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Hagerman Collection 



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184 8. 







B»«wembljng of Fwlument. ftftei the Chiiatnuts R«oeM, on the Srd of F»- 
bmUT — Th« West Indik Qutitioii bMomee the fint robject of Discuuion 
— Lord Qeoige Bentinck moves for a Select CiHumittM of Iiiqiili7-_His 
Speech — Speeches of the Chsncellor of tiie Sxchotjuer^ Mr. James WiboD, 
Mr. T. Banns, Hr. BwnaJ, Mr. Disnuli — The Motion u n^Teed to without 
ft DiTiaioB— LoMi of iEOfXHX. to some of the West Indism Colonies ^o- 
posed bj the Ghucellor of the Bxcbequer. — Discussion thereon — -Un- 
ntTOontUe Intelligence received respecting the Condition of the West In- 
disn Inteicct — Remedi&l Aleesures — Lord John Russell proposes his Flftn 
in the House of Commons on the 16th of June— He reviews the put 
Legislation uid existing Position of the Qaestiou at gMkt length— ^^b« 
Hinisterikl Scheme is nnfftvourablj received — Sir John Fakington moves 
■n Amendment on the 18th of Jane, asserting the Claim of ^e Colonies 
to -sore effectoal Relief— Speeches of Sir E. Buxton, the Chancellor of the 
Rxcheqoier, Mr. E. Sejmer, Mr. Hum<^ Ltnd Qeor^ Bentinck, Mr. Hawes, 
and otiier Members — A warm peraoniJ Discussion arises touching the 
Adminiatration of the Colonial Office — The Debate is continued bj Ad- 
journments at ^eat leiwth — Important Speech of Sir Babert Peel in 
&Tour of the Muvisteriaf Measure — The, Amendment in rejected b; 260 
to 245 — Several other Amendments are moved, but without success, b; 
Hr. Blight, Mr. BarUj, Mr. Bouverie, and other Members — Lord John 
Bussell's Resolutions are finally agreed to and embodied in a Bill, which 
pisBm ihnnwh the House of Commone — Debates in the House of Lords 
on West In&n A&irs — Barl Orey introduces the Question diEcuased in 
the House of Commons affecting the Colonial Office, and vindicates his 
own Conduct — Speeches of Lord Stanley, Lord Brougham, the Marquis of 
Isutsdowne, and other Members — Debate on the Second Heading of the 
Sugar Duties Bill-Speeches of Earl Grey, Lord Sedewialej and Lord 
Denman — The Second Beading is agreed to, and the Bill becomes 
Law Page [I 


PinABce — Division of Public Opinion, at the commencement of the Session, 
rei^Mcting the Kational Defences — Views of the Free-Trade Leaden on 
the Subject — Lord John Rnesell makes a Financial Statement on the 18th 
of Februarf — His Speech — Detail of the Income and Expenditure — Pro- 
position for ccntinnmg the Income Tax for Three Years at the increased 
Bate of Five per Cent. — Cn&TOurable reception of the Ministerial State- 
nent b/ tiie House — Sir Charles Wood enaeavourt to pimtitiate the Op- 
position bj moving that the Army, Kavy^ and Ordnance Estimates be re- 
ferred to a Select Committee — Observations of Mr. Hume, Lord Qeorge 
Beutiiick, and otiter Members — Great Agitation excited in various parts 
^ the Countrr by the poposed augmentation of the Income Tax — The 

a a 


ChuiMlloT of tbe Bxcbequer snnounceg on th« 2Sth thftt the Qoremineiit 
do not intend to press the Resolutiaa for mcrewung tbe Income Tai — His 
StatGiueiit of the Pinanciftl Prospecte of the Country— Speeches of Mr. 
Waklej, Mr. Cobcten, Lord John Russell, Mr. Disraeli, and other Membera 
— Tbe public feelioe is turned by these discussiane to the unequal pres- 
sure of the Tax ai tuen esiatin^— Mr. Horsman proposea a Plan for grai- 
duating the Tax in respect to different Icinda of Property — The Chancel- 
lor of the Exchequer and Lord John Russell oppose the Motion — It is re- 
jected on a Division by 316 to 141 — Mr. Hume moves that the Tax be 
renewed for One Tear only, instead of Three — Sir Charles Wood opposes 
the Motion— General Discussion on the Income Tax — Sir Robert Peel de- 
fends his own Measure and Policy — He is answered by Lord Oeorge Ben- 
tinck— Mr. J. Wilson defends, in an elaborate Speech, the ?ree-Tr»de 
Measures of Sir Robert Peel — Mr. Diaraeli argues on the other side — Mr. 
Gladstone vindicates the reiKnt Commercial Changes in an able Speech — 
Speeches of Mr. Cobden and Lord John RuBsell — The Debate, after two 

_y of his Arguments — It is opposed warmly by the Irish Members, 

and resisted by the Oovemmeat — Majority arainst it 80 — Unsatisfactory 
position of the Finances, with an anticipated Deficit — The Chancellor ot 
the Exchequer promises to make a definite statement before the close of 
the Session — On the 25th of August he enters fully into the state of the 
Revenue, and announces his plan for supplying the DeficienCT — Proposi- 
tion to raise 2,031,22G{. by a Loan — Dissatisfaction created by this Pro- 
posal — Mr. Hume strongly objects, and again urges retrenchment of the 
lUxpenditure — He renews his objections on the 29th, when the Bill for 
givme effect to Sir Charles Wood a Plan is before the Uouse — Speeches of 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Henley, Mr. Drummond, Mr. 
Spooner, Mr. Cobdeo, Mr. A. Smith, and Lord John Russell — Mr. Hume's 
Motion for rejecting the Bill is negatived by 66 to 4G, and the latter is 
passed [33 


Alteration of the Navigation Laws — Announcement respecting them in the 
Queen's Speech — Mr. Labouchere, on the Kith of May, explains the Mi- 
nisterial Scheme in a Committee of the whole House — His Speech — Lord 
Oeorge Bentinck declares his Opposition to the Plan, which is commented 
upon by various Members on either side — Mr. Herries moves a Resolution 
on the 39th of May, in favour of munttuning the fundamental principles 
of the Navigation Laws — Tbe Debate is prolonged for three nights by Ad* 
ioumment— Speeches of Mr. Herries, Mr. labouchere, Mr. Alderman 
Thompson, Mr. Baitlie, Mr. Robinson, Mr. Gibson, Mr. W. B. Oladstone, 
Mr. Cardwell, Sir C. Wood, Lord Oeorge Bentinck, Mr. Cohden, Mr. Di»- 
raeli, and Sir Robert Peel — Upon a Division, the Resolution is lost by 
S94 to 177 — In consequence of the delay which had occurred, Mr. Labou- 
chere, en the ISth August, announces the Postponement of the Measure 
till the next Beasion— Jewish Disabilities Removal Bill — Circumstances 
which led to the Introduction of this Measure — The Second Reading 
being moved on the 7th February, Mr. Augustus Stafford moves, aa an 
Amendment, that it be read a Second Time that day Six Months— Lord 
Burghley seconds the Amendment — Speechos of Mr. W. P. Wood, Mr. 
Milnes, Sir W. Molesworth, Lord Mahon, Mr. Walpole, Mr. Shiel, Mr. 
Newdegate, Sir Robert Peel, and other Members — The Second Reading is 
carried by a Majority of 73— Upon a subsequent stage, Mr. Q<aing moves 
an Ajuendmeal oondemnatoty of the Bill — AAer some Discussicn it it 


witlidrawit — Tftriom AmeDdments on tlie Bill, moved bj Sir B. H. Inglu 
Mid other Momben, are rejected — On the Motion for the Third B«ading, 
Six F. Thedger mores thkt it be read a Third Time that dav Six Montha 
— After Speeche* &om Lard John Russell, and other Members, the 
Amendment is rejected and the Bill passed — In the Rouse of Lords the 
Second KeadinK 19 moved bj the Harquia of lADBdowne on the 25th Maj 
— ^The Earl of Ellenborongh movea the Bejection of the Bill— The Duke 
of Cambridge followa on the same side — It is supported br the thike of 
Axgjle, the Bishop of St. David's, Lord Brougham, and the Earl of Elie»- 
roere; opposed b; Lord Stanlcj, the Earl of Winchilsea, and the Bishop 
of Oxford — On a Dirision, the Amendment is carried against the Bill bj 
k majorit; of 35 [64 


A&in of Ireland — IMsaffected and critical state of that County during the 
Spring of 184S — Progress of Insorrection — Movements of Mr. £nith 
Brien and his confederates — Ignominious Failure of the projected Out- 
break — Policv of the QoTcrament and state of Public Opimon in (his 
Country on the Su^ect — Adoption of Coercive Measures — Announcement 
of a Bill for the ouipension of the Habeas Corpus Act — ^Debate in the 
House of Lords upon a Motion made bj the Earl of Glengall — Decisive 
I>eclaTation of the Afarquia of Lansdowne on behalf of the Qovemment — 
Bem&rks of Lord Brougham, Lord Stanle;, and other Peers — Unanimous 
feeling of the House — Lord John Russell, on the 24th Julj, moves for 
Leave to bring in a Bill vesting ex traordinarj powers in the Lord Lieu- 
tenant — His Speech on the state of Ireland and the features of the Crisis 
— He is warmlj supported by Sir Robert Peel — Mr. Disraeli, Mr. Hume, 
Mr. B. Osborne, Sir D. Norreys, Sir Lucius O'Brien, and many other Eng- 
lish and Irish Members, apeak in favour of the Bill — Mr. Feargus O'Con- 
nor delivers a vehement Repeal Speech againstit — Mr. 8. Crawford moves 
an Amendment which is loet on a Division, only Eight Members voting 
for it — The Bill is passed through all its St^es on the same Day, and is 
■ent up to the House of Lords — The Marquis of Lansdowne, on the 26th, 
introduces the Bill, with a Speech similar m effect to that of Lord J. Bus- 
sell — Lord Brougham, the Earl of Wicklow, the Earl of Olengall, and 
other Peers support the Bill, which is then carried through all its Stages 
' without any Opposition — Debate in the House of Commons on the Con- 
dition of Irehind, originating in a Resolution proposed bv Mr. Shannan 
Crawford for the Bei&ess of Grievances — His Speech — Answer of Lord 
John Russell — Speeches of Mr. H. Herbert, Mr. Pagan, Mr. Monsell, and 
Mr. Osborne — The Debate is adjourned — Declarations of Bir George Grey, 
Sir William Somerville, and Lord John Rusaell respecting the Irish Church 
— After further Debate, the Resolution moved by Mr. S. Crawford is 
negatived by 100 to 84 — -Bill for facilitating the Tnnsfer of Encumbered 

1, Lord Stanley, Lord Campbell, and 

Lord Monteagle— The Bill is read a Second Time— It is much debated in 
the House of Commons — Sir Lucius O'Brien, Mr. Napier, Hr. Henley, and 
other Members oppose the Bill — The Solicitor-General, Mr. B. Osborne, 
Sir J. Oisham, Mr Monsell, Mr. Sadleir, and Mr. F. Wood, support it — 
Ad Amemlnient moved by Mr. Napier is defeated by 197 to 52 — The 
Amendment* made in the House of Commons are opposed in the House of 
Lord* by Ijoid SUnley and Lord Monteagle, but adopted on a Division by 
27 to 10, wd the Bill is passed^ [&4 


VoMESTIO AF»iiM.— Eitnwrdinftry TpBnquillity of this Countrj duriiiE the 

Continental ReTolutions — AttemptB made bj the Cbftrtuts to disturb the 
Peace — Demonstration of the 10th of April, and ita harmless Result — Ex- 
cellent Moral Effect produced thereby— Disorderly Asacmbliee and sedi- 
tious Speeches in the Metropolis and other Flacea — Measures adopted by 
the QoTemment — The Great Chartist Petition to Parliament, and Pro- 
ceedings respecting it — Report of the Committee on Public Petitions ei- 
jxmog the Mierepresetitatioiig as to the Signatures — Peraanal IHspute in 
the House between Mr. Cripps and Mr. Feargua O'Connor— Interferonc« 
of the Speaker and Explanations of the Parties. — Cbowh ahi> Qovkbh- 
itBifT BscnaiTT Bill introduced by the Home Secretary — Objects of the 
MeMure — Speech of Sir George Grey— Observations of Mr. J. O'Connell, 
Mr. F. O'Connor, and other Members — The Bill is brought in — Lord John 
Russell moTCS the Second Beading on the 10th of April— Mr. Smith 
O'Brien appears in Parliament for the last Time, and speaks against the 
Bill — Sir George Grey ansners him in an animated Speech — Speeches of 
Mr. Thompson, Sir R. Inglia, and other Members — The Second Reading is 
carried by 4fi2 to 35 — The Clause making " Open and Advised Speaking" 
of Treasonable Matter felonious is much objected to in Committee — Mr. 
S. Martin, Mr. Horsman, Mr. Hume, Mr. Osborne, and other Members 
strongly opposed to it — Speech of Sir. R. Peel with reference to events in 
France — The Bill passes tne Third Reading by a great Majority — Debate 
upon the Second Reading in the House of Lords— speeches of Lord Stan- 
ley, Lord Brougham, Lord Campbell, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Pen- 
man, and other Peers. — Aliens Hehotal Bill introduced by the Marquis 
of Lansdowne— Eiplanationa and Debate on the Second Reading— In the 
House of Commons the Bill is opposed by Sir W. Molesworth — Remarks 
of Lord Dudley Stuart, the Attomey-General, Mr. Urquhart, Dr. Bowring, 
and other Members — The Second Reading is carried by a Majority of 119. 
ExTEKBioH OF THE Electith Fbahcbise — Popular Movement on this 
Subject and Exertions of Mr. Hume — A Reaolution in favour of fiirtber 
Reform in Parliament is proposed by that Gentleman on the Slst of June 
— His Speech on that occasion — He is answered by Lord John Russell, 
who opposes the Motion — Speeches of Mr. H. Drummond, Mr. Fox, and 
Mr. Duiaeli — The Debate is adjourned and resumed on the 6th of July — 
Speeches of Mr. B. Osborne, Mr. Serjeant Talfourd, Mr. Cobdeo, Mr. F. 
O^Connor, Mr. Milnea, Mr. Sidney Herbert, Mr. Muntz, and Mr. C. Til- 
liers— On a Division, Mr. Hume's Motion is rqected by 3G1 to 84 [123 


FoKHQir ArvAiBS. — Diplomatic Relations with Rome — Negotiations opened 
at Rome by the Ewl of Minto for this object — Bill brought in by the 
Marquis of Lansdowne to legaliae such relations — Debate on the Second 
" *" "' ■ *■ ■■•(..-. - - ■'■■"■' op of 

t the 

Committee — The Second Reading is moved by Lord Paltnerston, . 

" le of Commons, on the 17th of August — Mr. C.Anstey, Mr. Urquhart, 

Sir Robert Inglia, Mr. Law, Mr. K Palmer, >tr. Napier, and Mr. Newde- 
gate oppose the Second Reading, which is supported by Lord John Rus- 
sell, Mr. W. B. Qladsbme, Mr. M. J. O'CoDoell, the Earl of Arundel, Mr. 


Hoon^ tni Mux Hanbo^— The BUI ia retd « Swond Tim^ a m^orilj of 
78 Toting iu ita &Tonr — Further oppoution in Committee, Mid on the 
Thirf Be*diiiK — The Bill i» pissed. Aptaibb oi IiiLi abb Sioilt ^— 
Lord Stoalej l>riiiKS fonnrd s Motion in the House of Lords ntpecting 
the iiitenrention of the British QoTenuneut in the Sicilian Insuirection — 

The Harqais of Ijuisdowne aaswerB the Charge on the part of the Qovem- 
meBt — ObMrratioiu of the Earl of Miulo, the Duke of Aivyle, Eul of 
Malmeabuij, and other Feen — Proceedings on the same Bubject in the 
Hooae of CommoDB — Declaiation of Lord Palmenton reBpecUog the Id- 
terrenUoa of England — Mr. Piiraeli, on the leth Augast enters into a 
full review of the whole field of Italian Politica and British Interrention 
— Remarlu upon Lord Minto's Miedon and the real objects of Lord VaX' 
menton's Mediations — Lord Falmerston Tiudicates his own conduct and 
poUcj at great length. AtrAiaa or Sfaik : — Abrupt Dismissal of Sir E 
Bulwer, the British AmbsMador>~Circumstaiices which led to this trva 

— The nibject is brougbt before tbe Mouse of Ijords by liord Stanley — 
Hia Speecn — Answer of the Uarquia of Lansdowne — Bemarks of Lord 
Brongiuun, the Earl of Aberdeen, and other Feen — Mr. Banlces brinci 
the matter before the House of Oommoni bj a Kesolution ditapproTinf 

the matter before the House ot Uommoni bj a Itesolution ditapproTinK of 
the Policj of our Oovemment — Speeches of Mr. Sfaiel, Lord Mahon, Mr. 
Disraeli, Lord John Russell, Sir R. Peel, and Lord Falmerston— The 
Uotion is ultimatelj withdrawn — Close of the Session : — Mr. Disiaeli, 
on the 30th August rsTiewa the events of the expiring Session in an 
animated and humorous Speech, satiming the Jailures and disap- 
pointments of the Government — Lord John Russell parries the attack 
with much deiteritj — Remarks of Mr. B. Osborne and Mr. Hume — Pro- 
Tontion of Parliament bj the Queen in person, on the Qth of September 
—Address of the Speaker to the Throne—Her Majestr's Speech — Close of 
theSeuion [IfiO 


y^ixcx. — PosiUon of the Quitot Ministrr — State of Parties In France— Un- 
popularitj of the Kins— Death of Madame Adelaide, the Kind's Sister — 
Suirendei of Abd-el-Kader in Algeria — Violation of the Promise made to 
him — His Letter at the end of tiie Tear to Prince Louis Napoleon — Ex- 
planation by M. Guizot as to Foreign Polity of his OoTemment— Able 
Speed) on the Necessity of Reform, by M. Mesnard, in the Chamber of 

Electoral Law — Discussion in the Chamber of Deputies respecting the Sale 
of Offices bj the QoTcinment — Speeches of MM. OdiUon Barrot and Qui- 
sot — Victory of Ministers in the Chamber— Discussion on the Sepaiate 
FsragraphB of the Address — Speeches on Finance bv MM. Dumon and 
Thiers— Speech of M. Thiers on the Affairs of Ital^— Bepl;r bj M. Quicot 
— Speechea of MM. Thiers and Quiiot on the Affairs of Switzerland — De- 
claration of M. Duchatel condemning the Refonn Banquets — ni>roar in 
the Chamber— Debate on A&irs of Poland— Statement by M. Guizot re- 
nwcting DMtination of Abd-el-Eader — Renewed Discussion on Reform 
Deroonstiations, and Scene of Confusion in the Chamber — Tbe (>ppoaition 
refuse to vote— Majority for Miubters— Debate on Electoral Beforni — 
Speeches of MM. Quiiot, Thiers, and others — The Address voted in tbe 
Chamber of Deputies-^State of Public Feeling at this time [194 



Meeting of the Opporition Member* — Announcement of a Refonn Bnnqnet 
at Parii — The National Quardg called upon to appear in Unifonn — Pro- 
hibition of the Banquet hj MinisterB — It is {pven up bj th« Opposition — 
Address bj Oenerai Jacqueminot to the National Ghiards — Act of Im- 
peachment of Ministers— Disturbed state of Paris— Resignation of H. 
Ouizot and his Colleagues — Cotlisioni between the Populace and the Mili- 
tary — Jot of the Mob at the Downfall of the Mtuistij — Lamentable inci- 
dent at tne Hotel of the Minister des Affaires Etrongtees — Cruel Strata- 
gem of L^range and the Republicans — Its momentous Consequences — 
Batricadet erei^ed on the Momingof the 24th of Februai^ — Count M0I6 
is unable to form a Ministry — H. Thiers sent for by the King — Proclama' 
tion hjM. Thiers and M. Odillon Barrot— The Mob threatens the Tuila- 
rie»~'The National Guards and Troops of the Line offer no lUeistaiice — 
Abdication of Louis Philippe — Terrible Scene in the Chamber of Deputies 
— The Duchess of Orleans and the joung Princes enter the Chamber — 
Irruption of the Mob — Demand of a ProTisional Qovemment bj M. Marie 
—Speech of H. Odillon Barrot — Speeches of M. Iiedru RoUin and M. de 
Lamartine — The Mob masters of the Chamber — Nomination of a ProTi- 
sional QoTemment — " To the HOtel de Tille ! " — Scene of tumultuous 
Yiolence in the Chamber — Proclamation of the Rbpublio at the HAtel de 
Tille — Banguinarr Contest at the Palais Rojal — Escape of Louis Philippe 
and the KaTal Family— The ex-King and Queen arriTe in England — 
Farewell Address by the Due d'Aumale to the Army in Algeria — The 
Tuileries in the Hands of the Mob — Proclamations of the Provisional Qo- 
Teniment— Distribution of OIBces — All Vestiges of Monarchy swept away 
— Abolition of Titles of Nobility — Respect shown for Private Property in 
Paris — Devastations in the Provinces— Appointment of Barbie as Colonel 
in the National Guard — The Populace and the Ciei^ — Clamours for the 
" Red Bepublic " at the netel de Ville— Courageous Finnnesa of M. de 
Lamartine — Official Proclamatioa of the Republic — Was France repub- 
lican at Heart ! — Decree convolciDg a Constituent National Assembly— 
U. de lAmartiDe and the Foreign Policy of the New QoTemment — -His 
Manifesto to Europe — Alarming Circulars issued hy H. Ledru Bollin and 
M. Caraot — Their Doctrines disclaimed by the Provision^ Oovemment — 
Quanel between the National Guard and the Oovemment — The former 
Doliged to give way^Appointment of a Committee of labour for the Ope- 
ratives — National Workshops (Ateliers) established— Hostility to English 
Workmen — Regulations for Payment of Taxes — Financial Position of 
the Republic— Suspension of Cash Payments by the Bank of France, and 
by Banks in the Provinces — Louis Blanc's Plan for the Oreaniaation of 
Labour — The Communbts or Socialists — Disturbance created by them on 
the 16th of April— Election of Deputies for the National Assembly— Riots 
in various Places — Views of the eztteme Democrats . . . [2SS 


Meeting of the National Assembly on the 4th of May — Address by K. Du- 
pont (de I'Eure) — Oath of Allegiance abolished— Proclamation of the Re- 
public in presence of the People — Election of Officers of the Assembly — 
Policy of Provisional Oovemment detailed in Speech of M. de Lamar- 
tine— Election of Members of Executive Committee — Nomination of Mi- 
nisters — Formation of Clubs in Paris — The Assemblr invaded by the Mob 
— ^cen« of Confusion in tiie Chamber— H. Hubert declares that the Na- 


tioDftl AaaeuAlj i§ disMlted — SoppitMioa of the Inmiectioii — Conduct of 
Ooieni Oonrtkia and H. Lovtia Bl»nc — Defence nude b; M. Csunidike of 
liu Conduct — Addrem bv Executive Committee— Appointment of Cinn- 
nittee to dnw up Plan of Cooatitutiou— Diitiurimnces at Lyon*— Decree of 
FeipetuAl BMuabment pronounced ageinat the ez-BoTal Family — Impeacb- 
meut of H. Lonii Blanc — Election of Prince Louia napoleon Buona^iarte 
at Deput; — DiscuMion on thii miltject in the Assembler — ^The Prince de- 
clines to take Ma Seat — Proof of ConeemtiTa Feeling in the Awembtj— 
Attack on the Hinistij in the Ammblj— Speech of Genenl CKWgua^— 
Defence of the Execntire Committee bj H. de I«martine— Debate leapect- 
ing Prince Louie Napdeon — PUn of the Gonstitutioii — ^The National Ate- 
lioa — Bod J of PioTindal Workmen ordered to i^uit Peria — Commencement 
of Dutuib*ncet — The CfinireU beaten — Bamcadea and Inauirection — 
Deapetate Combat in the Streett of Paiia — Beaigmtion of the Bzecutife 
Cbmmittee — Oenerat OaTugnac inveated with aupreme Authority — Snc- 
ceaaea of the Military — Deatructire uae of Artillery — Death of the Arcb- 
toahop of Pari* — Termination of the Btruggle— ^neral Cavaignac ap- 
pointed Preddent of the Council — Hia Cabinet — Report of Committee on 
the Inaurrection — Leave given to the Attomej-Oeneral to prosecute MH, 
Lediu ELoltin and Cauaudiire — General Cavaignac and the National Work- 
ahopa — Project of the Conatitution — Speech of M. Thien on the Second 
Article relating to Property and Labour — Louis Napoleon takea hia Seat 
aa Deputy for the DepartmoDt of the Moaelle — Hit firat Speech — Import- 
ant D«bate on the Twentieth Article, confining the Legialative Power to 
one AeaemblT — Speechea of HM. Lamartine, Odillon BiuTot,and Dupin — 
Majority in Avour of a Single Chamber-r-DiicuMion on various Articlea 
of the Conatitntiou — The Election of the Preaident aubmitted to the Totes 
of the People— Republieaniflm on the wane— Pinal Adoption and Pro- 
clamation of the Constitution — Charges brought ^eainat Oeneral Cavaignac 
by M.Barthelemy St. Hilare — Hia triumphant De^nce — Blectiou of Prince 
Louis Napoleon as President of the Republic — His Address to the Aaaem- 
My — Formation of a Cabinet — Reflectioua on the Rise and Fall of popular 
Favoniitea in France [S64 


SrAnr.— Reoonitmction of the Bpaniah hfinistay — Announcement of the 
Queen Mother's Marriage with Hunoz in 1633 — Impeachment of S. Sala- 
manca in the Congress — Hia Defence — Eagtrtero arriyeB at Madrid — 
Quarrel between Lord Palmerston and the sputish Minis^ — Dismissal 
^ Sir H. L. Bulwer from Madrid — Military Disturbance iu the Capital 
— Cailiat Inaurrection, headed by Cabrera. 

PoKTUOAL. — Formation of a New Ministry under the Dnc de Saldanlia — The 
Qneen's Speech on the Opening of the Cortee — Modification of the Cabinet 
-—Closing of the Session of the Cortea. 

Sabuihu. — New Constitution promulgated to hia Subjects by the King, 
Charlea Albert. 

IiALT. — War in Lombardy. — Diaturbaneea at Milan in beginni^of Januaiy 
— Address of Manhal Badetzky to the Austrian Troops — ^^cta of the 
Fiencb Bevolution in Italy — Commencement of the S^^le at Milan- 
Combat between the Populace and the Austrian Ghuriton — Milan aban- 
doned by Marahal Radotiky — Proclamation by Proviaional Qovemment — 
The King of Sardinia leads the Piedmonteae Troopa into Lombardy — 
Bevolution at Venice — Strength of the Piedmonteae Force— Redetiky 
retires upon Terona — Auatriau Lines forced along the Miucio — Supine- 
ncM Ot tbe Papal Troops under General Duraudo— Junction effected by 
Oeneral Hugent with Marshal Badetzky— Severe Engagement between 


tlk« Amtmns and Italians before Terona—Chaika Albert ben(^:ea 
PeMluera — lu ultimate Capture — Partial SucceBMR of the FiedmonteM 
AmiT — Ticenza lunendeTB to Rodetiky — Padua and Palma Nuot» taken 
bj the Augtri&M— Mantua invested bj tie King of Sardinia— The Pied- 
montese Lines forced by Oeneral Aapre — Tarioui Conteila between the 
two Armiea — Victory of the Austrians at Somma Campa|nia— Chailsa 
Albert retreats towards Milan — Punuit b; the AustiianB--MilaB aban- 
doned by tlie R^r^inian Aisiy — Capitulation of Milan — Anniftice agmed 
upon [309 


ItjUT, continued. — Papal SiATxa. — New Organization of the Executive at 
BMne— The Pope promiMi a new Constitution to hie Bubjecta — Hia nn- 
willingDeee to engage in the War a^ainit Austria — New Ministn at 
Bome — Progiamme of its intended Pofic; — Auauination of Count KohIi 
at Borne— State of the Ca^tal at this Juncture — FormatiMk of a Radical 
Miuittiy — Flight of the Fope £ram Borne— He takes Refuge in the 
Neapolitan Territorv. 

STAPLES asdSicili. — Outbreak of Inguixoction at Paietmo — Conflict between 
the Populace and the Military — New Ministry appointed at Naples — The 
King promises a ConstitutioD — Bnthusiasm of the People — Insurrection 
at Messina — Di»turbancea at Naples — Saniruinarj Conflict in the Streets 
— The King victorious — Downfall of the Bourbon Dynasty — Decrees by 
the SiciliKD Chamber at Falenno — The Sicilian Throne offered to the 
Duke of Oeno^ and declined by him— Kxpedition sent from Naples 
uaiust the Sicilians — Bombaidmeut and Capture of MeBsin»— Energetic 
Measures of the Revolutionary Qovenunent at Palermo. 

Dbnhars akd Sobleswio-Holstein. — Death of Christian Till., King of 
Denmark, and Succession of Frederick Til. — Plan of new Constitutim) 
promulgated — Narrative of Events leading to a Quarrel between the 
Crown of Denmark and the two Duchies of Schleswig and Holstoii^— 
Deputation sent from .the Itleetipg of, the States at Reudsbur^ to Copen- 
hagen — The King's Reply — Explosion of the Revolution at Kiel — Strong 
Feeling in Demnaric against the Separation of the Duchies — Proclama- 
tions by the King — The Prussian IVoops oross the Holstein Frontier — 
Conduct of the German Assembly at Fninkfort— Protest of the Danish 
Ambassador — The Danish Forces attacked by the Prussians — Schleswig 
and Flensbourg taken by the latter — Glenerat Von Wrangel invades Jut- 
land — The Danish Army retires to Funen and Alsen — Interference of 
Sweden in the Struggle — The Prussian Troops withdrawn from Jutland 
—Blockade of the German Baltic Ports b^ the Danish Fleet— Note 
addressed by the Danish Government to Foreign Ministers — Termination 
of Hostilities by Armistice concluded at MalmS — Provisions of the Ai- 
misrice — Speech of the King of Denmark at the opening of the Diet. 

Nethb&IiAHds. — Appointment of Committee to revise Constitution. 

Bbloidn. — Abortive Attempt of French Democrats to excite a Revolution 
— Speech of the King on opening of Sesuon of the Chambers. . [328 


GxKif AHT. — Reflections on the Political Slate of Qermony — Popular Demands 
in the Soutb-Westem SUtes— Riots at Cologne and Wiesbaden. Hesse 
Cabsbl. — Commencement of Insurrection, and Concessions by the Elector. 
Bavaria. — Ignoble conduct of tbe King — Riots occasioned b^ the pre- 
sence of Lola Montes — She is ordered to quit Munich — Abdication of 
Louis in favour of his Son— The Chambers opened by Maximilian 11.^ 


Hii Bpttech on the occuioii. Saxoht^— Popnlu Tamoltf at Dresden — 
C3uag« of Hiautfj—Pnignuiiinfl of Policy of now C&binei Havotzb. 
— R^pl^ of the King to Petition of the Mariatntea — Royal PmelAiiUktion 
' — Meeting of Genenl AmboMj, ftod Speech of the King. 

Bennnciktion of Seignoiul Bighta bj Fnnce Ton Leineugen — Meeting at 
Hddalbeig on the 0th of Mkt — Tor-Ptu-Iament conTok^l — Second great 
Meeting at Heidelberg on the 2eth of March— Speech of Welckei— 
Meeting of the Toi^ParUinent at Frankfort — Election of FrendenU- 
Omunittee of Rftv appointed — Bandi of Imu^ent Democtatf defeated 
W the Troops of the Diet— Meeting of the Oer^n National ABcembI; at 
nankf<«t— ^>iscnssion on the question of a Central ExecutiTe Power — 
I»w puaed on the mibject — The Archduke John of Austria elected 
B^ent of the Empire — Recognition of this choice by the old Diet- 
Address to the Archduke — His Reply to the Deputation — Report of Com- 
mittee on Plan of a Conrtitntion— Inatallation of the R^ent at Frankfort 
— Appointment of a Ministrr — Abolition of C&pit^ Punishmenta — ■ 
Question of the Armistice of MtdmS — Tiolent conduct of the Radical Parn 
in the Awembly, and of the Populace — Tumultuous Scene* — The Mili- 
tary act against the Mob—Combat in the Streets — Defeat of the Insur- 
gent* — Uurden of Prince Lichnowsky and Major Anergwald — PrDclama- 
tion by the Regent — The question of Austria and the German Parliament. 

Kussu. — Policy of Russia. — Manifesto of the Emperor — Circular of the 
Russian GoTemment addressed to its Diplomatic Agents in Oennany. [3M 


Pbdssia. — Speech of the Eing in closing the Session of the TTnited Die^— 
Great Befonn Meeting at Berlin — R^arkahle Manifesto of the King — 
Censorship of the Press abolished — Unfortunate Collision between the 
Militaij and the Populace at Berlin — Decree authoridng a National 
Qnaid — Address of the Minister, Count Schweru, to the Students — 
Idberation of the captive Poles — Frederick William's Address to the 
Students — Boyal Proclamations — Deputation of Poles from Breslau — 
Rapid Changes of Ministry at Berlin— Opening of Second Session of the 
Prussian Diet — Royal Speech — Programme of the Electoral I«w — Ad- 
dress of the Diet — Mini st^ial Explanation — Resignation of Count Amim — 
Basis of new Prussian Constitution — Question of direct or indirtet Elec- 
tion for the National Assembly at Frankfort — Oeneial Election — Meeting 
of the Prussian National AssemblT— Speech from the Throne — Outline of 
the Constitution — Tumult at Berhn, and Attack on the Arsenal — Besigna- 
tion of the Ministry — The Auerswald Cabinet — The Army and Political 
Questions — Change of Ministry— General Ton Pfuel forms a new Cabinet 
->— Proclamation to the Army — General Ton Wrangel's Address to the 
Troops — Invasion of the Assembly by the Mob — Count Ton Brandenburg 
made President of the Council— Sitting of Assembly transferred to 
" '' inbn^ — Tumult in the Assembly— Interference of the Military — 
_ ar Quard disbanded — Berlin declared in a state of Siege — Disarming 
e Burgher Guard— Obstinate Conduct of the Assembly — It denies to 
the Brandenburg Ministry authority to le^ Taxes — The GoTemment suc- 
cessful in the struggle — Address by the Archduke John to the German 
People — Meeting of the Assembly at Brandenburg — It is dissolved by a 
Boyal Edict. 

Oman Dbcbt or Pofliii. — Outbreak of Polish Insurrection in Posen — 
Horrible Atrocities committed by the Insurgents — Defeat and surrender 
of Mieroslawski — Termination of the Rebellion — BeeoluUon of the Frank- 
fort Assembly as to the Partition Line dnwn in Posen — German view of 
the Polish Question. [375 



Annui. — PopoUtion of Aiutruui Empire — TUriew of Eventt in Hung&ij 
— Frinee Mettemicb proposes DisBolution of Hungariui Chajnber — Open- 

ag of 8«uioii of Diet far Lower Auttria — The Chunber iuTulod l^ the 
ob— Conflict with the Military — ProcUmatiou b; the Emperor — Flight 
of MetterDich from TieDba — Conduct of the Bathyuij-KosButh Miniiti; 
in HimgKn — Baron Von Jollachicli appointed bj the Emperor Ban of 
CkoMia— New Minisby %t Vienna — Declaratiou of Amnesty— Outline of 
New Constitution — Promulgation of the Can«titution — (Siaugei in the 
Minittry at Vienna — New Electoral Law— The Emperor abandona the 
Cb^itol for Innipnick — Proclamation to the Austrian People— Quarrel of 
Roeei in Bohinnia— The Chwclu and the Germans — Qreat PanMslaronic 

kblisbed there 
/ Jellachich — Outbreak of Insurrection at 
Plague— The Princess Windiachgr&tz killed by a Bifle Shot— Bombard- 
ment of Prague — The Bebellion crushed — Jellachich stripped of his 
Office by the Emperor — Reconciliation effected at InDspruck — Failure of 
attempted Adjustment of the Quarrel between the Hungarians and 
Croats — Hanitesto of the Bon — Opening of Session of the HunKarian 
Diet — Speech of Kossuth in the Diet, on the Question of Magyar Kation- 
olit; — Address of the Hungarian Chamber — Constituent Assembly of 
Austria opened at Vienna — Speech of the Archduke John-— Return of the 
Emperor to Vienna — His enthusiastic Reception — Contest in Hungary 
between the Magyars and the Croats — Deputation from Pesth to the 
Emperor — Threatening Advance of Jellachich — Hb Proclamation — The 
National Assembly at Vienna refuses to receive Second Hungarian Depu- 
tation — Murder of Count Lambei^, at Pesth — The Ban of Croatia ap- 
pointed by the Emperor Commander-in-Chief and Commissary Plenipoten- 
tiary in Hungary — Bovolt at Vienna — Flight of the Emperor — Jellachich 
marches upon the Capital — Bis Reply to the Messages of the Diet 
— Approocb of the Hungarian Troops^— Situation of Vienna at this Crisis 
' — lYmceWindischgr&ti takes the Command of the besieging Army — ■ 
Prague declares for the Emperor — Storming of the Suburbs of Vienna — 
Surrender of the City — Execution of Blum and Messenhauser — Protest 
of the National Aaumbiy at Frankfort — The Austrian Army marches 

rinst the Hungarian»--Change in the Viennese Cabinet — Meeting of 
Diet at Kremsir — Abdication of the Imjierial Throne by the Emperoi 
— Proclamation by the New Emperor, Francis Charles — Reflections on the 
Position of Austria. [4U1 


Imdia.— ^The Sikhs in the Punjanb — Moolraj Dewan of Mooltan — Murders 

of Mr. Vans Agnew and Lieutenant Anderson — BraTe and spirited 

Conduct of Lieutenant Edwordes and Colonel Cortlandt — Engagement 

with the Rebels, and Defeat of the latter — Obstinate Conflict at Noonanee 

before Mooltan — Disturbances in the Hazareh Country— Major and Mrs, 
Idwrence taken Prisoners — Assault on Mooltan on the 12th of September 
— Sortie from the Garrison — Treacherous Defection of Shore Singh — 
Troops ordered to assemble at Ferozepoor under command of Lord Oough 
— Shore Singh leaves Mooltan and marches to the North-West — He is 
joined by his Father, Chuttur Singh — Position of the British Forces at 
Ramnuggur — Disastrous Attack on a Body of Sikh Cavalry in a "Nullah" 
— Death of Oeneral Curelon — Qeneral Thackwell ordered to turn the 
Flank of the Sikhs — Cannonade between them and the Detachment under 


Qenenl Ttutckwell — Shore Singli ntirea upon the Jheluin— 0«tiend 
AnMilt upon Hooltan, on S7th of D«eember — Esplomon of Mi^uiue in 
the Fort— Sortie of the Sikhi repulsed. 

Caraoa- — Opening of Seuioii of New P&rliunenb— Speech of QoTemor- 
Gener&l — befeat and BeBi^mtioD of the Ministn. 

UnTED Statu. — Trea^ of Peace with Uexico — Meuue of the Prendent 
to Omgr«M on the mbject — Ditcoverj of* Oold in (Alifomia — Scene at 
the " Digguwe" — Contest for the Presidencj — Election of Qeneral Tajlor 
—-OpauBg of Sesnon of Congren — Mewage of the President — It« Tofuci 
— 1. Qeneral Renew. 3. Treaty with Mexico. 3. Armj and Mavy. 4. 
Tenitorial Acquidtioiu. 6. Qold Minea in California. 6. Qneition of 
Slavery. 7. Teiritorial Surrey. 6. Mexican Debt. 9. "American Syitem." 
10. Preaidential Veto. [487 




^M HramBT, aa it stood at the Page 

Opening of Parliament on the TheSpecialCommiwion, Ireland: 

18th of November, 1647 . . 173 Prooeedi^Ra at Limmck, En- 

BsBBim fitr the year 1848 . . 174 nia, and Uonmel 331 

BlKTHB 176 

HuaiAon 180 STATE TIOALa 

I>»A»B» IW Court of Queen'e Bench, Dublin 

Pbohotiobb 277 _rr^a Qu^j, p, ^_ gmith 

O'Brien, for sedition .... 364 

PUBUC DOCUMKHTa The aame-The Quean p. T. P. 

. _ Meagher, for sedition . . . 373 

PtBAHOi AoooDHTS roK THI Yi*B Commisiion Court, Dublin— The 

1W8. Qoeen e. John Mitchell, for 

L Public Income 290 felony 373 

IL Public Expenditure . , . S9S The same—The Queen p. K. L 

ITT. DinKsiUon of Orante . . 293 O'Doherty, for felony. . . . 38S 

IT. Unmnded Debt 303 The same— The Queen v. John 

Y. Public Funded Debt ... 304 Martin, for felony 38S 

VL Trade and Navigation . , 306 Spedal Conuuisdon, Clomnel— 

Lirt of Acta, Public and Private, TriJof William Smith O'Brien 

paaaed during Session 1848 .309 ™^'<«'>'8'' H^*^ ■,■,■-• V *^ 

PnWrf Stec? 334 The ^e-The Trnlof T. B. 

AveiaM Price* of Com, Hay, ^^Manus fw high treason. . 446 

etiaw, Clover, and Butcher^ ^* "V"*^^ *^ ^^P*!" 

jiH^f 32S Francis Meagher for high 

Tablea of "Mortality [Marriages, treason 4«1 

Birtha and Deatha; Bankrupts; Patuhb 47fi 

and Meteorology 326 p„_-_ 4jo 

Univewity Honours-Oxford. ,327 ^^"""^ *'" 

Cambridge 329 Ihmx 49i 




184 8. 









Bt-oMMtnUmg of Partiament, after the Chrittmat Reeeu, on tht Sri of 
Ftbmarif — The WeA Indian Qveition bfcomet the fir»t tuhjfct of 
ditamum — Lord Oeorge Bentmek movet /or a Select Commitiae of 
Inepmy — Hi* Speech — Speeches of the CkanctUor of the Exchequer, 
Mr. Jamet WiUim, Mr. T. Baring, Mr. Bemal, and Mr. DiiraeU 
— The Motion it agreed to mthout a divition — Loan of SOO.OOO^. to 
tome of the Wett Indian Coloniee propoied by the Chancellor of 
Ae Exchequer — Dteeiation thereon — Unfavourable Intelligenee received 
reepectingthe Condition of the We$t Indian Interest — Benudial Measuret 
— Lord John RtauUpropou$ hit Plan in the Houu of Commons on Ihi 
16th of June — He reviews the past Legislation and existing Position of 
the Question at great length—The Minisierial Scheme is unfavourably 
received — Sir John Pakington movet an Amendment on the 1 8th of 
June, atterting tht Claim of tht Colonies to more effutual Belief — 
Speeches of Sir E. Buxton, the Chancellor of the Excliequer, Mr, 
K. Segmer, Mr. Hume, Lord George Bentinck, Mr. Hawet, and 
other Members — A warm personal Ditcussion arises touching tht 
Adminiitratitm of the Colonial Office — The Debate it continued by 
Adjoummenti at great length — Important Speech of Sir Robert Peel 
in favour of the Ministerial Measure — The Amendment is rejected by 
S60 to S45 — Several other Amendments are moved, but unthout 
tueeest, by Mr. Bright, Mr. Barkly, Mr. Bouverie, and other 
Members. — Lord John Rasters Setolutiont are finally agreed to and 
embodied m a Bill, vihidt pastes through the Home of Ommotif — • 

Vol. XC. [B] 

2] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

Dd>aUi m the Houte of Lordt on West Indian Affairt — 'EaA Grttf 
introduce* the QuMtion dieeiaud in the Hotue of Commons affecting 
the Colonial Office, and vindicate! hit own Conduct — Speeehee of 

Lord Stanley, Lord Brougham, the Marquie of Lansdoime, and 
other Metttbert. — Debate on the Second Heading of the Sugar Dutiet 
Biil — Speechei of Earl Qrey, Lord BedeedaU, and Lord Denman. 
— The Second Beading it agreed to, and the Biil become* Late. 

THE Sessiou of Parliament adopted by Parliament for their 
haTlng oonuneDoad, hj a de- relief." 
parture from the usual custom, in In introducing this motion to 
November, 1847, and being ad- the House, LordQeorge first de- 
jonraed for the Christmas holy- fined his own position. His per- 
days, the two Houses resumed sonal vish, as he was aware Uiat 
business f|fiun on the 3rd of Fe- his motion would be unopposed hy 
bruaiy. The condition of the Her Mtyesty's Ministers, was to 
West Indian Colonies was the first make no statement to the House : 
subject that occupied the attention the observations he should make 
of the House of Commons, a mo- were offered only in deference to 
tion being brought forward bj what he believed to be the genenl 
Lord George Bentinck, the iu- desire of the House and of the 
defatigable advocata of that in- parties at large interested in the 
terest, for a Select Committee of question. It ^d been represented 
Inquiry. The noble Lord, before to him by the colonial interest 
entering upon his subject, pre- that the planters were in extremit, 
sented three important petitions ; and that whilst redress was under 
one from the Standing Committee disoussion by the Committee that 
oftha West Indian Planters, another great interest would perish. His 
from the merobsnts of Greenook, motion had, indeed, neen termed 
figainst restraints on immigration pusilianimous. It was, however, 
and on the employment of labour, for himself to oonsider what was 
•nd a third from merchants and his power to obtain any substantial 
othan in Jamaica, praying for the relief by a direct vote of the House, 
removal of burthens, for a full In July 184S, only five gentle- 
supply of African labour, an altera- men conneoted with the West or 
tion <^ the Navigation Laws, and an the East Indian interests had voted 
assimilation of the duties on colo> with him in a minority of 130 
niat rum to those paid by the against the m^ority of 006, who 
British distiller. The motion of then n^tived the proteetion now 
Lord George Bentinck ran as fol> sought : he thought, therefore, that 
lows :— the West Indian interests had 
" That a Select Committee he no right to blame him on the pre- 
appointed to inquire into the pre- sent occasion. He had no reason 
sent condition and proepeots of tlie to suppose that the minority had 
interests connected with, and de- been converted into a mqjority; 
pendenton, sugar and cofiee plant- but, to juatify inquiry, he pointed 
ing in Her JJ^jesty'a East and to the extremity of the West In- 
West Indian possessions and the dies, to the failure of fifty great 
Mauritius; and to consider whether houses in this country, withTialu- 
any and what measures can be lities exceeding 6,300,0001., and 

EmgUnd.] HISTORY. [3 

to thft chuiga in Ute public fMlin^ the Wait Indies is 60j. a year; 

on the sul^ect of glareiy uid slave- in Jamaica a free labourer is paid 

trading ; at the last general eleo- half-s-dollar a d^, for six or seven 

tioo not a wrod w&s said on the hours' work, and he can BcanMly 

Bolgeet ; those vho were otnDipo- be got to work four or five dayi in 

tent in 1839, were powerless in the week. In Cuba the slave ia 

1847. In proposing his inquiry, made to work sixteen or even 

be wiahed it to be distinctlj un- twentT hours a day; the driver 

dantood that be neither precluded armed with whip, outlaas. and dag- 

himself nor vriahed to preclude ger.attonded by bloodhounds. That 

others, it a. substantial measure ia the kind of slavery which we are 

for immediate and effectual relief Etimulating by the admission of 

sbonld be brought forward, from slave-grown sugar intothiscountry. 

lending their support to any such However, there is no ol^eotion to 

pvpoMl. He hoped that he should immigration. Sir Charles Ulet- 

be able, through the i^st^lmen^ oalfe declared, in 1840, that the 

ality of a Committee of inquiry, to fertile soil of Jamaica could provide 

prevail upon the House to change for any multitude without duni- 

ita policy with regard to this great niabing the comforts of the exiat- 

queatian. He did not seek to en- ing population ; and similar reports 

force the distinction between slave- were mode from other colonies, 

grown and free-grown sugar, be- But the cost of immigration is too 

cftoae thst attempt would be fol- great for the planters to bear, 

lowed by the overthrow of the especially with the obligation to 

Qorenunent^-which he did not send back the immigrants at the 

desire. end of five years. He did not 

Alluding to the petition from know why there should be this 

Jamaica, Lord Oeorge declared delicacy about removing an Afri- 

that he could not agree with the can, a Cooly, or Chinaman, when 

demand for the repe^ of the Navi- he is only transferred from one hot 

gotion Xaws ; and he entered into climate to another, and no such 

a long statement of the rates of delicacy is ehovm to the British 

freight, to show that the West soldier, who is bound to remain ten 

Indians suffer no injury from those years in an uncongenial climate, 

laws. With respect to the differ- LordGeojgeadvertedtothe cose 

ential duty on spirits, he thought of the East Indies, invited by Par- 

that the British distiller would liament to exert themselves in 

need its maintenance. He was producing free-labour sugar — coit- 

not indisposed to give every feci- tending that the foith of Parlia- 

11^ for immigration, but doubted ment was as much pledged to them 

whether it would do much good, to enable them to repay themselves 

The atate of Barbadoes, as densely for the outlay of that capital, as it 

peopled as China, shows that in- was pledged to repay the fund- 

creued numbers will not suffice, holder the debt that was due to 

He agreed with Mr. Merivale, the him. 

uew Under-Secretaiy for the Co- In July last, Mr. Hawes had de- 

lonies, that free labour never can scribed the Mauritius as being in a 

sneoessfully compete with slave stateofmostflourishingprosperity; 

labour. At the highest estimate, since that, out of six grMt finns in 

the cost of maintaining a slave in the Matuitius trade, but one re- 

IB ''I . „|C 

4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

mained standinff -. the liabilitieB of opening the trade of Brazil ? Cotn- 

thoee that had follen are estimated paring the sixteen months before 

at 3,900,000/. ; Ministers have with the sixteen months after the 

been obliged to advance 450,0001. admission of slave-grown ai^ar, 

on sngar to enable the colony to there had been a gross decrease in 

fo on, and to supply rice from the production of cotton goods to 

ndia for the food of the labourers, the amount of 1,339,341 pounds. 

That fact showed bow ntterlj Mi- c^net an increase of 108,082 

nisters had been in the dark re- pounds: taldog into acconnt tha 

specting the true state of Her enhanced price of raw cotton, the 

Majesty's colonial pOBeesflions, and balance remaining for wages and 

would alone justiiy ini^uiry. profits hod declined by 1,671,003^ 

He wanted the inquiry also as a Lord George assailed Uie system 

bridge of retreat for Ministers and for suppressing the slave trade, 

the free-traders. He would not calculating, with a great array of 

hint to them that it should be a figures, that from first to last it 

bridge Buch as acted as a guide to hadcostthiscouutiy 100,000,0001. 

a certain proposition in Euclid. He proposed a substitute for the 

They wanted no bridge for the ineifective blockade of Africa. They 

blockheads who had predicted all would never put down the slave 

tbe evils that had occurred ; they trade so long as it depended upon 

must have a bridge for the men of blockading 10,390 miles of coast, 

brains, wbich the hon. Member He would, as Captain Pilkingtoa 

for the West Biding of Yorkshire recommended, atnko a blow at the 

and his friends might be permitted head and not at the hand. He 

to pass over ; but certmnly not with would not send an army to destroy 

colours flying, or drums beating, every individual hornet, but go to 

nor with bands playing " See the hornets' nest at once, and 

the Conquering Hera comes," or smother that nestof the slave trade 

tbe tune of " Cceur de Lion," wbich now existed in Cuba. He 

with which the hon. Oentleman bod rood in the Times an extract 

was, he believed, greeted abroad ; from an United States ^per, 

but they might be permitted to in which it was stated that if the 

pass over with arms reversed, and United States did not possess her- 

with muffled drams, muttering per^ self of Cuba, Great Britain would; 

haps between their teeth, " If our and that England hod a strai^r 

cause is of God, it will live ; but claim by a hundredfold to Cuba 

jf not, it must perish." Their than the United States had to Mex- 

cause WBS not of God, aud there- ico, because a sum of 45.000,000{. 

fore it must perish. To make was due to British subjecta upon 

out the failure of the recent mea- Spanish bonds, and Cuba was hy- 

Bures of free trade. Lord George pothecated for the payment of that 

plunged into an immense mass debt. 

of statistical details. Against Sir Charles Wood. — " But 

cheap sugar, he set oif the milnre would you seize the Bi-azils as 

of our great merchants for moi-e well?" 

than 6.300,000/., asked how free Lord George Bentlnck. —The 

trade had benefited Lancashire, cose of Cuba stood upon its own 

now in so miserable a state ; whe- merits, and upon the debt of 

ther it bad fulfilled the promise of 49,000,0001. In taking possession 

E«gl«Hd.l HISTORY. [5 

of it we sboDld only be distraiaiDg resting hjs caae partly on a pamph- 
for ajast debt,of wbicbwe faadlong let entitled " Ministera and the 
demuided payment in vain. We Sugar Duties." " The curtailment 
migbt then emancipate the Blavea of the apprenticeship," be said, 
ofCnba; and h&Ting thusdeetroyed "bad worked well; the anticipation 
sUveiy itsdf in that quarter of formed, in 1844, that there would 
the world, there would be no be a targe increase in the pnxjac' 
difScolty in allowing the Britisb tion of free-labour sugar, had not 
merchant to go to Africa, for the been confirmed ; and the diatinc- 
purpose of obtuning there, by the lion between free-labour and slave- 
offer of good wages and other ad- labour sugar bad proved to be in- 
fant^ea, a number of free Africans compatible with treaties. As the 
to cultivate his estates. question of slavery bad to be 

Sir Charles Wood, though not omitted from consideration, they 
opposing the ^pointment of the were led toconsider solely whether 
(knnmittee, guarded himself against there should be protection or no 
the supposition that the Qovem- protection. The proposal of the 
ment meant to recede from the West Indians was to fix the diSer- 
coorse wbioh they bad chosen in ential duty at 10*. per cwt., or 
1846, and thought that be should 10/. per ton; the avowed object 
be showing most kindness to the being to enhance the price by that 
West Indians by staling distinctly amount. Last year the consump- 
what were the views and intentions tion of sugar amounted to 290,000 
of the Ministiy. He declined to tons ; the proposed enhancement 
follow bia noble Friend through of price, therefore, would be equi- 
maoy of those topics which he had valent to a tax of !2,0OO,OO6/., or 
presented to the House, especially say, in round numbers, 3, OOO.OOOt. 
as he thought that no sound in- On the other hand, diminished 
ferences, with regard to the future, protection had benefited the re- 
coold be drawn bom the state of venue, which bad risen from 
trade daring the last twelve 3,749,363/, in 1845, to 4,596,6961. 
months. The extraordinary fall in 1847, despite the great distress, 
in-the price of sugar, for example. Her Mt^esty's Ministers held that 
he regarded as transitory, because duties should be imposed with re- 
he thought it owing to the gene- ference to revenue alone. Govem- 
ratly disastrous stale of commerce ment intended to propose such an 
during the autumn. As great a alteration in the Navigation Laws 
fall was to be fonnd in the prices as would completely put an end to 
of other articles ; in indigo, US per any discontent springing from that 
cent. ; in rice, 26; in sw>, 51 ; and source. He should be happy to 
in tea 41^ per cent. The houses extend the tise of molasses to 
in the Mauritius trade had fallen brewers; but he thought that it 
from causes totally independent of would not be practicable, as mo- 
the price of sugar; and in like lasses could not, like sugar, be 
manner the West Indies . had suf- made to bear an amount of duty 
fered from the &ilure of the West equal to that on malt ; but the ex- 
India Bank. perience of the past year had 

As to the grievances of the West shown that there was no difficulty 

Indies, SirCbarles contended that in admitting molasses into dislil- 

tb^Jiad been much exaggerated ; leriea; he proposed, therefore, to 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

introduce a Bill, immediately, au- 
thorizing the admiBsion of molasaes 
into diatillerieB upon terms such ae 
those on which sugar had been here- 
tofore admitted. Cane-juice might 
be admitted on payment of an 
equiralent duty, but he understood 
tint that would be prohibitory. 

" With respect to immi^tion, 
a statement which he held in his 
hand showed that it had been ex- 
tensive and beneficial. The de- 
tails to which he referred were as 
follows : — 

ifun^itr <if Siatf in 182S. Frm La- 

bota-tri inporUd inlo lie faUmittg 
Colmit* la 1843. 

Muiriliiu, , 
28,000 ■ 


TritiidaJ, _ 
24,000 ■ 

" Ithadbeen found, however, that 
the present eystem of immigration 
did not answer; and be proposed a 
change. He knew that there was 
a risk in allowing the practice 
of taking negroes from Africa ; that 
if parties were permitted to buy 
negroes for slaves, and to bring 
them from Africa upon the pretext 
of their being made free labourers 
in the West Indies, the permission 
would offer a direct encouragement 
to a renewal of all the horrors of 
tbe slave trade. With this con- 
viction, prDvision must be made 
that if natives were brought from 
Africa to ^e West Indies, itshould 
be with their own free will, though 
the Government were not disposed 
to throw any fresh obstruction in 
the way of the importation of free 
labour ; and they were prepared to 
advance a sum of money not ex- 

03,000 Free. 

23,000 Liberatsd AMoni. 

8,500 Free. 

3,000 Liberated A&icuM. 
33330 Free. 

6.180 Liberated ArHcuii. 
' 17,788 Preo. 

8.181 Liberated Africani. 

ceeding 200,0001. for tbatpurpoae. 
Another source ooneistea in the 
liberated Africans. At present th« 
cost of these liberated negroes was 
defrayed bj the colonists ; bat the 
Government were prepared to cast 
upon this country the cost of con- 
veying these negroes to the West 
Indies. But the great body of 
these negroes were set free at 
Sierra Iieone ; and be believed the 
transferring them to the West In- 
dies would be not only bensflcial 
to these colonies, but beneGcial to 
the negroes themselves, and to tbe 
colony of Sierra Leone itself. 

" Another measure of relief would 
be to postpone tbe repayment of 
the hurricane loan for five years ; 
and a new loan would be made to 
Tobago, Sfi a relief on account of 
the last hurricane." 

Reading various extncte ftom 
the memorial of the Jamaica House 
of Assembly and other documents. 
Sir Charles contended that there 
was vast room for agricultural im- 
provements in the West Indies; 
and if proper exertions were made, 
he did not despair of seeing those 
colonies restored to a state of com- 
parative prosperity. 

Mr. Robinson gave credit to tbe 
Government for the openness of 
thsir declaration, but thought that 
if the West Indies were to nave no 
other measure of relief than that 
suggested by the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, they must be prepared 
for total and irreparable ruin. 

Mr. Hume and Mr. Ellice also 
made a light account of the pn>- 
mised measures, but ui^ged Lord 
G. Bentinck to withdraw his mo- 
tion and leave the matter to the 
responsibiUly of Government. 

Mr. James Wilson entered into 
the subject at considerable length. 
He commenced by observing that 
he should not follow the noble 

En9U«d.\ HISTORY. [7 

Mover into those gvneral qnesdoiu admitted th&t he had heard with 

of oommercial poUcj into which he great BatiaGution the alatement of 

bad deviated, but should confine Uie Chancellor of the Exchequer 

lutoseU exclnaiTelj to the intereeta last night, not merely because he 

of the cultivators of eugar. He (Sir 0. Wood) had announced the 

placed the whole qoestion on the intention of the Government to 

lateteetofdieWflstlndianplanters, adhere to the Act of 1816, but 

on their demands for protectioD, because he had also announced his 

aad on the power of Government intention to remove many restrio- 

to grant those demands. The West tions which still pressed heavily on 

Indians rested their demands for the West Indian planters ; hut he 

protection on four distinctgrouads; nevertheless thbugfat that much 

of which the first was, that if moral further good might be conferred 

considerationa compelled us to ex- on the o^onies by going into this 

dude slavery from our colonies, Committee, for if thoee planten 

they also compelled us to exclude were to be saved, it must be by a 

all sngar, the produce of slave considerable change in the social 

labour, from the home market ; relations of the islands in which 

the second, tiiat slave labour was they lived. In the British West 

cheaper than free labour, and Indian islands the whites formed 

that it was therefore unequal only 7i per cent, of the whole 

and unJDst to confine the West population, whilst the labourers 

Indians to free labour entirely; formed theotherOeJperoent.; for 

the third, that the sugar of the whites only went there to make 

Cuba was the produce of slave their fortunes, and, when they had 

labour, and ought, therefore, to be done so, retnmed home to spend 

excluded ; and the fourth, that the them. But it was not so in Cuba. 

Imperial Legislature had power to In that island there were ancient 

protect the sugar colonies by ex- fkmilies resident on their estates, 

eluding all Bugar the produce of and therefore attentive to the im- 

fottiga colonies emploTiog slave provement and prosperity of their 

labour. He cmitendea at great country. Nothing of this kind naa 

lettgth that not one of these four to be found in the firitish West 

propositions was true ; and, in the Indies; and, as a proof of the 

course of his oheervatioiis, entered vnietcbed consequences of such i 

into a laboured refutation of most system, he mentioned that there 

of the arguments advanced last were 800 miles of tailroad in Cuba, 

night by Lord O. Bentinck. He and not above a dozen in the whole 

showed that 300,000 tons of sngar of our West Indian possesaions. 

were now annotlly produced by Considerable mischief had alM 

free labour in countries east of the been done to our planters by the 

Cape of Good Hope, and si^gested onerous resttictioiis placed on them 

that even if the Legislature were as employers of labour with regard 

to exclude the sugars of Cuba and to the importatioD of labourers. 

Btasil, on the ground that they They had also suffered injury from 

were die prodoce tit slave labour, the want of laws for the pre- 

the West Indian planters wouldstill vendon of squatting and vagraney. 

find it impossible to compete nith- Now, these were all oonsideiations, 

out difflcnl^ with that enormous and many others might be sug* 

it of fne-labour produce. He gested, conneoted with the polk^ 

8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

and finance of the West Indian sugars of Cuba and Porto Rico had 
islands, nhich might usefully be- not&llenintbesaineproportiouas 
come subjects of inquiiy before a tlie price of Britisb su^u^; and. 
Select Committee; and, such being having established that point, he 
the case, he hoped that Lord Q. concluded that the Act of 161S 
Bentinck nould not accede to the must have had some share in 
proposition of Ur. Hume, bat producing the ousting distress, 
would persevere in hia motion for Almost all the requests of the 
inquiry. colonists the Chancellor of the Ex- 
Mr. T. Baring observed, that of chequer bad rejected, contending 
all the disheartening statements that it vros not the law, but the 
which this debate had brought for- absenteeism of the proprietors, and 
ward, none was more so than the their want of management in their 
description which Mr. Wilson had estates, which had caused all the 
given of the flourishing condition distress. Now, he (Mr. T. Baring) 
of Cuba, and of the depressed con- was afraid that the Chancellor of 
dition of the West Indian islands, the Exchequer would find that the 
Mr. Wilson had also told theHouse residents in the Colonies had suf- 
that no protection could save our fered as much as the absentees. 
Colonies ; for such was the gronth and that West Indian estates were 
of sugar in countries east of the as well managed by agents as by 
Cape of Good Hope, that he was proprietors. The Chancellor of the 
only surprised th^ our Colonies Exchequer had quoted extracts 
were not worse off than they were, from many nameless pamphlets to 
havii^ such an amount of produce show that West Indian estates 
recently raised to compete with in were not well managed ; but he 
the market But why was this? would have been better pleased had 
Because the planters in the east Sir C. Wood given the House ex- 
were not fettered in their labour, tracts from the despatches of our 
and because there had not been different governors — Sir C. Grey, 
among them that great revolu- Lord Harris, and other men of in- 
tion which took from them the telligence and station. But how 
means of producing sugar at the were those estates to be better 
very moment at which it opened managed, when in consequence of 
the home market to other sugars, the Act of 184G the credit and 
When the Chancellor of the Ex.- capital of our West Indies were 
chequer asserted that the Act of destroyed, and the credit and 
1646 had not produced the dis- capital of Cuba and Brazil had 
trees of the West Indian interest, risen upon theirniin? TheHouse 
and that sugar was now only suf- had raised hopes in the West 
fering the same depression of price Indian planters in 1840, and in 
to which other article were now 1844, which it had subsequently 
liable, he overlooked the real ques- disappointed. It had given them 
tion, whether the same fall of price a compensation which was clearly 
had taken place in the su^rs inadequate, for it was founded on 
which were not introduced nito the value of the slave, and without 
this country before 1646, as had any consideration of the fact that 
taken place in the sugars of our when the slave was taken away 
ovrnColonies. Mr.Baringthenpro- from the property the property was 
ceeded to show that the price of the rendered valueless. He would not 




saij, that it it «eie possilile to fe- 
Btore BUvei; to the Mauritins and 
the West Indies, it would not be & 
good bargain for those Colonies to 
fuj back that money to this coirn- 
tiy. He did not set himself up 
as an advocate for&ee trade; but, 
if he did, be should contend that 
the case of the West Indians was 
an exception from the ordinary 
principles of free trade. If it were 
not, iroold the free traders rest the 
tiutb of their principles on the suc- 
cess of the experiment which they 
had tried in the Act of 1846? 
They had said that it would benefit 
all, ityare none, and produce a low 
price of sugar; but if it should 
throwout of cultivatioD the exist- 
ing sugar plantsUions, as he auti- 
cipated, then it would destroy the 
punters, and ultimately enhance 
the price of sugar itself. It had 
been said that free trade was cer- 
tain to produce hannony in all 
quarters ; but the oommencement of 
the era of hannony would not be 
Teiy bvourable if free trade should 
produce discord between our Colo- 
niea and the mother country. Let 
the House then declare whether it 
attached value to those Colonies or 
not; whether it wotildallow them to 
transfer their allegiance to another 
power; and whether, according to 
the principles of free trade, they 
would allow them to sell themselves 
in the dearest, and to buy their 
OoTemment in the cheapest mar- 
ket. With r^ard to the motion 
of Lord O. Bentinck, he wished to 
say, that althongh the West Indian 
interest would look with confidence 
to theappointnentof aCommittee, 
if Government would give them 
any assurance of substantial relief, 
they did not attach much import- 
ance to it now, as any relief which 
the Coniniittee might suggest Mould 
come too lat«. The alteration o( the 

duties on mm and molasses might 
be of use if connected with other 
measures, but would be of no use 
by itself. He would therefore 
leave the responsibility upon Sliui- 
Bters to decide whether the country 
should psy an additional price for 
its sugar for the pur])OBe of giving 
free labour a fair trial, and of so 
making free labour the best exter- 
minator of slave labour. He called 
upon the country to observe their 
conduct, and to insist upon their 
saying whether they would restore 
hope to theColonies, to enable them 
to struggle against the competition 
of slave labour, or whether, after 
acknowledging their distress, they 
would not give them a farthing in 
relief, although last year they had 
given 8,000,0002. to mitigate the 
sufferings of Ireland. 

Mr. Bemal support«d the claims 
of the West Indians, as did Sir 
Edward Buxton, and Mr. Ooul- 
bum, the two latter resting their 
arguments rather on anti-slavery 
grounds. Mr. Bagsbaw asserted 
the rights of the East Indies to 
relief. Mr. Labouchere backed up 
Sir Charles Wood's argument, re- 
peating his assertion that free la- 
bour would be able to compete 
successfully with slave labour. Mr. 
Disraeli supported the motion iu 
his usual lively and pungent style 
of oratory. 

The real problem before the 
House, he said, was the success of 
the new commercial system in the 
only branch of our imperial in< 
dustry upon which it had been 
tried : it bad proved, he main- 
tained, a total failure. But the 
bulk of his speech was a very ani- 
mated and trenchant attack on the 
paltrinesBof the Government policy 
and measures. He announced, in 
the outset, that he should give an 
nnqtialified opposition to the vote 

10] ANNUAL REGISTEE, 1848. lEnpland. 

of SOO.OOOI. for immigration. Hs niurn of free tnd« ? Turning to 

conld not bring himself to tbink Mr. Cobden, Mr. Disnteli oon- 

ihat such a sum could exer- eluded vrith a pointed and em- 

cise any influence on the dietress phBtiodenunciationofthequackeij 

of the Colonies ; it could not exe^ of economic science, 

cise&nyinfluenceatal] 1 and there- I>ord George Bentinclt, in his 

fore be would not encourage the lax reply, explnined vhy he could not 

practice of public men. who, after yield to the recommendations of 

having got themselTes. by want of Mr. Hume and Mr. Elliee to 

prescience, into difficulty, endea- withdraw his motion. If either 

Youred to extricate themselves from of those gentlemen had expressed 

it by a grant of public money. If a readiness to support any eub- 

tbere were the money to spare, it stantial measures of relief to the 

might become a question what West Indies, he would have ac- 

would be the best thing to do with ceded to their request ; but all 

it : perhaps it might be, to build a that be had beard from them was 

new National Gallery. that Government would not do 

He contrasted the brief notice more than what it had announced, 

bestowed on the avowed remedies andthathisCommitteewouldexcite 

— the ten minutes devoted to mo- hopes which would only be disap- 

lasses and immigration— with the pointed. He thought it worth tiy- 

faour and a half given to secret and mg whether he could not obtain by 

inuendo remedies— the cardinal vir- this Committee such evidence as 

tuesof "enerm'"and "enterprise," would at last bring conviction even 

preached by Her Majesty's Govern- to the House of Commons, 

ment, in jingling words, in smooth The motion for a Committee wai 

phrases, and loose abstractions. agreed to without a division. 

Sir Charles Wood had preached The next proceeding in Parlia- 

" competition, "but competition pre- ment relative to West Indian affairs, 

sumes equality of circumstances ; was a proposal made by the Chan- 

and what is theequatity between the cellorof the Exchequer, on the let 

Spanish ond British Colonies in the May, to the House of Commons, to 

West Indies? the Spanish Colonies authoriEC a loan of 800,0001. for 

having abundance of labour, for the purpose of promoting the im- 

which they pay nothing; the British migration of free labourers into the 

Colonies deficiency of labour, for Colonies of British Guiana and 

which they pay dearV Cor head- Trinidad. This motion was stoutly 

long legislation, in fact, has created opposed by Mr. Hume, who uived 

a differential duty in favour of the that, as the report of the Select 

Spaniards. Such is the effect of Committee on West Indian ai^in 

being ruled not by facta, but by would shortly be presented to the 

phrases ! House, it vrould be more advisable 

The West Indian supply of to postpone the proposed grant 
S50,000 tons of sugar will disap- until that time. It appeared, bow- 
pearfromthemarketsof tlieworld; ever, on farther explanation, that 
and what will then become of cheap the money had already been ex- 
sugar? Of what use will the pended, upon the authority of the 
Colonies be, except as garrisons? Colonial Secretary, Lord QrOT; a 
and, indeed, what use can we have proceeding against which the Earl 
of garrisons, in the coming millen- of ]>ice8ter and some other Mett- 




ben protMted as contrarj to 
nssge aad constltudona] nils. Ul- 
tiinUe]j. upon the megMtion of 
Ur. Herries, I^ord John Bussell 
coDSCDted to tttke a reduced gnut 
of ITO.OOOf., which was CBrried on 
■ di<nNOD bj 70 to 31. 

Aa the Sesaioii advanced it be- 
euao evident, from the increu- 
ingl; adverse tenor of the acconnts 
received from the West Indies, 
that 00010 meaaore of relief or as- 
natance most be extended to these 
Colonies, as the onlj means of ez- 
tncating them from imminent in- 
•oWenc; and ruin. Althoogh the 
Ministers had some months before 
avowed their determination to ad- 
here to tbeir settlement of the pre- 
ceding year, sjmptoma of concea- 
aion began to manifest themseWea ; 
and at length, on the 16th of June, 
Lord John Rusaell laid before ttae 
House of Commons hii proposed 
measore of relief. In moving that 
the House should resolve itself into 
a Committee to consider the Aot 
of & 10 Vict. c. 63, Lord John 
reviewed the past legislation afieot- 
ing the West Indies, especially 
referring to the Emancipation Act 
of 1834, and to the alteration 
of the Sugar Duties, by admitting 
foreign free-labour sugar in 1S4G, 
and all foreign sugar in 1846. 
The first measure he declared to 
be an act of humanity and justice, 
andheverilybelieved, that if it had 
not passed, we should have had a 
series of inaurrections and disturb- 
ances, which would have been fatal 
to the prosperity of the West 
Indies. The gift of 90,000,0001. 
to the West Indian proprietors 
showed that the Parliament and 
people of England were disposed 
to make important toorifices to pre- 
vent distress and ruin from falling 
on them. Both that Act and the 
Acts of 1640, he maintained, had 

been completely attocessfol. The 
main object of the Act of 1634 vras 
to give freedom to 800,000 slaves, 
and to place them in a condition of 
independence and proeperitj. That 
ol^ect was admitted on all hands 
to have been attained. The main 
object of the Act of 1846 was to 
obtain a cheaper and larger supply 
of sugar, with a diminution <n 
burdens to the people of England ; 
an abject which he showed by 
financial retnms had been com- 
pletely accomplished. The con- 
sumption of sugar had increased 
from 344,000 tons in 1640 to 
290,700 tons in 1647, and was still 
increasing. The revenue derived 
from the duties on sugar had in- 
creased from 8,74B,000{. in 1645, 
to 4,6be,00O{. in 1847. 

Lord John reviewed the mea- 
Buree which had been taken for in- 
troducing labourers ^m the East 
Indies into the Mauritius, and 
from the East Indies and Africa 
into the West Indian Colonies; 
which ho admitted had not been 
very sucoeesful, The present state 
of the case was, that labourers might 
be introduced from any British 
poisession in Africa, with only this 
provision, that there should be an 
officer on board the vessel who 
should take care that there were no 
transacUons resembling the pur- 
chase of slaves or the slave trade, 
and that the person vrho emigratee 
to the West Indies, should go there 
with his own consent. Also, " li- 
berated Africans," from captured 
slave ships, were conveyed direct to 
the West Indies, instead of being 
sent first to Bierra Leone. But 
the suspicion entertained in this 
country, that the slave trade might 
be revived under the pretence of 
immigration — the fear that slaves 
shonld be compelled to vmrkinthe 
West Indies — retarded for a longer 

12] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

period tlian was quite lair or just 1846. What he proposed vas, 

to the West Indian proprietora the tbat the du^ on colonial sugar 

immigration into the West Indies, should be reduced after the 6th of 

He proposed, therefore, to do more Juir in the present year to IS*., 

now than he should have done had and should be reduced snbse- 

that (jaestioii been eetUed some ^uently a shilling eveir succeed- 

years ago, and had there been a ing year until it reached 10«. He 

fiiir import of labour since the year likewise proposed that the duty on 

1834. Ue proposed to make an ordinary foreign Muscovado sugar 

advance to the Colonies, on the shouldremain as fixed by the Act 

security of the colonial revenues, of 1846; but he proposed a new 

for the purpose of meeting the ex- distinctive duly for foreign brown 

Eense of immigration; or rather, clayed sugar. In this species of 

e should say, that he proposed to sngar, the foreign producer had an 

guarantee a colonial losn, not ex* undue advantage, from the wide 

ceeding 500,0001., in addition to variation of quality which might 

160,000i. which the House had be made to come under that head ; 

already guaranteed this Session. and thus the foreigner was able to 

Complaints had been made of introduce a very liigh quality of 

the too rapid operation of the Act that saw under the low range of 

of 1846; and that under it one duty. Lord John proposed a dis- 

clasaofsugarhadanadvantageover tjnctive scale for brown clayed, or 

every ether class in the classifies- qualities equal to brown clayed, 

tion of duties, which it ought not foreign sugar: from the 5th July, 

fairly to have. In considering that 1618, to &» 5th July, 1849, the 

subject, he firankly avowed that he duty would remain at 20(. ; and it 

did not thiuk it fair to the Bridsli would then be reduced by It. M. 

consumer to impose a difierential ayear, until itreacbed a 10«. duty 

duty of 10*. on sugar, to last for inJulyl854. The proposed duties, 

ten years or more, for the purpose then, would stand thus : — 

of revivinir the industry and pros- r*ueiidiD( FonifD. coioowii. 

perity of the West Indiea. Ho ^'^^ "■ *™cu,m. h^ ""^'"^ 

therefore looked in another direc- 1849 ... 20 ... 16 9 ... 13 

tiun: be looked to the experience 1S50 ... 18 « ... 17 ... 12 

of late years, in which he saw that, j|*' - j' * ■■■ jj < - jl « 

with regard to manv articles on ig^g "; ,4 ^ ;;; ,3 q ;" ,0 q 

which the duty had been dimi- 1B54 ... 13 ... 12 ... 10 

Dished and the price had been ^ • 

lowered, the revenue had been no Equal ... 10 10 10 

loser, whilst theconsumer had been Of course such a change in tliese 

a great gainer. He quoted a table Sugar Duties would require a cor- 

showing that from 18S6 to 1841 responding change to be made In 

every &II in the duty on sugar had the duties on refined and double 

been accompanied by a rise in the refined white^Iayed sugars, and 

consumption, and every rise of duty on molasses, 

by a ful in the consumption; a Complaints had been made by 

fact also shown by the returns for the West Indian proprietors of the 

184&-7. He therefore looked to differential duty on rum. Lsst 

a large consumption of sugar for year, the Chancellor of the Ex- 

the means of modifying the Act of chequer had proposed that the dif- 

EnfUni.] HISTORY. [13 

f«reii(ial da^ on mm Bbonld be sfaarpl; accused the Government 

6i. Some difficult; arooe on tlut of broking &itli nith the West 

propositioD, and the Chancellor of Indies. Lord George faateued 

the Exchequer raised it to 9d., a serioos imputation upon Mr. 

althoogfa he maintained that id. Hawes, of having withheld from 

was quite sitfficient. The Chair- the Conunittee on the West Indies, 

man of the Board of Excise thought for fift^-six dajs, a despatch of 

that id. was sufficient as a differ- Sir Glurlea Grey, Governor of 

eutial dn^ ; and Lord John there- Jamaica, suggealing a plan of re- 

ibre conld not agree to impose a lief for tiie West Indies, 
higher differential duty on rum The measure was attacked on free- 

Ihan that sam. There was one trade groonds hj Mr. Bright, Mr. 

question connected with this rednc- Cobden, and Mr. Cliarles Villiers ; 

lion of da^, which would make it Mr. Cobden and Mr. Bright calling 

neceasaiy to withdraw the permia- upon the House not to overlook the 

sion ^ven last jear to use sugar in sufferings of their own fellow-coun- 

breweries. With regard to the use trymen in Yorkshire and Lanca- 

of sugar in distilleries, no change shire. 

in the present law would be made. On the 18th the auhject was 

The proposition of the Govern- renewed, Sir John Pakington pro- 

ment was received with & good deal posing an amendment coudemna- 

of disapprobation in several qoar- toiy of the MiniBterial scheme in 

ters of the House. the fallowing terms : — 

Sir Robert Inglis and Sir John " That this House, considering 
Pakineton condemned it, on the the evidence taken during the 
ground that it would encourage present Session before a Select 
the slave trade. Committee, is of opinion that the 
Mr. Bemal, Mr. Barkly, Mr, remedies proposed by Her Ma- 
Henry Bsillie, Mr. Hume, Mr. jesty's Government for the great 
Henry Drummond, Mr. Philip distress of the sagar^ro¥ring pos- 
Hiles, Mr. Uenley, Mr. Hudson, sessions of the Crown, and which _ 
and Mr. Evelyn Denison, all con- that Committee has said will re-' 
demned the plan as totally insuffi- quire the immediate application of 
cient to avert the ruin of the West relief, will neither effect that oh- 
Indies. Mr. Barkly declared that ject, nor check the stimulus to the 
the loan of 600,0001. would be slave trade which the diminution 
useless for purposes of immigra- of the cultivation of sugar in those 
tiou — it might as well be thrown colonies has inevitablyoccasioned." 
into the sea. Mr. Bemal claimed, Th^ object of this amendment, he 
on behalf of the West Indian pro- said, was not to create embarrasK- 
prietors, the right to import their ment and delay, but to rescue the 
produce into this coontiy free from Colonies from the danger which 
all duties whatever, was impending over them. He 
Mr. Herries, Lord George Ben- did not argue the qneetion ns one 
tinck, sad Mr. Distaeli, vigorously of protection or anti-protection, hut 
urged both objection^^the encou- contended that the differential 
ragement of Uie slave trade, and duty now proposed by the Govero- 
the insufficient aid to the West ment was quite inadequate to tho 
Indies. Mr. Duraeli called it a present crisis, and totally incapable 
paltry and perilous measure ; and affording relief to the distress 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [B»»l«i<I. 

of Ui6 British Colonies. HeproTed 
tliia bj referring to the comparative 
co3t of produoiDff sugar in the 
British West Indies and in the 
slave colonies of Cuba and the 
BraziU. He aUo objected to that 
psrtofXiord John Husseirs scheme 
nhich permitted the captured Afri- 
eana to be landed in tfamaioa and 
the other West Indian islands 
free of coat, on the ground that it 
may lead to the renewal of the 
slave trade. He likewise oom< 
plained of the mode in which the 
Act of 1846 had been passed, and 
of the rasnltB which it had pro- 
duced in the West Indies. No leas 
than eighteen mercandle houses in 
the Weat Indies had already be- 
come bankrupt, and if the present 
state of things continued, other 
firms must be involved in the same 
ruin. He ahowed that equally 
melanoholj reaults had been pro- 
duced by the same cause in the 
Mauritius and in the East Indies; 
and quoted the opinions of the 
moat competent authorities in all 
ourColoniea to prove that onr sugar 
planters oould not cultivate their 
estates to advantage without com- 
petent protection. He then turned 
to that portion of the subject which 
is connected with slavery and the 
slave trade, and contended that the 
Aot of I64S had increased both loan 
extent almost incalculable. If we 
wished to exterminate tlie slave 
trade we must enable the British 
planter to enter Into competition 
with slave labour, and to do that 
we must give him competent pro- 
tection. He therefore implored 
the House to retr«oe iu st«pe, as it 
valued the dependencies of the 
British Crown and the reputation 
and character of this Christian 

Sir E. Buxton seconded the 
amendment, thoogh he did not 

approaoh tlia question a1t4^ether 
with the same views as Sir J. 
Pakington. The true policy ' of 
this country was, he thought, to 
exclude from its shores all slave- 
labour sugar, and to admit from 
every country, vrithout any restric- 
tion, sugar the prodnoe of free 
labour. He was anxious to let the 
people of England have sugar at a 
low pnoe ; but he firmly believed 
that if they were informed that 
they could not have low-priced 
sugar without the destruction of 
the man who made it, they would 
reject it with abhorrence, and would 
gladly give a higher price for the 
sugar raised by the freeman. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer 
had listened to the speeches of the 
mover and seconder of the amend- 
ment with great attention, in the 
vainhope that be should findin some 
portion of them a aubatitute for the 
measure of the Government which 
the^ condemned ; but with all his 
desire to dive into the meaning of 
Sir J. Fakington's amendment, he 
could not make out either what he 
would do for the relief of the West 
Indian planter, or what protection 
he would grant to hia augar. Sir 
E. Buxton was somewhat more ex- 
plicit, for hs proposed the perpetual 
exclusion of slave-labour sugar; 
but, unfortunately. Parliament had 
already decided against that pro- 
position, as well as against the 
perpetual high protective duty to 
which Sir J. Pakington appeared 
inclined. He then proceeded to 
contend, In opposition to the same 
seotlemen, that the Act of 1848 
had not caused that increase of 
slavery and the slave trade which 
had been attributed to it; that 
neither slavery nor the slave bade 
could be put down by high protec- 
tive duties ; and tiiat the only 
mode of extinguishing either was 

Biytow*.] HISTORY. [15 

})j Mtablialiiiig the ■nperior ohesp- it were carried it weald compel 
new of free I^iour. He admicied the GoTemmeut to reeoniider liie 
that there was no hope of reetunng whole of this eut^ect. After a 
the proaperity of the West Indiei, itrong attack on tho political eoo- 
aolw we could enable their nomiate, whom he charaDteriaed aa 
planters to compete anccesefiil]/ doll deceivers, who were eometimes 
with the pUntero in Cuba and in right in their deeimala but always 
the firazila ; and at the risk of wrong in their millions, he ex- 
being lectured by Mr. Ellice as bresaed himself unable to conceive 
Lord J. Rossell had been for how the country, which had ao 
alluding to the extravagance of the noblv abolished alavery in 1807, 
West Indies, he would repeat, that could have passed the Act of 1840, 
one mode of enabling them to which not only encoutaged slavery 
meet that canpetition was the di- but also renewed the slave trade, or 
minotion of their expenses, and how it could accede to a proposition 
eapecially of the coat of managing like the present, It was true that 
their estatea. After showing that the Act of 1846 had rendered sugar 
protection had operated very in- cheap ; but did the House nefet 
jurioDsly in the West Indies by hear of parties selling their wares 
iucreaaiog the rate of wages, which at a tremendous sacrifice ? Many 
wai an essential ingredient in the of our plsntera were already 
price of production, he argued at ruined, and those who were not 
great length that Oovemment were declining businees ; and the 
would defeat its own olyeot if it result would be that the supply of 
were to restore the high protectioa sugar would diminish, and before 
which formerly existed, and that long the price wonld again increase, 
the best plan for renewing the He should have gladly given his 
prosperity of the West Indies and vote in favour of a lOt. discrimi- 
(br auppreesing the slave trade nating duty against alt foreign 
would be the plan of the Govern- sugar ; but, aa that question was 
meat, which gave at once a free sup. not at present before the House, 
plyoflabourtothose colonies which he should vote in favour of 8ir J. 
wanted it, and an extension for Fakington'a amendment. 
three years longer of the moderate Mr. Hume rose as a free trader 
protection now in foree. He then to show that £ree trade had nothing 
travelled over mocb of the same to do with the queatiou then before 
^nnd as on Friday last, defend- the House. Free trade could only 
mg the Government resolutions in operate where the parties were in 
all their details, and contending like (nroumstances, and where both 
that whilst thev were beneficial to could apply the same otQects to 
the West Indies, they were not the same ends. Now, it was the 
iignrious to the consumers in this opinion of Mr. Deacon Hume that 
country. He also maintained that if the British West Indies could 
no ii^ury would accrue to the re- be placed on a footing of equality 
venue from the changes now pro- with Cuba or Porto ^co, they 
posed, as they were calculated to would be able to compete with 
produce an increased consumption them successfully ; and that gen- 
of sugar. tleman entertained that opinion 
Mr. Seymer snnported the with great oonfidence, beoause, up 
amendment, in the nope that if to a recent period, this oounlxy had 

16] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. \E„,l,nd- 

been die great mart for the sugar, be better to let them die qnickl; 

oofiee.andTumof the West Indies, than to keep them in a lingering 

" But," Boid he, " nhen ^ou abo- and painfiil existence. For hia own 

lished BlaTei7 you depnved the part, he was of opinion that if we 

British planter of the labour which were to withdraw our squadron 

he enjoyed before in common with from the coast of Africa, and apply 

the Spanish colonist; and until the expense of it to the relief of 

you have again placed him on a the distress in the West Indies, in 

level with his rivals in that re- ten years their proBperity would 

spect, you cannot call upon him to be restored, and all their distress 

meet the competition of free trade." would Tsnisb. 

The British planter therefore had The debate after Mr. Hume's 

a cloAn to a discriminating duty, speech was adjourned, and on the 

not as a matter of favour, but as a following night was resumed ; Mr. 

matter of right And why? Be- P. Miles and Lord George Ben* 

cause every arrangement into which tinck opposing the Govemmeut 

Great Britain had entered with plan, and Mr, Hawes defending it. 

him at the period of emancipation The discussion now assumed a veiT 

had been grossly violated. He had, personal shape, Lord G. Bentinck 

therefore, not had the requisite accusing the Colonial Office in 

means for the cultivation of his round terms of suppressing im- 

eslates, and hence his present dis- portant information, in order to 

tress. He believed that free labour keep the House and the public in 

was the only mode by which you the dark as to the real predicament 

could put down slave labour; but oftheColonies. Mr. Hawes warmly 

his complaint was, that the colo- repelled the imputation, and Lord 

nblshad never hadau opportunity of John Russell coming to the asaist- 

giving free labour a fair trial. The ance of his colleagues, esnecially of 

Colonial Office had prevented that Earl Giey, attacked Lord G. Ben- 

—the Colonial Office, which from tinck with great warmth and per- 

first to last had always been a sonali^. The following passage 

nuisance. Fortunate would it have will exhibit a specimen of the 

been for the Colonies if that Office tone of this unusually acrimonious 

had been locked up, for, if we had diecussion. Lord John Russell 

' allowed them to manage their own said : — 

afbirs, they would have known no- "Ingeneral, with regard to those 

thing of this distress. As we had matters, it is quite evident that 

not allowed them the labour which these menu frauds^-^hese ex- 

they wanted, and as the loes of tremely disgraceful tricky — which 

that labour had occasioned high the noble Lord imputes to my noble 

H-ages, we ought to consider whe- friend — are not the faults and the 

ther we could not restore the con- characteristics of men high in office 

fidence which we had destroyed in this country. They are the 

by giring them a supply of labour, characteristics of men who are eu- 

and that protection which we had gsged in pursuits which the noble 

promised hut had subsequently Lord long followed. {Loud ciie» of 

withdrawn. He was of opinion 'Oh.ohV and grtat uproar.) Some 

that the measure of Government time ago, the noble Lord very 

would have no effect in restoring greatly dislinguished himself by 

their prosperity, and that it would detecthig a fraud of this nature — 

Engimi:] HISTORY. [17 

(loud cAwrt and counur^heen) — tinck dediiMd toBiBkeanydiatmcl 

withicspecttothenameaadageofft retractation of Ub former charges, 

bone; * traosaction in nUch he and after moch fmicless altercation 

showed \Brj great quickness of ap- the debate on the main question 

prefaensioi)." {Great eonfution.) was resumed. Mr. ikmai began 

Lord John continued bia re- \ij laying before the House some 

mariis in the same tone, inter- personal knowledge of the depreci- 

mpted by renewed bursts of angiy atlon and ruin tbatwas overspread- 

intermption, and applause mm ing planters' estates in Jamaica. 

his own side. He, however, announced his in- 

Ur. Dianeli took up the qnarrel. tention of giving his vote in favour 
He soggeeted that charges of this of Lord John Russell's proposition, 
nature were not to be disposed of although he was not a warm ad- 
by appeals to high station or pedi- mirer either of that plan or of any 
gree. Lord George BentinCk'a in- other that had been proposed, 
defatigable spirit of investigation Sir James Graham rapidly re- 
and coniage were not to be cowed viewed the oircumslances of the 
by any bravo, whatever his position first infringement of the policy of 
— not to be bullied either in the excluding from this country the 
ring or on the Treasury bench, sugarofslave-labonrcountries; and 
In the matter of the horse. Lord he defended the Act of 1845 on the 
George had been thanked by a whole case as it then stood. He 
meeting at Newmarket, the chair- admitted, however, as an imper- 
mao of which meeting was the fection of that Act. that prominency 
Duke of Bedford. This was not the bad not been given in it to the 
first time that despatches had been question of encouragement or non- 
treated nnttttis&ctorily by an Ad- encouragement of the slave-trade, 
ministration. The Honse might The steps following that Act were 
remember the suppressions in the a necessary seqnel to the first steps 
de^iatchea of Sir Alexander Bumes. taken in the new course : the sub- 

Sereral other members took part ject was one of great difficulty, but 
in the contention, and warm re- the balance was in favour of tbs 
criminations were interchanged, course taken. The Act of 1646 
ontil Mr. Hawes was called to order received Sir James's unwilling sup- 
by the Speaker. Lord Palmerston port, on the grounds stated by Sir 
interposed with an ingenious and Robert Peel. He now opposed a 
good-nnmoured speech, endeavour- ten-shilling protective duty for six 
inglohealtbebreeehbyexploiniug years, as inexpedient for the co- 
Ihe afbir to have originated in a Ionics themselves, from its probable 
misconception between Kir. Goul- effects in exaggerating the compe- 
bum and Mr. Hawes. The debate tition for labour, and raising ^vages. 
was again adjourned, and on its He had also a more general ground 
resumption the personal iuputa- of objection. On the first night of 
tions affecting the Colonial Ad- this session Mr. Disraeli had re- 
ministration again became the sub- ferred to a prophecy made by him 
ject of discussion. Mr. Dawes two years ago, ^at there would be 
entered into a lengthened explana- areaclion in our commercial policy; 
tion of the facts affecting the and he now triumphed in what he 
despatches alleged to have been believed ti> be the nearaccomplisb- 
mppressed, bntLord George Ben- ment of that prophecy — bebelieved 
yoL. XC. [C] 

18] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. VSngland. 

that tfae time had arrived when the prifDo necwmiea of lifo. lam 
tbatreacUonwouldcommence. Nor satisfied you moat be mcMt oanlioaB 
vas tliat all ■ Lord Stanley had the not to let anything enhance the 
other night, in another plaoe, asked prioes of artiolesof the flrat necea- 
foraprolongationofthetimeduring eity. Cheap sugar is not to be 
which the existing Com Law waa laughed at, sotwitbilanding the 
to continue; and Ur. Herrieahad anathema of the Duke of Rioh- 
deliberately given it sa his opinion mond. Sugar enters into the eom- 
tbat nothing would be really effec- forta of every family; it ia the only 
tnal lor the relief of the West little luxury that many fomilies can 
Indies except a diacriminatJng duty et^oy; it renders palatable their 
approaohing in its character to a rice, their gruel, their cront, their 
prohibition. Why, if we were to indifferent toa and coffee. It is 
revert to a system of prohibitory our duty, as far as poasible, to 
duties on foreign sugar, and if, cheapen everything. When it be- 
under the terms lately issued by comes a question of reactloD and of 
the Protection Society and signed prohibitory duties, I oppose myself 
by the Duke of Richmond, the idea to reaction; for I believe that in 
of cheapneea was to be made the the present state of the countir 
snl)jeot of ridicule and soom, then that policy is impractioable — if 
he would at once say, to any praotioable, most lungeroua; and 
Bttch reaction he was opposed. In if carried into effeot I ^uld 
passing, he would advert to what tremble for the consequences. I 
had been said with respect to most sincerely intend to give my 
cheap sugar, and the connexion vote against the amendment." 
which the noble Lord said there The debate again adjourned vraa 
existed between cheap production continued at great length, llie 
and low wages. He did not shrink Oovernment plan waa opposed on 
from that declaration. His official Anti-Slavery grounds by Sir Robert 
expenence— Inglls, on Protectionist grounds by 

Lord Oeorge BenCinok— " Yon the Marquis of Grsnby and Ur. 

have sUted it both ways." Urquhart. Ur. Munta otgeoted to 

Sir James Orahsm — "Thattaunt re-open the settlement of 1845. 
blla upon me harmlessly. No taunt Mr. Labouchere defended the Mini- 
can now drive me from office, to sterial scheme, hut without novelty 
make way for others. I have no of ai^ument. 
power which the noble Lord or Mr. Barkly defended the planters 
others may desire to deprive me of, from exploded charges which had 
to bestow it elsewhere. I desire no- been renewed by Mr. Hawes, and 
thing but to speak the plain truth, corrected that gentleman's stato- 
I was formerly of opinion that low ment in several details; giving hia 
prices made low wages; butmyoffl- own personal experience gathered 
oial experience seems to gustily the on the spot. He showed that 
oonolusion that high pnces make the unremuneralive condition of 
low wages; and that the effects si^ar-planting does not arise from 
of low wages fall most heavily on abaenteeism or careless cnltivatjon. 
the working classes at a time when He described the exertions of a 
they are least able to bear that planter who had spent 6,0001. or 
evil, because then they are in a 7,0001. and great personal exertion 
condition tibe least able to purchase without suocess. In Berhloe, he 

JSnflmt.} HISTORY. [19 

tKW a peiwm who had lived on hit exprasaing hie doep Bjmpathy with 
omi etlate for firtj jesrs ; two years the diatreaa of oar Oolonies in the 
be&n Ur. Bai'kl;r'" ^i^U he hod West Indiea — Colonies ^rbioh had 
nfiiaed for hia propertj 60,000/., stood by us unflinctdnglj duiing 

ofiiBTad by a noUraiBiL now in the the American and the French re- 

Honae of Peara ; whan Mr. Borkly volutions, and had been the con- ■ 

n« him, that penon had aold his duoton liy which the temfwst of 

estate for 1000 doUara, and was war had on both oooaaions been 

tbm linng on an allowanoe grantad averted from our own shoree. There 

to him by his former manager : the were, however, social relations 

manager had onwsed orer to the eonnected with those Colonies <^ 

Dutch alaTe-faolding colony, and even still higher value than poli- 

thers BOOD amaased a fortone. tieal relations. The smaller the 

Mr. Goolbum took a view similar white population was in them, the 
to Mr. Ghtdstooe's; but, although more important was it for the pur 
he dtsdaimed a recurrenoe to pro- poaee of ciTillzation, humanity, and 
tection, leaning more to that side; religion, that we should oome for- 
and also differing in his practical ward to protect them. Their dis- 
ctmelnaiona aa to the rata which ha tress was now admitted on all 
shoohl give- He obaerrad that hands, and there was a general 
the gentlemen oppoatte came desire to remedy it. On this oc- 
into office on the 6th of July, casion he would not say anything 
184S; and on the SlOth of July, of the interesta of the consumer, 
after fbarteen dajB* considera- but would apply himaelf to those 
tion, catting short iho espeiiment of the ooloniata abne. Her Ma- 
then in progFBBs, they came down jeep's Oovemment had made pro- 
to the House aiid proposed a total posals for their relief, and Sir John 
change in the system Uiat had been Fakington had called on the House 
for aome time previous in opera- to refttse oonsideration of those pro- 
tion. They eslled for the ssseot posals, and on the Govenunent to 
of Parliament to the measure which bring forward a better plan, or else 
they proposed, and pledged upon it to leave others the introduction of 
the existence of the Government, one. The West Indies were look- 
He for one gave his assent to the ing to this country for a remedy, 
schema brought forward in these and if the proposals of Goveroroeut 
cirenmstancea, not that he approved were condemned as unworthy of 
of tha measure itself, but because consideration, the news would be 
he thought there was a possibility wafted in great triomph to them, 
that (he Colonies might escape the and the next day would bring back 
destruction that many persona fore- a demand for new remedies. He 
told was certain to ensue; and be- then discussed the merits of Lord 
eanse at that particular moment G. Bentinck's plan, and look a 
there was, as it appeared to him, rapidreviewofthepresentposition 
danger In the general interests of of the West Indies. Having done 
the em^re from another change of that, he asked whether, if he agreed 
Administta^on, which, in his mind, to tiie amendment, he could go 
outweighed theee chances of mis- back to the measure of 1844, and 
fortune that were likely to &11 on re-establish the distinction between 
the Colotbea, slave-labour and free-labour sugar? 

Sir Bobert Feel commenced by He thought that he could not. In 
[C2] ,...-.. ^^.- 

20] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Enfftand. 

1846 he agreed to the law which plopaent. If yon were to bave 

put an end to that distinction, Emd immifration at all, you should have 

he could not shrink from the vote it at the cost of private speculation, 

which he then gave. He there- He would, therefore, facilitate the 

fore could not hold out anj hopes enterprise of individual proprietora 

to the West India interest in that to obtain labour in every possible 

direction; neither could he hold way, taking care at the same lime 

out to them any hopes from the that no ^und ahonld be afforded 

reduction of Colonial expenditure, for the imputation that we were 

although he thought that that ex- recurring to the slave trade. He 

penditure admitted of great reduc- begged Government to consider the 

tion, and ought to be reduced to best mode of extending to tlie 

the narrowest limits. The pay- Colonies the pecuniary relief which 

mentof the salaries of our Colonial they had determined to grant, and 

Governors by the Home Govern- suggested that their presentscbeme 

ment, and the passing of police might be ameliorated by devoting 

laws for the prevention of vagrancy the public funds to private reme- 

and squatting, were measures to be diee against drought by irrigation, 

reoommended, but were not mea- better draining, and varions other 

Bures to remove the existing dis- measures of local improvement, 

tress. He then referred to the He came to the last of the two sug- 

measures of relief to be derived gestions which he had just men- 

from the reduction of differential tioned — a lOs. protecting duty for 

duties on rum to id. a gallon, from six years. Now, if hs could vote 

the repeal of the Navigation Laws, for that, he would vote for the 

and from the withdrawal of our amendment of Sir J. Fokington; 

squadron from the coast of Africa, but he could not vote for that 

and delivered his opinion on each amendment without giving the 

of them. He then observed that West India body a right to expect 

there were only two other eug- thathewouldgiTethemthatamount 

gestions of any importance left for of duty. He was, therefore, pre- 

themidgationofWestlodiaBufier- pared to vote against it from a 

ing. The first of them was, that sinuereandconscientionsconviction 

there should be a great supply of that such protection was not for the 

labour by immigration ; and the benefit of the West Indies them- 

aecond, that there should be direct selves. Having given his reasons 

assbtonce given to them by this for that conviction at some length, 

country by the increase and con- he observed that the beet plan of 

tinuance of protection to their pro- benefiting the West Indies was to 

duce. Now Her Majesty's Govern- reduce the cost of cultivation to 

ment had proposed a loan of public the planter, so as to enable him to 

money for the first purpose. For enter into competition with the 

his own part, he did not attach foreign cultivator. He could not 

much importance to this increased hold out any hope of carrying that 

supply of labour. To pour in a plan into execution, and, Uierefore, 

large number of Coolies or other he must again decline to vote in 

strangers would be injudicious; for favour of the amendment. He 

you would only be adding to the would not say anything upon the 

population of the Colonies without scheme of the Government, for it 

providing it with permanent em- was not regularly before the House 




•t present. He did not despair of 
tbe West Indies; bat he was con- 
vinced, that if ve were to allow 
them a monopoly of the Briiish 
mariEet. it would not tend to their 
prosperity. There might now be a 
temporary prosperity in the slava 
colooiee of Cuba and Brazils; but 
he most be blind to the signs of 
the times who thought that slave 
labour could be nltimately main- 
tained in those colonies. In bothof 
them there nas no confidence in the 
continuance of their prosperity. 
At no time, and under no circnm- 
■tances, coald a Goveniment be 
seenre which contained within it- 
self the accursed system of slavery. 
If he could suppose that a tem- 
porary profeection would mitigate 
the faoiTors of that ayateiD, he would 
vole for such a protection at once; 
but it would not produce any miti- 
gation. He reminded the West 
IndioDS that there were other cir- 
comstances at present which ag- 
gnvated the insecurity of all slave 
states. The mighty heavings of the 
eonvalsion in France had already 
been felt at the other side of the 
Atlantic. They were already read- 
ing lemons by which Cuba and the 
United States ought to take warn- 
ing. There was an increasing 
sympathy at present vrith the slave ; 
and he who imported a slave into 
any country stood in slippery places, 
and should take heed lest he fall. 
He believed that the doom of 
alaveiy was fixed, and that the slave 
at nodistant period would be eman- 
cipated, and would stand, in the 
eloqnent language of Curran, " re- 
deemed, regenerated, and disen- 
thralled, by the irreeistible prin- 
ciple of universal emandpalion." 

Lord John Rnssetl, in reply, 
pointed ont the futili^ involved in 
the amendment of Sir J. Paking- 
toD, inAsmnch as many gentlemen 

who intended to vote for it wonld 
not vote for his remedies for the 
West Indies. The only effect of 
his success would be to destroy 
the proposition of the Oovemment; 
it would not enable him to advance 
a step on his road to the protection 
of West India produce. His Lord- 
ship then proceeded to enforce bis 
former arguments and observations 
in support of the scheme of Go- 
vernment. In the course of his 
remarks he replied to Sir B. Peel's 
question, whether the loan of 
500,000/. could not be appropriated 
to other purposes thtui those of 
immigration, by stating that the 
multiplicity and vario^ of the ap- 
plications would render it impos- 
sible to advance it to individual 
applicants. If there were any 
great works undertaken in the 
West Indies which were calculated 
to increase their produce, or if any 
great plan were devised for irri- 
gating the country and for remov- 
mg droiight by better drainage, he 
should have no objection to extend 
the appropriation of the loan to 
such purposes. He then replied 
at considerable length to the speech 
of Mr. Gladstone on the discrimi- 
nating daties, and that of Sir B. 
Inglis on the increase of slaveiy 
and the slave trade. 

On a division there appeared, — 


Upon going into Committee on 
the 80th June, Mr. Bright re- 
opened the discussion with a new 
amendment, viz.: that it is not 
expedient to make any alteration 
in the Sugar Dutiea Act of 1846. 
He observed that hitherto the de- 

22] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EnsUind. 

bftU had turned on Hw question, p1et9 as tbat of 1646, both as re- 

wbether the Committee should garded the revenue, theproducer, 

agree to the small protection pro- and the consumer. Why then 

I»eed hj the Government, or to disturb a settlement bo recently 

the lai^e protection that was pro- made, which bad been productive 

posed bj members on the otfaer of bo much benefit to the comforta, 

side. One great party in this indneti?, and exports of this coon- 

tnuosaotion had been entirely for- try? Mr. Wilson, before his sue- 

gotten. Great sympathy had been cession to the Administradon, had 

exhibited for the colonists, and made it as 6lear as demonstration 

also for the slaves; but non« could mt^e any conclusion, that 

had been expressed in behalf the protection which he now ad- 

of the consumers of sugar at vooited would do no good, hut 

home. On their behalf he im- 
plored the HoQse and the Govern- 
ment not to alter the Act of 1846 
and he did so because he was con 
vinoed, that after the 20,000,000/. 
which it had pud for the emanci- 

much harm, to the West Indian 
interest, to whom he now offered 
it as a tioon. Sir R. Peel, in his 
speech last night, had made the 
same declaration, and he therefota 
expected that the right hon. ba- 

padon of the negroes, and after ronet would notoppose, but support 

the30,000,OOOI.whichit hodgiven his amendment Having submitted 

to the planters by means of the -Lord J. Russell's speech of last 

iirot«ction which they hod enjoyed night to ft very severe criiJcism, 

brthelasteleven years, Parliament and having pointed out the Diani- 

owed nothing to the colonists, fold inconsistencies which it oon- 

whilst it owed a great deal to the tained, he accused his Lordship of 

consumers of this country, who having done much mischief in dia- 

had been deeply wronged by the turbing the principle of free trade 

protection granted for so many as applied to sugar, ond warned 

years to the sugar growers. He him to be cautious of disturbing it 

therefore protested against Par- as applied to com. If his Lordship 

liament now taxing the people ventured upon Buoh a vagary he 

of England to the amount of would not escape even with a mt- 

8,000,000/. or 3,000,000/. an- jorityof 16, asbehadthatmoniin^. 

nually, for the benefit of the West Indeed, he ou^ht to make np his 

Indiui interest. He reminded mind to provide for the present 

Lord J. Russell that his Cabinet defalcation in the revenue, befbrs 

had been broken up in 1841, and he made a further gap in it by ap- 

Sir. R, Peel's Cabinet in 1646, on plying 600,000/. wrung from the 

Uus very question of protection ; pockets of the poor to the support 

nud that even this morning the of an experiment which even the 

Ministry had been in artundo West Indian body repudiated. 

moTtit, bod received extreme unc- Mr. Bright's amendment was 

tion, and hod only been saved opposed, on behalf of the colonial 

from dissolution by the votes of interests, by Mr. Gran tley Berkeley, 

15 members, who differed from Mr. Bagshaw, Mr. Tollemsche, 

it m toto OS to the mode of relief. Mr. Hastie, and Lord Nugent. — 

Never had a measure been passed On the part of the Government 

by Failiament of which the success by Mr. Wilson and Sir Charles 

had been so immediate and com- Wood. The latl«r expressed hie 




; in gnat part of Mr. 
Sti^fB jmnciplM and speech; 
but, while hs contended that, the 
Uiniflenal proposition would not 
itguie the revenue, he maintained 
that QoTemment was bound to 
attempt a <dwok to that destniotion 
of propertj which was threatened 
in the West Indies, from the utter 
want of credit. He estimated the 
conramptiao of next jeax at 
509,000 or 3 10,000 tons— being an 
incTMse of 16.000 or 90,000 tons. 
The amoont i^ reveDue woald de- 
pend oa the proportionate increase 
of foreign or colonial sugar: the 
Btmoet loss could not be more tbaa 
6S,00M. ; bat he calculated on a 
lerenne of 1,636,000^, being an 
incTMSe of 984,0001. As bearing 
m the tveoilntion before the House, 
Sir Charles Wood prooeeded to 
aake a atatement of the existing 
ftnanria^ pnapecta of the country. 
This part oi the Bolgect wUl 
more appropriatelj find a place in 
another chapter. 

After some further debate, in 
which Mr. Cardwetl, Mr. Mowatt, 
and Lord John RBsseU took part, 
ths Committee dirided, when Mr. 
Bii^t'a amendment waa declared 
to be rejected by 803 to 86. 

Further amendments were pro- 
posed in Committee, and a good 
deal of discuesioD took place upon 
the details of the Bill. An amend- 
ment moved bj Sir John FaldDg- 
toD, for increasing the di0brential 
duty in ianur of British colonial 
■agar to lOt., was negatived, after 
a long debate, by 331 to 169. 
Another wsa proposed by Mr. 
Barklj, whic^ he thus eipUined: 
—He did not propose to idter the 
rates of duty upon foreign and 
colonial sugar, bat simply to ar- 
rest the progress of tlra Bill of 
1846; except that he proposed lo 
uoks ID olieiatiDn in tbe ftandord 

sample at the Custom-house on 
which the duties are levied, and 
to substitute the new standard 
which the Oovemment hod adopted 
for hrown-elayed sugars, so that 
there might be only one class ibr 
all clayed sugars, instead oi the 
two classes as proposed by the 
Chancellor of the Kschequer. He 
proposed to give « minimum pro- 
tection of 4<. 6d. per hundred- 
weight on Moscorado for six years, 
and a maximum protection of 7i. 7d. 
upon clayed sugar for the same 
period ; so as to obviate the oom- 

Slaints of the eliding scale <d 
uties in the Bill of 1B46. He 
otfjeoted to the Government plan, 
that reduotioDS of one shilling at 
time would not benefit the con- 
sumer, but would only frittw away 
the revenue. 

Sir Charles Wood objected to 
the amendment that the pre- 
arranged and sudden cednction of 
tlie duty would cause a previous 
stagnation of trade. The piopoei- 
tion was also opposed d; Mr. 
Labooohere, Mr. Jas. Wilson, and 
Mr. Godson ; — it was supported 
by Mr. W, Gladstone. Mr. Cayley, 
Sir George Clark, Mr. Bruce, and 
Mr. Henry Baillie. The debate 
again took a ^ln»Tn\iBl iara, and 
was ultimately adjourned. Being 
resumed on Uia lOth July, Lord 
Geo. Bentinck avuled himeelf of 
the opportunity afforded him to 
explain at great length the views 
which he had propounded as Chair- 
man of the West India Committee. 
The question at present was, whidi 
of all the propositions made to the 
House on this sul^ect was most 
worthy of its attention ? He was 
bound la say, that the amendment 
of Mr. Barkly was one of which 
he approved very little; but the 
question which he hod then to de- 
termine was, whstlwr it was bettar 

24] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. {.England. 

or worse tlian tbe propoeition of om. He could se« notlung to 
the Government? Now, tbe sum approve in ihe proposidon of Her 
total of the protection for six years Maiesty's GoTemment. It would 
given by Mr. Barkly's amendment aggravate tbe slave trade in its 
amounted to i5s. a cwt. on the obrtrecter, and increase it in its 
highest, and to 27», a cwt on the amount. Instead of reducing the 
lower qualities of sugar. The whole profits of the slaveholder by iu- 
protection proposed by the Minis- creasing the differential duty, 
ters amounted in six years to and snaking the slaveholders pay 
9Si(.6(^.acwt.intheaametime. He it, their scheme selected other 
(berefore felt it impossible to deny victims, and robbed the distillers 
that tbe proposal of Mr. Barkly of Scotland and Ireland of 70,00OJ. 
was better for the Colonies than a year. He also accused the Cban- 
that of Government. He should, cellor of tbe Exchequer of bribing 
therefore, voteforthe former; but, the shipowners to agree to his Act 
in so doing, it was bis duty on be- of 1846 by promises of a great io- 
balf of the West Indies, of tbe crease in the freight of their 
Mauritius, and of the East In- vessels, arising from the in- 
dies, and on behalf of the gentle- creased consumption of sugar 
men who had supported bis views in Great Britain, and of bilking 
in the Committee, to repudiate it them now by depriving them of 
altogether as a settlement of this the Act which had seduced many 
question. It was an expedient of them from tbe strict path of 
wbicb would give no satislactaoa duty. He concluded an elaborate 
either to the West Indies, or to the speech, full of atatietica, by de- 
Mauritius, or to the East Indies, daring that the people of England 
He then explained to the Honse were not disposed, for the gain of 
at great length tbe reasons which a farthing in the pound, to refuse 
bad induced bim to submit bis to do justice to die British colonies, 
scheme of sugar dudea to tbe or to endure tbe condnnance of 
West India Committee, complain- the slave trade. They bad not 
ing that all the force of tbe Go- adopted the two doctrines of tbe 
venimeat had been mustered to Manchester school — first, that 
defeat it, and contending that, if ••^lius ■rgentuni ca auro 
it ware adopted, it would reduce ■unimi" 
the price of the poor man's sugar and next — 
](i. a pound, increase the con- " rem, Ikciu n 
sumption, benefit tbe revenue, "Si poMia r«c|e; li aoa, 
and produce innumerable advan- modorem." 
tages to tbe sugar colonies. In No, they rather adopted tbe wiser 
tbe course of his speech he frankly langu^e of tbe poet, when be said 
declared that neither the Cban- " Hie munu (heneiu eaio, 
cellor of the Exchequer, nor the "Ni!con»drBMbi,nullipJIe»cerocu]pl.'t 
Undep Secretary for the Colonies, Lord J. Russell observed that, 
nor Mr. Goulbum, nor Mr. Card- although Lord G. Bendnck, from 
well, nor Mr. Gladstone, knew tbe attendon which he bad given 
anything of tbe sugar question, to this subject in the inquiry 
and insisted that there was no cor- conducted before tbe West In- 
rectness in their estimates, and no dia Committee, had a ngbt to be 
aocuiacy in any calouladons but bis heard upon it before the close of 

EM,lM»d.] HISTORY. [25 

tfaa dbcmsion, he bad still exe^ recklessly tiiTown &way by any 
cised his privil^e of address- Goverament, inasmueh as it would 
ing the Ckimmittee that erpn- give to the consumer that sum to 
ing almost to an abuse, for be expend upon the other neceasaiies 
had said nothing to tbe quee- and comforts of life. Ha then 
tion before it except a few entered into a statement of con- 
Bentencea at the commeucement siderable length to prove that the 
of hia speech, and a few at its end. Gorerument plan would give a 
He had, it was tnie, given the better chance of restoiing proB- 
UoQse seveial Latin qaotations not perity to the Colonies. Be re- 
altogether unknown to it ; and be ferred also to the recommendation 
(Lord John Rossell) might there- given to him by Mr. Gladstone 
fore be permitted to use another, on a former night, to save the 
and say, that bis Lordship, fore- revenue by increasing taxation 
seeing that fae could retrieve the during tho present session. Now, 
fortunes of hia party by delay, had he admitted, that if, at the com- 
determined, like the Roman gene- mencemeut of the next session, 
ral, to achieve for himself tbe the state of Europe should be so 
npotation of threatening as not to permit us to 

" UuuKjui Dobii cuDCtuida re 

reduce our establishments, it would 
not do to go on another year with- - 
Taking his leave of Lord G. Ben- out making the income of the 
tinck with this quotation, he ex- country superior to its expenditure 
plained to tbe Committee that the by increased taxation. But if pa- 
question then before it did not cific counsels should, as he hoped 
involve any question of humanity, they would, prevail at that time, 
or any question of the prohibition and if there were no danger to the 
or non-pn>bibitiou of slave-labour preservation of pence both at home 
sugar. Both the proposition of and abroad, be thought thtU we 
Ur. Barkly and that of tbe Go- should be able to reduoa our es- 
veniment admitted that slave- penditure to our income by the 
labour si^sr was to be introduced exerdse of a rigid and unsparing 
at a diflerential duty; and at the economy. He thought, however, 
end of six years it would be intro- that it would be unwise to come to 
dnced at the same rate of doty any decision upon that point now. 
under both propositions. The He concluded by recommending 
question then for the Committee the Oovemment scheme to the 
to coneader was, whether for the approbatioa and support of the 
benefit of the consumer, of the Committee. 

