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Full text of "Annual flowers for Canadian gardens"

*# . ° 4 1973 



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Copies of this publication may be obtained from 

INFORMATION DIVISION 

CANADA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

OTTAWA 

K1A0C7 

©INFORMATION CANADA, OTTAWA, 1973 

First published 1947 

Reprinted 1957, 1965, 1971 

Revised 1950, 1955, 1961, 1966, 1973 

15M-36424-5:73 Cat No. A53-796 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Uses of annual flowers . . • 3 

Plans for arrangement of annuals 4 

Seed and seed sowing 4 

Dates of sowing 4 

Sowing in pots and flats 6 

Temperature for germination 8 

Transplanting and cultivation 8 

Pricking off the seedlings 8 

Preparing the bed 9 

Setting out the plants 9 

Cultivation 9 

Saving seed 9 

Insects and diseases 10 

Descriptions of annuals 10 

Ornamental grasses 24 

Annuals for special purposes 25 

For colorful beds and borders of solid color 25 

Climbers 26 

Cut flowers 26 

Fragrance 27 

Foliage 27 

Everlasting flowers for winter bouquets 27 

For rock gardens 27 

For window boxes 27 

Hedges 27 

Annuals that will flower in partial shade 27 

Annuals especially adapted to hot sandy soil and full sunshine 28 

Annuals that do well in sand when they receive enough moisture, 

but prefer heavier soil and less direct sun 28 

Common and botanical names, and sowing classes of annuals 29 



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PLANS FOR ARRANGEMENT OF ANNUALS 









R. W. Oliver 1 

Plant Research Institute 
Ottawa, Ontario 

USES OF ANNUAL FLOWERS 

Annual flowers have many uses. They improve the appearance of even the 
smallest garden. On the grounds of new homes they provide color and interest 
before the permanent plantings of trees and shrubs take shape. They also solve 
the problem of what to grow in the gardens of rented homes where tenants do not 
wish to spend money for more permanent plants. Even where the soil is sandy 
and poor, a few inexpensive packets of seed of alyssum, calendulas, marigolds, 
phlox and zinnias will provide attractive color in the garden and plenty of cut 
flowers for indoors during the summer. 

Annual flowers are also very useful in perennial borders. In summer and 
autumn, even well-planned borders have bare spots from which earlier-flowering 
plants have disappeared. For example, daffodils and tulips, which add so much 
beauty to the spring garden, leave large vacant spaces when their foliage dies. 
Annuals can be transplanted to fill these spaces nicely if you select colors that 
will not clash with the surrounding perennials in bloom at the same time. 

When planting a new shrubbery, leave sufficient room between shrubs for 
them to develop, and plant annuals in these spaces for a few years. Annual 
flowers may also be planted in front of the shrubs to provide color after the 
shrubs finish flowering. 

Annuals are excellent for cut flowers as they continue to bloom if the flowers 
are cut before they go to seed. The best way to grow flowers for cutting is in 
rows in the vegetable garden, or between it and the lawn. A "cutting garden" 
provides you and your friends with flowers without spoiling main border 
displays. If a cutting garden is not possible, plant good cutting flowers in the 
display part of the garden. 

If space is available, a special garden for annual flowers may be made by 
creating beds of various shapes and sizes to fit the area. You should plan this 
carefully to scale on paper. 

Before deciding what kinds of annuals to grow, consult the lists beginning 
on page 25. Also, remember that annual flowers like sun and very few will bloom 
satisfactorily in a shaded location. Seed catalogues will help you in choosing 
varieties of the desired height and color. 

Annual plants complete their cycle of growth in one year but most perennials 
continue to grow year after year. Some tender perennials, such as petunia and 
snapdragon, bloom the first summer from seed sown in the spring. In our climate 
these do not naturally complete their cycle as perennials because they are killed 
by frost. For this reason they are grown as annuals and so are included in this 
publication. 



Retired, 1962. 



4 

PLANS FOR ARRANGEMENT OF ANNUALS 

The plan on page 2 is not intended to be a complete plan for one garden. 
The positions of the beds and the surrounding shrubbery and evergreens would 
be satisfactory but, in a formal garden like this, the flowers should be arranged 
with some symmetry. For example, if marigolds and verbena were used in a bed 
on the right-hand side, the same plants (or ones of similar color and habit) 
should be used on the left. If the long border on one side is of mixed colors, and 
has an informal arrangement, the border on the other side should match it. 
Carrying out all the combinations shown on the plan in one garden would be a 
great mistake. 

The plan gives several arrangements for individual beds and sections of the 
long left-hand borders. You may choose the combinations of flowers most 
suitable for particular beds. 

A symmetrical garden such as this would be out of place with many of the 
modern homes. With these it is more appropriate to use color in bolder, angular 
patterns or blocks arranged without symmetry. 

Most home owners want a flower border simply to give color in the garden 
and cut flowers for the house. Such a border may be arranged according to the 
plan on page 5. 

SEED AND SEED SOWING 

Annuals are grown from seed each year. The first step is to obtain good seed 
from a reliable dealer. Seed collected in a garden where several varieties of the 
same plant, such as zinnia, are grown near one another will not produce plants 
true to type. 

Dates of Sowing 

Annuals, and perennials grown as annuals, may be divided into four groups 
according to the length of time it takes plants to bloom after seed sowing. The 
following dates of sowing are arranged so as to have plants in bloom about the 
middle of July at Ottawa. In milder or more severe climates the date of sowing 
will be advanced or retarded but the numbers of days remain fairly constant. 

(a) Those requiring only 60 to 70 days from seed to bloom. Sow these in a 
cold frame about May 1, or in the open ground between May 10 
and 15. 

(b) Those requiring 80 to 90 days. These may be sown indoors or in a 
hotbed between April 15 and 20. 

(c) Those requiring 90 to 100 days. Sow these indoors or in a hotbed about 
April 1. If a greenhouse is available, March 20 would be advisable. 

(d) Those requiring 110 days or more. Sow in a greenhouse only, between 
February 20 and March 1. 

In the list of common and botanical names at the back of this publication, 
all plants are marked by the letter of the group to which they belong for seed 
sowing. 

The hazards of raising plants in the open garden are greater than raising 
them indoors, though less labor is involved. Most annuals are started indoors. 
If a greenhouse or conservatory, or a bright sunroom, is not available, a cabinet 





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6 

can be built in the basement with ample light provided by fluorescent lighting 
fixtures. Plants can also be grown early in covered hotbeds or cold frames out- 
doors. 

Sowing the seed too early is the most common mistake made in handling 
annuals. The above dates are useful as a guide. Note that, unless a greenhouse is 
available, the earliest date recommended for indoor planting at Ottawa is April 1. 
Seed sown indoors before this usually produces spindly plants. These are sus- 
ceptible to a fungus disease known as damping-ofT. The average gardener who 
wants to grow plants that come within groups c and d, above, is wiser to buy 
them on the market and transplant them rather than attempt to grow them from 
seed himself. 

Seeds of many annuals can be sown directly into the garden about May 10 
at Ottawa, and earlier in milder districts. Scatter such seeds thinly over the 
surface of a well-prepared bed and cover lightly with sifted soil. Sprinkle with a 
fine spray each day until the young plants are large enough to thin out, first to 
an inch or so apart and later to the proper distance for mature plants. This 
distance varies with species. 

Sowing in Pots and Flats 

A good soil mixture is necessary when seeds are to be sown indoors in pots 
or in shallow boxes called flats (Figure 1). Two parts of loam, one of peat moss 
and one of sand will provide good drainage and yet hold plenty of moisture. 

To avoid the disease called damping-ofT, the soil should be sterilized. The 
methods that have been used for some time are: (1) Pass boiling water or steam 
through the earth until the temperature rises to 180° F. and keep the soil at this 

FIGURE 1 - Equipment for seed sowing. 1 Seed pan. 2 Tampers. 3 Flat filled with earth. 4 Bits of 
broken pot. 5 Sieve. 6 Dibble. 7 Labels. 





FIGURE 2 - Sowing seeds in pot. Note sterilized soil in background and round tamper at left. 



temperature for half an hour. (2) Sprinkle a bushel of soil with a quart of water 
containing 2 J tablespoons of formaldehyde and cover it with a sheet of plastic 
overnight. In either case, the earth cannot be used for a few days. 

The easier and more modern method is to use a commercial preparation for 
soil sterilizing according to the manufacturer's directions. 

After sterilizing, mix and air the soil thoroughly before filling the pots or 
flats. Place a few stones or pieces of broken pot in the bottom of each pot for 
drainage. Fill the pots or flats to within an inch of the top with the coarse soil 
mixture and add sifted soil until it is level with the top. Use a can or round tamper 
to press the earth smooth and level to about \ inch below the rim of the pot. 
Some gardeners prefer to use sand or shredded sphaghum moss for this final 
layer in which the seed is sown. 

Place the pots in a shallow tray of water and allow to stand until the moisture 
soaks to the top. Flats should be watered thoroughly with a fine spray from a 
can. Set them aside to drain and then they will be ready for the seed. 

