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Full text of "0Annual Cyclopedia of Insurance in the United States"

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"COMPLETE INSURANCE SERVICE" 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

of 

NORTH AMERICA 



Indemnity Insurance Company 
of North America 



National Security 

FnUS INSURANCE CX>MPANT 



The Alliance 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

Offer to the Public through their Agents the best there 
is in Fire and Casualty Insurance Protection 

WHY NOT REPRESENT ONE OP THESE 
COMPANIES?— IT PAYS 

Address alt communications to the 

HOME OFnCE -:• PHILADELPHIA 

(ii) 




ESTABUSHED 



IN YEAR 1885 



FIRE AND LIFE 

ASSURANCE CORPORATION, Ltd. 



ACCIDENT and HEALTH 

BURGLARY PLATE GLASS 

AUTOMOBILE LIABILITY. 

PROPERTY DAMAGE and COLLISION 

ELEVATORS, TEAMS and PUBLIC 

LIABILITY 

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION' 



CLAIMS PAID IN UNITED STATES 
EXCEED THIRTY MILLION DOLLARS 



Frederick Richardson 

United States Manager 

GENERAL BUILDING, 
FOURTH AHD WALNUT STREETS 

Philadelphia 



(iU) 



up to the 



Highest Ideals of our Business 

Abundantly Strong 

Immense Capacity 

Second'tO'None Service. 



Commercial Union Assurance Co. Ltd. 



The Palatine Insurance Co. Ltd. 



The Commercial Union Fire Ins. Co. of N. Y. 



Union Assurance Society Ltd. 
Hand-In-Hand Underwriters Department 



The California Insurance Co. of San Francisco. 



For its liberality and just treatment known the 

world over, ask any U. S. agent. 

Head Office: 
114 Fifth Ave., New York City. 



(iv) 



SPRINGFIELD 

HRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY 

SPRINQFIELD - MASSACHUSETTS 



(As of January l, 1922) 



ASSETS 

Cash on hand and in course of collection $4,175,829.05 

Accrued Interest 403,421.57 

Real Estate 335,000.00 

Loans on Mortga^re 2,610,270.00 

Stocks and Bonds 12,859,729.50 

TOTAL ASSETS $20,384,250.12 



LIABILITIES 

Bteenre for Reinsurance $10,878,927.69 

Unpaid Losses 1,819,211.17 

Dividend Reserve 200,000.00 

All other Liabilities 425,000.00 

Cash Capital 2,500,000.00 

Net Surplus 4,561,111.26 

$20,384,250.12 

(V) 



Globe & Rutgers 

Fire Insurance Company 

111 WILLIAM STREET 
NEW YORK 

Janamry 1, 1922 

ASSETS 

Bonds and Mortgages $307,300.00 

U. S. Liberty Bonds 6,559,500.00 

Government, City Railroad and other Bonds and 

Stocks 29,585,360.20 

Cash in Banks and Office 2,044,131.33 

Premiums in Course of Collection 7,752,610.87 

Interest Accrued 351,423.67 

Due on Account of Reinsurance Loss Account 52,247.40 

$46,652,573.38 

LIABILITIES 

Capital $700,000.00 

Surplus 12,939,689.34 

Reinsurance Reserve 17,887,912.10 

Losses in Course of Adjustment 6,447,596.00 

Commissions and other items 5,217,375.94 

Reserve for Taxes and Depreciation 3,460,000.00 

$46,652,573.38 
Surplus to Policyholders, $18,680,689.34 

E. C. JAMESON, President 
LYMAIV CANDBES, VIce-Pre«. W. H. PAUI^ISOX, VIce-Prea. 
J. H. BfULVBHIIiL, V-Pre«. and TT. L. LINDSAT. Secretair 
Secretary 

J. D. liBSTBR, Secretary A. H. "WITTHOHN, Ajis*t. Sec. 

M. J. VOIiKMANN, Local Sec. G. C. OIVEBTS, A»»'t Secretary 

(vi) 



First British Company Entersd in tlis United Statts, 



™ PHCENIX "" 

ASSURANCE COMPANY LTD. 

OF LONDON 

A Corporation which has stood the 
test of time! 140 years of successful 
business operation. World-wide in- 
terests. Absolute security. Excellent 
service and facilities. 



UNITED STATES HEAD OFFICE 
100 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK 

PERCIVAL BERESFORD, 

V. S. MANAGER 



Marine Department 

27 ^Vllllam St., New York City 

yKtMten Department Paclflc Department 

175 Vr. Jackaon Blvd. 222 Sanaome Street 

Chieaco, ni. San Franelaco, Cal 

(vii) 



ZURICH 

GeMiil NccMMrt aad UaMHIy hmnMM Ctiiwiy, IJMitod 

•ff ZHrich, Switzertond 
Founded 1872 



AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE 
Liability, Property Damage and Collision 

ALL LIABILITY LINES 

Teams Insurance Workmen's Compensation 

Accident & Health Group and 
Collective Policies. 



UNITED STATES BRANCH FINANCIAL 

STATEMENT 
December 31, 1921 

ASSETS $9,210,106.98 

LIABILITIES $7,701,692.78 

VOLUNTARY ADDITIONAL 

LOSS RESERVE $500,000.00 

SURPLUS, December 31st, 1921 $1,508,414.20 

United States Head Office: 431 Insurance Exchange, 

Chicago, Illinois. 

Eastern Department: 45 John Street, 

New York City. N. Y. 

(viii) 



FIRE REINSURANCE 

INTERNATIONAL 

INSURANCE CO. of New York 
Statement January 1, 1922 

Premium Reserve 13,188,311.88 

Reserve for Losses and other Liabilities 1,110,291.60 

CAPITAL STOCK 11,000,000.00 

NET SURPLUS 1,010,375.32 2,010,376.32 

TOTAL ASSETS >6,308,978.3~0 

METROPOLITAN NATIONAL 

INSURANCE CO. of Havana 
Statement January 1, 1922 

Premium Reserve $489,794.13 

Reserve for Losses and other Liabilities 204,095.77 

NET SURPLUS 403,369.41 

TOTAL ASSETS $1,097,259.31 

SKANDINAVIA 

INSURANCE CO. of Copenhagen 
Statement January 1, 1922 

Premium Reserve $3,631,741.45 

Reserve for Losses and other Liabilities .... 1,606,370.13 
NET SURPLUS 1.702.094.67 

TOTAL ASSETS $6,940,215.15 



NEW INDIA 

ASSURANCE CO. of Bombay 
Statement January 1, 1922 

Premium Reserve $154,210.51 

Reserve for Losses and other Liabilities. . . . 70,159.30 

NET SURPLUS 1,007,668.23 

TOTAL ASSETS $1,232,038.04 



OSAKA 

MARINE & FIRE INSURANCE CO. of Osaka 
Statement Januar>' 1, 1922 

NET SURPLUS $521,552.02 

TOTAL ASSETS 521,552.02 



SUMNER BALLARD, U. S. Manager 

80 Maiden Lane, New York 

Cable Address: "Reinsurer New York" Telephone, John 0788 

(ix) 



AMERICAN EQUITABLE 

ASSURANCE COMPANY 
of New York 



KNICKERBOCKER 

INSURANCE COMPANY 
of New York 



METROPOLITAN 

ASSURANCE UNDERWRITERS 
of New York 



R. A. CORROON, President 
T. A. DUPPEY, Vlce-Prea. and Secretary 

LARGE CAPACITY UPON 
ACCEPTABLE BUSINESS 

Fire, Tornado, Qvil Commotion, Riot, 

Explosion Insurance 

AGENTS DESIRED IN UNREPRESENTED TERRITORY 
Apply Home Office: 92 William St., New York 



(X) 



Build Your Own Business 

under our direct general agency contract. 
Our Policies provide for: 

DOUBLE INDEMNITY, 
DISABILITY BENEFITS, 
REDUCING PREMIUMS. 

See the new low Rates. 

JOHN F. ROCHE, Vice-President. 

Organized 1850 1116 Maiihattaii Life 

Insurance Co., 66 Broadway, New York 



MASSACHUSETTS 

Bonding & Insurance 

Company 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS 

T. J. FAIiVEY, President 



Paid-in Capital $1,500,000.00 



FIDELITY AND SURB3TY BONDS, AUTOMOBILE 

ELEVATOR AND GENERAL LIABILITY 

AUTO AND TEAMS 

PROPERTY DAMAGE, ACCIDENT, 

HEALTH, BURGLARY, 
AND PLATE GLASS INSURANCE 

(xi) 



Qauci Brothers & @. 

(British Firm) 

INSURANCE BROKERS 

LOSS SETTLING AGENTS 



Head Office: ALEXANDRIA, EGYPT 
12, Rue General Earle. P. O. Box Mo. 702 

Telegrams: "FLORESCERE" Alexandria. 



BRANCHES: Port Said — Beyrouth — Milan. 

ALSO AT: Cairo— Jerusalem — ^Jatfa — Haifa — and Prin- 
cipal Ports in the Levant. 



Enterprising Companies wishing to extend operations 
to these territories are inyited to write for particulars. 
Large returns likely to result. First Class References 
Furnished. 



THE 

GLOBE MUTUAL LIFE 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

OF CHICAGO, ILL. 

RESULTS FOR 1921 

Gain in Interest income over last five years 1300 % 

Gain in income over last five years 590 % 

Gain in admitted assets over last five years 503% 

Gain in Insurance in force over last five years. . . .250 % 
Average gain over last five years 661 % 

The above figures are the results of the highest grade 
of service to policyholders and representatives. The 
latest is 

CLAIMS PAID BY TELEGRAPH 
It is the Last Word in 

SERVICE 

T. F. BARRY, President, Gen'l Manager and Founder 



Aa AscB«7 CoBftpSBy 
C«MtiB«owil7 iB BwilBcaa S1b«c ISSS 

THE HANOVER FIRE 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

OF NEW YORK 



The real strength of an Insurance Company is in the con- 
serratism of its management, and the management of THE 
HANOVER Is an absolute assurance of the SECURITY OF 
ITS POLICY 



Home Offi ce; 84 Pine St. 
NBW YORK 

R. EMORY WARFIELD, PtMldcat 
fRED A. HUBBARD. Vlc«-PrMld«iit 
GHARLfiS W. HIGLE Y, Vic«-PrM. 
E. S. JARVIS, Smcntmrj 
WM. MORRISON, Aast. Secretaiy 



Western D ep*t; Insurance Bzc*ge 
CHICAGO 



CHARLES W. HIGLEY, G«a«ral Agent 
MONTGOMERY CLARK, 

AatUtant G«o'l Agent 
METROPOLITAN DISTRICT; 
HOWIE & CAIN, Inc. 

!!• WUUam St. , New York aty 



I 



EstabUshed In 1870. 

THE INSURANCE INDEX 

ONE OF THE OLDEST AND MOST RELIABLE 
INSURANCE JOURNALS IN 

THE UNITED STATES. 

PUBLISHED BI-WEEKLY 

AT 38 Park Row, New York. 

Subscription price $2.50 per annum 



(xiii) 







^s 



""■■■yt i'7":!"TT.^ LtLj. 



-' - "-v-^ 



■■>i:- 



S'.''.'- 




BETTER POLICIES 
THAN SEEM NECESSARY 



Personal Accident 

Health 

Burglary 

Credit 

Fidelity 

Steam Boiler 

Fly Wheel 



Engine 

Plate Glass 

Workmen^s Compensation 

Automobile 

Teams 

EleTator 

lilability 



The 



Ocean Accident and 
Guarantee Corporation, Ltd. 

CHARLES H. NEELY 
Manager and Attorney 

114 FIFTH A^'^NUE, NEW YORK 



^^ -^i..<;. K . -;- ^^^. . -.. <^::ry^^^.^^^.,\ .^^^H^^... 




MMMMilMMiMMa 



(xiv) 



ANNUAL 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



IN THE 



UNITED STATES 



1922 



EsUblished in 1891 by H. R. Hayden 



Copyrighted 1922 by 
R. B. CAVERLY 



R. B. CAVERLY, PUBLISHER 

88 PARK ROW, 

NEW YORK 

1922 



Pren of Losing-Axiell Ca. t^p'rhigfield. Mass. 



» . » 



J • 




ASTOR, LENOX AMD 
TILDEN FOUNDA'IIuNS 



INDEX 



^ 1026 L I ^^^^ INSURANCE SECTION 

Pase 

Agbnt, Tbrm Dbfinxd ... 7 

Anti-Cokpact Laws X3 

Brocxr, Tbui Dbfinbd aa 

Cancxllation 24 

Co-Insurancb Clause a8 

COMPANIBS. ORGANIZBD OR PROJBCTED, I92X 33 

Conflagrations 3S 

Dbath Roll 38 

Discrimination in Rates. Laws Against 41 

Eastern Union 44 

Explosion Insurance 46 

Factory Insurance Association 49 

Fire Marshal Departments — Chief Oppicbrs 54 

Fire Marshal Laws 5^ 

Fire Underwriters Association of the Northwest 56 

Fire Underwriters Association of the Pacific 59 

Fire Underwriters Electrical Bureau 60 

Hailstorm Insurance 67 

Insurance Departments. Chief Officers 75 

Limitation of Risks in Fire Underwriting 82 

Lloyds and Inter-Insurers 84 

Lloyds. London 87 

Marine Insurance 91 

Motor Vehicle Insurance 100 

National Association of Local Agents 105 

National Automobile Underwriters Conference 107 

National Board of Fire Underwriters 109 

National Fire Protection Association 113 

New England Bureau of United Inspection 118 

New England Insurance Exchange 119 

New York Board of Fire Underwriters 122 

Non-Concurrent Policies — Apportionment 125 

Official Changes in Fire Insurance Companies 131 

Policy Forms and Laws 141 

Receipts From and Remittances to Home Offices 145 

Reinsurance and Surplus Line Laws 146 

Reinsured. Retired and Failed Companies 148 

Rent Insurance , 149 

Resident Agents' Laws 151 

Retaliatory or Reciprocal Laws 154 

Short Rate Table 160 

Southeastern Underwriters Association 162 

Sprinkler Leakage Insurance 167 

Statistics of Fire Insurance Companies 207 

Tornado Insurance 176 

Underwriters' Agencies 181 

Underwriters' Association of the Middle Department 185 

Underwriters' Laboratories 189 

Union The. (Western) 193 

Use and Occupancy iNSURA^rc 195 

Val'j^d Policy- I^aws ...;., 198 

WestbaH Factory. InsUiCoi'cb A££vciation 201 

Western Insurance Bureau .' 202 



« 



INDEX 



LIFE. CASUALTY AND SURETY SECTION 

ACCIDXNT INSURAMCB 317 

Actuarial Socixtt ai9 

Amsrican Fraternal Congrkss 230 

ascbrican imsmuts op actuariss 231 

American Expxrixncb Table or Mortality 234 

American Life Convention 33s 

Annuities 239 

Anti-Rebate Laws 340 

Association of Lite Insurance Presidents 244 

Burglary, Insurance Against 350 

Casualty Actuarial Soqety 353 

Companies Organized or Projected in 1921 359 

Corporate Suretyship 362 

Credit Insurance 264 

Death Roll 265 

Employers' Liability Insurance 273 

Endowment 373 

Fly-Wheel Insurance 378 

Fraternal Orders 379 

Group Insurance 292 

Health and Accident Underwriters' Conference 294 

Health Insurance 297 

Industrial Life Insurance 302 

Insurance Journalism 303 

International Association of Casualty and Surety Underwriters . . 306 

Live Stock Insurance 319 

Mutual 334 

Mutual Life Underwriters 33^ 

National Association of Casualty and Surety Agents 338 

National Association pw Life Underwriters ... 339 

National Council Workmen's Compensation Insurance 345 

National Insurance Convention 347 

Official Changes in 1921 363 

Participating — Non-Participating 367 

Plate Glass Insurance 371 

PoucY Forms and Laws 372 

Pubuoty Departments of Companies 40s 

Receipts Fkou and Remittances To Home Offices. (Casualty) . . . 408 

Re-Insured, Retired and Failed Companies in 1921 408 

Reserves in Life Insurance 4io 

Southern Industrial Insurer's Conference 417 

Sprinkler Insurance 419 

State Insurance Federation 420 

Statements, Latest Dates for Filing 432 

Statistics of Life and Casualty Companies 456 

Steam Boiler Insurance 424 

Sub-Standard Lives 425 

Surety and Fidelity Insurance 426 

Taxation 429 

Workingmen's Compensation Insurance 45a 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 467 



Organized Cash Capital 

1853 $12,000,000 



The Home Insurance 
Company 

NEW YORK 

ELBRIDGE G. SNOW. President 

The Largest and Strongest Fire 

Insurance Company 

in America 

Strength Reputation Service 



Annual Cyclopedia of Insurance. 



A 



ABANDONMENT. In marine insurance the relinquishment of 
an insured ship or cargo to the underwriters when the same is 
damaged and the claim is for a total loss. There is no abandonment 
in fire underwriting. 

ABEILLE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Paris, France. 
Starkweather & Shepley, Inc., United States mana^rs. Providence, 
R. I. Geo. L. Shepley, president; Emil G. Pieper, vice-president and 
manager agency department. 

ABINGTON MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Abington, Mass. Incorporated 1856; began business 1857. Isaac 
C. Howland, president; Edgar H. Thompson, vice-president; Alfred H. 
Nash, secretary and treasurer; Merrill F. Ramsay, assistant secretary. 

ADJUSTER. The business of an adjuster as known in Ameri- 
can fire insurance is to examine into losses and settle upon the 
amounts due. He is a regular employee of the company, usually, 
although there are some independent adjusters who work for any 
company employing them, temporarily, or on particular losses. In 
most cases, also, the adjuster acts as appraiser except where an 
official or technical appraisement is to be had. The Cveneral Adjust- 
ment Bureau was organized in 1905 to have charge of adjustments 
throughout the eastern district of the United States. It is an in- 
cori>orated body. Similar bureaus have been organized in other 
sections of the country, and as a rule have been a success. The Na- 
tional Board of Fire Underwriters in 19 12 appointed a committee on 
adjustments, which was charged particularly with the work of pre- 
paring a system for adjusting large conflagration losses. While there 
are still individual ancl independent adjusters much of the work of 
adjusting losses, except small losses, is done through the bureaus. 

ADJUSTMENT. In fire insurance practice in the United States 
this work covers the act of the adjuster in settling a loss as well as 
its apportionment between different insurers. The latter is some- 
times difficult and puzzling in the case of non-concurrent policies. 
JSee Non-Concurrent Policies — Apportionment.] 



6 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

^TNA INSURANCE COMPANY of Hartford was incorpo- 
rated in 1819, and began business August 19th. Its capital stock was 
fixed at $150,000, 10 per cent, of which was paid in. The ^tna was 
one of the pioneers in the agency business, and wrote policies in 
Chicago as early as 1834. Its present capital is $5,000,000, and its 
stockholders have at various times paid in in cash $4,695,000 of that 
amount. Up to the date of the Chicago fire, in 1871, there had been 
paid in $195,000, and the capital was $3,000,000. After the fire it 
was reduced one-half, and immediately restored by the payment of 
$1,500,000. After the Boston fire, in 1872, it was reduced to $2,000,- 
000, and restored by the payment of $i,ooo,ooa In 1881 the pay- 
ment of another million increased the capital to $4,000,000; in 1910 
the payment of another million increased the capital to its present 
figure. The Etna's operations now include every section of the 
country. 

The department managers are: Western branch, Chicago, 111., 
Ralph B. Ives, vice-president; John E. Davies and Wm. F. Watson, 
assistant general agents. L. O. Kohtz, general agent Cook County and 
marine department; Pacific branch, San Francisco, Cal., W. H. Breed- 
ing, general agent. 

The company has had six presidents since its organization in 
1819. Thomas K. Brace retained the office until 1857, a period of 
thirty-eight years. Edwin G. Ripley succeeded President Brace, and 
remained at the head of the company until 1862, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Thomas A. Alexander. In 1866 Lucius J. Hendee was 
elected president, and retained the position until his death, Septem- 
ber 4, 1888. Jotham Goodnow was elected the successor of Presi- 
dent Hendee, being advanced from the secretaryship, which he had 
held for twenty-two years. He died November 19, 1892, and was 
succeeded by William B. Clark, who was elected president on the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his connection with the company. Presi- 
dent Clark's associate officers are A. N. Williams and E. J. Sloan, 
vice-presidents; Guy E. Beardsley, vice-president and secretary; 
R. B. Ives, vice-president at Western Branch; E. S. Allen, W. R. 
AffcCain, assistant secretaries; George L. Burnham, comptroller; 
W. F. Whittelsey, marine vice-president. R. E. Stronach, marine 
secretary; M. W. Morron, marine assistant secretary. 

The directors are: Morgan G. Bulkeley, Atwood Collins, William 
B. Clark, Francis Goodwin, Charles E. Gross, James H. Knight, Charles 
P. Cooley, Arthur L. Shipman, Charles A. Goodwin, A. N. Williams, 
J. P. Morgan, Horace B. Cheney, John L. Way, E. J. Sloan, Chas. G. 
Woodward. The special agents are C. J. Irvin, H. O. Kline, H. B. 
Smith, James S. Middleton, F. W. Matthews, P. P. Tucker, Joseph 
M. Biggert, W. C. Roach, H. B. Nugent, C. L. Ruse, Arthur Lohmeyer, 
W. H. Wart, Edward Wright, J. R. Stewart, I. B. Beard, J. A. Brack- 
ney, W. S. Clark, P. W. D. Jones, W. H. Boutell, Arthur Horton. R. 
Long, Frank W. Brodie, R. T. Caldwell, Wm. F. Prioleau, C. A. Thorn- 



FiRB Insurance Sbction 7 

ton, H. C. Clift, R. H. Sclater, B. B. Gracey, J. K. Shepherd, Robert 
H. Breese, Frank J. Malone, B. L. Gregory, K. M. Sweeney, R. E. 
Hartshorn, Wm. F. Mitchell, C. J. Wykoff, Robt. W. Gillespie, M. B. 
Seymour, J. p. Warren, D. Kilcrease, E. K. Whitney, R. H. Lecky, 
J. M. Waller, C. J. Malcolm, C. R. Giffin, J. K. L. Marvin, marine; 
A. J. Woodward, marine; S. W. Roes, marine; J. D. Wheeler, marine. 
The total assets of the company, December 31, 1921, aggregated 
$38,894,699.00. Liabilities, exclusive of capital, $24,827,608.^6. The 
net cash premiums received during the year 192 1 reached the sum of 
$21 ,905^656.80. The total cash income for the year was $23,645,823.97 ; 
total cash expenditures, $25,^51,714.58; the loses paid amounted to 
$14,798,732.95; net amount of risks in force^ $3,759,744,899.00. Since 
organization the company has received in premiums $411, 107,351. 3A; 
losses paid since organization, $210,723,607.74; cash dividends declared, 
^43*751 iS^S-oo* aividends, payable in stock, $2,805,000.00. [See 
Cyclopedia for 1892-93, also biographical sketches in present volume.] 



NoTB — The security Valuations on which this Statement is based are actual market 
values. 

AGENT, TERM DEFINED. The insurance laws of many 
states define who are agents, and such laws are in force in Alabama, 
Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, 
Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, 
Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Okla- 
homa, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, 
Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. The laws of a majority of the 
above states are general in application and while phrased differently, 
define an agent to be any p)erson who solicits insurance, receives or 
transmits an application, other than for himself, or in any manner aids 
in the transaction of the business of an insurance company. 

The laws of Florida and Montana contain separate sections defin- 
ing surety agents, while the laws of Indiana contain additional sections 
defining separately both surety and life agents, and the law of Dela- 
ware defines both life and fire agents, but only agents dealing with com- 
panies not incorporated by the state, and defines such as ' foreign in- 
surance agents.' The Colorado law provides that ** a person not a 
duly licensed broker, licensed solicitor, or licensed ap^ent s employee," 
who other than for himself and for comp>ensation, solicits, or transmits 
any application for insurance or offers or assumes to act in the nego- 
tiation of such insurance, shall be an insurance agent within the in- 
tent of the law. 

The Mississippi law in addition includes every person who shall 
examine or insp>ect any risk or adjust or assist in adjusting any loss 
within its definition of agent, while the law of New York excepts only 
officers or salaried employes who do not receive commissions within 
its definition. The Pennsylvania law reads: " An agent is an individ- 
ual, co-partnership or corporation, authorized in writing by a company: 
[a] To solicit risks and collect premiums, and to issue or countersign 



8 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

policies in its behalf; or [b] To solicit risks and collect premiums in 
its behalf," and the Washington law is very similar but designates 
agents as " soliciting " and "recording or policy writing" agents. 
The Michigan law also makes a distinction between a solicitor and 
agent, and also defines special and general agents. The distinction 
made in the law between an " agent " and " solicitor " is that the 
former must be acting under jauthority of a company with power to 
write and countersip^n policies and collect premiums while the solicitor 
receives his authority from the agent and is not authorized to issue 
or countersign policies. The Arizona law also makes this distinction 
between agents and solicitors, though designating them as soliciting 
, agents and recording or policy writing agents. (See Cyclopedia for 

1915) 

(For text of laws, enacted prior to 19 14 see Cyclopedia of Insur- 
ance for 19 1 3- 14, and also Cyclopedia for 19 15, fire section.) 

AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Watertown, 
N. Y. Organized 1853; capital, $1,000,000. W. H. Stevens, presi- 
dent; J. Q. Adams, first- vice president; P. H. Willmott, secretary. 
Organized as a farmers' mutual, and in 1863 converted into a stock 
company with charter limiting it to the insurance of farm property; 
now engaged in general fire insurance. It transacts business in most 
of the states and territories. It writes fire, tornado, marine, automobile, 
sprinkler leakage, hail, riot, civil commotion and explosion insurance. 
Sixty-ninth annual statement, January i, 1922. 

Reserve for reinsurance $3,618,029-83 

Reserve for losses, taxes and all other claims 1,059,657.42 

Reserve for Contingencies 200,000.00 

Capital 1,000,000.00 

Net Surplus 1,640,911.78 

Total Assets $7,518,599.03 

Surplus to Policy Holders $2.640,911 .78 

ALBANY INSURANCE COMPANY, Albany, N. Y. Organ- 
ized 181 1 ; capital, $250,000. Ledyard Cogswell, president; Charles 
E. McElroy, vice-president; Charles H. Hahn, second vice-president ; 
John P. Deal, secretary. 

ALIENATION. A transfer of property to another. The fire 
insurance policy being a personal contract the alienation of the 
property covered by it voids the policy. So many controversies as 
to what constitutes alienation have arisen in insurance practice that 
the standard policies now describe minutely what will avoid the 
policy. [See Policy Forms, Fire. Also any digest of insurance law.] 

ALLEMANNIA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 7 Wood Street 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Organized 1868; capital, $500,000. William Stein- 
meyer, president; Wm. A. Steinmeyer, vice-president ; Chas. B. Reiter, 
secretary and treasurer, G. W. Unverzagt, assistant secretary. 



Fire Insurance Section 9 

ALLIANCE ASSURANCE COMPANY. LIMITED, London, 
Eng. Chubb & Son, 5 South William Street. New York, N. Y., United 
States managers. Marine Insurance. 

ALLIANCE INSURANCE COMPANY. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Organized 1904; capital, $1,000,000. Benjamin Rush, president; John 
O. Piatt, vice-president; Sheldon Catlin. second vice-president; 
Galloway C. Morris, third vice-president; John Kremer, secretary; 
T. Leaming Smith, marine secretary, 232 Walnut Street. 

ALLIED FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Organized 1918, cash capital $100,000. E. M. Hill, president; Carl 
Van der Vort, secretary. 

ALPHA GENERAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Ltd., Cal- 
cutta, India. Entered the United States in 1920 for re-insurance 
business. Fester, Fothergill & Hartung. no William Street, New 
York, N. Y., United States managers. 

AMERICAN ALLIANCE INSURANCE COMPANY of New 
York was organized in February, 1897. The officers are: Charles G. 
Smith, president; Edwin M. Cragin. secretary; Jesse E. White and 
Alexander R. Phillips, assistant secretaries. W. H. Sage is general 
manager of the western department at Chicago; W. L. Lerch, manager; 
Geo. B. Sedgwick and Edward O. Basse, assistant managers; George 
H. Tyson is general agent of the Pacific department at San Francisco, 
Clifford Corny and Harry Benner, assistant general agents. The 
company does an agency business throughout the United States. 
Capital, $1,000,000, and net surplus, December 31, 1 921, $1,255,224.65. 
The directors are: Arthur O. Choate, Ralph L. Cutter, Otto L. Dom- 
merich, Herman C. Fleitmann, Eustis L. Hopkins, Samuel McRoberts, 
Charles G. Smith, Howard C. Smith, Julius A. Stursberg. William 
Wood. Earl D. Babst, John A. Garver, James A. Stillman, Charles D. 
Norton and Philip Stockton. 

AMERICAN AND FOREIGN MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY. New York. Organized 1896; capital, $300,000. W. L. H. 
Simpson, president; W. A. W. Burnett, vice-president; J. E, 
Hoffman, secretary and treasurer. 

AMERICAN AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY, St. 
Louis, Mo. Organized 191 1, began business January i, 1912; capital, 
$300.000.. Charles W. Disbrow. president; S. S. Williams, vice-presi- 
dent; P. R. Ryan, secretary and treasurer. Transacts all kinds of 
automobile insurance. 

AMERICAN CENTRAL INSURANCE COMPANY, St. 
Louis, Mo. Organized 1853; capital, $1,000,000. B. G. Chapman, 
Jr.. president; D. E. Monroe, vice-president; Harold M. Hess, secre- 
tary; Conrad Roeder, assistant secretary; Roy W. Smith, assistant 
secretary; Henry I. Rieman, assistant secretary. 



10 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

AMERICAN COMPANIES ORGANIZED OR CON- 
TROLLED BY FOREIGN COMPANIES. A number of insurance 
companies of other countries doing business in the United States 
have organized or acquired the control of companies with American 
charters. The following is the list May i, 1922. 

Caledonian, 

Owning Caledonian American, N. Y. 

Commercial Union, 

Owning Commercial Union Fire, N. Y.. and California Insuraooc 
Company ,San Frandaco. American Central. St. Louie. 

Liverpool and London and Globe, 

Owning Star Insurance Company, New York, N. Y. 

London and Lancashire, 

Owning Orient. Hartford, and Safeguard. N. Y. 

North British and Mercantile, 

Owning Mercantile and Commonwealth Fire. N. Y.. and Penn- 
sylvania Fire, Philadelphia. 

Phcenix of London, 

Owning Imperial Assurance. New Yorlc. and Columbia Fire, 

Royal, 

Owning Queen, N. Y.. and Newark Fire. Neu^ark. N. J. 

General Accident. 

Owning Potomac Fire. Washington. D. C. 

Employers Liability, 

Owning Employers Fire, Boston, Mass. 

Ix>ndon Guarantee and Accident, 

Owning United Fireman's. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Norwegian Globe, 

Owning General Casualty and Surety Re-insurance Company , 
New York, N. Y. 

AMERICAN DRUGGISTS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Organized 1907; capital $300,000. C. H. Avery, 
president; L. G. Heinritz, vice-president; F. H. Freericks, secretary 
and general counsel; Walter Rothwell, treasurer. 

AMERICAN EAGLE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 80 
Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. Organized 191 5; cash capital, $1,- 
000,000. Henry Evans, chairman of the board of directors; J. A. 
Swinnerton, president; Ernest Sturm, secretary and treasurer; F. R. 
Millard, H. E. Maxson, E. A. Henne, C. W. Pierce, J. P. Breeden, 
secretaries; Olaf Nordeng, W. W. Grove, assistant secretaries. 

AMERICAN EQUITABLE ASSURANCE COMPANY, 92 Wil- 
liam Street, New York, N. Y. Capital, $500,000. Richard A. Corroon. 
president; Thomas A. Duffey, vice-president and secretary; John A, 
Campbell, second vice-president. 

AMERICAN FIRE INSURANCE CORPORATION OF NEW 
YORK, established 19 19. Capital, $200,000. Carl F. Sturhahn, presi- 
dent, B. N. Carvalho, vice-president; T. B. Boss, secretary and 
treasurer. Fire re-insurance only. 



FiRB Insurance Section 11 

AMERICAN FOREIGN INSURANCE ASSOCIATION, New 
York, N. Y. Oreanized in September 191 8 for the purposes of extending 
and promoting the operation of American companies in foreign countiies. 
The officers are, president, E. G. Snow, Home, New York; vice- 
presidents, R. M. Bissell, Hartford Fire; Charles G. Smith, Great 
American; secretary, Wilfred Kurth, Home, New York, N. Y. Howard 
P. Moore is general manager of the Association, and John Ferguson is 
marine manager. The head office is at 80 Maiden Lane, New York, 
N. Y. The following companies comprise the membership: 

American of Newark, Continental, Fidelity- Phenix, Firemen's of 
Newark, Fire Association, Glens Falls, Great American, Hartford 
Fire, Home of New York, National of Hartford, New Hampshire 
Fire. Niagara Fire, Phoenix of Hartford, Springfield Fire and Marine, 
St. Paul Fire and Marine and Westchester Fire. 

AMERICAN GENERAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Portland, 
Oregon, organized 1920. R. R. Knox, president; Roy H. Keagy, vice- 
president; J. B. Bridgeford, secretary; Charles F. Milliman, treasurer. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MARINE UNDERWRITERS, 
THE, was established by American ocean marine insurance com- 
panies March 31, 1898. On Mav 25th the following officers were 
elected: Charles Piatt of Philadelphia, president of the Insurance 
Company of North America, president; A. A. Raven, president of 
the Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company of New York, vice-presi- 
dent ; L. AUyn Wight of New York, secretary ; A. J. Macdonald of 
New York, treasurer. The functions of the Institute are advisory, 
rather than legislative. Most of the marine insurance companies 
are represented in the membership. The present officers, elected in 
October, 1921, are: Wm. H. McGee, president; Louis F. Burke, vice- 
president; Douglas F. Cox, secretary and treasurer; E. G. Driver, 
assistant secretary, 25 South William Street, New York, N. Y. 

AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, of Newark, N. J., 
was organized as a purely mutual fire and marine insurance company 
and began business in February, 1846. The writing of marine insurance 
was discontinued in 1855, but was resumed in 1^17, and at present 
the company, in addition to writing fire and manne insurance, issues 
motor vehicle, wind storm and tornado, sprinkler leakage, explosion 
and riot and civil commotion policies. 

In 1874, ^b^ company was reorganized as a stock company with 
$600,000 scrip that had previously been issued, as capital, and the 
further issue of scrip was discontinued. At that time it had a surplus 
of $291,907, and was' admitted to transact business in New York. 
In 1899, the company reinsured the risks of the Rockford Insurance 
Company of Rockford, III., and during the past fifteen years repeated 
additions have been made to the capital stock of the company. In 
i907f $150,000 additional stock was issued and sold for $450,000, 
one-third of which was added to capital and the remainder to a Special 
Reserve fund under the provisions of the New Jersey law (1908 chapter 



12 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

258), and two years later the capital was further increased to an even 
one million dollars by the issue of $250,000 stock which was sold to 
stockholders at par, the market price of the stock then being about 
200 per cent. No further change in the capital stock of the company 
occurred until 19 17 when the amount was doubled by the issue of a 
stock dividend of $1,000,000, and since that date the capital stood at 
$2,000,000, until the early part of 192 1, when another million dollars 
was added to the combined capital and surplus of the company, one- 
half to each, by the issue of $500,000 additional stock which was sold at 
200 per cent, or double the par value of the new shares, one-half the pro- 
ceeds realized going to capital account and bringing the capital up to 
$2,500,000, the remainder being added to surplus, thus increasing that 
item, as of January i, 1 921, to $3,406,181. 

The company is licensed to transact business throughout the 
United States, except Vermont and Wyoming, and some of the out- 
lying territories. It writes insurance also in Canada, Manitoba, Saskat- 
chewan and Alberta. Policies entitled "The Jersey Fire Underwriters" 
are also issued by the company throughout the United States. 

The management of the Amencan has always been notably 
conservative, but sufficiently and increasingly aggressive in late years, 
as evidenced by the fact that the annual premium receipts were fully 
doubled in the past eight years; they were more than nine times as 
great as for the closing year of the past century, and the aggregate 
premium income during the eight years since 191 2 was fully equal 
to the total premium receipts during the preceding history of the 
company of sixty-seven years. And that was accomplished with a 
decrease in the ratio of losses to premium income which was barely 
44.90 per cent for the past eight years, against 47.59 per cent for the 
preced ing sixty-seven years and 46.24 per cent for the entire life of 
the company. 

C. Weston Bailey, president; Chas. E. Sheldon and William £. 
Stewart, vice-presidents; John O. H. Pitney, vice-president and 
counsel; Frederick Hoadley, secretary; Roy C. Vandertioof, assistant 
secretary; Frank K. Mitchell, assistant secretary; Archibald C. 
Cyphers, treasurer; Paul B. Sommers, superintendent of agencies. 

AMERICAN MERCHANTS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Kansas City, Mo. Organized 19 19; capital paid in, $200,000. F. C. 
Harvey, president; E. G. Trimble, vice-president; M. W. Belcher, 
secretary; J. L. Ashton, treasurer. (Re-insurance business.) 

AMERICAN MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Providence, R. I. Organized 1877. John R. Freeman, president 
and treasurer; Theodore P. Bogert, secretary and assistant treasurer; 
Benj. G. Buttolph, Edwin D. Pmgree, Hovey T. Freeman, vice-presi- 
dents. 

AMERICAN MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. Organized 1916. Dr. Sollis Runnels, president; F. H. 
Irwin and J. P. Cook, vice-presidents; J. W. McGinety, secretary; 
George W. Snyder, treasurer. 



Fire Insurance Section 13 

AMERICAN NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Columbus, O. Organized 1916; capital, paid-in, $500,000. Chauncey 
B. Baker, president; Chas. S. M. Krumm and F. M. Ransbottom, vice- 
presidents; John A. Dodd, secretary; O. A. Schenck, treasurer. 

AMERICAN STEAMSHIP OWNER'S MUTUAL PROTEC- 
TIVE AND INDEMNITY ASSOCIATION, Inc.. 49 Wall Street, 
New York, N. Y. Organized 1917, Johnson & Higgins, Managers; 
Russell H. Loines, secretary. (Marine Insurance.) 

ANCHOR INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW YORK, or- 
ganized 192 1, capital $1,000,000, president, Robert Van Iderstine; 
vice-president, Wendell P. Barker; secretary, John T. Barker. Tran- 
sacts fire reinsurance only. Office 27 William Street, New York. 

ANCIENT AND HONORABLE ORDER OF THE BLUE 
GOOSE, THE, was organized during the meeting of the Wiscon- 
sin Field Men's Club at Green Lake, Wis., in >une, 1906. The 
order conceived in a spirit of fun, developed a serious purpose, 
and its objects are social and fraternal. The following officers 
were elected: Most Loyal Grand Gander, Walter E. Atwater, of 
the Commercial Union; His Highness, Supervisor of the Flock, 
Dr. W. £. Golden, Atlas; Grand Custodian of the Goslings, W. W. 
Conklin, Queen; Grand Wielder of the Goose Quill, George Heller, 
Jr., North America; Grand Keeper of the Golden Goose Egg, 
George A. Roberts, Detroit F. & M.; Guards to the Grand Custo- 
dian of the Goslings, L. S. Wallace, Pennsvlvania Fire; C. H. 
Silkworth, Springfield; M. M. Hawxhurst, Michigan F. & M. ; C. E. 
Hilbert, Lon. & Lane; Robe Bird, New York Underwriters; O. 
E. Lane, Providence Washington. At the meeting in November, 
1907, a new constitution was adopted and the order changed into 
a national organization, with the different state branch organiza- 
tions known as "ponds." Officers elected at the annual meeting in 
October, 1921, are: Most Loyal Grand Gander, M. L. Hawkhurst, Ann 
Harbor, Mich.; Grand Supervisor of the Flock, W. P. Fess, Winnipeg, 
Man.; Grand Custodian of the Goslings, John F. Stafford, Chicago, 
111.; Grand Guardian of the Nest, W. E. Mallalieu, New York, N. Y.; 
Grand Keeper of the Golden Goose Egg, H. V. Myers, Waterloo, Mich.; 
Grand Wielder of the Goose Quill, Paul E. Rudd, Aetna, Milwaukee, 
Wis. 

ANTI-COMPACT LAWS. Legislation forbidding fire insur. 
ance companies or agents to combine in compacts or boards of 
underwriters, for the purpose of fixing, maintaining, and controlling 
rates of insurance upon property appears to have had its birth in the 
Michigan legislature of 1883. A bill was introduced, but failed of pass- 
age, was reintroduced in the session of 1885, and again failed, but in the 
session of 1887 the bill was again introduced and enacted into 
law. Meanwhile the id^ had been taken up in Ohio, and in 1885 the 
legislature of that state injected an anti-compact provision into a sec- 
tion of the statutes prohibiting the removal of suits from state to federal 



14 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

courts, and enacted it into law. Ohio thus secured the credit of being 
the first state to enact an anti-compact law. [For the progress and his- 
tory of anti-compact legislation, see Cyclopedia for 1910-11 and earlier 
volumes. For an account of proceedings a^nst companies for viola- 
tions of the laws, or legal proceedings involving compacts, and decisions 
therepn see Cyclopedia for 1904-5 and subsequent volumes and for a 
review of the court's decision in the Iowa anti-compact case, and the 
decision on the Arkansas law see Cyclopedia for 1906-7 and subsequent 
volumes.] Anti-compact laws have given way to rate regulation and 
anti-discrimination legislation in several states resulting in the repeal 
of provisions prohibiting rating compacts or agreements. [See Uis- 
crimination in Insurance Rates.] The anti-compact laws of Missouri 
and Michigan were repealed in 191^, and the Washington law was 
amended. There are, therefore, anti-compact laws now in force as 
follows: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Louisiana, Missouri, 
Nebraska, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, 
Tennessee, Washington, and Wisconsin. A Virginia law prohibits 
combinations of companies for the ]}urpose of regulating commissions 
to agents, as do also the laws of Louisiana, Ohio, Nebraska, and South 
Dakota. The laws of Arkansas, Louisiana, South Dakota, require the 
filing of a sworn affidavit to the effect that the company has not 
entered into a combination or agreement. [For full text of the anti- 
compact laws see Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14, fire section, also Cyclopedia 
for 1915.] 

The South Carolina legislature enacted a law in 19 16, which 
was signed by the governor and went into effect in March, and was 
followed by a large number of companies suspending business in the 
state. The legislature in 191 7 however repealed the law. 

A Missouri law, enacted in 1915, entitled an act to regulate* fire in- 
surance and rates of premium thereon, while permitting rating bureaus, 
prohibits any ^;reement, contract or understanding between com- 
panies or rating bureaus ''to .continue to use the rating record of any 
actuarial bureau, to refrain from maintaining its own rating record, 
or to maintain the rates fixed by any such actuarial bureau." Another 
section has a proviso that nothing contained in the act " shall be 
construed to repeal any anti-trust law now or hereafter in force in the 
state." 

Proceedings were brought against fire insurance companies in 
Mississippi in 1920, and the companies withdrew from the state. 
The proceedings had not been disposed of when this volume went to 
press. 

ARKANSAS ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS was 
organized at Little Rock, June 12, 1901, by sixty-five agents of the 
state. Officers were elected as follows: Allan Kennedy, Fort Smith, 
president; A. W. Mills, Pine Bluff, secretary; W. Z. Tankersley, 
Pine Bluff, treasurer. The officers elected at the annual meeting held 
in April 1922, are: President, E. M. Allen, Helena; vice-president, 
R. W. Newell; secretary and treasurer, C. C. Mitchener, Marianna. 



FiEE Insurance Section 15 

ARKWRIGHT MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Boston, Mass. Omnized i860. R. W. Toppan, chairman of Boaixl of 
Directors; £. V. French, president; D. W. Bartlett, vice-president; 
G. S. Young, secretary and treasurer; F. W. Jones and T. J. Barry, 
assistant secretaries; H. F. Eaton, assistant treasurer. 

ARSON. At common law arson is the malicious and wilful 
baming of the house or outhouse of another. Arson was formerly 
punishable with death, and is now in some states, but generally 
It has been made a statutory offense and the statute prescribes the 
penalty. 

ASSOCIATION. OF MARINE UNDERWRITERS OF THE 
UNITED STATES, New York, N. Y. The association was organized 
in May, 19 18, and the working organization completed in August. The 
objects are the promotion of the interests of American companies 
wnting marine insurance. Officers were elected as follows: President, 
Benjamin Rush, Insurance Company of North America; vice-presi- 
dent, F. C. Buswell, Home; secretary and treasurer, F. H. Osbom, 
of O. G. Orr & Co., New York. The present officers, elected in April 
1922, are: Wm. H. McGee, president; F. C. Buswell, Home, N. Y., 
vice-president; S. D. McComb, secretary and treasurer; Ernest G. 
EHiver, assistant secretary. 

ASSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA of New York. 
Organized 1897; capital, $200,ooa R. B. Rathbone, president; 
Albert R. Ledoux, vice-president; Charles S. Conklin, secretary; 
Rathbone Williams, assistant secretary, no William St. 

ATLANTICA INSURANCE COMPANY, LIMITED, of 
Gothenburg, Sweden, established, 1916. Capital, $500,000. Admitted 
to the United States in 1921 to transact marine re-insurance only. 
Carr & Co., United States Managers, Penn Terminal Building, New 
York. 

ATLANTIC CITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of At- 
lantic City, N. J. Organized in 1902; capital, $200,000. Wm. Riddle, 
president; James T. Bew, vice-president; Chas. E. Schroeder, secretary; 
Richard Bew, treasurer. 

ATLANTIC INLAND ASSOCIATION, an association com- 
posed of ocean marine and fire and inland marine insurance com- 
panies writing inland hulls on the Atlantic and gulf coasts, was 
organized in March, ito>, for the purpose of preventing demoraliza- 
tion in the Atlantic inland marine business. It makes a tariff and 
provides rules and obligatory forms of policies. E. O. Weeks, 
vice-president of the ^tna, was its first president, and Louis F. 
Burke of the Home was its first secretarv and treasurer, and con- 
tinues as such. J. B. Branch, president of the Providence- Washing- 
ton, succeeded Mr. Weeks and continues as president; G. C. House, 



16 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

vice-president. The affairs of the association are handled by a com- 
mittee which is composed of the following, the officers being ex-officio 
members: H. Appleton, Hendon Chubb, Benjamin Rush, Wm. R. 
Hedge, W. L. H. Simpson, W. F. Whittlesey, F. H. Cauty, H. W. 
Beebe, S. D. McComb, and C. R. Page. The membership comprises 
forty-two companies. 

ATLANTIC INSURANCE COMPANY. Raleigh, N. C. Organ- 
ized 1906; capital, $200,000. Charles E. Johnson, president; Jos. 
G. Brown, vice-president; R. S. Busbee, secretary and treasurer. 

ATLANTIC MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY 
(formerly Cotton Seed Crushers Mutual), Philadelphia, Pa. Or- 
ganized 1905. F. A. Downes, president and treasurer; W. A, Wither- 
spoon, vice-president; George C. Hopson, secretary. 

ATLANTIC MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY of New 
York. Organized 1842. Marine and inland transportation insur« 
ance. Cornelius Eldert, president; W. W. Parsons, vice-president; 
Charles E. Fay, third vice-president; Wm. D. Winter, second vice- 
president; G. Stanton Floyd- Jones, secretary. 

ATLAS ASSURANCE COMPANY (LIMITED), of London, 
founded 1808, entered California for business in 1886, deposited $200,000 
at Albany in 189 J, and entered New York state, having previously, in 
1890, deposited $200,000 in Massachusetts, and entered most of the 
northern and western states. It has subsequently deposited an addi- 
tional $100,000 in New York, and it has also $100,000 deposited in Ohio, 
$10,000 in New Mexico, $50,000 in Virginia, $10,000 in North Carolina, 
and $10,000 in Georgia. The headquarters of the company for the 
United States are 100 William Street, New York. The company 
operates with two independent underwriting branches, of which 
Oswald G. Boyle is manager at New York for States east of the Rocky 
Mts. and Frank J. Devlin is manager for the Pacific department at San 
Francisco. In 1898 the company purchased the King's County Insurance 
Company and in 1904 absorbed the Manchester Assurance (Company of 
Manchester, England, and continues the greater part of the agency plant 
so obtained. It transacts a laree business in England and has branches 
in most parts of the world. C. H. Falloon is the general manager at the 
home office in London. Assets, United States branch, December 31, 
192 1, $5,440,809; liabilities, $4,006,057; surplus to policyholders 
$1,434,752. 

ATWOOD FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 80 Maiden Lane, 
New York City. Organized 19 19, cash capital, $^00,000. Kimball 
C. Atwood, president; P. C. Lounsbury, vice-president; Wilfrid C. 
Potter, secretary; George H. Ackerman, treasurer. 

AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY, Hartford, Conn. 
Organized 19 13; capital, $2,000,000. Morgan G. Bulkeley, president; 
M. B. Brainard, vice-president; C. H. Remington, vice-president and 



Fire Insurance Section 17 

treasurer; J. C. Harden, secretary; W. Ellwood Jones, secretary; 
G. R. Fulton, assistant secretary; H. J. Parker, assistant secretary; 
R. R. Stone, assistant secretary; W. L. Mooney, agency secretary; 
M. G. Bulkeley, Jr., assistant treasurer; W. E. A. Bulkeley, auditor; 
John S. Turn, secretary (New York Branch); C. R. Ebert, marine 
secretary. 

AUTOMOBILE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
40 Central Street, Boston, Mass. Organized 1914. Dean K. Webster, 
president; A. Shirley Ladd, vice-president and secretary; Wm. A. 
Thibodeau, treasurer; Daniel P. Walsh, assistant secretary; David 
F. Butler, assistant treasurer. 

AUTOMOBILE MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY OF 
AMERICA, Providence, R. I. Organized 1907. A. T. Vigneron, 
president and treasurer; Frank N. Phillips, vice-president; Herbert 
B. Vigneron, vice-president and assistant treasurer; John D. McLeod, 
secretary; Henry W. Anderson, assistant secretary. 

AUTOMOTIVE INSURANCE COMPANY, Mason City, Iowa. 
Organized 1919; capital, paid in $100,000. The company re-insured 
in the Iowa Manufacturers Insurance Company in 192 1 and retired. 

AUTO OWNERS INSURANCE COMPANY, Lansing, Michi- 
gan. Organized 1916. Col. J. C. McCullou^h, president; V. V. Moulton, 
secretary and treasurer; F. P. Wright, vice-president and superinten- 
dent of agencies; F. A. Wall, vice-president and adjuster. 



B 



BALTICA INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD., Copenhagen, 
Denmark. O'Keefe & Lynch, United States branch managers, 45 
John street, New York, N. Y. (Transacts direct marine business and 
fire reinsurance business). Franklin W. Fort, manager, fire reinsurance 
department, New York, N. Y. 

BALTIMORE AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANY. Balti- 
more, Md. Organized 1880; capital, $500,000. John C. Distler 
Jr., president; George A. Hax, vice-president; Louis Huether, Jr.* 
vice-president, Edward J. Cook, secretary; Frederick L. C. Wehren- 
berg, Jr., assistant secretary; Clyde E. Culp, general agent. 

BALTIMORE EQUITABLE SOCIETY, Baltimore, Md. (mu- 
tual fire insurance company). Organized 1794. Wilton Snowden, 
treasurer; H. E. Rawhngs, secretary. 

BALTIMORE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Baltimore, Md. Incorporated 1885; began business 1886. William 
H. Purcell, president and treasurer; Ernst Schmeisser, vice-president; 
George H. Steuart, secretary and assistant treasurer; Charles W. 
Grant, Jr., assistant secretary. 

BANKERS AND MERCHANTS FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Jackson, Miss., Organized 1922, capital $200,000. R. E. 
Kennington, president; John E. King, vice-president; W. G. Sours, 
secretary. 

BANKERS AND SHIPPERS INSURANCE COMPANY. 59 

John Street, New York, N. Y. Organized 191 8; capital, paid m 
1,000,000 C. V. Meserole, president; L. R. Bowden, vice-president; 
H. B. Lamy, Jr., vice-president and secretary; L. P. Tremaine, secre- 
tary; R. Cholmeley- Jones, and H. N. Camp, assistant secretaries. 

BANKERS AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lin- 
coln, Nebraska. Organized 191 7; capital, $288,400. The company 
was placed under control of the state insurance department in 192 1, 
and is in process of liquidation. 

BANKERS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lincoln, Neb. 
Organized 1919; capital, $600,000. The company re-insured in March 
1922. 

BARNSTABLE COUNTY MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Yarmouthport, Mass. Organized 1833. Frederick C. 
Swift, president; John H. Clark, secretary and treasurer; J. E. Howes, 
assistant secretary. 



FiRB Insurance Section 19 

BAY STATE INSURANCE COMPANY, Concord, Mass. 
Organized 19 19; capital, paid in, $200,000. Prescott Keyes, president; 
C. F. Bowers, secretary. (Fire reinsurance business.) 

BAY STATE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Lawrence, Mass. Organized 1920, began business 192 1. Wm. H. 
Moison, president; Lewis D. Goodwin, secretary. 

BERKSHIRE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Pittsfield, Mass. Organized 1835. Henrv R. Peirson, president: 
Chas. L. Hibbard, vice-president; Robt. A. Barbour, secretary and 
treasurer; Chas. F. Reid, assistant secretary. 

BIRMINGHAM FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Organized 1871; capital, $200,000. Wm. Henning, president; 
Joseph F. Ploe^, vice-president; A. J. Henning, secretary; A. G. 
iCaufmann, assistant secretary. 

BLACKSTONE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Providence, R. I. Organized 1868. Williani B. McBee, president and 
treasurer; Charles H. Smith, vice-president and assistant treasurer; 
Howarcf I. Lee, secretary; Frank T. Daniels, assistant secretary. 

BLANKET POLICIES. In American underwriting a blanket 
policy covers different kinds or different pieces of property under 
the same form. Blanket policies are not considered good under- 
writing, but are found to be necessary in many cases. 

BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS OF ALLEGHENY 
COUNTY, Pa. The association was reorganized as a company or- 
^nization in 1915, and a new constitution took effect January i, 1916. 
The officers of the association, elected in January, 1922: are, R- J* 
Trimble, secretary; Ralph W. Henry, assistant secretary; Thomas D. 
Kellar, treasurer; Governine Committee: Wm. Steinmeyer,Chairman; 
F. S. Guthrie, E. H. Keller, Wm. J. Patterson, O. C. Hurst, F. J. Baer- 
man, H. J. A. Finley, John B. Sirich, Wm. W. Flanegin. The office is 
at 316 Fourth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS OF THE PACIFIC 
came into existence in February, 1895, as the successor of the Pacific 
Insurance Union, and inherited most of its dissensions. [For an 
account of the struggle through the years 1885 and 1886 to bring the 
competing and warring companies into harmonious combination, 
with partial successes and failures, while demoralization in rates and 
commissions continued, see the Cyclopedia for 1896-97, pages 63 and 
64, and for events in 1887 see the Cyclopedia for 18^-1898.] 

At the annual meeting in May, 1922, officers were elected as 
follows: President, Georee W. Brooks; vice-president, Edwin Parrish; 
secretary, J. C. McCaup^hern, assistant secretary, Arnold Hodgkinson. 
The president and vice-president are members ex-officio of the 
executive committee and under a board rule five members of the com- 
mittee are elected in May and six in November. 



20 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS OF NEW YORK. 51 Wall 
Street, N. Y., which represents ocean marine companies doing business 
in New York, was organized in 1820, and has been in uninterrupted 
operation since. The present officers are: Cornelius Eldert, president; 
Herbert Fuller, vice-president; Clayton Piatt, secretary; Walter D. 
Despard, treasurer. The members of the board are: 



American 

American Equitable 
American Merchant Marine 
Atlantic Mutual 
Automobile 
Bankers and Shippers 
Boston Insurance Company 
Continental 
Fidelity Phenix 



Fireman's Fund 

Globe and Rutgers Fire 

Insurance Company of North America 

National Fire, Hartford 

National of Copenhagen 

National Union Fire 

Scandinavian American 

Union of Havana 

Washington Marine 



BOSTON BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS was organ- 
ized November 14, 1882. The Board was re-organized in 1919 and a 
new constitution adopted. Alfred Davenport, president; H. H. 
Whitney, vice-president; William H. Winkley, manager; F. E. Cabot, 
secretary and treasurer. The Advisory Committee consists of repre- 
sentatives of the following companies: Commercial Union Assurance, 
New Hampshire Fire, Great American, Rhode Island, Firemen; Royal 
Exchange and the following local members, William Gilmour, Edward 
F. Woods and C. H. J. Kimball. Executive Committee: Arthur N. 
Bruerton, G. S. Rosencrantz, George Neiley, H. W. Porter, C. H. Wil- 
son. 

BOSTON INSURANCE COMPANY, 87 Kilby Street, Boston, 
Mass. Organized 1873; capital, $1,000,000. William R. Hedge, presi- 
dent; Herbert Fuller and Henry R. Hedge, vice-presidents; Freeman 
Nickerson, secretary; Wm. J. Chisholm, John M. Eaton, and M. M. 
Veazie, assistant secretaries; Edmund Winchester, manager fire 
department; I. Lloyd Greene, co-manager fire department. 

BOSTON MANUFACTURERS MUTUAL FIRE INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Boston, Mass. Organized 1850. Joseph P. 
Gray, president; L. H. Kunhardt, vice-president and engineer; H. L. 
Carter, vice-president and engineer; J. W. Lord, vice-president and 
engineer; H. Dwight Hall, secretary; Otto F. Hauck, assistant secre- 
tary; F: W. Harvey, assistant secretary; E. F. Robinson, treasurer, 
John B. Seward, assistant treasurer; E. T. Fillebrown, assistant 
treasurer. 31 Milk Street. 

BOSTON PROTECTIVE DEPARTMENT has grown and 
developed out of small beginnings. In 1849 its sole equipment 
consisted of two canvas bags, each containing three oil covers. The 
headquarters were located in the insurance office of Dobson & Jor- 
dan, No. 50 State Street. 

October i, 1868, the first company was organized by Assistant 
Engineer W. A. Green of the fire department, and consisted of nine 
men, the driver being the only permanent man and up to March 29, 



Fire Insurance Section 21 

1874, the department was maintained by voluntary contributions. 
In 1874 the legislature granted a charter to the organization, which 
was accepted March 11, immediately after its passage, and a code of 
by-laws adopted. The original title " The Boston Protective Depart- 
ment," was retained in the corporate name, and the fire insurance 
companies doing business in Boston are required to maintain it. 

The department consists of three companies and a force of 71 men. 
Samuel Abbott, Jr., was appointed superintendent in 1880 and con- 
tinued at the head of the department until July i, 1920, when he retired 
on a pension and H. E. Thompson was appointed his successor. [See 
Cyclopedia for 1913-14 for history of the organization.] 

The forty-seventh annual report of the department for the year 
ending December 31, 192 1, gave the number of alarms as 5,268,of 
which 4840 were for fires, and of these 1,750 occurred in brick and 
stone buildings, 1,267 in wooden buildings, concrete blocks 37, re-in- 
forced concrete 41, iron clad 6, fire-proof i, and 1,738 outside. Of these 
fires, 2,725 were confined to the floors where they originated, 257 
to the buildings where they originated, 97 extended to adjoining 
property, and 23 extended beyond adjoining property, originating 
in automobiles 231, not originating in buildings, 1,467, not originating 
in, but involving buildings, 40. The total loss on buildings and con- 
tents, $4,010,200.47; total insurance involved, $67,791,845.47; aiid 
the total insurance loss was $3,751,560.18. The insurance loss on 
buildings was $1,252,479.09 and on contents, $2,499,081.09. The 
loss on buildings and contents, direct loss, was $3,933,038.60, and on 
buildings and contents, exposure losses, was $77,161.87. The total 
rent losses were $6,957.87, and sprinkler losses (no fire) $1^,379.31. 
Some of the principal causes of fire, involving loss, were: matches, 513; 
smoking, 236; overheated stacks and chimneys, 51 ; hot ashes and coals, 
30; gas and petroleum and its products, 60; open lights, 107; stoves, 
boilers, and pipes, 90; incendiary, 16; spontaneous combustion, 45; 
electricity, 72; explosions, 70; sparks, arising from combustion, rubbish 
and litter, 133; and there were also 275 fires of unknown origin. 

The officers of the department elected at the annual meeting in 
March, 192 1, are: Henry M. Fenton, president; Charles H. J. 
Kimball, vice-president; Charles W- Gooding, secretary and treasurer; 
H, E. Thompson, superintendent. The secretary's office is at 40 Pur- 
chase Street, Boston, Mass. 

BRITISH AMERICA ASSURANCE COMPANY of Toronto, 
Can., incorporated 1833. W. B. Meikle, President and General 
Manager. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY (Limited), of Liverpool, Eng. VV. L. H. Simpson, manager 
and attorney; John E. Hoffman, secretary, New York. 

BRITISH GENERAL INSURANCE COMPANY. LTD.. 
London, Eng. Entered the United States in 1920. Henry W. Brown & 
Co., United States managers. 80 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. 
Transacts fire insurance business. 



22 Cyclopbdia op Insurance 

BROKER, TERM DEFINED. The insurance laws of a few 
states define who are brokers. Such laws are in force in Colorado, 
Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mis- 
souri, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, 
South Carolina, Virginia, and Washington. [For full text of the laws 
enacted prior to 1914, see Cyclopedia for 1913-14. See also Cyclopedia 
for 1915, fire section.] 

The laws in their terms are with few exceptions practically the 
same, and define a broker as: " Whoever for compensation acts or aids 
in any manner in negotiating contracts of insurance or reinsurance, or 
placine risks or effecting insurance or reinsurance for a person other 
than himself, and not being the appointed agent, or officer of the 
company in which such insurance or reinsurance is effected, shall be 
deemed an insurance broker." 

The Kansas law, however, limits the definition to anyone placing 
insurance in an unauthorized company; and the New York law 
defines a broker as " any person, partnership, association, or corpora- 
tion, who for money, commission, or anythmg of value, acts or aids 
in any manner on behalf of the insured " m negotiating or placing con- 
tracts of insurance, including surety bonds. The Virginia law de- 
fines a broker as any person who shall solicit for compensation any 
policy of insurance ** either on account of any person desiring to effect 
such insurance or any insurance company, except the duly authorized 
agent (or a clerk actualljr employed in his office) of any insurance com- 
pany licensed to do busmess in this state," and ** any insurance agent 
(or a clerk actually employed in his office) who shall solicit, directly 
or indirectly, any nre, marine, or other insurance, either on account of 
any person desiring to effect any such insurance, or on account of any 
insurance company licensed to do business in this state, other than 
for the insurance company or companies for which he is the duly 
authorized agent." 

The Washington law defines a broker as "any person who solicits 
insurance to be placed in an insurance company other than repre- 
sented by him." 

The South Carolina legislature in 19 16 enacted a law regulating 
brokerage business and Section i of the act declares the term insur- 
ance broker as used in the act " to be such person as shall be licensed 
by the insurance commissioner to represent citizens of this state for 
the placing of insurance to insurers licensed in this state or in any 
other state or country." 

BUCKEYE NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Toledo, Ohio. Organized 1914; cash capital, $101,470. H. M. 
Barfield, president; Charles Feilbach, O. D. Tiffany and D. L. Dur-. 
bin; vice-presidents; H. S. Basset t, secretary and treasurer; E. H. 
Norton, assistant secretary; Charles H. Harraden, managing under- 
writer. 

BUCKEYE UNION INSURANCE COMPANY, Lima, Ohio. 
Organized 1918; Elmer D. Webb, president; Ira E. Wagner, secretary. 
Automobile insurance. 



Fi£B Insurance Section 23 

BUCKS COUNTY CONTRIBUTIONSHIP, Morrisvillc, Pa., 
was organized in 1809 by the Quaker farmers of Bucks county, Pa.. 
and is still doing business in a conservative way. It is a mutual 
company, insuring farm and city buildings, a^d its full name is "The 
Bucks County Contributionsbip for Insuring Houses and Other Build- 
ings from Loss by Fire." Its bqsiness is confined to Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey. The officers are: Henry W. Comfort, president, and 
William Bishop, secretary. 

BUFFALO INSURANCE COMPANY, Buffalo, N. Y. Organ- 
ized 1867; capital, (400,000. John G. Wickser, president; Edwin B. 
Eggert, vice-president; Fred Greiner, second vice-president; Charles 
A. Georger, secretary; Louis W. Fisher and H. M. Miller, assistant 
secretaries. 

BURLINGTON MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Burlington, Vt. Organized 1906; C. W. Brownell, president; J. L. 
Southwick, vice-president; E. S. Adsit, vice-president; E. W. J. 
Hawkins, secretary; J. H. Macomber, treasurer. 



c 



CALEDONIAN- AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANY of 
New York. Organized 1897; capital, $200,000. Charles H. Post, 
president; R. C. Christopher, vice-president and secretary; H. E. 
Franck, assistant secretary. 

CALEDONIAN INSURANCE COMPANY of Edinburgh be- 
gan business in United States in 1890, reinsuring the Anglo-Nevada. 
Charles H. Post, United States manager, R. C. Christopher, assistant 
manager; H. E. Franck, branch secretary, 50 Pine Street, New York, 
N. Y. 

CALIFORNIA INSURANCE COMPANY, San Francisco. 
Cal. Re-organized 1905 (organized 1861): capital, $1,000,000. C. J. 
Holman, president; W. E. Dean, vice-president; George W. Brooks, 
secretary; Benton A. Siflord, assistant secretary. 

CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL FIRE INSURANCE 
AGENTS, was organized at a meeting held in Oakland in 1908, and 
I. H. Clay was elected president and Fred W. Le Ballister, secretary. 
The present officers, elected in May, 192 1, are: President, Matt T. 
Mancha, San Francisco; vice-president, P. H. Goodwin, San Diego; 
second vice-president, W. T. Rambo, San Jose; secretary and treasurer, 
J. H. Engelhart, Los Angeles. 

CALVERT MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Baltimore. 
Md. Organized 19 17. John H. Richardson, president; Charles 
Goldsborough, vice-president and treasurer; Thomas C. Grove, sec- 
retary and manager. 

CAMBRIDGE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Andover, Mass. Incorporated 1833; began business 1834. Burton S. 
Flagg, president; Frederic G. Moore, secretary. 

CAMDEN FIRE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION, Camden, 
N. J. Organized 1841; capital, $1,250,000. Edmund E. Read, Jr., 
president; J. Lynn Truscott, vice-president: Joseph K. Sharp, secre- 
tary and treasurer: John F. Gilliams, secretary; Millwood Truscott, 
Norman B. Stinson, Elwood S. Thompson and Barry Truscott, assist- 
ant secretaries. 

CANCELLATION. The fire insurance policy provides for 
cancellation at any time by cither the owner of the property or the 
company, by giving legal notice. If cancelled by the insured the 
premium is returned, less the short rate for the expired time. If 
cancellation is desired by the company the pro rata portion of the 



Fire Insurance Section 25 

premium must be returned before cancellation is complete. Notice 
alone is not sufficient, and the notice must state unconditionally a spe* 
cific time for cancellation. Cancellation may be affected by agree- 
ment between the parties and the right to notice, or return of the un> 
earned premium, waived, but generally notice must be given and 
tender of the unearned premium made in order to affect a legal can- 
cellation. The following is the cancellation clause as contained in the 
New York standard fire insurance policy, which practically is in use 
throughout the whole country: 

" This policy shall be cancelled at any time at the request of the insured; or by 
the company by giving five days' notice of such cancellation. If this policy shall be 
cancelled as hereinbefore provided, or become void or cease, the premium having 
been actually paid, the unearned portion shall be returned on surrender ot this pol- 
icy or last renewal, this company retaining the customary short rate; except that 
when this policy is cancelled by this company by giving notice it shall retain only the 
pro rata premium." 

CAPITAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Concord. N. H. 
Organized 1886; capital, $300,000. Charles L. Jackman, president; 
Edward G. Leach, vice-president; A. R. Kendall, secretary; Josiah 
£. Femald, treasurer; Freeman T. Jackman, assistant secretary. 

CAPITAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA, 
Sacramento, Cal. Organized 1912; capital, paid in, $225,000. Rolla 
V. Watt, president; James D. Meredith, vice-prdsident; F. B. Kellam, 
second vice-president; F. H. Farr, secretary; J. S. Gattmann, treasurer; 
E. W. Trenbath, assistant secretary. 

CAROLINA INSURANCE COMPANY, Wilmin^on, N. C- 
Organized 1887; capital, $50,000. H. C. McQueen, president; R. A- 
Parsley, vice-president: M. S. Willard, secretary. 

CENTRAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Baltimore, Md. 
Organized 1865; capital, $500,000. John P. Lauber, president; Charles 
H. Koppelman, vice-president; Charles H. Roloson, Jr., secretary. 

CENTRAL MANUFACTURER'S MUTUAL INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Van Wert, Ohio. Organized 1876. H. V. Olney, pres- 
ident; C. A. L. Purmort, secretary and manager. 

CENTRAL NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Des Moines, la. Organized 191 6, began business 1917; capital paid 
in, $500,000. George J. Delmege, president; Homer Miller and F. C. 
Waterbury, vice-presidents; Theo F. Grefe, secretary; A.H.Watson, 
assistant secretary; Simon Casady, treasurer; Chas. O. Goodwin, 
superintendent of agents. 

CENTRAL STATES FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Wich- 
ita, Kansas. Organized 1915; capital $250,000. Roy E. Eblen, presi- 
dent; S. M. LaRose, vice-president; Dan F. Callahan, secretary and 
treasurer; B. G. Mains, assistant secretary. 



26 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

CENTRAL TRACTION AND LIGHTING BUREAU, New 
York. Organized in IQ09 by fire insurance companies, and its objects 
are the inspection and improvement of traction property and power 
plants. Elliott Middleton, i Liberty Street, New York is secretary. 
The officers, elected at the annual meeting in December, 192 1, are: 
H. A. Smith, National, president; R. B. Ives, Aetna, Chicago, vice- 
president; C. G. Smith, Great American, treasurer; E. B. Hatch, 
Chicago, Western secretary; C. A. Ludlum, Home, N. Y., chairman 
executive committee. 

CENTURY INSURANCE COMPANY, Ltd., Edinburgh, 
Scotland. Henry W. Brown & Co., Philadelphia, and New York, 
United States managers. United States branch, 80 Maiden Lane, 
New York. 

CHICAGO BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS. The first board 
of underwriters of Chicago was organized in 1849. W. Dole, who 
represented a company now long defunct, the Columbus Insurance 
Company of Ohio, was the first president, and John C. Dodge was 
secretary. After this organization fell to pieces another board was 
formed in 1856, with the pioneer insurance man of Chicago, Gar- 
den H. Hubbard of the iEtna, as president, and J. Kearney Rodgers 
as secretary and surveyor. In 1861 this organization was duly 
incorporated by the legislature as the Chicago Board of Under- 
writers. 

Followmg the great fire the board was reorganized February 
22, 1872, with S. M. Moore as president, General A. C. Ducat, vice- 
president; J. Goodwin, Jr., treasurer, and Alfred Wright, secretary. 
The career of the board was undisturbed until 1880, when, because 
of violent internal dissensions, a number of members withdrew, 
and, on January 27, started a rival organization, to which they gave 
the name of the Underwriters' Exchange. The first officers were 
Robert J. Smith, president ; William E. Rollo, vice-president ; and 
R. N. Trimingham, secretary. The two bodies continued their 
labors on parallel lines for five years, sometimes in harmony, but 
more often in hostility, until in 1885, after repeated efforts, a union 
of forces was effected. A new organization was created (the Chi- 
cago Fire Underwriters' Association), and into this the Exchange 
was merged. The board members also became members of the 
association, but the Board of Underwriters was continued. In January 
1906, the by-laws were amended and the membership greatly enlarged 
by the admission of the members of the Chicago Underwriters Asso- 
ciation, which then ceased to exist. Officers were elected at the an- 
nual meeting in 1922, as follows: W. E. Witherbee, president; L. M. 
Drake, vice-president; J. B. Nowakowski, secretary; George R. 
Roberts, treasurer; H. H. Glidden, manager; J. S. Glidden, assistant 
manager. The office is at 1 75 W. Jackson Boulevard. 



Fire Insurance Section 27 

CHICAGO FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Chicaffp, 111. Organized 1922; capital $1,000,000. President, Harold 
M. O'orien; vice-president, Frederick O'Brien; secretaries, William J. 
Nolan and Charles McCabe, Jr.; treasurer, Willet M. Poitter. 

CHRISTIANIA GENERAL INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Christiania, Norway. Organized 1847. Entered the United States in 
191 8. J. M. Wennstrom, United States manager, 100 William St., 
New York, N. Y. (Fire reinsurance business.) 

CINCINNATI EQUITABLE INSURANCE COMPANY 
(Mutual), Cincinnati, O. Organized 1826. Frank J. Jones, presi- 
dent; E. H. Ernst, secretary. 

CINCINNATI FIRE UNDERWRITERS ASSOCIATION OF 
Cincinnati, Ohio. (1304 First National Bank Building). W. S. 
Hukill, Jr., president; Joseph T. Dillhoff, vice-president; Joseph F. 
Schweer, secretary and treasurer. Annual meeting second Thursday 
in January. Executive Committee meets every two weeks. 

CITIZENS INSURANCE COMPANY, St. Louis, Mo. Or- 
ganized 1837; capital, $200,000. Charles E. Chase, president; R. M, 
Bissell, vice-president; J. H. Carr, vice-president; F. C. White, vice- 
president; P. O. Crocker, secretary; George Gordon, assistant secre- 
tary; Thos. H. Scotland, assistant secretary; G. A. Russell, assistant 
secretary. 

CITIZENS MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, IN THE 
TOWN OF BRIGHTON, Concord, Mass. Incorporated 1846. George 
W. Hinkley, president; Adams Tolman, secretaiy; E. R. Howard, 
assistant secretary; Prescott Keyes, vice president and treasurer; 
C. F. Bowers, vice-president and assistant treasurer. 

CITY INSURANCE COMPANY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 
Sunbury, Pa. Organized 1870; (re-incorporated, 1920.) capital, paid 
in, $600,000. J. Harris Lenker, president; P. H. Fuhrmann, vice- 
president; Ambrose Persing, treasurer; A. F. O'Daniel, secretary and 
underwriting manager; C. W. Voellger, assistant secretary. 

CITY OF NEW YORK INSURANCE COMPANY, New York, 
(56 Cedar Street.) Organized 1905; capital, $1,000,000. Elbridge G. 
Snow, president; Frederic C. Bus well, Clarence A. Ludlum, Charles L. 
Tyner, Frank E. Burke, vice-presidents; Wilfred Kurth, vice-president 
and secretary; Vincent P. Wyatt, assistant secretary; Ferd. Ermisch, 
assistant secretary. Control of this company was acquired by interests 
identified with the Home Insurance Company of New York in 1920. 



28 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

CLEVELAND NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Cleveland, Ohio. Incorporated 191 1, began business 1914; capital, 
paid up, $839,580. E. Kimball, president; Archibald Kemp, secretary 
and treasurer and nianaging underwriter; Wm. C. Doolittle, assistant 
secretary and treasurer. 

CO-INSURANCE CLAUSE IN FIRE UNDERWRITING. 
The 80 per cent, co-insurance clause, which was adopted by fire 
insurance companies and associations, went into effect on rated 
risks in New York, New England, and many of the principal 
cities from 1892 to 1899, but encountered considerable opposition 
from property owners almost solely because it was not understood, 
and excited hostile legislation in a large number of legislatures. 

Laws prohibiting the co-insurance clauses are in force, there- 
fore, in twelve states: Missouri (1893, modified in 1903 and 19 15 as to 
cities), Iowa (1897 and 191 1), Louisiana (1894 and 1908), Indiana 
(1895 ^^^ I90i)f Georgia (valued policy law, 1895), Michigan (1895, 
1907, and 1913), Wisconsin (1897), New Jersey (1900), Texas (191 1 
and 1913), Minnesota (1895, 1903, and 1915), Tennessee (1893 and 
1903), North Carolina (19 15 standard policy law), South Dakota 
(standard policy law). 

The laws with the exception of those of Texas and Louisiana are 
optional; that is, permit the use of the clause upon the application of 
or the written consent of the insured. The Texas law, however, per- 
mits the use of the clause in policies covering cotton, grain or other 
products in process of marketing, shipping, storing or manufacture. 
The Louisiana law does not apply " to personal or movable property " 
whenever the words: *' This policy is issued subject to the conditions 
of the co-insurance clause attached hereto," are stamped on the face 
and back of the policy. The Missouri law contains a provision that 
the section shall not apply to policies " upon personal property " in 
cities of 100,000 population or more, " Whenever the insured sign an 
agreement endorsed across the face of said policy to be exempt from 
the provisions thereof." The South Dakota law permits the use of 
the clause, which is styled " reduced rate average clause," on writ- 
ten application of the insured, and provided " such company shall 
before accepting such application, inform the applicant of the rates 
of premium demanded with and without such clause." The Wis- 
consin and North Carolina laws require the same information regard- 
ing the rate to be given, and the commissioner of North Carolina has 
ruled that neither broker nor agent is permitted to sign an application 
for the use of the co-insurance clause, but the insured must make 
the application. The Minnesota law permits the use of the clause in 
pK>licies of $5,000 or more, " if the insured requests the same in writ- 
ing, and, if, in consideration thereof, a reduction in the rate of pre- 
mium is made. The Tennessee law requires that if the clause is accepted 
by the insured " it shall be a condition precedent to its validity " that 
a reduction in rate has been allowed. The reduction to be allowed is 
specified, and is dependent on the percentage clause used. The clause 
can apply only in cities and towns having a population of more than 
15,000. 



Fire Insurance Section 29 

Iowa, while requiring written request, provides that in no case 
shall the clause apply " to dwellings or farm property nor to any risk 
where the value of property insured is less than $25,000," except grain 
elevators and warehouses and their contents. 

The laws of Iowa, Michigan, and South Dakota not only prescribe 
the form of application for the use of the clause, but also prescribe the 
form of the clause itself. The Michigan clause is a part of the appli- 
cation and reads: — 

** It is hereby agreed that the assured shall maintain insurance during the life 

of this policy upon the property hereby insured, to the extent of at least 

per cent, of the actual cash value thereof, and that failing to do so. the assured shall 
be a co-insurer to the extent of the difference between the amount insured and the 

said per cent, of the cash value, and to that extent shall bear his. her 

or their proportion of any loss. It is also agreed that if this policy be divided into 
two or more items, the foregoing conditions shall apply to each item separately: " 

The South Dakota form, which is styled the " reduced rate aver- 
age clause," reads: 

It is a part of the consideration for this policy and the basis upon which the 
rate of premium is fixed that the assured shall maintain insurance on the property 

described in this policy to the extent of at least per cent, of the actual cash 

value thereof, and that failing to do so. the assived shall be a co-insurer to the extent 
of such deficit and to that extent shall bear his. her or their proportion of any loss; 
and it is expressly agreed that in case there shall be more thain one item or division 
in the form of this policy, this clause shall apply to each and every item. 

The clause prescribed by the Iowa law reads: 

In consideration of the acceptance by the insured ot a reduction in premiums 

from the established rate of per cent, to per cent, it is hereby agreed 

that the insured shall maintain insurance during the life of this policy upon the prop- 
erty insured: 

I. To the extent of dollars, or 

a. To the extent of at least per cent, of the actual cash value thereof 

at the time of fire (whichever may be agreed upon) and, that failing to do 
so the insured shall be a co-insurer to the extent of such deficit. 

The Wisconsin legislature in 191^ passed an act authorizing the 

following either in the policy or as a rider: 

A i>rovision that the insured shall bear the first part of any loss as provided 
therein to a specified percentage not exceeding five per centum of the amount of in- 



In any case of loss, the company or insurer shall pay the excess after deducting 
from the adjustment the part aforesaid. No such provision shall be valid unless 
there be stamped, written, or printed upon the filing back of the policy, an indorse- 
ment hereby authorized, which shall read: " Rate reduced from $ to 

$ , in consideration of the insured bearing the first part of any loss as 

herein provided." Both blanks must be filled. 

Kentucky in 19 16 enacted a law which is a paragraph of the val- 
ued policy law, but which provided that the valued policy provisions 
should not apply to policies containing a co-insurance clause, the use 
of which is authorized in the following terms: 

It shall be lawful for corporations, firms or individuals doing a fire insurance 
business in this State to contract with the assured that the assured shall during the 
life of suc^ contract, maintain insurance upon the property insured to the extent of 
an agreed proportion of the actual cash value of the property at the time that a fire 
occurs, and ti»t should the assured fail to do so, the assured shall be a co-insurer to 
the extent that the insurance then in force is less than the amount of such agreed 
proportion, and to that extent shall as such co-insurer bear his part of any loss. 



30 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

It is provided further that " the acceptance of such contract 
shall be at the option of the assured and that a reduced rate shall be 
given when such clause is used.'' [For text of laws enacted prior to 
1914 see Cyclopedia for 1913-14 and also Cyclopedia for 1915.] 



THE CO-INSURANCE CLAUSE DEFINED 

What is known in the United States as " co-insurance " has 
been common to marine underwriting under the name of " average " 
from the earliest knowledge we have of insurance. The principle 
involved is that of a common peril shared by all interested. If any 
portion of a cargo was jettisoned in order to save the rest, or if the 
whole cargo was thrown overboard to save the ship, all whose interests 
were imperiled contributed to make good the loss. In fire insur- 
ance the principle is applied to all policies issued in France, Belgium, 
Germany, and Russia.^ It is used in floating policies in the United 
Kingdom, and in English policies in Egypt, India, China, and Japan. 
It has been used in a desultory fashion in the United States, at dif- 
ferent times, but it is only within a few years that a serious attempt 
has been made to apply co-insurance universally to fire insurance pol- 
icies in this country. 

The principle is that the entire property at risk should bear the 
burden of the loss of any part of it. That can only be done when 
the property is either fully insured or is totally destroyed. The co- 
insurance clause is only operative in partial losses, which are a large 
percentage of the fire losses. In these cases the owner contracts that 
he will either carry insurance to the limit required, or himself become 
a co-insurer for the deficiency. Without this clause the underwriter 
cannot intelligently rate any risk. Property worth $10,000 and in- 
sured for $10,000 IS a very different risk from the same property in- 
sured for $1,000. In the one case the destruction of one-tenth of the 
property means a 10 per cent, loss, and in the other case it means a 
total loss. The two risks cannot properly be written at the same rate, 
because they do not involve the same hazard. The effect of the uni- 
versal application of the principle would be that the amount of insur- 
ance would be somewhat increased, the premium rate would be re- 
duced, while rates would be equalized as between the owners who have 
heretofore carried partial insurance and those who have carried full 
insurance. For some reason, which it would be difficult to explain, 
except upon the hypothesis that the property-owner does not know 
the exact value of his property, but that he ought to be able to guess 
within a named percentage of it, the clause which came into use in 
the United States was known as the " percentage co-insurance clause/' 
and read: 

If at the time of fire the whole amount of insuiance on the property covered 

by this policy shall be less than per cent, of the actual cash value 

thereof, this company shall in case of loss or damage be liable for only such portion 
of such loss or damage as the amount insured by this policy shall bear to the said 
per cent, of the actual cash value of such property. 



Fire Insurance Section 31 

The French clause translated reads: 

If at the time of a fire the value of the objccta covered by the policy la found to 
caoeed the total of the inturaaoe. the aamired it comidered aa having remained Ut 
own inrarer for that ezceM. and he it to bear In that character hia propMtion of the 



The German clause employed is: 

If in case of a fire the insured objects should exceed the sum insured, and they 
should be partly saved, the assured will be considered as self-insurer for the excess, 
and is to bear his share of the loss pro rata. 

To_ make another illustration of the operation of the co-insurance 
clause in the United States policy: suppose the percenta^ inserted 
in the clause is 80, if the whole amount of insurance at time of fire 
be less than eighty per cent, of value of the insured property, the owner 
must bear his share of any loss for the difference between the total 
amount of insurance carried and eighty per cent, of the value of the 
property insured, just as though he were an insurance company and 
had issued his policy for this amount. Thus, with a stock of ^oods 
worth $10,000 and an insurance of only $5,000, $8,000 would be eighty 
per cent, of value, which would make the owner, in case of a fire, be 
mterested to the extent of $3,000, just as though he were an insur- 
ance cpmpany and had issued a policy insuring his own property for 
$3,000. This would make the necessary $8,000 insurance, or eighty 
per cent, of value, he haying become a co-insurer with the regular in- 
surance company, having its policy on the risk for $5,000. A £e doing 
a damage, say, of $4,000, would be paid for in the following way: 

Regular insurance company would pay five-eighths of $4,000 or $2,500 

Owner would pay to himself (his share) x.500 

Making up the whole loss $4,000 

Suppose now that his regular insurance had been $8,000, the 
co-insurance clause would cost him nothing, as the regular insur- 
ance company would pay him "as the amount of insurance shall 
bear eighty per cent, of value," which means, in this case, the regular 
company would pay him eight-eighths of $4,000, or his full loss. 

On the other hand, suppose the property to have been entirely 
destroyed, or a total loss, he would get the full amount of his regular 
insurance, because five-eighths of $10,000 would amount to more than 
the face of the policy. 

Again, suppose a man with $10,000 value is insured in the old 
way for but $5,000, a rate of one per cent., making his yearly premium 
$50, and a fire causes loss of $5,000. He collects this from the com- 
panies, while his neighbor, with the same value, hazard, and rate, 
gets insured for $8,000, at a cost of $80 per annum, and he has a dam- 
age of $5,000; the one gets the same as the other gets, only No. i has 
paid less than No. 3 paid for his insurance, while if the eighty per 
cent, co-insurance clause were a part of both contracts, No. i would 
have received from the companies but $3,125, while No. 3, who had 
enough to satisfy the demands of the eighty per cent, co-insurance 
clause, would receive his full loss, or $5,000. 



32 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Small fires being by far the more common, and, it may be added, 
by far the more expense to the companies, rates can be made with 
more fairness on the basis of co-insurance than without it. 

The use of the co-insurance or 'average clause was made obliea- 
tory in Great Britain on floating policies in 1828 (see Walford's Cyclo- 
pedia), but the clause adopted was a long one. It can be found on 
pages 332-3, Vol. I. 

COLONIAL ASSURANCE COMPANY OF THE CITY 
OF NEW YORK, New York. Organized 1896; capital, $200,000. 
Leo H. Wise, president; E. E. Hall and D. S. Walton, vice-presidents; 
F. S. Powell, Jr., secretary, 80 Maiden Lane. 

COLUMBIA INSURANCE COMPANY, Dayton, Ohio. Or- 
ganized 1881; capital, $150,000. O. I. Gunckel, president; Herman 
Rice, secretary. 

COLUMBIA INSURANCE COMPANY, Jersey City, N. J. 
Organized 1901 ; capital, $400,000. Transacts Marine, Transportation, 
Automobile, Fire and Sprinkler Leakage Insurance. Percival Beres- 
ford, president; Herbert W. Ellis, vice-president; Frank H. Cauty, 
vice-president and marine manager; Howard Terhune, secretary. 

COLUMBIAN INSURANCE COMPANY OF INDIANA, 
Indianapolis, Ind. Organized 191 1; capital, $241,073. Matthew F. 
Gartland, president; M. F. Gill and Jacob Buennagel, vice-presidents; 
Edward T. Lyons, secretary and treasurer; A. M. Wagner, superin- 
tendent of agencies. 

COLUMBIAN NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Lansing, Mich. Organized 191 1, began business 1913; capital, paid 
up, $976,675. T. A. Lawler, president; W. D. Laurence, secretary and 
treasurer. 

COMMERCE INSURANCE COMPANY, Albany, N. Y. 
Chartered 1859; capital, $200,000. E. Darwin Jenison, president; 
Frank Van Benthuysen, vice-president; C. R. Whitehead, secretary; 
Frederick W. Stein, assistant secretary. 

COMMERCIAL UNION ASSURANCE COMPANY was 
organized in London in 1861, and came into the United States through 
the Golden Gate, establishing an agency in San Francisco in 1870. It 
was admitted to New York, and began a general business throughout 
the country, in 187 1, under the management of Alliger Brothers. At 
the close of 187 1 its assets in the United States were $346,037. In 1877 
Alfred Pell was appointed to the United States Management. In 1878 
Charles Sewall became assistant-manager and manager in November 
1885, ^nd so continued until his death in December I8p8. He was 
succeeded by Alexander H. Wray in February, 1899, retirmg March i, 
1920, when he was succeeded by Whitney Palache. F. W. Koeckert is 



Fire Insurance Section S3 

assistant manager — his appointment dating 1920, when he succeeded 
Clarence E. Porter, who took charge of the Western Department. 
F. A. Rye is now western manager. William M. Ballard is branch 
secretary — ^his appointment dating 1901. 114 Fifth Avenue. 

The Commercial Union Assurance Company closed the year 1921 

with: — 

Aflsetfl $14,057,803.84 

Net surplus 4,496,434.22 

Premium income 8,399,61 i.oo 

COMMERCIAL UNION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
New York City. Organized 1890; capital, $200,000. Whitney Palache, 
president; F. W. Koeckert, vice-president; Wm. M. Ballard, secretary; 
1 14 Fifth Avenue, New York City, N. Y. 

Commercial Union Fire Insurance Co. closed the year of 192 1 with i- 

Assets $1,968,090.62 

Net surplus 370,448.31 

Premium Income 1,437,129.00 

COMMONWEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, of 
New York, 76 William Street, New York City. Organized 1886; capital, 
$500,000; Cecil F. Shallcross, president; E. T. Cairns, C. R. Perkins, 
W. S. Alley, C. E. Case, vice-presidents; R. P. Barbour, secretary. 

COMPANIES ORGANIZED OR PROJECTED IN 192 1. 

FiuB AND Mauni Insukancb CoicrANixs. 
Name Proposed 

Capital 

American Fire Reinsurance, Davenport, la $200,000 

American General Insurance Co., Chicago, III 300,000 

American Standard Fire, Nashville, Tenn 100,000 

Asia Fire, Wilmington, Del 

Bankers Assurance, Boston, Mass 

Central West Fire, Bloomington, 111 200,000 

Chicago F. & M. Ins. Co., Chicago, 111 1,000,000 

Employers Fire Insurance Co., Boston, Mass 750,000 

Eureka Insurance Company, Philadelphia 

Firemens National Fire, St. Paul, Minn 500,000 

Florida Automobile Ins. Co., Orlando, Fla 250,000 

Great Western Fire Insurance Co., Chicago 400,000 

Hampton Roads F. & M., Norfolk, Va 500,000 

Iroquois Fire, Peoria, 111 100,000 

Lincoln Fire, Syracuse, N. Y 

Mcrdiants Union Ins. Co., Meridian, Miss 100,000 

Metropolitan Motor, Cleveland, Ohio 500,000 

Mississippi Fire Ins. Co., Jackson, Miss 200,000 

Mt. Vernon Fire Ins. Co., Mt. Vernon, N. V 

New Jersey Mfrs. Assn. Fire, Trenton 200,000 

New York State Fire, Altiany, N. Y 200,000 

Old American, Little Rock, Ark 

Prudential Fire of New Jersey 

Robert Morris Fire Ins. Co., Philadelphia 200,000 

Service Fire, Columbia, S. C 100,000 

Southwestern Fire, Enid, Okla 

Standard American Fire, Chicago, 111 100,000 

Union Hispano American F. & M., New York 400,000 

Universal Insurance Co., Newark, N.J 400,000 

United Meichanu, Jersey City, N. J 200,000 

United Real Estate Owners Fire, New York 



34 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

The following mutual, inter-insurance or reciprocal underwriters 
were organized or projected in 192 1: 

American General Insurance Company, Portland, Ore* 

American Insurance Associates, Flint, Mich. 

Associated Dry Goods Mutual, Madison, Wis. 

Associated Merchants Mutual, Boston, Mass. 

Automotive Industries Mutual Motor Insurance Association, Detroit, Mich. 

Baldwin Mutual, Loxley, Ala. 

Bankers Mutual Automobile, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Bay State Mutual Fire, Lawrence, Mass. 

Central Mutual Auto, Detroit. Mich. 

Citizens Mutual Fire of Michigan, Mendon, Mich. 

Cloverland Farmers Mutual Rodded Fire, Hancock, Mich. 

Commercial Mutual, Greeley, Colo. 

Copper Country Mutual Fire, Calumet, Mich. 

Deposit Mutual Fire, Rural Valley. Pa. 

Detroit Mutual Automobile, Detroit, Mich. 

Farmers & Merchants Mutual Windstorm of Michigan. 

Farmers Pioneer Fire Insurance Company, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Florida Mutual Automobile, Melbourne, Fla. 

Globe Mutual. Fort Worth, Tex. 

Grand Mutual Fire Insurance Association, Des Moines, la. 

Harvesters Mutual Insurance Association, Des Moines, la. 

La Salle Mercantile Mutual Fire, Detroit, Mich. 

Liberty Mutual Automobile, Kansas City, Mo. 

Merchants Mutual, Wichita, Kan. 

Mid- West Farmers Mutual Insurance Association, Sioux Falls, S. D. 

Mid-West Mutual Auto, Detroit, Mich. 

Minnesota Threshermens Mutual, Kankota, Minn. 

Motor Clubs Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Mutual Fire and Storm Insurance Association, Burlington, la. 

Mutual Eye Insurance Company, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Phoenix Motor Mutual, Quincy, lU. 

Preferred Mutual Fire, Dallas, Tex. 

Retail Merchants Mutual, Des Moines, la. 

Southern Mutual Fire, Yoakum, Tex. 

State Automobile Mutual Insurance Association, Columbus, Ohio. 

State Mutual Fire Insurance Company, Dallas, Tex. 

Square Deal Mutual Hail Insurance Company, Iowa. 

Victory Mutual, Detroit, Mich. 

California Underwriters Agency, Los Angeles. Cal. 

Epperson Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 

Fidelity Lloyds of America, Houston, Tex. 

Growers Automobile Insurance Association .Indianapolis, Ind. 

Interinsurance Exchange of Milwaukee, Milwaukee. Wis. 

Preferred Automobile Insurance Exchange, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Security Automobile Insurance Association, Indianapolis. Ind. 

State Mutual Insurance Exchange. St. Paul, Minn. 

United Lloyds. Chicago, 111. 

Universal Lloyds Underwriters, Indianapolis, Ind. 

The following companies from foreign countries entered the 
United States: 

Atlantica Insurance Company, Ltd., Gothenburg; Sweden. 

Cuban National Insurance Company (La Cubana Compania Nacional De Seguroa.) 

Havana, Cuba. 
Osaka Marine and Fire Insurance Company, Osaka. Japan. 
Prudential Assurance, London. 

CONCORDIA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of Milwaukee, 
Wis. Organized 1870; capital, $750,000. William E. WoUaeger, 

president; August J. Luedke, vice-president; Geo. P. Mayer, vice- 



FiEB Insurance Section 35 

president; Frank Damkoehler, secretary; R. £. Brandenburg, treas- 
urer; Herman Ambos and Robert H. Moore, assistant secretaries; H. 
W. Ashby and A. C. Meeker, agency superintendents. 

CONCORD MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Concord, N. H. Organized 1885. George M. Kimball, M.D., pres- 
ident and treasurer; Robert J. Merrill, vice-president; Louis C. Merrill, 
secretary. 

CONFLAGRATIONS. The available records of fires in the 
United States do not indicate clearly what are to be classed as con- 
flagrations and what are not, and give simply a list of " large fires," or 
fires involving an aggregate loss above a certain amount. Obviously 
the amount of loss does not make a conflagration, though that is the 
easiest and more common factor for classification, but there have been 
many conflagrations in the United States which are not included even 
in the records of large fires; that is, if the definition of a conflagration 
— "a fire extending to many objects, or over a large space; a general 
burning," is to be accepted. It is hardly possible to make a separate 
list of fires falling within the above definition of a conflagration, and 
information regarding large fires probably is all that is, or may be, 
desired. The following list of fires, which involved an estimated loss 
of two million dollars, or over, occurring in the United States since 
1870, includes the more important and great, but not all, conflagrations, 
and is merely a list of " large fires " occurring in the United States in 
that period. 

1870 — Chicago. 111., September 4, $2,500,000. 

1871 — Chicago. 111., October 9. $165,000,000. 
1873 — Boston. Maw., November 9, $70,000,000. 
Z874 — Chicago, 111., July 14, $4,000,000. 

1875 — Osceola, Pa., May 30. $3,000,000. 
1875 — Virginia City, Nev., October 36, $7,500,000. 
1879 — New York, N. Y., February 17. $3,000,000. 
1889 — New York, N. Y., April 19. $2,000,000. 
X889 — Seattle, Wash., July 6, $6,000,000. 
1889 — Spokane Falls. Wash.. August 4. $5,000,000. 
1889 — Lynn. Mass.. November 36. $5,000,000. 
1889 — Boston, Mass., November 28, $4,000,000. 
1893 — Milwaukee, Wis., October 38, $4,500,000. 
1893 — Boston, Mass. March 10, $3,000,000. 
1893 — Fargo, N. Dak., June 7. $3,000,000. 
Z894 — Phillips, Wis.. July 30. $3,000,000. 
1897 — Pittsburgh, Pa.. May 3. $2, 00a 000. 
190X — Jacksonville, Fla., May 3, $10,500,000. 

1903 — Peterson. N. J., February 9. $5,000,000. 
1904 — Baltimore, Md., February 7, $40,000,000. 

1904 — Rochester. N. Y.. February 36. $3,000,000. 

1904 — Sioux City, la., December 33. $2,000,000. 

1905 — New Orleans, La.. February. $5,000,000. 

1906 — San Francisco, Cal., April x8, $350.ooo.ooc. 

1907 — San Francisco, Cal., April 3. $2,000,000. 

1907 — Superior, Wis., November 9, $2,250,000. 

1908 — New York, N. Y.. January 10. $2,400,000. 
1908 — Chelsea. Mass., April 12. $10,500,000. 

191 1 — Albany, N. Y., March 39, $5,000,000. 

19 1 1 — Bangor, Me., April 30, $3,500,000. 

1912 — New York, N. V., January 9. $3,000,000. 

1913 — Houston, Tex., February i, $4,500,000. 



36 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

1913 — Hot springs. Ark.. September 5. $2,250,000. 

1914 — Salem. Mass., June 25, 914,000.000. 

1915 — Newport News, Va., S2.000.000. 

1915 — Chicago, 111., $2,000,000. 

1916 -^ Brooklyn, N. Y., $2,000,000. 
1916 — Paris, Tex., March 21, $7,000,000. 
1916 — Augusta, Ga.. $2,500,000. 

19x6 — Black Tom Island. N. J. (explosion) $13,000,000. 

19x7 *- Atlanta, Ga., May 21. $5,500,000. 

1918 — Jersey City. N. J., March, $2,000,000. 

X918 — Kansas City. Mo., April, $2,500,000. 

19 1 8 — St. Louis, Mo., May, $2,000,000. 

19 1 8 — St. Louis, Mo., June, $3,000,000. 

1918 — Nozen, Pa., June, $3,000,000. 

Z918 — New York, N. Y., July, (steamship), $3,000,000. 

19 18 — Owensboro, Ky., August, $3,000,000. 

1918 — Perth Amboy, N. J., Octobo-. (explosion). $25.ooo.ooa 

1920 — Cisero, Illinois, $2,000,000. 

1920 — Mauer, N. J., $3,000,000. 
1920, — Wilmington, Del., $2,250,000. 
1920' — Washington, D. C, $2,000,000. 

192 1 — Washington, D. C. $2,000,000. 
192 1 — Chicago, 111., $2,500,000. 

192 1 — McKeesport, Pa., $2,000,000. 
1921 — Whitney, lud., $2,000,000. 
1921 — Lende/i.»N- Jm $3.Soo,ooo. 
1921 — Jacksonville, Fla., $2,750,000. 
192 1 — Hojbkoken, N. J.. $3,500,000. 
1921 — Milwaukee, Wis., $2,000,000. 
192 1 — Wechawkcn, N. J., $2,000,000. 
1921 — Augusta, C^., $2,000,000. 

Some of the more notable fires prior to 1870 were: 1820 — Savannah, 
Ga., June 10, loss, $4,000,000; 1835 — New York, N. Y., December 
16, loss, $15,000,000; 1838 — Charlestown, Mass., loss, $6,000,000; 
1843 — New York, N. Y., loss, $6,000,000; 1845 — New York, N. Y., 
loss, $6,000,000; 1850 — San Francisco, Cal., loss $8,000,000; 1851 — 
San Francisco, Cal., (two fires), loss, respectively, $25,000,000 and 
$6,000,000; 18^2 — Sacramento, Cal., loss, $5,000,000; 186 1 — 
Charleston, S. C, December 12, loss, $10,000,000; 1864 — Wilming- 
ton, N. C, loss, $5,000,000; 1865 — New York, N. Y., loss, $4,000,000; 
1866 — Portland, Me., July 4, loss, $10,000,000. 

CONNECTICUT FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, 
Hartford, Conn., was organized and began business in 1850. Cap- 
ital, $1,000,000. Edward Milligan, president, Geo. M. Lovejoy, John 
A. Cosmus and Fred W. Bowers, vice-presidents; John A. Cosmus, 
Geo. C. Long, Jr., secretaries; Henry P. Whitman, F. Minot Blake, 
E. V. Chaplin, assistant secretaries. 

CONNECTICUT STATE ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE 
AGENTS. A meeting of Connecticut agents was held July 12, 1899, in 
West Haven, and an association organized with John C. North of New 
Haven, president, and J. N. Phelan, Bridgeport, secretary. At the 
annual meeting held in October, 192 1, officers were elected as follows: 
Charles E. PuflFer, Waterbury, president; Harold W. Hatch, New 
Britain, vice-president; James L. Case, Norwich, and Tracy B. 
Warren, Bridgeport, Honorary vice-presidents; Donald G. North, 
secretary and treasurer, 39 Church Street, New Haven, Conn. 



Fire Insurance Section 37 

CONSOLIDATED ASSURANCE COMPANY, London, Eng. 
Entered the United States in 1920. H. L. Rosenfeld, United States 
manager, New York, N. Y. 

CONTINENTAL INSURANCE COMPANY, THE. 80 Maiden 
Lane, New York. Organized January 1853; cash capital, $10,000,000. 
Henry Evans, Chairman of the Board; N. T. Robertson, president; 
P. L. Haid, first vice-president; J. R. Wilbur and Wm. Quaid, second 
vice-presidents; Ernest Sturm, secretar>' and treasurer; F. R. Millard, 

C. W. Pierce, G. A. Clarke, J. P. Breeden, secretaries; O. F. Grover, 
M. E. Moriarty, W. C. Kirkland, W. W. Grove, assistant secretaries. 

CORCORAN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Washington. 

D. C. Organized 1873; capital, $100,000. W. E. Edmonston, presi- 
dent; Frank McClelland, vice-president; L. R. Peak, secretary; 

F. H. Ridgway, assistant secretary. 

COTTON AND WOOLEN MANUFACTURERS MUTUAL 
INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW ENGLAND. Boston, Mass. 
G^^nized 1875. William B. Plunkett. president; C. C. Converse, 
vice-president; Benjamin Taft. secretary and treasurer; W. B. Brophy. 
assistant secretary and assistant treasurer. 

COTTON INSURANCE ASSOCIATION is an association of 
companies, members of the Southeastern Underwriters Association 
and was organized in 1905 for the purpose of handling transit insurance 
on cotton in the Southern states. The operations of the asso- 
ciation are under direction of a general advisory committee, and 
the headquarters of the Association are in Atlanta. The present offi- 
cers of the Association are: Guy Carpenter, manager; T. M. N. 
George, assistant manager; J. S. Darlington, assistant manager; Geo. 

G. Nichols, Atlanta, Ga.; Wm. E. Finch, Atlanta, Ga.; Albert A. 
Miller, Atlanta, Ga.; R. B. Berkeley, Memphis, Tenn.; John S. Hud- 
gins, Memphis, Tenn.; J. B. McDonald, Little Rock, Ark.; H. D. 
Green, Little Rock, Ark.; S. H. Wells, Little Rock, Ark.; E. R. Schoen, 
Dallas, Texas; L. W. Rivenbark, Dallas, Texas; S. E. Motte, Dallas, 
Texas; J. M. Coleman, Dallas, Texas; A. M. Robertson, Oklahoma 
City, Okla.; G. Rainey Williams, Oklahoma City, Okla. — special 
agents. 

COUNTY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF PHILA- 
DELPHIA, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1832; capital, $500,000 
C. R. Peck, president; F. W. Sargeant, vice-president; N. P. Hunt, 
treasurer; F. E. Martin, secretary; Wm. B. Burpee, secretary; Geo. A. 
French, secretary; and C. E. Chase, secretary; Oilman McAllaster, 
Victor E. Stevens, George W. Swallow, assistant secretaries. The 
company is controlled by the New Hampshire Fire, and the executive 
offices are in Manchester, N. H. 



D 



DAYTON MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Day- 
ton, O. Organized 1908; A. Cappel, president; W. R. Knaub, vice- 
president and treasurer; B. C. Coleman, secretary; W. H. Burgess, 
assistant secretary. 

DEATH ROLL OF 1921. The following is a list of persons 
connected with the fire insurance business who died in 1921: 

Adair, George W., Atlanta, Ga., died November S- 

Beach, L. C. superintendent of the automobile department of the Northern Aasuranoe 
died in September. 

Bell, Captain John H., Dasrton, Ohio, local agent, died December 16, aged 84 years. 

Block, Samuel, of the Samuel Block Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. agents, died June 7. 
aged 50 years. 

Brown, J. Herbert, Brooklyn, N. Y., died November x, aged 33 years. 

Buckman, John W., local agent and broker, Philadelphia, Pa., died May 31, of pneu* 
monia, aged 74 years. 

Brown, George Henry, well-known Boston and Charlestown agent and member of the 
Boston nrm, of Kaler, Carney, Lifi9er & Company, Boston, died at his home in 
Lexington, Mass.. March 26. He was born in Charlestown in 1864, and retired 
from ^e insurance business in 1908. 

Calkins, David C, local agent, Jacksonville, Fla., died suddenly at Waco, Texas* 
November 5. 

Case, Charles Lyman, United States manager for the London Assurance Corporation, 
died June 35. Mr. Case was born in Chelsea, Mass., in 1850. After preparation 
for college, which he had to abandon on account of ill health, and after a bridf clerk- 
ship in a Boston book store, he went in 1870 to Chicago, 111., and entered the 
insurance agency office of C. H. Case & Co. His field service began in 1872 with 
the Insurance Company of North America, and subsequently he represented the 
Pennsylvania Fire in connection with the Insurance Company of North America, 
in a similar position. In 1877 he established a local agency at St. Louis. Mc, 
but returned to Chicago in 1887 to take the western management of the London 
Assurance Corporation, and succeeded to the United States management in 1892, 
removing from Chicago to the United State's headquarters at New York. He was 
elected president of the National Board of Fire Underwriters in 1920. 

Connolly, Maurice, vice-president Dubuque Fire and Marine Insurance Company, was 
killed in an airplane accident near Washington, D. C, in June. 

Dando, T. S., insurance agent, Milford, Pa., died of heart failure July 31, aged 66 years. 

Day, Frederick W. manager of the Royal Insurance Company, eastern department. 
New York, N. Y., died in Summit ,N. J., October 15. Mr. Day was bom in 
Hertfordshire, England, May 36, 1859. He received an English preparatory 
college education. In 1876 he came to America with his parents and shortly 
after entered the service of the National Fire Insurance Company of New York, 
under the tutelage of Mr. Henry H. Hail. In 1881 he became connected with the 
Royal at its New York office, and in 1888 he was appointed its special agent for 
western New York, which position he filled for six years. In 1894 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of agencies in the New York office of the Royal, which post 
he held until, 1900, when he was promoted to the position of second assistant 
manager and in 1903, assistant manager. In April 1919, he succeeded Mr. ShalU 
cross as manager of the New York department of the Company. 

Deane, Charles E. cashier in the New York office of Fred S. James & Co., died Septem- 
ber 18, at his home in Caldwell, N. J., aged 40 years. 

DuBois, Cornelius, New York, N. Y., of the firm of Frank & DuBois, died May 33, of 
pneumonia. 

Evans, F. W., agent in Brooklyn, N. Y., for thirty years died in May aged so years. 



Fire Insurance Section 39 

Harris, Archie H., Richmond, Va., died July 30, aged 46 years. 

Hermann, Franz, well-known marine insurance agent of New York, N. Y., died in 
March following a shock of appoplezy aged s6 years. 

Hill, Adam C, Plainfield, N. J., agent for the Liverpool and London and Globe, died 
suddenly, November 13 • 

Hoover, Frank M. Httsburgh, Pa., agent, died February ai, aged 42 years. 

Hummell, Henry D., weU-known in Milwaukee insurance circles, died in September 
after a long illness, aged 66 years. 

Large^John, general manager of the Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society; at its home 
oroce, Norwich, Eng., died July aa. 

Little. John Webb, assistant manager, eastern department of the Fireman's Fund 
Insurance Company, Boston. Mass., died October 15. aged 73 years. 

Lyons, Richard, Chicago, 111., examiner for the Pennsylvania Fire, died in May. 

Mulligan, Myles M., local agent at Pawtucket, R. I., died suddenly March a6. 

NevUIe, W. C, Brooklyn. N. Y., agent, died suddenly December ao, aged 50 years. 

O'Brien, Harry J., Chicago, local agent, died suddenly October i . 

Ramsaur, Ernest B., auditor of the Westchester Fire Insurance Company, N. Y., died 
suddenly July la. 

Rennie, Gordon F., second ass i sta n t manager for the Insurance Company of North 
America. Pacific Coast department, San Francisco, Cal., died May a6 of acute indi- 
gestion. Mr. Rennie was bom at Peterboro, Ontario, Can, April ai. 1886. He was 
educated in the public schools of Kansas City, Mo., and Pueblo, Col., and at Park 
College. Parkville. Mo., and began his insurance career in 1903 as a clerk in a looed 
agency in Pueblo, Col. Four years later he became manager of the firm and in 
1 9 13 was appointed special agent for the Yorkshire and Northern Insurance Com- 
panies with headquarters at Spokane. Later he was transferred to Salt Lake 
City, as special agent in the mountain field. In 1919 he was appointed general 
agent for the Insurance Company of North America and the Alliance Insurance 
Company in British Columbia with headquarters at Vancouver, and in 19a x was 
appointed second assistant manager of the Pacific Coast department. 

Robinson, William C, vice-president and chief engineer of the Underwriters Labora- 
tcnies, Chicago, 111., died July 31* 

Small, I. F., adjuster, Albany, N. Y., died April ai. 

Spear, Theodore F., formerly assistant secretary of the Phoenix Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, Hartford, died suddenly at Asbury Park, N. J., July 24. 
Stokes. N. Nev^in, Jr., Mooristown, Pa., dieid December 3t aged 66 years. 
Stoney, William A., manager of the Underwriters Bureau of the Middle and Southern 

States and other organizations, died at his home in Mount Vernon, N. Y., June 8, 

aged 70 years. 
Thompson, John L., formerly vice-president of the Pennsylvania Fire, died Octoberas, 

aged 82 years. 
Timbcrlake, Thomas. Timberlake & Truehart, local agent at Louisville. Ky., died 

August 12, aged 77 years. 
Volk. George W., many years cashier of the Home Insurance Company, New York, 

died February aa, aged 7a years. 
Walsh, Thomas R., special agent for the United States Fire and North River Insurance 

Companies, was killed in an automobile accident near Sioux Falls, S. D., July 30. 
Webster, W. Dix, of RoUo Webster & Co., Chicago agents, was killed in an automobile 

accident in November. 

Weinmann, Louis, former secretary of the Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, San 
Francisco, CaJ., died April 35. Mr. Weinmann was born at Benicia, Cad.. August 
23, 1853. His education was received at the Missionary College of St. Augustine, 
which was one of the foremost institutions of that day. After being graduated 
with honors at the head of his class in 1874, he was appointed principal of the public 
schools of his native town. He vtras for several years president of the Board of 
Education of Solano County. He entered the drug business about this time, and 
began his first insurance experience as local agent for the Fireman's Fund. He 
removed to San Francisco in 1886, and for the succeeding two years was in charge 
of the mathematical department of the Commercial High School, but he resigned 
this position in 1888 to become special agent for the Fireman's Fund. In 1893 he 
was elected assistant secretary of the company, and secretary in January ,1900, but 
retired September i, 19x8. 



40 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Whitlock, Joseph L., former vice-president of the Glens Falls Insurance Company. 
Glens Falls, N. Y., died June i. Mr. Whitlock was born at Mendham, N.J., June 
lo, 1849. He was reared on a farm and received his education in the Chester Insti- 
tute, Chester, N. J. Practically all his business life was spent in fire insurance, 
and after a service of ten years with the Royal Insurance Company, as special 
agent and adjuster, he entered the service of the Glens Falls, and was manager 
of the company's western department for thirty-three years, with headquarters in 
Chicago. He was elected a vice-president of the company in I9i3» aod removed 
to the company's home office at Glens Falls, N. Y. He held various positions of 
trust and honor outside tjbe insurance business, and w^s active in underwriting 
organizations. He retired from active service June i, 1918, after nearly thirty- 
seven yec^' continuous service with the Glens Falls, and again took up his resi- 
dence in Chicago. He was an honorary member of the Western Union and of the 
Chicago Fire Underwriters Association. 

Woodbury, Cyrus, Ohio State agent of the Queen Insurance Company, died May 23. 

W^ood, William J., Indiana, Wis., adjuster for the Fidelity-Phoenix Insurance Com- 
pany, died in May. 

DEDHAM MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COxMPANY, Ded- 
ham, Mass. Organized 1837. James Y. Noyes, president; Theodore 
T. Marsh, secretary. 

DEED OF SETTLEMENT. In England all insurance com- 
panies formed prior to 1862 were organized under a deed of settle- 
ment which set forth the contemplated objects of the association. 
These deeds are analogous to our charters, and the phrase is used 
in our laws which compel filing a company's charter or deed of 
settlement. 

DEPOSITS, SPECIAL, REQUIRED BY STATES. A few 
states require special deposits from fire insurance companies. Sev- 
eral states, however, require deposits by other state companies if 
they have not made deposits in their home states, and by companies 
of other countries, if they have not made deposits in some other 
state of the United States. The deposit required by foreign com- 
panies is usually $200,000, and a certificate is required showing that 
such deposit has been made in some state or with United States 
trustees. Most of the states make the provisions of the reciprocal 
or retaliatory laws apply to deposits. The following is a state- 
ment of the states requiring special deposits from other than do- 
mestic fire insurance companies regardless of deposits in home states: 

Florida — Fire companies. $10,000 in bonds or cash or surety bond for taOtOOO. 

Georgia — (Acts of 1905). Fire, marine and inland insurance companies, char* 
tared by other states or foreign government, $25,000 in bonds of the United States, of 
Georgia or of any county or municipality of Georgia. 

New Mexico — By fire insurance companies, $10,000, in United States money, 
or in territorial or county bonds, or real estate in the territory of that value 
must be owned. 

New York — By fire and marine companies of other countries, $200,000. 

Virginia — By all companies (except those doing a marine business exdu* 
sively in the state) 5 per cent, of their capital in bonds of Virginia or the 
United States, or the cities or counties of Virginia, such deposits to be not 
less than $10,000, nor more than $50,000, and no single bond to be over 
$x 0,000. 



Fire Insurance Section 41 

Oregon — Fire companies. $25,000 in United States bonds, or bonds of the state 
of Oregon, or municipal, school district or county bonds issued in Oregon, if the com- 
pany has capital of $200,000 or more and a surplus of $xoo.ooo or more. A surety 
bond executed by an entered, or domestic, surety company may be accepted in the 
case of a foreign company in lieu of the above security deposit. 

The above conforms to the list of special deposit states as deter- 
mined by the National Convention of Insurance Commissioners. The 
convention's rule of credit in respect to special deposits is: "Special 
deposits in excess of correspondmg liabilities shall not be allowed as 
assets in annual statements of insurance companies." 

The above, which has been a rule for some years, and was known 
as the "Burlington rule/' was by action of the National Convention 
in 19 19 rescinded. The National Convention of Insurance Commis- 
sioners also has taken action favoring the repeal of all special deposit 
laws. 

DERRYFIELD MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Manchester, N. H. Organized 1909. Michael J. White, president; 
Louis J. Messier, secretary. 

DES MOINES RE-INSURANCE FIRE COMPANY, Des 
Moines, Iowa. Organized 1920; capital, paid in $300,000. P. J. 
Clancy, president; J. S. Rawson, vice-president; F. E. Hathorn, 
secretary; Taylor Grimes, treasurer. The company was organized as 
the Reinsurance Fire company but changed its name in 1920. 

DETROIT FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY 
of Detroit, Mich. Organized 1866; capital, $500,000. E. H. But- 
ler, president; A. H. McDonell, C. L. Andrews, vice-presidents; C. A. 
Reekie, secretary. 

DETROIT NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Detroit, Mich. Organized 1911; capital, $200,000. George K. 
March, president and general manager; A. A. Templeton, vice-presi- 
dent; F. J. Haynes, vice-president; James M. Teahen, treasurer; 
W. C. Gerow, secretary; M. E. Black, assistant secretary. 

DIRIGO MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Gor- 
ham, Maine. Incorporated 1899. W. P. Newell, president; T. F. 
Millett, secretary and treasurer and general agent; C. A. Millett, 
assistant secretary and assistant treasurer. 

DISCRIMINATION IN INSURANCE RATES, LAWS 
AGAINST. The laws of several states prohibit discrimination in the 
making of rates, or charges, for policies of hre insurance. Such legis- 
lation has been enacted within recent years, and is in most cases a 
section, or i>art of the laws providing for regulation, or supervision 
over rates or rating organizations. [See also Anti- Rebate Laws, 
life Section.] 



42 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Such laws are in force in Arkansas, New Jersey, South Carolina, 
Minnesota, Kansas, Texas, North Carolina, Washington, Michigan, 
Missouri, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Wisconsin, Indiana, Tenn- 
essee, Illinois and Vermont. 

New York adopted a law in 1922 andjegislation was pending in 
Mississippi when this record closed. 

The laws for the most part provide that no company, or rating 
bureau "shall fix or charge any rate for fire insurance upon property 
in this state which discriminates unfairly between risks in the applica- 
tion of like charges and credits, or which discriminates unfairly between 
risks of essentially the same hazards and having substantially the 
same deeree of protection against fire." The laws provide not only for 
the regulation of rates but for supervision of rating associations, or 
bureaus, and the laws of several of the states require rating bureaus to 
be maintained. The Texas law creates a rating commission, and 
maximum rates "shall be exclusively fixed and determined and promul- 
gated by the commission." The Minnesota law permits variations from 
the bureau rate but notice of such variations must be filed with the 
insurance commissioner and with the rating bureau. 

The Kansas Law, enacted in 1909, was the first of this class of 
legislation to regulate rates of premium for fire insurance to be enacted, 
and its constitutionality was contested by the fire insurance companies 
in both the state and federal courts. The higher court upheld the 
constitutionality of the Kansas law, and has suso sustainea the con- 
stitutionality of the laws of some of the other states. 

DIXIE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Greensboro, N. C 
Organized 1906; capital, $500,000. H. R. Bush, president; Dr. L. S. 
Blades, first vice-president; George Hackney, second vice-president; 
Edward G. Michaels, secretary; William G. Davis, treasurer. 

DORCHESTER MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Boston, Mass. Organized 1855. William A. Muller, president 
and treasurer; W. D. C. Curtis and Arthur T. Hatch, vice-presidents; 
Edward C. Mason, secretary; William I. Arnold and Alfred N. McLean, 
assistant secretaries. 

DUBUQUE FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Dubuque, la. Organized 1883; capital, $500,000. N. J. 
Schrup, president; M. J. McCullough, vice-president; S. F. Weiser, 
secretary; S. W. Waring, assistant secretary; C J. Schrup, treasurer. 



E 



EAGLE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Newark, N. J. Or- 
eanized 19 13; capital, $400,000. Edward M. Waldron, president; 
Jacob R. Hall and Paul Guenther, vice-presidents; Franklin W. 
Fort, secretary; James Y. Milne, assistant secretary; Louis V. Aron- 
son, treasurer; Victor E. Downer, assistant treasurer. 

EAGLE. STAR AND BRITISH DOMINIONS INSURANCE 
COMPANY, LTD., London, Eng. Organized 1904; entered the 
United States 1916. Fred S. James & Co.. United States managers, 
123 William Street, New York, N. Y. 

EASTERN AUTOMOBILE UNDERWRITERS CONFER- 
ENCE, New York, N. Y. Organized 1916. The present officers 
elected in October 1921, are: President, C. R. Pitcher, Royal; vice- 
president, H. H. Clutia, Westchester Fire; treasurer, C. E. Case, 
North British and Mercantile; secretary and manager, J. R. Moore. 

Standing Committees: Executive Committee: President, C. R. 
Pitcher, Royal; vice-president, H. H. Clutia, Westchester; treasurer, 
C. E. Case, North British and Mercantile; chairman, T. A. Kruse, 
Appleton & Cox, Inc., New York, N. Y.; vice-chairman, Wm. M. 
Ballard, Commercial Union; W. H. Koop, Great American; C. M. 
Campbell, Insurance Company of North America; R. H. Goodwin, 
Fireman's Fund; G. F. Kern, Phoenix; P. B. Sommers, American; 
J. G. Maconachy, Niagara Fire; Edmund Ely, Automobile; N. S. 
Bartow, Queen (ex-officio.) Theft Committee: chairman N. S. Bar- 
tow, Queen; W. M. Ballard, Commercial Union; Paul L. Haid, Conti- 
nental; D. F. Cox, Appleton & Cox, Attorneys; H. H. Clutia, West- 
chester. 

The conference has jurisdiction over the states of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, West Virginia, the 
District of Columbia. Plans were approved in 1922 to merge the New 
England Conference in the Eastern, which would take jurisdiction 
over the New England States, but the merger had not been completed 
when this record closed. [See National Automobile Underwriters Con- 
ference.] 

EASTERN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of Atlantic City, 
N. J. Organized 1902; capital, $200,000. John C. Slape, president; 
Walter J. Buzby, vice-president; J. S. M. Parker, second vice-presi- 
dent; J. Haines Lippincott, secretary; F. L. Bosworth, assistant 
secretary; John B. Slack, treasurer. 

EASTERN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Concord, N. H. 
Organized 1905; capital, $100,000. Charles L. Jackman, president; 
Freeman T. Jackman, secretary. 



44 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



EASTERN SHORE OF VIRGINIA FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Keller, Va. Organized 1906. Cash capital, $104,600. 
S. W. Ames, president; R. L. Ailworth, vice-president; L. C. Mears. 
secretary and managing underwriter; Thos. W. Blackstone» treas- 
urer. 

EASTERN TORNADO INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. The 
present officers, elected in October, 1921, are: President, H. H. Clutia, 
Westchester; vice-president, F. W. Sargeant, New Hampshire Fire; 
secretary and treasurer, J. A. Swinnerton, American Eagle; executive 
committee, A. G. Martin, Northern; S. E. Locke, Hartford Fire: 
J. L. Parsons, North River; John Kremer, Insurance Company of 
North America; R. H. Williams, Liverpool and London and Globe. 

EASTERN UNION. An organization of fire insurance compan- 
ies exercising jurisdiction over the states east of the Mississippi (ex- 
cepting those within the jurisdiction of the Western Union), of which 
organization only executive ofhcers or managers (in charge of not 
less than three states) are members. The headquarters of the East- 
em Union are in the city of New York. (Secretary's office. Room 601, 
84 William Street.) The officers of the Eastern Union elected or 
appointed in November 1921, are: R. M. Bissell, president; C. W. 
Bailey, vice-president; Wilfred Kurth, chairman executive committee, 
Percival Beresford, vice-chairman executive committee; B. M. Culver, 
treasurer; Sumner Rhoades, secretary'. 



iEtna. Conn. 
Agricultural. N. Y. 
Alliance. Pa. 
American. N. J. 
American Alliance. New York 
American Central. Mo. 
American National, Columbus, O. 
Atlas Assurance, Eng. 
Atlas Underwriters, New York. 
Automobile, Conn. 
Boston, Mass. 
British-America, Can. 
Caledonian. Scotland 
Caledonian-American, N. Y. 
California Fire, Cal. 
Camden Fire, N. J. 
Central Fire, Md. 
Citizens, Mo. 
City of New York. 
Colonial Fire Underwriters, Hartford. 
Columbia, New Jersey. 
Commercial Union, Eng. 
Commercial Union, New York 
Commonwealth, New York 
Connecticut, Hartford 
County Fire. Pa. 
Delaware Underwriters 
Detroit Fire and Marine, Mich. 
Detroit National, Mich. 
Eagle, Star and British Dominions. 
Eastern Underwriters, Camden. 
Employers Fire, Boston, Mass. 
English- American Unden\Titer8, Hart- 
ford. 



Equitable Fire and Marine. R. I. 

Eureka, Philadelphia. 

Exchange Underwriters, N. Y. 

Federal of New Jersey, Hartford. 

Fire and Marine Underwriters, Hart- 
ford 

Fireman's Fund. Cal. 

Fire Association. Pa. 

Franklin Fire. Pa. 

General Fire, Paris. 

Glens Falls. N. Y. 

Granite State. N. H. 

Great-American, New York 

Great Union Fire & Marine, New 
Orleans 

Hand-in-Hand Underwriters. 

Hanover, New York 

Hartford. Conn. 

Henry Clay, Ky. 

Home. New York 

Home Fire and Marine, Cal. 

Home Underwriters, N. Y. 

Hudson, New York 

Imperial Assurance, New York 

Insurance Company of North America. 
Phil. 

Interstate Fire, Detroit. 

Jersey Fire Underwriters. 

Law Union and Rock. Eng. 

Liverpool and London and Globe 

London and Lancashire, Eng. 

London and Scottish 

Massachusetts Fire and Marine, Boston 

Mechanics and Traders, La. 



Fire Insuranxe Section 



45 



Mercantile Fire and Marine Under- 
writers. Mo. 
Mercantile of America, N. Y. 
Michigan Fire and Marine, Detroit 
National Fire. Conn. 
National Security, Omaha, Neb. 
Newark Fire. N. J. 
New Hampshire 

New Haven Underwriters Agency. 
New York Underwriters Agency. 
Niagara-Detroit Underwriters. 
Niagara Fire, New York 
Northern Assurance. Eng. 
North British and Mercantile 
Northwestern Fire and Marine, Minn. 
Norwich Union, Eng. 
Old Colony, Mass. 
Orient, Conn. 
Palatine, Eng. 
Patriotic 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 
Philadelphia Underwriters. 
Phoenix Assurance, Eng. 
Phoenix. Conn. 
Providence Washington. R. I. 



Queen, New York 

Reliance, Philadelphia. 

Rochester Dep't. Great American, N. Y 

Rojral Exchaxige, Eng. 

Royal, Eng. 

Safeguard, N. Y. 

St. Paul Fire and Marine, Minn. 

Scottish Union and National 

Security, Conn. 

Springfield Fire and Marine, Mass. 

Standard Fire. Conn. 

Star, New York 

State, Liverpool 

Sterling Fire, Ind. 

Sun Insurance, Eng. 

Sun Underwriters. 

Svea Fire & Life, Sweden 

Tokio Marine and Fire, Japan. 

Union, London 

Union, Canton, China. 

Urbaine, Paris. 

Victory, Phila. 

Westchester. New York 

Western Ajnurance. Can. 



EMPLOYERS' FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 5 Doane 
Street, Boston, Mass. Organized 1921; capital, paid in, $1,000,000. 
Samuel Appleton, president; H. Belden Sly, vice-president and secre- 
tary; Franklin P. Horton, treasurer. 

ENTERPRISE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Providence, R. I. Organized 1874. 7ohn R. Freeman, president 
and treasurer; Theodore P. Bogert, secretary and assistant treasurer; 
Benj. G. Buttolph, Edwin D. ringree and Hovey T. Freeman, vice- 
presidents. 

EQUITABLE FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Providence, R. I., executive office, Hartford, Conn. Organized 
1859: capital $1,000,000. Edward Milligan, president; George M. 
Lovejoy, John B. Knox, vice-presidents; George C. Long, Jr., secretary; 
Henry P. Whitman, Edward V. Chaplin, Fred C. Gustetter, assistant 
secretaries. The company is affiliated with the Phoenix Insurance 
Company, Hartford. 

EQUITABLE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Charleston, 
S. C. Organized 1895; capital, $300,000. David Huguenin, presi- 
dent; William G. Mazyck, secretary and treasurer; R. F. Touhey, 
assistant secretary and treasurer. 

EQUITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Kansas City, Mo. 
Organized 1909; capital, $100,000. E. G. Rowley, president; Bruce 
Dcxbon, Jr., secretary and manager. 



EUREKA SECURITY FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Cincinnati, Ohio. Organized 1864; capital, $100,000. 
F. A. Rothier, president; B. G. Dawes, Jr., vice-president and secretary; 



46 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Adam Benus, assistant secretary and treasurer; F. C. Barton, assistant 
secretary. The Eureka Fire and Marine and Security Fire Insurance 
Companies, were merged in 1922 under the above title. 

EXCELSIOR INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW YORK. 
Syracuse, N. Y. Organized 1919; cash capital, $200,000. Ray B. 
Smith, president; Robert Dey, Frank T. Miller, W. H. Start, vice- 
presidents; H. S. Getman, secretary; W. T. Klink, treasurer. 

EXCESS POLICY. A class of policies written to cover prop- 
erty in excess of other insurance. They do not apply until jspecific 
insurance is exhausted. Usually it is stipulated that a certain 
amount of specific insurance shall be carried, the rates for excess 
insurance being lower than the specific rate. 



EXPLOSION INSURANCE. Insurance against damage to 
property resulting from explosions, written by fire insurance com- 
panies. The following is a statement of the business transacted in 1921. 
The figures below, however, including for some companies, premiums 
and losses under riot, civil commotion and earthquake insurance, all 
written by fire insurance companies. 

Net Loflsefl 

Company Premiumfl Incurred 

iGtna, Hartford 

Agricultural 

ATliance. Philadelphia . . . ' 

American, Newark 

American Alliance. N. Y 

American Central, St. Louis 

American Eagle. N. Y 

American, Equitable, N. Y. 

American Fire, N. Y 

American National, Ohio 

Atlas, London 

Automobile, Hartford 

Bankers & Slippers, New York 

Boston, Boston 

British America, Toronto 

Caledonian American, N. Y. 

Caledonian, London 

California, San Francisco 

Camden Fire, Camden 

Capital Fire. N. H 

Central States, la 

City of New York 

City of Pennsylvania 

Cleveland National, Cleveland 

Columbia, Jersey City 

Columbian 

Commercial Union, London 

Commercial Union, New York 

Commonwealth, N. Y 

Concordia, Milwaukee 

Conneaicut, Hartford 

Continental, New York 

Detroit Fire and Marine, Detroit 

Detroit National 

Dixie Fire 

Eagle Fire, N. J 



$80,407 


85.915 


6,8as 


30 


48,130 


7.902 


33.383 


16,97a 


6,119 


3x5 


833 


X.526 


16,917 


I.159 


4,320 


7 


3,045 


X 


619 


20 


11,963 


3.163 


72.749 


3.490 




44.290 


17,458 


1.261 


4« 


19 




2,611 




3,739 


3 


7,724 


45 


626 




105 




7.184 


407 


637 


ao 


3.359 


408 


4.200 


341 


593 


a6 


33.350 


Z40 


63 


2.174 


IO.38S 


1.263 


1,012 


27 


10,133 


389 


72,789 


7.309 


57 




450 




14.327 




2,278 


75 



FiKE Insukance Section 



47 



Company 

Eagle, Star and Britiah Dominions, London 
Equitable Fire and Marine, Providence 

Equitable. N. Y 

Farmer*, York, Pa. 