West Indian body, and without Mr. Goulbum contended, that of 

any great risk to the revenue, it the two propositions which were 

oonld not reduce from 14t. to 10«. then under discuBsion, the Com- 

the duty on sugar, tbe amendment mittee was bound to consider by 

proposing that that duty should which the prosperity of the Colonies 

remain stationary at 11«. Now, would be best promoted, end the 

tbe reduction of 4*. of duty on increase of slavery and the slave 

every cwt. upon a consumption of trade most effectually checked. 

300,000 tons of sugar was a benefit Neither of them deserved his appro- 

of 1,200,00M. to the oonsumer, bation, for neither of them met the 

and that ins a benefit not (o be real evil of the case— the evil 

26] ANNUAL REaiSTER, 1848. [Efvi^. 

uiBiDK from a want of labour ID the in which the aconracj of 1h« 
West Indita. occasioned b J our Iflgis- Ministerial calculations for ad- 
ktion, and the evil arising from a justing the Kale of daties was 
■nperflnity of it in the East Indies, impugned bf XiOrd Qoo. Ben- 
Both the West and the East tinok, and some correctiona were 
Indies had been deceired by the introduced by Sir Charles Wood, 
usurance given to them by Far- the Sugar Duties Bill flnallj 
liament that they should not have passed through the House of 
to contend in future with the pro- Commons, 
duce of slave labour in Cuba and In the House of Lords, the 
the Brazils. Driven to choose measure underwent but slender 
between the two propositions then discussion. Previously to the Bill 
before the Committee, he had no coming into that House, a d»- 
faesitatiou in giving his support to bate of some interest oocnrred, 
that of Mr. Barkly; first, becanse involving the conduct of the Colo- 
he feared the effect of Lord J. nial Administration, with refeienoe 
Huasell's plan on the finances of to thoseobarges of suppreasing in- 
the state, and, secondly, because formation and garbling despatches, 
he believed that Mr. Barkly's plan which Lord George Bentinok had 
was more likely to restore that so strenuously urged in the Lower 
oonfidence which oould alone rescue House. Earl Grey took up the 
the West Indies from their present matter in his own vindication as 
state of ruin and despair. Colonial Minister, and took the 

The House then divided on Mr. opportunity of eKplaining his oon- 

Barkly's ameadment as follows— duct by moving tor oopies of the 

despatches in question. The charge 

Ayes 194 made against him, said the noble 

Noes ISO Earl, amounted to this, that he, in 

oonoert with Mr. Hawes, hod en- 

Minority against . . 66 deavoured to mislead the Com* 
mittee of Inquiry on the sulfject 

Another amendment, proposed of West India distress by delibe- 

by Mr. Bouverie and supported by rately vrithholding papers which 

Mr. Gladstone and Mr. Goulbum, favoured the opinions of those who 

was to the following efiect :— attributed that distress, to the Aot 

"That provision be made for the of 1846. This cha^, he observed, 

admission of such foreign sugars involved imputations so di^raoe- 

as shall be cleared out of the ful. that, if it were maintainable, 

foreign. West Indian, and Ameri- he should be unworthy of holding 

can porta, before the 1st day of the office he filled. A distinction, 

August next, and out of ports east it was true, had been attempted U 

of the Cape of Good Hope before be drawn between a personal iin> 

the Ist day of September next, at nutation and one cast upon him iit 

the rates of duty imposed on such his political capacity, but he m- 

sugars respectively by the aot 9 pudiated such a distinction; a 

& to Victoria, c. 68." Minister of the Crown capable of 

It was lost on a division by 143 thus deceiving Fariiament was 

to 84. The whole of the Minis- petsonally culpable. The noble 

terial resolutions were then agreed Earl then detailed the partioular 

to; and after some further debate, oitoomsttnceaoonnecbadwiththMa 

CfiMLl HISTORY. [27 

daspatchM, which have been n- noble Earl appraled to hia own 
Maudl; lUted in the House of character, and fa> the justice of the 
ConnKHit. lie admitted that Sir countiTi which would not convict 
Charles Onj's despatch ought to him o/ sullyinff the name be bor« 
have been laid before the Com- by a mean and dishouourahle act. 
mittee. Ha had intended itahould He treated theattacke upon him 
bave been, and, up te a recent not with contempt, but with die- 
peiiod, ha neveT saspeoted it had regard, convinced thathigh-minded 
not been communicated to the and honoureble men would con- 
Committee, never doubting that demn the degradation of a great 
hia nunate to that effect would ha question of policy to the low level 
attended to. ' A miatake had, how- of petty personalities, 
ever, occnired, end the noble Earl JUtrd Stanley, though he ina 
esplaioed toij minuteljr the cause not surprised that the noble Eart 
ot it, which pwtlj arose from the should desire to vindicate himself 
TSst pressure of business. He and hia department from charges 
^edged his honour that it was a made against them in their official, 
nuatake. With regard to the de- not their personal capacity, re- 
spatch of Governor Light, his gretted the statement he had 
Lordship freely avowed that it made, because it was a proceeding 
was bj his direction that the ex- wholly irregular, and because it 
bact wu sent to the Committee, obliged him, in vindicating a noble 
and the despatch kept back, for friend, to appear to be an accuser 
ntwma whiui he stated. He con- of the Colonial Department, andot 
ndered that whilst the facts stated the noble Earl, to whose personal 
in the portion ot the despatch with- honour be bore testimony. After 
held were notorious, they furnished an allusion to the remark of Lord 
an argument for— 'not against^— the 3. Russell upon Lord Q. Bentinck'a 
viflwa wbioh he (Lord Grey) was connection with the Jockey Club, 
mippoMd to be anxious- to press Lord Stanley proceeded to justify 
upon the Committee. The de- tiie examination which had been 
tpatch of Lord Harris was in- pressed in the other House into the 
mded in a motion for a large public acts of the Colonial-ofSce. 
collection of similar papers, which It was Ute ridit and the duty of 
coold not be prepared before the a member of Parliament, without 
Committee hM ceased to sit; but regard to peraonal feelings, to 
it had been laid before the House expose what he believed to be 
of Commons, and if dishonest con- delinquency. He did not justify 
cealment had been his object, he every expression which might have 
wonld have suppressed it alto- been used elsewhere, hot he would 
gether. The noble Earl then pro- state facts which laid a ground for 
ceeded to notice the charge of his suspicion, and called for the notice 
having read in the House, on the of Parliament. The Colonial-office 
7th of February, a portion only of was charged with suppressing docu- 
a memorial from Januuca, which ments, and portions of documents, 
supported hia own views. He ad- and perverting their meaning, so 
mitted that he did so, and he as to mislead Fariiament. The 
jusliBed such use of the memorial, noble Lord then went over the 
Having thoB disposed of all the details respecting the despatch of 
•peciAo matters of i^iarge, the Bir 0. Grey, and the replies of 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Engia„d. 

Mr. Hawea before the Committee 
with reference to communicatioiiB 
from Jamaica, and contended that, 
giving entire credit to the expla- 
nation of Earl Grey, the withhold- 
ing of this des|»tch formed a 
reasonable ground of enspicion, 
which was augment«d b; the dis- 
covery that other despatches from 
other coloi^es had been similarly 
treated. The noble Lord dwelt 
at some length upon a variety of 
circumstances which appeared to 
strengthen the suBpicion which 
attached to the Colonial-office. 
The noble Lord then passed from 
the Colonial-office to the noble 
Earl at the head of it, whom he 
directly charged with making an 
unfair use of documents in that 
House. On the 7th of February, 
when he (Lord Stanley) presented 
certain petitions to their Lordships, 
and called their attention to tne 
state of the colonies, having stated 
that the bulk of their distress had 
been caused by the acts of the 
British Legislature, Earl Grey 
had endeavoured to show that, on 
the contrary, the distress had been 
mainly attributable to other causes, 
to waste and extravagance, and to 
the absence of the proprietors; 
and, in order to support that view 
of the case, he had quoted an ex- 
tract from a Memorial from the 
planters of Jamaica, which was not 
a fair extract, but involved an 
infereuco directly opposed to the 
scope of the document itself. The 
passage read by the noble Earl 
led their Lordships to believe that 
143,000/. had been invested in 
sugar cultivation upon that island 
by resident planters, and that the 
experiment had been eminently 
successful ; whereas the noble 
Earl had proof in his haod, in 
that very document, that tlie ex- 
periment had failed and had over- 

whelmed the parties with loss. 
He left it to their Lordship to 
say how for the noble Earl had 
justified himself; he did not say. 
that the noble Karl had been 
wilfully suppressing and pervert- 
ing documents ; but he (Lord 
Stanley) had demonstrated that 
Lord George Bentinck, who had 
devoted himself with so much seal 
to West India interests, had 
ground for grave suspicion as to 
the manner in which the Colonial 
Department had dealt with the 
papers, and he had expressed those 
suspicions in strong and vrarm 
terms ; but neither the noble Earl, 
nor the Government, he tliought, 
had a right to be offended. 

Earl Grey, in reply to Lord 
Stanley, whilst be admitted the 
right and duty of Members of 
Parliament to scrutinize the con- 
duct of Ministers of the Crown, 
protested agiunst the imputation 
of motives. Lord G. Bentinck 
seemed to think that he (Earl 
Gray) was inBuenced by a desire 
to oppress and discourage the 
West India colonies. He had 
heard with deep regret Jjord ' 
Stanley, adopting the views of 
this subject entertained by his 
political allies, and speaking with 
all the ingenuity and practised art 
of a skilful advocate, elill en- 
deavour to convict him of inten- 
tional prevaricatioD. The noble 
Earl defended Lord John Russell 
against the chaise of taunting 
Lord G. Bentinck vrith his pnr- 
sttits on the turf, and explained 
the real intention of that noble 
Lord in the remark he made in 
the other House. Even if his 
noble friend had been betrayed by 
the heat of argument on that occa- 
sion beyond the strict line of 
debato, their Lordships, when 
they remembered the imexampled 

E»9l^»d.-\ -HISTORY. [29 

ptdeitce, temper, and forbeannce facts. He did not complain otOie 

yitli wtuch Lord John bore the noble Earl'a suppreseing the opi- 

Uttereat attacks upon himself, nions of the planters, but of giving 

would at least pardoD an exoess of some facts and suppressing others, 

varmtfa provoked in bis generous namely, the result of the experi- 

mind \>j an attack upon an absent ment, which Itad been a total 

friend. The noble Earl then vin- failure. 

dksted himself from the charge Lord Brougham interposed aa a 

of partial dt&tions, observing that peacemaker botneen his two noble 

tboee poss^es' in the despatches friende. He regretted that the 

of governors which related to facts discnssiott should have taken place, 

were of the utmost ralue, but be regarding it as wholly irregular, 

did not always so highly appreciate and he hoped never to hear such a 

their opinions. He had quoted so debate again. He paid a high 

ranch of Governor Higginson's tribute to the honourable feelings 

despMch as he deemed valuable which hod actuated Lord George 

in ue course of an iucidental dis- Bentinck, but intimated his opinion 

cvssion ; and vrith respect to the tliat Earl Grey had satisfactorily 

Jnmaica memorial he had quoted vindicated both his own conduct and 

that to prove certain ta£ta, declar- thatof hissubordmates. Hecould 

ing at the time be did so that the not conclude without snggeeting, 

Hemorial complained of distress, considering the enormous amount 

Whilst, however, the memorialists of bosinees which now encumbered 

complained of distress they ad- the Colonial office, the average 

mitted the &ct that there was a number of despatches received 

part of Jamaica in which a veiy being not less than 10,000 or 

considerable change was taking 11,000 a year, the absolute neces- 

place ; that there was springing sity of an increase of the staff of 

up a class of owners and lessees i^ that office, where errors, so easy to 

property carrying ou the cultiva- occur, might create immense mi»- 

- tionof sugar on their own account, chief. The Marquis of Lansdowne 

This very Memorial had been in- bore testimony to the honourable 

eluded amongst the papers laid character of Earl Grey, and his in- 

before the Committee at an early capability of being guilty of inten- 

st^e of their inquiry. tional misconduct of the nature 

Ijoi Stanley, in explanation, ob- suggested. He hoped that this 

served that he had not volunteered discussion would have the effect of 

his share in this discussion, snd impressing ou the miuds, both of 

had followed in it strictly the their Lordships and of Members 

coarse pursued by Earl Grey, not of the other House, the impolicy of 

with the view of showing that the mixing up matters of personal im- 

Doble Earl had been guilty of wit- putation with discussions of public 

tvl suppression of documents, but affairs, and be trusted that the 

that there were fair and reasonable Honse would notagain be the scene 

gronnds for believing .that im- of a similar discussion, 

proper delay and neglect had Lord Redesdale declared that 

taken place in the Colonial-office, he considered Earl Grey's expla- 

With respect to the Memorial of nation very unsatisfactory, and he 

the planters of Jamaica, he had protested against the principle 

not r^erred to opinions but to asserted by the noble Lord — that 



he attended to the &cta, and not 
to the opiniona oommunioated bjr 
offloere locally «aquaint«d with the 

The diuuBdon tlwa termiiMted. 

The second reading of t^e Sugar 
Duties Bill, in the Houae of Lords, 
did not take plao* till the flTtii of 
August. It was then moved by 
Earl Qrev, who introduced the 
notion mdi a speech of some 

Having on a former occasion 
har^rded some prediotiona, be took 
this opportunitj to brin^ forward 
proof that his predictioDS had 
been fulfilled. Though the dis- 
tress in the West Indies was still 
extremely severe, yet the des- 
patches from some of the colonies 
slated the opinions of governors, 
that the worst time is past. Wagea 
bad fallen— singularly enough, they 
bad fallen least where they were 
before highest ; and the cost of pro- 
duction had been largely reduced. 
Governor Light, and Oovemor 
Lord Harris, and the Governor of 
Antigua, gave abundant testimony 
of a rising spirit of enterprise, pro- 
viously unknown in uie West 
Indian Colonies. LordGreyqupted 
returns showing the increased pro- 
duction of Guiana in the present 
year. The transition to a bettor 
and a healthier state of things 
might be attended, and uufonu- 
nately was attended, with no small 

fireesore and distress ; still be be- 
ieved that the change bore in 
it the seeds of prosperity and well- 
grounded hope for the future. 

But If this was his opinion, he 
might be asked on what grounds 
he justified the present Bill? The 
object of that Bill was to eictend to 
a longer period, and to grant to a 
greater extent, the protection and 
privileges accorded by the Bill of 
184fl to the British sugar-growing 

Colonies; and the gronnda oa 
which he thought such a meaaure 
justifiable were those:— In the first 
place, there existed amongst the 
sugar growers a pauio, which if not 
checked, must lead to the most 
disastrous results. His own opi- 
nion was, that this panic was a 
groundless one ; but the planters 
had been so long taught to rely on 
protection, that he could not be 
saiprised at their considering the 
withdrawal of that protection as 
equivalent to ruin. Besides, it 
was now confessed on all handa 
that the amount of advantage in- 
tended by the Act of 1846 to be 
conferred on the colonists hod not 
as yet been fully or praoticolly 
realixed. This measure, while it 
conferred coniiderable adTontages 
upon the Bntish producer, he ^It 
confident would not ha*c an in- 
jurious effect upon the revenue. 
Among the measures introduoed 
for the benefit of the planter, were 
the reduction of the differential 
duty upon rum, and a loan of 
600.000^ He could have wished 
that this aid were larger ; but the 
financial difficulties of the country 
rondered a larger loan an impos- 

In conclusion. Lord Grey would 
offer one word of warning to the 
oolonists— they should he careful 
not to tggrKraM their present diffl- 
oulties by following the illegal 
advice tendered them from oertain 
quarters. If they were persuaded 
to have recourse to rash prooeed- 
inga, in the vtun hops of inducing 
Parliament to alter that policy 
which it had adopted, they would 
only increase the present distress 
by preventing the mfiux of capital. 
They were blind observers of pass- 
ing events, and the settled cur- 
rent of public opinion in this 
country, who could for a moment 

EmU-UUI history. [31 

W£«T«t!bat:tboNprace«diiigiooDld of a noble Earl, apenonofgrMt 
ban the effect of mdueiDg Farlia- and high talents and attainments, 
imnt to alter that poliqr which it and connectAl with a still more 
had adootod, to irtuch uis intelli- Important personage, and also nith 
goDce M (he 0000(17 waa irre- a member of the ^mmittee which 
TooiUy pledged, and whiofa he wm inquired into the slave trade ; and 
eoBTioeedwoiildiMYer be departed the preoeedinga of the Committee 
hum. are in some degree detailed in that 
Lord Bedeadale did not oppose newspaper, the Morning Ckromek. 
the Bill, bat he protested against Therefbre I feel anxiotiH as to what 
the late introduction of it. The yoor lordships may think of tfaia. 
Eari of Grannlle alleged in ex- I am aocnsed of iqjustice and 
planataon the protracted debates in illiberalitj nnder the mask of 
the other House. The Duke of Justice and humanity, and even of 
ATgfle remarked that Earl Orej's calumny. The calumny is, that I 
Kteeoh contained do allusion to made strong observations on the 
the slave trade. He was no Fro- evidence of Dr. CUffe, who states 
tectionist, and if ha wished that himself to be a slave-trader ; 
nstem to endure la the West that is to say, the worst man 
Indies, it was only in order that on the face of the earth — the 
eveiy means, direct and indirect, greatest criminal— condemned by 
might be used to suppress the uie laws of three countries in 
tended that free labour could never Europe, and the laws of the coon- 
slavetrade. Earl StVincentcon- try in which be was bom. I be- 
eontend with slave-labour. lieve what he confesses, but I 
Lord Denman addressed the donot believe what he states in bis 
House, in a speech beariog chiefly own &vour. I do uot know that 
on the slave question, and on he has ceased to be a trader: be 
some matters personal to himself expresses that be was a slave- 
It had been supposed that he owner, but that he abstained from 
had a personal interest in this motives of humanity, and because 
matter, because one who was dear he was so shocked at the horrors 
to him was largely engaged in it. which were committed that his 
On that subject he was utterly in- delicate nerves would no longer 
different ; the professional reputa- allow him to proceed in it. Have 
tion of that individual might take I no right to examine the history 
care of itself. It had been said of a witness who comes to offer 
that he was a leading member voluntary evidence before a Com- 
of the Anti-Slavery Society. It mittee, as to his former eonduct? 
M happened that he never was Am I not to judge from his owu 
a member of the Ania-Slavery story whether he is entitled to be 
Society ; he never even subscribed believed? He declines on two or 
to it; he- never attended their three occasions to enter into some 
councils. The noble and learned particulars which the Committee 
Lord then went on to say — ask. He says, ' I have told you I 
"A very formidable attack has should lead an uncomfortable life 
been made upon me by a news- in the countiy to which T ant going, 
paper of high reputation and and you will be spending more 
great name, and which is supposed money in your efforts to put down 
to hare lately passed iuto the care the slave-trade.' He seems to 

32] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. iE»gla«d. 

hare some secret ; but this he does that in the uext six or eight years 

not le)l, because he is afrsid ve there would be a great glut, a great 

shail spend our money. I am demand for slaves, and subsequently 

asked, 'Wouldyounot, asa judge, an insurrection of those sbvea, 

hear the evidence of a person nfao and a massacre of all the white 

has ceased to be a thief?' — I would proprietors. Who coald oonUm- 

bear the evidence of any man ; but plate that withoat horror ? After 

if he offered me counsel as to how all, would it abolish slaveiy ? The 

I should aoppress crimes in which slaves coneisted of various nations, 

he hod himself been engaged, and and were often in a state of abso- 

he should let them be carried on lute hostility to one another, llie 

to an eitent in which a person was massacre would not be confined (o 

tempted by high profits to pursue whites ; it would be the destruction 

them, 1 should know whether I of all. 

was dealing with one who had The second reading of the Bill 

those profits in his eye." passed without a division, and it 

Lord Denman then turned to underwent no further debate until 

the general subject. lie predicted it became law. 




Knana — Divinon of PiMie Opinion, at tht commeneemsnt of the 
ScwioN, rcfpeetin^ th^ IfatioiuU Defencet — Vuwi of Ae Ftm-TtocU 
Lead«n on tht mhjeet — Lord John RuutU makes a Financial Statt- 
w«nt on the IQth of Fdmtarif — Hit Speech — Detail of the Income 
and Expenditure — Propoiitton for continuing the Income Tax for 
Three Year* at the increaeed Rate of Five per Cent. — VnfawurMe 
rece^itm of the iSiniaterial Statement by the House — Sir Charlee Wood 
endeataUTt to propitiate,the Opposition by moving that the Army, Navy, 
and Ordnance E$timatet be referred to a Select Committee — (Knerva- 
lion* of Jfr- Hume, Lord George Bentinek, and other Membert~-~ 
Great Agitation excited in variaut part* of the Country by tke 
propoted augmentation of the Income Tax — The Chancellor of the 
Exchequer announce* on the 38(A that the Qovemment do not intend 
to pre** the He*oluiion for increating the Income Tax — Hi* Statement 
of the Financial Protpeet* of the Country — Speeche* of Mr. WakUtf, 
Mr. Cobden, Lord John RuueU, Mr. Ditraeli, and other Member*. 
The puhUc feeling m turned by theie diaeuM»ion* to the unequal 
pretiure of the Tax a* then exitting — Mr. Honman propose* a Plan 
for graduating the Tax in retpeet to different kind* of Property—The 
ChaneMor of the Exchequer and Lord John HuMeU oppote the 
MotiiM — It i* rejected on a divition 6y 316 to 141 — Mr. Hume moves 
that the Tax be renewed for On* Year only inetead of Three — Sir 
Charle* Wood oppote* the Motion — General discussion on the Income 
Tax — Sir Robert Peel defend* hit own Measure and Policy — He t* 
antwered by Lard George Bentinek — Mr. J. Wdton defends, in an 
elahonUe speech, the Free-Trade Measures of Sir Rob^ Peel — Mr, 
Disraeli argues on the other tide — Mr. Gladstone vindicate* th* 
recent Commercial Change* in an able speech — Speeches of Mr. 
Cobden and Lord John Ruetell — The Debate, after tteo Adjournment*, 
end* in the defeat of Mr. Hume't Motion by a Majority of SS5— 
Sir B. Hall movet tliat the Income Tax be extended to Ireland — Sum- 
mary of his argument! — It is opposed uiarmly by the Irish Membert, 
and renited by the Oovemment — Majority against it 80 — Umatitfac- 
tory potitian of the Fiuanca, u!ith an anticipated DeficiX — The Chan- 
eellor of the Exchequer promius to make a definite statement before 
the dose of the Session— On the itbth of August he enter* fully into 
the ttale of the Revmut, and announces his plan for supplying the 
ddicieney— Proposition to raite S,031,336I. by a Loan — DiMatitfae- 
Vol. XC. [D] 

84] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Enjlond 

turn created by thU Proposal — Mr. Hums ttrongly dbjecta, and again 
urge* retrenchment of the Expenditurt — He rencvit kit ei^eetiont on 
the 29tA, wk«n the BUI Jor giving effect to Sir CkarUa Wood't Plan 
it be/ore the Home — Speechet of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
Mt. Henley, Mr. Drummond, Mr. Spooner, Mr. Cobden, Mr. 
A. Smith, and Lord John Buuell — Mr. Hume't Motion for ryecting 
the Bill it negatived bjf dfito 45, and the latter ie paeted. 

SGABCELYsnypartoftbemi- stances of the counti;. It was 
nisterial policy oC4:asioned so nsturaUf antidpftt«d that the Go- 
muohdissatisfsctioa during the pre- Temment, ia Iraming the Estimates 
sent session as that which related to for the present ;ear, would exhibit 
the public finances. It forms a pro- their adhesion to one or Other 
minentchapter in the history of the of these views; and this ciromn- 
session, and the retractation and stance gave additional intemt to 
variation of the schemes proposed the financial statement of the Pre- 
by OOTemment makes it neces- mier. In openins the contents of 
sary to devote to it a more extended bis Budget, Lord John Bussell 
space than is usually allotted to rapidly surveyed the ocMnmerual 
Finance in thiavolume. The Budget distress caused by the ecarci^, the 
was originally announced for an high prioe of com, Ac ; its efiect 
early day — the 18th February — on trade, on the social condition of 
but, for reasons which will presently the people, on the Kxcise, aodon 
tppear, the financial arrangement the sources of the revenue gene- 
remained unsettled almost till the rally. Mr. Huskiasou had re- 
close of this very protracted session, marked, in 1817, that after a great 
It is necessary to premise, by way famine a falling o£f of ten per cent, 
of introduction to the statement of in the revenue ought not to be made 
the Prime Minister, now about to a subject of wonder. Lord John 
be given, that shortly before the also reminded the House, that in 
reassembling of Farliament .the the last statement made by Mr. 
validity of our armaments for the Goulbum, before he went out of 

Eurpose of national defence bad office, he only took some of his es- 

een the subject of much discus- timatee for three quarters of the 

sion in the public prints, and some .year to which his speech applied, 

eminent aathorities, both military That circumstance, with some 

and civil, had expressed a good others, bad transferred e3B,000{. 

deal of distmst as to the predica- which ou^ht properly to have been 

ment in which this country might included in the expenditure of that 

be foundin the possible contingency year to the expenditure of the fol- 

of a sudden invasion. On the other lowing jrear, 1847-8, apparently 

hand an active party, consisting augmenting a deficit which was 

mainly of the popular champions really no more than 304,000i. 

of the Free-Trade movement had Lord John also took credit for the 

strenuously denounced such alarms increase of revenue derived from 

as chimerical and delusive, snd the alteration of the Sugar Duties, 

hadavowed their opinion, that a re- which yielded 3,574,0001. in 1845, 

duction rather than an increase and 4,414,0001. in 1847. The 

of military force and expenditure balance-sheet of the past year was 

was caUed for by the circum- t^esented on the Srd of Febroaiy, 

Cuitoms . . 


Excise . . . 


Btoge-coachM ■. 


Stamps . . . 


Taxes . . . 


Income Tax . 


Post Office . . 


Crown lands . 


UiBcellBDeouB . 


making a total 

amonnt i 

SM«i] HISTORY. [86 

1U8. EVom tlMt it appnred tint the Loan 280,0001., and interest on 

UuRmstnexcen of expenditure Exchequer Bills 143,0001. The 

onr inoome duriDg the last jear expenditure actually Totod for the 

of 9,96S,688/.; bat in that sam year 1847-8, including several 

«u to be included 1,53A,000/. suns whioh were not contained in 

gnntad Ibr the relief ofdistressm the budget, was SS,3ie,709I.; the 

Inliod, and 400,000^. the re- estimated receipts to which he had 

BMDuiw China money, which was alludedwere 61,369,0501., leaving 

Me^wdat the Cape of Oood Hope a deficiency of 989.6491. 

m lU road to England and applied Lord John stated the estimate of 

■o the parpoMS of the Cal&e war. the revenue for the year oomraenc- 

Therealexeess would be 961,683^ in g on the 6th of April, 1848, and 

Lord John recited the estimate ending on the 6th April, 1649 > 

nade by the Chancellor of the Ex- " 
eluqim fbi the past year, and 
•Wed the produce, of the revenue 
BpoD an cBtimate formed for the 
lemiinder of the year to the 6th of 
April. 1848. The Customs, esti- 
mated to produce 30,000,0001., had 
DDlypnduced 19,774,0001.; the Ex- 
as«, estimated at 18,700,0002.,had 

produced 19,940,000{. ; Stamps, making a total amount of 

«ttimated at 7,600,0001., produced 61,360,0001. Taking the expendi- 

T,160,00OI.; Taxes, estimated at tnrevoted at 63,816,7001., and the 

4JT0,0OOl., produced 4.840,0001. ; estimated receiptof revennefor the 

Property Tax, estimated at next year at 61,360.0001.. there 

li.300,0001., produced 6,460,0001. ; would therefore be a deficiency of 

Poet Office, estimated at 846,0001., 1,068,7091., that is, on the snppo- 

{woduced 933,0001. ; Ciown-lands, sition that the expenditure would 

ettinttted at 130,0001., produced bethesamein 1848-9a8ioie47-8. 

60,0001. ; Uisoellaneous, estimated But there was at present a sum of 

at 380,0001., produced 8SB,000/.; !U6,6001. due for the expenditure 

the whole estimate, calculated of the Navy for the year ending in 

at 53,065,0001., had produced April. 1847 ; there was also a sum 

61,863,0601. Keferring to some of^ 1,100,0001., to ba paid for the 

of the more important items, Lord eipensee of the Oaffre war; and, 

John Rossell sUted that there had taking these two sums, together 

been an increase in the produce with uie deficiency which he bad al- 

of duties on molasses, snear, rum, ready mentioned, there would be a 

and tobacoo; but, on Ue other deficiency of 3,141,3001. 

hand, there had been a decrease in Now he had been desirous to 

the revenue derived from the duties lay this condition of the finances 

on com, timber, wine, malt, and at sn eariy period before the House, 

spirits. in order that it might take it 

The estimated expenditure for into the fallest consideration, and 

the year ending on the 8tb of April, might resolve upon that course 

1848, was 61,676,0001.; but the which was most fitting to the in- 

exoess on the Navy Estimates had tereeta and the credit of the nation, 

been 188,0001., on the interest on Various courses were open to the 

863 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EngUHd. 

House ; and sU he had to do iraa Nothing had giveii that illustriooB 

to 8tat£ tiie course nhich appeared individoal greater paia than t^e 

to the GoTemment to be beat, publicstion of sentimenta nhkh he 

leaving it to be decided bj the de- had coafidentially expressed to a 

liberate judgment of the House brother officer. The Duke of 

irhetber irhat Ministers proposed Wellington, as was his duQr, had 

waa most fitting, or whether any communicated to the Qoremment 

otlier course would be more con- of the countiy that which he con* 

duoive to Uie wel&re of the country, ceived to be a deficiencjr in our de- 

Jtmu obvious that the deficiency fences; but, in bo doing, nothing 

mnstbemeteitherbytszationorby vaa further from his wuh than te 

great reductions in the armj and make anj public appeal, or in an; 

navy. Extreme opinions bad been way to inflame or exasperate rela- 

expreased out of doors on the de- tions between England and other 

fences of the country. On the countries. No one could diaputa, 

one hand, it had been stated that however, continued Lord John Ros- 

Foreign Powers, especially France, sell, that this countiy might be ia- 

were making great preparations ; volved in war. Since the peace of 

that there might be war, and possi- 18 16, disputes between this country, 

bly invasion ; and that our prepara- the United States, Russia, and 

tions were inadequate to meet this France, had been allayed only by 

danger. On the other hand, it was great forbearance on both sides, 

said that there was evety prospect However tranquil, therefore, the at- 

of peace; that the inclinationa of mosphere might be at present, there 
Foreign Powers were friendly; that might be at any time an unforeseen 
invasion was most improbable ; and storm ; and he was the more ci 

that our naval and military esti- vinced of that circumstaoca when 

mates were extravagantly high. In he recollected that Mr. Pitt in 

stating the views of the Govern- 1703 anticipated a long oontina- 

ment on these discordant qiinions, ance of peace. It must be borne 

be wished to guard himseu against in mind, that in the last three hun- 

the supposition that there was any- dred years the elements on various 

thing in the mwent state of our occasions had been our friends, and 

relations with France which threat- expeditions against us, prepared 

ened the rupture of peace. with the most zealous core, had 

Lord Jolm Russell here avowed, been defeated only by adverse 

in the most emphatic terms, his winds. The science and skill of 

anxiety for a cordial, intimate, and late years had enabled seamen to 

lasting alliance with the French traverse the sea against winds and 

nation. This portion of his speech tides; and that circumstance might 

was warmly cheered by the House, induce hostile powers to consider 

He wished to guard himself this country more open to invasion, 
upon another point. A foreign Underakingwhowssasincerelover 
writer.animated by the most kindly of peace, since 1833, the active pre- 
feelings towards Engknd, had de- parations and increase of the naval 
scribed the Duke of Wellington ss force of France had been very ex- 
having made a pamphleteering re- tensive. Lord John read returns 
ply to the Prince deJotnville. No- to the French Chambers ; the 
thingoouldbemorefonngntotliein- number of seamen had increased 
tentionsof the Duke of Wellington, from 18,000 to 89,000; vessels at 

Engbmd.] HISTORY. [37 

SM, from 153 to S16; steuneis, degrees of preparation, daring the 
from 68 to 130; tlie expenditure present year. It vas proposed to 
from S,980,00(U. to 3.903.00(X.; have a reserre of Bteamen at 
the wbole sum for the French army Fortsmonth, Flymoath, Co^ and 
and oaTj in 1S49 vas 23,817,00(U. Sheeraess. To the Marines would 
Sereial of the French steamers are beaddedl600man: 1600hadbeen 
of sodi a size that they each carry added last year. With regard to 
fnm 1000 to ISOOmen. the defences of onr ports and dock- 
PrepanUions had not been nant- yards, their deficieiunes had at- 
ingononr^de. Since 1835, we tnu;ted the aUentiou of the late 
had increased the nnmber of our Goferament, which had giren or- 
seamen from 36,000 to 43,000 ders for their examination. That 
men; ofoorsoldiers.&om 100,991 subject had been too long n^ 
to 138,769; and of oni ordnance lected; but, since the year 1844, 
C0Tpsfrom8a5Stol4,S94;making 262,0001. had been expended on 
an mcrease of 60,331 upon our mill- the works for the defence of Forts- 
taiy force in the whole. Besides, month, Flymoath, and Deronport, 
the kteOoTemment had organized Pembroke, Sheemess, and the 
IB.OOO soldiers of the line as pen- Thames; and they were now, in 
sitHiers. The present Government the opinion of the Duke of Wel- 
had formed a force of 9600 men lington, aud the Master of the 
oat of the woricmen in the dock- Ordnance, in a satisfactory state, 
yards, who, as infantry and artil- Betoming to the Army, he said, 
leiy, were in possession of, and that although Ministers did not 
capable of working, 1080 gone. A propose to incresse its force by a 
plan had also been carried into single man, yet the number of 
effect for drilling and organizing soldiers in the United Kingdom 
the Coast Guard, and for keeping would be incressed by the return 
a so^lemental force ready in case this year of 5000 men, if not more, 
the services of the Coast Guard from India; so that in the course 
should be wanted elsewhere; which of the summer he expected that 
would supply a force of 6000 men. we should have a force of 60,000 
Lord John showed that the charge men in the British islands. As 
of the Army, Nai^, and Ordnance, compared with the year 1S3S, this 
lor the defence of the coontry, bad would be an increase of 30,000 
increased from 11,730,073/. in men. The increase on the esti- 
I83& to 17,340,0901. in 1847. He mate for the Army was 43,0001. 
then called the attention of the only. Oovemment proposed to 
Hoose to our condition ss regarded make a much larger increase in 
the Navy. He proposed to make the Ordnance Estimates. It was 
an increase oS 164,0001. upon the obvious that, while we conld make 
Naval Estimates ; but of that sum a rapid increase in our iniantiy, 
«ily 70,0001. would go to the real we could not make an increase of 
increase of our naval expenditure ; our artillery in less than eighteen 
94,0001. being for expenditure not months or two years. It was there- 
naval. He reaid a letter of the First fore proposed to increase the grant 
Lord of the Admiral^ to himself, for the Ordnance by a sum of 
describing in detail the varions 245,00U. The whole incresse on 
skips which he intended to keep the Military, Naval, and Ordnance 
in commissioii, and in different Estimates wonld be 366,0001. 

38] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Bngkni. 

Then was Bnother speoiM of Lord John stated ths whola «x- 

foroo, lespeoting wbich a meaauro pendittm which bs contemplated 

would be laid before the House ia for the jrear ending the 6th of 

the course of the present session. April, 164ft, as follovre— ^ 

In oonaidering the question of 9 » 

national defence it to. necessary to ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 37,™^ 

take into calculation the chance, Unhnded Debt.. 7SZ.600 

howBTor remote, of an enemy's — . SM90,600 

landing on our shores ; and in that CoMolhkled 

«8e our force of 60.000 men would (^"^W^"^ l lOO/MO *'*'"* 

not altogether suffice to garrison mMle»c«iV." WSoo 

the dockjards and other points of .—— ],345,500 

defence, and to supply troops for Nitj.... 7,796,610 

the field. In former times the A™7 I'IS'255 

eountjy looked for defence to what "^^^—Z JKo 

waa tbe farounte force of one of 21,890 400 

the greatest men the country ever ' — 

produoed. Lord Chatham: he 04,440,200 

meant the miUtia. There were, ""^^ J*>'«» 

however, difficulties on that sub- 

ject now, which did not formerly 

exist. If you were to allow men Now, it would be idle and pre- 

to eerre by aulHtjtute, it was pro- sumptuous to say that the country 

bable, from the migratory habits would at ouco return to a atate of 

of our labouring population, that prosperify; yet they might look 

the substitute would not be forth- forweid to an improted oonditioa 

coming when he was want«d ; and, of the commerce and mann&otnres. 

if you were to refuse permission to They might expect an improvS' 

serve by substitute, you would mentof income, oiid a diminution of 

place parties under military aer<- the expenditure occasioned by the 

vice who had hitherto been exempt Oafla« war, which Sir Harry Smith 

from it. He should propose a said wsa now at an end. Lord 

measure to meet those mfficultieB. John, therefore, thought that only 

If it be prBAtioable, he believed it a temporary increase of taxation 

to be right to have a portion of our would t>e required. He proposed 

people trained to the use of arms, that they should continue the In- 

and capable, on the breaking ont come Tax, which would expire in 

of hostilities, of being marched to April next, for five years, and 

any point at which uieir services increase its amount from Td. ^a 1*. 

might be required. But, if the in the pound, or from 3 to 5 per 

House should come to the oonclu- cent, for the next two years, 

sion that a Militia force was not (Louif ironieal dtMn.) Consider- 

desirable, then it must consider, ing the distress of Ireland, and tbe 

next year, whether it would not be efiorts whioh its landlords and 

expedient to make an addition to tenants were making to relieve it 

the regular army of the country. — though in justice we had a right 

He propoeed, for the present, to impose this tax upon Ireland as 

to take a grant of 150,000/. to well as upon Eiwlaud — {Loud 

lay tlie foundation of this Militia chwn) — admitting fully tbe justice 

force. of that ooutse, Ministers oonadered 

BmgUnd.] HISTORY. [39 

UMt this ma not Uie motaient. it might then b« applied to the 

{BgelamMionM of rftsMnt mingUi redaction of those taxes vfaich 

wUk ehMnfrwH difftmU parti of pressed most heavilj on the elastio 

tkt Rmua.) He begged boaour springs of industry. It vss not in 

able gentlemen to consider, that hia power at present to propose 

if tli«7 checked the exertions auj such reduotioa. He had 

in Irehwd, thej irould check also taken that vhich some considered 

the retaming pnspentj of the the odious path of duty ; and he 

United Kingdom. He proposed should conclude by expreaeing his 

the Prc^rty Tax exactly on the conviction, that, by adopting hi* 

«me principles as diosfl oo tthich enggestions, they would restore 

it WW pTopoeed by Ur. Pitt, on the commercial credit of the ooud- 

which it was inoreased by Zxirds try, preserve the public laith un- 

QrenriUe and X^nsdowne, and on impaired, and would run no danger 

wldch it ma unpeaed and defended of seeing the empire insulted or 

in 184S hj 8ii Bobert Feel, injorsd by any power whatever. 

(Laufktar.) Lord John RusBell then moved 

He drew attention to the large two Resolutions, embodying bis 

reduction of datiee which had plan for augmenting the Income 

taken place of late years on articles Tex. A long and desultory debate 

of consamption required by great ensued. Almost all the speakers 

bodiee of Uie people. There had expressed dismay and reprobation, 

been taken off taxes on salt, can- Ur. Hume asked whether they 

dlee, eoals, leather, beer and cider, were all mad, that in a time of 

glass, sngar, butter and cheese, increasing distress among manu* 

grain and meal, amounttng to bcturera they should propose 

10,543,6731. in late years; and increased taxation? He ehould 

the iriiole amount of annual taxes undoubtedly propose reduction in 

oa ntiolea of taxation taken off our esubliuiments to meet the ex- 

sinoe the peaoe amounted to cess of expenditure. Mr. Bankee, 

39.70tt,34lZ. The r^«ult of hia the Uarquis of Granby, Mr. CI. 

■dieme wonid be this ; the ex- B. Bobinson, and Mr. Newdegate 

pendhore being 54,S0ft,S00I., and saw in the disastrous state of the 

die income 51,350,0001., he pro- finances the result of free tiade. 

poeed to make up the deflmency by Mr. Osborne bellered that, if there 

tbe increase of the Income Tax, had been a regularly organized 

which he eatimated to produce Opposition, such a financial state- 

8,500,0001. ; making a total income ment would never have been made 

of 51,750,0001. He also proposed — ^it would have been the death- 

to remit the highly inju^ous du- vrarrant of any Administration; 

dea on copper ore, whidt were im- Sit Bobert Peel wae now avenged 

poeed in 1849, and prpdnoed for Lord John Russell's speecbea 

41,0001. When those duties were against his Income Tax. Mr. Oa- 

remitted, he should have a aur> borne thought they might have in- 

plns of income over expenditure, creased efficiency of national forces 

amounting to 118,000/. In ano- with their present expenditora. 

Iher year, he trusted that the Sir Benjamin Hall hoped that the 

miplna would be laijgely increased Income Tax would at least be more 

by die ceeaation of die expense justly distributed. Colonel Sib- 

eeoaeioned by the Cafire war; and thorp woa surpriced at no amount 

40] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEn^hmd. 

of hypocri^, dvpluuty, or te^ the addition of two par oent. now 

siversatbn, from the Treuury- proposed for two yean onlj. he 

bench. Mr. Francis Baring could woidd not make any promise, as he 

not concur in a proposition which did not wish to be taunted with it 

recognised the Incamfl Tax as a hereafUr. 

permanent impost; and he called Lord Palmerston wonnd up the 

the House to its duty of inves- debate with a few pacific obeem- 

tigating the voles proposed by dons, inferring from the long dn- 

Govemmant with somewhat more ration of peace its still longer 

rigid attention to economy than condonance. 

had been the practice. Idr. The Committee voted 6,000,000/. 

Disraeli delivered one of his most oat of the Consolidated Fund 

animated criticisms on the fonni- towards the snpply granted to Her 

dable recurrence of a Whig deficit ; M^ee^, and ordered Lord John 

<«k Sir Bobert 'Feel's plausible Russell's resolutions to be reported, 

professions that the Income Tax The nn&vourable recepdon 

should only be temporary; on the which the Budget, as firat moved, 

neolt of the Reformed Parliament had encountered in the House of 

manifested in a oonstandy increas- Commons attended it also through 

ing expenditure — on free trade, the country at large, and the pro- 

that great principle which in- position for increasing the Militair 

flicted 6 per cent Income Tax and Naval Esdmates excited much 

upon us; on Mr. Cobden's vision unfavourable comment By a 

of perpetnal peace, copied from statement which he made on 

Bt Pierre, Rousseau, and Robes- moving that the House do resolve 

pierre, that " apostle of perpetual itself into a Committee of Supply 

peace," and followed by M. Cre- three nights afterwards. Sir Chanes 

mieox's anticipation of "Uberty, Wood endeavoured to soften down 

Soality, and fraternity," the motto some of the more nnpleasiDg fea- 
the Jacobin banner. Mr. Cob- tnres of Lord John Biusell's state- 
den characterized Lord John Bus- ment 

aell's speech as a menace to France, SirCharles stated, thatMinisttira 

and enforced the policy of re- could not accede to die proposal of 

ducing the establishments to the whichMr. Hume had given notice, 

level of income by means of sweep- to postpone the Committee of 

ing retrenchments. Mr. Bright Supply on the Aimy and Navy 

followed, in the same tone. Esdmates tilt the House had 6a- 

8ome few speakers supported the cided on the proposal made on the 

Government Sir Charles Wood former day by the Firat Lord 

defended the Ministerial scheme, of the Treasury. This would be a 

Mr. Monckton Milnes extended reversal of the consdtntional usage, 

to them the succoar of a good- that a vote of supply should pre- 

natnred apology. Sir Robert In- cede the consideration of the Ways 

glis gave his general concurrence, and Means. The producdvenees 

In his defensive speech. Sir of the taxes could not laUonally 

Charles Wood declared his belief be the index of the amount of the 

that when the Income Tax was vote : the amount should be vot«d 

voted in 1646, no man really be- according to the real exigenciee of 

lieved that there was any prospect the State, and the " ways ' in which 

of its being taken off; and as to thatamonntshouldberaisedBhould 




aftannrdB bea4joB^ inBCcardttDoe 
with the "means" of the classes 
Kbo pay the taxes. Sir Chsrles 
aUnded to aa impression vhich had 
■risen both in and out of the House, 
that the increased taxation wss 
rendered necessary bj the increased 
Estimatfls: he hcmed Uiat farther 
consideratian of wnat actuallj fell 
from the Prime Minister on the last 
occasion had shown this impression 
tobeentireljtmfoimded. Tnerewas 
a present deficit on the pest year, 
OTBr which control was now gone. 
Hut must be met. That alone 
called for increased taxation, with- 
out reference to any additional or 
Snapective demands. These ad- 
itMoal demands arose in connec- 
tion with the maintenance of con- 
victa — formerly a local charge ; the 
fittings of the new Houses of Par- 
liament ; the British Museum ; the 
expedition in search of Sir John 
Fnnklin ; the new scale of pay- 
ments to certain petty officers, and 
the new modes of paying off sea- 
meik and ntarines. None of these 
expenses had a military aim — not 
eyen of defence. The Government 
seriously deprecated any parade of 
■imament The Ministers in their 
proposals meant simply to act ao- 
Gording to the rule in such cases : 
a deficiency in a department of 
pnblic service having occmred, 
they came with a specific proposal 
to the House for the addition 
wbkb would fill up the new want. 
Th^ had nothing more at heart 
than that the House should be 
folly satisfied. 

As, however, necessary explana- 
tions conid not convenienuy be 
made to the House itself. Minis- 
ters proposed that a Select and 
Secret Committee be appointed to 
exunine how far the Estimates of 
the Kavy, Army, and Ordnance 
nugbt be adopted, and to inquire 

generally into the affairs of those 
departments. This Committee 
would be distinct from the one he 
intended to move for next day for 
inquiring into the expenditure for 
Miscelluieous Services, and report- 
ing whether any reductions or im- 
provements be practicable under 
that head. 

Sir Charles cited precedents. 
Sir Robert Peel in 1828 moved for 
a Finance Committee, and on that 
occasion recounted parallel cases in 
the years 1T85, 1791, 1796, 1807. 
and 181T. So again a somewhat 
similar Committee sat in 1834, on 
the expenditure of the Colonial De- 
partment. Complete information 
could be laid before such a Select 
Committee ; the statements made 
to tho Boose at large could only 
be imperfect and unsatisfactory. 
The constitution of the Committee 
would notin the least be infiuenced 
b^ Ministers ; and the full discus- 
BioD, according to usage, would 
take place in the Committee of 
Ways and Means. 

Meanwhile, the Secretaries at 
War and for the Navy would pro- 
pose the votes necessary for cany- 
mg on the Pnblic Service ; and the 
Chancellor of the Bxcheqner de- 

quent day. He movod'the reading 
of the Order of the Day for going 
into Committee of Supply. 

Mr. Hume strongly olgected to 
the course pursued by the Oovern- 
ment. He advocated a reduction 
of expenditure as tlie true solution 
of the financial difficulties. If 

firivate men of prudenee calcu- 
ale their means before settling 
their expenses, the nation should 
do the like. The revenue of the 
country, after deducting the cost 
of coUeoting, was about the same 

42] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

munrat of 66,000,0001. in each of fimutioal amiig«m«ntfl of these 

tbatwo yeaiB 1846 itnil 1848. The several departmeati. 

expenditure, however, had varied The expenditare for the Kavj, 

bv on amount of 6,756,000i. in Annj, and Ordnance had moraaMd 

those 7ean~tbere was a sorplus &om 11,730,0001, in I8S6, to 

in reoeipU of 8,800,000^ in 1846, 17.840,000i. in 1847. The Army 

and an ezom in payments of inorease was inconsiderable; the 

3,960,0001, in 1848. Was this no Narj inormse was 9,600,0001. : bat 

justification of his endeavour to the Ordnance had donbled its 

atop Oovemnient till some inqui^ ooatsincs 1836. That increase was 

had been made whether expendi' a very proper subjeot of inquiry, 

tore might not be somemere On tfaeir acceesion to office, Uinis- 

reduced? From 400,0002. to ters intimated their intention of 

600,0001. annuitieB bad ceased, appointing a Committee to inqair« 

and OoTemment might have been into the Miscellaneous Expendi- 

expectedtopropose retrenchments: tnre. It was convenient to defer 

tbej had instead proposed an in- the time of appointing that Oom- 

oresae of the Income Tax. The mittee till this Session: inthemean 

peoplewouldnotbesrtheadditional time, Mr. Hume had suggested 

Durden. Oar navj showed a great it etiould not be confined to a 

waste of national resaroes — ebipa finance inqulrf , but should inveeti- 

oselesslv lying in the Tagus, or ^te the whole sulgeot of the na- 

engagedin the fruitless squadron tional expenditure. Such an in- 

OB the coast of Africa. Mr. Hume quiry would be so wide as to lead 

alio strongly objected to the pro- to no result; but it wae thought 

poeed eeoraoy of the Oommittee. vetydesir^le that these Estimates 

Mr. Ewart and Mr. Sfaarman should be submitted to a Select 

Crawford spoko to a similar effect. Committee, who should inqnin 

Other Members expressed dis- how &r our increased expenditurs 
approbation of the Ministerial pro- wss real or only nominal— how far, 
poeal, as tendiog to shift from the for instance, increased by efforts to 
shoulders of the Government their improvetheconditicnof oursoldiera 
oonstitntional responsibility. Lord and sailors in actual service. 
John Russell vindicated the course He was not anxious to adhere 
proposed. He also took occasion servilely to mere precedents; but 
to repndiate the imputation that if instances were demanded they 
the Estimates, as stated by him, could be found in abundance. Mr. 
were War Estimates, or that they Pitt had appointed three Corn- 
had been fhtmed in antioipation of mittees of the kind, in 1791, 1797, 
■ rupture with any Foreign Power, and 180). In 1817 Lord Liver- 

The next evening, the Chan- pool gave an example; in 183B 

eellor of the Exchequer brought the Duke of Wellington furnished 

forward his formal proposition for another ; and one was supplied as 

appointing two Gomniittees — one late as 1834, on aColonial subject, 

toinquireintotbe Army, Navy, and by Lord Stanley. He thought that 

Ordtiance expenditure, the other neither Mr. Pitt, nor the Duke of 

into the Miscellaneous Estimates, Wellington, nor Lord Stanley, were 

and to report to the House whether likely to yield too readily to pres- 

any rednctiona oould be efboted or sure, or to avoid official reeponai* 

any improvements made in the bility. The CommittM of 1898 

1-3 HISTORY. [48 

had raponed. among other tluogi, oonntiy, which if retiated might 
the Amy, Navy, and Ordnance, sweep B,\n.j the Income Tsz and 
ind then on the expsnditaie of the Minietiy together. The Go* 
theootmtiy. Although the; Med Tfimmeut qnioldj perceived the 
in cuTymg out tlieir inqoiiiee to danger of peraeTering in their pro- 
ths fuU extent they contemplated, ject, and took the resolotion to 
jet snch iofonuation was obtained, retract On ths 36th February, 
Hpecially on the examination of the Ohanoellor of the Exohequer 
Sir Henry Hardinge, as led to the came down to the Hoase with an 
p«at and important reforms in the amended budget, and umounoed 
Admiralty introdno«d by Sir James the abandonment of the inoreased 
Graham. Since that tima, the ex< Inoome Tax. In making his atate- 
penditure had incareaaed again, and ment the right bononrable gentle- 
fraah ground had been laid for in- man traveraed exaotly the aome 
qmiy. groonda aa the Premi» had done 
IJoid George Bentinck proteeted in introducing the budget, con< 
against any encroachment by the trasting the ordinary income of the 
ComnuttAeB on the proper functions country with its ordinary expendi' 
t£ the ExscutiTe, but offered no tore, and pointing out the amount of 
farther ohgeotioD to the motion, the deficieni^. He then adverted to 
whidi was then carried. the pro^wcts of ths year, oommeno- 
It very soon became evident ing on Uie 6th of April, 1816, and 
that the proposition which Lord ending on the 5th of April, 1649, 
John Bosrall had made of increas- and in the courea of hts obgerrB^ 
ing ths nnpopular Inoome Tax to & tiona explained the nature of our 
per cent was huihly unpalatable expenditure, and the small chanee 
to the public. The general de< there was of making any great re* 
preosioD of trade and reduced cir- ductions in it. The GoTomment 
comstancea of almost all classes, had not propoaed a larger amount 
consequent upon the late com* of force for the military service of 
nwicial criais, had indisposed the the country than it deemed indis* 
eoontiy to bear patiently any in- pensably necessary. He would not 
crease of tszatiou. Besides this, allude, except cursorily, to the ex< 
« keen sense of the inequality of temal circumstances which had 
the mode of taxing incomes, ao- occurred since the Estimates were 
cording to the uniform 3 per cent, first proposed ; it would be enough 
Male, generally prevailed; and, for him to say, that it would 
however the existing grievanoa not be expedient for the Go- 
ndii be endured, the sggiavation veromeDt to propose at present 
of It, as now proposed by iacreasing any redaction in the amount of 
the per-oentage, was vigorously pro- oar force. He then went through 
tested against. Petitions poured the different resources from which 
in from all the piinoipal towna in our income for the next year was 
the oonutiy, canatituencies in- to be derived, estimating it at 
stmoted their Members to oppose, 61,350,000/., and showing that 
on pain of forfeiting their future there would be a deficiency in it of 
support, the UinisteiiU measure, 3,300,OUOi. to meet oar expendi- 
aad it became evident, from a ture in case the Income Tax at 8 
variety of symptoms, that a form- per cent, were oontiiiiied, and of 
idaUeagiutu«iwas rising Qpinthe 8,000,0001. in case it were not. 

44] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. {Engh^d. 

In lookJDg to the best mode of pro- proposed to reneir it. Whether it 
viding for this defidency, be con- should be reneved for three or for 
cnrred niih Mr. T. Baring in five years was a point to be con- 
thinking that we should not be sidered in Committee ; but the Go- 
justified in resorting to a loan, verometit had proposed to renew it 
He had, therefore, turned his at- for five years, because it was of 
tention to the financial proceed- opinion tbat the country could not 
ings of the last few years, and had thoroughly recover ita financial 
considered the measures which had prosperity until the expiration of 
been sanctioned and approved by that period. Stilt, if toe Income 
Farliameot. In 1643, when there Tax were passed at the same per- 
was a deficiency. Sir R. Peel had centage as at present, there w«ild 
proposed an Income Tax, partly to be a deficiency. It therefore be- 
meet it, and partly to relieve the came neceasaiy to condder how it 
lower classes from the pressure of was to be supplied. The Mi- 
indirect taxation upon articles of nistr^ were of opinion tbat the 
general taxation. His (the Chan- deBciency would only be for a 
cellor of the Exchequer's,) opposi- time. The Caffre war was already 
tion to the Income Tax in 18)3 wag at an end. Theexpenditarein the 
grounded on the argument that it dockyards would cease in eighteen 
was not worth the price which wc months or two years, when the 
were then called on to pay for it ; conntiy would reap the benefit of 
but he had then stated that, if the the pennanant works which had 
Com Duties, the Timber Dudes, been erected. A reduction of ex- 
and theSogarDutiesweretakenofi', penditure might also be e£Fected 
he should have no olgection to vote by the Committees recently ap- 
for the tax which he then opposed, pointed by the House. It would 
Those taxes had since been taken be hardly wise to impose a new tax 
off ; and he therefore felt himself for a time, as such a tax must have 
justified in proposing in 1648 the effect of deranging trade without 
the vetT same law which he had any corresponding benefit. A per- 
opposed in 1643. He then re- centage on the existing taxes would 
minded the House of what had oo- in all probability fail in producing 
curred in 1645, when Sir Bobert increased revenue. Under such cir- 
Pecl proposed the continuance cumstaiiceB,theGoTernment,know- 
of the Income Tax for the sake ing that the Income Tax could he 
of persevering in the commercial increased immediately without any 
policy of 184S, and of taking off increased expenditure in the col- 
further duties on the raw materials lection of it, had determined to 
of our manufactures, and on articles propose an increase of it to 5 per 
of general consumption. Various cent., to continue for two years, 
propositions were then mode for Having stated that it would not be 
the purpose of amending the Act, politic to extend such a tax for so 
hut no one got ap and opposed it short a period to Ireland, and hav- 
altogether. The House of Com- ing further added that, if it were 
mons sanctioned it; and it would a tax for more than a temporaiy 
be a most extraordinary coarse for emergency, itwould he just to make 
the Government to come forward Ireland pay it, he replied to the 
now and propose to reverse it. question whether he would pledge 
The Qovemment had, therefore himself to take it off from Great 

E«9i««i.l HISTORY. [45 

BntMQ »t the end of two jeais— addition to the Fropertr Tax. He 
Could utj man foTOsee what the made that annonncenient, he re> 
■Meof taeworldvodldbetwoj'ears peated, vith regret, beoauee at tbe 
ixeTennxmontl)shence?Howloi]g present moment he considered « 
was it nnce k gentleman, recently liill Exchequer to be very desirable, 
retomed from France, had told and he ehould be sorry to draw on 
them that the French people could the balances, which were now high, 
hftTe no olQeet in making a rerolu- for any part of the deficiency. He 
tion? Who ooold have foreseen, ten hoped at all erents that the House 
dajB ago, what had occorred in would not refuse to Government 
Paris daring the laat week ? the present Income Tax for three 
Making, then, no promise on the years, as it could not conduct afiairs 
■abject, he thonght that no man without having, for that time, the 
eoold doobt that the increased p«- same average revenue which it 
eentage for two years would ha had at present. 
taken off at the end of that time, Mr. Hume defied the Chan- 
provided that our income rose to cellor of the Exchequer to continue 
the level of the last year ; and, if it the Property Tax vrith alt its pre- 
did, it would leave as, at the end sent inequalities. He was also of 
of two years, a surplus of 700,000(. opinion, after what. Sir C. Wood 
He had now explained to tiie had said about the improbability of 
Honae the proposab of Ministers, making any large reductions, Uiat 
He could not say that they had been the House ought not to grant him 
well received, either in tite House this tax at aU ; for then the Go- 
or in the country. From every vemment would be compelled, as 
quartet Ministers bad received un- tbe Government of 181S was com- 
eqnivocal demonstrationa that they pelled, to reduce establishments, 
were strongly disapproved of. He Alluding to Lord J. Russell's 
then took a hasty review of the declaration of pacific intentions 
different otgections raised to the towards France, he called upon 
Income Tax, as well by those who bis lordship to produce confidence 
ifiproved as by those who dia> in it among the French people 
approved of direct taxation, and, by diminishing the amount of 
after refuting them to the best of our forces by 40,000 or 60,000 
his power, expreesod his r^ret that men. 

there was bo universal a dislike to Mr. Osborne followed on the 
the increased per-centage which same side, and threatened to op- 
Lord J. Russell hod proposed. He pose the Income Tax by the most 
thought that, if the conntry would energetic means in his power, 
■nbtnit to that increase, it would Mr. Waklay recommended the 
derive great advantage from it; Government to withdraw the reso- 
bat, if there were any point on lutions altogether. The budget 
which the people had a right to bubble had burst; it was exploded 
dictate to the Government, it was —gone. He assured Ministers 
on tbe subject of taxation. He that a feeling of impatience was 
therefore announced at once to tbe rising and spreading over the king- 
Honse, on the part of the Govern- dom, engendered by bad and un- 
ment, that it did not intend to press j^t legislation in Parliament. Sir 
tliose resolations which made an Hany Vemey suggested import- 

46] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [BngUmL 

■nt improvements in Bome mili- observations on ths unsatiaSutfoiy 
taiy dep&rtmente — BBpeoiallj in tni fruitleaa turn which the dis- 
regard bi enltBtmeDte. Mr. Fian- otiasion had takeni pnxieeded to 
us Baring approved of the course advert to some remaAB which had 
Government had now taken ; but blleii from Mr. Oobden.— " That 
insisted that reductions should be honourable gentleman, after what 
made, not by the Committees, bat 1 remarked to-night — and I be- 
bf Government. Mr. Oobden Ueve be most admit that his 
joined in the protest against the propheoj was not a veij sncoeas- 
present shape of the tu on pre- nil one— -{LaughUr) — has tried to 
oariouB income. He found no out- excite a suspicion, and to-induce 
let from the diffiaulties which the those in this House, and perhaps 
Chancellor of the Exchequer had those oat of doors, to think that 
stated, save through reductions of I was not sincere In the deola- 
ouF establishments,— effeotive as radon I made, and that, when I in- 
well as non-effective. Mr. Cobden timatad we did not mean to inter- 
oonfeased that, when he had lately fere with any disposal of her own 
spoken against the probability of any institutions whitji France might 
but the most peaceful aspect of af- ohoose to make, I still meant we 
fairs in France, he was unprepared were to be led by some * coteries 
for tfle political revolution which and clubs ' to go to war with Uiat 
has occurred — for suob insanity in nation, because she had , adopted 
a Minister, oi such madness in a some particular form of govein- 
Monuch. Let them mark himi ment. Now, I can only reiterate 
if it were the policy of ths GoTsm- what I said before, that it is not 
ment of this country to avoid a the intention of the Oovemmsut to 
collision with France, it was per- interfere, in any way whatever, with 
fectly easy for England to avoid it. whatever settlement France may 
He ventured to say that England think proper to make with respect 
was the last country that France to ber own government [Chten.) 
was likely to attack as a nation. Qui only interest in that settle- 
inasmuch as we were inaoeesible, ment is the interest of naighbonrs 
But, unless the people of this ooun- and friends ; and all we wish is 
try took the question into their that the institutions France may 
own hands, there was a danger of adopt shall tend as much as pos- 
war with France; if it were left sible to her own prosperiiy. 
with the Foreign Secretary — if it (Cheen.) I may, perhaps, be per- 
were left to the clubs and cote- mitted to add, that of course I do 
ries of the KletropoHa, or to the not believe England would refuse 
spirit he had seen evinced that to perform any of those sacred 
night in reference to the state of duties of hospitality which she has 
France— he feared we mightbe in- performed at all times to the 
Tolved in a war ; and he took that vanquished, whoever they were, 
opportunity of calling upon the whether of extreme royalist opi- 
oountiy to beware of what would nions, of moderate opinions, or of 
be impending if they did not extreme liberal opinions. Those 
take the matter into their own duties of hospitality have made 
hands. this country Uie asylum for ths 
Lord John Uossell, after some unfortunate; and I for one will 

En^tmd.] HISTORY. [47 

MT«r auBMit thst we shaald nag- tax ; u «*il pardoned in a tompo- 

lect them." {Loud ckttn.) my impoet, out intolerable in one 

Mr. Disraeli aubeoribed to the that has evidently become perma- 

inle tbat obaerrationB ehould be re- nent He illoatrated thia position 

aerred till the measurea they ooo- by quotations from former speecheai 

oemed were fairly before the House, in which Lord John Ruaaell had 

He proceeded, lioweTar, to critioM boreia teetimony to the inherent 

the pnipoaitioii of Oovemment in " ineqtudity, vexation, and Irand " 

a speech of aome length. Several of the tax. Mr. Horsman suggested 

other Members aleo censnred the a different plan, of which we need 

Ministerial plans, insisting on re- only mention tiie main features, 

dsdiona and economy. He showed that incomes derived 

Bir Robert H. Inglis auggested from different Idnds of property 

atamp dutiee on foreign bills of ex- are of different values ; that the 

change, and a tax on gas. Ha juat way to ascertain a common 

also urged an old suggestion of value was to capitalize the incomes, 

hia own, that the taxation on in- and then to oJculate the tax on 

cmaea should begin at 1601., such each kind of yearly income aocord- 

inomoaa to be rated only on the ex- ing to a ratio determined by its 

ceaa above 1501. c^talixed value. To apply this. 

The question of the Income Tax ana rearrange the tax bo as to pro- 
having been once stirred by the un- duce at least the present amount 
luekj proposition of the Govern- by a different scale, be took as hia 
ment for augmenting it, the popular basis the returns obtained by Mr. 
feeling against the tax, even in ita Mofiatt, for the year ending 6th of 
original shape, revived, and the April, 1846; and, instead of a uui 
otgeotiona so often urged t^nat form rate of Td. in the pound, he 
it were forcibly represented both propoeed the following rales,— 8<f. 
in Parliament and out of doors, in the pound on incomes arising 
The poasibili^ of remodelling it, from realized property; 6d. on 
so as to place it upon a more eqni- trade, commerce, and manufitc- 
taUe basis in regard to different tures; dd. on professional and oilier 
classes of incomes, was much agi- precarious sources. This would 
tated, and several debates took yield 300,000^ more than the pre. 
place in the House of Commons sent revenue, 
anon motions introduced by private Sir Charles Wood and Lord 
Memben. One of the most pku- John Bussell contended that Mr. 
aible of the plans propoeed was Horsman's plan would be more 
embodied in an smendmMit moved odious than the present, because it 
1^ Mr. HoTsman on the 9rd of would require a more inquisitorial 
March, to the following effect : — machinery. 

"That, if the Income Tax be Mr.FrancisBaringuiigedtheMi- 

eontinned, it is expedient to amend nisters to attempt the a^justmeDt 

the Act, and not to impose the of the tax on a &irer basis: merely 

same charge on incomes arising to continue it was only to post- 

from [oefeeaioaal and precariona pone a difficulty with which the^ 

sources aa on those derived from ought to grapple at onoe ; for, if 

lealisednropertj." the tax were not rendered more 

Mr. Ataman dwelt on the ex- acceptable, the country would 

eaanvely im«qual inddmce of the compel ita abolition. Several 

48] ANNUAL REGISTER, 184S. [E»j!".J. 

other speakera joined is the de- natural and commercial calaiaitiea 

hat«, the balance of argument that had occurred had deranged 

eoing against the tax. But, on a all calculation, and brought atwat 

division, the amendment was nega- the present state of the national 

tived by 310 to 141. finances. He could not sa; that 

A financial debate of more im- he saw any early prospect of re- 

portance took place on the 6th of vival ; because, if there were no 

Uarch upon another amendment, other circumatance to interrupt its 

which was proposed by Mr. Hume, progress, he feared the stat« of 

for altering the period for the re- affairs abroad, and the uncertainty 

newal of the Income Tax from that this would produce in trade 

three years ta one year. and commerce, would prevent a re 

Sir Charles Wood opposed the vival at an early period : but that 
proposition, and appealed to the was a reason for continuing the In- 
House to support bim in sustain- come Tax for a longer period than 
ing the national credit. If he a year. 

entertained any doubt that the Mr. Spooner, Captain Towns- 
revenue would in a certain time hend, and Mr. G. J. Turner dwelt 
not only restore the balances now strongly on the ui^ust operation 
drawn upon for present deficien- of the tax. Sir William Clay sup- 
cies, but also exhibit a large surplus, ported the measure as proposed by 
he would not make his proposal, the Govemment, Mr. lAbouchere, 
If the means of additional taxation taking the same course, pointed 
were refused by the House, and to some encouraging fiictB esta- 
the only course remaining were also blishing the financial progress of the 
denied to the Government, the re- country. Sir Robert Peel (having 
pudiation would lie at the door of been reflected on by some animao- 
the House itself. He thought versions of preceding speakers with 
that the aditional Income Tax had reference to the mode in which the 
better have been acceded to; but, Income Tax was carried) vindicated 
surely, he continued, the House his own conduct, and that of the 
was bound, under the circum- majority who passed it.— When in 
stances, to grant the renewal of the 1841 he was called to the Ministry, 
tax for such a time as would enable there had been a succession of d»- 
the Government to realize a sur- ficits from the year 1636. The 
plus. If they did not, public credit aggregate deficiencies of the years 
would undoubtedly suffer; and he from 1836 to the Sth April 1643, 
must say that, let whoever might he had estimated at not less than 
undertake the task, of carrying on lO.UOO.OOO/. The House had 
the Oovemment in such circum- itself capsed a large part of 
stances, Her Majesty's present ad- that deficiency by surrendering to 
visers would not consent to so dis> the nation a revenue of nearly 
creditable a course. 1,SOO,000/. a year ^m the Foet 

Sir Charles reviewed the history office, and had thought itself bound 
of the tax; denied that it was im- to make an attempt in support of 
posed on the country by stealth; public credit. What was the source 
and asserted that it was part of the whence to obtiun any augmenta- 
scheme of commeroial reform since tion of the revenue ? Eiperiraents 
carried out by the 1at« and the made by the Chancellor of the Ex- 
present Oovemmenla. The great chequer of the day, in 1641, had 


ianoDBtisted that indirect taxsdau pest might drop. He rejoiced to 

bkd mlready been tasked to its fnll believe that the experiment had 

pDwen; the additional 10 per cent been greatly Buccessfd, tbou^ un- 

on CnBtama and Excise hsTing exampled natural calamities had 

jielded but 700,000/. in place of disappointed his fullest expecta- 

tlie 1,900,0001. looked for. Not tiona. He exclaimed— "As long 

■9 with direct taxation ; the 10 as I live I shall never repent that 

par cent, added to the assesBed I proposed that alteration in the 

taxes having, io plac« of the ex- oommercia] policy of the country ; 

pected ai5.000L, given above and that I induced the House of 

300,000^ Such was the financial Command— not by fasdnatioii, not 

part of the case ; but there was the by deception, but by a full and ex- 

eommercial also. It had been plitut statement of the financial 

tfaoogbt deairahle to remodel the afTairs of the country — tc continue 

Cnatoms Duties of the kingdom ; the tax ; and that I induced the 

to remove all prohibitions, and to House, in lieu of the largo reduction 

aimpKfy the protective taiiff to an of duties upon imports, to impose a 

immenaa extent, by a &r more tax upon the income and property 

imiibrni system of dutiea. The of the country." (ChMrt.) 

dtttiea on TOO articles were to be Sir Bobert Peel then dealt with 

lowered, and on SOO were to be the qiieetion of the incidence of the 

repealed. The advantages to trade tax. "Taking the circumstances 

were expected to be immense ; but of individual cases into oonsidera- 

they could only be had at the price tton, instances of hardship cannot 

of T,000,OOOL to the public reve- be denied ; but I do not assent to 

Bue. How would it have been poa- the propoeition that It is there- 

Bible to accomplish such financial fore an unjust tax If you 

otgects, end such a commercial were to attempt to make a dis- 
revohition, but on the foundation tinction such as the honourable 
of the Income Tax? In full oog- Member for Cookermouth has sug- 
nizanoe of these things, the House gested, it would be fallacious, and 
■Bsented to (he scheme of fin^nnial the same difficulties whioh are 
policy sahmitted to it. now pointed out in respect to the 
Sir Ilobert Fael then reamitn- inoomes of professional men and 
lated the drcumstaneeain which hia owners of real property would 
IneomeTax bad originated, as con- occur. No principle ean, in my 
oected with the great enteriment opinion, be devised which would he 
of Free Trade. He appealed to his more just— or, I would rather say, 
former speeches, and to the hmous would be more firee from otgection 
Elbing letter, to prove that the — than that which you are desirous 
tax had been intended as the faun- of seeing removed." 
dalion of a commensal pdJcy He should give his decided sup- 
aimed at the removal of vexatioaB port to the Mmiaterial proposition 
end onerona reatrietiens. In pro- to renew the tax for three years, 
poong the tax, ke had bad no eorert Ha had himself been alarmed at 
flaBignafpeipetaatiDgit,hut had felt the great increase of expenditure ; 
eaognine hopes that the proeperi^ and in giving ooneent to that pro- 
of trade, under the poliqr of relaxa- position he aaid nothing in denial 
tion. would have so incteased the of the necessily for moit searching 
oidintiy reveoue that tbe new im- inveatigatioas. If the Qovem- 
VoL. XC. [E] 

60 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [En^iawf: 

men t had called more streouatisly in which euoh a wonderful social 

for the means to relieve their revolution has taken place. {Loud 

financial wants he would have sup- ckeen.] I hope, however, that 

ported them. Still, he did not we ehall not &il to exercise the 

blame them for the discretion tbe^ rights of hospitality. I heard, 

had used in retiring from their with great satisfaction, the decla- 

proposal to increase the tax. The ration that onr Government has 

difficulties of their situation were wisely determined to abstain from 

vei7 great. " I am quite aware all interference in the internal 

that it is probable there may be concerns of France ; and I am 

some increase of revenue from convinced that the principle so pro- 

tiie ordinary sources. Some oh- claimed will be act«d upon with 

servations nave been made with perfect good faith and scrupulous 

regard to the recovery of the Cus- honour, and that the Government 

toms: but I must say that there will not only abstain from any such 

never was such a combination of interference on its own part, but 

circumstances as those by which will discourage any abuse of our 

the trade and commercial energies hospitality for the purpose of in- 

of the country have for the last terference on the part of others." 

two years been aSected; and I (Cheen.) 

feel it tny duty, in this day of com- Lord George Bentinck endea- 
mercial depression, to assert my voured to reply to Sir Bobert Peel's 
continued adherence to the prin- exculpatory speech, ui^g the 
ciples on which the remissions in usual arguments of the Protec- 
the Customs Duties took place, tionist party in favour of msing 
(pheen.) I have the firmest con- large revenoes by taxes on foreign 
fideocc in the justice of those re- imports. He preferred the restora- 
missions." tion of some of the abandoned 
Sir Bobert concluded with an duties on timber, com, cotton, Ac- 
allusion to the events abroad. "I as sources of income, which would 
must ovm I shall be influenced in soon restore the prosperity of the 
my support of the proposal made Exchequer. He then referred to 
by the Government by a reference the events passing in France; dis- 
to the wonderful events which have claiming, like Sir R. Peel, the de- 
taken place within a very recent sire to interfere with the institu- 
perjod in a neighbouring country, tiona which the French people 
{Loud chMn.) I think they are might adopt, and expressing his 
an ample justification for this coun- hope that a Republican form of 
try' not consenting to incur any Government might prove as last- 
risk of a larger deficit for a period ingly advant^eous to that country 
of three years. I conceive it to be as it had proved to our great Traos- 
utterly inconsistent with sound atlantic rivals. At the same lime, 
policy not to make any reference to he said, he could not conceal from 
events which must have filled us himself the possible result from 
all with astonishment. • Of this I the present changes of the ascend- 
am perfectly con6deiit. that the ancy of ambitious leaders, who 
tjue policy ^ this country dictates might force the country into mea- 
the most complete and absolute sures of tentorial aggrandisement, 
abstinence from all interference in He, therefore, could not consent 
the internal affairs of that country for a moment to leave the military 

KmjfJiuL] HISTORY. 51 

or vxnl strangtli of this ooantij rieocj'ofreTenne.sBcompered whh 
in tn iropured condition. To the expenditure, woold be to can; out 
sources of revenue he had indicated the same policj ; and as he foresaw 
he would add the sam to be de- cootinaed difficultj and deficiene; 
rived from rsising the general for the next year, he could not 
poetage on letters to twice its pre. concur with Mr. Kume in contino- 
sent anxtimt. From this soorce ing the Income Tax for so short a 
he should expect 8!>0.00<M. ; and time. He rindicated an Income Tax 
from the whole he computed as a proper element in the taxation 
that an income of ifiiO.OOOl. of the country, bat insisted on the 
would be derived. His adrice to necessi^ and praclicability of ren- 
the House was this: — Let tbem dering it a fair and equal tax. 
ke«p a ti^t band on the GoTem- With such a prospect for the ensn- 
ment; let them hold to this tax ing year, Mr. WIIgod maintained 
for anoUier year; and when that that it would be most dangerous 
term had expired it would be for policy to entertain the Budget in 
them then to consider whether the its present ah^>e, without distinctly 
expenditure could be reduced, if providing for the deficiency. Mr. 
such an event were posssible. under Cardwell followed up the same 
their free imports and restricled tine of aigoment 
currency ; or whether, on the other Mr. Disraeli undertook to answer 
hand, diey would r^ect this tax these speeches. He denied the 
and adopt s different system. success of Sir Robert Peel's policy. 
The debate having been ad- The aggregate national income 
jonmed, Mr. James Wilson, in an had fallen off to the extent of 
elaborate speech, replete with sta^ 17.500,000/.; and if the public debt 
tistical detail, vindicated the com- bad been reduced by 20,000,0001., 
mercial and financial policj of Sir the reason was, that 89,000,000/, 
Robert Peel, and undertook to had been raised from Income Tax, 
prove by fJEu^ts and figures its ab- China-money, and such extraor- 
solute success. The speech of Mr. dinaiy sources. Mr. Disraeli — 
Wilson wan generally regarded ss a describing himself as "a free- 
very able one. He showed that, trader, but not a free-hooter of the 
Dotwithslanding the leductjon of Maiicbesler school" — went on to 
taxee to the amount of 7,897,000/., crittcise Sir Robert Peel's policy in 
the decrease in the aggregate re- bis pecnliar style of analysis ; his 
ceipts of Customs ana Euise in arguments not being so new as 
184T had been only about 700,000/. some of his illustrationB and turns 
In 1842 the Deficiency Bills were of expression. He contended that 
6,000,000/. ; in 1847 none, and the Sir Robert Peel bad abandoned his 
Funded Debt has been reduced by policy of 1842. which was based on 
14,000,000/. In 1842 our ex- a firuitlesa expectation of com- 
ports were 47,000,000/. ; in 184S, mercial " reciprocity," and had, in 
67,000,000/. The distress arising 1845, introduced two new prin- 
from the famine, which we had ciplee — that of the " cheapest 
shared with other countries, would market," and that of fighting 
have been much worse, but that hostile tarifib by free imports: 
this policy had been adopted just hence, our present commercial 
in time. Mr. Wilson argued, that dbtrese and financial defiint; which 
the way to make good the defi- onght to be made good by. the 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

aathors of sach inisohievons policy. 
Mr. Disraeli called the blue book 
of the Import- Duties Committee 
" the greatest work of imagincKion 
that tbe nineteenth centiuy had 
produced;" he likened theOoTem- 
inent, acting on Eooh guides, to a 
man smoking a oigar on a barrel of 
gunpowder ; and warned Mr. Cob- 
den and Mr. Bright — the repre- 
sentatiTee of " peace and plenty," 
in the face of a starving people and 
a world in arms — not to venture 
on middle^lass legislation against 
realized property. 

Mr. Glaoatone, passing by the 
clever declamatioii and witty per- 
sonalities of Mr, Disraeli, faanaled 
the subjeot before the Bouse with 
logical clearness, and vindicated, 
by reference to faots and statistical 
deductions, the complete success of 
Sir Robert Peel's free-trade policy. 
Hia ooncluaion was to support tlie 
proposition of the Oovemment in 
preference to that of Mr. Hume, 
as absolutely necessary for the sus- 
tentation of public credit. 

The debat« being again ad- 
jonmed, was renewed on the 13th ; 
the Ministerial pn^osition being 
supported by Mr. Hioe, Mr. Leo- 
nard, Lord Dmmlanrig, and Mr. 
Henley. Mr. Hume's amend- 
ment was advooated by Mr. 
McGregor, Mr. Headlam, Mr. 
Buck, Mr. G. B. Roche, Mr. Alde^ 
man Sidney, Mr. Mowatt, Mr. 
Hudson, Mr. Muntz, and other 
Uembers. llie most promineiit 
speeches were those of Mr. Cobden 
and Lord John Russell. Mr. Cob- 
den entered somewhat ftilly into 
tbe general question of taxation, 
expressing an abstract preference 
for direct over indirect taxation, 
and regarding the latter class of 
imposts as pressing with nndae 
weight upon the poor. He said: 

"While the House frets over 

its sevenpence in the pound, the 
poor are paying twice that number 
of shillings in the pound on the 
great staples of their consumption. 
For every SO*, the working classes 
expend on teat, they pay 10<. of 
duty ; for every 90*. uiey expend 
on sugar, they pay 6*. of duty ; for 
every 30«. they expended on coffee, 
they pay 6s. of duty ; on soap, ia. ; 
on beer, 4s. ; on tobacco, 10*. ; on 
apirils, lit. When you bear in 
mind that the working classes ex- 
pend much more income on those 
articles than people of our class, 
you cannot but see that this 
amounts to aa income-tax not of 
Id. per pound, but sometimes of 
IS*., 15*., or 10*., per pound; 
while men of some thousands a 
year^expend a vast deal more in 
buying furniture, horses, carriages, 
books, and other things which pay 
comparatifclylittleULx, Andhence 
it is that in this country, where 
we derive so much revenue from 
articles which enter largely into 
the consumption of the woridag 
classes, you find, when trade is bad 
in Lancashire or tbrooghout the 
countiy, the Chancellor of the Rx- 
cbequer reminding you that the 
state of tbe revenue has been 
affected by the state of trade. Both 
for the sake of trade, then, and in 
justice to the people, you must 
diminish your expenditure, or in- 
crease the amount of your direct 

Mr. Cobden would make the lax 
just, in order that it might be per. 
maiient. He thought it ridiculons 
to deny the broad demaroatton be- 
tween the inoomee derived from 
trades and professions and those 
dravrn from htnd. " Take the case 
of a tradesman with 10,0001. of 
capital : he gets 5001. a year in- 
terest and 600'. more for his skill 
and industry. Is this man's 10001. 

Enjhnd.-] HISTORY. 53 

■ jMr to be mulcted in the same Part of the debate Beemed to as- 

Mmoant with lOOOt. a jeaz deriTcd sume that if the tax were not given 

from a real property cspital of for three years the revenae would 

11S,0<M, ? So with Uie cases of &il ; but this was a gratuitous ha- 

pmfBBUonal men, who literally live sumption. Next Februaiy, just aa 

Dj the waste of their brains. The last month, the House could renew 

]^nB £ur dealing of the eoanUy the tax if it should think proper ; 

rerolts at an equal levy on snch meanwhile, and long before twelve 

nits of property. Professionat months have passed, if the House 

men and men of business put in approved of the amendment be- 

ntotum tha wheels of the social fore it, the Oovemment would find 

STBtem : it is their industry and means to render the lax aeceptable 

enterprise that mainly give to to the whole people. The classee 

realized property the value which Mr. Cobden represented, who favoor 

it bean-, to them, therefore, the more direct taxation, would suffer 

State first owes sympathy and sup- far the most of any class by tha 

port. Every le«iding member has catastrophe of a national bank' 

admitted the injnstice of the lax; ruptoy; but, for this very reason, 

yet Government has neither taken they pressed for suhstantial reduc- 

any means nor shovm any disposi- tions of Government expenditure, 

tioo to apply a remedy." andfor the introduction of the same 

Mr. Cobden even now urged an prudence and economy which were 

inquiry vrith this object. "Appoint necessary te success in mannfae- 

a Committee, and let there be upon turing and commercial parsuita, 

it — whatthereisnotin the Cabinet Lord John Russell eemmented 

-^ — an equal proportion of merchants, with some humour upon the hete- 

manuiacturers, professional men, rogeneous elements of which Mr. 

and landed proprietors or other Hume's supporters consisted, com- 

possMsors of realized property; bining tree-traders and protec- 

mnd I engage that in less time tionista — those who wished to re- 

than it vodd lake to fix the duce expenditure, and those who 

tariff of a railway company, to desired to see a great addition to 

determine whether co«u shall direct taxes. 

. penny a ton, lime three The qaestioD before the House 


tb^ will find a mode of adjusting tax was last proposed, and the iol- 

ttie tas upon equitable principles. lowingyeBr.taiation wasreducedby 

Sut no attempt of that kind has 4,000,0001., and an addition was 

been made, and no promise is held made to the Navy Estimates : was 

ODt that snch an attempt will be it ever rationally supposed that if 

made. It is the dty, pedantic ad- the revenue did not flourish the 

hesitm to the letter of the law, tax would be taken off at the end 

wbicfa has roused the indignation of three years, notwithstanding 

of the coontiy. If a dieuoction that a deficiency should have ap- 

were made between permanent and peared by that time? In 1840 

precarioos incomes — if a gradation and 1847, food had been imported 

of daty were established — I under, to supply the place of iailing 

take to say that you would have no harvests, which required some 

remonstrances from the great ma- 30,000,000/. to pay for iL Two 

uajactuiing seats in the North." commercial panics followed, and 

54 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Englajui. 

failnKBofthegreatestandstrongest or professions beyond those who 

houses in the country. It might are to be run doinn because the; 

be beforehand inferred that such are the possessors of land. But 

circumstances would cause tho the honourable gentleman says, it 

revenue to flag. No one could ex- would have been some conaolatioti 

pectthatin fiveyeara of such times if we had attempted to make this 

6.000,0001. could be replaced. distinction. Why, sir, I stud on a 

Lord John Buasell admitted the former ereniug that my right ho- 

inequality of the tax, the discus- nourable friend and myself had 

aionof whichhetboughthadalready attempted to draw some line by 

been disposed of. " Those who which we could make the tax. ac- 

argue for rendering the tax lighter cording to the sense of this House, 

in its pressure, take either a par- appear more just ; but we could 

ticular schedule of trades or pro- find no line which would not have 

fessions, or a schedule of particular been immediately attacked and in- 

kinds of occupation, but tiiey leave vaded, and which would not have 

many cases of hardship luid in- obliged us to leave other cases of 

justice more glaring than those still greater hardship. Of course, 

they remedy ; or, if they do not having come to that conclusion, we 

take that course, and attempt to go should have been deserting our 

further, then they must go almost duty to this House had we taken a 

into the individual coses vrfaich different course. We slated our 

were alluded to with so much force conviction to the House ; and the 

by the honourable and learned honourable gentleman cannot say 

Member for Newcastle, such as that we have nut made every 

rent-charges for life, leaseholds, attempt to render the t&x more 

money in the funds settled upon fair." 

distanCrelatiDns.andeverykindand He dismissed the proposal of 
predicament of property, tenure, Lord George Bentinck to return 
and provision. But, in a country to import duties on com, and such 
where the transactions of society are staples of consumption, as a retro- 
so complicated and intricate, if you gression that no party could for a 
attempt to do that, you will not moment attempt in pi-actice. 
only find yourself engaged in a task There remained only the alter- 
of inextricable difficulty, but the native of Mr. Hume — greatly to re- 
tax will be far more inquisitorial duce the Estimates, To the ques- 
than it has ever yet been, and thus, tion, whether it is possible to make 
in the end, you will find that you such a reduction in the Estimates 
have made the tax only half as proposed, as to enable the House 
productive, whilst you hftve ren- to dispense vrith the Income Tax 
dered it twice ae vexatious. The after one year. Lord John gave a 
only fair line you can take is to decidedly negative reply. The Go- 
treat all classes justly. Whether veroment desired even an addi- 
they have land, or whether they tional two per cent, for two years i 
are engaged in trades or profes- but, this being refused, they could 
sions, or whether they have money not possibly do without a guarantee 
in the funds, assess your tax as of Uie present impost for three 
justly as you possibly can, and never years to come, in order that the 
mind any question as to the merits years 1849, 1860 might cover any 
of those who are engaged in trade deficiency likely to arise. The 

EngUnd.} CHRONICLE. 65 

Estinutes were proposed at a time lish Members sboald not return 

when eTeiyUiing appeared tranquil ; the fafour. 

even then, be (Lord J. Rossell) The motion was sopported br 

had refused to prophesy the events MrJohDWilliamB. Sir John Tjrell, 

which a year might bring forth ; Mr. Horsman, Colonel Mure, Mr. 

loach less wonld he now attempt Bankes, Mr. Newdegate, Mr. Wak- 

to forecast the future. ley, Mr. Hume, and Mr. Muntz. 

The debate was at length brought The Irbh Members received it 

to a division, when there appeared with great indignation. Sir Henry 

Barron (who nicknamed the mover 

For Mr. Home's Amendment 138 " Condliataon Hall''^ pointed to 

Agunst it 868 the agitated state of France and 

' Ireland as a warning to the House. 
Uajority . . S2B He vras followed by Mr. Fagan, by 
Mr. O. A. Hamilton (who opposed 
The next financial propoeilioii the motion on the score of the 
introdnced, wss a motion by Sir different condition of the two 
Benjamin Hall to extend the In- countries), Mr. Napier and Colonel 
come Tax to Ireland. Dunne (for the like reason), Mr. 
Sir Benjamin contended, that the Roche (who reproached Sir Ben- 
new payment of poor rates by the jamin with creating more disaffeo- 
land of Ireland constitnted no fair tion in Ireland than all the elo- 
examption : that the landlord had quence of Mr. Mea^^er), Colonel 
for so long a period paid no poor Conolly, Mr. Monsell, Mr. Bey- 
rates, was no reason why he should nolds, and Sir Arthur Brooke, 
not pay Income Tax now. He Mr. Moore also opposed the mo- 
qnoted statistical figures to show tion ; though he ailmitted that a 
that Ireland could plead no special species of properly tax would reach 
harden on the score of its poor ; those who eluded local liabilities, 
that the rates paid in Ireland were and might become absolutely 
not so high ss they had been ; necessary to restore the wel&re 
that Ireland was specially exempted and prosperity of Ireland, 
from taxes which England pays, to On behalf of the Government, 
the smount of IS.OOO.OOOi. an- Sir Charles Wood resisted the mo- 
Dually; and that, the Irish Members tion as impolitic and inexpedient, 
themselves, atameetingoverwhich It has been found inconvenient to 
Ijord Cloncurry presided, had pro- impose exactly the same taxes on 
posed an income tax in aid of poor Ireland as on England, and the Iq- 
ratea. Ixraking to the conduct of come Tax would be an impost par- 
Irish Members in the House, he ticularly cruel at this moment of 
fixuid that 52 of them had voted in severe and calamitous affliction, 
fitvonr of the tax and only 8 a^inst On a division, the motion was 
it; on the question of continuing it negatived by 318 to 196. 
for a period of three years, 67 It has been seen that the Go- 
Irish Members had voted for that vemment found themselves com- 
proposition and only 9 against it. polled in the early part of the Ses- 
If the Irish Members chose to sion to back out of their unpopular 
saddle Great Britwu vrith this tax, proposal for augmenting the Income 
there was no reason why the Eng- Tax U> five per cent., but as this 

66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [E«{,Umd. 

measure, if carried, would hare In a Committee of the whole 
given them an increased revenue of House on that day, he stated *ri»t 
uiree millions, which lliej had he believed the financial condition 
stated to be necessary to equalise of the countij to be, and also the 
income with eipendiUire, the with- meaaurea whichit was the intention 
drawal of the scheme of course in- of Government to propose to meet 
volved the consequence of a deficit it. He commenced nia observa- 
The reduction in the Estimates of tions by recuiitulating the leading 
the Annj, Navy, and Ordnance, points in Lord John Buasella 
which the Ministers had consented statement at the commencement of 
to submit to the ordeal of a Select the Session respecting the income 
Committee, might indeed go some and expenditure of the jear, and 
way to supply the expected defal- referred to the measurea which his 
cation ; but aa it comd not be an- lordahip had proposed and Partia- 
ticipated to equal the amount which ment bad rejected, for meeting 
it had been proposed to raise by the deficiency which was then con- 
taxation, a deficiency of ways and templated ; tracing to its sooroe 
means, to a greateror less amount, the increase of our expenditure, 
seemed inevitable. Much suspense for which, as Mr. Gobden had 
and anxiety prevailed among per- jusUy observed, neither this nor 
sons to whom the maintenance of a that Government was blameable, 
sound financial policy was an oliject hut the House of Commons. When 
of interest, as to the consequences Ministers withdrew their prc^osi- 
of suffering the nation thus to ex- tion for increased taxation, it ba- 
oeed its iucome, and the Chancellor came necessary to revise our pn- 
of the Exchequer was frequently sent system, and to make sack 
importuned, as the Session went alterations in it as the altered oir- 
on, to state definitely to the House, cumstancea of the countiy required. 
what the position of the country Tn the statement which he was 
was likely to be. Sir Charles about to make, he would deal ia 
Wood, in answer to these appUca- the first instance only with the iti- 
tions, stated, that as the Estimates come of the year aa compared with 
which had been referred to the its expenditure. After the decision 
Select Committee, were in course (tf of the House on the budget of 
reduction, it would be more con- Lord John Bussell, Ministers felt 
venient t« defer his ultimate expo- that their first duty was to revise 
sition of his views till the close of the expenditure ; and with a view 
the Session ,- but he, from time to to its reduction they had appointed 
time, made partial diaclosures to the two Committees, one to examine 
House as to the progress effected into the Miscellaneous and the 
in reducing the Estimates, and the other into the Naval and Militarj 
anticipated results of bis calcula- expenditure. Having appointed 
tions. At length on the S5th of these Gommitteee, Ministers had 
August he fulfilled his engagement called upon every department of 
by making a more complete and the Government to revise its Esti- 
explicit disclosure of the state of mates, and the result was that dimi- 
the Exchequer, and of the mode in nished Estimates had been sub- 
which he proposed to meet the exi- mitted to and been sanctioned by 
gencies of the public service. Parliament. No redaction had beeti 

1 HISTORY. [67 

Hide in die anaonnt of onr effective year tltat nultiiig lutd been carried 

Mnl and military force. TbeHonse on to a vet; great extant, and had 

of Commons had coDfij-med the opi- led to a considerable increase in 

nioD of Uinisters on that point, the rerenue of the Excise. The 

and nothing had since occurred to Stamps, however, had fallen off. 

shilie it. Frooi Ireland, and the NevertbeleBs, he anticipated an in- 

JDtDsfiutnring districts of England, creese of ordinary revenue above 

denuade for protection had fre- that contemplated bj Lord John 

foentl/ been made ; and ve should Bussell of not less than 340.000/. 

have been ill able to afford it had Add to this a sum of B0,000£, the 

oar foroB been less than it vaa at last remnant of China money, and 

^eaenU On other points Minis- the income of the year would 

ters had been able to make several amount to 52,130,000/.; and, 

reductions. Far instance, the Navy therefore, upon the balance of the 

Estimates voted were lees than income and expeodiUire of the 

those originally snbmitted to the year, there would only be a defi- 

Honae by 208.00Ut. ; the Army ciency of 393,3061. He hoped 

Estimates irere less by 160,000^.; that, after this statement, the Com- 

the Ordnance Estimates were less mittee would be of opinion that 

by 123,00(M. ; the Miscellaneous MiniateFs had given some earnest 

)ijm,000l.; and the Estimate for of their desire to equalize the ex> 

the Uilitia by 160,0001. The penditure and income of the year. 

whole reduction on those Estimates In the present condition of the 

■moonted to B66,300I. Subse- trade and commerce of the country, 

quently, however, the Secretary at it was difficult to anticipate the 

War had taken S5,0OO2. for the amount of the revenne of the year, 

pensioners, whom it had been found but he entertained litde doubt that 

neeeaaary to call out, and an addi- at the close of the year ending 

tioa had been made to the Miscel- 5th of April, 1B49, the inoome 

laneooB Estimates of I3,300Z. ; so would be equal to its expenditure. 

that the actual reduction on the He then adverted to the necessity 

original Estimates did not exceed of providing for what he called 

834,000/. Now, the charge of the the " extraordin&ry " expenditure 

Debt and the Consolidated Fund of the year, in which be included 

ma 81,360,9001., the charge for the expense of the Cefije war and 

the Navy was 7,678,6101., for the the amonntof naval euMBa,amount- 

Army7,013,795/.,fortheOrdnanee ing togetherto 1,34(>,411/. That 

3,078,000/., and for the Uiacel- sum had already been advanced, 

laneous Estimates 3,780,000/., and but it was necessary to replace it ia 

the total expenditure of the year the Exchequer. . A few days ago he 

was 63,433,000/. Lord John Bus- had proposed to vote away two 

•allbadeatimatedtheincomeofthe sums, amounting to 393,610/., 

yearat 61,3 10,000/. Byanarrange- partly for the relief of distress in 

isent, however, which had been sub- Ireluid, and partly for repaying to^ 

sequentlymadeastotheAppropria^ the province of Canada the charge 

tions in aid, a sum of 600.000/. to which it had been put during 

had become available for the ser- the last year for relieving the 

vice of ^e year. The barley crop emigrants from Ireland. These 

had alao been so plentiful last sums added together amounted to 

58] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EngLmd. 

and Sir Robert Feel hod declared 
that Ministers had done right in 
^ondoniDS it. The citYmmstaaces 
under which Miaisters had recourse 
to their present plan were not or- 
dinary. During the laat two years 
there had been famine in Ireland ; 
during the last autoinn there had 
been great commercial distress in 
this country ; during this year 
there had been revoiudou in Eu- 
rope, disorganizing all commercial 
arrangements ; and there had been 

l,788,9aii., which, added to the 
deficiency of 292,305^. already 
mentioned, made the total defi- 
ciency to be provided for 2,03 1 ,Q26I. 
Now, if be were b) follow the coarse 
which bad been taken in similar cir- 
cumstances before, he should throw 
this as a charge upon the Con- 
solidated Fund. But he thought 
that such a course would be unad- 
visable at present, as a charge of 
S,500,000I. bad been placed in 
1846 on the Consolidated Fund for 
the purpose ofloansfordrain^in 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
Of this 8,600,000/. only 600,000i. 
had been expended. He could not 
say what amount might be re- 
quired this year, but for some years 
it would be a charge annually in- 
creasing. There were also other 
charges, for New Zealand, for the 
West India hurricane loan, Sk., 
amounting to 800,0001., on the 
Consolidated Fund ; and therefore 
be thought it impolitic to increase 
the charge already upon it. What 
be proposed to do, in order to re- 
place in the Treasury the amount of 
two millions, which was the excess 
of expenditure for the year, was to 
borrow the money in the market. 
Having explained the reasons why 
he did not adopt the course pur> 
sued by Sir Robert Peel in 1843, 
to cover the deficiency which then 
existed, he stated that he intended 
to raise the money either by an 
issue of Exchequer bills or by a 
creation of stock. No one felt 
more than be did that this, in or- 
dinary circumstances, was an ob- 
jectionable course. It was in- 
^oreasing the debt in the time of 
peace, and the Oovemment deemed 
that so undesirable that it had 
even proposed increased taxation 
for two years. That proposition 
the House would not accede to. 

at home. Under such 
circumstances, it was very difficult 
to anticipate the revenue of fubm 
years, or even to say what the ex- 
penditure might be for Ireland 
next year. But unless matters 
took a worse turn than he antid- 

Kted, be thought that we should 
able to reduce our expenditure 
next year, and that we might 
reckon upon a better revenue tban 
we bad gained in the present It 
was most consolatory to know that 
even in the present year the re- 
venue had maintained its amount; 
and taking the year as far as it 
bad gone, our prospects were any- 
thing but unsatisfactory. Indeed, 
the revenue bad kept up to an 
amount, this year, which bad filled 
him with astonishment as he looked 
on it week by week. Taking the re- 
ceipt of the revenue from the 0th 
of April to the 5th of August this 
year, and comparing it with that 
during the corresponding period of 
last year, tbe whole amount of de- 
crease did not exceed 115,0001.; 
whilst upon Customs and Excise 
there had been a positive increase 
of 500,000/. Though our exports 
had fallen off, our imports bad 
increased, owing to the general 
cheapness of commodities which 

EngUmd.] HISTORY. [50 

the peace and tianquillily which there wsa do reason to believe 
bad prevailed at faoue. The re- that there would not be the same 
ceipt of our own Costoms, when amonnt of sound potatoes this jear 
compared with those of France, was as there was the last In his pre- 
most salis&ctory, as he showed at sent etat« of informatioD as to the 
some lenffth. If the disaffected would crops, it would be impossible to 
only reflect upon it, thej would calculate what would be the omonnt 
see the injury thejr were inflicting of produce available for human 
on themselves by disturbing the fooa ; but unless there were a 
public peace, and interrupting the failure of the crops like that of 
ordinary avocations of industry. 1846, there must be a quantity of 
He was happy to soy that trade, food in the country capable of sup- 
throngbont the country, was still porting the people for a very con- 
in a sound state. Tboueb there siderable time. It would be un- 
bod been a drain of bullion last just to the people of England, and 
week, it hod been replaced in the disadvantageous to the industry of 
present ; and the reserve in the Ireland, if a large and sweeping 
Bank had, in both weeks, amounted measure for the relief of Irish dis- 
to 9,OU0,OO0f. He then advened tress should again be adopted. At 
to the state of the crops and of the present, he believed that it was 
weather, which was to all a source not needed ; at the same time, he 
of anxiety. He was sorry to say, must say that it would be cruel 
that in the sonth and west of Eng- and inhuman to withhold all assist- 
lond there was danger of a cunsi- ance firom such localities as were 
derebld failure in the potato crops ; suiTering severe distress. To hold 
but he was led to believe that in the out to uiem any hope of general 
north of England, and in Scotland, and systematic relief would be in- 
no serious injury bad been done, expedient. He hoped, however. 
The accounts respecting the bar- that Parliament would allow the 
vest were conflicting. In some Government to dispense sncb aid 
parts of England, he heard that as might be necessary. If things 
the com had sprouted, but he did should turn out worse than be sn- 
oot anticipate very considerable ticipated, it would be necessary to 
damage to it by the weather. The apply for assistance to the wisdom 
panic in London was not general ; of Parliament But Parliament 
end in the north of England peo- must see what the crops were, and 
pie were even complaining of the what was the neceesity of Ireland, 
want of rain. As far, then, as this before it decided on the course 
country was concerned, there was which it ought to pursue. 
no great cause for anxiety. From The statetnent of the Chancellor 
Ireumd the accounts were various, of the Exchequer was followedbya 
It wonid be impossible to go into desultorydiscusaion, in which seve- 
detoils : but the inference he drew nil Members eipressed disaatisfao- 
from tbem was this, that there tion at the position in which the 
was scarcely any port of Ireland finances of the country were placed) 
in which the potato disease had and also at the method proposed for 
not shown itself more or lees. On recruiting them. Mr. Hume, in 
the other hand, it appeared that particular, objected very strongly to 
the Irish hod planted a latter the proposition for increasing the 
quantity of potatoes than ever, and permanent debt in time of peace. 

60] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEnaUmd. 

tracting loans and increasing the 
debt in times of peace. He next 
went oyer the often repeaUd stAte- 
menta respecting the expense of 
collecting the refenae, which 
amoimted to a sum of four or five 
millions a year, and increased oar 
t&xation to an amount of 09 millions 
a jear, and then digressed into a 
long remotutrance ^^nsC the mis- 
management and expenditure of 
our Colonies. In the early part of 
next Session he wonld put his stats- 
ments of that evening upon record, 
in order that ereiy man who had 
leisure might read and reflect upon 
them. He concluded by moving 
that the Bill be taken into con- 
sideralJon that day three months. 
Ur. Muntz seconded the amend- 

The Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer contended that the Tarious re- 
ductions of expenditure which Mr. 
Hume had proposed in the course 
of the present Session were not con- 
sistent either trith the safety or 
with the interests of the country, 
and he showed that a vast nuyoii^ 
of the House had concurred in the 
amount of the various estahlish- 
ments now proposed for the defence 
and maintenance of our commercial 
greatness and national independ- 
ence. He reminded the House 
that there were only three ways 
in which it could meet a deficient 
revenue. Thefirstwasbyincreaaed 
taxation ; the second, by the re- 
duction of eetablishments to the 
amount of the revenue; and the 
third, by having reoourse to some 
such means as were now proposed, 
of borrowing money to meet our 
expenditure. If it were neoessary 
to support our eiiattng eetabtieh- 
ments. and if the country would 
not submit to increased taxation, 
the only course left to the Govern- 
ment— which nevertheless he ad- 

a measure which he regarded as 
being occasioned by the extrava- 
gant eetablishments kept up by 
the Government. He also de- 
murred to the plan which Sir 
Charles Wood meant to adopt for 
raising the loan, it being in hi^ 
opinion a preferable course to bor- 
row the money in the market 
rather than to sell stock to the re- 
quired amount, which he r^arded 
as an improvident proceeding. 

A more formal discussion upon 
these financial arrangements took 
place on the 29th August, when a 
motion was made for the committal 
of the Bill introduced to give ef- 
fect to the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer's propositions. Mr. Hume, 
on this occasion, renewed at some 
length his opposition to the Minis- 
terial plan. He ol:>)ected, first, on 
the ground that ^e Bill was a 
measure for the creation of a loan 
of two millions in time of peace, 
which would add 6t),000i. or 
70,000/. to the interest of the debt, 
and, secondly, on the ground that it 
sanctioned a very impiolitic mode 
of borrowing money for the country. 
Early in the Session be hod urged 
on the Government the propriety 
of either diminishing the expendi- 
ture within the revenue, which then 
showed a deficiency of 2,900,0001., 
or of providing by taxation to meet 
the excess of our expenditure. He 
had urged the propriety of not add- 
ing to the amount of the debt in 
time of peace, and had shown that 
a very large portion of our expen- 
diture was not necessary. On a 
division the numbers were 157 in 
favour of continuing a large ex- 
penditure, and only 59 against it. 
After reoapitulatiogatoonsiderable 
length the various economical mo- 
tions which he had proposed in the 
course of the Session, Mr. Hume 
dilated on the impolicy of con- 

Emji«ui.l HISTORY. [61 

mittedtobeanoliiiectloTiablecourse He should certaitil/ vote against 

— yna to coTer an extraordiDuy this loan. 

and temporary expenditare bj tbe Mr. A. Smith contended that 

loan which he now proposed, the Govemment had done all in 

Hftving promised Mr. Hume that its power to avoid the position in 

in the next Session the Administra- which it was now placed, of being 

tion would adopt all practicable obliged to borrow in time of peace. 

meaaoTM of economy in eveiy de- At Uie commencement of the Se»- 

partment of the State, he applied sion GoTemment had proposed in* 

himself to a very brief eiposare creased taxation, but, in conformity 

<rf Uie monetary doctrines of Mr. to the wishes of the House and the 

Huntz, and concluded by recom- country, had subsequently aben- 

mending the Bill to the support of doned it. He had supported, and 

tbe Honee. should have continned to support, 

Mr. Henley and Mr. H. Drum- QoTcmment in that taxation, but 
mond declared their intention of still he could not shut his eyes to 
supporting the Government Mr. the fhot that tbe state of the world 
Spooner announced the same in- justified them in conceding to the 
tention, but launched out into an deliberate decision of the House 
emphatic invective agunat the pre- that it was not expedient to in- 
sent system of tbe Currency. crease taxation this year. As then 

Mr. Cobden held up to the high Miniateia could not incresae tax- 
adminuion of the Bouse and the ation or diminish establishmenta 
oountry the declaration of Sir R. so as to equalize income and ex- 
Peel, that he would not carry on penditnre, no other resource was 
the Adminbtration of the country left to them but to incur a loan. 
if he could not make its ezpendi- He should, therefore, support the 
tnre equal to its revenue. Tbe proposition of the Chanoellor of 
present Government had departed the Exchequer. In conclusion, he 
from that rule ; and. unless the read Mr. Cobden a severe lecture 
conntry took the sutgect up and for asserting that tbe apprehen- 
prevented this system of borrow- sion of war at the commence- 
mg, it would be carried on to the ment of the Session bad been pro- 
aanw extent as it had been in pagated by professional men for 
France and Austria, and would their own private interest and 
plunge us into tbe same ruin. emolumenL He utterly denied 
With oar local expenditure in poor the truth of such an imputation, 
ntesandiuoounty rates oar aggre> Lord G. "Bentinck contended 
gate taxation amounted this year that Mr. Oobden was tbe last 
to 70 millions sterling. That sum man in the worid who ought to 
was rooDstrons, and it was impos- charge his opponents with propa- 
aibla for us to go on raising it. He gating delusions. Mr. Cobden 
then defended the speech which he might think that 17 millions 
bad made at the commencement might be reduced at one slash of 
of tbe Session for the reduction of the knife ; but few gentlemen bad 
oar military armaments, and he been found to coincide with him in 
attributed the temporary panic of that opinion. Though the House 
invaaian which was than felt to at the oiHumencemeut of the See- 
the interested exertions of military sion had refused to grant increased 
men, who desired employment, taxation to the Ooveniment, it had 

62] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [.England. 

never been asked wliether it would the resonrces of the coimtiy, our 

reimpose the duties on Customs expenditure exceeded our income, 

which had been latelr repealed. If and it became necessary to have 

the Chancellor of the Exchequer recourse to a loan. It would not 

had made such a proposition to have been wise to increase the per- 

the House, he should have given manent taxation of the countr; to 

it his most heart; support. The meet a temporary deficiency, and 

taxes which hod been repesled Government hod in consequence 

amounted to the deficiency which proposed a temporary increase of 

we hod now to supply. He there- , the per-oentc^ on property, which 

fore called on the House not it was obliged subsequently to 

to look for the Ailing of the Ex- abandon. Having abandoned it, 

chequer to the spendthrift mode Government said that it would en- 

of inflicting debts on our posterity deavour to ride over the difficulty 

by incurring loans in the 33rd by means of the balances in the 

year of peace, but to the reim- Exchequer, provided that the In- 

portion of the Customs Duties come Tax was continued for three 

which we had repealed to our own years. In the present condition 

dam^e and to the benefit of the of the couutiy, however, it did not 

foreigner. appear to be wise to allow those 

If the Chancellor of the Exohe- balances to run too low, and it 
quer had said that he would re- was therefore deemed expedient to 
enact the Com Duties, which had supply them by a loan. He then 
produced 700,000i. of revenue in proceeded to show that no bett«T 
1640, he did not believe that any course had been saggeeted by any 
man in the country would have party in the House. Mr Hume 
grumbled at it. In conclusion, he and Mr. Cobden thonght that we 
exhorted the House to beware of m^ht have made great reduciioiis 
those gentlemen who decried all in the amount of our military force, 
who differed from them, who He could not consent to those re- 
thought themselves the only oracles, duotions when they were first pro- 
and who declared, in the language posed, and recent events had con 
of Jack Cade before he ordered firmed the propriety of the decision 
Lord Sele off to execution, " I am which he had then announced; for 
the besom who shall swee^ the itmisnowevidontthatinFebmary 
House clean of all such villains as last the Government of France in- 
Uiou." tended to make war in Belgium, 

Lord J. Russell was of opinion and a war in Belgium would have 

after all the experience of this Ses- kindled a conflagration in Europe, 

sion that the Government bad not He would not enter into any refu- 

acted unwisely in proposing an in- lation of the arguments used by 

crease of the Income Tax, in order Lord G. BentincK in favour of the 

to meet the deficiency in the re- reimposition of the duties on tim- 

venne. On a former occasion he ber and raw cotton, further than 

had shown that in the last few was necessary to remind the House 

years ten millions of taxes, which that all the leading statesmen of 

pressed heavily on the springs of this country, from the days of Sir 

industry, had been taken off; and R. Walpole down to the present 

the result was, that when an extra- time had declared taxes on the 

ordinary pressure took place on raw materials of manufactures to 

England.} HISTORY. [63 

be tfae worst taxes that conld be importadon of foreign gntin into 

imposed. As to the reimpositioii our barboura . 

of the Com Doties. he would 011I7 The House then divided, when 

say that he very mach ngoiced that the amendment of Mr. Home vma 

in ihfl present circamst&ncee of the negatived bj a majorily of fl6 to 

country we had not the sliding 46. 

scsle of 1845 to prevent the steady 


64] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Enghnui. 