Scatter the seed thinly over the surface (Figure 2) or, in the flats, sow in 
rows. Press very fine seed lightly into the surface; it needs no soil cover. The 
depth of soil needed to cover other seed varies with the size of the seed. Twice 
the diameter of the seed is generally considered the best depth. Use finely sifted 
soil or shredded moss to cover seed. After sowing, cover the pots with a pane of 
glass and lay a sheet of paper over the glass to keep out the sun. As soon as the 
seeds begin to germinate, remove the paper. 

Great care is needed in watering seeded pots and flats. Instead of watering 
the surface of the soil, stand the pots and flats in shallow trays and let the water 
soak up from below. 



8 

Temperature for Germination 

Seeds of most annuals germinate readily at any temperature between 50° 
and 80° F. The following preferences have been noted. 

These require warm temperature, 70° to 80° F. : 

Cleome Nierembergia 

Cobaea Petunia 

These prefer cool temperatures, 45° to 50° F. : 

Arctotis Godetia 

Candytuft Gypsophila 

Centaurea Larkspur 

Clarkia Nemesia 

Seeds of phlox, salvia and verbena germinate irregularly. A few seeds will 
germinate and the rest may lie dormant for three or four weeks. To speed 
germination, place the seeded pots or flats alternately in a warm room (80° F.) 
and a cool one (50°), for two-day periods until germination is complete. 

TRANSPLANTING AND CULTIVATION 

Pricking off the Seedlings 

When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them off into flats 
(Figure 3). Space the plants 2 to 3 inches apart, according to the size to which 
they are to grow before being transplanted to the garden. 

Water the filled flats and place them in the greenhouse or hotbed. They 
should be shaded from sunlight for a few days to give the young plants a chance 
to establish their roots. 



FIGURE 3 


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Note wooden label being used to pack earth around seedlings. 




















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9 

As the weather becomes warmer, transfer the flats from greenhouse or hot- 
bed to the cold frames in order to harden the plants. Remove the glass sash from 
the frames for progressively longer periods on warm days. After the middle of 
May it should be put on the frames only when there is danger of a cold night. 
Gradual lengthening of the time the plants are exposed to natural conditions 
will ease the shock when they are set out in the garden during the last week of 
May or first of June. Plants moved directly from the heat of a greenhouse to the 
garden are soft and are likely to wilt when set out. 

Preparing the Bed 

Although annual flowering plants do not need very rich soil, the ground 
needs to be well supplied with available plant food and, though well drained, 
should be able to retain moisture. 

In preparing the soil, well-rotted manure is the best material to use. As 
this is seldom obtainable, many gardeners use granulated peat moss to add humus 
to the soil and commercial fertilizers to supply the extra plant food required. 
A good, complete fertilizer has the formula 5-10-15. That means 5 per cent 
nitrogen, 10 per cent phosphoric acid and 15 per cent potash. Four pounds per 
100 square feet of bed should be scattered over the ground and dug in a few days 
before planting time. Few annuals do well in acid soil so lime should be added 
when necessary. 

In new flower beds, remove the subsoil and all bits of bricks, stones and other 
rubbish and replace these with loam. 

Setting out the Plants 

Transplant the seedlings on a dull, cloudy day when the ground is fairly 
moist. If the soil is very dry, water it; and shade the plants from the hot sun for 
a few days with paper. The distance apart to set the plants depends on the kind. 
For example, sweet alyssum plants should be 6 inches apart but giant zinnias 
need 18 inches for full development. 

Cultivation 

When the plants are small the weeds can be kept under control by hoeing 
and, if thoroughly controlled during the first few weeks, they will not be 
troublesome later. When hoeing is not possible the beds should be weeded by 
hand. In very dry weather, water the plants. A thorough soaking of the roots once 
a week is better than a sprinkling every day. To keep the plants blooming for a 
long time, the flowers should be cut off when they fade. If they are left to form 
seed pods, the growth of young buds is checked and no further flowers will 
develop. 

SAVING SEED 

It is not advisable to save seeds of plants where several varieties of the 
same species are growing in one garden; plants from these seeds will not be true 
to type. However, if a particularly good plant appears, it is often interesting to 
save the seed and see what plants result from it next year. 

If you want to do this, choose a strong healthy plant and allow some of the 
flowers to set seed and grow to maturity. When the seed pods are full-grown 
and begin to change color, gather them and spread them out to dry in a cool, 
airy place; or cover the seed heads with a muslin bag and allow them to ripen on 
the plant. When they are thoroughly ripe and dry, clean the seeds and store them 
in cans or paper bags. 



10 
INSECTS AND DISEASES 

Cutworms often destroy young plants soon after they are set out by 
chewing them off at, or just above, ground level. Aphids and other suckinp- 
insects suck juices from leaves and stems. Other insects bite holes in the 
foliage and eat the leaves. 

Some annuals, such as zinnias, are very susceptible to leaf-spotting 
diseases and powdery mildew. 

For the average gardener, the modern combination sprays that control 
both insects and fungi are the most satisfactory chemicals to use. Several 
of these can be bought at local garden stores. 

For information on the identification and control of insects and disea- 
ses ask your provincial entomologist, horticulturist, or agricultural repre- 
sentative. 




DESCRIPTIONS OF ANNUALS 

The botanical names of the plants are given as in Hortus Second by L. H. 
Bailey and Zoe Bailey. Where these names are unfamiliar, the better-known 
botanical name is given also, for example, "Alyssum. SeeLobularia." The common 
name of each plant is also given, except in cases where none is commonly used. 

Few horticultural varieties (cultivars) are listed in this section, as new ones 
are introduced so often that a list is soon out of date. However, some excellent 
varieties for flower beds and borders appear in the 1960 list on page 25. 
Varieties available are described in seed catalogues. 



The more popular plants are marked " 



#?> 



Adlumia fungosa (A. cirrhosa). Mountain Fringe, Allegheny Vine. A 
biennial, but easily raised from seed sown in spring. The leaves are fern-like and 
quite attractive. The flowers are white or purplish and resemble those of 
bleeding heart in shape. Does well in a cool, damp, shady place and will climb 
over fences. 

*Ageratum houstonianum (A. mexicanum). Flossflowen Neat-growing 
plant useful for edging beds and borders. The flowers are borne in large clusters 
and are lavender blue. The shade varies in different varieties. Height, 4 to 8 
inches. 

*Althaea rosea. Hollyhock. The annual hollyhock resembles the well- 
known biennial plant but since it blooms a little later and continues blooming 
until frost, it can be used* to continue the blooming season of the bed after the 
biennials are finished. Height, 5 to 6 feet. 

Alonsoa caulialata. Maskflower. A little-used, low bushy plant with small, 
irregular, two-lipped scarlet flowers. Is not very showy but is unusual and suitable 
for informal gardens. 

* Alyssum maritimum. See Lobularia maritima. 



11 

*Amaranthus. These plants are grown for their red or purplish foliage, 
which is very effective in beds. 

A. caudatus. Love-lies-bleeding. Has large coarse foliage with small, 
reddish-purple flowers arranged in drooping, rope-like panicles. Height, 3 to 
5 feet. 

A, hybridus var. hypocondriacus. Prince's-feather. The panicles of reddish 
or reddish-brown flowers are erect. The foliage is red. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

A, tricolor. Under this species are listed: 

var. melancholicus has maroon-colored foliage. Height, 2J to 3^ feet. 

var. salicifolius. Fountain Plant. It has long drooping leaves changing from 
bronze-green to orange-red. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

var. Joseph's Coat is similar to salicifolius. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

var. Molten Fire is the commonest variety now grown. It has large red- 
purple leaves. Height, 2 to 2\ feet. 

Ambrosia mexicana. See Chenopodium botrys. 

Ammobium. Useful only as an everlasting for winter bouquets as the plant 
is rather gaunt and unattractive. 

Anagallis. An unusual, charming plant that makes an attractive edge of 
bright blue in a warm sunny border or in the rock garden. Height, 4 to 6 inches. 

Anchusa capensis. Alkanet, Bugloss. A biennial that will bloom the first 
year if seed is sown indoors in April. The rich-blue flowers are very attractive. 
Height, 1 to lj feet. 

* Antirrhinum. Snapdragon. Although not true annuals, these plants are 
always treated as such in Canada. 

As rust has become so common, purchase only seed of rust-resistant 
varieties of snapdragons. 

Start seeds early (class c) and pinch young plants once to make them branch 
out near the base. Varieties are grouped according to the heights of the plants 
and many varieties of beautiful colors are available in each group. 

Height 

Tall 2 J to 3 feet 

Intermediate 1 to 2 feet 

Bedding 6 to 15 inches 

Rock garden hybrids 3 to 6 inches 

Tetraploid, which have larger individual flowers, and double-flowered 
varieties have recently been introduced. The group known as Rocket, introduced 
in 1960, proved superior to other tall varieties in our garden. 

Arctotis stoechadifolia var. grandis. Blue-eyed African Daisy. The 
grayish-green foliage is an attractive setting for the blue-washed, white daisies. 
The centers are blue. Height, 15 to 18 inches. 