Federal, N. J 

Fidelity, Lumber N. C 

FideUty-Phcnix. N. Y 

Fire Aasociatioa, Philadelphia 
Ftremans Fund, San Frandaco 

Firemana, N. J 

Franklin, Philadelphia 

Glens Falls. N. Y 

Globe & Rutgers, N. Y 

Grain Dealers National Mutual, Indianapolis 

Great American, N. Y 

Hamilton, New York 

Hartford, Hartford 

Home. New York 

•Imperial, New York 

Importers and Exporters, N. Y. . 
Insurance Company of North America, Pa. 

Inter State, Mich 

Iowa Manufacturers 

Knickerbocker, N. Y 

Liberty. Mo 

Law Union and Rock 

Liverpocri & London & Globe, Liverpool 
London Assurance, London .... 
London Sc Lancashire, Liverpool 

MassachusetU F. & M 

Mercantile, New York .... 

Merchants, New York 

Michigan Millers. Lansing .... 
Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee 

Minneapolis F. & M 

National, Hartford 

National Uberty, N. Y 

National Union. Pittsburgh .... 

Newark, Newark 

New Brunswick, New Brunswick 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey, Newark 

New Zealand. Auckland .... 

Niagara, New York 

North Carolina Home 

Northern, London 

Northern, New York 

North River, N. Y 

Northwestern F. & M. Wis. 
Northwestern National .... 

Norwich Union, Norwich .... 

Ohio Farmers, Leroy 

CMd Colony, Boston 

Orient, Hartford 

Pacific Fire 

Palatine. London 

Palmetto 

Pennsylvania 

Peoples National. Philadelphia 

Phoenix, London 

Phoenix, Hartford 

Providence Washington, Providence . 

Queen, New York 

Reliable, Pa. * 

Reliance. Philadelphia 

Republic, Pa 



Net 


Losses 


Premiums 


Incurred 


Sa7i,S8x 


$3x6,491 


4.X5X 


X18 


489 




253 




is? 




55.572 


5.295 


33.543 


1.925 


16.255 


1,900 


X6.310 


Z5.5XO 


6,143 


606 


60,123 


22,3x8 


2x8,604 


X35,I7I 


50.866 


2,905 


X4.198 


3.807 


70i,66x 


1.393.377 


339.374 


259.669 


2,781 


371 


288 


7 


240,105 


59,x87 


5x4 


^ 


10,120 


a.276 


'151 


2 
26 


5x1 




X9.920 


2,729 


2,304 


20Z 


2.454 


J^^ 


25.305 


807 


7.349 


382 


188 


40 


6,032 


328 


2,056 


570 


23.202 


4*36 X 


5.924 


3,275 


6.394 


X,4S3 


2.605 


50 


200 


39 


3.357 


343 


2,677 




37 




63.004 

14 
X0.X50 


X.205 


2X.264 


28,797 


3,387 


X.371 




868 


x8 


7.354 


1.030 


541 




4.644 


1.987 


870 




972 




IX, 202 


29 


860 


410 


24,687 


1,743 


267 




6,537 


X,i84 


31.344 


847 


5,510 




27,287 


6,527 


241 
306 





48 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Net 

Company Premiums 

Rhode Island, Providence S2,i36 

Richmond, New York 4.S34 

Royal, Liverpool 10.833 

Royal Exchange, London 9. 547 

Savannah 896 

Scottish Union and National, Edinburgh .... 11.154 

Security, New Haven Si9S7 

South Carolina, Columbia 1.041 

Southern Home 938 

Springfield Fire and Marine, Springfield .... 57.255 

State, Liverpool 956 

Star, New York 8or 

St. Paul Fire and Marine. St. Paul 25.836 

Sterling 2,348 

Stuyvesant, N. Y 9.048 

Superior, Pittsburg 414 

Sun, London 58 

Tokio Marine and Fire, Tokio 5. 158 

Union, London 7.125 

Union, Canton 16,194 

United Firemens, Philadelphia 

United States, N. Y 48,006 

Urbaine 2,190 

Utah Home 804 

Victory Fire, Philadelphia 2,850 

Westchester, N. Y. . ' 14.340 

Western, Toronto 2,765 

Yorkshire, York 40 

Totals 1921 $3. 135. 154 



Losses 
Incurred 

S34 

4 
621 

84 

i.oso 
308 
539 

4.143 

4 

139 

S.6S3 



74 

116 

66 

16 

2.400 



195 
2.821 
1.300 

160 

$2,362,328 



F 



FACTORS AND TRADERS INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Mobile, Ala. Organized 1870; capital, $150,000. The company re- 
insured in the Federal Insurance Company of New Jersey in 1921. 

FACTORY INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. This organiza- 
tion in the eastern, middle and southeastern states, was organized in 
1890. The manager is H. L. Phillips, and H. P. Smith is assistant 
manager, and the headquarters of the association are 555 Asylum St., 
Hartford, Conn. The present officers are: President, H. A. Smith, 
National Fire, Hartford; vice-president, A. G. Martin, Northern, 
England; secretary, J. H. Vreeland, Scottish Union and National, 
Scotland; treasurer, Geo. C. Long, Jr., Phoenix, Hartford; executive 
committee, E. J. Sloan, chairman, ^ttna; C. G. Smith, Great Ameri- 
can; A. G. Mcllwaine, London and Lancashire; C. D. Dunlop, Provi- 
dence Washington; J. C. Harden, Automobile; G. G. Bulkley, Spring- 
field Fire and Marine; and the officers, ex-officio. 

The following companies are members of this association : 

iEtna. Haitfcn-d North British and Mercantile. England 

Ai^icnltural, Wate rt o w n Northern Assurance, England 

American, Newark Norwich Union, England 

American Alliance, New York Orient, Hartford 

American Central, St. Louis Palatine, England 

Atlas, England Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 

Automobile, Hartford Phoenix, Hartford 

Boston, Boston Phoenix Assurance, England 

Commercial Union, England Providence Washington, Providence 

ConzKCticut Fire of Hartford Queen, New York 

Fire Association, Philadelphia Royal, England 

Firemen's Fund, San Francisco Saint Paul. Minneapolis 

Franklin. Philadelphia Scottish Union and National, Scotland 

Great American, New York Security, New Haven 

Glens Falls. Glens Falls Springfield Fire & Marine, Springfield 

Home, New York Standard. Hartford 

Insurance Co. of N. A., Philadelphia Star, New York 

Liverpool and London and Globe, England State. England 

London and Lancashire. England Sun, England 

Mechanics & Traders, New Orleans Westchester, New York 

National Fire, Hartford Western, Canada 

New Hampshire, Manchester 

FALL RIVER MANUFACTURERS' MUTUAL INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Fall River, Mass. Organized 1870. Charles 
S. Waring, president and treasurer; Thomas E. Brayton, vice- 
president; James W. Brigham, secretary; H. Nelson G. Terry, assistant 
secretary. 

FARMERS' ALLIANCE INSURANCE COMPANY of McPher- 
son, Kansas. Organized 1888. I. F. Talbott, president; N. Good- 
sheller, vice-president; C. F. Mingenback, secretary; B. F. McGill, 
treasurer. 



50 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

FARMERS AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY. Sioux 
City, Iowa. Organized 19 19; paid in capital $100,000. The company 
re-insured in the Iowa Manufacturers Insurance Company in 192 1. 

FARMERS' FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. York, Pa. 
Organized 1853. Mutual doing business on the stock plan. Charles 
M. Kerr, president; A. S. McConkey. secretary. 

FARMERS INSURANCE COMPANY, Cedar Rapids, la. 
Organized i860; capital. $200,000. J. F. Donica. president; C. N. 
Jenkins, secretary; Ernest Sturm, treasurer. 

FARMERS' MUTUAL HAIL INSURANCE ASSOCIATION OF 
IOWA, Des Moines. Iowa. Organized 1893. Scott Rutledge. president; 
W. A. Rutledge. secretary; J. A. Benson, treasurer. Writes hail 
insurance on growing crops. 

FEDERAL FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Denver. Col. Organized 1920; capital $200,000. John Gaffy, presi- 
dent; A. W. Payne, Jr., vice-president; J. A. Rice, secretary and 
manager; D. Miller, assistant secretary; W. E. Letford. treasurer; 
F. E. McEnery. assistant treasurer. 

FEDERAL INSURANCE COMPANY. Jersey City. N. J. 
(Fire and Marine). Organized 1901 ; capital $1,000,000. Percy Chubb, 
president; Hendon Chubb, vice-president; T. J. Goddard, secretary. 

FEDERAL UNION INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago. III. 
Organized 1908; capital, $200,000. V. F. Mashek, president; A. W. 
Ellenberger, J. W. Embree, J. J. McKelvey, vice-presidents; George 
A. Morin, secretary; J. M. Kralovec, treasurer; W. C. Anderson, 
assistant secretary. 175 West Jackson Boulevard. 

FEDERATED FIRE RE-INSURANCE COMPANY, Mason 
City, Iowa. Organized 1920; capital, paid-in, $606,150. E. G. Dunn, 
president; W. S. Hazard, Jr., and A. H. Gale, vice-presidents; Walter 
C. Kuester, secretary; James A. Parden, treasurer. 

FIDELITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sumter. S. C. 
Organized 1916; capital $200,000. D. D. Moise. president; PM oses, 
secretary; S. C. Roper, treasurer; T. B. Candle and W. W. Mclver, 
assistant secretaries. 

FIDELITY-PHENIX FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of 
New York. 80 Maiden Lane. Cash capital. $2,500,000. Henry Evans, 
chairman board of directors; C. R. Street, president; S. R. Kennedy, 
second vice-president; Ernest Sturm, secretary' and treasurer; F. R. 



Fire Insurance Section 51 

Millard, Alfred Stinson, C. W. Pierce, J. P. Breeden, secretaries; M. E. 
Moriarty, W. W. Grove, L. Freeman, F. D. Hougham, assistant secre- 
taries. 

FIDELITY-UNION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Dallas, 
Texas. Organized 1920; capital $300,000. J. S. Le Clercq, president; 
G. A. Chatneld, secretary. 

FIELD & COWLES, 85 Water St., Boston, Mass. (Herbert 
Damon, George Neiley, John J. Cornish, Thos. R. Young, Harry F. 
Damon). Established 1868. Managers of the Royal Insurance 
Company, Limited, of Liverpool, England, Newark Fire Insurance 
Company, Newark, N. J. and also the Royal Indemnity Company 
of New York, for the New England States. The special agents of 
this firm for the Royal Insurance Company, Ltd., are Fred M. Johnson, 
William A. Quigley, Charles H. Field, and John F. Williams. 

FIRE ASSOCIATION OF PHILADELPHIA. The company 
had its origin as an insurance organization in a meeting of the delegates 
from the fire companies of the old Volunteer Fire Department of 
Philadelphia, held on September i, 181 7, at which the proposition 
was broached of permitting the fire companies to transact a fire insur- 
ance business as a means of securing funds for the better equipment of 
the Fire Department. At that meeting, a committee was appointed 
to secure a charter for the purpose mentioned, but the scheme was 
strenuously opposed by the fire insurance companies doing business in 
Philadelphia and the application to the Legislature was refused. By 
no means daunted, the firemen began, at once, a vigorous campaign 
in favor of the undertaking, the result of which was that the desired 
charter was granted in March, 1820. A trade mark, representing a 
Fire Plug with a section of hose entwined, was adopted, which was 
used as a house plate, some of which may still be found on old buildings 
in the City, and for the next thirty years a prosperous and steadily 
growing^ business was transacted. Then came the terrible conflagration 
of 1850 in which more than 300 buildings in Philadelphia were destroyed, 
and By which the losses of the Fire Association far exceeded its gross 
assets. But it was not thus to be annihilated. Among the men beu>ng- 
ing to that old Fire Department were those of social standing and 
financial strength; they discounted their notes in bank and every 
claim was paid promptly. All went well, thereafter, for the Fire 
Association, until 1 871, when the old Fire Department went out of 
existence by the establishment by the Legislature of the paid Fire 
Department of Philadelphia. 

But that was not to be the end of the Fire Association of Phila- 
delphia. Prompt measures were taken, the engine houses and appara- 
tus were sold and a capital of $500,000 was secured; a new charter 
was obtained from the Legislature, business was resumed, and in the 
following year (1872) the reorganized and rejuvenated Fire Association 
of Philadelphia entered the agency field-business which had previously 



52 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

been confined to the City of Philadelphia. The record of the company 
from that time to the present has been substantially one of continuous 
growth and corresponding strength. It is represented today by estab- 
lished agencies in every city and every important town in the United 
States, in two of the Canadian Provinces and in Hawaii. It has received 
$140,000,000 in premiums and paid $77,000,000 in settlement of 
losses, in addition to expenses of operation, agents' commissions, 
taxes, including about $4,000,000 in taxes to the different States for 
the privilege of giving their citizens protection from loss by fire, and 
it has paid 40 per cent, in dividends on the par value of its stock for 
forty-two years; at the same time, it has increased its capital stock 
from $500,000 to $1,000,000 and its assets from little more than the 
$500,000 capital with which it began operations in 1871 to $15,000,000, 
with a net surplus in excess of all liabilities of over $4,000,000. 

The growth of the company in recent years has been especially 
noteworthy; in fact, somewhat more than one-half of its entire premium 
receipts, since the charter was granted in 1871, has been obtained 
during the past fifteen years. Tne annual premium income has been 
doubled in the past nine years. At the same time, the ratio of losses 
paid to premium receipts, which averaged 57.13 per cent, during the 
thirty-three years to the close of 1904, was reduced to 53.17 per cent, 
for the past fifteen years, and the latter period included the heavy 
losses incurred by the San Francisco holocaust; for the past three 
years, the ratio has been only 44.77 per cent., and for the year 1919 
It was down to 43 per cent. In addition to fire insurance, the company 
writes marine, motor vehicles, windstorm, and tornado and sprinkler 
leakage insurance. 

The officers of the Fire Association of Philadelphia are: Elihu C. 
Irvin, president; J. W. Cochran, vice-president; John B. Morton, 
second vice-president; Marshall G. Garrigues, secretary and Richard 
N. Kelly, Jr., assistant secretary. 

FIRE, MARINE AND LIABILITY BROKERS ASSOCIATION 
OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK. Inc., New York, N. Y. Organized 
1898. The present officers, elected in April 1922, are: R. Henry Depew, 
president; Reuben E. Kipp, vice-president; F. W. Stillman, treasurer; 
Berthold M. Harris, secretary; directors: (1923) Everett U. Crosby, 
John A. Eckert, Carlton O. Pate, R. C. Rathbone, 2nd, and F. W. 
Stillman. (1924) J. C. Ammermuller, R. Henry Depew, Reuben E. 
Kipp, Frank E. Mendes and Malcolm B. Dutcher. (1925) Francis C. 
Carr, Frederick S. Little, George P. Nichols, Alexander M. Silvey, 
George C. Stevens. 

FIRE INSURANCE CLUB OF MILWAUKEE, Milwaukee, 
Wis. Organized in October 1^19, for social and educational purposes. 
The present officers elected m 1921 are: J. R. Sullivan, Wisconsin 
Inspection Bureau, president; R. J. Lewis, Northwestern National, 
vice-president; George Young, treasurer; secretary. Miss M. Pheil; 
librarian, Miss Bessie Wood. 



Fire Insurance Section 53 

FIRE INSURANCE FIELD CLUB of Maryland, Delaware and 
District of Columbia, Baltimore Md. Organized in January 1920 as 
the Fire Prevention Association; present title adopted in May 192 1. 
The officers are: John G. Rolker, National Liberty, president; F. I. 
Mosher, Home, N. Y., vice-president; Irving Rolker, National Liberty, 
secretary and treasurer; Executive Committee, R. M. August, W. H. 
Wagner, E. J. Richardson, chairman; and J. E. Smith, Secretary's 
office, Franklm building, corner Baltimore Street and Guilford Avenue, 
Baltimore. 

FIRE INSURANCE SALVAGE CORPS OF BROOKLYN. 
N. Y. This organization was authorized by act of the legislature 
.of New York of 1895, to be maintained by a tax upon the premiums 
of fire insurance companies doing business in Brooklyn. The first 
meeting of the companies comprising the corporation was held June 
28, 1895, and the following officers were elected: George M. Coit, 
president; Hugo Schumann, vice-president; William T. Lane, treas- 
urer; Britton C. Thorn, secretary. Britton C. Thorn was ap- 
pointed superintendent, and the corps went into service December 
16, 1895. There are three stations, motor equipp>ed and a force of 90 
officers and men. James O. Schwank is superintendent. The directors 
of the Corps are: E. E. Pearce, president; J. G. Milliard, vice-president; 
W. L. Chambers, treasurer; C. L. Tyner, secretary; C. V. Meserole, 
B. M. Culver, Chas. H. Post, Wallace Reid, James Marshall, A. G. 
Martin, Otto E. Schaefer, Whitney Palache, E. G. Snow, Lyman 
Candee. 

FIRE INSURANCE SOCIETY OF NEWARK, N. J., was 
organized in December, 1909, for the purpose of studying fire 
hazards and prevention and for educational and social work. Offi- 
cers were elected as follows: President, George C. Plume; vice- 
president, Albert H. Hassinger; secretary and treasurer, John E. 
Mayer. The present officers, elected in December, 1921, are: Walter 
R. Pruden, president; James E. Garabrant, vice-president; Stewart C. 
Smith, second vice-president; Miss Harriet Pearson 701-702 Union 
Building, Newark, N. J., secretary and treasurer. 

FIRE INSURANCE SOCIETY OF PHILADELPHIA, 232 South 
Fourth Street,. Philadelphia. Pa. Organized 1901; Incorporated 1909; 
The society was organized to aid members in studying questions arising 
in connection with insurance, and fire protection and prevention. 
The officers, elected at the annual meetmg in January, 1921, are: 
Henry Penn Burke, president; James A. McGann and Edward Man- 
euvre, vice-presidents; Charles J. Fitzgerald, secretary; Harold K. 
Reming^ton, treasurer; Robert P. Bishop, Richard Cross, J. B. Council- 
man, Malcoln B. Foard, Mark D. Goodwin, Thomas T. Nelson, Harry 
F. Rjes, Edward Troxell, executive committee. 

FIREMAN'S FUND INSURANCE COMPANY of San 
Francisco. Organized May, 1863. Its present officers are: J. B. 
Levison, president; John Marshall, Jr., vice-president; Herbert P. 
Blanchard, secretary; John S. French, C. C. Wright, Frank G. White, 
assistant secretaries; A. W. Follansbee, Jr., marine secretary; Thos. 
M. Gardiner, treasurer. Edward Randall, general auditor. Its capital 



54 Cyclopbdia of Insurance 

was originally $200,000, increased in 1865 to $500,000. In the Chicago 
and Boston fires the company paid over three-quarters of a million 
dollars, at which time an assessment of 50 f>er cent, was collected and 
its capital was temporarily reduced to $300,000, but increased in 1880 
to $7^0,000, and again increased in 1886 to $1,000,000. In the San 
Francisco conflagration of 1906, all the company's books and papers 
were burned in the destruction of its home office building. An assess- 
ment of 300 per cent, was levied on its stockholders and claims exceed- 
ing eleven million dollars settled without any records to refer to. 

On January 10, 190^, the paid-up capital was temporarily in- 
creased to $1,600,000 and in January, 1909, permanently adjusted to 
$1,500,000. 

On December 10, 19 19 the shareholders of the company authorized 
an increase in capital stock to $3,000,000 to be fully paid in April i, 
1920. Including additional capital of $1,500,000 and surplus of $750,000 
the company had on April i, 1920, cash capital $3,000,000. Assets 
January i, 1922 $21,871,750.22; reserves $11,374,350.63 and surplus 
to policy holders $7,312,900.83. 

FIRE MARSHAL DEPARTMENTS, CHIEF OFFICERS 
OF. The following is a list of state officials having charge of the in- 
vestigation of fires. [See also Fire Marshal Laws.) 
States Names Official Residences 

Alabama W. J. Williams Montgomery. 

Arkansas (3) Bruce T. Bullion Little Rock. 

Connecticut (i)Thomas F. Egan Hartford. 

District of Columbia Philip W. Nicholson Washington. 

Illinois John G. Gamber Springfield. 

Indiana Newton T. Miller Indianapolis. 

Iowa J. A. Tracy Des Moines. 

Kansas L. T. Hussey Topeka. 

Kentucky (a) J. A. Steltenkamp Louisville. 

Louisiana Conrad J. Lecoq New Orleans. 

Maine (2) G. Waldron Smith Augusta. 

Maryland (2) Thomas J. Keating Baltimore. 

Massachusetts (4) John C. Neal Boston. 

Michigan (2) L. T. Hands Lcmsing. 

Minnesota (2) Gus Lindquest St. Paul. 

Mississippi T. A. Brown Jackson. 

Montana (8) R. E. Munstrum Helena. 

Nebraska (7) C. E. Hartford Lincoln. 

North Carolina (2) Stacy W. Wade Raleigh. 

North Dakota (a) H. L. Reade Bismarck. 

Ohio H. A. Dykeman Columbus. 

Oklahoma John Connolly Oklahoma City. 

Oregon A. C. Barber Salem. 

Pennsylvania CM. Wilhelm Harrisburg. 

South Carolina (2) John J. McMahon Cross Hill. 

South DakoU W. N. Van Camp Pierre. 

Tennessee (b) Arthur Rogers Nashville. 

Texas (9)S. W. Inglish Austin. 

Vermont (2) Joseph G. Brown Montpelier. 

Virginia (2) Joseph Button Richmond. 

West Virginia (3)C. L. Topping Charleston. 

Wisconsin (2) Piatt Whitman Madison. 

I Chief of State Police. 2 Insurance commissioner. 3 Appointed by State Auditor 
and ex-officio insurance commissioner. 4The department is known as the "Fire Mar- 
shals' Department of the District Police" and the official title is "Deputy chief of the 
district police." 7Deputy Fire Commissioner. 8 Appointed by Insurance Commission. 
9 Fire Marshal of the State Insurance Commission, (a) Marshal is appointed by gover- 
nor but is under control of the Insurance Department, (b) Fire Prevention Com- 
missioner. 



Fire Insurance Section 55 

FIRE MARSHAL LAWS. Laws establishing the office of state 
fire marshal were adopted in Massachusetts and Maryland in 1894, 
which appears to have been the first legislation providing for investi- 
gation of fires by a distinct state department, or as a function of the 
insurance departments. Laws, providing for the investigation of fires 
in some manner are now in force in the following states: 

Alabama (i897f 1909. and 1911); Arkansas (19x7); Connecticut (1901. 1903. 
and Z915); Iowa (191 1); Illinois (1909); Indiana (19x3); Kansas (1917); Kentucky 
(1906. 1912, and 1916); Louisiana (1904) ; Massachusetts (1894); Maryland (1894). 
(1906. 1910. and 19x6); Maine; Miasissippi (1902); Minnesota (1905 and 19x3): 
Montana (191Z); Michigan (191X); and (1915): New Hampshire; North Carolina 
(1899. 190X, 1903. and Z915); Nebraska (1909): North Dakota (1913); Ohio (1900) 
and 1902); Oregon (191 7); Pennsylvania (1895 and 191 x); Rhode Island; South 
Carolina (1904); South Dakota (1907): Tennessee (1907, 19x5); Texas; Virginia 
(1906); West Virginia (1909 and 191 x); Wisconsin (1907 and 19x3). 

[For a summary of the provisions and text of laws, see Cyclopedia 
for 1913-14 and 1915* 1916 and 1917, and Taxation. Also Fire 
Marshal departments, chief officers of.] 

An amendment to the South Carolina law gives the commissioner, 
or his deputy, power in the investigation of supposed incendiary fires 
" to search for property or goods supposed to have been removed from 
the building burned." 

An act passed by the Vermont legislature in 191 7, transferring 
powers imposed on the secretary of state and state treasurer in respect 
to insurance, also makes the insurance commissioner ex-officio fire 
marshal, and gives him power to investigate all fires and to subpoena 
witnesses for such purpose. 

The Indiana law was amended in 1917; the principal amendment 
providing for periodic inspections of cities of the first, second, third 
and fourth class by uniformed firemen and giving the marshal's depu- 
ties and assistants power to hold inquiries and administer oaths. 
Arkansas also adopted a fire marshal law in 191 7. 

The Kansas legislature in 19 17 enacted a fire marshal law. Under 
the act the marshal is appointed by the governor for a term of four 
years. The marshal is empowered to apix>int a deputy marshal, and 
such office assistants and additional deputies as may be necessary, and 
such appointees have all the powers of deputy marshals. The mar- 
shal may also appoint or employ state inspectors, '* known to be skilled 
in the inspection of buiidmgs and contents," and such inspectors 
have all the powers of deputy marshals, and among other duties the 
inspectors shall report to the marshal any dangerous conditions found. 

FIRE MARSHAL'S ASSOCIATION OF NORTH AMERICA 
was organized in 1906 with D. S. Creamer, state fire marshal of Ohio, 
president, and Edward Peterson, fire marshal of Minnesota, secretary 
and treasurer. The membership consists of the fire marshal, fire 
commissioner or other state officers charged with the duty of investi- 
gating fires of the different states, and the objects of the association 
are the exchange of experiences and statistics, and the promotion of 
efficiency of office. The present officers, elected at the annual meeting 
in Toronto, Canada in 1921, are: Homer Rutledge, Lansing, Mich., 



56 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

president; Newman T. Miller, Indianapolis, Ind., vice-president; 
L. T. Hussey, Topeka, Kansas, secretary and treasurer; J. A. Tracy, 
Des Moines, Iowa, W. N. Van Camp, Pierre, S. Dakota, and the officers, 
executive committee. 

FIREMEN AND MECHANICS INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Indianapolis, Ind. Ors^anized 1850: capital, $150,000. Edson T. Wood, 
president; H. W. Watkins, secretary. 

FIREMEN'S INSURANCE COMPANY. Newark, N. J. Or- 
ganized 1855; capital, $1,250,000. Daniel H. Dunham, president; 
Neal Bassett, vice-president; John Kay, vice-president and treasurer; 
A. H. Hassinger, secretary; J. K. Meldrum, assistant secretary. 

FIREMEN'S MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Provi- 
dence, R. I. Organized 1854. Frederick W. Moses, president and 
treasurer; Charles G. Easton, vice-president and secretary; Freder- 
ick T. Moses, vice-president and engineer; Carlos F. Hunt, assistant 
secretary. 

FIRE PATROL, PROTECTIVE DEPARTMENTS, AND 
SALVAGE CORPS. The fire patrols of the United States arc a 
monument to the enlightened self-interest of the fire underwriters. 
They have made them what they are, and in nearly all cases they 
support them. The interest that they have in the preservation of 
property is certainly a great incentive toward efficiency, and it is 
probable that, no matter whether city governments undertake the 
control and maintenance of the salvage corps or not, insurance 
companies are likely to augment any action of cities toward the 
preservation of property from fire loss to the fullest extent. 

These organizations exist in the cities of Albany, N. Y.; Balti- 
more, Boston, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Chicago, Cleveland, Dayton, 
Ohio ; Denver, Duluth, Grand Rapids, Kansas City, Janes ville, Wis. ; 
Louisville, Lowell, Memphis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Mobile, 
Newark, N. J,; New Orleans, New York, Omaha, Philadelphia, 
Providence, Rochester, San Francisco, St. Louis, St. Paul and 
Worcester. They are established by law, and, as a rule, are main- 
tained and controlled by the local organization of fire underwriters. 
(See Boston Protective Department, New York Fire Patrol, Chicago 
Patrol, and Fire Insurance Salvage Corps of Brooklyn.) 

FIRE REASSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW YORK, estab- 
lished 1920. Capital $400,000. B. N. Carvalho, president; C. F. 
Sturhahn, vice-president; B. Spycket, vice-president; T. B. Boss, 
secretary and treasurer. Does fire and marine re-insurance only. 
Executive office, Hartford, Conn. 

FIRE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF THE 
NORTHWEST. This association had its birth in the city of Day- 
ton, Ohio, February 22, 1871, and was organized as "The Associa- 



Fire Insurance Section 



57 



tion of State, General, and Adjusting Fire Insurance Agents of the 
Northwest." [For further information regarding the organization, 
names of the organizers, and the early meetings, see Cyclopedia 
for 1900-1901.] 

The following is a list of the officers of the association since 
its organization in 1871: 



Terms 
Ending. 


Presidents. 


Vice-Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


1871 


J. S. Reed. 


R. L. Douglas. 


Charles E. Bliven. 


1873 


A. C. Blodgett. 


Charles W. Marshall. 


Charles E. Bliven. 


1873 


Robert J. Smith. 


S. Lumbard. 


Charles E. Bliven. 


1874 


Robert J. Smith. 


S. Lumbard. 


Charles E. Bliven. 


1875 


Charles W. Marshall. 


J.O.Wilson. 


Charles E. Bliven. 


1876 


J.O.Wilson. 


Benjamin Vernor. 


Charles E. Bliven. 


1877 


Charles £. BUven. 


P. P. Heywood. 


George W. Hayes. 


1878 


I. S. Blackwelder. 


Jasper M. Dresser. 


George W. Hayes. 


1879 


George W. Adams. 


WUliam B. Cornell. 


George W. Hayes. 


z88o 


Azd W. Spalding. 


A. J. Waters. 


George W. Hayes. 


i88x 


Jasper M. Dresser. 


Edward F. Rice. 


George W. Hayes. 


1883 


William B. ComeU. 


J. N. Neuberger. 


George W. Hayes. 


X883 


James M. DeCamp. 


C.W. Potter. 


George W. Hayes. 


1884 


Cyrus K. Drew. 


T.J. Zollers. 


J. C. Griffiths. 
J. C. Griffiths. 


1885 


J. L. Whitlock. 


T. H. Smith. 


1886 


William F. Fox. 


A. H. Hobbs. 


J. C. Griffiths. 
J. C. Griffiths. 


X887 


Abram Williams. 


W. R. Freeman. 


1888 


Isaac W. Holman. 


J. C. Myers. 


J. C. Griffiths. 


X889 


John Howley. 
Edwin A. Simonds. 


W. T. Clark. 


J. C. Griffiths. 


1890 


Eugene V. Munn. 


J. C. Griffiths. 


1891 


Henry C. Eddy. 


Byron G. Stark. 
W. P. Harford. 


Eugene V. Munn. 


1893 


Howard P. Gray. 


Eugene V. Munn. 


1893 


Eugene Harbeck. 


Ernest L. Allen. 


Eugene V. Munn. 


1894 


H. Clay Stuart. 


George M. Lovejoy. 


Eugene V. Munn. 


i89S 


W. J. Littlejohn. 


H. C. Alverson. 


Eugene V. Munn. 


1896 


Geo. M. Lovejoy. 


Henry T. Lamey. 


Eugene V. Munn. 


1897 


George H. Moore. 


S. E. Cate. 


Eugene V. Munn. 


1898 


J. H. Lenehan. 


John E. Davies. 
W. R. Townley. 


D. S. Wagner. 


1899 


Frank H. Whitney. 


D. S. Wagner. 


1900 


Otto E. Greely. 


Cyrus Woodbury. 


D. S. Wagner. 


Z90X 


P. D. McGregor. 


George W. Hayes. 


D. S. Wagner. 


1902 


H. N. Wood. 


Fred W. Williams. 


D. S. Wagner. 


1903 


John Marshall, Jr. 
H. H. Fieidly. 


H. R. Louden. 


D. S. Wagner. 


1904 


F. W. Bowers. 


D. S. Wagner. 


1905 


T. S. Gallagher. 
Robert S. Odell. 


S. D. Andms. 


Nelson E. Briggs. 


Z906 


D. W. Andrews. 


Nelson E. Briggs. 


1907 


Wm. L. King. 


C. G. Meeker. 


Nelson E. Briggs. 


1908 


Carroll L. De WiU, 


W. 0. Chamberlain. 


Nelson E. Briggs. 


1909 


H. N. Kelsey. 


Neal C. Rowland. 


Nelson E. Briggs. 


Z9X0 


Claude G. Dietrick. 


G. E. Rediield. 


Nelson E. Briggs. 


191 X 


Alexander R. Monroe. 


John H. Gray. 


Nelson E. Briggs. 


Z9X3 


M.W.Van Valkenburg. 


H. W. Stephenson. 


Guy A. Richards. 


19 13 


W. R. Townley. 


K S. Freeman. 


Guy A. Richards. 


19 14 


Daniel W. Andrews. 


C. N. Gorham. 


Guy A. Richards. 


191s 


B. L. West. 


John Fitzgerald. 


Guy A. Richards. 


I916 


A. A. Maloney. 


A. E. Henry. 


Guy A. Richards. 


I917 


J. Georee Stauffer. 


W. E. Atwater. 


Guy A. Richards. 


X918 


Frank G. Snyder. 


J. M. Larmore 


Guy A. Richards. 


1919 


Preston T. Kelsey. 


H. V. Myers. 


W. P. Robertson 


1930 


Everett T. Tanner. 


B. T. Duffy. 


W. P. Robertson. 


I92I 


Charles H. Coates. 


William T. Benallack 


Robert C. Hosmer. 


1923 


E G Pbelnhs. 


Charles J. Richman. 


Robert C. Hosmer. 



58 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

The fifty-second meeting of the Association was held in Chicago, 
111., October 5 and 6, 192 1. The meeting however was designated the 
"fiftieth annual meeting," as it marked the golden anniversary of the 
organization. President Coates called the meeting to order and in his 
address referred to the affairs of the association and its influence on the 
business during its fifty years of educational activity, and discussed 
briefly present conditions and tendencies in the business. Speaking of 
publicity, he said that while the campaign conducted through the 
press had reached a proportion of the reading public the local agent 
could do more to enlighten the general public than could be expected 
from newspaper advertising. 

The annual address was delivered by Russell W. Osbom, San 
Francisco, general agent of the North British and Mercantile insurance 
company, whose subject was "The Hidden Pool," The address was a 
warning against the growth of socialism, not so much against its theor>' 
as in its application to practical affairs and governmental relations, 
and the speaker made an earnest plea for a larger and broader educa- 
tion. The underwriter must himself clear the public mind of the 
doubts and misunderstandings regarding underwriting theory and 
practice. 

Other addresses were delivered as follows: "Review of Fifty 
Years," Thomas R. Weddell, Insurance Post, Chicago, III.; "Expensive 
Economics in City Fire Service," Allen D. Albert, Paris, 111.; "Around 
The World," Howard P. Moore, New York, N. Y., Manager, American 
Foreign Insurance Association; "Looking Both Ways," David O. 
Stine, Reedsburg, Wis., state agent St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company; "Naturalization and Nationalizing the Alien," Evan A. 
Evans, Chicago, judge of the United States circuit court. 

Reports from the secretary and treasurer reviewing the affairs of 
the Association, and from standing committees and the librarian were 
also presented. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, E. S. Phelps, state agent 
Insurance Company of North America, Burlington, la.; vice-president, 
Charles Richman, American of Newark, Tipton, Ind.; secretary, 
Robert C. Hosmer, National Liberty, Chicago, 111.; treasurer, A. S. 
Jacobs, Queen, Chicago, 111. The following were elected directors for 
three years; Junius M. Clark, Indianapolis; Royal A. Buckman, 
Chicago, and VV. H. demons, Cincinnati. Other members of the Board 
are: Everett T. Tanner, Decatur, 111.; K. L. Walling, Des Moines, 
Iowa and C. D. Livingston, Detroit, Mich., Preston T. Kelsey, New 
York, N. Y.; H. E. Boning, Milwaukee, Wis.; George E. Leach, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; (elected 1920, three years.) 

FIRE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF THE 
NORTHWEST, LIBRARY OF THE. For many years after the 
formation of the association in 1871 books and pamphlets given to 
it by members and friends accumulated, but, no money being appro- 
priated for their caretaking, they were stored wherever it mi)(ht 
be convenient and were practically inaccessible to members. In 
time the annually published proceedings of the association meet- 
ings, volumes of insurance periodicals, and gifts of their insurance 



Fire Insurance Section 59 

libraries by deceased members were added. Three or four years 
prior to 1893 these treasures were deposited in the basement of the 
Woman's Temple in Chicago, under the custodianship of Mr. R. M. 
Buckman. 

In the autumn of 1893 Mr. R. M. Buckman, representing the 
association, made efiForts to secure an appropriation and the estab- 
lishment of a permanent library room, and at the annual meeting 
of the association that year a committee composed of Messrs. 
George W. Hayes, H. C. Eddy and George W. Adams, together 
with the president and secretary, was appointed with authority to 
act in the matter. It resulted in the renting, for a term of years, 
of Room 225 in the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, which 
was appropriately fitted up with library furniture, and the books 
and other literary belongings of the association were placed therein. 

In 1907 the library committee deemed it necessary, owing to 
the fact Uiat the books of the association were accumulating, but of 
little or no benefit to the members, to secure a room or rooms 
where the library could be installed and at the same time be made 
the headquarters for members from out of town. With this pur- 
pose in view, Mr. John Marshall, chairman of the library committee, 
secured quarters in the Rookery Building, and in October, 1908, the 
library was moved and a librarian placed in charge. At this time 
the library contained less than 900 volumes and the books were more 
of historical interest than otherwise. In 191 1, on the completion 
of the new Insurance Exchange Building, the Chicago Board of 
Underwriters granted a space on the twenty-first floor for the use 
of the combined libraries of the Fire Underwriters* Association of 
the Northwest, the Fire Insurance Club of Chicago and the Board 
of Underwriters. It is now located in the heart of the fire in- 
surance interests and easily accessible to students of the busi- 
ness. From a comparatively small beginning the library has now 
some 1,500 volumes besides numerous pamphlets and files of cur- 
rent magazines. The library is open during office hours every 
business day of the year. 

Emma L. Quackenbush is librarian, and the library committee of 
the Fire Underwriters Association is as follows: Ralph B. Ives, chair- 
man; H. H. Glidden, Royal A. Buckman, T. M. Hogan and W. C. 
Boom. 

FIRE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF THE PA- 
CIFIC, composed of general and special agents, managers, as- 
sistant managers, and independent adjusters of fire insurance 
companies doing business on the Pacific coast and having its head- 
quarters at San Francisco, was organized in November, 1875, and was 
the outgrowth of the Virginia City, Nev., fire of October, 1875. [For 
an account of the formation of this association see the Cyclopedia of 
Insurance 1893-94.] 

Officers are: Louis H. Elarle, president; Charles J. Richman, vice- 
president; J. Hunter Harrison, secretary and treasurer; J. P. Moore, 
assistant secretary and librarian. 



60 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

FIRE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATIONS. GENERAL, 
SECTIONAL AND STATE. The list of associations of fire under- 
writers is a long one, and includes associations that are national in 
scope, also several sectional associations, and numerous state and 
local organizations. Their objects are as diversified and range from 
supervising and rating organizations to those that are purely social 
and educational in their activities. National, sectional, state, and the 
more important local associations will be found in alphabetical order 
in this volume. [See also Cyclopedia for 1913-14, and earlier volumes.] 

m 

FIRE UNDERWRITERS ELECTRICAL BUREAU, New 
York, N. Y. The bureau was organized March 31, 1904, by fire insur- 
ance companies: " For the encouragement of standard construction 
and protection in electrical traction and electric light and jxjwer prop- 
erties, and for systematic inspection of such properties." 

Elliott Middleton, i Liberty Street, New York, is secretary' and 
treasurer of the bureau and the executive committee is composed of 
representatives of the following companies: Great American, Liverpool 
and London and Globe, North British and Mercantile, National 
Fire, Home, Hartford Fire and JEtna.. 

The following is the membership roll: 

iGtna. Hartford New York Underwriters Agency. N. Y. 

American. Newark Niagara Fire. New York. 

Atlas. England North British and Mercantile. England 

Automobile, Hartford. Conn. Northern Assurance. England 

Boston, Boston, Mass. Norwich Union, England 

Citizens, of Missouri Orient. Hartford 

Commercial Union, England Phoenix, London 

Fire Association, Philadelphia Phcenix. Hartford 

Fireman's Fund, California Providence Washington, Providence 

Great American. New York Queen, New York 

Glens Falls, Glens Falls Rochester German Underwriters Agency 

Hanover Fire, New York Royal Exchange. England 

Hartford Fire, Hartford Royal. Liverpool, England 

Home. New York Security. New Haven 

Ins. Co. of North America, Philadelphia Springfield Fire and Marine, Springfield 

Liverpool and London and Globe, England Sun. London, England 

London and Lancashire Fire, England Scottish Union and National, Scotland 

National Fire. Hartford Westchester Fire, New York 

New Hampshire Fire, New Hampshire 

FIRST REINSURANCE COMPANY, 750 Main St., Hartford, 
Conn. Organized 1912; capital, $500,000. Heber H. Stryker presi- 
dent. Samuel Ludlow, Jr., vice-president and secretary. 

FIRST RUSSIAN INSURANCE COMPANY, Petrograd. 
Russia. Paul £. Rasor, United States manager, New York. 

FITCHBURG MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Fitchburg, Mass. Organized 1847. Lincoln R. Welch, president* 
J. Lovell Johnson, vice-president; Frederick W. Porter, secretary. 



Fire Insurance Section 61 

FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE AGENTS 
was organized at a meeting held in Tampa in November, 1904. Officers 
were elected as follows: President, Walker Anderson, rensacola; 
secretary and treasurer, Marion Prince, Tampa. The present officers, 
elected at the annual meeting in April, 1921, are: Clifford A. Payne, 
Jacksonville, president; B. D. Cole, West Palm Beach, vice-president; 
Wallace Lamar, Pensacola, second vice-president; J.^ C. McKay, 
Tampa, third vice-president; F. H. Elmore, Jacksonville, secretary 
and treasurer. 

FRANKLIN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, of Phil- 
adelphia. Chartered 1829; capital, $1,000,000. Elbridge G. Snow, 
president; Frederic C. Buswell, vice-president; Clarence A. I^udlum, 
vice-president; Charles L. Tyner, vice-president and treasurer; Wil- 
fred Kurth, vice-president and secretary; Harold V. Smith, secretary; 
Joseph A. Steel, assistant secretary; Vincent C. Wyatt, assistant 
secretary. Control of this company was acquired by interests identi- 
fied with the Home Insurance Company of New York in 191 5. 

FRANKLIN MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Providence, R. I. Organized 1854. Joseph G. Henshaw, president; 
Richard Bowen, secretary. 

FUSO MARINE AND FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Tokio, 
Japan. Entered the United States in 1920. Carpinter & Baker, United 
States attorneys and marine managers, 3 South William Street, New 
York. Wm. H. Kenzel Co., New York, managers fire branch. 



Established 1870 



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G 



GENERAL ADJUSTMENT BUREAU was organized at a 
meeting of company officers held in New York in November, 
1905. It is an incorporated body, and its purposes are to adjust 
losses and to have general charge over adjustment of losses through- 
out the east. Frank Lock, manager of the Atlas, was elected president 
and C. D. Dunlop, vice-president of the Providence- Washington, vice- 
president. An executive committee was also elected as follows: E. H. A. 
Correa, Home, chairman; Henry Evans, Continental; Edward Milli- 
gan, Phcenix; Henry W. Eaton, Liverpool and London and Globe; 
and C. F. Shallcross, Royal. W. J. Greer is general manager of the 
bureau; Wilfred Garretson, assistant general manager. At the annual 
meeting in December 1921, C. D. Dunlop, Providence- Washington 
was elected president; C. F. Shallcross, Royal, vice-president; and N. 
B. Bassett, secretary; directors, C. D. Dunlop, Geo. M. Lovejoy, 
Cecil F. Shallcross, John B. Morton, F. C. Buswell, Chas. G. Smith, 
F. R. Millard, Percival Beresford, Whitney Palache. Office, 80 Maiden 
Lane, New York, N. Y. 

GENERAL AGENTS. The title of general agent has no special 
application or definition, but as a rule, a general agent has jurisdic- 
tion over a designated territory, though in some cases he may have 
jurisdiction over a company's entire field of operations. In fire insur- 
ance a general agent is practically the underwriting manager for a 
given territory and appoints local and special agents. 

GENERAL FIRE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF PARIS, 
Paris, France. Fred. S. James & Co., New York, United States 
managers, 123 William Street. 

GENERAL INSPECTION COMPANY, Minneapolis, Minn. 
This is a rating organization, and operates in Minnesota and North 
and South Dakota. Walter I. Fisher is manager and Charles J. Lund, 
assistant manager; J. B. McLeran, Duluth; Edgar Pritchard, Minne- 
apolis; Edw. A. Ritt, St. Paul; H. I. Howe, Winona, are district 
managers. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Greensboro, N. C. Organized 1903; capital, $200,000. Formerly 
Southern Underwriters, present title adopted in 192 1. A. W. McAlis- 
ter, president and treasurer; R. G. Vaughn, first vice-president; A. M. 
Scales, second vice-president; C. A. Mebane, secretary; W. L. Sharpe, 
assistant secretary. 



64 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

GEORGIA HOME INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, Colum- 
bus, Ga. Oi^anized 1859; capital, $200,000. Rhodes Browne, 
president; Dana Blackmar, vice-president and secretary; A. P. Bugg, 
treasurer; George Klump, assistant secretary. 

GEORGIA LOCAL UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION 
was organized in March, 1898, with F. W. Cole, president, and 
M. P. Calloway, secretary. At the annual meeting, held in May 1921, 
the following officers were elected: E. B. Harrold, Macon, president; 
E. A. Erwin, Atlanta, vice-president; Harrold Eve, Augusta, second 
vice-president; Dana Blackmar, Jr., Macon, secretary and treasurer. 

GERMAN-AMERICAN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Washington, D. C. Organized 187^; capital, $100,000. Chas. 
Schafer, president; F. A. Blundon, vice-president; Julius A. Mae- 
del, treasurer; H. H. Bergmann, secretary; G. M. Emmerich, assist- 
ant secretary. 

GIRARD FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1853; capital, $500,000. Henry M. 
Gratz, president; Daniel H. Dunham, Neal Bassett, vice-presidents; 
Davis G. Vaughan, secretary; Albert H. Hassinger, Charles J. Fitz- 
gerald, assistant secretaries; John Kay, treasurer. The company is 
controlled by the Firemen's Insurance Company of Newark. (502 Wal- 
nut Street.) 

GLEN COVE MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Glen Cove, 
N. Y. Organized 1837. Richard Downing, president; Daniel J. 
Hegeman, vice-president; Frederick E. Willets, treasurer; James W. 
Townsend, secretary; Karl E. Greene, assistant secretary. 

GLENS FALLS INSURANCE COMPANY, Glens Falls, N. Y. 
Organized 1849; capital, $1,000,000. E. W. West, president; H. N. 
Dickinson, vice-president; F. M. Smalley, secretary; R. C. Carter, 
treasurer; F. L. Cowles, H. W. Knight, J. A. Mavon, assistant secre- 
taries. 

GLOBE AND RUTGERS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY 
III William Street, New York, N. Y. Organized February 9, 1899; 
capital, $700,000. E. C. Jameson, president; Lyman Candee, vice- 
president; W. H. Paulison, second vice-president; J. H. Mulvehill 
vice-president and secretary; W. L. Lindsay, secretary; J. D. Lester, 
secretary; A. H. Witthohn, and George C. Owens, assistant secretaries; 
M. J. Volkman, local secretary. 

GLOBE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsburgh, Pa. Organized 
1862; capital, $300,000. A. E. Succop, president; A. H. Eckert, 
secretary and treasurer; John A. Eckert, vice-president; C. H. E. 
Succop, vice-president C. C. Henry, assistant treasurer. 



Fire Insurancb Section 65 

GLOBE NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sioux 
City, Iowa. Organized 1918; capital, paid-in, $1,000,000. Edd G. 
Doerfler, president and general manager; George Fulton, secretary. 

GRAND RAPIDS MERCHANTS MUTUAL FIRE IN- 
SURANCE COMPANY, Grand Rapids, Mich. J. N. Trompen, presi- 
dent; J. De. Hoog, secretary and treasurer. 

GRAIN BELT INSURANCE COMPANY, Des Moines, Iowa. 
Organized 1920; capital, $100,000. C. Fred Morgan, president; Frank 
L. White, vice-president; Warren T. Ay res, vice-president and agency 
supervisor; W. S. Tidrick, secretary. Transacts hail insurance only. 

GRAIN DEALERS MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Boston, Mass. Organized 1907. Dean K. Webster, presi- 
dent; A. Shirley Ladd, vice-president and secretary; Milton L. Gush- 
ing, treasurer; Albert M. Nickerson, assistant secretary; Winthrop A. 
Lord, assistant treasurer. (40 Central Street.) ' 

GRANGE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Contoo- 
cook, N. H. Organized 1888. Charles W. Vamey, president; James 
E. Shepard, vice-president; Arthur C. Call, secretary; Walter H. Tripp, 
treasurer. 

GRANITE MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Barre, Vt. 
Organized 1907. James Mackay, president; Albert A. Sargent and 
H. Wm. Scott, vice-presidents; R. G. Robinson, secretary and treasurer. 

GRANITE STATE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Ports- 
mouth, N. H. Organized 1885; capital, $200,000. John H. Bartlett, 
president; Frank W. Sargeant, vice-president; Joseph O. Hobbs, 
vice-president; John W. Emery, secretary; Frank E. Martin, George 
A. French, William B. Burpee, Charles E. Chase, secretaries; Orel 
L. Dexter, assistant secretary. Control of the company was acquired 
by the New Hampshire Fire Insurance Company in 192 1. 

GREAT AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANY of New York, 
was organized March 7, 1872. Capital stock, $10,000,000; net surplus, 
December 31, 1921, $12,213,010.92. The officers are: Charles G. Smith 
president; Jesse E. White, vice-president; Edwin M. Cragin, secretary; 
Alexander R. Phillips, secretary; Wm. H. Kopp, E. S. Archer, R. S. 
Glass, L. J. Borland, G. E. Krech, H. B. Churchill, assistant secretaries. 
The western department office is at Chicago, W. H. Sage, general 
manager; W. L. Lerch, manager; Geo. B. Sedgwick and Edward O. 
Basse, assistant managers. The Pacific Coast otihce is at San Francisco, 
George H. Tyson, general agent; Clifford Conly and Harry Benner, 
assistant general agents. The directors are: Ralph L. Cutter, Otto L. 
Dommerich, Herman C. Fleitmann, Eustis L. Hopkins, Arthur O. 
Choate, Samuel McRoberts, Charles G. Smith, Howard C. Smith, 



66 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Julius A. Stursberg, Jesse E. White, William Wood, John A. Garver, 
James A. Stillman, Earl D. Babst, Charles D. Norton, Philip Stockton. 
(i Liberty Street.) 

GREAT LAKES INSURANCE COMPANY. Chicago, III. 
Organized in 191 7 as the Polonia Fire; began business in 1918; cap- 
ital, paid up, $400,000. N. L. Piotrowski, president; H. W. Letton, 
vice-president and managing underwriter; Julius F. Smietanka, 
secretary; John F. Smulski, treasurer. 

GREAT NORTHERN INSURANCE COMPANY, St. Paul, 
Minn. Organized 1916; capital, paid in, $101,497.50. Albert Berg, 
president; John Q. Mackintosh, vice-president; Ira C. Peterson, 
secretary, and Ned W. Low, assistant secretary. 

GREAT UNION FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, New Orleans, La. Organized 1920; capital, $250,000. 

GREEN MOUNTAIN MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Montpelier, Vt. Organized 19 19; guaranty capital, $50,000. 
H. J. M. Jones, president; G. L. Blanchard, Chas. H Schoff, vice- 
presidents; W. A. Ellis, secretary; E. H. Deavitt, treasurer. 

GREENSBORO FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Greensboro, 
N. C. Organized 1898; capital, $100,000. A. W. McAllister, presi- 
dent and treasurer; R. G. Vaughn, first vice-president; A. M. Scales, 
second vice-president; C. A. Mebane, secretary; W. L. Sharpe, assist- 
ant secretary. Unden^'riters of Greensboro; present title adopted in 
192 1. 

GUARANTY FIRE ASSURANCE CORPORATION, 80 Maiden 
Lane, New York, N. Y. Organized 19 19; cash capital, $200,000. 
John S. Sutphen, president; William H. Andrews, vice-president; 
E. E. Hall, vice-president; E. S. Powell, Jr., secretary and treasurer. 

GUARDIAN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Salt Lake City, 
Utah. Organized 1913; capital $200,000.00. D. C. Eccles, president; 
E. P. Ellison, vice-president; E. L. Sloan, treasurer; VValter Cox, 
secretary. The Agency Company, general agents. 



H 



HAILSTORM INSURANCE. The business of insuring grow- 
ing crops against damage by hail is done by small mutual and town- 
ship companies, either in conjunction with nre and tornado insurance, 
or independently, and is now written also by a number of stock 
compames. As mutual and township companies are not required 
to report separately the classes of business, the statistics regarding 
hailstorm insurance, or as it is more commonly designated, hail in- 
surance, are not complete. The following is a statement of the busi- 
ness transacted by stock companies in 192 1 : 



Companies 

Xxnai 

A^cultural 

American Eagle .... 
American Equitable 
American Newark .... 
American Fire, New York 
Atlas, England .... 
American National .... 

Automobile, Ct 

Boston 

Camden 

Central Fire, Md 

Central States, Des Moines . 
City of Pennsylvania 
Cleveland, National 

Columbian, N J 

Commonwealth, N. Y. . 

Connecticut 

Continental, N. Y 

Eagle Star 

Eagle, N. J 

Equitable Fire and Marine . 

Federal, N.J 

Fidelity-Phoenix .... 
Fireman's Fund .... 

Firemens, N. J 

Glens Falls 

Globe & Rutgers .... 



Globe National 

Grain Belt 

Great American 

Great Republic 

Hartford 

Hawkeye Securities .... 

Henry Clay Fire 

Home, N. Y 

Home, F. & M., Cal 

Hudson, N. Y. 

Insurance Company of North America 
Interstate, Fire, Mich. 

Iowa. National 

iowa State 

Liberty, Mo 

Liverpool & London & Globe 
Mechanics & Traders .... 
Mercantile, N. Y 



Net 


Net Losses 


Premiums 


Incurred 


$I43>398 


$75,672 


156.453 


106,331 


53.951 


43.241 


4.117 


1,982 


84,982 


53.099 


17,707 


7.308 


39.513 

7 

81,707 


23.760 


46,086 


v« •• *« •• 

84,507 


57.835 


2,386 




32.520 

7 

5 

7 

1,294 


15.454 


146 


254,785 


215,054 


269,753 


194,168 


26 




30,213 


15.103 


309,403 


217,806 


212,035 


172,705 


3,162 




64,71s 


52,868 


293,323 


266,143 


387,029 


261,087 


53.120 


21,897 


602,148 


395.932 


149,080 


71,266 


2,199,835 


1,738,802 


498.011 


241.545 


12,626 


3,029 


2,036,180 


1.634.544 


226 




48,339 


28,419 


140,631 


75.579 


6 




8 




22 




128.299 


75.810 


14.912 


6.827 


20,074 


7.914 



68 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Companies 

Merchanu, N. Y 

Minneapolis Fire & Marine . 

National Fire, Ct 

National American, Omaha . 
National Union, Pittsburgh . 
New Brunswick .... 

Niagara, N. Y 

North American National 
North British & Mercantile . 

North River 

Norwich Union .... 
Northwestern Fire & Marine 

Ohio Farmers 

Old Colony 

Ohio Valley .... 

Omaha Liberty .... 
Pennsylvania Fire, Phil. . 

Phoenix, Ct 

Providence-Washington 

Queen, N. Y 

Richmond 

Rochester Underwriters 

Rossia 

Royal 

Royal Exchange .... 

Security, Conn 

Scottish Union and National . 

South Carolina 

Springfield Fire and Marine 

State 

St. Paul Fire and Marine 

Twin City 

Union Reserve .... 
United States Fire, N. Y. . 
Westchester 



Net 


Net Losses 


Premiums 


Incurred 


$188,777 


$191,662 


230,440 


isa.374 


3S3.707 


122,231 


62,536 


29,424 


75,431 


57.336 


IS 




78,338 


S6U41 


153.023 


75,047 


8,352 


4.549 


19,077 


4.196 


12.298 


3.463 


568,780 


400.145 


616 


10 


41 




11,048 


4.776 


59.053 


14.560 


794 


764 
225,276 


242,800 


130,157 


69,564 


18,594 


' 4.IS7 


"39,728 


16.639 


281 


IS 


238,664 


171.326 


383 




8,853 


4.001 


140,700 


75.587 


3 


24 


638,571 


268,298 


408 


231 


86,797 


56.742 


310,896 


265.392 



Totals 192 1 



$12,096,085 $8,401,642 



HAMILTON COUNTY MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Cincinnati, Ohio. Organized 1858. J. H. Kohmescher, presi- 
dent; H. A. Rattermann, secretary. Formerly the German Mutual 
Insurance Company, name changed in 1920. 

HAMILTON FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, New York. 
Organized 1852; capital, paid-up $200,004; authorized, $500,000. 
E. C. Jameson, president; Joseph S. Stout, vice-president; Arthur 
Lenssen, Jr., secretary, iii William Street. 

HAMPSHIRE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Pittsiield, Mass. Incoiporated 1830; began business 1832. Henry 
R. Pierson, president; Charles L. Hibbard, vice-president; Robert A. 
Barbour, secretary and treasurer; Charles F. Reid, assistant secretary. 

HAND-IN-HAND Underwriters Department of Commercial Union 
Assurance Company, Limited, of London, England. Organized 19 13. 
Whitney Palache, manager; F. W. Koeckert, assistant manager; Wm. 
M. Ballard, branch secretary, 114 Fifth Avenue, New York City, N. Y. 

Hand-in-Hand Underwriters closed the year of 192 1 with: 

Assets $14,057,803.84 

Net surplus 4,496,434.22 

Premium Income 8.399,611.00 



Fire Insurance Section 69 

HANOVER FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of New York 
was organized April 15, 1852, and began business in the same month; 
capital. Si, 000,000. R. Emory Waraeld, president; Fred A. Hub- 
bard, vice-president; Charles W. Higley, vice-president; E. Stanley 
Jarvis, secretary; Wm. Morrison, assistant secretary, 34-36 Pine Street. 

HARTFORD BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS was or- 
ganized at a meeting held February 29, 1864, and the following com- 
panies made up the membership: ^Etna, Hartford Fire, Connecticut 
Fire. Phoenix Fire, Charter Oak Fire and Marine, Merchants, North 
American Fire, New England Fire and City Fire. Officers were 
elected as follows : President, H. Huntington ; vice-president, Thom- 
as A. Alexander; secretary, E. Thomas Lobdell; treasurer, B. W. 
Green. The present officers elected at the annual meeting in January, 
1922, are: Clement H. Brigham, president; F. A. Morley, vice-presi- 
dent; Edwin S. Cowles, Jr., secretary; C. M. Goddard, Boston, treas- 
urer; executive committee, William R. Penrose chairman; Marshall 
O. Wells, J. Watson Beach, Arthur W. Allen, Robert C. Knox. 

HARTFORD COUNTY MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Hartford, Conn. Organized 1831. William A. Erving, president and 
treasurer; Edward F. Harrison, secretary. 

HARTFORD FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. The charter 
of the company was granted at the May session of the General 
Assembly in 1810, and the company was organized June 27th of 
that year, with Nathaniel Terry, president, and Walter Mitdiell, 
secretary. It began business in August of the same year. The 
charter, a perpetual one, authorized a capital of $150,000 in $50 
shares. In 1853 the company was authorized to increase its capital 
to a sum not exceeding $300,000, and to change the par value of 
its shares to $100. By later amendments the authorized capital 
was increased to $10,000,000,^ and in 1906 the paid up capital was in- 
creased to $2,000,000. Since its organization the Hartford has received 
in premiums, $520,024,404.92, and has paid in losses, $278,694,005.92. 
It has paid since organization $24,620,329.00 in cash dividends, and 
$950,000 in stock. 

The present officers are: Chas. E. Chase, chairman of the Board; 
R. M. Bissell, president; James Wyper, S. E; Locke and Frederic C. 
White, vice-presidents; Thos. H. Scotland, Frederic C. Moore, Charles 
S. Kramer and Gilbert A. Russell, assistant secretaries; D. J. Glazier, 
secretary and treasurer. The Hartford has a Western department at 
Chicago, 111., Dugan & Carr, general agents; a Pacific department at 
San Francisco, Cal., Dixwell Hewitt, general agent; a Southern depart- 
ment at Atlanta, Ga., W. R. Prescott, general agent. C. S. Timberlake, 
general agent, is in charge of the Marine and Transportation department 
at Hartford, Conn. The directors of the Hartford are: Meigs H. 
Whaples, Chas. E. Chase, R. M. Bissell, Henry S. Robinson, and 
Walter L. Goodwin, Samuel Ferguson, Phillip G. Gale, Geo. S. Steven- 
son. The Hartford does a fire and tornado and inland-marine insur- 
ance business. 



70 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

HAWKEYE SECURITIES FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Des Moines, Iowa. Organized 1918; capital $1,000,000. H. R. Howell, 
president; W. S. Hazard, Jr., vice-president; R. S. Howell, vice-presi- 
dent and secretary; H. CT. Hargrove, vice-president; C. M. Garvcr, 
treasurer; H. K. Miller, assistant secretary. 

HENRY CLAY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lexington, 
Ky. Organized 1910; capital, $450,000. H. M. Froman, president; 
J. L. Watkins, vice-president and treasurer; F. G. Stilz, secretary; 
Claude F. Snyder, manager. 

HERNANDO INSURANCE COMPANY, Memphis, Tenn. 
Organized i860; capital, $100,000. John R. Pepper, president; J. S. 
Dunscomb, secretary. 

HINGHAM MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Hingham, Mass. Organized 1826. Henry W. Gushing, president 
and treasurer; Alan F. Hersey, secretary. 

HOLYOKE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Salem, 
Mass. Organized 1843. Carlos P. Faunce, president; Louis O. John- 
son, vice-president and secretary; Elmer A. Dresser, treasurer and 
assistant secretary. Arthur F. Smith, general agent. 

HOME FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, San 
Francisco, Cal. Organized 1918; capital, paid in, $1,000,000; T. B. 
Levison, president; John Marshall, Jr., vice-president; H. P. Blan- 
chard, secretary; J. S. French, C. C. Wright, and F. G. White, assistant 
secretaries; A. W. Follansbee, Jr., marine secretary; T. M. Gardiner, 
treasurer; Edward Randall, general auditor. 

HOME INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, of New York was 
organized in April, 1853, under act of April 10, 1849, the original 
capital being $500,000. The charter authorized fire and inland and 
marine insurance, both of which were prosecuted by the company 
until 1870, when inland and marine operations were discontinuecL 
April 13, 1864, an amendment was adopted, authorizing ocean marine 
insurance. That branch also was discontinued eighteen months after 
its inception. In 1888 marine and inland transactions were resumed 
under the charter. In April, 1913, the charter was amended, ex- 
tended to cover all the hazards and classes of business enumerated 
in revised section no of the N. Y. Insurance law. In 1913, ocean 
marine insurance was resumed, also hail, sprinkler leakage and 
other lines were engaged in under the extended charter. July 15, 
1858, the capital was increased to $600,000, under act of June 25, 
1853. Under the same act the amount was increased to $1,000,000, 
February 19, 1859. The capital was doubled in amount December 
31, 1863, and an additional increase of half a million was ordered 
July 13, 1870, making the total $2,500,000. A further increase was 
effected January 23, 1875, the amount being $500,000. Since that 



Fire Insurance Section 71 

date the capital remained at $3,000,000 until July 8, 1913, when it 
was increased to $6,000,000. On May 9, 1921, the capital was doubled 
making the present capital $12,000,000, fully paid up. 

The total assets and liabilities of the Home, December 31, 192 1, 

were: 

Cash Assets $75t93i.55X-68 

Cash Capital 1 2,000,000.00 

Liabilities 42.967 ,383-37 

Net Surplus 20,964,168.31 

Surplus as Regards Policyholders 32,964,168.31 

The Home has received since its organization in premiums, 
$499»439f36i -S^^t and has paid in loseess, over $259,875,025.41. 

Elbridge G. Snow, president; Frederic C. Buswell, vice-president; 
Clarence A. Ludlum, vice-president; Charles L. Tyner, vice-president; 
Wilfred Kurth, vice-president and secretary; Vincent P. Wyatt, secre- 
tary; John A. Campbell, secretary; William L. Dennis, secretary; 
Harold S. Poole, secretary; Elmer C. Decker, assistant secretary; 
William Millar, assistant secretary; Frank J. McFadden, assistant 
secretary; Gustave A. Blumenreiter, assistant secretary; Harry H. 
Schulte, assistant secretary; Henry G. Foard, assistant secretary; Ar- 
thur C. Baillie, assistant secretary; Charles M. Martindale, assistant 
secretary. 

The Company now writes all classes of insurance which are per- 
missible to a hre insurance company under the laws of the State of 
New York. The company is a member of The American Foreign 
Insurance Association, writing business in foreign territory. 

HOOSIER INTERSTATE MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY 
of Kokomo, Ind. This company was organized on the mutual plan 
in 19 16 and transacts a reinsurance business in connection with sixty- 
two mutual insurance companies of Indiana whose automobile risks 
it reinsures. Its officers are Elwood Hayes, president; Edward Ap- 
person, vice-president; and A. H. Goyer, secretary and treasurer. 

HOPE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Provi- 
dence, R. I. Organized 1875. Frank L. Pierce, president; Charles C. 
Stover, vice-president and engfineer ; George F. Hiller, vice-president and 
engineer; Royal G. Luther, secretary; Everett W. Allan, Benjamin C. 
Hall, assistant secretaries. 

HUDSON INSURANCE COMPANY, New York, N. Y. 
Oreanized 1018: capital, p;iid-in, S.soo.ooo; ]. M. Wennstrom. presi- 
dent; F. W. Kentner, vice-president and treasurer; Howard N. 
Morgan, secretary. 



I 



IDE, HENRY J., New England General Agent, 122 Milk St. 
Boston, Mass. Companies represented, Albany, American of New 
Jersey, United American of Pittsburg, Virginia F. & M., Eastern 
Underwriters of the Camden Fire Insurance Association and The 
Jersey Fire Underwriters of the American Insurance Company. Ralph 
G. Hinkley, associate general agent. 

ILLINOIS ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS. Or- 
ganized at Chicago, August 2, 1899, with the following officers: Pres- 
ident, R. W. Hosmer of Chicago; vice-president, Jacob Wachcnheimer 
of Pedria; second vice-president, John H. Camhn of Rockford; sec- 
retary, Joseph Van Every of Chicago; treasurer, R. S. Critchell of 
Chicago. J. A. Giberson, president; Shirley E. Moisant, Kankakee, 
secretary. 

ILLINOIS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Peoria, 111. Organ- 
ized 1876; capital, $200,000. M. S. Cremer, president; Robert Zim- 
mermann, vice-president; Henry F. Tuerk, secretary, and Adolph 
Cremer, treasurer. 

ILLINOIS STATE BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS 
was organized at Springfield in 1882 by the field men of stock fire 
insurance companies, the original call having been issued by Dr. 
B. T. Wise. The board, while originally a supervising and rating 
body, no longer has such functions, and the constitution states the 
objects of the board to be " the promotion of correct practices in 
underwriting, the economical conduct of the business, the dissemina- 
tion of information among its members and the public, and the en- 
couragement of harmony and fraternity." 

At the annual meeting held in June, 192 1, oTcers were elected as 
follows: Melven LePitre, president; Fred H. Simons, vice-president; 
E. E. Edwards, secretary; executive committee, Frank G. Cargill, 
D. P. Coffman, Chas. J. Lingenfelder. 175 West Jackson Boulevard 
Chicago, 111. 

IMPERIAL ASSURANCE COMPANY of New York. Organ- 
ized 1899; capital, $500,000. Percival Beresford, president; Herbert 
W. Ellis, vice-president; Howard Terhune, secretary, 100 William 
Street. 

IMPERIAL MARINE TRANSPORT AND FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY of Tokio, Japan. Willcox, Peck & Hughes, United States 
Managers, 3 South William Street, New York. 



Fire Insurance Section 73 

IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS INSURANCE COMPANY, of 
New York, 47 Beaver Street, New York, N. Y. Organized 191 8 ; capital 
paid in $7000,000. Leon Schinasi, president; A. Valensi, treasurer; J. 
Valensi, M.L. Heide and J. Spier, vice-presidents; C. D. West, P. A. 
Cosgrove and A. Whelpley, secretaries. Transacts Marine, Fire and 
Automobile business. 

INDEMNITY MUTUAL MARINE ASSURANCE COMPANY 
(Limited) of London. United States deposit capital, $300,000. 
Appleton & Cox, Attorneys, 3 South William Street, New York. 

INDEPENDENCE INSURANCE COMPANY, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Organized 1910; capital, $200,000. Henry I. Brown, president; 
Everett U. Crosby, vice-president; C. S. Conklin, secretary. 435 Wal- 
nut Street. , 

INDIANA LUMBERMEN'S MUTUAL INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Indianapolis, Ind. Organized 1897. J. W. Pinnell, presi- 
dent; John Montano, vice-president; J. T. Eaglesfield, treasurer; 
F. B. Fowler, secretary and manager. 

INDIANAPOLIS SALVAGE CORPS, Indianapolis, Ind. Organ- 
ized 1914. It is an incorporated body and the directors are: Richard 
Lieber, David P. Barrett, John R. Welch, and Albert J. Hueber. The, 
officers, elected in 1921, are: John R. Welch, president; E. H. Forry, 
secretary; Albert J. Hueber, treasurer. William Curran is superinten- 
dent. 

INDUSTRIAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Akron, Ohio. 
Organized 191 1; capital, authorized $500,000; paid in, $300,000. 
F. R. Ormsby, president; J. S. Frelinghuysen, vice-president; G. F. 
Hutchings, secretary; Joseph Winum, treasurer and assistant secretary. 

INDUSTRIAL MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Boston, 
Mass. Organized 1890. Chas. T. Plunkett, president; F. W. Pit- 
cher, vice-president; Benjamin Taft, secretary and treasurer; W. B. 
Brophy, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer, 31 Milk Street. 

INSURANCE BROKERS ASSOCIATION OF MASSACHU- 
SETTS, Boston, Mass. Organized in October, 19 13. The present 
officers, elected in October, 192 1, are: Robert E. Stone, president; 
Harry A. Stevens, vice-president; George A. Mason, treasurer; Leland 
W.Kingman, 43 Kilby St., Boston, secretary; executive committee: 
Thomas Ashley, Stephen E. Barton, C. F. Bowers, Harvey E. Frost, 
William N. Goodwin, Carlyle R. Hayes, John F. Kilduff, William F. 
Macy, William A. Mosman, Edward M. Peters, H. P. Stanwood, T. 
Robert Sullivan. 

INSURANCE CLUB OF CHICAGO. The membership of 
the club includes managers, general agents, special agents and local 
agents, as well as many of the employees of general and local fire 



74 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

insurance agencies and a number of managers and employees of the 
casualty companies and agencies and was organized on February 6, 
1901. As stated in its constitution, the club's object is "to assist its 
members in becoming thoroughly conversant with the technique of 
fire insurance in all its departments, and to further the social intercourse 
of its members. All persons eighteen years of age or over, who are 
engaged in the fire insurance business or its affiliated occupations may 
become members. 

The present officers, elected in May, 192 1, are: Herbert A. Clark, 
president; Donald M. Wood, vice-president; E. Irving Fiery, second 
vice-president; Ralph H. Learn, secretary; Wm. A. Benoliel, treasurer; 
Benjamin Richards, librarian; directors:, D. C. Price, Raymond O. 
Hayer, W. J. Patterson, L. R. Hanawalt and B. F. Walker. Office, 
2258 Insurance Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

INSURANCE CLUB OF ST. LOUIS, 435 Pierce Building, St. 
Louis, Mo. Organized in October 1919, for social and educational 
purposes. The officers are: R. B. Howd, president; Earl W. Thomas, 
vice-president; J. W. Rodger, secretary and treasurer; W. B. Plum- 
mer, librarian; directors: Ceo. C. Grupe, W. R. Berry, R. B. Howd, 
H. M. Hess, C. J. Kehoe, Geo. D. Markham. 

INSURANCE COMPANY OF NORTH AMERICA, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. Founded 1792; capital $5,000,000. The record of the birth 
and development of the company which, by the way, was christened 
''The President and Directors of the Insurance Company of North 
America," and which is still its full name, is closely interwoven with 
the creation and development of the American Government. It had 
its birth in Independence Hall in Philadelphia, and its organization 
with a capital of |6oo,ooo was completed on December 10, 1792, just 
after General Washington had been re-elected President for a second 
term, and when the brst census of the new government revealed the 
fact that the entire population of the eleven States consisted of 3,380,000 
persons, Indians excepted. John M. Nesbitt was the first president of 
the company and Ebenezer Hazard the first secretary. The first 
policies of the new company were issued on December 15, 1792. Only 
marine insurance was written, for some time, and the company has 
always transacted a comparatively large marine insurance busmess. 
However, in 1794, it began to write fire insurance, its two first fire 
policies bearing date December 10 of that year; but the demand for 
protection against loss of that kind was not brisk, as evidenced by the 
tact that fire policy No. 7 was not issued until the last day of the 
year, and in the first twelve months of the company's fire insurance 
operations only 73 policies were issued, despite the fact that, in Jan- 
uary, 1795, the directors had 5,000 proposals printed and "distributed 
to the houses of the inhabitants of^ Philadelphia." 

That was the beginning of fire and marine insurance by an Ameri- 
can company. The Insurance Company of North America is not only 
the oldest American Stock insurance company doing business today, 
but it was also the first insurance company to receive its charter from 



Fire Insurance Section 



75 



one of the States of the American Union. In the 129 years of the 
compan^r's activities, it has witnessed every phase of the development 
of American Insurance and has actively participated in its improve- 
ments. It has received the baptism of every great fire in this country 
and has never failed to meet its every loss in full, whether large or 
small, the total amount of such payments reaching $225,000,000. The 
remarkable growth of the company's business in recent years is seen 
in the fact that approximately one-half of the total premium income 
during the past 129 years has come from the business of the last fifteen 
years, and the annual premium receipts have been doubled in the 
past five years. 

The officers and directors of the company are: Benjamin Rush, 
president; John O. Piatt, vice-president; Sheldon Catlin, second 
vice-president; Galloway C. Morris, third vice-president; John 
Kremer, secretary; John J. Connor, treasurer and assistant secretary; 
T. Leaming Smith, Marine secretary; Edmund H. Porter, assistant 
secretary: Curtis L. Clay, assistant treasurer. Directors: Edward H. 
Coates, John Story Jenks, Edward Hopkinson, George H. McFadden, 
Henry W. Biddle, C. Hartman Kuhn, Arthur W. Sewall, Charles 
S. W. Packard, J. Percy Keating, G. Colesberry Purves, Bayard Henry, 
Edward S. Buckley, Jr., William P. Gest, Thomas S. Gates, Benjamm 
Rushy William S. Godfrev, Effingham B. Morris, James D. Winsor, Jr., 
J. Barton Townsend, John O. Piatt and Samuel M. Curwen. 

INSURANCE COMPANY OF THE STATE OF PENNSYL- 
VANIA, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1794; capital, $1,000,000. 
Gustavus Remak, Jr., president; Waite Bliven, vice-president; John 
J. P. Rodgers, secretary and treasurer; Samuel P. Rodgers, assistant 
secretary, 308 Walnut Street. 

INSURANCE DEPARTMENTS, CHIEF OFFICERS OF. 
The following is a list of the state and territorial officials having super- 
vision of insurance at the time this volume was put to press, (May i). 
[For history of departments see life section in alphabetical order by 
states.] 



States and 
Territories. 

Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

Dist. of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 



Names. 



Official Titles. 



A. W. Briscoe 

W. G. Smith 

Forest A. Betts .... 
Bruce T. Bullion . . , 
Alexander McCabe . 
Jackson Cochrane . . 
Burton Mansfield. . . 

Horace Sudler , 

Lewis A. Griffith . . . , 

J. C. Luning 

William A. Wright.. 

A. Lewis, Jr 

Howard J. Brace . . . , 

T. J. Houston 

T. S. McMurray. Jr. 
Arthur C. Savage . . 
Frank Travis 



Insurance Commissioner. . . . 

Territorial Treasurer 

Superintendent of Insurance 
Commissioner of Insurance . . 

Insurance Commissioner 

Superintendent of Insurance. 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Superintendent of Insurance. 

State Treasurer 

Comptroller-General 

Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Superintendent. . . 

Auditor of State 

Commissioner of Insurance. . 
Superintendent of Insurance . 



Official 
Residences. 



Montgomery. 

Juneau 

Phoenix. 

Little Rock. 

San Frandsco. 

Denver. 

Hartford. 

Milford. 

Washington. 

Tallahassee. 

Atlanta. 

Honolulu. 

I Boise City. 

Springfield. 

I Indianapolis. 

Des Momes. 

iTopeka. 



76 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



States and 
Territories. 


Names. 


Official Titles. 

Insurance Commissioner .... 

Secretary of State 

Insurance Commissioner 

Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Commissioner of Insurance. . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 

Supt. of Insurance Dept 

State Auditor 


Official 
Residences. 


Kentucky 


James T. Ramey 

J. J. Bailey 

E. Waldron Smith .... 
Thomas J. Keating . . . . ! 
Clarence W. Hobbs... ! 

L.T. Hand 

Gust. Lindquist , 

T. M.Henry ! 

Ben C.Hyde ' 

George P. Porter 

W. B. Young 

Geo. A. Cole 

John T. Donohue 

Wm. E. Tuttlc 

H. R. McGibbon 

Francis R. Stoddard, Jr. 

Stacy W. Wade 

S. A. Ohness 

Bert W. Gearhart 

E. W. Hardin 

A. C. Barber 

Thos. B. Donaldson . . . 

Philip H. Wilbour 

John J. McMahon 

W. N. Van Camp 

Earle N. Rogers 

Ed. Hall 

John W. Walker 

Joseph G. Brown 

Joseph Button 

H. 0. Fishback 

John C. Bond 

Piatt Whitman 

Donald M. Forsyth 


Frankfort. 


Louisiana 

Maine 


Baton Rouge. 
Augusta. 


Maryland ......... 


Baltimore. 


Massachusetts 


Boston. 


Mirhiiran 


I.4n9inc. 


Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 


St. Paul. 
Jackson. 
Jefferson City. 


Montana 


Helena. 




Insurance Commissioner 

State Controller 


Lincoln. 


Nevada 


Carson City. 


New Hampshire . . . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 


Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Com'r of Banking and Ins. . . 
Superintendent of Insurance . 
Superintendent of the Insur> 
ance Department 


Concord. 
Trenton. 
Santa Fe. 

Albany. 


North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 


Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Commissioner of Insurance. . 
Superintendent of Insurance. 
Commissioner of Insurance . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 

Insurance Commissioner 

Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 

Insurance Commissioner 

Commissioner of Insurance. . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner .... 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Insurance Commissioner. . . . 
Auditor 


Raleigh. 

Bismarck. 

Columbus. 


Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina. . . . 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 


Guthrie. 

Salem. 

Harrisburg. 

Providence. 

Columbia. 

Pierre. 

Nashville. 


Texas 


Austin. 


Utoh 


Salt Lake City 


Vermont 


MontpeUer. 


Virginia 


Richmond. 


Washington 

West Virginia 


Olympia. 
Charleston. 


Wisconsin 


Commissioner of Insurance. . 
State Auditor 


Madison. 


Wyoming 


Cheyenne. 



INSURANCE EXCHANGE OF ST. PAUL, St. Paul, Minn. 
An association of local fire insurance agents. The present officers are: 
C. P. Montgomery, president; E. R. Whitacre, vice-president; W. S. 
Gilliam, secretary and treasurer. 302 Pioneer Building, St. Paul, 
Minn. 

INSURANCE INSTITUTE OF AMERICA, was organized at a 
meeting held in Philadelphia in April, 1909, and insurance societies 
and institutes of an educational nature are eligible to membership. 

The purposes of the Institute when organized was to co-ordinate 
the work of the local insurance societies and to regulate and conduct 
examinations in the educational courses on insurance carried on by local 
institutes and societies which make up its membership. 

At a meeting of company officials in New York in April, 1919, 
it was decided to incorporate the Institute with the view of developing 
the educational work contemplated when the Institute was organized 
along broader and more thorough lines. The following resolution was 
adopted: "That this meeting of insurance executives and delegates 
from local insurance societies affirms its whole-hearted support of the 
Insurance Institute movement;" and a committee of company officials 
was appointed to incorporate the Institute and create an organization 
under the charter. 



Fire Insurance Section 77 

The present officers, elected at the tenth annual meeting held in 
New York, October, 192 1, are: President, Frederick Richardson, 
General Accident, Philadelphia, Pa.; secretary and treasurer, Edward 
R. Hardy, 84 William Street, New York, N. Y. Executive committee: 
D. N. Handy, Boston ; Ben jamin Richards, Chicago, and E. G. Richards, 
New York. D. N. Handy, Boston, Mass., is chairman of the committee 
on libraries and H. Walter Forster, Philadelphia, Pa., chairman of the 
committee on education. 

The following Associations are members of the Institute: 

Inauianoe Society of Baltimore, Baltimore, Md. 

Insurance Library Aasn. of Boston, Boston, Mass. 

Fire Insurance Club of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Insurance Society of Cleveland, Cleveland, O. 

Neale Phypers Co., Insurance Club, Clevdand, O. 

Insurance Club of Des Moines, Des Moines, la. 

Insurance Sodety of Glens Falls, Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Insurance Institute of Hartf<Mrd, Hartford, Conn. 

John C. French Association, Manchester, N. H. 

Insurance Club of Memphis, Memphis, Tenn. 

Insurance Club of Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Insurance Society of New York, New York City. 

Security Insurance Club. New Haven, Conn. 

Fire Insurance Society of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fire Underwriters' Association of the Pacific, San Francisco. Cal. 

Clerks' Association of the Springfield Fire & Marine Insurance Co.. Springfield, 

Mass. 
Insurance Club of St. Louis, St Louis, Mo. 
Fire Insurance Club of Watertown, N. Y., Watertown. N. Y. 

INSURANCE INSTITUTE OF HARTFORD, THE, was 
organized at a meeting in July, 1908, and the officers elected were: 
President, William B. Qark; vice-presidents, W. G. Cowles, C. £. 
Parker and A. A. Welch; secretary, L. N. Denniston; treasurer, 
C F. SchoU. The objects of the Institute as stated in the constitu- 
tion are : "To encourage and cultivate a broader knowledge of the 
principles and practices of insurance in all its branches." The 
present officers, elected at the annual meeting in May, 1922, are: Presi- 
dent, Frederick C. Moore, Hartford Fire; vice-president, casualty 
branch, A. R. Robertson, /€ltna Life; vice-president fire branch, C. 
Barstow Langdon, Factory Insurance Association; vice-president life 
branch, W. P. Barber, Jr., Connecticut Mutual; secretary, Cyrus T. 
Stevens, Phoenix Mutual; treasurer, Kemp S. Kirkby, Connecticut 
General; directors, A. R. Robertson, George Goodwin, Connecticut 
General; W. G. Jones, W. Ross McGain, ^tna; W. P. Barber, Jr., 
L. N. Denniston, Travelers. 

INSURANCE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF BOSTON is 
an incorporated society, maintaining a library at No. 141 Milk 
Street, Boston, more particularly for the use of those interested in 
fire insurance. The management is by a board of trustees, elected 
annually, which chooses a president from its number. The present 
hoard consists of U. C. Crosby, president; H. J. Ide, George Neiley, 
Charles D. Palmer, Gayle T. Forbush, Elbridge G. Snow, W. H. 
Stevens, Edmund Winchester, W. B. Medlicot, F. R. Galacar, A. N. 
Williams and Edward C. Brush. D. N. Handy is librarian and clerk 



78 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

and treasurer. For further particulars see Cyclopedia of Insurance 
[for 18^0, page 84, and Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14.] The association offers 
educational lecture courses, and also issues a quarterly bulletin con- 
taining an index to current literature of fire insurance and fire pro- 
tection engineering. 

INSURANCE SOCIETY OF NEW YORK was temporarily 
organized December 11, 1900, for social and educational purposes. 
The formal organization took place February 26, 1901, at whidi the 
following officers were elected : President, Sam. P. Blagden ; vice- 
presidents, Henry £. Hess, Cecil F. Shallcross, William N. Kremer, 
and A. M. Thorburn ; treasurer, Washington Irving ; secretary, R. P, 
Barbour; executive committee, E. U. Crosby, Wallace Reid, John 
W. Nichols, Howard Hampton, James Marshall, F. H. Douglas, and 
Lewis F. Burke. The officers of the Society are: Charles R. Pitcher, 
president; W. G. Falconer, E. C. Stokes, Lyman Candee, Clarence A. 
Ludlum, vice-presidents; Edward R. Hardy, secretary and treasurer; 
Maude E. Inch, assistant secretary, and Mabel B. Swerig, librarian. 

INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY, New York. 
Organized 1909; capital $1,000,000. Sumner Ballard, president; 
Daniel F. Gordon and O. Ehmann, vice-presidents and secretaries; 
F. Korteubeutel, secretary; August Geberth, assistant secretary. 
(Reinsurance business.) 

INTER-OCEAN REINSURANCE COMPANY, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa, established 1919, capital $500,000. Fire and allied lines of 
reinsurance only. R. Lord, president; J. L. Johnson and E. E. Pinney, 
vice-presidents; A. C. Torgeson, secretary; James E. Hamilton, 
treasurer; Roy E. Curray, assistant secretary. 

INTER-STATE AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Rock Rapids, Iowa. Organized 191 6; cash capital, $200,000. The 
company was placed in a receiver's hands in 192 1, and is in process of 
liquidation. 

INTER-STATE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, no West 
Fort Street, Detroit, Mich. Organized 1913; capital, paid up, $259,150. 
Calvin A. Palmer, president; Sherwood D. Andrus, vice-president and 
managing underwriter; William A. Eldridge, secretary; H. R. Vernor, 
assistant secretary; L. K. Hennes, treasurer; F. L. Stabler, general 
agent. 

IOWA ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENl^b was organ- 
ized by local fire insurance aj^ents at a meeting at Des Moines in March, 
1907, with the election of Frank B. Kauffman as president and Rob- 
ert J. Baird, secretary and treasurer. A meeting was held in June, 
and the organization completed. Officers were elected as follows: 
President, B. F. KauffiAan, Des Moines; vice-president, W. F. Grandv, 
Sioux City; secretary and treasurer, H. W. Binder, Council Bluffs. 
Milo Whipple, Cedar Rapids, is president and A. J. Verran, Des Moines, 
secretary and treasurer. 



Fire Insurance Section 79 

IOWA MANUFACTURERS' INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Waterloo, Iowa. Organized 1905 ; capital, $100,000. W. W. Marsh, 
president; Hermann Miller, secretary. 

IOWA NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Des 
Moines, la. Organized 1916; capital, paid in, $500,000. Frank L. 
Miner, president; C. M. Spencer, first vice-president and secretary. 
C. S. Vance, second vice-president and underwriting manager; Frank P. 
Flynn, treasurer. 

IOWA STATE INSURANCE COMPANY (Mutual), Keokuk, la. 
Organized 1855. William Logan, president, W. N. Sage, vice-president 
and treasurer; G. R. Hombs, general agent; G. C. Tucker, secretary; 
J. L Annable, assistant secretary. 

IRON SAFE CLAUSE. This clause is inserted in policies on 
stocks of goods in stores in the southern states. 

The foUowing covenant and warranty is hereby made a part of thia policy: 

1. The assured will take a complete itemized inventory of stock on hand at 
least once in each calendar year, and unless such inventory has been taken within twelve 
calendar months prior to 'the date of this policy one shall be taken in detail within 
thirty days of issuance of this policy, or this polk:y shall be null and void from such 
date, and upon demand of the assured the unearned premium from such date shall be 
returned. 

2. The assured will keep a set of books which shall clearly and plainly present 
a complete record of business transacted, includinj^ all purchases, sales, and ship- 
ments, both for cash and credit, from the date of mventory as provided for in first 
section of this clause and during the continuance of this policy. 

3. The assured will keep such books and inventory, and also the last preced- 
ing inventory, if such has been taken, securely locked in a fireproof safe at night and 
at all times when the building mentioned in this policy is not actually open for business; 
or. failing in this, the assured will keep such books and inventoria in some place not 
exposed to fire which would datroy the aforesaid building. 

In the event of failure to produce such set of books and inventories for the in- 
■pection ci this company this policy shall become null and void and such failure shall 
conadtnte a perpetual bar to any recovery thereon. 



J 



JAKOR INSURANCE COMPANY, Moscow, Russia. The 
company's business was taken over by the Anchor Insurance Company 
of New York in 192 1. 

JEFFERSON MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. St- 
Louis, Mo. Organized i86i. August F. Klusing, president; Louis W. 
Schonebeck. secretary. 



K 



KENTUCKY FIRE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION. This 
association was formerly the Kentucky Board of Fire Underwriters, 
which was organized November 15, 1905, as the successor to the old 
Kentucky and Tennessee Board having jurisdiction in Kentucky. 
The association was reorganized as the Fire Underwriters' Association 
of Kentucky in 1913, and again reorganized in 1918 under the present 
title. The association has jurisdiction over underwriting practices, but 
is not a rate-making body. The present officers, elected in November, 
1921, are: Bennett B. Bean, president, Commercial Union, Lexington, 
Ky.j Wallace W. Smith, vice-president, Liverpool & London & Globe, 
Louisville, Ky.; Robert W. Snyder, secretary and treasurer. 51 Ken- 
yon Building, Louisville, Ky. 

KEYSTONE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized December, 1884. Frederick A. Downes, 
president and treasurer; John T. Bottomley, vice-president; Simon 
Miller, second vice-president; Herbert P. Onyx, secretary; Charles H. 
Thomas, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer. 

KNICKERBOCKER INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW 
YORK, 68 William Street, New York, N. Y. Organized 1913; capital, 
1400,000. R. A. Corroon, president ; T. A. Duff ey , vice-president and 
secretary. 

KNOX MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Mt. Vernon. 
Ohio. Organized 1838. B. M. Allen, president; H. S. Jennings, 
secretary. 



L 



LAFAYETTE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, New Or- 
leaiiB, La. Organized 1869; capital, $200,000. John X. Wegmann, 
president; Joseph Tranchina, vice-president; A. J. Wegmann, secretary. 

LA FONCIERE INSURANCE COMPANY (Marine), Paris. 
France, Bertschmann & Maloy, United States managers. New York. 

LA SALLE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, New Orleans, La, 
Organized 1920; capital, $524,640. H. H. Remington, president; 
Charles J. Babst, vice-president. 

LAW UNION AND ROCK INSURANCE COMPANY, Ltd.. of 
London, England. Entered the United States in 1897. A. G. Mcllwaine, 
Jr., United States manager, Hartford, Conn. 

LIBERTY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Louisville. Ky. 
Organized 1854; capital, $200,000. Andrew P. Winkler, president; 
Frank R. Merhoff, secretary; Joseph F. Laufer, assistant secretary. 

LIBERTY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, St. Louis, Mo. 
Organized 1919; capital, paid in $200,000. John C. Bardwell, presi- 
dent; William Schroeder, Richard Wehmeyer, vice-presidents; F. E. 
Norwine, treasurer; Victor J. Miller, secretary; Clem Deck, assistant 
treasurer. 

LIBERTY MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, New York, 
N. Y. Organized 1917; capital, $250,000. The company failed in 1921. 

LIBRARIES, INSURANCE. Several of the general associa- 
tions of underwriters have made efforts to build up libraries for 
the use of their members, as have also some of the local insurance 
institutes. [On this subject see Insurance Library Association of 
Boston, and Fire Underwriters' Association of the Northwest, 
Library of.] 

LIMITATION OF RISKS IN FIRE UNDERWRITING. The 
laws of a number of states prescribe a limitation on the amount of lia- 
bility which a company may assume on any one risk. The limitation 
makes the maximum amount of liability that may be assumed on any 
one risk, but the limitation is not uniK>rm, and in a majority of the 
states the laws include the proviso " unless the excess shall be reinsured 
in some authorized company." The maximum line permitted is a 
percentage, either of the paid-in capital, or paid-in capital and surplua, 
and is in practically all states ten per cent, in the case of stock com- 
panies. 



Fire Insurance Section 83 

Kentucky makes the limitation ten per cent, of capital and surplus, 
" exclusive of the amount of any such risk secured by collateral/' and 
in North Dakota it is ten per cent, of the paid-up capital, " exclusive of 
any guarantee, surplus, or special reserve fund. Wisconsin makes the 
limitation ten per cent, of the "admitted assets," and in Minnesota, New 
Jersey, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts the limitation is ten per 
cent, of the " net assets." 

In Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, Virginia, Utah, Kansas 
and Connecticut the limitation is ten per cent, of capital and surplus. 
In Indiana, California, Texas, Washington, Maine, Rhode Island, 
Nebraska and Michigan the limitation is ten per cent, of the paid-in 
capital. The Texas law excepts ** cotton and grain in bales from 
the limitation, and the Maine law makes the limitation apply to " build- 
ings and contents " as one risk. The Michigan law bases the lim- 
itation for foreign companies on the ** deposit capital," and includes 
the proviso that reinsurance in authorized companies shall not be 
included in determining the limitation. The same proviso is included 
also in the laws of Connecticut and Wisconsin, and the New Jersey 
law provides that so much of any risk as shall be reinsured in a com- 
pany lawfully transacting business in the state shall not be considered 
part of said risk. The Nebraska law makes the limitation apply 
only " in the congested district of any city." 

The Kentucky law applying to stock companies contains this addi- 
tional provision: " If the directors allow to be insured on a single 
risk a larger sum than the law permits they shall be liable for any 
loss thereon above the amount they might lawfully insure." 

The laws of Kansas, West Vii^nia, Virginia Kentucky, and Utah 
also apply a limitation to mutual companies. Kentucky, for such com- 
panies, makes " the maximum amount of any single risk, less reinsur- 
ance, shall not exceed three times the average risk or one per cent, of 
the insurance applied for, whichever is the greater." Kansas makes 
the limitation ten per cent, of all resources, and W^t Virginia one per 
cent, of amount of insurance in force, while Utah makes the limitation 
for mutual companies five per cent, of the annual premium income. 
The laws of Oklahoma place a limitation on inter-insurers of ten per 
cent, of premium income at time of writing risk, while Idaho makes the 
limitation " ten per cent, of the net worth of such subscriber." 

Under the Wisconsin law the limitation on mutual companies 
" shall not exceed three times the average policy or one-fourth of one per 
centum of the insurance in force, whichever is the greater." 

In Virginia, the limitation is ten per cent, of a company's cash 



LIVERPOOL AND LONDON AND GLOBE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, LTD., THE, of Liverpool, England, was founded in 1836, 
under the name of "The Liverpool Insurance Company." In 1848 the 
title was changed to "The Liverpool and London Insurance Company," 
and in 1864 the Globe Insurance Company of London was absorbed, 
when the title became "The Liverpool and London and Globe." 



84 Cyclopedl\ of Insurance 

In 1848, the Company entered the United States, and now trans- 
acts fire, marine and all other kinds of insurance permitted by the laws 
of the State of New York. 

The New York Branch is under the following management: 
Thomas H. Anderson, Attorney for the United States and Chas. A. 
Nottingham, Managers; Robert H. Williams, and Chas. L. Purdin, 
Assistant Managers; 80 William Street. Executive Office, Washington 
Park, Newark, N. J. 

The other branches in the United States are as under: 

The Chicago Branch: H. T. Cartlidge, W. P. Robertson, Associate 
Managers; A. C. Mollington, Deputy Assistant Manager; £. E. Wells, 
Agency Superintendent. 

The New Orleans Branch: J. G. Pepper, Manager; R. H. Colcock 
Jr., Assistant Manager; Henry Ferchaud, Deputy Assistant Manager. 

The San Francisco Branch: Clarence E. Allan, Manner; Geo. 
F. Guerraz, Assistant Manager; Logan B. Chandler, Deputy Assistant 
Manager. 

LIMITING CLAUSES IN FIRE INSURANCE POLICIES. 
[See Policy Forms, Fire (New York), Legislation and Co-insurance 
Clause.] 

LLpYDS AND INTER-INSURERS. Although combinations 
of individual fire and marine underwriters had not been unknown in 
the United States, this form of insurance did not obtain prominence 
until 1892. During that and the following years, up to 1896, there 
was a rapid development of so-called Lloyds, and this form of under- 
writing had been applied not only to fire and marine but to casualty, 
surety and liability business. Nearly all the so-called Lloyds were 
organized in New York and were not subject to the insurance laws, 
but in 1892 in a revision of the insurance laws conditions were pre- 
scribed under which such organizations should be permitted to trans- 
act the business of fire insurance. Through subsequent legislation 
and action of the courts in 1896 many of the Lloyds retired or were 
driven out of business, but it was not until 19 10 that the Lloyds or- 
ganizations came fully under the control and supervision of the insur- 
ance department. (For a history of the movement and action ap^ainst 
Lloyds see Cyclopedia for 1807-98 and 1898-99.) The Lloyds in the 
United States although they have borrowed the name, have little else 
in common with the famous Lloyds in London. The members of 
Lloyds, London, do their own underwriting, whereas with the United 
States Lloyds, the business, or underwriting, is done by ** an attorney." 
The members make a fixed deposit and agree to hold themselves liable 
in addition for a limited sum to insure against loss to a specified ob- 
ject, or, as described in the laws, associations " whereby each associate 
underwriter becomes liable for a proportionate part of the whole amount 
insured by a policy." 

The laws of Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Washington, Wis- 
consin, Alabama, Maryland, New York and Massachusetts provide 
for the organization and licensing of Lloyds. They cannot transact 



Fire Insurance Section 85 

a life insurance business, and, as a rule, are subject to the same terms 
and conditions as regular insurance companies. Illinois permits such 
associations to do business but does not mention Lloyds by name, 
and Maine extends all rights, powers and privileges granted under 
the insurance laws to Lloyds transacting a marine business. 

Another form of insurance organization, which appears to have 
been an outgrowth of Lloyds, has come into existence m recent years. 
These are known as reciprocal underwriters, or inter-insurers, which 
are a form of association of individuals, partnerships and corporations 
authorized under the laws to " exchange reciprocal or inter-msurance 
contracts with each other or with individuals, partnerships and cor- 
porations of other states and countries providmg indemnity among 
themselves from any loss which may be msured against under other 
provisions of the laws exceptinp; life insurance." The laws of the 
following states authorize inter-msurance contracts under the above 
quoted provision: Missouri, California, Kansas, Pennsylvania, Wis- 
consin, Or^on, Idaho, Arkansas, Colorado, Kentucky, North Caro- 
lina, Ohio, Nebraska, Maine, Minnesota and North Dakota. Minne- 
sota, however, adds marine insurance in addition to life insurance to the 
excepted class. Illinois, Washington and New York permit such asso- 
ciations, but not under special laws. In Washington Inter-Insurers 
must qualify under laws relating to mutual companies. A Texas law was 
held unconstitutional by the attomey-p^neral. These Exchanges 
operate through an attorney and are required to file an annual report 
with the insurance commissioner, who must also be appointed attor- 
ney for service of process, which process shall be binding upon all 
subscribers. Except for the requirements and conditions imposed 
in the act authorizing them such Inter-Insurers are exempt from all 
other insurance laws in Missouri, California, Pennsylvania, Wiscon- 
• sin, Oregon, Idaho, Arkansas, Colorado, Kentucky, North Carolina, 
Maine and Minnesota. 

The following is a list of the Lloyds in active operation and re- 
porting to the New York department of December 31, 192 1, with 
date of organization : 

AlUed Underwriten at New York and Chicago Lloyds. E. A. G. Intemann. Jr., 

Attorney (x88a). 
American Eacchange Underwriters. Weed & Kennedy. Attorneys (1892). 
Individual Underwriters, Alfred G. Evans. Attorney (z88i). 
Metropolitan Motor Underwriters. Eugene F. Perry, Attorney (1892). 
Manufacturers' Lloyds, Jameson & Frelinghuysen. Attorneys (189a)- 
Merchants' Fire Lloyds. C. L. Faber. Clement D. Albrecht. and Henry Grifl^, 

Attorneys (1888). 
Xew York Fire and Marine Underwriters (formerly New York Commercial 

Underwriters), Wilcox. Peck & Hughes. Attorneys. (1893). 
New York Reciprocal Underwriters, Alfred G. Evans. Edward B. Swinney. 

Attorneys (1891). 
North American Inter-Insurers. Benedict & Benedict. Attorneys (1892). 

The following is a list of other Lloyds and Inter-Insurers: 

American Inter-Insurance Exchange, Kansas City. Mo. 
American Auto Indemnity Exchange, Chicago, 111. 
American Auto Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 
American Auto Insurance Association, Freeport, 111. 
American Lloyds, Dallas, Tex. 



86 Cyclopedia op Insurance 

American Inter-Insurance Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 

Anglo American Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 

Automobile Indemnity Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 

Auto Insurance Association, Jacksonville, 111. 

Auto Insurance Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Auto Insurance Exchange, Seattle, Wash. 

Auto Owners Fire Protection Exchange, Kankakee. 

Auto Owners Insurance Association, Houston, Tex. 

Auto Owners Inter-Insurance Association, Seattle, Wash. 

Auto Protective Association, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Automobile Underwriters, San Antonio, Tex. 

Bakers Reciprocal Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 

Bankers Fire Insurance Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Bankers Inter- Insurance Alliance of America, Kansas City, Mo. 

Belt Automobile Indemnity Association, El Paso, Tex. 

Bonded Underwriters of America, Houston, Tex. 

Brewers Reciprocal Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 

California Underwriters Agency, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Cresent Auto Protection Association, Mattoon, 111. 

Canners Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Central States Inter- Insurance Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. 

Continental Auto Association, Chicago, 111. 

Druggists Indemnity Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. 

Eastern Auto Indemnity Association, Springfield, III. 

Economy Automobile Insurance Co., Freeport, 111. 

Edwards Insurance Exchange, Fresno, Cal. 

Epperson Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 

Equitable Auto Insurance Association, Aurora, 111. 

Federal Auto Insurance Association, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Federal Indemnity Exchange, Reading, Pa. 

Fidelity Lloyds of America, Houston, Tex. 

General Indemnity Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. 

General Fir and Casualty Lloyds, Dallas, Tex. 

General Motor Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 

Ginners Mutual Underwriters, Tyler, Tex. 

Growers Auto Insurance Association, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Hardware Underwriters, Elgin, 111. 

Illinois Indemnity Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Indemnity Exchange, Chicago, 111. (Organized 1891). 

Independent Motor Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 

Inter-Insurance Exchange of the Automobile Club of Southern California, Loe 

Angeles, Cal. 
Inter-Insurers of America, Washington, D. C. 
Inter-Insurers Exchange, Chicago, 111. 
Inter-Insurance Exchange, Seattle, Wash. 
International Lloyds, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Inter- 1 usurers Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 
Interstate Exchange, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Inter- Insurance Exchange of 111. Auto Club, Chicago, 111. 
Inter-Insurance Exchange, Chicago Motor Club, Chicago, III. 
'Iroquois Auto Insurance Association, Oilman, 111. 
Keystone Indemnity Exchange, Philadelphia. Pa. (Automobile). 
Launderers Reciprocal Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 
Liberty Underwriters, N. Y. 
Lloyds Mutual, Austin, Tex. 
Lumber Industries, Chicago, 111. 
Lumberman's Associated, Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 
Lumberman's Fire Indemnity, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Lumberman's Lloyds, Eau Claire, Wis. 
Lumberman's Mutual Society, Spokane, 
Lumbermen's Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 
Lumbermen's Indemnity Exchange, Seattle, Wash. 
Lumbermen's Underwriters, Houston, Tex. 
Lumbermen's Underwriters Alliance, Kansas City, Mo. 
Ma^iufacturers Lumbermen's Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 
Manufacturing Woodworkers Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 
Manufacturers and Wholesalers Indemnity Exchange, Denver. 
Merchants Reciprocal Underwriters, Dallas, Tex. 



Fire Insurance Section 87 

Merchants Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 

Mid-West Auto Indemnity Association, Freeport. 111. 

Motor Car Indemnity Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Motor Indemnity Co., South Bend, Ind. 

Motor Vehicle Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 

National Auto Owners Inter-Insurance Association, Mich. 

National Auto Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 

National Indemnity Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. 

National Inter-Insurance Bureau, Kansas City, Mo. 

National Association of Dry Cleaners, Inter- Insurance Exchange, St. Louis, Mo. 

National Automobile Association, Indianapolis, Ind. 

National Retail Lumber, Michigan. 

National Underwriters, Chicago, III. 

North American Insurance Underwriters, Springfield, 111. 

Olds & Stoller Inter-Exchange, San Francisco, Cal. 

Oregon Auto Indemnity Exchange, Salem, O. 

Pacific Auto Indemnity Exchange, San Francisco, Cal. 

Penn. Indemnity Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Portland Marine Underwriters, Portland, Me. 

Preferred Auto Insuranoe Exchange, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Preferred Auto Owners Indemnity Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

Preferred Reciprocal Fire Insurers, Chicago, 111. 

Producers and Refijiers Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 

Publishers Reciprocal Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 

Recii>rocaI Annex, Kansas City, Mo. 

Reciprocal Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 

Reciprocal Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 

Reciprocal Underwriters, San Frandsco, Cal. 

Retail Lumbermen's Inter-Insurance Exchange, Minn. 

Samson Auto Insurance Association, Freeport, 111. 

Securety Auto Insurance Association, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Southern Underwriters, San Antonio, Texas. 

Southern Lumber Underwriters, New Orleans, La. 

Sprinklered Risk Underwriters, Chicago, 111. 

Standard Auto Insurance Association, Ind. 

State Auto Insuranoe Association, Des Moines, 

State Auto Insurance Association, Indianapolis, Ind. 

State Mutual Insurance Exchange, St. Paul. 

Texas Indemnity Exchange, Austin, Tex. 

Theatres Inter-Insurance Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tornado Inter-Insuxance Exchange, Duluth, Minn. 

Uoderwrfters at Lloyds of Minneapolis, Minneapolis, Minn. (Organized 1913) 

automobile business, C. W. Sexton & Co., general agents. 
Underwriters Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 
Union Auto Insurance Association, Bloomington, 111. 
Union Indemnity Exchange, San Francisco, Cal. 
United Lloyds, Chicago, 111. 

United Retail Merchants Undeiwriters Association, Minn. 
United States Underwriters, Jacksonville, 111. 
United Shoe Manufacturers Reciprocal, Missouri. 
United States Auto Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 
Universal Lloyds Underwriters, Ind. 
Utilities Fire Exchange. St. Louis. Mo. 
Victory Indemnity Exchange, Memphis, Tenn. 
Warner Inter-Insurance Bureau, Chicago, III. 

Washington Hardware and Implements Underwriters, Spokane, Wash. 
Washington Insurance Exchange, Wash, 111. 
Western Automobile Underwriters, San Francisco, Cal. 
Western Indemnity Exchange, Columbia. 
Western Reciprocal Underwriters, Kansas City, Mo. 
Wm. Penn Motor Indemnity Exchange, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

LLOYDS, LONDON. The name is derived from a coffee house 
kept by Edward Lloyd, where representatives of marine and shipping 
interests were wont to gather, and was first known as early as 1688. 
In 1 87 1 an act was passed granting to Lloyds all the rights and priv- 



88 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

ileges of a corporation sanctioned by Parliament, but as a corporation 
Lloyds does not engage in the insurance business. The underwrite 
in^ is done solely by the individual members on their own account. In 
point of fact, underwriting is only one element of the activities with 
which the name is associated, and from the earliest Lloyds has been 
a great institution for the collection and exchange of maritime informa- 
tion. 

Lloyds was the earliest and simplest form of marine insurance, but 
insurances are now undertaken on almost any hazard or contingency. 
The following paragraphs from the Encyclopedia Britannica will 
give a clear idea of the character of the institution and of its under- 
writing practices: 

" According to this act of incorporation, the three main objects for which the 
society exists are: first, the carrying out of the business of marine insurance; second, 
the protection of the interests of the members of the association; and third, the col- 
lection, publi<»tion, and diffusion of intelligence and information with respect to ship- 
ping. In the promotion of the last-named object, obviously the foundation upon 
which the entire superstructure rests, an intelligence department has been gradually 
developed which for wideness of range and efficient working has no parallel among 
private enterprises in any country. 

"The rooms at Lloyds are available only to subscribers and members. The 
former pay an annual subscription of five guineas without entrance fee, but have no 
voice in the management of the institution. The last consist of non-underwriting 
members, who pay an entrance fee of twelve guineas, and of underwriting members, 
who pay a lee of one hundred pounds. Underwriting members are also required to 
deposit securities to the value of £5,000 to £10,000. according to circumstances, as a 
guarantee for their engagements. The management of the establishment is delegated by 
the members to certain of their number selected as a 'committee for managing the affairs 
of Lloyds.' With this body lies the appointment of all the officials and agents of the 
institution, the daily routine of duty being intrusted to a secretary and a larger staff 
of clerks and other assistants. The mode employed in effecting an insurance at Lloyds 
is very simple. The business is done entirely by brokers, who write upon a plip of 
papet* the name of the ship and shipmaster, the nature of the voyage, the subject to 
be insured, and the amount at which it is valued. If the risk is accepted, each under- 
writer subscribes his name and the amount he agrees to take or underwrite, the insur- 
ance being effected as soon as the total value is made up." 

LONDON AND LANCASHIRE INSURANCE COMPANY 
THE. Limited, London. A. G. Mcllwaine^ Hartford, Conn., manager 
of the United States branch. 

LONDON AND PROVINCIAL MARINE AND GENERAL 
COMPANY, London, Eng. Entered the United States in 1920. Trans- 
acts both fire and marine business. Frank & Dubois, United States 
managers, 80 Maiden Lane, New York. 

LONDON AND SCOTTISH ASSURANCE CORPORATION, 
LIMITED, THE, of London, England, was organized in London in 1862, 
and under date of July i, 19 19, the corporate title was changed from 
the London & Lancashire Life & General Assurance Association, Ltd., 
to its present title. The company entered the United States in 1914, but 
at that time its operations were confined to a few of the principal cities 
in the United States, and its underwriting largely to fireproof and 
sprinklered business. On August 19, 1919, Horatio N. Kelsey was 
appointed Manager for the United States and the policy of the company 
was broadened, the purpose being to establish a general plant and to 
write a general business throughout the United States. The United 
States branch now writes fire, tornado, sprinkler leakage, and automo- 
bile insurance, the office of the United States branch being located 



Fire Insurance Section 89 

at 1 10 William Street, New York, and the office of Appleton & Cox, 
Inc., Attorney Marine Department, at 3 South William Street, New 
York. 

The Home Office assets of the company exceed thirty-five million 
dollars, and the assets of the United States Branch, as reported to the 
Insurance Department of the State of New York on December 31, 
1921, were $1,752,574.60 with a surplus of $1,120,863.67. Depart- 
ments have been established in the United States as follows: Thomas 
Griffith, General Agent, North and South Carolina; George W. Beck & 
Company, General Agents, Colorado and Wyoming; Dargen & Turner, 
Managers, Southern Department, Georgia, Florida, Alabama and 
Louisiana. Benjamin Goodwin, Manager Pacific Department, embrac- 
ing the States of California, Oregon, Washington, Utah, Arizona, 
Nevada, Idaho, Montana and Hawaii. Goodwin, Klinger, Mackay, 
Company, general agents Pacific Automobile Department. The 
United otates Trustees are: George C. Lee, Francis Lee Higginson, 
Jr., Norwood Penrose Hallowell. 

The company does a leading life insurance business in Canada, 
where it has been represented for many years, and operates a sub- 
sidiary fire company in the Dominion of Canada, known as the Scottish 
Metropolitan AsBurance Company, 

LONDON ASSURANCE CORPORATION, THE, of London, 
England, was established in 1720. It has a subscribed capital of 
£1,496,550, or expressed in American money, $7,482,750 of which 
^•366,375, is paid-up in cash, while, under the English law, the share- 
holders are liable ,if needed, for the remainder. The company writes 
fire, marine, life and accident insurance, and at the close of 1920 the 
fire fund alone amounted to $6,500,000, while its total assets were, in 
round figures, $46,432,000. It was admitted to transact a fire insurance 
business in the United States in 1872, where it has since operated 
continuously, with a total fire premium income to December 31, 192 1, 
of $65,504,477. A marine department was opened in this country in 
1889, and the marine business has since yielded $20,077,917 in pre- 
miums, the total premium income on United States business to Decem- 
ber 31, 1921, footing up to $85,582,394. Its business in the United 
States is confined to fire, tornado, sprinkler leakage, war risks, explo- 
sion, riot and civil commotion, tourists' baggage, registered mail, 
automobile, inland navigation and marine insurance. The total assets 
in this country, which are held exclusively for the protection and benefit 
of American policyholders, amounted on December 31, 192 1, to $7,104,- 
741.39, with liabilities, including reinsurance reserve, of $4,611,855.41, 
leaving a net surplus of $2,492,885.98. The office of the United States 
branch, of which John H. Packard is manager, is located at 84 William 
Street, New York City. The assistant manager of this branch is 
Everett W. Nourse. 

LOUISIANA ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS. 
Organized in April, 1899, but became inactive and was re-organized in 
October 1919, at a meeting held in Alexandria. The officers elected in 
19^1 are: M. J. Hartson, New Orleans, president; J. H. Percy, Baton 
Rouge, vice-president; R. N. Slator, Monroe, secretary. 



90 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

LOUISIANA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of Baton Rouge, 
La. Organized 189 1; capital stock, $80,700. T. Jones Cross, president; 
R. N. Ross, secretary'. 

LOUISIANA FIRE PREVENTION BUREAU was organized 
in September, 1904, by authority of an Act of the State Legislature, 
for the purpose of making inspections and estimating advisory rates. 
Present officers are as follows: H. T. Higinbotham, president; Thos. B. 
Norton, vice-president; R. P. Strong, secretary; executive committee; 
E. H. Addington, C. J. Wykoff, H. A. Steckler, Ben. R. Franklin, 
Lee Burton, E. C. French, R. H. Colcock, Jr., E. A. Chavanne, Julian 
Prioleau, T. C. Farrell, L. T. Powers, J. H. Ledbetter, Wallace Kelly, 
Geo. C. Long, Jr., S. Y. Tupper, Conrad Lecoq, J. J. Bailey. 619-24 
Hibernia Bank Building. 

LOUISVILLE BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS, of 
Louisville, Ky., was organized February 15, 1854, with William 
Riddle, president, and B. H. Gwathmey, secretary and treasurer. 
The present officers, elected at the annual meeting in January, 1922, 
are: J. Arthur Viglini, president; Frank C. Carpenter, vice-president; 
William M. Watson, secretary and treasurer. 

LOWELL MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lowell, 
Mass. Organized 1832. Clarence H. Nelson, president; Joseph Pea* 
body, secretary and treasurer. 

LUMBERMEN'S INSURANCE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Organized 1873; capital, 1250,000. Oliver H. Hill, president; Isaac 
W. Roberts, vice-president; Arthur H. Clevenger, secretary; Walter 
Ridgway, assistant secretary, 427 Walnut Street. 

LUMBERMEN'S MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, 
Mansfield, O. Organized 1895. E. S. Nail, president; W. H. G. Kegg, 
secretary. This company insures lumber yards, saw, planing mills and 
other woodworkers. 

LUMBER MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF 
BOSTON, MASS., THE., Boston, Mass. Organized 1895. H. E. 
Stone, president and manager; Horace B. Shepard. first vice-president; 
Jerome C. Borden, second vice-president ; George W. Curtis, secretary 
and treasurer; M. S. Weinschenk, assistant treasurer; T. E. Baker, 
assistant secretary. 

LYNN MANUFACTURERS AND MERCHANTS MUTUAL 
FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Lynn, Mass. Organized 1907 ; 
guaranty capital, $100,000. W. R. Hastings, president; John H. 
Madden, secretary. 

LYNN MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lynn, 
Mass. Organized 1828. Samuel H. Hollis, president and treas- 
urer; Warren S. Hixon, vice-president; Prescott Keyes, secretary; 
C. F. Bowers, assistant secretary and underwriter. 



M 



MADISON INSURANCE COMPANY OF INDIANA, Madison, 
Ind. Chartered 1831. Charter perpetual. Capital, $100,000. H. H. 
Woodsmall, president; W. M. Fogarty, treasurer; Charles E. Hender- 
son, secretary; J. T. Healey, assistant secretary. 

MAINE ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS was organ- 
ized May 24, 1899, at Portland, Me., and reorganized in September, 
1906. The present officers are: President, Ivan E. Lang, Waterville; 
vice-presidents, J. Edward Drake, Bath, J. W. McClure, Bangor,John 
E. Shearman, Portland; secretary and treasurer, Arthur L. Orne, 
Rockland. 

MANSFIELD MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Mansfield, Ohio. Organized 1873. E. J. Forney, president; F. J. 
Chappie, vice-president; J. M. Cook, secretary. 

MANTON MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1894. Frederick A. Downes, presi- 
dent and treasurer; Joseph Bancroft, vice-president; Herbert P. 
Onyx, secretary; Charles H. Thomas, assistant secretary. 

MANUFACTURERS AND MERCHANTS MUTUAL INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, Concord, N. H. Orga- 
nized 1885. Edward G. Leach, president; Charles L. Jackman, vice- 
president, secretary and treasurer; Nelson M. Knowlton, assistant 
secretary. 

MANUFACTURERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Providence, R. I. Organized 1835. John R. Freeman, 
president and treasurer; Theodore P. Bogert, secretary and assistant 
treasurer; Benj. G. Buttolph, Edwin D. ringree, vice-presidents. 

MARINE AND MOTOR INSURANCE COMPANY OF 
AMERICA, Galveston, Texas. Organized 1919; capital, paid-in, 
$200,000. S. E. Kempner, president; J. F. Seinsheimer, vice-president 
and secretary; R. Lee Kempner, treasurer; J. M. Jacobs, assistant 
secretary; H. Economidy, assistant secretary. 

MARINE BOARD'S OF UNDERWRITERS. [See Boards of 
Underwriters of New York, Boston Board of Marine Underwriters, 
Marine Underwriters' Association of San Francisco, and American 
Institute of Marine Underwriters, Association of Marine Underwriters 
of the United States.] 

MARINE INSURANCE. This class of insurance, transacted by 
fire insurance companies and several exclusively marine companies, 
has shown a large growth in recent years and carried on by fire com- 
panies formerly under a cliarter grant, the privilege has in recent 
years been extended to fire insurance companies generally by legis- 



92 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



lative act. Many fire insurance companies not previously transacting^ 
a marine business, entered the field, particularly in 19 17, and prac- 
tically all the principal fire insurance companies now transact marine 
insurance. Several companies were also organized in 191 7 to trans- 
act a marine business exclusively. Two classes of marine insurance 
are written — ocean marine and inland marine; the latter including 
special forms. The following is a statement of the marine business of 
fire insurance companies and of marine companies separately for 192 1. 



FIRE COMPANIES 

Agricultural, N. Y. 

Alliance, Pa. 

American Alliance 

American Central, Mo. 

American Eagle, N. Y. 

American Equitable, N. Y. 

American, N. J. 

American National 

Assurance Co. of America 

Atlas, London 

Atwood, N. Y. 

Automobile, Conn. 

Baltlca 

Bankers and Shippers 

Berk^ire Mutual 

Boston, Mass. 

British America, Can. 

British General 

Caledonian 

California 

Camden, N. J. 

Central Manufacturers 

Central States Fire 

Century 

City of New York 

City of Penna 

Cleveland National 

Colonial Assurance, N. Y. 

Columbia, N. J. 

Columbian National 

Commercial Union 

Commercial Union 

Commonwealth, N 

Concordia 

Connecticut 

Continental, N. Y. 

Detroit F. & M. 

Dixie Fire, N. C. 

Equitable, R. I. 

Eureka 

Eagle. Star & British Dominions 

Federal, N. J. 

Federal Union, Chicago 

Fidelity- Phenix, N. Y. 

Fire Aisociation 

Fireman's Fund 

Firemen's & Mechanics 

Firemens, N. J. 

Fitchburg Mutual 

Franklin 

Fuso, Japan 

Glen Cove Mutual 



Ocean Marine 
Net Net 
Premiuma Losses 
Written Paid 


Inland Marine 
Net Net 
Premiums Losses 
Written Paid 


$1,689,726 
315.149 
439.073 

2 

78,301 

125.378 

185.307 


$2,168,931 
192,862 

405.149 
205 

S)6,2IO 

249.614 
198,498 


$254,669 

44.507 

82,083 

441 

10,128 

55.846 

181,001 


$183,028 

23.X3S 

76,848 

22 

13.628 

24.251 
180,02 X 


1.938,076 

242,857 

89.669 


635.177 
411.933 
292,635 


1.446,879 
113.179 


839.411 
279.860 


924.591 


1,198,161 


34.515 
24.541 


23.907 
26.358 


158.734 


216,248 


46 
58.802 


34 

53.75ft 



Y. 



8,231 



3.65s 

9,701 

220,596 

30.552 



405,774 
6,415 
159,992 
179.172 
647,027 

72.773 
89,586 

12,301 
852,896 

629,020 

284,032 

2.935,345 

158,73s 

145.816 
36,909 



16,699 

40,994 
70.266 
21,712 
78.642 
23.463 



353,118 
18,776 
151,378 
259,748 
447,914 

48,469 
129,984 

7,857 
644,348 

436,647 

244,693 

3,319,086 

220,153 

110,887 



35,386 

7,848 
570,964 
28.236 
1.232 
72,318 
50,105 

185 

21,257 

29,066 

75,282 
762 

871,330 

40,164 
41,539 
14,693 

550,170 
65,358 

219,747 

97,210 

14.451 



14.483 

139 
515.518 

6.3X1 

64,43a 

76,575 

2.009 

29.143 
23.374 

280.385 
42,263 
57,595 

533.757 

6o,5>98 

106,047 

44,285 



Fire Insurance Section 



93 



FIRE COMPANIES 

Glena Falls 
Globe & Rutgers 
Globe National 
Grain Dealers National 
Great American 
Great Lakes 
Guaranty- 
Guardian 
Hamilton 
Hanover 
Hartford 
Home 

Home Fire & Marine 
Hudson, N. Y. 
Imperial 

Importers and Exporters 
Indiana Lumbermens 
Independence. Pa 
Ins. Co. of State of Penn. 
Ins. Co. of North America 
Knickerbocker. N. Y. 
Law Union and Rock 
Liverpool. London and Globe 
London & Lancashire 
London Assurance 
London and Scottish 
Maryland Motor Car 
Mass. Fire & Marine 
Mercantile 

Merchants and Farmers 
Merchants 
Merrimack Mutual 
Millers National. Chicago 
Milwaukee Mechanics 
Motor Car Mutual 
National American 
National — Ben Franklin 
National Liberty 
National, Hartford 
National Union 
New Brunswick 
Newark 

New Jersey Fire 
New Hampshire, N. H. 
New 2^ealand 
Niagara 
Nippon 

Northern London 
North British & Mercantile 
North China 
North River 

Northwestern F. & M., Minn. 
Northwestern National 
Norwich Union, London 
Ohio Farmers 
Old Colony 
Orient 
P^ific 

Palatine, London 
Palmetto. N. C. 
Patriotic, Dublin 
Pawtucket Mutual 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania Millers 



Net 

Premiums 
Written 

$427,295 

2,436,202 

24.478 

416.877 



1.069 

187,052 

602,684 

1,234.765 

127.237 

30.549 

586,268 



Ocean Marine 



Net 

Losses 
Paid 

$611,305 

3,110,162 

166,293 

662,728 
18,069 

5,295 

84.467 

439,295 

1 ,301 .460 

204,24s 

25,383 

357,615 



Inland Marine 
Net Net 

Premiums Losses 

Written Paid 



$198,024 
4.044.695 

9.527 

325,564 
384 



60,882 

744.699 

1,212.935 

23,456 

12,762 



$106,806 
1 ,879.381 



205,253 
4,810 



139,693 
216,564 

755,23$ 

66,141 

3,806 



4,468,216 

79,6s I 


12,779 
3,698,621 

159,631 


1,632,850 
23,602 


1,037,06$ 
19,027 


54.883 

422,424 
263,035 


85.179 

667,068 
158,120 


198,827 

125 

220,923 

14.631 


124.514 

66,622 
6,794 


5,644 


60,296 
14.794 


14.629 


3,621 
22.516 


109,135 


223,463 


25.680 


35,840 


207,31s 


186,921 


9.934 


11,334 


16,939 


10,123 

• 






132,549 
84.238 

140.754 

1.649 

85.122 

105,687 

77,155 

231.6S8 

634,370 


113.119 
220. S04 

1OS.671 
34.888 

84.379 

57.708 

98,486 

126,029 

590,336 


44.607 

14.254 

9,499 

92,896 

4.047 
9,958 

25,186 
g 


3.14$ 

5,811 

12.534 

18,929 

2.68$ 

1,637 

47,204 


12,903 

109.930 

96,294 


31.131 

78,800 

191.000 




115 
15,981 
28,426 

787 


1.752 

10,699 

1,150 


259,147 

175,681 

66,481 


118,611 
294.772 

209,353 
9.232 


86.553 

254.824 

8.208 

315 
5,725 


i8,7ia 

37,379 

235.839 

9,609 

727 

1,681 






3.801 

9,195 
7,356 


820 
3.519 



94 



Fire Insurance Section 



FIRE COMPANIES 



Ocean Marine 
Net Net 

Premiums Losses 

Written Paid 



Inland Marine 
Net Net 

Premiums Lossea 

Written Paid 



Peoples National 


ti,585 


$8,102 


$27,369 


Sa6,o88 


Phoenix, Conn. 


268,759 


389,622 


115,556 


103,129 


Phoenix, London 


42,856 


53,493 


XO,077 


X,40X 


Potomac 










Preferred Risk 


567 


2,451 
X, 032, 663 


X4,6S2 


10,223 


Providence- Washington 


605,692 


328,230 


107 .3X5 


Queen. N. Y. 


229,118 


316.560 


74.191 


101,987 


Reliance 


10,270 


1.493 






Rocky Mountain 










Royal 


308,152 


403.938 


94.932 


106,629 


Royal Exchange 
Safeguard, N. Y. 


2x4,036 


160.867 


11,474 


11,410 


Scottish Union & National 










Scandinavian American 


44S.957 


938.230 


310.686 


498,808 


Security, Conn. 
South Carolina 


169,947 


200,040 


2,643 


1,619 


274 


15.733 






Springfield F. & M. 


443,168 


415,408 


63.068 


55.259 


State Assurance 
Sterling, Ind. 


















St. Paul F. & M. 


641,654 


1,060.450 


703,203 


290,502 


Star. N. Y. 


80.899 


90,504 


28,686 


26,302 


Stuyvesant, N. Y. 


826 


10,40s 






Sun, London 










Superior 


4.186 


36,592 






Tokio, Japan 


459,186 


153,625 


23.590 


15,162 


Union, London 






6.I5S 


32 


Union, Canton 


445,503 


557.074 


68,951 


34.969 


Union Hispano-American 


382,511 


551.806 






United Mutual 






985 




United States, N. Y. 


501,136 


329,502 


20,538 




United States Lloyds 


790,127 


874.765 


X 18.648 


XXO.OZI 


Urbaine 






II 




Utah Home 


43.144 


XO.IIO 






Victory, Pa. 










Vulcan, Cal. 


63,237 


161.858 


12,342 


53.942 


Westx^hester, N. Y. 


142,741 


190,312 


34.886 


61,779 


Western, Toronto 


53.147 


375.276 


239.154 


IOIJ07 


Yorkshire, England 










ToUl 1921 $33,342,405 


$35,713,506 


$17,019,837 


$10,418,218 


MARINE COMPANIES 










Alliance, London 


1448,721 


$361,092 


$210,626 


$64,053 


Amer. & Foreign Marine, N. Y. 


291,338 


249,018 


267,084 


317,466 


Amer. Merchant Marine. N. Y. 


21,705 


1. 1 79. 249 






Amer. Steamship Owners, N. Y. 






. 




Atlantic Mutual. N. Y. 


2,482,130 


1. 98 1. 3 16 


155.275 


65,789 


British & Foreign Liverpool 


223,316 


183,674 


211,316 


56,597 


Indemnity Mutual, London 










La Fonciere, Paris 


31.743 


35,442 






Marine. London 


577.285 


883,349 


962,407 


909.895 


Maritime, Liverpool 


180.967 


233.945 


31 


43.077 


Marine and Motor 


3.141 


50,532 






Merchants and Shippers 


126,553 


85,520 


50,023 




Ocean, London 


5 1. 059 


267.497 


37.035 


47.076 


Reliance, Liverpool 


35.308 


201,138 


33.944 


17.770 


Sea, Liverpool 


564.938 


409.338 


256,307 


124.998 


Standard, Liverpool 


1,682.334 


S13.278 


163,244 


403,195 


Switzerland General 


590.679 


706,438 


42,459 


35.280 


Thames and Mersey, Liverpool 


374.069 


473.506 


210.288 


II4,40S> 


Union. Liverpool 


68,736 


394.186 


209,070 


81,04s 


Washington Marine 


247.101 


84.024 






Yang-Tsxe. China 


159,775 


493.070 
$8,784,613 






Total 192 X $8,160,898 


$3,809,109 


$2,280«65O 



Fire Insurance Section 95 

MARITIME INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, Liverpool, 
England. (Marine.) W. L. H. Simpson, United States manager. 
New York, N. Y. 

• MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, London, England. 
(Marine.) Chubb & Son, United States managers, New York, N. Y. 

MARQUETTE NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Chicago, III. Organized 19 15; capital, paid up, $300,000. Anthony 
Matre, president; Henry Reis, vice-president; Napoleon Picarcf, 
secretary and treasurer, 175 West Jackson Boulevard. 

MARYLAND MOTOR CAR INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Wilmington, Del., executive offices, Baltimore, Md. 0r^;ani2ed 1910; 
reincorporated 191 2; cash capital $500,000. J. Purviance Bonsai, 
president; Wm. Whitridge, vice-president; Charles B. Reeves, vice- 
president and secretary; H. Ross Barton, treasurer and assistant sec- 
retary; A. B. Crisp, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer. 

MARYLAND ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS, 
was organized at a meeting: held in Baltimore in December, 191 1, and 
was reorganized at a meetmg in April, 1919. The officers are: Walter 
W. Alexander, president; A. Frank Miller and Frank I. Wheeler, vice* 
presidents; Frank W. Lawson, secretary and treasurer, Baltimore. 

MASSACHUSETTS ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized at a meeting held in Worcester, October 
10, 1906. Officera were elected as follows: President, William Gil- 
mour, Boston; vice-presidents, Fred C. Church, Lowdl; C. H. Cor- 
nish, New Bedford; W. S. Warriner, Springfield; C. B. Russell, Marl- 
boro; T. H. Raymond, Cambridge; secretary and treasurer, E. P. 
Ingraham, Worcester. The present officers, are: President, Robert T. 
Sisson, Lynn; secretary and treasurer, Fred A. Norton, Salem. 

MASSACHUSETTS FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Boston, Mass. Organized 19 10; capital, $500,000. 
Charles G. Smith, president; Jesse E. White, vice-president; Walter 
Adiard, vice-president and secretary; John J. Downey, George E. 
Krech, Henry F. Lawrence, assistant secretaries. 

MECHANICS AND TRADERS INSURANCE COMPANY, 
New Orleans, La. Organized 1869; capital, $300,000. H. A. Smith, 
president; R. L. Emery and S. T. Maxwell, vice-presidents; T. B. 
Norton and F. D. Layton, secretaries; R. M. Anderson, assistant 
secretary; R. L. Emery, treasurer. The company is controlled by inter- 
ests closely allied with the National Fire of Hartford. 

