm. Heavy rains May 16 brought Sus- 

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quehaDua to 16-foot mark. May 26 rain and wind storm doing 
considerable damage in Columbia. 

1914-*15— A short winter with some severe weather. Fine weather in 
October with first snow squall on 27th. All-da^^ rain November 
15 broke prolonged drought. December 2 Temperature 64 in 
shade; 8th snow-fall of 8 inches; 17th, eleven i^nches of snow 
and fine sleighing; 15lh temperature from ^ero to 12 below, 16tb, 
2 to 14 below zero, 17th, 4 below, 18'th, 20 to 25 below, being the 
coldest December day in 30 years; 27th, 15 below. Thaw and 
rain of January 6 spoiled fine sleighing and ice in river passed 
out on 7th; 11th, snow-fall of 12 inches, followed by au all-day 
rain on 1 2th; 29th temperature to 8 below zero in places. Fel)- 
ruary 25th Susquehanna at H-foot mark: least February snow- 
fall in ^7 years. Spring opened last of March. April 10th first 
thunder storm; 13th snow at various points; 25th thermometer 
at 90 in shade, being the hottest April 25th ever recorded; 26th 
rain and hail storm. May cold with a killing frost on the 27th. 

1915-'16 — Winter notable for severity and deep snows in March. Oc- 
tober and November above normal although first snow squall 
November 4. First week in December marked the close of hay- 
ing in sections of the county— the latest ever known. Decem- 
ber 14 snow storm with heavy wind; sleighing on 30th but none 
in valleys Christmas. Rain and warm weather ruined sleighing 
first week in January; 10th heavy wind does considerable dam- 
age in Franklin; middle of mon^b cold, then warm, on 26th 
temperature at 70. February 12th snow sufficient for good 
sleighing; 14th temperature from 10 to 15 below zero in county; 
27 tb blizzard filling hill roads with drifts. March 6 snow-fall of 
6 inches accompanied by heavy wind drifting raads; storm com- 
mencing 14th continued incessantly twenty-four hours depositing 
15 ii>ches of snow (heaviest fail of winter), completely blockad- 
ing roads everywhere; 22nd additional snow-fall of 8 inches, 
making a covering from 30 to 36 inches generally over the 
county, and 48 inches in the woods at Laquin; rain and warm 
weather caused snow to disappear rapidly and ice in river went 
out on 27th; March went »ut with a record, having been the 
coldest in 62 years and with a snow-fall four times the average 
for March in the same period; April 1 Susquehanna at Towaoda 
stood 19 feet above low water mark; 8th rain followed by snow- 
storm; 11th niin and thunder storm; Apt^il closed with beautiful 
weather as May was ushered in. May 8th severe hail storm in 

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Warreo; 16th and 17(b heavy raiD falls; 18th snow squalls at 
. LeBaysville and vioiDity; middle month but few oats sown and 
practically no planting done; heavy rain 23rd. Corn planted 
after June 1st. 

1916-'17 — An open winter comparatively mild with little snow. Octo- 
ber weather flue with a severe electrical storm on 20th. Novem- 
ber opened with a lively thunder shower; first snow 14th; month 
closed with beautiful weather as was first week in December. 
From 17th to 21st cold with snow; 22nd rain, snow and wind in 
turns. January 10th a snow storm and 3l8t a thunder shower 
— the month a mixture of summer and winter weather. Febru- 
ary was the cold month; on 2nd temperature being from 4 to 8 
degrees below zero, 10th, 1 below, 11th, 14 below, 12th, 11 be- 
low, 13th, 15 below. March 2, 3, 4 and 5 about nine inches of 
snow fell, ofTordiug the only sleighing of winter in the valleys; 
11th thunder shower and 14th snow storm; 2l8t bright and 
balmy, concluding with a flurry of snow; 17th severe wind 
storm, doing considerable damage in LeRoy; 27th SuFquehanna 
at Towanda 14 feet above low-water maik., March went out 
liko a lamb and April camo in as gentle and mild ns a summer 
morn— the first two days of month as fine as ever experienced in 
this section. April 5 and G two inches of snow; 18th an ideal 
summer day; 23rd and 24th heavy frosts with ice; month very 
dry and generally cold. May wet and cold with little planting 
done until the last of the month; 19th and 26tb mid-summer 
days and a heavy rain 27lh, 28th and 29th. 

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Record Zero Weather. 


Below sero and 
variation in county 


Below zero and 
variation in county 

27, 1851 

24 to 26 

15, 1910 


16, 1867 

10 to 30 

16, 1910 

11 ; 

30, 1880 


28, .1913 


27, 1892 


15, 1914 

0*to 12 

29, 1894 

16 to 24 

16, 1914 

2 to 14 

5, 1901 

6 to 20 

17, 1914 


27, 1903 


18, 1914 

20 to 25 

29, 1909 


27, 1914 


Normal, mean 

temperature, for December, locally, 29 degrees above zera 


Below cero and 
variation in county 


Below zero and 
variation in county 

19, 1810 

20 (Cold Friday) 5, 1904 

23, 1830 

Intense Cold 



4-5, 1840 

16 to 20 . 



4, 1841 




25, 1867 




10, 1859 


Wells Hollow 


1, 1863 

Cold New Year's 

3 Rome 


8, 1866 


North Towanda 


30, 1873 


New Albany 


10, 1875 

12 to 16 



9, 1877 


Si Kara 


24. 1882 




23; 1883 

10 to 14 



21, 1884 

6 to 16 



26, 1884 

10 to 30 



13, 1886 


19, 1904 


4, 1887 


2«, 1905 


20. 1892 


27, 1905 


6, 1896 

12-18 LeR'ysville 29-30, 1905 


1, 1899 


31, 1905 


2, 1899 


24. 1907 


3, 1904 


27, 1907 


4, 1904 

6 to 17 

9, 1908 


Digi/zed by CjOOQ IC 



28 to 40 

19, 1909 




17, 1910 

6 to 11 



6, 1911 


Hornets Ferry 28 
Towanda 28 

6, 1912 
13, 1912 


20 to 80 



14, 1912 




16. 1912 


Liberty C!omer830 
Wyalasing 30 
Athens 30 

13, 1914 

14, 1914 
29, 1916 





Normal. m«an 

temperature, for January, locally, 26 

degrees above zero. 


Below aero and 
variation in county 


Below aero and 
variation in count 

14, 1817 
7, 1861 


4, 1906 
6, 1905 


14, 1861 

f 20 Towanda 
\ 29 Rome 

11, 1902 

6 to 12 

7, 1868 

22 to 25 

6, 1908 

10 to 20 

6, 1871 


10, 1908 

10 to 16 

9. 1876 


6-7, 1910 

6 to 15 

13, 1875 

23 (Rome) 

24, 1910 


7, 1881 


9, 1912 


29, 18S4 

6 to 10 

10, 1912 

9 to 14 

11, 1885 

13 to 24 

11, 1912 

8 to 13 

22, 1886 


9, 1914 


2-3, 1892 


12, 1914 


19, 1893 

Intense Cold 

13, 1914 


17, 1894 

12 to 16 

16, 1914 


25, 1894 
9, 1895 

13-24 CamptowD 


. 18, 1914 
24, 1914 


1617,, 1896 
9, 1899 

/ 14 Towanda 25, 1914 
\25LeRay8ville2«;, 1914 
12 to 20 14, 1916 

10 to 16 

10, 1899 

20 to 30 

2, 1917 


11, 1899 

18 to 34 

10, 1917 


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23, 1901 


11, 1917 


17, 1903 

17 to 24 

12, 1917 


1. 1905 


13, 1917 


2, 1905 


3, 1905 


Normal, msan 


for Febrnarj, locally, 23 

degrees above sera. 


Below aero and 


Below sero and 

Tariation in 

1 county 

variation in county 

10, 1856 


4, 1872 


22, 1885 


18, 1877 


23, 1885 


13, 1885 


12-13, 1888 

lutense Cold 

17, 1885 


13, 1896 

20 Foot-of-Plane 

18, 1885 


5, 1905 


20, 1885 


23, 1906 


21, 1886 


26, 1906 


Normal, mean temperature, for March, locally, 35 degrees above xero. 


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Notable December Snow Storms. 

I860 — The Bradford Herald of December 12 says : "Snow has fallen 
each day since the 30lh of November. It is rare, indeed, 
that we have a succession of days so similar in temperature 
and other respects as the 11 just past." 

1866 — "On the 16th snow foil incessantly all day to the depth of 
more than a foot; a strong wind piled the snow in almost im- 
passable heaps." — Reporter. 

1867 — "The snow storm of the 12th was one of the most extensive 
and violent ever known at this season of the year. It appears 
to have extended over the whole country. Thermometers 
registered from 10 to 30 degrees below zero in various locali- 
ties." — Reporter. 

1868 — 7th, a heavy snow storm with wind, making good sleighing. 

1897 — 31st, a big snow. 

1903— 9th, snow-fall of 8 inches. 

1907 — 14th, snow-fall of 10 inches. 

1913— j25th and 26th, snow-fall of 12 inches. 

1914 — 8th, snow-fall of 8 inches. 

1914_17th, snow fall of 11 inches. 

Notable January Snow Storms. 

1836 — On the 8th, 9th and lOlh snow fell without cessation and was 
followed by a heavy wind, which in many places, piled the 
snow in drifts from 15 to 20 feet deep. Again on the 24th 
and 25th snow fell to the depth of more than a foot, making 
with the previous fall a covering of about 4 feet on the level. 

1857 — *'One of the severest storms ever witnessed swept over the 
country on Sunday and Monday, the 18th and 19th. The 
quantity of snow was very great and the wind blowing with 
great fury for nearly 24 liours blockaded the railroads, stop- 
ped the mails and put a complete embargo upon travel. The 
cold of Sunday, the 25th, has prohably not been equalled in 
the present century. At Watertown, N. Y. the mercury fell 
to 37 degrees below zero and froze. — Reporter." 

1868— 17th, snow-fall of 18 inches. 

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1869— 11th, snow-fall of 8 inches. 
1877— 6th, snowfall of 12 inches. 
1908— 7th, snow-fall of 12 inches. 
1915— 11th, snow-fall of 12 inches. 

Notable February Snow Storms. 

1778— 12th and 13th, snow fell to the depth of 2 feet. 

1870 — 8th, snow fell to tho depth of 15 inches. 

1879— 17th, snow fell to the depth of 10 inches. 

1880 — 3rd, a heavy snow-fall. 

1882— 4th and 5th, snow-fall of 8 inches. 

1892 — Big three-days' snow-storm, commenced 29th, falling to depth 

of 2 feet. 
1893— 15th, an all-day snow-storm. 
1895 — Memorable snow-storm and blizzard, commencing 7th and 

continuing four days. 
1899 — 12th and 13th, heavy snow-fall and bliaeard. 
1902 — 17th, snow-storm and blizzard. 
1914 — 13th and 14th, snowfall in varying depth from 20 to 30 

1914 — 29th, snow-storm and blizzard. 

Notable March Snow Storms, 

1807 — Beginning on the 3l8t snow fell continuously two days and 
was between 4 and 5 feet deep. 

1823 — 23rd, "a great snow storm," as recorded by the pioneers. 

1824— 30th and 3l8t, snow-fall of over 24 inches. 

1841 — **A severe snow storm occurred atTowanda, Friday, the 12th, 
accompanied in the evening by heavy thunder and most 
vivid flashes of lightning. The weather has continued cold 
and storn)y ever since, snow still falling." — Porter and Visi- 
tor, March 17. 

1843 — "March was an unbroken period of cold weather, deep snows 
and good sleighing." — Bradford Porter. 

3 864— 20th, snow-fall of 20 inches. 

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1870 — During the night of the 15th and on the 16th snow fell to a 
depth of fully two feet, being known as the "deep March 

1875 — 7th, heavy snow-fall, heing a foot deep at Towanda and two 
feet at Barclay. 

1888 — 12th and 13th, great snow-storm and blizzard. 

1902— 5th, snow-fall of 18 inches. 

1906— 11th, 15th and 19th, more than a foot of snow fell. 

1916— 6th, snow-fall of 6 inches; 14th, fall of 15 inches and blizzard; 
22nd, fall of 8 inches — snow (22nd) being from 30 to 36* 
inches and 48 inches in the woods at Laquin. 

Notable April Snow Storms. 

1849 — "A snow storm of rare violence for this season of the year vis- 
ited us on the 18th, covering tlie fields, which were just put- 
ting on their summer uniform, with a mantle of winter. In 
some parts of the adjacent country the snow lay upon the 
ground to the depth of afoot." — Bradford Reporter. 

1854 — **If the past winter has been distinguished for the total ab- 
sence of snow in this region, the present month of April will 
long be remembered for the body of snow, whose coming at 
this late day in such quantities is almost unexampled. On 
Friday, the 14th, commenced a fall of snow, which continued 
ahuost without cessation until Monday night (3 days). At 
Towanda it is suppesed that at least three feet of snow must 
have fallen, some of it melting as it reached terra firma, but 
leaving a body remaining, measuring two feet in depth. In 

the woods we are assured the snow measured three feet." 


1857 — On the 19th and 20th there was a snow-fall varying from 12 
to 24 inches in depth. 

1859 — "Two days of disagreeable storm culminated Saturday, the 
23rd, in a fall of snow which lay upon the ground to the 
depth of several inches." — Reporter. 

1868 — 7th, severe storm, snow falling to the depth of several inches. 

1873— 21st and 22nd, snow-fall of nearly 2 feet. 

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1874 — 9th, snow-fall oi 10 inches. 

1875 — 13th, heavy snow-storm, prevailing all day. 

1887— 18th, snow-fall of 14 inches. 

1888— 16th, snow-fall of 6 inches. 

1894 — Commencing 10th, big three-days' storm, snow falling to a 

varying depth from 16 to 24 inches. 
1901— 2nd, snow-fall ot 18 inches. 
1906— 22nd, snow-fall of 5 inches. 

Notable May Snow StormB. 

1803 — 4th and 5th, snow-fall of 6 inches; 8th, snowfall of 6 inches 

1834 — 14th, snowfall of 10 inches and ice J an inch thick. 

1835 — 20th and 21st, snow-fall varying from 15 to 24 inches; apple, 

peach and plum trees were in blossom. 
1839 — 25th, snow began falling, continuing during the night until 

it was more than a foot deep. The spring had been early 

and much farming done; corn was up. The snow soon 

melted and passed away. 

1841 — **0n Sunday, the 1st, we were visited by a severe snow-storm 
which contiimed throughout the day. At evening the snow 
ceased but the atmosphere continued cold and blustery. On 
Monday morning (2nd) ice was found in open vessels nearly 
an inch in thickutss and the mud was frozen sufficiently to 
bear up a horse. On the morning of the 14th ice was found 
in open vessels a quarter of an inch thick." — Porter <fe Visitor. 

1867 — 8th, snow-fall of several inches on hills, being 10 inches deep 

at Barclay. 
1884 — 30th (Memorial Day) snow generally over county, being 2 

inches deep at Barclay and Long Valley. 

June Snow Storms^ 

1816 — Frost, ice and snow were common in June. 

1832— 5th, snow-fall of 4 inches all over Eastern Pennsylvania. 

1859 — 9th, snow on highlands. 

1897 — 1st, light snow-fall in Western Bradford. 

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July Snow Storms. 

1859 — 4tb, flurry of snow in parts of county. 
1884 — 8th, flurry of snow in parts of county. 

August Snow Storm. 

1885 — Last week of month, light snow-storm at Barclay. 
Notable September Snow Storms. 

1844 — "We were favored on Sunday, the 29th, by a fall of snow 
which gave the surrounding country the aspect of winter. 
We are informed that upon the Barclay mountain the snow 
lay upon the ground 28 inches in depth — an occurrence we 
presume that has never happened before in the tnemory of 
the oldest inhabitant." — Bradford Porter. 

1888 — 29th-30th, snow-fall, covering ground, over most part of 

Notable October Snow Storm. 

1836 — The people of Bradford county back on the hills were not a 
little surprised upon arising on the 5th of October to find tlie 
ground covered with a great body of snow which had fallen 
to the depth of nearly two feet during the night. Fruit had 
•not been gathered nor buckwheat, some not yet cut. Fi'uit 
trees were broken down and roads through the forests block- 
aded with limbs. On the 6th the sun shone brightly and 
the snow soon disappeared. Of the storm the Northern Ban- 
ner says : **This was one of the most unusual storms we have 
ever witnessed, and being accompanied by the keen, cutting 
blasts from tl)e North, it had every appearance of real winter. 
The jingling of sleigh bells was heard through our streets 
(Towanda) on the 5th of October as merrily as in the middle 
of winter, and overcoats, cloaks and good fires were as indis- 
pensable as in January. * * * Palmer Thompson of 
Smithfield township perished in the snow-storm on the night 
of the 5tli. He had been a few miles from home to a raising. 
Returning home through the woods, night coming on and it 
being very dark, he lost his way and lay in the woods all 
night where he was found dead the next morning.'' 

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1853— **0n the 24lh snow fell to the depth of 8 inches. A few warm 
days and rain soon dissipated the wintry vesture and left in 
its stead a superabundance of moisture and mud."— Reporter. 

1855— 24tb, snow-fall of 3 inches. 

1860— 14th, snow-fall of 3 inches. 

1873 — 7th, snow covered the hills of the surrounding country. 

Notable November Snow Storms. 

1851 — ''On the 25th snow commenced falling with scarcely a pre- 
monitory warning and continued mitil evening, covering the 
ground with a fleecy mantle to the depth of nearly a foot 
Such a fall of snow so early in the season has not been known 
for yjears."— Reporter. 

1862 — 7th, an incessant snow-storm lasting all day. 

1885— 23rd, 24th and 25th, snow fell to a depth ranging from 24 to 
36 inches. 

1886 — 12th, snow-fall of several inches. 

1909— 24th, snow-fall of 8 inches. 

1910^3rd and 4th, snow-fall of 8 inches. 

KWing May Frosts. 

1817— 13th, 14th and 15th, killing frosU with ice ^ inch thick. 

1832 — 25th, frost, snow and ice. 

1844— 22nd and 23rd, killing frost with ice | inch thick at places in 

1845— 30th, killing frost generally in county. 
1865 — 12th, frost with snow-storm. 
1878— 13th, 14th, 22nd, 23rd and 24th, heavy frosts. 
1879— 26th, frost with ice. 
1880— 13th and 15th, heavy frosts. 
1881— 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th, heavy frosts. 
1882— 12th and 13th, heavy frosta. 
1884— 29th, 30th, (snow) and 31st, killing frosts. 
1889— 28th, frost with ice. 
1893— 7th, frost with ice. 

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KilKng June Frosts. 

1800 — 6th, "severe frost, killing corn, beans, pumpkins, etc." — Old 

1842— lOtb, killing frost with ice. 

1843 — 2nd, corn frozen to the ground and fruit destroyed. 
1859 — 5th, a killing frost, destroying early gardens, etc. 
1875 — 14th, killing frost with ice. 
1878— 6th, frost with ice. 
1879— 7th and 9th, heavy frosts. 
1880— 3rd, killing frost. 
1910— 3rd, frost with ice. 
1912— 7th, killing frost on highlands. 

Kining July Frosts. 

1816 — 5th, frost with ice, 
1864 — 4th, frost witli ice. 

Killing August Frost. 

1858 — Last week in month, some fields of corn greatly damaged and 
others entirely destroyed by frosts. 

Kilhng September Frosts. 

1895— 14th, killing frost. 

1896— 24ih, killing frost. 

1899— 14th, killing frost. 

1902 — 5tb, killing frost on highlands; 14th, killing frost in valleys. 

1904— 2lst and 22nd, killing frost 

1905- 25th, killing frost. 

1909 — 5th, heavy frost (killing in sections). 

1913 — 9th, heavy frost (killing in sections). 

1916 — 25th, heavy frost (killing in sections). 

Digitized by 



First October Killing Frost. 

1897— 4th 1905— 25th 

1898— 28th 1906— 1st 

1899— 2nd 1906— 7th, frost and ice 

1900— 18th 1907— 8th 

1901— 7th 1909— 11th 

1902— 22nd 1910— 12th 

1903— 25th 1916— 1st and 2nd. 

Record June Heat. 

Normal, mean temperature, for June, locally, 66 degrees. 

1874 — 30th, temperature 101 degrees. 

1899 — The hottest June in the history of the Weather Bureau; av- 
erage temperature 75 degrees. 
1906— 29th and 30th, temperature 89 degrees. 
1916— 16th, temperature 96 degrees. 

Record July Heat. 

Normal, mean temperature for July, locally, 71 degrees. 

1845 — 21st, temperature 96 degrees in shade. 

1866 — 12th to 19th, temperature 100 degrees in shade, being the 
**mo8t lieated term ever experienced.*' — Reporter. 

1868— 1st to 16th, temperature 16 days in succession from 90 to 103 
degrees. — Reporter. 

1881 — 10th, temperature 102 degrees. 

1887 — 16th, temperature 103 degrees. 

1897 — 5th, temperature 96 degrees. 

1898 — 3rd, temperature 97 degrees. 

1901 — 2nd, temperature 95 to 100 degrees. 

1905— 17th, 18th and 19th, temperature 95 degrees. 

1910 — 9th, temperature 94 to 97 degrees. 

1911~2nd, 95 degrees 1911— 8th, 90 degrees 

8rd, 98 degrees 9th— 92 degrees 

4th, 100 degrees 10th, 94 degrees 

5th, 98 degrees 11th, 92 degrees 

6th, 94 degrees 12th, 88 degrees 

7th, 86 degrees 

1918 — Ist, temperature 95 to 102 degrees. 

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Record August Heat. 

Normal, mean temperature, for August, locally, 69 degrees. 

I860 — 8th and 9th, temperature 95 degrees — warmest of season. 
1872 — Hot August, average temperature being 75.4 degrees^ 
1881 — 5th, temperature 102 degrees. 
1895 — **Hottest and driest August in 24 years — steady continuous 

warm weather." 
1900 — Average temperature for month 77 degrees, being the hottest 

August in the annals of the Weather Bureau. 
1906 — 23rd, temperature 93 to 98 degrees (hottest of year). 
1916 — 7th, temperature 90 to 100 degrees. 

20th, temperature 101 degrees. 

22ud, temperature 100 to 106 degrees. 

Record September Heat. 

Normal, meaa temperature, for September, locally. 09(legrees. 

1884 — The oldest inhabitant has sought in vain for a match for the 
eight September days beginning on the 4th and ending on 
the 11th. The records fail to show in any previous year 
eight consecutive Autumn days when the thermometer stood 
90 in the shade every day. — Reporter. 

1891 — September was notably warm. On the 15th temperature 
rose to 90 degrees and so continued several days. — Weather 

1915 — 13th, temperature 88 degrees; 14th and 15th, 94 degrees; 
hottest September since 1884. 


March, 1794 — In March a tornado swept through the southwestern 
part of Bradford county, extending into Sullivan county, and 
in its path of a mile in width, left scarcely a tree standing. 

July, 1815 — In July the most fearful windstorm ever known in the 
eastern part of the county, swept eastward across Orwell, tear- 
ing up trees and leaving a wake of destruction nearly half a 
mile wide. Timber on thousands of acres was blown down. 

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The house of Luther Gkaff(^ vfae carrijed from its foundation, 
thrown completely over and left standing on the root The 
school house at North Orwell, built of hewed logs, was blown 
.k> pieces and some of the roof found nearly four miles away. 
An eye-witniess to the storm says: **The scene was one x>f 
awful grandeur. The air for a gre^t distance was full of 
limbs and tree tops, whirling in every direction, something, 
like the flakes of snow in a March snow squall.'' 

Jume» 1842 — A tornado passed over the southeastern portion of 
Bradford county which was described by an eye-witness at 
Wyalusing as follows*: **0n Sqnday, June 26 about one 
o'clock, a dark cloud began to rise in the northeast, accom- 
panied with Idw distant thunder until 25 minutes paist one, 
when the most violent clap of ihiinder I ever beard, burst 
upon us and instantly it began to rain and the wind to blow, 
until the rain fell^not by dropf^.but by v^st unbroken sheets,and 
the wind increased until it became terrific. The forest trees, 
orchards, fenoesi and buildingjs gave way to the giant strength 
of sn imperceptible power. Forests that had withstood 
the tempest for ages had to yield to this last and more mighty 
than all its predecessors. Cattle were seen running to and fro 
for some place of shelter, and seemingly the wind would 
fairly raise them clear from the ground. After raining about 
15 minutes the rain came like shot from a gun, breaking win- 
dows, cutting corn, potatoes and all crops to the ground, 
beating down meadows, riddling the forest leaves and fairly 
driving the cattle tnad with pain and fear. The tornado whs 
more than three miles wide and went from northwest to south- 
east. Two barns of Justus Gaylttrd uere blown flat. In Brown- 
town bouses were unroofed, barns, torn down, shops upset, 
carriages carried some distance and dashed to pieces- People 
were obliged to lie down to keep from being blown away. On 
the west side of the river in the Bend, the wind was still 
harder, hurling barns and houses from their foundations with 
the velocity of lightning, leveling fences, orchards, grain and 
everything that came in its way. Farther down the river 
the hail was terrible. Long after the storm had passed 
. , you oould gather pailfuls anywhere on the ground. Nearly 

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46 r 

> y ftU of the gksa in th« north'west side of all houses! was broken 
and dents remained in the weatherboards as if a:Bton)9 had 
been thrown against thein.^ It was the hardest andimo^ vio- 
lent blow ever felt in this section, and tlie loss is 201 limes 
more than ever occasioned from any storm before.' • i w. 

September, 1893 — A tornado struck Bradford county in Jig porth- 
western coriier on the afternoon of September 7 and continued 
diagonally across the northwestern townships, leaving in its 
trail deatli and devastation. The storm had its start in 
Western New York and from the South MoutUaib 44! md^edli^t 
in a straight line through Lawreoceville, Jackson, Wells, Co- 
lumbia, Troy, West Burlington, Granville, Frankim, Miofiroe, 
Albany, Terry and Wilmot. In the start it was a direct hur- 
ricane, but towards its close and for aeveral miles it 'was a 
terrific whirlwind. ''People's attention was called 16 the 
rapid advance of a huge black cloud that spanned the sky 
and was lit up by lurid flashes of lightning. The -blade pall 
of the cloud stretched from horizon to horizon and when it 
had shut down it was dark almost as midnight and ci|used 
lamps to be lit, while flashes of lightning, the deeplbbom of 
thunder, the steady downpour of rain, interspersed rncilh hail 
and an orange light that seemed diffused in the air^ S^V^ffil^: ,^ 
cuiiar features to this frightful visitation, *' livery tqwnsmp 
in the county was more or less afleeted by this terrible storm 
of wind, rain and hail. The damage wrought, besides the 
killing of four pei'son?, amounted to several hundred thousand 
dollars. The force of the wind seems to have been the severest 
in Franklin township. "Whole orchards were destroyed and 
timber patches so badly broken up as to be nearly wuilt|^less. 
Numerous houses were unroofed and goods within s^ji'iously 
damaged by the rain and hail. Barns and tobacco sh^s were 
blown to pieces by the dozen. So furious was the wjndihat 
huge oak and hickory trees were twisted off at the Xrunk. 
In many cases people found their only safety in the cellar." 
George Edwards, aged 19, was caught in the stormf and-'kiHed/"'^ 
Horace Taylor of Granville was struck by flying timb©? from a 
demolished barn at Fairview and killed. Mrs. Stiep})^i> Cox 
of Northrup Hollow was so seriously injured in ibe'^vedcage 

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of her house that she died. Porter Hooker of Springfield was 
struck on the head by a door standard and fatally injured. 
A number of buildings were struck by lightning and burned. 
The devastation and loss at East Troy and West Burlington 
was nearly as great as in Frankin. In the county, besides 
the destruction and damage to buildings and timber, the loss 
of tobacco, buckwheat and other crops amounted to tens of 
thousands of dollars. 