Artemisia sacrorum viridis. Summer Fir. This plant resembles a small 
fir tree and is useful for the back of a border or for a small hedge. Height, 3 to 6 feet. 

Asperula orientalis (A. azurea-setosa) . Blue Woodruff. The foliage is 
finely cut and the pale-blue flowers are arranged in small clusters. A dainty plant 
with a faint fragrance. Height, 1 foot. 



12 

* Aster, See Callistephus chinensis. 

*Balsam. See Impatiens balsamina. 

Bartonia aurea. See Mentzelia lindleyi. 

Brachycome iberidifolia. Swan River Daisy. A neat plant with quantities 
of blue daisies, about 1 J inches across. There are varieties with mauve and white 
flowers, also. Height, 1 foot. 

*Browallia americana (B. elata). A compact plant with dark-green, glossy 
leaves and rich-blue flowers. Height, 1 to lj feet. 

^Calendula officinalis. Pot Marigold. This has long been a favorite flower 
in gardens. It is very hardy and self-sows freely. There are a number of improved 
forms which are more attractive than the old-fashioned kind. If the flowers are 
cut before setting seed the blooming season will continue until severe frost. 
Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

*Calliopsis. See Coreopsis. 

*Callistephus chinensis. China Aster. A very popular annual and where 
it grows well there is no doubt it is one of the best. As it is subject to several 
diseases, some of which live over in the soil, it is not advisable to grow asters in 
the same soil for two years in succession. Unhealthy plants should be dug up 
and burned as soon as seen. Wilt-resistant seed should be bought when possible. 
There are two distinct types of aster plants, branching and upright. The latter 
are more compact and are useful for edging or beds but some of them have stems 
too short for cut-flower arrangements. The branching varieties have long stems 
and grow into large plants if planted 1J feet apart. There are many different 
classes according to height, habit and season of bloom. 

Campanula. Bellflower. Most species of Campanula are perennials but two 
annual ones, both suitable in rock gardens, are used. 

C. macrostyla. This has open, bell-shaped, purple flowers, 2 inches across 
with a conspicuous, protuding stigma. Height, 12 to 18 inches. 

C. ramosissima (C. loreyi). This has much smaller flowers than macrostyla. 
It is dainty and attractive. Height, 12 inches. 

Celosia argentea var. cristata. Cockscomb. The common name describes 
the shape of the flowers, which are rich maroon in color. Height, 1 to 1 \ feet. 

*C. argentea var. plumosa. This plant is much more attractive than 
cristata as the flowers are arranged in plume-like heads. The colors are very rich 
and include lemon, gold and various shades of red. Height, 1 to 1J feet. 

C. argentea var. childsii. Chinese Woolflower. In this variety the heads 
are round instead of pointed but are similar to plumosa in color. 

*Centaurea cineraria. Dusty Miller. Grown for its grayish foliage. It is 
really a tender perennial but plants for bedding purposes are often grown from 
seed each year. Height, 1 foot. 

*C. cyanus. Cornflower, Bachelor's-button. One of the easiest annuals to 
grow r from seed sown outdoors. If allowed to do so, it will self-sow and plants will 
come up year after year. The blue varieties are the most attractive but others in 
pink and white are also available. All are useful for cutting. Height, 1 to 3 feet. 

C. gymnocarpa. Dusty Miller. Another perennial which, in the seeding 
stage, is used as a foliage plant. The leaves are grayer and more deeply cut than 
those of C. cineraria. 



13 

C. moschata. Sweet Sultan. A half-hardy annual the seed of which should 
be started indoors. The fragrant flowers resemble thistles but there are no prickles 
on the stems. There are white, mauve and yellow flowering varieties. Height, 2 
feet. 

Cheiranthus allionii. See Erysimum asperum. 

Chenopodium botrys. Ambrosia. The green flowers are quite small and 
clustered along the stems. They have a spicy scent that is popular with many 
people. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Chrysanthemum. Annual chrysanthemums are not much like the fall- 
blooming plants generally known as chrysanthemums but they are quite 
attractive. Like many composite flowers they are beloved by the tarnished plant 
bug. This small insect sucks the juice out of the young buds and destroys the 
symmetry of the flowers. Where the insect is not numerous, or can be controlled, 
chrysanthemums should be grown in quantity both for their showiness in the 
garden and for cut flowers. 

C. carinatum and C. coronarium are the species from which these annual 
chrysanthemums are derived. The ray florets are various shades of primrose and 
yellow, more or less marked with brown. The center florets vary in color, some 
matching the rays while others are brown in contrast to them. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

C. parthenium. Feverfew. This plant is grown for its yellowish-green 
foliage, which is used for edging beds and borders as well as for carpet bedding. 
Seedsmen sell several varieties that vary in size and compactness. If grown for 
the foliage the buds should l)e pinched out. The white, daisy-like flowers are 
attractive but spoil the neat effect that the foliage alone gives. Height, 6 to 12 
inches. 

C. segetum. Corn Marigold. This species is a weed in European grain 
fields but the variety grandiflorum has large yellow daisies that are excellent for 
cut flowers. Height, 2 feet. 

*Clarkia elegans. Clarkia. The garden varieties have attractive long sprays 
of flowers in various shades of rose as well as white and red. There are both single 
and double forms. Easily grown from seed sown in the bed where they are to 
flower. Height when planted close together is 2 to 2| feet. 

C. pulchella. A smaller-growing plant that has narrower leaves and slightly 
broader petals than elegans but is not so showy. Height, 1 to 1 \ feet. 

*Cleome spinosa. Spiderflower. An unusual-looking plant that has long 
spikes of pink and white flowers with very long stamens. It is rather coarse and 
needs room to develop. Height, 4 feet. 

Cobaea scandens. Cup-and-saucer Vine. Although a tender perennial, 
this plant grows rapidly from seed. It has clean attractive foliage and is useful 
for growing in front of verandas or over archways. The bell-shaped flowers are 
violet. Height, 20 feet. 

Convolvulus. See Ipomoea. 

^Coreopsis. Tickseed. There are several species of this plant, all easily 
grown from seed sown where it is to flower. The blooms are attractive in the 
garden and useful for cutting. 

C. drummondii. This variety has bright-yellow ray florets with purple- 
brown disks. Height, 2 feet. 

C. stillmanii (Lepiosyne stillmanii). The bright-yellow flowers are small 
but are borne in great profusion. It is useful for the rock garden. Height, 1 foot. 



14 

C. tinctoria (Calliopsis marmorata). There are several forms of this variety 
that have finely cut foliage and bloom well if the seed pods are removed. The 
flowers have pointed ray florets and are yellow with markings and spots of 
brown. Height, 8 to 15 inches. 

*Cosmos. The fine-cut, dark-green foliage and the branching habit of 
growth make this a useful plant for hedges. The flowers are also attractive. 
When buying cosmos seeds obtain early-flowering varieties as some kinds need 
such a long season of growth that they do not bloom in Canadian gardens. The 
flowers are useful for cutting and the plants bloom until severe frost. Seeds of 
named varieties that come true to color are available in various shades of rose as 
well as white. Height, 3 to 5 feet. 

The varieties Orange Flare and Burpee's Yellow are more dwarf and have 
beautiful flowers that are very useful for cutting. Height, 3 feet. 

Cucurbita pepo var. ovifera. Yellow-flowered Gourds. These are really 
trailing plants but the vines are trained on supports so that the fruits will grow to 
perfection and be seen. A strong trellis or arbor is required as the plants are 
heavy when loaded with fruit. Their habits of growth are similar to pumpkins 
and squash. The seeds can be sown outdoors as soon as the ground is warm, but 
in districts where the season is short it is better to start them in pots indoors. 
The fruits, which resemble apples, pears, eggs, and oranges, are not edible but 
are grown for appearance only. After they are well ripened and thoroughly dry 
the hard skins are varnished or waxed and used for ornaments. 

Cuphea plat y centra (C. ignea). Cigar Flower. The showy narrow red tube 
with a white mouth edged with black is really the calyx and the corolla is 
inconspicuous. Height, 1 foot. 

Dahlia. Named varieties of dahlias have to be propagated from tubers but 
seeds of the various types can be bought and seedlings come fairly true to type 
though they vary in color. The early-flowering dwarf types known as Coltness 
Gem and Unwin Dwarf hybrids make satisfactory bedding plants and are the 
best to grow from seed. Seedlings should be pricked off into separate small pots. 
Another shift into larger pots is required later. The plants must be carefully 
hardened off before being set into permanent quarters in June or whenever the 
danger of frost is over. The tubers may be dug up and stored in a frost-proof 
cellar. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

* Delphinium. Larkspur. The annual delphiniums are not as well known 
as the perennial form but they are equally beautiful and useful in the garden 
and for cut flowers. 

D. ajacis, Rocket Larkspur and D. consolida, Stock-flowered Larkspur 
are the two species from which the horticultural varieties have been derived. 
There are various strains which vary in height and in size of flower. The colors 
in both types are very beautiful and include white, pink, rose, red and light and 
dark purple. Height, 2 to 4 feet. 

