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THE 

ANNUAL REGISTER, 

0» A V I E W 0» TH» 

HIST ^%^Y. 

P O L.;|- T.^p^, 

••:/:.;■;■'• A N'l)■■^■;;.■■ 

LITERATURE, 



For tn^ YEAR-I79I 



y^ 



LONDON: 
Printed for F. and C. RirlNCToH, N* 61, Sl Paul's Church-Tardj 

hU .jr. »r . ^ 

J. DoDSLEv, Pall-Mali, i79^■l«>glc 




UigniaOb, Google 



<iii H iiii|tiii>tiii Mr i|| riMi i H'i l H i Mni ||i i |l « l|i 'M li> 
<i iM i i |t " ll">l " ll" M"H i ' ll ' »! " II ' I C >l *'W iii| 

P R E P A G E* 

IT is with extreitie fegret tliat we find 
ourfelves Under the neceility of apo- 
logizing for the late appearance of the 
prefent Volume.' In Confeqnencc of 
Mr. DoDsiifevV'advSi^fcd time of life 
(whofe zeatv'ia^ ailiduit]r;ia efie&ing a 
tegular publication of many preceding 
volumes witl not, we truft,' te foigotten 
by the Public) we have btei unwil- 
lingly comjieiled to ea^ge with a new 
Publiiher, and that too at a period when 
the Volume ought to have been a£hially 
in the prefs. Reduced to the unpleaiant 
alternative, either of relinquilhing the 
Work entirely, or of profecuting it with 
redoubled and unremitting vigour, we 
hefitated not a moment to adopt the 
latter determination; but it was im- 
poflible to form a contrad, and fettlo 
arrangements of fome extent, without 
' Incurring a conliderable delay. 

A a The 



i» PREFACE. 

titt JBBttOre, tbb, #as 'petuEarly nn- 
fevoutable to the recovery of our loft 
time. SueIi wi* thte imfortaiKe 6f the 
futgeds to.be treated in the Hiftorjrtjf 
"1791, that we coul^ not in oonfcience 
TUft ^enl over lightly, nor confufe tkeni 
by an aSe^ed bfevity. The parliament 
bt tins y^rwii^.|n«e(^jly. occupied hy 
butinefs of-tJ^S".totiti'ofl: -ooiiiii^Mence, not 
only to tlie iftdJvidual interefts .of Great 
feritajn, ^njt :to • the general-balance of 
powc*, as;.\ii'Ell in Europe ,!a^; the £aft 
Indies, bouli;":*'hich depMiided not a 
tittle introdin^i^jejqjlaBatidn. Wc have 
aTfo taken itiore than' common pains to 
<!raw, from a minute coaiparifon of dif- 
ferent authorities, a more faithful repre- 
feritition, than any before given, of the 
difpute between Mr. Fox aid Mr. Borke, 
becaXife it has beenprodudive of a pow- 
erful influence on our domeftic affairs, 
and becaule wc conlider it lef) as a 
breach between two friends, than as a 
political rchifm, involving public prin- 
t ^■""idples 



PREPACfi. » 

dpks of the (irft magnitude. But above 
ail, that gcett conllkutional queftion, the 
abatement or non-atMtement of Impeach- 
moits on a diflbtation of parliament, 
feeraed to require the minuteft invefii^' 
tjoo. Not merely confining ourfelvei to 
the ftatement of the principal arguments 
ediranced in parliament upon this long- 
a^tated quefladn, yr'e'h'ave traced the 
laatter a Ttrtlfe higher,- Snd have had re- 
courfc to the Rolls of ParliaiHent for in- 
fonnation,' from whence -*«• have fparcd 
no laboiit'-to coUeft wliat.we' flatter our- 
felves miy'' a little tsai(l;;t<J the elucida- 
tion of ah" intereftirig conftitutional 
point, as well as of a remarkable period 
inEnglifliHiftory. — In addition to thefe 
impediments, -which the nature of the 
ftibjeSs threw in our way, an unforefeen 
circumftance of fume moment ilill fur- 
ther retarded us. After our State Papers 
were printed, two material articles in 
them (the Declaration of the King of 
Fiance on his leaving Paris, and the An- 

fwer 



(wet 6f the National Affembly) wJiicft 
had -been copied from the beft Englifli 
channels of information, were found to 
be fo extremely mutilated and inaccurate, 
fo fabricated for the worft purpofcs of 
fraud, that we could not, confident with 
our duty to the Public, permit the Vo-^ 
lume to appear without, giving a new 
tranflation of •ttK^.and'gttfi.King fome 
introdufloryobfifvations5'a"tilfc, in the 
performancjs of -which a greiiter portion 
of time w^tioivoidably confiii^ed, than 
could well We^^ared. •!■'"•' 

Such were •'.tfe;dj.fficul«i«s- which we 
had to encountia',:' and the diligence 
wTiich we have employed to furmount 
them, in the hiftory of the current year. 
But we had alfo a heavy arrear in the 
affairs of the Netherlands, and the North 
and North-Eaft of Europe. We omit- 
ted the whole of this fubjefl in our laft 
Volume, partly from neceffity and partly 
from choice; for we view the progreffive 
pacification of all the belligerent powers, 



PREFACE. vH 

durii^ the campaigns , of 1790 and 
1791, as one connefled train of events; 
to whidi, notwithftanding many fubfe-i 
quent battles of extrabfdinaty carnage,' 
the firft opening was made by the death 
of the emperor Jofeph, in the beginning 
of the former year. We know the dif- 
ficulty of this part of. pur ta&, and our 
Readers have--.}ikd oec^Etpn to know it 
too, in the^fiequencyofiisiii-. complaint* 
refpeditig the poverty, confufioii, and 
contiaditSJc^ of our materials^ from the 
banks of-'riie. Dnieper,' tljejliefter, and 
the Danubfe;' JVe are fnii^^^evet, that it 
is no departiiic'fromiqodeily to lay, that 
the Reader will find here a more inteUigi-' 
ble, copious, and fair account than he hat 
yet feen of events fo ferioufly affeding 
the balance qf Europe in that quarter. 

We'ha4 prepared, and in part adaally 
printed for this Volume (though already 
fwelled beyond its ufual (Ize) a narrative 
of the PoliJh revolution to the end of 
1 79 1 5 but on mature conl;deration we 

have 



rai PREFACE. 

have thought it beft to poftpone this, 
together with the Hiftory of France, to 
the enfuing Volume. Our reafons of ex- 
pediency for this diftribution will be 
found at the end of our IXth Chapter; 
jmd we tnift they will prove fatisfaflory; 
^e do not, therefore, mean to oiFer any 
apology on this head -j-ajid we hope to 
have little oce|i^i)iH for iipq^igies of any 
kind in fiijwfpj^ais we arfe'lftking mea- 
fures to b(mg forward our -publicatioq 
by degrees -ni the current year/"' : 

The Vorijihe for 1 79 2 is alt^ady in the 
prefs, and iii'Jiigjhr.a Aat?'.af ,S>rwardnef8 
as to enable ustb.promife it early in the 
following winter. But while we ufe every 
poflible exertion to regain the ground 
which we have loft, we ftjall not relax 
in our ufual endeavours, to fele^ with 
difcrimination, and narrate with fidelity. 



o„....GoOgl^^g 



rttt 

ANNUAL REGISTER, 
For the YEAR 1791. 

THE 

HISTORY 

OP 

EUROPE. 

e H A p. I. 

Rtlfpfptai-ui t»tw ^ tht affairi tf tht Nithrrltadt In thf ytari 1789 mud 
1 790. Etnptrar ^tli^Mi ell tht aiidiat priviligei and imautatits tf Bra- 
bant, ivhicb iMrtafei iht aaigralim ijf tht yrinrifal inhabitantt t» tit 
wti^bhoarhig coantriit in a fr^ighus degrti. Stvrral decrui U Inglb 
iJntJ agaimfi tmgralim, and iht uebiUtj and citrgy thargtd la ntunt under 
tit ftnalty offtrfiitnrt \ hni ibit precUamainn fndntes nt tJiS, Cily taJ 
ItrJjbip ef Srida&tm lt> becemt the beed-fuarieri of fit rmigroMi, fa- 
ritMi fo^j itthicb indnctd tbt neigbhturing gfufrnaunti, ai •wiH mi ibtir 
Jidji^t at Itergt, ta bt miub intirtjlid infavemr af lb* NttbtrSandtri. Em- 
ftrar fiqnlftratti tdl ibt ttiityt in Brebani, and *pf»mtt nW t^ttrt far 
tie aduuiufiratian ^flbtir rrvnnui. Impaliiy ^ ihii miafin-t. VtaJ^irory 
in Br%i^ .fer ilmuing uf tbt bmfti ef tht Ctnnri Dmltia and Trautntta/i , 
dtrff, and thtfiitatrt «f ihmt 0(7, farluntaily iifcmtriJ. Siatii ijf Bra- 
boat, afftmbUd at Brtda, vttt thtmfihits a rtgnlar and ligal oHhAly, atid 
f4^i a firing rtmanfiranct tt the EmptTBr, ntibirb tbty Jtnd by txfr^t » 
Vitama. Litter fram thi' Artbbifiiep cf Malints t» tbt Pofe. Jw/nrgtmtf 
ttmmtnce btfiiUliti tn tbt berJtri ^ Dulcb Flandtrt, nubtrt ibty lakt tb§ 
farti Lille, C^f. Gemral Caunt Schratder di^atebtd'tuilb a Jireng body af 
Imptrial trafi la rrfrtfi tht infargtnti, li/ba rtlrtat ta ibt fmaU iruin 91^ 
Tarmbaat. AHien at Tumiest, in lubieb tbt jf'^'om art difiatid •wilb 
aiub Itfi. FanJtr thargtd npom Scbretdtr'i canduS, •wbc it ftriffid ef hit 
anlitary caatmandt, and retelltd It Gnwany. Indignation of tht Emferaf 
at till dtftat, Smvutt eriulliti thargtd tipen tit ^tt^riani at Tarabaat. 
Vol.XXXia {A} tbu 



2] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

fbii frcetfi ferret at a geturtd fignal for thi recal of lie txiiti, tuba /uvf 
hurf into the frontiers pa every fide, and ajjiane the xemt of the Patriotie 
Armf.. Cai^i •uthy the great exertioHi of the Gintrali Daltait and Sent/er 
frodute ntfuilahlt tff't^I. Extreme eowardhe and profligiuy of the veteran 

foUieri in the Helherlands, to be attributed fiitirelj le ibe iaxily of difdplint 
in ivhich ibty bad been long indulged, thrsagh the mifiaiiA policy, and iy 
tbt abfihte ccmmand ofjc/efh. Juflriam <ontinually defeated, and the at- 
tieni very bloody. General Bender'i laifacctfiful attack upon Tirlemont, 
■tAibere great flaughter cmd mt-ny cTuehies are faid ts have taken fiact. Great 
eetilioH le be sbferved in riteiving at faJli the hcrrlhii accounts of cruelly 
BOW fnbUjhtd. Severe enccnnler in th otm field, in ivbich General 
d'Arberg is defeated by the Patriots, Jrmy faved by the gallantry of ibt 
regitnent ef Bender. Pr;n.e of Ankalt Dc^'rin iiUeJ. Ghent recovered froat 
lilt Jufiriani, afirr « tourfi of fetisrt ccrri/V/t 'which la/lrdjiine daji.'bj a 
haitdful of ibe Patriotic irosps. Comilia/cry declaration i^ued by the Emperor 
to the inhaiitanis of the /.hiu Countries. Sovereign authority affunted by tbt 
States of FlaiidtTS ; '^v'jo declare the Emperor to have forfeited all right 
and title to it. Signal and unaccountiible exfulfmi of QisuraJ Daltoji and 
the Aafiriaui frem BrnJ^eh hy a body of the burghers. Thai general ob- 
liged ta capiL-datt, and to evacuate the tovin directly •witi the remainder of 
bis troops. Mod-re'ion, gfod temper, and excellency of conduli, obferved by 
the inhabitants rf BruffeU in this revolution. General Dallon abaadmi 
Nt/iKur, and retires nviih the remttins of bis bajled troops towards Luxem- 
burgb. Count Ccbent^lfenl fr.>m Vienna to endeavour to reioncik ncaltert. 
Vllimatum of the Stales of Braiaat. ASf of union offenfrot and defenfivt 
lel-.Meen the Stales of Flanders and Brabant ; ■uihieb is Joen atceded to by 
ell I he other pro-vin;cs, except Limboarg. lU effeai produced in the Neibtr- 
iandi bji the exaaplt e ' France, and the indujhy of the difcipUs to its nevj 
datlrines. Fadcral union formed betnuten tbt provinces ; the confederacy to 
ie dijlinguifi-e.l ^ tbt appcUalien of the United Belgie States. lUfucteft 
ef the Brabanters in their unjnfi attack upon Limbourg. Citadel of jinl- 
isserp takes. Englijh •welunieerf, and a Brilijb legion formed. Difcard and 
faflian appear early in the ne^ji common^uiealtb, and foen diftrad all the 
cperalioi%s ofgovemnttnl. Lefe by their ill conduit and diffentions the friend~ 
jhip and proteSiin of the allied potsieri, Luft of povier, and 'the contention 
for it, the great foio-ces of difcord, and of all the evils that fill upon the 
caunliy. Home ateount of the principal parlies. Patriotic ajtmbly la Bruf- 
Jilt hears no fnall rejemUance to the Jacobin Society in Paris, litatb of 
the Bmperor. Memorial from Leopold en hii action, produces no tfftH. 
Same aeionai of Gascrel fander Mcrfcb : ht is appointed Genirahffima by 
lAs opcers, but Cotsgrefs refufi to confirm the namtnatian. Fonder Mtrfeb 
an-rjli the drfttiei wba are fent to the army by the Congrefi ; end i£ius a 
dtclaration to tbt peop'e. Violent refoliies cf the cfiicers. Appiarancii of a 
tiiiil laar. Army a&andoni their general, tuba it fent prifoner to the ce^h 

I ef Anlvjirp,^ Di/conttnts increafe to the higheft pitch. Govtrnmeni lofi 
Jill reputation, and fail in raiftsg money at home and abroad. Tom>ni of 
Flanders j-efitfe to aid Brabant in an txpediiiaa againfi tbt Aajirianj. 
Cenficrnation of Cengrrfs on receiving notice that the JCing of Pr^sa had 

acAamii' 



T 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [3 

t/hmcltdgeJ LtapdJat Duie of Sraimit. Pr*ptf^s far raifing a griat 

faiTinic arnrf ceirt it mibing. Manififio ef tht Ejutir^. Speedy iiWun- 
fall ^ the Cangrcfi iviJtKl i ytt ibiy ebfiiaatlly frrfivere in tarrying m a 
fraitlefi •mar en lie btrdcn, natxaithftaiidiiig all tiie ripn/eKialioxi tf the 
KtJiatiag fo^uers. Coaventivn at tht Hague ietintett the aidialing fvuiert 
fad the Emptrar, iy 'wticb a Kfw emJtilMioit it granted ti tht ^ufiriai 
Lrtu Ctmariii. QhjHna^y of the Congr.-ft ftill centjiuing, Gtaeral Bender 
adx-aiKti ta BriiffiU, at iiibefe appreacb they di/pirje, end fiy, in the Mtmsfi 
ttrrtr, to tht aeighiaviig canntriet. laauguretien tf Leaf aid at Quit tf 
Br^^aat. 

HE French m'olutioo, with Icsie • the dlfmsT and defolation 

_ ocber momenigiu affairs, which the harih govenunent o? 

wbkh hare fo decpljr engaged th= TrautTnanrdorff, wiui the military 

attention of the public, and patticu- executions of Dalcon, operating an- 

lirlj the former, which has, in a lefs der the imperiom mandates and in- 

er greater degree, been the means flexible difpofition of Jofeph the 

orrpreadingconfternatioiiandaUrm Second, had fpread through ths 

tfaroDgh a&oft erery ftaie in Eu- Netherlands; and took notice, at 

rope, have been the involuntary the iiinie time, of the gmt cinigra* 

aaTei which delayed for fo long a tion of the fuperior orden of the 

rime the pnrfuit oFour oblervation.t people to the adjacenif councrie^, 

OQ the broils, tronbtei, dangers, and which was talcing place tn the fum- 

war, in which our near neighbours, mcr of 1799. This emigration 

the Neiherlanders,- have been fo was particularly increaled in confe- 

deeplf iav'olved. During that in. qoence of the decree iflued by ths 

terval, after bravely recovering, emperor tow-ard) the end of Jano 

acd for a time as bravely lupport- ' in that year, by which the convcn- 

i-'g their libirty, they Biewed tion of the Hales of Brabant, then 

taemfelves in the ifllie incapable fitting, was fuppreffed, or dUIblved t 

of rstaiaine the precious acquifi- tha council 01 Brabant abolilhcdf 

rion, and of rendering the blefling all the articles of the jiiyaijk ptrft 

in any degree permanent. When revoked ; a new fupreme council, 

ifce foreivn yoke was caft off, no compofed of members appointed 

wife, difinterefted, and equitable by himfelf, eftabli(hed at Matiaea 

fcrm of government being in rea- for the conduft of thc puhUc bnfi. 

diDcG to fnpply its place, but every ' ngli ; and thus, fo ^r as it wat 'm 

Km pgrfaing the vain imaginations his power to govern futurity, were 

of his own heart, difcord and fiic- all the riehcs, privileges, and immu- 

lion, with their numerous train of nities ot that great and flourilhiBv 

iateroa] diforders and evils, liks province for ever annihilated. 
Bcnious weeds in a rich but aban- The wtilei foon became verynu- 

doncd Ibi!, fprung up with foch rapi- merous along the frontiers, but wtn 

dity, that they loon filled the void, more particularly fo in the lordfbip 

and left ^o room for the growth of an4 neighbourhood of Breda (If 'nj 

any thing nfeful or valuable. In the dominion of Holland, and > 

We £fcnbcd in a former va- patrimony belongiog tO tt^ prinst 

• Vol, xsxi. p. 37 top. j». 

w ->H,,,,;^ 



a\ annual register, 1791. 

of Orspge) whicli ihey reemed to were difiwred to take a more aftive 
conCder u their head- quarters; 'part in it; while the nobility and 

nor wai the emigration long coo- clergy langhed at the threat of for- 

fined to the nobdity, .clergy, and feiture, which they well knew no 

people of property, for they were compliance coold avert, if the cm- 

tontinoally joined by great num- peror had power fufficient to inflift 

ben of the tnoft afllve and refolute the penalty; and to fubjed thnr 

young men from tlie diiTerent pro- perfons as well as their eUatet* 

Vincet, all perceiving their own without any reafonalite ground or 

fate to be involved in that of Bra- motive for fuch a rifque, to hia ca- 

bant. This latter clafc of emigrant) pricious and arbitrary wilt, they 

could have had no other objefl in could confider only as abTolitte inia- 

view than that of being ready at niiy. 

Jiand to fupport their fuperdors by The emigration accordingly con- - 
their peribnal fetvice in whatever tinned as freely as it had done be- 
efibrts they Ihould make for the re- fore, and conJiderable bodies of 
dempiion of their cnnntry; while it men atlembled, and were daily aug- 
ii not to be imagined but that they, menting, on diiferent points of the 
an the other hand, provided freely frontiers. Indeed, nouing lefs thaa 
fat the fupport and maintenance of a powerful army, poileired of no. 
thofe patriotic refugees, on whofc meroui and well-chofca polb and 
fiiture exertions and courage all garrifons, could in any degree have 
their hope* mull have ultimately effcAually refiraiaed emigrations, 
relied. The eovernment were io from provinces fa peculiarly fituated 
ilack in the beginning Id taking as thefe are; To open on all fides ; 
any meafure to duck the emigra- their noble forirelTes, as we have 
lion, that it feems probable they formerly fhewn, being long fince de- 
deemed it a fortunate circumftance, /troyedi through the croo!ced,'Wi»k. 
' that the coontry was tbna cleared, and dilhoneft policy of Jofeph; confi- 
without any trouble, of fo great a dering likewife, the freedom of in- 
number of dilaffeAed^errcas; but ttrcourfe which their innumerable 
as they became formidable on the rivers and carLals.afiord wiih all the 
froDtieri, this political idea wu neighbouring countries; and that 
perceived too dangerous to be ad- uncommon variety of uoconnefled 
tiered to, and the conduS was ac- flatcs and fmall governments with 
cordingly changed. Severe decrees which they are every where for- 
were then ifiiied againfl emigra- rounded. To which may be add- 
tloo ; the magitotes were forbid- cd. the ftroDg diitike and jealoufy, 
den to grant paJToorts ; and the with which tne dangerous ambition, 
exiled noblea ana clergy were the violent attempts, with the ever- 
charged by proclamation to return reAlefs and infidious pdicy of Jo. 
within a limited time, under the pe- fephjhadlnfplredall the neighbour- 
nalty of foifeiture. Thefe decrees ing powers, who were eager to feize 
produced no. cScft. The maglf- any opportunity that ooercd, for 
tratei were diemleUes too much lowering his pride Knd interrupting 
intercfted In the common caufe, to his defigns. And while the govern- 
lay any relttaint, which could pofii- ing powers in the adjoining llaica 
bly be avnded, upon thofe who were, &om moiires of policy, thus 

Avour. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. is 

fknoaraUj dirpofed to tie Ncder- b onr ferncr Moouatt of die dif* 

landets, their AtbjeAt, &iib loa; putci between -tluit prince and tbe 

Itabiu (rf' commerdil isteraonricw people of the& piorincei, lhew% 

ties of bbod and «fimtr. private thu aloaf with great cflatn^ the 

frieodlhips and abore all, a gene- sbboti, by the taBg-eftabliOted coa- 

nl commircratian of tbe wraagt iUtntian o^ BraMst, poijeOed m 

wMchtlieyfuflained, were ftill much iarge Siare in it* leguUdoD and 

nore fincerdy and xcalonlly intc- forernnntt; and what reoderad 

lefted in tli^ behalfi generowily then lill mon fbnBidaUe, they 

afor^n^ tkefit, in tlwfe daft of poC^ed aa anbonaded iqflBcnee <» 

tbeir tnbtdation, crery kindneft, the mindi of the people, Uader 



afiilaiKe ami jnvtefiioii is their the(e circumRascee it ii|>pean 
cndmtly to admkalnott ofaq 
/ MB^al tioo, that oothing ca 
Baltra, of drawing detachments nore ill-jodgcd and i^Ktlitk. 



cndmtly to admkalnott ofaaDcf- 

A mealnre perfoed by Mneral tioo, that nothing coald have been 

iJaltra, of drawing detachments nore ill-jodgcd and i^Ktlitii 

from di&rent gurifbns to parade lb very cridw a jnaftare* than thi« 

throagh and fcoar fome parts of the meafurc of - vioiene& £ut fuck 

Goontry which were deemed the Jhon-fighiedt ralh, and improvident 

molt difaScAed, with ordtn to take meafarei of policy were too com- 

•ipaIlfafpeaedperlbns.togetherwith mon in the eonduAofthii monarch. 

all thoftftriiom they were pleated to for .any particular iafUoce, at tUa 

confider within the de&ription of time, to excite much notice. 
uUe ra.gaboi]ds, the application of The peculiarly chara^rifticteatk 

which reSed entirely with them- per of the people, long brooding in 

J^dves, produced as little good effed fallen filence over the cuntempia- 

as mou of the other plans adopted tion of their iojuiies, which ferved 

by that comnvander h:^d long done; to render them the more di^tennined 

■ ferving only to fill the prifbns with in their refolves, the more dange- 

Qnhappy pcrfons, who weir cut off root in their defigns, and the more 

from ill means and hopes of re- implacable b their refentmenu, 

drcfs. and to increafe to the higheft when urged to the M extremity, 

poffible piteh that general odtnm now began to diffday its effe£t in 

and abhon^nce with which the the worft manner. A coolpiracy, 

AuSrian ^government and niniften in which it was fuppofed, and from 

'Were regarded. in nature, a viery great nnmber of 

In the mean tioK the emperor, pwlbnt mnfi have been concerned, 

glad of the &voBrable opportunity wai formed and condufted in ths 

which wu DOW preTented, of r«car- very feat of government, and in 

mg tp hi* old and darling iyftem theheartof the capiul cityof £ruf- 

of fn^ueftranODi and, at the fhme fels ; the dcfign reaching to nnder- 

tune, jsdgin^ rightly, that moch of mine the houfe* of count Tratit* 

tbf ferment in the Lour Countriea maafdorffandgeaeralDalton, toge- 

proceeded from the clergy, attd iHJ] ther with the goard-houfe, and to 

niorc particularly from the abbot*, blow thefe buildings, with their pol- 

ie ilTaed a decree to feqaelbate all fefTon, into the air n ith gunpow* 

t>» ^beys of Brabant, and appoint- der. Daring the confufion oca- 

fi civil o£cers fer the admiaiilia- fioned by this explofion, the defign 

tioa of their rercifa^s, VCe have, cxtendea to the feiznte o( the ar- 
[^} 3 fetiai, 



6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



fenal. Of the dty-gfltes, and to the 
admiffion of ftvcral fmall bodies of 
' einigrantj, who were to be prepared 
«nd at hand for the por^fo. ' The 
fortunate difcovery of this new gan> 
puwder plot, which wai Uid in [he 
tnonth of Auguft, and intefided to 
be fp^edily carried into execution, 
pollcbly faved that beautifii! city 
irom being reduced to fi heap of 
rabbilh. Above twenty of the flip' 

fiofed confpiraton were itnmediatC'- 
y ulceo up, uid the nuniber orould 
nndonbtedly have been much in- 
creafed, and a long fuccefiion of 
fevere punifhmenta enfued, if the 
intervention of the coming troubles 
- had not fpeedily pot an end to that 
and to all fimilar enqniries. 

About the middle of September, 
the duke d'Aremberg and ^'Urfel, 
with the other nobles who had re- 
tired to Breda, being nov joined by 
the primate, the archbi(hop of Mech- 
lin or Malines, as head of the 
clergy, and by mon:, if not all, the 
ftates of Brabant, both civil and 
ecclefiafttcal, as well as by the mem- 
bers of the lately fupprefled high 
council, they adopted a meafure 
which was well to oe confidered as 
a prelude to the mofl decifive con- 
/eqaences. They contiiEuted and 
declared thcmfelve; to be the regii' 
lar'and legal aflembly of the Hates 
of that province, endowed with all 
•the powers which they at any time 
„ 'poffelTed, and in'that cha- 

^P ■ '4' rafter unanimoufly palled 
'3' a ftrong remonitranee to 
the emperor; which was fent olT 
exprefs to Vienna. In that piece, 
after lamenting with the moll me- 
lancholy regret, ths fad necelTity 
which compelled them to alTemble 
in a foreign land, under the deplo- 
rable charftAcr of n banifhed legif' 
latore, ihey entetcd, with a freedom. 



whfeh could not but be galling an^ 
painful in the extreme to a man of* 
his temper and difpofitlon, ina> a 
rigid examination of various parts 
of his condufi. They ftated, . in 
clear and expref* terms, the rights 
and privil^jes which the province 
of Brabant liad enjoyed, from '.he 
moft reiiiote times; rigliu fanc- 
tioned, confirmed, and extended by 
a long fnccelhon of (bvcreigns ; they 
reminded bim, withont ceremony, 
of the folemn oaths by which he was ' 
himfelf bound to maintain and de- 
fend them ; and then repnefentcd, 
with as little fcruplc, the wanton 
and oppreflive infradiofls of them, 
with the lawlefs and Ihattieful fub- 
vcrfion of their conftitutton, which 
had taken place during his rrign.-— 
They concluded with a declaration, 
■' That inheriting thcloyalty and tho 
" fpirit of ihciT anceElors, although 
'' they were ready to facrlfice their 
'■ lives and fortunes for the profpe- 
*• rity and glory of their fovereign, 
" they were by no means prepared 
" for a daftardly and perfidious 
■' fnrrender of ihofe rights which 
« they held in tmft for their fellow 
■' citizens and their pofte rity ; they 
•' therefore earneffly adjured him, 
■' that by an immediate revocation 
" of his illegal edifls,' and rein- 
" ftaterasnt of the province in its 
" rights, he would abfolve them 
" from the cruel neccffity, which 
" the iBoli ficrcd duties muft im- 
" pofe upon them, of an appeal to 
" God and their fwoi^." 

This manifefto, (which it truly 
in all points is) if the circumltancei 
and fituatlon of the relpeftive par- 
ties is chorottghty cdnlidered, will, 
perhaps, appear among the boldeft 
mcafores which hiftory has prefeni- 
ed to us, as having been adopted 
by any fimiUr body of men. To 
form 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ^7 

bia a due eftimue of ita degreS) it ■ttly ireating, will ootbe tnifplaced 

nUi be iKcei&ry to Icep in view by their inJenion here, during the 

theiume^iuabledirparity of power pauie which took place on both 

beiireen the putiei, and to con- fides previous to their recourfe to 

fider the immenfe landed property the lalt cxucmities. . 

which the Qaics ihemfi'lves and That piekie allures his holinefs, 

their adherenu flaked upon this that every etibrt iiad been nled by 

deofau. If they failed, their great the biHiops and clergy to prevent 

edate^ tb«r andent hereditary the revolution ; and Uys the whole 

titles, bonoun and dignities, were 'blame of it (SireAly upon the (.m- 

lal for evcf, thrnileJves banilhed peror, who, he fays, liy the flufiu- 

from d^ir country and conlidered atioo of his councils, the unfteadi' 

as DDtlaws, and their poftcrity feat- nefs of his mearurcg, and the ge- 

tered over the earth without home neral inconitancy of his conduCl, 

or name. While, to render the precipitated affairs into their prefent 

meafure dill taocfi defpcraie, the fituation — That his laws and his 

pn^Mbilidci than were, upon every decrees.which wore perpetually fuc- 

raEional fchcme of calculation, that ceeding, and in continual variance 

they never could have an opportu. with each other, if they lud any 

itity of once even oJingthofe fwords objefl at all, were intended not 

to whicli they appealed in the lad only to overturn the difcipline of 

relbrt. Thi* wai lb well under- the church, and to efface from the 

flood by Jofeph, that upon the Gril minds of the people every trace of 

ramoar of their inientioot at Breda, their native piety and religion, but 

lie obferved, in a letter to gene- likLwife to annihilate the national 

ral Dalion, that the certain confc- cuAomsandurne'-s, ihi; rights of the 

qccDCMof fwfeitorc oftheirellatcs, cities,and the liberties of thecitizent. 

and baniihinent from their country. Towards the end i>t Uilitober, tho 

aSbrded a full certainty of their not £rll a£b of hoflility were exhibited 

hazarding fuch a. meafure. on the borders of i>utch Flanders, 

Snch was the virtue difplayed by where a body of infurgents having 
die firabaoters, while neccfiiiy, and appeared fuddcnly in arms, they 
common danger, cemented their attacked and took, with little diflt- 
uoiofl, and exalted their minds to culiy, the t\vo fqiall foru of Lillo 
1 genuine love of ihtfir country' ! and Liefcnihock ; in the fbfmer of 
We ihall hereafter fee how unaiile which, befidcs the military Itores, 
the fame men were to, refill the ill we hnJ, by a publilhed letter of the 
cffeds produced by profperity, and emperor's, that they feized a con- 
to witbfbod the bfcioiition of thofc ftderable fum of the public money, 
illufioQS to which it gave birth. They likewife fcizi-d a fi-igaie. 

Some parcicuUrs relative to the which, in a vaiti par.ide, of appear- 
enfcing revolution, and to the con- ing to protect a navigation that 
ioEt of the emperor, which were was not permitted to exill, thflt 
communicated to the pope in a let- prince had ilationed off Lillo. We 
ter written by the cardinal Arcli- have formerly (hewn, that thefe 
bi.'bop of Malines, although a few fortrefl'es had been originally con- 
months pellerior in order ot time to Urufled by the Dutch, to prevejit 
lilt ercDtf of which we are immedi- all intercoi:rle between' -Antwerp 

C.fl4 - a»a 



«1 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

and the fea, and chat Mtig of tfie^ coald come within meh. TIis 
linle value or importance, as the flying infarger.ts being admitted, 
pa:ih?e of the river was fufficientljr the gates were immediately faft 
barreii without them, they had been clofed ; hot the Inipe- (-. „ , 
part of the p-ace-offering made to rialill, were not long in ""■ ■?"''' 
gratiry tlie c.inity oF the empecor, forcing them, and in making good 
jn adjuftiie -tiie late cnnteft which their way into the town, 
he had with that republic relative The Brabanters, as they retreat- 
to ihe navigation of the Scheldt. ed along the main ftrect, not onl^ 
General Dalton, upon the firft did it wiih a devree of order vvhich 
intelligence i:f this invafion, imm!.'- could not &il to furprize the regn- 
diately difpacched general count Ian, but they maintained a hot ^re, 
Schroedcr, (an officer then in con- not without execution upon their 
liderable militar>' reputation) at the enemy. In this manner the pur- 
head of 4AOO difciplined Iniperial fuers were led oni unti) Scfaroeder, 
troopi, to chaftife the infurjents, with his whole force in a compad 
and \f he could not reach complete- body, arrived at the market-place. 
Ijr to deftroy, at leaft to chace thtm Here a new and nnexpefled Icene 
entirely out of t))e couniryt under was fuddenlv opened. The Auf- 
fneh impreffioni of terror and dan- trians were lalnted by a rtwr of ar- 
ger, as Ihould ferve fufficienlly ta tillery from different openings ; but 
deter them from renturing foon this was a trifling impediment, 
again upon fimitar predatory incur- compared with the tremendous fire 
£oDa. The infurgents, upoir the of fmall arms which was poured 
■dvaoce of this force, immediately inceflantly upon them from the roofs 
relinquifbed the two forts which and windows of all the (urroaoding 
they had lb lately acquired ; and houfes. Every houfe fwtn the cel- 
it beiuK tmderftood that they were lars to the top was armed and 
TCtreatme towards the fdtall town hoSile. The Itrcngth and nnmber 
of Turnbout, which liei about of the aflailancs was now their mif- 
etght miles to the north of the fortune, and afforded a ievere and 
Scheldt, the ImperialiAs, who wifb- inllant chaflifement to the mifcon- 
ei for nothing fo much ai to duSt of their commaadfer, in wcdg- 
come up with them in the open ing Iiis whole force in a body, 
Jieid, which would afford them fuch within the blind and dangerous 
fiiperior advantagcj over raw tin- tci)s, which croft ftreets, hoofei, 
difciplined troops, beyond what lanes, and unknown paflages, had 
thpy could derive from a blind con- every where fprcad Tor him. In 
fii^ in the nariow ftreets of a this dangerous lituation, general 
town, and undoubtedly placing no Schroedcr difplayed great perfonal 
truft in the favourable difpolttion courage, and no lefs pretence of 
of the inhabitants, purfued them mind, under circumfbinces fo nn- 
with the uimoft expedition. But fonunate as to render them ufelefs. 
with all their diligence they could Two horfes were fhot under him. 
barely obtain fr, Ht of a fmall party, and he was befides feverely woand- 
which probably brcught op their ed. But all his eSbrta were frwit- 
rear, and who were immedistely lef* in endeavouring to prcftrve or- 
reccived within the gates, before der among his troops, or in in- 
f fpiriiig 



BISTORT OF EUROPE, [y 

^ptting tbem with faffident conftan- and ordered to rMara to Gcrmujr ■ 
Cf to vitliftasd the intolerable fire when, it is more than poffibld that 
to vhkh ihe^ wci« expofed. The^ the death of hii mafier, which took 
f^ wm irremediable confiifion, and place not tong xfter, wa* to him » 
wm ctnnpdled to make a moft matter of no fmall good fbrtane, 
dilbnicHy retreat oot of the town Erra the great Gmmritef general 
b* the gate at wMch they entered. Dalton, now, for the firft time, wu 
T^xa lofi was very fevere, being deftined to experience a chaage is 
dtiinated at no Icfs than feven hnn- the ooontenance of hii nufterj utd 
drcd men, befidet, at leaft, two to fobmit to fevere cenfnrca, aa 
pieces of cannon ; for the report! well with refpeA to Ids condnfi is 
given ia of this anfertanatc aflair general, as fa feveral diflinA parUt 
vere fo confided and inaecnrate, which were animadrerted on in fii 
that the emperor himfelf conld not pointedamanner.asconld notbutba 
make oot from them, whether two fenfibly felt by a man fo long nfed 
or fbor pieces of artillery had been to the moft unbounded approbatioi^ 
loft. The rage of the Aallnani and who undoobtedly rained him' 
« this nexp^ed defeat and tofs felf upon the pofleflion of coniider- 
wai fo extreme as (o tranfgrefs all aUe talents and abilitie*. 
bounds of realbn and hnmanity; Schroeder's misfortune erideat- 
ssd (hey are ' charged with the ly arofe !rom the contempt ia 
moll lavage cnieitiet in the flreets which he Held the enemy, the orer- 
tbrough which they retreated, where weening confidence which he placed 
they are faid to have broke open in the number and difciplinc of fail 
the doors of the houfes, and to ibrcei, which he thonght moft pro- 
lure maffiicred man, woman, and duce faccefa under any drcnm* 
child, without diftin^on or mercy. fiances of dlTadvantage, and his ea- 
Nothiae conld exceed, or indeed remefs to roonopotize entirely to 
weD equal, the indignadon of the himfelf the praife . and renomb 
emperor at receiving incelligeoce which he concluded to a certainty 
of this, as he confidered it, moft were within his grafp, of cmfliing 
fhamefbl afFair. The defeat of fnch the infurredion in the bod, and be- 
a body of regnlar forces, in whom ing the means of rednmng the pro* 
he placed his pride and confidence, vinces to their wonted ffatte of obe' 
by an nndifciplined rabble, whom dience. For there were two other 
he held in the utmoft contempt, be- colomni of troops marching at the 
fides the dangerous confequeiKes time to join him ; fo that by only 
Khich in example, as ivell 39 imme- enclofm'g the inrurgems in tha 
diate tScBt., it was capable of pro- town, the want of provi&ms mul^ 
dncing, and the fevere wound which in a few days, have compelled them 
ii gave to bis pride, was rendered to forrender; and that probably 
fHu more infupportablc, from its without the to6 of a man, or even 
being totally fnbverfive of all his firing a fhot. 
military ideas, and overthrowing all ThiiTuccefs at Tamhoat fervcd 
the fettled opinions of his life, ai a general fignal for the recal of 
Scfaroeder immediately felt the ef- the exiles, who henceforth affuming 
Ms of his indignation, being Srip. the name and diftlndion offiurisiu 
fed of an his military coiQmaads, troops, and fiUriciie army, pene< 

tratf^ 



lo] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

trMcd Ac optu frontiere, in bands in which they hhi been, upon 

joate or leli niimerbus, on every fyftem, la freely indulged fince (he 

qiMrter, . fall of indignation, well commencement of tlie trotibles in 

armed, and eager fbr a&ioa ; while the NcLherlandg. Pdr it had been 

thcdilitfeAioD of [he people to go- a maxim long and clofely preAed 

TerwDenCwaslblhxingandaniverfal, by the empEror upon hU com- 

that almoft every man who fell vi- iDanders in that country, to tender 

gourand ftrength fufficiinc far the the duty of the faldiers as liglit and 

paroofe IB his campo&tion, burned ai plcnfant to them as polEble ; 

with impatience for the moment particularly direfling that they 

which conld aSord htm an oppor- diould ■ not be wearied or difgufled 

timity of joining them, lb that he by an wtentioa to the tn&ing parta 

nifht daim fomefhareof thepraifs or mittutix of difcipline ; as if he 

due for the deliverance of his intended to transfomi theiit from 

country from foreign tyrants, foldicrs into an heterogeneous mix- 

which were among the kindefl ture of civil and military oiHcers. 

Mna> now applied to the Auf- who were to be dedicated folely to 

trians. the fervics of the police. Frota. 

The generals Dalton and Bender, this miHalten jirinciple, a^d dan> 

(the latter of whom, with uls r-~r' fetpus military indulgence, operat- 

nent, were jult arrived from Lux- iii;; .iiu..^ wiiJi inc habits they had 

ctaburgh) were by no means Haclc been in of fretjueotly ma&acrtog 

or renufs in their etidcavoura , to a defencelefs people without danger 

dkeck that fpirit of iafurreftion or rcfiftance, the ircxips feemed to 

which was now becombg too :po- change their nature as well as cha- - 

Knt to be fubdued by any force in rafler j and as f«on as they were- 

tfaeirpoirefflon. But they werenot by engaged in real fervice, aiid com- 

uiy means men well calculated tor pelled to face an enemy upon equal 

the conduA of any bufinefs which terms, they fliewed themfelves to 

required other meant than the jwint be as bafe aid cowardly, as they 

of the fword. for iu completion, were in all inllanccs profligate and 

They were both, haughty, fevere, cruel. This only can account for 

Brbiti^ry, and cruel in the extreme; their being now frequently and 

attd as ignorant ckf the means, as Ihamerully beattn, with equal, and 

they were incapable through na- even inferior force', by the raw 

tare and education of the prance, Brabaniers, who had fo newly taken 

of mollifying the rough edges of arms into their hands. 
KBthiH'ity by any ikill or addrefs in 1 he conflifU which took place at 

the maimer or circnmftance. of the commencement of the revolu- 

application. What feems very ex- tion were accordingly bloody and 

traoidinary was the total lack of cruel in the extreme. The exorbi- 

difcipline which prevailed, and tances committed on one £dc draw- 

which became every day more vi- ing forth fevere retaliation from the 

fiblci in thofe veteran troops which other, and every encounter ferving 

tbey commanded, and which had to increaCe the animolliy and fan* 

been fo long inured to fervice. gulnary difpofition of the liofiile 

This could only have proceeded parties. 

irom the loag fcope of Itcentioufncfs The large totyji of Tirlemont was 
, dclUncd 



e; 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ii 

deAiBed to ttrefent one smong the in the dalle of the evening. Tim 

eariied and the moft horrid of thefe lofi of lives, in ihit ptitij tJCur, 

Uoody feenea. it ippeirs that ■ was fsid to amount to thinevn hm- 

we^ body of patriot! being clofel)' dred on both fidei, incladine u 

pnriited by, xi\e Auftrian* nnder that number both fexcs, wh£ til 

eeneral Bender, had taken re- agei and conditions, 

hige in that place. The town be- If the following circnnftancet ba 

ing open. Bender forced his wa^ true, it would leem as if dlfalter 

fWord in hand into the place, where 4U)d miiltirtiine had been deXiMcd 

the inhaUtanlj Bniverially taking to foIloHr or to meet the Anlh-ian 

part with their countrymen, gene- ueops wherever they dire&d their 

roully determined to pivtett or to fteps. It is Hated, that on Ben> 

:rifit along with them. In this der't rmrcat from TiHemont }yf 

ite of things, Tirl-moilt feemed night, he met genual Dalton TuU 

for (ome hourj to exhibit a repeti- in his Way, who w*a marchin* a 

tioaflf the afiairat Turnboat, with, ftronj; detachment with great dit 

however, thefe material diffiernKej, patch to his affitlance. That under 

that there were no artillery in the the double miflake of each panf 

former, that the inhabitants were in tniltaking its oppofite for the eite> 

ail other rerpefts ' badlv provided ny, they fired upon each other in 

nnd armed, and that toe patriotic the dark ; and that a furioni ca- 

troopi were few in number. Vet countertook place, in which fereral 

notirithftanding thefe eliential de- hundreds were killed and wounded 

fei^s, the defence wai obftinately on both fides, bdbre the error wu 

maintained ; the inhabitants and detefted. Although fuch fatal nil^ 

the patriots keeping up as conftant takes have too often happened to 

M fire, from the roof^ and windows admit any doubt of their poffibilitf* 

of the houfes, as their provifion of yet the pecatiar circumftances of 

arms and ammunition could poflibly the time tended fo mnch to the ft- 

fapply, and defending every houfe, brication of f^fe and intereAed re> 

ftrcct, and avenue with the ntmoll ports, that the faA in this inftanc* 

intrepidity. On the other hand, may well be con&dered as doubts 

the aflailant) broke open the houfes, ful. 

and even the churches are faid to Precilion and troth are, indeed, 

have afforded no fanfiuary or pro- little to be hoped for in the repottt 

tc^ion, from the indjfcriminatemaf- of luch a warfare at the prefen^ 

lacre of every man, woman, and and under fuch peculiar circant- 

chitd that came within their reach. ftancss of violent prejudices, ani. 

The refLHance being Hill conti- mofity, and rage, as thole which at 

used with unabated obllinacy, and this time prevailed in fpreading de- 

the defign of carrying tbe town be- folation through the Low Countries, 

ing in no degree of completion, the Great allowances muft therefore ht 

approach of night put an end to made for exaggeration on that fide, 

this cruel confUS. General Ben- which alone publilhed any detail of 

der, being mofl unwillingly com- thefe tranfafiions; for the Auftrian* 

pclled toTubmit to the dilgrate of were entirely filent under their mis- 

reUnqnilKing his enterprize, fbnnd fortunes. It is necelTary likewife 

it necedkry to draw ob hii troops lo receive, with the moft guarded 

cauiioih 



IS] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

<«atioD, the charget of horrible flight over the Scheldt if it had not 

crucUi«iwhichareconumianyma<le been for the noble Aand nuKle by 

Kpon the Aultrianii as if they had -the re^imeac of Bender, who brave- 

fann more particularly inhomaD ly formed an impaflable bodf on 

Rad fvragc than other fladsAs- -For theb&:^s of the river tocoTcr their 

it u to be obferved, and Ihould be retreat. Thii corps, wbicli frotn its 

cAnA&ntly kept in mind while read- manoen had probably been drawn 

ing thele atrocloD] chargea, that from fome of the Toagh and Hn- 

tMcIi the greater part of the Im- tamed nations bordering on Turkey, 

serial troops wluch at this time were univerfally abhorred and de- 

fervctl in the Netherlands were teiled by the Netherhinderi, who. 

coapofed of regiments raifcd in at the fame time that they defcribe 

the country, and that the folrfiers them as being the moft favage. fc- 

werc confequently nativei. Great jocioos, and cruel of mankind^ 

cruelties were undoubtedly co:ii- acknonledgc that they were by far 

Biitced i and they are probably, in the bravell of all the Imperial 

c certain degree, infeparable from forces. A prince of Anbalt Dcflan> 

civil wars. It mufl likewife be faid to be a near relation to the 

acknowledged, however it may be emprefs of Kullia, fell in this a&ion ; 

lamenied, and however fluttering ^nd as he bnd been licely guilty of 

ths denial might be to our vanity, fome peculiar i&s of cold-blooded 

ihatcrnelty is a much more general croelty, the Brabanter« amfidered 

ingredient in the compofiiion of his death as nothing leu than an 

mankind, and, when it can be exer- immediate judgment from Heaven, 
cifed with fafety, difphys itfelf The Auitrians are faid to have 

openly with all its horrors in- a loft a thoufand men in tliis aAion 

nuch greater namber of individu- and purfuit ; and they are charged 

sU, than can be conceived or ima- with the mod inhuman cruelttot in 

gined by thofc, who have happily every part of the country whkh 

pafled their lives under the fhiiiiiig they pafTed through after the de- 

■ufpicet of peacefiil feafons. feat; particnlBrly the inhabitants (^ 

- The affair at Tirlemont hap- Vilflingen, a village not for from 

pened early io the month of No- Alotl, arc faid to i»ve expiated, by 

Vember, ud only a few days after a general conllaeration and tnaJIa- 

the aftion at Tumhouti bat dates ere, thofe patriotic dirpofitions, and 

and many other eflcntiil particulars emodons of joy at the foccefs of 

are very imperfeOly given tn many their countrymen, which they had 

of ihefe details. They were, how- imprudently been too "forward in 

ever, loon followed by the defeat of Ihewing. It is even fnid that their 

general d'Arberg, to whom the cure, a very old, helplefs, and inof- 

Srabanters gave batde in the open ixinfive man, was dragged from the 

field. We ar; here left without altar, whither he bad ilcd for re- 

■any direfl fpccificaiion of the lime, fbgc, and put to death withoat 

or even tlie place of afUon ; it, mercy. It may not perhaps be un- 

however, appears to have been very worthy of remark, that the lb-iking 

bloody ta the Auilrians ; and it is contempt for religion, and for every 

fcij, that they would have been en- thing appertaining to it, which a^ 

U-ely cut off in their diforderly this time fo flagrantly marked the 

condu^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [tj 

emdafiof the foldiery. had entirely in the ftreet, immediately upon dieir 
fjmng Dp in the Anftrian airniei entrance, which continned far foms 
udcT the aufpicM of Jofeph II, ; hourt; uotil the patriou st Length 
bi uder the eovenuBCDt of hi* drove the Aoftnani hefere thea 
prcdeceflbn, ana particnlu'ly of hi* with fuch impetuoGty, tiiat one |)aTt 
iBodier,irhaterer dior diJbraenand m them fled for refuee to the cita<- 
irngnhuitics in other refpcAs might del, and the remainder retired for 
hive been, they were at leall Clirif-' Ihelter to their barracks, which they, 
tians is appearance. however, prepared refolately to de« 
The ptzttnta were now embody- fend. Thefe buildiagi muft liav« 
fng, without waiting for particular been of confiderable ftrecgch, and 
oraen, or even for leaden, in every well flored with ammuniiion, for thg 
partof Brabant and Flanders, where fiege, if lb it maybe called, conti- 
the immediate prefence of the Auf- nued fr6m Friday to the following 
iiiaiu did not reflraia their motions ; Monday. On thai day thi^ hun{ 
awl large detachments from Namur, out a white flag, and colonel Landen. 
Hainatdt, and other neighbouring who commanded, with a garriiba 
prorincea. were every day arriving of £ve hundred men, were obli^eJ 
to join in the common cauCe. In to ^ve up their arms, and to Iut> 
the meantime the patriots .gained Pender priibners of war. 
polleffion of Oftend, Bruges, Lou- We have no informadon what 
vain, and fome other confiderable part the inhabitants took in thefe 
places, without any conteft. The conflifts ; ihey arc not evet) one* 
aocicntandtarbulent city of Ghent, mentioned in the details, with re< 
£dlen and depopulated as it now is, {pe& t» any pan of what we haV« 
was deftined to becoine once more, yet Hated. It fecms, however, not 
what it had been fo often in better to admit of a doubt that they ^eo- 
days, a fcene of blood, ruin, and tially alSflcd the pairiots ; for, with* 
maHacre. out reckoning on the general tern- 
Early in the morning of the ijth per and difpofition of the people, 
of November 17S9, afinaU bodyof it wojld not oiberwifc be recon- 
patriotic troops, amounting, it is cileable to teafon, that fuch a handa 
uid, only lo about fevcn hundred ful of men, who feemed loft in th< 
men, marched with unparalleled magnitude of fo great a city, fhould, 
boldneli and audacity to attack, the by a feries of fierce and continned 
city of Ghent, which contained, in- attacks, keep it for feverai days in 
eluding the citadel, a garriibn of a flat e of the simoft uproar, and 
between three and four tboufand re- finally triumph oyer and reduce 
giilar troops. They direfled their a garrifon fo v^ly foperior ia 
conrlc to the gate which takes the Hrengih, number, and all military 
name (^ Bmgcs. and wluch after advantagestothcinfclvei; evenfap< 
fome confiifi they forced. During pofing that all the charges of noto- 
this lime the bridges- within the rirus cowardice, with which the af- 
Vails were all taken up, and every failants branded the regular troopi, 
other m^ure of prccaation adopt- had been weU founded. 
cd, which could tcn^l to retard or During the time of the attack 
'prevent their progrefs when they upn the barraclci, iniUad of any 
Altered the town. A battle cnfued vigorous attempt to reii<:vc the be- 

lieged. 



ul ANNUAL Register, 1791. 

fejed, tfie citadel was wJioKy occn- fcnfe of the panifliment due to his 

pied in throwing bombs and com- cruelty and crimes, operating, pro- 

builibles of diiFerent forts into thofe bably, with a dcfirc of preftfTirg . 

puts of the city which were thp the pillage he had ob'ained, frrved 

b«A inhabited., and where the build- to fupply all thefe def?fb. For in 

Irm were clofeft or moft valu- the dead of the night he evacuated 

able, with a full view of cauling the citadel, and marched off with 

fiicli & general confligration as his whole earrifan, bag and bag- 

Jbould ei)tirely deftroy it. Whether gage ; haTing at his departure ren- 

they were not fiimiHied with a fuf- dcred himfelr, if poffible, niofc in- 

fiaentDocbofcombuilibles, or from /amous than before, by the cruel 

iriuitever other caufe it proceeded, pillage and mallac'e of which he 

tUj fire produced only a partial, was guiltj' in all the houfej and 

utd tomparatively very finall effeft ftreets whif h lay within reach of the 

towbatwai to be expefted. About fortrcfa. • 

thirty capital houfei, with urdoubt- Sach were the circnmftances on^ 
tdly t, greater number of others, der which Ghent and its citadel, 
were totally, deftroyed, many da- poffe/fed by a powerful and nutne- 
tniged. feveral of the ftreets fL'n- rous garnfon of regular forcei, 
dereit impaltble by the ruins, anS were moft onaccountably reduced 
Uk ittXaliitaiits kept in a Itate of by a handful of raw infurgenis, 
ceoftant terror and confufion by the who cruld fcarcely be fuppoled to 
firM which were continually brcik- know the ufe of the arms which 
iag oat in diiFerent quarters. The they carni;d. The inhabitantj, as 
cowudly garrifon of the citadel, foiin as they were freed from the 
who dared not venture to the relief prefence and terror of the enemy, 
of their diftrefled fellows in the wok ipiraediaic meafures for the 
faarrecks, were, however, fufhcLent- re-elk bitOiment cf order, and fer 
hr alert in taking advantage of die its Further prefervation. One of 
border and confufion which pre- their earlieft determi nation* was the 
muled in the town. They made takbg a" body of three dioufand 
frec|aent fallics into the fttet-ts, par- men into immediate pay, who were 
tkularly by night, where, bcfides ra- to be provided and armed fer the 
pine, rapes, murders, and the moll prateflion and def^-nce of the city, 
ftorrid crimes, were laid to have Thetakingofrhi; phce was a mat- 
marked their fbotflcps. ter of the greateft confequence to 
The patriots obliged colonel Lun- the patriots ; the more particularly 
den to write sn order to the com- as it removed the rellraint which 
nandant of the citadel for the im- difabled ihc ftates of Manders from 
Siediate furrender of that fortrcfs, aflembling there, which they <a- 
which the commandant ^ery pro- gerly wifhed lo do, for the purpofea 
perly rcfufed to obey; fo that the of legalizing their public proceed- 
aJIailants found the worA and moft ings, as thole of Brabant had done, 
difficult part of their work was ilill for giving a form to their intended 
to be done, efpecially as it does not new conlhtutior, and to conclude a 
leem thai they poll'eiled any artiU league and federal union with the 
lery. But the cowardice of the other provinces. 

lugmeDted by a ftrong The rapid and brilliant fuccefle* 
9 of 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ij 

or the pairlou were fo aftonilhing laft effort, to paper, and tt> puhllflit 

to general Dalton, chat He fccaied what in foDK degree might^ cOii' 

in a great meaAirc to b? canfound- fidered as a penitentionar^ dcclara- 

ed and over -powered by them, tion, addreHed to the inhabitants of 

Perhzps the painfjl calk Of recount- the Low Countries, tn this pi^'ce, 

ing fo many IliameAil defeats to the which was dated rc Vienna, on the 

£fflpcror, ajid of endeavov:ring to zoch orNovember 1789, along with 

accooQt for or excafe the failure of exprelTing great forrow for the pre- 

the troopj in every inlancc, which fent troobles, and fome furprize "at 

implied fo much cenfure on his own the violent m^afnrcs whicji were 

tondiifl, judgment, and defigni, was -purfned, he exhorts the mal-contenti 

not the leaft of the vex:iCionj which to lay down their arms, and to trutt 

he then endured. Thui involved, to his clemency and paternal affec- 

funfc in hope, and diitref&d. he (hue lion, for the redrefs of any real 

himfelf up in Bruffels, where for grievances which they fiilhiined. 

ftxne time the gates wcro kept clnfe He places in a ilrooj light the de- 

ftiut, and ftrongly guardnl oy day ftruftipn -.'.'.-.'.ch mull enfne to their 

as well ai by nighty butperceivi-:^' country, and the inevitable ruin to 

at length that ihis nowel ir.tilure its inhabitants, if by their obflinacy 

was underSood as an open corfcf- th:y fhould compel him to retin- 

£on of hii wealcnefs and apprehen- quijh the great line />f conqueft 

fion, and was become a fuhj?'-'^ of w.^ich he was now purfuing, and to 

Handing jeft and ridicule aTiong pour in for their tuppreflKin ihoCi 

tiie people, he thought it conve- nui;,erous and conquciine armies, 

nient to admit the gates to hi again which were noiV fo fuccefifully em- 

opened by day. Bat even in thefe DloyeJ againft a foreign enemy, 

ontoward circumftances, he ilill per- He endeavours partly CO judify, and 

fevered to the laft in tin lime partly to apologise for and explain, 

haughcinefs and ungracioufnefi of fevcral of the moll obnoxious parti 

manner, and purfucd the tine harfti of his pa.1 condua. He exprelFes 

and arbitrary condui^l, which had much furprize chat they Ihould 

already rendered him fo univcrlally abufe the holy name of religion, 

odious. Amnng the numcroui in- by reprefemifig that as the motive 

Ha^cet of this Kind, was die f^hd- of thoir condnfl ; and ftatet, that 

ing above fariy ofihc princi;ial in- the e;laMilhmenc ofa general fcmi- 

habitants of BnifRL, merely upon nary at Louvain was to add to the 

fiifpicion, prifoners to the ciiade! of glory of the clergy and of religion, 

Antwerp, which wziilienjulllycon- He has. however, he fays, already 

frJered as the BaiUlle of thj Nc- re-eft.ibli(hcd the epifcopal femina- 

therlandi. rics ; and he promiCes that the new 

The prrfeni alarming ft.itc of af- feminariLi at Louvaia (hall from 

fairs induced the emperor, iiotiviih- that moment ceafc. He liltewife 

ftanding his haughtiaefs and n^tii- fuffiends the tciching of theology 

lal obllinacy, and notwith {landing at Louv.iin, and thi.' operation of 

the total want of f.iich in his pro- the ecclefiaftical laws at BruflcK, 

miles or engagements, which he until the prefent diforders are queN 

could not but know was iiniverfally led, and the neceirary arrangements 

prenlen^ to commit himfelf, as a made. He concludes by an ordor.' 

thiic 



,..A;.H.gle 



|S] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

that DO peribn fludl be arrefted (ot pantioiii.whicli the patriotic armyg 

any caufe, or nnder any pretence yet in a great meafiiK uufiiniiedt 

whatever, but according to the ex- and dellitute almoft of all nulitary 

iftiag laws and cftabliftied ufagea ; meani of regular femce, was ot 

andby granting a genera], full) and ceceffity to make, before it could 

perpetual amnefty to all who Ihall proceed upon fo great and hazard- 

letnm to their dutv within a certain ous an enterprise aa that of attempt^ 

fpecified but conMerabls portion of ing their di:liverance. Their impa- 

tune, the leaden of the rerolt alone tience and indignation were £irtiier 

excepted. excited, and the grievance became 

Bnt the feafonfor negoda^ns to the more intolerable, from their rc- 

fiiccecd, or for proniJes or ceacef- fleOing on the happy fiace of their 

Sons to produce effeft, was now to- furroonding neighbouri and com- 

tallv pan. The Itatea of Flanders, trymcQ.'Wiio had almofl every wh^S 

without waiting for the interpofiuon Siaken off the yoke, while they 

«f any conciliatory propofali from were peculiarly and dilgtacefull/ 

the emperor, boldly feized, without marked by PilII groaning under the 

kfitation, the fove reign 'anthority fame odious tyranny. AfeleAnam' 

in their province i and in imitation ber of the b^aveft citizen*, infpired 

sf their Dutch neighbours, afliimed by thefe feniimenis'witha high de- 

^ &jlc ofHigb omJ Mighty States, gtee of enthufiafm, fonned the ge- 

fj , At tlieir iirft meeting neroiu and gallant, but apparently 

1780 *^^ P*^^ ^' '^°'"* defperate defigii of refcoing Btnf- 

' °' tiooi, by the firft of felj from its prefent tyranny, or of 

which they declared the emperor to periQiiag in the attempL The 

bave forfeited all right and title to dcli^n was undoubtedly worthy 

the fovereignty of Flanders. By the the luhabiiants of a Grecian ciiy, 

ethers they agreed to raifenmme- in the molt fhining days of that 

diately an army of 10,000 men, in- country. This confpirafy, if fuch 

dading a thoufaod who were to be it may be called, for it feemed to 

anncd with riflei, but exdufive of be conduced with too much open- 

tiie <]iiotaa which were to be fur- nefsand fairnefa to come under that 

niflied by the towns. They ap- denomination, was by no meaoi ge- 

pointed commiSoaert for raifmg nernl among the inhabitants ; anJ 

and organizing this army, with au- it is iflerted, that the whole nunt- 

thority to purchafe fuihcient arms ber of aflailanta engaged in the 

and ammunition from the neigh- firft attacks upon the Auftrians did 

bouring powers for their fupply. not exceed five hundred, while the 

And they lallly refolved to imite number of the latter was ellimateil 

themfelves with the ftates of Bra- at between five and &x thoufand. 