July, 1881 — About 7 o'clock on the evening of July 16, a cyclone 
struck the barn of Charles Monroe on Vroman Hill and de- 
molished it, passing on with little noise but great fur}^ par- 
tially destroyed another barn; reaching Wm. Monroe's house, 
moved it from its foutidation and tore his barn to pieces. 
The gigantic funnel shaped cloud then passed through a piece 
of woods for half a mile, uprooting huge trees and breaking 
others off, making a swath through the forest. Emerging 
from the woods it struck the house of Ritner Miles, tearing it 
partly down and seriously injuring Mrs. Miles. The whirl- 
wind then passed on doing a large amount of damage. — Troy 

September, 1884 — One of the most destructive stv)rms ever known in 
the vicinity of Ulster occurred on the evening of September 
27, about 8 o'clock, the path of which was about one-fourth of 
a mile in width. It moved from southwest to northeast, laying 
everything desolate wherever it went. There was wreck and 
ruin on every t^ide on the farms of Mather Brothers, John 
McQueen, Mrs. Wm. Irving and S. H. Farnsworth. **With 
other buildings a corn house containing two shellers was de- 
molished and only a f«w pieces of the sheller could be found. 
Several acres of corn which was cut and shocked was scat- 
tered to the four winds of heaven. Orchards on the Mather 
farm were completely destroyed, not a tree being left." 

Juqei 1892 — On the afternoon of June 27 a windstorm of great vio- 
lence swept over the northwestern part of the (oni»ty. At 
Fassetts it assumed the form of a whirlwind, caught up the 
house and barns of Stephen Brown and hurled them through 

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the air. The buildings were dashed to pieces and fragments 
scattered over fields — ^sorae of the furniture and clothing 
found miles away. None of the four persons in the house 
received fatal injuries. The path of the storm was about i50 
yards in width. Other buildings and orchards in its line 
were greatly damaged. 

September, 1898 — A cyclone swept over the central part of Spring- 
field township, a little after 5 o'clock on the afternoon of Sep- 
tember 6, killing two men, Wm. Brace and C. M. Comfort, 
injuring F. A. Voorhis, blowing down buildings, killing stock 
and destroying crops. 


July, 1883 — A violent windstorm visited Sayre on July 2. The 
wind came from the north and by a peculiar freak blew out 
part of the southern side of seven brick houses on North El- 
mer avenue and one residence from its foundation. Many 
outbuildings were blown away. 

October, 1883 — A furious windstorm visited the valley of Sugar 
Creek on October 29, uprooting trees, unroofing and demol- 
ishing buildings. The storm passed through Towauda and 
Wysox and did much damage. 

January, 1889— A furious windstorm struck Athens on the afternoon 
of January 9, carrying away chimneys and roofs, uprooting 
trees, blowing in windows, scattering fences and doing much 
other damage. 

April, 1893 — The most persistent gale, ever remembered, blowing 
from the southeast, struck Bradford county on the morning 
of April 20 and continued with hurricane fury until mid- 
night. The blow was general over the county but evidently 
most severe in Towanda and vicinity where great damage 
was done. Several buildings were blown over, many un- 
roofed, fences thrown down and other property damaged. In 
other parts of the county the damage to buildings, etc. was 
many thousand dollars. 

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May, 1893 — A heavy winclstorm pansed over a considerable section 
of Bradford county on May 23; doing much damage in un- 
roofing and demolishing buildings. 

September, 1896 — A terrific windstorm swept over the central part 
of Bradford county early on the morning of September 30. 
The gale continued for about two hours and brought wreck 
and ruin on every side. People became frightened and arose 
from their beds to watch the fury of the great storm. Build- 
ings were blown down, houses unroofed, chimneys blown 
away, trees uprooted, sheds and outbuildings demolished, 
fruit stripped from the trees, fences thrown down and some 
stock killed. The force of the storm fell upon the towns 
along the river — Ulster, Sheshequin, the Towandas, Wy- 
sox, Asylum, Standing Stone, Terry, Wilmot and Wyalusing. 
Other localities that suffered severely were Monroe, Overton, 
LeRoy, Canton, Columbia, Burlington, Sraithfield, Ridge- 
bery, Orwell, Herrick, Pike and Tuscarora. 

Wind and Hailstorms. 

May, 1844 — On the afternoon of May 11a sudden squall from the 
west struck Athens, accompanied by torrents of rain, and 
hailstones as large as hickory nuts. Probably 1500 panes of 
glass were broken in the village and many valuable trees 
blown down. — Reporter. 

July, 1848 — We were visited on the afternoon of July 23 by a most 
terrible storm of hail and rain. The memory of the oldest 
inhabitant goes not hack to anything equalling it in violence. 
The hail which was of unexampled size, some of which meas- 
ured IJ inches in diameter. In Towanda where its chief 
force was felt, there was a general demolition of awnings and 
gardens entirely ruined — vegetables looking as if an army of 
worms had stripped them of their leaves. The storm was 
about a mile in width, extending north and south of the vil- 
lage, and came from the west. The farmers who chanced to 
be within its track suffered severe losses. Fields of fine com 
and oats were completely ruined.— Reporter. 

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July, 1877 — A destructive hailstorm passed over the eastern portion 
of Bradford county on July 3. Growing crops along Wyalu- 
sing Creek were almost totally destroyed. Mr. Snyder had 
40 fowls killed. Persons living in the vicinity report that 
hailstones were piled up along the fences 30 inches in depth. 
— Reporter. 

June, 1880 — A terrific storm of wind and hail passed over Western 
Bradford, extending from Wells to LeRoy, on June 21. The 
wind blew down trees, fences and buildings from Granville 
Center in a southeasterly direction to Towanda Creek and Le- 
Roy township. Hail destroyed nearly all the wheat, corn and 
oats on some farms. The path of the storm was a half mile 
in width. 

June, 1882 — A furious wind and hailstorm passed over the south- 
eastern portion of the county about noon on June 26, uproot- 
ing trees, unroofing buildings and destroying crops. Hail- 
stones fell the size of a hen's egg. The storm was most severe 
in and about Lime Hill, Camptown, Merryall and Spring 
Hill. — Reporter. 

August, 1892 — On the afternoon of August 4ih, a severe wind and 
hailstorm passed through Burlington, North Towanda, Ulster, 
Sheshequin. Rome, Orwell and Pike, doing much damage to 
buildings, fences, tobacco and other crops. 

July, 1893 — On July 5, a terrific wind and hailstorm passed over 
Southern Bradford, destroying gardens, damaging fruit, grain 
and buildings. 

Wind and Thunder Storms. 

July, 1871 — On July 6, "a heavy shower, ai^companied by wind and 
lightning, passed over Granville, LeRoy and Franklin. In 
its course fences were prostrated, fruit trees uprooted and 
acres of timber laid low." 

March, 1879 — A heavy thunder shower visited Towanda on the eve- 
ning of March 8. The storm began at 6:30 and continued 
until 9 o'clock. It was one of the heaviest storms experienced 
in this vicinity in several years and we believe the oldest in- 

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habitant does not recollect a like occurrence at so early a sea- 
son of the year. Several buildings in the county were struck 
by lightning and burned. — Reporter. 

July, 1883 — On the evening of July 5 about 7:30 o'clock a terrific 
storm visited Towanda and vicinity. Shortly after 6 o'clock 
a very hard thunder shower came, which for a few minutes, 
was terribly severe and during which the Universalist church 
was struck the second time during the week. The shower 
passed away. The clouds in the west parted and strips of 
blue sky were visible, through w^hich, the sun tried to say 
good night, when a cloud came down the river, which evi- 
dently carried another shower. At the same time another 
cloud from an opposite direction met it, and such a torrent of 
rain, the brilliant flashes of lightning, followed by deafening 
thunder,we never saw nor heard before. The incessant flashes of 
lightning and deafening thunder were accompanied by a pe- 
culiar yellowish tint all over the heavens, and many averred 
that they detected sulphurous odors. The streets were flooded 
everywhere. In Sheshequin, Wysox and Standing Stone 
land was gutted and bridges carried away. — Reporter. 

May, 1901 — One of the most terrific rain, wind and hail storms that 
ever visited the county struck Towanda on the afternoon of 
May 24. It proceeded from the northwest and with the dark 
clouds came the wind in mad fury. Then followed the hail 
and rain, the water at tim<?s falling in perfect torrents Soon 
the water was rushing down the hillside with the fury of a 
cataract. Culverts were overflowed, clogged and torn out 
and the streets flooded. Cellars were filled with water, streets 
cut to pieces, terraces torn down, trees uprooted and fruit and 
gardens ruined. In Smithfield, S[)ringfi#ild, Burlington, 
North Towanda, Asylum, Standing Stone and Herrick tlie 
storm was very severe. Many buildings were blown down 
and in some sections great damage done by hail. 

July, 1902 — On July 24 a violent thunder storm passed over a con- 
siderable section of the county. Many buildings were struck 
and burned. In the northwestern part of the county, an un- 
precedented fall of hail, accompanied the storm. Cornfields 

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were totally destroyed. Oats and other crops suffered se- 
verely. Hail fell to the depth of thr^ iuches and in some 
places was piled up like drifts of snow. 

June, 1906— On June 9 and 10 much damage was done in Bradford 
and adjoining counties by wind, hail and lightning. 

June, 1910 — Most sections of Bradford county was visited by a se- 
vere thunderstorm with hail on June 18. Many buildings 
were struck by lightning and several burned. In some parts 
of the county bridges were carried away and fruit and crops 

June, 1911 — A furious storm struck Towanda early on the morn- 
ing of June 1 1 and raged for more than an hour, being one 
of the most terrific thunderstorms ever experienced. After a . 
break of a couple of hours the storm of. rain, hail and wind 
renewed but with abated fury. Several buildings in the 
county were struck and burned. 

July, 1911 — A thunder, rain and windstorm of great violence 
passed over a considerable part of Bradford county on July 6. 
A large number of buildings were struck by lightning and 
many burned. In places it was the worst electrical storm 
ever experienced. 

June, 1912 — A terrific wind and thunderstorm passed over sections 
of Central Bradford on the afternoon of June 29, doing great 
damage. In North Towanda trees were uprooted and much 
damage done in the Sugar Creek valley. Buildings, fences, 
trees, etc. were laid low in Asylum, Wysox and Standing 

July, 1914 — A furious thunderstorm prevailed over the greater part 
of Bradford county on the afternoon of July 10. In places 
the storm was accompanied by wind and hail which did con- 
siderable damage. Several buildings in the county were 
struck by lightning and burned. 

August, 1914 — A wind and thunder storm on August 19 did great 
damage in Eastern Bradford by blowing down crops, build- 

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ings, trees, telephone poles and otherwise daihaging property. 
In the western part of the county crops were also destroyed. 
Several buildings were struck and burned and damage done 
by hail. 

July, 1915 — A terrific rain and wind storm, accompanied by thun- 
der and lightning, struck Towanda on the afternoon of July 
26 and much damage resulted. Trees were blown down and 
broken, gardens reduced to the ground and washed out, resi- 
dences damaged and cellars flooded. During the half hour 
of the storm it was almost as dark as night. On all sides of 
Towanda the damage was considerable to crops ; fields and 
roads were washed and fences and trees blown down. In 
places damage was done by hail. 

July, 1917 — A furious storm, lasting 45 minutes, visited Towanda 
and vicinity on the afternoon of July 21. At first for fifteen 
minutes, the rain fell in torrents like the bursting of a cloud, 
then a gale with hurricane force blowing from the north and 
shifting from f^ast to west, lashed in mad fury for ten min- 
utes amidst the fall aj)d rattle of hail, the constant peals of 
thunder and the sharp flashes of lightning. From the hill- 
side the water rushed like a cataract. Culverts were over- 
flowed, clogged and torn out and the streets flooded, the water 
in places standing a foot deep on Main street; cellars were 
filled with water, streets cut to pieces, terraces torn down, 
trees uprooted and gardens badly damaged. The damage to 
public and private property was many hundred dollars. In 
South Towanda and surrounding; communities crops were 
badly damaged, trees uprooted and telephone poles blown 
down. The heavy rain prevailed generally down the Sus- 
quehanna Valley. 

Heavy Rains and Floods in the Susquehanna. 

May, 1771 — On May 28 the Susquehanna rose to an unprecedented 
height, inundating both ttie towns atSheshequin and Wyalu- 
sing. At the latter place great damage was done by the 
water sweeping off" fences and stock. At Sheshequin (Ulster) 
the inhabitants were compelled to take to their canoes and 
' retire to the wooded heights back of the town. 

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March, 1784 — In March occurred the notable Ice Flood. The dam- 
age was particularly severe in the Wyoming Valley. "The 
breaking up of the Susquehanna on the 15th of March, greatly 
distressed the inhabitants who had built their houses on the 
low lands near the banks of the river. The uncommon rain 
and large quantities of snow on the mountains together with 
the amazing quaptjty of ice in the river, occasioned by the 
uncomn>on inclemency of the winter season, swelled the 
streams to an unusual height — ten and in many places twenty 
feet higher than it had ever been known since the settlement 
of the country. Horses, cattle and other effects of the settlers 
were swept down in the torrent and forever lost." 

October, 1786 — Early in October, when the crops of corn and pump- 
kins were still on the ground, continuous rains produced a 
freshet which had seldom been equalled. Crops were swept 
away and the bosom of the river was covered with floating 
pumpkins. The loss was severely felt and many cattle died 
the succeeding winter for want of sustenance. F'or years this 
freshet was designated by the old inhabitants as the Pumpkin 

April, 1807 — One of the most notable floods in the Susquehanna oc- 
curred the first of April, following a rapid thaw of snow, 
which lay between four and five feet deep. 

March, 1841 — "The immense body of snow which remained in the 
woods, at this season of the year, gave reason to suppose that 
an extraordinary freshest must ensue. A heavy rain com- 
menced falling on Tuesday of last week and the waters soon 
succeeded. On Wednesday following the river commenced 
rising and continued gradually to increase until Sunday, 
March 28, when the immense volume contained in the pool 
at Towanda, found vent by breaking over the embankment, 
connected with thfe dam, which yielding to the rapid current 
soon formed a channel for the water to pass off. That por- 
tion of the town bdow the State road bordering upon the 
river was conipletely inundated. The water was from two to 
three feet deep on Water street, the whole distances from the 
4>tate road te the bridge. Every cellar was filled with water 

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aud in several instances, it rose upon the first floor of build- 
ings and the occupanU were obliged to abandon their homes. 
Below the bridge it was still worse. Nearly the whole of the 
low ground in that vicinity was overflowed. In some in- 
stances the water was three feet deep in the dwelling houses.'' 
— Porter & Visitor. 

February, 1842 — "We have been visited by one of the most extraor- 
dinary freshets that has occurred in the Susquehanna for the 
last half century. The unusual warm weather, which pre- 
vailed the past two weeks, melted the snow in the woods and 
a heavy fail of snow succeeding, swelled the small streams to 
such a degree as to cause the river to rise on February 3 and 
4 to an unusual height. Immense injury has been done 
along the river and some of the larger creeks by the sweeping 
away of bridges, lumber, fences, etc. In Towanda the water 
overflowed River street and the lower part of the town 
nearly as much as in March 1841. The toll-house of the bridge 
and large quantities of lumber on the bank at Towanxla and 
at the mouths of Towanda aud Sugar Creek were washed 
away. The new bridge across the Wysox was carried from 
its foundation. Several mills were carried away or destroyed." 
— Porter & Visitor. 

March, 1846— "Never within the memory of the oldest inhabitants 
has the Susquehanna been so high at Towanda as it was Sat- 
urday and Sunday, March 14 and 15. The rise was very 
sudden. Several hriciges were swef>t away among which were 
those near Mrs. Hale's and P. C. Ward's. Luther's Mills in 
Burlington, owned by M. C. Mercur, were carried away and 
made a complete loss. Most of the bridges on the Susque- 
hanna were either swept away or badly damaged, including 
the following: Lanesboro, Great Bend, Binghamtnn, Smith- 
boro, Catawissa, Danville, Northumberland, Clark's Ferry 
and Harrisburg." — Reporter. 

December, 1851 — On the morning of December 27 thermometers 
stood at 24 and 26 degrees below zero. By noon the weather 
had moderated and the mercury rose rapidly until there was 
a difference ©f some 60 degrees within twelve hours. A thaw 

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with rain followed, raising the river and breaking up and 
starting the ice. Lumbermen suffered from this unexpected 
freshet, losing lumber which had been placed in the river. — 

October. 1860 — **The heavy rains of Saturday, October 20 have 
caused great damage by raising the creeks and rivers, over- 
flowing the bottoms and carrying away the crops. The Sus- 
quehanna rose with a rapidity never before known to a mark 
higher than ever known at this season. As a consequence the 
the low flats have been covered and much damage done. 
Upon the creeks, however, the damage seems to have been the 
greatest. Sugar Creek has not been so high for some years. 
Bridges, mill-dams and crops have suffered terribly. We are 
informed that not a bridge is left on Bentley Creek, all hav- 
ing been swept away by the flood. On Towanda Creek the 
damage was very severe. A new bridge erected just above 
Franklin was swept away. A portion of Bull's milldam was 
carried away and the saw-mill of A. R. Perkins on the Schra- 
der greatly damaged. We were reminded of the famous 
**pumpkin freshet" of olden times by the quantities of pump- 
kins which passed by here. The river at times would be 
thickly dotted for some minutes with the golden harvest with 
occasionally stouts of corn and a shower of apples." — Re- 

April, 1862— The North Branch of the Susquehanna for the past 
week has been higher than for several years. There has been 
very little rain in this section during the Spring and the 
water came from the immense snow banks of New York state, 
— Reporter, April 24. 

May, 1864 — The highest water known for many years in the Che- 
mung river prevailed May 14; water ran across the upper end 
of Athens from the Chemung into the Susquehanna. — Re- 

March, 1865 — The highest water (28 feet) ever known in the Sus- 
quehanna, occurred on St. Patrick's Day, March 17.- The 
warm weather and the rains of the first days of the week, 

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melting the heavy body of snow, caused the river to rise rap- 
idly and by Thursday it had reached a point beyond the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant and still rose rapidly. By 
Friday morning (Murcti 17) the water was several feet above 
high water mark running over the banks at Towanda, sub- 
merging buildings and filling cellars on Water street and in 
the lower part of the borough reached Main street. The 
water in the lower story of the Court House was 4 feet and 10 
inches from the floor of the jail. The rise was so rapid and 
unexpected that in many of the submerged dwellings and 
store-houses time was not allowed to remove the furniture 
and great damage was done. Much lumber piled upon the 
river bank was swept away. The loss and damage to prop- 
erty in the northern part of the county, particularly between 
the Susquehanna and Chemung, was very great. — Reporter. 

February, 1866 — The high water on February 28 took out a portion 
of the river dam at Towanda. 

May, 1867 — "The rains of last week raised the streams to an unusual 
height. The river at 'fowanda was swollen to an extraordi- 
nary degree yet not equal to the freshet of March, 1865. 
Bridges over the smaller streams were taken off but the larger 
bridges are all safe. All communication was suspended for 
two or three days.'* — Reporter, May 16. 

December, 1878 — The water has not been so high in the Susque- 
hanna river since the great flood of 1865 as now. The river 
has risen 20 feet at this place (Towanda). — Reporter, Dec. 12. 

February, 1884 — The Susquehanna was the highest on February 14 
that it had been since December 1878, when the high-water 
mark was put on a stone at the foot of Park street. It looked 
grand with its swift moving current of nearly one-fourth mile 
wide. — Reporter. 

June, 1889 — A tremendous downpour of rain for three days, covering 
Northern and Western Pennsylvania and Southern New York, 
caused most destructive floods, ever memorable by the breaking 
of the great Conemaugb dam and the terrible Johnstown 
disaster on June 1st. The rain was most terrific on May 31, 

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and on June 1 and 2 a great flood followed in both branches 
of the Susquehanna, that of the West Branch being the 
greatest inundation ever known. In the Norili Branch the 
high water nearly equalled that of March 17, 1865. At Ath- 
ens where the Chemung flows into the Susquehanna the flats 
and lower part of the town were completely inundated. 
Buildings were carried away and much damage done. The 
larger creeks became raging torrents, carrying away bridges, 
buildings, fences and crops. One person, Thomas Miles, liv- 
ing along Mill Creek in Canton township, while trying to res- 
cue his chickens, was swept away and drowned. In the val- 
ley of the Towanda Creek, the flood was the most destructive 
since that of July, 1850. Great damage was done at Mon- 
roeton — the town flooded, streets cut, cellars flooded and gar- 
dens washed out, fences and outbuildings carried awa3\ ^he 
county bridge at Powell was carried away,iheMasontown bridge 
made unsafe and the Barclay railroad bridge just below, so 
undermined that it went down. The State Line & Sullivan 
bridge at Monroeton was undermined and went down. Sev- 
eral other bridges in the county were either damaged or car- 
ried away. Scores of people were losers and the damage to 
public and private property in Bradford county was probably 
$200,000. The Susquehanna attainHl its greatest height on 
the morning of June 2nd but rapidly receded in the after- 

November, 1889 — The heavy rains the middle of the month on No- 
vember 20 again put the Su«?quehainm and the larger creeks 
on a big tear. However, the streams did not reach such a 
great height as in June and comparatively little damage wfts 

May, 1893 — A heavy rain on May 3 caused a rapid rise in the 
creeks and river, the Susquehanna to the highest, since the 
June flooii of 1H89. Along the Sehrader, Towanda and Sugar 
creeks much damage was done. 

May, 1894 — Four days of almost incessant rain from May 18 to 21 
put the Susquehanna on a rampage causing considerable de- 

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December, 1901 — ^The greatest December flood and the most de- 
structive in the history of the county occurred Saturday, De- 
cember 14. In the afternoon the rain began falling in tor- 
rents (fall of 3 inches) continuing almost incessantly for six 
hours. The waters quickly gathered, filling and overflowing 
every small channel and in a rapid rush bounded on to the 
larger streams. Creeks became raging torrents, bankful and 
overflowing, the waters sweeping everything before them. 
Five persons were drowned and property, public and private, 
destroyed in the county to the extent of a million dollars. 
The river reached its greatest height at Towanda on the 16th 
when it was 21 feet above low-water mark. 

March, 1902 — The rain of February 28 and March 1, accompanied 
by a strong seuth wind, which melted the snow rapidly, pro- 
duced a great volume of water which in a few hours found its 
way into the larger streams. The river rose rapidly and on thw 
night of March 2 attained its greatest height, being nearly 26 
feet above low-water mark at Towanda. The Towanda flats 
again became a veritable lake, exceeding in depth and extent 
the December (1901) freshet. People fled from their homes, 
leaving almost everything to the watery element. Athens 
was badly flooded as was also Sheshequin village. The dam- 
age alone; the smaller streams was much less than in the pre- 
ceding December. 

June, 1906 — Rains caused a decided rise in the Susquehanna, being 
on the 21st one of the most notable June freshets in years. 

April, 1910 — One of the most notable April rain storms in many 
years prevailed over Central Bradford on the 23rd and 24th. 
It was estimated that four inches of water fell. The creeks 
went on a rampage; causing a rise of 14 feet in the Susque- 
hanna. In some localities the storm was accompanied hy 
thunder and lightning. Along the creeks, lands were over- 
flown and considerable damage done to early crops. 

March, 1913 -The rains the last week in March brought the Sus- 
quehanna up to the flood point and while the Towanda flats 
and other creek basins were inundated, fortunately but little 

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damage resulted. On the 27th the river reached its greatest 
height — 21} feet, the highest since March, 1902. 

March, 1914 — Rains and melting snow the last week in March raised 
the larger creeks and river to flood height. The Susquehanna 
at Towanda reached its greatest height on the 28tb, being 21 
feet above low-water mark. 

July, 1915 — The heavy rain-fall of the first two weeks in July 
wrought great damage in Bradford and adjoining counties 
and caused one of the greatest July floods in years. The fall 
of 3 inches of rain on July 8 and 9 produced a rapid rise in 
the creeks, sweeping away bridges and in the valleys tearing 
away the soil and' ruining crops. On July 9 the Susque- 
hanna river rose 17} leet. Throughout Bradford county the 
damage to crops, roads and bridges amounted to many thous- 
and dollars; buildings and other property also suflered. 

April, 1916 — The spring flood on April 1 swelled the waters of the 
Susquehanna to the 19-foot mark at Towanda. 

June, 1916 — Rains the middle of June sent the Susquehanna river 
to flood height on tbe 23rd, being 14 feet above low-water 
mark at Towanda. In the Chemung the water was the high- 
est since the memorable June flood of 1889. Much damage 
was done north of Waverly. 

March, 1917 — Susquehanna at Towanda on the 27th 14 feet above 
low- water mark. 

Heavy Rains and Floods in Creeks. 

July, 1850 — A severe storm which commenced Thursday afternoon, 
July 18 continued with unabated violence until Saturday morn- 
ing. Its efl'ects have been most widespread and disasterous. 
In this county the damage has been immense. The various 
tributaries of the Susquehanna, particularly the Towanda and 
Sugar creeks were swollen in a few hours to a greater degree 
than ever before known, and have left along their whole 
course painful and powerful evidences of the terrific ability of 
the element to do mischief. The damage was very great at 
Monroeton and Greenwood, mills, factories, houses, barns and 

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bridges being swept away and farms cut to pieces. On Sugar 
Creek the chief damage has been to mill-dams and farms 
along the stream. The Susquehanna though not as high as 
it has been was still high enough to flood the flats in many 
places to the entire destruction of crops. — Reporter. 

September, 1869 — On September 24 a terrific shower passed Qver 
Granville and vicinity, doing great damage to public and in- 
dividual property. The flood of the smaller streams was the 
most destructive ever occurring in that section. 

June, 1870 — Sugar Run Creek lying mostly in Wilmot township 
was visited on the morning of June 15 by one of the most de- 
structive floods ever known in that section. Hardly a bridge 
or mill-dam was left on its whole length. Farms were de- 
luged, crops destroyed, buildings undermined and roads 
washed away. 

March, 1882 — It is said that not since 1846 had the Wyalusing 
Creek been so high as during the freshet of last week. Cou- 
Hiderable damage was done to bridges, dams, etc. — Reporter, 
March 9. 

July, 1887 — The inhabitants of Wysox valley who live between 
Rome and the mouth of the creek, experienced on the morn- 
ing of July 26 the highest water known there since the flood ef 
,1865. So rapid was the rise of water that many were of the 
opinion that a cloudburst or the meeting of two storms up the 
valley towards Rome must have occurred. The rapidity with 
which the waters came up over the flats was unprecedented. 
Rome reported — **Main streets are navigated by boats; cel- 
lars are flooded; nearly every bridge in this section of the 
county swept away; the county iron bridge known as Gil- 
lett's bridge carried away; the Rome township voting [)lace 
was swept down the creek a distance <»f half a mile and 
crushed; the Wysox, Bullard, Bear and Johnson creeks were 
the highest ever known. Cattle, sheep and poultry were 
swept away." The losses in the vicinity of Myersburg and 
North Orwell were also very heavy. — Re{>orter-Journal. 