D. grandiflorum. Bouquet Larkspur. This is often listed as D. chinense 
in catalogues. Although it is a perennial it blooms within a few weeks after 
the seed is sown. The foliage is fine-cut and the plant has a branching 
habit. The blue color of the flowers is very fine. There is a white variety 
also. Height, 15 inches. 

*Dianthus. Pink. Most plants of this genus are perennials, valuable in the 
border and rock garden, but there are also some fine annual species. 

D. chinensis. Indian Pink, Chinese Pink. This species and its variety 
heddewigii are very showy and easy to grow. They are useful for cutting but have 
no perfume. The flowers are large and some are single and others double. There is 
a great variety in color: white, pale pink, rose, red, and mixtures of these colors. 
Height, 8 to 12 inches. 



15 

Dianthus sp. Sweet Wivelsfield. A hybrid very similar to the biennial 
sweet william, and to the annual sweet william listed by some firms. Height, 
1 to J J feet. 

Didiscus. See Trachymene. 

*Dimorphotheca aurantiaca. Cape Marigold. Daisy-like flowers in 
beautiful shades of cream, lemon and orange. They grow quickly from seed and, 
in a sunny spot, bloom all summer. The plants spread and one row will make a 
strip about 2 feet wide covered with bloom. Height, 1 to 1| feet. 

Dolichos lablab. Hyacinth Bean. An interesting climber with rosy-purple, 
pea-shaped flowers followed by deep purplish-red seed pods. Height, 10 feet. 

Echinocystis lobata. Wild Cucumber. Another useful climber which will 
clamber over shrubs, fences and rubbish piles if allowed to do so. It is indigenous 
to many parts of Canada and its long sprays of creamy-white flowers are often 
seen in the hedgerows. It will grow 15 or more feet and will transform the 
appearance of an old shed or fence. The seed should be sown where it is to grow. 
Seedlings spring up from self-sown seed but are easily destroyed. 

Echium plant agineum. Viper's Bugloss. A near relation to blue-weed, 
which is sometimes seen in quantities in the fields. The annual species is easy to 
grow and the plants are covered with lilac-blue flowers all summer. Height, 2 feet. 

Erysimum asperum (Cheiranthns allionii). Siberian Wallflower. A biennial 
that will bloom in summer from seed started indoors in spring. When once 
established in the garden it self-sows freely and the young seedlings live over 
winter and bloom early in summer. The flowers are brilliant orange-yellow and 
are very showy and attractive. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

*Eschscholzia calif or nica. California Poppy. A perennial that is grown as 
an annual in Canada. The seed should be sown where the plants are to bloom. 
They are very showy and attractive with their fine-cut, grayish-green foliage and 
brilliant-orange flowers. There are varieties with cream, primrose and pink 
blooms and some with double flowers, but the rich orange of the species is as 
attractive as any. The variety called Miniature Primrose, with small flowers on 
stems a few inches high, is useful for the rock garden. 

Euphorbia* Mexican Fire Plant. Has showy red and green foliage in late 
August and September. Snow-on-the-mountain has variegated silver leaves. 
These tall plants are chiefly useful for their foliage; the flowers are too small to 
make any effect. 

*Gaillardia pulchella var. picta. Annual Gaillardia. The perennial species 
is the well-known Blanket Flower. Some of the annual ones are very similar and 
have single flowers of yellow with brownish-red markings; others have tubular 
florets, purplish-red with yellow tips. All of them are easy to grow and will bloom 
all summer if started early. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Gilia lutea. This is listed by seedsmen SbsLeptosiphon roseas and L. hybridus. 
Attractive dwarf plant with finely cut foliage and small, star-shaped flowers in 
red, pink, yellow and cream. Suitable for the rock garden. Height, 3 to 6 inches. 

*Godetia amoena and G. grandiflora. It is from these two species that the 
garden forms have been derived. They do best in light soil in a sunny position. 
There are several types; tall ones with flowers in long loose sprays of single or 
double flowers, and compact-growing varieties that make neat bushes of flowers. 
The colors are various shades of pink, and the texture of the petals reminds one 
of silk. Height, 1 to 2\ feet. 



16 

Gomphrena globosa. Globe Amaranth. A neat upright-growing plant 
with quantities of ball-shaped flowers that are useful for winter bouquets. They 
dry well and keep their color. The one with purple flowers is the best, but from a 
packet of mixed seed, white, pink, orange and yellow flowering varieties are 
obtained. Height, 1| to 2 feet. 

*Gypsophila elegans. Annual Babies'-breath. The white flowers of the 
annual variety are larger than those of the well-known perennial species. Both 
are used in the same way when cut. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

*Helianthus annuus. Sunflower. There are many varieties of annual 
sunflowers. Some are very tall and have large heads of yellow flowers; others are 
small and have brownish ray florets. All are easily raised from seed, which should 
be sown where the plants are to bloom. Most varieties are suitable only for the 
back of the border or for a screen. Birds are very fond of the seeds and it is inter- 
esting to watch the goldfinches busy feeding on them in the late summer. Height, 
5 to 10 feet. 

H. debilis. Miniature Sunflower. This species is a smaller plant of bushy 
habit with quantities of small flowers that are very useful for cutting. Height, 
2 to 3 feet. 

*Helichrysum bracteatum. Strawflower. These most popular everlasting 
flowers should be grown in an inconspicuous place as they should be cut in the 
bud stage for drying for winter bouquets. The cut blooms should be tied into 
small bunches and hung head down in an airy place until thoroughly dried. 
There are a number of beautiful colors in a good mixture, including white, orange, 
pink and maroon. They do best in good loamy soil. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Heliotropium. Heliotrope. Though a perennial, this plant will flower in 
summer if seed is sown indoors. The flowers are borne in clusters in various 
shades of violet and purple. The fragrance is well-known but the amount varies 
in different plants. Choice seedlings can be potted and kept indoors over winter, 
and cuttings can be rooted to obtain beds or borders of plants that are uniform 
in color, fragrance and height. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Helipterum manglesii. Rodanthe. An attractive everlasting flower with 
drooping, daisy-like flowers in pink and white. They bloom early from seed and 
must be gathered before fully open. Height, 1 to 1J feet. 

H. roseum. Acroclinium. An attractive plant in the garden. Its pink 
flowers remind one of an English daisy that has grown larger than usual. The 
flowers should be gathered when half open, and dried if required for winter 
bouquets. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

*Iberis amara and J. umbellata. Candytuft. The annual candytufts are 
derived from these species but are sold under variety names. The seed should be 
sown in good soil rich in humus where the plants are to flower. They should be 
carefully thinned out to 8 or 10 inches apart. If the seed pods are kept cut off, 
the blooming season will be lengthened. For a continuous display, seeds should 
be sown at intervals during the summer. Height, 6 to 18 inches. 

*Impatiens balsamina. Garden Balsam. Erect plants with thick, 
transparent-looking stems around which the short-stemmed flowers grow out 
from the axils of the leaves. A tuft of bright-green leaves tops the stem. The 
individual flowers are very beautiful and in the modern varieties the leaves do 
not hide the flowers as they used to do in the older varieties. The double flowers 
are white, pink or red. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Ionopsidium acaule. Diamondflower. A dwarf, compact plant that covers 
itself with small, violet-colored flowers. It prefers some shade and moisture but 
will grow in crevices in flagged walks if not too dry. Height, 2 to 3 inches. 



17 

*Ipomoea purpurea. Common Morning Glory. This is one of the most 
useful annual climbers for covering a trellis or training up the side of a verandah. 
Seed is sold in mixtures and many beautiful colors are found among the seedlings. 
The seed coats are rather hard; soaking the seeds in warm water for 24 hours 
speeds germination. 

J. tricolor. Heavenly Blue Morning Glory. The flowers are a wonderful 
color and are borne profusely from midsummer onwards if seed is started indoors 
in spring. It can be sown outdoors as soon as the soil warms up. The plant 
prefers light sandy soil and does not require any fertilizer. The variety Pearly 
Gates is similar except for the color, which is creamy white. 

Jacobaea. See Senecio. 

*Kochia scoparia var. trichophila. Summer Cypress, Fire Bush, Belvedere. 
This plant is grown for its neat, bush-like habit. The flowers are inconspicuous. 
In spring and summer the plant is covered with narrow, light-green leaves which, 
with the stems, turn crimson in autumn. When once established it self-sows and 
young seedlings can be transplanted to suitable locations. It is an excellent plant 
for a hedge. Height, 2 feet. 

Lagenaria siceraria. White-flowered Gourd. The plant from which the 
large-fruited gourds, dipper, Hercules club and calabash gourd, are obtained. 
They are similar in growth to Cucurbita and need the same treatment. 

*Lathyrus odoratus. Sweet Pea. One of the most popular flowers for cutting 
as it is suitable for all occasions. It is best to grow sweet peas in rows in the 
cutting garden or in some place requiring a screen. They prefer cool moist soil 
and are hard to grow in full sunshine on light dry sand. 