bant and Hainaolt ; and decreed. It is, however, to be obferved that 

that the council of Flanders fhould the AuJlrians, through the number 

no longer be conHdeied as pro- of pofti which they occupied in the 

vincial but fovereign. city and fuburbi, were greatly di- 

Tiie inhabitants of Bruflels be- vided, and feparatcdby coofidetable 

came too impatient of the defpoiifm diftances. 

of Dalion, (o wait the iiTue of the No riot or tumuh wat made or 

nHmbcrtets provilioiu and flow pre- pretended to cover the real defign. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [17 

Mot wuit commeQced, u nrual in parpofbi but thattlM ;oo -original 

fuchcifei.byfDrpnseor&dafliiuilion; iniureentt had bjr thu tine Deea 

T> but about (but o'clock in joinea by a ^reat noniber, if not 

f^' ^ an afteniooflt ai if it had by the generality of their fcllow- 

' '' been a trial of military citizens. A reinforcement of 3oo 

ikill and isaitceBvre, thU band of men, with two piece* of cannoo 

beroic citizens marched btddly and (which tfaey planted in the great 

ofoiiy, to atucit and feize the fol- fquiire) had likewife arrived during 

diets who weie appointed to guard the night to the aid of ttie Aufin- 

themint,aswellualtthalcwliowere am. The &rft attack was made by 

AziloDcd or qnanei^d in the diffe- generalDalton.ttrho.nponthe^un 

nut conventi. 12 thefe enterpriaei of the propofed amufiice, lent ft 

they fucceeded without difficulty; Ilrang detachmenE to deliver tka 

for general Daltoib contrary to his officers and foldiers who bad beeit 

ufaaT temper and difpofitiont having made prifonen at the commence- 

dicefled ku views aniirely to paci- ment of the inrurreAion, and who 

fication, and to theconclnfionof an were confined in the lower town, 

atmiftice, placed (a moch troA in This motion ferred as an immc- 

tbe hope of atuinlng that objeA, diate £^nal for general aflioa to 

that he did not choolc to'exafperate the patnots, who furiouSy attacked 

aattert for the picTent by any at- and routed the detachment on iu 

tack npon the pairiotj. The ne- march ; afier which they inveded 

gociaiion on this fobjeft feems to the great market-place, which feems 

uve occalioned a paafc on both to have been 'rendered a principal 

fides, lor feveral hoan, during the place of armi.. Here, after a luna 

evening and night ; but our mfor- and obftinate conflifl, they carried 

madon. which u ejitr£mety imper- every thing before tbem, became 

fed in all iu parts, ig particnlaily' maflert of the nrfi-Ji-gartU, took 

lb with rcJpcA to [he order of time; two pieces of cannon, and made 

To that it is impolSble to diftinguilh, above ^ao AuHriaos prifoners. Dif- 

with any precifioii, thoTe anions ferent cngagementi were now car- 

which took place in the courfe of ried on wits great fury in eveijr 

the nifht, from tholf which were quarter of the city, and in a few 

dtcidcd OD the following day. At hours the iofurgents became maftert 

all events, the de&ytnuR have been of the barracks and of the maga- 

highly nliefiil to the band of patriotl, xines, in which they founi} z,ooo 

at ii affiirded time to their fellow- muftrti, befidesaconliderablequan. 

citiseu to colled their thoughii tity of ammunition and ready-made 

and relbludoD, and to deteratine cartridge!. 

upon the part whkh it was lit for Genernl Dalton, with the remain* 

them to take. It appears spon the d:rof hK troops, or atlcaAfotnany 

whole, thai, the negociation lor an as could be collcded in the prclclit 

anniftice not fucceeding, both par- confufion, had retired into the park, 

des had recourfe lo arnu during and the royal fquare, the only places 

Ibstejiart of the night. of defence they had itfw left, where 

It u not to be fuppofed, although thzy were fupponed tiy twelve 

the circnmftance is not mentioned, pieces of cannon. Tlic infurgent* 

and wa« nitdoobtedly omitted on haftmed from all quuien to drive 

Vou. XXXIII. [5] them 



IS] ANNUAL REGISTER, I7»li. 

then (ran thii Ufl nSait ; and diied (o dangersns >nd poworfal ftA 

about Boon they wcie furioofly at- aeniv- Not a man wai lulled in 

tacked OB all fiaei. A very keavy cold blood, nor quarter refbfed to 

firing to(4c plict^ md was well fop- any who demanded it in the heat of 

ported on both fidti for more ihaa adiaa : not a finele hooie was bnmC 

an honr. Bnt aflain at length be- or plundered, alUiough the awmem 

caaae lb daipent^ and the coanwe who were inimical to the reroIntiiHi 

and Ally of du patiiota were fi> ir- were well and genrrally known j 

fefifiiU<^ that general I^lton, with nor was hurt or utjary oiiered to 

all hi* known military iIciU> and any perfon except in ^r and open 

loof-tnedvaloortandwiththegrcat hoftility. General Dilton, with 

take*, inr^vii^ both hi* own for- the remainder of lui baffied and dif- 

lone and that of hii inaAer, which graced troopi, fpeedily cvacuatcti 

were depending, wat compelled to Namnr, and quitting the coontry 

«ndare die mortification of deiiring entirely, retired towards Lnxetn- 

toca^toUte. The terms were few, borgh, not committing the Analleft 

and not long in agitation. Tbey holhlity or depredation at any of 

admitted a fi^c but immediate re- the placet they pafied through ; thna 

treat to bim and to the remains of afluming a moderadon and lenity 

his garrifon ; and within an hour when it was too late, which would 

the Aullrian troopi marched out, have been eminently aftfid in tha 

with great precipitation and no lef* proper fcafon. Count Tnmtmanf- 

diforder, through the gate leading dorC with foffle other principal 

to Namnr. TnJe prifonerG taken in members of the late gOTemmen^ 

the courle of thefe various afliont retired to Liege ; no mcmion ia 

were not included in the capitak- made of the duke of Saxt Tafchen, 

Uon, and the Brabantera, not a lit- nor of the arch~duchefs, (a that it 

tie elatedi M may be fn[^fed, by ia pn^Mble they had previonfly 

their fucpefs. boafted that they had qoitted Brafleli; but the lenity of 

9,000 of them in their polTeffion. meir government, fo far as their 

Thii extraordinary fboke might be own inclinations were allowed to 

confidered as nearly putting an evA, operate, the continnal application* 

at leaft for the prefeni, to the Aaf- which they were known to have 

Irian dominion in the Low Conn- made at Vienna in favnur of the 

tries ; nothing now remaining which provinces, along with their many 

they conld hope to retain but the excellent private qualities, had i» 

ducchy of Luxemburgh; a fmall cAe&ially endeared them to the 

garrifon which they ftill held in people, who were forward <hi every 

the citadel of Antwerp being of aa occalioninezpreffingtbdrgratiniw 

•ccoanL that they were certain in all £ta* 
The burgefles of Bmflelt valued adona, uid under whatever cirCDin- 
^4b|talel«es, with great propriety fiances, of commanding their atmoft 
■ oinfjaltice, flill more highly, upon attention, refbeA, and even affec- 

tne continence which they preferv- tion. So eaffly may jmpularity be 

cd in their condnfl, both in a*d af- acquired by the great, if the lit fea- 
ter the rage and fary of theft fons are chofen for making the ac* 

bloody afiiooi, than even upon the qoijiuon 1 

valour with wludi they had fob- About the time «f Ubiflg the 

laft 



HISTORY OF EUROPfi. {i$ 

Ul MOMrial from Vienna, the em- tx<pe&, and probiUf did Bot wi^ 

pttm dirpatched coDtit Cobentzd, he fhould Comply with; 
u ible Biiufter, particularly emi- The firft article weot to die «t* 

Mai hr hu diplematical knowledge tenflon, in the fallefl manner, of rit 

lod dntities, from that cantal to the articlea, pririle^eSt tod lminil< 

Brnfleb, in the flattering hope bf nitiea, whether anctent or modetfl. , 

bii being able to accompltfli a pa- vhich were indnded in the j^fuft 

ciintion and re-nnion with the titrti, to alt the oditr Belgic pro< 

Seljic pfovirtcea. The powers Of rineei.in asasifJea manneraitbey 

this mimfter were fapreme and dh- had been granted to or eojoyed l^ 

limited, he being iccoontable only Brabant: Another fiipulatMt that 

to hi* mafter fer hij condDfl; no law Ihould be promulgated ia 

irhUe thoTe hitherto hekl by the any of thofe provinces, which hid 

ownti Dalton and Trautmanldorff', not firfl been approved of and con- 

if act abfolntely fnrpended, were at firmed by the fovcreign council of 

Jul (rcondary and nibfet^cnt. dur- Brabant. By the third, to dcfeic 

ing the nnlcaoWn term of his tuir- all fatnre atteBlpu t^ the foverricti 

mn. The lofi of BraCcIi waa not to loofen or dl9bh« the anion oF 

forefeea at the time of this appoint- the provinces, no feparate fnMdjT 

neati >od Cobentzel's ill hetdtfa, was to be granted by any of theiil. 

•lug with hii drSre of obtaining The ancient Sates general, bnt 

■0 the inforsunion that was pofflble now organised in a new mariner, 

of the tare of pablic aJFain before the numDer of commiffioners being 

ke arrived at ttte l^ene of bafinefl, pn^wrtioned to the extent and con^- 

biTtng delayed him on the Way, he iideraiion of the rri^Alve proving 

hid uc fiiiTtane of arriving juft at ccs, (apon which pnncipte Brabaftt 

the tine of breaking up the rfd go- and Fenders were to fend tweln 

vcrament, and when the former each, while the fioaller were cOn. 

miniSen had fled firora the country, fined to fix depntieg only, that b, 

Cobeotze], however, did not dout to two from toch order) were to 

Tram eodeiTotiring to fulfil the pnr> meet annually at Braffels, for the 

pofaofhiiaiiffon,andaccordingly pnrpofe of granting fobfidiei, and 

opened a negociation with the new to difpatch the general baGnera of 

government. the provinces. It was likewife laid 

It was probaWy in confeqaence down as a rnle, that all perfons wh» 

of thii negociation, thai the Rates in fiiture flioidd compofe the go- 

of Brabant tranftoitied to Vienna a vernment general muft have bee» 

docament, which might be confi- bom in the NetherlarKhj with ft 

deted as their tltimatum, containing Angle exception in favour of tht 

thofe articiei for the fecurity of governor or captun' general, (ofl 

ihtir right*, privileges, and Iiber- ncea which hereafter were to be 

ties,tbepundDalfulumeitt of which refted in the fame, perfoit) when h* 

conld alone induce them to fubmit is of the blood royat. Other arti- 

to [he forettignty of the emperor, cles went to guard the parity of 

TheTe conditions were^fuch a na- the courts of julUct, and to [Jrcvent 

tore, that knoiviog Jofeph's tern- the poifibility of any interference 

per and charaQer To well as they or influence of the forereign finni 

£d, the fiatei ccRaUly conld-DOI «)eraiiag k theit- pioc««dhigst 
IB] t That 



ap] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

..Th«t die umverfity of Louviin mm, religionfljr to preferve tl* 
Aoold be re-efriUifhed in rU its rizhti, privilege!, and conllicutioD 
^vilegei : That a national coun- of their country j and then admi- 
cil fluwd be held every two years nifteTcd the fame oath to the mem- 
wider the pcefidency of their pri- beAoftheforereigncoHacil of Bra- 
mate, the archbithop of Malines, bant, amidll the general acclanu- 
which fhoald regulate the dircipline tiooi and re}oicin«i of the people, 
of the Belgic church, and have the Within a few day* of the opcn- 
dircAion (S* all ecdefiaftical affair»: ingof the year 1790. the Hates of 
And l)Ully,tbatthekiiig»ofFran«, Flanders concluded asd publiOied 
England, Pinflia, and the ftatet of an a£l of union, oflenfive and de- 
the United Provinces, Ihoald be fen&ve, with chofe oFBrabant. By 

fnarantees of the confiitutioii <^ tlus ad the paniea were mutuaily 

el^c Auttria. bound, that neither of them fiiould 

It may be calily judged, from k enter into any negociation or agr«e- 

revienrofthefe preliminary aniclet, ment whatever with any foreigi» 

that the negociations and abilities ftate, particularly with their late 

of count Cc^eatzcl weTc not likely fovereign, withow the confcnt and 

to produce much eficftia the pre- approbation of the other. And the 

lent ftate of thing*. Itatei of Flinders, in order to give 

In the mean time, the rejoicines thofeof Brabant every proof of pure 
in BnilTels were ejnreme, and the cordiality and fincare friendlhipL, 
mod folcmo offices of religion were and to manifeft a delirc of cemcnt- 
cctebrated, J* well to return thanki ing an indilToIuble union with tfaenit 
^ their happy deliverance, at to agree to the prtKioCal already made 
frflcr up their orifooi for the fouls of by the former, tnat the laid union 
thofe brave men who had &Uen in {hall compofc a fovercignty of the 
the caufe of their country. Sove- two ftate*, in fuch raanner, that 
leigtity now appeared in every all the power and exercife of that 
thing. The ancient courts of ju^ fovereignty be concentered in a 
tice were rettoied, and appeared in congrels, which ftiall be compored 
all their cultomary forms and fplen- of a prefcribed number of deputies 
dor. Gazette* were puUilhed un> from each party, according to arii- 
der the aufpice* of government 1 a cles and regulations hereafter to be 
new oath of allegiance wa* admi- fettled. Piovided, however, that 
niftered to -all the officers of t[ie the power* of that fovereiga ȣ- 
ftatC) a* well a* to the deputies of femUy flwil go no farther than to 
the committee of the Hates of Bra- mutualdefcnce, toihe tightofmab- 
bant ; while that city enjoyed b ing peace and declaring war, confe- 
profonndatranquiltity.thacaaewly- quently to the raifing and fupport 
arrived flnnger would find it dif- of a national militia, to the main- 
icult to believe, it had fo lately nining of neoeftaty fortifications, 
prefented a Icene of blood and con- to the entering into alliances with 
rufioo. foreign power*, and to fuch other 

On the laft day of the ^ear 1789, matters, in which the common inte- 
the Aate* of Brabant being aflem. reilaof both ftate* axe mutually con- 
bled at BrulTcIa, bound them/elves cemed. 

byoath,inthcpreieacc of theciti- 7'hls treaty beirg fpeedily ac- 
cepted 



HISTORY Of EUROPE. [ai 

ccpted and ridfied by tbe ftatn of tnd politics, had facen tke meant 

firabut, wu (bon acceded lo by of fcEtin^ afloat ftnnre aod tooft 

Hiiiualt, and jtU the other late opinioni in both n^e£U, which 

AuArian province*, excepting Lini- had titt then bean nnlhourhl a«d 

burgh. aoheard of among that fenont, n> 

tiiKce£s and profperity foon be- tiooal people, 

gan to fiodiKe (bme of their afual The ftatea of Fludert ftnidr ft 

tSeBa, in the fentunenB' e,vea of ft medal to' commemorate the revola- 

people, deemed Co Bow in their paf- tion ; an example which v/u fpec- 

6oni, asd fo moderate in their can- dily followed by thofe «f Bnbut. 

dii$ and difpo&tion, ai the Nether* In the month of Jafttury, the ftate* 

landen have ufiMflf been confider- general of the nnited Netherland* 

ed. Scarcely jret afltired of their fettled the tenni of their federal 

Emancipation, their power by no onion, the confederacy being in 1^^ 

miaas eftablilhed, nor any force at tare to be diltingnilhcd by the ritlt 

all adequate to itiprefervaiionfonn> of the UaiitJ Btlgic Statu. Tb« 

fd, fabjed lo hare all their hopes treaty of union wait figned by thft 

overthrown b/ every blaA of for- deputieiof Brabant, Flanders, Weft 

taae, and whHe the fcourge of a Flanders, Flemilh Guelderland, 

t-indiOive (aveni^ vaa Itill hang- Hainaoli, Naraaf, Tooniay, the 

ing hear Uy over their bead*i yet, Tonrnelis, and MechJio. Nothing 

in thefedoubtfuJ andprecuioiucir- could be mare &ir and cquijibte 

ciimftancea. Baching lefi was now than the condiricms of union, with 

talked of than the conqueli of the Fcfpefi to the diflin£t rigbti of each 

datchy ftnd firong citr of Loxem- province. A perfeA equality waf 

buiEh ; and fo wid(-rt>reading was cAaUiihed among all, each being 

I^ie bliad fpiric of ambition already ibvcreign and independant in the 

grown, thit hints were thrown ont, exercife of its internal goremmentt 

though with Ibm; obfervation of but the foveretgn [Knver, which was 

cauuD, of the propriety of re-Dnit> to regulate the great and genenl 

ing the barbed French pnvincea in affairs of ftate, was, as we have il- 

thc Low Countries to their old ready ftated, to be vetted eatiRljr 

neighbonn, the members of the new in the congrefs. 

Bcigic tepablic. At the fame time. Though the province of Lim- 

thefeTmentanddifonler* in Franco, bnrghhad fent three deputies to the 

with the onwearied Uboors of their meeting, they evaded ligning the 

political miHionaries, .who were ad of union and confederacy, on^ 

fptead in all countries, and whofc der pretence of their not being in- 

?eal la the fvcpa^ation of their new iiruflni'on that head by their con- 

rioftriwi was without example in ftituentst bat the real caufe was, the 

andeat or modem hiftory, were pro- meafure being contrary to the polil- 

ducing » gradual bat wonderful ef- tical principles, lilcingi, or opiniona 

SA Bpon the people of the Low of the people of that, province. Thii 

Coontrtsi. Aloi^ with the general failure or deiefiion of Limburgh, 

laxity of morals and liceniioufncfs was fo highly refeaied by the Bta- 

nf maonera which th:it nation wat banters, mat ui the excefi of that 

ever eminent in dineminating, their pride, generated by their new-born 

ucw&Dgted doflrines in teligion fovercignty, eight huulred of tbcdi 

« [BJ 3 f« 



Mj AHKUAL RHOISTER, 1791. 

fet out immeduuly for the innfiim nor wrs the fcheme of invafioo, 

of duU country, and to paoilh ano- though oftra afterward* talked of; 

tlur petite for exerdfing that free- ever carried into efi'efi. 

doBi of mind wd conduA on thi The Belgic forces were, how< 

faBJaSaa of whick thejr fo much ever, more fuccefsful in feveralotber 

valocdthenifelvM. 'The river Meufc fnull engagemcDts with the Auf- 

■VM hSand upw thi* occafion, aa trians tiun they had been on the 

well ai .otlien that fucceeded, a for- £de of Limburgh} and the ftate* 

ttutate barrier CO the people of Lim- were abundantly confoled for that 

burgh I And this halty, rafli, and dii^pointment, by the uoexpefled 

IUJ11& enterprize, experienced the and unaccountable (iirrendef of the 

fbnune to which it wa* fo fally en- dtadel of Antwerp. That fbrtrefs 

litled. We ^re not infbnned m the was faid to have been caj^ble of 

tine, pkce, m- particular circum- making a very trouUefome and 

ftaacn of the enfuing aflion; but even lone: defence, confidering how 

dy in general, that the Brabanten ill calcuUted and provided &e af* 

ng encoiintcred by a party of iailanu were lor fuch an Hndertaic- 

Anltrians, were entirely (lefieabecl, ing ; and though iu furrender wai 

lud driven back in great confufton, at firft r^refented to die conunon 

irith the lofs of thne hundred of people ai a fort of miracle, it was 

fhcir number. iaoa openly fftid, and much more 

This lofs and difgrace, ferved to generally twlievcd, that the trea- 

iocreafe the rage agaiaft the Lim- chery ti the governor had render- 

Curghcn; and a flrong divifion of ed iJt fupemaiaral ' ud needlcfs, 

the mtriotic army, fnrnilhed with and th«t a prudent application of 

tafaiiary, was accwdingly appoint- gold had afierded cheaper as well 

<d fyi the fbrioal iavi£oD and coa~ as eafier mean* for it* recover}), 

^nefi of that province. Sot the than could have been ptocured from 

Meufe lay ftill in the way, anfl de cannon-balls and guiipowder. If the 

only apparent method for furmoonN charge of treachery, io londly railed 

ing that difficulty, wa* an applica- againftthegov^nkOfiWas wcUfbund- 

t)ontotbepeopIeofLiege,tDgrant ed. he protiabty owed his cfcape 

kave to the army to pafs the river from the puniltuncBt whifih he fo 

at the bridge of tkatdtyt a reqaeft juftly merited tp the disordered Aate 

ef which no doubt wu entertained of the tines. 

Imt it would have been freely grant- The fpirit of enterprize and mar- 

ed, It happened, bowtver, fortii- tial ardour which has at all times 

aatdy to the country which was fo ftropgly marked the cbaraftcr of 

tkni threatened with war Aid deib- Engliflimen, induced a number of 

Ja^on, ilial a Prnftan geneni, then genilemea, moll of whom had ferved 

4>tiDBed at Ifi^e, poOeircd fnch as officers in the laft war, to paft 

iiiduence> if >ot command, ov«- over ai voliinteers to^ the Low 

tfaatcurbolent pcopjcthattconcrary Countries. Hie caufe'pf an op. 

to their own oifpojition and wifliei, prelled people, their old friends 

tvhich accor^led cniirdy with iho<e and near neigfiboun, and who by 

of the Brabaiiterf, he procured a their prefcnt conduft feemed to de- 

refofal of the requelt. Thus was ferve that freedom which they were 

Limbargl) fawd for the prefenti briTcly Gfutendine ^r, was highly 

f gMjgeniM 



HISTORY OFEUR OT-E. £sj 

CDDgraial to their feelings; uid u the fiirromdin^ conntiy, was c*r- 

the mart and govenunent of Great tsioly not wiihont its political afe 

Britatu feemM> in a conMeraUe in the prefent ieilbn ud ftate of 

(k^ree, to bold fentiments not very things ; panicularlv with a peO[^, 

diSmtlar, no oppofition vai made w^ have at nQ timca been more 

athometoibe gratification oftheir attached to fliews and praceCoD* 

wiBie* in this refpcA. Thele gen- than almoft any other in Earope. 

dencR were received with open In the mean time, at this eaHy 

BTiBib^ theNetherlanders.andmolt, period, before the InAnt govem- 

if not all of thetn, were appoint' ment waa yet fully fbnned, and be- 

ed to istmediate commands. Their fore the civil conceras of the peo- 

mmbcrg foon became fo confider- pie were in any degree ftttkd, or 

able, and feveral of them polleffiDg prtmer lines of demarcation drawn. 

foffcient inflncoce in their refpec- to define or reconcile the dafhing 

live conntrie* for the levying of iaterells and claixas of the refpec- 

nien, tha% in confoimity to propo- tire orders of the ftate, cabals, par. 

lals made to them by the congiWt, ties, and fiifiioiu, fprung m> in the 

they raifed and formed, mider the centre of the congrefs itlelf, and 

name of tii Britijb kfifn, a body vere not ftow in fpreading th^ 

oftroopi.compofedeotuelyofBng- balefiil effefls through the whole 

Hlh and Irifh. mafs of tbe people. It is not eafy, 

J ■ The Aaies of Flanders through the mift in which things 

■'"""■"^^paffedadecreeatGhent, have fceen fuffcred to u)pear. to 

i7S)"- which, after flating, that form any aocaraie ideas of the fttte, 
as an indefinite liberty of the prefs real motives, or oltimate views, of 
waa Hable to give birth to nnmber- ' the different fafiions which were 
lefs publications fubverfive of mo. now to rend the new common- 
mis and good order, and deftruAive wealth, and which finally ietviA to 
of the public trataqoiHity, that there- fniftnue and defeat all the great 
fbre all pabUcations whatever, with- and happy eHeAi, whid) the revo- 
ouc any excemion, fliodd con- lation liNmed otherwife capable of 
tinne, as nrnal, to be previeafly aibrding, and poffibly of rendering 
fobjeA to the examination and judg- permanent,lotne people of the Low 
meat of derical or lay cenfori, ac> Countries. For when, by thdr 
cordine to the natnre of die matter fhameful intefHne diflentioiu, they 
trcatea of in fuch poMlcatiou ; had (hewn themfelves unworthy of 
and that all printera, bookfellers, and incapable of enjoying that K< 
and hawkers, Ihould be anfwcrable berty which they had obtained with 
for the inatter contaiitcd in the fo much peril, when ambltioiu, in- 
boohs, pamphlets, or papers which terelled, and fordid viiws, feemed 
they ftioald pablifh. prediMninant in all their condnfl, 

Aboat the fame time a fbnnal and when it became apparent, that 
religions ceremonial which was ev this perverfion of mind, and dere* 
hibited at Ghent, for the piirp<>le lifUon of principle, had rendered 
of beftowing a folemn benediraon themincajiableoffraningoradopt. 
on die ftaodards and ccdoun of the ing any wife or eqnitKUe fyftem for 
troopt, iind which drew thither a the adminiftreiioB ^ their own go- 
raft co&coarft of people from all nmment. thn. and Mt till then, 
[J] 4 the 



«4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

the allied powersr who pardy from fbme degree to England itfelf; 
poUiical motives, and partly like- while it would tend much to conlb- 
wife from fome more generous lidate and add weight to the alli- 
movementa in the human mtcd, aiKe between the three coalefcni 
had, in the beginning of the conteit, powerij and ferre' to reftrain the 
ihewn fo lively a dilpolltion in their hollile encroachmenu of VntKx, as 
favour, foucd it neceflary at length well as entirely check the doKii* 
to abandon them to their fate, and neeting ambition of the Houfe of 
fuScr them to reven to that ftate Aultria on that fide. With fuch 
and condition from which they had objeCb of advantage in view, no 
been fo lately emancipated. donbt can be entertained of the ori- 
For they mull be liitle verfed in gin^ intentions of the alliei with 
the policies of nations, and ill ac- relpefl to the Necherlandert, until 
quainted with the general Aate of their own unhappy difcordance 
public afairi whidi prevailed at fliewed. that they were incapable of 
the time in Europe, who will not becoming ufeful allies, and chat it 
perceive, that nothing could have was a. matter of lefs difficulty to let 
Deen more conducive to the inte- them pafi backwards to their former 
reds, eafe,~convcnicnce and fecarity Hate, than the vain endeavour of 
of the three allied powers, England,, attempting to reform their difor- 
Holland, and Pru&ia, than the erec- deri, which could only be done by 
tion-of the Belgic nation into an the fruitlef* and dangerous expen- 
indcpendent and powerful ftate'; ment of ^ncing a ttew form of go- 
circumftances of which, from fitaa- vernment upon them. 
lion, richnefs of foil, excellence of No civil contentions perhapl 
cultivation, variety of prodoCb, im- ever took place in any of the wef- 
mediate wealth, and the peculiar in- tern countriei of Europe, Gnce cha 
duAry of the inhabitants, the coon- uTc of printing hecame general, 
try was motl eminently capabla. which were lb totally barren of all 
The advantages which the allied public detail and explanation, as 
Mwers would have derived from thole which from this time prevail. 
fiich an arrangement, wUl afford a ed in the Low Counirie*. The 
better teftimony, than any wordt or Ihort «laration of the new gorem- 
declarations, of what their real ment, the tapid fucceOion of events* 
wllhes and defigns were in this bu- the continual Auftuation in the flata 
finefs. By fuch an arrangement of parties, which rendered the af- 
two of thrm would have got entire- f^rs that feemed intercfting. and 
]y rid, and the third would have important on one day, totally oat of 
been freed on one lide of his domi- mind and notice on the next, all 
nions, from all connection with an coincided in producing this eSe& ; 
ambitious, Ctigious, exceedingly and along with the veils by which 
vexatious, and dangerous neigh- the fevewl leaders endeavoured to 
bour, whofe caprice was unacconnt- cover their real motives of adion, 
able, and whole faith was always to and coofequsntly their ultimate de- 
be fulpcfied. By it an excellent figns, ferved to involve the whole 
bariier would hsve been formed to in almoft impenetrable obfcnrity. 
Holland, to the neighbouring domi- Something perhaps may be attri- 
picns of the king of FnjlCa, and iq t^te^ ift this rtipf^ fo the re- 

ftnontl 

—81'^ 



S 



HISTORY OF EUROPfi. {ij 

llntab DD the meb ; bat the vici- be confidered u linle more thaa « 
nity of EngUoa >od Holland, and rope of faod, incapable of cohcfi<m« 
the eaty mode of pobitcatioD in which could not but afford a mani- 
tkefe conniriei, leave little indeed feft fnperiority to their compctitore 
to be charged to that account. for, power. It feetnt probule that 
It is, ito^evcTt difcoveiable that a few'of the flbbUity, who pofiefled 
power was the mat foiun of dif- the largefi eftotes, with the greateft 
cwdi and that the loA of attaining Ihare of popularity aod inBocnc^ 
it operated more particularly, ai hoped, in the cralh and divilioiu of 
might lie expeded, upon the t»o partie*, to hare been able to draiw 
faperior •rders of the Aate, the no- the whole, or at leaft a principal 
bility and-dergy; who feetsed fltareof the adminiltration of public 
equally defiroos of engroHing it en- a^ra, within their own handj, and 
tirely to themfelvei. The two par- perfaapi thole of a few felefi frieadt 
tics feemed pretty equally balanced chofen by themlelires. Althoagh 
io point of ftrength and preteofons. the nobility in general, at well a* 
The nohilicy, belides the ioflucDce thefe we have juft mentioned, wiOi- 
necefliirily incident to great landed ed much to c:('cuinfcribe, 4f not to 
property, poiTeired a large portion cortait, the power of the clergy, yet 
dcHvcd ftom the high andtpiity of their difcortiant and iaterefted 
their familic}, the reverence with view) led them in aA, to frulbate 
which their ancellors had through a and defeat their own wifhei. 
long coar& of agei been regarded. On the oiber hand, the clergy 
as well u the virtnei which at the. had, even from time immeoArial, 
prefentdaychataflerizedandadom- been poSclTed of a very extraordi- 
cd feveral of their principals. They nary degree of power in thefe pro. 
had Ukewife a Ibong claim upon the vinccs; and which had continued 
opinion and gratitude of the pnb- unimpaired under all fucceflioDS and 
lie, for the great (hare vriiidt they through all changes of eoremmeni, 
had in the accompUQincnt of the until the ralh attAclu lately made 
reroluticHi, and the extraordinary upon them by the excencic Jofeph 
flake* which they hazarded on that the Second. They likewife held, 
eccafioD. Butwith-all this infloence at the prefent day, very large land- 
and all thefe dums, they were ren- ed polteffions, and qo &nall Ihaxe of 
dered* by their mutual jealonlies and perfonal wealth; and what might 
fnf[ncione,Ioofe and disjointed; the well be confidered of greater con- 
envy of tbofe who were lower in fequeoce than both, the peculiar 
point of fortune and . condition, and extreme bigotry of the common 
Joined wuh tbeir private and fepa- people had thrown them fo toull/ 
race views, exciting their enmity into their bands, and the tiei of at- 
;^ainft tb^e who were vaftly fupe- tachment to their dominion appear- 
tior to them in ihele and other re- ed to be (b indiflbluble, dut the 
fpeds. and thereby {nevRiting any whole mafa could Icarcely be re- 
common bwid of union from Ming garded in any other light than that 
fenned. which could cement, and of an abfolute and inalienable pro- 
pvc ioree and eficA to the order, peny. They Ukewife polTcfled 
Thtmigh thefe caufcs, the nobility great advantages peculiar to that 
at a loi^i were comparatively to body in all cafes of contett with 

others. 



l.gK 



tO ANNUAL RKGTSTER, 1791. 

DtlMn. Their onion, thdu- difci- tlias that the third elbtefltoiddpor* 

pline, the ctofenefs with whtoh their (eh fuch a reaTonable flure ia the 

defiens were eoncealcd, their nn- CAnftinition of their conntryai would 

ceaifne, thtnieh filent, pBt&tt of b« fufficient to fecure tbeig from 

their objea. which wm never given wrong and oppreffion, yet the for- 

ovar thraagh difficulty, ncv »btm- her, who hoped in due time to find 

doDed through caprice; and above an onportuuity of realieing their 

ail, the ^ciiity with which their new doOrines, by tlie fabverJion of 

nnited powers wera concentrated all sAablifhments, civil and reli< 

in a pcnnt, and the fcrce of ths eioui, and by the forming of an 

many brought to a& with the en»r- Utopian government, ffn a lyfteoi of 

' 1^ of an individual, ferved, alto- general equality, however, thought 

eether, to afford tbema wonderfiil it necelTary for the prefent to con- 

^pfrioriiy over their loofe and ee«l tlieir remote defignt; and 

disjointed antagonifts. deemed it to be coafillent with their 

The third order of the Hate, fecret viewe, and capable of afford- 

which, as in other countries, might ing the bell means for their funher- 

be fuppofed to include the people at ance, not only to join the majority 

large, was, however, in this cafe, in every thing, but to be the fere* 

through the blind attachment of the moll and londeft in their outcries 

common fbn to the clergy, virtual- ngainft the mMfurei ^nd defeni of 

ly confined to the burghers and in- thie congrefs. They conliderea, and 

habitants of the towns, reckoning not unwifety, if the principle and 

in that number the trading and ma- deJign on.which they aAed had been 

mifaduring parts of the communi- founded in juftice or wifdom, that 

ty, however fituaied. This was a While by pnrTuing this conduA they 

numerous and refolute clafs of men, acqaired great credit and popnla- 

capable of looking forwards to dif- rity, from bring placed in the fiift 

tant confecjuences, of forming a rank of thofe who were admired as 

right judgment on prefent affairs, true patrioti, they fbould thereby 

of concert and defign in their ac- not only have a continual opportD' 

tionj, and were endued with fufii- nity of ft»nen»ng the difcord which 

cient courage, if the neceSty re* they wiflied, but when men's minds 

<]uired, to execute boldly what they were heated by Controverfy, and by 

determined. Thefc were intermix- oppo£tion to their claims and de- 



ed with that numerous and fall-in- fires ; when they were kept diftnrb- 

creafing ctafs of men, who, aa we ed and agitated by frequent difeDf- 

have before feen, had imbibed, whit fioni of, or conllanc ruminations on, 

about this t^me began to be called, real or imaginary grievances; and 

the Frtiuh cenfagitg ; and who ac- above all, when they were inHamed 

eordingly adopted the new doc- by flrong liquors at their, political 

trines, in philofophy, politics, and clubs and meetings, they fhoold 

even religion, which had taken fuch then be able to draw the moft nio- 

f»ft poffemon of ths inhalntants in derate into the adoption of the moft 

general of that ill-Ated country, violent and extravagant of their 

Though their views extended far own c^inions and meafurea: ftiU 

beyond thofe of the burghers at concealing carefiilly from public 

large, who wilhed for nothing mote vicvir, nniil the proper lioor of dif- 

clvfure 



l.gK 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [»? 

dofin arrired, their grand and nl- npiUatioD wMch ihur vibar la ifia 

tiinace objed. «xp«il£an of the Auftnans had ia 

Tne iHJHiKry moo, and paiticn- juftl/ obtained, alTaiHed greater 
briy thole brare ofHcen, wilhoat poni and were mors free and bold 
vliofe bcdd cnterpriz-: and extraor- in the difdofare of their rentinKnu, 
dinary exertions, in bringing for- that) diofe of odier placfli. Before 
ward nw men nnufed to anni, U> the ink was yet well dry on the 
AicooBter aad defeat in the open fignaiurcs of the dcputist trom the 
kid, upon eqml, and often kiferior rsfpeAive provinces who had figned 
tenBi,d!lci^nedandTeteraa[FOopi, ifa« article) of union, a nancrou* 
the levidnaoa could nM have been Ibeisty wai fonned in that aiy, nn- 
aceovjrfifiKdibeingthAifelveamoft- der the eyes, it might be faid. of 
ly of the third ^W, were highly the 'congrefi, which alTumed the 
di&tisfced at finding, that iheemi. aane of the Patriotic AfTemblyi this' 
Bentfemcei which they bad per- new body held regular feffiooai 
iiniDed. and the dangcri which they diTcHfled quelfioDi of Aate and go- 
had encoiutered, had produced no Ternment ; decided on thefli l)y 
tSe& whatever in bettering their Tote; palfed relbtatioiu; and pro- 
cooditioD. They ihaaght it wat to pofed leveral innov&tioDi or refbrm* 
faiall porpole indeed that they had with refpeA to thefe fobjeib. The 
fucceeded in fhakiog off the Auf- fimUarity between thiaaJTembly and 
triaa yoke, if it was only to be ex- that of the Jacobins in Paris, can- 
changed for a liaiilar defpotirnt, not efcape any obfervers the n- 
placedin thefaandscf a ferw of ttieir fembjance only failing, where a de- 
own countrymen ; a tyruiny, which ficiency of power, and perhaps of 
from that circumflnnce, ba well as equal nataral arrogance, affeded the 
from the diffimihuity of CMtdition former. It was in vain that thefe 
in [he nilen, woald prove mere aieetinga were prohibited by the 
odious and intolerable than even commineeofthe llaiei; thenewaf- 
tfaat of a great foreign power. fembly met regahirty at before, car- 

Upon the whole, the* third order ried on its proceedingi publicly 

dwDght ihey too plainly perceived, wichoot difguife, and was ccmtinu- 

ihat the great k»dcr> of the nobi. ally reinforced by the addition of 

Hiy and clergy, without the fmallell now member*, many of whom were 

attention to them, or delign of en- refpeflable from condition and <^a- 

largisg their rep refenta lion, or in- railer. Among their other afts, 

crnfaig their privileges, were en- they drew up, printed, and pnbjifh- 

lirely engaged in a violent and ed, a piece under the title of *■ An 

(haineful contelt, for the engroffing Addrefs to the States of Brabant," 

nf all pon'cr, whether as otdars or in the name of the people at large, 

individuals, to themfelves. hut more particularly of the fui>- 

Thns the feeds of jealoufyidilTen- Icribers. In this document, they 

tMM, faAion and cabal, were fown poititedoutmany fuppofederrorsana 

thick in the very formation of the vices in the new arrangement, and 

uiaiit republip. in the conAitution derived from it. 

The inhabitants of BmlTels, who among which the neglect of t^e 

ImU i&ejnfelyea high, fbrough the third efta,^ bore a prmcipal part.; 

anil 



M,Coo'^lc 



rt] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. . 

and in a v«r^ Ihort time they pro- and the acceflion of hii brother 
cored otrnve two thaafandfigiuturM Leopold, grand dake of Tuiciny, 
ntJiia document. to the Auflrian hereditary domi- 
The llatei found no more efiec- nions, woald have afforded the 
tnal meani to oppofe to thele pro- means of reftoring peace and order 
ceedings, and to endeavour to la/ to the Low Countriea, by bringing 
the fpiiit from nhkh they origi- about a reconciliation and rc-unioa 
Bated, than that of employing the between the Belgic people and the 
cures, or parKh prieHa, both of the new focceffor of their late fove- 
towns ana vilUges of the province, leign, who wai not implicated in 
iDvifit their refpe^ve pan&iioners, any of tbecavfes of djllike or aver- 
snd to uie their utmoU inducnce to Hon which hang h heavily about 
induce them to fign a counter-ad. his predeceffor. Much indeed was 
drefs, in which the flatei were re- expeAed frotn the moderate, ap- 
qnelled to feize and punilh, in an pareotly unambitious, and pacific 
exemplary manner, all thorediIlnrb> charafter of Leopold, at well as 
en of the public tranquillity, who from the mild and equitable adni- 
wilhed to introduce innovation! and nlitnicion of hi) government during 
danees in the religion, in the con- fo many years in the grand dntchy* 
. iiiution, or in the preient form in whereby he had gained no fmall 
which the nation ii reprefented by degree of applaufe in foreign coun- 
tfae three orders of the ftatei, which tries, and well fecured, in general. 
it bai ehofen for its reprefentative. the attachment aod afTeftioa of hta 
The priefts being habituated ihro* own fubjeds. 
life to hold the greatell intimacy A memorial, however, which be 
and friendOiip with, their paridiion- addrefTed to the inhabiiantt of the 
e»,belides their being fubjeft them- Netherlands, fpeedily after hit arri- 
letves to embrace the opinions of val at Vienna, by no means an- 
ihofe with whom they hourly con- fwcred the expeflations which had 
wrfed, found it otberwife a very been formed from a review of hii 
snpleating and embarraffing taik, former cooduQ and fuppofed cha- 
to be under a neceflity of endea- rafter, and was flill farther from 
Touring to perfuade their friends to affording 'any fatisfaSion to the 
adopt a raealure, which they often people to whom it was dircded. la 
knew was direflly contrary to their that document, although intermixed 
fikin^. The counter-addrefi ac- with no unfparbg decree of blame 
cordingly dragged on very heavily ; upon the conduA of his predecefibrr 
nor have we any information whe- with great prafclEons on his fide of 
ther it was ever prefented : but lenity, of kindnefs, of affcflion for 
whether it was or not, the ferment the people, along with declarations 
among the neople increafcd inflead of his difpoCtion and intention to 
of diminifhing, and dillatis&^on, redrefs all real grievances, he how- 
party diTifions. and ci\-il dilTentloni ever entered upon an ungrateful 
l>FCame every day more prevalent fubjed, which, in a Jirlt addi^fsiaiul 
and general. in the prefenc flate of things, would 
— V . It was expefled that feem to have been better omitted, 
"°" "'"' the death of the Empe- by averting, in as high terms, his 
''9**' ror Jofeph the Second, undoubted right to ^he fovereignty 

of 



HISTORY OF_ EUROPE, faj 

«f the AnSmii I<ow Coonuies, u more numereiu dian they lutd bee* 

Jofeph himfelf Mold have ufed in be/brc imairbed. 

the pleninide of his power, befvc The nobilityt finding; that the 

thejr hid yrt (hakea off hb doini^ power of the clergy wm becnmiBc 

nion, and aSiiined the name and predoninant •» the one hand, aid 

f haraflf r nf a free aid independeot that, on the other, the people wcie 

flatr. And, at if it had been to every day growing more difcoa- 

render thii claim and language tented, and their afpeA moie alam- 

raore unpalatable, it wai sccom- ing. thought it neceJlarr is the 

pained with what might be conli- moath of February to endeavour t* 



dered virtnally aa a threat, that no regain their popularity, by E _ 

power on eanh (honld deprive him on their part coofideraUe «ond»- 

of his right while he poSeiTed the fcenfioni to the third eftate, fia 

means of m^tainiag it. whether any impedimenti were 

This ill-judged mcmonat was thrown in the way, which preveeied 

accordingly very ill received, and, thefe (tifpoHtions from being car^ 

fo fitr as we are inlbnned, did not ried into full effect, or from what- 

even produce an anfwer from the ever other caulc it proceeded, the 

Belgtc ftaies ; bat it gave birth to general dilcontent and jcalosfy, ia- 

many cmunema, and to feveral fe- llead of being lelTened, wai in- 

vercpaftjninadeaintfaepnblicpnnu. creating to the utraoA pitch. A 

Anung thefe it was obferved, that rumour was (pread, ani fcemcd hr 

as power Onootbs the way, fo amhi- ihe eSe& to be generally believej. 

tion always <]itickens its purTults ; that a few of the ftates had formed 

thaiatdwaghthelKenwcrechanged, the atrocious defign <tf feizing aS 

the objed was ftill the lame, and the powers of the Hate and govera- 

the defire of arbitrary role as pre- ment, and of eftablilhing an odioue 

ralent as ever ; and that Leopcid, defpotirm among ihemfelvct. it 

who feemed to padfic^ while cir- iigaified little whether this plot wai 

camfcribed in a narrow dominioa, real or imaginary, the eHc& with 
incapable of exertion, would now, 'refped to the people was the lame 

feeling his ftrengcb, Vndeavour to as if it had been fully authenn- 

tread m the tracks made by his ever- cated. The confcqucnce was, that 

jeiU«fsandall-grafpingpredeceflbr. ftrong parties of hoife and tbotcoB- 

This memorial, however, had the linuuly patrolled the public llreeti 

effedofreviving,oratleaftofcalting in Brudets and other {irinctpal 

into notice, a tteyi party, in a coun- cities, by day and by nigfati and 

try alnaA^ toTfl to pieces by fac- the new commonwealth be^an a» 

tion. This was the party of the bear the appearance of a military 

loyatifls, or friends 0f the Houfe of government. In the mealV time, the 

Auftria, who now began to declare prifons were crowded with fufpeSol 

themfelvcs openly, to Dedillinguilh- or obnoxious perlbnt, whofe.wanu 

ed by cockades of a dificrent co- and fulTcrings rendered then ri{w 

lour from thofe of the patriots, and for afts of the utmoft defpen- 

who, being probably joined by tton; while the fympathy oftht^ 

many perfons of other parties, who without could only be rellrained 

were diilatisfied with the prefeni by force hota co-operating wilk 

kue of affain, appeafcd to be far. them. 

3 Of 

^■"»git 



3o] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791. 

or all ^e officers who had diftis- unong riw teopli at Urst, md tife 

giniihed themfelvet in the Bebk fupretne influence whi^ ke wu 

revolution, B:eBeral Vander MeWch Appofed to poSefiwich everydegree 

ftood the ^eniofl, and from the of men tn the anny, made it appeir 

brilliance and fttcccif of ]as name- imprudent toquarret with him Dpon 

rooa military enterprizei. had not Hight ground*. We aie probabty 

«aly bome the [wlm in a fupRSK in the dark as to (natty intermediate 

degree from all competilon, but ftept, and perktpt branglei. Bet 

was regarded with admiration in it appear*, that towards tlie clafe 

«tlwr conntrin, and acquired no of the iKontli of March) (that 

£nall degree of rettown in every month which wat once To Atalty 

part of Europe. He was rendered ominoui to a much CTtattr general 

urticQtarly remarkable by hi« ear- and man) the dificBCions between the 

ly and abrupt defertion of the em- parties were rilen to fuch a pitch, 

peror^ fervice, inwhichhehetdthe and fb openly avowed, that dcpu- 

(onk of colonel, to embrace tbt tiei were fent by the congteTs to 

«aaJii of Hi country, in which he Namar, where the aAingpnn of the 

bore fb confpicDons a pan.. Thk anny employed againft the Auf- 

took ptiCe at or before the com- triani then was, ander the gene- 

fotncnnent of the revolt ; and ex- ral'a order*, evideatly with a vietr 

cited the indignatioA and refenti- of, at leafik removing him from Mt 

ment of Jolctwi the Second in fo command, if not of arrefling hii 

ntreme a degree, that by an tmme^ perfon. In this new fituatioo, and 

Aiate order in his own hand to ge- m thefe dtAcQlt and dingeroHi ur- 

Xetal Dahcm, Vander Merfch wa« cumflancci, Vander Merfch dMrr- 

banged in effigy in the front of the mined upon a bold ftrobe, whidti 

«nny, whicb was drawn oat for the however great the perili affbided 

Eirpofe ; that prince, iti the fame the oidy profpeft left of retrieving 

tter, expreffing his fanguine hep ei hu amirs, and even of efcaping 

or wifhes, that this mock execution the horror* of a prifon { withoat 

would foon be realized with fiUl reckoning, tha^ life itfelf was do 

effcA. The 'condemned general leT) at £ke than honour and lU 

Ibund faficient opportunities, before berty. He accordingly Ordered the 

riieemperor'sdeath, to retaliate this deputies from the congrefs to be 

affront in fach a manner at procured immediately arreAcd, and commit* 

Inm ample fitiifaflion. ted them to prifon. 

General Vander Merfch was one He followed thi) aA „ , ^^.v 

of that very great number of men, by liTeing acd p«b- ",700. 

tvho had become highly diffatis'ied lilhing a declaration, ''^ 

with the conduA of the congrefj, in whidi, without taking any notice 

or at leaft of iliofe fecret leaders of the congrefs by njmc, he ob- 

who were fappofed to be the direc- fervea, that ill-intentioned pcrfons, 

ton of all its aflions. As the fiu and who were (IroBgly fufpeAed of 

colty of concealing opinions or having fomented the execrable 

principles is not generally very praftices of pillage and profcrip- 

eminent among military men, he of tioii, which haa taken place in 

courfe became obncnioui to the Bnijfels, were arrived ^ere for. ihel 

caIuI ; but his grcu populttity pnrpoft of ttirring up the people to 

icditicr. 



HISTORY OF EURO PE. t3« 

(editioi^ and to caSamniaK the lojial Hnfch ; »ni1 Ait tMrtSu of &;>- 
intendona of the general, «nd ef plioatioa liallbc feet toall thepro- 
the arinjr; that it wu therdbif mcei, inviting diem to co-opema 
thought ncetSiTj to rotnove eveiy with the army in Teroimiqg abuTe* 
caofe of alitiB b^ decUfing, (hat and re-etUbltOiiag oider. 
b«WBt lumJelf placed at the hnd The fapreme coagrdj, upo« 
of the araif fiw the porpofe of de- dtde proceediagi, iBimediately iC- 
iending the RomaD Catitt^ic faith, filed oiden for tbe troops at fiisl'- 
with die civil and religi«ua right«i Ms, and vaiioa) othor AuioBi, to 
and the liba-ty of ^ peo^e, aad BKrch towardi Namur ; near which 
Ibat he woold not fufivr thefe to re> a place of rendecvout vas ap- 
c«ve the fmalkll injury w diminii- pontod, where they were to co- 
tion whatfoever. alefce, and advance in a bady W 
It appeati that the corpi of of- brine the oppofite army to nsSttif 
ficen bdongine to ritrt amy had, fa that every thing now bora ik» 
in the coorle of thefe difpote), and appearaace of acivil war, wliich in- 
ander circumftancei of wtuch wc deed Teemed to be inevitable. 
att DM infbraied, nominated Vaa- We are totidly aaabln to giva 
der Merfch to be generaliCmD of any account by what mcaiu thU 
Ae Belgic fercei, and had applied event wai prevented : or by what 
to the congrefi, without efk&, for naacarantable tvTolution ia the bu* 
the confinnation of their choice, man mindi or by what party ma> 
Th«y had undodbtedly gone too &r oceiivre, diat body of o&cen, aad 
in the adoption of ttat meafare, that army, who feemed jult now 
and it can be no wonder that con- to pafi all boands in the irrega- 
grefs did not comply wiA their de- lariiy and violence of their deter* 
■Eandi ; bat they wcm deterniied minations, and who had andoabt* 
to go lUll ftjther, and to venture edly been tbe caafe of Vander 
Bpon a meaiiire wbkh &nick at the Merfch't porAiing the meafurea 
root of all govemmcRt. For on and proceeding tbe lengths which 
tbe day facceediiig that apoR which he did, Ihoald in a few days b« 
the declaration had been ilTaed, fo tbonnghly debauched, ai moft 
they aaanimoufly pafled, and pub- Ihamefiiliy to abandon their general 
lilMd die four following violent re- to the rage f^ hii enemies, and 
WotioM : — That general Vander thereby forfeit all pretenfions to 
Merfch fliall continue generalillirao principle, honour, or charaAer, 
of the Selgic army : That the dnke which Ibould have operated upoft 
d'Crfel fhall inllantly be traced at them, whether as men or a* (bl- 
ths head of the war department: dters. Yet fuch was the cale now{ 
That the prince of Aremberg, and the dragging out of a miferabl* 
count de la Marck, ( Ton of the exifteucc in the dungeoai of ih4 
duke) whefe military talents are citadel of Antwerp, (which at thi* 
generally known, and who, at the time ai fully merited the charafter 
commencement of the revolutica, ofa ftate Baftille, ssitevcniiaddone 
gave fucb proofs of patriotifm in under the fo much execrated tyran- 
oEFenog hu fcrvicei to the com- oy of general DaJton) wai the 're- 
mittee a. Breda, Ihall be sppsinted ward which the brave general Van- 
fecond in the command or the ar- der Merfch obtained for all hli 
my, next to general \'3nder cmineiit fervices. 



Ji] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

The cfajLTffu laid W the songreTi priftcipillyi if not enttrelj. ittri* 

■gainft Vsoaer Merich, for i^ich Mied the r<uD of the fielgic repub- 

the^ at 6rSc defigned to bring him lict and whoi durinetheirfhon ksd 

to trial, and aimed at his lifei inglorioiu la^n, kerned to rule 

were the following :<— " That, for- every thing without concronl. - 
getting that he derived all his au- From this time the hiftiny of dte 

thoriiy from tlum, he had permit* new conuaonwealth preicnts little 

ted biWelf to be cfaofen generalif- that is interefting. The govem- 

fimo by the officers ofhis army, and ment lofi all reputation abraadt as 

endeavoured to retain that lituation it had done the good opinion and 

by force t that, with equal violence^ attachment of the people at Idhw. 

Iw had caufed the deputici who The allied powers became every 

were fcnt from the congrcfs to the day more flack in thrir meal for the 

army to be arreAed ; and, that by profperity and indcpeodency of a 

tbefe, and other violent proceed- people who they faw could not be 

ings, he had neatly involved the ferved. Thearmyfeeoiedtohaveloft 

country in a civil war." iu fpirit aloqg with iti general; mod 

Few triumphs have been ihorter- deiint* from thi>fe Auftriana woo 

lived, or have aflbrded lefs raal badlatelybecn Tomuch defpifedtbe- 

caufe for fandaillon in the recullec- came not unfrequent. So totiUywas 

tion. than that which their prelent government funk in credit, that it 

viQory aflbrded to the ruling fac- could not, in thit rich connixy, 

tion. Scarcely any other a& in borrow money even for the imme- 

their power to perform, could have diate purpofei of defence. It waa 

rendered them fo univerTolly unpo- tiot more fuccelsful in iu attempts 

pillar, or fo generally odiou*. All to raife money in England and 

nen fympat&ized in the unhappy Hc^nd. The fcheme of a grand 

fate of Vander Merfch, and were expedition being formed by go- 

difpofed tocurfe the authors of it; vemment againiltheAuftrians, titejr 

while his gallant expleiti rofe fnll committed the condufl of it to 

in every view, m if they had been Vandernoot ; which would have 

fefleded through a microfcope. been fuSicient to render it odious. 

The people of FUnderj (whofe and to mar the enterprize, if the 

countryman he was) refented this people had even been \ti a much 

at an a& of the moft injurious and better Hate of temper and difpofition 

ootngeoui nature ; and if the pub- in other refpefis than they by any 

lie inclination had power to aft, means were. A coniideiable nmn- 

it would have occafioned a rupcitre ber of Brabanters were, howcTer, 

between the two great provinces of broueht together ; but the towns d 

the union, unlefs a mutual agree- Flander* peremptorily reftifed to 

ment bad taken place for changing fend a fingle man to join them, 

the prelent rulers. In the mean Even in Brullclj, where the military 

time, Vandernoot and Van Eupen, fpirit lately rofe fo high, they could 

the abliorred agents aiid infirumeols fcarccly find a man, who wouldea- 

of the cabal, and particularly of counge the enterprise by enrolling 

ihffclergy.became virtuallypolfeiled his name as a volnntcer. The 

of all the executive powers of the confeqnence was, that the cabil. 

Aatc; two men to whom may be after oon^derable expence, were 

obliged 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [33 

CUiged to fobinit to the difgrace of ed, the letter we meniioned was to 

reliDqaiOung their enteipiize, the eive notice to the coDgreHi, that the 

Brabanten were fent home, and Eing of PruQla h>d acknowledged 

Vanderooot underwent the inex- Leopold ((whofe eleAien to thfi 

preffible mortification, of not having empire waj now fettled) to be dulca 
had an opportunity of eclipfing . of Brabant*— an acknowledgment 

Vander Mirfch's renown, and of which of conrfe carried with it his 

•ftablifhing fab own charaAer as a facceffion, under difTerent titles, to 

general in nu place. all the other Auftrian provinces of 

A] diHike and difaffcAioa to the Netherlands, 
government became daily more pre- The means adopted to prevent or 
valent, and fptead more extrnfively alleviate the immediate effeA of thia 
amon^ the peo}de, fo the royalift or tbunder-ftroke were, in the firft in- 
Aaftnan party received fucn conti- ftartce, to conceal the purpart of th* 
nual acceffions in force, numbers, letter from the public ; and thii 
and coarage, as afforded fufiicient weak refource was fucceeded by an 
caufe of alarm to the congrefs. extraordinary affefiation of rigonrj 
The peafants brok* oat into open courage and bravery, cloathed in all 
revolt in dii&rent parts, the inha. the language of power and con- 
bitants of fereral villages aflem- fidence. On this ground they ifliied 
bling in bodies, wearing Auftrian long printed propofals. branched 
cockades, dilplaying Aultrian dan- out into a numerous lifi of articles, 
dards, and proceeding to various for the immediate raifing and form- 
ads of irregularity and violence, ingof a vaft patriotic army, which, 
until the troops had time to colleA indeed, if it could poflibly be done, 
for their difpeHion. might well bid de&nce to all their 

Thus aflairs wCre every day opponents. But as they had the 

growing from bad to worfe, and misfortune to have loft all infloenco 

every body was fenfible that the over both the perfoTi} and purfes of 

prefent fyftem of government could the people, this fcheme foon vanilli* 

Tiot long hang together, although ed in fmoke, and their fpeedydown- 

the means and the manner of it* fal became evident. 

dilTolution were not ea&ly forefeen. A manifcila ifl'ucJ by An , 

A letter, which congreU received Leopold at P'ranktbrt im- . ' "^ * 

about tne middle of Aueuft from mediately after hh coro- '^ ' 

the king of PraiEa, alforded, how- nation, and uddruned 10 the people 

ever, a fad warning of' their ap- of the Ne:herlinds, produced, how- 

proaching fate, and threw them into ever, no ehcfl on the conduA of the 

paroxyfrns of conSernation and ter- congrefs. On the contrary, in a 

tor. The great difierences which /hori printed paper which was 

had fub&fted between the courts of handed ahout as their anfwer, but 

Berlin and Vienna being at length which U'anlcd every formality that 

lermioaied by the treaty of Rei- could render it capaBle of being 

checbach, which was concluded on preiented cr received, they totally 

the 37th of July, and the war denied hit claim of any right de- 

whtch had fo long feemed inevit- rived from liis anceltorj to the fo- 

able between thole powers, being vcrcignty of tliat country ; and 

thereby molt unexpeftcdiy prevent- aderted, that though many of them 

Vti. XXXIIL . [Cj had 



34] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

liid been ih ' that fitiutioit, ihty nnral and confinnatioR of aB dwr 

» the free choice ancient immamtiej, and the placing 

of the people, them in the fame fituation in wbico 



o«ed it entirely to the free choice ancient immnnitiej, and the pladng 
and appointment of the people, them in the fame fituation in which 
who had a right to chooTe whom they had deemed themfd' 



tiiey pleafed to be their govemon. happy, under the nrnch-^plaoded 
NotwichAanding the weaknefs government of Maria Therefa, fe- 
of government, and the difcontenta veral new ftipulationi were now 
of the people, there was fo mnch added, to reurain the ibvereigi^ 
fpirit ftill left in the army, and fa whatever bis diipoliuca might be, 
tnuch flbHinacy not only in the from being capable of any material 
rulers, bin in the republican party, iavafion of their rights, pririle^o, 
to whom it wai death t» think of or liberties. The only condition 
fiibmitiing again to the eovemment binding on or expeAed from the 
of the honfe of Auftria, uiat the war Belgiani, being merely a qniet and 
was renewed with great animofity peaceablei but immediate fubmif- 
•n the borders, and much blood fion to the fovereign^ and govern- 
wantonly and fruitleftly liutled ; aitd ment of Leopc^ j this artick bein^ 
this in contravention to the in- Itkewife guaranteed by the alli^ 
•elTant anicable inierpoGtion of the powers, as well at thofe winch fe- 
aUied powers, who did every thing cured die riffhu and libertie* of the 
poflible to prevent that iatal efleS; people; and, ifa flrift interprets- 
and repeatedly Ihewed to the con- tian were followed, re&dcfing the 
grefs the futility and cruelty of thefe reft conditional. This convention, 
vain efforts. including a general amnefty, waa 
Thele powert were, however, executed at the Hague on the loth 
4eftincd to be the means of finally of December 1790. 
putting an end to the mixed fyftem Bnt the obftinacy and raOineTa of 
of tyranny, anarchy, and diforder, the ruling &fHon woald not permit 
which, through tbe ptdenc admini- them to relinqdlh their ituitlefi war 
ftration of affiurs, lud prodoced fo while they had a man left to carry 
tnuch calamity in the AuArian it on. All the reprefentationa and 
Netherlands. By thrir continued exhortations of the negociadng mi- 
interpofition with the emperor (who nifters were oHered in vain. Re- 
waabynomeansdifpofedonfeveral peaced defeats produced ai little 
^occafions to be flexible) they pro- effeft. Though they could not bnt 
cured an exaellent conftitution for be fen£ble that the hour of difToln. 
the people of the Low Countries, don was at hand, yet they could not 
of which they were thettifelves face the thongbt of rcfigning their 
to be the peipetual guarantees, ill-ufed power to the laft moment. 
The mtniftcis of the allied powers iTirongh this nnacconmable and 
and of the emperor held a congrefs fliameml condnfl, which no words 
at the Hague, where they fpent fe- can palliate, a&irs were prccipi- 
Teralweeks in difcoffingand fettling tatcd in fuch a manner, and thrown 
this important bufinefs. The new into a ftate of fuch unfbrefeen con- 
conftitudon was hiehly fiivonrable fulton, as might well not only have 
to the people, and placed them upon difturbed the proceedings of llie 
a much better footing than they had congrefs, but, under other circunt- 
tvcr been before : nr, btfidci a re- fiances than the prefeiit, might have 

defeated 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [jj 

ddeiud all the iatentioiu of the dt>n and fear, each man, apprehen* 

inediaung powers, xai prevented £ve that his own life woula he the 

the happy conclaiioa of the conven- fbrfeitfor the miicleeds of the whole, 

tion. the congrefs, the memberi of the 

For gen^l Bender having con- vht department, with Vandemooc 

tinaany routed their troops, and and Van Eupen, all Red ditferenc 

carried every thing before hiin on ways in the greateft confofion and 

the fitmuen, at length penetrated terror, Ibme efcaping to Holland* 

the conouyf and ad?3UKed toward (bme to France, and others to Ger- 

Smflels; wben,ht>wever,hehalted, many. General Bender nfed hia 

and fent a mcflage to the congreTs, foccefs with great moderation and 

aSgning acertun Ihort nmnberof lenity: hut thU changed the whole 

d\y( in which they were to de~ face and nature of things ; for the 

tcrmine on the qucflion. Whether ctmvention was not yet concluded^ 

they would accede to the conditions and the country was become fubjed 

pnpofed by the mcdiadng powen to Leoixdd by right of conqueft; a 

or not? affuring them at th£ fame title which, it is faid, he was well 

time, and confirming it by an oath, difpofed to profit by, and which it 

thatif attheexpirationof thatterm coft the allied powers no Ihiall 

they pnt him nndcr the neceffity of trouble to prevent his adopting, 
diswing on his boots, he would All differences and doubts beiar, 

nerer take them off inin nntil he however, at lengtli amicably fettled, 

had chafed them out of the Nether- the emperor was, on the 30th of 

bods. The dme clapTcd-^no an- June 1791, inaugurated at BruOels, 

IWer was returned— the general as duke of Brsbant; the duke of 

drew on bis boots, and marched Saxe Tefchen afting as his proxf 

rapidly for BruITel*. Then, all at in that ceremonial. 
once, overwhelmed with-conAema. 