Alteration of the Navigation Law* — Annouiuement respecting them in 
the Queen'i Speech — Mr. Labouchere, on the I5th of May, expiaine the 
Minieieriai Scheme in a Committee of the whole Houee — Hie Speech — 
Lord George Bentinck dec/aree hit Opposition to the Plan, tthick it 
commented upon by various Members on either side — Mr. Herries move* 
a Resolution on the S9tA May, in favour of maintaining theftmda- 
mental principiet of the Navigation Laws — The Debate is prolonged for 
three nights by Adjournment — Speeches of Mr. Herries, Mr. Labou- 
chere, Mr. Alderman Thompson, Mr. Baillie, Mr. Eobinson, Mr. 
Gibson, Mr. W. E. Gladstone, Mr. CardweU, Sir C. Wood. Lord George 
Bentinek, Mr. Cobden, Mr. Disraeli, and Sir Robert Peel — Upon a 
Division, the Resolution u lost by SDd to ITT — In consequence of the 
delay which had occurred, Mr. Labouchere, on the liith August, an- 
nounces the Postponement of the Measure till the next Session — Jeu^ish 
Ditfibililiet Removal Bill — -Circumstances which led to the Introduction 
of this Measure — The Second Reading being moved on the 7th February, 
Mr. Augustus Stafford moves, as an Amendment, that it be read a 
Second Time diat day Six Months — Lord Burghley seeonde the Amend- 
ment— Speeches of Mr. W. P. Wood, Mr. Miines, Sir W. Moletworth, 
Lord Mahon, Mr. Walpole. Mr. Shiel, Mr. Netedegate, Sir Robert 
Peel, and other Members — The Second Reading is carried by a Majority 
of 73 — Upon a subsequent stage, Mr. Goring moves an Amendment 
condemnatory of the BiU — After tome discuition it is withdraim — 
Various Amendments on the BUI moved by Sir R. H. Inglis, and other 
Memben, are rejected — On the Motion for the Third Reading, Sir F. 
Thesiger moves that it be read a Third Time that day Six Months — 
After Speeches from Lord John Russell, and other Members, the 
Amendment is rejected, and the Bill passed —In the House of Lords 
the Second Reading is moved by tlie Marquis of Lantdovme on the 
•iith May— The Earl of Ellenborough movet the R^ection of the Bill 
—The Duke of Cambridge foUoKs on the same side — It it tupported 
by the Duke of Argyle, the Bishop of St. David's, Lord Brougham, 
attd the Earl of EUesmere; opposed by Lord Stanley, the Earl of 
WinchiUea, and the Bishop of Oxford — On a Division the Amend- 
ment it carried against the Bill by a majority of 86. 

AMONG the measures which miiient. By the Free-Trade -party 

formed the Ministeri&l pro- the alteration of these laws was 

gramme at the opening of Parlia- regarded as the complement of 

ment, a settlement of the Navigation that commercial policy to which 

X^aws was one oF the most pro- Parliament hod already giren its 

EngUind.] HISTORY. [65 

suMtion. The present Govern- je&ra after, reasonable freii^ht- 
m«Qt XmA pledged itseU to can? obarges, and later BtiU, a tariff of 
out the BjBtem in this direction, maximum freight-charges, were 
taA the speech from the Throne enacted for ships going between 
bad recommended the subject to England and the chief porta of 
the attentive oonsiderKtion of the Europe. A BjHt«m of exclusive mo- 
Legislature- Seveti tnonthB of the nopoly lasted, with modificaiiona, 
Session, however, vrere suffered to tothetimeofElitabeth.whenanew 
piss without any step being taken principle was engrafted upon the 
to ^«e effect to the engagement lav— the principle of protection bj 
vhwh the Ministera had entered differential duties. During Eliza- 
into, and doubts began Ut be enter- beth'a reign, thia principle waa 
lained of the sincerity of their in- adopted and acted upon throughout 
tention to deal with a subject in- Europe, with but one exception, 
voiced in much difficulty, and cal- Holland, by a 8yst«m of unre- 
ccdated to provoke vigorous oppo- etrioted freedom — by making her 
aition. At length, on the IQtn of marshes the home of every atizen 
Hay, in a Committee of th«<whole of the world who chose to seek 
House, the Minbterial plan for the them — buUt up the most mag- 
modification of the Natigation Laws ntficsnt fabric of commercial great- 
was formally propounded. On Mr. ness and political pover that up to 
I^bonchere, as President of tlie that time the world had ever seen. 
Board of Trade, the task devolved While in thb reign oar foreign 
of developing the proposed mea- trade was somewhat opened, our 
sure, which he did in an able and coasting trade was for the first 
eomprehensive speech, tracing out time made a close monopoly : the 
the origin and history of this part trade with our colonies, which then 
of our legislation, and explaining first grew important, was placed 
the grounds on which an alteration in the same position. With the 
in the system had been deemed Commonwealth commenced the 
advisable. In order to do justice system which attained full develop- 
to the ailment, it will be neces- ment in the Navigation Act of 
sary to give rather copious extracts Charles the Second. That system 
bom this importantspeech. Going was founded rather npon motives 
back to the earliest records in our of state policy than maxims of 
Statute Book, Mr. Labouchere trade; and was framed, firstly, in 
stated, that in the reign of Richard the hope of impeding the inter- 
the Second was passed the first course of the IiU>yaliBta with their 
Navigation Law in the English foreign allies, and, secondly, in 
code. It enacted broadly, " that simple jealonsy of the great cany- 
no subject of the King should ship ing trade then enjojred by the 
any merchandise outwards or home- Dutch. Itsprinciplewas monopoly 
wards in any but ships of the King's and exclusion ; its end was to make 
Jiegeance, on pain of forfeiting all the British empire self supported 
the rnerchandise shipped." This and self-relying. Its leading fea- 
Act was found too strong, and was turea have subsisted to the present 
next year altered: foreign ebijM day; thoughmanysucceasiveeventa 
were allowed to take freights if have interfered with its grand aim, 
English could not be found. Some and gradually abridged its action. 
Vol. XC. [F] 

66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EmffUmd. 

The firet greal breach in the eyatom which it naa too late to te- 
syitam followed on tba American pair, and which it would be exceeal- 
war. A great colonial trade tud- ingl; difficult to present becoming 
deolv bet^une a foreign trade when much wider. 
tbe independence of our ColoaieB The existing law on the Bnb|ect 
was acknowledged. Anj aelf-sup- ia comprised in three statntea. One 
jrarting power till then enjoyed bj is the Navigation Law, properl;ao 
the empire was deatrojed; and, in called — the Bth and flth Victotia, 
particular, the great intercolonial chapter 88 — which is a snmmujr 
traffic which had hitherto subsisted of the pn>*isioQB of our Nangation 
between the United States and the Laws; the next is the Act re^o- 
West Indies was cut off. Parlia- lating the regiatrotiim of British 
ment was unwilling to accept all vessele, being the 8tb and 9th 
the consequences cs such cluuiges : Victoria, chapter 89 ; and the third 
the influence of Ur. Pitt ftuled him is the statute for consolidating the 
when he, wisely and courageously, laws relating to mendiaot seanten, 
proposed to continae tbe com- and for keeping a registry of sea- 
mercialintercourseoftheestnuiged men, being the 7th and 8th Vic- 
countries on its former footing, toria, chapter I L3. The Nanga- 
Grievous embarrastimenta arose, don ]>w enaols, with regard to oar 
No fewer than 16,000 slares foreign trade, that certain enn- 
perished between IT80and 1787. mersled European articles can only 
from want of the accustomed sup- be imported in British sliips, or in 

filies of food from America. Pal> ships of the country from which 

iatives were at last applied, and the goods are exported, or of which 

step by step a freer intercourse the goods are the produce. Arti- 

was allowed. It was reserved for cles the produce of foreign Asia, 

our own times to give to the British Africa, and America, can only be 

West Indian Islands a perfect free- imported direct from the producing 

dom of access to the United States country, in ships of that country, 

for supplies. Other important or in British ships. With r^ard 

changes bad been tbe admission of to our colonial trade, it is throngh- 

Irelend to the English trade, the out the empire — except the trade 

establishment of free porta, the between this country and India, 

introduction of tbe warehousing which ia open to certain foreignera 

system, and the reciprocity treaties under treaty — confined to the me- 

of Mr. Huskisson. L^Uy, and dium of British ships, and ke|>t 

recently, came the measure adopted quite to ourselves. A British ship 

for enabling those inland countries in the foreign trade must be navi- 

which, by means of steam navig&- gated by a British master, and by 

tion and of rivers, can carry on an a crew at least three-fourths of 

intercourse with the sea near to which are British seamen, and 

the mouths of those rivers, to use about one-sixth apprentices. The 

the ports which they approach as if term British seamen excludes A 

they were ports of tbeir own. Mr. Lascar. Furthermore, a British 

Labouchere thought that no man ship must have been British-built, 

who looked into results could fail andmustbe Britieb-owned. There 

to see that this last measure bad is an anomalous legal rule, that a 

made a breach in our navigation foreigner naturalized in Great 

EV«»<t] HISTORY. [67 

Bnain caut become n Britisfa sbip- docnrnent ttiui that Address conid 

owner, ^ileaforeignerturttmliieil hardly solicit the attention of Par^ 

binjof oar Colonies cannot do liameot. In a deepatch dated 19th 

go. Aa to the ships of oar coastinff March, 1847,Lord£lginsuppaTted 

tnde, tb^ must be wholly manned the Addreaa with these Btat«sman- 

bj British seamen. like opinione — "It will probably 

The eoacloaicHi that tiiese laws be ui^ed in certain quart^re, that 

require alteration is Bopported by the monopoly of the riTsr nari^- 

eonnderatuniB regarxling the se- tion is essential to the maintenance 

mrity eqaally of the oolonial trade, of British supremacy in this por- 

l^ long Toyage tnde, and the tion of North America, and that 

onyioe tntde. 'With regard to the authority of the mother 

the coiomal trade. Mr. Laboa- country will be imperilled if the 

ehera thmightitiinpaeaible todeny United States are permitted to 

Hm claim ^ the Colonies, that re- share the privilege. It may well 

stnctionB originally imposed on all bedonbted. however, whether these 

fw the good of all. and now re- apprehensions are well founded. 

moved from the mother oountjy One of the most e6Scacion8 ejcj)e- 

alone, should also be removed firam dients for securing the allegiance 

the ColonieB. Beetriedons had of a high-spirited and enterprising 

ever been the leading oolonial people, is to convince them that 

^ieratees. Mr. HnsloBSon even their material interests will not be 

thoo^t that they had more to do advanced by separation; and with 

with the American war of separa- respeet te any disposition on the 

tion than the qnestion of taxation part ct the United States to resort 

ita^. HistoTOal research would to a policy of aggreenon, I think 

Bvpport that opinion, Ur. I^bon- it may safely be affirmed that do- 

chiare referred to the history of thing will be more likely to keep 

Bryan Edwards, replete with ac- anch a tendency in check than the 

oooBts of complaints sad stmggles knowledge that it will entail the 

about navigation restfictions. So destruction of a flourishing trade 

at this di^, remonstrances and in which the citazens of that conn- 

oonplaints against the Navigation try are largely engf^ed." 

IjawB come from all parts of onr Ur. Labonchere then read an 

colonial poiseeeions. extract from a Memorial addressed 

On the 11th of July, 1817. the to the Qneen by the House of 

I-iegialatiTe Cooncil and Assembly Assembly in Jamaica, in which 

trfCanadaadoptedajoiotAddresato that body prayed for a relaxation 

onr Qoeen, praying for the opening of the Navigation Laws, as a mea- 

of the St. Lawrence to all nations, sure coodooive alike to their own 

and the aboHtion of the Navigation eommercial advancement and to 

Laws. The United States strive the tma interests of England. He 

by every means to entice acroBs quoted also from a despatch from 

their own territoiy the trafBe from lord Hania, the Governor of 

the great Western lakes to the sea- Trinidad, advocating the same 

boaM; and ftnther indueeBieats policy as ctUonlated to be most 

than exist must be offered by the ben^ial to that colony, and as a 

rival nrate of the St. Lawrence, compensstion justly due to its 

Considariflg the parties and the traders for the abolition of those 

dmuastBnoes, a more important differential duties <m whioh the 


68] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

West Indi&n interest had fonnerly other quarter — the United States 

depended. of America — we have received, not 

Aa to the long voyage trade, Mr. a warning, but an invitation, Laat 

Laboucbere observed that the law autumn, Mr. Bancroft and Lord 

prohibited exportationfromEurope Falmerston had an oEGcial conver- 

of Asiatic, African, and American eation on the Navigation Laws, in 

produce, and compelled its imports the course of which Mr. Bancroft 

ation in native or British ships expressed himself in these terms 

direct from the producing country — " We are ready to do anything 

He had receivea information that you like : if you can do but little. 

Members of the Opposition were we must do little ; if you can do 

pre]nred to abandon some part of much, we will do much ; if yoa 

the Navigation Laws, and he sue- shall do all, we shall do all." Snb- 

pected it was tfata. He renutrked sequently, Mr. Bancroft put these 

that the pecuniary mulct on actual offers on record, and on the 3rd 

trade which this branch of the law November, 184T,wroteasfoltowe — 

inflicted was a trifling matter com- " The prohibition of the indirect 

pared with the national loss it oc- trade has but restrained enter- 

CBsioned, by preventing trade from prise ; it has done good to neither 

being carried on at all. country. To abrogate it would at 

Then, aa tn the security of the once set free dormant commercial 
indirect or carrying trade, the ques- wealth, without injuring any one. 
tjon whether or not the carrying Should Her Majesty's Government 
trade shall be retained no longer entertain similar views, the under- 
rests with us alone. Foreign na- signed is prepared, on the part of 
tions have acquired new powers, the American Oovemment, to pro- 
and have given us no obscure inti- poae that British ships may trade 
mations of new intentions. Prussia from any port in the world to any 
has already spoken on the subject, port in the United States, and be 
with the voice of all Germany. In received, protected, and in respect 
aletterof the 10th May, 1847, M. to charges and duties treated like 
Bunsen thus addressed Lord Pal- American ships, if, reciprocally, 
merston — "The treaty of 1941 American ships may in like man- 
does not allow Prussis, as the ag- ner trade from any port of the 
grieved interestsand public opinion world to any port under the domi- 
in Germany, which powerfully sop- nion of Her Britannic Mtuesty." 
ports those interests, would re- Lord Palraerston was unable to 
quire, to restrict in analogous say more in reply than that his 
manner the admission of British colleagues were prepared to submit 
ships; for the second article of this propositions to Parliament in ac- 
treaty accords to Great Britain the cordance vtith Mr. Bancroft's views, 
rights of the most &voured nation Mr. Lobouchere would deeply la- 
with respect to the importation of ment to throw away such an op- 
si^ar and rice. The expiration of portunityas this, 
the treaty at the end of the present The alterations contemplated 
year will restore that liberty to by Government were thus an- 
the Prussian Government, and a nounced by Mr. Labonchere. Re- 
change in the laws affecting navi- serving the coasting trade and 
gation has been the subject of its fisheries, both of Great Britain 
serious oonsiderftlion." From an- and of the Colonies, he proposed 



altogether to strike oat of the 8ts- 
tat« Book the present system, and 
to " Oaaw opea the Trhole nan- 
gition of the coantiy. of every sort 
and description." He propoeed, 
howerer, to retain to the Queen in 
Council the power of putting such 
restriction on the navigation of 
foreign countries aa she might 
think fit, if those countries did not 
meet ns on equal temiB, — not 
making it ohligatoiy on the Queen 
in Cmmcil, but enabling her te use 
the power in such a vkj as might 
be best for the interests of the 
oountrj. As regards the coasting 
trade of the Colonies, that he pro- 
posed to reserve in the same 
inuiner as the coasting trade of the 
mother coontiy ; but he meant to 
allow each colouy, if it should 
think fit, to pass an Act throwing 
open its coasting trade to foreign 
countries ; such Act to have the 
consent of the Crown ia the usual 
manner. In short each colony 
should be allowed to deal with its 
coasting trade as it ttioaght proper. 
If such a power were not given, 
the case of Canada and the navi- 

ron of the St. Lawrence would not 
provided for at all. As to the 
intercolonial trade, a clause would 
be introduced into the Bill giving 
the Queen ia Council genenu 
powers relating to that sutyecti 

As to the manning, ownership, 
and building of British ships, he 
proposed to do away with the 
necessity that ships he British- 
bailt. but still to require them to 
be British-owned. The present 
regulations as to manning are to he 
retained both in the foreign and 
coasting trade — except those re- 
garding apprentices, which are to 
be done away with entirely. Las- 
ears are in future to be considered 
Britisb sailors ; and the anomalous 

Mr. Labouchere anticipated some 
of the Directions which he supposed 
would be made ; and quoted some 
&cts from the evidence taken be- 
fore the Select Committee, and 
bJbo from the blue book of the 
Consul's Reports, in its support 

la reply to Mr. Hume, Mr. 
Labouchere stated thai Ceylon 
would be treated as any other 
British colony. In reply to Mr. 
Gladstone, be said that foreign 
vessels from the deep-sea fisheries 
would be enfU>led to bring their 
produce direct to this country; but 
with respect to the coast and bank 
tisheries, it was proposed to retain 
to our own people their existing pri- 
vil^es. In further explanation he 
stated that it bad not been thought 
expedient to communicate with 
other Oovemmente except the two 
be bad mentioned, while the sen- 
timents of Parliament were unas- 
certained. Lastly, he was not pre- 
pared to propose a compulsory 
system of examiriatioD of ehip- 
mastere. There was an increasing 
disposition among shipmasters to 
submit to the voluntary examina- 
tion now made ', and Government 
desired to give that system a Air- 
ther trial. They intended during 
the present Session to snbtnit mea- 
Bures relating to the Light Dues 
and the Merchant Seamen's Fund ; 
and they contemplated the form- 
ation of a now department of the 
Board of Trade, to be called the 
Department of the Mercantile 
Marine, which should consist of 
unpaid officers, and be presided 
over by a Lord of the Admiralty. 

Lord George Bentinck took the 
lead in opposing the Ministerial 
proposition, repeating the main ar- 
guments on which the advocates of a 

70] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Et^ond. 

protective policy rely, and criticis- thongh^ now th&t dte mano&c- 

ing in detail the grounds on vhicb taring int«reat had been, end tbo 

Mr. Labouchere had supported shipping interest was to be, shoni 

his proposidoD. In reply to the nev of exclusive benefits in the C&oa- 

poiats raised by the proposes ot dian markets, it would be difficult 

Prussia and Amenca, Lord George any longer to see what advantage 

insisted particularly on the obvious the Canadae could bring ujs, be- 

ond one-sided interest of America yond the privilege of paying for 

in making euch proposals to us. their Oovemmeot As to the 

The aniuety of the American Mi- West Indian reprMentations, Mr. 

iiister to be present at this debate Labouchere well knew that for 

was perfectly natural, for the mea- every one person connected with 

snres proposed would be simply that interest who desired a repeid 

measures for tiie encouragement of of the Navigation Laws, there 

the United States marine. We pro- wero three others who see that 

pose to'tiironppen to the States our repeal would be of no use (o the 

colonial trade ; this we did to some West Indian Islands unless it were 

extent in I8SS, and again in 1842 confined to them. Cuba, Porto 

or 1843 : and the result has been, Rico, and Brazil, would profit far 

that our own timber trade with the more than our own islands by eucfa 

West Indies has fallen off 60,000 measures as were now proposed, 

tons, and that of the States has in- The American ships were better 

creased by 140,OOU tons. The Oo- built for stowage of the sugar- 

vemment ought to be prepared to freights of those places than ours 

infonn the House what would be the for the hogehmiiB and butts in 

reduction of freight-rates which which West Indian sugars are 

their measures would eETect. In packed ; and the result must be an 

the Economist — now. as Lord advantage to the Americans in the 

George supposed, an official organ market. As to the Lascars, Lord 

— the honourable Member for George believed the Queen already 

Westbury lately set forth that bad Sufficient powers in councU to 

2«. 6d. a ton would be the saving regulate the proportions in which 

effected by repeal of the Navigation they might sail in our ships. 

Laws. A million sterling, there- Mr. Ricardo replied to Lord 

fore, was to be taken from tlie George Bentinok. He believed 

shipping interest and given to the that a reciprocal opening of trade 

oontmmer. Ought not the House between this oounUy and America 

to wait for further experience of would be more to our advantage 

the £'ree-Trade system before it than our loss: for although we now 

struck BO great a blow to the ship- excluded American ships from oiir 

ping interest? Colonies, those ships now displaced 

It had not been shown that any ours from the better markets of 

interestwasdiscontentedbutthatof Europe. The Americans, whose 

oar Kortb - American Colonies ; ships wero the dearest built aiid 

whO) having been shorn of protec* maimed in the woHd, had two- 

tion to their timber and com, thirds of the whole trade between 

naturally now turn round and de- this country and the United States, 

mand facilities of conveyance for On the other hand, the Russiaa 

their products. Lord George ships, wbichwerethecheapestbnilt 

E»ji«Al HISTORY. [71 

lod maimed in the wm^d, were ried nutrath upon their verj- taoe. 
oUiced to yield to our ships the The &re hence to Bremen was but 
irbole trade from tbeir conatiy ta fU. or 31., and what was there to 
ouB. Itwaa clear tliat oursncoew prevent emigrants from going to 
in afneign trade dependedon other firemen, and then pajing the 
dements thaii tbe high coat oi cheaper fares to Australia? 
■bme or high -wages. Mr. Ricardo Mr. Mitchell rindicated Mr. Bi- 
adaoced the great discrepancy of caido's atstemente. He sssured 
panage-Mles charged here and at the Eonae that the difTerenoe in 
Bremen for emigration passages to the rates of pasaage-money had 
Aostralifl. The Core here was some been scarcely stall ezaggented. 
SOt.ahead-.atBremenitwas nearer With regard to the inanranoe, be 
to im. Elnglish ^ps bad a mo- informed the Honse, diat thonah 
nopolj of freights to onr Colonies, the onderwritera at Lloyd's would 
MonaneoaldteUbowfarthaenter- insure a Biitiah ba^ at a lower 
prise of the merchant was diecked, rate than a fore^ hull, they 
and his operabone prerenled, hy would not instire a cargo in a 
nek laws. And whatwaa the benefit Brittsh vessel at so low a rate as 
Iheycrffered us inretnm? We were one in a foreign vessel. ThereasoD 
promiaed a better mMining to our was that our ship-building was supe- 
RT*] oavy. But a law that had rior, but oar captains were in intel- 
ensted for two hundred years with ligence and reputation iaferior to 
this olgect ou^it befnre now to foreign masters, 
have made onr captains and sailors The other speak»B were — 
the most perfect in the world. How against the Ministerial measure, 
hixie tlue was true aa to the offietn Mr. Bobinson, Ccqitaiu Harris, 
ci oar commercial marine, might be Lord Ingestrie, and Mr. Hudson ; 
mbered trom the reports of our in its &voar, Mr. Hume. 
Consols as collected from stations The fhrUxer progress of the 
all round the world, and now laid Uinieterial measure thus advanced 
on the table of the House. Mr. was suspended by a debate intro- 
Baeardo read several retracts from doced by Mr. Herries, who, by way 
iheee reports, to support his asser- of making a movement in an oppo- 
tkn. that allhoiuh onr seamen were site direction, propoaed a general 
the most skilftu, oar shipmasters resolntion on the SMh M^, in 
were commonly the least educated favour of maintaining the fnnda- 
■nd moral of any in all the navies mental princijdee of the Navigation 
of the world. laws. Mr. Herries' qieedi on 
Mr. Henley defended the Eng> this occasion may be considered as 
lish shipowneiB agunst " the abuse embodyinff all the leading ai^|a- 
of every sort asd kind " which the menls of me advocates of a reMrio* 
}«8eedin£speaker bad beeped upon tive policy, and we shall, therefore, 
tbenL The best answer to auch dte in etetmto the most material 
dedaaUion, be said, was the rate passages. After some preliminary 
of insurance at Uoyd's ; where it ot^tions as to the time and man- 
was universally true that English nor in which the OoremmeDt mea- 
•bipe paid a lower per oentage than sure had been breeched, while a 
any other ships in the world. The Committee of the Lords was still 
emigratioa fares qnoted as otirrmt sitting on the eot^t, and the in- 
here and at Bcemen relatively car- qniry was theitfore incomplete. 

72] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Engh»,ui. 

Mr- Hemes proceeded to confront NaT^atioD Laws, or of solidtadon 
the reasons adduced by bis oppo- for their repeal. Commenting on 
nenta. He contended that no the reeerration of the coasting 
urgency in reasons of state had trade in contrast to the opening of 
been shown for seeking so great the colonial trade, Mr. Berries as- 
alterations ; and little ground for serted his belief that if an; alter- 
distrusting the established opinions ation were desirable it should be 
that such a venture would be dan- applied to the former rather than 
gerous to the interests of the coun- the latter. It was also a great in- 
try. He criticised in succession the congruity of the scheme, that, while 
pleoB in behalf of Prussia, America, it entirely abrogated all the pro- 
and our West Indian Colonies, for tection hitherto afforded to Britiah 
repeal or modification of the pre- seamen, it left unrelieved the 
sent code. Prussia had nothing to whole weight of the present bur- 
give us in return for the concessions dens borne bf British shipowners 
she sought : on the other baud, — burdens only borne in considera- 
her warnings and threats of with- tion of the protecaon hitherto 
drawing those advantages she had granted. Mr. Herries relied much 
already conceded, were of trivial on the antbority of Mr. Huskisson, 
moment. America, in the most and quoted him for a defiaiijon of 
kindly and friendly way no doubt, that protecrive principle which he 
requested to join in our foreign and was vrilling to stand by ; and which 
colonial trade in return for reel- would reserve our colonial, coast- 
procal concessions to be made to ing, and fishing trade wholly, and 
us ; but America had no colonies ; protect our foreign trade as fkr 
and it must be sdmitted that she as was consistent with our rela- 
had ever been too "smart" to make lions and engagements with foreign 
an offer from which she herself was countries. He approved the ad- 
npt to be a gainer. As to .the vant^es given by Mr. Huskisson 
West Indies, Mr. Herries went under his reciprocity treaties. He 
into detailed statements to show was not aware that any Members 
that the petition against the Navi- of the House were disposed to re- 
cation Laws agreed to by the fuse all discussion of the sulgect, 
Jamaica House of Assembly could or the removal of any existing and 
but very imperfectly have repre- real inconveniences which might 
sented the real sentiments of that be safely removed. If the House 
body, or of the island at large, were agreed on the general prin- 
It had been carried tbroi^h in an ciple of protecting our marine, it 
unusual way, at an unusual time might, in Committee, remove ano- 
— had in fact been smu^led mules which bad been the object 
through: some Members had never of censure and ridicule in some 
heard of it, and one bad even de- quarters, where attention seemed 
nied its existence, when examined to have been bestowed only on the 
before the House of Lords. Public smaller parts of the subject: they 
memorials had been prepared both ni>gbt put an end to some of those 
before and since that petition, and difficulties as to sending nnts from 
had passed through Committees of Hamburg, end the like, which cer^ 
inqmiy in the island Legislature, tainly might be described as ab- 
in which not a vrord occurred of BurditieB. 
allnsioB to the grievances of the Sketefaing atatistically the enor- 




Btaaa magnitude of the interests 
embttrked, he etuneatlj deprecated 
hasty ]egisIatjoo. He indicated 
the extent and nature of the 
changes he thought admissible, 
and the opposition he would offer 
to tneasurea which he might think 
too hazardous or too precipitate, 
in their ez(«nt, or in their time 
and method of proposal. If the 
House proceeded with care and 
deliberation, affording full time to 
the nation, and espe^l; to those 
deeplj interested in the subject, 
for expreasing their opinion to the 
Legislature, then he had no olgec- 
tioo. But upon a question which 
iuToIved no demand for immediate 
legislation, which did not contain 
in the slightest degree the element 
of emei^encyi and which involved 
an alteration that in the opinion 
of man; would be attended with 
the worst effects, though others 
donbtless considered the effects 
voold be meet salutary — upon such 
a question to proceed with the 
haste which was now proposed by 
HerMajesty'sGovemment, wasut- 
terly preposterous, and would never 
be agreed to, he hoped, by the 
House of Commons. At^l events, 
no effort should be wanting on his 
part to prevent the passing of euch 
a measure at the present time. 

Mr. Herries moved the follow- 
ing Resolution, as an Amendment 
to Lord John Russell's Motion on 
the order of the day for going into 
Committee : — " That it is essential 
to the national interests of this 
country to maintain the funda- 
mental principles of the existing 
Navigation Lews, subject to such 
modi£catione as may be best calcu- 
lated to obviate any proved incon- 
venience to the commerce of the 
United Kingdom and its depen^ 
dencies, without danger to our 
maritime strength." 
Mr, LaboQcbere followed with a 

general support of the Ministerial 
scheme. He showed that English 
shipping and seamen were quite 
equal to meet foreign shipping and 
seamen in equal markets ; that, in 
fact, wherever they had done so, 
the increase of tonnage in our fa- 
vour had been strikingly great. 
On the other hand, he showed by 
figures that the moat protected 
departments of the shipping were 
comparatively the least fiourishing 
He replied to the remarks made 
respecting the Jamaica Memorial. 
He was unable to contradict or 
confirm Mr. Herries, but be ap- 
prehended that the right hon. 
Gentleman was hardly prepared to 
say, unless the same trick was 

tlayed all over the island, that the 
[emorial of the planters, mer- 
chants, labourers, and others of 
Jamaica, did not represent the 
opinions of those who had sent it 
to this country. Mr. Labouchere 
read an extract from a Memorial 
from the latter body, setting 
forth that the freights which 
they were obliged to pay were 
nearly double the amount of what 
they would be if the Navigation 
Laws were repealed; and that a 
large number of American ships 
went away from the island in bal- 
last, which would otherwise be 
available for carrying away the 
produce of the colony. He ad- 
mitted that the real point for the 
House to decide was fairly raised 
bythe Resolution proposed. Would 
they be contented with patchwork 
legislation? Was it right to main- 
tain the principles of the Naviga- 
tion Laws? The first principle 
was that of colonial monopoly; the 
second was the maintenance of 
those restrictions which were in- 
tended to secure the long voyage 
trade to this country ; and the 
third was the maintenance of those 
restrictions which were intended U> 

74] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEnglMd. 

secure tiieEurap«uioan7ing-traJe. Mr. Heniy Dnimmoad difiered 

Tlie question wee, wbetlier thej from the OoTBrnmeiit. and from 

««re prepared to consider the pro- their opponents also : he disap- 

priety of departing from those proved of the principle of the Mi- 

principles, or leaving them un- nist«rial scheme, but intended to 

touched; whether they should meet give no vote against it, regardii^ 

tile «-ants of commeroe and the it as an ewential step in ^e new 

exigenciesof the case before them; corameroiAl policy to whidi the 

nhether they wero prepared tho- country was committed, 

roughly and completely to revise Mr. Scott supported the Reso- 

the whole system of our Navi^tion lation, wbidi was opposed widi 

Laws, with the view of adapting much statistical research by Mr. 

them to the s^orit (tf the bmes, James Wilson, and also t^ Dr. 

and meeting the just demands of Bowring. 

other countries, the wishes of our The debate beii^ ajjonmed to 

own colonies, and the interesta of the nest evening, Mr. Bobinson, 

our expanding trade? Ha had the Marquia of Granby, and Mr. 

never sought to disffoiee from the Henley, spoke on the protection 

House the magnitude of the quee- side : Mr. Mo&tt, Mr. Mitchell, 

don. It was to be considered in and Mr. M. Gibson, on the side of 

all its details, and was fairly raised relaxation. 

by the right hon. Gentleman. Of Mr. Bobinson not only enforced 

course, if the right honourable Gen- the general argument that therewaa 

tlemen carried his resolution, it no demand for the measure, nor any 

would be fatal to the measure of adequate cause for change, but also 

the Government. referred to special evidmee to diow 

Mr. Laboochere deferred all dis- that English shipmasters were not 
cnssion of details till the House so inferior as they had been de- 
should be in Committee, and would scribed, but were improving. He 
simply call for the taking of that would like to know from the Lords 
step, in order that tlw measure oftheAdmiralty.wbetherthey were 
might be £airly considered. prepared with any other plan of 

Mr. Herries' views were ably manning the navy in cases of 

supportedbyMr.A1dermanThomp> emergency than the one now in 

BOD. He warned the House against existence, b^ore they exposed our 

the effect on our colonial shipping commeroial marine to siich fearful 

trade which would follow on the competition as was then proposed, 

opening of that trade to the Ame- He doubted exceedingly whether 

ncans, whose ships already sup- the proposal of Sir James Stirling 

plied our West Indian settlementa to keep up a loi^e naval establish- 

with the whole of the lumber re- meut in time of peace, so as to 

ned by them, even under the render the navy at all times com- 
dvantage of always leaving the paratively independent of our com- 
port in ballast meroial marine, would meet with 
Mr. H. J. Baillie admitted that much favour in the present stats 
all restrictions on trade are iiyu- of our finances. He assented la 
rious to Botne extent ; but he one change ; shipovmers wero forced 
thought that the restrictions of the to train up apprentices, very much 
Navigation Laws were far out- to their detriment, and woidd will- 
balanced by the advantages which ingly agree to the proposition for 
they secured. altering the law in (hot respect. 

E»gU»d.} HISTORY. [75 

The Harqois of Qnnby also al- clamoured for suspensioD of the 

luded to the imperative necessitir NaTigstJon Lans. What can that 

of maniuDg tlie fieet. Mr. IaIiou- law be good for which moat be 

cbera had said he had kept the suapended on the first presBure? 

cosating trade iutaot ss a reeerre Fore^ countries maj cury for 

for aeainen fot the rojnl navy; themsehes, but not for each other; 

but waa there no chance of that ao that in &ct the Navigadon 

trade failing? Was he certain that Law protects each foreign country 

in a few years hence that trade agninat all the rest; ami the cor- 

could be relied upon asareserre responding Navigation Law — of the 

for Buppljring the na^ with sea- United States, for instance — ec 

BMn? There was erideuce on re- oludes the ehipe of this ooooDy 

cord which went to show that the firom more thui h^ the import 

railways might, in a few yeara, trade oi the Union, 
deetxoj dte coastiiig trade of the Mr. Gibson beliered that Sir 
James Stirling's proposition 

Mr. Ifitcbell conHoTorted Ur. not bo very unreasonable ae some 

Bobinsen's assertions — instating repressnted, and that there might 

that EngUah ahipmasters were pe- be a reoonstitution ot the navy so 

caliariy dtargesUe with dmnl^ as to make it quite independent of 

habits : and ^st shippers predened ^e merchant serrice for a eupjdy 

Jbreigu vessels to £ngUsh, the of men. It mit^t be done by di- 

cargoes being in greatier Bsfety. minishing the expenses of the 

Ee showed that in respect of outfit navy. For instance, might there 

English shiui are as cheap as any; not be fewer officers ? Honourable 

asd he partly imputed the superior Gmtlenen oj^oaite said that the 

chancter of the masters and crews mercantile marine was necessary 

in the ships of the Americans for the suf^rt of our naval power, 

to faif^ier scuariea and wages : the and yet tbeysaid they most strongly 

masters were better paid than olgected to impressment; but no 

onr own, except In the India or one pointed out how the transfer 

long voyage trade; and while the of men from the merchant service 

lowest wages in American ships to the navy vras to be efiected. 

were 81. a mcmth, in our ships they That was a point that perplexed 

were 4&$. him mnch. He believed we bad 

Mr. Gibeon showed the oonfiissd no mode of getting these men ex- 

and conflicting efiects of the pro- cept making them come against 

hibitory parts of the law. People their will. At this moment they 

may export in any ships they think did not volunteer very freely ; and 

{■roper, but they must only import he wad quite sure they would not 

in shipa of the country or their in case we wanted their services 

own. A merchant may even im- for waifore. But the effect of onr 

port f(»eign provisions, if they are attempting to impress them would 

not to be consumed by the people be to make them fly to America; 

of England ; if his goods are to be and the mercantile marine and the 

bonded, then they are untonched naval power would both lose their 

by the Navigation Laws ; yet, last eervioes. 

year, when there was a pressure A further ai^ouroment took 

from the want of food, ^e very place, and numerous speeches were 

opponents of the present measure delivered on either side. The Re- 

76] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Enjte**- 

solution of Mr. Herries was sup- Ad attempt was now nude to 

ported by Mr. Hudson. CaptaiD bring the lengUiened discussion to 

Harris, Sir Alexander Hood, Mr. a close; but Sir John Walsh suc- 

.Newdegate, Mr. Wawn, Lord In- ceeded, after a division on the 

gestrie, and Mr. R. Hildyard. point, in a motion for resuming it 

The repeal of the Narigation on the 6th of June. The most 

Laws was advocated by Captain prominent speeches on l^at night 

Berkeley and Lord John Hay. Mr. were those of Mr. Cardwell, Sir 

Clay could not support the mea- George Clerk, and Sir Charles 

sure of GoTemmeat without auxi- Wood. 

liery measures, to create a nursery Mr. Cardwell objected to the 

for our seamen, and to relieve our measure for not relaxing the law 

mercantile navy from restrictions in fovour of reciprocity treaties, ro- 

and burdensome duties, such as ther than abrogating those treaties; 

marine insurance duties, foreign and he noticed some particular im- 

brokerage, church-money at Cron- perfections. Restrictions aa to the 

stadt, 1^. manningofshipsweretoberetained 

Mr. Gladstone made an able and against the English shipowner, al- 

comprehensive speech on the whole though those with whom he would 

subject, taking a view not exactly in have to compete were exempt. The 

accordance with the sentiments of British shipowner would be free to 

either party in the debate. The purchase ships where he could ob- 

broad question of repeal, as a tain the cheapest; and yet the duty 

matter of expediency and season- was retained on the timber used by 

ableness, he decided in the afBrma- the British shipbuilder, the only 

tive ; but on the specific Govern- instance in the tariff of a duty on 

ment scheme he expressed a qua- raw material, Mr. Labouchere had 

lified opinion. He should have hoped to avoid creating qlarm by 

preferred a more gradual mea> exempting the coasting trade from 

sure. He wished that the Govern- the operation of the measure ; but 

ment had adhered to the uniform he bad not avoided alarm ; and he 

course of precedents, and made might have used relaxations in that 

large concessions conditional upon law to obtain reciprocal relaxaUons 

reciprocal conc«BsionB by o^er from the United States. On the 

Powers. He objected to the dis- whole, however, Mr. Cardwell 

cretionary power proposed to be thought that the time was come for 

lodged in the Queen in Council, a ju£ciouB relaxation of the Navi- 

wilJi a view of extorting reciprocity, gation Laws; and he regarded it 

which was a discretion too large and aa a libel on the British name to 

too delicate ; and he thought the sa; that we were not qualified to 

Government would have acted more compete with every nation in the 

safely and wisely by undoing piece- world, 

meal, rather than by introducing a Sir Charles Wood noticed the 

measnreofeo sweeping a character, all but universal concurrence in 

He censured the policy of exclud- favour of some change in the Navi- 

ing the coasting trade from this gation Laws: every speaker but 

measure : we should have offered two had admitted the necessity, 

to admit the Americans to our Sir Charles showed the difficulty 

coasting trade if they would admit of proceeding by the exceptional 

US to theirs. mode of reciprocity treaties. By 

EnglnA,-\ HISTORY. [77 

general measures oar Golonies enough to petition for th^ repeal 

would benefit. Sir Robert Feel's of the Navigatioa I>aws be aware, 

eipeneoce of relaxiDg the Sugar then, that they would have 16,900 

Duties to particular coanlries was more boxes of Cuba sugar in the 

inatructiTe: it failed because ^ market, and S«. lower in price than 

were hampered and boand by trea- they could afford to sell it at. 

ties with other Powers, especially Lord George attacked the Free 

imder the "Inos^£aTo^r«d nation" Trade of 1846, for producing the 

clause; so that it was difficult to dire consequences which we had 

cariT out views with respect to any since felt, in a ruined trade and 

single country. Sir Chailes stated starring people; and he warned 

several instances of similar anoma- Ministera ^oioBt a further attempt 

lies, one of which hod been got over to lay the iron hand of competition 

by declaring a port in Turkey to on our shipping. 

be a port in Austria. Mr. Cobden endeavoured to place 

Sir John Walsh. Mr. Miles, and the main arguments on which the 
Sir Charles Burrell, addressed tbe advocates of relaxation rely in a 
House on the other side; but the close and succinct form. He 
subject was now becoming too much showed by an appeal to the pub- 
exhausted to admit of novelty, lished evidence, that we can build 
The debate was again ai^oumed ships better than foreign countries, 
for the fourth time, and the last and at as cheap a rate ; sail them 
night called forth some of the most as well ; take greater care of the 
powerful speeches that had been cargoes, and secure greater punctu- 
delivered on the question. ality and despatch — our sailors 

Lord George Bentinck enforced havingthe greatest natural aptitude 
hisargumentA byacopious display of for tbe sea of any in the world. The 
statistics, for thepuroose of show- only drawbacks were of a moral 
ing, first, that Mr. James Wilson kind— insubordination and drunk- 
had been guilty in his speech of enness; but they would yield to 
serious errors ; and, next, that Bri- better culture. Alluding to one 
tish merchants and seamen, how- part of Mr. Gladstone's speech, 
ever energetic and enterprising, Mr. Cobden reminded him that re- 
woold not be able to cope wiUi ciprocityhadalreadybeen promised 
the rivalry of the United States onthepartof AmericaandPrussia. 
andother fbreign countries, if the Mr.Cobdenrepudiatedtheboast- 
loiter were admitted to a partici- fullanguagewhichhesooftenheard 
paiioD of the carrying trade. For with regret respecting England's 
example. Lord Oeoige read a let' naval Bupremacy. He must say that 
ter addressed to a broker in tbe those boasts were generally uttered 
City, in which it was stated that after dinner, and therefore they 
there were American vessels in the might be the result of a little extra 
river with 16.927 boxes of Cuba excitement. The abolition of the 
sugar, and that it was 2«. per Navigation Laws would not aSect 
hundredweight cheaper in conse- thenavolcDnditionofGreatBritain. 
qnence of being brought in foreign But was this a time to be always 
vessels; but in consequence of the singing "Rule Britannia"? ("Hear, 
Navigation Laws it was not ad- hear!" and latighleT.) Ifhonour- 
missn>Ie into this country. Let able Members opposite had served 
those coloDJsts who were foolish with him upon tbe Committee on 




the Army, Navy, and Ordnmcd 
EstimaUe, thej would bswe a 
joat sense of the cost of that song. 
The conatatit assertion of mari- 
time eupremai^ was calcniated to 
provoke hindred passiona in other 
nationB ; whereas, if Great Britain 
«nuDciated the doctrines of peace, 
she would invoke similw send- 
ments from the rest of the world. 
Freedom of trade and interoonrsa 
blended the interests of nations to- 
gether, and placed one of the most 
potential obstacles in the waj of 

Mr. Bisiaeli delivered a speech 
replete with statistical details, but 
illustrated with bis nsnal brilliancy 
of rhetoric and sarcastic hnmour. 
He had described the Manchester 
Free-Trade school as ai^ning in a 
▼ioioos circle, to tn^e ont their 
promise of perpetoal advantagea : 
that promise had been disproTed by 
the events; and Mt. Cobden now 
became the advocate of a new 
vicious oi role, endeavouring tu prove 
that this country ought to take its 
share in univeraal aisoster. Mr. 
Disraeli avowed that he was there 
to advocate the present syitem, 
which had worked with great ad- 
vantage to the State; and be un- 
dertook to show that the arguments 
against it were unsubstantial and 
fallaoiouB. Forinstance, itwassaid 
that the oountiy successfully com- 
peted with the foreigner in the »• 
port trade: he denied it. Every 
one knew that if a lai^e order was 
given from America for iron, they 
made it a condition that it should 
be exported in American ships. 
Within a day or two, a large order 
bad been given from the French 
Ooverament for coal; and it was a 
condition of the contract that it 
shoold be exported in French ships. 
Mr. Disraeli adduced a mass of sta- 
tiatiea to establish tbia position, 

and to show that Mr. James Wilson 
had been deceived in his con- 
clusions. He insisted that the 
Colonies ooutd not be proved to have 
aqSered from the Navigation Laws; 
he read evidence given before the 
Lords' Oommitt«e, to ■ show that 
Prussia ooold not retaliate, and the 
UnitedStates could not reeiproeate; 
and he adris«d the Ministers, whose 
Vice-President of the Board of 
Trade stood amazed between the 
bland smiles of Mr. Bancroft and 
the bowl and dagger of the Cheva- 
lier Bunsen, to oia^e themselves 
better acquainted with the facts, 
and to mature tiieir position a little 
more, as there was nothing more 
fatal to national interests than the 
recklesBness of ignorance. He 
would not sing "fhile Britannia," 
for fear of distressing Mr. Cobden ; 
butfaedid not think that the House 
would encore "Yankee Doodle." 
Mr. Labouchere had described this 
as " the age of commeroe, peace, and 
internal improvement:" on the 
contrary, it was the age of no trade, 
of intended war, and of Communist 
bands tearing up railways. Look- 
ing at the state of the Continent, 
Mr. Cobden probably was not now 
BO devoted a believer in the qitut 
gsntium tine armu. Mr. Disraeli, 
at all events, could not " share the 
responsibility of endangering that 
empire which extended beyond the 
Americas and the 'farthest Ind,' 
which was foreebadowed by the 
genius of a Blake, and conseorated 
by the blood of a Nelson — the em- 
pire of the seas." (Cheen.) 

Sir Bobert Peel, who was at 
first encountered vritfa an unusual 
demonstiution of hostility from the 
Protectionist benches, which, how- 
ever, was composed into silence by 
the reflection be drew from it upon 
the want of confidence which it im- 
plied in their own arguments, then 

»wfc^ ] HISTORY. [79 

■ddreesed the Honse in one of his countries "liaTiDg found out that 

most impressive and cloeelj'-ar^ed thej have a ikii claim to insist on 

spoeches. Beverting to the great tboseprivil^eeinnaTigationwhich 

question of oommercial policj, jou insist on for jouraelves — if I 

which had been re-opened by the look to our reciprocity treaties, and 

preeeot debate, he addressed him- to the various complicated claims 

self to prove that, in spite of casual arising under them — if I look to 

disaster, the advantages of Free the mutilate and shattered state 

Trade were manifest in the exten- of the Navigation Laws, as thej now 

sion of our commerce. It was not, exist — ^I find a number of con- 

ofoourse.intendedon theotherside current reasons for delibenttelj 

to saj that tiie adraiaeion of ran thinking that we should consider 

material under the tariff of 1843 whether those laws should stand 

and 1846 had injurioualj affected on their present foundation, or 

the trade of the coontrj. The vrbetber we should consider diem 

grouod of objeclioQ must be, that with a view to extensive change." 

it waa wrong to admit foreign The speech of Ur. Diaraeli had 

manufactures in competition with in truth scarcely touched the qnes- 

oor own. (ChMn Jrom the Pro- tion. If he could have shown that 

lectionUtt.) Bvetyarticle of foreign the relaxation of the Navigation 

manufacture, itwas said, threw out Laws would* diminish our means 

of employment thousand of native of national defence, and endanger 

workmen. ("Hear, hear!") But the national security. Sir Robert 

what a doctrine was that for a great Peel, differing in this respect from 

manufacturing nation, which ex- Mr. Cobden's views, thought that 

ported 58, 000,000^. in declared a powerful, perhaps a btal oh- 

value of its own manufactures! jecLion, might be urged against 

Admit that doctrine, and foreign sacrificing the national security 

countriee must regard us not as the to any interest. But did the Navi- 

■ bene&ctora, btfC as the enemies of gation Laws conduce to that end? 

human happiness. Look at the pro- The amendment called upon them 

mssive increase of exports under to nmintain the "fundamental 

Free Trade — from 37,000,000/. a principles "oftheNavigatiouLaws: 

year, in the five yeais ending with now what were those principles? 

183S, to 55,000,0001. in the last Tbe Navigatioa Laws were esta- 

five yean, and 58,971,0001. in the blished to destroy the maritime 

last year, 1847, a year of severe power of the Putco; hut what waa 

depression. Yet it was said that their effect? — To give the Dutch 

Free Trade has failed — that we a direct advantage over us in the 

did nothing but import, and that intercourse with the United States, 

we purchased our imports vrith As laid dowti by Adam Smith, the 

gola! principles of the Navigation Laws 

The period had now arrived when applied to tbe coasting trade, the 

it was desirable to revise tbe Navi- cairying trade, the Ssheries, and the 

ran Laws. " If Hook," sud Sir colonial intercourse. The fisheries 

Peel, "to the position of our and coasting trade were to be pre- 

Colonies, after the application of servedby theGovemmentmeasure, 

the principle^ of Free Trade to IntheoUierreepectstfaeKavigatioa 

many articles of their produce — if I^aws bad been completely mud- 

I locate tbe {act of many European lated by the reciprocity treaties. 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [E-sfanJ. 

Mr. Hemes hsd avowed that ha 
had laboured night and day with 
Mr. HuskissoQ, and was prepared to 
cany Mr. Huskisson'a reciprocity 
principlea still further: yet there 
was no greater breach of the fun- 
damental principles of the Naviga- 
tion Laws than the reciprocity 
system. And in the face of this fact 
Mr. Herries came down and es- 
hibited his "fundamental prin- 
ciples!" When Adam Smith wrote, 
he did not foresee the separation of 
the United States; but from that 
period scarcely a year had passed 
without an infringement of the 
" fundamental principles " of these 
laws. And he must here observe, 
that on the occasion of every such 
infringement there was prectisely 
the same sort of outc^ of " ruin to 
the shipowner." In 1789, when 
they wished to admit Ireland to par- 
ticipation in the colonial trade, the 
shipowners loudly complained ; and 
those of Liverpool, in a petition 
which they had addressed to that 
House, declared that " if any such 
thing were permitted, Liverpool 
must inevitably be reduced to its 
original insignificance." ("Hear!" 
and laughter.) 

As to the national defence, it was 
on the commercial marine and the 
number of our seamen that we must 
place our reliance in time of war. 
Now the tonnage of this country 
had increased from 2,792,000 in 
1836, to 3,952,000 in 1847; our 
seamen, from 117.000 in 1814 to 
!iS3,000 in 1847. Impressment 
applied equally whether the Naviga- 
tion Laws were maintained or not; 
but the time had arrived when it was 
incumbent on Parliament to con- 
sider whether it would ever be pos- 
sible again to put that system into 
operation ; and its value had been 
much reduced by the introduction 
of steam navigation. On the other 

hand, let them compare our favour- 
able position with that of other 
countries. The Baltic ports were 
closed by ice four montl^ in every 
year. France had a strict Naviga- 
tion Law ; had it improved her com- 
mercial marine ? if ight it not, on 
the contrary, suggest a doubt whe- 
ther naval superiority did not de- 
pend on the habits, pursuits, incli- 
nations, and associations of a peo- 
ple, rather than on any code of laws 
whatever? {Much cheering.) In 
moat items of expense, it was shown 
by Captain Briggs, the master of a 
liner between Uie United States 
and this country, and a most intelli- 
gent witness-^that tlie balance was 
m favour of the British shipowner. 

Touching upon the particular 
measure before ihe House, Sir 
Robert Peel expressed an appre- 
hension that the power proposed 
to be given to the Crown, of re- 
establishing restrictions after a 
trade had once been opened, would 
be most difficult in operation: it 
looked very like inverting the usual 
order of the constitution. The 
House of Commods would relax, 
while the Grown would have to 
restrain; and he feared that that 
was a position which the Crown 
would find difficult and unplea- 
sant. He thought it would be 
much belter to give a temporary 
foroe to the Act, sending it back 
to the Commons, say at the end of 
five years. 

Lord John Russell briefly woimd 

up the debate, the necessity for a 

lengthened speech being obviated, 

he said, by Sir Robert Peel's 

The House now came to a di- 
vision, when there appeared — 
For Mr. Herries' Resolution 177 
Against it . . ^ . . 294 

Minority for the Government 1 17 

Enghua.-l HISTORY. [81 

B7 thia decision the gronnd was the GoYemmeiit had engaged 
cleared for the Minbterial mea- themselves to promote duriog the 
mre, but as the above result was present Session, was a Bill for the 
not arrived at until the 9th Jane, removal of the test b; which Mem- 
it was manifestly hopeless to ex- hers of the Jewish persuasion bad 
pect that the Bill could pass hitherto been prevented from 
throogh Parliament during the taking their seats in the House of 
preaeot Session. The circnmslance Oommons. The impediment was 
of its being introduced at so late a created hj the words with which 
period was adverted to with some the declsmtion, exacted from every 
dia^probation bj those Members Member, concludes, "on the true 
who were anxious for a settlement lailh of a Christian." The election 
ef the questi(»i, and the conduct of of Baron Rothschild as one of the 
the Government did not escape Members for the City of London, 
eensure. No surprise was created and the colleague in that repre- 
under theee circumstances, when sentatioa of the Prime Minister, 
Mr. Laboocbere, on the 10th was the immediate occasion by 
August, announaed the conclusion which this question, after having 
which every one had anticipated, remained for many years dormant, 
that the measure was to be post- was revived in Uie public mind, 
poned to tbe following year. He Lord John Russell undertook, in 
mored at tbe same time for leave compliance with the wishes of bis 
to bring in tbe Bill which had been constituents, to remove the legal 
prepared, in order that the views impediment which debarred Mem- 
of the Idinistry on the question here of the Jewish reli^n from 
might W definitely laid before the one of tbe most important civil 
public, and might receive due con- rights of British sulyects. A mo- 
nder&tlon in the interval. At the dification of the terms of the deda- 
aame time, Mr. Laboacbere in- ration to be taken by Membera of 
timate4thattheOovemmentwould Parliament formed the simple eu- 
by no means deem themselves actmentof the Bill. It encountered, 
precluded from taking advautage however, a very warm opposition, 
of any information or suggestion both in Parliament and among the 
during the recess, by which the community at large. On the 
measure mi^t be altered for the second reading being moved upon 
better. the Tth Februaiy, Mr. Augustus 

Mr. Herries said, that upon this Stafford took the lead by proposing 

understanding he should not at an amendment, "that the Bill 

present oppose the introduction of should be read a second time that 

the Bill, though be should reserve day six months." It may be re- 

to himself the full right of renew- marked inpassing,that,aeit turned 

ing his opposition to it next year, out, the House was actually sitting 

Mr. Gladstone uiged npon the on that day six months, and for 

Government the expediency of some time afterwards, so that this 

bringing on the Bill at the earliest formal method of shelving the Bill 

period pOBwble in the ensuing might have failed of its design. 

BeanoD. Leave was then given to Mr. Stafford began by reminding 

bring in the Bill. the House that but a small number 

Another measure involving prin- of petitions had been presented in 

(udes of gnat importuice, which &vo<^ of the measure:, the feding 

voL.xa "■ [Gj 

82] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Enyhnd. 

of the public could not, tbetefore. Bill. He endeaTonred, in a Bpeech 
be relied upon as an argument for of much legal research, to eatablisb 
the change. Neither persecution tiiat there vaa nothing in the 
nor toleration was here at stake; common law or in the statute Iftw 
iireedom was already oonceded and of the coontr; of so exclusive & 
guaranteed to every religion. There character that violence would be 
waa involved only the question, done by the remoTol of the Jemsb 
whether the House would continue disdoilidea. Reviewing the cases 
to hold certain beliels or no-behefs in the law books, the old forms of 
as disqualifications to legislate. In writSiandtbeproviaioRsofstatntes, 
reply to the plea that the admis- be contended that oil contradictiona 
nuns of Jews could but be few to bis proposition wme only ap- 
if the disqualification were re- parent contradictions, or too ex- 
moved, he asked, waa that the travagantly superstitions to be now 
argument that was successful in gravely quoted. Of both cbarao- 
the case of seven millions of people ters was the prt»%tmed opinion of 
in a neighbouring island some years Lord Coke, that Jews were aliens. 
^0 ? If concession were made in In the first plaoe, the passage 
this case, how could it be refused really had nothing to do wiib Jews, 
to the appointment of a Boman Secondly, the red point laid down 
Catholic Lord Chancellor of Ire- was, that no injidd could be a 
land? A notice was now on the natUTaHom subject, becaose be 
Order Book, that that concession was the subject of the devil, who 
woold be sought in Oommittee on was the enemy of Christ onr king, 
the Irish Cmritable Trusts Bill. It was eonUnded that an infidel 
What then would stand between could not even sue or move in the 
the English Romanists and tlie cor- courts; which, however, was too 
responding office here? Lastly, much even for the judges of those 
when a Roman Catholic Lord times, and was suppressed- The 
Chancellor dispensed lawinEng- ActofWilliamtheThird,excluding 
land, what should bar a Roman Unitarians from certain civil pri- 
CatholicSovereignfromthethrone? vileges, waa aimed only againat 
A far greater grievance to the Jews persons "who had been ed nested 
than the one aimed at by this Bill in or mode profession of Chris- 
was the compulsory observance of tianity," and then "denied the 
the Christian Sabbath; yet there doctrine of the blessed Trinity:" 
wss no agitation against that. If the section seemed purposely 
such an agitation should arise, was moulded to leave the Jews intact, 
the House prepared to give up the Since that time, Acts hod passed 
recognition of that day by all ? by which Jews had been admitted 

Lord Burgbley seconded the to legislative privileges in the 

amendment, on the ground that Colotiies. This was the oaae both 

the bill tended to unchrislianize in Jamaica and in Canada. The 

the Legislature. He could not first Christian principle was to do 

admit infidels or &fussulmans to a unto others as you would bedoneby. 

seat in Parliament, nor could he Mr. M. Milnes adverted to the 

admit Jews, towards whom, neveiv distinction drawn by Mr. StttSbrd 

tbeless, he entertained the most betneen what was persecution and 

charitable feelings. what was not. But surely the 

Ur. W. P. Wood supported the victim and not the oi^reasor should 

] HISTORY. [83 

b« coiudlted npon tlitt qnMtkm. vwe withdrawn? Might th«Uem' 

Hm »f»thj in ths pnblic nund ber not say, 'I h&TS not sworn 

from whidi eome Mombns had to any &ith, and declare, ss Cod 

infened an indiffcmos to th« doie«t declared, my disbelief in 

rif^ta of die Jews, was in his (Hr. Christianity?' " Tltere must ensue 

^nes's) eyes a piwtf that the a lowering of the tone of debate to 

Bill did not oatiage the religions enable persons to eipresa opinions 

sentinienta ot the natioii. This whioh would be most painful to 

conntfj, eren with a few Jewish the minority at Brst, but would by 

memben in its Liegislature, would cnatom oeaee to be t^auBive, and 

Bot cease to be the moet Christian at last enter into the recognised 

eomtiy on the esrtb. Hie ex- opinion of the House. The oath 

ehisioB from the CbancellofBbip in muld exdude all lumourabU 

England depmded on the office DeiBts; and others would be re- 

harii^ ehnrcB patronage : aoch was strained from propagsndism of 

sot the case with the Irish office, their doctrines on the door of the 

and Uisra was thwefere not the House. 

same occasion for exclusion. The Sir. W.Uoleeworth called stlen- 

prrnciple of onr oonstitutioa was tion to some striking contrarietiea 

■ot exclusion, but the reverse; and arising out of the conflict between 

ereiy test was fonnded on some the statutes regulating Election 

Bpenfio object : for example, the Committees and the statutes im> 

Homai Cubcdio oath arose from posing oaths and tests. " The sum 

fear of a Fofosh succession and and substance of my argument," 

Fo^h plots. The decuionof the SirWilliamrecapituUUed, "is this. 

Honae would be of important in- BoronRoihschUdhasbeenlawfully 

flnencfl beyond English shores, chosen a Member of the House 

The question had raised the great- of Commons ; consequently, be is 

•at interest in the Pmssian Pailia- legally bound to serve, and may be 

mflat, when lately complete eman- summoned to attend in bis place in 

•ipation was refused by only a Parliament: if, when summoned, 

■arrow minori^ of ST. The qoes- he do not attend, be must be taken 

tion was a turning-point of libwty into custody, and otherwise pun- 

Ibr larj^ bodies of men in fbragn ished : if he do att«ad, he would 

eoDotnee. If tluHoose determined be entitled to take the oaths of 

in fawoBT of the Jews, it was to be allegiance end sopremaoy acnord- 

hoped thatnootheraathoritywoald ing to the Jemsh mode of taking 

teel jostifled in closing the doors an oath; but his religious faith 

of Pariiament agunst men such as would prevent him from tsking 

had bacQ seleoted by the people of the oath oi abjuration. He would 

England and anpavved by the thereibre refuse to t^e that oath. 

Englisli Boose of Commons. What would be the consequence? 

Lord Mahon opposed the Bill, I cannot pretend to say whether 

eontroi'ertiiig some of the moM such a refusal wonld or would not, 

pmninaat acgnaMnts of ito sup- under the orcumstsnoes of the 

porten. " Soppose a Deist took ease, constitute an offence for 

his seat in flu House, and there which he could be punished. It is 

wviled Chriatiaaity — <woidd the c«1«in, however, that the House 

Bpe«ker have tlie power or right to has no power to relieve Baron 

iuer&te if the nligiona aanetaQn Sothsehill from the oblicntign » 

[Ga] , .. . ,,.c 

84] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. LEngUind. 

take the oath of abjur&tion, no the e&rlj Cbristuna, tibe Albi- 

power to relieve him from the genses were elaugbtered, and onr 

obligation to attend in his place in own fires were lighted in Smith- 

tiie House, no power to dispense field. Under that pies Catholics 

with bia services on an Election burnt Ptx)te8tant8 ; Proteatants 

Committee, no power to declare burnt Catholics. Calvin kindled 

bis election null and void ; and the faggot of Servetus witb the 

that no law or custom of Parlia- approbation of Uelanctbon ; and 

ment can be cited, and no prece- even the Pilgrim Fathers of New 

dent con be produced, which would England were persecutors, and 

justifj the House in expelling hung Quakers on the gibbets of 

him. If, indeed, the Honee were Massachusetts 1 Under the same 

nevertheless (o expel the bononr- plea, in modem times, we excluded 

able Gentleman, he would not Dissenters from our Corporations 

thereby become legally ineligible ; and Roman Catholics from For- 

and, as often as the House might liament ; and for the same reasons 

expel him, so often would the Jews are now refused a seat in the 

electors of the city of London be British Houseof Commons. Butre- 

legally entitled to re-elect him," ligious liberty has triumphed over 

Uembers who objected to the pre- thenidebigotiyofantiquityandthe 

sent Bill ought to propose some cruel persecutions of our fore-^ 

other efi'ective means of escape out fathers ; it will ultimately acbiere 

of these diflicnitiea — bnt they had a victory over the milder intole- 

not attempted the task. The object ranee of honourable Gentlemen 

of the Bill was merely to make such opposite i and the result will bo 

an alteration in the form, not the peace and good-will among men of 

Buhstance, of the oath, as would evei7 faith who are sul^ects of the 

enable the Jew to take it. The British empire." 
I^egislature never meant the form Mr. Wdpole opposed the Bill 

to be a religious test. Where- in an ai^mentative and -earnest 

ever it was likely to prove bo, speech, which he summed up aa 

enactments hod specifically pro- follows: — "When the noble Lord 

vided the very means proposed in was returned for the City in con- 

this case to avoid that difficulty. junction with a Jew, his (Mr. 

It was not, however, a question Walpole's) first impression was 

of mere precedents, bnt a struggle that he would support the intra- 

between the principle of religions duction of that gentleman to Par- 

equality and its antagonist prin- liament; and it was not till be had 

dple that the State is able and considered the subject in all its 

Ought to determine what religion hearings that he found himself 

is the true religion. " That doc- bound in duty to oppose iL It 

trine of religious infallibility of the was therefore notwitbout a stmggle 

state," said Sir W. Molesworth, with bis own feelings that he 

" hasbeeninallagesandamongall opposed this measure, when b4 

people the plea for the crimes of in- thought of all that the Jews were, 

tolerance and persecution. Under of all that they had been, and of 

that plea Socrates vras put to all that they might be, and when 

death and the Saviour of the world be bore in mind that the time 

was crucified. Under that plea would yet come when they would 

ib» Pagan Empeiws immolated again be what they once were, .the 

Enyu«>a.} HISTORY. [8B 

bronred people of the Lord. This ing almost to idoUtrous veneratioa 

was, however, a qoestion of prin- — was not Bolingbroke, who united 

dple, and when principle was at toezternalaccompliahmentbighin- 

Btake feeling mnst give way. He tellectual endowments, and whose 

entreated the House to pause ere intercourse in private life exercised 

they gave ia to the falladons a species of fascination on all who 

reasoning that becaose thej had had the misfortune to approach 

made a man a magistrate they him — was not Bolingbroke, the 

ahonld also make him a l^sletor ; infidel Bolingbroke, a member of 

— to pause ere they adopted the this House? Was he stopped by 

btal maxim of the noble Lord, the test which arrested the Jew? 

that all who bore the bordens of Did he not, on the contrary, tread 

the State were entitled to its privi- upon it and mount to the height 

leges and honours ; — to pause ere of power, and become a confidential 

they allowed themselres to be adviser of the Sovereign? Is it 

carried away by the &nciful notion not preposterous that a man by 

that their constitution was a fun- whom Revelation was rejected, who 

-damental matter of an ezpanaive doubted the immortality of the 

character; — to pause ere (heyun- aoul, who doubted a future state 

dennined, or in any way dimi- of reward and punishment, who 

nished.tbat great principle on which doubted eternity and Providence, 

the State bad always been founded; who believed nothing, who feared 

a principle which in the minds of nothing, who hoped for nothing, 

all reflective men bad been always who laid no restraint upon his 

associated with the national great- depravity, who had no incentivia 

nese, because it was identified with to virtue beyond such natural 

the national goodness ; a principle promptings as God may have given 

which animated the public conduct him, — is it not monstrous that 

of their Government, and operated such a fiend should find bis vray 

as effectively in their Legislature into the Honee of Commons, and 

as in their households. And in climb to the pinnacle of power, and 

conclosion they wonld perhaps per- that you should slap the door with 

mit him to remind them, in the indignation in the face of an 

solemn language which was heard honourable and conscientious man, 

yesterday in ever; cfaorch in the who adheres to the religion in 

idngdotn, ' that whatever ye do in which he was bom and bred — of 

word or in deed, ye shall do all in a man who beheves in the facts 

the name of the Lord Jesus.' " which constitute the foundation of 

Mr. Shell supported the Bill in Christianity — who believes in the 

an eloquent speech. The follow- existence, of the noble part of onr 

Xpaasage waa one of the most being — who believes in the mercies 

live: — "There had been re- of God.andwhopractiseshomanity 

peated references in this House to to man>-who believes in the Ma 

thecelebrBtedauthorofthe'I>eGline great injunctions on which all 

■nd Fall of the Roman Empire;' morality is based — whose ear is 

bnt I think that a name still more never deaf to the supplications of 

illustrious might have been cited, .suffering, ' whose hana is open as 

Was not Boliogbroke, the fatally day to melting charity,' and whose 

acoomplisbed Bolingbroke, to whose life perhaps presents a better e^ 

{leniaa were ofieredtribotes amount- «m|£flcatiQn of-the precepts of th$ 

86] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EngUmd. 

Gospel than mtny of those men for proposition now before the Houh ? 
the Oake of whose Chrislian re- It wts that they, a Chriatiaa 
ligion these dishonouring disabili- people, shonld set at nought the 
ties are injuriously maintained?" truUia of prophecy; that they 
" In Belgium and in France all should be blind to the fulfilment of 
distinctions between Christian and the decrees of Providence ; and that 
Jew are abolished. I trust that they should in their weakness call 
Protestant England will ftdtow in ^at people to legislate for them 
that great example. A great deal irhom Ood had pronounced to be 
of pr^ndice at one time esisted in unfit to legislate for themselves, 
this country which is banning to The debate was now adjourned, 
disperse. London has made a and resnmed on the 11th. On 
noble manifbstation of iu will, that evening, the speakers in op- 
Are yon prepared' to throw back position to the Bill were Lord 
the Jew upon London, in order Drumlanrig, Mr. R. Spooner, Mr. 
that London may throw badi the H. K. Seymer.and Ur. G. Bankes. 
Jewuponyou? But notonlyare ItwassupportedbyMr.C. Pearson, 
the disqualifications of the Jew Mr. W. Uowpar, Mr. Horeman, 
inconsistent niih the spirit of the Mr. Gockbom, and Sir Robert PeeL 
Christian relijpon. bnt those dis- The speech of the right honour- 
abilities impede the progress of able Baronet was a very imprees- 
Christian truth. They prevent ive one, and produced much efiect 
the conversion of the Jew, and npon the House. Sir Robert 
produce effects diametrically oppo- began with an avowal that in 
site to what is intended. The matters of legielation and govern- 
disabilities of the Jew are sufii- ment he entertained a deep sense 
ciently vexatious to make conver- of roligioos oUigation ; and he ad- 
non be regarded as a synonyme mitted that between the tenets of 
with apostacy. The fetters by the Chrititians and the Jews there 
which the Jew is bonnd, though was a vital difference — inessentials 
apparentiy light, are strong enough the two religions were more directly 
to fosten nim down and make it a ants gonizea than any others. But 
natter of discredit that he should even siqipoaing that he had any 
desert his creed. Nothinff effectual authority to determine what is 
will be dons for the extinction of religious error, he cerlainlj had no 
Judaism till you yosrsetves have commission to ponish the Jews — 
begun by making restitution of his to ponish the descendants for the 
birthright to every Englishman by sin of their &thera, not onto the 
whom the Jewish religion is pro- third and fourth generation, but 
fessed." . nnto the throe-hundredth or four- 
Mr. Newdegate complained that fanndnedth. Civil disability, how- 
tbe intentions of the Government ever, was a penalty. In the case of 
respecting the Jewish question had the Roman Cathotic the disability 
been purposely suppressed at the was not imposed as a penalty 
late general election. He could because he maintained the iKKtrine 
not forget the history of that of transubstantiation, but because 
people, nor disregard the lessons he was deemed a dangerous subject 
which the visible judgments upon in consequence of his adraowledg- 
their race were so strongly calcu- ing the suprsmai^ of a foreign 
lated to impress. — What w$ lbs pnnoe. Sir Robert aitaied into a 

E^land.] HISTORY. [87 

critical axamioalion of Dr. Arnold's For the Second Readiog 377 

dicbun. that Jews should bsre the Against it 204 

ffiTale but not the pablio rights of 

atixcms; to which he opposed the H^ority .... 73 

tiUhontf of Bjtoom, that tJie rights Upon two .subsequent occasions 

of " natural - bom subjects" are the principle of the Jewish Dis- 

"eompleteaud entire." Heshowed abilities Bill was sgain contested 

how Ine Jew is piacticsUj excluded in the House of Commons. On 

from no pablio office — not even the motion for considering the 

tntm the Privy Council, unless it Report, Mr. Goring moved as an 

be indirectly ; so that he had amendment, " That it is the 

already acquired the position of a (pinion of this Hooae, that so 

Britiahcitizen,withrigbtsconi^lete long as the House of Commons 

and generally recognised. The re- exercises the authority which it 

fnsal to admit faim to Psrliameat at present does over the Estab- 

wsa the sole invidious exception to lished Church, no Jew ought to 

that position. The Jew sustained possess the franchise, much less 

the same burdens as other citi- to be allowed to sit in this House." 

sens ; the Christians scrupled not Mr. Goring said that there was 

to borrow money from him ; manj one class in the country, the 

<rf his race, like Sir Uoees Moots- nsursrs and gamblers in the pub- 

fiore, were brilliant examples cf lie securities, whose interests were 

vittne and benevolence. An exotu- in direct opposition to those of 

■ion nnanpported bj reason could the rest of the community. He 

not be permanently maintained, dted the apostoUcal precept against 

The safety of our religion was in holding communion with heretics, 

nowise dependent on the exclasi<»i and declared that to invite the 

of Banm do Bothschild or any revjlers of our Saviour into that 

othergentlemanof the Jewish per- House would be to draw down 

■oaaion : nnlees it weie from inier> Almighty vengeance upon the 

nal dissension, the Church of £ng- country. 

land was stronger at that moment Mr. Gumming Bruce, iu support 
than at any other period within r^ of the amendment, said, that he 
centhistoiy, and was not dependent did not conceive that a man's re> 
en the question of two or three l^on was, as alleged by some 
«otes more or fewer in that House, persons, a matter exclusively be- 
There was no clase oi oar fellow tween himself and hie Creator; 
beings to whom every Christian it materially affected his fetlow- 
state in Europe owed such rep&rar beings, and bad a strong tendency 
tion for oentuiiee of iryostice. per- to qualify or disqaalify him for 
eacution, and wrong ; and Sir Ro- political functions. Sir W. Vemer 
bart Peel rejoiced to think that the thought the Established Church, 
example of England woold conduce both here and in Ireland, hod 
to the weUare «f the Jews in other never ceased to suffer wrong siuoe 
eoontries — wovld expedite their the Boman Catholic Relief Act wss 
emancipation, or at least -soothe passed. Mr. Hornby expected ere 
tbem aader oppression. many years after this Bill passed 
After some further discuanon to see thirty or forty Jews in that 
the House came to a division, House-^that four of them would 
iriien there appeand— represent London ; thiy mightalso 

ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

become 'Premiere and Chancellors 
of the Exchequer, and in such 
case would no doubt favour their 
own people on 'Change with any 
priority of information officially 
obtained, Hr. Adderly concurred 
in the poaition set forth by the 
emeadment. Sir R. H. Inglis 
thought that it nould have been 
sounder policy to refuse the fran- 
chise to tiieBoman Catholics, than 
to concede to them admission to 
the Legislature. He suggested 
that the amendment should not 
be pressed, but that opponents of 
the Bill should reserve themselves 
for a protest against the principle 
upon the third reading, ^r. Gard- 
ner spoke in favour of the Bill. 
Mr. Urquhart, on the other side, 
argued that the Church was un- 
justly exposed to the assaults of 
her enemies, by the indiscriminate 
admission of Members of all creeds 
into the House. Lord Dudley 
'Stuart exhibited the statistical 
account of the petitions which had 
been presented affecting the Bill. 
Ample time had been asked by 
the opponents of the Bill for the 
country to rise up against it : after 
ample time has elapsed, what were 
Ihe results — petitions with 60,000 
siguatures a^inst the Bill, and 
petitions signed by more than 
300.000 in its favour. In the 
latter class were petitions from 
almost every corporation in the 
Itingdom— Jedburgh and Sudbury 
being the only two on the other 
side. Lord Dudley stated that a 
learned Jewish doctor, a Rabbi, in 
a late lecture at Birmingham, 
taking the Gospels as authentic 
histories of their times, avowed 
that Jesus of Nazareth was the 
victim of fanaticism, of the lust of 

Eower and jealousy of the Jewish 
ierarchy. The feeling was a grow- 
ing one among men ot piety, and 

reflection, that complete toleratioa 
must be established. 

Ultimately Mr. Goring withdrew 
his amendment. Mr. Willoughbj 
moved another, limiting the offices 
to be held by Jews, which was lost 
on s division by 196 to SS. Sir 
Kobert Inglis next moved a pro- 
viso, that no Jew should be a Judge 
in any Court of Law, or a Member 
of the Privy Council. This was 
also negatived by 303 to 109. 

The third reading of the Bill 
underwent considerable postpone* 
ment, bnt tbo motion ultinuUely 
came on upon the 4th of Alay. 3ir 
Frederick Thesiger renewed the op- 
position on this occasion, by moving 
" that the Bill be read a third 
time on that day six months." 

Sir Frederick gave up the doc- 
trine that to admit Jews to the 
Legislature would in any degree 
interfere with the Divine decree 
under which their condition pre- 
sentsastanding miracle; for it was 
absurd, and perhaps worse, to 
suppose that any course of pro- 
ceedings adapted by the frail and 
feeble inhabitants of this nether 
world could interfere with the 
councils of the Almighty. But he' 
opposed the alteration of the oath, 
because our laws must be based 
upon Christian morals : and with 
that view it was proper that there 
should be a test to judge of the 
inclinadon of every one entering 
the House to accept that basis. 
Admit the Jews, and the Deists — 
a class, he feared, not less numerous 
thantheJews — might say that they 
desired to serve their country, but 
that the declaration " on the true 
faith of a Christian " operated to 
their exclusion. 

The third reading was also op- 
posed by Mr. Campbell, Mr. F. 
Scott, Mr. Raphael, Lord Mahon, 
Sir R. H. Inglis, and Mr. Newde- 




gate. It was supported by Mr. 
Trelaimey, Mr. Weathead. Mr. 
Comewall Levis, Mr. firotherton, 
Mr. Rubinson, and Mr. Fortescue. 

Lord JohD Russell, in reply, dis- 
tinguished the gnrands on which 
he adrocsted the Bill. He did 
DOt support it on the groitnd thst 
religion has nothing to do with 
politics, or that Members of Par- 
liameDt ought not to be guided 
by religious views and motivea iu 

"I belieTe."aaid the noble Lord, 
" that religion ought to influence us 
in the smallest domestic a£[airs, 
and in the highest legialstive con- 
cerns. I believe that Christianity, 
far from having nothing to do with 
legislation, is the source of the 
most enlightened laws which 
modem times have produced. I 
believe that it is owing to Chris- 
tiani^ that the slavery which 
pre rail Bid in the ancient world 
was abolished in an early part 
of tha modem ages. I beheve 
that it was Chrutianity which 
inspired Mr. Wilberforce and 
those who acted with him to 
make that attempt which finally 
■Qcceeded in destroying the slave 
trade, which was a disgrace to any 
Christian oountry. My belief is — 
to speak of no particular law, but 
of me general spirit of institu- 
tions — that, whereas ancient re- 
poblics and states, the more they 
became civilized became the more 
loose in their morality, the more 
bewildered by vain theories of phi- 
losophy, and the more corrupt in 
Uieir mond practice, — modem na- 
tions, on the contrary, having 
Christianity to guide them, will, 
in pioportion as Uiey become more 
civilized, so far from falling into 
those corruptions, and being less 
governed by the moral law, as in 
e^y. and i»mote ages, become 

more sulgect to the rules of mo- 
rality, and will more acknowledge 
the supremacy of the Divine law. 
But you cannot by special declara- 
tions, by mere words introduced 
into an oath — you cannot by the 
mere terms of a statute obtain 
that religious spirit and that ac- 
knowledgment of Christianity 
which you desire. It is not to be 
gained in that way. I proved this 
formerly by the instances of thoee 
who, being notoriously unbelievers 
in Christianity, nevertheless sat 
in this House in spite of these 
declarations : but I will put it to 
this simple test — If these declara- 
tions are sufficient, why do yon 
not carry your legislation much 
further? Why not impose a de- 
claration to be made by every 
Member that he is not governed 
by prejudice or partial affections, 
that he is not swayed by corrupt 
motives or personal animosities, 
but that in all his votes he is 

?Dvemed by love of the country? 
f men were ruled by the mere 
words of a declaration, surely such 
a declaration would be as good as 
any declaration with regard to the 
religious belief of the party." 
Upon a division there appeared — 

For the Third Reading . 234 
Against it 173 

Msjority for the Bill . Ql 
The Bill was then passed. In 
the House of Lords, however, it 
experienced a much leas favourable 
reception. The second reading 
was moved on the asth May, by 
the Marquis of X^nsdowne, who 
opened the debate with a clear and 
temperate recapitulation of the 
arguments in favour of the mea- 
sure, which were for the most part 
the same as bad been mgea by 
Lord John Russell in the House 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [iM««rf. 

«f Gommona. He espeeullj dwelt 
on the fact, that the exclusion i£ 
the Jews was not b^ virtae <rf Uie 
ancient laws of the kingdom, but 
ma an innovftdiH] of recent times ; 
that the very declaration which 
now openU«e to their exclusion, 
"on the true faith of a Chriatian," 
was not originally directed against 
Jews, but against Popish recusants 
in the reign of James the First ) 
that from the earliest introduction 
of their faith Christians had repu- 
diated the connection of theology 
and politics, and that the general 
eligibility of the Jews for luvil 
offices renders their exclusion from 
legiriative power anomalous and 

The Earl of Ellenboroogh then 
rose to move " that the Bill be read 
a second time on that day six 
months." He took his stand against 
the Bill on the ground of Ghriatian 
obligation; ana insisted that the 
Jew was not only a citizen of a dis' 
tinct nation, but a member of a 
class having ecarcdy any social 
rdation with the community. In 
an agricultural and mantifactnr- 
ing nation the Jew was neither 
an agriculturist nor a manuiacturer. 
He did not labour, he only bought 
and Bold, at a small profit, the 
labour of others. There were few 
rich men among his persuasion, but 
Bome very rich. They could not 
intermarry vrilh the people of tliia 
country; and, except among the 
h^er classes, they mixed but 
little socially with the members of 
other religious persuasions. They 
were oitiEens of the world rather 
than of any particular country. 
Though they were not aliens in 
the sense of owing allegiance to 
another country, there were no 
people who could transfer them- 
selves to another oountiy with the 
flame faeali^ as the Jews. Wher*- 

ever the Jew went be fband hia 
own people ; the same religion and 
the same language were ccanmon 
to them all ; and when he removed 
to another country be found per- 
eons of his own nation engaged in 
transactions similar to his own. 
Lord Ellenborough quoted from 
th« " Memoirs of Sir Fowell Bux- 
ton" the anecdote related by Mr. 
Rothschild, the founder of the 
house in London, who said that 
he first came to England from 
Frankfort because an English 
manuiacturer had refused to show 
his patterns, and who boasted of 
having acted on the most selfish 
principles ; such was the origin of 
the great house of Bothscliild, and 
of the present Bill. 

Lord Ellenborough warned the 
House agaiust the public danger 
of acceding to the measure, a^er 
the warnings of Providence, in the 
shape of famine and distress — na- 
tions convulsed on eveiy side — the 
most ancient and powerful dynas- 
ties of Europe crashed in one day — 
the great empire of Austria broken 
in pieces like a potter's vessel— 
the disruption of some of the most 
ancient and important alliances of 
states — the present age forgetting 
the hist<vy of the past. How could 
this countjy hqie to escape the con- 
tamination of these prinoiplee, ex- 
cept by obtaining aid from above ; 
and he trusted that they would not 
deprive themselves of heavenly 
aid by giving up the distinction 
which had hitherto belonged to this 
country of (he exclusively Christian 
character of its Legislature. 

The Duke of Cambridge, pro- 
fessing great personal respect for 
the Jews, could not consent to ad- 
mit them into Parliament, so long 
aa the govemmeDt of the conntiy 
was to remain a Christian one. 

The Duke of Ai^le, addressing 

EnfUmd.] HISTORY. [91 

du Hdom for the first time in &- Canuo. Thst people had 9>a«m 

Toar of the me^Bare. diadaguisbfid for 1800 yeaxs. Teceiriog a wetk- 

Mmsalf br a speech of calm and ened Uadirion from their half un- 

eameat ai;ganMniation. believiDg fatherB; and how «iuld 

The End of WiDckikea, in aop- it be expected that a race immerBed 

port of the antcndment, treated in Ute puiBuit ef gain, vith no- 

tbesnlgectwithnmchmorevanDlh thing to oeoBtenct that paasion 

of kagoi^. He declared the Bill but a bdief in the troth of their 

l» be a greater insult to the boooar rel^on, vonld be benefited hj an 

and glory of God than any which admission into the BritiBh Parlia? 

hadbeenbfon^tbefMretlieHanse; ment? Abhorring as he did the 

he proteeted againBt adnribtiiw one croelty with vhkh the forefathers 

lieh Jew to Padiament in order to (so called incorrectly) of the Jews 

reward him for fovoiuB rendered were treated, he oonteBded that 

to the Uinister of the day ; and that omehy was baaed upon truth, 

he hoped that none of the Bishops and was kinder tbau the &lse hu- 

woald rote in Ettour of the Bill, inanity whish would teach this peo- 

for if it passed, mthin a year not pie that the revelation made to 

OM of them woald hare a seat in them was eithra a folse or an imina- 

that Hosae. tehal one. 

The Bi^op of Bt Darid's aor- He most remark, that every 

njed the enkgect in an faistofioal Jew who was now in Cngland had 

and phUosophical ptnnt of view, re- come to £ngland (or his immediate 

viewing fbe relations of Christiana ancestors had done so) within tbe 

rad Jews doctrinally ssid socially ; last two hundred years ; and tbey 

he traced the efieots of mntual per- had eome on tbe condition that 

Bscntioiia in still surnring nsperi- they sbould bave shelter and kind* 

tiee ; showed how mach they have ness, bat not political privileges, 

in oominou; and maintaitted the No doubt there migbt have been 

real sin of this country in respect in certain oases certain adTantagea 

of the Jievra was in the old perse- derivshle fran tbe election of Jew- 

cMions, not in the recent in- ish lepresentativee. Far be it 

dnlgencea. from blm, however, to say tbat he 

^nie Biehop of Oxford entered knew any such instance. He pio- 
into the more fonuliar and popnlar fessed to bave no knowledge of 
topics of the controversy. He main- those " secrets of the prison-house." 
tained that the sitting in Parlia- He repeated, that though be knew 
mrat me no r^At, bttt a truMt oon- sothiug aboat the secrets of the late 
ferred at the will of the consti- election for the city of London, yet 
toents, who had a perfect title to tbat be was not wiUiout aome know- 
exolnde Jews from that tnet He ledge of the public history of that 
qaoteddocametita.B8peaially"AMa- transaction. (" Hear.hear.") Itwas 
ooal of Judaism " by Mr. Josbnavan pretty well known that the Prime 
Oven, to show that the Jews were Minister's election for tbat City waa 
really a distinct and alien race, and not a feat of very easy accomplish- 
that the earnest men among them ment, and that there were no small 
deprecated any social or political diffloultjes to be overcome, where 
connection with other nations, as there was a good deal of character 
the auctions of die Hebrew on the one side and much capital 
tmeJarasoIem'aiid on the other. Deolanttaona in fo- 


92] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [E«jtai 

VOQI* of remoriog Jewish diskbili- the putting forwarfl of Banm Roth- 
ties might under such circum- schild, becauBo of the contest it 
Btances have been found exceed- would provoke ; so that Itis onl^ 
ingly convenient. " obligation " to B&ron Rothschild 

He called upon the House to was the injuiy which he suatuned 

beware of doing what this measure bj the contest which ensued. 

would do — unchristian ize the coun- As to the danger of admitting 

try • a. meaanre which would yield the Jews, Lord Brougham pointed 

nothing in retnm — not the smallest to the analogous case of theRonian 

accession of strength, or of consis- Catholics since Emancipation— the 

tency, or of character — a measure Protestant Kstablishmenthad been 

which woidd ii^ure all and as efQcieutly vindicated as ever, 

strengthen none. As tothefearof "unchristianiziag" 

The Earl of EUesmere contended the Commons, they were unchns- 

that the British Jewnever sheltered tianized already. (Lou^Atn-.) Would 

himself from civil responsibility the Commons come to the bar of 

and patriotic duties under the plea that House by message, or in any 

of being an alieu, and that it was other way, and by their words, 

neither equitable nor safe to ex- acts, or desires, pretend to call 

cludefrom themakiugoflawstbose themselves a Christian assembly ? 

who had so lai^s eui interest in He did not know what would be- 

the well-being of the community. come of them ; hut assuredly it was 

Lord Stanley contended against not to be denied that we had a 

the admisGiion as a right. If there motley sort of legislation, half 

vras DO law excluding the Jews infidel, half Christian. OfHerMa- 

from Parliament before the time of jesty he would only say, may God 

James I., it was because no Jew long preserve her in her Christian 

bad a right to set his foot in this character to reign over a tolerant 

countiy : while the statute wliich and enlightened people. As for the 

DOW operates to his exclusion was Ministry, they were undoubtedly 

suspended during the reign of nearly as unchristian as the Com- 

William and Mary, he could not mons. {Laugkur.) So that he was 

obtain letters of naturalization ; afraid they must stand before the 

and if born here, he could acquire world as half Christian, half Pagan 

no freehold qualification. — a Pagan House of Commons, and 

The Earl of Dysart deemed it in- a perfectly Christian House of 

expedient to admit Jevrs, because a Lords. (LaughUr.) He saw little 

Jew must wish to see our Christian use, therefore, of so much argn- 

institutions destroyed, ment about unchristianizing Ute 

Ix>rd Brougham argued in sup- Legislature, 

port of the Bill, replying especially The Bishop of Oxford explained, 

to the speech of the Bishop of He regretted that any words should 

Oxford. He denied the alleged have udlen from him in the warmth 

partnership at the London election, of debate which might appear sus> 

between Lord John Russell and ceplible of the meaning which bis 

Baron Rothschild : it was slan- nohle and learned friend had af- 

<lerouslr said, and if a Bishop had fixed to them. He had not the 

not said it he should have said that smallest idea that the noble Lord 

it was false. {Laughter.) Lord John at the bead of the Govemmeat 

bad always refused to be a party to had been privy to any bribery wbat^ 




erer— Lord Jolin bad sapported 
the admisaoD of Jem into Par- 
liament long before; and the 
Bishop heamlj regretted having, 
in the midat of a grsve argumeat, 
used words that might be construed 
to bear soch a meaning. He had 
no mt«Dtioa wfaat«Ter to slander 
the noble Lord, and be begged to 
recall bia words. {Chun.) 

The Marqais of Lansdowne re- 
plied. He took the opportunity 
of Tindicating Lord John RosBell 
from the imputation of having 
benefited daring the recent election 
tor London b; the assistance of 
Banin Rothschild. Lord John 
RaaBell bad k^t lus interest and 
ba a£hirs on that occasion per- 

fectly distinct from those of any 
other candidate. 

The House then divided, when 
the reaolt was as follows : — 


Non-Conl«nta — Present 126 
Proxiea 38 


The Jewish Disabilitiea Bill w 
consequently lost. 


»4J ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. iS«^iand.. 


AffaxTt of Ireland — Ditaffeeted and critical ttaU of that Country 
during the Spring of 1848 — Progreu of Inmrreetion — Uovemtnti of 
Mr. Smith O'Brien and hit eonfederatea — Ignonwwmt Failura of the 
frejected Outbreak — Policy of the Qover»tnent artd Uate of Public 
Opinion in tht* Country on ths SvJgect — Adoption of Cotreixe Mea- 
turtt — Announcement of a Biil for the Stapension of ths Habea* 
Cotjnu Act — Debate in the Hotiie of Lordt upon a Motion m«<{« by 
the Earl of GUngall — Deeieive Declaration of the Marquii of Lata- 
doane on behalf of the Oovemment-^Itemarkt of Lord Brougham, 
Lord Stanley, and other Peen — Unanimout feeling of the Hpuse — 
Lord John Rtueell, on the Zilh July, move* for Leave to bring in a BiU 
vetting extraordinary Poieen in the Lord Lieutenant— Hi* Speech on 
the itate of Ireland and the features of the Critie — He ii warmly 
mpported by Sir Bobert Peel. Mr. Disraeli, Mr. Hume, Mr. B. 
Osborne, Sir D. Norreys, Sir Lucius O'Brien, and many other Eng- 
lish and Irish Members, speak in favour of the Bill — Mr. Feargvs 
O'Connor delivers a vehement Repeal Speech against it — Mr. S. Cra%e~ 
ford moves an Amendment, which is lost on a Division, only Eight 
Members voting for it — Tlie BUI is passed through aU its Stages on 
the same Day, and is sent up to the House of Lords — The Marguis of 
Lansdowne, on the 2StA, introduces the BUI, with a Speech similar in 
effect to UuU of Lord J. Russdi — Lord Brougham, the Earl of Wick- 
lovi, the Earl of Qlengall, and other Peers support the BUI, which i* 
then carried through aU its Stages without any OpposUion — Ddtate m 
the House of Commons on the Condition of Ireland, originating in 
a Resolution proposed by Mr. Sharman Crawford for the Redress of 
Grievances — His Speech — Answer of Lord John Russell — Speeches of 
Mr. H. Herbert, Mr. Fagan, Mr. MonseU, and Mr. Osboms — The 
Debate t* adjourned — Deelarationi of Sir George Grey, Sir WiJliam 
SomsrvUle, and Lord John Russell respecting the Irish Church — After 
further Debate, the Resolution motied by Mr. S. Crawford is negatived 
by 100 to 34 — BUlforfacilUating the Transfer of Encumbered Estate* 
— Speech of the Lord Chancellor explaining the Bill — Speeches of the 
Earl of Roden, Earl Fitzwilliam, Lord Stanley, Lord CampbaU, and 
Lord Monleagle — The BiU is read a Second Time— It i* much debated 
in the House of Commons — Sir Jjueiu* O'Brien, Mr. Napier, Mr. 
Henley, and other Members, oppose the BUI — The Solicitor-Oeneral, 
Mr. B. Osborne, Sir J. Graham, Mr. MonseU, Mr. Sadlsir, and Mr. 
P. Wood, sufport it — ^n Amendment moved by Mr. Napier is defeated 

Englmi,] HISTORY. [96 

far 197 to 52 — The Anundmenti made m tks Hoiue of Commont art 
o^oud tM the Houte of Jjordt by Lord Stanlty and Lord MonUegU, 
but adopted on a Divuion by QT to 10, and the Bill itpaned. 

DURING the early part of this flaming tiie minds of the diatatmsed 

Session the (UBcassian of peasBntrytoanlairfaldeaignB. The 

bisb qoeBlioDs oocnpied a less pro- narratdTO of the events that marked 

pwtion than usual of the time and the Irish innirrectioa of 1848 be- 

attention of Parliament. A Bill to longs to snother part of this work, 

facilitate the sale of encumbered e»- Happily it prorea too ii)si|^ificant 

tates in Ireland, to which we shall to be worthy of any serious regard, 

Wreafter refer more particularly, and to a certain extent it snswered 

msintrodooedbytheLordChancel- a good purpose, by exposing to the 

lor early in the year, thoogh it did eyes of the Bngtt^ people the real 

notfinally pass into law until many weakness of that much Tsmited 

inontlia afterwards ; with this ex- agitation, which was crushed, al' 

eeption, dnring the spring of the most without an eSbrt, tbe moment 

present year, Irish measares en- it broke out into orert seta. The 

SBged little of the public notice, ignominiona defeat of Ur. O'Brien's 

But aa the summ^ advanced of- ludicrma attack on the civil 

fints in that unhappy couDtry be- power, and the unresisted capture 

ffa to asnme a very threatening sf his person, annihilated at once 

aapect. Menaces ai a general in- both the dignity and the danger of 

■nrreotion had, indeed, for several a conspiracy which had been mag- 

montha been openly thrown oat, nified by die vanity of a few con- 

hu the people at this country had ceited demagogues into a civil war. 

beenaoaocostomedlothevBpouring Nevertheless, frivolous as the out- 

tfareata and treasonable harangues break was, and chimerical as the 

«f Irish agitatois, that they turned alarms which had been entertuned 

far aome time an incredulous ear to wereproved to be, it was imposaiUe 

the Tumours of an outbreak. The to doubt, from the evidence as to 

B of rebellion were, how- the state of public feeling which it 

, for once in earnest They brought to light, that a widespread 

Baa Buned, in the person of Mr. and deep-rooted disaffection per* 

Bmiui O'Brien, a leader of rank vaded a Isrge part tit the popala- 

and tDflnetice, who, however Ei- tion. However little apprebeosiMt 

natical and wild in his views, was tbsrefbre might be felt that the dis- 

at least sincere in the cause which tempers of the country would break 

ha had espoused, and willing to out mto war, there was the greatest 

stake his own life and fortune in reason to dread that they might exr 

the despMate game in whioh his plode in the shspe of outrage and 

party were engaged. He was sup- isrime, and that ^though the right 

ported by a number of active co- of the Grown might be in no jeo- 

•djntOTS, less eminent indeed than P^J, the life and property of in* 

himself in social rank and position, dividuals would be seriously en- 

bnt poeaessed of no mean powers dangered. Under theSe circUB- 

of talent and education, which stances the necessi^ for making 

made tkcm formidable instramentB the bands of the law more strin> 

in ttimohtiBg diaaffectioD and in- gent, and arming the heads of the 

96] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [•»»»!««'- 

Qumd's Govermnent mth more give notice tlut I propose, at the 
extensive powers, iras admitted hy Bitting of the House to-morrow, to 
almost every cIsbb of politiciana in ask leaTe to bring io a Bill to em- 
England. The absurd and frantic powerthe Lord Lieutenant or other 
efforts of the Irish demagogues Chief Governor or GoTemore of Ire- 
had disgusted eren the most tele- land, to apprehend and detain, until 
rant friends of their nation in this the 1st day of March, 1849, such 
country, and produced an una- persons as he shall suspect of con- 
nimity in the councils of the Bri- spiring agiunst Her Miyesty's pei^ 
tish Parliament which no other son or Government." [LotidchMT- 
event could in bo short a time have tn^.) 

brought about. The repugnance It happened that the Earl of 
to entrust summary and arbitrary Glengalt had given notice, for the 
powers to Ministerial discretion, same evening, of a motion in the 
which is generally found to exist in House of Lords for papers, with 
themindaof liberal politicians, had the view of bringing the proceed- 
given way to more urgent consider- ingsin Ireland, and thenecessi^for 
ations. On the other hand, the voice further legislation, under the con- 
of Conservative opinion in both sidenttion of Parliament. Before 
countries demanded in the strongest this motion was called on, the Mar- 
manner a reinforcement of the law, quis of Lonsdowne communicated to 
and the enactment of additional se- Uie House the notice which his col- 
curides for the life and property of league had given in the House of 
the Queen's loyal sul^ecta on the Commons : he, however, invited 
othersidetheChannel. Tothisde- Lord Glengall, nevertheless, to 
maud the Government promptly proceed with his motion, as oflbrd- 
yielded. It was a happy circum- ing an opportunity to the Govem- 
fltance that at this time Uie highest ment for a further statement. In 
focecutive authority was vested in accordance vrith this suggestion, 
aLord Lieutenant inwhoaeenei^, Lord Glengall moved for copies 
judgment, and sagacity all parties of such reports as had been re- 
entertained conGdence. In the ceived by Her Miyeaty's Oovem- 
Earl of Clarendon the public knew ment from the stipendiary magia- 
that the Crown would find a firm trates, constabulary officers, and 
butt«mperateaseerterof its rights, police, respecting the formation of 
and rebellion an uncompromising clulis in Ireland, 
opponent It was well understood. Lord Glengall glanced at the 
also, that between that nobleman recent history of Ireland, — the 
and the Members of the Go- schism in the Repeal party; the 
Temment in England the most grovrth of the clut» ; the atrocions 
cordial understanding existed, and counsel given to the people not 
that eveiy measure of their Irish only to prepare pikes and blunder- 
policy would be dictated by his in- busses, but to destroy the soldiery 
formation and advice. with vitriol and burning turpen- 
It was under these circum- tine; the military array; the 
Btances, that, on the 31st July, treasonable communioatione with 
Lord John Russell made the fol- France and America; and the evi-- 
lowing announcemeDt in the Houae dent intention to effect, not only a 
of Commons:— "I rise, sir, to political but a social revolution, by 

B'»9»«^*] HISTORY. [97 

txtarmiimting " tbe Ei^tisb guri- of w. ' I aee that in esnying oat 

■cm" — diat IB, the 8000 ProteaUnt the militaiy amj they bare been 

Imdloids of Inland. Hd com- directed by a penon who not Itma 

{luned. that neitfaer the Ortme i^ weot to F^s, for tbe avowed 

and Ontmge Aut, nor the Sedi> poi^oee of coimeoting hiauelf with 

tiooa SpeebiBg Act, liad prored the clubs in that metropolis, and 

anffiuentlj powerfbl : nothing who, after meeting with aomethii^ 

diort sC BOBpeadiDg the Habeas like r^ection from the then Go- 

Corpoa Act would do ; for anarchy veniment of Francs, went forth 

waa io tbe ascendant, and insturec- knooking from door to door, Beet 

tiwi most follow. ing where he could find tbe 

The Harqnia of Lansdowne ad- greatest bostiU^ to the Govem- 
mitlad that the fitcts stated by ment of bia own country. When 
ixird Glangall were notoriooB, but that pereon, retnrmng from this 
be tboof^ the motitm onneces- expedition, was placed at the head 
■uy ; extracts from the pc^is in of these institutions in Ireland, I 
f oeation — for. no more then ex- knew what the isaae of theae pro- 
tracts could be given with pro- ceedings must be." 
[wiety — would only weaken the Lord Clarendon, however, had 
eaae, as it stood npon &ct8 which employed the powers already at 
were notorious. Lord Lansdowne bis command more effectively than 
then proceeded farther to explain Lord Glengall seemed to allow, 
tbe views of Government :~-" It By tbe help of the Crime and 
is unnecessary t« gauge the actual Outrage Bill the peace of the 
extent of the clubs ; but they must dtj of Limerick has been com- 
be stopped at once by the strong paratively restored. An existinR 
aim of the law. These clubs Act against illegal training had 
have reached to a pitch in Ireland been useful : it would expire at the 
which I affirm to be, on the an- end of that Session, but would be 
thority of tbe Lord Lieutenant, renewed. Other powers, inclad- 
and not on bis autbori^ alone, ing those conferred by the com- 
bat on the concurrent aauority of mon law, bad been carried into 
all observers, eabversive of the efiect; and the law had beenai^ 
public peace, and nothing but a ported by the juries, 
prelude to civil war. There is "I nererthelese agree," added 
not a doubt about it, because Lm^ Lansdowne, " that the dnbs 
their proceedmgs are open to the are capable of being used, as I 
worid. What is secret among finnty believe they are intended 
them I do not pretend to dis- chiefly to be osed, fw the pur- 
cover; bat what is open and pal- pose of intimidstion. ("Hear!") 
pable ia emngfa for me. When I They have acquired that charac- 
loc^ at tbe mimbers, tbe language, ter, and are enabled to exercise it 
and the objects proposed by those with efiect upon every class of the 
ehibs, and the amount of military communis, rich and poor, lioman 
array by which it ia sought to at- Catholic and Protestant ; openly 
tain those otigectB. I say you have avowing, as they have done within 
all Ute elements of proof before the last week, that those who did 
yoo, and that there is nothing not yield to their arbitrary au- 
wandng in the framework of re- thorily, and ^pear armed at their 
ballion bat the actual declaration call, are to be considered as ene- 

VoL. XO. [H] 

98] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEnffUmd. 

niies ; end in the name of liberty noble friend, but upon the aiitha< 
the; are endeavouring to eBUblieb rity of others also, though more 
a most cruel autbority, subversiTe especially upon my noble friend's, 
of all liberty, destructiTe of all that in this formidable morement, 
conscience, and leading, as these althoogh there is reason, doubtless, 
associations have always led, to to apprehend that many individuals 
murder and bloodshed, and finally of the Roman Catholic clergy have 
to anarchy and perfect despotism, been engaged, jet nevertheless the 
Is this, or is it not, a state of things conduct of the great portion of 
which ought to be met by all the that body has been most men- 
vigour of the Government, sup- torious. And I again state, upon 
ported, aa I trust it will be, by Eul the authority of my noble friend, 
the authoiity of Parliament?* who has from day to day examined 

" We are arrived at that state the progress of this disorder, that 
of things in which loss of time is although, whilst such disorder is 
loss of power. (CliMn.) Use preying upon society, they have 
that power while you have it — been without the means of eierting 
[Bmewd eheen) — and the effect the same vital energy in opposition 
of your using it will be, not to to its progress, yet some of the 
destroy or impair liberty, but to Roman Catholic clergy have been 
save and preserve life. It was most active in preventing the pro- 
upon these considerations that the pagatiou of these clubs ; and in- 
I^rd Lieutenant of Ireland, in the stances could be quoted, amidst 
responsible situation which he fills, this progress of sedition and plant- 
has told Her Mtyesty's Govern- iug of disorder, of the greatest 
ment here that the time has ar- benefit having attended their ex- 
rived when it has become neces- hortations to peace, and their en- 
sory to arm him with power to de- deavours to defend their unfortu- 
tain all persons justly suspected of nate flocks from the contagion they 
treasonable intentions. I will not had received. It is but justice to 
say that no other efforts will he them to make this statement In 
made ; but I heUeve that this is that great conflict which I fear ia 
the measure which is called for, coming, though I trust it will be 
because it goes at once to strike short, I believe that the Govern- 
at the leaders having those oh- ment of Ireland will have the aid 
jectfl: for, considering the state of one portion at least of that 
of the Irish people — their poverty, highly respectable and religioua 
tbeir sufferings, their national ten- body. As to the measure to which 
dency to excess, and their igno- Uie noble Earl alluded, notice of 
ranee — 1 feet that much may be its introduction has already been 
said in extenuation of their con- given to the other House of Par- 
duct. Against the leaders, who liament ; and when it comes here 
mislead Uie people by wilful false- I trust that your Lordships will 
hood, the punishment cannot be give to it the most attentive con- 
too severe. And I know that sideration." 
Lord Clarendon wonld exercise Lord Brougham cordially ap- 
the powers intrusted to him with proved of the course now taken by 
safety and forbearance." the Government ; adducing in sup- 

" Before I sit down I will state, port of it the authori^ of the lats 

not only upon the authority of my Mr. O'Connell. A declaratiott 

Ei»sl««i.] HISTORY. 

made hy him, then leader of tiie O'Connell'a permisaioD, I stated on 

Ituh people, had been fumiehed t<) the following day tiie subst&nce of 

him (Loid Broughun) by a high]/ that conversation to Mr. , 

Kepectable individual, whose com- U.P. ; and I got leave also to 

mnnicaldon he read to the House, sbov it to Sir Robert Peel and 

"The writer said — 'Three weeks Lord John Bussell.' " 
before Sir Robert Peel's Coercion Lord Stanlej rejoiced too much 

Bill was introduced. In 1846, the at the present resolution of the 

late Mr. O'Conndl deliberately Uinistrj to criticise their past 

stated to me and Dr. , and conduct: he only hoped that the 

Mr. , now M.F. for an im- measure adopted would be atroDg 

poTtant place, and lately and at eaough, and not hampered by 

thai time in a situation under Go- needless details, and he undertook 

vemment,' — 'that in his opinioo that, without regard to party con- 

the true remedy, which would be a sideration, the OoTerament should 

safe and cooatitutional core in the receive the UDammous support of 

then state of certain districts in that House. 

Ireland, as Limerick, Tipperary, Lord Lansdowne stated that the 

and so forth, was the power com- Ministers would make eveiything 

monlj called,' though not very give way to the progress of the 

accurately. ' (he suspension of the measure, which should be pressed 

Habeas Corpus Act,— as it would forward as speedily as the forms 

core and not irritate' — the very of legislation would allow. In 

words, observed Lord Brougham, the event of an; unfortunate delay 

that I used, in ignorance of having taking place with respect to the 

this authority; ' and he said, that passing of the Bill — if, in the pre- 

if Sir Robert Peel made out a sent feverish state of the people at 

case to entitle his Government to Ireland, they should be tempted to 

possess such a power, he would break out into actual rebellion — 

support his application to Parlia- there existed an Act of the Irish 

ment for it, provided ' — now, I Parliament passed long before the 

thoi^ht that what followed would Union, under which the Lord 

take away the whole value of the Lieateuantcotild immediately seize 

opinion as to the Habeas Corpus and detain every person whom he 

suspension — ' provided Sir Robert might suspect of being an accessoiy 

Fed would give'— I expected to to that rebellioua proceeding. He 

find what he termed 'justice to would go further, and state that 

Ireland,' and there was no saying the Lord Lieutenant was prepared 

what that might be, and the pledge to take that course the moment an 

in favour of coercion might soon outbreak arose. (Loud ehttn.') 
be forgotten: but it was, 'pro- LordBroughameaidhewasaware 

vided Sir Robert Feel would at of the Irish Act referred to. In 

the same time introduce to the order to bring it into operation, it 

House those measures of relief and was not neoessaiy that there should 

justice ' — not in general terms, be a general outbreak ; any insur- 

acGording to Mr. O'Connell's own rectionary movement was sufEident 

notion of justice, but ' which be for the purpose. He bod no doubt 

(Sir R. Peel) had so often pro- that the Lord Lieutenant would 

mised to bring forward.' The do his duty vigorously and fear* 

writer then added, 'With Mr. lessly. 

100] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [SnglMd. 