MECHANICS INSURANCE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Organized 1854; capital, $600,000. Daniel H. Dunham, president; 
Neal Bassett, vice-president; John Kay, vice-president; J. A. Snyder, 
secretary. The company is controlled by the Firemen's Insurance 
Company of Newark. 



96 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

MECHANICS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Providence, R. I. Oi^^nized 1871. John R. Freeman, president and 
treasurer; Theodore P. Bogert, secretary and assistant treasurer; 
Benj. G. Buttolph, Edwin D. Pingree, vice-presidents. ^ 

MEMPHIS FIRE INSURANCE PATROL, Memphis, Tenn. 
The patrol, an incorporated body, was organized May 17, 1895, and is 
maintained by authorized companies doing business in Memphis. 
James Fitzmorris is superintendent of the corps and there is a force of 
18 men. The officers of the oij^nization are: President, J. Thos. 
Wellford; vice-president, J. P. Edrington; secretary and treasurer, 
L. H. Patterson. The report of the superintendent for the year ending 
December 31, 1921, gave the number of alarms responded to by the 
Patrol as 1,116 and the total loss, insured and uninsured, as $1,171,065- 
.30, of which $540,949.73 was on buildings and $630,115.67 on contents 
and $45,701.54 exposure loss. The total insurance loss within city 
limits was $884,993.28, the total insurance loss $958,519.41 and the 
total valuation of buildings and contents, $20,025,984.21. Tornado loss 
$2,566.35. 

MERCANTILE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA. 
New York, N. Y. Organized 1897; capital, $1,000,000. Cecil F. 
Shallcross, president; E. T. Cairns, C. R. Perkins, W. S. Alley, C. E. 
Case, vice-presidents; R. P. Barbour, secretary. 76 William Street. 

MERCANTILE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Providence, R. I. Organized 1884. Alfred U. Eddy, president and 
treasurer; Walter K. Pullen, secretary and assistant treasurer; F. B. 
Burrill, assistant secretary-treasurer. 

MERCHANTS AND FARMERS MUTUAL FIRE INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Worcester, Mass. Organized 1846. President. 
Alexander H. Bullock; vice-president and treasurer, Edmund L. 
Sanders; secretary, Harry S. Myrick. 

MERCHANTS' AND MANUFACTURERS' MUTUAL IN- 
SURANCE COMPANY, Mansfield, Ohio. Organized 1876. S. N. 
Ford, president; F. W. Bloor, vice-president; G. W. De Yarmon, 
secretary and treasurer; Harry De Yarmon, assistant secretary. 

MERCHANTS' AND SHIPPERS' INSURANCE COMPANY, 
35 South William Street, New York, N. Y. Organized and began 
business, 1919; capital, paid-in, $200,000. Robert E. Binger, presi- 
dent; Louis J. Robertson, Enrico N. Stein and Sylvian Bier, vice-presi- 
dents; Samuel L. Martin, vice-president and secretary; Julian B. 
Beaty, treasurer; W. J. Roberts, marine underwriter. (Transacts 
marine insurance only.) 

MERCHANTS' FIRE ASSURANCE CORPORATION OF 
NEW YORK, 45 John Street, New York. Organized 191 o; capita.1. 
$700,000. Edward L. Ballard, chairman; Alden C. Noble, president; 



Fire Insurance Section 97 

William B. Carter and A. A. Moser, vice-presidents; George L. Mcln- 
tire and Joseph L. Leffson, secretaries; G. A. Ziemen and Don R. 
Frary, assistant secretaries; George F. Warch, auditor. 

MERCHANTS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Denver. 
Col. Organized 1907 ; Capital, $200,000. W. J. Galligan, president ; 

C. M. Schenck, vice-president; J. R. Gardner, secretary and manager, 

D. A. Holaday, treasurer; G. N. Gardner, assistant secretary. 

MERCHANTS MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Providence, R. I. Organized- 1874. William B. McBee, president 
and treasurer; Charles H. Smith, vice-president and assistant treasurer; 
Howard I. Lee, secretary; Frank T. Daniels, assistant secretary. 

MERCHANTS MUTUAL INSURANCE ASSOCIATION, Red- 
field, South Dakota. Organized 1895. W. C. Kiser, Ir., president, 
and treasurer; Gus Meyer, vice-president; N. S. Tyler, secretary; 
F. B. Griffith, assistant secretary. 

MERRIMACK MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Andover, Mass. Organized 1828. Burton S. Flagg, president; Fred<» 
eric G. Moore, secretary. 

METROPOLITAN-HIBERNIA FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Chicago, 111. The Metropolitan Fire and The Hibemia, both 
of Chic^o, were merged in April 19 19, under the title Metropolitan- 
Hibemia Fire Insurance Company. Oii;anized 1902; capital, $250,000. 
Thomas F. Keeley, president; James I. Naghten, vice-president; Rich- 
ard W. Wolfe, second vice-president; George Essig, secretary; James 
Hanning, assistant secretary and treasurer; John Naghten & Co., 
general managers. 175 West Jackson Boulevard. 

METROPOLITAN NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Havana, Cuba. Organized 19 19. Entered the United States in 1920 
for fire reinsurance only. Sumner Ballard, 80 Maiden Lane, United 
States Manager. I 

MICHIGAN CONSERVATION AND FIRE PREVENTION 
ASSOCIATION. Organized in August 1919 as the successor of the 
State Fire Prevention Association. The present officers, elected in 
June 192 1, are: President, Stewart Morgan, Agricultural; vice-presi- 
dent, W. N. Achenbach, Aetna; secretary and treasurer, M. M. 
Hawxhurst, London Assurance. 

MICHIGAN FIELD CLUB was organized in November, 191 1, 
as the successor of the Michigan Fire Underwriters' Club, composed of 
members of the Western Insurance Bureau, and H. A. Bartels, was 
elected president; A. E. Henry, vice-president; and N. B. Jones, secre- 
tary and treasurer. The present officers, elected in June 1921, are: 
President, Fred W. Sullivan, National Union; vice-president, C. A. 
Weymeyer, Security, Conn.; secretary and treasurer, Stewart Morgan, 
Agricultural, East Lansing, Mich. 



98 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

MICHIGAN FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Detroit, Mich. Organized 1880; capital, $400,000. D. M. 
Ferry, Jr., president; E. J. Booth, vice-president; H. E. Everett, 
secretary; E. P. Webb, assistant secretary; F. A. Sichulte, treasurer. 

MICHIGAN MILLERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Lansing, Mich. Organized 1881. Robert Henkel, 
president; B. W. Jenks, G. F. Allmendinger, vice-presidents; A. D. 
Baker, secretary and treasurer; L. H. Baker, assistant secretary and 
treasurer; Geo. G. Ma Dan, assistant treasurer. 

MIDDLESEX MUTUAL ASSURANCE COMPANY, Middle- 
town, Conn. Organized 1836. D. W. Camp, president and treasurer; 
D. W. Chase, secretary; Samuel Babcock, assistant secretary; N. £. 
Davis, assistant secretary. 

MIDDLESEX MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COxMPANY, 
Concord, Mass. Incorporated 1826. Prescott Keyes, .president; 
r F. Bowers, vice-president and underwriter, E. R. Howard, secretary. 

MID-WEST INSURANCE COMPANY, Wichita, Kansas. 
Organized 1916. Thad L. Hofifman, president; L. S. Naftzger, vice- 
president; J. B. Henderson, secretary and treasurer; Willard Quinn, 
assistant secretary and treasurer; W. D. Jochems, attorney. Formerly 
Mid- West Mutual Automobile Indemnity Association, name changed 
in 1919. 

MILLERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION 
OF ILLINOIS, Alton, 111. Organized 1877. H. B. Sparks, president; 
W. E. Meek, first vice-president; G. S. Milnor, second vice-president; 
G. A. McKinney, secretary and treasurer; A. J. Kellenberger, assistant 
secretary. 

MILLERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Har- 
risburg, Pa. Organized in 1890. H. V. White, president; B. Frank 
Hartzel, vice-president; H. C. Hafey, secretary; Wm. T. Knecht, 
treasurer. 

MILLERS' NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago, 
111. Organized 1865; (mutual); (guarantee fund $500,000.) C. B. 
Cole, president; M. A. Reynolds, secretary; F. S. Danforth, assistant 
secretary. 175 West Jackson Boulevard. 

MILL OWNERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Chicago, 111. Organized 1895. H. N. Wade, president; 
P. J. Halla, secretary. (20 West Jackson Boulevard.) 

MILWAUKEE BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS was 
organized in January, 1876. It is a rating bureau and has also 
established and controls fire insurance patrols in Milwaukee. The 
present officers are: Walter T. Greene, president; W. B. Calhoun, 
vice-president; J. O. Myers, secretary; William F. Lynch, treasurer. 



FiEE Insurance Section 99 

MILWAUKEE MECHANICS' INSURANCE COMPANY of 
Milwaukee, Wis. Organized 1852; capital, $1,250,000. Chas. H. 
Yunker, president; G. W. Grossenbach, vice-president; Robe Bird, 
second vice-president; R. H. Wieben, secretary; Emil Teich, Char- 
les Klenk and Reni Stecker, assistant secretaries; Ernest G. Ebert, 
assistant treasurer. 

MINNEAPOLIS BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS 
was organized in 1895 and maintains the fire patrol and salvage corps. 
The present officers are: President, F. H. Wagner; vice-president, 
Alex. Campbell; secretary and treasurer, J. P. Thomson. 

MINNEAPOLIS FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Minneapolis, Minn. Organized in 1902 as the Winona Fire 
Insurance Company; capital, $200,000. Fred C. Van Dusen, presi- 
dent; J. D. McMillan, vice-president; Walter C. Leach, secretary 
and treasurer; F. M. Merigold, assistant secretary and assistant 
treasurer; Geo. E. Leach, superintendent of agencies. 

MINNESOTA AND NORTH DAKOTA FIRE UNDER- 
WRITERS was ozonized April 23, 1885, being the successor of the 
Wisconsin, Minnesota and Dakota Union. The first meeting was held 
at Minneapolis, and J. J. McDonald was elected president, A. J. Trum- 
bull, vice-president, and A. K. Murray, secretary and treasurer. The 
presidents since organization have been: 1885, J. J. McDonald; 1886, 
A. J. Trumbull; 1887, J. H. Griffith; 1890, E. M. Hitchcock; 1892, 
George G. Williams; 1893, Samuel J. Johnson; 1894, Walter H.Cobban; 
1895, Howard DeMott; 1896, R. A. Overpeck; 1897, R. R. Briggs; 
1898, Otto E. Greely; 1900, D. F. Vail; 1901, Walter C. Leach; 1902, 
Clarence D. Hayes; 1903, George C. Main; 1904, Frank A. Mannen; 
190$, Hugh R. Loudon; 1906, R. L. Bruen; 1907, J. F. Stafford; 1908, 
L. F. Daniel; 1909, W. J. Haggarty; 1910, E. A. Davis; 191 1, George 
A. Mowry, 191 2; J. L. King, 1913: Ernest C. Bowe, 1914; Byron R. 
Cowles, 1915; R. W. Schimmel, 1916; John A. Hansen, 1917; Charles 
G. Bates, 191 8; E. J. Macdonald, 1919. 

The organization up to 1908 was a ratinp^ and supervising body, 
having charge, practically, of the states of Mmnesota and North Da- 
kota, excepting the towns under the jurisdiction of the St. Paul and 
Minneapolis inspectorship, the Winona inspectorship, and the Duluth 
inspectorship. The association originally had jurisdiction over South 
Dakota. The Minnesota Fire Prevention Association was merged with 
the association in 19 14, and the association has taken up fire prevention 
work. 

The present officers, elected at the annual meeting in June, 1921, 
are: President, Charles O. Young, Liverpool and London and Globe; 
vice-president, R. J. Jordan, Great American; secretary, Mrs. E. S. 
Latta; treasurer, A. R. Gress, Insurance Company of North America. 

MINNESOTA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Chatfield, 
ZVIinn. Organized 1909; capital, $100,840. Joseph Underleak, presi- 
dent; F. L. Tesca, vice-president; S. E. Bibbins, secretary; F. G. 
Stoudt, treasurer. 



228871 



100 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



MISSISSIPPI FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Jackson, Miss. 
Organized 1921; aythorized capital, $1,000,000; paid-in $343,830. 
George A. Wilson, Sr., president; J. Morgan Stevens, vice-president; 
W. D. Mounger, secretary. 

MISSOURI ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS was 
organized in 1897, and reorganized in 191 7. The present officers are: 
Ferd. Labrunerie, president, St. Joseph, Mo.; J. W. Rodger, St. Louis, 
secretary and treasurer, 435 Pierce Building. 

MOSCOW FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Moscow, Russia, 
entered the United States in January, 1900, making a deposit in 
New York state. Paul E Rasor, 15 William Street, New York City, 
is ersident manager. 

MOTOR CAR MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
50-56 John Street, New York, N. Y. Organized 1919. The company 
was taken over by the New York insurance department in 192 1, and 
placed in liquidation. 

MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE. Written by fire and marine 
companies. The following is a statement of the business in 192 1. 



Motor Vehicle 



Aetna, Hartford 
Agricultural, N. Y. 

AUiance, Pa 

Allied American Mutual 

American, N. J. 

American Alliance, N. Y. 

American Automobile 

American Central, Mo. 

American Eagle, N. Y. . 

American Equitable, N. Y. 

American Fire 

American National . 

Assurance, N. Y. . 

Atlas, England 

Atwood, N. Y. 

Automobile, Hartford 

Automobile Mutual 

Bankers & Shippers, N. Y. . 

Berkshire Mutual . 

Boston, Mass. 

British America, Canada 

British & Foreign Marine 

British General 

Caledonian .... 

California Fire . . 

Camden. N. J. 

Central Manufacturers Mutual 

Central National 

Central States .... 

Century, England 

Citizens Mutual, Mass. . 

City of New York . 

City of PennBylvania 

Cleveland National 



Net Premiums 
Received 

<x.933>582 

*430,45Z 

106,303 



1,163.707 

8.80Z 

3.103.354 

♦894.S86 

181,444 

7.393 

3.334 

900 

330.173 

554.853 

•15,094 

•3,434>689 

' 884,674 

1,128,933 
38,650 



Net 

Incurred 

$1,463,491 

270,763 
155.318 

834.657 

9.53 X 

i.S77.i6r 

556.997 

123.780 

1X6,432 

82 

9.47 X 

78,003 

363,724 

7.550 

3.322,068 

6x5.765 

679.663 
30.301 



215,191 


65.990 


377,922 


266.986 


197.185 


428,216 


3IS.I8I 


263.27 a 


427,630 

*IS,S26 


243.430 


28,264 


31,588 


X9.529 


203,438 


135.434 


409.833 


108,584 


91 


49 


i8x 


zxo 



* Includes Aircraft Insurance. 



Fire Insurance Section 



101 



Net Premiums 
Motor Vehicle Received 

Colonial Aagurance 

Columbia. N. J S589.775 

Columbian, Ind ^S.Sio 

Commercial Union, England 1,028,098 

Commercial Union, N. Y 266,475 

Commonwealth, N. Y. 362,368 

Concordia, Wis 48,012 

Connecticut Fire, Hartford 322 884 

Continental. N. Y 899,197 

Dixie Fire 19.345 

Eagle.N.J 

Eagle, Star and British Dominions 599i390 

Employers Fire. Boston 109,985 

Equitable Fire & Marine 13.537 

Federal, la 12.669 

Federal. N. J 1,122.056 

Fidelity, Sumter ♦121 

Federal Mutual. Md 

Fidelity Phcnix, N. Y 706,669 

Fire Association, Pa 767.316 

Fireman's Fund, Cal. *3. 295.777 

Firemen's, N. J 401,465 

Fitchburg Mutual, Mass 

Franklin Fire, Pa 967.639 

George Washington 5>i33 

Glens Falls, N. Y 1,022.834 

Globe National. Pa 2.268 

Globe & Rutgers. N. Y *9S9,264 

Grain Dealers Mutual 

Great American, N. Y 1,942,920 

Great Lakes. Chicago 233 

Greensboro Fire. N. C. 3.850 

Guaranty 225,410 

Guardian 490 

Hamilton, N. Y.* 515.600 

Hanover. N. Y 489.999 

Hartford Fire. Conn 2,885,928 

Hawkeye Securities 4.400 

Holyolo? Mutual 

Home. N. Y *4.577,520 

Home, Fire & Marine. Cal 227,135 

Imperial, N. Y 90,680 

Importers & Exporters, N. Y 645,840 

Indemnity Mutual Marine 879.486 

Independence 

Indiana Lumbermen's Mutual 

Insurance Co. of North America, Philadelphia . 2.421.992 

Insurance Co. of State of Penn., Philadelphia . 224.331 

International 30,521 

Interstate Fire. Mich 27 

Iowa Manufacturers 56.371 

Iowa National *4.ii6 

Law, Union & Rock 80.684 

Liberty Fire, Mo *68.3i9 

Liverpool & London & Globe 1,249,280 

London AMurance 428,716 

London & Lancashire *762.904 

London & Scottish 37.197 

Lumbermen's Mutual 54.458 

Lynn Mutual 

Marine, England 

Maryland Motor Car 

Maasachusetts Fire & Marine. Boston .... 261 

Mechanics & Traders . 66.523 

* Includes Aircraft Insurance. 



Net Losses 
Incurred 

$730,492 

5.817 

701,678 

253.638 
240,125 

90,378 
246.273 
703.550 

24.114 

363.261 

19.635 

7,859 

11.820 

704.680 

410 

629,260 

544.109 

2,881,214 

284,364 

851,096 
12,006 

667,244 

12 

1.056,856 

1,488,286 

4,698 

12,143 

54,191 

961 

281,408 

324,174 

1,995.080 

3.159 

3,089,098 

311,247 
54.276 

494.525 
976,725 



1,976.878 

138,001 

43.417 

453 

5,157 

2,774 
63,121 

11,439 
1,077,756 

278,043 

537,848 

11,248 

11,803 



18.901 
18,307 



102 



Cyclopedia op Insurance 



Net Prcmiunu 

Motor Vehicle Received 

Merchants, N. Y *Sx79.749 

Merrimack Mutual 

Middlesex Mutual 

Millers National * 168,802 

Milwaukee Mechanics, Wis 273,947 

Mutual Protection 

National American 48,218 

National Fire, Hartford 3,530,346 

National, Denmark 

National Ben Franklin 198,501 

National Liberty. N. V •SSS.SSI 

National Security 36,966 

National Union, Pa . 576,703 

Newark, N. J 376,536 

New Brunswick, N. J 70,003 

New England 220 

New Hampshire, N. H X3S.346 

New Jersey 179,401 

New Zealand 45,094 

Niagara, N. Y *i,202,8i2 

Nippon, Japan 

North British & Mercantile, England .... 597.6x9 

North River, N. Y 994,098 

Northern, England 537.507 

Northern, Moscow 

Northwestern Fire &. Marine, Minn 58.388 

Northwestern National 291,094 

Norwich Union, England SS6,797 

Ohio Farmers 173,001 

Ohio V^alley Fire 2,073 

Old Colony, Boston 253,918 

Omaha Liberty 8,896 

Orient, Hartford 514,104 

Pacific Fire 582,064 

Pacific States Fire 8o,soi 

Palatine, England 344,209 

Palmetto 203 

Patriotic 180,647 

Pawtucket Mutual 

Pennsylvania, Pa. 608,283 

Peoples Fire 32,773 

Phoenix, Conn 847,748 

Phoenix. England 588,110 

Pilot Fire 7,023 

Providence Washington, R. I *700,886 

Potomac. Washington, D. C 91,240 

Queen, N. Y •1,828.860 

Reliance. Pa 44.752 

Republic, Pa 147 

Richmond 8,585 

Rocky Mountain 

Royal, England 2,118,588 

Royal Exchange, England 113,406 

Safeguard, N. Y 123,273 

Scottish Union & National 321,080 

5>ccurity, Conn 338,499 

Security, la 135 

South Carolina 1.251 

South Danvers Mutual, Mass 

Springfield Fire & Marine 723,132 

St. Paul Fire & Marine 1.563,113 

Star •321,417 

State, England 1 5,437 

Stuyvesant, N. Y 164,586 

• Includes Aircraft Insurance. 



Net 

Incurred 

S7Xr439 



361,412 
229.510 

27.877 
1,521.168 

291.699 

444«099 

36,104 

6x2.960 

233,073 

287.114 

453 

97,496 

65.832 

29,553 
762.326 

431.936 
600.899 

537,674 

75.745 
377.242 
426.338 
133.727 
1.652 
177.018 
6.48a 

345.743 
258,866 

45.884 

356,664 

62 

93.469 

397.766 

35.095 
592,369 

355.227 
13.395 

593,895 
55,618 

1,095.894 
27.157 

4.3X6 

l.56i,S39 
445.138 

47.509 
429.153 
3i3.oaa 

617 



543.384 

X. 307, 195 

295.095 

4.858 

81.337 



Fire Insurance Section 103 

Net Premiums Net Losses 
Motor Vdiicle Received Incurred 

Sun. England S545.47I S379>8z9 

Thames & Mersey 

Tokio Marine & Fire, Japan 164,339 163,208 

Twin City 49,866 29,494 

Underwriters. N. C Xf395 6x 

Union, England a8x.535 286,882 

Union of Canton China *i ,838. 196 1,364,387 

Union Reserve 688 

United Fireman's 142,164 29,467 

United Mutual . 

United States Fire. N. Y 896.727 659*954 

United Sutes Uoyds 

Urbaine X03.302 68,588 

Victory, Pa 25.821 16,566 

Washington Marine, N. Y 

Westchester, N. Y. 266,9x6 300,023 

Western, Canada 24,729 19.598 

Yorlcshire 669,154 495.670 

Total, 192X $46,081,485 835.287, X07 

MUTUAL ASSURANCE COMPANY FOR INSURING 
HOUSES FROM LOSS BY FIRE, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 
1784. Henry W. Biddle, chairman; David Lewis, treasurer. 

MUTUAL ASSURANCE COMPANY OF THE CITY OF 
NORWICH, THE, Norwich, Conn. Incorporated 1794. Charles R 
Butts, secretary. 

MUTUAL ASSURANCE SOCIETY OF VIRGINIA, Rich- 
mond, Va. Organized 1794. Edwin A. Palmer, principal agen . 
G.|lVf oflfett King, secretary. 

MUTUAL FIRE ASSURANCE COMPANY, Springfield, Mass; 
Organized 1827. George B. Holbrook, president; Herbert E. Huie. 
secretary and treasurer. 

MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. This is an 
organization of domestic mutual fire insurance companies formerly 
the Massachusetts Mutual Fire Insurance Union. In June, 1879, a 
(^1 for a meeting to consider the advisability of forming a union was 
issued, signed by three of the managers, Charles A. Howland of the 
Quincy Mutual, E. M. Tucke of the Traders' and Mechanics', and 
Alfred L. Barbour of the Cambridge Mutual. In response to the call 
the representatives of seven of the companies appeared, and a tem- 
porary organization was made, with H. C. Bigelow as chairman and 
Alfred L. barbour as secretary. 

On September 10, 1879 the Massachusetts Mutual Fire Insurance 
Union was organized by the choice of E. B. Stoddard of the Merchants' 
and Farmers' of Worcester as president, Charles B. Cummings of the 
Massachusetts Mutual, and G€<>rge B. Faunce of the Dedham Mutual 
as vice-presidents, and Alfred L. Barbour of the Cambridge Mutual, 

* Includes Aircraft Insurance. 



104 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



secretary. The object of the union, as stated in the preamble, was "to 
consider all matters affecting mutual companies and adopt all thinjgs 
that will work for the benefit of that system of insurance; '*for social 
and fraternal purposes, to the end that peace, harmony, and good fellow- 
ship may reign." The Union was reorganized in March 1919, and the 
present title adopted. The association co-operates with rating associa- 
tions and bureaus in New England and also with the National Board of 
Fire Underwriters in the uniform classification of risks. 

The headquarters of the Association are, 314-316 Oliver Building, 
141 Milk Street, Boston, and the present officers are: Burton S. Flagg, 
president; Robert A. Barbour, first vice-president; Carlos P. Faunce, 
second vice-president; Charles F. Danforth, secretary and treasurer; 
executive committee; The president and vice-presidents ex-officio^ 
and Charles A. Howland, Harry Harrison, L. R. Welch and Eliot R. 
Howard. 

The following companies constitute the active membership: 

Abington Mutual Fire, Abixigton. 
Barnstable County Mutual Fire. Yar- 

mouthport. 
Berkflhire Mutual Fire. Pittsfidd. 
Cambridge Mutual Fire. Andover. 
Citizens Mutual. Boston. 
Dedham Mutual Fire. Dedham. 
Dorcbester Mutual Fire. Boston. 
Fitcbburg Mutual Fire. Fitchburg. 
Hampshire Mutual Fire. Northampton. 
Hingham Mutual Fire. Hingham. 
Holyoke Mutual Fire. Salem. 



Lowell Mutual Fire. Lowell. 
Lynn Mutual Fire. Lynn. 
Merchants & Farmers Mutual Fire. Wor- 
cester. 
Merrimadc Mutual Fire. Andover. 
Middlesex Mutual Fire. Concord. 
Norfolk Mutual Fire. Dedham. 
Pawtucket Mutual Fire. Pawtucket. R. I. 
Quincy Mutual Fire. Quincy. 
Salem Mutual Fire. Salem. 
Traders & Mechanics, Lowell. 
Worcester Mutual Fire, Worcester. 



MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF ALBANY. 
NEW YORK. [See New York State Fire Insurance Company.) 

MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Covington, Ky. 
Organized 1874. C. A. J. Walker, president; Wm. F. Schild, secretary* 

MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Germantown, 
Philadelphia. Organized 1843. William H. Emhardt, president; 
M. T. Farra, vice-president; C. H. Weiss, secretary. 



MUTUAL PROTECTION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Charlestown, Mass. Organized 1864. William P. Hurt, president; 
Frapk V. Noyes, secretary. 



N 



NARRAGANSETT MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Providence, R. I. Organized 1894. Alfred U. Eddy, presi- 
dent and treasurer; Walter K. Pullen, secretary and assistant treasurer; 
F. B. Burrill, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer. 

NATIONAL AMERICAN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Omaha, Neb. Organized 1918, capital, paid in, $878,200. W. H. 
Ahmanson, president; W. L. Wilcox and W. A. Smith, vice-presidents; 
James E. Foster, secretary and treasurer; Merrick E. Lease, agency 
superintendent. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS. This association was organized by a meeting of local 
agents from various states, at Chicago, 111., September 29 and 30, 
1896. A. G. Simrall of Covington, Ky., was elected president, and 
R. S. Brannen of Denver, Col., secretary and treasurer. Member- 
ship is composed of local insurance agents wherever located. 

The second annual meeting was held at St. Louis, Mo., May 
8 and 9, 1897. A. G. Simrall was elected president, and R. S. 
Brannen, secretary and treasurer. 

The third annual meeting was held at Detroit, Mich., July 15 
and 16, 1898. C. H. Wood worth, Buffalo, was elected president, 
and R. S. Brannen secretary and treasurer. 

The fourth annual meeting was held at Buffalo, N. Y., August 
9, 10, II and 12, 1899. C. H. Woodworth was elected president, 
and F. H. Holmes secretary. 

The fifth annual meeting was held at Milwaukee, Wis., August 
JO smd 31, and September i, 1900. George D. Markham of St. 
Louis was elected president, and F. H. Holmes secretary. 

The sixth annual meeting was held at Put-in-Bay, Ohio, Sep- 
tember II, 12 and 13, 1901. George D. Markham was elected presi- 
dent, and F. H. .Holmes secretary. 

The seventh annual meeting was held at Louisville, Ky., October 
21, 22 and 23, 1902. Thomas H. Geer, Cleveland, was elected presi- 
dent, and F. H. Holmes secretary. 

The eighth annual meeting was held in Hartford, Conn., October 
20, 21 and 22, 1903. John C. North, New Haven, Conn., was elected 
president, and Frank F. Holmes secretary. 

The ninth annual meeting was held in the Festival Hall building, 
Exposition Grounds, St. Louis, October 18, 19, 20 and 21, 1904. 
A. H. Robinson, Louisville, Ky„ was elected president, and H. H. 
Putnam, Boston, secretary. 



106 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

The tenth annual meeting was held at Denver, Col., August 16^ 
17 and 18, 1905. £. J. Tapping, Milwaukee, was elected president, 
and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The eleventh annual meeting was held at Indianapolis, Ind., 
October 17, 18 and 19, 1906. Charles F. Wilson, Denver, was elected 
president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The twelfth annual meeting was held at Richmond, Va., Sep- 
tember 25, 26 and 27, 1907. F. W. Offenhauser, Texarkana, Texas, 
was elected president, and H. H. Putnam re-elected secretary. 

The thirteenth annual meeting was held at St. Paul, Minn^ 
August II, 12 and 13, 1908. Edward W. Beardsley, Hartford, was 
elected president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The fourteenth annual meeting was held in Atlantic City, N. J^ 
September 21, 22 and 23, 1909. Fred Guenther, Detroit, Mich., was 
elected president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The fifteenth annual meeting was held in Chicago, September 
12, 13 and 14, 1910. A. W. Neale, Cleveland, Ohio., was elected 
president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The sixteenth annual meeting was held in Buffalo, N. Y., July 
17, 18 and 19, 191 1. James R. Southgate, Durham, N. C, was 
elected president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The seventeenth annual meeting was held at Atlanta, Ga., Octo* 
ber 15, 16 and 17, 1912. James R. Southgate, Durham, N. C., was 
elected president, and H. H. Putnam, secretary. 

The eighteenth annual meeting of the association was held in 
Cincinnati, October 14, 15 and 16, 1913. C. F. Hildreth, Freeport, 
111., was elected president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The nineteenth annual meeting was held at Minneapolis, Minn., 
August 17, 18 and 19, 1914. C. F. Hildreth, Freeport, 111., was elected 
president and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The twentieth annual meeting was held in Indianapolis, Ind., 
October 4, 5, 6 and 7, 1915. E. C. Roth, Buffalo, N. Y., was elected 
president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The twenty- first annual meeting was held in Boston, Mass., Sep- 
tember 12, 13 and 14, 19 16. E. E. Roth, Buffalo, N. Y., was elected 
president, and H. H. Putnam, Boston, secretary. 

The twenty-second annual meeting was held in St. Louis, Mo., 
October 11, 12 and 13, 1917. Edward M. Allen, Helena, Ark., was 
elected president and Henry H. Putnam, Boston, Mass., secretary. 

The twenty-third annual meeting was held in Cleveland, Ohio, 
September 18, 19 and 20, 1918. E. M. Allen, Helena, ArK was elected 
president, and Chauncey S. S. Miller, New York, secretary. 

The twenty-fourth annual meeting was held in Louisville, Ky. 
October 15, 16 and 17, 19 19. Fred J. Cox, Perth Amboy, N. J., was 
elected president and Chauncey S. S. Miller, New York, N. Y. secre- 
tary. 



Fire Insurance Section 107 

The twenty-fifth annual meeting was held in Des Moines, Iowa, 
October 19, 20, 21 and 22, 1920. Fred J. Cox, Perth Amboy, New 
Jersey, was elected president, and Walter H. Bennett, New York City, 
secretary. 

The twenty-sixth annual meeting was held in Los Angeles, Cal., 
September 13, 14, 15 and 16, 1921. 

Officers and committee chairmen were elected as follows: James L« 
Case, Norwich, Conn., president; Walter H. Bennett, 80 Maiden Lane, 
N. Y., secretary and treasurer; chairman executive committee, A. G. 
Chapman, Louisville, Ky.; chairman of committees : James T. Catlin, 
Jr., Danville, Virginia, Fire Prevention; J. A. Duckworth, Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama, membership; Glenn H. Johnson, Syracuse, N. Y., finance; 
Thomas C. MofTatt, Newark, N. J., grievance; A. L. Clemons, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, legislative. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF RECIPROCAL INSURANCE 
EXCHANGES. Organized at a meeting in Chicago in June 1920, by 
representatives of Reciprocal Insurance Exchanges. The present 
officers, elected in June 1921, are: President, Arthur Wolf, State Auto- 
mobile, Indianapolis; vice-president, Thomas L. Cherry, Illinois 
Underwriters; secretary, W. F. Bradenburg, Automobile Owners 
Protective, Kankakee, 111.; treasurer, Frank H. Ellis, Associated 
Employers Reciprocal, Chicago, 111. 

NATIONAL AUTOMOBILE UNDERWRITERS CONFER- 
ENCE, 140 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. The first conference, known as 
the "Association of Automobile Underwriters," was organized in 
New York in December, 1909, and in June, 191 1, the name of the 
organization was changed to the "Automobile Underwriters Con- 
ference." The National Automobile Underwriters Conference is the 
successor of the earlier organizations and the name was adopted in 
July, 1916. The conference was re-organized in July 1920, and the 
purposes of the Conference as set forth in the newly adopted constitu- 
tion are as follows: 

The purpose of the organization is to promote and facilitate scientific under- 
writing covering all forms of insurance pertaining to motor vehicles. It is intended 
that the organization shall so far as it may be lawful: 

Serve as a medium of exchange of information. 

Secure the adoption by underwriters of suitable and uniform policy forms and 



Investigate class of general hazards, to procure and compile information and 
atatistics concerning losses and their causes and to devise, advocate, and promote 
reaaonable and proper means of eliminating or reducing the hazards insured against 
and to promote intelligent underwriting. 

Prevent rebating and unfair discrimination. 

Harmonize insurable values, methods of rating, agency commissions (including 
contingent commissions), brokerage, policy forms, and underwriting practices generally. 

W. P. Young is secretary and general manager, and J. R. Moore, 
assistant secretary. The officers of the Conference are: W. P. Burpee, 
New Hampshire Fire, president; John Marshall, Jr., Fireman's Fund, 
vice-president; W. Mackintosh, Royal, treasurer. Under the re-organi- 
zation the following standing committees were appointed. 



108 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Governing CommiUee: N. S. Bartow, chairman; William B. Burpee, 
vice-chairman; Sheldon Catlin, F. C. White, George G. Bulkley, 
Milton Dargan, John Marshall, Jr., F. C. Buswell, Daniel N. Gage, 
J. Purviance Bonsai, C. W. Bailey, O. E. Lane, Hendon Chubb, William 
R. Hedge, J. V. Fothergill, Robert N. Hughs, Ralph B. Ives, F. B. 
Kellam. 

Grievance Committee: Whitney Palache, Paul L. Haid, Thos. H. 
Anderson, Douglas F. Cox, W. Mackintosh, Hart Darlington, Sheldon 
Catlin, C. D. Dunlop, Fred A. Hubbard. 

Rating and Statistical Committee: Edmund Ely, chairman; J. D. 
Vail, vice-chairman; F. B. Kellam, R. B. Bamett, L. B. Grossmith, 
T. A. Kruse, George F. Kern, C. M. Campbell, R. E. Stronach, J. V. 
Fothergill, C. S. Timberlake, C. R. Pitcher, S. Y. Tupper, Jr., C. C. 
Wright, Ralph Rawlings. 

Committee on Thefts: C. S. Timberlake, F. J. Sauter, chairman; 
N. S. Bartow, John M. Harrison, A. T. Bailey. 

Committee on Co-operation: H. N. Dickinson, chairman; A. G. 
Mcllwaine, Edward Milligan, C. G. Smith, R. M. Bissell, John Mar- 
shall, Jr., S. Y. Tupper. 

Committee on Forms: J. C. Harding, R. H. Colcock, Jr., C. M. 
Martindale, L. R. Bowden, J. F. Van Riper, O. R. Beckwith, J. H. Mc- 
Cormick, W. H. Koop, J. V. Fothergill, C. A. Bickerstaff, Ralph H. 
Goodwin, W. M. Ballard, H. H. Clutia, F. B. Kellam, Ralph Rawlings. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES: Commissions CommiUee: J. V. 
Fothergill, chairman; T. H. Anderson, T. J. Goddard, Ralph B. Ives, 
Loui A. Lent, W. J. McCaffrey, C. R. Pitcher, W. L. Mooney, Hinton 
J. Hopkins, Charles E. Sheldon. 

Finance Committee: C. F. Shallcross, chairman, Hendon Chubb, 
F. C. Buswell. 



The membership is as follows: 

iEtna, Hartford. Conn. 
.Agriculture, Watertown, N. Y. 
Alliance Assurance. New York, N. Y. 
Alliance. Philadelphia. Pa. 
American Alliance, New York. 
American and Foreign Marine, New 

York. N. Y. 
American Central, St. Louis, Mo. 
.American. Newark, N. J. 
American Eagle. New York, N. Y. 
Atlas, New York, N. Y. 
Atlas, San Francisco 
Automobile, Hartford, Conn. 
Boston, Boston, Mass. 
British and Foreign Marine, New York, 

N. Y. 
British & Foreign Marine, Phila. 
Caledonian, New York. 
California. San Francisco, Cal. 
Camden Fire. Camden, N. J. 
Central National, Des Moines, la. 
Central States Fire, Kansas. 



Central West Fire, Illinois. 
Citizens, St. Louis, Mo. 
City of New York, N. Y. 
Columbia, New York. N. Y. 
Columbian, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Commercial Union of London, New York. 

N.Y. 
Commercial Union Fire, N.Y. 
Commonwealth. New York, N. Y. 
Connecticut Fire. Hartford. Coifn. 
Continental Fire, New York, N. Y. 
Eagle, Star and British Dominions 
Employers Fire, Boston, Mass. 
Equitable Fire and Marine, Providence. 

R. I. 
Farmers, Cedar. Rapids, la. 
Federal. Jersey City, N. J. 
Federal Fire & Hail, Denver, Colo. 
Federal Union, Chicago. 
Fidelity-Phenix. New York. N. Y. 
Firemans Fund. New York. N. Y. 
Fire Association, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Fire Insurance Section 



109 



Franklin. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Glens Falls. Glens FalU. N. Y. 

Globe and Rutgers, New York. N. Y. 

Great- American. New York, N. Y. 

Great Union F. & M., New Orleans. 

Hanover Fire. New York, N. Y. 

Hartford Fire. Hartford. Conn. 

Home. New York. N. Y. 

Home Fire and Marine, San Francisco. 

Imperial Association, New York. 

Indemnity Mutual Marine, New York, 
N. Y. 

Insurance Co. of North America, Phila- 
delphia. Pa. 

Law Union & Rock, Hartford. 

Law Union & Rock, Chicago. 

Law Union & Rock. San Francisco. 

Liverpool and London and Globe, Eng. 
N. Y. 

Liverpool & London & Globe, Chicago. 

Liverpool & London & Globe, New 
Orleans. 

Liverpool & London & Globe, San 
Francisco. 

London and Lancashire. Hartford, Conn. 

London & Lancashire, San Francisco. 

London & Lancashire, Chicago. 

London Assurance, N. Y. 

London & Scottish, Chicago. 111. 

Marine. New York. N. Y. 

Maryland Motor Car, Baltimore. Md. 

Massachusetts Fh^e and Marine. Boston, 
Mass. 

MeicanUle. New York, N. Y. 

Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee, Wis. 

National American, Omaha, Neb. 

National- Ben Franklin. PitUburgh. Pa. 

National Capital, Washington, D. C. 

National Liberty, New York. 

National Security, Omaha, Neb. 

Newark Fire. Newark, N. J. 

New Hampshire, Manchester, N. H. 

Niagara Fire, New York, N. Y. 

North British and Mercantile, New York. 
X. Y. 

North Carolina Home, Raleigh 

Northern Assurance, New York. 

Northern Assurance, Chicago. 

Northwestern F.& M., MinneapoIis,Minn. 

Norwich Union. New York. N. Y. 

Norwich Union, San Francisco. 

Ocean Marine, New York, N. Y. 



Old Colony. Boston, Mass. 

Omaha Liberty, Omaha. Neb. 

Orient, Chicago. 

Orient. Hartford, Conn. 

Orient, San Francisco. 

Palatine, New York, N. Y. 

Patriotic, New York. 

Pennsylvania Fire. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Phcenlx Assurance, New York, N. Y. 

Phoenix, Hartford. Conn. 

Providence Washington, Providence. R.I. 

Queen, Chicago. 

Queen, Atlanta. 

Queen. San Francisco. 

Queen Insurance Co., New York, N. Y. 

Reliance Marine. New York. N. Y. 

Rocky Mountain. Great Falls, Mont. 

Royal Exchange, New York. N. Y. 

Royal, Atlanta. 

Royal, Boston. 

Royal, Chicago. 

Royal, New York. N. Y. 

Royal, San Francisco. 

Safeguard, Hartford. 

Safeguard, Chicago. 

Safeguard, San Francisco. 

Scottish Union and National, Hartford, 

Conn. 
Security, New Haven. 
St. Paul Fire and Marine. St. Paul. Minn. 
Sea. New York, N. Y. 
Springfield Fire and Marine, Springfield, 

Mass. 
Standard Marine, Liverpool, New York. 
Standard Marine, San Francisco. 
Star, Chicago, 111. 
Star, New Orleans, La. 
Star, New York 
Star, San Francisco. 
State, Hartford. 
Sterling, Indianapolis. 
Sun, New York. 

Tokio Marine, New York, N. Y. 
Twin City Fire, Minneapolis. Minn. 
Union, New York, N. Y. 
Union Marine. New York, N. Y. 
United Sutes. New York, N. Y. 
United States Lloyds, New York, N. Y 
Victory, Philadelphia. 
Westchester Fire. New York, N. Y. 
Western National, Fargo, N. D. 



NATIONAL-BEN FRANKLIN FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Pittsburgh, Pa. Organized 1910 (consolidation of National 
and Ben Franklin Fire Insurance companies); capital, $1,000,000. 
H. M. Schmitt, president; Thos. A. Hathaway, secretary; Paul A. 
Schmitt, assistant secretary. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS was or- 
ganized July 18, 1866, in the city of New York. [For a history of 
the National Board from its organization and a list of the original 
members, see the Cyclopedia of Insurance for 1891.] 



no 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



The following is a list of the officers of the National Board to 
the present time : 



Yeart. 

~i866' 
1867 
1868 
1869 
X870 
X871 
1873 

1873 
X874 
X87S 
X876 

X877 
X878 

1879 
x88o 
X88x 
X88a 
X883 
X884 
X885 
X886 
1887 
x888 
X889 
X890 
X89X 
x89a 
X893 
1894 
X895 
X896 

X897 
X898 

1899 
X900 

X90I 

X9oa 
X903 
1904 
X905 
1906 

X907 
1908 

X909 
X9X0 
X9XX 

X9xa 
X9I3 
X914 
1915 
1916 

1917 
X9X8 

X919 

X930 

I92I 



Presidents. 



, amea M. McLean, 
/ames M. McLean, 
^ ames M. McLean, 
ames M. McLean. 
Henry A. Oakley, 
Henry A. Oakley, 
Henry A. Oakley, 
Henry A. Oakley, 
Henry A. Oakley. 
Henry A. Oakley. 
George L. Chase, 
Alfred G. Baker, 
Alfred G. Baker, 
Alfred G. Baker. 
Martin Bennett, Jr. 
Daniel A. Heald, 
Daniel A. Heald, 
Daniel A. Heald, 
Daniel A. Heald, 
Daniel A. Heald. 
Daniel A. Heald, 
Daniel A. Heald. 
Daniel A. Heald, 
Daniel A. Heald. 
Daniel A. Heald. 
D. W. C. Skilton. 
D. W. C. Skilton. 

D. W. C. Skilton. 
Edward A. Walton, 
Edward A. Walton. 
WUliam B. Clark. 
Henry W. Eaton. 
Elihu C. Irrin. 
Elihu C. Irvin. 
George P. Sheldon, 
George P. Sheldon. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Henry H. Hall. 
John H. Washburn. 
John H. Washburn. 
George W. Burchell. 
George W. Burchell. 
J. Montgomery Hare. 
J. Montgomery Hare, 
A. W. Damon. 
George W. Babb. 
George W. Babb. 
Wm. N. Kremer, 
Wm. N. Kremer, 

E. G. Richards. 
R. M. Biesell. 
R. M. Bissell. 

F. C. Buswcll. 
F. C. Buswell, 
Charles L. Case. 
John B. Morton, 



Vice-Presidents. 



Secretaries. 



Timothy C. Allyn, 
Lucius J. Hendee. 
Lucius J. Hendee. 
Lucius J. Hendee. 
Lucius J. Hendee, 
Lucius J. Hendee. 
Lucius J. Hendee. 
Lucius J. Hendee, 
Lucius J. Hendee. 
Lucius J. Hendee. 
Charles Piatt, 
Benoni Lockwood. 
Benoni Lockwood, 
Benoni Lockwood, 
Daniel A. Heald. 
John W. Murray, 
John W. Murray. 
John W. Murray. 
D. W. C. SkUton. 
D. W. C. SkUton. 
D. W. C. Skilton, 
D. W. C. Skilton, 
D. W. C. Skilton, 
D. W. C. Skilton. 

D. W. C. SkUton, 
T. H. Montgomery, 
T. H. Montgomery, 
T. H. Montgomery, 
WUliam B. Clark, 
WUliam B. Clark, 
Henry W. Eaton, 
Elihu C. Irvin. 
George P. Sheldon, 
George P. Sheldon, 
Eugene L. Ellison. 
Eugene L. Ellison, 
Henry H. HaU. 
John H. Washburn. 
George W. BurcheU. 
George W. BurcheU. 
J. Montgomery Hare. 
J. Montgomery Hare, 
A. W. Damon. 

A. W. Damon. 
G. W. Babb, 
Wm. N. Kremer. 
Wra. N. Kremer, 

E. G. Richards. 
R. M. Bissell. 
R. M. BisseU. 

F. C. Buswell. 
F. C. BusweU, 
Charles L. Case, 
Charles L. Case. 
John B. Morton. 
W. H. Stevens. 



Frank W. Ballard. 
WUUam Connor, Jr. 
WUliam Connor. Jr. 
WUliam Connor. Jr. 
James N. Rankin. 
James N. Rankin. 
Benj. S. Walcott. 
Samuel P. Blagden. 
Samuel P. Blagden. 
Samuel P. Blagden. 
Elijah AUiger. 
Elijah AUiger. 
M. Bennett. Jr. 
M. Bennett. Jr. 
John W. Murray. 
D. W. C. SkUton. 
D. W. C. SkUton. 
D. W. C. SkUton. 
ohn L. Thomson, 
^ohn L. Thomson. 
. ohn L. Thomson. 
, ohn L. Thomson. 
, ohn L. Thomaoa. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. 
B. 



Robert 
Robert B. 
Robert B. 



Beath. 
Beath. 
Beath. 
Beath. 



Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Robert B. Beath. 
Charles A. ^aw. 
Charles A. Shaw. 
Charles A. Shaw. 
Charles A. Shaw. 
Charles G. Smith. 
Charles G. Smith. 
Charles G. Smith. 
Charles G. Smith. 
Charles. G. Smith. 
E. W. West 
E. W. West. 
E. J. Haynes. 
E. J. Haynes. 
E. J. Haynes. 
£. J. Haynes. 
E. J. Haynes. 
George G. Bulkley. 
George G. Bulkley. 
George G. Bulkley. 
Sumner Ballard. 



J. S. Parish of Providence, R. I., was treasurer from the organi- 
zation of the board until the time of his death in November, 1889, 
when Fred W. Arnold, also of Providence, was appointed by the 
executive committee. He was re-elected by the board yearly until 



Fire Insurance Section 



111 



1904, when he declined re-election and was succeeded by Marshall 
S. Driggs, who served until his death in 1910. C. J. Holman was 
elected in 191 1, and served until 1919. William Hare succeeded Mr. 
Holraan, serving until 192 1. R. Emory Warfield is the present treas- 
urer. Thomas H. Montgomery was general agent from 1872 to 1878, 
and Henry K. Miller received that title in 1899, and remained as 
general agent until his death in 191 1. W. E. Mallalieu is the present 
general manager. The chairmen of the executive committee have been: 
D. A. Heald, E. W. Crowell, Rudolph Garrigue, Stephen Crowell, 
George T. Hope, B. Lockwood, E. A. Walton, George P. Sheldon, and 
Peter Notman of New York; J. N. Dunham of Springfield; Jot ham 
Goodnowof Hartford; H. W. Eaton, E. F. Beddell, Marshall S. Driggs, 
Henry E. Bowers, H. H. Hall, J. Montgomery Hare, New York; A. W. 
Damon, Springfield; Geo. W. Babb, W. N. Kremer, and E. G. Richards, 
New York; R. M. Bissell, Hartford; F. C. Buswell, Henry E. Rees. 
John B. Morton, W. H. Stevens, Watertown, N. Y. H. A. Smith, 
Hartford. Henry K. Miller was secretary of the committee from 1873 
to 1899, his predecessors having been W. H. Post, A. J. Smith, C. B. 
Whiting and Frank W. Ballard. T. Alfred Fleming is supervisor of the 
Board's Conservation department established in 191 9. The officers 
of the Board are at 76 William Street, New York, N. Y. 

The fifty-sixth annual meeting of the Board was held in New 
York, N. Y., May 25, 1922. President Morton presided, and in his 
address reviewed the work of the Board and conditions in the field. 

Reports from the treasurer, and executive committee were pre- 
sented dealing with the finances and work of the board, and reports 
were presented by other standing committees reviewing the activities 
of the year. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, John B. Morton, 
Fire Association, Philadelphia; vice-president, W. H. Stevens, Agri- 
cultural, Watertown; treasurer, R. Emory Warfield, Hanover Fire, 
New York; secretary, Sumner Ballard, International, New York. 
Members of the executive committee elected were: James Wyper, 
Hartford; Wilfred Kurth, Home, New York; D. N. Dunham, Fire- 
men's, Newark; Percival Beresford, Phoenix of London, New York 
and J. B. Levison, Fireman's Fund, San Francisco. 

The following is a list of the companies constituting the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters, April i, 1922: 

Abeflle, Paris, France. 
£tiia, Hartford, Ct. 
Agricultural, Watertown, N. Y. 
Albany, Albany, N. Y. 
Allemannia Fire. Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Alliance, Philadelphia, Pa. 
American Alliance, N. Y. 
American Central, St Louis, Mo. 
American Eagle, New York. 
American. Newark. 
American Fire. 
Anchor Fire. 
Axizona Fire. 

Atlas Insurance, London. 
Atwood Fire. 



Automobile. Hartford, Conn. 
Bankers and Shippers, N. Y. 
Boston, Boston, Mass. 
British-American Assurance, Toronto, 

Canada. 
Buffalo, Buffalo. N. Y. 
Caledonian, Scotland. 
Caledonian American. New York, N. Y. 
California, San Francisco. 
Camden Fire, Camden, N. J. 
Carolina, Wilmington, N. C* 
Century. Edinburgh. 
Citizens, St. Louis, Mo. 
City, Pittoburgh. Pa. 
City of New York, New York. 



112 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Cleveland National, Cleveland, O. 

Columbia, Jersey City, N. J. 

Columbian National, Lansing, Mich. 

Commerce, Albany, N. Y. 

Commercial Union, London. 

Commercial Union, New York. 

Commonwealth, New York. 

Concordia Fire, Milwaukee, Wit. 

Connecticut Fire. Hartford. 

Continental, New York. 

Corcoran, Washington, D. C. 

Coun^ Fire of Phila., PhUadelphia, Pa. 

Detroit F. & M., Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit National, Detroit, Mich. 

Dixie Fire, Greensboro, N. C. 

Dubuque Fire and Marine. 

Eagle, Star & British Dominions, London. 

Employers Fire. 

Equitoble F. & M., Providence, R. I. 

Farmers' Fire, York, Pa. 

Federal, Jersey City, N. J. 

FideUty-PheniJC. New York. 

Fire Association, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fireman's Fund, San Francisco, Cal. 

Firemen's, Newark. 

Firemen's, Washington, D. C. 

Fire Reassurance. Paris. 

Franklin Fire, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fuso Marine and Fire. 

General Fire, Paris. 

Georgia Home, Columbus, Ga. 

Great American, New York. 

Great Lakes. 

Girard F. & M.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Glens Falls, Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Globe and Rutgers, New York. 

Globe National. 

Granite State, Portsmouth, N. H. 

Hamilton, New York. 

Hampton Roads, Fire & Marine 

Hanover Fire, New York. 

Hartford Fire, Hartford, Ct. 

Henry Clay Fire, Lexington, Ky. 

Home, New York. 

Home Fire and Marine, San Francisco. 

Hudson, New York. 

Imperial Assurance, New York. 

Importers and Exporters, N. Y. 

Insurance Co. ox N. America, Phila* 
delphia. Pa. 

Insurance Company, State of Penn* 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

International, New York, N. Y. 

Jakor. Russia. 

Knickerbocker, N. Y. 

Law, Union and Rock, London. 

Liverpool and London and Globe, Liv- 
erpool. 

London and Lancashire Fire, Liverpool. 

London Assurance Corporation. London. 

London and Scottish, London. 

Massachusetts F. & M., Boston, Mast. 

Mechanics* Fire, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mechanics and Traders, New Orleans. La. 

Mercantile of America, New York, N. Y. 

Merchants Fire, New York. 

Michigan F. & M., Detroit, Mich. 

Milwaukec-Mechanics, Milwaukee, Wis. 



Nationale, Paris. 

National, Copenhagen. 

National-Ben Franklin, Pittaburgh. Pa. 

National Fire, Hartford. Ct. 

NaUonal Liberty, New York. N. Y. 

National Union, Washington, D. C. 

National Union Fire, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Netherlands Fire. The Hague. 

Newark Fire, Newark, N. J. 

New Brunswick Fire, New Brunswick, 
N. J. 

New Hampshire Fire, Manchester, N. H. 

New Jersey Fire, Newark, N. J. 

New Zealand, Auckland, N. Z. 

Niagara Fire, New York. 

Northern Assurance, London. 

Northern. New York. 

North British and Mercantile, Edin- 
burgh. 

North River. N. Y. 

Norske Lloyd. Christianin. N<Mway. 

Northwestern F. & M., Minneapolis. 

Norwich Union Fire Ins. Society. 
England. 

Ohio Farmers, York, Pa. 

Old Colony, Boston, Mass. 

Orient, Hartford, Ct. 

Pacific Fire, New York. 

Palatine, London. 

Paternelle, Paris, France. 

Patriotic, Dublin. 

Pennsylvania Fire, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Peoples National Fire, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Petersburg, Petersburg. Va. 

Phoenix Fire, Paris. 

Phoenix, Hartford, Cl 

Phoenix Assurance, London. 

PitUburgh Fire. PitUburgh. 

Potomac. Washington, D. C. 

Providence Washington, Providence, 
R. I. 

Prudentia Re & Co-insurance 

8ueen, New York, 
eliance, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Reinsurance Co., Salamandra. 
Republic Fire. Allegheny. Pa. 
Rhode Island, Providence, R. I. 
Richmond. 

Rossia of A merica. Hartford. 
Royal, Liverpool. 

Royal Exchange Assurance, London. 
Safeguard. New York. N. Y. 
Salamandra, St. Petersburg. 
Scottish Union and National, Edin- 
burgh. 
Second Russian Reinsurance. Petrogiad. 
Security, New Haven, Ct. 
Security. Davenport, la. 
Skandia. Stockholm, Sweden. 
Skandinavian, Denmark. 
South Carolina, Columbia, S. C. 
Southern Home, Charleston, S. C. 
Springfield F. & M., Springfield, Mass. 
Standard Fire. Hartford, Conn. 
Standard, Trenton, N. J. 
Star, New York. 
State Assurance, LiverpooL 



Fire Insurance Section 



113 



Berlins, Indianapolu, Ind. 

St. Paul Fire & Marine, St. Paul. Minn. 

Snn Insurance Office, London. 

Saperior Fire. Pittsborsb, Pa. 

STca Fire and Life, Sweden. 

Swiss Reinsuxance, Basle, Switz. 

Tokio Fire and Marine, Japan. 

Twin City Fire. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Union Assurance Society, London. 

Union. Canton, China. 

Union Fire, Paris. 



Union, Buffalo, N. Y. 
United American. Pittsburgh. Pa. 
United Firemens, Philadelphia, Pa. 
United States Fire, New York. 
Urbalne Fire. Paris. 
Victory, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Virginia F. & M., Richmond, Va. 
Westchester Fire. New York. 
Western Assurance^ Toronto. 
Yorkshire. York, £ng. 



NATIONAL BOARD OF MARINE UNDERWRITERS. This 
board was merged with the Board of Underwriters of New York in 
192 1, (which see.) , 

NATIONALE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF PARIS. 
France. Chrganized 1820. Starkweather & Shepley, Inc., United 
States managers, Providence, R. I. George L. Shepley, president; Emil 
G. Pieper, vice-president and manager of agency department. 

NATIONAL FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Elizabeth, N. J. Organized 1865; capital, $100,000. E. C. 
Jameson, president; H. R. Chambers, vice-president; H. C. Trow- 
bridge, secretary. 

NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of Hartford 
Conn. Organized 1871; capital, $2,000,000. H. A. Smith, presi- 
dent; Frank D. Lay ton, vice-president; S. T. Maxwell, secretary; 
C. B. Roulet, G. F. Cowee and R. M. Anderson, assistant secretaries; 
F. B. Seymour, treasurer. 

NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Copenhagen, Denmark. 
Entered United States in 191 7. Walter D. Despard, United States 
manager, marine department, 66 Beaver Street, New York, N. Y. 
Sumner Ballard, manager fire department, 80 Maiden Lane, New York, 
N. Y. (Fire and marine re-insurance business.) 

NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION. At a 
meeting of inspectors representing associations and boards of fire 
underwriters, and others engaged in the business of fire insurance, 
held in the city of New York, November 5, 1896, an organization 
was effected of an association with the above title. 

Officers and executive committee were chosen as follows : C. C. 
Little, president; E. U. Crosby, secretary; U. C. Crosby, F. E. 
Cabot, W. H. Stratton, W. A. Anderson, William Bonner, Robert 
Jardine, Albert Blauvelt, executive committee, with three more 
named respectively by the South Eastern Tariff Association, Phila- 
delphia Fire Underwriters' Association, and Underwriters' Association 
of the Middle Department. 

Franklin H. Wentworth is secretary and R. S. Moulton, assistant 
secretary. Executive offices, 87 Milk Street, Boston, Mass. 



114 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Its purposes are set forth in the following articles: 

This organization shall be known as the National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion. 

The objects of the association are to promote the science and improve the 
methods of fire protection; to obtain and circulate information on this subject 
and to secure co-operation of its members in establishing proper safegiaards 
against loss of life and propertx by fire. 

"Membership shall consist of (a) Members, (b) Associate, (c) Honorary'. It is 
understood that through membership none is pledged to any course of action. 

a. Members — National institutes, societies and associations interested in 
the protection of life and property against loss by fire, state associations whoee principal 
object is the reduction of fire waste, insurance boards and insurance associations 
having primary jurisdiction, shall be eligible for membership. Annual dues shall be $60. 
Members shall have six votes in the affairs of the Association and shall be entitled to 
four copies of all publications regularly distributed to members. 

b. Associate Members — National, state and municipal depcutments and 
bureaus, state and municipal associations, boards of trade, chambers of commerce, 
firms, corporations, libraries, and individuals shall be eligible for associate membership. 
Annual dues shall be Sio. Associat'e members shall have a vote in the affairs of the 
Association and be entitled to receive one copy of all publications regularly distributed 
to members. 

c. Honorary Members. — Honorary life membership may be conferred upon 
persons who for more than fifteen years have rendered exceptional service in the work 
of fire protection and fire prevention. A favorable report by the Executive Committee 
and a majority vote of the Association at any regularly called meeting shall be necessary 
to elect. This membership carries with it all the privileges of associate members without 
dues." 

The twenty-sixth annual meeting was held in Atlantic City, N. J. 
May, 9, 10, and 11, 1922. Officers were elected as follows: H. O. La- 
count, Boston, Mass., president; Rudolph P. Miller, New York, first 
vice-president; Dana Pierce, New York, second vice-president; Frank- 
lin H. Wentworth, Boston, Mass., secretary and treasurer; A. T. Bell, 
Atlantic City, N. J., chairman of executive committee; J. I. Banash, 
Chicago, Geo. W. Booth, New York, A. M. Schoen, Atlanta, H. V. 
Thayer, Boston, Louis Wiederhold, Jr., Phildalephia; executive com- 
mittee (for Three Years) ; W. F. Ballinger, Philadelphia, Richard E. 
Schmidt, Chicago, executive committee (for Two Years). 

Active members of the Association, April 15, 1922, were as follows: 

American Institute of Architects. 

American Institute of Consulting Engineers. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. 

American Concrete Institute. 

American Electric Railway Association. 

American Gas Association. 

American Petroleum Institute. 

Arkansas Fire Prevention Bureau. 

Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Co.'s Inspection Bureau. 

Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies. 

Associated Manufacturers of Safety Standard Films and Projectors. 

Associated Metal Lath Manufacturers. 

Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. 

Association of the Fire Alarm Industry. 

Association of Fire Underwriters of Baltimore City. 

Association of Marine Underwriters of United States. 

Board of Fire Underwriters of Allegheny County. 

Board of Fire Underwriters of the Pacific. 

Board of Fire Underwriters of the Territory of Hawaii. 

Boston Board of Fire Underwriters. 

British Columbia Fire Underwriters Association. 



Fire Insurance Section 115 

Buffalo Association of Fire Underwriters. 

Bureau of ExpIosiTes. 

Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association. 

Canadian Automatic Sprinkler Association. 

Canadian Manufacturers' Association. 

Chicago Board of Underwriters of Chicago. 

Clay Products Association. 

Committee of Manufacturers on Standardization of Fittings and Valves. 

Common Bnck Manufacturers' Association of America. 

Compressed Gas Manufacturers Association. 

Conservation and Fire Prevention Association of Indiana. 

Conservation and Fire Prevention Association of Ohio. 

Cotton Insurance Association. 

Electric Power Club. 

Electrical Supply Jobbers' Association. 

Engineering Institute of Canada. 

Factory Insurance Association. 

Factory Mutual Laboratories. 

Fire Underwriters Electrical Bureau. 

Grain Insurance Association. 

Gypsum Industries Association. 

Hollow Building Tile Association. 

Hydraulic Society. 

Illinois Inspection Bureau. 

Indiana Inspection Bureau. 

Institute of Makers of Explosives. 

Insurance Association of Providence. 

International Acetylene Association. 

International Association of Fire Engineers. 

International Association of Fire Fighters. 

Iowa Insurance Service Bureau. 

Kansas Inspection Bureau. 

Kentucky Actuarial Bureau. 

Kentucky State Department of Fire Protection and Rates. 

Lightning Rod Manufacturers' Association. 

Louisiana Fire Prevention Bureau. 

Michigan Inspection Bureau. 

Millers* National Federation. 

Missouri Inspection Bureau. 

Mountain States Inspection Bureau. 

Mutual Fire Inspection Bureau. 

Mutual Fire Insurance Association. 

Mutual Fire Prevention Bureau. 

National Association of Building Owners and Managers. 

National Association of Credit Men. 

National Association of Electrical Contractors and Dealers. 

National Association of Insurance Agents. 

Natioi»l Association of Manufacturers of Approved Hollow Metal Window 

Frames and Sash. 
National Association of Manufacturers of United States. 
National Association of the Motion Picture Industry Inc. 
National Association of Sheet Metal Contractors of United States. 
National Automatic Sprinkler Association. 
National Board of Fire Underwriters. 
National Convention of Insurance Commissioners. 
National Electric Light Association. 
National Lime Association. 
National Lumber Manufacturers' Association. 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association. 
Nebraska Inspection Bureau. 
New Brunswick Board of Fire Underwriters. 
New England Bureau of United Inspection. 
New England Insurance Exchange. 
New Hampshire Board of Underwriters. 
New Jersey Schedule Rating Ofiice. 
New York Board of Fire Underwriters. 
New York Fire Insurance Exchange. 



116 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Newfoundland Board of Fire Underwriters. 

Nova Scotia Board of Fire Underwriter!. 

Ohio Inspection Bureau. 

Oil Insurance Association. 

Oklahoma Inspection Bureau. 

Oregon Insurance Rating Bureau. 

Philadelphia Fire Underwriters' Association. 

Philadelphia Suburban Underwriters' Association. 

Portland Cement Association. 

Prepared Roofing Association. 

Pyroxylin Plastics Manufacturers' Association. 

Railroad Insurance Association. 

Southern Cypress Manufacturers' Association. 

South-Eastern Underwriters' Association. 

St. Louis Fire Prevention Bureau. 

Suburban Fire Lisurance Exchange. 

Tennessee Inspection Bureau. 

Texas Inspection Bureau. 

Texas State Fire Insurance Commission. 

The Union. 

Underwriters' Association of the District of Columbia. 

Underwriters' Association of the Middle Department. 

Underwriters' Association of New York State. 

Underwriters' Bureau of Middle and Southern States. 

Underwriters' Bureau of New England. 

Underwriters' Laboratories. 

Underwriters' Service Association. 

Washington Surveying and Rating Bureau. 

Water Works Manufacturers Association. 

Western Actuarial Bureau (Fire). 

Western Canada Fire Underwriters' Association. 

Western Factory Insurance Association. 

Western Insurance Bureau. 

Western Sprinklered Risk Association. 

West Virginia Inspection Bureau. 

Wisconsin Inspection Bureau. 

NATIONAL INSURANCE CONVENTION. [See National In- 
surance Convention, life section, this volumt.] 

NATIONAL LIBERTY INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMER- 
ICA, New York. Organized 1859; capital, $1,000,000. M. J. Aver- 
bach, chairman; Charles H. Coates, president ; Louis Pfingstag, vice- 
president and secretary. (709-717 Sixth Ave., Corner 41st Street, 
New York City.) 

NATIONAL MUTUAL ASSURANCE COMPANY, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Organized 1901. F. A. Downes, president and treas- 
urer; Samuel L. Hammer, vice-president; Herbert P. Onyx, secretary; 
Charles H. Thomas, assistant secretary. 925 Chestnut Street. 

NATIONAL MUTUAL CHURCH INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Chicago, III. Organized 1899. N. M. Jones, president; I. N. Conard, 
vice-president; Henry P. Magill, secretary and manager; Sampson 
Rogers, treasurer; Frank L. Hart, assistant secretary. 

NATIONAL MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, 
Celina, Ohio. Organized 191 5. J. D. Johnson, president; Otto F. 
Rentzsch, vice-president; E. J. Brookhart, secretary; W. T. Palmer, 
treasurer. General fire, automobile, motor truck and farm tractor 
insurance. 



Fire Insurance Section 117 

NATIONAL RESERVE INSURANCE COMPANY OF ILL- 
INOIS, home office, Dubuque, Iowa. Established 1920; capital 
$300,000. N. J. Schrup, president; S. F. Weiser, secretary; S. W. 
Waving, assistant secretary. 

NATIONAL SECURITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Ooiaha, Neb. Organized 1914; cash capital, $250,000. Archie J. Love, 
president and treasurer; C. R. Tuttle, vice-president; P. K. Walsh 
vice-president and secretary; John Kremer, vice-president; W. S. Fos- 
ter, J. J. Connor and E. C. Ruwe, assistant secretaries. 

NATIONAL TRADES' FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Chicago, 111. Organized 1906; cash capital, $200,000. The company 
re-insured in 192 1 and retired. 

NATIONAL UNION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pitts- 
burgh. Pa. Organized 1901; capital, $1,500,000. E. E. Cole, presi- 
dent; A. W. Mellon, vice-president; E. W. Hall, second vice-president 
and secretary; W. F. Braun, assistant secretary; A. W. McEldowney, 
treasurer; C. A. Tyler, assistant treasurer. 

NATIONAL UNION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Washington, D. C. Organized, 1865; capital, $100,000. Albert F. 
Fox, president; Philip F. Lamer, secretary. 

NEBRASKA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized July, 1899. Daniel H. Wheeler, Sr., Omaha, 
was elected president, and John W. Robbins, Omaha, secretary and 
treasurer. The present officers, elected in June 1921, are: E. R. Good- 
man, North Platte, president; J. E. Sebastian, North Platte, secretary 
and treasurer. 

NEBRASKA NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Lincoln, 
Neb. Organized 189^; capital, paid in, $20,000. E. D. Beach, president; 
John A. Wachter, vice-president; P. F. Zimmer, secretary and treas- 
urer. 

NETHERLANDS FIRE AND LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY. Established 1845, The Hague, Holland. Harold W. Let- 
ton, United States manager; Insurance Exchange, Chicago, 111. 

NEVADA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Reno, Nev. Or- 

rized 1 9 14; capital, $250,360. W. C. Pitt, president; W. H. Hood, 
Kirkman, ana J. J. Hylton, vice-presidents; Robert Carlson, sec- 
retary and treasurer. 

NEWARK FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, Newark, 
N. J. Chartered 181 1; capital, $500,000. A. R. Monroe, president; 
Thomas L. Farquhar, vice-president and secretary ; Thomas D. Richard- 
son, treasurer. Control of the company was acquired by the Royal of 
I^iverpool in 19 17. 



118 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



NEW BRUNSWICK FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, of New 

Brunswick, N. J., was organized in 1826. The charter authorizes the 
company to transact fire, tornado, marine and sprinkler leakage insur- 
ance. Chas. D. Ross, president; I. D. Clark, vice-president: £. B. 
Wycoff, secretary and treasurer; W. R. Van Nostrand, assistant sec- 
retary; Chas. W. Pierce, assistant treasurer. 



NEWBURYPORT MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Newburyport, Mass. Organized 1829. William R. Johnson, presi- 
dent; Greenleaf A. Johnson, secretary and treasurer. 

NEW ENGLAND BUREAU OF UNITED INSPECTION. The 
New England Bureau of United Inspection was organized at Boston 
in December, 1887, for the purpose of making frequent and complete 
surveys of important risks in New England, the reports to be furnished 
to subscribing companies. The bureau is in charge of a governing com- 
mittee of nine, the list being elected annually. OfF.ce, 71 Kilby Street, 
Boston, Mass. 

At the annual election held in Boston in February, 1922, the fol- 
lowing officers were elected to serve for the ensuing year: F. E. Dun- 
ham, chairman; Herman H. Kraemer, vice-chairman; J. Henry 
Bourne, treasurer; M. F. Jones, manager. The governing committee 
elected comprises, F. E. Dunham, Elliott G. Beardsley, Geo. H. Allen, 
E. G. Pieper, Jos. E. Snell, E. C. Gilman, J. Henry Bourne, Herman 
H. Kraemer and Wm. M. Wakeman, Jr. 

The following are the subscribing companies: 

Abeille Fire. 

American Eagle Fire Insurance Co. 

City of Pennsylvania. 

Concordia Fire, Milwaukee. 

Continental Insurance Co. 

Fidelity-Pheniz Fire Insurance Co. 

Firemen's Insurance Co. 

Firemen's Underwriters. 

Girard Fire and Marine Ins. Co. 

Great Lakes, Chicago, 111. 

Ins. Company of State of Pennsylvania. 

London Assurance Corporation. 

Mechanics Ins. Co. 

Milwaukee Mechanics' Insurance Co. 

The inspectors of the Bureau are: Geo. H. Robinson, William H. 
Warner, F. H. Metcalf, T. V. Dalton, W. W. Morse, F. L. Aldrich, 
I. G. Ross, H. C. Lilly, A. S. Gibbs, L. C. Colby, C. W. Cutler, K. T. 
Cookingham, D. W. Jones, F. W. DeWaters, G. J. Malloy, W. E. 
Hart. 

The inspectors of the Bureau made inspections during the year to 
the number of 6,943 and found defects as follows: construction, 508; 
in hazards, 256; administration and special features, 274; electrical 
equipment, 270; fire protection, 1,996; sprinkler systems 1,270; which 
were corrected. Tests of fire apparatus and sprinkler systems to the 
number of 3,936 were also made during the year. 



National Liberty Insurance Co. 

National Union Fire Insurance Co. 

Nationale Fire Insurance Co. of Paris. 

Netherlands, Fire & Life. 

New Zealand. 

North River Insurance Co. 

Northwestern National Insurance Co. 

Ohio Farmers. 

Phenix Fire Insurance Co.. of Paris. 

Rhode Island Insurance Co. 

Union Fire Insurance Co.. of Paris. 

United States Fire. 

Yorkshire Insurance Co., Ltd. 



Fire Insurance Section 119 

NEW ENGLAND FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsfield, 
Mass. Organized 1919; capital, paid in, $200,000. H. Calvin Ford, 
president; Winthrop Murray Crane, vice-president; Carl B. Gale, 
secretary. (Re-insurance business ) 

NEW ENGLAND INSURANCE EXCHANGE was organized 
by special agents of fire insurance companies at Boston, January 6, 
1883. Prior to this an3rthing like order or cohesion in rates in New 
England, outside of Boston, was practically unknown, and very 
few local boards were in existence. The first attempt to make 
rates beyond the limits of Boston was in November, 1882, when a 
meeting of special agents was held to consider paper mills. It re- 
sulted in sending out a circular to companies asking them if they 
would stand by a scheme of rates on this class of risks if they 
were made, and forty-four companies answered that they would. 
This success encouraged hope of a closer organization, and resulted 
a few months later in the formation of the Exchange. 

Membership in the organization is entirely personal and is open 
to all persons whose principal occupation is the New England 
field work of any stock fire insurance company. The objects of 
the Exchange are declared by the constitution to be "the systematic 
interchange of information and co-operation among field men." 
The Exchange is a rating and supervising body. Its preliminary 
work is mainly done through standing committees, of which there 
are (April i, 192 1) six of the Exchange and 102 in charge of as many 
localities in New England, all committees being composed of mem- 
bers of the Exchange. 

The jurisdiction of the Exchange covers New England with 
the exception of Boston and Providence (which are controlled by 
their Boards of Fire Underwriters) and the state of New Hamp- 
shire (which has its own state board). 

The presidents of the Exchange since organization have been 
as follows: 1883, U. C. Crosby (two terms) ; 1885, George P. Field; 
1886, George W. Taylor; 1887, Henry E. Hess; 1888, Henry R. 
Turner; i^, Benjamin R. Stillman; 1890, Frank A. Colley; 1891, 
U. C. Crosby (third term) ; 1892, Moses R. Emerson; 1893, Charles 
B. Fowler; 1894, A. C. Adams; 1895, G. W. Hinkley; 1896, Wil- 
liam H. Smith (two terms); 1898, F. A. Wetherbee; 1899, J. B. 
Cornish ; 1900, (jcorge Neiley (two terms) ; 1902, G. A. Furness 
(two terms) ; 1904, C. D. Palmer (two terms) ; 1906, G. T. For- 
bush; 1907, F. A. Wetherbee (second term) ; 1908-9, Wm. F. Rice; 
1910-11, J. W. Grover; 1912-13, A. K. Slade; 1914-15, A. B. Fowler; 
1916-1917, Henry J. Ide; 1918-1919, F. H. Battilana; 1920-1921, W. H. 
Winkley; 1922- 1923, A. M. Wood. 

The secretaries have been: 1883, James Bruerton; 1884, Arthur 
A. Clarke; 1888, Oliver P. Clarke; 1891, C. M. Goddard, 141 Milk 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

The present officers, elected at the annual meeting in January, 
1922 are as follows: A. M. Wood, president; A. J. Weed, R. S. Howe, 



120 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



vice-presidents; C. M. Goddard, secretary and treasurer; Ralph 
Sweet Iand» assistant secretary. The executive committee, M. G. 
Wight, chairman, H. J. Hill, A. F. Howard, O. M. Howland, Sumner 
Rhoades, J. E. Snell. Sumner Rhoades resigned in February and W. 
H. Wart was elected a member of the executive committee to succeed 
him. 

The following is a list of the companies having representatives 
as members of the organization : 



Abeille. 

iEtna. 

Agricultural. 

Albany. 

Allemannla 

Alliance Insurance. 

American Alliance. 

American Central. 

American, N. J. 

American Eagle. 

American Underwriters' Agency. 

Atlas, London. 

Atwood 

Automobile Fire. 

Baltimore American. 

Boston. 

British- America. 

Buffalo. 

Caledonian. 

Caledonian American. 

California. 

Camden. 

Capital. 

Citizens, St. Louis. 

City of New York. 

Cleveland National. 

Colonial. 

Columbia. 

Commerce 

Commercial Union, London. 

Commercial Union, N. Y. 

Commonwealth. - 

Concordia. 

Connecticut. 

Continental. 

County Fire. 

Delaware Underwriters. 

Detroit Fire and Marine. 

Detroit National. 

Duquesne. 

Eagle-Star and British Dominion. 

Eastern Underwriters. 

Employers Fire. 

English-American Underwriters. 

Equitable Fire and Marine. 

Exchange Underwriters 

Farmers. 

Federal, N. J. 

Fidelity-Phenix. 

Fire Association of Philadelphia. 

Fire and Marine Underwriters 

Firemen's Fund. 

Firemen's, N. J. 

Firemen's Underwriters. 

Franklin Fire, Philadelphia. 

General Fire. 



Girard. 

(Jlens Falls. New York. 

Globe-Rutgers. 

Granite State Fire. 

Great American. 

Great Lakes. 

Hamilton. 

Hand-in-Hand Underwriters. 

Hanover Fire. 

Hartford Fire. 

Hibernia Underwriters. 

Home, New York. 

Home Fire & Marine, Cal. 

Home Underwriters. 

Hudson 

Imperial. 

Importers and Escporters. 

Ins. Company of North America. 

Ins. Co. State of Pennsylvania. 

Interstate. 

Jersey Underwriters. 

Law, Union and Rock. 

Liverpool and London and Globe. 

London Assurance. 

London and Lancashire. 

London and Provincial. 

Massachnsetts F. & M. 

Mechanics. 

Mechanics' and Traders', La. 

Mercantile. 

Mercantile Fire and Marine. 

Michigan Fire and Marine. 

Millers National. 

Minnesota Underwriters. 

Milwaukee Mechanics. 

National, Hartford. 

National- Ben Franklin. 

National Liberty. 

National Union. 

Nationale Fire. Paris. 

Netherlands, Fire and Life. 

Newark. 

New Hampshire Fire. 

New Haven Underwriters' Agency. 

New York Underwriters' Agency. 

New Zealand. 

Niagara Fire. 

Niagara-Detroit Underwriters. 

North British and Mercantile. 

Northern, London. 

Northern, New York. 

North River. 

Northwestern, Fire and Marine. 

Northwestern National. 

Norwich Union. 

Ohio Farmers. 



Fire Insurance Section 



121 



Cld Colony. 

Orient, Hartford. 

Palatine. 

Patriotic. 

Pennsylvania Fire. 

People's National. 

Philadelphia Underwriters. 

Pheidx Underwriters. 

Phoenix. Paris. 

Phoenix, London. 

Phoenix, Hartford. 

Phoenix Underwriters. 

Pittsburg Underwriters. 

Potomac. 

Providence Washington. 

Queen, New York. 

Reliance, Philadelphia. 

Republic 

Rhode Island. 

Richmond 

Rochester Department. 

Royal, Liverpool. 

Royal Exchange. 

Safeguard 

St. Paul Fire and Marine. 

Scotch Underwriters. 



Scottish Union and National. 

Security, New Haven. 

Springfield Fire and Marine. 

Standard. 

Star. 

State, £nf. 

Sterling. 

Sun. London. 

Superior, Pa. 

Svea. 

Tokio Marine & Fire. 

Union Assurance. 

Union, Paris. 

Union Insurance Society of Canton, 

China. 
United-American, Pa. 
United Firemen's. 
United States. 
United States Underwriters. 
Urbaine. 
Victory. 

Virginia Fire and Marine. 
Washington Underwriter's. 
Westchester. 
Western, Canada. 
Yorkshire. 



Each Local Board has a local secretary, and there are stamp clerks 
in the following places: At Portland and Bangor covering the entire 
State of Maine; at Burlington covering the State of Vermont; at 
Lowell, Mass. for Lawrence and Lowell; Lynn, Mass.; Worcester, 
Mass.; Newbury|X>rt, Mass.; at Salem, Mass. for Beverly and Salem; 
at New Bedford, Mass. for Fall River and New Bedford; Berkshire 
County, Mass.; at Springfield, Mass. for Franklin, Hampden and 
Hampshire counties; at Boston for Metropolitan District and vicinity; 
at Hartford and Bridgeport covering the State of Connecticut. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized August 2, 1899, and the ofhcers elected were: 
President, Charles C. Hayes; secretary, A. J. Tuck; treasurer, L. C. 
Merrill. The present officers, elected at the annual meeting in Novem- 
ber, 1921, are: Philip C. Lockwood, Manchester, president; Louis C. 
Merrill, Concord, N. H., secretary and treasurer; Chas. L. Hurley, 
Lancaster, Arthur P. Morrill, Concord, Arthur L. Keyes, Milford, vice- 
presidents; Dana W. Baker, Exeter, F. E. S. Barnes, Claremont, 
A. B. Palmer, Keene, Geo. W. Kent, Lancaster, J. H. Laflamme, Man- 
chester, executive committee. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE BOARD OF UNDERWRITERS was 
organized by the New Hampshire companies February 10, 1886, at 
Concord, N. H. It is a rating and supervising organization. Its 
presidents have been Oliver Pillsbury, from organization to Sep- 
tember, 1886; S. B. Stearns, to March, 1894; A. F. Howard, to 
1919. F. W. Sargeant, president; J. W. Emery, vice-president; L. 
Clarner, Jr., 77 North Main St., Concord, N. H., secetary; Walter 
Williamson, treasurer. Executive committee, F. W. Sargeant, chair- 
man; L. C. Merrill, A. P. Morrill, J. W. Emery, Charles L. Jackman, 
E- G. Leach, F. T. Jackman, C. W.Varney 



122 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

NEW HAMPSHIRE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of 
Manchester, N. H. Organized in 1869; capital, $2,000,000. Frank 
W. Sargeant, president; Walter M. Parker, vice-president; Frank E. 
Martin, Wm. B. Burpee, George A. French, Chas. E. Chase, secretaries; 
Nathan P. Hunt, treasurer; Oilman McAlIaster, Victor E. Stevens, 
George W. Swallow, assistant secretaries. 

NEW INDIA INSURANCE COMPANY. Bombay, India, 
entered the United States in 1920 to do a fire reinsurance business. Sum- 
ner Ballard, United States Manager, 80 Maiden Lane, New York. 

NEW JERSEY ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized at Trenton, N. J., in May, 1893, and the 
following officers were elected: R. P. Conlon of Newark, president; 
R. R. Miller of Camden, vice-president; and Irvin W. Rogers of 
Trenton, secretary and treasurer. The present officers, elected in 
February, 1021, are: A. W. Hicks, Summit, president; S. H. Calvert. 
Asbury Park, secretary and treasurer; executive committee: Arthur 
W. Hicks, chairman; T. C. Moffatt, T. Frank Appleby, H. G. Evans, 
Arnold Rippe. 

NEW JERSEY INSURANCE COMPANY, of Newark, N. J. 
Organized 191 1; capital $1,000,000. Jacob R. Hall, president; Wm. F. 
Birch, Franklin W. Fort, vice-presidents; James Y. Milne, secretar>" 
C. V. Meserole, vice-president and fire manager; L. R. Bowden. 
assistant manager; H. B. Lamy. Jr., fire secretary; L. P. Tremaine, and 
R. Cholmeley Jones, assistant fire secretaries. 

NEW LONDON COUNTY MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Norwich. Conn. Organized 1840. H. H. Gallup, 
president; W. F. Lester, secretary; A. L. Peale, assistant secretary; 
W. H. Prothero, treasurer. 

NEW ORLEANS INSURANCE EXCHANGE, New Orleans, 
La. Organized 1914; incorporated 1915. The present officers, 
elected in January, 1922, are: J. H. Bodenheimer, president; Harold 
S. Mayer, vice-president; Henry F. Strack, treasurer; executive 
committee: Harold S. Mayer, chairman; R. H. Colcock, Jr., M. J. 
Hartson, Taylor Rowland, Wm. R. Railey, Charles Samuels and R. 
Vallon. Linden F. Brand, secretary, 629 Common Street, New Orleans, 
La. 

NEW YORK BOARD OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS was 
organized May 8, 1868. [For an extended history of the New York 
City associations of fire underwriters from 1819 to the present time 
and of the present board, see the Cyclopedia of Insurance for 1891.I 
At the annual meeting in May, 1922, the following officers were elected : 
President, O. E. Lane; vice-president, Whitney Palache; secretary, 
Bennett Ellison. 99 William Street. N. Y.; assistant secretary. Charles 



Fire Insurance Section 



123 



\V. Sparks; treasurer, W. L. Chambers; assistant treasurer, W. M. 
Ballard. 

The following is a tabulated list of the officers of the New York 
Board of Fire Underwriters from 1891 to the present time. [For list of 
officers from organization to 189 1, see Cyclopedia for 19 10- 19 11.] 



Years. 


Presidents. 


Vice-Presidents. 


Secretaries. 


189X 


Samuel P. Blagden, 


Elijah R. Kennedy. 


William W. Henshaw. 


X892 


Elijah R. Kennedy, 


John H. Washburn, 
John H. Washburn, 


W. De L. Boughton. 


1893 


Elijah R. Kennedy. 


W. D€ L. Boughton. 


z8o4 


John H. Washburn, 


Mason A. Stone. 


W. De L. Boughton. 


1895 


John H. Washburn. 
&lward F. BeddaU. 


Mason A. Stqne, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1896 


J. Montgomery Hare, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1897 


Edward F. Beddall. 


J. Montgomery Hare. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


X898 


J. Montgomery Hare. 


, ohn M. Whiton. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1899 


J. Montgomery Hare, 


, ohn M. Whiton. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1900 


John M. Whiton, 
John M. Whiton, 


Marshall S. Driggs, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1901 


Marshall S. Driggs, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1902 


Marshall S. Driggs. 


Benoni Lockwood. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


X903 


Marshall S. Driggs. 


Benoni Lockwood. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1904 


Benoni Lockwood. 


W. W. Underhlll, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


190S 


Benoni Lockwood. 


W. W. Underbill, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1906 


Alexander H. Wray, 


George W. BurcheU. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1907 


George W. Babb. 


George C. Howe, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


190S 


WUliam N. Kremer, 


Henry W. Eaton, 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1909 


William N. Kremer. 


Henry W. Eaton, 


A. M. Th6rbum. 


X910 


William N. Kremer. 


Henry W. Eaton. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


19x1 


Henry W. Eaton. 


Harold Herrick. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


X9Z2 


Heuy W. Eaton. 


Harold Herrick. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


I9I3 


Harold Herrick, 


C. F. Shallcross. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


19x4 


Harold Herrick. 


C. F. Shalkross. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


19x5 


C. F. Shallcross. 


John H. Kelly. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


X9x6 


C. F. Shallcross. 


John H. Kelly, 
Thomas A. Ralston. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


1917 


R. Emory Warfield. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


X9x8 


R. Emory Warfield. 


Thomas A. Ralston. 


A. M. Thorburn. 


X919 




Clarence A. Ludlum. 


CurUs C. WayUnd. 


X930 


Clarence A. Ludlum. 


Hugh R. Loudon. 


Bennett Ellison. 


IQ3I 


Hugh R. Loudon. 


0. E. Lane. 


Bennett Ellison. 



The treasurers of the board have been : Qiarles H. Birney, 1858- 
1866 ; Martin L. Crowell, 1867 ; Marcus F. Hodges, 1868-1881 ; Mar- 
tin L. Crowell, 1882-1883; Wm. A. Anderson, 1884-1888; William 
M. St. John, i8iS9-i890 ; Lindley Murray, Jr., 1890-1906 ; A. M. Thor- 
burn, 1907-1919; Willard L. Chambers, 1920-1922. 



NEW YORK FIRE INSURANCE EXCHANGE. [For an 
account of the causes which led to the organization of this body, 
March 8, 1899, and for the full text of the agreement upon which 
it was based, see the Cyclopedia of Insurance for 1898-99.] The 
present officers of the Exchange, who were elected at the annual 
meeting in March, 1922, are as follows: N. S. Bartow, Queen, presi- 
dent; Hart Darlington, Norwich Union, vice-president; Willard L. 
Chambers, North British and Mercantile, secretary and treasurer. 

The manager of the Exchange is W. O. Robb, who assumed the 
duties of his office July i, 1910, and Edward R. Hardy is assistant 
manager. Address is 123 William Street, New York, N. Y. 



124 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

NEW YORK FIRE PATROL. The present eflFectivc organi- 
zation known as the New York Fire Patrol was created by the New 
York Board of Fire Underwriters under the authority of the charter 
granted to the board by the legislature in 1867, but it was preceded 
by organizations having substantially the same purposes as far back 
as thirty-two years. In 1835 the Association of Fire Insurance 
Companies employed four men whose duty it was to attend all 
fires and protect the interests of fire underwriters by preserving 
property exposed to fire and damage by water. They received a 
salary of $250 per annum each. In 1839 the association employed 
forty men as a fire police in the mercantile district. The men 
were firemen or ex-firemen, and wore red fire caps. They gave 
the alarm to each other by means of whistles and rattles. The 
first covers for the protection of merchandise from water were 
used in 1845. George T. Hope was chairman of the fire patrol com- 
mittee in 1853, and was instrumental in the preparation of the first 
code of rules placed in the hands of every member of the force. 
A second patrol company was organized in 1855, a third in 1867, the 
fourth in 1876, fifth in 1893, a sixth in 1901, and a seventh in 1906. 

The patrol was and continues to be under the government of 
the committee on fire patrol of the board, elected annually. E^ch 
company is fully equipped and motorized. The force consists of 217 
officers and men, composed of a superintendent, officers and men. The 
whole force is under the immediate command of Superintendent James 
O. Schwank. 

The committee on fire patrol elected at the last annual meeting 
of the board, in May, 1922, is as follows: B. M. Culver, Charles H. 
Post, C. L. Tyner, C. V. Meserole, E. E. Pearce, J. G. Hilllard and 
Wallace Reid; ex officio members: O. E. Lane, president; Whitney 
Palache, vice-president; and W. L. Chambers, treasurer, respectively, 
of the New York Board of Fire Underwriters. 

NEW YORK STATE ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL AGENTS 
INC., was organized by representatives of local boards in the state 
of New York, outside the metropolitan district, at a meeting held 
at Syracuse, March 22, 1893. The first title adopted was " New York 
State Association of Local Boards of Fire Underwriters." The pres- 
ent title was adopted at the annual meeting in 1916. The constitution 
states the purpose of the association to be the " promotion of har- 
mony in underwriting, the protection of our interests, and those of our 
companies in our several territories, and the securing of united action 
in such direction as may be required to obtain these results." The 
officers chosen at this meeting were: M. G. Thompson, of Utica, presi^ 
dent; James E. Reed, of Warsaw; C. T. Goodrich, of Newburgh; and 
H. B. Boss, of Binghamton, vice-presidents; William T. Ford, of Co- 
hoes, secretary; John L. Getman, of Gloversville, treasurer. The 
present officers, elected at the annual meeting held in June, 192 1, are: 
President, Frank L. Gardiner; vice-president, S. Carlisle Goodrich., 
Newburg; secretary and treasurer, Eugene A. Beach, 514 McCarthy 
Building, Syracuse. 



Fire Insurance Section 125 

NEW YORK STATE FIRE LNSURANCE COMPANY. 
ALjBANY, N. Y. Organized 1836; capital, $200,000. A. Page 
Smith, president; Noel S. Bennett, vice-president; J. Allen Warner, 
secretary. The company was organized as the Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company of Albany, but re-organized as a stock company, November i, 
1921 and adopted its'present title. 

NEW YORK UNDERWRITERS AGENCY, THE, was estab- 
lished by Alexander Stoddart, January i, 1864, to transact the agency 
business of certain fire insurance companies. These were succeeded on 
January i, 1894, by the Hartford Fire Insurance Company, under a 
permanent arrangement whereby the policies of the Hartford Fire are 
issued through the New York Underwriters Agency. The New York 
Underwriters Agency does business throughout the whole United 
States and Canada, and its management, agency plant and lines remain 
entirely separate and distinct from those of the Hartford. It is under 
the management of A. & J. H. Stoddart, general agents, No. 100 William 
Street, New York. 

NEW ZEALAND INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, Auck- 
land, N. Z., began business on the Pacific Coast in 1875. W. M. Speyer, 
manager, 330-340 California Street, San Francisco; H. E. Kempt home, 
manager, no William Street, New York, N. Y. 

NIAGARA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. THE, of New 
York. Organized 1850. Capital, $2,000,000. Otho E. Lane, presi- 
dent; B. M. Culver and W. L. Steele, vice-presidents; Charles A. 
Lung, secretary; Walter W. Richey, treasurer; Henry J. Zechlin, 
Myles Walsh, James G. Maconachy, Joseph H. Macfarlane, and Henry 
J. Houge, assistant secretaries. (123 William Street). 

NIPPON FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY Ltd., Tokio. Japan. 
Organized 1892. Entered the United States in 1919 for re-insurance 
business. Fester, Fothergill & Hartung, United States managers, 
no William Street, New York, N. Y. 

NON-CONCURRENT POLICIES — APPORTIONMENT. It 
is hardly within the scope of this work to enter into a discussion of a 
subject which has been one of the most perplexing with which adjusters 
have to deal. The courts have pretty generally taken the view that 
companies may adopt any adjustment satisfactory to themselves so 
that it does not deprive the insured of his protection, or fail to fully 
indemnify him for his loss. It has been difficult, if not impossible, 
to make a rule that will meet the requirement in all cases, and many 
of the so-called rules have been made to meet particular cases. In 
the eastern states, as Mr. Griswold puts it, the matter is " left to the 
individual adjuster to adopt such methods as may seem most advan- 
tageous for his own company." Mr. Griswold gives nine different 
rules for adjusting specific and compound insurance. The " Reading " 
the " Finn, which was the production of Mr. Finn, secretary of the 
Long Island Insurance Company; the '* Albany," which is credited 



126 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

to Mr. Heaid, president of the Home Insurance Company; Rule IV, 
which is attributed to Henrv A. Oakley; Rule V, with no author; 
Rule VI, attributed to Mr. hope; Rule VII, Rule VIII, which Mr. 
Griswold names the rule of proportion; and Rule IX, the English 
rule. On the Pacific Coast the " Kinne " rule, so-called from its 
author, Mr. C. Mason Kinne, was adopted by the Fire Underwriters' 
Association of the Pacific in 1885 and being general in scope has been 
put into effect throughout the association's jurisdiction. 

The principle governing all apportionments of non-concurrent 
policies is, that general and special insurances must be regarded as 
co-insurances; and general insurance must float over and contribute 
to loss on all subjects under its protection, in the proportions of the 
respective losses thereon, until the insured is indemnified, or the pol- 
icy exhausted. 

The correct method of applying the principle of the Kinne rule 
has been formulated in the following statement: 

First — Ascertain the non-concurrence of the various policies and classify the 
various items covered into as many groups as the non-concurrence demands, whether 
of property, location or ownership. 

Second — Ascertain loss on such groups of items separately. 

Third — If but a single group is found with a loss upon it, the amount of all 
policies covering the group contribute pro rata. 

Fourth — If more than one group has sustained a loss, and such loss on one or 
more groups be equal to or greater than the totals of general and specific insurance 
thereon, then let the whole amount of such insurance apply to the payment of leas 
on such groups. 

Fifth — If more than one group has sustained a loss, and such loss be less thstn 
the totals of unexhausted general and specific insurance thereon, then apportion the 
amount of each policy covering on such groups generally, to cover specifically on su^ 
groups, in the same proportion that the sum of the losses on such groups bears to 
the loss on each individual group. 

Note — When a group is covered by one or more general policies, it would be 
well to see at once if an apportionment as above on that group would equal the loss 
as in case it will not. it will show, without further calculation, that the whole amount 
of loss on such group must be met by such policies pro rata, and the remainder only 
apportioned. In such cases, carrying out Step 6 simply accomplishes by a longer 
process what here is indicated. 

Sixth — If the loss on any group or groups is then found to be greater than the 
sum of the now specific insurances as apportioned, add sufficient to such specific in- 
surances to make up the loss on the group, taking the amount of the deficiency from 
the now specific insurance of the heretofore general amounts previously covreing the 
now deficient groups, which cover on groups having an excess of insurance, in the pro- 
portion that their sums bear to their individual amounts. 

Note — Very rarely are new deficiencies created by the re-apportionment, but 
if so, simply repeat Step 6. 

Seventh — Cause the amounts of all the now specific insurances to severally 
contribute pro rata to pay the partial losses, and it will be found that the whole scheme 
has resulted in the claimant being fully indemnified in accordance with the various 
contracts and on a basis which preserves the equities between the com[>aniea through- 
out. 

NORDISK RE-INSURANCE COMPANY, Copenhagen. Den- 
mark. Entered the United States in 1919. Paul E. Rasor, United 
States manager, New York, N. Y. 



Fire Insurance Section 127 

NORFOLK MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Dedham, Mass. Organized 1825. James Y. Noyes, president and 
treasurer; Theodore T. Marsh, secretary. 

NORSKE LLOYD INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD., of Chris- 
tiania, Norway, 27 William Street, New York, N. Y. Entered the 
United States in 1916 for re-insurance business, but retired in 1921. 

NORTH AMERICAN NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Des Moines, Iowa. Oi]eanized 1918; present name adopted in 1921; 
cash capital $589,667. O. P. Ode, president; John Peterson, secretary. 

NORTH BRITISH AND MERCANTILE INSURANCE 
COMPANY of Edinburgh and London had its beginning in the 
North British of Edinburgh, founded in 1809 to do a fire insurance 
business. A life insurance department was added in 1823. Mr. 
Bostwick was the first manager, and he was succeeded by David 
Smith, a "writer to the Signet," a man of great ability and un- 
tiring energy. In 1861, after the great Tooley Street fire in Lon- 
don, a new fire company was established in that city, by prominent 
merchants, under the name of the Mercantile Insurance Company, 
which at once took a strong position. In 1862 the two companies 
agreed to amalgamate, establishing a general court of directors, 
divided into two sections, with chief officers in Edinburgh and 
London, the latter giving special attention to the large foreign con- 
nections; for the company has agencies and branches over the 
entire world. 

The present subscribed capital of the company is £4,500,000, and 
the cash capital, £2,437,500. The fire funds at the close of 192 
amounted to £7,253,479.9.5 — , and total assets of £29,720,708.14.2. 

The company entered the United States August 16, 1866. Ezra 
White, an experienced underwriter, was selected ds manager, and 
his son, Charles E. White, as assistant manager. The head office 
of the company was at 74 Wall Street, and its first local board of 
directors was composed of Charles H. Dabney, chairman; Solon 
Humphreys, Aymar Cater, David Dows, Egisto P. Fabbri, Simeon 
B. Chittenden, and Shepard Gandy. Its present head office is 76 Wil- 
liam Street, New York, N. Y. 

The present United States Branch Management is as follows: 
board of directors; Wm. Pierson Hamilton, chairman; Edward J. 
Berwind, (Berwind White Coal Mining Co.) ; Walter Douglas (Phelps 
Dodge Corp.) ; Adrian Iselin (A. Iselin&Co.); Frederic A. Juilliard 
(A. D. Juilliard & Co.); Frederic J. Middlebrook (Middlebrook & 
Borland); Jesse Isidor Straus (R. H. Macy & Co., Inc.); George E. 
Tumure (Lawrence Turnure & Co.); Cornelius Vanderbilt. Cecil F. 
Shallcross, U. S. manager; C. E. Case, C. R. Perkins, W. S. Alley, G. 
H. Batchelder, R. P. Barbour, assistant managers; H. J. Thomsen, 
secretary. 



128 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

The business written in the United States covers the following 
classes, fire, lightning, windstorm, ocean and inland marine, automobile, 
rain, explosion, riot, civil commotion and invasion, leakage, aircraft, 
earthquake, hail, crops, water daniage and weather. In the 56 years 
that tne company has transacted business in the United States it has 
paid therein in fire losses over $94,000,000. It was involved to the ex- 
tent of $2,330,000 in the Chicago fire of 187 1, $742,067.56 in the Boston 
fire of 1872; $857,000 in the Baltimore fire of 1904, and in San Francisco, 
over $4,000,000, all of which losses were promptly met by funds from the 
home office. Its losses in the Jacksonville conflagration in 1901, 
amounting to $171,363.47, were paid from its United States funds, 
making a total of $7,771,897.58 paid for losses by the foregoing con- 
flagrations, thus establishing the character and strength of the com- 
pany firmly in the minds of the American people. 

NORTH CAROLINA HOME INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Raleigh, N. C. Organized 1868; capital, $400,000. Alexander Webb, 
president; John F. Bruton, vice-president; George P. Folk, sec- 
retary. 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Rocky Mount, N. C, organized 191 8; capital $50,000. M, R. Bras- 
well, president; Dr. G. L. Wimberly, Jr., vice-president; J. C. Bras- 
well, treasurer; W. S. Wilkinson, secretary and general manager. 

NORTH CHINA INSURANCE COMPANY. Limited, Shanghai, 
China, (Marine). Frank H. Cauty, United States manager. New York, 
N" Y., 27 William Street. 

NORTHERN ASSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, of London, 
England. Organized 1836. Entered the United States in 1854. 
A. G. Martin, general attorney in the United States and manager 
for the Eastern and Southern States; J. V. Lane, C. W. Cooper, assis- 
tant managers, 55 John Street; J. C. Corbet, Chicago, 111., manager 
for Western and Pacific states; H. D. Lewis, assistant manager. 

NORTHERN INSURANCE CpMPANY of New York. Or- 
ganized 1897; capital, $500,000. William Brewster, president; James 
Marshall, secretary; Theodore Plessner, assistant secretary; Willard 
S. Brown & Co., general managers, 83 Maiden Lane, New York, 
N. Y. 

NORTH RIVER INSURANCE COMPANY, New York City; 
no William Street. Organized 1822; capital, $2,000,000. John A. 
Forster, president; J. Lester Parsons, vice-president; Rudolph O. 
Haubold, second vice-president; James H. Ackerman, third vice- 
president; David G. Wakeman, secretary. 



Fire Insuiiance Section 129 

NORTHWESTERN ASSOCIATION OF MUTUAL INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANIES. Organized in March, 1919, by representatives 
of mutual fire insurance companies of Minnesota, North Dakota and 
South Dakota. Mutual companies of Iowa and Wisconsin are also 
included in the membership. The present officers elected in February 
1922, are: W. D. Austin, Fargo, North Dakota, president; Thos. G. 
McCracken, Minneapolis, Minn., vice-president; H. L. Hjermstad, 
Red Wing, Minnesota, treasurer; O. M. Thurber, Owatonna, Minne- 
sota, secretary. 

NORTHWESTERN FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Minneapolis, Minn. Organized in 1899 under the laws 
of North Dakota, and reorganized under Minnesota laws in 1906; 
capital, (400,000. John H. Griffin, president; E. C. Warner, Isaac 
Hazlett, G. W. Buffington, vice-presidents; Wm. Collins, secretary 
and treasurer; Oscar J. Eastman, J. B. Berkvam, assistant secretaries; 
L. B. Van De Wall, assistant treasurer. 

NORTHWESTERN MUTUAL FIRE ASSOCIATION, Seattle, 
Wash. Organized 1901. F. J. Martin, president; H.K. Dent, Howard 
Seabury, F. A. Ernst, vice-presidents; M. D. L. Rhodes, secretary; 
Jno. C. Keith, treasurer; Corwin S. Shank, counsel. 

NORTHWESTERN NATIONAL INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Milwaukee, Wis. Organized 1860; capital, $1,000,000. 
Alfred F. James, president; Wilfiam D. Reed, vice-president; Joseph 
Aubel, second vice-president; Lubin M. Stuart, secretary; Herman 
H. Schmidt, assistant secretary. 

NORWEGIAN ASSURANCE UNION, LTD., of Christiania, 
Norway. The company discontinued business in the United States in 
1921. 

NORWEGIAN ATLAS INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD. 
Wcmple & Company, Inc., 15 William Street, New York, N. Y. United 
States general agents, fire branch; Northern Underwriting Agency, 
United States managers, 56 Beaver Street, New York. (Reinsurance 
business only.) 

NORWICH UNION FIRE INSURANCE SOCIETY, LTD. 
This society was established in 1797 at Norwich, England. Its prime 
mover was Thomas Bignold. It was organized upon the mutual 
plan and was known as the Union Fire Office until 1821, when it 
was reorganized upon a stock basis, taking over the business of the 
Norwich General Assurance Office, a stock company. It was at 
this time the title, Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, was adopted. 
The capital was $550,000. In 1879, ^^^ society was again reorganized, 
and the capital increased to £1,100,000 and its term extended to 1,000 



130 Cyclopedia of Insuranxe 

years from 1881. In 1908 it was reincorporated as a limited company. 
Its officers are: Chairman, Sir Gerald Ryan; general manager, R. Y. 
Sketch. 

The society entered the United States in 1877. Its American 
assets are $5,814,416, and surplus, $1,669,260. It does business in 
all the states and territories of the Union, excepting Arkansas and 
Delaware. Its head office for the United States is at 75 Maiden Lane, 
New York; Hart Darlington, manager; J. F. Van Riper, branch 
secretary; United States Trustees: Central Union Trust Company, 
New York. Its Pacific Coast department is managed by J. L. Fuller, 
234-236 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. The society also does 
business in the Dominion of Canada, where it is represented by John B. 
Laidlaw, manager, Toronto, and in Cuba, Porto Rico, Phillippines, 
South America, Mexico and also in Europe, India, China, Japan and 
Africa. 



o 



OCEAN MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, London, Eng. 
W. L. H. Simpson, attorney and manager, New York. 

OFFICIAL CHANGES IN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES 
IN 1 92 1. The official changes in 192 1 were as follows: 

Atlantic City Fire, Atlantic City, N. J.— James T. Bcw, elected vice-prraident; Charles 
E. Schroeder appointed acting secretary. 

Baltimore American, Baltimore, Md. — Louis Huether, Jr., elected vice-president; 
Edward J. Cook, secretary and Fred Wehrenberg, Jr., assistant secretary. 

Boston and Old Colony Insurance Company, Boston, Mass. — J. Louis Ivison, appointed 
manager of the automobile department. 

Capital Fire, Sacramento. Cal.— Rolla V. Wall, elected president; F. B. Kellam vice- 
president and E. H. Farr, secretary. 

Central States Fire. Wichita, Kansas. — Henry C. Whalen, appointed chairman of the 
board of directors; Roy E. Eblen, elected president. (Control of company 
secured by Phoenix Fire of Hartford). 

Columbian National Fire, Lansing, Mich.— W. D. Lawrence, elected secretary to 
succeed J. E. Murphy resigned. 

Concordia Fire, Milwaukee. Wis.— August J. Luedke, elected vice-president. 

Continental, New York.— Homer H. Rees resigned as counsel. 

Federal Insurance Company, Jersey City, N. J.— George B. Ogden and William A. 
Hamilton, elected vice-presidents, Thomas J. Goddard, secretary. 

Fireman's. Newark, N. J.— Walter J. Schmidt. William Werner and Henry I. Willet, 
appointed assistant secretaries; Charles W. Payne appointed assistant treasurer. 

Guardian Fire, Salt Lake City.— Harrison E. Jenkins resigned as manager. 

Imperial Assurance, New York.— H. W. Ellis elected vice-president to succeed Hart 
Darlington resigned. 

Iroquois Fire, Chicago, III.— C. A. Farwell elected assistant secretary. 

Liberty Fire, St. Louis. Mo.— Charles L. Hecox, resigned as secretary and underwriter. 

Liverpool and London and Globe.— C. E. Allan appointed manager Pacific Coast, 

department. 
London Assurance Corporation.— John H. Packard appointed United States manager 

to succeed Charles L. Case, deceased. 
National Fire Hartford.— G. F. Cowee and R. M. Anderson appointed as assistant 

secretaries. 

National Liberty, New York.— M. J. Averbeck, chairman board of directors; Charles 
H. Coates elected president to succeed H. R. Clough. resigned. Louis Pfingstag, 
elected vice-president and secretary; William H. Frank, secretary, and George 
Harrington, F. H. Shifner and Charles H. Uhlig, assistant secretaries. H. R. 
Clough elected president but later resigned and G. H. Kehr resigned as secretary. 

National Security Fire, Omaha.— A. J. Love elected president succeeding P. F. Leman. 

Northern Assurance, London.— Everett W. Nourse appointed assistant United States 
manager. 

North British and Mercantile.— Robert P. Barbour appointed assistant United States 
manager in charge of the Western department. H.J. Thomsen appointed secretary. 

Norwich Union Assurance Society.— Hart Darlington appointed United States manager, 
to succeed J. Montgomery Hare and William Hare, retired as manager and assist- 
ant manager respectively. 

Pacific Fire. New York, N. Y.— Henry B. Lamy, Jr. elected vice-president and secre- 
tary; Lawrence P. Tremaine, elected secretary and Henry M. Camp, elected 
assistant secretary. 1 



132 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Pennyslvania Fire, Commonwealth and Mercantile, New York.— G. H. Bachelder, 
former Western manager, appointed vice-president, and also assistant manager 
North British and Mercantile; F. H. Sabin appointed general agent, Chicago. 

Scottish Union and National.— Thomas R. Fletcher appointed assistant secretary. 

Star Insurance Company, New York.— Thomas H. Anderson elected president, and 
C. A. Nottingham, vice-president. 

United States Fire, New York.— J. Lester Parsons elected president to succeed George 
R. Branson, resigned. 

Urbalne and Eagle, Star and British Dominions. — Carroll L. DeWitt; P. A. Cosgrove 
and O. F. Wallin, appointed assistant United States managers. 

OHIO ASSOCIATION OF FIRE UNDERWRITERS was 
or^nized in 191 2 by field men of Ohio representing companies 
members of the Western Insurance Bureau. Officers were elected 
as follows: President, N. T. Julian, Agricultural; vice-president, 
Lester E. Cate; secretary, D. C. Morgan, Reliance. The present 
officers elected in December, 192 1, are: D. C. Morgan, Insurance Com- 
pany State of Pennsylvania, president; R. D. Cooke, National Liberty, 
vice-president; E. A. Flickner, Republic Fire, 233 S. High St., Colum- 
bus, secretary and treasurer. 

OHIO ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE AGENTS 
was organized in February, 1897, with Merwin Jackson president; 
A. W. Neale and F. C. McElroy, vice-presidents; C. W. Bryson, 
secretary; and W. J. Eilber, treasurer. The present officers, elected 
at the annual meeting in June 1921, are: President, A. L. Clemons; 
L.' L. D. Chapman, vice-president; W. H. Tomlinson, secretary and 
treasurer. 

OHIO FARMERS' INSURANCE COMPANY, Lc Roy, Ohio. 
Organized 1848 (Mutual). F. H. Hawley, president; W. E. Haines, 
secretary; N. R. Chalfant, assistant secretary; J. W. Crooks, treasurer. 

OHIO MILLERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Canton, O. Organized 1886. Wm. H. Clark, president and 
treasurer; Wm. N. Reed, secretary; L. C. Alexander, assistant secre- 
tary; C. F. Altekruse, assistant treasurer. 

OHIO MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, THE. Salem, Ohio. 
Organized 1876. J. R. Vernon, president; L. H. Brush, vice-president; 
J. Ambler, secretary. 

OHIO UNDERWRITERS MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Van Wert, Ohio. Organized, 1903. C. M. Purmort, 
secretary. 

OHIO VALLEY FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Paducah, Ky. Organized 19 14; cash capital, $180,000. F. M. 
Fisher, president; R. G. Fisher, vice-president and secretary; R. 
E. Cooper, vice-president ; O. C. Cloy 's, treasurer. 



Fire Insurance Section 



133 



OIL INSURANCE ASSOCIATION, 209 W. Jackson Boulevard, 
Chicago, 111. Organized in 19 18 by fire insurance companies to insure 
oil properties and along same lines as that followed by the factory 
insurance associations. The officers are: John H. Carr, Hartford, 
president; Neal Bassett, Firemens of Newark; C. A. Ludlum, Home, 
X. Y., vice-presidents; J. C. Harding, Springfield Fire and Marine, 
secretary; executive committee: George H. Bell, National of Hartford; 
Ralph B. Ives, iEtna, Chicago; C. R. Tuttle, Insurance Co. of North 
American, Chicago; C. E. Case, North British & Mercantile, New 
York City; W. P. Robertson, Alliance, Chicago, 111., and the officers. 
H. M. Carmichael is manager and H. C. Seitz, assistant manager. 

The following is the membership roll. 



iEtna. Hartford. Conn. 

Alliance, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Alliance. N. Y. 

American Eagle.. N. Y. 

American, Newark. 

American Central. St. Louis. 

Atlas. London. 

Automobile., Hartford 

Boston, Boston 

Camden Fire, Camden. 

Citizens, St. Louis. 

Columbia. New Jersey. 

Commonwealth, New York. 

Commercial Uiiion, London. 

Connecticut Fire, Hartford 

Continental, New York. 

FideUty-Phenlx. 

Fire and Marine Underwriters, Hartford. 

Firemans Fund, San Francisco, Cal. 

Firemen's, Newark. 

Firemen's Underwriters, Newark. 

Franklin, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Girard F. & M., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Glens Falls. Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Great American, New York. 

Hanover, New York. 

Hartford, Hartford. 

Home Fire and Marine, San Francisco. 

Home, New York. 

Hudson. New York. 

Imperial, New York. 



Ins. Co. of N. America. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Insurance Co. of State of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

iersey Fire Underwriters. Newark, 
.iverpool & London & Globe, Liverpool 
Mechanics, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mercantile, New York. 
National, Hartford Conn. 
National Union, Pittsburgh. 
New Hampshire, Manchester, N. H. 
New York Underwriters' Agency, N. Y. 
Niagara Fire, New York. 
North British & Mercantile. London 
Norwich Union, Norwich 
Palatine, London. 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Philadelphia Underwriters. 
Phoenix, London. 
Phoenix, Hartford, Conn. 
Queen, New York. 
Reliance, Philadelphia. 
Royal, Liverpool. 

Scottish Union & National. Edinburgh 
Security, New Haven. Conn. 
St. Paul Fire & Marine. St. Paul, Minn. 
Springfield Fire & Marine, Springfield. 
Sun, London. 

Svea Fire and Life, Sweden. 
Union, London. 
Union, China. 



OKLAHOMA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized in 1900 and reorganized in 1908. The pres- 
ent officers, elected at the annual meeting in November 1921, are: 
J. Stewart Pearce, Tulsa, Okla., president; M. L. Bragdon, Muskogee, 
Okla., V. W. Snyder, Holdenville, Okla., Ray Babbitt, Lawton, Okla., 
vice-presidents; D. A. Mullen, Tulsa, Okla., secretary and treasurer; 
executive committee: Harry A. Pierson, chairman, Shawnee, Jno. F. 
McCullough, Oklahoma City, V. G. Houston, Guthrie, C. F. McCul- 
lough, Yale, Jay H. Mullen, Bartlesville, W. L. Dickey, Tulsa, Chas. 
P. Cansler, Enid, Dave Stoval, Hugo, Guy Woodman, Elk City, Jack 
Thayer, Blackwell, Chas. Brice, McAlester. 



134 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

OLD BAY STATE INSURANCE COMPANY, Concord. Mass. 
Organized 1919; capital $200,000. Prescott Keyes, president; C. F. 
Bowers, secretary. 

OLD COLONY INSURANCE COMPANY, Boston. Mass. 
Organized 1906: capital $1,000,000. William R. Hedge, president; 
E. Winchester, Henry R. Hedge and I. Lloyd Greene, vice-presidents; 
John P. Morgan, secretary; William J. Chisholm, and John M. Eaton, 
M. M. Veazie, assistant secretaries (87 Kilby Street.) 

OMAHA LIBERTY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Omaha, 
Neb. Organized in 1919; capital, paid-in, $250,000. P. F. Zimmer, 
president; R. J. Wachter, secretary, Samuel Patterson, treasurer; John 
A. Wachter and Geo. J. Adams, vice-presidents. 

ORIENT INSURANCE COMPANY, of Hartford, Conn. 
Organized 187 1; capital, $1,000,000. A. G. Mcllwaine, president; 
Henry W. Gray, Jr., vice-president; A. H. Murphy, secretary. 



p 



PACIFIC COAST AUTOMOBILE UNDERWRITERS CON- 
FERENCE. The present officers, elected in October, 1921, are: Adam 
Gilliland, Hartford Fire, president; Ray Decker, Home, vice-president; 
Lloyd S. Day, manager; RoUa Fay, Automobile, Conn., treasurer; 
executive committee, William Deans, Hanover, McClure Kelly, North 
America, Adam Gilliland, Hartford, Ray Decker, Home, Rolla Fay, 
Automobile of Hartford, D. E. Kessler, Employers Fire, B. E. Dowell, 
Commercial Union, C. E. Allon, Liverpool and London and Globe, 
E. C. F. Knowles, Phoenix of London, A. T. Bailey, North British and 
Mercantile, C. C. Wright, Fireman's Fund. 

PACIFIC FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, New York, N. Y. 
(59 John Street). Organized 1851; capital, $400,000. C. V. Meserole, 
president; L. R. Bowden, M. A. Stone, vice-presidents; H. B. Lamy, 
Jr., vice-president and secretary; L. P. Tremaine, secretary; R. 
Cholmeley- Jones and Henry M. Camp, Jr., assistant secretaries. 

PACIFIC NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Sacramento, Cal. Organized 1914; capital, $250,000. G. W. Pel- 
tier, president; L. M. Ware, first vice-president and manager; W. F. 
Gromley and R. T. Melton, vice-presidents; B. F. Vandenberg, Jr., 
secretary and treasurer. 

PACIFIC STATES FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Portland. 
Ore. Organized 1909; capital, paid in $300,000. T. H. Williams, 
president; W. L. Thompson, vice-president; O. R. Jeffress, secretary; 
L. G. Clarke, treasurer. 

PALATINE INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, of London, 
England. United States manager is Whitney Palache; F. W. Koeckert, 
assistant manager; and Wm. M. Ballard, branch secretary. 114 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City, N. Y. 

Palatine Insurance Company closed the year 1921 with: — 

A«ets $4,997,637.58 

Net Surplus 1,566,805.37 

Premium Income 2,927,883 

PALMETTO FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sumter, S. C. 
Organized 1912; capital, $400,000. I. C. Strauss, president; D. D. 
Moise and Neill O'Donnell, vice-presidents; Perry Moses, secretary 
and manager; S. C. Roper, treasurer; T. B. Candle and W. W. Mclver, 
assistant secretaries. 



136 Cyclopedia of Insuranxe 

PAPER MILL MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Organized 1887. D. W. Lane, president and treasurer; 
H. W. Mason, vice-president; G. H. Gibson, secretary and assistant 
treasurer; J. E. Stanley, assistant secretary. 

PATERNELLE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Limited. 
Paris, France. E. G. Snow. Jr., United States Manager, New York, N.Y. 

PATRIOTIC ASSURANCE COMPANY. THE, of Dublin, Ire- 
land, was organized in 1824 to supply fire insurance to Ireland. The 
company prospered and its field of operations was extended, first to 
England and later to more distant points. Continued success led to 
the purchase of a controlling interest by the Sun Insurance Office of 
London, the oldest insurance company in the world. That was early 
in the present century, and in 19 13, the Patriotic was reorganized with 
a paid-up cash capital of £100,000 in place of the original organization 
under the Limited Liability Act with 125^ per cent paid up. Thus 
equipped, with $500,000 capital, the company was admitted in the 
latter part of 19 15 to transact business in New York and other states 
of the union, the purpose being to do a general fire insurance business 
throughout the United States. The statement made to the New York 
Insurance Department as of December 31, 1921, shows $1,013,730 
assets and a net surplus of $500,020. 

The United States manager of the Sun Insurance Office, Preston 
T. Kelsey, is also United States manager of the Patriotic. 54 Pine 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

PATROL, CHICAGO FIRE INSURANCE, was organized in 
1 87 1, and is under the management of the Chicago Board of Under- 
writers. The patrol committee of the board is composed of C. R. 
McCabe, chairman; J. J. Van Every, vice-chairman; W. F. Rollo, T. E. 
Gallagher, James Witkowsky, A. O. Burdick, W. R. Townley, J. B. 
Nowakowsky secretary. The force consists of one hundred and 
twenty-eight men, divided into eight companies. 

E. T. Shepherd is superintendent of the corps, with headquarters 
at 179 West Monroe Street. 

Company No. i was organized October 2, 1871. The present 
officers of the company are: Ahthony Golden, captain ; George H. Kane, 
lieutenant. Company No. 2. was organized August 3, 1875. W. Sted- 
man is captain, and Joseph Eggstein, lieutenant. Company No. 3 was 
organized May 11, 1889. The present officers are: Chas. Beibei, 
captain; lieutenant, John Steinke. Company No. 4, known as the 
"Union Stock Yards Chemical Company," was organized January 26, 
1882. The officers are: William Enright, captain ; Wm. Older, lieutenant. 
Company No. 5 was organized March i, 1892; Thomas Gallagher, cap- 
tain; Stephen N. Gaul, lieutenant. Company No. 6 was organized 
December i, 1893. John Culien, captain; William Fisher, lieutenant. 
Company No. 7 was organized August 24, 1901 ; Edward Reilly, cap- 
tain; R. K. Dalluge, lieutenant. Company No. 8 was organized May 
30,1903; F. P. Doherty, captain; W.J. Foy, lieutenant. James Wheat- 
on, fire reporter. 



Fire Insurance Section 137 

The following tabular statement of losses by fire insurance com- 

Snies in Chicago in 192 1, was made from the returns of the fire patrol 
' the year ending December 31, 192 1: 

Month Loeaes 

January $985,685.80 

February 635,487 33 

March 3,182,272.9a 

April 602.249.78 

May 924.526.55 

June 785,803.62 

July 998,874-47 

August 501,407-34 

September 608,540.54 

October 992,866.72 

November 998,904.81 

December x.245,65940 

Last six month's estimated $11,462,278.38 

PATRONS FIRE RELIEF ASSOCIATION, THE, Kingston. 
R. I. Organized 1901. Isaac L. Sherman, president; P. H. Wes- 
sels, secretary. 

PAWTUCKET MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Pawtucket, R. I. Incorporated 1848. A. A. Mann, president and 
treasurer; Frank Bishop, secretary. 

PENINSULAR FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERI- 
CA, Grand Rapids, Mich. Organized 1919; capital, paid-in, $899,850. 
The company was placed in liquidation in 192 1. 

PENNSYLVANIA ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS 
was organized August 23, 1900, with the following officers: President, 
W. B. Flickinger; vice-president, L. E. Johns; second vice-president, 
Fred G. Clark; third vice-president, N. H. Pangborn; secretary and 
treasurer, D. F. Collingwood. The present officers, are: President, Leo 
Schlaudecker, Erie; secretary and treasurer, H. M. Bird, Union Trust 
building, Harrisburg. 

PENNSYLVANIA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE. 
510 Walnut Street, Philadelphia. Organized 1825; capital, $750,000, 
Cecil F. Shallcross, president; C. E. Case, C. R. Perkins, W. S. Alley, 
G. H. Batchelder, R. P. Barbour, vice-presidents; H. J. Thomsen, 
secretary and treasurer. 

PENNSYLVANIA LUMBERMEN'S MUTUAL FIRE INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1895. Edward F. 
Benson, president; Richard Torpin, vice-president; Wm. Henry 
Smedley. seeond vice-president; Harry Humphreys, secretary; James 
S. Young, treasurer; Archibald Kellock, assistant treasurer; Justin 
Peters, manager and assistant secretary; H. J. Pelstring, assistant man- 
ager, 806 Lafayette Building. 



138 Cyclopedia of Insuranxe 

PENNSYLVANIA MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION FIRE 
INSURANCE COMPANY, 2005 Finance Building, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Organized 1919; capital paid in, $100,000. Joseph R. Grundy, presi- 
dent; W. W. Finn, secretary. 

PEOPLES FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Frederick, Md. 
Organized 1908; capital $200,000. E. L. Coblentz, president; Wm. W 
Doub, secretary. 

PEOPLES NATIONAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 190S; began business 1909; capital, 
paid up, $1,000,000. E. C. Stokes, president; J. H, McNeal, vice- 
president; Jas. M. Canning, secretary and treasurer; W. G. Wible, 
assistant treasurer. Third and Walnut Streets. 

PETERSBURG INSURANCE COMPANY. INC., Petersburg. 
Va. Organized 1918; capital, $200,000. E. H. Patterson, president; 
W. D. McKenney, vice-president; S. W. Zimmer, vice-president and 
general counsel; E.'W. Butcher, general manager; R. W. Pritchard, Jr., 
assistant general manager. 

PHENIX FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Paris, France- 
Starkweather & Shepley, Inc.. United States managers, Providence. 
R. I. George L. Shepley, president; Emil G. Pieper, vice-president and 
manager agency department. 

PHENIX MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Con- 
cord, N. H. Incorporated 1886; reorganized 19 12; Charles L. Jack- 
man, president; Walter Williamson, secretary; Archibald R. Ken- 
dall, assistant secretary. 

PHILADELPHIA CONTRIBUTIONSHIP FOR THE IN- 
SURANCE OF HOUSES FROM LOSS BY FIRE, Philadelphia. 
Pa. Founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1752. Incorporated 1768. 
This company has been in operation since 1752 and confines its busi- 
ness to Pennsylvania, writing only perpetual risks. J. Rodman Paul, 
chairman; J. Somers Smith, secretary and treasurer; C. T. Cowper- 
thwait, assistant treasurer; J. H. R. Timanus, assistant secretary. 
212 So. Fourth Street. 

PHILADELPHIA FIRE INSURANCE PATROL. The patrol 
was established July 15, 1869, and was supported by the voluntary 
action of the fire insurance companies doing business in the city. It 
was incorporated February 17, 1871. and reorganized June 8, 1895, 
the expense being raised by an assessment on premium receipts. 
The oneinal fire patrol consisted of a horse and wagon and fifteen 
rubber blankets or covers. Only a few companies contributed to 
the cost and the establishment was opp>osed by the old volunteer 
fire department of the time as a step toward a paid fire department. 
A notable success achieved by the patrol at a drygoods fire in Chest- 
nut street in saving some $60,000 worth of valuable goods from 



Fire Insurance Section 139 

ruin by water at once satisfied insurance companies of the advantage 
afforded by the patrol, and they flocked to its support. The first 
officers were Atwood Smith, president; Alfred G. Baker, treasurer, 
and John Wilson, Jr., secretary. The original captain was Terrence 
McCusker, and he had an assistant, George R. Stillman, and a force 
of five men. 

The patrol is now composed of fifty-five men — eighteen men at 
Station No. i, at 516 Arch Street, thirteen men at Station No. 2, at the 
northeast comer of Fifth and Hewson Streets, twelve at No. 3, at 2122 
Market Street, and twelve men at Station No. ^, at 5^ East Haines 
Street, Germantown. Patrol No. 4 was established in September, 
191 7. The Patrol is under command of Superintendent Harry Hoffman, 
and captains are: Wm. Cardell at No. i, John Wyatt at No. 2, William 
J. Taylor at No. 3, and William Hickman at No. 4. There are seven 
automobile trucks; three at Station No. i, two at Station No. 2, and 
one each at Stations Nos. 3 and 4. 

The following are the present ofF.cers: W. Gardner Crowell, 

ftresident; E. T. Cresson, treasurer; Charles B. Hill, secretary; E. C. 
rvin, Alex W. Wister, Jr., James A. McGann and John Kremer, direct- 
ors. 

PHILADELPHIA FIRE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIA- 
TION. The old association, after its tenth annual meeting in 
November, 1893, discussed the subject of reorganization, and at a 
meeting held December 4, 1893, it was ordered that the compact of 
September i, 1891, be continued in force sixty days more. [For 
an account of the reorganization see the Cyclopedia for 1894-5 and 
19 13- 14] February i, 1894, representatives of seventy companies, met 
and perfected the new organization. An executive committee was 
appointed to govern the association. Robert B. Beath was chosen 
chairman and J. W. Grover, secretary. At the annual meeting, 
November 14, 1894, General Beath was re-elected chairman, and 
Charles A. Hexamer was appointed secretary. At the annual meet- 
ing, November 13, 1895, Eugene L. Ellison was chosen chairman of 
the executive committee, and Charles A. Hexamer was continued 
as secretary. May i, 1905, the offices of the association were removed 
to the eighth floor of the Bullitt building, 1 31-41 South 4th Street. 
The officers of the association elected in November 1921 are: Samuel 
P. Rodgers, chairman, Chas. C. Simpson, vice-chairman; Chas. A. 
Hexamer, secretary and treasurer; J. Sanderson Trump, assistant 
secretary; executive committee: Samuel P. Rodgers, Chas. C. Simpson, 
Edward Maneuvre, J. Burns Allen, B. H. Wood, J. Hunter Gaul, Geo. 
R- Packard, Geo. Y. Shermer, Arthur H. Clevenger. 

PHILADELPHIA MANUFACTURERS MUTUAL FIRE 
INSURANCE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1880. 
Edwin I. Atlee, president; George Wgod, vice-president; Richard H. 
Morris, secretary; Ray L. Hudson, assistant secretary'. (911 Commer- 
cial Trust Building.) 



140 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

PH(ENIX ASSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, of London. Thia 
Company was established in 1782. It was the first English company 
to establish an agency in the United States, Israel Whelen being its 
agent in Philadelphia as early as 1804. In 1810 an act was passed 
by the Pennsylvania legislature prohibiting all insurance by foreign 
corporations, co-partnerships, or persons not citizens of the United 
States, and the Phoenix wiUidrew. It returned again in 1879. Prior 
to its return it had some reinsurance contracts, so that it sustained 
losses of $500,000 in Chicago in 187 1, and $250,000 in Boston in 
1872. The Phoenix is a notable exception to the general history of 
companies founded upon a grievance, in that it has been successf uL 
It was founded by the sugar bakers of London, because of the high 
rates charged that industry by the other offices. Before the war of 
1812 the Phoenix had agencies established in several of the southern 
states, as well as in New York and Philadelphia, and in the West 
Indies. In 1807 it sustained losses in St. Thomas of $1,000,000, 
and in 1842, in the great fire at Hamburg, Germany, it lost the then 
unprecedented sum of $1,080,000. Since it returned to this country 
the Phoenix has received in the United States premiums amounting 
to $93,896,949, and has paid in losses $55,559,556. It does an agency 
business throughout the states, and in 1921, wrote $1,198,581,830 of 
insurance, the premiums of which were $9,891 ,702. Percival Beresford, 
United States manager; Herbert W. Ellis, assistant manager; Howard 
Terhune, secretary, 100 William Street, New York. R. E. Lidster is in 
charge of the Western department at Chicago, and £. C. F. Knowles 
is the Pacific Coast representative, all reporting to the head office in 
New York. 

PHOENIX INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, Hartford, Conn. 
Organized 1854; capital, $3,000,000. Edward Milligan, president; 
George M. Lovejoy, vice-president; John B. Knox, Thomas C. Temple, 
George C. Long, Jr., secretaries; Henry P. Whitman, assistant secre- 
tary; Fred C. Gustetter, assistant secretary, Edward V. Chaplin, 
assistant secretary and F. Minot Blake, assistant secretary. 

PIEDMONT FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Charlotte, 
N. C. Capital, $100,000. Henry H. McAden, president; B. D. 
Hesfth, vice-president; A. L. Smith, secretary; Eug. H. Chisholm, 
manager. 

PILOT FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Greensboro, N. C. 
Organized 1895; capital, $175,000. A. W. McAllister, president and 
treasurer; R. G. Vaughn, first vice-president; A, M. Scales, second vice- 
president; C. A. Mebane, secretary; W. L. Sharpe, assistant secretary. 