C H, A P. ri. 

Mtaiag ef tht WW farliamtnf. Sfttrb frsBi tit threni. MJrtfi vtltJ fy 
tht heufi eftannHoni, Mr. Fox't rimarki m tbt gAlre/t, Mdrtfs •vottd 
if ih* haaf* tfUrii. Lord Stmibept't fyttch nftn tht Kcaficn. . C»fiti if 
tbt dttUirKtim amd unwtir-Jtrlttrallan figmJ at MaJrid, amd af tkt ttn- 
vexti«ii wtt $/«/«■ Uad htftrt batb beufii. Dthalti uptn ibhJktfjtS i» - 
tbt hm^ ifcamm*m. Addreft U bit Majtfij, rengralidliliiig bim upon tbt 
fatct/t afibt Utt ntgtciatiem, OijtMimi tf Mr. Fax la tbii addri/t ; aX' 
Jkatrtd hj Mr. Pitt. Haufi »f l»rdt.~M4Tfm «/ Lan/dtvjM. Ctmmiilit 
^•wttfi aid mcamt f difrof tbt txptwcti af rlv l^i ermoMent. Dtbeitt 
im tht b»itfe af tanaumi mpm tbt qti0icii, •uihetbtr tat imptaihmtnt *ialt4 
fy a difilKtin a/ p^trliaatiit.—Iii ibt hmji aflardt. Mr, Murtt'i iKttiea 
ftr tbt limtaliom af iSr. Hajfi^i't imftaciiHtiU. 

THE niew pariiament o&mbled of a fpealter. Mr. Addtpgton, the 
cm the ijlh of November, ^)esker<^thelatehonfeofcominons, 
1 790, and proceeded to the elediea was nomioated by the aullerof the 
IC]a xolis. 



36] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

rolls, and took the chair With'the of ihe Netherlands to the dominioi 

inirlcetl and unanimous approbation of the houfe of Aolhia, in order to 

of the houfe. prevent them ftDHi falling into the 

On the following day the feflion nanda of another power likely to 

was o[>encd by a fpeech from the prove dangerouny inimical to ihii 

throne, in which his majefty in- country. He conceived that Franca 

formed, parliatnent that the differ* muft have been the power alluded 

ences, which had artfcn with the to. But how came France fo fnd- 

court of Spsini were brought to an denly a greater objefl of terror to 

xmicable con clafion.— That a fepa- us at this than at any former period t 

rate peace had been made betweert He did not wiih to enter into a dif- 

Rafiia and Sweden.— That, in con- cuffion of the fiiaacion of France ; 

JQndion with his allies, he had em- but whatever difference of opinion 

ployed his mediation for the pur- might exifl upon that fubjeA, all 

pole of negociating a defitiitive parties, he trulted, would Agree that 

treaty between Ruffia and the Porte, the interference of the French na- 

and likewife of endeavouring to put tion, for very obvious reafons, wa* 

an end to the diCenfions in ihe Ne- little to be dreaded ac the prefent 

therlai^ds. Towards the coni;lufion moment. With regard to the af- 

of the rpeech his majefty adverted fairs of Europe in general, fo novel 

10 the interruption which had taken an order of things had lately pre- 

place in the trauquillity of our In- fented themfelves, and the incercRc 

<lian poflellioni, and recommended of diHerent powers bad taken fach 

10 parliament a piirticular attention various turns, that he thougtit Great 

to the ftate of the province of Que- Briton might feleft what aUies Ihe 

bee. deemed moft proper ; and that his 

On the motion for an addrefs, majefty's rflniften would he highly 

made by Mr. Ms.inwaring and fe- culpable, if they did not proSt by 

tended by Mr. Carew, in the houfe the Angular fituation of other na- 

of commons, Mr. Fox obferved, tions. On the fubjeft of India, he 

that he by no means wifhed to de- obferved, that if we meant only w 

ftroy that unarimity which he trull- defend our ally when attaclicd, w« 

ed would prevail in the houfe upon Ihould aft upon principles which 

thi occafion, but confefTed that he met with his hearty concurrence; 

did not feel himielf inclined to but that if we made a quarrel be- 

adopt the principles, and fanftion all tween two native princes a pretext 

the collateral obfervacions.advanC'i.'d for carrying on a War from the mo- 

by the honourable gentlemen, who tive of obtaining fnr ourfi^lvei new 

fupporiedlheatlilreie. To the mc- territorial acq uifi tion s, h: (hould 

i:ts of tS>e convention with Spain, enter his determined protell againfi 

he did not think hitnfelf bound to the injultice of fuch a proceed- 

lubfcribe by giving his vote for the ing. 

motion b^foii; the houle,aj lulTicicnt The chuKellor of the exchequer 

document! had not been produced remarked, iu reply, that voting for 

to enable him, to form a proper the addref* was certainly not in- 

jodgment upon tliat fubjeft. It had tended to imply an approbation of 

been itated tiiat it was policy tn the convention with Spain. With 

Wii* coartuy to promote the room niptA to foroign alliances, his ma- 

jcfty'< 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



D7 



jefly'i minifters, h= faid, were nei- 
ther fo idl; nor fo inatreorive to 
tbcir daiy, u to overlook any Fa- 
vourable oppormnitici, which mi jht 
occur, for ths Laip rove mem of for- 
mer treaties, or for the contradion 
of (lew ones. He concarred with 
Mr. Fox in hii obfenadoiu upon 
the injuftice and imprudence of 
making war In India for the par- 
pofe of extending territory j but 
conceived, that, in e^e of a fartu- 
nate termination of the war in 
'which we were likely to be involv- 
ed, we fhoold be fully juAilied in 
obcaining for our injured ally an 
adequate cQ rope afat ion, and for 
oartelvc) a reafon^ble indemnifica- 
tion. 

Nothing remarkable occurred in 
ihe houfe of lords upon the fubjL.'A 
of (he addrefa to his niaj:fty for his 
gracioui fpeech from the throne, 
except foms ftngalar ohfcrvntiotu 
from lord Stanhope. [lislordfhip 
fincerely congratulated the houic 
knd the nation apon the continuance 
of peace, which he conceived was 
principally to be attributed, under 
bivine Providence, to the ^kirious 
revolucion of France, Nothing, his 
lordfhip obferved, would more tend 
to make it permanent, ilian a 
Ready and well-furmcd aJli:ince with 
that great and free country : an al- 
liance, if compleiely eliablifhed and 
confirmed, likely to prove produc- 
tive of the moft falntaiy conf;- 
quences lo both nations. Towards 
ll;e cmclofion of his fpeech he 
wiflied to draw the malt ferisui at- 
tention of the houfe to a very ex- 
traordinary fubjeft, to a publica- 
tion, which he termed a monilrous 
and fcandalous libel againfi his tna- 
jefty, a publication from the pen of 



no vulgar writer, but of one, who 
was formerly the firll miniiler of 
ftate in a neighbouring kingdom, of 
no Icfs a nuu than Monfu-ur Ca- 
lonne,latepreinier of t'rancel Thi* 
publication, in his lordihip's opinion, 
afckT recommending a <urt of civil 
war in i'rance, moll audacioully 
prefumed lo iminuate that tlie cauw 
of [he French king againfl the 
French nation would be efpouftd 
by every crowned hea^ in Europe; 
an cxprefiion fuiHciently compre- 
henfive to include the king of Eng- 
land. And dares any man, ex- 
claimed his lordr.iip, impuie lo hii 
mnjeliy, who has alw::ys (hewn the 
finc;rcft love for hia people, even 
inclinations, much lefs intentions, of 
fo pernicious a tendency? If there 
are any in this houfe, if there are 
any in adminillration, who counte- 
nance ftch atrocious proceeding* 
as ihofe which arc recommended 
by M, Calonne, it is fell time thai 
they QiAuIJbe pointed out tr. uiand 
to the public. 

Not a Gni^le remark was made 
b*y any imble lord upon the preced- 
ing obfervationj. Immediately af- 
ter lord Stanhope had concluded, 
the lord chancellor put tlie qoeSibn 
Upon the motion for the addrefs; 
when it was declared that the con- 
tcnla had it oMi. m//^ 

On the 3d of December copies ' 
of the decl'iiation and counter-de- 
claration exc hinged at Madrid, 
Jjly 24111, 1790, and of the conven- 
tion with Spiiii, ligticd the j8th ol 
Oftohcr 1790, togcthjr with the 
expe:icej of the late armament. Ice. 
kvere prcfentcd to both honfes of 
parliameni. A motion was made 



houfe of commons 
jih, for t]ic produAionof all the 

Infbted among the State P'pcrs of our laft volume, p. jeo, and 333. 

[CJj p.pcn 



l.gK 



38] ANNUAL -REG IS TER, 1791. 

ppen relative to the affair at DecemheT i4ih. in the hoiife of 

Noock^ Soutid. The propriety of commanj. The principal topic* 

producing thofe papers was ftrongl)' urged b^ the gcnilemen who opened 

ai^ed by opporitioiif upon the the debate, were che great commer- 

groiind, that, it the convention were cial advantages likdy to accrue to 

a badoae, culpability might attachi Great Britain from the Aipulationi 

where in juflice it ought, to hia acceded to on the part of Spftinj 

majeUy'j miniAerE; if a good one, particularly in the whale-fiihery and 

that the houfe might be enabled to the fur-traae. Thofe pofitions wer9 

teftify an approbation, which would controverted and treated as dclufire 

be the more valuable in proportion by the oppofition. Mr. Fox en- 

to the more accurate rainutenefs of tcred inio a difcuffion of the mNits 

iu enquiry- Much eloquence like- of the convention, which he termed 

wife was exerted to diffuade the a treaty of conceffions rather than of 

other fide of the houfe from placing, acqoilitioni. He obfcrt-ed, that 

what wai termed, a blind and trea- there were two objeAs lo be con- 

cherous confidence in minifters. £dered in this negociation i I ft, the 

To the arguments of oppofidon reparation for the infolt received; 

It was anfwered, that the produc- zdly, the arrangement for the pre- 

tion of the papers reqnefted waa ventlon of future difputes. The 

not only unnccefiary (the papen reparation which had been ob- 

already prefented to the houfe fur- tained, he thought infufficient. Ii« 

niOiing fnfficient documents for a the altercation refpefling the Falk- 

decifion upon the general merits of land I Hands, in the year i77i,re- 

iheprocecding)ibut might be mif- paration wai the only objeft in 

chievous, by communicating ne- view, and it was obtained in its 

gooations with other courts and fullefi extent. Spain then agreed 

with our allies, which were by np to put every thing exaftfy in the 

means proper to bring under the fame fituation as before the infult 

public eye. It was contended that was committed, which agreement 

the acknowledged right of the houfe flie punfhially fiiliillei]. In that 

to call for paper* of every kind, cafe there was a complete reftora- 

ODght not to be exercifed but upon tion; in the prefeni there was only 

great, fblemn, and weighty occa- the declaration of a difpolition toi 

fions.when fufficient caufe appeared reflore. The rcftitution promtfed 

far blame, or fufplcton of blame, appeared to him to be at beft but 

upon the face of any treaty. That incomplete; jior had even the lit- 

£$ to the doflrine of confidence, mi- tic which had been promifed, been 

nifiry only wilhed to obtain that de- performed. On the fubjcft ofrer 

gree of confidence which would paration, therefore, he conceived 

enable them to carry on without fri- that we had no caufe for boafting— • 

T0I0US obflruflions the executive the arrangement made for the pre- 

govemment of the country. Upon vention of future difputes feemcd 

a divifion, the numbers were ayci in his eye to be equally culpab]e, 

134^-noes 358.— Majority 124. It confuted more of conceffions on 

An addrcls to hit majeily, con- our part, than on die pan of tipain. 
gratulating him n^n the fuccefi) of Previous to this difpuce, we polTcf-. 

the late negociations, was noved fed and CAeictfed the fr«e naviga. 



HISTORY OV EUROPE. [39 

don of the Pacific Oceui without on the other hud, contended, that 
reSnint and withont limitatioD. the reparatum lor ih« in^uiy which 
We pofleftd mod ezerciTeil the we had received was coropkte. In 
right of canyinr on fiflierjei b the thecontroverfyreTpc&iDKtlieFilk- 
SoDth Sai sli£e anrefttwned and hud Iflandi, the miniiEer of tha 
nnliniited. Bat the idmiffion of a time bad indeed obtained « lepa- 
part oalj of theft rights wai all that ntion, bat left die claim of right 
we had obtained iy the conrentioa. nDfettled. Upon the prelent oc- 
Fonnerlj we claimed the privilege cafion, hf the £ift article of the 
of fettling in 007 part of South or convention we had gained all that we 
North Weft Amenca, not fortified coold have rtafimablx expedcd on 
againil lu by-previoiu occapancy; the point of relUtution, the SponiOi 
now we conicBted to the limitation court pledging itfelf to reSore the 
of fettling in certain placet only, lands, of which we had been an* 
and even there onder vanoat re- joftly difpo&efledt and by the fe- 
ftridioDs. Our right of fiOung cond anicle onr cklm of right waa 
before extendedtothewboleoccaii; acknowledged and adjufte£ la 
it wai now refnfed i» within par- anTwer to Mr. Fox't objedioDi to 
ticnlzr diftances of dte SpaniOi fct- the other articlei of ^ treaty, as 
dements. We were allowed indeed being replete with coDceffiooi rather 
to fbtm colooies on the north of the thanacquifidiMU.heobfervedtlutoar 
parts occupied by Spain, and to gains conlifted, not perhaps in the ac- 
build temporary hnts to the loath ; quircmcnt of new rights, out certain- 
bat the Spaniih bonndaiies, beyond ly of new advantages. He admit- 
which fuch pemiiffions were granted ted that we before had a right to the 
Its, could noc be accurately deter- Sonchem whale-£fhery, and a right 
mined. CertainCy. in his eftimation, to navigate the Paciiic Ocean, as 
was of more value dian extent of well as to trade on the coafta of any 
territory. He toould therefore have p«rt of North Weft America : thoic 
thought it better to have obtained rights however had been difputed 
in the firfi ioftance a precife line and reCfled, bat by the convention 
of demarkation, even at the ex- they were now fecured to bi; cir- 
penceofafew leagues of country, cnmftances which conftimted new 
from fuch an acconotas Spain her- and conliderable advantages. When- 
felf might choofe to give of the ever a concelliDn was made on our 
limits of her occupancy. Upon part, he aAerted, that a Aipulatioa 
the whole, he oblerved, that we equally favouraUe to as was made 
had reftgned what was of infinite by Spain. On the fubjefl of the 
confeqoencc to Spain, and retained line of demarkation, he remarked, 
what was inftgnifiCani to oorfelyesj that it was judged moft expedient to 
and that what we had retained was leave undefined, what at the prefent 
fo vague in .its defcription, Jb nn- moment it was impoOible to afcer- 
defined in its limits, and confe- tain with fufiicient accuracy. . The 
quenily & liable to be aeun dif- addrcfs was carried by a majority 
puted, that we had conceded mnch of, iia,— Ayes 147 —noes 113. 
more in point of light, than we bad In the houfe of lords, theaddrefa 
Scqcired in point of fecurity. was fupported and oppofed upon 

Xlie chancellor of the exchc^Kft grounds fimilar to tkofe which had 
[ C ] 4 been 



4o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791, 



to have every ejrpendi- 
turc, occafioned in any 
degree by the arma- 
ment, Itated repajfitely, 
a.s be had pledged him- 
fclf that It IhoaM be, 
artd feparately provid- 
ed for i upon this prin- 
ciple he A'.ould inclade 
the expencea of the ad- 
ditional 6,000 leamen 



been previoully felefled in the boure 
of cotaaumi. The marquis of 
' LanfdoiVDe entered into a long dif- 
XufEon, not merely of the ments of 
tho particular treaty under confi- 
deration, but of the general views 
and political tran^ions of minif- 
t«r* with refpefi to foreign powers, 
from the petiod when ne himfelf 
re£gned his official litaation in the 
cabinet; of all which the m<)ft noble 

marquis completely difapproved. at - - - 31 2,000 
The previous queftion was moved ■■' ■ 

en the addrcTs, and loft by a ma. Left to be provided for 3,133,000 
jotity of 43, — Contents 30— nan- 1 

contents 73. Previoufly to ftadng the mode in 

On the ijth of December, ihe which he propoled to raife the above 
hoofe of commons having refolved fum, he toc^ a comparative view of 
jtfelf into a committee of ways and the ftate of the nation at tlie con- 
means, the chancellor of the exche- cluGon of tlie JaA war, and at the 
quer fubmitied to the committee a prefent period, when oar circsm- 
plan to defray the expcnces of the liances ivere peculiarly fortunate 
late armament, and the extraordi- and flouiifiiing. The fbrner par- 
nary charges of an additional num- liament, which found the conniry 
bcr of fcamen voted for the fervice dcpreiTed and apparently bordcncd 
of the cnfiiing year. The follow- beyond meafure, had not only laid 
ing, jie faid, were the expences in- the grounds of a gradual redafUon 



curred by the armament : 



of the national debt, but bad beheld 

£. it} endeavours in a degree crowied 

For the navy - i,jq;,ooo with fuccefs. The prefent parli»- 

army - ~ 64,000 -ment had not, he conceived, the 

ordnance - 151,000 lame difficulties to encounter; for 

the country was obvioufly more 

41,000 eqoal to the burdens, with which 

■ ■ '■ ■ — the late armament compelled tntnif* 

Making in the whole 1,821,000 ters unwillingly tp load it. He 

7'o which was to be hoped, thej-efore, that the houfe 

added, would meet the addition of debt 

The vote of credit ex- with firmnefs and energy ; that it 

pended - ■• 1,000,000 would not be contented to defray 

the inierell and leave the capital a 

permaneni: burden, but tJiat it would 



Making a total expence 

for the armament of 2,821,0 



From this, however, 
£. 200,oco might be de- 
ducted for naval (loros 
on hand, but this he 
Ihould avoid, wiihlng 



E the world of the magni- 
tude of our refources, ai well as of 
the increafe of our power. With 
this view he Jliould bring foiM ard a 
plan of yfxys and means adapted to 
ihc occa'ficii, utd Ihottld prqpofe 



Up-iieObyGOOl^le 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [41 

(^videndt, utd the two pa/menu of 
800,000 ]. neb, would form a. djt- 



Uxn, which wogld in a fliort tiaic 

pay off the whole of lUe adciiuoaal 
debt. The fiill rtf&urce, which he 
Jhoutd fuggell, was the balance of 
ibe iffues of public money for par- 
ticular purpoTu, which had accumu- 
lated ftom unpaid dividends in the 
hands of the direAots of the bank 
of EngUod. Ob [lie molt evident 
priociplei of prudence, of julUce, 
of good biih, and ceconomy, the 
paUic, he conceived, had a rigbt to 
avail itielfof ihii balance, a baJance 
which arofe from public iiTuci. 
Hii intention wu 10 give the cre- 
ditor eqnal fccurily, whenever a de- 
mand might be made, in the con- 
folidated fund. He ilated that this 
balance had been uniformly inereaf- 
itig from the year 1727. In th^t 
year it was 43,000 1. ; in 1 774 it had 
amaanted to 291,000!.; in 1775 
it decreafed fioo 1. being only 
:S4,ooal. : but in 17S6 it was 
314,000!.; and in July 5th, 1781^, 
when the laA amount was made up, 
it rofe to 547,000!. On the izth 
of laft Oaober there remained a 
floatii^ balance of 660,000 1. He 
propoied to appropriate from this 
iam to the public ufe 500,000!. 
which would leave i6o,oool. for 
the current fenrice of the year, to 
anfwer any eafual demand. 

His next propofal was to adopt 
fuch temporary taxes, as with the 
addition of the unclaimed dividends, 
And one permanent tax, might pro- 
duce a difcliarge of the whole debt 
in the fpace of four years. In t)te 
61& year lie would endeavour to 
find the means of paying off, inde- 
pendant of the interell, 8oo,^dooL 
of the capital, la the fecond year, 
by the continuation of the fame 
tixts, he hoped to pay off another 
800,000 1. Thos the 500/1001. 
which be propofed to appropriate 
from the balance of the anclaimed 



ul in the two firft years; 
whlcJi period pare of the taxei 
might be taken oftj and the oihen 
cjniinucd fur the payment of tha 
remainder in the two fubicquent 
years, forming a complete extinc 
tion of [he whole capital in four 
years. The 6r{l, wJiich he (bonid 
propofe, would be upon an article 
of genera] confumpiion, fugar, pay- 
ing at prcfent a duty of iza. 4d. 
per cwt. to which he Jhould annex 
an additional zs. 8d. Hence be 
expeAcd to raifc z4i,oooL The 
(ccond would be On fpirits, which 
he confidered as not lilcely to be 
evaded, when impaled for a fltorc 
tim£, and in a llight degree. Bll- 
[ilh fpirits were already taxed in tlto 
wafh at bd. per gallon ; brandy at 
5s.; and rum at 4s. He Ihould 
here add one-fixth bfthe cxiftingdn- 
ty, which would produce 140/3001, 
The third would be on malt, to be 
enforced only for tlie two firA years, 
on which he (hould propofe an ad- 
ditional 3 d. a bulhci. This he 
calculated at 111,000 1. The fourth 
would be a ux of to!, per ceoL o« 
all aflefTcd taxes (except the com- 
mutation and lar.d taxes} which he 
ellimaied at ioo,oool. LaJUy, he 
fliould propofe a double tax on 
gamc-lceepers, and the addition of 
one-third more on game- licences. 
Tlie whole ri.'capitulatcd would be 

£■ 

Sugar • - 141,000 
Brttilh fpirits - 86,000 
Brandy - - - 87/300 
Rum - - . 67,00a 
Malt - - . 111,000 
AtkSei taxes - 100,000 
Game licence* • 15,000 

728,000 



40 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

This, he retnarkedtwas nota falK- C)Knaineoftbeirconftitaeiiti,dldnot 

ctent fum, even with the coo.oool. remain mfiatu jue, notwithflaoding 

of the unclaimed dividend*, for the the intervention of a diflblntioaf On 

purpofes which he had ftatcH. To the 1 7th of December, in a commit- 

make ap the deficiency, he intended teeof the whole houfe. Sir Peter Bnr- 

to modify an exifting tax ujmn bills rell in the chair, Mr. Burke made a 

sf exchange and receipt] tn fuch a mouon to the following cffefl : " It 

■naitner a; to prevent the frauds hi- appean, that an impeachment of 

therto praftifed in evading it, and this houfe, in the name of the com- 

at the fame time to increa^ the re- mons of Great Britain in parlia- 

vcDu* at lecA 300,000!. The re- ment aflembled, and in the name of 

£uk[tonJ of this tax he meant to all the commons of Great BiitaiOj 

make not temporary, but perma- againfl Warren Haflings, efq. late 

sent. governor general of Beng^, for . 

If the plan, which he thai pro- ninilry high crimei and mudeinea- 

poTcd, fhonld be carried into effed, non, is now depending." 

the confolidated fund, be obfcrved, Thii motion, he obferved, in. 

would gain by the 500,000 1. from v<dved no abftrafl quellion, but wa> 

the bank, and the 800,000 1. of the a plain praflical aflertion of tbeir 

produce of the firft year, an aiJdi' privileges, as handed down to them 

tion of 1,300,000!. which fum ha by their predeceflbra through an 

fliould move to be ilTucd for the onintermpted fucceSion of five hun- 

year I7j)i ; and as a temporary dred years. In all the convulfions 

fburce for the remainder, he (hculd of our govcmiiient, in all the ftrug- 

propofc the adoption of exchequer gles, contefls, and incidental or 

o the amount of 1,800,000!. progreflive changes of the fimftioni 



Ail the above arragemeni! were and powers of the houfe of com- 
igreed to by the houfe, except the molts, this alone hid remained im- 
propoTal of appropriating to the mutable — that an impeachment was 



pnblic ufe the 500,000!. of the uri- never to be defeated by collafion 
clsimcd dividends. This meafure with a miniller, or by the power of 
being reprefenied as likdy to prove the crown, That an impeachment 
in fome degree injurious to the na- abated by a dilToluuon <^ parlia- 
tional credit, the minifter confented ment, he contended, was not to be 
to accept from die bank a loan of found in plain ixfrefs terms on the 
the fame fum, as long as a floating journals of the houle of lords, ort 
balance to that amount fhould re- the journals of the houfe of corn- 
main in the hands of tbctr c.ifhier, mons, nor in the minutes of the 
• The next fubjefl which engaged conferences between the two houfes, 
the attention of the houfe of cnni- It was not to be found in any book 
mons, was one of the utmoft import- of authority, or in any good report 
ance, not only to the deareff privi. of law cafes. 

le^es of that houfe, but to the very Mr. ErOdne, wifhing to gain 

exiftence of the conftitution itfclf, time for deliberation, moved, " That 

The qnefHon was, whether an im- Sir feter Burrell might leave the 

peachment brought by the com- chair." A debate of uaufual length 

mom of Great Britain in pariiamcnc enfued, The arguments advanced 

»ir;mUed, in their Qwo name, and in in favour of an abatement (argu- 

ventt 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. f+j 

ments aflerted on the other fide to could not unpriibn or bul fer • 
bzve been loaJctl with mach extra- fpace of time beyond the duntion 
neosa matter and irrelevant rea. of an exifting paroameot, yet nieht 
foning) were principally erounded proceed in /<»« jkb at the meeting 
upon analogies derived irom the of a new one, would not Tuch ■ 
general complexioD of pailiamen- power of proceeding be ridicnhHU 
tary proceedlngSt and from the in the extreme, when thejr poflefled 
principles of the coant of common not the means of fecnrio^ the ap- 
uw, aad npon precedents extraAed pearance of the culprit? 
from the jonrnals of the honJs of It was admitted, that the nature 
lords. of a trial bv impeachment dcprirad 
It was contended, that the idei the accufed of many advantagei, 
of taking up any proceeding of a which the law had provided for the 
former parliament was refuted by fafecy of accufed perfons in all other 
an inipardal foTTcy of all the powers cafes; and that therefore the re^ 
exercited by the houfe, as limited foning by analogy from legal pro- 
t^ immemorial uJage. If a day ccedings in general wouldnotcfofe- 
were appointed for attendance, but ly apply, it was neverthelefg con- 
that day did not arrive until after a tended, that a ray of light might 
diflbluuon, the fucceeding parlta- be thrown upon the queltion from 
ment could not i& upon it. If the that quarter; and that if a trial by 
commonsimprifonedtoracontempt, impeachment under the befl rego- 
ihe door of tbeir prifon was opened lacions violated fome of the eOa- 
immediately upon the ex{Hration of blilhed principle} of Englilh law, 
pariiamcBL If the commons had the continuance of it from parlia- 
fnmed a IhU, and their mcllenger ment to parliament violated than 
was carrying ic up to the lordi all, 

when the king diflblved the parlia. The firft maxim of law adduced 

ment, no fubfequent houfe coald in fupport of the above argument 

proceed npon that ftage of the bill, was this — that perfons accufed 

but the whole mull a^ain be taken flioald be brought to a fpeedy trial, 

up, if fuch a lull was in the nature in order to prevent long imprifon- 

of a public charge againll a culprit mentj, and all the mifenes inciden- 

of ftate, as an attainder and bills of tal to a ftace of tedious and cruel 

penalty, the fame rule attached up- fofpcnce. 

on it, and the culprit would efcap?. But if impeachments were allow- 

nnleA the proceeding Ihoold again ed to be extended in the manner 



propofed, it was obferved that they 
what could prevent Mr. Hallings, might continue for life, opcratiae 
if he plealco, ,from quitrine the to perpecual imprironmcnt i whicn 
kingdom? What penauy of bail would reduce the liberty of tbc fub- 
wuaguardoverhimorhisfViet)di? jeA not to a dependanceon the law. 
Would any bwyer aflen, that Mr. but to a^dependance on the will 
HaKings,orhii bail, could be touch- alone of one orancb of the legiiU- 
ed by an order of the lords between ture. 

psrliament and parliament ? Upon The fecond maxim adduced was, 
the fappofidoD then, tkit the lo^ds that the indi^dualt who arc ap- 
pointed 



<4] ANNUAL REGISTER, ijjr. 

fointed to try the caofu, flioajd be changes which might niuvoidabfj 

purified from all prejudices by the take place in the profccators, by 

challenge: of the prifoner. the eleflion of new managera, anJ 

It waa confeired, that the very in the court, by the adiciSion of 

cOTiHitation of a court, where the new peers, might make it impolTi- 

judge! fit by inheritance or the ble (or either party to proceed up. 

treation of the crown, in Tome de- on any but written evidence in di- 

gree militated againft this great reft oppofitlon to the geoios of 

maxim; but it was obferved, that Englilh law. On fudi kind of 

fuch a departure from an efUblilh- evidence, on evidence which mnft 

ed rule coald not, confidering the be taken upon trail, wliere the de- 

'number of the judges, be very dan- meanorof the wiLoefles could not be 

gerons in a Tingle parliament. Sup- obfeired, it was ftrenooufly main- 

pofing, however, xhal an impeach- tained, that their lordlhips ought 

jnent coDtinucd from parliament to not to ploclc a feather from a fpar- 

parliament, ihe perfon impeached row's wing. 

might at laft be judged not only by With rcfpcft to precedents, it 

^er.i, who woDld be toMl Grangers was faid, that the proper place to 

tn all the primary procfedings, but fcarch for them was in the journaU 

perhaps by fome of his very accu- of the hoofe of lords. Viewing an 

fers. impeachment in the light of a pro- 

The laft maxim adduced was; fecution on the accuTation o( the 

tVat a trial once commerced Ihould boufc of commons before the houfc 

po on without alteration or fcpara- of lords, could any man doubt by 

lion toprevent impreffionsfromany which honfe every qoeSioo, likely 

fouice but the evidence, which to affefl the inlereft of the prifon- 

Ihould be given by the witnelTes in er, (hould be adjudged i Common 

the prefcnce of the profecutor, the fcnfe and common jufiice revolted 

prifoner, and the court ; and that at the idea of a judgment, confe- 

the verdift (honid be formed on the tjuential perhaps to the fiite of the 

recent view and recolleAion of the culprit, delivered by his accufers. 

circuro fiances. It feemed, therefore, reaTonable, 

It was indeed admitted, as in the that every point refpeSing the ex- 

foimer inftapce, that the eonftim- iHing ftate of an impeachment 

ticn of the court in queilion was fliould be determined bv that court, 

not exaftly regulated by the above- where the commons had by law 

mentioned principle ; neverthelefs lodged it. 

it was aiTerted, that, confidering an The principal precedents which 

impcp.chment as a trial confined to were brought forward on this ccca- 

cne parliament only, the evil, how fion, were thofe which occurred in 

much foever to be lamented, had the years 1673, 1678, 1685, 1690, 

its limits. The profecutcrs were 1701 and 1717. The precedent 

thefairej the court partly fo; and of 1673 was concdved to relate 

the evidence, after adjournment or only to writs of error, and not to 

prorogation, might be reeollefled impeachments. It was faid to he a 

by the aid of notes. But if im- mere refolation of the lords upon a 

peachmenls were to be cominueJ. reference lo their committee, and 

from parliament to parliament, the fintply intended 10 decide the quef- 



HISTORY O F^E U R O P E. t^j 

tion. Whether wriu of error abated the queiHon, th»t of 1685 direfllf 

by » proropition f preferving a to- foppotted it. The precedent of 

I3I Clence on the point of a diiTotu- 1&8; completely annihilated th« 

tion. former ; for its language was, " Re- 

The pieccdcRt of 1678 tra's ad- folved, that the o^»r of the 191^ 

micted to be favourable to the doc- of March, 1 6yS, fhall be reverfed 

trine of a nan -abatement ; but to and annulled as to impeachments." 

dimioilh the authority of this pre- If the lords had juriUiftion to 

cedent it was remarked, that at the make the order of 1678, they cer- 

psiiod in vihkk it had been framed, tainly maft have bad jurifdidioa It) 

the nation wai excited to the higheft unmalce it. 

poffible pitch Bgainft popery, when The next precedent was that of 
nather the voice of rrafon nor of the year 1690. The lords Silif- 
lav coDtd be heard. On the 12th bary and Peterborough, who had 
of March, 1678, amotion was made been impeached by a former parlia- 
in tliebonfeof lords to declare, that ment, petitioned the houfe of 'lords 
writs of error, which by the refolu- to be difeharged from their impri. 
tion of 1673 had been confidered fonment, pleading a dilTolution of 
as condnuing from feffion to feffion, parliament as a caufe for that dif- 
conticued from parliament to par- charge, and lilcewife a free and ge- 
liament ; and a committee was ap- neral pardon. Tne operation of 
pointed to fearch for precedents, the pardon was referred to the 
This was merely to giirc colour to judges, upon the reception of whofc 
their fnbfemient conduftj for .only anfwer the prifoners were admitted 
two days after, without taking any to bail, but not difcharged. The 
ficps la confequence of the firit or- lords appointed a committee to 
der, it was added as an inftrnftion fearch for precedents. On ih? re- 
to the committee, that they Ihould port of this committee alone, with. 
make enqoiriet into the flate of the out the leaft reference to the gene- 
impeachments which had been ral pardon, thsy were fuppoled to 
brooght up in the preceding parlia- have r:'leafe4 the prifoncr! from 
nlen^ Accordingly, on the igth confinement. As an adJitional 
of the fame month, report was made proof of the accuracy of this Rate- 
to the hoafs, that on oerufa! of the ment, it was alfcrtcd, that if the 
journal of the igch of March 1673, parties had been entitled to the be- 
lt appeared that the flate of the nefit of the pardon, it muit have 
impeachnjents was not altered. The been argued before the lords in bat 
houfe acceding to this opinion, the to the impeachment, when the 
orJer of 1678 was made. The or- commons would have had a le?al 
der, therefore, in quefiion, was faid right to have been heard agjintt 
te have been enablilhed upon no that plea ; but no fnch right v.'as 
antecedent cuftom of parliament, exercired or claimed, Abuut the 
hut to have been framed upon a l^imc time Sir Adam Rhir, Mole, 
{(rained and abfurd analogy to writs Gray, and Elliott, who had been 
of error. previou fly impeached, were faid to 
fiut if the precedent of 1678 was have been Jibirated upon fimiJar 
sgtinft the argument on this fide grounds, without any ccmmunica- 

tio« 



U.Bn:e.t.,G001^lc 



46] ANNUAL TtEGISTER, I79r. 

lion with the coimnonst and with- moft unportxnt ca&t have wiibheM 

out any fubreqnentobjeaioa or dlT. the meaDs of proTecuting toconvic- 

&nshSdoD. tion. 

The caic ofihe doke of Leeds in Parliameot, it vu obferved* ex- 

1701 was next adduced. Upon ercifed two powers, legiilative and 

the meeting of a new parliameati judicial, which had their diflin£k 

the houfe of lords difmiiled the ar- limiti and duration. The confu- 

ticles of itnpeachment againll that fion of thofe powers waa the j»in- 

Bobletnaii, entering on their jour- cipal fource or all the doubts, npoa 

Dais ; " That in the former parlia- the queflion. Every legillative i£k 

ment the duke of Leeds had been was terminated both by proroeation 

impeached; articles brought up,and aikd dilTolutian; but no judicial && 

uuwer pat in ; but that the commons was influenced by either. Under 

notprorecuting, he'waidircharged." this laA head, impeachments were 

This difcharee was argued to have to be.clafled, 

been ordered by the lords in confe- The high court of parliament was 

qnence of the termination of their alTerted to be at all times an exif- 

jorifdidion, and not bv an sBl of ting conrt; and although, iroiB 

judicature upon a. fuolifting im- dlQolution or other caufes, it might 

peachmeut. not be fitting to do Jultice, it was 

The lall precedent quoted, was faid to be always open for the re- 

thatof 1717, whcnlord Oxford pe- ception of appeals and writs of 

titioned to be releafed from con- error. Theauthorityofthepeer^in 

finement, upon the fuppolitian that parliament did not depend upon the 

a prorogation alone was fatal to an fitting of parliament, although it 

impeacbment. This petition was was during that period that they 

rejefied by the houfe. It was how- cxercifed their authority in judicial 

ever con&dently maintained, that proceedings. The moment that 

the fatality of a dilTolution was a the king afhxed the feal to the 

|Mint acceded to by both parties patent oTapeerage,thedigDity and ' 

in the debate. This concJufion was privileges which belonged to it 1 

drawn from the language of the continued to the peribn during hii ! 

proteff, n-hich was ligned upon this natural life, and at his death de- | 

Occailon, the protetHng lords ex- fcended to his pollerity without 1 

prel&ng their fears, left the vote of change or diminution. The meet- | 

that day Ihould weaken the order ing, therefore, or parliament, was 

of i68j. to them no more than a notice and 

Very full and complete anfwers diredion from the crown to pro- 
were given to the preceding «r- ceed in the exercife of their pri- 
enments by the moft diltinguifhed vileges; butwhich the crown cwild 
fpeakers on both fides of the houfe. neither take away, abridge, or 
Sut it was previonlly argued upon render void. Such was the cafe 
crer^ principle of reafon a* an ah- of tbe judges in impeachment, 
fnrdity to conceive, that the confti- What was the cafe of the ptttfecu- 
tntion could have given to the com- tors t An impeachment ought not 
-niOQs the power of exhibiting to be confidered u the afl of the 
anidei of impeacbmcnt againlt a honfe of commons atone, but of tJI 
flate delinquent, yet perhaps in the the commons of Great Britain, the 

proceeding 



UigniaOb, Google 



HISTORY OFEUROPE. [47 

prtCNdkg being in de name both u in the inftrior courii after • 

ofcoddneats and reprefentadvet. ncadoD. Tn thii mumer weiw the 

The houTe of commons wts oaljr proceedings on an iinpeaciuneu 

the legal organ of inAicaUog im- lofpendedbyevery prorogation, and 

peacfanenti, u the attorney general the cominittee of managera ii(- 

wai of filing bill* tx tjicio, or folved. After the prorogation the 

an indiftmeiit in the name of the committee was always re-appointed, 

crown. In the CMie cafe the king and the trial refumed. 

ptoTecuted; indie other the whole On the pointof analogies deduced 

commons of the realm. If there- from the principles erf the coarta 

£>re neitber the judges nor the pro- below, it wu obferved that if x 

fecDtort of an impeachment were right admicted for centories wer* 

either poUacallv or phyfically an- to be fappofcd doubtfuU becanCt 

nihilated; if it were tme, that, fixne ingenioiu men had endea- 

ahhoagh the means of ading were vonred to bring it into qnellion by 

br a time fofpended, the right re- forced analogies- to the nilei^ of 

nained ; it fbUowed, that every jU> other courtSi cftablilhed on very 

dicial proceeding, in which they different principles, and Handing on- 

were engaged before fnch an event circumftances entirely dillJnft tram 

took place, revived on theirmeeting thoie, in which the two houfet 

again; and that during fnch an in- flood with refpefl to any procced- 

terval every fuch procnding mnft ingi before the houfe of lords in 

be Sill depending. its judicial capacity, there was no 

In reply to the armament of ana- right, fo fanAioned by immemorial 

logies derived from the general mge, which might not be con- 

corapIexSoD of parliamentary pro- tro verted ; no privilege, however va- 

cee£ngs, it was obferved, that this luable, which might not become a 

argmnent, if it proved any thing, fnbjeft of cavil and altercation, 

proved too much; becaufe it equally Much confufioiti of idea, and 

tended to annihilate an impeach- many nnnecefTary attempt) to draw 

ment after prorogation as after parallels, where no parallel exifted, 

dillblation. Whatever qnellion it was remarked, would have beni 

occupied the honle in its legislative avoided, had the gentlemen on 

capacity, it terminated alike in both the oth?r lide taken the leaft pains 

inftances. If a legillative a& was to acquaint themfelves with the 

in its progrefa, a prorogation was only law applicable to the queflioB 

known to pot an end to it as cam- under debate — the law of parlia- 

pletely and effeflually as a diflbin- mcnt. fiy this law, every point 

tibn. It was only judicial pro- which affefted tbe privileges of 

ceadings which furvived th: one or parliament fhould be decided, and 

the other. During the interme- not by dillorted rules extraOed 

diate period occalioned by either, froih imaginary comparifons with 

the high court of pariiament, indeed; the practice of inferior courii. Th« 

coold not fit, any more than the law ofpariiament, as extant in all 

conns of common law, in the in- iu ancient cuft6ins and ufages, was 

terval between term and term ; but not contrary to the eflabliSied law 

when parliament again aflembled, of the land, but-a great and impor- 

jodkial proceedings revived, ja& tant [lartof it. It was thg fuprems 
t )u>d 



4«] 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



smd Ibvercign law of the conftita' was deemed reqnifite; but in the 
tion, plain and pra£li»], deformed former it wat necellar^i 'from the 
by no theoTcticad conceits, no very conflttation of the coort itfelf, 
qoibUing fubtletiN. It fpoke a thatjudgmentlhouldbeforraedapon 
lan^ge level to every capacity, written evidence. Were the rules of 
which the meaneft could not mif- the cpurt of king'i bench to obtain 
^prehend, and which the fublimeft in the houfe of ^rdi, the qaeftion 
inu8 a.dinire. would be tntirely at an end, and the 
Analogies of the kind alluded to benefit of impeachment at once «n- 
were (aid to be capable only of mif' nihilated; ftnce it would then be 
1ea:1ing, bccaufe the proceedings better to Ale an indidment in one, 
and principles of aftlon were fun- than prefer Ati itnpeachinent in die 
damentally dilFerent. The coQrt other. But the very foundation of 
of the king in parliament could not impeachments refted upon a power 
with tlic leall propriety be com- of bringing delinquents to juflice, 
pared to a common trial by jary. who would have efcaped, if tried 
When a jury was impannelled to according to the ordinary rules of 
try a caufe, a iudge prefided. The the courts of judicature, it was 
judge took notes, but tb ere was no likewife remarited, that even in thofe 
ftop to lake down the quellion, no courts written evidence was by no 
flop to receive the anfwer, no form means novel. Upon this fpecies oT 
which made the evidence a fpecies evidence the court of chancery pro- 
of record; bat all n'as done on the ceeded in almoll al! its dccifions, 
J;enenl jinniediaic impreflioD. The It was alfo well known that nine 
uryconldnotreparateunill theyhad tcnthsof mifiiemeanors were tried 
given their vcrdiO ; and if they re- at fillings, atid the record being re-, 
tired they retired in the cuftody of turned lO the court from which it 
■ bailiff. The cafe pf the court of iffaed, fcntence was there pro- 
the king in parliament was quite nouncedby judges'whohadheardna 
diftinft. There the proceedings part of the oral evidence, who had 
became a matter of record ; for the feen nothing of the demeanor of the 
^aeHion, iiiftead of being dircflly iivironer or witnefles, who had no 
put to the witnefa, was prapoled 10 knowledge whatever of the cafe or 
the court fay the managers or the its circumftances, but what they re- 
cotmlel; ths chancellor, who pre- ceived from the notes of the judge 
fided, then put it to the witnefs, that nied it. Upou the whcde it 
when both the quertion and the was obferved, that almofl every ar- 
anfwer were written down by the gument derived from the fource of 
clerk previous lo any fubfequent what had been termed legal .ina- 
proceeding. Thus not the general logies, not only militated againft 
efhat, but the prccife terms, wtre, any future proceedings, but againft 
taken down and prefirved for the . the very exiftenceilfelfofthathigh 
benefit of the court, An impeach- court, which had been for eentorjes 
meat was obferved to be an extraor- the bulwark of Britilh freedom. 
dinary cafe, which did not admit of When the topic of precedents 
b:ing coodufted upon the fame was difcuffed, it was premifed, tbat 
■ rules as an ordinary trial. In the upon a queftion of privilege it had 
latter inllaiice -viva vm evidence always been the piaftice of their 



,,Coc,gle 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [49 

fKdeceffioi to ctndalt tfieir own been quoted, was the refblution of 
jontttla, and not thofe of the bode 1673. On thit it liad been obferv. 
of lordi. Tbeir own journal) coo- ed, that,' fince do mention wu made 
(lined not the ihadow of a doubt in it of im peach mEnts, a difTulutioo 
upon the fubjefi. The right of the operated in abaterarnt of fuch pro- 
nmiDons to profecute a &te delin- ceedine*. fiui it was anftfcred, 
qsent to convifiion, in deiiance of that the Tery contrary feemed de- 
all oppc^tion from the crown or iti ducible from the report of the com* 
miniften, ID defiance of prorogation nictee, which exprertlj' compre- 
w diflUation, had always been con- hended not only writs of error and 
8dered in that houfe as a great petitions of appeal, but in general 
•nd coollitational pritilegc, without " airf ttier bafiaefi -Kbtrtin their 
which the Gontronl of the people " Urdpifi ail tu in a courl af Judi- 
over the executive branch of go- " eaturt, utd net in iheir itgijlatkit 
vemment would be rendered inefl " <afaciiy." .All fuch buiiDcffi;! 
feftnat. So decided had their pre- were declared to extend from fef- 
tleceffbrs been upon this point, that fion to feOion, which wai conlider- 
the jonrnalt of the honre of cora- ed as tantamount to an extenfioa 
Dions hare niffcr been difgraced by from parliament to p:ir1iamcnt ; the 
a fingle fnrmife of an oppofitc ten- ciFeA of a prorogation and of a dif- 
dency. Bat even if rccourfe were folution being precifdy the fame, 
had to rite jonmali of the houfe of putting an end alike to all pending 
lords, not one authority could there meafurcs of a legi(I;<.tivc nature, ana 
be Ibund on theother fide, but the alike leaving untouched all judi- 
miferable decilion of 168;, which cial proceedings, unlefs impcach- 
was laid to have been rated from ments could be (hewn to be a (ingJe 
the afhes, where it had long lain anomalous exception. In fiift, the 
defpiied and forgotten by the veiy precedents contained in the report 
boufc that made it, and contami- went e<]ually to a continuation from 
nated by the dcfpicable circuffl- parliament to [Arliament, as from 
fiances which had given it birth, feffion to feflion ; and they were 
and the anprincipled limea in whicK taken indifferently from civil and 
it had been framed. criminal caufes, whether in the 
To reader precedents of full au- •ppelhte or original jurifdiflion of 
thority, it was Anted, that they the lords, and by whom ever irKi- 
ougbt to be nnmeroiu, and not feat- tuted, at the fuit of an indiviaual, 
tered here and there^to be con- the crown, or the cominons. The 
current, and not contndiftory— to refolution of 1673, therefore, muft 
have been nade in good conAitu- have been detigncd to include im- 
tional tiiDes, not to have been peachments; and fo it was undcr- 
fnmed for the purpofe of ferving a ftood, by the bcft and moft autlien- 

Crticolar occafion~-and laflly, to tic interpreters of its meaning, the 

agreeable to the general tenor lord; ihcmfelves ; who, orly £ve 

of legal principles, which Ihould al- j-cars aft^r, grocindeJ themfelvej 

wap orer-nile them. — Hut nothing immediately upon it, in determin- 

ofthii kind had been proved, or at' ing the conttnoance of impeach- 

leiBpted to be proved. ments from psrliament U parlia- 

The firft precedent wbich had Bicnt. 
VolXXXUI. \t>\ It ' 

LHi-reM,, Google 



jol ANNUAL REGISTER, lygr. 

In thedifcuffionof tH« precedent Two years after, and when an* 
of 16781 it was allowed that the other parliament had been difiblvedi 
times were limes of much ferment ; the lords hefvtated not to fcal ihii 
but it ivas contended that 'the new fefolution with fomc of the aobleli 
refolution grew naturally out of the blood of their own illultrious order, 
former report and refolution of in the trial, coo dcm nation, and e.xe- 
1673, and that the ijucllion at that cuiion, of lord Stafford; refuting 
time debated in the hou(e of lords even to hear his counfel againll it, 
had nothing to do with the po- in arreit of judgment. And what- 
pifli plot, it referred fimpty to the ever may have been the merits of 
cafe of lord Danby, who hsd been the fenterue by which that unfor- 
impeached for crimes totally dif- tnnate nobleman perilhcd on the 
tinil frbm the plot, and was de~ fcaffold ; tlie regularity of the pro* 
cided by a houfe not particular-; ccfs againft him has never been at- 
ly inimical to that miniller. But tempted to be vitiated. No error 
the faircit mode would be, not to was afligned on that ground in the 
citimatc the charaAcr of tbcparlia* bill for reveiGng bis attainder, 
ment by the charaAer of the times, which under the fucceeding mo- 
but rather by its conllitutional a£ts, narch was fent down by the lords, 
both in its legislative and judicial and rejeded by the commons. 
capacity. In that point of view it Again, after lord Stafford's death, 
V/3.S afTcried that there was not one and after a third dilToludon, the 
important or material privilege of lords afted jiiJicially on this lame 
pcnonal freedom, parliamentary in- itile, by appointing a day to confi- 
dependence, or conAltutional prin- der the demand made by the com- 
tiple, afterwards enafted at the re- mons, for judgment againll lord 
volution, which had not been en- Danby ; and they alio afted judi- 
forced and carried by the parlia- cially upon it about the fame time 
ment of 1678; and that therefore in another impeachment, which had 
its reputation ilood as high as any been brought up at the dofe of the 
in the annals of our hiftory. At a lift parliament againll Sir William 
fublequent [leriod the quenion was Scrogga, chief juftice of the king's 
sigain mentioned in the houfe of bencn, and to wluch in the ww par- 
commons. The managers of lord liameat they recorded his anfwer. 
Danby's impeachment, among other . Nor does the authority of the 
things, reported, that in a confer- precedent flop here. The princi- 
cnce rcfpefting the impeachment, pie of it, while it yet exifled only 
one of the loriU reminded the com- in the fpirit of the report and refo- 
mons that ttiey had obtained a lution of 1673, received the appro- 
great point in that parliament, viz. bation of the third brancii of the 
8 declaration that impeachments legiflature ; for in opening the par- 
did notabatebyadinblution; when liament of 1678. the lord chanceJ- 
the managers replied, that nothing lor, by command of the king, in- 
had been gained, as the point in formed the two houfes of the appli- 
queltion " was nothing but what cations made by the impeached 
" was agreeable to. the ancient lords to be tried on (heir iodifi- 
'• courfe and methods of paHia- ments in the interval of parlia- 
- ment." meat; " but (continued he) hit 

"jnajeft;' 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [51 

" majedy thoaghl it fitter to re- contradiA the hA of the opinion 

" feive them to a more public and then Hated to them, and the doc- 

" coafpicuous trial in parliament, trine drawn from it, but viRt:!itly 

*■ for which nufe tiiir iriali tagbt admitted the general principle by 

" mm tt ht bmjtmtd." Aiier the rale avoiding the qucltion.aiid dccidlnf; 

was given, the king himfelf twice in that inlhtnce on the pleading;* 

recognized and enforced it from the alone ; — that the impeachment, as 

throne, by recommending to the there pleaded, did not apply with 



fucceeding parliament! the pro* any certainty ti 
:ution of the lam 



fecucion of the lame impeachment), the indiAment. The jadgei too. 
In the eftimation of thole who truly who having twice refufcd, did 
know and value the conftiiution of at lall bail lord Dnnby, in l68]. 
thi$ country, nothing can be want- after an imprifonmcnt of five year>, 
ing beyond the concurrence of bound him to appear on the firft 
king, lordi, and commons, on a day of the next parliament ; by 
rule of proceeding in parliament; which proceeding their tnunediate 
bat in truth, it had alfo the fan^ion fucceflbrs nnderfbod them to hare 
of all the fagM of the law. The affirmid hii ctumiimait, and confe- 
ctnncellor, who in the king's name quendy the validity of the refolti- 
opened the parliament of 1678, wai tion of 1678, as indeed lord Danby 
Finch lord Daventry, afterwards himfelf had expref«ly argued iin hu 
earl of Nottingham, a name of high application to oae court, 
refped in the Taw : nor did he ex- Such was the precedent of 1C78, 
prefs merely the fentiments of hii fo fortified by authorities of every 
mailer, of himfelf, and the other dedription. What, on the con- 
miidfters of the crown : he fpolee trary, was the boaSed precedent of 
the deliberate opinion of the twelve i6S;r This wai faid to have been 
jodgei, who at the council table made on ihefiril day of the GrAand 
had declared, that " the impeach- onlyparliamentofjamca theSecond, 
■■ ments being lodged in'partiimcnt, in the moment of adulation and fer- 
" no other profecution could be vility. If ever there were a time 
*■ againft the lord], tilt tie frejicu- dangerous to the liberty of this 
** fiM y lii emwiami •mat drier- country, that was aflerted to have 
* miiad-" direflly implying, that been the period: a weak and bi- 
the impeachments had not abated gotted prince upon the throne; a * 
by the intervening diiToIution. A packed and garbled houfe oF corn- 
principal member of that venerable mans, alnjoll named by the king, in 
Iwdy, chief jull ice Scroggs, two confetjuence of the violent and ar- 
years after, attelled his opinion in bitrary deftruftion of the charters 
the llrongeft manner by his own of different corporations; and a 
GondttS ; and in the cafe of Fits- people worn down by their repeat* 
barns, when fome were prefent on ed tlruggles with the crown. To 
the bench who had concurred in this it might be added, that to have 
the opinion relative to the five proceedea with the impeachment in 
lords, the court not only did not quellion, wonld have been tmpof- 

* On the Tcnr day that tb« prtccdrnt of ifiSj bears date, the houfe of com- 
mons baving olTcred to Hand by the king wiih their lives and rorturn, againft the 
duke of Argyte't rebellion, th^ were told in anfwer, that " he could not ncpiCt 
" teb from a bouTe of coromtsis fb compaled ai (God be dianlccd) tbcT wciCt" 

[O] J cue, 

A.lH.glC 



J*] 



ANKOAL REGISTER, 1751. 



fibic, as the prindpal witnefies had ment, and other) who ai^ed his m«* 

been convided of perjury. Yet, at ritorious Aiare id the revolution, xnd 

fuch a time, and under fuchcircum- his diligence in the fervice of his 

llances, was the honfe of lord) country ; yet no man ventured to 

Klhamed to declare the refolution objeA his diTchargc^ under the pre- 

of 1678 to be contrary to law; for, cedent of i6S$,ua bar to any pro- 

on the very day when the iofainous ceeding on the impeachment. Why 

Jefierieg took his feat ai a peer, it then fhould the commons of this da/ 

was reverted wiihgut putting any look with reverence to a precedent, 

declaration in its place, without en- palTed over wich filent difdain by 

qiiiry, without examination, •uiiili- their anceilor;, and abandoned even 

tulthiinaviUJgeiiftbetemauni,i.nA by ihofe in nitofe favour it wa* 

without daring to loolc in the face made i 

the very refoluiion about to be re- As to the luppofed precedent of 

verfed ; the protcft exprefsly fiatine, 1690, in the releafe of the lords Pe- 

tLat it -wat Ml eiitn alla--aitJ to M terborough and Salifbury, it was 

rtaJ, alihaagi rt^eattdly calUd fir. afierted that it did not apply to the 

Could fuch a precedent, it was afk- quellion ; or if at all, that it applied 

ed. be ferioulTy brought forward as the other way. One thing it proved 

fufiicient to overturn eftablilhed beyonddifpute.thatthehoufe of lords 

law, deftroy every conllituiional (and indeed the courts of common 

principle, and trample upon the law) feemed to pay no more atten- 

privileges of the commons ? tion than the commons to the pre- 

How did the commons, when the cedent of 1685. A new parliament 

kingdom began again to enjoy free met on the zoth of March i6S9» 

parliaments, treat this precedent ? and continued fitting nearly fbor 

With total difregard. Lord Danby months, yet all this while the two 

was one of the peers difcharged lords remained clofe prifoners in 

tmder it. On the revolution he \vas the tower,^n<lrr the itnpeachmeBt ; 

appointed prefident of the council, and neither they, nor any lord on 

and foon after Created marquis of their behalf, (and they afterwards 

Carmarthen. In the year 169a how- appeared to have many friends in 

ever, becoming once moteobnox- the houfe) once dreamed of claiming 

igus to the commons, in a grand the benelit of that which is Tx>tt 

'^ commjttee oh the ftate of the na- maintained to have been an exif1in|r 

tion, a motion was made for an ad- rule of law, binding in its authority, 

J^fs to remove him from the king's ami entitling them to their imme.* 

councils, and menaces of refuming diate dKcharge. They did not ven- 

the former impeachment thrown out turc to petition that they might 

Bgainft him*. " You may driraaJ even be bailed ; but, daring one of 

*' judgnuit agaiaji him," faid Sir the prorogations which enfited, lord 

Jphn Guife, " he hui nothing lophaj Salifbury had reccurfe for that pur- 

".bat tht pardani' and though the pofe to the king's bench. The court. 