For best results prepare the ground in the fall by digging a trench 2 feet deep 
and 2 feet wide. Mix a thick layer of thoroughly rotted manure with the soil and 
turn the whole back into the trench, leaving the surface of the soil rough so that 
as much of it as possible is left exposed to winter weather. When manure is not 
obtainable, peat moss can be used. As sweet peas require slightly alkaline soil, 
add some lime if the soil is acid. In spring, as soon as the frost is out of the ground 
and the soil has dried, add a complete fertilizer, with the formula 5-10-15, at the 
rate of 5 pounds per 100 feet row. Open a trench 6 inches deep, set the seed about 

3 inches apart and cover with 2 inches of soil. When the plants have grown 3 or 

4 inches high thin them out to 6 inches apart. Fill the trench gradually as the 
plants grow. As sweet peas do better if they have some support when quite 
young, place twigs in position as soon as the plants begin to grow. The permanent 
supports can be made of brush, or chicken wire. The latter must be attached 
firmly to posts placed in the ground 6 to 10 feet apart. 

For large exhibition blooms, allow only one or tw r o stems to grow; tie each 
of them to a bamboo cane and cut off the tendrils and side shoots. Keep the ground 
well cultivated. In dry weather a thorough, soaking with water is necessary about 
once a week. There are a great number of varieties and a w r ide selection of colors 
described in seed catalogues. The Spencer varieties are the ones with large 
waved petals. The old grandiflora varieties are seldom listed. Cupid sweet peas 
are dwarf-growing plants suitable for the front of a border. In hot soil, 
Cuthbertson and multiflora strains introduced recently are easier to grow than 
others. 

*Lavatera trimestris. Annual Lavatera. The variety Loveliness is probably 
the best. The deep-pink flowers are large and borne in great profusion on bushy 
plants. The leaves are nearly round and deep green. A row of these plants makes 
a beautiful flowering hedge. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Leptosiphon. See Gilia. 



18 

Leptosyne. See Coreopsis. 

Limonium bonduelli and L. sinuatum. Statice. These species are very 
similar except in color; bonduelli has yellow flowers and sinuatum has blue, 
lavender or white ones. The long, branching sprays are attractive in the garden 
but are generally grown for winter bouquets as the flowers dry well and 
keep their color all winter. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

L. suworowii. The rose-pink flowers of this species are very small and 
clustered together on a long narrow spike. They dry well for winter use. Height, 
1 foot. 

Linaria bipartita. Fairy Bouquet is a strain useful for the rock garden. 
Height, 4 to 6 inches. 

Linaria maroccana. Toadflax. An easily grown annual that makes neat, 
upright clumps covered with flowers that are borne in long sprays and resemble 
small snapdragon blooms with spurs. There are many colors, including pink, 
purple, yellow and pure white. Height, 1 foot. 

Linum grandiflorum var. coccineum. Scarlet Flax. The rich color of this 
annual makes it a general favorite. It grows easily from seed sown outdoors in 
spring and blooms all season. Height, about 1 foot. 

Lobelia erinus. Lobelia. Most garden varieties belong to this species. 
Often difficult to start from seed. The neat plants covered with small blue 
flowers are most attractive for edging beds. The pinkish and white-flowered 
varieties are not as attractive. There are compact forms for edging, and spreading 
forms useful for window boxes. Height, 6 to 12 inches. 

L. tenuior. A larger plant of upright habit with flowers at least double the 
size of the ordinary varieties. The blooms are blue, mauve or white. Height, 
1 to 2 feet. 

Lobularia maritima (Alyssum maritimum). Sweet Alyssum. For edging 
beds and borders, no plant is easier to grow or gives a longer period of bloom 
than sweet alyssum. The compact forms such as Carpet of Snow are best. About 
August, when the flowers are going to seed, take a pair of shears and cut off the 
plants at 2 inches above the ground. In a week or so they will be covered with 
green and starting to bloom again. They will continue to flower until hard frost. 
After cutting back, the plants should be watered if the weather is dry. The 
variety Royal Carpet is very compact and a rich violet color which does not 
fade. Height, 6 inches. The new tetraploid variety called Snowbank is very 
coarse, but useful for covering space. 

Lupinus. Lupine. The lupines generally seen in gardens are perennials but 
there are several annual species. The flowers are very similar but the plants do 
not grow as large. The Hartwegii varieties are the most popular for the annual 
flower border as they can be obtained in a number of beautiful colors, including 
blue, rose, red and purple and white. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Lychnis viscaria. Generally called Viscaria in catalogues. This plant has 
been improved in recent years and there, are several varieties that vary in height 
and habit as well as in color. The compact forms, which make neat, small 
upright plants, are useful for edging or may be used in the rock garden. The blue 
and pink ones are particularly attractive. Height, 8 to 12 inches. 

*Malcomia maritima. Virginian Stock. This small-flowered plant makes 
a pretty border from early July until frost if the seed is sown in early May where 
the plants are to bloom. Height, 6 to 12 inches. 



19 

Malope trifida. Malope. This member of the mallow family is easy to grow 
from seed sown outdoors. The rosy-purple flowers are produced in profusion. 
There is also a white variety. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Marigold. See Tagetes. 

Mathiola bicornis. Night-scented Stock. This plant is grown for the 
perfume of the flowers, which fills the air in the evening. The blooms are single 
and lilac-colored. As they remain closed all day they are not attractive, and 
should not be planted in a very conspicuous location. Height, 6 to 10 inches. 

*Mathiola incana var. annua. Ten-weeks Stocks. In most parts of Canada, 
when growing stocks from seed outdoors, the early-flowering strains of stocks 
should be used; otherwise, some of the plants may not bloom during the season. A 
disappointing number of plants may have single flowers, instead of double ones, 
unless the darker-green, spindly seedlings are discarded. The doubles are usually 
more compact and lighter in color. The plants are sometimes attacked by 
disease and should not be grown in the same ground two years in succession. 
There are dwarf and tall varieties in white, rose, crimson and light and dark 
mauve. They have a pleasing fragrance. Height, 8 to 24 inches. 

Mentzelia lindleyi (Bartonia aurea). This is listed in catalogues as Bartonia. 
It has large, golden-yellow flowers which are very attractive. These plants do 
not transplant well but will flower in July if seed is sown where it is to grow. 
Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Mirabilis jalapa. Four-o'clock, Marvel-of-Peru. The first common name of 
this plant refers to the habit of the flowers, which open in the afternoon and close 
in the morning. It is a tender perennial with tuberous roots but is generally treated 
as an annual. The neat bushes with shining green leaves are covered with flowers 
in late summer. The seed is generally sold in mixtures of pink, red, yellow and 
white varieties. The tubers may be dug and stored like dahlias in a frost-proof 
cellar for the winter. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Morning Glory. See Ipomoea. 

Molucella laevis. Bells of Ireland. Graceful stems with round leaves and 
chartreuse-green bracts surrounding small white flowers. Used in flower arrange- 
ments but of little value in the garden. 

Nasturtium. See Tropaeolum. 

*Nemesia strumosa. A very showy annual of medium height. The large- 
flowered types are most attractive for general planting and the colors include 
orange, red, pink and white. The dwarf varieties Blue Gem and White Gem have 
quantities of small flowers on neat compact plants. Height, 8 to 15 inches. 

Nemophila menziesii. Baby Blue-eyes. This does well in a cool, moist 
location and has a low, compact, trailing habit of groAvth with quantities of small 
blue flowers. Some varieties are white with dark-blue eyes. Height, 3 to 12 inches. 

*Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora (N. affinis). Nicotine. The flowers are 
white and very fragrant when they open in the evening. As the plants are untidy 
looking during the day when the flowers close, it is advisable to plant them at 
the back of the border where they are not so noticeable. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Nicotiana. Crimson Bedder. It is more dwarf than the white form. The 
flowers do not close up during the day and lack the fragrance of the white ones. 
Very useful for filling up gaps in a perennial border. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Nierembergia caerulea. Cupflower. A half-hardy perennial which is 
cultivated in Canada as an annual. The blue, cup-shaped flowers cover the plants 
with bloom. Height, 6 to 8 inches. Purple Robe is an improved variety. 



20 

Nigella damascena. Love-in-a-mist. An unusual-looking plant with 
finely cut foliage, and blue flowers which are followed by ornamental seedpods. 
Height, 12 to 18 inches. 

Oenothera acaulis (0. tar axacif olid) . Dandelion-leaved Sundrop. A 
prostrate plant with large white flowers which take on a rosy shade as they fade. 
It is really a biennial but blooms the first summer from seed. Height, 6 inches. 

O. drummondii. An annual species with large, pale-yellow flowers. Height, 

1 foot. 

O. trichocalyx. A biennial which flowers the first year from seed started 
indoors. This grows more upright than other species, and has white fragrant 
flowers. Height, 1 foot. 

*Papaver. Poppy. The seeds of poppies are very small and must be sown in 
fine soil and covered with a very thin layer of sifted soil. The seedlings do not 
transplant well so it is advisable to sow the seed either where it is to grow or in 
small pots. 

P. rhoeas. Corn Poppy. The common field poppy of Europe from which the 
well known Shirley poppies have been derived. There are many shades of pink 
as well as red and white. Some varieties have double flowers. If the seed pods are 
kept cut off, the plants will continue to flower over a long period. Height, 1 to 

2 feet. 