L»rd OlengnU then withdrew t^ast the Crown of this kingdom. 

his motion. Whilst England and Scotland had 

The next day, although, being been contributing their private 
'Batuiday, it was oat of oourae for and public funds to the mitigatioa 
th«HouBe of Commons to ait, Lord of the famine which had recently 
John HuBsell.purBnant to his notice rav^d Ireland, all that the con- 
Bbore stated, brought forward his f^emtes and thdr leaders had con- 
motion for a Bill ta suspend the tributed was seditious harangues, 
operationof the Habeas Corpus Act inflammatory appeals to the pas- 
in Ireland. He commenciBd his eiona, and misrepresentations of 
addrees by assuring the House of tho contributions and motives 
the deep concern which he felt in of the British people. Ireland 
baving to propose to it the sua- was slowly recovering from that 
peneicoi, for a limit«d time, of the great calamity, when Uie events of 
oonstitutianal libertiee of Ireland. February last occurred in Paris, 
In proposing it, he undertook to giving encouragement to all who 
prove Uiree things — first, that the believed that wo force and the 
Jtresent state of Ireland was fraught authority of this empire might be 
with evil, and that we were upon overthrown by open insurrection, 
the eve of a formidable outbreak, A deputatiou, oomprising among 
If it were not Buppressed in time ; its members Mr. S. O'Brien, was 
secondly, that there were means sent from Ireluid ta Paris for the 
provided by the leaders of the con- purpose of asking assistance from 
templated insurrection to produce France to the contemplated Irish 
great i^jnry and danger unless insurrectioD. Although that at- 
BtnnemeasurewereadoptedtoeouQ- tempt failed, the project went on, 
teract them ; and, thirdly, that the and there was little or no disguise 
Taeasure which he was about to any further attempted as to the 
propose was that particular remedy intentionB of the Irish Confederor 
which appeared to be the best to tion. His Lordship then adverted 

then traced the history of the agi- Mr. Mitchell was then snfiering 

tation for the Repeal of the Union transportatioa, and to the more 

from its commencement under recent articles in the In$h Felon, 

Mr. O'Connelt, who declared that to show that this Confederation 

no political change was worth the intended, first, to abolish the Im- 

ahedding of one single drop of perialCkiveramentoftheseislands; 

blood, down to the present period, next, to take away from the Queen 

when a new faction had started all authority over Ireland; and, 

into existence, which at first lastly, to abolish at once i^l the 

covertly and ambiguously, bat at existing rights of proper^. To 

last openly and explicitly, had aocomplish these olijocts it waa 

in view the total seiMiration of proposed that the people should 

Ireland from the dominions of the arm themselves, ana should thus 

United Kingdom. The means be ready to encounter any force 

vhich they proposed for effecting which the Government might 

that object were distinguished by have at its disposal. It was felt, 

the appellation of physical force, however, in Ireland, and by none 

which evidently meant rebellion more than the Roman Catholic 

*«*«.*.] HISTORY. [101 

clem, that if the Confederatioa femd to the establishiaent of 
■houd Buoceed in iu olyects, there numerous duba, during the last 
would be bh ead of all reelect for two months, at Carrick-on-8uir, 
nl^ion, and that the rule of bnit9 Meath, Cork, Wat^rford. and other 
force miald be estahliahed. In places ; and showed that the titlea 
order to oentnhze the alarm thus of several of them had been taken 
£Blt by the «lerg]r, tiie leaders fr(»n nuiis who had rendered 
of the intended Irish republic, themselTes oonspicnous iu the 
after diaclaiming all intentions of rebellion of 1T0S, with the ezpreas 
pillage and massacre, and of over- intention of encoungiog the mem- 
throwing religion, issued a reso- bers to imitate their traitorous 
Intimi in which the; ieaakl^ example. He particularly referred 
arowed that their object was not to the military organisation of the 
Bta^j to repeal the Le^htive clubs of Cork, which had been 
Union, but to overthrow the power reviewed bj Mr. 8. O'Brien, to 
•nd authmiw of this counti? al- the salutation which had there 
tegMher, and the away of that Go- been addressed to that aspiring 
Tentment which thej were hound traitor as King of Mimster, and to 
and had sworn to obey. He then his mock tnodee^ in refusing the 
came to his second pn^ioeitMMt. appellation by sajins, " Not yet, 
wioeh was, that theie were forr not yet." He also adverted to the 
midahle means preparing for a re- language used by Meagher on his 
hellion against the constitutjonal aiTest at Wateiford, and on his 
ontbOTitiee of the oountiy. All the return some time sfterwards from 
aoeonnts which he had recently re- Slierannon, where he was met hy 
ceived from Ireland ooncarred in some lO.OOOor 16,000people, who 
the conelusion, that the orgoniza- avowed that, as di property had 
tion proposed by this Confederation originslly belonged to the people, 
was of a formidable character, was a division of it now would only 
rapidly eztendmg, and that in be a resumption of their own 
parts of the country the clubs and by the people. He allnded to 
associations eBtablisbed by it were the recent events at Corrick-on- 
already ripe for iaBorrection. It Suir, where the peasantry hod 
was, howsTer, chiefly within the assembled, armed with muskets 
last Boonth that their proceedings and e<^thes, and other fonrndablo 
bad become more formidaUe and weapons, for the rescue of Botno 
daagaroiia. Ee then read extracts persons arrested for bsilable of- 
from the despatches of Iiord lencee. On that occasion neither 
Gkmdon, stating that though the the ^till nor the intention to rebel 
chibe might not oontempl^ an was wanting ; all that was wanting 
ontl»«ak immedifO^, Govern- was the occasion. He then read a 
ment must detennine before Far- letter which he bad received that 
liabent was up, whedier it would nxnnii^ from Lord Clarendon, 
seek for fresh powers, or would declaring that the change which 
permit the orauuzttdon fbr an had come over the people within 
immediate dvil w$r to proceed the last ten Ab^ was most alorm- 
tmmolested. The accotmta received ing, and was greater than any 
thnu^ the Constabulary Reports which had ever been seen beibre 
correepMided with the views of in Ireland. No doubt any attempt 
Lord Clorendw. He then re- at insurrection would be put dowsi 

i02] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

Wt it could not be done without now eonght to obtain; and he 
moch bloodBhed, and the sacrifice asked those who were of opinion 
of manj lives. He therefore felt that the Bill should pass, not to 
it to be his duty to come down to render themselves reBponsible for 
Parliament and propose a measure the delay of a measure which 
to meet this state of things. The might prove the saving of life in 
Lord Lieutenant and the Lord Irelan<£ He stood before the 
Chancellor of Ireland bad both House responsible for proposing 
pointed out the dangerous cba- this measuf'e ; be assumea that 
racter of the confederate clubs. It responsibility, and confidently 
migbtyetbeneceesary tointroduce asked the House to assume its 
a measure to prevent tbe organiza- responsibility also ; he called upon 
tion of these clubs. Constituted as them to be mindful of tbe blessings 
these clubs were, no doubt could which they yet enjoyed, and might 
exist as to their illegality, but the secure.andalso of the results which 
meansofprocuringevidenceagainst must flow from any other course 
them were not such as enabled tbe than that which the Government 
Goremment to put them down invited them to follow. 
with fecility. Such being tbe Mr. F. O'Connor observed that 
case, he knew of no remedy so the object of this measure was to 
direct in its object, and so imme- seize upon Uessre. Smith O'Brien 
diate in its purpose, as that of and Meagher because itaey shared 
securing the persons of those who in hie own feelings, and hoped that 
were at the head of tbis projected Ireland would one day rid herself 
insurrection, by the suspension of of tbe domination of England, 
the Habeas Corpus Act. There was Mr. O'Connor was proceeding to 
Bt this moment a necessity for a declare himself in uvour of tbe 
Bill to enable the Lord Lieutenant separation of the two countries, 
of Ireland to secure the persons of when Lord John Russell took up 
those whom he suspected of medi- from the table the board to which 
tating high treason. He ihere^ the oath of allegiance is attached, 
fore asked the House of Com- and pointed it out in a significant 
mous to consent to tbe introduction manner to the honourable Member, 
of eucb a Bill. He might have Mr. O'Connor paused for a mo- 
been justified in asking for such ment, but afterwards proceeded to 
a Bill at an earlier period; but contend that tbe best mode of 
he bad waited until, in his mind, keeping his oath of allegiance was 
and in that of his colleagues, the by pointing out tbe way in which 
necessity for it was so clear, so Her Majesty was most likely to re^ 
notorious, and so convincing, aa tain her British dominions. He 
not to be detiied bj either Honee was determined to give every op- 
of Parliament. He trusted that position to this Bill, the effect of 
no time wbuld be lost tn paasinff which he believed would be an im- 
this Bill into law. Protracted mediate revolution. He then pro- 
debates on such a subject could ceeded to denounce with much 
do no good, and might do incal- vigour the English newspaper 
culablfe narm. No man could say press. 

what might be the consequence of Sir R. Peel gave his cordial sup- 

withhotdmg even for a short time port to the proposed measure. He 

the powers which the Government believed that a wicked conspiracy 

EngbBnd.] HISTORY. [103 

existed in Irel&nd to deprive the Bill at once. In conclosioii he 
Queen of her rightful dominions animadverted with much seTeritj 
in thst conntry. Such being his on the laxity of construction which 
belief, he took his part at once with Mr. O'Connor had applied to the 
the Gromj of the United Kingdom oath of allegiance. " The noble lord 
against the conspintora, who were showed Mr. O'Connor the oath hj 
endeavouring to wrest that power which he swore to bear true alle- 
from the Sovereign bj unuwful giance to Her U^esly Queen Vic- 
means. It was possible that a cass toria; upon which the honourable 
mi^t have been made out at an gentleman said, ' And am I not 
earlier period for a Bill like the fnlfilUng the oath of alliance 
present, hut be agreed with Lord when I am trying to insure for 
J. Rossell, that when a proposal of Her Mtyesty the lopdty of her 
this natore was made, there ought faithful aubjecta in Ireland?' Mr. 
to be a strong opinion in the mind O'Connell might have stud that, 
of the House and the country that for he was the enemy of separa- 
a necessity had arisen to justify tion, end he wished to maintain 
extreme measures. The question the golden link of the Crown. But 
now at issne was really not whether the honourable gentleman, the 
there should he a repeal of the Member for Nottingham, declared 
union, but whether there should for a teparation between England 
be a totad separation of the two and Ireland. Now, if the honour^ 
countries. He believed that if the able gentleman meant that by a 
House refused to act now there separation Ireland was sliU to re- 
would 1>e a desolating war&re main connected with the United 
during the recess in Ireland. Kingdom, and was to form an inte- 
He believed that the Crown wonld gral part of it, why was he scared 
ultimately be aoccessful in it; by the oath of allegiance? ("Hear, 
bat if it were not, of this he was hear ! ") On seeing the oath, be de- 
■nre, that there would be sub* clared that he was faithfully dis- 
BtitDted for the present Govern- charging his obligations by pre- 
mmt the most cruel, the most serving for Her M^esty the alle- 
base, and the most sangninair des- giance of her Irish sutyects and 
potism that ever disgraced any her rightful dominions in Ireland." 
country. He considered the mea- Mr: O'Connor'—" Her English 
sure of Government to be fully dominions." 

justified by the avowed declarations Sir Robert Feel — "Oh! her 

of open and oodisgnised traitors, English dominions. Let me re- 

who bad not scrupled to recom- mind the honourable gentleman, 

mend the BSBassination of the Lord that the oath was taken without 

Lieutenant. If further measures equivocation or mental reservation, 

were reqiured for the suppression The allegiance promised was an 

of crime in Ireland, he hoped allegiance on the part of Ireland as 

that additional powera wonld be de- fully and completely as on the port 

manded from ue House, and that of England ; and if the honourable 

there would be no delay in stating gentleman took the oath with a 

their extent. He likewise hoped secret reservation to be a bithful 

that the House would consent to the and loval subject of this part of the 

■uspensioD of any of its forms which United Kingdom, but reserved to 

would prevent Uie passing of this himself a latitude with regard to 

104] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [A«to«A 

Ireland, and s perfect ri^t to Mr. B. Oibone nid he fUt 

Berer Ireland from Her MajeBtj'a modi embontssment u to the 

dDminions, then I Mj that he re- oootm whkih he sbenld {mrRoa. 

serves to himself a latitude of cod- He at flnt bad reaolved to abMnt 

stnictioQ so large that there can be himseU from the debat« ; hot, oo 

no Talne in hia oath of allegiance." reflection, he thought it voold be 

In conclusion, Sir Robert n- onwortby to shrink tiaat taking 

plied to Mr. O'Connor'* queation, his &1II reaponsibilit; in pasaing 

iras it possible to maintain a ra- thia meaanre ; for he believed in 

Btricted monarchy in this oonntry ? his heart that the persons whom it 

" Loc^ng at what hea taken phboa waa directed vainst tnado Repeal 

on the cdiief arena of these revoln- bat a pretext for nnirder 2nd ml- 

tionary moTements — taking I^ris lage. cnt he did not cooeeal oia 

andFranceasmjexample— lookitig strong conviction that remedial 

at the Oovsmment which existed BMasures had been wrongfully 

before February, the secaritiee for withheld ; and he should not (»n> 

tfae public liberty, the state of the sent that the Bill should oontiDue 

revenue, the condition of the ma- in opemtioti till Uorofa 1849. The 

nolactnring classes, the principles Houisesbouldratbersitfrom moctth 

which were acted upon with respect to month henceforward, that this 

to the rewards of labour-booking Bill might go forth hand in band 

at what passed in-Fobruaiy— look- with healing and oonoiliating mea> 

ing at what passed in the interval enres. He would himself bimg be- 

of three or fonr monHu until June, fore the House his lon^coosiwred 

when the new Oovemtneat, which conviction that thwesbouldbe some 

was founded upon the barricades of modification of tiie Act of Union. 

February, was exposed to the moet Mr. 8hartaan Crawford oouid not 

Tiolent attack by tboee whose hopes express the pain he felt in di» 

vrere disappointed— looking at all charging bis du^ of TOting against 

tboee circamstanoes— avoiding any the measure, Ue desired to sea 

reflection upon them, and only peace, and this Bill would bring no 

drawing an example for the guid- peaee. He admitted that liberty 

ance of the people of this coustij, maat be restnined in times u 

—I say, so he from what has orisis ; bat never, in such a caae aa 

passed iudadng me to distrust the this, withoat aeoompanying mea> 

advantwes of a limited monardiy suree of amedioiation and social 

—to b^eve its foundations are improvement The Oovenunant 

less secure — to bdieve that there bad neglected tfae use of the powers 

is lees aSecttm for the person of inthin its bands : if it Wd aaed 

the Sover^gn, or less ratioaal ooor these, its troops and ita FsIorj 

viction in favour of the advantages Bill maid have prevented the 

of a limited monarchy ; — looking praaent head being gaioed \if ae- 

to the experienoe of the laat wx atdon. But now, a new coercion 

months, I retain an inereaaed con> Act woold be a vain measure : fkj* 

viction that the monarohy of this sieal force could not sow pravent 

coaudy is aecurB> and is endeared resiatanoe to rente and taxes, and 

by nameroos conaideratione and as- disoiganiaation of society. He 

aociations to the affsotionate sui^ theKfom fett bound to move as as 

port and devotion of the people of amendment, " That the present 

thia country." distracted state of Lrehnd mrisee 

HISTORY. [105 

from tmsgoveniBent, and &om ths encooi^r its violenoe irith gra>t«r 

vBiit of remedial aeasana, idtboat tanx, and mwi meet vith ooorage 

irtiich no cootme meaMiraa can that wuiaalj iriudi had boon vof 

inatoro either oidar w conUnt to amraged bj evante whidi had not 

the eonntij." oecsned in En^and. nor as yat in 

Hr. FuBii seconded the amend- Ireland. He |nvteet«d againat the 

meat. He dwo^t the erils of attempt ta ma np the aooial and 

Irdaiul weiv of a eodal dafaeter, r«''*i—' grienncaa of Irrimd with 

and required a soekl rene^. tbequealiontbeBbclaBatbeHtMue. 

Hr. Callagfaan on>OMd the Bill, He idao protected agaraat its going 

bebering th^ its effect woidd be to forth to Europe that this was a 

inoreaee tbo eoBpentiaa which qneetioD between the Engliah Gs- 

prevailed in Ireland. He ahoald vemment and the Inab people, 

eppoae^ coercive measBiw SB locig Tbem|yori^of that people iwre 

aa be onld see other means ^ not traitoiv. Ete eoold not bdiere 

paciiying Ireland. that the Roman Oatholio prieet- 

Hr. Diameli declared his inten- hood waold look with fmaar on a 

tion of giviog the meaanre of Go- Jacobin moTemant, nor would he 

TenHDont hia nnmying and nna- lidiave, thoa^ some of the pea>- 

qoTNcal anmetC. U be conhl eaatif migfat hove been deeeiTed 

bdng bimelf to think tfaaA Una b; the driuaiona of had men, that 

rfniBng inamedian araae from the great bodj of lAtem in the aoBtli 

the aocial and political grieraaeea of Iiriaad ware heart and sonl in 

of Irdand, and that this Bill woBld thia Menacing mevenent. It was 

be an obstai^ In the reoMdj of tlis monmsnt of a party stima- 

tfaoae grievances, be slioald be in- lated bj fareign erante and enean- 

dined to view it with diatraet Its ragad 1^ fne^ sncoeas. He had 

*'—- ~-*— was flagrant; it waa no daut that their plots would 

avowedly an invasioD of the con* meet vrith diseeatfitore ; bnt be 

at itwi pp. The only excnae for it wiriied that that diecomfitnre might 

was its necessity, and its seeeaai^ not be aeeompliahed at the same 

had been promd t^ the aremm.' aitpense of Itfe and treaeore at 

atancea to whidi Lord J. Bnaaell which it had beea aceompliahed 

bad allnded in his epeeefa. His en former occasicaia, snd fcr that 

Iiordahipfaadnotflomedown to the neaoo he soppeited thia Bill. 

boaaa anth a gseen bag foil of Bir Doiham Noire^ shontd give 

' i bam cordial sappcrt te the Bill, 

a with althonrii fay so doing he afaonld 

h all veae familiar, aa a jttsti' mJMMy comimt political snicide. 

fication ef tbi m aaa niw irinch he Tba was not the time for in- 

tecoounmided. He considered ifaia ^ring into the political ante- 

n to be neitber an agc^ oadants of this or that Qoveni- 

" ' a movement. It sent The eoantiiy was en the 

turn any perverted brink of a precipioe, and his only 

natiotMJty. for it oare now was to prevent it faUing 

laa nothing SMWe or lae» than a te the bottoao. Oeao|daiiits had 

Jacobin movemenL Now, lookiiigi been nuule of the £aalty chatacter 

as he did, upon Jacolimism as a of the infomiatim on which Lord 

eyatem <rf onmidgated fraud and John Russell was proceeding. He 

iidenoe, be thought that we most oared not for that information — he 

106] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EngUnd. 

wanted it not — for ho had read the tm Star) was no credit to any nun 
present history of Ireland on the connected with it, for it pandered 
market-crose. This Bill was a se- to the base passions of the popu- 
rioua experiment, and would lead lace, and held out to the ignorant 
either to the immediate extinction hopea which could never be realized. 
or immediate explosion of the in- After deprecating in the strongest 
Burrection. He therefore appealed terms the doctrines of Commuoism, 
to those who now opposed it, and he proceeded to observe that the 
begged them to recollect whether long attention which he had paid 
thej were not running the risk of to the condition of Ireland had 
imposing upon Ireland by their op- placed him on this occasion in a 
position a greater evil even thui position of some difficulty. It was 
this Bill — he meant martial law necessary to put down the excite- 
and military proscription. It was ment now prevailing in that coun- 
to save his countrymen from the try, in order to preserve peace and 
nuBCry which would inevitably be prevent a civil war. He was there- 
brought upon them if they were fore obliged, thoi^h reluctantly, to 
misled any longer by wicked and give his consent to the measure of 
guilty men, that he gave his unhesi- OovemmenL He mast nevarthe- 
tadng support to this measure. less warn the House that it never 
Mr. H. Drummond supported could remove the discontent of the 
theBill because heconceivedthatit population of Ireland unless it re- 
would be efBcacious in suppressing moved the cause of it. In his 
the insurrection which was on the opimon that would not be a task 
point uf bursting upon them, and of much difficulty, for the discon- 
because he conceived that civil war tent of Ireland arose from the Eng- 
vas no child's play. Though ready, lish Government withholding from 
he ?ra8 disinclined at present, to it its civil rigbts. Irishmen were 
enter into a discussion of the social not on equal terms with English- 
grievances of Ireland ; but be was men and Scotchmen. Whenever 
prepared to deny the assertion of they were placed on that level dis- 
Mr. F. O'Connor, that a profligate content would vanish and peace and 
press bad poisoned the public confidence would return. He re- 
mind of England. The only pro- commended the House to modify 
fligate press with which he vras ac- the Irish Church, to extend the 
qnainted was that which advocated franchise, to improve the ^rand 
die doctrines of Communism, and jury laws, to amend the mmiicipal 
which published, for a price paid institutions, and not to separate 
every day, a whole column contain- without proposing and carrying the 
- ing ^e names of the most infamous other remeaial measutes which had 
and blasphemous publications. A been introduced that Session for 
man must publish the names of the amelioialion of society in Ire- 
such publications, either because land. He advised his friends not 
he agreed with their principles, or to oppose this Bill, but to show that 
because he wished to derive some they were anxious for the toainte- 
paltry gunfrom the advertisements nanoe of peace and order in Ireland 
of them. by supporting it. 

Mr. Hume admitted that the Mr. Sadleir thought it was high 

publication to which Mr. Drum- time that the proceedings of the 

mend had adverted (viz., the North- revolutionary party in Ireland 




should be stopped, and he therefore 
tCDdered his support to tbe Go- 
verameot. At tbe same time be 
told the Prime Ministor that the 
exteDBive disaffection vhich existed 
in Ireland could not have arisen 
without great misconduct on the 
part of her rulers. 

Mr. Newdegate briefly, but in 
decided terms, expressed his inten- 
tion of Toting with the QoTem- 

Mr. Grogan, as representative of 
the loyal citizens of Dublin, 
thanked the Oovemment for thia 
Bill, which would put an end to that 
agitation which had reduced so 
many of tbe opulent and industri- 
ous tradeemen of Dublin to bank- 
ruptcy and ruin. He regretted 
that this measure had not been in- 
troduced earlier, and hoped that 
the Govemment would not show 
any indecision in carrying it into 

Mr. Reynolds differed toto eaU> 
from his honourable colleague. He 
prophesied that thia BiU would 
pass and would be a failure. Still, 
tn expressing that belief, be must 
declare himself favourable, not to 
its introduction, but to its extinc- 
tion. He should vote ag^nst it in 
all its stages, and hoped that those 
stages would be long and tediona. 
Tbe Bill would create Repealers, 
and would extend all the evils 
which it professed to cure. 

Mr. Muntz appealed to Mr. S. 
Crsvrford to vrithdiaw bis amend- 
ment He (Mr. Muntz) regretted 
tbe necessity iu which he found 
himself placed of voting for the 
BiU, but the circumstances of the 
case left him no allematiTe. Un- 
less, however, the Qoverament 
really proceeded to redress the 
grievances of Ireland, he warned 
them that this wss the Isstcoerc' 
raeasnie he would ever support. 

Sir H. Barron added his testi- 
mony to the absolute necessity of 
adopting this measure with una- 
nimity. He had that morning re- 
ceived letters from Ireland of the 
most alarming nature. People of 
all descriptions were lamenting 
that the Government had not 
adopted these measures sooner. 
Some of the leaders of the in- 
tended rebellion, who had some 
property, wera most anxious for 
the passing of this Bill, and would 
rejoice when they heard the sound 
of the prison doors closing behind 
them ; for they knew that they and 
their property would be sacrificed 
in a rismg which most lead to 
their ruin. No one was more con- 
vinced of the hopelessness of the 
rebellion than some of the leaders 
of it ; and, to his knowledge, some 
of them had exprassed themselves 
to that effect 

Col. Dunne concurred in the 
amendment, but nevertheless felt 
bound to vote in favour of the Bill. 

Mr. Scalby denied the disloyalty 
and disaffection which hsd been at- 
tributed to Tipperary. He thought 
that the effect of this Bill might be 
fatal, snd urged the adoption of 
remedial measures. 

The Honse then divided: the 
numbers were^ 

For Mr. 8. Crawford's 
Amendment ... 8 

Against it 271 

Minority against It . . 363 
Leave was then given to bring 
in the Bill. 

Sir Lndus OBrien, brother of 
Mr. Smith O'Brien, addressed a 
few words to the House in refe^ 
ence to his personal position. His 
original feeling was, considering 
that a near relative of his own 
would most probably be one of the 

108] ANNUAL REGISTEK, 1848. [EngUnd. 

first persons to oome under the better front our tate at once, and 
(^ration of the Bill, that it would be free in death if we cannot lira 
be more delicate to absent himself in freedom. Brothers, let your 
figom the House ; but, reSecting watchword be ' Now or never^— 
that bis opinions on the prea^nt now and toi ever.'" Mr. J. F. 
posture of Iriah afiairs might be Lalor, in the same paper, said — 
misinterpreted, he overmJed bis "In thecasetrf Irelaiunow, there 
feelings, and concluded it would be is but one fact to deal with, and 
more patriotic and decorous to at- one question to be oonsidered. 
t«nd in the House and take part The fact is ^is, thai there are at 
IB the debate. {Loud and gmtral preeent in occupation of ouir coim' 
okteruiff.) tij some forty thousand armed 
Lord John Buesell said, that sa men in the lireTj and service of 
tto House had expressed so une- England;" and he proceeded — 
qniTocdljr its feding in favour of " "Die qneelian w, how beet and 
ue Bill, it would doubtleas permit soonest to kill and capture these 
the further stages to be proceeded forty thousand men." He declared 
nilh instants. Ho moved the se- in favour of an instant rising — 
oond reading. " If require to state my own in- 
After some objections from Mr. dividual opinion, and allowed to 
Callaghan and Mr. Beynolds, the choose my own time, I certainly 
Bill was read a seootid tuue. The would take the time when the full 
House then went into Committee harvest of Ireland shall be etacked 
opon it Mr. fi. Osborne moved in the bsggardB. But not unfre- 
to limit its operation to the lat quently God selects and senda hia 
of September, 1846; bat the Irish own seasons and occasions; and 
Members appearmg to be against oftentimes, t«o, an raiemy is able 
him, he withdrew hu motion. The to foresee the neoessity of mther 
Bill being passed through Com- fighting or Ming. In the one 
mittee, I^rd John Kussell moved case we oo^t not, ia the other 
the third reading, which was agreed we sorely cannot, attem^ waiting 
to, and the Bill was fortJiwith taken for our harTra^home. If oppor* 
up to the House of liords. tunity offers, we must daah at that 
On the nextday but one.Monday, opp<ntunity ; if driven to the wall, 
the 36th of July, the Bill was in- we mmst wheel for reaiatance. 
troduced into the Upper House by Wherefore, let us fight in 8ep- 
the Marquis of Lansdowne, with a tember, if we may — but sooner, if 
statement nearly similar to that we must" Lord Lanadowne had 
which Lord John Russell had some eatiafaotion in closing hia 
made. The club organization, he quotatkms from the aame letter 
said, rapidly increased with each with the following one, which indi- 
faour's delay ; and he quoted from Dated in the laadera a beeitatioa tt 
the last manifestoes issued by the begis : — " Meanwhile, howerar, rfr 
confederate leaders since they memberthis: tint somewhei^, And 
had learnt the meaaurea of the somehow, and by eomeb^y, a be- 
■ Qovemmont. Mr. Brennan, in the ginmng must be made. Who 
IrUh Fdon pnbliahed on the lUth, atrikee tJie first blow for Ireland? 
eoonaelled the young Irishmen to Who draws first blood for Ireland? 
ahoulder their pikes and mazob, Who wins a wreath that will be 
■nd dedaied — "I think we had green for ever?" He believed 

SHgiMd.] HISTORY. [109 

thftt tbft hesitation here betrayed behalf of, and in the name of, the 

wetild be coufiraed, and that no priBonerB. 

one woold be found to "strike the The Earl of Ellenboroogh be- 
first blow," if this Bill were passed liered ^t if the Bit] had been 
vitboat delay. Lord Lansdowne introduced eight months earlier, it 
flondnded hy moring that the ^b- vould have prevented a rebellion 
lie safetj reqcdred that the BUI which it would now only precipi- 
should be passed with all possible tate. " Nothing," said he, " mil 
deapatch ; and that, notwithstand- now prevent a rebellion in the 
ing the Stfdiding OrdaTB, the Lord South but an arming of the llorth. 
Gbancellor should be aadiorized to If the Gtovemment go into the 
put the question of each stage of straggle without organization of 
the measure at sncfa timee as the the well-affeoted, ana without the 
House should deem necessary. arming of &iends, it will place 
Lord Brougham cordiaUv ee- the eonntry in the condition of 
cnnded the motion of Lord LaaS- having to undergo a long and 
dowoe, being convinced of the ne- bloody contest, whereas it bad the 
ceasi^ of conferring extraordinary means of rendering it short, if not 
powers upon the Xiord Lieutenant, of preventing its possibility." 
Sot it wtnild be a lallacy to suppose The Marquis of Lansdowne vin- 
that the measure was wanted to so- dicated the Ooveroment, with some 
cure the British empire in Ireland, warmth, from the imputations of 
ortopreventadisBeremDoe: it was Lord Ellenborongh. 
required only to prevent efforts at The Earl of Glengall paid a 
diaeevermncd, which, though they tribute to the peaceable and tem- 
nnist end in the dtacomfltnre of perate conduct of the Roman 
the rebels, woald be made in all Catholic priesthood during the 
the horrors of bloodshed and con- pending crisis, and to their ex- 
fusion, and would fall heaviest on ertions in the cause of order, 
the innocent and peaceable. He The Bill was theo passed nem. 
observed that one of the worst of du. through all its stages, 
the papers which had been read to Not many days afterwards a 
the House was the productioD of a general debate on the state and 

Con now m prison for seditioo. prospects of Ireland took place in 

hoped there was taw to prevent the House <^ Commons, upon the 

this, and that it would be made im- occasion of a resolution proposed 

possible to convert prisons into by Mr. Sbarman Crawford, pre- 

places whence new declarations of vions to going into Committee of 

treason might be made, and sedition Supply, to the following effect : — 

be sowed broadcast among the "That the present distracted 

pe^le. state of Ireland demands the in- 

The Earl of Wicklow insisted stant attention of Parliament, with 

much upon the same point. a view to the speedy enactment of 

Lord Lansdowne explained that such measures as may be necessary 

inquiry had already been made, to improve the condition, redress 

and there was good reason to be- the grievances, and establish the 

lieve that the writings professing just rights of the Irish people, and 

to issue frnm Nei^ate Prison had thereby promote the good order 

not really been composed there, and prosperity of that portion of 

but I7' persons Still at large, in the United I^gdom, ana give in- 

110] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

creased eecurity to Her Majes^'s week, aa a declaration of war. If it 
Crown and Goveniment," were so, then Ireland most be re- 
After reading the terms of it, he conquered, and, when reconquered, 
observed that.ifitshouldbecarried, must be governed by the sword, 
he should follow it ap b; moving The oonsequencee of such a s^tem 
the seme resolution which Lord must be fatal to both countries, 
J. Russell had moved in 1844 — unless remedial measures were in- 
namelf, that the whole subject of txoduced for the grievances of Ire- 
Irish grievances should be referred land. If Lord J. Russell should 
totbeconsiderationofaSelectCom- say that there was not time for 
mitteeof the whole House. In sup- passing, or that there was an 
portofbispropoaitionMr. Crawford obstructive majority in the House 
entered into a history of the social which would prevent him from 
and political grievances of Ireland, passing such measures, then he 
both prior and subsequent to the would ask hia Lordship how could 
Legislative Union with England, the demand for Repeal hereafter 
dwelling particularly on the abor- be resisted ? He intended to pro- 
tive measures which had been pro- ceed forthwith to Ireland, and to 
posed of late years by the Govern- use there any influence he might 
menta of Sir R. Peel and Lord J. possess in the preservation of 
Russell, to reform the Irish Church, peace. He wanted, however, to 
to mitigate the pressure of the tithe carry with him a message of peace, 
system, to introduce a good Poor and at present he saw no chance 
liftw, to improve and extend the of doing so. He should there- 
franchise, to regulate the municipal fore return home with pain and 
institutions, to place the law of sorrow, although he most strongly 
landlord and tenant on a proper repudiated the principles and prac- 
footing, and to reclaim the waste ticsa of those who were now dis- 
landa, which would render any turbing the peace of Ireland. 
system of emigration unnecessary Lord J. Russell, a^r paying a 
in Ireland. The last measure deserved compliment to Mr. S. 
which the Oovemment had intra- Crawford for the temperate lan- 
duced for the pacification of hia Kuage in which he had expressed 
unhappy countiy was a Coercion his opinions, and adducing eiam- 
Bill, which had been passed with pies of the delay which always 
breathless haste and unprecedented attended the passing of great mea- 
rapidity. No other measure for the aures, to prove that Ireland was no 
amehoration of Ireland was likely exception, read extracts from a 
to paas this Session. Even if the pamphlet published in Dublin in 
Encumbered Estates Bill should 1796, to show that the state of 
pass, it would be of no use unless Ireland was at least as bad then 
it were accompanied with a proper as at present. He attributed the 
law of landlord and tenant, and be evils of Ireland principally to the 
was sorry to say that the Bill intro- practice of early marriages, and 
duced on that subject by the to the improvident habits of the 
Government deserved any other people ; but attached some weight, 
title save that of a proper measure, also, to the bigotry of the 17th, 
He looked upon the law for the and the illiberal commercial policy 
suspension of the Habeas Corpus of the 18th, ceaturi^ ; and then 
Act, which had been passed that proceeded to comment upon the 




subject of eacb of Mr. Crawford's 
complaiatB — the delay of the Eman- 
cipation Bill, tbe tithe syBtem, the 
imperfection of the Irish Reform 
Act, tlie law of juries, the state of 
the franchise, the relations between 
landlord and tenant, and Mr. Craw- 
ford's proposed extension of tenant 
right. Upon this last subject, and 
upon the working of the Insb Poor 
Law, he spoke at considerable 
length, and then passed to the 
consideration of the Encumbered 
Estates' Bill, firom the operation of 
which he expected much of that 
division of property which Mr. 
Crawford desu^, end the Evicted 
Tenants' Bill, which had been, as 
he thought, most anfortonately re- 
jected by the House of Lords- 
After noticing the grand jury laws, 
the projects for reclaming waste 
lands, and the applications for 
Government assistance for the 
Irish railroads, he came at last to 
the position of the Established 
CboTch in Ireland, which, he said, 
was tar from satiafactoty ; but after 
discussing the various schemes for 
remedying the manifest evil of an 
appropriation of the ecclesiastical 
revenue to the church of the mi- 
nority — from his own proposition 
for a small apprmciriation of its 
fimds, to Mr. Bhght's for a total 
abolition of the church — be de- 
clared that he thought the Pro- 
testants had a fair claim to an 
establisbmentibrtheir church, and 
that there was no great excess 
in the revenues now allotted to it. 
Lord John Russell then described 
tbe difficulties ia the way of a 
Roman Catholic establishment ; and 
having deprecated any attempt to 
cope with them at present, con- 
cluded a speech in which almost 
every subject in the wide field of 
Irish policies was discussed, by 
asldng the House not to assent to 

the im|)0SBible task that Mr. Craw- 
ford wished to impose upon it, but 
to proceed calmly and gradually to 
amend the grievances of Ireland, 
and to recollect that it was by 
peaceable measorss and Parlia- 
mentary discussion that redress 
must be obtained, and that a 
resort to arms, and to rebellion, 
could but lead to an aggravation 
of all the misfortunes of Ireland, 
and to tbe speedy dissipation and 
destruction of tdl its resources, 
great and unparalleled as they 

Mr. H. Herbert thought that no 
practical good could be effected by 
now acceding to Mr. Crawford's 
motion. He should, however, vote 
for it, because he thought that no 
BufBcient progress had been made 
in the present Session in producing 
healing measures for Ireland. 

Mr. Fagan contended that the 
speech of Lord John Russell, coo- 
ciliatOTy as its tone was. could not 
be received in Ireland as a message 
of peace. The Minister had ad- 
mitted the grievances of Ireland, 
but had proposed no adequate 
remedy for them. 

Mr. Monsell could not express 
any opinion whether the time 
chosen for this motion were judi- 
cious or not ; but as it had been 
brought forward, feeling as be did 
for the preaeut wretched condition 
of Ireland, he muat give bis vote 
in its favour. He called on Lord 
John Russell to reconsider his de- 
cision respecting the Irish Church, 
assuring him that by so doing be 
would take the wisest step that 
could be adopted for pacifying Ire- 

Mr. Osborne said, that on that 
very day, 46 years ago, the House 
was engaged in suspending the 
Habeas Corpus Act on account of 
a rebellion which was apprehended 

112] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

in Ireland. He wiabed to know mmld place the Irish Roman Cb- 
vh&t had been done in the iiit«rval tbolic uid the Irish Protestant on 
for the pacificatioD of that country? a footing of complete equality. He 
Nothing, absolutely nothing. The also proposed to turn orer to the 
GoTerament bad again suspended oonsoUdated fund the eurplue re- 
the Habeas GorpiB Act for li«- Tenues of the Irish Chnroh, as 
land, and yet did not come forward proposed by Lord Melbotune in 
with any other plan for ita amalio- 1885 ; and farther contended that 
ration. He then proceeded (o con- until that was done nothine like a 
demn in the stron^eM terms the permanent setUement could be ez- 
condnct of the English Pailiament pected in Ireland. After quoting 
to Ireland, contending that it had the epeechee of Mr. Ward, Mr. V. 
never made a concession to that Smith, Mr. M&caulay, and Lord J, 
country which was not extorted by Russell, in 1886, and subBequent 
fear, and withheld until it naa re- years, in support of the reduction 
ceived with scorn and contempt, of the Irish Chiuch, Mr. Osborne 
He then made a severe onslaught stated his opinion that language 
on the Whigs for having qeoted more strong and argument more 
Sir B. Peel from office on m Goei^ conclusive could not be urged in de- 
cion Bill, and for havii^ failed ft fence of the proposition which he 
performany of the mighty promises had just announced. He thenadvo- 
in which they hod indulged on cated the throwing opra of Trinity 
their accession to power. He next College, Dublin, tothe Roman Ca- 
entered upon the question of the tholics, insisting that there would 
Irish ChoTcfa, insisting that it was be no equality in Ireland until they 
the cause of all the dissension and were permitted to aspire to Soho- 
heartbuming which prevailed in laishtps and Fellowships as well 
Ireland. It was at the root of all as Protestants. He denounced the 
the discord of that country, and Irish Poor Law, and recommended 
there would be no peace there un- systematic colonization as the best 
til it was reduced to its proper di- means of relieving Irish distress 
meneioDS. He referred at some and destitution. He complained 
length to one of the old plana of that Ireland was governed like a 
Lord J. Russell for putting the colony. It had a mock Sovereign, 
Irish Church on a proper footing, a Brummagem Court, and a pinch- 
aad defended it by extracts from beck Executive. The Home Secre- 
the report of the Committee of taiy waa its real governor ; and the 
1834 on the revenues of the result was, that from the repeated 
church' of Ireland, and from the dionge of that high offioer of state 
speech delivered by Lord Morpeth there was no consistent policy pur- 
in 1830 in defence of it He ad- sued in that country. He recom- 
mitted that there were insuperable mended the abolition of the office 
objections to allowing the bishops of Lord Lieutenant, and the esta- 
of thelrishRomanCatholicChurch blisbment of a fourth Secretary of 
to sit in the House of Lords, but State for the government of that 
he saw no objection to removing ooantry. He likewise suggested 
the Irish Protestant bishops from that from time to time the Partia- 
that House, as such a measure ment should sit in Dublin, and 
would conduce tothe respectability that Her M^esty should pay a visit 
of the Protestant Church, and to that country once a year. Such 

EngUuui.] HISTORY. [113 

A nsit would aooii make the star of epokea in believing that the 

the fOng of Munster "pale its in- tune of the Ministry \Tould come 

efEecioal fire." (and I care not what Ministry it 

The debate was then wyourned, maj bo) when public opinion in 

and was renewed at considerable this country, having altered through 

length on Qie following da;. Little longer experience, will enable a 

matter ofnovelty.however, was con- matured and well-considered plan 

Uined in the speeches on either to be brought forward by such 

side. The most remarkable fear Ministry, and to receive the sanc- 

tnrea of the debate were the de- tjon of Parliament. I hope we 

claratiouB made by the Home Se- are not too sanguine in the expec- 

cretai7, andbytheSecretaryforIre- tation that that time is not &r 

land, on the Irish Church question, distant : J for one shall hail its 

Sir Geoive Grey said, '■ I am arrival, and, whether in office or 
not prepared to deny, but affirm, out of office, no one will be more 
that the existence of an exclusive ready than myself to conciu: in 
Protestant church in Ireland (the any practical plan for the accmn- 
Protestant Episcopalians being a plishment of what I believe would 
small minority only of the popula- be a great benefit to Ireland." 
ti(»t) is an anomaly which I think Sir William Somerville agreed 
unjustifiable in its origin, and inde- with Sir George Grey, both as to 
fensible now. I know no other what it was desiiable to do, and 
country in Europe in which the as to the difficulty of doing it. 
same experiment has been made — Whenever a plan should be 
in which the same attempt has brought forward for putting the 
been carried out ; and I am quite Establishment in Ireland on a pro- 
prepared to say that the wisdom per footing, he would give his 
aitd policy of the attempt in Ire- support to the motion by whom- 
land might be judged of by its re- soever it was proposed. The task 
suits. I think it an unfortunate of those who devised such a plan 
dronmstance, materially afiecting should be, not to demolish, but to 
the peace of Ireland and the iacility construct What was wanted was, 
with which the Government can be that all classes should be put on a 
carried on there, that the Roman footing of equality, and that no 
Catholic clergy of the people of heartburnings or Jealousies should 
Ireland are dependent for sub- be allowed to exist. Whenever 
sistence on the precarious con- that task was undertaken, it ought 
tributions of their flocks. I to be undertaken in a confiding 
supported the Maynooth Bill not spirit. There should be no corn- 
only because the principle was just promising, no bargaining, but right 
on which it vras founded, for im- should be done ; and ne agreed 
proving the means of education for with those who thought that, when 
the Roman Catholic clergy, but be- right was done in this matter, more 
cause it involved the first recogni- would be effected towards laying the 
tion of the Roman Catholic church foundations of peace, happiness, and 
in Ireland, and because I had tranquillity in Ireland, than could 
hoped that it would lead to further be done by any other measure, 
measures." ... "I very much Lord John Russell also, in an- 
Bgree with some Members wbo have swer to some remarks made by Mr. 

Voi. XC. [I] 

114] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEnghmd. 

NflwdegaU, expressed his views to &voar of the principle of ererj 

the same effect In reference to man p&fing his own clergyman, 

some misinterpretation vhich bad jiist as he paid his own doctor. Mr. 

been pot upon his langoage, he Grace waa sorry tliat the Gorem- 

aaid that he had never stated that ment should have raised bo manT 

he oonsidered the Established hopes, and done so tittle to satisfy 

Chorch in Ireland as a national them. After a short speech from 

grievance. What he had stated Mr. Qrattan, the House divided. 

was, that he thought the endow- 
ment of the clergy of a minori^ of 
the people, where there was no en- 
dowment of the clergy of the ma- 
jority, was a just subject of com- 
plaint to the people of Ireland. 

The motion was opposed by Mar 
jor Blackall and by Mr. Clements, 
though the latter felt for many 
reasons inclined to support it. 

when there appeared— 

For Mr. S. Crawford's 

Resolution . . . . iU 
Against it 100 

Mtyority against the Motion 76 

We referred, at the oommenoe- 
ment of this chapter, to the bill 

Mr. M. J. O'Oonnell made a con- for facilitating the transfer of I 

ciliatoiy speech, but said he would cumbered Estates, a measure of 

vote for the mo^on, as a proper re- which the object was uniTersally 

buke to the GoTemment and the admitted to be most denrable. 

X Scrope chineiT to the desired result 1 
quoted passages from some of the been deemed questionable. It was 
organs of the Repeal party to show originally introduced in the House 
that the Landlord and Tenant of Lords by the Lord Chancellor, 
question was the root of all Irish at an early period of the Session, 
discontent. He advocated a scheme and the second reading was moved 
for the reclamatjon of waste lands, on the 24th February. In re- 
Colonel Donne approved of the commending the measure to the 
spirit of the motion, but could not House, the noble and learned Lord 
consent at this juncture to press observed that, unfortunately for 
on Government the oonsideradon Ireland, the Ivided property there, 
of all the remedies suggested. to a large extant, was in a aitua- 
Sir Denham Norreys expressed tion not only detrimental to those 
disappointment at the speech of who bad an interest in land, but 
Lord John Russell. That of Sir also most injurious to the commu- 
George Grey held out more hope nity at large; and, therefore, the 
of a settlement of the Church importaooe of any measure in- 
question, Mr. Feargos O'Connor tended to remedy acknowledged 
censured the Irish landlords for evils in respeot to this matter 
pusillanimity, and contended that, if would be admitted. The great 
they did their duty, they might pat evil with respect to landed pro- 
anend toalt themiseriesof Irelsnd. perty in Irehuid was, that a very 
Mr. Newdegate and Mr. Stafford large portion of it was heavily 
criticized the Ministerial declara* encumbered by mortgages, charges, 
tioDs respecting the Irish Church, and other interests, so that the 
Mr. Reynolds avowed himself in ostensible owner in some oases 

^-f^^A] HISTORY. [115 

eonld faardlj be aaid to faave any purchasing land without poaseBung 

estate in the land at all. He con- capital Euifficient for its improTS- 

seqnently was not in a oonditjon meat, and, under the altered oon- 

to improTe the estate b; finding dition of the relations of landed 

employment at the eame time for proprietors towards their tenants, 

the population. It ma impoe- towards each other, and towards 

ubie for a landlord whose income the community at large, thej 

•rising from his landed estate was would be presented with every 

intercepted by mortgages and temptation to improve the oon- 

other chaises to perform those dition of tlieir estates. Although 

doties which a landlord shoold these olgeots were of great and 

discharge. This was a most in> paramount importance, yet he was 

jnrious state of things for all as iiillj aware as anj noble lord 

classes, and the existing state of in that House could be, that it 

the law afforded no sufficient wonid be impossible to e&iect the 

means for removing the difficulty, proposed alteration of the law 

Scarcely any one who had at any without doing much that might be 

time turned his attention to aub- considered inconsiBteat with the 

C) of this nature would fail to rights of property. But he would 
w that the interest paid for a^, why should the interests of 
money invested in land could not the community at large, as well as 
be compared with the interest the interests of indifidusls, be 
derived from capital engaged in disregarded for the sake of main- 
other punuita; and it was equally taining mere abstract rights, 
well hnown that from many estates which in the existing state of so- 
in Ireland no income whatever ciety in Ireland led to great prao- 
was derived — that was to say, the tical iqjnstice? In the case of 
whole proceeds of the estate were land purchased for the use of rail- 
■beorfoed by the incumbrancee ; ways no such hesitation was felt^ 
yet, if the owners of those estates no such injustice was made the 
were enabled to convert them into subject of complaint. He admit- 
money, the balance, or residue, ted there was extreme difficulty in 
coming to such owners would often carrying into effect all the objects 
be of considerable amount, and which the framera of the Bill pro- 
would, if prudently invested, yield posed to accompliah. It was true 
handsome incomes. Of course, no tliat in the simple case of mort- 
one would wish to see the mort- gagor and mortgagee nothing re- 
gagora loee their estates; on die mained to be done but to sell the 
conlrBiy, the purpose of the Bill land, pay the mortgagee, and let 
was to eiuthle the owners of in- the owner of the estato receive 
cumbered estates to dispose of the surplus of the purchase- 
them to advantage, and to invest money. But such a condition of 
the proceeds of those estates in a affairs formed the exception, not 
beneficial manner. By changes the rale ; generally, the condition 
of that kind persona of no capital of an estate presented more corn- 
would cease to be the nominal plexity; hence extreme difficulty 
proprietors of land, and the real and embarrassment arose in deal- 
masters of the soil would then ing with the conflicting claims of 
become the ostensible owners, the various parties interested. In 
Such persuDB would not think of framing the Bill every possible 
[I 2] , . 

116] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

core was taken to guard agUDSt expectationa of the effects of the 

what might be called the absence measure. The nnmber of cases in 

of parties ; and in eveiy possible which its operation would be felt 

case provision was made that every he thought wonld be small ; firat, 

person interested in an estate because its proTisions were to be 

should be entitled to notice re- carried out by the Court of Ghan- 

spectJng any steps that m^ht be cer^r ; next, because persons were 

taken with a Tiew to its sale, the apt to be slow in coming to a con- 

oonduct of the affiiir being placed victjon of the necessity of parting 

in the hands of a Uaster in Chan- with their estates, 

oery, assisted by a jperson who Lord Stanley concurred with 

should be appointed for that pur- those who thought the evil to be 

poae by the Attorney- General ; remedied one of great and over- 

and, as he had already said, no- whelming magnitude in Ireland, 

thing would be done without full The position of those landlords 

notice to every one ooncemed, the in Ireland who nominally bad 

Master in Gumceiy and the per- 10,000/. or 12,0001. a year, while 

son ^ipointed by the Attorney- they did not really possess more 

Oenetal being bound to watch than so many hundreds, was very 

over the interests of all parties, inoonvenient. In consequence oF 

He wonld repeat that every pos- the inability of those proprietoia 

rible guard had been introduced to perform their duties, very erro- 

into the Bill to render it next to neous ideas had been formed of 

impossible that the money paid their disposition to do it. He was 

into Court should ever go into not personally interested in the 

wrong hands. The noble and measure — {A laugh) — but he anti- 

leamed lord then concluded by cipated considerable difficulties in 

moving that the Bill be read a carrying port of it into effect. The 

second time. noble and learned lord had doubt- 

The Eari of Roden expressed less paid great attention to the 

his approval of the Bill. The land provisions by which the powers of 

of Indaud never oould support its the Bill were guarded ; and he 

poor unless the owners of the soil hoped some time would be allowed 

were placed in the position of to elapse before they were called 

being masters of their own pro- on to agree to the details. There 

perty. He trusted such a mea- would be great difGculty in dealing 

sure would be passed as would with estates that were divided, 

enable persons to sell their estates. Incumbrances on Irish estates 

creating a class of real owners in- were often created without the 

stead of men nominally possessing consent of the owner ; all these 

thousands a year, while they were incumbrances were to be referred 

in reality almoat paupers. to the Master; the expense was 

Earl Fitzwiltiam did not mean not thrown on the parties demand- 
to express disapprobation of the iug the proceedings, but on the 
Bill. Indeed he could not see estate itself. 

any reason why it should be li- Lord Campbell said the great 

mitsd to Ireland. At the same object of the Bill was to cheapen 

time he thought it right to guard and shorten the proceedings in the 

the House and the country Court of Chancery. One of the 

against entartaining exaggerated sections gave a sort of Parliament- 




aiy title to purchasers of eetatee. 
TiOoa in Ireland were in a most 
deplorable condition. There vas 
not tliere, as in England, a set of 
laivvera who devoted themaelvea 
b> the law of real property. Most 
able lawyera there were in Ireland, 
but no couTByancers, who looked 
specially^ into titles. Although he 
yns a creat ^end to registration, 
in Ireland the registers were ex- 
ceedingly bad, and, instead of 
cleariug up titles and making 
them more certain, often inTolved 
them in inextricable confusion. 
This Bill would give titles that 
would be good agcunst all the 
world, and the purchasers of 
estates under it would have a 
title vhich notLing could affect. 
He hoped the Bill would meet 
with their lordships' approbation, 
lor he was satisfied that it would 
prove of ^eet benefit to the part 
of the United Kingdom for which 
it was intended. 

Lord Uonteagle sold, that, so far 
from the principle of this Bill being 
objected to by the landed proprie- 
tors in Ireland, it met vriui their 
entire approval. But there vras an 
inconvenience which would arise 
bom the Bill in its present state 
which, he thought, required coo- 
radenttion, and might be remedied 
without violating the principle of 
die measure. It did not prevent a 
middleman who held land with a 
condition against sub-letting or di- 
viding the land, putting a charge 
upon it for children, and upon hia 
death the children became incum' 
braucers, and the result might be 
that the middleman's interest 
would be split into parts, und the 
object of the Bill defeated. He was 
glad to learn Uiat the object of the 
Bill was to cheapen and curtail pro- 
ceedings in Chancery ; but, unless 
something was done to reform the 

proceedings in the Alaater's office, 
sufficient relief would not be af- 

The Bill was then read a second 
time, and passed the Lords with 
little further discussion. In the 
House of Commons, however, it un- 
derwent considerable debate and 
some material alteration in its pro- 
visions. After long delay it came 
on for discussion in Committee on 
the 4th July. Sir Lucius O'Brien 
moved that it be an instruction to 
the Committee to extend the ope- 
ration of the Bill to England end 
Scotland. He complained of the 
conduct of the Government in re- 
ference to the Bill, and of some of 
the provisions of the measure itMlf. 
The Bill proposed to invest cre- 
ditors who held security over Irish 
estates with powers over those 
estates which creditors did not poe- 
sess in England or Scotland. Pro- 
perly modified, the Irish landlords 
would accept it; but they would 
not do so in its present shape ; and, 
in order to teat its goodness for 
Ireland, he proposed its application 
also to England and Scotland, as it 
must be equally good for them if 
good at all. At present it was 
founded on the most unconstitu- 
tional principles. Clause 30 would 
enable a tenant for life, without 
reference to the extent of his en- 
cumbmnce, and behind the back of 
any person entitled in remainder, to 
sell the whole ancient family man- 
sion and appurtenances ; to do this 
for an inadequate price ; and to ob- 
tain the purchase- money from the 
Bank of Ireland at his pleasure. 
It in fact repealed the law of entail ; 
which, whethera rightlaw or wrong 
law, was one incorporated with all 
thepresentsystem. and was the basis 
of Uie titles and honours that one 
generation transmitted to another. 
By clause 3, every creditor — no 




matter the amount of fais claim — 
oould force the land of his debtor 
into the market. 

In passing, Sir Lucius stood 
forward as the apologist of Irish 
landlords — a much •calumniated 
race. None were better educated, 
more capable of tranaacdng bosi- 
ness, or more intent on doing their 
duty. But tlie state of the law was 
such Bs to drive them to measures 
of apparent hardship. Sir Lucius 
spoke from experience, and after 
losing hundreds of pounds. If he 
built a house in a Triage and put a 
man into it te live there comfort- 
ably, it might be two or three jean 
before he got that house again inte 
his possession, though the tenant 
would pay no rent. Three or four 
years would elapse before one could 
get quit of a panper : instead of a 
oomnirtable cottage such as it 
waa at first, the cottage came back 
in a Tery different condition ; and, 
were such a case to occur on his 
property, in that House he should 
have his £ur name taralshed. Until 
adequate power were given to the 
landlords m such cases, the country 
would continue to present such bar- 
barous scenes as it now exhibited. 

The Solicitor General vindicated 
the measure. He said the object of 
the Bill was to make land a market- 
able commodity in Ireland. From 
various returns which had been 
made, it appeared that there was 
an abundance of capital in Ireland, 
and that even during the late 
, &mine capital was constantly coming 
thence for profitable inveBtment in 
this country, Government had the 
admiHsion of all parties to the fact 
as unquestionable, that iiland could 
be sold in reasonably small pieces 
in Ireland, there waa abundance of 
capital which would be applied in 
making such purchases. The pre- 
sent Bill aimed at facilitating such 

investments and purchaaes. The 
Solicitor-General explained in some 
detail the complex and coetly but 
etilt ine£Bcient system of registra- 
tion of encumbrances now in force 
in Ireland. It was proposed to ena- 
ble owners of encumbered eatetes 
to sell their land and subatituU 
money in place of it, sul^ect to all 
the interests and encumbrances 
that previouly affected the laud. 
This waa provided forin two ways : 
by a compulsory sale made under 
the order of the Irish Court of 
Ghanociy — a power being given to 
the Court to deal with sudi cases 
by referring them to a Master and 
afterwards summarily directing the 
sale ; and by empowering owners 
of encumbered land to sell that 
land, and give with it a Parliamen- 
tary title. In addition, a third 
mode had been added-— that of a 
sate by "consent;" which, as the 
Bill provided, might take placsin all 
cases where all the persons inte- 
rested in the estate consented to its 
sale and had given proper notices. 
Tbe parties receiving notice of sale 
would be enabled, by application to 
the Court, to show sufficient cause 
for forbidding the sale ; and. in fur- 
ther precaution, no Parliamentary 
title madebythe Bill would be inde- 
feasible till the lapse of five years 
after the sale : during those five 
years the proof of fraud or colln- 
sion would make the sale vuid as 
against all persons connected with 
the fraud. 

The present measure was not in- 
tended to interfere with variouB 
other measures for the relief of 
Ireland, and would not be incorpo- 
rated with any measure on Uie 
question of landlord and tenant 

Mr. Napier urged objections to 
the Bill, us altered from the shape 
in which it left the House of 




Th« encambnucer he said, ma 
duly cared for hj its proTisioas, 
bat the remainder- man under ikmilj 
MtUementa would be improteoted ; 
for his onlj remedy agsioat fraud 
or a depietdatJOD of the value 
of hie interest woold be a suit 
in equity. Ab to the new mode 
of sale, without the i«iet of the 
Court of Chaucen after uotioee in 
the Gazette and daewhere, nobody 
read the noticee in the Gazette, 
and the party really entitled might 
be an absentee, ui infant, or erwi 
an oobom child, and yet the title 
vaa to be indoTeaaibte after five 

Mr. Monsell supported the mea- 
sure as the only hope for the mise- 
rable tenants of encumbered estates 
in Ireland. He entreated the 
House to carry it into a law with 
all convenient speed. Mr. Osborne 
characterized the amendment as a 
poi^ subterfuge to defeat a use- 
nil and practical measure. He 
warmly supported the bill, as cal- 
culated to luse the Tolue of land 
in Ireland, and, what was of much 
greater consequence, to increase 
the cereal produce in that countiy. 
He criticised, bovever, some parts 
of the mschinery of the measure, 
paitdcuUrlj the repeated references 
which it required to the Master's 
office in the Irish Court of Chan- 
cery—the delay, expense, and chi- 
canery of which were such that no 
man would desire to see its buai- 
neas increased. Mr. Osborne 
stated his opinion that nothing 
would attain the desired end but 
the^pointmentof CotnmissioneiB) 
with all necesaaiy powers to cany 
out the Bill. He had employed 
two legal gentlemen, one of them 
an eminent conveyancer, to look 
into the Bill ; and they held out no 
bopee to him that die transfer of 
the land could be made more 

cheaply under its prov idons. On 
the genera] polioy of the Bill Mr. 
Osborne spoke in much more fa- 
vourable terms. Eveiy day's expe- 
rience convinced him, that if they 
wished to save Ireland they must do 
public good; and, unless they altered 
the laws affecting property in Ire- 
land and that too in a very summaiy 
way, they would have no properly 
left in that oountrj. By the pre* 
sent operation of the Stamp Duties, 
small puichaBes of land could not 
be effected in Ireland ; and, if they 
wished (o encourage small pur- 
chases oi land, they most first idter 
their Stamp Duties. It was no- 
toiions that the state of society in 
Ireland was diseased, and that the 
laws respecting land were at the 
bottem of the mischief. The resi- 
dent aiistooraoy, whose estates wwe 
heavily mortgaged, were obliged by 
their position to do harsh and selfish 
acts; and the greatest boon to them 
would be a Bill enabling them to 
sell the whole or a portion of their 
estates, for they could not possibly 
discharge the dtitaes o! their pre- 
sent situation. 

Mr. Sadleir approved of the just 
and valuable principle of the Bill ; 
that it oonferred on the tenant for 
life a power to dispose of the in- 
heritance in satisfaction of debts 
and incumtxanoes ; but he gave a 
qualified oppositioD to its details 
and machinery, and offered some 
suggestions of his own for efEsctiiig 
its olyeots more perfectly. 

Sir James Graham expressed 
his gratitude to the Solicitor Gene- 
ral f<:« his valuable exertions in 
perfecting the details of this mea- 
sure. Hia dread bad been that 
l^al Bcruples and pnijudicee would 
be too much considered in the 
amending of the Bill, and that too 
little regard would be paid to the 

120] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

"peculiar circa meUnCBS existing the balance of the sale of the 

in Ireland." But he heard with esl&tes. For unquestioRabl; their 

great pleasure a speech from a gen- estates ought at once to be brought 

ueman bearing the name of Ro- to market * * » I consider thebill, 

millj — worthj of a lawyer, but not asamendedby the Solicitor General, 

exclusively of a lawyer — a speech well adapted to secure the interests 

combining with extensive legal of the owner in poseesaion, the heirs, 

knowledge large political views the remainder men, and the credi- 

well worthj of the sul^ect han- tors. If there should be any im- 

dled. perfection in the measure, espe- 

Od the broad principleand policy cially as to securing the sale of the 

of the measure Sir James made property at its full value, I shall 

this declaration amidst general be ready to remove that imperfeo- 

cheering—" I think it is absolutely tion. I am most anxioos that the 

necessary that every encourage- full value of the property should 

ment and facility should be given be secured; that no sudden orpre- 

b> the subdivision of land in Ire- dpitate sale should be forced on, 

land ; and that the opportunity so that the value of the land should 

most favourable for eSbcbng this is be depreciated by a larger qaantity 

when land is brought to sale. I am being brought eimultaneously into 

most anxious to reunite to the soil the market than the demand re- 

of Ireland the Roman GathoUo quires. I am also, for the sake of 

nulatdon of that cotmtry. That Uie tenants in possession, desirous 
elieve to be one of the most that care be taken that there shall 
efficacious means of insuring the not be a mortgagee panic, which 
safety of Ireland, and of forming would be fatal to the measure, 
and strengthening the bond of But, under the present circum- 
nnion between the two oountriss. stances of Ireland, you must not 
During a long period of exclusion be guided by caution only ; you 
and inequality of rights, the Roman must not take your steps timidly, 
CathoUcs of Ireland have by iudns- but boldly, at ue same time pm- 
try accumulated capital, which I dently : for the period has arrived 
believe they are not trnwilliog to when witli respect to this sub- 
invest in the purchase of the land ject something decisive must be 
of Ireland. Unfortunatetyi the done." 

laige estates held by right of con> The Bill did not pass diioagh its 

fisration, in the bands of Protes- ulteriorstages without encountering 

tanta, have become deeply eucum- some further criticism and hostility, 

bered. By reason of these encum- Mr. N^ier moved that it be re- 

brances, the nominal owners of the committed for the purpose of strik- 

eetates cannot in ^1 instances ing out all the clauses added by 

do that which it is their wish the Solicitor General since it came 

and their duty to do. I would down from the Lords. The Soli- 

relieve them from the painful citor General vindicated the provi- 

posiUon in whkh they stand, and sions which Mr. Napier had ob- 

would give them every facility jected to, and the general policy of 

to release themselves from their the Bill. 

debts. Their creditors should in He maintained, in the first place, 

the first place be secured, and then that the peculiar position of pro- 

their families provided for out of perty iu Iceland justified the resort 


Eniil^.-\ HISTOEY. [121 

to proTisions vhich at first eight agreeing in substance with Mr. 

might seem sarprisiug ; but, on Henlej as to the principle of the 

the other hand, there was not a Bill. 

provision in the present Bill that Mr. Monsell sCrongly Bupported 
was not justified b; precedent in the Bill. He said it would be ab- 
thia country as well as the sound- surd to stick at technicalities in 
eat policy. In this country the the present wretched condition of 
iracCical result under every well- the tenants of encumbered eatatee. 
1 settlement was, that the The Bill was also supported hj Mr. 
it for life could sell an encum- P. Wood, Mr. Fagan, and Mr. C. 
bered estate : this Bill gave that Villiera. Opposed by Mr. New- 
power in Ireland, but under the degate and M^jor Blackall. On a 
guard that the tenant could not division the amendmeut was nega- 
make encumbrances to bring about tived by 197 to 5S. It was then 
a sale — for he could not sell on ac- read a third time, 
count of his own encumbrancee — The amendments made in the 
and that the title was not tube inde- House of Commons having been 
liMsible till after five years. This remitted for consideration to the 
term of limitation had a precedent House of Lorde, the Lord Cban- 
iD the Land Clauses Consolidation cellor, on the 31st July, proposed 
Act. He proposed to add a pro- the adoption of them, as materially 
vision that every person interested conducing to the efflcieocy of the 
in remainder under settlement measure. He expressed his opi- 
should have personal notice of sale, nion of the proceedings in Courts 
He also proposed to provide that of £quity in significant terms. 
the Lord-Lieutenant should have He entertained great respect for 
power to appoint serveyors to esti- the Court of Chancery, but would 
mate estates sold under the Bill, not willingly enter that Court as a 
and to see that proper prices were suitor, nor advise his friend to do 
paid. so j in his opinion, therefore, the 
Sir John Roinilly ended bjr ob' power of sale without the inter* 
serving that the creation of a middle veution of the Court of Chancery 
classinlrelandoouldnotbeeffected was a Valuable addition to the 
till land in portions of 100 acres Bill. 

each was mode easily purchaseable. Lord Stanley entered into a de- 
He would not be indisposed to ek- tailed examination of the additions 
tend a similar Bill to England. that had been made to the Bill, and 
Mr. Sadleir supported the amend- condemned them as constituting, in 
ment. Colonel Dunne added fact, a new measure since the Bill 
some objectdons to those uned by was last in that House. He would 
the other opponents. Mr. Henley move, if any one would support 
thought tluit the Bill struck at him, that the Bill be referred hack 
the root of all property i the ma' to a Select Committee. Lord 
duDsry must be either unjust or Monteagle expressed hia reluctance 
nogatoi;. The best way to im' to oppose the Bill ; but it was so 
prove Ireland was to give increased completely altered by the Oom- 
security to life and property. mens, that he concurred in the de- 
Mr. Stuart entered into a de- sire for a reference to a Select 
tuled legal criticism of the clauses, Committee, in order to procure the 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

opinions of Irish lawyers on the smendmenta. On a diTision the 

new claufies. The Earls of Ellen- House resolved, by 97 to 1 0, to 

borough and Gtengall concurred, consider the amendments: and 

The Earla of Wicklow and Devon, they were agreed to without fut^ 

the Marquis of Laosdowne and iherco&teat. 
Xjord Langdale 3a|>ported the 


SngbE^d.] HISTORY. [123 


DoKEsno AryMBS — Extraordinary TrtmquiUity of thi* Country 
' dunnjf the Contmental Btvolutiom — Attaitpti made by the Chartut* 
to disturb the Peact—Demonttration of the lOth of April, and iti 
hamdeu ReeuU—EseceUeTit moral Effect produced thirAy — Ditor- 
derly Auembiiet atid uditiou* Speechet tn the Metropoli* and other 
Placet — Msaturet adopted by the Qwemment — The great Chartitt 
Petition to Parliament, and Proeeedingt reacting it—Report of the 
Committee on Public Petitiont expating the Mitrepreeentatumt at to 
the Signaturet — Personal IHtpute tn the Houte betxeeen Mr. CHppe 
and Mr, Feargut O'CtmTwr. — Interference of the Speaker and Ei^^a- 
natUme of the Partiet. — Cbowh and Govbrmiunt SEouritt Biu. in- 
traduced by the Home Secretary— Object* of the Meaeure — Speech of 
Sir Oeorge Grey — Obtervaiiont of Mr. J. O'Connell, Mr. F. 
O'ConnoTt and other Memben — The BiU it brought in — Lord John 
RutteU movet the Second Beading on the 10th of April — Mr. SmiA 
O'Brien appeart in Parliament for Ae last Time, and jp^ofa againet 
the Bill — Sir Qeorge Orey antwen htm in an animeUed Speech — 
Speeches of Mr. Thompson, Sir R. Irtglit, and other Membere — The 
Second Reading it carried by 4GS to 35 — The Clauee nuMng " Open 
and Advised Speaking " qf treasonable Matter Feloniout ie much ob- 
jected to in Committee — Mr. 8. Martin, Mr. Hortman, Mr. Hume, 
Mr. Osborne and other Members strongly oppoeed to it— Speech of Sir B. 
Peel with reference to EvenU in France. — The BiU panes the Third 
Beading by a great Me^oriti^^-Dehate upon the Second Reading in tJie 
Houte of Lords— Speechet of Lord Stanley, Lord Brougham, Lord 
Campbell, the Duke of WelUngtort, Lord Denman, and other Peers. 
Aliens Rsmovai. Biu. tiUroduced by the Margie of Lamdovme — 
Explanationt and Debate on the Second Beading — Iti the Houte of 
Commont the BUI it opposed by Sir W. Moleevorth-Bemarke of 
Lord Dudley i^uart, the Attorney-General, Mr. Urguhart, Dr. Bom- 
ring, and other Members — The Second Beading ti carried by a 
Minority q^ 119. Exiehsiok of the Elkctitk Frahcbibe — i^u- 
lar Movement on thi* Sulgect and Eixertion* of Mr, Hume— A Beta- 
Itftton tn favour of further Reform in Parliament it propoted by that 
Gentleman on the 31*( of June — His Speech on that oceaeion—He t* 
antvered by Lord John B.u»*eli, who oppotes the Motitm — Speeehe* of 
Mr. H. Drummond, Mr. Fox. and Mr. Di*raeli — The Debate it ad- 
journed and returned ontheGlhof July — Speeches of Mr. B. Oibonte, 

124] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Enghnd. 

Mr. Sergeant Tal/ourd, Mr. Cobdm, Mr. F. O'Connor, Mr. Milnet, 
Mr. Sidney Herbert, Mr. Muntz, and Mr. C. ViiUen—On a Di- 
vwion Mr. Hwtne't Motion it rejected by 361 to 84. 

THE eecurity wbicb under the well-tried inatitutiona, proves a 
protection of Providence this sure bulwark in the hour of trial 
country derives from its free and against the macbinatione of con- 
popular constitQtion was never BpiratorBBudanarcfaiets. Such was 
more signollj exemplified than the lesson exhibited by England 
during the year of political agita- in the revolutionary era of 1848. 
tdon and disorder of which the The agitation ivhich derived it£ im- 
memorable events are commetno- pulse irom the convulsions of the 
rated in this volume. While al- ContJoent prevailed only bo far as 
most every throne on the Conti- to disturb for a moment the serenity 
nent was emptied or shaken by re- of her political atmosphere. Awed 
volution, the English monarchy, by the overwhelming strength and 
strong in the loyal attachment imposing attitude of the friends of 
of the people, not only stood order.the mischief subsided almost 
firm in the tempest, but appeared as soon as it appeared, and the 
even to derive increased 8ta> cauee of rational freedom was mo- 
bility from the events that con- teiially strengthened by the futile 
Ttileed foreign kingdoms. In the efforts made to ondermine it. 
most perfect constitution of society When a knot of obscure and ill- 
indeed, as it is impossible to extir- disposed malcontents would &in 
pate the passions and vices of our have played off in our metropolis 
common mUure, disaffection, in a the scenes which had been enact«d 
more or less degree. Is always la- with such sanguinary effects in 
tent; and, as often as circum- Paris and Vienna, their insignifi- 
stances present the occasiotiB of cance was demonstrated, and their 
disorder, there will be found no menaces rendered impotent by the 
lack of turbulent and unruly spirits firm and imposing attitude of the 
to take advantage of them. It is loyal and well-affected inhabitants 
at such periods that the sound- arrayed in the defence of peace, 
ness of a nation's political senti- property, and order. 
ments and the reality of its attach- The 10th of April was the day 
ment to ^e constituted authorities which the disciples of physical 
is brot^ht to a searching trial. A force, organized under the banner 
system which has been supported of Chartism, had announced for a 
only by the strong hand of power, grand display of their strength and 
or by that allegiance which is the numbers; a demonstration by which 
creature of habit rather than of re- it was Intended to overawe the 
flection,isunabIeto withstand that Government into a concession of 
contagiousfeverofinnoVationwhich their demands, as the only means 
spreads from country to country, of averting a violent revolution, 
imder ihe impulse of any eitraor- But the day which was to have 
dinaiy movement in the human been signalized by the jubilee of 
mind. On the other hand, a loy democratic licence terminated in 
alty. based on reason and convio- the most decisive triumph of the 
tion, end an enlightened apnrecia- Throne and Constitution. Without 
tion of the benefits derivea from the slightest collision between the 

EnsUmd.^ HISTORY. [125 

andioiitieB and the people, withoat mobs, it was not always iu ite 
a blow struck, or a. drop of blood power to prevent the destruction 
ihed, nay without the appearance of propertj, and the suspension of 
of a single soldier in the streets of busuiess, occasioned by soch dis- 
LondoD, onintemiptad peace and turbances, while the necessitj of 
order were mainl&iiied, and the constant vigilance in several quar- 
vauntod demonstration passed off ters of the metropolis at once 
qoietlj and safely. The result moved very harassing to the police, 
was not only to reassure all those The contagion spread to seme of 
peiBons who had trembled for the larae manufacturing towns 
the stability of the social fabric both in England and Scotland, and 
at home, but to strengthen the in some parts of the country the 
cause of constdtutional Uberty all Chartist gatherings and demonstra- 
over the world, and to accelerate tions created a good deal of appro- 
that reaction in favour of moderate henaion. Happily, however, all 
and sober counsels, which natu- these commotions passed off with* 
rally succeeds to a revolutionary out any serious explosion. The 
eballition. But, although all danger Govermnent meanwhile kept a 
to the institutioos of this couotiy careful watch upon the progress of 
was ahown to be at an end, it was the movement A Caw of the more 
in the power of the mischievous and violent leaders and speech-makers 
ill-dispoeed, availing themselves of were arrested and oommitted for 
the general excitement of the trial, and every preparation was 
times, to give some trouble and made for vigorous action in the 
annoyance to the Government, event of an outbreak taking place. 
Meetings were held for the promo- The transactions that were occur- 
tion of the so-called People's ing out of doors became the sulgect 
Charter, at which a great deal of of occasional discussion in Parlia- 
seditlous and revolutionary Ian- ment, and led to the introduction 
guage was spoken; and, if these of some new legal securities for 
efforts to excite the ignorant and strengthening the hands of Govem- 
misguided failed of their effect, it ment and enabling them to deal 
was certainly not from any want of more effectually with persons en- 
will iu the turbulent demagogues gaging in designs against the pub- 
who took the part of leaders, nor lie peace. We shall notice in this 
s the mischief confined to mere chapter some of the more promi- 

conaiating for the most part of the On the 10th of April, the day 

refuse of a crowded city, thieves, on which the Chartist procession 

jrickpockets, and other disorderly to Kennington Common took place, 

characters, took place in some parts Mr. Feargua O'Connor presented 

of the metropolis ; windows were to the House of Commons a peti- 

broken, some shops plundered, the tion signed, as he alleged, by 

police were assmled with abuse, 5,706,000 persons, and another 

stones and missiles, and the peace- supplementary petition signed by 

able inhabitants put in terror for 80,000, praying for the enactment 

their safety. Although the civil of what were called the Five Points 

force always proved a more than of the Charter ; namely, Annual 

sufficient match for these riotous Parliaments, UniverBsl Suffirage, 

ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

Equal Electoral Districts, no Fro- 
pertj Qualification, and Payment 
of Members. He mored that the 
prajer be read bv the clerk. 

The petition la; on the floor of 
the Kouae in five large divisions. 
The first sheet was detached and 
the prayer read. The messengers 
of the House then rolled the im- 
mense masses of parchment to the 

A day had been specially ap- 
pointed by the Oovemment to take 
the subject of this extraordinary 
petition into consideration. But 
in the meantime sn inTsstigauon 
into its contents brought some 
curious facts to light. On the 
18th Mr. Thomely brought up a 
special report from the Select 
Committee on Public Petitions, 
which was read by the clerk at the 
table, as follows : — 

" The Committee on Public Pe- 
titions, in oonformil; with the ia- 
Btniotions of the House of the 
'Mlb day of November last, ' in all 
cases to set forth the number of 
signatures to each petition,' and 
also having regard to the power at 
the same time dalegated to them 
' to report their opinion and ob- 
servations thereupon to the House,' 
have agreed to the following special 
report — 

"That, OD the 10th day of April 
instant, a petition for 'Universal 
Suffrage, £c. from inhabitants of 
the British Isles uid subjects of 
tlie Britiah Crown' was presented 
to the House. 

" Your Conunitteo strongly feel 
the value of the right of petition ; 
consider the exercise of it as one 
of the most important privileges 
of the subjects of the realm ; and 
feel the necessity of preserving 
the exercise of siuh privilege from 

" And, having also a due regard 

to the importance of the veij 
numerously signed petition form- 
ing the subject of the present re- 
port, thej feel bound to represent 
to the House, that in the matter 
of signatures there has been, in 
their opinion, a gross abuse of that 

"The honourable Member for 
Nottingham stated, on presenting 
the petition in question to the 
House, that 6,706,000 signatures 
were attached to it Upon a most 
careful examination of Uie number 
of signatures in the Committee- 
room, in which examination thir- 
teen law-stationer's clerks were en- 
gaged for upwards of seventeen 
hours, together with the person or- 
dinarily employed in counting the 
signatures appended to petitions, 
under the superintendence of the 
clerk of your Committee, the num- 
ber of signatures has been ascer- 
taiiiedtobel,076,49e. Itisfurlher 
evident to your Committee, that on 
numerous consecutive sheets the 
signatures are in one and the same 

" Tour Committee have also ob- 
served the names of distij^tshed 
individuals attached to the petition, 
who cannot be supposed to have 
concurred in ita prayer, and as 
little to have subscribed it : 
amongst such occur the names of 
Her Mfyesty in one place, as Vic- 
toria Rex, April 1 ; the Duke of 
Wellington, E.G.; Sir Robert 
Peel, &c.,&c., &c. 

" In addition to this species of 
abuse, your Committee have oh 
served another equally in derogi- 
ti<m of the just value of petitions, 
— namely, Uie insertion of names 
which are obviously altogether fic- 
titious, such as 'NoGheeee,' 'Fug- 
nose,' ' Flatnoee,' Ac. 

" There are other words and 
phrases which, though written in 

EmgUmd.^ HISTORY. [127 

the fimn of signatane, and in- tioa retiirna and Ibimd that the 
daded in the number reported, pedtioii could not hare been signed 

TOUT Committee will not hazard b; 6,700,000 adult males. It had 

ofieading the House, and the dig- b«ea mbsequentl; discoTered, how- 

nity uid deoenoj of their own pro- ever, that the aignatoree bj women 

eeediogB. by reporting ; though it were in the proportion of 6 to 100. 

may b« added, that they are ob- Mr. Grippe declared, in rather 

Tiooal; eignatures belongiag U> etrone tonns. the distrust that he 

no hnnuui being." ahoola henceforth feel for state- 

This report having been read, ments emanating from Mr. F. 

Mr. F. O'Coanor said he would not O'Connor. A warm personal 

undertake to ny that the numbers altercation bettreen the two ho- 

stktad by him were correct ; certain nouraUe Members ensued, after 

pnetices mi^t have been resorted whidi Mr. O'Connor left the House. 

to. It waa an old saying, that those The interferenae of the Speaker 

who hide may find ; uid perhaps wis then called for, who expressed 

somatbing of the spy system had his hope that Mr. Crippe would 

been resorlfd to with regard to this lisclaim any intention of persoDat 

great national undertaking. He offence. Mr. Cripps, thus appealed 

had letters which showed that the to, readily made the disclaimer 

munber of real signatures affixed required. Lord John Russell then 

to tbe petition, in England, Scot- moved thalMr. O'Connor be taken 

land, and Wales, was 4,800,000. into the custody of the Seijeant-at> 

As to the computation, he main- Arms. Mr. O'Connor, at a later 

tained that thirteen clerks could hour in the erening, was brought 

not ooont 1,900,000 signatoree in to the bar, and after reciprocal ex- 

aerenteen horns ; nor could twenty planations had been gtven, and _ 

do it. each of the Members concerned 

Mr. Thomely insisted that the had expressed himself satisfied, 

utmost care had been used in the the matter dropped. In the coarse 

examination of the petition. The of the discussioD which preceded 

CommitteehadeTenhaditweighed this afiair, Mr. John Abd Smith 

in coDsequenoe of a statement made stated the estimate which had been 

by Mr. O'Connor on that head. It formed &om careful observation of 

was found to weigh, not five tons, the numbers present on Eenning- 

as stated, but five hundredweight ten Common, having been himself 

and three quarters. a spectator of the meetiog. 

Lord John Bnssell repudiated He said : I have reason to 
the insinuation that the " spy know, that previously to the meet- 
system" had had anything to do ing means were taken to ascer- 
with the petition. The Earl of tain the whole number of persons 
Anindel and Surrey remarked that which could be present if the Com- 
the Chartists had issued an ad- mon were entirelv covered. The 
Tortisement, stating that 500,000 whole space, closely packed, would 
persons had assembled on Ken- not hold more than 90,000 ; and 
nington Common on the 10th. at no time was there more than a 
The highest estimate was &S,000. quarter of the space occupied. I 
Mr. Cripps (a member of the have further to state, that I am 
Committee on PetitionB) stated convinced I exaggerate them when 
that he had examined the popula- I say that the numbers id the pro- 




oeasioD were ander 8000. I will 
oalj add, that the honourable 
Member for NottiDRhain, in my 
presence on Mondaj evening, 
stated the numbers present on 
Kenninffton Common as exceed- 
ing half a^ million." (Chsen and 

Colonel Sibtborp related an anec- 
dote which afibrded some enter- 

"On Monda; nigbt, when the 
honourable and learned Member 
for Notdngham, addressing me at 
the door of the House, said, ' I am 
gtad all want off peaceably,' I said, 
' I have oul; one r«gret that it did.' 
'Why?' he asked. 'Because,' I 
replied, 'if you had attempted to 
come over the bridge, you would 
bave got the soundest thrashing 
mortal man ever rectiived.' " {Loud 
ehetrt and laughUr). 

At this period of the Session a 
Bill was introduoed by Sir Oeor^e 
Grey for the more effectual repres- 
sion of seditious and treasonable 
proceeding. Although the mea. 
sure was intended to be applied to 
the whole of the United Kingdom, 
the peculiar predicament of affiiirs 
in Ireland, in which agitation was 
U that lime carried to its utmost 
length, led the Minister to advert 
more particularly to the circum- 
Btancea of that country, and gave the 
same turn to almost all the dis- 
euasions which arose upon the Bill. 
In moving for leave to bring in his 
Bill for the better security of tlie 
Crown and Qovemment of the 
kingdom, the Secretary for the 
Home Department regretted deeply 
that the seditious and treasonable 
designs entertained by certain par- 
ties in different parts of the United 
Kingdom, and the encour^ement 
given by them to open insurrection 
and to the subversion of our nar 
tional institutionB rendentd it in- 

cnmbent upon the Government to 
ask for an alteration of the law 
applicable to such practices. Go- 
vernment hod no intention of im- 
posing any new restriction on the 
right of the people, either to meet 
or to discuss public af&iirs or to 
petition for the redress of griev- 
ances. There were, however, limits 
to the exercise of these constitu- 
tional rights. Thoee limits bad 
been recently transgressed, and 
l anguage had been used in various 
parts of the United Kingdom, 
which, if it were not treason itself, 
was certainly highly treasonable. 
In one part of the empire the law 
was utterly insufficient to meet this 
great and crying evil. The lan- 
guage used in Ireland was incom- 
patible with established Govern- 
ment, with the maintenance of or- 
der, and with those existing institu- 
tions under which the British people 
enjoyed more constitutional fiber^ 
than any other people in the world. 
Lord Clarendon had instituted one, 
and only one prosecution, with the 
hope of putting down such lan- 
guage ; but he had been met, not 
with any desire on the part of those 
who had used it to confbim to the 
law, but with a declaration that, if 
they had hitherto knowingly spoken 
sedition, they would in future avow 
their intention to commit high 
treason. He was not prepared to 
say that they had hitherto com- 
mitted any action which brought 
them within the penalties of high 
treason ; but he warned them that 
their future actions, by a retro- 
spective reference to their former 
speeches, might even yet bring 
them into that predicament. He 
then referred to various artides 

Eublished in the Unitad Irakman 
y Mr. Mitchell, to the speeches 
of Mr. Me(^;her, and to a recent 
harangue of Mr. Dufff, on an- 

Smgi^.] HISTORY. [129 

ooDDcing bi his cooDtiymeti that affect offences against the person 
60,000 Frencbmen were ready to of the Sovereign, and then to re- 
support them in subverting the enact it so as to make the offenoss 
mooarchj and in esteblisbuig a contained in it not punishable b; 
HpanU« and independent Bepublio death, but by transportatioQ for 
in Ireland — -as specimens of the life or for any period not less than 
eril of which he complained. In seven years. The clause for the 
defence of the loyal miqon^ of punishment of the offence of com- 
Her Miyesty's subjects in Ireland, passing, imagining, or levying war 
Government now came to Farlia- against Her Majesty, and of in- 
ntent and asked for such an altera- citing and stimng foreigners to 
tion of the law as would enable it invade this realm, was one ren- 
te deal satisfactorily with fevers of dered necessary by the conduct of 
this kind, which occurred from many persons now actively engaged 
time to time in the history of in agitating the two countries. As 
nations, and which were now strik- the law stood at present, any pei^ 
ins terror into large masses of the son having gone to a foreign coun- 
inbabitants of this empire. He try, or having incited by speech, 
then stated what the law was at and not by writing, others to go 
wesent as to offences of this kind, there for such a purpose, was ex- 
The law of treason was not iden- empt from any penalty save that 
tical in England and Ireland, as attached to seiUtion. In extending 
he showed in some detail. There that clause to Ireland, the Govern- 
was no reason for that differ- ment was bound to see that those 
enee, and every reason for ge^ gentlemen who were now insti> 
ting rid of it, as it paralyzed gating others by speeches and 
the action of the law in Ireland at writings to the offeuces which it 
the present moment. It had been was intended to check, should have 
proposed to enforce the same law no loophole for escape. He there- 
in every portion of the United fore proposed to apply the penal- 
Kingdom ; but it was undeniable ties of this clause to all persons 
that the law of treason in England, who, by "publishing or printing 
under the act of the 86th of any writing, or by open and avowed 
George III., which did not extend speaking," should seek to compass, 
to Ireland, was a law of veiy great imagine, and levy war agunst the 
severity, and therefore, in con- Sovereign. Such was the sub- 
fbnnity with the spirit of our stance of the Bill which he pro- 
recent legislation, he proposed to posed to lay on the table. Without 
modify it, and to apply it so modi- it Lord Clarendon stated that he 
Sed to every portion of the empire, should be unable to stem the tide 
He did not propose to repeal any of sedition and treason swelling 
of the pen^ties for the offence around him on every side; with it 
of oompassii^ the death of the he beUeved be should be enabled 
Sovereign, or of restraining or to deal with those persona who 
imprisoning the person of the defied him, and defied him safely. 
Sovereign. That offence would be to do bis worst. He did not say 
still high treason: but vrith regard that this was the only measure 
to the other offences contained in necessary for the pac^cation of 
SSth George III., he proposed to Ireland, but this vras a law which 
repeal so much of it as did not would be extended to all portions 
Vol. XC. [K] 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [E»gi<«^. 

at the United Eingdom, The 
other measures which he ehould 
have to introduce vould partake 
more of the character of police 
fegulationB, and he vould, there- 
fore. Dot mix them up with a Bill 
which he propoBed as a permanent 
alteratioD and amelioiation of tLe 
law of treason. 

Mr. J. O'Conneli concurred in 
execrating many of the speeches 
recently made in Ireland, and in 
condemning the insane criminality 
of those who were exciting that 
country to rebellion. He did not 
oppose this Bill from any sympathy 
with that party, but from a con- 
viction that it was not necessary, 
and that the ordinary law was quite 
adequate to its objects. 

Mr. Hume thought that the 
Btatules relating to treason should 
be revised ana formed into one 
clear and intelligible code. He 
protested against the clause in the 
proposed Bill for punishing " open 
and advised speaking," which he 
denominated an oppressive and 
" gagging clause." Mr. W. J. Fox 
objected to the same section, and 
enlarged on the monstrous con- 

nuences which might result from 
nrced oonstruclion of die pro- 
vision in question. 

Mr. F. O'Connor declared his 
determination to resist the Bill to 
the utmost, even if he stood alone. 
Mr. H. Gratlan, Lord Dudley Stu- 
art, and Mr. Beynolds enpresaed 
their dissatisfaction. Mr. M. J. 
O'Conneli declared his intention 
of supporting the measure as ne- 
cessary for the preservation of 
peace in Ireland. 

Lord John Russell regretted that 
Mr. Fox had not waited to see this 
Bill before he had expressed such 
unsparing condemnation of that 
clause of it which affected spoken 
words. The clause was intended 

to punish those who spoke openly 
and advisedly for the purpose of 
exciting to the levy of war against 
the Sovereign; and did Mr. Fox 
object to such an enactment? He 
then justified the various clauses 
of the Bill, and contended that 
there was not a single syllable in 
it which could be justly said to 
impair the right of free discussion. 
The House then divided, when 
the numbers were — 

For the first reading of 

the Bill 283 

Against it 34 

M^ority in ita favour . 259 

Lord John Bussell having moved 
the second reading on the 10th of 
April, an animated debate took 
place. Mr. Smith O'Brien ap- 
peared in his place for the last 
time before assuming the charac- 
ter of an avowed rebel, to protest 
against the measure. He said 
that he was not to be put down by 
the proceedings which Lord John 
Bussell had directed against him, 
nor would the Oovemment extin- 
guish national feeling in Ireland 
by wholesale prosecutions. He 
bad in his absence been called a 
traitor. [The cheers of the House 
intimated an opinion that the de- 
signation was not altogether an 
unfit one.] He was there to avow 
what he had spoken and done. He 
professed bis loyslty to the Queen, 
but not to the Government or to 
the Imperial Parliament; on the 
contrary, he would do all in his 
power to overthrow the one and to 
dissever the other. He then re- 
ferred to his mission to Paris^.and 
by so doing again roused indignant 
sboute of disapprobation from all 
sides of the House. He also at- 
tempted to vindicate the conduct 

England.} HISTORY. [131 

of his political ossodatoe, and read Temment of Great Bribun and the 
a resoiation from the records of people of Ireland must bo uncer- 
the last meetJng of the Irish Con- tain — that it might be diaaatrous— 
federation to show that their Ao- that if England failed, she irould 
signa had never been kept secret stand alone — and that her positioA 
— that the; irere not seeking social would be very precarious, with the 
disorder and a violent separation independent republic of France on 
from Great Britain — but t^t Uieir one side of her and another in- 
only desire was to obtain a repeal dependent repablic on the other, 
of the Union, if possible, without He therefore called upon the Go- 
dvil war. They had also recom- vemmeut, before it was too late, 
mended their oountrymen to send to grant to his couutr^en those 
SOO del^ates to Dublin to form a national privileges which, by everj 
national council ; and the; had right, human and divine, they were 
done this because there was at entitled to claim. When t^e noble 
present no exponent of the feelings Lord told him that he was a traitor 
of the Irish nation. The Irish to the Crown, he repelled the 
members did not represent the charge, and retorted it on the head 
Iriab nation ; and be recommended of him who made it. If his Lord- 
Lord John Russell to enter into ship should attempt to crush all 
n^otiation with that council as the rights of the democracy in 
soon SB it should be formed. England, and if be should persist 
[Much lentghur.) He was quite in refusing to Ireland its just de- 
prepared for the insulting sneers mand for self-government, and if 
which that advice had called forth ; he were determined to play the 
bat he felt quite convinced that he part of Guizot in crushing public 
should be ultimately successful in liberty, his Lordship and hu col- 
the efforts which he and bis friends leagues would be traitors to both 
were then making for the repeal countries. The honourable Mem- 
of tbe Union. The only thing her then sat down amid such ex 
which could defeat the object preseiona of disapprobation as have 
which he and his associates had in seldom greeted any Member of Par- 
view was precipitation ; and he liament for many years. 
now warned the people of Ireland Sir G. Grey rose amid the most 
that if any of them lent them- vociferous cheering, and observed, 
selves to the plans of Government, that, after the long absence of Mr. 
they would have their emancipa- S. O'Brien, he had entertained 
tion indefinitely postponed. He some hope, albeit it was a faint 
then proceeded to contend that one, that he would disavow, with 
without packed juries the Govern- that indignation which a loyal aub- 
ment would never be able to get ject ought to feel, the imputation 
a verdict against him — that the east upon bi^ loyalty, and that he 
Irish aristocracy bad no influence would, with that fervid eloquence 
in Ireland — that the Orangemen which characterized his harangues 
were exceedingly discontented — elsewhere, though not in that 
and that no reliance was to be House, have disclaimed those aenti- 
placed on either the police force ments which had been imputed to 
or tbe army in Ireland. The ob- him, if from no better feeling, at 
ject of his aigumont was to show least from a regard to that oath of 
that any collision between the Go- allegiance which be had repeatedly 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Kngtand. 

taken bo the Sovereign of England. 
What, then, waa his pain and ra- 
grot when he found Mr. S. O'Brien 
profeasing with Up-eervice alle- 
•giance to his Sovereign, and yet 
glorying in the impntatione which 
had been cast upon him, and 
charging the Premier himself with 
high treason? He (Sir G. Grey) 
bad never called Mr. S. O'Brien a 
traitor in his absence. For that 
sbaence he was not responsible, and 
the cause of that absence Mr. S. 
O'Brien could best explain. He 
had not, he repeated, cdled Mr. S. 
O'Brien a traitor; but he bad read 
to the House the message which 
that gentleman hod sent from 
Paris to Mr. Duffy, as to France 
being able and willing to send 
60,000 of ber bravest citizens to 
fight for the emancipation of Ire- 
land. He asked Mr. S. O'Brien 
distinctly whether he was prepared 
or not to disavow that message! 
The House had drawn its inference 
from it, and what that inference 
was Mr. S. O'Brien might read in 
the cheers with which the House 
was ringing. He denied the right 
of Mr. 8. O'Brien to. represent 
himself as the exponent of loyalty 
in Ireland, and, in reply to his ex- 
travagant assertions, insisted thata 
large proportion of the inhabitants 
of Ireland, of all creeds and of all 
classes, were unalienably attached 
to the Crown of England, and he 
was sure that tbey would all in- 
dignantly deny the right of Mr. 8. 
O'Brien to expound tbeir feelings. 
Mr. S. O'Brien had ^declared that 
the Chartists were with him to a 
man. He (Sir G. Grey) utterly 
disbelieved it. Mr. S. O'Brien 
had also declared himself the friend 
of his country, whose sympathiea 
were with him. He believed that 
in that point Mr. 8. 03rien would 
find himself miserably disappointed, 

and that there was a spirit both 
in England and in Ireland which 
would rise up indignantly against 
that declaration. He denied that 
the Government was influenced by 
any feeling of de&ance towards 
Iroland. The Government wished 
to see Ireland rich, happy, pros- 
perous, and in full enjoyment of 
constitutional independence. He 
rejoiced to think that, in opposing 
the mischievous designs of Mr. 3. 
O'Brien and bis associates, the 
Government was doing its best to 
unite all honest men in the search 
of the true and lasting interests 
of the people of Ireland. Sir G. 
Grey then sat down amidst loud 

Mr. F. O'Connor observed that 
be, loo, had taken the oatb of 
allegiance to Her Majesty, and his 
construction of that oath led him 
to defend Her Miyesty's Uirono 
i^inst the machinations of Her 
Mi^esty's Government. He then 
ropeated the arguments which he 
hsid used on a former occasion 
against this Bill, abused the 
Government in vehement terms, 
and concluded by moving the second 
reading of the Bill that day six 

Mr. G. Thompson, in a dis- 
cursive speech, in whi<^ he ex- 
pressed the greatest distrust of the 
Government, and protested in the 
strongest terms against the pro- 
posal to make "speaking openly 
and advisedly " on political ques- 
tions a felony, seconded Mr. 
O'Connor's amendment. Sir B. 
Hall gave his support to tbe Bill. 
Mr. Hume repeated his otgectioaB 
to the " gagging clause." 

The Solicitor-General explained 
the true meanii^ of the clause to 
which Mr. G. Thompson and Mr. 
Hume bad objected, and showed 
very clearly that neither gentleman 




imdentood it. It was not in- 
tended to repress priTate speaking, 
bot only " open and adTJaed speak- 
ing," recommending the levy of 
war upon Her Majestj. As per- 
sonal notorietj was one of tbe 
atrmigest motiTea for these treason- 
able exhibitiotis, be thought that 
tttis Bill vonld pot a stop to them; 
Ibr tbe man who mignt reckon 
upon sjmpftthy as s traitor, was 
not Bare of meeting it as a felon. 

Sir R. Infflis snpported tbe Bill 
even with ute fire words in it to 
which Mr. Hnme had objected. It 
was neceesaiy for tbe punishment 
of those overtures of a treasonable 

recently heard of, and which would 
not be snSiared br any republic in 
the world. He then expressed hta 
gratjtode to the editors of the 
leading pablic journals, for the 
encourage inent which they had 
recently given to the cause of good 
order gainst the systematic dis- 
turbers of it. He thought that the 
Government was rather wanting 
than exceedmg in vigour in pro- 
dncing this Bill. He then gave 
Mr. 8. O'Brien, whom he described 
as speaking with a halter round 
his neck, a severe lecture for the 
■mbloshing manner in which he 
had defied the opinion of the 
House and the country in his 
speech of that evening. Though 
he should have liked this Bill better 
with other provisions, be would 
Btill support it if Oovemment 
would maintain its present posi- 

Speeches were made in favour 
of the Bill by Mr. C. Anstey, Mr. 
Aglionby, Lord Nugent, Capt. 
Anchdall, Mr. P. Wood, and Mr. 
H. Dtummond; and on the opposite 
side hy Mr. Bright, Dr. Bowring, 
Mr. John O'Connell, Mr. S. 

Crawford, Mr. Osboriie, and Mr. 

Lord John Russell recapitulated 
the present state of the law and the 
proposed enactments of tbe Bill. 
" By the 36th George III.," said 
the noble Lord, "you have the 
penalties of high treason attached 
to more than three kinds of offences, 
but to three offences certainly, in 
regard to whit^ alterations are 
proposed by the preeeut Bill. You 
have the penalties of high treason 
applied to those who intend or 
compose the deposition of the 
Sovereign ; you have the penalties 
of high treason applied to those 
who intend or are compassing to 
levy war against the Sovereign ; 
and you have the penalties of high 
treason applied to those who seek 
for foreign aid, or seek to bnng a 
foreign foe into this country. Such 
is tbe slate of die law at present. 
With respect to those offences 
which some honourable gentlemen 
think it cruel to punish by trans- 
portation, you have now applied 
the penalties of high treason. 
What we now propose is, that those 
offences be declared felony, and 
that persons who are guilty of them 
be liable to transportation. As the 
law at present stands, those who 
commit such offences by publishing 
any writings may be found guilty, 
and be amenable to the punish- 
ment attached to them. We pro- 
pose to carry that provision fur^r, 
by declaring that those who commit 
the offences specified — namely, of 
declaring their purpose or intent 
of deposmg the Govemment ; levy- 
ing war upon the Sovereign; or 
inviting a foreign force to invade 
this countty, by open and advised 
speaking — shall he liable to the 

funishment applicable to felony, 
am not now going to defend that 
particular clause which has been 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

animadverted upon. I have before 
stated the reasoua for that clause, 
and mj honourable and learned 
friend the Solicitor- General has 
most clearly explained iCe purport; 
and I will not now argue it, know- 
ing that the words will be agtua 
otnected to in Committee on the 
Bill. The other altaratiou Jn the 
law which we propMe to make is, 
that it be ext«nded to Ireland. I 
do not think — omitting for the 
moment reference to any course of 
argument as to the extending the 
punishment to spoken words — that 
this proposal is one to which anj 
reasonable objection can be made, 
either as regards diminishing the 

fenalties or extending the Act to 
It was to maintain peace and 
Becurfty here and in Ireland — to 
show that offenders could no longer 
hope te escape ajust punishment 
under the grand name of martyr 
to the law of high treason— tlut 
this Bill had been brought m. 
Under it the people's present power 
of discussion through the press, or 
through public meetings, would 
remain as full as ever before, while 
some reckless persons would be 
checked in their career of excite- 
ment; and those who should incite 
to rising, as well as those who 
shonld rise in arms, would no 
longer perpetrate their offences 
with impunity. 

After some further disoussion 
the House divided. When there ap- 
peared for the second reading — 

M^ority . . . 417 

Upon the Bill going into Com- 
mittee, it encountered a somewhat 
pertinacious opposition, especially 

that part of it which attached tha 
penalties of felony to treasonable 
speaking. Upon the order of the 
day being read— 

Mr. G. Thompson contended 
that sufGcient time bad not been 
given for the consideration of so 
important a measure. He denied 
that any case had been made out 
for this Bill, which cast a suspicion 
upon the loyalty of the people of 
this country. He passed a warm 
euloginm upon the Chartists, and 
complained that the Government 
had branded them ui^ustly with 
disloyalty. Ministers were sowing 
the wind to reap the whirlwind, 

Mr. Osborne followed on the 
same side, merely repeating in 
varied terms one of hie former 
speeches on this subject He ap- 
plied to this Bill the lasgut^e 
used by Mr. Fox respecting a 
similar but milder measure intro- 
duced in 1706— namely, that "r»- 
sistance to it, if passed, would be 
merely a question of prudence." 

Mr. O'Connor said, that if the 
House passed this Bill there would 
be no safety for the established 
institulions of this country. The 
Bill was nothing less than a piece 
of Ministerial treason against the 

Mr. Reynolds could not under- 
stand how the Government could 
persevere in passing the present 
" Algerine Act," after the appeal 
made by Mr. Osborne to the prin- 
ciples of Mr. Fox. He implored 
the Government to modify the 

Lord John Etuasell observed that 
we were living in extraordinary 
times, when persons deemed it con- 
sistent with their duty to call to- 
gether councils and confederations 
for the purpose of declaring war 
against the Sovereign, for seducing 
or bribing the armed forces of the 

England.] HISTORY. [136 

SorereigD, and for opposing them hand writers, his experience pre- 

in arma in case seduction and sented cases over and over again 

bribery should not succeed. He be- wherein persons liad been misre- 

lieyed that the general opinion of presented by short-hand writers. 

the country was not that Ministers Judge after judge had made the 

liad intetfered int^mperately and same complaint ; and one of the 

hastily, but that they had waited ablest of tnose now on the bench 

loo king. Considering the designs had avowedly objected to short-hand 

which traitore had avowed, he writers' notes of legal proceedings, 

should be ashamed of himself if, because of the frequency with which 

eeeingdangerathand,hehadbeen hie chargesto juries had been mis- 

Bo awed by the authority of Mr. reported. If this were the case in 

Fox as to forbear from taking those the atillneas of a law court, what 

measures of pre«anlion which he might be expected in the con< 

believed to be necessary. After fusion and excitement of a publio 

pointing out the difference between meeting? With regard, also, to 

this Bill and that under which the discrimination of juries, he 

Muir and Palmerfaad been formerly entertained a high opinion of that 

convicted, he added that, while he tribunal for the determination of 

retained all the other parts of the matters of fact under ordinary cir- 

Bill, he was ready to limit the cumstances, but had no reliance on 

operation of that part of it which a panic-stricken jury. He should 

related to "open and advised have been sorry to trust a juiy 

speaking," to a period of two years, empanelled on the 10th of April. 

The measures which the Oovem- He thought that the Government 

ment had introduced were pro- were justified in all the precau- 

poeed by them under the deep tions they took on that day; but 

conviction that the peace of this he would as soon have asked for 

country was worth preserving. The the opinion of a parcel of insane 

trust of preserving the institutions men as have taken the verdict of a 

of this country, its monarchy, and jury at such a moment upon words 

its constitution, was in the hands spokeu. 

of the Administration, and it would He proposed a clause— that if 
be its constant endeavour to pre- any person, at any assembly of 
serve them. The noble Lord's twenty persons or more, should by 
speech vras much cheered through- public and advised speaking sug- 
'•-• gest, advocate, or advise the three 
matters in the third section of the 
Bill, it should be made a misde- 
words"openandadvisedspesking." meanour: this was alreodyso at 
Mr. Samuel Martin said he would common law, but it would be use- 
take the decision of the House on ful to define the offence porticu- 
the question, that these words be larly, for the guidance of parties 
struck out. He went at much length liable to commit it. He would 
into the legal bearings of the ques- also agree to a clause prohibiting 
tion turning on these words; and bail in those particular cases, u 
gave hb professional opinion that there were also a provision that a 
no confidence whatever should be trial should take place — by Special 
nut in accounts of conversations Commiseions.ifneceesaiy— within 
neard. Even in the case of short- a month after arrest. Thus, the 

186] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

old Common Lav distinction be- terms the praiseworthy oondnct of 
tneen words spoken and writUn the inhabitants of the metropolis, 
would not be broken down. He He said their spirit bad pro- 
felt strongly on this point; and duced the most salutaiy effect 
would, in relation to it, ask Lord throughout the countiT. What 
John Rueeell to do for his sincere had. occurred had produced the 
friends what Mr. Pitt had, in beet possible result in the great 
1795, done for his opponents. towns of the couatfy, and would ' 

The Attorney- General and Sir unquestionably bate its effect 

F. Thesiger replied to Mr. Mar- throughout Europe, 
tin's le^ arguments; and Mr. The motion for the third read- 

W. P. Wood added a few words, ing came on upon the 18th, when 

expressive of his views aa to Mr. Hume moved that the Bill be 

the mode of dealing with popular reed a third time on that day six 

discontents. He hoped the day months. This amendment nas 

was at hand when Parliament supported by Mr. F. O'Connor, 

would no longer treat the symp- Mr. Bright, and Mr. Muntz. 
toms only of prevailing disease, Mr. W. P. Wood made a final 

but the disease itself; that lai^ prol«8t agiuDst what he conceived 

remedial meaaures would be in* to be a direct invasion (tf those 

troduced for Ireland ; and that the principles of constitutional law 

meetings of Chartists, and the which had existed for five hun- 

wretched and ferocious stuff there dred years — since the reign of 

spoken, would be put down by ex- Edward the Third, and to which 

tending the franchise, and giving the country was indebted for ite 

the working classes the occupation happiness and prosperity, fie 

of choosing Members of Parlia- acknowledged that the Bill was 

ment, instead of members of a less objectionable as a temporary 

National Convention. measure ; but in any ahape the 

After a good deal of rather precedent was bad, and might 
warm discussion, extending over a hereafter be revived with most 
second 'evening, the proposition to pernicious effect, 
omit the words objected to, making Mr. Horsmon said that the Bill 
treasonable speaking felonious, was unconstitutional; but Govem- 
was rqected by 18B to 79. Seve> ment was called on to violate con- 
ntl other divisions took place, the stitutional principles in great 
opposing Members offering a de- emergencies. He thought the 
termined resistance, and moving Boman Catholic population of Ire- 
several amendments ; but the Go- land was, in a certain sense of the 
vemment were backed by very phrase, one great conapinuy. The 
strong majorities, and the Bill cure vrould not be found in this 
passed through Committee. In Bill only. In the two years of its 
the course of the discussion, seve- operative force, the Ooveroment 
ral Members expressed their co^ must enter upon great measures of 
dial thanks to the Government for improvement. If this were not 
their energetic measures for pre- doue, the Irish Members would 
serving the public peace on the not stand alone in voting for a 
day of the Chartist demonstration, repeal of the Union. If it were 
Sir George Grey took the oppor- intended to rely on this Bill to 
timity to eulogise in eloquent suppress tiie public opinion of Ire- 

1 HISTORY. [137 

land, he solemnly believed that existing Govemment depends 
things would soon arrive at a state apon rigid abstinence from any 
compared with which the present interference with what is passing 
would be but the beginning of the in France. We may maintain our 
end. own opinions on tluit subject. I 
The SoUdtor-General, in an have mine. But! believe it to be 
able ^>eech, combated the ai^- essential to the peace of the world 
menta of Mr. W. P. Wood, upon and to the stability of Govem- 
legal aod historical groonds. meht, that the experiment now 
Sir R. Feel said he could not making in France eha]! have a 
allow the Bill to pass without dis- fair trial, withont being embar- 
tinctly Avowing his approval of its raseed or disturbed by extrinsic 
proviaions. He thought it right intervention. {Ix>ud ehien.) But, 
that Tuen who had not the dignity at the same time, with respect to 
of tniton should be reduced to social principles, I must say this, 
the poaitioa of felons. He would that I hope the working clasaes of 
pnt a stop to those frogs that were this country will not be deluded 
croaking sedition in the mushes, by the doctrines that are held 
and woold not allow them to pu£F upon that subject which inti- 
tbemaelves into the dimensions of mately concema their labour and 
the nobler animals that bellowsd the wages of labour. If the doc- 
treason. He warned iXr. O'Gon- trines that are tliere maintained 
nor that those who drew 100,000 be true — if there be indeed an 
pereoDS together could not foresee antagonism between capital and 
what might be the consequences, lattour — if it be true that all men. 
After showing that that gentle- without rderence to their differ- 
m&n's declarations of loyalty were ent cambilitJes, difierent strength, 
not very satiafoctory, he said, that and difierent qualifications, are 
in what he (Sir Robert) had read to have some iron formula applied 
and witnessed in the last ten days, to them, and ore all to receive 
he saw proof that there was good the same daily wages, — if these 
reason for strengthening for a things be true, then all the expe- 
time the hands of Her Majesty's rience and all the lights of ibe 
Government. He referred to last hundred aad fifty years have 
the magnificent demonetration of existed in vain. Let us bum the 
loyalty recently made in the me- works of Turgot, Bay, and Adam 
tiDpolis, and exhorted the Govern* Smith. Let us establish in tn- 
meat and the Legislature to en- umph the doctrines of the Missia- 
conrage those whose exertions had sippi scheme, and the principles of 
been so admirable, in the good thatl^w whowa»supposed to have 
ooniae on which they had entered, involved France in misery and con- 
by ibowing their united determi- fusion. Let us waltfor the results 
nation to uphold the institutions of this experiment. Letuscalmly 
of the country in all their leading contemplate whether it is possible 
principles, and on their ancient that executive governments can be 
foundations. He then referred to great manu&cturers, whether it be 
the condition of France, and to the possible for them to force capital 
wild and visionary doctrines current to employ industry — whether they 
in that nation. He said, " My firm can contravene the decrees of Pro- 
belief is, that the security of every vidence, and reduce all men, with- 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EngUmd. 

oat reference to habits or streDRth, 
to receive the same wage§. For 
Ood's sake, give that eocial prin- 
ciple the same fair trial as 70a 
are about to see given to the poli- 
tical principle. (Ckeert.) But I 
do earnestly trust — I have that 
confidence in the good sense of 
the working classes of this counti; 
— that they will believe that no 
fiilse delusion of the compulsoi; 
sharing of profits, no enmitj di- 
rected againat capital, no extinc- 
tion of competition sniong in- 
dividuals, no overpovcering of 
private enterprise by Govern- 
ment undertakings at the public 
expense, can possibly be for the 
benefit of the working classes, or 
have any other ultimate result 
than involving tbem in misery and 
ruin." {Loud arid continued cheer- 

Mr. Muntz and Mr. Bright 
having reiterated their objections 
to the measure, and Mr. Adderley 
having given it his cordial sup- 

Lord J. Russell briefly adverted 
to the different objections ui^ed 
by different Membere against the 
Bill, which, he belie vedt would 
tend much to the security and 
peace of the empire. He then 
referred to the exciting and in- 
ffammatory language used in Dub- 
lin and other parts of Ireland, 
observing that it might lead in 
some parts of the country to out- 
rage and insurrection ; but that 
outrage and that insurrection 
would be put down, because the 
Government had the means of so 
doing at its disposal in the loyalty 
and affection of the people, and in 
the force of the army, whose fide- 
lity had been most foully belied in 
various ways, both in and out of 
that House. He then proceeded 
to stale that, immediately after 

Easter, the Honse would proceed 
to the discussion of measures 
which related to the political state 
of the Irish population. Referring 
to Mr. J. O'Connell's announced 
motion for the Repeal of the 
Union, he showed that all the griev- 
ances of which the late Mr. G rattan 
had complained In the Irish Par- 
liament, and which remained un- 
redressed by that Parliament, had 
been redressed by a Parliament of 
the United Kingdom. He de- 
clared his readiness to listen to 
any proposition supported by the 
great m^ority of Irish members, 
having for its object the improve- 
ment of the laws and condition of 
that country ; but by discussion (if 
the choice should be for argument), 
and by force (if recourse were had 
to arms), he was determined, as 
long as there was breath and life 
in Dim, to oppose the repeal of 
the legislative Union. The noble 
Lord then resumed his seat amid 
the loudest cheers. 

The House then divided, when 
there appeared — 

For the third reading S95 
A^inst it ... . 40 

Minority 265 

The Bill was then read a third 
time and passed, amidst much 

In the House of Lords it met 
with much less discussion. The 
Lord Chancellor having moved the 
second reading on the 19th in a 
brief explanatory speech. 

Lord Stanley said he did not in- 
tend to throw any impediment in 
the way of passing the Bill, but he 
called attention to some points 
that hod occurred to him on perus- 
ing it. He confessed, looking to the 
importance of the alteration of the 




Isw proposed by the Bill, he §bould 
have been better pleased if more 
than twenty-four or fort^-eight 
hours' notice had been ^veu to that 
House to rorm its decision — espe- 
cially as the law was founded only 
on temporary causes. Might not 
the GoTemment have been con- 
tented with the powers given them 
in the seventh dause, of prosecut- 
ing for felony in certain cBfies, al- 
though the tacts proved might 
amount to treason ? He conld not 
see the beuefit of a distinction be- 
tween compassing the imprison- 
ment and restraint of the Sovereign 
and compassing bis deposition-^the 
first crime being evidenced by 
printing or writing, and the second 
not. He was also under an appre- 
hension thati as felonies were now 
first merged in treasons, so misde- 
meanours would be merged in felo- 
nies : if that were so, cases would 
very likely occur in Ireland where 
it would be moet inconvenient to 
prosecute offenders for felonies, but 
where prosecution for misdemea- 
nonr might have answered all pur- 
Lord Brougham threw ont some 
sot unfriendly criticisms. If this 
Bill were extended in it* opera- 
tion t« Scotland, a prisoner there 
would, for the first time, be de- 
prived of his right to a list of the 
jury and a list of the witnesses 
gainst him. He had always un- 
derstood levying war to bo a sub- 
stantive offence ; but under the 
Bill it seemed to be no offence 
until levied " in order by force or 
constraint to compel " the Crown 
"to change its measures or coon- 
sels." He gave a wamii^ to the pub- 
lic press, that though Parliament 
protected its own Members in the 
use of language that might be se- 
ditious or treasonable, yet the pub- 

lication of such language by the 

firess ioade the printer and pub- 
isher liable, as though it were Uieir 
own original langut^. 

Lord Campbell admitted that 
the law would not reach Mr. Smith 
O'Brien for his language in the 
other House, but neither would it 
reach the editors or reporters of 
newspapers for reporting Mr. 
O'Brien 'a language. With r^ard 
to reporting speeches, he would 
be the last man to punish faith- 
fill reports. He had, indeed, 
some years a^, introduced a Bill 
one clause of which provided that 
no person who gave a bon^ fid* 
and honest report of what passed 
in either House of Parliament 
should be liable to punishment. 
That Bill was seconded by Lord 
Brougham himself, and had met 
with the entire approval of the 
Lord Chief Justice. 

Lord Campbell went at length 
into the general doctrine of the 
law on the question of " open and 
advised speaking," and showed that 
the Bill introduced no new invasion 
of liberty. 

The Duke of Wellington highly 
^proved of the objects of the Bill. 
Be considered it absolutely neces- 
sary to apply some efficient check 
to the evils consequent on the gi- 
gantic meetings by which this and 
the sister country had been dis- 
turbed. Matters had come to that 
pass that the law was an object of 
contempt to every one of the per- 
sons who broke it. When proceed- 
ings had been commenced against 
three persons, and after they had 
been brought before the Magis- 
trates, and bail hod been taken for 
their coming to trial, one of them 
repeated the offence with which he 
was charged ; and the other two 
carried out their attempts in an 

140] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England,, 

misdetneanoare, and might always 
be put down bj the existing lawa. 
With respect to one point of the 
Bill — the privilege of umlleoge pos- 
sessed by prisoners — he shonld be 
Borry to see prisoners in Ireland 
deprived of that priTilege. 

Earl St. Germains gave the Bill 
a quaUfied support; and it was 
read a second time, and on the 
following evening passed through 
its remaining stages without oppo' 

Another measure which derived 
its origin from the occurrences of 
this eventful crisis, was a Bill for 
enabling the Government to com- 
pel the departure of aliens from 
this country in oertun cases. The 
subject was fitst moated on the 
lltb April, when the Duke of 
Beaufort called the attention of the 
House of Lords to the number of 
fore^ers seen in the streets of the 
metropolis, and inquired if Govern- 
ment intended t« apply to the 
Legislature for powers to remove 

The Marquis of Lanadovrae said 
he held in bis band a Bill for 
ferring on Ministers ample powers, 
to be exercised upon thair responsi- 
bility, for a. limited time, and in 
certain coses, to compel the depar- 
ture of persons coming here not 
from the Bcoostomed motives ol 
business and pleasure. Crowds 
foreigners were resorting to tiiia 
countiy whose olgeot could not 
be ascertained, and Government 
thought it their duty to stand pre- 
pared against eveiy contingency. 