lord preGdent had many to defend however remanded him to the tower, 

him.foiaewho reprcfented the hard- grounding theml'elvcs principally 

ihip of reviving an old impeach- on the trial of lord Stafford, a* a 

# Gray's DebateS) vol, X. p. 144. ■ 

• caft 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [jj 

ctleofdearuidfeand law; u well menu from the operation of the 
■I on the conditioD of the bul-bond, diflbtution. On the contrary it was 
tafcsD from lord Danbviii involving anfwered, that tlie only ground of 
an alBnnaace of the lame principle, the vote was the genera) pardon. 
When psriiuBcnt re-aflembled for To omit the inferencM refnlting 
the dHpatck of bufinefg, the two from the whole courie of antece« 
tonls did petition the houfe. And dent tranfaflions, the protelt, it was 
what faid their petitions r Did they remarked, could not be read with- 
rely on the precedent of 1685 1 Did out 3, full conviction ofthe aJTcrtion. 
they raife a oaeftion of law on ibe The reafons of dilTent afligned were, 
abatement of impeachments by a that the qucftion moved had no re- 
diflblotion t Ho fiich thing. Lord lacion to the real debate before the 
SaUibiuy did not even glance at it. houfe, and was urged upon them. 
He nude the length of hu imprifon- not far the fake only of the two lordj 
meat, and the aA of pardon that mentioned ;— that they ibouldhavc 
had pafled in the former fellioo, examined the etfefii of a pardon, 
the fiue grounds of his application, where an impeachment was con- 
Lotd Peterborongh, it is trDe< did cerned, as well as the difference be- 
meotion k ; but how } Incidentally, tu'eeit an aA of grace, and an aA of 
and mingled op with other topics, indemnity ;— and that they ought in 
addrefled to cofflmiferation,—-" that juHicc firit to have heard the boufe 
« he had been kept a prifoner in of commons, who were parties. 
•' the tower almoft two years, not- What then was the real debate be- 
" witbllanding « Ji^lutian, rndfi- fbre the houfe \ It was to receive 
" 'Vtrai frtragainnt, as alfo att aH the report of precedents, and to 
*" rf ge»tral pardan." Thefe peli- afcertam the law, and ufage of 
tioni were delivered and read on parli.iment on that rubjefl : and that 
the fecond oFOAober 1690, yet the is the very thing which is now con- 
two lords were not finally difcharged tended to have been done, but it i« 
t^ the thirtieth of the fame montli ; alio the very thing which the pro- 
as that day the order ftood for tcfting lords complain was not done. 
receiving the report of the com- Theycomplain thatanother^ueAion 
mittee appointed to fearch for pre- wn; ur^cd upon theni, and they 
cedents refpefiing the continuance add, '■ not for the fake only of the 
of impeachments. This report, k " two lords mentioned." Alwhom 
was oMerved, is meagre, impcrfeft, do they glance 1 At the marquis ot 
confiried, in fome paSages demon- Carmarthen, whom Sir John Guile, 
llrably erroneoiu, and contkin* not and other memberg ot^ the lower 
even the fuggellion of an opinion houfif, had recently threatened with 
on the true rule of law. It was bis old impeachment. His profe- 
read, and many thingt moved, which cution liad laded to the fourth paf- 
do not appear on the journals; till liament, without any objeflion on 
at laft a qoeftion was pot and car- his part to the principle of conti- 
ried, reMving that " tbetwolords nuance. That point therefore he 
" ^tM it mvi dilcharged." Now conld not now with any grace sd- 
this, it h»d been contended, muft vance ; but at the moment wb^n 
have been done in confrijuence of the laft parliament of Chailes the 
the ab«wtt«tt of their impeach- lid. was fuJdenlydiUblvcd, he was 

m 3 « 



54] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

at ilTue with the conmoni as to die asd the reft cooteottd themfelvei 

elTcf) ofap^trdon^bichbehadlong with humbly Ibewing, how long 

before pleaded in bar of their im- they had been in attendance on the 

pfiichinent. Neither couid any orders of the faoufe. Soch coodufi, 

tiling be imagined more ridiculous and fuch langu>|e, were utterly ir- 

than the remaining reafonSf if the recoitcileable with the interpreti- 

lords had been difiharged, becaufe tion now pat on the difcharge of 

the impeachment had previoully a- lord Peterborough and lord Sa> 

bated. To have amufed themfdves liibury. 

with detinrng aftsof gracc.andaib -The next pretiedent of 1701 
of indemnity, would have been idle, was aflerted to be Hill more acfor- 
had the debate been wholly taken tunatc than the two former. It wu 
on a diAinAand feparateground: TO the cafe of the duke of Leedi. 
have exaiiiined into the effeft of a This nobleman, it was remarked, 
pardon on an impeachment would fcems to have been born for the 
have been Hill more abfurd, had the pnrpofe of illultrating and exempli- 
decijion fuppofed that the impeach- fying, in his political life, kU the 
ment had ccafed to exift nine months dodrines of impeachment. In fail 
before; and to have heard the com- perfon, when he was lord Oanby, 
mons as parties would have been all the great qaelUons of 1678 were 
impojTible, fince there can be no difca£~edi he was one of ike tordi 
parties where there is no caufe. difcharged under the refolotion of 
The cafe of Sir Adam Biair 16S5; for his fake, when be was 
and others, was Hated to be ai marquis of Carmarthen, the pn- 
little to the pnrpofe as the for- cedent of 1690 wts underftooa to 
jner cafe, with which it was co- have been made; and in 1605 he 
temporary. Noattemptsweremade was again impeached, as duke of 
by the commons to go on with the Leeds, He put in his anfwer with- 
yrolVcution in the new parliament, out delay; but the commona not 
and yet the lords held the parties proceeding, when the feffion was 
accuCed to bail for nearly eight drawing to a clofe the lords fent 
months, which tvas wholly incon- down a meflage with an iniimatiim 
Client with the notion of an abate- to that purport, and an offer to ap- 
Uicnt. Lut in one point of view point a day for the trial. That very 
thii cafe was important, as con- parliament,after fitting betweenfiv* 
nefted with the former cafe. Sir andfixyears,hadUtelypaffedthctri* 
^dam Blair, and the perfons im- ennial bill ; and under thefe circum- 
pe:iched with him, did not apply to (lances it was obvious that a proro- 
be freed from the obligation of their gation and diffolution would be one 
recognizances, tillmori:tbanamonth and the fame. The commoiu an- 
after the two earls had been com- fwered, that they could not proceed 
pletelyfet at liberty. Nor did their for want of their principal witnefi, 
petitions (when they did come] in who had withdrawn luraielf; in con- 
any manner allude to that event, or fequence of which communication 
to the operation of the previous dif- the lords, on the laH day of the 
foluiion i captain Mole reprefented fcffion (the laft day of the parlia- 
that he was a foreigner, and una- ment, as they mull have been con- 
ble to fuaM under fuch rellraint; fcioui) addtclTed the king to iCTue a 

procla* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [SJ 

pTodftmatten far nintting op ell the modem date, reem to defetre par- 
fora. Not to what did — to what tkular notice, as much reliance wai 
codd.^at addreff point, but to the placed npon them by the two greac 
frodoflioa of that wttnda in the political antagonids, Mr. Pin and 
aext pari lament r The witnefihow- Mr. Fox, who on this occafion 
crer was not fonnd, and the im- united in defenceof the confliiuiion. 
peachment icoiained in that Hate The exanple which, in the earif 
&r Gre yean, mJ tbreagi frutral pages of o«r hillory, moft forcibly 
Jkct^vt parliiaunt: At length in ftruck the mind of Mr, Pitt, wat 
1701 thehoafcof lords took np the the cafeofthedukeof Siiflbtlciprinie 
ule, bat by no meanf declared that minifler and favourite of Henry VI. 
the impeacBment had been long at He was impeached in i45oforhigk 
aaend. On the contrary diey dif- treafon, and en a ifubieqnent day 
charged it, not ai a tUng paft, not for high crimes and mifdemeanoars; 
u m»x which might not have been both which feu of articles the com. 
caniedintv effeAop to the exilling mons prayed to be recorded and 
ntoment of time, but as that which proceeded upon " daritg iht Jkat 
was ta hare no opcradon in future: " parliameHt,ai the tnatltri and cau/ti 
" lit temM»at met fn/iculntg," fays " rtquirid" But wherefore did tJicy 
the order, " thi itaptathmint and or- makie this exprefi prayer, and vhy 
" tida sflALi. BE oJiJ art brrebf did they think it neceflary to fapport 
" d^^U^;"— an irrefta^ble proof it with a motire drawn from the 
that ibe impeachment in qneftion fpecial nature of the cafe, if it wai 
abated by the voinntary aft of the the ordinary, legal, and only couHe 
coomions, and not by tiie operation of proceeding ? They certainly coh' 
ef a diflidution. ceived that the lords might, and 
With refpeft to die laft prece. probably feared that they would, 
dentof 171^, in the cafe oft£e eari give a day in a Future paHiament; 
of Oxford, It wai aflerted that the and tbcy wiftied at leaA to fecure the 
cealbiuog npon the proteft, which anfwerof the impeached minifter on' 
bad been figned upon that occaiion, record ; well aware that he mult ad- 
wai extrcm^ fellaciont. Inftead mit neatly all the faftg charged 
of aligning from thence that the upon Um. and jofti^ himfelf, as he 
doftrine of an abatement by a dif- attempted to do, 00 the concurrence 
bittdoa wa« acceded to by both - of fbme of his colleagues, the fan e- 
iiea of the honfe, all that fairly tion of the privy council, or die po- 
coidd be dedmced from it was this, fitive uthorit^ of the kin^- WWt 
viz. duu both fides of the honfe the iflue was in that parliament, i« 
coindded in the opinion that diJib- well known. The king, who on the 
luifM and prorogation were the iicft prefenanent of the articles to 
fame thii^. If therefore the honfe the lords had in vain ordered the 
decided, that prorogation did not conlideration of them to be refpited 
pnt an end to an impeachment, the till he was otherwife advifed. at \a% 
Anaat condnCon would be, that when the dnke had been brought to 
they conceived diflblntioo to be hii anlwer, endeavoured to compro- 
eqoally ineffednaL mife with the ftem jnftice of par- 
Two other autharitiee, one of a liament for the life d* his favonrite, 
mnc Uitient and the other of a more and paJIed upon him an arbitrary and 
[D] ^ anomaloui 



561 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

anomaloQS fentence of banifluneot wbich bad bwn fapprefled Ibme 
for five yean; againft which the mootht before the holding of the laS 
lords folemnly proielted. When the psrliamenti But oowabillwupsf- 
next parliament met, the comnioni fed for the attsuodcr of Cade, wbich 
refumed the bufinefs ; but ic the was perfe£Uy unoeceCary, ai he had 
meantJinethediikcof Suftblk, as he been already attBiDted byanadiBIl 
was guing into biinilhmeat, having on the llatute-roll ; all the indid- 
been violently put to death, they menis, with their depeadenciMiWhicl* 
could not demand judgment againft had been brought before hiacommir- 
him in a judicial courle. They did Stooen by his authority, and all cor- 
therefore, what was ufual tn fimiUr ruptionsofbloadinconlt:queBce,wcre 
cafes, they broDght in a bill of at- fetafide^— as they would have other* 
tainder and forfeiture, but not in the wife been by operation of Uw ; the 
ufual manner, lliey did not in the facne repiedy was provided againft li- 
preamble ground themfelvcs fab- milar a£bin allcafesof fiicurerefael- 
itantively on his crimes, but direftly lion and infurrc^on, which the very 
on the impeachments, and the infuf- cafes themfelvei would ecjuall^ well 
ficiency of his anfwera, aiuuxing tb* have provided: and \t&\j (in re- 
froct/i B! their preaf; and becaufe ference to the coaduding part of 
*■ jkidgment was not then had, ai the recital, that untrue articles and 
" juHice according to. his merici petitions had been forged by Cade) 
" required," they go on, in a Ian- all petitions againft the king's in- 

fuage not to be found in any othcf tent, and not agreed by htm, -wctk 

ill of attainder of the fame. period, ordered la h< put Ueilivkii, fn^^^, 

to ordain that by the authoriiy of wvaided, and ankulltd far ever. This 

the prefent parliament he may be is the only real enaAment in the 

" adjudged" a traitpr. The lords biUi and whatever collateral obje A 

concurred with the commonsj the it migl'iC have in view, is diredly le~ 

bill was aflually enrolled, but, in a veiled at the propofed bill for the at- 

form not common, the royal nega- tainder of tbedukeofSuflblk: fince 

tive appean to have been afterwards that is the only petition on record 

cndorfcd upon it. This formidable of the laft parliament, which had any 

impeachment, however, fo alarmed reference to orticks, or which re- 

the advifers of the court, who were ceived an unqualified and abfolate 

the friends and conneflions of the negative from the king. The an* 

decearedminille[;and theking'spre- thori of this extraordinary meafnre 

rogattve, wb^h had been irrega- could nothaveconfidered what tbey 

larly exerted throughout the quef- werethusanuouitodellroy asamere 

tion with the commons, was fo far bill of attainder, which, like erery 

implicated; that to get riJ of the other Icgiflauvemeafure not agreed, 

fubjcA altogether a lingular expedi- mull have expired with the traion ; 

ent was employed at the commence- and it is impoJSble to look through 

laent.of the enfuing parlianieiit; all the circuxnftancea of this conteft, 

when, from the mifcariiage of the and not be convinced, that none of 

dukeof YorkinhismarchtoLondon, the parties concerned in it cnnr- 

the e!c£tions had gone wholly in fa- tained a thought of an impeach- 

vouTof the conrt. A pretence wai mentabatingbyadiUblntknof par- 

talKn front the Kentiih tcbellion, liamcnL 

Ti» 



i.,Cii.>0'^le 



HISTO-RY OF EOROPE. I57 

Tie uvammt of Mr. Fox, to lievedtooiinnljreftablUhed on pria- 

vkicfi atkiSoa has been madtf, was ciple and praftice ever to be Jfaiknu 

feoHled on a b& in the hiltory of Thus the whole legillature, by the 

piriiament, connefted with the Tub- aft which conferred on Mr, Haf- 

y& of the present impeachtnenc, tings hU high oJHce, gave him no- 

Tiia was the explanation originally ticc, that an enquiry into his con- 

prtn to that honfe, of a claufe ia da£t, if he fhould be charged wi^ 

tbe India Bill of 1773; the very having abured the power entrnHed 

bill, by which Mr. Waitings wa» to him, might lall beyond the !i- 

M. appointed governor general of mits of one parliament ; and the 

BcDgtL Among other regulations commons, at a time when no-pa£o« 

ofthb law, are introduced feveral can in any degree have tvarpci 

provifims tor bcilitating proceed- their judgments, declared profpec- 

iDgi .in pariiament againft the de- tivcly their calm and deliberate o^-- 

linqoenta of the Eatt; power is nlon of their right fo to cohtiiuie 

given to the chancellor or fpeaker their profecutions againft all ftate 

M either honle of parliament, to criminal! ; — an opinon which ta 

iffoe iHi r rants for taking evidence fome meafure received the fandioa 

abroad; and in ill foch cafes it U of the other cfiates of the realm, 

eufted, by the forty-third feftion, by the final palling of the aft fo 

that no proceedings' in parliament worded, and fo explained. The 

fliallbE oifcontinned by any proro- managers were not ignorant of thii 

gation or diffolDtion. Impcich- claufe. They even confulted upoo 

meats here are ondoubtedly ' in~ it, previous to the difToIuiioo, whe- 

doded. Bm what was the induce- thcr iliey IliouM not apply for the 

meat to this enactment t How is it fpeaker's warrant to India: but 0» 

fet forth in the (horc preamble to mature confilcraxion chry refolved 

it? Is it becaufe impeachments are to red the whole qu^ition on the 

dilcoaiinocd by a prarogntion or bafe where their anceflors hatt 

difltdmioii 7 No; but becaufe fuch placed it; — " the ancient courGs 

it the law and cultom of parliament and methods of parliament." 
vnA ngtrd w " frectti/ia^i iy ii/!." Soch were the outlines cf fome 

The claofe was fo worded by the of the leading arguments brourht 

wifejeatoafyof the late Mr.Dyfon, forward on this occaCon, in a ^- 

who, bred niider fpeaker Onflow,- bate which lafted, by adjoummenis, 

became eminent for the knowledge fur three days. Mr. 'Erlkine, Mr. 

which diftinguilhed his great maf- Hardinge, and Sir John Scott, 

trr. He feared, as he informed the with feveral other gentlemen, ptia- 

hotde, left in after- times the enaft- cipally lawyers, aigued for the 

meni, if it were not fo guarded, abatement. On the other fide of 

night be conflriied to have given the quelUon, the lead waa taken 

fome new right to the commons in by Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox, Mr. Biirkc, 

one parual clafs of impeachments, Mr. Anflrather, Mr. Adam, and 

and tliDs prejadice and endanger, Mr- Addingtoa the fpeaker, who 

in its general exercife, the great difplayed much learning in the 

CEraftitndtMial privilege of that more early records of parbament— 

bonfe; which otherwije, as to the On a divJlion upon Mr. Erfltine's 

doftniu of ctmtinuanccs, he be- motion, Tkat Sir Peter Burrell do - 

kave 



c8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

leave the chuT, the nnrobeTS were pnifued nevIyllmUar to that n(hidi 

ayci 30, noe» 143.— Majority iit, bad been adopted in. the houle of 

Mr. Bearcrofi, thongh he £d commons. The lord chancellor, 

not ^eak, is yet faid to have voted lord Kenyon, and marquis of Lanf* 

on this occalion with the majority; downe, with other lords, contended 

as did alfo Sir William Scott, and for the abatement; lord Lough. 

feveraldther profeQional gentlemen, borough, the earl ofGuildfoid, and 

Mr.Burke'songinalmotionwasthcs lord Grenville, were the principal 

put andcamedwithoucadivirion. (peakers againfl it. Thefpeechof 

On the 14th of February, Mr. lord Loughborough, iu aiifwEr to 
Barke made a motion for Itmiting the chancellor's, was particularly 
the impeachment to a Tingle charge elegant and impreffive. Aa union 
more. — But this fubje£t we muft ^r of opinion, do lefs flrikir^ than thai 
tbe prcTent poltpone, in order to of Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox in the 
purfoe thegreatqseSionofthecoB- houfe of commons, took place on 
fitiution to the haule of lords. It '» this occalion in the uppex bonfe, be- 
enough here to remark, that Mr. tween two great profelEanal aj;d 
Surke's new motion W3* carried, as political rivals, earl Camden and 
wefl.asfome otheriDOtionsafcourfe, earl Mansfield : both of whom au- 
necc&arily preparatory to tbe a&ual thorizcd lord Loughborough to de- 
refumptian of the trial cjare their fentimenti, that the mo- 

When the commons were ready, tion wa< confermable to the law of 

a meflage was lent to the tords, parliament, anj confiltent with pre- 

who in confequence appointed a cedent. Lord Camden, who had 

committee to fearch for prece- been prefant during the early pari 

dents. They fpcnt a confiderablc of Che debate, left as the crouod of 

time in preparin? their report, his opinion a written rchrence t(> 

which however, having been at the authority of Selden, (who had 

length made, lord Portcheller, on been a manager againft the duke of 

the i6th of May, moved, " That Buckingham, minifter of Cbarlea 

a melTage be fent to the com- the lA) that a new honie of cam- 

mgns, to inform them, that the mons might proceed, if tl|ey chofe 

lords were ready to proceed od the it, on an impeachment brought up 

uial of Warren Mailings, efq." in a former parliament. 

Another motion, under the form of The collection of precedents 

an amendment, was made by the printed by the honfe is very vo. 

carl of Radnor, propofing to leave luminous, and highly valuable. The 

out all the words in t^ original whole is arranged into three claffes 

motion after the word fiat, and —-impeachments ;— criminal cafes 

inlert the ft^owing in their place : at the fuit of individuals or of the 

■■ it be referred to the twelve judges crown;-~and fnth civil cafes aa 

as a quelfton, to examine the bond feemed to throw light on the matter 

of recognizance entered into by referred to the committee. All 

the fureties of Warren Haftings, the forms of bail in criminal cafes, 

efq; and to report to the houfe, on which appear on the journals of the 

Wednefday next, their opinions on houfe, are alfo added, as well as 4 

the fame." In the delate which copious table of references to the 

(ucceeded, a line of argument was caws in the htt books in sn^- 

wtfe 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [59 

iri& UlBftratiTC of the fobjed. The hiftorua, may derive information of 

report itfetf occupies more tbu) every kind, coiuieded witti iheju> 

an ^Hiulred pafei, and u accom- dicature of the peen m parliament, 

panied by a Urge appendix lo each There it, befides, one table more, 

of the three (laflet of precedents, which may prove of liill more ex- 

I<ord ciiaacelior Thurlow, it is true, tenfive atility to the hillorlan. Thit 

complained that the precedents, of isatableof the dates of the writs, 

vriti of error are defedive; and the commencement, adjournments, 

perhaps in all the clalTes feveral prorogations, and diObhitlon of 

omiffioni, of more or lefs impor- every parliament of which any mo- 

tance, may he difcovered ; fliD the ouments remain on the rolls or the 

compilatian, fuch as it is, does joumils, down to the fccond year 

moch honour to the diligence and ofWilliam the Illd; particulars, in 

aUlity employed in the taJk, and all which oar befl hiftorians, (not 

u altogether the pnreft and moft excepting that, which profefles id 

abmidant fimrce from which the be a parliamentaiy hiftory of Bag- 

lawyer, the anii^iiar}', and the land) are toofre^aenUycrroneoiu, 



CHAP. UI. 

^fiimtd ateetal ^ Mr. Burie"! metkafar ibt UmitatiMi ef tht imfe^htmr^, 
CaMJit affipui ^ bmfarlbt dfUrj in thtpnptfi aftkt trial, Varioiu ad- 
•otrfi mttitm maiU, aad mgativ'd' Original mtlim carrudiuilbtut ttdi<vi- 
JiaM, Prvgrtfi rflht trim. Mr. Lmiden't nulianftr tht amliKutuioH at 
lb*Jtgian^atillhaimp*tKhiiu«tp«tddb*<Bmchdti. Mr. Hafiingi'i^tbat 
tht ricft afth* triai af ibtjiar. Obfirvatinu an the grtal qutfiien diridaj 
tbiififfiam, ' That imfeatbmtntt J» Hat abalt bj a Ji^uiiin af farliamcnt^ 
Dangeratu ttndtmy af tht apimiamt, that thii Jtci^aa -jiai accarJiiig ta tit 
primfifUi tftht canfiitntiaa, hut rantrary to tbtfraUitt af farliameat. Di^ 
gr^ia» ta ihl hiftarj af tin frfi imfiachmt»tt am near J in the "GaeJ Parlia' 
mail" afSdiiiard tba Third. Our btft madtm hlftsriani dtficieat in their ac~ 
tm^ts ^ ibii mltrefiitig ptriad, Statf af falitital fariits in that far liamtnl. 
CiMi/itiam af tit kit^dam nadir tht duit af LaacaJIer'i adminiftraiiin. 
Pr^vatary fitpi and aSnai imftacbmntt aftht dakt't party. Rtinrn ef 
that forty it-prvter, afitr tht diffidntian af parliamtm. Their vialtnt pra^ 
tttdingi againfi Sir Ptttrde la Mart and their aibtrpaliticalappaMeati, Nev> 
parliamtnt nndtrlbt diria infiueate aftht duke af Laacafiir. Procadingt 
tf that p^rlituntnt relative ta tht iMpetuhmenli. .dutharitj af Sildea, 
Nali^t eflbt praaf antiently adrnttedtfieiunfram tht Pafian paptri. ^r^ 
gumemJraKvnfram it, Jet^an ef Richard tht Sieaad.—Caatai^n tfthi* 
imfertantfkljtB. 

HAVING coododed the nam- we may now revert to die raotioa 

tive to the final decifion, that of Mr. Burke, which was mentioo- 

in all probability fettled for ever the ed in the laft chapter, for the limi- 

right of the commoiu to continue tation of the proceedings on the 

their impeachments as well after a preftm impeachment, 

difolntion as aftet a prorogation, Mr. Burke prefaced what be lud 



«o] ANNUAL REGISTEH, J7JI. 

to fubmjt to the houfe, by Tome Indian intereft. Thu pemicioin 

pertinent remarks on the msny int' influence, he obferved, had fonnd 

proper atteoipts which had lately iti vay into both houfe* of parlia- 

Deen made to excite commirera- ment, and exerted itfelf ince/Duitiy 

tion in behalf of Mr, Haftings, who tojwork upon the public mind, not 

lad been rcprefented its kept unne~ ooly by the nreighc of itt own an- 

cefTarily under the rod of profeca- tl^rity, bnt by every little ut of 

tion for an nnufual length of time, fophiftical mifreprerentuion. 
He then proceeded to prove that But of all the obftacles which bad 

■o premeditated delay could be im- ynpeded the progrefs of the ma- 

pncable to the managers- Three nagers, none had been more per- 

ycars, he obferved, had indeed plexing, or more produAive of 

clapfed fince the comroencement of delay, than thofe thai arofe from 

the trial ; but of thofe three years, the limitations opon the fnbjeA of 

the procerdingg upon the trial had evidence impofed upon them by 

only occupied fixty-leven days, at the high court before which they 

> the average of about four houri in pleadM, in compliance with the 

each day j during which period, perpetual objedions of the prifon- 

fifty crimiiul allegations had been er's counfel. Mr. Burke contended, 

proved. It had iKcn lameited that from incontrovertible authorities, 

m (ach a fpace of time the mana- and from the uniform prsfiice of 

gerj had only gone through (what their anceftors, that the tribunal of 

were called] /our articles. But it the upper houfe . ought net to be 

fiiould be remembered, that the regulated by the forms of the civil 

crimes of the culprit, in confe- or the common laiy, or by any 

3Dence of their number, had been cuftoms of inferior courts. That 

tvided not as ufual, into fo many it pofle/Ted a law and ufage of its 

£ngli- and feparate artkles, but ra- own, perfeftly dininfl, and of fu- 

ther into fo many comprehenfive peri or dignity. That the managers 

tJafles. Under each of thofe clafles of an impeachment had always 

(in form indeed called articles) were claimed, as a privilege, an igno- 

included anumberof charges, aione ranee of the municipal law; and 

fuSicient to have conilituted a dif- without confidering themfclves as 

tinfl impeachment ; and perhzps, bound by any fbims, had always 

lie remarked, in the whole body of aited merely from the fafls before 

charges, taken colleflively, as much them, upon the evident principles 

criminal matter was included, as of common fenfe. That ihejPliad 

&adoccurredinalltheimpeachments conllantly pleaded in the plaineft 

to be met with in the Englifh hif- language, and not in the technical 

tory. The preliminary dircDlTion terms of the courts. That, as tlio 

in the houfe of commons had oc- privilege of impeachsient had been 

cupied nearly as many days, and intended for the feeurity of liberty 

many more Utting hours, he be- and law, itought not to bcllraitened 

Keved, than the trial in Welhnin- in its operation. That they would 

fier-hall. betray the conAitation itfelf, if they 

Among the obllruflions with did not fb-enaoufly argue for a law 

ifhich the managers had contended, of parliament, diftinft from the law 

he CDumciated the prevalence «f of WeHminfleT-hall, paramoDnt to 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



tfii 



it, ud capable of ruperfediDg and 
ctHicToiiIing it ID every thing hofUle 
to /iibftannil jnlHce. 

Mr, Burke, in Aipport of the pre- 
ceding poCtions, entered into a lon^ 
detail of anthoritiei; and proved, 
tlut the Biaoager* had been moft 
unieafoiubljr, moft illegally (ac- 
cording to the eftablilhed law of 
parliament) and moA nnconfticu- 
tionallj' cramped and fettered in all 
thEir proceedings. 

He concluded by obferving, that 
itwaj not hii Vifli to give on the 

E roof of k fingle charge againit Mr. 
IifliDgi, aQ of which the commit- 
tee of manaeeri were able to fub- 
flantitte, if the temper of the timni, 
and the criminal impatience of too 
many peribns, would permit them. 
Sat, ai all mankind muft bend to 
circamftancea, in compliance with 
the onhappy difpolitionof the limes, 
be meant to propofe a motion for 
the limitation of the impeachment. 
He then moved : " That in confi- 
deration of the length of time, 
tt'hich has already elapled fince car- 
rying up the impeachment now de- 
peadtng agaioft Warren HalKngs, 
efq; it appears to this houfe to 
be proper, for the ptirpofe of ob- 
tiining fabftantial juftice with as 
lide delay as poiGble, to proceed 
to no other "parts of the laid im- 
peachment than thole on which the 
managers of the profecution have 
already clofed their evidence, ex- 
cfpiing any fach parts of the im- 
pf^chmeni as relate to the ccit- 
iradi, penfions, and allowances." 

Mr. Ryder moved, as an amend- 
oent, that the latter part of the 
■nouoB, which contained the ex- 
ceptioD, fliould be omitted. Mr. 
Jciyl afterwards propofed a fecond 
amendment, viz. " that after thefe 
words in the otijinal motion, • in 



coofideratioB of the length ofttina 
which has already elipfed, fince 
carrying the impeachment now de- 
pending againft Warren Haftings, 
cf^;'il be added, 'the houfe of com- _ 
mons do relblve to proceed no far- 
ther in this bufinefs.' "—Mr. Sum. 
ner moved the qiieftion of adjourn- 
ment. 

The hoafe divided for the ad- 
joamment — ayes 26, noes 231. 
On Mr. Jekyl's amendment— ayei 
54, noes 194. On Mr. Ryder'a 
amendment, ayes 79, noes 161.— 
The original cjueftion was then put 
and earned widioui a divifion. 

Befides the three gentlemen wha 
made the fcveral motions already 
related, Mr. Burke was oppofed in 
different llag<s of the debate by 
Major Scott, Mr. Wigley, Mr, 
Badard, and Mr. J. T. Stanley, 
member for Wootton Bafljitt, and 
one or two others.— He was fup- 
ported by Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox, Mr. 
Dundas, and Mr. Lu<hington, chair- 
man of the court of diredtors. 

Mr. Pitt on this occafionwaa pe- 
culiariy eloquent and animated. 
His fpeech pofTeiFed all his ufual 
perfpicuity both of order and ex- 
prelton, with more than his ufual 
i'pirit and cogency of argument. 
He took a clear and comprehenfiTC 
view of the whole merits of the 
profecution, pcinting out as he went 
along all the bearings of ihe charge 
now propofed on the other charges 
previoufly in evidence before the 
lords. 1'he juftificatory pita fet op 
by the party impeached, had ever 
been ftate-necejiity ; bnt this, he ob- 
ferved, would atiticip:ite and repel 
that topic of e;<culpalion, by (hew- 
ing that id three or four inilances 
only, of corrupt and criminal pro- 
fufion, the iate governor general 
had lavished all th,.t he acquired 

by 



U^^K 



€a] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179!, \ 

6y violence, extortion, and fraud, fblicitor's lHll.^Mr, Fox's xinend> 
from Benares, Oude, and Bengal. ment was loll by a majority of 9}. 

This only remaininK head of The original motion waa then He- 
charge was opened by Mr. St. John, gaiived withont a divifion. 
un the 23d of May, to which pe- When the court next adembled 
tiod the delay already noticed in in Weftimnfter-hall, Sir Jamel Si> 
the houfe of lords necefTarily poft- Clair Erfldnc, having fiimmed up 
poned the aAiuI continuation of the this branch of the accufation, the 
trial. In two days more the evi- manager!, faving to the houfe all 
dence^wasalladdaced, except loone their undoubted rights and iprivi- 
fingte point. On this, as it was a leges, declared their kiteotion of 
matter of account, the managers relting their profecution where it 
offered to examine Mr. Wright, the then ftood, Mr. Hadings then 
company's aoditor of Indian ac- atofe, and verbally made a prayer 
counts ; bat though he bad often to the lords fimilar in purport to 
been examined on iimilar fubjeSs in Mr. Lovedcn's moiion in the houfe 
the courle of the proceedings, the of commons; but if that could nci 
counlel for Mr. Haltines now ob- be granted, he reqaefted one day 
jcAed, and infiAed on the original more to addrefs the coart before 
books. The point, therefore, was re. their feparaiioii for the year. In 
fervedtilltfaenext fittingday,when the latter alternative he was in- 
it wM to be fupplied, immediately dulged ; and accordingly, on the id 
previous to the fpcech ofthemana* of June, read for twohonrs, from a 
ger who was to film up the charge. written paper, a general anfwer to 

Inthisltate ofthebnluiefs, on the the obfervationt of the managers. 
27(hof May, when the court broke He fpoke highly ofhisoWn merits, 
up, Mr. Loveden made a motion and addrelTed the commons of Great 
relative to the impeachment, which Britain in the language of Lear to 
had it been- at all feafible, would l>is ungrateful children: — " I gout 
have met the approbation and Tup- iou all \ and you have rewarded me 
port of all panies -. it was to the (added he] by difgrace, accufation, 
following elFeA, "That his majefly and a life of impeachment." Me 
would begraciouflypleafedtoconti- profefled himfelf ready to go im- 
nue the feflion until the evidence on mediately to judgment ; but if that 
the part of the profecution has been could not be, concluded by defiring 
cloKd,Mt.Haftiiigs'sdefenceheard, that, not with Itanding what he had 
and judgment Anally given." An now {aid, his coumel next year 
amendment of a more prafticable might be at liberty to conduA his 
tendency was moved by Mr. Fox, defence in any manner which they 
who, together with Mr. Bnrtce, did might think moA expedient.— jt is 
not fee intthe propofed addrefs that well known that they ufed this li- 
violation of the royal prerogative, berty, and bc^an the next feffien 
which formed the principal ohjec- with fpeeches of eight days, 
tion of Mr. Dundas. Major Scott If there was, as muil be admitted, 
of courfe took this occafion to tell fome hardfiiip on the individual in 
his cudomary tale of the number of the flow progrefs of the trial this 
criminal charges contained in the year, the public on the other hand 
articles,' aitd the expences of the had no common intercd in the 

caufc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. (6:5 

cajife of it. Tbe rale in fitvour of have been tn its origin, oppreffive 
wilich the lords deiermincxl, and >iid dnjiift. But at the prclent mo- 
Bpon which both houles afied, ment, it is to be feared, that, ibould 
touches the coalUuitioa more ncarlv fuch concludong be generally adopt- 
perhaps than any queftion whicti ed, a more maltgraiii ufe mij^ht be 
h» been agitated in pailianient made of them by thofe who are 
during the ptefent century. That perpetual^ banting after defefts in 
the decifion was certainly agreeable the conftituuon of their conatry, 
to the fpirit of the caomtutlon, which they never praife but to re- 
nay, thai a conciary event would commend fome change aadeT pre- 
b«ve been dangerous if not fatal tence of a reform; and who are in* 
to it, feems to be generally ad- def^tigably labouring to weaken 
mitted: bat dovbti have been ne- and lubvert the credit of parlia- 
vetttekfs entertained, whether in ment, by the deftrnAion of whicfc 
reality the greater weight of pre- alone thcycanhope to malceway for 
cedent wai not on the other ude ; their own anarchical projefts of re- 
and it was probably under the in- prefentative government. Toadver- 
fiaeoce of fome foch coodifting no- faiies like tbefe, more dexiennt than 
lions, that a propofition was made fcrupnloas, it would certainly affixd 
in the koule of cotnmons, to drop fome advantage of ground, if the 
tbe prtfeot imiKachment, and then faA were allowed, Uiat under the 
by a. profpeflive hw eftablilh the law and nfage of parliaiaent a dao- 
principle of conitnoance in future, geroos praAKe has overpowered cIk 
Thefe opinioni noiy be £ncere; principle of the conftitmion ; and 
th^ may be propagated with no the great privilege of the commona 
bad defig*. fincc they come to us has remained for agee impeiftft 
with the Ian£iion of grave men, and pallied in one of its moll cJ*- 
wbofe intentioiks we are not war- fential parts, except during one 
ranted to fufpeft : like alt inter- Ihort interval of violence and 
mediate opinions, balancing diiTcnt blood. 

with approbation, they carry with It was io meet all pcrverlions on 

them tbe recommendation of a fpe- this head, that the fummary of the 

dous candour; and the ajtparent arguments which ultimately pre-, 

knowledge and lore of the confii- vailed in thele debates (more efpc- 

tmioD, with which the doubts in cially fuch as were drawn fromjire- 

this inftooceare accompanied, lend cedents] ha* been here given with 

thera an additional colour of ialfe a fullnefs of detail not compatiUe 

authority, to which many good and in all inftancei with the general 

eafy oninds, without enquiring, will plan of this hiftory. Nor have die 

yield an im^pllcit obedience. In common printed reports been alone 

other times. It is poffible they might trnAed : fome affiftance hat been 

be innocent of any very evil con- derived from private recollefiion ; 

fequencei, beyond their immediate and care has been taken to confult 

and obvious tendency to prejudice the records of parliament through- 

tbe people nnfaifly againll the pro- out, and by the guidance of that ufe 

fecution ftill maintained by their clue, to correA.or occalionilly even 

rep rcleii tali ves ^ having become, to fupply the Aatement of thofe mi" 

in ita progrcis, whatever it may nutc bat oecellary circumftances, 

4 which 



..gie 



Sii ANKUAL REGISTER, I7jt. 

which caa have been reuiaed with who lived before tltc eeniuae ia> 

ptecilian by no human memory, preffion oftharcondoS wu won 

«r which in fpealcing to an aifeia- away. This popularity, however, 

Uy, who had all the docmnents on bad little tSe& on their fucceflbn 

tficir table, may have been convey, jo the next and laA year of Edwxrd 

cd in a naked rererence, or traniient the Third. It is in the <hlpa£tion 

sllufion. With (he lame view, it of this latter parliament, to reverfa 

Stay be perhaps ureful, f ertainty not at) the jadicial a£ts of the former, 

mamuling, to mount a little higher that the chief ilren^h of the aatlio. 

into antiquity on tlus liibjeA. We rity lies : for that poll muft be in- 

Ciall there witnefs a complete tri- deed impregnable, which an open 

■isph on the fide of the Englifli enemy, pollefling aU mean* of at- 

conllicution : we Ihall have the fa- tack, does not venture to afiai). To 

tijtat^ion of finding, that the ri^ht iltuArate tiie whole force of the rea- 

ef the commons to continue their foning in this refpeA, itwillbe pro- 

npeachmentt from parliament to per to lay open a little the date of 

f>rliament, is clearly recognized in political parties in tbefe two parlia* 

tbe firlt regular recordsoffach pro- mencs; and the rather, becanfe f 

seeding* that have defcended to our general hiflorimsof the matell 

poSeriiy. repntation glide over the affairs of 

There are fufTicient traces from this period with an uaimpreffivs 

very eady times to Ihew th; agency rapidity. 

cf the commons in public accufa- When the Good Parliacienl niet> 

Bons, though not the exaft mode in the prince of Wales, better known 

which it was exercifed ; but there by the appellation of the Black 

is BO formal entry of an impeach- Prince, had long been langnifliing 

nent, till we come down to the roll under an incurable difeafe, and u^ts 

of a parliament funimoned by Ed- now haJlening to the grave. He 

ward the Third, in the firdeth year had but' one child, afterwards the 

of his reign. The juft (cverity of unfortunate Richard the Second, at 

theprofecutioni then inllituted, was that time a boy of nine years 

fc dear to the nation, that the par- old ; next to whom, in the fiiccef- 

Jiament of that year has been dif- Iton to the throne, fiood Philippa, 

linguilhed above all others by the daughter of Lionel duke of Cla. 

tide of " The Good Parliament;", rence, and her defcendants. This 

Slid defervedly *, fays Waliingham, princefs had married lidmund Mor- 

• ThemoftCitisfcnory nceoimtof the two lall years of Edward the Third, is 
to be found in the 4O1 leftiun of Lowh's Life of WllILm of Wytcham. Tlie 
Itarncd anJ elegant bic^rapher mak-s happy ufe of fome manufciiptt in ihe !i- 
licaries of Lxmbfih and the BriiJIb MiiltuEti, whith it w=re to be wilhed might be 
^1ililhi:d, efptcially as all ihe latter part ot EilwarJ ihe Third's reign ii warning 
Ki Ivuyghtori,snd ilic whnle reign in the coniinuaior of Croyland. The coniiniutor 
cf Aihin Miirimuth and WalGn^am, though they aie both fuller, liavc much in 
cBiiiinon with the only palTage quoted by Di. Lowlli from MS. Lambelh, 
No. 340 r as S:owe hat wiiolc reiiicnces alinult word for word^he fsuie as in 
■ >fs. Har. No. S117, and in Ibme particular points differing from oiher aulho- 
tities. There are fome few fiagments in Leiand's Colleflanca, of no great rao- 
Ment, but as they oonGrm lift general o^nion of Sir Peter de la Mare and Ills im- 
peachments. 

f Li two different placet, anna 1377, £d.IlI.andRiG. II. ofhitUftory. 

uiner* 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [6j 

timer, earl of Marche, ■ powerful commerce, bat even the retail trade 

noblnniii, who fecns to have en- in cha ciciei and boroaghi; and 

jojed the confidence of her heroic yet all foreign articJej of confump- 

uncle, and to have Ihared with him tion advanced rapidly in price. The 

in the affefiioni of the people ; walled towns were in ruins ; riots 

fince ia the preceding parliament and armed infurre^ons prevailed 

he was one of^five* lords afligned, at over the country; and the navy waa 

the particular demand of the com* nearly annihilated. The fuppjiei 

mooi, to confer with them upon the granted by the laS parliamencfor 

lubr:Jiei, in which committee he two ye^rs had been accompaniod 

vai jmncd with the bifhopsof Lon- with the exprefs condition*, that 

dan and Winchefler, two prelate;, they fhoald be expended on the 

known to be in the ftriftefl inti- war, and if the war did not laft 

macy with the prince. But a fenfe above one year, ftiould then cealc. 

oFcummon danger now more clofe' Repeated truces had taken place; 

ly nnited thefe two branches of the yet the revenues were iquandered. 

royal family in a cammnn caufe and the treafury cxhaulled. ^The 

ajainll the duke of Lincafter ; who diftrefles of the crown were aggn. 

ihroDgh the Inflnence of Alice Per- vaced by new loans on the moft 

rfrj, the king's miflrefs. had for ufurious terms, in the profits of 

fome time engrofled to himfelf and wliich the king's favourites were 

his adherents the entire adntiiii- underltood to have (hared, by ad- 

Aration of public aifdirs, and was vancing him bis own money ; while, 

generally fufpeded of looking for- on the other hand, they purchafed 

ward to the death of the prince, his the old debts at an enormouJdif- 

only furviving elder brother, now count, and then paid themfelvu the 

vifibly approaching, and that of the fiill value, in exclufion of the fair 

king his father, not very remote, creditors. To recruit the coffer* 

as opening a way to his own ufurpa- which they had emptied, they had 

tion of the crown. recourfe to many corrupt and vexa^ 

Theconditionofthekingdoman- tio us methods of irregular finance, 

der the duke of Lancafter's govern- from which too ihey were them- 

Dient, was not fuch as to conciliate felves believed privately to have 

iheftvonr of the commons. Bur- benefited. They fold patents of mo- 

tfacDedwiih a war of ruinous ex- nopolies, charters of privileges, and- 

pence and inglorious difaders, the licences of trade, contrary to the. 

nation had not yet recovered, what fraachifes of corporations ; protec- 

it had recently fuffered from the lions of the moll ample kind, under 

iH'o other great fcourgei of roan- th« jgreat feal, to Lombards and 

kind, peflileoce and famine. A others who owed large fumj to 

Icarcity of money and fauUioa, Englilh merchants ; and licences 

which had begun to be felt fome for the exportation of corn, not- 

time before, grew every day more withflanding the late failures of th£ 

alarming. UTury rofe to iiich a crops. But the meafure of this kind, 

C'l, that a fevere ordinance had that fecms to have excited moft dif-.' 

made againft it in London, fatisfaftion, was the grant of partl- 

The native merchauu were failing cular licences for the exportation 

bio decay, while foreigners drew of wool, and other commodities, iit 

K> diemlelvc* not only the extctul violation of the bwt of the ftaplei. 
Voi,. XXXUI. iE] Thii 



66] ANNUAL REG I STER, 1791. 

This had been the fobjcft of a Tcriptionwere iffuedjtomeitof bad 

petiiion in the lall parliament charaAer, and every w.iy anqnali- 
iTora the commons, wno repre- fied, who were ttyled " appr(«'er; 
icHted it as one great caufe of llie for the king :" and upon colourable 
fcarcit)! of money : and the guilt returns, made in one or other of 
of continuing the prafUce was now ihefe way i, a.ncicnc proprietors werB 
increafed, by grafting upon it tlic difpofTelliid, and- grants of their 
conditionofpayingforevcrypackof eftaies corruptly procured b/ the 
'^ool ^aextfaordtnaiytaxnotlaidby king's favourites. Nor were any i^ 
parliafnent i an evafion of the righu the fuperior courts of the metropo- 
of the lords and commons, which li.'^, temporal ur fpiriiual, free from 
*as alfo introduced in a monopoly all fufpicion of .taint— for there, lo 
granted by patent for the fale of (he fcandal of all public ^cccdcv, 
fiveet wines in London. Again/1 faie Alice Ferrers on the tench, or 
thefe illegal exaflions, the fubjsfl by the chair, openly foiiciiing the 
might have found fome relief in a favour, or endeavouring to over- 
pure adminillration of the lawi but awe the opinions, of the judges. 
that alTo was full of abufrs. ]m- This piflure is dark, but in th& 
proper juHices of the peace and Oie- general refcmblance unqueitionably 
rifis were made through place- faithful. There is no need of any 
brokers at court; jurors were im- other proof than to look around ", 
pannelledwho wert not of the vki- fay the commons, in one of LStir 
tiage; and judges of affi/.e were ap- llrongeA petitions; and they afcribe 
pointed on the fpot of their rcti- the mifchiefs of which ihey cam- 
dence, in the midit of their relations plain, to the weaknefa of the king't 
Xnd conneflions. At the fame tijne counfels and government. It is 
vexatious jurifdi^ ions were extend- true, many of thcfc evils had taken 
ed or created. The court of the root before the duke of LancaHer'i 
palace meddled with pleas forbid- acceJuon to power, fome from natu- 
den by law ; the efcheators in many ral caufes, and others from the for- 
inilances took illegal inquells, and mer bad policy of the commercial 
found falfe titlci for the crown ; code ; but many had been fown by 
but. as probably thefe otficers were him. or had then £rll fprung up, and 
not all equally complailani to the all had veeeiated more vigoroully . 
court, commifiions of a new de- in the foul au- of his adminillraiioD. 

• Rot. Pari. 50 Ed. III. No. s)— All the circumltanret of the Rate of the coun- 
ty are drawn lioin the fame fource, the i-ecorila of psriiaincnt. — Scarcity of money, 
47 Ed. III. No. 17 and i!. 50 Ed. HI, N3. 16.— Ufury, ih, 158.— Stale of 
irade.&e. ib. No. 15 and 59.— Riols, ib. No. 164.— Terms of the former fubtidies, 

J 7 Ed. III. No. ii—Fi-iiuds as to tlie king's debts, and violation of the lawsof 
le flapirs, ja Ed. III. No. 13.— Cliailers of privileges, licences, proteaions, 
&c. lie. ib. No. 54, 16, £0, ij6.-^New iinpo&tions on woul, £cc. ib. Mo. ty, 
%j, and 163.— Abiilea of ibe 1 w, Lb. No. 67, 74, S^, tHli. 51, 75.— PaUce 
•-jiirt, ih. No. 91, 111, — Efchcatois, ib. IS. — Approvers, ii>. No (5, — Alice 
Perrers, No, +J. — See alfo A.Muritnvith ; MS. Lam belli, Na. 3+0; VVallingliam, 
4ec. — Many p^ticutari mijj'it have been luldcd ; but ibefe fecmci to he muft con- 
mcStal with Uic principal points of tbt fublequent impeachments. Scarcdy any 
inielligible trace of there things is to 1>e found in Cottoa'* Abridgment, whick 
hju hidurto bt«n Ac general guide of kiAoi-ian*. 

Tiw 

n,, .... i.,Cil.>0'^le I 



HJSTORY OF EUROPE. {€7 

Tkc tnOe^K gtitnaeea of the themrelvn, on acconot of the na- 

teu preccdiDj; yean do not equal tioDal diitrefs ; but ihould say ur- 

tlic balk, and flill )cfi the import- gent builnerj intervene, promifed 

ance, of the reprcfentatiooi with to aiEA the king beyond all exatn- 

whicb the king and hii miniller* pl« of any age or country, 

fi'sre now ovenvhelmed in parli;i- Their next ftep waj to ftrengtheit 

n=ct: but the decorous moderation and purify the government. To thii 

and orderly iimaefs with which the end they addrcired the king to aug- 

cooi moos proceeded on this trying nient hit privy council with prcbtea 

*cca£on, bothin providing a remedy and peers of the realm, to Uie nuin> 

fijr the fiiture, and in ponilhing palt her often or twelve, a certain pro- 

delbiqaency, rEflefb high honohr portion of tvhom jhodd be neceil^ 

on the illnlbiaas leaders of the po- to the validity of any afl, and ihould 

polar caofe, and is worthy the re- always refide near the king. Tho 

gird and imitation of pollerity. Tequell wns granted, and additional 

The two boofes foon difcovered provirionsaficnvardsord.iinca, which 

what influence prevailed among plainly glanced at the malverfations 

th^n. The commons chofe ■ for of the late counfellors: for an oath 

ihetr fpeaker fir Peter de la Mare> was fettled for the raeir.bera of the 

cce of the members for Hereford- new council, and ibr the great of- 

fnire, and fleward to the earl of iicers of ;).iic, binuing them to take 

Matche. The lords placed the bi- no prcfer.t! ; and reports frunv the 

Shop of London and the earl of council to the [ting ucre forbidden 

Marche refpedively at the head of to be made but by the whole body, 

the fpiritnal and temporal peers, or two members cbofen by the com- 

whom they named to treat with the mon conie^it of the refl. 

commons on the fubfidies. Having put this check on the cor- 

Weihall now follow the track of J^uptpowci of the JukcofLancafter, 
die two houfes on the rolls of par- . the commons turned th<rir attention 
hameat. . The firft bufinefs before to fecurc the fupport of the city of 
them was the fapply required by London. Their b'aiichifei had b:civ 
the ciown. To have refufed all aid, direflly infiinged by the monopoly 
would have been indeceot; and to of fwcct wines. That trade there- 
have been too liberal, might have fore was thrown open again j but 
eadaagered thediirolutionof parlia- the conGderation of the illegal 
ment m the midA of the fubfe- tax, of whi^h that monopoly tud 
quest meafnret. A middle way been made the vehicle, was referved 
was taken. The fbnner fubfidies, as the ground of an impeachment 
u-hich had been fbaod to be made- agalnll the patentee, 
qnate under the late mifmanage- The commons aov approached. 
sient, were continaed for three' their grand objeA. Accordingly 
jtiii from the cofuing Michael- they -prefenied an addreft, or as it 
mai, when they wculd otberwife is caued, a reqneft, to the king, 
have expired. Prom doing more which, aAer renewed prafiillions of 
at prdent, the commons cxcufed loyalty, pointedly attribuiea the 

* The Pariiamentarr Hlffoiy after Tyrrel, fays, thit It a mtlbkeof Walfing- 
bsm ^— but that it it not, fee A. Murimuth ; MS. Lambeih, No. j^o | and MS. 
lamb. No. £. in Lowth's Life of W. Wykeham, p. iio) at alfo Ltland'a 
Called, part i. p. 40I. 

[*] a wafte 



681 ANNUAL REGI STER, 1791. 

waftc of the royal treafore*, cufloms. Though he was conne&ti 

and the ruin of the nationid with the duke of Lancaller's party, 

commerce, to feme individuals in no effort feems to have been made 

the king's private confidence — in his favour. After a fliort hearing, 

adjures nini, by motives of reli- therefore, a fentence was paCed 

gion and pubhc duty, to punilh upon him, cou^ied in the hariheA 

the guilty, whofe fines alone, they language, as well as highly penil 

fay, will relieve aH his wants; in lubllance, *' accordingto thehor- 

and fpectfies the hsads of alledg- ribility of his offence." Probably 

ed criminality, in the violation he was facrificed in the hop« of fav- 

of the law of the ftaples, and itig others ; as probably too, the 

the doable fraud relauvc to the manager for the commons forelav.' 

king'idehts— butftilldoesnotname it, and for that reafon began witb 

any of the criminals. A readinefs, him! for the crimes of which he 

however, is profcllbd to make a was found guilty againft the laws of 

fiiller declaration in fpecia!, any the Aaplcs, and in relation te the 

hour that the king will appoint to king's debts, were the ground-wori 

hear it. In all likelihood they of fomc other more important accu- 

wifhcd the king to be perfonallv lations that followed. 

prefent at their accufations of his *-- ' "— •*■- 

evil counfellors ; in this, however, 
they were difnppointed. Nothing 



therefore remained but, without th( 
king, to lake that racafure to which 
every Hep regularly tended from the 
opening of the parliament : it was 
done without more delay, and im- 
peachments fell heavy and fhick oil 
the partizans of the duke of Lan- 
cafter. Thefe profecntiosa were 
avowedly fupported by the influence 
of the prince of Wales, and were en- 
trufted to the fole managejnent of the 
fpeaker. Sir Peter dc h " 



Animated by their fuccefs, the 
commons now took higher aim, and 
at a conference impeached lord La- 
tymer. They went partly on two old 
charges of peculations coimoitted bv 
himlelfand his lieutenanu, while h« 
commanded in Srittany; and part- 
ly on two new charges, that he had 
been an accomplice in the offences of 
Lyons, and that he had occaTtoned | 
the lofs of different fbrts, as well as 
by his own proper authority had re- 
leafed fpies and other felons im- 
Erifonea by the king, which was 
Lid to be ail accroachment of royal 



;nd and dependent of the earl of power. This lord was a member 



Uarche. Nor 



jay belie- 



of the 






cil, chamberlain 



t leftimony of hifto- tothekmg, and chief confident of 

rians, could a man better qualified thedukeof Lancaller : confequcnt^y 

for the taOc have been fekfted ; to impeach him, was felt to be ilrik- 

fmce, with wifdom to condufl, and ing at _thc duke himfclf. Here 

eloquence to enforce, the great then arofe, as might be expelled, 

caufe committed to his care, he pof- the principal itruggle between the 

fefled a fptrit not to be daunted, opposite parties. Lord Latymer ai 

and an integrity not to be cor- the ontfet endeavoured to make it a 

rupted. perfonal queftion. by calling for ar 

The lirfl, whom the oommons at-, individoalaccufer; butthecommoni 
refolviog to maintain their im- 
peachment in their corporaie capa. 

LowIoD, and ftnner of the great city, he at leofdt gave lui anfwecs 

5 Oi 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [69 

On tk old part of the charget, Elys, a. depot}' or Lyons, mi {»r- 
fhm wu linle contell ; but on the mer of a branch of the petty cuf- 
third anide witneiTct were pro- too)s;'and they obtained judgment 
duced and fwom ; * many fpecches aMuiR William Pecchee, patentee 
and argnments weremade in fup- of the monopoly of fweetwinesi a- 
portboth of theprofccutlon and the eainft lord Neville, a privy coun- 
defencc, in fiill parliament, and in fellor, and fteward of the houfc- 
ihe hoaTc of lords ; many farther hold ; and agalnft Alice Ferrers 
examinations were had, as well herfelf { the two Ufl of whom were, 
before fecrec committees, as in open like lord Lacymer, removed from 
court ; and after all it was not the Icing's counfclb and the lady 
without long debates that fentence farther prohibited, by a profpcfliva 
p.i(red againfl him oo the third ar- ordinance, from folicidng any fuit 
lide; netihcrwas it ■(- without pref> in any of the king's courts, under 
i^n; reprelcntations from the reft pain of an univerfal forfeiture of 
ofriii party, that the dukeof Lan- property, and perpetual exile. ItJs 
aizi was induced to give way to the probable, though not certain t, ihat 
removal of the impeached lord from the duke ofLancafier religned im- 
all hi] offices and the king's coun- mediaic-Iy after the cooviAian of 
kU for ever. Richard Lyons, on lord Neville, and the new aan- 
his conviftion, had been fent to the c'd of twelve was then appointed, 
lower; bat lord Latymer was a- of which the earl of Marche was a 
warded to the cnftody of the earl member, as well as the biDiops of 
ii-ir{ha]. This may have the ap- London and Wincheflcr. But in 
peirance of lenity, but perhaps it the midit of thcfe civil triumphs, 
nmer marks the deciftve viflory of no lefj honourable to his memory 
his enemies ; tor that marlhal was than his military exploits, within a. 
ihc earl of Marche, a principal au- • fortnight from the date of the judg- 
liior of his difgracc. The prifoncr ment againll lord Latymer, died Ine 
hawcver was foon releafed on bail, prince of Wales. He lived, how- 
en which occalion he gave for his ever, long enough to accomplilh the 
fnrcties a long lift of Ipiritnal and great objefl of his anxious cares, in 
temporal peers, and among them Breaking the fafHon, from which 
lord Percy, who had originally dif- he apprehended danger to his fon. 
iLiguiflied himfelf by his zeal for the His friends. Heady in their duty t<» 
piofc;aiions, bnt at the clofe of ihic him and to their country, finifhed 
parliament appeared in avowed con- what remained. Thehoufcof com- 
Dctiion with the duke of Lancafter. mons, without lofs of time, addrefied 
In the remainder of their career, the king to call the young princs 
the commons found little impcdi- Richard to parliament, that they 
^ni. They profecuted William might fee and honour him there u 

• Rot.Parl.soE.l.III.'Nt>.»}. t MS. Harl. fist?. 

I The continuator a( A. Miinmuth, a oteoiporwy author, phcts the ippolnt- 
mtntrfthe new cuuncil after Lie eonviaion of lowl Latvroer and other great 
•^cni of the kinf , anU before the proceeding* againlt Alice Ferrers. He ex- 
pniilr lays it was done by an ordinance in parliament, at tHe ptiiiion of the eom- 
ironj. Ten entries are laft from the roll jiift in this part. The aupoinimeni of 
It'-; new council Item) to be placed after the impcachmint <.f Alice Pcrrtrs in MS. 
l^unbcth. No. z**. 

[£■} J heir 



7o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

heir apparent of the crown ; and to of Marche to the royal family alio, 

thistheyaddedarequeftihathemlght gether fhclter him from 'the flora, 

becreated prance of Wales. Nordid Hewasdirefled lo repair to CaJais. 

they, la the mean while, Hacken in the execuUon of his office u 

their profecuaons: they perfitted marihal ; but to avoid this banilh- ■ 

in exhibiting freih arlicles to the ment, as in effefl it was, and fiif- . 

very lall day of the parliament, pcaing feme fnare for his llbetir 

SuchoftheimpeachmenLs as are to or his life, he refigoed his ftaff, and ' 

the prefent purpofe, will hereafter lord fercy immediately obtained it 

require more particular attention ; as the reward of his defeftion— 

at preferit it will be bell to purfue Such *as the Hate of parties, when 

thetliread,ofthe ftory. the aaive preparationt for war, ' 

Soon after the parliament was which had been long making by ' 

dilToIved, tlie duke of Lancafter re- the confederated powers of France, 

turned to court, and with him re- Spain, and Scotland, rendered the 

turned Alice Ferrers, and the rell, fumraoning of a parliament indif- 

who again took polTeffion and ac^ pcnfable. Every intrigue, iheie- 

qQirctf 2 more abfolut* afcendancy fore, was employed by the court to 

than,bcfore over the old, defence- enfure a majority of the comiDOsi; 

lefs, and afflidted monarch. The new and the duke of Lancallir b relal- 

council was fuddenly difmincd. Sir ed J to have made this parliamcnl at 

Peter de la Mare, by an aft of arbi- his pleafuro. The whole renr^fenu- '' 

irary authority, was fent a prjfoner to tion of the counties was changed, 

' Newark eallle ; and fo far was the except twelve members, 
duke difpofed to carry his violence Here, as before, the complexion 

againft him, that it was reported of the parliament was foon vifible. 

he gave fecret ordLTS to have him .Thb fpeaker of the commons wai 

beheaded in the next wood, but was Sir Thomas Hungerford, the friend 

(Ulluaded by lord Percy- and fteward of the duke of Lancaf- 

Thc bilhop of Winch eflcr, late ter,and fevenout of eight lords, af- . 

the confidential friend, and now, figned to confer with the commons. 