PIONEER FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA 
29 South La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. Organized 1918; capital, paid in 
$100,000. F. J. Palt, president; A. Aleminowiez, first vice-president; 
S. Kasmarck, second vice-president; J. B. Brenza, secretary; V- H. 
Rutkanskas, treasurer. 



Fire Insurance Section 141 

PIONEER INSURANCE COMPANY, Lincoln, Neb. Organ- 
nized as a mutual 1899; reorganized as stock in 1912; capital, paid-in, 
$50,000. Ernest C. Folsom, president; James F. Kinney, vice-president; 
J. S. Dickman, secretary and treasurer. 

PISCATAQUA FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Portsmouth, 
N. H. Organized 1907; capital, $10,000. The company reinsured 
in New Hampshire Fire Insurance Company in 192 1 and retired. 

PITTSBURGH FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Organized 1851; capital, $200,000. Edson T. Wood, president; 
Frank S. Tewksbury, vice-president; H. W. Watkins, secretary; 
W. B. Koch, Jr., vice-president and treasurer; C. M. Suelshire and 
W. W. Watkins, assistant secretaries. 

POLICY FORMS AND LAWS. Aeitation for a uniform policy 
b^;an almost in the infancy of what may be called the modern practice 
of fire underwriting. In the records of the Salamander Society of New 
York, which was an organization of local fire insurance companies in 
1S21, and the forerunner of the New York Board of Fire Underwriters, 
allusion is made to the appointment of a special committee to draft a 
form. This committee reported to the association June 19, 1821, with a 
proposed form, which, after it had been submitted to the directors 
of the company separately, and had received their approval, was 
adopted and came into general use. It was the model upon which 
all subsequent improved policies were made in the United States. 

The National Board of Fire Underwriters was organized in 
1866, and the very first subject which claimed its attention after it 
convened was a form of policy, the board resolving, "that this 
board recommend to the executive committee to draft a fire policy 
to be used by all fire insurance companies belonging to this asso- 
ciation." A form was reported to the board at its second annual 
meeting, in 1868, and adopted. Although the subject of a uniform 
standard policy to become obligatory was stirred up in the legisla- 
tures of New York and Massachusetts several years prior to this, 
Connecticut appears to have been the first state actually to adopt a 
law requiring a standard form, which was in 1867. The law, how- 
ever, was repealed a year later. 

It should be added that many companies have adopted the New 
York standard for use wherever there is no other compulsory form, 
ao that, with the exception of the slight changes made by the Mich- 
igan form, and the special forms in Massachusetts, Maine, New 
Hamoshire, Iowa, Oregon, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, 
and Wisconsin, a uniform policy is written by the leading companies 
all over the United States. The laws of several states require that 
the New York standard form be used. The laws of Arizona, West 
Virginia, Idaho, and Washington require that no policy shall be issued 
in the state other than the New York standard form " as now or may 
be hereafter instituted," but Washington and Idaho make exceptions 
to permit the use of riders adding to or relating to those contained in 



142 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

the policy, and permitting forms of description and specifications of 
the property insured. The West Virginia law permits such changes 
and additions as the insurance commissioner may deem proper. The 
laws of Georgia require that " each and every company shall adopt 
and write a standard or uniform policy such as may be prescribed by 
the commissioner." A Maryland law requires that all policies issued 
in the state shall have marked or stamped the words, "authorized to do 
business in the state of Maryland " with a fac-simile of the signature 
of the insurance commissioner. The insurance commissioner of West 
Virginia has ruled that the requirement of the New York law regard- 
ing the selection of an umpire shall be attached to policies issued in 
\A^st Virginia. [For a history and summary of legislation in the dif- 
ferent states regarding standard forms, see Cyclopedia for 1911-13 
and earlier volumes.] 

In recent years criticism and suggestions have resulted in neinr 
forms being proposed, and a committee of the National Convention 
of Insurance Commissioners early in 19 15 reported a proposed forni« 
which the committee approved and submitted for criticism. There 
was legislation in 19 15 in Iowa, Maine, Washington, and South Caro- 
lina, amending the existing requirements in those states, and North 
Carolina and Pennsylvama enacted legislation prescribing a ne^r 
form, which went into effect January i, 19 16, and was substantially the 
form proposed by the committee of the Insurance Commissioners 
Convention. [See Cyclopedia for 19 15.] 

The Texas law, creating the " State Insurance Commission," 
gives the commission power " to make, promulgate and establish '* 
uniform policies forms, and no other form may be used, and the com- 
mission also prescribes the clauses and endorsements that may be 
used. The state commission in 19 17 prescribed a new form of pol- 
icy which went into effect June i, and legislation was enacted in New 
York, Wisconsin, and California in 191 7 amending existing standaxd 
forms. The Wisconsin law went into effect January i, 19 18. 

Legislation was enacted in several states in 19 16 and 19 17 per- 
mitting fire insurance companies to not only write insurance against 
loss or damage to property from explosion or bombardment, but from 
" war, invasion, insurrection, riot, civil war, civil commotion includ- 
ing strike, or military or usurped power." These hazards, incident 
to the existence of a state of war, were hazards not covered under the 
regular legal form of policy. 

At a conference of fire underwriters, held in New York in April, 
191 7, a form of policy was adopted providing for full war coverage, 
and a rider to be attached to existiri^ explosion policies, assuming the 
full war risks, was also adopted. The conference also approved the 
writing of separate policies covering war risks, but excluding explo- 
sion. [For full text of form see Cyclopedia for 19 17.] 

POTOMAC INSURANCE COMPANY OF THE DISTRICT 
OF COLUMBIA, Washington, D. C. Chartered by special act of 
U. S. Congress 1831; capital, paid in, $200,000. George W. White, 



Fire Insurance Section 143 

president; Thos, C. Moore, vice-president and manager; Edward D. 
Rheem, second vice-president; Alexander K. Phillips, secretary; 
H. P. Howard, assistant secretary. The company is controlled by the 
General Accident of Perth, Scotland. 

PREFERRED RISK FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE. 
Topeka, Kansas. Organized 191 7; capital, paid in, $475,500. Clyde W. 
Miller, president; Will J. Miller, vice-president; Isaac W. Jones, 
secretary and underwriting manager; O. G. Colwell, treasurer; L. B. 
Burt, assistant secretary. (Re-insurance business only.) 

PROTECTION MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Chicago, 111. Organized 1887. H. N. Wade, president; P. J. Halla, 
secretary. 20 West Jackson Boulevard. 

PROVIDENCE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, THE, Providence, R. I. Organized 1800. Edward L. 
Watson, president; Wm. G. Nightingale, vice-president; B. M. Mac-* 
Dougall, secretary. 

PROVIDENCE WASHINGTON INSURANCE COMPANY of 
Providence, R. I. Incorporated 1799; capital, $1,000,000. C. D. 
Dunlop, president; G. C. House, vice-president; A. G. Beals, secretary; 
Geo. E. Bixby, treasurer; J. C. Keegan, marine secretary; W. H. 
PhilHp>s and W. E. Maynard assistant secretaries. 

PRUDENTIA RE- AND CO-INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD., 
Zurich, Switzerland. Rodney Davis, United States manager, no 
William Street, New York, N. Y. (Re-insurance business.) 



Q 



QUEEN CITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sioux Falls. 
S. D. Organized 190^; capital, $100,000. H. R. Dennis, president: 
W. L. Baker, vice-president ; Denny P. Lemen, secretary, treasurer and 
manager. 

QUEEN INSURANCE COMPANY of America, 84 William 
Street, New York. Organized 1891; capital, $2,000,000. Nevett S. 
Bartow, president; Frederick P. Hamilton, vice-president; Frank E. 
Jenkins, secretary; T. Livingstone Kennedy, assistant secretary. 

QUINCY MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Quincy, Mass. Organized 185 1. Charles A. Howland, president; 
J. F. Youngy secretary; H. M. Faxon, treasurer. 



R 



RAILWAY UNDERWRITERS. An association of under- 
writers or^nized for the purpose of insuring all classes of property 
owned or in possession of steam railroad companies against loss from 
fire» and having headquarters at Chicago. The officers are: Presi* 
dent, A. G. Dugan, Hartford Fire; vice-president, J. C. Harding, 
Springfield Fire and Marine. George M. Fisher is manager and 
W. N. Cornell, assistant manager, 175 West Jackson Boulevard, 
Chicago, III. 



RECEIPTS FROM AND REMITTANCES TO HOME 
OFFICES OF FOREIGN FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE 
COMPANIES IN 192 1. The reports of the insurance departments 
for 1922* make the following statement of the amounts remitted by 
foreign companies in this country to their home offices and their re- 
ceipts from the same in 192 1 : 



Companiet 



Abeflle, Paris 

Alliance A880. (Marine). 

Alpha General 

Atlantica (Marine) 

Atlas 

Baltica, Denmark 

British America 

British Gencfal 

British & Foreign N. Y. 

Caledon^n 

Century 

(niristianiaGeneral,NY . 

Commercia] Union 

CozMolJdation 

Cubana 

Eagle&British Domin.. . 

First Russian 

Foso Marine & Fire.. . . 

Oneral, Paris 

Indemnity Mutl. CM).... 
Ins. Co. Salamandra. . . 

Jakor 

La Fonier (Marine) 

Law Union & Rock. . . . 
Liv. Ik London & Globe. 

London Aaaurance 

London & Lancariiire.. . 
London & Provincial. . . 

London & Scottish 

Moscow 

Metropolftan National . 

Marine 

Maritime 



Amount 
sent to 
Home 
Office. 



$1,987 

217.807 

237.469 

5.000 

28,8x2 

65.901 

720.760 

1 1 1.254 

X. 238,3^5 

52.701 

48,296 

399,070 

1,078,901 

621,489 



142.359 
100,000 



9,526 

66,000 

537,042 

251.377 

45.004 

I9J04 

386,^60 

8x0.041 

309,046 

24.532 

40^427 

150,000 

30,450 

536,350 

14.796 



Amount 

rec'd from 

Home 

Office. 



$92,000 (National 
71.899 
i92,xo6 

512,794 

3.348 

155.000 

838,254 



1,775.795 
50,647 



78,559 
759.464 
129.503 
539.451 
113,201 



23.347 



282,274 



489 



101.260 



48,200 

1,049.332 

37.760! 



Companies. 



Denmark. . . . 

Nationale 

Netherlands 

New India 

New Zealand 

Nippon, Japan 

Nordisk, Denmark 

Norske Lloyde 

North British 

Northern, England 

North China 

Northern, Russia 

Norwegian, Assn 

NorwegianAtlas, No'y. . 

Norwich Union 

Ocean Marine 

Osake, M.8cF 

Palatine 

Patemelie 

Patriotic 

Phenix Fire, Paris 

Phoenix Assn., Eng 

Prudential, Switzerland. 



850 
4.90o| {Queensland 

X. 949.15 1 

403 .76g 

44.804 



Re-ins. Salamandra . . . 

Reliance Marine 

Royal 

Royal Exchange 

Russian Reinsurance. . 
Scandinavian Assurance 

Norway 

Scottish Union 



Amount 
sent to 
Home 
Office. 



$214,176 
2.225 



228,152 



8,956 

X3.930 

437,283 

420.269 

X5.0X2 

1.600 
236,164 



751.295 

x6l,093 

223,499 
1,484 

52,461 
2,505 

99,405 



22,794 
46,723 

62.053 
301,831 
250.000 

496.280 
79.594 



Amount 

rec'd from 

Home 

Office. 



$x6o,ooo 



1.004,023 
91,466 

• ■ •• ■• •• 

40.000 
14.742 
65.848 
13.099 
5,000 



314.X34 

1,166,082 

255.X18 

520,268 



71,532 
38,834 
94,200 



337,042 

5i,xix 

278,556 

310,951 



6x5.3x7 
7,700 



146 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Companies 



Sea 

Second Russian 

Skandia 

Skandinavia, Denmark. 

South British 

Standard Marine 

Stote 

Sun 

Svea 

Swiss Reinsurance 

Switzerland, General. .. 
Thames&Mersey (mar). 

Tokio, Japan 

Union, London 



Amouut 
sent to 
Home 
Office. 



Amount 

rec'd from 

Home 

Office. 



Companies 



$1,213,312, 

71.356. 

163,279 

1,058,151 

76,843 

2,310,490 

53.331' 
1 30.51 1 

46.330 
1,400 

30,819 
403,331 

63,797 
143.133 



6,604 



$i,i03,684j'Unlon. China 

Union Fire, Parts 

Union Hispano, Cuba.... 

, Union Marine 

Union & Pheniz 

i.709.96ij|Urbaine 

6,8isiVVarsaw 

60,319' Western , 

7. 934! Western Alliance (Re- 

3,oid ins.) 

354,363^ World Auxiliary 

843,00a Yangtsze, China 

480,1051 (Yorkshire 

4.2 29 



Totals. 1921 



Amount 
sent to 
Home 
Office. 



S405.985 

12.41s 

59.037 

513,228 

116,053 
19.908 



395.935 

13.760 
64,700 
33.363 

44.775 



$19,762,962 



Amount 

rec'd from 

Home 

Officp. 



$353,063 
44.500 

293 5tJ 
883.<Xji 



3.480 



236,410 
50,000 

124.4:8 

228.311 



$22,024,311 



Excess of Amount received from Home Offices, 1930 $1,501 ,624 

REINSURANCE AND SURPLUS LINE LAWS. The laws 
of a number of states prohibit reinsurance of risks, either in whole or 
in part, in companies not authorized to do business in the state. Such 
laws are in force in Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, 
Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, 
New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
Texas, Virginia, West Virginia. The laws of Arizona and Washington 
prohibit reinsurance in an alien company — a company not author- 
ized to do business in the United States and not having a deposit in 
some state of the United States. In Delaware the commissioner may 
permit such reinsurance. Minnesota while not prohibiting reinsur- 
ance requires that such reinsurance be reported to the insurance com- 
missioner, and Ohio prohibits reinsurance in, but also acceptance of 
reinsurance with a company not authorized to do business in the 
states. Massachusetts and Maryland require all reinsurances to be 
reported to the insurance commissioner. 

Referring to surplus line insurance as distinct from reinsurance 
the above-named states, with the exception of West Virginia, North 
Dakota, New Mexico, Nevada, Florida, Colorado, Arkansas and Ari- 
zona, make special provision for placing insurance in unauthorized 
companies, and the laws of Connecticut, Kansas, Kentucky, Mary- 
land, Maine, Missburi, New Jersey, New York, Tennessee, Vermont, 
Wisconsin, which place no restrictions on reinsurance, make special 
provision for placing insurance in companies not authorized to do busi- 
ness in the state. The laws require a special license fee, and provide 
that a person so licensed must make affidavit that he is unable to pro- 
cure sufhcient insurance in companies regularly licensed to do busi- 
ness in the state before placing insurance with unauthorized com- 
panies. He must keep separate account of such business and make 
report of it to the insurance department. The laws of Illinois, Kan- 
sas, Maine, New Hampshire, Texas and Wisconsin limit the granting 
of such licenses to regularly licensed agents or brokers, while the law 



FiRB Insurance Section 



147 



of New York limits the number of such licenses that may be issued to 
" not exceeding two hundred/' and Washinfi;ton limits the number to 
" not exceeding fifty in any one city." The Missouri law limits the 
granting of licenses to procure insurance in unauthorized companies 
to agents, and any person who desires insurance on his own property 
or the property of his firm, or corporation in which he is interested. 

Special license fees or taxes are imposed on business placed in un- 
authorized companies. Kansas and Ohio make the license fee $io; 
Wisconsin, $15; Connecticut, Louisiana, and North Carolina, $20; 
and Kentucky, Michigan, Nebraska, and Texas, $25. Vermont 
makes the license fee $10, with a tax of three per cent on gross premiums; 
Massachusetts, $20, and a tax of ^ four per cent on gross premiums 
less return premiums, and^ Missouri, $10 and a tax of two per cent on 
gross premiums; California imposes a tax of four per cent, and Maine 
two per ceat on gross premiums, less return premiums, and Minnesota 
two per cent; Pennsylvania three per cent on gross premiums, and 
Tennessee two and a half per cent on all premiums paid to any unli- 
censed company. Illinois imposes a tax of two per cent on gross prem- 
iums, and a license fee of $200 except in counties of less than 100,000 
population in which case the license fee is $25, and New York re- 
quires the same license fee, but imposes a tax of three per cent on gross 
premiums. Washington requires a license fee of $100, with bond of 
not less than $500, and the same tax that is imposed on licensed com- 
panies {lyi per cent less return premiums). Maryland imposes a 
tax of five per cent and in addition a fee of $1.00 for each policy. The 
tax in New Jersey is three dollars ($3.00) for each one hundred dollars 
ci insurance or at that rate upon the whole amount of gross premiums, 
and in addition execute a bond in the penal sum of three thousand 
dollars. (For a summary of the laws and restrictions as to reinsur- 
ance see Cyclopedia for 1913-14.] 



REINSURANCE BUREAU, 100 William Street, New York, N. 
Y., was organized by fire insurance companies to provide reinsurance 
facilities and to take care of surplus lines among the company members. 
Howard De Mott is manager and Benjamin R. Mowry assistant mana- 
ger- 

The following companies were members of the Bureau, May i, 1922 : 

Commonwealth. New York 

Comiecticut Fire 

Eagle. Star & British Dominions, Ltd.. 
London, England 

Federal, N. J. 

Fire Association 

Fireman's Fund 

Franklin Fire. Philadelphia. 

Genera] Fire. Paris. 

Glens Falls 

Granite State Fire 

Great American. New York 

Hand-In-Hand Underwriters (Commer- 
cial Union, Ltd., Eng.) 

Hanover Fire 

Hartford Fire 

Home, New York 



Agricultural 

Alliance 

American, Newark. N. J. 

American Alliance, New York 

American Central 

Atlas. Ltd., London 

Automobile, Hartford, Conn. 

Boston 

British America, Toronto 

Csdcdonian. Edinburgh 

Csmiden Fire 

Citisens. St. Louis 

City of New York. 

Columbia. N. J. 

Commierdal Union, Ltd.. England 

Commercial Unioo Fire. New York 



148 Cyclopedia of Insusancb 

Home Fire & Marine. San Francisco, Cal. Phcenix, England 

Insurance Company of North America PhGenix. Hartford 

Liverpool and London and Globe. Eng. Providence Washington 

London and Lancashire Fire. Eng. Queen of America 

Massachusetts Fire and Marine, Boston Rochester Department, Great American. 

Mercantile of America. N. Y. New York 

National Fire, Hartford. Conn. Royal Exchange, London 

Newark Fire * Royal, Ltd., England 

New Hampshire Fire St. Paul Fire and Marine 

New York Underwriters' Agency (Hart- Scottish Union and National, Edinburgh 

ford Fire Ins. Co.) Security. New Haven 

Niagara Fire Springneld Fire and Marine 

Niagara-Detroit Underwriters, New York Star of America 

North British and Mercantile. Eng. Sterling, Ind. 

Northern. Ltd., London Sun. London 

Norwich Union, Ltd.. Eng. Svea Fire and Life. Ltd.. Gothenburg. 
Old Colony, Boston Sweden 

Orient. Hartford Tokio Marine and Fire, Tokio, Japan 

Palatine, Ltd., London Union Assurance. Ltd., London. Eng. 

Pennsylvania Fire. Philadelphia. Pa. Urbaine Fire. Paris, France 

Philadelphia Underwriters (Ins. Co. of Westchester Fire 

North America and Fire Assn.) Western. Toronto 

REINSURED, RETIRED, AND FAILED INSURANCE 
COMPANIES IN 1921. The following is a list of the joint stock 
and mutual fire insurance companies, and reciprocal underwriters 
associations which ceased to do business for various causes in 192 1. 

Arizona Fire, Phoenix, Ariz., reinsured in California Fire. 

Atlas National, Sioux Falls, S. D., reinsured in Atlas Assurance and retired. 

Automotive, Mason City, la., reinsured in Iowa Manufacturers, Waterloo. 

Bankers Automobile, Lincoln, Neb., failed, liquidated by insurance department. 

Factors and Traders, Mobile, Ala., reinsured in Federal, Jersey City. 

Farmers Automobile, Sioux City, la., reinsured in Iowa Manuifacturers, Waterloo. 

Horticultural, Des Moines, reinsured in Grain Belt Insurance Company, Des Moines. 

Inter-State Automobile, Rock Rapids, receiver appointed. 

iefferson, Philadelphia, liquidated, 
liberty Marine, New York, liquidated. 
Merchants, Bangor, Me., retired. 
Mid-West, Quincy, 111., receiver appointed. 
National Trades, Chicago, 111., reinsured in Guaranty Fire, N. Y. 
North Atlantic Marine, New York, liquidated. 

Piscatauqua Fire, Portsmouth, N. H. re-insured in New Hampshire Fire. 
Union, Bangor, Me., retired. 

Union Fire, Pittsburgh, Pa., absorbed by National Union, Pittsburgh. 
Western, Pittsburgh, Pa., reinsured in Superior Fire. 

The following foreign and mutual companies discontinued business 
in 192 1. 

Lancashire & Cheshire, Liverpool, withdrew. 
National Benefit, London, discontinued business in United States. 
Norwegian Marine and Transport, Standefjord, discontinued business in United States 
Norske Lloyd, Christiania, discontinued business in United States. 
Home Mutual, Auto., Cameron, Mo., receiver appointed. 
United Mutual, Houston, Tex., receiver appointed. 
United States Mutual, Auto, N. Y., liquidated. 

Washington Hardware and Implement Dealers Mutual, Spokane, business taken 
over by Washington Hardware and Implement Underwriters. Spolouie. 

The following Lloyds and Reciprocal Underwriters Associations 
discontinued business. 

Central Casualty Underwriters, Chicago, receiver appointed. 
Cotton Seed Oil Millers Insurance Bureau, Dallas, retired. 
General Fire Underwriters, East St. Louis, lU., receiver appointed. 



Fire Insurance Section 149 

La Salle Automobile Insurance Association, Ottawa. 111., retired. 

Merchants Underwriters, N. Y.. reinsured in Stusrvesant, N. Y. 

New Jersey Indemnity Exchange, Newark, receiver appointed. 

Prairie State Automobile Association, Duquoin, 111., receiver appointed. 

Wichita Great Western Underwriters Reciprocal, Wichita Falls, receiver appointed. 

The Business Men's Mutual Fire of Towanda, Pa., merged with the Merchants 
Mutual. Towanda, under the title of Merchants and Business Men's Mutual, and the 
Eureka Fire and Marine, Cincinnati merged with the Security Fire of Cincinnati under 
the title Eureka Security Fire and Marine insurance company. 

RELIABLE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE., of Day- 
ton, Ohio. Organized 1865; capital, paid-in, $250,000. W. H. Kuhlman, 
president; C. H. Frank, vice-president; William F. Kramer, secretary. 

RELIANCE INSURANCE COMPANY of Philadelphia was 
incorporated 1841. Capital, $400,000. E. C. Irvin, president; J. W. 
Cochran, vice-president; M. G. Garrigues, secretary. The company 
is controlled by the Fire Association of Philadelphia. 

RELIANCE MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE 
(Limited), Liverpool, Eng. W. L. H. Simpson, attorney and 
manager. New York. 

RENT INSURANCE.* Anyone who has a pecuniary interest in 
the preservation and protection of property and who might sustain a 
loss by reason of its destruction, has an interest in such property which 
is insurable. It follows, therefore, that a landlord may insure against 
loss of rents, and a tenant may insure against his continuing liability 
to pay rent, regardless of the occurrence of a fire. 

Whether a landlord has an insurable interest to support a policy 
of fire insurance on rents, where the tenant is obligated unconditionally 
to pay rent in full, is a question concerning which there is some differ- 
ence of opinion; but the courts would probably have no difficulty in 
discovering an insurable interest if on no ground other than that the 
fire might impair the ability of the tenant to pay rent. If, however, 
after the fire, the tenant should i>ay the rent in full, the landlord would 
be unable to show a loss. But, if the landlord should recover his rent 
insurance, the insurer making payment would become subrogated 
to the claim against the tenant. Rents, however, are not covered 
by an insurance upon the building, but liability must be specifically 
assumed thereon. 

There are many different forms of rent policies, but those in most 
general use provide that the insurer shall make good the loss of rents 
actually sustained by the insured on occupied or rented portions of 
the premises which have become untenantable, for and during such 
time as, with the exercise of due diligence, may be necessary tor the 
restoration of the premises to the same tenantaole condition as before 
the fire. A form thus phrased covering on " occupied or rented " 
portions of the premises, is regarded as sufficiently broad to cover that 

*B7 WnUam N. Bament, general adjuater. The Home Iniurance Company. N< 
York. N. Y. 



150 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

portion of the premises occupied by the insured himself, and not rented. 
Some forms, however, remove all elements of doubt on this point by 
expressly declaring that, if the insured occupies any portion of the 
building, a fair rental value of the portion so occupied shall be con- 
sidered as a part of the rents. 

Insurance is also written at an advanced rate to cover loss of rents 
or rental value to the premises, whether occupied or vacant at the time 
of the fire. The theory upon which this class of insurance is based 
is that the premises have a value as rentable property and may be 
rented at any time; hence, if they are destroyed by fire, the insured 
may be depnved of the income which might otherwise accrue to him. 

The older forms contain the co-insurance or average clause (usu- 
ally the one hundred per cent) based on the annual rental or rental 
value, as the case may be; but in some of the later forms, this provi- 
sion is modified in favor of the insured, in consideration of a higher 
premium, by changing the basis from the twelve month to the time that 
would reasonably be required to restore the premises to a tenantable 
condition, if totally destroyed. 

Most of the forms in current use cover on " rents " and agree to 
make good the " loss on rents actually sustained." The question nat- 
urally arises whether this means gross rents or whether it means gross 
rents less those expenses which may be saved to the insured during 
the period of reconstruction, such as lighting, heating, elevator service, 
jamtor service, collections, insurance, and the like. There has been 
comparatively little litigation involving rent insurance; therefore, we 
have only general principles and analagous decisions to guide us in 
reaching our conclusions. 

It is possible, of course, that the courts might declare a policy thus 
phrased to be valued, and if so it would be construed like any other 
valued policy and the insurer would be liable for loss of gross rent with- 
out any deductions therefrom. It is, however, the well-considered 
opinion of some of the best legal minds that, in view of the strong 
inclination on the part of the courts to adhere in their decisions to the 
fundamental prinaple of indemnity, they would hardly go out of their 
way to discover a valued feature in a policy where none is expressed 
and where there is no evidence, except such as is remotely inferential, 
of its existence. 

If the policy is not valued, it should be construed like any other 
contract of indemnity; and there is no logical reason why, on rents 
rather than on any other class of property, one should recover more 
than his actual loss. The fact that the policy limits liability to loss 
on rents " actually sustained " lends emphasis, if any were needed, to 
the view that the policy is not valued; and these words, if they have 
any significance whatever, should be controlling. 

Our highest courts have held that, where there is a contract oC 
indemnity and a loss happens, anything which reduces or diminishes 
that loss reduces or diminishes the amount that the indemnifier is 
bound to pay, and the insured is entitled only to be placed in the same 
condition, pecuniarily, that he would have been if there had been no 
fire. 



Fire Insurance Section 151 

In the light of the authorities, it seems clear that, unless the pol- 
icy should be declared valued, it is incumbent upon the insured (under a 
rent policy) to prove what his actual net loss is, after making proper 
deduction for everything in the way of salvage that may come to him. 
In many cases there would be no diminution in the regular running ex- 
penses; but in event of a serious damage too, or the total destruction of 
the building, there might and probably would be quite a material sav- 
ing in expenses, and, if so, this would be a very important factor. 

Nearly all rent losses are partial; the forms, covering simply on 
" rents " and differing somewhat in phraseology, have been in use for 
many years; the loss record has not been unfavorable; very little dif- 
ficulty has been exi)erienced in adjustments; settlements are usually 
made on a compromise basis, and many claimants, no doubt, take into 
consideration the salvage in expenses in their nes[otiations, so that the 
question does not arise very frequently as a practical proposition. 

In some portions of the country, however, notably on the Pacific 
Coast, evidently with a view to avoiding discussion, policies are issued 
coverin^^ net rents or net rental income; but the practical effect of this 
form will be to permit the insured to collect his gross rent in many 
instances (because all expenses frequently continue in event of par- 
tial loss), whereas the coinsurance or average clause will be applied to 
the annual net rental; hence in cases of partial loss such form would 
be quite advantageous to the insured. 

REPUBLIC FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF TEXAS, 
Dallas, Texas. Organized 1919; capital, paid in, $1,000,000. Geo. W. 
Jalonick, chairman, board of directors; I. Jalonick, president, J. B. 
Adoue, vice-president; A. F. Pillet, vice-president, W. P. Anderson, 
E. C. Jalonick, T. R. Mansfield, secretaries; I. C. Hagerman, J. G. 
Vaughan, assistant secretaries; R. W. Mayo, general adjuster, fire and 
marine insurance. 

REPUBLIC FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsburgh. Pa. 
Organized 1871; capital, $200,000. C. W. Gerwig, president; £. C. 
Gerwig, vice-president; N. A. Weed, secretary and treasurer; L. D. 
Owrey, assistant secretary. 

RESIDENT AGENTS' LAWS. Laws requiring policies of insur- 
ance to be placed through " regularly commissioned and licensed agents, 
readent in the state " are with two or three exceptions in force in all 
states and apply to fire insurance. In a few states the laws are general, 
applying to all, or any form of insurance, while in a lar^r number the 
laws are made to apply to the placing of the different lines of casualty 
or miscellaneous insurance as well as fire insurance. As a rule regular 
life insurance companies and assessment and fraternal associations are 
exempt. The following is a statement of the laws now in force with 
date of enactment: 

Alabama (1907); Arizona (1913 and 1915); Arkansas (1901 and 
1903); Colorado (1907 and 1915); Connecticut (1893); Delaware 
(1901 and 1917); Florida (1899 and 1903); Georgia (1896 and 1901): 



152 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Hawaii (1903); Idaho (191 1, 1913, and 1915); Illinois; Iowa (1897); 
Kansas; Kentuclcy (1916); Louisiana (1902 and 1916); Maine (1903, 
1905, and 1^13); Maryland (1900); Massachusetts (1907); Michigan 
(1912); Minnesota (1905); Mississippi (1902 and 1916); Missouri 
(1897); Montana (1907); Nebraska (1909); Nevada (1901); New 
Hampshire (1899 and 191 1); New Jersey, New Mexico (1901 and 
1921); North Carolina (1905); North Dakota (1905); Ohio (1917); 
Oklahoma (1909); Oregon (1899); Pennsylvania (1899); Rhode 
Island (1896): South Carolina (1900 and 1915); South Dakota (1895); 
Tennessee (1899); Texas (1903); Utah (1907); Vermont (1908); 
Virginia (1906); Washington (191 1); West Virginia (1901); Wiscon- 
sin (191 1); Wyoming (1910 and 1915). [For full text of laws see Cy- 
clopedia for 1913-14 and 1915.] 

The laws of all the above states apply to fire insurance, and the 
law of Alabama specifically mentions life insurance, while also 
applying to all other classes of companies. The laws of Arizona, 
Idaho, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, 
Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin and 
Wyoming are general, applying to any and all companies. The laws 
of Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Texas contain special provisions applying to the 
different classes of casualty, or miscellaneous companies, and the laws of 
New Jersey, Mississippi and Utah apply to all companies, except life, 
and, in the case of Mississippi, individuals, firms or corporations indem- 
nifying themselves through reciprocal contracts are exempt. Louisiana 
exempts policies of " life and endowment insurance which include pro- 
visions for the waiver of premiums or other benefit in the event of 
accident or other disability," and policies of reinsurance. Kentucky 
also exempts mutual companies and inter-insurance associations. 

The Colorado law prohibits the licensing of any one as agent, 
broker, or solicitor who is not a resident of the state, and the Kansas 
law prohibits the commissioner from licensing anyone not a resident 
of the state. The Alabama, Nebraska and Texas laws require a com- 
pany to file an affidavit that it has not violated any provisions of the 
act tor the preceding twelve months, and the Minnesota law requires a 
company to appoint as "its agents in the state residents thereof.'* 

Some of the laws contain other special features, particularly re- 
lating to division of^commissions. Delaware, Idaho, Montana, Miss- 
issippi, Colorado, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, North Dakota, Utah, 
Arkansas, Florida and West Virginia require that the agent counter- 
signing the policy shall " receive the full commission thereon when the 
premium is paid." Wisconsin requires that the agent countersigning 
the policy ** shall be paid the commission on the policy, and Louisiana 
requires that the authorized agent '* shall receive on each policy . . . 
the full usual commission allowed and paid." 

The laws in the following states make no mention of commissions, 
Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Mary- 
land, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hami>shire, 
New Jersey, Oklahoma, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota^ 
Virginia, Washington, Wyoming, Missouri, and Kentucky. 



Fire Insurance Section 153 

The commissioners of Michigan and Wyoming have ruled that 
agents cannot divide commissions with' non-resident agents or brokers, 
while the attorney general of Kansas has ruled that division of com- 
missions and exchange of business with non-residents is not illegal. 
The Ohio department has ruled that agents doing business in Ohio 
must be residents of Ohio and licenses will not be issued to non-resi- 
dents. 

The law of New Mexico prohibits any agent, broker, or solicitor 
'* to pay or promise to pay either directly or indirectly any fee, broker- 
age, or other emolument of any nature " to any non-resident person, 
firm, or corporation '* for the obtaining, placing, or writing " of any pol- 
icy of insurance covering property in New ^^xico. Kansas prohibits 
any authorized company from authorizing or allowing any non-resident 
person, agent, firm or corporation from issuing or causing to be issued any 
policy on property in the state. Vermont requires all policies to be 
countersigned by a duly authorized resident agent of the company 
issuing the policy, although brokers' licenses may be granted ** to per- 
sons resident in any other state, if the laws of such state permit the 
issuance of brokers' licenses to residents of this state." 

The laws of Nebraska and Texas prohibit any company from 
authorizing, allowing, or permitting any non-resident " to issue, sign, 
countersign, or to deliver or cause to be delivered any policy" except 
through licensed resident agents of such companies. North Carolina 
and South Carolina permit the division of commissions between non- 
resident and resident agents. 

The New Jersey legislature in 192 1 amended the resident agents 
law of 1919 to read as follows: "Section 80. — No insurance company 
of another State or foreign country, except a life insurance company, 
may transact business in this State, except through duly constituted 
and appointed agents resident herein, whose principal place of business 
for the conduct of such agency is located in this State, and who shall 
maintain a bona fide duly operated business office in this State, and 
shall issue and countersign all policies and contracts so issued. This 
section shall not apply to direct insurance covering the rolling stock 
of railroad corp>orations operating between different States or property 
received for shipment from one State to another, while in the possession 
or custody of railroad corporations or other common carriers." 

The New Mexico legislature also amended the resident agents law 
in 192 1 and the law now reads as follows: — "It shall be unlawful for 
any foreign insurance company to make, write, place or cause to be 
made, written or placed in this State, any insurance policy or contract of 
any kind to provide against any contingency which may be insured or 
guaranteed against, unless the same shall be made, written or placed 
through its duly and regularly appointed and authorized agent or 
agents, resident of this State. It shall be unlawful for any insurance 
company authorized to do business in New Mexico, its representative, 
manager, general agent, si)ecial agent, local agent, broker or solicitor, 
to pay or promise to pay, either directly or indirectly, any fee, broker- 
age or other emolument of any nature to any person, firm or corporation 
not a resident of the State of New Mexico, for the obtaining, placing or 



154 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

writing of any policy or policies of insurance covering risks in New 
Mexico. Any insurance company violating this section shall have its 
certificate of authority to do business in this State suspended for not 
less than one year, and such suspension shall be removed and the 
said certificate of authority renewed only upon a written pledge from 
the directors or executive body in authority over the officers of such 
company that this section will be fully and faithfully observed." 

RETAIL DRUGGISTS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, 518 Walnut Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. Organized 1890. Philip 
Lehr, president; John C. Firmin, vice-president; C. L. Mclntire, 
secretary; Robert Groenland, treasurer. 

RETAILERS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Oklahoma 
City, Okla. Organized 1910; capital $200,000. A. M. Greiner, presi- 
dent; M. E. Fruin, secretary; W. E. Hitchcock, manager. 

RETAIL LUMBERMEN'S INSURANCE ASSOCIATION, 
Minneapolis, Minn. Organized 1894. J. H. Queal, president; A. R. 
Rogers, vice-president; W. G. HoUis, secretary; B. C. Bowman, 
treasurer; O. D. Hauschild, managing underwriter. 

RETAIL MERCHANTS ASSOCIATION MUTUAL FIRE 
INSURANCE COMPANY, Springfield, III. Organized 1898. James E. 
Hemmick, president; W. W. Swett, Jr., secretary; O. M. Scherer, treas- 
urer; C. R. Lott, vice-president; White Dawson, managing director. 

RETALIATORY OR RECIPROCAL LAWS. Thirty-nine 
states inflict retaliatory penalties on the companies of other states 
or of other states and countries. New York appears to have origi- 
nated this kind of legislation as far back as 1865. With few excep- 
tions the laws of the several states, though expressed differently, are 
practically the same, and the purpose, or intent, is clearly expressed in 
the New York law, re-enacted in 1892, which follows: 

'* If by the odstlng or future laws of any State an insurance corporation of this 
State having agencies in such other State, or the agents thereof, thafi be required to 
malce any deposit of securities in such other State for the protection of the policyholders 
or otherwise, or to make payments for taxes, fines, penalties, certificates of author- 
ity, license fees, or otherwise, greater than the amount reouired by this chapter, from 
similar corporations of such other State by the then existing laws of this State, then 
and in every such case all insurance corporations of such State, establishing or here to 
fore having establi^ed an agency or agencies in this State, shall be and they are hereby 
required to make the like deposit for the like purposes in the insurance department of 
this State, and to pay the superintendent of insurance for taxes, fines, penalties, cer- 
tificates of authority, license fees, and otherwise, an amount equal to the amount of 
such charges and payments imposed by the laws of such other State upon the insur- 
ance corporations of this State and the agents thereof." 

Retaliatory or reciprocal laws are now in force in the following 
states: Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Dela* 
ware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ne>v 



FiKE Insurance Section 155 

York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, 
Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming, West Vir^nia. In addition to 
the above Arkansas has a retaliatory law which is made applicable 
only in respect to deposits, and Nevada has a law applying to assess- 
ment companies. [For text of laws see Cyclopedia for 1913-14, 1915, 
and earlier volumes. Also taxation and fees, this volume.] 

The laws of Wisconsin, Texas, Pennsylvania, Nebraska, Indiana, 
Missouri have features not found in the laws of the other states, which 
extend the scope of the retaliatory provisions, while the laws of New 
Hampshire, Connecticut and New Jersey differ materially in the appli- 
cation and scope of the retaliatory or reciprocal features. The New 
Hampshire law makes the retaliatory feature apply if "an^ state shall 
by its laws deny any insurance company or citizen of this state any 
rights or privileges which are granted to insurance companies or cit- 
izens of that state," or if the insurance commissioner or other official, 
*'flhall have power to revoke the license of any company of this state" 
for writing insurance in that state other than through or by a citizen 
of that state. The laws of Connecticut and New Jersey besides mak- 
ing the retaliatory features apply to any " obligation, prohibition, or 
restrictions" imposed on companies, also extend the retaliatorv fea- 
tures to apply in case a license is refused after a ** certificate of solvency 
and good management," or, in the case of New Jersey, a certificate of 
the result of any examination made by the department, has been filed 
with such department. The Nebraska law (acts of 191 7) also makes 
the reciprocal provisions apply in respect to the interest rate assumed 
in valuing policies of life insurance, and also in respect to restrictions 
applying to agents' licenses. 

RETROCESSION. The word is used in relation to reinsurance 
transactions and in that connection has come to have rather a dis- 
tinct meaning. The term means literally, " giving back," but in 
insurance means reassignment, or a " handing on." In practice it 
amounts simply to reinsurance by a reinsurer, and the practice is car- 
ried on under treaties, so-called, which are known as retrocession 
treaties. The reinsurance is automatically " handed on," that is, just 
as the direct writing company reinsures its excess lines, so the reinsur- 
ing company " hands on " its excess lines under the treaty by which 
^he retrocession company obligates itself to accept a certain percentage 
of the excess liability assumed by the reinsurance company. 

RHODE ISLAND ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS 
-was organized July 25, 1900, with the following officers: president, 
C- H. Beach; vice-presidents, H. Bull, Jr., C. A. Morgan, and G. R. 
Smith; secretary and treasurer, C. F. Newcomb. A reorganiza- 
tion was effected in March, 191 7, and the present officers are: Presi- 
dent, James W. Cook; vice-presidents, George R. Smith, Woonsocket; 
Herbert M. Clarke, Arctic; George I. Parker, Pawtucket; secretary 
and treasurer, W. H. Robinson, 107 Westminster Street, Providence, 
I^. I. Chairman of executive committee. Archer C. Sanderson. 



156 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

RHODE ISLAND INSURANCE COMPANY of Providence. 
R. I. Ori^anized 1907; capital, |6oo,ooo. George L. Shepley, presi- 
dent; Emil G. Pieper, vice-president and secretary; Tunis Johnson, 
W. O. Wilson, assistant secretaries. 

RHODE ISLAND MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Providence, R. I. Organized 1848. John R. Freeman, presi- 
dent and treasurer; Theodore P. Bogert, secretary and assistant treas- 
urer; Benj. G. Buttolph, Edwin D. Pingree, vice-presidents and 
engineers. 

RICHLAND MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Mansfield, 
Ohio. Organized 1850. J. A. Rigby, president; R. Smith, secre- 
tary; S. A. Jennings, treasurer. 

RICHMOND INSURANCE COMPANY of New York, Statcn 
Island, N. Y. Organized in 1836 as the Richmond County Mutual; 
reorganized as a stock company in 1907. Capital $200,000. J. F. Smith, 
president; E. R. Moody, vice-president; David G. Wakeman, secretary. 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Great Falls, Mont. Organized 191 1; capital, $279,200; Sam Steph- 
enson, president; John E. Dawson, vice-president; Geo. H. Shanley, 
vice-president; Alfred Malmber^, vice-president; Leo P. McMeel, 
secretary, treasurer, and underwriting manager. 

ROSSIA INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA, Hartford, 
Conn. Organized 1918; capital, paid in, $400,000. Carl F. Sturhahn, 
president; B. N. Carvalho, vice-president; T. B. Boss, secretary and 
treasurer; G. E. Jones, assistant secretary. The company was orga- 
nized and took over the business of the Rossia Insurance Company of 
Russia. 

ROYAL EXCHANGE ASSURANCE of London. Everard C. 
Stokes, United States manager; Gayle T. Forbush, associate manager; 
i^hur Waller, assistant manager; 83 Maiden Lane, New York. 

ROYAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, of Liverpool, 
England, commenced business in the United States in 1851 and trans- 
acts hre, marine, and all other kinds of insurance business as described 
in Sections 110 and 150 of the Insurance Laws of the state of New 
York. Frederick B. Kellam, manager, William Mackintosh, Charles 
R. Pitcher, assistant managers; James Keeley, agency superintend- 
ent; John E. Hoffman, marine underwriter, New York depart- 
ment, 84 William Street, New York; Milton Dargan, manager Southern 
department, Atlanta, Georgia; Messrs Field & Cowles, managers. 
New England department, Boston, Mass.; Elwin W. Law, manager 



Fire Insurance Section 157 

Western department, Chicago, 111.; Rollo V. Watt, manager Pacific 
Coast department, San Francisco, Cal. 

Assets held in the United States for the special protection of 
American policyholders, as of December 31, 1 92 1 , $2 1 ,2 1 7, 105. Liabil- 
ities, $15,544,588. United States surplus, $5,672,517. 

RUBBER MANUFACTURERS' MUTUAL INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Boston, Mass. Organized 1885. Arthur H. Lowe, 
president; George B. Hodgman, vice-president; Benjamin Taft, 
secretary and treasurer; W. B. Brophy, vice-president and assistant 
treasurer; 185 Franklin St. 

RUSSIAN REINSURANCE COMPANY, St Petersburg, 
Russia. Paul E. Rasor, United States manager, 15 William Street, 
New York. 



s 



SAFEGUARD INSURANCE COMPANY, New York, N. Y. 
Or^nized 1879; reors^anized 1915; capital, $200,000. A. G. Mcll- 
waine, president; Edward E. Pearce, vice-president; Henry W. 
Gray, Jr., vice-president and secretary. 57 William Street. 

SAFETY FUND LAW. This law, which permitted the accumu- 
lation by a fire insurance company, from its profits, of a fund, one- 
half of which may be deposited with the insurance department to be 
held for the protection of the unearned premiums of the company 
and to serve as a second capital in said case its capital and assets are 
swept away by a great connagration, the other half to be retained by 
the company for the pavment of losses, was enacted by the state 
le|g;islature in its session of 1874 (passed April i6th) on the suggestion 
ollnsurance Superintendent Chapman. The legislature in 1915 passed 
a law providing that no company should establish such funds after 
June I, 191 5, and providing further for the discontinuance of the spe- 
cial reserve and guaranty surplus funds already created under the 
law. 

Surplus fund laws are in force in five other states, the pro- 
visions thereof being similar to those of the law of New York, 
which was the first to enact legislation of this character. The states 
and their laws are : 

Minnesota, Chapter 18, laws of 1876, re-enacted by Section 98 of 
the general law of 1895, and Chapter 437, laws of 1900 and Chapter 
263, laws of 191 1. 

Rhode Island, Sections 26 to 32, inclusive, of Chapter 156 of the 
Public Laws. 

Wisconsin, Sections 1909 to 1913, inclusive, of the Revised Stat- 
utes. 

New Jersey in 1908 enacted a somewhat similar law. [Chapter 
258, laws of 1908]. 

New Hampshire, Chapter 28, laws of 191 1. 

Nebraska, [Paragraph 3252, section 1 16, from revised statutes 
of 1913.] 

SALAMANDRA REINSURANCE COMPANY of Copenhagen, 
Denmark. Organized 1918, and was admitted to do a fire re-insurance 
business in New York the same year. Its United States Manager is 
Meinel & Wemple, Inc., 4^9 Fifth Avenue, New York. 

SALAMANDRA INSURANCE COMPANY of Petrograd. 
Russia. Organized 1846. Meinel & Wemple, Inc., United States 
manager, 469 Fifth Ave., New York City. 



Fire Insurance Section 159 

SALEM MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Salem, 
Mass. Organized 1838. S. Herbert Wilkins, president; Arthur 
Derby, secretary and treasurer. 

SAVANNAH FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Savannah, 
Ga. Organized 191 1; capital, $100,000. Mills B. Lane, president; 
W. F. Train, vice-president and treasurer; F. M. Butler, secretary. 

SCANDINAVIAN AMERICAN ASSURANCE CORPORA- 
TION, LTD., Christiania, Norway. J. M. Wennstrom, United States 
manager, 100 William Street, New York, N. Y. 

SCOTTISH UNION AND NATIONAL INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Edinburgh, Scotland, wa5 chartered in 1824. J. A. Cook is 
its manager at the Edinburgh ofiice, and J. Gunn, secretary. It 
commenced business in 1880 in the United States, with headquarters in 
Hartford, and writes here fire, tornado, explosion, riot and civil commo- 
tion, sprinkler leakap^e, earthquake and automobile insurance. In 
Great Britain it also insures lives, grants annuities and does a general 
business including all classes, including marine. The United States 
trustees are Messrs. Morgan G. Bulkeley, Meigs H. Whaples, and Mor- 
gan B. Brainard, Hartford. The American representatives of the 
company are: J. H. Vreeland, manager; Jas. H. McCormick, secretary; 
Louis Harding, Angus Caruth, Waldo R. riills, and Thomas R. Fletcher, 
assistant secretaries. United States branch assets, December 31, 192 1, 
18,443,500.69; liabilities, $4,534,1 19.91. 

SEABOARD FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Atlantic City, 
N. J. Organized 1908; capital, paid-in, $100,000. J. B. Thompson, 
president; Frank Walsh, vice-president; H. H. Deakyne, treasurer; 
A. F. Bolte, secretary. 

SEA INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, Liverpool, England. 
Chubb & Son, New York, general agents for the United States. 

SECOND RUSSIAN INSURANCE COMPANY, Petrograd, 
Russia. Oganized 1835. Meinel & Wemple, Inc., United States 
managers Fire I>epartment, 469 Fifth Avenue, John M. Grant, manager 
marine department, 82 Beaver Street, New York, N. Y. 

SECURITY AUTOMOBILE MUTUAL INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Younestown, Ohio. Organized 19 15. Philip Wick, presi- 
dent; C. H. Rennedy, vice-president; T. A. Woodman, treasurer; 
R. G. Davis, secretary. 

SECURITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Cincinnati, O. 
Organized 1881 ; capital, $150,000. The company was merged with the 
Eureka Fire and Marine Insurance Company in 192 1. 



160 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

SECURITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Davenport. la; 
Organized 1883; capital, $200,000. James W. Bollinger, president. 
Rudolph Rohlfs, vice-president; R. J. Clausen, treasurer; E. £. Soenke, 
secretary. 

SECURITY INSURANCE COMPANY, New Haven, Conn. 
Organized 1841; capital, $1,000,000. John W. Ailing, president, 
E. G. Stoddard, Victor Roth, Walter D. Williams, vice-presidents; 
Willis Parker, secretary; W. Perdue Johnson, assistant secretary; 
W. A. Thomson, treasurer. 

SECURITY MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Chatfield, Minn. Organized 1898. F. L. Tesca, president; F. G. 
Stoudt, vice-president; L. M. Thurber, secretary and treasurer. 

SHORT RATE TABLE — Is a table for computing the earned 
premium on policies of fire insurance in the event of cancellation, or 
the premium to be charged where a policy is written for a shorter 
period than a year. When a company cancels a policy it returns the 
pro rata prenuum. When the policyholder cancels the pro rata pre- 
mium less the expense of getting the business is returned, and the table 
below is used in computing the earned premium, or the premium to be 
retained. The table is the one adopted by the National Board of Fire 
Underwriters, and is in use pretty generally throughout the country. 
In computing the premium take the percentage indicated on scale oppo- 
site the number of days risk is to run, on the premium for one year at 
given rate, and the result will be the premium earned in case of can- 
cellation, or to be charged in case of short time risks. Fractional 
parts of a month for term policies are counted as a whole month. 



\ 



Fire Insurance Section 



161 









2-Ybar 


3-Year 


4-Ybar 


5-Ybar 


Annual 




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Policy 


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POLKIKS 




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Premium 


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162 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

SKANDIA INSURANCE COMPANY of Stockholm, Sweden, 
was organized in 1855, and entered the United States for reinsurance 
business in May, 1900, making a deposit with the New York and 
Ohio departments. William Mackintosh, manaeer and attorney in 
the United States. New York office, 84 William Street. 

SKANDINAVIA INSURANCE COMPANY, Copenhagen, Den- 
mark. Sumner Ballard, United States branch manager, 80 Maiden 
Lane, New York, N. Y. Writes direct marine business and fire re-insur^* 
ance business. 

SOUTH BRITISH INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited. Head 
office Auckland, New Zealand. Established 1872. Subscribed capital, 
£1,500,000; paid up capital, £750,000. Entered New York, April 1921. 
H. E. Kempthorn, manager, no William Street, New York. W. M. 
Speyer, manager, 334 California Street, San Francisco. 

SOUTH CAROLINA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized at Columbia, June 31, 1899. The following 
officers were elected: John B. Reeves, Charleston, president; Allen 
Jones, Columbia, vice-president; A. H. Walker, Columbia, secretary. 
At the annual meeting in June, 1921, the following officers were elected: 
President, W. D. McLean, Anderson, secretary and treasurer, H. P. 
Moses, Sumter. 

SOUTH CAROLINA INSURANCE COMPANY, Columbia, 
S. C. Organized 1910; capital, f 200,000. Edwin G. Seibels, president; 
John J. Seibels, secretary. 

SOUTH DANVERS MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Concord, Mass. Incorporated 1829. Prescott Keyes, presi- 
dent; Charles F. Bowers, vice-president and underwriter; Frank 
Taylor, secretary; Adams Tolman and E. R. Howard, assistant 
secretaries. 

SOUTH-EASTERN UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION 
(formerly the South-Eastern Tariff Association). The first meet- 
ing of this association was held at New Holland Springs, near 
Gainesville, Ga., on August 16, 1882. The officers elected were: Pres- 
ident, Clarence Knowles (then special agent of the New York Under- 
writers' Agency); vice-president, Peter F. Pescud (then a special 
agent of the Commercial Union); secretary, Thomas Peters (then a 
general adjuster in Atlanta, Ga). Its object was stated to be "to 
organize and maintain local boards; to establish and enforce ade- 
quate rates and uniform commissions, and inculcate sound principles 
of underwriting." 

Mr. Knowles remained president of the association until June, 
1888, at which time Major Livingston Mims was elected. He was 
in office until 1894, when he was succeeded by Thomas Egleston. 
His successor in 1896 was Samuel Y. Tupper, who retired in 1898^ 
and was succeeded by (Captain Edward S. Gay. Harry C. Stockdell 



Fire Insurance Section 



163 



was elected in 1900 and 1901 ; W, E. Chapin, 1902 and 1903 ; Geo. 
J. Dexter, 1904 and 1905; Milton Dargan, 1906 and 1907; Dan B. 
Harris, 1908 and 1909; W. R. Prescott, 1910 and 1911; Hany R. 
Bush, 1913 and 1913; CiarenceF. Low, ttfidand 1915; F. C. Buswell, 
N, Y., in 1916; Henry E. Reea 0/ Hartford in 1918 — he died imme- 
diately before the Annual Meeting in 1919. At that meeting Edgar T, 
Gentry was elected president. Thomas Peters continued as Secretary 
until the meeting held in Atlanta August 1886, when he was succeeded 
by Charles C. Fleming, who continued as secretary until he resigned 
in March 1891. S. V. Tupper was then elected and served until Mr. 
Fleming returned and served until his death in 1907, when he was 
succeeded by Joseph S. Raine. 

In 1906 Mr. A. B. Andrews was elected manager and he served 
until hiz) death in 1913. No successor was then elected but Mr. Raine 
discharged the duties until 1917 when Mr. Wm. F. Dunbar was elected 
manager. The Association has jurisdiction over the States of Virginia, 
North and South Carolina, George, Alabama and Florida. 

The present ofiicers are: Dowdell Brown, Commercial Union, 
president; R. N. Hughes, Insurance Company of North America, 
vice-president; W, F. Dunbar, manager. 

The following is a list 1 
£tOB. Hartford. 
Acrlcultural. Watenown. N. V. 
AUiance. Philadelphia. 
American Alliance. New York. 
American. Newark, N, J. 
American Centrsl. St. l.ouli. Mo. 
Atlaiiu Home Underwriters, Atlai 
Atlantic Flic. Raleifh. N. C. 
Atlas, of London, New York. 
Atlaa Underwriura, New York. 
Automobile. Hartford. Conn. 
BoatiHi. BoMoa. Man. 



Flcemen'g Undrrwriten Aiency. Newaik, 

N.J. 
Fiaoklln, Philadelphia. 
Gemral Fire of Paija, New York. 
I. Georgia Fire Underorlten. Atlanta. Ga. 



Granite State, For 
Gteat American. ^ 



[ordHartford Fire. Hinfotd. Conn. 



Home. New York. 



Jeney Fire Underwriten 



London and Lancailure, Liverpool. 

ford. Conn. 
London & Scottish, New York. 



Agency. St. Louis, Mo. 



164 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



National Union. Pittsburg. Pa. 
Newark Fire, Newark. N. J. 
Newark Fire Underwriters Agency, 

Newark, N. J. 
New Hampshire. Manchester, N. H. 
New Haven Underwriters Agency, New 

Haven, Conn. 
New York Underwriters Agency, New 

York 
New Zealand, of Auckland, N. Z. 
Niagara Fire, New York. 
Niagara- Detroit Underwriters, New York. 
Northern of Ix)ndon, New York. 
Northern of New York, New York. 
Northern Underwriters Agency, New York. 
North British and Mercantile of London, 

New York. 
North Carolina Home. Raleigh, N. C. 
North Carolina State. Rocky Mount. N.C. 
Northwestern Fire and Marine, Minn. 
Norwich Union, New York. 
Old Colony. Boston. Mass. 
Orient. Hartford. Conn. 
Palatine of London, New York. 
Patriotic of Dublin, New York. 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Philadelphia Underwriters, Philadelphia. 
Phoenix, Hartford, Conn. 
Phoenix, of London, New York. 
Phoenix Underwriters. New York. 
Piedmont, Charlotte, N. C. 



Providence- Washington. Providence. R. I. 

Queen of America, New York. 

Reliance, Phila. 

Rochester Depart., Great American 

New York. 
Royal, of Liverpool, New York. 
Royal Exchange, of London. New York. 
St. Paul Fire and Marine. St. Paul, Minn. 
Scottish Union and National, of Edinbursli, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Security, New Haven, Conn. 
Southern Home, Charleston, S. C. 
Springfield Fire and Marine, Springfield. 

Mass. 
Standard Fire. Hartford, Conn. 
Star of America, New York. 
State of Liverpool. Hartford. Conn. 
Sterling. Indianapolis, Ind. 
Stonewall, Mobile. Ala. 
Sun of London, New York. 
Sun Underwriters Agency, New York. 
Svea Fire and Life of Sweden. New York. 
Tokio Marine & Fire of Japan. New York. 
Underwriters Fire, Rocky Mount. N. C. 
Union of London New York. 
Union of Canton, Chicago, 111. 
Urbaine of Paris, New York. 
Victory. Philadelphia. 
Westchester, New York. 
Western. Toronto, Can. 
Yorkshire. Eng.. New York. 



SOUTHERN AUTOMOBILE UNDERWRITERS CONFER- 
ENCE, Atlanta, Ga. Organized in May, 1916. The officers, elected in 
October, 1921, are; R. N. Hughs, Insurance Company of North Ameri- 
ca, president; Hinton J. Hopkins, Hartford Fire, vice-president; 
Charles A. Bickerstaff, Fireman's Fund, treasurer; executive com- 
mittee: Clarence Russ, Aetna; Milton Dargan, Royal, Atlanta; 
R. B. Barnett, Fire Association; E. K. McDowell, North British and 
Mercantile; E. M. Ransom, Commercial Union; R. H. Colcock, Jr., 
Liverpool and London and Globe, New Orleans; John J. McKay, ^few 
Hampshire Fire, Macon; S. Y. Tupper, Jr., Queen, Atlanta; Charles 
W. Phillips, Home, Atlanta, and the officers. John M. Harrison is 
secretary and manager. 

The Conference has jurisdiction over Virginia, Louisiana, Alabama, 
Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, Arkansas and South Carolina. 

SOUTHERN HOME INSURANCE COMPANY, Charleston, 
S. C. Organized 191 1; capital, $200,000. Oscar E. Johnson, presi- 
dent and treasurer; E. H. Pringle, vice-president; Dillard B. Sewell, 
vice-president and secretary; J. J. Scott and F. M. Whaley, assistant 
secretaries; R. W. Hunckel and Mrs. S. C. Bacot, assistant treasurers; 
W. W. Mclver, secretary. 



SOUTHERN MUTUAL (FIRE) INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Athens, Ga. Organized 1847. Billups Phinizy, president; A. £. 
Griffith, secretary. 



Fire Insurance Section 



165 



SOUTHERN TORNADO INSURANCE ASSOCIATION, New 
York. Organized 19 lo. The present officers, elected in May, 192 1, 
are: vice-president, W. R. Prescott, Hartford Fire; secretary, W. L. 
Dennis, Home, N. Y.: executive committee: L. Pfingstag, National 
Liberty; W. Ross McCain, Aetna; W. S. Alley, North British and 
Mercantile; J. C. Lester, Globe and Rutgers; A. R. Phillips, Great 
American. 



The membership list is as follows: 



Aetna, Hartford 

Agrictiltural, Watertown. 

Alliance, Philadelphia. 

American Alliance, New York. 

American Central, St. Louis. 

American Eagle, New York. 

American, Newark. 

Atlas, New York. 

Automobile, Hartford. 

Boston, Boston. 

British America, Toronto. 

California, San Francisco. 

Camden Fire, Camden. 

Citizens, St. Louis. 

City of New York, New York. 

Columbia, New York. 

Commercial Union, New York. 

Commonwealth, New York. 

Connecticut Fire, Hartford. 

Continental, New York. 

Ddaware Underwriters, Philadelphia. 

Dixie Fire, Greensboro. 

Ea;^. Star & British Dominions. New 

York. 
Federal, Jersey City, Hartford. 
Ftdelity-Fhenix, New York. 
Fire Association, Philadelphia. 
Fireman's Fund, San Francisco. 
Fireman's, Newark. 
Franklin Fire. New York. 
Girard Fire & Marine, Philadelphia. 
Glens Falls, Glens Falls. 
Globe & Rutgers, New York. 
Great American, New York. 
Hampton Roads Fire & Marine, Norfolk. 
Hanover Fire, New York. 
Hartford Fire, Hartford. 
Home Fire & Marine, San Francisco. 
Home, New York. 
Hudson, New York. 
Imperial, New York. 
Importers & Exporters, New York. 
Insiuance Company of North America, 

Philadelphia. 
Insurance Company of State of Penn., 

Philadelphia. 
Liverpool & London & Globe, Newark. 
London & Scottish, New York. 
London & Lancashire, Hartford. 



London Assurance, New York. 

Massachusetts Fire & Marine, New York. 

Mechanics & Traders, Hartford. 

Mechanics, Philadelphia. 

Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee. 

National Fire, Hartford. 

National Liberty, New York. 

National Union, Pittsburgh. 

Netherlands Fire & Life. Chicago. 

Newark Fire (So. Dept.) , Atlanta. 

New Brunswick, New Brunswick. 

New HamjMhire, Manchester. 

New Jersey Fire, Newark. 

New York Underwriters, New York. 

New Zealand, New York. 

Niagara Fire, New York. 

North British & Mercantile, New York. 

Northern of London, New York. 

North River, New York. 

Norwich Union, New York. 

Orient, Hartford. 

Palatine of London, New York. 

Patriotic, New York. 

Pennsylvania Fire, Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia Underwriters, Philadelphia. 

Phoenix of London, New York. 

Phoenix, Hartford. 

Providence Washington, Providence. 

Queen, New York. 

Reliance, Philadelphia. 

Rhode Island, Providence. 

Rochester Dept. of Great American, New 

York. 
Royal, New York. 
St. Paul Fire & Marine, St. Paul. 
Scottish Union & National, Hartford. 
Security, New Haven. 
Springfield Fire & Marine, Springfield. 
Standard Fire, Hartford. 
Star of America, Newark. 
State, Hartford. 
Sun, New York. 
Union of London, New York. 
Union of Canton, Chicago. 
United States, New York. 
Victory, Philadelphia. 
Westchester, New York. 
Western Assurance, Toronto. 
Yorkshire, New York. 



SOUTHERN UNDERWRITERS, THE Greensboro, N. C. [See 
George Washington Fire Insurance Company.] 



166 Cyclopedia of Insukamcb 

SPECIAL AGENTS' ASSOCIATION OF THE PACIFIC 
NORTHWEST. The association was organized October 17, 1903, 
with F. J. Alex Mayer, president, and Frank L. Hunter, secretary and 
treasurer. The secretary's offices are in Portland and the objects 
of the association are " to elevate the business of fire underwriting in 
the states of Oregon, Washington, Montana and Idaho; to collect 
and disseminate information of value to its members, municipal au- 
thorities and the insuring public; to assist in the advancement of the 
Fire Prevention movement and the reduction of fire waste, and to 
co-operate with the insurance companies, state and municipal author- 
ities, and other organizations, to these ends." 

Two regular meetings are held, the annual and semi-annual, and 
such special meetings as may be called. The annual meeting is held 
on the first Friday and Saturday in December, and the semi-annual 
meeting during the month of June. 

The present officers are: Walter E. Bliss, Portland, president; 
H. W. Randall, E. J. Young, Seattle, D. H. Parry, vice-presidents; 
Ira P. E. Reynolds, Seattle, secretary and treasurer. The secretary's 
offices are 601 Wilcox Building, Portland. 

SPRINGFIELD FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Springfield, Mass., was incorporated April 24, 1849, and 
organized April 9, 1851. The charter authorized fire, marine and 
tornado insurance. The original capital was $150,000. The amount 
was increased at different times, making the company's present capital 
stock $2,500,000. Business was commenced in May, 1851, and at 
first, embraced fire and marine lines. The latter was discontinued in 
1861 and was resumed in 1919. The Chicago disaster involved the 
company in the loss of $550,000, and the Boston loss was $260,000. 
In the San Francisco disaster of April, 1906, the company's loss was 
$1,639,063.39. The company's premium receipts during its first year 
of business were $38,695.28. The net cash premiums for 1920 were 
$13,618,836.02. 

Edmund Freeman was chosen its first president and William 
Connor, Jr., its first secretary. The company's present officers are: 
A. W. Damon, president; Geo. G. Bulkley, vice-president; E. H 
Hildreth, secretary; Walter B. Cruttenden, William A. Hebert. C. L 
Garnett, F. E. Steele, assistant secretaries; F. H. Williams, treasurer; 
Frank A. Schlesinger, assistant treasurer. Western Department, 
Chicago, 111., A. F. Dean, resident director; Harding and Lininger, 
managers; E. G. Carlisle, assistant manager; C. E. Varley, assistant 
manager. Pacific Coast Department, San Francisco, Cal., Geo. W. 
Dornin, manager; John C. Dornin, assistant manager. General 
Marine managers: Talbot, Bird & Co., Inc., New York city. It has 
agencies in all prominent localities throughout the United States and 
Canada, including Alaska, Hawaii and the Phillippine Islands. 

The present board of directors consists of James L. Pease, Mase S. 
Southworth, Homer L. Bosworth, William A. Harris, A. Willard 
Damon, Frederick Harris, Emerson G. Gaylord, George G. Bulkley, 



Fire Insurance Section 



167 



Henry A. Field, Albert F. I>ean, Chicago, 111. The company's financial 
strength as exhibited by five year periods since 1880, will appear from 
the subjoined comparative exhibit. 



Date 


Capital 


AMeU 


Net Surplus 


Dec. 


31. 1880 


$1,000,000 


$2,082,585.00 


$361,948.00 




1885 


1,000,000 


2,803,437.00 


410,543.00 




1890 


1.500,000 


3.604,148.90 


655.350.00 




189s 


1,500,000 


3.845.145.00 


614,609.00 




1900 


1,500,000 


5,156,623.47 


1,8x8,14341 




190S 


a,ooo,ooo 


7.156,531.72 


3,024,000.40 




X9IO 


3.000,000 


9,968,142.86 


2,642,281.16 




X915 


a. 500,000 


11,695,373.60 


2,580,666.63 




X93I 


2.500,000 


20,384.250.00 


4.56x,ixx.26 



SPRINKLER LEAKAGE CONFERENCE, New York, N. Y. 
Organized 19 11. The present officers, elected in February 1921, are: 
Person M. Brink, Westchester Fire, chairman; W. B. Crane, vice- 
chairman; Dwight G. Stone, Aetna Casualty and Surety, secretary 
and treasurer; W. F. Roembke, general manager. 



SPRINKLER LEAKAGE INSURANCE IN 192 1. Sprinkler 

insurance covers loss or damage caused by the accidental discnarge or 

leakage of water from automatic sprinklers installed in factories and 

other buildings. The following is a statement of the business written 

by fire insurance companies in 1921. 

Net Premiums Net Loisea 

Renewed Incumed 

Aetna, Hartford $25,774 $18,372 

Agricultural, Watertown, N. Y. 7.005 1,438 

AUianoe, Pa 5«a94 1.17a 

American, N. J 3.S66 915 

American Alliance, N. Y 3.696 9x4 

American Central, St. Louis 574 4 

American Easle, N. Y 3.785 1.665 

American EquiUble. N. Y. 8,012 2.678 

American Fire 4.752 i3 

American National 256 62 

Atlas, London 1,773 1.452 

Automobile, Hartford 77.964 33 .461 

Bankers and Shippers, N. Y 2,475 0x9 

Boston, Mass 8.X07 3.263 

Caledonian, Scotland x,942 

Caledonian American 182 

Califomia, San Francisco 1.0x8 7 

Camden, N. J. 5.529 x.676 

Capital, N. H x8o 34 

Central States, la 30 25 

City of New York, N. Y 4.46x x,6i2 

City of Penna 267 62 

Cleveland National, Ohio 

Columbia, N. J 10^ 916 

Columbian 256 56 

Commercial Union, England 8,531 i.o6x 

Commercial Union, N. Y. xi 70 

Commonwealth, N. Y X7.S30 6,455 

Coocordia, Milwaukee, Wis. x,xo9 4 

Comiecticut, Hartford 10,043 5.252 



168 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Continental, New York .... 
Detroit Fire and Marine, Mich. . 

Detroit National 

Dixie 

Eagle, N.J 

Employer's Fire, Boston 

Equitable 

Eagle Star and British Dominion 
Equitable Fire & Marine, Providence 
Fanners, York, Pa. .... 

Fidelity, S.C 

Fidelity-Phenix 

Fire Association, Phila 

Firemans Fund, San Francisco 

Firemen's, N. J 

Franklin Fire. Phila 

Girard Fire and Marine, Phila. 

Glens Falls, N. Y 

Globe National. Pittsburgh . 
Globe and Rutgers, N. Y. . 

Granite State 

Great American, N. Y 

Great Lakes, Chicago .... 

Hamilton, N. Y 

Hanover, N. Y 

Hartford, Conn 

Hawke3re Securities .... 

Home, N. Y 

Home Fire and Marine, San Francisco 

Hudson 

Imperial, England 

Insurance Co. of North America, Pa. . 

International, N. Y 

Inter-State, Mich 

Iowa National 

Knickerbocker, N. Y 

Law, Union and Rock .... 

Liberty, Mo 

Liverpool & London & Globe, England 
London Assurance, England . 
London and Lancashire .... 
London and Scottish .... 
Lumbermen's Mutual .... 
Massachusetts Fire and Marine 

Mechanics, N. J 

Mechanics and Traders, New Orleans 

Mercantile, N. Y 

Merchants, Col 

Merchants Fire, N. Y. ... 

Michigan Millers, Lansing (Mutual) . 
Milwaukee Mechanics, Wis. . 
Minneapolis Fire and Marine 

National, Hartford 

National Liberty, N. Y. ... 

National Union 

Newark Fire, N. J. .... 

New Brunswick, N. J 

New England 

New Hampshire Fire, Manchester 
New Jersey, Newark .... 

New Zealand 

Niagara Fire, N. Y 

North British and Mercantile 

North Carolina Home .... 

North River, N. Y 

Northern, London 



Net Premiums 


Net Losses 


Renewed 


Incurred 


$19,785 


S8,i8x 


538 




109 


25 


993 




983 


232 


38 




i8a 


25 


12,210 


1,283 


3.752 


1.304 


74 


5 


330 


I 


14.158 


12,474 


5.628 


2.270 


7,347 


I.2S4 


1, 001 




13,558 


5,517 


262 


908 


14.443 


2,671 


3.785 


771 


19,022 


4.374 


38 


26 


24.793 


7.056 


I.OII 




119 




131.790 


40,373 


57 


26 


129.701 


49.118 


328 


158 


225 


20 


2.913 


1.309 


23,252 


5.736 


13.690 


45 


256 


70 


299 


70 


1.700 


932 


783 


11 


343 


79 


16,461 


12,258 


500 


mm mm «■ ■« 


1.096 


1,128 


238 


33 


4.538 


X.5SS 


381 




155 




53 


186 


15.106 


3.488 


57 




530 


190 


735 


253 


4.275 


1,226 


183 


26 


702 


1.706 


34.826 


3.154 


1,297 


318 


2.154 
576 


2,028 


299 


70 


4.432 


2,838 


2,465 


7 


64s 


X 


1 5. 391 


4.052 


86,379 


18^469 


252 


75 


lOX 




11,665 


10,859 



Fire Insurance Section 



169 



Net Premiums Net Losses 

Renewed Incurred 

Nort hw e st er n Fire and Marine, Minn $210 

Northwe s t e rn National, Mil 745 $57 

Norwich Union 3t48x 4f4i5 

Ohio Farmers, Lcroy, 1,281 5. 114 

Old Colony. Boston 2,537 1,394 

Omaha Liberty, Omaha. Neb 

Orient, Hartford 1,022 623 

Pacific 3,749 445 

Palmetto 515 8 

Palatine 4.398 939 

Pennsylvania Fire, Phila 30,974 7,468 

Phoenix, Hartford 14.466 5.134 

Phoenix, England 3.014 4,861 

Providence- Washington, R. 1 2,611 5,516 

Preferred Risk 

Queen, N. Y 47.509 17,254 

Reliable 28 13 

Reliance, Pa 

Rhode Island 15,074 6,863 

Richmond, N. Y 2 

Royal, England 25,318 44 

Royal Exchange 2,705 6,598 

St. Paul Fire and Marine, Minn. 18,229 5. 189 

Savannah 119 i 

Scottish Union and National 9.2x4 6,598 

Security, Conn 1.350 1,188 

South Carolina 676 55 

Southern Home 379 34 

Springfield Fire and Marine 41.377 16.172 

Standard, Conn i,495 

Star, N. Y 4,273 i,594 

State, England 1,162 575 

Sterling, Ind 1,572 556 

Sun, England 3,679 3.301 

Underwriters, N. C 1,158 

Union. England 1,190 348 

Union of Canton, China 1,180 

Union Reserve 10,398 778 

United States Fire, N. Y 39^174 3,696 

Utah. Home 95 814 

Urbaine 3.057 925 

Victory. Phila. 237 

Westchester, N. Y. 19.912 11.232 

Western Assurance 221 303 

Yorkshire 1.635 201 

Total, 1921 $1,180,832 $413,790 

STANDARD FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Hartford, 

Conn. Onranized 19 10; capital, $500,000. M. L. Hewes, president; 
Louis R. Cheney, vice-president; H. B. Anthony, secretary; J. K. 
Hooker, secretary. 

STANDARD FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of New 
Jersey, Trenton, N. J. Organized 1868; capital $200,000. O. J. 
Prior, president; K. G. Rocbling, vice-president; F. W. Wright, 
second vice-president and treasurer; W. M. Crozer, secretary; R. J. 
Carey, assistant secretary. 

STANDARD MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, 
of Liverpool, England. W. J. Roberts, New York, United States 
manager. 



170 Cyclopbdu of Insukancb 

STANDARD MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1892. James Henry, president; £. H. 
Morris, vice-president; Edwin I. Atlee, secretary and assistant treas- 
urer; Joseph Fling, treasurer; H. C. Evans and C. V. Hart, assistant 
secretaries. (915 Commercial Trust Building.) 

STAR INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA. Prior to 
July 1st, 19 1 8, this Company was designated as The Liverpool and 
London and Globe Insurance Company of New York. Home Office, 
80 William Street, New York City. Executive Office, Washington, 
Park, Newark, N. J., organized under the laws of the State of New 
York, 1896, capital issued and fully paid, (500,000. 

This Company is controlled by The Liverpool and London and 
Globe Insurance Company, Ltd., of Liverpool, England; is operated 
under the same management and being entered throughout the United 
States (except Mississippi, New Mexico and Wyoming) is prepared to 
transact all branches of Fire Insurance business. Its officers are 
Thomas H. Anderson, president; Chas. A. Nottingham, vice-president; 
Robert H. Williams, secretary. The directors are Walter C. Hubbard, 
(Chairman), Thos. H. Anderson, Bertram H. Borden, Thatcher M. 
Brown, James H. Burnside^ Francis I. Crisfield, Hugh Lewis, C. A. 
Nottingham, Edward W. Sheldon, William H. Wheelock, William H. 
Wildey. 

The other branches are as under: 

The Chicago Branch : H. T. Cartlidge and W. P. Robertson, associate 
managers; A. C. Mollington, Deputy assistant manager; E. E. Wells, 
agency superintendent. 

The New Orleans Branch: J. G. Pepper, manager; R. H. Colcock, 
Jr., assistant manager; Henry Ferchaud, Deputy assistant manager. 

The San Francisco Branch: Clarence E. Allan, manager; Geo. 
F. Guerraz, assistant manager; Logan B. Chandler, Deputy assistant 
manager. 

STATE DWELLING HOUSE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Concord, N. H. Organized 1885; capital, $25,000. Arthur P. Mor- 
rill, president; William F. Thayer, vice-president; Obadiah MorriU, 
secretary. 

STATE ASSURANCE COMPANY, THE, LTD., of Liverpool 
was established in 1891, and does a fire insurance and casualty business. 
Its manager and secretary is Mr. Albert H. Heal. In 1897 the State 
began an agency business in the United States, and is now under the 
management of William Hare, at 100 Maiden Lane, New York City. 
The company has $200,000 on deposit with the New York Insurance 
Department and $200,000 with the Connecticut Insurance Department 
for the benefit of all policyholders in the United States. Assets, United 
States branch, December 31, 192 1, $1,245,378; liabilities $473,364. 



Fire Insurance Section 171 

STATE INSURANCE COMPANY, Des Moines, la. Organized 
1917; capital paid in $100,000. H. O. Green, president; R. W. Ford, 
vice-president; T. C. Bassett, secretary; S. C. Pidgeon, treasurer. 

STATE MUTUAL FIRE ASSOCIATION, Sioux Falls, South 
Dakota. Organized 1900. W. C. Buchanan, president; C. A. Berry, 
vice-president; S. R. Nugen, secretary; Roy Nugen, treasurer. 

STATE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Rutland, 
Vt. Organized 1898. W. W. Nichols, president; C. B. Hinsman, 
vice-president; J. R. Aoadley, secretary and treasurer. 

STATE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. Provi- 
dence, R. I. Organized 1855. John R. Freeman, president and 
treasurer; Theo. P. Bogert, secretary and asastant treasurer; vice- 
presidents, Benj. G. Buttolph, Edwin D. Pingree. 

STERLING FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Indianapolis, 
Ind. Organized 1911; cash capital, $850,000. Edward D. Evans 
president; Lewis A. Coleman, vice-president; A. G. Dugan, vice- 
president; Oscar L. Ross, secretary and treasurer. 

STOCKHOLDERS. Viewed in a legal light, the rights, duties 
and responsibilities of the owners of capital stock in an insurance 
company do not differ materially from those of stockholders in compan- 
ies organized for other purposes. The laws of the various states dif- 
fer in degree on these points. In some states the liability of stock- 
holders does not extend beyond the full-paid value of theu* holdings; 
in others, it does. Because the institution of insurance is beneficent 
in its character, public opinion is inclined to regard capital invested 
in it with less consideration than it awards to money invested in com- 
mercial enterprises, a disposition which partially accounts for the 
more rigorous laws enacted for the conduct and regulation of insur- 
ance companies. In so far as this attitude relates to fire and casualty 
companies, in which the hazards are imminent and great, it is a mistaken 
policy on the part of the state. The principle will not bear the same 
application to life insurance, in which the amount of the hazard under- 
taken is known with practicable exactitude. Once established and in 
receipt of a going business, it is demonstrable that a life insurance 
company requires no capital, particularly if it confines itself to the 
writing of participating insurance. If, as in several notable instances, 
the company transacts, in addition to a life business, the various 
branches of casualty insurance, it is probable that a sufficient amount 
of capital is an added security. In all branches of insurance the rights 
of policyholders take precedence over those of stockholders and all 
invested capital is held as surplus for the security of the former. 

STONEWALL INSURANCE COMPANY, Mobile, Ala. 
Organized 1866; capital, $150,000. Charles H. Brown, president; 
Stewart Brooks, vice-president; John Gaillard, secretary and manag- 
ing underwriter; R. Gaillard, assistant secretary. 



172 Cycxopedia of Insukancb 

ST. PAUL FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
St. Paul, Minn. Organized 1865; capital, $2,000,000. F. R. B^elow, 
president; A. W. Perry, vice-president and secretary; J. H. Skinner, 
vice-pre9ident ; J. C. \fcKown, C. A. Dosdall, R. N. Martin and L. B. 
Grossmith, assistant secretaries; C. F. Codere, assistant to the presi- 
dent. 

ST PAUL MUTUAL HAIL AND CYCLONE INSURANCE 
COMPANY, St. Paul, Minn. Organized 1897. L. C. Stebbins, 
president; R. G. Walding, secretary. ^ 

STUYVESANT INSURANCE COMPANY, New York City, 
(ill William Street). Organized 1850; capital, $700,000. J. S. Freling- 
huysen, president; C. A. Garth waite, H. R. Chambers, vice-presidents: 
G. F. Hutchings, secretary. 

SUBURBAN FIRE INSURANCE EXCHANGE (New York) 
was organized in December, 1907, and its objects as stated in its 
constitution are: "to promote harmony among its members, to 
determine adequate and just rates of premium of Fire, Tornado 
and Cyclone insurance, to encourage the economical conduct of the 
business, the prevention and extinction of fires, the prompt and 
equitable adjustment of losses, the ascertainment of proper and 
safe methods in the construction and occupation of buildings, and 
the collection, preservation and dissemination of information valu- 
able to the underwriter and to the property owner, within the ter- 
ritory of its jurisdiction." The territory of the Suburban Fire Insurance 
Exchange comprises the counties of Rockland, Putnam, Westchester, 
Nassau and Suffolk; and so much of the Boro of Bronx as lies east of 
the Bronx River; and all the Boroughs of Queens and Richmond, 
except such portions thereof as are under the jurisdiction of the New 
York Fire Insurance Exchange, viz.: Lon^ Island City and the Ameri- 
can Dock Stores. All companies are eligible to membership. The 
officers are: George A. Clarke, Home Insurance Company, New York, 
president; F. Hoadley, American Insurance Company, Newark, N. J. 
vice-president; Willard Chambers, North British and Mercantile, 
treasurer. Henry E. Hess is secretary and manager of the Exchange. 
(123 William Street, New York, N. Y.) 

SUBURBAN NEW YORK FIELD CLUB. Organized in July, 
1918, by special agents covering the suburban New York territory. 
The present otticers elected in 192 1 are: President, A. M. Harned, 
Home; vice-president, E. C. Ryan, Hanover; secretary, C. A, Moore, 
Glens Falls; treasurer, Pomroy Lee, Hartford Fire. 

SUFFOLK COUNTY MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Southold, N. Y. Incorporated 1836, began business 1837. Samuel 
Dickerson, president; S. Lester Albertson, vice-president; Albert A. 
Folk, secretary; Nathan O. Petty, attorney. 



Fire Insurance Section 173 

SUNAPEE MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sun- 
apee, N. H. Organized 1884. Ernest P. Bartlett, president; Edward 
S. Perkins, vice-president; Albert D. Felch, secretary; Leo. L. Os- 
borne, treasurer. 

SUN INSURANCE OFFICE of London was established as the 
Sun Fire Office April 7, 1710, in London, and is the oldest insur- 
ance company in the world, having had an experience of 212 years. 
In the olden time it kept, like the other fire insurance ofl^ces, an 
engine of the crude hand form, with thirty men, called "watermen," 
to take it to fires in property insured by the company. The water- 
men were clothed in blue livery, and were assisted in the saving 
of goods by twenty able-bodied porters, the entire force wearing 
silver badges with the mark of the Sun. This device of the Sun, 
wrought in lead, was nailed on houses insured by the company, 
and continues to be the trade-mark of the company to this day. 
In the course of many years the Sun Fire Office grew to be a 
great and prosperous corporation, but its affairs were kept pro- 
foundly secret, until the requirements of its American connection 
impelled the directors to publish its accounts. 

The Sun was admitted to New York August i, 1882, depositing 
$200,000 with the insurance department at Albany, and in a few 
months it had spread its business into all the important states of 
the Union. The arrangements were made by Mr. F. B. Relton, 
then secretary of the company, who had been with it nearly half a 
century. He had purchased for the company the plant and business 
of an American company, the Watertown Fire Insurance Com- 
pany of Watertown, N. Y., and taken its manager, Mr. Uri S. Gil- 
bert, to be manager of the United States branch of the Sun, with 
headquarters at Watertown. A few years afterward Mr. J. J. Guile 
was sent over from the home office to assist Mr. Gilbert. The 
latter died suddenly in 1886, and Mr. Guile was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. He removed the United States branch to New York, 
where he continued until February 19 19, at which time he retired 
from active business and Mr. Preston T. Kelsey, manager of the 
Western Department of the Office at Chicago was appointed his 
successor as the United States Manager. United States headquarters, 
54 Pine Street, New York, N. Y. 

The first report made by the company to the New York insurance 
department, which was in 1883, of the business of the preceding 
year, showed United States assets of $1,095,229 with a premium 
income of $390,973. 

In 1891, by special act of Parliament, the charter of the Sun Fire 
Office was amended so as to add to its privileges the power to do 
all kinds of insurance, and the name it had borne for 180 years was 
changed to the Sun Insurance Office. 

At the annual general meeting of the company in London, in 
May, 192 1, the directors submitted a report of the business of 1920. 



174 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



The fire premiums received were $11,448,444, with losses of $5»564,387. 
Total assets, January i, 1920, were $22,565,442. The capital of the 
company is $12,000,000, of which $2,400,000 is paid up. 

The chairman of the Sun is Hon. Sir William H. Goschen, and the 
board of directors is composed of leading business men of London. 

The United States assets of the Sun at the close of 1921, as 
well as its income and expenditures, will be found in the table below : 





Prrtniumt 




Total 


Total Bx- 




Year. 


Received. 
$390,973 


LoMee Pftid. 
$x64.X54 


Income. 
$390,976 


pendituree. 
$3x3,467 


Aaeets. 


x883 


$X,095.339 


X883 


1.078,6x0 


630.995 


X.XX4,83X 


1.033. X04 


X,47S.784 


X884 


1.3x9.960 


783.9x3 


X,37X,034 


X,343.787 
X.363,779 


1.477.933 


X885 


X.16X.758 


799.387 


X,333,870 


X.7X3,36x 


X886 


X. 076.640 


7x5.6x8 


X.X35.078 


x,X30.x8o 


X, 666,68 X 


X887 


970.059 


718.095 


X.040.X56 


X.037.5X4 


i,8xx.043 


x888 


I.X03,064 


647.089 


x,x6i,07x 


X, OX 3,768 


X, 936.303 


X889 


I.aii.377 


795.XOX 


X.384.X69 


X. 3x3,405 


X.956,33X 


X890 


X,455.3i8 


765.3s X 


1.530.967 


X. 343.539 


3.333,735 


X89X 


X.75S.I76 


i.x 33.748 


X. 836.344 


x.733.459 


3,5x0.368 


X893 


2.157.563 


x.376.373 


3,344.353 


3, X 13.456 


3,6 7 X, 350 


X893 


X.98X.608 


X. 589.308 


3.083,836 


3,378,564 


3,449.543 
3,433. X65 


X894 


a.x69.9Z3 


X, 144.05 3 


x,66x.53X 


X, 690,537 


189s 


3.066,403 
X. 557.670 


9x0.636 


X, 683,668 


i,4x6.34X 


3,479.448 
3,641,5x9 


X896 


795.489 


X,655.X34 


X,35X,937 


X897 


X.6X5.850 


8x9.007 


X,7X5.367 


1,4x0,600 


3.7 38, X 38 


X898 


x.579.a58 


904.643 


X, 678,363 


I.506.OXX 


3,734.973 

3.6x6.935 


X899 


x.405.683 


x.057.497 


x.503,335 


1.637.350 


X900 


X ,480.473 


x.057.933 


X,57X.867 


x.655.345 


3.595 .075 


X90X 


X.815.095 


X.03X,790 


X,900.303 


1.730.705 


3.7x6.457 


1903 


x.996.430 


99X.990 


3,093,74X 


1.7x6.730 


3.903,199 


X903 


3,033.549 


1.007.983 


3.X38.445 
3,984.065 


3.033. X 56 


3.9 XX, 883 


1904 


3.339.8x7 


X. 706.763 


3.759.363 


3.X95.44C 


X905 


a.396.977 


X,X33.X36 


3.538.498 


a.546.746 
4.54X,38l 


3.X39.X68 


X906 


3,744.3 z 8 


3.7x6.546 


4.994.560 


3.556,754 


X907 


3.8X9.39X 


X. 308.504 

x.558,476 


994.8x9 


3,594.301 


3.790.767 


X908 


3.803,895 


3.973.839 


3,965.789 


4.0IX,44S 


1909 


3.077.XI9 


X,433.767 


3.359.XOX 


3.044.447 


4.336,374 


X9X0 


3.050.567 


x.447.333 


3.32 X. 604 


3.045.058 


4.367.76a 


X9XI 


3,847.790 


X.454.X80 
X,450,3i8 


3.X4X.945 
3.060.747 


3.0x4.988 


4.5X8.97X 


X9X3 


3.833,596 


3,970.644 


4,633.987 


X9I3 


3,766,874 


x,5 16,054 


3.XX7.338 


3.77X,899 


4.833.336 


1914 


3.593.134 


1,534.433 


3.858,557 


3.835.338 


4.859.6x4 


X9IS 


3.358.331 


1,301,757 


3,698,191 


3.668. X38 


4.866,59$ 


1916 


3,54X.400 


x,30X.864 


3.937.184 


3.799,475 


5 00 X. 639 


X917 


3,903.730 


x,373.040 


3.333.X65 


3,884.756 


5.306,790 


X918 


4.O03.SSO 


1.835.733 


4.499.013 


3.859,653 


5,863,308 


1919 


4.519.165 


3,i56,iox 


4.954.088 


4,404.838 


6.387.138 


1920 


4.532.739 


2,200,753 


5,347,197 


4,841,655 


6,658.217 


1921 


3.718.466 


3,058,090 


4.066.153 


4,318.495 


6.964,334 



SUN MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Cincinnati. O. 
Organized 1862. John G. Broxterman, president; A. Schmitt, Jr., 
vice-president; John H. Take, secretary; Henry Hater, treasurer; 
Louis C. Brinkman, assistant secretary and surveyor. 

SUPERIOR FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsburgh, Pa« 
Organized 1871; capital, $700,000.00. A. H. Trimble, president; Ed~ 
ward Heer, vice-president and secretary; J. D. C. Miller, secretary'; 



Fire Insurance Section 175 

H. J. A. Finley, assistant secretary; T. Lee Trimble, executive special 
agent; H. C. Cowpland, superintendent of agencies and £. H. Cook, 
superintendent of agencies. 

SVEA FIRE AND LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Limited, 
of Gothenburg, Sweden. J. M. Wennstrom, United States manager, 
loo WUliam Street, New York, N. Y. 

SWISS REINSURANCE COMPANY. Zurich, . Switzerland. 
Percival Beresford, United States manager, lOo William Street, New 
York, N. Y. 

SWITZERLAND GENERAL INSURANCE COMPANY of 
Zurich (marine business). Bertschmann & Maloy, attorneys. i6 Ex- 
change Place, New York, N. Y. 

SYSTEMS OF RATING IN FIRE INSURANCE. Although 
the word " system " is used in this connection the commonly accepted 
designation is " schedule." At least this was the designation given in 
the fii^ " system " which came into eeneral use. It was known as 
the *' Universal Mercantile Schedule, and was largely the work of 
F. C. Moore, though he was assisted by James A. Silvey, George W. 
Babb, Jr., and E. &. Richards, as a committee. The committee was 
appointed in 1891, and its work, completed late in 1892, was given 
practical application in various sections of the country in 1893. The 
schedule was later pretty generally adopted. 

A later schedule, which came into use in several of the western and 
southern states in the early nineties, was known as the " Dean Sched- 
ule." It was the work of Mr. A. F. Dean of Chicago, and was styled 
by the author " Analytic System for the Measurement of the Rela- 
tive Fire Hazard." It was designed for rating mercantile hazards. 
The two schedules are still in use though modified from time to time as 
experience and application suggested. They have also been a guide 
in making up later schedules or systems. The " L. & L. Ratine Sys- 
tem " was put out in 191 5 and is the work of A. E. Larter and W. S. 
Lemmon, which contains features found in both the older schedules. 
The system is designed to effect standardization of fire insurance 
rating. 

The most recent schedule, put forth in 19 16, is the work of Mr. E. G. 
Richards and is styled by the author " The Experience Grading and 
Rating Schedule, " and as the author states " designed to be a United 
States standard for measuring fire insurance costs based upon combined 
experience averages." 

In very recent years fire insurance rating has been the subject 
of much consideration and discussion, which led in 19 14 to the creation 
by the National Board of Fire Underwriters of an actuarial bureau to 
which companies might report their underwriting experience; the pur- 
pose, or perhaps the hope, m view being ultimately^ to develop a rating 
schedule, or system, based on the combined experience of companies. 



T 



TENNESSEE ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS 
was organized at Nashville, in October, 1899, with the following officers; 
Thomas Hart, president; James E. Beasley, N. A. Crocket, Edward 
Maynard, vice-presidents; Sol Moyses, Chattanooga, secretary and 
treasurer. The present officers, are: President, Stanley Lachman, 
Chattanooga; secretary and treasurer. Miss Julia Hindman, Nashville. 

TENNESSEE FIELD MEN'S ASSOCIATION. The club was 
organized in July, 19 14, as the Tennessee Field Club, and re-organized 
in 1 92 1 under its present title. The present officers, elected in July 
1921, are: President, C. C. Woodcock; vice-president, Paul Eldridge Jr.; 
secretary and treasurer, L. A. Anderson, Nashville Trust Building. 

TEXAS ASSOCIATION OF INSURANCE AGENTS was 
organized at Waco, June 15, 189 1, S. P. Cross of Cameron being elected 
president; P. L. Downs, Temple, secretary, and J. L. Lee, Helton, 
treasurer. The present officers elected in September 192 1 are: Presi- 
dent, C. H. Walton, Forth Worth; vice-pwesident, W. B. Smith, Long- 
view; second vice-president, P. W. Williams, El Paso; secretary and 
treasurer, H. A. Lawrence, Forth Worth. 606 Flatiron Building. 

TEXAS NATIONAL MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Fort Worth, Tex. Organized 1906. E. E. Bewley, president; 
Glen Walker, secretary. 

THAMES AND MERSEY MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, THE, LTD., of Liverpool, England. Frank H. Cauty, 27 Wil- 
liam Street, New York, United States Manager. 

TIVERTON AND LITTLE COMPTON MUTUAL FIRE IN- 
SURANCE COMPANY, Little Compton, R. I. Incorporated 1865; 
began business 1866. Pardon C. Brownell, president; Frederick R. 
Brownell, secretary; J. G. Wordell, assistant secretary. 

TOKIO MARINE AND FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Limited, Tokio, Japan. Appleton & Cox, Inc., attorney 1-3 South Wil- 
liam Street, New York. N. Y., marine department. The company began 
to write fire insurance business in the United States in 1918; reinsuring 
the business of the Aachen and Munich Fire Insurance Company. 
Johnson & Higgins are general attorneys for the fire insurance branch, 
and J. A. Kelsey, managing underwriter. 

TORNADO INSURANCE. This form of insurance is written 
by fire insurance cotnpanies as a rule under a separate policy contract, 
but now a combined fire and tornado policy is written on dvrel lings 



Fire Insurance Section 



177 



and dwelling house property. The business is written more largely 
in the south and southwest, although included in the class is damage 
by windstorm, and written to a less extent in other sections of the 
country. The following is a statement of the business in 192 1: 



Aetna, Hartford .... 

Agricultural, N. Y. 

.Albany, N. Y 

Allemannia 

Alliance, Pa 

.\mericah Alliance, N. Y. 

American Central. Mo. . 

American Ea^e, N. Y. . 

.\merican Equitable, N. Y. 

American Fire, N. Y. . 

.\merican, N. J 

.American, N. Y 

American National, O. . 

American Mutual. R. I. 

Arkwright Mutual, Mam. 

Atlas. England .... 

Automobile, Conn 

Baltimore American, Md. 

Bankers and Shippers. N. Y. 

Boston, Mass 

British America, Toronto 

Buckeye National, Ohio 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Caledonian American, N. Y. 

Caledonian, Scotland 

California, San Francisco 

Camden. N. J. .... 

Capital, N. H 

Central. Md 

Central National .... 

Central States 

Century. Eng 

Citizens, Mo 

City of New York. N. Y. 

City of Penna 

Cleveland National, O. . 

Columbia. N. J 

Columbian, Ind 

Columbian National. Detroit 
Commercial Union, England 
Commercial Union, N. Y. . 
Commonwealth, N. Y. . 
Concordia, Milwaukee . 
Connecticut, Hartford . 

Continental, N. Y 

County, Phlla 

Detroit Fire and Marine 
Detroit National .... 

Dixie 

Dubuque, Fire and Marine, Iowa 
Eagle, Star and British Dominions 

Eagle. N. J 

Employers Fire, Mass. . 

Equitable, N. Y 

Equitable Fire and Marine, Hartford 

Enterprise Mutual. R. I. 

Fall River, Manufacturers Mutual 

Farmers, N. D 

Farmers, Iowa .... 

Farmers, York. Pa. 



Premiums 


Net Losses 


Received 


Incurred 


$911,844 


$302,228 


85,916 


18,928 


1,760 


349 


7,267 


45 


34,519 


5.193 


26,337 


7.527 


135,095 


22,328 


191,763 


11.940 


4,644 


1,190 


11,390 


1,929 


579,251 


400,619 


11,390 


1,929 


9,841 


1.184 


80,288 


20,075 


96,620 


11,179 


1,131 


413 


15.495 


1,190 


78,456 


19,066 


8,987 


164 


14,079 


773 


851 




17,118 


3,914 


14.334 


5,124 


88,579 


12,237 


631 


28 


4.186 


1,199 


34.841 


4,978 


23.972 


4.485 


202,438 


135.434 


15,200 


5.872 


16,194 


884 


1,747 


348 


13,421 


2.106 


10,955 


666 


9,875 


2,863 


25.487 


9.018 


180,002 


167.506 


32.401 


24.514 


34.798 


5.248 


79.379 


18,739 


392,824 


176,239 


930,050 


229,861 


8,470 


521 


10,379 


2,401 


910 


21 


5,525 




39,294 


5.314 


33,988 


10,828 


6,028 


1,300 


268 




643 


2X 


13,490 


4.761 


127.311 


40.575 


209 


X 



178 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Federal. N.J 

Federal Fire and Marine 

Fidelity, N.C. ... 

FideUty-Phenix, N. Y. 

Fire Aasodation, Phila. . . , ' * 

Firemen'a and Mechanics, Indianapolis 

Firemens', N. J. . . . 

Firemens' Mutual. R. I. . 

Fireman's Fund. San Francisco. 

Firemens' and Meclianics 

Franklin, Pa. . . . 

Girard Fire and Marine, Pa. 

Glens Falls. N. Y. 

Globe, Pa 

Globe National, Sioux City, la 

Globe and Rutgers, N. Y. . " 

Grain Dealers Mutual, Boston 

Great American, N. Y. . 

Great Lakes, Cliicago 

Great Republic 

Great Western 

Granite State, N. H. . ' ' * 

HamUton, N. Y. . 

Hanover, N. Y. 

Hardware Dealen Mutual 

Hartford, Conn. 

llawkeye Securities 

Henry Clay Fire, Loufaville, Ky. * 

Home, N. Y. 

Home Fire and Marine, Isan Francisco 
Hudson, N. Y. 

Illinois Fire, Chicago 

Imperial, N.Y. 

Importers and Exporters, N. Y. ! 

Indiana Lumbermen's Mutual, Indianapolis 

Industrial, Ohio 

Industrial Mutual. Boston .' ' ' ' 

Insurance Co. State of Penn., Phila. 

Insurance Company of North America. Phila. 

International, N. Y. 

Inter State Mich. 

Iowa National, Des Moines .... 

Iowa Manufacturers Mutual, Waterloo 

Keystone Mutual. Phila 

Law Union and Rock, England . 

Liberty, Mo 

Liverpool and London & Globe, England * 

London Assurance 

London and Lancashire, Liverpool 

London and Scottish 

Lumbermen's Mutual 

Manton Mutual, Pa 

Manufacturers Mutual, R. I. 
Marquette National, Chicago, III. 
MassachusetrU Fire and Marine 

Mechanics, Pa 

Mechanics Mutual. R. I 

Mechanics and Traders, New Orleans 

Mercantile, N. Y 

Mercantile Mutual, R. I 

Merchants Fire, Col 

Merchants, N. Y 

Michigan Fire and Marine, Detroit 
Michigan Millers Mutual, Lansing 

Middlesex Mutual, Conn 

Millers Mutual, 111 



Premiums 
Received 


Net Losses 
Incurred 


S21.834 


•5.158 


20,846 

677.809 

185,462 

3,461 

132.097 


2.951 

249,877 

37,857 

1.367 
30,207 


367,228 

3461 
44,666 
32,732 
91,112 


60.198 

X.367 

9.9x9 

• 2.058 

10,524 


11,097 
289.61S 


X.312 
92,236 


526,665 

2.322 

5.040 

410 

1,541 
16,998 

132,994 


X 83 .533 

14 
178 

I 
726 

2,191 
63,852 


z, '28 1, 982 

18.32s 
19.626 

1,379.275 
15.947 
44,871 


404,384 
3,6x6 

6,X03 

427,452 

1,539 

9,587 


17,242 
8,536 


2.770 
102 


• • •• •• •• 

2,508 


X4S 


6 1,233 
508,907 
68.966 
1,136 
26,851 
24,835 


IX. 068 

153,064 

16.640 

437 

5.974 
3,38 X 


12,242 

13.636 

233,289 

24,249 

67,596 

4.024 

6,098 


347 

X.04X 

124.3x0 

4.57X 

9.424 
150 

26s 


"i*2,'64i 

1.473 

17,884 


3,550 

II 

2,S9X 


37,451 
37.814 


'4.853 
12.543 


3,320 
36,108 
18,306 
19,336 


9,225 
3,394 
7.IS8 


5.687 





Fire Insurance Section 



179 



Mid-West, 111 

MilIe-8 National, Chicago 

Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Minneapolis Fire and Marine, Minn. . 

Minnesota Fire, Chatfield, Minn. . 

Minnesota Implement Dealers Mutual 

Mississippi 

National American, Omaha . 

National, Hartford 

National- Ben Franklin .... 

National Liberty, N. Y. 

National Mutusil, Penn. 

National Reserve 

National Security, Omaha, Neb. . 

National Union, Pa 

Netherlands 

Newark, N. J 

New Brunswick, N. J 

New England 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey, Newark .... 

New Zealand 

Niagara, N. Y 

Nippon, Japan 

North American National 

North British and Mercantile, England 

North Carolina Home .... 

North Carolina State .... 

North River, N. Y 

Northern, England 

Northern, N. Y 

Northwestern Fire and Marine, Minn. 

Northwestern National, Wis. 

Norwich Union, England 

Ohio Farmers, Lcroy, O. . . . 

Ohio Valley Fire and Marine 

Old Colony, Boston .... 

Omaha Liberty, Neb 

Orient, Hartford 

Pacific Fire, N. Y 

Palatine, England .... 

Psalmetto 

Paper Mill Mutual, Mass. . 

Patriotic 

Pennsylvania Fire, Phila. 

Peoples National, Phila 

Phoenix, Hartford 

Phoenix, England 

Pittsburgh Fire 

Providence- Washington, R. I. 
Preferred Risk, Kansas City, Mo. 

Queen. N. Y 

Reliable Fire 

Reliance, Pa 

Republic, Texas 

Republic. Pa 

Retailers 

Rhode Island, Providence, R. I. . 

Richmond, N. Y 

Royal, England 

Royal Exchange, England 

Rubber Manufacturers Mutual, Mass. 

Safeguard, N. Y 

Savannah 

Scottish Union and National . 
Security, Conn 



Premiums 


Net Losses 


Received 


Incurred 


* $28,851 


$12,033 


129,505 


20,570 


7,162 


S0.672 


15,732 


186 


29,661 


9.033 


912,749 
28,667 


299.083 


3.648 


134.094 


18,217 


sUi3 


387 


3.197 


4.731 


226,529 


129.142 


6,975 


1.S2I 


27,833 


2,810 


17.014 


3.71S 


1,834 


396 


58,200 


11,988 


21,970 


209 


' 165,024 


34.264 


11,441 


3S8 


143,967 


46,280 


2,SS4 


51 


■ • >• «• •• 

137.427 


31.708 


126,806 


22,154 


654 


261 


118,572 


99,628 


157,075 


40,613 


52,254 


18.486 


250,056 


68.423 


7,773 


2.165 


19,94s 


3.367 


25,590 


6,564 


65,290 


8,601 


17,865 


2,327 


83,417 


95.987 


15,102 


2,640 


'10,417 


257 


101,190 


23.277 


7,212 . 


823 


277,205 


60,322 


75,998 


9.482 


5.031 


782 


51,667 


12,977 


189,142 


37.267 


237 


11 


"35 Mi 


7.166 


3.771 


S 


8.281 


963 


36,820 


5.609 


26,433 


3,348 


364.874 


146,839 


38.995 


4.878 


9.993 


963 


1,145 


I 


66,826 


IS. 346 


222,602 


65,591 



180 Cyclopedia op Insurance 

Premiums Net Losses 
Received Incurred 

Security. la •s8,7«9 $9,694 

South Danvers Mutual, Mass 

South Carolina 4.855 1.401 

Southern Home 2.380 28 

Springfield Fire and Marine, Mass 516,711 151.282 

St. Paul Fire and Marine 462,003 583.810 

Standard, Conn 12,067 

Standard, N. J 35 

Standard Mutual. Pa 

Star, N. Y 37.592 10,763 

Steriing, Ind 21,482 9.115 

State Mutual. R. I 

State. England 7.7X4 630 

Stuyvesant, N. Y 15.221 1.782 

Sun, England 77.451 12.546 

Superior, Pittsburgh 17.668 4,081 

Tokio Marine and Fire, Japan 6,570 920 

Twin City, Minneapolis 

Union, England 23.348 X4.58x 

Union of Canton, China 33.749 4.717 

Union Reserve 12,091 190 

United Firemen's 3.265 

United Mutual. Boston 

United States Fire. N. Y 279,776 89,983 

Utah Home 9,726 1.933 

Urbaine 18.862 4,623 

Victory, Phila 14.929 533 

Virginia Fire and Marine 56 

V UICSUI « • a « a • » a • ••••■■•■ •••••••• 

Westchester. N. Y 188.982 54.304 

Western, Toronto . .' 28,337 4.357 

Western, Pa 

What Cheer, Mutual, Mass. 

Worcester Manufacturers Mutual, Mass 

Wheeling 31S X4 

Yorkshire . .' 6,294 

Total, 192 1 $I5,620,84X $6,099i888 

TRADERS' AND MECHANICS' INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Lowell, Mass. Organized 1848. Edward M. Tucke, president and 
treasurer; Edward W. Brigham, secretary. 

TREZEVANT & COCHRAN, Dallas, Texas. EstabUshed 1876. 
(J. T. Trezevant, Sam P. Cochran, F. D. Cochran, T. L. Lauve.), Field 
covered, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and New Mexico. 

TWIN CITY FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Minneapolis, 
Minn. Organized 1913; capital, $500,000. R. M. Bissell, president; 
Fred W. White, vice-president; John H. Griffin, vice-president and 
treasurer; William Walsh, secretary; A. W. Jones, assistant treasurer; 
Benjamin Herberg, assistant secretary. The company is controlled by 
the Hartford Fire insurance company. 



u 



UNAUTHORIZED FIRE INSURANCE. The writing or 
placing insurance in a comp>any not licensed to do business in the 
state in which the risk is located, has been a subject of much discus- 
sion, and legislation in several different forms h^ been enacted to 
prevent the practice. The legislation, together with action taken by 
state insurance officials and other agencies, has had effect, and this 
class of business is less common than formerly. The legislation deal- 
ing with this subject in some cases makes it a misdemeanor for a per- 
son to place or hold a policy in a company not authorized to do busi- 
ness in the state, and m other states a heavy tax on the premium is 
imposed on the holder of such a policy. The Idaho courts have held 
that such a tax law is unconstitutional. [See Reinsurance and Surplus 
Line Laws, Fire Section.] 

UNDERWRITERS' AGENCIES, JOINT POLICIES OF 
FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES WRITTEN BY. [For action 
of certain state insurance departments against "underwriters' " com- 
binations of fire insurance companies, see Cyclopedia for 1898-99.] 

In 1897 the Massachusetts department ruled that " underwriters' 
agencies " policies were illegal. The action of the Massachusetts 
commissioner was followed by similar rulings by the departments of 
Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Missouri and Michi- 
gan. Such policies had previously been written all over the country, 
but, with few exceptions, were " joint policies," the " underwriters' 
agency " being composed of two or more companies, and but few such 
** agencies " were in operation. In recent years so-called ** under- 
writers' agencies " have greatly increased in number, and it may 
be said differ somewhat from the earlier agencies, in that the large 
majority of such policies, or " agencies," are guaranteed by a single 
company, and are put forth in many cases to retain the agency repre- 
sentation of a reinsured company. Underwriters' agencies have in- 
creased greatly in recent years, and their status again brought to the 
attention of state insurance officials. 

The attorney general of Oklahoma has ruled that such agencies 
are illegal unless it is shown clearly that such agencies are acting as 
general agents of the parent company. The Wisconsin laws pro- 
vide that ** no insurance company. dep>artment or general agency of 
an insurance company ^hall issue any contract . . . |;iving the appear- 
ance of a separate or independent insuring organization upon the part 
of any department or general agency," and the name of the company 
assuming the risk shall be set forth more conspicuously than that of 
any department or general agency. 

The Connecticut department early in 19 16 issued the following 
ruling: " This department will not issue certificates to agents to rep- 
resent Underwriters' Agencies. Your application for such agencies 



182 Ctclopbdia of Insurance 

will not be accepted unless you apply for the Company which writes 
such policies." 

The following is a list of the principal Underwriters' Agencies 
in business when this record closed: 

^toa Fire Underwriters, suaranteed by iGtna Insurance Company, Hartford. 

Allegheny Fire Underwriters, guaranteed by Superior Fire Insurance Company 
Pittsburgh. 

Allemannia guaranteed by Allemannia Fire Insurance Company, Pittsburgh. 

Allied Underwriters guaranteed by the Union Insurance Society, Canton, China. 

American Alliance Insurance Association guaranteed by American Alliance and 
Great American Insurance Companies, N. Y. 

American International Underwriters, guaranteed by American Equitable and 
Knidcerbocker Insurance Companies, New York. 

American Underwriters' Agency, guaranteed by Insurance Company of 
the State of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Associated Federal Underwriters, guaranteed by Federal Fire and Marine Ins. Co. 
Col. 

Atlanta Home Underwriters, guaranteed by Fireman's Fund Insurance Com- 
pany, San Francisco, Cal. 

Atlas Underwriters, guaranteed by Atlas Assurance Company, London. 

Austin Underwriters, guaranteed by Republic Insurance Company, Austin, Tex. 

Ben Franklin Underwriters, guaranteed by National-Ben Franklin Insurance 
Company, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

British Empire Underwriters, guaranteed by British America ' Assurance 
Company of Canada. 

British Underwriters, guaranteed by Scottish Union and National Insur- 
ance Company, Hartford. 

British and Federal Underwriters, guaranteed by Norwich Union Fire Insurance 
Society. 

California-Hawaiian Underwriters Agency, guaranteed by California Fire, Cal.i 
and Home Insurance Company, Hawaii. 

Calumet Underwritexa, guaranteed by National Union Insurance Company. 
Pittsburgh. 

Capital and Merchants and Bankers Dept. Great American Ins. Co., N. Y. 

Central States Underwriters, guaranteed by North River and United States 
Fire Insurance Company, New York. 

Cincinnati Underwriters, composed of the Eureka Fire and Marine and 
Security Insurance Companies of Cincinnati. 

Colonial Fire Underwriters, guaranteed by the National Fire of Hartford. 

Columbia Fire Underwriters, guaranteed by National Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, Hartford. 

Commercial Underwriters' Agency, guaranteed by Utah Home Fire, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. 

Commonwealth Underwriters, guaranteed by Republic Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, Dallas. Tex. 

Connecticut Underwriter's department guaranteed by Connecticut Fire, Hartford. 

Constitution Underwriters, guaranteed by Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company. 

Continental Underwriters guaranteed by Continental Insurance Company. 

Delaware Underwriters, guaranteed by Westchester Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, New York. 

Duquesne Underwriters, guaranteed by National Union Fire Insaraxice 
Company, PitUburgh. 

Equitable Insurance Alliance, p;uaranteed by Phoenix Fire and Equitable 
Fire and Marine Insurance Compames. (Issued on Pacific coast only.) 



Fire Insurance Section 183 

Exchange Underwriters, guaranteed by Royal Exchange Assurance Com- 
pany, London. 

English American Underwriters, guaranteed by the London and Lancashire 
Insurance Company. 

Fire and Marine Underwriters, guaranteed by Automobile Insurance Company 
Hartford. 

Firemen's Underwriters, guaranteed by Firemen's Insurance Company, 
Newark, N. J. 

Forest City Insurance Agency, guaranteed by National Fire Insurance Company, 
Hartford. 

Georgia Fire Underwriters, guaranteed by the Royal Insurance Company. 

Girard Underwriters, guaranteed by Girard Fire and Marine Insurance Company 
of Philadelphia. Pa. 

Glens Falls Underwriters Agency, guaranteed by Glens Falls Insurance Company. 

Globe Fire Underwriters Agency, South Dakota, guaranteed by Minneapolis Fire 
and Marine Insurance Company. 

Globe Underwriters' Agency, guaranteed by Globe and Rutgers Insurance 
Company, New York. 

Great Western Underwriters, guaranteed by Marquette National and Great 
Western Fire Insurance Companies, Chicago. 

Hand-in-Hand Underwriters, guaranteed by Commercial Union Assurance Com- 
pany. London. 

Hawkeye, Des Moines, Underwriters, guaranteed by Fireman's Fund Insurance 
Company. San Francisco, Cal 

Hibernia Underwriters, guaranteed by Home Insurance Company, New York. 

Holland American Underwriters, guaranteed by Netherlands Fire and Life 
Insurance Company. 

Home Underwriters, guaranteed by Home Insurance Company, New York. 

Illinois Underwriters, guaranteed by the Hanover Fire Insurance Company, 
New York. 

International Underwriters, guaranteed by Republic Fire Insurance Company, 
Dallas. Tex. 

Iowa Underwriters, guaranteed by Dubuque Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company. 

Insurance Underwriters' Agency, N. Y., guaranteed by Insurance Company 
of the State of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. ^ 

Jersey Fire Underwriters, guaranteed by American Fire Insurance Company 
Newark. N. J. 

Keystone Underwriters, composed of Globe, Union, Western and United Ameri- 
can insurance companies, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Lafayette Underwriters The, guaranteed by Phoenix Fire, Abeille and Nationale* 
Insurance Companies of Paris. 

Liberty Underwriters, guaranteed by Capital Insurance Company, California. 

London Underwriters' Agency, guaranteed by London Assurance Corpora- 
tion. 

Lumber Underwriters, guaranteed by Home Insurance Company, Fordyce, 
Arkansas. 

Manchester Underwriters, guaranteed by Atlas of London. 

Manhattan Underwriters, guaranteed by Tokio Marine and Fire Insurance 
Company. 

McAlister Underwriters, guaranteed by Pilot Fire, Southern Underwriters and 
Underwriters of Greensboro, Greensboro, N. C. 

Mercantile Fire and Marine Underwriters, guaranteed by American Central 
Insurance Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mercantile Underwriters, guaranteed by Merchants Insurance Company, Denver, 
CoL 

Michigan Commercial Underwriters, guaranteed by Boston Insurance Company, 



184 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Middlewest Underwriters, guaranteed by Twin City Fire Insurance Company. 
Minneapolis. 

Mid-West Dept. Des Moines, guaranteed by Phoenix Fire Insurance Company* 
Hartford. 

Milwaulcee Mechanics Underwriters, guaranteed by Milwaukee Mechanics Fire 
Insurance Company, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Minnesota l^nderwnters, guaranteed by St Paul Fire and Marine Insur- 
ance Company, St. Paul, Minn. 

Montreal Underwriters, guaranteed by Insurance Company of North America. 
Phila. i>a. 

National Underwriters, guaranteed by Hardware Mutual and National Hard- 
ware Lcalers Mutual Insurance Companies, Huntington, Pa. 

Newark Underwriters, guaranteed by Newark Fire Insurance Company, N. J. 

New England Underwriters, guaranteed by the Capital Insurance Com- 
pany of Concord, N. H. 

New Haven Underwriters, guaranteed by the Security Insurance Company, 
New Haven, Conn. 

New York Fire Office, The, guaranteed by Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society, 

N. Y. 

New Yoi k-Califomia Underwriters, guaranteed by City of New York and Cali- 
fornia insurance companies (issued only in California). 

New York Underwriters' Agency, guaranteed by the Hartford Fire Insur- 
ance Company. 

New Zealand Underwriters, guaranteed by New Zealand Insurance Company. 

Niagara-Detroit Underwriters, guaranteed by Detroit Fire and Marine. 
Michigan Fire and Marine and Niagara Fire insurance companies. 

Northern Underwriters, guaranteed by Northern Insurance Company. London, 
England. 

Northwestern Underwriters, guaranteed by the Northwestern National of 
Milwaukee. 

Nova Scotia Underwriters, guaranteed by Home Insurance Company, New 
York, N. Y. 

Occidental Underwriters, guaranteed by Fireman's Fund and Home Fire and 
Marine Insurance Companies, (Pacific Coast.) 

Phenix Underwriters, guaranteed by Fidelity Phenix Insurance Company. 

Philadelphia Underwriters, guaranteed by the Insurance Company of North 
America and the Fire Association, Philadelphia. 

Phoenix Underwriters, guaranteed by Phoenix Assurance Company of London. 
New York. N. Y. 

Pittsburgh Underwriters, composed of the Allemannia of Pittsburgh and 
the National- Ben Franklin. Su[)erior, and Republic insurance companies of Alle- 
gheny. Pa. 

Protector Underwriters, guaranteed by the Phoenix Insurance ConvMuiy, 
Hartford. (Issued in Canada and on Pacific coast) 

Providence Underwriters Agency, guaranteed by Providence- W^aahington Insur- 
ance Company. R. I. 

Republic Underwriters, guaranteed by Republic Insurance Company, Dallas, 
Texas. 

Rhode Island Union, guaranteed by Rhode Island Union of Paris Insurance 
Companies, Providence, R. I. 

Rochester Underwriters, guaranteed by the Great American Insurance Company, 
New York. 

Royal Underwriters, guaranteed by Royal Insurance Company, New York. N. Y. 

Scotch Underwriters, guaranteed by the Caledonian Insurance Company. 

Southeastern Underwriters, guaranteed by Palmetto Fire and Fidelity Fire, 
Sumter, S. C. 

St. Lawrence Underwriters, guaranteed by Western Assurance Company. Toronto. 



Fire Insurance Section 185 

Sun Underwriters Agency, guaranteed by Sun Insurance Office, London. 

United American Underwriters, guaranteed by Twin City Fire Inaurance Com* 
pany, Minneapolis. Minn. 

United States Fire Underwriters, guaranteed by North River and United States 
Fire Insurance Companies, New York. 

Washington Underwriters, guaranteed by National Liberty Insurance Company, 
New York. N. Y. 

Western Insurance Underwriters, guaranteed by Superior Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, Pittsburgh. 

Winnipeg Underwriters, Canada, guaranteed by Home Insurance Company* 
New York. 

Wisconsin Underwriters Department, guaranteed by Concordia Fire Insurance 
Company. Milwaukee. Wis. 

UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF ALABAMA. The 
local fire insurance agents of Alabama met in convention at Mont- 
gomery, January 20, 1897, and organized this association, with the 
following officers: J. L. Dean, Opelika, president; J. G. Smith, 
Birmingham, vice-president; M. M. Sweatt, Montgomery, secretary 
and treasurer; H. C. Davidson and Leopold Strauss, Montgomery; 
R. H. Mabry, Selma; Samuel L. Cook, Anniston; J. K. Glennon, 
Mobile, executive committee. The officers elected at the annual 
meeting in April, 1921, are: Leroy A. Porter, Montgomery, president; 
Ed. S. Moore, Birmingham, secretary and treasurer; C. L. Ganby, 
assistant secretary and treasurer. 

UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF THE MIDDLE 
DEPARTMENT. January 28, 1881, a few supervising and adjust- 
ing agents, having charge of the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
Delaware and Maryland, held a meeting, and, believing "that a 
thorough concert of action" and acquaintance with the views of 
agents relative to the best interests of underwriting were necessary, 
agreed to form a permanent organization, which was effected July 
19, 1881. The officers elected were: President, A. J. Foster; vice- 
president, J. B. Kelsey; secretary and treasurer, W. C. Goodrich. 
On May 9, 1883, a reorganization took place, creating thereby the 
Underwriters' Association of the Middle Department, the object of 
which is the systematic interchange of information and co-operation 
among field men. Quarterly meetings are held. 

The territory covered by the association is Pennsylvania (except 
the counties of Allegheny, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, 
and Philadelphia); New Jersey (except the counties of Essex and 
Hudson); Delaware (entire state) ; Maryland (except city of Baltimore); 
West Virginia (counties of Berkeley, Jefferson and Morgan only). The 
offices of the association are at 316 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



186 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



The officers of the association since organization have been 





President. 


Vice-President. 


Secretary. 


1883 


E. C. Irvin. 


T. H. Mitchell. 


W. C. Goodrich. 


1884 


E. C. Irvin. 


J. H. MitcheU. 


W. C. Goodrich. 


1885 


J. H. MitcheU. 


B. H. Wood. 


W. C. Goodrich. 


1886 


WUliam Muir. 


John Tenney. 


W. C. Goodrich. 


1887 


William Muir. 


John Tenney. 


W. C. Goodrich. 


1888 


William Muir. 


Alfred Rowell. 


W. C. Goodrich. 


1889 


Alfred Rowell. 


J. B. Kremer. 
E. 0. Weeks. 


E. R. Clemenoe. 


1890 


J. B. Kremer. 
E. 0. Weeks. 


E. R. Clemenoe. 


1891 


W. N. Kremer. 


E. R. Clemence. 


Z893 


W. N. Kremer. 


A. N. Stewart. 


E. R. Clemence. 


1893 


H. 0. Kline. 


R. H. WUson. 




X894 


A. N. Stewart. 


R. H. Wilson. 


E. R. Clemence. 


X895 


W. C. Goodrich, 


R. H. Wilson. 


E. R. Clemence. 


1896 


R. H. Wilson. 


M. Lewin Hewes. 


E. R. Clemence. 


1897 


James S. Catanach. 


Benjamin Bevier. 


E. R. Clemence. 


1898 


Benjamin Bevier. 


Thomas C. Temple. 


E. R. Clemence. 


1899 


Thomas C. Temple. 


Wm. B. KeUey. 


E. R. Clemenoe. 


1900 


C. J. Irvin. 


Chas. F. Hawes. 


E. R. Clemence. 


Z90I 


Chas. F. Hawes. 


Edw. B. Creighton. 


E. R. Clemence. 


Z903 


Edw. B. Creighton. 
L. Wiederhold. Jr. 


L. Wiederhold, Jr. 


E. R. Clemence. 


Z903 


Paul Turner. 


E. R. Clemence. 


1904 


Paul Turner. 


R. C. Christopher. 


E. R. Clemenoe. 


I9OS 


R. C. Christopher. 


M. L. Ward. 


E. B. Creighton. 


Z906 


G. A. Russell. 


J. Woods Brown. 
E. J. Haynes. Jr. 


E. B. Creighton. 


1907 


A. E. Duncan. 


E. B. Creighton. 


1908 


E. J. Haynes, Jr. 


F. K. Patterson. 


E. B. Creighton. 
Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


Z9O9 


F. K. Patterson. 


Geo. A. Clarke. 


I9IO 


Geo. A. Clarke. 


Chas. M. Kerr. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 
Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


Z9IZ 


Chas. M. Kerr. 


A. F. Sanford. 


Z9xa 


A. F. Sanford. 


1 H. N. Dickinson 
\ U. 0. MichaeU. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


Z9Z3 


U. 0. MichaeU. 


E. A. Innes. 


Louis Wiederhold, Jr. 


Z9X4 


E. A. Innes. 


S. M. Wilson. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


Z915 


S. M. Wilson. 


G. G. Plyer. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


Z9z6 


G. G. Plyer. 


R. H. M. Stuart. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


X9I7 


R. H M. Stuart. 


H. W. Chapman. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 
Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


Z9X8 


H. W. Chapman. 


F. H. Walker. 


19x9 


F. H. Walker. 


W. R. Adams. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


1920 


W. R. Adams. 


H. M. Zweig. 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 
Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 


I92Z 


H. M. Zweig 


W. L. Beecher. 


1933 


W. L. Beecher 


Fred G. Smith 


Louis Wiederhold. Jr. 



The officers elected at the annual meeting in January 1922, are: 
W. L. Beecher, president; Fred G. Smith, vice-president; Louis Wieder- 
hold, Jr., secretary; executive committee: F. W. Sippell, Chairman, 
R. H. M. Stuart, Wm. B. Hammond, C. M. Tyler, Wm. H. Sutton, 
Walter H. Evert, W. S. Bachman, William Y. Young, Tohn P. Frazicr, 
W. G. S. Savage. A. O. Denzel. C. H. Knoche, Nevin N. H nested, A. J. 
Towne, Carl A. Stroebel, Wm. Morrison, F. I. Mosher, J. T. Robertson. 

The following is list of standing committees: Constitution, By- 
Laws and Rules: C. M. Kerr, Chairman, Henry M. Zweig, H. O. 
Kline, S. M. Wilson, F. L Mosher, Fred G. Smith, R. H. M. Stuart, 
Philip C. Burnham. 

Schedule committee: Wm. G. Mockett, chairman, J. C. Blair, F. H. 
Walker. S. H. Schoch, Walter H. Evert, Chas. O'Neill. J. H. Bonney. 



Fire Insurance Section 



187 



UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF THE STATE OF 
NEW YORK. This association, which is a rating and supervising 
body, having jurisdiction over the state of New York, except Long 
Island and the counties of New York, Richmond, Westchester, Put- 
nam, and Rockland, and the city of Buffalo and Tonawanda, was 
organized at Syracuse, September 13, 1883. 

At a meeting of the association held at Syracuse in January 1922, 
officers were elected as follows: President, G. P. Peck, Pennsylvania 
Fire; vice-presidents, J. M. Donald, Great American; W. D. Hunter, 
Westchester; secretary, F. W. Jenness, 700 Gurney building,Syracuse, 
N. Y.; assistant secretary, Lawrence Daw; executive committee, 
W. C. Roach, chairman, Aetna, Robert Forrest, New York Under- 
writer's, R. F. Van Vranken, Home, J. H. Perry, Globe- Rutgers, G. W. 
Ingalls, American Eagle, A. Birchenough, New Hampshire, W. H. 
Taylor, American Central, L. C. Breed, National Hartford, F. S. 
Lindsay, American, N. J., H. W. Birchard, Insurance Company State 
of Pennsylvania. 

UNDERWRITERS BUREAU OF THE MIDDLE AND 
SOUTHERN STATES, New York, N. Y., was organized January 7, 
1892, for the purpose of inspection of sprinklered properties and large 
special hazard risks. The organizers were the Phenix of Brooklyn, 
Queen, and Great - American, New York, and National Fire, Hart- 
ford, and the bureau office is i Liberty Street, New York. Elliott 
Middleton, secretary, and F. A. Hubbard, treasurer, and the executive 
committee is composed of the following companies: Northern Assur- 
ance, Home, Agricultural, Royal, Hartford Fire, Niagara, Westchester, 
Aetna, Liverpool and London and Globe Insurance Company. The 
following companies are members of the bureau. 



iStna, Hartford, Conn. 

A^icultural, Watertown, N. Y. 

American. Newark, N. J. 

American Central. St. Louis, Mo. 

Atlas, England. 

Automobile of Hartford. 

Boston, Boston. Mass. 

Caledonian, Scotland 

Camden Fire, Camden. N. J. 

Commercial Union. England. 

Connecticut Fire, Hartford. Conn. 

Delaware Underwriters', Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Fire Association, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Fireman's Fund, San Francisco, Cal. 

Genera] Fire, Paris 

Glens Falls, Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Great American. New York, N. Y. 

Hanover, New York, N. Y. 

Hartford Fire, Hartford, Conn. 

Home, New Yoilc, N. Y. 

Insurance Co. of North America, Phil< 
adelphia. Pa. 

Liverpool and London and Globe, Eng* 
land. 

London and Lancashire, England. 

London and Scottish, London. 

National Fire, Hartford. 



Newark Fire, Newark. N. J . 
New Hampshire. New Hampshire. 
New York Underwriters. New York, 

N. Y. 
Niagara Fire, New York. 
North British and Mercantile, England. 
Northern. England. 
Norwich Union, England. 
Pennsylvania Fire, Phladelphia, Pa. 
Phoenix, Hartford, Conn. 
Phoenix, London. England. 
Providence Washington. Providence, R. I . 
Queen, America. 

Rochester Dept. of Great American. 
Royal, England. 
Royal Exchange, England. 
Scottish Union & National, Scotland. 
Security, New Haven. Conn. 
Springfield Fire and Marine. Springfield. 

Mass. 
St. Paul Fire & Marine. St. Paul, Minn. 
State Assurance Co. 
Sun, London. 

Svea Fire and Life, Sweden. 
Tokio Marine and Fire, Japan 
Westchester, New York. N. Y. 
Western Toronto. 



188 



Cycxopedia of Insurance 



UNDERWRITERS' BUREAU OF NEW ENGLAND. Organ- 
ized 1894. The bureau has offices at 141 Milk street, Boston, and 
George Neiley is treasurer and Gorham Dana, secretary and manager; 
W. D. Milne, superintendent of surveys; H. S. Poole, Home, chairman 
of executive committee. Executive committee, Automobile, Hartford; 
Aetna, Hartford; Great American, New York; Hartford Fire, Hart- 
ford, Conn.; North British and Mercantile, New York; Home, New 
York; Insurance Company of North America, Philadelphia; New Hamp- 
shire F'ire, Manchester, N. H.; Commercial Union, New York, N. Y. 

The bureau maintains the following corps of inspectors: K. F. 
Akcrs, R. A. Barron, F. R. Bradford, A. F. Brown, N. A. Buchter, 
\V. E. Carran, G. M. Chamberlin, H. G. Clarke, J. M. Colby, C. VV. 
Eddy, H. L. Farnham, A. E. Gale, F. T. Gillxjrt, E. N. Harriman, 
C:. E. Kear, E. L. Moore, H. C. Newell, I. E. Peak, E. P. Pitts, S. R. 
Robertson, C. Saville, P. N. Storer, \V. A. Strangman, C. H. Taplev, 
E. H. Tenney. F. S. Welsh, C. M. Whitaker, V. M. Whitman, W. T. 
Wiley, C. H. Williams, F. E. Dunn, H. A. Burpee, and R. H. Terry. 

The companies active members of the Bureau are: 



£tna, Hartford. 

Agricultural. Watertown, X. Y. 

Atlas Assurance, London. 

American Central. St. Louis. 

Automobile. Hartford. 

Boston, Boston. 

British America. Toronto. 

Caledonian, N. Y. 

Commercial Union. 

Delaware Underwriters. 

Fire Association, Philadelphia. 

Firemans Fund, San Francisco 

General F'ire. 

Glens Falls. Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Great American, New York. 

Hanover, N. Y. 

Hartford Fire, Hartford. 

Home, New York. 

Insurance Coniiiany of North America, 

Philadelphia. 
Liverpool & London & Globe, London. 
London and Lancashire. 



London and Scottish. 

Massachusetts Fire and Marine, Boston. 

National Fire, Hartford. 

New Hampshire Fire. 

New York Underwriters' Agency, N. Y. 

Niagara, N. Y. 

North British and Mercantile. 

Northern Assurance, London. 

Norwich Union. 

Phoenix Fire, Hartford. 

Phoenix Assurance. London. 

Providence Washington. 

Queen, New York. 

Royal, Liverpool. 