P. somniferum. Opium Poppy. It is forbidden by law to grow this poppy 
in Canada though the importation of seed for cake decoration is permitted. 

*Petunia hybrida. Petunia. Of all the flowers grown as annuals, the petunia 
is probably the most satisfactory. It does well in ordinary garden soil and prefers 
full sunlight. There are several types of petunias and each has many varieties. 
The large-flowering, frilled, ruffled and double varieties need more care than 
others. Any plant that seems to be worth keeping may be potted and taken in- 
doors for the winter, and used in the spring to provide cuttings for more plants. 
When potting, the roots should be trimmed and the tops cut back for about half 
their length. For ordinary garden purposes the balcony and bedding types are the 
most effective. In recent years groups of new varieties known as F 1 and F 2 hy- 
brids have become very popular. They are large, single-flowered plants in clear 
pinks and reds that make a bright show. Most catalogues list many varieties 
in various shades of blue, maroon, pink and purple. If a large space is to be 
filled the grandiflora type is usually best, but for neat borders the multiflora or 
dwarf bedding types are most suitable. Petunias can also be used satisfactorily 
for window boxes which get plenty of sunshine. Few plants will give such a 
continuous display of bloom. 

Phacelia campanularia. This is a pretty, blue-flowered, bell-shaped 
annual that blooms early from seed sown where it is to grow. Height, 8 to 12 
inches. 

*Phlox drummondii. Annual Phlox. This very attractive plant blooms 
freely over a long period. In good soil that does not dry out too much the plants 
will spread for a foot or more. There are a number of showy varieties named for 
the color of the bloom, including white, chamois, pink, light and dark red, 
mauve and purple. 

P. drummondii compacta. A dwarf, compact form, useful for edgings 
where space is limited. Height, 6 to 8 inches. 



21 

Polygonum orientate. A variety of this, Sutton's Ruby Gem, has light- 
green leaves, and narrow spikes of small pink flowers borne well above the foliage. 
It may be used for a low hedge or for the back of a border. The plants bloom 
from the end of June until frost. Height, 3 to 4 feet. 

Portulaca grandiflora. Rose Moss. A light soil in a warm sunny position 
suits this plant to perfection. The seed should be scattered thinly over the soil 
and raked in. When once established it will self-sow every year. The plants 
spread over the ground and soon cover a wide area. There are many different 
colors among the seedlings and any that are disliked can easily be pulled out. 
The flowers close at night and do not open on dull days. The plants are generally 
killed by the first frost but the seeds live in the ground all winter and germinate 
in spring. 

Pyrethrum. See Chrysanthemum. 

Reseda odorata. Mignonette. This sweet-scented flower does not trans- 
plant well so the seed should be sown in the place where it is to grow. The spikes 
of brownish-green flowers are borne in great profusion and are very useful for 
cutting as well as for the sweet fragrance which is so noticeable in the garden on 
summer evenings. There are a number of varieties listed. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Ricinus communis. Castor-oil Plant. The plant is not very suitable for a 
private garden but the large, exotic-looking leaves make a fine show in the center 
of beds in parks. The color of the leaves varies, some being green, others 
purplish-red, according to the variety. Height, 4 to 6 feet. 

Rodanthe. See Helipterum. 

Rudbeckia bicolor. Annual Coneflower. This is a valuable plant in the 
garden and for cutting. The brown markings on the yellow ray florets are very 
effective. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

*Salpiglossis sinuata. From this species the beautiful, showy annuals of 
gardens have originated. The trumpet-shaped flowers are gorgeously colored. 
Gold, red and velvety purple with various stripes and marks are found among 
them. They make an excellent show in the garden and are useful for cutting. 
The foliage is rather scant so some more-leafy plant should be grown in front of 
them. In a place exposed to wind the plants should be staked to prevent the 
flowers from being knocked down onto the soil. There is a compact growing 
form with smaller flowers. Height, 1 to 3 feet. 

*Salvia splendens. Scarlet Sage. Although a tender perennial, this plant 
will bloom in late June from seed sown indoors if an early-flowering variety like 
Blaze of Fire is used. The bright-scarlet flowers are particularly noticeable late 
in the season and continue to give a splash of color until severe frost. Height, 1 
to 2 feet. 

Sanvitalia procumbens. The double-flowering form is a very useful plant 
for the rock garden. It makes mounds of green covered with small flowers that 
have yellow ray florets and brown disks and look like miniature sunflowers. 
Easily grown from seed sown outdoors. Height, 6 to 8 inches. 

*Scabiosa atropurpurea. Sweet Scabious, Pincushion Flower. This is a 
good plant, both for the border and for cutting. The stems are strong and wiry 
and hold the rounded flower heads well above the foliage. They can be obtained 



22 

in lavender, blue, pink, rose, maroon and white. If the seed heads are kept cut off 
they will bloom until severe frost. Height, 2\ feet. 

Schizanthus, Butterfly Flower. At Ottawa this plant does better in the 
greenhouse than outdoors. Probably the summers are too hot and dry for it. 
The pretty, fern-like foliage is attractive and the unevenly shaped flowers come in 
many combinations of colors. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Sedum caeruleum. Blue Stonecrop. The small, fleshy leaves are typical of 
Sedum but the pretty, pale-blue flowers are unusual. It is a small spreading plant 
suitable for filling vacant spaces in the rock garden. Height, 2 to 3 inches. 

Senecio cineraria (Cineraria maritima) . Dusty Miller. This is a plant 
grown for its foliage, which is almost white. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Senecio elegans (Jacobaea elegans). Purple Ragwort. The flower heads are 
not very large but several are borne in a cluster. They come in various shades of 
purple as well as white. The color of the purple flowers is unusual in annuals. 
Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Silene armeria. Sweet William Catchfly. This plant self-sows very freely 
and the young seedlings live over winter and come into bloom early in spring. 
If seed is sown outdoors early in May the flowers appear in June and continue 
until frost. The clusters of small star-shaped flowers are deep rose and show up 
well above the grayish-green foliage. Height, 1 to 1\ feet. 

Statice. See Limonium. 

*Tagetes, Marigold. There used to be three distinct groups of marigolds, 
African T. erecta, French T. patula and T. signata (now called T. tenuifolia) but 
in recent years the plant breeders have introduced so many new kinds that it is 
difficult to classify them into the old groups. There are now varieties ranging 
from a few inches in height, which form compact low borders, to bushes 3^ feet 
tall, suitable for the back of a border. Good descriptions are generally given in 
seed catalogues. Some flowers are much like single daisies; others are semidouble. 
The fully double forms are pompons, or carnation- or chrysanthemum-flowered. 
The colors are yellow through bronze to mahogany. The foliage of most is finely 
cut and dark green. Unfortunately the marigold has a strong unpleasant odor 
which renders the plants useless as cut flowers. They are, however, very useful 
for beds or borders. 

T. tenuifolia var. pumila. A very dwarf form with single yellow flowers. 
It is very useful for edging or for filling a blank space in the rock garden. 
Height, 6 to 8 inches. 

Trachymene caerulea (Didiscus caerulea). Blue Lace-flower. The pale-blue 
flowers are arranged in large clusters and are attractive in the garden as well as 
for indoor decoration. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

*Tropaeolum majus. Nasturtium. This is useful as well as ornamental. 
The leaves and buds may be used for seasoning and the seeds make excellent 
pickles. The showy flowers are well-known and are generally some shade of 
yellow, orange or brownish red. The climbing varieties will soon cover.a fence or 
hedge, or sprawl over unsightly places. The seedlings do not transplant well so it 
is advisable to sow the seeds where they are to grow. The dwarf varieties are 
useful for edging and flower more profusely in poor soil than in a rich one. The 
Gleam strain with double flowers requires the same treatment. The original 
Golden Gleam was fragrant. Nasturtiums are sensitive to early fall frosts so it is 
advisable to cover them if an extra-cold night comes early in autumn. To control 



23 

black aphids, which are often very troublesome, nicotine sulphate should be 
sprayed on early in the season; once the lice become numerous they will soon 
destroy the plants. 

T. peregrinum (T. canariense) . Canary-bird Flower. This is a useful vine 
with light-green leaves and bright-yellow flowers. They are quite different from 
nasturtiums but can be used for the same purposes as the climbing varieties. 

Ursinia. Jewel-of-the-Veld. Several species of this are very similar. The 
flowers are richly colored, orange-yellow daisies with a dark band near the 
center. The foliage is finely cut and adds to the attractiveness of the plant. 
Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Venidium fastuosum. This is a coarse plant with large, vivid-colored 
flowers, the ray florets orange and the disks black. They flower better on rather 
poor soil. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

*Verbena hortensis. Although a tender perennial, these plants flower in a 
few months from seed sown indoors. They have a spreading habit of growth and 
will fill a space 2 feet across in good soil in a sunny position and will bloom until 
severe frost. The sweet-scented flowers are borne in umbels. The colors are white, 
pink, scarlet, maroon, violet and purple. There are compact forms that are useful 
for edging the border. Height, 1 to 1| feet. 