With the bifhop of London, joint- were taken from the bail bond of 

executor of the Black Prince, was lord Laiymer. An ineffeftual ef- 

riext attacked, and articles were fort indeed was tried in the low.T 

brought againll him before the privy houfc, by one of the old county 

council i aiming, though in vain, to members, to excite a fpirii there in 

retort upon him the dilapidations the caufe of their late fpeaker, 

of the king's treafury. His exalted and to have him brought to a 

rank in the church probably faved public trial, if he were charged 

him from the fate of Sir Peter de la with any crime ; but the mover of 

Mare, but his tcmporallics were the quellion was compelled to dr- 

feized, and f " he had not where to fili, under menaces of death. The 

lay his head," even among the parliament that bore this, might 

ibundaticms of his own munificence, well bear alto to bo told, ai the/ | 

Neither did the afSnity of the earl were, in derogation cf tiie great 

• See ME, Harl. 6117. and Stow;. Oihtrt fay Noltingbam. 1 

+ Pet in Pari, ji Ed. HI. No. !j. J MS. Harl. 6117} and Stowe. ! 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [71 

ctiutcr ta often confinned in this JDdginent; for (add they] he knew 
'tign, ihat the king waa not willing thai he had formerly been impeach- 
to by iny charge on his fnbjecb ed on the fame charge, and had 
witioBt the confent of the two made that very fubmilEon, yet now 
Iwutri, except in cafes of neceOity, fhew; no agreement with the king, 
and for the defence of the king- pardon, or other releafe. 1 he lords 
dom, and then as &r only as rea- do not objefl to the prii'cip^e ; on 
fim would allow: nor (hall we be ihe contrary, they promife that a 
fnrprized to find them fet th« firfl report thall be made to the king, 
example of a poll-tax, which Toon- and rieht done, 
after, nndcr ttie fucceeding mo- IftKc former impeachment here 
narch, occalioned one of the moll mentioned were certainly an accii- 
fbrmidable infurrefiions in our hif- fation of the commons, the cafe 



lory. No precedent made by fuch Mould be clear. But in thofe davi 

» parliament in iavonr of the the term «-aa of general ufe. '[t 

dominant party, before whom they fceins, however, by the manner in 

»ere fo proftrated, could have which the commons adltd upon it, 

weighed a feather in the fcale of to have been their fait ; and To it 

jnftice ; bot any principle which was nndeiftood by the learned 

ibey may have admitted on the • Selden, who, in abHrading the 

other Ijde.-Tnuft -be of the moft in- snfwcr, fimply gives it, thai he was 

contrOTcrtible authority. impeached before ; a word which 

With this clue let us now revert he employs throughout his work 

to the impeachments df the former In the appropriate fenfe of modem 

piriiament. times. 

Lord Latymer, it has been al- The fecond charge was introduced 

feady obferved, was, among other by the commons. With an expref* re- 

iliiKgs, impeached on two old cital, that " again another time he 

charges of peculation in Brittany, had been accofcd" of certain extor- 

Tht £rft related to tranfaflions of tions praSifed by hi* lieutenants, 

feveral years ftanding. In his an- for the particnlars of which they re- 

fwr he exprefsly fays, that he had fer to a bill (fo they then tfWIed 

fannerly been is Hie Dianmr im- their own articles of impeachment) 

ft^'ieii before the king himfelf ; he delivered before in parliament ; and 

confeScstheacquifition often thou- they there inferi it. The narrativi; 

find pounds, bat juftifies it; though before given, in additioti to the 

liefabjoins that, as to this fiun, he plain fenfe of the exprefiion, muft 

did before fubmit, and always f'atbfiiQorily fhew that it could not 

Ihould be willing to fubmit himfelf have been in the fame parliament, 

W the king's mercy. The com- which had then juft met. Yet on 

moni feften upon this anfwer, (in this head be anfwers without objee- 

which it ihould be remarked, tbat tion, '" as to the bill delivered be- 

Y d«s not direftly make a prefent fore in parltameni." The whole 

tnbmifGoQ, bnt refers to that which queftion then was put on a poir.t of 

h[ tad before midc) and they de- law. Whether he was refponfible, 

"iiKd, not jodgment as bpon a con- and how far, for bis lieurcnanis ? 

''Soo,bat/jwrA//0sasupOnaformer On which the lords pollpane tttev 

* Judic. in Pari. chap. 3. towards the end, 

[£] 4 dcciGon^ 



72] 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



decifion. to confult the jadgck— They preTerved, t/ith becoming 

Nothing more appears on the old lirniner), the integrity of their ju- 

charges ; he was conviAed on the dicia] charaftcr. 

third article alone. The cafe of William Elyi is ftill 

That the ground of abatement more dircA and fatb&ftory, be- 

(hould not have been even inti- caufe. like the profecution againft 

mated on the trial of a minifter, in Mr, HaAings, it was interrnpted in 

whofe perfon two hoRile parties the courfe of the evidence. He 

were contending for the govern- was impeached for extortion id tak- 

ment of the kingdom at leaft, if not ing duties from Ibme merchaDts of 

--.for the crown iifrlf, is fuiHciently ScoiUnd, contrary to treaty. He 

Jlrong ; bat what wa« the condufl of admitted his office and his execu- 

(be duke of Lancafler's own parlia- tion of it, but generally denied any 

mcnt i Lord Latymer was then in extortion. The faS of the money 

the plenitude of power, and a marlc- being paid was proved by his own 

ed attention 10 his cafe was early ma- confelTjon, the day before, in the 

nifefted. The commons • " tJiinlc* houic of commons, and by the tef- 

ing it for the good of the realm, as timony of foar witnefles examined 

thej" truly underllood," prefented a in open court. He then juftiEed 

petition, that by award of parlia- the taking, as having been condi- 

inenC he might be reliored to his tiona) under a liipulation to repay 

former nank and ellate. They (ay the money, if the king (hou!d de- 

ihat he was condemned (that is, termine nothing to be due; and he 

upon the third article) ilirough un- alfirmed that he had repaid it ac' 

true fuggellions, and without due cocdingly: in proofof whichhepro- 

procefs. At what fuppofed error duced a full releafe in the name of 

they glance, we know not; contrary John Fauxhide, as general agent 

to ula^e, they did not chufe to par- for the merchants of Scotland. The 

ticulanse : but this we know, that powersof John Fauxhide, however, 

eager as they were to find lault with as well as the authenticity of the 

all the proceedings of the laft par- inl1:rumcnt, were difputed ; and the 

liament againft hun and his accom- releafe was delivered to lord Percy, 

plices, they infinuate not a fyllable who was comml&ioned to make in- 

againlt his being brought to anfwer queil of the truth on the next day 

CD the old charges. Indeed, fuch of the marches on the fide of Scot- 

ai the petition is, it does not ap- land. Elys in the meantime f was 

pear ever to have received the con- tommitted to prifon, where he lay 

currencc of a majority of the lords, upwards of three months, 

who are the heft judges of their Afterthediffolutlonof the pwlia- 

own procefs; for the royal aflent ment, when tlie 4uke of Lancafter 

was given at the prayer of/ame pre- recovered his power, Ely* was li- 

latec and lords, as well as of the berated; but on wh.it terms/ He 

eommons, A imall number of the was bailed, like lord Dauby fome 

peers may have been warped by centuries after, M tti nixt parlia- 

ambition, but they had not, like the tacnt ; and this condition, as in the 

commons, fuffered a total change, inllance of lord Danby, can only be 

• Per. in Pari. 51 Ed. 111. No. 75. 
f F<Kthii,andalltlicfollowiil'gfa£teof tliii cafe, fee ji Ed. III. No. 94- • 

canftdcred 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [73 

MoUered as aflinning the com- who had been impencbed, or onlf 

iiiiuiKiit, andof courfeiheexillence for a part of them^ This was a 

of the impeachment. very necefTary quellioa, fince many 

Wbea the Dcxt parliament af- who Hood impeached (Ely* for 

feinbled, neither of the houfes took one) had not received Judgment, 

opthedo&ineof abatement. The The anfwer was, for all. The 

lords aded upon the impeaiihinent commons were then directed to de- 

ai liin peoding, for they received dare dilHnAIy in writing what and 

lord Percy's return to his commif- for whom they prayed, and the 

fion, which waa in favour of Elys, ktng'a grace was promifed to them. 

The commons of courfe did not fubjefl to the royal pleafure,— Here 

proceed; they would not, difpofed ended the parliament f but Toon 

ai they were, have proceeded in after f^en petitions were delivered 

lay event of lord Percy's report, and entereci, without any anfwers: 

But did they take any notice at all to explain which, there is a remark 

of thii impeachment ! They did, at the end of them, that no anfwer 

and ia a manner which irrefrjgably was made by the lords in that par- 

prOTM that they never dreamed of liament, nor could be, on account of 

an abatement having a&anily beeix the time when they were delivered, 

w'oriced by the diiTolution. This after-piece was a faixe ma- 

Thoagti a general a& of pardon nifellly planned* between the duko 

had paJted, out of which the bifliop of Lancaller, who wai virtually the 

of Wincheftei alone was excepted, king in this parli:\ment, anj bis 

i fear feems to have been enter- Ileward, thefpeaker. It as plainly- 

tained that fuch an aft might not appears to have been wholly con- 

opetate npon the tmpeachmenti of trived for the fake of Alice Ferrers; 

ilie former parliament. On the latl Cnce the petiuon afterwards deli- 

<by of the fL-fHon, therefore, after vered in the name of the common* 

the royal anfwers to the petitions on her behalf, is the only one of 

had been read, and when all were the feven, that exactly correfponda 

departing, the fpeaker. Sir Thomas in all its circum fiances, and ibr the 

Hongciford, reprefented that many moA part in its very terms, with the 

perfoiis,mea as well as women, had fpeaker's original application. We 

been impeached in the lall parlia- havereafonindeedtoluppofe.thatlhe 

meot, adjudged without due procefs had already annulled all the former 

to certain penaltiei, and foredofed proceedings agatnft herfelf in her 

of that common liberty, which all own way. They are not to be found 

loyal fabjefU ought to enjoy; on the rolls, but inAead of them is a 

wherefore he prated the king, in chafm of no lefs than ten f entries at 

that his year of jubilee, gracioufly the very place where we might ex- 

to teftore all foch to their former pe£i to £nd them, immediately pre- 

rank and degree, notwithftanding ceding the ordinance againJt her, 

the jodgments againit them. On whichj clearly arofe out of the faA* 

the fart of the king it was aSked, appearing on the charges. Still (to 

if thu application was meant for all ^vhatever mode, and at whatever 

• *<P</^ titltKU (lays Walfingham) per/mm ahjudicaU frlfiinfJIalKi refiHu- 
Mlmr. \ From No. 34 to No. 4.5. 

t See the fubOaiice of the charge* in A. Murimuih % MS, X.ambeth { WalGng. 
ham, Sec tu. 



74] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

time, thefe records may have dir- 
appcared) it was highly expedient 

tnat her rctarn to court fhould be petitions word for word the fame 

fimftioned in fome manner by par- in favour of John de Leiceftcr and 

liament. There was little hope. Waller Spar rier. Their cafes, the re - 

however, of obtaining the concur- fore, we may conclade to have been 

fence of the lords. If a majority the fame; ihoueh the proceedings 

•f that houfe could not be got (and agalnftihemarerofi. AdamdeBnry's 

that (hey coa1dnat,wehave already cafe, however, we know. Asfbon ai 

feen) to agree in the reverfal of hehadbeeniinpeached.thelordsfcnt 

the fentence againft lord Latymer, for him, to anfwcr. bat he was not 

« nobleman both of talents and to be found. He had. fled Into 

courage, dillinguiflied in the wars Flanders : the commons waited till 

of the continent, much lefi would the hit day of parliament, when 



V. 



they be difpofed to fa vonr "Alice they exhibited their aiticles againft 
Ferrers. It was neceJlary, there- him. He feems, alter the dtike of 
fore, that the affair Ihould fo be ma- Lancafler's return to power, to have 
nagcd, as not 10 fubmit the queftion come back and furrendered him- 
to the fcnfc of the lords. Accord- felf; for he was now under bail in 
ingly it was made a requeft from the the new p.irliament In confe- 
commons alone direflly to the king ; auence the prayer of the commons 
and the fpcciiic petitions were deli- forhiro,wa!, ihat heandhisfiiTetie* 
vered at a time, when, as tlie record might be difcharged. 
itfelf obferves, the lords could not This is fubjc^ to the fame in- 
take iliem into confide ration. ferences as the petition of Elys: 

If this explanation of the tranf- but it happens beftdei to be the 

aflion, indicated by its own internal vehicle of a confiderable authority, 

evidence, be juft, it much ftrength- the opinion of Scldcn. The com- 

ens the authority. Othenvife the mons, he obferves, delivered their 

faA itfelf is fuffictent, that, the im- impeachment on the tail day of 

ichment of Elys being in the parliament, " to the end, that the 

e above defcribcd, it was particulars of their accufalion might 

thought indifpenfaUe in the fecond remain upon record againll him 

parliament to apply for the king's btreaf)tT* .■"—to what purpofe, if 

pardon — to what eftft f Not to re- they remained a dead Ictrer, cxtinfl 

mit the penalties of a femcnce, for ever in the very moment of their 

for none had been pafled upon him, birth? No; he hereplainly implies 

but to releafe him from his bail ; that right of coirtm nation, which 

from which he would long before he had before dirtflly afTcned f in 

have been legally difcharged. If the the houfe of commons againft the 

impeachment hadlong before abated, duke of Buckingham. For it Ihould 

Another perfon, for whom a pc- be remembered, that Selden was not 

Ittion WM on this occafion prefeni- only eminent at the bar, particularly 

• Judic. in Pari. chap. ». 

+ SeeWhhelock.p. toi andRi.fhworth, vol.j,p.6o7i It was prubaWy to one 
of thefe that Lord Camikn referred. Sec btt'uiT, p. 5^.— Sir Edward Coke. »ho 
fpoke immediilely before Selden igamji the dub) gi'gumJcd bimfcif on the pro- 
cccdinfp of thc<iM)d Parliamtat. 

billed 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [75 

fklllediD our ancient records, and pray, tl^at'ihe report of the chief 

a iiBit of the moil exteofivc gene- commilHoner may be received, and 

ral Icaniing ; but aa aflivc member the fame of the pari)* impeached 

of parliament, aria manager of im- may be cleared. The report wa> 

peactiments ; aboveall.hewasaper- accordingly made by fir John Ca- 

foD whom the lords thEtnfelvei, in vendilh, and recorded in full par- 

iSaiithegreaiyearoriinpeachmeiits ILjment. 

under James the PirB, had felefted Till* is one of the precedents fe- 

to rfpcrt to them on the privileges Icflcd by the comtnitice of lords in 

of the baronage, half of which work 167], 39 a foandatioti for ih; rule 

telatet to theircriminal jurifdiflion, then propofed and declared, that 

anJ in which the precedents of the all biifinefs bcforetlie houfein their 

Good Parliament have a confpicu- court of judicature continued in 

ooi place. the fame ftate from feflion 10 feffionj 

AfimitarcirCumllanccofacciden-' But it clearly goes much beyond 

til connexion ifith the chain of mtv- that rule. It goes the whole Ungtb 

deni aathoiitiej, gives flill greater to which the rule was carried in 

im penance to an entry that follows the fubfequent refolntion of 1678; 

the feven unanfwered petitions, and fince it is the cafe of an impeacbmeot 

clofes the roll of that year. It is afled upon in a new parliament. 
in application of the commons, not There ftill remains, however, one 

U the king, requeftine a pardon, obfcrvation arifing out of this laA 

but to the lords, praying a judg- impeachment and that of Elys, 

ment of hoRonrable acquittal in ^- which feems decilive in dewing 

Tonr of Gr Hugh Fallolf. The tba: the principle of continua- 

terms of it ftron^ly mark the vjo- tioa mutt have exiAcd. It re- 

lent party-fpirit of the commons, latcs to the mode of trial, the proof 

»ho, without fcruple, direfily im- being taken under a commilGon. 

pate to the proceedings of their pre- and then reported to thehoufc, who 

deceHbrt, malice and hatred, flander gave judgment agreeably to the re- 

and defamation. porL This was not untrcquent of 

The particnlars of the impeach- old in parliamentary caufes of 
ment arc not known, as it is one of every defc rip iton. It ferms indeed 
thofe, which have been loft from to have been the right of the pro- 
the records of the former year ; but fecutor (whether the king, the com- 
at the end of that parlLiment, th: mons, or an individuat] Co to pro- 
common i, not being able to bring ceed, whenever the nature of (he 
the caofe then to tnal, had detired charge, and the locality of the faCla 
thai coramiflions might ifl'uc to take charged, fairly required it. Of ihu 
inqocfts generally on all extortions we have the llrongeft confirmationr 
and other limitar wrongs done in in a curious re]ick,prererved among 
the two coimties of Norfolk and the very valuable papers of the 
Suffolk, where the property of fir Pallon &mily. It is f fpecch of 
Hugh Faftolf lay, and fpeeially alfo the duke of Norfolk, on occafion 
on the matters in the articles exht- of his moving fucha commiliion for 
biled againlt him. Seventeen in- the proof of certain articles which 
qoelb lud been accordingly taken, he had brought againll the duku of 
on all which he was acquitted. The Somerlct, the ffiort-lived fuccef. 
tomooas DOW come forwud, and for of the duke of Suffolki in 

the 



76] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



tlte fkvoar of Henry the Sixth. 
After recitine the ftate and ground* 
of his accufation *, " I require 
*■ yon (fays he, addrefling the 
lionfe of lords) " for as much as 
*• the greater part of ihc deeds 
*' committed by the duke of So- 
•■ merfct have been coDimitted in 
" the realm of France, th:it by the 
■• laws of France, procefs be made 
" thereupon; and chat all things 
* which! have delivered, and ftiall 
•• deliver, be fcen and untierllood 



•* committed by him in this realm, 
• be in like manner fcen and un- 
** derftood by perfons le.-.rned in 
« the laws of this Jand :"— a dit 
tinftion, which may throw light on 
the prayer of the commons in their 
articles againft the dake of Suffolk, 
that proceeding) might bt had " in 
" [hefameparliament.asthe matters 
" and caufcj required," all the ftfts 
there alledged having been com- 
nitced, or Being capable of proof, 
in England, and upon the fpot. The 
noble accofer then goes on to'movc 
the lords, " that for proof of the 
" charges they would grant com- 
" miffions to enquire thereof, as by 
*' reafonand of cuftom it ought to 
" bedone." — Nowlhewfuch aeuf- 
tom, and you immediately (hew the 
neccflity of allowing the principle 
of continuation : for what return 
jn thofe times could have been mide 
to fuch a commiffion within the ufual 
term of a fingle parliament? Down 
to the reign of Henry the Sixth, the 
common duration of a feffion (which 
wa* then alfo the common duration 
of a parliament) was from fifteen to 
thirty days ; very few fate more 
than forty days; and the Good Par- 
Kament was the firft that lafled up- 



ward* of two months. It would 
have been 3 mockery and a denial of 
juftLce to have faid, in anfwer tofach 
an application, •' Take your cotn- 
milHon, but let the proof fo obtxin- 
ed be reported before the diflblu- 
tion of parliament, or there at once 
abates your profccuiion," Bat no 
fuch anfwer ever was made, no fuch 
anfwer could be made, for the peers 
and judges, fome of whom were al- 
ways named on fuch commifiions, 
were oeceflarily attending in dtf- 
char^e of their duty, as long as the , 
legiflature was nflembled; it was in 1 
the intervals only, that they thus ' 
gave fiiciiiiy to juftice, and matured 
caufes of ftate, to receive the judg. 
ment of ihe enfuing parliament. 

Such then was the perfeftion in 
which our anccflors ellabliflied the 
inquifitarial power of the coriffhons, ; 
on the memorable oeeafion, where i 
we firffi trace its exercife. The | 
Good Parliament retrofpeflively af- ■ 
fertedthe principle of continuation 1 
in the very outfet of their career, 
on the impeachment of lord Laty- 
mer; they afllrced it again profpec- j 
lively at the goal of their labours, 
in the articles which they exhibited | 
againft Adam de Bury; and in 
fome otherof ihcir profecutions, by ; 
praying commtffiona for thetrial of ; 
the faftj, they afferted it under co- I 
verofan accnftomed praftice, that 
implies it as a ncceflary and iriva- 
riable confequence. They did all 
this without objeflion at the time : 
and what they did was in (his re- 
fpeH, and this alone, afterwards 
linftioned by 3 packed parliament, 
which was exprefsly made for the 
obliteration of thefe very proceed- 
ings, and with which, for that pur- 
pole, every kind of undue influence 
and unworthy artiiice was emploj'cd. 



* SeeaurToluraefgr i7SI)Aal>4intits,p.ii3. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [77 

If we pnWae th'if point a, fingle moderaiion. For when the com- 

Itep ikrthcr in hiHory, we fliall find nons petitioned for a council of 

that the fame great men feem alfo nine to be named by the lords, in 

to have vindicated another leading additiontotbegrcatoificers of ftate, 

principle in the privilege of im- aiming by this meafure to exclude 

peacbment. The commons*', to- lord Latymer, and one or two others 

wards the clofe of the Good Par- of the duke of Lancatier'a princi- 

liament, petitioned that none of the pal friendi, whom, to reconcile all 

perfons then impeached and judged partie{,thegreBtcouncilofthe lordj 

might receive any pardon, and tliat bad previoufly placed there ) they 

■ law to that tffc& might be enafled fubjoined {, " That they did not at 

for all fimilar cafes in future. Par- " all dciire then to take vengeance 

doni, however, were obuined by the " of any, who Jiad done amirs in 

intervention of the commons in the " time p.-ill, hut that in iihic to come 



manner above related, as if the ray- " fucb evil-doers might be duly 

u\ prerogative alone were admitted " punifhed." This may account 

to be not fully competent. Soon why iheydid notatiempttoproceed 

after this the king died. On the with any of the unfinished profecu- 

acceffion of Richard, power once tions. It could not have been froiK 

more changed hands. A pardon any regard to the pardons ; (or 

was granted to the bilhopofWin- where judgment had been given, 

ch=fler, who before had been fingly they fet afide the pardons as mere 

excepted; if it could be caUed a nullities, without conderccnding 

pardon, which not To much remitted Co mention them. They petiti- 

any offences to him, as folemnly de- oned that ^ " all the evil counjellort 

clared his innocence. Sir Peter de " of the late king, that had before 

la Mare was releafed from prifon, " been conviAed on full evidence, 

and had his pardon alfo. A great " and attainted, might be removed 

council was fummoned, jvhen the " from the king's councils ; and 

lords appointed a new coimcil of " that neither they, nor others like 

twelve, and. at the head of it placed "them, might ever be admitted 

tlte bilhop of London and the earl ** near the king's peifon, nor bear 

of Marche, to the great iatisfafUon " office under him." What was 

of the people, as we are dininflly thus done, as well as the impeach- 

told by the ancient hiftorians ■{■, ment of Alice Perrers in this par- 

Under thefe auipices, a parliament liamcnt, it is certain, cannot in 

Win not long after called ; and the .flrifl propriety be called a continu- 

houfe of commons, to which were ationof the proceedings in the two 

now returned alt the old memben former parliaments, yet the impTcf- 

cxcloded from the laft by the in- fioii which thefe meafures made on 

trigoes of the duke of Lancaller, the public dearly fliews the general 

immediately chofe fir Peter de la fenle of the doArine lately fo dif- 

Mare for their foeaker. The bu- puted. An hillotian, who lived 

finefs of thehoulewas by himcon- near the time, mentions the bu- 

dufled with the fame ability as be- finefs of this parliament almoll in 

kit, and if pofiible with greater the terms of the refolution adopted 
*So£d.ni.No.t8S,il9. t WalfiDgbain,coDfirmcdfliortly byG.Tbori). 

I Rot. Pari. 1 Ric II. Mo. so.- ) b. No. 49- 



785 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

by the lords in 167J * : " Thcfc juftly reckon It x doable viQory to 
" former members of the Good Par- the conftitution. that the very law 
•• lisment (layj he) refumed their which fettlcB the crown on the line 
•* proceedings in the fame place, of the reigning fovcreign, provides 
•■ where they lefi ihem." againffi the pleading of a royal par- 
Many other meafurus were taken don in bar of an impeachment ; and 
by this parliament in the fame fpi- that the right of the comeions to 
jit ; but as they are not connected continue their profccutions from 
Vilh the prefent fubjeQ, we pafa parliament to parliament feems at 
them by. It is glory fufficient for length lo be for ever afcertained by 
the diilinguilhed men of that time the late folemn determination: yet we 
to have fi\ed this key-fione of the find that in both thefe rcfpedl;:, \v» 
Englifh cnnflilution. The power have only re-eftablilhed that purity 
of impeachment is alike the fccu- of principle, with which thii vital 
jity of the people and the prince ; energy of oiircor.fiitution began. 
it protcfli the people, by hold- The period, to which this fubjeiFl 
iflg forth a falutary terror to has Jed us, is in itfelf highly iiitr- 
ininillers, and by attaching on their reiling. It is the clofe of 3 reign 
Tej^onfibility retoneiles to public that Ihines withfingularlnflre, both 
fafcty the maxim of our conlli- in our civil and military annals. 
tution, which attributes a fort of It prefents 10 us the Blaclc Prince, 
divinity to the king, ihnt he can do the f.ivo-jrite hero of Englilh ftory, 
no wrong; at the fame lime it is exertinghimfelfinthelalt moments 
a privilege of the commons, that of his life, not merely 10 fecure a 
calls into a&ivity the nobbll privi- fceptrc to his fon, but to fccure'to 
lege 'of the peers, as hereditary him alfo a welt-governed and hap- 
. jud^ei of the realm, in iheir origi- py people r and in the midft of the 
naijarirdi^on.whichalonccircum- very fame tranfa^ons, we fee the 
Icribed by nalocaIlimii:s,aiKl fetter- origin ofa long train of fubfequent 
cd by no rules but thofe of fubfian- events>in the connection then form- 
lial julllce, extends with the extent ed between the dulce of Lancaller 
«foor empire, and reaches acrofilisif and lord Percy, who, for his own 
the globe every oifence of crimi- ruin, and the deftruition of his 
nals, Jiowever ]u>werful, that touches Houfe, was the principal infirumenc 
the profperiiy, nonour, or dignity of of raifing Henry the Fourth to the 
the £ritilh name. Thus important ID throne. But undoubtedly the mo ft 
every confideration, it ought, even prominent objeft of Attention is 
for the fake of the crown itfelf, to be thecompletion which was given, by 
capable of being carried to its def- thefe impeachments of the Good 
lined end oninierrupied by the aft Parliament, to all the conftitniior^l 
of the crown, whether diredlly by ft:uggles of this long reign; which 
a pardon, or indircSIy by a dKTo- he muA accurately examine in the 
lotion i and after jarring prece- records of parliament, who would 
dents, though of unequal authority, well under ft and the coTiftitulion of 
under the family ^of Stuart, we now his country. Till we come down to 

• WalCngham) who after telling u» of what oiMoben this parliament confiftcd, 
goM on thus ! " Hi itaquc rejumentea peliiionet fuas « in tice, qiaprias ditidfi- 
'' rant-, inftilccunt de baiinilior.e iliiyt Aiicii Ferrers, &c. &c," He pubiilbeJ 



1 from the lime of tHi! 



par- 



liament. Suture pa&ge quoCei in tlusDCte it iFom his faiftory, which was written 
Jucr. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [79 

ibe great cameft between the king pugiunt to the truth of the recon], 
and pariiament, in the time of He maH neverthelefs call in to hi* 
Charlniiie Ftrfi, (and thecommoni aid all the light) which he can ob- 
diengroiiDdedthemfclve;, infoiueof Cala from all the hitiomM who 
tWr firS and bell mcafures • , on the lived neareft to ibe times ; and from 
precedciits c^the Good Farliament) diem he maft gather, where he can, 
aJIchcicftofoorhiAoryputtogether ihe party-fpirit and complexion of 
don not aSbrd fo much matter for the leveral parliamenti. From a 
uTerd obferration, ai the reigna of ne^lefl of this neccOary caution. 
Edward the Third, Richard the writers of confidersble merit have 
Second, and the firit years of Henrjr miiled their readers by taking their 
the Fourth. It is mach to be wilh- notions of the conlluCutiun iodif- 
ed, that a new narratire were writ- criminately from partiaments of ths 
Kn cf the proceedings io parlia'- bell and worit authority. They 
ment daring thrfe reigns. The make no difference between the 
toll} are now in the hands of twolall parliaments of Edward the 
the public. The hiAorian would Third, or between che Rrft parlia- 
not, Hfce former writers, be com- ment of Richard the Second, of fo 
pcQed to draw his intelligence from cjccellent a compolition ■> we have 
llialtcn* and deceitfiil fources. He feen it to be, and the lall parliament 
Uoflld ha»c the means of avoid- of the fame prince, which wa* 
iag the grols errors into which packed by liittLguea with the Ihe- 
they have fallen by following the riffs, and fite in Weftminftcr Hall 
abridginent, that goes under the furroundcd fay an armed Force, witlk 
came of Sir Robert Cotton; a work bows bent, and arrows levelled at 
fitort, confufed, and in fome very their brealli. 
ncnMrable ioilances f dircftly re- Had fuch a KOrk exifled, much 
■ See the Ifeech of Sir Edward Coke, Rulhwonh, vol. 1. p.^Saj. 
-f- There h a linking proof of this charge in ihc 17th year of Edward the 
Tbin). It is well knowii that the king had revoked mil abrogated, by a proda- 
ntatran lent lonndto the Iheriffs, a famous [latuLC of the laJl parliament ^ yet, it if 
aoifanniy obfervcdby our hilloriart, that the commont (17 Ed. III.) lb t'artrom 
nking notice of tbit aibitrj^y coniluf), contcnud to a regular repeal : and fo the 
AhiidgineM repttlcnM tlieir petiiinn, p. 3^. Ng. 17. — But the rul petition it dJ- 
F^y the rcvcile. Itfirongly demandi the oblavaace of the iRtuteln queltkin, 
at banng been purcbilcd nnih- the valuable conrideration of heavy fublidiet for 
r.vo jean. It ii tnic, that the laft entry but one on the Itatute roll is a rqxal, 
nearly the fame in word; as the king's anfwer to the petition of the commons ; 
and it is laid to have been " accorded and aKcnted j" — but by what authority is 
iM laid- The neareft preceding entry, which dues fpecify at all, fpcciti:! cnly 
the accKid of tbt Hr^ tad tin great men, and the entiy immediaiety preceding is 
dearly an a£l<if die king and the lords alone, in their judiciiU cnpaciiy ) alter 
vhicb, thii repeal follows with an " Item." But what was the conio(|uciiee ? In 
the new parliament (iS Ed. lU.) (ot the lirft time, the eommoni inlifted, and 
with effed, that they might have letbefs of their erievances before the enUofftar* 
liament, and that a commiiMe of their houTe Ihould be appointed to day atid Icet 
that die common* did uot remain without remedy. Now, whence arofe thi* 
ma^ed jealouTy at this particular peiiod for tbe firlt time 7 It mult have been oc« 
cafiuned by~ fame trick recently played the commons after they were gone; Ihe 
repeal is the on^ tbing on the roll of tbe lall pariiiTneiit to which we can fairly 
^iply it. The ched^ thus put on the fraudulent making-up of the llalute roll 
*u aftowardi enforced at different limes in the Lame rcien. aitd was the comer- 
ftone that gave ftabiiily to the power of the commons. Vet here we find in the 
■hridgsBcot-B total tiiencc, at bdote a cemf leat milfeprdeniaiion. . . ,. ,, 

' ■ ■ ■ ' I of 



to] ANN U A L REGISTER, 1791. 

of this chapter might have been times reliAed «t the inftant with a 
fpared. Such ai the digreffion has fpirit worthy of imitation for no- 
fceen, the fubjeft and the prcfent bier ends. Nay, it is rometiinn 
Ctifii feemed to demand it. Never infifted, that the moft fplendid at- 
was it fo nccefTary to infpire men chievements of liberty were but fo 
with a veneration for the wifdom of many compromifes made by ttea- 
tlieir anceftors. While they, who chery or ignorance; yet what is thus 
had not the means of information, condemned, it is not thought neccf- 
were contented to admire, it wa« fary to examine. To refift the effeA 
of little comparative moment to alk of ihcfe bad arts, every opportunity 
why they did fo; the conffitucion Ihould be feizedto teach the people, 
wasfafein thatadmiration. Perhaps that if they loved the conliitution of 
their attachment was the ftronger, their country without reafon, be- 
as they fubHituted the impetuoui caufe without knowledge, yet their 
- ardour of an honeft psflion for the iffeftion was not againll reafoD. 
flow aflent of patient conviftion. To this end, we have dwelt the 
This may be called prejudice, yet longer on the good deeds of a par- 
fnrely it was a prejudice, laudable in liamenc, which was moft dear to 
its foundation, and ufefiil in its ef- thofe who were the beft judges of it* 
fe&i to the community ; it was ra< merits ; and of this we are perfuad- 
ther n l^ir prefumption in favour ed, that he, who moH: carefully 
of a conAitutiun, under which they fearehes into the monuments of 
ielt ihemfclves to be happy. There thofe times, will have leaft confi* 
is much greater danger at prtfent dence in the new light of mo- 
of their running into an oppofite deru philofophy. He will leav? 
prejndice, of the molt mirthicvoas ail exultation on this head to thofe 
tendency to foclny. The bufy part who, concealing under an arro- 
of the people, not having l^'ifure for gant contempt of antiquity their 
long difquifitions, may take it for own want of diligence to iiiTefti, 
granted, tliat they ought not to ad- sate, or of capacity to anderftand, 
mire at all, what they are told they Biut their eyes to every thing before 
moft not admire without an enquiry the Revolution ; who, in tlut laft of 
which they cannot make. At the many great 'epochs, look to nothing 
fame time they are fiattered into a that was done by the illufirious 
leady belief of their own fuperiori- aftors in it, nothing that was de- 
ty over their forefathers. It is for dared by the Icgillature, but m.erc- 
ever rung in their ears, that the ly to fooie latent principle which is 
prefent is an enlightened age. A^ now pretended to have been in- 
now is one blaze of difcovery. To volved in it ; and who think it only 
Ihew our title to wifdom. it is e- worthy ofbeingeheriOied, as it may 
nough that we were born towards be the fruitful feed and germ of 
the clofe of the eighteenth century, future revolutions, and not as it is 
Into minds fo prepared it is then the root of an eftabliftunent which, 
eafily inftilled, that oor boafted con- under the bleffing of Providence, bat 
ftitution is but a clumfy piece of ftruck its fpiiis deep into the foil, 
Gothic patch-work ; that the great and all the branches of which, we 
leaders of former times knew do- truft, may continue to defy the 
thin|, obtained nothing, fccured fiormsthat beat upon it,snd threaten 
nothing ; only opprefiion wu foms- feoa to aflail it wi(b ndoabled fiiry. 

CHAP. 



HISTORY GF EUROPE. (H 



CHAP. IV. 

ff'arwili TiffM iuban. Geiural -virw af amr folitj tnoMnb tjl Mtihtm- 
mida ffwrrs ef Mia. Our ttndud trwards Hyder Ally mud biijai 
Titfea SMltMm, lameJiaU cau/i ^ tii wmt. l\ir.Iiipfift^'iMttigiioatkh 
/Jgta. Diiatti. Mr. Dtaidas'i rt/§lutioni affiwing ibt tmdtia afltrd 
Ctnt-w^t. Vn/uai/ifkl atltmft « fratMre «* eii4iliai of tbt fimift iraJt. 
sir. fFiU/trfard' ij^cb. Siavxary tfargimetai m beH>fidti. SlUfir ibt 
reliiftfpnufiiiig Roman CtUfielUi inlraJintd i^ Mr. Mit/trJ. Mr. Fvt 
tijtSi It it, as iailuJiMg Reman CaibBlici miy of a fartiailar itjeriftttm, 
Tht Bmcb of Bifiept fupperl U in lb* benji sf krdl. Sptttb if ibt 
hifinp of it. Davidi. 

THE excurfioO which we made {)Iifhioent, u an indcpendant poteiw 
in the laA chapter, into the tate, were nearly coeval with ihs 
antlent hifiory of our own confti- rev^utioiu in Bengal, which endeif 
tntion, arofe out of an encjoiry in- in the acquiAtion of the Dewaane« 
Qituted by parliament, into the by the company, and in eSefl gava 
cDodiift of oor £rft governor geoe- ni the dominion of & richt fertile^ 
fid of Beneal ; we now are cod- and popolou* territory. 0nr &g- 
dnSed baclc, by the train of pro- grandizement fp.rang oift of tbe 
ceedingi in parliament, to another wcaknefs of the Mog at empire, which: 
quanerofonr extenfive empire in in confequence of fucceJtive inva-.' 
the Eaft. The king's fpeech al' fioni from the fide of Perfia, had 
luded to hollilitiu which, in the been broken lit pieei:s ; all the' 
year 1790, had broken out id the viceroya and governors aniuniiij 
ioDthem extremity of Indoflan, independence in their feverd pro- 
and in which the £nglifh, the Mah- vincei and diilrifb, and exhaafting 
raicas, the nlzam <» the Decean, their ftrength in mutual conten- 
and the nabob of Arcot, were com- tiorie. But the fame. circiHnCbuicet/ . 
hiDcd againft (he fultan of Mylbre. which now favonred us, had lonj^ 
Ouf relatioD of the varioog events before alEAed the great HtndoC 
of thij war we thall refervc till the power, the confederacy of the Mah • 
year 179s, when it was hSppily and r3.tt as, to ex tend their conque lb inter-. 
wifely teiminated by the peace of nally from the northern cfrcars of 
SeKng«tdtam. Here, to make the the nizam, cfn the coail of Cora- 
debates on the jufticc and expe- mandel, to the confines of Agra and. 
diency of the mcafure more inccl- Delhi, and acrofs ^chb fea to fesi 
Egible, we flullpri'ntilc a ihort view froni tlic gulf of Cam bay to the bay 
of our general policy towards the ofBepgal. From their geographical 
Mahoaunedan power* in the neigh- < fituation, in the aeifter of tne pemn- 
bourhood of oar refpe&ive prdi- fula, they prefTed with a compaA 
derides, and our tEtn*\ cond«<9 to- xnd confolidated fb^ce agatnft the 
wards Hyder Ally Khan Snd hi* divided relief of the Mahomraedan 
foa. empire/ with which they Were fur- 
Tie Mahomroedan power in My- rounded. To the goVcmAicRt of 
fore was wholly founded by Hyder. Bengal they were pecaliarly an ob- 
Theeventi which led to his cfta- jeA of jealonfy and alurm: fincv 
Vol. XXXU(. \JP\ under 



8»] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

under an old grint from the court own pofleflioiut we flioold iave 
of Delhi, they afleited m. cUim to employed all our good office*. Hy- 
the Teceipt ih cKont. or a tribute der Ally, more efpecially, wm ans- 
of one-raurdi part from the 'rcve- lified to hive bMn at tbe head of 
nues of that province. Tkia had fuch a hftem. He had raifed him- 
been enforced by them with an its- felf on the rain of an ancient dynaAy 
meitfe army of cavalry, that pillag- of Hindoo kings. While he pof- 
cd all the fronder diftrifls of Bened, fefled but a fr^t part of Mylore, 
for ten fucceflive years, in the time in the charafter of regent, the pro- 
of Aliverdy Khan. The internal grels of hu fbrtunei wai oppoled 
cmbarraBineati of their own govern' by the Mahrattas. I^ey beneged 
ment at length obliged them to de- htm in the foTtreft of Bangalore ; 
flit, bat the ground of tbeir demand bnt he repolfed them, and after he had 
they have never abandoned. become mailer of the whole kiag- 
Thefe circumltances feemed to dom, retaliated upon them the in- 
point ODt an obviooa policy. It was jsries vhich they had done him. 
onr intereft to preferve alt the con- He wat daily enlarging hia bound* 
termlnoni fbobahdan and nabobs at their expence. 
in fach a ftatc aa to form a barrier The court of dtrcAors deafly 
againft the common enemy, the faw, and * in their difpatches mark- 
Mahnpttai. . To have obtained ed out the track which their fer- 
tbat fecnrity for the peace of our vanii Ifaould follow. But the in- 

" There ia one difpatch of the direSlon in 17S9, which recajritulatea the fiib- 
ftanee of their former JnftrufUons fo pcuntcdly, and fo clearly liyi down the 
policf which lord Comwallii purfued, a* far si circumftaneet would aUoir, in the 
treaty of Scn'ngapataai,that we Qiall inlert it here. 

" GenenI Letter to Bengali Jnne Joth, I7«9. 

Par. 3. " Tn fcveral of our leKcr*, fince we haTC been engaged ai principal* 
in the politici of India, and particularly during the laft two or three yrara, we 
have given our opinion, thai the molt prodcnt fyltem we could purfue, and the nraft 
fikeljr to be attended with a permanent feeurity to oar polTcmon!, would be to 
inclinejD' thole tew cliicft of Indoftan, who yet prefrrve aa inde p en d ence of the 
Mahratta power, and are in a condition to ftruzgle onth. them ; for. To long as 
tbey are able to keep up thai liruggle, the acquHitiont of to conpany will ruB 
BO lilK of dllturbancc. 

Par. 4. " The Rohilbs, the Jiuts, the nat>ob «f the Tfecm, the nabob oS 
Oiide, and th Mj/firt chit/, h:ive each in their turn kept the Mahratu* in aaioiir 
and we wiEh them Rill to do it j it ii tbm/sre •uiilB grial toaeirn outfit lit iwar 
ftMunaia tvub-Hfder, and a probability of a nipiure with Sujah Dowla ud 
NinmAUy. In liich waii, wc hare every thing to lore and nothing to gain ; 
for, fi^ptj/u^ ear afrr^iem to it attendedviitb ibe ntmoft fuce'l"' '^■f ■» rmrwtin 
rtiacea la ear nuriy, vit eaa emfy •mi/h la/tt them rtfiarid tc 
which they fet out, that is nfutb a Hartt tffirce mi ouitpt 
tbtrnfiUl tt kttp up tbt cmttfi imtb tU Mahrtatat, ami vuitb *c 

For the inveterate enmity of the nabob of Arcot to Uyder AJJy, (« the < Aoatyrit 
of India,* by Mr, R. J. SiOlivan, a gentleman-whoIc authority ii unqueftionaUe in 
this le^wft, at he bad bcm an ageot a£ the nabeK See aUb mu voIhidi* far 
17(9 and 17I1. 



History of feUROPB. [83 

ftnoee of Ute nabob of Arcot orer nte at which tffiftance wu to b« 
ilie fitEiency of Madras, b well mutually afforded: Hyderofcm ap- 
known; and he wai the inveterate plied, when he Was attacked byihe 
Cnemjofthe M^rore chief. At once Mahrattai, but, the company oot 
to gratify his ambition, and to emn- being pofitlvely boond by the letier 
late the late Iplendid acquifitioni ofthetreaty.nbaid was ever given, 
on the bantci of the Ganges, the During ten yean of peace St v/as 
prefident and cooncilj about the year ntore and more alienated from uj. 
1767, entered on a pjan of obuin- The year 17^9 opened an extrt- 
iBg tlie Ibnbahdarry ofiheDeccan rt^Iilary fcene. The Mahratlu 
for the nabob of Arcot, and of re- were at war Hoth with the Englilh 
inftating the royal family of Myfore, and witK the chief of Myfore. 
under the proteflton of the fame They were inclined to an accom- 
nabob and the EngUOi. This wai modacion with uj, in the hope of 
net by a counter-treaty of partition gaintafr our affiftailce for the ruin 
between Hyder ind the nlzim. A of Hyder. On hii put, he pro- 
war enfued. Beaten in the field, Hy- pofed a treaty of clofer amity with 
der fiill hid the addiefa to baffle all nk. We declined both ; and foch 
bur operationsfby avoiding a gene- was the iafiiEuated conduft of the 
ral engagement, catting off OUT gar- prefidency of Madras, though dif- 
riJbas, and intercepting our con- approved by the fupreme govem- 
voys i while his fon Tippooj then ment of Bengal, that the nizam M 
a youth of eighteen, at the head of the fame time was To ezajperated 
a confiderable detachment ofborfe, by them, as to projeft and form 
furprized the town, and almoft car- the great league between thre« 
ricd the fort of Madras. After one powen the moS rootedly hoftilc— 
campaign, a treaty waa concluded nimfelf, Hyder Ally, and the dif' 
with die nizam ; and it was made ferent members of the Mahratta 
an exjirefs flipnlation, that he fhould confederacy ; among whom may be 
join in pDuifliiDg his late ally as a reckoned, on this occaflon, the ra- 
rebel and nfurperj while, lor a dif- jah of Berar. We now once more 
tri3, fbnnerly wrefted by Hyder finarted under the vengeance of 
from the nizam, and now ceded Hyder. He again invaded the Car- 
to us by the latter, we agreed to pay natjc, defolatuig the country be> 
chout to the Mahrattai. Bat we fore him, and carrying lire, fwordr 
were faved the payment of this and famine to the gates of Madras, 
chooi, for we never were able to Upon idm, therefore, a* our moll 
get poJIeffion of the lands ; and the formidable antagonift, all our in- 
nen year the rebel and ufurper die- dignatiou was tunied : and, preffed 
tated a peace to us at the gate* of as Mr. Hallings wu in 1780, by 
Madnu. the complicated difficulties of the 
The difgrace which we had thai war (fo prcfled, u to puichafe the 
fuBered feems to have made a neutrality of Berar with a large 
deeper impreffiou on our minds fum of money, which, on whatever 
than the moderation with which pretenceitmayliavebe«npaid,waa 
Hyder ufed his advantage. Nor received udder the name of chout 
did the nabob of Arcot ceafe to from Bengal) he yet urged il as a 
em^oy all his inflaence to inflame ncce^ry condition of peace with 
mr animofiiy. The treaty fixed the the Mahrattat, that Aeyflieuld join 
t/i] ibeii 



14] ANNUAL REGISTER, fjgu 

their troops wuh ours, for the ex- and ttrcarralis lo penetrate thcTe 

Hrpauon of their confederate and myfterics of the Durbar. Mr.Haf- 

Pflfi. *'' '^"- ^"^ ^"^y "- t^«^ himfelf pabUCied them in the 

jefled the propofjtifln with ftrong KaS. with his narratiire of the io- 

^^^&'°[^''('i'^^n-"^oa\dnot furreftion in Benare*. The nabob, 

clMs, raid they, « fix the (lamp therefore, could not be ip:onuit of 

-of infamy upon us for ever? the plot for his deflmition: how 

Would any prince, for genera- the knowledge of it affeded him, 

[tons to come, ever after affitt or he did not live to manifcft by his 

"unite With the pe/hwa?" At -«: — 

tht fame time they regretted the 



lofs of the former opportunity, 
" which would not have left a trace 
"ofHydtr;" and they hinted far- 
ther, " that, as for the faha of ap- 



He was fucceeded by his fbn 
Tippoo, who fiift atTuiied the title 
of Sultan, Young, enterprifing, 
fupcrior to his father in military ta- 
lents, aa inferior to hin in the dilG. 
pearancei a pretence was necef- mulation of Indian politics, and 
fary, they would confuh and find nurfed in conflia»with the Englifh. 
■ ■■ " him from whom he had gathered his firil 
''■•^ laurelbwe cannot wonder, ifke felt 
a deeper refenuneni of our beha- 
yioar. . He accepted tndeed.propo. 
fall for a pacification, which was 
expedient for hia own affidrs at the 
commeocemcnt of his reign : yet it 
i) higltly probable, that lie waited 
ily for a favourable occalion i 



^ oat fome accufation 
•" the firft opportunity." "And fub- 
3«a to this menu! refervation, this 
ftcrct nnderltanding, inimical to 
Hyder, was the treaty with the 
Mahrattaa ultimately conclnded. 
The ^overnor-general, in a Jhort 
fet of inftruftions to Mr. Anderfon, 
one of hb negociators, recurs no 

fcfs than three times to the topic of di"ft'refs7if not to defiroy us. The hof- 

MyderAIIy. This is the burthen tUe difpofition evinced bvourgover- 

Of all—" We want nothing of the rors, trota ibcfirll eftabJifhnTent of 

"Mahrattas but their afliftance hi3father'spo*er,could notbuthavc 

. againit Hyder. ' In decency, he £xed a fufpicion and dread of us, 

admits, they cannot maice a poC- not to be removed by the wifer and 

live engagement to this eifea : more equitable adminiHrauon of 

but prevail upon them," adds he, onenfan. Hehad too much reafon 

« toinvade his dominions ; pretexts for the greater part of his life to 

wUl not be wanting when thev confider us ai the unalterable ene- 

Stiaa perceive the fecllity of roles of his family and throne ; it 

^ing conqueUfi upon him." was natural therefore, that after our 

Hitherto the Myfore chief, while laft intrigues with the Mahrauas. 

he complained of the treatment he flioulf draw clofer his alliance 

Which be recc-ived frpm the prefi- with the ancient enemie. of Eng- 

dency of Madras, liad profeffed land 

ttucii rcfpeft for oor other prert- On the other band. If our inten- 

^cies, and the Engbfh nation in dons were now upright andfinfcere. 

pnerai. Ihe fuprcme govern, we could only regulate our conduft 

nienthadnowdecared,,fpoffible, by that of the tultan. AH wba 

ftia more violently agamft htm. adminifler public affairs are under 

n»r wu there any aced of fpiet the demotic controul of cxilUng 

circoat- 



HISTORT OF EUROPE.. [8j 

chcnmfUnces. He who &As wjih the revolution and their adherents ; 

conrdentiuus iniegriiy, as they di- who inveighed, in the reports ot' 

reft.'^oes his duty. Some reference their cammiiteci, and in popular 

may be had to the paA, bnt if we publications, againft the former 

formerly eod angered the fafcty of negb£l of India. Theybiougbt it 

anoEher, no fenfe of jullice dircds as a principal charge againft the 

us in return to betray our own. VVe old guvemmenc, that, * '■ under pre- 

certainly did not feek the pretext " leoce of trade," they h.id not col- 

ofa quarrel. It is fald, that we ledcd a great force of fhips ud 

lefufed to aid the Mahraitas in the men, ready at tlie £rft lignal to 

invaGon of Myforc; and though pour down upon us from ibeir 

we had too much room to fufpeA, illandi in the Eaficm Oce.tn. 
yet wc did not haltily relent tlie Of the ollenJible ground of the 

Snltan's evaTion of the article in his war with Tippoo Sultan, wc (hall 

treaty, by ivhich he ftipulated to now give a fununary account.— Tbo 

liberate all hi^ English prtfoners: Dutch, for 150 years, had been in 

but it was impollible to overlook polteflion of two forts, Craneanora 

his defign*, when he publicly fent and Jacottah; which they tooK ftom 

a l[rfen£d embaffy to the court of the Fortagucze, who had been maf- 

France, The condition of that ters of them cearlv as much longer, 

kingdom at the time, when the re- They are lituated between the conn* 

volution was preparing, and almoft try of Mylore and Old Cochin, tltdr 

ready to explode, prevented any moil valuable I'ettlement in India, 

onfnendly interference from that Cranganore, from its vicinity to 

quarter ; and J&lous as Spain '.lien the boundary of the Myforcan 

began to be of oar new fettlemems kingdom, was deemed by Hvder 

and commerce juft opting in the Ally a place of confiderabie impor- 

South Seas, by means ofourOrien- tance ; wiiich induced him, previ- 

ta] polTcilions, yet (lie alone could ous to hij rupture with the Englilh, 

not venture to provoke the might in the year 1780, to feize and gar- 

of Great Britain. Still it became rifon it, under pretence that it be- 

necellary for us to be vigilant, and longed to iui tributary, the rajah 

to anticipate, where we couM, and «f Cochin. The Dutch, however, 

when in jullice we might, the effects during that war, again contrived 

of aconibination, which other times to obtain pofTeflion of it, Hyder Al- 

might call into afUon injurioullyt ly being compelled to withdraw all 

if not fatally to oar interells in the his garrifons from the Malabar 

Ball. We could ill truft the love coaft. Of the conditA of th« 
of peace profciTed by the national Dutch on this occafion, who vere 
afleiably. From the beginning, no at the fame tiine leagued with U)'-. 
iecret was made of thofe views, der and the French againil the Eng- 
whicb loon after, and long before lilh, comptabts were made by ths > 
9ny difpute with this country, were enraged ' nabob. Afterwards, by . 
openly declared by the leaders of the mediation of the French, the 

■ See La Ooi* on the ConBitiiiiani of Eurofw, Engl. Tranf. vol. ii, p. 340, 
and the note. The original was publilhed early in 1 791 j the Iranll.iiion early in 
179*. BiiSbt too, in hi9 celebrated pamphlet publilhed in May 1793, accufct hit 
•pponend for nut having uftd " tbt imfiiuatle enmilt" of uit Jiaftcrn Mitbri- 
«ntea afnin& thi« cwntcy. £n^, Tianf. p. 66. 

[fjj Mur 



66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

pffiiir was feme K»y or other com- Hs majefty'i fpeech relating to thu 

promifed. Tippoo, however, in fnbjefl, Mr. HippeAey, on the asd 

the year 1789, again laid claim 10 ofDeccmber, 1790, moved,that c»- 

the |brt, and rdblved fo fuppon Iiii pies of the correfpondence relatiTe 

plaim by the fword. Henurcljed, to the attack of Tippoo Snltan on 

in the month of Jane, a formidable (he lines of Tmrancore, flioold be 

army towards Cranganore, Vfith 411 laid before the houfe. He ftated 

avowed intention of recovering it. that the rajah of Trsvanf ore, who 

AhuraeA at thefa preparations, the waa onr ally, had purchafed the fbru 

Dutch iminediately propoled to fell of Cranganore and Jacottah of the 

both the farts of Crangajiore and Dutch. Tippoo Sultan objefled to 

Jacottah to die rajah of Travan- the legality of this purchafe, aOcrt- 

tore, ap ally of the Britilh goverp- Ingin ou own right a feudal claim 

tnenu TTie rajah, depending per- to the forts in queftion, as fovernga 

baps upon oar affiftance, if attaclced of My fore. The rajah havin? 

by Tippoo Sultao, acceded to the peremptoiity reAifed to relinqailb 

bropofal of the Dutch; who, by this the forts, 'Hppoo niaiched towards 

napny mano^vre, interpofed the the Travancore lines, (the boan- 

terrinc xgis of Britifh proteftion dariesofthe rajah's territory) and 

between die territory of their^ft- commenced hoftilities. Sach was 

lets foe and their own rich but ice- the Ju^plc flacement of the fad. 

ble fecUetnent at Cochin. The fiil- But before we took up the caufe of 

tan, irritated that (he rajah fhould the rajah, he contended, that wft 

make fuch a purchaft without his oneht toconfideriWhetherTippoo's 

confcnt, to whom he iniifted t!)e claim might not be founded apon 

forts in right belonged, and havinz law, agreeably to the eftabliltied 

pretended that roqie of his rebel feudal fyftem of India; and whether 

TubjeAs had found an afylum in the the rajah bimfelf had afied in fuch 

rajah's domioionf, colle^ed a pqw- a manner as to be entitled to our 

crfiil force, ami on the 29th of De- fupport. Cranganore was finiaied 

cember commenced a fudden attack north of Travancore, and of Cochin, 

■on the linej (or boundary) of Cochin had been indilputably tri- 

ravancore. It was impoHible that butary to Hyder Ally, and He 

we could behdd a proceeding of believed to Tippoo, Ct^ngnnore 

this kind with indifference. We wns probably in (he fame prcdtca- 

had no right to decide on fhejuUice mcnc; the prefumption was cer- 

pf the oppofite claims, without the tainly in favour of fuch a fuppofi- 

confent of both parties ; but even a t ion, as moft of the little rajah- 

difputed title, in an acknowledged fhips on that part of the coaft iiad 

ally, was enough to warrant us in been at fome time or other trihatary 

proiefting him by arms acainft an to the Myforean Sultan. The cir- 

armrJ aggrelfion, cfpecially from cumllanceaf Cranganore's having 

an smbitious mpnarch, who at that been in the poficilion of the Dntch, 

very time w?,s fufpefted ofplotttng was obfervcd to be of no confe- 

thc totsIJcl^ru^lnnoftheBritilhenl- quence, as flUl it might have owed 

pireiifliidii.— Such was the origin leahy to Tippoo. 

pf our interference up<3n this occa- The rajah of Travancore had 

^on.' long wiflied K> obtain theft forts. 

In confequence of the pal&gc ip and had applied about two yeu-s 

t htUtw 



?; 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [«? 

fidbn to Sir Ardulnld Cunpbell, and could boaft a EreaTiur of at 
then ffxreioor of Mailru. for per- leaft eigJti or nine millioiu. To aU 
ntfioa to negociate a purchafe ; but this what could we oppofef but aa 
Sir A. Campbell exprefled '. his cxhaufted treafury, tjA a tottering 
dii«a di&pprobatiaii of the iiie&- credit .* 

{in. After that penttenuui had Mr. Fruicii feconded the mo- 
Irfi ladii, the rajih wrote to his don, and argued againA the im- 
focceflbr Mr. Hollond, briefly ob- policy of extending oar terrybrie* 
ftrring diat he had completed the in lodia, and oftorming alliancei 
poTchife of the forta of Craoganore with the native princM of that 
■nd Jacottah, with the concarrence country. He obferved, thu there 
ofihe BritiOi goTcmmenc. In fiich exifled a mutoal jealoufy between 
■ tru!i{adion, he conceived, that Tippoo and the nizam, which it 
diere appeared, on the part of the was our interell to encourage, 
njah, more deceit than honour. But the Mahrattu were the power. 

In defence of 'nppoo's condod, which we had moft rcafon to dread, 
ke thought lilcevile it might be It would therefore be extremely on- 
^ly argued, that it wat impoffible wife to extirpate Tippoo, if bla 
for him, as fulun of Myfore, to cxnrpation depended upon our 
bcht^d the tranifer of thefe forts will, as fuch a circnmAance would 
to the rajah of Travancore within- give' the Mahiatias an extent of 
difference. In the hands of the territory, and a degree of ioflacnce* 
Cuick, a mere trading cwnpany, which might prove highly daoge- 
Crangaaere was of little import- roas tp the Brittlh intcrefts ia 
ance; but in the polIelSon of an India. 

afbreally of the Britilh government, Mr. Dundai ftated, that Cnng^- 
it aSamed a very difierent afpeA. nore, Jacotuh, and Cochin were 
As he qoellioned the jullice, fo places of con^derable ftrength in 
had he bis doubts upon the policy the hands of the putclu That 
of the wajr. The Mahractas and politic people, being alarmed at the 
the nizam were to be our allies, warlike preparations of Tippoo, 
la his opinion, little dependance pointing towards the quarter in 
could be placed on either. Mahratta which thefe pofleflions were fituated, 
fdiih was as proverbial in India as becartie defirous of' malting over 
the ^(TsifA jEd>i had been in ancient the forts of Craqganore and Ja- 
Rome. And could we, he exclaim- coitah to the rajah of Travantoref 
cd, fo calily forget the general con- whom they knew to be our ally ; 
federacy of 1780 among the native that, by thus in elfe^ throwing 
powers ; a confbiracy headed by ihemfelves under the proteQion of 
the nizam himlelf, the objeA of the BritiQi government, they might 
which waSr to exterminate the raife a barrier to Cochin, their 
BritiO) nation from India { moft valuable poflelEon on the con- 

On the fubje^ of refour^ei, he tinent of India. AfWr the purcUafa 
remarked, that Tippoghad an army was completed, Tippoo Sultan fee 
«r i^ofiOQ men, a large corps of gp a fort of claim to the forts la 
Europeans, well officered, and an quelUon by way of obtaining a pre* 
admirable train of artillery. He text for his hoftile proceedings, 
poflefled a revenue of five iiuIlioDS, iiut this was not the firA qine ih:i,t 



^t] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



the ambitioai views ofTippoofaad 

hcen nunireiled. In the year 178S 

he advanced with a formidable army 

to the frontiers of Travancore, 

without the lead provocation on 

.the part of the rajah ; and was with 

difHcalty induced, notwiih (Ian ding 

the (pin ted rem onft fences of the 

British government, to retire to his 

oWn dominions. He was reprefent- 

ed as a teftlefs tyrant, ever bent, 

aggrandizement, 

IS with a jcaloug 

We hsd on our 

y kept the treaty 

t he had conu- 

incli nation to 

latked, that, how 
Lhe troops of our 
e, and whatever 
uei, we had little 
ad, as our army 
^ the finell that 

,, 11 that part of 

the world ; and »s, inftead of fup- 
porting a war againft the French, 
che Dutch, the Mahrattai, all the 
European and all the native powers, 
we (hould contend with only one 
jOf them. 

Mr. Fox, infupjwrtlng the grounds 
taken by Mr. HippeUey and Mr. 
Francis, faid, that tie trufted that a 
war for conqueft would never be 
undertaken by England, eidier in 
India or in Europe. 

The modon julTed without op- 
pofition. 

On the iSth'of February, Mr. 
Hippefley moved, that the 3;th 
claufe of an afl made in the 14th 
year of his prefent tuajefty, which 
difavpwed all fchemm for the ex- 
tenlScQ pf our territories in India, 
faiight be read; and that the iR, 
fi, jd, 4th, 5th, x^i, and 44tb fe- 
iblutions of the houfe of commons, 
^n the 15111 of April 1781, mi^ht 



be Ukewife read. He then qvotcA 

fcvera) extrafli from the correlpon- 
dence of the government of Fort St. 
George, in the years 1768, 177CV 
and 177), tending to prove, that it 
would be always our bell policy iq 
regard the Mahrattas wi^ a dif- 
truftful dread, and to prefervc at 
any price the friendlhip of the 
fultan ofMj-ibre. 