Royal Elxchange. 

Scottish Union and National. 

Security, New Haven, Conn. 

SprinRtield F""ire and Marine. 

Sun Insurance Office, London. 

Svea Fire & Life. 

V\'estchester Fire, New York. 

Western, Toronto. 



UNDERWRITERS FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Rocky 

Mount, N. C. Organized 1906; capital $51,500. M. R. Braswell, 
president; Cxeorge Hackney, vice-president; J. C. Braswell, treasurer: 
VV. S. Wilkinson, secretary and general manager. 

UNDERWRITERS' FIRE PATROL OF SAN FRANCISCO. 
Organized April i, 1875, with E. D. Farnsworth president, and 
Charles A. Laton, secretary. The present officers are: F. J. Devlin, 
president; Dixwell Hewitt, vice-president. W. M. Speyer, secretar\' 
and treasurer. The directors are: F. J. Devlin, W. M. Sf>eyer, Carl 
A. Henry, Dixwell Hewitt, Ray Decker, C. E. Allan and H. P. Blan- 
chard. J. E. Sullivan is captain, with headquarters at 147 Natoma 
Street. The Patrol is housed in two stations and equipjjed throughout 
with motor vehicles. 



Fire Insurance Section 189 

UNDERWRITERS' LABORATORIES, incorporated 1901. Es- 
tablished and maintained by the National Board of Fire Underwriters, 
for ser\'ice — not profit. 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, 111. 

They are supported by the stock fire insurance companies doing 
business in the United States, are engaged exclusively in experimental 
work in fire protection engineering and testing of devices and mate- 
rials having a bearing on fire hazard, and the prevention of thefts and ac- 
cidents. In this latter work, the National Workmen's Compensation 
Service Bureau co-operates. This plant is the only thing of the kind in the 
world and has grown to its present size and importance from a begin- 
ning made in the early nineties in the establishment by the Western 
Insurance Union and the Chicago Underwriters' Association of a small 
room for testing electrical fittings on the second floor of one of the in- 
surance patrol houses in Chicago. The present organization was 
chartered by the Illinois legislature in November, 1901. This organ- 
ization, upon which the insurance interests largely depend for correct 
estimates of the value of fire extinguishing appliances and fire resist- 
ive materials and methods of construction, as well as for correct meth- 
ods of safeguarding as far as practicable lighting and heating devices, 
and the prevention of accidents, has the support and co-operation of 
manufacturing companies interested in fire resistive wares and con- 
struction. 

STAFF 

The present cffcers are: Chairiran, Beard of Directors A. G. Diigan, Chicago^ 
Chairxran Eir.eiitus, Kerry C. Eddy, Chicago; president. William H. Merrill, Chicago' 
vice-presidents, Dana Pierce, New York; and A. R. Small, Chicago: secretary, D- 

B. Anderson, Chicago; treasurer, L. B. Headen, Chicago; board of directors, the 
Chairman and F. C. Buswell, New York; Sheldon Catlin, Philadelphia; C. E. Dox, 
Chicago; J. C. Harding, Chicago; C. W. Higley, Chicago; R. B. Ives, Chicago; W. 
E. Mallailieu, New York; John Marshall, Jr., San Francisco; John B. Morton, Phila- 
delphia; W.P.Robertson, Chicago; O. E. Schaefer. New York; H. A. Smith, Hart- 
ford; W. H. Stevens, Watertown, N. Y.; Chas. R. Tuttle, Chicago; W. H. Merrill, 
Chicago. 

Protection Department. Protection Engineer, Fitzhugh Taylor. 

Roof Coverings, Fire Doors, Hardware, Safes, Building Material, Windows. Divi- 
sion Engineer, R. K. Porter. 

Fire Shutters, Structural Materials, Miscellaneous Retardants. Associate Engineer, 
J. B. Finnegan. 

Hydraulic Department, Including Automatic Sprinklers and Fittings. Engineer, R. 
W. Hendricks. 

Electrical Department, Vice-President and Electrical Engineer, Dana Pierce. 
Afitodate Engineer, B. H. Glover. Assistant Engineer, Edgar P. Slack. 

Gases and Oils Department. Engineer Gases and Oils, E. J. Smith, Associate 
Engineer. C. R. Welbom. 

Chemical Department. Chemical Engineer, A. H. Nuckolls. Assistant Engineer, 

C. J. Krieger. Special Assistant Chemist. C. A. Tibbals. 

Casualty Department. Engineer, C. R. Ailing. Mechanical Engineer, S. V. 
James. .Assistant Engineer, H. B. Michael, 

Label Service Department. Superintendent Label Service, C. R. D. 'Olive. Agents 
and Inspectors throughout United States and Canada. 

Office. Secretary, D. B. Anderson. Treasurer, L. B. Headen. Assistant Secre- 
taries. G, T. Bunker; B. E. Blanchard. Chief Clerk, N. S.Neal. 

Fire Council: H. Foster Bain, Washington; Geo. W. Cleveland, Detroit; Gorham 
Dana, Boston; Wm. F. Dunbar, Atlanta, Ga.; H. H. Glidden, Chicago; C. M. Goddard, 
Boston, Mass.: Alf. W. Hadrill, Montreal, Canada; C. A. Hexamer, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
C. T. Ingalls, Oklahoma City; F. W. Jenness, Syracuse, N. Y.; M. F. Jones, Boston, 



190 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Mass.; Geo. A. Madison, St. Louis; W. E. Mallalieu. New York; W. H. Merrill 
Chicago; Elliot Middleton, New York; E. F. Mohrhardt, San Francisco, Gal.; Isaac 
Osgood. Boston; H. L. Phillips. Hartford, Conn.; Benjamin Richard. Chicago: W. O. 
Robb, New York; E. M. Sellers, Indianapolis; T. B. Sellers, Columbus, Ohio; F. J. T. 
Stewart, New York; S. W. Stratton, VVashington, D. C; G. C. Taylor, Ghicago; 
Paul VV. Terry, St. Louis, Mo.; R. J. Trimble, Pittsburgh, Pa.; L. Wiederhold, Jr., 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Casualty Council: L. L. Allen, Nashville, Term.; H. Foster Bain, Washington; 
Lewis Bryant, N. J.; G. E. Connolly, Oklahoma City, Okla.: R. J. CuUen. New York; 
Byron Cummings, New York; J. S. B. Davie, Concord, N. H.; W. P. Eales, Hartford, 
Conn.; R. H. Fletcher, Lansing, Mich.; J. H. Garrett, Boise, Idaho; Percy Gilbert, 
Olyrapia, Wash.; C. H. Gram, Salem, Ore.; R. H. Gunagen, New York; R. S. Hayes, 
Columbus, Ohio; F. A. Kennedy, Lincoln, Neb.; F. W. Lawson, Ghicago; J. C. 
McCare, Detroit; W. H. Merrill, Chicago; N. R. Moray, Hartford, Conn.; Charles 
Ne'.son, New York; Lew R. Palmer, New York; R. H. Pearson, New York; J. W. 
Rauch, Baltimore, Md.; C. N Smith, Chicago; G. D. Smith, Carson City. Nev.; 
A. E. Spriggs, Helena, Mont ; S. W. Stratton, Washington, D. C; E. L. Sweetser, 
Boston, Mass.; A. L. Ulrick, Des Moines, la.; D. Van Schaack, Hartford, Conn.; 
J. Walker, Harrisburg, Pa.; A. W. Whitney, New York, S. J. Williams, Chicago; 
E. E. Witte, Madison, Wis.; H. M. Wolfin, San Francisco, Cal.; J. R. Young, Raleigh, 
N. C. 

Electrical Council: L. A. Barley, Denver, Colo.; H. N. Beecher, Los Angeles. Cal.; 
W. S. Boyd, Chicago. III.; F. R. Bradford. Boston, Mass.; G. E. Bruen. New York; 
W.J. Burke, Boston, Mass.; F. A. Cambridge, Winnipeg, Can.; M. E. Cheney, Seattle. 
Wash.; B. W. Clark, Detroit, Mich.; F. R. Daniel, Milwaukee, Wis.- R. L. Daniel, 
Minneapolis, Minn.; Washington Devereux, Philadelphia, Pa.; F. O. Evertz, Colum- 
bus. Ohio; J. H. Fenton, St. Louis, Mo.: J. C. Forsyth, New York; O. M. Frykman, 
Minneapolis. Minn.; M. B. Gleeson, Philadelphia, Pa.; B. H. Glover. Chicago. 111.: 
Warren Hadley, Washington, D. C; E. C. Horton. Buffalo. N. Y.; D. M. Hosford, 
Cleveland, O.; W. B. Hubbcll, Cincinnati. Ohio.; L. C. Ilsley, Pittsburgh; W. W. 
Johnston, Pittsburgh; M. F. Jones, Boston, Mass.; W. D. Matthews, •Chicago. III.; 
C. W. Mitchell, San Francisco. Cal.; F. H. Moore, In-Manapolis, Ind.; I. Oag(>od, 
Boston, Mass.; H. A. Patton, Seattle, Wash.; Dana Pierce, New York, N. Y.; F. A. 
Raymond, New York; A. M. Schoen, Atlanta. Ga.; W. L. Smith, Boston, Maas.; 
R. P. Strong, New Orleans, La.; H. H. Sutton, Dallas. Tex.; Ralph SweeUand, Boston, 
Mass.; C. M. Tait. Montreal, Can.; V. H .Tousley, Chicago, 111,; F. D. Vamum, St. 
Paul, Minn.; W. W. Vaughn, Syracuse.; F. D. Weber, Portland, Ore.; A. G. Wilbor, 
Hartford, Conn.; W. W. Wise, New York; H. S. Wynkoop, New York. 

Au'omobiU Council F. D. Bennet, Boston, Mass.; A. R. Goodale* Hartford; 
J. H. King, Toronto; T. A. Kruse, New York; W. H. Merrill, Chicago; J. V. Parker 
Chicago; H. Ryder, New York; A. R. Small, Chicago, III.; C. S. Timberlake, Hartford 
Conn.; S. Tupper, jr., Atlanta, Ga.; J. D. Vail, Chicago, 111. 

Buralary Protection Counil: R. A. Algire, New York. N. Y.; C. R. Ailing, Chicaso, 
111.; ,E. B. Anderson, New York, N. Y.; S. B. Brewster, New York, N. Y.; H. W. Cluff, 
New York, N. Y.; H. B. Michael, Chicago. 111.; R. W Meyers, Hartford, Conn.; 
Dana Pierce, New York. N. Y. 

Branch offices in charge of an inspector or agent, have been 
established in approximately one hundred and thirty of the larger 
cities and manufacturing centers in the United States and Canada. 

UNDERWRITERS OF GREENSBORO, Greensboro, N. C. 
Organized 1898; capital, $100,000. A. W. McAllister, president and 
treasurer; R. G. Vaughn, first vice-president; A. M. Scales, second 
vice-president; C. A. Mebane, secretary; W. L. Sharpe, assistant 
secretary. 

UNDERWRITERS' PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION (sal- 
vage corps) of Newark was organized in July, 1879, with the fol- 
lowing officers: President, Silas Merchant; vice-president, H. J. 
Pionier; secretary, F. H. Dawes; treasurer, I. H. Lindsley. The 
present officers are: President, Fredirick Hoadley; vice-presicient, 



\ 



Fire Insurance Section 191 

Chas. M. Henry; secretary, Charles S. Dodd; treasurer, Thomas C. 
Moffat; executive committee: Frederick Hoadley, Charles S. Dodd, 
Thomas C. Moffat, Charles M. Henry, Wm. A. Hall, A. H. Hassinger, 
and Arthur D. Reeve. John W. Sutphen is superintendent of the corps. 

UNDERWRITERS SERVICE ASSOCIATION, Insurance Ex- 
change, Chicago, 111. Branch offices:^ Detroit, Mich., Cleveland, Ohio, 
Columbus, Ohio, St. Louis, Mo., Indianapolis, Ind. Organized 1915 as 
the Western Improved Risk Association; the present title bein? 
adopted in 1918. W. G. Sanderson is manager and J. C. Wilson and 
P. Eriksen, assistant managers. The present officers, elected in March 
1922, are: J. M. Thomas, Fire Association, president; W, F. Watson, 
Aetna, vice-president; L. J. Braddock, Insurance Company North 
America, secretary and treasurer; executive committee: W. M. Lerch, 
Great American; W. H. Lininger, Springfield Fire and Marine; E. W. 
Law, Royal; W. E. McCullough, Queen. 

The following are the company members: 

Aetna. Northern of London. 

Fire Association of Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Fire. 

Fireman's Fund. Phoenix, Hartford. 

Gkns Falls. Queen. 

Great American. Royal. 
Insurance Company of North America. Springfield Fire and Marine. 

Liverpool and London and Globe. St. Paul Fire and Marine. 
Niagara Fire. 

UNION ASSURANCE SOCIETY, Limited, London, England. 
Whitney Palache, United States manager; F. W. Koeckert, assistant 
manager; Wm. M. Ballard, branch secretary, 114 Fifth Avenue) New 
York City, N. Y. 

Union Assurance Society closed the year of 192 1 with: — 

Assets $$2,792>637.9i 

Net Surplus 919,215.46 

Premium Income 1,678,366.00 

UNION AND PHENIX ESPANOL INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Madrid, Spain. Fester, Fotherfi;ill and Hartung, United 
States managers, 123 William Street, New York, N. Y. 

UNION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY (Mutual), Lincoln, 
Neb. Organized 1886. Joseph W. Walt, president; Willard Kimball, 
vice-president; J. S. Farrell, secretary and treasurer. 

UNION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Paris. France. Stark- 
weather & Shepley, Inc., United States managers, Providence, R. I. 
George L. Shepley, president; Emil G. Pieper, vice-president and 
manager agency department. 

UNION FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, BuflFalo, N. Y. 
Organized 1874; capital, $200,000. O. E. Foster, president; John 
H. Lascelles, vice-president; C. Lee Abell, vice-president and secretary; 
Harold L. Abell, assistant secretary. 



192 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

UNION HISPANO AMERICAN FIRE AND MARINE INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, 31 South William Street. New York, N. Y. 
Organized 1922; capital, $400,000. Walter D. Despard, president; 
Francises Tamames and Luis A. Moreno, vice-presidents; William 
Otis Badger, secretary; William B. Vanderhoof, treasurer. The 
company was organized to take over the United States business of the 
Union Hispano Americana de Segaros of Havana. Writes direct 
marine insurance and marine and fire re-insurance. 

UNION INSURANCE COMPANY (Marine), Bangor. Me. 
Organized 1862; capital $300,000. The company re-insured and 
retired in 1921. 

UNION INSURANCE COMPANY. Indianapolis, Ind. Orga- 
nized 1849, reorganized 1918; capital $200,000. H. H. Woodsmall, 
president; Charles E. Henderson, vice-president; W. M. Fogarty, 
treasurer: J. T. Healey, Cieo. W. Mahoney, assistant secretaries. 
Writes, Fire, Tornado, Plate Glass, Automobile (all lines) Marine, and 
Liability insurance. 

UNION INSURANCE COMPANY, Pittsburgh. Pa. Organ- 
ized 1871 ; capital, $100,000. The company was merged in the National 
Union Insurance Company of Pittsburgh in 1921. 

UNION INSURANCE SOCIETY OF CANTON, LTD., Hong 
Kong, China. Entered the United States in 191 7. Marsh and Mc- 
Lennan, United States managers, 175 W^est Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 
111.; W. J. Rol:)erts, Marine Underwriter, New York, N. Y.; A. F. 
Sanford, Eastern General Agent; C. Ci. Whipple, Western General 
Agent. 

UNION MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD., OF 
LIVERPOOL, England. Frank H. Cauty, United States manager, 
27 William Street, New York. 

UNION MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Mont- 
pelier, Yt. Organized 1875. Harlan W. Kemp, president; Herbert F. 
Brigham, vice-president; Ralph B. Denny, secretary and treasurer. 

UNION MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Provi- 
dence, R. I. Organized 1863. Frederick W. Moses, president and 
treasurer; Charles G. Easton, vice-president; Clarence H. Cady, 
secretary; Carlos F. Hunt, assistant secretary. 

UNION RESERVE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW YORK, 
executive oft:ce, Hartford, Conn., organized 1920, capital $500,000. 
B. N. Fancher, president; A. T. Tamblyn, vice-president and secretary; 
T. B. Boss, vice-president; J. J. Blaine, Jr., treasurer. Transacts fire 
rc-insurancc only. 



Fire Insurance Section 193 

UNION, THE, an association of officials of fire insurance com- 
panies doing business in the Western and Northwestern states, often 
called, for sake of distinctiveness, the "Western Union," has its 
headquarters in the city of Chicago. 

The Union has jurisdiction over Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, 
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, 
New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Ten- 
nessee, Wisconsin and Wyoming, except as modified or restricted by 
the laws of the respective states. 

The Governing Committee is appointed by the president of 
The Union, and is composed of two classes, the first of members 
whose terms expire in September, annually, and the second of mem- 
bers whose terms expire in April, annually. 

At the annual meeting in September, 1921, officers were elected 
for the year as follows: President, C. R.Tuttle, Chicago; vice-president, 
C. A. Ludlum, New York; secretary, Edward B. Hatch, Chicago. 

The following constitute the Governing Committee: J. H. Carr, 
chairman; J. C. Corbet, Dugan& Carr, R. B. Ives, J. R. Wilbur, terms 
expiring April, 1921; Charles E. Dox, Geo. H. Bell, Harding and 
Lininger, C. A. Ludlum, W. P. Robertson, terms expiring September, 
1921. 

Governing Committee: J. H. Carr, Chairman; Dugan and Carr 
(J. H. Carr serving), R. B. Ives, J. F. Stafford, J. R. Wilbur, terms 
expiring April, 1922.; W. A. Chapman, E. W. Law, W. L. Lerch, W. P. 
Robertson, J. M. Thomas, terms expiring September, 1922. 

The following is a list of companies composing the membership, 

May I, 1922: 

/Etna of Hartford. Columbian National Fire. Detroit. 

iEtna Fire Und. Dept. Commercial Union, Eng. 

Alliance, Philadelphia. Commercial Union, New York 

American Alliance. Commonwealth, New York. 

American Alliance Ina. Assn. Connecticut Fire. 

American Central. Connecticut Underwriters. 

American Eagle Fire. Continental. 

American National Fire. Columbus, O. Continental Underwriters. 

Asodated Federal Underwriters. County Fire, Philadelphia. 

Atlas Assurance, London. Delaware Under^'riters' Agency. 

. Atlas Underwriters. Detroit Fire and Marine. 

Automobile, Hartford. Detroit National Fire. 

British America. Eagle Star and British Dominions. 

British and F-nleral Underwriters. Employers' Fire. 

British Underwriters' Agency. English American Underwriters' Agency. 

Caledoman. Scotland. Equitable Fire and Marine of R. I. 

Caledonian-American. Equitable Underwriters. 

California. Exchange Underwriters' Agency. 
Capital Merchants and Bankers Dept. Farmers, Cedar Rapids. 

Great American. Farmers, North Dakota. 

Central National Fire. Des Moines. Federal, New Jersey. 

Central Sutes Fire of Wichita. Federal Fire & Marine. 

Central States Underwriters. Fidelity-Phenix Fire. 

Central West Fire. Fire Association of Philadelphia. 

Citizens of Missouri. Fire and Marine Underwriters' Agency. 

City of New York. Fireman's Fund, California. 

Cleveland National. Forest City Ins. Agency. 

Colonial Fire Underwriters. Franklin Fire of Philadelphia. 

Columbia Fire Underwriters, General Fire, Paris. 

Colombia, New Jersey. Georgia Fire Underwriters' Agency. 



194 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Georgia Home. 

Glens Falls. 

Glens Falls Underwriters 

Globe Fire Und. Agency, So. Dakota. 

Granite State Fire. 

Great American. 

Great Republic. 

Hand-in-Hand Underwriters' Agency. 

Hanover Fire of New York. 

Hartford Fire. 

Hawkeye-Des Moines Department, (Fire- 

man d Fund). 
Hawkeye-Sccurities, Iowa. 
Henry Clay Fire of Kentucky. 
Hibernia Underwriters. 
Home. New York. 
Home Underwriters. 
Home F. & M. of Gal. 
Hudson. 

Illinois Underwriters. 
Imperial Assurance. 
Insurance Co. of North America. 
Inter-State Fire. Detroit. 
Law Union and Rock. 
Liverpool & London & Globe, England. 
London Assurance Corporation. 
London Underwriters' Agency. 
London & Lancashire. 
London & Provincial. 
London & Scottish. 
Majestic Fire. 
Manhattan Underwriters. 
Massachusetts Fire and Marine. 
Mechanics and Traders. 
Mercantile Fire & Marine Und. Agency. 
Mercantile of America. 
Michigan Fire and Marine. 
Middlewest Fire Underwriters. 
Mid- West Dept.. Des Moines, (Phoenix.) 
Minneapolis Fire and Marine. 
Minnesota Underwriters' Agency. 
National American. 
National Fire. 
National Security Fire. 
New Hampshire Fire. 
New York Underwriters' Agency. 
Newark Fire of New Jersey, 
New Zealand. 
Niasara Fire. 

Niagara- Detroit Underwriters' Agency. 
North American National, la. 
North British & Mercantile. 
North Carolina Home. 



Northern Aatuiance. England. 

Northern Underwriters' Agency. 

Northwestern Fire and Marine. 

Norwich Union Fire. 

Occidental Underwriters. 

Ohio Valley Fire and Marine. 

Orient of Hartford. 

Palatine of London. 

Patriotic Assurance. 

Pennsylvania Fire. 

Pheniz Underwriters (Fidelity-Phoenix) 

Philadelphia Underwriters. 

Phoenix of Hartford. 

Phoenix Assur. of London. 

Phoenix Underwriters. 

Providence Washington. 

Providence Underwriters Agency. 

Quaker City Underwriters' DepU 

Queen of America. 

Reliance, Pa. 

Rochester Dept.. Great American. 

Royal of Liverpool. 

Royal Exchange Assurance. 

Safeguard Ins. Co. 

Scotch Underwriters' Dept. 

Scottish Union and National. 

South British. 

Springfield Fire and Marine. 

St. Paul Fire and Marine. 

Standard American. 

Standard Fire. 

Star of America. 

State Assurance of Liverpool. 

State, Dea Moines. 

Sterling Fire. 

Sun Insurance Office. 

Sun Underwriters' Agency. 

Svea Fire and Life of Sweden. 

Tokio Marine and Fire. 

Treaty Und. of Henry Clay. 

Twin City Fire. 

Union Assurance Society. 

Union Ins. Society of Canton. 

United American Underwriters' Agency. 

United Firemen's, Pa, 

Urbaine Fire of Paris. 

Victory. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Virginia Fire and Marine. 

Vulcan, San Francisco. 

Westchester Fire, New York. 

Western Assurance, Toronto. 

Western National. North Dakota. 

Yorkshire Ins. Co. 



UNITED AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANY. Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Organized 1873; capital, $200, cxx). W.J.Patterson, president; 
W. H. Barker, vice-president; E. P. Niebaum, secretary; J. W. Ahren- 
holtz, assistant secretary. 

UNITED FIREMEN'S INSURANCE COMPANY of Phila- 
delphia. Incorporated April i, i860, and began business on April 
2, 1861 ; capital, $400,000. President, Fred W. Lawson; vice-president, 
George R. Packard; secretary and treasurer, M. B. Yates; assistant 
secretary and assistant treasurer, Henry A. Knabe. The company is 
controlled by the London Guarantee and Accident company. 



Fire Insurance Section 195 

UNITED MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 141 Milk 
Street, Boston, Mass. Organized 1908. Louis K. Liggett, pres- 
ident; James C. Brady, Board vice-president; Walter S. Bucklin, 
vice-president and general manager: Archie W. Campbell, secretary, 
James C. McCormick, treasurer; Wm. H. Abare, assistant secretary. 

UNITED STATES FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, New 
York City. Organized 1824; capital, $1,400,000. J. Lester Parsons, 
president; Chas. A. Norris, M. L. Allen, Ernest L.Allen, D. J. Burtis, 
Frank L. Gardner, vice-presidents; D, G. Wakeman, secretary, no 
William Street. 

UNIVERSAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Newark, N. J. Or- 
ganized 192 1; cash capital, $400,000. Samuel Bird, Jr., president; 
Harry Bird, vice-president; J. S. Gilbertson, vice-president; J. F. 
Byrne and P. J. Bartlett, secretaries. Talbot, Bird and Company, 
Inc., 63 Beaver Street, New York, general managers. (Transacts Mar- 
ine business only.) 

URBAINE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Paris, France. 
Organized 1838. Fred S. James & Co., New York and Chicago, 
United States managers, 123 William Street, New York, N. Y. 

USE AND OCCUPANCY INSURANCE. ♦" Use and Occu- 

Cancy Insurance," in the broad sense, insurance against the loss caused 
y fire in the way of interruption of business in a going concern, has 
had but a comparatively small development in the United States, and 
much of that development has apparently been in a wrong direction. 
There are two chief reasons for this. In the first place, in those states 
requiring or encouraging the use of a standard fire policy there is no 
separate provision for insuring contingent interests, such as rents, 
profits, use and occupancy, leasehold interest, etc., although these 
interests manifestly cannot be properly covered under the ordinary 
standard fire policy, with its express exclusion of loss due to interrup- 
tion of business, its requirement for the payment of any loss in one sum 
and at one time, and its manifold minor provisions designed only for 
regular property insurance and losses. And in the next place, partly 
because a higher rate is ordinarily charged for so-called profit insurance 
than for so-called use and occupancy insurance, and partly because of 
the failure to understand and measure the real interest sought to be 
covered, the forms employed have been confused, evasive, or quite in- 
adequate. 

The first of these handicaps can be overcome only by amending or 
overriding the statutes enacting and establishing the standard pol- 
icy; either greater liberty must be |;iven fire underwriters by the 
law in the matter of insuring these contingent interests, or riders largely 
modifying the regular provisions of the standard fire policy for the 
Bake of a clear cover for such interests must be employed and tol- 
erated. The removal of the second handicap would appear to be 
mainly a question of education. 

*By WilliB O. Robb, Manaser. New York Fire Insurance Exchange. New York. 



196 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Strictly speaking, use and occupancy insurance, as was held in 
the well-known New York Court of Appeals case of Michael vs. the 
Prussian National Insurance Company, the so-called Buffalo Grain 
Elevator case, covers only the loss to the owner or occupant of the 
ability to use the property described in the policy. In the Tanen- 
baum cases in the Supreme Court of the same state, it was expressly, 
and no doubt properly, held that " use and occupancy," as that ex- 
pression is used in a contract to procure insurance which was described 
only by that term, was not and could not be profits from earnings, 
however ascertainable. Apparently, therefore, use and occupancy in 
its proper sense is substantially the same as rental value, and to be 
measured in the same way as to insurable value and recoverable loss. 
But as understood by American underwriters generally, use and occu- 
pancy insurance is a form of contract that promises to indemnify the 
policyholder (usually a manufacturer) at a certain rate per day, in case 
of total interruption, and at a pro rata of that rate in case of partial 
interruption, caused by a fire in his premises. Only the vaguest under- 
standing of the proper method of fixing that per diem rate, or the total 
insurable value of the interest insured, is usually found among either 
underwriters or policyholders. That is because they do not clearly 
see, or (on account of the question of rate already referred to) do not 
wish to acknowledge, that what the applicant wants and the under- 
writer should furnish is simply and solely a form of profit insurance, 
not use and occupancy insurance at all, in the prop)er sense of that 
expression. In England, this kind of insurance has been for more than 
a dozen years more correctly handled as the profit insurance it really 
is, on a form specially adopted throughout to its precise purpose, with 
great resulting advantage to the public and to the underwriters, so 
that a really imp)ortant new branch of fire insurance has been devel- 
oped. A recent English writer on this subject is therefore c^uite jus- 
tified in referring to the American practice in the following curt 
fashion: 

** In the United States of America, a scheme called Use and Occu- 
pancy is the system which is intended to compensate the insured for 
the loss of profits by fire. The company issuing a Use and Occupancy 
policy agrees to pay a pro rata amount of the sum insured for each 
day the business is entirely stopped, and in proportion in the event of 
a partial interruption. It is unnecessary to say that such a system can- 
not assess the loss of profits sustained, except in businesses where the 
turnover does not fluctuate. Such businesses are so few that a use 
and occupancy policy is of little commercial value." 

It is true that this summar>'' dismissal of the American Use and 
Occupancy policy does a little less than justice to it through failure to 
perceive that, however inaccurate a measuring rod a fixed per diem 
may be wherewith to measure a fluctuating rate of profit, it is, after 
all, likely to produce a fair average of result operating through any 
considerable period. But certainly the English method described by 
this same writer (Mr. Alex B. Wright, " Insurance Against Loss of 
Profits by Fire — Consequential Loss," London, 1912, C. & E. Lay- 
ton) is vastly more flexible, equitable, and attractive. Under tha.t 
method the applicant indicates whether he wishes to insure net profits 



\ 



Fire Insurance Section 197 

only, or fixed charges only, or the two together under the general 
name of profits, and whether the basis or standard for measuring the 
loss is to be tlie " turnover," measured in money, or the " output," 
measured in quantity of goods produced. Then, for instance, if pro- 
fits plus fixed charges are to be insured, and turnover is to be the 
standard, he is given insurance for the amount he declares his net pro- 
fits plus fixed charges for a year would represent, and on the occur- 
rence of a loss the actual annual turnover is ascertained, along with 
the percentage which net profits plus fixed charges have constituted 
of that turnover, and this percentage is applied to the reduction or 
loss of turnover due to the interruption by lire, thus giving the profit 
loss pure and simple, to which will be added the items constituting the 
increased cost of ** working " necessarily incurred in continuing the 
business. Several necessary safeguards are introduced into the con- 
tract, so that, for instance, if fixed charges were not, in fact, continued 
after the occurrence of the fire, a corresf)onding deduction would be 
made from the amount of the adjustment. Under the English prac- 
tice the period of liability as distmguished from the term of the pol- 
icy is limited to a definite number of months following the fire, usually, 
though not always, less than a year. If in a given case it were longer 
than a year, instead of taking the annual turnover as the basis or stand- 
ard of adjustment, the turnover for the longer period of liability is 
used, while, if the period of liability is a year or less, the standard or 
basis of adjustment is the annual turnover only. Usually, an audit is 
made once a month after the occurrence of the fire, until the full res- 
toration of productivity, and monthly payments on account are made 
by the underwriters, though of course the ascertainment of the basis 
of entire adjustment, namely, the volume of the annual turnover and 
the percentage of that turnover represented by profits, is made imme- 
diately after the loss occurs. A number of minor checks, balances, 
and safeguards are introduced into the system, but this synopsis will 
sufficiently indicate the general character of the English handling of 
this subject and its manifest superiority to the practice in common 
use in the United States. 

UTAH HOME FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Salt Lake 
City, Utah. Organized 1886; capital, $400,000. Heber J. Grant, 
president; John C. Cutler and Charles S. Burton, vice-presidents; 
Geo. J. Cannon, secretary and manager; A. L. Macdonald and B. F. 
Willis, assistant secretaries; Edgar S. Hills, treasurer. 

UTAH STATE ASSOCIATION OF FIRE INSURANCE 
AGENTS. Organized in 192 1. George J. Kelly, Ogden, was elected 
president; and T. H. Cartwright, Salt Lake City, secretary and treas- 
urer. 



\ 



V 



VALUED POLICY LAWS. Wisconsin was the pioneer in this 
form of legislation and enacted a valued policy law in 1874. Although 
later laws did not adopt the exact wording of the Wisconsin law, that 
law clearly expresses the purpose and appliaition of such legislation, 
which is designed to make the amount of the insurance written in the 
policy the measure of loss, or, as stated in the Wisconsin law, *' the 
true value of the property when insured and the true amount of loss 
and measure of damage when destroyed." A fire insurance policy is 
in principle and general practice a contract of indemnity simply — 
the measure of indemnity being determined at the time of the loss, 
and, consequently, legislation which proposes that the amount writ- 
ten in the policy shall be the measure of loss, is considered contrary to 
the principles of fire underwriting. Such legislation also, it is claimed, 
is an inducement to fraud and arson, and for this reason such legisla- 
tion has been condemned by underwriters and state insurance officials, 
and when enacted has been vetoed in several different states at differ- 
ent times. [See Cyclopedia of Insurance for 1893-94 ^^^ 1 904-05. 1 . 
A decision was rendered by the United States Supreme Court in 1899; 
upholding the constitutionality of the Missoun valued policy law. 
[See Cyclopedia for 1904-5.] 

Valued policy laws are now in force in twenty-three states, as 
follows: Arkansas (1889 and 1899); California (1901); Delaware 
(1889, 1893 and 1901); Florida (1807 and 1899); Georgia (1895); 
Iowa (1897); Kansas (1893 and 1897); Kentucky (1893); Louisiana 
(1900); Minnesota (1Q05, 1907 and 1913); Mississippi (1902 and 
1904); Missouri (1889); Nebraska (1889); New Hampshire (1885); 
North Dakota (1907); Ohio (1879); Oregon (1803); South Carolina 
(1896); South Dakota (1903); Tennessee (1909); Texas (1879 ^nd 
1907); Washington (1897, 1899 and 1911); West Virginia (1899); 
VVisconsin (1917). [For text of laws see Cyclopedia for 1913-14.] 

The laws of Delaware, Florida, Minnesota, Ohio and South 
Carolina require the value of the property insured to be fixed before or 
at the time the policy is issued, and the California law provides that the 
insured may require that such valuation be fixed. Kansas requires 
that a full description of the property insured be made in the policy. 
The Missouri law allows depreciation in the property to be shown in 
ascertaining the loss, and an additional section provides that no risk 
shall be taken at a ratio greater than three-fourths of the value of the 
property insured. The Arkansas law makes it the duty of the local 
agent to make a personal inspection of all property on which policies 
have been written and make written report to the company of conditions 
of same. 

Although valued policy bills have been introduced in several dif- 
ferent state legislatures at almost every succeeding session, thMr« has 



Fire Insurance Section 199 

been no new valued policy legislation since 1909 with the exception of 
Wisconsin where the valued policy law was repealed in 19 15, and re- 
enacted again in 19 17. 

VERMONT ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized June 21, 1900, at Burlington, Vt., and was 
re-oi]ganized in December, 1906, and the following officers elected: 
President, F. E. Alfred, Newport; vice-presidents, R. D. Preble, 
J. G. Brown; secretary and treasurer, F. L. Brigham, Bradford. The 
present officers, elected at the annual meeting in October 192 1, are: 
president, Dana J. Lowd, Bellows Falls; vice-president, Agnes M. 
English, Montpelier; secretary and treasurer, Fred A. Field, Jr., Rut- 
land. 

VERMONT MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Montpelier, Vermont. Organized 1828. Geo. O. Stratton, president; 
Hugh Phili(>s, vice-president; Delbert W. Gross, secretary; Hermon D. 
Hopkins, treasurer. 

VICTORY INSURANCE COMPANY, 401-5 Walnut Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 19 19, by interests identified with the 
Fire Association of Philadelphia; capital, paid in, $500,000. E. C. 
Irvin, president; J. W. Cochran, vice-president; John B. Morton, 
second vice-president; Marshall G. Garrigues, secretary; Richard N. 
Kelly, Jr. assistant secretary. 

VIRGINIA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL FIRE INSUR- 
ANCE AGENTS was organized at Lynchburg, September 20, 
1899. The following were elected officers: President, L. W. Chil- 
drcy ; vice-president, W. L. Dechert ; secretary and treasurer, George 
p. Dey, Norfolk. The present officers, elected at the annual meeting 
in July 192 1, are: President; E. E. Goodwin, Emporia; vice-president, 
Charles F. Holden, Alexandria; secretary and treasurer, F. S. Blanton, 
Farmville. 

VIRGINIA FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Richmond, Va. Organized 1832; capital, $500,000. Wm. H. Pal- 
mer, president; E. B. Addison, vice-president; B. C. Lewis, Jr., secre- 
tary; J. C. Watson, treasurer; J. M. Leake, general agent; Wm. 
Palmer Hire, assistant secretary. 

VULCAN FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF OAKLAND 
CALIFORNIA. Organized 1910; be^n business, 1912; capital 
$500,000. J. F. Carlston, president; E. S. Wangenheim, first vice- 
president; R. M. Fitzgerald, second vice-president; Arnold Hodgkin- 
son, secretary; B. E. Cotton, assistant secretary; E. D. Bothwell, 
treasurer; H. B. Keith, manager. 

VULCAN INSURANCE COMPANY, New York, N. Y. Or- 
ganized 1911; capital, $200,000. Isidor Kahn, president; L. Kahn, 
vice-president ; Israel Koenigsberger, secretary. 94 Fulton Street. 



\ 



w 



WAKEFIELD, MORLEY AND COMPANY. General Insurance 
Agency, 197 Asylum Street, Hartford, Conn. Established 1849, \V. L. 
Wakefield, F. A. Morley, G. I. Watson, C. E. Holt, S. L. Smith. Cov- 
ers Connecticut as General Agents for Companies transacting all 
kinds of insurance. Companies represented: Royal, Globe and Rut- 
gers, Insurance Company of the State of Pennsylvania, United Fire- 
men's, Peoples National, Globe Underwriters, American Underwriters, 
Caledonian, British America, Hamilton, Baltimore American, United 
States Fidelity and Guaranty Company, New Amsterdam Casualty 
Company, National Life of Vermont. Special agents, M. L. Baldwin, 
H. P. Anderson. 

WARSAW INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD. W^arsaw. Poland. 
Fester, Fothergill and Hartung, United States managers, 1 10 William 
Street, New York, N. Y. 

WASHINGTON FIRE AND MARINE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, New York, N. Y. Organized 1918; capital, paid-in, $400,000. 
Ery Kehaya, president; W. A. Whitaker, vice-president; Earle W. 
Murray, secretary; H. L. Rodgers, vice-president. 

WASHINGTON STATE ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL FIRE 
INSURANCE AGENTS was organized in November, 1910. The 
present officers are: W. F. Bridgeford, president, Yakima, Wash; 
W. G. Robertson, vice-president, Hoge Building, Seattle, Washington. 

WESTCHESTER FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY of New 
York, 100 William Street. Capital $1,000,000. Otto E. Schaefer, 
president; Harry H. Clutia, vice-president and treasurer; C. B. G. 
Gaillard, secretary; George B. Crawford, assistant secretary; Allison 
B. Roome, assistant secretary; Person M. Brink, assistant secretary. 

W^ESTERN ALLIANCE INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago. 
III. Organized 191 8; capital $350,000. The company was taken over 
by the Marquette National Insurance Company in 192 1. 

WESTERN ALLIANCE RE-INSURANCE COMPANY, Lon- 
don, England. Entered the United States in 1920. H. L. Rosenfeld, 
United States manager. 

WESTERN ASSURANCE COMPANY of Toronto, Can., incor- 
porated 1851. W. B. Meikle, president and general manager; Cecil S. 
Wain Wright, secretary. 



Fire Inslrance Section 



201 



WESTERN AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY, Fort 
Scott. Kansas. Organized 1910. W. E. Brooks, president; D. G. Cobb, 
vice-president; Oscar Rice, secretary and general manager; E. C. 
Gordon, treasurer. 

WESTERN AUTOMOBILE UNDERWRITERS CONFER- 
ENCE, 209 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, III. Organized in Febru- 
ary, 1915. The present officers, are: Ralph B. Ives, president; W. A. 
Chapman, vice-president; John F. Stafford, treasurer; E. L. Rickards, 
secretary and manager; Paul Fry, assistant secretary. 

The states under its jurisdiction are: Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Illinois, Indiana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Iowa, 
Nebraska, Kentucky, Tennessee, New Mexico, Missouri, Wyoming, 
Wisconsin, Colorado and Kansas. (See National Automobile Under- 
writers Conference:. 

WESTERN FACTORY INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. Ad- 
dress, Insurance Exchange, Chicago; S. W. Tripp, manager; Ran- 
dolph Buck and J. R. Gathercoal, assistant managers. This associa- 
tion of stock fire insurance companies confines its business to the 
writing and inspection of sprinkled risks in the western union states. 

The last annual meeting of the association was held in Chicago, 
in April. 1922, when the following officers were elected; President, 
C. W. Higley, Hanover Fire; vice-president, John H. Carr, Hartford 
Fire; secretary and treasurer, J. C. Harding, Springfield Fire and 
Marine; manager, S. W. Tripp. 

The following is the membership list: 



£tna. Hartford. 

.\merican Alliance. New York. 

American Central, St. Louia. 

American Eagle of New York. 

Atlas Assurance. England. 

British America, Toronto. 

Commercial Union. London. 

Connecticut Fire. Hartford. 

Continental, New York. 

Eagle Star and British Dominions of 

London. 
Fidelity-Phenix, New York. 
Fire Association, Philadelphia. 
Fireman's Fund, San Francisco. 
General Fire. Paris. 
Great-American, New York. 
Glens Falls. Glens Falls. N. Y. 
Hanover Fire, New York. 
Hartford Fire. Hartford. 
Ins. Co. of North America. Philadelphia. 
Liverpool & London & Globe. England. 
London Assurance. England. 
London & Lancashire. England. 
Mechanics & Traders. New Orleans. 



Mercantile of America. 

Michigan F. & M., Detroit. 

National Fire, Hartford. 

New Hampshire Fire, Manchester. 

New York Underwriters Agency. N. Y. 

Niagara, New York. 

North British & Merc. England. 

Northern, London. 

Norwich Union. England. 

Orient, Hartford. 

Palatine, London. 

Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Phoenix, Hartford. 

Phcenix Assurance, London. 

Providence Washington. Providence. 

Queen, America. 

Royal, England. 

Royal Exchange, England. 

Scottish Union & National. Scotland. 

Springfield F. & M. 

St. Paul F. & M., St. Paul. 

Sun, London. 

Westchester Fire, New York. 

Western, Toronto. 



WESTERN HAIL AND ADJUSTMENT ASSOCIATION. This 
association was organized at a meeting held in Chicago in November, 
19 ^5f by companies insuring growing crops from damage by hail. Its 
purposes are to harmonize and standardize underwriting methods and 



202 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



\ 



practices. Walter C. Leach was elected president, and R. H. Purcell, 
Liverpool and London and Globe, secretary and treasurer. The present 
officers, elected in November, 192 1, are: President, Walter D. Williams, 
Security Fire; vice-president, G. H. Bell, National Fire; secretary, 
W. H. Lininger, Springfield Fire and Marine; assistant secretary, 
E. B. Hatch; executive committee: John H. Carr, Hartford Fire; 
Neal Bassett, Fireman's; E. E. Cole, National Union; F. M. Gund, 
North River; A. W. Perry. St. Paul Fire and Marine; W. P. Robert- 
son, Liverpool and London and Globe; Chas. E. Sheldon, American, 
N. J.; J. Lynn Truscott, Camden; and W. C. Leach, Minneapolis 
Fire and Marine. 

WESTERN IMPROVED RISK ASSOCIATION, INC., 175 
West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, III. Organized and incorporated 
June 1915. Officers: President, A. F. James, Northwestern National; 
vice-president, Neal Bassett, Firemen's; Benj. Auerbach, treasurer; 
W. C. Browne, manager. The following is the company membership: 



Agricultural. Watertown 

Allemannia, Pittsburgh 

American, Newark 

Boston, Boston 

Camden Fire, Camden 

Concordia Fire, Milwaukee 

Firemen's, Newark 

Girard F. & M., Philadelphia 

Ins. Co. of State of Penn., Philadelphia 

Lumbermens, Philadelphia 

Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee 



Nat'l Ben Franklin, Pittsburgh 

National Liberty, New York 

National Union, Pittsburgh 

New Brunswick, New Jersey 

North River, New York 

Northwestern National, Milwaukee 

Ohio Farmers, Lc Roy 

Pittsburgh Underwriters, Pittsburgh 

Rhode Island, Providence 

Security, New Haven 

United States Fire. New York 



WESTERN INSURANCE BUREAU was organized in April. 
1910, and is an organization of companies doing business in the 
western field which were not affiliated with the Western Union. 
E. G. Halle was the first chairman, and G. H. Batchelder. secretary. 
The present officers, elected in May, 1922 are: Charles H. Yunker, 
Milwaukee Mechanics, president; W. H. Stevens, Agricultural, vice- 
president; F. S. Danforth, treasurer; Benjamin Auerbach, secretary; 
M. A. Scholbe, manager; Rudolph Belcher, general manager; C. E. 
Mann, assistant treasurer. 

The following is the membership roll: 



Abeille, Paris. 
Agricultural, N. Y. 
Allegheny Fire Under^vriters. 
Allemannia Undl^writtrs. 
Albmannia. Pittsbtrgh. 
American, Newark. 
American Underwriters. 
Baltimoie American. Md. 
Ben Franklin Underwriters, Pa. 
Boston Fire. Boston. 
Buckeye National, Ohio. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Calumet Underwriters. 
Camden Fire, N. J. 
Cincinnati Underwriters. 
City of Penn. 
Columbian. Ind. 
Columbia, Dayton, O. 
Commerce, Albany, N. Y. 



Concordia, Milwaukee. 

Dubuque F. & M., la. 

Duquesne Underwriters. 

Eastern Underwriters. 

Empire State Underwriters. 

Eureka Security, F. & M., Ohio. 

Farmers, York. Pa. 

Fireman s and Mechanics. 

Firemen s. Newark. 

Firemen's Underwriters. 

Girard F. & M.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Girard Underwriters. 

Globe, Pittsburgh. 

Great Lakes. ( hicago. 111. 

Great Western Underwriters CMarau«fci£ 
National) . m«^cvm: 

Holland-American Underwriters. 
Importers and Exporters, N. V. 
Ins. Co. State- of Pa., Philadelphiia 



\ 



Fire Insurance Section 



203 



Insurance Underwriters. 

Iowa Underwriters. 

Jersey Fire Underwriters. 

Keystone Underwriters. 

La Salle Fire, Chicago. 

Liberty. Mo. 

Lumbermen's, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Marquette National, Chicago. 

Mercantile Underwriters. 

Mechanic's. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mechanic Underwriters. 

Merchant's Fire. Denver. Col. 

Michigan Commercial Underwriters, 

Millers National Chicago, 111. 

Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee. Wis. 

Milwaukee Underwriters. 

National- Ben Franklin, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Nationale Fire. Paris. 

National Liberty. New York. 

National Reserve. 

National Underwriters. 

National Union, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Netherlands Fire, Holland. 

New Brunswick Fire. N. J. 

New Haven Underwriters. 

North River Fire. N. Y. 

Northwestern National. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Northwestern Underwriters. 



Old Colony. Boston. 

Omaha Liberty Fire. 

Pennsylvania Underwriters. 

Peoples National, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Phenix. Paris. France. 

Pittsburgh Fire. Pa. 

Pittsburgh Underwriters. 

Potomac. Washington. D. C. 

Reliable. Dayton, O. 

Republic, Pittsburgh. 

Rhode Island. Providence, R. I. 

Rhode Island Underwriters. 

Richmond. N. Y. 

Security. New Haven, Conn. 

Security. Davenport. la. 

Standard Fire, New Jersey. 

Superior. Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Union, Buffalo. N. Y. 

Union Fire. Paris. 

Union. Indianapolis, Ind. 

United American. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

United States Fire. N. Y. 

United States Lloyds. 

United States Underwriters. 

Washington Underwriters. New York. 

Western Ins. Underwriters Dept. 

Wisconsin Underwriters. 

Wheeling. W. Va. 



WESTERN INSURANCE COMPANY OF PITTSBURGH, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Organized 1849; capital $300,000. The company 
re-insured in the Superior Fire Insurance Company, Pittsburgh, 
December 31, 1921, and ceased business. 

WESTERN MILLERS MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Kansas City, Mo. Organized 1883. L. S. Mohr, president; 
Wm. Pollock, vice-president; J. D. Bowersock, treasurer; Chas. H. 
Ridgway, secretary. 

WESTERN SPRINKLER LEAKAGE CONFERENCE, 175 
West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. Organized 1911. The present 
officers, elected in February, 1922, are: J. M. Deckert, National 
Liberty, chairman; W. H. Gartside, vice-chairman; H. R. Thie- 
meyer, Insurance Company of North America, secretary and 
treasurer; executive committee: C. E. Varley, Springfield Fire and 
Marine; W. J. Sonnen, St. Paul Fire and Marine; M. H. Grannatt, 
New York Underwriters: W. S. Hutchins, North British; C. H. Smith, 
Hartford Fire; H. C. Wolff, Aetna, and the officers. 



WESTERN SPRINKLED RISK ASSOCIATION was or- 
ganized at a meeting in Chicago in March, I904> by representatives 
of companies not affiliated with the Western Union, for the pur- 
pose of writing sprinkled risks. Officers were elected as follows: 
President, J. L. Whitlock, Glens Falls; vice-president, William 
Trembor, German of Freeport; treasurer, E. G. Halle, Germania; 
secretary, R. D. Harvey, New Hampshire. The present officers 
are: President, A. F. James, Northwestern National; vice-president. 



204 



Cyclopedia op Insukancb 



Neal Bassett, Fireman's; Benj. Auerbach, treasurer; W. C. Browne, 
manager. 175 W. Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, III. The following 
companies are included in the membership: 



Agricultural, Watertown. 
American, Newark. 
Boston, Boston. 
Camden Fire, Camden. 
Concordia Fire, Milwaukee. 
Dubuque Fire and Marine, Dubuque. 
Firemen's, Newark. 
Girard Fire and -Marine, Philadelphia. 
Globe and Rutgers, New York. 
Importers & Exporters, New York. 
Insurance Company of State of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia. 
Michigan Commercial, Lansing. 
Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee. 



Nationale, Paris 

National Liberty, New York. 

National Union, Pittsburgh. 

Netherlands, Fire & Life. Holland. 

New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

North River, New York. 

Northwestern National, Milwaukee. 

Ohio Farmers, LcRoy. 

Old Colony, Boston. 

Peoples National, Philadelphia. 

Pittsburgh Underwriters, Pittsburgh. 

Rhode Island, Providence. 

Security, New Haven. 

United States Fire, New York. 



WEST VIRGINIA ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized at Wheeling, September 5, 1899. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected: W. S. Foose, president; W. D. Paden, 
F. E. Nichols, vice-presidents; A. F. Faulkner, Wheeling, secretary; 
William Lohmeyer, treasurer. At the annual meeting in June, 1921, 
officers were elected as follows: President, A. W. Werninger, Hunting- 
ton; vice-presidents, George K. Wheat, W. P. Corder, Howard Post, 
E. C. Chancellor, A. J. Kincaid; secretary and treasurer, J. N. 
Hendrix, Wheeling, W. Va. 

WEST VIRGINIA FIRE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIA- 
TION was organized in May 1899. The present officers are: Arthur 
Lohmeyer, president; William Mauk, vice-president; A. S. Whiteley, 
secretary and treasurer, Wheeling, W. Va.; executive committee: Edw. 
J. Richardson, chairman: S. E. Bickford, F. W. Shirer, B. C. Carpenter, 
A. G. Crawshaw, A. O. Myers, Edw. J. Richardson, E. P. Douglass, 
J. M. Hall. 

WHAT CHEER MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Providence, R. I. Organized 1873. Frank L. Pierce, president; Charles 
C. Stover, vice-president and engineer; George F. Hiller, vice-president 
and engineer; Royal G. Luther, secretary; Everett W. Allan, Benjamin 
C. Hall, assistant secretaries. 

WHEELING FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Wheeling,W. Va. 
Organized 1867; capital $200,000. Wm. F. Stifel, president; Henry 
Bieberson, vice-president; O. E. Strauch, secretary'; F. C. Driehorst, 
treasurer; Wm. V. Fischer, assistant secretary. 

WISCONSIN ASSOCIATION OF LOCAL INSURANCE 
AGENTS was organized in 1899, and the following officers were elected : 
E. J. Tapping, Milwaukee, president; E. E. Baker, Portage; P. P. 
McDermott, Fond du Lac; James Jenkins, Oshkosh; and W. H, 
Hardy, Jr., Waukesha, vice-presidents; F. C. Hazelton, Janesvillc, 
secretary and treasurer. The present officers, elected at the annual 
meeting held in June, 1921, are: President, W. B. Calhoun, Milwaukee; 
secretary' and treasurer, Joseph G. Grundle, Milwaukee. 



Fire Insurance Section 205 

WISCONSIN FIELD CLUB, composed of general agents of 
Union companies. The present officers, elected at the annual meet- 
ing at Delevan, in June, 1921, are: President, R. T. Gravenstein, 
Hanover Fire; vice-president, G. F. Risley; secretary and treasurer, 
A. T. Jones, Liverpool and London and Globe, Milwaukee. 

WOLVERINE FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lansing, 
Mich. Organized 1920. Robert K. Orr, president; C. E. Holmes, 
vice-president; Bernard B. Smith, secretary; R. Y. Speir, treasurer. 

WORCESTER MANUFACTURERS* MUTUAL INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Worcester, Mass. Organized 1855. Waldo 
E. Buck, president; Walter A. Harrington, secretary; Harold B. 
Hunt, assistant secretary. 

WORCESTER MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Worcester, Mass. Incorporated, 1823; began busmess 1824. Wil- 
lis E. Sibley, president; Harry Harrison, secretary and treasurer; 
Worthing V. Snow, assistant secretary; Forrest E. Wheeler, special 
agent. 

WORLD AUXILIARY INSURANCE CORPORATION, LTD., 
London, England. Entered the United States in 1920. Marsh & 
McLennan, United States managers, Chicago, III. 



Y 



YANGTSZE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. LTD. Shanghai, 
China. Wilicox, Peck & Hughes, 3 South William Street, New York, 
United States managers. 

YORKSHIRE INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD., York, Eng- 
land. Frank & Du Bois, New York, United States manager, 80 Maiden 
Lane. Ernest B. Boyd, underwriting manager; Frank B. Martin, 
assistant manager, 80 Maiden Lane, N. Y. 



UNITED STATES FIRE INSURANCE COMPANIES 

Financial Condition. December 31, 193 1 



iEtna, Hartford. Conn. . 

Agncttltural. Watertown, N. Y. 

Albany. Albany. N. Y. . 

Allemannia, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Alliance. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Allied Fire. Pittsburgh. Pa 

American Alliance. New York 

American Automobile. St. Louis, Mo. 

American Central. St. Louis. Mo. 

American and Foreign Marine, New York. N. Y< 

American Druggists, Cincinnati, O. 

American Eagle. New York. N. Y. . 

American Equitable. New York 

American Merchant Kansas City, Mo.^Reins] 

American, Newark, N. J. 

American, New York 

American National. Columbus, Ohio 

Assurance Co. of America, New York, N. Y. 

Atlantic, Raleigh. N. C. . 

Atlantic City, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Atwood Fire, New York 

AutomobUe. Hartford, Conn. . 

Baltimore American. Baltimore Md 

Bankers and Shippers, New York 

Birmingham, Pittsburgh, Pa. . 

Boston. Boston. Mass. . 

Buckeye National. Toledo, O. 

Buffalo, Buffalo. N. Y. . 

Caldeonian-American, New York, N. Y. 

California. San Francisco. Cal. 

Camden. Camden, N. J. 

Capital. Sacramento. Cal. 

Capital. Concord. N. H. . 

Carolina, Wilmington. Del. 

Central National, Des Moines. la. 

Central States Fire. Wichita, Kan. 

Central Fire. Baltimore. Md. 

Citizens, St. Louis, Mo. . 

City, Sunbury, Pa. 

City of New York, New York, N. Y 

Cleveland National, Cleveland. O. 

Colonial. New York, N. Y. . 

Columbia, Dayton, O. . 

Columbia, Jersey City. N. J. . 

Columbian, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Columbian-National, Lansing, Mich 

Commerce. Albany, N. Y. 

Commercial Union, New York, N. Y 

Commonwealth. New York, N. Y. 

Concordia. Milwaukee, Wis. . 

Connecticut, Hartford, Conn. . 

Continental. New York, N. Y. 

Corcoran, Washington, D. C. . 

County Fire, Philaddphia, Pa. 

Des Moines Re-ins., Des Moines, la 

Detroit F. & M., Detroit, Mich. 

Detroit National, Detroit. Mich. 

Dixie, Greensboro. N. C. 

Dubuque F. & M.. Dubuque, Iowa 

Eagle Fire. Newark. N. J. 

Eastern, Atlantic City, N. J. . 

Eastern, Concord, N. H. 



Assets 

S38.894.699 
7.Si8,S99 
1,488,362 
3,180,486 
5,268,441 
175.846 
3.808,438 
3.258,419 
7,300,450 
2,275.766 
911.756 
S.439,108 
2,395.839 



1,301.982 

183,004 
1,132,855 

521,031 
2,092,246 
1,078,608 
1.343,898 
3,477.512 
1,908,068 

958,540 
1,036,299 
2,203.062 

639.338 
1,943.059 
1,065,949 
1,968,091 
4,421,468 
4.710,587 
12,421,018 
43,389.862 

347.840 
1,604,990 

630,182 
3,296,238 

519,213 
1,700,027 
3,254,863 
1,501,511 

413,06s 

285,382 



Liabilities 

$24,827,609 

4,877,687 

607,621 

1.737,78s 

2,630,013 

121,873 
1.SS3.2I3 
2,643,419 
S. 090, 140 

329.733 

496,292 

3.156,921 

1,390,087 



17.836.501 


11,725,030 


1,475,438 


795.951 


1,346,769 


667,453 


1,327.234 


577,100 


418,765 


334.449 


552,648 


122,129 


739,996 


60,620 


11,970,502 


8,120,553 


1.635.842 


402.972 


3,554.615 


2,093.375 


556,362 


151,764 


12,779,109 


8,426,605 


213.270 


186,840 


3.790,545 


1,281,869 


747,571 


274,982 


3.143,528 


1,687,134 


7,213,735 


4.806.583 



669,384 

52,033 

404,779 

161,829 

558,017 
593.550 
557.913 
1,627,145 
852,288 

431.437 

300,492 

1,188.649 

601.496 

893.583 

364,729 

1,397,642 

2,545,022 

3,170,404 

7,835,826 

21,250.563 

138,327 

475.146 

602,935 

1,440,702 

102.834 
821,864 
2,132,809 
777,463 
101,830 
195,621 



208 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Eastern Shore. Keller, Va. 

Employers Fire, Boston 

Equitable F. & M.. Providence, R. I 

Equitable. Charleston. S. C. . 

Equity. Kansas City. Mo. 

Eureka F. & M.. Cincinnati. O. 

Excelsior Fire, Syracuse. N. Y. 

Farmers, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Federal. Jersey City, N. J. 

Federal Union. Chicago, 111. . 

Federal Fire and Marine, Denver, Colo. . 

Federated Fire, Re-insurance Mason City. la 

Fidelity, Sumter, S. C. . 

Fideiity-Phenix. New York. N. Y. 

Fidelity Union, Dallas, Tex. 

Fire Association, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Fireman's Fund. San Francisco. Cal 

Fireman's. Newark. N. J. 

Firemen and Mechanics, Indianapolis 

Fire Re-insurance, N. Y. 

First Reinsurance, Hartford. Conn. 

Franklin. Philadelphia. Pa. 

George Washington Fire 

Georgia Home. Columbus. Ga. 

German America, Washington, D. C 

Girard F. & M.. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Glens Falls, Glens FaUs, N. Y. 

Globe & Rutgers, New York. N. Y. 

Globe. Pittsburgh 

Globe National, Sioux City, la. 

Grain Beit, Des Moines, la. . 

Granite State, Portsmouth. N. H. 

Great American, New York 

Great Lakes Fire, Chicago, III. 

Great Republic, la. 

Great Western, Chicago 

Greensboro Fire, N. C. . 

Guaranty, New York 

Guardian, Salt Lake City. Uub 

Hamilton, New York. N. Y. . 

Hanover, New York, N. Y. 

Hartford, Hartford. Conn. 

Hawkeye Securities. Des Moines. la 

Henry Clay. Lexington, Ky. . 

Home. Fordyce, Ark. 

Home. New York. N. Y. 

Home Fire and Marine. San Francisco, Cal. 

Hudson. New York 

Illinois Fire, Peoria, 111. . 

Imperial. New York. N. Y. 

Importers and Exporters. New York 

Independence. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Industrial, Akron. Ohio . 

Insurance Co. of North America. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Insurance Co. of the State of Pennsylvania, Philadel 

phia. Pa. .... 
International, N. Y. 

Inter-Ocean Reinsurance, Cedar Rapids, la. 
Interstate. Detroit. Mich. 
Iowa Manufacturers. Waterloo, Iowa 
Iowa National, Des Moines . 
Knickerbocker, New York. N. Y. 
Lafayette. New Orleans. La. . 
La Salle Fire, Chicago 
Liberty Fire. St. Louis. Mo. . 
Liberty Fire. Louisville. Ky. . 
Lumbermen's, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Assets 


Liabilities 


S2Q3.I33 


$87,021 


3,3i6,si8 


162.06S 


3.477,7^9 


1.189,017 


9l6,I32 


293.915 


537.254 


106,609 


338.774 


63.5SJ 


1,304.729 


939.085 


5.S23.723 


3.457.863 


685.472 


431.337 


427,746 


17.153 


931.789 


126,501 


570.S85 


269.516 


29.189.830 


18.093.329 


16.485.049 


Ii.35i.278 


21,871.750 


i4.558.84g 


10,517.443 


6.426.872 


413.254 


216,719 


3.103.600 


2,180,443 


4,251.747 


3,231.730 


6.941.742 


4.394.907 


540.961 


361.002 


731.313 


387.301 


4.360,509 


2.508.654 


10.345.350 


6.568.981 


46.653.573 


33,013.884 


1,367.520 


760.676 


2,333.313 


1.090.783 


620,367 


5 5 2.5 J 7 


1.950,742 


1,278.40s 


42.806.009 


20.592.998 


985.934 


320.323 


478,630 


72,949 


764.636 


39.235 


395.464 


1 70.3 JO 


1,005.079 


352.157 


487.665 


183,309 


2,155.509 


1,218.368 


6,889.165 


4,852.348 


56,171,085 


38,911,774 


1,867.468 


341.823 


1,122,283 


529.894 


75.931.552 


42,967.383 


3.798.683 


2.713.7IT 


2,531.308 


1,320,5^1 


448.230 


335.50Q 


2.405,506 


1.631,211 


2.741.410 


r.6i3.7iQ 


481.228 


158.023 


1.038.698 


630.240 


42,324.406 


24.878.356 


5,038,143 


3.395.053 


6.308,978 


4,298,603 


1,622.364 


586,<)<>7 


448,692 


IIS.QTT 


389,538 


20O.ir>Q 


I,22Q,II[ 


454.640 


I.246,i8r 


325,230 


653.332 


283,905 


739.062 


45.000 


1,002.702 


624.8«;8 


. 546,645 


263, 60Q 


2,210.25s 


727.500 



Fire Insurance Section 



209 



Madison. Madison, Ind. 

Manufacturers, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Marine and Motor. Galveston, Texas. 

Marquette National, Chicago, 111. 

Maryland Motor Car. Wilmington. Del. 

Massachusetts F. & M., Boston. Mass. 

Mechanics & Traders, New Orleans, La. 

Mechanics, Philadelphia. Pa. . 

Mercantile, New York, N. Y. . 

Merchants, New York. N. Y. 

Merchants, Denver, Col. 

Merchants and Shippers. New York 

Metropolitan-Hibernia Fire. Chicago. 111. 

Michigan F. & M., Detroit, Mich. . 

Millers National. Chicago, 111. 

Milwaukee Mechanics, Milwaukee Wis. 

Minneapolis F. & M., Minneapolis, Minn 

Minnesota Fire. Chatfield. Minn. 

Mississippi Fire 

Nationa American, Omaha, Neb. 

National-Ben Franklin, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

National F. & M., Elizabeth. N. J. 

National Security. Omaha, Neb. 

National Uberty. New York . 

National Reserve. Dubuque, la. 

National, Hartford, Conn. 

National Union, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Nevada Fire, Reno, Nev. 

Newark. Newark, N. J. . 

New Brunswick. New Brunswick, N. J. 

New England, Pittsfield, Mass. 

New Hampshire, Manchester, N. H. 

New Jersey. Newark. N. J. 

New York State, Albany 

Niagara. New York. N. Y. 

North American National, Des Moines 

North Carolina Home, Raleigh. N. C. 

North Carolina State, Rocky Mount 

Northern, New York, N. Y. 
North River. New York. N. Y. 
Northwestern F. & M., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Northwestern National, Milwaukee. Wis. 
Ohio Farmers, Le Roy, Ohio (mutual) 
Ohio Valley F. & M., Paducah. Ky. 
Old Bay State, Concord, Mass. 
Old Colony, Boston, Mass. 
Omaha Liberty. Omaha, Neb. 
Orient, Hartford. Conn. . 
Pacific. New York, N. Y. 
Pacific National. Sacramento, Cal. . 
Pacific States. Portland. Ore. . 
Palmetto. Sumter, S. C. 
Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Peoples Fire, Frederick, Md. . 
Peoples National. Philadelphia, Pa. . 
Petersburg, Petersburg. Va. . 
Phoenix. Hartford, Conn. 
Piedmont, Charlotte, N. C. . 
Pilot Fire, Greensboro, N. C. . 
Pittsburgh Fire. PitUburgh, Pa. 
Potomac. Washington. D. C. . 
Preferred Risk Fire. Kansas City, Kan. 
Providence- Washington, Providence, R. I. 
Oueen City, Sioux Falls. S. D. 
Queen. New York. N. Y. 
Reliance. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Reliable Fire. Dayton, O. 



Assets 


Liabilities 


$224,137 


$56,034 


416,219 


215.071 


2,001,978 


1,120,244 


7 13 •060 




1,246,181 


325,230 


2.671,64s 


1,224.874 


3,135,240 


1,746,213 


4,048,353 


1.951,700 


4,711,668 


3,111,260 


968.933 


528,229 


576,738 


219,27s 


512,438 


188,399 


2,377,909 


1.468,525 


4.077,463 


2,083,674 


7,828,586 


4,828,328 


1,031,677 


677,997 


159.363 




925,718 


414^887 


1,468,957 


193.253 


5,384,242 


3,743,972 


572,207 


443,830 


520,382 


150,63s 


12,158,078 


8,137,413 


1,186,570 


633.018 


28,224,420 


18,879.939 


7,994.634 

447.750 


5.652,935 


91.480 


4,233.343 


2,723,765 


1,753,7X9 


1,084,094 


695,013 


312,377 


10,944,350 


5,905,144 


2,298,043 


1,090,141 


15,227,727 


■ • BR •• •• 

9,509.232 


927,455 


203,401 


1,113,779 


327,011 


85,566 


13,100 


2,655,451 


1,641,146 


9.904.303 


5,889,506 


1,460,037 


767,659 


10,452,176 


7.052,260 


5.090,000 


3.921,860 


504,431 


225.907 


1,130,671 




4.152,178 


1,864,296 


774.271 


355.222 


5.678,748 


3. 173.314 


2,941.552 


1.738,800 


589,683 


73.155 


913,941 


286,087 


831,224 


274.220 


10,474.555 


6,801,587 


421,815 


148,081 


2,374,969 


1.171,772 


606,388 


171.593 


24,014,028 


11.589.342 


797,322 




472,441 


236,594 


706,041 


420,642 


945,022 


474.235 


1,472,682 


810,039 


9,462,443 


5,621,679 


178,348 


35.320 


17,125,599 


9,827.427 


1,461,605 


654.186 


1,167,414 


264,207 



210 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Republic Fire, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Republic Fire. Dallas. Tex. 
Retailers Fire, Oklahoma City, Okla 
Rhode Island, Providence. R. I. 
Richmond, New York, N. Y. . 
Rocky Mountain. Great Falls, Mont 
Rossia of America, Hartford 
Safeguard, New York, N. Y. 
Seaboard Fire. Atlantic City, N. J. 
Savannah, Ga. 
Security. Davenport, Iowa 
Security, New Haven, Conn. . 
South Carolina. Columbia, S. C. 
Southern Home, Charleston. S. C. 
Springfield F. & M.. Springfield. Mass. 
Standard. Hartford, Conn. 
Standard. Trenton, N. J. 
Star, New York 
State, Des Moines 
State Dwelling House, Concord, N. H. 
Sterling, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Stonewall. Mobile, Ala. . 
St. Paul F. & M., St. Paul. Minn. 
Stuyvesant, New York, N. Y. 
Superior Fire, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Twin City, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Underwriters Fire, Concord, N. H. 
Underwriters Fire, N. C. 
Union, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Union, Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Union Reserve. New York, N. Y. 
United American, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
United Fireman's, Philadelphia. Pa. 
United States Lloyds, N. Y. . 
United States, New York. N. Y. 
Utah Home. Salt Lake City . 
Victory, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Virginia F. & M.. Richmond. Va. 
Vulcan, Oakland. Cal. 
Vulcan. New York. N. Y. 
Washington Marine, New York. N. Y. 
Westchester, New York. N. Y. 
Wheeling, Wheeling, W. Va. . 



Assets 


Liabilities 


Si,Sa7,336 


Si. 068.334 


3,948,632 


1,932.930 


457,308 


105,097 


3. 179.197 


2,057,728 


1,722,809 


1.012,087 


985,614 - 


a « • • • . • 


9,485,249 


6,286,07s 


1,241,926 


570,995 


146,789 




449.182 


150.081 


1.145,226 


794.337 


7.785,193 


5,305,715 


721.393 


450.323 


879,980 


377,492 


20,384.250 


13.323.139 


1,638,73 a 


731,922 


1,618,271 


780.376 


2,961,067 


1.925,45s 


187,803 


38.S02 


2,438,109 


1,005,667 


19.610.264 


11.226,456 


2,589.737 


1,656,029 


3,509,765 


2,059,363 


1,012,242 


231.486 


357. IIS 


32,181 


187,857 


60.739 


460.870 


192,510 


627,607 


221,613 


1.577.658 


755.975 


981.537 


585.487 


2.130,904 


1,261,794 


2.628,452 


1.734.6S5 


13,227,788 


8.769.552 


1,986,609 


666,105 


1,568.275 


827.919 


2.895.279 


X. 406 .6 13 


1,456,326 


677.683 


492.548 


158430 


1,196,111 


766,278 


10.590,927 


7,795476 


640.541 


266.847 



MUTUAL COMPANIES 



Assets 



Uabilities 



Abington. Abinston, Mass. 

American, Indianapolis, Ind. 

American. Providence, R. I. . 

Arkwriftht. Boston, Mass. 

Atlantic Mutual, Philadelphia, Pa. . 

Atlantic Mutual (Marine). New York. N. Y. 

Automobile Mutual, Boston 

Automobile Mutual. Providence, R. I. 

Auto Owners, Lansing, Mich. 

Barnstable County, Mass. 

Baltimore. Baltimore, Md. 

Btt^kshire. Pittsfield. Mass. 

Blackstone. Providence. R. I. . 

Boston Manufacturers. Boston. Mass. 

Bucks County Contributionship 

CentraJ Manufacturers. Van Wert. Ohio 

Citizens Mutual. Boston, Mass. 

Concord, Concord. N. H. 

Cotton & Woolen Manufacturers, Boston. Mass 

Dayton, Dayton. Ohio . 

Dedham, Dedham. Mass. 

Dorchester. Boston, Mass. 

Enterprise. Providence 

Fall River Manufacturer's. Fall River. Mass. 

Farmers A liance. McPherson, Kansas 

Farmers, York, Pa. 

Farmer's Mutual Hall. Des Moines. la. 

Farmers "Mutual. Wilmington, Del. . 

Firemen's Mutusil, Providence, R. I. 

Fitchburg, Fitchburg, Mass. . 

Glen Cove, Glen Cove, N. Y. . 

Grain Dealers. Boston, Mass. . 

Grain Dealers National. Indianapolis, Ind. 

Granite Mutual. Barre. Vt. 

Green Mountain, Mont^ier . 

Hamilton County, Cincmnati . 

Hampshire, Pittsfield. Mass. 

Hardware Dealers, Wis. 

Hartford County, Hartford, Conn. . 

Hingham Mutual. Hingham, Mass. 

Holyoke. Salem. Mass. . 

Hope Mutual. Providence. R. I. 

Industrial Mutual. Boston, Mass. . 

Indiana Lumbermen's. Indianapolis. Ind. 

Iowa State. Keokuk. la. 

Keystone. Philadelphia, Pa. . 

Lowell. Mass. .... 

Lumbermen's. Mansfield. O. . 

Lumber. Boston. Mass. . 

Lynn Mutual. Lynn. Mass. 

Lynn Manufacturers and Merchants. Lynn, Mass. 

Mansfield. Mansfield, Ohio 

Manton. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Manufacturers 8c Merchants, Concord. N. H. 

Manufacturers. Providence, R. I 

Massachusetts Mutual Automobile, Boston. Mass. 

Mechanics, Providence, R. I. . 

Mercantile, Providence. R. I. . 

Merchants, Providence, R I. 

Merchants and Farmers, Worcester. Mass. 

Merchants and Manufacturers. Mansfield, Ohio 

Merchanu. Redfield, S. D. . 

Merrimack. Andover, Mass. . 

Michigan Millers, Lansing, Mich. . 



Si65,92i 
143.456 



636,31s 
2,229,351 



1,309,815 
28.96a 



288,199 



751,444 



1,060,420 
744.953 



1,878,029 



1,508,276 



$101,248 
"110,507 



134.734 
122,856 


79.736 
94.086 


157.524 
601,422 

2,762,969 


75.102 

452.636 

1,414.101 



74.919 
1,226,513 



596,418 
17,338 



130,404 



494.766 
310,617 



491.309 



776.538 



212 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Middlesex, Middletown, Conn. 

Middlesex, Concord. Mass. 

Mid-West. Wichita. Kansas . 

Millers, Alton. 111. 

Millers. Harrisburg, Pa. 

Millers, Texas .... 

Millers National. Chicago. 111. 

Millers. Fort Worth, Ind. 

Mill Owners. Chicago. III. 

Mill Owners, Des Moines, la. 

Minnesota Implement 

Motor Car Mutual, New York 

Mutua. Assurance, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Mutual Assurance, Norwich, Conn. 

Mutual Assurance, Richmond, Va. . 

Mutual Fire. Springfield, Mass. 

Mutual Fire, Marine, and Inland, Philadelphia 

Mutual of Chester Co.. Pa. 

Narragansett, Providence, R. I. 

National Philadelphia, Pa. 

National Mutual Church, Chicago . 

National Mutual. Ceiina. Ohio 

Newburyport. Newburyport. Mass. . 

New London County. Norwich, Conn. 

Norfolk, Dedham. Mass. 

Northwestern Mutual, Seattle. Wash. 

Ohio Millers. Canton. O. 

Ohio Mutual. Salem, O. . 

Ohio Underwriters, Van Wert, Ohio 

Paper Mill. Boston, Mass. 

Pawtucket. Pawtucket. R. I. . 

Pennsylvania Lumbermen's. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Pennsylvania Millers. 

Phenix Mutual, Concord. N. H. 

Philadelphia. Contributionship. Philadelphia, Pa 

Philadelphia Manufacturers*. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Protection Mutual. Chicago. 111. 

Providence. Providence. R. I. . 

Quincy Mutual. Quincy. Mass. 

Retail Druggists. Cincinnati. Ohio 

Retail Hardware, Minn. 

Retail Merchants, Springfield. 111. . 

Richland, Mansfield, Ohio 

Rhode Island, I^vidence. R. I. 

Rubber Manufacturers, Boston. Mass. 

Salem Mutual. Salem, Mass. . 

Security Automobile, Youngetown, Ohio 

Security. Chatfield, Minn. 

South Danvers, Concord, Mass. 

Southern, Athens, Ga. 

Standard. Philadelphia. Pa. . 

State, Providence, R. I. . 

Suffolk County. Southhold, N. Y. . 

Sunapee, Sunapee, N. H.. 

Sun, Cincinnati, O. . . . 

Traders & Mechanics. Lowell, Mass^ 

Union Mutual, Providence. R. I. 

Union, Montpelier, Vt. . 

Union, Lincoln, Neb. 

United Mutual. Boston. Mass. 

Vermont, Montpelier, Vt. 

Western Automobile. Fort Scott. Kan. 

Western Millers, Kansas City, Mo. . 

What Cheer, Providence, R. I. 

Worcester Manufacturers, Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Worcester, Mass. . . 



Pa. 



Asseu 



$1,385,934 



a,ioo,94S 



. 659.227 
960,070 

1,470,692 



420.458 
831,779 

1,259.267 



807,127 
402,742 



Liabilities 



$440,067 



1.599.548 



306,206 
579.680 

584^868 



42,895 

• • ■ « • • • 

807,610 

• ■ • ■ ■ • • 

551.948 



432,263 

1,000 



FOREIGN COMPANIES 
United States Branch Statements 



Abeille. Paris .... 

Alliance Assurance. London (marine). 

Alpha General, India (Re-ins.) 

Atlantlca (Renins. Marine) 

Atlas. London .... 

Baltica, Copenhagen, Den. (Reins.) 

British America, Toronto, Canada . 

British & Foreign Marine, Liverpool 

British-General, London, Eng. 

Caledonian, Edinburgh ... 

Christiania General. Norway, (Reinsurance) 

Century, Edinburgh 

City Equitable, London, Eng. 

Commercial Union, London 

Consolidated, London, Eng. . 

Eagle, Star and British Dominions . 

First Russian, Petrograd (Re-ins.) 

General. Paris 

Indemnity Mutual (Marine), London, England 

Jakor, Moscow (re-ins.) . 

La Fondere (Marine), Paris . 

Law Union and Rock, London. Eng. 

Liverpool & London & Globe. Liverpool. England 

London & Lancashire, Liverpool 

London and Provincial, Eng. . 

London & Scottish, London, England 

London Assurance, London 

Marine. London. England (Marine) 

Meuopolitan Natioiud (Re-ins.) 

Moscow. Russia (Re-ins.) 

Mount Royal. Montreal. Can. 

National, Copenhagen (Re-ins.) 

Nationale. Paris .... 

Netherlands. The Hague. Holland . 

New India, Bombay, India (Re-ins.) 

New Zealand. Auckla n d. N. Z. 

Nippon, Tokio, Japan (Re-ins.) 

Nordisk, Copenhagen 

North British & Mercantile. London 

North China, Shanghai, China (Marine) 

Northern. London .... 

Northern, Moscow (Re-ins.) 

Norwegian Atlas, Christiania (Re-ins.) 

Norwich Union, Norwich, England . 

Palatine. London .... 

Patemelle. Paris, France (Re-Ins.) 

Patriotic. Dublin, Ireland 

Phoenix. London, England 

Phenix Fire, Paris. France 

Pnidentia, Zurich. Switzerland (Re-ins.) 

Reliant^ Marine. Liverpool. London 

Royal Exchange, London. England . 

Royal. LivenxMl, England 

Russian Reinsurance, Petrograd 

Salamandra. Copenhagen, Den. (Re-ins.) 

Salamandra. Petrograd. Russia (Re-ins.) 

Scandinavian-American, Norway 

Scottish Union & National, Edtnburg. Scotland 

Sea. Liverpool, England .... 

Second Russian, Petrograd, Russia (Re-ins.) 

Skandia, Stockholm. Sweden (Re-ins.) 



Assets 

$1,443,023 
1 .459.746 
1.320.454 
653.124 
5,440,809 
2,463,283 

2,256,915 
3,119.786 
839,326 
3.676,474 
5.537.395 
1,116.269 

14.057.804 

1,968,037 
5,024,148 

3,267.033 
1.643.325 
1.247,519 
3.656,937 
330,024 

1.729,541 

19,350,754 

7,702,369 

784.418 

1.752.575 
7,104.741 
3,142,277 
1,097.259 
3,489.461 

3.549.400 
x.462,131 
1.488,672 
1,232,038 
2.124.390 

1,333.654 

1,224,230 

12,401,901 

1,132,643 

9,610,941 
703,105 
2,599,292 
5,814.416 
4.997.638 
2,025,363 
1.013.730 

6,777.754 
1,451.016 

3.555,554 
587,102 
5.511.06X 
31,217.104 
3,441,494 
4.259.549 
2,990,795 
3,228,730 
8,443.501 
2,900,087 
2,155.991 
3,391.422 



Liabilities 

$1,003,2X0 
4,877,687 

438.984 
46,138 
4,006,057 
1,^87.230 
1,601,036 
1,275,112 

401,212 
2.511,838 
4.343.517 

556,764 

9,561,370 
1,442,676 
3.980,476 
3,349.425 
1,013,564 

3,305.793 

30,869 

859,946 

13,684.033 

4,387,066 

631,711 
4,611,855 
1,817,035 

693.890 
2.588,383 

1,748,989 

X, 002, 2X0 

805.369 

224.370 

I,X28,324 

835.564 
8,152.256 

309.8X0 

6,333,563 

42.972 

I.S87.63I 

4,X4i.394 
3.440,832 

1.574.592 

S13.710 

4,344.979 

X,0O3,3I0 

3,322,656 

X90,004 

3.275.792 

15.544.587 

1.623,525 

3,201,437 
2,222,465 

2,281,083 
4.534.120 
1.593.149 

i,64X,767 
X, 625, 86 1 



214 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Skandinavia, Denmark (Renins.) 

South British, N. Z. 

Standard Marine, Liverpool 

State. Liverpool, England 

Sun. London 

Svea. Gothenberg. Sweden 

Swiss Reinsurance, Zurich. Switzerland 

Switzerland General, (Marine). Zurich 

Thames and Mersey, Liverpool (Marine) 

Tokio Marine. Tokio. Japan 

Union & Phenix, Madrid, Spain (Re-ins.) 

Union Hispano, Havana. Cuba. 

Union Assurance. London. England 

Union, Canton, China 

Union Marine, Liverpool. England . 

Union Fire* Paris. France 

Urbaine. Paris. France . , 

Warsaw, Russia (Re-ins.) 

Western Alliance, London, Eng. 

Western, Toronto. Canada 

World Auxiliary, London. Eng. 

Yang-tsze, Shanghai. China 

Yorkshire, York. England 



Assets 

S6 ,940.3 1 5 
909,086 

3,346,013 
1.245.378 

6.964.334 
3,004.018 
3,48s.ii6 
1.253,443 
1.777,753 
5.397.083 
3.937.456 
3,053,019 
3,793.638 
7,491,431 
1,463,717 
1.716,759 
5.332,355 
1,096.7x2 
1,003,389 
4,835.545 
1,309.095 
796,617 
3.935.331 



Liabilities 

$5,338,120 
546,889 
1,553.164 
473.364 
4.689.487 
1.733.043 
3.639.601 

597.3«Q 

939.435 
1,572.014 
3.312,304 
I.416.046 
1.873.42a 
5.307.922 

700,420 
1.127.337 
3,867.19s 

556.490 

3.335.990 

579.083 

362.535 

1.850,677 



Life and Casualty Section 



A 



ACCIDENT INSURANCE. The ordinary accident insurance 
policy grants a fixed compensation to the insured for a limited time 
in case of disabling accident, and also a definite amount to be paid 
to a designated person if death results from accident. Such policies 
are in general strictly limited by their terms to accidents which to- 
tally disable or kill the insured. Companies now issue modified forms 
providing for injury and death, with an additional clause as to par- 
tial disabilities of a permanent nature, such as loss of a limb, an eye, 
a hand, or foot. In order to recover, the injury must arise from" ex- 
ternal, violent and accidental means,'' and must be incurred while 
the insured is not unnecessarily exposing himself to " obvious danger," 
and while he is not engaged in an occupation more hazardous than 
that in which he has elected to be classified and insured; or if more 
hazardously occupied at the time of the injury, then recovery can be 
had only to the extent to which the premium paid would have purchased 
insurance in the more hazardous class. Within these limits there has 
been found a great deal of ground for differences of opinion, and many 
of the points which have been settled have only been disposed of after 
harassing litigation. 

The following is a statement of the personal accident business 
of the principal companies in 1921: 

Companies Premiums Claims 

Written Paid 

Aetna Casualty and Surety S89,S43 S13.605 

Aetna Life 3,428,652 1,473,149 

American Indemnity 506 752 

Columbian Nat '1 Life 338.654 112,492 

Columbia, New York 3a<i62 4t3i6 

Commercial Casualty 543*734 167,710 

Connecticut General Life 994,412 358,088 

Continental 3,056,211 1,317,400 

£niplo3rers Indemnity, Kansas City 707.775 475.262 

Employers' Liability 599.84a 427.546 

Fidelity and Casualty 1,608,889 745 1693 

General-Accident 764,879 352,524 

General Casualty and Surety 1,901 218 

Globe Indemnity 290,423 147.238 

Hartford Accident 333,934 120,529 

Indemnity Co. of North America 132.773 38,107 

Interstate Life and Accident 

Kansas Casualty 180,626 

Kentucky Central L. &A 1.377,427 55X,509 

Lrife and Casualty, Tenn 3.037.559 1.551.846 

London Guarantee 286,868 125.548 

London and Lancashire 20,699 6.226 

Manufacturer's Liability 10.693 4.551 

Maryland Casualty 823,517 382,064 

Metropolitan Casualty 307 1.250 

Xew Amsterdam 188,898 93.058 

Xorth American 1.837.578 715,789 

iNlorwich Union Indemnity, N. Y 7.487 965 

Ocean Accident 479.1 21 190,695 



218 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Companies Premiums Claims 

Written Paid 

Pacific Mutual Life $3,184,688 $801,310 

Preferred Accident ' . 987 1068 416.462 

Reliance Lifp 209,478 67,462 

Republic Casualty Xt367.969 777 .40S 

Royal Indemnity 258,394 93.119 

Standard x.453t769 684^94 

Travelers 7,238,477 3,341.046 

Travelers Indemnity 310,532 io3,oS8 

Union Indemnity, New Orleans 345.339 167,423 

United States Casualty 581,063 208,441 

U. S. Fidelity and Guarantee 624,105 293.197 

Zurich General 59.198 34.805 

Total, 1921 $36,685,150 $16,363,285 

1920 30,302,461 11,183,844 

1919 25,336,674 9.295.149 

1918 25.117,763 10,664,167 

1917 . 24,263,858 11,309.980 

The following figures include both accident and health business: 

American Casualty, Reading, Pa $346,013 $103,338 

American National, Texas 459, I90 176,014 

Bankers Accident 500,847 281,528 

Bankers Casualty, Minn 178,813 1 14.593 

Bankers Health and Life. Ga 606,366 381,314 

Brotherhood Accident, Mass 415.829 199.506 

Business Men's Asso., Mo 3,159.524 x, 153.633 

Carolina Life, S. C 960,314 4x9.368 

Clover Leaf Casualty 880,871 333.58o 

Columbus Mutual Life 62,630 23,539 

Commonwealth Casualty 371.982 106,781 

Eastern Casualty, Boston 361,760 99.873 

Federal Casualty 433.873 147,I3S 

Federal Life 438,873 X47,i3S 

Industrial Life and Health, Ga 2,374.060 1,113.250 

Inter Ocean Casualty 954.2 ix 343.757 

Inter State Casualty 800,052 691.922 

Loyal Protective, Boston 973.202 560.661 

Masonic Protective, Mass 3,468,7x2 x,858.6ii 

Massachusetts Accident S70,63X 35 x, 202 

Massachusetts Bonding 3,638,728 1,278.986 

Merchants Life and Casualty 235,790 97.954 

Metropolitan Life, N. Y 677,494 52i,S9o 

Midland Casualty, Milwaukee 233.244 95.725 

National Accident, Neb X04.244 35.X93 

National Casualty i,xo8,S79 422,201 

National Life, Chicago » . 2,563,654 925.948 

National Life & Accident 10,576,606 4.4x7.238 

National Relief 38 x, 390 146.786 

Oregon Surety & Casualty 30,372 ix,924 

Peerless Casualty 185,432 80.216 

Pioneer, Lincoln, Neb. 83,436 27.967 

Provident Life and Accident, Tenn i,X48,90X 483^62 

Ridgely Protective 1,057,681 567.375 

Southern L. & H., Ala 852,109 354.867 

Southern Surety 1,046.432 457.723 

Time . 409,477 203.074 

Travelers Equitable, Minn 244.635 x 12.964 

Total, $40,695,747 $18,647,823 

1920 35,403,258 9.420,956 

Several of the above companies also write Workingmen's Col- 
lective Insurance, which is a form of personal . accident insurance 

written under a blanket policy in the name of the employee as trus- 



Life and Casualty Section 219 

tee, and the premium, which is based upon the annual pay-roll, may 
be divided pro rata among the employees or the whole borne by the 
employer. The following is a statment of premiums and losses under 
this form of policy for 192 1 : 

Compaoiefl 

Aetna Life 

Continental Casualty 

Employers' Liability 

Fidelity and Casualty 

Georgia Casualty 

Globe Indemnity 

Hartford Accident 

London Guarantee . * 

Maryland Casualty 

New Amsterdam 

Royal Indemnity 

Southern Surety 

Standard Accident 

Travelers 

Union Indemnity, New Orleans 

United States Casualty 

United SUtes Fidelity 



Premiums 
Written 


Claims 
Paid 


$21,717 


. "si"i',87S 


11,042 


8,252 


147 
27,207 
16,263 


11,814 
8,126 


""I'Ms 


471 


40.07s 


1 5. 087 


30,177 


■6;2i8 


$147,913 
304,145 


$63,863 
140,561 



Total, 1921 

Total, 1920 

ACTUARIAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA was organized April 
25, 1889. [For an account of the origin, charter, and early proceed- 
ings of this organization see the Cyclopedia of Insurance for 1 890-1.] 
The first president was Sheppard Homans, the second David Parks 
Fackler, elected in 1891; the third Howell W. St. John, elected in 1893; 
the fourth Emory McClintock, elected in 1895; the fifth Bloomfield 
J. Miller, elected in 1897; the sixth Thomas B. Macaulay, elected in 
1899; the seventh Oscar B. Ireland, elected in 1901; the eighth Israel C. 
Pierson, elected in 1903 and 1904; the ninth Rufus W. Weeks, elected 
in 1905; the tenth Daniel H. Wells, elected 1906 and 1907; the eleventh, 
John K. Gore, elected in 1908-1909; the twelfth, Archibald A. Welch 
elected 1910-1911; the thirteenth, William C. MacDonald, elected 
1912-1913; the fourteenth, James M. Craig, elected 1914 and 1915, 
the fifteenth, Arthur Hunter, elected 1916 and 1917; the sixteenth, 
Henry Moir, elected 1918 and 1919; the seventeenth, William A. 
Hutcheson elected 1920 and 1921; the eighteenth, Robert Henderson, 
elected 1922. 

The thirty-third annual meeting of the Society was held in New 
York, N. v., May 18 and 19, 1922. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, Robert Henderson* 
Equitable Life, New York; vice-president, Wendell M. Strong, Mutual 
Life, New York; second vice-president, Arthur B. Wood, Sun Life of 
Canada; secretary, John S. Thompson, Mutual Life, New York; 
treasurer, David G. Alsop, Provident Life and Trust, Philadelphia; 
editor of Transactions, John M. Laird, Connecticut General Life; 
Members of the Council: Edward B. Morris, The Travelers, Hartford; 
James F. Little, Prudential, Newark; James B. McKechnie, Manufac- 
turers Life, Toronto; James E. Flanigan, Bankers Life, Des Moines; 
Percy C. H. Papps, Mutual Benefit Life, Newark. 



220 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

The following was the official membership roll of the society on 
May I, 1922: 

The Council — Officers: Robert Henderson, president; Wendell M. Strong, 
first vice-president: Arthur B. Wood, second vice-president; John S. Thompson, 
secretary; David G. Alsop, treasurer; John M. Laird, editor of the "Transactions." 
expresidents, David Parks Packler, Howell W. St. John, Thomas B. Macaulay Rufus 
W. Weeks, Daniel H. Wells, John K. Gore. Archibald A. Welch. Arthur Hunter. 
Henry Moir, William A. Hutcheson; elected Ray D. Murphy, Arthur B. Wood, Wil- 
liam Young, (1923); Morris H. Linton, James E. Flanigan, Percy C. H. Papps, (1924) 
Edward B. Morris, James F. Little, James B. McKechnie (1925) • 

FELLOWS. 

David Griacom Alsop (Treasurer), Actuary, Provident Life and Trust Co., 409 
Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

W. Nelson Bagley, B. S., Travelers Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Amedee Begault, President A. A. Bdg., Cor. Mem 1. A. Eng. and L A. Fr., 
President of the Permanent Committee, International Congress of Actuaries. Avenue 
du Derby No. 4. Brussels. 

William Pond Barber, Jr., B.S., A.M.. assistant actuary, Connecticut Mutual 
Life, Hartford, Conn. 

Horace Richardson Bassford, B.A., Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 
New York, N. Y. 

Alfred Kimball Blackadar. A. M.. F. I. A., Aasictant Superintendent of Insur- 
anoe, Ottawa. Canada 

W. Lloyd Blackadar, B. A., Equitable Life .Assurance Society, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Ernest Mar Blehl. A. I. A.. A. M.. actuary. Philadelphia Life Insurance Company. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Samuel Swett Boy den. Actuary, Union Mutual Life Insurance Company, Port- 
land. Me. 

Thomas Bradshaw, F. I. A., Toronto, Canada. 

William Breiby, Facklcr and Fackle^, 35 Nassau Street, New York, N. Y. 
Everett G. Brown, actuary of the Southwestern Life Insurance Company, Dallas, 
Texas. 

John Dougall Buchanan, B.A., actuary. London Life Insurance Company, 
London. Ontario, Canada. 

William J. Cameron, B. A., assistant secretary. Home Life Insurance Company. 
New York, N. Y. 

Edmund Ernest Cammack, i£tna Life Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

F. Eklgar Cann. M. A., F. A. I. A., assistant actuary. Southern Life and Trust 
Company, Greensboro, N. C. 

David Carment, F. I. A.. F. F. A.. Assistant Actuary, Australian Mutual Prov- 
ident Soc., Sydney. Australia. 

Raymond Van Arsdale Catoenter, M. Sc, Assistant Actuary' Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company, i Madison Ave., New York. 

* Hubert Cillis, President, Guardian Life Insurance Company, 50 Union Square, 
New York. 

Arthur Coburn. F. F. A., A. I. A., Northwestern Mutual Life, Milwaukee. Wis. 

Richard Huntington Cole, A. B., secretary, Connecticut General Life Insurance 
Company. Hartford. Conn. 

Henry Milton Cook. B.A., A. I. A., Mutual Life Assurance Company of Canada. 
Waterloo, Ontario. 

John James Cooper, B.A., A. I. A., Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. 
Montreal, Canada. 

James Douglas Craig. Assistant Actuary. Metropolitan Life Insurance Com- 
pany. I Madison Ave.. New York. 

Emma Warren Cushman. John Hancock Mutual Life. Boston. Mass. 

Thomas Arthur Dark. M.A.. A. 1. A.. Actuary, Excelsior Life Insurance Com- 
pany. Toronto. Canada. 

Adolph Davidson, B.S., Cor. Mem. I. A. Fr.. Actuary, New York Life Insur- 
ance Co.. 63 Avenue des Champs Elysees, Paris, 

Merwyn Davis, B. A., A. I. A., assistant actuary. Equitable Life Assurance Society. 
New York, .N. Y. 

David L. S. Douglas, F. F. A., New York Life Insurance Company, 63 .Avenue 
des Champs Elysees, Paris. France. 

* Charter members. 



Life and Casualty Section 221 

David L. S. Douglas, F. F. A., New York Life InBUrance Company, 3 Rue le 
Peletur. Paris, France. 

Miles Menander Dawson, F. I. A.. Counsellor at Law and Consulting Actuary. 
a8 W. 44th St.. New York. 

Herbert Beeman Dow, A.M., Actuary. New England Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. Boston, Mass. 

James Strode Elston, A. B., Travelers Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 
* David Parks Fackler, A.M.. Cor. Mem. I. A. Eng. and I. A. Fr. (Ex-president). 
Consulting Actuary, 35 Nassau St., New York. 

Edward Bathurst Fackler, A.B., LL.B., Consulting Actuary with D. P* Rockier, 
35 Naiisau St., New York. 

Elgin G. Fassel, A. I. A., New York Life Insurance Company, 346 Broadway. 
New York, N. Y. 

Colin Campbell Ferguson. B.A.. A. I. A.. Actuary. Great West Life Assurance 
Company, Winmpeg. Man. 

Lome Kenelm File, B.A.. F. I. A., Canada Life Assurance Company, Toronto, 
Ontario. 

Charles Reginald Fitzgerald, B.A., A. I. A.; Actuary, State Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company. Worcester, Mass. 

James Edward Flanigan. actuary. Bankers Life Insurance Company, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 

Benedict Devine Flynn, M. A., assistant secretary, Travelers Insurance Company, 
Hartford. Conn. 

John Fuhrer. Actuary, vice-president and actuary. Guardian Life Insurance 
Company, 50 Union Square, New York. 

John Marshall Gaines, ex-deputy commissioner. Bureau of War Risk Insurance, 
Bronxville, N. Y. 

William Standish Gaylord, A. B., secretary, Home Life Insurance Company 
256 Broadway. New York, N. Y. 

Charles William Gamerdinger, B. S., assistant actuary. Travelers Insurance 
Company. Hartford, Conn. 

Frederick Bruce Gerhard, B. Sc., New York Life Insurance Company, New 
York. N. Y. 

James Burnett Gibb, F. F. A., A. I. A., actuary. Penn. Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. Philadelphia. Pa. 

John Kinsey Gore. A.M.. (Ex- President), Vice-President and Actuary. Pruden< 
:iai Insurance Company, Newark. N. J. 

William Joseph Graham second vice-president. Equitable Life Assurance Society 
of United States. Chicago. III. 

Milton Daniel Grant. B.A., F. I. A., actuary. Sovereign Life Assurance Company, 
Winnipeg. Manitoba. 

Arthur R. Grow, Actuary. New York Life Insurance Company. 346 Broadway, 
New York. 

Samuel Sticknev Hall, A.B., Assistant Actuary, Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
oany. 33 Nassau St.. New York. 

Arthur Freeland Hall, A. I. A., North American Life Assurance Company, Toronto, 
Canada. 

Liverus Hall Howe. Actuary. John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company, 
Boston. Mass. 

Valentine Howell, B. S. in Econ., Equitable Life Insurance Company, Des 
Moines, la. 

M. S. Hallman, A. I. A.. Actuary, Mutual Life Insurance Company of Canada. 
Waterloo, Ontario. 

Edward Edgington Hardcastle, M.A., A. I. A., Actuary, Union Central Life 
Insurance Company. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Francis Henry Hemperley, A.M.. Actuary and Secretary, United Security Life 
Insurance and Trust Company, 603 Chestnut St.. Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. 

Robert Henderson, B.A.. F. I. A., second vice-president and actuary, Equitable 
Life Assurance Society, 120 Broadway, New York. 

Charles Daniel Higham, F. I. A.. 8 Avenue Road. Regents Park. London. 
Charles Hildebrand, Ph.B., D. E., Actuary, Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Connecticut. 

William Richmond Hitchins, A.B., A. I. A., 336 Shaw St., Toronto, Ontario. 

* John Marahatl Holcombe, M.A., President; Phcenix Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Connecticut. 

James Emerson Hoskins, A. B., Travelers Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

* Charter members. 



222 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

George William Hubbdl. A.B., Actuary. United States Life Insurance Company. 
977 Broadway, New York. 

Arthur J. C H)ienergard, B. A., F. A. I. A., actuary Commonwealth Life Insur- 
ance Company, Omaha. Neb. 

Arthur Hunter. F. F. A.. A. I. A.. F. S. S., Actuary. New York Life Insurance 
Company, 346 Broadway, New York. 

Robertson Gilbert Hunter. A. I. A., Actuary, Equitable Life Insurance Com- 
pany, "Des Moines. Iowa. 

Robert Watkinson Huntington. Jr.. A. B.. President, Connecticut General Life 
Insurance Company. Hartford. Connecticut. 

H. Gordon Hurd. B. A., A. I. A., Great West Life Assurance Company. Winnipeg, 
Manitoba. 

William Anderson Hutcheson. F. I. A., F. F. A.. Second vice-president and Actuary 
Mutual Life Insurance Company. 32 Nassau St.. New York. 

Charles William Jackson. M.A., Actuary, Postal Life Insurance Company. New 
York. N. Y. 

Solomon Achillovich Joffe. M. Sc.. Mem. American Mathematical Society. 
Mem. Circolo Matematico di Palermo, Assistant Actuary. Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, 32 Nassau St.. New York. 

Albert Wesley Johnson. M. A., Excelsior Life Assurance Company, Toronto. Can. 

Murat L. Johnson, A.B.. Penn. Mutual Life Insurance Company. Philadelphia. Pa. 

Frederick Henry Johnston. A. I. A.. Associate Actuary. Prudential Insurance 
Company, Newark. New Jersey. 

Sherman Crary Kattell. B. S., State Mutual Life. Worcester, Mass. 

David Errett Kilgour. M.A.. A. I. A.. Actuary, North American Life Assurance 
Company, Toronto, Ontario. 

George King. F. I. A.. F. F. A., Cor. Mem. I. A., Fr. and A. A. Belg., 15 Wal- 
brook, E. C., London. 

Walter Irving King, A. B., secretary group insurance department, Connecti- 
cut General Life Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Arthur Julius Koeppe, Union Central Life. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

John Morrison Laing. B.A., A. I. A., Assistant Actuary, Mutual Life Assurance 
Company of Canada, Waterloo, Ontario. 

John Melvin Laird. B.A., A. I. A., Actuary, Connecticut General Life Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Milton Palmer LangstaflF, A. I. A., Actuary, Dominion Life Assurance Company, 
Waterloo. Ontario. Canada. 

John Ruse Larus. Jr., B.A., Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company, Hartford. 
Conn. 

Omer Lepreuz. Cor. Mem. I. A. Eng. and I. A. Fr.. Honorary President. The 
Permanent Committee, International Congress of Actuaries. Honorary President. 
A. A. Belg. Honorary Director General. " Caisse Generale d'Epargne et de Retraite." 
Director. Banque Nationale de Belgique, Chateau des Eglantines i)or Audergbem. 
Brussels. 

George Leslie, Consulting Actuary, Wellington. New Zealand. 
George James Lidstone. F. I. A.. F. F. A.. Manager and Actuary Scottish Widows* 
Fund Life Assurance Society, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Morris Albert Linton. B.S.. M.A.. F. 1. A., vice-president and Actuary; Provident 
Life and Trust Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

James Fulton Little. F. I. A., Prudential Insurance Company. Newark, N. J. 

Charles Alexander McConaghy, B. A., A. I. A., Bankers Reserve Life Insurance 
Company, Omaha, Neb. 

James Baldwin McKechnie. M.A., A. I. A., General manager and Actuary. 
Manufacturers Life Insurance Company, Toronto, Can. 

J. Bertram Mahon, B. Sc., A. I. A., assistant actuary, Sun Life Assurance Com- 
pany, Montreal, Can. 

* Thomas Bassett Macaulay, F. I. A.. F. S. S.. Cor. Mem. I. A. Fr.. (Ez-Presi- 
dent). President. Sun Life .Assurance Company of Canada. Montreal, Que. 

Frank Daniel MacCharles, A. M., Assistant .Actuary, Great Western Life, 
Winnipeg. Manitoba, Can. 

William Macfarlane, F. F. A., Assistant Actuary, New York Life Insurance 
Company, New York, N. Y. 

Alexander T. Maclean, F. F. A.. Assistant Actuary, Massachusetts Mutual Life 
Insurance Company, Springfiel'd. Mass. 

Joseph B. Maclean, F. F. A., Mutual Life Insurance Company. New York, N. Y. 

* Charter members. 



Life and Casualty Section 223 

Edward Wayne Marshall, Assistant Actuary, Provident Life and Trust, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

* William Andrew Marshall. President. Home Life Insurance Company, 356 
Broadway. New York. 

Franklin Bush Mead, A.B., Secretary and Actuary. Lincoln National Life Insur- 
ance Company. Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Samuel Milligan. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, z Madison Ave., New 
York. N. Y. 

Henry Moir, F. I. A., F. F. A., Actuary, Home Life Insurance Company, 256 
Broadway, New York. 

Edward Boutecou Morris, Ph. B.. Actuary. Travelers Insurance Company. Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Albert Henry Mowbray, A. B., Actuary, National Council on Workmen's Compen- 
pensation Insurance, 16 E. 40th St., New York, N. Y. 

Ray Dickinson Murphy. A.B., Assistant Actuary. Equitable Life Assurance 
Society. New York, N. Y. 

* Joseph Howard Nitchie, A.B.. Consulting Actuary. 19 South La Salle St.* 
Chkago. lU. 

Edward Oiifiers, A. I. A. Actuary A "Sul America" Campanhia de Seguros de 
vida, 82 rua do ouvidor, Caixa postal 97 !• Bio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Percy Charles Herbert Papps. A. I. A., Actuary. Mutual Benefit life Insurance 
Company. Newark N. J. 

John Gowans Parker, B.A., A. I. A., Associate Actuary, Imperial Life Assurance 
Company, Toronto, Canada. 

Maximilian Heinrich Peiler, Actuary, i£tna Life Insurance Company, Hartford. 
Conn. 

Arthur Eugene Pequegnat, A. I. A., Mutual Life Assurance Company of Canada, 
Waterloo. Ontario. 

Oliver Winfred Perrin, A.M.. Assistant Actuary. Penn Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Arthur A. Pettigrew, Equitable Life Assurance Society, 120 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y. 

Sidney Herbert Pipe, A. I. A., Actuary, Toronto, Canada. 
Gardner Ladd Plumley, Consulting Actuary, 382 East 199th St., New York, N. Y. 
Jules Theaul Albert Quiquet, Secretaire de I'lnstitut des Actuaries francais. Cor. 
Mem. I. A. Eng.. A. A. Belg., and A. A. Suisse, Actuary, "Compagnie La Nationale," 
92 Boulevard Saint Germain, Paris. 

Harry Izard Bacon Rice, A. M., Associate Actuary, Connecticut Mutual Life 
Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Charles Grant Reiter, Assistant Actuary, Metropolitan Life Insurance Com* 
pany. z Madison Ave., New York. 

Edward E. Rhodes, Vice-President Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company, 
Newark, N. J. 

Josephus Hargreaves Richardson. F. F. A., A. I. A., Commissioner Government 
Life Insurance Department. Wellington. New Zealand. 

John George Richter, General Manager and Supervising Actuary. London Life 
Ittsnrance Company. London. Ont. 

Hugh Wilfred Robertson, Assistant Actuary, Equiuble Life Assurance Society 
Z30 Broadway, New York. 

John Francis Roche. Vice-President Manhattan Life Insurance Company, New 
York. 

Douglas H. Roae, President, Maryland Life Insurance Company. Baltimore, 
Md. 

Charles Dickson Rutherford. Sun Life Assurance Company, Montreal, Canada. 

Gerald Hemmington Ryan, P. I. A., General Manager Phoenix Assurance Com- 
pany, Ltd., E. C. London. 

Adolph August Rydgren, Actuary, Cleveland Life Insurance Company, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

* Howell Williams St. John. Ph.B. (Ex-President). .Cor. Mem. I. A.. Fr.. Mem. 
American Statistical Society, Actuary, MItol Life Insurance Company, Hartford, 
Conn. 

George Ferry Salter, M.S.. Prudential Insurance Co., Newark, N. J. 

* George White Sanders, A.B., Actuary, Michigan Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, Detroit, Mich. 

Frank Sanderson, LL.D.. A. I. A.. F. F. A.. Consulting Actuary, Toronto, Can. 



* Charter members. 



224 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Frederick Schooling, F. I. A., Director, Prudential Assurance Company, Hol- 
born Bars. E. C. London. 

James Scott, ;£tna Life Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Herbert Norman Sheppard, B.A.. A. I. A., Assistant Actuary. Home Ijfe Innir- 
ance Company, 356 Broadway, New York. 

Coll Claude Sinclair, B. A., Great West Life Assurance Company, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, Can. 

Francis M. Smith, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York, N. Y. 

Alexander Albert Speers, B. A., F. A. I. A., Actuary, North American Life 
Insurance Company, Omaha, Neb. 

Herbert R. Stephenson, A. I. A., Actuary, Crown Life Insurance Company, 
Toronto, Can. 

Samuel Edgar Stilwell, Ph.D., Actuary, Western and Southern Life Insurance 
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

William Ballantyne Strachan, B. A., Imperial Life Assurance Company, Toronto, 
Ontario, Can. 

Wendell Melville Strong, Ph.D.,LL.B.. Associate Actuary, Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, 33 Nassau St., New York. 

Thomas Freeman Tarbell, A. B., Hartford, Conn. 

J. Walter Tebbets, M.A.. Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company, Newark. N. J. 

Richard Teece, F. I. A., F. F. A.. Actuary, Australian Mutual Provident Society, 
Sydney. Australia. 

Herbert Cecil Thiselton. F. I. A., F. F. A., General Manager, London Guarantee 
and Accident Company, London, E. C, England. 

Earl Mountain Thomas, B. S., A. M., Awistant Actuary, John Hancock Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, Boston, Mass. 

John Spencer Thompson. M.A.. F. I. A., F. F. A., Assistant Actuary, Mutual Life 
Insurance Company. 33 Nassau St., New York, N. Y. 

Morris Whittemore Torrey, Manager. Reinsurance division. Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company, New York, N. Y. 

Dwight A. Walker, B.A., A. I. A., assistant actuary. Equitable Life Assurance 
Society, New York. 

Andrew Daniel Watson, A. I. A., Actuary, Government Insurance Department, 
Ottawa, Canada. 

James Douglas Watson, F. I. A.. Deputy Chairman, Eagle, Star and British 
Dominions Insurance Company, 33 Moorgate St., London, E. C. 

William Arthur Watt, M.A., A. I. A.. Secretary and Actuary, Southern Life and 
Trust Company. Greensboro. N. C. 

* Rufus Wells Weeks. A. I. A.. Cor. Mem. I. A. Fr.. (Ex-Preddent), Vkc- 
President and Chief Actuary, New York Life Insurance Company. 346 Broadway. 
New York. 

Archibald Ashley Welch, A. B., Yice-president, Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Conn. 

* Daniel Halsey Wells, Ph B., C. E., (Ex-President), Consulting Actuary. Con- 
necticut Mutual Life Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Albert W. Whitney, .\.B., General manager, National Workmen's Comt>ensation 
Service Bureau, 13 Park Row, New York, N. Y. 

William Joseph Hatchings Whittall, F. I. A., Grayswood Hill, Haslemere, Lon- 
don, England. 

Frederick Alfred Williams, A. I. A., F. S. S., Manager and Actuary, La Nacional 
Compania de Seguros sobre la Vida, Mexico City. Mex. 

William Rulon Williamson, M. A., Assistant Actuary, Travelers Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Conn. 

* Asa Shove Wing, Cor. Mem. I. A. Fr., President, Provident Life and Trun 
Company, 409 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hugh Herbert Wolfenden, A. I. A., F. F. S., Grimsby, Ontario, Canada. 
Arthur Barton Wood, A.B., F. I. A., Actuary, Sun Life Assurance Company of 
Canada, Montreal, Can. 

William Archibald Porter Wood, B.A., A. I. A., Actuary, Canada Life Assur- 
ance Company, Toronto, Can. 

Ernest Woods, F. I. A., Actuary, Guardian Assurance Company. Ltd., 11 Lombard 
St., W. C, London. 

♦ George Badger Woodward, Second Vice-president, Metropolitan Life Insur- 
ance Company, x Madison Ave.. New York. 

Joseph Hooker Woodward, Ph. B., Equitable Life Assurance Society, I30 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. 



* Charter members. 



Life and Casualty Section 225 

Peter Troth Wright. A.M., 704 West St.. Wilmiocton. Del. 

Frank Bertrand W>'att, F. I. A., 37 Edwardes Square, Kensington W. 8., London, 
Eng. 

Tsuneta Yano, Cor. Mem. I. A. Fr., Ex<president, Institute of Actuaries of Japan, 
President. First Mutual Life Insurance Company. Nehonbashi-ku, Tokio. 

William Young, F. F. A., New York Life Insurance Co., 346 Broadway, New York. 

There are two grades in the Society, viz. : Fellows and Associates, 
and, practically speaking, no one can become a Fellow unless he passes 
the prescribed examinations for Associateship and for Fellowship — 
a course which takes four or five years. Anyone who has been pur- 
suing actuarial studies and is favorably known to two members of the 
Society may make application to the Council, and if his application is 
approved by the Council and he can then pass the examinations pre- 
scribed by the Council, he will be admitted as an Associate. Examina- 
tions may be waived if a candidate for admission as associate who, 
while not a resident of the United States or Canada, has passed an 
equivalent examination by another recognized society, and no examina- 
tion fee will be required. He may be permitted to take the examinations 
before attaining age 21, but cannot become an Associate until attaining 
that age. 

Any Associate who has been such for at least ten months and is 
25 years of age may apply to the Council for Fellowship, and if his 
application is approved and he passes two additional examinations, 
he will then become a Fellow. He may take the examinations before 
attaining aee 25, but cannot become a Fellow until attaining that age. 
Fellows of the Society ma^ append to their names the initials " F. A. S.," 
and Associates "A. A. b." 

The examinations are held on the first Wednesday and Thursday 
after the twentieth of May in each year. The custom has been to hold 
the examinations in as many places and in such localities as will be con- 
venient to two or more candidates, although in certain cases an examina- 
tion center is instituted for a single person. Examinations have here- 
tofore been exclusively in writing. Examinations are now divided into 
four parts for Associateship, which may be taken in different years; 
and into two parts for Fellowship. Two parts of the Associateship and 
no more can be taken in one year. 

All applications for admission to the examinations must be sub- 
mitted to the Council, which cannot act thereon until at least twenty 
days after notice has been given of such candidacy, to all the members 
of the Society. Applications are required to be in the hands of 
the Secretary on or before the 1st of March of each year. 

The Society publishes annually a pamphlet giving the examination 
papers for the year, and another pamphlet giving the recommendations 
of the Educational Committee. The published Transactions of the 
Society contain the various papers presented at the meetings, and the 
discussions thereon. Copies may be had at $.75 each by addressing the 
Secretary, Room 1233, 346 Broadway, New York City. 

ACTUARY. Originally a public officer in the Roman courts 
of justice, who drew up contracts, etc., in the presence of the magis- 
trates. Actuaries also kept the military accounts of the Romans. 



226 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

[See Walford.] In the United States the profession of actuary is . 
confined principally to the mathematical questions involved in the 
practice of life insurance, such as the construction of premiums, dis- 
tribution of surplus, surrender values, etc. The actuary is usually 
an ofhcer of his company, but is seldom, contrary to the English prac- 
tice, a manager. 

iETNA CASUALTY AND SURETY COMPANY. Hartford, 
Conn. Began business 1907; capital, $2,000,000. Morgan G. Bulk- 
eley, president; D. N. Gage, Vice-president; C. H. Remington, vice- 
president and assistant treasurer; M. B. Brainard, treasurer; M. G. 
Bulkeley, Jr., assistant treasurer; Rawdon W. Myers, secretar>'; 
John S. Turn, secretary New York branch; W. E. A. Bulkeley. auditor; 
Barrett A. Hunt, Actuary; Harry Tyler Smith, Oliver R. Beckwith 
counsel; J. H. Ford and C. E. Sprague, auditors of payrolls and ac- 
counts; David Van Schaack, director of bureau of inspection and 
accident prevention; William L. Mooney, agency secretary; N. C. Stev- 
ens, secretary, plate glass; D. G. Stone, secretary, water damage and 
fly wheel; A. R. Sexton, A. B. Palmerton, secretaries, fidelity and 
surety; W. J. O'Donnell, secretary, automobile; G. E. Ashley, assistant 
secretary, burglary. 

The company, formerly i^tna Accident and Liability Company, 
adopted the present title in 1917. 

iETNA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, of Hartford. The 
JEtna. (Fire) Insurance Company, in 1820, the year after its incor- 

f>oration, received authority from the Connecticut legislature to estab- 
ish an annuity fund, with a capital stock of $150,000 to be pledged 
exclusively for the payment of annuities and of losses upon insured 
lives. It was not until 1850, however, that the company availed itself 
of this privilege. In 1853 a petition was presented to the General 
Assembly in Hartford asking for an alteration of the company's char- 
ter so as to constitute the shareholders of the annuity fund a sep- 
arate and distinct corporation for the purpose of conducting a life 
insurance business. The bill was passed May 25, 1853, and the ^tna 
Life Insurance Company came into existence with Judge Eliphalet 
A. Bulkeley as its first president. John W. Seymour was made sec- 
retary. The directors were E. A. Bulkeley, Austin Dunham, H. Z. 
Pratt, Law^son C. Ives, Mark Howard, John Warburton, Roland 
Mather, S. L. Loomis, J. W. Seymour, and W. H. D. Callender. 

For the first few years, development, in comparison with the 
rapid growth of recent years, was slow, due largely to the period of 
financial depression preceding the Civil War. But since 1863 prog- 
ress has been swift and steady. In 1861 the company began issu- 
ing participating policies. The JEtna, Life was a pioneer in loaning to 
western farmers, and secured many mortgages in Illinois bearing ten per 
cent, interest. Immigration was heavy, with a consequent enhancement 
of land value, and both the farmers and the company prospered by the 
latter's foresight. Later the company repeated the process in Iowa 
with equal success. This policy of taking farm mortgages has always 



Life and Casualty Section 



227 



been a favorite form of investment with the JEtna Life, and has met 
with extraordinarily fortunate results. The following table shows 
clearly the growth of the company: 

ASSETS AND LIFE INSURANCE IN FORCE 



End of Year 


No. of Policiea 


Amount InBured 


Assets 


Z850 


1.003 


$1,281,710 


$168,788 


1865 


14.154 


32,935.996 


2,036.823 


1880 


56.651 


77,951.819 


26.327.267 


1890 


74.014 


117.656,381 


34.500,875 


189s 


85.368 


140.027.260 


43,560,037 


1900 


108,756 


184,552,083 


55.901,476 


190S 


146,215 


250,858.315 


79,247,504 


1910 


170.208 


307.102,649 


101.018,143 


19x6 


202,971 


467,545.656 


131.298,624 


1917 


214,814 


572,916,282 


140,584,444 


Z918 


219.814 


673.171.467 


149.788,100 


1919 


242.364 


892.676.309 


163,097.712 


1920 


267,876 


1,155.589.341 


177.502,366 


1921 


281,736 


1,204.000,397 


191. 7 18.046 



On January i, 1891, the company opened an accident department, 
and in 1902 began the issue of employers liability insurance. The acci- 
dent premium income in 1891, was $39,806.15; in 192 1 the accident, 
health, liability and workmen's compensation premium income was 
$24,066,662. The total assets of all departments on January i, 1922, 
were $191,718,046.24. The liabilities were $169,438,524.23, and the 
surplus was $22,279,522.01. 

Hon. E. A. Bulkeley held the office of president until his death 
in 1872, when he was succeeded by Thomas O. Enders. In 1878 the 
company petitioned the General Assembly for authority to increase 
the capital to an amount not exceeding $750,000, and the charter was 
amencled accordingly. The act required the increase to be made from 
surplus funds derived from non-participating stock plan business. 
The capital stood at $750,000 until 1883, when the charter was again 
amended authorizing an increase to $2,000,000. Meanwhile Mr. 
Enders had resigned in 1879 and the present head of the company, 
Morgan G. Bulkeley, son of the first president, became president. 
In 1883 the capital was increased to $1,000,000; in 1887 to $1,250,000; 
in 1892 to $1,500,000; in 1895 to $1,750,000. In 1903 it was increased 
to $2,000,000; in 19 13 to $4,000,000, and in 19 15 to $5,000,000. 

Expanding business has required repeated changes in location. 
In 1888 the company bought for $231,000 the building which the 
Charter Oak Life Insurance Company erected at a cost of $844,380. 
That same year the ^Etna Life moved in and occupied the first floor. It 
was not long before it became necessary to use the whole five-story build- 
ing, and in 19 13 it was decided to add five more stories. By April, 19 15, 
the new home office was ready for occupation, and so great was the amount 
of business that all available room was in use immediately. 

Since the founding of the company, vice-presidents have been: 
J. W. Seymour, 1856-57; John Warburton, 1857-60; S. L. Loomis, 
1860-63; Austin Dunham, 1863-77; W. H. Bulkeley, 1877-79; J- C. 
Webster, 1879-1900; J. L. English, 1905- ; M. B. Brainard, 1910-; 
C- H. Remington, 1922- ; Frank Bushnell, 1922. 



228 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

The secretaries have been: J. W. Seymour, 1853-55; Samuel 
Coit, 1855-58; Thomas O. Enders, 1858-72; J. L. English, 1872- 
1905; C. E. Gilbert, 1905-; W. H. Newell, 191 7*. 

The present officers of the company are: Morgan G. Bulkeley, pre- 
sident; J. L. English, vice-president; M. B. Brainard, vice-president; 

C. H. Remington, vice-president and assistant treasurer; Frank Bush- 
nell, vice-president; C. E. Gilbert, secretary; W. H. Newell, secretary; 
M. G. Bulkeley, Jr., treasurer; A. J. Moody, assistant secretary; C. H. 
Symonds, assistant secretary; H. W. St. John, actuary; M. H. Peiler, 
actuary; E. E. Cammack, actuary; W. E. A. Bulkeley, auditor; S. R. 
Braman, assistant auditor; H. E. Wright, assistant auditor; Lewis 
Sperry, general counsel; Frank W. Bidwell, secretary of claim division; 
R. B. English secretary of Group Division; Edward K. Root, M.D., 
medical director; Phineas H. Ingalls, M.D., associate medical director; 
W. E. Dickerman, M.D., associate medical director; Ernest A. Wells, 
M. D., associate medical director; William R. Miller, M. D., associate 
medical director. 

Accident and Liability department: J. M. Parker, Jr., secretary; 
E. C. Higgins, secretary; C. B. Morcom, secretary; E. C. Bowen, 
assistant secretary; Philip L. Hotchkiss, assistant secretary; J. V. 
Adams, assistant secretary; B. A. Hunt, assistant secretary; F. L. 
Parker, assistant secretary; F. E. Barber, assistant secretary; John S. 
Turn, secretary New York Branch; Geo. E. Tucker, M. D., medical 
•director; David Van Schaack, director of Bureau of Inspection and 
Accident Prevention; Harry Tyler Smith, counsel; William L. Mooney, 
agency secretary; J. H. Ford, auditor of payrolls and accounts; C. E. 
Sprague, auditor of payrolls and accounts. 

Directors: Morgan G. Bulkeley, Samuel G. Dunham, John 0. 
Enders, M. B. Brainard, W. E. A. Bulkeley, J. L. English, Lewis Sperr>', 

D. Newton Barney, M. G. Bulkeley, Jr., C. H. Remington. 

AGRICULTURAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Bay City. 
Mich. Organized in 1914. Francis F. McGinnis, president; Willard 

E. King, vice-president; Jos. C. Grosjean, secretary and treasurer; 
T. O. Teschendorf, assistant secretary and actuary; F. A. Benson, 
superintendent of agencies. 

ALABAMA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. 1860-1922. 
In i860 the supervision of the business of insurance in Alabama was 
vested in the State Auditor, but by an act of the Legislature in 1897 
it was transfered to the Secretary of State, who became insurance 
commissioner, ex-officio. John Purifoy was elected in 1915. The 
legislature of 1915 created a separate insurance department. The 
commissioner is appointed by the governor. The term is four years 
and the salary $3,000 per annum. C. Brooks Smith was appointed under 
tfce law and was succeeded in 19 19 by L. Y. Dean. The present com- 
missioner, appointed in 1920, is A. W. Briscoe. [See Cyclopedia for 
1913-14 for list of former officials.] 



Life and Casualty Section 229 

ALABAMA NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Birmingham, Ala. Organized 1908; capital, $156,587. E. R. Mc- 
David, president; J. T. Palmer, vice-president; Sterling J. Foster, 
vice-president and agency director; Sam V. Woodfin, second vice- 
president; J. B. Burris, third vice-president; A. L. Fairley, secretary 
and treasurer; Samuel Barnett, actuary; Dr. J. D. Heacock, medical 
director; Dr. W. P. McAdor>', assistant medical director. The com- 
pany, organized as Great Southern Life, adopted the present title 
July I, 1921. 

ALASKA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. By act of Con- 
gress, approved June 6, 1900, insurance companies are required to 
report to the Surveyor-General, who is acting Secretary of the Dis- 
trict. The present incumbent of the office is R. J . Sommers. 

ALLIANCE AGAINST ACCIDENT FRAUD. An Associa- 
tion of casualty insurance companies and representatives of railroads, 
was organized at a meeting in New York, m November, 1905. Its 
object IS stated to be: "To protect and defend its members against 
fraudulent claims; to prosecute all persons engaged in presenting and 
promoting such claims; to collect and disseminate information to its 
members, concerning fake claimants, shyster lawyers, unprincipled 
physicians, ambulance chasers, false witnesses, and others engaged in 
such practices and their methods." Officers were elected as follows: 
President, Robert B. Armstrong, Casualty Company of America; 
first vice-president, James R. Piatt, United Railways & Electric Com- 
pany, Baltimore; second vice-president, R. C. Richards, Chicago & 
Northwestern Railway Company; secretary and treasurer, Chauncey 
S. S. Miller, Casualty Company of America. The work of the Alliance 
is carried on through committees. At the annual meeting in January, 
1922, officers were elected as follows: Wm. D. Cushman, president; 
Second Avenue RR. Co.; Otto Kaufmann, vice-president, Maryland 
Casualty; F. L. Arnold, secretary; F. D. Edmunds, treasurer; direc- 
tors: Chas. J. Druhan, Assistant Corporation Counsel, City of New 
Vork; J. L. Quackenbush, Interborough R. T. Co.; Chas. J. Quinlan, 
Black and White Taxi Co.; J. W. Yenson, Third Avenue RR. Co.; 
\Vm. S. McClure, New Jersey Fidelity and Plate Glass Insurance Co.; 
C. P. Reid, Travelers Insurance Co.; Room 2001 Park Row Building, 
New York. 

The Index Bureaus have been established at the followimg places: 
Xew York City, 21 Park Row; Philadelphia, Pa., Land Title build- 
ing, Philadelphia, Pa.; Chicago, 111., Old Colony building, Chicago, 111.; 
Boston, 88 nroad Street, Boston, Mass. 

AMERICAN BANKERS INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago, 
111. Organized 1909; capital, $118,505. E. W. Spicer, president; 
R. A. Hann, vice-president and actuary; John O. Karstrom, secretary 
and treasurer; Rufus M. Bishop, medical director. 

AMERICAN CASUALTY COMPANY, Reading, Pa. Organ- 
ized 1902; capital, $500,000 E. P. Van Reedt president; James M. 
>Iiller, vice-president; Harvey H. Shomo, secretary and treasurer. 



230 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

AMERICAN CENTRAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Indianapolis, Ind. Organized 1899; capital $137,000. H. M. Woollen, 
president; E. Woollen, vice-president; E. A. Meyer, secretary; F. W. 
Morrison, M. F. Belisle, H. R. Wilson, vice-presidents; George E. 
Hume, treasurer; Henry W. Buttolph, actuary; Greenly V. Woolen, 
medical director; J. M. Smith, assistant medical director; Roy A. 
Hunt, vice-president. 

AMERICAN CREDIT INDEMNITY COMPANY. New York. 
Organized 1893; capital $350,000. Edwin M. Treat, president; 
A. L. Shapleigh and J. J. Schotten, vice-presidents; L. J. Nouss, 
secretary; C. B. Brownlee, treasurer. The executive headquarters of 
the company are in St. Louis, Mo. 

AMERICAN FIDELITY COMPANY, Montpelier. Vt. Organ- 
ized 1900; cash capital, $150,000. C. H. Darling, president; B. B. 
Bailey, vice-president; L. D. Taft, second vice-president; Ralph B. 
Denny, secretary and treasurer. 

AMERICAN FRATERNAL CONGRESS, was organized at a 
meeting in Chicago, 111., in February, 1919, and is the successor of 
the Presidents' Association of Fraternal Societies organized in No- 
vember, 19 1 8, Its objects are the furthering of legislation favorable 
to fraternal societies and the promotion of their interest6 in general. 
The officers elected were: President, A, R. Talbot, head counsel. Modern 
Woodmen of America; secretary, John H. Notley, Supreme Master, 
Mystic Workers of the World. 

The third annual meeting of the Congress was held in Chicago 
February 20-21, 1922. President Mrs. Frances E. Burns, Great Com- 
mander, Ladies of the Maccabees, Presided. 

In her address Mrs. Burns gave an able review of Fraternal opera- 
tions during the past year. Her recommendation included greater 
activity on the part of Societies in welfare work, and complete adoption 
of the New York Conference Bill in all states .n which it is not now the 
law. In closing she discussed United States Life Tables emphasizing 
the point that these tables show that women have a longevity of three 
years greater than the exclusive male table. 

Papers were read as follows: "Progress in Fraternal Valuation." 
W. N. Phillips, actuar>', R. N. A.; "Should the measure of Solvency, 
Including Publicity, applied to Fraternals, be required of Old Line 
and all forms of Life Insurance," L. K. Cleaveland, NorthAmerican 
Union; "Field Work Business Principles," W. A. Eraser, Woodmen of 
World; "Standards of Medical Selections," Dr. W. J. Means, American 
Insurance Union; "Oklahoma Plan of Supervision," I. I. Boak, Wood- 
men of the World, Denver; "Suggested Plans to Secure and Hold New 
Business," J. M. Kirkpatrick, Security Benefit Association; "New Ideas 
of Solving the old Problems of Lapses, "C. B. Gardner, Modern Order of 
Praetorians; "Overhead Expense of Administration," D. E. Smith, 
Mystic Workers of the World ; "Improving Interest in Lodge Meetings" 
Mrs. Eva Child, Royal Neighbors of America; "The Relationship of 



Life and Casualty Section 231 

Fraternal Magazines to Fraternal Societies," Arthur S. Hamilton, The 
Fraternal Monitor; "Outlook of the Future," E. J. Dunn, Loyal Ameri- 
can Life Association. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, C. B. Gardner, Dallas, 
Texas; past president, Mrs. Frances E. Burns, St. Louis, Mich.; 
vice-president, L L Boak, Denver, Colo.; secretary, W. N. Phillips 
Rock Island, 111.; treasurer, Mrs. Carrie E. Torrey, Port Huron, Mich. 

AMERICAN GUARANTY COMPANY, Columbus, Ohio. 
Organized 191 2; capital, $215,000. John L. Hamilton, president; 
Samuel C. Wheeler and Burt S. Stratton, vice-presidents; E. J. Johnson 
secretary; John L. Hamilton, Jr.,. treasurer. Business transacted is 
casualty insurance. 

AMERICAN INDEMNITY COMPANY, Galveston, Tex. 
Organized 1913; cash capital, $600,000. Sealy Hutchings, president; 
C. H. Moore, vice-president; John Sealy, vice-president; George 
Scaly, vice-president and secretary; H. O. Stein, vice-president and 
treasurer; J. F. Seinsheimer, vice-president and general manager; 
J. M. Jacobs, assistant secretary and agency manager; H. Economidy, 
assistant secretary and comptroller. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ACTUARIES. This associa- 
tion was organized at a meeting held in Chicago in May, 1909, and the 
organization was promoted by and is largely composed of actuaries 
connected with companies located in the central, western, and south- 
ern sections of the country, and its purposes are the advancement of 
the science of insurance mathematics. The membership is composed 
of Fellows, Associates and Contributine members. Anyone of legal 
age pursuing actuarial studies may become an associate, on nomina- 
tion by two Fellows and approved by the Board of Governors, and 
having passed such examination as the Board of Governors may pre- 
scribe. Any associate, who has been such for at least two months and 
is twenty-five years of age, may become a Fellow on passing such final 
examination as may be required by the Board of Governors. The 
examination may be waived if the candidate has passed an equivalent 
examination required by another recognized society of actuaries. 
Associate members are not entitled to vote or hold office, and contribut- 
ing members may be any legal reserve company. The officers of the 
Institute are under the direction of a Board of Governors consisting 
of the officers, ex-presidents, and six elected members — two being 
sleeted annually. Lucius McAdam was the first president, and Jacob 
C- Seitz, secretary. 