* Viola hybrida. Bedding Viola. This is a perennial but will bloom in summer 
if seed is sown indoors. The plants are compact and bear many flowers that will 
continue to bloom until severe frost if the faded ones are removed. Violas are 
useful for planting in front of a perennial border in places where the early bulbs 
have died down. When the plants become overgrown and untidy the tops should 
be cut off and new growth will start from the root. There are a great number of 
varieties in shades of yellow, blue, and purple as well as white. The flowers are 
each of a single color and smaller than many pansies. Height, 6 to 8 inches. 

*V. tricolor. Pansy. To get the best results from pansies the seed should be 
sown in cold frames in July and transplanted into rich soil when the seedlings are 
large enough to handle. If planted in their permanent place in the fall in mild 
districts or in May in cold ones they should flower well most of the summer. To 
have large flowers, rich soil and plenty of moisture are necessary. Height, 6 to 
8 inches. 

Viscaria. See Lychnis. 

Xeranthemum annuum. Immortelle. Attractive plants which bloom for a 
long period and look good when massed in a bed. They are very useful for winter 
bouquets. 

*Zinnia elegans. Zinnia. This is said to be the species from which the 
modern horticultural zinnias have been derived. There are a number of classes 
which vary in size from dwarf plants with blooms 1 inch across to tall bushes 
with blooms 4 to 5 inches in diameter. All colors seem to be available except blue. 
They are very attractive in the garden and are useful as cut flowers for decorating 
the home. They grow best in full* sun but will bloom in partial shade. Height, 
6 inches to 4 feet. 

Z. linearis. A single-flowering species which is useful for edging borders or 
for the rock garden. The blooms are orange with a broad, maroon zone at the 
base of the rays. They have a spreading habit and should be planted about a 
foot apart. Height, 8 to 10 inches. 



24 
ORNAMENTAL GRASSES 

There are a number of grasses with attractive flowering spikes which are 
useful when dried for adding to winter bouquets. The spikes should be gathered 
before the pollen begins to shed and hung up to dry in an airy place. The seed 
can be started indoors or sown outside. The following kinds have done well at 
the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa: 

Agrostis nebulosa. Cloud Grass. Height, 1 foot. 

Briza maxima. Great Quaking Grass. Height, 1 foot. 

Eragrostis tenella. Love Grass. Height, 1 to 2 feet. 

Lagurus ovatus. Hare's-tail Grass. Height, 1 foot. 

Pennisetum ruppelii. Purple Fountain Grass. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Pennisetum villosum (P. longistylum) . Feathertop. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 

Tricholaena rosea. Ruby Grass. Height, 2 to 3 feet. 



ANNUALS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES 

For Colorful Beds and Borders 

The following varieties selected by A. R. Buckley, Plant Research Institute, 
have performed well to this date (1966) at the Central Experimental Farm, 
Ottawa. 

Ageratum: Blue Mink, Blue Blazer, Violet Cloud 
Alyssum: Carpet of Snow, Royal Carpet, Navy Blue, Rosie O'Day 
Antirrhinum: 

Dwarf — Floral Carpet strain in separate colors or mixed 
Medium — Carioca blend, Knee-high strain, Sprite strain 
Tall — Rocket strain in separate colors or mixed 
Novelty snapdragon — Bright Butterflies in mixed colors 

Begonia (Fibrous-rooted type) : 

Low (6 — 8 inches) — Dwarf Carmen, Dwarf Indian Maid, Flamingo, 
Galaxy, Rose Wonder, Zurich 

Tall (12 — 15 inches) — Carmen, Cinderella strain, Indian Maid, Scandi- 
navia strain, Tausendschon strain 

Callistephus (China Aster) : These are excellent bedding types of asters. 
Low — Best-of-all strain, Dwarf Queen strain, Kirkwell strain 
Intermediate — Bouquet, Duchess, Geisha and Princess types 
Tall — Ball, Lady, and Peony types and Perfection strain 

Celosia (Cristata or comb type) : 

Tall — Fireglow, Toreador 

Dwarf — Coral Garden, Empress and Kardinal strains 

(Plumed type) : 

Tall — Forest Fire, Golden Fleece 

Short — Fiery Feather 

Cosmos: Sunset and Sensation strain 

Dahlia (from seed): Early Bird mixture (Dwarf, 18 — 24 inches) 

Dianthus: Baby Doll, Bravo, Westwood Beauty 

Geranium (from seed) : Nittany Lion 

Impatiens: Jewel series, Imp series 

Lobelia: Blue Gown, Cambridge Blue, Mrs. Clibran Improved 

Marigold: 

Low, double — Sparky, Spun Gold, Spun Yellow, Yellow Nugget 

Low, single — Naughty Marietta 

Tall — Climax series, Gold Coin series, Diamond Jubilee 

Pansy: Majestic strain in mixture, Majestic White-with-blotch, Floradale' 

Petunia: Multiflora single — Blue Mist, Coral Satin, Paleface, Pink Bountiful, 
Pinwheel, Red Cap, Snowdrift 
Multiflora double — Cherry Tart, Honey Bunch, Pink Riches, Plum 

Double, Strawberry Tart 
Grandiflora single — Appleblossom, Bingo Improved, Capri, Cascade 
series, Coral Magic, Dreamland, Pink Cameo, Sunburst, Touche, 
White Magic 
Grandiflora double — Blue Monarch, Dorothy Favorite, Salmon Delia, 
White Swan 
Phlox: 

Red — Cinnabar Red, Tetra Red 
Salmon — Glamour 
Blue-red — Fireball 

25 



20 



Salvia. 



Verbena. 



Zinnia: 



Blue— Sky Blue 

Cream — Isabellina 

White— Snowball 

Novelty type — Twinkle mixed or in separate colors 

Mixtures — Cecily mixed, Grandiflora mixed, Globe mixed 

Medium dwarf — 

Scarlet: Blaze of Fire, Piccolo, Red Pillar, Flarepath, Hot Jazz 
Other colors: Evening Glow, Pink Rouge, Burgundy, Violet Flame 

Very dwarf — Salmon Queen 

Farinaceae — Royal Blue, Royal While 

Horminum — Pink Sundae 

Spreading — 

Blue: Amethyst 

Pink: Miss Susie, Ellen Willmott 

Red: Sparkle 
Tall — Giant Salmon Queen, Spectrum red 

Giant Cactus-flowered — Bonanza, Firecracker, Poly Pink, Princess, 

Red Man, Sun God, Yellow Zenith 
Giant — State Fair series 
Small-flowered — Gem series, Red Buttons, Pink Buttons 

Novelty types — 

Mexican: Halo, Old Mexico 
Green : Envy 
Scabious-flowered 
Persian Carpet 



Adlumia 

Cobaea 

Cucurbita 



Climbers 

Dolichos 

Echinocystis 

Ipomoea 



Lagenaria 

Lathyrus 

Tropaeolum 



Antirrhinum 

Brachycome 

Browallia 

Calendula 

Callistephus 

Celosia 

Centaurea 

Chenopodium 

Chrysanthemum 

Coreopsis 

Cosmos 

Dahlia 



Cut Flowers 

Delphinium 

Dianthus 

Didiscus 

Dimorphotheca 

Gaillardia 

Gypsophila 

Helianthus 

Lathyrus 

Lavatera 

Mathiola 

Nemesia 

Papaver 



Phlox drummondii 

Polygonum 

Reseda 

Rudbeckia 

Salpiglossis 

Scabiosa 

Schizanthus 

Tagetes 

Tropaeolum 

Verbena 

Viola 

Zinnia 







27 








Fragrance 




Centaurea moschata 


Lobularia 


Petunia 


Chenopodium 


botrys 


Mathiola annua 


Reseda 


Heliotropium 




Mathiola bicornis 


Verbena 


Lathyrus 




Nicotiana alata 

Foliage 




Amaranthus 




Centaurea gymnocarpa 


Kochia 


Artemisia 




Chrysanthemum 


Ricinus 




Everlasting Flowers for Winter Bouquets 


Ammobium 




Helichrysum 


Limonium 


Gomphrena 




Helipterum 


Xeranthemum 


Antirrhinum Rock 
Hybrids 


For Rock Gardens 

Iberis 


Nemophila 


Dimorphotheca 


Ionopsidium 


Nierembergia 


Eschscholzia 




Linaria 


Portulaca 


Gilia 




Lobularia 

For Window Boxes 


Sanvitalia 


Antirrhinum, 


Dwarf 


Lobularia 


Tropaeolum 


Centaurea cineraria 


Petunia 


Verbena 


Centaurea gymnocarpa 


Phlox drummondii 


Viola 


Lobelia 




Reseda 

Hedges 


Zinnia Pompon 


Artemisia 




Kochia 


Ricinus 


Cosmos 




Lavatera 


Tagetes— Tall 


Helianthus 




Polygonum 






Annuals that Will Flower in Partial Shade 


Celosia 




Ionopsidium 


Oenothera drummondii 


Clarkia 




Lobelia 


Petunia 


Cleome 




Lobularia 


Phacelia 


Coreopsis 




Malcomia 


Phlox drummondii 


Delphinium 




Mirabilis 


Polygonum 


Godetia 




Nemophila 


Verbena 


Iberis 




Nicotiana 


Viola 



28 



Annuals Especially Adapted to Hot Sandy Soil and Full Sunshine 

Ageratum Dimorphotheca *Petunia 



Calendula 
Centaurea 



Eschscholzia 
*Marigold (Tagetes) 



Portulaca 
Zinnia 



Annuals that Do Well in Sand when they Receive Enough Moisture, 
but Prefer Heavier Soil and Less Direct Sun 



** Antirrhinum 


**Lobularia (Alyssum) 


**Salvia 


*Calistephos (Aster) 


Nicotiana 


**Scabiosa 


Clarkia 


Lobelia 


Stocks 


Cosmos 


Nemesia 


*Verbena 


Larkspur 


**Phlox 





* Will stand light frost, 28° to 30° F., without damage. 
** Will stand frost down to 25° F. 