Previouny to entering npoo th; 
grounds of the war. the members of 
oppofition feverely animadverted on 
the treaties of offenfii'e and defcn&ve 
aUiance, which had been recently 
concluded with the Mahrattas and 
tlienbam. AsTippoo's invafiODof 
the territory of Travancore was al- 
lowed to be che origin of the war, 
it was remarked, that the defetKe of 
the rajah, the reparation due to him, 
andhis futurefecurity, ought to have 
been particularly provided for in 
tbofe treaties ; but that in {i&. he 
was not once named in them. Not 
a Angle word occurred, which al- 
luded to the caufe of the quarrel, or 
from which it might be inferred, 
that the inicrelb of the rajah were 
ever thought of- We could only 
colIeA from ihem, that Tippoo 
was a common enemy, that having 
fiad engagements with the three 
ContraftiDg paftiej, he had a£ted 
with ii^deltty towards all; and that 
we ought to deprive hiin of the 
means of difturbing the general 
tranquillity in future. 

The queftioa of our intetfe* 
rence was liaied to be limply this: 
whether by any aft of guaranteet 
exprelTed or implied, in the treaty 
of Mao^alore, we were bound to 
defend toe rajah ofTraraocore in 
ihofe dominions only, which he pof- 
fefled at the date of the engage- 
ment, or to extend our prote&on 
to fnbfeqaent acquifitions made by 
hitOi witDOut oar confcnt or know- 
• ledge. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [89 

Itigt, Upon die'iiippoGtioa that bis entire tUrapprobatton of the 
we wetc boand tg ddend him in meafure. ^ 
duTe dQininions only, which he The impolicy of the war wu 
po&fled at the date of the engage- ftrongly urged. Inltead of at* 
ment (a fuppofition certainly the tempting to ^tnnihijate the My- 
moft rcaTonable) there could not forean power, it was contended 
exift the leaA poiGble o^afion for that it would be our grenteft wif- 
oar iDvolving eorlelvet in the bufi- dom to fupport and encounge ic; 
nef». and to prelerve it as a ufcful bar- 
Sat arguments were not only rier againft the more formidable 
biDDght «gainA the neceffityofour power of the Mahrattai. In tliis 
iDiencFciice, but againft the jaf- point of view, prefent fuccefj would 
tice of it. The njab was faid prove fiitare calamity ; and the ex- 
to be the iggidSca, and not Tip- tirpation of the tyrant, whom v,e 
poo. In fuppoft of this opinion, opKifed, our own ruin, 
lerenl extra&s were qaoted from But, whatever onr inclinations 
the correfpoodence of onr gover- might be in this refpefl, it was Con- 
nors in India, one of which was £dently ailerted that ve wer; by no 
to the following effeCt, "That the means equal to the expences of ai) 
rajah, by engaging in new con- Indian war. It was remarked, from 
neAions with the Dutch, and by theconfefEonofourgovemors them- 
tnaking conclnfive purchafes of felves in India, that our revennit 
fofis or places in the territories of were exhaufted; that the importance 
one of the tributaries of Tippoo of the places in difpute could not be 
Saltan (viz. the rajah of Cochin,) oppofed to the fenous confeqnences 
not only without his confent, but of engaging in holHlities ; and that 
evea at the tine when foch tribu- It was a conteft, which, even if at- 
larj iras threatened with his refent- tended with fucceflj, could not prove 
mept, would jnlUy draw Tippoa> advantageous to our affairs. I;^ 
refentment upon himfelf, and by the ringfe article of bullocks, it was 
the lame traiUaaion ibrfeit all right conceived that we Ihoald incur an 
to the company's fricnd/hip or in- annual expence of 700,000!. Un- 
terfeience in hu favour." That the der fuch circumAances, a pradeni 
rajah afied ander the cdnfcioufnefs goremment. inllead of yielding t( 
of being engaged in an nnjuft and every flight impulfe of relentmenti 
dilboaoarable tranfaftion, appeared fliould have liftcned to an accom- 
from the duplicity whichhepra^tifcd modation; inllead of inHaming th^ 
towards the Britilh government; quarrel, ffiould have laboured tt^ 
for the court of directors de- appeafeit, 

dared that nothing exilled on the In reply it tvas Rated, th.it 

Madia* records to corroborate his an attack had been afiually made 

aflertion of having obtained our by Tippoo Sultan on the linei 

codent to the purchafci and 'Sir Of Travancore, which we were 

ArcJutuld Campbell himfelf ex- bound by the treaty of Mangalore 

pre&ly deaietl, that he had ever to refent: on that ground alone had 

given &ch confent ; but obferved, we entered into the war> Theconl 

that on the contrary he had £giil£cd duft of the rajah had >ot been fuc^ 

" H 



,.,Coogle 



fo) ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

aft to juftify oar deTenion of him. chat the wir was not left founded in 
But even graoung that he had been jultice than io pcdtcy. 
guilty of aa error, our Indian go- Mr. Fox, who fpolce vith hit 
Vernon would by no meaoi have ufual energy agaicft the war, a. 
aAed prndendy, if tboy had given mung other things, reprobated in 
him up to the vengeance of Tip- very pointed terms uie ■Itiancc^ 
poo. The pretended claitn of that which had been entered into with 
tyrant to the forts, was not the real the Mahrattju and the Nisam, for 
origin of the wiir. Had this been the purpofe, as he conceived, of cx- 
the cafe, he would certainly have tirpating Tippoo^ and plundering 
iremo_nAraced previoufly to any hof- his territories. It was lingular, he 
tile preparation] ; inltead oftJ)at,lie obferved, that at a time when the 
marched with 150,000 men to the enlightened policy of the nations of 
lines of Travancore, before be had Europe had abandoned all offenfive 
made the leall conplaints agunft alliances, as if aihamed of their hav- 
file rajah's condud. His plea of & ing ever exifted, we (hould contintiB 
priof claim, was a mere pretext af- that difgraceful fyftem in India, a 
terwards let up to give a colour of country where we profe£ed to main- 
juftice to his ambitious dcGgns tain, and declared that we would 
againfl the rajah's dominions. By maintain, the greateft moderation. 

5ettingpoireGionofCraaganoreand The moft ftriking inftance of an 
acottah, the keys of the rajabOiip oSenfive alliance rormed in Europe, 
«f Travancore, he hoped to obtain was the family compaA of the Houfe 
the ability of overrunning, at his of Bourbon : that compad, as far 
pleafure, the whole kingdom. It as it was offenfive, became annihi- 
mull liicewifc be evident, that when- lated, as foon as a bettei^govem- 
cver Tippoo iboiild be mailer of ment was eftablifhed in France t 
thefe forts, there would be an end of and be exprelTed a convi&ion, ttut 
our own fecurity in the Carnatic. it would never be revived. 

So Bu from confidering the Mah- Mr. Pitt denied, that the treadet 
lattas as our natural enemies, it to which Mr. Fox alluded were in- 
was faid that we ought to regard tended to aim at the extirpation of 
them as our beft and moft uTeful Tippoo.and the divi£on of his king- 
allies. The only Indian prince, dom.— Mr. Frands made a feriet 
who could be a re^I objeft of dread, of motions, tending to cenfure the 
was the enterprizing and unprin- principles of the war, and to pre* 
cipled ufurper of Myfbre. vent its farther profecncion, which 

A peaceful negocUdon was afiert- were all negativ«l. 
ed to be irapoffible. It had been On the azd of March Mr. Dunr 
attempted at the 'commencement das read the following refblutions ; 
of the difpate; but Tippoo had " That it appears to this boafe, that 
twice attacked the lines of Travan* the attacks made by Tippoo Sultan 
core, during the very period in on the lines of Travancore, on the 
which hit melTen^rs were on their aoth of December )789> the 6th of 
way to Madras with letters, breath- March, ai)d i$ch of April, 1790, 
ing pretended profeflions of peace, were nnwqrranted. and unprovoKed 
Upon the whole, it was cancended* iofracliont pf the treatjr e ntctcd ia< 



UigniaOb, Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[9« 



to u lliifangalore oo the lOth of 
March 1784." 

" That the codJuA of the go- 
vernor general of Bengal, in deter- 
mimng to profccnte wth vigour the 
war againft Tippoo Sultan, in con- 
fequence of bis aiuclc on the terri- 
tories of the rajah of Travancore, 
vas highly meritorioiu." 

" That the treatiei entered into 
mih the Nizam on the ift of Jane, 
and with the Mabrattas on the 7th 
of Jiily 1790, were wifely calcu- 
lated to add rigour to the opera- 
tion] of war, and to promote the 
future tranquillii)' of India; and 
that the faith of the BritiOi nation 
was pledgni for the due perform- 
ance of ^e engagements contained 
in the faid treaties." 

The argnme^ts, which had been 
advanced in the preceding debate, 
both fw and againll the war, were 
a fccond lijne brought forward, aiul 
urged with new force ^nd alJlitjr. 
The conduA of lord Comwaltti, in 
makbg the treaties with the Mah- 
rattas and the Nizam, was warmly 
fuppDried by Mr. Dundas on every 
ground of wife and juft policy, 
—The rcToIutions paflcd without a 
iJii'ifion, 

In the hoafe of lord), on the 1 1 th 
of April, lord Portcheiler entered 
into a long difcufiion of the (kme 
fubjeft; and reprobated, in the 
ttrongell language, the whole pro- 
ceedings of our government in In- 
dia, pointing out the injustice and 
dilaftroua confequences of the war ; 
a *ar, which he aflened the barba- 
rcQj policy of the board of controul 
had lent forth to dcfolatc ihi: plains 
of India, and' render execrable the 
Eriiifti name. His lordlhip's mo- 
tions for cenfuring the war, nnd for 
procuring peace upon moderate and 
equiisbie lerias, were negatived by 



a majority of 77. ItnmedUteljr 
after the fbnser ded&m, lord Greo- 
ville rofe and made the fame mo. 
tioiu in approbation of the war, aa 
had prertoiiily palled in Ike hoafe 
of common); which were Curied 
by a majority of ;i. 

The attention of the Britilh par- 
liament, which guard* with un- 
cealing folicitude the interells of 
our widely -extended dominioaa 
(dominions, from fome part or 
other of which, according td ths 
old faoaft of the Spanifh monardiv* 
the light of the fun may be (aid ' 

never to be withdrawn) wat next 
attraficd from oar eaflero to our 
wellem polTellions ; from the confi- 
deration of the nece&ity to which 
we were driven, of profecuting an 
aftive war againfi a powerfid In- 
dian monarch, to the difcnflion ofa 
milder and more hamane quellton^ 
the proprietyofabollfhing oar traffic 
in Aaves. 

So early as the 4th of Febni< 
ary, Mr. Wilberforcc had moved 
for the appointment of a committee 
to receive and examine evidence on 
this fjbj.-ft; which motion, after a 
fliort debate, «as put and carried. 
A confidcraWc body of evidence 
hflving been Xtiiii taker, on the iSth 
of April, in a connnittee of the 
whole houfe, Mr. Wilberforcc en- 
tered into a long and minute dif- 
cuflion of the fubjtft. Kc com- 
menced with giving an accurate 
det;ii1 of the unfair manner in which 
il.ivcs-wcrc obtained on the coalt of 
Africa.. He particulaiized many 
aii5 of the moll flagrant cruelties ; 
and cxpoftd all the mean devices 
and baibiroita policy ot tholij' un- 
feeling men ivlio ivcre concerned 
iiuhi:. blood)' trnfiic. Difiertiit tribes 
cf Indians, lie f^i'ii, « tic eucouragcd 
to uK.kc 11 ;ir on t-ich othrr for the 
li!>« 



ja] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791. 

fake of taking prUbners, and of the condition of ihe negroest with- 
thus providing the market with out ihe total abolition of llavei^-, 
fl&vesi the admin ill ration of ju ft ice heconfidered as likely lo prove in- 
in moll: parts of Africa was con- etRcacioas and unfafe. Their di- 
verted into an engine of oppref- tnation, he thought, could never be 
fion; and every fraud, every vio- mitch amended by a gradual abo- 
Icnce, 1V3S pra^ifed, that low cun- lition, or by any laws of regulation^ 
ning and brutal ferocity could wliich the Well Indian legiflatnres 
fuggeft. After dwelling for fomc might chooic to adopt. The ad- 
jime upon the many dif^raceful vaiiiages of ilie trade, in a commer- 
JiAions which were committed in cial point of view, he deemed it 
the nfual mode of procuring the almoll an unbecoming condefcen- 
flaves, he made a variety of remarks fion to dlfcufs ; but could iu advo- 
Mpon their unpaiallek-d fuiFcrings caics prove (what he knew never 
under the horrors of the ra'ddle could b; proved) that it was of 
paflage, and aficr their arrival at confidcrablc importance to this 
the dc:lined foil of fervitude and country, either in its imrocdiate 
wrctchcdnefs. He next contended, operation, or remote effefls, " flill, 
that the abolition of the trade would fiiould he exclaim, ftill there is a 
not operate to the real detriment of fmell of blood, which aJl the per'- 
our Weil India iflands. He ob- (umcs of Arabia cannot remove." 
ferved that, nonviihdnnding the He concluded by moving, "That the 
barbai'ous treatment, which the nc- chairman be inthufled to bring in 
groes have long experienced, their a bill to prevent the farther im- 
jiumhcrs have not on the whole de- ponation of llaves into the BritiQi 
creafed, but in fome illands have colonies in the Weft Indies." 
beenlately on the ircrc^fc; whence Notwiihftanding the ftrong bias 
he arg^jed, that, i* hen the planter of popular opinion in favour of all 
jliould be deprived of all profpei^l fentimenta] queilioui; Dotwithlland- ' 
cf a future market, he would be ing the lofs of ciiarafter, wbLcb was , 
induced to pay a proper attention hazarded by appcariRg to defend 
to the' health, morals, and comfort a traffic, branded with every pofli- 
f}f his ilaves, and by thus confider- ble terin of opprobrium, and againft 
ably augmenting not only their which, as generally reprefented. 
lappinefs but their numbers, would every feeling of the heart recoils; 
Vender continual fupplies from A- the propriety of continuing the 
frica unnecelTary. He then pro- flave trade was very ably fupported, 
Reeded to confider the confequences on tha grounds of jullice, policy, 
of the abolition in another point of and humanity. Qn the juftice of 
fiew, in its probable elTefls on the the trade, confidercd in an abftraft 
piarine. The Guinea trade, tnftead pojnt of vicu-, it was remarked, that 
j)f being a Itarfery for feamen, was, as a man muft have an equal right 
]n his idea, their grave. It ap- to fell his liberty and labour as any 
pearedfrointhc Liverpool and Bril- part of his property, a compafl of 
lol mullcr-rolls, that in 350 Have- fuch a kind, where no com^ulfioq 
ihips, havin:; on board 12,263 P*""- ^^ heen ufed, muft be held binding I 
ions, thercwere lo!l 2,645 in twelve according to the known law of na- 
monihs. All attempts to meliorate usns. Voluntary ftipulitipiis there? 

fore : 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [93 

fcrp of Has natnre wcrt both legal tile revenue. Thd erports t6 
and jolt. Nor codld there be any AfHoi were cftimated at Soo.cool. 
leafoo to diink otherwifi: oF thofe to which might be added the cx- 
conpaOj, by which prifooer* of portJ and imports of the Weft In- ' 
war and calpria, wnofe perfoiu dian trade, to the amount of at 
were amenable to the laws of thnr leaft fix milliona a year ; a trade 
counoy.werefoldto flaveryagainft very likely to be materia!! y a ffeit- 
their wills ; as fuch unhappy people cd, perhapi completely rained, by 
mnft be acknowledged to be, under the propoled abolition, 
the power, and at the difpofat, of But, although the proportion may 
the party who contrafted in their at firft appear fl range, the humanity 
names. The converfe of this pro- of the fUve trade was aground Are. 
pofitioa, viz. chat u the trade was nuoufly maintained. It was remark' 
jofl, conlidered in the abUmd, fo ed, that, bloody as it was fuppofed 
w<ral<l the abolition of it, in confe- to be, the elfuiion of blood would 
qoence of the long fanflion given be much greater, if our flave^fhipi 
to it by parliainent, be manifelily were no longer permicted to vito 
nnjuft, was likewife urged. Lpon the coails of Africa. It was thii 
the &ith of parliament conllderable identical traffic, iniquitous and in- 
property waa laul to be embarked human as ir had been called, which 
in diiJ trade, the total lofs of the fnatclied many miferable wretches 
gieatcft part of which would im- from inevitable death; it being s 
mediately ' fMow its fndden abo- l^A fufiiciently known, that k 
tidott. was the general praftice of tha 
Its policy was maintained with Afiicans to fell thofe priJbners and 
eqnal confidence. In oppofition to culprits only, whom otherwifc their 
the remarks of Mr. Wilberforce, It fanguinary laws and culloms coin- 
was ftrongly afleited to be an im- pelled them to murder. Considered 
portant nnrfery for feamen. Lord in this point of view, fo far from 
Rodney's authority was quoted, who having facrificed, this calumniated 
had deflared, that our being ena- trade has favcd the Jives of thou- 
bled to obtain from the Guinea fands, 

Ihips fo numerous a body of men The various evidences, which 
inured to the climate, when we had been adduced to prove the hor- 
wiflied to fend a fleet to the Weft rid.crnelties prafiifed upon flavei, 
Indies, upon the break'ng out of a were reprefented to be in fome in- 
war, was a confideration of great dances falfe, in many partial, and 
weight. It was Itatcd that Liver -> in almoft all exaggerated. In ad- 
pool alone could fupply the navy dition to the above arguments, cfln- 
with 993 fuch feamen annually, liderable ilrefs was laid upon ^hs 
Nor were the deaths of thofe, who infufficiency of our abolition to ef- 
were engaged in the flave trade, fcfl a complete annihilation of fla- 
fo nameraus as liaa been fuppofed. vety, as other nations would imm^ 
Only five men out of z hundred diately take up the lucntive traf- 
were &id to be loft upon an ave- fie, when abandoned by us. Or. 
rage. A fecond argument on the granting the abolition to be efiec- 
point of ^licy was urged from the tuaf, the confequences were alferted 
«oofidcnmoD of itt impoitaace to to be no Icfi than the total luin of 



j4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

onr Weft In£ut illands for wuit towardi thcfewretcbed people too 
of pfoper hands to cultivate them, horrid ilmoft to mentioii; and « 
At any rate, wha.t, it was alked, powerful appeal wu made from 
could be the immediate operatiaii the judgment to the feelings of Che 
of^ fach a meafure on our coloniM, houfe : but fuch accounts were con- 
what hut the creation of difgaft and lidered, b^ the oppofite patf, aa 
alarm iu the mind of the injured greatly mifreprefoited, or at bcA 
pbtitter, and of a difpolition to re- as only capable of proving excep- 
Tolt. to commit a£b of rapine and tions to a general line of milder 
maimer, in that of the unenbghtened condafl. It was admitted, that 
negrof other nations might purfae the 
On the other hand, the injuAice trade if we abandoned it. Proper 
ef the trade was warmly iafifted regulations, however, might in fome 
«pon by the advocates of the aba- meafare prevent them; but at the 
Ktion; but their argaments (eemed worR we fhoutd have the confidation 
to com more upon moral than of reitefling, that the gnilt would 
legal injudice. It was obferveii, not re H on our heads. Ai a com- 
that. ai noonc nationhad aright to plete anfwcr to the objefiion, that 
violate the happinefs of another, to the Intended abolition would prove 
introduce difcord and mifery, upon the ruin of our colonic], it wai con- 
any pretence whatever, and ab our fident'y aflcrtcd that the llock of 
interference among the natives of Raves, which they at preTent con- 
Africa was exafti^ of fuch a de- tained, if well managed, and mild- 
fcription, that interference muft be- ly treated, would be fully compe- 
eaaltdered as an aft of injulUce. tent to all the requifite labour, and 
Befidei, crimes were faid to be con- fumilh a fufiicieni fupply for future 
ttnually perpetrated, and wars pur- exigences. — Mr. Wilbeiforce's mo- 
po&Iy msfle, to fupply ns with tion wai loft by a majority of 75. 
ilavei ; and as iranlaitions of this If the caufe of liberty was fup- 
kjnd were univerlally allowed to pofed to have AiSercd by the pre- 
be founded on injudice, would not ceding deciGonon the {lave trade, 
a fimilar imptiLition attach upon thatoFtolerationwasaatronizcdand 
thoTe who, by purchafing* the flavcs fupported by the houle in a manner 
when ofiercd for fale, afforded en- which futhciently exculpated the 
coutagement to fuch atrodoui pro- views, and reflected hotioor on the 
ceedinggf liberaliiy of the church patty. In 
The ground of its policy was our volume for i79o»weremarlted, 
much queliioned ; but that of its that the dilTenters, in their lalt 
komanity reprobated in the (IroDgeft application to parliament for the 
kniu. Admitting that a few pii- repeal of the tell laws, had included 
fcue i i of war might be murdned, the cale of their brethren (ai the; 
ifnotfoldtoourdealers, ftill it was called them) who embraced the 
■fierted, that the worft <if deaths catholic religion; thus attempting 
would be preferable to a life of to make one common caoie wi£ 
flarery. Upon this occafion many the members of that perfrafioo. 
inaaBcei were quoted, of treatment- We Ufccwife hinted, that this ap- , 

• P«s; ?*• ■ I 

' plicaticin 



HiStORt OF EUROPE. [95 

plicaCioii mu rejeOed priscipalljr abfolred her fiibjeOi fiom Aat 

upon tibe ground of political expe- oath of allegiance. 

iaxy, and not from any indina- The moQon was feconded by Mr. 

DD to coDtronl the freedom of Wyndhasi. He Aated two princi- 

religioiu <^>ioion. The proceed- pk*, which he conceived were ge- 

iojiof the prefent feffion (ufEcieni- nerally fuppofed to Jultlfy the eo- 

iy eriitced the truth of our inter- afting of penal Itatutes againft per- 

pretation iit this inftance. A bill Tons of aay particular religious per- 

was iatrodoced, and unanimoDlly fuafiotu ; one was the ground, that ' 

curied, for the reUef of catholic*, their opinion) were in themfeltres 

who, by ceafing to be formidable lalfe and erroneous ; the other, that 

to the llate ia a political point of the confequcnces deducible from 

vlar, had ceafed to become proper fuch opimons, were liable to make 

objefU of legal penalties and dif- them bod utizens, and dang:rDU9 

ahlities. fabjefb. In the firil inltance, be 

On FebmaFy aift, Mr. MiEibrd thought that the principle of aAion 

moved for a committee of the might fairly be termed a seal for 

whcb houfe, to enable him " to perfecation; in the latter, he ac- 

bring in a bill to relieve, upon con- knowjedged it to be of a very difier- 

didonaod oodercertain reftriftions, entdercnption. Ia all cafes ofdan- 

perfons called protefting catholic ger, he thought that we ihould conij- 

iflinteri, from certain penalties, der, i ft, the will of thofc from whom 

aod dilabilitiei, to which papiili, or danger'was apprehended ; and zdl^, 

perfon) profefiing the popilh reli- the power which they pofleiled, ta 

gion, are by law fubjeS." He execute whatever it might be their 

pre&ccd his motion, by obferving, will to execute, if they could. In 

that It was well Icnown there was thispointofview,bedidnotconceive 

great fevetity in the laws now fub- that the conduA of the Romaa ca- 

Gfting againfl Roman catholics, but tholics had been fuch as to warrant 

chat the extent of fuch feverlty wai the feverity with which they bad 

not equally Itnown. In Burn's Ec- been treated in the laft century. 

icIeGaJlical Law.no lefsthanfevcmy At any rate, it was impolTible to 

piges were occupied witli an enu- deem them formidable at the pre- 

meratioR of the penal ftatutes Hill fent period, when the power of the 

in force Againll them. The prefent pope was confidered as a mere (pec- 



:e of Jw 



Lhcm. The prelent pope was confidered as a mere (pec- 
oly one (except the tre, capable of frightening only in 
n the Second) fince the dark, and vamlhing before the 
the reign of queen Elizabeth, in light of reafon and knowledge, 
wbicb lome additional feverity had Mr. Stanley, member for Lancx- 
noi been enaded againft this de- Qure, oblierved, that he had for 
fcription of people. He remarked, many years refided In a country, 
tnwever, that the extreme rigour where the Roman catholics were 
of the flatatei in queUon during extremely namervm. From the 
the reign of Elizabeth could not be opporcuiuties, therefore, which hti 
much a fubjefl of wonder. When it local fituatioa afforded him of ex- 
was confidered that the Pope had amining their conda^hewai tho> 
axcommosisaMd that i]ueeni and nujU/ cenvincedf that then di4 



.oogle 



j6J ANNUAL REGISTER, I79<.- 



sDt exilt more loyal TabjeCU, or 
perfbns more aitached to ilie fami- 
ly on the throtie. in any part of the 
icingdom. 

Mr. Fox thought the prppofcd 
KA too cpniined in its views ; he 
wifhed tt to go Farther, and to efta- 
Uilh complete toleration. His own 
idea upon the fubjeft of toleration 
' vai, that the Itate had no right to 
enquire into the opinions of people, 
«ither poiitical or religiouj i it had 
S right only to take coenizsnce of 
'their ^ions. Such perCeciition and 
opprellion as cxilled in England did 
not exift in any other country. In 
all the king of Pruffia's dominions 
•niverfal toleration prevailed; in 
the united ftaies of Holland, in the 
vnited Dates of America, and in 
France, there was likewife to be 
fband univerial teleration. What 
could be the reafon of this ? Would 
tt be faid, that Prnllia was too tittle 
monarchical for a monarchy ;«r Hol- 
land too little ariftocratica] for an 
aridocracy ; or that liberty was not 
fittficT*ntly extended to fatisfy the 
friends of freedom in America or in 
France f Yet, although toleration 
Itdly obtained in a monarchical and 
in an ariftocraiical government, as 
welt ill in two democracies,* ander 
«ur boalled conllitution it wtis^nar- 
ntved and confined in (hackles dif- 
graceful CO humanity. 

In a committee of the wliote 
ioufe on the ill of Mareh, Mr. 
Mitford moved for leave to bring 
is his propofed bilt. . He wifhed 
not for the general repeal of the 
penal ftatutes in qudtion ; but mefe- 
ly for an exemption from theirope- 
ration in favour of a few ; art ex- 
emption, which he truHed conld 

tve no |)offible canfe for alarms. 

"s intention was not to admit Ro- 
a catltolic* of any d:lcjj|>ti9a u) 



w: 



Situations of iroft, or places under 
government j he only hoped to have 
them conftdoed as men of hoiunir 
and loyalty. 

Mr. Fox confelled, that the iJanh 
againEl popery in the taft century 
was in fome degree founded in rea- 
fon ; but that an improper mode 
was taken to fupprefi the objea of 
that alarm. But no ground for 
fimilar 3pprehen£oas exifted at thq 
prefcnt moment,' or was likely to 
exift in future. It feemed, there- 
fore, to hiro perfedly leafonable. 
that we Ihoutd expunge fr^ our 
flatute boBki ihofc fangninar^ laws, 
which could not now be defondcd, 
even upon the hackneyed pl*a of 
date neceffity. The paptfts, he 
thought, without diftindion enti- 
tled to ample relief; they had all 
behaved well, and deferved en- 
couragement. He concluded his 
fpeech with an admonition to per- 
fons in power, quoting the old pro- 
verb, " As you are ftout be merci. 
ful ;" and from thence recommetKl- 
ing to them, in proportion to the fu- 
periority of their ftrength, neither 
to tyrannize over the few, nor to , 
trample upon the weak, but to take 
care that their proceedings never | 
fwerved from' the dictates « hnma- i 
nity and juftice. 

Mr. Burke contended, that the 
penal ftatutes againft Roman caiho- 
lies Qiould be confidered more in a 
political than a rclizioui poinc of ' 
view. As a prtwf of this alTerrion, | 
he pointed out the preamUe of the 
17th of Elizabeth, which, inftead 
of afltgning any religious purpofe 
w the gfound-work of the proceed- 
ing, exprefsly declared, that the aft 
was pafied lotely fr>r th? fuppreflion 
of a dangeroas fa^on in the l^ate. 
He agrettl, however, that u the 
jnottTc which could aluic be plead- 
i c4 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



[97 



td la jnftilicadoD of fach Aatates, 
no longer exlfted, x repeal of them 
v»i boik reafoiuble and proper. 
It <m the duty of govemmcDt to 
nuke the people happy ; bat this, 
k reourked, could j^t be the cafe, 
while e»ery juftice c. the peace was 
nude an inquiAlori and a man, who 
ttorOupped God in his own wayi 
liable to be condemaed for high 
treafon.— The motion was put and 
carried without oppoiition. 

After the bill had been brooght 
in, and had pafled the houfc of 
comaans, upon the fecond reading 
of it in the boufe of lords, oa the 
Jtft of May, a debate commenced 
upon the propriety of fcveraJ claufes, 
Hhich were afterwards amended in 
a committee. The bench of bi- 
(hops took a diltinguilbed and ho- 
nourable pait in this debate. 'The 
archbifliop of Canterbury, the bi- 
(liop of St. David'), the bifliop of 
Peterborough, and the biihop of Sa- 
lifbuiy, fpokc upon the occafion.. 
The general principle of the bill 
was admitted by them to be juA and 
biunane; and con fequently entitled 
to their cordial fupporc. The bi- 
ihop of St. David's fpoke much at 
Wgih. His lordlhip's principal 
cbjeAion to it was, that the form of 
the oath nf allegiance, which it en- 
joined, was fuch as would moH pto- 
hsbiy ojtend the.feellnvs of thofe, 
uhoffithc bill itfelf was intended to 



relieve. He did not objeA, becaufe 
tiie bill gave too much toleration ; 
but becaofe it would not in faA give 
that degree of it which it pro- 
fcfled to hold fbrtK The doarine, 
that princes excommunicated by the 
fee of Rome roisht be depofed and 
murdered by tncir fubjefts, was 
declared by the oath to be impiousi 
heretical, and damnable. The ca- 
tholics felt not the leafl difmclina- 
tlon to cxprefs their difapprobation 
of fuch a doflrine; but from fcru- 
plcs, founded on a tender regard for 
the memory of their progenitorst 
they could not bring themlelves to 
brand it with the harOi terms, which 
the 0.1th prefcribed. The reve- 
rend biihop 
that he was i 
hoofe with . 
this occafion, 
impreSing tt 
Ihips withwl 
prefl upon h 
tions of the! 

cavils, but fair, honeA and confcien- 
tious fcruples. 

In a committee of the whole 
houfe on thi: bill, Jun< 4th, the 
oath, as it at firft llood, was upon 
the btlhap'i motion expunged, and 
the fame oath, which was taken by 
the Roman catholics in Ireland in 
the year 1774,, with/ome very flight 
altcfations, fubllituted for it. 



[GJ- 



CHAP_ 



9?] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1751, 

C H A p. V. 

fiM mtjagei freA the ting ; eia yeUt'fvt ie ibt gsvenuuxt ef CttnaJa, an J 

tbi Dibir Is ike H-:ar irt-jiceii Rujfta attd tbt Porli. Statt af ibt qatffion 
Ttldti'Lt t« iht cfffien efOtxaiB-iv demanded iy the tnfrefi, D^atlt car thii 
fibjeS in parUammt. Rent^ved en difftreat dayi by'/fveral mefieai maiie 
en tbt pan of ippsfilinn. Mr. Shn-idaa and Mr. Fax inlradatt the frai/et 
of the French re'voluliim. Mr. Burke rifti in great enulioir immediate', f 
after Mr. Fox, but ii ftofptd by a eall for the qu-fiiox. Debates en the 
Jamt mtffage in the bouji of lurds. Mtffngt rcfpecling Canada taken iaio 
<B«fidtratiBn it the Ijouft rf commeits. Mr. Pitt fully opens tbt OHlUnet of 
his iaitnded bill, firming a nezu coiijiitutitn for ibi fre-uiitce. Mr. Fcx 
appeari to ecquiej'<e in ibt principle cf the propofed mia/tirt. Quebec bill 
not oppeftd till she further emtfid/ratien of the reporl. Re-cammilmeitt 
me-vtd by Mr. Hnffiy. Seconded by Mr. Fox, luio objeat to rnaji of the 
leading principles of the hilt : be expfejfes a faliifaaien al the prcfem Jif- 
fufioB cf kno-iuledge ead liberty in the •world, and alludes to Mr. Burie'i 
book on the of airs of France, jla/kuered by Mr. Pitt, ivhs egrtei to thr 
re 'Commitment. Co-incidence of the dtclaratiom relative to the French 
. revolution, made by Mr. Sheridan aad Mr. Fox in tbt debates on the arma- 
ment againft Ruffia. Mr. Burke fi>tv;s m di/pofilion to inlroduct the fubjea 
pre-vioKi to Mr. Fox's rmarkable panegyric. Great alarm of opptfition at 
tbt pTofPeSi of the difaffiott by Mr. Burke. Motion to adjourn ihe re- 
commitment of the ^ebec bill till after the Eafttr rtcefs. A member of . 
oppofilioa declares his intention of calling aiy perftn to order, •who an this 
^atjlitn jhall irutlve general principles ef government, and the confiilntiom 
of other coanlriti. Mr. Fox admits that be had /a alluded in bis former 
Jpee'ih on this bill, and re-agtrts bis opinions. Mr. Burke profef/ii afin/t ef 
public duty in fiating his prindplts, luben the occafion pall prtftut it/elf 
again. General expiaation cf this difcaffion. Eajfer rtcefi. 

IN thf courre of thii bury fellioii bilt, which arofe mtt of this mef- 

twomeflagejweredeliveredfrom fage, proceeded regularly through 

his majelly, w hich as they gave rife tte houfe for fix weeks nnoppofed. 

to many warm and important de- It is principally inCerelling, as in 

bates, afFcaing, and yet likely to its latter flages it gave occafion to 

affefl, the politics of this country, the public declarauon of a breach 

and a!l Europe, will form the con- between Mr. Fox and Mr. Burke, 

t-'nts of this and the following which was the fore-runner of a more 

chapter. Tlie firit in order of fei-iaus, becaufe much more excea- 

timc related to the government of five fchifm in the party of oppofi- 

Canada, the regulation of which tion. But as the immediate origin 

province had confclTedly been long of ihis dirpute in parliaoeni, what- 

under the confideralion of the king's ever may have been [he remote and 

mmifters, and had been curforUy prcJifponent caufe, i) to be found 

brought to the notice of the houfe in the debates on theoihec meflagt, 

in former fcffioni. The Quebec wc muil here depart a Jittlc from 

thai 



MlStORY OF EUROPE. [jS 

t^ order> which we in general pre- beginmngof«formerwar,i»reIated 
fern the moft fimple, of taking up in the ^feraoirs of Baron de Tott. 
ejchfubjed chronologically aiicbe- Theinvaders, whenaforcefufiicieni 
gan,a[id purAiing it to a conclufion. to avenge their ravages was cglle^- 
The Quebec bill was ftiU in its ed, ufedto retire, and were always 
filent progrefs through the houfe, fure of immediate prote&ion ander 
wiien the oUier mcjiaee was deli- the guns of Oczakbw. This mif- 
vered.on the sSth ofMargh. It ehief, however, was in a great mea- 
imponed that, " as his majcfty's fure checked by the acquiiitionj of 
endeavours, in conjunAion with his RulHa under the treaty of peace in 
alliu, to bring about a pacification 1774, which made her miftrefs of 
between RalEa and the Porte had Cherfon and the whole country con- 
proved ineffefinal, his majefly had terminouswithNew5ervia,between 
jadged it reqailite, for the purpofe the Dnieper and the Bog, as well as 
of adding weight to his reprefenta- of the town andfortrefsof Kinbum, 
lions, w make fome farther aug- on the Eaftern bank of the Dnieper, 
mentation to his naval force." oppofite to OcSakow :-^nol to men- 
TheftateoftlieqDeAionwasasfbl- tion her fubfequent feizure of the 
lows. — TheemprefshadbyconqueJl Crimea and Cuban in 1784. Stilt 
wrefted a very confiderable traft Oczakow was a poll which, fituated 
of country from the Turks, who> at the mouth of the Dnieper, and 
driven to extreraiiics, were defirous fuperiortoKirbamaaanavalllation, 
of peace, It was affened that gave the enemy an opportunity ot 
Great Britain and PruSia, who cutting off entirely the communica- 
aded as mediators on this occafion, tion of Cherfon, and all the interior 
infixed that the emprcfs fhould re- dominions of Rufiia on that liver 
£gn the whole of her newly acquired with thefilack Sea, and of annoying 
territories'; a reiignaiion which ihe all the commerce ofher new poflej- 
was willing to make, excepting as fions in the Crimea. Her armies 
far as related to the town of Ocza- could not advance toward Beffara- 
kowanditsdependencies, tbrcoun- bia without dni^r of having all 
try of the Oczakow Tartars, be- their fupplics intercepted. Much 
tween the Neifler and the Bog. time therefore was loA, and no in- 
The polleffion of this conqtiell fhe eonliderable wafte of men and jno- 
feemed at all hazards determined to ney incurred, before the emprefs 
retain, and it certainly was of much could obtain fecnrity in this quarter, 
importance to her. That part of Rnf- fo at to carry war into the heart cf 
lia, which approaches neareA to the the Ottoman empire, 
diltrtfl of Oczakowwas faid to be Itiitructhatthisfbrtrefshadbeen 
particularly weak and vulnerable; in the hands of the emprefs from the 
v-hcoceatthecommencemeniofhof- latter end of i7S8,'and that Great 
tilities the Turks, andtheir tributary Britain had (hewn no very anxious 
Tartars, had it in their power 10 alarm on tliat account ; but it was % 
over- ran and plunder at pleafure fo very different qucftion, whether, un- 
ungoarded a part of the RulTian do- der a treaty of peace, it ftioold be 
minions. A predatory incorfion of permitted to remain, and be nnited 
this kind into New Servia, at the to Ruflia. She had in ht\ obuined 



too] ANNUAL REGISTER, J791. 

by the taft treaty every thing that it ndH' be fufficieat to obfefve, that 
was really cflential to enfure her he bad in particukr rc-ammated 
tranqnilltty, if indeed ihe could ever Pcdaiid. He had dmeii from her 
nave entertained anf ferioQi appre- dieta the infltieiice of hU great 
henlions, in the pTclent wane of the noithern rivaL Under his proiec- 
OtEoman crefcenc. What Ihe now don ihe had taken ftepg to re-aJ&rt 
demanded pointed only to oSenlire her independence : me had dared 
meafnres in future, perhaps at a to require the evacuation of her 
feafon when the great nei^hboaring territories by the Rnflian armies ; 
llstes might be lefs at liberty to and had begun in confcqueiKe to 
watch and controul her. We * have alTume again her rank amoi^ the 
ahvays confidered Oczakow as a nations of Enrope. To cj-own all, 
principal key of the Turtcilh pro- at the dateofthiineHagcihe court 
vincfs. The change which the of Berlin had approved the fchetne 
ceflion of thu pelt would make of that conftitution, wiiich in little 
in the relative fiiuarion of the two more than a mondi from this period 
fowen, Ihoukl honilities anin was carried into e£ed by the vir- 
Dreak forth, may be eftimated mm tuoas but nnfortnnate StaniHaus, 
thehifltjry of itsreduflionin 1788. and which, (the very aatithi^ of 
Though the emprefs, the year be- thenewFrenchconiiitation) better- 
fere, had carried an anny in her cd the polittcai condition of every 
train to Cherfon, and in very few nan in the kingdom, from tha 
months after had increafed it to prince to the peafant, without 
feventy thoufand men, with a bloodlhed, in a fingle day. 
hnndred and twenty pieces of can- To ^l, or nearly all thefe mea> 
non for thu very fiege, yet it was fiires, which had been already put 
not till nearly a year and a half in execution. Great Bntain had 
from the date of the firft hoftiti- given her countenance. We had 
ties, and after Ihe credit of Roffia alfd, in concert with FrtilSa and 
had been ftrained inraifingfuppfieg, Holland, offered to J mediate a 
that Oczakow utiimitely ^1], And peace in the Eafl of EoropCt fooo 
tt was then only taken by an acci- after thef<ill of Oczakow. We xn- 
<lent, in a latt clfort of delpair. terpofed to keep Denmark from 
The fucceSbr of the great Fre- affilUng Rnfiia againft Sweden ; and 
deHck had early Ihewn a pendent this was done with a determination* 
and jnft jealooly of the ambitious avowed ca ihe world, of fupporting 
Catliarine, and had endeavoured to the balance of power in the North. 
counteraft her vlewi of aggrandise- In the following fummer, we made 
ment. His meafures for this pur- a new treaty with PnilliA ; a treaty 
pofe have been already in part nar- of more than dcfenfive alliance, of 
rated in f our former vplumes, and &n& and perpetual union, -to pro- 
will be refumed in the eighth chap< te& not only the inierclts of the 
ter of oor prefent volume. Here two coiitra£ting powers, but " Uu 

' S« our volume for 17(9, p. i j. 

f See our voluine for 17B9, from p. J5 Vtp.tyi and Slate Papers for the 
fuMvear, p. H>- 

I See declaration from Mr.Elliott to coude Banftoff, April s j, 1789.— Annua! 
Reg. ijlf. State Fa[>eT(, p. i)£. 

i tranquillity 



HISTORYOF EUROPE. [loi 

Kty of Europe," and " the 
publtc fecarity^' The meuiiDg of 
thde lefsia wu d»r frDm the tiine He conceived, that Laving «■• 

wfara it was negocinTcd, and the tered into defenftve alliances, witick 

circamftanco oat of which it arofe ( were aduutltd to be wife «id in]i> 

ja neither this tieatjr nor the me- tie, we otight to adhere to them. 

RKinal of Mr. Elliott, had drawn and, if pofible, to prevent any 

kwnany ccnfure or adverie com- changei in<the general ftiteofaf> 

nent. We had now a fecond time fairs, which ndg^t reader diem bb- 

prefied our mediation on Rnllia, gacory. Pra Ilia was our allj; any 

aod a fecond time in vain. event, tbereibre, which might affect 

On the other hand, Raflia had that power.anddiminifh its inflneitce 
Bot only pcrfifted in- declining oar on the continent, would be injurioos 
interference; the had alfo refiifed looarfrlves, as fkraioormatualin- 
to tenew any commercial treaty lerefts were united. The j»ogrcfi 
R-ithoj. At the lame time the made of the Rnffian aritii againfl the 
•rw with Prance, and another with Porte, gave fnfficient canfe for 
Spain; in addition to which, the alarm; for Ihould fuccefs ftill attend 
encnvd, niih ihofe two kingdoms ihem, and the power of the Porte 
ind AultTVi, into a quadruple alti- be £iixher hmnhled by its lipiriag 
iKc, plainly pointed ag^inft Great lival, Prnffia would inftantly feel 
Britain. I^ts was her condoA to- it; and not Pruffia alone, but all 
waidi tu and our afliea: white to Po- Europe jtfelf, which might prove 
laitd Ihe had given notice, (o ea'ly in danger of being fbaken to it> 
ai 1789, that £e fhoutd confider the very foindation, 
nnv arrangements of the republic Mr. Fox, after fome general ant- 
» a violation of iier treaty and madverfions onthedoftnneofnini- 
gaarantee. She had thus laid in fieri-d confidence, exprcRed hi»con- 
her claim to a ground of hoftility vidion, liiat Pruffiacouldnot be en- 
againd that unfortunate coontry, at dangeted by any piogrefs, whieh the 
a more convenient oppOTtunity, Ruffian arms mightnuke in Turkey. 

Such was the objeft in difpute. The real ftate of the difpuce between 
tnd fach the political map of Eu- the cmprefi and ourfelves, he con- 
rope, as far as it is connefied with ,£de'red to be fimply this : the ux- 
this DieiTageH—It was taken into piefs ofiered to cede all her con- 
confideraiion the day after it was quells between the Neiiier and the 
delivered. Danube, and propofcd only to re- 

The mioifter moved an addrefs tain thoTe, which were fituated be- 
ta his tnajefly after the ofual form, tween the NeiEler and the Don; but 
He rnppoTted the meafure, which we infifted, that the Ihould furrender 
was the objeA «f the addrefs, all her conquefts without a (ingle 
Dpon the gronnd, that we had a exception. Our only ground there- 
^rtft and important intereft in the fore of quarrel, was her unwilling. 
«3r between Ruflia and the Porte; nefs to reft^ the traft of country 
inJ that as otir endeavoon to effeCl above mentioned ; which, although 
a pacification had hitherto proved in genet^ barren and unprofitablei ' 
anranrefsfiil, we were under the oe- was yet particularly deHrable to 
cefTity of anniDE, in order te crive beri as it contained 1 plsee of much 
' [CJ 3 "1« 



lot] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

value -in her «ftimation, the town ofpower in £arope was extremely 
of Oczakow. But he remarked, new, and contrary to ail former po- 
that Oczakotv was taken in the litical fyftenu. He pointed Oat in 
year i/SS, fubfequent to which firong terms, the inipaliey and dan- 
period wff had been informed by ger of our efpourinir the Ottoman 
bis majeity from the throne, -that caule. But the qocftion feemed not 
there was every profpeft of a con- to be. Whether Ruf&a fliould or 
tinuaace of peace. Heaccufedmi- Ihenld not difmembcr the Turkiih 
niAers of not having; fi>]]owed up empire? it was merelythii.WheUiet 
their fyltem of defenfive alliance flieihouIdpoiTcfsherrelfofOczakow 
with confiftency. In the negoeia- or not. Wh«n the emprefs con- 
tioDS at Reichenl>ach, when they Tented to cede all her conqoells Ix.-- 
foundtheempcrordifpoled to peace, twecn the Neifter and the Danube, 
they had iiegleAed the opportunity Ihe condefcended in his idea to do 
ef fecorlng the emprefi by the more than couid well be cxpefled 
feme meass and with the fame ar- from one in the career of viflory. 
gunients, which might then have He remarked, that the alliance, 
been ealily effefied. An alliance which we had made with Pmflia and 
with Roflia appeared to Mra the Holland, waa never before fuppofed 
m^. natural and the moft advanta- to have been formed for the purpofe 
geous, which we c;aiild poffibly of prelerving the baiance of power. 
Kirm. ' fiui what would be the confeqiienrc 

The minifter contended in reply, of our interference? We were, it 

that the aggrandizement of Rullia appeared, to plunge ourfelves into 

and the depreOion of Turkey would an immoderate expence, in order to 

inarcrially affeJt both oar political bring Cliriltian nation! under the 

and Fomrnercial interells. To the yokeof fara^eandinhuman iolidels. 

queftion, Why had we not armed If we afird in this wanton manner 

looner? he anfwered, that during againft the emprefsofRuCia, might 

our difpute with Spain we had we not reafonably fuppofe, that her 

neither betn fo free'to aft ai now, refcntment would burft forth againft 

tior wasthenecelTity then tburgent, us, when we the leaft CKpefled it, 

not with Handing the previous- tap. when its effefts would be more 

ture of(Jc7,akow. He confidered alarming, and when another anna- 

the accufaiion againft minifters, of ment would be requifite to repel her 

their not havinc; taken paint to iO' threatened vengeance f The ad- 

elude the emprefs in the negoeia- drefs was carried by a majority of 

lions at Rcichenbach, as trivial and 93 only-— Ayes az8— noes 13;. 

nnfbundeil, for when "the emperor " The oppufiiion havire divided in 

manifefted a Isvournble difpofiiion, fuchcoiii:ilf-able numbers upon the 

it was thought un*ifc to fulpend the preceding queftion, Mr. Grey, on 

ne^ociations v.iih him ai the nik of the I2th of April, moved ; 

their being eniiiely b^oken off, in I. " That U is, at all times, and 

order to m aif for the concurrence particul- r'y under the preftnc cir- 

of the emprefs. cumiiances, the intereft of thia 

Mr. Bufke obferv- d, thatithe at- country to preferve peace." 

tenifi to bring the I'urkilh empire 2. " Thacit is nt-ithcr reafonable 

inti) the cociideiatioQ of tliC balance norjuH to take up aimK for the pur- 

pofe 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [idj 

fofeordi£ladngunn»ofpeace be- were the only good reafoni, >hicb 

wcei) nadoas engaged in hoftilitiea, coatd be alBgoed in extenuition of 

niihouc any reference eithcr.to the an offenfive war, in the ioL'ancts 

caule of the dilpaus or the cir- of arming againfi Raftia, he m^- 

cumflancesof the war." tained, thai we had nothing of 

3- " That the refiifal of an offer this kind te "f&r in excufe for onr 
of mediation is no juft caufe for condift. We had no danger oar- 
war." felvcs CO dread; nor had any attack 

4. *■ That during the progrefs been made upon our aUy. But if ini- 

ofthc war between Rullia and the nillers conceived that Europe waa 

Porte, and Cnce the taking of Oc- in general endangered, the honb 

zakow, this houfe has received re. Jhoald be informed, before iha 

peaced aillirancefi from the throne, coon try was plunged into a war, 

ihat the fiiuation of affairs continued how the fimpje poffeflion of th« 

to proDiife 10 this country the un- town of OciaJcow by the Ruffians, 

iotemipted enjoyment of the blef- could make the balance of Europe 

fiogj of peace," totter on its beam. 

;. " That, convinced of the truth Jn fupport of Mr, Grey's argo- 

of the afTurances which we have re- ment) it was remarked, that the 

ceived from the throne, this houle court of Berlin had never been 

has hitherto con£dered the interefis thou):ht fupine or inattentive to its 

o! Great Sricain aa not likely to be inierflls; yet that the late king of 

a£:Aed by the progrelsAf ihc Ruf' Prullia had guaranteed place! of 

£an arms an xhe borders of the infinitely more importance to the 

Black Sea." ■ «mpr!f» than Oczakow. So far 

6. " That we are not bo^nd by from conftdering Rufiia as increaf- 
an'y treaty to fornilh affiftance to ing in Rrength and power by her 
any of onr allies, except in the conquej^s to the foath, a convic- 
«fe of an attack upon them." tion was declared, that every ac- 

7. ** That none of the polTeflions cefljon of territory to her in that 
of this country. Or of any of its quarter was an accelEon of weak- 
allies, appear to be threatened with nefi : and' chat therefore the true 
an hollile atuck from any foreign policy to be adopted, the true me- 
natioiu" ihod to prevent her dilturbing the 

,8. " That the expence of an ar^- <ranqoillicy of Europe, would be to 

matnent tnuft be burdenfome to the permit her to purfoe her prefenc 

cooncry, and is, nnder the prefenc fchemes. But was the idea to be 

circumltances, as far as this houfe carried to its Qtmofl extent, was the 

ii informed, highly inexpedicnX and emprefi to reali^ all her imputed 

unneceflary." views of ambition, wa* Ihe to gtt 

A nation's right to attack, Mr. pofleSion of Conllantinople itlelf, 

Gtey obferved, could only be rca- and expel the Turks from all their 
fonably founJcd on a principle of 'European provinces; ft'ill he con- 

felf-defence ; no war, therefore, tended, chat mankind, fo far from 

fhould be juftified apon the bare being injured, would be confidera- 

gronnd of political expediency. To biy benefited by it. 

redeem a, right, to provide againt Many fevere animadvcrfions were 

•laBger, and to repel an attack, likewife made in the conrfe of this 
[G] 4 • ' debajc, 

•^ —a- 



I04] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

debAtCi npoD that unlimited cotifi- orator. He took a wide ran^ over 

dence.whlchroinifterswererDppofed the fy Item of £arope, and i a con. 

to clitini as their due. The unrea- eluding advened to the Frendt 

fonablcnefs of fuch a claim was revolution; on tvSch fabjeft he 

pointed ou^ and its dangeroiu ten- exprelTed, in very Itrong langoa^, 

deocy expofed in the wxnneft hii immutabie adherence to tJreopi- 

lenns, in language which atinofi nioos fonnerly declared by hini) and 

bordered oo pertbnality. inticnaled liis wiih for the prelcrva- 

Themembersofthecabinettheni- tion of peace with the new govern- 

fejvei fhidiouJIy avoided all kind of ment of that nation. 
difcDlSon. Itwasneverthelefsaflert- The dlminarion of the nimfter's 

ed, by thoTewhofupported their mea- piajority upon the kit lUvtfion, oc- 

fures, thatthepof^flionofOczakow calianed another difcaffion of the 

by the emprels would facilitate not fame fabjeA on the i^tfa of April, 

only the ac<]ui£tion of Conilantino- when Mr. Baker movedi " That it 

jilejbutofallLowerEg^ptanilAleX' is at all time* the right and dmyof 

andria, which would give to Ruilia this hoafc. before they conlent to 

thefupremaey of the Mediterranean, lay any bnrdcns on their confli- 

and ren'i(''r her a formidable tival tucnts, to enquire into the jullice 

to us> bothaa a maritime and com- and nccclTity of the object, in the 

mcrcial power. The qneilion was profecution of wMch fuch burdeni 

Hated to be, not. Of what intrinlic are to be incurred." 
importance the TurkiQi empire " That no infbnnaiion has been 

might be in itfelf, individually con< given to this honfe, which ^n falisfy 

fidcred? but rather,- How wuuld a us, that the expences to be incurred 

defalcation of it in favour of Ruffia by the prefent armament are necef- 

operate on the general fafety of fary tofupport the intcreft of thefe 

Europe, and the particular intercjls kingdom), or will coitiribuie to the 

of Great Britain ? Butthermprcfs great and important objefi of re- 

was not only charged with dcligns ItoringthetranquiJlity of Europe on 

upon the Porte; her ambitious a lecure and latling foundation." 
views were fappofed to comprehend Much the f^me mode of reafon- 

the extinAion of all the nonhern ing, as had been adopted upon the 

powers. former Occafions, was again urged 

Mr. Dundai remarked, that m>- with equal force, and in a tone of 

nillers thought it their duty to pre- iriumptiant anticipation. The op- 

ferve a total filence upon the fub- pofition declared,' Chat thCydid not 

jeft before the boiifc, while a ncgo- wilh to enquire into the fccrets of 

elation va pending.^-The motion the pending negociacion ; but fimply 

wailoll by atnajortty of only 80. in be informed what were its views. 

In thij day's debate Mr.Sheridan', It was the objeft only of the nego- 

whofe fihnce during the former ciaiion, which they required to be 

part of the feflion had been matter divulged ; and not the means, by 

of fome fpeculatioit, bore away the which that objeil was purfued. ■ 
pal^i of oppofuion. He waj. un- The miniiler obferved, that not- 

couimonly brilliant, eloquent, and wiihUanding the many calls which 

levere. Nor did lie on this cccafion had been made upon him, and the 

lef« difplay the ftatcfrnan than the many harlh epithets wbich bad been 

applied 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [loj 

appfied to liij filnce, his fenfe of woojd not jnftify « wtr. Mr. Fm^ 

duty to his fonreign md hit coub- in the amfe of hii fpcech, «IInded 

try Ihould AtU remuii the rule of to the French revotatioii, which be 

his condoA. He meant, therefore, intiodiiced more particalari)r toward 

10 ouerinto no detail, of the pend- the conckifioai in a manner finubr 

ing negbciation; go. offer no ex- to that of Mr. Sberidsn, in the fiv- 

pUnation inconfiHent with his offi- ner debate. He wai more ocpGcit 

cial daiies. He contended, that than Mr. Sheridan as to the ponies, 

Infficieot informatiDB had been given «-faich were the objeAs (rf' hit ad- 

for the fimple a£l of voting the ar- miration ; and he uttered a coaw 

mament, his raajefty having ex- pendioai but fplendid panegyric on 

p'relsljr ftated in the meflage, that .the new conAitotion ofthat conatiy. 

facb a meafure was neceiokry to As foon as Mr. Fox fate down, 

give dfe& to the negociationi, in Mr. Burke rofe, in much rifible 

which he was engaged, for laying emotion; but thecryof«Qneftion!''" 

the foundation of a ioiid and lafting having been begun from the oppo- 

peace. He confclTcd, however, that £tioD benches, and canght by waaj 

the honfe was not pledged to fup- on all fides in the honre (for it WM 

port a war withoni tanher explana- then after three in the siorning), he 

tion. The houle night give con- unwillingly. gave \rhy to the din- 

fidcnce to the f.-rvants of the crown, fion, 

p?ndinga negociarion; buithatwas The motion was negatived 1^ n 
(ijl^llantially dilTerent from pledging ihajority of gi, 
iifelf to fupport a war, fhonld [he This important quefllon was dif- 
DCgociation prove anfuccefsful. cuflcd for the laft time in tliis feCon, 
That, which was a fqjScient canfe on the 2; t-h of May. itwasbroagbt 
for an armament, might not be a - onby ammionof Mr, T. GrvnnTla, 
fudicient caofe for a war. propofing anaddrefs to fail maieftjr. 
The debate was concluded by which after afl~erting the right 4tf 
Mr. Fox, who fpoke with more than pariiameni to adviie the crown in 
his nfual tbrce and fire. Among o- the exercife of the prerogative trf 
therthings he ^eca!ied^he vtention maiting iirar and peace, proceeded 
ofthe houfe to -what had been pre- indircUlytocenfure thecondudand 
vioidy ftated'as the uimoft wifti of fnppofed views of minillen, and ad- 
oppoliiion, that minitlcrs would ex-, vilcd againll all fubfequent pro- 
plain only the objefi of tlie nego- ccedings of an hottile nature. Mr. 
daiion, without entering into the Orenvulc, in a Ipeech of much era- 
pjtrticolar means which were em., dition and ability, made a variety 
played in its profeeutioo. Of the of remarks upon the right, which 
former, the houfe claimed an in. tliat houfe poflefled, of giving ad- 
difpntable rightto judge; the latter vice on ibefe fubjefb. and pro- 
it conBded to the executive power, duced many precedents of its exer- 
in the prcfent inAance, too roach, cifeftom our earlieft records of par- 
he conceived, had been difclofed hamcnt: efpeciaTly from the reigq, 
for confidence, and too little for of tldward tne't'hiid, who called no 
conviAion. He maintained, in op- lefs than fixieen parliaments, or 
pofitton to the miniHer, that Aotbing great cnnixils, for the cxprefs pur- 
could jujlily an arnuioent, wliidi pofe of fubmitting his negotiations 

aad 



fi 



»e6) ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791. 