The following was the membership roll on June i, 1922: 

Board of Governors — Officers: President, George Graham; vice-president, James 
Kairlie; secretary, George B. Pattison; treasurer, Bert J. Stookey; librarian, Edwin 
R. Carter; editor, Donald F. Campbell: ex-presidents, Henry Wright Buttolph: 
Orwald James Arnold, Joseph Howard Nitchie, Charles Harrison Beckett; elected 
meinTierB, Lawrence M. Cathles. Percy H. Evans, James Waterman Glover, Frank J. 
Haight, Thomas A. Phillips, Jacob Charles Rietz. 



232 Cyclopedia of Ixsuranxe 

FELLOWS 

Sinclair E. Allison, A. A. S., Pan American Life Insurance Company. New Orleans, 
La. 

Henry W. Allstrom, A.A.S., Minnesota Mutual Life Insurance Company. St. 
Paul. Minn. 

Ernest C. Ames, A. B.. LL.B., Bankers Life Insurance Company, Lincoln, Neb. 

Lewis Albert Anderson, B.L., Insurance department, Madison, Wis. 

Lewis Albert Anderson, B.L., Central Life Assurance Society, of the United 
States, Des Moines, la. 

Charles Hart Angell, A.B., Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, 
Springfield, Mass. 

Troy Wilson Appleby, A.M.. Ohio National Life Insurance Company, Cin- 
cinnati. Ohio. 

Oswald James Arnold. B.&, Illinois Life Insurance Company, Chicago, 111. 

W. Nelson Bagley. B.S., F.A.S., The Travelers Insurance Company. Hartford 
Conn. 

WMlHam Francis Barnard, consulting actuary, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Samuel Barnett, A.B., C. E.. consulting actuary. Atlanta, Ga. 

Charles Harrison Beckett. A.B., Mem., A. M. S.. State Life Insurance Company. 
Indianapolis. Ind. 

Judah Phillip Bowerman. George Washington Life Insurance Company, Charles- 
ton. W. Va. 

GeorKC Burton Buck. 356 Broadway. New York. N. Y. 

Russell Conklin Burton, A. B., New World Life Insurance Company, Spokane, 
Wash. 

Henry Wright Buttolph, A.M., A.A.S., American Central Life Insurance Com- 
pany, Indianapolis. Ind. 

J. Campbell Cameron, M.FA., F. . A., A. A. S.. Great Southern Life Insurance 
Company, Houston, Tex. 

Donald Francis Campbell, A.M., Ph.D., (Mem. A.M.S.,) 76 West Monroe St., 
Chicago. 111. 

Francis Edgar Cann, M.A., F.A.S., Southern Life and Trust Company, Greens- 
boro. N. C. 

Edwin Richmond Carter, National Life Insurance Company of United States of 
America, Chkago, 111. 

Lawrence M. Cathles. F. F. A., A. I. A., A. A . S., Southland Life Insurance. 
Company, Dallas, Texas. 

Arthur Coburn, F.A.S.. Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company, Mil- 
waukee. Wis. 

Ralph B. Coit. Jefferson Standard Life Insurance Company. Greensboro. N. C> 

Henry Richmond Corbett, B. Sc., Ph. M., Insurance Exchange Building. Chicago. 
lU. 

James D. Craig. F.A.S., Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. New York, N. Y. 

Harold W. Curjel, M.A.. A.A.S., F.I. A.. Illinois Life Insurance Company, 
Chicago, III. 

Miles M. Dawson, F. A. S., F. I. A., L.L.D., Suite lOOS 26 West 44th St., New 
York, N. Y. 

Frederick Adams Draper, 616 First St., Wausau, Wis. 

Earl O. Dunlap. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York, N. Y. 

James Strode Elston, A.B., F.A.S.. The Travelers Insurance Company. Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

Saul Epsteen, Ph.D., Lajara. Colo. 

Percy H. Evans, Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company. Milwaukee. 
Wis. 

James Fairlie. M. A., A. A. S., Mutual Life Insurance Company of Illinois. 
Springfield, 111. 

James F. Flanigan. F. A. S., Bankers Life Insurance Company, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Richard Fondiller. M.A., LL.B., Itquitable Life Assurance Society, New York 
City. N. Y. 

J. Burnett Gibb, F. F. A.. A. I. A.. F. A. S.. Penn. Mutual Life Insurance Company, 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

James Waterman Glover. A.M., Ph.D.. F. A. A. S., (Mem. A. M. S.), 620 Oxford 
Road. Ann Arbor, Mich. 

William H. Gould, M. A., A. I. A., A. A. S.. 256 Broadway, New York City. N. Y. 

George Graham, F. F. A., A. A. S., A. I. A., Central States Life Insurance Com- 
pany, St. Louis, Mo. 



Life and Casualty Section 233 

Winifred W. Greene, Employers Mutual Insurance Company, 6i Broadway. 
New York, N. Y. 

Marcus Gunn, A. B., 29 South LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 



Frank j. Haight, 813 Hume-Mansur Building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

G. Hann, Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company, Lc 
Julian C. Harvey, L.L.B., Third National Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo.. 



Alfred G. Hann, Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company, Loa Angeles, Cal. 

Julian C. Harvey, L.L.B., Third National Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo.. 

Frank C. Hemsing, Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company, Milwaukee, 



Wis. 

Cari £. Herfurth, Montana Life Insiirance Company, Helena, Mont. 

John E. Higdon, A.B., Kansas City, Mo. 

I. Smith Romans, A. A. S., Commonwealth Life Insurance Company, LouisviUe, 
Ky. 

Francis M. Hope, A. I. A., F. F. A., Occidental Life Insurance Company, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

Arthur J. C. Huenergard, B.A., F.A.S., Commonwealth Life Insurance Com- 
pany, Omaha, Neb. 

Charles Hughes, A. A. S., New York Insurance Department, New York City, N. Y. 

Arthur Hunter, F. F. A., F. A. S.. New York Life Insurance Company, New 
York, N. Y. 

Robertson G. Hunter, F. A. S., A. I. A., Equitable Life Insurance Company, Des 
Moines, Iowa. 

Edward Wyilys Hyde, B. C. B., C. E., Columbia Life Insurance Company, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Walter I. King, A.B., F. A. S.. Connecticut General Life Insurance Company, 
Hartford, Conn. 

John Melvin Laird, B.A., F.A.S., A.I.A., Connecticut General Life Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Conn. 

William Macfarlane, F. F. A., F. A. S., New York Life Insurance Company, 
New York, N. Y. 

Alexander T. Maclean, Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, Spring- 
field, Mass. 

James Mcintosh, F. F. A., Minnesota Mutual Life Insurance Company, St. 
Paul, Minn. 

Malcolm McNeiU. Ph.D., Lake Forest College, Lake Forest. lU. 

Erston L. Marshall, A. B., J. D., 323 Craft Building, Des Moines, la. 

Franklin B. Mead, A.B., F. A. S., Lincoln National Life Insurance Company, 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Henry Moir, F. F. A., F. I. A., F. A. S., Home Life Insurance Company, New 
York, N. Y. 

Paul Vaughan Montgomery, B.A.. Fort Worth Life Insurance Company, Fort 
Worth. Tex. 

Edward B. Morris, Ph.B., F.A.S., The Travelers Insurance Company, Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

William O. Morris, A. A. S., North American Life Insurance Company, Chicago. 
lU. 

William E. Napier, Scranton Life Insurance Company, Scrantun, Pa. 

Joseph Howard Nitchie, A.B., F. A. S., Room 152/, 19 So. La SalJe St., Chicago, 
UL 

Bernard Robert Nueske, Old Colony Life Insurance Company. Chicago, 111. 

Robert Kelly Orr, Lansing, Mich. 

Percy Charles Herbert Papps. A. 1. A., F. A. S., The Mutual Benefit Life Insurance 
Company, Newark. N. J. 

John G. Parker, Imperial Life Assurance Company, Toronto, Canada. 

George B. Pattison, A. A. S.. Peoria Life Insurance Company. Peoria, III. 

Oliver W. Perrin, B.A., M.A., F. A. S., Penn. Mutual Life Insurance Company, 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

S. L. Phelps, B. S., Lincoln National Life Insurance Company, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Thomas A. Phillip|S, A.B., A.A.S., A.I.A.. Minnesota Mutual Life Insurance 
Company. St. Paul. Minn. 

Sidney Herbert Pipe, F. A. S.. A. I. A.. Temple Building, Toronto, Canada. 

Joseph B. Reynolds. Kansas City Life Insurance Company, Kansas City, Mo. 

Ed\ii-ard £. Rhodes. F.A.S., Mutual Benefit Life Insurance Company, Newark, 
N. J. 

Henr>' Lewis Rietz. B.Sc., Ph.D., F.A.A.S.. F. R. S. S. (Mem. A. M. S.), Uni- 
vesvity of Iowa, Iowa City. Iowa. 

J. Charles Rietz, A.B., Midland Mutual Life Insurance Company. Columbus. Ohio. 

John Francis Roche, F. A. S., Manhattan Life Insurance Company, New York 
City. 



234 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



George Roslington, F. C. A., A. I. S., Ocddental Life Insurance Company. 
Albuquerque. N. M. 

George W. Sanders. A.B., F. A. S.. Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company, 
Detroit. Mich. 

Jacob Charles Seitz, A.B., Security Life Insurance Company of America. Chicago. 

All* 

Andrew Siglenhorst, Texas Life Insurance Company. Waco, Texas. 

A. A. Speers, B.A.. F.A.S., North American Life Insurance Company. Omaha, 
Neb. 

Calvert F. Stein. Maryland Assurance Corporation. Baltimore, Md. 

Bert J. Stookey. Illinois Life Insurance Company. Chicago. III. 

Gordon VVm. Thomson. F. F". A.. A. I. A., A. A. S., West Coast Life Insurance 
Company. San Francisco, Cal. 

Carleton M. Vail, A.B., no So. Dearborn St., Chicago. 111. 

James H. Washburn, A.A.S., 165 Broadway. New York City. N. Y. 

William A. Watt, M.A., F. A. S., Southern Life and Trust Company, Greensboro. 
N. C. 

Robert Montague Webb. Kansas City Life Insurance Company. Kansas City, 
Mo. 

A. A. Welch, Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn. 

Romeo M. Wilbur. 549 Railway Exchange Building. Chicago. 111. 

Frederick A. Williams. A.I.A., F.S.S., F.A.S., Apartado 1420, Mexico City, 
Republic of Mexico. 

Frederic Scherer Withington, consulting actuary, 402-404 Kraft Building. 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

J. H. Woodward, Guardian Life Insurance Company, New York City, N. Y. 

Paul Livingston Woolston. B.S., 1636 E. Eighth Ave.. Denver. Colo. 

AMERICAN EXPERIENCE TABLE OF MORTALITY 



Ate 



10 
II 

13 
13 

14 

IS 

16 

17 
18 

19 

20 
21 
22 
23 

24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 



Num- 
ber 
Livinn 



100,000 
99.251 
98.505 
97.762 

97.022 

96.28s 
95.550 
94.818 
94.089 
93..?62 
92,037 
91.914 
91.192 
90.471 
89.751 
89.032 

88.314 
87.596 
86.878 
86.160 

85.441 
84.721 
84.000 
83.277 
82.551 
81.822 
8 1 ,090 

80.353 
70.011 



Num- 


Expec- 




ber 


tation 


Age 


Dying 


of Life 


39 


749 


48.72 


746 


48.08 


40 


743 


47.45 


41 


740 


46.80 


42 


737 


46.16 


43 


735 


45.50 


44 


732 


44.85 


45 


729 


44.19 


46 


727 


43.53 


47 


72s 


42-87 


48 


723 


42.20 


49 


722 


41.53 


50 


721 


40.85 


51 


720 


40.17 


52 


719 


39.40 


53 


718 


38.81 


54 


718 


38.12 


55 


718 


37.43 


50 


718 


36.73 


57 


719 


30.03 


58 


720 


35-33 


59 


721 


34.63 


60 


723 


33.92 


61 


726 


33.21 


62 


729 


32.50 


63 


732 


31.78 


64 


737 


31.07 


65 


742 


30.35 


66 


740 


20. O2 


67 



Num- 
ber 
Living 



78,862 
78,106 

77.341 
76.567 
75.782 

74.985 
74.173 
73.345 
72.497 
71.627 
70.731 
69,804 
08,842 
07,841 
66,797 
65.706 

64.563 

63.364 
62.104 

60,779 
59.385 
57.917 
50.371 
54.743 
53.030 
51.230 

49.341 
47.361 
45.201 



Num- 
ber 
Dying 



756 
76s 
774 
78s 
797 
812 
828 
848 
870 
896 

927 
962 

1,001 

1.044 
1,091 
1. 143 
1. 199 

1,200 
1.325 

1,394 
1,468 

1.546 
1.628 

1. 713 
1,800 
1.889 
1.980 
2.070 
2.i«;8 



Expec- 
tation 
of Life 

28.90 
28.18 

27.45 
26.72 
26.00 
25.27 
24.54 
23.81 
23.08 
22.36 
21.63 

20.91 
20.20 

19.49 
18.79 
18.09 
17.40 
10.72 
16.05 
15.39 
14-74 
14.10 

13.47 
12.86 
12.26 
11.67 
II. 10 

10.54 
10.00 



Age 

68 

69 
70 
71 
72 

73 

74 
75 
76 

77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 

83 

84 
85 
86 

87 
88 

89 
90 

91 
92 
93 
94 
95 



Num- 
ber 
Liung 

43.133 
40.890 

38,569 
36.178 
33.730 

31.243 
28,738 
26,237 
23.761 
21,330 
18.961 
16,670 

14.474 
12,383 

10.419 
8,603 
6,955 
5.485 
4.193 
3.079 
2.146 
1.402 

847 
462 
216 

79 
21 

3 



Num- Exptc- 

ber ' tation 

Dyin^ ofLUt 



2,243 
2.321 

2.391 
2.44S 
2.487 
2.505 
2.SOI 
2,476 
2,431 
2.369 
2.291 
2.196 
2.001 

1.964 
1.816 

1.648 

1.470 

1.292 

1,114 

933 

744 

555 

38S 

246 

137 
58 
iS 

3 



9.47 
8.97 
8.48 
8.00 

7-55 
7. II 
6.68 
6.27 
S-8S 

5.4P 
5.11 
4-74 
4-39 
4-05 
3 71 
3'3(J 
3-oS 

2-77 
2^7 

2.18 

I.91 
1.6^) 
1.42 
1. 10 

.OvS 

.So 
.64 
.50 



\ 



Life and Casualty Section 235 

AMERICAN HOME LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Topeka, 
Kansas. Organized 1909. Fred S. Jackson, president; W. F. Burson 
and A. L. Burney, vice-presidents; E. P. Mitzger, secretary; J. N. 
DolJery, treasurer; Dr. A. H. Marshall, medical director. 

AMERICAN LIABILITY COMPANY, Cincinnati, Ohio. Or- 
ganized 1 910; succeeding the American Liability Company, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., Capital, $200,000. J. A. Johnston, president; W. R. 
Sanders, vice-president and general manager; G. W. Burnett, P. F. 
Jamieson, vice-presidents; Daniel J. Lyons, treasurer; Cameron H. 
oanders, secretary. The company transacts automobile insurance, 
public liability, property damage, collision, fire, transportation and 
theft, and accident and health insurance. 

AMERICAN LIFE CONVENTION was organized in 1905 by 
the officers of life insurance companies of the western and southern 
states. The first annual meeting was held at Lookout Mountain, 
Tenn., September 29 and 30, 1906, and officers were elected as fol- 
lows: President, Charles E. Dark, American Central Life of Indian- 
apolis; secretary, T. W. Blackburn, Omaha. 

The second annual meeting was held in Indianapolis, September 
5, 6 and 7, 1907, and B. H. Robison, Bankers Reserve Life, Omaha, was 
elected president. 

The third annual meeting was held at Denver, Col., August 19, 
20 and 21, 1908. Samuel B. Smith, Volunteer State Life, Chattanooga, 
Tenn., was elected president. 

The fourth annual meeting was held at Cincinnati, Ohio, October 
7 and 8, 1909. Isaac Miller Hamilton, Federal Life, Chicago, was 
elected president. 

The fifth annual meeting was held at Des Moines, la., September 
15, 16 and 17, 1910. Thomas W. Vardell, Southwestern Life, Dallas, 
Texas, was elected president. 

The sixth annual meetin|[ was held in Pittsburgh, Pa., September 
20f 21 and 22, 191 1. P. D. Gold, Jr., Jefferson Standard Life, Raleigh, 
N. C, was elected president. 

The seventh annual meeting was held in Chicago, 111., September 
4, 5 and 6, 19 12. W. A. Lindley, Security Mutual Life, Lincoln, Neb., 
was elected president. 

The eighth annual meeting was held in St. Paul, Minn., August 20, 
21 and 22, 1913. Henry Abels, Franklin Life, Springfield, III., was 
elected president. 

The ninth annual meeting was held in Dallas, Texas, October 7, 
8, 9 and 10, 19 14. E. W. Randall, Minnesota Mutual Life, Minneap- 
olis, Minn., was elected president. 

The tenth annual meeting was held in Monterey, Cal., September 
30 and October i and 2, 191 5. G. A. Grimsley, Jefferson Standard 
Life, Greensboro, N. C, was elected president. 



236 Cyclopedia of insurance 

The eleventh annual meeting was held in St. Louis, Mo., Septem- 
ber 14, 15 and 16, 1916. Charles F. Coffin, State Life, Indianapolis, 
Ind., was elected president. 

The twelfth annual meeting was held at Grand Rapids, Mich., 
August «, 9 and lo, 191 7. Henry L. Seay, Southland Life, Dallas, 
Texas, was elected president. 

The thirteenth annual meeting was held in Chicago, 111., Sep- 
tember 18, 19 and 20, 1918. E. G. Simmons, Pan-American Life, New 
Orleans, La., was elected president. 

The fourteenth annual meeting was held in Omaha, Neb., Sep- 
tember 24, 25 and 26, 19 19. H. VV. Johnson, Central Life of Illinois, 
Ottawa, 111., was elected president. 

The fifteenth annual meeting was held in Kansas City, Mo., 
September 22, 23 and 24, 1920. Charles G. Taylor, Jr., Atlantic Life, 
Richmond, Va., was elected president. 

The sixteenth annual meeting was held in Indianapolis, Ind. 
October 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, 1921. President Taylor presided and in his 
address reviewed the growth of the organization, and discussed briefly 
its guiding principles and its work. Secretary Blackburn in his report 
reviewed the affairs of the association briefly, and gave a review of 
state legislation during the year. 

Officers elected were as follows: President, H. R. Cunningham, 
Montana Life, Helena, Mont.; Secretary, Treasurer and Counsel, 
T. W. Blackburn, Omaha, Neb. Executive Committee, Charles G. 
Taylor, Jr., Atlantic Life, Richmond, Va.; H. W. Johnson, Central 
Life, Ottawa, 111.; E. G. Simmons. Pan-American Life, New Orleans, 
La.; Guilford A. Deitch, Reserve Loan Life, Indianapolis, Ind.; L. J. 
Dougherty, Guaranty Life, Davenport, la., and George Graham, 
Central States Life, St. Louis, Mo. 

State vice-presidents were elected as follows: Alabama, William 
D. Jelks, Protective Life; Arkansas, A. B. Banks, Home Life and 
Accident; California, F. V. Keesling, West Coast-San Francisco Life; 
Colorado, C. J. Daly, Capitol Life; Connecticut, William Bro Smith, 
Travelers; Georgia, Wilmer L. Moore, Southern States Life; Idaho, 
Edwin S. Chadwick, Idaho State Life; Illinois, Emmet C. May, Peoria 
Life; Indiana, Herbert M. Woolen, American Central Life; Iowa, 
C. T. Prime, National Fidelity Life; Kansas, W. H. Eastman, Kansas 
Life; Kentucky, VV. W. Moore, Inter-Southern Life; Louisiana, Craw- 
ford H. Ellis, Pan American Life; Maryland, Calvert F. Stein, Mary- 
land Assurance; Massachusetts, A. E. Childs, Columbian National; 
Michigan, J. J. Mooney, Michigan Mutual Life; Minnesota, John T. 
Baxter, Northwestern National Life; Mississippi, C. W. Welty, Lamar 
Life; Missouri, Massey Wilson, International Life; Montana, C. E. 
Hurfurth, Montana Life; Nebraska, W. W. Young, North American 
Life; New Hampshire, S. W. Jameson, United Life and Accident; New 
Mexico, George Roslington, Occidental Life; North Carolina, Charles 
W. Gold, Jefferson Standard Life; North Dakota, F. L. Conkling, Pro- 
vident Life; Ohio, H. B. Arnold, Midland Mutual Life; Oklahoma, S. 
De Zell Hawley, Atlas Life; Oregon, C. S. Samuel, Oregon Life; Penn- 



Life and Casualty Section 



237 



sylvania, H. G. Scott, Reliance Life; South Carolina, T. Oregon 
Lawton, Jr., Southeastern Life; South Dakota, F. L. Bramble, Dakota 
Life; Tennessee, E. Leon Porter, Volunteer State Life; Texas, A. R. 
Wilson, Amicable Life; Utah, T. O. Carter, Inter-Mountain Life; 
Washington, J. J. Cadiean, New World Life; West Virginia, Harrison 
B. Smith, George Washington Life, Wisconsin, John Sullivan, Great 
Northern Life. 

The Convention has organized medical and legal sections which 
hold meetings independently and have their own officers. 

At the annual meeting of the Legal Section held in Kansas City, 
Mo., September 20 and 21, 192 1, officers were elected as follows: 
Chairman, C. B. Welliver, Ainerican Central, Indianapolis, Ind.; 
Secretary, Robert Stone, Kansas Life, Topeka, Kansas. 

The following is the Company membership roll, June i, 1922: 



American Bankers, Chicago, 111. 

American Central, Indianapolia. Ind. 

American Life Reinsurance. 

American National, St. Louis. Mo. 

American National, Galveston. Texas 

Atlantic Life, Richmond. V'a. 

Atlaa, Tulsa. Olcla. 

Bankers, Lincoln, Neb. 

Bankers, Des Moines, la. 

Bankers Reserve, Omaha, Neb. 

Bank Savings Life, Topeka. Kan. 

California State Life. Sacremento, Cal. 

Capitol Life. Denver, Colo. 

Cedar Rapids Life, Cedar Rapids, la 

Central Life. Fort Scott. Kan. 

Central, Des Moines, la. 

Central. Ottawa. 111. 

Central States, St. Louis. Mo. 

Cleveland Life, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Columbia Life, Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Columbian National, Boston. Mass. 

Columbus Mutual, Columbus, Ohio. 

Commonwealth, Louisville. Ky. 

Commonwealth, Omaha, Neb. 

Conaervative Life, Wheeling. W. Va. 

Continental. Chicago. 111. 

Continental Life, Kansas City, Mo. 

Dakota Life, Watertown, So. Dak. 

Des Moines Life & Annuity. la. 

Farmers and Bankers, Wichita, Kan. 

Farmers National, Chicago. 
Federal Life, Chicago, III. 
First National, Pierre, S. D. 
Fort Worth, Fort Worth. Texas. 
Franklin. Simngfield. 111. 
George Washington. Charleston. W. Va. 
Girard Life, Philadelphia. Pa. 
Great Northern, Wausau, Wis. 
Great Republic, Los Angeles. Cal. 
Great Southern, Dallas. Texas. 
Guaranty. Davenport, la. 
Gulf Coast, Gulf Pond, Miss. 
Home Life. Philadelphia. Pa. 
Home Life and Accident. Fordyce, Ark. 
Idaho State. Boise City. Idaho. 
Illinois Life. Chicago, III. 
Indiana National. Indianapolis, Ind. 



Indianapolis Life, Indianapolis, Ind. 
International, St. Louis, Mo. 
Inter-Southern, Louisville, Ky. 
Iowa Life, Des Moines, la. 
Jeflferson Standard, Greensboro, N. C. 
Kansas City, Kansas City. Mo. 
Kansas Life. Topeka, Kan. 
Lafayette Life, Lafayette. Ind. 
Lamar Life, Jackson, Miss. 
Lincoln National, Fort Wayne. Ind. 
Louisiana State, Shreveport, La. 
Maryland Assurance. Baltimore 
Merchants Life, Des Moines. la. 
Michigan Mutual, Detroit. Mich. 
Mid-Continent, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Midland Ins Co., St. Paul, Minn. 
Midland, Kansas City, Mo. 
Midland Mutual. Columbus, Ohio. 
Miimesota Mutual. St. Paul, Minn. 
Missouri State. St. Louis, Mo. 
Montana, Helena, Mont. 
Mutual Life, Springfield, III. 
Mutual Trust, Chicago. III. 
National American, Burlington, la. 
National Fidelity. Sioux City. la. 
National Life & Accident, Nashville. 

Tenn. 
National. U. S. of A., Chicago, 111. 
New World Life, Spokane, Wash. 
North American, Chicago, III. 
North American, Omaha, Neb. 
Northern, Seattle. Wash. 
Northwestern National, Minneapolis, 

Minn. 
Occidental, .Albuquerque. N. M. 
Occidental, Los Angeles. Cal. 
Ohio National. Cincinnati, O. 
Ohio State, Columbus, O. 
Old Colony. Chicago, III. 
Old Line, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Omaha Life, Omaha, Neb. 
Oregon Life. Portland, Ore. 
Pan American Life. New Orleans. La. 
People's Life, Chicago. III. 
People's Life, Frankfort, Ind. 
Peoria Life, Peoria. III. 
Phoenix Mutual, Hartford, Conn. 



238 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Philadelphia Life. Philadelphia. Pa. Southern Union. Waco. Texas. 

Prairie Life. Omaha. Neb. Southland Life. Dallas. Texas. 

Protective Life. Birmingham, Ala. Southwestern Life, Dallas, Texas. 

Provident Life. Bismarck. N. D. Standard. Decatur. 111. 
Provident Life & Accident, Chattanooga, Standard. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Tenn. State Life. Indianapolis. Ind. 

Public Savings, Indianapolis. St. Louis Mutual. St. Louis. Mo. 

Register Life. Davenport. la. Texas Life. Waco. Texas. 

Reinsurance Life, Des Moines, la. Travelers, Hartford, Conn. 

Reliance Life. Pittsburgh. Pa. Two Republics Life, El Paso. Texas. 

Reserve Loan Life. Indianapolis, Ind. United Life & Accident. Concord, N. H. 

Rockford Life, Rockford. III. Volunteer State Life. Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Royal Union Mutual. Des Moines, la. West Coast, San Francisco. Cal. 

San Jacinto, Beaumont, Texas. Western Life, Des Moines, la. 

Security Life. Chicago, 111. Western Reserve Life. Muncie, Ind. 

Security Mutual, Lincoln. Neb. Western States. San Francisco. Cal. 

Shenandoah Life. Roanoke, Va. Western Union Life. Spokane. Wash. 

Southeastern Life. Greenville, S. C. Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Southern Life & Trust, Greensboro, N. C. Wisconsin National. Oshkosh. Wis. 
Southern States. Atlanta. Ga. 

AMERICAN LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Jackson, Tenn. Organized 192 1. Thomas I. Taylor, presi- 
dent, W. N. Mynalt, vice-president and general manager; J. E. Mercer, 
secretary; Oliver Benton, treasurer. 

AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Detroit. Mich. 
Organized 1907; capital, $100,000. Clarence L. Ayres, president: 
Henry S. Hull, vice-president; H. P. Trosper, vice-president; Roy W. 
Anger, vice-president; Fred H. Aldrich, general counsel; M. O. Row- 
land, secretary; Walter E. Ekberg, Thos. M. Heuss, M. E. Latta. 
assistant secretaries; Lucy E. Daly, cashier; Wm. H. Browne, medical 
director. Formerly Northern Assurance Company of Michigan, with 
which the American Life of Des Moines was merged in 1921. 

AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Denver, Co^- 
(formerly the German- American Life Insurance Company). Organ- 
ized 191 1 ; cash capital, $100,000.00. J. C. Burger, president; C. E- 
Youker, vice-president; Robert Brown, secretary, treasurer, and 
general manager; S. D. Emily, assistant secretary; Dr. F. N. Co- 
chems, medical director. 

AMERICAN LIFE REINSURANCE COMPANY. Dallas. 
Texas. Organized 1919. A. C. Bigger, president; Hugh E. Pratter. 
vice-president; Fred D. Strudell, secretary; Morton Bigger, assistant 
secretary. 

AMERICAN LIVE STOCK INSURANCE COMPANY, Omaha. 
Neb. Organized 19 18. Capital, $208,000. The company retired 
in 1921. 

AMERICAN MUTUAL LIABILITY INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Boston, Mass. Organized 1887. Charles E. Hodges, president; 
Charles E. Hodges, Jr., vice-president; Benjamin Brooks, C. E. Petti- 
bone, James F. Kane, Victor A. Trundy, vice-presidents; Henry C. 



Life and Casualty Section 239 

Kneppenberg, Jr., secretary; Frank R. MuUaney, assistant secretary 
and actuary; William H. Conway, treasurer; Ralph T. Hull, assistant 
treasurer. 

AMERICAN MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lake 
Charles, La. Organized 19 14. W. H. Stark, president; C. P. Mar- 
tin, active vice-president; W. B. Conover and H. H. Gordon, vice- 
presidents; H. G. Eddy, secretary; S. A. Knapp, treasurer; Dr. T. H. 
Watkins, medical director; H. M. Watkins, office manager. 

AMERICAN NATIONAL ASSURANCE COMPANY, St. 
Louis, Mo. Organized 191 2; capital, $200,000. Harry M. Still, 
president; A. H. Hildreth, D. L. Tasker, vice-presidents; Earle E. 
Salisbury, secretary; Chas. E. Salisbury, treasurer; W. F. Smith, 
agency manager. 

AMERICAN NATIONAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Galves- 
ton, Texas. Organized 1905; capital, $250,000. W. L. Moody, Jr., 
president; Shearn Moody, vice-president; W. J. Shaw, secretary; 
N. V. Morgan, assistant secretary; M. D. Johnson, assistant secretary; 
M. Grosshenney, treasurer; Newton E. Gortan, actuary; Dr. Edward 
Randall, medical director; Dr. W. J. C. Weimers, assistant medical 
director. 

AMERICAN RE-INSURANCE COMPANY, Widener Bldg.. 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 191 7; capital $750,000. Harry Boulton, 
president; H. B. Swoope and C. M. Hansen, vice-presidents; W. I. 
Athey, secretary; O. H. Irwin, treasurer. Writes re-insurance of 
catastrophe, excess, workmen's compensation and general casualty 
lines. 

AMERICAN SURETY COMPANY OF NEW YORK. Organ- 
ized April 14, 1884. Capital, $5,000,000. Transacts fidelity, surety and 
burglary and check forgery and alteration insurance business. 

F. W. Lafrentz, president; R. R. Brown, first vice-president; 
Charles W. Goetchius, secretary-treasurer; A. F. Lafrentz, comp- 
troller; Henry C. Willcox, general solicitor; Geo. L. Naught, assistant 
general solicitor. 

AMICABLE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Waco, Texas. 
Organized 1910; capital, $820,000. A. R. Wilson, president and actuary; 
J. P. Massey, secretary. 

ANNUITIES. Sums payable annually either for life or a term 
of years. Annuity contracts are a means of providing for old age, 
and under whidh a company for a definite stated sum agrees to pay the 
annuitant, or holder of^ the contract, a stated yearly sum during the 
annuitant's life, or for a stipulated number of years. In the latter 
case it would be known as a temporary annuity, as distinguished from 
the former, or life annuity. Some forms of annuity contracts, known 
as two-life annuities, are based on the lives of two persons and are 



240 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



payable as long as either survives, and a deferred annuity is also writ- 
ten under which the '* consideration for the annuity or purchase price 
may be deposited in one sum, or paid in annual premiums; the annuity 
being payable only after a lapse of years. Usually the first pay- 
ment under a life annuity begins at the end of the first year, but in some 
contracts payment of the annuity is made at the beginning of the 
year, or immediately on the purchase of the annuity. A number of 
American life insurance companies Rrant annuities and the extent of 
their business is shown by the following comparative statement of 
payments made during the past five years. 

Amount Amount Amount Amoant Amount 

X917 19x8 Z919 1920 X9ai 

iEtna $118,819 $190,262 $3x3,857 $393,986 $353,363 

Connecticut Genenl X7.900 31,889 66,534 78.515 75.89S 

Connecticut Mutual 36.199 43,9X3 66,395 73,733 75.454 

Columbian National 5.873 6,587 7.395 7,400 7.617 

Equitable x,357.i09 x,46o.oo6 x,539.403 1,7x3,463 x,79i.633 

Fidelity 30,763 17.037 33,074 34,668 3x^335 

Guardian 38,633 37.689 39,88x 30,306 xi,34s 

Home 49.935 50.438 50,x83 48,037 46.904 

John Hancock 393 197 941 

Massachusetts 15.499 33^23 

Metropolitan 400.630 403,793 443,793 473,701 47x,&8S 

Mutual Benefit X38,oi7 130.015 133.767 X35,769 131.754 

Mutual. New York 3,607.830 3.576.9x2 3,623.167 3,644,773 3.598,724 

National, Vermont 637.209 690.392 656,737 687,068 694.971 

New England 1,276 2,315 2.692 5.634 7.235 

New York x,387,240 1.394. 701 x.477.700 x,400,300 1.337,945 

Northwestern 245,246 255.667 254,8ix 250,093 347,204 

Pacific Mutual X7.252 26.352 29,678 29,026 46,628 

Pezm Mutual 516.803 533,340 516,783 608,336 499,184 

Phcenbc Mutual 59.937 xox.377 133,507 X94,870 3oo,xo6 

Provident Life & Trust X43.003 150.871 155.353 154.302 150,568 

Prudential 335.496 362.422 372,433 384,858 396.402 

State Mutual 45.769 44.477 44.736 46.847 46.181 

Travelers X95.436 337,441 370,X74 330,X33 370,415 

Union Central 37,674 30.436 32,250 34.844 36,627 

United States ' X1.92X x 1.847 x 1.852 

Total $8,304,938 $8,679,841 $9,069,941 $9,559,136 $9,653.2x4 



ANTI-REBATE LAWS. Following is a list of the states which 
have laws prohibiting the giving of rebate of premium to the insured 
by life and other insurance companies or their agents. 

The first anti-rebate law applying specifically to the business of 
life insurance was enacted by Massachusetts in 1887. The previous 
year, it is true, Louisiana passed a law prohibiting the allowance of 
rebates in insurance, but no class of insurance was named in the act; 
it was supposed to refer to fire insurance, and it was not until later 
that an opinion was given by the attorney-general of the state that its 
provisions were applicable to the practice of life insurance. 

The anti-rebate laws of a number of the states, while at first apply- 
ing only to life insurance, have been amended to include fire insurance 
as well as other forms of insurance in their prohibitions, and in some 
states the laws prohibit the sale of stock in connection with insurance, 
or as an inducement to insurance, and also prohibit twistine. The 
Indiana law defines the term "rebate" to mean "anything of value. 



Life and Casualty Section 241 

or the making of an agreement, expressed or implied, that will directly 
or indirectly diminish any premium below the amount specified in 
the policy," excepting payment of dividends under participating 
policies. 

The Nebraska law also defines the word in the same terms prac- 
tically, but also excepts '* bonuses paid or allowed directly by any 
company upon non-|>artici|>ating policies which have been in force 
at least five years. 

Anti-rebate laws are in force in the following states: Alabama, Ari- 
zona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mas- 
sachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, 
Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, 
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsyl- 
vania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, 
Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, 
Wyoming. 

The laws of the following states prohibit the sale of stock " in 
connection with or as an inducement to insurance: " Alabama, Ari- 
zona, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, 
New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North 
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Caro- 
lina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wash in ton, West Vir- 
ginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming. In Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, 
and Virginia the insurance departments have ruled that stock selling 
would be illegal under the anti-rebate law, and in Delaware it has been 
held to be illegal unless offered to all insurants of the same class alike. 
Georgia has ruled that such sale of stock would be contrary to public 
policy, and the attorney-general of New Jersey has held that option 
to purchase stock must t^ contained in the policy. 

The laws of Indiana, Idaho, Maine, Nebraska, New Mexico, New 
York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Minnesota and West Vir- 
ginia prohibit the insured from " knowingly receiving or accepting 
a rebate." The Wisconsin law provides that *' Notwithstanding any 
violation of this section the policy shall be valid, but the insured, hav- 
ing knowingly arid wilfully violated any provisions of this section, 
shall be entitled to recover from the company only such portion of 
the amount otherwise payable ... as the amount of the premium or 
premiums which have become payable, according to the terms of the 
policy, deducting any rebate and the value of any special favor or ad- 
vantage or consideration or inducement . . . bears to the amount of 
such premium or premiums." The Minnesota department has ruled 
that the acceptance of goods in lieu of cash in payment of premium is 
a violation ol the law. 

The laws of Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Louisi- 
ana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, 
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Caro- 
lina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, 



242 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

South Carolina, South Dakota » Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, 
Wisconsin, and Wyoming, prohibit the making of advisory board 
contracts, under which, as a rule, a certain number of policyholders 
were granted special advantages or considerations. Such contracts 
are also prohibited, under rulings of the insurance department, in 
Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts, 
Mississippi, and Virginia. The North Carolina supreme court held 
in 1909 that such contracts were illegal under the law forbidding dis- 
crimination and rebates. Under the West Virginia law persons are 
forbidden to receive or accept any *' favor or advantage. 

[For full text of laws enacted prior to 19 14, see Cyclopedia for 1913- 
14, and for legislation in 1915 see Cyclopedia for 1915.] The legis- 
lature of California in 19 15 enacted an anti-rebate law, but the meas- 
ure was vetoed by the governor. The law was re-enacted by the 
legislature in 191 7, and oecame a law. Connecticut passed a law in 
191 7 applying to ^re insurance agents. 

ARIZONA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1887-1922. By 
an act passed in 1887 the territorial treasurer of Arizona was charged 
with the supervision of insurance, but in 1901 an act was passed trans- 
ferring the authority to the territorial secretary. (For names of officials, 
see Cyclopedia for 1911-13 and 1913-14.] Under an act passed in 
19 1 2, supervision of insurance was transferred to a State Corpora- 
tion commission. Forest A. Betts is superintendent of insurance 
under the commission. 

ARKANSAS. INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1873-1922. 
By the insurance law of 1873 the auditor of the state, who was elected 
by the people for two years, is made insurance commissioner ex-officio. 
The legislature in 19 17 created a separate insurance department, and 
the duties of the auditor of state in respect to insurance were trans- 
ferred to the new department. Bruce T. Bullion was appointed 
commissioner under the law« W. B. Hollingsworth is deputy com- 
missioner. 

ASSETS. In insurance the entire property of the company. In 
making annual statements, ledger assets are distinguished from non- 
ledger assets, the two making up the item, gross assets. In life insur- 
ance agents' debit balances, overdue and accrued interest on bonds 
in default, and the book value of bonds and stocks over market value 
are deducted from gross assets, and the item in the annual statement, 
" admitted assets," thus shown. 

ASSOCIATI9N OF LIFE AGENCY OFFICERS. The asso- 
ciation was organized by agency managers of life insurance companies 
at a meeting held in Chicago, III., in October, 19 16. The objects of 
the association as stated in its by-laws are: "The consideration 
and interchange of opinion upon matters pertaining to the betterment 
of the selling department of life insurance, through the improvement 
in the quality of men who enter the business, through the elimination 
of those who bring discredit to it, and through a study of methods of 



Life and Casualty Section 243 

selection and training of life insurance salesmen.'' The membership is 
composed of agency officers of legal reserve life insurance companies 
in the United States and Canada. The affairs of the organization are 
in control of an executive committee, which appoints the officers. 
The executive committee elected at the meeting in 1916 was as follows: 
Winslow Russell, Phoenix Mutual Life; George B.Stadden, Franklin, 
Life; William E. Taylor, Equitable Life of New York; H. E. Aldrich, 
Equitable Life of Iowa; Glover S. Hastings, New England Mutual; 
George H. Hunt, Imperial Life of Canada; J. B. Reynolds, Kansas 
City Life. 

The fifth annual meeting was held in Chicago, 111., November 10, 
and II, 1 92 1. Reports from officers and committees were presented 
and the following subjects were dealt with in papers and discussions: 
"The Place for Research in the Sales Branch of American Business;" 
"Institutional Plans for Instructing in Life Insurance Salesmanship," 
"Company Plans for the Education of the Soliciting Agent;" "The 
Selection and Appointment of Life Insurance ^ents." 

The following are the present officers and executive committee: 
W. E. Taylor, chairman. New York City; E. D. Field, vice-chairman, 
Montpelier, Vt.; A. Gordon Ramsay, Toronto, Can.; Dr. E. G. Sim- 
mons, New Orleans, La.; T. L. Hansen, New York City; C. G. Taylor, 
Jr., Richmond, Va.; H. B. Gunter, Greensboro, N. C; L. Seton 
Lindsay, New York City; James W. Simpson, Montreal, Can.; Albert 
G. Borden, secretary-treasurer. Room 902, 120 Broadway, New York 
City. 

ASSOCIATION OF LIFE INSURANCE COUNSEL. The 
aflBodation, composed of the counsel of life insurance companies, was 
organized in New York City, December, 1913. Officers were elected as 
foUows: President, William Bro Smith, The Travelers; vice-presi- 
dent, Fred A.^ Howland, National Life of Vermont; secretary and 
treasurer, William J. Tully. The present officers, elected at the an- 
nual meeting in May, 1922, are: President, John L. Wakefield; vice- 
president, Frederick L. Allen, John Hancock Mutual; secretary and 
treasurer, William J. Tully, Metropolitan Life, New York, N. Y.; 
Zaidee H. Stone, assistant secretary; executive committee; Edward D. 
Duffield, chairman, George Lines, Chandler Bullock, Alfred Hurrell, 
Prudential; James H. Mcintosh, New York Life, and officers ex officio. 
Office I Madison Avenue, New York. 

ASSOCIATION OF LIFE INSURANCE MEDICAL DI- 
RECTORS OF AMERICA was organized December 6, 1889, in New 
York, by the medical directors of leading life insurance companies. 
The present officers elected in October, 192 1, are: President, Dr. 
Thomas F. McMahon; vice-president. Dr. Frank L. Grosvenor; second 
vice-president, Dr. William R. Ward; secretary. Dr. Angier B. Hobbs; 
treasurer, Dr. Charles L. Christiemin; Editor of the Proceedings, Dr. 
Robert M. Daley. Members of the executive council, all former 
presidents, the present officers, and Dr. G. A. Van Wagenen, Dr. Edwin 
W. E> wight and Dr. J. Allen Patton. 



244 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

ASSOCIATION OF LIFE INSURANCE PRESIDENTS, 
THE, was organized at a meeting in New York in January, 1907. 
The objects of the association as stated in the constitution are: To 
promote the welfare of policyholders; to advance the interests of 
life insurance; to prevent extravagance and reduce expenses by an 
interchange of views on practice among life insurance companies in 
matters of general administration; to consider carefully important 
measures that may be introduced from time to time in legislative 
bodies, with a view to ascertaining and publicly presenting the grounds 
which may exist for their adoption or rejection by the legislature; to 
consider anything that may be suitably a matter of general concern 
to the life insurance business. Ex-President Grover Cleveland was 
the first chairman, and Robert Lynn Cox, sepvtary,^ and the executive 
committee was as follows: Paul Morton, Eauitable Life; S. C, Dunham, 
Travelers; Thomas A. Buckner, New York Life; George £. Ide, 
Home Life; L. G. Fouse, Fidelitv Mutual; Haley Fiske, Metropolitan; 
Charles A. Peabody, Mutual Life, and the chairman of the association. 

The present officers are: George T. Wight, secretary and manager; 
Job E. Hedges, general counsel; Frederic G. Dunham, attorney; Orlow 
H. Boies, statistician; Mott A. Brooks, assistant secretary; executive 
committee, George T. Wight, chairman; John D. Sage, Union Central 
Life, Cincinnati; Forest F. Dryden, The Prudential, Newark; Haley 
Fiske, Metropolitan Life, New York; Alfred D. Foster, New England 
Mutual, Boston; Frederick Frelinghuysen, Mutual Benefit; W. A. 
Day, Equitable Life, New York; Charles A. Peabody, Mutual Life, 
New York; George I. Cochran, Pacific Mutual, Los Angeles; Louis F. 
Butler, The Travelers, Hartford Conn.; Fred A. Howland, National 
Life, Vermont ; Darwin P. Kingsley , New York Life. 

Companies represented in the Association: 

Aetna Life, Hartford, Conn. Mutual Benefit Life, Newark, N. J. 

American Central Life, Indianapolis, Ind. Mutual Life, Waterloo, Ont., Canada 

Bankers of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. Mutual Life, New York, N. Y. 

Bankers Life, Des Moines, Iowa National Life & Accident, Nashville, Tenn. 

Berkshire Life, Pittsfield, Mass. National Life, Montpelier, Vt. 

Canada Life, Toronto, Ont., Canada National Life U. S. of America, Chicago, 111. 

Colonial of America, Jersey City, N. J. New England Mutual, Boston. Mass. 

Columbian National, Boston, Mass. New York Life, New York, N. Y. 
Confederation Life, Toronto, Ont., Canada North Amer. Life, Toronto, Ont., Canada 

Connecticut General, Hartford, Conn. Northern Life of Can., London, Ont., Can. 

Connecticut Mutual, Hartford, Conn. Northwestern Nat. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Equitable Life, New York. N. Y. Pacific Mutual Life. Los Angeles, Cal. 

Equitable Life of Iowa, Des Moines, la. Penn. Mutual Life, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Franklin Life, Springfield, 111. Phoenix Mutual, Hartford, Conn. 

Guardian Life, New York, N. Y. Provident Life & Trust. PhUadelphia, Pa. 

Home Life, New York, N. Y. Prudential of America. Newark. N. J. 

Illinois Life, Chicago, 111. Reserve Loan Life, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Imperial Life of Can., Toronto, Ont., Can. Royal Union Mutual, Des Moines. la. 

John Hancock Mutual, Boston, Mass. Security Mutual. Binghamton. N. Y. 

Life Ins. Co. of Virginia. Richmond. Va. State Mutual Life. Worcester. Mass. 

Lincoln National Life, Fort Wayne. Ind. Sun Life of Canada, Montreal, Que.. Can. 

London Life, London. Ont. Travelers, Hartford, Conn. 

Manhattan Life, New York, N. Y. Union Central Life, Cincinnati, O. 

Manufacturers Life, Toronto, Ont., Can. United States Life, New York, N. Y. 

Mass. Mutual Life, Springfield, Mass. Volunteer State Life, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Metropolitan Life, New York. N. Y. Western and Southern Life. Cincinnati, O. 
Michigan Mutual Life, Detroit, Mich. 



Life and Casualty Section 245 

The fifteenth annual meeting was held in New York, N. Y., De- 
cember 8 and 9, 1921. The meeting was called to order by Job E. 
Hedges, counsel of the Association. Mr. Herbert C. Cox, president 
and general manager, Canada Life Assurance Company, Toronto, Ont., 
was chairman of the meeting. "Life Insurance a World Safety Zone" 
was the general theme of the meeting, and was the subject of the chair- 
man's opening address. Other papers were read as follows: "Sound 
Thinking by the People and for the people," Hon. John W. Weeks, 
Secretary of War, Washington, D. C; "New Life Insurance Business 
of 192 1 ; What it Means, John M. Holcombe, Phoenix Mutual Life 
Hartford, Conn.; "Can Trust Companies and Life Companies be 
Neighbors without Quarreling?" Alfred R. Horr, Equitable Life 
Assurance Society, New York; "Nationalism, Internationalism and 
Supemationalism", Rev. Canon Cody, D. D., LL.D., Rector of St. 
Paul's Church, Toronto; "Health the Guidepost to Material and Moral 
National Stren^h," Livingston Farrand, M.D., LL.D., President, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.; "National Health in the Life In- 
surance Mirror," Robert Lynn Cox, Metropolitan Life, New York; 
"Remarks by H. A. Cunningham, President, American Life Conven- 
tion, Helena, Mont.; "A Government Experiment Versus Life Insur- 
ance Principles", J. A. O. Preus, Governor of Minnesota, St. Paul, 
Minn.; "A Decade of Life Insurance Investments", Asa S. Wing, 
Provident Life & Trust, Philadelphia, Pa.; "Essentials and Non-Essen- 
tials in Insurance Supervision," Thomas B. Donaldson, Pennsylvania 
Insurance Commissioner, Harrisburg, Pa.; "Insuring Our Nation," 
Andrew F. West, LL.D., Dean, Graduate College of Princeton, Prince- 
ton, N. J.; "Insurance and the Modern Political State," Walton L. 
Crocker, John Hancock Mutual Life, Boston, Mass.; "Recent Fluctua- 
tions in Policy Loans," Henry S. Nollen, Equitable Life of Iowa, Des 
Moines, la. 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

Resolved, That the addrenes delivered at the meetings of this Fifteenth Annual 
Convention have been of exceptional technical and educative value and public interest; 
and be it 

Further Resolved, That the most appreciative thanks of the Association be 
extended to each of the speakers for the very thorough preparation and masterly 
presentation of the respective subjects; and be it 

Further Resolved, That the Manager be and hereby is directed to cause all of said 
addresses to be published at length in the proceedings of these meetings, and to place 
printed copies thereof at the disposal of their respective authors. 

Whereas, Expressions ctf optimism do not make prosperity. Therefore, at a 
moment when governmental authorities, both Federal and State, and thoughtful men 
in every walk of life are seeking to restore the Nation to a sound and healthful normal 
tsasis, the Association of Life Insurance Presidents invites attention to facts discloaed 
at this, its Fifteenth Annual Convention, which furnish reassurance that economic 
conditions are already appreciably stabilized by the continuing and unshaken confidence 
and persistent thrift of large numbers of the American people, and 

Whereas, The number of new policies of life insurance issued during the year will 
approximate 13,150,000,— within less than 1% of the supreme record of 1920. Al- 
tbough the aggregate of these policies, $8,535,000,000, is 15% less than the total for 
1920, it exceeds by $725,000,000 the amount issued in the prosperous year 1919. and 

Whereas, Policyholders generally are exercising with commendable caution the 
risht to apply the accumulations under their policies to immediate personal use and 
individual needs, as evidenced by the fact that but 14.68% of the reserves have been 
taken as policy loans,— compared with i7-97% in X914— thus permitting a continuance 



246 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

of that progressive increase in life insurance policyholders' funds available for invest- 
ment in response to manifest national economic requirements, which has characterized 
the decade ending December aist, 1930, when American Life insurance companies 
held admitted assets aggregating $7,319,997,019; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That these figures are eloquent of sound habits and compelling faith. 
The attitude of mind reflected in provision for the future through present effort insures 
that prosperity has revived, and requires only continuance of courage and service for 
complete restoration. 

Whereas. The original conception underlying the business of life insurance is a 
practical application of the bearing of each other's burdens; and 

Whereas, The time has arrived in the history of world relations when the nations 
are hopefully looking forward to a better international understanding which will tend 
to abolish war with all its attendant miseries; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Association of Life Insurance Presidents expresses its heartiest 
approbation of the Conference on the Limitation of Armaments, believing that the 
mutual understanding which is being reached will result in promoting permanent 
peace upon earth*, and be it 

Further Resolved. That the Manager be directed to transmit a copy of this resolu- 
tion to the Secretary of State with the request that it be laid before the Conference. 

ATLANTA ASSOCIATION OF LIFE INSURERS, Atlanta, 
Ga. Oreanized October 12, 1892, as the "Georg:ia Association of Life 
Insurers, ' with Thomas Peters president and Clarence Angier, secre- 
tary. The change in name was adopted in March, 19 15. The pres- 
ent officers, elected at the annual meeting in February, 1922, are: 
President, S. M. Carson, Mutual Life, N. Y.; vice-president, Harry I. 
Davis; secretary and treasurer, W. F. Helms, Guardian; P. O. Box 
1412; executive committee: W. E. Hawkins, Aetna Life, chairman; 
Frank W. Burr, State Mutual Life; Hugh Willet, Penn. Mutual, T. H. 
Daniel, F. B. Lowe. 

ATLANTIC GUARANTY AND TITLE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Atlantic City, N. J. Organized 1915; cash capital, $150,000. 
Joseph Thompson, president; Harry Bacharach and John B. Slack, 
vice-presidents; Silas Shoemaker, secretary; E. B. Mitchell, assist- 
ant secretary; W. E. Shackelford, treasurer. 

ATLANTIC LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Richmond. Va. 
Organized 1900; capital, $300,000. Edmund Strudwick, president; 
S. W. Travers and H. W. Anderson, E. Strudwick, Jr., vice-presidents; 
Charles G. Taylor, Jr., vice-president and actuary; Roy M. Jones 
secretary; H. L. McConnell and M. M. Blair, assistant secretaries; 
E. A. Saunders, 3d vice-president and treasurer; Dr. F. P. Righter, 
Dr. J. A. Hodges, medical directors; Dr. Wm. H. Higgins, associate 
medical director; J. W. Sinton, Jr., assistant actuary; David W. 
Kelly, assistant treasurer. 

ATLAS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Tulsa, Oklahoma. 
Organized 1918; capital, paid-in, $250,000. H. O. McClure, president; 
John R. Hadley and C. A. Mayo, vice-presidents; Dr. S. D. Hawley 
secretary and medical director; G. R. McCullough, treasurer; T. J. 
McComb, actuary; A. C. Mullins, assistant secretary ; W. DaleRogers, 
agency director. 



B 



BAKER'S MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY. New York. 
N. Y. Organized 19 14. Albin E. Plarre, president; Valentine J. 
Miller, secretary. 

BALTIMORE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Baltimore 
Md. Organized as an assessment company in 1882 : reorganized as 
a legal reserve life insurance company in 1898. W. O. MacGill. presi- 
dent; R. E. Bromwell. vice-president; Arthur R. German, second 
vice-president; S. D. Powell, secretary and agency manager; Alfred 
S. Niles, treasurer and counsel; J. M. H. Rowland, medical director; 
Albert Burns, manager ordinary department; Howard L. MacGill, 
assistant secretary. 

BALTIMORE LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION. 
Organized January 11. 1887, and reorganized November 27. 1900. 
with the following officers: President, J. Herman Ireland; vice- 
president, Henry P. Goddard; secretary, Ernest J. Clark; treasurer, 
Munroe Snell. The present officers elected at the annual, meeting in 
February, 1922, are: Frank M. Wheaton, Union Central Life, president; 
Thomas M. Green, Fidelity Mutual, secretary, 204 Union Trust Build- 
ing; Nelson M. Bond, Travelers, treasurer. 

BANKERS ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY. Des 
Moines, Iowa. Organized 1893; capital, $100,000. F. L. Miner 
president; E. C. Budlong, vice-president and agency manager; C. H. 
Martin, vice-president; J. A. Kizer, secretary; E. A. Slininger, treasurer. 

BANKERS AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lin- 
coln, Neb. Organized 1920; capital, $288,400. The company is 
in process of liquidation in charge of the Department of Trade and 
Commerce. State of Nebraska. 

BANKERS CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY, McKnight 
Building, Minneapolis, Minn. Organized 1907; reorganized as a 
stock company 1914; capital, $100,000. R. B. Beson, president; 
S. L. Beson, secretary. 

BANKERS DEPOSIT GUARANTY AND SURETY COM- 
PANY, Topeka. Kan. Organized 1909. E. E. Ames, president; 
W. J. Bailey, W. H. Burks, and J. R. Burrow, vice-presidents; John 
T. Morrisey, secretary; George S. Murphey, treasurer. 

BANKERS LIFE COMPANY, Des Moines. Organized 1879. 
George Kuhns. president; Gerard S. NoUen, vice-president; Simon 
Casady, treasurer; George W. Fowler, secretary; C. C. Blevins. 
superintendent of agents; W. S. Ayres, general counsel; R. B. Alberson, 



248 Cyclopedia of Insukancb 

associate counsel; Dr. Ross Huston, medical director; Dr. Frank A. 
Will, assistant medical director; J. E. Flanigan, actuary; R. W. 
Hatton, Frank I. McGraw, B. N. Mills, Martin Roe, assistant secre- 
taries; E. McConney, D. N. Warters, assistant actuaries; L. L. Cas- 
sidy, assistant treasurer. 

BANKERS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lincoln. Neb. Or- 
ganized 1887: capital. $100,000. Howard S. Wilson, president; D. W. 
Cook, vice-president; M. L. Blackburn, secretary and chairman 
administration board; E. C. Ames, third vice-president and actuary; 
F. M. Sanders, treasurer; J. T. Hoevet, assistant treasurer; Dr. A. R. 
Mitchell, second vice-president and medical director; W. W. Day, 
superintendent of agents; W. G. Gooden and L. L. Garrison, agency 
directors; C. Petrus Peterson, general counsel; W. J. Hiller, assistant 
actuary; H. E. Flansburg, assistant medical director. 

BANKERS MUTUAL LIFE COMPANY, Freeport, III. Orga- 
nized 1907. W. B. Erfert, president; J. C. Peasley, secretary. 

BANKERS NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Orangeburg, S. C. Organized 1919. W. E. Atkinson, president; 
Dr. George F. Hair, T. A. Amaker, W. E. Richardson, and J. S. Salley, 
vice-presidents; Lewis Glasser, secretary and treasurer. 

BANKERS RESERVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Omaha, Neb. Organized 1908; capital. Si 00,000. R. L. Robisont 
president; W. G. Preston and J. R. Famey, vice-presidents; R. C- 
Waener, secretary and treasurer; E. L. Dunn, assistant secretary; 
W. F. Milroy, medical director. 

BANK SAVINGS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE. 
Topeka, Kan. Organized 1909; capital, $200,000. E. H. Lupton, 
president; Paul E. Walker, vice-president and counsel; E. E. Sallee, 
secretary; R. C. Burge, assistant secretary; John R. Mulvane, treas- 
urer; G. J. Mulvane, medical director. 

BENEFICIAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Salt Ukc 
City, Utah. Organized 1905; capital $200,000. Heber J. Grant, presi- 
dent; John C. Cutler and L. N. Stohl, vice-presidents; A. B. C. Ohl- 
son, secretary; L. E. Penrose, assistant secretary; Henry T. McEwan. 
treasurer. 

BENEFICIARY. In life insurance the person for whose benefit 
a policy is issued and to whom the proceeds of the policy are to be 
paid. 

BERKSHIRE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, of Pittsfield, 
Mass.. was incorporated May 15, 1851, under the name of the Berk- 
shire County Mutual Life Insurance Company. By an act approved 



Life and Casualty Section 249 

April 30, 1855, ^hc present title was adopted. W. D. Wyman, presi- 
dent; Walter F. Hawkins, vice-president and general counsel; Joseph 

F. Titus, treasurer; A. C. Washbume, actuary; Robert H. Davenport, 
secretary; Joseph £. Purches, Geo. A. Watson, assistant secretaries; 
Win field S. Weld, superintendent of agencies; Henry Colt, M.D., 
medical director. 

BOND AND MORTGAGE GUARANTEE COMPANY, 
175 Remsen St., Brooklyn, N. Y. Organissed 1892; capital, $6,000,000. 
Clarence H. Kelsey, president; Frank Bailey, vice-president and 
general manager; Harold W. Hoyt, treasurer; Reginald L. Carter, 
secretary; Herbert C. Both well, assistant treasurer; Randall Salisbury 
and Edgar I. Hillary, assistant secretaries; Frank E. Morgan, comp- 
troller. 

BOSTON CASUALTY COMPANY, Boston, Mass. Organ- 
ized 1910; reincorporated as stock company, 1912; capital, paid-up, 
$125,000. Henry C. Hall, president; A. H. Bullock, vice-president; 
J. Kelso Mairs, secretary; J. J. Minot, Jr., treasurer. 

BOSTON LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION was 
organized in 1883. Incorporated in 19141 the original officers being 
Cornelius G. Atwood, president; Ben S. Calef and J. Mason Everett, 
vice-presidents; George N. Carpenter, secretary; Francis Marsh, 
treasurer; James T. Phelps, E. J. Smith, D. W. Kilburn, C. W. Holden. 
and Sidney M. Hedges, executive committee. 

The present officers elected at the annual meeting 1921 are: 
President, Franklin W. Ganse; vice-presidents, Robert W. Moore, Jr., 
and Clinton A. Ferguson; secretary and treasurer, Lloyd L. Allen, 
79 Milk Street. 

BOSTON MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Boston. 
Mass. Chartered 1891. H. O. Edgerton, president; E. C. Mansfield, 
secretary and treasurer; D. Perley Green, actuary: Robert King, 
superintendent of agencies; Benjamin W. Rowell, comptroller; Percy 

G. Browne, medical director; Arthur H. Davison, associate medical di- 
rector. William A. Morse, counsel; Damon E. Hall, associate counsel; 
Patrick J. Lane, manager claim department; John Puree, general 
agent. 

BROTHERHOOD ACCIDENT COMPANY, Boston. Mass. 
Organized 1892 as the Odd Fellows Accident Company; reorganized 
in 191 1 under the present title; capital, $100,000. Charles S. Farquhar, 
president; Charles S. Powell, vice-president; Jay B. Crawford, secre- 
tary; Joseph W. Estabrook, treasurer; Charles S. Powell, general 
manager. 

BUREAU OF PERSONAL ACCIDENT AND HEALTH 
UNDERWRITERS, 80 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. F. Robertson 
Jones, secretary and treasurer. Richard H. Thompson, Maryland 



250 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Casualty Company, is chairman of the governing committee. The 
following is the membership roll. 



Aetna Life 

American Casualty 

Columbian National Life 

Commercial Casualty 

Connecticut General Life 

Continental Casualty 

Employers' Liability 

EquiUble Life 

Federal Life 

Federal Surety 

General Accident Fire and Life 

General Casualty and Surety 

Globe Indemnity 

Hartford Accident and Indemnity 

Indemnity Company of North America 

Interstate Life and Accident 

Jefferson Standard Life 

Lincoln Accident and Life 

London Guarantee and Accident 

Manhattan Life 

Maryland Casualty 

Massachusetts Accident 

Massachusetts Bonding 



Metropolitan Life 

Missouri State Life 

National Casualty 

New Amsterdam Casualty 

Northwestern Casualty and Surety 

Norwich Union Indemnity 

Ocean Acddent and Guarantee 

Pacific Mutual Life 

Pan-American Life 

Phoenix Mutual Life 

Provident Life and Accident 

Prudential 

Reliance Life 

Royal Indemnity 

Southern Surety 

Southern Life and Trust 

Standard Accident 

Travelers 

Union Central Life 

Union Indemnity 

United Sutes Casualty 

United States Fidelity and Guarantee 

Zurich General Accident and Liability 



BURGLARY, INSURANCE AGAINST. [For an account of 
the beginnings of buivlanr insurance in the United States, see Cyclo- 
pedia tor 1900-1901.] The business of insuring; against loss through 
breaking and entering " premises by burglars is transacted by thirtyr- 
nine casualty companies in the United States. The returns of busi- 
ness done in 192 1 are as follows: 

Premiums LoMtj 

Companies Written Padd 

Aetna Casualty and Surety $i.563iOXO S73S1S4S 

American Casualty X4t40S I2f094 

American Indemnity 

American Surety 596,063 323.543 

Columbia Casualty, N. Y 136,204 48.214 

Commercial Casualty, N.J aa,6s8 

Continental Casualty, Chicago 206.754 66.496 

Employers' Liability 620,oxi 400,808 

Federal Surety 27,480 S.778 

Fidelity & Casualty i,X9o,623 607,034 

Fidelity & Deposit 692.848 307.421 

General Accident 131,424 107.745 

General Casualty and Surety 10,946 3.865 

Georgia Casualty 41*3x1 34.475 

Globe Indemnity 783,013 332,2x2 

Hartford Accident 720,7x6 304.577 

Indemnity Ins. Co., of North America, Phila. . x6o,x64 25.4.19 

Interstate Casualty, Ala 67 8,209 

Interstate Surety, So. Dak 3t762 2,107 

Iowa Bonding 34i9o8 56»3i4 

Kansas Casualty and Surety 28,348 9.542 

London Guarantee 532,159 273.375 

London and Lancashire Indemnity 64,9x8 31.974 

Manufacturers Liability 3ii774 32.518 

Maryland Casualty 1,178.5 74 ^^3*249 

Massachusetts Bonding 55Zf056 3S5,9as 

Metropolitan Casualty 76 a. 973 

National Surety 2,295>9S6 x ,002.645 

New Amsterdam Casualty 389.232 313^*28 

New Jersey 363,156 157,774 



Life and Casualty Section 251 



Premiuma 
Companies Written Paid 

Norwich Union Indemnity S93t3a4 153.776 

Ocean Accident 7x3,932 450,48a 

Preferred Accident 451,069 2x0,944 

Republic Casualty 34t4x6 40,583 

Royal Indemnity 897*200 363,773 

Southern Surety 53t302 9*337 

Traveters Indemnity 1,919,092 797i3x6 

Union Indemnity, New Orleans 284,063 x 18,144 

United States Casualty 230,626 1x0,769 

United States Fidelity 3,037»394 x,0X4,X34 

Western Surety, S. Dak 2,126 93 

Total 1931 $i9.xo7,o69 $9,406,773 

1920 17,458,440 8,649,337 

X9X9 12.667,4x3 S.356,740 

X9x8 7.736.276 2302,3x3 

19x7 S.884.378 2,409.021 

BURGLARY INSURANCE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIA- 
TION, 80 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. This association was 
organized in 1904, to further proper practices in burglary insurance, 
and the first officers were: David W. Armstrong, chairman; Samuel B. 
Brewster, secretary, and Richard H. Thompson, treasurer. The present 
officers elected at the annual meeting in May, 1922, are: John J. Flynn, 
Massachusetts Bonding, president; George C. Fritz, Maryland Casu- 
alty, vice-president; R. A. Algire, National Surety, second vice- 
president; R. P. Sherman, United States Casualty, treasurer; H. W. 
Cluff, secretary; governing committee; R. W. Ntyers, S. B. Brewster, 
R. A. Algire, F. H. Kingsbury, D. G. Luckett; F. W. Rucker and F. S. 
Garrison; bureau committee: E. B. Anderson, chairman; George G. 
Brainard, Samuel B. Brewster. 

BUSINESS MEN'S ASSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA, 
Kansas City, Mo. Organized 1909 as Business Men's Accident Asso- 
ciation of America, re-organized 1920; capital, $200,000. C. S. Jobes, 
chairman of the board; W. T. Grant, president; F. G. Crowell, vice- 
president; J. H. Torrance, vice-president; L. D. Ramsey, treasurer; 
A. J. Rieder, secretary; Daisy Baker, and C. S. Davis, assistant 
secretaries; J. E. Higdon, actuary; E. F. Robinson, medical director; 
A. W. Hogue, General Field Supervisor. 

BUSINESS MEN'S INDEMNITY ASSOCIATION, 33 Monu- 
ment Place, Indianapolis, Ind. Organized 1915. R. L. McOuat, 
president; W. W. Dark, secretary and treasurer. 

BUSINESS MEN'S MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Greensboro, N. C. Organized 1912, re-or^nized as stock company 
1920, C. C. Taylor, president; Julian Price, vice-president, R. B. 
Coit, vice-president and treasurer; L. C. McCabe, secretary. 



c 



CALEF LOVING CUP AND BEN WILLIAMS MEMORIAL 
VASE. At a meeting of the executive committee of the National 
Aflsociation of Life Underwriters held at Pittsburg, Pa., in March, 
1894, a communication was read from Major Ben S. Calef, of Bos- 
ton, tendering a silver " loving cup " to the association, to serve as a 
prize in an annual inter-association contest, on the following terms: 

The executive oommlttee of the national aModation ihall call for a paper or 
etiay. not to exceed 750 wordi, on the tubject, '* What Have Life Underwriters' Aaio- 
dation* Accomplished for the Benefit of the Companies, the Agents and the Pub- 
lic? " Each aasodation is to send one paper by a writer selected by itself from its 
own members; bis name is to be placed in a sealed envelope bearing a number ocMnre- 
sponding to the number of an envelope containing his paper. These axe to be sent on 
or before June z to the secretary of the national association. The national executive 
committee will appoint a sub-oommittee of five members to open and read the sev- 
eral contributions, and decide by open ballot whidi they consider the beat. This 
being decided, the envelope bearing the corresponding number shall be opened. Bnd 
the paper so selected wUl be read at the national convention. The author of the se- 
lected paper shall recdve the cup as custodian for his association, and it s^Jl bear 
his name and that of nls association, and the date. The cup shall be hdd until the 
next annual meeting of the national aiaodation. when a dmilar competition shall 
take place under the direction of the national executive committee, tlMy nnmi'tig the 
subject for the paper. All the papers shall become the property of the national aaso- 
dation. with the right to publish them. 

The cup was accepted by the committee on behalf of the national 
association, with the conditions attached, and each of the local asso- 
ciations was duly notified. [For account of earlier contests and winners 
see Cyclopedia for 1911-13 and 1913-14.] 

The Calef Cup is of silver, of generous proportions, beautifully 
carved, with three graceful handles, and bearing on its side the inscrip- 
tion '* National Association of Life Underwriters. Annual Essay 
Cup. Presented by Benjamin S. Calef, Boston, 1804." The work- 
manship was specially designed and executed by Snreve, Crump St 
Low, Boston, Mass. The lamented death of the donor occurred 
January 9, 1897. 

The Ben Williams memorial vase, presented to the National 
Association in 1899, was the gift of twenty gentlemen, members of 
the National Association, in remembrance of Ben Williams, the livest- 
ern life insurance manager, who died May 22, 1898. The conditions 
of the gift are that it shall be presented, for the year, to the second 
best contestant for the Calef Cup, under the same regulations. 

CALIFORNIA INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, i86&-i^2. 

The insurance department of California was organized in 1868. The 
title of the officer in charge is insurance commissioner; who is ap> 
pointed by the Governor, and his term of office is for four years. [See 
Cyclopedia for 19 13-14 for list of former officials.] • 

J. E. Phelps was appointed in 19 14. Alexander McCabe is the 
present commissioner, appointed in 1917. 



Life and Casualty Ssction 253 

CALIFORNIA STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sac- 
rameato, Cal. Oraanized 19 lo; capital, $500,000. Marshall Diss** 
president; J. R. Kruse, vice-president, general manager and agency 
director; Fred W. Kiesel» second vice-president; C. S. Brooks, secre- 
tary and treasurer; Robert T. McKisick, general counsel; Harold H. 
Buckman, actuary; Dr. Thomas J. Cox, third vice-president and 
medical director; H. H. Bryson, assistant secretary. 

CANADA LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY, THE, Toronto, 
Canada. Organized 1847; capital, $1,000,000. H. C. Cox, president 
and general manager; T. G. McConkey, general superintendent; E. M. 
Saunders, treasurer; W. A. P. Wood, actuary; H. C. Scadding, medical 
director; C, R. Acres, secretary. 

CAPITAL CITY SURETY COMPANY, Albany, N, Y. Organ- 
ized 1912; capital, $100,000. Frank P. Dolan, vice-president and secre- 
tary; Edward Murphy, treasurer. 

CAPITAL, INCREASE OF, IN 1921. In life and casualty 
insurance the following companies increased their capital: 

LIFE:— American National, Galveston, Texas, from $250,000 to $500,000; Cen- 
tral Life, Ottawa. 111., from $200,000 to $300,000; Chicago National, from $200,000 
to $300,000; Crescent Life, Indianapolis, to $300,000; Merchanu Life and Casualty 
Minneapolis, from $100,000 to $250,000; National Life and Accident, Nashville, 
from $300,000 to $600,000; Northern Life, Seattle, from $200,000 to $250,000. 

CASUALTY'.— Commercial Casualty, Newark, from $600,000 to $750,000: 
Continental Casualty, Chicago, from $700,000 to $1,000,000; Detroit Fidelity and 
Surety from $1,000,000 to $2,000,000: Great Western Accident, Des Moines, from 
$100,000 to $200,000, Manufactiuers Liability; Jersey City from $400,000 to $500,- 
000; Metropolitian Casualty, New York, from $100,000 to $200,000; Pennsylvania 
Surety. Harrisburg from $250,000 to $400,000; Standard Accident, Detroit, from 
$x, 000,000 to $1,500,000. 

CAPITOL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF COLORADO, 
THE, Denver, Coio. Organized 1905; capital, $100,000. Clarence J. 
Daly, president; Patrick Crowe, vice-president and treasurer; Wm. E 
Hutton, vice-president and attorney; Geo. H. Beaudry, secretary and 
actuary; J. G. Bauer and W. T. Flanagan, assistant secretaries; Dr. 
J. W. Amesse, medical director. 

CAROLINA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Columbia, S. C. 
Or^nized in 1902 as Carolina Insurance and Casualty Company; 
reorganized 1912; capital, $100,000. P. H. Haltiwanger, president; 
A. B. Langley, vice-president and general manager; A. H. Kohn, secre- 
tary and treasurer; Ames Haltiwanger, assistant treasurer and auditor. 
J. M. Walker, assistant general manager and associate counsel; A. Earle 
Boozer, medical director; W. A. Hantske, manager life department. 

CASUALTY ACTUARIAL SOCIETY. Organized in November. 
19 14 as the Casualty Actuarial and Statistical Society. The present 
title being adopted in May, 192 1. 

The object of the Society is the promotion of actuarial and statis- 
tical science as applied to the problems of casualty and social insurance 



254 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

by means of personal intercourse, the presentation and discussion of 
appropriate papers, the collection of a library and such other means as 
may be found desirable. 

The membership of the Society is composed of Fellows and Asso- 
ciates. Admission is by election or examination. The examinations 
of the Society are held in May of each year. The membership consists 
of 157 Fellows and 55 Associates. 

The officers first elected were: President, Dr. I. M. Rubinow, 
vice-presidents, B. D. Flynn, A. H. Mowbray; secretary and treasurer, 
C. E. Scattergood ; librarian-editor, W. W. Greene. 

The present officers of the Society are as follows: President, A. H. 
Mowbray; vice-presidents, H. £. Ryan and Leon S. Senior; secretary 
and treasurer, Richard Fondiller, 120 Broadway, N. Y.; editor, G. F. 
Michelbacher; librarian, Louis L Dublin; council: £. E. Cammack. 
E. S. Cogswell, A. W. Whitney, M. Davis. 

The annual meeting of the Society is held in New York City in 
November. The semi-annual meeting is held in May in a city selected 
by the Council. The Society issues twice a year a publication called 
the "Proceedings," which is sent to members and to subscribers. 

CASUALTY INFORMATION CLEARING HOUSE. This 
association was organized at a meeting held in New York in March, 
1921. It is incorporated under the laws of Connecticut, and its purposes 
as expressed in its articles of incorporation are: "To gather together, 
print, formulate and dispense among its members and others inlonna- 
tion concerning the business of casualty insurance, and to do, without 
profit, any other lawful act or thing which may promote the welfare 
of casualty insurance and those interested therem." The membership, 
divided into three classes, is composed of officers of casualty insurance 
companies, their general agents and local agents. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, George D. Webb, 
Chicago, 111.; vice-president, Fred J. Cox, Perth Amboy, N. J.; secre- 
tary, Walter H. Bennett, secretary of the National Association of 
Insurance Agents, New York, N. Y.; treasurer, Fred W. Lawson, 
London Guarantee & Accident, Chicago; directors: Edson S. Lott 
United States Casualty; F. Highland Burns, Maiyland Casualty; 
H. G. B. Alexander, Continental Casualty; Charles H. Neely, Ocean 
Accident; Charles H. Holland, Royal Indemnity; and Fred L. Gray, 
W. G. Wilson, Phillip S. Powers, Thomas C. Moftatt, O. G. Strong and 
J. Henry McManus. 

CASUALTY AND SURETY CLUB of New York, was organized 
at a meeting of the casualty and surety underwriters of New York City 
held in December, 1908, for social purposes under the title Casualty 
and Surety Social Club. Officers were elected as follows: President, 
Edmund Dwight, Employers' Liability; vice-presidents, Eklsan S. 
Lott, United States Casualty, and David W. Armstrong, Jr., National 
Surety; secretary, William J. Gardner, /Etna Life; treasurer, Ed^ward 
L. Hearn, Casualty Company of America. The present name was 
adopted in 1914. The present officers elected at the annual meeting 



Life and Casualty Section 255 

in December, 192 1, are: President, John S. Turn, Aetna; vice-presi- 
dents, A. G. Oakley and Walter G. Falconer; secretary and treasurer, 
George H. Reaney, 100 William St., New York, N. Y. 

CASUALTY INSURANCE EXCHANGE. New York, N. Y. 
The present officers, elected in November, 192 1, are: Chairman, F. G. 
Morris, Ocean Accident and Guarantee, vice-chairman, Paul Ruther- 
ford, Hartford Accident and Indemnity; secretary and treasurer, 
George G. Wetzel, United States Fidelity and Guaranty. Executive 
committee: The officers and John S. Turn, Aetna Life, H. B. Johnson, 
The Travelers, M. E. Jewett, Royal Indemnity, Benjamin Sturges, 
Fidelity and Casualty, New York, Albert W. Whitney, National 
Bureau of Casualty and Surety Underwriters. 

CASUAI-TY UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF PHILA- 
DELPHIA, Philjadelphia, Pa. The present officers, elected in January, 
1922, are: President, A. H. Reeve, Travelers; vice-president, H. K. 
Remington, Aetna Life; secretary and treasurer, J. B. Councilman, 
124 S. 4th St., Phila. executive committee: A. H. Reeve, chairman. 
Travelers; H. K. Remington, Aetna; F. K. Dutcher, London Guaran- 
tee; John W. Donahue, Maryland Casualty; S. H. Pool, Fidelity and 
Casualty; W. F. Swan, Ocean Accident; Wm. Barnard, Indemnity of 
North America; W. A. McCrea, Hartford Indemnity. 

CATHOLIC KNIGHTS OF ILLINOIS, BelleviUe, 111. Organized 
1884. Daniel E. Sweeney, president; Wm. J. Claus, secretary. 

CEDAR RAPIDS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. Organized 1906; capital, $100,000. C. B. Robbins, 
president; Glenn M. Averill and J. G. Sigmund, vice-presidents; C. B. 
Svoboda, secretary; M. L. Ridgeway, assistant secretary; Ernest R. 
Moore, treasurer; Dr. G. E. Crawford, medical director. 

CELINA MUTUAL CASUALTY COMPANY, Celina, Ohio. 
Organized 1919. J. D. Johnson, president; Otto F. Rentzsch, vice- 
pfcsident; E. J. Brookhart, secretary; W. T. Palmer, treasurer. Full 
coverage automobile insurance only. 

CENTRAL LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY OF THE UNITED 
STATES (Mutual), Des. Moines, Iowa. Organized 1896; George B. 
Peak, president; O. C. Miller, vice-president; George N. Ayres, vice- 
president and loan manager; Fred P. Carr, vice-president and general 
counsel; T. C. Denny, secretary; F. G. Wolfinger, assistant secretary; 
L. A. Anderson, actuary; M. I. Olsen, medical director; Homer A. 
Miller, treasurer; J. A. Wilson, cashier. 

CENTRAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Fort Scott, 
Kaims. Organized 1906 (mutual). Howard L. Stout, president; 
George W. Marble, vice-president; Robert S. Tieman, secretary and 
tieasurer; J. T. Mayall, assistant secretary; Elmer E. Lyon, actuary; 
C. A. Van Velzer, medical director; D. Sharpe, agency director. 



256 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

CENTRAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF ILLINOIS, 
Ottawa, 111. Organized 1907; capital, $300,000. H. W. Johnson, 
president; W. F. Weese and Charles Nadler, vice-presidents; S. B. 
Bradford, secretary and treasurer; W. H. Hinebaugh, general counsel; 
T. W. Burrows, medical director. 

CENTRAL LIVE STOCK INSURANCE COMPANY, Kanka- 
kee, 111. Organized 1914; capital, paid-in, $58,072.16. The company 
was placed in a receiver's hands in 192 1. 

CENTRAL MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW 
YORK, Albany, N. Y. Organized 1914. The company retired in 
192 1. 

CENTRAL STATES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, St. 
Louis, Mo. Organized 1910; capital, $350,000. Frank P. Crunden, 
president; lames A. McVoy, vice-president and general manager; 
George Graham, vice-president; V. F. Larson, secretary; T. H. Gal- 
braith, G. P. Henderson, assistant secretaries; E. M. Grossman, 
counsel. 

CENTRAL STATES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Craw- 
fordsville, Ind. Organized 1909; capital, $100,000. Edwin M. Brown, 

E resident and general manager; Harold Taylor, vice-president; Thomas 
. Neal, second vice-president and agency manager; Dumont M. Peck, 
treasurer; Clifford V. Peterson, secretary; Dr. W. H. Ristine, medical 
director; Frank J. Haight, actuary. 

CENTURY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Organized, 1916; capital, $200,000. Thomas J. Owens, president; 
C. T. Tuck, secretary; Albert Seaton, vice-president and medical 
director; W. T. Cannon, treasurer. 

CINCINNATI LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION 
was organized December 16, 1890, the first ofiicers being Charles G« 
Logan, president; M. J. Jack, vice-president; S. M. Brandebury, 
treasurer; and Frank M. Joyce, secretary. The present oflBcers 
elected at the annual meeting in January, 1922, are: S. Howard Swope, 
president; Clarence S. Schram, vice-president; R. W. Copelan, 801 St- 
Paul Building, secretary; C. Vivian Anderson, treasurer. 

CLEVELAND LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Cleveland O.. 
Organized 1907; capital paid in, $250,000. Wm. H. Hunt, president; 
F. F. Prentiss, vice-president; M. J. O'Donnell, vice-president; H. M. 
Moore, vice-president and secretary; J. Earnest Teare, treasurer and 
assistant secretary; E. G. Fassel, actuary. The company transacts 
life insurance only. 



CLEVELAND LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION, 

organized in May, 1889. The orijpnal ofiicers were: F. A. Kendall. 
president; J. W. Lee and W. B. Hillman, vice-presidents; J. C. Traak, 



LiFB AND Casualty Section • 257 

secretary; O. N. Olmsted, treasurer. The present officers elected at 
the annual meeting in December, 192 1, are: President, Walter H. 
Brown, Prudential; vice-president, John H. Byrne, Penn Mutual; 
second vice-president, J. W. Chapman, Aetna; secretary, Clinton F. 
Criswell; treasurer, Ralph B. Hunter, Equitable N. Y. 

CLOVERLEAF LIFE AND CASUALTY COMPANY, Jackson- 
ville. III. Organized 19 12; capital, $200,000. F. H. Rowe, president; 
W. C. Bradish, C. A. Goodale, vice-presidents; R. Y. Rowe, secre- 
tary; C. Y. Rowe, treasurer. 

COLONIAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA, 
Jersey City, N. J. Organized in 1897 to do an industrial and ordinary 
business; capital, $250,000. Ernest J. Heppenheimer, president; 
George T. Smith, vice-president; Charles F. Nettleship, second vice- 

g resident; Dunbar Johnston, secretary and treasurer; Samuel R. 
>rown, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer; George A. Hug- 
gins, actuary; John Yarrick, assistant actuary; John Nevin, medical 
director. 

COLORADO ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS 
was organized at a meeting held in Denver, April 7, 1906. Officers 
were elected as follows: President, J. P. Cullum, Union Central Life; 
vice-president, J. S. Edwards, i£tna Life; second vice-president, 
A. H. Stewart, Union Mutual; secretary, W. Rolla Wilson, Washington 
Life; treasurer, W. W. Booth, Provident Savings. The present offi- 
cers, elected in June, 192 1, are: President, A. Norman Dempsey; 
vice-presidents, J. A. Culbreath, Charles £. Freed, and J. L. Joiner; 
secretary and treasurer, J. Jefferson Tyndall, Denver. 

COLORADO, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1883-1922. 
The state insurance department of Colorado was organized in April, 
1883, the state auditor being charged under the statute with the du- 
ties of supervision as superintendent of insurance. 

The legislature of 1907 created a separate insurance department, 
providing tor the appointment of a commissioner, deputy commis- 
sioner, and actuary. The commissioner under the act is appointed 
by the Governor for a term of two years from February i, at a salary 
of $3,000. [See Cyclopedia for 1913-14 for list of former officials.] 
£. R. Harper was appointed in 191 5. Claude W. Fairchild was appointed 
in 1917 and re-appointed in 1919, but resigned in 1921, and was suc- 
ceeded by Earl Wilson, who was removed from office by the Governor in 
1922 and Jackson Cochrane was appointed commissioner. 

COLUMBIA CASUALTY COMPANY OF NEW YORK. 
Organized 1920. Capital, $800,000. Home Office, 114 Fifth Avenue, 
New York. Charles H. Neely, president; Henry Collins, vice-presi- 
dent; Frank G. Morris, vice-president, and J. F. Ranges, secretary. 



258 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

COLUMBIA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Organized I902; capital, $192,300. S. M. Cross, president; 
W. F. Robertson, vice-president and treasurer; Henry G. Luken 
secretary; A, J. Koeppe, actuary. 

COLUMBIA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Omaha. Neb. 
Organized 1908. H. C. Mason, president and actuary, F. W. Amdt, 
secretary and treasurer; A. W. Mason, assistant secretary; J. H. 
Thomsen, M.D., medical director. The company was formerly located 
in Fremont, Neb. 

COLUMBIAN NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
THE, of Boston. Organised 1902; capital, $1,000,000. Arthur E. 
Childs, president; Frauds P. $ear8, vice-president and comptroller. 
Wm. H. Brown, second vice-president and secretary; John M. Powell, 
actuary; John S. Phelps, M.L)., medical director. 



COLUMBUS LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION 
organized in January, 1912, by Columbus, O., agents, and the offioera 
elected were: Presiclent, Fritz A. Lichtenberg, Massachuaetts Mutual; 
vice-president, Albert Speaks, New England Mutual; secretary, C. C. 
Hills, Mutual Benefit; treasurer, Lot T. Brown, Union Central. The 
present officers, elected at the annual meeting in January, 1922, are: 
President, Ralph W. Hoyer, John Hancock; vice-president, Arthur 
M. Kemery; secretary, George A. Bredehoft, Connecticut Genera], 
607 Bninson Building; treasurer, C. K. Siebert. 

COLUMBUS MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Columbus, Ohio. Organized 1908; capital paid in, $250,000. C. W. 
Brandon, president; Dr. W. B. Carpenter, vice-president and med- 
ical director; D. E. Ball, secretary and actuary; S. A. Hoakins, 
treasurer. 

COMMERCIAL CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY, New- 
ark, N. J. Incorporated, April 2nd, 1909. Assets, $5,110,025.67, 
suiplus to policyholders, $1,500,000 and in addition a voluntary reserve 
of $100,000 has been set aside. On March 2nd, 192 1, the capital was 
increased from $600,000 to $750,000, with an additional $150,000, 
also, added to the surplus. Business written in 1920 $4,446,094.98 
Dividend rate, 14%. Operates in the Eastern and Middle Western 
States and California. Specializes in all forms of liability insurance, 
personal accident and health, plate glass, compensation, burglary and 
fidelity and surety. Officers: C. W. Feigenspan, president; J. Horace 
Shale, vice-president and p^eneral manager; E. C. Feigenspan, vice-pre- 
sident; Winton C. Garrison, treasurer; W. Van Winkle, secretary; 
C. E. Wheat ley, assistant treasurer; W. R. Griffin and Frank T. Gilsoni 
assistant secretaries; Wm. A. Herr, comptroller. 

COMMERCIAL HEALTH AND ACCIDENT COMPANY, 
Springfield, 111. H. B. Hill, president, J. R. Neal, vice-president; 
F. M. Feffer, secretary and treasurer (assessment company). 



Life and Casualty Section 259 

COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS' EASTERN ACCIDENT AS- 
SOCIATION, Boston, Mass. Organized 1894. T. Henry Mayo, 
president; William F. Mcpuillen, James B. Lord, Elmer E. Carpenter, 
vice-presidents; Ira F. Libby, secretary and treasurer. The associa- 
tion writes accident insurance only, under the Fraternal Laws of 
Massachusetts. 

COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS MUTUAL ACCIDENT AS- 
SOCIATION OF AMERICA, THE, Utica, N. Y. Organized 1883. 
Russell H. Wicks, president; H. E. Trewett, secretary and treasurer. 

COMMONWEALTH CASUALTY COMPANY, Philadelphia 
Pa. Organized 1906; cash capital, $300,000. Henry C. Stewart, 
president; E. W. Cook, vice-president and general manager; C. Wm. 
Freed, second vice-president and general counsel; Edwin S. Cook, 
secretary; Charles T. Megee, treasurer. 

COMMONWEALTH LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Louis- 
ville, Ky. Organized 1904; capital $500,000. Darwin W. Johnson, 
president; I. Smith Homans, secretary and actuary; Dr. W. F. Black- 
ford, medical director. 

COMMONWEALTH LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, St. 
Louis, Mo. Organized 1909; capital, $100,000. F. J. Uehling, 
president; W. K. Whitfield, vice-president; C. S. Whitfield, secretary; 
A. B. Detweiler, treasurer; T. C. Rafferty, F. A.S., actuary; Dr. Frank 
Simon, medical director; Geo. A. Nelson, assistant secretary. 

COMPANIES ORGANIZED OR PROJECTED IN 1921: 

LIFE 

Actual or 
Pro p ose d 
Companiet Capiul 

Bankers National Life Insurance Co., Indianapolis, Ind $aoo,ooo 

Capital Savings Life Insurance Co^ Columbus, Ohio 200,000 

Connopolitan Life Insurance Co., Detroit, Midi 250,000 

Domestic Life and Accident Insurance Co., Louisville, Ky 100,000 

Oreat Western Life Insurance Co., Billings, Mont 250,000 

Lriberty Life Insurance Co., Chicago. Ill 

Modem Life Insurance Co., St. Paul, Minn 200,000 

Michigan Life and Annuity Co., Petoskey and Detroit, Mich 75iOOO 

National Reserve Life Insurance Co., Topeka, Kan 225,000 

National Home Life Insurance Co., Dallas, Tex 150,000 

National Savings Life Insurance Co., Wichita, Kan 250,000 

National Temperance Life Insurance Co., Chicago, III 100,000 

Pablte Life and Accident Insurance Co., Nashville, Tenn 200,000 

Safety First Life Insurance Co., Oklahoma City, Okla 

Standard American Life Insurance Co., Chicago, 111 

Teacas Mutual Life Insurance Co., Dallas, Texas 

Union National Life Insurance Co 

Washington City Life Insurance Co 

CASUALTY AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Automotive Industries Mutual Motor Insurance Assn., Detroit Mich. 

Blue Ribbon Mutual Auto Insurance Co., Detroit, Mich. 

Commercial Mutual Surety, Lincoln, Neb. 

Coastwise Mutual Casualty Co., New York, N. Y. 

I>etroit Bonding and Mortgage Guarantee Co., Detroit, Mich. 



260 Cyclopedia of Insusancb 

DetfxHt Fidelity and Surety Co» Detroit, Mich. 

Equitable Mortgage and Title Co.. Lawrence, N. Y. 

Federal Mutual Auto Insurance Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Frankenmuth Mutual Auto Insurance Co., Frankenmuth, Mich. 

General Casualty and Surety Reinsurance Corp., New York, N. Y. 

Minnesota Threshennens Mutual Insurance Co., Mankato, Minn. 

Mutual Indemnity Co., Detroit, Mich. 

New York Indemnity Co., New York, N. Y. 

Plains Casualty Co., Cheyenne, Wyo. 

P rofe ssional Indemnity Corp., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Standard Automobile Mutual Casualty Co., New York, N. Y. 

State Mutual Insurance Exchange, St. Paul, Minn. 

Supreme Casualty Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Texas Casualty Co., Austin, Tex. 

Title Guaranty and Casualty Co. of America, Detroit. 

CONNECTICUT GENERAL LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Hartford, Conn. Organized in 1865; capital, $800,000. 
Robert W. Huntington, president; Georae £. Bulkley, vice-president; 
Richard H. Cole, secretary; Edward B. Peck and Samuel G. Hunting- 
ton, assistant secretaries; John M. Laird, actuary; Charles G. Wood- 
ward, financial secretary; Arthur P. Woodward, secretary accident 
department; George Goodwin, assistant secretary accident department ; 
Walter I. King, secretary group insurance department; William H. 
Flanigan assistant secretary life department; F. C. Griswold, superin- 
tendent of agencies; George E. Risley, superintendent of agencies; 
Georee C. Capen, assistant superintendent of agencies; William W. 
Knight, M.D., medical advisor, William Armstrong, M. D., assistant 
medical advisor. 

CONNECTICUT. INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1865- 
1922. The insurance department of Connecticut was established by 
law, July 19, 1865, the insurance commissioner being appointed by 
the Governor for three years. In 1887 the term was mcreased to 
four years. [See Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14 for list of former officials.] 

Burton Mansfield is the present commissioner, appointed for the 
term beginning July i, 191 1, and re-appointed for each term since. 

CONNECTICUT LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION 
was organized October 27, 1890. [For a full account of the first meet- 
ing and organization of the association see the Cyclopedia for 1890 
(page 63).] The present officers elected at the annual meeting held m 
October, 192 1, are: President, Max Hartstall, Hartford; first vice- 
president, Richard Greening, Hartford; second vice-president, Ed^nrard 
S. Doton, New London; secretary and treasurer, James B. Moody, Jr., 
803 Main St., Hartford; executive committee, F. A. Griswold, 2nd, 
Bridgeport, Fred S. Keech, New Haven, John W. Moore, Bridgeport, 
George W. Greene, Waterbury, John H. Ehn, Hartford, D. F. Buckley, 
Waterbury, R. M. Buckmaster, Waterbury. 

CONNECTICUT MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY 
of Hartford. Organized 1846. Henry S. Robinson, president; James 
Lee Loomis, vice-president; Herbert H. White, treasurer; Jacob H. 
Greene, secretary; Harold F. Larkin, secretary; Franklin H. Searle and 



Life and Casualty Section 261 

Harold N. Chandler, assistant secretaries; Daniel H. Wells, consulting 
actuary; Charles Hildebrand, actuary; Harry I. B. Rice, associate 
actuary; William P. Barber, assistant actuary; Henry H. Steiner, 
superintendent of agencies; Harry F. Gray and William H. Harrison, 
assistant superintendents of agencies; Harold M. Holderness, agency 
correspondent; Joseph B. Hall, medical director; Henry A. Martelle, 
assistant medical director; Charles D. Alton, medical referee. 

CONSERVATIVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMER- 
ICA, South Bend, Ind. Organized 1912; authorized capital, $125,000, 
cash capital, $100,600. Dixon W. Place, president; A. S. Burkart, 
vice-president and general manager; William Mell, secre.^ary; Joseph 
M. Stephenson, treasurer; Samuel Parker, general counsel. 

CONSERVATIVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sioux 
City, Iowa. Organized 191 9. Burton H. Saxton, president; A. E. 
Wilder, vice-president; J. D. Langstaff, secretary; T. M. Murdock, 
treasurer; I. E. Nervig, medical director. 

CONSERVATIVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Wheeling, 
W. Va. Orranized 1907; capital, paid in, $350,690. George W. HiU, 
president; W. C. Eberts, vice-president; S. M. Sawvel, vice-president; 
Clem E. Peters, secretary and treasurer; W. S. Fulton, M.D., medical 
director, J. J. P. O'Brien, counsel. 

CONTINENTAL ASSURANCE COMPANY. Chicago, lU. 
Oiganized 1911; capital, $250,000. H. G. B. Alexander, president; 
W. H. Roberts, Manton Maverick, H. A. Behrens, and G. F. Claypool, 
vice-presidents; E. G. Timme, secretary; W. H. Roberts, treasurer; 
G. F. Claypool, superintendent of agencies; H. W. Dingman, medical 
director. 

CONTINENTAL CASUALTY COMPANY. Chicago, III. Or- 
ganized 1897; capital $1,200,000. H. G. B. Alexander, president; 
W. H. Roberts, Manton Maverick, H. A. Behrens, W. H. Betts and 
M. P. Cornelius, vice-presidents; E. G. Timme, secretary; D. W. Mc- 
Fall and F. I. Hooper, assistant secretaries; W. H. Roberts, treasurer. 

CONTINENTAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Organized 1914. Edwin G. Cover, president; I. S. D. 
Sauls, vice-presidents; H. A. Bartholemew, secretary and treasurer; 
W. W. Doub, assistant secretary. 

CONTINENTAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, WUmine- 
toUf Del. Organized 1907; authorized capital, $1,000,000; cash capital. 
S654.490. Philip Burnet, president; George E. Saulsbury, vice-presi- 
dent; Charles R. Churchman, vice-president; Otley E. Simpers, treas- 
urer; Adolph A. Rydgren, actuary; Daniel E. Jones, secretary; Dr. 
Peter W. Tomlinson, medical director; James A. Fulton, agency 
manager; William F. Kurtz, general counsel. 



262 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

CONTINENTAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, St. Louis, 
Missouri. Organized 1904: capital, $490,000. Edmund P. Melson, 
president; C. D. Bolin, and P. M. Harper, vice-presidents; J. DeWitt 
Mills, secretary; L. Marks, assistant secretary; C. A. McCona^^hy, 
actuary; Dr. C. R. Dudley, medical director; Judge Charles G. 
Revelle, counsel; J. A. McCoy, manager health and accident depart- 
ment. Headquarters of the company were moved from Kansas City 
to St. Louis in 192 1. 

CORPORATE SURETYSHIP.* Following the custom as old as 
civilization, it was impossible, until comparatively a few years ago, to 
furnish bond excepting by personal sureties or collateral security. 
Corporate surety companies were therefore formed to enable a man to 
pay a company a premium for serving in lieu of personal surety or col- 
lateral security, guaranteeing the obligee against loss, if the conditions 
of the bond should not be properly met. Corporate suretyship has been 
aptly described as a means of saving one's self from one s friends. 
This operates both waysj in that a^ man by furnishing corporate surety 
is relieved from obligations to friends who might serve as personal 
sureties; and those qualified to become sureties can better afford to 
pay the surety bond premium for a *' friend," rather than risk per- 
sonal loss by becoming his surety. 

Since surety companies are classified as insurance companies, and 
the giving of bonds bemg far older than any form of insurance, it seems 
strange that corporate surety should be so long attaining its proper 
place. Insurance corporations became reasonably common in the 
seventeenth century, yet the first surety company was organized in 
1 85 1, but not admitted to the United States until 1881. One Ameri- 
can company writing surety business was organized in 1876, another 
in 1884, and the important fact is that these four companies stiU sur- 
vive, and practically all of the host of companies oi^nized beginning 
with the year 1897 have ceased doing business. 

This is due to many causes, but primarily to handling suretyship 
like insurance, assuming the volume of premiums would take care ot 
the losses and writing business freely without regardii^ anything but 
the erratic loss experience gained from time to time. The chief errors 
included inadequate rates, improper standards of underwriting, under- 
estimated loss reserves, and over-confidence generally. Needless to 
say that the companies which confused the ideas of mere production 
with those of safe underwriting, did not live long enough to acquire 
any experience, and that no stability was given the business until the 
formation of the present system of standardization of rates (differen- 
tiated as to the liability in various states under their ever-changing 
laws). 

There are many mistaken conceptions of the scope and purpose 
of corporate suretyship, but the worst is the erroneous theory that the 
premium is intended to cover the risk. This is not the case, as a cor- 
porate surety is merely an accommodation surety and all elements 

* By William H. Drapier, Jr., Superintendent of Agencies. National Surety Com- 
pany, New York, N. Y. 



Life and Casualty Section 263 

of risk must be eliminated, as far as possible, so that the premium 
merely represents a service fee to save the principal from being under 
obligations to personal surety, and yet, at the same time, contemplat- 
ing full re-imbursement to the surety company of all loss and expenses 
incurred. 

The average surety company is qualified to transact all of the so- 
called multiple lines, i.e. : To cover all hazards, excepting fire and life 
insurance. The most successful companies are necessarily those 
which, though chartered as above, restnct their operations to fidelity, 
surety, and burglary business, for the only difference between fidelity 
and burglary is that the latter covers larceny, theft, and robbery 
caused by parties presumably unknown to the assured. In its prop- 
erly restricted sense, corporate suretyship comprehends the issuing only 
of such obligations as a personal surety might sign with proper quali- 
fications, and the soundest argument in favor of corporate-suretyship 
is the fundamental principle that the individual surety may die or fail 
and that only a permanent institution can be trusted on long contracts. 

Many of the earlier companies be^^n by writing only fidelity 
tx>nds; i.e., guaranteeing honesty and faithful performance of duties 
of ofiicers and employees. Fidelity business still forms the founda- 
tion of a properly balanced surety income, and is the best class of busi- 
ness from all standpoints, because self-respect deters losses, realizing 
that discovery brings disgrace and punishment. 

Next in line comes what are styled court fiduciary bonds, involv- 
ing the same elements, but including as well, ability and proper fulfill- 
ment of trusts. To secure the proper administration of the trust and 
com|>tiance with law and court orders by Federal and Bankruptcy 
fiduciaries, joint control of the assets is exercised by the referee, or the 
clerk of court. Surety companies follow the same practice in most 
cases, especially long terms trusts, thus safeguarding the interests of 
the beneficiaries, and, besides assisting the fiduciary, this relieves him 
by sharing responsibility for his disbursements. This practice has the 
approval of most courts and is provided for by enactments in most 
states. 

From this point on, all miscellaneous suretyship involves financial 
strength — the ability to perform the contract, pay the amount in- 
volved or other object to be attained; and these bonds must, there- 
fore, be underwritten entirely on banking principles. Bonds on 
appeal, supersedeas, and all other obligations equivalent to the en- 
dorsement of commercial paper, can only be safely guaranteed by the 
deposit with the surety company of cash or marketably convertible 
collateral equal to the lace of the bond. Where collateral is not im- 
peratively essential, the financial statement of the contractor or sim- 
ilar applicant must be unquestionably adequate and absolutely verified. 

In spite of all precautions that can be taken, the percentage of 
actual underwriting profit is remarkably small, and statistics show 
that the most substantial gains are from the income from investments, 
salvage, and other sources-^ the companies paying only nominal 
dividends and keeping operating expenses at an irreducible minimum. 
[For statistics see Surety and Fidelity Insurance.] 



264 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



COTTON STATES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Memphis, 
Tenn. Organized 191 2; camtal, paid in, $128,375. E. C. Hinds, 
president; W. T. Reeves and Travis H. Taylor, vice-presidents; H. W. 
Durham, vice-president and manager industrial department; £. C. 
Blackburn, medical director; Chas. A. Davis, secretary and treasurer. 

CREDIT INSURANCE. (The guaranteeing and indemnifying 
merchants and others engaged in business and ^ving credits from 
loss thereby.) In 1893 there were four companies in the United States 
engaf;ed in this business; only one domestic company, the American 
Credit Indemnity of New York, was in the field at the beginning of 
1898. The business is now transacted by one American company^ and 
the United States branches of two foreign companies. The credit in- 
surance business of three companies in the United States in 192 1 was 
as follows: 



COMPANIBS 

American Credit Indemnity . 
London Guarantee & Accident 
Ocean Accident & Guarantee . 

Total X92X 
Total X920 
Total Z9Z9 
ToUl 19x8 
Total Z917 



Premiuma 
Written 



$1,755,196.00 
943^350.00 
800,617.00 



$3,498. i63/>o 
3,787.481.00 
3.319,679.00 
X. 857*058.00 
1,665.9x5.00 



Paid 



$1,057,79700 

806,948.00 

1,336.037.00 



$3,100,783.00 
966, X 49.00 

73,553.00 
x94.183.00 

90.676.00 



CRESCENT LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Indianapolis, 
Ind. Organized 1914. Bertram Day, president; C. B. Jenkins, 
vice-president; M. E. Callane, secretary; W. E. Callane, treasurer; 
Frank J. Haight, actuary; Walter George, medical director. 



D 



DAKOTA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Watertown, S. 
Dak. Oreanized 1907; capital, $300,000. John B. Hanten, presi- 
dent; F. L. Bramble, secretary and treasurer; H. B. Bossert, auditor; 
Edgar E. Chappell, superintendent of agents; J. J. Bell, actuary; 
H. M. Finnerud, medical director. 

DEATH ROLL OF 192 1. The following is a list of persons con- 
nected with life and miscellaneous insurance who died in 1921: 

Allen. Frauds Burke, vice-president. Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Conn., died July 27 • Mr. Allen was bom at Baltimore, 
Md.. June i, 1841. He received a common and high school education, and began 
his business career as a machinists' apprentice. From 1863 to x868 he served 
in the engineer a>rps of the United States Navy. He was a director of the Navy 
League oT the United States, past junior commander-in-chief. G. A. R., and past 
Rear Admiral, National Association Naval Veterans of the United States, and was 
active in Grand Army, also naval a£fairs, and a past president of the Army and 
Navy Club of Connecticut. He was also a past vice-president of the board of 
Casualty and Surety Underwriters of New York; past president New England 
Society of Naval Engineers, Boston, Mass.; charter member American Society 
of Naval Engineers, Washington, D. C. 

Armstrong, David W., Jr., well known casualty underwriter, died at his home in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Ckrtober 36. He was engaged in the brokerage business in Brooklyn 
but previously held important positions with different companies. 

Birdseye, Arthur J., Connecticut state agent for the Mutual Benefit Life Insurance 
Company, Hartford, Conn., died April 29. Mr. Birdseye was bom in Waterloo, 
N. Y., August 21, 1868, and received his education in the Waterloo Academy. 
He early entered the retail jewelry business and later was a broker in New York. 
In X893 he was appointed general sigent of the Nederland Life Insurance Company 
of Amsterdam, Holland, then just beginning business in the United States. On 
the withdrawal of the company from the United States in 1896 he was appointed 
to a position in the home office of the Mutual Benefit Life of Newark, later becom- 
ing superintendent of agents of the company for Ohio, and in 1900 was appointed 
Connecticut state agent of the company. He was an ex-president of the Connecti- 
cut Life Underwriters Association, an ex-member of the executive committee of the 
National Association, a Knight Templar, a thirty-second degree Mason and 
Shriner, ex-governor of the Connecticut Society of the Founders and Patriots of 
America, and ex-treasurer-general of the order, and a Son of the American Revolu- 
tion, and a member of the Knights of Pythias. 

Brown, Robert P., vice-president. Prudential Life Insurance Company, died in Provi- 
dence, R. I., March 3, aged seventy-one years. 

Bruce. Albert C. special agent Northwestem Mutual Life Insurance Company, died 

0>ctober i5' 
Clark, Jesse R. president of the Union Central Life Insuiance Company, Cincinnati, 

Ohio, died October 26. 

Cohen, Max journalist founder and for thirty years publisher of Views, Washington, 
D. C, died at his home in Washington, September 22, age 75 years. 

Cox, William E., agent for many years of the New York Life Insurance Company in 
New York, died July 2X. 

Crum, Dr. Frederick S., assistant statistician Prudential Insurance Company, accidently 
drowned while fishing in Maine, September 2. 

Daly. Thomas F., president Capital Life Insurance Company, Denver, Col., died 
August 21. 

Davis, William B., agency inspector, Reliance Life Insurance Company, died sud- 
denly of acute indigestion, March 9. 



266 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

De Forest. Ezra, a veteran agent of the Penn. Mutual Life, died as a result of an ac- 
cidental fall at his home in Montdair, N. J., April 5, aged seventy years. 

De Kriss, Paul, general agent of the Travelers Insurance Company, at EvansviDe, 
Ind., died in May. 

Derrick, W. H., of the New York Insurance Department, died February iSi aged fifty- 
five years. 

Dodge, O. v., vice-president Midland Life, Kansas City, Mo., was murdered in Janu- 
ary, aged sixty-one years. 

Eddy, George, casualty agent at Minneapolis, died March ai. 

Ellis, Hugh, E., casualty agent at Richmond, Va., was drowned in the James Riv«r, 
June 26, aged thirty-three years. 

Englehardt, E. E., secretary, Detroit Fidelity and Surety Company, died December ix, 
at Saginaw, Mich., aged forty-six years. 

Fish. Edward P., prominent Pacific Coast accident underwriter, committed suicide at 
Alameda, Cal. 

Gemill, John R.. Colorado agent of the Aetna Life, casualty lines died at Buena 
Vista, Col., September 2a of pneumonia, aged forty-seven years. 

Goodman, Frank H., president of the Home Accident and Health Insurance Company 
South Bend, Ind., died May 30, aged sixty years. 

Goodrich, A. G., general agent for the National Life of Vermont, at Baltimore, died 
November x6 following an operation for appendicitis. 

Gross, Joseph J., secretary American Credit Indemnity Company, died in Atlantic 
City, N. J., May 3. 

Heavyside, Louis, manager of the Brooklyn, N. V., office of the Fidelity and Casualty 
Company, died in April. 

Herenden, Arthur S., general agent Equitable Life Assurance Society, died February 8, 
in Brooklyn, N. V., age seventy-five years. 

Hungate, John H., vice-president of the Peoria Life Insurance Company, died at 
Keokuk, la., December is. aged 83 years. 

Jarvis, Charles M., director of the Phoenix Mutual Life Insurance Company, died 
May 21, aged sixty-six years. 

Kilgariff, John N., general agent Pacific Mutual Life. San Francisco, died November x6- 

Kurtz John D., treasurer of the Continental Life Insurance Company, Wilmincton, 
Del., died suddenly, April 29. 

Lamb, Roland O. president of the John Hancock Mutual Ufe Insurance Company, 
died at his home in Boston, November 14. Mr. Lamb was bom in Beverly, Maaa., 
December 20. i8so. He received his education in the public schools of Beverly 
and began business life as a bookkeeper in a manufacturing house, where he 
remainni five years. In January, 1872, he entered the service of the John Hanc 
cock as a bookkeeper. In March, 1889. he became chief clerk of the oomixuxy; 
in May, 1894, secretary (which position he resigned January 12, 1903), and in 
May, Z895, he was elected a director of the company and second vice-preaident. 
February, 1899, he was elected vice-president, and president, June 21, 1909. 

Lang, Cyrus H., supervisor of agencies in the South, ordinary department, for The 
Prudential Insurance Compcuiy, died at his home in East Orange, N. J., March la, 
after a brief illness, aged seventy-two years. Mr. Lang was a native of Massa- 
chusetts, and after a quarter century's service with the Massachusetts Mutual 
Life, entered the service of the Prudential in x895> 

Laughton, William A. L., Philadelphia manager for the Employers Liability Asauxance 
Corporation, in Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey, died in May, after a 
long illness. 

Leakin, Philip M., claim department examiner for Aetna Life in New York, died in 
January following an operation. 

Leonard. Millard, vice-president Fidelity and Deposit Company, Baltimore, Md., 
died February 28. 

Lyman, Henry D., chairman of the board of directors, American Surety Company, 
died February 27, aged sixty-nine years. 

Maitland, W. G., resident vice-president Fidelity and Deposit Company at Den^ver, 
Col., died in September, aged seventy-five years. 



Life and Casualty Section 267 

Maloney, Andrew J.« prettdent'of the Philadelphia Life, died suddenly at his home in 
PhUadeliihia, September lo, aged seventy-nve years. He was bom in Greensburg, 
Me., but spent most of his life in Philadelphia. He was a member of the Phil- 
adelphia bar, and founder of the Company. 

McFee, John R., agent of the Penn. Mutual Life at Chicago, 111., died of heart disease, 
December lo. 

Nichols, Walter S., insurance editor, died at his home in Newark, N. J., Feburary 12, 
aged 70 years. 

Pixley, Henry D., president and founder of the Commercial Travelers Mutual Accident 
Association, Utica, N. Y., died in AprU. He had been president of the Company 
for thirty-eight years. 

Preston, Edward V., manager of agencies for the Travelers Insurance Company, 
Hartford, died July 10. Mr Preston was born in Wlllington, Tolland county. 
Conn., June i, 1837. and educated in the public schoc^. Mr. Preston was a 
partner in the commercial house of H. Griswold & Company, Hartford, when the 
war of '6i-'65 began. April 22, 1861 he volunteered assistance to the adjutant 
general of the state in the organization of volunteers. In July, x86x, he was 
appointed Re^mental Quartermaster of the Fifth Connecticut Ii^antry and soon 
after was detailed to act as staff ofiSoer on the staff of General Gordon of Massa- 
chusetts and later of General Williams of Michigan. In February, 1864, he was 
appointed by President Lincoln, Additional Paymaster of Volunteers, with the 
rank of Major, which position he held to the close of the war, being disdiarged by 
the Secretary of War from the service July 31, 1865. Being without occupation, 
he secured employment with The Travelers Insurance Company as a solicitor 
June 9, 1865, was appointed special agent soon after and general manager of agen- 
dn in January 1868. He was a member of the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion, Massachusetts Commandery, the Army and Navy Club of Connecticut. 
Robert O. Tyler Post, No. 50, G. A. R., the Hartford Lodge of Masons, the Hart- 
ford Club and the Society of the Army of the Potomac. 

Rulir. Charles Grant, assistant actuary. Metropolitan Life, died in Maine June 30. 

Saxton, Arthur F., chief examiner in the New York Insurance Department, died 
February 26. 

Starke William A., vice>president Old Line Life Insurance Comperny, Milwaukee, 
Wis., died June 17, aged sixty-five years. 

Stickland, J. F., vice-president United Fidelity Life Insurance Company, Dallas 
Texas, died of heart dise.ase, aged sixty years. 

Webster, John C, former vice-president of the Aetna Life Insurance Compa^iyf died 
at his home in Hartforxl, Conn., September 13. aged eighty-two years. 

Woolen, Dr. G. N., medical director of the American Central Life of Indianapolis for 
sixteen years, died in Indianapolis, December 10. 

DECREMENT. The part by which a variable quantity is con- 
ceived to be diminished. In the mortality tables in use by life insur- 
ance companies there is a column showing the number dying each 
year out of the number living at the beginning of the year. This 
column is the decrement. Starting with, say 100,000 persons, livinp; 
at the age at which the table begins, there is an annual decrement until 
the last one dies at age 100. 

DELAWARE, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1879-1922. 
The insurance department was established in 1879. The insurance 
commissioner is elected by the people and commissioned by the Gov- 
ernor for a term of four years. [Sc^ Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14 for list of 
former officials.] 

W. R. McCabe was appointed in 1913 and Thomas R. Wilson 
succeeded him, and served until 192 1. The present commissioner is 
Horace Sudler. 



268 Cyclopedia op Insukancb 

DES MOINES LIFE AND ANNUITY COMPANY. Dcs Moines, 
la. Organized 1917; capital, $500,000. A. L. Hart, president; 
George Cosson, Peter Lamp, S. J. Houston, vice-presidents; Paul N. 
Mantz, secretary and actuary; L. M. Barlow, treasurer; Dr. Frank 
Wilbur Chase, medical director; A. L. Hart, agency manager; R. J. 
Bannister, counsel. 

DEPOSITS, SPECIAL. REQUIRED BY STATES. The fol- 
lowing is a statement of the special deposits required^ by certain states 
from msurance companies of other states or countries doii^ busineM 
therein : 

Arkanaas — AU life and casualty companies mtut sive bond of $30,000: guaran- 
tee and surety companies bond of $50,000, or deposit m like amount in casn. United 
^tes, or Arkansas Loughborough bonds. 

Delaware — By surety and guarantee companies, $zo.ooo. 

Idaho — By fidelity and surety companies. $25,000. 

Louisiana — Guaranty, fidelity, surety, and bond companies. $50,000. 

New York — By life and casualty companies of other countries, $aoo,ooo; by 
domestic life companies, $xoo,ooo; by domestic casualty and guarantee credit com- 
panies to an amount not less than $100,000 nor more than $250,000. 

Ohio — By foreign companies doing a credit guaranty business, $xoo.ooo. 

South Dakota — Domestic life. $100,000; all surety, bunglar. and liability com- 
panies. $ao.ooo. 

Texas — Fidelity companies, $50,000. 

Virginia — By all companies (except those doing a marine business exdoai'rely 
in the state) 5 per cent, of their capital in bonds of Virginia or the United States, or 
the cities or counties of Virginia, such deposits to be not less than $zo,ooo, nor more 
than $50,000. and no single bond to be over $zo.ooo. 

West Virginia — By foreign and other state surety companies ao per cent, of 
their capital stock (capital stock must be $250,000. same as for domestic companies) 
except that the deposit shall not be less than $50,000 and need not exceed $75*ooo la 
any one case. 

Wisconsin — By casualty and surety companies $50,000 for each additional 
class of business, if the company desires to transact more than one of the different 
kinds of business coming under the head of guarantee, casualty or surety bnainfss 
Life companies organized under foreign governments, an amount equal to the 
value of all policies written on lives of residents of the state. 

Surety companies are required by several states, particularly Ala- 
bama, New Jersey and Utah, and some cities to make special deposits, 
not enumerated above. 

Many states require deposits by other state companies if they 
have not made deposits in their home states, and by companies of 
other countries, if they have not made deposits in some other state 
of the United States. Most of the states make the provisions of the 
reciprocal law apply to deposits. 

The insurance commissioners at their annual meeting in 19 19 
favored the repeal of all special deposit laws. 

DES MOINES LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION was 
organized in July, 1893, at Des Moines, with the following officers: 
Sidney A. Foster of the Royal Union Mutual, president; Robert I. 
Fleming of the Mutual Life of New York, first vice-president; W. A. 
Bemis of the i£tna Life, second vice-president; J. C. Cummings of 
the Equitable of Iowa, secretary; C. H. Rumsey of the Penn Mutual, 



Life and Caslalty Section 269 

treasurer. The association was reorganized in 1902. Cyrus Kirk was 
elected president and C. S. Hunter secretary. The present officers, 
elected in Tune 192 1, are: Roy H. Heartman, president; O. G. Wilson, 
vice-president; L. V. Clarke, second vice-president; M. M. Deming, 
secretary and treasurer. Western Life Building, Des Moines, la.; 
executive committee: L. W. Basham, chairman; L. G. Fertig, Roy 
H. Heartman, O. G. Wilson, L. V. Clarke, W. D. Bowles, M. M. Dem- 
ing. Formerly Iowa Life Underwriters Association, present title 
adopted in 192 1. 

DETROIT FIDELITY AND SURETY COMPANY, Detroit, 
Mich. Organized and commenced business April 27, 1921. Capital, 
$2,000,000, with $2,000,000 surplus. A. F. Bunting, president; Frank 
H. Ellsworth, vice-president and agency director; Homer H. McKee, 
vice-president and underwriter; Sheridan F. Master, vice-president 
and general counsel; Frank W. Wakeman, secretary; Walter J. Hays, 
treasurer; Ralph J. Daly, auditor and engineer. 

DETROIT LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Detroit, Mich. 
Organized 191 1; capital, paid in, $144,000. M. E. O'Brien, president; 
Frank H. Watson, vice-president and general counsel; Ben B. Jacob, 
vice-president; John R. Walsh, vice-president and agency director; 
James D. Baty, secretary and treasurer; Geoi^ P. Barnes and Victor 
A. Harrington, assistant secretaries; E. C. Wightman, actuary; H. R. 
Car^tens, medical director. 

DETROIT LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION was 
organized in 1886 as the Michigan Life Underwriters' Assodation, 
and re-organized as above in 1906. The following are the officers 
elected at the annual meeting in January, 192 1: President, J. Fred 
Lawton; vice-presidents, Milton Woodward and Norton Ives; secre- 
tary, F. W. Weston; treasurer, Will A. Waite. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION 
IN. Supervision of insurance in the District of Columbia vested 
formerly in the office of the district assessor, but in 1901 Congress 
created a distinct insurance department. The department is under 
the direction of the commissioners of the district, who are authorized 
to appoint a superintendent of insurance. Lee B. Mosher served until 
1919, and Dr. Lewis A. Griffith is the present superintendent. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSO- 
CIATION. The association was oii^nized in May, 1910, and the offi- 
cers elected were: President, John Dolph; vice-president, P. H. Tam- 
plet; secretary and treasurer, John E. Kreh, Jr. The present officers 
elected in May, 1922, are: President; A. W. Defenderfer; vice-presi- 
dent, Frank R. Strunk; secretary and treasurer, Wm. E. Britt. 

DIVIDENDS. In life insurance payments made to policyholders, 
either annually or at stated intervals. Dividenda are sometimes re- 
feired to as " return premiums," and again as '* refunds," but none of 



270 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

the terms indicate with precision just what the so-called dividend is. 
A company may of course make a profit in the sale or transfer of se- 
curities, which would be credited to surplus, but aside from this there 
are three sources from which contributions are made to the fund from 
which so-called dividends are made. These sources are as follows: — 

Mortality Savings: — The actual mortality experienced by a com- 
pany among its policyholders may be less than indicated by the table 
of mortality on which premium rates are based, and in that case there 
will be a saving. 

Savings in Interest and Expenses, — A company expects and actu- 
ally does realize a greater rate of interest than the rate assumed, and 
again its expenses may be less than that assumed in its calculations, 
and so there would be a saving also from those two sources. The sav- 
ings whatever they were from the above three sources would be cred- 
ited to surplus at the end of the year when the comi)any has determined 
what the msurance has actually cost, and then from this surplus fund 
is apportioned to each policyholder a refund or dividend; the purpose 
and effect of which is to give the policyholder insurance at approxi- 
mately cost price. There are several ways in which these dividends, 
or refunds, may be used. They may be drawn in cash or deposited 
at interest with the company; or applied to the reduction of a pre- 
mium, or to purchase additional insurance or to mature the policy a.t 
an earlier age. 

DURHAM LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Raleigh, N. C. 
Organized 1913; cash capital, $25,000. S. B. Coley, president; D. L. 
Cozart, secretary; J. R. Weatherspoon, treasurer; E. T. Burr, actuary. 
Transacts industrial life, health and accident business. 



E 



EASTERN CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY, Boston, 
Mass. Incorporated 1907; reorganized as a stock company in 19 16. 
Capital, $100,000. Corwin McDowell, president; H. S. Bean, treas- 
urer and secretary. 

ELGIN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Sherwin Building, 
Elgin, 111. Organized 1909. E. P. Straudberg, president; C. E. 
Botsford, secretary and general manager; E. H. Abbott, treasurer; 
E. Schlemmer, assistant secretary. 

ELKHORN LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Norfolk, Neb. Organized 1904. P. H. Salter, president; 
J. B. Maylard, vice-president and secretary; Jack Koenigstein, treas- 
urer; H. S. Wiggins, actuary. 

EMPLOYERS CASUALTY COMPANY, Interurban Building, 
Dallas, Teicas. Organized 1920. VV. B. Head, president; J. J. Wat- 
son, secretary; A. T. Allen, treasurer. 

EMPLOYERS INDEMNITY CORPORATION, Kansas City, 
Mo. Organized 1914; capital, $700,000. B. G. Trimble, president; 
H. Woodhead, vice-president; Dennis Hudson, vice-president; Lyn- 
ton T. Block, vice-president; John Woodhead, secretary and treasurer; 
Stanley M. Izard, Robert M. Staker, Frank L. Barnes, R. E. McGinnis, 
assistant secretaries; Edgar E. Smith, assistant treasurer. 

EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY ASSURANCE CORPORATION, 
LTD., THE, of London, England. Incorporated, October, 1880, with 
an authorized capital of $^,000,000, now fully subscribed; paid up 
$500,000, which in 1892 was mcreased to $750,000 and in 1906 to $1,000,- 
000. In 1920 its authorized capital was increased to $10,000,000.00 
of which $1,800,000.00 is paid up. Its present total available re- 
sources in the United States amount to over $30,000,000. Its charter 
covers the transaction of all classes of casualty insurance. The cor- 
poration was organized immediately following the enactment of the 
famous employers' liability act in England in 1880, and it is ac- 
knowledged to be the pioneer in liability insurance in the world. 
The officers of the company are: Lord Claud Hamilton, chairman; 
W. E. Gray, general manager and W. J. Ralph, secretary. General 
office of the company, Hamilton House, Victoria Embankment, London, 
£. C. Branch agencies are maintained in Holland, Belgium, the South 
African Republic, Australia, Canada, China, Straits Settlements, Egypt, 
Philippine Islands, India, Ceylon, Siam, Argentina, Asia Minor, Cuba, 
Dutch E. Indies, France, Greece, Indo-China, Turkey and in the United 
States, where business was commenced in July 1886; and at the present 
time it has a thoroughly established system of agencies in nearly every 



272 Cyclopbdia of Insurancb 

state in the Union. The United States Branch officials are: The New 
England Trust Company, trustee: William D. Baldwin, Wm. Allen 
Butler, John Lowell, Fk-i^nk G. Webster; advisory board: Henry M . 
Rogers, John B. Thomas, Charles Francis Adams, and Chas. L. Edgar; 
executive committee: Samuel Appleton, manager United States Branch, 
Employers' Liability Building, 33 Broad Street, Boston, Mass. A 
deposit of over $25,000,000 is at present maintained in various state 
insurance departments and in the hands of the United States trustees 
for the benefited protection of its policyholders. The annual premium 
income of the United States brancn aggregates $22,000,000. The pru- 
dent management of the corporation has established for it an enviable 
reputation as being financially provident and conservative, and yet 
liberal in all its dealings with the public. Admitted assets, December 
31, 1 92 1, $30,202,021.99; total liabilities, $24,698,903.60. 

EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY INSURANCE. This claw of in- 
surance, which originated in Great Britain, was first written in the 
United States in 1866, as a rmilar business by the Employers' Lia- 
bility Assurance Corporation of London. About 1889 both American 
and foreign companies authorized to do a casualty business, or organ- 
ized for the purpose, began to compete for this kind of insurance. In 
its primary form it is the insurance of employers against liability for 
injuries happening to their employees when actually enga^^ed in their 
services; but the business has been extended to cover Uabilitv to per- 
sons other than employees (technically public liability) ancl various 
forms embracing both features have been devised; as, for example. 
General Liability insurance. Elevator insurance, and Teams insurance. 

The following is a statement of employers' liability business trans- 
acted in 192 I : 

^^ rTftlllllUlW Lo69CS 

Compsniei Written Paid 

Aetna Casualty $1,666,078 $998,766 

Aetna Life 8,096.343 3.798,304 

American Casualty 386.716 147*979 

American Indemnity 314.784 270.842 

Columbia Caaualty. N. Y 723.248 x 18.058 

Commercial Casualty 1,825.834 1.231.424 

Commonwealth Casualty 4x5.860 374.783 

Continental Casualty x, 497 ,368 667.977 

Employers Casualty, Texas 56.002 3.962 

Employers Indemnity, Mo 29x,5o6 231,600 

Eureka Casualty 

Employer's Liability 7,330,605 3.341.927 

Federal Surety. Iowa 37,230 4.334 

Fidelity & Casualty 3.997 .4SO 2.073,611 

General Accident 3.285.446 i.557.8o9 

General Casualty and Surety 286.943 43 ,5 21 

Georgia Casualty i. 01 8,735 70s ,068 

Globe Indemnity 3.702,776 X.464.X45 

Hartford Accident 3,568,532 x. 383. 142 

Indemnity Ins. Co., North America, Phila. X.24X.675 170,764 

Interstate Casualty 513.244 397,689 

Iowa Bonding x6i,347 90,708 

Kansas Casualty and Surety X80.626 XX3.734 

London Guarantee 3.93X.632 i.7 39,6x5 

London and Lancashire 692.912 506,16 x 

Manufacturers Casualty, Pa x 14, 116 3X^S 

Manufacturers Liability 382,884 2x3,662 



LiFB AND Casualty Section 273 



Premiums 
Compenies Written Paid 

Maryland Casualty $5*412,538 $3>X25.a76 

Massachusetts Bonding 1,148,4x3 885.389 

New Amsterdam Casualty 1,719,917 886,155 

New Jersey 611,750 349.019 

Norwich Union 112,643 41,274 

Ocean Accident 4,183.193 3,055.535 

Oregon Surety 50,788 13.090 

Pre f erred Accident 1,719*360 816,980 

Republic Casualty 329,006 139,602 

Royal Indemnity 3,874*647 1,720,856 

Southern Surety 755.269 324,377 

Standard Accident 3,584,173 1,949.129 

Travelers 12,189,768 4,971,922 

Travelers Indemnity 107,489 15,819 

Union Indemnity, La 945*123 398,618 

United States Casualty ^ . 2,397.570 1,026,096 

U. S. Fidelfty & Guarantee 6,107 ,68a 2,727,216 

Zurich General 3,179,286 1,603,253 

Total 1 921 $94,067,508 $44,730,656 

Total X920 85,955.134 37.576,041 

Total 1919 71,661,209 32,211,718 

Total 1918 63,714,1x4 25,442,231 

Total X917 51*347,243 23,838,679 

EMPLOYERS MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW 
YORK, THE, New York, N. Y. Organized 1914. Edward A. Keeler. 
president; Franklin Remington, Floyd M. Shoemaker, Wm. Beverly 
Winslow, vice-president?; Geo. L. Robinson, treasurer; John M. 
Bessey, general manager; James E. Wheelin, secretary; Office, 61 
Broadway, N. Y. 

ENDOWMENT. A term used in life insurance to indicate a 
contract which, in addition to paying the sum named in the event the 
holder dies, also provides that the identical sum will be paid to him if 
he is alive at the completion of the period of years agreed upon — usu- 
ally ten, fifteen, or twenty years. Tnese two results are achieved math- 
ematically in old line insurance by combining the cost of term life 
insurance with the requisite sum annually as an investment, which at 
the assumed rate of interest will make the reserve at the end of the 
endowment i>eriod equal to the face of the policy. As a matter of 
fact, all life insurance policies based upon the principle of annually 
accumulating reserves are endowment policies maturing at some defi- 
nite period, the ordinary life policy being the easiest understood illus- 
tration. The reserve under that contract equals its face at age ninety- 
six and may be withdrawn in cash. Most participating companies 
issue, in addition to their regular policy forms, others which provide 
for the shortening of the endowment term by using annual dividends as 
declared as premiums for the purchase of their equivalents in paid- 
up endowments. These are known as " accelerative endowments," 
" life-rate endowments," and by other names. 

THE EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE SOCIETY OF THE 
UNITED STATES, New York, N. Y. Organized in July, 1859. As 
then required by law the Society was incorporated with a minimum 
capital of $100,000, the charter limiting dividends to stockholders to 



274 Ctclopbdia of Insurance 

3H per cent, semi-annually. In 19 17, the Society adopted a plan for 
retiring its capital stock, which plan was approved by the directors, 
stockholders and policyholders of the Society. Over q6 per cent, of the 
votes cast by policyholders favored the plan. The plan was thereafter 
approved by the Superintendent of Insurance of the State of New York 
as required by law, and is now in effect. Under this plan the Society has 
acquired 981 out of 1,000 shares of its capital stock, all of which have 
been transferred to Trustees to be held by them in trust for the policy- 
holders of the Society as provided by law until all of the capital stock is 
acquired when it will be retired and the Society, which has always 
transacted its business on the mutual plan, will be a purely mutual 
company not only in fact but in a strictly technical sense. The validity 
of this plan was attacked in certain litigations broueht against the 
Society while the plan was awaiting the approval of the stockholders 
and policyholders. This attack was not successful. On the contrary 
the plan received the judicial sanction of the United States Circuit 
Court of Appeals. As of I>ecember, 31, 1921, the Equitable had out- 
standing insurance in force amounting to $2,817,970,732. The officers 
are as follows: William A. Day, president; J. V. E. Westfall, vice- 
president; A. R. Horr, financial vice-president and treasurer; William 
E. Taylor, agency vice-president; Leon O. Fisher, second vice-president; 
Robert Henderson, second vice-president and actuary; William J. 
Graham, F. H. Davis, T. I. Parkinson, J. A. Stevenson, second vice- 
presidents; William Alexander, secretary; A. E. Tuck, W. G. Schelker, 
assistant secretaries; G. R. Brown, comptroller; T. H. Rockwell, medi- 
cal director; £. E. Scott, auditor. 