A day or two afterwards the noble 
Lord moved the second reading of 
this Bill.vrith some further explana- 
tions. He said it had been found 
necessary that such a power as that 
to be conferred by the Bill should 
be lodged somewhere. The Bsecu- 

ofFensive mission to another coun- 
tiy. What ware those but aggra- 
vations of the offences already com- 
mitted, and a throwing of contempt 
on the law? Through this con- 
tempt of the law, there would soon 
be no authority but itiat of phy- 
dcal force. In 1881, there were 
extraordinary riots at Bristol, and 
also at Lyons : at Bristol, Cdonel 
Brereton saved the town from en- 
tire conBagmtion, and restored 
order, with one squadron of dra- 

rions; at LyotiB, a Marshal of 
ranee needed 60,000 men to save 
the town from destroctioo. Such in 
1831 was the respect for the law 
in Bristol. But where vras the 
respect for the law in London now, 
when hundreds of thousands of 
citizena and thousands of armed 
troops were found necessary to pre- 
serve the peace? The tranaao- 
tions in Ireland during the last few 
years hod been the cause of this 
altered stat« of public feeling. A 
messure was necessary which should 
apply to such transactions. He did 
not want to put down discussion, 
and hoped it would olnavB be al- 
lowed on every subject whereon it 
could be wished: but let it be at 
meetings of such numbers only as 
oould hear what was said ; and let 
not the meetings, under the pre- 
tence of discussion, be made sssem- 
■ blages to create terror and over- 
awe the Government. 

Lord Denman ^eed that in 
certain quarters there was an in- 
creased contempt for the law ; but 
he thought that the feeling was over- 
rated. Indeed, the spectacle which 
had lately been exhibited was proof 
of the estimation in which nun- 
dreds of thousands of citizens held 
that law which they met to uphold. 
With regard to monster meetings, 
he thought they were themselves 




tire would be enabled to exerrase 
diacretion in the removal of fo- 
reigners from this conntiy ; acdng 
not with reference to the conduct of 
tbe indiTiduftls elsewhere, but with 
reference to their conduct here. 
The power would be exercised hj 
the Home Secretatr. 

The Earl of Ellenbonragb only 
(^gocted to the Bill that it did not 
go BO &r as the last Alien Act. 
AlieuB were required to present 
■ passport, and make a decuration 
under the Act of 1896 ; the only 
penalty if they failed to do so being 
a fiue of 40«. But there would be 
Bo means of executing this mea- 
sure, unless the most stringent 
proyisione were introduced in refe- 
rence to passports and registration. 
Under the last Alien Act, tbe arms 
of aliens might be seized ; aliens 
might be directed to land at par- 
ticular places ; passports might be 
refoeed ; aliens might be commit' 
ted ; magistrates might require pro- 
duction of passports. What the 
noble Lord proposed was but a frac- 
tional part of that Act The Bill 
would be utterly inoperative unless 
the number of aliens oould be 

Earl Grey admitted that the 
present measure would not secure 
a complete register of all foreign- 
MB ; but he feared that a system of 
T^[istration could not be devised 
whii^ riiould be complete and yet 
not interfere with the ordinary 
sfiaiis of life and the ordinary pur- 
suits of persons who had no crimi- 
nal intentions. He believed, how- 
srer, that the Bill wonld give quite 
lofficient power to protect the coun- 
tiy from the abuse of hospitality by 
foreigners who might enaeavour to 
Btir up civil strife. 

The Bill was supported by Lord 
Stsnley and tbe Duke cJ Richmond, 
who regretted at the same time 

that it was not more atringent. 
Lord Denman also approved of it, 
but expressed his oouoem that it 
should be necessary. He must, 
however, say that in his humble 
opinion none of these Bills ought 
to be dealt with in periods of ex- 
citement, disturbance, and alarm ; 
but that, in timesof peace, the Go- 
Ternment and Parliament ought to 
consider what was the best mode 
of governing the country when any 
outbreak should occur. The BiU 
was then read a second time. 

The principle of this Bill en- 
countered, some degree of opposi- 
tion in the House of Commons. 

Sir George Grey having moved the 
second reading on the Ist May, with 
a brief explanation of its objects, 

Sir William Molesworth strenu- 
ously opposed the measure, moving 
that the second reading be on that 
day sis mouths. So for as it 
r^rded aliens. It was analogous 
in principle to the famous law 
of suspected persons of the 17tb 
September, 1TQ3, one of the most 
accursed laws of the Reign of 
Terror. It was a repetition al- 
most word for word oi the Idth, 
16th, and 17th sections of the Alien 
Act of 179S— on Act which, like 
this, was proposed as a temporary 
law, but which had been continued 
from year to year for thirty-three 
years, before the opposition to it 
from eveiy man of note in the 
Liberal party was successful. Lord 
John Russell himself made his 
maiden speech agtunst that Bill in 
1814. In 1824, Lord John and 
Hfr. Denman were tbe tellers 
against the Bill. Od the last occa- 
aion, (alas for human s^acity and 
forethought!) Lord John expressed 
his hope that that would be the 
last tjme he should raise his voice 
on the subject; as be was con- 
\-inoed that, after the expiration of 




the Act, tbe House would look book 
on it ss a meaaare which ought 
nerer to have been sanctioned. The 
present measure was directed espe- 
ciallj against Frenchmen, and was 
oSianBiTe and impolitic. It more- 
over paid but an ill compliment to 
the feelinge of our own people. 
The score of desperate characters 
now in London, gainst whose ma- 
chinations the Bil] was to guard, 
would be harmless in this country 
though dangerous in their own; 
for here they would find neither a 
Monarch self-seeking and hated, 
a Ministi7 comipt, an upper class 
profligate and despised, nor a mid- 
dle class indifferent to the institu- 
tions of their country. Sir Wil- 
liam Molesworth would not, because 
he had confidence in the Ministry, 
give them powers which every per- 
son on their side of the House 
would have refused to Sir Robert 
Feel if he had asked for them. 

Lord Dudley Stuart remarked, 
that under this fiill a Secretary of 
State need not, in some cases, have 
actoal " information " against, but 
only "apprehensions" concerning 
an alien, to justify seizing him and 
expelling him from the country. 

The Attorney- General corrected 
some misapprehensions which had 
been expressed as to the law. In 
1703, foreigners had almost insu- 
perable obstacles placed in the way 
of their becoming naturalized sub- 
jects. The law was no longer in that 
State. The difficulty and the ex- 
pense of being natundized were now 
nominal ; and any person wishing 
to reside here permanently might 
become naturalized, on proof that 
he had no designs against the peace 
or institutions of the country ; and 
on becoming naturalized, would be 
immediately exempted from the 
operation of the Bill. Under the 
Bill, too, the Government could 

only act od information which the 
Secretary of State would be bound 

The other speakers were — for 
the Bill, the Earl of Arundel and 
Surrey, Mr. Henry Drummond, 
and Captain Harris. Against it, 
Mr. W. J. Fox, Mr. Hume, Mr. 
Ewart, and Mr. Urquhart, who 
quoted Leviticns xxiv. 33, and 
Numbers ix. 14, that there should 
be but " one ordinance both for the 
stranger and for him that was bom 
in the land." Dr. Bowting ob- 
served that al) men are Propagand- 
ists, so far as they are able ; but he 
had faith that all our institutions 
which were of real value would be 
maintained by the good opinion of 
those interested in them. 

On a division, the second reading 
was carried by Ul to 92. 

It was the opinion of a certain 
class of politicians, at this crisis, 
that the true remedy for the dan- 
gers and discontents which pre- 
vuled was U> be found in a larger 
concession of popular claims, and 
that the constitution would be 
most effectually strengthened by 
widening the basis of representa- 
tion in Parliament. The veteran 
Keformer, once Member for Mid- 
dlesex and now for Montrose, Mr. 
Joseph Hume, took the lead in this 
new movement, and at some large 
public meetings, which took place 
about this time, he expressed in 
strong terms his sense of the expe- 
diency of a wide extension of the 
elective franchise. Associations 
were formed and meetings held in 
various parts of the kingdom for 
the promotion of this object, and 
Mr. Hume undertook to bring the 
question to a teat by a formal mo- 
tion in the House of Commons. 
The day fixed for the debate was 
the Slst June, when, after several 
nnmerously signed petitions hod 



been presented in favoar of Mr. 
Home's object, that gentlenuQ rose 
to more a reeolation in die follow- 
ing terms t— 

" That this House, as at present 
Gonatitoted, does not fairly repre- 
Bent the population, the property, 
or the industry of the country; 
whence has arisen great and in- 
creasing discontent in the minds of 
a large portion of the people : and 
it is therefore expedient, with a 
view to amend the national repre- 
sentation, that the elective fran- 
chise shall be so extended as to in- 
clude all householders ; that votes 
shall be taken by ballot ; that the 
duration of Parliaments shall not 
exceed three years ; and that the 
apportionment of Members to po- 
pulation shall be made more 

Mr. Hume began 1^ referring 
to the numerous petitions which 
had been presentea upon that and 
previous days, denying that they 
bad been coococted by any undue 
inSuence or organized confede- 

He glanced at the state of 
public feeling in this country — 
the general disposition, amid the 
disturbance of Europe, to main- 
tain order, and especially the 
maintenance of peace on the lOih 
of April last. It was for the 
Hoose, however, to consider whe- 
ther those who had manifested at 
that crisis such a determination to 
obtain an extension of the snffrage, 
had just cause of complaint. He 
believed that if the Reform Bill 
had not been granted, much more 
Berions distnrbances would have 
happened- Our position, however, 
had materially dtered within the 
last three or four years ; events bad 
changed the condition and relative 
situation of the working classes 
with other classes io this countiy. 


We formerly boasted, that, while 
in other countries despots main- 
tained themselves by large armies, 
we could mainttun the peace and 
welfare of the country by the 
agency of Parliament, without the 
aid of military measures. But 
whereas we were formerly a civil 
nation, we had now become a 
military nation, with a great ex- 
penditure; and the discontent in 
the oountiy had become general. 
It was upon that ground that he 
felt it to be his duty to submit to 
the House what he thought would 
be a remedy for existing evils. 

Reverting to the Reform Act of 
18Sa, he contended that it had 
failed to answer all the purposes 
for which it was intended. " Par- 
liament purports to be an engine 
for governing a constitutional 
country, all classes being repre- 
sented ; is that so now? Taxation 
and representation should go to- 
gether. Eveiy man should have 
his share in eauctioning the 
laws by which be is governed — 
the sole difTcrence between a free- 
man and a slave. The Crown, 
Lords, and Commons, form the 
best method of giving effect to 
that constitutional government : 
the House of Commons, therefore, 
ought to be invested with the 
highest authority and influence in 
the country; no act of the Crown 
oi^t to be valid n-itbout its sanc- 
tion ; and the large classes of the 
community ought to be repre- 
sented. But what is the fact? 
Five out of every six male adults 
in this country are without any 
voice in the election of the repre- 
sentatives to that House. The 
population of Great Britain was 
18,500,0nn in 1841 ; out of the 
male adults above twenty- one, 
taking the average — some indi- 
vidoals being r^stered for three. 

144] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [B«jj/and. 

four, or five different places — the lets, with ft popnUtioti of 400,000, 
number of registered electors does were neutralized by Harwich, with 
not amount to more than from a population of 3,700, Some large 
800,000 to 8&0,000. The rest of towns had no representatives, 
the 5.000,000 or 6,000,000 adalta Mr. Hume cit«d statistics ad- 
who have not this privilege are duced by the late Ur. O'Connell, 
placed in an inferior situation, showing the scant; representation 
snd deprived of that riffht which of Ireland; and othera from a 
hj the constitutioQ they are en- pamphlet recently published, illus- 
titled to enjoy. At eighteen, or trating the general inequality. To 
even sixteen years of age, a man prove how unequally different in- 
can be drawn for the militia and terests and populations are balanced 
called out to quell riots. Yet in the House of Commons, betook 
classes of workmen distinguished twenty-two boroughs, the aggre> 
for their industry, intelligence, gate population of which wasbnt 
and ability, are excluded irom the a fraction above 100,000, and 
fhmchise." Mr. Hume cited the found that they had 42 repre- 
oath taken by Cabinet Ministers to sentatives in the House of Corn- 
maintain the peace of the country, mons, — that is to aay, one Member 
and, quoting the words of Earl for every ^,390 persons; while 
Grey when introducing the Reform twenty other cities and boroughs. 
Bill in 1831, maintained that the with an aggregate population of 
vay to do so is by ^ving to the 8,780,000, dso returned iil Mem- 
people " a full, vigorous, and effi- hers, being one Member for about 
cient" representation. every 90,000 persons. The Me- 
He quoted various definitions of tropolis, including all its Farlia- 
liousehold suffrage; Sir Thomas mentary districts, with a popular 
Smith's dictum, in the time of tion of S.OOO.OOO, was represented 
Elizabeth, that in one way or by 16 Members in ParliamenL 
other " every Englishman is in- The eight boroughs of Bridge- 
tended to be present in Parlia- north, Honiton, Harwich, Thet- 
ment, either in person or hj pro- ford, Richmond (Yorkshire), Tot- 
curation," &c. ; the declaration of nese, Stafford, andLymington, with 
the Hampden Club, in 1814, that an aggregate population falling 
every adult male who paid taxes short of 40,000, returned the same 
bad a right to vote for Members number of Members, 
of Parliament ; with other declora- Another evil was the great dtver- 
tione of a similar kind. He then sity of the franchise. Althoi^h the 

3uot«d a number of statistical ten-pound rental was the standard 

etails from various sources, show- for boroughs, and the forty-shilling 

ing how partially and imequally freehold the standard for counties, 

the franchise is distributed. Hunt- there were, in truth, no fewer than 

ingdoQ, Westmoreland, and Rut- eighty-five different kinds of fran- 

land, with 36,000 adult males and chise. It was scarcely possible to 

9,000 electors, returned 6Members, appreciate the confusion, the delay, 

and thus neutralized the 6 Mem- and the expense that such a system 

bersof Middlesex, West Yorkshire, produces. What the House ought 

and South Lancashire, with a popn- to do, was to render the sufirage as 

lation of 316,000 adult males and simple, as general, as easily ob- 

73,000 electors. The Tower Ham- tained, and as easily d ' ' ' 

EngUmd.] HISTORY. [145 

poaaibla. Mr. Hume enumerated the disdaodon between personal 

maaj mietiet of the fmnchlBe, — rights and pn^>ert7. He did not 

hj estate in fee, occupation, mar- wish to draw that distinction too 

nage settlement, joint tenancy, tight; but be mnat say, that br 

promotion to a benefice, lease- Uie Uw as it stood too mucn 

iwlding, corporate right, &c. attention had been paid to bricks 

He argued that want of con- and mortar and too little to br&ins, 

fidence in the rwresentation mads and the time has now come when 

tbfl people indifferent to the acts common sense should prevail, 
of the Legislature; and with that Mr. Hume then went over all 

indifierence the public expenditure the several parts of his proposition, 

ms increasing. maintaining that each was proper 

He then explained, that in and expedient Not desiring 
liis notice the word " all " was un- change for the sake of change, he 
intentJonally omitted; and he now would not cut np the country into 
supplied tluB definition of bouse- electoral districts, and he would 
bold BDffi:sge — " That every such sot disturb the distribution of 
person of faU age, and not subject Membvs for Enoland. Ireland, 
to any mental or l^al incapaoity, and Scotland. He thought tliat the 
who shall have occupied a house, duration of Parliaments for three 
or part of a house, for twelve years would afibrd sufficient con- 
months, and shall have been rated trol over Members. There vres no 
to the poor for that period, ehall property qualification in Scotland, 
be renstered as an elector ; and and he did not see any reason why 
eveiy lodger shall have the right England and Ireland should not 
to daim to be rated to the poor, be put on the same footing. He 
and after such rating and resid- quoted copiously from Lorn John 
enoe for twelve months be shall Kussell's speech on the 1st of 
be registered as an elector." There March, 1881, introducing the Re- 
woola bo no difflcnll? in cerryina form Bill. Lord John then held 
out this object. The apparatus all that it was necessary to re-establish 
existed. By the present laiv, every confidence and sympathy between 
house waa rated to the poor; and the House and its constituents; 
the Act conferring this sufErage not wishing to encumber that par- 
would provide that every man who tioular measure with other matters, 
so desired might, upon entering he left such questions as ballot and 
upon the occupation of part of the duration of Parliaments to 
a house, have a right to be future consideration; and he closed 
nUed for a portion, whatever it his speech with this declaration — 
might be, of Uie poor rate assessed " It is the only way calculated to 
upon that house. Thus registra- insure permanency to that consti- 
tion and resideitce, both of which tution which has so long been the 
irare important, would be secured, admiration of foreign nadons, on 
and a line would be drawn between account of its popukr spirit ; but 
the mere vagrant and the worthy that admiration cannot condnue to 
and educated man who was now ex- exist much longer, unless, by an in- 
cluded firom the sufi'rage merely on fusion of new popular spirit, you 
account of the nature of his occu- show that you are determined not 
pation. It might be argued that to be the repreeentadves of small 
this proposal would not keep np dassee or particular inlereste, but 

Vol. XC. [L] 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

■ ibaX you will foria a body whicb, 
repreeeDting die people — which, 
springing from the people — which, 
sympathizing with the people — can 
&irly call upon the people to sup- 
port any future burdens, and to 
struggle with any future difficulties 
you may hare to encounter, coufidsnt 
that those who ask them bo to do 
are united heart and hand with 
them, and look only, like them- 
aelres, to the glory and wel&re of 

&Jr. Hume concluded by urging 
upon the House that the time was 
come for one of two alteraatiTes — 
either to coerce the people, or to 
grant them new civil rights. This 
ooimtry had incurred a debt of 
eOO.OOO.OOOZ. hy the late war to 
atem the demand for popular in-, 
atitutions — a weight dT taxation 
that would have been avoided if 
Parliamentary Reform had been 
granted, before 1793, by Mr. Pitt. 
In conclusion, he promised that, 
if he were perautted to bring in a 
Bill, he would willingly submit it 
to revision in details. 

Dr. Bowring seconded the motion. 

Mr. Heniy Drummond assented 
to much that had follen from Mr. 
Hume ; the subject now before the 
House had occupied much of his own 
attention many years since, and he 
had published a pamphlet upon it 
in 1839. He observed, however, 
opoQ the inconsistencies involved 
in Mr. Hume's argument. Some- 
times he had seemed to regard 
the Parliament as the Xi^islature ; 
at other times as the Executive 
body; he seemed, at one time, to 
regard the franchise as a trust, at 
another as a right. He wished to 
know who the parties were who 
were now making the demands 
which Mr. Hume advocated. 
They were men who from various 
causes were suffering great dis- 

tress, and were, therefore, not the 
parties to argue any question 
coolly; they were intellectual spe- 
culators — lawyers without clients, 
doctors without patients, dreamers 
of every kind — in a word, they 
were men ready to throw the 
world again back into chaos, in 
the hope that they should be able 
to denve some benefit to them- 
selves out of the general confu- 
sion. He read some of the docu- 
ments issued by these parties, for 
the piuposa of showing the strange 
ideas which they entertained of the 
purposes of Government. Accord- 
mg to their ideas, the Throne and 
the Peerage were evils to be en- 
dured only till they could he 
quietly got rid of. Be had been 
no party to the Beform Bill ; be 
hated it when it was first passed ; 
he hated it still ; but he was living 
under it He thought, however, 
that those who spoke of it as a 
final measure must have had little 
foresight if they did not see that 
it was only the first step to many 
larger and more extensive mea- 
sures. He regarded the extension 
of the franchise as a necessary con- 
sequence of the Reform Act ; bat, if 
men were to be discontented be- 
cause they were not in a state of 
equality, discontented they must 
remain to all etemi^. As to the 
duration of Parliaments, be had no 
objection to triennial or to annual 
ones. Septennial Parliaments were 
a Whig invention, and be disliked 
them. A quinquennial election was 
a novel^, and as such objection- 
able. Mr. Drummoud ridiculed the 
idea of the representation of parti- 
cular classes; the absurdity of it 
would appear as soon as it wa& 
attempted to carry it out into prac- 
tice. He suggested the extension 
of the BufTrage to every possessor 
of any definable sort of property.' 




There was no principle in fixing an 
arbitrary amount — uone in a 101. 
franchise that was not found in a 
fomchisa of 9/. 19*. Gd. 

Lord John Roesell rose early in 
the debate, because be thought tbe 
House was entitled to an early ex- 
planation of his Tiews, not only 
with regard to tbia moticm, but to 
other qneetions atdn to it After 
referring briefly to the petitions 
which had been presented, and vin- 
dicating some expressions recently 
used by himself, which hod been 
perverted by speakers at public 
meetings into a declaration of his 
belief that the people desired no 
further reforms, the noble Lord 
proceeded to combat the riews ad- 
vocated by the mover of the reso- 
lotioQ. He accepted Mr. Hume's 
admisBJon that tbe Reform Act 
bad been mainly instrumental in 
maintaining the peace of the coun- 
tiy during the recent excitement 
as a proof that it had averted dis- 
order and conferred benefit on the 
country. If Mr. Hume's asser- 
tion were correct, that every mati 
who contributed to the taxes had 
a right to a vote, there was an eud 
to tbe question, and there was no 
occasion for tbe restrictions and 
qualifications with which Mr. Hume 
was now going to encumber that 
pretended right. Ifevery manhad 
that right. ■ what did Mr. Hume 
mean by now restricting it to all 
householders? Even under his de- 
finition of household suffrage some 
two or three millions of adult males 
would be excluded from the repre- 
sentation, and thus tbe universal 
content which be wished to intro- 
duce would not be obtained. . He 
difiered &om Mr. Hume as to the 
basis of his proposed represento- 
tioD. That which every man of 
fiill age bad a right to was the best 
poBsible government and tbe beet 

representative system which the 
Legislattire conld form. If uni- 
versal sufErage would give tbe best 
representative system, the best 
laws, and the best government, 
the people would have a right to 
it ; but, if universal stifirage would 
not give this, then it was mere idle 
pedejitry to say that every man 
hod a right to a vote and was en- 
titled to share in legislation. In 
considering this question, he could 
not but recollect that oura vws a 
mixed constitution, that we bad a 
Sovereign and a House of Lords, 
and that they were not evils to be 
endured, but institutions to be 
proud of. Tacitus had said that 
every goTemment was formed of 
monarchy, aristocracy, or demo- 
cracy — that a government formed 
out of the three might he easily 
conceived, but could not easily be 
brought to pass, and that, if it could 
be brought to pass, it could not be 
durable. That sentiment had been 
justified by the experience of all 
the modem nations of the world, 
save one, and that one was Eng- 
land. We, therefore, ought to ap- 
ply ourselves with the greatestcau- 
tion and anxiety to any plan which 
vrould alter in any way the adjust: 
ment of the different powers of the 
constitution, as this plan would do 
in regard to our whole representa- 
tive system. The noble Lord then 
entered into a long argument to 

Erove that a Parliament elected by 
ousebolders and lodgers would not 
be a better Parliament than the 
present. If such a representative 
system were adopted, it would ren- 
der it necessary to adopt such a 
division of the country into elec- 
toral districts as was contemplated 
in the so - called People's Char- 
ter. Having shown that such a 
division would not be conducive to 
tbe interests of Ute people, he next 


148] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

proceeded to argue thftt the appor- electors of Stroad, in 1880, either 

tionmeiit of the representation to to diafranchiBe the freemen or to 

the population would lead to such make them the representatiTes of 

oollisioDs of opinion between the the industrious mechanics in our 

representatives of the town and large manufacturing towns who 

country districts as would be in- were not entitled to vote at pre- 

jiuioaB to its fiiture tnnquillity. sent. He had also said that the 

He declined to enter into any long 101. franchise was too much fet- 

argument as to the vote by ballot, tered by restriction, and that the 

though he was of opinion that it system of registration was compli- 

would he no remedy against inti- cated and vexatious. From 1639 

midation. He also declared him- to the present day neither Mr. 

self satisfied with the present du- Hume nor his colleagues bad 

ration of Parliament, and should brought forward any proposition 

not give his vote for any change in for the reconstruction of the House 

it. He then proceeded to defend of Commons. Nor had he (Lord 

the ileform Act, by showing that J. Rusaell). Yet it appeared to 

since it was passed ibe House had him that the public mind was now 

not been the mere servant of the turned to the subject, and that the 

aristocracy, or the bigoted oppo- time was at hand, if it had not 

nent of all plans at ameliora- already come, when some reforms 

tion. No one who considered the of the nature to which be hod just 

changes which bad been made alluded must be made in the repre- 

Bince 1832 could say that the sentative system. The inquiries 

House of Commons bad not re- which the House was then making 

sponded quickly and readily to into the proceedings of some cor- 

iiublic opinion. He then recapitu- nipt boroughs would give it further 
ated the great measures which it iniormaiion, and then it would 
had passed in that interval, as, for know whether it should disfran- 
instance, the abolition of slavery, chise those borou^s or only the 
the opening of the China trade, the freemen of them. The great de- 
commutation of tithes, the remedy feet in the Reform Act appeared to 
of the grievances of Dissenters as him to be that it had reduced too 
to births and marriages, the reform much the varieties of the right of 
of the municipal corporations in voting under the old constitution. 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, He thought that by some variety 
the alterations in the tariff, the of suffrage, such as by making th'e 
alterations in the postage system, freemen the representatives of our 
and, lastly, the total repeal of the industrial classesinthelargetowns. 
Com Laws, which proved that the orby making the right depend upon 
House was not under the rule and accumulationsinthesavings'banka, 
dominion of the landed aristocracy, or by some other mode of the same 
Thinking as he did that the Bo- kind, we might extend the fron- 
form Act was an improvement on chise without injuring the basis of 
our old representative system, still our representation. He was. there- 
he had always been of opinion that fore, not disposed to say tiiat you 
it would admit of improvement could not beneficially alter or im- 
from time to time. When he had prove the Reform Act ; but he was 
been most attacked for finality, he not prepared at present to intro- 
bad proposed, -in his letter to the duce Bills to cany the amendments 

f] HISTORY. [140 

trtiich hfi had mentioned into effect, bred thom, and having no concern 

This «u not the moment, nhen wilh the laws except to obey them. 

Boch dangeroasopinioiiBreepectuig He then proceeded, in a highly 

Mpital, and wagea, and labour were rhetorical Hpeech, to contend that 

■float, to make great and extenaive this state of things was uqjtist to 

changes in the construction of the the unenfranchised and iqjurious 

House of Commons, which, h« to the whole community ; and he 

believed, represented the nation proved at some leiwth, that all the 

fiurly. The advantages of our consli- reasons which Lord John Russell 

tation were to ourselves iovalnable. had urged firet in 16SQ, and after- 

The stability of our institutions wards in 188S, existed in still 

amid the existing convnlaions of greater force at tlie present time, 

tbe world had excit«d the admira> He therefore implored the House 

tion of eveiy lover of peace and to emancimte its serfs, and so to 

order in every nation, and there- make of Englishmen a united nar 

fore he hoped that the House would tion. If it did so, it might arm 

do nothing to dimioish that admi- the whole population in the full 

lation or forfeit that respect. He confidence that, if war should betide 

tnisted that the House vrould not us, it would be rolled back to the 

■elect the present as the time for terror and confusion of our enemies, 

making a reform, which stopped, Mr. Disraeli opposed the motion 

indeed, abort of the Charter, but in a speech of very felicitous effect, 

which must ultimately terminate He desired to know how it was that 

in it: but that it would think it the topic of Government expendi- 

dne to the other branches of the ture and extravagance, which had 

Legislature and to that great people been so prominently urged at the 

of which it was the representaUve, public meetings, had been so little 

to give a decided negative to thia referred to in the speeches of Mr. 

resolution. Hume and ill- Fox. 

Mr. W. J. Fox would have been "TbecountiyhasforfonrDiontbs 
better pleased if Lord John Rus- been told that an enormous in- 
■ell had declared more explicitly crease of taxation and in* the ex- 
the extent of the reforms which he penditure of the Government are 
had in contemplation, and the re- the growing abuses of late years, 
■nits which he anticipated firom What are tbe beta? Tbe ordi- 
them. He also regretted that nary revenue of 18S8 was forty- 
Lord John Russell had scarcely nine millions; that of 1848, but 
leached on the question whether forty-seven millions: moreover, tbe 
particnlarclassesof the community revenue of 1838 waa raised from 
were properly represented in that a population of less than twenty- 
House. Now the question at pre- three millions, and that of 1848 
sent before Parliament was this: from one of thirty millions. 
"Are the working classes of this Taking the taxation at a sum per 
country represented as they ought head, the pressure of 1838 was 
to be; and if not, can they be so 2^ 13«. M. on each person, and 
repreeented without danger to our thatof 1846 XL lOt. and a fraction 
institntions ?" He (Mr. Fox) do- per head : but, agun, the wealth of 
dared that they were not repre- each person is greater individually 
sented ; that they were like helota now than it was in 1838. What 
in the land, ser& on the soil which becomes of the fiscal plea for politi- 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEngUmd. 

cal change in preeeoce of these 

Mr. Hume's advocacy' of his new 
franchise went to the extent of 
uniTBrwl suffice. Every Eng- 
lishman had a right to vote, as Mr. 
Hume contended ; if so, whj was 
he to b« required to live in a 
house to exercise that right? If 
in any one point more than 
another the act of 1832 was o1>- 
jectianable, it was in its too rigid 
adoption of the qualification from 
proper^; but the proposed fran- 
ebise reoognised property alone as 
its basis. The second point — the 
Totinfl by ballot— could not be ef- 
fected except by makio g or following 
R complete change of the character 
and habits of the people ; sufficient 
reasons against it on this occasion. 
The third point — the legal dura- 
tion of Parliament — was taken 
from the old Tory creed and system, 
which Mr. Disraeli had ever sup- 
ported : he would support it him- 
self if any manifest benefit could 
be adduced ; but no sensible man 
could believe that the policy or 
iMielation of Parliament would be 
aflected by such a change if it were 
now made. The fourtn point was 
one tliat based the representation 
of England solely on population. 
(PiiMnt from Mr. Hum».) Mr. 
Disraeli went into a detailed deve- 
lopment of the workino of this 
plan, taking Buckinghaioshire, 
London, Glasgow, Dublin, and 
other leading instances as his illus- 
trations, and making dexterous 
use of the results. On a popula- 
tion heeia, London would have as 
many members as all Scotland. 
He humorously sketched the 
origin of Mr. Hume's Reform 
movement, from the day of the 
meeting of a few veteran Leagne 
agitators at their rooms — never 
-pennanently deserted — in Newall's 

Buildings, Manchester. We hod 
lived to see the ori^ of a new 
profession in England. " An 
honourable gentleman the other 
night said that diplomacy was going 
oat of fiishion. Possibly it may 
he; many people think lawyers use- 
less — they make their own wills 
and die; there are those who 
think doctors good for oothii^ — 
they take quack medicines, and 
die also; and there may be Mi- 
nisters of State who think diat 
they can dispense with the ser- 
vices of ambassadors and envoys. 
But those who are interested in 
finding employment for the rising 
generation will be glad to learn 
that a new profession has been dis- 
covered, and that is the profession 
of aoitation. {Cheen and laughter.) 
Well, Sir, when honourable gen- 
tlemen cheer, do they deny my 
assertion ? Do tbey recollect the 
observation — 

Gruniiut[cui, rhetor, geometrei, pictor, 

Augur, utoBnobdM, medicUi, nu|^, 

Grecului ewnene id cmlum, juaieiu, 
ibit." " 

Completing his sketch of the 
movement to the present time, Mr. 
Disraeli observed—" The remark- 
able circumstance is this, that the 
present movement has not in the 
slightest degree originated in any 
class of the people, even if the 3W0- 
ple had been misled. It is possible 
that there might be a popular move- 
ment and yet erroneous ; but this 
is erroneous and yet not popular. 
{Cheen and laitgkter.) But the 
moisl I draw from all this — ^from 
observing this system of oi^anized 
agitation, this playing andpolter- 
ing with popular passions lor the 
aggrandizement of one too am- 
bitious class — the moral I draw 

] H I S T E Y. [151 

and the qoeBtion I ask is thie— by decUring that he abonld vote 
why are the people of England with Mr. Hume. 
ioTced to find leaderB among these Mr. Seijeant Talfonrd objected 
persons ? Their proper teadera are to fnrtber railroad progress in the 
the gentry of England ; and if they path of reform, and, after an able 
are not the leaders of the people, analysis of Mr. Hume's propod- 
it is because the gentlemen of tion, declared that, either as a 
England bare been so negligent settlement or an instalment, it 
of their duties and so unmindful would be equally unsatis^toiy. 
of their station, that this system of It was founded on no principle, at- 
profeesionol agitation, so ruinous tained no end. and was but an in- 
to the beat interests of the conntiy, stance of deluaire and miacbie'roas 
has arisen in England." quackery. 

The debate was then adjourned. Mr. Cobden said, the division 
It was resumed on the 6th July, in favour of this motion might not 
the first speaker beiug Mr. B. Os- be large, but the list would show 
borne, who advocated a residential that all those Members who re[Hre- 
test as a means of enfranchising sented large 10/. constituenoies, 
the best educated mechanics. The where the people had the free 
claims of this class had, be showed, povrer of giving their votes, would 
been supported by statesmen of be in the number of those who 
every age, from Serjeant Glanville, supported the motbu. He sp- 
in the time of Charles I., to Sir J. p«ued to that fact as a proof that 
Hobbouse, a member of the present the middle classes were anzions to 
Government The ezisUr^ fran- open the portals of the constitu- 
duae was, be contended, neither a tion to those who were anxious to 
right nor a privilege, but a perqui- come within them. There had as 
site, which would not be perverted yet been no organization in favour 
if extended ti} the householders of of this movement, but it had al- 
the country. He remarked upon ready made great way; 130 meet- 
the anomalies which the smalt ings had been held in its fa- 
boroughs presented, with the view vour within the last five weeks, 
of showing the advantages of eleo- and it had already excited as much 
toral districts ; advocated the praC' feeling in its support as had been 
tice of voting by ballot, and snortr acquired by the Com Law League 
.ening the duration of Parliaments; after five years' agitation. The 
and quoted Dod's Parliamentary present representative system was 
Companion in reply to Lord John a Bham, but, if it were amended as 
Bussell's assertion that the House Mr. Hume proposed, it would once 
of Commons was not an aristocratic more be a r«ility. He defended, at 
institution, and that Government some length, Mr. Hume's scheme 
was not carried on for the benefit of household sufflvge, contending 
of the aristocracy. The Rossells, that it vrould not create a change 
theGreys, and other scions of great in the Government, but would 
fiunilies, monopolized every ^ace, only bring the Legislature into 
to the exclusion of men of practical hannony witb the wants of the 
experience, who would do the busi- people. He also advocated- it, as 
nesB of the conntry.much better, likely to produce economy and re- 
He upheld the middle classes trenchment, and a foir and equi- 
against the gentry, and concluded table appropriation and im{iosition 

152] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. {.EngUmd. 

of the public taxation. He then Aot as a bastard agitatioD when 
defended the proposed plan for a compared with that which pre- 
new diviaion of electoral districts, ceded it, moved as an amendment, 
The constitueDcies of London were that " experience hod shown that 
as mnch too Ut^e as the conati* change in the constitution of Par- 
tuencies of the country were too liament bad failed to obtain the 
small. He thought it would be ends for which it was desirable, 
better to divide such constituencies and with which it was origindly 
into wards, and to give each of coinoined, viz., non-interference 
them the power of electing a Mem- and retrenchment." 
her, iuat^d of giving all of them Afr. C. Anstej seconded the 
the power of electing a great amendment, 
number. He was coDviocod that Ur. Locke King said that what- 
this country could not be governed ever groiinds for complaint existed 
peaceably, whilst the bulk of the in 1833 existed at present in as 
people WHS excluded from the re- great force. We had profited by 
presentation. He did not want to the French Revolution of 1630, and 
mcreaae the numberof represent- had gained the Reform Act of 1833, 
atives in that House ; but, if this and other great and beneficial mea- 
Uotion were assented to, they aures. France bad then made a 
must increase the number of repre- great change in its ooverament 
senUttives in some districts, and which had proved merely nominal, 
must diminish it in others. He It had been statJonary, whilst we 
would not say much on the ballot, had been safely and steadily pro- 
for it was one of those questiona grossing. Again we must make a 
which had the greatest strength in step in advance, and that step must 
that House, and among the middling be by adding another Schedule A 
classes. The farmers, to a man, to another Reform Bill. 
were in favour of it Having do- Mr. O'Connor denied that the 
clared himself fiivourable to tri- principle of Mr. Hume's motion 
ennial Parliaments, be reoom- had ever been adopted by a nuyo- 
mended the House, if it wanted rity of the working olasaea. Tbey 
to put an end to agitation, to al< were in &voar of the principles 
low the power of the people to be of the People's Obarter, and would 
felt within it. He wished to not be content with less. He ex- 
bring the virtues, and talents, and pressed himself strongly in aup- 
frugali^ of the industrial classes port of annual Parliamenta, and 
into the publio service ; for he told said that he would rather have 
those who talked of the aristocrat^ household suffrage with annual, 
and traditionary influences, that it than universal sufirage with sep- 
was not to the gentry, but to the tennial Parliaments. He was glad 
middle classes, that all the great to find that Lord J. Russell pre- 
triumphs of the Sritieh name, all ferred the People'a Charter to 
its improvements in arts, litera- Mr. Hume's noetrum of reform, 
ture, manafocturea, and commerce. He would vote, however, for that 
were mainly attributable. nostrum as the least of the two 
Mr. Urquhart, after dilating on evils which Mr. Hume and Mr. 
the failure of the Reform Act, and Urquhart had conjointly brought 
after denouncing the present agita- before the House. If the Motion 
tion in favour of a new Reform were passed, it would not be a 

a^iani.] HISTORY. [158 

setUemeDt of the question ; for lie rerae. The resalt was sem io the 

should argue as energeticatlT, as inorease of its standing anny, b^ 

enthusiastically, and aa forcibly for fore too large — in the increase of 

the People's Ghajrter as he had its taxation — in the domination of 

done before. a many-headed tyranny — and in 

Mr. U. Millies did not think an immense increase of secret ser- 
that tho ballot would produce any vice money. Such being the cass 
great change in the composition of in Prasaia, as well as in France, 
that House; but the division of he felt himself justified in de- 
Great Britun into new electoral daring that, if the Members of 
districts would introduce a very the House of Commons performed 
portentous change. It would sub- their duties, there was nothing in 
tract from the influence of the their principles or their practice 
oonntiy, and add to the influence to depriTO them of the respect of 
of the towns; and at present the their country. In some instances 
towns had no right to complain of their coarse of late had not been 
iheir want of influence, as they such as to conciliate public estima- 
had carried Free Trade and the tion, and the cause of it was their 
Repeal of the Com Lawa against inlonsistenoy in regard to cases of 
the wishes and the resistance of the corruption, their incapacity to get 
agricultural interest. He should, rapidly through business from their 
therefore, TOt« against the motion, indulgence in unnecessary discos- 
There was no immediate grievance sion, and their dealing in nn- 
which called for it ; but the great generous and unhandsome imputa- 
events which had recently occurred tions on each other. These were 
in Europe must naturally find an fiiults which might be easily 
echo here. If every Frenchman, amended, and, when that was 
German, and Italian had hu share done, the amendment would cause 
in the political arrangements of the House to stand higher in 
his countiy, a claim for similar public estimation, 
power would be heard here, and Lord D.Stuart, in ashort speech, 
we must be prepared to meet it. declared himself friendly to the 

Mr. S. Herbert did not think motion, 
the present scheme of representa- Mr. Mnntz observed, that the 
tion to be perfect, and was there- real question before the House 
fore delighted to hear that Lord had been completely shirked by all 
John Russell had given up the parties who had spoken that even- 
doctrine of finality. He had like- ing. The qnestion was — first, 
wise heard with pleasars his lord- did the House fairly represent the 
ship's admission that the uniform- country; and, secondly, if it did 
ity of the franchise established by not, was Mr. Hume's plan the 
the Reform Act was one of its best mode of remedying the de- 
greatest &ults. Mr. Cobden had fects in its composition? Now, 
said that a reform of Parliament the people were of opinion that 
would bring in its train a redaction the House did not fairly repre- 
of establishments and taxation; but sent the country, and had formed 
had that been the result of the la- that opinion in consequence of 
boors of the representative body re- the conduct of the House this 
cently elected in France under uni- aeasion on the property-tax, the 
versa! eaffi»ge7 Qnite the re- "gating" Bill, and the currency; 

1641 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [^«?fi»«d. 

uid be mis inclined to think that legisUtion had been much altered 

the lemeAy of Mr. Hume, if it did since the Reform Act, and he 

not eradicate, would at least mid- firmly believed that it would not 

gate all the evils of the present be much altered by the reform 

system. nowpropoaed. 

Mr. C, Villiera briefly explained After a brief reply from Mr. 

the reasons why he supported the Hume, who explained and enforced 

motion of Mr. Hume, though he his former statements, the House 

did not agree in all the propoai- divided, when the numbers were — 
tions contained in it. Hia main 

reason was, that it recognised the For Mr. Hume's motion 84 

policy of extending the basis of Against it 351 

the representation. He did not 

believe that the character of our Uqority against it . . S67 


Snfflana.] HISTORY. [156 


FoBBiON AwAiBo :~Dtpio»uit»c Bslatiotu wOh Roms — Negotiation* 
optntd at Borne by the Earl of Mintofor ihit object — Bill brought in 
In/ the Mar^utM of Laiudowne to legalue tueh relatioTU — Debate on the 
Second Beading — Ot^ectiont raited by the Duke of Newcanle, the 
Bishop of Winchetler, the Bithop of Exeter, and the Earl of Eldon — 
The BiAop of St. David't, Earl St. Germane, Earl Orey, and Lord 

■ Stanley tiq>port the Second Beading, «>hich it carried — Amendmente 
. are made in the Bill in Committee — The Second Reading it moved by 

■ Lord Faimenum in the House of Commone, on the nth of Aaguit — 
Mr. C. Anitey, Mr. Urquhart, Sir Robert Inglit, Mr. Law, Mr. B. 
Palmer, Mr. Napier, and Mr. Newdegate oppose the Second Beading, 
which it tupported by Lord John RutteU, Mr. W. E. Gladstone, Mr. 
M. J. O'ConneU, the Earl of Arundel, Mr. Moore, and other Mem- 
bers — The fitU is read a Second Time, a majority of 79 voting m itt 

■ favour — Further oppotititm in Committee, and on the Third Reading 
— The Bill it patted. Affairs of Itu^t akd Sioilt : — Lord Stanley 
brings forvard a Motion in th* House of Lordt retpectmg the inter- 
vention of the British QovemmeTit in the Sicilian Inturrtclion — 3%« 
Marqui* of Lansdovme ansieert the charge on the part of the Govern- 
iMRt — Observations of the Earl of Minto, the Duke of Argyle, Earl of 
Malme^ntry, and other Peers — Proceedings on the same su^ect in the 
House of Common* — Declaration of Lord Paltnenton retpeetiag the 
Intervention of England~-Mr. Disraeli, on the Itth August, enters itOo 
afuU revieiB of the whole fidd of Italian Polities and Brilith Inter- 
vention — Remiorkt upon Lord Minto's Mission and the real objects of 
Lord Palmerston's Mediation* — ZiOrd Palmertton vindicates hit own 
conduct and policy at great length. Affaibs of Spain ; — Abrupt tfu- 
mitsal of Sir H. Bulwer, the British Ambassador — Cireumstanees 
which led to this event — The subject is brought before the House of 
Lords by Lord Stanley — Hi* Speech — Answer of the Marquii of 
Lcmtdowne — Remarla of Lord Brougham, the Earl of Aberdeen, and 
other Peer* — Mr, Banket brings the matter before the House of Com- 
wiont by a Betolu^on disapproving of the Policy of our Government — 
Speeches of Mr. Shiel, iMrd Mahon, Mr. Disraeli, Lord John RutteU, 
Sir R. Peel, and Lord PalmeTSton-—The Motion is ultimately witii- 
drawn — Chie of the Settion : — Mr. Disraeli, on .the SO(A August, 
reviews the event* of the expiring Session in an animated and humorous 

156] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEn^Uind. 

Bpeeeh, taHriMing th«faUvra and divgipointmenU of the Oovemmmt 
— Lord John RuutU parriet tht attack mtk much dtxtsrity — lUynarkt 
of Mr, B. Oiborru and Mr, Hume — Prorogation of Parliament by 
Ae Queen in person, on the 6th of September — Addreu of the Speaker 
to the Throne — Her Mt^ttty't Speech — Clote of the Seeiion. 

ONE of the most important c. 3.) contained words nhich pn>- 
metuures that has been in- hibited diplomatic intercourse be- 
troduced of late years affecting our tween this country and Borne. He 
foreign relations, was a Bill em a- considered those Acta to be some of 
nating from the Goremment, to the safeguards and defences of the 
enable Her Uejesty to open and Constitution. The true spirit of 
carry on diplomatic relations with those laws he would be the last 
tbe Court of Bome. Negotiations man to desire to impair; and hs 
with that Court had been com- trusted that their tme oi^ect 
menced in the preceding antomn would continue to be maintained, 
by the Earl of Minto, whose special But hie opinion was, that neither 
mission to Italy we shall presently of those Acts prohibited such re- 
have occasion to advert to. The lations ; their real object being to 
feeling of the Papal Court being prevent the holding spiritual corn- 
ascertained Vo be favourable to an munion with the Church of Rome, 
amusement, the convenience of not to debar the Protestant Sove- 
whicb appeared to our own Oo- reign of this country from esta- 
vemment much to outweigh any blishing those relations with the 

Cible danger that could result Court of Borne which were found 
I it, tbe Marquis of Lans- so neceraary and beneficial with 
downe, very early in the present other states. After referring to 
Session, presented a Bill for le- the case of the Earl of Castle- 
galising a diplomatic intercourse maine, and the opinions of Bishop 
with Rome. Some indtcatioDB Burnett and Sir James Mackin- 
were given, on the first reading of tosh upon that case, his Lordship 
the Bill, of a modified opposition took an historical view of our in- 
on the part of several Peers, but tercourse with Rome. Sir Robert 
Lord Lansdowne undertook to Walpole was ia repeated commu- 
prove that the proposition to which nication with the Pope; he em- 
be asked their consent would in- ployed his brother Horace for that 
volve no possible danger to the purpose, and the Pope omitted no 
Protestant religion in this country, opportunity of testifying his regard 
On the 17th of February, the same for the British Minister. When 
noble Lord moved the second Hanover became connected with this 
reading of the Bill. He began kingdom, it was a partof our policy 
by explaining the reasons for its in- to keep up a good understanding 
troduction, and the circumstances with tbe Court of Rome. During 
out of which the doubt which it the French Revolution, and at tbe 
was proposed to remove bad commencement of the French war, 
arisen. It had been supposed Sir John Cox Hippesley, Lord 
that the Bill of Rights (I William Hood, when he commanded in the 
and Mary, s. 3, c. 2), and the Act Mediterranean, and, more recently, 
for the further limitation of the the late Duke of Portland, had 
Crown (13 and 13 William III., opened an intercourse with the 

England.] HISTORY. [157 

Pope. H&fing shown the neces- The Bishop of Winchester qnes- 
sity of eatablishing diplomatio re- tioned the reasons upon which ths 
lationswitbtheCourt of Borne, his noble Marquis had founded the 
Ijordship proceeded to reply to the Bill. The chief reason was the 
queBtionawhy.forthefirsttime.the inconvenience attending an indi- 
Pope was to bo acknowledged by rect communication with the Court 
ns, and whether the Pope had ever of Rome. But, whenever such 
rect^niaed the sovereign of this communication was called for, 
country ? He should be surprised means were readily found to effect 
if these questions, though agitated it. He found that by this Bill 
out of doors, were asked in that Her M^esty was authorized to re- 
Hoose. Recognise the Pope! ceive a diplomatic agent "accre- 
Why, what was the Treaty of dited by Uie Soverei^ Pontiff." 
Vienna? Great Britain was a This was the ff ret time since the Re- 
eontracting parQr to that treaty, formation that this expression bad 
which not only secnred to the Pope been admitted into any Act of Par- 
the possessions be eqjoyed at tl»t liament. The head of the Romish 
time, but additional territories in Church had hitherto been termed 
other parts of Italy. And who " Bishop of Rome," or " Bishop of 
put the Great Seal to that treaty ? Rome, otherwise called the Pope;" 
Lord Chancellor Eldon, who of all and the right rev. prelate read an 
public men of the time was the opinion of the law officers of the 
most averse to Romish ascend- Grown, which bore the signature 
ani^. Besides other acknow- of Mr. Serjeant Copley, which 
ledgments, £ing Geoi^ IV. re- showed that the Legislature had 
eeived a letter from the Pope advisedly avoided the title of " So- 
ooDgratolating him upon hie ac- vereign Pontiff." 
cession ; and His Mfgesty wrote The Bisht^ of St. David's snp- 
a reply to the Pontiff; but it ported the Bill, which he consi- 
being suggested to him, aher it was dered to be no innovation or sub- 
sent off, that he might thereby have stantial interference with the ex- 
forfeited his crown, a messenger isting law. The measure was jus- 
was despatched to Italy to re^l tifiable on political groundB) and, 
the letter, but it was too late ; and, although it had a religious aspect, 
quoad that letter. King Geoi^ he was at a loss to understand how 
IV., according to the hypothesis, the interests of religion or of Pro- 
had forfeited his crown. But we testantism could be affected by . 
bad, in fact, on numerous occasions, the Bill. The right rev. prelat«, 
acknowledged the Pope, who had, whilst he did not concur in the 
over and over again, acknowledged objections of the Bishop of Win- 
the Sovereign of this country. Chester, thought that due respect 
The Duke of Newcastle opposed should be paid to the opinions of 
the Bill as unnecessary, and there- a large class of persons in this 
fore a superfluous act of legisla- country who appeared to view 
tion ; or, if necessaiy on account this measure with much jealousy, 
of an actual subsisting prohibition. Upon the whole, he expressed hia 
it was ohjectionable as removing conviction that it was a measure 
a constitutional safeguard. His essential to the politioal interests 
grace moved that the Bill be read of the country, and one which 
a second time that day six months, m^ht be adopted vrithout any 

158] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EngU^. 

danger to the established religion the Roman state, and recommended 

of the country. their Lordships to consent to the 

The Bishop of Exeter considered second reading of the Bill. 
that the noble Marquis bod failed Lord Stanley said, if be thought 
to make out a case of necessity for the Bill vaa at variance with the 
this measure, and the doubt aris- spirit and principle of the Bill of 
ing from the word " commnnion," Rights ana Act of Settlement, or 
in the Act 13 and 13 William III., even that it in the slightest degree 
— which obrioasly meant comniuni- recognised, or strengthened, or sup- 
can in taerU — was no reason for ported any claim or pretence to 
■itowAiiaBg so important a change spiritual power on the part of the 
as this, iraught with itm^/a, and Sovereign of the Roman State in 
which would spread alarm in everjr this country, he shoufd vote for 
port of the country. Why were the amendBient But he could 
not the judges of Lbe land called not take such a vt«w of it. At the 
upon to say whether there was same time be looked upon it aa a 
any doubt ? If they declared that measure of grave and weighs po- 
no law forbade Her M^esty from lit^, and one which ought to be 
carrying on diplomatic relations approached with the respect due 
with Rome, then let Her Majesty's to a deep religious feeling in this 
Ministers, on their own responsi- countiy adverse to the Bill, which 
bility, advise her to open those re- was contrary to the interpretation 
latione, and not come to Parlia- put upon the law for the last 100 
ment to give them authority. The years. He was quite sensible that 
right rev. prelate supported the there might be conveniences and 
amendment. advantages attending a direct in- 

The Duke of Wellington con- tercourse with the Court of Rome ; 

fessed that, when be first heard of but he concurred with those who 

this measure, he considered it with thought that it was the duty of the 

some degree of anxiety. It had Government and Parliament to 

been the policy of our laws since conaiderwhethertherewerenotcol- 

(he Reformation that there should lateral disadvantages. He was not 

be no communication, political or of opinion that this meaaure would 

otherwise, between diis country tend to uphold the spiritual power 

and the Severe^ of the Roman and authority of the Pope, which 

States. A great alteration had, could not be enforced in this coun- 

however, been made in the law by try, for our own courts of law would 

the Act introduced by Lord Lvnd- set at nought the authority of the 

hurst ; he (the Duke of WelUng- Pope. The noble Lord adverted 

ton}hadcon8ideredtheefrectwhich to the character of the present 

this Bill would have upon that Act, Pope, and to the effect which the 

and he intended to move a provision representations of a Protestant 

in the committee, declaratory of Minister from this countiy might 

the title of the Sovereign of this have at the Court of Rome, and 

country to he supreme head and warned their Lordships of the evils 

governor in all matters ecclesiasti- which might spring from the anta- 

cal and civil. Upon the whole, he goniam of the two religious prin- 

considered that it was convenient ciplee thus brought into contact, 

and advantageous to have regular In conclusion, the noble Lord de- 

and direct diplomatic relations with clared faia intention, in Toting for 

England.-] HISTORY. [159 

the second reading, to reserve his if the Duke of Nevcutle pressed his 

final opinion upon the nhole Bill amendment to & division, he should 

until it should havs passed the vote with him against the Bill. 

Committee. With regkrd to the The Earl of St. Oermans sup- 

Mesence of an accredited agent at ported the Bill, and shoved that 

Borne, the conveniences and in- the apprehensions entertained by 

conveniencee might be nicelj ba- the Bishops of Winchester KudExB' 

lanced ; but the residence of a ter were chimerical or exaggerated.' 

Papal envoy here, without restrlc- This Bill did not compel Her 

tion, espec^lly if he combined a M^esty to appoint a Uinister at 

spiritual with a diplomatic charoc- Rome ; and, if there should be a 

ter, might be mischievous. Pope disposed to abuse ito fmwi- 

Earl Qrey drew an inference fft- siona, our Gonnmient miffht re- 

vourable to the measure from the fuse ta keep relations with him, 

veiy mitigated opposition of Lord md we should be in the same po- 

Stanlej. The Marquis of Tmm sition towards Bome as at preeent. 

downe had laid the cas« ihlly and He did not participate in Lord 

fairly before the Hooee, establish- Stanley's repugnance to the recep- 

ing the policy and necessity of the tion of an ecclesiastic as a papal 

Bill ; and the minute criticism of envoy £rom Rome. 

Lord Stanley upon its form and the Lord Redesdale gave notice of a 

SMnuer in which it had been in- clause he should propose in the 

tiodnced, left the merits of the Committee, providingthatitsbould 

measure untouched. The noble not be lawful for Her M^esty to 

Earl vindicated the consistency of receive any ambassador from the 

the Government with reference to Court of Rome until the Pope had 

the mission of Lord Uinto, who diaclaimed all temporal and civil 

bad no formal letters of credence authority in this realm, 

to the Court of Rome, and it vnts The Marqub of Lansdowne, in 

an evil, which this Bill went to his reply, declared that no inatruc- 

Tomedy, that he had no regular tions had been given to Lord 

authority to act as our Ministor Uinto, and no act had been done 

there. He agreed with Lord by that nobleman, at Rome or 

Stanley that the amendment pro- elsewhere, which he (Lord Lans- 

posed by the Duke of Wellington downe) waa not prepared to defend 

WIS a decided improvement In the as for the advantage and interest of 

Bill, which would make assurance this countir. The noble Earl had 

doubly sure, and would tranquillize been accrouted to Switzerland, and 

alarm; and he was glad to know that he was now accredited to Naples, 

Lord Lansdowne had consented to and his not being accredited to 

the noble Duke's amendment. Rome, where consequently ha 

The Duke of Richmond would could not appear in an official ca- 

itot vote agunst the second read- pacify, afforded the best illustra- 

ing of the Bill, but he ut^ed, as Uon of the state of the law and 

Lord Stanley had done, that a suf-- the necessity of this measure. 

fioient interval should beallowed Their Lordships were about to 

for the expression of the opinion divide, when the Dnke of New- 

of the country upon the measure. castle withdrew his amendment. 

The Eari of Eldon declared that, and the bill was read a second time. 

, ..ooglc 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

Dpoii the committal of the Bill 
a ratlier important verbal aiteradon 
was introduced on the propoeitioa 
of the Duke of Wellington, the 
title of " Sovereign of the Roman 
States" being substituted for the 
words " Sovereign Pontiff" as the 
deaignatioD of the Pope. An ani- 
mated discussion aftarvards took 
Elece on an amendment pntpoaed 
J the Earl of E^intoon, pro- 
hibiting the reception of an; eccle- 
Biastio as the accredited minister 
of the Pope in this conntrj'. The 
Marqais of Lansdowne thought 
that the right to refuse anj Minis- 
ter who might be distasteful to 
the Crown ought to be left, in the 
case of the Pope as in that of any 
other foreign Sovereign, to Her 
Uajeetj ana the Government. 

The Earl of Aberdeen said (hat 
the amendmeat could not be re- 
jected without incurring the danger 
of grave consequencaa, and depre- 
cated the presence of an eccleaiastic 
as the Pope's Nuncio in this 

The Dukeof Wellington thought 
the diSEiculty would be met by 
simply substituting the words 
" establish diplomatic relations," 
for the words in the Bill which 
pointed out the persons of different 
ranks whom Her Mi^esty was to be 
authorized to receive. 

Lord Beaumont was surprised 
at what had fallen from Lord 
Aberdeen, and complained that he 
had mistaken the fiinctions of 
le^tee and nuncios. 

The Earl of Shrewsbury said, 
that the Earl of Eglintoun and his 
supporters seemed to have foraotten 
that diplomatic relations could not 
be established with any state ex- 
cept on terms of perfect reci- 
procity. If Her Mtyesty refused 
to receive on aodesiaslic as Minis- 

ter from Bome, the Pope in his 
turn might fairly refuse to receive 
a Protestant as the repreeeniatiTe 
of England, — which was jnst the 
position at present of the diplo- 
matic relations between Prussia 
and the Holy See. 

Lord Stanley deemed it highly 
important that the amendment 
should be carried. While he had 
no objection to seeing England 
properly represented at Rome, he 
could never sanction the trans- 
planting of the Vatican to London. 

After some further discussion, 
their Lordships dirided on the 
amendment, when the numbers 

For the amendment . . 67 
Against it fl4 

A considerable delay t4Mk place 
before this meaaare found its w^ 
into the lower House. It was not 
till the ITth of August that the 
second reading was moved by Lord 
Palmerston in a veiy oonoise" 
speech. The noble lord observed, 
that the grounds for this measure 
were so simple, and were so much 
upon the sur6u3e, that it wss not 
requisite for him to enter into any 
abstruse or refined argument to 
show ite necessity. Doubts had 
existed, whether, by the inters 
pretation of certain old Acts of 
Parliament, it was lawful for the 
Government of this country to 
hold diplomatic iuteroourse with 
the Court of Bome. Those doubts 
arose on the interpretation of the 
word "communion," but it ap- 
peared to him that the meaning 
of the law prohibiting any " com- 
munion " of the Sovereign with Hie 


fivi««f] HISTORY. [161 

Court of Borne was simpl; this — fesaed to be a Bill to enable Her . 
that the Sovere^ of England M^esty to hold diplomatic inter- 
muat be a Frotestant. The "com- course with the Court of fiome. 
munion" prohibited was only apiri- Now, there were two Courts of 
tnal communion, and was not the Borne — the temporal court aod 
interchange of political and diplo- the spiritual oourt. With the 
matlcalcommunications. Asdoubts, first, Her Uajesty waa l^ally en- 
however, were entertained on that titled to hold diplomatic corn- 
point, it was deemed necessary to muuication without any Bill to en- 
mtroduce a Bill authorising diplo- able her; but, with the second, he 
matjo intercourse and communica- main t ain ed that Her Mtgesty could 
tkm with the Court of Rome. He not legally hold intercoiuree; and 
then proceeded to obviate the ob- he hoped that ao Bill would ever 
jections laised against it, and to be passed to place the Court of 
explain the adfaniagea which were St. James's and the Courtof Bome 
likely to accrue &om passing it. in eo delicate a position as would 
After showing that the presence of enable the latter to aurrender to the 
an English ambasBador at the former the peculiar influence which 
Court of Bome, and of a Roman the Court of Rome exercised by its 
■mbassador at the Court of St spiritual power over all priests and 
James's, could not injure the faith bishops subject to its ecclesiastical 
of our Sovereign, he proceeded to Jurisdiction. He then proceeded 
demonstrate that the want of in- to argue with great piouxity that 
tercouree with the Court of Bome if this Bill passed it would operate 
was injurious to our interests; for most iqjunously on the independ- 
we could not make any commercial ence of the Roman Catholic Church 
treaty vitb the Court of Rome to in Ireland, and would ultimately 
obtain for our merchants and make the Pope himself a slave to 
manubctureiB those advantaffee British policy. After pinnting out 
which commercial treaties afforded the indirect manner in which the 
lo them in every other part of Bill interfered wilh the prerogative 
the world. As no constitutional of the Crovm, and after analyzing 
danger could arise from the enact- the measure clause by clause, and 
ment of this measure, and as great condemning them all one after an- 
commercial advantages would flow other, the taon. Member concluded 
from passing it iato law, be bad no by moving tht the Bill be read a 
hesitation in recommending it to second time that day six months, 
the support of the House. Mr. Urquhart seconded the 

Mr. C. Anatey had expected to amendment, 
hear some explanation of the Bill Sir R. Inglis complained, like 
'itself and of the objects which it Mr. Anstey, of the insufficiency of 
was to accomplish ; but not a word the speech which Lord Palmerston 
on either of those points had the had made that evening for the in- 
noble Lord uttered. He was, there- troduction of so important a change 
Jbre, compelled to answer, not the into the Constitution of England, 
speech of Lord Palmerston, but and also pitied his lordship for 
the speeches made in another having been reduced to the painful 
place. Having done this to a very necessity of pleading as his reason 
considerable extent, he commented for this Bill the importance ot con- 
Dn the title of this Bill, which pro- suiting the commercial interests of 

Vol- XC. [M] 

162] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

Englaod in Ital^, and the in- sis, with the Pope, was not so 
creased facilitj which it would give aatie&cWrf as to induce us to 
to British subjects to obtain the establish such commuaication be- 
oonBtructioQ of a railroad over the tween the Queen of England and 
Pontine marahra for abridging their the Bishop of Borne. In concln- 
Gommunications willi Inoift. He sion, he put three questions to 
called on the House to reflect at Lord J. Russell— whether he had 
what time this Bill was brought in, heard of any project of the Pope 
who was Pope, and what the Court to divide England into dioceses, 
of Rome now was. The Bill was and to appoint an Archbishop of 
introduced into this House on the Westminstor, and whether he had 
16th August, at a time when the given his assent to anj soch prO' 
Pope bad violated all bis obliga- ject? Next, he asked whether his 
tions to Austria, the chief bene- lordehip had any objection to laj 
fitctor of the Papacy, — when the on the table such communications. 
Pope bad been nnable to protect whatever they might be, as bad 
the Austrian ambassador from the been addressed by the Earl of 
attacks of the rabble of Rome, and Clarendon to Earl Grey, whereby 
when he had absolutely blessed the Earl Orey had ^ven to the Roman 
arms of the soldiery whom he sent Catholic Bishops titles which 
to attack the Austrian forces ; and neither the Queen nor any Act of 
all this, too, at atttriod whenEng- Parliament bad given them? 
land was more (uive than ever to Lastly, he asked his lordship 
the rampant and aggreesive cha- whether he had any objection to 
racUr of the Church of Rome lay on the table the cow of a 
a^nst the Protestantism of the latter addressed by the Earl of 
world. He did not ol^ect to enter Clarendon, on the 10th of March 
into negotiations with the temporal last, to Archbishop Murray, in 
Sovereign of Rome, no matter what nhich letter Lord Clarendon, witb- 
his religion might be. He did not out waiting for the passing of this 
object to recognise the civil governor Bill, communicated distinctly to 
of Rome, even though he should be the Pope the statutes of the new 
another lUenzi; but he did object to Irish Colleges through the instru- 
recc^ise the spiritual governor of mentally of Archbishop Murray? 
BomeandofalltbeBomanCatbolic Mr. Moore observed that the ar- 
population of the world. The Pope guments of Sir R. Inglis had oom- 
had millions of subjects in this pletoly convinced him of the pro- 
country, and he would not give to priety of voting in support of this 
the Pope thedirectmeansofissuing Bill. Sir R. Inglis iuid no objec- 
his powerful edicts to them with- tion to deal with the civil governor 
out any restraint. He had another of Rome, or to entor into consular 
objection to this Bill — it neither relations even with the Pope him- 
conciliated the afieotions of the self. In making that declaration, 
Protestants norsatisfied the wishes the honourable fiaronet had given 
of the Roman Catholics, who, in up the whole subject in dispute, 
March last, had denounced it to and, as he (Mr. Moore) preferred 
the Pope in the strongest language, a straightforward to a tortuous 
Beaides, the result of the diplo- eourse, he should give his vote in 
matic communications of other &vour of a measure which enabled 
Protestant states, especially Prus- us to do openly and directly what 

England.] HISTORY, [163 

for yean back we had been doing mise or coDoordat with His Holi- 
secretly and indirectly. ness. If, then, we refused all 
Lord J. Ruflsell, after some re- commiuiication with hiin, we left 
marks on tbe singular position in his spiritual infiuence unfettered ; 
which Sir R. Inglis stood, as being for we could not bind it without 
diasatisfied both with Lord Pal- some agreement with him who held 
merston's reasons for supporting, it He then told Sir R. Inglis 
and with Mr. Anstey'a arguments that no official letter bad passed be- 
for opposing this Bill, denied that tween Lords Clarendon and Ore; 
it made either a fundamental change on the titles to be given in the 
in the Constitution, or was the first colonies to the Roman Catholic 
etep to a reconciliation with Home. Bishops ; but that a prirate letter 
Sir R. Inglis had declared that he had passed between them, in which 
had no objection to enable a consul Lord Grej had issued his drcular 
to can; on commercial relations to the Colonial Governors. He 
with thatCourt; and, that being the likewise referred Sir Robert to the 
case, he must saj that it was with explanation which he had given, on 
the appearance and not with the a former evening, of the private 
bet that Sir Robert Inglis quar- letter which Lo^ Clarendon had 
relied. He (Lord John Russell) written to Archbishop Murray on 
should be much more afraid of the the subject of the Irish Colleges, 
Roman Catholic religion than be and entered into a full justification 
was, if he could bring himself to be- of it, as written for (he express 
lieve that these foolish and obsolete purpose of convincing the Pope 
restrictions were really the securi- that the Irish Colleges were not 
ties on which Protestantism rested, of thai irreligious character which 
Heshowedthattheywereproductire some Roman Catholic prelates had 
of daily inconvenience to our com- represented them to be. He con- 
mercial interests, and repeated the eluded an able speech by express- 
arguments of Lord Palmerston to ing a confident hope that the 
prove that their removal wonld be House, seeing the Bill to be only 

Eroductive of great general benefit a mode of making the law agree 
oth to ourselves and the different with the fact, would have no o^ec- 
nations of Italy. With respect to tion to sanction it. 
the questions put to him by Sir R Mr. Law made a resolute stand 
Inglis, he replied that he did not against the Bill, and particotarly 
know that the Pope bad authorized complained of the falsehood of its 
the creation of bishoprics or arch- preamble, in which it was asserted 
bishoprics in England. He would, that there were doubts whether Her 
however, comfort Sir R Inglis by Majesty could or could not main- 
assuring him that he (Lord J. Rus- tain diplomatic interoourse with 
sell) should not give his assent to the Court of Rome. He could not 
the formation of any such dioceses concur in the construction which 
in the Queen's dominions. He Lord Palmerston and Lord John 
most, nevertheless, remind Sir Russell bad put upon the law, and 
Robert, that if he looked to the he entered into a long argument to 
other states of Enrope, he would prove that their lordships had not 
■ee that any control over the spin- the slightest grounds for asserting 
tual influence of the Pope could that the Crown could legally hold 
only be guned by some compro- intercoutseatpreeentwiththePope 

164] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. \EngU»d. 

of Rome Bs the bead of the Boman stant train of Acts of Pariument 

Oatholic Church. controlling the encroachtnenta of 

ilr. H. Dmmmond obserred the Fope, bo there would be in 
that, if he could believe the asser- future a oonatant necessity of enact- 
tion of Ur. C. Anstey, that the ob- ing auoh laws, if this Bill obtained 
ject of the Bill waa to enable the the aanction of the Houae. Eng- 
Qoeen to govern her Roman Ca- land had hitherto excluded the 
tbolio snhjeota through the agency aupremacy of the Fope, and ia eo 
of the Fope, he should certainly excluding it vas mftintaining k 
oppooe it; for he could not aup- prindple of great importanoe, not 
port any measure which aaBumrn only to itoelf, but alao to the whole 
that Her Mqeaty had not means civ^ized world. He warned the 
of her own to gDvem her own sub- House not to abandon its old poUcj, 
jecta. He waa prepared to sup- which had produced peace and pro- 
port an; measure which was likely aperity and loyal^ in Ireland, and 
to eetde the peace of Chmtondom, to adopt a policy which muat ter- 
and put an end to sectarian dis- minate in very contrary results, 
pntea, and this Bill he considered He renunded the House that the 
to fall within that cat«goi7. He Froteatants of Ireland had alvrays 
then entered into a very able ai^- been quiet and loyal. Could the 
ment to allay the fears which ei- same be predicated of the Roman 
isted in more quarters than one. Catholic population? Three pro- 
reapecting the power and influence vinoes of Ireland were now ripe 
of Uw Pope. Ue looked upon this for insurrection ; were those the 
Bill as a measure enabling Minis- provinces in which Protestantism 
ten to do openly what they far^ prevailed ? Certainly not. He 
merly were accustomed to do se- therefore implored the Houae not 
cretlr and clandestinely, and he to irritate the feeUngs of the Pro- 
should therefore support it. testants in Ireland, by passing a 

Ur. Napier observed that, if Billof which the olyect was almost 
it was the intention of Uinistera universally believed to be the go- 
to govern the people of Ireland veniment of Ireland through the 
throngfa the influence of the Fope, medium of the Pope, 
he would most certainly oppose Mr. Boundell Palmer observed, 
the Bill. It was, therefore, a ques- that the Houae would he deceiving 
tion which the House ought at itself and the country if it did not 
once to determine, whether the deal with this question as one of 
genuine object — ho did not aay the highest importanoe. If he 
the ostensible object — of Minis- thought that this Bill rested on 
ters, in proposing this measure, such gronnda merely as those 
was not to use the influence of the which had been stated by Lord 
Fope for the government of Ire- Palmerston and Lord J. Russell, 
land. He then proceeded to show he should say, even though he dif- 
ihat this was the object of Minis- fered not £rom the principle, that 
ters from their own declarations, it could not be of that pressing 
He next appealed to the laws importance which required it to be 
passed in England befbre the Re- forced on at this late period of the 
formation for the purpose of im- session. He called on the House 
pressing on the House, that as to consider whether this was a 
there had been in past times a oon- measure likely to be used for other. 

a(*>Ki ) HISTORY. ties 

than di^mado pojpoees is order bnlt with him tor exenamig, aa be 

to forward the policy of this pleased, his spiritual jurisdictioii. 

ootmtry. BeUering that it would He thought, however, that the 

be BO used, he maint«ined that the pn^ect of the P(^, to exeroise 

Hoose ought not to agree to the his spiritoal jurisdictioii in the 

Bill in its present shape, unless it creation of English dioceses, was 

was prepared to adopt a different equally contrary to the feelings of 

policy with respect to tbe relations the people, and the law of the 

of the Protestant and the Boman land. He thought it would have 

Ootholk church of Ireland. He been much wiser had the Govem- 

was therefore unwilling to vote at ment postponed this measure to 

this pwiod for the second reading another session; hot, nevertbe- 

of the Bill, as it coald not receive leie, he could not oonsent to any* 

that deliberation which the im- thing likely to blink the main 

porlaoce of ila collateral conside- principle of it. He believed that 

rations required. there was an inevitable necessity 

Mr. Pagan felt so strongly the for a Bill of this kind. The en- 
insult offOTed to the Pope, in the octment of tbe Irish Colleges Bill 
second clause of the Bill, that he bad rendered it absolutely neces- 
was coerced to vote i^nst its sary for the Government to oon- 
eeoond reading altf^ther. suit with the Roman Catholic sa- 

Mr. M. J. O. Connell felt ob- thoritiea as to the statutes Inr 

liged to vote for the second read- which they were to be governed, 

ing, as he intended to support Now, if we had to commtmicate 

Lord Arundel's motion, in the with the Boman Catholic authori- 

Commitlee, to strike out of it the ties, we must have to oommuni- 

secood olanse. He rebuked Mr. oate with the P(H>e, for yon could 

Napier fiir claiming exclusive not make a valid obl^ation with 

loyalfy for the Protestants of Ire- the Court of Boms without com- 

lutd. munication with the Pope lum- 

Hr. W, E. Gladstone observed, self. There was, therefore, an 

that there were several circum- inevitable necessity for this Bill ; 

Mancee which rendered it painful and he should therefore support 

to him to give his rote in favour it, on the ground that it was bet- 

of the principle of this Bill. He ter that our communication with 

thought it unfortunate that the Borne should be direct and avowed 

House should be called on at so late than furtive and clandestine, 

a period of the seseion to discosa a Mr. Newdegate dedared his in- 

measure of such hi^ importance, tention of voting against the Bill. 

It was also most unfbrtunate that Lord Arundel voted for the se- 

the House bad to discuss it at a cond reading of the Bill ; but it 

period when it scarce^ knew woold depend on the way in which 

whether there was a Pope or the House dealt with tbe second 

not; and when it was left in ig^ clauseofitinCommittee.whetherbe 

norance as to whether he had, or should support the third reading, 

bad not, ventured to divide £ng- Mr. Goulbum observed that, if 

land by bis own autbori^ into he voted t^nst the second read- 

eccleMastica] dioeeaea. If we do- ing of this Bill, it was owing to 

clined ell communication with the late period of the session at 

tbe Pope, we could not justly find which it had been proposed. 

166 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

After a few words from Colonel Mr. Napier's amendment was 

.Vomer in support of the argument negatived, on a division, b^ 88 to 

of Ur. Napier, the House divided. SO. and the Bill was read a third 

when the numbers were, for the time and paeeed. 

second reading— The state of our relations with 

. .„, the es-Eing of the Two Sicilies 

■f/ .~ became the suhject of discussion 

"***' _ in the House of Lords, on the 8th 

"*"'? " tr4'?or.;'s;"„V°tS 

The principle of the Bill was Crown for copies of all the corre- 
thos carried bj a largemajority, but epoodence upon the subject, pro- 
its progress was stoutly opposed vided that the papers could be 
in Committee bj some of the same produced without an; detriment 
Members who bod spoken against to the public service, 
the second reading. Several Lord Stanley opened the state- 
amendments were moved by the ment with which he prefaced his 
dissentient party, but without sue- remarks by urging the importance 
cess. Upon the third reading of the maxim, that, in the event of 
being moved, on the SOth August, a civil contest going on in an in- 
Mr. Napier, who was supported by dependent state, it is the para- 
Ur. C. Anstoy and a few other mount duty of eveiy foreign power 
Members, again attempted to de- to maintain a strict and absolute 
feat the measure, by moving that neutrality. On that principle we 
it be read a third time that day had uniformly repressed here the 
three months. The only speech manifestation of pablic feeling 
containing any novelty was made on the sanguinary contests be- 
hy Mr. Shiel, who reminded the tween Russia and Poland ; had 
House that, by the treaty of abstained from intervention he- 
Vienna, the rights of the "Holy tween Austria and her revolted 
See" were defined and secured, provinces; bad condemned in- 
£n gland was a party to that tervention by Prussia in the 
treaty; it was signed by her re- Schleswig-Holstein affair; had re- 

fresentative ; it was laid before monstrated with King Charles 
arliameut ; there was no remon- Albert on his invasion of Lom- 
Btrance against it. Was it not bardy ; and had cordially ap- 
preposterous that England should proved the answer given to mis- 
have secured the Pope in the en- guided men from Ireland by the 
joyment of a portion of his do- Provbional Govemmentof France, 
minions, and yet be denied the Ifthere was any nation in the world 
right of holding diplomatic inter- on whom the strict observance of 
course with him, who was thus, this doctrine was incumbent, it was 
in effect, under her protection? England— England, with Ireland 
While Italy was giving birth to at its side, and a large proportion 
portentous events, and the Pope of the inhabitants of that island too 
himself called for our interposi- happy to shake off what they have 
tjon, it was absurd to refuse to put been taught to consider the baneful 
an end to a system of surreptitious domination of the mother-country, 
intercourse, and openly establbh Lord Stanley sketched the or 
diplomatic relations with Rome. der of eveaU in Sicily during the 

Bngland.] HISTORY. [167 

reroldtioii : the outbreak, at a this or aaj interference with the 
time when our Minieter (Lord authority of the King ? 
Palmerstou's brother) had left his The Marquis of Lansdowne de- 
most comfortable poet at a most clared himself quite willing to af- 
laxurious capital; the acddenlal ford general information upon the 
presence at Rome of Earl Minto, character of our interference, if 
then on his roving commission euch it could be called, betweeo 
of Minister- Oeneral to every state the King of Naples and a portion 
in the sooth of Europe; his in- of his sul)jects. Throughout the 
vitation by the King of Naples; intervention, a position of ami^ 
Lord Minta's journey to Naples, towards Naples hod been main- 
hie advice, and the rejection of his tained; and the whole object of 
advice; the success of the Sici- the mission of Lord Uinto to 
liana, and tbeir election of the Naples — undertaken at the solici- 
Dnke of Genoa to be their King, tation of the King himself — was 
Lord Stanley bad been credibly to produce and promote the adop- 
informed that, immediately before tion of heaUng measures ; and, if 
the final decision of the A^mbly Naples had subscribed to hia ad- 
«t Sicdly to offer the crown of the vice, she might have still re- 
country to the eon of the King of tained her power over Sicily. 
Sardinia, the Porcupine was aes- But changes took place in her 
patched from the British Em- councils, followed hy the almost 
MBsy at Naples, having on board complete success of the Sicilian 
a gentleman attached to the mis- arms. Mr. Temple's absence from 
sion at Naples, named Fagan, who his post at Naples was uncon- 
was instructed to state the plea- nected with these circumstances ; 
sure of England that they should and no country was ever repre- 
choose, not a Bepublican, but a sented at Naples with more ability, 
Uonarchical form of Government, assiduity, and skill, than this conn- 
aod as the head of that govern- tiy had been by Lord Napier, 
ment should select the son of the At first the British representa- 
■ Eing of Sardinia. Lord Stanley tive tried to maintain the union of 
asked whether it was true that the two Sicilies. But the time 
Mr. Fagan had received and ful- came when it was manifest that 
filled such instructions ? Sicily would no Itmger remain 
He also found it reported that, part of the kingdom of Naples ; 
while the Eing of Naples was pre- and it afterwards became sdll 
paring a force in the Bay of Na- more manifest that the union of 
pies for the reduction of Sicily to all classes and orders of her peo- 
ms authority. Her M^esty's fleet pie was so perfect, and her mili> 
in the Mediterranean, in the exe- tary power and skill so great, that 
cation of orders, bad appeared she could maintain the independ- 
there ; that they surroonded the ence she had declared. In this 
vessels which were being prepared new state of thii^ a new step 
to transport the Neapolitan troops was to be taken by us ; and this 
to Sicily ; and that, althot^h there country successfully endeavoured 
had been no intimation given of to promote the institution of UoU' 
an intentdon to prevent the enter- arcny rather than Bepublicanism, 
prise, the British fleet held a me- and to direct the choice of the 
nacing position. Had there been Sicilians in electing a sovereign 

168] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

for their island, first to b prince aocesa to them was refused to the 
of the bouae of Naples, and aft«T- admiral, who wished to know 
words to some prince from some what their ground of complaint 
other of the Italian States. But wss, there could be no doubt but 
advice was the whole influence that a sufficient ground existed to 
employed ; and it was nnsccom- jnstify a ver; peremptoiy demand 
ponied b; anything like a condi- on the part of this country. 
tion, or ■ threat, or the semblance Lord Uinto assiirsd the House 
of a threat ; and no assurance had that his object throi^hout his mia- 
heen required that the Duke of sion to Naples had been to main- 
Genoa should be chosen. tain the connexion between the 

With regard to the proceedings two kingdoms ; but he had felt 

of Sir William Parker at Naples, that the connexion ought not to 

Lord Lonsdowne oseured Lord rest solely with the Neapolitan 

Stanley that they had no reference Oovemment. who offered terms 

to the circumstances alluded to, which they shortly ofterwards 

but referred to an entirely differ- withdrew from. He agreed with 

ent subject. He hoped the mo- Lord Stanley as to the general 

tion would not be pressed. principle of non-interference ; but 

Lord Stanley, thought the on- he could not agree in thinkii^ 
Bwer given by no means satiaiac- that there were no circumstances 
tory, thoogh he was aware that in the previous connexion between 
Sir W. Parker's fleet bad appeared this country and Sicily wbicb im- 
in the Boy of Naples in conse- posed npon England very serious 
quence of o ground of complaint obligations towards that country, 
against a NeapoUton vessel. The On a fitting occasion he should be 
Bole cause of the offence which hod perfectly prepared to enter folly 
led to the appearance there of a mto this question. 
British fleet was, that, in the open The Duke of Argyle regretted 
sea, a Neapolitan vessel chased a the haste shown in rect^ising 
Sicilian vessel, and, for the pur- the independence of Sicily, he 
pose of coming within distance, felt strongly that the true ints-. 
she hoisted British colours ; but rests of Italy lay rather in a con- 
previously to firing she lowered solidation than a division of her 
the British colours, and hoisted power. 

the NeapoUton. No doubt, such The Earl of Ualmesbury rei- 
a matter properly called for di- terated in plain English a plain 
plomatio oorreapondenco and ex- question which hod never yet been 
planations; but it was wholly im- answered. Was the fleet of Ad- 
proper and unbecoming to permit mirat Parker to interfere or not 
the intervention of a powerful with any expedition tliat the King 
squadron concerning it. of Naples might send against his 

The Earl of Minto corrected revolted subjects in Sicily? 

Iiord Stanley's statement. The The Marquis of Lansdowne said 

Neapolitan vessel bad hoisted Bri- he had already slated that it would 

tiah colours, not in the open sea, not be consistent with the publio 

but in the waters of Corfu, where interests to give an answer to this 

a number of Sicilian refugees question. 

were taken on board. They were Tlie general subjeot of Italian 

brought over to Naples; and, as politics, and the part taken by this 

England.] HISTORY. [169 

ootmUy, both in reference to the Italy in the preceding Batumn, 
mptare between Austria and Sar- which Mr. Disraeli deKnibed as a 
dinia, and b]bo to the revolationary " ronng mission to teach poli- 
movement among the Sicilian sub' tioa to the countij in ii4iich Ho- 
jects of the Ki^ of Naples, was ohiaTelli was bom." Itwascnrioua 
brought under the no^ce of the to compare the objects of this mia- 
House of Commons by Mr. Dis- eion with its results. Lord Minto 
raeli, a few days after the discus- was to induce Austria to abstain 
sion just reconled. The intonded from invading the Sardinian domi- 
mediation of our own Government nioua. In this ha was qnita sno- 
between the disaentieDt powers in oessful, for it was Sardinia that 
the north of Italy had been fonn- iDvaded Austria. The nest olgect 
ally annonoced by Lord Palmer- of this official mediator was to ne- 
ston, on the fltb of August, in tbo gotiste with the Pope for the poi^ 
following (erms, in answer to a pose of establishing diplomatic re- 
question addressed to him by Mr. ladons with this country. Unfop- 
Philip Howard : ~" I can assure tunately, at the very moment that 
my honourable friend," said the effect was about to be given to this 
noble Lord, "that Her Majesty's negotiation by an Act of Parlia- 
tiovemment are deeply sensible of ment, brought in with breathlesa 
the great importance of seeing a haste by the Government, the 
tenninatioD put to that unfortn- Pope ceased to exist as a temporal 
Date warfare which is now waged prince, and the measure was sns- 
in the north of Italy ; and, though pended. Probably now the bolle- 
I have, perhaps, no right to spewk tins were a little more &voarabIe, 
for other Governments, yet I may for now, just at the end of the 
assure the House that that desire Seaaion, the measure introduced 
is equally shared by the Govern- into the Hoose of Lords in Fo- 
ment of France. {Ckaart.) Her bruary was beginning to steal 
Migesty's Government are there- again into legt^stive life. The 
fore about to engage — indeed, I King of the Two Sicilies then io- 
may say are ali^dy engaged — vited Lord Uinto into his domt- 
or at all events are about to take nions. He accepted the invitation, 
steps, in coiguiiction. I trust, with and had laboured hard to support 
the Goverament.of France, to en- tbo le^Iative union between the 
deavour by amicable n^otiation to Two Sidliee. His labours ended 
bring the present warfare to an in severing tho political connexion, 
end." Not being able to profit t^ thia 
Hr. Disraeli promptly embraced experience. Lord Palmorston was 
the of^rtunity to bring this sub- now about to try his hand on a 
ject before the House of Commons mediation in Italy in conjunction 
on the motion for going into a Com- with another country. "Now, I 
mittee of Supply, on the 10th of think, "saidMr.Dieraeli,"Iambut 
August, when be re vie wed thetrans- making a Intimate inqniiy of the 
actions of the Fore^ Office in the noble Lord, if I ask him to in- 
field of Italian politics in a tone of Cimn the Committee— first, what 
lively and good-humoured sarcasm, is to be the prindpU of this medi- 
He began by some jocose re- atiou? Secondly, what is to ha 
marks upon the somewbat anoma- the nature of this mediation ? 
loua eij^dition of Lord Minto to And, thirdly, what is the end to 

170] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [B«?Ia»a. 

be attained by tlus mediation 7 principle be is going to adriae the 
la the principle to be political — Emperor of AuBtri& to Telinqoish 
to Btop efiiiBiOQ of blood? or to his dominions in Lombardj, on 
airest a state of things injurious what ground can be refiise to de- 
to British merchants? Why, there velope the idea completely, and to 
is no effusion of blood to stop, recommend his Imperial Mtyesty 
and there are no commercial to reliaquiah his whole hold on the 
interests which require defence. Venetian territory ? And how can 
Uediatiou on a political principle the noble Lord be the preacher of 
vill be an easy task: the noble the sentimental principle of na- 
Lord will be guided by the doc- tionality in Lombudy, when in the 
trines of the law of nations and North of Europe be is — as be is 
the stipulations of existing trea- bound to do— defending the inter- 
ties ; he will take down Vatul, and ests of Holland and Denmark 
look to the treaties of Paris and against inTasion, founded upon and 
Vienna; and, when he finds the justified by this reiy same prin- 
Emperor of Austria in possession ciple of nationality? How would 
and peaceable possession of the fae act if Hungary claimed media- 
domioions wliich those treaties se- tion — with its four races, the Mag- 
cured to him, and the King of yars, the Sclaves, the Germans, and 
Sardinia also in possession of the Wallachs ? I wish to learn from 
dominions which those treaties se- Her M^esty's Ministers what is to 
cured to him — when he finds, aa be the principle of that mediation 
regards these two powers, that — whether it is to be a political 
there is no principle of public law principle, founded upon the law of 
which is at all in controversy, the nations and the stipulations of 
noble Lord may shut his books, treaties; or npon this modem, 
and his mediation will be a nulli^. new-fangled, sentimental principle 
"But it was inconceivable that so of nationality, which will lead to 
able and experienced a statesman inextricable confusion, difficulty, 
could adopt a course with such an and danger? 
issue : was he going again to me- " What are the means by which 
diate on the dangerous principle the mediation is to be carried into 
with which he sometimes played — efifect? Is it to be an armed me- 
the sentimental principle of na- diation? If so — ^Austria being in 
tionality ? 3uch a course would be possession of her states, and Sar- 
fnll of difficulties. " If it be ne- dinia of hers — war not being at 
oessary, on the sentimental prin- this moment waged between the 
ciple, that Lombardy should be in two sovereigns — an armed media- 
the possession of the Lombards, tion would be an invasion; we 
and that the presence of an Aua- sbonld be securing peace by be- 
trian should not be tolerated there, ginning war. If it is only to be a 
on what ground can you justify an mediation of good offices, with 
arrangement by winch the Aus- what prospects of success shonld 
trians ore to retain the whole of we, as friends of the Emperor, ask 
Venetia, a territory as extensive as him to yield the dominions which 
Lombardy, and far more import- he bos held for three centories, 
ant? If .the noble Lord is the dis- which he baa regained by great 
ciple and preacher of the principle sacrifices, and by the great valour 
of nationality, and if upon uiat of bis troops, and which he per- 

£.i,to»<l.] HISTORY. [171 

haps nerer held nith a firmer gnup of Groinwell ; by Bolii^roke and 

thanat this moment? Walpole. But a forced and unreal 

"Ab to the end of mediation, what co-operation can lead to no results 

is to be done if Lombard; be re- but disasters. Lord Palmerston 

linqoished by Austria? Is it to tried the system — which he naa 

be given to Charles Albert, in re- not to be taunted with, for it was 

ward for his nocturnal attack on a the systsm of his predeceaaoia — in 

neighbour ; or to be erected into a 18SU-3S, under far more &voar- 

we«k independent state? Is it to able circumstances than the pra> 

beakiagdom, orarepubUc?and,if sent, in co-operation with a Sove- 

a republic, what sort of republic ? reign who, whsterer his errors, did 

A BevolutionarT republic or a Con- succeed in bridling for aeTenteen 

servative republic? a Red republic years the Jacobin tiger. Yet the 

or a White republio — a republic system then ended in the tricoloiur 

with a red cap, or a republic with fioatingoverAnoonaand Antwerp; 

a white feather? in Spanish and Portuguese inva* 

"Therealolgectoftfaemediation siona, and Grecian revolt; in South 
is one that cannot be announced — American blockades, and the trou- 
it is to prevent an invasion of bling of our commerce over all tba 
Italy by France. That is an event Atl^tic and Pacific waters. 
4a be deprecated; but is it pro- "The good coursA open to the 
bable? France has no right to Foreign E^relair," aaid Mr. Dift> 
interfere in Italy ; and in doing so raeli. " is one which his abilities, 
she would viol^e every principle knowledge, and courage fully qua- 
of public law, and eveiy Italiau lify him to adopt and succeed in — it 
treaty. It is not her interest to istheconduct which every fingUsh' 
interfere. It must be confessed man should adopt. LethimteUtha 
that our ovrn conduct with regard world that, under his counsels, 
to Naples would give France the England will maintain the princi- 
colour and pretest of a precedent, pies of international law — will ob- 
But France has not now the slight- serve the stipulations of existing 
est wish to invade Italy. Her only treaties — will not sanction any out- 
object is to force an occasion at rage of the rights of nations —will 
giving to Europe an idea that there not counsel any of her allies to 
is "cordial co-operation" between yield their legititoate interests in 
the G^onets of Paris and St. order to groti^ the morbid vanity 
James's. And the harmof this ia. of an ill-regulated society. — Then 
that these ' forced occasions of co- would Lord Palmerston earn the 
operation have always been at (he sympathy of sovereigns and the 
expense of the rights of third par- trust of suffering nations, rather 
ties and independent sovereigns, than by attempting to regulate the 
A real concert between the two world in a forced concert with the 
countries in European afl&ire is Jacobin system, which begins with 
desirable, but not novel : for more fraternity and universal chari^, 
than two-thirds of the past two and ends with assassination and 
hundred and fifty years, a cordial spoliation." 
understanding may have existed Lord Palmerston commenced his 
between the Governments : it was answer by explaining the dncum- 
saactioned by the sagacity of Eli- stances under which Lord Sfinto 
zabeth; the prudence and wisdom bad been despatched upon bis Its* 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

Itan miseioti. In the preceding 
summer, in consequence of the 
altered polky of Uie new Pope, 
principles of constitutional im- 
provement bad be^n to spread 
over the vrhole of Italj. It was 
intimated to him (Lord Palmer- 
Btoa) authentically, though not pub- 
licly, that the Roman Oovemment 
was anxious to hare a representa- 
tive of this country, possessing the 
fiiU confidence of its Government, 
to whom recourse might be had for 
advice and aseistanoe on occasions 
of difficulty. A similar wish hav- 
ing been expressed by other go- 
vemments in Italy, Lord Minto, 
being designated by the Ministry 
for this purpose, carried letters 
accrediting him to the Courts of 
Turin and Florence on a special 
mission. Hie advice was obtruded 
upon no party, but was given only 
when he was appealed to. At 
Turin, Florence, and Rome he 
had been eminently successful : 
constitutional changes had been 
brought about in those countries 
without any civil rupture or con- 
vulsion. It was, however, no part 
(tf his mission to prevent Austria 
from attaching Bfu^dtnia: but he 
had dissuaded the King of Sardinia 
from adopting offensive measures. 
He had been {brmally invited to 
Naples by the King, and had em- 
ployed his most zmIoub efforts to 
reconcile that monarch and bis 
Sicilian subjects. But drcum- 
stancee had conspired to thwart 
his success. At a critical period 
of his negotiations nevra of the 
French revolution had reached 
Palermo. Difficulties arose on the 
one side that were not met by con- 
cessions on the other. The Sici- 
lians refused to acknowledge the 
King of Naples sa tbeir Sovereign; 
he declinea to assent to the crown 
being given to one of his sons, to 

whom it was offered. The nlti- 
mate choice of another prince was 
purely and solely the act of the 
Sicilians themselves, though un- 
doubtedly the British Government, 
accepting aa they do facta and 
events, had signified their inten- 
tion to acknowledge the Sovereign 
whom the Sicilians might choose 
as he should be d» facto 

As to the 

to the joint mediation with 
France, so far from being intru- 
sive, it was made on the earnest 
application of all the parties con- 
cerned. It was at the express de- 
sire of Austria, of Sardinia, of 
Borne, and of the people of Italy. 
The Government of Austria at the 
banning bad solicited onr good 
offices, and ou two recent occa< 
sions bad renewed the application. 
It was objected that France had 
no right to intermeddle ; but there 
ooula be no question, whatever 
might be the justice of interference, 
that, ^en two nations were at war, 
it was competent to a third to take 
which side it pleased, if it chose to 
engage in the conteet. At the be- 
ginning of the late military events 
in Italy, France was strongly 
urged to give instant aid to the 
It^ian cause. It was maintained 
by Mr. Disraeli that cordial friend- 
ship with France had been, and 
eboold be, the standing role of 
this country ; though his mode of 
enforcing this doctrine was unfor- 
tunate, as he oould scarcely — of 
oourse without intention — have 
thrown more hitter ingredients or 
poisonous drugs into the caldron 
of national animositiee. Bnt it was 
a mistake to suppose that the pre- 
sent condition of France made it 
imposnble for her to take part in 
any hostile operations Oiat might 
engage the sympathies of her rulers 
and people. Let not the House 

SmfUmd.] HISTORY. [173 

imsgiiie that Bay tkui phuitam had also, a frank, lojvi, biiii«Bt, and en- 
enated oneaainess. The armed ltght«ned desire that the policy of 
iuterferenoe of France in Italy France may find itaelf in nniBon 
would be pregnant with all the with the policy of this coantry. 
dangen whioh Mr. Disraeli had (Cheen.) I must also say, that 
gn^ucally described. If France the events of the lost few months 
sent an anny to Italy, she most show the extraordinary progresa 
send another to the Rhine ; if which cirilization and enlishten- 
Geraany then rose against her, ment hara made in Europe duriag 
Bossia would rise behind her and the last half century. (Clutn.) 
foUow in her track ; and the flame The same events which have lately 
of war wonld be lighted np all over occurred on the Continent would, 
Europe. But the French Govern- if they had taken place fifty years 
meat said to us, " We are pressed ago, have involved the whole of 
to interfere by arms in the cause Europe in a war of the bitterest 
of Italy ; but we do not wish to in- nature and of long duration. Kow, 
voire our country in a war : we are we see an enlight«ned and sincere 
willing to endeavour to settle mat- desire for eitemal |>eace. The 
ters I7 mediation, if you will assist French OoTemment is anxiously, 
ua : it must be a joint effort ; that wisely, earnestly, and courageouuy 
will remove all ground of jealousy, employed ic establishing order ; it 
for no one can suppose that Eng- b working for the prosperity of 
land entertains hostile views with the French nation, and oonsolidat> 
respect to Austria ; whatever ing the liberties of that couotiy ; 
Franca and England do in con- and I think such a course of con- 
innotioD must be a work of peace ; duct does honour to the men who 
It must have the termination of are engaged in it, whatever may 
hostilities for its object : npon have been their previous opinions 
these gromnds we hope you will in- or associationB. (Clutrt.) It is im- 
terfere ooiyointly with us, and possible that two nations like Eng- 
nntil we obtain vour answer we and and France should unite to- 
will suspend our oecasion as to the gether for any purposes which can- 
adoption of other measures." Ad- not be avowed in the face of all 
dressed in such language, it would mankind. The purpose for which 
have been most blam^Ie for us they are now acting together is ona 
to reiuae to enter on a joint media- of that description ; and I trust in 
tion. It was agreed that our Heaven their efforts may be sue 
alliances with France should be ceesfhL At all events, our efibrta 
the result of events, and that oc- will be steadily and zealously di- 
easi<H» for co-operation should not reeled to that end ; and, whether 
be invented. Had the mighty con- we succeed or &tl, I am persuaded, 
Talajona at presmt agitating Europe that the deliberate judgment of 
been invented for such an occasion? Parliament and the unanimoos 
Is a co-operation under such cii^ opinion of the countrywill be, that 
onmslancea a forced alliance ? we have acted right in making the 

"There still exials," continued endeavour." (CAmti.) 

the noble Lord, "on the part of After a few words from Mr. 

those who govern Fraaoe, and, I fiankes, the discussion terminated. 

■m happy to say, on the part of The remarkable event of the 

the voa^mty of the Freitch nation abrupt dismissal of the British 

174] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. {England. 

Uinieter, Sir Henry Balwer, from bnt ceDSured hia morbid desire for 

Madrid, which bwk place in the interferingand intermeddling with 

earlT part of tbia year, excited the afiaira of other eoontries. How 

mat astonishment and remark in had this conduct advanced British 

fhia country. The Spanish Go- interests or British induence? 

vemment, actuated by a feeling of Had it done so in Portugal --where 

Strong resentment at certain ad- the Queen evaded the terms of the 

vice tendered to their Government last convention V Had it done bo 

with respect to the mode of con- in Italy — whither Lord Minto was 

dacting their domestic policy, con- sent to " ride the whirlwind and 

veyed notice in the most summary direct the storm " — where the two 

and unceremonious manner to Sir Sicilies were separated — where Na- 

Henry Bulwer, that he should be- pies refused to tolerate any but tbe 

take himself out of the country Roman Catholic religion— where 

with the least possible delay. The the Pope, the King of Sardinia, 

insult thus offered to England in and the Grand Duke of Tuscany 

the person of her ambassador pro- were eng^ed in an unprovoked 

duoed a lively eentiment of indig- aggression on a friendly power ? 

nation in this country. The mode Lord Stanley anticipated that Aua- 

of proceeding adopted by the tria would temporarily regain her 

Spanish Minister gave great of- influence, and that die Milanese 

fence, as it appeared to oe quite would have recourse for assistance, 

onwarranted by the established not to England, but to France, 

usages and courtesies of diplomacy, who would outrun England in the 

At the same time, many persons race of popularity. Irf>rd Stanley 

attributed great blame to Uie con- read the three letters of the recent 

duct of our own ambassador, or correspondence, with a running 

rather to that of Lord Falmerston, commentary, pointing out the un- 

under whose instructions be acted, becoming language of the two Eng- 

and whose policy of interference lish letters, and the mortjlying re- 

vritb the aflairs of foreign states buff which Mr. Bulwer had r»- 

vaa the real origin of this unseemly ceived from the Spanish Minister. 

quarrel. He asked whether the Order of the 

The first reference made to thie Bath had been conferred on Mr. 
Bubject in Parliament was in a Bulwer in consequence of that 
discussion brought on by Lord correspondence ? (The Marqnia of 
Stanley in the House of Lords, on I^nsdowne — " No, no.") The best 
the 0th May, upon a motion for course for a great nation to take 
the production of the correspond- would be, ta admit that the inter- 
ence between Lord Palmerston, ference was unwarranted, and to 
Mr. Bulwer, and the Duke of trttst to Castilian honour for the 
Sotomayor. Lord Stanley on this withdrawal of all that was offensive 
occasion delivered a veiy clear, in the Spanish Minister's reply, 
impressive, and temperate speech The Marquis of Lansdowne an- 
on the impolicy of intermeddling swered Lord Stanley. He es- 
with the government of foreign plained how, in the publiehed vei^ 
countries, and especially with that sion of Lord Palmeraton's letter, 
of Spain. words were omitted which left a 

Personally he avowed respect discretion to Mr. Bulwer, as to the 

and regard for Lord Palmerston, " opportnni^" of making the com- 

Bwl"J-] HISTORY. [176 

munioUion. So br as he was in- brought the subject forward, when 
formed, Lord Lansdowne thought an interesting debate took place, 
it a subject of much regret t£at Lord Stanley said he was now 
Mr. Bulwer hod chosen to make Batiafiedthatthepoblicationofthese 
his commomcation in the precise despatches had not occurred by the 
terms of the despatch. But it ttssietance or with the knowledge 
should be remembered, that Mr. of Mr. Bulwer; and he thought 
Bulwer was intimatel; acquainted the Duke of Sotomayor himself 
with the state of Spain, and that must lutTe become satisfied on 
the communication wag made to a that point In the authentic docu- 
Oovemment which had repeatedly menta lately given, Lord Palmer- 
asked advice and assistance from aton's despatch commenced thus — 
this country. " Sir, I have to instruct you to re- 
. Lord Lansdowne took the op- commend earnestly to the Spanish 
portunity of explaining a circnm- Government, and to the Queen- 
stance not alluded to by Lord Mother, if yon have an opportuni^ 
Stanley, in connexion with the re- of doing so, the adopUon of a legal 
cent departure of the Duke and and constitutional course of go- 
Duchess of Montpensier from Eng- vemment in Spain." Now, Uie 
land. A rumour had been in- "opportunity of^ doing so" dearly 
dustrioosly circulated that soma applied to the Queen-Mother ; and 
disreepecthadbeenahown to them. Lord Pal merston's instinctiona to 
That was not the fact. The Duke Mr. Bulwer were to recommend a 
and Dncheaa had called at Bucking- certain course to the Spanish Gto- 
ham Palace to bid the Queen adieu ; vemment. and to the Queen- 
but they had omitted the usual Mother also, if be had an oppratu- 
etiqnette observed on the occasion nity of doing so. In transmitting 
of all royal visits, and had not pre- a copy of the despatch to the 
viously intimated their intention. Spanish GoTcmment, Mr. Bulwer 
The Queen was desirous to have appeared to have omitted the pas- 
the presence of Prince Albert and sa^ applying to the Queen- 
Lora Palmerston on such an occo- Mother, and had given to the 
sion: Lord Palmerston was sent Spanish Oovemment, with or with- 
for ; but he was from home. out opportunity, the views of the 

Lord Brougham, in a short Britisb Government. This, bow- 
speech, excused Lord Palmerston, ever, was a minor point, and he 
but strongly blamed the indiscre- did not attach to it me importance 
tion of Mr. Bulwer for the time and that Iiord Lansdowne had done, 
manner of fais communication to A far more important point was 
the Spanish Minister. He sug- the agreement of opinion between 
gested that the honorary distinc- the British Minister and the 
tion lately oonferred on Mr. Bulwer, Secretory of Slate for Foreign 
would have been better postponed Ai&iirs, on the one hand, and the 
till a fitter season. wide and inexplicable difierence of 

Lord Lansdowne having inti- opinion which appeared to exist 

mated that the papers would be between the Secretary of State for 

produced. Lord Stanley withdrew Foreign Affiurs and bis colleagues 

his motion ; but, upon the corre- in the Government. Lord I^ns- 

spondenoe being shortly afterwards downe had treated the despatch as 

laid before the House, ha tgua an indefensible one to a foreign 

176] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [England. 

softer, and had deemed it a privaU deepatchof the 11th inBtant, with 
letter not intended to be shown, its encloeures ; and I have to in- 
" Lamented" was the word Lord struct ;ou to stat« to the Duke of 
Lansdowne had need in comment- Botomajor that Her Mf^eetj'a Go- 
ing on Mr. Bulwer's conduct It verament entirely approve the atep 
now appeared that the conduct which you took in making your 
which Lord Lansdowiie as a British communication of the Ttb instant. 
Minister "lamented," the Score- and likewise of joux note of the 
tary for Foreign Afbirs, on the 13th." 

&oe of the documents since pub- In the same letter. Lord Falmer- 
lished, had formallj and entirely ston went on to saj, that Her 
a^roved, in the name of the Go- Mqes^ b OoTemment were not 
Temment. Ur. Bulwer's first at all offended either at the re- 
despatch to the Duke de Soto- tumof Mr. Bulwer's note or at the 
major was dated on the 7th of tone of the Duke of Sotomayor's 
April, and on the 19th Lord Pa2- letter. The Christian foi^veneea 
mereton wrote to Mr. Bulwer— and meekness here exhibited might 
" With reference to your despatch be vevy prabeworthj on the part 
of the 10th instant, I have to in- of a prinite individual, but they 
form you that Her Majesty's Go- werewhollyunwortbyofthedignity 
Temment approve the language of the great power of which I^ord 
which you held to Queen Christina Palmerston was the Minister. The 
on the 1th instant, pointing out to noble Viscount had in the most ex- 
her Majesty the importance of go- pljcit manner conveyed his sanc- 
Toming Spain by constitutional tion of Mr. Bulwer's proceedings ; 
means ; and that Her M^esty's and yet, when the despatches were 
Govenunent likewise approve of returned, the noble Lord wrote to 
the note which you addressed on tell Mr. Bulwer that he was "not 
the Tth instant to the Spanish at all oEFended " at what the 
Minister for Foreign Afifoirs, offer- Spanish Government had done. 
in^ aimilar counsel to the present This was the most absurd tenninar 
MinisteiB of Her Catholic M^esty." tion to the most inconceivably im- 
Lord Stanley left it to the noble prudent step that he had ever 
Mu^uia to explain the diaorepancy heard of. The noble Viscount was 
which ezistea between the noble not offended at his despatches 
Viscount, who spoke in the name being returned In himl In a space 
of his colleagues in this despatch, of twenty-nine lines the noble 
and the noble Marquis, who an- Viscount supposed oases which 
peared to speak in the name of his had not occurred between Spain 
oolleoguea on the present occasion, and England; and, instead of 
But, in addition to this, there was taking the course which such an 
RnoUier letter of Lord Falmerslon insulting return of his despatch 
now published — the most extraor- demanded, the noble Visoount con- 
dinary one it had ever been Lord eluded by reminding the Spanish 
Stanley's fortune to read. It was Minister for Foreign Afiiurs, that 
vriitsB on receipt of the Duke of under certain drcumstanoes, and 
Botomajor's despatch of the 10th, unless Great Britain had inter- 
ud began thus — fered to maintain the present 
" Fon^ Office, AprU », 1B48. Queen of Spain upon the throne, 
"Sir,— I have received your the Minister of Foreign A£&irs 




in tbat coootTy might himself have 
been a proscribed exile in a. foreign 
country. This stroke of generositj, 
he admitted, he bad reeid with the 
greateet regret. He saw no pro- 
spect of B, satis&otory issue on the 
part of the noble Viscount to a 
correspondence so conducted. He 
believed it to be his duty to call 
their Lordships' attenti«) to the 
laota ai they existed on the face of 
the documents Isid before Parlia- 
ment; and he thought their Lord- 
ships bad a right to know whether 
the course and conduct of Mr. 
Bolwer, in presenting this note, 
were considered, as appeared by the 
statement of the noble Marquis 
the other night, an imprudent 
coarse by her Majesty's Govern- 
ment, or whether the noble Vis- 
count was justified in stating that 
it had the entire and cordial ap- 
proval of his colleagues. 

The Marquis of Luisdowne said 
that the construction put upon the 
iMiguage he had used on the 
former occasion was hardly a fair 
one. Judging of the case in thi$ 
country, he had certainly regretted 
the communication ; but he had 
particularly stated his confidence 
that Mr. Bulwer, with hie know- 
ledge of the country in which bo 
resided, and his talents for public 
business, had had reasons which 
made the course he took impera- 
tive on him. Unless Mr. Bulwer 
had been afterwards instmcted to 
state the approbedon of bis con- 
duct by hia chief, it would have 
been equal to aa expression of dis- 
apIffDbatioD, and his recall mast 
have followed ; a step which the Mi- 
nbters were not prepared to take, 
especially considering the language 
of the Duke of Sotomayor's des- 
patch. However, Lord I^ns- 
downe was happy to say that an 
amicaUe spirit, had since ari3en 

Vol. XC. 

between the parties, owing to the 
conciliatory conduct which Mr. Bul- 
wer had pursued. Hia recall was 
not demanded ; and a renewal of 
the coDtroverBy among their Lord- 
ships would only end in unneces- 
sary imputations. 

The Earl of Aberdeen agreed 
that it would have been most ud- 
juat to recall Mr. Bulwer : for he 
had certainly acted accordii^ to 
the spirit of hia instmciions. 

It was said that approbation of 
Mr. Bulwer was necessarily con* 
veyed to him in order that the 
Duke of Sotomayor should have 
no triumph. But the approbation 

Duke's despatch; so the excosa 
had no application. 

He (Ijord Aberdeen) heard with 
peculiar satisfaction that amicable 
relations were renewed; but he 
concurred in Lord Stanley's oen- 
sures. " I was curious upon the 
point when I saw these papers ; 
and. although I fully expected to 
hear tbat the renewal of friendly 
communications had been brought 
about, I certainly could not have 
anticipated that it would have 
taken place in the manner in 
which it appears by tbese papers 
to have occurred. For your Lord- 
ships are perhaps scarcely aware 
how perfectly unprecedented a pro- 
ceeding this is which has taken 
place. I have had some experience 
in these matters. I h^ve bad cor- 
respondence, occasionally more or 
less angry, with foreign Govern- 
ments, though not very often; but 
tbat a despatch of a British 
Secretary of State should be re- 
turned by the Minister of a foreign 
Government as unfit to be retained 
or received, appears to me lo be a 
thing quite unexampled. I never 
could have supposed that such a 

178] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEn^h^nd. 

thing waa poeaibls. Not only in imperious temper — to propose to 

mj experieoce have I never beard him to transfer the gOTemment to 

of such a thing, but I will venture perwns who were at that moment 

to sa^ that this is the firat time a aotuallj under an accusation of 

British Miaist«r ever suffered such attempting a revolution in the 

mu indignity." ata.te — seemed to be an act so ill 

Lord Aberdeen condemned, as advised that it could only be re- 
being indelicat« and in bad taste, ceived as it has been. Nobody 
the allusion, in Mr. Bulwer's let- would have dreamt some time s^ 
ter, to the unfortunate King of the that a successful opposition could 
French and his family,within a fort- have been made in Spain to revo- 
night after his arrivu in this oouQ- luttonaiy attempts; but, such hav- 
try, and tlie holding him up as a iiig been made, it was the interest 
warning to the Spanish Govern- as well as the duty of Great Britain 
ment. to give the Government every sup- 

The course taken in regard to port in its power, instead of getting 
the Spanish Prime Minister was up miaerable quarrels about more 
most inopportune, and unlikely to or less infusion of Liberal persons 
produce a sood effect. Unfortu- into that Government 
iwtely, in tne case of Spain, ever Lord Brougham closed the de- 
aince the correspondence took place bate by a few remarks. He sug- 
which had been produced some gested that amity between the 
time ago, in which the Spanish nations would be best promoted, if 
Government was alluded to in no such discussions as the present 
Tory measured terms, there had were abstained from, 
existed a feeling of suspicion and In the House of Commons, the 
hostility on their part which pre- some subject was debated on the 
vented them from receiving any 6th of June, being introduced by 
kind of advice from this country, Mr. George Bonkes, who moved, 
however salutary, without a certain pursuant to notice, the following 
degree of reluctance. The exist- resolution: — 
ence of this feeling was well " That this House learns with 
known ; and this made it only the deep regret, from a correspondence 
more necessary, if we wished to between the British Goverament 
act with them in a friendlv man- and the Government of Spain, now 
ner, to approach them with all upon the table of thb House, that 
that care, delicacy, and prepora- a proposed interference with the 
tion, which might render it pes- internal concerns of the Spanish 
sible to do away with that sus- Government, as conducted under 
picion and hostility. But, made the authority and with the entire 
as that communication was, it al- approval of Her M^esty's Mi- 
most appeared to him (Lord Aber- nistera, has placed the British 
deen) that, if not made purposely Government, and our representor 
with the view of its not being tive at the Court of Madrid, in a 
accepted, it must have been position humiliating in its cha- 
made without the shadow of a locter, and which is calculated to 
hope that it would be accepted, affect the friendly relations here- 
To propose to such a Minister — tofore existing between the Courta 
who, whatever his merits might of Great Britain and of Spain." 
' be, was known to possess a most In the remarks with which he 

Enghmd.] HISTORY. [179 

prefaced hia motion, Mr. Bankes aoj reepect exceeded them. The 
called attention, first, to the sin- Spanish OoTernment, however, 
gular circumstance that, for the had exceeded its dutf when it not 
first time in our bistory. a British only rejected the despatches of Sir 
Minister had been expelled from H. Bulwer, but also directed him 
the Conrt to which he had been to leave the capital within forty- 
accredited, and had been com- eight hours. He then criticized 
pelled to leave the country within the celebrated letter communicated 
a very limited time; and, next, to by Sir H. Bulwer to the Duke de 
the still more singular drcum- Sotomayor, contending that it was 
stance, that the British Govern- an un<^led-for interference with 
meot had hitherto observed the the afbira of a foreign Oovem- 
most complaisant silence there- ment, which no Government calling 
opon. He therefore felt it to be itself independent could vtewwitii- 
hi3 duty to call on the Govern- out indignation, and which, in his 
ment to give explanations, which opinion, was certain to disturb the 
it had hitherto withheld from the ties of friendship which had so 
House, on this subject. He hoped long existed between England and 
that Lord Palmerslon would see Spain. He could not permit that 
tbat the opportunity now given letter, and the other papers by 
him for vindicating the conduct of which it was accompanied, to re- 
the British Government and its main on the table of the House, 
ambassador was not too late. Pre- either with the approbation of Far- 
pared as he was to join with Her liament, or without a severe corn- 
Majesty's Ministers to demand ment upon them. He expressed 
reparation from the country which the deepest regret that those 
haid insulted and iigured us, be papers existed; and he believed 
thought that he should do this that every Member in the House 
cause good by admitting the ehared in that regret He then 
grievous error committed by the entered into a veiy minute ex- 
British Cabinet in tiie first in- amination of them, contending 
stance. It was essen^al that that they had been very cautiously 
Parliament should know whether and cleverly selected for Lord 
the charges brought against Sir Palmerston's purposes ; that they 
H. Bulwer, in the papers already consisted of mere extracts, not 
presented to it, were the only from the despatches of foreign 
charges to be preferred against him. ministers, but from the despatches 
If there were nothing more against of our own; and that they were 
Sir H. Bulwer than the chaises filled with extracts from foreign 
preferred in these papers, then, newspapers, which were not worth 
though he must admit that they the paper on which they were 
arose out of the most unhappy written. He conceived that they 
diplomacy of Lord Palmerston, he were laid before Parliament for 
certainly conld not admit that they the mere purpose of delay, and for 
afforded any justification fbr the the sake of mystifying instead of 
expulsion of our ambassador. He elucidating all the points at issue. 
lamented that the instructions sent He then maintained that the laa- 
out to Sir H. Bulwer had led to guage in which liord Palmerston 
such results; but he could not had pressed adoption of a legal 
allow that Sir H. Bulwer had in and consdtotional course upon tiie 


180] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Englattd. 