»Bd tieaiies to their confide ration, the part of mininert, of attempting 

PrecedfntE aUb were cited fram to procure for PrulEa any acqui- 

oiore modem times, and in the ficion of territory. 

yrefent century, under the reigning This addrefs was loft by a ma- 

£iini]y. The next point made was jority of 94.. 

againft the terms oF the vote of . In the houfe of lords the fame 

credit, whi^ wat general and nn- fubjed wai argaed on the 29th of 

limited. ' It was explained, that 3 March, the lA o^ ^pril, and 9th of 

rote of thit Icind having paflcd in May, Oa the ayth of March, mt- 

the yeir 1717, fuch were theabnret riifters moved an addrsfs to his ma- 

.of it, and fo lar^ were the fiimi jefly.thanlciTig hiihforhiscommuni- 

ibuandered in confequcnce, as to cation, &e. In the courfe of this 

Se rife to a fettled rule, now for debate,whie,h turned upon the topics 

firft time infringm], that a vote already given, they declared, that 

of credit Jhould only be aftcd and the propofed war was a war of expe> 

eninted for a certain and fpeciAc diency only, and not necel&rily oc- 

ftnn. The third branch of his cafioned by any treaty of alliance 

SrgDment related to the grounds of with Fru&ia, or with any other pow- 

the prefent armament, one princi- er. The addrefs was Carried by a 

lalcihjeAof which, hehinied,might majority of 63.,.T'CohienU97, non- 

w, to put Dantaick and Thorn into contents 51).. 

idle pofleflion of the kinf; of PralHa, The motion, on the ill of April, 

contrary to the iaith of former trea^ was made by carl Fit^william ; the 

tie*. principal objcfts of which were, to 

Mr. Pitt acceded to the doctrine, difavow the necelTity of our inter- 

(lux the houfe of commons had an fcrence betWEen Ruflia and the 

Mndoabted right to adviCe the - Porte, as ariiing from any pofiible 

crown; but argued againft the ex- conftru^ion of the PnifliaB treaty ; 

pediftncy of uSng that right, as in and to declare, that there exiftt-d 

the prefent inltance, while a nego- no reafonable ground whatever for 

ciatbn was actually pending. The any hoftilc preparation againft Ruf- 

voie of credit) which the houfe had fia. In fuopott of the motion, it 

alreadypafled, could not with much was aJTerted, that if only a diltant 

propriety be called a general vote' profpeft of danger to the tnterelts 

of credit, as it put Teff in the of PrulTia were to be conlidcrcd as 

power of minillers, than if a vote a fu^ieoi caufe Ivtr our engaging 

had been given for the fpecific fum ia a war, and commenciag hollili- 

<if 3 million, which was known to ties, the Prulfian treaty, which had 

be the ufual pradiice of (he houfe been termed a defcnfive treaty, 

open fuch occafions. In one cafe, would be converted into an offen- 

minifters woald have had the mil- five one. fo this obfervation a 

lion eac1u£ve of what might have former anfwer was given, that the 

been fpared from the fupply of war would be folcly a war of cxpc- 

wayi and means ; in the other, they diency. The general argument! 

really poffeffed nothing more than advanced by the oppofition were 

that with which the fopply of ways Amilar to thofe which had b;en fa 

and mcansalonefurnifhed them. He fuccefifully urged in the houfe of 

poficively denied any intention OB cominoiu ta th; diminution of thi; 

minijler'f 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



tT<>7 



tninifter's tiujoricy. and the com- tCTcAi of Great Biitaio." liibjoiiie4 

pleie Fmbarrairmeiit of the cabinet, his loi-dihip, " require U9 to conCder 

The previous quefiion was moved the balance of power, as weli as the 

and carried. — Contents ^.f, non- balance of trade ; and to facri&ce, if 

come' ts J4.. neceflary, fame fmall coBuaercial 

Earl FiizwUliam took up the conveaicnces.foriheprefervatioD of 

qaeAion again on the 9th of May, that political . prorperiCy, without 

ard nrgwed chiefly unon the ground, tlife enjoyinent of -which, commerce 

that a war with Ruilia would mate' itfclf would be annihilated."'^ When 

lially iajure our commercial ime- theboufedivided.thereappearedfot 

kSs. His lordlhip entered into a the motion 39, againll it 96. 

minute detail of the nature and im- Towards the concljifion of the fef- 

portance of our RutGan trade, which ^on it was propofcdia the houfe of 

he averted to be greatly in favour of lord;, to "addrefs bis majeDy not to 

this country. Th^ impcrts, his lord- prorogue parliament, until the an- 

fliip eftimatcd at one million and a fwer ihouid arrive to the laft meiTage 

baif, and the exponj at nearly fent to Peterlburgh concerning the 

400.000I; but as the importj con- nepociiiion pending between Great 

^ed chiefly of raw materials, which Britain and RuFu." — This motion 

were abfolutely neceffary forour ma- was negativdd without a divilion. 

uulafinres, he confidered the advan- The administration of Mr. Pitt 

tage tobeclearly on'onrfide. The had never encountered fo rude a 

principal articles of importation ihock as from this difcuflion. Yet 

were tallow, bar-iron, hemp and it !s probable, that had he been at 

deals, an exa£t account of the value liberty to divulge alt which he then 

of which his tordlhip -cry accurate- kn;.".v of the danger hanging over 

ly dated to the houfe. the NortI;, and which fubiequent 

I/CirdGrenvilIe,onlheocherhand, events have unfolded to the world, 

contended, that information of fuch hisconduA might have been viewed 

atcindasthat.upon whichlordFitz- in a very different light: at leall, 

wiUiam had reafbned (an informa- we have reafan Co to Tuppofe from 

tion, which was alone collefied from the recent language of his molt vlo- 

thecuftom-houfeaccounts) might be lent opponents, who, when it wa« 

in many cafes fallacious ; at leaA aj too late, would have urged an ac- 

to tHc confequences built upon ii; tual wac in defence of Poland. Bat 

and if not &llaciou5, was almoft al~ while he afted from hii knowledge, 

ways in the eye of tiie houie imper- parliament and the people were 

k&, from tie partial manner in under the oeceflity of judging from 

whic;i It was ufually flated. He af- thfir own. Their fenfe was intel- 

fened, thatadmitdngtheimportance ligibly declared againit him: he 

of the ra<v materials imparted trom acknowledged, and obeyed iL 

Ruflia.awar with that country wautd It if faidthat a meJTenger having 

tut deprive us of them, as we might been fent to the court of Berlin, to 

be able to obtain the fame comrao- notify thedeUveryoftheking'smef^ 

dities, perhaps upon' more aJvanta- fagc to parliament, he was after the 

geous terms, from Poland through iirft debate recalled by another mef- 

tfae tnediamof Pruflia. <' But the in. fengcr, who proceeded forwardwith 

' « difpatche* 



10«] ANNUAL REGISTER, 17^1. 

dirpatches of a very different ten- meij was sMb given in eaaCes of 

Sency from thofe which were ori- appeal. The jadgmeiit of the privy 

^ally intended. Fiom that mo- Conticil was no longer to be final, 

ment we loft all weight in the Nor- There was -now to be a laft rafort to 

tkertt 'balance of power. The con- the haufe of lords. Aboye all, to 

fequencea to Uw affairs of that quar- prevent any fach difcontents as had 

ter we fhalt hercfifter be called to occafioned the reparation of the onit- 

relate, — Wc now turn to the hif- ed ftates of ArAerica from the ino- 

tory of the Quebec biQ. cber country, it was provided, that 

So early as the 4.th of March die die Britifh parliauKnt IhooJd impofe 
ninitter moved for leave to bring no taxes bat what were necefiary for 
in this bil]. On this occalion he ihe regulation of trade and corn- 
opened all the feverat beads of hii Aierce ; and that even thofe fiionM 
plan with a detail unafualty fiitl. be levied and difpofed by the le- 
Scarcely a regulation of the nioft ^iflainre of each dtvifioii. 
minute Icind was left onexplained. TItere was certainly nothing of an 

It was propofed to divide the over-ftrained tone in this lyflem. 

courtryintotwoprovinces.andfob- On the conirarj', the influence of 

jefl it to two diftiiiil government!, the crown was laken below th« 

Thelegiflatare W3S to confift of a ftandardofthe conltimtion in oui* 

council and houfe of afittrbly for Other colonics. An hereditary ari- 

Cftch divllion ; the alTembly to be ftocricy, mixed with an arillocrecy 

conftitiited in the ufual m-inncr, bnt holding ffats for life, -wonld cer- 

the members of ilie council to be tainiy be lefs dependent on the 

nienibcrsfor life.apowerbeingat the king than counfejlors nanted and 

fame time refcrved to his majefty, of fcmovcd at pleafure, as in our Weft 

annexing to certain ban odr: an here- India iHands, and in the rej'al 

3itary right of fitting in the council, governments of North America 

AH laws and ordinances were to re- before the fepararion of the nntted 

irain in force, Dntil altered by ihc ftates. Nor was it an innovation 

new legiflaiures. The'Habcas Cor- more favourable to the prerogative, 

{us aft, which had already been efta- that an appeal now was to lie from 

lifhed by an ordinince of the pro- the king in his privy council, to 

visce, was to be continued as a the kiif^ in the great cottncil of the 

fDndamental principle of the confti- peers in parli-imcnt. At the fame 

tution. A provifion was to be made time the Icgiflature put bounds to 

'■for the proteftant clergy, in both di- Its Own fupremacy in regard to 

yifions, by an allotment of lands in taxation, and voluntarily renounced 

proi>ortion.(0 thofe which hnd been for ever a principle which had been 

already granted. The tenures, alTened as jnft andnecefliiry, at the 

which haabeen a fubjetl of difpuie, price of a long and burthenfoms 

Were to be fettled, in Lower Cana- war. 

da, by the local leglilature ; bnt in On this opening of the meafure. 

Upper Canad;;, as the fettters were no objeftion to the principle of a 

principally Brilifh, Or Briti(h Colo- fingle regulation was even inti- 

sills, the tenures were intended to mated. Mr. Fox alone fpoke, and 

be foccage tenures. A new re- very Ihortly. He leetned to imply 

I « 



HISTORY OF EUBOFE. [loj 

Kt Ic&ft hit acquiefcence, if not' Ui in tbe inuenit a>4 the firft ixn- 
a^probscion; thoagh, as he jaftljr fioa of the minoTUy iqion k ram* 
Eiia, Ik could doc decidedly a{v i^g fonimpefiedly high, their g«* 
prove, what he had boc yet feaa. neral fpirit of attack againft thi 
He ^d lee the biB. It wu read mlniller waa propomooabijr exatwd. 
witboot a temark; it vu read a The Quebec bill wat ifani bcfiiir 
fecond tiaie, wfaich it the cuftomarjr the boole. There- was ».ltady a 
fiage of oppofing the principle, but petitioa againA k, and more conld 
the priDciple trai not appoTcd. cafily be obtained. Some were of- 
The blank* were filled up m the fended bccaure they had not bccB 
cotnoiittee, yet neither the pan- confulted, and others were alamed 
C'ly of membert. named for the becanle they had little to hope uii 
aflemblies, nor the large proper- Ibmething to fear fnxD' the mera- 
tion of land allotted to the church, tion of any new law on a trath ■]- 
excited any hoftile obfervation. ready Iscrative. To cheriifa tho 
" " -.'-■■-■ -■ j^ difcontenta of thefe bo- 
f men, and add them to the 
connfsl were heard, ai a petition general difiaiisfa£tion caofed by tiie 
had hem prcfented againft the bill, armament agunft Rodia, wai an 
Mr. Limburncr, the agert from obviout policy and a cheap gain, 
the province, was alfo heard in Accordingly a firong language of 
part, and delivered in the whole Of^Gtioo was now taken up Ibr 
ef his notes, when the minifler the firft time agabit the Quebec bill, 
tnovett (hat the farther confidera* When the conlideratioo of the 
(ion of the report fhonld be poA- report was to have been refumed on 
poned. A converfation cnfoed, ia the 8(h of April, Mr. Hufiey, aiter 
the cour& of which Mr. Fox fug- prcfenting a new petition, moni 
gofted the propriety of a re-corn- the re- commitment. Mr, Pox fe. 
miimeiit, b«i declared that it wa* conded, and en&rced the motion of 
not hb intention to preTs it on the Mr. Hufiey. In breaking ground, 
houfe i and the mipiiler'a motion he took poll on the politiol phi- 
was carried without a divifKMi, or lofophy oftheday. He exprcSea hit 
a debate. hope, that, **n promulgating the 
Such waa the calm that aOiered fcheme of a new conftitniian, the 
in a meafure, dellined in its pro- honfe would keep in view tboTe en- 
grdi to be attended with fo much lightened principles of freedom, 
ftmn and temp^ Indeed it which had already made a rapid 
fccmed not un'ikely, that in one progrefs over a considerable por- 
more fuch defultory converfation tion of the globe, and were everjr 
would have ended the whole dif- day haflening more and more to 
cudton of the Quebec bill. But the become univerfal. 
orher mcHage. of which an account He objefled to the propofed 
hiis already been given, happened plan of dividing Canada into two 

• Ttiii (enieiKc, and one or two othen, containing alhi&mi er itaog expivf. 
Iloni of a lunilar tcAtknc];, are I'uppUcd frtm the Puliamentary ChroDicie. The 
ipKch, at given in tbeParliameniar;^Regiller, is vary nearly Ae fame, excqx thefc 
(.in'Diani.— Tbeie it DOthing on the Quebec Sill, in Siockdale'i S^iatet, befotc 
H.; txh at May. 

pTofinces. 



»i6i ANNUAL REGISTER. lyjti 

prorincM. The realbn which bad cils, or councih named bjr the kinj> 

been klligned for tbia dtvilion ap- ai in our Weft Indian illands, ot 

pcared to him ftrongly to militate cbolen by clcftora, as in tiie uniitd 

cgainfi it. It had been remaiked flates of North America, they were 

that thai the French and Engitlh to be compounded of the former two. 

Canadians wonld be completely For his own pan, he (hould have 

diftinguilhed from each other, pre/erred to all other forms that of 

But Ee conlidered fuch a mea- a council freely and frequently clefl- 

fare as big with mifchief ; and cd. On no terms would he have 

auintained that the wilcft policy had heij^dicary counfellors. He 

woald be to form the two defcrip' meant not to difcufs the general 

tions of people into one body, and prDpofiiion of what utility heredi- 

endeftvoBr to annthikta all national tary powers and hereditary honuun 

(liiHn&ions. might be, abflrafledly confidered) 

He next objeiled to thepropofed but he confelled, that he faw no- 
mode of reprcfentadon. The cum- thing fo good in them as to mak: 
bcTof which the two aflembliei was him wifh for their introdu^on 
to confiil, the one of Bxteen, the among a people to whom they were 
other of thirty members, he thought at prefent unlcnown. In kingdoms 
Kuch too fmall. A country, like where they already formed a part 
France, three or four times larger of the conitituiion, he did not thinh 
than Great Britain, might require a it prudent to deftroy them ; hut to 
proportion ably greater number of give them birth in countries where 
reprefentatives ; but the reverie they had no previous exigence, ap- 
therefore did not equally fallov, peared to him extremely unwiie. 
Nor did he approve of the claufe He could not accouut for fuch a pro- 
which permitted the fame alTem- ceeding, unlefs it was from a wiih, 
blies to remain undiflblved for that, as Canada had formerly beeo 
the period of feven years. Why a French colony, an opportunity 
we fliould adopt a feptenniat bill, might be afforded of reviving thole 
in preference to an annual or titles and hononrs, the extinction of 
triatnial one. he confelTed to which fame gentlemen fb much de- 
be beyond hii comprehenfiott, plored, and of awakeiung in the 
By a feplennial bill Canada would Weft that fpirit of chivalry which 
probably be deprived of feve- had fo completely fallen into dif- 
■ral of the few reprefentatives that grace in a neighbouring kingdom, 
were allowed it; for as m^ft of its He aOted, if chofe red and bloe rib- 
more refpeAable cltiiens were per- bands, which had loft their luiirc 
fons engaged in trade, it was not in the old world, were to fhine forth 
likely thai they fhould be able to a^ ain in the new } It feemed to 
attend their legiflattve duties for fo him peculiarly abfurd to Introduce 
long a period. h^editarv honours in America, 

Sut although the alTemblies would where thofe ariiGcial dinintiions 

conlift of To Imall a number, the le- ftinkin the noftrils of the natives, 
giilative coancits in both provinces He difapproved of giving the 

were in this relpeA to be unlimited, clergy fo large a portion of the 

Inftead of being hereditary coon- lands as one Icventh. Nor did he 

think 



o,,....,GoOgK 



HISTORY' OF EltftftPE. ' f"' 

itijaic the bill Ids excepdiMable as would be removed; while the 
Euaiit related to the regulation of French fubjeAi, being left lo their 
^ipeals the trial by jury, and to own free choice, and not iaAusnced 
the Habeas Corpus a&. The two by the pride of party, woald moft 
hi prortliciLi Ibould have been probably adopt the Englifh ta«s> 
idhIe integrant parts of it, and not from an unprejudiced obfervwioa 
have been lefi to a mere ordinance of their fuperior utility. 
of the province: and from the re- . He conceived that the number 
gaiaiioQ or appeals the ftage of the of which the aflemblics would con- 
king in council Ibould be flruclc out, lift, accoiding to the prefent,popi- 
and tbe appeal at once be given to lation of Canada, could not with 
the houfe ot lords. He hinted again, propriety be augmented; but that, 
kwardt the conclufionof higfpcech, M'hen the population was aAually 
liiat the governments cftablifhed in increafed, there would not be the 
the onited ftates of North Ame- leaft objeAion to any reafonable'id- 
rica would have farnifiied better dition. 

BoJeli. As the love of liberty was With regard to the dnnttion of 

gaining ground, in confequence of the airembfies, he thoug;ht the fpaoe 

The dittufion of literature and know- of (even yenrs preferable to a fhorier 

ledge throngb the world, hs thought period ; particularly as the goven- 

that a conllitution Ihould be formed nor would have lefs influence in the 

kr Canada as conrilleni as poflibJe Canadian councils and aflemblie* 

with the zenuine principles of free- than in thofe of our WeS IndiaK 

dooi. This bill, in his opinion, colonies. 

would not elUblifh fiich a govern- He entirely diffi:red from Mr, 

meat, and that was his chief rea- Fox in his idea of the legislative 

ibo for oppofing it. coancil, who feemed to w^ih that it 

Mr. Pitt replied to' the obferva' might be made eleflive, according 

dons of Mr. Fox ; but at the lame to the plan which had lately been 

time aOented to the re-commitment purfued in America. Whether 

of the bill, which he was anxious France and America had chofen 

10 have fully dircalTed. The divi- well for them felves, under the peca- 

fion into two provinces he confider* liar ciEcumllances of the refpeAive 

ed to be a fundamental part of it, countries, he meant not to enquire; 

as being the moA likely method to but he found no difficulty in declar- 

pioduce that coalition of French ing, that he was convinced our own 

ani £Dglilh parlies, which he ad- conftitution was the beft for us, 

mined with Mr. Fox to be ex- The word upublUanifiK he wilhed 

Uemely defirable. If there were not to ul'c in an obnoxious fenfe. 

Only 10 be one hoafe of airembly, bjt he was fully perfuaded, that 

and the two parties, as might be none of thofe republican principles, 

fonieiimes etpc&ed, prove equal, which Mr. Fox had defcribed ai 

or neatly equal, in numbers, a per-i rcfultJTjg from a greater extcnfion 

petnal fccne of faflious altercation of light and learning, aitd vi'hich 

would fucceed, and the breach be- were fuppofed to give unparalleled 

come wider. On the other hand, fplendour to the conilitutions of 

by the elUbliOiment of two diftindl France and America, would iiiK- 

alTcinbtiei, all caufe of complaint prove the Britillt conlUtution. An 

uillo- 



jia] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

aiUtocndcal ptisci^U being one tharclbrei the right of conqoeft, and 

acccflary part of a mixed govern- the power of ceffion, under the law 

mtbt, he diDugbt it proper that of nadotii. the aothority of which 

Acre ftiould be fnch^ council in is llrenuoufly denied by the great 

f jmila is was provided by the teachers of the Right) of Man, and 

bid, and which miehi in Tome de- the whole body of which on this 

giteanfwer toour noufe of lords. very queftion baa been indecently 

Ai to the allouncDt of one fe- called * " an avowed code of miii- 

Tcnth part of the landa for the ■* gated rapine, and fySematized 

maintenance of the clergy, he re- " murder.'* A new ctHiftitution 

BMrked. that thii proportion (a was to be formed; of coarfe thin 

poportion much lefs than one tenth ted to abftrafi principles, and firft 

of the produce of the landi) had nuxuns of government. That con- 

ahnrtft become an clUblilhed cuf- Aicution was to be given to a peo- 

tm in England, where land was pie living in America, but oiigi- 

E' en in cootmutation for lythes. nally colonics fwm France; con* 
[ this, as well ai every other part fetjuently nothing wat more natu- 
at the bill, if ncceflary, might be- ral than to look to. the conltitotions 
ome a fobjeA of future revifion. both of the ftates in whofe neigh- 
It ii unjoR to lean too much on bourhood they are placed, and of 
niticotar worda and phrafea attri- the n^don from whom diey are 
iNited to the members of either defcendcd. 

boofe. Out public reports of pro- The lame remark, however, will 

fieedings in parliament are cot fuf- not apply to the debates on the 

fidentjy accinate (br fuch a pur- other mcuage, in which it feemed, 

pole. But the general tenor and notwithitanding. as if all incidental 

conplcxicai of Mr. Fox's fpcech opportunities of introducing thff 

cannot be miSaken. Yet if he French revolution were ftudiouf- 

fpoke as he felt, and wai rellrained )y fought, and eagerly fcized. 

Of no confidcrations of prudence. This certainly has more the ap> 

hti argnments were neither irreeu- pearance of fame premeditated de- 

larnor impertinent. Perhaps, when fign. It might be done to fami- 

the minds of all men were frrment- liariae parliament and the country, 

ii^witb tbeawfulieflbnoftheFrench in their prefent temper, to thefe 

revolution.andlhefiindamentalprin- declarations. I'he leaders of the 

cipieiofall govern mem and civil or- minority cerrainly now thoaeht 

derinvolvedin theoppofiteopiniona the road to power lay open before 

of that event, it was aliroil impofli- them. And had they fucceeded, it 

Ue boE thefe topics, more or his, would undoubtedly have been the 

Muft coloiirthedebflies on thisocca-. beft ani'wer to all future attacks on 

fion. It was aqaellionofexerciftng this fcore to have been able to fay— 

the highell power of legiibiion over " Thefe fentimenti we have never 

acoantryiirAconqueTed, and after- difguifed; we explicitly avowed 

wards ceded by treaty ; it alTcrtcd, them in the very moment of your 

* Sw the ■< Parallel between the Condiift of Mr. Biuke and that of Mr. Fox>" 
yag«ij. 

returning 



o„...,GoOgK 



-HrsTORf OF EtJkOpk. [nj 

RninuR2ccmfide[Ke."PoffibIy(and recominended the prefervation of 

it was Co Imported) the more un- peace on our part. " He hoped 

nedute follower! of Mr. Fox, whofe " t}ia.t what had happened in France 

fcnrimcnts on ihia fobjcft were in " would prove an ufefiil letToh here, 

luafya with hii, demanded Tome " and that we Ihould have ieifure to 

fucb Hep, as neceflary to manifeft "improve bjrfludying it." — Infome 

their independence of the duke of reports he is fertner reprefented to 

Portland and bis friends, who co- have charged minift^rs with " being 

iiicidcd in general with the doc- '"eager to cultivate all the vices o( 



trina of Mr. Burke. — It has alfo 
been laid (not quite con<i(lent!y 
iiTth the other report) th.it Mr. 
Sheridan, having been much cen- 
fured byfome of hi« political friends 
for his indifcreiion on this very 
icii in the laft felTion, had, in dif- 
gart, wiibdiawn all aftive fupport 
of hi] great taletits from oppofiuon ; 
and thai now, as the price of his re- 
turn, he infilled on being counte- 
nanced in a ffiort but explicit avow- 
al of his opinions. But 
may have been the caufe, 
lEfelf it Itriking. 

From the Friday, when the re- 
comijiitment of the Quebec bill was 
moved and carried, nothing de- 
feriring the name of a debate took 
place, till the Tuefday following, 
when Mr. Grey made his motion 
for a committee on the ftate of ihe 
Mtion. It has been already feen, 
liiat Mr. Sheridan then adi 



"all' the virtues ol 

Mr. Borkehad not been prefent 
at Mr. Fox's fpeech on the Qutbe* 
bill ; he muft, however, have known 
the fubAance of it, as it h^d early 
attraa^'d general notice; nor didtt 
require his fagacity to difcover the 
tranfient farcaim at his beautiful and 
alTfiini; lameniation over the dC' 
counte- paried genius of chivalry. Mr. She- 
ll avow- ridan's fpeech in this debate he did 
vhatever hear ; and it was the fecond time, 
the fea within four days, that the topic had 
been brought forward. Yet he 
fhewed no difpofition to precipitate 
himfelf and the houfe into it, though 
an occafion, if he had chofen to take 
it, was now fairly olFered! 

On the fucceeding Friday Mr. 
Baker made a motion fin^Iar to 
that of 1 



ihs affairs of Fra 



■eceffary to Hate a little 
pitticuiarly what he faid. All dif- 
cuion on the merits of the French 
rei-olution he profefTcd to waive; 
bat he affirmed, in a very emphati- 
til manner, hii adherence to his 
Known opinions. They Ml remain- 
ed &xed, he faid, and would continue 



Grey. Mr. Fox On 

only trod in the foot- 

Aeps of Mr. Sheridan, but he pro- 

will' be ceeded to Ilill greater lengths. 



that 



night n. 

of Mr. 



Lumorully the feme. He held forth different about ii 



He was more direft and full, 
whole fyllem of external politics, 
he acknowledged, had fuffered a 
change with the change of the 
French conftitutlon. He had for- 
merly been arrutious for maintain- 
ing the balance of power, but now 
■"" " ' '■ felf to be very in- 



~ ancient government of Fra 






^5 charadertaed by a bufy refllefs too poor or too 



It becaule our 
my might feera 



fpirti of intrigue { he confideredthe 
naiiy between 'the two countries 
« now wholly pali away; and he 



;ak, 1 



give 



liate difturbance, but 
• b^aufe ihe had erected a go- 
vernment, from wtuch neither 
itary RegiBir. 

[/f] _j " infttlt 



im} ANVU*)L. REGISTER, I79'- 

"iDrgltnoriliiiiry could be diFsdcd h/*f lum er lb< IjxH. Tie con- 
•■ b^ her ntaffi]>aan." He pniJcd taction, he has Cui, slight hkve 
that gorenuaeQi. in iu inccrBU re- be^n licrcar •tnd hotxet, bat the re- 
lation, as spod, hcc^r^ i^ aimed to memhrance oif it watli pot hase f«- 
ipaka dioTc who wen fah]e£t to tied fo deep, ud raokUd to loag in 
it happy ; and ob&rviug that he the tteart. 

knew different opiDJoiu were en- From lipi moment a rapive 
tenai})ed upon the {^^l by di^r- betweeq tbsfa two tUuArioni fhends 
cnt men, he added, th^t he for one was diltinOly Tonifeen. The very 
admired the ne^ conltitution of saxt tsorniiig tha party.wHh whom 
f rucc, confidend altogether, 14 * they both aaed,lhevred£gu of great 
■• the moil flnpendQUs and gtoriona alarm. Allwitlunw^incunimoiioii. 
" edifice cf liber^ which had ^ec9|t Every iaSuence) that promiled mofl 
*• tnQed on the foundation of h«- fnccefi, was employed to prevent 
•• man integrity if aiyf tisie or 40ua- by perfuafioiii the renewal ef that, 
u try." ^ which had been fqppreffcd in the 

Mr. Fox has Jince fni, that be firll inftante by clamoor. Sobw, 
me^Rt to approve only the revol^- even of ijwfe who agreed widi 
tioD^thedeftm^onoftheabfolute tlte opinlvn* of Mr. Fox, threw 
monarchy. Perhaps it nught be^Jbrth whatever they could of a 
dilEcuIttoreconcJIethemetaplwir.in conciliatory kin4 to Mr. Barke 
which all reports at the time agreed, ^^d hi* couneftions. Tknr pro- 
'with this corrcAion : but the correc- fefljed, and uppeued, to be uncerc- 
tion he did malce, and had a right to ly afilifted at the con(ei)«eocea 
tnak? it. Still, while^the pant^ric likely to Aow -from the ezpoAed 
Temai(ie4 fhll, uneqiuvoc^ and ab- diicnlGon. Th^y did not keiltate 
Iblute, puibed u it vai many de- to accufe M^^ Fox of inwriidence 
grees bcyoiLd the greateft length 19 tor declaring that, which il he 
which any member had hitherto had not declar^, the ftne nca 
goue it) that aflenbly, it mud have woifld probably have condemned 
excited proportionably ftrong fca- him for pufillanimity. On the 
fations in thofe who, feeing no- other band, many, mo abhorred 
thine bvt injullicf in the eriginai the French revolution Eetla lels 
work of demolition, thought it only than Mr. Bark* himfitlf, yet were 
aggravated 19 the higbeft pitch by decided oq the cxpediescy of paf- 
t£e weaknersandwifke^Dels, appa- iing over for the piefm the nan- 
rent to them io the plan of the cdi- geroiti fentimenti, m they thooghc 
fice that ^'33 faMUuted, Mr. thein,wtuch thev had recently heard. 
Burke felt it accordijigly, and made They did net neld it neceflary to. 
an elTort to give immediate utte. (eparaie from th«r great leader on 
ranee to his feelings i but'theman- accountof mere fpecalationg.hiich- 
ner in which he wai iloppcd hiu ed into a digrct(<M,whatcTerinighi 
been already related. Mr. Fox be the mifchief of their tcndercy, 
u luiown lince to have reercttcd andinwhatavertenns of pemicioui 
the injodiciooa zeal of thole who eloquence they wore conveyed, 
would not fu&r Mr, fiiuke to an- They cttifidered. it as more juS to 

* Thetfnnsof thiiputgyric ve taken fr^ Mr. Burkc*a " Appeal ftomlfw 
Hn* to the Old Whipi," a* the bcA x^Ttwriiy, and bithene uocentrwlifleU. 

wait 



tilStORY OF EUROPE. t"5 

^ait antn the tlircA collifion of tioo oT lib « Reffexioni" far * 
thefeptindplcs with the public Weal time checked« but not tlapped, 
of die Jlate flionld force forward thepn>Kref> oftheifGliatedlbaedat 
(bme meifure that might be made here. They were ftunned with th« 
1 left, not of opiniom, but of con- blow difcharged at them*, but they 
doA. In the mean time they were foon recoveredi and again railed 
wlllbg to flatter themfeUes that their heads higher than ever. Tlwr 
tlie train of eveots Hill proceeding now renewed their exerdona witn 
in France might deTelopC the at- redoubled vigour. They applaoded 
trocious effefts of thole doflrines and circulated with much a^vity 
in fo convincing a manner, ai fuffi* Mr, Pitine's " Rights of Man," and 
ciently to prove the radical fallacy otlierfimilarpamphleti. Thcncwa- 
or iniquity of the whole fyltcm to paperi tceiredwichaddrelTe;, vocn, 
a man like Mr. Fox, who wai un- and refolutiona, and every mail wa'i 
derftood even then to admire only laden with frelfa congratulations and 
inthegrola, and dilapprove in the IncitementitotheJacoMnfodetiesin 
detail. France. BoldandeagCr.thcy wanted 

(a theCe reafons, it it not impra- now oily the fanflian of Tome more 
bable that without being confcious dilUnguilhed name tljan tliey yet 
of it to chemfelves, they may have poOefftd to lead them. Mr. finrke 
been influenced In fome degree by knew the great and jnft anthoriiy 
feeling how much it would cott them of hit friend'i name i he knew to 
at once tg direntangle themfeivea what purpoTes his friend's panegy- 
fi-om the tlci of friendll)ip and the ric on France might be ahvied, 
trammels of party. Mr. Unrkehad beyond the intentions of hlni who 
more fortitude. Though he had m.ide it. He believed it therefore 
ahvays been the champion of party, highly important to lus country, 
in the pure and genuine fen fc of the that the ititrinfic value of that pa- 
■vnrd; and had a longer and more negyric ihould be brought to trial 
intTmate friendilup with Mr. Fox in the place where it was vttered; 
than moll others of the fame con- the more fo, perhaps, as he mult 
n^on, yet he now heard, or be- hnve been allured that his friend 
Vievei he heard, the imperioat call could not [as he did not) malntaia 
of a public duty, more facred than it in its unqualified extent. Nei- 
all [he deareS and (Irongeil bonds ther ^as he at liberty, like oihen, 
of perfonal xnd political attach- to pafi over for the prefent what it 
ment. He had from the lirft re- might be painful to enconntcr. He 
£;3rdcd what was paOing in France flood already committed in the hea 
u calculated to a£t in the rebound of the boufe and his coaatry. Had 
upon this kingdom. The pnblica- he llill been filent, after this third 

*Tlu* h& appears fhnngly mitked on the face of thecorrefpondencepubliihcd 
By the Revolution Society. From the month of N^vemW, 17^, when Mr. 
£urke') pamphlet came out, ibCK U a ftriking charm till the middle of March 
following. They then uologiie to fame of the Jaeohin foctetiei of France tor 
thnrkmg Clence, beeiule thry could not get i fufficlcni attenitanee of memben 
btfatt. Nearly half their Iharc of the voliimt bears date in March and April, 
iTgti'-Jt is icmirkaMc too, that the Item committee af the boiHc of commonii 
»kich &t« in i794t trace ihe plotTliviijMd in their ftcond report from this reiy 
^o4, acd begin their exbaA» from the MkAs ol^tbe Cenmcutumal Society on tb» 
■idof UarKbijtt. Sec Appendix C, 

IS] 2 intreduAion 



ii6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

iDtradufium of the fubjeft in die fays) bring the queftioss from gc- 

tpue of one week, they who triom- neralitics to fafti. 

, phantty thuikeii him ^r provo)ung He now went to fome of the 

■die difcuiSoD, would hive founded members of adminiflration, xnd ac- 

s louder note of trinmph on his quaintiog them with enough of hi» 

ibnnlcing from that difcn&ion. He purpofc to fatisfy them, that what 

could not be wanting to himfeif, he meant to fay wai ftriftly in or- 

without injury to the public caufe, der, hcdefired thcirprotcSionfo&r 

which he had undertaken. He » to fecure hint fram being a^ain 

had therefore no choice. He had filenced by clamour. To his fnend 

no way of olcaping from his duty, himfeif he was more explicit. For 

Yet in difcharging it, he mull be when, on che day appointed for the 

aware that he could not but lofe his re-commitment of the Quebec bill, 

.friend, whatever profelSoni might Mr. Fox, for the lafl time, paid 

be made 10 the contrary: he could not him avlfit, accompanied by a com- 

expeA to be followed even by thofe man friend, he talked over with 

among tua own party, who thought them the plan of all which he in- 

with him ; for tbcy had pronounced tended to fay, opened the dtfiereni 

what he vni going to do inexpe- branches of his argument, and ex- 

dient : nor could he look for the plained the limitations which he 

■ fupport of miniflers; for he nei- meant to impofc on himfeif Mr. 

ther wai, nor fought to be of their Fox, on hii part, treated him with 

party. Befides,theyhadclearrearons confidence, and t^iencioned to hint 

of iound prudence for keeping a a political circumRance of fome de- 

fuarded referve upon the fiibjefl, llcacy. What it precifely was, Mr. 

.which he was not equally bound to Burke declined tellinz, even in the 

keep, as an individual member of heat of altercation. But from the 

parliament, not implicating the go- tenor of the charge which he feems 

vernment of the country by hb con- moft anxiou? to refute, and from 

dud. fome intimations in one of Mr. 

His refolution was fixed. The Pox's anfwers, we may form a rea- 

only remaining conlideration was,' fotiable conjecture, 

how it was to be executed. He The king, it feems. was repre- 

did not think the time yel come fented to haveufedfomeexpre^ns 

for a direft tjoeftion on the mat- favourable to Mr. Fox. In order, 

ter; and to have brought it pre- therefore, to fecure himfeif in his 

maturely forward in thst Ihape, ^nd fituation, the minilicr was alTerted 

then to have failed in it, might have to have given out the watch-word, 

haJ a fatal effcft on public opi- thit Mr. Fox was by principle a 

nion. The Quchec bUl afforded republican; and it was fuppofed, 

a fair and regular occafion of that in purfuaace of thb plan, he 

difculling incidcaully the princi- inlligated Mr. Uurke to the difcuf- 

ple* of all comUtutions, efpeci- fion. Mr. Burke undeceived his 

ally the American, the French, and friend, by relating the (i& as it 

the En^lilh; and as it was to be in w;i;. Still it was requeued by Mr. 

acommittee, he could fpeak as often Fox, that at leafi the difculCon 

as be pleafed, in explanation or de- might not take place on the i 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [117 

but Mt. Borke had made his choice confidendon of general principle* 
with too much deliberation to fore- ofgovernmem, and the conditutions 
go an opportunity, which he could of other cojntrics: on which ground, 
not hope to find again in aoy other inririHations had boen thrown out 
bafirefs then before parliament, or againll fonie membftrs of the oppo- 
liicely 10 come before it. The ef- fiiion party. But he gave notice), 
fea of this interview, on the whole, that if the miniftcr, or any other 
wa) (as » not unufual in fuch cafes) right honourable gentlatnan, Ihould 
direflly contrary to the purpofe of warder from the proper difcuffioa 
ir. Mr. Fox fiems to have been of the fubje^, he Ihould call him to 
hart, that the entreaties of friend- order, and take the fenfe of the houfe 
fliip could not prevail over a fcnfe of npon the occaGon. 
public doty ; and Mr. Burke pro- Here wa; a palpable allufiOD t<f 
bably valued that fricndfhip a little Mr. Burke, Vet he did not rife to 
the lef^, nhen it imputed to him the anfwer. Mr. Fox took the oppor- 
folly,or the goilt.of being either an (unity of explaining what he had. 
inllrument ir an accomplice in a faid on the former qucAion rela- 
premeditatedplotfor theruinofthe tive to the Quebec bill. After la- 
man whom he loved. mentlng that he kid been nufun- 
They walked, however, to Weil- derltood before, he admitted, that 
minfter together, and together en< in forming a government for » co< 
tered the boufe, where They found lony, fome attention mufl be paid 
that Mr. 'Sheridan in the mean to the general principles of all go- 
time had moved to poflpone the' vemmenti. In the courfe of this 
re-commitment tilt aiier the holi- feflion, he laid, he had taken op- 
days. Infupporting hi)inotion,he portanities of alluding, perhaps 
declared that his objeAions were much too oftent to the French re- 
not to any particular regulations ; volution, and to Ihew, ' whether 
they were fundamental, they went right or wrong, that hit opinion on 
to the principle of the' bill itfelf. the whole, was much in its favour; 
He feems to have been underdood but on this bill he had only intro- 
by the mintfter as announcing an duced one levity, filly enough pcr- 
sppoGtion founded DD abftrxA ptin- hapi, and not worth recolleflion, . 
ciples of government ; fomething that had any relation to the French . 
in the tone already given by Mr. revolution; hemeantan allufion to 
Fox, that the bill was not fuAcient* the extinflion of nobility in France, 
ly accommodated to the new lights and iti revival in Canada. Cer- 
and modern philofophy of liberty, tainly he had fpoken much on the 
But thb was afterwards denied by eovernment of the American Dates, 
Ur. Sheridan, who trufled alfo that becaufe they were in the neigh- 
when the bill did come tinder con- bourhood of Canada, and wer« 
fideraiion, every other difcuSon but connefled with that province. Hav- 
that arifing from the fubjeft of the ing then obferved that the jpm- 
bill itfelf, would be averted. Mr, dence of concealing his opintons, 
Taylor caught up the intimation, was a quality which his dear,- 
and carried it a little further. He eft friends , had not vety often im- 
obferved, that the bafinefs had been puted to him, and that he thought 
iinpro*perlyttea(ed,Miiivolving the the public bad a right to the opi- 
[//] 3 nJon* 



ii8] ANNUAL REGISTER, lyji- 

nioni of pnbl)c men <p publtS wa- tical qnefUon, to fee bow fsr fiicb 
fur», he declared, thit he neyor and fuch'prbciples have been ad(»t- 
hai fiiced any republican priact- ed. and how [hey liave fucceedcit 
ptes, ^Ith regard to ^b country, in in other places. His opinion « pa 
or out of parliament and anion^ goveinoienti he preiiuncd not to be 
other things he laid, that when the unknowa; and the moie he cooll* 
Qutbec btU came again to be di^- dcred the French conllicution, the 
cufled, from the great lefpeA which more forr^ he wat to fee il. Ooco 
lie encenained ^r fome of his in the preceding fefiioa he bad 
iriends, he {hould be extremely tliought hlnifelf ui;ider iJie neceRiiy 
fbrry to 4M^r fiom thec); but he of Tpeaking very fully upon the 
ihouldnever be backward in deliver- lubjeft; b^.t &nce that time, he had 
Ing hi) opinion, and he did not wiih never mentioned it either i^edly 
to recede from any thing which he or indiretlly; »p man Uierefbro 
£ad ^rmerly advanced. ' cpuld charge him ^ith having pro- 
Mr. Fox liaving ihui come fiA- vpked the converfation that hid 
ward to meet what he could not paiTed. He fi^nilied, howevcTi his 
^void, drew Ibmc remarks from iniention of giving his judgnieD( 
Mr, Powyi, who complained that on certain principles ofgovern- 

. the debate had turned irregularly ment at \h^ proper moment, in the 

both on retrofpeftand anticipation, future progrefs pf the Quebec bill. 

and hinted that Mr. Fox Aiould have IJc alluded with much candour to 

imitated the example of Mr. Burke, Mr. Fqx's recent panegyric 014 

}d writing, rather than fpeaking Fnnce, as well ag hi) own inef- 

lliere, of the French revolution, feftual attempt to rife in anfwnr tq 

' Mf- Dundas then took notice of ^ it, acquitting hii friend from all 

phrafe ilfed bV f^r. Taylor, who defign qf perfonal offence in it ; 

csplaine4 : after which the con- and he finifhed by fayins^ tha( 

verf^tion was dofed by ^r. Stirke, fhould he and bfs friend ditter, he 

He in a ' very aJfefUng maq- delired it to be rccollefted, that 

ner aHured the houfe, that nothing howeyer dear tie coi)fiijcred hia 

depreffed him more, nothing had friendjllip, there was fomeiliing ftjll 

ever morp' jfHiAed him fn body dearer in his jnlnd, the love of his 

&nd mind, than the thought of country: nor was he flimulated by 

meeting his friend as an adverfary minillers to take the part which he 

■na antagonift. After noticing the lhoui4 i^ke j for whatever they 

•nticipation which had besn fug- knew of his political renliioents, 

gefted, ai)d the obfcrvations which they h^d lear|ie{l frofn hint, not he 

had been made, but to i^hich he from ihcm. 

truiSed that he had given "P juft M""- ?<"( had thus opeiJy given 

caufe, he declared his fentiinentS|' a chaUeage, wllifl^ '^^s a(ccptc4 

that in framine a new conftiiution, by Mr. Strike; a^d a determi- 

it was nece'lfary tq refer to prii}.- nation of calling the latter to order 

ciples of government and examples was likewife avowed. Puhlif ex- 
nf other conllitulions, txcaufe it ' pedtation W4> big with the eye4t. 
vaj a material pan of evefypolir 



CHAP. 

U.Bn:e.t.fC001^lc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [ii^ 



C H A f . VI. 

Irat^aOtMi d»iMg tht rtt^. Xi-ttmMiimiM tf tht ^•wArc OB. ^mflM 
ftt thmi ibi biii bt mat fafi^aph h p»^Mfb, Mr. Sirb h^mtdiMify 
rifu, mU^tati M hi pitrai fUndplt. Statu lit ntuarttfthi aa.tbbicb 
tht Immji » gtag Mdi, taid tlftif antbtrily l» J» it. CtajSAri tit n^i' 
Utimt mtjt fnftr W bt mtMt fw tit gt^tnuttut t/a frnrinct n Jhmett 
almtiad/Am Fr^et. Ttaibtt ** ibt nt^kwfhtt ^ ibt VidieJ StOiti it 
Umik ^atrkd. Proutii » difrifi tht unu frtmh ct^httttti. .^M 
fimi timr, it oAd tt wArfim tit ^ftfifh* itnrh. Lmg MAd vieiM ai* 
Itrt^titm a» ibt fthu *f trdlr. Mr.Burii Mt^tdly ibt tpp^itt. Ltf4 
Sit0tWj mtHtm H MitiM Mr. BatkM' • fiitcb JiJtnMj. Mr. Ftx, h,/^^ 
itg an tiu muit», itti Utt <* ftrftiial stctifiHix lyah^ Mr. Burh »/ fcH- 
Hcd ittmfifitmj. Afr. Burlu'i Jtfnte. Mr. fex rifii tt rtffy n p-ut 
apiaiin tfmM. Mr. Bxrit ttmflaim if htel/mg rtttHttd » ftKBwi mti tt 
Ltftr mtt^d mdfr fit m^ tf ftial^if. Mr. Pitt pr^i tbt wlfb- 
S'Mffing tf ltd SbrfiiWi melim. DtbtUt rtjnmd tm tbt Mth tf Mm. 
Mr. Fix JaUrtt his arimtbauMi tt ar^htrarj. Sir, Bufh (M^d&i Htf^ 
A td^KTtd if bit fmt^. RijU&iant Mr ibii dij^l. Frtiaib ftlirj ef 
Mr. Fax. Bui tMffi tftiii Spmitm, amd tit/utfijMmt/ep4rmim if tit 
t^rtj. 

DURING ^KCelf,(iHnccoitt- »id of Ae pen, tnd partgrtplLs 

mon friend* triedl one Vt two weft embodied in euicini>«). lit 

nne ouvsUing' sxpeiinMti ow Ae mMn time, howerer, Mr. Fox 

Mr, Bwke's aftdiotu : odsra, dc- enjojwf one {^iA adVantxge from 

fpuria^ to Axke Us rrfitlation, iit- that, wKich bad palled immediately 

veighed againll htm with very UrI« befiire die holiday), ai the expla- 

MftTve. Tfaed&ily prinuintheii^ sation which he chought riglit ta 

toreftof dieoppolitten-pKTy c^tened gtreof hii /brnicr TpMcheg tru left 

ail their Itaiua upon huti. The plot nnaeeompanied by a finglc advorfd 

(or the ekdofioK of Mr. Fox froA remark of Mr. Bothtf or Mr. Pitt* 

pover was bruited about, notwith* to impref* iifelf on ilie uitids of sB 

tianding it had alraady been in effed! b^ its own weight. * Accordingly 

d«niid and nfrud by Mr. SoHtc; hii party reprcftnted hfan as htvin| 

K'UeiOn tb*-othM'hand;ihepi^>en ROumd erery imtMttition againft 

^roanble to the minifter re-echoed himi Mr. Batkc therefore mnS 

Mother and noM criminal plot, in hate Alt fa much the lefs delicacy 

which' tkcy- held xc^ Mr. Burke, not in twinging the fubjefi forward, ar 

niich Bore bonouraUy, in the cha- it could no longer prove a pcrlboal 

ra&r of a king's evidence) who iajniy to his friend, 
bid impeached Mt aocomplicei. Whentbehourere-a&mUedithey 

Thependl too wb4 calM ia totbf prcveededoB the 6th of May to the 

* See Af{iii» (id Afril, 1791 1 •( Appeal to Old Whig*/* p. a). 

[A] 4 re>com- 



JW] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

re-commitment of the Quebec bill, wu at firJi obtained by conqaeft, 

{o mach expefled and dreaJed. but afterwards confirmed and ac- 

Thc chairman took the cbair, and knowledged by the celHan of it* 

iKgan by putting the ufual quef- former government, and eftablifhed 

lion, •• Whether cbe bill ftiould be by a long uointerrupted pofleffion. 

read paragraph by paragraph?" The competence of the hoafe 

Thij is one &ige ((hough rather a therefore being admitted, the next 

Ute ftage, according to the ordinary point to be coniidered was, after 

forms of [he houie) fpr debating the what model the propofed conftiui. 

general principle 1 and Mr. Sheri- tion was to be formed. InCanads 

can, as we have feen, had aSually there were well known to-be many 

S^ven notice tjiathifobjc^ion would ancient French inhabitanta, and 

go notto the particalar claufes, but . many new American fcttlers, wko 

fo the general principle. had migrated from the United 

, On the queliion being put, Mr> States. It might, on this account, 

Burke immediately rofe. . He re- be proper to enqaire, whether the 

marked that, u the houfe was confticutionj of America or Fruice 

7&ou[ to appoint a ' legiflature polTefled any thing Aiperior to ov 

for a dilUnt people, it ought firJl own conftitution ; any thing which, 

frevioully to be convinced, that if unprovided by the bill, mi^ht 

It was in itfelf CQmpeient to the af- in a ke chofe people contemplate with 

/iimpiipnoffucha power. Abodyof regret the happier fituation of their 

rights, commonly called the'Rights former countrymen, 

of Man,' had been lately imported The Americans, he believed, had 

^m a neighbouring' country, and formed a conAitution for themfclvej 

Jietd up by certa.in peribns in this well adapted to their peculiar cir- 

kingdom as paramount to ail other cumllances. . They had in fome 

lights. 'A principal article in this degree i-cceived a republican cdu> 

new code was, " That all men are cation, as their ancient government 

born free, equal in refpedl of rights, partly partook of republicanifm, 

^nd continue fo in fociety." If reflraincd in its princhile: and vices 

fuch a doArine were (u be admit by the beneficence of^ an over-rul- 

fed, the power of the houfe could iog monarchy. The formation of 

extend no fanher than to cali to- their conlitution was preceded by a 

gether the inhabitanis of C'lnada, long war, in the courfe of which, 

and recommend .to tnem the frLe by n^ilitary difcipline, they had 

choice of a government fur them- learned order, fubmilDon to com- 

fetves. But he ratjie>' c ufe to ar- mand, jnd a regard for great men. 

gue from another ci.df, on which They were trained to government 

mankind in all ages h^d hiihrno by war; not by plots, murders, and 

afleL< — fro'n the law of nations. a^iifliiMiions. Another c ire umftance 

On (his ailing he conceivi.d the of confid ■Table weight was, that 

consistence of the houfe to reft; they did not poflels among them 

foni this we eu'nt, thai \vc pot evtn the materials of monarchy 

fcKed a nghi . : egiflitine for Ca- aiida.iflocri'cy. They aft cd, how- 

pada, i 'un'.rd u:v>ii a claim of to- eve , too wileiy to let up fo abfurd 

ycrei^uiyuver tlut coantry, Httict) 40 ide?, as th^t the nation ttuuM 

, ■ govern 



„.,Coi>.^k- 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [«*■ 

govern the nation; but fbrmrd a fome idea of the bleffing) which we 
conftiiutioo a* monarchical and arif- were about to confer. The mode 
tocfacical as tbrir liTuation would 'of renCbning from effefli to caiffei 
permit : they formed o-.e upon the was the otd-fafhionsd way. It hal 
admirable model of t:;e Britifh con- been adopted in experimertaJ phi- 
Aitudon, reduced .to its primary lofophy, and might with eqaal pro- 
principles. Yet he -i-oold not fay, priety be applied to the philofopbjr 
'Gi*e this conftituiion to the peo- of the human mind. He IhoulJ 
'pleofCaruida;' forifthebarcimi- therefore ufe it rpw. 
lation of the Briiifh conftitniion ' The French Weft Indies, eoU 
wai fo good, why not give them, if withftanding three difaftroui wan^ 
poffiUe, the thing itfelf? Why were moft happy and fiouri(hiiig> 
mock them with the (hadow of a till the fatal moment in which the 
Aadow, when their fituation, in be- rights of man arrived. Scarcely 
iof ftill under a mild and liberal was this precjons doflrioe received- 
monarchy, rendered them capable among them, when Pandora's boxj 
of enjoying the fubllance ? No- replete with al! mortal evils, feem-, 
thine therefore feemed to be appre- ed to fly open, hell itfelf to yawn, 
tended from the difconient of the and every demon of , mifchief to 
American inhabitants, overfpread the face of the, earth. 
The ancient Canadians were the Blacks rofe againft w4iites, whiici 
next objefls of confu'cration, and againft blacks, and each a^ainft 
from their numbers entitled to the the other in murderous hodilily; 
jreateft attention. Hcafked, (hould fabordination was deftroyed, Ac 
we give them, as being French- cords of fociety torn afunder, 
men.thenewconftitutionofPrancef and every man appeared to thirt 
—a coaftitution founded on princi- for the blood of his neighbour, 
pies diametrically oppofite to our The mother country, not receiving 
own, as different from it as folly any great degree of pleafure in 
fromwifilom, as vice from virtue ; contemplating this image of her- 
a confticntion founded on what was felf rcflefled in her child, fent out 
called the rights of man? The an- a body of troops, well inftrufted 
tborsof it had cold us, and their par- likewife in the new principles, to 
lizans, (he focietics here, had lold us, reftofe order and tranquillity, Thefe 
that it was a great monument ercft- troops, immediately upon their ar- 
ed for the inftrnftion of mankind, rival, fe!: themfclves bound to be. 
This was certainly done not without come parties in the general rebd< 
a view to imitation. But before we lion, and,' like moft of their bre. 
proceeded to give it too Jr colonies, thren at home, began the affertiOB 
ie thought that we fhould do well of their free-bnrn rights, by nwir- 
to confider what would probably be dcring their general. In proof of 
thepraflicat confequences of fucha thefefefts, he read the account givea 
Rep; CO confider what had already on thcz5th of April in the national 
been the effevU of a iiniihr expert- afTembly itfelf Should fuch an ex- 
ment on the French Welllndianco- ample, he aiked, induce u» to ftiip off 
lonies, wliere tiie new principles of for Canada a cargo of the right* of 
P.irifian pot. tics ha I been intro- man? 

duced and propagated with ardour; Bat, left it fhould be objeAed, 

that we miEht be enabled to form that the difordcrs of the Frendi 



i«] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

Weft Indies originated is local Mr. Barluwat here called to 4r« 

caufi:9,heproce«ded topobt outthe dct from the oppo&ioa beoch. The 

deplorable conditionofFraoccicfelf. nomentwaaliDeularljr choleii. The 

The Daiional alTembly had boalted tcgularity of dlTci^ng the new 

tbM they would dlablifh a fabric ccmtlitation of France in thu debate 

of govcrmmcnt, which time could feemed to have been admitted. Iqr 

Dot deftrojr, and the taceft poUerity his being fuSered to proceed fo 

wont d admire. Thii boall had been long without obje£tioai;aad if dberc 

echoed by the dubs of this couotry, was any part of hit fpeech, wMdi 

the Unitarians, the Revolation Soj by no poffibtlitjr could be difkiTtcd 

cicty,thcConItitationat Society, and into a pertbua] application to Mr. 

the Clubof die i4Cbof>aIy. The Fox, it was precifely tiui, irhen 

a^embly had notv continued nearly he wai interrupted, fmce the StSt 

two years in poffeflion of the abfo- had happened fubfcquently to Mr. 

lute authority which they nfurped; Fox's praife of the French mt^- 

yet they did not appear to have ad- tion, in the debate on the RgSu 

vanced a fingle ftep in fettling any anoamcnC A very long and «[• 

thing liJte a eovernmenc; but to traordinary altercation eorawt, ut 

h«Tc contented thcmfelves with en- which various members on boih 

joying the democratic faiisJaftioo iides of the bonfe took part- Mr> 

of heaping every difgrace on ^en Fox, among other oUervatiosi, 

royalty. The conftitutiiHi nuifi be called that day a day of privil^e, 

cxp«£bed DQw, if ever, to be neatly when any gentleman might fdcft 

compleie: to try whether it was his ntark, and with Mr. Burke ^afe 

good in iti effe^helbouhl have the government of every other com- 

recourfe to the lail accounu of the try asnacha3hepkafed.aadthMiB 

aAeinbly itfelf. the grolTe ft terms f— the conflitBtuMU 

They had a king foch aa they ofZosoafler,Braiaah,orCo«hciBs, 

wilhed, 3 king who was no king^ according to bU&ney. Hecandwd* 

over whom the marquis de la. Fay. edhy faying, that his friend was not 

etie, chief gaoler oTParis, mounted oat of order. Ur. Burke conftdcKJ 

guard. ~ The royal piifoner having thiiaa iroay. but jufitficd what he 

wilhcd to taflethe frelhnefs of tlw cUd on the fame gtoonds aa in.;h« 

eouatryair.hadobt^oedadayLruIc converfation betwe th« holidays; 

to take a jourbey of about &ve nilei and he added,' that there was cer- 

from Paris. But fcarcely had he Left taiuly no more impropriety iit al- 

the city, before his fufpicious gover- ludiog to the Frendi revtrfutioi^ tm 

mors, recoUeAtng that a.temporary the <jacition then before the hanfe, 

releafc from cononement might aA thantherewasinbriagingitfbtward 

^rd him (he means of cfcape, lest a. oa the armament againll RuSa, or 

tumultuous rabble afcft (list; who^ * in a. quefljon of finance. Me af- 

furrouading his carriage, command- terwardi declared, that he was afto. 

ed him to Qcp, while pne of the ni^d at the treatment which' ha 

grenadiers belonging to bb laithful receivedr as he hod not made die 

i^d loyal body guard, ptefented a leaA peribnal refleOioii- upon any 

bayonet to the breafl — — genilanw whatever. He waa fiUljF 

* TbU had juli before been dose in i'm bau&'pf lord*. ^ 

cwtviacedf 



HISTORT OF EUROPE. [t»] 

conviqcedj- tlut 90 iqcnber of dist ntqcli dumr of enflniuif ) u if* 

hcmfe wi{hcd to alter the conAita- Ce&, whicn feemnl to ^*e fcUow«4 

tioD. Hp nevcTthe^rs thoQght it all tbe Sl-judged attempu tp ftU« 

hii duty to dlfconnteiWKe certain tbii debatC] from the momeqt ;li|t 

dodnnu which were fuppored to Mr> Bntkc rtoCe to ufwet on ihf 

»ift mthbcountry.andwiucliwcrt) foot the mci&onblc panegyric on 

ioteoded fiiDdamentaUy to fubrext theFtenchrcvelation.introdasMibf 

it. Mr. Pox into the dircnflion of th« 

Mr. Butfce eadeavQurcd qo Mi anBuneiit uainft RuQj^. AtleiiB:tli 

than fevcB umcs to explain, why lenl ShefEeld moved, " Thtt diScr- 

lie thoBght himfelf is order; but " tuif»is on the Freikcli conftittnioa 

-tlic ETcater part of thofe with whoni " Are not regular or ordeily ob |I(o 

he had hitherto a£ted feemed to '" qaeftida 'That the clauiei «f tlw 

wilh, by repeatfd intmiipiwDj, to- " Quebec hill be icad a fecoixi tilPti 

tally CO fileoce hiai. He was in " paragraph by paiBeraph.'"T-'l^ 

liune degree prote&d by lite mi* qotion was feconded^y Mr- WVk 
niAer, and two or .three Other The minifier, who had btfett 



member* 00 the {uw iide. Mi. been called apqn iqr hla opinioaa 
Martin, in panicujar, thought hiip both by Me. Giey and Mf> S^- 
rtgolar ; and rembded Mr. Fox ridan, now fhortly drew a diftiqc- 



Martin, in panicujar, thought hiip both by Me. Giey and Mf> S^- 
rtgolar ; and rembded Mr. Fox ridan, now fhortly drew a diftiqc- 
oT fome wordt of bis own iq Uijm between a qucfiipn of eider 



(be Fonretlatioo before the re- and a ^lefltan of dilcretiq*. Ii^ 

cefi. 3ut none of Mr. BurlEc'i point Of difcretion, h« wifiied th* 

own ^rmer party fupporte^ him, French revolution not to bf dilci^ 

Tile few, vhq were xKtft coiuie&ed fed. But he lure te^ifnony tq 

with him i)y. pcKbnal attachoienif Mr> Burke'* motive^ whio^ ho 

^ad who ajjrfcd with him in their could trace to no other fbaice than 

general pnufiples reTpefiing the a pure reg^ for the conilibttia* 

French revohiUPOi were too {^ ofhisconnuyf aod h« thought bin 

Gbly affeAed to interfere. So fully in order, v the bill weat toi 

diftreffiug wat the f^ene, that tho giyeaconfiituciontaapeoplcatcHXO 

minifters, &i from C^ing to ad- American, Frpnch. aiul ^nglifh. 
vance their own party -intere^ by Mr. Fox then began a fpecch, 

■ndeniag the breach, ffflp^Uy pref- which, though itttroduced on tbo 

fed fevcr^ refpeOable nemDen, queftloo of order, proEefled tb« ne- 

Kho were fought pioft likely to lancholy tafl^ of refilling what ho 

liave weight both with Mr. Suite called charges brought vantonljF 

andMr.Fox, to infxrpofe their goo4 a(id unprovoked a^uvlt hinv At 

oCcM. BfU the laik waa too ha- tl)e f^me time he. decWed,. tb^ jf^ 

z^rdoDs and too delicate. Thu after £ve- and- twenty yew«, be was 

waa not a dj&reti£c ariliDg fios^ ^ tqlp&'thefricndHufiofthemaB who 

piivate mifunderHandingi which baid fi^andb^taj^ghthimto feet, it 

would have admitted uf cafy ac- wouI4 burtliiaitathecnd ofhitli£», 

eonunodation ia two fiici^ qjixids ; He then palTed to the oquob of 4 

but the violent rent of an old plot agiinil him, and laid that Mr* 

friendihip torn afuodcr by the force B^ike had come down 10 the hou£ft 

of great public principle]. "Xh're not tp debate tJw claule? of the bil{ 

*ti 00 hope of recoDcilingr ai|i4. tbui belbre the punKfticcesi, but tq, 



IJ4] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1751. 

ftntify mirrepreTen cations of tame- wu an objeA of imitation for 

thing, vhich he (Mr. Fox) hadfaid Great Britain. 

in a former deliace. This he con- Mi; political opinioei he never ' 
filercd as an evident eagemefs to wilhed to conceal ; bat he by 1)9 
ftek a difference of opinion, and means approved of having » day 
an anxiety to difcover a canfe of fixed to cstechize him. Ac the 
difpute. If Mr. Burke's inten- fame time he hinted to Mr. Burkr, 
tion had been to preferve the con- that neither his pen nor his tongue 
Jtitution from any danger, with derived honour mini a difcaflion of 
which lie thonght the conduct and gtnt events ivitbouc information, 
political fentiments of certain fo- Jf the committee ftionld decide, 
cieiies threatened it, lie would pro- that Mr. Burke might purfue hii 
baUyhavegiven notice of apartica- argument on the French cbnfti- 
lardayfor uiepnrpofcor takenany tbtion, he refolved to leare the 
other occafion of doing it, than houfe. Henererthelefs meant not to 
that which had farnilhed the mcani ffirink from the contejl ; but, wheH' 
tff grofi calumny againft liis near- ever a proper period for difcufllon 
eft ami dearell friend. came, feeble aj his poweri were. 
On the fubjeft of the French re- compared to thofe of his friend and 
rciiution he knew, tbat iheir differ- mafter, he would be ready to main- 
ent opinions were wide as the poles tain the principles, which he had 
afunder. Still hOTvever he adhered aflened, even againlt fuch fuperior 
to liii original fentiments ; nor eloquence ; CO maintain, that the 
would he ever retraft one fyllable rights of man, how much foever 
vriiich hchadfaiij^uponit. Here- ridiculed as chimerical and viiion- 
peated, that he thought it, upon the ary, thofe original rights, which 
whole, one of the moft glorions no prefcription could fnjjeriede, no 
events in the hillory of mankind, accident remove, were in faQ the 
But when he ("poke upon this fub- bifis of every rarional conQitucion, | 
jeA, he wifhed to be underftood as andevenoftheconllitutionof Great 
alluding to the revolption and not Britain. Should he himfelf con- 
to the conflitution of France, which quer, the glory of the day would 
remained to be improved by expe- ftill belong to the conquered ; for 
ricnce and accommodated to cir- (as he had faid without a compli- 
enmftances. . The old defpotirm was ment, in the kft feflion) he had 
annihilated; tlie new fyftem had learned more from Mr. Burke than 
the good of the people for its from all books and all men. Ait his 
objeft; and this was the point on political knowledge wasdrawn from 
which he relied. With refpeft to Mr. Burke's writings, fpeeches, and 
the effe& of the example of France familiar converTation. During the 
on ourfelves, when any man could American war, they bad rejoiced 
prove that this country was in the together at the fuccefles of a Wafh- 
precife fituaiion of France at the ington, and fympathized almoft in 
time of her revolution, then, and tears for the fall of a Montgomery, 
not till theoi would he declare, dif- His friend then faid, that he could 
regarding all the obloquy which notdrawabill of indiftment againft 
might be heaped on fuch a decla- a whole people ; he had fince leam- 
lauon, that me French revolution ' cd to do it, and to crowd it vhh 

all 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [125 

all tlie tecbnical epitheu, fuch received from one, whom ix siway* 

as falfe, malicioa*, wicked, xnd fa confideredaihiawarmeftfnend; wtt 

forth, wUch difgraced our Aatute who after an tntimacy of more than 

books. To deny that the Britilh two-and- twenty yeare, had at lafl 

conllitDtion was founded upon the ' tbooghi proper, without the leaft 

H^hti of man, he Qonridered as provocation, to commence a per- 

nothing more nor lefi than an at- Ibnal attack upon him. He could 

icmpt TO libel that conftituiion ; and not conceive that the manner, in 

no book which Mr. Burke couki which Mr. Fox had accnfed him of 

cite, no words which he might ufe having fpoken without information, 

in debate, however ingenious, elo- and unfupported by fafts, appeared 

qutoc, and able, a* all his writing! to manifell any ^reat degree of ten- 

and fpeechc) uiidoubtcdly were, demefi towards him. On the fub- 

fliould ever induce him ta change jefl however of the French revo- 

or abandon this opinion. Thde lution, uninformed as he might be 

topics were enlarged and imprefled fappoied to be, he had not the leaft 

with Mr. Fox's known force. objcAion to meet that right honour- 

' Mr. Burke commenced his reply able getitleinan hand to hand, and 

in a grave and governed tone of foot to foot, in a fair and temperate 

voice, obferving, that altJiough he difcuffion. 

iiid himfelf been repeatedly called But thia it fcemed was not the 

to order, he had neverthelefs heard principal ground of quarrel j he 

Mr. Fox with perfcd coropofare, was accufed of having attempt 

and withont the leaft interruption, to bring forward a difcaffion of 

He hoped that the temper, which French principles, in order to fix 

uaj eflentially reqnifite on an emer- a ftigma upon certain republi- 

g(Dcy of this important kind, would can opinion], which Mr. Fox waa 

attend him through this painful con- faid to have advanced in a fivpiei 

icntion ; yet he truited that if in the debate. This charge he deniedTn 

wsroithof hi) obfervationi, an ex- themoftpoGtive terms; and folema- 

prcflion Ibould drop wMch might ly declared, that he had made no 

imply feverity, it would be imputed reference whatever to any of Mr. 