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June, 1905 — On June 20 one of the worst floods tliat ever visited 
the western part of the county occurred at Troy. Sugar Creek 
already high was augmented by a flood which came down 
Armenia mountain, causing damage of thousands of dollars. 

April, 1910— The heavy rain of April 23 and 24 did great damage 
in the Sugar Creek valley. The water was a raging torreut 
and the highest ever known in Sugar Creek except during 
the notable December flood of 1901. The flat land of many 
farms was badly cut and the soil and crops washed away. 
Some buildings were also taken by the flood and the roads in 
places badly damaged. 

August, 1915 — Troy village was deluged for an hour on August 1st, 
causing greater damage than the June floods of 1889 and 
1905. The storm broke at the northwestern part of the 
town, filling Ballard and Sugar creeks so that the water over- 
flowed all the bridges and filled Canton, Main, Center and 
Elmira streets and Redington avenue from curb to curb, 
washing away all loose material, garden truck, etc. in ita 

July, 1916 — The heavy rainfall of July 25th was followed by a 
cloudburst on the 26th, when from 5 to 7 o'clock, water fairly 
poured from the clouds in Soutliern Bradford. The storm 
belt seems to have been up the South Branch of Towanda 
Creek through Monroe and Albany extending into Overton. 
The South Branch and tributaries for a time were deep and 
swift and carried everything before them. Crops were washed 
out and carried away. Public roads were cut and damaged 
and many bridges taken out. The Bernice Branch railroad 
suffered two severe washouts. The storm center was at New 
Albany where most damage was done. 

Notable Rainy Seasons. 

Summer, 1857 — "The present season has been remarkable for the 
large quantity of rain which has fallen. The *raniy term' 
has continued its duration until the present time and there is 
no immediate prospect of its discontinuance. There has not 
been a week since the spring breakup that the Susquehanna 

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has not been swollen bank-full. At this time there is a heavy 
freshet and the water still rising." — Reporter, July 2. 

May, 1867— The month had 23 rainy days. 

Autumn, 1876 — The weather for nearly two weeks past has been re- 
markably gloomy. The rain has fallen nearly every day and 
sometimes in torrents, while the clouds have often been so 
dense as to make it necssary to light the gas in shops and 
dwellings. The oldest inhabitant has been interviewed on 
the subject and reports this as the longest equinoctial he ever 
knew; and still the end is not yet. — Reporter, Sept. 28. 

Summer, 1889 — The wetness of the summer of 1889 will make the 
season known in history as a phenominal period. July 
was quite as remarkable for its frequent rains as tne month ot 
June, although the precipitation was considerably less; there 
were only ten really clear days during the whole month. — 
Reporter- Jou rnal . 

May, 1892 and 1898 — In the former year there were 19 rainy days 
and in the latter 17 rainy days. 

May, 1901 — A notably wet month, during which 7.58 inches of water 
fell, locally. 

August, 1905 — During the month 10.12 inches of rain fell, being 
the wettest August in 34 years with the exception of August 
1873 when 11.49 inches of rain fell. 

July and August, 1915 — These months made a record of unparal- 
lelled rainfall. July scored 20 days of rain and August had 
a like numher of 20, making a total of 40 days on which it 
rained out of 62. It rained the last 7 days of July and the 
first 9 days of August, making 16 days in succession. Farm- 
ers never experienced such disadvantages in seeding, culti- 
vating and caring for crops. A large a niount of grain and 
hay was ruined; potatoes on hundreds of acres rotted in the 

June, 1916 — June was the wet month of the year, the rainfall vary- 
ing from 6.38 inches to 8.29 inches. This record for June 
was equalled only in 1883 and 1903. 

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Jane and July, 1917 — In June it rained on 21 different days and 18 
in July — about a parallel to the rainfall in the same months, 



Summer, 1822 — The Settlevy published at Towanda, under date of 
August 31 says: ''It has been our unpleasant task to record 
more deaths within a few months than any other period of 
time of the same length for years. This is undoubtedly ow- 
ing to the peculiarity of the season — the extreme drought and 
heat which have so long prevailed. A parallel to it ts not in 
the recollection of the oldest inhabitant in the county. Week 
after week has passed away and not a drop of rain has 
reached us. The earth parched, meadows and pastures dried 
up, streams and springs, never before known to fail, now dry, 
cold chilling nights, a continuous gloomy and sultry heat 
during the day, has been the peculiar character of tlie whole 
season. For 40 days there has not been a cloud in the hori- 

June, 1853 — The heat is intense, the dust mulitudinous and the 
parched and thirsty earth fairly gasps for moisture. The 
fields are becoming brown and the trees covered with a coat- 
ing of dust. We hear the farmers speculating as to t^e 
probable injury already done to the crops by the protracted 
drought. — Reporter, June 25. 

Autumn, 1854 — The drought which has prevailed in this section for 
weeks is becoming terrible in its inconvenience and from ita 
effect upon vegetation. Corn, [potatoes and buckwheat in the 
neighborhood ofTowanda are almost a failure. The mead- 
ows and pastures are brown and sere, while the atmosphere 
is filled with dust and smoke from numerous fires upon the 
mountains. The memory of the oldest inhabitant has no 
recollection of the like. — Reporter, Sept. 2. The following 
remarkable circumstance is related by Albert T. Lilley: 

'*Great scarcity of water caused f ro^s to congregate at the springs that had 
not dried up. A large spring on the Robert Lilley farm near Alba was so filled 
with fiogs the water was unfit for use so it became necessary to destroy the frogs. 
To do this a barrel was placed near the i^pring and pailful after pailful of water 

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and frogs were poured into It. Tbe openings between the stayes were suffici- 
ently lar((e to let the water flow out freely, but small enough to prevent (he frogs 
from escaping. The captured frogs more than half fllled the barrel. At that 
time fross were not considered edible, so to destroy them a half bushel of hard- 
wood ashes was poured over them. Dettrucciou was slow but sure,*' 

Autumu, 1862 — The drought has been very general throughout the 
county and much complaint is made of the damage done. — 
Reporter, Sept. 4. 

Winter, 187l-*72 — The winter was memorable for a severe and pro- 
tracted drouglit. Springs, wells and creeks went dry. Many 
people were compelled to melt ice to get water for ordinary 
purposes, and stock had to be driven long distances for water, 
or supplied from water drawn in barrels. 

Autumn, 1879 — A drougljt prevailed throughout the county and a 
large section of country from August until the fore part of 
November Wells, springs and smaller streams dried up and 
the Susquehanna river was never known to have been lower. 
Many farmers were required to drive their stock long distances 
for water. Pastures were ruined and stock sustained by feed- 
ing hay and grain. Great damage was done by forest fires. 

Summer and Autumn, 1881 — July was an exceedingly hot month 
and the weather continued notably warm without rain through 
August and September; on August 5 local thermometers stood 
at lO'ji, the same as on July 10. The drought prevailed from 
the first week in July till the 13th of October. It was wide- 
spread and extended over other states, causing much damage 
and suffering; corn and buckwheat especially were ruined. 
Wells, springs and creeks dried up and there was virtually a 
water famine. The Susquehanna river had not been known 
to be so low in 41 years. Much damage was done by forest 

Summer, 1894 — June was one of the warmest in years and July no- 
table for electrical storms, during which many barns were 
struck and burned and horses and cattle killed. August 
with the exception of August, 1881, was the driest in 16 

' years. Thus a wet May was followed by three months of se- 

vere drought, causing short crops and scant pastures. 

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1900 — Summer and fall notably dry. 

Spring, 1903 — A.' drought of 53 days without rain ended in June. 

August, 1907 — Known as the ^'August drought" was one of the se- 
verest ever experienced in tbi£> section of country. 

Autumn, 1908 — The Susquehanna river is below the lowest point 
and is still going down (Sept. 17). The oldest inhabitant 
says this surpasses all dry records. The drought which has 
prevailed in this section since August 23 was broken Septem- 
ber 28 (period of 35 days) when rain fell. — Star. 

1909 — A severe drought from the middle of October till the middle 
of December. 

Extreme Low Water. 

1871 — Susquehanna river in August. 

1879 — Susquehanna river in September. 

1881 — Susquehanna river in all Autumn. 

1900 — Towanda Creek in September. 

1907 — Susquehanna river and Sugar Creek in August. 

1908 — Susquehanna river in September. 

1909 — Susquehanna river in Autumn. 

1913 — Susquehanna river in September. 

Distinguishing Feature of Years. 

1816 — The Year Without a Summer was the name given to 1816 
for in every month there was a sharp or killing frost. Janu- 
ary was mild as was February with the exception of a few 
days. The greater part of March was cold and boisterous. 
April opened warm but grew colder as it advanced* ending 
with snow and ice and winter cold In May ice formed half 
an inch thick, buds and flowers were frozen and corn killed. 
Frost, ice and snow were common in June. Almost every 
green thing was killed and the fruit was nearly all destroyed. 
July was accompanied with frost and ice. In August ice 
formed half an inch thick. A cold northwest wind prevailed 
all summer. Corn was so frozen that much of it was cut 

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down and dried for fodder. The first two weeks of Septem- 
ber were mild and the balance of the month cold with frost, 
ice forming to the thickness of halt an inch. October was 
more than usually cold with frost and ice. November was 
cold and blustering with snow enough for good sleighing. 
, December was quite mild and comfortable. The destruction 
of crops was so general thut a famine almost resulted. Early 
settlers referred to this unfruitful year as '^eighteen hundred 
and starve to death." 

1822^ Memorable as the "summer of drought and deaths." 

1844 — Year of the great September snowstorm. 

1858 — Summer notable for many and destructive hailstorms and se- 
vere June drought. 

1853-54 — Winter distinguished for the total absence of snow. 

1865— "Spring of the late break-up"; people continued to cross the 
river on sleighs at Towanda until April 6, when the ice 
broke up and passed out. 

1857 — Notable for blizzards in January making drifts house-top high, 
and continuous rain from spring break-up until July. 

1859 — Memorable as the year of the "cold summer." There is said 
to have been a heavy or killing frost every month in the 
year. In some places tliere was a flurry of snow on the 4th 
of July, and so cold that persons wore overcoats at tlie cele- 

1862-63 — "Th6 winter of much snow with little sleighing." 

1865 — Fall of remarkable mildness, followed by a winter with too 
little snow for sleighing. 

1872 — Summer memorable for numerous electrical storms during 
which many buildings were struck by lightning and hurnec'. 

1875-76 — Notable warm winter when farmers did most of their 
spring plowing in January and February. 

1885 — Year of the great three-days' November snowstorm. 

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1888— Year of the great March blizzard. 

1890-'91 — Long winter of deep snow. 

1893 — Year of unequalled, terrible and destructive windstorms. The 
most notable of these was the widely disasterous storm of 
September 7; next the terrific all-day gale of April 20; the 
nights of horror, February 19 and October 13; the severe 
winds of May 23, July 5 and 18 and August 28. There were 
also destructive electrical storms in June and July. 

1894 — Notably warm June; destructive electrical storms in July; 
severe drought in August. 

1895 — Great 4-days' February snowstorm and blizzard, making 
drifts 10 and 15 feet deep and filling the roads everywhere. 
In cuts the snow was from 20 to 30 feet and in one place 40 
feet deep. Such hills of snow had never before been known. 

1898 — Numerous destructive electrical storms in July, August and 
September. Those of August 24 and September 4 were nota- 
bly severe. 

1904 — January notable for the coldest weather ever recorded in the 

1908-'09 — Notably warm winter without sleighing and ground only 
slightly frozen. 

1911 — Summer noted for the great destruction of buildings and 
other property throughout the county; the electrical storms 
being less terrific but more effectual than usual. 

1912-'13 — A remarkably warm winter and almost snowless. Along 
the Susquehanna at no time did the temperature reach zero 
nor was there a day's sleighing. The month of January was 
the warmest January in over a century. 

1915 — The unparalled rains of 40 days in July and August. 

19ie» — March was the record month, being the coldest 3rd month in 
62 years and with a snow-fall of four times the average for 
March in the same period. 

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Local Elevationa Above Sea Level. 


Mt. Pisgah, Springfield t;!260 

Summity R. R beyond Wheelerville (Lycoming Co.) 2107 

Wheelerville, R. k (Lycoming Co.) 2062 

Barclay, Summit, Carbon Run 2041 

Barclay, Summit, old mines 2038 

Armenia, Summit 2000 

Summit, near H. T. Newman's, Warren 1810 

Chaffee's Corners, Pike 1576 

Summit, Towanda Hills — 1450 

Red Rocks, Wysox 1350 

Table Roijk, opposite Towanda 1317 

Summit, near Table Rock — 1340 

Mt Lake, Burlington— 1325 

Lake Wesauking, Wysox .. 1200 

LeRaysville (village) ... 1450 

Orwell Hill (village). 1370 

Laquin (village), Barclay 1370 

Towanda, front Court House, Main St 732 

Wyalusing (village) 680 


Wyalusing 674.2 

Homets Ferry ._^ 689 8 

Rummerfield.. 696.2 

Stonding Stone 702. 

Wysauking 718.5 

Towanda 737.8 

Ulster 742.8 

Athens (bridge) 778.8 

Waverly, N. Y 824. 


Monroeton Junction 702 

Wilcox Station 1123 

New Albany..-. - -.... 1197 

Laddsburg , 1330 

Dushore (Sullivan Co.) 1593 

Bernice (Sullivan Co.)..^ 1858 

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Towanda, Upper Depot 788 

Towanda, Barclay Depot 725 

Monroeton JuDction 762 

Powell (Greenwood) 823 

Lamoka 1042 

Foot^f.Plane - 1271 


Grover „ 1220 

Canton 1261 

Minnequa 1230 

Alba-- -. 1349 

Granville — -.. 1368 

Granville Summit 1393 

Troy — 1148 

Columbia X Roads 1148 

Gilletts 1187 

N. Y. State Line 1106 

Visitation of PestB. 

At different periods great destruction lias been caased by pests 
which have visited this section. 

Locusts — In 1800 locusts appeared and devoured every green thing 
before them. At first a worm that worked itself out of the 
earth in vast numbers appeared. The ground was alive with 
them. A shell next formed, which after a. little time, opened 
on the back and the locust came out with wings and legs, re- 
sembling the gras8hopp>er, but much larger. They soon flew 
to the trees and bushes in multitudes and devoured the foli- 
Hge, but passed away the same season. They also swarmed 
throughout the wilderness in 1795, 1814, 1829 and 1846. 

Squirrels — In pioneer times, every seven or eight years^ at irregu- 
lar intervals in summer, a great army of black and grey 
squirrels invaded the wilderness from the northwest; a host 
that no man could number. They were traveling east in 
search of food. Crows and squirrels became such a menace 

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to the crops of the farmer, that au Act was passed March 4th, 
1807, giving a bounty of 3 cents for each crow scalp and 1 J 
cent for each squirrel scalp; these scalps to be received in lieu 
of monej' for taxes, if delivered to the Treasurer before the 
1st day of November of each year. In 1811 black squirrels 
were very numerous; again in the fall of 1842 they swarmed 
through the wilderness in myriads. In 1868 in Bradford 
county and a large section of country, black and grey squir- 
rels swarmed the woods, wheat fields and barns — they could 
l>e found everywhere. In some places fields of gram were 
literally destroyed by them. Hunters would kill all they 
could carry in a few hours. The squirrels disappeared as 
strangely as they had come, and since then there have 
been no remarkable visitations by them. 

Weevil — In 1856 the wheat crop was almost entirely ruined by the 
weevil. In many sections the grain harvested was not suffic- 
ient for the next years seeding. In consequence, for a j'ear 
at least, the people had to subsist almost wholly on corn and 
rye bread. 

Caterpillars — The Reporter of September 11, 1856 says: "In 
several parts of the county an army of caterpillars is stripping 
the oak trees of their leaves, leaving not a vestige of foliage 
in their devastating march. We do not know what effect tliey 
may have upon the existance of the trees, but they certainly 
present a sorry spectacle, stripped as bare as if they had passed 
through the season of *8ere and yellow leaf.' " 

Army Worm — The army worm has visited this section at different 
times and ruined crops. In August, 1880 he appeared in 
great force in Orwell, Windham, Wells and other towns and 
destroyed hundreds of acres of oats. 

Grasshoppers and Potato Bugs — These pests at irregular intervals 
have appeared in great numbers and caused damage and ruin 
of crops. 

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1806 — The Dabk Day or total eclipse ot June 6, filled the people 
with terror. Birds sang their e\'eiiii)g songs disappeared and 
became silent; fowls went to roost; cattle sought the barn- 
yard and candles were lighted in tlie house. Many persons 
believing that the end of all things had come hetool^ them- 
selves to religious devotions. 

1819 — The Second Dark Day in this section occurred October 23, 
when between 9 and 10 o'clock in the morning the darkness 
was so great that the pioneers had to light the old lamps or 
blaze the pitch-pine knot. 

1833 — The Meteoric Shower, a gran<l celestial phenomenon, was 
exhibited in the heavens on the morning of November 13. 
This beautiful and wonderful exhibition of ''falling stars," or 
''shooting stars,'' as sometimes called, was seen and is yet re- 
membered by some of the oldest inhabitants. 

1868 — The Meteoric Shower, predicted by the astronomers, began 
about midnight, Friday, November ISth and as the sky was 
quite clear the display was brilliant and complete. Shortly 
after appearing it assumed the shape of an S and then took 
the form of an 8. Other appearances of equal brilliancy and 
duration were seen about the same time by other observers, 
the display lasting until near daylight, the meteors falling on 
an average of over one a minute. — Reporter. 

1873 — A Singular Auroral Display was visible about 10 o'clock 
on the night of June 26. It was in the form of a narrow rib- 
lion of light that stretched with varying brilliancy from the 
southeast to the northwest portions of the heavens and from 
horizon to horizon. It was a remarkable phenomenon and 
attracted the notice of many people. — Reporter. 

188G — Akrolite Falls at Troy. — '^On October 10th while walking 
along the north side of Redington avenue I heard a loud, 
rumbling sound at my back and immediately a large aero- 
lite struck the plank walk at my side. The concussion shook 
the ground for rods around and should judge that it weighed 

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at least 150 pounds and was quite hot. A most remarkable 
thing in connection with the phenomenon was that the fall- 
ing mass was accompanied by a large volume of water that 
dashed over the fence and walk. The mass was of an enlo- 
gated spherical shape of dark neutral tint and had a mephitic 
cnlor. It appeared to have some tin and iron in its composi- 
tion with traces of organic matter. — Oliver Erington." 

1892 — WoNDEHFUL DISPLAY OF THE AuuoRA BoREALis on the eve- 
ning of July 16 wus the culmination of a remarkable mag- 
netic storm. The peculiarity of tlie display, which was a 
very grand one, was the rapid flashing and upward move- 
ment of the waves of light. So rapid were the vibrations 
that the eye could barely follow them, and the whole tent of 
the firmament seemed to be violently shaken as by a rushing 
gale. At times, the spars of light would ari-ange themselves 
about the zenith, in a sort of star-shaped crown, which would 
fade away while the stars shone with undimmed luster above. 
The display lasted several hours, and at times was awe-in- 
spiring as the broad waves rolled rapidly in vibratory flashes 
towards the zenith. — Troy Gazette. 

1907— A Meteorite, weighing 6 ounces, early in October, fell near 
the home of Thomas B. Spencer in Burlington and being seen 
by him was found embedded in the earth. 

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Development of Agricukure 

The American Indians were the original agriculturists of Brad- 
ford county. While it is true that these people subsisted chiefly on 
game and when hard pressed for food ate acorns, nuts, wild berries 
and the inside bark of the birch, they cleared patches along the river 
and the larger creeks which were planted to corn, squashes and to- 
bacco by the squaws. Corn was the dependable crop and was culti- 
vated and husbanded with great care. The Indian was also familiar 
with the ''sweet of the maple" and made sugar in a crude form. In 
1752 John Papunhank, a Monsey chief of the Delaware tribe, with 
a number of bis people settled on the Wyalusing flats. Here the 
land was cleared and corn, beans, squashes and pumpkins raised in 
abundance. The Moravian mission was established at Papunhank's 
village in 1765. Through the efforts of the Missionaries the settle- 
ment became a thriving agricultural community. The Mission In- 
dians before their removal in 1772 had several hundred acres cleared 
on which they raised corn, oats, other grains, hay and vegetables; 
also had started a peach and apple orchard and owned horses, cat- 
tle, sheep, hogs and fowls. In the spring-time large quantities of 
maple sugar were made at the sugar-camps. After the first year of 
the Mission, the Indians raised not only an abundance for them- 
selves but were able to sell to their neighbors and others who in 
times of scarcity came more than 100 miles to Wyalusing to be sup- 
plied. At Ulster, the chief business of the Christian Indians was 
raising cattle. They had large herds, and their meadows and pas- 
ture fields extended up to Tioga. 

Chiefly agriculture was the object to be attained by the pioneers 
in coming into the wilderness of Bradford county. Their first crop 
was corn, generally with some potatoes. With the next acres cleared 
followed the introduction of wheat and rye, then oats, buckwheat, 
flax and hops. Pumpkins, squashes, cabbages, beans, peas and other 
vegetables adapted to new soil grew plenteously. Barley was the last 
of the cereals introduced and for many years was grown quite exten- 
sively. Hay has been an important product from the settlement of 
the county, and alfalfa an experimental crop since 1S99. Tobacco 
was but little grown by the pioneers while the production of maple 
sugar was extensively conducted. With the enlargement of their 
fields and crops, the pioneers added cattle, hoi-ses, sheep, hogs and 

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iowls. In a few years the county became well stocked and in time 
one of the leading agricultural and dairying counties in the state. 
The amount of yearly productions of Bradford county and the in- 
crease or decrease are shown in the following table from the census 
of 1840, 1850, 1870 and 1910 : 

Acres, improved 

Acres, unimproved 

Value of land, dollars.., 

Value of live stock, dollars.. 

Number of horses 

Number of neat cattle 

Number of sheep 

Number of swine 

Bushels of wheat 

Bushels of rye 

Bushels of corn 

Bushels of oats 

Bushels of potatoes. 

Bushels of barley 

Bushels of buckwheat 

Tons of hay 

Pounds of butter 

Pounds of cheese 

Pounds of maple sugar 

Pounds of honey 

Pounds of wool 

Gallons of milk sold 







































































In addition to the foregoing the census of 1910 famishes the 

following important facts : 

Number of farms 5,824 Pounds butter sold 1,926,588 

Averaf^e acres per farm 107 Pounds butter fat sold 2,289,641 

Average value of land per acre $15.27 Value of dairy products $1,840,088 

Land area of county, acres 732,800 Value poultry, all kinds ... $188,467 

Land in farms, acres 623,303 Val. poultry and eKfi:s produced $597,127 

Value of all farm property.... $23,826,741 Value of vejfeUbles $428,126 

Number dairy cows 40,786 Value of fruits and nuts $188,252 

Gallons milk produced 12,942.219 Pounds of tobacco 328.753 

Gallons cream sold 113.375 Gallons maple syrup 22,516 

For the past 50 years Bradford county has been the greatest 
buckwheat producing area in the United States. 

Dairying holds its place as the leading industry. Less butter 
is made for the reason tliat oue-third of the milk is sold and shipped 
to the cities. 

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Potatoes are a leading crop and the acreage being gradually in- 
creased; 7,336 acres were under cultivation in 1909, producing an 
average yield of 100 bushels to the acre. 

Wheat, corn, oats and barley are less extensively grown than 
in 1870. Tobacco reached its maximum in 1900 when 1,693,820 
pounds were grown. 

Politicdl Divisions, History and Government. 

In 1615 Stephen Brule', a Frenchman, employed as an ex- 
plorer and Indian interpreter by Samuel Champlain, visited the ter- 
ritory of what is now Bradford county, and was the first white man 
to set foot upon Pennsylvania soil. The first permane^it settlement in 
the county was made near the mouth of Towanda Creek in 1770 by 
Rudolph Fox, a German Palatinate, from the Schoharie Valley. 
The growth of the county in population during a space of 140 vears 
is shown by the following enumerations : 

}l^ 48,734 

]f^^' 53.204 

]^ 58,541 

1890 , 59,2aS 

J^ 59,403 

191^. 54,626 

3790 1,100 

1800 3,500 

1810 6,288 

1820 11,554 

ia30 19,746 

1840 32,769 

1850 42,831 

Bradford county was formed as Ontario county February 21, 
1810, by an Act of Assembly, from the counties of Luzerne and Ly- 
coming. By Act of March 24, 1812, the county was organized for 
judicial purposes and the name changed from Ontario to Bradford in 
honor of Col. William Bradford, the first attorney-generalof Penn- 
sylvania and the second attorney-general of the United States under 
President Washington. Tlie first election was held Tuesday, Octo- 
ber 13, 1812, at which time Abner C. Rockwell was chosen sheriflf, 
Wra. Myer, Justus Gaylord, Jr. and Joseph Kinney, county commis- 
sioners, and John Horton, coroner. The other first officers were ap- 
pointed by the Governor, being John B. Gibson, president judge, 
George Scott and John McKean, associate judges, and Charles F. 
Welles, clerk of the several courts, prothonotary, register of wills and 
recorder of deeds. The first court was convened Monday, January 

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18, 1813 at the "Red Tavern" of William Means in Towanda, Jadgt 
Gibson and his associates presiding. 

The county-seat, Towanda, was chosen the seat of justice in 
1812 and here the public business has since been transacted. The 
present court-house (the 3rd), accommodating all the county offices, 
was erected in 1896--'97 and the first court held therein November 
4, 1897. The business, or government of the county, is vested in 
the following officers elected by the people : 

President Judge; term 10 years; salary $6,000 per annum. 

Sheriff; term 4 years: compensation — feas. 

Prothonotary and Clerk of Courts; term 4 years; compensation 
— fees. 

Register and Recorder; term 4 years; compensation — fees. 

County Treasurer; term 4 years; compensation — percentages 
and fees. 

S County Comm'tPsioners and Overseers of the Poor ; term 4 years; 
salary $1,800 yer annum.* 

S County Auditors ; term 4 years; compensation — $3 per day 
and travel fee 6 cents per mile.* 

District Attorney] term 4 years; salary — $1,250 per annum. 

2 Jury Commissioners ; term 4 years; compensation — $3 per day 
and travel fee 4 cents per mile. 

Coroner; terra 4 years; compensation — fees. 

County Surveyor ; term 4 years; office obsolete — no salary or 

County Superintendent of Schools ; term 3 years; salary $2,500 
per annum. This ollicer is chosen by a convention of school direc- 
tors of the county and his salary fixed by that body. Beginning 
with the next election, April, 1918, his term will be 4 years. There 
are two assistant superintendents, appointed, whose salary is $1,800 
per annum each; terra same as superintendent. 

Sealer of Weights ond Measures is appointed by the County 
Coraraissioners for a terra until dismissed; salary $1,000 per annum; 
has separate office in court house. 

♦ By Act of 1917 the salary of the next County Commissioners chosen will be 
12,200 per annum and the compenbation of the next County Auditors |5 per day. 

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Albany — Area, 36 square miles; settled in 1801 by Ephraim Ladd 
and SODS from Connecticut ; organized 1824 from Asylum ; 
population 1107 in 1910. 

Armenia — Area, 17 square miles; first improvements made by a Mr. 
Wiliams in 1808, tbe first permanent settler being Newton 
Harvey in 1822 ; organized 1843 from Canton and Troy ; 
population 292 in 1910« 

Asylum — Area, 24 square miles; the first Settler was Peter Shoefelt, 
a German Palatinate from the Schoharie Valley in 1770, fol- 
lowed by Samuel Cole and sons from Massachusetts in 1775; 
organized 1814 from Wyalusing; population 761 in 1910. 