COMMON AND BOTANICAL NAMES, AND SOWING CLASSES 

OF ANNUALS 

Common Name Botanical Name *Sowing Class 

African Daisy, Blue-eyed Arctotis b 

African Daisy, Golden Dimorphotheca b 

African Marigold Tagetes b 

Alkanet Anchusa c 

Allegheny Vine Adlumia b 

Alyssum, Sweet Lobularia a 

Amaranth, Globe Gomphrena b 

Ambrosia Chenopodium c 

Aster Callistephus c 

Aster, Chinese Callistephus c 

Baby Blue-eyes Nemophila b 

Babies'-breath Gypsophila a 

Bachelors'-button Centaurea b 

Balsam Impatiens b 

Bartonia Mentzelia b 

Bean, Hyacinth Dolichos a 

Bellflower Campanula c 

Belvedere Kochia b 

Blue-eyed African Daisy Arctotis. b 

Blue Lace-flower Trachymene c 

Blue Stonecrop Sedum a 

Blue Woodruff Asperula a 

Bugloss Anchusa c 

Bugloss, Viper's Echium b 

Burning Bush Kochia b 

Butterfly Flower Schizanthus a 

California Poppy Eschscholzia a 

Canary-bird Flower Tropaeolum a 

Candytuft Iberis b 

Cape Marigold Dimorphotheca b 

Carnation Dianthus c 

Castor-oil Plant Ricinus c 

Catchfly, Sweet Wiliam Silene a 

China Aster Callistephus c 

Chinese Pink Dianthus c 

Chinese Woolflower Celosia c 

Cigar-flower Cuphea c 

Clarkia Clarkia a 



*See "Dates of Sowing", page 4. 

29 



30 

Common Name Botanical Name *Sowing Class 

Climbing Fumitory Adlumia b 

Climbing Nasturtium Tropaeolum a 

Cockscomb Celosia c 

Coneflower Rudbeckia a 

Cornflower Centaurea a 

Corn Marigold Chrysanthemum b 

Cucumber, Wild Echinocystis x 

Cup-and-saucer Vine Cobaea c 

Cupflower Nierembergia d 

Cypress, Summer Kochia b 

Daisy, African Dimorphotheca b 

Daisy, Swan River Brachycome b 

Diamondflower Ionopsidium a 

Dusty Miller Centaurea b 

Fairy Bouquet Linaria b 

Evening Primrose Oenothera c 

Feverfew Chrysanthemum > . . b 

Flax, Scarlet Linum a 

Flossflower Ageratum d 

Fountain Plant Amaranthus c 

Four-o'clock Mirabilis b 

Fumitory, Climbing Adlumia b 

Garden Balsam Impatiens b 

Globe Amaranth Gomphrena b 

Gourd Cucurbita, Lagenaria x 

Heliotrope Heliotr opium d 

Hollyhock, Indian Spring Althaea c 

Hyacinth Bean Dolichos a 

Immortelle Ammobium b 

Indian Pinks Dianthus c 

Jewel-of-the- Veld Ursinia c 

Larkspur Delphinium c 

Love-in-a-mist Nigella b 

Love-lies-bleeding Amaranthus c 

Mallow Malope b 

Marigold, African Tagetes b 

Marigold, Cape Dimorphotheca b 

Marigold, Corn Chrysanthemum b 

Marigold, French Tagetes b 

Marigold, Pot Calendula b 

Marvel-of-Peru Mirabilis d 

Mignonette Reseda a 

Morning Glory Vine Ipomoea b 

Mountain Fringe Adlumia b 

Nasturtium Tropaeolum a 

x Sow in ground previous October. 



31 

Common Name Botanical Name *Sowing Class 

Night-scented Stock Mathiola c 

Pansy Viola d 

Pea, Sweet Lathyrus b 

Petunia Petunia d 

Phlox, Annual Phlox Drummondii b 

Pincushion Flower Scabiosa b 

Pink, Chinese Dianthus c 

Pink, Indian Dianthus c 

Poppy, California Eschscholzia a 

Poppy, Corn Papaver b 

Poppy, Shirley Papaver x 

Pot Marigold Calendula b 

Primrose, Evening Oenothera c 

Prince's-feather Amaranthus c 

Purple Ragwort Senecio c 

Ragwort, Purple Senecio c 

Rose Moss Portulaca a 

Sage Salvia d 

Scarlet Flax Linum a 

Siberian Wallflower Cheiranthus d 

Snapdragon Antirrhinum c 

Spid^rflower Cleome b 

Statice Limonium c 

Stock Mathiola c 

Stock, Night-scented Mathiola . c 

Stock, Ten-weeks Mathiola c 

Stock, Virginian Malcomia a 

Stonecrop, Blue Sedum a 

Strawflower Helichrysum b 

Sultan, Sweet Centaurea b 

Summer Cypress Kochia b 

Summer Fir Artemisia c 

Sundrop Oenothera c 

Sunflower Helianthus a 

Swan River Daisy Brachycome b 

Sweet Alyssum Lobularia a 

Sweet Pea Lathyrus b 

Sweet Scabious Scabiosa b 

Sweet Sultan Centaurea b 

Sweet William Dianthus c 

Sweet William Catchfly Silene a 

Sweet Wivelsfield Dianthus c 

Ten- weeks Stock Mathiola c 

Tickseed Coreopsis a 

Toadflax Linaria b 

Tobacco Nicotiana b 



32 



Common Name Botanical Name 

Verbena Verbena 

Viper's Bugloss Echium 

Virginian Stock Malcomia 

Viscaria Lychnis 

Wallflower, Siberian Cheiranthus 

Wild Cucumber Echinocystis 

Winged Everlasting Ammobium 

Woodruff, Blue Asperula 

Woodflower Celosia 

Zinnia Zinnia 



*Sowing Class 

c 
b 
a 
b 
d 
x 
b 
a 
c 
a 



METRIC EQUIVALENTS 



LENGTH 



inch 
foot 
yard 
mile 



= 2.54 cm 
= 0.3048 m 
= 0.914m 
= 1 .609 km 



millimetre 

centimetre 

decimetre 

metre 

kilometre 



= 0.039 in. 
= 0.394 in. 
= 3.937 in. 
= 3.28 ft 
= 0.621 mile 



AREA 

square inch 
square foot 
square yard 
square mile 
acre 



= 6.452 cm 2 
= 0.093 m 2 
= 0.836 m 2 
= 2.59 km 2 
= 0.405 ha 



VOLUME (DRY) 



cubic inch 
cubic foot 
cubic yard 
bushel 
board foot 



= 16.387 cm 3 
= 0.028 m 3 
= 0.765 m 3 
= 36.368 litres 
= 0.0024 m 3 



cm' 
m 2 
km : 
ha 



= 0.155sq in. 
= 1.196sqyd 
= 0.386 sq mile 
= 2.471 ac 



cm 3 
m 3 

hectolitre 
m 3 



= 0.061 cuin. 
= 31 .338 cuff 
= 2.8 bu 
= 1.308cuyd 



VOLUME (LIQUID) 

fluid ounce (Imp) =28.41 2 ml 
pint = 0.568 litre 

gallon = 4.546 litres 

WEIGHT 



ounce = 28.349 g 

pound = 453.592 g 

hundredweight (Imp) = 45.359 kg 

ton = 0.907 tonne 



litre =35.2 fluid oz 

hectolitre =26.41 8 gal 



gram = 0.035 ozavdp 
kilogram =2.205 lb avdp 
tonne = 1 .102 short ton 



PROPORTION 

1 gal/acre = 1 1.232 litres/ha 
1 lb/acre = 1.120 kg/ha 
1 Ib/sqin. = 0.0702 kg/cm 2 
1 bu/acre = 0.898 hl/ha 



1 litre/ha = 14.24 fluid oz/acre 
1 kg/ha = 14.5ozavdp/acre 
1 kg/cm 2 =14.227 Ib/sqin. 
1 hl/ha = 1.1 12 bu/acre 



INFORMATION 

Edifice Sir John Carling Building 

930 Carling Avenue 

Ottawa, Ontario 

K1A0C7 



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Canada Postes 
Post Canada 

Postage oaid Port paye 



Third Troisieme 
class classe 

K1A 0C5 
Ottawa 



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