Queen-Motber, and the Spanish circulated the caluranj that Sir H. 
Oovernment vtas bo rude and in- Bulner bad been abandoned for 
Bolting that bis Lardship could his conduct by the British Govern- 
not have adopted, if he baa wished, ment. Lord FalmerBton would 
a more certain method of defeating rather give his office to the winds 
his own ot^ect. He contrasted than treat Sir H. Bulwer in that 
that insulting tone with the con- manner. Mr. Sbiel concluded bj 
ciliUory language addressed hj pronouncing a. warm and eloquent 
Lord Palmerston's ancestor, SirW. panegyric upon the Foreign Mi- 
Temple, to one of our own ambae- niqter for the enlightened and 
Bodot^ in the reign of Cbarles Tl., liberal spirit which characterised 
who bad to make a. similar com- bis policy, 
municalion in his day to a foreign Lord Mahon admitted that, usder 

giwer. Ou the other hand, Mr. the circumstances stated by Mr. 
anks ui^ed that the conduct of Shiel, Lord Palmerston bad a 
Sir H.Bulwer required no defence, right to tender bis advice to the 
He bad neither exceeded nor fallen Government of Spain; but he 
short of bis instructions; but it could not concur in the scope of 
was impossible to deny that, as that advice, or the terms in which 
the instructions given to him in it had been conveyed. The papers 
the first instance were the cause on the table at present were 
of all the miaunderstanding, we too incomplete to eoable a matare 
ought to admit oar error in that judgment to be formed with re- 
respect before we vindicated the spect to the position in which this 
insult which had been inflicted on country was placed towards Spain. 
Ibis country by the expulsion of So far as those papers went, 
our Minister. He thought there there was not in them even the 
would be no difficulty in auch a ebadow of a justification for the 
course, especially as Lord J. Rub- dismissal by tbe Spanish Oorem- 
sell and Lord Palmerston had both ment of tie ambassador of a 
belonged to Earl Grey's Ooveni- friendly power, to whom they were 
meat, which took office on the indebted so deeply for co-operation 
three principles of reform, re- and moral influence. He oould 
trenchment, and non-interference not concur in the resolution of Ur. 
with the aSaira of foreign states. Bankes, regarding it as a vote of 
Mr. Shiel, in a speech of con- censure upon the Government, the 
uderable length and ability, vin- consequenoee of which he was not 
dicat^ Lord Palmerston's inter- prepared to incur at the present 
vention in the o&irs of Spain, time. 

which he described as being neces- Lord John Buasell, after oom- 

saiy to prevent eveiy vestige of plimenting Lord M^on on the 

freedom from being swept away in candour with which he had spokeo, 

that country. The Spanish Go- thought that his Lordship would 

vemment, forgetting the benefits, admit that one Government was 

or rather resenting the obligations, at liberty and might even be bound 

that it had received from Lord to give its advice to another on its 

Palmerston, put upon him a oon- internal afjairs, provided its advice 

tumely which could not humiliate was tendered in friendly language, 

him, though it might be disgraceful It was but recently that the Mini- 

to them. They had, moreover, sterof the Queen of ^>ain bad felt 

£i^««t] HISTORY. [181 

himBelfboundtoiDipFessontheGo- FalmenloD, tbe English Oovem- 
TemmeatoftheKiugofNEipleBthe ment had to oonsider whether he 
neceeshf of displajiitg clemenc}' b&d acted properly in preseiiUng it. 
after the sueoesseB which he had It was their unanimone conclusion 
gained over his insurgent Gulgects. that he had done so. It would 
The same advice had been given at have been a gross ahandonment of 
the same time by the Minister of chanuter if the Oovemment had 
England, and jet it bad never oc- taken a technical Advantage of Sir 
Guired to the Minister of Naples H. Bulwer, and had eaid, "Yon 
to say that their interference was had no instructions to deliver that 
ui^DBtifiable unless they intended note; and, as you have done so 
that he should also interfere with without authority, we disavow you 
the Governments of Spain and and your proceedings." The Go- 
England. Jjord J. Russell then vemment, therefore, willingly in- 
explained , in terms similar to those curred the whole responsibiUty for 
employed by Mr. Shiel. the peeuliar Sir K. Bulwer'e conduct, and now 
reasons which justified England in stood before the House to justify 
givingadtioetotheQueenaf Spain, its policy; to be acquitted, if the 
The events of the present year Honee ^eaaed to acquit it — to be 
had been extraordinary. There censured, if the House pleased to 
was no country which could be censure it — but not denying or 
considered safe from those con- evading the responsibility properly 
vnlsions which had upset thrones, belonging to it. Lord J. Russell 
destmyed constittitioQa, and placed then proceeded to refute the argu- 
large cafMtala in the ppwer of vio- ment that Lord Palmerston should 
l^it mote; and, under such cir- have resented most deeply, and in 
Gomstancea, how could the fate of the most pompous terms, the dis- 
Spata £ail to attract painfully the courtesy of the Spanish Govem- 
attention of Lord Falmeraton? ment in rqeclins his despatch. He 
He then recapitulated the circum- thought that his Lordship had done 
stances under which Lord Palmer- better in explaining that what we 
Bton had written his celebrated had done was done in a friendly 
despatch of March last, and pro- spirit; and that, if Spain chose to 
ceeded to justify the advice which be angry, we did not intend to 
his Lordship had given the Queen be offended. He censured Mr. 
of Spain to form an Administration Bankes not only for asking for 
out of the two great factions into further information whilst nego- 
which the country was divided, as tiations were going on, but also 
the best means of supporting her for moving a vote of oensure on 
throne against all parties. Havine Ministers at present; for he was 
received hia instructions from Lord quite convinced that, if the House 
Palmerelon, Sir H. Bulwer saw were now to adopt such a vote, it 
with alarm a law passed at Madrid would weaken the powers of the 
suspending all the privileges of Queen's represuitatives, whoever 
the Constitution, and also saw all they might be, in drananding re- 
the leading Progreesislas seized paraiion from the Spanish Govem- 
and imprisoned vrithont even the ment. With regard to our rela> 
form of^ a trial. Under such cir- tious with Spain, he admitted that 
cnmstances, after Sir H. Bulwer they were peculiar and delicate; 
had presented to the Spanish hut, considering our power and 
GqvfdmmBnt the note of Lord the weakness of Spun, he thought 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. iEngland. 

that ve were bound to treat her 
with the utmost forbearanco. He 
regretted the violent and peremp- 
tory step tAken by the Spanish 
Government towards Sir H. Bui- 
wer, for which he could see no 
iustificaticin ; but he assured the 
House that, whilst the destinies of 
Spain were placed in hands want- 
ing in temper, discretion, and re- 
gard for a generous ally, he would 
not forget that the interests of the 
Queen of Spain and of the gallant 
Spanish nation ought to be re- 
garded, for the Bak4 of old recol- 
lections, with feelings of friend- 
ship and amity on our part. 

Mr. Disraeli considered that a 
gross insult had been inflicted on 
the dignity of the Queen and the 
British Government, and asked 
why a full satisfaction had not been 
exacted from the ofiendiug Court, 
The House knew from the Spanish 
Government the reasons which had 
induced it to dismiss Sir H Bul- 
wer from Madrid. Would any man 
venture to affirm that they formed 
a saljs&ctory justification for so 
unparalleled an outr^e? We were 
powerful enough to submit to in- 
sult for a time, provided it was 
clear that an apology would ulti- 
mately be offered ; but had the 
Spanish Goverument shown any 
readiness to apologize for the great 
and unparalleled insult which 
it had offered to tho Grown and 
Ministry of Great Britain? No- 
thing like it. After all the delay 
which had taken place in the pro- 
duction of these papers, be believed 
that the Spanish Government had 
no other charge to prefer against 
Sir H. Bolwer than those ridi- 
culous accusations which appeared 
in them ; and, if so. next to the 
outr^ which it had committed 
against us in dismissing Sir H. 
Bulwer was the outrage of daring 
to send an envoy to explfdn it. If r. 

Disraeli then entered into a long 
examination of the foreign policy 
of which Lord Palmerston had been 
the exponent, for the purpose of 
showing that it had laid the seeds 
of infinite confusion in every 
country with which he, a partizan 
of noQ-int«nrention, had interfered. 
Of late years the plot had thick- 
ened, and our foreign policy had 
been directed to finding not merely 
constitutions for the acceptance of 
independent states, but statesmen 
to superintend their administra- 
tion. The expulsion of the Eng- 
lish Minister from Madrid was the 
result of that pernicious system of 
Liberalism which had prevailed so 
long in that House; and, as a 
check upon it, it was their first 
duty to express their sense of the 
unparalleled outrage committed 
against the dignity of the Sove- 
reign; their next, not to allow a 
diplomatic servant of the country 
to be made a scapegoat for Miuis- 
tera ; and their third, to show that 
this was not an attack on an indi- 
vidual Minister, but on a system 
which he bad too long been forced 
to develope, but from which he 
had departed in 1840, in obedi- 
ence to the dictates of his own 
genius, and had so conferred great 
benefits on his coontiy. 

Sir R. Inglb condemned the 
dismissal of Sir H. Bulwer from 
Madrid by the Spanish Govern- 
ment as an unparalleled outr^e 
on the dignity of Great Britain, 
and, at the same time, considered 
the interference of Lord Palmer- 
ston in the aSairs of Spain as very 

Sir R. Peel had heard with the 
greatest SBtisfaction the determi- 
nation of Government to adopt 
the conduct of Sir H. Bulwer 
as their own, and to assume the 
full responsibility of it It was 
but Just that they should do 90; 

ZngUHd.} HISTORY. [183 

one of the causes alleged for tfae caose he was imwilliog to place oa 
removal of Sir H. Bulwer from record that hta country was in a 
Madrid by the Bpaniah Govern' homiliating position. He also 
ment was that public opinion was thought that the time of bringing 
B*eiBe to faim, uot only in Spain it forward was premature ; for, 3 
but also in England. He then the House needs most express an 
alated that Sir H. Bulwer had opinion upon it, it would be better 
been placed in his diplomatic aitua- to wait until the whole drama was 
tion in Spain by the Earl of Aber- before it, and not to condemn the 
deen, not from any political pre- first act without knowing how it 
dilection or connexion, but from a might work upon the diwu«mMU. 
convictioD of his superior skill and Because he Uiought the penalty 
ability. Ixwking at these des' now proposed to be inflicted too 
patches, he saw no ground for find* heavy for the ofTence, because it 
u^ foult with his conduct at Ma- was unwise for the House of Com- 
drid. The question then aroBCf mona to declare its own humilia* 
bow the House was to dispose of tion, because such a declaration 
this motion. Mr. Disraeli had would paralyse the arm of the 
stated that there were three ob- Government, and would lead the 
jects for which it had been brought Spanish Government to enter- 
forward ; the first to manifest the tun false expectations of sup- 
intention of the House to exempt port irom that House, he should 
Sir H. Bulwer from blame; se- give on this occasion a vote 
oondly, to maintain the honoiu: of which, tiiough it would not im- 
England, which hod been out- ply censure on the Government, 
ra^d by Spain; and, thirdly, not would enable the House to go 
to condemn Lord Palmerston, but without delay into a Committee of 
that system by which Liberalism Supply. 

had been made triumphant. Now, Lord Palmerston, after showing 

the resolution then before the the inexpediency of the motion at 

Boose would not allow any of the present time, as affirmii^ the 

those three objects to be aocom- hnmiliation of the country, pro- 

plished, as he showed at consider- ceeded to declare that he and he 

able length. Though he could alone was responsible for the com- 

not concur in the resolution of Mr. munication of his approbation to 

fionkes, which was a vole of con* Sir H. Bulwer as an agent in the 

sure on the Government, he must department over which he had the 

not be considered as giving bis honour to preside, and that, if any 

foil approbation to the conduct of person were censurable for that 

Lord Palmerston. He did not approbation, upon him, and upon 

object to his Lordship's giving ad- him alone, that censure ought to 

vice to the Spanish Government, fall. But he contended, that no 

but to his mode of giving it. There censure ought to &11 even upon 

was an assumption of superiority him, for Sir H. Bulwer had, in bis 

inhiadespaUhwhichwascalculated opinion, behaved admirably, and 

to give ofi'ence to a proud nation he bad felt it to be his duly to 

like that of Spain. It contained a communicato to him that opinion. 

reeordatio which was veiy like an At the same time, he most say that 

exprobatio be7t«ficii, and which his (Lord Palmsreton's) despatoh 

ought to have been avoided. He of the 16th of March was not writ* 

olg^cted, however, to the vote, be- ten to be communicated to the 

184] ANNUAL REGISTER, 184.8. [E«vfi»««n 

Bpanieh Government. It was attempted to address the Heuse, 
hardly oecessar; for him. after the but the clamour and interruption 
epeech oF Sir R. Peel, to Justify ware bo great aa to prevent his ob- 
hiraeetf for having tendered the taining a hearing. Mr. Baakes, in 
advice of the British Oovemment reply, said that his object was at- 
to the Queen of Spain ; but, as Sir tained by the discussion which had 
Bobert had found fault with the been elicited, and allowed his re- 
mode of conveying that advice, he solution to be negatired iritbont a 
thought it right to say that, when division. 

the Queen of Spain VB3 endeavour- On the 30th of August, Mr. 

ing to establish in that country Disraeli revievied the transactions 

the despotism which England had of the expiring Session in a speech 

assisted her in overthrowing, vre distinguished by his usual caustic 

had a right, arising out of the humour and felicitous illustration, 

treaty by which we guaranteed her in which he rallied the Govern- 

crown, to give our advice in the ment in a most entertaining man- 

mostexplicittenns. Inwritingthe ner upon the abortive results of 

despatch of the 16th of March he their measures, and dwelt with 

did no more than the British Go- peculiar effect on the ioooneisten- 

vemment had a right to do ; and. cies of their financial policy. He 

when Sir R. Peel asserted that that began by some obeervations on the 

despatch was not calculated to con- unexampled length of the present 

ciliate or persuade, his (Lord Pal- Session. After having sat now 

marston's) reply was that it was for nearly ten months, Parliament 

a confidential despatch, not in> was about to be prorogued with a 

tended for communication to the Tsst numberof importantBills not 

Spanish Oovemment. He then only not passed, but also veiy little 

vindicated himself with great force advanced. One of the most plau- 

snd ability from the attacks of Mr. sible reasons assigned for that tin- 

Bankes. and, after adverting to satisfactory state of a&irs was, 

the dismissal of Sir H. Bnlwer that our system of government was 

from Madrid, observed that com- inadequate to pass those measures 

munications were now going on which were required for the public 

with the Spanish Govemnent as welfare, or, in other words, that 

to their reasons for sendingthat there was too mnch discussion and 

gentleman his passports. When too much talk in the House of 

Uie communications — for he could Commons. Another reason as- 

not call them negotiations— were signed for it was that the forms of 

concluded, he would communicate the House wera so cumbersome 

to Parliament the correspondence; and antiquated as to offer a great 

but, whilst they were in progress, it obstacle to the efficient and speedy 

was impossible for him consistently transaction of public business. He 

with public doty U> reveal what believed that this was the feeling 

had passed, or to state their precise of the Government, and, as a proof 

nature. of the oorrectness of his belief, 

> Mr. Hume expressed his opinion quoted a newspaper paragraph, at^ 

that both Sir H. Bnlwer and Lord tributing the postponement of the 

Pajroerston had been fully justified Ministerial whitebait dinner to the 

intheconductpnrsuedbytbem.and "vexatious discussions" in the 

he recommended Mr. Bankes to House of Commons. He denied 

snthdrawhisMoticak Ur.Urquhart that therewasauyjustifiableGMise 

[] HISTORY. [186 

for sUribnting to either of these ing of the Hooae, after heanogtlMt 
two cauees the fact Uiat the Legisla- budget, vim one of ooosiderable 
tore, after having aat for nearly dissatisfaction; and, in the country, 
ten months, had done very little, a menagerie before feeding-time 
and that veiy little not very well, could alone give an idea of the 
and he referred to the report of the unearthly yell with which it was 
Committee on Public Business to received. On the S 1st of February, 
show how much of the time of the with the view of lulling the storm. 
Session had been occupied by the the Minister proposed the imme- 
employment of Members in Public diate reference of the Array, Navy, 
Committees, in Election Commit- and Ordnance Eatimates to a Select 
tees, in Railway Committees, and Committee, and of the Miscellsno- 
it) Committees on PrivatoBusiness. ous Estimates to a similar ordeal. 
Mr. Disraeli, having finished his On the SSth of February, as the 
etatement upon that point, pro- storm was still raging, and Mr. 
ceeded to call die attention of the Home had given notice of a mo- 
House to the circumstances under don for the reduction of expendi- 
which this Parliament had assem- ture, the Chancellor of the £x> 
bled. There was then buniae in chequer came down and presented 
Ireland, and commerdal distress in the House with another budget. 

but be thought that no man would diture and income to a balance 
contend that, when the House met without doubling the Income Tar. 
in November last, there was too On the SOth of June, in tlie midst 
much discDssion on those subjects, of a Colonial debate, the Chan- 
He contended that the motion of cellor of the Exchequer suddenly 
Mr. Berries on the management threw a third budget on the table 
and constitution of the Itank of of the House. They had, then, 
England, and on the conduct of three budgets between the 16th of 
HeFMiyesty'sMinistersduringthe Februaty and the period to which 
criais of October, was neither of an be had traced the proceedings of 
intnudve nor of an impertinent the Seeaion, and yet they did not 
chainctor. After alluding to the advance one jot All this time, the 
' unsatisfactory result of the Parlia- Estimates were before the Select 
mentory discussions on banking, Committees up-stairs, which were 
and expressing his belief that really Select Committees of Supply: 
sounder principles could only bo and Ministers could do nothing but 
established by another pressure obtain a vote on confidence to pay 
and another panic, he referred to wages or dividends. They bad been 
the discussions in the House on the treated with the greatest forbear- 
financial question. On the 18th of anoe and indulgence; yet, from the 
Februaiy, the first financial state- 18th of February to the 80th of 
ment was made to the House, not June, all they did was to produce 
bytheChanceilorof the Exchequer, three financial projects, all of which 
but by the Premier himself. The were inefficient The Estimates 
country was to be defended as well did not come down to the House till 
as the taxes to be paid. There August; by which delay. Members 
was to be an increase, not only of were deprived of their conatitu- 
the Miscellaneous, but also of the tional privilege of discussing and 
Military Estimates, and thelncome criticizing the Supply. "We have 
Tax was to be doubled. The fe^ had three budgeta, two CcnsmiU^ 

186] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [KngUmd. 

and BIZ months and a half wasted pelted. The viUagers, like the 
br this Admiuistratioa — these men Opposition, were drawn out to re- 
of boBinese — who were to give us a ceive him ; and Cerrantes tells us 
satisfectiMT financial exposition that, although they were aware of 
earl; in f«bniary ; and the Prime his weakness, they treated him 
Minister, with that almost sublime with respect. (Great laughur.) 
coolness which characterizes him, His immediate friends, the Barber, 
announced, late in July, that his the Curate, and the Bachelor 
right honourable friend the Chan- Sampson Carrasco — whose places 
cellor of the Escbequer would take might be supplied in this House 
an opportunity, before the House by the First Lord of the Treasury, 
separated, of making another finan- the Secretary of State for Foreign 
cial s(at«ment. Well, sir, we had Aflairs, and the President of t&e 
at last the fourth budget. We had Board of Trade — were assembled; 
some time ago the Government of and with demure reverence and 
all the talents; this is the Govern- feignedsympatbyUiey greeted him, 
ment of all the budgets. Alas for broken in spirit, and about for 
this fourth budgetl it came late, ever to renounce those delightful 
and at a moment when we wanted illuaionsnnderwhich he had sallied 
glad tidings; but, unfortunately, it forth so triumphantly: but, just at 
was not characterized by the sunny this moment, when everything was 
aspect which was desired by its in the best taste, Sancho's wife 
proposers. I shall never forget the rushee forward and exclaims, 
scene. It was a very dreary me> ' Never mind your kicks and cuffs, 
ment. There was a very thin so you 've brought home some 
House — the thinnest, I suppose, money.' (Much laughter.) Bat 
that ever attended a ceremony so that is jnat the thing that the 
interesting to every country, and Chancellor of the Exchequer has 
especially to a commercial and n"t brought. Such was the end of 
financial country like England. I the fourth and final expedition, 
oeversaw a budget brought forward and such is the result of the fourth 
before an atteudance so gloomy and and final budget. The Chancellor 
80 small. I was irresistibly re- oftbe Exchequer, duiing the whole 
minded of a celebrated character. Session, haa been bringing home ' 
who, like the Chancellor of the barbers' basina instead of kuigfatly 
Exchequer, had four trials in hia helms; and at the last moment, 
time, and his last was his most un- true to his nature, to his vocation, 
successful. I mean the great hero and to his career,he finds instead of 
of Cervantes, when he returned a surplus a deficiency, and, instead 
from his fourth and final espedl* of reducing taxation, he commemo- 
tion. The great spirit of Quixote rates his second year of finance by 
had subsided; all that aally of a second loan. Now, I ask honour- 
financial chivalry which cut us able gentlemen to cast their eyes 
down at the beginning of the Ses- over the period 1 have sketched, 
sion, and which trampled and can- from the 1 8th of Februaiy to the 
tored over us in the middle, was 35th of August —over the three 
gone. Honour^le gentlemen will budgets, the unconstitutiona] Oom- 
remember the chapter to which I mittees on the Estimates, and the 
refer, which describes the period fourth and final budget — and then 
when the kni^ht'a delusions on the I ask the House and the oomitiy 
Butgeot of chivalry were to be dis- with confidence for tbeii verdict, 

Englamt.] HISTORY. [187 

that irhataver time has been intstecl, of June, involving a departure from 
whatever delay has taken place, the principles of that Act, and the 
has not been attributable to the twenty-three arithmetical blunders 
discussions of Members, or to the detected in that Bill b; the pene- 
forms of the House." tration of Lord Geoi^e Bentinck. 
Mr. Disraeli proceeded in a The Bill was then withdrawn ; a so- 
similar manner to show that it was cond Bill was introduced, in which 
not the foalt of the House if they the twenty-three blunders were 
had notobeyed Her M^esty'a com- dealt with ; seven were corrected, 
mands, first, in passing measures but two new blunders were created, 
for promoting the health of the me- The sooondBill was also withdrawn, 
tropolis ; sod, secondly, in reform- and a third was introduced, inwbich 
ing the Navigation Laws. He the Government confessed to six- 
ridiculed with much effect the teen blunders, but did not correct 
changes and transmutations which them. Sixdays'discussiontfaentook 
the Public Health Bill had under- place in Committee on the Bill.oc- 

Sone. He commented on the casionodsolelybythelmperfectpre- 

ilatory and unbusin ess-like style paration of its clauses and its sche- 

in which the Navigation Bill had doles. Hethenattudedtotheamaz- 

been dealt with, attributing its ing quantity of timewhich had been 

' postponement to Xiord J. Russetl's lost thb Session in moving writs 

anxiety to carry through a Bill and dealing with delinquent bo- 

wbich was not mentioned in Her roughs, and to the various Election 

Majesty's Speech — the Jewish Bil^ introduced and withdrawn by 

Disabilities Bill. Personalty, he Sir J. Hanmer, until he came at 

approved of that measure, but he last to the Corrupt Practices at 

thought the evils were great of a Elections Bill, subsequently intro- 

Ministiy attempting to bring for- duced by the Government, and 

ward a project of that nature unless passed through all its stages in that 

they had strength to carry it. The House. After nineteen debates on 

consequence of a failure was that thesubjectofissuingwrits, theCor- 

the cause lost ground. Mr. Disraeli rupt Practices Bill was sent to the 

then reviewed at much length, and Hooseof Lords, and then was with- 

with pungent severity, the Minis- drawn by the noble Ijord who so 

terial proceedings respecting the ably conducted the functions of 

Sugar Duties. He recapitulated Government in that assembly. He 

the &cts as they occurred from the had now placed the House in pos- 

commencement of the Session — ' session of information which would 

the compluntd that poured in from eDableittojudgewhethertbeblame 

the West Indies — the exertions of of legislative failure in the present 

Lord Geoi^ Benljnck in moving Session rested with the House of 

for, and afterwards conducting, the Commons or the Government, 

inquiries of, the Select Committee; During the ten months Parliament 

the recommendation of that Com- had been sitting, there had been 

mittee in favour of a differential sedition in England, insurrection in 

duty of 10«. : the declaration of Ireland, and revolution in Europe, 

Lord J. Russell on the 39th May, Had the Whigs been in opposition 

annouocing his resolve to adhere with such advantages, twenty, 

firmly to the Act of 1616; the and not ten months would have 

aev Bill brought in on the 16th been fully expended, but for what 

188] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [EngiMd. 

object and with what results he seemed to imagine that be bad to 
would not inquire. Calling the defend the House of Commons 
attention of the Honse to the &ot from some charge which the Go- 
that no great porUoa of its time vemment had made against it; 
■ had been cooennied in discussing but, onthepartoftheGoTerament, 
either the foreign policy of the be declared that no such charge 
Counti7 or the condition of Eng- bad been made. He tboi^ht, bow- 
land, be next proceeded to in- ever, that some alteratjou might 
quire whether there had been any be made in the forms of the House 
waste of time with reepect to Ire- without iojuiy to the easential 
land. He contended that there rights of ^scuseion, and without 
had not, and gsve as an instance impediment to the freedom of de- 
the readiness with whieb the House bate. Mr. Disraeli hod remarked 
had recently passed the Bill for re- that in this year there bad been 
Bcinding all the civil liberties of sedition in England, rebellion ia 
that country. On that occasion Ireland, and revolution in Europe. 
Parliament had displayed a great Now, the Minielers of the Crown 
example to Eorope, and had proved w«re chiefly appointed toadminjater 
that ttw English Constitution oould the aSairs of the empire, and when 
combine the energy of s despotism sedition bad been checked in Eng- 
with the enthusiasm of a republic, land, and rebellion suppressed in 
He then read what he called the Ireland, and foreign revolution pre- 
bills of mortality for the Session of vented from shaking our inedtotions 
1646, from which be proved that at home, he most say, as a member 
forty-seven Bills had been aban- of the Government, that the ad- 
doned, withdrawn, or postponed ministr^oa of the empire could 
within the last six months. In bis not have been vety defective. It 
opinion, it was not difficult to die- was not the duty of the members of 
cover the causes of this mortali^. Government to introduce and osdj 
The cause was to be found there through ParliamentagreatnumbOT 
(pointing to the Treasuiy benches) of measures every Seeeion ; and 
— in that Ministry which acceded three Idinist^rs who bad been sup- 
to power without a Parlismentory ported by large majorities — he 
majority, and which was therefore meant Sir B. Walpole, Lord Chat- 
unable to propose measures with a ham, and Mr. Pitt — had neither 
conviction that they would be car- proposed nor carried any great 
ried. Their measuree were, in legislative enactments during the 
conseqnence, altored, remodelled, whole of their Ministerial career, 
patched, cobbled, paintod, and In times of great difficulty and 
veneered, until no trace was left of pressure, the chief attention of 
their original form, or they were Afintri«rs must be^given to tbosa 
withdrawn in disgust by their questions of administration which 
authors after long discussions in every day brings forth. Under such 
that Honse. circumstances it was difficult to 

Lord John Russell vindicated watoh the details of every measure 
the Government of which he was submitted to Parliament, aad yet, 
the head with much adroitness during the present Session. Mioia- 
from the aspeFsions and ridi- ters had already passed 105 out of 
cule of Mr Disraeli. He began the 125 bills which they had snb- 
by observing that that gentleman mittod to Parliament Many of 

SN9to>d.] HISTORY. [189 

those Bills were of the utmost im- it ma not the duty of the Oovem- 
poTtanea, as, for inatance, tbe ment to take the lead on such sub- 
Crime and Outn^e (IrelKqd) Bill, jeota, and intimated that, if be 
the Evicted Destitute Poor Bill, were inclined to complain of anj 
and the measare for the sale of en- opposition during the present Ses- 
cumbered estates in that coQntr7. sion, he should complain of tbo op- 
Loid Jobn Bussell next proceeded tbe first instance, 
to rindtOBto tbe Administration fbr to tbe Bills of Sir J. Hanmer, and 
its conduct towards the Bank of afterwards to the Corrupt Practices 
England dnring die commercial at Elections Bill which tbe Oo- 
crisis of 1847, sad he parried with Temment bad brought in. Mr. 
considenUe address Mr. Disraeli's Dtsraeli had complained that 
sarcaBmsaboatthefbtir budgets of there was at present no regular 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and oi^anized party in the House, 
-passing lightly otst the financial He agreed with Mr. Disraeli as 
ease which his iidveTsary bad made to the importance of party ; but, if 
ont against the OoTemment. He Mr. Dismeli and Lord Q. Ben- 
defended the appointnent of Be- tinck had not been able to form 
lect Committees to inqnire into tbe a party and to array it against the 
diSerent Estimates of tbe year, and OoTemment, that, at any rate, was 

Kintad out the adrant^eB which not tbe fisnlt of GorommenL 
d arisen firom their inquiries. Lord John Bnsseli then glanced 
In reference to Mr. Disraeli's re- at the causes which bad occasioned 
marks on tbe PobUo Health Bill, the prolongation of tbe Session, 
betook pride to himself in being He then continued: — "Some of 
a member of a Ministry which had them we may expect to be cor^ 
entered npon snoh an ontiodden reeled in a future Session. I think, 
field of Ic^slation, and had pro- however, that it will be worth while 
dnced a measure so likely to pro- for Members of this House to con- 
dace great benefit to tbe empire, eider whether, while we preeerre 
Oovemment had obtained the as- the Taluable rules of debate, it 
sent (tf the House to tbe princi^de would not be desirable far some 
inYoWed in the repeal of the Navi- Members to refrain from giving us 
gatioa Laws, but had been pre- so mnch of their opinions, and so 
Tented by other discossions from frequently, as they do at present, 
going on with that measure. The (' Hear, bear! ' and lau^kttr.) It 
noble Lord then repelled with would beinridiouBonmypartweree 
neat vigour tbe attack which Mr. I to point out any honourable 
JDisraeti bad made upon the Go- Members wbo might be considered 
vemment on the subject of the obnoxious to ^s obeerratiun: 
Sugar Duties Bill, admitting that when, faowerer, the bonoonble 
that Bill bad taken up much time. Member eays that he comes here 
and bad led to great debates, to defend the Hoose of Commons, 
which were continued by Lord Q. I realty must say that the House 
-Bentiock on other points not very of Commons is not tbe defending 
closely connected with them. Re- but the complaining party. The 
fening to Mr. Disraeli's comments House of Commons is tbe plain- 
on the conduct of the House with tiff in the cause ; at least 4d-S0ths 
respect to writs and eormpt prao- of the House complain of tbe other 
tieea at Electaons, he asserted that fiaction of (he House, on account 


ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lEngiand. 

of their being the caase of the de- 
1^ which occurs in the transaction 
of public business. I am quite 
certain that, if the opinion of the 
m^ority of the House could be 
consulted, they would on certain 
occasionB say, 'Here ie a speech 
which might well be spared: we 
have heard it five or six times be- 
fore, and therefore we do not feel 
it absolutely necessary that we 
should hear it again.'" {Laughter.) 

Lord John Russell recurred to his 
position, that with sedition in Eng- 
land, incipient rebellion in Ireland, 
and convulsion in Europe, the 
labour of administration was the 
business that chieQy claimed the 
care of Government "There 
have been moments when every 
one must have felt that a slight 
indiscretion would have provoked 
foreign nations; there have been 
momenta when a slight wast of 
watchfulness or care mi^t have 
-given an inconsiderable number of 
miscreants an opportunity of in- 
volving the country in confusion. 
Wishingto preserve the tranquillity 
of Europe — valuing peace alwve all 
price — and thinking that the war 
of 17S3 was unnecessary for the 
purpose for which it was set on 
loot and maintained — we are never- 
theless prepared to devote our beat 
energies and our constant endear 
• vours to the maintenance of ami- 
.cable relations with foreign coun- 
triee. Valuing, as 1 do, our insti- 
tutions, and believing that they are 
the beet adapted of any which ever 
were framed for preserving the 
liberty of the community, I trust 
that whoever may succeed us in 
the task of future legislation will 
have to defend, and not to restore, 
the constitution of this country." 

Mr. Hume said a few words, ex- 
.pressing his satisfaction at the 

breaking up of the great aristo- 
cratic parties into whicn the House 
vras formerly divided. Mr. B. Os- 
borne remarked upon the unsatis- 
&ctory nature of the encounter 
which the House hod just wit- 
nessed between two skilful combat- 
ants. The debate had gone off like 
many modem duels. Mr. Disraeli 
had fired a very astounding broad- 
side; the fire bad been reiomed 
by Lord John Russell; and both 
parties seemed equally satisfied. 
But there was anodier party whom 
neither represented ; and however 
able the speech of Mr. Disraeli, or 
however witty the speech of Lord 
John Russell as to the i 

of the Oovemment, that party — 
namely, the people^would look 
with indifference both on the at- 
tack and the defence. 

Mr. Disraeli had been conjuring 
up the old iltoeion of traditionary 
influence; but while popular pri- 
vileges, like the right of discussing 
grievances on reading the order of 
the dav, were swept away, it was 
precisely because the country 
could forget its aristocratic pre- 
judices that it was obliged to ac- 
cept the present Government 

He regretted that in this debate 
the state of Ireland had been passed 
over. The noble Lord was about 
to visit that country. He trusted 
that the visit would not be of the 
usual character — a trumpet dinner 
at theCastle in full uniform, and a 
return home, knowing all about 
Ireland. If the noble Lord went 
merely to pay such a visit or con- 
sult with the distinguished indi- 
vidual at the head of affairs there, 
he might have as much informa- 
tion by post 

The noble Lord would find that 
a reaction would succeed the tem- 
porary panic created by the arrest 
of the Chartist leaders — mieer^ 

EnsUnd.} HISTORY. [191 

able and misguided individuals.— fbl exaaunadoD of the Estimates 
He alluded to those wrotched car- which by your Miyestj's commands 
penten and tailors found plotting were laid before as, we have made 
in pablic-houses. He warned the every practicable reduction in the 
noble Lord, that a reaction would public expenditure : at the same 
Huoceed, and that the people of tame that we have had regard to the 
this country would not be satisfied financial atat« of prosperity of this 
unless some larger and more com- countiy as affected by the com- 
prehensive measures were resorted mercit^ embarrassments of the 
to than the suspension of Uie past year, and by the intemiptioa 
Habeas Corpus, or any of the of trade consequent upon the late 
other miserable Downing Street political Europe, we have 
precedents for ruling a people. taken every precaution to secure 

The debate then terminated. the efficiency of all departments of 

At length, on the 6th of Sop- the public service, 
tember, Uie end of this nnprece- " In obedience to your Majeaty's 
dented session arrived. With the most gracious recommendation, 
exception of the recess at Christ- which was communicated to as by 
mas, and the short intervals at the Lords Commissioners at the 
Easter and Whitsuntide, Parlia- commencement of the Session, onr 
ment had been sitting continuouslv attention has been specially di- 
for nearly ten months. Although reeled to measures relating to the 
the l^idative results bore but a public health. It is impoasible to 
very scanty proportion to this vast overrate the importance of a sub- 
consumption of time, the labours ject so deeply affecting the comfort 
which uie Membere of the House and happiness of the poorer classes; 
of Commons had undergone had and we confidently hope that, if 
been veiy severe, and the reUef the Bills which have been passed 
afforded by the prortwation was are carried out in the same spirit 
both a needful and a w^come one. in which they have been framed, 
The long-desired event took place they will greatly tend to lessen the 
on the day above mentioned. Her amount of human suffering, and 
M^esty being present in person, to promote the moral improvement. 
The magnificent new chamber of as well as contentment, of the la- 
the Peers was crowded with per- faouring classes in dense and popu- 
sons of distinction. Among the lous districts. 
sptKStaton at the ceremony were " Not unmindful of the oon- 
the Due de Nemours and the ditiou of Ireland, or of the dis- 
Prince de Joinville. The Commons tressed state of the poor in that 
being summoned, the Speaker ad- country, owing to the limited de- 
dreased the Queen in the following mand for labour, we have pro- 
terms : — vided additional funds, arising from 

" Uost Gracious Sovereign — the repayment of additional loans, 

We, your Majesty's faithful Com- to be expended in public works; 

mons of the United Kingdom of and we have removed the impedi- 

Oreat Britun and Ireland, attend ments to the sale of encumbered 

your Mfgesty, aftel- a protracted estates, in order to encourage as 

and laborious Session, with our last much as possible the application 

Bilb of Supply. of capital to the improvement of 

'* After a most patient and care- land. 

192] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [E»?fi.«d. 

" The spirit of ioanbordi nation atrocious murdeFeranbo had spread 

which has prenuled in various terror through the country nere 

parte of the coaatry, especially in appreheaded, tried, and convicted. 
Inland, has farced upon our con- " The distress in Ireland, con- 

flideraUon topics of a far more sequent upon successive failures in 

nvve and anxious character. We the production of food, has been 

nave cordially concurred in tboee mitigated by the application of the 

meaaures which have been thought Ian for the relief of the poor, and 

necessary to secure obedience to by the amount of charitable contri- 

the laws, and to represa and to butions raised in other parte of the 

prevent ontr^e and rebellion. United Kingdom. 

" Deeply sensible of the value " On the other hand, organized 

of those institutions nnder which confederacies took advantage of the 

we have the happiness to live, no existing preaenre to excite my suf- 

effort on our part has been want- feriug sutgects to rebellion. Hopes 

ioR to preserve them from the of plunder and oonfiscation were 

evil designs of misguided men, held out to tempt the distressed, 

who, taking advantage of a season while the most visionary prospects 

of temporaiy distrees, have endea- were exhibited to the ambitious, 

voured to excite discontent and in- In this coi^nncture I applied to 

Burrection. your loyalty and wisdom for in- 

" We have witnessed with gra- creased powers ; and, strengthened 

titode and proud satisfaction the by your prompt concurrence, my 

ouequivocal expression, on the part Government was enabled to defeat 

of the great mass of the people, of in a few days machinations which 

those marks of attachment to their had been prepared during many 

Sovereign and respect for the law ; months. The energy and decision 

•nd we, as their representatives, shown by the Lord Lieutenant of 

participaling to the fullest extent Ireland in this emergency deserve 

in these feelings, now tender to my warmeet approbation, 
your Mtgesty Uie sincere expres- " In the midst of these difGcul- 

Sion of our devotion and loyalty." ties, you have continued your la- 

Tbe Queen, after having myen hours for the improvement of the 

the Royal Assent to some Bills laws. The Act for &eilitating the 

presented by the Speaker, then Sale of Encumbered Estates wU), 

read from the throne the following I trust, gradually remove an evil 

^eech: — of great magnitude in the social 

" My Lords and Oentlemen, — I state of IreWid. 
un hwpy to be able to release you " The system of perpetual en- 
from ue duties of a laboriona and tails of land established in Scot- 
protracted Session. land produced rery serious evils 

" The Act for the Prevention both to heirs of entail and to the 

of Crime and Outrage in Ireland, community ; and I have had great 

which received my assent at the satisfaction in seeing it amended 

commencement of the Session, vras upon principles which have long 

attended by the most beneficial ef- been found to operate beneficially 

fecta. The open display of arms intfaispartof the United Kingdom, 
intended for criminal purposes was " I have given my cordial assent 

checked ; the course of justice was to the measures which have in view 

no longer interrupted; and several tlie improvement of the public 

England.] HISTORY. [103 

health ; and I entertain an eameat peace encourages the hope that the 

hope that a foundation has been nations of Europe may continue in 

laid for continual advances in this the enjoyment of its blessings, 
beneficial work. " Amidst these conTulsions, I 

' have had the satisfaction of being 

•' Gentlamm of the House of ^j^jg ^ preservo peace for my own 

Commant — dominions, and to maintain our do- 

" I have to thank you for the niestic tranquillity. The strength 

readiness with which you have of our institutions has been tried, 

Cted the Supplies necessary and has not been found wanting, 

le public service. I shall avail I have studied to preserve the 

myself of every opportunity which people committed to toy charge in 

the esigencies of the State may the enjoyment of that temperate 

allow for enforcing economy. freedom which they so justly value. 
My people, on their side, feel too 

" My Lord* and Qentltmen— gensibly the advantages of order 

" I have renewed in a formal and security, to allow the pro- 
manner my diplomatic relations moters of pillage and confusion any 
with the Oovemment of France, chance of success in their wicked 
The good understanding between designs. 

the two countries has continued " I acknowledge with grateful 

wiihoat the slightest interruption, feelings the many m&rks of loyalty 

" Events of deep importance and attachment which I have re- 
have disturbed the intomsl tran- ceived from all classes of my 
quillity of many of Ibe states in people. It is my earnest hope 
Europe, both in the north and in that by cultivating respect to the 
the south. Those events have led law.and obedience to the preceptsof 
to hostilities between neighbour- religion, the liberties of uiis people 
ing countries. I am employing may, by the blessing of Almighty 
my good offices, in concert with God, be perpetuated." 
other friendly Powers, to bring to The Lord ChaDcellor then de- 
an amicable settlement these dif- clared the FarliBment to be pro- 
ferences; and I trust that our ef- rogued to the 2nd November, and 
forts may be successful. the protracted Session of 1847-8 

" I am rejoiced to think that an was at an end. 
increasing sense of the valtie of 


194] ANNUAL REGISTEK, 1848. 


France. — PotUion ofths Ovixot Minittry — State of Partie* in France 
— Unpopularity of th« King — Death oj Madams Adtlaidt, the King'* 
Sister — Surrender of Abd-elrKader t» Algeria — Violation of th4 PrO' 
mite made to him — Hit Letter at the end of the Year to Pnttee Louia 
Napoleon — Explanation by M. Ovixot at to Foreign Policy of hit 
&overmnent — Able Speech on the Neceititg of Reform, by M. Memard, 
in the Chamber of Peert — Addrett at Voted by the Chamber of Peert 
— Budget for Year 1848 — Diteuttion in Chamber of Peert on Affairs 
of Switzerland — Eloquent Speech of Count de Montalembert — M. 
Giiixot on the EngUth Alliance — Speech of Count d' Alton Shee on 
the Queition of Reform of the Electoral Law—Diecutnon in the Cham- 
ber of Deputies respecting the Sale of Officet by the Oovemment — 
Speeches of MM. OdiUon Barrot and Guitot— Victory of Ministers in 
the Chamber — Discussion on the Separate Paragraphs of the Address 
— Speeches on Finance by MM. Dumon and Thiers — Speech of M. 
Thiers on the Affairs of Italy— Reply by M. Guizot — Speeches of 
MM. Thiert and Ouiaot on the Affairs of Suileerland — Declaration 
of M. Duohatel condemning the Reform Banquets— Uproar in the 
Chamber — Debate on Affairs oj Poland— Statement by M. Chiiiot 
respecting Destination of Abd-el-Kader — Renetced Discussion on Re- 
form Demonttrations, and Scene of Confutioa in the Chamber — The 
Oppotitian refuse to Vote — Majority for Ministers — Debate on Elec- 
toral Reform — Speeches of MM. Ouizot, Thiers, and others — The 
Address voted in the Chamber of Deputiet — State of Public Feeting 
at this time. 

IF the annalist has had difGcullj world. The fountains of the great 

in finding materials for foreign deep of political society have been 

history during the last few years, suddenly and violently broken up, 

owing to the tranquillity which has and the most portentous changes 

elni03t,witboutexception,pen'aded have taken place in the different 

Europe, and the absence of inci- conntries of Europe, the ultimate 

dents calculated to interest attan- results of which it is impossible to 

tion, be now feels himself almost predict or foresee. The year 1848 

overwhelmed by the magnitude will be hereafter known as that 

and variety of the events which of the great and general revolt of 

have during the year now under re- nations against their rulers. With- 

Tiewcrowded BO uistupon each other, in the short space of twelvemonths 

and rendered it one of the most centuries seem to have rolled away, 

remarkable in the annals of the Dynasties have been overthrowu 

Franct.] HISTORY. [195 

or shaken to their centre, Bsd the the; had pncticall; no voice in the 

deposition and flight of moDarchs Legislature, and to insiBt upon an 

have atteated the irresiatible extension of the franchise. There 

eaerg; with which the people have was a deep-seated feeling that the 

liseu to vindicate for themselves majority in the Chamber of Depu- 

their real or fancied rights. We ties was purt^iased b; the corrupt 

have not now to record the squab- exercise of patronage, and hence it 

blea of a Chamber of Deputies, or was looked upon as no index of the 

a Cortes, or to chronicle changes opinions of the French nation, 

of Ministry hrought about by iac- But although it was very generally 

tion and intrigue, and exercising thought that, on the death of Louis 

no important influence upon the Philippe, some great political con- 

world'a history, — but the com- vulsion would ensue, few, if any, 

mencement and progress of mighty looked forward to such on event 

revololioDB, which have swept away, during the lifetime of that monarch, 

as with a flood, the landmarks of That there waa a Republican 

andentinstitntions, and introduced party in France was well known, 

a new era in the political condition but its numbers and influence were 

of Europe. These changes have greatly underrated, and the abor- 

happened with startling sudden- dve nature of the attempts which 

neea, and we believe that no one at it had made to effect a change of 

the close of the preceding year Government, on several previous 

could have coiyeciured from the occasions since the accession of 

aspect of afiairs on the Continent Louis Philippe to the throne, hod 

the likehhood of their occiurrence. induced the belief that no serious 

And yet the mine was ready laid, apprehension need be entertained 

and nothing was wanting but the of it during his life, 

match to produce the explosion. It was thought that the middle 

This was supplied by France ; and classes in France were too much 

to that country we must first turn, interested in the preservation of 

and contemplate the events which order and tranquilli^ to embark 

have produced such tremendous willingly in the vortex of a revolu- 

coneequences, tion, and as the National Guard 

The position of the Guizot was composed of citizens token 

Ministry at the close of the year chiefly from that important body, 

1847 was veiy anomalous. It pos- it woB looked to more than the 

sessed a large majority in the army as aSbrding a guarantee for 

Chambers, but was mistrusted and the maintenance of peace within 

disliked by the nation. Owing to the kingdom. The Guizot Minis- 

the oexrow basis of the electoral tiy had, however, become very un- 

oon8titiien<7, and the enormous popular with the middle classes, 

amount of patronage whereby the ana the King had so identified 

Government was enabled to pur- himselfwithbie successive Govern- 

chase the votes of that body, the ments, and it was so well known 

Chamber of Deputies could hardly that he strongly influenced, if he 

he called the representatives of did not altogether direct, the policy 

the nation. The Minister relied of his Cabinet, contrary to the fa- 

upon a m^ority there and in the vourite maxim of the Opposition in 

Chamber of Peers ; but the people France, L« Eoi rigne. mai$ il nt 

had begim loudly to coropkm that gountmt fat, that Uie hostility en- 
[0 2] 

196] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [F«.«c«. 

tertained towards his Ministry ex- some of tbe highest officers of the 
tended to himself, and became a State were open to a bribe, 
feeling of dislike towards the Or- On the last day of the preceding 
leans dynasty. There was a grow- year the King's sisUr, to whom he 
ing conviction in France that the was tenderly attached, the Prin- 
Kiag of the Barricadee had for- oeas Adelude of Orleans, died, in 
gotten the principle on which his the 71at year of her age. This 
throne was based — namely, that of threw a gloom over the Royal 
a limited monarchy surrounded by circle, and prevented the usual 
republican institutions. The nation festivities of the J"owr d« I'An from 
saw Louis Philippe intent chiefly taking place. Nor was Louis Phi- 
upon plans of umily i^grandise- lippe in his usual health — a fact 
ment ; and the tortuous intrigaes which cansed considerable anxiety 
which had bronghtaboutthe Spanish in the minds of those who believ^ 
marriages proved that he was pre- that the peace and tranquillity of 
pared to brave any degree of odmm France were bound up with the 
in order to advance that object, continuance of his life. 
We must ever regard that step of The opening of the new year, 
the aged monarch as not only re- however, was signalized by a fortu- 
prehensible on the ground of mo- nate occurrence for the French 
rality, but also false in point of arms. Intelligence arrived that 
policy. To embitter the life of Abd-el-Kader, the brave, and 
the Queen of Spun by forcing or hitherto indomitable, foe of France 
c^ling her into a marriage with in Africa, bad at last yielded to the 
an imbecile husband was a great superior power of the invaders of 
sin, and the disgust which was felt his native soil, and that on the 33rd 
throi^hout Europe rendered the of Decemberhesurrendered himself 
French nation angry with the a prisoner to Oenoral LamoriciSre. 
author of such a disgrace, rather This gratifying intelligence vras 
than gntified at the prospect of announced by the young Duke 
seeing a scion of their ovm House d'Aumale, the newly .appointed Oo- 
of Bourbon upon the throne of vemor-General of Algeria, in a dee- 
Spain, Nor was there any con- patch addressed by him to the 
fidence felt in the purity of the Minister of War in the following 
Government. Although the vim- terms : — 

lence of faction never dared to "A great event has jnat been 

breathe a whisper against the In- accomplished. Abd-el-Kader ia in 

tegrity of M. Guizot. whose con- our camp. Beaten by the Kabyles 

duct, except in the fatal instance of Morocco — driven from the plains 

of the Spanish morriagea. seems to of the Moulouia by the troops of 

have been perfectly open and Muley Abderrhaniann — abandoned 

honourable — yet the syatem was by the greater part of his people, 

known to be hollow and corrupt, who have sought refuge in our ter- 

The Ministry commanded a ma- ritory, ho threw himself into the 

jority in the Chamber of Deputies country of the Beni-Snassen, and 

by patronage and favouritism, and endeavoured to gain the road to 

the lamentable disclosures which the south, which the Emperor of 

had taken place in the affair of Morocco bad left free: but, aur- 

MM. Teste and Pellapra had re- rounded by our cavalry on that 

vealed to the public the fact tbat aide, he trusted to the generosity 

Frmd.J HISTORY. [197 

of Franca, and surrendered on only desires to be conducted to 

condition of being sent to Alex- Alexandria of St. Jean d'Acre 

andria or St. Jean d'Aore." The convention, concluded ordlj 

The Emir had on the night of at once, is soon after ratified in 

the 11th of December eorpriaed writing bj General de Lamori- 

the Moorish camps, and occasioned ci^re. 

them great loss. But the num- " To-daj in the afternoon Abd- 
bers were too formidable for him to el-Eader has been received at the 
cope with, and, collecting his wives marabout of Sidi Brabim, b; Colo- 
and personal baggage, he concen- nel de Montauban, who was re- 
brated all his forces in the direc- joined shortly after bj Generals 
tioii of the mottlh of the rivor de I^smorici^re and Cavaignac. — 
Uoulouia. On the 31st he began Sidi Bmhim, the theatre of the 
tocroes the stream, when the Moor- Emir's last success, and which 
ish Kabyles fiercely attacked him. Providence seems to have designed 
but he repelled them, and effected to be the theatre of the last and 
his passage without loss. He then most signal of his reverses, as a 
stood in the French territory, bat kind of expiation for the slaughter 
he had no sooner reached it than of our unfortunate comrades, 
he hastily abandoned it, and with " An hour afterwards Abd-el> 
a email number of followers re- Kader was conducted to Nemours, 
solved to pass through the country where I had arrived the same 
of the Beni-Snassen to the south, morning. I ratified General La- 
Bnt General Lamoticiere divined moridere'e promise, and I oonfi- 
the scheme, and immediately took dently hope that the King's Go- 
measures to prevent it. What fol- vemment will give its approval to 
lowed may be told in the words of it. I announced to the Emir that 
the Dab d'Aumale's despatch. he would have to embark for Oran 

"Twenty spahis, commanded to-morrow with his fiimilj; to this 

l^ an intelligent and trusty officer, he submitted) not without emo- 

Lientenant Ben Khouia, hod been dou and repugnance. It was the 

sent to the Col der Kherbous, on last drop of the cup of afiiic- 

the evening of the Slst; the first tion." 

news, shortjy after the reports of The promise, thus solemnly 

the musketry, announced that an made and ratified, was not ftil- 

BCtion had commenced in that di- filled, and Abd-el-Kader was eent 

reotion. It was Abd*el-Kader who to France, where he was detained 

engaged our spahis. General de a prisoner, first at Toulon, and 

Lmioriciere, who during the night afterwards in the Ch&teau d'Am- 

had pnt his column under arms, bobe, throughout the whole of the 

advanced rapidly vrith his cavalry, present year. It was contended 

The Emir had the advantage that General Lamorici^re had no 

of the darkness and a diffic^t right or authority to make such a 

country, traversed by roads nn- promise, and that he could not 

known to our guides. He could bind the Government. It seems, 

still have easily retreated. But however, to have been forgotten 

two of bis cavalry, led by Ben that, even admitting the fact to be 

Khonia himself, bring to the gene- so, the Governor-General of the 

lal the intelligence Uiat he is de- province~-the King's eon— bad, 

cided to surrender, and that he according to his own confesaioD, 




ratified that promise. When the 
subject came before the Ohamber 
of Peers, on the 17th of Jaouar}:, 
M. Guizot said, that the King's 
Govemment would know hov to 
reconcile what was due to the 
honour of an engagement entered 
into with a Tanquiahed enemj, 
with what the interests and secu- 
rity of the country demanded. 
That was the task to which it was 
devoting itself; and when it had 
been fulfilled every information 
would be Kiven to the Chamber. 

During a debate that took place 
in the Chamber of Deputies on 
the 3rd of February, General 
Lamoriciere BGud, that all respon- 
stbility had been taken off hia 
shoulders as soon as the GoTenior- 
Geaeral ratified the convention. 
He could not, under the circnm- 
sCaoces, have forced the Emir 
to surrender unconditionally; he 
might hare secured the tent, and 
even the carpet of Abd el Kader; 
but the Emir himself would have 
been able to reach the Desert, 

Before dismissing the subject 
we may mention, that when Louis 
Napoleon was installed President 
of the French Bepublic. Abd-el- 
Kader, on the 23rd of December, 
addressed to him a letter contain- 
ing the following passages, which 
awaken a lively interest in the 
fate of the fallen Emir. 

" When, guided by my confi- 
dence in the bravery and the pro- 
mises of the French, I came to 
place myself and mine under the 
protection of France, by giving 
myself up to General lAmOrioiere, 
at that time Commandant of the 
province of Oran, I received the 
formal promise that I shonld be 
sent to the noble land of France, 
and be afterwards conveyed to 
Egypt, and from thence to Syria, 
near the sacred tomb of the Pro- 

phet, that I might enlighten my- 
self with new light, and my days 
he wholly devoted to the happi- 
ness of my family, and far from the 
hazards of war, the theatre of which 
I abandoned for ever to the domina- 
tion of France, in execution of the 
will of the Almighty, who lowers or 
raises empires as he pleases. Far 
from these sacred promises having 
been fulfilled, I and mine have 
been subjected to captivity, with- 
out being able to cause justice to 
be rendered to me. I demand of 
the Chief of the French Govem- 
ment to fulfil the promisee that 
were made to me by the Genends 
of Africa, and to accord me the 
liberty of going on parole with my 
family, into Syria, to fallow the 
precepts of our religion. Grate- 
ful for such an act of clemency 
and justice, I would pray our God 
to b^tow on France and her chiefe 
all his great consolations and bless- 
ings. I rely on the wisdom of tiio 
President of the Bepublic and of 
the National AsBembly." 

It is remsrkahle that this ap- 
peal shonld have been made to 
bim who was once himself the 
prisoner of Ham, but who was de- 
tained in captivity on just grounds 
— whereas tbe unfortunate Abd-el- 
Kader seems to be imprisoned in 
violation of solemn promisee, and 
in direct breach of the condition 
on which he surrendered himself. 
May bis appeal to French honour 
not be mode in vain I 

Want of space compels ns to pre- 
sent in a more abridged form than 
usual the speeches that were de- 
livered in the two Chunbers 
during the discussion on the Ad- 
dress. And this is the less to be 
regretted, as, in comparison with 
the astounding events which were 
about to happen, the politkal dit- 
Gusaions and opinions of the dif- 

Frtinct.-] HISTORY. [199 

ferant parties apon ordinaJ7 topics Depufr? having asked if it was true 

of pabbc intereit sink into insig- iJiat the Auatrians had occupied 

nificance. While reading the de- Parma and Modena, M. Guizot re- 

bttt«8 that, took place in the Chun- plied that he was not aware of the 

her of Peers or Deputies during entrance of the Aastiians into 

the months of January and Fe- Panna ; they had entered Modena, 

braaiy this year, with the con- at the request of the Duke, for the 

Bdousness of the catastrophe be- purpose of restoring order ; but he 

fore us, it seems as if we were had been assured that they would 

gliding' down the stream of a immediately withdraw. Referring 

peaceful river in the calm confi- next to the last paragraph of the 

dence of security, though now and Address, M. Guizot observed that 

then there falls upon the ear the the expression " hostile passions " 

echo of the distant roar of some was not applied to any Member 

mighty cataract. It is indeed of the Chamber ; thai the Cabinet 

_ . . .. J . had used them to characterize pas- 

^SIT" *"'^'''"" *™ '* ^ eions immiffil to the Charter W 
to society itself, and that, perceiv- 

We shall see that for the buret ing those symptoms of disorder, it 
of feeling which revealed itself in was its duty to denounce them. 
Paris, and taking the nation by In the Chamber of Peers the 
surprise, paralyzed all opposition, general discussion on the Address 
politicians of every class, except commenced, and closed on the 10th 
that of the most extreme demo- of January. A very able speech 
cracy.werentterlyunprepared; and was delivered by M. Mesnard, 
even tkey had tnade no provision which was listened to with the 
for a crisis which was the dierished most profound attention. It con- 
dream of their fanaticism. It tained some sound truths, and it 
came upon them like an avahinche, would have been well for M. Gtii- 
Bweeping away the throne and the zot's Government and for France, 
constitution; but they were able to if they had been not only admitted 
torn it to account, and realize at hut promptly acted upon. The 
last the vision of that Bepublic necessity for Beform was transpa- 
which they rather ardently de- rent to all except those to whose 
sired than believed to be possible, political existence it was most 

On the 3rd of- January, in one of essential. 

the bureauo! of the Chamber of M. Mesnaid said that, having 

Deputies, M. Guizot, having been been for seventeen years connected 

called upon hj M. Durand de So- from conviction with the Gonser- 

morantin, explained some acts of vative party, he felt under obligar 

his foreign policy. tions to the Ministry for having 

With regard to Switzerland, he grouped aioond themselves a strong 

had, he said, continued the poUcy majority ; but he was apprehensive 

followed since 1833 towards that that at present they entertained 

country. The Oovemment had erroneous notions relative to the 

sold arms to the Soudorbuud from real state of public opinion. Were 

a conviction that its cause was a he alone in that idea, he should 

just one, and that the triumph of have hesitated to express it by a 

the Catholic par^ would be favour- just distrust of himself ; but when 

able to the interests of France. A he found that a very great number 




of cteajvheaded men entertained 
the same dread, be considered it 
his duty to come forward and pub- 
licly expose hia way of thinking. 
The Ministry was at present in a 
less firm position than last year, 
and the country was not so calm. 
Last year the Session opened after 
the happy conclusion of the 
Spanish marriages, and the Minis- 
ter of Foreign Affairs obtained be- 
fore the Chambers one of those 
splendid successes which suffice to 
honour the career of a statesman. 
Eveiythiag was possible for a Mi- 
nistry in such a position, particu- 
larly when, being strengthened by 
the issue of the elections, it had no 
longer any obstacles to fear in the 
Chambers. The hour of progress 
had certainly arrived, and the Go- 
vernment could with success have 
directed its attention to those great 
moral interests which it had post 
poned — nay, more, amongst the 
Conservative party a general ex- 
pectation prevailed that such would 
have been the course which the 
Ministry would think it necessary 
to pursue. Yet notwithstanding 
that fortunate position of the Mi- 
nistry, and the hopes of the Con- 
servative party, tne Session had 
been completely barren. Much 
had then to be done, and scarcely 
anything was effected ! The con- 
sequence was that serious embar- 
rassments were at present menacing 
the Governiuent, and the Minbtry 
would certainly one day reproach 
itself for having neglected so ex- 
cellent an occasion. The Cabinet, 
eveiy time that reforms were pro- 
posed, declared that the time was 
Inopportune and even dangerous. 
In that respect he was of opinion 
that the Ministry were qnite mis- 
taken as to the real state of the 
public mind. They seemed to 
think that the question of reformsi 

when brought forwiu^ by the Op- 
position, was a piece of party tac- 
tics ; audwhen mooted b; a Mem- 
ber of the majority, as was the case 
once last Session, they looked on 
it as a sort of malcontent fancy, 
which called for no especial atten- 
tion. He firmly believed that 
this was quite an error, and he 
could affirm, with every feeling of 
confidence in the truth of his as- 
sertion, that the countiy felt 
strongly on the subject, and ex- 
pected to have some^ing done. It 
was from the ranks of the Conser- 
vative par^ that had escaped the 
well-known phrase of " Nothing, 
nothing! nothing!" It had be- 
come a sort of parly cry, and that 
"nothing "was now attempted to 
he turned into something serious. 
Such was the state of things, and 
if the position of the Cabinet was 
inferior to that of last year, its own 
conducton the question just alluded 
to must be considered as the cause 
of the change. It had allowed the 
opportunity to escape when the 
country was tranquil, and in all 
probability it would not he able to 
find again so favourable a moment. 
He did not mean to say that the 
Qovemment ought to have carried 
out last Session all the reforms 
that were proposed — the country 
did not ask for so much, nor ex- 
pect it. It would have been suf- 
ficient if the Oovemment had used 
a different language, and given 
reason to suppose that at no very 
distant period what was demanded 
Would be granted. The Cabinet 
would have gained ila cause bad it, 
by its assurantws, satisfied those 
moderate men who were as strongly 
opposed to wild and disorderly pro- 
gress as they were to a complete 
stand still — to a state of petrifac- 
tion ; and that satisfaction was in 
truth the only one that was possi- 

ii™>».] HISTORY. [201 

ble at the commencement ofa new spiritof order and tranquillity nhicli 
Legislature. In the present situa- prevailed ; that state of the public 
tion, perilous and embarrassing as mind was even the more dangeroue 
it was, what ought to be the con- for the Ministry. He in conae- 
ductof the Government ? When quence strongly recommended it 
moral questions agitated a. people, to seize on the question of reform, 
a wise Ministry would endeavour and bring it boldly before the Par- 
te take the lead, and by that means liament. Let it do that, and it 
direct the public mind in the pro- would see if the public would not 
per couree ; but if it held back, applaud a line of conduct at once 
and allowed the people to drag it eo adroit and bo courageous. There 
on, it would, on the contraiy, be were demands to whidi it was pru- 
compelled to submit to their most dent and even noble to yield; and 
unreasonable exigencies. These the Government ought to make 
truismH indicated, in his opinion, concessions to avoid having what 
what the Government ought to do was called for forced from it. He 
— namely, take the lead and direct should have been delighted had be 
the movement. He was aware that found in the Address a single 
a grave objection might be brought phrase which responded to the 
forward against such a course ; that feeling that was now gaining ground 
it mij^t be asked, was it a proper in favour of reform, 
moment, when the public were The Address, as finally voted in 
agitated and the most gloomy re- the Chamber of Peers on the 10th 
minisceuces of the past appealed of January, was as jollows : — 
to, to accede to a demand of reform, 

thrown down as a sort of arrogant 


challenge to the King? His un- Since our lost Session an abun- 

besilating reply was, that such was dant crop has dissipated the fears 

the conduct most likely to be of ad- and allayed the evils which af- 

vantage to tite Ministry, to the fllcted our country. France, by 

Conservative party, and to the her courage, deserved that blessing 

public. Far from being an objec- of Heaven. Never, under similar 

tion to reform, the present agita- circumstances, was public order so 

tion of men's minds was, he con- generally maintained. The popu- 

ceived, a great argument in its lation understood that the free- 

fiivour. If the cry for reform was dom of commercial transactions 

a mere party business, he should was the surest remedy to their suf- 

be the first to say to the Ministry ferings. The inexhaustible zeal 

— " Resist; do not yield an inch I" of private charity assisted the eo- 

but the matter had taken &r crifices of the public Treasuiy. 

deeper root — was the hourly sub- Our trade has been saved by its 

ject of conversation and discus- prudence, if not from pamfol 

sion—had become, in fact, with the losses, at least from the calamities 

public a sort of necessity which it which have visited other states, 

would be most dangerous to slight. We congratulate ourselves, with 

There was, besides, no feverish your Majesty, on reaching the 

agitataoD in the countiy— all was term of tboee trials, the recollec- 

calm and orderly. Indeed, the tion of which will remain as a 

manner it) which the deprivations, reassuring experiment and a salu- 

incidental to the scarcity of food, tary caution, 

had been borne was a proof of the Yon may rely on our ooH>peiv- 

202] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Frano. 

tion U> termiiiate the great public The relations of jour Govern- 

works which ne have undertakea. meat with all the foreign Powers 

It is important for the power and give you the confidence that the 

Srosperity of the country, for the peace of the world is secured, 

evelopment of our manu&ctures Like you, Sire, we hope that the 

and the progress of igriealture, progress of civilization and liberty 

that those great works be oom- may be everywhere accomplished, 

pleted. fiut, at the same time without impairing either the in- 

that we will apply to that object temal order, tlie independence, or 

Bufficlent resoorces, we will watch the Friendly reluioue of stotea. 

with the strictest economy to main- Our Byn^thtes and mahee accom- 

tain in onr budgets that order on pony those Italian Sovereigns and 

which depends the stability of our natioua who advance together in 

fioancea, and to re-eelablish at last that new path with a provident 

a complete and real balance be- .wisdom, of which the august chief 

tween the receipts and espendi- of Chrietendom baa set them the 

tore, which is the first condition affecting and magnanimous ex- 

of the power and security of the ample. 

state. Civil war has bndcen out in a 
The project of law relative to ne^bouring and friendly country, 
the reduction of the price of salt Your Government had oome to an 
and of the postage of letters within understanding with the Govem- 
the limits compatible witli the ments of England, Austria, Pros- 
situation of our finance, will be the sia, and Hussia, in order to offer it 
olfject of our solicitude and serious a friendly mediation. Switzerland 
meditation. will recognise, we trust, that it is 
We hope that this Session may by respecting the rights of all, and 
be productive of useful and im- by muntaining the fundamental 
portant results. Already have pro- bases of the Helvetic Gonfedeia- 
jects of law on public mstruction, tion, that it con insure its hap|M- 
on prison discipline, and on our nesa, and preserve the condition of 
Customs' tariff, been submitted to security which Europe wished to 
our deliberation. You announce guarantee to it. 
to us other bills on various sub- Faithful to the cause of a gene- 
jects not less worthy of esamina- rous nation, France recalls to En- 
tion— on communal property, on rope the rights of Polish nationali^ 
the system of mortgages, the montt so formally stipulated by treaties. 
de pitli, on the application of The Chamber hopes that the 
the savings-banks to the relief of measures adopted by our Govera- 
labourers in their old age. We ment, in accord with the Govern- 
shall concur in the wish of your mentof theQueeoof OroatBrittun, 
H^eety, by constantly endeavour- will re-estabUsh at lest onr com- 
ing to alleviate the &te of those mercial relations on the bonks of 
who possess no other resources La Plata. 

than their labour. It is onr duty. We reap in Algeria the fruits of 

at the same time, to caution them our perseverance, of the inde&liga- 

withfirmuesa against the delusions bleaevotednesaof our8oldier8,and 

of dangerous Utopias, and to pro- of a war glorionaly conducted I^ 

cure them all the material and an illustrious chief. The most 

moral improvements which it is in dreaded adversary of our power 

our power to realize. bos made his submission. That 




event, which promisea France the 
proximate alleviatioii of a portion 
of her burdens, prepares a aev era 
for our African est(U>U6hment8 ; 
jonr beloved son will becomingly 
fblfit, we trust, his grand sad 
glorious mission. Under the di- 
rection of your OoTemmeDt, he 
will consolidate our domination by 
a r^ular and vigilant adminiatra- 
tion. The blessings of peace must 
now oontinne the conquest of that 
land which tuts beoome French by 
the power of our arms. 

Sire, by devoting yourself to the 
service of our country with that 
courage which nothing can subdue, 
not even the afflictions that visit 
you in your dearest afitetiotiB ; by 
devoting your life and that of your 
children to the care of our interests 
and our digni^, yon strengthen 
every day the edifice we have 
founded together. Depend on 
our support to assist you in de- 
fending It. A^tations, excited by 
hostile passions or blind delusions, 
will vanish befure public reason, 
enlightened byourfreedisoa8«ana, 
and the maniiestation of all legiti- 
mate opinions. In a consUtulJonal 
monarchy the union of the great 
powers of the State overcomes eveiy 
obstacle, and enables Hie Govern- 
ment to satisfy all the moral and 
material interests of the country. 
By that union. Sire, we will main- 
tain social order and all its condi- 
tions. We will guarantee public 
liberties and all their development. 
Our Charter of 1680, transmitted 
by OS to future generations as an 
inviolable deposit, will secure to 
them the most valuable inherit- 
ance which nations can receive— 
the alliance of order uid liberty. 

On the ladi of Janoaiy the bu- 
rtmtai of the Chamber of Deputies 
commenced their examination of 
the budget for the year 1648, and 

it may he interesting to give the 
Estimates relating to the Army 
and Navy. 

The military budget presented 
a decrease of about l.OOO.OOCi/*., 
compared with the year 1846. It 
amounted to the sum total of 
920,708,064/. It was proposed 
that the effective of the army 
should consist of S3S,610 men, 
and 80,091 horses, of which foi<ce 
56,720 men and 14,000 horses 
were to be employed in Algeria. 
In preceding years, the army in 
Algeria amounted to nearly 100,000 
men, including the paid native 

The budget of the Navy es- 
hibitedaeumtot^ of 130,300,608/., 
presenting a difference, as com- 
pared with the budget of 1848, of 
more than 3,000,000/ less. This 
decrease had been effected in the 
armaments and the naval crews. 
It was proposed to reduce the 
effective of the naval forces by 
18 vessels and 1056 seamen ; and 
it would in that case consist of 
SOS vessels, vrith 27,873 seamen 
on board*. 

In the Chamber of Peers, daring 
a discussion that took place on the 
IDlh of January, relative to the 
affairs of Switzerland, the Count 
de Montalembert made a long and 
eloquent speech, which, at the 
time, was much applauded. The 
Due de Broglie had defended the 
polity of the French Qovemment 
in co-(^ratinff with the other 
great Powers for the settlement 
of the Swiss question. He con- 
cluded by saying that &at Go- 

* The rollowing ii ■ reciptlulatioD of 
ibe Tcnels in ■ctire Kmce >t lea, vii., 6 
■hip* of tbe line, 7 frigatea, 15 eorrettea, 
]6 brigi, XI ligbt teueU, W cniupoili, 
51 Mumtn, anil 28 dilTeraiil >«wU for 
tbe wot coul of Africa rtationiwhilit 13 
Te«el> were lo renuun in harbour com- 
miauoD, hicI 16 m port commiMioo. 

204] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Frafue. 

vemmeut had at various times, by wounds ; ihej are cured : but it is 

simple recommeudationa, reminded not only religion which is attacked, 

the Diet of respect due to treaties, it is also order and liberty, the 

and it was tberefore not responsi- wounds of which are more deep 

ble for what at last took place. If and dangerous. Were I able, I 

it did not succeed in the work should like to show you what has 

of pacification which it undertook, been done to give to Radicalism a 

it at least laid down the bases citadel whence it might act, not 

of a durable understanding be- on absolute monarchies, for the 

tween the five great Powers, and Radicals will have nothing to do 

of a common action between the with them, but on consdtutiotud 

Powers on the frontier of Switzer- monarcbiesiforitisforthepurpose 

land, who equally desire the re- of acting against the constitutional 

establishment of moral order in Govemmeuta of Oermuiy that the 

that country. " Let those per Radicals unite in Switzerland. 

sons who attack us say what they You will call to miud that for a 

would have done in our place, long time there was not a single 

The French Government, I am cry in Switzerland against the 

convinced, did better than they Jesuits ; certainly, when General 

could have done themselves." Ramorino made his expedition into 

Ou the following day Count de Piedmont, it was not for the ex- 

Montalembert rose and addressed pulsion of that body. No, the 

himself, at great length, to the Radicals did not wish to act agtunst 

whole subject ; but we can give that order alone, but against 

only a few extracts. While we Christianity in general ; they deny 

admire his eloquence, and agree it, they wi^ to destroy it, striking 

with many of his senlimenta, we at the same time against Catholic- 

cannot but regret tliat the policy ism and against Protestantism. It 

of Lord Palmerston has provoked is not only against the Jesuits that 

such censure upon the conduct of the Swiss Radicals are hostile, but 

England. the entire church and religion. 

" Last year the question in But it is not only religion that is 
agitation was the last remains of menaced; it is every kind of liberty. 
Poland ; this year it is the cradle The Utterly of the press I It has 
of Helvetic liberty. The crime is been stifled, and it has been even 
the same; then, it was the act of Interdicted to publish any news 
despotism ; now, it is the work of which is contrary to the views of 
those who dream of overthrowing the Government The r^bt of 
religious societies. But it is still petition has been g^ged ; the 
tlie abuse of force in Switzerland liberty of elections haa been vio- 
as in Poland ; it is the oppression lated in the most flagnuit manner, 
of right by number and by violence. And this is not all; the rights of 
And how is it that we luve every property have been invaded. Li- 
year to denounce similar crimes ? berty is respect for man ; Radical- 
How can we help being distressed ismiscontemptforman— contempt 
at this apparent sterility of our the most arrogant. I consider 
efforts ? 1 am not about to utter myself entitled more perhaps than 
my complaints here as a Catholic, any other to speak in favour of 
in the name of religion. It is the liberty. I have been deemed ex- 
fate of religion to suffer Buch clusivelyderotedto religiousliberty 

Fmnee.] HISTORY. [205 

— but no, I am devoted to liberty the other side of the Jura, on tbe 

of every description — to liberty in moat liberal frontiers of France, 

its fullest sense. If the canse of and with tbe support of England ; 

tbe Swiss Radicals were to triumph and, in France, yon now have, 

in France, what should we have ? more than in 1833 and 1894, open 

Disorder and anarchy — ^nay, worse sympathies, avowed by the Con- 

than anarchy, for that et last be- Tention and the Mountain. I do 

xtinguished of itself. We not ask, it may be well supposed. 

should have oi^anized Radicalism, for any measures of exception; but 

and yet the dynastic Opposition what I desire to witness is, that 

applauds it. There have been GO well-disposed men may open their 

or 60 banqnets given by tbe Oppo- eyes — may arm themselves with 

sition ; they were organized for resolution. For me, tbe greatest 

Sectoral reform, and yet at them of evils is fear. What, think you, 

the guests drank to the success of has been tbe origin of all the cata- 

Switzerland. But, since I have strophes which have desolated 

thus denounced to you the crimes France? Tbe fear which the well- 

whicb have been committed in disposed have felt of the vilest 

Switzerland, whom do you imagine wretches. Let us not give up to 

Iconsider as the principal offender? the wicked a monopoly of energy; 

Tbe Foreign Secretaiy of State of let tbe right-miuded defend order 

Her Britannic Mtyestyl When at borne end abroad, by teslifyin? 

noble peers Bland up iu this tribune their horror and disgust for all 

and speak what they think of the that resembles 17SS and 1703 ; 

Emperor of Austria, and of Prince let tbe priociple of all men anxious 

deMettemich, I may surely declare for what is right be the union of 

my opinion of Lord Palmerston. liberty with order and peace ; let 

It is he who, in my eyes, is the us comprehend, by what has just 

executioner of the independence of passed at the other side of the 

Switzerland ; it is he who, at tbe Jura, bow dangerous it is not to 

moment of making a manifestation tolerate liberty even amongst those 

in favour of tbe good right, insisted who do not think as we do. Let 

onaprevious understandingamong ns not forget that liberty has just 

tbe Cabinets, and so produced pro- been betrayed and immolated 

crastinations, during which he through the agency of England. 

Siressed on hostilities in Switzer- and that France is bonnd to be its 

■nd. It ia not with impunity that rallving point and safeguard." 
England will have followed her With reference to the Swiss 

policy. The encouragement given question, M. Oiiizot. in tbe Cham- 

to anarchy in Greece, in Switzer- ber of Peers, on the next day, 

land, will not remain unpunished ; expressed himself in the following 

tbe flames of that conflagration terms, which we quote as showing 

will cross tbe Channel, and will the conviction of that eminent 

show Ei^land that propriety, jus- statesman of the wisdom and policy 

tic«, and liber^r, are not the privi- of cultivating friendship with Great 

lege of one nation alone. The Britain. Very different has been 

present situation may be thus the language and conduct of M. 

brieSy summed up: theflagwbich, Thiers; andyetit must be borne 

in 1839 and 1834, you vanquished in mind that M. Guizot himself, 

at Lyons, has now risen again on in tbe affair ef the Spanish ma^ 




rugea, was villing to peril At 
good tmilerBtaadiiig between the 
two countries in order to gmtifj 
the ambitious desire of femilj 
aggrandizement ia Louis Philippe. 
He now said, " I considered it of 
great importance to secure the co- 
opeiKtion of Ei^land. From the 
first moment I made sacrifices to 
arrive at that result. I think I 
have a right to aay that the inde- 
pendence of our policy as respects 
England is fully established. It 
is now proved that whenever we 
meet a great national interest 
we do not hesitate to assert it bj 
every means in our power. We 
nevertheless continue, and will 
still continue, to attach an extreme 
importance to the maintenance of 
friendly relations and of a good 
understanding between England 
and France. We will conUnue to 
think tliat on important occasions, 
when the cause of civilization and 
justice is at stake, the common 
action of England and France is 
powerful, and salutary for the 
peace of the world. The opinion 
we entertained on the euligect a 
year, two years, three years ago, is 
not changed. At the same time 
that we are fully determined to 
maintain the independence of our 
policy and the dignity of our 
GountryandOovemment, whenever 
an opportunity shall present itself 
of combining Uie action of England 
and France for the success of one 
of the great causes I above alluded 
to, we will exert ouiselves to pro- 
cure that common action, even if 
we were to be uneasy at the result 
of our advances. In the question 
now before the House, we bad 
every reason to believe that the 
common action of England with 
the continental Powers would ex- 
perience no serious difficulties. 
That queetjon, the interests and 

lights of cantonal sovereiguty, the 
rdadona of the Helvetic Confe- 
deration with Europe, were not 
new topics, having already been 
discussed in 1632 and 18S3, on 
the occasion of the revision of tbe 
Federal Compact." 

On the 17di the question of the 
Reform Banquets was brought into 
discuasion in the Chamber of Peers ; 
when Count d'Alton Bhea, well 
known for hia extreme political 
opinioue.aaid that he had never been 
present at any of the banquets, nor 
applauded them, but he could not 
approve of the imprudent language 
which the llinistry had put into 
the King's mouth, or the still more 
imprudent words which the com- 
mittee had inserted in the Address. 
He considered that a very inexact 
epithet had been apphed to those 
Befonn meetings; the ministry 
might probably have wished that 
those assemblages should have 
degenerated into inwUet, but on 
no occasion had any disorder taken 
place. In 1698 a coalition had 
been formed, under the direction 
of Ueesra. Guizot, Thiers, Odillon 
Barrot, Berryer, and Gamier- 
Pages ; between these eminent 
men there was but one point of 
contact — to substitute a Parlia- 
mentary for a personal Govern- 
ment. Ten years have since passed 
over, and the object still remained 
the same, only the men were 
changed. In 1636 the electoral 
body ^proved of the Opposition, 
and succees was only lost through 
the treachery of the leaders. At 
the present time, when after 
several years' repose the public 
mind was awakened, it would be 
impossible, in presence of the 
frightful progress of corruption, to 
look for snccees in the electionB, 
and it was necessaiy to resort to 
other means to ensure the triumph 

Fr«w.] HISTORY. [207 

ti frtHb opinion. In the first establiahmeiit. There were men, 
instuice on electoral reform bad he admitted, who went further 
beendemanded.whichwDaldsbelter than they ought; but when public 
the electors from the seductions of indiffnation hul been eo roused it 
the Qovemment and from electoral would be childish U talk of any 
mendicity ; and, afterwards, Par- order. Some looked to things, 
hamorttioy reform had been asked othera to men. It was the fault 
for, tila^ ^ould relieve the other of the Uinisters and of their man- 
Chamber from the host of public ner of fforeming. The Address 
functionaries with which it was also spoke of opinions subversive 
encumbered. He was aware that of social order. He was aware 
at the bmquets other subjecla had how the Conservatives, who were 
been started besidee Refonn, and all-powerful, understood and inter 
many other toasts bad been dmnk. prated liberty of opinion, but he 
He should not speak of those did not bend before such a ten- 
which, like that of " The Alliance dency; he did not respect it. 
of the Peo[de," substituted for The Minister of the Interior, 
" The AUianee of Kings." belonged M. Duchatel, said that fh>m the 
to the discussion of foreign affairs, day that the Cbambers were in- 
bnt of home questions. The firet vested in France with suflScient 
important toast he met with was, powers to influence the political 
" To the Organization of Labour." direction of the country, they had 
What, be would ask, could be mora slways contained within tbemselTes 
simple than that toast? Was a party attached to the views of 
there any one in that essentially Ministers — that was invariably the 
Conservative assembly that could practice both in England and in 
deny the dn^ of labour and the France. There ought not conse- 
rights of labour? The Govern- quently to be any reproach attached 
ment itself, in its speech from to the existence of that great party 
the Throne, bed announced Bills which acknowledged the Ministry 
destined to ameliorate the condi- as their leaders, it being well un- 
tion of the working classes. An- derstood that this quality of heads 
other tosst had been given, " To of party did not involve any right 
the Reform of the Army." It was of manifeetmg partiality in the 
not sufficient to recall a few r^- Rdministration of afiairs. To be 
menia from Africa, for if they were in such a position was to be the 
kept armed in France no economy head of a party without any of the 
would be effected. After SO years inconveniences attached to the 
of peace it was but reasonable that post — it was, in fact, in his opinion, 
they should reap some fruits from the verity of representative govem- 
such a state. It was the reduotion ment. The last Sessioa was the 
of 100,000 men that was called first of a new Legislature. They 
for, which would effect a saving of found that the majority was the 
100,000,000/., which there would sincera expression of the opinions 
be no difficulty in finding a use of the country. Ought they to 
for. Toasts had also been drunk have then touched the electoral 
"To Probity" and "To Humanity;" law which bad given such a result? 
bnt to these be shonld not further Ought they to have broken the 
allude. The Address spoke of instrument which had given them 
pSBsions inimical to dieir political a m^ori^ which they regarded as 

208] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fra>u'- 

satisfactory in principle? To touch change it immediatel;, but to an- 

the electoral law would he to break nounee that it ought to be changed, 

up the Chamber itself. That was without doing so, would be highly 

why they had opposed electoral imprudent; it would be to shake 

reform. Did it thence follow that the whole edifice of their legisla- 

they had done nothing? He had tion. That the Government would 

only to mention the numerous and not do ; it would not sacrifice the 

important measures that they had laws of the country ; it would not 

brought forward. The committees open a breach without knowing 

of the Chunbers were still occu- how it could be filled up. On the 

pied with the labours which the day when the Cbaiubers should 

Government had given them ; and, entertain the idea that a reform 

moreover, let the circumstances be was necessary, they would give the 

remembered in which they had subject due attention ; for his part, 

been placed. Before turning atten- he should never advise them to 

tion to theoretical laws, it was enter on a dangerous reform. A 

necessary to think of getting present chai^ of the electoral law 

through in the beet mtmner a ter- would have the immediate effect 

rible crisis arising from the scarcity of dissolving the Chamber of De- 

of food. The English Parliament puties, and that, in the opinion of 

during the last Session had not the Government, would be a very 

done more than they had. Was it great inconvenience for the coun- 

nothing to have passed through try. 

such a difficult period without dis- On the Stst ef the same month, 
orders, writhout dangers? They a singular and not very creditable 
considered the reproaches addressed discussion took place in the Cham- 
to them were unjust. The; were ber of Deputies respecting the sale 
ready to change their ideas if it of offices in the patronage of Go- 
could be proved that they were vemment It was commenced by 
wrong. But what, be would ask, M. Odilloa Barrot, who ascended 
had been proposed to them for the the tribune to address to the Minis- 
benefit of the country? Nothing, tty interpellations relative to the 
It was the Government whidi sale of an office in the Finance 
might in their turn make use of Department. He said, that he had 
that word. But what was meant verified the statement contained in 
by the reforms demanded? The a memorial published by M. Petitj 
Government did not consider an and he owed it to truth to declare; 
electoral reform better this year that the documents adduced by 
than they did the last But it him existed, and that the fiu;ta 
had been said, " Give us at least were supported by authentic acts. 

firomises." For hie part, he be' It appeared from them that, early 
ieved promises more dangerous in November, 1641, M. Bertin de 
than acts. To announce before- VauxcalledonM.Petit,andoS'ered 
hand that the law of the country to procure for him the place of re- 
would be changed, would be to ferendaiy of the second class in tfad 
make an appeal to people's imagi- Court of Accounts, on condition 
nations, and cause that law to be that he should purchase the resig- 
suspected. If a wise and prudent nation of a referendary of the first 
Government thought that the class, which the Government stood 
electoral law was bad, it ought to in need of to satisfy a promise 

Frmet.] HISTORY. [209 

made by M. Onizot to U. Paasj. afhir. He did not make that re- 
in a few days M. Petit bronght the mark from any idea of il inching 
reaignadon of M. Uerout to M. from the disousaion, but the acca- 
Gaizot, having paid for it a aum of satiouB and ineinuatioiis which had 
30,00(y. In 1644, the same M. been brought before the Chamber 
Petit was again employed bj M. were as he had designated them. 
Qenie, private aecretoiy of U. It was, perhaps, thought that to 
Ouizot, to n^otiate the resignation cover one abuse be should reveal 
of an office in the same court which others, and make it a discussion of 
H. Gnizot wanted for a friend of proper names; but he should do 
U. Lacave Lapl^ne. M. Genie nothing of the sort, as he con- 
had sent for M. Petit, and told him sidered it would he beneath the 
that he could obtun the situation dignity of the Chamber and of the 
of ctdlectoT of the taxes at Corbeil, Government, 
if he could procure the resignation H. £. de Girardin observed, 
of a referendary of the second class that the Minister did not act with 
in the same court. H. Genie gave so much dignity when his affiiir 
Mm a list of the conndUors of that was under discussion last year, 
court, and, in the course of a few The President of the Council 
days, he plaoed in the hands of M. did not intend to place on the fore- 
Genie the resignation required, head of Government acatal<^e of 
This was on the IQIh or 11th of its errors and of its malpractices. 
December, and on the IStb, agree- It would be easy for him to enter 
ably to M. Genie's promise, the into a discussion with those who 
Royal Ordinances, appointing the thus interrupted him, but he 
friend of M. Lacave Laplagne re- thought it would not be at all 
ferendaryintheOourtof Accounts, pleasing to the Chamber. Hs 
and U. Petit collector at Corbeil, should come to the fact itself— to 
were signed. That resignation had a reeignation given for a sum of 
cost H. Petit a aum of 15,000/'., money with the tolerance and the 
and an engagement to pay the knowledge of the Government, 
person who resigned that office a That fact had been often and for a 
penaion of 6,000/. per annum, one- long time practised and tolerated, 
naif of which was to revert to bis Others mi^t think proper to say 
wife. M. Odillon Barrot, in con- that they were completely ignorant 
doaion, declared that the nego- of it, but, for his part, he should 
datioD took place in the cabinet of say no such thing. The first con> 
the Uimater, with or without hia dition for the honour of the Cham- 
knowledge, and that, in either case, her and of the Government was 
be owed the country a signal re- sincerity, and it was not at a time 
paration or a solemn expiation. when he rejected false aasertiona 

The President of the Council that he should depart from the 

■ud, that amongst the facta which truth. The fact complained of was 

were just brought fonrard some of old standing; the practice was 

were ulse and others very insigni- known and toletated. In 1645, 

fieaot Explanationa would be the Court of Bordeaux declared 

given by several pereons, and par- that the practice was legal, and had 

ticniaiiy by U. Lacave Laplagne, nothing in it contrary to the laws 

whose responsibili^ was identical or to morality. He should never 

with that of the Ministry in this regret to see those old i^usea put 

Vol. XC. [P] 

210] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [France. 

an end to — to find the public con* bequeathed to them. If it did not 
science more tenacious, and impose feel a confidence tiiat the labours 
on the Administration new duties of the Government were in con- 
And more elevated sentiments of formitj with the wishes of the tna> 
iehceisy (approbation); but he. at jority, let it be overthrown at once, 
the same time, would be juat to- The Govemment, however, felt 
wards the past aud the present, thai it had a right to inspire that 
In such a state of things, what was confidence ; and, if it saw its power 
the conduct to be pnrsued by the weakened and lessened in ite 
Government? To put an end to hands, it would not retain it for a, 
the abusea which haa been pointed single moment, 
sue to it. For two jears past the M. Odillon Barrot said, that 
abuse complained of had ceased, aftertfaeapeech whichthejhadjust 
and such practices aa were now heard from the honourable Minis- 
brought before the Chamber for- ter, the discussion could scarcely 
bidden. Since that time he hsd be prolonged. He had long been 
heard ofa great number of demands aware that they could not agree 
and solicitations of the same uature, with regard to politics, bat he now 
which had all fallen to the ground, found that they could not do so on 
The Government had done more; questions of honour and morality, 
it had proposed to substitute a He had brought forward facts in 
formal law for a doubtfnl and un- such a manner, that he believed it 
certain system. The Bill would impossible for the Goremment to 
be discussed, and might be altered escape the altematife of either de. 
if it were considered not severe clariug them false, or accepting the 
enoiwh. What more could be de- responsibility attendant on them, 
mauded? He should thus con- " But no." said the houourable 
aider the quesliou as terminated, geatleman. turning towards M. 
He had no right to demand justice Guizot, ''you call these foots 
firom the Opposition. Parties could insignificant, — you, a political 
notbe just towards one another, or man, raised to the Presidency of 
demand perfect impartiality and the Council, representing the Go- 
the absence of all passion. What, vemment in ite highest degree, 
however, had now taken place went you dare to style insignificant 
beyond the ordinary limits of at- the fact of having sought out a 
tacks on justice and on truth. He third party, who would purchase 
sought to express himself in the the resignation of which you stood 
mildest and least offensive manner, in need, and of having repaid that 
but he could not but repeat what third party with a place ia the 
he had said. The Conservative Finance. Such a fact has taken 
party ought, more than any other, place in your office, through the 
to show itself vigilant in watching agency of him who represents you, 
over public morality, the true basis and you think no more of it I The 
of public order. He must, how- whole Chamber has been already 
ever, remind it of one thing, that moved, not by an act of direct 
the men whom it honoured with complicity, but by one of simple 
its confidence had received a very tolerance, and when the act of 
mingled inheritance from the past; complicity, which we nowdenonnce, 
they had sought to regulate and is accomplished with your coucur- 
purify that which bad been thus reuce, with your approbation, and 




even at jour office, after the soleniti 
discasaion which had takea place 
in this Chamber, after the eolema 
engagnmedt which that discussion 
drew from you, what signifies the 
Ungoage which you uae to-day? 
The engagemenl which jou have 
taken does not doubtless signify 
that you will not participate in the 
bargain ; one does not engage one* 
self lo be an honest man and a 
lo/al Minister. But the membera 
of the Court of Accounts who have 
accepted these bargains have not 
participated in the pecuniary sacri- 
fices which the movement has 
caused. It is a third party who 
paid for them, and that third party 
has been repaid with a place which 
should have been the legitimate 
reward of old and honourable ser- 
vices—and yet these you call in- 
significant facts! Believe me, you 
will require all your moral force in 
order to withstand the trial that 
awaits you. You intrench yourself 
in your pride: but, when the Go- 
vernment is concerned, set your 
personal pride aside, for it has 
nothing to do here. Permit me 
to tell JOU that you put the ma- 
jority tfl a very cruel trial. You 
build on the confidence you luia- 
gine you inspire; but that con- 
fidence, allow me to tell jou, has 
in it something very insolent. All 
you do is to tnra towards jour 
majoritj, and say, 'Continue to 
vote for me as hitherto, and all will 
be well!'" 

Aa animated debate followed, in 
the course of which M. Thiers, in 
reply to some remarks by M. de 
Peyramont. said that he did not 
deny that the abuse spoken of bad 
eusted under several Administra- 
tions; be admitted it But what 
he denied was, that either he or 
any of hia colleagues had ever taken 
part in such practices, or in any 

way miied themselves up vith 
them. If any one said tliat he 
had ever taken part in such nego- 
tiations, he should reply to him by 
a contradiction as to a base ca- 

Ultimately M. de Peyramont 
proposed the following order of the 
day : — '■ The Chamber, relying on 
the wish expressed by the Govern- 
ment, and on the efficacy of the 
measures to he taken to put an 
end to a long-standing and ob- 
jectionable abuse, passes to the 
order of the day." 

M. Darblaj proposed a third 
order of the day, as follows: — 
'■ The Chamber, afflicted and dis- 
satisfied, closes the debate on the 
incident, and passes to the order 
of the day." 

The President of the Council 
considered the order of the day 
proposed hj M. Darblaj as implj- 
iug censure, and opposed it. 

M. E. de Girardin.— The Pre- 
sident of the Council ought also to 
declare his opinion relative to the 
order of the daj of M. de Peyra- 
mont, which contains a blame. 

The President of the Council. — 
If M. de Peymmontand his friends 
attached to hia order of the day a 
sense such as M. £. de Girardin 
implies, I should rcgect iC also. 
But it is evident to every man of 
common sense, from the speech of 
M. de Peyramont, that he wishes 
to express his confidence in the 
firm determination of the Govem- 
meni to prevent the recurrence of 
a highly objectionable abuse. That 
not being in any reiipect contrary 
to what I liave said, I accept it. 

The President— The Chamber 
will first decide on the order of the 
day of M. Darblay. If it b ac- 
cepted, all is finished; but. if not, 
I shall then consult the Chamber 
on that of M. de Peyramont. 


212] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [France. 

The Chamber then proceeded to Address in tfa« Chamber of Depa- 

vote on M. Darblaj's order of the ties closed on Saturday die S3nd 

day, when the numbers were — of January, and on the following 

Against it . . 226 Monday the debate on the separate 

InitsfiiTour. ... 146 pft««n>pliB commenced. Dunng 

the discussion on the first para- 

;y . .. -Q graph an attack was made upon the 

Majonty .... iv Ministry by M. Gauthier de Ru- 

M. Barblay's order of the day milly, for not having taken the 

was consequently rejected, and that proper measures to alleviate the 

of M. de Peyramont was than calamities of the famine of last year, 

adopted by a show t^ hands. He was followed by M. Cunia Ori- 

We may mention that the same daine, the Minister of Agriculture, 
subject had beau previously, on who vindicated the GovemmeDt 
the 1 1 th of JanuEury, brought for- against the charge of not having 
vard in the Chamber of Peers by tuen proper measures to avert 
the Marquis de Boisey, who said the crisis of 1B46. In the spring 
that the Ministry was the object of ofthatyeorhe had written to all the 
universal reprobation and animad- prefects, to inform him regularly 
version, and the same feeling, he of the progress of the crops. Their 
was sorry to say, was shared by the appearance was at first most re- 
army and navy, who, not witli stand- assuring, but the heat, usually so 
ing the decorations and promotions beneficial, was attended with the 
lavished upon them, were deeply contrary eSect. Had the Govem- 
afBicted at the deplorable course ment manifested its fears as early 
pnrsuedbytheGovemment. Eveiy as September, the price of grain 
person enjoying its confidence was would have increased in all the 
anobjectof distmst to thecountiy. principal markets and aggravated 
The recent elections of the Na- the difficulty of procuring suppliea, 
tional Ouard were a proof of it. When the Minister published the 
all the Ministerial candidates circular alluded to by M. de Bn- 
having been defeated. The senti- milly, it was known that a deficit 
ment of opposition in the ranks of existed, but it was believed that 
the armed citizens had reached 6,000,000 or 7,000,000 of bectoli- 
Buch a pitch that the General-in- tree of foreign grain wonld amply 
Chief of the Kational Guard was compensate it. Moat of the other 
afraid to station a single legion on countries of Europe had sufiered 
the passage of the King. Upon from the crisis, and in England it 
this M. Guizot rose, and admitted had produced more serious conae- 
Ihe abuse denounced by M. Boissy quences than in France. The de- 
relative to the sale of an ofiice in ficit in the revenues of Great Bri- 
ttle Court of Accounts. That prac- tain had amounted to 55,000,000^., 
tice, be said, had eiisted for many while the diminution in those of 
years, and under all prerioos Ad- France did not exceed 2,600,000/'. 
ministrations. The transaction, The Minister, in concluding, de- 
be regretted to say, was even clared, that it was not the pnvi- 
aulhorized by the law. He added, sion orisis that had brought about 
however, that it bad now ceased to the commercial crisis, but the agi- 
exist tation excited in the country by 

The general discussion on the the Reform banquets. 

Fran^.} HISTORY. [213 

The second paragraph related to hope that that order would not be 

the qaeslioa of finance, and the com- moch disturbed. The iimfM, which 

pletioQof the public works theuin in 1647 had &llen in consequence 

Sn^reas ; and in the conree of the of the food crisis, would recover in 
iecnseiOB M. Dumon drew a com- 1848. There was nothing to lead 
parison between the financial situs- to a dread of large extraordinary 
tioB of France and England, and expenses. Africa bad been paoi- 
said that the latter had never un- fied hy a glorious event which had 
dertaken any great work without jnat taken place, and the prospect 
having recoarse to loans or extra- of the future was ever; way cheer" 
ordinary taxation, while France ing. Every confidence might be 
during the last ten yeara effected felt in the continuance of peace, 
great undertakings from the ordi- for unless the Government felt 
uaryreeourcesof the oouDtiy. The that confidence, itwould not engage 
reserves of the sinking fund ap- the countiy in great public works, 
peared to be looked on as an extra- It was not sufficient to maintain 
wdinary resource, but in fact they order, it was necessary also to en- 
made part of the ordinary budget dow the country with something 
(tf the Stale, and to have recoarse great and durable ; and to do that, 
to them was to remain within the it was necessary to feel confident 
ordinary limits of their reeonrces. of the duration of peace. A com- 
During the last ten years enormous parison had been drawn between 
works bad been accomplished ; the state of railways in France and 
they had conquered and padfied other countries, and a complaint 
Algeria without imposing fresh made that France was less ad- 
tases or contracting a loan, and at vanced, while at the same time the 
the end of the last financial year Government was accused of wasting 
all the arreara had been covered the public money. The financial 
by the ordinary resources, and the state of the country did not in any 
budget, so to speak, brought into a way compromise future great pub- 
stale of equilibrium. The Govern- lie woiis, for there remained yet 
ment, in establishing the budget of to be ezecnted to the amonnt of 
1849, had endeavoured to abstain 1,080,000,000/. About half that 
&om any new expenses, and to sum had been realised, and to 
secure the receipts without increos- complete it 560,000,000/'. would 
ing the taxes, but also without be taken from the reserves of the 
consenting to a reduction of taxes sinking fund, which there was 
which would take 50,000,000/. every reason to hope would be able 
from the Treasury, which no one in to furnish it. He had been re- 
his situation would have dared to proaehed with contractiDg a loan 
do. As to whether the budget without diminishing the floating 
would remain in a state of equi- debt, but to this he shoold re- 
Hbrium it was impoesible to say. ply by quoting the example of 
No one could foresee two yeus England, who in contracting a 
beforehand what extrsbrdinary loan had increased the rate of in- 
expensea would be called for; the terest on Exchequer bills. He 
Government had done all that lay should conclude by observing to 
in its power at the present roo- certtun honourable gentlemen who 
ment. It had presented an even were fond of asking what would 
budget, and everything led to the hqipen if political events should 




entul fresh charges on the State, 
that on that point the; might make 
themselves perfectly easy ; for what 
was apprehended had happened 
eight years since ; political neces- 
sUies had compelled an interrup- 
tion to public works, but the policy 
now followed hj the Oovemment 
would never again impose such 

M. Thiers, who followed, de- 
clared that he was not reassured 
by the financial exposition of M. 
Dumon. Facts, unfortunately, Ultle 
justified the illusions of the Minis- 
ter, and, in M. Thiers' opinion, if 
a radical change were not intro- 
duced into the system, a cata- 
strophewas inevitable. Theaverage 
annual deficit during the lost 
five years had amounted to from 
85,000.000/, to 70.000.000/. The 
surplus during the same inten-al 
had exceeded 30,000,00(1/., so that 
the annual deiicit was reduced to 
25,0u0,000/. The ordinary budget 
inspired him with no apprehen- 
sion, as the reserve of the Sink- 
ing fund was always available. 
The extraordinary budget, how* 
ever, filled him vrith aneosiness. 
Since 1H43, the Chambers had 
voted 1.100,000,000/. for public 
works, which was not all, for the 
Government had entailed an ad- 
ditional expense on private com- 
panies of between 1.800.000.000/,, 
and 1 .400.000,000/. more— in nil 
9,600,000.000/. The ordinary 
budget had reached in 1848 the 
enormous sum of l,88si.000,000/'. ; 
the extraordinaiy budget wae 
185,000.000/., and with the deficit 
of 60,000.000/ the whole of the 
estimates would amount to about 
1,600,000.000/., a sum which had 
even been exceeded by 59.000,000/. 
in 1847. Was the Minister of 
Finance certain that that sum 
would not be exceeded? He did 

not think so, and he accordingly 
considered himself justified in say- 
ing that the finances were ad- 
vancing towards the brink of an 
abyss. M. Thiers did not believe 
that 1848 would be the last cala- 
mitous year, and that a new era 
would commence in 1849, when 
the reserve of the Sinking Fund 
would be completely available. 
Abbe Louis often told him that a 
Government should always pay its 
debts in time of peace, in order to 
be able to borrow in time of war. 
The present Ministers reversed 
that axiom, and borrowed in time 
of peace. M. Thiers next exa- 
mined the question of the float- 
ing debt, which now amounted to 
880,000,000/. He contended that, 
at the close of 1B48, the public 
works, executed and due, would 
amount to 676,000.000/., and that, 
admitting that the loan would pro- 
duce 140,000,000/. on the 7th of 
December, 1846, and that the rail- 
road companies would reimburse 
63,000,000/. in the year, which 
be did not believe, the floating 
debt would be increased to about 
800.000,000/., and at the end of 
1840 it would not be under 
700,000.000/. M. Thiers ab- 
stained from characterizing such a 
situation, aud contented himself 
with observing that it was highly 
imprudent. In conclusion, he 
again expressed his fear that a 
catastrophe was impending. Since 
the conclusion of the Spanish mar- 
riages, the Ministry, he said, could 
no longer call itself a Ministry of 
peace, and that impolitic act had 
been the real and sole cause of the 
present crisis. 

The Minister of Fitunce pointed 
out the ituucaracy of M. Thiers' 
assertion, that the amount of float- 
ing debt at the end of 1848 
would be from 750,000,0iJQ/. to 

Frame.] HISTORY. [215 

800,000,000/'. That was an error them, so tiiat it waa impossible for 

into nliioh lJi« honourable gentle- an independeat deputy to obtain a 

man could not have fallen if be hearing. He concluded by de- 

bad not assumed as expenses the daring that tbe Oovemmenl vas 

credits which had been opened, fast proceeding towards a general 

and if be had taken more into ac- monopoly, which was, in fact, 00* 

GOtint the influence of the loan on thing but pure commuoism. 
tbe floating debt The amount of On tbe 3 Ist of January, when the 

the credita opened for the exe- subject of debate in tbe Chamber 

cntion of the works Toted by of Deputies was the furagraph re- 

the Bill of 1843 amounted to lating to foreign Powers, and 

190,000,000/'., which brought the especially tbe amirs of Italy, M. 

whole snm at tbe charge of the Toiers ascended the tribune, and 

floatingdebttoHl&.OOO.UOl)/'. But, delivered a long and able speech 

on the other hand, the reaonrces in favour of Italian independence, 

were 190,000,000/. from the loan, Tbe fotlovring are a few extracts: 

and 20,000,000/. from tbe railway — " When Italy now loolw forth for 

companies, which together gave a bope, itis nottoFrancethatshe di> 

sum of 810,000,000/'. ; thus re* rects ber regards — « misfortune 

dncing the amount of the floating alikeforherandforiisl Andthere* 

debt to 006.000.000/, It was, fore is it that I repeat that she ought 

therefore, with good reason that be not to be allowed to entertain any 

had asserted that the floating debt doabt of our feeling towards her. 

at the end of 1848 would not ex- Let me, however, before I enter 

oeed 630.000,000/'. on tbe question of our policy to- 

M. Thiers repeated bis argn- wards that conntry, devote a few 

menta in favour of the opinion that words to the cause of liberty. Yoa 

tbe amount of the floatii^ debt all know what is passing at Pa- 

wonld be from 760,000. OOOf. to lermo. A great city has been bom- 

600,000,000/'. nntil such period barded for eight-and-forty bobrs — 

when the public works were tsr- bombarded, not by foreigners, but 

minated, and concluded thus: — by her own Government — bom- 

" Your sitoation is so much tbe barded, not for injuries done, but 

more grave that 7011 incessantly for having demanded rights. Yea, 

are poetponing tbe means of extri- the inliabitants demanded, not an- 

cating yourselves from it No very archJcal and dangerous liberties. bnt 

extraordinary circnmstances are the most equitable and most natural 

required to cause a Oovemment to rights — that of being judged by im- 

have need of 100,000,000/. If partial magistrates — of controlling 

to-morrow yon were in want of an the expenses of an Administration 

issue of 100.000,000/. of Treasury which weighs them down with taxes 

bonds, it would be impossible for ' — of baring certain municipal prj- 

you to obtain that amount." vileges— in fine, they demanded a 

In the cotirse of the debate M. constitution for Sicily. Such were 

Loneau was proceeding to read the rights for demanding which 

some passages from a pamphlet, Palermo was subjected to a forty- 

btit cries of "Enough, enougbt" eight hours' bombardment! In the 

drowned his voice. Ministers, name of humanity I here denounce 

said the honourable deputy, had such acts. I do not here contest the 

an army of SOO supporters behind rigblsaf established Goveraments: 

216] ANNUAL REQISTBR, 1848. [*""«»« 

they hare a right (o defend them- sublime ^talors of haman ideas, 

selvea ; nben the aathohties are vilhout anv odier complicity on 

attacked bj an armed force, the; our part Uian the taking of the 

must naturally look to their de- Bastile, and the revolution of July 

fence ; it is a hard extremity, but — nhen revolution ahall develope 

it must Bometimes occur ; but itself it is sacred. It is sacred, and 

against ino£FeDBiTe assemblages, no one should interfere with it; 

when it is only necessary to re- to do so would be an attack against 

press some innocuous ciies, it is nature and against humanity. We 

repugnant to all the laws of hu> should not carry liberty into anj 

manlty to have recourse to such ex- quarter, bat we ought not to suffer it 

treme means. And since in de- to be molested when it comes 

nouuNng some excesses, nhicb I spontaneously. No ; France must 

deplore, such lively sympathies not suffer iL It is the prindpla 

were called forth in another as- of our policy. You are aware of 

sembly, you will not remain sUent what took place at Rome at the 

and insensible in presence of those time of the nomination of the pre- 

for which Italy groans. The noble sent Pontiff. Every one expected 

Parliament of England, which ex- a long conclave, but it only tasted 

amines, weighs, and judges eveiy three days. Count Boasi is as- 

matter, has well examined and suredly a very clever man, but I 

judged this serious question ; we do not think he contributed much 

have also a tribune, let us use it to the elevation of Pius IX. How 

in behalf of those who have none, was he elected ? By the oldest 

There is a moral equilibrium to cardinals, from a sentiment of fear, 

maintain. Yea, there are in Europe and they named a reforming Fon- 

Absolntist ideas and Libei-al ideas, tiff in order to remove danger. At 

The great equilibrium exercises Florence and at Turin the sove- 

these two tendencies. I mean no- reigns yielded to the seductioiis of 

thing offensive to any one. Let a people whom they loved. One 

those people who like absolutism sovereign alone, that of Nicies, 

live quietly beneath its yoke ; hut presented to the people, who with 

what we must watch over is, that eagerness thronged around him, the 

the just balance between the two pomt of his eword, at the risk of 

lendencies is maintained. Evwy wounding himself with it But 

time that France gets rid of an we had nothing to do with iL We 

enemy she gains s friend. Is that are strangers to it all. Treaties 

JL reason why we should go vio- have been spoken of — ^yes, they 

lently and clandestinely to give must be observed, hut we cannot 

liberty to countries which have it be prevented from detestit^ them. 

not? Certainly not. To impose Others must be made to observe 

liberty at the point of the bayonet them. You have not done in Italy 

is violence; to impose it by propa- what yon might have done. Ihave 

gandism would be perfidy. But admired with what address you 

we have been just towards others, have dissembled the real question. 