Athens — Area, 49 square miles; settled in 1783 by Benjamin Pat- 
terson, a Revolutionary soldier from Connecticut; organized 
1797 from Tioga; population 1562 in 1910. 

Barclay — Area, 20 square miles; history of this mountainous town 
begins with 1812, when coal was accidentally discovered 
there by Absalom Carr, a hunter; organized 1867 from Frank- 
lin; population 926 in 1910. 

Burlington — Area, 24 square miles; settled in 1790 by Isaac De- 
Witt, Abraham DeWitt and James McKean; organized 1802 
from Wysox; population 662 in 1910. 

Canton — Area, 38 square miles; settled in 1796 by Ezra Spalding, 
a Revolutionary soldier from Connecticut, Jonas Gere, Jona- 
than Prosser, Gershara Gilktt ai»d a Mr. Cook; organized 
1804 from Burlington; population 1646 in 1910. 

Columbia — Area, 43 square miles; the first attempt at settlement 
was in 1795 by a Mr. Doty, the first permanent settlers were 
Nathaniel Morgan, Eli Parsons and Eli Parsons, Jr. from 
Connecticut in 1799; organized 1S13 from Smithfield; popu- 
lation 976 in 1910. , 

Franklin — Area, 15 square miles; settled in 1794 by Daniel Wilcox 
from Massachusetts and the Aliens, David, David, Jr., Stephen 
and Daniel, in 1796; organized 1810 from Towanda and 
Canton; population 450 in 1910. 

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Qrakville — Area, 'AZ square miles; settled in 1799 by Jeremiah 
Taylor from Massachusetts; organized 1831 from Burlington, 
Canton, Franklin and Troy; population 864 in 1910. 

Herrick — Area, 20 square miles; settled in 1808 by Ephraim and 
Nathaniel Piatt, brothers, from Connecticut; organized 1838 
from Orwell, Pike, Wyalusing and Wysox; population 651 in 

LeRoy — Area, 44 square miles; settled in 1795 by Hugh and Ster- 
ling Holcomb, brothers, from Connecticut; organized 1835 
from Canton and Franklin; population 714 in 1910. 

Litchfield — Area, 30 square miles; settled in 1788 by Thomas 
Park, a native of Connecticut and Revolutionary soldier; or- 
ganized 1821 from Athens; population 709 in 1910. 

Monroe — Area, 36 square miles; the firptsettlers were Henry (John) 
Platner from the Wyoming Valley in 1779 and Samuel Cran- 
mer from New Jersey in 1789; organized 1821 from Towanda; 
population 1,118 in 1910. 

North Towanda — Area, 10 square miles; settled in 1785 by Ezra 
Rutty from Dutcliess county, N. Y.; Isaac Foster and sous, 
Abial and Rufus, from Massachusetts, Jonas Smith and Dan- 
iel Guthrey from Connecticut; organized 1851 from Towanda; 
population 591 in 1910. 

Orw^ell — Area, 32 square miles; settled permanently in 1796 by 
Dan Russell from Connecticut; org;anized 1801 from Athens 
and Ulster; population 920 in 1910. 

Overton — Area, 40 square miles; settled in 1810 by Daniel Hev- 
erly, a Pennsylvania German from Lehigli county and his 
sons, John, Daniel, Jacob, Christian and Henry; organized 
1853 from Albany, Franklin and Monroe; population 595 in 

Pike — Area, 43 square miles; settled permanently in 1790 by James 
Rockwell from Connecticut; organized 1813 from Rush and 
Orwell; population 1,127 in 1910. 

Ridgebery — Area, 38 square miles; Adam Ridenbar was already 
located in the town when Isaac Fuller and Joel Campbell 
came as settlers from Orange county, N. Y. in 1805; organ- 
ized 1818 from Athens and Wells; population 858 in 1910. 

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Rome — Area, 30 square miles; settled in 1796 by Nathaniel P. 
Moody, a Revolutionary soldier from Massachusetts; organ- 
ized 1831 from Orwell, Sheshequin and Wysox; population 
684 in 1910. 

Sheshequin — Area, 35 square miles; settled in 1783 by Gen. Simon 
Spalding and a band of patriots from the Wyoming Valley, 
consisting of Joseph Kinney, Thomas Baldwin, Capt. Stephen 
Fuller, Hugh Forseman and Benjamin Cole; organized 1820 
from Ulster and Wysox; population 1053 in 1910. 

Smithfield — Area, 42 square miles; first improvements made by 
Isaiah Grover in 1792, the first settler being Reuben Mitchell 
from Rhode Island in 1794; organized 1809 from Ulster; 
population 1343 in 1910. 

Socth Creek — Area, 31 square miles; improvements had been 
made and there was living in the town, Benj. Seeley, Solo- 
mon Bovier, Aaron Stiles and a Mr. Potter, when Jesse 
Moore arrived in 1804 from Orange county, N. Y. and be- 
came the first permanent settler; organized 1835 from Ridge- 
bury and Wells; population 740 in 1910. 

Springfield— Area, 44 square miles; settled in 1803 by Capt. John 
Harkness, a Revolutionary soldier from Massachusetts; orga- 
nized 1813 from Smithfield; population 1067 in 1910. 

Standing Stone — Area, 17 square miles; settled in 1774 by Lemuel 
Fitch from Coiuiecticut and Anthony Rummerfield from Al- 
bany, N. Y.; (organized 1841 from Herrick, Wyalusing and 
Wysox; population 603 in 1910. 

Terry — Area, 34 square miles; first improvements made in 1774 by 
by Benjamin Budd from Long Island, settled permanently in 
1787 by Jonathan Terry, a native of Connecticut, coming 
from the Wyoming Valley; organized 1859 by taking the 
place of Asylum and Durell changed to Asylum; population 
1047 in 1910. 

TowANDA — Area, 15 square miles; settled in 1770 by Rudolph Fox> 
a German Palatinate, from the Schoharie Valley; organized 
1808 from Wysox and Wyalusing; population 828 in 1910. 

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Troy — Area, 42 square miles; settled in 1795 by Nathaniel Allen, 
a Revolutionary soldier from Long Island; organized 1815 
from Burlington; population 1227 in 1910. 

TuscARORA — Area, 29 square milea; settled in 1775 by Joseph 
Wharton; organized lS29 from Wyalusing; population 956 
in 1910. 

Ulster — Area, 16 square miles; the first permanent settlers were 
Capt Benjamin Clark and Ad rial Simons, Revolutionary sol- 
diers, from Connecticut in 1785; organized 1797 frqm Tioga; 
population 952 in 1910. 

Warren — Area, 44 square miles; settled in 1797 by William Ar- 
nold, William Harding and Thomas Gibson from Rhode 
Island; organized 1813 from Rush and Orwell; population 
871 in 1910. 

Wklls — Area, 35 square miles; settled in 1792 by Rev. John Smith 
from Massachusetts; organized 1813 from Athens; population 
738 in 1910. 

West Burlington — Area, 34 square miles; settlement same as Bur- 
lington from which organized in 1855; population 711 in 

WiLMOT — Area, 50 square miles; first improvement made in 1775 
by Edward Hicks, a squatter, from Dutchess county, N. Y. 
and settled in 1786 by Thomas Keeney from Connecticut; 
organized 1849 from Asylum; population 1184 in 1910. 

Windham — Area, 35 square m.iles; settled in 1800 by Thomas Fox, 
a Revolutionary soldier from Connectictit aiul Daniel Doane 
from Massachusetts; organized 1813 from Orwell; population 
754 in 1810. 

Wyalusing — Area, 26 square miles; occupied by the Moravians 
from 1765 to 1772, the first settlers being James Wells and 
Capt. Robert Carr in 1774; organized 3 790 from Stoke; pop- 
ulation 1114 in 1910. 

Wysox — Area, 20 square miles; settled in 1770 by Isaac and Her- 
man Vai>Valkonburg, Sebastian and John Strope, Holland 
people from Catskill, N. Y.; orgain'zed 1795 from Tiogu; pop- 
ulation 1190 in 1910. 

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Local Government. 

The affairs of each township are conducted by the following offi- 
cers chosen by the voters : 

S Supervisors who choose tbwnship secretary and treasur&r; term, 
4 years. 

S Auditors; term, 4 years. 

^ Justices of thePeace; termy 6 yesiTB. 

Constable] term, 4 years. ^ 

Collector of Taxes; term, 4 years. 

Assessor (township) or District Assessor (ezch election district); 
term, 4 years. 

5 Scliool Directors] term, 6 years. 

Judge and ^ Inspectors of Elections (townships or district); term, 
4 years each. 


TowANDA — Taken from Towanda tpwnship; incorporated March 5, 
1828; population 4281 in 1910. 

Athens — Taken trom Athens township; incorporated March 26/ 
1831; population 3796 in 1910. . * 

Troy — Taken from Troy township; incorporated April 11, 1845; 
population 1288 in 1910. 

Sylvania— Taken from Columbia township; incorporated May 6, 
1853; population 217 in 1910. 

Burlington— Taken from Burlington township; incorporated Feb- 
ruary 14, 1854; population 142 in 1910. 

MoNROK — Taken from Monroe township; incorporated May 19, 1855; 
population. 403 in 1910. 

Rome — Taken from Rome township; incorporated February 3, 1858; 
population 222 in 1910. 

LeRaysvillr — Taken from Pike township; incorporated May 16, 
1863; population 320 in 1910. 

Alba — Taken from Canton township; incorporated February 4, 
1864; population 150 in 1910. 

Canton — Taken from Canton township; incorporated May 10, 1864; 
population 1637 in 1910. 

South Waverly — Taken from Athens township; incorporated Jan- 
uary 28, 1878; population 1084 in 1910. 

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New Albany — Taken from Albany township; incorporated Decem- 
ber 6, 1879; population 418 in 1910. 

Wyalusing — Taken from Wyalusing township; incorporated Febru- 
ary 16, 1887. 

Sayre — Taken from Athens township; incorporated January 27, 
1891; population 0426 in 1910. 

LocaJ Government. 

Borough government is similar to that of townships and is in 
the hands of the following officers chosen by the people : 

Burgess; term, 4 years. 

Councilmen] term, 4 years. 

1^ Justices of the Peace; terra, 6 year?. 

Collector of Taxes; term, 4 years. 

Assessor (borough), or Ward Assessor (each ward); term, 4 years. 

High Constable; terra, 4 years. 

Constable (borough), or Ward Constable (each ward); term, 4 

.i Auditors; t«rra, 4 years. 

J School Directors; term, i\ years. 

Judge and 2 Inspectors of Elections (borough or ward); term, 4 
years each. 

Election Districts 

Bradford eoui»ty is divided into 72 election districts as follows : 

Alba borough Ridfj^ebery township 

Albany township Rome borough 

Armenia township Rome township 

Asylum township Sayre borough — 1st Ward 

Athens borough— 1st Ward 8ayr« borough— 2nd Ward 

Athens borough— 2nd Ward Sayre borough— Hrd Ward 

Athens borough -3rd Ward Sayre borough -4th Ward 

Athens borough — 4th Ward Sheshequin township 

Athens township— 1st District Smithtield township 

Athens township — 2nd District South Creek township 

Athens township— 3rd District South Waverly borough 

Athens township- 4th District Springfield township 

Barclay township Standing Stone township 

Burlington borough Sylvania borough 

Burlington township Terry township 

J^irlington, West, township Towand a borough- lat Ward • 

Canton borough — 1st Ward Towanda borough — 2nd Ward 

Canton borough— 2nd Ward Towanda borough — 3rd Ward 

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Canton township—Ist District 

CJanton township— 2nd District 

Columbia township— 1st District 

Columbia township— 2nd District 

Franklin township 

Granville township 

Uerrick township 

LeRa3>sville borough 

fjoRoy township 

Liitchfield township 

Monroe borough 

Monroe township— Ist District 

Monroe township— 2nd District 

New Albany borough 

Orwell township 

Overton township 

Pike township— 1st District 

Pike township^2nd District 


Towanda township 

Towanda, North, township 

Troy borough 

Troy township— 1st District 

Troy township— 2nd District 

Tuscarora township— Eiastern District 

Tuscarora township — Western District 

Ulster township — 1st District 

Ulster township— 2nd District 

Warren township 

Wells township 

Wilmot township 

Windham township 

Wyalusing borough 

Wyal using township — 1st District 

Wyalusing township— 2nd District 

Wysox township^lst Disrtict 

Wysoz township— 2nd District 

' State and National Districts. 

Bradford county forms a Representative District and elects, 
every second year, 2 Members to the General Assembly of Pennsyl- 

Bradford, Susquehanna and Wyoming counties constitute the 

23rd Senatorial District and every four years elect one Member 

to tbe General Assembly of Pennsylvania. 

Senators and Members of the House of Representatives each receive $1,500 
for regular biennial sessions and milea$2:e to and from their homes at the rate of 
2o cents per mile; for a ^ipecial session they receive 1500 and mileage. 

Bradford, Susquebanna, Wayne and Wyoming counties consti- 
tute the 15th Congressional District and every second year elect 
one Member to tbe National House of Representatives. 

Salary of Representatives in Congress is $7,500 per annum and mileage of 20 
cents per mile each way. 

Political Parties. 

The different political parties tbat have existed and their 
strength in the county are shown in the following tables with tbe 
vote for President and Governor: 

Vote for President. 

181G — James Monroe, Democratic- Refuiblican 395 

Kufus King, Federalist . 82 

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1820 — James Monroe, Democratic-Republican 254 

No opposition. 

1824 — Andrew Jackson, Democratic-Republican 639 

John Q. Adams, Democratic- Republican 31 

William H. Crawford, Democratic-Republican 16 

1828~Andrew Jackson, Democratic-Republican 1562 

John Q. Adams, National-Republican 910 

1832 — Andrew Jackson, Democrat 1598 

Henry Clay, National-Republican 1221 

1836— William Henry Harrison, Whig -.1521 

Martin VanBuren, Democrat 1463 

1840 — Martin VanBuren, Democrat 2844 

William Henry Harrison, Whig 2631 

James G. Birney, Liberty, or Abolition 26 

1844— James K. Polk, Democrat 3496 

Henry Clay, Whig 3ir»4 

James G. Birney, Liberty, or Abolition r»3 

1848— Zachary Taylor, Whig 3272 

Lewis Cass, Democrat 1889 

Martin VanBuren, Free Soil i— 1780 

Gerritt Smith, Liberty-League 1 

1852— Franklin Pierce, Democrat 3930 

Winfield Scott, Whig 3526 

John P. Hale, Abolition '281 

1856— John C. Fremont, Republican 6969 

Jaraes Buchanan, Democrat 2315 

Millard Fillmore, American 71 

(]ierritt Smith, Abolition 7 

1860 — Abraham Lincoln, Republican 7091 

Douglas and Breckenridge (electors), Democratic 2197 

John Bell, Constitutional-Union 22 

1864 — Abraham Lincoln, Republican 7530 

George B. McClellan, Democrat 3195 

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1868— Ulysses S. Grant, Republican 7768 

Horatio Seymour, Democrat . 3538 

1872— Ulysses S. Grant, Republican 7452 

Horace Greeley, Democrat and Liberal 3563 

James Black, Prohibition 16 

1876— Rutherford B. Hayes, Republican 8008 

Samuel J. Tilden, Democrat 4989 

Green Clay Smith, Prohibition 40 

Peter Cooper, Greenback 59 

James B. Walker, American (Anti-Secret Society) 22 

1880— James A.Garfield, Republican .8152 

Winfield S. Hancock, Democrat 4950 

James B. Weaver, Greenback 496 

Neal Dow, Prohibition 67 

John W. Phelps, American (Anti-Secret Society) 17 

1884— James G. Blaine, Republican 8405 

Grover Cleveland, Democrat 4216 

John P. St. John, Prohibition 521 

Benjamin F. Butler, Greenback 304 

1888 — Benjamin Harrison, Republican 8762 

Grover Cleveland, Democrat 4553 

Clinton B. Fisk, Prohibition 536 

Alson J. Streeter, Union Labor 58 

1892 — Benjamin Harrison, Republican 8132 

Grover Cleveland, Democrat 4080 

John Bidwell, Prohibition 527 

James B. Weaver, People's Party 140 

Simon Wing, Social Labor 9 

1896— William McKinley, Republican 9216 

William J. Bryan, Democrat and Fusion 4211 

Joshua Levering, Prohibition > 380 

John M. Palmer, National- Democrat 58 

Charles H. Matchett, Social Labor 3 

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1900— William McKinley, Republican -8625 

William J. Bryan, Democrat and Fusion 4211 

John G. Wooley, Prohibition 610 

Joseph F. Maloney, Social Labor-.- 3 

Eugene V. Debs, Social Democrat 10 

Wharton Barker, People's 8 

1904— Theodore Roosevelt, Republican 8303 

Alton B. Parker, Democrat 2862 

Silas C. Swallow, Prohibition 741 

Charles H. Cor regan, Social Labor 8 

Eugene V. Debs, Socialist 79 

1908— William H. Taft, Republican 7997 

William J Bryan, Democrat 3758 

Eugene W. Chafin, Prohibition 651 

Eugene V. Debs, Socialist 190 

August Gilhaus, Social Labor 4 

Thomas L. Higsen, Independence 8 

JtJl2_William H. Taft, Republican 2039 

Woodrow Wilson, Democrat 2964 

Theodore Roosevelt, Prog., Wash., B. M 5370 

Eugene W. Chafin, Prohibition 343 

Eugene V. Debs, Socialist 238 

11)10— Charles E. Hughes, Republican 0172 

Woodrow Wilson, Democrat 364S 

J. Frank Hanly; Prohibition 707 

Allan J. Benson, Socialist 199 

Aitliur E. Reimer, Social Labor 3 

Vote For Governor. 

1S14 — Simon Snyder, Deniocrnt 331 

Isaac Wayne, Federal 277 

1817— William Findlay, Democrat 929 

Joseph Heister, Federal 333 

1820— William Findlay, Democrat 915 

Joseph Heister, Federal 'and Ind. Dem._-- 788 

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1823— J. Andrew Shulze, Democrat — 977 

Andrew Gregg, Federal 804 

1826 — J. Andrew Shulze, Democrat 1753 

John Sergeant, Federal 15 

Scattering 80 

1829— George Wolfe, Democrat— . 1219 

Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mason 333 

1832— George Wolfe, Democrat.. 1685 

Josepb Ritner, Anti-Mason 920 

1835 — George Wolfe, Independent Democrat 1504 

Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mason 1239 

Henry A. Muhlenburg, Democrat 406 

1838— David R. Porter, Democrat 2420 

Joseph Ritner, Anti-Mason 2219 

1841 — David R. Porter, Democrat 2705 

John Banks, Whig— 2143 

F. J. Lamoyne, Abolition 27 

1844 — Francis R. Shunk, Democrat 3525 

Joseph Markle, Whig 2967 

F.J. Lamoyne, Abolition 42 

lvS47 — Francis R Shunk, Democrat 3058 

James Irvin, Whig 2520 

F.J. Lamoyne, Abolition 36 

1848 -Morris Longstreth, Democrat 3748 

Wm. F. Johnston, Whig ...3241 

1S51 — William Bigler, Democrat 3688 

Wm. F. Johnston, Whig 3650 

1854 — James Pollock, Whig and American 4811 

Willia,m Bigler, Democrat 2369 

1857 — David Wilmot, Republican 5642 

Wm. F. Packer, Democrat 2082 

Isaac Hazelhurst, American 6 

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1860— Andrew G. CurUn, Republican -6664 

Henry D. Foster, Democrat 1 2328 

1863— Andrew G. Curtin, Republican 6722 

Geo. W. Woodward, Democrat 2954 

1866— John W. Geary, Republican - '^^. 7134 

Heister Clyroer, Democrat 3091 

1869— John W. Geary, Republican —6653 

Asa Packer, Democrat .. 3686 

1872— John F. Hartranft, Republican 7443 

Chas. R. Buckalew, Democrat 4434 

Simeon B.Chase, Temperance 4 

1875— John F. Hartranft, Republican 6526 

Cyrus L. Pershing, Democrat 4265 

Robert Audley Brown, Temperance 466 

1878— Henry M. Hoyt, Republican.. 6010 

Andrew A. Dill, Democrat 3132 

Samuel R. Mason, National-Greenback 1844 

Franklin H. Lane, Prohibition 105 

1882 — James A. Beaver, Republican 5199 

Robert E. Pattison, Democrat 4217 

J(»hn Stewart, Independent- Republican 1262 

Thos. A. Armstrong, Greenback 351 

A. C. Petitt, Temperance j 143 

1886 — James A. Beaver, Republican 7000 

Chauncey F. Black. Democrat 3860 

Chas. S. Wolfe, Temperance 643 

Robt. J. Houston, Greenback 43 

1890— Geo. W. Dclaraater, Republican 7426 

Robert E. Pattison, Democrat 5744 

John D. Gill, Prohibition J 299 

Theodore R. Rynder, Labor ^ 13 

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1894— Daniel H. Hastings, Republican 6698 

Wm. M. Singerly, Penoocrat 1904 

Chas. L. Hawley, Prohibition 556 

Jerome T. Ail man, People's 350 

Thos. H. Grundy, Social-Labor 3 

1898— Wm. A. Stone, Republican 5124 

Geo. A. Jenks, Democrat 2716 

Silas C. Swallow, Prohibition-Fusion 1784 

J. Mahlon Barnes, Social-Labor 9 

1902 — Samuel W. Pennypacker, Republican 4875 

Robert E. Pattison, Democrat 3644 

Silas C. Swallow, Prohibition 383 

William Adams, Social-Labor 10 

J. W. Slay ton, Socialist 8 

1906 — Lewis Emery, Jr, Democrat and Lincoln 5559 

Edwin S. Stuart, Republican 4371 

Homer L. Castle, Prohibition 431 

James A. Maurcr, Socialist 115 

John Desmond, Social-Labor 12 

1910— Wm. H. Berry, Keystone 4093 

John K. Tener, Republican -—3227 

Webster. Grim, Democrat - 536 

Madison F. Larkin, Prohibition 270 

John W. Slayton, Socialist 124 

George Anton, Independent 3 

1914 — Vance C. McCormick, Democrat and Washington 5068 

Martin G. Brumbaugh, Republican 3719 

Matthew H. Stevenson, Prohibition 365 

Wm. Draper Lewis, Roosevelt- Republican 191 

Joseph B.Allen, Socialist 112 

Chas. N. OTumm, Bull Moose ^.. 45 

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Historical and Geographical Review 

1. What is the oldest thing iu Bradford county? 

The rocks conaposing the earth's crust which was hundreds of 
thousands of years in forming. 

2. What was the greatest animal that ever existed here? 

The Masiodon, thousands of years ago. 

3. What is our oldest living thing? 

The few remaining giant oaks of the primeval forest. 

4. Who were the earliest pre-historic people to have inhabited this 
section of country? 

Tlie Mound Builders. 

5. What people did White Man find here? 
American Indians. 

6. Who was the first White Man to visit Bradford county? 
Stephen Brule', a Frenchman, employed as an explorer and In- 
dian interpreter by Samuel Champlain in 1615. 

7. What noted Indian tribe did Brule' find here? 

The Carantouannais, who with 800 warriors, occupied the pali- 
saded town of C^rbutouan at .what is known as Spanish Hill on 
the upper edge of the county. 

8. Who WHS the first White Mjim to [uiss down the Susquehanna? 

Brule' remained anion^ the Carantouannais during the winter 
of 1615-M6 and exploied the surrounding country. The next 
year (1616) he went down ihe Susquehanna*to the sea, being 
the first W^hite Man ever to ptrfoinj this journey. 

9. To what extent had Bradford county heen oicnpied by the In- 

dians, either by settlements or hunting groundb? 
Every township in the county. 

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10. How long did the Indian and his progenitors live here? 

It is not known, centaries have elapsed, possibly thousands of 
years, since this country was first peopled. Race had succeeded 
race, and villages gone to decay and ruin, hundreds of years be- 
fore the advent of White Man. 

11. Where within Bradford county was fought the most sanguinary 
battle between the Indians themselves? 

The Te-hot-ach-sees, one of the confederated tribes of the Susque- 
hannocks (Audastes), occupied the fortified village of Go-hon-to- 
to on the north bank of Wyalusing Creek near its junction with 
the Susquehanna river. Thej' were attacked by the Five Na- 
tions (Iroquois), who had the advantage of fire arras, and in a 
desperate battle the Susquehannocks were defeated and nearly 

12. What was known as the Great Indian Path ? 

The Great Warrior Path began at Tioga, crossing the Chemung 
at the rifts, near its junction with the North Branch; thence 
down the Susquehanna, passing to the east side of the river at 
fording place near Sheshequin; thence to Shamokin (Sudbury), 
where it was joined with the West Branch path and to the na- 
tions to the north and west. Over this path great Indian war 
parties moved to and fro in their own bloody struggles, continued 
three-quarters of a century in the Susquehanna valley. Later, 
captives taken at the frontier settlements were marched over this 
route to Tioga Point and Canada. 

13. What was the most important Indian town in Bradford count)? 

Diahoga (Athens) which was ttie southern door, or gateway, of 
the Long House of the Iroquois (Six Nations — Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondrtgas, Cayugas, Senecas and Tuscaroras). 

14. Where did the Indians have fortified towns in Bradford county? 
At Spanish Hill, North Towanda and Wyalusing. [We are of 
the opinion from all indications that there was another below 
Towanda on the west side of the river]. 

15. What refugees seeking homes in Pennsylvania passed through 

Bradford county 200 years ago? 

German Palatinates from the Schoharie Valley in 1723. At the 
headwaters of the Susquehanna, the women and children were 
placed upon ratts while the men drove the cattle and horses 

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along the shore. Id this manner the journey was made down 
the river to below Harrisburg whence the company proceeded 
to the Tulpehocken Valley in Berks county. 

16. Who was the Great Mediator between the Whites and Indians 

in this territory? 

Conrad Weiser, a German Palatinate, who for nearly fifty years 
was almost constantly among the Indians on various missions. 
His earliest visit to Bradford county was in 1725. 

17. Who were the first men of science to visit Bradford county? 
John Bartram, a celebrated English traveler and botanist, and 
Lewis Evans, geographer for the proprietaries of Pennsylvania, 
who in- company with Conrad Weiser made the trip on horse- 
back from Philadelphia in 1743. 

18. Where and by whom was the first religious sermon preached in 

Bradford county? 

At Wyalusing by Charles Frederick Post, a Moravian Mission- 
ary, who on the evening of May 20, 1760 preached to the Indi- 
ans in their own language. 

19. What Indian chief and his clan became Christians? 
Papunhank and his people who were settled at Wyalusing. 
Papunhank was baptized by Zeisberger, June 20, 1763, being 
the first time this holy ordinance was ever administered in the 

20. Where did the Moravians establish missions within Bradford 


At Wyalusing, 1765 and Ulster, 1766; churches, each contain- 
ing a bell, were erected at both places. 

21. Which mission became a thriving agriculture center? 

Frifdenshxitten at Wyalusing, where farming in the county was 
inaugurated on a systematic and extensive plan. 

22. How long did the missions at Wyalusing and Ulster continue? 
Seven years, or until 1772, when the Christian Indians and 
missionaries removed to the Tuscaroras Valley in Ohio. 

23. Who were the first traders with the Indians in this section? 

In 1765 the first trading post in Bradford county was estab- 
lished at Ulster by John Anderson and the Ogdens, who bought 
peltry of the Indians, or exchanged for rifles, ammunition, 
trinkets and rum. 