The development of the life insurance business during the past 
half century has led to the adoption of numerous forms of policies 
providing for the diverse requirements of the insurance public, and the 
Equitable Life has always been alert in anticipating the public require- 
ments by supplying every known legitimate form of life insurance. In 
addition to the older forms of policies, embracing ordinary life, limited 
payment life and endowment policies, the Equitable Life writes Group 
Insurance, whereby an employer may provide protection in case of 
death or disability for employees in groups, without individual medical 
examination. Business Insurance, protecting the interests of individ- 
uals, firms or corporations, in which the beneficiary controls the insur- 
ance; Survivorship Annuity, guaranteeing an income for life to a depen- 
dent, if the insured should die first. The company also issues policies 
providing a fixed income at stipulated age, or immediately in case of 
total disability, following small annual deposits during the productive 
period of life; also Endowment Annuity at age 65, securing an income 
tor life, beginning at that age, with monthly income to beneficiary 
for ten years, if the insured should die before attaining the age 65. 
Other forms of annuities include life annuities in consideration of a 
payment of a single sum, refund annuities, deferred, joint and survivor- 
ship annuities. 

EQUITABLE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF IOWA, 

Des Moines, la. Organized 1867; capital, $500,000. H. S. Nollen, 
president; F. C. Hubbell, vice-president; J. C. Cummins, executive 



Life and Casualty Section 275 

adviser; B. F. Hadley, second vice-president and secretary; H. £. 
Aldrich, vice-president and superintendent of agents; F. W. Hubbell, 
vice-president and treasurer; Robertson G. Hunter, second vice- 
president and actuary; R. C. McCankie, assistant actuary; H. S. 
JoHnson, assistant secretary; S. A. Swisher, Jr., assistant secretary; 
Griff Johnson, assistant treasurer; Fred L. Wells, medical director; 
George Cullen, assistant medical director; Clyde Kirk, counsel. 

EQUITABLE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF THE 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington, D. C Oraanized 1902; 
capital, $120,000. Henry P. Blair, president; Joseph Sanders, vice- 
president; William A. Bennett, vice-president and superintendent of 
agencies; Allen C. Clark, secretary and treasurer; Gilbert A. Clark, 
actuary. 

EQUITY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Great Falls, Mon- 
tana. Organized 1916. W. M. Burlingame, president; H. G. Dyer, 
vice-president; C. W. Cleveland, secretary and treasurer; H. A. Reeve, 
assistant secretary; G. W. Massy, Jr., superintendent of agencies. 

EQUITY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Omaha, Neb. 
Organized 1921. A. S. Sorenson, president; Guy A. Collard, vice- 
president; Guy H. Fumess, secretary; Paul H. Havens, treasurer. 

EUREKA CASUALTY COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa. Orcan- 
ized 191 5; capital, $200,000. E. B. Creighton, president; J. L. Ham- 
mer, secretary. 

EUREKA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Baltimore, Md. 
Organized 1882. J. C. Maginnis, president; Joshua N. Warfield, Jr., 
vice-president; Edward Plummer, second vice-president; Jos. H. 
Leishear, Jr., secretary and treasurer; Dr. J. Howard Iglehart, medical 
director. 

EUROPEAN GENERAL REINSURANCE COMPANY, THE, 
LTD., London, Eng. Fester, Fothergill and Hartung, United States 
managers, 1 10 William Street , New York. 

EXCHANGE MUTUAL INDEMNITY INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Buffalo, N. Y. Organized 191 a. E. G. Trimble, president; 
John H. Brogan, vice-president and general counsel; Lynton T. Block, 
vice-president; J. J. Bresnahan, secretary; Wm. T. Whitbeck, treasurer; 
B. H. Rathmann, E. A. Guest, assistant secretaries. 

EXPECTATION OF LIFE. As employed in connection with 
insurance, it is the mean number of future years which individuals 
at any BpedBtd age may be expected to live. 

EXPRESSMEN'S MUTUAL BENEFIT ASSOCIATION, 136 
Liberty Street, New York. N. Y. Organized, 1869. E. A. Stedman 
president; W. E. Scott, secretary. 



F 



FACTORY MUTUAL LIABILITY INSURANCE COMPANY 
OF AMERICA, Providence, R. I. Commenced business January, 
192 1. A. T. Vigneron, president and treasurer; Frank N. Phillips 
vice-president; Herbert B. Vigneron, vice-president and assistant 
treasurer, Henry W. Anderson, secretary; John D. McLeod, assistant 
secretary. 

FARMERS AND BANKERS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Wichita, Kan. Organized 19 10; capital, $275,000. H. K. Lindsley, 
president; J. H. Stewart, vice-president; £. B. Jewett, secretary and 
treasurer; Frank B. Jacobshagen, assistant secretary; John L. Evans, 
medical director. 

FARMERS AND TRADERS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Syracuse, N. Y. Organized 191 2; capital, $300,000. Thos. O. Young, 
president; C. H. Dildine, F. H. Gates, L. J. Taber, John N. Ham, W. 
W. Stevens, Albert Manning, vice-presidents; Otis P. Grant, secretary 
and actuary; Wing R. Smith, treasurer; Wm. C. Lennie, superinten- 
dent of agencies; Joseph C. Palmer, M. D., medical director. 

FARMERS AND BREEDERS LIVE STOCK INSURANCE 
COMPANY, Danville, 111. Organized 1920; capital, $100,000. Wm. 
Ryan, Jr., president; J. W. Meitzler, secretary; H. C. Naylor, general 
manager. 

FARMERS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA. 
Denver, Col. Organized 191 1; capital, $100,377. E. M. Ammons, 

President; B. M. Stackhouse, secretary; J. H. Orr, treasurer; G. L. 
rewen, assistant secretary; J. £. Kenney, medical director, H. A. 
Hicks, general counsel. 

FARMERS LIVE STOCK INSURANCE COMPANY, Des 
Moines, Iowa. The company was placed in a receivers hands in 1922. 

FARMERS NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF 
AMERICA, Chicago, 111. Organized 1912; capital, $200,000. John 
M. Stahl, president; J. W. Williams, first vice-president; C. F. San- 
ford, second vice-president; W. L. Ames, third vice-president; B. F, 
Biliter, secretary; John R. Pearce, treasurer; Wm. R. Presnall, assis- 
tant treasurer and assistant secretary;^ Wm. E. Swift, assistant secre- 
tary; S. C. Stanton, M.D., medical director; Marcus Gunn, actuary. 

FEDERAL CASUALTY COMPANY, Detroit, Mich. Organ- 
ized 1906; capital, $200,000. V. D. Cliff, president; A. L. Clotfelter, 
vice-president; M. M. Cliff, secretary. 



Life and Casualty Section 277 

FEDERAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago, 111. 
Organized 1900; capital, $300,000. Isaac Miller Hamilton, presi- 
dent; C. A. Atkinson, vice-president and general counsel; W. E. 
Brimstin, secretary; O. E. Merley, treasurer; A. H. Laub, assistant 
treasurer; L. D. Cavanaugh, actuary and assistant secretary; A. R. 
Thompson, assistant actuary and assistant secretary; Dr. F. L. B. 
Jenney, medical director; George Barmore, si^)erintendent of agents. 

FEDERAL MUTUAL LIABILITY INSURANCE COMPANY, 
142 Berkeley Street, Boston, Mass. Organized and began business in 
1907. Charles B. Jopp, president; Ira G. Hersey, vice-president; 
J. Waldo Bond, general manager; Wm. M. Burch, secretary; Frank E. 
White, assistant secretary; Wm. G. Barnes, treasurer; Walter H. 
Thompson, assistant secretary; J. Frank Scannell, counsel. Compen- 
sation and liability business. 

FEDERAL RESERVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Kansas City, Kansas. Organized 1920: cash capital |200,ooo. Wal- 
ter L. Payne, president; M. G. Vincent, vice-president; R. H. Muzzy, 
J. H. Lower, Angus McDonald and F. G. Bergen, vice-presidents; 
D. H. Holt, secretary and treasurer; C. C. Nesselode, medical director, 
G. D. Burdett, assistant secretary; V. B. Holt, assistant treasurer. 

FEDERAL SURETY COMPANY, Davenport, Iowa. Organ- 
ized 1920. Charles Shuler, president; W. L. Taylor, vice-president 
and general manager; Dr. G. E. Decker, vice-president; Frank B. 
Yctter, secretary and treasurer; C. H. Mahan and Herman Staak, 
assistant secretaries. 

FEDERAL UNION LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Organized 19 14; capital, $250,000. Frank M. Peters, 
president and manager of agjencies; George F. Schott, vice-president; 
Orvilles K. Jones, vice-president and general counsel; Carl Slough, 
secretary; D. W. Craig, treasurer; Dr. E. O. Smith, medical director. 

FIDELITY AND CASUALTY COMPANY OF NEW YORK, 
THE, 92 Liberty Street, New York, N. Y. Organized 1876; capital, 
$2,000,000. Robert J. Hillas, president; Theodore E. Gaty, vice- 
president and secretary; Charles C. Nadal, Allan J. Ferres, W. P. 
Learned, Wm. J. Johnson, Edward C. Lunt, Wm. H. Boehm, Dr. C. V. 
Everitt and Nelson D. Sterling, vice-presidents; George W. Allen, 
C. L. Newmiller, Walter McK. Hillas, and Hale Anderson, assistant 
secretaries. 

FIDELITY AND DEPOSIT COMPANY OF MARYLAND, 
Baltimore, Md. Organized 1890; capital, $3,000,000. Van-Lear Black, 
chairman of the board; E. A. Hamilton, vice-chairman of the Board; 
Thomas A. Whelan, president; Charles R. Miller, vice-president; 
Robert S. Hart, vice president and secretary; Roland Benjamin, 
treasurer. 



278 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

FIDELITY HEALTH AND ACCIDENT COMPANY, Ben- 
ton Harbor, Mich. Organized 190^. £. C. Bowlby, president and 
manager; E. C. Edmunds, vice-president; A. R. Arford, secretary and 
treasurer. 

FIDELITY MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Incorporated under laws of Pennsylvania, 1878. 
Chartered to do a mutual life business. Walter LeMar Talbot, presi- 
dent; F. X. Quinn, vice-president; Charles G. Hodge, secretary; 
Samuel J. Steele, treasurer; J. Russell Sykes, comptroller and assistant 
treasurer; J. B. Franks, actuary; H. Gordon Hurd, assistant actuary; 
George H. Wilson, general attorney; Chas. J. R. Sproule, assistant 
secretary; Frank H. Sykes, manager of agencies; Dr. Wm. H. E. 
Wehner, medical director; Dr. C. A. Vandervoort, assistant medical 
director; Insurance in force, $222,815,106; paid to policyholders 
since organization, $63,380,119.45; assets, $47,510,589; liabilities, 
$451605,745. Every approved claim was paid by January i, 192 1. 

FIDELITY UNION CASUALTY COMPANY, Dallas, Texas. 
Organized 1920; cash capital, $200,000. C. P. Collins, president; 
E. G. Trimble and G. H. Chatfield, vice-presidents; A. A. Frierson, 
secretary and treasurer. 

FIRST NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Pierre. 
S. Dak. Organized 1909. Reorganized 1919; capital, $250,000. 
Byron S. Payne, president; A. W. Ewart, C. A. Howard, vice-presi- 
dents; C. W. Martindale, secretary; W. E. Miller, actuary and treas- 
urer; W. O. Hoogestraat, assistant secretary; W. I. Fraser, director of 
agents; T. H. Riggs, medical director. 

FIRST TEXAS PRUDENTIAL INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Galveston, Tex. Organized 1910; capital, paid in, $100,000. I. H. 
Kempner president; B. J. Cunningham, vice-president; T. E. Flick, 
secretary and treasurer. 

FLORIDA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1873-1922. 
The laws of Florida designate the state treasurer, comptroller and 
attorney-general, who are elected by the people, for four years, as the 
board of insurance commissioners. No extra compensation is al- 
lowed, except a fee of $5 to the state treasurer for the license issued 
to each insurance company authorized to transact business in the 
state. 

John C. Luning is the present state treasurer. 

FLY-WHEEL INSURANCE. This form of insurance is written 
by only a few companies, and covers all direct loss or damage to prop- 
erty, as well as loss of life or bodily injuries to any person, and may be 
extended to cover loss of total profits or income due to total or partial 
destruction of premises or plant, as a result of the explosion, burstix^ 
or breaking of any fly-wheel or other wheel. The following is a state* 
ment of the business in 192 1 : 



LiFB AND Casualty Section 279 



Premiumt 

Companiet Written Paid 

Aetna Casualty $85,274 $81,691 

Columbia Casualty 102,429 54 

Employers' Liability ... .... 90,645 41.363 

European Accident 

Fidelity and Casualty 139.902 47.536 

Globe Indemnity 4.348 5.473 

Hartford Accident 6,112 4 

Hartford Steam Boiler 393.266 135.860 

Indemnity Ins. Co., of North America .... 3.763 

London Guarantee 94.362 14,664 

Maryland Casualty 59.424 40,985 

Ocean Accident 138,733 9.379 

Royal Indemnity 132.999 12,443 

Travelers Indemnity 83,946 34.621 

Total 192 1 $1,335,203 $424,073 

Total 1920 1,713.832 351,508 

Total 1919 924.743 84.647 

FORT WORTH LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. Fort Worth, 
Tex. Oreanized 1906; capital, $108,010. N. H. Lassiter, president; 
Dr. J. \V. Irion, vice-president and medical director; P. V. Mont- 
gomery, vice-president, actuary and general manager; S. H. Weather- 
ford, secretary; J. W. Spencer, vice-president; F. E. McGonagUl, 
superintendent of agents. 

FRANKLIN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Springfield, 111. 
Organized 1884; capital, $100,000. George B. Stadden, president; 
Henry Abels, vice-president; H. M. Merriam, vice-president; Will 
Taylor, secretary; Edgar S. Barnes, treasurer; F. R. Jordan, actuary; 
Dr. O. F. Maxon, medical director; Jos. W. Jones, agency director, 
Herman Abels, assistant secretary, 

FRATERNAL BENEFICIARY ORDERS. These organizations 
are in theory formed and carried on for the sole benefit of their members 
and their beneficiaries, and not for profit. They have a lodge system, 
with ritualistic work and representative form of government. They 
make provision for payment of benefits in case of death by assessments 
or dues collected irom their members. Some also provide for the 
payment of benefits in case of sickness, or temporary physical disabil- 
ity as a result either of disease, accident or old age. 

The principle of co-operation is the corner-stone of these organ- 
izations. In its simplest expression it involved the collection on the 
death of a member of a uniform sum from each of the survivors, 
and the payment of the total thus gathered to the beneficiary of the 
decreased. The labor of makine the collection was given as a fra- 
ternal act by a brother chosen for the office. The election of a new 
member to nil the place of the deceased was supposed to be sufficient 
to secure a uniform benefit, and perpetuate the life of the order. The 
principle found expression in the guilds or confraternities of Europe 
as early as the eleventh centuiy. But this primitive form, though 
holding the basic principle of all fratemalism, was long since outgrown. 
Tlie principle, however, is of abiding value to mankind. It found con- 



280 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

genial soil in the Masonic organizations and in the order of Odd Fel- 
lows before it was developed into the fraternal beneficiary orders of 
the present day. 

The first roan who recognized the possibilities of its broader appli- 
cation, and embodied it in a fraternal order, was John Jordan Up- 
church, who founded upon it in 1868 the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen. It was he who adapted the lodge system of ritualistic 
work to co-operative relief on a large scale. Since he blazed the way 
many orders have appeared, di£Fering somewhat in the amount of 
benefit and rate of assessment and in the method of collecting and dis- 
bursing the funds, but retaining the lodge system and social fra- 
ternal features. 



During the decade from 1880 to 1890 the multiplication of th^ 
orders in the United States was most prolific. The eleventh census 
reported that on December 31, 1889, there were in the United States 
208 orders with 40,342 subordinate branches or lodges. The number 
of these orders afterwards decreased. Nearly all the older orders 
were members of the National Fraternal Congress, while the younger 
orders were grouped in the Associated Fraternities of America. The 
two orders amalgamated in 19 13 under the name of the National Fra- 
ternal Congress of America. The societies have two classes of member- 
ship, bench t and social members, and the total benefit members on 
January i, 1922, were 9,055,555, and the total membership, 19,050,209; 
including 19^,101 juvenile members, with 124,081 lodges. The total 
insurance in force was $10,239,916,788. The insurance written in 1921, 
was $1,156,363,591, and the benefits paid, $113,255,420. The total 
assets January i, 1922, amounted to $477,414,142, and the liabilities, 
including $66,632,694 of reserves, $93,993,749- (For a review of the 
earlier plans and purposes of Fraternals see the Cyclopedia of Insurance 
for 1897-98.) 

Nearly all the orders organized prior to 1895, on the old assess- 
ment lines, found their rates inadequate, and gradually changed their 
methods both of assessing and collecting rates. The National Fra- 
ternal Confess in 1899 adopted the form of a legislative act, the pur- 
pose of which was to enforce rates and rules that would enable the orders 
to meet their engagements with members at maturity. This act 
became a law in several states, but did not meet the needs of the situ- 
ation, and the question of adequate rates, as well as a table of mortal- 
ity on which to base rates, was a subject of much controversy. The 
discussion resulted in the whole question of legislative control and 
regulation of fraternal orders being taken up, and after reF>eated con- 
ferences a measure providing for the regulation of fraternal associa- 
tions was finally drafted and received the endorsement of the two 
organizations. 

The law known as the New York Conference Bill, which modi- 
fied the Mobile Bill, is in force in Arizona, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, 
Indiana, Rhode Island, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, North 
Carolina, North Dakota, Tennesee, Texas, Wyoming, Georgia, Louisi- 
ana, Massachusetts, Montana, Mississippi, California, Kentucky, 
Missouri, Oregon, Utah, Virginia, Arkansas, Alabama, Washington, 



1-iFE AND Casualty Section 281 

Colorado, South Dakota, Ohio, New Mexico, and Canada. The law 
is in force in Maryland but without the valuation sections, and the 
laws of Wisconsin and Pennyslvania require valuation, but not as a test 
of solvency The states of Delaware, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Min- 
nesota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Carolina, 
Vermont and West Virginia do not require valuation. 

The old fraternal bill, which omits the valuation requirement, but 
requires adequate rates, is in force in Iowa, Maine, Minnesota, Okla- 
homa and Vermont. In Ohio the Mobile bill is practically in force, 
while in Nevada there is no law regulating fraternals. 

The laws of the following states permit fraternals also to insure a 
member's children, or to issue " whole family protection ** as it has 
come to be called: Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michi- 
gan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, 
Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, Alabama, Arkansas, 
California, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, 
Mississippi, New York, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Montana, New 
Mexico, South Dakota, Colorado, Georgia, and Connecticut. In 
Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisianna, Mississippi, Nebraska, 
New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon and West Virginia sick benefits are 
also allowed. 

The following is a list of the principal societies, their location, 
date of organization, benefit membership, and number of subordi- 
nate lodges on January i, 1922: 

American Insurance Union, Columbus, Ohio. Organized 1894; membership, 
X06.658; subordinate lodges, 973; insurance in force, $111,113,967. 

American Woodmen, Denver, Col. Organized 1901; membership, 52,632; 
subordinate lodges, 493; insurance in force, $24,719,850. 

Ancient Order of Gleaners, Detroit, Mich. Organized 1894; membership, 64,831 
subordinate lodges, 1,324; insurance in force, $56,601,970. 

Artisans Order of Mutual Protection, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1873; mem- 
bership, 20,910; subordinate lodges, 74; insurance in force, $32,984,000. 

Beavers Reserve Fund Fraternity, Madison, Wis. Organized 1902; member- 
ship, x8,88i; subordinate lodges, 401; insurance in force, $18,359,400. 

Brotherhood of American Yeomen, Des Moines, la. Organized 1897; mem- 
bership, 267,189; subordinate lodges, 3i697; insurance in force, $343.756,500. 

Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, Cleveland, Ohio. Organized 1883; mem- 
bership, 163,456; subordinate lodges, 949; insurance in force, $243,828,200. 

Canadian Order of Chosen Friends, Hamilton, Ont. Organized 1887; member- 
ship, 26,376; subordinate lodges, 526; insurance in force, $23,645,843. 

Canadian Order of Foresters, Brantford, Ont. Organized 1879; membership, 
77.068; subordinate lodges, 1,185; insurance in force, $76,898,500. 

Catholic Benevolent Legion, Brooklyn, N. Y. Organized 1881; membership, 
10,550; subordinate lodges, 289; insurance in force, $10,791,500. 

Catholic Knights of America, St. Louis, Mo. Organized 1887; membership, 
18.928; subordinate lodges, 468; insurance in force, $19,118,538. 

Catholic Order of Foresters, Chicago, 111. Organized 1883; membership, 160,587; 
subordinate lodges, 1,746; insurance in force, $159,589,500. * 

Columbian Mutual Life Assurance Society, Memphis, Tenn. Organized 1903; 
membership, 23,129; subordinate lodges, 901; insurance in force, $31,003,331. 

Court of Honor Life Association, Springfield, 111. Organized 1895; membership, 
67,801; subordinate lodges, 1,028; insurance in force, $79,743,528. 

Daughters of America, Cincinnati, Ohio. Organized 1907; membership, 95,39i; 
subordinate lodges, 917; insurance in force, $23,947,750. 

£>egree of Honor, Superior Lodge, St. Paul, Minn. Organized 1896; member- 
ship, 54*372; subordinate lodges, 1,133; insurance in force, $52,953,306. 



282 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Equitable Fraternal Union. Neenah. Wis. Organized 1897; membership, 30,048; 
subordinate lodges, 520; insurance in force, $38,300,950. 

Fraternal Aid Union, Lawrence, Kan. Organized 1890; membership, 77t46s: 
subordinate lodges, i,86a; Insurance in force, $85,236,567. 

Fraternal Brotherhood, Los Angeles, Cal. Organized 1896; membership, 27.499; 
subordinate lodges, 282; insurance in force, $23,081 ,089. 

Fraternal Home Insurance Society, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1885; member- 
ship, 19.174; subordinate lodges, 28^; insurance in force, $12,379,829. 

German Beneficial Union; Pittsburgh, Pa. Organised 1892; membership, 
48,06s; subordinate lodgea 387: insurance In force, $32,731,050. 

Heralds of Liberty, Philadelphia, Fa. Organized 1901; memberahip, 22,208; 
subordinate lodges, 215; insurance in force, $15,298,200. 

Homesteaders, The, Des Moines, la. Organized 1906; membership, 24,751; 
subordinate lodges. 556; insurance in force, $37,587,000. 

Independent Order Brith Abraham, New York, N. V. Organized 1887; mem- 
bership, 146,569; subordinate lodges, 390; insurance in force, $73,284,500. 

Independent Order of Foresters, Toronto, Ont. Organized 1874; membership, 
I73.654J subordinate lodges, 3.191; insurance in force, $169,658,075. 

Kmghts of Columbus, New Haven, Conn. Organized 1882; membership, 219,503; 
subordinate lodges, 2,200; insurance in force, $236,613,862. 

Knights of Pythias, Supreme Lodge, Indiaxiapolis, Ind. Organized 1887; mem- 
bership, 83,724: subordinate lodges, 4.a37; insurance in force, $xx 2,148,943. 

Knights or St. George, Pittsburgh, Pa. Organized x88x; membership, 23,675; 
subordinate lodges, 299; insurance in force. $15,517,254 

Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association, Erie, Pa. Organized 1890; member- 
ship, 119,176; subordinate lodges, 1,247; insurance in force, $94,362,903. 

Ladies of The Maccabees, Port Huron, Mich. Organized 1886; membership. 
45.775; subordinate lodges. 856; insurance in force, $33,760,750. 

L'Union St. Jean-Baptiste d'Amerique, Woonsocket, - R. I. Organized 1900; 
membership, 41.526; subordinate lodges, 330; insurance in force. $18,837,875. 

L'Union St. Joseph du Canada, Ottawa, Can. Organized 1863; memberahip, 
22,003; subordinate lodges, 640; insuran£t in force, $17,571,065. 

Maccabees, The, Detroit, Mich. Org^iized 1883; membership 275^421; sub- 
ordinate lodges, 4,787; insurance in force, $327,229,182. 

Massachusetts Catholic Order of Foresters, Boston, Mass. Organised 1879; 
membership. 52.425; subordinate lodges, 251; insurance in force, $52,425,000. 

Modern Brotherhood of America, Mason City, la. Organized 1897; member- 
ship, 49,685; subordinate lodges, 1,282; insurance in force, $57.374wi5i. 

Modem Order of Praetorians, Dallas, Tex. Organized 1899; membership, 
36,604; subordinate lodges, 656; insurance in force, $44,705,742. 

Modern Woodmen of America, Rock Island, 111. Organized 1883; membership. 
X.053.105; subordinate lodges, 13.909; insurance in force, $1,612,347,500. 

Mystic Workers of the World, Fulton, 111. Organized 1896; membership, 77,777. 
subordinate lodges, 973; insurance in force, $91,889,790. 

National Croatian Society of the U. S. A. Pittsburgh, Pa. Organised 1894; 
membership. 37,818; subordinate lodges, 403; insurance in force, $29,490,800. 

National Protective Legion, Waverly, N. Y. Organized 1890; membership, 
19.302; subordinate lodges. 394; insurance in force, $11,770,363. 

National Slovak Society, Pittsburgh, Pa. Organized 1890; membership, 38,955; 
subordinate lodges, 558; insurance in force, $29,159,580. 

National Union, Toledo, Ohio. Organized 1881; membership, 38,343: subor- 
dinate lodges, 336; insurance in force. $63,899,580. 

New England Order of Protection, Boston, Mass. Organized 1887; member- 
ship, 26,384; subordinate lodges, 328; insurance in force, $29,639,500. 

New Era Association, Grand Rapids, Mich. Organized 1897; membership, 
37,627; subordinate lodges. 324; insurance in force, $43,119,500. 

Order Brith Abraham (United States Grand Lodge), New York, N. Y. Organ- 
ized 1859; membership, 17,434; subordinate lodges, 210; insurance in force, $8,642,- 
Soo; . 

Order of Railway Conductors of America (mutual benefit department). Cedar 
Rapids, la. Organized 1868; membership, 55,459; subordinate lodges, 674; insurance 
in force, $102,840,000. 

Order of Scottish Clans, Boston, Mass. Organized 1878; membership, 19,022; 
subordinate lodges, 168; insurance in force, $10,772,850. 

Polish Roman Catholic Union of America, Chicago, 111. Organized 1887; mem- 
bership, 78,765; subordinate lodges, 921 ; insurance in force, $48,694,250. 



Life and Casualty Section 283 

Progressive Order of the West, St. Louis, Mo. Organized 1896; membership, 
12,775; subordinate lodges, 93; insurance in force, $6,387,500. 

Protected Home Circle, Sharon, Pa. Organized 1886; membership, 121,540; 
subcHtlinate lodges, 541; insurance in force, $104,264,080. 

Royal Arcanum, Boston, Mass. Organized 1877; membership, 130,815; sub- 
ordinate lodges, 1,348; insurance in force, $2x1,289,834. 

Royal Highlanders, Lincoln, Neb. Organized 1896; membership, 21,928; sub- 
ordinate lodges, 389; insurance in force, $30,077,000. 

Royal League, Chicago, 111. Organized 1883; membership, 23,342; subordinate 
lodges, 188; insurance in force, $29,236,750. 

Royal Neighbors of America, Rock Island, 111. Organized 1895; membership, 
395*433; subordinate lodges. 7*211; insurance in force, $394*407.250. 

Supreme Tribe Ben Hur, Crawfordsville, Ind. Organized 1894; membership, 
70,370; subordinate lodges, 1,026; insurance in force, $72,740,730. 

United American Mechanics, Jr. Order (funeral benefit department), Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Organized 1901; membership, 263,994; subordinate lodges, 2,433; insurance in 
force, $117,283,750. 

United Artisans, Portland, Ore. Organized 1894; membership, 17,512; subor- 
dinate lodges, 254; insurance in force, $19.1 i3>6oo. 

Women's Benefit Association of the Maccabees, Port Huron, Mich. Organized 
1892; membership, 233,114; subordinate lodges, 2,631; insurance in force, $184,773*- 
884. 

Women's Catholic Order of Foresters, Chicago, 111. Organized 1891 ; membership, 
83*542; subordinate lodges, 1,162; insurance in force, $78,940,200. 

Woodmen's Cirde, Omaha, Neb. Organized 1895; membership, 143,125; sub- 
ordinate lodges, 4,214; insurance in force, $I42,850,^5< 

Woodmen of the World, Omaha, Neb. Organized 1890; membership, 542,510; 
subordinate lodges, 9*597 ; insurance in force, $693*071.1 7 1< 

Woodmen oi the World, Pacific Jurisdiction, Denver, Col. Organized 1690; 
memberBhip, 135*8x7; subordinate lodges, 780; insurance in force, $21,998,900. 

Workmen's CixtJe, New York, N. Y. Organized 1900; membership, 83,106; 
subordinate lodges, 693; insurance in force, $22,136,600. 

Workmen's Sick and Death Benefit of the U. S. A., New York, N. Y. Organ- 
izcd 1884; membership, 53*514; subordinate lodges, 345; insurance in force, $13, 378,- 
500. 

The Ancient Order of United Workmen is composed of distinct state 
or^nizations in Arkansas, Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, 
Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South 
Dakota, Texas, West Virginia and Washington. The total benefit 
membership on January i, 1922, was 150,465, and the subordinate 
lodges numbered 2,096, and insurance in force amounted to $219,862,749. 
There are one hundred and two smaller orders, whose individual mem- 
bership is less than fifteen thousand, and there are several organiza- 
tions, which do not furnish insurance as a special feature. The follow- 
ing are the leading societies with their membership: Ancient Order 
Free and Accepted Masons, membership (United States and Canada), 
2,401,294, Independent Order Odd Fellows, (United States), Knights 
of Pythias, 828,440; Foresters of America, 160,742; Order of Recha- 
bites, 1,105,000; Loyal Order of Moose, 595,805; Red Men, 500,000; 
Order of Owls, 574,786; Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 818,- 
000; Order of Eagles, 427,038; Ancient Order of Druids, 335,000; 
(American, 35,000). Hibernians, 225,000; Foresters of America, 160,- 
742; Sons of America, 254,335; Order of Orioles, 143,000; Knights of 
the Golden Eagle, 73,110; Knights of Malta, Ancient and Illustrious 
Order, 65,000. The total membership in such orders, which includes 
besides those named above, such orders as the Boy Scouts, Grand Army 
of the Republic, Sons of Veterans, etc., is 20,595,226. 

Both the Mobile bill and the New York Conference bill define 
" fraternal benefit societies " as '* any corporation, society, order or 



284 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

voluntary association, without capital stock, organized and carried on 
solely for the mutual benefit .of its members and their beneficiaries, 
and not for profit, and having a lodge system with ritualistic form of 
work and representative form of government " and which shall make 
provision for the payment of benefits in accordance with Section five 
of the act. 

The laws also define " lodge system " and " representative form 
of government " in the following words: 

Section a. (Lodge lyttem). Any society having a nipreme governing or 
legislative body and subordinate lodges or branches by whatever name known, into 
which members shall be elected, initiated and admitted in accordance with its con- 
stitution, laws, rules, regulations and prescribed ritualistic ceremonies, wfaidi subordi- 
nate lodges or brandies shall be required by the laws of such society to hold regular 
or stated meetings at least once in each month, shall be deemed to be operating on the 
lodge system. 

Section 3. Representative form of government. Any such society shall be 
deemed to have a representative form of government when it shall provide in its con- 
stitution and laws for a supreme legislative or governing body, comixiaed oi repre- 
sentatives elected either by the members or by delegates elected directly or indirectly 
by the members, together with such other members as may be prescribed by its con- 
stitution and laws: Provided, That the elective members shall constitute a majority 
in number and have not less than two-thirds of the votes nor leas than the votes re- 
quired to amend its constitution and laws: And provided further. That the meetings 
of the supreme or governing body, and the election of officers, representatives or dele- 
gates idiail be held as often as once in four years. The members, officers, representa- 
tives or delegates of a fraternal benefit society shall not vote by proxy. 

Section five referred to in the definition of fraternal benefit soci- 
eties, quoted above, reads as follows: 



Section 5. Every society transacting business under this act shall provide for 
the payment of death benefits, and may provide for the payment of benefits in case 
of temporary or permanent physical disability, either as the result of disease, accident 
or old age: Provided. The period of life at which the pasrment of benefits for diaabil- 
ty on account of old age shall commence, shall not be under seventy year*, and may 
provide for monuments or tombstones to the memory of its deceased members, and 
for the payment of last sickness and funeral benefits. Such society shall have the 
power to give a member, when permanently disabled or on attaining the age of aev- 
enty, all. or such portion of the face value of bis certificate as the laws of the society 
may provide: Provided. That nothing in this act contained shall be so construed as 
to prevent the issuing of benefit certificates for a term of years less than the whole 
of life which are paysLole upon the death or disability of the member occurring within 
the term for which the benefit .certificate may be issued. Such society shaU, upon 
written application of the member, have the power to accept a part of the periodical 
contributions in cash, amd charge the remainder, not exceeding one-half of the period- 
ical contribution, against the certificate with interest payable or compounded anna- 
ally at a rate not lower than four per cent per annum: Provided, That this priviU^ee 
shall not be granted except to societies which have readjusted or may hereafter read- 
just their rates of contributions, and to contracts affected by such rouliustment. 

Any society which shall show by the annual valuation provided 
for that it is accumulating and maintaining the reserve necessary to 
enable it to do so may grant to its members extended and paid-up 
protection or such withdrawal equities as its constitution and by-laws 
may provide. The reserves must be accumulated, however, under a 
table of mortality not lower than the American Experience Table and 
four per cent interest, and it is further provided that such grants shall 
in no case exceed in value the portion of the reserve to the credit of 
such members to whom they are made. 



Life and Casualty Section 285 

The payment of death benefits under each of the bills is restricted 
to " wife» husband, relative by blood to the fourth degree, father-in- 
law, mother-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, step-father, step- 
mother, step-children, children by l^al adoption, or to a person or 
persons dependent upon the member, ' or, if after the issuance of the 
original certificate " the member shall become dependent upon an in- 
corporated charitable institution he shall have the privilege with the 
consent of the society of making such institution his beneficiary." 

Any society may admit to beneficial membership any person not 
less than sixteen and not more than sixty years of age who shall be 
examined by a legally qualified physician and in accordance with the 
laws of the society. 

Seven or more persons may organize a society, by filing notice of 
intention, giving names of society and its officers and purpose of the 
organization with the insurance commissioner, who, if he is satisfied 
that all provisions of the law have been complied with, may issue a certi- 
ficate of authority to the society to solicit members and complete its 
organization, and the society shall collect from each applicant the 
amount of not less than one regular monthly payment. '' But no such 
society shall incur any liability other than for such advanced payments, 
nor issue any benefit certificate nor pay or allow, or offer or promise to 
pay or allow, to any person any death or disability benefit until actual 
bona fide applications for death benefit certificates have been secured 
upon at least five hundred lives for at least one thousand dollars each, 
and all such applicants for death benefits shall have been regularly 
examined by legally qualified practicing physicians, and certificates of 
such examintaions have been duly filed and approved by the chief 
medical examiner of such society, nor until there shall be established 
ten subordinate lodges or branches into which said five hundred appli- 
<:ants have been initiated," nor until there has been submitted to the 
insurance commissioner the names of the applicants and of the sub- 
ordinate lodges, and " amount of benefits to be granted, rate of stated 
periodical contributions which shall be sufficient to provide for meeting 
the mortuary obligations, contracted, when val'ied for death benefits 
upon the basis the National Fraternal Congress Table of Mortal- 
ity, as adopted by the National Fraternal Congress August 23, 1899, 
or any higher standard at the option of the society, and for disability 
benefits by tables based upon reliable experience and for combined 
death and permanent total disability benefits by tables based upon 
reliable experience, with an interest assumption not higher than tour 
per cent per annum, nor until it shall be shown to the insurance com- 
missioner by the sworn statement of the treasurer, or corresponding 
officer of such society, that at least five hundred applicants have each 
paid in cash at least one regular monthly payment as herein provided 
per one thousand dollars of indemnity to be affected, which payments 
in the aggregate shall amount to at least twenty-five hundred dollars, 
all of which shall be credited to the mortuary or disability fund on ac- 
count of such applicants, and no part of which may be used for ex- 
penses." (Section 12). No preliminary certificate granted shall be 
valid after one year from date, or after such further period, not ex- 
ceeding one year, as may be granted by the commissioner, and unless 



286 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



the five hundred applicants have been secured, and the organization 
completed, the articles of incorporation shall become null and void. 
Societies are required to appoint the insurance commissioner attorney 
for service of process, and are required to make annual reports to the 
insurance commissioner on or before March i. 

The valuation provided for ** shall not be considered or regarded 
as a test of the financial solvency of the society, but each society shall 
be held to be legally solvent so long as the funds in its possession are 
equal to or in excess of its matured liabilities." 

NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS TABLE OF MORTALITY 





Number 


Number 


Yearly 
Probability 


Yearly 
Insurance 


Yearly 
Cost dia- 


Expec- 


AveiBce 


Age 


of 


of 


Coat per 
St. 000 


counted at 


tation of 


DuratMMi 




Living 

lOOOOO 


Dying 


of Dying 


4 per cent. 


Life 


of Life 


30 


500 


.0050000 


5.000 


4.808 


45.6 


49.7 


ax 


99500 


501 


.0050352 


5.035 


4.841 


44.9 


48.8 


aa 


98999 


50a 


.0050708 


S071 


4.876 


44.x 


47^ 


23 


98497 


503 


.0051068 


5.107 


4.91 X 


43.3 


47.0 


24 


97994 


505 


.0051534 


5.154 


4-956 


42.5 


46.1 


25 


97489 


507 


.0050206 


5.301 


5.001 


41. 8 


45.2 


a6 


9698a 


Sio 


.0052587 


S.259 


S.057 


41.0 


44-3 


27 


96472 


S13 


.0053176 


5.318 


5.113 


40.3 


43.4 


a8 


95957 


S17 


.0053877 


5.388 


5. 181 


39.4 


42.S 


29 


95442 


5aa 


.0054693 


5.469 


5.359 


38.6 


4X.6 


30 


94920 


537 


.0055520 


5-552 


5.338 


37.8 


40.7 


31 


94393 


533 


.0056466 


5.647 


5.430 


37.0 


39.8 


32 


93860 


540 


.0057532 


5-7^^ 


S.532 


36.3 


38.9 


33 


93320 


548 


.0058723 


5.872 


5-646 


35.4 


38.0 


34 


92772 


557 


.0060040 


6.004 


5.773 


34.6 


37.1 


35 


92215 


567 


.0061487 


6.149 


5.912 


33.9 


36.3 


36 


91648 


578 


.0063067 


6.307 


^.064 


33.1 


35.3 


37 


91070 


591 


.0064895 


6.490 


6.249 


32.3 


34-4 


38 


90479 


606 


.0066977 


6.698 


6.410 
6.655 


31.S 


33.5 


39 


89873 


622 


.0069200 


6.920 


30.7 


32.6 


40 


89251 


640 
660 


.0071708 


7.171 


6.895 


29.9 


31.7 


41 


8861 1 


.0074483 


7.448 


7.162 


39.x 


30.9 


42 


87951 


683 


.0077657 


7.766 


7-467 


38.3 


30.0 


43 


87268 


708 


.0081129 


8. 113 


7.801 


29.S 


29.x 


44 


86560 


734 


.0084797 


8.480 


8.154 


36.8 


38.3 


45 


85286 


761 


.0088668 


8.867 


8.536 


36.0 


37.4 


46 


8506s 


790 


.0092870 


9.287 


8.930 


35.3 


26.5 


47 


84275 


822 


.0097538 


9.754 


9-379 


24-4 


35.6 


48 


83453 


857 


.0102693 


10.369 


9.874 


33.7 


a4.8 


49 


82596 


894 


.0108238 


10.824 


10.408 


33.9 


23.9 


50 


81702 


935 


.0114440 


11.444 


11.004 


33.2 


33>X 


51 


80767 


981 


.0121460 


12.146 


11.679 


31.4 


22.3 


52 


70786 


1029 


.0128970 


13.897 


13.400 


30.7 


2X.4 


53 


78757 


1083 


.0137512 


13-751 


13.333 


19.9 


20.6 


54 


77674 


1 140 


.0146767 


14.677 


14.II3 


X9.3 


19.8 


55 


76534 


1202 


.0157054 


15-705 


15-IOI 


1 8.5 


19.0 


56 


75332 


1270 


.0168587 


16.859 


16.3 1 r 


X7.8 


18.3 


57 


74062 


1342 


.0181200 


18.120 


17.423 


17.x 


17.4 


58 


72720 


MI8 


.0194994 


19.499 


18.749 


16.4 


16.6 


59 


71302 


I5OI 


.0210513 


ai.051 


30.341 


15.7 


X5.8 


60 


69801 


1588 


.0227504 


33.750 


31.875 


15.0 


X5.I 


61 


68213 


l68i • 


.0246434 


34.643 


23.695 


14.4 


14-4 


62 


66532 


1778 


.0267240 


36.724 


35.696 


13.7 


13.6 


63 


64754 


1880 


.0290330 


29.303 


37.916 


X3.X 


X3.9 


64 


62874 


1085 


.0315711 


31.571 


30.357 


13.4 


X2.a 


65 


60889 


2094 


.0343904 


34.390 


33067 


XI.8 


II.6 


66 


58705 ' 


2206 


.0375202 


37.520 


36.077 


II-2 


TO.O 



LiFB AND Casualty Sbction 



287 



NATIONAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS TABLE OF MORTALITY 



Ace 


Nmnbo' 
of 


Numbo' 
of 


Yeariy 
Probability 


Yeariy 
Insurance 
Coat per 
$1,000 


Yearly 

Costdia- 

oounted at 


BzpeO" 
Utionof 


Average 
Duration 




Uvins 


pying 


of Dying 


4 per cent. 


Life 


of Life 


67 


56589 


2318 


.0409620 


40.962 


39387 


10.7 


10.3 


68 


54271 


3430 


.0447753 


44.775 


43.053 


ZO.X 


9.7 


69 


51841 


2539 


.0489767 


48.977 


47.093 


9.5 


9.1 


70 


49302 


2645 


.0536489 


53.649 


5X.586 


9.0 


8.5 


71 


46657 


2744 


.0588x22 


58.8x2 


56.550 


8.5 


7.9 


72 


43913 


2832 


.0644912 


64.491 


62.0XX 


8.0 


7.4 


73 


4108X 


2909 


.07081x3 


70.8x1 


68.087 


7.5 


6.9 


74 


38x72 


2969 


.0777795 


77.789 


74.788 


7.0 


6.4 


^1 


35203 


3009 


.0854757 


85.476 


82.198 


6.6 


6.0 


76 


32194 


3026 


.0939927 


93.993 


90.377 


6.2 


5.5 


77 


29x68 


30x6 


.X0340X0 
.XX38345 


X03.40X 


99.424 


5.7 


5.1 


78 


26152 


2977 


X 13.835 


109.457 


5.3 


4.7 


79 


23175 


2905 


.X 253506 


X 25.35 X 


X 20.520 


5.0 


4.3 


8o 


20270 


2799 


.X380858 


X38.086 


132.775 


4.6 


4.0 


8x 


17471 


2659 


.X52X95X 


X52.Z95 


146.341 
x6 1.3x6 


4.3 


3.6 


82 


148x2 


2485 


.1677694 


167.769 


3.9 


3.3 


83 


12327 


2280 


.X849598 


X84.960 


X 7 7.846 


3.6 


3.0 


84 


XO047 


2050 


.20404x0 


204.04 X 


X96.X93 


3.3 


2.8 


85 


7979 


x8oo 


.2250844 
.2483400 


225.084 
248.340 


2x6.427 


3.0 


2.5 


86 


6197 


Z539 


238.794 


2.8 


2.3 


87 


4658 


X277 


.274x520 


274.X52 


263.608 


2.5 


2.0 


88 


3381 


1023 


.3025732 


302.573 


290.935 


2.3 


X.8 


89 


2358 


788 


.334x8x5 


334.X82 


32X.329 


2.1 


x.7 


90 


1570 


579 


.3687898 


368.790 


354.606 


X.9 


x.5 


91 


991 


404 


.4076690 


407.669 


39 X. 989 


X.7 


X.4 


9a 


587 


264 


.4497445 


449.745 


432.447 


X.5 


x.2 


93 


333 


161 


.4984520 


498.452 


479.28 X 


1.4 


Z.O 


94 


X62 


89 


.5493827 


549.383 


528.253 


X.2 


.9 


9$ 


73 


44 


.6027397 


602.740 


579.557 


X.I 


.8 


96 


29 


Z9 


.655x724 


655.X72 


629.973 


X.O 


.8 


97 


zo 


7 


.7000000 


700.000 


673.077 


.8 


.7 


08 


3 


3 


X. 0000000 


zooo.ooo 


961.538 


.5 


.5 



FRATERNAL SOCIETY LAW ASSOCIATION. Organized in 
November 1909. The association is independent of other fraternal 
organizations and its efforts are devoted to the interchange of informa- 
tion regarding legislation and court decisions affecting fraternal societies. 
The association maintaitas a law reporting bureau. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, Benjamin Crane, 
Crawfordsville, Ind.; vice-president, L. Q. Rawson, Cleveland, Ohio; 
treasurer, C. J. Garlow, Columbus, Neb.; secretary, A. W. Fulton, 
1725 Conway building, Chicago, 111. 



G 



GARY NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Gary, 
Indiana. Organized 191 7; capital, $100,000. This company was 
merged in The Chicago National Life Insurance Company in 192 1. 

GATE CITY LIFE AND HEALTH INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Greensboro, N. C. Organized 191 1. James F. Thompson, president; 
GayJe Thompson, vice-president ; W. L. Carter, secretary and treas- 
urer ; M. E. Carter, assistant secretary; Ralph B. Coit, actuary ; 
E. G. Jones, superintendent of agencies ; Dr. P. Jarboe, medical 
director. 

GEM CITY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Dayton, Ohio. 
Organized 151 1; capital, $105,750. A. J. Conover, president; A. I. 
Morrisett, vice-president and general manager; Dr. G. T. Brown, 
vice-president; R. P. Burkhardt, second vice-president; Gustave A. 
Becker, Jr., secretary and treasurer; J. L. Robinson, assistant secretary; 
Carl Mitcheltree, actuary; Dr. G. T. Brown, medical director. 

GEM STATE LIFE UNDERWRITERS ASSOCIATION, 
Boise City, Idaho. Organized in June, 1915. The officers, elected 
were: President, W. B. Harmon; vice-president, D. G. White; sec- 
retary. C. F. Kutnewsky; treasurer, A. Crooks. The present officers, 
elected in January, 1922, are: William Robinson, president; Norman 
C. Nourse, secretary and treasurer. 

GENERAL ACCIDENT FIRE AND LIFE ASSURANCE 
CORPORATION, Limited, of Perth, Scotland. United States Home 
Office, General Building, 4th and Walnut Streets, Philadelphia. This 
company was organized in 1885, and transacts a world wide business, 
writmg fire, life and the general lines of casualty insurance. WiUiam 
Low, O. B. E., J. P. is chairman; F. Norie-Miller, J. P., general manager 
and J. Mayhew Allen, F. I. A., actuary and secretary. Thecompany has 
an authorized capital of £1,250,000, of which £1,153,000 is subscribed 
and £i^03,ooo paid in. The General Accident entered the United 
States m 1899 making a statutory deposit of $250,000 with the Insur- 
ance Department of the state of New York, and established its United 
States branch headquarters in Philadelphia, where it owns the build- 
ing and site at 4th and Walnut Streets. The business of the United 
States branch is limited to the several classes of casualty insurance and 
the corporation is indirectly interested in fire insurance in the United 
States through its ownership of the Potomac Insurance Company of 
Washington, D. C. The following table shows the progress made by 
the United States branch: 



LiFB AND Casualty Section 



289 



for 



for 



X90S 


$755,774 


1906 


993.093 


X907 


1.337 J7I 


1908 


x,867.454 


X909 


2.387.4x3 


X9X0 


3.619.354 
3.743.936 


X9XX 


X9xa 


3.805.543 


X9X3 


3.867.458 


X9X4 


3.X3X406 
2,908.6x8 


X9X5 


19X6 


3.208.078 


X9X7 


3.393.9X1 


X9X8 


3.980.0x7 


X9X9 


5.553.446 


1930 


7.X33.393 


X9ax 


8453.13X 



$225,331 

395.767 

435.x 13 
666.083 

993.334 
X.08 1.963 

I,X03,53I 

X.256,554 
I.305.0A2 
X.x64.x6x 
x.xzs.xxo 
X. 320.720 
X.373.X55 
1.490.4X6 
2.X36.340 
3,575,86x 
3.X37.496 



$X33.957 
37X.869 
309<9I9 
338.374 
438.4x6 
368,240 
6x6,52X 
6ox,369 
833.958 

X,XX2.278 

X, 077.337 
983.349 

X.X63.S39 
x.465.935 
2. 050.42 X 

2,824,X0X 

3.085,305 



RcKrvet and Sur- 

l>lus for Benefit 

of Pblicyholden 

$761,776 

935.30X 

X.XX5.X93 

X.606.531 

3,040,03s 

3.096J7X 
3,466,x67 

3^40,003 

3.6x7.087 
3.726.527 
3.693.370 

3.978.853 

3.639.867 
5.037.X50 
6.499.071 
7.70X.680 



The United States manager is Frederick Richardson, and the 
assistant United States managers are James F. Mitchell and Thos. C. 
Moore. ' 

GENERAL CASUALTY AND SURETY COMPANY, First 
National Bank Building, Cadillac Square and Woodward Avenue, 
C^roit, Mich. Organi^ ^9}5* ^^^^^ capital, $^00,000. Elmer H. 
Dearth, president; George E. Taylor, vice-president; H. Leonard 
Wilton, Herbert E. Johnson, vice-presidents; B. Frank Bushman, 
secretary and treasurer; S. E. Pattison, assistant secretary; John H. 
Davis, assistant secretary and treasurer; Ralph B. Wilkinson, general 
counsel. Writes general classes of casualty insurance, fidelity and 
surety bonds. 

GENERAL CASUALTY AND SURETY RE-INSURANCE 
CORPORATION, 80 Maiden Lane, New York, N. Y. Organized 
1^21, capital $800,000. Robert Van Iderstine, president; N. S. Bo)^d, 
vice-president. The company was organized and took over the entire 
business, assets and liabilities of the United States branch of the Nor- 
wegian Globe Insurance Company, Ltd. 

GENERAL INDEMNITY CORPORATION OF AMERICA, 
1050 University Ave., Rochester, N. Y. Organized 1914; capital $200,- 
000. W. R. McCanne, president; George W. Thayer, vice-president; 
Wallace I. Miller, secretary; George W. Todd, treasurer. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Charleston, W. Va. Organized 1906; capital, $250,000. Harrison B. 
Smith, president; A. B. White and A. M. Scott, vice-presidents; 
E/nest C. Milair, vice-president and secretary; F. S. Bown, treasurer; 
Chas. H. Tiffin, assistant secretary and auditor; J. P. Bowerman, 
actuary; R. D. Davis, M.D., medical director. 



290 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

GEORGIA CASUALTY COMPANY. Macon, Ga. Or^nired 
1909* capital, $300,540. W. £. Small, prendent; J. C. McAfee, vice- 
president; J. B. Hart and T. B. McRitchie, vice-presidents; £. P. 
Amerine, secretary; W. M. Amerine, assistant secretary; J. C. Morton, 
treasurer and assistant secretary; G. A. Heide, assistant treasurer; 
W. R. Woodward, assistant treasurer. 

GEORGIA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1869-1922. 
The act creating an insurance department in Georgia was approved 
March 19, 1869, the comptroller-general being charged with the duties 
of supervision as insurance commissioner ex-officio. [See Cyclopedia 
for 19 1 3- 1 4 for list of former officials.] 

The comptroller-general is elected by direct vote for a term of 
four years. William A. Wright is the present comptroller. 

GIRARD LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Organized 1909; capital full paid, 9410,040. Nathan T. Fc^weli, 
president; Joseph M. Steele, vice-president; Richard H. Wallace, 
vice-president and treasurer; Albert Short, secretary and actuary, 
Clark R. Craig, medical director. 

GLOBE INDEMNITY COMPANY. New York, N. Y. Organ- 
ized 191 1; capital, $750,000. A. Duncan Reid, president and general 
manager; F. H. Kingsbury, vice-president and secretary; W. J. 
McCaffrey, vice-president, Thomas H. Anderson, vice-president; 
Harry Furze, treasurer. 

GLOBE MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION, Chi- 
cago, 111. Organized 1805. T. B. Barry, LL.B., president; L. O. 
Sanborn, secretary and treasurer; F. T. Andrews, medical director and 
vice-president. 

GOLDEN EAGLE ASSOCIATION, 1810 Broadway, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Organized 1884. David E. Terry, president. W. O. Dietrich, 
secretary. 

GRANGE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lansing, Mich. 
Organized 1915. N. P. Hull, president; Frank Coward, vice-president; 
C. H. Bramble, secretary and treasurer; James W. Glover, actuary; 
N. P. Hull, superintendent of agencies; Dr. H. A. Herze, medical 
director. 

GREAT AMERICAN CASUALTY COMPANY. Chicago. 111. 
Organized 1920; capital. $175,000. George W. Wolfler. president; 
E. H. Steffelin, secretary. 

GREAT AMERICAN INSURANCE COMPANY, Omaha, Neb. 
Organized 1919. R. L. Hart, president; C. E. Reynolds and Fred 
Hardun. vice-presidents; A. T. Reynolds, treasurer; W. H. Jennings, 
secretary. (Accident and Health Insurance). 



Life and Casualty Section 291 

GREAT AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Hut- 
chinson, Kansas. Organized 191 7. S. M. Babbett, president; Jos. 
E. Smith, vice-president and secretary; Will S. Thompson, treasurer; 
Frank S. Haddan, assistant secretary. 

GREAT AMERICAN MUTUAL INDEMNITY COMPANY, 
Mansfield, Ohio. Organized and began business 1917. F. B. Black, 
president; Wm. B. Martin vice-president; Henry R. Endly, secretary 
and treasurer. R. B. Keffer, assistant secretary. 

GREAT NORTHERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Grand 
Forks, N. Dak. Organized 1910; capital, $200,000. The company 
was purchased by and merged in the Central Business Men's Accident 
Association of Chicago, in 1921. 

GREAT NORTHERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Wau- 
sau. Wis. Organized 1909; capital, $112,275. H. G. Royer, president; 
John A. Sullivan, Frank A. Holmer, Ward C. Castle, vice-presidents; 
C. O. Pauley, secretary; Tno. P. P. Oliver, actuary and assistant secre- 
tary; A. B. Rosenberry, M.D., medical director. 

GREAT REPUBLIC LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Los 
Angeles, Cal. Organized 191 1; capital, $500,000. A. O. Birch, presi- 
dent; W. H. Savage, vice-president and agency director; F. B. Olds, 
secretary and treasurer; F. F. Petty, actuary and assistant secretary; 
H. M. Brandel, M.D., medical director. 

GREAT SOUTHERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Hous- 
ton, Texas. Commenced business 1909. Capital, $600,000. E. P. 
Greenwood, president; J. H. Florence, vice-president and medical 
director; J. C. Cameron, vice-president and actuary; Dr. F. J. Combe, 
vice-president; L. A. Carlton, vice-president and general counsel; 
J. T. Scott, treasurer; L. S. Adajns, secretary; F. W. Griffln, superin- 
tendent of agencies; Harold Scliramm, assistant secretary; W. S. 
Home, assistant treasurer; Hubert H. Sharp, assistant secretary. 

GREAT SOUTHERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Bir- 
mingham, Ala. (See Alabama National Life Insurance Company). 

GREAT STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Wichita, 
Kansas. Organized 1919. Fred B. Stanley, president; W. F. Burson 
and Claude E. Stanley, vice-presidents; W. B. Crandall, secretary; 
J. T. Botkin, treasurer; T. C. Calvert, assistant secretary; James 
p. Sullivan, superintendent of agencies. 

GREAT WESTERN ACCIDENT INSURANCE COM- 
PANY of Des Moines, la. Organized 1901 ; re-incorporated as a stock 
company, 19 14. Capital, paid in, $200,000. H. B. Hawley, president 



292 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

and general manager; W. G. Tallman, vice-president; R. D. Emery, 
secretary; John H. Hogan, treasurer; S. P. Barr, vice-president and 
claim adjuster; O. B. Hartley, general counsel; V. £. Nutt, M. B. 
Hills, F. R. Fifer, assistant secretaries; B. H. Gross, auditor. 

GROUP INSURANCE. This is a name given to a plan of insur- 
ance of recent development under which the employer of a large^ num« 
ber of workers may extend the protection of life insurance to his em- 
ployees as a body, and under a blanket policy. Under sroup insurance 
mdividual medical examination is dispensed with, ana the insurance 
may be any reasonable sum, but is usually a sum equal to the yearly 
wage of the individual workman. The insurance is written on the one 
year renewable term plan. Supplementary certificate of insurance 
are usually issued to each individual of the group stating the fact of 
insurance, the amount, the name of the benendary and the condition 
under which the insurance continues in force. The laws remove from 
p:roup insurance the restrictions and limitations applying to individual 
msurances and with few exceptions define a "group" as "not less than 
fifty lives" all in the employ of one person, firm or corporation. The 
important exceptions are in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Arizona and 
Nebraska where the laws make the minimum number to be covered 
one hundred. 

Group Life Insurance in force, December 31, 192 1 amounted to 
$1,600,894,625. 

GUARANTEE COMPANY OF NORTH AMERICA, THE, 
Montreal. Henry E. Rawlings, president and managing director; 
William S. Chadwick, secretary and treasurer; Walter T. Rawlings, 
assistant secretary. 

GUARANTEE FUND LIFE ASSOCIATION, Omaha. Neb. 
Organized 1901. J. C. Buffington, president; E. M. Martin, vice- 

E resident; J. W. Hughes, vice-president; R. E. Lanedon, secretary; 
,. E. Gillespie, assistant secretary and auditor; A. D. Hunter, assistant 
secretary; A. C. Stokes, medical director; J. W. Barth, actuary. 

GUARANTEED EQUITY LIFE COMPANY, 127 N. Dearborn 
street, Chicago, 111. W. W. Kraemer, president. 

GUARANTY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Davenport, 
la. Organized 1903 as a mutual company, reorganized 1910 as a 
stock company; capital, $100,000. August £. Steffen, president; 
R. Rohlfs, vice-president; L. J. Dougherty, secretary and general 
manager; W. F. Meiburg, assistant secretary and actuary; Julius 
C. Hasler, treasurer; Dr. W. L. Allen, medical director; Dr. C. E. 
Glynn, assistant medical director; Carroll Bros, counsel. 

GUARDIAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA, 
Organized i860 under the laws of the State of New York; capital, 
$200,000. Home Office 50 Union Square, New York. The officers of the 



Life and Casualty Section 293 

company are as follows: Carl Heye, president; T. Louis Hansen, 
vice-president; John Fuhrer, vice-president and actuary; Fred A. 
Goecke, secretary; Rudolph C. Neuendorffer, secretary; Charles 
Kruse, cashier; Dr. Charles B. Piper, medical director; Valentine 
Howell, assistant actuary; George L. Hunt, inspector of agencies. 

GUARDIAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. Madison, Wis. 
Organized 1909; capital, paid in, $100,000. George A. Boissard, 
president and general manager; A. F. Menges, vice-president; Benj. S. 
Beecher, secretary; C. M. Putnam, treasurer; W. W. Gill, medical 
director; H. L. Butler, counsel; W. J. Wandrey, agency secretary; F. 
A. Regan, assistant secretary. 

GULF COAST LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Gulfport, 
Miss. Organized 1911; capital, paid in, $163,100. M. C. Tyler, 
president; Chas. L. Isom, vice-president and secretary; T. A. Wood, 
treasurer and assistant secretary; Sarah S. De Forest, actuary. Nego- 
tiations for the sale of this company are now in progress. 



H 



HARTFORD ACCIDENT AND INDEMNITY COMPANY. 
Hartford, Conn. Organized 1913; capital, paid up, $1,000,000. R. M. 
Bissell, president; Norman R. Moray, vice-president and ^neral 
manager; James Wyper and Jas. L. D. Kearney, vice-presidents; 
J. Collins Lee, secretary; R. C. L. Hamilton, comptroller; D. J. Glazier, 
secretary-treasurer. 

HARTFORD LIVE STOCK INSURANCE COMPANY, Hart- 
ford. Conn. Or^nized under New York laws in 19 16; capital, paid 
in, $500,000. Richard M. Bissell, president; L. D. Kearney, secretary. 

HARTFORD STEAM BOILER INSPECTION AND INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY was incorporated June 30, 1866. Capital, $2,000,- 
000. Charles S. Blake, president; Wm. R. C. Corson, vice-president 
and treasurer; E. Sidney Berry, second vice-president; Louis F. 
Middlebrook, secretary; John J. Graham, assistant secretary; Halsey 
Stevens, assistant secretary. 

HAWAII, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. An act desig- 
nating the territorial treasurer to be insurance commissioner ex officio^ 
with supervision over the business of insurance, was passed Apnl 28» 
1903. D. E. Metzger is the present insurance commissioner. 

HEALTH AND ACCIDENT UNDERWRITERS' CONFER- 
ENCE. The conference was formed by the merger of the Detroit Con- 
ference, American Association of Accident Underwriters, and National 
Mutual Union, and the organization was completed at a joint meeting 
of the three associations held in Atlantic City, N. J., in September, 1914. 
The objects of the conference are stated in the constitution to be: " To 
promote good will and harmony between members; to devise measures 
for the protection of their common interests; and to advance the general 
interests of health and accident underwriting." Membership is divided 
into three classes — active, associate and honorary. The active mem- 
bership consists of companies or associations licensed to transact health 
and accident insurance, and associate membership includes officers, or 
heads of home office departments of a company which itself is not a 
member. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, R. Perry Shorts, Massa- 
chusetts Bonding, Boston; vice-president, C. W. Ray, Hoosier Casualty, 
Indianapolis; second vice-president, C. A. Craig, National Life and 
Accident, Nashville; secretary, J. B. Sackett, Old Line Life, Milwaukee; 
treasurer, C. H. Brackett, Hoosier Casualty, Indianapolis. 



Life and Casualty Section 295 

Officers were elected at the annual meeting held in August, 192 1, as 
follows: President, W. R. Sanders, American Liability.Cincinnati; 
first vice-president, E. C. Bowlby, president. Fidelity Health and 
Accident, Benton Harbor, Michigan; second vice-president, John 
Patterson, vice-president, Massachusetts Bonding and Insurance, 
Saginaw, Michigan; secretary, W. W. Dark, secretary. Business Men's 
Indemnity Association, Indianapolis, Ind.; treasurer, C. H. Brackett, 
Hoosier Casualty Company, Indianapolis, Ind.; executive committee: 
the officers, ex-officio and the following: Chairman, E. C. Budlong, 
second vice-president Bankers Accident Insurance Company, Des 
Moines, Iowa; C. H. Boyer, manager Casualty Department, National 
Life Insurance Company of the U. S. A., Chicago, Illinois; Dr. W. F. 
Jarvis, president. Fraternal Protective Association, Boston, Mass.; 
A. F. Forrest, vice-president, North American Accident Insurance 
Company, Chicago, 111.; W. H. Howland, manager Industrial Dept. 
General Accident, Fire and Life Assurance Corporation, Ltd., Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; J. W. Scherr, president, Inter Ocean Casualty Company, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; W. T. Grant, secretary, Business Men's Accident 
Insurance Co., Kansas City, Mo.; Isaac Miller Hamilton, president. 
Federal Life Insurance Co., Chicago, 111.; W. G. Tallman, vice-presi- 
dent, Great Western Accident Insurance Co., Des Moines, la.; and, 
H. G. Royer, president. Central Business Men's Association, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

The mid-year meeting of the Conference was held in Kansas City, 
March 7, 8 and ^, 1922. President Sanders presided and reports were 
made by the vanous committees. Much time was given to a discussion 
of an oi^anized educational campaign for the purpose of bringing about 
a more favorable attitude on the part of the insuring public towards 
all forms of underwriting. This subject was called to the attention of 
the meeting by a paper entitled "Organization and Co-operation in the 
Business of Insurance," by C. H. Boyer, manager, Casualty Depart- 
ment, National Life of the U. S. A., Chicago, and "Business Through 
Co-operation," by G. A. Fairley, secretary. National Travelers Benefit 
Association, Des Moines, Iowa, and discussed by Isaac Miller Hamil- 
ton, president, Federal Life Insurance Company, Chicago, and W. T. 
Grant, president. Business Men's Assurance Company of America, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

W. W. Dark, chairman of the Statistical Committee reported the 
establishment of a Statistical Bureau, commencing with statistics for 
the month of January, 1922, reported by over twenty-five companies on 
over two hundred thousand exposures. Methods and instructions 
concerning statistics were presented in a paper entitled, "Present and 
Future of the Statistical Bureau," by Harold R. Gordon, Statistician 
of the Conference. Other papers presented at the meeting were as 
follows: "No Man's Land in Health and Accident Insurance," Z. H. 
Austin, North American Life and Casualty, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 
"Life Indemnity in Accident and Health Insurance," C. O. Pauley, 
Central Business Men's Association, Chicago, Illinois; "State Inspec- 
tion of Fraudulent Claims," O. B. Hartley, Great Western Accident 



296 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



Des Moines, Iowa; "Non-Cancellable Policies, Whence-What-Whith- 
er," Thomas P. Nelson, Wisconsin Insurance Department; "What 
Accident and Health Insurance means to Men in Every Walk of Life," 
Ben Haughton, International Travelers Association, Dallas, Texas; 
"Justness In Adjustments," F. D. Harsh, Independent Adjuster, Des 
Moines, Iowa; "Relation of Dental Surgery to the Health of the 
Individual," Dr. W. H. Jordan, D. D. S., Kansas City, Mo.; "Stand- 
ardization," by A. J. Alwin, Minnesota Commercial Men's Association, 
Minneapolis, Min. 

The following is the active membership list of the conference, 
February i, 1922; 



American Casualty. Reading, Pa. 

American Insurance Union, Columbus, 
Ohio. 

American Liability. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Bankers Accident, Des Moines, la. 

Business Men's ,Kan8as City, Mo. 

Business Men's Indemnity, Indianapolis. 

Central Business Men's, Chicago, 111. 

Columbian Life, Omaha, Neb. 

Columbia Life, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Columbian Protective Association, Bing- 
hamton, N. Y. 

Commercial Health and Accident, Spring- 
field. 111. 

Commercial Travelers' Life and Accident, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Commonwealth Casualty, Philadelphia. 

Continental Life. Kansas City, Mo. 

Empire Health and Accident, Indianapo- 
lis, Ind. 

Federal Insurance Co., Lincoln, Neb. 

Federal Life, Chicago, III. 

Federal Casualty, Detroit, Mich. 

Federal Savings and Insurance, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Fidelity Health and Accident, Benton 
Harbor, Mich. 

First National Accident, Fond Du Lac, 
Wis. 

Fort WajTie Mercantile Accident, Ft. 
Wayne, Ind. 

Fraternal Protective, Boston, Mass. 

Fraternities Health and Accident, Rich- 
mond, Va. 

General Accident, Philadelphia. Pa. 

General Casualty and Surety, Detroit. 

Globe Casualty. Columbus, Ohio. 

Great American Indemnity, Mansfield, 
Ohio. 

Great Western Accident, Des Moines, la. 

Home Accident and Health, South Bend, 
Ind. 

Hoosier Casualty, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Illinois Mutual Casualty, Peoria, 111. 

Integrity Mutual, Chicago, 111. 

International Travelers, Dallas, Texas. 



Inter-Ocean Casualty, Cincinnati, O. 

Interstate Business Men's Accident, Des 
Moines, la. ' 

Interstate Life & Accident, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn. 

Iowa State Traveling Men's. Des Moines. 

Kentucky Central Life and Accident, 
Anchorage, Ky. 

Liberty Mutual, Dayton, O. 

Lincoln Accident, Lincoln, Neb. 

Masonic Accident, Springfield, Mass. 

Massachusetts Bonding, Boston, Mass. 

Massachusetts Accident, Boston, Mass. 

Merchants' Life & Casualty, Minneap- 
olis, Minn. 

Merchants, Charleston, W. Va. 

Meridian, Charleston, W. Va. 

Midland Casualty, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Michigan Casualty. Saginaw, Mich. 

Ministers Casualty, Minneapolis. 

Minnesota Commercial Men s, Minneapolis 

Mutual Benefit Health and Accident, 
Omaha, Neb. 

National Business Men's Accident, Cleve- 
land. Ohio. 

National Life & Accident. Nashville. Tenn. 

National Life, U. S. A., Chicago, 111. 

National Relief Assurance, Philadelphia. 

National Masonic Provident, Mansfield, O. 

National Travelers Benefit, Des Moinea. 

New York Safety Reserve, N. Y. 

North American Accident, Chicago, 111. 

North American Life & Casualty, Minn- 
eapolis, Minn. 

Occidental Life, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Ohio National, Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Ohio State Life, Columbus, Ohio. 

Old Line Life, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Pacific Mutual Life, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Pan American Life, New Orleans, La. 

Physicians' Casualty, Omaha, Neb. 

Prairie State Casualty, Freeport, 111. 

Progressive Assurance. Minneapolis, Minn. 

Reliable Life and Accident, St. Louis, Mo. 

Safety First, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Sick & Accident Association, Toledo, O. 



Life and Casualty Section 297 

Southern Surety, Des Moines, la. United Casualty. Westfield. Mass. 

Southern Life and Health, Birmingham, United Life & Accident, Concord, N. H. 

Ala. United States Indemnity, Boston, Mass. 

Standard L^e, Pituburg, Pa. U. S. Assurance Mutual Health and 
St. Lawrence Life Association, New Accident. Chicago, 111. 

York, N. Y. Vermont Accident, Rutland, Vt. 

The Maccabees, Detroit, Mich. Washington Life & Accident, Chicago, 111. 

Time, Milwaukee. Wis. Western Surety, Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Travelers Equitable, Minneapolis, Minn. Woodmen's Accident, Lincoln, Neb. 

Union Casualty, Detroit, Mich. World Accident, Omaha, Neb. 
Union Indemnity, New Orleans. 

HEALTH INSURANCE.* Health Insurance, or more prop- 
erly, Sickness Insurance aims to indemnify the individual for loss of 
time due to disability caused by sickness originating after the issue 
of a policy. This form of insurance was introduced into the United 
States in 1846-7 when several companies, located respectively in Mass- 
achusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania began writing policies insur- 
ing against sickness of any kind, for which policies, premiums graduated 
to the age of the assured were charged. 

The premium rates having been pitched too low, the business of 
Health Insurance quickly became unprofitable and was discontinued 
until 1895, when several companies began writing limited Health 
Insurance policies covering disability caused by named diseases, and 
by a system of gradual expansion this developed into the present prac- 
tice which provides in the case of young adults for a premium of $7.00 
per annum and sickness indemnity of 95 -OO per week for disability at- 
tributable to any illness, not exceeding, however, fifty-two weeks in 
duration, with fixed indemnities for loss of sight or use of limbs. 

A suitable addition is made to the premium charge, if the appli- 
cant has attained the age of forty years, another addition is made for 
persons between fifty and sixty years,, and additional premium loading 
18 made for occupational exposure in dich age class, as shown in the fol- 
lowing table published by one of the leading companies: 





COST PER YEAR 




Classes z and a 


Class 2 


Class 3 


Ages 18 to 39 S35-00 


$40.00 


S43.75 


Ages 40 to 49 40.00 


45.00 


50.00 


Ages 50 to 59 50.00 


57.50 


63.50 



A number of persons with socialistic tendencies are at this time 
(1916) engaged in a propaeanda for sickness insurance in the interest 
of the working class, with premium contributions divided between 
the employer, employe, and State, and it is not unlikely that this prop- 
aganda will get headway in the very near future. It will, at least, 
have the effect of hastening the introduction of ideal sickness insur- 
ance with premiums graduated to the attained age of the insured, as 
in life insurance and with policies carrying no cancellation clause. 

* By Reinard S. Keelor. M. D., manager liability department United States 
Cttwalty Company, New York, X. Y. 



298 



Cyclopedia of Insurance 



The returns of business done in 192 1 by the principal stock com- 
panies are as follows. [See also Accident Insurance.] 

Premiumt 

Companies Received 

Aetna Casualty $14,514 

Aetna Life 1,670,321 

Columbian National 204,77s 

Columbia Casualty 26,339 

Commercial Casualty 438,871 

Continental Casualty 2,551,300 

Employers' Liability 525,784 

Fidelity & Casualty 1,698.502 

General Accident 473>o59 

General Casualty and Surety i ,703 

Globe Indemnity 252,435 

Hartford Accident I43»346 

Indemnity Company of North America .... 61.377 

London Guarantee 179.606 

London & Lancashire 7.^58 

Manufacturers Liability 27,451 

Maryland Casualty 528,978 

Metropolitan Casualty 

New Amsterdam Casualty 65,195 

Norwich Union Indemnity 3.466 

Ocean Accident 192,757 

Pacific Mutual Life 1.625,114 

Preferred Accident 345 1091 

Reliance Life 179.749 

Republic Casualty 

Royal Indemnity 1x9,875 

Standard Accident 789.742 

Traveler 2,549.003 

Travelers Indemnity 160,306 

Union Indemnity 285,436 

United States Casualty 378,005 

United States Fidelity 497.843 

Zurich General 8,360 

Total 192 1 $16,000,120 

Total 1920 15.578,381 

Total 1919 11,820.690 

Total 1918 9.399.908 

Total 1917 9.022,559 



Loi 
Paid 

$4,525 
896,321 
X 2 1. 676 

7/)l9 

212,400 

1,284,725 

393.442 

1,078,877 

236,59s 

310 

183.551 
69.960 

28,975 
X 23.906 

S.017 

13.667 

310,922 

1.363 

43.237 

1.079 

109.07s 

529.486 

i86,i8x 

71.468 

2,xo8 

66,749 

445.671 

1.746,0x4 

112.2x3 

110.121 

235.279 

331.855 

6.741 

$8,970,528 
8,808,926 
6,669.653 
5,765.787 
4.605 .94S 



HOME FRIENDLY INSURANCE COMPANY OF MARY- 
LAND, Baltimore, Md. Organized 1884. George A. Chase, president; 
E. C. Chase, vice-president; B. L. Talley, secretary. It transacts an 
industrial business. Formerly the Home Friendly Society. The present 
title was adopted in May 192 1, on qualifying as a legal reserve company 
under Maryland laws and approved by a special act of the Legislature of 
January 1922. 

HOME LIFE AND ACCIDENT COMPANY, Little Rock. Ark., 
executive offices, Fordyce, Ark. Organized 1900; capital, $250,000. 
A. B. Banks, president; S. B. Meek, C. L. Chambers, J. D. Arnold, and 
J.J. Harrison, vice-presidents; J. R. Hampton, secretary and treasurer. 



HOME LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, New York, 
incorporated under the laws of the state of New York, and b^an 
business May i, i860. William A. Marshall, president; Ellis \V. 



LiFB AND dsUALTY SECTION 299 

Gladwin, vice-president; Wm. S. Gay lord, secretary; George W. 
Murray, third vice-president and superintendent of agents; Henry 
Moir, second vice-president and actuary; F. W. Chapin, medical 
director; Chester F. S. Whitney, assistant medical director; Frank H. 
Trimble, assistant secretary; F. W. Kensing, cashier; Howard Van 
Sinderen, counsel; Herbert N. Sheppard, assistant actuary; William J. 
Cameron, assistant actuary. 

HOME LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1899; capital, $250,000. Basil L. 
Walsh, president; P. J. Cunningham, vice-president; Joseph L. 
Durldn, secretary; John J. Gallagher, treasurer; Geo. A. Huggins, 
actuary. 

HOOSIER CASUALTY COMPANY, Indianapolis, Ind. Or- 
gani^d 1907; capital $100,000. C. H. Brackett, president; W. H. 
Latta, vice-president; C. W. Ray, secretary. 



I 



IDAHO. INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. Under the act 
of 1 89 1 the state treasurer was charged with the supervision of insur- 
ance in Idaho, but in 1901 a separate insurance department was cre- 
ated, and the department was reorganized under legislation of 191 1 
and 19 13. The commissioner was appointed by the governor for four 
years from July i. [For list of state treasurers and commissioners see 
Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14, life section.] George F. Steele was appointed 
in 19 1 5, but resigned in 1917, and J. H. Hyatt was appointed to succeed 
him for the term expiring in 1^19. The state legislature in 1919 passed 
an act providing for commission form of state government, and under 
the act supervision of insurance rests with a department of commerce 
and industry. The ofHce of commissioner was abolished and the 
office of "insurance director" established in the new department. 
Howard J. Brace was appointed to the new office. 

IDAHO STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. Boise, Idaho. 
Organized 19 10; capital, $200,000. E. H. Dewey, president; £. S. 
Chadwick, vice-president and p^eneral manager; Geo. B. Wood, secre- 
tary; Dr. Wm. F. Smith, medical director. 

ILLINOIS BANKERS' LIFE ASSOCIATION. Monmouth, 111. 
Organized 1897. William H. Woods, president; Tos. R. Ebersole, vice- 
president and medical director; Robert M. Work, secretary and 
general attorney; Frank M. Ha I lam, treasurer and general manager; 
Arthur T. Sawyer, assistant general manager. 

ILLINOIS, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1869-1922. 
The general insurance act of January li, 1869, charged the auditor of 
public accounts with the supervision of insurance, but in 1893 the 
duties of supervision were transferred to a separate department, under 
charge of a superintendent of insurance, who is appointed by the 
Governor for a term of four years. [For list of supervising omcials 
see Cyclopedia for 1913-14, life section.] Rufus M. Potts was ap- 
pointed in 19 13, and Fred W. Potter, appointed in 191 7, resigned in 
192 1. T. J. Houston was appointed his successor. 

ILLINOIS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago, lU. Or- 
ganized 1899; capital, $500,000. James W. Stevens, president, Ray- 
mond W. Stevens, vice-president; Oswald J. Arnold, secretary and actu- 
ary; Bert J. Stookey, assistant secretary; Harry W. Stone, treasurer. 

ILLINOIS MUTUAL CASUALTY COMPANY. Peoria, 111. Or- 
ganized 1912. F. L. Davies, president; E. C. Ferguson, vice-president; 
O. L. McCord, secretary and treasurer. 



Life and Casualty Section 301 

INDEMNITY COMPANY OF AMERICA. Federal Reserve 
Bank Building, St. Louis, Mo. Organized 191 7; cash capital $250,000. 
J. B. McCutchan, president; George Dodson, vice-president; J. L. 
McNatt, secretary and general attorney; R. G. Rolwing, treasurer. 

INDEMNITY INSURANCE COMPANY OF NORTH AMERI- 
CA, 212 South Third Street, Philadelphia. This company which is 
affiliated with the old Insurance Company of North America, was 
organized April 19, 1920 with a cash capital of |i, 000,000 and surplus 
of $1,000,000. It transacts all branches of casualty and surety busi- 
ness. Its officers are Benjamin Rush, president; C. F. Frizzell, vice- 
president and general manager; T. W. Rucker,J[r., second vice-presi- 
dent; K. R. Owen, third vice-president; J. J. Cfonnor, treasurer, and 
E. W. Miller, secretary. 

INDEPENDENT LIFE . INSURANCE COMPANY, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Organized 1907; capital, $202,695. Paul Roberts, 
president; J. H. Covington, vice-president; M. J. McGuire, secretary; 
B. L. Ireland, treasurer; Dr. M. C. McGannon, medical director; 
M. E. Strube, superintendent of agencies. 

INDIANA ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS was 
organized at Indianapolis June 8, 1891, and the following officers were 
el«:ted: Edward S. Folsom of the Phcenix Mutual, president; D. F. 
Swain of the Northwestern Mutual, vice-president; E. M. Goodwin 
of the Travelers, secretary; D. W. Edwards of the Provident Life 
and Trust, treasurer. The present officers, elected at the annual 
meeting in February, 192 1, are: filbert Storer, president; Joseph R. 
Raub, vice-president; George G. Wainwright, second vice-president; 
Richard Habbe, secretary; Dan Flickinger, treasurer. 

INDIANA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1852-1922. 
Insurance supervision in Indiana is under the direction of the auditor 
of the state, who is elected by the people for a term of two years. [For 
list of supervising officials see Cyclopedia for 1913-14, life section.] 

Dale J. Crittenberg was elected in 19 14 and he was succeeded by 
Otto L. Klauss. 

The legislature in 1919 passed a bill transferring supervision from 
the state auditor to a separate department, the act taking effect Sep- 
tember 30, 1020. Thomas S. McMurray, Jr., was appointed com- 
missioner under the act. The act designates the official in charge as 
insurance commissioner, and he is app>ointed by the governor for a 
term of four years at a salary of $4,000 per annum. 

INDIANA NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Indianapolis, Ind. Organized 1907; capital, $210,000. C. D. Renick, 
president; V. R. Rudd, vice-president and treasurer; E. E. Leiendecker, 
secretary; C. E. Henderson, general counsel; G. C. Brooks, assistant 
secretary; E. E. Webster, agency manager; F. J. Haight, consulting 
actuary; Dr. W. E. Thornton, medical director. 



302 



Cyclopedia of insukancb 



INDIANAPOLIS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. Indian- 
apolis, Ind. Organized 1905. Frank P. Manly, president; 
Edward B. Raub, vice-president and counsel; Joseph R. Raub, secre- 
tary; Dr. Frank A. Morrison and Dr. J. B. Young, medical directors. 



INDUSTRIAL LIFE AND HEALTH INSURANCE COM- 
PANY of Atlanta. Ga. Ofiganized 1892. John N. McEachem, 
president; R. H. Dobbs, vice-president; S. C. McEachern, second 
vice-president; I. M. Sheffield, secretary. 

INDUSTRIAL LIFE INSURANCE IN 1921. The following 
tabular statement exhibits the industrial life insurance business trans- 
acted in the United States in 1921: 

Amount 
in Force 
Dec.31.19a1 

$98,642^483 
37.089.960 
31.385.298 
53.868,695 
30.369.714 
10,807.433 
16,685.75s 
14.285,37s 
3.785.863 

9.345.943 

30.178.830 

9.859.368 

709,633.711 

11,327.980 

I35.833h4o6 

3.113.440.56s 
140,93 a 

x8.389.017 

5.650,175 

3.154.693.554 

33.103.030 

27,956,928 

198.610,529 



Companies Amount Written 

American National, Galveston, Tex. $49,711,419 

Baltimore Life, Md 11,586.343 

Boston Life 6.463,283 

Colonial, Jersey City 15.508,363 

Commonwealth, Louisville 6,336,901 

Durham Life, Raleigh. N. C 6,683.366 

Equitable, Wash.. D. C 4.891,399 

Eureka, Baltimore 3.805.413 

Gate City, Greensboro 1.607.384 

Home Friendly, Baltimore 5,041.601 

Home Life, Philadelphia 5.691.340 

Independent, Nashville 5,877.613 

John Hancock, Boston 145,019,130 

Kentucky Central, Anchorage 9,273.670 

Life Ins. Co. of Virginia, Richmond .... i4,37 1.340 

Metropolitan Life, N. Y 666,840.395 

Peoples Life, Baltimore 39.164 

Peoples Mutual Benefit, Wash., D. C. 16,281,854 

Morris Plan, New York 

Prudential, Newark 686,453,679 

Public Savings, Ind i6,734.575 

Sun Life, Baltimore 4,135,0x6 

Western & Southern, Cincinnati .... 85,037,535 

Total 1921 $1,777,289,372 

Total 1920 1,450,071,018 

Total 1919 1.213,745.337 

Total 1918 707,869,987 

Total 191 7 996.300,084 



$7,723,773,433 
8,968.598,597 
6.038.238,300 
5.554.025.4^0 
5,107,363.488 



INSURANCE FEDERATION OF AMERICA, THE, is an 
incorporated body and the successor of the National Council of Insur- 
ance Federations organized in 19 15. At a meeting of the National 
Council in December, 19 19, it was voted to reorganize and incorporate. 
The present title was adopted and the Federation was incorporated 
under the laws of Connecticut. Headquarters of the Federation are in 
Detroit, Mich., 429 Majestic Building. 

The purposes of the corporation as stated in its constitution are: 
"To bring about a better understanding of the business of insurance 
by the general public, to support legislation designed to safeguard and 
promote the interests of the public in relation to insurance and to 
oppose a state or the nation becoming an underwriter of insurance 



Life and Casualty Section 303 

hazards of any description, other than in time of war for the protection 
of soldiers and sailors." The constitution also prohibits the use of the 
corporation funds for political purposes. The membership is divided 
into two classes: State Insurance Federations, and Insurance Com- 
panies, Fraternal societies and inter-state or national organizations of 
underwriters or agents. The affairs of the corporation are managed by 
a board of trustees. 

The present officers are: President Philip S. Powers, Richmond, 
Va.; vice-president, George W. Carter, Detroit; secretary, John 
T. Hutchinson, Detroit, Mich.; treasurer, William G. Curtis, Detroit, 
Mich.; Advisory committee: William Bro Smith, Travelers, Hartford, 
Conn.; David Van Schaack, Aetna Life, Hartford, Conn.; John B. 
Morton, Fire Association of Philadelphia, Phila., Pa. ; board of trustees: 
R. M. Bissell, Hartford, Conn.; Thos. E. Braniff, Oklahoma City, 
Okla.; Thomas H. Anderson, Newark, N. J.; Harve G. Badgerow, 
Chicago; James H. Carney, Boston, Mass.; Arthur E. Childs, Boston, 
Mass.; Wade Fetzer, Chicago, 111.; Fred L. Gray, Minneaix)lis, Minn.; 
James W. Henry, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Charles E. Hodges, Boston, Mass.; 
Chas. H. Holland, New York City.; Milbank Johnson, Los Angeles, 
Cal.; Edson S. Lott, New York City; Hill Montague, Richmond Va.; 
A. Duncan Reid, New York City; Joel Rathbone, New York City; 
Cecil F. Shallcross, New York City; George D. Webb, Chicago, 111.; 
W. G. Wilson, Cleveland, O. 

INSURANCE JOURNALISM. The following is a list of in- 
surance periodicals published in the United States, with the date of 
first publication, original and present location, and original and pres- 
ent publishers. Papers which are exclusively organs of companies 
and published by them are not included. [See Cyclopedia for 1899- 
1900 for earlier publications not now published.] 

1853 —American Insurance Digest, Chicago, formerly the Insurance Monitor, New 
York, established as the Insurance Monitor and Wall Street Review, Thomas 
Jones, Jr., weekly, afterward changed to monthly; published by C. C. Hinc 
from 1868 to 1897; and later by C. C. Hine's Sons Company. Present title 
adopted in 1920, and publication ofllice moved to Chicago. Published by 
Wadsworth Publishing Co., weekly. G. W. Wadsworth, president, John W. 
Petrie and Talbot C. Hatch, editors. 

1857 — Inturance Intelligencer, Philadelphia, Orrin Rogers, monthly, afterward 
changed to fortnightly and weekly, now a monthly. Published by R. L. 
Oviatt. 

X859 — ^Weekly Underwriter. New York, began as the New York Underwriter 
and Geoeral Joint Stock Register. New York, J. B. Ecclesine, first 
weekly, name changed to the Wall Street Underwriter in 1867. after- 
ward monthly, became the New York Underwriter in 1878, and was pub- 
lished by the Underwriter Printing and Publishing Company, A. D. Brig- 
ham, president. In 1880 it became a weekly under the present title. Pres- 
ent publisher, the Underwriter Printing and Publishing Company, L. A. 
Mack, president and treasurer, W. W. Mack, vice-president and secretary. 

z86a — American Exchange and Review, Philadelphia, monthly. Published by 
the Review Printing and Publishing Co., Ambrose Shapley, president; 
Benjamin L. Tomes, editor. 

Z865 — Baltimore Underwriter, Baltimore, Md., C. C. Bombaugh. monthly after- 
ward weekly, and then fortnightly, now published by The Baltimore Under- 
writer Company; W. R. Hough and F. W. Lawson, editors and proprietors. 



304 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

X 866 —Economic World, formerly Chronicle, Chicago, J. J. W. O'Donoghue, weekly; 
afterward transferred to New York, and now publiohed by the Chronicle 
Company, Ltd.. name changed to The Market World and Chronicle in 19 it 
and to The Economic World in Z9is* A. R. Marsh, president and treasurer; 
Edward D. Marsh, vice-president. 

X867 — ^Western Insurance Review, St. Louis, established by John P. Thompson 
& Co.: afterwards Captain Aldiich was editor and proprietor. Sold by 
Mrs. Aldrich to N. H. Weed; now published by Western Insuranoe Review 
Co.; Tarleton Brown, president and editor, montlUy. 

xS68 — Spectator. Charles D. Lakey and James H. Goodsell, Chicago, monthly, 
afterwards transferred to New York and changed to weekly, now 
published by the Spectator Company. Arthur L. J. Smith, president; 
Robert W. Blake, treasurer; Loughlin T. Smith, seoetary. 

x868— 'United States Review, began as the Northwestern Review, Chfcago. by W. F- 
Brewster. transferred to Philadelphia, present name adopted, now weekly- 
published by the United States Review Publishing Company, R. R. Doir- 
den. secretary. 

X87 1 —Insurance Index. New York, R. B. Caverly, publisher; bi-weekly. 

X871 — Insuranoe Law Journal. St. Louis. D. H. & H. L. Potter, monthly; trana- 
ferred to New York in 1874. now published by C. C. Hine's Sons Company. 

1871 — Coast Review. San Francisco. L. B. & J. G. Edwards, publishers; J. G. Riley, 
editor; present publisher. Insurance Publishing Co.; present editor, £. H. 
Bacon, monthly. 

187a — Standard. Boston, began as the Insurance Index. Cindxmati. W. T. TilUnghast, 
monthly, transferred to Boston, name changed to the Standard in x8Sa. 
publication changed to weekly, now published by Standard Publiahins 
Company; C. E. Belcher, president and treasurer. 

X873 — Insurance Journal. Hartford. H. R. Hayden. monthly changed to fortnightly 
in 1895. and weekly in X896. Now. The Insurance Journal and New g-^giymf 
Underwriter, published fortnightly by R. B. Caverly, June. X9Z3 to 19x9. Noiw 
published by Frank L. Armstrong. 

1873 — Insurance Age. New York. S. S. Norton, monthly, published by Matthew 
Griffin, now published at Boston, Mass., by Frank L. Armstrong, editor. 

i874^Insurance World, Pittsburgh, monthly, became a weekly in 1900; J. L. 
Bergstresser, managing editor. 

X 874 —Insurance Critic. Chicago, G. W. & J. Reed, Jr., monthly, afterward trans- 
ferred to New York and published by George W. Corliss. Now Published 
monthly by W. E. Underwood, editor. 

X878 — Rough Notes. Indianapolis. Ind., H. C. Martin, founder, publishers, the Roiig;h 
Notes Company; began as monthly, now weekly. Weekly editions devoted 
to different branches or interests of insurance. Irving Williams, editor; 
Albert J. Wohlgemuth, secretary and treasurer. 

x88i — Mutual Underwriter. Green Spring. O., originally a reinsuranoe paper, monthly, 
removed to Rochester. N. Y.. axid became an assessment life insuranoe orsaa. 
Mutual Underwriter Company, publishers. F. W. Zoller, president; Walter 
Basye, vice-president; A. S. Hamilton, secretary and treasurer. 

x88a — Indicator. Detroit. Mich.. W. H. Burr, monthly; now published by Indicator 
Publishing Company, fortnightly; W. E. King, president; William H. 
Burr, editor; E. L. Spoor, secretary and manager. 

X883 — Insurance, New York. Davis & Lakey; present publisher and editor. Miss 
Alice Lakey; weekly. 

1883 — Insurance News. Philadelphia, W. H. Wells, monthly, afterwards pubUabed 

by Mrs. W. H. Wells; W. S. Schermcrhorn, Publisher. 

X883 — American Insurer, New Orleans. Formerly the Vindicator. Atlanta, Ga., 
Garrett Brown, afterwards transferred to New Orleans, monthly, now 
weekly. Louis Phillips, editor. 



1887 — Pacific Underwriter. San Francisco, W. L. Eaton, monthly, afterwaida 
to fortnightly; Robert W. Neal, present editor and publi^er. 

x888 — Southern Underwriter, formerly Insurance Herald, Louisville, monthly, after- 
wards changed to weekly. Insurance Herald Company, publishers; le- 
moved to Atlanta. Ga., in 190X, combined with the Argus, Chicago, hk X913. 



Life and Casualty Section 305 

and Southeastern Underwriter 1917. and pabliahed by The Herald-Argtis Co. 
Name changed to The Southern Underwriter, January i. Z9i7< T. W. Dealy. 
president and managing editor. 

Z889 — ^Views, Washington, D. C. Max Cohen, monthly, now published by Kempson 
Publishing company; J. F. Kempson, president. 

1889— Insoxanoe Advocate, began as the Insorante Echo, Philaddphla, monthly; 
transferred to New York and name changed; now weekly; A. W. Roberts, 
publisher; E. W. RoberU, editor and manager. 

1891— Adjuster, Scm Francisco, monthly, J. A. Carey, editor and publisher. 

xSga — Insurance Post of Chicago, semi-monthly, established by Charles A. Hewitt, 
now published by Insurance Post Publidiing Co.. now allied with Insurance 
Field, Thomas R. Weddell. editor and manager. 

x803— >^sUant, New York City. Patrick J. Hanway. monthly: now published by 
the Vigilant Publishing Co. 

X895 — Insurance Press. New York City, weekly. The Insurance Press. Inc.. Franklin 
Webster, president and editor: C. M. Biscay, secretary and treasurer. 

X895 —Life Insurance Courant, Oak Park, 111. Monthly, published by Flitcraft Life 
Insurance Works. 

itm — ^Insurance Report, Denver. Col., Garrett Brown, monthly; now published 
by Insurance RJeport Co., Cyrus K. Drew, editor and manager. 

1897 — National Underwriter. Chicago and Cincinnati, Ohio, started as the Ohio 
Underwriters'. Ohio, by E. Jay Wohlgemuth, every other Thursday; changed 
to weekly, and combined with Black and White. Present name adopted 
January i. 1917* Present publishers. National Underwriter Company. 
E. J. Wohlgemuth, president; John F. Wohlgemuth, secretary and general 
manager; C. M . Cartwright, managing editor; Fire, life and casualty editions 
weekly. 

X899— Insurance Field, Louisville. Ky.. published by the Insurance Field Com- 
pany, Inc.: C. I. Hitchcock, president; Ben. P. Branham, M. W. Davidson 
and J. E. Dunne, vice-presidents; H. T. Davidson, treasurer: E. E. Straus, 
secretary; Young E. Allison and Champion I. Hitchcock, editors; Charles 
Dobbs, managing editor: A. H. Leekamp, associate editor; weekly; (fire, 
life and casualty editions). 

X90Z — Insurance Leader, St. Louis, Mo., monthly, by the Leader Publishing Com- 
pany, Garrett Brown, editor and manager. 

xgod — Best's Insurance News, Alfred M. Best Company, New York, monthly. 

1903 — ^American Agency Bulletin. Boston. Mass.. monthly: published by the National 
Association of Local Fire Insurance Agents. Publication office, New York. 
Weekly edition. 

X90S — ^Northwest Insuzance, St. Paul. MinzL, monthly; James C. Matchltt, editor 
and publisher. 

Z905 —Expositor. Newark, N. J., monthly; The Expositor Compcmy, now published 
by the Public Safety Co. 

X90S — ^Underwriters Report, San Francisco, established by John C. Piver as Life 
Insurance Report, published monthly. Changed to a weekly in Z907 and 
name changed. Now published by the Underwriters Report, Inc. 

X9o6 — ^Ltfe Association News, New York City, monthly; Everett M. Ensign, editor 
and znanager (official organ National Association of Life Uxulerwriters). 

1907 — Eastern Underwriter, New York, combined with Monthly Journal of Insurance 
Economics. Published weekly by Eastern Underwriter Company; Clar- 
ence Axman. president and editor; W. L. Hadley, secretary and business 
manager. 

Z9JO— Hines Bulletin, monthly, C. C. Hine's Sons Co.. New York, N. Y. Edward T. 
Harris, editor. 

Fraternal Monitor, Mount Morris, 111., monthly editorial offices Rochester, 
N. Y., A. S. Hamilton, secretary and manager; Walter Basye, vice-president 
and editor. 

Western Review, fraternal magazine, monthly. Mount Morris, III., editorial 
office, Chicago, 111., Published by Eidson Publishing Co., C. H. Robinson, 
president and treasurer. 



306 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Besides these regular class papers, there are several daily and 
weekly papers which devote more or less space to insurance news 
and the discussion of insurance questions. The principal of these 
papers are the New York Journal of Commerce and Commercial 
Dullelin, W. S. Crawford, insurance editor; New York Commercial, 
and Boston Globe, John Buchanan, editor. 

Several fire insurance companies and a laree number of life com- 
panies and several casualty companies issue weekly, monthly, quarterly 
or occasional company papers. The National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion also issues an association quarterly, founded in 1896, and devoted 
to fire protection* and prevention, and several other associations fire, 
life and casualtv including actuarial societies, regularly publish the 
proceedings of their annual meetings. There are some thirty weekly, 
monthly and quarterly papers prmted by mutual beneficiary soci- 
eties. 

During 192 1 death removed from insurance journalism Robert 
R. Dearden, editor of the United States Review, Philadelphia, and 
Max Cohen formerly publisher of Views, Washington, D. C. 

INTERBORO MUTUAL INDEMNITY INSURANCE COM- 
PANY. 109 East 15th Street, New York, N. Y. Organized 1914 as 
the Brewers Mutual Indemnity insurance company. Peter Doelger, 
president; John C. Heintz, vice-president; John Reisenweber, second 
vice-president; William P. Rinckhoff, treasurer; Charles A. Schultz, 
secretary; Edward L. McManus, Jr., general manager; Walter H. 
Willard, assistant secretary. 

INTER-MOUNTAIN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Salt 
Lake City, Utah. Organized 191 1; cash capital, $124,510. J. O. 
Carter, president; Thos. R. Cutler, first vice-president; Joshua Green- 
wood, second vice-president; Richard R. Lyman, third vice-president; 
Charles C. Friel, secretary; Robert N. Griswold, actuary; L. J. Muir, 
superintendent of agents; Dr. Geo. W. Middleton and Dr. S. H. Allen, 
medical directors. 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CASUALTY AND 
SURETY UNDERWRITERS. This association was organized in 
October, 191 1, by the merger of the International Association of Acci- 
dent Underwriters, and Board of Casualty and Surety Underwriters. 
The meeting at which the organization was completed was held in 
New York City, October ly and 18, 191 1, and a constitution and by- 
laws adopted. The Liability Insurance Association also later was 
merged with the association. The organization at first was divided into 
sections, representing the different classes of casualty insurance and 
each section had its chairman and standing committees. At the 1915 
meeting amendments to the constitution were adopted which changed 
somewhat the early form of organization, the effect beine to do away 
with the sectional organizations. A "bureau membership was created, 
under which the various bureaus and associations, each having its 
special field of work, could become members, the executive officer of 



LiFB AND Casualty Sbctzon ' 307 

such bureau or association became a vic^president of the International 
Association. The constitution was further changed at the annual 
meeting in 191 7. The officers are as follows: President, A. Duncan 
Reid, Globe Indemnity; Vice-president, F. Highland Burns, Maryland 
Casualty; Chairman of Executive Commitee, Norman R. Moray, vice- 
president and general manager, Hartford Accident & Indemnity Com- 
pany; Secretary-Treasurer, F. Robertson Jones, 80 Maiden Lane, New 
York. 

The following is the membership roll: 

American Re-insurance. Metropolitan Casualty. 

Aetna Casualty and Surety. Natioiol Casualty. 

Aetna Life Insurance. National Life of the United States. 

American Casualty. Niagara Life. 

American Surety. National Surety. 

Columbian National Life. New Amsterdam Casualty. 

Commercial Casualty. New Jersey Fidelity and Plate Glass. 
Commercial Travelers Eastern Accident. New York Plate Glass. 
Commercial Travelers Mutual Accident. Norwich Union Indemnity 

Connecticut General Life. Ocean Accident and Guarantee. 

Continental Casualty. Pacific Mutual Life. 
Dominion Gresham Guarantee and Reliance Life 

Casualty. Royal Indemnity. 

Employers' Liability. Stsindard Accident. 

European General Re-insuranoe. Southern Casualty. 

Federal Surety. Southern Surety. 

Fidelity and Deposit. Travelers. 

First Reinsurance United States Casualty. 

General Casualty and Surety. Union Indemnity. 

General Accident, Fire and Life. Zurich General Accident and Liability. 
Globe Indemnity. 

g'^o?SlS33lit'in^1Sfenlty. BUREAU MEMBERS 

Hartford Steam Boiler. Bureau of Personal Accident and Health 

Indemnity Company of North America. Underwriters, New York, N. Y. 
Imperial Guarantee and Accident. 

LSSiiont^J^-Accfctent. INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS 

London and Lanrashire Indemnity. Joseph Froggatt. 

Loyal Protective. Bayard Holmes 

Maryland Casualty. F. Robertson Jones. 

Massachusetts Accident. J. Scofield Rowe. 

Massachusetts Bonding. Rutherford H. Towner. 

INTERNATIONAL CLAIM ASSOCIATION. Organized 1909 
by casualty insurance companies. The present officers, elected in 
September, 1921, are: President, R. A. Person, Hartford Accident and 
Indemnity; vice-president, J. A. Millener, United Commercial Travel- 
ers of America; secretary, C. O. Piper, Bankers' Accident; treasurer, 
F. Templeman, Maryland Casualty; executive committee: R. Harold, 
Pacific Mutual Life, Chairman: C. O. Pauley, Central Business Men's 
Association; T. B. Cookerly, Iowa State Traveling Men's Association; 
P. L. Hotchkiss, Aetna Life, J. P. Bennett, United States Casualty. 

INTERNATIONAL FIDELITY INSURANCE COMPANY, 15 
Exchange Place, Jersey City, N. J. Organized 1904; cash capital 
$300,000. Alexander A. Altschuler, president; Clarence T. Johnson, 
secretary; Charles E. Turck, treasurer; R. A. Altschuler, assistant 
secretary. 



308 Cyclopbdia of Insurance 

INTERNATIONAL INDEMNITY COMPANY. Los Angeles, 
Cal. Organized 191 1; capital. $300,000. N. Blackstock, president 
and treasurer; Max E. Hayward. vice-president and general manager; 
Frank X. Pfaffinger, vice-president; Emil Johnson, secretary; C. D. 
Sloan, assistant secretary. 

INTERNATIONAL LIFE AND TRUST COMPANY. Moline. 
111. Organized 1916 as the Lutheran International Insurance Company, 
capital. $100,000. J. O. Laugman. president; Edward Lundgren. vice- 
president; Dr. A. Johnson, secretary and medical director; Edwin 
Hult. treasurer. The company adopted its present title in January 1920. 

INTERNATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, St. 
Louis. Mo. Organized 1909; cash capital. $656,250. Massey Wil- 
son, president; J. L. Babler. vice-president and general manager of 
agencies; J. P. Hinton. second vice-president; W. F. Grantges. secre- 
tary; A. L. Harty. treasurer; H. G. Sell man. actuary; Lloyd Dam- 
ron. superintendent of agencies; E. A. Babler. M.D.. medical director. 

INTER-OCEAN CASUALTY COMPANY. Cincinnati. Ohio. 
Organized 1907; under the laws of Indiana; capital $200,000. J. W. 
Scherr. president; G. A. Northcott. vice-president; W. G. Alpaugh, 
secretary and treasurer; J. S. Spencer, chairman board. 

INTER-SOUTHERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Louis- 
ville, Ky. Organized 1907. James R. Duffin. president; W. W. 
Moore, vice-president; C. F. Thomas, second vice-president; J. A. 
Donaldson, third vice-president; Stanley Reed, secretary and director 
of agents; S. B. Dehoney, auditor; John H. Leathers, treasurer; Bur- 
ton Van Dyke actuar>'; Dr. W. T. Willis, medical director; Helen 
Bruce, general counsel ; C. B. Nordeman. agency supervisor. 

INTER-STATE BUSINESS MEN'S ACCIDENT COMPANY, 
Des Moines, la. Organized 1908. F. O. Green, president; Ernest W. 
Brown, secretary and treasurer; Chas. P. Waldron, assistant secretary. 

INTERSTATE CASUALTY COMPANY. Birmingham. Ala. 
Organized 1909; capital. $300,000. Chester Newman, president; 
J. T. Stopely, vice-president and general counsel; D. B. Lightner, secre- 
tary and treasurer. 

INTERSTATE LIFE AND ACCIDENT COMPANY, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. Organized 1909; cash capital, $150,000. J. W. 
Bishop, chairman board of directors; Jos. W. Johnson, president; 
O. B. Andrews, vice-president; F. L. Underwood, treasurer; J. R. Leal, 
secretary and actuary; Joseph W. Johnson, medical director; John 
W. Blevim, manager life department; W. A. Currence, manager 
industrial department. 



Life and Casualty Section 309 

INTERSTATE SURETY COMPANY, Redfield. South Dakota. 
Organized 1908; cash capital, $134,200. Chas. L. Nicholson, presi- 
dent; W. F. Corrigan and C. D. Sterling, vice-presidents; H. R. 
Wood, secretary. 

IOWA BONDING AND CASUALTY COMPANY, Des Moines. 
Iowa. Organized 1 91 7; capital, $1,000,000. The company re-insured 
in the Southern Surety insurance company in 1922 and retired. 

IOWA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1870-1922. By act 
of the legi^ture of 1868 the auditor of state was charged with the 
duties of insurance supervision. [For list of auditors see Cyclopedia 
for 1913-14.] 

The legislature in 19 13 enacted l^slation creating a separate in- 
surance department and designating the official in charge as com- 
missioner of insurance. The act provided for the appointment by the 
governor of a commissioner on July i, 19 14, to serve until February i, 
1915. Thereafter the commissioner was to be appointed by the gov- 
ernor for a term of four years at an annual salary of $3,000. Emory H. 
English was appointed commissioner under the act, but resigned in 
191 7 and J. F. Taake was appointed his successor. The present com- 
missioner is Arthur C. Savage appointed in 19 19. 

IOWA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Waterloo, la. Organ- 
ized 1908; cash capital, $100,000. Charles Wright, president; B. P. 
Hoist, vice-president and treasurer; E. D. Cobb, secretary. 

IOWA STATE TRAVELING MEN'S ASSOCIATION, Des 
Moines, la. Organized 1880. J. W. Hill, president; W. E. Tone, vice- 
president; H. E. Rex, secretary and treasurer. 



J 



JEFFERSON STANDARD LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Greensboro, N. C. Organized 1907; capital, $350,000. Julian Price, 
president and agency manager; J. E. Latham, vice-president and chair- 
man Board of Directors; J. Elwood Cox and G. A. Holderness, vice 
presidents; W. T. O'Donohue, secretary; Chas. W. Gold, treasurer; 
J. P. Turner, J. J. Battle, medical directors; Ralph B. Coit, actuary; 
A. L. Brooks, general counsel. 

JOHN HANCOCK MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY 
OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS. The formation in 1855 of the 
Massachusetts Insurance Department was the signal for a campaign 
of education in the interest of the policyholder which finally led to 
the enactment in 1861, by the Commonwealth, of the first non-for- 
feiture law to be placed on any statute book. As an exponent of the 
principle of this Massachusetts Non-Forfeiture Law on April 21, 1862, 
the John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company was chartered, 
and commenced business, issuing its first policy on December 24, 
1862. 

The Company was named "John Hancock" in honor of the first 
Governor of Massachusetts and first signer of the I>eclaration of 
Independence. 

The first president of the company was George P. Sanger, holding 
office until August, 1873; he was succeeded in December of the same 
year by Lafayette A. Lyon, and he by George Thornton in June 1874, 
who was in turn succeeded on March 10, 1879, by Stephen H. Rhodes, 
then Insurance Commissioner of Massachusetts, who held the position 
until his death, June 11, 1909. He was succeeded by Roland O. Lamb 
who entered the Company's service on January 10, 1872. Upon Mr. 
Lamb's death, November 14, 192 1, Walton L. Crocker, who had been 
for 30 years connected with the Company, was elected President. 

In the summer of 1879 the company began to issue Industrial or 
Weekly Premium insurance. It was the first mutual life insurance 
company to engage in that business in this country, and the first 
company to issue participating contracts of that class, as well as to 
recognize the non-forfeiture principle by granting cash surrender 
values. 

The year 1909 brought further indication of the company's policy 
of broadening and liberalizing the contracts of Weekly Premium insur- 
ance, and of enlarging the benefits to the insured thereunder. Weekly 
Premium policies issued in January of that year and thereafter pro- 
vide that on the anniversary of the policy after the seventy-fourth 
birthday of the insured the policy shall be carried in full force for the 
remainder of life without the payment of any further premium. To 
make this provision retroactive to apply to prior issued policies the 



Life and Casualty Section 311 

sum of over one and three quarter million dollars ($1,750,000) was by 
the directors added to the legal reserve of all policies in force as of 
December 31, 1908. 

In 1908 the Company adopted the Standard Industrial Mortality 
Table, based on the mortality experience of lives insured under Weekly 
Premium policies, a table of recognized standing as a standard for tl^ 
measurement of the mortality on such policies. The Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts authorized the use of this table in 191 1 and to bring 
the policy reserves on prior issues to the new basis the directors laid aside 
in installments in the general policy reserve the additional sum of 
over seven million dollars ($7,000,000) the final installment being made 
in 19 13. Thus all policies issued by the Weekly Premium branch of the 
company are upon the same adequate reserve basis. 

The directors were now in a position to unify and equalize the 
scale of mortuary benefits to policies issued prior to the adoption of 
the Standard Industrial Mortality Table. They therefore announced 
that, beginning January i, 1914, on death claims incurred during 1914 
where the contract benefit was less than the scale in use on policies of 
the then current issue there would be paid an additional sum to make 
the benefit correspond with the present scale. This plan was annually 
adopted until 1921, when it became a permanent feature, including 
increased non-forfeiture values. The sum of over $12,100,000 has been 
added to the policy rese.rve and the amount of insurance permanently 
increased by over $58,700,000. 

In 1 9 12 the company issued an intermediate policy, $500 in amount, 
called the Accumulation Fund Policy. This contract contains many 
of the features of the Ordinary Branch policies and has proved popular 
with the class for which it is intended. 

The company has made the total and permanent disability and 
double indemnity benefit provisions a feature in most forms of its 
ordinary policy contracts. These provisions are incorporated in the 
policy for small additional premiums. The disability and double 
indemnity benefits can under certain conditions be added to and made a 
part of prior issued policies. 

The ordinary options of settlement, in lieu of a single payment in 
cash, are four in number, and include settlement by installments or by 
limited or^ life annuities, or a combination of the two, or the proceeds 
of the policy may be left with the comi>any at interest, to be finally 
disposed of as the insured may have designated. 

The Ordinary and Industrial policy conditions are abreast in 
every essential detail with modern practice in this field, and in some 
respects are in advance thereof in broadly granting to the individual 
insured all the rights and privileges that can be expected or are con- 
sistent with the safety of the interests of the great body of policy- 
holders. 

The Company has approximately 3,200,000 policyholders whom it 
insures under 4,213,392 policies for a total of $1,545,588,197. The 
total payments to policyholders since the Company was organized, 



312 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

plus the accumulated policy reserves held to their credit, as of December 
31, 192 1, amounted to $483,962,973. 

The official report made to the Massachusetts Insurance Depart- 
ment as of December 31, 192 1, gives the financial condition as follows, — 
Assets, $232,693,370.97; Liabilities, $226,361,057.83. Safety Funds to 
cover all Contingencies, $13,332,313.14. 

Officers elected in 1922: President, Walton L. Crocker; vice- 

E residents, Robert K. Eaton, John L. Wakefield, Fred E. Nason, Elbert 
I. Brock; actuary, L. H. Howe; secretary, Charles J. Diman; treas- 
urer, Frank R. Robinson. 

Directors: John L. Wakefield, William H. Wellington, Walton L. 
Crocker, Elwyn G. Preston, Edward F. Woods, George S. Smith, 
Charles L. Aylin^, Robert K. Eaton, Charles F. Adams, Louis K. 
Liggett, Paul E. Fitzpatrick, Ernest B. Dane, Howard Coonley, Fred E. 
Nason. 



K 



KANSAS CASUALTY AND SURETY COMPANY, Wichita, 
Kan. Organized 191 2; cash capital, $500,000. The company was 
placed in the hands of a receiver in 192 1. 

KANSAS CENTRAL INDEMNITY COMPANY, Hutchinson, 
Kan. Organized 1916; capital, paid in, $100,000. Charles A. Ryker, 
president; F. M. Houston, vice-president; E. G. Woleslagel, secretary; 
George J. Brown, treasurer; Frank L. Ebey, agency director. 

KANSAS CITY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Kansas City, 
Mo. Organized 1895, capital $200,000.00. J. B. Reynolds, president; 
Wood Arnold, first vice-president, Ed. S. Villmoare, second vice- 
president and D. T. Torrens, third vice-president; T. J. Green, treas- 
urer; C. N. Sears, secretary; L. C. Owen and E. M. Weaver, assistant 
secretaries; Frank W. McAllister, general counsel; Dr. H. E. Baker, 
medical director; Dr. H. P. Ball, associate director. 

KANSAS, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1871-1922. The 
insurance department of Kansas was established by act of March 9, 
1 87 1. The msurance superintendent is elected by vote at regular 
elections for a term of two years. [For list of officials see Cyclopedia 
for 1913-14.] 

Carey J. Wilson was appointed for the term ending 1919 and the 
present commissioner is Frank Travis, elected in 191 8 and re-elected in 
1920. 

KANSAS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Topeka, Kan. 
Organized 1913; capital, $422,650. John H. Edwards, president; 
Wm. C. Smith, vice-president; William H. Eastman, secretary and 
treasurer; F. H. Scholle, M.D., medical director; T. J. McComb, 
actuary. 

KASKASKIA LIVE STOCK INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Shelbyville, 111. Organized 1913; capital $200,000. W. J. Eddy, 
president; George C. Bolinger, vice-president; C. F. Stiarwalt, secre- 
tary; J. C. Westervelt, treasurer; C. A. Jackson, assistant secretary. 

KENTUCKY CENTRAL LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Anchorage, Kentucky. Organized 191 7; cash 
capita], $200,000. F. J. Walker, president; T. H. Matthews, vice- 
president; T. O. West, secretary and treasurer; W. B. Fahey, assistant 
secretary. 

KENTUCKY, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1870-1922. 
The insurance bureau is a department of the state auditor's office, 
the official in charge being appointed by the state auditor with the 



314 Cyclopedia op Insurance 

title of insurance commissioner and holding office "until the expiration 
of the term for which the auditor making the appointment shall have 
been elected, and until a successor has been appointed." [See Cyclo- 
pedia for 19 13-14 for list of officials.) 

C. F. Thomas was appointed in 19 16 and the present commissioner 
is James F. Ramey. 

KNIGHTS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERIC\, 
Fifth and Liberty avenues, Pittsburgh, Pa. Organized 191 7. Joseph 
H. Reiman, president; Herman L. Hegner, vice-president; P. Joseph 
Hess, secretary; Joseph G. Renvers, assistant secretary; Charles ]. 
Jaegle, treasurer; Charles G. Dillon, superintendent of agencies; 
F. M. Speakman, actuary; Dr. John C. Hierholzer, medical director. 

KNIGHT'S TEMPLARS AND MASONIC MUTUAL AID 
ASSOCIATION, Cincinnati, Ohio. Organized 1877. Wm. B. Melish, 
president; Arthur J. Da vies, secretary. 



L 



LAFAYETTE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. U Fayette. 
Ind. Organized 1905. A. E. Werkhoff, president; Edgar Goldsberry, 
vice-president; Warren W. Lane, secretary and treasurer; E. L, 
Marshall, actuary; W. R. Smith, superintendent of agencies; M. M. 
Lairy, M. D., medical director; F. L. Alexander, controller; J. W. 
Link, cashier. 

LAFAYETTE MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Lumberton, N. C. Organized 1909. W. J. Beattie, Jr., president; 

E. E. Page, secretary and treasurer; Dr. Seavey Highsmith and Dr. 

F. F. Costner, medical directors; Q. K. Nimocks, general counsel. 

LAMAR LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, Jackson, 
Miss. Organized 1906; capital stock, $130,000. H. S. Weston, 
president; C. W. Welty, vice-president and general manager; P. K. 
Lutken, second vice-president; W. D. Owens, secretary; A. G. Miller, 
assistant secretary; Albert Babbitt, actuary; J. O. Segura, M.D., 
medical director; W. Calvin Wells, general counsel. 

LIBERTY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Roosevelt State 
Bank Building, Chicago, 111. Orj^anized and began business 1921; 
cash capital $100,000. Frank L. uillespie, president; Oscar DePrust, 
treasurer; W. Ellis Stewart, secretary; James H. Jones, assistant 
secretary and cashier; E. H. Carry, director of agencies; M. O. Bous- 
field, chairman medical board; E. B. Dickerson, general counsel. 

LIBERTY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Des Moines, Iowa. 
Organized 1919; cash capital, $101,000. W. L. Harding, president; 
T. T. Blaise, vice-president and medical director, C. J. LeValley, 
treasurer; G. D. Thomas, secretary; W. J. Barr, actuary. 

LIBERTY MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, 210 Linooln 
St., Boston, Mass. Organized 1912. Walter S. Bucklin, president; 
David S. Beyer, vice-president and chief engineer; S. Bruce Black, 
vice-president; Wallace B. Donham, board vice-president; Clark E. 
Woodward, secretary; Oscar H. Simmons, Jr., treasurer; John W. 
Cronin, general attorney; George W. Morse, M.D., medical director; 
Roy A. Wheder, actuary, Clifton D. Cahoon, assistant secretary; 
George A. Cowee, chief underwriter; Chas. R. Wilder, resident vice- 
president. New York; Lewis F. Tuells, resident vice-president, Chicago; 
Ray A. Ilg., district manager, Philadelphia. Writes workmen's com- 
pensation, automobile and the various lines of liability insurance. 



316 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

LIBERTY MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY, Dayton, Ohio. 
Organized 1909; reorganized 191 8. C. A. Fimkhouser, president; 
G. B. McCann, vice-president; J. R. Jones secretary, treasurer and 
managing underwriter. 

LIFE AND CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY, Nashville, 
Tenn. Organized 1903 as an assessment company, reorganized as a 
legal reserve company 1910; capital, 9350,000. A. M. burton, presi- 
dent; Guilford Dudley, vice-president; J. E. Acuff, second vice- 
president; H. B. Folk, secretary; C. S. Gwin, auditor; J. C. Franklin, 
treasurer; G. L. Hicks, assistant treasurer: P. M. Estes, counsel; 
Allen Dunkerley, assistant secretary; H. J. Longwell, second assistant 
secretary; F. M. Phillippi, actuary; J. S. Ward, medical director; 
E. M. Shepherd, assistant medical director. 

LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF VIRGINIA, was in- 
corporated under an Act of the Legislature of Virginia, approved 
March 21, 1871, which provided that the capital stock of the com- 
pany should not be less than $50,000. The original capital was, how- 
ever, $200,000, which was reduced in 1886 to $100,000. Since the last 
named year it has been increased from time to time and is now $1 ,500,000. 

Until 1887 the principal business of the company nv'as Ordinary 
Insurance, but in that year the company organized an Industrial 
Department, in which policies for small amounts were issued with 
premiums payable weekly, thus giving those who are not financially 
able to carry large amounts, with premiums payable annually, semi- 
annually or quarterly, an opportunity to obtain insurance. 

The company has never adopted any high pressure methods, but 
it has had a very steady growth from year to year, and on December 31, 
192 1, had $214,188,461 of insurance in force and $28,308,^9.13 of 
assets. The business of the company for many years past has been 
strictly non-participating, and about 94 per cent of the insurance 
now in force is on that basis. 

It has always been the aim of the company to give the greatest 
amount of protection possible for the premiums paid, and the pre- 
mium rates in both the Ordinary and Industrial Branches have been 
greatly reduced in the past fifteen years. Liberal concessions have 
also been granted to its old policyholders in the shape of mortuary 
bonuses and larger surrender values. The last reduction in premiums 
in both Ordinary and Industrial Branches became effective in 191 6, 
and the premium rates are exceptionally low. 

All claims are promptly paid, checks for settlement of over 98 per 
cent of all death claims being mailed on the day proofs are received. 
On December 31, 192 1, the amount which had been paid to policy- 
holders since organization was nearly $28,000,000. 

Over three-fourths of the company's investments are in first 
mortgages on real estate worth double the amount loaned. These 
have been carefully selected and the company has had to foreclose 



Life and Casualty Section 317 

only three mortgages for the past ten years. It is the custom of the 
company as far as practicable to invest its funds in the territory in 
which it operates. 

The company values its business on the level premium plan. 

Ordinary business issued prior to 1901 is valued on the Actuaries 
or Combined Experience Table of Mortality with 4 per cent interest. 

Ordinary business issued since 1 901 is valued on the American 
Experience Table of Mortality with 3 and s}i per cent interest. 

Industrial business is valued on the Standard Industrial Table of 
Mortality with 3>^ per cent interest. 

The company issues the most approved forms of insurance and 
annuity contracts, which are clear, concise and liberal, granting all 
the usual concessions contained in insurance policies. 

The company is licensed in Alabama, District of Columbia, 
Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, North Carolina, Ohio, South 
Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia. 

The company was examined by the Insurance Department of 
Virginia and North Carolina in 1920, and was found to be in first- 
class condition, and no criticism of the management was made. 

The officers of the company are: John G. Walker, president; 
W. L. T. Rogerson, A. S. Hurt, L. R. Walker, vice-presidents; 
J. S. Davenport, Jr., actuary; G. C. Hall, M. D., medical di- 
rector; Reginald Gilham, treasurer; A. C. McKenney, secretary; 
I. T. Townsend, assistant secretary. The board of directors is as fol- 
lows: J. G. Walker, J. M. Miller, Jr., L. R. Walker, W. L. T. Rogerson, 
A. S. Hurt, B. H. Walker, J. S. Davenport, Jr., A. C. McKenney and 
Reginald Gilham. 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS* ASSOCIATION OF BUFFALO, 
N. Y., was ora^anized November 9, 1886, and the following officers 
elected: W. G. Justice, president; J. W. Pressey, vice-president; 
W. H. Formosa, second vice-president; W. Manning, secretary; R. 
Butler, treasurer. The present officers, elected at the annual meeting 
in February, 192 1, are: President, Newton E. Turgeon, Union Central 
Life; vice-president, Wm. H. Stanley; second vice-president, Melvin 
P. Porter, Massachusetts Mutual; secretary, Sidney Wertimer, 205 
Liberty Building, Buffalo, N. Y. ; treasurer, Edwin C.Haas. 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF CENTRAL 
MASSACHUSETTS, INC., was organized at Worcester, Mass., October 
14, 1899, with the following officers: President, W. A. Bailey; vice- 
presidents, H. E. Townsend, H. L. TrafTord; secretary, S. Hamilton 
Coe; treasurer, Herbert P. Hopkins. The present officers, elected in 
June, 1921, are: President, W. Gray Harris; vice-president, John E. 
Hartland; secretary, Otis D. Arnold, Worcester; treasurer, Frank E 
Dodge. 



318 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF CHICAGO 
was organized January 15, 1889, the initial meeting looking toward 
the formation of the association being held DecemMr 7, 1888. The 
original officers were: J. W. Janney, president; A. L. Chetlain, first 
vice-president; W. S. Swymmer, second vice-president; John H. 
Nolan, secretary; L. A. Spicer, treasurer. At the annual meeting, 
held in November, 1921, the following officers were elected: Presi- 
dent, Darby A. Day, Mutual Life, N. Y.; vice-president, Harry C. 
McNamer; secretary and treasurer, Ed. J. Faltysek; executive com- 
mittee, W. J. Arnette, H. Ware Caldwell, John H. Dingle, Carl Joseph, 
Joseph Mills, Harper Moulton, Robert F . Shafer, Jens Smith, U. C. 
Upjohn, John W. Yates and the officers. Office 611 People's Gas 
Building. 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF KANSAS CITY, 
MISSOURI, was organized there in October, 1888, electing C. D. 
Whitehead, president; J. E. Lord and J. A. Lewis, vice-presidents, and 
C p. Mills, secretary. The present officers elected at the annual meet- 
ing in June 192 1, are: William Hughes, president; Charles R. Mat- 
thews and Sam C. Pearson, vice-presidents. A. E. Myers, i New 
England Building, secretary and treasurer. 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF NEW YORK 
was organized as the Life Insurance Association of New York, in 
the city of New York, Tanuarv 18. 1887, the first officers being: Charles 
H. Raymond of the Mutual Life, president; Gilford Morse of the 
Massachusetts Mutual, first vice-president; L. Spencer Goble of the 
Mutual Benefit, second vice-president; Alvah W. Brown of the Mutual 
Life, third vice-president; Charles T. Dunwell, of the Berkshire Life, 
secretary; George F. Hadley of the Brooklyn Life, treasurer. 

The present officers of the association, elected at the annual meet- 
ing in June 1922, are: President, George A. Smith, New England 
Mutual; vice-president, Edward J. Sisley, Travelers; second vice- 
president, L. A. Cerf, Mutual Benefit Life; third vice-president, C. B. 
Knight, Union Central Life; secretary and treasurer, W. R. Collins, 
National Life of Vermont. 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF OREGON was 
organized in 1904. Officers were elected as follows: President, C. W. 
Sherman; first vice-president, W. S. Pond; second vice-president, 
H. G. Colton; secretary, R. H. Pickering. The present officers 
elected at the annual meeting in February, 1922, are: President, 
E. N. Strong; secretary, Robert E. Nullen, 1208 Northwestern Bank 
Building, Portland. 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF SAN FRAN- 
CISCO was organized in March, 1895. The officers elected at the first 
meeting were: Henry K. Field, New England Mutual Life, president; 
John Landers, Manhattan Life, vice-president; Clarence M. Smith, 
Northwestern Mutual Life, secretary; Dr. F. A. Archibald, Union Cen- 



Life and Casualty Section 319 

tral Life, treasurer. The present officers, holding office to September 
I, 1922, are: President, Sol J. Vogel, New York Life; vice-president, 
Seth B. Thompson, Union Central; secretary, A. V. Bayley, Jr., 
Northwestern Mutual; treasurer, Walter J. Mayer, Aetna. 

LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION OF WESTERN 
MASSACHUSETTS. This association was organized at Spring- 
field, Mass., October 6, 1894. Officers were elect^ as follows: James 
L. Johnson, of the Massachusetts Mutual, president; George H. 
Sutton of the Mutual Life, and H. K. Simons of the Equitable Litfe, 
vice-presidents; Henry P. Roberts of the Union Mutual Life, secre- 
tary; Archibald Ladner, of the Provident Life and Trust, treasurer. 
The present officers of the Association, elected at the annual meeting 
in February, 1921, are: Clark L. Richards, president; T. E. Trombley, 
vice-president; Alexander Sharpe, second vice-president; Ernest C. 
Holt, secretary; A. A. Metcalf, treasurer. 

LINCOLN ACCIDENT AND LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Lincoln Neb. Organized ij^io; capital, $100,000. S. H. Bumham, 
president; O. J. Collman, vice-president and manager; R. E. Weaver- 
ling, secretary; G. W. Collman, treasurer; L. W. McLennan, super- 
intendent of agents. 

LINCOLN LIBERTY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lin- 
coln, Neb. Organized 1919; cash capital $100,000. Don L. Love, pre- 
sident; J. A. Reichenbach, vice-president; Ira Cook, vice-president; 
W. E. Barkley, treasurer; Jos. Goldstein, secretary; C. J. Campbell, 
counsel; G. H. Walker, medical director. 

LINCOLN NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Fort 
Wa^rne, Ind. Organized 1905; capital, $500,000. Samuel M. Foster, 
president; Arthur F. Hall, nrst vice-president and general manager; 
Walter T. Shepard, vice-president and manager of agences; Thomas D. 
Hughes, vice-president and manager of northwest agencies; Daniel B. 
Ninde, vice-president and counsel; Franklin B. Mead, secretary and 
actuary; Howell C. Rockhill, treasurer. 

LINCOLN RESERVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Bir. 
zningham, Ala. Organized in 19 12 as the Afro- American Life Insurance 
Company; present title adopted in 1915; capital, paid in, $113,280. 
Jf, F. Stallings, president; T. Parker Hudmon, vice-president; J. R. 
Burns, secretary; J. Lee Long, treasurer; Dr. James E. Seay, medical 
director. 

LIVE STOCK INSURANCE. Statistics of this class of insur- 
a.nce in the United States are extremely incomplete, as much of it 
is transacted by farniers' township mutual and assessment companies. 
A number of companies have been organized on the stock basis to trans« 
act this class of business, and, with one exception, all the stock com- 
panies have been organized since 1905. The principal stock companies 
transacting this class of business are: Amercan Live Stock Insurance 



320 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Company, Omaha, Neb.; Central Live Stock Insurance Company, 
Kankakee, 111.; Farmers & Breeders' Live Stock Insurance Company, 
Danville, 111.; Hartford Live Scock Insurance Company, Hartford, 
Conn.; Kaskaskia Live Stock Insurance Company, Shelby ville, 111.; 
Metropolitan Live Stock Insurance Company, Springfield, 111. ; National 
Live Stock Insurance Company, Des Moines, la.; Nebraska Live 
Stock Insurance Company, Omaha, Neb.; Iowa State Live Stock, 
Des Moines, la. 

The following is a statement of the business of stock companies 

in 192 I : 

Premiums Written Losses Paid 

American, Omaha $ii9i323 $79t9z6 

Farmers and Breeders. Danville 

Hartford 936,801 ''22,115 

Har ford, Accident 10,382 58,426 

Kaskaskia, Shelbyville, 111 147,970 68,1x9 

Nebraska ... 66,398 53.7^4 

Metropolitan, Springfield, 111 112,298 46,735 

Total I92I $1,393,072 $929,035 

Tota. 1920 1,867,128 1, 109^68 

Total 1919 1,789,234 838,378 

Total 1918 i,09iii29 071^317 

LLOYDS PLATE GLASS INSURANCE COMPANY of New 
York. Organized 1882; capital, $500,000. William T. Woods, presi- 
dent; William A. Nash, vice-president; C. E. W. Chambers, sec- 
retary and treasurer; Robert K. Meneely, assistant secretary, i Liberty 
street. 

LONDON AND LANCASHIRE INDEMNITY COMPANY 
OF AMERICA, New York, N. Y. Organized 1915; capital, $750,000 
A. G. McUwaine, president; W. Thompson, vice-president; Edwin 
Gissing, secretary; administrative office, Hartford, Conn. 

LONDON GUARANTEE AND ACCIDENT COMPANY. 
LTD., of London. Established 1869; entered United States in 1892. 
F. W. Lawson, United States manager, Chicago, 111. 

LOUISIANA. INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. The secre- 
tary of state is charged with the supervision of insurance interests 
in Louisiana. He is authorized to appoint an assistant secretary of 
state, who has in recent years been given charge of the insurance 
department. [See Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14 for list of former officials.] 
James J. Bailey is secretary of state, and R. H. Flower is the present 
deputy in charge of insurance supervision. 