Jet us be BO to ourselves. Wheu llemodelling of territory is not the 

liberty shall develope itself in any point at issue. We do not call on 

quarter, vrithout any other parti- you to overturn Italy, but to cause 

cipation on our part than Monies- treaties to be observed. Why are 

quieu, Descartes, Pascal, those the Austrians at Modena? The 

France.) HISTORY. [217 

trcAtieB of 1815 forbid it Cbuh if thej bad imitod togedier to stop 
them to be respected. You will the AustrianB, vhere any danger 
tell me tbe Ituions will not find would have been ? England is 
tbatenougb. Act always for jour- popnlac in Italy, beoanae it ia 
selves, for your honour under pre- known that instead of oppotdug 
sent curcuma tances. Oive hope to goveimneBtal modificationa atie has 
those who ought to hope, ana in- always encontaoed them. I am 
■pire fiear in those who ot^ht to aware that the Italians wish to go 
apprebend it. Doubtless tlioBe who faster than is consistent with pni- 
mfler demand more, but cause denoe : bnt where does the danger 
treaties to be respected, for that lie under such drcomatances? "^le 
will be Bometliing. At Turin, at danger is that princes do net re- 
Florence, at Borne, where the ^e ooaceaaions, but make them 
people, I moat aay, are not too ex- too late, or insufficiently, and that 
acting, why do the aoveraigns eon- then tbe people, becoming impa- 
oede BO little? Because they lire tient, sfaoald do at Florence and 
in fear of the interrention of Aus- at Borne what has been done at 
tria. It ia the sword of Damocles Palermo. What ought yon to do 
suspended over Italy. I admit that in this case? Instead of your 
hitherto liberty has been respected holding up the prinoea to the 
atTurin, at Rome, and at Florence, people as enemies, they should 
aad this fact constitutes a great be advised to wait, and be aSBured 
danger (or Austria. But what is of obtaining the concessions which 
the convention which the Absolute they demand. This is what has 
and the Liberal Governments have not been done. The question is 
entered into ? It ia to tolerate veiy simple. It does not oonoem 
each other's vicinity — we sofqwrt the future fate of Italy, which X 
that of absolutism, let them sup- hope will bs prosperous and glo- 

rt that of liberty. Tee, it will nous ; it doea not relate to the re- 
painful to the Auatrians to put modelling of Italy, to the question 
np with the administrative reforms ef territories, but to the independ- 
ef die Italian States ; but she must ence of the states in their present 
support them, and, had it not been limits; and that independence it ia 
for tbe enonnona fanlt which has our duty to guarantee, and to pro- 
been committed, there would have teot as our own interest. If I were 
been two nations together to make permitted to address myself to the 
her do so — I allude to the ^Mmish Italians themselves, I should say 
nuufiaoes. That question is not to them, ' Be united, Tuscans, 
finished; the results are now bo- Homans, Genoese, Fiedmonlese, 
ining to show themselves. Eng- snd Neapolitans, form yourselves 
id has assumed a position whiui into one grest &mily. People and 
advise you to adopt; she has re- princes be united. The altar of 
quired a respect for the t«rriloriee the oountry should be at this mo- 
and the prBrogatives of Govern- ment for the whole of Italy the 
menta, and added that, if foioe altftr of concord, on which yon 
were enq>loyed, shs could not took princes should place all that can 
on srith indifierence. I ask you, no longer be reconciled with the 
whether if France and England spirit of the age, and you people, 
had eome to an understanding, if all your premature hopes. Wheu 
they bad used the same language, you shaU thus understand each 


218] ANNUAL REGISTEB, 1848. [Franw. 

other, be utiited atate to etate, have gain strength — that nothiDg should 

at Borne one Pontiff, let Charles be compromised in Europe, that I 

Albert declare himself in Pied- have followed the policy which is 

mont the champion of your inde- now attacked. I quite share, also, 

pendence, and, if you are ever at- in the sentiments the honourable 

tacked, reckon on France — whose gentleman has expressed relative 

glory is of ancient date, but whose to what I shall call useless ex- 

beart never grows old— on France, cesses ; but I must protest against 

which is neither abased nor dege- the employment of such words 

Derated. She has never degene- as he has adopted, as being 

rated but in the hands of those neither useful nor suitable when 

who have considered her made in applied to Governments which it 

their own image. On that day is desired to recall to sentiments 

France and England will speak in of moderation, liberalism, end 

common ; they will forget all their clemency. I have, also, to clear 

disaensioDs to utter together the up a point alluded to by the 

language not only of liberty and honourable gentleman relative to 

of humanity, but of treaties, and an application made by Atistria 

on that day you will be saved.'" to the Cabinets of Europe. 

M. Guizot then rose and said : Neither he nor I can produce the 

" In U. Thiers' speech there are a despatches spoken of. I have 

great variety of topics touched on* them not, neither probably has he ; 

and on many of the most essential but if I had them in my posses- 

we completely agree; when he ex- aion, I should not conceive myself 

pressed his sympathy for Italy, he entitled to produce them here, 

gave utterance to my sentiments What occurred was, that Austria, 

as well as to his own. We also preoccupied with the danger 

have the pretension of knowing all which the t«rritonal question was 

the services that Italy has reu- raising up for her in Italy, ad* 

dered to humanity, and we are dressed a note to the European 

happy in paying to her, in that Governments to afBnu her right 

respect, our share of gratitude, to maintain her Italian possessions 

But it will not be considered according to the Urms of treaties, 

strange that we, occupying as we and to demand their adhesion to 

do the Ministerial bench, are her claim. That adhesion was 

obliged to render to ourselves a formally given by the English 

more exact account of our words Cabinet as well as by others. I 

and of our acU than the honour- affirm to the Chamber that this is 

able gentleman has occasion for, the sense, if not the very words, of 

when speaking with his full liberty the despatch. That incident being 

as a Deputy. Were that honour* disposed of, I now proceed to the 

able gentleman in my place and I main question at present at issue, 

in his, I am certain that be would M. Thiers has reduced the que»- 

be as apprehensive as I that brute tion to two points: he says that we 

force — or call it by its proper ought to maintain completely the 

name, war — should step in to independence of the Italian States, 

trouble the work now being ao- and to afford support to those who 

complished in Italy. It is be- wish to encourage in these states 

cause I am as desirous as K. internal reforms. On these two 

Thiers that these reforms should points I am exactly of his opinion; 

France.] HISTORY. [219 

snd I affirm that such is not onlr The Prmident of the CouacU. — 

our language at present, but such "Neitherdid we believethat, under 

has been our rule of conduct existing circumstances, Mod ens 

throughout. We do not think was equal to Rome, and that the 

ouiselves called on to indicate of entrance of the Austrians into tbe 

ouiselves, and from here, to each former state was of the same |m- 

Govemment, what nature of re- portance as their enti? into the 

form, and what degree of it, ought Papal States. I now come to the 

to be proper to be effected. I second point alluded to by the 

have for their independence the honourable geDtleman. He hna 

feeling of respect to let them told us to encourage reforms. We 

decide themselves what thej ought have done so ; the proof of this is 

to do. I am quite of opinion, with to be found in the documents which 

M. Thiers, that France ought to we have communicated to the 

watch carefulljr over the mainte- Chamber, and in all our acts." 

nance of that great balance of The King's OoTemment would, 

power which is becoming dailj everywhere and always, maintain 

more and more displaced to the the independence of the Italian 

frofit of the free Governments, states. There was scarcely any* 

believe that every absolute Go- thing which M. Thiers had men- 

vemment which ceases ia a chance tioned but what the Government 

gainedfor France— I believe that was ready to do. He felt bonud 

every natorol attempt to recover to tell the Chamber that the ad- 

libertf is of advantage to this vice given by the honourable 

country ; but only on condition Deputy had been already acted 

that such effort proves successful, upon. He might, perhaps, bo 

and that from it issues a regular more popular in Italy; but the 

and dnrable government. What conduct of the Government in the 

is most dangerous for us is fruit- Italian states has been, on every 

less, nnsuccwsful attempts. What point, in confonnity to the true 

was there ever of greater nullit; interests of the country and tiiose 

for Italy than the revolutions of of humanity. 

IdSOand 18Q1 — those ill-digested. In discussing the paragraph of 

badly-executed acts? I want to the address relating to the affairs 

see efficient movements only, for of Switzerland, M. Thiers said 

hj such only can her independ- that he would examine the ques- 

ence be assured." tion with ell the moderation he 

The President of the Council could command, and he would de- 
then quot«d what M. Thiers him- serve much merit in doing so, for 
self said in a pamphlet, published no act of the Cabinet had filled 
in 1831. "TheGovemmentought him with more irritation than its 
to call on the Austrians to with- conduct towards Switzerland. The 
draw; but to intervene, in order Ministry viewed, in the triumph 
to obtain that result, would be a of tbe Swiss Government, the Ui- 
grave matter, which m^ht lead to umph of tbe Radicals and the pre- 
war. France risked it for Bel- lude of fresh disorders and anarchy. 
gum : but she ought not to do so U. Thiers, on the contrary, saw in 
r Modena and Bologna." the present situation of Switser. 

M. Thiers. — You have not then land, tbe revolution and the coun- 

advanced a step for 17 years. ter-revolution ; and the Frenah 

220] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [*•««-■ 

Oovemment, he wai son; to find, redouble iaj v^Iuioe against his 

had espoused the cause of the lat- deteetable policy." He would not 

ter. He then referred to the follow him in his historical disqtii- 

events accomplished in Switzer- sition, nor indulge in recriminar 

land durius the last 60 years, tion, but would at once proceed to 

and oontenaed that the Treaty of examine the right of the Powers, 

Vienna did not authorize the parties to the treaties of 1810, to 

Powers of Europe, parties thereto, interfere in the question of the re- 

to interfere with the Federal Pact Tision of the Federal Pact, which 

Those Powers, in concluding that was contested by M. Thiers. Ttiia 

treaty, had merely wished to esta- was an error, and a fundamental 

blish the neutrality of Bwitzer- one. On the 6th of April, 1814, 

land, and ensure her territorial the Diet deliberated with the 

integrity. Austria alone asserted envoys of Austria, Frusaia, and 

that Switzerland had not the right Russia, on the draught of the 

to modify the Pact without the Federal Constitntion, and, on the 

oonsent of the Powers, and France 18th of June, France joined the 

had at all times entertained the conference. The article of the 

contrary opinion. M. Thiers then ConTOntion of Paris positively 

proceeded to justify the aggressions stated that France reoognieed and 

committed by the m^ority of the would guarantee the politicBl con- 

oantons against the minority, and stitotion of Switzerland, and au- 

stated that these intended not only thority had been given to all the 

to maintain the Jesuits, but to im- delegates of those powers to la- 

pose them on the other cantons of bonr in conjunction with the Diet 

the Confederation ; he then vindi- to frame that constitution. France, 

cated the conquerors against the consequently, had a right to in- 

chargea of exaction and oppree- quire into the events now passing 

sion, and described their conduct in the country. M. Ouizot next 

as perfectly legal, mond, and cited passages from a number of 

moderate- documents to prove diat it was 

M. Guizot replied in a most the cause of liberty he had de- 

efTective speech. Be said, that if fended in Switzerland. Be then 

the policy adopted by the Cabinet described the state of anarchy 

towards Switzerland had caused which now prevailed there, and 

M.. Thiers much irritation, he had, asked if that was the liberty de- 

in his turn, ekperienced consider- sired by M. Thiers. There existed, 

able pain in listening to the speech he said, no stru(^le ia Switzer- 

of the honourable Member, and land between the revolution and 

could not help regretting that so counter-revotutioD, any mofe than 

eminent a man should suffer him- in France ; but there was in both 

self to be so blinded by passion, countries a strife of the partisans 

The more he reflected on the of disorder against regular Oovem- 

opinions expressed by M. Thiers, ments. Under the inflnenoe of a 

the more he deplored the situation party devoid of all morality, Swit- 

in which he bad placed himself, serland mast become a focus of 

" It has," exclaimed M. Guizot, disorder, and a refoge for all the 

" inspired no irritation in me discontent«d of the neighbouring 

against U. Thiers; but it will nations. M. Thiers, at another 

have the effect <rf inducing me to period, had held in his despatches 

Franc.] HISTORY. [221 

precisely the eame Ungni^e he law in order to preTent siniilu 
[ii. Guizot) held at that moment ; demonstrations. U. de UallevilU 
and to demonstiate it, he qnoted here observed that he recc^nised 
despatches, daUd 1SS6, writt«n by the right of the Ooremment to 
il. Thiera, which folly bore out prohibit those r^utiMms in pobliA 
his etatemmt. [M. Thiers hero places, but he oonU not grant it 
interrupted M. Guizot, and said as respected pri*at« houses. The 
that circumstances were not the Uinistor of the Interior thanked 
same, and that, in all cases, he his opponent for that concession, 
had not applied to U. Mett«mich, and maintained that the moment 
but acted alone.] M. Guizot re- an appeal was addressed to the 
plied, that circumstances were at public, and that the dinner was 
present far more serions than in gi*en bj subscription, the Qorem- 
1836; that it was the same anar- ment was justified in preventing 
chical spirit which had then fiuled it, were it even to take place in a 
to oTerthrow regular Oovemments private establishment. The Mi- 
that again raised its head with re- niatei then proceeded to describe 
doubled fiiry. the danger to public order attend- 
After an animated debate, the ing such tivmona, which be oom- 
paragnph of the Address, which pared to the clubs of the Frenah 
had been warmly contested, was nevolution. 
voted by a considerable mqiority. These statements by M. Dn- 
On a scrutiny there appeared — ch&tel oocasioned great uproar and 
confusion in the Chamber, and ft 
For the paragraph . . S06 voice shouted out " C tit Charin 
Against it .... 12S U Due teat pur." M. Cr^mieux 
' exclaimed, amidst loud applanse, 
H^oritf for Ministera 80 "There is blood in it!" and M. 
Odillon Barrot told tb« Hinista^ 
Kest followed a debate on the that the moment was dangerous, 
paiagraph referring to the Reform and that they might prepare for 
Banquets, to which subsequent revolution, 
events gave an interest and im- Onthelthof February thepsra- 
portance which it would not others graph relatiTe to Poland gave rise 
wise have possessed. M. de Mai- to an animated debate. M.Larabst 
lerille contended that the citizens hoped that it would be unanimoosty 
were legally entitled to hold such voted. M. Vavin expressed his 
meetings, and that no court of warm sympathy for the Polish 
justice in France would sanction cause, and bkmed the Ministry 
the pretensions of the Ministry to for prohibiting a banquet which 
prolubit them, founded on the law was to have been lately offered to 
of 1700. The Minister of the In- Prince Czartoi^ski. M. Salrandy 
tenor rose to reply to M. de Malle- contended that the Poles received a 
ville, and said that he wondered at generous hospitality in France, 
his questioning the l^ality of the and that a sum of l,500,000f. was 
course pursued by £e Cabinet, annually divided amongst the emi- 
when he himself, as Under-Secre- grants vrfao needed assistance. M. 
tary of Sute of the Ministry of the L'Herbette asked M. Guizot if a 
Interior, in the Administration of Russian subject had not been re- 
M, Thiers, had iuvoked the same cently eipeUed from France for 

222] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [F'onc. 

proDOuaoing a speech hostile to A long snd vehement diecuBsion 
the Emperor Nicholas. IJ. Gui- took place upon the paragraph 
zot replied that the banquet at vbich attacked the Reform demon- 
which the speech had been da- stratious throughout the couutiy, 
livered bad been permitted b; the and eapeciall; upon the propriety 
Government, and that that cJr- of the sentence stating that " the 
cumstance had aggravated the of- agitation excited b; hostile pas- 
fence of the speaker. After a few sions, or by blind delusion, will 
vords from MM. L'Herbette and give way before the reason of the 
Ohambolle, the paragraph was public, enlightened by our free 
voted. diBCUBsioas." 

On the following day, while the In the course of the debate the 

paragraph relating to Algeria was Minister of the Interior again 

under discussion, Marshal Bu- spoke against the Beform.banque>a, 

geaud said, that the submiasion of declaring that they 'nere illegal, 

Abd-el-Kader was a new guarantee and that the Government bad de- 

in favour of the African pos- termined that no more meetings 

aeuions of France ; but be was, of that kind should lake place, 

nevertheless, of opinion that the Upon this M. Odillon Barrot 

army should be reduced aa litile exclaimed, " You are worse than 

as possible in presence of a warlike Polignac and Perronet!" 

popalation of at least 4,0llU,000 Atremendoussceneofuproarnow 

souls, who could, in six weeks, ensued. The Ministerial Members 

turn into the field between 000,000 would not hear any more speeches, 

and 600,000 combatants. and the Oppoaition quitting their 

General Lamoriciere vindicated seate, the President pronounced 
the Due d'Aumale against the the discussion to be at an end, 
charge of levity which had been amidst much confusion, and mu- 
directed against him on the occa^ tual recrimination, 
sion of the submission of Abd-el- Ultimately, however, the Oppo- 
Kader, and contended that any sition. as a body, refused to vote 
other general in his place would at all, and the paragraph was car- 
have acted as be did. ried by a majority of 305. The 

M. Guizot, having been asked numbers were^ 
by M. Laroch^aquelin what the 

Government intended to do with For the paragraph . . S33 

Uie Emir, replied — " The promise Against it .... 18 
made to bim shall be tulfilled. 

We cannot, however, allow him to Next day (Feb. 19) the follow- 

proceed to St. Jean d'Acre, be- ing amendment was moved, by M. 

cause that fortress belongs to the Sallandrouze, to the lest paragraph 

Porte, which has not yet recog- of the Address i — 

nised our African possessious. If "Amidst those different mani- 

Abd-el-Kader wishes to be con- festations. your Government will 

veyed to the East, he shall be con- discriminate the real and legiti- 

ducted to Alexandria. There, if mate wishes of the country. It 

the Viceroy consents to receive will, we trust, assume the initiative 

him, we will find guarantees and of the wise and moderate reforms 

securities, which St. Jean dAcre claimed by public opinion, amongst 

does not offer." which Parliamentary reform holds 

Fnmes.] HISTORY. [223 

tlie first place. In a constitDtional ferant fracdons vhicli oompoBed it. 

Moturcby the union of the great He said, howoTer, that the ques- 

powers of the Slate enables tbe tion Bfaould be carefully examined 

GoTenment to pursoe, without during the present Farli&ment, 

danger, a policy of prepress, and and declared that, if amtngements 

to satisfy ail the moral and mate- among the Conserrativea were not 

rial interests of the country." successful, the Cabinet would 

He said, that it was not enough leave to others the care of pre- 

to prohibit banquets, it was like- siding over the disoi^aoization of 

wise indispensable to remove their the party and the ruin of its 

cause, by granting certain reforms policy. 

demanded by all parties. It was - M. Thiers then rose and said, 

evident that something should be that the Chamber had not asked 

done ; and, if the Government was for the promise of a discussion ; 

really anxious to save the country that it could have without leave. 

from anarchical doctrines, it had The question was, what is the 

it in its power still te accomplish, opinion of the mffjority on the 

with dignity, and within the limits two questions of Parliamentary 

it might deem ext)edient, the bene- and Electoral Heform ? As to the 

ficial measure claimed by public first branch, all were agreed that 

opinion. Should it hesitate much two hundred employ^ ought not to 

longer, it might be compelled, by sit in the Chamber, On the 

circumstances, to make deplorable second branch all too were agreed, 

concessions. M. Goulard, who fol- except the Government, which vas 

lowed, said that the moment was divided. On a question which agi- 

inopportune for Parliamentary re- tated France from one end to 

form. He proceeded, amidst the the other, the Government had no 

murmurs of the Opposition, to vin- fixed opinion, but was obliged to 

dicate theexistingelectorallaw,aDd take its opinions from the Oppo- 

Gontended that the Chamber could sition, whose ideas M. Guizot pre- 

not alter it without committing tended to despise. The success of 

suicide. M. Glapier, in the name the measure he was, however, 

of part of the Conservative parly, happy to say vras certain, and it 

demanded that a Bill for Farlia- was now a mere question of time. 

mentaiy reform be presented thia M. Guizot repeated his former 

year. M. de Momy, another Con- declaration, and was succeeded by 

servative Member, after indulging M. Blanqui. who protested against 

in some attacks against the Op- the distinction dravm by M. Guizot 

position, declared that he would between the two parties into which 

cease to support the Ministry if the Conservative majority was di- 

it did not brmg forward such a law vided, one of which he had called 

next Session. M. Guizot then rose truly Conservative, and the other 

and said, that the Cabinet would hostile. M.d'Arblay.whofollowed, 

do nothing this year. In the observed that M. Guizot had made 

meantime, he refused to make any a similar promise last Session. 

promise for the future, but added After a few words from M. R6> 

that he and his colleagues would musat, the discussion was closed, 

exert themselves in the interest of and the amendment of M. Saltan- 

the Conservative party, to reunite, drouze was rejected by a nugorin- 

17 a common compromise, the d if- of 333 to 189. The entire Ad- 

224] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. IFrmet. 

dresa nm afterwards adopted by tons must promise vb to lend t 

341 to 3, tbe OppoBition still ab- firm Bupport to all those who do not 

itaining froto yotiiig. wish tbese discussiona to remain 

As a Bjmptom of what was pass- onfruitful. We have anired at 

ing in men s tninda at this limoi one of those moments in which to 

we transmbe a passage that ^ defend the Uberty of one's country 

peared in the oolumns of the Na- is to defend one's honour. Paris, 

tional, the editor of whioh, M. it'hich effected the revolution of 

Armand Mairast, was afterwarda, July, in order to reabt Boyid ordi- 

fbr a considerable period, PresI- nanoes, will not allow her rights 

dent of the Nadonal Assembly, to be confiscated by a decree of the 

and one of the most aotive pro- police. When force is beyond Ae 

noters end supporters of the Re^ pole of the law, it is no longer 

pnblio. anything but violence; and vio- 

" The contest of words must bs lence has always entailed misfor- 

. tnnsformed into one of aetions; tunea on those who have em- 

aihitrary power mnst be faced by ployed it." 
right and by courage ; good oiti- 




Meetmff of thg Oppontion Member* — Armauneement of a Befonn 
Banquet at Paris— The National Ovardt ealUd upon to appear in 
uniform — Prohilrition of the Banquet by Minitten — /( m given up by 
the Oppotititm — Addreu by Qmeral Jacqueminot to the National 
Ovarde — Act of Impeachment of Minittert — Ditturbed elate of Parte 
— Eeti^nation of M. Ouiaot and kit ColUayue» — ColUeione between 
the popuieu:e and the military — Joy of the mob at the dotmfaU of the 
Minittry — LameTttable ijtcident at the Hotel of the Miniiter dee 
Affaire* Etrangirei — Cruel etratagem of Lagrange and the BeptAlican* 
— It* momentout Contequence* — Barricades erected on the morning of 
the 24tA of FAruary — Count MoU i* unable to form a Minietry — 
if. Thiere tent for by the King — ProeUtmatian by M. Thiert and M. 
Odillon Barrot—The mob tJireatent tke TuiUries — The National 
Quarde and troop* of the line offer no reiitlance — Abdication of Louii 
Philippe — Terrible teene in the Chamber of Deputies — The Duehe** of 
Orleatu and the young Prince* enter the Chamber — Irruption of the 
fflo6 — Demand of a Provisional Government by M. Marie — Speech <^ 
M. Odillon Barrot — Speeches of M. Ledrv, ItelUn and M. de Lamar' 
tin* — The mob maeter* of the Chamber — Nomination of a Provitional 
Qotemment — "To theHStelde YiUe!" — Scene of tumuUuov* violence 
in the Chamber — Proclamation of the Repobuo at the HGtd de Ville 
— Sanguinary contest at the Palais Royal— Escape of Lout* Philippe 
and the Roy^ FamUy — The ex-King and Queen arrive in England-^ 
Farewell Addreu by the Due d'Aumale to the Army in Algeria — The 
TuiUrie* in the hand* of the mob— Proclamation* of the Provieional 
OovemmerU—Dietriiuiion of office* — All vesliye* of Monarchy swept 
away — Abolition of title* of nobility — Reipeet shown for private pro- 
perty in Parie — Devastation* in the provinces — Appointment of Barbie 
a* Colonel in the National Ouard — The Populace and the Clergy — 
Clamour* for the "Red Repiiblie " at the Httel de VUU — Courageous 
firmne** <^ M. de Lamartine — Official Proclamation of the Bepf^lic— 
Wa* France republican at heart? — Dtcree convoking a Cotutiluent 
National Assembly — M. de Lamartine and the Foreign Policy of the 
New Government — Hi* Manifesto to Europe — Alarming Circular* 
i»tued by M. Ledru RolUn and M. Camot— Their Doctrine* disclaimed 
by the Provieional Oovemment — Quarrel between the National Guard 
and the Oovemment — The former obliged to give way — Appointment 
of a Committee of Labour for the Operatives — National Workthop* 
{atelier»)e*tdbliihed — HoitHityto Englith Workmen — Regulation* for 

Vol. XC [Q] 

226] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fr«n«. 

payment of Taxet — FtTianciai potition of the Republie — Suspetuum of 
Cath Payments by the Bank of France, and by Banks in the pro- 
vinces— Louu Blane'i plan for the Organization of Labour The Com- 

muniiti or Socialittt — Disturbance created by them on the Ifith of 
ApiU— Election of Deputies for the National Assembly —Biota in 
various placet — Views of the extrente Democrats. 

THE Ifinistty having gained fore, determined to prohibit the 
their doubtful triumph in the banquet, and, on the evening of 
Chamber, a large meeting of the Monday the Slst, the foUoning 
MemberB of the Opposition took proclamation was issued and posted 
place on the following day. to con- on the walls in different ports of 
aider what course of policy they the city ; — 
should adopt. The twelfth arron- . . 
dissement of Paris had at the be- " ^"mianj,— 
gituing of the year determined to " The Government had inter- 
celebrate a Beform Banquet on the dieted the banquet of the liith 
19th of Jauuair; but in conse- arrondissement. It was within its 
quenceof opposition from the au- right in doing this, being authorized 
thorities it was from time to time by the letter aod spirit of the law. 
postponed, and it was ultimately Neverthalesa, in consequence of 
fixed that it should take place on tlte diseusaion which took place in 
Tuesday, the 22nd of February, the Chamber on this subject, think- 
The intention of the Government ing that the Opposition was acting 
was not to pravent the banquet by vrith good faith, it resolved to 
force, but protest against the pro- afford it an opportunity for sub- 
ceediugs, and afterwards try the mitting the question of the legali^ 
question of their legalil^ in a court of banquets to the appreciation of 
of law. The Committee, how- the tribunals and the High Court 
ever, appointed to organize the of Cassation. To do this, it had 
public dmner, issued on Sunday resolved to authorize for to-morrow 
the QOth an announcement, in tb6 entrance into the banquet-room, 
which they prescribed the mode in hoping that the persons present at 
which the parties intending to be the manifestation would have the 
present were to assemble and pro- vrisdom to retire at the first sum- 
ceed in procession along the streets mons. But, after the manifesto 
to the banquet. At the same time, published thia morning, calling 
the National Guards were called the public to a manifestation, oon- 
upon to attend in uniform "for the vokii^ the National Guards, and 
purpose of defending liberty, bv assigning them a place ranked by 
joining the demonstration, and the legions, and ran^ng them in 
protecting order and preventing line, a Government is raised in 
all collision by their presence." opposition to the real Government, 
This was clearly an illegal step — usurps the public power, and openly 
for it was the attempt of a number violates the ChaJter. These are 
of private individutus to usurp the acts which the Government cannot 
Ainctions of the Executive, and by tolerate. In consequence, the 
their own authority efiect a die- banquetof the IStharrendissement 
pl^ of military force in tiie streets will not take place. Parisians! 
of Paris. The Government, there- renitdn deaf to every excitement to 

Fnww] HISTORY. [227 

disorder. Do not, hy tumnltuous having betrayed abroad the honour 

assemblages, afford grounds for a and the interest of France. 2. Of 

repression which the Government having falsified the principles of 

vould deplore." the conatitntion, violated the gua- 

On the appearance of this pro- rantees of libertj, and attacked the 

clamation a meeting of the opposi- rights of the people. 3. Ofhav- 

tioa Deputies was held at the ing, L^r a sj^tematic corruption, at- 

house of M. Odillon Barrot, and tempted to substitute for the free 

it vae resolved to abandon ^e expression of public opinion the 

banquet — Placards were posted on calculations of private interest, and 

the walls, announcing their deter- thas perverted the representative 

aaination, and hopes were enter- government. 4. Of having trufficked 

tAined by the Ministry that no dis- for ministerial purposes in public 

turbance would take place. In the offices, as well as in all the preroga- 

order of the day issued by General tives and privileges of power. 5. 

Jacqueminot, Commander-in-chief Of having, in the same interest, 

of the National Guards, he said:— wasted the finances of the State, 

"Fewamong you, without doubt, and thas compromised the forces 

are disposed to allow yourselves to and the grandenr of the kingdom, 

be led to a culpable step: but I 6. Of having violently despoiled 

wish to spare them the error and the citizens of a right inherent to 

the regret of showing their small every free coustitotion, and the 

numberamongthe66,000 National exercise of which had been gna- 

Guards of which your legions are ranteed to them by the charter, by 

composed. It is, then, in the the laws, and by former prece- 

name of the law that I conjure rou dents. T. Of having, in fine, by a 

not to disappoint the confidence of policy overtly counter-re vol ution- 

the conntn', which has confided to ary, placed in qaestion all the con- 

youthedefenceoftheconstitutional quests of our two revolutions, and 

royalty and legal order. You will throvm thecountryintoaprofound 

not refuse to listen to the voice of ^tation." 

your Commander-in-chief, who has The President, however, M. 

never deceived you. I rely on your Sauzet, abruptly at^onmed the 

prudence and patriotism, as yon Chamber without reading the 

may always rely upon my probity paper, 

and devotedness." In the meantime vast and 

On the following day (Tuesday, tumultuous crowds were filling the 

SSnd), the attendance of Members streets of Paris, and it became 

in the Chamber of Deputies was more and more difficult to prevent 

scanty, and a languid debate on a a collision between them and the 

bill relative to the Bank of Bor- military. In the Kue St. Florentin 

deanxvrasproceediDtr, when about and the Bne Marche St. Hoiior£, 

five o'clock M. OdilToa Barrot ad- attempts were made to erect bar- 

vanced to the table and laid upon ricades, but the troops tore down 

it an act of impeachment of Minis- and removed the matfirials, and 

ters, signed by filly-three Members di^rsed the mob. 

of the Opposition. It was drawn The aspect of affturs, however, 

np in the loUowing terms : — had now become most serious, and 

"We propose to place the Minis- when the Chamber of Deputies 

ter in accoBation as guilty— 1. Of met on Wednesday the 28rd, >" 

228] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fr^ce- 

miBwer to some questions pat b; uewe spread through Pans tiM 

M. Vavin, M. Guizot rose and the Ministry had resigned. This 

announced . the resignation of vae received with enUiuBiastic ex- 

himself and his colleagues, saying, pressions of joy, and for a time it 

that the King had sent for Count appeared as if ^1 further resistahce 

Mole, in order to con6de to him vere at an end. Large bodies 

the construction of a cabinet; and of the National Guards marched 

that whilst the present Ministers through the streets, both ofBcers 

remained in office they would cause and men crying, Vive la Btfome, 

order to be respected. But this while the crowd that surrounded 

was more difBcult than M. Guizot them kept up a vodferoas cheering, 

imagined. The people had as- As the evening approached many 

aembled in vast crowds early in the houses began to Hght up their 

morning in the quarters St. Denis windows, and the mob with lond 

and St. Martin, and at ten o'clock cries demanded a general illnmin- 

they had succeeded in erecting ation. 

hairicades at the Porte St. Denis, Abont seven o'clock, an immense 

in the Rue de Clery, the Rue body of the working classes, headed 

Neuve Saint Euatache, the Ruede bymenwhocarriedblazingtorcheB, 

Codran, and the Rue du Petit- passed along the Boulevai^s. They 

Oarreau. Firing took place at chanted, as they advanced, the two 

some of these borricadeB between lines of the Girondist song, which 

the populace and the Municipal was at this time the most popular 

Guanls. Two young men were air in Paris, 
killed, and apicquet of the Muni- .. Mourirpmirlipurie, 

dpal Guards was disanned. . C'eit le lortle plui bcu, le ploi digrta 

Throughout the day numerous d'envier' 
collisions happened between the and ceased from it only to shout at 
populace and the troops, but the intervals, d6(u Guizot. The Mar- 
mob gave way whenever they were seUlaiM hymn was also frequently 
charged, and very few lives were beard, mingled with cries of KiivM 
lost. The most ominous circum- Reformt. At the hotel of the 
stance . was the demeanour and Minister of Fore^ Affairs, which 
conduct of the National Guards, abutted close upon the Boulevards. 
who were obviously most unwilling there was posted a strong body of 
to act against the people, and in troops, consisting of both infantry 
some places prevented the Muni- and dragoons, who occupied the 
cipal Guards from attacking the whole width of the Bonlevard, ex- 
crowd. This was the more im- cept the pavement near the Rue 
portant, as Marshal Bugeaud, tfae Basse du Rempart When the 
veteran warrior of Algiers, had mob reached this spot, the torch- 
been appointed by a royal ordi- bearers filed off past the troops by 
nance Commander-in-chief of the the pavement, and the whole crowd 
first military division, and of the followed, shouting d bai Ouixol! 
National Guards of Paris, in place Vive la ligne! Here it was that 
of General Jacqueminot The an event occurred, at a later 
populace soon understood this feel- period of the evening, which may 
u^ in their favour, and shouted be said to have determined the 
loudly, Vivt la Qarde Nationale! future 0010*80 of the Revolution. 
In the course of the afternoon, the The populace had collected in large 

J»»~'l HISTORY. [228 

numbers in the Ticinitj of M. fhoj reached the spot where the 
Gnizot'B Hotel, ftiid were preBsing troops were drawn up. he delibe- 
upon the military, when a naan rM«lf fired a pistol at the officer in 
stepped forward, and present- command, in order to provoke the 
ing a pistol at the head of the soldiers to fire upon the crowd ; 
officer in command, shot him dead and thtrAy etmtre tha taerifice of 
on the spot. The troojps then im- tomt innocent liven. We have 
mediately fired with fatal effect, alreadjnarrated the result; but it 
and several persons in the crowd remains to be told that the asso- 
were killed. In an incrediblj ciates of Lagrange were ready in 
short space of time a funeral pro- the a^joiniDc streets with their 
cession was formed, the dead tumbrils for uie dead, whose bodies 
bodies were placed npon a cart, they arranged in the most tragic 
and by the glare of torch-light the form, to excite feelings of rage and 
moving masses followed it towards horror, and paraded them through 
the Plac« ds Baitile, uttering as the streets. During the night a 
they went, in low monotonous quantity of bullock's blood naa 
cadence, the words " Monrir pour brought and poured apon the pave- 
la patrie," and demanding arms in ment where the firing had taken 
order to avenge the slain. place ; and the credulous mob on 
Such were the events as they the following day were too infu- 
appeared on the sur&ce, and were riated to notice that it was impos- 
narrated in all thejoumals of the pe- sible for the red gore which ex- 
riod. Butwhatwastherealhistory cited their passion to have pro- 
of the events of this fatal night? oeeded from the few victims who 
There is too much reason to be- had fallen on the epot. 
Keve that the French nation were The news of this unfortunate 
tricked into a revolution by the occurrence spread rapidly through 
denncable stratagem of one crazy Paris, and a general feeling of ex- 
enttauaiast. That man was M. aeperation prevailed amongst the 
L^range, who soon afterwards people, when they rose on the 
went n^d; his brain being pro- morning of the following eventfnl 
bably turned by the appalling sue- day. Their demands and attitude 
eeas of his own ezporimenL The had undergone a serious change, 
fact ia, that when the change of and it became evident that, unless 
Ministry was announced, and the the troops and National Guards 
popnlace knew that the King had were prepared to act with vigour 
given way, they were disposed to and promptitude, the dynasty of 
enjoy their triumph with good Louis Philippe was placed in im- 
humour, and traversed the streets minent danger. More barricades 
of Paris, exacting illuminations, were hastily erected in many of 
and vociferating their noisy joy. the principal streets, especially 
fiut Lagrange and a few desperate those in the neighbourhood of the 
confederates were resolved to give, Boulevard des Italiens. and were 
ifpoesible.adifTerenttumtoevents. conBtructed of overturned di1i- 
He therefbte having made bis pre- gences, omnibuses, and other vehi- 
paratio7is,joinedaband of citizens, cles, filled with heavy paving stones, 
who proceeded along the Boule- and in some places the red flag 
Tarda in the direction of the H6tel waved over them. 
dat Affaire* EtTangirei, and when In the meantime Count M0I6 

230] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fr«r««. 

had found it impossible to form a called La Preue, hastened to the 
Uinistiy, and M. Thiers was sent Palace, and representing the im- 
for by the King in the course of tb^ minent danger in which the mo- 
night of the 39rd, and he agreed narchy was placed, ui^ed that the 
to accept the office of President of King should at once abdicate the 
the Council, provided that he were crown in favour of his grandson 
allowed to associate M. Odillon the Comte de Paris. 
Barrot with him as Minister of In the course of the morning a 
the Interior. The new Govern- large body of the populace pro- 
ment immediately issued the fol- ceeded to the Champs Elysees, 
lowing prociamatioD, which ap- where was stationed one of the 
peared early on the morning of gaard-bouses of the Municipal 
the 24th. Guard. A staff-oEQcer hurried past 
^ . them, and addressing the soldiers, 
• Ijttixens.— jq]j jjjgnj ^j jj ^^ ,^ (^ lesiit, 

" Orders are given to slop the and adviaed them to comply with 
firing. We have been charged by the wishes of the people. Their 
the King with the formation of a arms were demanded, but they re- 
Ministry. The Chamber is about fused to deliver them up, and fired 
to be dissolved. General Lamori- a volley npon the crowd. The 
dere is named Commander-in-Chief guard-house was then immediately 
of the National Guards of Paris, taken by storm, and the soldiers 
Messrs. Odillon Barrot, Thiers, were alt massacred on the spot. 
Lamorici^re, and Duveivior de About the same time the following 
Hauranne, are Ministers. Liberty! significant occurrence took place on 
Order I Union I Beform! the Boiilevarddes Italiens. Seve- 
" Odillon Barrot. ral regiments of infantry of the 
" Thiers." line, precededbyabodyof National 

M. Odillon Barrot proceeded Guards, a regiment of Cuirassiers, 

himself on horseback through the three field pieces, and three cais- 

streeta.whichweredenselycrowded, sons of ammunition, made their 

announcing the change of Minis- appearance. They were stopped 

try, and endeavouring to allay the by the people, who, with the most 

excitement that prevailed. perfect coolness, seized the horses 

But the character of the move- by the heads, broke open the cais- 

ment became now apparent. The sons, and distributed the ammuni- 

people refused to listen to Odillon tion without any resistance being 

Barrot, and he was met with cries ofiered by the troops. The horses 

of " We have been deceived too were unharnessed, and the cannon 

often," aai " Vivt la Ripubliqiu ! " drawn away by the people, many 

The proclamation was torn down, of whom rode upon the guns, 

and the tumult increased evety Early in the afternoon the news 

hour. The crowds began to press of the abdication of Louis PbiUppe 

on towards the Tuileries, where was communicated to the inhabits 

the Ministers were in earnest con. ants, by the following proclamation 

sultation with the King. Another signed by M. Odillon Barrot, which 

proclamation was issued by them, announced the accession to the 

which was immediately destroyed, thrane of the Comte de Paris, and 

and soon afterwards M. Emile de the Begency of the Duchess of 

Qirardin, the editor of the journal Orleans. 

Franei.] HISTORY. [231 

„. , , „ . and tUs was the Bignal for the 

■■ CKwct» 0/ Pant.— ^^^ appalling tumult The 

" The King has abdicated. The Deputies and National Guards 

crown, bestowed bj the revolution gathered rouud the Rojal Famil)' 

of July, is now placed on the bead to shield them from violence, while 

of a child, protected by his mother, the fearful drama was acted before 

They are both under Uie safeguard tlieir eyes. M. Marie ascended 

of the hononr and courage of the the tribune and demanded that a 

Parisian population. All cause of Provisional GoTSmment should be 

division amongst us has ceased to formed, " not to give institutions, 

exist. Orders have been given lo but to consult wi£ the two Cham- 

the troops of the line to return to bers on the necessity of satisfying 

their respective quarters. Our the wishes of the country." M. 

brave army con be better employed Cr^mieux followed and said, " We 

than in shedding its blood in so cannot at the present moment do 

deplorable a colhsion." more than establish a Provisional 

But it was too late. The Bon r- Government. (Cri« 0/ 'No ! no!') 

boa dynasty bad already ceased to I have the grcateet respect for the 

rei^, and a terrible scene was Duchess of Orleans, and I just 

takmg place at the Chamber of now conducted the Royal Family to 

Depudes, which extinguished all thecarriagewhichborethemaway." 
hopes of the continuance of mo- A Voice. — "Bon voyage!" 
narchy in France. M.Cremieux. — The population of 

At one o'clock, M. Sanzet took Faiis has shown the most profotmd 
the President's chair, and about respect for the King's misfortunes ; 
300 Depntiee were present. It but we who have been sent here 
was sooQ announced that the Du- to enact laws cannot violate them, 
chess ot Orleans and her two sons A law already voted disposes of the 
had arrived, and desired to be ad- regency, and I cannot admit that 
mitted into the Chamber. A door it can be abrogated at this mo- 
was thrown open, and the Duchess ment. Since we have come to the 
entered, accompanied by the young point of uudergoing a revolution. 
Princes and faer brothers-in-law, let us confide ourselves to the coon- 
the Dnca de Nemours and Mont^ try. I propose a Provisional Go- 
pensier. She seated herself in an vemment of five Members, 
arm chair in the semicircle, which The Abbe de Genoude sscended 
was crowded with officers and sol- the tribune, and was about to ad- 
diers of the National Guard. dress the Chamber when M. O. 

Almost immediately afterwards Barrot entered. After a few words 

a number of persons forced their from the Abb6 deGenoude, 
way into the hall, and placed them- M. 0. Barrot rose and spoke as 

selves under tho tribune. M, Du- follows: — "Neverhavewehadneed 

pin then rose and announced that of more coolness and patriotisni. 

the King had abdieated the crown May we be all united in one senti- 

in favour of bis grandson the ment— that of saving our country 

Comte de Paris, and appointed the from the most dreadful visitation, 

DtKhesa of Orleans Regent during a civil war. Nations, I am aware, 

his minority. A voice from the do not die, but tbey become weak 

gallery shouted the ominous words, from intestine dissensions, and 

" C'ett trap tard, " (it m (00 late); France never had xaon need than 

282] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [France. 

nowofallherforce— of theaidofoll cannot consent to assume the re- 

her children. Our dut^ is clearly Bponeibility of any other situation, 

traced out — it calls on us to unite Soon afterwards an immense 

oDiselves to nbat is most geDerous crowd burst into the Chamber 

in the heart of the nation. The armed with swords, and pikes, and 

Crown of July reaU on the head of moskete. and bearing tri-coloured 

a child and a womaii. [Great flags. The President put on his 

tumult followed this announce- hat, but this oocaaioned a dreadful 

ment.] It is a solemn appeal." uproar, and loud cnes were utterel 

The Duchess of Orleans here of "Off with your hat, President!" 

rose, and pronounced some inaudi- while several muskets were pointed 

ble words. at his chair. 

M.O.BarTotthencontinued:"It During this scene of violence, 
is in the name of the political the Duchess of Orleans sat in calm 
liberty existing in our countiy, of and dignified composure between 
the necessities of order which have her two children, and her conduct 
occurred to every one's mind, of seems to have been throughout 
the union and accord which ought truly heroic M. Ledru RolUn at 
to rei^ amongst all good citizens, last succeeded in making his 
that I call on all my colleagues to voice heard above the tumult, and 
support tbis double repieeentation be addressed the Assembly as 
of the revolution of July, Can it follows: — "In the name of the 
foe that any one can imagine that people, I protest gainst the kind 
what was decided by the revolu- of Government which has just been 
tion of July can be again oalled in proposed toyou. (Deafming thouU 
question? (OVmt agitation.) Gen- o/tyjplauw.) This is not the first 
Uemen, the work, I allow, is dif- time that I have thus protested; 
fioult, but there are such dements already in 1843 I demanded the 
of generosity, greatness, and good Constitution of 1 TQI. That Con- 
dense in this country, that it suffices stitution declared Hiat it should be 
to appeal to them to induce Uie necessary to make an appeal to the 
whole population to rally round the people when a regency bill waa to 
standard I display. Our duty is be passed. I protest, therefore, 
simple — it is traced out by the agtunst the Government that it ia 
laws and by honour. If we do not attempted to establish. I do so in 
fulfil it with firmness I cannot say the name of the citizens whom I 
what the consequences will be ; but see before me— who for the last 
be certain of this, that whoever two days have been fighting, and 
should dare to incur the res|ionsi- wbowiU,ifnecessary,againcombat 
bility of a civil war would be m the tbis evening. [Arms were here 
highest degree culpable towards brandished, and muskets raised to 
his countiy. For my part, what I the shoulder, amidst a scene of in- 
conoeive to be most fitting for the desoribable tumult.} I demand in 
situation is this — the Regency of the name of the people that a Fro- 
theDucheasof Orleans, a Ministry visional Government benamed." 
chosen from the moat tried opi- M. de Lamartine next followed 
nions, and an appeal to the country, andsud: — "Gentlemen, I share in 
which will pronounce with full the sentiments of grief which just 
liberty, to an extent sanctioned by now agitated this assembly in be- 
law, Such is my opinion, and I holdingtbemostafSictingspectacle 

Fronts.] HISTORY. [233 

that human sunalB can present — anna in their hands ; several of 
that of a Princess coming forward whom forced their wajr to the front 
irith her innocent Bon.afterhaving seats, and pointed their mnsketa 
quitted her deserted palace, to place at the Deputies below, 
herself under the protection of the The Doohess of Orleans rose 
nation. But if I shared in that from her seat, and, with her two 
testimony of respect for a great sons, and the n>7al Dukee, quitted 
misfbrtune, I also share in the the Chamber by a door on ^e left 
solicitade-^n the admiration which hand. At the same time the Pre- 
that peofde, now f^hting during aident left his chair ; the mob were 
two days against a perfidious Go already maslera of the Chamber, 
Temment for the purpose of re- and the triumph of Democracy 
establiahiDg order and libert?, was complete, 
ought to inspire. Xiet us not do- When silence was in Bome de- 
ceive ourselves — let us not imagine gree restored, Af. Ledru Rollin 
that an acclamation in this Cham- said, that he would read ont the 
ber oan replaoe the co-opeiation of names of those whom he pn>- 
35,000,000 of men. Whatever pmed should be members of the 
Government be established in the Provisional Government. He them 
country it must be cemented by announced the following ncunee: 
solid definitive guarantees 1 How lUf . Dupont (de I'Eure), Arago, 
will you find the conditions neces- De Lamartine, Ledru Rollin, Gar* 
saiy for such a Government in the niar Pag^, Uarie, and Gr^miem; 
midst of the Boating elements which were received with aoclama- 
which atuTound us ? By descend- ticms by those who heard them ; 
iugintotho veiy depth <n the coun- but the noise sod oonfusion were 
try itself, boldly sounding the great sogteatthat the chief port of the 
mystery of the rights of nations. In Assembly did not know what was 
place of having recourse to these going an. 

subterfuges, to these emotions, in or- Loud cries of " To the Hdt»l de 
dor to roaintain one of those ficdona ViUe" were now heard, and the at» 
which have no stability, 1 propose tention of the disorderly crowd 
to you to form a Government, not b^ng directed to the picture re- 
definite, but provisional — a Go- presentii^ the King swearing obe- 
Tsrament chained, first of all, with dience to the Charter, which was 
the task of stanching the blood placed behind the President's 
which flows, of putting a stop to ehalr, they shouted out "Tear it 
civil war; a G:Ovemment which we down!" A workman, armed with 
awMnt without patting aside any- a double-barrelled fowling-piece, 
thing of our resentments and oar who vras standing in the semicircle, 
indignation ; and in the nextplace eriedout,''WaituntilIhaveaBhat 
a Government on which we shall at Louis Philippe I " and at the 
impose the duty of convoking and same moment both barrels were 
consulldng the people in its totality discharged. Great uproar fallowed, 
— all that possess in their title of and two men jamped on the chairs 
man, the nghis of a citizen. behind the President's seat, and 
A violent blocking was now heard prepared to cut the picture to 
at the door of an upper tribune, pieces with their sabres; but aao- 
whioh was not entir^y filled ; and ther workman ran up the st^M of 
a number of men mshed in with the tribune, and exctaimed — " Re- 

234} ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Frmcs. 

spect public monuments! respect ^/m^tr«.'" and theimperiooB will 

property 1 Why destroy the pic- of the mob prevailed. The Ee- 

tures with balls ? We have shown public was proclaimed, and mo- 

that the people will not allow itself narcby ceased to exist in France, 
to be ill-governed ; letnsnowshow In the meantime a sanguinary 

that it knows how to conduct itself contest had been going on at the 

properly afler its vtctoiy." Palais Royal, which was occupied 

M. DupoDt (de I'Eure) then took by a company of troops of the line. 

poesession of the chair. M. de A large barricade was erected at 

Lamartine and Ledm Rollin at- the comsr of the Rue de Valois, 

tempted for some time to obtain a which crossed it and the Rue St. 

hearing, but in vain. A cry, how- Honor£. Some shots were fired 

ever, arose of "Let Lamartine at the windows of the Palace by 

rtjtl" and his voice was heard the crowd below, and the soldiers 
ve the tumult, excluming "A immediately opened their fire. For 
Provisional Government will be at two hours the conflict raged with 
once proclaimed." Shouts then great fury, and the National Guards 
aroseof "Thenames! thenameBl" fought vigorously on the side of 
and as the noise rendered hearing the people. The Place dn Palais 
impossible, the names were written Royal was filled vrilh a tumultuous 
down on a sheet of paper, which mass, upon which a shower of balls 
was placed on the end oi a musket, was rained down from the windows 
and so carried about the Chamber, by the soldiers. In the midst of 
M. Ledru Rollin then rose and the engagement the royal carriages 
said: — "AProvisional Government were brought by the populace from 
cannot be organised in a light or the Tuileries to the Place, and an 
careless manner. Ishall readover immense bonfire was kindled, in 
the names aloud, and you will ap- which they were consumed. Re- 
prove of them or reject them, as you hind this an incessant fire of 
think fit." Ere this, however, nearly musketry was kept up against ths 
all the Deputies had quitted the troops, and at last a body of the 
Chamber, and after M. Ledm Rollin National Guards scaled the barri- 
had read out the names amidst vio- cades, amongst whom Etienne 
lent tumult, he sud— "We must Arago, the celebrated astronomer, 
now close the sitting and piweed to was conspicuous, and, advancing to 
the seat of Government " Upon the Palace, they carried it by 
this shouts srose of "To the storm*. 

Hotel de Ville! Viv« la R^pub- But what had become of the 

iqM I " and the whole body rushed Royal Family at the Tuileries ? 

to the Hotel de Ville. Hero oc- The King and Queen, with the 
curred a scene of wild and tumult- 
uous violence. The populace, hke ' The revolutimwM KcomplbM a 

.. „ „f „ „„^„™ =_o fliioj ■ very imdl cott of ifc. Fromuiolsdal 

the waves of a surgmg s^ filled ^,^^ .^ ^^ Moniu^r, it .pp™™! thu 

the hall, and witn temho cnes ihe^ were carried to the hofpilda «fter 

demanded the proclamation of a the nnaicti in the iCreeti, 6SS wounckd, 

Repubhc. When any Member of of whom 91 ifterKinli died. The l»ller 

the Provisional Government, who ""■"l>« ""oei noi bdude 65 penon. 

. , f _ _j _.. "ho were found dead »nd buried U Ihe 

was suspected of more moderate Qhiteta d' Eu, nor ihow who died on 

views, attempted to speak, his the «pot where they fell These, how- 

Toica was drovnied by shouts of " A over, were veiy few. 

Franee.} HISTORY. [235 

Duka and Duchess de Nemoors, plain clothes, who turned out to be 
the Duke fmd Ducfaese de Mont- the son of Admiral Baadtn, on 
pensier, and the Duke and Duchess horaeback, trott«d past ua at & 
Auguste of Saie-Coburg, remained quick pace, crying out that Louis 
in die Palace surrounded by a targe Philippe had abdicated, and re- 
number of personal friends, among questing that the news might be 
whom were tiie Due de Broglie circulated. A few instants after, 
and several other Members of the at the Pont Toumant, we saw ap- 
Chamber of Peers. M. Thiers and preach from the TuiJeriee a troop 
man; of the principal Members of of National Guards on horaeback, 
the Chamber of Deputies were also at a walking pace, funning the 
preeent. The Due de Nemours head of a procession, and by ges- 
had the command of the troops tures and cries inviting citizens to 
which were drawn up in the court- abstain from every nnfavourable 
yard of the Palace, and there is demonstration. At this moment 
every reason to believe that they the expression 'agreatmiafortune' 
were ready and willing to a«t was heard; and the King Louis 
against the insurgent populace, Philippe, his right arm passed 
which was rapidly advancing to- under the left arm of the Queen, 
wards the Plae» du Carroutel. on whom he appeared to lean for 
But the National Guards retired support, was seen to approach from 
before the crowd, and when they the gate of the Tuileriea, in the 
reached the Palace they cried out midst of the horsemen, and fol- 
to the troops of the line not to fire lowed by about thirty persons in 
upon the people. The Due de different unifonns. Tne Queen 
Nemoors seems to have thought walked with a firm step, and cast 
that resistance was hopeless, for be around looks of assurance and 
made no attempt to check the pro- anger intermingled. The King 
gress of the mob — not a shot was wore a black coat, with a common 
fired — and the troops remained round hat, and wore no orders, 
inactive while the people thronged The Queen was in full mourning, 
the conrt-yaxd, and swarmed round A report was circulated that they 
the entrance inlo the Palace. It were going to the Chamber of De- 
was a second Tenth of August, and pnties to deposit the act of abdi- 
it became necessary for the King cation. Criesof * Vive laB£formeI ' 
and the rest of the Royal Family 'Vive la France I' and even, by 
to take instant measures for their twoorthreepersons, 'ViveleRoi!' 
safety. The following interesting were heard. The procession had 
account of their flight from the scarcely passed the Pont Toumant, 
Palace Is taken from the narrative and arrived at the pavement suT- 
of M. Maurice, the editor of one of rounding the Obelisk, when the 
the Parisian journals, who was an King, ^e Queen, and the whole 
eyewitness of the events he de- party, made a sudden halt, ap- 
scribes — "About one o'clock in the parontly without any necessity, 
afternoon, whilst in conversation In a moment they were surrounded 
with the Colonel of the 31st Regt- by a crowd on foot and horseback, 
ment of the line, who appeal^ and so crowded that they had no 
well-disposed, and of which ne gave longer their freedom of motion, 
proof in ordering his men to sheathe Louis Philippe appeared alarmed 
their bayonets, a young man in at this sudden approach. In fact, 




the spot foully cboSen hy an efTeot 
of chance produced a stmnge feel- 
ing; a few paces off a Bourbon 
king, an innocent and resigned 
victim, vonld have been happy to 
have eiperienced no other treat- 
ment Louis Philippe turned 
quickly round, let go the Queen's 
arm, took oS his hat, raised it in 
the air, and cried out something 
which the noise prevented my 
hearing; in &ct, the cries and 
piU-miU were general. The 
Queen became alarmed at no 
longer feeling the King's arm, and 
turned round with extreme haste, 
saying eomethii^ which I could 
not catch.. At this moment I said, 
'Madame, ne crmgnez lein; con- 
tinuez, lee nmgs vont s'ouviir 
devBut voua.' Whether her aniietjr 
gave a false interpretation to my 
intention or not I am ignorant, 
but, pushing back my hand, she 
exclaimed, 'Laissez moil ' with a 
most irritated accent. She seized 
hold of the King's arm, and they 
both turned their steps towank 
two small black carriages with one 
horse each. In the first were two 
joimg children. The King took 
the left and the Queen the right, 
and the children with their faces 
dose to the glass of the vehicle, 
looking at the crowd with the ut- 
most curioei^: the coachman 
whipped his horse violently — in 
foct, with so much rapidity did it 
take place that the coach appeared 
rather carried than driven away; 
it passed before me, surrounded by 
the cavalry and National Guards 
present, and Cuiiassiers and Dra- 
goons. The second carriage, in 
which were two ladies, followed 
the other at the same pace; and 
the eacort, which amounted to 
about two hundred men, set off at 
a full gaUop, taking the water-side 
towaida St. Cloud.^ 

The rest of the adventures of 
the royal pair are soon told. 
They proceeded to Versailles, 
where they hired a common car- 
riage to convey them to Dreux, 
and passed the night at the house 
of a person on whose fidelity they 
could rely. Here they procured 
di^uises, and before daylight next 
morning set forward on their 
journey to the coast, travelling 
chiefly by night. They reached 
Honfleur eariy on the morning of 
Saturday the 26lh of February, 
where, after having in vain at- 
tempted to embark from TrouvUle, 
a short distance from the town, 
and being prevented by the boiate- 
ouB state of the weather, they re- 
mained until the following Thurs- 
day. In the meantime mforma- 
tion was secretly conveyed to the 
commander of the £'xpr«M steamer, 
which plied between Havre and 
Southampton, that she vrould be 
required to convey a party from 
Havre to England ; and on Thurs- 
day afternoon the fu^tives got 
into a French fishing-boat at Hon- 
flenr, and reaching Havre that 
evening went on hoBxA. of the Ex- 
pT4u, which was lying vrith her 
steam up ready for sea. She im- 
mediately sailed, and the King 
and Queen, together with Qenerals 
Dumas and Rumigny, who had 
accompanied them in their .flight, 
were safely landed on the following 
morning at Newhaven, on the 
coast of Sussex*. The escape of 

• Id order to bdliUe fail euape, the 
ei-King unimed tbe nime of Smith, 
and obtained a pauport under tlial terj 
eeneral patronymic When he landed it 
Newhaven, and ma mting: after hii 
hAraranii; fali^ea at an inn tbere, aeveral 
viiiton were introduced to him, one of 
bore tlie name of Smith. 

MajeBly being not perhape aware how ei- 
teniivelf that appellation prevail! in Ens- 
land, exclaimed, "Mr. Smith I that Ii 

France.] HISTORY. [237 

Looia Philippe from the Bhores of the occasioii were ignomnt of the 
France relieved the Promional mission in which thej were en- 
Govemmentfromagreatdifficult;; gaged. I was inTonned this in- 
fer although we believe that tus stant t£ the ikct bj m peraon who 
life was perfectly safe, except, per- usiBted in the embarkation, 
hape, in case of some sndden " Health and fratsrui^, 
hneuu of the populace, il would " P. Desohakps, 
not have been easy to dispose of " EUnDnllnu^ Comminioear of the 
hia pemn. No public feeUng of „„ ^"^ ^'"^" , ,. ,, , 
indiinatien was expressed agakst . ^^'^ ^^''^™ ?' the Eevolu- 
himT and the people BeemeA to ^.T ''T'^'^ .^^J" ^^ ?•" 
regard hia depaiturS with the most dAumale.immediately prepared to 
pe^ect indifference. He left no <l'^\^^ province, and issued two 
mrty behind him. and not a voice P^cl'^ations. one to the amy 
braised to advocate the cause of f^ *>»« °^^'" *? *^^ colcnista. 
the Orleans fcmily. ^he former was m the follovnng 

The following was the official t«™8:— 
GommunJcatioD, m true republican 
style, which the Provbional Go- 
vernment received of the King's " I had hoped to combat agoiD 
escape:— with you for the country. Tint 
•• Rouen, Hudi & honour is denied me ; hot, from 
"CitizmMinuUr, the depth of exile, my heart 

"The ex-King Louia Philippe, ^ f""°7 /o" wherever the na- 

after remaining concealed during *»<»^ ^^ s**"!! <»" y<>o- ""d exult 

several days m the environs of m your sucoeasj my moat ardent 

Trouville, crossed at high water "«!'«« '^^ «'«/^ fw *« g'*'? 

yesterday from Honfleur to Havre, "nd happiness of France, 

bnd there embarked for England ^ ^he Pnnce and all the reat of 

in the steamer ExpreH. The ^« ^'^ ^"y- "^^^l*^^ "^e^ 

preparations for his departure were ?<"> "^ ^« Duchess dOrlMiis and 

^rifidly kept secret, Jmd the eajv J"" ''"Lr»»J.'^^ refage m Eng- 

tains of the steamers employed on ^^- The Duchess withdrew into 

. , , , ,..,.. Germany, where she remained 

eunom, indeed, and rerj remartablo that j„ ■„ _ ,i,_ _„, „f .■l„ „,„_ ■ „ 

Smiih, (ince (be ummed name, wai State of privacy and sedusion. 

■ Soiiih'b; irbicbleicapedlVomFruice) She behaved tdth heroic ooarage 

ud, look, thii U my psMport made out in throughout the fearful soenes isiijch 

%rwr/de?wol;™t^r^n" if . m. ««« '^^t ^f'^--^ ^ ?y" ™j^™- 

BanOk hrf IKK been ihe fint penon la Ma wl^ch gave the death-blow to 

wriDome him to EDoUiid. TbefoUonlng her expecUtions of seang the 

li the deacrlption of ibe bllen mooarch's Comte de Paris Succeed peacefully 

-idgreytrowen; on bii held a cloM example of the vanity of woridly 

blue cloiheap, and round biinecJf a com. hopes. When she entered Franoe 

mon red-and-whiie "comforter." Hii it ttaa aa the bride of the heir 

J^""T^TCe^rl''r;ffl.dTn''a- re-t to the crown of that 

iugt pl«d cloak, and (srefUllj concealed kuigdom, and in a few short years 

ber feaiutei wiih a iliicJt Teil. she became a widow and aa exile. 

238] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Franct. 

The foUowiDg acconnt of what lies of wine protroded out of 

followed the flight of the Bojal almost every pocket. Drunken 

Family from the Tuileries when men fioarished about, amidst the 

the mob invaded the Palace, is yelling crowd, with satin breeches, 

taken from the work of an author they thought the King's, drawn 

who was himself an eye-witness of over their greasy trouaers. Ragged 

the scone* : — boys, en bloute, blackened by pow- 

" See I how the people rash into der and smoke, with pistols in Uieir 
the piincelj pile. From below to girdleo, and sabrea bnmdished in 
aboTV— from ball to attics — it is tbeir heads, beetrode the stone 
filled to overflowing : the people lions of the palace entrance as pa- 
riols in its own sovereign-house ! triot sentinels. The rattling of 
Devastation and destruction seem- the breaking windows, the crash of 
ed at once the order of the day : the furniture hurled out of them, 
plunder was at first not thought of, the running fire of the discharged 
although afterwards, spite of what muskets, the crackling of the bon- 
lying French Republican papers fire flames, — were all overwhelmed 
may afGrm, it was carried on to an by the shouting and the frantic 
immense extent The breve jMupftf singing of the 'Marseillaise.' 
filled it« pockets. Before the very Within,— stranger, wilder pictures 
eyes of him who writes were valua- still ! In the apartment of the 
bles thrust into erery possible Duchess of Orleans, on the first 
receptacle, — spoons, objects of art, floor, a more tranquil spirit was 
cups, gold fringes, letters bycuiions shown than elsewhere. Tne crowd 
autograph collectors. It was well in those royal rooms was great as 
known, also, that jewels and bank- everywhere ; but it gazed only with 
not«8,and other valuable property, curiosity, and touched nothing. In 
were purloined, although, in some the talon was a blazing fire ; on 
instances, the 'justice of the noble tbetable were several books, among 
people,' as the phrase went, shot which were the Cmuu/at of Thiers, 
down those detected in steialing, and the Alg&rie of Alexandre Da- 
and sometimes for a mere trifle ; mas, the lattor turned down open 
while other more flagrant plun- upon the tablecloth, as the unior- 
derers escaped unscathed, under tunate Duchess had probably laid 
the disguise of noisy patriotism, it down at the moment of disturb- 
What pictures, indeed, did not ance. On the floor and on the 
those scenes afiord ! Without, — 80& were rows of little card-paper 
furniture, dresses, papers, curtains, soldiera on wooden stands, set out 
were flying out of every broken as if for battle, with which her 
window, and heaped upon bonfires two boys had probably been play- 
made of the royal fourgont and ing when taken from their sports 
carriages. Glare, flame, and smoke to quit tbeir home, and return to it 
filled Uie great court Tom dresses, no more. Touching sight I A boy 
the caps of the Princesses, strips took up one of the toys ; but an 
of curtains, legs of mutton, loaves armed artizan, one of the rough, 
of bread, were brandished aloft honest sort, covered with the sm^e 
upon the points of bayonets : bot- of batUe, commanded him to lay 

■ Picture, from RevoMon.ryP>ri^ it down again ■ Tis but a toy.' 

Nov. 1848. By T. P»lgr»»e Simp- eipostulaUd the little fellow. 'But 

•on, M.A. if you take a toy, others would 

France.] HISTORY. [239 

think they might take a treasnre,' folios, and papers : a few sturdj- 
was the angry rejoinder of the looking men. with muskets, were 
self-installed guard. In the bed- set to guard over what was now 
room of the poor Duchess were the proclaimed ' national proper^.' 
hat of her ill-fated husband, his Some rufGanlj-looking fellows were 
epaulettes, and his whip, under a devouring, quietly seated, the un- 
glass case. The crowd walked touched breakfast set out for the 
round these ol^ects curiously, but fugitive King : in a great stal« 
with respect Some women shed bed lay several men, quietly smok- 
tears. Here was thrown a shawl ing their pipes : the cigars of the 
in the drossing-room — there a silk Princes were fireely handed round 
dress— signs of hasty and agitated to every mouth." 
departure. EveiTwherestooasmall But to return to the Hdt«l de 
objecta of value and taste ; but Ville. The first Praelamation 
here no one touched them. What issued hj the Provisional Govem- 
sad tokens were they of the cha- meat wsa the following: — 
racter and domestic life of one bom " A retrt^rade Government has 
to high destinies, and now a faa^ been overturned by the heroism of 
tive! In the state apartmenta the the people of Paris. This Go- 
scene was far oth^wisa. Here vemment has fled, leaving behind 
were the wUdMt confusion and it traces of blood, which will for 
disorder. The throne was early ever forbid its return, 
pulled down and carried away: " The blood of the people has 
the cortuos were torn to the flowed, as in July ; but, happily, 
gaMmd — the lustres and candelabra it has not been shed in vain. It 
■mashed — the busts broken — the has secured a national and po- 
picturea riddled with balls; — every- pular Government, in accordance 
where thronging, yelling, half- with the rights, the progress, and 
intoxicated crowds. In the theatre the will of this great and generous 
all was torn and broken ; the people people. 

appeared to resent the past plea- " A Provisional Government, at 

sores of the Royal Family. In the call of the people and some 

the chapel the altar was respected. Deputies in the sitting of the Q4th 

by the intervention of a young of February, is for the moment 

ileve of the Polytechnic School, invested with the care of organizing 

and the cross borne away by men, and securing the national victory, 

thus animated to a sense of re- It is composed of MM. Dupont 

ligioua deference, to the church of (do I'Eure), Lamartine, Cremieux, 

St. Boch ; but all else was sbat- Arago, Ledru Boltin, and Gamier 

tered. In the King's private Pag^. The Secretaries to this 

rooms the scene was, if possible. Government are MM. Armaod 

more disorderiy still. There eveir- Harrast, Louis Blanc, and Fer- 

thing was recklessly destroyed: dinand Flocon. These citizens 

papers were hurled about in show- have not hesitated for an instant 

ers, like a snow-storm. In one toaccepttbepatriotiGmissionwhich 

comer of a room was erected a has been imposed upon them by 

sort of low screen, behind which the urgency of the occasion, 

were bein^ flung, by some National " Frenchmen, give to the world 

Guards, aided by a few workmen, the example Pans has given to 

Articles of value, moneys, port* France. Prepare yourselves, by 

240] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Frmee. 

order and confidenoe in joarselvea, that ooncemod the direction of the 

for the institutions which are abont £«aujt artt and the moseums, 

to be given to yon. hitherto in the department of the 

" The Provisional GoTernment Civil List, would constitute a new 

desires a Republic, pending the division of the Ministary of the 

ratiflcation of the French jpeople, Interior." 

who are to be immediately con- But the decree moat signifioant 

suited. Neitlier the people of of the nature and character of the 

Paris nor the ProTisiontJ Govern- Revolntion which had just been ac- 

ment desire to substitute their Gomplished, was the following ; — 

opinion for the opbions of the "The Government of the French 

citizens at large, upon the definite Republic engages to guarantee the 

form of government which the na- subsistence of the workman hj his 

tional sovereignty shall proclaim. labour. It mgagei to guarantee 

" 'L'unitj de la nation,' formed work to oU eitieent. It recognises 

henceforth of all classes of the the right of workmen to combine 

people which compose it ; for the purpose of eiyoying the 

" The government of the nation lawful proceisda of their l^ur. 

by itself; The Provisional Government re* 

" Liberty, equality, and frater- stores to the workmen, to whom it 

nity for its principles ; belongi, the millbn of the Civil List 

" The people to devise and to now due." 

maintain order. Another proclamation declared 

" Such is the Democratic Go- that — 

vemment which France owes to "A National Assembly will be 

herself, and which our efforts will convoked as soon as the Provisional 

assure to her. Government shall have regulated 

" Such are the first acta of the the measures of order and police 

Provisional Government. necessary for the votes of aU the 

" (Signed) Dupont (de I'Eure), citizens." 

Ijtmartine, Ledru BoUin, The following distribution of 

B£dean,llichelOoudchanx, offices was made amongst the 

Ango, Bethmont Marie, Members of the Provisional Go- 

Camot, Cavaignac, Gamier temment : — 

PagJs. " M. Dupont (de ^ure) was 

" The Munirapal Guard is dis- named Provisional President of 

bonded. the Council, without portfolio; M. 

" The protection of the <AVf of de lAmarline, Provisional Minister 
i>afis ]§ confided to the National of Foreign Affairs ; M. Cr^mieux, 
<luard, nnder the orders of M. Provisional Minister of Justice ; 
Courtais." M. Ledru RoUin, Provisional Mi- 
Proclamations were also issued, nister of the Interior; Michel 
decreeing that the Chamber of Goudchaux, Provisional Minister 
Deputies was dissolved, and that of Finance ; M. Francois Arago, 
the meeting of the ne-Chamber of Provisional Minister ot Marine ; 
Peers was interdicted. In order General B^eau, Provisional Mi- 
to exhibit the anxiety of the new nister of War ; M. Camot, Pro- 
Government to watch over tlie in- visional Minister of PubUc Instroc- 
terests of the people, it was offi- tioD and Worship ; M. Bethmont, 
dally announced that "everything Provisional Minister of Commerce ; 

^«««] HISTORY. [241 

M. Marie, Provisiooal Minister of after irhich the Colonel presented 

Public Works ; General Cavaignac, himself at the balcony, and thus 

Governor of Atgeria." addressed the people : — 

M. Gamier P^^s was named , 

Mayor of Paris ; and to him were CUtzent,— 

given as a^jointi, MM. Guinard "You ask for the arms of the 

andRecurt; and M. Flotard was saudiuorderthattheymaybeglven 

named Secretary-General. **• patriots. The 62nd are patriots 

In a wonderfully short space of to a man. The53ndwaa among the 
time all vestiges of monarchy in firstof the regiments which in 1830 
France were made to disappear, joined the people. Tlie 62nd was 
Thenamesof journals, streets, and •^^ first which in 1848 fraternized 
public buildings, which had re- with the people. The 53nd is no 
ferred to royalty, were iiumediat«ly OiOte. That which was the eSnd 
changed, and there seemed to be ofthe line is now the first regiment 
a universal desire to bury in ob- of t^ie Republic." 
livion all traditions of the past. A Shouts of applause followed this 
new nomenclature was everywhere adroit speech, and the populace left 
adopted; thepalaceoftheTuileries, "i the hands of their republican 
coneecrat«d as the residence of so brethren the arms which they bad 
many kings, was converted into an determined to wrench from themas 
asylum for invalid workmen ; and soldiers of the line. 
the Chamber of the Throne at the W* royalty also disappeared all 
Hfltel de Ville vraa named the Hall aristocratic distinctions ; for a pro- 
of the Republic. clamation decreed that " All the 

The following instance may be ancient titles of nobility are 

given as an example of the rapid abolished; and the qualifications 

mode in whidi such changes were which were attached thereto are 

efi'ect^, and of the way in which prohibited. They cannot be used 

the RepubUc was adopted by ac- publicly, or figure in any public 

clamation: document whatever."* 

On Friday, the SOth, a body of * Amidal the wild enthkuium for im- 

Ihe people proceeded to the barrack powlble equality, il ii refreshing lo meet 

in the Rue Pepiniere, in which "ith «,y mstoce of good «n« .mongM 

.L «ii J >> .. * ..1, '"e populace. Thu mini be our eicuie 

were the 52nd Regiment of the for .Wirg .he foibwirg -necdoie. 

hue. They found m front of it a At » meeling of one of Ihe clubi at 

battalion of the Ist Legion of Na- P»m. ■ violeni democrat declaimed, 

tional Guards, one among whom ""'<''' *« appl»u»e of bis bearen, a^nst 

i,.i .tiiTi, . J _ I o" i.'rv. the evils of property and the injustice of 

a8ked,"Wlwtdoyouseek? -TTie |,„d,o,d.. and urgid confi^wiV He 

armsofthe63nd. "Why? "Be- wu rocceeded by ■ cook, who Mated lua 

cause we wbh to apply them lo the diiindinaiion to concur in Ihe recom- 

defence of the OOUntlT." "Butare mendation of the orator. He endeavoured 

they not in the hands of the 62nd, ^ '''™ "j^.'^'f .f^"B^if^"" ^'^t 

_, ■" , , ^ -J ■.!. .L WM unjust, that there were many good u 

who have fraternized vnth the wellaabad.and that it would be unftirto 

people, and who are ready, wilhng, include all in one condemnation. " But 

anacapableoffightingforFrance?" let ua," he added, "take another view of 

The National Guard then proposed <he c«e- If jou confiwale their property 

•k.» ., l^^A^.^r .u- ..^^l^ .t.»..lJ and give It Id olhen,«hal advantage would 

that a leader of the people should ,^gy j j^^ e»,niple, am c«.k to a 

accompany him to the Colonel of nntlemaD, who until the Uie reioluiioii 

the &2nd. An interview took place, held the rank of Duke. Ha ii a kind 

Vol. XC. [B] 

242] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. IFrtmM. 

A remarfcable feature in this Armand Bsrbes u Colonel of the 
rcTotution, bb in that of 1830, was ISth Legion of the PariB National 
the respect shown by the populace Guard. Barbes, vbo vita an avooat 
of the capital, amidBt all the tumult bf profession, had attempted, on 
and confusion, for private property, the 13th of Maj, 183S, at tiie 
Whenever thieves were detected head of 300 or 400 Republioaas, 
in the act of pilfering, tfaej were to overthrow ilie government and 
shot dead od the spot. The people dynasty of Louis Philippe ; uid, 
seemed to fear that crimes ot tLis after a conteet of some duration, 
kind would sully the dignity of was oaptured, and, bang put upon 
their position, and lower the cba- his trial before the Court of Peers, 
racter of the struggle in which w«s condemned to death. The 
they had been eng^ed. But in cApital sentence was, however. 
Other parts of France the popular commuted to one of imprisonment 
excitement found vent in various for life, and he wbb undergoing his 
acts of outrage, and bands of men punishment at the time when the 
traversed the country burning or revolution broke out In addition 
laying waste, in many places, pri- to the military command wfaich was 
vate houses ; destroying portions given to him, he was also appointed 
of railroads at different points, in Governor of the Liaembmrg. 
order to intercept communications, Another remarkable featnre ma 
and setting fire to tbe stations, the respect which the people pro- 
The royal ch&teau of Neuilly was fessed to entertain for the emblems 
attacked by one of these mobs and of religion. When the Tuileiies 
burned to the ground; and in Paris was taken by the mob, they found 
the toll-house of the Pont Lmtit there a magnificent image of our 
Philippe was set on fire, and, the Saviour. "My friends," exclaimed 
fiames catching hold of the wood- a pupil of the Ecole Polyteohnique, 
work of the bndge, it was precipi- " this is the Master of us all t " 
tated into the Seine. The Throne The people immediately took off 
also was carried from the Tuileries, their hats, and bore die figure in 
and burned at the foot of the solemn proceemon te tiie cbtirch 
Column of July. The Provisional of St. Roche, crying out as they 
Government, however, set itself advanced, " Citizens, off vrith yoBC 
r^roasly to work to put a stop hats. Salnte Christ." The Arch- 
to these excesses, aud proclumed bishop of Paris addressed the fol- 
that mobilized battalions would lomng letter to eadi ef the clei^ 
immediately march gainst the of the mty :— 
lawless rabble. Here and there u- ■ , ^ t 
eoUisiona did take place ; but wder " ^"juimr Is Curi,— 
was soon reatofed. " In presence of ^be great event 

Astrikinginstanceof thechange of which the capital hai just been 

that had taken place in politics oo- the theatre, our first moveia«nt has 

onfred in the ^pointment of M. been to weep fiv the fitte of dte 
viotiBB whom death bus Btrock in 

man. end Ktier«l to (bote who tors faim. such «a unforeseen msSDW. We 

1 ™^.e from him good w^[e.s wd I ^eep for them all. because they 

give htm \a returo good dimien. We ire „„ t,„, k^-.u- _ i-_.-. .>..»_ 

S>utuall7 •aiMt.Hl. \^e^ ih. order <rf "^ ""' brettoen ; we himeM thea, 

thing! 1—1 riMuld be (oitr, genrtfloieii, (o >eca«se we have lesnrt onoe noi« 

invheyauMdinoenafhraeookiBg." what disinterestedness, rsspettt for 

FrmM.] HISTORY. [243 

wnpegtj. and generoaB seotimflut Fioanc* u cbirged mth the tuk 

SU the beurtB of the people of Paris, of providing for the npcnu whioh 

" We must not confioe oufBelves tb« present decree will oecuion.~ 

to skedding tears: we will praj Anotfaer; "That the Tuileriee 

for «U tbtHO who have f^ea in shall heaoeforrai^ serve as an 

the struggle; we shall bese«(di Ood a^lun to invaded woritmen." 

to open to them the place of light Another : " That t^ Nadowd 

BndjMace." Guards, diaeolved by tlie forDaer Go- 

3^ PnyvieionBl GoTemment Temment, are reorganized. Thejr 

took cars b> eBooumos tiaa feeliog, mil iwmediUelf resume their duly 

■ad IB one at its decre«e stated throughout the whole extent of tiM 

that, beiac "flnoly resolved io Republic." 

joif^ntffif tbfl free ezeicies of reli- Anotlier; " The c^dren of eiti- 

gious worship, and wishing te as- zens killed are adopted by tlw 

sodaUtfaacetsecratioiiQf religioas oountr^. The BepuUio charges 

feeling with the ^eat act «f liberty itself with all asaietancs to be 

■oquirad, it iantod the minieters giTen to tbs wounded, and to the 

of all persuasions whe are in the wnilias of the Tiotims of the Hon- 

territory U call dews dw Divine a#ebical Government" 

blessing « the work of the peo- The f^hmng i^tpointmeats alto 

fta, Ksa to invoka on it ib» spirit took plaee; — 

of flnnness and rule which is at General Subervie, Uinister 

the basis of «U inntitiUaaas.'' It 9f War; Gensnd B«leau, Oom- 

also EefoastBd Iha Archlnahtfp of bukuIm- «f the First Military Di- 

Paris. m flU the hisbt^ of the vision ; U. Edenne Arago, Di- 

B^oMio. to substitute Cor (he <Ai reoto^OenerBl of the P«it Office : 

fiun of ^^er the wards "DoawM, M. Outnvd, Chief of the SufT of 

aohwa fue SemfmUkMH." And, the National Guard of Paris: U. 

at A later period, a sort of naaia Buobez, Depul; to the Hajot ot 

haring aaixad the Parisians £)r Paris ; M. Reeait, Prefect of 

planting trees of liberty, these wen Police; Sfid General Duvivierwaa 

acdtimuy bksaed hy th» paests, charged wiHi the organization of 

«iw ^linfclad My water «ver the moveaUe Natioiul Guard, of 

then, And pKHNnneed a formsl whom he was <q»p«iit(ed Com. 

Iwaedklioa. Some idea oif their nutnder-in-ctuef- 

nnmbar may be ooiyectured from Another deeree provided that 

tbe&Qtithatiadkeeoiireeof afew " Civil, j ad ieisl, and aAminiatratire 

dayBdMCur^ofScUedardUeBBed faBCtionMiea are released fma 

iw less thasi tsrenty-oae of these their oath." 

tnaa. Duiing the whole day the peoide 

On the A6th eeveml decreee thronged, in auigiog sjulutudea, 

•were issued by tfae Ptovisional G» ithe ]£u« er square in front «f the 

'Mnmeat-^me of wfakb mm. ihat Hdtal do Ville, and five times was 

" AU lal^sHo fdedged at the Mont- it- de Lamartiae oUiged to ad- 

4s-Pi^, from Feb. 4, consistfaig of idteae them from the windows ; and 

linen, clothea, and other smaU oc^ by the maffc of his doquenee be 

tides on vdiieh not more than Urn succeeded ia pacifying their de- 

iinnos haw been lent, shall lie ama6e, and cooierted ^ir hoarse 

•gsnai bsck to the partiea (o vAnen mwm>v» into aboiMs of aociama- 

tbey halmig. The ^niMer of .^oo- Vaioet were >eard in the 

244] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Franct 

crowd, clamorously demanding that mense crowd. M. da Lamortme, 

the tricolour whidi waved over the attended by the other Members of 

Hdtel de VUle should be replaced the Proviaional Government, de- 

by a red flag, but this mis success- scended the steps of the g^-eat 

fully resisted by De Lamartine. staircase, and thus addressed the 

He harangued the tumultuous vast assemblage, 
crowdwithadmirablecour^e.iathe _^ . 

following heut-stirring appeal : — " (^**f>*f> — 

" It la thus that you are led " The Provisional Uovemment 

from calumny to calumny against of the Republic haa called upon 

the men who have devoted them- the people to witness its gtaiitude 

Belves, head, heart, and breast, to for the magnificent national co- 

give you a real Bepublic — >the Re- operation which has just accepted 

public of all rights, all interests, these new institutions, 
and all the legitimate rights of " The Provisional Qovemment 

the people. Yesterday you asked of the Republic has only joyful in- 

us to usurp, in the name of the telligence to announce to the 

people of Paris, the rights of people here assembled. 
35,000.000 of men, to vote them " Royalty is abolished, 
an absolute Republic, instead of a " The Republic is proclaimed. 
Republic invested with the strength " The |)eopte will exercise their 

of their consent: that is to say, political nghte. 
to make that Republic, imposed " National workshops are open 

and not consented to, the will of a for those who are without work, 
part of the people, instead of the " The army is being reorganized, 

will of the whole nation. To-day The National Guard indissolubly 

you demand of us the red fl^ in- unites itself with the people, so as 

stead of the tricolour one. Citi- to promptly restore order with the 

zens ! for my part, I will never same hmd that had only the pre- 

adopt the red flag ; and 1 will ez- ceding moment conquered our 

plain in a word why I will oppose liberty. 

it with all the strength of my pa- " Finally, gentlemen, the Pro- 

triotism. It is, citizens, because visional Government was anziouB 

the tricolour flag haa made the to be itself the bearer to you of the 

tour of the world, under the Re- lest decree it has resolved on and 

Eubhc and the empire, with our signed in this memorable sitting ; 
berties and our glories, and that that is, the abolition of the penalty 
the red flag has ouly made the of death for political matters, 
tour of the Champ de Mars, " This is the noblest decree, 
trained through torrents of the gentlemen, that has ever issued 
blood of the people." from the mouths of a people the 
The effect was electric. Loud day after their victoi?. It is the 
cheering and clapping of hands character of the French nation 
followed thiaaddress, and theorator which escapes in one spontaneous 
was nearly suflbcated by the efforts cry from the soul of its Oovem- 
of the multitude to shake hands ment. We have brought it with 
with him and embrace him. us, and I will now read it to you. 
On the 36th the Republic was There is not a more becoming 
officially proclaimed at the HAtel homage to a people than the spee- 
ds Ville, in the presence of an im- tacle of its own magnanimity." 

Frmee.-] HISTORY. [245 

" Liberty, equality, and fra- Berioualy to raise any other cry 

ternity " was adopt«d as the motto than that of the Republic. And 

of the new Bepublic ; and these yet, standing as we non do upon 

words headed the numerous de- the vantage-ground of subsequent 

ciees which were poured forth in experience, we may safely say that, 

quick succession by the Provisional in the outburst of democratic fer- 

Govemment at the H6tel de Ville. vour in February, " the semblance 

One of those issued on the 26th did deceive the truth." The events 

proclaimed the abolition of royalty in Paris stunned and paralyzed the 

in the following terms : — nation, and the watchword that 

_^ . was there raised was taken up and 

" t^ttixent, re-echoed throughout France, be- 

" Koyalty, under whatever form cause no one had the moral courage 
it assumes, ia abolished. No to protest against the dictation of 
more legitimacy — no more Bona- the capital. It seems, however, 
pardsm — no regency. The Pro- certain that even at the first the 
visional Government has taken all great bulk of the middle clasBea, if 
the necessary measures to render they had given their deliberate 
impossible the return of the an- opinion, would have pronounced 
cient dynasty, or the advent of a against a Bepublic ; and afterwards, 
new one. The Republic is pro- when commerce and trade were 
claimed. The people are united, paralyzed, and bankruptoy and beg- 
All the forts in the vicinity of the gaiy came home to the door of 
capita] are ours." the shopkeeper, the artizan, and 

On the following day (Sunday) the peasant, the great experiment 

the Republic was again proclaimed, was universally confessed to be a 

irom the stops of the Column of ftulure ; and in the . elevaljon of 

July, by M. Arago. in the presence Louie Napoleon, by a minority of 

of die whole of the National millions, to the presidency, the 

Guards, and an immense multi- nation silently, but emphatically, 

tnde, who devotod the day to re- declared against the Republic, 

joidng, although the weather was The time had now come for the 

most unlavourable, the rain pour- new Government to give proof that 

ii^ down in torrento, accompanied it considered itself merely pro- 

by a boisterous wind. When M. visional, by referring the question 

Dupont (de I'Eure) presented him- of a constitotion to the nation at 

self to the populace, M. Arago ex- large. On the 5th of March, 

claimed, in a loud voice, *' Listen ' therefore, it published a decree, by 

it is eighty years of a pure life which it fixed that the elections 

that speaks to you." should take place on the 0th of 

Ijet us here pause for a moment, April, and the constituent National 

and ask the question, whether Assembly meet on the iiOth of 

amidst all this apparent enlhu- April. At the same time it an- 

siasm and unanimous zeal, the nounced the following as the ge- 

French people was really . repub- neral principles of the decree 

lican at heart? It may seem which it was about to issue ; — 

strange that any doubt of such a " 1. That the National Assem- 

fact should be suggested or im- bly shall decree the constitution, 

plied, for not a single province or " 3. That the election shall have 

town, or even individoal, attempted the population for its basis. 

246J ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [P'«»«« 

*' S. That tiie representatives of Afterwardfi. henerer, the period 

the people sball amoont to 900 in for the elections was changed to 

UumW. Sunday, the 33rd of April, and 

" 4. That the Suffrage shall be that for the meeting of the Na> 

direct and uniTersal, without any tional AeBembly to the 4th of May. 

limiUitiDD as to property. The position of ^e Repnblie 

"0. That all Frenchmen of the with respect to foreign Powers 

Bge of 31 years shall be eleotors, was a matter of grave anxiety. 

And tbat all Frenchmen of S6 Hen oould not forget the crueade 

years of age shall be eligible. against the rights of governments 

" 6. That tbe ballot shall be upon which the only French Be- 

eecret" public which was yet known had 

The decree which followed this been so fiercely engaged ; and it 

declaration contained some addi- was feared that llie necessity of 

tional articles, the chief of which finding employment for the army 

were tbe following : and the ardent population, of 

" 1. All Frenchmen, SO years which so many thonsanda were 

of age, and not judicially deprived thrown suddenly ont of work, 

of or suspended in the exercise of might precipitate the nation into 

their oivic righta, are eligible. an Enropean war. The danger of 

" 2. All the electors shall vote attack from without was too slight 

in tbe chief town of their district, to canse any real uneaainoss, al- 

by ballot Each btdletin shall though in the first moments of ex- 

conttun as many names as there citement troops had been marobed 

khall be representatives to elect in towards the frontier to guard the 

tbe department French soil against any attempt 

" No man. can be tiamed a re- at invasion. In order to quiet tbe 

toresentative of the people Unless apprehensions of foreign Govern- 

be obtain 9000 suffr^es. ments and indicate the policy of 

" d. Every representative of the tbe new Bepublic, M. de Lamai^ 

people shall receive an indemni^ of tine, in bis capacity of Minister of 

S6/. per day during the Session."* Foreign AfKurs, iasned a veiy able 

.„,„.„ J . , circular or manifesto to the diplo- 

* Tlis faUoning litf wu imdo out b; *^ 

the Proviuoaal GoT«niment in order to et Cher, 6| L<nre, II ; Loire ( Upper)) 

regulatE tbe number of i^prettnUtivei, 8; Loire (Loner), 13; L<dret, 8; Lot, 

•ocordlng to ik popaiaIion~4tMl i*, one 7; Lol et darotme, 0; Loi^, i; MaIm 

repnuatathe hr every 4AO0O iahibil- et Loin, 1S| Muiche, 19; Heme, 9s 

anU. Manie(Upper),fi Hajenne,e; Meurtbe, 

<' The depBRment of the Aid to return 11 ( Meiue, 8; Morbiliui, 13 1 MoKlla, 

9 tepreaentatitea; Aitna, H; Ailier.Sj 11; Ni^rre, 8; Nord, 28; Oiu, 10^ 

Alpi (Lower), 4; Alpa (Upper), 9; Ome, II; Pu de Cald>, 17; Pu; d 

. .1 Arridge, 7) Dome, 15; Pfreneee (Loner), 11 ; Fy- 

Aube, 7; Arevron, 10| Honthi of the TeDeee(UpiMr), 6| ISreaeeaf Beaten), 

Rhone, 10; 6dv>dot. 13; Ciolel. 7; 6) Rhine (lower), U; IUaM(Upper!. 

Cbarante, 9; Chvente (Loner), 12; 13; Rhone, 14; Saone (Upper), 9; 

Cher,7; Connie, 8; tunica, 6; C^ Sabne et Loire, 14; Sarthe, 12: Seine, 

d'Or, 10; Cotea du Nord, 16; Creuie, 34; Seine (Lotrer), 19; Seine et Mene, 

7; Dordopie, 18) I>Mib>,7; Drome, B| 9; 8»i)e«t Oiie, 13; Sevraa (Two), 8| 

Sure, 111 Eure el Loh«, 7; Finialero, Somme, 14; Tarn, 9; I^et Garonne, 

15; G«d, 10; Oaronne (Upper), 12 1 6; Var, 9; Vaucluse, 6; Veadte, 9; 

Oora, B; OiroDde, 15; Herault, 10; Hie Vienne, 9; Vlenne (Upper), 8; Voagee, 

MVi1une,l4; tndre,7: Indre et Loire, It; Yonne,9— in all, 885; Algeria and 

8; U^re, ISt Jun,8i Landea, 7; Loire the Cotonieet ■& Total, 900." 

FroMe.^ HISTORY. [247 

mBtic agents of France thntughout be to retr^nde with the advance 

Eurrae. In tbis be said — of time. Tae revolution of jester- 

"'DieprockmatioDoftheFTeDoh da; is a step in advance, and not 
Bepublicisnotanactof ^[greasioD one backwards. The world and 
against any form of government in ourselves Viish to march to fra- 
tbe world. The forms of govern- temitj and peace." 
ment have divereilies as legitimate After anuyzing the character of 
aa the forms of character, the geo< the revolution of IT93, and con- 
graphical situation, the intellectual, trasting it with that which had 
moral, and material development just been accomplished, M. de 
of nations. Nations, like indi- Lamartine proceeded: — 
viduals, have different ages. The "Do not deceive jouraelves, 
principles which govern them have nevertheless. Those ideas which 
successive phases : monarchical, the Provisional Government 
anstocratkal, constitutional, re- charges you to present to the 
publican govemosents are the ex- Powers, as a pledge of European 
pressiona of the different degrees safety, have not for their object 
of the maturity of the genius of to obtain forgiveness to the lie- 
Ihe diSerent nations. They de- public for having had the boldness 
mand more liberty in proportion to create itself, and still less to 
as they feel themselves capable of ask humbly the place of a great 
supporting more. They demand right and a great people in Europe, 
more equality and democracy in They have a more noble object: 
proportion aa they are the more to make sovereigns and nations 
inapired with the feeling of justice reSeot, and not to allow them to 
aoa love for the people. It is a deceive themselves involuntarily 
question of time. A nation goes as to the character of our revo- 
astrsy in outrunning the hour of lution ; to give its true light and 
that maturity, as it dishonours its just character to the event; in 
itself in allowing it to escape with- short, to give pledgee to humanity 
out seizing upon it. The monarchy before giving them to our right 
and the republic are not, in the and to our honour, if they should 
eyea of true statesmen, absolute be una<:knowIedged or threatened, 
principles which are enemies to "The Freudi Republic will, 
the death; they are facta which then, not make war on any one. 
are contrasted to each other, and It has no occasion to say that, if 
which can live face to face while conditions of war are laid down to 
they understand and respect each the French people, it vrill accept 
other. them. The thoughts of the men 

" War, then, is not the prin- who at the present moment govern 
dple of the French Bepublio, as France are these: it will be for- 
it became the fatal and glorious tunate for France if war be de> 
necessity of the Republic in 1793. dared against it, and if it be con- 
Between 1793 and 1618 there is strainedthustoincreaseinBtrength 
half a century. To return, after and in glory, in spite of its mode- 
the lapse of half a centuiy, to the ration ; it vrill be a terrible re- 
prindples of 179S, or to the prin- sponsibility for France if the Re- 
ciples of conquest and of empire, public itself declare war without 
would not be to advance ; it would beiug provoked to it." 

248] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Prance. 

Tha following passages were " The B«public, you see, b? its 

more aminous, and suggested first step repudiates the nra of 

grare reflections: — > proscriptions and of dictations. 

"The Treaties of 1316 enist no She is decided never to veil liberty 

longer as law in the eyes of the at home. She is equally decided 

French Republic ; nevertheless, never to veil its democratic prin- 

the territorial circumscriptions of ciple abroad. She will never per- 

these treaties are a fact which it mit any one to interpose between 

admits as a basis, and as a point the pacific radiation of its liberty 

de dijmrt in its relations with and the regard of nations. She 

other nations. proclaims herself the intellectual 

" But if the Treaties of 1815 do and cordial ally of every right, of 

not exist any longer excepting as every pn^ess, of every legitimate 

facts to modify a common under- development of the institudona of 

standing, and if the Republic nations which wish to live on the 

declares openly that its right and some principle as hereelf. She 

its mission is to arrive regularly will not endeavour any immoderate 

and pacifically at these modifica- or incendiaty propogandism among 

tioDS. the good sense, the modera- her neighbours. She knows that 

tiou, the conscience, the prudence there is no durable freedom but 

of the Republic exist, and are for that which grows of itself on its 

Europe a better and more honour- own soil. But it will exercise by 

able guarantee than the letter of the light of its ideas, by tha 

those treaties, so often violated spectacle of order and of peace 

and modified by Europe itself. which it hopes to give to tha 

*' Thus, we declare it openly, if world, the sole and honest pro- 

tha hour of the reconstruction of selytismofesteemandof sympathy, 

some nationalities, oppressed ia That is not war — it is nature. 

Europe or elsewhere, should ap- That is not the agitation of Europe 

pear to us to have sounded in the — it Is life. That is not to embroil 

decrees of Providence — if Switzer- the world — it is to shine from its 

land, our faithful ally since the place on tha horizon of nations, to 

timeofFrancisL.wereconstrained advance them, and to guide them 

or threatened in the advance which at the same time. We desire, for 

she is efiectiug in her government, humanity, that tha peace be pre- 

in order to lend additional strength served. We even hope it. One 

to the fascine of democratic govern- only question of war was mooted, 

menta — if the independent states a year ago, between England and 

of Italy vrere invaded — if any limits France. It was not Republican 

or obstacles were imposed on their France which started that question 

internal transformations — if the of war ; it was the dynasty. The 

rightofallianoe among themselves, dynasty carries away with it that 

in order to consolidate an Italian danger of war which it had given 

nation, were contested by main rise to for Europe by the entirely 

force — the French Republic would personal ambition of its family 

believe itself entitled to arm itself alliances in Spain. Thus, that 

in order to protect these legitimate domestic policy of the &llen 

movements of the greatness and dynasty, which weighed for seven- 

the nationality of states. teen years on our national dignity. 

ifronw.] HISTORY. [249 

weighed at the same time, b; its pose all political functions mast 

pretensions to another crown at be allotCea to men sure, and of 

Madrid, on our Liberal alliances Republican principles. Eveiy- 

and on peace. The Republic has where the prefects and sub-pre- 

no ambition. The Republic has fects ought to be changed. In 

no nepotism. It inherits not the some loadiliea their continuance 

pretensions of a family. Let Spain in office is demanded; it is joui 

govern itself; let Spain be inde- duty to make the population pei^ 

pendent and free. France, for the ceive that those persons who 

solidity of this natural alliance, served a power each act of which 

counts more on the conformity of was a corruption cannot be pre- 

principles than on the successions served. The nomination of snb- 

of the House of Bourbon." commissioners to replace tbose 

But, if the manifesto of the functionaries belongs to you ; and 

Foreign Minister was upon the you can refer to me whenever you 

whole satisfactory, a circular issued feel any hesitation. Choose in 

soon afterwards by M. Ledru Rol- preference men belonging to the 

lin, the Minister of the Interior, chief tovru. You are not to take 

to the " Commissionera " of the them in the arrondissement itself. 

Provisional Government through- unless you know them to be por- 

out France, caused lively alarm In fectly free from all spirit of coterie. 

the minds of the public, who saw Do not set young men aside, as 

in it a spirit of propagandism of ardour and generosity are the pri- 

the most dangerous nature. The vtlegeofthatage.and the Republic 

following extracts will give some has need of those fine qualities, 
idea of the mode of action which " 2. Your Relations with the 

it inculcated ; — Officers in command of the Troops. 

" 1. What ere your Powers. — — You are exercising the powers 
They are unlimited. Agent of a of the executive authority, so that 
revolutionary authority, yon are the armed force is under your 
revolutionary also. The victory of orders. You can call it out, and 
the people has imposed on you the put it in movement ; you can even, 
duty of getting your work pro- in grave cases, suspend a corn- 
claimed and consolidated. For the mending officer, referring the case 
accomplishment of that task you immediately to me. But you ought 
are invested vrith its sovereignty ; to show the greatest caution in ^is 
you take orders only from your part of your functions." 
conscience; you are to act as cir- But, vrith reference to the 
cumstances may demand for the Elections, a still more pernicious 
public safety. Thanks to our state doctrine was proclaimed by M. 
of public morals, that mission is Caruot, the Minister of Public 
not a very terrible one. Hitherto Instruction, iu a circular which he 
you have not had to break down addressed to the Rectors of Aca- 
any serious resistance, and you demies. It is difficult to imagine 
have been able to remaiu calm in how any one could have dared to 
your force ; you must not. how- insult the good sense of mankind 
ever, deceive yourself as to the by such advice as the following: — 
state of the country. Republican " The great error against which 
sentiments ought to be strongly the inhabitants of our Agricultural 
forwarded there, and for that pur- districts must be guarded is this 

260] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. EF«««- 

— that in order to be a repre- Tennent to expresa the consterna:- 

sentative it is neeegaary either to tion which had been exotted bj the 

eqjo; the advantages of education language of two t^ its Members, 

or the gifts of fortuna As &t as they were received by the Foreign 

education is concerned, it is dear Minister, who aasurod them that 

that an honest peasant, possessed the Provisional Goverament had 

of good sense and experience, will anthorized no one to speak to the 

represent the int«reBts of his class nation in ita name, and eepeciallj 

in the assembly of the nation in- to speak a language saperior to the 

finitely better than a rich and laws. He declared that the Oo- 

educated citizen having no ex- vemment, recognising freedom 

perieoce of roral life or bhnded of opinion, repudiated that worst 

by interests at vanance with those sort of corruption, intimidation — 

of the bulk of the peasantry. As and had deliberately resolved not 

to fortune, the remuneration which to interfere, as a Qoremment, 

will be assigned to all the Members directly or indirectly in the elec- 

of the Assembly will suffice for the tions. He said also that he hoped 

maintenance of the very poorest " that public opinion would bo re- 

" It most not be forgotten that, assured, and would not take in an 

in a great asesmbly like that which alanning sense some words wrongly 

is about to assemble, the m^ority intenreted in the documents of 

of the Members fulfil the functions the Ministers, who attach their 

of jurors. They decide offlrma* signatures often in haste." 

tively or negatively whether the In order more completely to 

measures proposed by the ilite of assure the public mind and restore 

the members are good or bad. confidence, the Provisional Go- 

They only require hones^ and Terutnent in a body, on the 1 Tlh of 

good sense; they do not invent." March, published a proclamation 

These sentiments, however, of to the French nation, in which 

UM. Camot and Ledru Rollin, by they warmly eulc^ed the conduct 

tiie dread which they inspu^d, of the people of Paris, and said — 

threatened to produce a reaction in " They have, in a word, made the 

&vonr of monarchical instltntiona, name of the people synonymous 

and the Government hastened to with oourt^, clemency, and virtue, 

disavow them. Indeed it was evi- We have but one won of instruc- 

dent that the Cabinet already con- tion to give you. Be inspired by 

tained two parties : the one devoted and imitate the people! Think, 

to extreme ideasi and ready to carry feel, vote, and act like them 1 The 

ont the doctrine of the " rights ckT Provisional Goverament will not 

the people" to the most extrava^ imitate the Govemmente which 

gant and impncticabls lengths; oeurptbesovereigntyof the people, 

the other, sincerely Republican, which corrupted the electors, and 

but more moderate in its views, and which purchased at an immo- 

anxious chiefly for the preservation ral price the conscience of the 

of order. Of these the former country. To what purpose is it 

was supposed to be represented by that Governments should succeed 

M. Ledm Hollin, the latter by M. each other if we are to reeembla 

deLamartiOe. When a deputation them? To what purpose have we 

from the ftepnblican Club of Paris created and adored the R^ublic if 

waited upon the Provisional Go* the Republic is to be the first to 

Fnww.] HISTORY. [251 

«nter the atougb of rojttl^, which " Yon will feel that the new and 

b ftboUelied? The Provisional Go- Btrong popular inslibilioiia which 

remment considers it to be one of sre about to emanate from the 

its dudes to ihed upon eleotond National Assembly will open to 

OTOiKtioiu tbkt Ught which en- the army « career of deroledness 

hgfatena oocsciences without fore- and service whtiA the national 

ing them. It confineB itself to freedom will appreoitte and noom- 

neatralising the hostile influence pense better aan kings. Tbs 

of the late AdministiMJon, which tmil; of the armj' ana of the 

has perverted and changed the petals, for a moment impaired, 

naCora of elections. The Prori- most be reestablished. Swear love 

aional aovsrament wishes that the to the people, among whom ars 

pobtio coDScienoe should be p&ta- your falhera and brothers ! Swear 

mount It does not dittorb itself fldeli^ to these new institutions, 

with respect to andent parties, and everything wilt be loi^tten, 

The old parties have Uvea a cen- save yoor cotirage and discipline, 

tnry in three days I The Bepublio Liberty will ask no other services 

wilt oonvcrt them to itself if it be bom yon than those before which 

firm and just towards them. No- yon mil have to rqoice and glorify 

oessity ia a great master. Ttis yonraleves bc&re its enemies." 

Bepablic, be it observed, has the The army, however, gave no 

gora fbrtaoe to be a Government tnmble to uie Oovermnent. Its 

M necessity. Reflection is on our actioD had been panlyned at the 

side. It is impossible to ascend oommenoement of the Revolutloo, 

to monarchy. We cannot descend by the order prohibiting the troopa 

to unknown anarchy. Everybody to Are upon the popnlace when 

will be republioan through con- MU. Thiers and OditloD fiamt 

r independence of suf- disposition to interfere with the 
frags wliich you wish for youi^ course of events. At the important 
selves. Regard not the name which fortressof Vinoennes, intheneigfa- 
those you consider your enemies bonihood of Paris, and the forts 
write upoo their nillot, and be around the city, which Louis Phi- 
aasnr«d beforehand that they will Uppe had been so anxious to con- 
wiits the only name irtiioh oan stmot, the garrisons with little 
save themt that is, that of a Re- hesitatian declared for the Repub- 
pablio, cifiable and honest" Uo. And, after the inaagnration of 
Amidst the various dudss wliiafa the Frorisional Oovemment, one 
pressed wiUi overwhelming foroe of the first officers who placed his 
iqion the Members of the Provi- sword at its disposal was Marshal 
sunal Ooremmant, they had to Bogeand, Dnke of Isly. The em- 
dlrect immediate attention to the ploymmit of the woikmen of the 
three important qaestions of the capital was not so easy ; bat a 
army ; the support of the unem- National Guard mobUt was im- 
ployed multitades of Paris; and mediately formed, on the pretext 
the stats of the public finsnoes. that their services might be re- , 
To the aimy a proclamation was quired to march to the frontier, 
addressed, nhicb contained the This was to oonsiat of S4 batta. 
following passages : — lions of tOSS men each, and the 

252j ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fra^. 

pay of each private was fixed at out the ^rliole day, and antil late 

30 sous per day. at night, the armed populace kept 

A quarrel, however, took place posBeBsion of the streets, aaid did 

between the National Guards and not separate until thej were fully 

the GovenuDent which at first BAsured that no further attempt 

threatened to be serioua, but ended would be made by the dissatiefied 

in atrengtheoiug the hands of the companiee of the National Guard. 

Utter. The grenadier and light Thua the people of Paris wer« 

iofantTj companies of that body again victorious in the preeence of 

consisted of men of more substance organized battalions of troops, and, 

and station than tbereet of theforce; though on this occasion they rallied 

and, as the SlUe of the corps, they to support the existing Govem- 

were regarded with feelings of jea- ment, the display served as a proof 

lousy and dislike by their comrades, how completely they were masters 

In the spirit of Bepublican equality of the destinies of France, 
the Minister of the Interior issued Orders were given to resume 

an order for the dissolution of the public works which were in 

these companies, and the fusion of progress at the outbreak of the 

them with the others. This mea- Revolution ; and decrees full of 

sure gave great offence to the dis- ciyoleiy and fiatteiy to the worii- 

banded corps, and on the I6th of ing classea were issued from the 

March a lai^e body of them pro- prolific mint of the Provisional 

ceeded without arms to the Hotel Government. One of them ran as 

de ViUe, and demanded a recall follows:— 
of the obnoxious decree. The " From Wednesday March I, 

Government stood firm, and the important works will be organized 

National Guards retired, threaten- on different points. All workmen 

ing to return on the morrow viih who wish to take part in them 

arms in their hands to compel should apply to one of the mayors 

compliance with their wishes. The of Paris, who will receive their ap- 

populace, however, warmly sjinpa- plications, and direct them without 

thizedwiththeactof the Minister; delay to the different work-yards, 
and next morning they assembled _, , , r, ■ 

in vast crowds In frint of the " ^'»-knim of Pans.- 

Hotel de Ville, and in all the " Tou wish to live honourably 

Bvenues leading to it, fully deter- by labour ; all the efforts of the 

mined to resist by force any at- Provision^ Government will, yon 

tempt on the part of the discon- may rely on it, be directed to assist 

tented Nation^ Guards to over- you in the accomplishment of that 

awe the Provisional Government, vrish. The Republic has a right 

When these troops appeared in the to expect, and it does expect, from 

course of the day, and insisted the patriotism of all its citizens, 

upon marching to the Hotel de that the example it givra may be 

Ville, the multitude who occupied followed. In that manner the ex- 

the quays and streets leading to tentof the works may be increased, 

the Place de GrSve would not Let labour, therefore, eveiywhere 

allow them to pass, and the de- resume its wonted activity. Work- 

monstration vras so imposing that men, after victory, labour is a fine 

the National Guards did not ven- example which you have to give 

ture to force a passage. Through- to the world, and you will give it." 

. -Ac 

Franc,.] HISTORY. [263 

Another vas stiil more explicit give tbem practical effect. Laroe 

aod munificent in ita promises. bodies proceeded to the H6tel de 

" Considering that the Revolu- Yille, and demanded that the 

tion made by the people ought to period of labour should be reduced 

be made /or them ; to ten hours a day; « minimum 

" That it is time to put an end rate of wages establiahed; and the 

to the long and iniquitous suffer- system of employing middlemen 

ingB of wonimen ; abolished. And one of the first 

" That the labour question is acts of the new Commission was 

one of supreme importance ; to decree that, 

" That there is no other more " Considering that the intention 

tngb or more worthy of the conei- of the ProTisional Government, 

deration of a Republican Govern- such as it appears from the very 

ment : terms of the decree, has been to 

" That it belongs to France to spare the strength of the opera- 

stndy ardently, and to resolve a tives, and toleaveaportionof their 

problem submitted at present to time for their intelligence; 
all the industrial nations of Europe; "The duration of effective 1a- 

" The Provisional Government boor in Parisand in the suburbs ia 

of the Republic decrees a perma' fixed at ten hours, for all profes- 

nent commission, which shall be sions." 

named Communon da Qoutertu- In order to find occupation for 

mtnt pour Ut TTavaUleurt, is about the dangerous class of unemployed 

to be nominated, with the express workmen, nationalworkshopscalled 

and special mission of occupying aUliert were opened by the Go- 

themselves with their lot vernment, where two francs a day 

" To show how much import- were paid to those who were en- 
ance tfae Provisional Government gaged ; and, as it vras impossible to 
of the Republio attaches to the employ all, who applied in crowds 
solution of this great problem, it for admission, one iranc a day was 
nominates President of the Com- in the mean time doled out to 
miasion of Government for Work- thoee to whom work could not im- 
men one of its members, M. Louis mediately be given. This, how- 
Blanc, and for Vice-President an- ever, produced a very evil effect, 
other of its members, M. Albert, The operatives preferred the 
workman (ouvrUr*). smaller pay and idleness to higher 

" Workmen will be invited to wages and work, and their minds 

form mrtof the committee. had become so unsettled by the 

" The seat of the committee events in which they had played 

will be at the Palace of the Luzem- such a prominent part, that they 

boorg." were dismdined to return to habits 

These doctrines were of course of steady industiy. This produced 

highly acceptable to the labouring a remonstrance from Marie, the 

classes, and thhy determined to MinisterofPublioWoriiB,whothuB 
addressed the ouvritrt of Paris. 

tSxeA ID ill die proclunBtiom to H, " Citiz^tu, — 

Albert'* nuDe. He wu, bowev^ not ui ■' You demanded that the terms 

Tlie object of the addiUon kMifidenllj "» «1"C*> JO" ^^W"" ^""^^^ ^ 

obviam. ameliorated, and your demands 

254] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. t^«««- 

were eatiaSecL AH mtenB«diafie> more liberal ideas, should gire tbo 

between the mttter sud operetire example of sending awajfbreigneiB 

h*re b«eii maoved hj oommon far tbe simple reaeon l^ ther are 

oooord. and the jperiod of tbe da^ 'a foTeigner§, we ehould, besidto a 

woit has been fixed at ten hours, sbamerul violation of our pris- 

NerertkdflW, fi>r some d^B pant ciples, be exposed to repriBafs on 

the great workshops opened bj the toe part of foreign eonntries. Do 

stAta or bj msaniaetureES, whom tou know bow many woriunan w« 

the difficnlt; of cimunstances and have ia England? Then are 

the financial crisis hare mA a mo- 23,000 ; in Spain there am 

ment discouEBged, hare a^^ been I9ji00; at ACoDterideo, ]a,000. 

yMndoned, or are menaced widi If jou dismiss fomimen, you do 

being so. Oilizcgas, jou are men iigniy to yonr brethren abroad ; 

of induetiy, and joa uv proud and the Government would bU 

o£ jour eonditton — and ;ou aie in its moat rigarouB duty, tbat 

right, for utdostrj ia ths ^e of protecting FroQchmen wbererm: 

source of happLoess, ior mas. Bar ihey majr be, who woald cuse the 

his fiunilj. and for all Bocaetj, for impnidence of the OtntKoweot if 

in tlist aloDO consists tme iode- tbej were wtims." 
pendence and true libertj. Be- It was calcnlated that the amount 

turn, then, to your workshops, pe- of ready monej at the diapeesl of 

sums that aetiTe and labcsioua life tlw 8t«i« «aa 860,000,000/., oi 

vkioh is MB bwotir to you. and a wfaieb 836,OO0,OOQr', wmn da- 

Buijectofliopefer the ooantiy." posited in Uie Bank of Fraaee, «ad 

From tbe QontmenceBMnt of the b&.OOQJiOOf. in the Treasiuy. 
Berdidaon the gmteet hostility One of the first earas of t^ 

had everywhere been displayed new Govenunent iffss to pronde 

by d» piqnilaoe against Ute Eo^- for the due payment of the toxas: 

Ix^ workmen amployed on the aaditpuhlialiedadecree.inwluctt, 

M^roade, ami in tbe difiarant ma- after pnmusing a reriaen «f tbs 

tiniao&iiiBg estaUishments, and syalem o£ taxalion and resaoval of 

the oonse^HeoDe wsa titat their obnaXiMia imposts, it declared that 

maatecs were c v eiyw hc rs obliged " the French Republic, altJboi^ 

to dncclas tbcv. Is naay places it ia tJtw Buceesmr of « Govem- 

tlioy had to fly for tlteir lives, asd jment of prodigality and oorruption, 

fsbiciied to England «4n>llTdeeti- accepts and wishes le fulfil all 

tnte. At a latw psEwd, aittf the Migagements and resiain faithful 

misc^aef wtss dena, and faw, if to all coaliBcta. 
any, foreign Miqilei^ vera left in " Xbat, ia the ssidat of tniuient 

FmncSifheGorenimentsuniMiMied difficnilties inseponbto to eveiy 

B9 couia^ to declare that it nould great commotion, it would be highly 

psDbsot thom, nd M. Uansat imprudent t* djminidi the re- 

tliBs addieesed a dsptttadoo xriiich wouiees of the Trsasary. 
prsiyad /or tlmr immediBte dis- " That it would thereby jaeor 

"Hf ' the risk of suspendii^ or compro- 

" The Republic desires liberty iBiatng tlw meat important ser- 

for all, fraternity between dl men, ^icee, and be less able to think of 

and an alliance between all na- making provisions against events 

lions. 1£, uB&rtanately, lU^hli- Fnnee and Eun>pe may mt- 

can FnncB, Mrhioh «u^it to bars neas. 