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24. When and where was the first Christian marriage, celebrated 
within Bradford county? 

December 23, 1766 at the Moravian church in Wyalusing, the 
couple being converts, named Thomas and Rachel. 

25. What is the oldest historic landmark in Bradford county? 

The great "standing-stone" on the Asylum side of the river, 
known to the Indians for centuries. 

26. By whom was the first permanent settlement made in Bradford 

Rudolph Fox, a German Palatinate from the Schoharie Valley, 
who in May, 1770, pitched his cabin near the mouth of To- 
wanda Creek. His daughter, Elizabeth, born September 1, 
1770, was the first white child to see the light in the county. 

27. Before' the day of roads how did the first settlers find their way 
into the county? 

By the streams in boats and following the Indian trails. 

28. How many families were living in Bradford county at the 

breaking out of the Revolutionary war? 

About 60 families had found their way into the county and were 
residing along the river in the great wilderness from Towanda 
to Quick's Bend. Most of these settlers Had established homes 
under Connecticut title, some under Pennsylvania title, a few 
had purchased from the Indians while others were here merely 
as *'squatters." 

29. What noted Indian Queen lived in Bradford county? Where 

was her village and what may be related of her? 
Queen Esther, who had a village a little above Milan on the 
west side of the river. She was present at the battle of Wyom- 
ing in July, 1778 and led the Indians into the fort after it was 
surrendered. •Prisoners, captured in the battle, were taken to 
the **Bloody Rock." where 14 of them are said to have received 
their death blow from a tomahawk in her hands. 

30. Were any white people ever killed by Indians in Bradford 

None of the settlers were killed by the Indians, but lives were 
lost during the Hartley and Sullivan expeditions and in the en- 
gagement with the Franklin rescuing party. 

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31. Where in Bradford county did the Indians, British soldiers and 
Tories rendezvous before their advance upon Wyoming in 1778? 
At Tioga Point, now Athens. 

32. What two noted military expeditions were made into Bradford 
county during the Revolutionary war? 

The Hartley expedition, 1778, and the Sullivan expedition, 

83. Where were battles fought between the Whites and Indians in 
Bradford county? 

In the Hartley expedition, 1778, in Canton township and at 
Indian Hill in Tuscarora township; in 1782 on Lime Hill, Wy- 
alusing township between the Indians and the Franklin rescuing 

34. When during the Revolution was one-third of the whole Amer- 

ican army encamped in Bradford county? 

At Tioga Point, 1779, being the combined forces of Generals 

Sullivan and Clinton, amounting to nearly 5,000 men. 

35. During what war and for what purpose was a fort erected ii; 
Bradford county? 

*'Fort Sullivan" at Tioga Point in the Revolutionary war, as a 
base of supplies, defense of the boats, protection of the women 
children, invalid soldiers and unnecessary baggage which had 
been left behind. 

36. When and for what purpose was a henl of 800 cattle driven 

through the wilderness of Bradford county? 
In 1779 to supply Sullivan's army with meat. 

37. When did a flotilla of more than 200 boats pass up and down 

the Susquehanna? 

1779 in the Sullivan campaign against the Itiflians, conveying 

the provisions, heavy artillery and other military stores. 

38. Did all ot General Sullivan's army, 1779, come up on the ea&t 
side of the river? 

One company of 60 men under Captain Gifford came up on toe 
west side of the river to prevent any surprise or interruption 
from that direction. 

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39. Where and by whom were the first English sermons preached in 
Bradford county? 

The first English sermons preached in Bradford county were by 
Rev. Wm. Rogers, a Baptist chaplain, in Sullivan's army at Ti- 
oga Point in 1779. Seven soldiers had been killed in the en- 
gagement at **Hogback Hill." Their bodies were brought back 
to camp and buried with military honors after a discourse by 
Parson Rogers. While waiting at Tioga Point Parson Rogers 
also delivered a discourse in Masonic form on the death of Cap- 
tain Davis and Lieutenant Jones, Freemasons, who had been 
killed near Wilkes-Barre. 

40. Where and when did a victorious army celebrate by a great 
* dance in Bradford county? 

1779, upon the return of Sullivan's army to Fort Sullivan (Ti- 
oga Point) after the successful raid into the Indian's country. 

41. Who, known as the "Indian Fighter" and buried in Bradford 
county, had a most thrilling experience at Wyoming? 
Joseph Elliott who settled at Merryall. He was captured at the 
battle of Wyoming and taken to the "Bloody Rock" to be exe- 
cuted, where he saw one after another of his friends despatched 
by a tomahawk in the hands of Queen Esther. He and Leb- 
beus Hammond by a concerted effort broke away from the sav- 
ages and escaped, Elliott by gaining and swimming the river 
and Hammond in the mountains. 

42. What Bradford county settlers were carried away by the In- 
dians during the Revolution? 

Rudolph Fox of Towanda, the Stropes and VanValkenburgs of 
Wysox, Lemuel Fitch and Richard Fitzgerald of Standing 
Stone, Nathan Kingsley and Amos York of Wyalusing. 

43. What thrilling act was performed in Wysox by Moses Van- 
Campen, the *'Indian Slayer"? 

VanCampen who was in captivity on the night of April 3, 1780, 
severed the cords binding him, fell upon his ten Indian captors 
and witli the aid ot his comrade, Peter Pence, slew nine of the 
savages and wounded the tenth who escaped. 

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44. What movement put an end to Indian occupancy in Bradford 


Colonel Hartley's expedition, 1778, in which he destroyed Queen 
Elsther's town and the other Indian villages which could never 
be re-established. 

45. Where were the timbers of a church converted into a raft, to 
rescue the families of the settlers from the attacks of the Tories 
and Indians? 

In the month of March, 1778, Colonel Dorrancecame up from 
Wilkes Barre with a party of 150 men for the purpose of mov- 
ing down the Whig families remaining in the neighborhood of 
Wyalusing. Constructing a raft from the timbers of the Mora- 
vian church and some of the other buildings, they removed the 
remaining effects of the York and Kingsley families and tak- 
ing four families on board, returned to Wyoming. 

46. What Bradford county family is associated with the story of 

Frances Slocuin? 

The Kingley family. After Nathan Kingsley of Wyalusing 
had been captured by the Indians, his family found a temporary 
home with Jonathan Slocum, a Quaker of Wilkes-Barre. Here 
on November 2, 1778, a band of Delaware Indians suddenly 
appeared. Nathan Kingsley, Jr., who was grinding a knife was 
shot down by the savages and his scalp taken with the knife he 
had been sharpening. A younger brother and little Frances 
Slocum were carried into captivity. 

47. What and where were the "Great Indian Meadows"? 
Miciscum, or the Great Indian Meadows was the flat land on 
the west bank of the Susquehanna river at Hornet's Ferry. 
When first known to white man these flats were covered with 
an immense growth of blue grass, the only timber being large 
walnut trees. The Moravians and early settlers harvested the 
grass at Miciscum for their stock in winter. 

48. What fruit, if any, did the first settlers find in coming into 

Bradford county? 

Wild plums, crab apples, grapes and the different wild berries. 

49. What and where was the first fruit cultivated in the county? 
The first orchards, those of the apple and peach, in the county, 
were set out by the Moravians at Wyalusing. ' 

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50. Wbat was the most important Indian treaty held within Brad- 
ford county and what noted personages were associated with it? 
The treaty of 1790 at Tioga Point. The nations present, either 
collectively or by representation, were the Senecas, Oneidas, 
Onondagas, Cayugas, Chippewas and Stockbridge Indians. The 
chiefs who took the most active part in the council were Red 
Jacket, Farmer's Brother, Little Billy, Captain Hendrick, Aup- 
aumut. Fish Carrier, Good Peter and Big Tree. The United 
States government was represented by Col. Timothy Pickering 
as Commissioner. Thomas Morris, son of Robert Morris of 
Philadelphia, was present on the occasion and adopted into the 
Seneca nation as a sachem. 

51. When was Bradford county without inhabitants? 

Owing to the various hostile movements from 1778 to 1783 
there was left neither Whig, Tory nor Indian within the 
bounds of Bradford county. 

52. Who were the contending parties, to land titles in the early his- 
tory of Bradford county? 

The Susquehanna Company and the Proprietaries of Pennsyl- 
vania, better known as Connecticut and Pennsylvania men, or 
•'Yankees" and *'Pennamites." 

53. Why was there contention between "Yankees" and "Peuna- 

Their controversies related to two distinct questions — the right 
of jurisdiction and the right of soil; both tlie charters ofODU- 
necticut and Pennsylvania, which were derived from the Crown 
of England, covered the territory in dispute as did also the In- 
dian land purchases made by the contestants. 

54. What were the Indian purchases covering Bradford county? 

All that part of Bradford county west from a line 10 miles east 
of the Susquehanna river was contained in the Susquehanna 
Company's Indian purchase at Albany in 1754; the balance of 
the county's territory was within the Delaware Company's In- 
dian purchase also of 1754. The purchase made of the Indians 
at Fort Stanwix in 1768 by the Proprietary government of 
Pennsylvania included all that part of Bradford county east of 
the Susquehanna river and south of Towanda Cieek. All that 

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part of Bradford oounty north of Towaoda Creek and west of 
the Susquehanna river was included in the purchase made of 
the Indians by the Proprietary government of Pennsylvania at 

Fort Stanwix in 1784. 


56. What was the Yankee and Pennamite war? 

With the attempt of both the Connecticut and Pennsylvania 
men to occupy the disputed territory began a long and bitter 
conflict, known as the Yankee and Pennamite War. Some- 
times attended by bloodshed, sometimes reprisals only, but al- 
ways a bitter vindictive feud. The jails of the adjoining counties 
of Northampton and Northumberland were often filled with 
Wyoming prisoners, sent there by the authorities of Pennsylva- 
nia for trespassing on the disputed lands. 

56. Were any lives lost in Bradford county during the Yankee and 

Pennamite contentions? 

Blood was spilled on several occasions and at least one life lost. 
Col. Arthur Erwin of Easton, being shot dead while sitting in 
the house of Daniel McDuffee at Athens in June, 1791. 

57. How much of Bradford county was in the disputed territory? 

By the close of the year 1796 nearly every foot of land in Brad- 
ford county was held by both Susquehanna Company rights and 
Pennsylvania warrants. 

58. When was Bradford county under the jurisdiction of two States? 
The jurisdiction of both Connecticut and Pennsylvania until 

59. What was the Trenton Decree? 

After fourteen years of bitter strife, Congress finally, at the in- 
stance of Pennsylvania with the concurrence of the state of Con- 
necticut, intervened the federal authority to adjust the Sus- 
quehanna troubles. This body adopted a resolution, naming 
Commissioners, who met at Trenton, N. J. in November, 1782. 
The Commissioners, after a session of 41 days, during which the 
agents and attorneys on both sides discussed at length the sub- 
ject of the troubles, decided on the 30th of December, 1782, 
that the State of Connecticut had no right to the land in contro- 
versy and that the jarisdiction and pre-emption of all lands of 
right belonged to Pennsylvania, Tliis decision became historic 
as the Tkenton Deckkk. 

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60. Was the Trenton Decree efiFectual? • 

Partly; thiB jurisdiction of Pennsylvania was accepted, but the 
confusion and strife over land titles became more bitter and 
disasterous than before. 

61. How were the land troubles finally settled? 

By the Compromise Law, passed by the Pennsylvania Legisla- 
ture in 1799. 

62. Who was the Great Champion of Connecticut rights in this sec- 


Col. John Franklin who spent his last days at Athens. 

63. Who were the most zealous and enterprising in settling Bradford 

The New Englanders who came in large numbers under Con- 
necticut title, carved out homes, established churches and 
schools, erected mills and factories and started other public util- 

64. How long was organized opposition by the Yankees continued 
against Pennsylvania titles in Bradford county? 

Until about the year 1804, when want of support, the increasing 
number who were securing Pennsylvania titles, defection in 
their own ranks and the growing power of the State, finally in- 
duced the most ultra either to submit to the laws regulating ti- 
tles, or leave the State. Many chose the latter and emigrated 
into the State of New York, or the Western Reserve, so that 
peace and quiet were, after so many years of conflict and sufler- 
ing, finally secured. 

65. What distinguished general of the Revolution was connected 
with the project of forming a new state out of territory in which 
Bradford county was embraced? 

Gen. Ethan Allen of Ticonderoga fame. 

66. What Revolutionary soldiers, who had Connecticut towns in 

Bradford county named for them, are buried here? 
The Susquehanna Company's towns of Franklin, FuUersville 
and Murraysfield were named for Col. John Franklin, Capt. 
Stephen Fuller and Rev. Noah Murray, who are entombed 
within the county. 

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67. Why did the pioneers, in making their first settlements, like the 

Indians, locate along or at the forks of the principal streams? 
Both as a matter of necessity and convenience; the streams were 
the only public highways and means of transportation from one 
section of country to another; also to better protect themselves 
against the Indians and have an avenue of escape. 

68. Without watches or clocks how did the pioneers determine the 
time of day? 

By "sun-marks" or "noon-marks" upon the door of the cabin, 
or the location of the sun in the heavens. 

69. For want of doctors, what did the early settlers do in times of 

They were their own doctors. Every mother learned the use of 
herbs and applied them as the symptoms of the disease required. 

70. Where were the noted Beaver Dam and Meadows of early 

times in Bradford county? 

They were at the headwaters of Towanda Creek in Canton 

township, near Grover. 

71. How was the Susquehanna river a food source of great value to 

the pioneers? 

One of the main dependencies of the early settlers was the in- 
numerable quantities of shad, whicli in their season were found 
in the Susquehanna. As soon as the iee went out of the river 
the shad started on their journey to the fiesh water creeks, for 
the purpose of spawning, returning to the sea late in the sea- 
son. They came in very large schools and from time immemo- 
rial the natives of the forest had been in the habit oi taking 
them in large quantities with their brush-nets. In taking these 
fish the setters would select a cove on the point of an island, 
free from rocks and large stones, as the drawing place for their 
seine. Sometimes 500 shad were taken at a haul. Large 
quantities of these fish were salted down for future use. 

72. sWhat was the big game of pioneer times? 

The elk, deer, wolf, panther and bear. 

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73. What were known as the "Big Hunts" and when did they occur? 

To rid the country of destructive wild beasts, wolves panthers^, 
and bears, the farmers in a large territory fixed upon a time for 
a general "round up/' when all with guns took their places in 
the circle, extending several miles, and moved gradually toward 
a common center. Thus when the animals were brought within 
a small space, they could not escape and were killed by the 
scores. There were two of these general or Big Hunts — 1805 
and 1818. 

74. Were any persons ever killed by wild beasts in Bradford county? 
So far as known no person lost his life by wild animal& 

75. What is the oldest town in the county? 

Athens; a survey and plan of the town was made by surveyors 
of the Susquehanna Company in 1786 — the one after which the 
village was built. 

76. Why did the French come to Bradford county? 

During the French Revolution ("Reign of Terror") many citi- 
zens of France in fear of their lives fled for safety to other parts 
of Europe and America. A number of these refugees formed a 
colony and established a settlement at Asylum in 1794. 

77. Did the French refugees have more than one settlement in Brad- 
ford county? 

In addition to the settlement at Asylum, the French started an- 
other village in West Terry and begun improvements at Ladds- 

78. What world famous Frenchman visited the refugee settlement at 


Talleyrand, the famous French diplomatist, spent some time at 

Asylum in 1795. 

79. What man afterwards King spent a week at Asylum? 

Louis Philippe, afterwards King of France, spent a week at 
Asylum in 1796. 

80. What Frenchman, who came over with Lafayette and fought for 

Independence, was prominent in the Asylum colony? 

Charles Felix Bue Boulogne, who was drowned in 1796 while 

trying to ford the Loyalsock creek at Hillsgrove. 

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81. Where were services of the Catholic faith first held in the county? 
In the little log chapel at the French settlement in Asvlum. 

82. How long did the refugees remain at Asylum? 

About 8 years, when upon invitation and promise of restoration 
of their estates, with hearts filled with joy, they hastened back 
to France. 

83. What streams in Bradford county have Indian names? What 

Villages? What Townships? 

Rivers — Chemung and Susquehanna; creeks — Tom-Jack, 

Tuscarora, Towanda, Wappasening, Wyalusing and Wysox; 

villages — Towanda, Wilawana, Wetona, Wyalusing and Wysox; 

townships — Sheshequin, Towanda, Tuscarora, Wyalusing and 


84. What Indian, who was a friend to the first white settlers, tarried 
some years with his family among them? 

Tom-Jack living at Burlington. He removed to the Allegheny 
river where he died in 1809. He was the father of White Fawjt^ 
noted as a teacher and missionary among the Indians. 

85. What Bradford county pioneer was carried away by the Indians 
and died in captivity? 

Lemuel Fitch, who had settled in Standing Stone, was carried 
away by the Indians in January, 1778, and died in captivity. 

86. How did the murder of an Indian at Tioga Point nearly involve 

the settlers in a war? 

About the year 1788, a man by the name of Collins living at 
Tioga Point, while under the influence of liquor, struck his In- 
dian servant with an axe and killed him. **The Indian's body 
was secreted in the cellar, and the few white [)eople were in ter- 
ror through fear of savHge revenge. The Indians collected in 
great numbers. Colonel Franklin, General Spalding and Judge 
Gore were sent for. They concluded it was best to send mes- 
sengers to a chief at Newtown (Elmira) and lay the whole sub- 
ject before him. The chief called a council of war, and many 
Indians, squaws and papooses — dressed in gay colors, with 
goose and raven feathers, their faces painted on one side, denot- 
ing they were for peace or war, according to circumstances — 

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came with him to Tioga Point. They demanded the body of 
Collins — to torture and burn him — as their only terms of recon- 
ciliation. But he had made his escape. The white people 
proposed to give up all his property to them, and it was not un- 
til much more was pledged to them that they would come to 
any terms. Money and goods to a large amount were brought 
forward and the white inhabitants saved from the threatening 
storm of savage barbarity." 

87. How is our history associated with almost every important event 
of the Revolutionary war? 

Nearly 300 patriots of the Revolution are buried in Bradford 
county. The history of these men is associated with almost 
every important event from the battle of Lexington to the sur- 
render at Yorktown. 

88. What Revolutionary soldier buried in Bradford county had the 
distinction of being a member of the celebrated ** Boston Tea 
Party"? (2) Fouglit at Bunker Hill and died a centenarian? 
(3) Was assigned the responsible duty of personal guard over 
MHJor Andre after his capture in conveying him to American 
headquarters? (4) Whs one of Washington's bodyguard during 
the winter at Valley Forge? (5) Was fife major under the im- 
mediate command of General Washington? (6) Was with Gen. 
Ethan. Allen in the surprise of the British at Ft Ticonderoga? 
(7) Served in the American army at 13 yearb? (8) Both father 
and son who fouglit for Liberty? 

William Salisbury of Springfield; (2) Sartile Holden of Asy- 
lum; (3) Samuer Wood of Smithfieid; (4) Silas Wolcott of 
Litchfield; (5) Jared Phelps of Smithfield; (6) Ezekiel Leonard of 
Springfield; (7) John Putnam of Granville; (8) James Camp- 
bell and son David of Burlington, Noadiah Cranmer and son 
John of Monroe, Simon Spalding an<l son John of Sheshequin, 
Henry Elliott and sons Jabez and Jnseph of Wyalusing. 

89. What two women distinguished as heniines of the Revolution 
are buried in Bradford county? 

Elizabeth Hagar, wife of John Pratt, and Mara Sergeant, wife 
of Joseph Grace. The former died in Granville in 1843, aged 
88 years, and ihe latter in Springfield in 1844, aged 82 years. 

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90. What persons who had settled in Bradford county were killed 
during the struggle for Independence? 

James Wells, I^bert Carr, Miner Robbins and William Duun 
of Wyalusing and Peter Sboefelt and Samuel Cole, Jr. of Asy- 

91. Were all Bradford county settlers loyal to the American cause 

for Independence? 

They were not, a number were Tories and faithful to Great 


92. In what townships of Bradford county were Revolutionary sol- 
diers the first settlers? 

In Albany, Athens, Canton, Columbia, Franklin, Litchfield, 
North Towanda, Rome, Sheshequin, Springfield, Terry, Towau- 
da, Troy, Ulster, Windham and Wyalusing. 

93. What townships are named for patriots of the Revolution? 
Franklin for Col. John Franklin, Monroe for President James 
Monroe, Terry for Jonathan Terry, Warren for Gen. Joseph 

94. How many townships contain the remainsof soldiers who fought 

for Independence? 

81, all but six — Armenin, Barclay, Herrick, North Towanda, 

Overton and South Creek. 

95. How is the namaof a noted signer of the Declaration of Inde- 

pendence associated witli the history of Bradford county? The 
name of a celebrated financier of the Revolution. 
Both Charles Carroll of Cnrrollton, the last survivor of the sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence, nnd Robert Morris, the 
celebrated finnncier of the Revolution, were at one time the 
owners of large tracts of land in Bradford county. 

96. What girl was the heroine of pioneer times in Bradford county? 

Elizal>eth Fox, afterwards the wife of Wm. Means of Towanda. 

97. In what township was the first settlement formed by three hardy 
sons of Rhode Island, who came all the way on foot, carrying a 
leather saddle-bag, gun and axe upon their shoulders? 
Warren in 1797. These pioneers were Wm. Arnold, Wm. 
Harding and Thomas Gibson. 

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98. Id what settlement did the wives of the pioneers hold a prayer- 

meeting the first night after arriving at their new' home in the 


In 1791, the first evening after the Burlington pioneers had 

reached their homes in the wilderness, a prayer-meeting was 

hold by Mrs. James McKean and Mrs. Wm. Dobbins. 

99. What township became settled by a father and his sons, moving 

14 miles into the wilderness? 

Overton township was settled in 1810 by Daniel Heverly, a 
Pennsylvania German, and his five sons who movod into the 
wilderness fourteen miles from their neighbors in Monroe. 

100. In what township was the first settlement made by a preacher 
and his family? 

Wells in 1792 by Rev. John Smith, a man of learning and first 
minister in Western Bradford. 

101. Where in Bradford county was a settlement formed by Holland 
j>eople? the Germans? the French? the Welsh? the Scotch? the 
Irish? the Scotch-Irish? 

The first settlers in Wysox, the Stropes and VanValkenburgs, 
were Holland people; the first settler in both Towanda and 
Asylum was a German as was also the first permanent settler, 
Jacob Snell of Athens, while Overton was distinctively a Ger- 
man settlement for many years; the French refugees formed a 
settlement at Asylum; the Welsh in Pike and the Scotch on 
Moore's Hill in Ulster township; the most prominent Irish set* 
tlements were in Overton and Ridgebery and the Scotch-Irish 
most numerous in Herrick. 

102. What Bradford county people have a strain of Indian blood? 
The Vanderpools, Johnsons, Heemann and Wheelers. 

103. Without mills how did the pioneers prepare their corn for food? 

They resorted to the Indian's invention — the stone mortar and 
pestle, or the Yankee's device of the hollowed stump with 
spring-pole and pounder in crushing corn to the texture of meal. 

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104. When and where was the first grist-mill put in operatioD in 
Bradford county? 

The first grist-mill was put up on Cayuta creek in Athens town- 
ship by Prince Bryant in 1786-87. It was long afterwards 
known as Shepard's mill. The next nearest mill was at 
VVilkes-Barre. The second grist-mill, a small affair, was the 
Hinman mill, erected in 1792 on Little Wysox Creek. 

105. Where and hy whom was the first store opened in the county? 
By Matthias Hollenback at Tioga Point (Athens) in 1783. 

106. What was used as a substitute for money by the pioneers? 

A century ago, trade was carried on almost exclusively by bar- 
ter. The farmer exchanged his corn, wheat, rye, maple sugar, 
pork, skins, shingles, butter or whatever other surplus articles 
he had for merchandise. The laborer took his pay in grain, 
meat or merchandise. At an earlier date skins had a fixed 
value and were used for money in some localities. 

107. Before the day of canals and railroads how were goods brought 
to the county by merchants? What was the principal market? 
Goods were first brought in boats up the Susquehanna river, 
later hauled in wagons across the country from Philadelphia — 
Uie principal market. 

108. Why did many of the early settlers prefer hill lands to those 
along the river? 

Generally the large timber was back from the river. There 
was a po[>ular notion that the size of the tree was indicative of 
• the quality of the st>il where it grew. Accordingly many set- 
tlers chose hill lands with the supposed richer soil. 

109. Who encountered the niOi=t hanlships, the settlers along the 
river or those back on the hills? Why? 

Those on the hills. They were remote from mills, stores and 
doctors, surrounded by ferocious wild beasts and had to clear 
away the great timbers before they couhi grow crops. 

110. How many people were living in Bradford county in 1790? 
How many were negro slaves? Whose the largest family? 
There were 200 families or a population of 1,100, five of whom 
were negro slaves. The largest family was that of Rudolph 
Fox, the first settler, consisting of 13 members. 

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111. When was the active period of settlement of the county? 
From 1784 to 1820 the county filled up rapidly with settlers. 

112. How long after the first settlement before Bradford became a 
separate county? 

42 years. 

113. In what counties under Pennsylvania jurisdiction has Bradford 
county been embraced? What county under Connecticut juris- 

Bucks from 1682 to 1752; Northampton from 1752 to 1772; 
Northumberland from 1772 to 1786; Luzerne from 1786 to 
1804; Luzerne and Lycoming from 1804 to 1812. As part of 
the town of Westmoreland, attached to Litchfield county, Conn, 
from 1774 to 1783. 

1 14. Were inhabitants of Bradford county ever subjects of the King 
of England? 

Yes, until 1770. 

1 15. When did Proprietary government end in Pennsylvania ? How 
were the proprietaries satisfied? 

In 1776 by revolt of leading citizens and the adoption of the 
first state constitution. The Pennsylvania Assembly in 1779 
passed re'solutions annulling tiic Royal Charter and granting the 
Penns, as a compensation for the rights of which they were de- 
prived, £130,000 sterling, or about half a million dollarsv 

116. When was an election contest in Northumberland county de- 
fided by citizens from this section who went 100 miles to vote? 
In the fall election of 1783, Capt. Simon Spalding of Sheshe- 
quin and 23 others repaired to Northumberland, some of them 
traveling 100 miles and none of them less than 60, to rjeach the 
nearest place for balloting. So nearly were the parties divided 
that these 24 votes decided the election of a member of the Su- 
preme Executive Council, two Representatives to the Assembly 
and Sheriff. 

117. When was a county line changed for the sole purpose of keep- 
ing a resident of Athens township out of the Legislature? 

In 1804 an Act was passed by the Legislature setting off" that 

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part of Luzerne county which contained the residence of CJol. 
John Franklin to Lycoming. In 1805, however, Franklin was 
elected hy the people of Lycoming, and to the chagrin and mor- 
tification of his enemies, he appeared again at Lancaster (then 
state capital) and took his seat. 

118. What two townships originally embraced all of Bradford 

Wyalusing and Tioga from 1790 to 1795. 

119. What townships were formed before the organization of Brad- 
ford county? 

Wyalusing, Wysox, Athens, Ulster, Burlington, Orwell, Canton, 
Towanda and Smithfield. 

120. How many townships had settlers before the formation of 
Bradford county? 

All but Barclay. 