LOUISIANA STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Shreve- 
port, La. Organized 191 1; capital, $250,000. W. T. Crawford, 
president; J. Homer Jordan, vice-president; T. P. Lloyd, vice-president 
and medical director; R. M. Henderson, secretary; W. E. Glassell. 
treasurer; H. C. Brown, superintendent of agencies. 



Life and Casualty Section 321 

LOUISVILLE ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS 
was organized in 1904. The present officers, elected at the annual 
meeting in January, 192 1, are: Harvey White, president; Lewis C. 
Cook, secretary, Starks Building, Louisville. 

LOYAL PROTECTIVE INSURANCE COMPANY, Boston, 
Mass. Organized 1895; reorganized as a stock company, 1909; cap- 
ital, $100,000. S. A. Allen, president; C. M. Goodnow, vice-president; 
F. R. Parks, secretary; Edward L. Goodnow, treasurer. 

LUMBER MUTUAL CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY 
OF NEW YORK, 66 Broadway, New York, N. Y. Organized 1914. 
Maurice E. Preisch, president; Horace F. Taylor, vice-president; 
Eugene F. Perry, vice-president and manager; Charles F. Fischer, 
treasurer; Thomas H. silver, secretary; D. Theodore Kelly, counsel. 

LUTHERAN MUTUAL AID SOCIETY, Waverly, Iowa. 
Organized 1879. O. Hardwig, president; G. A. Grossmann, secretary. 



M 



MAGNOLIA STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Jackson, 
Miss. Organized 1921. S. J. Taylor, president; James Williamson, 
T. A. O'Herin and T. D. Rees, vice-presidents; Joe Cook, treasurer; 
William Thornton, manager underwriting department; Willis Walley, 
M.D., medical director and secretary pro tern, 

MAINE. INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1868-1922. The 
insurance department in Maine was organized by act of the legisla- 
ture in 1868, the chief official being the insurance commissioner, who 
is appointed by the governor for four years. [For list of supervising 
officials see Cyclopedia for 1913-14.] 

E. J. Carter was appointed in 19 15 and the present commissioner 
is E. Waldron Smith, appointed in 191 8. 

MANHATTAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE, of 
New York. Organized 1850, with a guaranteed capital of Sioo.ooo. 
The government of the company is a mixed one, each share of the 
guaranteed capital being entitled to a vote for directors, and each 
person insured for life paying a premium not less than $75 is entitled 
to vote. The officers are: Thomas E. Lovejoy, president; John F. 
Roche, vice-president; Melvin De Mott, secretary; A. P. McMurtrie, 
Harvey R. Halsey, assistant secretaries; Walter N. Stanley, actuary. 
Z. Taylor Emery, M. D., medical director. Home office, 66 Broadway, 
New York. 

MANUFACTURERS' AND MERCHANTS' LIFE INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Rockford, 111. The company changed its name 
to the Elgin Life Insurance Company, and moved its head-quarters to 
Elgin in 1921. 

MANUFACTURERS' CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 191 5; capital, paid in, $340,215. Jas. 
K. Allen, president; Chas. J. Thomson, vice-president; Leroy W'ood, 
secretary; Adam Suelke, treasurer. 

MANUFACTURERS LIABILITY INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Jersey City, N. J. Organized 1921; capital, $500,000. A. E. William- 
son, president; E. S. Holman, vice-president; J. G. S. Johnson, secre- 
tary and treasurer; L. N. Simmons, assistant secretary; F. E. Kleber, 
assistant treasurer. 

MARQUETTE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. Springfield, 
111. Organized 1908. Capital, paid-in, $254,340 Joseph C. Bernard 
president; John H. Feckter, vice-president; Julius M. Cass, secretary; 
Oscar F. Weisenberg, assistant secretary; Nicholas Armhein, treasurer; 
Emil L. Bernard, M.D., medical director; Frank L. Trutter, counsel! 

MARYLAND ASSURANCE CORPORATION, Baltimore. Md. 
Organized 19 17; cash capital, $500,000. (Life insurance). F.Highlands 
Burns, president; E. J. Bond, Jr., vice-president; E. A. Hartman, Jr. 
secretary and treasurer. 



Life and Casualty Section 323 

MARYLAND CASUALTY COMPANY of Baltimore, Md. 
Organized 1898; capital, $3,500,000. F. Highlands Bums, president; 
£. J. Bond, Jr., first vice-president; Jas. L. Sellman, second vice- 
president; James H. Stone, third vice-president; Richard H. Thomp- 
son, fourth vice-president; James H. Patton, treasurer; John A. 
Hartman, secretary; W. T. Harper, H. B. Sprague, E. E. Kolb; L. C. 
Reynolds, assistant secretaries; Raymond N. Brown, assistant treasurer. 

MARYLAND, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1872-1922. 
The Maryland insurance department was established by act of le^s- 
lature of 1872, the appointment of insurance commissioner being 
vested in the board of public works, composed of the governor, state 
treasurer, and state comptroller. The term of ofiice is four years. 
[For list of supervising officials see Cyclopedia for 19 13-14.] 

Wm. M. Shehan was appointed in 1912 and reappointed in 1916, 
but resigned and was succeeded in 19 19 by Thomas J. Keating. 

MARYLAND LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Baltimore, 
Md. Organized 1865 ; capital, $100,000. Douglas H. Rose, president; 
Wm. S. Blackford, vice-president; W. H. Wootton, second vice- 
president; Geo. R. Kolb, treasurer and comptroller; Chas. G. Smith, 
secretary; Gordon Wilson, M. D., medical director. 

MASONIC LIFE ASSOCIATION, Buffalo, N. Y. Organized 
1872. Nelson. O. Tiffany, president; John M. Hull, vice-president; 
Joseph L. Whittet, second vice-president; George H. Chase, secre- 
tary; E. Parker Waggoner, assistant secretary; George P. Wilkins, 
treasurer; A. W. Hmgerer, M. D., medical director. Membership 
confined to the Order of Free and Accepted Masons. 

MASONIC ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY, Springfield, 
Mass. Organized 1901. Re-incorporated 192 1; capital, $100,000 
S. W. Munsell, president; C. W. Young, vice-president and general 
manager; Gurdon W. Gordon, treasurer; A. R. Rice, M.D., medical 
director. 

MASONIC MUTUAL LIFE ASSOCIATION OF THE DIS- 
TRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington, D. C. William Montgomery, 
president; J. Harry Cunningham, vice-president; J. P. Yort, secretary 
and actuary; Charles E. Baldwin, treasurer; Geo. W. Evans, assistant 
treasurer; John B. Nichols, M.D., medical director; John V. Sees, gen- 
eral counsel. 

MASONIC PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION, Worcester, Mass. 
(See Massachusetts Protective Association, Inc.] 

MASSACHUSETTS ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY. 
161 Devonshire street, Boston, Mass. Organized 1908; capital, 
$150,000. G. Leonard McNeil, president; I. M. Hathaway, secretary. 

MASSACHUSETTS BONDING AND INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Boston, Mass. Organized in 1907; capital, $1,500,000. T. J. 
Falvey, president; James L. Richards, Joseph H. O'Neil, Samuel S. 
Perry, Cornelius G. Fitzgerald, George W. Berry, John J. Flynn and 
William H. Conroy, vice-presidents; John T. Burnett, secretary and 



324 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

treasurer; Charles W. Fletcher, assistant secretary, comptroller and 
assistant treasurer; R. C. De Normandie, Everett H. Critchett and 
Wallace J. Falvey, assistant secretaries; G. A. Robertson, assistant 
secretary and assistant treasurer. 

MASSACHUSETTS, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1855- 
1922. The insurance department in Massachusetts was on^nized 
in i'855. There were three commissioners ori^nally. By Chapter 
177, Acts of 1858, the board of three commissioners was abolished, 
and a board of two subadtuted. The latter was abolished by Chap- 
ter 255, Acts of 1866. Since that time the duties of supervision have 
been performed by one official, termed insurance commissioner, who 
is appointed by the governor and confirmed by the council, for a term 
of three years. [For list of supervising officials see Cyclopedia for 
1913-14.I 

Frank H. Hardison, first appointed in 1907 and reappointed in 
191 o, 191 3, 191 6, retired in IQ19 under the age retirement law, and 
was succeeded by Clarence W. Hobbs. 

MASSACHUSETTS MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Springfield, Mass., was incorporated May 15, 1851, and is- 
sued its first policy under date of August 2 of that ]^ear. The charter 
authorized a guaranteed capital of $100,000, which, however, was 
retired October i, 1867, under a special act of 1866 authorixing the 
redemption of the stock out of accumulated surplus, and since 1867 
the company has been purely mutual. The company's assets Decem- 
ber 31, 1867, bein^ the last year in which the company operated under 
the guarantee capital, amounted to $1,858,243.63, and tne total num- 
ber of policies in force was 9,158, the amount of insurance involved 
being $21,261,936. 

The company's statement, December 31 , 1921, showed total assets 
of $147,090,913; total liabilities, $140,571,91 1 ; and surplus, $6,519,002. 
Total income in 1921 was $33,875,310; total disbursements, $19,495,782. 
The new insurance paid for in 192 1 numbered 33,056 policies insuring 
for $132,187,583, and the insurance in force numbered 286,202 policies, 
involving total insurance of $817,054,519. The company has paid to 
its policyholders since organization the sum of $181,811,803. 

It is licensed in all the states except Arkansas, Arizona, Wyoming, 
Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, South Carolina, Norrii 
Dakota and Texas. 

The company issues the usual forms of policies, among thenr being 
Installment Options, Continuous Monthly Income, and Joint Life. 
Waiver of premium and annuity payment in case of total and permanent 
disability is included when desired. It issues immediate annuities, 
single life, and joint life and survivor; also deferred annuities. 

Reserve basis: incorporation (1851) to December 31, 1900, Ac- 
tuaries' 4%; January i, 1901, to September 30, 1907, American 3H%; 
since October i, 1907, American 3%. 



Life and Casualty Section 325 

The company pays dividends at all points: — beginning at end of 
first policy year, whether or not next premium is paid; during the pre- 
mium-paying period; after the premium-paying period; on policies 
that have lapsed and become paid-up for a reduced amount; on ex- 
tended insurance; on paid-up additions; and an annual interest divi- 
dend on balances of installment policies held by the company. 

The first Home Office, occupied at incorporation, was a single 
room at 500 Main Street. In 1868 the Home Office was removed to 
413 Main Street, where a five-story building had been erected. In 
1908 the company bought the site and building at 500 Main Street, 
where the first Home Office had been located, and put up the present 
building — after forty years' occupancy of the previous home. The 
present building is substantial, of steel and limestone, and contains 
eight floors. 

The officers and directors are: William W. McClench, president; 
William H. Sargeant, first vice-president; Henry Loeb, second vice-presi- 
dent; Wheeler H. Hall, secretary; Charles H. Angell, actuary; Alex- 
ander T. Maclean, assistant actuary; Joseph C. behan, superintend- 
ent of agencies; directors, Charles H. Angell, Howard R. Bemis, L. W. 
Besse, Van Lear Black, W'inford N. Caldwell, Victor E. Edwards, 
Harry G. Fisk, George B. Holbrook Charles M. Holmes, Henry Loeb, 
VV. S. Martin, Wm. W. McClench, J. K. Milliken, Wm. H. Sargeant, 
William Skinner, Willard F. Smith, William I. Taber, Jacquelin P. 
Taylor, Andrew B. Wallace, Albert E. F. White. 

MASSACHUSETTS PLATE GLASS INSURANCE COMPANY, 
19 Central Street, Boston, Mass. Organized 1919; cash capital $100, 
000. Charles D. B. Fisk, president; G. W. Hinkley and M. L.Morri- 
son, vice-presidents; Louis A. Ginsburg, secretary and treasurer; 
Paul Wainwright, managing underwriter. 

MASSACHUSETTS PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION, INC, THE 
Worcester, Mass. Organized 1895; reorganized as a stock company in 
1909; capital, $100,000. Francis A. Harrington, president; William C. 
Johnson, vice-president; Lemuel G. Hodgkins, secretary; Frank C. 
Harrington, treasurer; Charles A. Harrington, general manager. 
Forrherly Masonic Protective Association, present title adopted in 1922. 

MASSACHUSETTS TITLE INSURANCE COMPANY, Bos- 
ton, Mass. Organized 1885; capital, $104,200. Henry VV. Da vies, 
president; Chas. Matlack, treasurer. 

MEDICAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF AMERICA, 
Waterloo, Iowa. Organized 1921. Capital $100,200. Dr. W. A. 
Rohlf, president; Wm. F. Getsch, vice-president; I. G. Londergan, 
secretary and general manager; H. W. Wilhelms, treasurer; Sheldon 
Blair, agency supervisor. 



326 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

MEDICAL PROTECTIVE COMPANY, Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Oreanized 1909; capital, $100,000. Louis Fox, president; Charles A. 
Wilding, vice-president; Byron H. Somers, secretary; M. C. Niezer, 
treasurer. Writes physicians defense and indemnity. 

MERCHANTS LIFE AND CASUALTY INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Minneapolis, Minn. Organized 1908; reorganized as a stock 
company 1914; capital, $100,000. S. D. Works, president; John £. 
Burchard, treasurer; A. F. Stolz, secretary apd managing underwriter. 
The company is controlled by the Zenith Companies, Inc., Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

MERCHANTS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Des Moines, 
la. Organized in 1894 as the Merchants Life Association; reorgan- 
ized in 19 1 5 as a legal reserve company; capital, $400,000. Wm. A. 
Watts, president; Claude Hamilton, vice-president; John A. Mc- 
Kellar, vice-president; Clay H. Hollister, treasurer; Frank H. Davis, 
secretary and actuary; R. A. Norton, vice-president; Dr. Carl Stuts- 
man, medical director. 

MERCHANTS RESERVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
5 North La Salle Street, Chicago, 111. Organized 1907. F. A. Tinkham, 
president; Samuel B. Fleager, secretary. 

METHODIST MINISTERS RELIEF INSURANCE AND 
TRUST ASSOCIATION, Boston, Mass. Organized 1878; reorgan- 
ized as a legal reserve company in 191 1. L. H. Murlin, president; 
William I. Ward, vice-president; L. A. Nies, second vice-president; 
H. L. Wriston, secretary and manager; C. W. Blackett, treasurer. 
Office, Wesleyan Building, Copley Square, Boston, Mass. 

METROPOLITAN CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY of 
New York. Organized 1874; capital, $200,000. Eugene H. Wins- 
low, president; Robert A. Drysdale, vice-president; S. W. Burton, 
secretary; Albert H. Lahy, assistant secretary. 

METROPOLITAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY of New 
York was originally chartered as a casualty company, and began 
business as the National Travelers Insurance Company. The act 
of incorporation was passed May 5, 1866. The title was changed 
by an act passed March 24. 1868, becoming the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance (Jompany. The casualty feature of the business was dis- 
continued and life insurance adopted. 

In 1879 the Metropolitan adopted the working methods of the 
system of insurance known as the English industrial plan, as exempli- 
fied by the London Prudential, which had attained great popularity 
in Great Britain, and the issue of industrial policies was commenced 
in November of that year. 

The system developed with great rapidity and success, and the prin- 
cipal insurance departments discussed it in annual reports with much 
favor. 



Life and Casualty Section 327 

In 1892 the company incorporated in its industrial contracts a 
clause providing; for paid-up insurance after payment of premiums for 
five years. This was the beginning of a long series of concessions and 
increasingly liberal provisions granted from time to time to industrial 
policyholders, including cash and credit bonuses and dividends in various 
forms, revival concessions for lapsed policies, liberalization of policy con- 
ditions and non-forfeiture privileges, increases in benefits, etc. During 
the nineteen years, 1897- 191 5, with no stipulation in the policies, ex- 
pressed or implied, the company paid or credited to Industrial policy- 
holders in the various forms of bonuses declared prior to mutualization 
over forty-nine millions of dollars, and the additional cost of con- 
cessions in reserve liability exceeded four and Ojne-half million dollars. 

Various attacks have been made on child life insurance in the legis- 
latures of different states. In 1895 there was a hearing before the Massa- 
chusetts legislature, lasting six weeks. Testimony was taken by the 
committee running into thousands of pages; society was much stirred 
up on the subject pro and con, and newspaper discussion was full; the 
result of the vote was 149 to 23 against the bill to prohibit insurance on 
the lives of children under ten years of age. The legislatures of Penn- 
sylvania, Connecticut, Tennessee, Michigan, Georgia, Delaware, 
Missouri, Illinois, and other states have (many of them repeatedly) 
refused to pass bills preventing child insurance. A determined at- 
tempt in this direction was made in Ohio in 1900, following unsuc- 
cessful bills in 1896 and 1898. Although the plan was to K>rce the 
passage of the bill without granting a hearing to the companies inter- 
ested, it was recommitted, and when it came up for a vote in the sen- 
ate, the only member to vote for it was the one who introduced it. 
Recent years have been practically free from legislative attacks on 
child insurance, and early in 192 1 Colorado, the only state having a 
prohibitory law, amended the law and legalized child insurance. 

In 1906, the company made a special investigation of its indus- 
trial mortality experience, and the resulting table (since adopted as a 
standard for industrial lives by the state of New York) showing a 
marked improvement over previous years, new tables of benefits were 
published, the leading table being on the whole life plan with pre- 
miums ceasing at age 75, giving benefits largely in excess of those of 
previous tables. In July, 1909, as a result of further improvement in 
mortality and reduced expenses, benefits were further increased about 
ten per cent, and made retroactive as to policies issued since the be- 
ginning of 1907. 

An important feature was introduced in 19 12, when the company 
incorporated in its industrial policies a clause providing for an allow- 
ance of ten per cent, of premiums to policyholders who for a period 
of a year or over should pay premiums direct to the home office or a 
district office, thus relieving the company of the expense of collecting 
through an agent. 

On April 17, 19 13, the company's charter was amended so as to 
permit the writing of health and accident insurance. 

The Metropolitan became a mutual company January 6, 19 15, 
through the retirement of its capital stock and the adoption of a new 



328 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

charter. This was termed by the Superintendent of Insurance of New 
York state " by far the most noteworthy event of the insurance year 
in any branch of the business." As a result of this action the benefit 
of participation in surplus earnings was accorded not only to the pur- 
chasers of new insurance, but to the holders of outstanding policies as 
well. The dividends allowed to Industrial policyholders during the 
years 1916 to 192 1 amounted to over $33,000,000. while for 1922 
the amount apportioned was $9,195,022. These dividends were simi- 
lar in nature to the voluntary bonuses declared in previous years, those 
apportioned for 1922 consisting principally of mortuary* and maturity 
dividends varying from 4 to 21 >^ per cent of the face of the jx)licy, and 
premium credit dividends ranging from 4 to 26 weeks' premiums, 
while whole life and certain other plans of policies whose holders had 
reached age 75 were made fully paid-up. 

A notable stand was taken by the company on the occasion of 
its mutualization in continuing for its new particip>ating Ordinary 
policies the same low rates of premium as it had formerly charged for 
non-participating insurance. These rates have since been slightly 
increased to meet the amended requirements of the New York insurance 
law and to make ample provision for the possibility of epidemics or 
other abnormal conditions. 

At the beginning of 19 16, the»company once more made substantial 
increases in its Industrial benefits, to conform with its later mortality 
experience. The new policies also contained a disability benefit, which 
was made to apply as well to old policies, provided disability should 
occur on or after March 6, 19 16. 

The Company is prominent in welfare activities, and since 1909 
has maintained a service of free visiting nurses for its industrial j>olicy- 
holders subsequently extended to group insurance as well, under which 
about 14,000,000 nursing visits have been made. The Company has 
distributed over 238,000,000 pieces of health and welfare literature, 
exclusive of its health magazine, of which about 18,000,000 copies are 
distributed annually. It has conducted extensive sickness and un- 
employment surveys, health experiments and demonstrations, has 
given numerous welfare exhibits at fairs and expositions, and is con- 
stantly rendering assistance to state, county and municipal health 
bodies, through the cooperation of its agency force and otherwise, 
in efforts to improve the public health, such as "clean-up" and "baby 
week" campaigns, education of the people relative to health laws, etc. 
Active support is frequently given to health legislation, a conspicuous 
example being in the latter part of 1920, when the Company wasone 
of the principal factors in defeating anti-vaccination legislation in 
California and Oregon. 

The company as such, and its directors, officers and employees 
as individuals, were exceedingly active in service in the late war, of 
almost endless variety. About 1,500 of its employees entered military 
or naval service. The directors, officers, agents and clerks rendered to the 
United States Government civilian service of the highest order — many 
of them in positions of national prominence. In 1918 the agency and 



Life and Casualty Section 329 

home office staff sold to the general public $112,600,000 of War Savings 
Stamps and over $21,000,000 of Liberty Bonds. The Company itself 
owns nearly $150,000,000 of Liberty Bonds and Canadian War Loans. 

During the influenza epidemic of 191 8- 19 the utility of life insurance 
was strikingly demonstrated by the fact that the company made pay- 
ments of over $24,000,000 on about 100,000 death claims resulting from 
the epidemic alone. 

Following are the number of policies and amount of insurance in 
force in the company's industrial department at the close of each 
five year period. 

No. in Amount of No. in Amount of 

Year Force Insurance Year Force Insurance 

x88i 190,348 $17,894,620 1906 8,487,670 $1,264,684,502 

1886 1,066,875 119,560,339 191 1 11,100,387 1,596,861,726 

189X 2,278,487 254.939,881 1916 15,434.933 2,032,370,668 

1896 3.643.569 454.068,004 1931 22,252,937 3.113.440,565 

190X 6,008,662 881,491,451 

For more than ten years prior to 1892 the business in the " ordi- 
nary department " deckned, because no effort was made to secure 
new policyholders, but in that year the company decided to revive 
this department, and the following record of ordinary business in force 
shows Its remarkable growth. 

End of No. in Amount of End of No. in Amount of 

Year Force Insurance Year Force Insurance 

1892 4.446 $5,316,300 1906 531.467 $428,184,083 

1896 30.835 33.097.851 1911 906,751 803,016,361 

1901 225,640 x95.485.753 1916 1,527,836 1,450,061,328 

1931 3,389,485 3,893,367.274 

In the "Intermediate" branch of the ordinary department, organ- 
ized in 1896, policies are written for $500 insurance and multiples there- 
of, with annual, semi-annual, and quarterly premiums, designed 
primarily for the better class of workingmen. The company has in 
addition since 1899, written "Special Class" policies on sub-standard 
lives. Group insurance is also written in large volume. 

In 1 92 1 the Company added to its other activities the writing 
of personal accident and health insurance. 

The Metropolitan ranks first among all of the Life Insurance 
Companies of the world in assets, income, business placed, business 
gained and business in force. 

Statement for the year ending December 31, 192 1 : 

^Assets $1,115,583,024.54 

^Liabilities 1,068,341.84504 

Surplus 47.241.179.50 

^(According to the annual report filed with New York State Department.) 

The original officers of the Company were James R. Dow, president, 
and Elias H. Jones, secretary. In June, 1870, John R. Hegeman was 
appointed secretary, and in October of the same year, vice-president. 
In 1 87 1 Joseph F. Knapp was elected president. Upon the death of 
Mr. Knapp in 1891, Mr. Hegeman was elected president, and Haley 
Fiske, vice-president. Mr. Hegeman remained as president until his 
death in April, 19 19, when Mr. Fiske was elected to succeed him. The 



330 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

present officers are: Haley Fiske, president; Frederick H. Ecker, vice- 
president; George B. Woodward second vice-president; Frank 0. 
Ayres, second vice-president; Robert Lynn Cox, second vice-president; 
Lee K. Frankel, Ph. D., third vice-president; James E. Kavanagh, 
third vice-president; Ernest H. Wilkes, third vice-president and 
manager P. C; Harry C. Miller, third vice-president; Geo. B. Scott, 
third vice-president; Wm. F. Dobbins, fourth vice-president; James V. 
Barry, fourth vice-president; John C. Knight, fifth vice-president; 
Henry W. George, treasurer; Walter Stabler, comptroller; Walter R. 
Quick, auditor; James D. Craig, actuary; Raymond V. Carpenter, ac- 
tuary; James S. Roberts, secretary; William J. Tully, general solicitor; 
Leroy A. Lincoln, general attorney; Thomas H. Willard, M.D., medical 
director; Augustus S. Knight, M.D., medical director; Louis L Dublin, 
statistician; James C. Brown, assistant actuary; Samuel Milligan, 
assistant actuary; T. R. Richardson, assistant secretary; Alexander 
Fleisher, assistant secretary; Stewart M. LaMont, assistant secretary; 
Geo. C. Penhallow, assistant secretary; Edwin Powelson, assistant 
secretary; Edward O. Wieters, assistant secretary; Alexander C. Camp- 
bell, assistant secretary; Edward G. Gait, assistant secretar>'; C. C. 
Rose, assistant secretary; Thompson B. Grolehm, assistant secretary; 
Jacob Chadeayne, assistant secretary and manager ordinary department; 
W. S. Manners, M.D., assistant medical director; E. M. Holden, M.D.; 
assistant medical director; Charles L. Christiernin, M.D., assistant 
medical director; John C. Medd, M.D., assistant medical director, 
J. Bergen Ogden, M.D., assistant medical director; Alfred W. Balch, 
M.D., assistant medical director; John L. Adams, M.D., assistant 
medical director; Chauncey Rea Burr, M.D., assistant medical director; 
John N. Coolidge, ALD., assistant medical director; D. AL Gedge, 
M.D., assistant medical director; Horace J. Howk, M.D., assistant 
medical director at Sanatorium; Robert J. Kissock, M.D., assistant 
medical director; Samuel W. Means, M.D., assistant medical director; 
George L. Megargee, M.D., assistant medical director; Howard B. 
Speer, M.D., assistant medical director; Henry G. Tuttle, M.D., assis- 
tant medical director; William S. Norton, deputy comptroller; Luther 
B. Little, manager publication division. 

METROPOLITAN LIVE STOCK INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Springfield, III. Organized 1920, capital $100,000. E. J. Staten, 
president; G. J. Lovell, secretary; W. M. Baldwin, superintendent of 
agencies. 

MICHIGAN AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE COMPANY. Grand 
Rapids, Michigan. Organized 1920. Capital, $250,000. George E. 
Nichols, president and general counsel; Henry J. Kennedy, vice- 
president and general manager; Brinton F. Hall, vice-president; 
Harlan J. Dudley, vice-president; Wm. M. Ames, secretary-treasurer. 

MICHIGAN EMPLOYERS CASUALTY COMPANY, Unsing, 
Mich. Organized 1916; capital, $100,000. Robert K. Orr, president; 
Clarence Holmes, vice-president; Fred B. Perry, second vice-presi- 
(jent; H. B. Martin, secretary; Jas. E. Beavis, treasurer. 



Life and Casualty Section 331 

MICHIGAN, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1871-1922. 
The department was established by act approved April 13, 187 1. 
The official head is the commissioner of insurance, who is appointed 
by the governor for a term of two years. [For list of officials see 
Cyclopedia for 1913-14.] 

John F. Winship was appointed in 191 5 and Frank K. Ellsworth, 
appointed in 1917. Mr. Ellsworth resigned in 1921 and L. T. Hands 
was appointed commissioner. 

MICHIGAN MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Detroit, Mich. Organized 1867. J. J. Mooney, president; R. P. 
Williams, vice-president; J. F. Williams, second vice-president; 
A. F. Moore, secretary; J. C. Grix, assistant secretary; oeorge B. 
McGill, superintendent of agencies; G. W. Sanders, actuary; W. G. 
Hutchinson, M.D., third vice-president and medical director; O. F. 
Looker, second assistant secretary. 

MID-CONTINENT LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Okla- 
homa City, Okla. Organized 1910; capital, paid in $100,584. R. T. 
Stuart, president; Edwin Starkey, vice-president; O. E. Stuart, 
treasurer; R. W. Reese, secretary; T. J. NlcComb, actuary. 

MIDLAND CASUALTY COMPANY OF WISCONSIN, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Capital, $110,280. Orlaf Anderson, president; E. C. 
Brown, vice-president; H. O. Maxwell, secretary; Conrad Engsberg, 
treasurer and general manager. 

MIDLAND INSURANCE COMPANY, St. Paul, Minn. Organ- 
ized 1910. H. W. Strickler, president; E. L. Shinnick, secretary and 
actuary; E. M. Mortensen, treasurer; E. C. Gauger, medical director; 
G. K. Henshall, superintendent of agents. 

MIDLAND LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Kansas City, 
Mo. Organized 1909. Daniel Boone, Jr., president; John M. Smullin, 
secretary; Walter J. Bales, vice-president and treasurer; R. Mon- 
tague Webb, actuary; H. F. Mather, medical director. 

MIDLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Columbus, Ohio. Organized 1906; capital, $225,000. Dr. W. O. 
Thompson, president; H. B. Arnold, first vice-president and coun- 
sel; Dr. E. J. Wilson, vice-president and medical director; G. W. 
Steinman, secretary; F. R. Huntington, treasurer; J. G. Monroe, 
superintendent of agencies; C. G. Barratt, assistant secretary; J. Chas. 
Reitz, actuary. 

MIDWEST LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lincoln, Neb. 
Organized 1906; capital, $200,000. N. Z. Snell, president; Dr. B. B. 
Davis, vice-president; Lincoln Frost, vice-president; A. J. Sawyer, 
secretary; Carl B. Newlon, assistant secretary; H. J. Kirschstein. 
superintendent of agents; Narcissa Snell, treasurer; A. H. Webb, 
medical director. 



332 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

MILWAUKEE ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS, 
Milwaukee, Wis. Organized in December, 1^15. The officers elected 
are: President, Bruce Whitney, Mutual Life; vice-president, I. J. 
Dahle, Equitable of New York; second vice-president, W. K. Murphy, 
Northwestern Mutual; secretary, G. T. Vermilion, Penn Mutual; 
treasurer, H. P. Gordon, Travelers. The present officers, elected in 
February, 1921, are: Gifford T. Vermillion, president; C. L. McMillcn 
and Marcellus L. Brick, vice-presidents; Gustav £. Harthun, secretary; 
R. W. Corbett, treasurer. 

MINNEAPOLIS ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS 
was organized June 35, 1896, by life insurance agents in Minneapolis, 
Minn., most of whom had been members of the Minnesota Associa- 
tion of Life Underwriters. The convenience of Minneapolis agents 
in attendance upon meetings was given as the reason for cleavage, the 
headquarters of the older organizations being virtually at St. Paul. 
C. W. Van Tuyl was chosen chairman, and W. M. Horner, secretary. 
The officers elected at the annual meeting in December, 1921, are: 
President, Ralph M. Hamburger; vice-president. J. A. Blond: secre- 
tary and treasurer, C. N. Patterson, 828 McKnight building; executive 
committee, C. M. Odell, H. F. Cooper, W. J. Keating, Geo. T. Bland- 
ford, Harry T. Miller. 

MINNESOTA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1872-1922. 
The insurance department was organized under act approved Feb- 
ruary 39, 1872, the supervising official being termed insurance com* 
missioner. He is appointed by the governor for two years. [See Cy- 
clopedia for 1913-14 for list of officers.] 

S. D. W^ks was appointed in 191 5 and was succeeded by John B. 
Sanborn. Tnl present commissioner is Gust Lindquist. 

MINNESOTA LIFE UNDERWRITERS' ASSOCIATION, St. 
Paul, Minn. The association, formerly known as the St. Paul Associa- 
tion, was reorganized in June, 19 13, and officers were elected as follows: 
President, George W. Harrison, Penn Mutual; secretary and treasurer, 
F. W. Hanenstein, Phoenix Mutual. The present officers, elected at 
the annual meeting in January', 1921, are: President, i^lvin G. I- crman, 
vice-presidents, N. P. Langford and E. D. .^llen; stcrttary and tnas- 
urer, Frank F. Weidenborner, 804 Exchange Bank Building. 

MINNESOTA MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
St. Paul, Minn. Organized in 1880: reorganized on a legal reserve 
basis in 1901. E. W. Randall, president; T. A. Phillips, vice-president; 
O. J. Lacy, second vice-president in charge of agencies; H. W. All- 
strom, secretary and actuary; C. N. McCloud, medical director; 
Jas. Mcintosh, associate actuary; T. H. Dickson, assistant medical 
director, W. F. Hagerman, cashier. 



Life and Casualty Section 333 

MISSISSIPPI ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS. 
The association was ox^nized in 1907. The present officers, elected in 
June, 1 92 1, are: President, W. H. Pullen, Security Mutual Life; secre- 
tary and treasurer, S. R. Whitten, Jr., Home Life, Jackson, Miss. 

MISSISSIPPI LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Memphis, 
Tenn. Organized 1909. J. E. Walker, president; M. M. Cox, secre- 
tary and treasurer; T. S. Littlejohn, assistant secretary; C. B. King, 
director of agencies. 

MISSISSIPPI, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. Under the 
revised code of 1857 the auditor of public accounts was charged with 
the supervision of insurance of Mississippi. The legislature in 1902 
enacted a new code of insurance laws and created a department of 
insurance, the supervising officer being elected at the general election. 
T. M. Henry is the present commissioner elected in 1907. 

MISSOURI. INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1869-1922. 
The act creating the insurance department in Missouri was approved 
March 4, 1869. The superintendent of insurance is appointed by 
the governor for a term of four years. [See Cyclopedia for 1913-14 
for list of early officials.] 

The office of the insurance department, which was, from the 
establishment of the department in 1869, located at St. Louis, was 
removed to Jefferson City in 1897. Charles G. Revelle was appointed 
in 1913 but resigned, and Walter K. Chorn, was appointed to succeed 
him and reappomted in 1917 for the full term. He resigned in 1918, 
and Alfred L. Harty was appointed his successor. The present com- 
missioner is Ben C. Hyde, who took office October i, 192 1. 

MISSOURI LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, St. Louis, Mo. Organized 1907; cash capital $100,000. W. A. 
Johnson, president; J. A. Walker, secretary and treasurer. 

MISSOURI STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, St. 
Louis, Mo. Organized 1892; capital, $1,000,000. M. E. Singleton, 
president; T. F. Lawrence, vice-president; C. O. Shepherd, actuary; 
James J. Parks, secretary; B. Y. Jandon, medical director; John J. 
Crowley, John J. Moriarity and William E. Russell, second vice- 
presidents. 

MONTANA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN 1883-1922. 
Under the territorial insurance act of March 8, 1883, the territorial 
auditor was made the official to whom insurance companies and agents 
should report. When Montana was admitted to the Union as a state, 
in November, 1889, ^^^ state auditor succeeded the territorial audi- 
tor as insurance supervisor. [See Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14 for list of 
officials.] 

The state auditor is elected by the people for a term of four years. 
The legislature in 1909 passed a law designating the state auditor, 
" Commissioner of Insurance, ex-officio," as well, and provided for 



334 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

the appointment of a deputy commissioner of insurance. R. G. Poland 
was elected auditor and the present auditor is George P. Porter, elected 
in 1918. 

MONTANA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Helena. Mont. 
Organized 19 10; capital, $250,000. A. C. Johnson, president; H. R. 
Cunningham, vice-president and general manager; Jacob Mills, sec- 
ond vice-president; C. E. Herfurth, secretary and actuary; F. A. 
Howard, treasurer and assistant secretary; 6. C. Brooke, medical 
director; O. M. Lanstrum, assistant medical director; H. S. Hepner, 
general counsel. 

MOTOR CAR MUTUAL CASUALTY COMPANY, 50-56 John 
Street, New York, N. Y. The company failed in 192 1. 

MORRIS PLAN INSURANCE SOCIETY, 52 William Street, 
New York, N. Y. Arthur J. Morris, president; A. J. Smith, vice- 
president and general manager; Henry R. Towne, Jonn Markle and 
Henry H. Kohn, vice-presidents; Joseph B. Gilder, secretary; Robert 
W. Watson, treasurer; Dr. Judson C. Fisher, medical director. 

MUTUAL. This word as used in insurance indicates the partici- 
pation, in greater or lesser degree, by policyholders in the profits or 
salvages made by companies at the end of stated periods, generally 
twelve months. While every co-operative insurance institution is a 
mutual, the methods followed ditter. Assessment life associations 
and fraternal orders operate under mutual principles; but as the 
premium rates, or assessments, of most of them are unscientific and at 
older ages inadequate, there are no savings and, eventually, the prin- 
ciple of mutuality is violated because the burdens of the institution 
are inequitably distributed, the younger members bearing more, and 
the older members less, than their just share. Policyholders in mutual 
fire insurance participate in year-end savings, and, under many court 
decisions, are liable for the debts of their companies. The principles 
of mutuality in insurance more nearly approach perfection in well 
managed life companies operating without capital. The approxi- 
mate cost of the hazards assumed are known, and, therefore, the amount 
of the annual abatements, or dividends, become a matter of manage- 
ment. 

MUTUAL BENEFIT LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, The, of 
Newark, N. J., was chartered by the state of New Jersey under an act 
approved January 31, 1845, and began business in the following April. 
The compan3' is, and always has been, purely mutual. Its present 
condition can best be illustrated by the following figures covering the 
I business of 1921: 

i Premium receipts $47,027,444.23 

! Total income .... ... 62,a88,497*X4 

' Paid policyholders 29.311,022.78 

I Total disbursements 38,023.084.61 

Assets 306,440,100.71 

Contingency reserve funds 16,528,686^3 



Life and Casualty Section 335 

Premium receipts from organization to January, 1022, have aggre- 
gated $712,182,152.93, of which sum there has alreacfy been returned 
to policy holders over $517,000,000. 

The present officers of the company are as follows: Frederick 
Frelinghuysen, president; Edward E. Rhodes, vice-president; Samuel 
W. Baldwin, vice-president; J. William Johnson, secretary; Herman G. 
Horiifeck, treasurer; Percy C. H. Papps, mathematiciaii ; Oliver 
Thurman, superintendent of agencies; directors: Henry G. Atha, 
C. Weston Bailey, Samuel W^ Baldwin, Palmer Campbell, J. William 
Clark, Charles L. Farrell, Frederick Frelinghuysen, John R. Hardin, 
James S. Higbie, W^illiam M. Johnson, John O. H. Pitney, Edward E. 
Rhodes. 

MUTUAL BOILER INSURANCE COMPANY. Boston, Mass. 
Organized 1877. D. W. Lane, president and treasurer; J. A. Collins, 
secretary; J. E. Trefry, assistant secretary. 

MUTUAL LIFE ASSOCIATION OF IOWA, Red Oak, Iowa. 
Organized, 1895. B. B. Clark, president; Thos. D. Murphy, vice- 
president; W. C. Ratcliflf, treasurer; H. L. W'orsley, secretary and ac- 
tuary; W. B. Lawrence, medical director. 

MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF NEW YORK, 
THE, began the issue of policies on the ist of February, 18^. This 
was before any existing company had begun writing scientific, level 
premium, legal reserve life insurance policies, so that the company's 
claim to being the oldest life insurance company in America is estab- 
lished. From the beginning The Mutual Life has been a purely mutual 
organization, commencing business without capital other than the 
premiums contributed by the policyholders. Nevertheless, the com- 
pany grew and prospered, and at the end of its second year its funds 
had grown to $97,243, and its insurance in force to $2,960,083. At 
the end of its fifth fiscal year its assets exceeded half a million dollars, 
and it had ten million dollars' insurance in force. 

In its first fiscal year The Mutual Life wrote 470 policies. Of 
the persons insured in that year two lived to pass the age of 9b. the 
* 'limit of life" according to the American Experience Table. 

Mutual Life policies for the first few years of the company were 
of two forms only — ordinary life and term. Term poliicjes were 
'written for periods of one to seven years without right of renewal. 

In its early years The Mutual Life apportioned its dividends every 
fifth year in the form of paid-up additions to the policy, the first distri- 
bution being made in 1848, and the last fifth year distribution in 186.^. 
Three years later, in 1866, a triennial dividend was declared, and 
thereafter for many years the surplus accruing was apportioned yearly, 
as it is in the case of all policies now issuing. 

As the oldest company in America, The Mutual Life has always 
been a leader in essential things. It was a cash value company from 



336 Cyclopedia op Insurance 

the beginning, for its earliest policies could be surrendered for cash, 
before default, as soon as two premiums had been paid. The first 
policy surrendered was No. 28, which had been issued barely two 
vears before, in the first month of the company. The second policy, 
No. 122, was likewise one of the*first policies issued and was little 
more than two years old when surrendered for cash. 

The American Experience Table of Mortality, now in practically 
universal use in this country, was introduced by The Mutual Life 
Insurance Company of New York. In so far as statistics of insured 
lives were considered, the table was based upon the history of lives 
insured in this company. 

The Mutual Life also introduced the contribution method of 
apportioning surplus to policyholders, which is in use today bv prac- 
tically all American companies issuing participating policies, although 
the formulae used may vary slightly in the several companies. 

Again, the Continuous Instalment, or Life Income, policy, the most 
popular form of protection for the average family, was originated by 
The Mutual Life and first issued in 1893, in commemoration of the 
company's fiftieth anniversary. The policy was devised by the late 
Emory McClintock, the company's renowned actuary, and is now written 
under one name or another by nearly all American companies. 

MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY of Baltimore, 
Md. Organized 1870. M. S. Brenan, president; Paul M. Burnett, 
vice-president and counsel; Henry Roth, secretary; Charles C. Ewell, 
actuary; Dr. James D. Iglehart, medical examiner. 

MUTUAL LIFE UNDERWRITERS. This association iras 
organized at a meeting held in Chicago, in December, 1912, and its 
membership is made up of mutual life insurance associations. The 
objects of the organization are stated in the constitution as follows: 
" The object of this organization shall be to promote the general wel- 
fare of its members by an interchange of ideas, the dissemination of 
information upon all subjects connected with, and to safeguard the 
principles of pure protective insurance." Edward M. Martin, Omaha, 
Neb., was elected president on organization and Nelson O. Tiffany, 
Buffalo, N. Y., treasurer. 

The following is a list of members: Guarantee Fund Life Associa- 
tion, Omaha, Nebraska; Illinois Bankers Life Association, Monmouth, 
Illinois; Knights Templars & Masonic Mutual Aid Association, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; Merchants Reserve Life Insurance Company, Chi- 
cago, Illinois; National Life Association, Des Moines, Iowa; Pure 
Protection Life Association, Cleveland, Ohio; Western Mutual Life 
Association, Los Angeles, Cal.; Empire State Life Assurance Society, 
Stockton, N. Y.; Mutual Life Association of Iowa, Red Oak, Iowa; 
Guaranteed Equity Life Company, Chicago, 111.; Swedish Baptist 
Mutual Aid Association, Chicago, 111.; Masonic Life Association, Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 



Life and Casualty Section 337 

The ninth annual meeting of the Association was held in Chicago, 
111., October 24 and 25, 1921. President Dr. George W. Hopkins 
presided. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, Dr. George W. Hop- 
kins, Pure Protection Life Association, Cleveland, Ohio; vice-president, 
Edward M. Martin, Guarantee Fund Life Association, Omaha, Nebr.; 
secretary, Nelson O. Tiffany, Masonic Life Association, Buffalo, N. Y.; 
treasurer, A. J. Davies, Knights Templars and Masonic Mutual Aid 
Association, Cincinnati, Ohio; executive committee, J. W. Hughes, 
chairman, Omaha, Nebr.; Judge James P. Hewitt, Des Moines, Iowa; 
Frank M. Hallam, Monmouth, 111.; and the president, vice-president, 
secretary and treasurer. 

MUTUAL PLATE GLASS INSURANCE COMPANY OF 
CONNECTICUT, Unionville, Conn. Organized 1895. H. C. Hart, 
president; R. E. Taft, secretary; E. M. Ripley, treasurer. 

MUTUAL TRUST LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago, 
111. Organized 1905. Edwin A. Olson, president and counsel ; Gilbert 
Knudtson, vice-president; A. B. Slattengren, secretary; N. A. Nelson, 
treasurer; I. L. Grimes, actuary; L. R. Lunoe, superintendent of 
agencies; William A. Peterson, M.D., medical director. 



N 

NASHVILLE ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS 
was organized in Nashville, Tenn., in March, 191 1. Officers were 
elected as follows: President, J. W. Smithers, Prudential; vice-presi- 
dent, W. H. Eaves, Phoenix Mutual; secretary-treasurer, David G. 
Brandon, Northwestern Mutual. The present officers, elected in 
February, 1922, are: President, Walter Stokes, vice-president, M. A. 
Simpson; second vice-president, J. B. Carver; secretary and treasurer, 
Edward Swain, 315 Ind. Life Building. 

NATIONAL ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY, Lincoln, 
Neb. Organized 1907; capital, $65,000. L. B. Howey, president; 
A. W. Lane, vice-president; G. L. Waters, secretary; F. H. Howey, 
treasurer; L. Ray Wilson and E. W. Orme, superintendents of agencies. 

NATIONAL ACCIDENT SOCIETY. New York City. Organ- 
ized 1885. Edwin Langdon, president; John I. Stuart, treasurer; 
Alfred A. Wallace, secretary and general manager. 320 Broadway. 

NATIONAL AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Burlington, la. Organized in 1887 as an assessment company, re-or- 
p^anized as a level premium company in 1912. Louis H. Koch, pres- 
ident; LaMonte Cowles, vice-president; Charles Blanke, secretary; 
M. P. Naumann, assistant secretary. Dr. Fred E. Koch, medical 
director. (Formerly German American Life.) 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CASUALTY AND SURETY 
AGENTS. The association was organized at a meeting held in Cin- 
cinnati in October, 19 13. The meeting was the outcome of a confer- 
ence of agents held in New York in September, and, although state 
and local associations have been organized, earlier efforts to organize 
a national association had been unsuccessful. The officers elected 
at the Cincinnati meeting were as follows: President, Wade Fetzer, 
Chicago; vice-president, Newton E. Turgeon, Buffalo; second vice- 
president, V. L. P. Shriver, Pittsburgh; secretary and treasurer, John A. 
Morrison, Chicago. 

Officers were elected at the annual meeting in September 192 1 as 
follows: President, Thos. E. Braniff, Oklahoma City; vice-president, 
Wm. G. Wilson, Cleveland; secretary and treasurer, Chas. W. Olson, 
1423 Insurance Exchange, Chicago, III.; executive committee: Geo. 
D. Webb, chairman, Chicago; Wade Fetzer, Chicago; Geo. W. Carter, 
Detroit; Clarence J. Daly, Denver; G. Arthur Howell, Atlanta; 
Jas. H. Carney, Boston; Wallace M. Reid, Pittsburgh; Philip S. 
Powers, Richmond; C. J. Kehoe, St. Louis; John L. Tiernon, Jr., 
Buffalo, and the officers. 



Life and Casualty Section 339 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDERWRITERS. 
As early as 1869 there were scattered efforts to form local associa- 
tions of life insurance agents. There is a record of a Life Underwriters' 
Association of Chicago, organized November, 1869, " for mutual 
protection, improvement, and acquaintance." Merrill Ladd of the 
Mutual Life of Chicago was the president, and H. R. Thompson of 
the John Hancock the secretary. A prominent rule of this associa- 
tion was: " No subject which involves or provokes discussion of 
rival plans of companies shall be introduced into the meetings of this 
association." In Augpst, 1870, the Life Insurance Association of 
Pittsburgh, I. F. Loomis of the Charter Oak Life, president, and in June, 
1872, the Cincinnati Life Underwriters* Association, M. Grosvenor 
of the ^tna Life, president, were formed, followed the next year 
by a state organization at Columbus, O., and there were others that 
occasionally appeared and subsided. None of these early attempts 
at association seem to have been other than ephemeral in their nature. 
They were heard of once or twice, and no more. The Ohio organiza- 
tion was the longest lived, but it went into decay some time before the 
present substantial movement began. 

The pioneer of modern development of association by life insur- 
ance agents was the Boston Underwriters' Association, which saw the 
tight in April, 1883. The idea of bringing together in more enduring 
bonds of amity the competitive elements of the agency business, and 
of giving to association a broader basis and deeper purpose than it had 
known before, originated with C. M. Ransom, editor o'l the^oston Stan- 
dard, The new movement began in the editor's office. It appealed 
to the judgment of .the best men in the business everywhere, for they 
saw in it a means to purge the business of rapidly growing evils and lift 
it to the plane of honorable and intelligent effort:. It spread, there- 
fore, with celerity, stimulating in the course of a few years the forma- 
tion of organizations similar to the Boston association in the principal 
cities of the Union. While these centers of energy were warm and 
progressive, their relations with each other were so far but formal. It 
was felt that much more important results were possible by a wider 
application of the principle of community. And so when 1890 came 
and twenty of these societies were in active operation in their respec- 
tive localities, the time was ripe for the national association. 

The present organization was the outgrowth of a conference of 
representatives of tne Boston, New York, and Philadelphia associa- 
tions, held at Boston, April 8, 1890. It was decided to call a conven- 
tion of all the associations in the United States, to be held at Boston, 
June 1 8th. This meeting was held and the National Association of 
Life Underwriters was organized. 

The presidents elected since organization in 1890 have been as 
follows: 

George N. Carpenter, Boston. 1890; Charles H. Raymond, New York, 1891; 
C. B. Tillinghast, Cleveland, 1892; Charles H. Ferguson, Chicago, 1893; E* H. Plum- 
zner. Philadelphia. 1894; Ben F. Calef, Boston, 1895; D. S. Hendriclc, Washington. 
O. C.. ZS96; Thomas H. Bowles. Milvraukee. 1897; Richard E. Cochran, New York, 
189S: James L. Johnson, Springfield, Mass.. 1899; I. Layton Register. Philadelphia, 
1900; William D. Wyman, Chicago. 190 1; Philip H. Farley. New York, 1902; H. H 



340 Cyglopedia of Insurance 

UTwd. Cleveland. 1903; John Dolph, Cincinnati. 1904; C W. Scovel. Pituburgfa. 
1905; FranM E. McMimen. Rochester. N. Y.. 1906; Charlei Jerome Edwards, New 
York. X907-8* John W. Whittin^ton, Los Angeles. Cal., 1909; Henry J. Powell. Louis- 
▼iUe. Ky., 1910; L. Brackett Bishop. Chicago. 1911; Neil D. Sills. Richmond. 19x2: 
Ernest J. Clark. Baltimore. 19x3; Hugh M. Willet. Atlanta. 19x4. Edward A. Woods. 
1915; John Newton Russell. 19x6; Laurence Priddy, X9X7; Jonathan IC. Voshall. X918; 
J. Stanley Edwards. 19x9; Orville Thorp, 1920: John L. Shuff, 192 1> 

(For an account of the annual meetings see Cyclopedia for 1890 
and subsequent annual volumes.] 

The Thirty-Second Annual Convention of the National Associa- 
tion of Life Underwriters was held September 5, 6 and 7, 1921, at the 
Hotel Winton, Cleveland, Ohio. Among the speakers at the various 
sessions were, Hon. William H. Hays, Hon. Job Hedges, Harry T. 
Atwood, and the Rev. Dilworth Lupton. 

The officers elected were as follows: John L. Shuff, president, 
Cincinnati, O.; A. O. Swink, vice-president, Richmond, Va.: Wilson 
Williams, vice-president, New Orleans, La.; Mrs. Florence E. Shaal, 
vice-president, Boston, Mass.; J. G. Stephenson, vice-president, Win- 
nipeg, Canada; John H. Russell, secretary, Los Angeles, Cal.; Everett 
M. Ensign, executive secretary, New York, N. Y.; Graham C. Wells, 
treasurer, New York, N. Y. ; Franklin W. Ganse, chairman executive 
committee, Boston, Mass. 

The executive committee is made up of one representative from 
each local association; selected by the local association and appointed 
for a three year term, and including also three representatives of the 
Canadian association. The executive committee as constituted after 
the last annual meeting is as follows: Chairman, Franklin W. Ganse, 88 
Arch Street, Boston, Mass. 

Term expires 1922. Fred C. Dibble, Akron, Ohio; Seward V. 
Coffin, Albany, N. Y.; J. A. Turner, Ashtabula, Ohio; C. R. Posey, 
Baltimore, Md.; A. C. Crowder, Birmingham, Ala.; Frank W. Tracy, 
Buffalo, N. Y.; E. S. Miller, Canada; W. P. Powell, Cedar Rapids, la.; 
J. W. Bishop, Chattanooga, Tenn.; F. E. Brodnax, Columbia, S. Car; 
George W. Greene, Connecticut Assn.; Orville Thorp, Dallas, Texas; 
J. S. Fabling, Denver, Colo.; C. F. Potts, Duluth, Minn.; F. L. Conk- 
lin, Fargo, N. Dakota; C. A. Peterson, Fort Dodge, la.; F. E. Beatty, 
Great Falls, Montana; E. M. Martin, Hagerstown, Md.; J. H. Shively, 
Houston, Texas; Idaho Falls, Idaho; W.J. Bentley, Jamestown, N. Y.; 
Michael F. Sullivan, Lawrence, Mass.; S. B. Redding, Little Rock, 
Ark.; George A. Rathbun, Los Angeles, Calif.; A. C. Larson, Madison, 
Wise; Joe M. Smith, Memphis, Tenn.; E. A. Marthens, Milwaukee, 
Wise.; J. Walker Godwin, Minneapolis, Minn.; John A. Wintermute, 
Newark, Ohio; F. B. Schwentker, New Mexico Assn.; S. C. Rosenberg, 
Peoria, 111.; J. Putnam Stevens, Portland, Me.; Maurice H. Stearns, 
Providence, R. I.; A. O. Swink, Richmond, Va.; Roanoke, Va.; H. R. 
Lewis, Rochester, N. Y.; Walter Vail, San Francisco, Cal.; T. B. Hut- 
ton, Sioux City, la.; West Babcock, Sioux Falls, S. Dakota; F. W. 
Fuller, Springfield, Mass.; C. G. Whitney, Springfield, Ohio; L. O. 
Weakley, Sr.; St. Joseph, Mo.; A. O. Eliason, St. Paul, Minn.; C. F. 
Teller, Syracuse, N. Y., Tacoma, Wash.; George Morris, Terre Haute, 
Ind.; M. B. Samuels, Twin Falls, Idaho; R. S. Marshall, Washington, 



Life and Casualty Section 341 

D. C; R. B. Naylor, Wheeling. W. Va.; Oscar L. Nelson. Wichita, 
Kansas; Lyman A. Pray, Williamsport. Pa.; Henry E. Townsend. Wor- 
cester, Mass. 

Term expires 1923. H. J. Seads, Altoona. Pa.; D. M. Hodges, 
Asheville, N. C; R. N. R. Bardwell, Atlanta, Ga.; J. Frank Carswell, 
Augusta. Ga.; H. C. Yarbrough. Baton Rouge, La.; Duke Roberts, 
Binffhamton. N. Y.; Logan B. Perry. Bloomington. 111.; Mrs. Grace C. 
Lathrop, New England Women's Assn.. Mass.; O. B. Shortly, Canada; 
J. B. Hall, T. W. Boruff. Decatur. 111.; M. H. Zacharias, Detroit, Mich.; 
Adger Moore, Dothan. Ala.; H. G. Quick. Elmira, N. Y.; Wilfred G. 
Phelon, Flint, Mich.- A. W. Young, Fort Wayne. Ind.; C. C. Bonham, 
Hammond, Ind.; Stephen Babbit, Hutchinson, Kansas; C. O. Willdns, 
Jackson, Miss.; David A. Leon, Jacksonville, Fla.; Harry Cramer. 
Johnstown, Pa.; Clarence H. Poincfexter. Kansas City, Mo.; J. Arthur 
Pino, Lansing, Mich.; Chas. A. Cravens, Louisville, Ky.; H. D. 
Knudson. Mason City, la.; L. J. Loventhal, Nashville, Tenn.; Henry 

E. Walker, New Orleans, La.; J. R. Ward, Newport News, Va.; Homer 
W. Eccles, Norfolk, Nebr.; J. R. Coupland, Norfolk, Va.; Wm. R. 
Poulter. Ogden, Utah; Homer O. Wilhelm. Omaha. Nebr. ; J. C. Foute, 
Oshkosh, Wise.; Mark W. Moorman, Oskaloosa, la.; Frank Love, 
Paducah, Ky.; W. A. Gamble. Pine Bluff. Ark.; William M. Furey, 
Pittsburgh. Pa.; FredJ.Joyce, Phoenix, Ariz.; Pont iac. Mich.; Quincy, 
111.; Edward N. Rice, Racine, Wise.; Rockford, 111.; L. D. Johnson, 
Saginaw, Mich.; D. I. German, Springfield, 111.; W. Rogers Primm, 
Springfield. Mo.; Samuel Polk; St. Louis. Mo.; Orson C. Norton, 
Toledo, Ohio; S. W. Adams, Topeka. Kansas; Jas. W. Edgerton. 
Trenton, N. J.; A. B. Shepard. Vermont Assn.. Robert Gibson, Vin- 
cennes. Ind.; George Duffy, Watertown. N. Y.; A. C. Shaw. Wilkes 
Barre, Pa.; Chas. B. Palmer, Wilmington. Del.; Roy Hartzell. Youngs- 
town. Ohio. 

Term expires 1924. W. R. Wilkerson. Boise. Idaho; Athens. Ga.; 
Franklin W. Ganse. Boston, Mass. ; Charleston, W. Va. ; G. W. Patter- 
son, Charlotte, N. Car; U. C. Upjohn, Chicago, 111.; Chas. J. Stem, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; E. B. Hamlin. Cleveland. Ohio; W. H. Young. 
Columbus, Ga.; Herman P. Jeffers, Columbus, Ohio; S. W. Sanford, 
Davenport, Iowa; Henry A. Stout. Dayton, Ohio; W. D. Bowles, Des 
Moines, la.; E. L. O'Connor, Dubuque, Iowa; H. W. Schroeder. £1 
Paso, Texas; Edward J. Crowell, Erie, Pa.; John T. Jacobs. Evansville. 
Ind.; Fall River. Mass.; T. J. Henderson. Grand Rapids, Mich.; P. B. 
Rice, Harrisburg, Pa.; Ward H. Hackleman. Indianapolis. Ind.; T. S. 
McKinney. Knoxville. Tenn.; W. Logan Shearer. Lexington. Ky.; O. 
N- Young, Lima. Ohio; Everett M. Knight. Lincoln. Nebr.; G. A. Ran- 
kin. Macon. Ga.; James A. Wellman. Manchester. N. Hamp.; D. A. 
Holloway. Montgomery. Ala.; Jesse L. Ward, Muncie. Ind.; Winthrop 
O. Basset. New Bedford, Mass.; Robert L. Jones. New York City; 
George E. Lackey. Oklahoma City. Okla.; Frank D. Buser. Philadel- 
phia, Pa.; Charles Gramm. Portland. Oregon; G. D. Alder. Salt Lake 
City, Utah; Edward T. Lyons, San Diego, Calif.; Henry G. Wells, 
Savannah, Ha.; Jas. S. MacAnnulty, Scranton, Pa.; C. C. Norton, 



342 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Seattle, Wash.; Albert W. Kendall, South Bend, Ind.; Charles F. Bell, 
Spokane, Wash.; George W. Fretts, Utica, N. Y.; Louis Wolf, Wabash, 
Ind." AV B. Nauman, Waterloo, la. 

The following is a list of the local associations which were mem- 
bers of the National Association May i, 1922: 

Akron, O., ABSociation of Life Underwriterg. 

Albany, N. Y., (Capital District Association of Life Underwriters.) 

Altoona, Pa., Association of Life Underwriters. 

Arizona Association of Life Underwriters. 

Asheville, N. C. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Ashtabula, O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

.Athens, Ga., Association of Life Underwriters. 

Atlanta, Ga. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Augusta. Ga. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Baltimore, Md. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Baton Rouge, La. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Binghamton, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Birmingham, Ala. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Bloomington. 111. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Boise, Idaho (Gem State Association of Life L'nderwriters.) 

Boston, Mass. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Buffalo, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Cedar Rapids, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Charleston. W. Va. (Kanawha Association of Life Underwriters.) 

Chattanooga, Tenn. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Chicago, 111. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Cincinnati, O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Cleveland, O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Colorado Association of Life Underwriters. 

Columbus, Ga. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Columbus, O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Connecticut Association of Life Underwriters. 

Dallas, Tex. (North Texas Association of Life Underwriters.) 

Davenport, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Dayton, O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Decatur, 111. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Delaware Association of Life Underwriters. 

Des Moines, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Detroit, Mich. Association of Life Underwriters. 

District of Columbia Association of Life Underwriters. 

Dubuque, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Duluth, Minn. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Elmira, N. Y. .A^ssociation of Life Underwriters. 

El Paso, Tex. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Erie, Pa. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Evansville, Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Fall River, Mass. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Fargo, N. Dak. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Fergus Falls, Minn. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Flint, Mich. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Fort Dodge, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Fort Wayne, Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. (Western Mich. Assn. of Life Underwriters.) 

Great Falls, Mont. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Hagerstown, Md. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Hammond, Ind. (Lake County Association of Life Underwriters.) 

Harrisburg, Pa. -'\s8ociation of Life Under>*'riters. 

Houston, Tex. (Soutli Texas Association of Life Underwriters.) 

Hutchinson, Kans. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Idaho Falls. Idaho. Association of Life ITnderwriters, 

Indianapolis, Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Jacksonville, Fla. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Jamestown, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Johnstown, Pa. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Kansas City, Mo. Association of Life Underwriters. 



Life and Casualty Section 343 

Knoxville, Tenn. Association of Life Underwriters. 
La Crosse, Wis. Associaton of Life Underwriteis 
Lafayette. Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Lansing, Mich. Association of Life Underwriters 
Lawrence, Mass. Association of Life Underwriters 
Lexington, Ky. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Lima, O. Associaton of Life Underwriters 
Lincoln, Neb. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Little Rock, Ark. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Los Angeles, Cal. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Louisiana Association of Life Underwriters. 

Louisville, Ky. Associaton erf Life Underwriters i 

Lynchburg. Va. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Macon, Ga. Associaton of Life Underwriters. 

Madison, Wis. Association of Life Underwriters. ! 

Maine Association of Life Underwi iters 
Mason City, la. Association of Life Underwriters 
Memphis, Tenn. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Milwaukee, Wis. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Minneapolis, Minn. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Minnesota Association of Life Underwriters. 
Mississippi Association of Life Underwriters. 
Montgomery, Ala. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Muncie, Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Nashville, Tenn. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Newark, O. (Licking County Association of Life Underwriters.) 
New Bedford, Mass. Association of Life Underwriters. 
New Kngland Women's Association of Life Underwriters. 
New Hampshire Association of Life Underwriters. 
New Mexico Association of Life Underwriters. 
Newport News, Va. Association of Life Underwriters. 
New York, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Norfolk, Neb. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Norfolk-Tidewater (Va.) .Association of Life Underwriters. 
North Carolina Association of Life Underwriters. 

Ogden Association of Life Underwriters. (Utah.) j 

Oklahoma City, Okla. Association of Life Underwriters. i 

Omahi, Neb. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Oregon Association of Life Underwriters. 

Oshkosh, Wis. (Fox River Valley Association of Life Underwriters.) 
Oskaloosa, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Paducah, Ky. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Peoria, III. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Philadelphia, Pa. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Pine Bluff, Ark. Association of Life Underwriters. i 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Pontiac, Mich. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Quincy, 111. Association of Life Underwriters. I 

Racine, Wis. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Rhode Island Association of Life Underwriters. I 

Richmond, Va. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Roanoke, Va. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Rochester, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Rockford, 111. Association of Life Under>;^Titers. 
Saginaw, Mich. Association of Life Underwriters. 
San Diego. Cal. Association of Life Underwriters. 
San Francisco, Cal. Association of Life L^nderwriters. 
Savannah, Ga. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Scranton, Pa. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Seattle, Wash. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Sioux City, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 
South Bend, Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 
South Carolina Association of Life Underwriters. 
South Dakota Association of Life Underwriters. 
Spencer, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Spokan , Wash. Association of Life Underwriters. 
Springfield. 111. .A^SDciaiion of Life Underwriters. 
Springfield, Ma'$s. Association of Life Underwriters. 



344 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Si>riagfield, Mo. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Springfield. O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

St. Joseph, Mo. Association of Life Underwriters. 

St. Louis, Moi Association of Life Underwriters. 

Syracuse, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Tacoma, Wash. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Terre Haute, Ind. Association of Ufe Underwriters. 

Toledo, O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Topeka, Kans. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Trenton, N. J. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Twin Falls, Idaho. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Utah Association of Life Underwriters. 

Utica, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Vermont Association of Life Underwriters. 

Vincennes, Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Wabash, Ind. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Waterloo, la. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Watertown, N. Y. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Wheeling, W. Va. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Wichita, Kans. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Wilkes- Barre, Pa. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Wlliiamsport, Pa. (West Branch Association of Life Underwriters.) 

Worcester, Mass. Association of Life Underwriters. 

Youngstown, O. Association of Life Underwriters. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LIVE STOCK INSURANCE 
COMPANIES. Organized at a meeting in Indianapolis, Ind., in 
August, 19 1 4. The present officers, elected in July, 192 1, are: Presi- 
dent, Charles F. Schwager, American Live Stock, Omaha, Neb. ; secre- 
tary, W. B. Robinson, Springfield, 111.; treasurer, Carl A. Jackson, 
Kaskaskia Live Stock. The headquarters of the association are in 
Springfield. III. Directors: Chas. F. Schwager, American Live Stock: 
R. T. Eddy, Kaskaskia Live Stock; A. J. Hasson, Nebraska Live 
Stock; E. M. McGee, Wisconsin Live Stock. 

The companies have also organized a service bureau. Miss M. L. 
Kile is manager of the service department of the Live Stock Insurance 
Bureau, 311 Pythian building, Indianapolis, Ind. 

The following is the company membership roll April, i, 1922: 
Kaskaskia Live Stock, Shelbyville, 111.; Nebraska Live Stock, Omaha, 
Neb.; American Live Stock, Omaha, Neb.; Wisconsin Live Stock, 
Madison, Wis. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF MUTUAL CASUALTY COM- 
PANIES. The following are the officers: President, P. W. A. Fitz- 
simmons; vice-presidents, C. E. Morrison, J. A. Gunn, P. J. Jacobs: 
treasurer, W. M. Burch; general manager and secretary, Edmund S. 
Cogswell; general counsel, Herman L. Ekern; assistant treasurer, 
Frank E. Buckley. Board of Governors, John L. Train, James S. Kem- 
per, P. J. Jacobs, George L. Mallery, J. C. Adderly, P. W. A. Fitzsim- 
mons, C. E. Morrison, Homer R. Mitchell, W. M. Burch. 

New York Office, 23-31 West 43rd Street; Chicago Office, 208 
South La Salle Street. 



Life and Casualty Section 



345 



The company membership roll is as follows: 



Allied Mutual Liability. New York. N. Y. 
Auto. Mutual Liability, Boston, Mass. 
Bakers' Mutual, New York, N. Y. 
Builders' Mutual of Wis., Madison, Wis. 
Building Contractors Limited Mutual, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 
Employers Mutual, Des Moines, Iowa. 
Employers Mutual, New York, N. Y. 
Employers Mutual, Wausau, Wis. 
Exchange Mutual, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Federal Mutual, Boston, Mass: 
Gopher Mutual, St. Paul, Minn. 
Hardware Mutual, Stevens Point, Wis. 
Indiana Liberty Mutual, Ind., Ind. 
Integrity Mutual Casualty, Chicago, 111. 
Interboro Mut. Indem., New York, N. Y. 
Iowa Mutual Liability, Cedar Rapids, la. 



Jamestown Mutual, Jamestown, N. Y. 
Lumber Mutual Casualty, New York. 
Lumbermens Mutual, Chicago, III. 
Master Plumbers Limited Mutual, Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 
Merchants' Mutual Auto., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Michigan Mutual. Detroit, Mich. 
Mutual Boiler of Boston. Boston, Mass 
Mutual Casualty, New York, N. Y. 
Penn. Bituminous Mut., Huntingdon, Pa. 
Security Mutual, Chicago, 111. 
Texas Employers, Dallas, Texas. 
U. S. Mutual Liability, Quincy, Mass. 
Utica Mutual, Utica, N. Y. 
Utilities Mutual. New York, N. Y. 
Western Automobile, Fort Scott. Kansas. 



NATIONAL BENEFIT LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Washington D. C. Organized 1898. Robert H. Rutherford, president 
and treasurer; Dr. W. A. Warfield, vice-president; Lemuel W. Ruther- 
ford, secretary; Robert W. Brown, medical director. Health and acci- 
dent insurance. 

NATIONAL • BUREAU OF CASUALTY AND SURETY 
UNDERWRITERS (formerly National Workmen's Compensation 
Service Bureau), 120 West 426 Street, New York, N. Y. This associa- 
tion is composed of twenty-four of the leading casualty insurance 
companies. It is maintained by those companies for the purpose of 
bringing about uniformity of underwriting procedure in various branches 
of the casualty insurance business on the basis of adequate and equitable 
rates. It is also directly interested in promoting the cause of accident 
prevention. Its officers are: J«s8e S. Phillips, general manager; A. W. 
Whitney, associate general manager; G. F. Michelbacher, secretary- 
treasurer. The following companies constitute the executive com- 
mittee: Aetna Life Insurance Company, Continental Casualty Com- 
pany, Fidelity and Casualty Company, Globe Indemnity Company, 
Royal Indemnity Company, Standard Accident Insurance Company, 
Travelers Insurance Company, U. S. Casualty Company, U. S. Fidelity 
and Guaranty Company. 

NATIONAL CASUALTY COMPANY, Detroit, Mich. Or- 
ganized 1904; capital, $200,000. W. G. Curtis, president; H. S. Cur- 
tis, vice-president and treasurer; E. A. Grant, secretary; J. L. Hep- 
burn, assistant secretary; W. S. Walker, superintendent of agencies. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION 
INSURANCE. The Council was organized in 1919 with the objects, as 
expressed in its constitution, "to co-operate with rating organizations 
and public officials in all states in the determination of equitable 
premium rates for workmen's compensation insurance, and to promote 
a true public understanding concerning the establishment of such rates." 
The council, however, is the direct outgrowth of efforts made by repre- 
sentatives of the different classes of compensation carriers to carry out 



346 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

the above objects through conference committees, but as compensation 
insurance developed and the number of carriers increased the need for a 
national rating and a more formal organization developed, and organi- 
zation of the council was projected early in 19 19 and formal organiza- 
tion completed in November. 

Membership in the Council is composed of boards and bureaus 
having jurisdiction over workmen's comp>ensation insurance rates or 
the application thereof, and the work of the council is carried on 
through committees as follows: Governing Committee, Committee of 
Managers, General Rating committee, Actuarial committee and 
Engineering committee. 

The offices of the National Council are located at 16 East Fortieth 
Street, New York, N. V., and Harwood E. Ryan is General Manager, 
A. H. Mowbray, Actuary, G. F. Michelbacher, Secretary and H. F. 
Richardson, Assistant Secretary. 

NATIONAL FIDELITY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Sioux City, Iowa. Began business 1916. Ralph H. Rice, president; 
F. M. Pelletier, vice-president; E. C. Wolcott. vice-president and 
manager Boys Department ; Carl T. Prime, secretarj' and treasurer; 
C. F. Ramey, assistant secretary. 

NATI9NAL FRATERNAL CONGRESS OF AMERICA. 
This organization was formed by the consolidation of the National 
Fraternal Congress and the Associated Fraternities of America, and 
the consolidation was effected at a meeting held in Chicago, August 
I9f 1913- Officers were elected as follows: President, W. H. Powers; 
vice-president, J. F. Taake; secretary and treasurer, F. Nunemaker. 
The National Fraternal Congress was organized in 1886, and included 
most of the older and larger societies in its membership, while the 
Associated Fraternities was organized in March, 1901, and the move- 
ment which resulted in the consolidation of the two societies had 
been under discussion for some time, but took definite shape with the 
appointment of committees by each association in 1912 to consider 
and formulate terms of consolidation. 

The officers are as follows: President, George P. Kirby, National 
Union Assurance Society, Toledo, O.; Vice-president, Henri Roy, 
La Societe des Artisans Canadiens-Francais, Montreal, P. Q.; Secre- 
tary, W. E. Futch, Locomotive Engineers' Mutual Life and Accident 
Insurance Association, Cleveland, O. ; Treasurer, A. E. King, Brother- 
hood of Railroad Trainmen, Cleveland, O. 

Members of the Executive Committee: \V. R. Shirley, Brother- 
hood of American \'comen, Muskogee, Okla.: Harry Wade, Supreme 
Lodge Knights of Pythias. Indianapolis, Ind.: Miss Bina M. West. 
Woman's Benefit AsMjriation of the Maccabees, Port Huron, Mich.: 
Hill Montague. Golden Seal Assurance Society, Richmond, V'a.; Mrs. 
Frances Buell Olson, Decree of Honor Protective Association, St. Paul. 
Minn.; Thomas F McPonald, Catholic Order of Foresters, Chicago, 
111. 



Life and Casualty Section 347 

NATIONAL GUARDL^N LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
loi West.Main St., Madison, Wis. Organized 1910. George A. Boissard, 
president; Adolph F. Menges, and C. L. Miller, vice-presidents; Ben- 
jamin S. Beecher, secretary: W. J. Wandrey, assistant secretary; 
C. M. Putnam, treasurer; W. W. Gill, medical director. 

NATIONAL INSURANCE CONVENTION. The first gather- 
ing of the state insurance officials was in 1 871, at the instance of Geoige 
W. Miller, then superintendent of the New York state insurance 
department. He issued invitations to the officials of other states 
and territories, and they met at New York May 24, 1871. Eighteen 
states were represented. Mr. Miller was chosen president, and Col. 
Henry S. Olcott, then a New York journalist, was chosen secretary. 
Mr. Miller, on taking the chair, stated that the object proposed in 
calling these officials together was to secure, if possible, uniformity of 
action in those matters which were discretionary with them in the 
supervision of insurance, and to promote, through their efforts, such leg- 
islation as was desirable to improve and protect the business. The 
title of the organization adopted was the " National Insurance 
Convention." 

The first session lasted nine days, and there was a second ses- 
sion held in October of the same year. A report of the proceedings, 
which were long and varied, was prepared by the secretary. Colonel 
Olcott, and published in two volumes of about 800 octavo pages. 

The following table gives the names of the officers of the convention 
elected at each meeting since its organization, and the successive places 
of meeting. 



CvcLOPEDu OP Insurance 



Sc Louii. 



Ma^HIi. 



W. Miller. N.Y. 

O". W. Chapmui. N. Y, 
O. W. Omioum. N. Y. 
S. H. Ron. Mich. 
S. H. Ron, Mich. 
O. PUIibury. N. H. 

0. PUUbury, N, H. 
A. R. McGUl. Mian. 

1. L. ClHke, Mm. 



kK. TiiSoi, Mu^ 
U. Cbcek.Jr.. WiL 
O. R. Fyler. Coon. 
G. S. MsTlU. Man. 
C. P. EUobe. Mo. 
G». B. Luper, Pl 
J. C. Llo»h«o, N. H. 
JM. F. Pw«. N. V. 



Stephen W. Can. Me. 



wrnianl H. Hart. Ind. 



Jame* V. Barry, Micb. 



VIce-Prcaldent 



1- Bieew. Wla. 



_ H. Ron, Mich. 

O. Piuiburr'. N. H. 
O. PUItbUTv. N. M. 

A. R. McGUI. Minn. 
'l. R. McT.iU. Minn. 

. L. Clarke. MaM. 

'. L. Spootiet, Wii. 

. A. McCaU, Jr.. N.V. 
C. F. Swiiert, Ul. 
Chai. H. Moon. O. 
Euacot Prlnsle, MIcb. 
H.l. Rdunund. O. 
S. H. Cnm. R. I. 
" "^ Fvler, Conn. 
__-d E. Kemp. O, 
Samuel E. Kemp. O. 
>. B. Luper. Pi. 
H. Kliida, O. 
_. N. Smith, Minn. 

B. K. Duifee, III. 
W. M. Hahn. O. 



lu E. Folk. Teon. 



... F. H. Hardison. Mai 



H. S. OUxxl, N. Y. 
H. S. Olcott. N. V. 
O. PiUabiuy. N. R. 



Onin T. Welch, Kan. 
Onia T. WekA, Kan. 
Onin T. Welch. Kan. 
Oma T. Welch. Kan. 
OrriD T. Welch. Kan. 
J. W. Bniob. Coon. 
Chaa. P. Solcert. lU. 
Chai. P. Swicnt. UL 
C. Shandrm. Ulnn. 
R. B. Biinkeiboff. O. 
]. A. McEwen. O. 
Geo. B. L.aiiet. Pa. 
Geo. B. LupB. Pa. 
C. B. Allen, Neb. 



F. L. Cultins. Maa 



Wm. R. Ftlcke. Wla 
" D. Campbell. Ml 

S. Matthewi. O. 

L. Scofield. Conn 



Reau E. Folk. Teni 
-. F. Carroll. la. 



F. L. CnttJas. Maaa. 
J. J. Biinkertiofl. IIL 
J. I. fiilakcrboll. 111. 



[. BrinkeiboA. in 



. BrinkerhoS. IIL 



T. H. MacDanald. Ct. 

H. HaidlKin, Maia. I H. R. 

MoBta 
me< R. YouM, N. C.I F. H. M< 

iilard Done. Ul ' " " 

_ irtonMsiufcld, 

JohnT.Wiiuhlp.Mich. 



Micb. 

R.J.Merriil.N.H. 

fiwph G. Brown. Vt. 
H. Elliwortb. Mich, 
A. L. Harty, Mo. 



.;. H. 1. ^^ 

F. H. McMaater. R. C. 
F. H. McMaatet.S. C. 
F. H. McMuier S t 
F.H. McMaater. S.c; 
JoKph Buitoo. Va. 
Joseph Button. Va. 

Joseph Button. Va 
oaeph Button. \'a 



Life and Casualty Section 349 

The fifty-second annual meeting was held in Louisville, Ky.; 
September 27, 28, 29 and 30, 1921. President Harty called the meet- 
ing to order, and in his address reviewed briefly economic conditions 
as affecting insurance interests, and discussed some of the questions 
before the convention and conditions in the business. The president 
strongly advocated uniform laws and requirements and urged members 
of the convention to work towards that end in their respective states. 
The president also expressed the view that too many kinds of accident 
policies were being issued, some of which were misleading, and many of 
which could and should be eliminated. 

Reports from standing and special committees were presented and 
discussed and papers were read and discussed as follows: "Insurance 
Supervision in Canada," V. Evan Gray, superintendent of Insurance, 
Ontario, Canada; "Coverage Under Health and Accident Policies." 
Gustaf Lindquist, Minnesota. "Uniformity (a) As to Taxation and 
Fees," A. C. Savage, Iowa; (b) "As to Investments," Clarence W. 
Hobbs, Massachusetts; "Should all Types of Carriers be Subject to 
Uniform Requirements Respecting Reserves and Supervision, Piatt 
Whitman, Wisconsin; "Efficiency of Insurance Agents," Stacy W. 
Wade, North Carolina; "State Insurance," Burton Mansfield, Con- 
necticut; "Licensing of Public Claim Adjusters," Thomas B. Donald- 
son, Pennslyvania. 

Officers were elected as follows: President, Thomas B. Donaldson, 
Pennslyvania; vice-president, Piatt Whitman, Wisconsin; second 
vice-president, H. O. Fishback, Washington; secretary, Joseph Button, 
Virginia; executive committee, Clarence W. Hobbs, Massachusetts, 
chairman; Burton Mansfield, Connecticut; W. N. Van Camp, South 
Dakota; A. C. Savage, Iowa; James F. Ramey, Kentucky; Joseph G. 
Brown, Vermont, and T. M. Henry, Mississippi. 

The mid-winter meeting of the convention was held in New York, 
December 6, 7 and 8, 1921. The meeting adopted the report of the 
committee on fire insurance outlining the agreement reached as to the 
method of calculating underwriting profit and allowance for the conflag- 
gration hazards. A resolution was adopted respecting department 
examinations, reiterating the adopted practice, but intended further to 
keep examination work in the hands of permanent attaches of the 
departments. A resolution was adopted calling for the appointment 
of a committee to co-operate with organizations collecting data or 
advising as to rates in workmen's compensation insurance, and a 
resolution disapproving the quotation of a higher special rate by 
mutuals was adopted. 

The following are the chairmen of the standing committees as 
constituted after the last annual meeting: Accident and Health policies; 
Gustaf Lingquist, Minnesota; Actuarial bureau, James F. Ramey, 
Kentucky. Assets of Insurance Companies, Clarence W. Hobb^, 
Massachusetts. Blanks, Henry D. Appleton, New York. Codifica- 
tion of Rulings, W. N. Van Camp, South Dakota. Credentials, George 
A. Cole, Nevada. Examinations, Joseph Button, Virginia. Fidelity 
and Surety Companies, Joseph G. Brown, Vermont. Fire Insurance, 



350 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Joseph Button, Virginia. Fraternal Insurance, A. C. Savage, Iowa. 
Laws and Legislation, Burton Mansfield, Connecticut. Miscellaneous, 
W. B. Young, Nebraska. Publicity and Conservation, Thomas J. Keat- 
ing, Maryland. Unfinished Business, G. Waldron Smith, Maine. Rates 
of Insurance Companies, J. C. Luning, Florida. Rates of Mortality 
and Interest, T. M. Henry, Mississippi. Reserves Other than Life, 
Frank L. Travis, Kansas. Social Insurance, H. J. Brace, Idaho. Tax- 
ation, H. O. Fishback, Washington. Workmen's Compensation Insur- 
ance, Piatt Whitman, Wisconsin. Valuation of Securities, F. R. Stod- 
dard, Jr., New York. Unauthorized Insurance, P. H. Wilbour, Rhode 
Island. 

NATIONAL LIFE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Nashville, Tenn. Organized 1900; capital, $300,000. C. A. 
Craig, president; W. R. Wills, T. J. Tyne, N. H. White, and E. B. 
Craig, vice-presidents; C. R. Clements, secretary and treasurer; W. S. 
Bearden, Jr., assistant secretary; R. £. Fort, medical director. 

NATIONAL LIFE ASSOCIATION, Des Moines, Iowa. Organ- 
ized 1899. James P. Hewitt, president; M. L. McCoy, vice-president; 
E. S. Kinney, secretary. F. W. Stewart, assistant secretary; Wm. 
Stevenson, medical director. 

NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Montpelier, 
Vt. This company's charter was granted by the state of Vermont 
November 13, 1848, and was amended October 26, 1849. after which 
the company organized and began to do business, January 17, 1850. 
On October 30, 1850, another act was approved, which reduced the 
number of directors from twenty-five to thirteen, and made it unlaw- 
ful for the company to loan money to any of its officers or directors. 
Three subsequent acts have modified the original charter; that of 
November 12, 1852, provided for a secure investment of the company's 
assets and the right to establish agencies in foreign states; that of 
November 18, 1856, defined the beneficiary rights of married women 
and other persons; that of October 28, 1858, altered the name of the 
company by abbreviation, making it simply " National Life Insurance 
Company; ' those of November 12, 1886, November 10, 1892, Octo- 
ber 24, 1894, and November 23, 1900, pertaining to the election of 
directors. The guarantee capital was eliminated in 1879 and the plan 
of insurance has since been and is now purely mutual. 

The company entered Massachusetts in 1850; New York, 1850; 
Ohio and Illinois, 1869; Michigan, 1872; Iowa, 1873; Pennsylvania. 
1874; Minnesota, 1875; Pacific Coast, 1884: Missouri, 1889. It now 
occupies thirty-nine states. The present officers and directors are: 
Fred A. Howland, president; Harry M. Cutler, vice-president; Osman 
D. Clark, secretary; Arthur B. Bisbee, M. D., second vice-president and 
medical director; Clarence E. Moulton, actuary; Edward D. Field, 
second vice-president, superintendent underwriting; William W. 
Russell, treasurer; George B. Young, general counsel; Lorimer P. 
Brigham, superintendent of agencies; William P. Dillingham, Harr>' M- 



Life and Casualty Section 



351 



Cutler, William W. Stickney, Henry R. Piatt, George H. Olmsted, 
Charles P. Smith, Fred A. Howland, Charles W. Gammons, Osman D. 
Clark, Frank C. Partridge, Arthur B. Bisbee, J. Gray Estey, John M. 
Thomas, directors. 

The amount of insurance in force December 31, 192 1, paid-for 
basis, was $333,894,264. The following items are taken from its 
annual statement, 1907 to 1921, inclusive: 



Dec. 


Premiums 


Interest 






Insurance 


31 


Received 


and Rents 


Total Income 


Gross Assets 


Outstanding 


if07 


$5,932,753-66 


$1,752,711.76 


$7,675,465.42 
7.901,671.05 


$40,354,241-29 


$151,779,281.00 


1908 


5.985.082.46 


1,915.885.10 


44.026,069.73 


154,147,843.00 


1909 


6.364.735.65 


2.053.048.38 


8,418,275.40 


47.490,998.98 


159.187,877.00 


1910 


6,631.902.38 


2,221,873.78 


8,854.007.31 


50,440,519.33 


167,261,226.00 


X911 


6,762.055.31 


2,391.551.05 


9,156,450.62 


53.445.289.8 1 


172.678.6S5-00 


1912 


6.834.S06.84 


2.582,660.13 


9,431.841.55 


56.038,867.81 


179.464.607.00 


1913 


6.934.724-61 


2,751.083.76 


9.689,109.91 


58,947,889.72 


188.354.053.00 


1914 


7,290,719.61 


2,903,626.50 


10,195.624.49 


61,509,789.66 


194.625.366.00 


191S 


7.330,086.10 


3,047,082.30 


10,385,260.21 


63.828.704,98 


200,987.121.00 


1916 


7.921,793.59 


3.142,726.18 


11,076,302.27 


66.426.040.82 


212,037.400.00 


1917 


8,296.452.07 


3.227*548.50 


11,552,875.99 


68,595,237.25 


223,593.866.00 


1918 


8.339.795.74 


3,421,605.30 


11,791,037.97 


71.038,415.63 


233 .434.376. 00 


1919 


9,648,187,71 


3.520,587.36 


13,355.102.84 


73.060,254.79 


267,801,560.00 


X920 


10,740,849.42 


3,637,904.09 


14,644.112.40 


74,609,278.70 


309,455,304.00 



Surplus unassigned, December 31, 192 1, was $3,749,420.64 (actual 
market basis), which does not include $3,000,442.05, assigned for distri- 
bution in 1922. Business issued since January i, 1901, upon three per 
cent, interest basis. 

The National works upon the level premium system, writes only 
participating forms, issues term, life, limited {>ayment life, endowment, 
monthly income and instalment benefit policies, with premium waiver 
and monthly income disability benefits in eligible cases, and endorses 
and guarantees liberal cash, paid-up, and extended insurance values 
on all its forms. Its endowment policies are unique in carrying an 
additional option allowing conversion to p>aid-up life insurance without 
medical re-examination. 



NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF THE 
SOUTHWEST, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Organized, 191 7. Capital, 
S^oo.ooo. John Becker, president; R. H. Hanna', active vice-president 
and general counsel; Nathan Jaffa, W. C. Reid, B. C. Hernandez, vice- 
presidents; E. L. Coriell, acting secretary; R. A. Tompkins, assistant 
secretary; G. E. Breece, treasurer; J. F. Pearce, medical director; 
\V- A. Munster, actuary; W. C. Keim, agency director, R. C. Lenihan, 
assistant agency director. 

NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Chicago, 111. A.M.Johnson, 
pre^dent; Robert E. Sackett, vice-president; Robert D. Lay, vice- 
president and secretary. Capital, $500,000. Assets, January I, 1922, 
^2,468,852.68; liabilities, including capital, $20,170,838.06; surplus 



352 Cyclopedia of Insusancb 

apportioned and unapportioned, $1,298,014.62. This company was 
originally incorporated by a special act of Congress on July 25, 1868, 
and commenced business August i, 1868. Over thirty years ago the 
principal office was removed to Chicago, 111., and on March 3, 1904, 
the company was reincorporated under the laws of Illinois. The home 
office is located in the company's own building, a twelve story structure 
located at 29 South La Salle Street. The company operates in forty 
states, its territory now extending from coast to coast. Under the pres- 
ent management the company has shown remarkable progress. About 
eleven years ago an Accident Department was organized, and the 
company now writes approved forms of non-participating life, accident 
and health policies. The gains made during the past five years were as 
follows : 

Increase in yearly income S3.33o,5S9-33 

Increase in assets 7,174,087.01 

Increase in insurance 48,844.438.95 

NATIONAL MASONIC PROVIDENT ASSOCIATION. Ford 
Building, Mansfield, Ohio. Organized 1890. C. E. McBride, president 
M. B. Bushnell, vice-president; E. G. Robinson, secretary; Charles S. 
Williams, treasurer. Accident and health insurance. 

NATIONAL RELIEF ASSURANCE COMPANY, 244 South 
8th street, Philadelphia, Pa. Organized 1903; capital, $100,000. M. S. 
Boyer, president; Robert M. Fry, secretary; W. H. Granville, treas- 
urer. Accident and health insurance. 

NATIONAL RESERVE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Topeka, Kansas, Organized 1920; capital $225,000. Transacts 
life insurance on the legal reserve plan. George Godfrey Moore, 
president; Wm. Horley, Geo. L. Kreeck, J. H. Mercer, vice-presidents; 
J. R. Anspaugh, secretary; J. H. Lee, treasurer; A. B. Jeffrey, medical 
director; Robert Stone, counsel. 

NATIONAL SAVINGS LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY. 
Wichita, Kansas. Organized 1922; capital $300,000. Surplus $270,- 
000. W. C. Coleman, president; C. M. Jackman and L. A. Boli, vice- 
presidents; W. M. G. Howse, secretary; L. W. Clapp, treasurer. 

NATIONAL SURETY COMPANY of New York, incorporated 
June, 1897, with $500,000 capital, increased to $750,000 in 1909, 
$1,500,000 in 1910, $2,000,000 in 1912, $3,000,000 in 1915, $4,000,000 in 
1916 and in December 1919, to $5,000,000. Its present available 
resources amount to over $25,000,000. Though its charter covers 
casualty insurance, it writes only fidelity and surety bonds and 
burglary insurance. The company had its origin in the surety depart- 
ment of the M. K. & T. Trust Co. in 1888, being separately incor- 
porated as the National Surety Company of Kansas City in 1893 
and re-incorporated as a New York company in 1897, making prac- 
tically one continuous organization for nearly thirty years. Although 



Life and Casualty Section 353 

not the oldest company, it is now, according to Federal standards, 
the largest and strongest surety company, not only posessing the 
largest underwriting power, but also larger than that ever possessed by 
any other surety company and it transacts the largest volume of 
business in its special lines. It is fully qualified in Canada, Cuba and 
Mexico and in all states, territories, and dependencies of the United 
States, including Alaska, Canal Zone, Hawaii, Philippine Islands, 
Porto Rico, Guam, and Virgin Islands. Wm. B. Joyce, president; 
Wm. J. Grffiin, vice-president; Joel Rathbone, second vice-president; 
E. A. St. John, vice-president; Hubert J. Hewitt, secretary. 

NATIONAL UNION ASSURANCE SOCIETY, 437 Michigan 
street, Toledo, Ohio. Organized 1883. D. A. Helpman, president; 
H. S. Anderson, vice-president; E. A. Myers, secretary; C. G. Bentley, 
treasurer; W. P. Coler, actuary; Dr. T. H. Clark, medical director. 

NATIONAL WORKMENS COMPENSATION SERVICE 
BUREAU. The Bureau was reorganized in 192 1 (See National Bureau 
of Casualty and Surety Underwriters.) 

NEBRASKA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1865-1922. 
The auditor of public accounts, was, until 1913, charged with the su- 
pervision of insurance. [See Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14, for list of former 
officials.] 

The legislature of 1913 passed an act creating a State Insurance 
Board, composed of the Governor, Attorney-General and State 
Auditor. William B. Eastham was appointed commissioner under the 
act. The legislature in 1919 enacted legislation creating a department 
of trade and commerce, and supervision of insurance is under a secretary 
of the department, who is appointed for a term of two years. W. B. 
Young, formerly actuary in the insurance department, was appointed 
chief of the insurance bureau. 

NEBRASKA LIFE UNDERWRITERS ASSOCIATION was 
organized in March, 1890, the original officers being W. J. Fisher, presi- 
dent; H. D. Neely and O. H. Jeffries, vice-presidents; and E. H. May- 
hew, secretary. The present officers are: President, Robert T. Bums; 
vice-president, S. W. Townsend; secretary, R. W. Gentzler; treasurer, 
Charles Eyre. 

NEBRASKA LIVE STOCK INSURANCE AND INDEMNITY 
COMPANY, Keeline Building, Omaha, Nebraska. Organized 1916; 
capital $200,000. A. J. Hasson, president, T. H. Wake, vice-president, 
Carl F. Swanland, secretary, John F. McArdle, treasurer, J. M. Dailey, 
general agent automobile department. Writes, live stock mortality 
and automobile full coverage insurance. 

NEBRASKA STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Lin- 
coln, Neb. Organized 1915. Ernest C. Folsom, president; James F. 
Kinney, vice-president; Joseph S. Dickman, secretary and treasurer; 
H. E. Flansberg, medical director. 



354 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

NEVADA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1864-1922. In 
Nevada the state controller is ex-officio insurance commissioner. The 
official term of the controller is four years. [See Cyclopedia for 19 13- 
14 for list of former officials.] George A. Cole is the present controller. 

NEVADA STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Reno, 
Nevada. Organized 1917. John Etchbarren, president; Dr. Charles 
E. Mooser, vice-president; R. O. Longnecker, secretary-; T. O. Ward, 
treasurer; W. S. Harris, assistant secretary. 

NEW AMSTERDAM CASUALTY COMPANY, New York. 
Organized 1898; capital, $1,250,000. J. Arthur Nelson, president; 
Sifford Pearre, secretary and treasurer; F. H. Strickland and Wm. C. 
Hunter, assistant treasurers. 

NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY was chartered April i, 1835, and began business December 
I, 1843. Alfred D. Foster, president; D. F. Appel, vice-president; 
Reginald Foster, vice-president; Jacob A. Barbey, vice-president; 
George W. Smith, vice-president; Frank T. Partridge, secretary^; 
William F. Davis, Morris P. Capen, W^allace D. Dexter, Jr., Charles H. 
Flood and Dwight Foster, assistant secretaries; Herbert D. Bow, 
actuary; Glover S. Hastings, superintendent of agencies; Edwin W*. 
Dwight, M.D., medical director; David N. Blakely, M.D., and John 
Mason Little, M.D., assistant medical directors. 

NEW ENGLAND WOMEN'S LIFE UNDERWRITERS AS- 
SOCIATION was organized at the Parker House, Boston, Mass., 
November 29, 1898, by a number of women engaged in the life insur- 
ance and kindred business. The following officers were elected for 
the first year: Mrs. M. A. F. Potts, of the Mutual Life, preadent; 
Mrs. V. B. Peakes of the New York Life, first vice-president; Mrs. 
Flora A. Barker of the Phoenix Mutual Life, second vice-president; 
Miss Agnes McGuflFy, of the Mutual Life, secretary; Miss Frances 
Van Ballen of the New York Life, treasurer. The present o cers 
elected in March 1922, are: president, Mrs. Grace Coleman Lathrop, 
Equitable; vice-president, Mrs. Emma I. Clapp, Equitable; secretary. 
Miss Nellie M. Fee, Employers Liability; treasurer, Mrs. Hattie M. 
Leavitt. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1852- 
1922. The insurance department in New Hampshire was established 
in 1852. Originally the board consisted of three members, and after- 
ward of two. In 1870 the statute was modified, providing for the 
appointment of but one commissioner. [For list of earlier officials see 
Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14.] 

R. N. Eiwell, succeeded Robert J. Merrill, resigned, and the 
present commissioner is John T. Donohue. The tenure of the office is 
three years, the appointment being made by the governor and executive 
council. 



Life and Casualty Section 355 

NEW HAMPSHIRE LIFE UNDERWRITERS' CLUB was 
oreanized at Concord, May 31, 1889. The original officers were: 
John J. Dillon, president; George A. McKellar of Concord and John 
D. Chandler of N'ashua, vice-presidents; Charles E. Staniels of Con- 
cord, secretary; Charles S. Parker of Concord, treasurer. The present 
o t.cers elected in May, 1921, are: President, George L. Stearns, Massa- 
chusetts Mutual, Manchester; vice-president, F. A. Colton, State 
Mutual; secretary and treasurer, Edward L. Tucker. 

NEW JERSEY FIDELITY AND PLATE GLASS INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Newark, N. J. Organized 1868; capital, 
$500,000. C. Hoagland, president; V. E. H. Hoagland, vice-president; 
H. C. Hedden, secretary; W. D. VVard, treasurer; H. S. Hayes, assist- 
ant secretary; W. H. Saul, assistant treasurer. 

NEW JERSEY, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1875- 
1922. Under the general insurance law enacted April 9, 1875, Henry 
C. Kelsey, secretary of the state, became insurance commissioner 
ex officio f and he had charge of the supervision of the insurance busi- 
ness in the state until April i, 1891, when the act of February 10, 
i8qi, creating a department of banking and insurance, went into effect. 
[See Cyclopedia of Insurance for 19 13- 14 for list of former officials.] 

Frank H. Smith was appointed to succeed George M. LaMonte 
in 1917 and the present commissioner is Wm. E. Tuttle, Jr. The 
salary of the commissioner is $4,000 per annum, and his term of o^ce 
is three years. 

NEW JERSEY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Newark, 
N. J. Organized 191 7; capital, $300,000. The company re-insured in 
the Metropolitain Life Insurance Company in 192 1, and retired. 

NEW JERSEY MANUFACTURERS CASUALTY INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, Trenton, New Jersey. Organized 1913. Capital 
$100,000. J. P. Bird, president; Chas. W. Crane, vice-president; 
H. D. Leavitt, treasurer; W^ C. Billman, secretary. 

NEW MEXICO, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. The 
territorial act of February 18, 1882, required insurance companies 
to report to the territorial auditor. A separate insurance department 
was created in 1905, but the legislature in 1921 enacted a law abolishing 
the deptartment and placing the duties of supervision of insurance in 
the bank examiners otfice. K. P. M. Lienau was appointed insurance 
deputy under the bank examiner. 

NEW WORLD LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Spokane, 
Wash. Organized 19 10; John J. Cadigan, president; Edward J. 
O'Shea, vice-president and treasurer; Francis H. Benson, vice-presi- 
dent; R. C. Burton, actuary and secretary; Edward Base, assistant 
secretary; J. P. Fordyce, agency manager; Dr. P. J. Gallagher, medical 
director. 



356 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

NEW YORK FRATERNAL CONGRESS. The present officers, 
elected in January, 1922, are: President. George A. Scott. National 
Protective Legion, Waverty; vice-president, John J. Volk, The Macca- 
bees, Buffalo; secretary, Arthur F. Bouton, Golden Seal Assurance 
Society, Roxbury; treasurer, George E. Bailey, Jr., Independent Order 
of Foresters, Niagara Falls; executive committee, A. Horn, American 
Benefit Association. New York; Max L. Hollander, Independent Order 
Brith Abraham, New York; John O'Leary, Independent Order of 
Foresters, Clayton. 

NEW YORK LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, THE. Darwin 
P. Kingsley, president ; Thomas A. Buckner and Ruf us W. Weeks, vice- 
presidents; John C. McCall and Walker Buckner, second vice-presi- 
dents; Seymour M. Ballard, Frederick M. Corse, and Wilbur H. 
Pierson, secretaries; James M. Hudnut, Junior secretary; Norman R. 
Haskell, Leo H. McCall, Harry S. Ford, Geom M. Brasier and William 
F. RohlflFs, assistant secretaries; Robert E. Dedell, field secretary; 
Harold Palagano, treasurer; William Cheney, George A. Newkirk, 
Walton P. Kingsley and Frederick M. Johnson, assistant treasurers; 
Edward A. Anderson, Isaac E. Gillies and Frederick A. Jackson, 
comptrollers; L. Seton Lindsay, superintendent of agencies; Charles 
H. Langmuir, assistant superintendent of agencies; Grenville Howard, 
field editor; Peter Duncanson, financial director European depart- 
ment; Arthur Hunter, chief actuary; Arthur R. Grow, Adolph David- 
son, William Young and William Macfarlane, actuaries; Oscar H. 
Rogers, M.D., chief medical director; Morris L. King, M.D., Ernest H. 
Lines, M.D., and Thomas W. Bickerton, M.D., medical directors; 
Angier B. Hobbs, M.D., associate medical director; H. P. Woley, M. 
D., Calvin L. Harrison, M.D., Paul E. Tiemann, M.D., James H. 
North, M.D., Robert A. Fraser, M.D., and Paul Mazguri, assistant 
medical directors; George W. Hubbell and James H. Mcintosh, general 
counsel; Harry H. Bottome, general solicitor; Cornelius C. >\Tiite, 
auditor; John J. Hopper, cashier. 

The New York Life was organized as a purely mutual company in 
April, 1845, under the name "Nautilus Insurance Company." It was 
authorized to transact life, marine, inland navigation and transpor- 
tation, and fire insurance. Two fire policies were issued, but the first 
by-laws, adopted on June 2d, restricted the Company's business to 
"msurance on life andf all and every insurance (pertaining to life." In 
i8d9 the name was changed by an Act of the Legislature to "New York 
Lite Insurance Company", and its authority was enlarged to include 
the power to "make and execute trusts." Under an amendment to its 
charter, made in 1912, the Company is authorized to transact health 
and accident insurance. This was made to cover the Disability and 
Double Indemnity Benefits included in its present policies. The New 
York Life was the first company doing a general business to issue 
non- forfeiting policies, its action in this respect antedating the Massa- 
chusetts Non-forfeiture Law of May, 1861 by nearly eieht months. 
This Company was also the first life company to issue policies free of 



Life and Casualty Section 357 

all restrictions as to residence, occupation, travel and habits of life 
(1892). The Company at one time did business in everv civilized 
country, but of late has curtailed its business in foreign lands. Its 
foreign risks were so carefully selected and ^aded that the percentage 
of actual to expected mortality showed no increase on account of the 
Great War. The mortality in 1921 was the lowest of which the company 
has any record. The Company's admitted assets on December 31, 1921, 
(market values) were $952,632,138.80. 

NEW YORK PLATE GLASS INSURANCE COMPANY, 
63 Maiden Lane, New York. Organized 1891; capital $150,000. 
J. Carroll French, president; Chas. Jerome Edwards and Leopold S. 
Bache, vice-presidents; James K. Clark, secretary; Robert E. Robson, 
assistant secretary; Frederick E. Pohle, treasurer; William G. Maurer, 
auditor. 

NEW YORK PRINTERS AND BOOKBINDERS MUTUAL 
INSURANCE COMPANY, New York, N. Y. Organized 1914. 
J. W. Both well, president; John J. Lauben, secretary; Frederic C, 
Stevens, treasurer; Merton L, Griswold, assistant treasurer; C. F. von 
Dreusche, manager. 147 Fourth Ave. 

NEW YORK SAFETY RESERVE FUND, 1780 Broadway, 
New York, N. Y. Organized 1882. George L. Forrest, president; 
E. A. Kelley, secretary. Writes Life, health and accident insurance. 
Operates in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont. 

NEW YORK STATE, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 
1859-1922. Prior to 1850, the comptroller of New York state was 
charged with the duties of insurance supervision. The present insur- 
ance department was established under act of April 15, 1859, which 
became operative January i, i860. [For list of omcials and brief his- 
tory of department see Cyclopedia for 19 13-14 and earlier volumes.] 

Jesse S. Phillips was appointed in July, 1915 and re-appointed in 
1918 and 1 92 1, but resigned in Novembfer 1921, and Frank J. Stod- 
dart was appointed his successor. The official term is three years, 
and the annual salary $10,000. Henry D. Appleton is deputy super- 
intendent. 

NEW YORK TITLE AND MORTGAGE COMPANY, New 
York, N. Y. Organized in 1901 as The Title Insurance Company of 
New York. Capital, $4,000,000. Harry A. Kahler, president; Cyril H. 
Burdett, Henry S. Acken, vice-presidents; Gerhard Kuehne, vice- 
president and secretary; Ernest J. Habighorst, Hubert F. Breitwieser, 
vice-presidents; Joseph L. Obermayer, treasurer; Nelson A. Mersereau, 
Louis Palefetrant, Harry E. Kuhlman, Frank L. Stiles, Joseph C. 
Shields, Alfred C. Busch, assistant secretaries; Edward Mullowney, 
assistant treasurer. 



358 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

NIAGARA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Buffalo, X. Y. 
Organized 1869; reorganized as stock company 1899; cash capital, 
$150,000. Wilbur C. Dixon, president; Victor Berlin, vice-president 
and treasurer; J. F. Warner, vice-president; F. H. Beilstein, secretary. 
Carl F. Stratford, superintendent of agencies. 

NON-FORFEITURE LIFE INSURANCE LAWS. The first 
law of this kind was brought before the legislature of Massachusetts 
in 1859 by Elizur Wright, then one of the insurance commissioners 
of that state, and in 1861 the law was passed. It provided that pol- 
icies of life insurance should not be forfeited for non-payment of prem- 
iums, but that eighty per cent of the reserve at the time of the failure 
to pay any premium should be used as a single net premium for term 
insurance. In 1880 this law was changed by the le^[islature so as to 
compel surrender values to be paid in cash where insurable interest 
had ceased, and in other cases used to purchase paid-up insurance, to 
be paid at the same time as the original policy. ^ This law only applied 
after two full annual premiums had been paid. In the revision of 
1887 the law was again changed. The first law applied to ail policies 
issued between the ninth day of May, 1 861, and the first day of Janu- 
ary, 1 88 1. The second applied to all policies issued between January 
I, 188 1, and April 21, 1887. 

California passed a law in 1872, amended 1880; Maine in 1877, 
amended 1887; Michigan in 1869, amended 1881; Missouri in 1879, 
amended 1903; New York in 1879, amended in 1892 and 1906; New 
Jersey in 1895; New Hampshire 1897; Colorado 1907, and West Vir- 
ginia, 1907; and Louisiana, 1906; Kentucky, amended in 1902. [For 
full text of laws see Cyclopedia for 1907-1908, and earlier volumes.] 

Up to 1906 the above were all the laws regulating the forfeiture 
of life insurance policies in force, and the practice of companies makes 
such legislation unnecessary. However, such laws were enacted in 
Louisiana in 1906 and the New York law was amended, and in 1907 
Colorado and West Virginia enacted such a law. 

In addition to the above, legislation has been enacted in several 
states since 1906, prescribing standard provisions to be contained in 
policies of life insurance, and among the prescribed provisions is one 
against forfeiture. 

The Missouri law was declared unconstitutional by the United 
States Supreme Court in 1918. 

NORTH AMERICAN ACCIDENT INSURANCE COM- 
PANY of Chicago. Organized 1886; reincorporated in 1899 as a 
stock company; capital, $200,000. E. C. Waller, president and treas- 
urer; A. E. Forrest, vice-president and secretary; H. A. Luther, second 
vice-president and agency manager; F. J. Forest and Edward St. 
Clair, assistant secretaries. 



Life and Casualty Section 359 

NORTH AMERICAN LIFE AND CASUALTY COMPANY, 
Minneapolis, Minn. Organized 1896 as an assessment company; 
reorganized as legal reserve company in 1915; capital, $125,000. 
Z. H. Austin, president. R. H. Wells, vice-president; Henry M. 
Little, secretary; E. G. Thomas, cashier; D. D. Mclnnis, treasurer 
and superintendent of agents; F. J. Huch, assistant secretary. 

NORTH AMERICAN LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY OF 
CANADA, Toronto, Can. Organized 1881; entered the United 
States in 1899. L. Goldman, president and managing director; W. K. 
George and Col. D. McCrae, vice-presidents; W. B. Taylor, sec- 
retary; C. VV. Strathy, treasurer; D. E. Kilgour, actuary; E. J. 
Harvey, supervisor of agencies. 

NORTH AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY of 
Chicago, 111. Organized 1907; capital, $700,000. John H. McNam- 
ara, president; E. S. Ashbrook, vice-president; Albert Schurr, second 
vice-president; T. J. Fleming, third vice-president; W. P. Kent, 
secretary and treasurer; J. H. McCarthy, superintendent of agencies; 
Wm. O. Morris, actuary and assistant secretary; Dr. Charles B. Irwin, 
medical director; Thomas E. Rooney, general counsel. 

NORTH AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Omaha, Neb. Organized 1906. G. L. E. Klingbeil, president; George 
J. Haslam, M. D., F. A. C. S., vice-president and medical director; 
D. D. Hall, secretary; W. W. Young, treasurer and general counsel; 
A. A. Speers, B.A., F.A.S., actuary. A. H. Klekamp, superintendent 
of agents. 

NORTH CAROLINA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. 
1 874- 1 922. The secretary of state was originally the supervisor of 
insurance interests in North Carolina, under general statutes of 1874- 
1875, but in February, 1899, the legislature created a distinct state 
department of insurance. The insurance commissioner is elected 
for a term of two years. James R. Young was elected the first com- 
missioner, and continued in the o'^ce until 1920 when he was succeeded 
by Stacy Wade. (For list of supervising officials see Cyclopedia for 
1913-14.) 

NORTH CAROLINA MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Durham, N. C. Organized 1899. A. M. Moore, M.D., presi- 
dent; J. M. Avery, vice-president; C. C. Spaulding, secretary and 
treasurer; E. R. Merrick, assistant secretary; Clyde Donnell, M.D., 
medical director; W. J. Kennedy, assistant secretary. 

NORTH DAKOTA ASSOCIATION OF LIFE UNDER- 
WRITERS, was organized at a meeting held in Fargo in January, 
I9i3» The officers elected were: President, A. N. Hathaway, Fidel- 



360 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

itv Mutual, Fargo; vice-presidents, Eugene Fretz, Northwestern 
Mutual and F. W. Thomas, Phcenix Mutual; secretary, Georae H. 
Olmstedf New York Life, Grand Forks; treasurer, John F. Treat, 
Germania Life. The present officers, elected in February, 1922, are: 
A. T. Lynner, president; Wm. A. Burns and C. H. Simpson, vice- 
presidents; W. A. Crary, Northwestern National Life, secretary; 
J. Frank Treat, treasurer. 

NORTH DAKOTA, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN, 1883- 
1922. The office of commissioner of insurance in North Dakota 
was created by the constitutional convention, the provision therefor 
bein^ made effective by act approved December 4, 1890. The com- 
missioner is elected by the people for a term of two years. 

Prior to April 6, 1883, all insurance business was done through 
the office of the territorial secretary. [For list of supervising officials 
see Cyclopedia for 19 13- 14.] 

W. C. Taylor was elected in 1910, and was succeeded in 1917 by 
S. A. Olsness. 

NORTHERN ASSURANCE COMPANY OF MICHIGAN. 
Detroit, Mich. (See American Life Insurance Company, Detroit, 
Mich.) 

NORTHERN CASUALTY COMPANY, Aberdeen, South Dakota. 
Organized 191 1. Isaac Lincoln, president; C. H. Russell and F. L. 
Clisby, vice-presidents; Theo. Wasnuk, secretary; Roswell Bottum, 
toeasurer; Frank S. Wilder, managing underwriter. 

NORTHERN INDEMNITY CORPORATION THE, 152 Louis 
Street, Grand Rapids, Michigan. Organized 1914; Paid in Capital 
$320,243.87; Colon C. Lillie, president; Lowry Vahey, Charles B. 
Scully and L. H. Ives, vice-presidents; H. J. Wells, secretary and 
treasurer. This was formerly known as the Peninsular Casualty 
Company, present title adopted in 1922. 

NORTHERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Seattle, Wash. 
Organized, 1906; capital, paid-in, $250,000. D. B. Morgan, president; 
F. K. Struve, vice-president; T. S. Lippy, vice-president; Jas. B. 
Eagleson, vice-president and medical director; Arthur P. Johnson, 
secretary; Jno. F. Bamford, assistant to the president; J. H. Sargent 
assistant secretary; E. S. Campau, agency supervisor. 

NORTHERN STATES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, 
Minneapolis, Minn. Organized 19 18. F. W. Dal ton, president; 
M. F. Wagner, vice-president; R. F. Marquis, actuary; W. F. Robert- 
son, secretary and treasurer. 



Life and Casualty Section 361 

NORTHWESTERN CASUALTY AND SURETY COMPANY, 
Milwaukee, Wis. Organized 1921; capital $1,000,000. Herman 
Fehr, president; Carl A. Johnson and E. M. McMahon, vice-presi- 
dents; Howard Green, secretary; E, A. Reddeman treasurer; C. H. 
Franklin, general manager. 

NORTHWESTERN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Omaha, 
Neb. Organized 19 19; capital $101,008. C. G. Smith, president; 
P. J. Harrison, secretary. 

NORTHWESTERN MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, THE, of Milwaukee, Wis., was incorporated March 2, 1857, 
under the name of " The Mutual Life Insurance Company of the 
State of Wisconsin." 

In January, 1865, the name of the Company was changed by 
legislative enactment to its present form. Insurance is effects only 
on the lives of carefully selected males residing in the healthful por- 
tions of the United States, resulting in a very favorable mortality 
experience. In 1870, the Company adopted the Actuaries' four per 
cent basis February i, 1899. On January i, 1922, the assets of the 
Company were $507,085,694.32 and there were 759,603 policies in force 
in the sum of $2,350,450,298. 

The officers and official staff of the Company are: W. D. Van 
Dyke, president; P. R. Sanborn, vice-president; M. J. Cleary, vice- 
president; George Lines, general counsel; A. S. Hathaway, secretary; 
Percy H. Evans, actuary; J. W. Fisher, M. D., medical director; 
George E. Copeland, superintendent of agencies; Joseph R. Dyer, 
Sam T. Swansen and H. N. Laflin, assistant counsel; Evan D. Jones, 
T. J. Knox, G. L. Anderson, and Ralph E.Perry, assistant secretaries, 
Frank C. Hemsing and Arthur Coburn, assistant actuaries; G. A. Har- 
low, M.D., Wm. Thorndike, M.D., D. E. W. Wenstrand, M.D., and 
L. G. Sykes, M.D., assistant medical directors; M. H. O. Williams 
John J. Hughes, and W. H. Dallas, assistant superintendents of agencies; 
Shepard E. Barry, auditor; E. H. Hooker, superintendent of claims; 
Jos. T. Gallagher, assistant superintendent of claims; F. E. Wilman, 
superintendent of bonds; F. P. Price, sup>erintendent of mortgage loans; 
Frank C. Lewis, superintendent of loan agents; W. E. Griswold, mana- 
ger of mortgage loans: W. P. Behling, cashier; J. E. Birkhaeuser, 
assistant cashier; O. G. Rieck, superintendent of supplies. 

NORTHWESTERN NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COM- 
PANY, Minneapolis, Minn. Organized 1885. John T. Baxter, presi- 
dent; H. W. Cook, M. D., vice-president and medical director; W. 
Rolla Wilson, second vice-president and superintendent of agents; 
J. Stewart Hale, actuary; Maurice V. Jenness, secretary; E. W. Hill- 
"weg, assistant secretary; Henry B. Tillotson, Jr., assistant secretary; 
O. J. Johnson, M.D., assistant medical director; E. D. Lacy, assistant 
actuary; Hugh Pritchard, auditor; Henry F. White, treasurer. 



362 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

NORWEGIAN GLOBE INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD., of 
Christiania, Norway. The assets, liabilities and business was taken 
over by the General Casualty and Surety Re-insurance Compiany, 
New York in 1922 (which see.) 

NORWICH UNION INDEMNITY COMPANY of New York; 
organized in 19 IQ; capital $500,000. Walter G. Falconer, president and 
manager; John 6. Mays, secretary; John F. Clark, treasurer; Edward 
B. Thistle, assistant secretary. In .^pril, 1921, the company was 
licensed in the following states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, 
District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming. Home 
office, 45 John Street, New York. 



o 



OCCIDENTAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Los Ange- 
les, Cal. Organized 1906; capital, $250,000. H. J. Burkhard, presi- 
dent; J. F. Burkhard, vice-president; E. L. Blanchard, second vice- 
president; Robert J. Giles, secretary and general manager; John W. 
Vaughn, treasurer; Francis M. Hope, actuary; Benjamin E. Page, 
counsel; W. W. Hitchcock, M.D., medical director; Dudley Fulton, 
M. D. .assistant medical director; Pierce L. Davies, assistant secretary. 

OCCIDENTAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Albuquerque, 
N. M. Organized 1907; cash capital, $140,000. A. B. McMillen, 
president; George Roslington, vice-president and secretary; Walter 
Koneman, assistant secretary and actuary; W. G. DorfF, superinten- 
dent of agencies; R. A. Gibson, assistant secretary. 

OCEAN ACCIDENT AND GUARANTEE CORPORATION, 
THE, LTD., of London, England. New York Office, 114 Fifth Avenue, 
New York, N. Y. Charles H. Neely, manager and attorney. 

OFFICIAL CHANGES IN INSURANCE COMPANIES IN 
192 1. The official changes in life, casualty, and miscellaneous com- 
panies in 192 1 were as follows: 

Bankers Life. Des Moines — B. N. Mills and Martin Row appointed assistant secre- 
taries. 
Columbia Life, Omaha, Neb. — H. C. Mason elected president; F. W. Arndt elected 

secretary and treasurer; A. W. Mason, assistant secretary and J. H. Thomsen, 

medical director. Home office moved from Fremont to Omaha. 
Commonwealth Life, Omaha, Neb. — F. J. Enkling elected president and Charles 

Whitefield, secretap'^. 
Continental, Kansas City, Mo. — Bedford Berkshire elected president to succeed J. W. 

Cooper, resigned. W. A. Rule elected vice-president to succeed J. M. Ingram. 
Continental Life, Wilmington. Del. — Otley E. Sunpers appointed treasurer and assistant 

secretary succeeding John D. Kurtz, deceased; Adolph A. Rydgren appointed 

actuary and Lester A. Bosworth actuary of the research bureau. 
Equitable Life Assurance Society, New York — Dr. John A. Stevenson appointed a 

second v^ice-president. 
Equitable Life, Iowa — H. S. Nollen elected president, succeeding F. M. Hubbell; F. C. 

Hubbell elected vice-president. 
Great Republic Life, Los Angeles, Cal. — A. Otis Birch, elected president, succeeding 

E. C. Cooper, retired. 
Great Southern Life, Dallas, Texas — E. P. Greenwood elected president, succeeding 

O.S. Carlton. 
International Life, St .Louis — Alfred L. Harty elected treasurer. 
Inter Southern Life, Louisville. Ky. — Hanlcy Reed, elected secretary. 
Iowa Life. Waterloo, la. — Charles Wright elected president to succeed J. E. Johnson, 

he succeeded in turn H. A. Ferguson, resigned. 
John Hancock Mutual Life — Walton L. Crocker elected president to succeed Roland O. 

Lamb, deceased; Robert K. Eaton elected vice-president, John L. Wakefield 

elected second vice-president, Fred E. Nason, elected third vice-president, Elbert 

H. Brock elected fourth vice-president. 
Lafayette Mutual Life, Lambertin, S. C. — Emanuel Barrick elected president; Charles 

R. Adams, vice-president and I. Morten Adams, secretary. 
Masonic Mutual, Washington D. C. — E. H. Burke elected vice-president. 



364 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

Metropolitan Life, New York — James V. Barry, appointed fourth vice-president; 
Ernest H. Wilkes, appointed fourth vice-president; George Doyen appointed 
superintendent of agencies succeeding H. H. Kay. John R. Hegeman resigned as 
assistant secretary. 

Midland Life, Kansas City, Mo. — ^Walter J. Bates elected vice-president. 

Missouri State Life — John J. Crowley, elected vice-president in charge of accident and 
health insurance department. 

Mutual Life, Chicago, 111. — James S. Fairlie appointed vice-president and actuary. 

New England Mutual Life—Charles H. Flood and Dwight Foster elected assistant 
secretaries. 

Niagara Life, Buffalo, N. Y. — ^W. C. Dixon elected president succeeding E. N. Burke, 
resigned, Victor Birlin and J. F. Warner, elected vice-presidents. 

Old Colony Life, Chicago — Joseph McCauley elected president; R. C. Van Dyke, vice- 
president and secretary. 

Old Line Life, Milwaukee — F. X. Boddin. elected first vice-president, and Thomas H. 
Rice, second vice-presidents. 

Penn. Mutual Life, Philadelphia — Sydney A. Smith, elected secretary; Paul Alexander 
treasurer. 

Philadelphia Life — Clifford Maloney elected president to succeed Andrew J. Maloney, 
deceased. 

Prairie Life, Omaha, Neb. — H. L. McGrew elected secretary to succeed E. A. Johnson. 

Re-insurance Life, Des Moines — M. R. Nelson, resigned as vice-president, and ap- 
pointed agency manager of the Preferred Risk Life insurance company, Des Moines 
R. M. Malpas elected secretary to succeed F. D. Harsh, resigned. 

Southern Life and Trust, Greensboro, N. C. — H. B. Gunter, elected vice-president to 
succeed R. J. Mebane. 

Standard Life, Pittsburg, Pa., J. D. Van Scoten, appointed superintendent of agendes. 

Union Central Life, Cincinnati, Ohio — John D. Sage elected president, to succeed 
Jesse R. Clark, deceased. Allan Waters, elected vice-president and chairman 
of the Board of directors; George L. Williams elected vice-president; R. Fred 
Rust, secretary; Jesse R. Clark, Jr., treasurer; Charles Hommeyer, appointed 
superintendent of agents and Philip J. Clark, assistant superintendent of agents. 

United Fidelity Life, Dallas, Texas— M. H. Wolfe, elected president to succeed D. E. 
Waggoner, who became chairman of the board of directors; H. L Gahagan elected 
vice-president. 

CASUALTY AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Columbia Casualty — B. L. Dowell. appointed manager of the Pacific Coast department. 

to succeed Charles J. Hoi man. 
Continental Casualty, Chicago, 111. — ^W H. Betts, formerly secretary, elected vice- 
president; Martin P. Cornelius elected vice-president; E. G. Timroe, elected 

secretary and assistant treasurer, D. W. Fall and F. I. Hooper, elected assistant 

secretaries. 
Detroit Bonding and Mortgage Guarantee Company, Detroit, Mich. — ^Homer H. 

McKee, elected vice-president and director. 
Hartford Steam Boiler — W. R. C. Corson elected vice-president and treasurer; L. F. 

Middlebrook elected secretary. 
Indemnity Company of America, St. Louis, Mo. — E. V. Mitchell, vice-president and 

general manager. 
Kansas Central Indemnity, Hutchinson, Kansas — J. D. Sackett, resigned as vice- 
president and general manager. 
Lumber Mutual Casualty Company. New York — Rufus C. Sisson and T. A. Mahlstedt 

elected vice-presidents and Thomas H. Silver manager; Eugene F. Perry, resigned 

as vice-president and manager. 
Maryland Casualty, Baltimore — Eugene F. Hord, elected vice-president. 
National Surety, New York — John L. Mee. F. M. Hugo, Luther E. Mackall and 

William Hugh Harris, appointed vice-presidents. 
New Amsterdam Casualty, New York — W. L. Langford and Boyd Nelson elected 

secretaries. 
New York Plate Glass, New York. N. Y. — J. C. French, elected president; James K. 

Clarke elected assistant secretary. 
Union Indemnity. New Orleans. La. — C. Clark Howard resigned as vice-president and 

agency director; T. H. Darling resigned as resident treasurer in New York. 

&lward Cory and H. E. Weisenborn elected vice-presidents. 
United States Casualty. New York — Earl C. Hunt appointed third assistant secretary. 
Zurich — Arthur H. Collins appointed United States manager; John A. Diemond 

assistant manager. 



Life and Casualty Section 365 

OHIO CASUALTY INSURANCE COMPANY, Hamilton. Ohio. 
Organized 1920; capital $200,000. B. D. Lecklider, president; How- 
ard Slonecker, secretary. 

OHIO. INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. 1867-1922. By acU 
approved April 15. 1867, the auditor of state in Ohio was charged 
with insurance supervision. March 12, 1872. an act was passed estab- 
lishing a state insurance department under a superintendent of insur- 
ance, to be appointed by the governor for a term of three years. [See 
Cyclopedia for 1913-14 for list of former officials.] 

William H. Tomlinson, appointed in 19 17, resigned in 1920 and 
was succeeded by Robert T. Crew. Bert W. Gearhart is the present 
superintendent appointed in 1921. 

OHIO NATIONAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. Organized 1909; capital, $447,210. Albert Bettinger, 
president; J. T. Hatfield and A. H. Heisey, vice-presidents; T.^. 
Appleby, secretary and agency manager; E. M. Willmes, acting 
treasurer; Walter Schmitt, general counsel; S. J. Blashill, assistant 
secretary; Geo. W. Brown, medical director. 

OHIO STATE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Columbus, 
Ohio. Orranized 1906; capital, $225,000. John M. Siarver, presi- 
dent; U. §. Brandt, vice-president and counsel; Irving Drew, second 
vice-president; Joel C. Clore, third vice-president; Joseph K. Bye, 
secretary and treasurer; C. E. Schilling, M. D., and T. W. Rankin, 
M. D., medical directors. 

Oklahoma; insurance supervision in, 1890-1922. 

Under the territorial law the secretary of the territory is ex officio 
commissioner of insurance. The law authorizing the department 
went into effect December 24, 1890. The headquarters are at Guthrie. 
A. L. Welch resigned in 192 1 and the present commissioner is E. A. 
Hardin. 

OKLAHOMA LIFE UNDERWRITERS ASSOCIATION was 
oreanized in 1909, with the following officers: President, J. Henry 
Johnson, National Life of Vermont; vice-president, O. F. Wilson, 
iEtna; secretary, Fred H. McClesky, Pruaential; treasurer, J. O. 
Mattison, Mutual Benefit. The officers elected at the annual meeting 
held in January, 1922, are: Marmaduke Corbyn, president; Edward 
A. Braniff, vice-president; J. A. Driskell, Colcord Bldg. Oklahoma 
City, secretary; Charles F. Linder, treasurer. 

OKLAHOMA LIVE STOCK INSURANCE COMPANY, Okla- 
homa City, Okla. Organized 191 7; capital, paid in, $55,000. The 
company is in process of liquidation. 

OLD COLONY LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Chicago, 
111. Organized 1^7; capital, $126,552. B. R. Nueske, president; 
A. W. ^thbun, vice-president; Joseph McGauley, vice-president and 
treasurer; R. C. Van Dyke, vice-president and secretary. 



366 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

OLD LINE INSURANCE COMPANY, 204 South irth Street. 
Lincoln, Neb. Organized 1913; capital, paid-in, $200,000. John G. 
Maher, president; R. H. Fali, vice-president; E. P. Martin, assistant 
secretary; D. W. Killeen, treasurer; Blake Maher, superintendent of 
agencies; H. S. Wiggins, actuary. 

OLD LINE LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY THE, Milwaukee, 
Wis. Organized 1910; cash capital, $672,635. Rupert F. Fr>', presi- 
dent; F. X. Bodden, vice-president; T. H. Rice, vice-president; 
John E. Reilly, secretary and treasurer; F. J. Tharinger, assistant 
secretary; L. C. Cortright, actuary and assistant secretary; F. B. 
Golley, medical director; Lawrence A. Olwell, general counsel. 

OMAHA LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Omaha, Neb. E. M. 
Searle, Jr., president; W. E. McCandless and John R. W^ertz, vice- 
presidents; H. E. Worrell, secretary and treasurer. 

OREGON, INSURANCE SUPERVISION IN. 1887-1922. The 
secretary of state in Oregon was ex-ofHcio insurance commissioner 
under the legislative act of 1887. The legislature in 1909 created a 
separate insurance department. The insurance commissioner is ap- 
pointed by the governor for a term of four years at a salary of $3,000 
per annum. Harvey Wells was appointed in 191 5 and reappointed in 
19 1 7, and the present commissioner is A. C. Barber appointed in 1919 

OREGON LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Portland, Ore. 
Organized 1906; guarantee fund, $100,000. A. L. Mills, president: 
Adolphe Wolfe, first vice-president; Louis G. Clarke, second vice-presi- 
dent; Wm. Pollman, third vice-president; C. S. Samuel, general man- 
ager; E. N. Strong, assistant manager; Sanford Smith, secretary; 
C. F. Adams, treasurer; Raymond R. Brown, actuary'. 

OREGON SURETY AND CASUALTY COMPANY, Portland, 
Ore. Organized 1910; capital, $100,000. O. M. Clark, president; 
R. W. Wilbur, vice-president; A. M. Smith, H. A. Whitney and H. B. 
Beckett, vice-presidents; L. M. Koon, secretary and treasurer. 

OUR HOME LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, Jacksonville, 
Fla. Organized 19 10; cash capital, $96,537; authorized. $200,000. 
C. R. Allen, president; J. A. McLaurin, vice-president; R, S. Hall, 
second vice-president; F. C. Burnham, third vice-president and secre- 
tary; G. W. Rhodes, fourth vice-president: W. H. Milton, treasurer; 
H. L. Bethel, superintendent of agents; H. F. Palmer, medical director. 



p 



PACIFIC MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY OF CAL- 
IFORNIA THE, Los Angeles, Cal. Organized 1868; capital, $1,200,- 
000. George I. Cochran, president; Lee A. Phillips, vice-president and 
treasurer; Danford M. Baker, vice-president and superintendent of 
agencies; W. H. Davis, vice-president and general counsel; Rich J. 
Mier, vice-president, accident department; W. W. Beckett, vice- 
president and medical director; C. I. D. Moore, vice-president and 
superintendent of agencies; S. F. McClung, secretary; Alfred G. Hann, 
actuary; Claude A. Wayne, assistant actuary. 

PAN-AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, New Or- 
leans, La. Organized 19 12; capital, paid-up, $1,000,000. Craw- 
ford H. Ellis, president; E. G. Simmons, vice-president and general 
manager; Dr. Marion Souchen, vice-president and medical director; 
Eugene J. McGivney, vice-president and general counsel; A. Dumser 
and W. B. Thompson, vice-presidents; James E. Woodward, secretary; 
S. E. Allison, actuary; F. W. Gleason, treasurer; R. O. Davidson 
manager Accident and Health Department; C. D. Corey, superin- 
tendent of agents; Franz Hindermann, Jr., assistant treasurer; Fisher 
E. Simmons, assistant secretary; A. B. Westerfield, assistant actuary; 
J. E. Davis, auditor. 

PARTICIPATING — NON-PARTICIPATING. These two 
terms are employed in life insurance to differentiate policy contracts, the 
amount of the premium loadings on which are unlike. That is the 
fundamental difference and all others grow out of it. Given two com- 
panies calculating reserves on the same interest basis, the one issuing 
particii>ating and the other non-participating policies, the net premiums 
will be identical on the same policy forms; but the loading on the 
I>articipating policy will be greater than that on the non-participating 
and, as a result, the gross premium for the latter will be less than 
that fixed for the former. Under the participating contract the holder 
will have returned to him at stated periods, generally once a year, 
such proportion of the aggregate savings made by the company on 
mortality and expenses and gains in interest as may be justified by 
exjjerience during that time, thus reducing the expense to what is 
termed the net cost; while under the non-participating contract there 
is no such provision, the amount of the gross premium charged being 
also the net cost. As may be seen, the participating is a mutual pol- 
icy and the non-participating is not, such margin of gains as may 
accrue from the latter going into the general surplus fund of the com- 
pany. At one time it was common for purely mutual companies to 
issue both kinds of contracts, such gains as were made on non-partici- 
pating policies being credited tt> the participating class, but this cus- 
tom is now very properly, generally discontinued, the mutuals confin- 



368 Cyclopedia of Insurance 

ing themselves strictly to the transaction of a participating business. 
Under the laws of the more impo