*V«w] HISTORY. [255 

" Prom these conaiderBtionB the uchj ibiorbed to make ench s 

ProviaionalGoveminentdecreeB:— misOT^le use of it, it demaiMled 

"Article I. All the tBxas, with- of all tai-pa^ere to p&^ the unooirt 

OBt ezceptioo. shall contume to be of crae yew's tax m sdvKnee, to 

eoUectod as before. enaUe it to relieve all pezsoni in 

" Anide 3. Good eitiseDB are di flt r w , to restore Kctmty la all 
mpieeted in the name o( patriot- transactioiu, and to difliue the ad- 
ism not to delay the p a ynw n t of vantages of credit unongst all 
their taxee. those who aagment the iiatioiiBl 

" Article 3. The Provisional wealth by their labour," 

Government pledges itself to the But the oeoeseiQr of gralifyiug 

Natiomd Assembly for a bodget, in the people bj the remissiMi of ob- 

whkh the newspaper atamp tax, ncndoos taxes seemed likelj to 

the active duties, the duties on creato much peooniaty embairase 

salt, as well as a law to modify ment, and, inien it was proposed 

matenatly tbe syrtem trf indirect hj Us oelleegaes to aboliBh the 

taxation, shall ai^Mar." staam^dnty upon newspapers, U, 

ProvisioB was also laode for the Gondchaux, the Minister of Fi- 

exigenciee of trade, and it was de- nance, firmlyresistsd it. finding, 

ereed that all cotatotmitl bills, &tl- bowerar, tl»t ho cqipositiDB was 

ing doe between the iiSnd of Fe- unavailing, he detennined to i»- 

brasry and tbe 3nd of Uarch in> sign bis office, and he was soo- 

clnsive, should bav« ten additional eeedsd by IS. Qamier Pag^ 

days given Ifaem to nu, and that all One of tbe first acts of the new 

protest and twcourBsn on guaian- Minister was to poblish a vny vo- 

tees should be prorogued tor ton lominons Tepoit on tbe financial 

iaffs. A Disoooot OGoe was also conditkon of tiie Bepublic. in wfaicfa 

established, under the tiUe of he pavfesaed to tell "tbe entire 

"Dolalioa for Small Traders." truth, without hatred, vritbout fear, 

The eonsequenees of the ehot^ to but libowise witbont dissinmla- 

public credit, however, begui soon Imb. " T%« follmni^ are some ai' 

to nanifeet tbemeelres. Mod seve- tracto from this impectant doca- 

ral bilnrea of banking and iser- ment 

eantile houses aA&ed muck to the " On tbe 1st ef Janmoy, 1341, 

embamsstnent of affidn. Amongst tbe oqntal of tie PiAlic Debt, tba 

these one at tbe most conspicaous GhoTemment stock belonging to 

was tbe fall of Ike banking &rm a! tbe Sinking Faad bwng -deduoted, 

Oronn and Co. <SQCoesBorB to tbe was 4,267,9 16, 4 02<. On the 1st 

6nn of Lafitto and Co.), in whose itf Janaary, IMS, it amounted to 

bands great nombeis of tbe Pa- 6,179.e44,TS(y. 

tisian tradesmeD bad d^ooita. ^ Tbe Imdgets {allowed tix pra- 

It eeon became necessary to ap- gresrien of the debt 

pealtothepatrieCiam of the^eopte " The entire of tbe credits phoed 

m a my whioh pots that prmotple at the dl^XHtd of the Mien G«- 

to tbe sevMVSt proof ; for the Pre- venunent totbeynr 1^47 anuranta 

Tirional Oavemment passeda de- to 1,712,976,680/'., 62c. Notwitb- 

oree, in which, sftor stating that standing tbe incoearave incraBse of - 

" the Beprtdie, in order to aoeom- lite receipts, tbe budgets presented 

pMsh gpent events, will net bmn each year a ioonsideiable deficst- 

need of tbe meney irtiieb tbe Uen- Tbe espwises from 1846 to 184T 

256] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [/>««*. 

mcluBiTely, exceeded the receipts dnced by RotbI bonds, a loan, and 

hj eo^.625,000/. The deficit cat- the eaTings' banka. 

culated for the year 18^8 13 " With regard to the latter, the 

48,000,000/., trithout coanting the Government of the ex-King ren- 

additional chapter of the sapple- dered it impossible that it conld 

mentary and extraordinan' crei&le, maiatain its engagements with the 

which will raise the totu amount creditersef thesaviags'banks. The 

of the budgets, to the charge pledge demandable at pleasure was 

of the last Administration, to no longer &ee in tbeir bands. 

663,000,000/. When I assumed the direction of 

" The public works, heedlessly the finances of the Slate, on the 

undertaken simultaneoasly at all afternoon of the 7th of March, the 

points of the territory, to satisfy property of the depositora was 

or toencoarageelectoral corruption, placed as follows : — 

and not with that reserve which " In the Treasury at 4 percent., 

prudence so imperiously com- 65,708,630/'., 40e. ; in G per cent, 

manded, have raised the credits to Government stock, 34,106, ISQf., 

1.081,000,000/. From this sum 25e.: in Government 4 percent 

are to be deducted the sums reim- stock; 209,316,176/.; inSperoent. 

bursed by the companies, amount- Government stock 84, 084,447/*. » 

JDg to 160,000,000/. ; thelastloan, 93c.; in shares of the four canals, 

83,000.000/., making together 14,069,130/.; in shares of the 

349,000.000/., and leaving a ba- canals 4.818,3)8/., 76c., making 

lance of 839,000,000/. Out of altogether 366,087,717/., 33c." 

this sum 436.000/. has been ex- M. Gamier Pagds then an- 

pended out of the resources of the nounced his intention to propose, 

floating debt, and 404.000,000/. "I. That all deposits of 100/. and 

still remain to be expended on the less shall be repaid in full in cash, 

completion of the works. 3. That the deposits from 100/ to 

"The floating debt increased in 1000/. shall be repaid as follows:— 
proportions not less considerable, viz., 100/. in cash, one half of the 
At the commencement of 1831 surplus in Treasury bonds at four 
it reached an amount of about months' date, bearii^ interest at 6 
350,000,000/. At the date of the per cent, and the other in 5 per 
36Lh of Februaiy last, it exceeded cent Government stock at par. 
670,000,000/, to which is to be 3. That those accounts which ex- 
added the Government stock be- ceed 1000/. shall be repaid as fol- 
longing to the savings' banks, lows: — viz., 1000/. incash, onehalf 
302,000.000/, making altt^ether of the surplus in Treasury bonds, 
873,000,000/. Under suchasys- atsixmonths'date.beoringintereBt 
tem the position of the central at 6 per cent., and the remaining 
office of the Treasury could not half in 5 per cent, stock at par." 
often be brilliant. During the The general measures for re- 
308 last days of its existence the trievii^ the position of the Ex- 
fallen Government expended more chequer, which the Finance Minis- 
than 294,800,000/. beyond its ordi- tor proposed to adopt, were the 
nary resources, or 1,100,000/ per following: — 1. A reduction in the 
day. In order to defray these ex- number of employit under Govem- 
penses, the Government of the ex- meat. — 3. A sale of the crown 
King drew from three sources, pro- diamonds, and a conversion into 

FmM..] • . HISTORY. [257 

coio of the sUtot plat« and ingots has prodnced, the mind stops short, 
found at the Tiii]eriea, and in the disconcerted, before the enormous 
other royal residences " allocated to disproportion of the means with the 
the fallen dynasty by the law of results. But if the country itself 
1633, regulating the civillist." — 3. is regarded, the aspect of what it 
A disposal of the woods, lands, and can do resasurea. The English 
property of the crown, comprised debt amounts to 30 miiliardi. It 
in tne ancient Civil List ; but the rests on the manufacturing and 
report stat«d, that "It is onder- commercial subjecUon of the world, 
stood that the domain called ' pri- — a variable and fragile haais. 
vste' is not comprised in this mea- Ours is only five miUiarda, and it 
sore, and that it remains provi- has for its basis all the public and 
sionally tinder sequestralJon, for private proper^ of France,— an 
the disposal of the National As- immoveable basis, and every day 
sembly. '—4. A better sdmimatra- stronger. A few years of a Re- 
tion of the revenues of the state- publican Government, of a pm- 
forests. — 5. A loan. The late Go- dent, firm, and loyal administra- 
vermnent was authorized to raise tion, and the credit of France will 
■ loan of 350,000,000/., of which not have any equal. What is 
&50,000,000f. were subscribed on certain, what I affirm with all the 
the lOth of November last, and of force of an enlightened and loyal 
this the Treasury had received convictioii, is, that if the Orleans 
83,000,000/'. Thereremainedthere- dynasty had reigned some time 
fore to be raised 100,000,000/,, and longer, bankraptcy was inevitable, 
this loan was to he contracted for Yes, citizens, letusproclaimitwith 
under the title of the National pride and delight ; to all the tides 
Loan. In exchange for their " of- which recommend the Republic to 
feiings," the citizens were to re- the love of France, and to the 
ceive each a coupon of S per cent, respect of the world, this must be 
Government stock at par, even added, — the Republic has saved 
though that stockshonld rise above France from bankruptcy!" 
par, before the subscription list A Just test of the degree of con- 
was filled. The last stipulation fidence felt in the state of public 
might be made with great safe^, aHairs is supplied in modern times, 
for there was little chance of a rise by the position of the funds and 
in the value of the public stock I«nking establishments. In Paris 
in the face of such a revolution es a panic seized the depositors with 
was then convulsing France. M. the Bank of France, and the run 
Gamier Paggs condoded his re- upon it was so extensive, that the 
port by taking a hopeful view of applicants were obliged to place 
the state of the finances. themselves en queue, and had the 

" As to the general situation of greatest difficulty in presenting 

the Republic under afinancial point themselves at the counter, 

of view, I imi^ne that it no M. D'Argout, the governor, im- 

longer shows anything alarming, mediately addressed an urgent let- 

The national debt, deduction being ter to the Minister of Finance, in 

made of the Rentes which belong which he stated that — " In the 

to the sinking fund, amounts to interval between the S6th of Feb- 

6,300,000,000/. If any one m- mary and the afternoon of the 

quires what that mass of capital 14th of March, the cash in hand 

Vol. XC. [S] 

258] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Frmet. 

diministied from 140,000,000/'. to leans, and made their notes a legal 
70,000,000/'. This morning a panic tender within the boimdaries of 
declared itself. The holders of their respective departments ; and 
notes flocked in crowds to the their iseuea were limited hy a 
Bank. Addititmal pay clerks were maximum in each case, 
appointed to accelerate the service. In order more efleotuallj to re- 
More than 10,000,000/. were paid cruit the lalling revenne of the 
in cash. There remains this i^ter- Stale, and get possessioit of ready 
noon only 59.000,000/ in the Paris money for immediate ez^ncies, 
chest. The crowd mil be more the ProvisionBl Government oon- 
oonsideiable to-morrow ; and, in ceived the project of taking into 
the course of a few days, the Bank their own hands the man^ement 
will be entirely exhausted of its of the difiierent railroads in France, 
epecie." To put a stop to this. The first experiment was made 
lAtich mnst have resulted in the upon the Parie and Orleans and 
bankruptcy of the establishment. Centre linee, and the pretext aa- 
the Provisional Government, on signed for this arbitraty measure 
the 16thof Harch,issuedadecree, waa, that theCompaniea of those 
whereby the notes of the Bank of two railroads did not possess suffi- 
France were made a legal tender, dent authority to insure the regular 
and the Bank was dispensed from communications. It therefore or- 
the obligation of paymg its notes dained that the Paris and Orleans 
in specie. It was also provided and Centre Railroads should be 
that in no case the issue of the eequeetered, and should be ad- 
Bank and its branch banks should ministered and worked under the 
exceed 86 0,000 ,000/., and, in order direction of the Mioister of Public 
to facilitate the circulation, it was Works. On the 18th of April 
aatborized to isaue small notes, of M. Gamier Pag^, the Minister of 
no lower denomination than 100/. Finance, received by appointment 
An additional per centage was also a deputation from the different 
laid upon the assessed taxes by Railway Companies, and, after de- 
the following decree : — tailing the reasons which induced 

" There shall be raised tern- him to make the proposition, one 

porarily, and for the year 1848, 45 of which he said was the neoee- 

centimes additional on the entire sity of finding work for the miem- 

of the four direct contributions of ployed labourers, he said that it 

that year. was the intention of the Govem- 

" The centimes bearing on the ment to purchase the railways, 

contribution levied off landed pro- and suggested a discussion as to 

party shall be at the charge of the the most equitable mode of acoom- 

proprietors alone, notwithstanding plishing this. He detailed several 

any stipulation to the contrary plans for this purpose; one of which 

contained in any lease or cod- was the conversion of the shares at 

Tendon." the actual price of the day, and 

This was followed at a later payable in money, Another, the 
period by an order which ordained same principle <^ converaion. but 
the suspension of cash payments payable in B«Um, at the same ac- 
hy the banks of Lyoira, Rouen, tual price. A third, the oonver- 
Bordeaax. Nantes, Lille, Mar- sion of the shares into Benttt, each 
seilles, Havre, Toulouse, and Or- taken at the average market price 

Fnmce.] HISTORY. [259 

dnring the b!z months preceding fund, to be divided into four 

the 16th of Februarj. The pro- parts — 

poeal, however, caused great die- 1. A quarter for the sinking 

aatis&etion, and it was found to fund of the capital belonging to the 

be eo impracticsble that it wsa for proprietor with whom the State 

the time abandoned. made the bargain. 

Ab a spedmen of the viewe put it. A quarter for the establish- 
forward and advocated bj those ment of a fund, to be set aside for 
who professed to regenerete the the support of old men, the sick, 
framework of society, bf the wounded, and infirm, 
adoplioa of new relations between 8. A quarter to be divided 
wonmen and their employers, we among the woritmen bj way of 
give the following outline of the bonus. 

plan for the organization of labour, 4. A quarter for the formation 

which M. Louis Blanc laid before of a reserve fund, 

the Commiaaion which sat at the Besides this, M. Louis Blanc 

Palace of the Lu.iembourg; and declared that it would be necessary 

which he proposed to sabmit to the to unite workshops belonging to 

eoiuideration of the National As- the same branch of industty ; to 

sembly. unite all the workshops of different 

llie Covemment was to take branches of industry, but placed 

poHsession, on its own account, of in the same condition ; and to 

all establishments about to sns- guarantee the interests of the con- 

pend their works ; the present snmer as regarded the quality and 

proprietors preserving their rights, the lowest possible price of the 

to be converted into bonds beuing produce. 

interest, secured on the establish- " The plan is. that a Council of 

ments, and reimbursable in money Administration should be placed 

wlher by way of annuity or by at the head of all the atiUeri, in 

a sinking fund. The persons em> whose hands would be united the 

pkived in these establishments, guidance of all the industries, in 

and of which the State was to be the same way that the direction of 

the gtrtmt, to be pot on a new each particular industry would be 

footing. The workpeople to form placed in the hands of an engineer, 

an aseociauon; to elect the di- The State would arrive at the 

rectors of the works, and them- realization of this plau by succes- 

selves fix the amount of the wages, sive measures. No one b to have 

or the share that labour is entiUed violence done to him. The State 

to in the profits. The share being intends to establish a model, by 

determined in a general manner, the side of which the private asso- 

the collectiTe wages to be distri- dations and the present eoonotmcal 

bnted among the workmen indi- system may bve." 

vidually, by the Council of Tra- As a practical commentary np(m 

vailleurs, according to proportions these doctrines, we may mention 

open to discussion, but which the that the conductors of the Paris 

Oovemment Commission thought omnibuses assembled, and ordered 

ought to be in equal parts. The all the vehicles, without exception, 

prodnce, after deduclioB of the to stop running : they sent i^ent 

wages, to be formed into a general off their stands, forcibly stopped 

260] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. lF""*ce. 

them in the streete, and compelled the 16tli of April, without specify- 

the pasaengers to evacuate them, ing the ohject for which tbe^ were 

and carried awaj the wooden summoned. The Government, 

houses (buHAur d« conlro/«) erected however, took the alarm, and on 

on the Boulevards. The; thus that da; the rappel was beaten 

forced the public to submit to a throughout Paris, and the streets 

higher sate of feres. were filled with upwards of SOO.OOO 

The case was taken into con- National Guards. The meeting 

sideralion b; the conclave at the convened bj M. Blanqui was held, 

Luxembourg, and M. Louis Blanc and, after some violent speeches, 

fixed the salariea of the drivers the crowd, abont 6000 in number, 

and conductors of omnibuses at resolved to march to the H6tel do 

Sf. 60c. per da;. He also con- Ville, and demand the dismissal of 

Btderablj reduced the amount of the more moderate Members of 

the fines to which they were liable, the Provisional Government, 

and decided that their proceeds When thej arrived at the Pont 

should in future specially belong Neuf, tliey found the bridge occu- 

to the conductors and drivers, and pied by troops, and cries of "A baa 

form a fund for the benefit of the les Communistes !" "A has Blan- 

Bick and wounded, their widows qui I "rent the air. Finding that the 

and families. attempt to proceed was vain, and 

Hitherto all had gone on that if they ventured to provoke a 

smoothly, but there was an imder- collision they must be overpowered 

current of discontent at work and destroyed, they at last dis- 

which was destined to convulse handed and dispersed, 

the capital, and endanger the ex- In the afternoon numerous depu- 

istence of the Republic as it had tations waited on the Provisional 

been accepted by the nation. Govemmenttocongratulateitonits 

There was a dangerous class of escape, and testify their adhesion, 

men called CommunitUs or So- In reply to one of these from the 

daliau, in whose eyes the posses- National Guard, M. Lamartine 

sion of property was a crime, and sud : — 

whose untiring object it was, and "This day was aononnced to 

still is, to overthrow all existing the Provisional Government as a 

institutions, and establish the do- day of danger to the Republic ; we 

minion of an unchecked and un- were sure heforoband that it would 

bridled democracy in its wildest be a day of triumph for the 

and most licentious fonn. This country and for its cbitdron. I 

party had been gradually growing know by a recent trial, and I can 

ui numbers and strongth, and to see it by the visage of many 

them the Revolution seemed to be amongst you, and by the intrepid 

only half accomplished, while the and moderate energy which fills 

rights of property were respected, the heart of the armed citizens of 

and a curb was placed upon disorder, the capital, that we, that France, 

Those of their most prominent will not want any other guard, any 

leaden were MM. Blanqui, Gabet, other army, than this civil, volun- 

and Raspail, and the former had tary, spontaneous army, which has 

convoked a meeting of his asso- been formed of itself, not at the 

dates in the Champs Elys^es for first Up of the drum, for yon were 




armed before the call to ann was 
beatea, but which is formed of it- 
self at the first rumour of danger 
for the oonntrj and for pabUo 

He admitted that attempts had 
been made to aofi division in the 
Provisional Government ; but he 
said, — 

" If some differences of opinion, 
as ia natural to expect in the great 
councils of a oountrj, are to be 
seen in the Admiaistration, unity 
exists in the patriotism, in the 
same love for the Republic, in the 
same devotedness which animates 
tbem towards Paris and France. 
This union is the symbol of that 
of all the dtizens. Permit me to 

colleagues, the deep-felt thanks, 
not of the Provisional Government, 
but of the whole of France, for 
whom this would have been a day 
of calamity and of civil war if the 
Government had been divided; 
and which, thanks to yonr energy, 
will be for her the day of the de- 
finitive and pacific triumph of our 
new institutions, which we wish to 
hand over entire and inviolate to 
the National Assembly, which will 
be the supreme unity of the 

The 23rd and 34th of April 
were occupied by the elections of 
Representatives to sit in the Na- 
tional Assembly. The result was 
looked forward to with much in- 
terest; as in the composition of 
that body would depend the future 
character of the Republic. Future 
events showed that the effect of 
aniversal suffrage in France on 
this occasion was to return a much 
more Conservative and moderate 
body than could have been hoped 
for. But the truth is, that the 
nation waa terrified at the doctrines 

of the Communista and Red Re- 
publicans, as they were called from 
their adopting as their symbol a red 
flag, the use of which ii. Lamar* 
tine, as we have seen, so eloquently 
denounced, when the attempt vras 
made to substitute it for the tri- 
color. The candidates, therefore, 
who were known not to he men of 
extreme views had most &vour, 
and the issue of the electoral strug- 
gle was satisfactory. The great 
contest was in the department of 
the Seine, which determined who . 
were to be the representatives of 
Paris ; and it was hailed as a most 
cheering proof of the state of feel- 
ing throughout France, that M. de 
Lamartine's name appeared at the 
head of the poll in uie capital, and 
in eight other places he was also 
amongst those who were returned. 
The following is the list of success- 
ful candidates for that depart- 
ment, together with the number 
of votes given to each. As the 
first return of representatives of 
the capital, and an index of popular 
opinion, it is we think a most in- 
teresting document. 
1. M. de Lunutme, member 
of the Praviuonal Goveni- 

2. Dupont (de I'Eure}, idem 

3. Frmcoii Anso, iilem 

4. Gunier-Pigec, idem 

5. MuTut, idem . . 

6. Hirie, idem . . . 

7. Crjmieui, idem . . 

9. Carnot, Miouter of Public 



10. Bethmoni^Miiiiileraf Agri- 

culture and Comioerce . 180J2S2. 

11. Duvivier, General Com- 

muidanl of the Gude 

Mobile 182,);& 

12. Ferdiuwd de LMtejrie, 

former D^nitj .... 10^156 
la VtviD, Ibnner D^nity . . 151,103 

14. CanigDac, Goveraor-Ge- 

oerd of Algien . . , 144,187 

15. Berger, formerlj Depury . 126,660 
IS. Pignerre, SecreMry-Gene- 


™i of ibo Prorindd Go- lower orders of the popnlaoe when 

17. Buche.. Adjincl to lt>« '^"' t»'«y./''"°'i "»» t^fir faTOurito 

M«yor of P»ri» . . . 135^78 "•""'wtM m Bomfl places had not 

1& Cormenin, Pmident of the )>fi^ BUCCeasM occaeionsd seriaoB 

Council of SiBie . . , 135,050 riots ; and at Amiens, Rocbefort, 

"*■ ^^^."TJr'-J^i^ Limoges, Houen. and other towns 

lSJ>««r . 135.043 "listurbances took place, which wero 

aa CaiuriSire, Prefect of Po- ' only quelled by armed force. At 

lice 133,775 BouBn barricades were erected, 

81. Alben,nieiDberoflbePio. and some severe fiehtinff took 

iB. w:r;i'^=r;,-u,; '*°" pi-., Th.N^„^Gj,„j 

Conterratoire de. Art. et especiallj the guards mobilet, vigo- 

M£iien 132,383 rously exerted themselves to re- 

. 2a Peupio, ounier horlogier . 181,969 store order and pot down the mob. 

S4. Udni Rollio. member of It was clear, however, that there 

S^t ""! "^i 131,587 ™'* already two paitiee in direct 

25. J. P. Schmith, ouTrier. *. 1S4]383 opposition and ooIliBion with each 

2S. Flocon, member of the Other, the Moderates and the Bod 

ProTtnonal Gotemment . 121,865 Bepabllcans ; and we shall aoon 

S &X°-i"a,Mk,.-, '"■'" ...U,..ft...™gU,bet,».th.» 

of Pari, 118,075 ^^ destined to tenniuate in an 

SB. Agricot Perdii^ieT, ouvrier appeal to physical force in Paris, 

menuHier 117,290 and deluge the capital in blood. 

try of Foreign Affy™ . 110,238 <« the f.treme democraU we give 

81. Coquerel,Protert»i( deify- "^^ following placard, which was 

m«n 109,ftS« signed by some of their leaders, 

82. Garnon. fbrner D^uiy . 106,747 and amonffst others by Barb^, of 

'"■ °S? S"Z' "lilt ''»» '• ^T -l^tir si"" •?"' 

Guwd 106,283 *''<'<"»it, and posted everywhere 

84. Abb£ LuDeoaui . . . 104^71 on the walls of the streets of Paris 
on the 1st of May, bnt torn down 

Amongst the unsncceseful can- by the order of the Provisional 

didates were the following :-~-UM. GovenimeDt. It was headed — 
Goudchaux, Courtais, Barb^, Vic- n .^ - . t^ ■ . ..r. 

torHugo,Raspall,Arago.LeRoux, " ' SoctiU dtM Dnm d« IHtmmo 
D'Alton Shee, NeydelaMoskowa. " «» CUoym. 

Eagene Sue, Dupetit Tbotiars, and " This Society has for its object 

£mile de Girardin. — first, to defend the rights of the 

M. Thiers was a candidate for people, the exercise of which has 
the department dt$ Bouckei du been restored to them by the Revo- 
ii&(HM. but waa defeated. Amoi^t lution of February; secondly, to 
the returns for the provinces were draw from this Revolution all its 
the names of M. Dupin, M. de social oonsequenoes. As its point 
TocquevilJe, M. Berryer, M. Leon of departure, the Society takes the 
Faucher, M. Mauguin, M. Billault, declaration of the rights of maa 
M. Duvergier de Haoranne, the as laid down in 1703 by Robes- 
Bishop of Quimper, and the Bishop pierre. It ensues that, in a poll- 
of Orleans. tical point of view, the Republic, 

The disappointment felt by the one and indivisible, comprehends 

Fnne:} HISTORY. [263 

the inolienaUe laws of the people, lege and eajiUtUaHon ia post. In 
In a social point of riew, the old the point of view of the ancient 
constitntion is abolished ; and that Bocial form, if the privileges with 
which is called to replace it mnat which you were invested were ac- 
rest on equality and fraternity, quired in a legal manner, do not 
the fiuidtunenul principles of avail yoonelves of them : these 
the new social compact. Con- laws were your own work ; the im- 
- sequently, the social revolution, menee mtyority of your brethren 
now at its commencement, places were strangers to them, and, there- 
itself between the Farias and fore, are not bound to respect them, 
the Privileged of the ancient Rally, then, together, for you have 
state of sode^. To the first it need of the panlon of those whom 
says — Be united, but calm ; for in you have eo long sacrificed. If, in 
this lies your strength. Your spite of this promise of pardon, 
number is such that it must suEBce you persist in remaining isolated 
to manifest your will, and make in order to defend the old social 
yon obtain aU you deeire. It is form, you will find in the van- 
also such that you cannot desire guard, on the day of conflict, our 
anything but what is just. Your secdons oi^anized ; and your bre- 
voice and your will are the voice thren will no longer hold towards 
and the wiU of God. To the others you the language of pardon, but 
it saya — The old aodai form has that of justioe." 
dis^peaied. The reign of privi- 


264] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fra«.; 


Meeting of the National AisemUy on the ith of May—Addreu Uf M. 
Ihtpont (de I'Eure) — Oath of AUegianee aioluhed — Proclamation of 
the Sepvhlie in presence of th« People — Election of Officer* of the 
Aaembly — Policy of Provitional Govemmsnt detailed t» Speech of 
M. de Lamartine — Election of Memher* of Executive Committee — 
domination of Ministert—Eormation of Clubs in Paris — The Astern- 
bly invaded by tks Mob — Scene of Conftaion in the ChanAer — Af. 
Htiiert declares that the National Assembly is dissolved — Suppreuion 
of ths Inturrection — Conduct of Oeneral Cburtai* and M. Louis 
Blanc — Defence made by M. Caussidiere of his Conduct — Address by 
Executive Committee — Appointment of Committee to draie up Plan af 
Constitution — Disturbances at l/yons — Decree of perpetual Baniehinent 
pronoaneed against the ex-Boyal Family — Impeachment of Af. Louis 
Blanc — Election of Prince Louie Napoleon Buonaparte as Deputy — 
Discussion on this subject in the Assembly— The Prince declines to 
take his Seat — Proof of Conservative Feeling in the Assembly — Attack 
on the Ministry in the Assembly — Speech of General Cavaignac — De- 
fence of the Executive Committee 6y M. De Lamartine — Debate respect- 
ing Prince Louis Napoleon—Plan of the Conetitution — The National 
Ateliers — Body of Provincial Workmen ordered to quit Paris — Com- 
meiwement of Disturbances — The Genemle beaten — Barricades and 
Inturrection — Desperate Combat in the Streets of Paris — Resignation 
of the Executive Committee — General Cavaignac invested vith tig>reme 
Authority— Succesus of the Military — Destructive use of Artillery — 
Death of the Archbishop of Paris— Termination of the Struggle — 
General Cavaignac appointed President of the Council — His Cabinet — • 
Beport of Committee on the Insurrection — Leave given to the Attorney- 
General to prosecUe MM. Ledru EoUin and Cauesidiire — General 
Cavaignac and the National Workshops — Project of the Consttiution 
— Speech of M. Thiers on the Second Article relating to Property and 
Lahour — Louis Napoleon takes his Seat as Deputy for the Department 
of the MoseUe—His first Speech — Important Debate on the Twentieth 
Article, confining tke Legislative Potcer to one Assembly — Speeches 
of MM. Lamartine, OdiUon Barrot, and Dupin — Mi^orUy in favour 
of a tingle Chamber — Discussion on various Articles of the Constitu- 
tion — ne Election of the President ti^imitted to the Votes of the 

Fra»ct.] HISTORY. [265 

PtofiU — RepubHcanima on the viane — Final adoption and Proclama- 
tion of tA« Conititution — Chargt* brought againtt General Cavaignae 
by M. Bartkelemy St. Hilan — Hie triumphant Defence — Election of 
Prince Lome Napoleon at Preeident of the RopuMtc — Hit Addrest to 
the Aieetnhly — Fomuition of a Cabinet — Beflectione on the rise and 
fall of popular FavourUet in Franc». 

ON the 4th of May the National Temment in the relatipng vhich 
Assembly commenced its sit- the necessities of Isbom: establish 
ting in a temporary wooden build- among all the citizens, and which 
ing erected for the purpose, at the ought to have for its base the sacred 
back of and communioatiug with laws of justice and fraternity, 
the existing Chamber of Deputies, "In fine, the moment has ar- 
and adapted to hold about 1700 rived for the Provisional Oovem- 
peraons. When the Members of ment to resign into your hands 
the Provisional Government had the unlimited power with which 
arrived and taken their seats, M. the Revolution had invested iL 
Pnraveau, the " doyen d'age," who You know that, with regard to oar- 
occupied the chair, called upon M. selveB, this dictatorship was a mo- 
Dnpont (de I'Enre) to address the ral power exercised in the midst 
Assembly. He obeyed the sum- of the difficult circumstances we 
mens, and read the following have passed through, 
speech :— • " Faithful to ear origin and to 

" Citizen Bepresentatives of the our personal couviotions, we have 

People : — The Provisional Govern- not hesitAted to proclaim the infant 

ment comes to bow before the na- Republic of Febiuaty. 

tion, and render a signal homage " To-d^ we shall inaugurate the 

to the supreme power with which labours of the National Assembly 

you are invested. with the ciy which ought always 

" Elect of the people, we wel- to salute it, ' Vive U B£pub> 

come you to this great capital, lique.' " 

where yonr presence excites a sen- This address was received with 

timent of happiness and hope that the greatest enthusiasm. The 

will not be deceived. first business transacted was & 

"Depositories of the national verification of the returns, the 

sovereignty, you are about to found whole Assembly being divided into 

new institutions upon the broad eighteen bureauai or committees 

basis of Democracy, and to give to for the puipose. 

France the only constitution that By and by M. Ollivier rose and 

can suit her — a Republican con- proposed, that after the admission 

stitntion. [Here the whole asaem- of every Member, he should mount 

bly roes, and with right hands the tribune, and there, in the pre- 

raised, cried "Vive la Repub- sence of the Assembly, take the 

lique!"] But after havinff pro- oath of allegiance to the Republic ; 

claimed the great polidcal law but he vras interrupted by nnm- 

which ifi about definifely to or- bers crying, "The oath is abo- 

mnize the country, you, like us, lishedl" "By whom?" asked M. 

Citizen Representatives, will pro- Ollivier. " By the Provisional 

ceed to r^;u1ate the possible Government." " What!" conti- 

and efficacious action of the Go- nued U. OUirier, " do you place , 

266] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [France. 

the power of the ProTiBional Oo- ing the Uemben of the Nattonal 

veninient above that of the Na- Aasembl; wish to uiiit« them- 

tional Assembly?" {Criei, "The BeWes to the Representatives of 

oath is abohshed, and for ever I ") the Seine. 

M. Crcmieus, the Minister of M, Duconx. — I unreservedly ap- 
JuBtice, then rose and said, that plaud the feeling which has dic- 
the oath of allegiance had been tated the proclamation; and no 
the occasion of so much scandal one more than myself was more 
during the last 60 years, and had anxious to proclaim the Republic 
excited such universal indignation, one and indivieible ; but permit me 
that the Provisional Government to observe that it is not iu an in- 
had thought proper to abolish it cidental manner that so important 
"The oadi of eveiy true Repub- an act should be accomplished, 
lican," added the Ministtir, " is in The Republic will be great and 
his heart, and not on his lips." durable enough for oa to be able 

The Assembly received that de- to proclaim it at a solemn mo- 
claration of tbe Minister with great ment; let the incident which has 
applause, and immediately ratified just taken place be therefore re- 
the measure adopted by the Pro- garded as an expression of a move- 
visional Oovemment, amidst cries ment which we could not contain ; 
of "Vive la Republiquel" and but I demand that the democratic 
" Vive le Gouvemement Pnivi- and fraternal Republic should be 
Boire!" hereafter pMclaimed with all the 

M. Berger afterwards ascended solemnity befitting such an im- 

the tribune, and said — Citizens, portant act. 

in tiie name of the deputies of the M. Barb^. — We have only to 

Seine, I propose to the National proclaim the Bepublic after the 

Assembly the solemn proclamation people. Let us all (^ "Long 

of tbe Bepublic. Citizens, let livetheBepnblic— one, indivisible, 

France, let the whole world know and social f " 

that the Republic, solemnly pro- M. Trelat. — The Republic is a 

claimed with enthusiasm, is and fact which has been preparing for 

will remain the form of the go- many long years, a necessary, a 

vemment of this countiy. Lotus scientific (!) fact Tbe proof of its 

never forget tbis great day. In necessity is, that it is |iroclaimed 

the name of the countiy, let men in this Chamber, aiiliouung the 

of all opinions no longer form but other where it was combated two 

one &mily, that this day may be months since. The greatest preof 

truly the fiU of concord and of iS( that even those who then pro- 

fratemily. tested against it do so no longer. 

M. Clement Thomas — I de- If there are any citizens here who 

mand that the proclamation which think of another form of govem- 

has just been proposed should be ment — (" No( no 1 " " Vive la B^ 

made in the name of all the Repre- pubUque I ") The Republic, there- 

sentatives. If we had been con- fore, is like the sun — blind Is he 

suited beforehand we should all who does not see it 

have approved of it; it should A Voice. — Let us all proolaiin 

therefore be done in the name of l^e Republic, 

the National Assembly. General Conrtais.— I come in 

M. Berger.— 1 am happy in see* the name of the people of Paris. 




I reqawt the MembetB of the Fro- 
linonal Ooveroment to come out 
on the peristjrle of the building, 
and the representativea of the peo- 
ple to follow them, in order to 
proclaim the Republic. 

The Assembly then rose in a 
body and proceeded to do homage 
to the wishes of the sorereiga 
people, who, with the National 
Guards in full uniform, were im- 
patiently waiting to nitnesa the 

The Members of the Provisional 
GoTommeDt stood on the top of 
the flight of steps &cing the Font 
de la Concorde, and the other 
Deputies occupied the steps imme- 
diately below them, while in front 
the National Guards filled the 
space between them and the liver. 
A tremendous shont was soon 
raised for the " colotua of the 
armr," and they were brought for- 
ward amidst the thunder of can- 
non and the cheers of the multi- 
tude, and unihried to the breeze. 
The Republic was then proclaimed, 
and, in the presence of 300,U00 
citizens, solemnly accepted by the 
National Assembly. To taetuy its 
hear^ adoption of the principlea 
of the Bevolntion, the following 
proclamation was posted on the 

" The National Assembly, the 
faithful interpreter of the senti- 
ments of the people, by whom it 
has been eleotod, previous to com- 
mencing its labours — 

" Declares, in the name of the 
French people, and in the &ce of 
the entire world, that the Re^ 
public, proclaimed on the 34th of 
February, 1848, is, and shall re- 
main, the form of the Oovemment 
of Fnnce. 

"The Republic desired by France 
has adopted the motto, 'Liberty, 
Equality, Fraternity,' 

" In the name of the country, the 
National Assembly en treats French- 
men of every political party to for- 
get former feuds, and to form in 
fiiture but one bmily. The day 
on which the ropresentatives of 
the people met is for all the citi- 
zens the feast of concord and fra- 
ternity. Vivt la BipubUqw ! " 

The next day was devoted to the 
election of officers of the As- 
sembly. It was determined that 
the chair of President should be 
held for only a month at a time, 
and M. Buchez had the honour of 
being chosen the first occupier of 
it,^ 383 votes. 

The six Vice-Presidents chosen 
were — M. Recurt, who obtained 
633 votes; General Cavaignac, 
675: M. Corbon, 897; M. Gui- 
nard, 37S; M. Cormenin, 819; 
and M. Seoard, S18. 

The six Secretaries— UU. Pe- 
puin, seS; Robert, 383; De- 
georgea, 326; Felix Pyat, 832; 
Lacrosse, 387 ; and Emily Pean, 

The three Qnestors— M. De- 
gous£e, 4S9 votes ; H. Bursaux de 
Pusy, 336 ; and General Negrier, 

The Uembeis of the Provisional 
Government afterwards gave an 
account of the acts done by them 
in their respective departments; 
but first a general statement of 
the principlea which had guided 
them in their policy was read by 
M. de Lomartine. The following 
are some extracts from this ora- 
tion) the delivery of which excited 
great enthusiasm in the Assembly. 

" The Throne being overturned, 
and the Dynasty having depart«d 
into esile. the Provisional Govern- 
ment simply recorded that Repub- 
lic which was proclaimed by the 
voice of the entire people. The 
first task of the Government was 

•268] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Prance. 

the restoraUon of order in Paris, aod the Ffrenees; and the Nav; 
The co-operation of the citizens was despatched to display the flag 
made this a task of leas merit of the Republic to our brethren on 
thaa otherwise it would have the Italian shores, 
been : each citizen became at the " But In proclainung a Bepnblio 
same time the soldier of peace France proclaimed a principle^ 
and the ToluDteer magistrate of the principle of equality by right, 
order. The magnanimous aspect and fraternity by institutions. The 
of the people, uieir heroism and revolution ought to be ot^anized 
generosity, inspired the idea of for the profit of the people. To 
tbe first decree publisbed in the suppress the servile name of 'pro- 
name of the Republic — that which letaire,' and elevate the working 
abolished the puulsbment of death man ; to elevate and enrich these 
for political ottences. Europe saw without degrading or ii\juriiig 
that the spirit of God was over the others ; to preserve property, and 
crowd, and leanit to hope that a render it more fruitful, by multi- 
revolution so magnanimous in its plying it, and dividing it amongst 
inauguration would be pure and a greater number; to distribute 
sacred in its success. taxes in such a way as to cause 
' ' Regards were turned in aucces- the heaviest weight to fall on tbe 
sion to the departments of France, strongest ; to create by the State 
the Army, the Colonies, Algeria, the work which should happen to 
and the nations of Europe. As fiiil by the fact of capitu being- 
to the last, Europe waited imde- intimidated, ao that not a work- 
cided the first word of the Re- man in France shonld remain 
public. This first word was the without bread ; in fine, to examine 
abolition, dt facto and de jure, of with the workmen themselves 
the reactionaiy treaties of 1815; the practical and true phenomena 
litferty restored to our foreign po- ofassociation, and thetheories, still 
licy; the declaration of peace for problematical, of the various sys- 
territories — of sympathy for na- tems, in order to discover the true 
tions — of justice, good faith, and application, — such were the ideas 
moderation for governments, of the Provisional Government in 
Fnmce by that manifesto dis- all its decrees, 
armed her ambition, but did not " In France, then, that Republic 
disarm her ideas; she let her has been established which the 
principle of action shine forth Oovemmenta of Europe declared 
fully. Her war went no farther, could only be so on the condidoDS 
The special ^port of the Minister of foreign and civil war, auarohy, 
of Foreign Amiirs will show you prisons, and the scaffold: it is . 
what this system of open diplo* shown to be compatible with peace 
macy has produced for France, to all Europe and order at home, 
and what it will in all likelihood with individual liberty, and even 
still produce for France. The wilh gentleness, mildness and 
Minister of War energetically re- puri^ of morals, in a people to 
established the shaken discipline whom hatred is a torture and coo- 
of the Army; a Council of De- cord a national instinct. I'orty- 
fence was formed; four armies of five days have been passed through, 
observation were established — in with no execuUve authority over 
the North, on the Rhine, the Alps, the people but that moral ona 

Frana.} HISTORY. [269 

which the^r themselves were pleased tutelaiy iatervention of the State, 

to acknowledge : the people con- We do not pretend that the State 

sented to be governed by pereua- should become the only tntftutml 

aive worda, by counsels, and by of the kingdom ; but we wish it to 

generous inspindons. Through- be understood that the State has b. 

out that time of crisu, cessation of great duly to fulfil in what regards 

work, and misery — of political egi- those who suffer. What we wish 

tation and social anguisn — 'property is, that the State shoald be the 

was unviolated, and life unmenaced guardian of credit, giving credit not 

by the people : nor has a single only to the rich but to the poor, 
proscription or imprisonment, or " Aseociation is a noble and 

a single drop of blood shed by the beautiful thing ; not because it 

Government, cast a shade of sad- will displace riches, but becanee it 

ness on the past. The Members will make them univerBal, by 

of the Provisional Government making them fniitftil ; and because 

may descend from their stations it will raise the level of the people 

and re-mix with the people with- and humanity." 
out any one being able to ask. The AssemblyaflerwardspoBsed 

' As citizens, what nave been your an almost unanimous vote, that 

deeds?'" the Provisional Government had 

Id conclusion, M. de Lamaitine deserved well of the country. The 

said — *' Our only ambition is to only Members who dissented were 

re-enter the ranks of good citizens, the notorious M. Barbes and two 

May the histoty of our beloved others. 

country inscribe with indulgence, On the 8th of May, a Committee 

below, fkr below, the groat deeds wasformedbychoosingonemember 

which France has accomplished, from ecLch buroau, for the pur- 

the recital of the three past months pose of drawing up a report upon 

daring which we have crossed an the form of Interior Government, 

abyss between a crashed Monarchy which ought to succeed the Pro- 

and a Republic starting up in its visional Government; and next 

place. And, instead of die obscure day it presented its proposal, that 

and forgotten names of the men the Assembly should appoint nine 

who had devoted themselves to Ministers with portfolio, and one 

the public welfare, may history in- without portfolio, to act as Preai- 

scribe on her pages only two dent. This had been adopted by 

names— the name of the People a majori^ of 14 to i in the Com- 

who have preserved all, and the mittee, in preference to a plan 

name of the great God who has for allowing tlie National Assem- 

poured his blessings on the foanda- bly to appoint an Executive Conn- 

tions of the Republic." cil, who should have the nomina- 

In giving an account of the la- tion of ihe Ministers. A debate 

boors of his deportment, M. Louis arose upon the question in the 

Blanc said, "The two fundamental Assembly, and the result was that 

ideas of our work — whether it con- it adopted the latter proposition 

cems commerce or agricultura, or by a majority of 36. The num- 

the banks or the establishments here being, for the intervention of 

of customs — the two fundamental an Executive Committee, 411: — 

ideas are,, association and disinte- for the appointment of Ministers 

rested intervention, the pacific and by the Assembly direct, 3S5. 

270] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [F«««. 

Od the foUoviDg Aaj, the eleo- ere, uid fuBctionariefi, who shall 

tion of Membere of the Executive obey bis order, under the penalties 

Committee took place. M. Du stipulated in the 234th ardole <^ 

pont (derEurejetat«d, that owing the Penal Code. The President 

to hia great age he could not poa- may delegate faia power to tbe 

aibly act as one of them even if questors, or one of them." 

he were choeen, on annonncement Ou the llth, the following Mi- 

which aeemed to be received with niatry wae appointed to take ohorge 

great regret by the Assembly. A of tbe vaiions deportmeata of (he 

ballot t£eD commenced, and the public service, 

reault was that the following Mem- Gr^mieux . Justice, 

hers were elected, (the total num- Bostide Foreign Afiain. 

ber of votes being 704.) Cbarroa War. 

Arago 736 Caay . . Marine. 

Gamier Fag^ . . . 71(> Recurt . . Interior. 

Marie 70!) Camot . . Public Inadtution. 

Lomortine .... 643 Tr^lat . . Public Works. 

Ledni Rollin . . . 458 Flooon . . Commerce. 

M. Wollowski then ascended the Betbmont . Religion, 

tribune, and proposed that the Duclero . Finance. 

Assembly should invite the Execu- Marrast . Mayor of Paris, 

tive Committee to take into con- Caussididre Prefect of Paha, 

aideration the prayer of the PoJiah On the IStb,_Bome farther regu- 

delegates, in which they demanded latione were determined upon, Uie 

the assurance of France to restore principal of which was, " the Na- 

their nation to independence. tional Assembly shall be divided 

A Committee was afterwards into 16 committees, each composed 
appointed to propose a plan for the of 60 members, viz.— 1, a Com- 
internal regulation of the mode of mittee of Justice; 3, Public Wop 
oondncting the business of the ship; 9, Foreign Afhin ; 4, Pub- 
Assembly, and they proposed the lie Instruction; 6, Interior; A, 
following resolutions, which, after Departmental and Conunnnal Ad- 
some discussion, nere adopted. ministration ; 7, Commerce and 

" No stranger is to enter, under Industry ; 8, Agriculture andCredit 
any pretext, Uie hall of the Assem- relating to Property; 0, Marine; 
biy. Persons admitted into the 10, War; 11, Algeria; 13, Colo- 
public galleries shall remain seated, nies; 13, Finance; 14, Public 
uncovered, and silent. Any in- Works; 16, Civil and Criminal 
dividual giving marks of approba- Legislation ; and 16, of labour." 
tion or disapprobation is to be im- But sigaificant systems of die- 
mediately excluded by the officers content out of doors now began la 
of the House, and should they dis^ appear. Imitating the example 
turb the deliberations they are to be of the Terrorists under the first 
tried by the competent authorities. Revolution of 1769, clubs were 
Tbe President will watch over the actively at work, inflaming the 
internal and external security of minds and passions of the popn- 
the National Assembly, and, to lace, and erecting that mjMrittmm 
that effect, he will have a right to imperio which is so fatil to tbe 
require tbe assistance of tbe armed existence of tranquillity. A great 
force, and of all officers, command- feast of fraternity was in prepara- 

F»ww.] HISTORY. [271 

tion, at which all the citizens of Aseemblj, in front of whkb, and 

Paris vere invited U> attend, but, in the court-yard, was drawn up 

on the llth of May. there ap- abody of about 1000 troop§ of the 

peared on the nalb of the dty a Garde Mobile, but these did not 

placard, in which, after quoting offer the least resistance, and the 

Terbatim the proclamation of the people then mshed into the gal- 

FrOTiaional Goienuuent, dated leries as above mentioned. 

i)6th of February, in which it " un- A great eensation was as might 

dertook to guarantee labour to all be expected produced in the As- 

dtizens," it announced that "The aembly, which was increased by 

promises made on the barricades the declamtion of U. Degoiste. 

not having been fulfilled, and the who mounted the tribune and said, 

National Assembly having refused, that, contrary to the express orders 

in its sitting on the 10^ of May, of the qooBtore, General Conrtais, 

to constitute a Ministry of labour, the Commander-in-chief of the 

the delegates of the Luxemboura National Guards, had directed the 

decline to assbt at the Jiu called soldiers of the Garde Mobile, on 

I>» la Concorde." duty at the Chamber, to take off 

We have mentioned the prom- their bayonets snd sheathe them in 

sition made by M. Wollowski with their scabbards, 

r^&rd to Poland, because that A scene of disorder now ensned 

subject was seized upon as the somewhat similar to that which 

pretext for a scene of tumultuous occurred at the lost sitting of the 

violence, which, at one time. Chamber of Deputies when the 

threatened to overthrow the Go- Monarchy was overthrown. M. 

vemment, and deliver Paris into Barbes rushed to the tribune, but 

the hands of the extreme demo- was by main force preveuted by 

crats. On the 15th of May, M. some of the Members from ad- 

Wollowski had again ascended the dressing the Assembly. The Pre- 

tribone for the purpose of speakiag sident put on his hat, and the 

on the question of Poland, when Members of the Executive Gom- 

lond cries were heard outside the mittee left the hall. At this mo- 

Ohambers, and shortly afterwards ment a shot was fired on the out- 

a body of men rushed into the side, which produced a temporary 

galleries, canying banners in their pause; but the mob soon burst in 

haodst and shouting Vive la Po- through the doors and filled the 

togne ! An immense number of interior of the building, 

workmen had, after marching along Shortly afterwards M. Buchez, 

the Boulevards, approached in the President, re-entered the hall, 

a dense mass the Pont de la accompanied by the Prefect of 

Concorde. Here was stationed a Police and the Members of the 

small detachment of Kstionsl Executive Committee. M. Barb^ 

Guards, who were quite inadequate requested the people to be silent, 

to resist the passage of the crowd, in order that the Assembly might 

which pressed forward and dis- hear the petition which a man 

armed them, unscrewing without standing near him held in his 

oppoeition the bayonets from off hand. No attention, however, was 

their muskets. They then rapidly paid to his suggestion, and the 

advanced towards the hall of the petition was read amidst the ut- 

272] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. t^^«««- 

most tnmult. General Conrtais, and cried out, " CitisenB, I pro- 
MM. Baspail, Blanqui, Barbds, claim in the name of tbe aoTereign 
and men dressed in blouses and in people of France, that the Nationid 
their sbirta, occupied tbe tribune, Assembly ie diaeolved." 
all vociferating together. M.Louis But the beating of the rappd 
Blanc then app«ired by the side was now heard, and the columns 
of the President, and vas hailed of the National Ouards were 
with loud cheera by tiie mob. marching in imposing forco to- 
Siience being restored, U. Louis wards the hall. *A shout was 
Blano requested the people to be raised of " A I'Hdtel de Ville I " 
silent, in order that the petition and most of Uie leaders of the 
might be read and freely discussed clubs attended by their follower 
by the National Assembly. The left tbe Assembly. The National 
right of petition should be sacred, Guards entered the building, and 
and the people should prove itself by main, force expelled all who 
calm in its force and moderation, were not representatives of the 
The petition was again read by a people, upon which the sitting was 
delegate of the clubs, who con- re-commenced, and the Assembly 
eluded by demanding that the declared itself to be en j)«raMn«nc«. 
Assembly should decree irutanter In the meantime, M. fiarb^, 
that a friendly request should be with Albert, There, and other 
addressed to tne Northern Powers leaders of the mob, arrived at the 
to re-establish old Poland, and that H6tel de Ville. The gusrd was 
a French army be held ready to unable to prevent the entrance of 
cross the Rhine and march to the crowd which accompanied them. 
Poland, should the ultimatum be The iron gates were forced, and tbe 
rejected. people entered. A Provisional Go- 
The President next rose and vemment was proclaimed, consist- 
observed, that the Assembly bad ing of Ledru Rollin, Louis Blanc, 
heard their petition, and that if Albert, Caussidiere, Sobrier, Hu- 
they wished it to deliberate upon bert, Thor6, Froudhon, Pierre 
it, they should retire. M. Barbds Leronx, Gabet, Raspml, and Blan- 
joined in the recommendation, qui. The name of U. Flocon was 
One of the presidents of the clubs r^eoted. That of Ledru Bollin 
here rose, and asked leave to ex- was objected to, but at last re- 
ploin the petition. This be did at ceived. M. Barb^ wrote ont a 
some length, and afterwards M. list of the new Provisional Govem- 
Ledru Rollin ascended the tribune ; ment, and threw it out of the 
but when he called upon the people window to the people ; bnt it was 
to withdraw in order to enable the seized and torn to pieces by the 
Assembly to deliberate, a tremen- few National Guards who were 
dous uproar arose. M. Barb^ present At last M. Lamartine 
elevated his voice to the hidiest arrived about six o'clock, acoom- 
pitch, and was beard to exclaim, panied by a strong body of National 
"a fixed tax of a milliard shall be Guards, who occupied all the pas- 
levied ou the rich to carry on war sages leading to the Hotel de Ville, 
for Poland." This was received and,forcingtheirway intothe build- 
with vociferous cheering ; and not ing,arreeted M. Barbds, M. Albert, 
long afterwords, M. Hubert rose and their colleagues, in the room 

fVono.] HISTORY. [273 

where they were orgtiniziiig their his hand. An instant after, h« 

new goTenimeiit and preparing was driven from the Aasemblj 

procIamatioriB to the people. • with cries of " Down with the 

The timelj assistance afforded traitor!" 
hj the National Guard iras due to When M. Loois Blano entered 
the active measares taken by MU. the Chamber widi hia dothes torn. 
Gamier Faees and Arago, who, as he was met with contemptooua 
Members of the Ezecutive Com- shouts, as be was suspected of being 
auttee, were engaged at the Pakce privy to the attempted insuireo- 
of the Luxembourg, and, whenever tion, and on his exchdming, " I 
thej leomt that the hall of the swear to you on my honour that I 
Assembly had been invaded by the had nothing to do with the scenes 
populace, they issued orders to the of this day, and that I even ex- 
troops to march instantly to the pressed my diaMiprobation," he 
rescue. After the mob had been was driven by denuve cries from 
compelled to withdraw, M. Clement the tribune. The Assembly after- 
Thomas said that, during the wards adjourned, 
tumult, the President of the Na- The coon ter-re volution was thus 
tiona] Assembly had placed him promptly and efTectually sup- 

^ravisionBlly in command of the pressed, and in a wonder&lly short 

[ational Guard in order to protect space of time qniet was restored to 

the capital from anarchy, and that the capital. MM. Barbds, Blan- 

he now begged to resign the autho- oni, Albert, Sobrier, and Raspail, 

ritj with which he had been tempo- tbe leaders of the movement, were 

rarity invested. M. Gamier Pag^, thrown into prison in the Castle 

however, immediately rose and pro- of Viucennes, and the National 

posed the following decree, which Guards, togedier with some regi- 

W88 adopted by aociamstion: — mentaof tbe line, which now began 

" In the name of the French to make their appeanmoo in Paris, 

pemie and of the National As- held themselves ready to act at a 

sembly, the Executive Committee moment's notice to prevent any 

declares that Citizen Clement Ireeh outbreak. 

Thomas is nominated Commander- On tbe following day, when the 

in-Chief of tbe National Guards of Assembly met, the President at- 

Paris." tempted to explain a part of his 

Against General Courtais, as conduct which had caused great 

having betrayed his trast, the indignation. He had written to 

strongest feeling of indwnation the officer in command of the Na- 

was eipreased. He wished to ad- tional Guards to prevent the rappd 

dreas the Chamber, and having from being beaten. This he said 

exclaimed, " In tbe name of the he had done in order not to excite 

pei^le order the Nataonal Guard still more the anger of the people! 

to withdraw," one of that body Upon which the Members almost 

criedout, "General of the Nation^ unanimously exclaimed, "You were 

Guard, you are a general no wrong." M. Gamier Pagte ihea 

longer. You are a traitor. I de- spoke, and stated that tbe Bxe- 

grade yon!" At these words he oative Committee had intrusted the 

palled off his epaulettes, while command of the National Guard 

another wrenched from him bis to Colonel Thomas, and of the 

tmord, opon which be bad laid army in. Paris to General Bedeau,' 

Vol. XC. (TJ 

274] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Frmet. 

and that " the brave and glorioos this vu a fear lest too great an 

army with which the Members of importance should seem to be 

the Committee had fralemized " attached to that individual, and 

had been called to Paris. ^t, as the Provisioiud Govem- 

We may here uention that ment vere then on the point of 

General Gavaignac was about this resigning their powers, tbey did 

time appointed Minister of War. not like to adopt any rigorous 

M. Boiyeaa aftenTards attacked measures. After tome further 

a. Caussidiere, the Prefect of desultory speeches, the Assembly 

Paris, for haviugillegallyorganized passed to the order of the day. 
a Republican Guard, some of whom 

he said be saw heading the mob One of the significaat OTmptoms 

during the preceding day. M. of the tenure on which the newly 

Caussidiere, in his defence, said created goremmeat held the reins 

that nobody deplored the scenes of of power waa the fulsome toae of 

the preceding day more smcerely flattery which it felt itself con- 

than he. Nominated by the com- strained to adopt in its addresses 

batants of the barricades, he hod to the people. Thus, after the 

maintained the peace of the city insurreotion had been quelled, a 

during two montlis and a half. In proclamation afweared, issued by 

less than three days all the streets the members of the Executive 

had been repaired, and the circu- Committee, in which they aaid : 

lation restored. Six days after " Citizens, the Assembly, dis- 

the Revolution, the price of bread turbed for a moment, has resumed 

had dimiBisbed, in consequenee of i,ts labours. It sits in the midst 

the measures he bad adopted. He of you, always great, always strong, 

had established an effectual police, always ready to assura the triumph 

and was aware of every movement of the Republic and to realize the 

of the enemies of the Republic. Just hopes which the revcdution 

Hie object had been to maintain a has raised in the minds of the 

balance between parties. A com- operatives. 

bination among the journeymen " This day crime haa been vao- 

bakers. 5000 in number, had nearly quished. 

deprived Paris of bread,aiid it was "The National Guard.tiieGarde 

through his interference that the Mobile, all the forces in Paris and 

catastrophe had been obviated, in the neighbourhood, have driven 

Alarmed at the machinations of before them the insane conspirators 

Citizen Blanqui, whom ha regarded who oonceived their plots against 

as one of the greatest enemies of liberty under the name of Poland, 

the Republican party, he had i^ " Citizens, your victory has been 

plied for a warrant to arrest him ; holy, for the blood of your brothers 

which had betn refuted. He might has not been shed. Bemainpre- 

have executed the warrant at six pared, remain armed to defend, as 

o'clock on the previous morning, you have shown yourself so com- 

and thus obviated the deplorable petent to do, the Republic against 

scenes of that day. anarchy." 

With reference to the rsfiisal to On the 17th of May, the 

grant a warrant for the arrest of Hinisler of Finance presented to 

Blanqui, M. Cr6mieux, Minister the Assembly a prtget du lot, 

of Juatice, said that the reason of relative to the purchaoe of railway* 

France.] HISTORY. [275 

by the State. He divided them M&rtin (of S(nshurg), Voirhayo, 

into two categories, and, with re- Coquerel (Protestant Miniater), 

gard to the firat, made the follow- Corbon. Tourret (de I'AlUer), 

ing proportion : — Gustave de Beaumont, Dupin, 

"The value of those different Vanlabelle, Odillon Barrot, Pagte 

linee ahall be fixed, according to (de I'Aridge), Dom^, and Con- 

the average price of their re- aiderant. 

apective shatva on the Pans On Sunday, the 3 let of Mav, a 

Bourse daring the eix montha grand /He de eoneorde took place 

that preceded the revolution of at Paris, whii^ passed off without 

the iUth of Febmaiy, (from the the ali^test attempt at disturb- 

fi4th of August, 1647, to the 24th ance. The people seemed to be 

of Februaiy, 1848). In exchange in the best possible humour, and 

for the shares the holders shall to have buried in oblivion the 

receive coupons of renta five per evente of the preceding week. In 

cent, price for price, according to the meantime, however, some 

the average pnce of the Paris deplorable scenes were acted at 

Bourse during the six months Lyons, where bands of ruffians, 

above mentioned." ccjling themselves voraeei, made 

With r^ard to the second, the themselves for a time masters of 
Uinister wss to be authorized to the city, and caused tbe utmost 
treat with each company sepsr alarm. Barricades were erected 
ratel J. The shareholders of these and the red flag hoisted. In con- 
companies were to have the power sequence of this, the Groix-Bousse, 
at a general meeting to accept, by where the insurgents had esta- 
a m^)ori^ of votee, the conditions bliehed their head-quarters, wss 
proposed by tbe Minister of Fir declared to be in a state of siege, 
nonce, and thus contract for the and the National Guards were 
universality of their shareholders, obliged to act with energy and 

" A sum of rmtei equal to the firmness to put down the insur- 

estimated value of the railroads rection. This, however, they sue- 

redeemed shsll be inscribed on the ceeded in doing, and tranquilli^ 

Grand Book of the Public Debt, was restored, 

and the Btote, assuming the place We now turn to the proceed 

of the companies, shall reimburse ings of the National Assembly, 

their obligations and loans on the Our limits of course prevent us 

terms stipulated with the lenders." from giving anything like a de- 

A sub-committ«e was afterwards tailed account of the debates which 

appointed to draw up a report on there took place ; nor indeed were 

toe proposed measure. they of sufficient interest to justify 

"a die foU ■ ' - ■ .... . _ . A 

J following day, tbe As- a lengthened narrative. We shall 

sembly appointed by ballot a Com- thermore confine ourselves to the 

mitt«e, consisting of 16 Members, more prominent and important 

te accomplish the important task topics of discussion, 

of drawing up the plan of a Con- . On the Q4th of May. M. Dom^s, 

sdtution. The following names the reporter of the Committee to 

were chosen: — MM. Cormenin, which the question of preparing a 

Annand ManBSt, Lamennois, Bill relative to the Orleans family 

Vivien, Tooqueville, Dufaure, had been referred, stated that 

276] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [FrMct. 

they proposed that the Assembly repelled the charge of havuig vio- 

sbould adopt the following de- lated the principle of the nuionol 

eree: — eovereigiift, vhioh he had advo- 

" The Nationai ABBembij de- cated dl his life, and considered 
crees that the entrance of the the greateat of crimee. The Pre- 
French territory, denied to the sident, he mumtained, had autlw- 
Bourbone of the elder branch by rizod him to speak to the people, 
the law of the 10th of April, 1683, and at the moment Hubert pro- 
shall be likewise denied to Lotus nounced the dissolution of the As- 
Philippe and bis family." sembly he was at his seat, engaged 

On the li6th, a debate took place in wiiting tboea words : — " In the 

upon this question, and the result name of the people and of your 

was that a decree for the perpetual own sovereignty, I entreat you to 

baniabment of Lonis Philippe and retire." 

his family was carried by a ma- The Assembly, after a short dia- 

jority of fl95 to AS. Amongst cnsaion, decided that the qoesUoa 

those who voted in the affirmative, of impeachment should be referred 

was M. Duvergisr de Hauranne, to a Committee to bo appointed by 

who had been a minister under the different bureaux, and one was 

the ex-King. immediately nominated for that 

At the sitting on the Slst, the purpme. 
President announced to the As- On the Snd of June, M. Jules 
sembly, that M. , Portalis, the Favre, the reporter of the Com- 
Procureor-Oeneral of the Conrt of mittee, stated that they had de- 
Appeal of Paris, demanded per- tennined, by a nuyoritrof IS to 8, 
mission to praeecute M. Louis to propose to the Assembly that a 
Blanc, on the ^ond that he was prosecution should be instituted 
seriously implicated in the law- against M. Louis Blaua The fol- 
leee proceedings which had taken lowing day was app^uted for tin 
place on the I6th of May. M. discussion to take idaee on this 
Louis Blano then ascended the recommendation, when, after <t 
tribune, and said that he did not stormy debate, in v^di it turned 
come forward to defend himself as out that M. Cremieoz, Minister of 
aman, but as a represmtative of Justice, hadinapreviousoommuni- 
th« people, and a member of that cation with the law officers agreed 
Oovemment which had inaugu- to the impeachment, althou^ he 
rated the era of the Bepublic by now opposed it, the AasemUy 
proclaiming justice and clemency, divided upon the question, v^n 
and the abolition of capital punish- tliere appeiared 
ments. He little espeet«d that 

anch would be the recompense For the Requisition of the 

reserved to him for wishing to Attorney-General . . S37 

establish a great and prions Re- Against it S60 

public free from all excesses. He . 

entreated his colleagues to abstain Mqority against the Be- 

from all acta tending to recall the quiaition . . - . . . &ii • 
Ksiga of terror, far such arms mi^t 

at a future day be turned against All the Ministers, with one ex- 

tbemsalYse. He then indignantly oeption, M. Bastide, voted in the 


Fnmee.] HISTORY. [277 

m^oritf, and as M. Cr^mieiix'fl M. Pierre Buonaparte and M. 

oondoct exposed him to the charge Napoleon Buonaparte declared that 

UT inconsistency, for which he ma they were afiOicted at what had 

■bleto giTenoBatis&ctor^acGonnt, taken place; and that thej would 

tie aftenrards rested his post, be found in the first ranks of the 

and was succeeded hj M. Beth- defenders of the Republic — to give 

Diont. At the same lime M. tbeir blood and their livee in its 

Portalis, the Proonreur-Oeneral, preservation. Bat they appealed 

resigned office, and waa replaced tn reason, and said it was a terrible 

by M. Martin (of Strasbui^). moment to propose a proscription 

On the 6th of June M. Buches reaolved on beforehand, and in a 
quitted the President's chair, which time of reSection. It wonid hence* 
he had occupied for one month, forward be euoi^h for any wretches 
the ]>eriod limited by the rules of to nse a name criminallj, and it« 
the Assembly, and M. Senard was bearer would be compromised, 
elected as his successor. The Empire was a chimera: who 

About tlna tame an incident oo- wished for it ? it could never be 
cnrred which occasioned some per- revived. 

plexi^ to the Chamber, and waa Next day the question of the 
regarded as an inauspidons omen exclusion of Loais Niqwleon was 
of fresh troubles. Louis Napoleon again brongfat forward by M. Jules 
Buonaparte, who a^r his escape Favtc, on ^e report of thedeoision 
from (he foTtresB of Ham, as has of one of tlje bureaux;.^ the 
been related in a preoedii^ volume, effect that be onght to be admitted 
bad resided in Et^land, came over to take hb seat as member for the 
to Paris when the Republic waa department of the Lower Cha- 
proclaimed, bnt, acting upon the rente. A warm debate followed, 
advice of the Provisional Govern- in which M. Louis Blanc declared 
ment, quietly retired from France, himself in fovour of the admission 
He was now elected as a member of Louis Napoleon ; and ii. Ledm 
of the National Assembly by no Rollin opposed it. He said, " la 
lees than four constituencies, and the Assembly ignorant of events? 
moch difference of opinion pre- A judicial investigation- has just 
vailed as to the course which commenced, and it has been die- 
ought to be adopted towards him. covered that money has been dis- 
A vehement and angry discus- tributed, and the house from which 
eion took place in the Assembly, that money has come is known; 
in the course of which Id. de La- wine has also been distributed ( 
martine. alluding to the charge cries of 'Vive Napoleon I' have re> 
against him of having acted in nni- sounded in our ears, and the vralia 
son withMM. BlanquiandBarb^, hare been covared vrith aeditioaB 
said — " If I have con^ired with placards. IffSftiin four days three 
those men, it was when they had Napoleonist.. ienniala were esta* 
not been unmasked. I conspired blished, preparing the way for the 
with them as the lightning-con- oaodidateship of Louis Napoleon 
ductor conspires with the thunder- as President. If the National 
aterm. I for a long time withstood Assembly thinks that no measures 
diose men." This was applauded should be taken in the face of such 
by several voices, which eiaaimed, facta, let it declare ita opinion: 
" That is true." the Executive Committee ooes its 

278] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fr«.«. 

duty, )et the National Assemblj do and intelligent; and, eince in* 

theira." voluntarily I EaTour diaordar, I 

In the roEiult it waa decided by beg leave, tbouffh not without 
a great majori^ of the Aesembly, deep regret, to place my redgna- 
the votes being taken by members tion in your hanaa. 
rising and sitting in their places, " Tranquillilj, I trust, will now 
that Louis Napoleon should be ad- be restored, and enable me to re- 
mitted to take his seat as a repre- turn to France as the humblest at 
sentativB of the people. citizens, but also as one of the 

Almost immediately afterwards most devoted to the repose and 

the President of the Assembly re- prosperity of hie country. " 

ceived a letter from Louis Napo- A proof of the aniions desire 

leon. dated London, June 14, in felt by the repreeentatives of 

which he said — " I was about to France to put an end to popular 

set off in order to appear at my disturbances vras afforded by the 

post, when I leamt that my elec- large m^ority which voted in fa- 

Uon had been made the pretext vour of a bill for preventing tn- 

fbr disorders and disastrous errors, multuotis assemblages in the public 

I repudiate all the saspicions of streets. It was brought forward 

which I have been the object ; for on the Tth of June, and was, after 

I aeek not for power. If tht peo- an animated discussion, carried by 

pU impoK dvtiet on me, / thall a m^oritj of 478 to 82. The first 

know haic to fidJU^tkan; bat I two articles provided that, — 

disavow all those who have made " All assemblage of armed in- 

use of my name to excite dis- dividualsiuthepublicetreetaispro- 

turbanoe. The name which I bear faibited, as well as all assemblages 

is above all a symbol of order, of of unarmed men calculated to dis- 

nationality, of glory; and, rather turb public tranquillity." 

than be the subject of disorder and " An armed assemblage consti- 

of anaichy, I should prefer remain- tutes a crime, if it does not disperse 

Jngin exile." at the first summons. It only con- 

The reading of this letter caused stitutes an offence, if, at the first 
the greatest excitement in the summons, it disperses without re- 
Chamber, which interpreted the sistance." 

passage marked in italics as a sig- And after detailing the nature 
nificant hint te the nation that of the punishment to be inflicted, 
the author vras ready to co-operate according te the degree and cha- 
in an attempt to found a Buona- racter of the offence, the Bilt 
parte dynasty. An angry debate enacted that " in all cases the de- 
ensued, which was adjourned to linquente shall be deprived of their 
the following day, when the cause dvil r^bts." 
of disquiet was unexpectedly re- It was evident that out of doon 
moved by the reading of a second a party was formed whose inten- 
letter from Louis Napoleon, which tion it was to use the name of 
was placed in the hands of the Napoleon as a pretext for dis- 
President during the sitting of the tnrbance, and the thoughtless mu!- 
Assembly. and which contained the titude were ready to adopt the cry 
following passages : — as the watchwoij of change from 

" I desire order and the main- the existing state of thi^, of 

teoance of a Bepnblic, wise, grand, which they had already begun to 


be impadent The conduct of the 
OoTenim«it vith reference to the 

Suestion of the impeachment of 
(. Louis Btanc baa given great 
offence to the Uodentte putj. 
Thej had exhibited a mmt of 
firmness and a disposition to 
tmckle to the extreme democrats, 
which bad shaken confidence in 
their policy. A meeting of 400 
members of the ModftH was held 
in the Salle des Conferences on 
the lOtb of June, and it was then 
resolved that an active opposition 
should be oTVanized in the Assem- 
bly. On Ue following daj M. 
L^ Fancher, in the first bureau, 
attacked the Idiuistry, and pro- 
posed that the grant of 100,00(y. 
per month for its expenses abould 
be refused, but that the salaries 
of the Executive Committee should 
be sJlowsd. He said, — " France 
needs a Government. It will not 
retara to its industries without 
order, secaritj, and confidence ; 
for which she has in rain waited 
for four months. France, which 
mil be governed, when it no longer 
feels the hand of a government 
will throw itself into the arms of a 
dictator. Tliis dictator I see al- 
ready in the distance. A name 
hss been pronounced and adopted 
in the elections — a name which is 
a talisman against which we cannot 
too much stm^e for libsr^, allied 
to order. I will, if I can, save 
the Republic. I therefore refuse 
this grant." 

Afterwards, in the Assembly, in 
tbemidstofanunintereating debate, 
JA. Heckeres ascended the tribune, 
and with marks of great excitement 
exclaimed, — " Letters which have 
been received from Troyss etate 
that, at the moment when- a regi- 
ment of the line was entering 
that tovm, the National Guard 
went ont to welcome the new 


comers, and that, when the National 
Guard cried out, ' Vive la R£pub- 
lique,' the Regiment replied, 'Vive 
Napolfon Louis.'" 

This statement occasioned ntuch 
agitation in the Chamber; but Ge- 
neral Cavaignac, the Minuter of 
War, declared that, as do such re- 
port had been communicated to 
the Government, he believed it to 
be false and calumnious; and be 
added — 

" Since an opportunity offers 
itself, I will speak my mind. I 
have no intention of (Erecting an 
Bccusstion against any of my fellow- 
citiaens, nor have I the right to 
question tbe innocence of the man 
whose name is so unfortunately 
put forward in this way: but I 
cannot help delivering over to 
public execration whoever sbalt lay 
a sacrilegious hand on the publie 

The whole Assembly here rose, 
vrith cries of " Vive la Repub- 
lique I " When the enthusiasm 
had subsided, General Cavaignao 
proceeded : " Honour and glory to 
tbe citizen faithful to his duties, 
who devotes bis blood, fortune, 
talent, and intellectual f^ulties, to 
tbe happiness and service of his 
countiyr but shame and woe to 
him who would dare to speculate 
on the difficulties of the times, 
and the sufferings of his native 
land, and who would turn a glo- 
rious name to the account of bis 
personsl ambition 1 " 

Subsequent events, as we shall 
see, invested the opinions of this 
officer with great importanee. 

This occurred on Saturday, the 
16th, and on the following Monday 
there was much excitement exhi- 
bited in the etreets of Paria, from a 
general belief that Louis Napoleon 
would make his entrance into the 
capital on that day. Were not the 

280 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [P'o-e4. 

veisatile chancUr of the Pariaian of the Treasury, in which he esid 

populace eo well known, it would that it was in an improTing stats, 

be difficult to believe that the hero The deficit on the first of March 

of the Straeburg SmmOe, the Bou- was foarteen tnillione of francs ; in 

logue invasion, and the tame April it was aeventeen millions; 

eagle * could have excited any in Uaj it had only been eleven 

fediog of enthusiasm in France. millionB, with a promise of even a 

The National Guards, however, better month in June. The bank 

paraded the atreete, and, by their was to advance another loan of 

determined conduct, prevented any 100,000,000 francs i seventy-five 

disturbance. millions in 1848, and sevenly-five 

In the Assembly, M. Jerome more in 1849. He proposed that 

Buonaparte rose, and said, with 100,000 franca per month should 

reference to the speech of Ge- be voted for the expenses of the 

nend Cavaignao, that, although Bzecutive Committee, 

be was no partisan of his rek- In the course of the debate 

tion and friend Louis Napo- which followed, M. de Lamar- 

leon, and disapproved of some tine s^d. in answer to the at- 

parts of his past conduct, be tacks which were made upon the 

claimed justice on his behall He Government, that he denied that 

gave a hietoir of his proceedings the Executive Committ«e vras 

on the first days of the Republic torn by divisions, or restricted 

in March, and demanded that he by opinions from a free course 

should either be publicly de- of action. During the existence 

Dounced, or no longw aocused of of the Provisional Government, 

acting improperly. On the pre- formed as was that of the 24th 

ceding night, hearingi it was the of February, there were many 

intention of Government to intro- anomslies, many errors, and many 

duce a measure of exclusion against mysterieB, which would one day 

M. Louis Napoleon, he had waited be cleared up ; but the Assem- 

on the Minister of the Interior, bly could not be made ao- 

and teamt from him explicitly that quainted with them all at onoe, 

DO such intention existed. He and certain doubts and mistrust 

was now astonished to hear &om must necessarily remain for a time 

Members of the Assembly that in the mibds of many. He alluded 

they were about to bring in such to the results of the foreign policy 

a measure. which had been pursued. With- 

M. Flooon admitted that it was out a struKle, or a single blow, 

intended to propose a decree to France stoM higher in the opinion 

that effect, but put it to the As- of the world, and hsr influence was 

sembly whether it would then take greater, than ever it was before or 

the matter into oonsideraUon, or after the greatest victories she 

first decide the financial proposi- had gained. Eun^ judged the 

tion of the Oovemment The efforts of the Executive mora 

Chamber determined to give pre- generously than they were judged 

oedence to the latter, and M. Du- at home. 

clerc, the Minister of Finance, M. de LamartJne hero sat down 

made a statement of the position from fatigue, and the Assembly 

adjourned for a short time, and 

■ See voL IxuiL p. 178. during the interval it happened 



that K piBtol, in the pocket of an 
officer nbo was doing out; amongst 
tbe crowd aeeembled around the 
hall, accidonUllj went off, and in 
the feverish state of the pnblio 
mind this trifling incident caused 
much confusion and alarm. The 
exaggemted importance attributed 
to it will be seen from the follow- 
ing remarks of M. da Lomartine 
when be resumed his speech. 

" Oeutlemen, a &tal circum- 
Btaooe occurred when I was ad- 
dressing the ABsambly. While I 
was ipeakiug on the condttioDB of 
the re-establishment of order, se- 
veral shots were fired, one at the 
commandant of the National 
Guard, another at an officer of the 
army, and a third at a Nalioual 
Oniurd ; and this was done to the 
My of 'Vi»e TEmpereur Napo- 
Itenl' This is the first drop of 
blood that has stained our re*blu> 
taoo ; and, if blood has now been 
shed, it luis not been for liberty, 
but 1^ military tuisticiBm, and in 
the name of aa ambition sadly, if 
not Toluutarily, mixed up with 
guilty manOBUvree. In deploring 
with you this unfortunate collision, 
the OoTemment has not to be 
Uaaied for not having been pre- 
pared for these sad eventualities. 
This very morning, an hour before 
t^ sitting of the Assembly, we 
had prepared a declaration, which 
events have compelled us ti> read 
to yon immediately. When con- 
spiracy is taken t» flagrante dt- 
Ueto, with its hand dyed in French 
blood, the law should be voted by 

U. Larabit. — "Let us have no 
vote by actdamatiou." 

M. de Xismartine then read 
aloud the decree provisionally 
made against Louis Ncqxileon. It 
Alluded to his twice coming for- 


ward as a pretender; avowed fears 
that he might compromise the lie- 
public; and concluded with a de- 
claration that the Govenim«nt 
should " cause the law of 1683 to 
be executed against Louis Napo- 
leon Bonaparte until such time aa 
the National Assembly shall de- 
cide otherwise." 

Immediately upon this the whole 
Assembly rose in a body, and witli 
the greateet enthusiaBm, shouted, 
"Vive la Repubhque!" but M. 
Larabit added, in a loud voice— 
" Vive la Repnblique ; but no pro- 

On the 19th of June, M. At* 
mand Marrast, who had been ap- 
pointed reporter of the committee 
to which nad been confided the 
task of drawing up the plan of a 
constitution, ascended the tribune, 
and read the report which he and 
his colleagues had agreed to adopt. 
The following is a uiort pr&iii of 
this important document:— 

There was to be one Pre- 
sident, to be elected by universal 
suffrage for a period of four years. 
Any person, bmng a French citizen, 
30 years of age, and of good cha' 
racter, was to be eligiMe to the 
office. A Vice-Freeident was to 
be elected by the National As- 
sembly, whuw was to consist of 
760 members, there being no other 
chamber. The Ministers to be 
nominated by the President, and 
dismissed according to his will and 
pleasure. A Council of Sute to 
be appointed out of the members 
of the Assembly, to consist of 40 
persons at least, and chosen by the 
Assembly itself, the office of that 
body being to consider and draw 
up the laws which may be deemed 
by the Government advisable to 
bring in. The punishment of 
death was interdicted for political 

S82j ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fra^. 

oBencee. Slareiy tbs abolished Works, bat iDsiated that in Aitai^ 
in all the Frencti coloniea ; the no credit should be demanded for 
press to be free, and every mem to the aame purpose exceeding a mil- 
nave a right to print, and cause to lion of francs, 
print, wluteverne pleased, subject iS.. Trelat, Minister of Publio 
to such guarantees to the State as Works, said that many labooFerB 
may he deemed uecessaty. All had already been formed into 
reh^ons to he allowed in Prance, brigadee, and would leave in a few 
and the Tarious ministers to be days for the canal of the Mame, 
paid by the State. Publio instmc- the Upper Mame, the Upper 
tion to be free, but sabject to the Seine, and the Tours and Nantes 
superintendence of the State. Sub- Railroad. Their number was about 
stitutes to be interdicted in the U,000. M. Tr61at regretted the 
army and navy. The national anxie^ evinced by the committee 
debt was declared sacred. Pro- of the Assembly to destroy these 
perty was inviolable. Gratnitona workshops. For his part he 
education to be given to the work- would never consent to it, nor 
ing classes, so as to prepare them would he adopt hasty measures 
for their different callings. Algeria when the intereeta of his fellow- 
was declared an integral part of creatures were at stake. He could 
the French soil, and to be admi- understand the surprise of the 
nistered by laws pecoliar to itself. Assembly at finding that the work- 
The same to t^e place in the ing of mese establishments con- 
other French colonies. Trials to tinned the same, notwithstanding 
be public ; the judges when once all the activity and eeal he had 
appointed to be permanent die^yed to reform the abuse. 

At the same sitting M. Falloux This question of the removal of 

presented a i^nrt on the demand the workmen became the pretext 

of 8,000,000/ for the national for a terrible explosion, and re- 

atdUn. The oommitt«e t« which vealed the existence of a dark and 

it had been referred had, he said, deep-seated conspiracy to deliver 

seen with pain that a former sum up the capital and France to alt 

(tf three millions had been already the horrors of anarchy, by esta- 

expended on the day it was claimed, blishing the triumph of the Red 

Such an infraction, justified by the Repubhcans. 

Minister of Finance, by the ex- Themaaseaof unemplcyedwork- 

hibition of an order of the Ex- men in Paris, who must either 

ecutive Committee, was so con- support themselves on the pittance 

tnury to all rules, that the com- doled out in the ^teli^n^otidnatM; 

mittee trusted that it would never or starve, were ripe for a revolt; 

be repeated. It had also seen and the specious doctrines o£ the 

with r^pvt that its first decree Communists and Socialists, who 

had not been oiecuted, and that were actively employed in dis- 

the census of the labourers em- seminoting them, found a ready 

ployed in those establishments had reception with them, while they 

not yet been received. The com- were in a state of idleness and 

mittee, nevertheless, recommended hunger. During the few days be- 

the grant of three millions re- fore the eventful Q3rd of June, the 

qidred by die Minister of Publio condition of the lower classes had 

Fnmee.} HISTORY. " [283 

been die subject of frequent com- agtunst fainilf and proper^, tbe 
ment in tbe National Assembly, basis of all society. 
M. Victor Hugo, the well-knonn M. Leon Faucher, complained of 
novelist, said with reference to the the little attention paid b; the 
(ii«[tan, that he admitted that those Government to the question of the 
establishments had been at first a national woriuhops, and of its 
necessity, but it was now full time allowing thennmbeisof indivduals 
to remedy an evil of which the employed in them to increase from 
least inconvenience was to squander 13,000 to 190,000. Misery, he 
uselessly the resources of the coun- msintained, was extending to all 
try. What, be asked, had they classes of society. Vety aoon not 
produced in the course of four a single manufacture would be in 
months ? Nothing. They had de- operation in Paris ; the shops would 
graded the vigorous children of by degrees be closed, and the oon- 
Ubour, deprived them of all taste tagion soon reach the provinces, 
for labonr, and demoralized them M. Faucher felt fully justified in 
to such a d^ree that they no stating that one half of Paris was 
longer blushed to beg in the relieved by the other half. It 
streets. The Monarchy had its would be fiu* preferable to destroy 
idlers ; the Republic its vagabonds, those natdonal workshops alto- 
He thought, however, that the sether, and to employ the funds in 
enemiee of the country would not distributing alms to the indigent, 
succeed in converting the Parisian In order to diminish the dwiger 
labourers, formerly so virtuous, which threatened the peace of the 
into lazzoroni and janissaries, or metropolis, the Government deter- 
pnetoiians of fiTMuto, at the service minea to reduce the number of 
of a dictatorship. U. Hugo then ouvritn who were receiving relief 
drew a gloomy picture of the finan- there, and on the 32nd of June an 
cjal and commercial situation of order was issued that 8000 of 
France, and, appealing to the those who came &om the provinces 
Socialista, be summoned them in should quit Paris, and return to 
the name of humanity to cease to their respective homes. They were 
preach their anarchical doctrines, supplied with money, and tickets. 
At the moment that Paris struggled to enable tbem to procure provi- 
in a paroiysm which was re^uued sions and lodgings on the road, 
by its neighbonra as an agony, Lon- They left the capital in sullen dis- 
don, he said, rqoiced, and its in- content, but halted after they had 
dustry and commerce had trebled, passed the barriers, and a body of 
Those who excited the people to 400 of them returned, under a 
revolt were most culpable, for they pretext of wishing to have an inter- 
created distrust, and obliged capitid view with tbe Executive Com- 
lo fly. When they agitated Paris, mittee, at the palace of Luxem- 
they asserted the power, grandeur, bourg. A deputation of four was 
wedth, prosperity, and preponde- admitted to the presence of M. 
ronce of England. The misery of Marie, to whom they detailed their 
the rich constituted at no time the grievances. Some expressions of 
weolthof the poor. The Socialists his were misinterpreted, and, on 
should consider that civil war was the return of the delegates to dieir 
a servile war ; and he entreated oomrades, they marched along the 
them to suspend their declamations streets, shouting, " Down with the 

284] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [f^cs. 

Execndve Gommissionl" "Down some lives ware Imt, that the 
with the Aesembly!" Their nuin* barricade wbs carried. A aimilor 
bers rapidilj increased, and dif- contest took phue at the Porte 3t. 
(erestdmsionB of workmen poured Martin, with a like resnlt, and 
through the etreeCs convernng on man; barricades were taken in the 
the H6tel de ViUe, where the; as- , course of the daj. The plan of 
I jem bled in a tumaltnons crowd, the inanrgents seemed to be to de- 
iTq act of rioleooe however yet fend desperately theBe barricades 
took place, and they separated in as long as they were tenable, and 
the direction of the different Fan- then suddenly abandoning them 
bonrgs, where the plan of insurrec- to fall back upon other posiiiona, 
tion was already fully oi^nized. fortified in the same' rapid and ez- 
In the meantime the OoTem- tempore manner. But as soon as 
ment was not idle, and large the poet waa taken by the troope, 
bodies of troops were concentrated and they attempted to foUow the 
upon the different points «^ere rebels ttirough the streets, they 
it was thought probable that were receiveaby a galling fire from 
attacks might be made. Some the houses, which were prepared in 
oompaniee of the line and National a manner that praved how skilfully 
Guards bivouacked in the Place and deliberately the revolt had 
de Qreve, and the Hall of the As- been concerted. They were pierced 
sembly waa filled with troops. Al- widi loop-holes, and passages were 
though noisy and disorderly crowds cut through the psity walls, so 
of workmen congregated in differ- that as &st as one was taken the 
ent parts until tat« in the evening, inmates retired to the next house, 
no collision happened, and the and there continued their unfalter- 
night was passed in unea^ ex- ing resistance. In fiut, in some 
pectation of the struwle which quarters the houses might be oom- 
iuemed inevitable on the morrow, pored to a rabbit warren, full of 
In the morning, the sound of the holes and galleries, through which 
rapptl was everywhere heard, but the Natdonal Guards had to pursue 
this was soon changed for the more an invisible but deadly foe. Mat- 
ominous beat of the giniraU, and tresses were placed against the 
the National Guard appeared in windows, behind which mailmen 
great force in the streets. About were posted, who could thus take 
9 o'clock the insurgents began to secure aim ; and women were ac- 
eiect barricades at the Porte St. tively employed in casting bullets, 
DenisandthePorteSt.Martin.and supplying arms, and tending to 
in those Fanbourgs, as well in the the wounded. The Oarde Mobile 
notorious Faubourg St Antoine, so behaved admirably. Doubts of its 
famous in the history of Parisian fidelity were entertained, as its 
distorlwiioss. The conflict first ranks were composed of the same 
commencedat the Porte St. Denis, class as the men against whom it 
Here a small party of National was employed ; but it displayed the 
Guards was stopped by the bar^ most brilliant courage, and fought 
ricade, and immediately attacked with determined seel by the side 
it; bat the resistance was obstinate, of the troops of the line and the 
aud it waa only after a severe National Gnards. In the oourse 
struggle, in which the aesailanta of theaftemoon General Cavaignac, 
were obliged twice to retreat, and the Minister of War^ was invested 

Fraw..] HISTORY. [28& 

wiUi Uie comauud of the whole of tboee of the South ia the Psn- 

the armed force at the dispoeaJ of theon and Church of St. 8€v6na ; 

the Qorenunent in Paris, and the the oommsnd in chief wse in the 

roAi of oannoD was heard in the centnl point of the Cite, whet« 

streets before night&U, as it vsa the Hotpital of the H6tel Dieir 

found impossible to penetrate some vss seized, and converted into the 

of the bamcadea wiuiout artillBi^, bureau of the leaders of the insnr- 

Over all these formidable atmo- rection. 

tores, behind which the insurgents In the coune of the mominff 

had intrenched themselves, the the Executtve Committee resigned 

red flag waved, and he^ of dead their fonelions, and the National 

bodies Uiy by their side atteellng Assembly voted a decree, wherel^ 

the fierce natore of the strife which Paris was declared to be in a state 

was raging. of siege, and all the Execotive 

But the following morning dis- powers were delegated to General' 

cloeed more full; Uie extent and Cavttignac. Thus was the nsnal 

formidable character of this bold destiny of popular revolutions ac- 

attempt at revolution. Many of complished, and France saw itself 

the barricadee which had been once more under the sway of a 

levelled on the preceding day were military dictaUr. In the meantime 

erected again duiing the night, immense numbers of Provincial 

and taking the island in the Seine National Guards had poured inti> 

aa a centre point, and bottom of Paris from Rouen, Amiens. Boaa- 

the basin in which Paris lies, a vsis, Ctennont, Poissy, Cbaton, 

formidable line of rude but strong Carriere, Mendon, Senhe, Meaox, 

fortifications had been thrown up Metun, and otbw places ; but the 

oa both sides, right and left, so as rebels had made themselves mas- 

to embrace a very laroe portion of ten of fonr pieces of artillery on. 

the capital. The following will their way from Vincennes, and 

give some idea of the extent of General Oavaignac issued the Ibl- 

the operations :— The Porte St. lowing notice : — 

Denis and Porte St. Martin had " If at noon the barricades are 

been taken and refortdfied ; the not removed, mortars and howit- 

wbole of the district between them zers will be broaghl, by whicb 

and the Temple ; theTempleitaelf; shells will be thrown, which will 

the district Popincourt ; and the explode behind the barricades and 

whole of the Faubourg St-Antoine in the apartments of the houses' 

towards the river, mahing one oocupied by the inBhrgents." 

rt segment of a circle. Also This threat, however, had no ef- 

whole of the district lying be* feet, and is the afternoon the roar 

tveen the two streets of St. Denis of cannon uinonnoed that the com-: 

and St. Hartin to the bridges ; the bat was maintuned with undiroi^ 

bridges themselves ; the Cite ; the nished vigour. Many of the Mem- 

Bae de la Harpe, Rne St. Jacques, bers of the National Assembly' 

and all tlie Quartier St. Jacques ; distinguished themselves by the 

■nd the Fauboorg St. Marceau, courage with which they ap- 

The insurgests hM regular com- prtudied the barricades, and, aftec 

mandante and organized districts in vain endeavooring to induce tho 

of oommand, The head-quarters misguided multitude to yield,- 

of the Nwth were in the Temple, fought gallantly vrith the treops.- 

286J ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Franci. 

During the da; M. Bizio, a repre- devoted city, where all ihe horron 

sentatiTe, vraa killed, and GeDentl and many of the ferocities of war 

B^deaux, M. Clement Thomas, were seen in this unnatural stnig- 

ond M. Dornds were aererely gle. But the militar? forces made 

wounded. In the evening the great progress during the day, and 

President gave, in the Natdooal droTO their opponents from most 

Assembly, an account of die pro- of their fastnesaes. The attack 

ceedings of the day. He saia : — commencedatanearlyhouragainst 

"Ton are aware that the com- the Fanhonrgs du Temple, St 

mands were divided into three : Antoine, St. Denis, and the streets 

the plan adopted has been to send du Tempo and SL Martin. The 

large forces on certain points, Rue du Temple was first cleared, 

leaving others nnattaoked tor the but the insurgents who were driven 

mommt In the Faubourg St from it intrenched themselves in 

Jaoqnee, where the insurgents had the Faubourg of the same name, 

ooncentcBled a great part of their tawarda the Rue Saint-Maur, and 

forces, the barricades were forced; joined their comrades in 1a Vil- 

and that district is now completely lette and La Charlie. The left 

or nearly disengaged. The Fau- bank of the Seine came com- 

bour^ Sl Moroeau resisted a longer pletely into the possession of the 

time ; but Oeueral B^deau at last National Guard and of the troops 

obtained a like auocess, and carried of the line. Some attempts were 

the barricades of the Hue Monf- made during the day to erect bar- 

fetard as far as the Jardin dee ricadee on the left bank of the 

Flantes. At the H6tel de Tille Seine, bat they were instantly 

General Duvivier has not as yet destroyed by the troops, who re- 

obtuned all the suocess which he mained masters of every point. On 

ooald have hoped fbr, owing to the the right bank the contest was 

difficulties of the qoarter : De has, prolonged, but several of the bai<- 

however, driven the insurgents far ricades in tlte Rue St Antoine 

from the H6tel de Ville, which is were carried, and the insurgents 

now disengaged. General Lamori- constantly lost ground. They in- 

diie has met the greatest diffi- trenched themselves, however, on 

culties ; but the Fanboni^ St other points, and forced their way 

Denis, St, Martin, and Poiason> into several houses, &om whence 

nidre, are cleared to the barriers, they fired on the troops. This oc- 

and the dronlaUon has been re- onrred in the Place du Chatelet 

established. A point remains on the Quay of the Megiaserie, and in 

which nothing has been done — the several acljoi°™S streets. Some 

Clos Bt Lazaro, where the in- battalions of the National Guards 

BUi^ents have intrenched them- of the departments, which were 

aeWee in the Hospital Louis marching on tJie Quay de la 

Philippe. Genera] Lamorici^ Megisserie, received several dia- 

deolt^es that to-morrow he will charges, which caused them a ee- 

ftrce it" vere loss. A similar occurrence 

The morrow— Sunday — came, t«ok place at the Place du Oha- 

W brought no cassation of the telet, and in the small streets 

Gonfiict It would be tedious to in the neighboni^ood, where the 

give minute details of the ean- insni^enls endeavoured to form 

guinaiy strife which raged In the bairiMdeB without sneoess. En- 

Fnmce.-] HISTORY. [287 

gineen and firemen were em- <mrd, and, lifting him from the 
^ojed b) dislodge those intrenched ground, carried him to a house 
m the honaea, which were pierced within their barricade, where, after 
in the rear or in the roof, a pa»- receivinff extreme uuotion, he soon 
sage having been first effected breathed his laat. When told that 
tfarongh the adjoining honaea. In he waa in great danger, he said, — 
the evening the President aaid " Well, then, let Ood be praised, 
that the troops (^ the Be- and may He accept the sacrifice 
public were in posaeBSion of the which I again offer tiim for the 
greater part of the atrongholds of aalvation of this mis^ded people, 
the insui:gent8; the Ninth Marie Maj m.v death expiate the sins 
lud been taken, and the other which I have committed daring 
points towarda the Fanbourg St. my episcopacy." General Negrier, 
Antoine, but at an immense loss of also an officer of distinguished 
blood. Never had anything like merit in the Algerine campaign, 
it been seen in Paris. The Cloa was killed during the day, and 
8l Lazare waa in posaassion of the likewiae General Brea and Da- 
troops, and only a few dropping mesure. 

shots were now heard. All would On Monday morning, the S6tb, 
that night he hoped be finished, the operations of the rebels were 
The troops had behaved most ad- confined chie&y to the FBuhoui;g 
Durably. The Eighth Marie, the St Antoine, and the east side <u 
last atronghohl of the insurgenta, the Canal Martin and the Clos Sl 
was then being attacked. Lazare. This latter quarter seems 
The day had been signalized by to have been the moat strongly 
the death of the Ardibisbop of barricaded, and to have been de- 
Paiia. This excellent Prelate was fended wi^ the most obaduate de- 
determined to try whether the in- termination. The following is the 
Borgents would listen to his voice, account of an eye-witness : — 
and allow him to act as mediator " The barrit^des in advance of 
between the eombatanta. He pro- the barriers were as formidable as 
oeeded therefore, clad in his sacred tegular engineers could have con- 
vestments, and attended by his two structed, and were built of paving- 
grand Vicars, towards the Faubourg stones of a hundred-weight each, 
St. Antoine, but stopped at the and blocks of building-stone cat 
foot of the column of^ the Bastile, for building a hospital, and weigh- 
where a strong barricade bad been ing tons. The houses covering 
erected, and firing was actively them were occupied. The toll- 
goirkg on. This cMS^d as soon aa houses at the barriers were occu- 
the Archbishop was rect^nised, pied, and the windows removed, 
and he bnvely mounted the bar- The houses on the opposite side 
ricade and addressed the insurgents of the Boulevard were, more- 
en the other side. His words over, in the poeseeeion of the 
seemed to produce some effect, rebels, and manned with marka- 
when Buddenly a dmm-roU was men. What formed, however, the 
heard, and a shot was fired. The strength of their position was the 
contest was immediately renewed, perforation of the wall of the city, 
and the venerable Archbishop was which is twelve or fourteen feet 
struck by a ball in the loins, and high, at intervals of eight or ten 
fell. The insurgents rushed for- yards, for a mite in length, with 

288] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fn/m^. 

several hondred loop-boles of slwnt negotiation nas opeoed, and the 

six inches diameter. During Faubourg finally capitulMed, and 

all Saturday and Sunday a oon- was, trithoat any further resistance, 

stant and deadly fire was kept op taken possession of by the troops, 

from these loop-holes, on troops About the hour of noon the fot- 

«ho could haixlly see their op- lowing letter from Oen. CaTS^ao 

panenta. The defenders ran from announced to the Natioiml As- 

loop-hole to loop-hole with the egi- aembly the final suppreeaion of the 

lity of monkeys. They only left the insurrectba : — 
cover of the high wall to seek am- ../>-■ o j 

munition, of wuoh they had only a " '-•'•*''• Pretident, — 

scanty and precarious supply." " Thanks to the attitude of the 

Qeneral Lamorici^re, who di- National Assembly, and the devo- 

rected in person the operations of tion and coarage of the National 

the troops, ordered cannon and Onard and army, the revolt has 

mottars to be brought ud, and been suppressed. The strt^le 

after the heavy artillery had made haa completely ceased in Paris. 

B. clear breach through the for- The moment I am assured that 

midable barrier, and reduced many the powers confided to me by the 

ci the a^acent houses to a heap National Assembly are no longer 

of ruins, the soldiers rushed in necessary for the salvation of the 

and put to tlie sword all whom Republic, I will respectfully resign 

they found with arms in their them into its hands." 
hands on the other side. The General Cavaignac fulfilled his 

next point of attack was the promise, and, when tranquillity was 

Faubourg St. Antoine, which was restored in the capital, be resigned 

surrounded by troops on all sides his dictatorahip. But his services 

within the city, and it was thought were too important, and the neoes- 

that this focus and stronghold of slty of his influence too urgent, to 

revolutionary fury would only yield permit his retirement from power, 

after a severe bombardment. The and he was almost unanimously 

artillery was placed in position, invested by the National Assembly 

and General Lamoriciere was with the cSce of President of the 

about to begin the cannonade. Council. Accordingly, on the 38th 

when Oenersl Cavaignac ordered of June, he announced that, as su. 

that a summons should be sent premeheodoftheExecutivePower, 

to the infatuated inhabitants to be had formed the following Ga- 

Burrender before opening the fire, biuet: — 

A certain time was given, and M. Senard, Uiniater of the Inte- 
when this had passed the attack rior. 

began. Soon, however, an indi- U. Bastide, Minister for Foreign 
vidnal appeared with a flag of A&irs. 

truce, and stated to General La- M. Goudohsux, of Finance, 

moriciere, on behalf of the in- M. Bethmont, of Justice. 

Burgents, that they were willing to Qeneral Lamoriciere, of War, 

surrender on the terms proposed U. Camot, of Public InBtruction. 

by General Oavaignao. Some M. Touret, of Agriculture and 
del^ and misunderatanding at Commerce, 

first took pkce, and the oombat Id. fiecurt, of Public Wortra. 

was partialljirenewed^buLa second Admihd Lebknc, of Maiinel 

, ..ooglc 

FfMct.-} HISTORY. [289 

When M. Camot's name \*aB dissensions on exterior policy in 

pronounced, an explosion of disap- the Government itself. But in 

probation aroee in Uie hall, followed particular a most poisoDous inSu- 

with exclamations of " Shame I ence was exercised by the addresses 

shame!" and principles eptdcen and pn>> 

Shortly afterwards, at a subse- mulgated in the Luxemboui^ bj 
qaeat sitting. General Cavaignac M. Louis Blanc among the work- 
informed the Assembly that, Ad- men there assembled, 
miral Leblanc having refused to " There is abundant proof that 
accept the Ministt; of Marine, U, M. Louis Blanc and M. Caussi- 
Bastjde had been transferred to difire were no strangers to the 
that department, and General Be- organization of the movement 
deau appointed Minister for Fo- of May, with Barbte, Blanqui, 
reign A&irs. and Ledru-RoUin. The cause of 

Early in August the report of anarchy was never discouraged, 
the Committee E^pointed to in- though on that occasion, furtu* 
quire into the insurrections that natelj, conquered. It resisted the 
took place in the months of May first checks given it, and resumed 
and Jtme was read in the National a greater strength. Indeed, new 
Assembly. It was a lengthy docu- assistance came to its aid : anar- 
ment, and the following is the sub- chical speeches were sent in par- 
stance of many of the most im- eels, free of charge, to the depart- 
portant passages : — ments ; the fury of the Clubs was 

" The principal object of the fomented, their organization as- 
manifestation of May was to dis- sisted, and power increased ; noc- 
eolve the Assembly and establish tunial meetings in the closet of 
a Committee of Public Safel? : the Ministry of the Interior w«re 
that crisis had more of a political held, at which projects were formed 
than of a social character. The for centralizing the Clubs and do- 
insurrection of June had nomi- minating the elections; and after- 
nally the object of establishing a wards for annulling those elections 
Democratic and Social Bepublic; which were hostile to the Govem- 
bat in reality its olgect was pillage ment. The Club of Clubs, under 
and mnrder. The causes of both M. Sobrier, accumulated 30,000 
movements were, however, analo- cartridges and hundreds of mus- 
gons. Documents issued in the kets; (he Club of the Rights of 
provinces by Government agents ; Man, composed of 14,000 men in 
machinations of influential mem- Paris and 30,000 in the provinces, 
hers of clubs sent to the provinces established manufactories of arms, 
with mone^ taken from uie funds and prepared for war. 
of theMiniBtryoftheIuterior;and "The attempt of Maywasoon- 
hulletins — prepared, singnlar to summated, ana on whom ought to 
aay, by a woman of eminent lite- fall ita responsibility ? The Exe- 
laiy talent (George Sand), and cutive power answers, that orders 
methodically reduced by her to were ^ven and disobeyed; and 
official shape—of most alarming that no Oovemment, perhaps, can 
tendency, addressed to the electors be exempt from mistAea or from 
at the eve of the elections for the treason. The Commander-in-Chief 
Assembly, hod each its fatal effect of the National Guard says, that 
In addition, there existed profound orders were given to the Fourth 

VoL-XC. \V^ 




Legion to assemble on the bridge, 
but that the President of the As- 
sembly gave orders that they 
should only occupy the footpave- 
ments, and that, if the Garde 
Uobile offered no resistance, it 
was because General Tempoure, 
who commanded them, left his 
post that he might be a spectator 
of what was going on in the As- 
sembly. On his side the General 
of Division replies that be removed 
the troops by the order of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. Neither in the 
report nor in the papers of the 
Executive power is anything found 
which proves that genend oom- 
msud was formally intrusted to 
any person. 

" Between May and June a 
more favourable state of things 
had arisen. Troops were ool- 
lected, laws to sustain order were 
passed, and the men in power 
were more vigilant: how, then, 
did hew disasters ensue? The 
same spirit of infiurrection still 
survived ; the same organization 
in its support still existed ; the 
same head remained in a station 
of power. It was the excitation 
of the Clubs, in the opinion of U. 
Arogo, that caused the civil war of 
June. The same progress of pre- 
paration, but on a fiu- more exten> 
sive scale, went on for the strug- 
gle; Bud yet the police remained 
apparently ignorant of all. The 
insurrection had its manufactories 
of powder and arms, its military 
organization, and its chie&: and 
yet the police were passive. The 
insurrection broke out, and was a 
savage war carried on with poi- 
soned balls. Many witnesses heard 
the inaureents discuss the absence 
of Caussidi^re, and complain that 
they knew not what to do without 
his orders ; others saw him behind 
the barricades; and more heard 

him defend the tnsorrection. M. 
Proudhoun was also seen among 
the barricades by more than one 
of the Members of the Assembly ; 
and his only explanation is, that 
be remained two boure in admira- 
tion of the sublime horror of the 

On the S6th of August MM. 
Ledm BoUin, Louis Blano, and 
Caosaidi^re, each made a long de- 
fence, in the National Assembly, 
of his conduct in connection with 
the two inBurrections ; but the re- 
sult was that the Procureur- Gene- 
ral presented a formal demand for 
authority to prosecute the two lat- 
ter persons as having been partici- 
pators in the treasonable eveute of 
May the 15th and June the 2Srd. 
The required permission was given, 
but Louis Blanc and Canssidiere 
thought it prudent in the mean 
time to fly from France, and they 
both escaped and found refuge in 
England. The trial of the other 
parties implicated in the late dis- 
turbances nad not taken place at 
the close of the present year, but 
the Government persisted in its 
determination to bring them even- 
tually to justice. 

On the 3rd of July an import- 
ant statement was made in tb^ 
Assembly respecting those fertile 
sources of disquietude and per 
plexity — The national woritsbops. 
General Gavaignoc ascended the 
tribune, and said that those esta- 
blishments preeented a formidable 
oi^nization. The idea of their 
institution was good and equitable; 
but, in the course of time, they 
had become menacing to libenj 
and the Hepublic. That fact was 
obvious before his accession to 
power, and measures were con- 
templated for suppressing them. 
Their organization was completely 
distinct, lud escaped the surveil- 

Prmee.-} HISTORY. [2fil 

lance of tlis Administndon, and the Assembly. The leading fea- 
tfae eSoTts made to efiect their die- tores were these, 
wlaiioa had proved unavailable. There was to be one President, 
He (General Oavaignac) had paid to be aelected bj universal suf- 
tke most serious attention to the frage for a period of four years, 
matter, and aonu to Ae rmolution Any penon being a French dti' 
of M^prsinng them oHogethtr. zen, thirty years of age, snd of 
Since the late insurreotion be had good character, to be eligible to 
interrogated several persons re- the office. A Vice-President, to 
spoeling the Dnmber of individuals be elected by the National As- 
mu had partidpated in it, and the sembly. The Assembly to con- 
highest number he had heard men- sist of 750 Members, there being 
tioned by the moet competent to no other chamber. The Hinistera 
know the truth did not exceed to be nominated by the President, 
SO.OOO. Now, the effective num- and diamiased according to his will 
ber of operatives inscribed on the and pleasure. A Council of State 
registers of the national workshops to be appointed out of the Mem- 
amounted to between 105,000 and here of the Assembly, to consist of 
106,000, so that the combatants forty persons at least, and chosen 
belonging to them were in a mi- by the Assembly itself; that body 
nority. This &ct was proved by to consider and draw up the laws 
the arrests subeequently made, which the Government might 
On being invested with full power deem it advisable to bring in. 
by the Natiimal Assembly, he had The punishment of death inter- 
not thought proper to suspend the dieted for political offences. Slavery 
payment of the sums awarded ta abolished in all the French colo 
thewoil«hope, as many advised, for nies. The press to be free; and 
fear of increasing thereby the every man to print, and cause to be 
number of oombatonts, but after printed, whatever he pleased, sub 
the collision he had not hesitated ject to such guarantees to the 
to suppress them, at the same time State as might be deemed neces- 
that be had ordered that rehef sary. All religions to be allowed 
should be granted to the opent- in France; and the various re- 
tires who stood in need of it. ligious ministeis to be paid by the 
The Geneml, in conclusion, stated Stale. Public instruction to be 
that the Minister of Finance would free, but subject to ^e superin- 
lay before the Assembly a series tendence of the State. Snbsti- 
of decrees, some of whidi were in- tutes to be interdicted in the army 
tended to restore oon£denoe by snd navy. The national debt de- 
ehowing the sincerity of the Go- olared sacred. Property inviolable, 
vemment to fiilfil all its engage- Gratuitoue education to be given 
ments, and others to afford labour to the working classes, so aMo pre- 
to the operative classes. pars them for their different call- 
We now revert to suljects of a ii^. Algeria declared an inte- 
lees eiciling but almost equally gral part of the French soil, but 
important nature. In the monUi to be administered by laws pecu- 
of June the Committee employed Uar tp itself. The same to be 
in drawing np a form of Gonstitn- the ease with the other French 
tion had presented their project to colonies. Trials to be public ; 

[u a] 

2&2] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1848. [Fram^. 

and the jndgoB. once appointed, to reside ftt the Beat of the National' 
be permanent. Aasembl;, and (o receive a salary 
Snbsequentlj', however, thia pro- of 600,000/. per annum. The 
jet underwent considerable revi- Vice-PrtHident to be appointed 
aion, and on the 39th of August for four years b; the National 
the amended plan was read from Aasemblj, on the presentation of 
the tribune hj M. Woiriiaje to the the President, during the month 
National Assembj. It was in aub- that followa his election. In the 
stance as follows : France, bj absence of President, he was to 
adopting the Republican form of replace bim and exercise his func- 
QoTemment, was declared to have tiona ; but, in case of his decease 
assamed, in the face of the world, or resignation, a new President 
the initJatiTe of progress and civi- must be elected within a month, 
lization. The right to labour was The chapters relative to the Minis- 
Buppreesed, and replaced bj an terial department, the Council of 
article providing that the State Stale, the intemd adminiatration, 
should procure labour to unem- the judiciary power, had undei^ 
ployed workmen, within the limits gone no material atteistion. Jus- 
of its reeourcee. Capital punish- tice was to be rendered gratuit- 
menta were abolished for political ouslj, in the name of the French 
offences. Slavery was not to exist people, and all political offences to 
in any part of the French do- be tried by a Jury, who, in fu- 
minioQB. The right of aasociadon ture, were to fix the amount of the 
and meeting was guaranteed. The fine or damages incurred by the 
censorship M the press would not be offender. The Judges of the Court 
re-established. The election of re- of Cassation, appointed by the 
presentativee to have for its basia National Assembly, of the Supreme 
the population. Universal suffr^e Tribunal of Administration, and 
and secret ballot were maintained, of the Court of Accounts, were to 
The representatives were to be al- fill their functions for life. Jus- 
waya re-eligible. The President tioes of the peace who, in the first 
to be a French citizen, 30 years of prqeci, were to be elected by the 
age, and he must not have lost, on citizens, in their respective dis- 
any occasion, his quality of French tricts. were now to be appointed 
citizen. He was to be elected for by the President. Military sub- 
four years, by universal and direct etitutea were prohibited. The pub- 
Buffrage, and by the absolute ma- lie force being essentially obedient, 
jority of the voters. The ballots it was declared that no armed corps 
to be immediately forwarded to tbe could deliberate. The territory 
National Assembly, which waa to of Algeria and the colonies waa 
decide on the validity of the elec- declared a French territory, to be 
tion aAd proclaim the President ruled by special laws. The Le- 
Should none of the candidates gion of Honour was maintained, 
have obtained the absolute ma- but its statutes to be revised and 
jority, the Assembly to choose the placed in harmony with the demo* 
President among the five candi- cratic and republican principle, 
dates highest on the list. The The present National Assembly 
President was re-eligible after an was to frame the organic laws, and 
interval of four years. He was to the President of the Republic 




to be elected immediately after 
the adoption of the Constitution. 

Want of space precludes the pos- 
sibility of oar giving any detailed 
account of the long and tedious dis- 
cnssious which took place in the 
Assembly upon the various articles 
of this new Constitution. They 
commeTMed on the 3nd of July, 
and were exteoded over a period of 
four months, at the end of which 
the Gonstilution was final 1; adopted . 
Nor would it be very profitable to 
record the vapid generalities of 
speakera debating the first prin- 
ciples of Govenunent in the nine- 
teenth century, and attempting 
definitions of liberty, equality, and 
rigfats, which tend only to mislead, 
whenever an attempt is made to 
give them a practical application. 
We will, however, quote a few pas* 
sages from a speech delivered by U. 
Tiuera, in one of the Bureaux, at 
the outset of the diecuasion. It waa 
upon the text of the !)nd Article. 

" Hie Constitution gnaranteea 
to all citizens — liberty, equality* 
safety, instruction, labour, proper^, 

M Thiers said, " In principle 
I am mncb attached to what is 
simple and positive ; I have there- 
fore little taste for the vague and 
general declarations, always some- 
what declamatory, bj which the 
nuyority of French constitutions 
were preceded. The example of 
our ancient rerolutionary assem- 
bliee aflects me but slightly. 
Those assembUes have been con- 
spicuous for patriotism and talent, 
hut Ear less for political experience. 
I consider that it is of the greatest 
utility, in the midst of &e sub- 
versive ideas now diffused abroad, 
lo proclaim at the head of our con- 
stitution the twofold principle of 
property and family. But it has 

been thought impossible to avoid 
adding two other principles — the 
right of man to receive assistance, 
and his right to labour. I am of 
opinion that everything must be 
done for the people that it is pos- 
sible to do without omitting or 
neglecting an