121. When and by whom were the first schools taugut within Brad- 
ford county? In what language? What text-books used? 
**The first schools in the county were those established by the 
Moravian Missionaries among the Indians at Wyalusing and 
Ulster. These were intended chiefly for religious inculcation, 
and while time was given to primary instruction and the dusky 
children of the forest were taught to read in both Delaware and 
German, yet the Bible, the Ilymn-book and the Catechism were 
the text-books mostly used and contained all the science it was 
thought needful to teach the children connected with the Mis- 
sion towns.'* 

122. Where were the first schools opened by the pioneers? 

At Athens, Wyalusing, Sheshequin, Wys(»x and Merryall. 

123. Who were the first pioneer teachers? 

Jared Root, teacher at Athens in 1789; Uriah Terry, teacher at 
Wyalusing in 1789 or '90; Moses Park, teacher in Sheshequin 
about 1790; David Lake, teacher at Merryall winter of 1791 -'92. 

124. What were the characteristics of a pioneer school and school 

The school-house was built of logs. A large fire-place occupied 

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one end of the building and logs were used for fuel to warm the 
school-room. Writing tables were fastened to the sides of the 
room with wooden pins. Tlie pupils sat upon benches, facing the 
writing tables with their backs toward the center of the room. 
The benches were slabs, flat side up, supported by legs cut from 
saplings. Pupils received instruction only in the three R's, 
**Reading, 'Riling and 'Rithmetic." Goosequills were used for 
pens and making and mending them was a part of the teacher's 
work. Ink was made from the bark of a soft maple tree. The 
teacher or pupils ruled the paper used for copy books. The 
funds for paying the teacher were raised by a rate-bill and he 
was frequently required to take part of his pay in grain or other 

125. Where, when and by whom was the first church organized by 
the pioneers of Bradford county? 

The first church in the county, Congregational in nature, was 
the *'Church of Christ at Wysox on the Susquehanna river in 
the State of Pennsylvania." It was organized October 3, 1791, 
at the house of Jehial Franklin in Wysox. The original mem- 
bers were Isaac Foster, Jonas Smith, Wm. Coolbaugh. Daniel 
Guthrey, Huldah Hickok, and Rufus Foster, all of whom "en- 
tered into a solemn covenant with God and one another, by 
signing their names to a solemn covenant, as in the presence 
and fear of God." Rev. Jabez Culver was present and officiated. 

126. What, where and when was the first secret society instituted in 
the county? 

Rural Amity Lodge, No. 70, Free and Accepted Masons; char- 
tered July 6, lliHj and instituted May 21, 1708 at the house of 
George Welles at Tioga Point (Athens); still a strong and aetive 

127. What was the first public roul in the county and why of his- 
toric interest? 

Sullivan's army, 1771), in coming up on the east bide of the 
Susquehanna, followed along the (ireat Indian Path, enlarging 
and making it passable for the horses and cattle. This path or 
road was im|)rove<i by the first settlers and used some years, 
sections of which are still a part of the public highway. 

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128. When was the firet public road built up Towanda Creek? Up 
Sugar Creek? 

In 1796 the first public road was built up Towanda Creek from 
Silas Scovell's, Towanda, to Daniel Wilcox's in Franklin; ex- 
tended to Canton in 1798. The first public road up Sugar 
Creek from the river to Thomas Barber's in Troy was built 

129. What was the first public road into Bradford county, connect- 
ing the North and West branches of the Susquehanna? 

The Genesee Road in 1802. This road started near Millstone 
Run in Monroe, thence in a southwesterly course passed through 
the central part of Overton to Eldredsville thence to Muncy. 
For a decade it was the main and in fact the only thoroughfare 
between the North and West Branch of the Susquehanna. It 
was called the Genesee Road because it afforded the first thor- 
oughfare to emigrants from Southern Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia to the rich valley of the Genesee river, then the 
popular rage. 

130. How was mail transmitted to the pioneers? When. and where 
the first post-offices established? 

A post route from the East was established and maintained by 
private subscription. The post-rider made his trips every two 
weeks, bringing the mail to Wyoming thence up the river. 
Prince Bryant, an early settler at Sugar Run, was one of the 
first post-riders. During the occupancy of Asylum by the 
French, they established a weekly post to Philadelphia, the 
postman making his trips on horseback. The Act of Congress, 
April 23, 1800, established the first post-roads in the country, 
one being from Wilkes-Barre by Wyalusing to Athens and from 
Athens by Newtown, Painted Pt)st and Bath to Canandaigua. 
Post-offices were established at Wyalusing and Athens and 
commissions issued January 1, 1801 to Peter Stevens and Wm. 
Prentice as postmasters respectively. In 1803 Charles Mowery 
and Cyril Peck carried the mail from Wilkes-Barre to Tioga, ou 
foot, once in two weeks. 

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131. How was great damage wrought by the Elements in the early 
history of the county? 

By the big floods of 1784 and 1786, the tornadoes of 1794 and 
1815, the killing, frosts every month of the year 1816 and the 
terrible drought summer and autumn of 1822. 

132. What unusual occurrence in 1806 greatly frij^jhtened the settlers? 
The Dark Day or total eclipse of June 6, 1806, filled the people 
with awe. Birds sang their evening songs, disappeared and be- 
came silent; fowls went to roost; cattle sought the barn-yard and 
candles were lighted in the house. Many persons believing 
that the end of all things had come, betook themselves to relig- 
ious devotions. 

133. When for a period of two years did the pioneers barely escape 
starving to death? 

1816 and 1817; in the former year there was a heavy frost every 
month and nearly every crop was destroyed, this left nothing 
to subsist oij until crops grew the next year. 

134. Upon what wild animals, birds and fishes did the pioneers de- 
])end for their meat supply? 

Deer, bears and raccoons; wild turkeys, wild pigeons and pheas- 
ants; shad of the river and brook trout. 

135. When the Unite 1 States was on the verge of war with France, 
what action was taken by the backwoodsmen of Bradford county? 
In 1798, a (•oni[)any of 31^ men volunteered and joined the 
toniinand of ('apt. Samuel Bowman of Wilkes-Barre, awaiting 
the call for service. 

130. When and from what counties was Bradford county formed and 
for whom named? 

Brad f«)rd county was formed as (Jutario county, February 21, 
1810, by an Act of Assembly, from the counties of Luzerne and 
Lycon ing. By Act (»f March 24, 1812, the county was organ- 
ized for judicial [)ur|)()ses and the name changed from Ontario 
to Bradfonl in honor of Col William Bradford, the first attor- 
ney-general of Pennsylvania and ihe second attorney-general of 
the United Slates under ['resident Washington. 

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137. When was the first county election held and what officers were 

The first election was held Tuesday, October 13, 1812 at which 
time Abner C. Rockwell was chosen sheritf, Wm. Myer, Justus 
Gaylord, Jr. and Joseph Kinney, county commissioners, and 
John Horton, coroner. The other first officers were appointed 
by the Governor, being John B. Gibson, president judge, George 
Scott and John McKean, associate judges, and Charles F. 
Welles, clerk of the several courts, prothonotary, register of 
wills and recorder of deeds. 

138. Where and by whom was the first court held in Bradford 

The first court was convened Monday, January 18, 1813 at the 
"Red Tavern" of William Means in Towanda, Judge Gibson 
and his associates presiding. 

139. How large is Bradford county in square miles? Length from 
East to West? Width from North to South? 

Area is 1160 square miles, being the 3rd krgest county in 
Pennsylvania, or about the size of the St^ite of Rhode Island. 
Is 40 miles long from East to West and has an average width 
of 30 miles from North to South. 

140. How many townships in Bradford county? Which townships 
border on the State of New York? Which on Susquehanna 
county? Which on Wyoming? Which on Sullivan? VVhieh 
on Lycoming? Which on Tioga? 

37 townshi|>s; Wells, South Creek, Ridgebery, Athens, Litch- 
field, Windham and Warren border on New York State; War- 
ren, Pike and Tuscwrora on Susquehanna county; Tuscarora and 
Wilmot on Wyo^ning county; Wilmot, Albany, Overton, LeRoy 
and Canton on SullivHn county; Canton on Lycoming county; 
Canton, Armenia, (binnjbia and Wells on Tioga county. 

141. Which is the largest township in point of area? Which is the 

Wilmot is the largest and North Towanda the smallest. 

142. Of what townships does the Susquehanna river form a natural 
or separating boundary? 

Ulster, Sheshequin, North Towanda. Wysox, Towanda, Asylum, 
Standing Stone, Terry, Wyalusing, Wilmot and Tuscarora. 

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143. Within what township do two rivers unite? 

The Chemung flows iuto the Susquehanna in Athens township. 

144 Which towpsliip comprises a mountain region? Which lies 
mainly on top of a mountain? 
Barclay; Armenia mostly on top of Armenia mountain. 

145. In what townships is coal mined? 
. Barclay, LeRoy and Armenia. 

146. When and where was coal first found in Bradford county? 
1812 in Barclay township by Absalom Carr, a hunter. 

147. Which is the oldest township in Bradford county? Which last 

Oldest, Wyalusing, organized in 1790; Barclay the last in 1867. 

148. What townships have changed their names since their organi- 

Orwell was originally **Mt. Zion"; Pike, **Bradford"; Spring- 
•field, **Murraysfiehr'; Albany, *-New Albany"; Tuscarora, 
'Spring Hiir'; Rome, '^Watertown''; LeUoy,''**Union"; Wil- 
mot, "Greenwood"; North Towanda, "Sugar Creek." 

149. What township has gone out of existence? 
Durell which existed from 1842 to 1859. 

150. What townships are named in memory of the former home of 
the pioneers who settled them? 

Burlington, Orwell, Windham, Springfield, Litchfield and 

151. What townships are najned in honor of notable personages? 
Franklin in honor of Col. John Franklin; Herrick for Judge 
Edward Herrick; Overton for Eiward Overton, Sr.; Wells for 
Gen. Henry Wells; Wilmot for Hon. David Wilmot; Barclay 
for Robert Barclay of London, England; Monroe for President 
James Monroe; Warren for Gen. Joseph Warren; Smithfield for 
David Smith; Terrv for Jonathan Terry; Pike for Gen. Zebulon 
M. Pike. 

152 What townships were once a part of Lycoming county? 

Athens, Smithfield, Ulster and Burlington, which would now 

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include the present towusbips of Wells, South Creek, Ridge* 
bery, Athens, Columbia, Springfield, Sinithfield, Troy, West 
Burlington, Burlington and parts of Armenia, Granville, To- 
wanda, North Towanda, Ulster and Sheshequin. 

153. What township has the distinction of being the birthplace of a 
Governor? Which of a Lieutenant Governor? 

VVm. Goebel, governor of Kentucky, who was assassinated Jan- 
uary 30, 1900. was born in Albany township, January 4, 1856; 
John L. Gibbs, lieutenant governor of Minnesota, was l>orn in 
Orwell, May 3, 1838, died in Minnesota, November 28, 1908. 

154. What parallel marks the northern boundary of Bradford 
county? When was the line between New York and Pennsyl- 
nia established? 

The parallel of 42^ north latitude marks the northern boundary 
of Bradford county and the State. The survey establishing this 
line was made in 1786-^*87. 

155. What is the highest point in the county? The lowest? Which 
the village of greatest altitude? The village of least altitude? 
The highest point in the county according to surveys is sum- 
mit of mountain west of cranberry marsh in LeRoy, being 2309 
feet above sea level while Mt. Pisgah in Springfield is given as 
2260 feet; lowest point is 660 feet where the Susquehanna 
crosses the south county line. LeRaysville village at 1450 feet 
has the greatest altitude and Wyalusing village at 680 feet the 

156. How many soldiers in the War of 1812 are buried in Bradford 

Fully 250. 

157. What residents of Bradford county had the distinction of serv- 
ing in both the Revolutionary war and War of 1812? 

Julius Tozer of Athens, Wm. Curry of Ulster, Jacob Scouten of 
Burlington and Isaac Wheeler of Asylum. 

158. What Bradford countain was the originator of the Lake Erie 
fleet and made possible l^erry's victory? 

The Lake Erie tleet was due the sagacity, skill and energy of 
iJapt. Daniel Dobbins, a native of West Burlington. He not 

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only constructed, equipped and manned the fleet but commanded 
one of the boats in the battle. 

159. What soldier, buried in Bradford county, was with Captain 
Lawrence on the Chesapeake when he made his dying request — 
•*Don't give up the ship"? 

George Upham of Springfield who was wounded and lost his 
left eye in the engagement between the Chesapeake and Shannon. 

160. What soldier served through the War of 1812 and was in the 
Navy 40 years? 

Christopher Child of Smithfield. 

161. What soldiers of the War of 1812 lived to be centenarians? 
Erastus Lovett (104) of Orwell and William Andress (101) of 

162. What were the first opposing political parties in Bradford 

Federalists and Democratic-Republicans (literally Democrats); 
in county, the same as in State and Nation. 

163. Which of the old political parties did not long endure? Which 
has prevailed since its organization? 

The Federalist party which was broken up chiefly by its oppo- 
sition to the War of 1812; the Democratic party has been stead- 
fast since the administration of President Jefferson. 

164. What parties followed the Federalist party in opposition to the 

(1) National-Republican; (2) Whig; (3) Republican. 

165. How long was the Democratic, the dominant party in Brad- 
ford county? 

40 years, or until the formation of the Republican party in 1856r 

16G. What man fur 30 years was eminent in the political history of 
the County, State and Nation? 

Gen. Samuel McKean of Burlington, who after filling local and 
county offices, represented the people in the State Assembly and 
Senate, as Secretary of the Commonwealth, in Congress and the 
United States Senate. 

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107. What Quaker was promiueDi and wortbful in the early politi- 
cal history of the county? 

Burr Bidgway, who died at Franklindale in 1876 in his 97th 

168. What and when was the first newspaper published in the 

The Bradford Gazette established August 10, 1813 by Thomas 
Simpson and published every Tuesday at Towanda at $2 per 

169. What and where was the first publie library established in the 

Prior to 1812 a few books had been gathered for public use, the 
collection being styled the "Orwell Library." This was the 
nucleus for a greater library and the origin of public libraries in 
this section of country. The outgrowth was the Wysox and 
Orwell Library company, organized in 1813. 

170. When and where was the first academy established in the 

The Athens Academy; the first steps for its establishment were 
taken in 1797; the institution opened with its first teacher in 

171. What Bradford county woman, whose husband had been car- 
ried away by the Tories and Indians, conducted her nine chil- 
dren to Connecticut, being received on her journey by General 
Washington who presented her a sum of money? 

Mrs. Anu)S York of Wyalusing in 1778. 

172. What Bradford county women were taken captives to Canada 
by the Indians? 

The wives and children of John and 8ebastian Strope and Isaac 
VanValkenburg of Wysox in May. 1778. 

178. What white woman was shot and killed by an Indian, during 
battle, in Bradford county? 
Mrs. Roswell Franklin at Lime Hill, April 14. 1782. 

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174. What patriot mother, whose six sona and two sons-in-law fought 
for Independence, is buried in Bradford county? 

Mrs. Hannah Gore who lies beside her son, Judge Obadiah Gore, 
in the Gore cemetery, Sheshequin. 

175. Who was the "Hermit of Wysauking"? 

Matthias Fencelor, a strange character, who in 1700 found a re- 
treat in Wysox, lived alone and subsisted chiefly by hunting 
and trapping. 

176. What remarkable difference between the Susquehanna river of 
a century ago and the present stream? 

Then the channel only about half as wide as now and conse- 
quently the stream much deeper. 

177. Was it ever thought that transportation by steamboat might be 
jnade profitable oil the North Branch of the Susquehanna? 
What was the first steamboat to ply these waters? 

For many years it was generally believed that transportation by 
steamboat on the North Branch of the Susquehanna could be 
made profitable. The first trial was made by Captain Elgar in 
his steamboat Codorus between Wilkes-Barre and Elmira in 

178. In what manner did the early settlers on the east side of the 
river reach the county-seat? 

By crossing the river in boats and on ferry boats. 

179. When was the first bridge built over the Susquehanna in the 

The first bridge over the Susquehanna was a three-span wooden 
structure, erected at Towanda in 1834-'35. 

180. When were the Towanda, Sugar and other large creeks used as 
a means of tran8fM)rtaiioii? 

In the days of lumbering the waters of Towanda and Sugar 
Creek and other larger creeks were utilized in transporting rafts 
of lumber and shingles to the Susquehanna where they were 
formed into ark liiads and taken down the river. 

181. In what tragic manner did the first permanent settler of Brad- 
ford county meet his death? 

Rudolph Fox, while fishing alone on the river near the mouth 

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of Towanda Creek, March 4, 180G, the ice gave way and being 
unable to get out, was drowned. 

182. What distinction among the jurists of the country was attained 
by the first Judge of Bradford county? 

Our first Judge, Hon. John B. Gibson, in 1816 was commis- 
sioned an associate judge of the Supreme Court, appointed 
Chief Justice in 1827 and remained a member of the Supreme 
Court of Pennsylvania until the time of his death (1853), having 
been longer in office than any contemporary judge in the 
world. His judicial opinions are among the richest treasures in 
the country. 

183. What man, afterwards Judge of Bradford county, while a mem- 
ber of the Ohio Legislature, tried to organize that body into a 
company of militia for the defense of the frontier in the War of 

Hon. Edward Herrick who was Judge of Bradford county from 
1818 10 1839. 

184. What Bradford county Judge was an Irishman and wore a wig? 
Thomas Burnside, the se^'ond Judge of the county. 

185. W^ho was an Associate Judge of Bradford county for 27 years? 
Which fought for American Independence? 

Hon. John McKean of Burlington was Associate Judge from 
^ J 81 3 to 1840. Hon. Jonathan Stevens of Standing Stone who 
served in the Revolutionary war was Associate Judge from 1818 
to 1841. 

180. What man, who was tlie first resident attorney -at- law in Brad- 
ford county, wore his hair braided, hanging upon his shoulders? 
William Prentice of Athens who died in 1806. 

i87. What famous artist, who painted many of the prominent men 
of the country and spent several years among the Indians, was 
an early member of the Bradford county Bar? 
George Catlin, a native of Wilkes-Barre. 

188. What celebrated Indian fighter, who was a candidate for the 
Presidency, once visited Bradford county in a political way? 
Richard M. Johnson, who killed the Indian chief Tecumseh at 

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the battle of the Thames and served as Vice President with Mar- 
tin VanBuren, was subsequently a candidate for the Presidency. 
In making his canvass he visited Bradford county in the fall of 

189. When held and what the features of the first big 4th of July 
celebration in the county? 

In 1801 the tiist general celebr»tion of American Independence 
at Wyalusing was an occasion of great interest. People assem- 
bled there from all parts of the country. John Hollenback pre- 
sided at the meeting. Joubs Ingham made an address on **Di8- 
puted Land Titles" defending the claims of the Connecticut set- 
tlers. Uriah Terry composed an ode on the death of Washing* 
ton which was sung by Polly Sill. The whole celebration eudtd 
with a barbecue. A huge bear killed that morning and roasted 
whole provided meat for the entertainment 

190. Of what value was liquor regarded by the early settlers? 
''Whiskey was the panacea for all ills. The man who built a 
distillery was a public benefactor. It furnished a market lor 
grain and cheapened a necessary article of consumption. It 
was considered no offense against good morals to make, sell or 
use it. Deacons in the church owned distilleries and manufac- 
tured whiskey. Ministers and church members imbibed, not 
infrequently to intoxication. Everybody drank whiskey — young 
men and old men, women and maidens. Whiskey was the cur- 
rency of the country, the standard of value." 

191. What importance was attached to the Old Militia and Training 

The annual or semi-annual turnout and training was a legal re- 
quirement and was supposed to keep up military spirit, useful 
tor state or national defense. It was an inheritance which 
came down from the war of the Revolution and the War of 
1812 and at the annual musters were often to be seen the regi- 
mentals worn hy ancestors who had fought in those wars. 
Originally, in Pennsylvania, all male citizens between the ages 
of 18 and 45 years were required by law to do military duty 
and were organized into companies, regiments and brigades. 
JSuch organizations existed in Bradford county from 1788 until 

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the Civil War. **In all Northern Pennsylvania the first Mon- 
day of May was Training Day and on that joyful morning 
everybody was early awake for the sights and fun. It was the 
grand gala-day for soldiers and citizens, old and young, lad and 
lassies, and all enjoyed Training Day as a bright spot in the 
journey of life. The morning was ushered in by the loud 
booming of double-loaded guns 'waking up' officers, and soon, 
men and boys were on their way to the training place — on foot, 
in lumber wagons, ox-carts, on horse-back and in buggies." 

192. What town occupies the site of an important Indian village? 
Which derives its name from the fact that it is in exactly ibe 
same latitude as an important European city? 

Athens; Rome, being in exactly the same latitude as Rome, 

193. What Bradford county village is named for a noted French- 
man? Which once bore the name of **New Baltimore*'? 
LeRaysville in honor ol LeRay de Chaumont who once owned 
many sections of land embracing the greatest part of Eastern 
Bradford; Wysox, expecting to be the county-seat was surveyed 
and platted and given the name of New Baltimore. 

194. What once important villages in Bradford county are now but 
a memory? 

Friedenshutien, Moravian at Wyalnsing; Asylum, French at 
Asylum; Barclay, Carbon Run and Fall Creek. 

195. How many boroughs in BradA)rd countv? Which the oldest? 
Which the last incorporated? Which the most populous? 
Which the fewest inhabitants? What three join one another? 
14 borough?; Towanda (1828); Sayre (1891); Sayre, njost pop- 
ulous (6426); Burlington, least population (146); Athens, Sayre 
and South Waverly. 

196. What are the most notable Lakes in the county and how situ- 

Mt. Lake, Burlington township; Lake Wesauking, Wysox town- 
ship; Lake of Meadows, Warren township; Lake Nepahwin, 
Canton township; Sunfish Lake, LeRoy township — all situated 
in depressions at top of high hills or mountains. 

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197. What Bradford countaina took a prominent part in the Semi- 
nole, or Florida war? 

Walter Sherwood of Columbia, Thomas J. McKean of West 
Burlington and Edwin W. Morgan of Wysox, all graduates of 
West Point and Lieutenants. Sherwood was killed by the In- 

198. What native of Bradford county won fame and fortune in Texas 
and Mexico and married a daughter of General Lamar, presi- 
dent of the **Lone Star State"? 

Henry Lawrence Kinney, who was killed at Monterey in 1862, 
while leading Mexican troops in ferreting out guerillas in that 
city. He was a son of Simon Kinney and a native of Towanda. 

199. What anti-Slavery champion of National fame was born in 
Bradford county? 

Joshua R. Giddings, who for several terms represented Ohio in 
Congress, was born in Athens township. 

200. Who was the first Governor ever to visit Bradford county? 
Governor Joseph Ritner, who arrived in Towanda, September 
2, 1836 by stage. His appearance was greeted by the dis- 
charge of cannon. 

201. What Bradford countain of French ancestry attained distinc- 
tion in local. State and Natiooal politics? 

John Laporte of Asylum, who whs Associate Judge, member of 
the Legislature and Speaker of the House, Congressman and 
Surveyor-General of the Slate. 

202. What grand celestial phenomenon occurred in 1833? 

The Meteoric Shower or **Falling Stars" on the morning of No- 
vember 13. 

203. What was the first thoroughfare running east and west across 
the county? 

The State Road, surveyed in 1807-'08 but several years in 
building, crossed near the center of the county and extended to 
the western bound of the State. 

204. What was the Berwick and Tioga Turnpike? 

This road, popularly known as the "Berwick turnpike," was a 

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compaDy enterprisei aided by the State. Starting near Berwick 
and extending in a northwesterly direction, the road passed 
tbroogh the counties or Columbia, Sullivan and Bradford, 
thence to Elmira; construction in this county through the 
townships of Albany, Monroe, Towanda, Burlington, Smithfield 
and Ridgebery was during the years 1818, '19. It was aban- 
doned as a toll-road in 1847. 

205. What was the North Branch Canal? How many years build- 
ing and how long operated? 

The object of the canal was to derelop the North Branch re- 
gion. It was built by the State along the Susquehanna river 
from Sunbury to the State line; commenced in 1827 and com- 
pleted in 1854; operated 18 years and abandoned in 1872. 

200. When and where was the first railroad built in Bradford 

The Williamsport & Elmira railroad, now known as the North- 
em Central, crossing Western Bradford, completed and opened 
in 1854 between Williamsport and Elmira, was the first rail- 
way in Bradford county. 

207. When was our public school system foulided? Who the first 
county superintendent and which one was elevated to the office 
of State Superintendent? 

In 1834; Emanuel Guyer elected in 1864; diaries R, Coburn. 

208. What Bradford countain was one of the leading spirits in se-. 
curing the adoption of the free school system? 

Gen. Samuel McKean, Secretary pf the Commonwealth under 
Governor Wolf. 

209. What teacher in our schools became Governor of the State? 
Lieutenant-Governor? A United States Senator? The first 
State Superintendent of California? 

Governor, Henry M. Hoyt, teacher in old Towanda academy; 
. LieutenantrGbvernor, Wm. T. Davies, teacher in Towanda pub- 
lic schools; U. S. Senator, Orville H. Piatt, teaeht*r in old To- 
wanda academy, elected Senator from Ciinn.; State Superinten- 
dent of California, John G. Marvin, teacher in old Athens 

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210. What musical prodigy and noted song writer was educated in 
the schools of Bradford county? 

Stephen Collins Foster, who was a student at both the old To- 
wanda academy and the Athens academy. 

211. To what extent was Bradford county represented in the Mexi- 
can War? 

By 20 officers and men. 

212. What Bradford countain especially distinguished himself and 
won high honors under General Scott? 

Lieut. Edmund Russell of Windham.* 

213. Who have been elected to the United States Senate from 
Bradford county? 

Samuel McKean in 1833 and David Wilmot in 1861. 

214. What three persons connected with the political history of 
Bradford county became Chief Justices of Pennsylvania? 
John B. Gibson, Ellis Lewis and Ulysses Mercur. 

215. In wliat three historic Acts of legislation were members from 
Bradford county the chief promoters? 

The Wilmot Proviso by David Wilmot; the Act repealing im- 
prisonment for debt by Wm. Elwell; the Act exempting tea 
and coffee from duty by Ulysses Mercur. 

216. What creatures, more dangerous to man and beast than were 
the wild animals, still exist in this section? 

Venomous reptiles — the copperhead and rattlesnake. 

217. When was the last wolf killed in Bradford county? The last 
panther? The last appearance of wild pigeons? 

Last wolf killed 1853; last panther 1860; last appearance of 
wild pigeons 1886. 

218. When did it snow on the 4th of July? When the big Autumn 
snow storms? 

4th of July 1859; October 5, 1836 nearly two feet of snow; 
September 29, 1844 over two feet of snow. 

219. In what two years was there a heavy or killing frost every 
month in the year? 

In 1816 and 1859. 

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220. What is there remarkable about the flow and depository of all 
the waters within Bradford county? 

The water of all streams whether flowing east, west, north or 
south ultimately reach the Susquehanna river. 

221. What locality takes its name from the condition of the forest 
left after a terrific wind storm in early times? 

Windfall in West Granville, where the timber was all blown 
down in a terrific windstorm, or tornado, in March, 1794. 

222. What and where are the historic **Gap Rocks"? 

Directly back of Towanda on the Lauing place in Wj'sox, there 
is a natural passage-way, about 8 feet wide, between two rocks 
in the ledge. Through this gap or opening was the Great In- 
dian Path. General Sullivan's army passed through this gap 
in 1779. 

223. When was the great fire that destroyed the Court House and 
most of the business section of Towanda? 

March 12, 1847. 

224. In what most exciting Presidential campaign in Bradford 
county were fife and drum corps, live coons and log cabins fea- 

Campaign of 1840 when Gen. Wm. H. Harrison was the Whig 
cHiididate and Martin VanBuren the Democratic. 

225. What Bradford countain was president of the electoral college 
that cast the vote of Pennsylvania for Andrew Jackson for 
President in 1832? 

Gen. Samuel McKean of Burlington. 

226. W^hat Towandian was instrumental in securing the nomination 
of Abraham Lincoln for the Presidency? 

David Wilmot, who was chairman of the Pennsylvania delega- 
tion to the Republican National convention at Chicago in 1860. 

227. What Presidents of the United States, either before, during or 
after their terms, have visited or passed through Bradford 

James Buchanan, 1844; Ulysses Grant, 1876; Grover Cleve- 
land, 1885; Benjamin Harrison, 1892; William McKinley, 
1892; Theodore Roosevelt. 1905; Woodrow Wilson, 1911. 

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228. What religioDists created much excitement throughout Brad- 
ford county by preaching the end of the world in 1844? 

The Millerites, who fixed October 23 as the date. Many were 
converted to the belief. In one locality the converts arrayed 
themselves in white robes and climbing to the top of a moun- 
tain eagerly awaited the hour of translation. 

229. What was the "LeRaysville Phalanx"? 

It was an Industrial Association, formed in 1844 upon the 
principles of Charles Fourier. The leading spirits in the enter- 
prise were Dr. Lemuel C. Belding, Leonard Pratt and Gould 
Seymour, the trustees. About 600 acres of land were purchased 
and buildings arrangetl for the **community" in which every- 
thing was in common, the men working in the fields and the 
women in house. To promote the enterprise Dr. Belding es- 
tablished a paper known as the North American Phalanx. The 
scheme proved impracticable and soon went to pieces. 

230. When was the cry, **0n to California," and an expedition or- 
ganized from Bradford county? 

In 1849; fully a score of Bradford countains joined an expedi- 
tion and braved the hardships to find riches in the gold regions 
of California. 

231. What Bradford countains attained eminence in the ''Golden 

Prof. John G. Marvin of Pike was the first State Superintendent 
of California, a learned lawyer and judge; Lorenzo Sawyer of 
Rome was a judge. Justice of the Supreme Court and U. S Cir- 
cit Judge; James Emery Hale of Smithfield was county Judge, 
a member of the Assembly and State Senator. 

232. What important city in Texas was founded by a Bradford 

Corpus Chrii^ti, Texas was founded by Henry Lawrence Kin- 
ney, a former Towaniiian. 

233. What citizen of Bradford county was a candidate for Governor 
aiid defeated at the pullb? What candidate for Lieutenant- 
Governor deieated in the same manner? 

David Wilmot, the first Republican candidate for Governor, 

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was defeated in 1857, and Wm. T. Davies, Republican candi- 
date for Lieutenant-Governor, defeated in 1882. 

234. What important part did Bradford county take in the Civil 

The county furnished 5,000 men and boys, equivalent to one- 
half her voting population, who served the Union in the hour 
of her greatest peril. 

235. With what readiness did the county respond to President Lin- 
coln's first call? Wlio was the first volunteer? 

Within three days after President Lincoln had issued his first 
call for volunteers a big mass meeting was held in Towanda 
and steps taken for the organization of three Companies. At 
this meeting, April 18, 1861, Addison G. Mason of Towanda 
was the first man to offer bis services and subscribe his name 
to the rolls as a volunteer. 

236. What was the first engagement in which Bradford county sol- 
diers participated? 

Dranesville, Va , December 20, 1861 — the first Union victory 
of the war — an achievement in which the Sixth Reserves from 
Bradford county performed an important part. 

237. In what departments did (»ur soldiers serve and in how many 
battles take part? 

They served in every department of the Union army and navy, 
participated in all the great battles and most of the minor en- 

238. How many of our soldiers were killed in battle and died from 
wounds and disease? 

Nearly 800, or a loss of 17 per cent of the number in the ser- 

239. In what battles did we have most men killed? 

- 39 at Chancellorsville, 35 at Gettysburg, 30 at Wilderness, 2\) 
at Spottsylvania, 22 at Fredericksburg, 21 before Petersburg 
and 17 at Antietam. 

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240. What was known as tbo ''Bradford Regiment*'? In what bat- 
tles did it suffer a terrible loss? 

The 141st Pennsylvania Volunteers for the reason that 6| of 
the 10 Companies were raised in the countj. At Cbanoellors- 
ville tbe 14ist sustained the greatest loss of any regiment in 
the Federal army, being 23 killed, 162 wounded and 60 miss- 
ing out of 417 men, or 56 per cent Of the 198 men at Get- 
tysburg, 49 were killed and died of wounds, 96 wounded and 7 
captur^ and missing, or nearly 77 per cent 

241. What may be said of the heroism and bravery of Bradford 
county soldiers? 

No braver men than tbe Bradford county ''boys" were mustered 
into the service of their country. On many battlefields they 
performed deeds of valor — not only among the most brilliant 
in the annals of the Civil War, but unexcelled in the wars of 
modern times. 

242. What were the ages of the Bradford county volunteers? What 
family furnished tbe greatest number of soldiers? 

Their ages ranged from under 14 to 60 years, those at 18 years 
comprising the major part Abraham VanSice of Sheshequin 
sent nine sons, tbe greatest number of any family. 

243. Who was the county's most distiu)2:uished soldier? 

Gen. Henry J. Madill, whose heroism and bravery, won him 
promotions from Major to Major-Genera 1. 

244. What Bradford countains witnessed the assassination of Presi- 
dent Lincoln? 

Capt Geo. V. Myer of Monroeton and Hollis L. Chubbuck of 
Orwell. Tbe former was one of the first to enter the Presi- 
dent's box after the tragedy, called a physician and assisted in 
caring for tbe President and keeping back the crowd; the lat- 
ter, quick in pursuit of the assassin, sprang upon the stage and 
nearly had bim in his clutches when excited stage hands 
blocked his way and let Booth escupe. 

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246. Wbat uatiTe of Bradford county, a graduate of West Point, 
served in the Florida war, Mexican war and rose to the rank 
of Briisadier-General in the Civil War? 

Qeu, Thomas J. McKean, a native of West Burlington, who 
died in Iowa in 1870, aged 60 years. 

246. When was the Barclay railroad opened to the county-seat? 
The Lehigh Valley? The State Line and Sullivan? 
October, 1856 between Towanda and Barclay; December, 1867 
between Towanda and Waverly and September, 1869 between 
Waverly and Wilkes-Barre via Towtinda; January, 1871 be- 
tween Towanda and Dushore. 

247. What attempts have been made to divide Bradford county? 
From 1821 to 1873 there was more or less agitation as to the 
propriety of dividing Bradford county. Two determined at- 
tempts were made: (1). In 1841 a bill was introduced in the 
StHle Legislature for the formation of a new county to be called 
Prnn by dividing Bradford and including parts of Tioga and 
Lycoming. The move created great excitement. ^'Division 
Meetings'' and *'Anti-Division Meetings*' were held all over the 
countV; the matter fully discussed, resolutions passed and peti- 
tions forwarded to the Legislature, some urging and some ob- 
jecting to the proposed division. On the proposition the people 
were pretty evenly divided and the bill before the Legislature 
(tune near passing. (2). In 1870 Peter Herdic brought forth 
anew the scheme to organize the county of Minnequa out of 

'* parts of Bradford, Tioga and Lycoming. The matter was 
pressed hard before the legislature in 1873 and the bill passed 
the House by a vote of 48 lo 42. In the Senate the bill was 
easily killed, and thus ended the last attempt to divide Brad- 
ford county. 

248. When and where was the first agricultural fair held in Brad- 
ford county? 

On October 6 and 7, 1853 in the public square and court house 
at Towanda. 

249. What sheriff of Bradford county was himself sheriffed while in 

Lemuel Streator, sheriff from 1818 to 1821, was himself sold 
out while in office, the writ being executed by the county coro- 

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250. What was the campaign of ''Enow Nothingism" in Bradford 

The campaign of 1854. The Anti-Slavery people, especially 
the Whigs, in order to strengthen their position, formed a se- 
cret, oath-bound organization. Those of its members that had 
not been admitted to the i)igher degrees were kept in ignorance 
of the aims and name of the organization, and their constant 
answer of "I don't know" to questions regarding the society 
gave them the title of "Know Nothings." AH meetings of the 
party were secret. Its principle was "Americans must rule 
America." Lodges were organized all over Bradford county, 
numbering fully 2,000 voters. The greatest efiFort of the "Know 
Nothings" was directed against Governor Bigler and they suc- 
ceeded in beating him in the county by nearly 2,500 votes. 

251. When and where was the greatest political gathering or mass 
poeeting ever held in Bradford county? 

It was a Democratic Polk and Dallas meeting held at Towanda, 
September 10, 1844. The Democrats of Bradford and adjoin- 
ing counties attended en masso, numbering from 15,000 to 20,- 
000. James Buchanan, afterwards President, and John W. 
Forney, the noted Lancaster editor, were the principal speakers. 

252. When was the highest water ever known in the Susquehanna? 
When and what the county's most destructive flood? 

On March 17, 1865, being 28 feet above low water mark at To- 
wanda. The great December (I4th) flood of 1901, when five 
persons were drowned and property, public and private, destroyed 
in the county to the extent of a million dollars. 

253. What winter was notable for the total absence of snow? What 
were the memorable warm New Year's days? 

The winter of 1853- 54; January 1, 1876 and January 1, 1905. 

254. What woman was noted as the poetess of Wysox? OfSheshe- 

Mrs. Margaret St. Leon (Barstow) Loud of Wysox; Mrs. Julia 
(Kinney) Scott of Sheshequin. 

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255. What woman, the author ot numerous books for young people 
and distinguished for her work as a member of the Natioital 
Board of Charities and Corrections, was a native of Canton 

Mrs. Mary E. (Wells) Cobb, who died 1915 in Philadelphia, 
aged 80 years. 

256. What distinguished philosopher and theologian once held large 
tracts of land in Bradford county? What treasurer of the 
United Staten? 

Dr. Joseph Priestly, who died at Northumberland, Pa.; Gen. 
Samuel Meredith, the first treasurer of the United States, who 
is entombed at Mi. Pleasant, Wayne county. 

257. What men born in Towanda became Justices of State Supreme 

Ulysses Mercur, who became Chief Justice of Pennsylvania in 
1883 and Charles M. Webb who was appointed to the Supreme 
Bench of Wisconsin in 1895. 

258. What world renowned composer and singer of |B:ospel songs be- 
gan his career in Bradford county where he received his princi- 
pal education? 

Philip P. Bliss who with his wife lost their lives in the terrible 
Ashtabula disaster, December 29, 1876. 

259. What towns were former educational centers, supporting acda- 

Academies were established at Athens, 1797 ; Leilaysville. 
1830; Towanda, 1836; Troy, 1840; Wysox, 1840; Rome, 1848; 
Wyalusing, 1859; Susquehanna Collegiate Institute, Towanda, 
1853. Towanda and Troy had Female Seminaries, or schools 
for young ladies. 

260. What was the must noted and liberally patronized educational 
institution in the county? 

The Susquehanna Collegiate Institute from 1854 to 1907. 

261. What were the active religious denominations during the first 
fifty years ot the county's history? Who the noted pioneer 

(1). Congiegationalists, Rev. Jabez ('ulver; (2). Baptists, Rev. 

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Thomas Smiley; (3). Universalists, Rev. Noah Murray; (4). 
Methodists, Rev. Elisha Cole; (5). Presbyterians, Rev. Manassah 
Miner York. 

262. What good woman was known as "Mother ot Methodism" in 
the county? The "Mother of Presbyterianism"? 

Mrs. James McKean of Burlington; Mrs. Amos York of Wya- 

263. When and where was the first Odd Fellow's lodge instituted in 
the county? 

Monroeton Lodge No. 137, I. 0. 0. F. instituted February 12, 
1846 at Monroeton. 

264. When and what was the first Grange organized in the county? 
Bradford Grange, No. 39 P. of H. organized 1873 in Pike town- 

265. What persons have been hanged for murder in Bradford 

James Dolan executed 1844 by Sheriff Wepton; James P. Lang- 
foid, 1848 by Sheriff Dobbins; Albert Brown (colored), 1875 by 
Sheriff Smith; Bigler Johnson, 1905 by Sheriff Robinson; 
Charles Johnson (brother of Bigler), 1907 by Sheriff Griffin. 

266. When did a gang of counterfeiters have a "money-mill'' in the 

In 1811 a gang of counterfeiters were operating in what is now 
Bradford county. They had a retreat under an overhangint^ 
rock up Millstone run in Monroe township, known as **the 
cave," used to conceal their spurious coin and bills, as also 
themselves in times of danger. In the same locality they had 
their **money-miir' where spelter coins were died from Geiinan 
silver plates which were brought into the country by the gang. 
The counterfeit paper money was made and obtained in the city. 
After the ogarnization of Bradford county Sheriff Rockwell 
broke up the combination and scattered them in all direction?, 

267. When did the most terrible and destructive windstorm or tor- 
nado strike Bradford county? 

September 7, 1893, killing four persons and doing damage to 
the extent of several hundred thousand dollars. 

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268. When did it snow on Memorial Day? When the deep S-days' 
November snow? When the memorable March blizzard? When 
the great June flood? 

(1) May 30, 1884; (2) November 23, 24 and 25, 1885; (3) 
March 12 and 13, 1888; (4) June 1 and 2, 1889. 

269. When was the coldest weather ever experienced in this section? 
The warmest? 

January 5, 1904, when temperature in the county ranged from 
25 to 40 degrees below zero. The warmest spell, 1st to 16th 
July. 1868, temperature 16 days in succession being from 90 to 
103 degreea 

270. What four distinguished brothers of Bradford county were all 
lawyers, legislators and soldiers in the Civil War? 

James H., William C, Henry G. and Charles M., sons of Hon. 
John L. Webb. James H. represented Bradford county in the 
Legislature six terms, was Speaker of the House and Captain, 
Co. I, 47th Pa. Militia. William C. was-a member of the Wis- 
consin Legislature, Speaker of the House, a Judge and member 
of the Legislature in Kansas. Henry G. was a member of both 
the House and Senate in Wisconsin, a Judge and member of 
the Legislature in Kansas. Charles il. was a member of the 
Wisconsin Senate, district Judge and member of the Supreme 
Court. The last three served in Wisconsin regiment& 

271. What Bradford countains have been Justices of State Supreme 

Ellis Lewis and Ulysses Mercnr in Penna ; Lorenzo Sawyer, 
California; Charles M. Webb, Wisconsin; Col. James B. Mc- 
Kean, Utah. 

272. What Bradford countains have been Speaker of the House of 
Representatives in State Legislatures? 

Pennsylvania — John Laporte, 1832; James H. Webb, 1871; 
' E. Reed Myer, 1877. Wisconsin— Wm. C. Webb, 18(»3. Min- 
nesota—John L. Gibbs, 1877 and 1885. 

273. What fathers and sons have represented Bradford county in the 
State Legislature? 

Gen. Samuel McKean and son. Addison McKean; John La- 

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porie and sod, Bartholomew Laporte; John L. Webb and son, 
James H. Webb; Wm. Myer and son, E. Reed Mj'er; George 
Kinney and sons, George Wayne Kinney and O. P. H. Kinney; 
Victor E. Piollet and son, Louis Piollet. 

274. What Governors of the State have visited Bradford county on 
political or other missions? 

Ritner (first in 1836), Porter, Bigler, Johnston, Curtin, Hart- 
ranft, Hoyt, Pattison, Beaver, Hastings, Stone, Pennypacker, 
Stuart, Tener, Brumbaugh. 

275. What Bradford countains represented Western States in the 
National House of Representatives? 

Horace B. Strait, formerly of Troy, several terms in Congress 
from Minnesota; Thomas Ryan, formerly Franklin and Towan- 
da, several terras from Kansas. 

276. What Bradford countains have represented the U. S. Govern- 
ment in foreign lands? 

Edward H. Perkins of Athens, Consul to Santa Cruz, W. I.. 
Andrew A. St John ofTowanda, Consul to Fiji Islands; Dr, 
John M. Crawford of Herrick, the master of ten languages, 
twice Consul General to St. Petersburg; Thomas Ryan, Minis- 
ter to Mexico. 

277. What two civil engineers of national celebrity spent their early 
life in Bradford county? 

Charles C. Martin, who directed the construction of the great 
Brooklyn bridge, and George Remington Bramhall, the designer 
and builder of Chicago's great w*ater system. 

278. Where in Bradford county have monuments been erected to 
commemorate historic events and personages? 

Spanifch Hill, adv?nt of white man 1615; Wyalusing, Moravian 
settlement 1765-72; Athens, site of Fort Sullivan, 1779; Wy- 
sox, line of General Sullivan's march, 1779; Asylum, site of 
settlement French Refugees, 1794-1801; Monuments to Soldiers 
and Sailors of the Civil War at East Smithfield, Ulster, To- 
wanda (county), Athens and General Madill monument at Wy- 
soz; Bliss monument at Rome. 

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279. Who have been Judges of Bradford county and the order of 
their succession? 

1. John Bannister Gibson; 2. Thomas Burnside; 3. Edward 
Herrick; 4. John N. Conyngham; 5 Horace Williston; 6. Da- 
vid VVilmot; 7. Darius Bullock; 8. David Wilmot; 9. Ulysses 
Mercur; 10. Farris B. Streeter; 11. Paul D. Morrow; 12. Ben- 
jamin M. Peck; 13. Adelbert C. Fanning; 14. William Max- 

280. When was the present Court House erected? When the County 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument erected and dedicated? 
Court House erected 1896-97; Monument erected 1901 and 
dedicated November 26. 

281. Why are two terms of court held at Troy each year? 

The Act creating a court at Troy became a law February 3, 
1870. It was the result of o long agitation, arising from the 
inconvenience and expense of parties residing in Western Brad- 
ford, taking their suits to Towaiida for trial. The Act provides 
for two terms of court, beginning the fourth Mondays of March 
and October. The first court at Troy was convened March 28, 
1870, and the Court House erected in 1894. 

282. When and where was the greatest show crowd ever assembled 
in Bradford county? 

On August 12, 1884 Barnum, Bailey & Hutchinson's Consoli- 
dated Show exhibited at Towanda. The crowd, the largest 
ever assembled in the county, was estimated from ifcO,000 to 
25,000 persons." 

283. When was Bradford county under Local Option, or a "dry 

In 1873 the people voted against the granting of liquor li- 
censes, and the county was **dry" fiom May, 1873 until March, 
1875 when the Legislature repealed the Local Option law. 

284. What response was made from Bradford county in the call for 
volunteers in the Spanish-American war and the Philippine 

Early in July, 1898 a company of 107 men was quickly re- 
cruited by Frank N. Moore of Windham who was chosen Cap- 

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tain. It became Company M of the 9th Pennsylvania regiment 
and was sent to Chickamauga, where on duty, when the war 
ended. A number enli:$ted in the regular service and paitici- 
pated in the Philppine Insurrection (1899-1901). 

285. What town or locality was originally known as Old Sheshe- 
quin? Tioga Point? Meansville? Martell? Canton Corners? 
Heverly settlement? Leonard Hollow? Columbia Flatfe? Cabot 

Ulster as **01d Sheshequin"; Athens as **Tioga Point"; Towan- 
da as "Meansville''; Warren as **Marteir'; Canton as "Canton 
Corners"; Overton as **IIeverly settlement"; Leona as "Leon- 
ard Hollow"; Sylvania as "Columbia Flats"; Austinville as 
"Cabot Hollow" and "Morgan Hollow." 

286. How man times have citizens of Bradford county voted for 
President of the United States? 

26 times from 1812 to 1916, and for all the Presidents except 
Washington, Adams and Jefferson. • 

287. In what Presidential election did all the citizens of the county 
vote for a general of the Civil War? 

In 1880 four generals of the Civil War were the leading candi- 
dates for the Presidency, being James A. Garfield, Republican, 
Winfield S. Hancock, Democrat, James B. Weaver, Greenback 
and Neal Dow, Prohibition. 

288. Who was the "Free Soil" candidate for the Presidency and what 
effect upon Bradford county politics? 

In 1848 former President Martin VanBuren was the "Free Soil" 
candidate. The Democratic vote in the county divided almost 
evenly between VanBuren and General Cass, giving General 
Taylor, the Whig candidate, a majority of 1400. A majority 
of the Free Soil Democrats joined in the formation of the Re- 
publican party in 1855. 

289. What year was memorable for its terrible and destructive 
windstorms? What winters for huge snow drifts? 

The year 1893. Winters of 1835-^36, 1856.'57, 1867.'68, 1890- 
'91, 1894-^95, 1913-'14. 

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290. What were the vears memorable for long, rainv seasons? 
1857, 1889, 1915, 1917. 

291. What are the latitude and longitude of Towanda, the county 

The Court House is in latitude 41^ 47' north and in longitude 
25' 28'' east of Washington. 

292. Is Towanda east or west of Harrisburg? North or south of 
New York city? North or south of Chicago? 

Towanda is about 16 miles east of Harrisburg, 44 miles north 
of New York city and 28 miles south of Chicago. 

293. What is the only township in Bradford county that never had 
a hotel or liquor license? 


294. Wliat historic lands in Bradford county have been occupied 
continuously by the same family since 1792? 

The Indian lands at Wyalusing, occupied by the Moravians, 
sold by Job Chilloway (1775) to Capt. Henry Pawling and con- 
veyed by him to his daughter, Mrs. Joseph Stalford in 1792, 
since owned and occupied by the Stalford family. 

295. What father and son died centenarians in Bradford county? 
Elisha Newman died February 23, 1893 in Herrick, aged 101 
years, 4 months and 26 days. His son, Walter Scott Newman, 
died March 9, 1917 in Canton, aged 100 years, 9 months and 8 

296. How long has the county had Rural free delivery of mail? 
Ruial free delivery of mail in Bradford county with Towanda 
as a distributing point was inaugurated May 1, 1901. 

297. How many varieties of trees and shrubs are found in Bradford 

Nearly 100. How many can you name? 

298. How many different kinds of birds visit this section during 
Spring and Summer? 

Nearly 150. How many can you name? 

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299. What the most momentous year in our country's history? 

In 1917 the United States entered the great world-war by de- 
claring war against Germany April 6 and against Austria.Uun- 
gary December 6. 

300 What the order of war movements in Bradford county? 

June 5, the military registration or enrollment of all citizens 
between the ages of 21 and 31 years; July 20-21, the first draw 
made under the selective draft, being about 400 in the county; 
August 14, 15 and 16, first conscripts or drafted men examined; 
September 16, big patridic demonstration held in Towanda in 
honor of the men called to the colors; September 21, the coun- 
ty's first quota, comprising 107 men, leave Towanda for Camp 
Meade, Md. 


Townships (p 77) — Athens, the first permanent settler being Jacob 

Snell, a German, in 1784. 
Presidents (p 124, q 227)— Wm. H. Taft. 

Local Elevations (p 68) — The following all in LeRoy township: 

Summit Mountain west Cranberry Marsh 2309 feet 

West of Holcomb pond 2239 feet 

Cranberry Marsh 2195 feet 

Suhfish pond - - 2095 feet 

Tableland south Litile Schrader 2100 feet 

Table-land south Big Schrader 2100 feet 


Franklindale — - 890 feet 

West Franklin 9G0 feet 

LeRoy 1024 feet 

West LeRoy 1050 feet 

Summit VanFleet hill 1232 feet 

East Canton - 1112 feet 

Canton — - 1185 feet 

Floods ([> 52) — 1809, great July flrod in the Susquehanna river; 
extensive damage to growing crops. 

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Rainy Seasons (p 61) — 1917, August closed with 14 rainy days 
which added to 39 in June and July make a totol of 53 in three 
months. Tliis almost continuous rainy season had not been 
equalled since the memorable rainy spell in 1857 which ex- 
tended from early spring until mid-summer. 

July Heat (p 48)— 1917, 30th 98 degrees, 31st 100 degrees. 

Killing Frosts (p 41, 42)— 1917, September 10th and 11th; Octo- 
ber 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th and others in succession. 

Cold* October — 1917, mean temperature 45#7 degrees, being the 

coldest 10th month since 1895. 
Cold and Dry Novkmber — 1917, the coldest 11th month since 1901 

and the driest in 24 years. The mean temperature was 34.1 

degrees and the total rainfall .52 of an inch. 

Coldest December — 1917, mean temperature 18.6 degrees, being 

10*2 below normal, or the coldest 12th month of which we have 

any record. 
Decembek Zero Weather (p 32)— 1917, report of H. E. Bull at 

Wyj^ox : 

12th 3 below zero 

IGth 17 below zero 

18th - 6 below zero 

23rd 8 below zero 

27th 3 below zero 

29th 6 bi-low zero 

30th 17i below zero 

31st 13 below zero 

Other reports in the county for Sunday, December 30 were : 

Sayre 16 below zero 

Athens 20 to 23 below zero 

Towanda 17 to 22 below zero 

Hornbrook 22 below zero 

South Hill 24 below Zero 

Rome 35 below zero 

North Orwell 38 below aero 

LeRaysville 28 to 30 below zem 

Potterville 25 to 30 lielow zero 

South Warren _« 36 to 38 below zero 

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December Skow Stokms (| 85)— l^lT;USlh, 14th— gnow-fall of 12 
to 15 iDcbes. * " 


Highest Point, pc^^^ 1 , v^tnwld read , 2309 * (eetf^nm mit mountain 
west Grauberry Marsb, LeRoy township. 

Weevil, page 70, date should read 1S54. 

CioNGRESSibNAiJ DisTRibrV page 83, stioul^ read l4tli Siatrict 

-I'. • 


. 1 

I ^ 

'\ .. ...-,.,•.. ,1 :..-.. . ., . . - . ' . . .. •*■.! 

' IJ 


, . - . • .... ■ , I . . ■ ' ) , t , . . ' . ■ "' ' . * 

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Part II. 

MeedngB and Proceedingg. 

Fourteenth Annual Old People^e Meeting 

Saturday, June i23, 1917 has passed into history as a memora- 
ble and gladsome day in the lives of the heroes and patriarchs of 
Bradford county who met at Towanda in their 14th annual reunion 
under the auspices of the Historical Society. The dark rain clouds 
that bad been hovering over us all month gave way and let Old Sol 
beam forth in all his majesty, as if, to inspire and encourage the old 
people to again make the journey to the county seat. Tlie place of 
meeting was the rooms of the Bradford County Historical Society 
and the Court House grounds, which for more than a century have 
been the rallying point for great public demonstrations and where 
the multitude have faced many of the great men of the county, state 
and nation and listened with deep concern to their eloquent and 
stirring words. Volumes of history have been enacted here, but no 
assemblage ever offered more joyful, historic entertainment than that 
of Saturday. 

After registering and being provided with badges, the forenoon 
was taken up in meeting and greeting old comrades and friends, re- 
viewing events of happy, by-gone days and viewing the beautiful 
pictures and collections of the Historical Society. On the outside, 
entertainment was furnished by the fife and drum corps and the 
jolly **old boys in blue." That no comfort or consideration should 
be overlooked, the ladies of the Village Improvement Society took 
the venerable people in charge, and in a captivating and gracious 
manner entertained and served tea and cakes from 10:30 to 12 
o'clock. The basement of the Court House was utilized by the vet- 
erans for assembly. At 1:40 o'clock, the grand patriarchal column 
of 80 veterans of the Civil War under command of Maj. W. H. Nutt, 
formed in the rear of the Court House, headed by the drum corps, 
consisting of Reed W. Dunfee with snare drum, Woodford C. May, 

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bass drum, Frank M. Vooght, fife, Dallas J. Sweet bearing the col- 
ors and the drill sqaad in military attire with gans; to the taps and 
the command, the old boys straightened up and took step with an 
alacrity that was admirable. The other old people, led by the 
sprightly A. H. Kingsbury, aged 86, carrying the flag, followed the 
soldiers in the march around the square. People liued the streets 
to witness the beautiful pageant which in its movements won admir- 
ing applause. Having made the circuit, the veterans were formed 
in double column, the most aged seated in front of them witli the 
other old people, when the group of nearly 200 was pictured by Ott 
& Hay, photographers. 

Immediately following the achievement of the photographers, 
Major Nutt, carrying the sword of Col. Oney Bailey, with a company 
consisting of J. W. Allen, J. H. Chaffee, J. A. Bosworth, J. W. Bon- 
ney, Elisha Cole, M. V. Greening, Jonas S. Gray, B. J. Hausknecht, 
J. Miles Sweet, L. T. Smith, J. H. Taylor and James M. Wilcox, 
armed with Springfield rifles, flint locks and other ancient pieces, 
proceeded to tlie green and went through military maneuvers and 
drills with surprising exactness as they had in the Civil War to the 
delight of children, grandchildren, greatgrandchildren and the 
multitude assembled to witness the performance. From a stage in 
front of the old people, Lihrarian C. F. Heverly announced the fea- 
tures of the program. The exercises were opened by a chorus of 
school children — Eugenia Bartlett, Marjorie Bnnk, Clement Hev- 
erly, Evelyn King, Barold Kunzman, Lena Lafy, Audrey Lewis, 
Katherine Lynch, Atlena Lyonp, Frances Montanye, Jessie Mills, 
Gertrude Nesbit, Dora Nesbit, Mary Nesbit, Dorothy Selle, George 
Stallsmith and Freida Yanofsky — who with real patriotic ardor and 
the sweetness of birds sang, **We Salute Thee Old Glory," giving 
timely gesticulations with the words. The rendition was beautiful 
and the little tots seemed inspired as they faced the flag, the old sol- 
diers and patriarchs. They were greatly appreciated and generously 
applauded. Hon. E. M. Tuton, who was a dashing Cavalry boy, in 
a happy address repictured scenes of Civil War days, touched upon 
the great world conflict, our part, loyally and duty. His etfort 
teemed with patriotism and he was much enjoyed and appreciated. 

"Dear Heart We're Growing Old" was beautifully rendered by 
Levi W. Towner, the old music instructor of sweet voice, and hia 

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daagbter, M{*8. , J^e - Buttles; They.; nfpre gi^ep, entbqsUaticafh 
jplause., I^e'^d W. Di;infee, the Ciyif^ar, c\in^mroei;lK)y.twithoui a 
peeif, ^^ave an; iipi^tion of "infantry fir^" upon the fJiiMmwondef- 
Tq^ly Vealistic, 'Miss Rpwena Herrmann, .thf^ 9,<t^ompIJ8\ieid musician, 
'gav|e two 89le,ct^n8 upon the violin qf, popv^lcur. ^id risfined music of 
a centuifv ^figo. Her skill was greatly fiojoyjed .and. appreciated, 
^p. 0. £)e\Yitt, Esq., the venprable oraljpr.of.n^MQPalfaiwe, whom all 
(I'eligt^tto hear, held the audience spelM?pnn(^. for' half an. hour ip 
pi^ifi^ his devotion to country, the boyR,Qr'61,ol,4 people and in 
presenting the great world.,w:ar, unde;r\ying caus|^8,aqd what is likely 
to (lappen. His splendid effort was enjoy^^ by everybody. 
••Where the Roses Ne're ,Sb9Jl.,^i|4ier!! WA9 ..beautifully rendered 
'^y Mr. Towner and Mr;3. Buttlqs,. and .in .Response to encore Mr. 
Towner brought forth Bounds, pfl.^ughter by, pinging **We All Wear 
Cloaks." The priz/5 winners ]Pfere brought upon the stage, intro- 
duced by Secretary, ^. A pdre^ Wilt, who, ijci behalf of the Society 
presented Thoni\£^s ^ollocjk pf Ulster, the pldest gentleman^ hpm Sepr 
tember 5, 18^4^ a, h^ndpome cane ,an.d Mrs. Jane Durie of Wysox^ 
the oldes^/iftdy, ^ ^ilver loving cup, _The djelightful exercises,^ lastr 
ing two hours^,, were b^-ought. to aldose by Vet^r^n Joseph W. Bour 
nfey singing VMarching Through, fiieorgia," comrades and apdienc^ 
jviinrng in tlie chorus. Expre^ing words of appreciation^ , and fond 
.**good byes''* to one another, the rem^irkable assemblage departed for 
meir several home?, feeling thp,t there isetilj abrighjt./side rto.lifeand 
that tliere are no friends quite so dear as the pld friends. 

/;The following con\pr]ee the. Civil War veteranp, ages,, company 
iiid regiment, and other, old people, participating ip the exercises: 

,. Daniel Heverly, Oct. -25, 1828; F, Gist,- P.; Overton. 

G. J. Burd, Nov.. 12, 1831; B, 7th P. Cav , Towanda. ' 

Jos. W. Bonneyi Jany. 30. 1833; B, 207th P., LeRoy. . -* * 
Alex. Keeney, July 24, 1833; A, 141st P.-, New Albany. 
Chas. Rutty, Oct. 4, 1834; A, I4l8t N. Y., Towanda. 
, Jas. W, Northrup, Dec. 6, 1834;- A, 207ith P., M6tiroeton. • « 
, . S. A. Cliaflfee, Dec. 5. 1835; E, 179th N. Y.^ Orwell: 

Tile< Sherman, Jany. 24, 1836; F, 2nd P. Cav . E. Smithfield. 

Jonas S. Gray, Feby. 21, 1836; B, :141st P., LeRaysvlUe. 
Jacob D. Smith, March 19, 183ft; B, 7ih P. Cav.^ Rome^i 
Edwin A, Knapp, April 7,. 1936;. Jn89th III, Towanda. 

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Wm. W. Allen, June 23, 1836; G, 57th P., Towanda. 
I. L. Young, July 4, 1836; A, 35th P. M., Shcshequin. 
H. A. Vail, Sept, 20, 1836; C, Ist D. C, Towanda. 
J. A. Bosworth, Nov. 13, 1836; B, 14l8t P., Wysox. 
Daniel Walborn, Nov. 21, 1836; C, 97th P., N. Towanda. 
W. C. May, May 1, 1837; E, 52nd P., Towanda. 
Henrv Dixon, June 27, 1837; D, 17th P. Cav., Ulster. 
J. C. Forbes, Dec. 30, 1837; G, 57th P., Rome. 
M. B. VanCise, June 2, 1837; D, Ist N. Y. Cav., Towanda. 
J. W. Allen, June 22, 1838; C. 57th P., Towanda. 

B. K. Gustin, Jany. 4, 1839; F, 52nd P., Sinithfield. 

D. G. Oaborn, Feby. 26, 1839; D, 17Hi,P. Cav., Windham. 
J. C. Ridgway, March 13, 1839; C, 141st P., Mt.nroe. 
Wm. T. Horton, April 9, 1839; A, 141st P., Towanda. 
Bishop Horton, Aug. 12, 1839; C, Hist P., Towanda. 
Chas. L. Stewart, Jany. 10. 1840; 149th P., Towanda. 

E. A. Pearsall, Jany. 28, 1840; I, 6th P. R., Ulht«r. 
Diton Phelps, March 5, 1840; F, 6th P. R., Smill.flold. 
Daniel Vanderpool, Nov. 10, 1840; D, 16th N. Y. A., Terry. 
A. H. Furman. April 15, 1840; F, 92nd III., 

S. G. Barner, May 5. 1840; D, 1st N. Y. Cav , Slushequiu. 
I S. Fanning, June 29, 1840; 0, 7th P. Cav., Springfitld. 

C. S. Harmon, Julv 30, 1840; C, 53rd P., Towanda. 
J. H. Taylor, Sept.' 25, 1840; G, 50th P. Wyalusing. 
Wilson Mnrphy, Nov. 7, 1840; D, 17th P. Cav., Rome. 
Wm. M. Kintner, Nov. 10, 1840; 1, 11th P. Cav., Towaudo. 
E. F. Lewis, May 3, 1841; A, I41st P. Terry. 

J. Miles Sweet, July 17, 1841; K, 50th P., Wilmot. 
Thos. Hannon, Aug. 4, 1841; II, 102nd P., Towanda. 
John R. Allen, Nov. 7, 1841; H, 58th P.. Evergreen. 
Edward F. McGiil. Janv. 24, 1842; C, 107lh P., Sayre. 
Elisha Cole, March 4, 1842: 0, 141st P., Towanda, 
Andrew Morrison, May 10, 1842; B, 7th P. Cav., Ulster. 
Aaron J. Edsall, June 11, 1842; C, 141st P., Evergreen. 
Albert Cliilson, July 22, 1842; C, 141st P., Towanda. 
E. R. Warburton, Aug. 20, 1842; B, 7th P. Cav., Mouroeton. 
Geo. Corson, Dec. 8, 1842; G, 107(,h P., Evergreen. 
M. V. Greening, Dec. 19, 1842; B, 141st P., Ulster, 

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G. W. Horton, Feby. 8, 1843; A, 35th P. M., Sheshequin. 
James W. Hurst, March 23. 1843; G. 50th P., Camptown. 

A. E. Arnold, May 30, 1843; B, 14l8t P., Rome. 

J. H. Chaffee, July 13. 1843; B, 14l8t P., Slieshequin. 
Green Henley, July 27, 1843; B, 68th P., Albany. 
Jacob Alles, Sept. 18, 1843; K, 194th P., Towanda. 
H. W. Whitehead, Sept. 23, 1843; A, 97th P., Burlington. 

B. J. Hausknecht, Oct. 4, 1843; E, 2l0th P., Overton. 

D. J. Sweet, Nov. 1, 1843; C, Hist P., Towanda. 

Henry H. Bentley, Nov. 15, 1843; D, 4th U. S. A., Towanda. 
Reed W. Duntee, Jany. 7, 1844; K, 50th P., Monroeton. 
G. B. Armstrong, May 12. 1844; I, 97th P., Herriek. 
T. B. J(»hn8on, May 14, 1844; H. S., U. S A., Towanda. 
Jacob Stalker, May 22, 1844; I, 15th N. Y, Eng., Rome. ^ 
Geo. A. Benjamin, June 17, 1844; C, 12th N. Y. Cav., Asylum. 
Wm. H. Nutt, Sept. 18, 1844; F, 141st P., Athens. 
H. I. Coleman, Sept. 21, 1844; H, 52nd P., Heriick. 
Alex. King. Oct. 9, 1844; L, 16th N. Y. A., Towanda. 

E. M. Tuton, Oct. 16, 1844; E, 10th N. Y. Cav., Ridgebery. 
Chfls. Kinney, Jany. 21, 1845; K, 51st P., N. Towanda. 
Delaiison Fenner, Feby. 7 1845; C, 14l8t P., Towandrt. 

C. E Barrowcliit; May 24. 1845; L. 6th Iowa Cav., Tuscarora. 
James M. Wilcox, Dec. 23, 1845; K, 50th P., New Alban3\ 
Daniel P. Harbst, Febv^. 5, 1846; B. 1st P. L. A., Wys.»x. 
Daniel Schoonover, Feby. 6, 1840; C, 104th P.. Franklin. 

F. II. Warriner, March J 5, 1846; K. 1st M. Rifles, Towanda. 
S. E. Mavnard. Nov. 25, 1846; U, 88th P., TowHnda. 

F. A. SmUh, June 22, 1847; K, 101st N. Y., Ulster. 

T. L. Smith. Sept. 26, 1847; I. 141st P., Albany. 

J. Andrew Wilt. Sept. 28. 1848; L, 18tli P. Cav., Towanda. 

The following are the other old people who registered with date 
of birth : 

Thomas Pollock, Sept. 5. 1824, Ulster. 
Jane Durie, Dec. 25, 1827, Wysox. 
Mary Vargason, July 18, 1828, Towanda. 
A. H. Kingsbury, Oct. 23. 1831, Towanda. 
(\ S. LaH'erty, July 30, 1832, Camptown. 

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LeRoy McKean, April 28. 1833, Towanda. 
John M. Coolbaugh, Jany. 22, 1834, Macedonia. 
H. J. Buttles, May 17, 1834, South Hill. 

Elizabeth Heverly, Sept. 19, 1834, Overton 

J. L. Woodburn, Jany. 8, 1835, Rome. 

R. W. Brink, Julv 27, 1835, Rome. 

Henry W. McCraney, Sept. 26, 1835, Towanda. 

Mary E. Bennett, Nov. 14, 1835, Pike. 

Rebecca Hermans, Dec. 7, 1836, Wysox. 

J. L. Hines, Jany. 23, 1837, Athens. 

Hannah Swackhammer, May 2, 1837, Towanda. 

Mary A. Shoemaker, May 2, 1837, Towanda. 

P. F. Brennan, Oct. 20, 1837, Liberty Corners. 

Mrs. Sterling Dixon, Nov. 3, 1837, Wysox. 

Mrs. Chas. Stevens, April 18, 1838, Wyalusing. 

L. W. Towner, May 12, 1838, Rome. 

Caroline Kellum, May 16, 1838, Towanda. 

A. T. Lillev, June 9, 1838, LeRoy. 

Nancy E. Dyer, July 5, 1838, Wysox. 

Julia Neeley, Aug. 27, 1838, Asylum. 

Eunice Johnson, Dec. 26, 1838, Sheshequin. 

Mrs. E. A. Pearsall, Feby. 8, 1840, Ulster. 

Huldah O. Gray, March 20, 1840, LeRaysville. 

John Splann, May lf>, 1840, Liberty Corners. 

Sarah M. Kipp, May 21, 1840, Evergreen. 

J. W. Young, July 14, 1840, Springfield. 

Mrs. A. T. Lilley,^Nov. 14, 1840, LeRoy. 

Amarilla Maynard, Nov. 26, 1840, South Towanda* 

Mrs. J. D. Smith, Nov. 30, 1840, Rome. 

Timothy Brenndn, Dec. 26, 1840, Liberty Corners. 

Mrs. R. W. Brink, March 8, 1841, Rome. 

Mrs. S. A. Buttles, April 14, 1841, South Hill. 

Franklin Jones, May 11, 1841, Camptowu. 

Clarissa Baker, June 21, 1841, North Towanda. 

F. 0. Vannest, Feby. 6, 1842, Liberty Corners. 

Mrs. Gordon Vanderpool, April 25, 1842, Liberty Corners. 

D. C. DeWitt, May 6, 1842, Towanda. 

H, F. Terry, Aug. 31, 1842, Terry. 

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Mrp. Franklin Jones, Nov. 17, 1842, Camptown. 
Mrs. Edwin Knapp, April 1, 1843, Towanda. 
Mrs. F. A. Smith, April 29, 1843, Ulster. 
J. L. Morris, April 29, 1843, Rome. 
Jacob Kniffin, May 18, 1843, Milan. 
W. W. Corson, May 26, 1843, New Albany. 
J. K. Newell, July 28, 1843, Towanda. 
Thomas Lynch, Aug. 23, 1843, Towanda. 
H. R. Babcock, Nov. 26, 1843, Rome. 
Viletta M. Boyle, April 16, 1844, N. Towanda. 
Elvira Huffman, June 18, 1844, Owego. 
Abbie Williams, June 23, 1844, Towanda. 
H. C. Spencer, Aug. 4, 1844, Burlington. 
Esther Vansice, Aug. 12, 1844, Rome. 
A. M. Warburton, Sept. 25, 1844, Sugar Run. 
Fred Hoose, Oct. 17, 1844, Rome. 
Rachel Russell, Nov. 13, 1844, Burlington. 
Chloe A. Mclntyre, Nov. 29, 1844, N. Towanda. 
Mrs. L. A. Struuk, Nov. 24, 1844, Lime Hill. 
Clarence Kellogg, Dec. 30, 1844, Monroeton. 
Sarah J. Fenner, Dec. 31, 1844, Towanda. 
Orlando Fenner, Febv. 7, 1845, Wysox. 
Mrs. J. R. Allen, Sept. 9, 1845, Evergreen. 
J. F. Hatch, Sept. 25, 1845, New Albany. 
Susan C. Terry, Oct. 12, 1846, Terry town. 
Sophia English, Dec. 10, 1846, Monroeton. 
D. M. Stone, Dec. 6, 1846, West Franklin. 
H. R. Brown, Jany. 21, 1847, Tuscarora. 

—Bradford Star. 


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We note with sorrow the death of the following members of the 
Society during the past year : 

Harry Spalding Clark died October 22, 1916 at his home in 
Towanda from the infirmities of age, being 93 years old. He was 
the son of Ebenezer P. and Polly (Smith) Clark and was born Sep- 
tember 14, 1823 in Towanda where the greater part of his life was 
spent. In his younger days he followed wflgon making and was a 
man temperate in all things. He h«d Leen loig a member of tlie 
I. O. 0. F. and K. of P. Two sons, Fred and George survive. In- 
terment was in Wyalusing cemetery. 

Justus Allen Record^ the oldest person in Bradford county, 
died March 8, 1917 at his home in Towanda, aged 101 years, 2 
months and 13 days. He was tlie son of James and Huldah (Allen) 
Record and was born December 25, 1815 at NinePaitners, Dutchess 
county, N. Y. His ancestors on loth sides were of English descent 
and among the early settlers of New Enjjland. In his boyhood, 
Justus obtained a good common school education and learned the 
cooper's trade with his father. This vocation he followed until he 
became of age. In the fall of 1835, he saddled a horse and started 
out from Grafton, where the family had moved, on a piospecting tour. 
Drifting into Bradford county he found in Terry township a desirable 
timber tract and a sawmill which he purcliased. Returning 'to 
Grafton on the 27th of April, 183G he was united in marriage with 
Miss Susan M. Jones. Soon after, he loaded his efl'ects and young 
wife in a two-horse lumber wagon and left for their home. in the new 
country, being nearly a week on the road. In getting a start they 
passed through all the stniggles incident to pioneer life, but with 
true courage overcome every obstacle and succeeded. Mr. Record 
gave his attention to lumbering, clearing and improving land until 
1845 when he sold his interests in Terry and moved to Towanda. 
Here and at Wysox he engaged in farn\ing until 1854 when he 

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opened a store in Towanda which he condactod 16 years. Frena 
1870 to the time of his death he gave attention to his farm and 
other properties in Towanda. 

Mr. Record was a remarkable man in many respects. He was 
not a teetotaler, using liquor, however, only judiciously or for me- 
dicinal purposes. He both smoked and chewed tobacco until he 
was 80 years old when he quit the habit. He observed no special 
hygienic rule or food preparation. In his active years he got up 
early and quit only when the task was done, sometimes early and 
sometimes very late at night. He was a good liver, always insisting 
on three meals a day of wholesome food, well cooked, without any 
fancy trimmings. He was never a fretter. He took things as they 
came and was content. He did not pretend to know what special 
thing had contributed to his long life. His father died at the age 
of 79 years and his mother at 52. Of his brothers and sisters, only 
one reached the age of 66 years. Mr. Record was the father of four 
children, only one of whom, Mrs. Almeda A. Terry is living, being 
in her 80th year. His wife died in 1885 at the age of 6V> yeai-s. 
Interment was in Riverside cemetery, Towanda. See Annual No. 
10 for other interesting facts in Mr. Record's history. 

Mr9. E\9ie Marie Means died March 14, 1917 at the home of 
her sister, Mrs. W. H. Dodge, in Glenn Ridge, N. J., after a linger- 
ing illness, aged 73 years. She was the eldest child of James O. and 
Chloe (Hill) Frost and was born April 11, 1844 at Rush, Pa. Most 
of her life was spent in Towanda. She married first Robert Sher- 
man and after his death Col. John F. Means. She was a woman of 
many beautiful traits of character, a devoted member of the Presby- 
terian church and a worker for the nplift and good of the commu- 
nity. Her many aits of kindness will long be remembered. One 
son, James F. Sherman, by her former marriage survives. Inter- 
ment was in Oak Hill cemetery, Towanda. 

Joseph Washington Ingham^ the county's "grand old man," 
died very suddenly, May 24, 1917 at the home of his son, Geo. T. 
Ingham, Towanda in his 94th year. Though being a cripple and 
getting around on crutches for more than four years, he kept busy 
with pen until the very last, there being no faltering of his brilliant 
mind and wonderful memory. 

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Tliis remarkable man was the son of Thomas and Eunice (Ilor- 
ton) Ingham and was born October 21, 1823 at Sugar Run, Wilnmt 
township on the farm settled by his grandfather, Joseph Ingham in 
1795. He was of English-Quaker descent, his ancestors having set- 
tled in New Jersey about 1732. He received a good common school 
education and attended one term at the Athens academy. He 
taught two terms of school, practiced land surveying, 'tended store, 
worked in the lumber woods, drew logs, Hended saw-mill, rafted and 
ran lumber down the Susquehanna river to Maryland. Early in 
life he devoted himself to farming, it being an occupation more con- 
genial to his taste, and giving him more enjoyment ihan any other 

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bu»ine88 in which he erer engaged. Upon the death of his father 
in 1855, he assumed the duties of his father's estate, which included 
a grist-raill, saw-mill, farm and timber lot. Eventually he became 
the owner of the farm and labored diligently and successfully to 
mak^ it richer and more productive. He was the first Worthy 
Master of Wyalusing Grange and represented it several times in the 
State Grange. For four years he was postmaster at Sugar Run. 
He early took an active interest in politics and was the last of the 
original Abolitionists in the county. He was a total abstainer and 
a life-long champion of Temperance, In middle life he commenced 
literary work, writing upon agriculture, history and other topics of 
pu!)lic interest. He was a contributor to the New York Tribune, 
Tril une Farmer, the Ohio Farmer, the Country Gentleman and 
other farm papers and magazines. He had a fondness for local his- 
tory and many of his reminiscences and interesting articles have ap- 
peared in tlie l(»cal press and been given before the Bradford County 
Historical Society. He also wrote an exhaustive history of the In- 
dian tribes of Eastern Pennsylvania, "Asylum and the French Ref- 
ugees" and history of Wyalusing, Wilmot and Terry. The last half 
of his life he was afflicted with deafness, a handicap, which de- 
prived him of many pleasures. He was the last of the capable links 
who could carry us back and make vivid pictures of the times when 
our country was new. His work is done, but so faithfully and well, 
that it will ever stand as a monument to his memory. Mr. Ingham 
married in 1849 Miss Mary E. Taylor who died in 1896. Interment 
was in Wyalusing cemetery. 

Mrs. Mary L. Rosenfield. relict of Morris E. Rosenfield, died 
June 13, 1917 at the ISayre^ lH)S[)ital from gangrene and other diflS- 
culties, aged 74 years. She was a daughter of Absalom and Cathe- 
rine (Bull) Coolbaugh and was born in Asylum township. Her 
grandparents on both sides were pioneers in the county. Many 
years ago she married Mr. Rosentield, a popular clothing merchant, 
and her home had been in Towanda since. She was the last of her 
family. Interment was in Oak Hill cemetery, Towanda. 

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Mrs. Maria A. WathinB. relict of Lieutenant-Colonel Guy 
H. Watkins, died June 18, 1917 at her home in Towanda, aged 84 
years, She was the eldest child of Col. Gordon F. and Mary A, 
Mason, and was born January 5, 1833 at Monroeton, her family be- 
ing among the noted pioneer and patriot families of the county. 
She imbued the same spirit of loyalty and devotion to home and 
country as her father, brothers and husband, who sacrificed his life 
upon the battlefield. She bcre her afflictions heroically and gave an 
ever-ready hand in helping appease the sufferings of other families 
and soldiers at the front during the Civil War. Her whole life was 
one of kindness and usefulness — in the home, the church and tbe 
community. Her many splendid acts will long live as a cherished 
memory by a multitude of people who will sadly miss such a noble 
and gracious woman. One son, Guy M. Watkins of San Francipco, 
Cal. and one daughter, Mrs. W. S. H. Heermans of Towanda sur- 
vive. Interment was in Riverside cemetery, Towanda. 

Charles L. Stewart died August 6, 1917 at his home in To- 
wanda of heart trouble in his 78th year. He was of Scotch ancestry 
and was born January 10, 1840 in Herrick township, whore most of 
his life was spent as farmer and merchant. In the fall of 1864 he 
enlisted in the 149th P. V. and served until the close of the war. 
In 1901 he took up his residence in Towanda and engaged exten- 
sively in the hay business, shipping from Michigan. Mr. Stewart 
was a man of genial deportment, liberal in his views and was full of 
pleasant rememberances of by-gone days. He took great interest in 
the Historical Society, the public welfare and all soldier moveaients. 
He was a kindly, useful citizen who will be sadly missed. He mar- 
ried Miss Sarah Billings who with one son. Dr. Chas. W. Stewart 
and two daughters, Mrs. Elizabeth Stark and Mrs. Marion Schmauch 
survive. Interment was in Camptown cemetery.* 

Mrs. Lucy Augusta Baldwin died December 11, 1917 at 
the Sayre hospital in her 77th year. She was a daughter of Daniel 
and Eliza (Lewis) Lyon and was born May 28, 1841 in Monroe 
townahip. the youngest of eight children. In early life Mrs. Bald- 
win came to Towanda as a teacher in the public schools and here 
was her home until her death. November 6, 1868 she married Orson 

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A. Baldwin, a prominent and successful Towanda business man, 
who died in 1911. Mrs. Baldwin's life was a busy one and her ac- 
tivities in educational, musical, social and church circles gave her 
an Acquaintance which extended far beyond the confines of Towanda 
and Bradford county. As a teacher in our public schools and as 
superintendent of the Infant Department of the Presbyterian Sunday 
school, she was a much beloved and successful instructor. In all 
the activities of her church and of the community she was leader, 
and this she was by the native force of her character. She was a 
singer of unusual gifts. Towanda never had a more capable and 
unselfish worker in its civic and social life than this good woman, 
whose '^little, nameless, unremembored acts of kindness and of love 
endeared her to all our people." She leaves one son, Hon. Geo. L. 
Baldwin of Syracuse, N. Y. Interment was in Oak Hill cemetery, 


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Library and Museum 


The following are the acquisitions and donors to the Library 
and Museum for the year 1917 : 

Portraits and PictartB 

Col. Joseph H. Horton— T. P. Ward. 
Joseph Powell and Clerks — Miss Louise Powell. 
6 groups, 109 pictures, Bradford county scenery, landscapes, 
villages, historic buildings, etc. — Society. 

Books - His torical 

Philadelphia Assemblies — Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch. 

Mt. Vernon, Washington's Home and the Nation's Shrine — 
Mrs. Edwin Swift Balch. 

Chronicles of Pennsylvania (1688-1748), 2 Vols.— Mrs. Edwin 
Swift Balch. 

Colonial Dames of America — "Book of Membership" — Mrs. 
Eklwin Swift Balch. 

Pennsylvania at Antietam — State Library. 

77th regiment P. V. at Shiloh — State Library. 

Dedication Statue Gen. Wayne at Valley Forge — State Library. 

Report Kansas State Historical Society, 1916. 

Reports Western Reserve Historical Society. 

Proceedings 11th Conference Historical Societies. 

25 booklets, historical and bio