CO his zeal, and to the anxiety of his Fox's fpecches ; but that he had 

niad, agitated as it was, and t)ot argued, as on every other occalion, 

to any micniion of perfonal re- in a plain and Gmple manner. Mr. 

proach to any individual whatib- Fox himfelf was no (Iranger to the 

"tt. The fpeech, he remarked, to fubje^t, which he had propofed to 

^■liich he was to reply, was perhaps introduce in that niglit'i debate, 

one of the biofl diforderly ever deli- He had prcvioulty to the lal\ conver- 

Tcieti in that houfe. His public con- fation on ihti Canada bill openi.-d to 

in'X words, and writings, had not Mr. Fox very fully and patcicular- 

cnly been mifrepretented and ar- ly the plan of the fpccch in which 

rjignedinthefeTerefflterm»,butcon- he had now been intertupted; he 

ficcntia! converfationa had been un- had explai[K-J how far he'intendcd 

I J'. Hy brought forward for the pur- to go, and what limits he meant to 

pofe of attempting to prove his poll- impofe upon himftlf, and had thcwn 

tical inconfiltency. Such were the him all llic books, pamphlets, and re- 

iaiinces of kindnefs, wbicli he had ports, which his fiiend had now Tup- 



tail ANNUAL REGI 9 TfiR, 1791. 



oeRidhiinnotfohanrad. This he 
bad done at hit own hOnfe, fnin 
wbence they had walked dowtt to- 
gcthef to that houfe, convtjGng up- 
on the {iMtCt the whole wjiy. Mr. 
fox ha4 mta imleed diiagreed nitt) 
Mm in optniw, but eatet-etl into 
to qoifrel «ith hlitl. He (lad ri- 
cher been treaCed vith confidence, 
afliifotfte private cirCumflances of a 
{UKtical eompletion had been men> 
xiaati (oKin, to which, notwiclt- 

' ftandlilg <vbat tia4 £nce happened, 
te l^ltno ihCliHatiMi to atlu£«. 

Pwa-varieiy of reafons hcconfelf- 
«d' that he udlhed to introduce tKe 
Ai^ea of the French conffitiirton, 
Wtliftl he thought that he might 

■ Jix« dorttfperfeftly in Order. In 
the firll place, he frit dcfirous cf 
pslflting out the dangef of perpe- 
Wafly cxtollifig rtiat prepoftcrtius 
edifice njioit alt occaConS, and in 
rile M^effltrain. Mr. Foxhad him- 
ftlf tfcrMed it " tlie i«off ftiipenddus 
aitS gtotioue edi&ctf ortibdrty uhich 
had been uened on the foundation 
<rf human integrity in any time, or 
WiQfitTy." A lecond motive; which 
bad inaeed' foiffl little inSuence over 
him;, vnsi of a mOfe perfbrial na- 
ture. He had been aceufed both 
of Writing and freaking of the hie 
pW)ce^dings in France ralhly, ur- 
adviftdly. ar.J wantonly. This 
charge he was certainly anxious to 
Wfote; but at the very time, when 
BV \vas about to produce Ctfli in 
cOTtoboration of hii affcttions, 
blended' with private information 
afid refpeflable authoritin, he was 
flopped in the moIl unfair and dilbr- 
dtriy manner. Had he been per- 
nitttd to condnoe hi) fpeech, he 
liwuld have Otewn, that the iflbe of 
;i!I that hat been done, and of all 
that vifas then doing in France, 
cttuld never Am the canfe of li- 
berty, but woidd inevitably tend to 



^rtBilote that ciF tynniiy, oppref- 
fidd, injuflice, and anarchy. 

fi ut what principally weighed with 
hiftl, and determined niih in .Ms con- 
dufi, was the danger that threaten- 
ed Our own government, from prsc- 
ticei, which were notorioas to alt 
the world. Were there not clubs 
in evefy quarter, who met and voted 
refolntioni of an alarming tendency t 
Did they not correfpond, not only 
*ith each other in every part of 
the kingdom, but with foreiga 
counfries? Did they not preach in 
their pulpits doQiines which were 
dangerous, and celebrate st their 
annive'rfary meetings proceedings 
ihcortpacibic wiih the fpjrit of the 
Britilh conftitutibn ? Did they r.ot 
every where circulate, at a gre.it 
expencc, the moA inlamODS libels 
on that conilitution? Atprefenthe 
(aid that he apprehended no imme- 
diate danger. The king was in foil 
rower, poflelTedof all hw furtaions ; 
his mimaers were refponCble for 
t)i>if condufl ; the conntry was bleft 
with an oppoliiion of ftrong fcrce ; 
and the common people thcmfclves 
feemed to be uiiited with the gen- 
tTtfinen in a column of prudettce. 
Nevert.'ielefs he niainmined, tJierc 
was Ilii! fufiicient caafe for jealoufy 
and circumfpcAion. In France 
there were 300,000 in arms, who at 
a favourable moment might be hap- 
py to yield affiltance j befidrs, a 
time of fcarciiy and tumult might 
cOme, wh;n the created danger 
was to bs dreaded from a dafs of 
people, whom we might npw term 
tow intriguers, and contemptible 
clubbifts. 

He again adverted to the nnkind- 
nefs with which Mr. Fox had treated 
him, who bad ripped up the whole 
courle and tenour of his public and 
private life, with a considerable de> 
gree of a^rity. The right ho- 
nourable 



HISTORT OF EUROPE. [147 

Boor^legntlciBuwirftcrluTing&r fern, of tlie dUenters IhU, isd tf 
rieaed liim witli IkirnnOiet of orci^r. tlie royal mairiife aA ; but that no 
wnich were wonderfuily maniKed ODe dificrenoc of opinian lud nrcr 
by flight infuttry of oppo£tton, before for a Angle moment inter- 
then farought down apoa him the mpted their frietidlbip. It oenainlj 
wbole firoDgth and heavy artillery wai indifcrcet at his time of life ts 
of bia own judgment) ekMjiienca, provoke enemies, or^Tchii fiiends 
ud abilities, to ovenvhclm him at occa&on to defien hm ; yet tf hia 
oacc In carrying on the attack firm and Aeady adhemtee lo the 
■gainft him, tlw r^ht bonoorable Britidi conllitution placed him m 
gemteman had been fopported by a fuch a dilemma, he wonid lifiioe aH ; 
torpi of welt-dilcipliaed troops— and as public duty and paMc pra- 
Here Mr. Burke wu called to dence taught him, with hia laS 
order by Mr. Grey. Mr. Burke re- breath exclaim, " Fly from At 
fafed to apologize ; but in his Tub- French coallitiKKM 1" 
leqaesit fpeech, he observed, that the Mr. Fox whifpcred, that there was 
rxprrffion " we!I-<£fciplined" bad no lofs of fnendlhip. 
BotliiBg offeafire in it, u being ap- Mr. Burke replied, that be was 
plicabie to any body of men wbo forry there was. He knew the price 
ided npos s inethod and in com- of his conduA : he had Rotwith- 
cerL Sanding done his duty, and loft hif 
It is probable tbac a little inci- ^end. Afwrwards, addreffingMm- 
dcDt whoch happened ia the cbarfe lelf to the two ri^t honoorable 
of Ur. Rurke** rcplv contributed geudemen, who were the great rt- 
to draw fo>m hin tlu expieffion} vaU in that houfe, he eaprefTed a 
Cootdered at diforderly by Mr. hiTpe, that, whether they hereafter 
(jney. In bu fpereh Mr. Fox had moved in the political henif^re a* 
Iniinated aa intention of leaving two flaming meteors, or walked to- 
ihe boufe. if the committee Ihould gether Uks brethren hand in hand. 
fuffer Mr. Burke taproceed. ^\'hile they would preferve and cherifh tbe 
t^ latter gentleman was fpeaking, Biitifh confutation ; that they would 
the former, being perhaps now re- guard it agunltinnovation.and pro. 
Iblved on a rejoinder, accidentally wCt it from the peftilential breath of 
went toward! the lobby for fome French philolbphy. He then (in 
tri9ing refreffamenC with which he allufion to the mode of reafiming 
feon after retmned to his place, under which he had intmduced tber 
But in the mean time about twenty topic of the French eonftitution) 
or thittr geoileaen, of thofe moft broke into a lapcuroos apoftivphe 
peffbnally attached to him, miAak- to the irameafurable and unfpeak- 
Mg his depjutore for the execn- «ble power of the Deity, to whoin 
tion of hu declared intention, rofe alone, as a being of infinite perfec- 
fiom tbeir feats, aitd followed him tion.l>elongstheomnircience,which 
ODt of tbe hoofe. fees all thing* in their firft caufe ; 
After tbe interruption of Mr. while to ui poor weak iiKapable 
Giey'i call to order, Mr. Burke mortal;, there i« no mle of conduft 
^roueded to remark, that he had fo life as experience. In conela- 
fieaocntly differed from Mr. Fox fion he moved an amendment, tend- 
in tormer inftsnces, jparticiilarly on ing to fhew, by the inlertioD of 
the fabjcA of a paiUatjnentary re- fome words in lord SbeSeld'a mo- 



ij8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

tion,ihcprincipleororder which he As to his private fentimvnts of 

lud throughout aiTcrCed. the Sntilh conftitution, he faid, 

Mr. Fox rore from his feut under that, although he thought it im- 

»rcat agitation of mind; tearj for perftfl and defcflive in theory, 

£»ne time impeded his utterance: it vm admirably adapted to tbii 

|>u[ after the confiid pf contending country in point of prafticc. lis 

paffions had a little Tubfided, he great excellence was its correClive 

commenced > rejoinder as much caputity, by which it adcpted iin- 

diflinguidied for the larcaftic Teve- provemcni; ; and ihi ivaj the boaft 

lity of the infmuations, as for the of my lord Coke. He had given 

cxceSivc, and apparently lincere, his fupport to the right honour- 

tendcrners of ihe profefflons with able gentleman's reform bill; was 

which it abounded. He confelTed it now expefted of him to de- 

tbat he owed many great obliga- clare, that he conceived the conlli- 

tions to Mr. Burke ; and found, iilticn would have been better with- 

ihat Dotwith (landing all that gen- out ! Ai an avowed enemy to ail 

tkman's harftnefs, hemuft flilllove teils whatever, he objefted to the 

Iiim. If he had given offc-ncc by plan of putting every man's poliii- 

anyimpiudenl or intemperate Ian- eal opinions to. the tell, by obliging 

guagc.he hoped, chat his right ko-* him to abjure every other confHtu- 

Bourable friend wodd recolledtheir tion but out own. Granting tluiC 

pall itiendlhip, and Forget it. it was he had been indifcrcft, and evca 

true that they had formerly difltred wvm in ihe terms of his opiDion on 

in their feniimeots upon oth.-r oc~ the French revolution, furdy it 

caftons, without the leaft inierrup- did not defervcthe fevereand point- 

uon of their intimacy. They had ed epithets which had been heaped 

differed on the queftion of the upon him that day— 
MiddUfex elriTtion, of the jury-bill, Mr. Burke laid, loud enough to 

and many other inllances; ihey had bebeard, ;lut hedidnotrecolIcAhi* 

even differed in their opinions of havi-c; ulcdany. 
the French revolution ; for when Mj-. Fox then obferved, ibat if 

Mr. Burke's book upon tliai fubjeft tlicy were out of his right bononr- 

was publilhed, he had condemned able friend's recoUcftion, they were 

the work, and every doctrine which out of his own; from that moment 

it contained, both publicly and pri- (hey were completely obliterated 

vately. But he could not help and forgnttjn. — He then purfucd Ms 

feeling that his right bonou.'- argumei:!, nnd re-alTerted ihe milin- 

abte friend now appeared to dif- tormiinon of Mr. Burke on the af* 

play fome thing more than a mere fair>ofl'i.ince, but believed him to 

difference of opinion; he feemcd to Ltvc u.iv^inLcd what bethought the 

difcover a fecret wifli and difpofi- truth. Mr. Fox, however, cooffcfTsd 

tion CiTentially to injure hiin ; at himfulf not to have read what bad 

lea!l hb conduit had that tendency; lately been written on the French 

befides, as he had before remarked, and Engliff) conffituiions, to whidi 

he poUcITed-bimfelf a kind of natural Mr. Burke alluded— the works of 

antipathy to the idea of being cate- Mr. Mackintofti and Mr. Piine. Bui 

chi:£edin bis political priocipUs by underffanding his frien^l lo objeAin 

any man. principle to lucb fiecdifcultions, he 

dccUfcd 



HISTORY OF EUROPE [iij 

decbei genenlly in ftvour of >II liad ridicoW thAt TpeeclT; tnd com- 

fnch £lciiSoni, ai nlcfiil to poliri- pared it to a tntn*i opening the ' 

ca) aitd moral troth ; reitber wnald door after he had left a room, and 

be amigiv any man for propoiing faying, ** At onr parting praj let 

to incorporate into iIm conllitntion " me recommend a monarchy to 

of thir country, what he approred " yon I" 
in tbe TyflnD of another nation. In applying this to the defence of 

Every conftintion, he faid, to tte the French revolution, Mr. Fox 
good, mull be adapted. It wai pre- thottght chat event ftich an acquifi- 
ininpttOB, it waa oigotry and, into- tion n the caofc of freedom, front 
lerance, beyond all precedents civil the dominion of France over the 
or religious, to accafe of folly and manners of other nation*, ai to jaf- 
vice « whole people, bccaufc they tify hia former panegyric; and he 
dared to think tor themfetvea. In apologized for the exceflet of the 
the year 17S0 it hxdbecn the opi- Frencli people in iti progiefi, by 
nton of that hoofe, " That the in- remarking that it wai natural for 
" Baence of iIm crown had incrcafed, them to be guilcv of many extrava- 
"wasiocreafingiandoii/ht tobedi- gant and abfura aftioni, friiiti the 
" minilbcd." To thia rsTolucion hii apprebenfion of a fudJen retam of 
right bononnble friend had fab- that defpotifm which they had de- 
fcrtbed; and would he now refufe ftro^ed ; experiencing the fen&iioni 
to tbe French the fame right which ludicrontly defcribea by our great 
he himfelf had exeicifed ? For, if dramatic poet, when he makei Fal' 
the influence of the Briu<h crown ft aS" exclaim, « I fear this gunpow. 
was thonght dangerous, what in the " der Percy, althongh he be dead." 
eyes of reflefting Frenchmen maft If a. fliadc was wanted to contraft 
have Appeared the influence of the ihefplendor of ourownconlHtution, 
crown of France ?— He would not it was to be fbnnd not in the new 
have alluded to Mr. Burke's con- fyflem, but in the ancient defpotifm 
da& in the year 1 7 So, anicfs he had of France. He and hii friends, how* 
been convinced that itredounded to ever, loved our own conRitation ' 
that gentleman's hononr, and to the on groondi independent of all ex- 
glory of his cbarafter; for where ternal circnmftances. Yet, hefaid. 
could be find an incident which did they thought the French revolution 
not } It ms not for the pleafure of would do good to England. It 
drawing a malidons contr^A that might teach miniiters not to endan- 
thii circnmflance had been brought ger the jufl influence of the crown 
forward. by over-ftralnlng it j and the people 

He pntceededto obferve, that hii of England, if they lliould be dif- 

righthonourablcfriendhadpri^efled pofed ralhly to give way to in- 

an enthufiallic attachment to our novations, might receive a warn- 



rchicalconftitution. Did ing from the confitfloni which bad 

berememberthat in the year 1783, occafioned fo much lamentation, 

ivhenhismajeayinafpeech from the and which were fufficiently great 

throneUmcnteatfaeloIs which Ame- to deter othert from lightly in- 

tica had foftzined in being deprived curring fimilar calamities, though 

of the advantages refolting from a they were ttifling in comparifon of 

axmarducal govenunent, itow~ be the beneiiu to which tney have 
V«i„XXXIU. [/] k^ 



Jjo] ANNUAL REGlSTERj 1791; 

led. Hit adsuradoD of tluit event fiiend, who had fo long becv * 

(and be here again repeated it] member of it, knew that no ni^ie- 

had been mifreprefeated abroad ; coming inflneDce was exertdfed on 

It had been laid, that every man the mind* of thole who aAed in it i 

mnft wifh to imitate what he ad- though, perhapt, they mu;ttt think 

mired. But this he denied to be that iatreaties and excitations 

oonclufiye reafoning. There was, ought to have ai much power aver 

however, one article of their detail, a friend, ai a hint or a trod from 

in wluch he was deCious of imi- the other fide of the houfej yet it 

tating the French; it was a mea- wai never Ciggefted that connexioo 

fure'iD which he lud been umibrm oaght to fiand in the way of duty : 

throughout his political life, and in and if, for the difcharee of his con- 

ivhich he and Mr. Burte agreed-^ fcience, Mr. Burke thougkt it ne- 

that of univerlal toleration. ceffary to expofe what he &iv alarn- 

Rcferring Mr, B nrke's fi>blime in^ there, or in the naoon at large, 

apoftrophe to the Deity, the found withooi regard to friendfhip or ra- 

pnilofophy of which Mr. Fox admit- voar, to this or that Gde of the hoafe, 

ted, he aOced, what experience we he onght to do it, thoQgh he Hood 

«puld have had of the French conOi- alone. 

tationf It was, at tcalt, anew expe- .After enforcing in various ways 

rimcnc, though perhaps not a good all the topics of argument already 

experiment; and he, for his part, ftated, he obfenred, towards the 

fufpetled that it was not the bell ; concluGon, that he couU not help 

becaufc, i( all the wilblt men of all faying again, that he had been 

ages could be coUefted together for onjulUy and unfairly treated; but 

the purpofc, they would not be able he noald not fc&r that to Itep be- 

tb make a new conAitutioa of orl- tween him and his friend. It 

ginal excellence. was his intention to keep out of 

As to the courfe which the de- the right honourable genileman's 

bate had taken, he Ihould have been way, until lime and refleaion had al- 

furprized at hearing the gentlemen tered his fentiments npon the fubjeA 

around him called a " wcll-difci- oftheirdifference; whenhedoubted 



'' plined corps," could he be fur- not but their common friends would 
prized at auv thing, after the rell endeavour to rc-uniie them. Anap- 
which hfe had previoully heard that ^eal was alfo made by him to Mr. 
nightf He had not requefted a Gn- Butke's ownbofom: he irnfted that 
gle individual to call Mr. Burke the quicknefs of temper, which led 
to order I on ch^ contrary, he had his friend to momenurylieat, would 
eame&Iy entreated all around him equally lead him to the difpofitions 
not to interrupt the debate. Did fo much more congenial to his na- 
his friend mean 10 objcA altogether ture; and he hoped, that in review- 
to party as wrong? Surely that ing thecaufe of the prefentdiTpute, 
could not be his opinion, thoueh it would be recollefled, that they 
Mr. Pox faid, he hardly knew his had been engaged together in a fyf- 
opinion on any thing. He julUfied tematic oppofition to miniflry fince 
and praiTed the principle of party- tlic Vear 1 784, at which period Mr. 
connexion, and gloried in that to Bur^e moved a reprefcntation to 
which he himftH* iicloDgcd. Hii the crown, fufficient alone to make 
S the 



kiSTORlr OF EUROPE, [iji 

tbe &me of any other mao. Thij ipeech, was qnlte obliterated by 
pwcr he conne^ed with the prin- what had occurred in the middle 
djMCt of the Whig pany, whofe part. He regretted, in a tone and 
pT^cfion it vraa to aSert the doc- manner of earnelberi and tervency, 
triaei of the rc*oUition id i6SS) the proceedingi of that evening, 
■ad who faw, in the coramrncement which he feared might long be rc- 
of the prefent reign, a difpofition membered br their enemies to the 
to depart front the ctinduA, which prejudice of both. He was anfbr- 
hadmjde thclalttwo reigiisfoglo- tunate to fuffer the lalh of Mr. 
HoDi. and to make more nfe of Fox, but he tAuil eneonnter it. 
the prerogative. ~On this conftitu- Under themalkofkindnefsanew 
tional point, he iaid, it was that in attack was made upon his charaAer 
i784tKywereatijrDe,-andtheeTent and condaft in the moil boAile 
of that conteft difplayed a power manner, and hit very jefts brought 
that demanded a refoitn. He drew up in judgment agunft him. Mr. 
from thence another argamenti that Barkeconhfled, chat hedid not think 
OUT eonftitntion is not perfefl ; and the careleTs cxprefiions and .playful 
again acknowledging the great ia- triflings of his unguarded houra 
To«T> which he had received fnaa would h^ve been recorded, muftered 
Mr. Burke,dtinng fomany yeart-of up in Che form of accufations, end 
his life, he concluded with « qnoca- not only have had a ferioas meaning 
tion, cotpreffing how much keener impofed upon chemi which they 
is the angniih ta be treated with were never intended to bear, but 
unlciiidnels by one who has obliged one totally inconfiftent with any 
yon, than one whom you have ob* lair and candid interpretation.— 
ligtd. Could his moft inveterate enenw' 
In the coarle of this fpeech, Mr. have afled more unkindly towards 
Fox appeand to coniider it as a him? The event of that night't 
kind of charge made upon him by debate, in which he had been inter- 
Mr. Burke, that their intercourfe rapCed without being fuffercd to ex- 
had m«ch leflened within the lall plain, in which he had been ac- 
$n years. Bat, b truth, the cir- cnfed without being heard in his de- 
camfiance was only mentioned by fence, made him at a lofs to un- 
the latter incidentally, in fpeaking derihnd what was either party or 
of their habits of indmacv, which friendlhip. 

the former had introduced into the His arguments had been mifre- 

debate. Mr. Pox explained, that it prefented. He had never aiHrm-. 

had luppened 5om accident alone, ed, that the Englilh, like every 

and not from any dimination of af< other conflitution, might net in 

itftion. Tome points be amended. He had 

Mr. Borkenowrofe3ga!n,w!tha never maintained, that to praife 

irmocT* wbicb feemed the refult our own conftltution, the belt way 

of muclt internal effort, and com- was to abnfe all otbars. The ten> 

nmited upon what had fallen from dcncy of all chat had been faid, 

Mr. f oic. He began with rei^ark- was to rrprefent hint as a wild in- 

ing, that the tendcmefs which had confiltent man, only for attaching 

heett difpUyed in the beginning and bad epithets to a bad fubjeA. 

cofldafioa of that gentleman's With the view of Slewing Mi in- 
[/] » eonfirtency, 



J32l ANNUAL REGISTER, 179I. 



coiifillency, alluliona had been mide 
to hU conduA refpefling hii vco- 
nomical refonnio 1780, the Ame- 
rican war, and the t^ueftions of 
1784; but core of ihefe apvlied. 
if he thought, in 17B0, thai tlie in- 
fiuence of ihe crown ought to be re- 
duced to a limited ftandird, and 
with which Mr. Fox himfelf, st the 
time, (ecmed 10 be fitisCcd, it did 
not follow that the French were 
right in reducing it with them to 
nothiag. He was favourable to the 
Americans, becaufe he fuppofed thef 
were fighting not to acquire abfo- 
lute fpeculative liberty, but to k«ep 
what they had under the Englilh 
conftituiion ; and ai to hi« repre- 
lencation to tfie crown in 1784. he 
locked back itr it with felf-gratili- 
caiion, Hill thinking the fame. Yet 
he knew not how todevifealegifla. 
tive cure for the wound then infliArd, 
as it came from the people, who 
were induced to deade for the 
CfOWD, againfl the independence of 
their own rcprefentaiives. 

'Iheincon^ftency ofhisbookwith 
his former writings and fpeechea.had 
been infinuated and allumed, hut he 
challenged the proof by fpecitic in- 
fiance^; «nd he alfo alTcrted, that 
there was not one Hep of his con- 
duct, nor one fyllable of his book, 
contrary to the principles of thole 
men with whom our glorious revo- 
lution originated, and to whofeprui- 
eiplcs, as a Whig, he declared an 
inviolable attachment. He wai an 
old man, and feein? what wai at- 
tempted to be introduced inllead of 
the ancient temple of our coniHtu- 
tion, could weep over the founda* 
ticn of the new. 

He again Aated, Itlll Kiore par- 
ticulitrly, the endeavours ufed is 
this country to fupplaot our own 
by the iniroduftion of the new 
French conltitutioa ; but iie did not 



believe Mr. Fox at prcTcst had l&ftt 
with, and he did believe him to )uv« 
delivered Ut opinion* abftra&edly 
from any reference to this coaatry : 
yet their cffeA night be diSerent 
ou thofe who beard them, and ftitt 
more on others through ntili^^rc- 
henCon or mifreprefeniBtionc. 

He replied to the gronndsonwhicJi 
Mr. Fox explained his piHiegyric. 
Tbe leHbn to Icingi, he was ainiid, 
woald be of another kind. He hkd 
heard Mr. Po* own the kinr of 
France to be the bell inteBtioKd fo- 
vereignin Europe. Hii good-naiure 
and love of his people Itad turned 
him. He had cotKeded CTery thing. 
till he was now in 1 jail. The ex- 
ample of the ranfafioDS, on the 
otter hand, would have Tety lit- 
tle operation, when it was nteo- 
tioned with tardy and qualified cen- 
fure, while the prail'es of the nvo~ 
lution were trumpeted with the loud- 
eft btafts through die nation. 

He obferved, that Mr. Fox hiro- 
felf had termed tbe new Ffcnch 
fyllem a moft flnpeodoiis and glo- 
rious fitbfic of bunan integrity. 
He had really conceived, that the 
right honourable gentleman poflelT- 
ed a better ufte in arehiteaure, 
than to bcftow fo magnificent an 
epithet upon a building compoted 
of untempered mortar. He con- 
iidered it as the work of Gotha and 
Vandali, where every thing waa 
disjmnt^ and inverted. 

As to the chnrdi in panicnlart 
it bad been faid.that the French bad 
abolifhed all teSs, and given a com- 
ptete unequivocal tolerttian. So 
fiu- from it, Ur. Barke infilled that 
they had efiabliflied the isoft dia. 
bolical intolerance that ever exifted 
on the fiKe of tbe earth, and 
created a new tefi, not for the lake 
of fecurity, bat ai tbe neafii of 
cruelty, oppteSi^, and injnfiice, in 
ordei 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [ijj 

wder to afford an opportunity of tver bartef the conftinnion of hi* 

deprivinKinaDythoaraiidindividuali country^ that eiernil jewel of 

of their Dread. The clergy were liis roul, for a wild and viiionary 

forced to take this teft, or ftarve i iyfiem, which could onl/ lead tO 

and yet France was the country confufion and dil'order. 
where there wts faid to be no leA at Mr. Pitt, after having made feme 

all [ He drev a ftriking piAure of remarki upao the JihguTar fitoalionf 

the ptrfecutiona to whicli the reli- in which the houfe then Hood with 

eionsofboih fexes, and the pioui rcfpcA to the que[tion before it) and 

lew of the laity, were expoled, ha viag declared his own opinion to 

throuf^ltont France: and he particu- be, that Mr. Burke had not been* 

larly inftaaoed the unmanly and even in the Grftinnance, at all out 

brutal fevcri I y inHiAed on the fif- Of order, fuggeAed the propriety ^ 

Urhoodof the charity of St. Laab- withdrawing the motion which ha4 

nu, an order of nuns, who from the been made by lord Sheffield, 
foree of piooi zeal dedicated them- ' Mr. Pitt conceived that the coo- 

felrcs to the molt irkfome of dutiei, Ritution could be in no immediate 

that of fpending their lives in the danger; but profeiTedi that if here- 

drndgery of a loathfome hofpital. after there Ihouid appear to be a 

Tholeiiieritorioai womenwerefdE- more ferious ground of apprchen> 

ed, dragged out, Gripped, publicly fuin, and that ground fhould bf 

fcoorged, and turned adrift to get diHinfily Anted by Mr. Burke, he 

their lircad aa they could, where it fhodd be eager to give that geo- 

waj acriine fiir any hoTpitable roof tleman hia warmeit and molt cJftc- 

to fhclter tkem; and all thi* waa tiial fupport. He thought Mr. 

for receiviog the facrament from a Burke entitled to the grwtude of 

prieft who had sot taken the lefti— his couittry for luving on that day 

The affembly kt^w of thii abomina- in fo ahic and eloquent a manner ex- 

btetyranny,outraging at once piety, prelTed hit fcnte of the degree of 

chanty, and decency, yet they had danger which already eaifted ; and 

nofpuilhed, nor even ccnfored it. alliired him, that he would Ijimfelf 

But the new conftitution of moft cordially cooperate with him 

France was laid to he an experi- in taking every poTible meana ta 

mesL He thought, we had feen preferve what he eflecmed the moft 

enough of it to judge of it* prac- perfefl conlli:uiion in llie world, and 

ticaleffeflj. The new fovereigni of to deliver it down to pofterity ac 

that country, he greatly apprehend- the beft fecnrity for the prorperiiy, 

ed, vould proceed from tyranny to freedom, and happiocfa of the Britifli 

tvranav, from oppreflion to oppref- people. 

fioD, bil the whole fyRem lermi- 1'he houfe adjourned to the itth 

nated in the complete ruin of that of May ; on which day the claufet 

n;iferable and deluded people. ofthe bill were debated. Nothing 

Mr. Burke again exprefledhii for- vary, material occurred till the 

iDwfor iheoccurrencesofthatdayi claufe relating to the legiflative 

jetifthe gotxl were to many, he fiud couucil wns read, when Mr, Fox 

thatbewouldwillingly take theevil rofe to objei^ to it. He took this, 

to himfeif. He Imcerely hoped, opportunity iif entering into a de- 

thataomeaiberofthu houfe would claration of bis oolitical opinions. 
[/]3 Thwe 



134] ANNUAL RECilSTER. 1791. 

There coutd be no good and com- ftroy any partof thit edifice, wbiclf 
ple:e ryftem of governinent.he Ikid, for iti beauty and perfe^ion was the 
u-ichoDC 1 due mixture of inpnir- idmiradon of the whole world, and 
cby, ariftocracy, and democracy: the inellintable btefling of this conn- 
and however unfevoorably one gen- trv. He fpoke in the inofi animat- 
tlenun might conflrue hij fenci- ed terms of the principle of aiiilo. 
menu, yet he confidered our own cracj in a tnixed government ; but 
ariAocracy as the proper poife of catnoated the amendment fnggell' 
the conftiiuiion, the bilance that ed by Mr. Fox. 
equalised and meliorated the powers Mr. Barke dcftred the proteAion 
of the iwootherextrenie>,ai)deave of the houfe to the fituation in ' 
finnncfs and ftability to the n^ole. which he ftood. He fonad, thai* i 
He nevertbelefi did not think it fentcnce of banithment from his 
wile, in an infant government, party had been pronoanced againA 
where no previoui materials of fnch him. - The houle he hoped woald 
an ariftocracy exifted, to make that not confider him as a bad man, al- 
branch of the legillaturehereditary. though he had been banilhed by 
Property was and had ever been one party, and was too old to fcek 
eCeeroed to be the true foundation another. Being thus, withont may 
of ariilocracy, and upon that he jnft caafe, f^arated from hu former 
propofed to build the ariftocracy of fi-iendt, he confefled that he fererely 
Canada, tince an aA of parliament felt his lofs ; but that, what he felt 
could not give nobility like an Eng- like a man, he would bear like a 
Jifli peerage. He, thought it beft to man. He tmHed at leaA, that he 
ihake the council elrCtive, with a flioald meet a fair and open bofti- 
higher qualification both for the lity, to which he would oppoTe him- 
defloTS and the elefted, after the felfwithmanly&rmnefi.l^rtfaevery 
model of the Americanconftitutioni, fliort period that he (hou Id continue 
Where the three powers of monarchy, a member of that houfe. 
ariftocracy, and democracy, were HethcnoncemoreafTertedthepn- 
judicioufly blended, althongh under rity of hia motives ; and complained 
different names. He fpoke at much of the imputations thrown upon his 
length on thefe topics. conduit. ' And ai to the charge of 
This declaration feemedto^ive abuling repnblicj, tn order to re- 
gret ratti&fiion to the minilter, commend monarchy, he affinned 
<vho remarked, however, that a dif- that he had never abufed any re- 
ferent 'impreflion rerpeAing Mr. pnbJicancientormodern.buthehad 
Fox's fentimehta had been made not termed France a republic: no, 
both in that houfe and abroad, by it was an anomaly in government ; 
the debate Of the former night, he kaevf not by what name to call 
Believing him now to be truly fiii- it, noria whatlanguage to defcribe 
cere, he congratulated htmfelf, that it. it t»as a compound (and he re. 
he might cxpcft to have, he might be citf d the verfes from Milton) of the 
fure of liaving,' the aid of facK elo- fublimely obfcure and treniendous 
quence and talents to refift any at- figure of Death, having the Ukencfs 
tempt at any time to impair or de- of a kingly crown apon the feeming 

* Thii feems to allude to di« paragraph, which reaio p, », of the*' Appeal." 

head. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [ijj 

kesd. with the ciy of hell-honndt, to die coollttiuioiif it wu uimar- 

chu bade gaceihng]^ romid the nntable for ao^ good fubjed to 

waiftofSib. Itwatalhapelefimon- beda^afteidayholaingoutaparade 

fier, bora or Hell and Chaos. of democracy, in order to let tlie 

On the fubJeA of the claufe, he nnihiaJEing maoy raging agaJnft 

agreed with the nunifter. In a thecrewn. He 'conceived that there 

iDoaarcby, he contended, tbat the then exifted a run againft mo* 

ariAocncy moft ever be nearer to narcbv i but this had been nSblf 

the crown than to the democracy, r^prelented as the mere idle coinage 

becaafe it originated in thecrown as of his own brain; he triifted how- 

thefountainofhonour; bat in tfioTe erer, that the houfc would not reft 

governments which partook not of too fecurely upon fuch a reprefen- 

any thing monaichical, the arilto- lauon, but take care in cinie to 

cracy there ncce&rily (prang out guard againft the impending din- 

of the democracy. He dented pro- ger. In faying what he had upon 

perry to be the Ible foundation of the fubjeft, he was conlcioas that 

arifiocracy. He pointedly condemn- he had done his duty ; and hoped 

rd a clofe, and praifed an open, ari- that he had in fomemeafu re averted, 

fiocracy. The power of rewarding what might otherwife have cfTeflcd 

virtue and talents by a peerage, he die downfal of our juftly-boaftod 

confidered as a royal prerogative of conAitation— fupported by fuch re- 

the moft beneficial kind. He en- flcAions, he was not deprived of 

lered into an accunM analyjis of confolation, although etc]uded from 

the houfe of lords ; and linaJly ob. bis party ; b gloomy folitcdc might 

je^ed to the council propofed by reign aronnd him, but all was ua- 

Mr. Fox, which he thoagnt in fk& chioded funfoine within, 

to beof ademocraticalconftitotion. Mr. Fox again rofc, and began 

Neither did he find any recommen- by faying, that he had before been 

dation of it from experience ; and in caieful not to intermix any rematlcs 

proof of thi«i he went at length into on French aifairs ; bat hif opinion* 

the conftitutions of the American remained nnaltcred. Among other 

ccriontes before their independence, tlungs, he declared, that be tnoqgbt 

fliewing tliat all equaKr rebelled. the conHitniion was more liable to 

Hcaftetwardsrecurredtohisown be rained by aa increafe of the 
ittaation ; and defining with much power oF the crown, than by anla- 
aiceiy the diftinflion between a fac- <tcafe oC the power of the people, 
tion and a party, declared, that he As to Mr. Burke'i oblervation of hit 
inight be of a fatlion, but could not being excluded from the party, Mr. 
be of a party with thofe who conti- Fox alTerted, that, if tbat gentleman 
TKd to reprobate the principles of was To excluded, it was hit own - 
his book. Then, having couched on choice ; for tbat if he would repent, 
lome other point) perfonal to him- he might be afTured that his fnends 
lelf.heclofedhiifpeechbyobferving, wtniideverbe ready to receive himi 
thai at a time when open and avow- to rcfpcA and love him. He ne- 
ed attempts were made to circu. verthelefi at the lame time>infmu- 
late pamphlets and di^emiiiate doc- ated that Mr. Burke, had tnifufed 
trines fuDverfire of the preroga- the fiinflions and privileges of the 
ttTc, and confequently dangerous hoofe, by holding long difcoorfet, 
{/] + perfwuj 



ijfi] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

pcrfonal to himfclf. snd relidve to hxl it been poffible, to hav« glvan 

Itnaginary plots which bad no fonn- the fevenl fpeeche* «t fall ien^ch ; 

datioa in &fi, and by thiu prevent- but it ii hoped that the general 

iDg ■ cominittee from doing ixs call and complexiaD of the dispute 

diity in entmmin? the clanfe» of an have been preCerred with fiddity. 

important bill. He hinted likewife To that end all the accounti n'htch 

that the right honourable gentle, could be obtained have been cora- 

inan*i vanity miiled him, when he pared, and all again tried by the cell 

fnppofcd that thedilcnIHon of per- cf Mr. BnrlLe's " Appeal," which 

fonal topics in that honfe would containi much of the fubflance of 

have the lealt indaeace on public thefe debate*, and (lands y« uncon- 

opinion. ' tradiAed in pointof fa&; and with 

Mr. Burke, in reply, did not take reluAance it mufl be added, tbat 

anynoticeofthetefreOi attacks up- foine of the reports, commonly ef- 

on him, of being reprefented as 3 teemed of goodaucboriiy. reqAiml 

vain man, a troublefoine mrmber of the caution of fuch acheck in every 

thehoufciandadreairerofvifionary P^''^ Neither hat diligence been 

dangers; but fimply remarked, that ipared (it may be thought perhaps 

having pafTed bis youth without eu- that too much has rather been ufed) 

countering any party dif^race, be iri bringing together every thing 

had been lb unfortunate indeed as which couid tend to illuftrate die 

to incur it in his age ; neverthejefi immodiate rife and progreia of thai 

he wilhed it to be underAood, that di&nlion, previous to the re-con^* 

he folicited no( the friendlhip of any miiment of the Quebec bill. The 

nan, or of any party in that honfe, fijbjed feemed to demand it. It 

Jf he confented to accept the retoni wa£ due in juiHce to an iodividna]. 

of old friendlhip from thofe with who has been fometimes chargod 

whom he had a£ted till now, he with a deiign to injure his fricDd, 

weuldrnjoyitfrom tbeirefteeminot and Ibmeiimss leprcrented as led 

irom their weahnefs; Jrom their allray by a blind intemperance ; but 

J'aflice, not from their humanity, who has himfelf conlbuitly ailertcdt 
t wa« propofed to him to repeat, that he was dilchargit^g, under a Te- 
as the condition of being again re- vere afHifliort of body and mind, 
fpeftcd and loved; but he would a neceflary duty t* his coantry, 
never, with contrition and peni- paramount to all confiderattons of 
fence.courtarcconciliationtowhicb, private friendlhip, by giving an 
as a preliminary, he muftmakea early warning of a pubUcaanger.lhv 
facrifice of trofe principles of the origin of which, a fecret committee 
Aonftittition, in which he had been of the houfe of commons has fince 
edacated, and which through life he referred to this very point of time, 
.had approved, admired, and defend- It wat alfo due to the public. For 
cd. • the reception which Mr. Burke's 
Thus ended a friendlhip which opinioas have foond on the flFairs 
had'laAed for more than the fourth ofFrance, and their c^aneOiiOa with 
part ofa century, between tivomea, this kingdom, hac given thewbolo 
of whom poQerit^ will only doubt nation an intereft in his credit, and 
which to place bighcA among the the purity of his motive* in thitre- 
moft ffjendid examples of bumui (ptEt. That they were jfuire, the 
talenti. We could lave wi^lcd, intcfmilevideaceof thewholetraof- 
8 tOioQi 



U^^K 



HISTORY OP EUBOPE. [137 



*Qioii> fkiiiy reviewed, and the tef< 
tiffloajr of tbe minifter to a part 
ttiLSio his knowledge, appear to 
tiabtifh beyond a doabi.' 

Ondie ochcrhand, tho' checharge 
agunllliis^onriftenc^, brought by 
Mr. fox, was wholly irrtgQhir, both 
IS to the qoefKon of order, or the 
lueriti of the Frencti revolution, 
and was a clear and Jireft pedbnal 
»t-,ack npoQ him, we do not think 
iliat karole from a warn of fri-nd- 
Ihipj for we -believe cIk profeluons 
01 Mr. Fox to have been a£«C' 
tioo»iely tincere. Neitlier da we 
tKink that it was an ebulliiioa of 
thai mnper in Mr. Fox, which he 
timfelf confe&ed to be warm; for it 
•Hi! io circumitantial, and descend- 
ed to fuch iDioiitc points of coo- 
(iileraWe antujulcj', &•. to CArry with 
it every appearaiice of having been 

tremeditaicd. It feenu to have 
:en exioncd from bitn againd all 
the feelingi of hia heart, by tbe 
exigeocy of hii f^tuation. He pro- 
bibly feared left the fchiim, which 
TU DOW aftnaJly begun, might 
fpread farther. He wifhed there- 
fore to ercA die barrier of fuppofed 
tonli&ciicy to fiop tbe fccefTton of 
ovheis, aiid to ftrengthen it by the 
terror of punilhmciit to all who 
Oioold pafj it. He endeavoared to 
eftabliihabond of indilTdlub^e union 
againftthe miniilry of Mr. Fitt, on 
(be ptiiKipIe of the canteii in 
17!^ and to let that above all other 
principle). Tnis policy, however, 
iai been inefieftual. A reparation 
fnllowed, where Mr. Burke, hod 
Bide a cracit. But in tru'J) the 
real ciufe of difunioQ it noc to be 
kaai in any occurrence of this fef- 
fraoi SOT even in the affairs of 



France; thefe were only occaRon^ 
which forced into notice a divifioa 
bebre exifting, and arifing from a 
real difference of principle. " The 
■' political friends, wiih whom Mr. 
■' Burke fet out in Hfe." as he fail 
io the laft debate, " u-ere iDoft of 
'■ them gone where he mufl fnon 
" follow, and another party bal 
" fucceed^d them, with wbom iw 
" had aacd." Mr. Burke, and the 
few who lemairved with him, fo far 
from being inconfiftent, adhered ri- 
gidly to their old principles, and ap- 
plied them to the French revolutiou, 
while their newaJ^bciates, now form- 
ing a majority of the party uoder 
Mr. Fox, floated down the current 
of ihe popular tiJe. This is the cine 
to the feparatioo vept candidly and 
truly given by a writer full of acri- 
mony agaiaH Mr. Burke, and » 
protell'ed champion on the other 
file. He defcnbes the judgment of 
Mr. Burke on French a^irs, a^ fet- 
tercdby fyftem*. " The oracieofa 
" f;reaiarillocracy,"fcyshe,"ithad 
" been neccflkry for vou to forni» 
" -ffiw^; indyou hadncglefted the 
" progreis of the humsn mind f'ub- 
" fequent to its adoption:" while 
he tills us that Mr. Fox, on the otlur 
hand, came to the fubjcft " oti- 
" Ib^icklcd by the charia of fyftenia 
" at liberty to j-emark and foUottr 
•■ tlie progrefs of opinion, and mc- 
*' ritirg the Angular praife zfifing 
" mere near the level of bis ago 
■' than any prifrjjed Jlaftfma^ ui 
" Europe." The hifiory of liij 
progrefs of opinion in ths parqr 
would be curioni and inAruAive— r 
hut we mull purfue our iiairaiive of 
the proceedings ia parliament. 



' Parallel hetorcen (he Condiia bi Mr. Burke anil that of Mr. Fox, p. t. 
\ Tfaau||hu on the Clubs al t)w frtleut Pili;ti|itiau, 1770, 



ijS] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791, 



CHAP. VII. 

^/im ai U tb* rhbts ffjariti in ctffis efUitl, a Ji/pmtal ftiiU mf /ami 
Jla»JiMg. Werna) agiiaitd in i^ jiar 1771. Bili ibex atrveJ ^ Mr. 
panuJt/aitU : drara.n bj Mr. Barlu. Mr. Fax nrvi taiti af ibe iuffime/i- 
Hi mtnai far a gr4xxd comminie an caurn af jnfiiet. Mr. Erfinu fi- 
ttadt the maliati. Jl iht faggrpUit of Mr. Ptlt, Mr. Fax -witbdra^i bii 
taetim, tout thtains Utnit i» bring its 4 bill far the riaeval efall Jouhti rt- 
Jftainrlbt Ttgbti Bmd fujiliicm af jarj. Firfi reading ef tbt bill, lit 
frtambU rtjeiiedat tbt faandrrading. Tbt tarfJtratien af tbt hill in tht 
hatife af krdipaftpmud aa the nalim af tbt lard cbaaciSer. Fiaamc* cam- 
miltee. Budgtt. Mr. Sberidax moveifartj rtjobuiaiu relative to tit fai- 
lie incmt atid expenditure in a cammittei ^ tbt vibaU haiife. Rsf^-t ^ tbt 
eammitlet. India budget. Sir Gilbert S/liot mtvti far a repeal ef the tefi 
a3, in fa-uaur ef the cburcb af ScatUmd. Rajal burgbi af Scatlatd. Sitrtv 
Leana bill. Kit^t Jftieb. Praragalian tffarUajutnt. 

<rN the laA chapter, we law that the very next baGneft that occupied 

I Mr. Fox, wnile charging Mr. the atcentton of the houfe, he waj 

^urke with tnconriflency. alluded to baild no little ftiare cf his own 

fo their former difFeren.ce of opirioA glory on his own inconfiftency re- 

fia the rights of jurifi : but by a laiive to this fubjcd. He was him* 

fingolar coincidence of eyetus, )a Jelf to bring forward a bill * very 

CmUar 

" That oar rraderi may iht better comiivc the two bilU, we (hall gire tfcem 
lieic in oppofite coJumns. 71>c former a taken from one of the daily [^apen 
<>f January the lEih, 1771, and isalfo to )it found in the Appentlix to the Life of 
Lord Chaiham ; the latter i» tranrcvibed ham the ftaiuie-boojt, is it ultimately 
paffed ihe tbHowing year. 

Jury Bill of 1771. Jury Bill of J7JI. 

I. Whereas iloiibu and controverfiH I. Whereas Hoabis have arifen, wbe* 

hivciri&n, tonctrning the right ofju. ther, on the trial of 00 indiftmeniot 

Toi!< to try the wliok matter charged in informatioi^ for ibe making or publllh- 

inriiftmcnts and tnfcrmaiioni for fedi- ing any libel, where an ilfuc or iTiiti 

tioHs and other libels i for fetlling and are joined between the king and th< 

elcaring the fame in time to come, be dcfendint or defendants on the plea of 

it enaEled, &c, that fro • ' - .■,.,.. ■. t . ., 

thejnror* who Ihall he 

and fworn to try ihe 

king and ihe defend;int, upon any in- in lUne; t>e u Iherctore declared in" 

diflnicnt or infomiation for a ftditiuiia enaficd by the kins*i molt exceUciit 

jlhcl, or a libel tinder any other deno- inajcny, by and with the advice and 

mination or defcription, fhall, to all in- - confEDi of the lords fpiritual a ~ ' — 



tentjandpurporL-!,beheldandrepiaied,ln poril, and commons, in tbiaprefeptpu- 

Uw and in right, competent to try every liament aiTemtli-d, and by the aulhon'X 



HlSTORf OF EUROPE. [139 

GmiliT to that on wluch he hsd lord MuuGeM. But while he pre- 

Dun/ yeart before oppofed bis hte fided in the kiag'a bench, the trial 

friciid. of Mr. Almon, for che re public*- 

The right) of jnriet. In cares of tion of Joaiiu's Letter to the Kinet 

blwl. to try the whole ifloe, was a happeniog in a jaitSare of public 

que.tura of long ftanding. The fenuent, gave riu to feveral wana 

dodrine uhich prevailed in our debates in both hoofes of paclia- 

courtiofjaftice had certainly taken ment; lord Camden, in the upper, 

nut liiere long before the time of and ferjeant Glynn and Mr. Dun- 

J.jry Biliof 1771, (eoxtmtd.) Jury Bill of 1791, (cuttintuJ.J 

faitel rhe matter laid or charged in the of the biae, Aat on ererr fuch trial. 



1»i£qb' iV erimiruil iotration of t)w a ecKril vcrdiA of guilly at 1 
ieTcnihiit, and evil tendency of the libel ^ily, upon the whole matter put I 
cWged, 3* Wl a* >l>e nieie fift of dte ifliie upon fuch iadiftment or inionn: 



fublicirion ibereof ) and tbc applica- tion, and Ihall not be required or di~ 

uon by innuendo of bbuikt, initnl let- reftcd, by the court or judge befers 

Kit. piftores, and other devicei, any whom fuch indiflment or informatioii 

Iia or ii£ige to tbc conVary notwith' Ifaall be tried, to find the defendant or 

iuutin^. ' ' defendants guilty, meiely on the proof 

of die publicalion by fueb defendant or 

defendanti of the paper charged to he 

H libel, Hod of the feiire aferibed to the 

fame on fuch indictment or infoma- 



n. Prorided that nothing in the aA II. Provided always, Hm on erarf' 

kcooflrued to prerent or reftrain flie filch trial the coon cr judg#, he&i* 

judga or jufbcei, before wbam fuch whom fuch indiftinent or iaiiinaalitni 

iffiKt Ihall be tried, from ioRniAing fluU be tried, fhall, according to their 

ibc jurors concerning the law upon the or hit diferetion, give ibcir or Ins opi- 

auttv (b in ilTitc, as fully as may be nion and dliefUona to the jury on the 

done in other mifdnneanors, where the nutter in ilfue between tbc king; and 

.^rsri do and ought 10 try the whole the defimdaot or defendants, ia like 

sutiTT i nor to renrain the jurors frtnn manner as in other criminal caftt. 

fuliiw the matter fpecial, if the law to III. Provided alfo, thnt nothing 

>>tni ball fna difficult and doubtftd. herein contained fhall extend, or be 

conflrued to exrend, to prevent A* 

jury from finding a fpecial verdiA in 

their difcretioni as in other criminal 

cafes, 

. in. Provided alfo, that nodiing here- IV- Prondtd lUo, that in cafe the 
i°untaiiKd thall be eontlrwd to take jury Ihall find the ckfcodanc or d^end. 
"°nili» (WfendanI, after verdift found, ants guilty, it Ihall aiid may be lawful 
l^rigbtof byiiw fvch eridence before for ttie laid defendant or defendanls to 
iKcaatinwfarehluchvtrdifl was found, move in atraft of judgment on fuch 
Malay tend to mitu[aCion or eztmua- ground, and in fuch maooer, as by 
tai rf lui {^ oScDce, as hat been law he or they qiigbt have done before 
r^ paftiM befon this aA. the paf&ng ot this a&, any thing hcrtiri 

contained fp tht contrary eotwitb* 

ftanding. 

-fdog 



I4o3 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

nitifr in the lower hoar<, particularly intention ; that they were judges a 
tUOinguilhing themfelves on thepo- wctl of law a« of fafi. 
polar fide. At length, Mr. Dowdef- From libels he .adverted to tb 
wellt who led the friendt of the procecdingi of the cadrt of king' 
marqui* of Rockingham in the bench in cafes of quo wsFranto.— 
IiODle of commons, moved for leave He thought, that there ought lob- 
to bring in a bill for fettling doubt) a ftatute reetilating the condnd o 
in this refpeQ. The bill was ac- ttiat court with regar J to tlie grant 
luall)' drawn b;^ Mr. Burke. Bnt it ing of informationi, and enablirj 
wai flrongly atiaclced in the news- it to give double c6fts iu cafes o 
papers by an anonymous writer, frivolous applicauoni. 
lappored to be Mr. Home Tooke ; Mr. Et&rne, who feconded thi 
it received but a hollow fupport motion, fupnortedit with much do^ 
from the friends of lord Shelburne, ouence and ability. To diminif} 
■nd the leave to introduce it was the privileges of juries, was in his 
direAly ojn>oled by the party of Mr. idea to throw away the only fccarity 
George Grenvilie. Mr. DowieC- which the people polfeficd Kgainil 
well's motion was in confeqnenca the overwhelming prerogatives ol 
lolt. Mr. Fox. in ihefe dilicuffionii the crown. In civil caiei, be re- 
tooii part with the majority. What marked, it was the undoubted pro- 
he faid has not been prelerved, but vince of the judge to decide vpon 
foDie vefligci of one of hii fpeechei the queftion of law, matters of pro- 
appear in ananfwerof Mr. Burke, perty being too intricate for the 

There isafort ofwiderftocd rule decifion of a jury ; but this rule 

in parliament, that when a member ought never to obtain in criminal 

has once been in pofielTion of any cafes, where the guilt, confifling id 

qucflion, it is not to be taken up the intention, feemed a point pecu- 

By any other member, uitlefs the liarly adapted to the confideration 

original mover contents or declarei of a jury, and conld only be pro- 

that he does not intend to renew it. perly afcertained by their vetdift. 
B»t a filence of twenty years might The attorney general coincided 

perhaps be conlidcred as a virtual in opinion wiiK Mr. Fox. He ne- 

dereliflion. However it happened, verthdefs excnipated the judges 

Mr. Fox, it is faid, did not conf'ult from the charge of having aflcd 

with Mr. Burke on this occaiion, with impropriety in oountenancing 

though he nsentioried his ptirpofe of a contrary doAri»r, conceiving that 

agitating the fuhjnl fo early as Fc- tliey were in lome degree bound to 

bruHry, t->o montlis prior to .iny iblluw the uninterrupted conrfe of 

fympioni of a public breach be- precedents, and to be determined 

twccn him anii his friend. by what had been the uniform prac- 

On the aoth of May, he moved tice of their predcccSbrs. 
for a grand comroiitee on courts Mr. Pitt iuppoited the famear- 

ofjulltce. lie tmered tntoa long guuient. H^ declared, that, al- 

antf agumeniative fpeech on the though he Ihould with |r«at difii- 

doArii« of librU, in which kc con- denrefet up bisown opttiosagaiDft 

unded, that the jury onght not theeftaUilhedprafliceoftbejudges, 

only to find the publicatton, and the yet he could not but confefi that it 

iuLuciidos, but 10 decide upon the went diredly againft that praCUce: 



HISTORT OF EUROPE, [t+i 

i^r he &w DO mfon why. on the tW groundt tkat it WMbefttoav^ 
trul of a cnmt, tbc whole cenfidai %ttj gcnenl prapofitios ia th« pr0- 
ntion of the cafe night not precUc- BrnME, which wbj not aacefluy M 
iy go to the unfntered judgnient inxroihKe the cmOrkM of tke UIL 
of twelve men, who were fwpm to Ft wu debited in ^ hoW* of 
give their TerdiS honeniy and con- loixls, on the Bth of June, nrhcn the 
^ientiouity. He objeAed however chancellor oppofcd tu fardur pn>- 
tD the going into a cominitiee; but grefi in that lefien. Hi* lonifh^ 
rrcoBimeni&d the pkn of fettling laid, that although its piincipm 
the whole bufinefs b]r a Ihort fepa- net withtheco.' iirresceof alldtofe 
rate bill. noble and Icviied fiicndi, wick 
Mr, Fox ndopted the Aj^geflion whom he had cotverfed on the fnb- 
of Mr. Pitt, and withdrawing hii jedt, yet in coBlIderation of the ad- 
former motion, moved " For leave vanced fUte of the faffioa. snd tlie 
to bring in a bill to remove all importance of the bill, he &ould 
doubta rcTpefiing the righti and move, « That injlcad of being read 
funfiioiM OT jofiei in trial of crimi- a fecond tinic on that day, it ihould 
oal canfea." He alfo moved « Ftv be read' a lecond time thu dajr 
leave to briitg in a bill to explam month." 

anl amend the ad of the 9th year of Lord Camden declared himfclf ' 

qneen Anne, ehap. ao, relative to a friend to the billi not be^nfe it 

quo warranto." Both SMtion* paf- tended to alter the law of the land, 

fed Diumiinoufly. but becanfe it eflablifhed it. He 

The bill was read a £rft time on contended, that the jury alreadr 

the 25th of Mzy. when Mr, Mit. did polfefs, and always had poflede^ 

ford and the folicilor general ex- a legal right to form their verdift 

preOed a wilh, that fo important on ihewhokcafe, liw, &A, and in- 

a bill BtJght not be harried through tention, how much (0 ever this right 

the bonfe. mighthave beendifcountenancedbr 

Mr. Etdune argued for the necef- the jtidgei. 
Sty of a parliamentary interference Lord Loughborough purfned * 
in the prnent inftance ; oblerving, fimilarline of arguni(.nt. He con- 
that wicn a praAice erroneous in iidered the bill ai a declaratory biU* 
it« principle had long obtained, ai <ehe objeft of which wag, not to 
in the cafe nodcr confideraiion, it make that law, which waipreviovQy 
wasnoiby the authority of a judge, fuppofed to be of a diff^ercnt de- 
but of the Icgiilatare, that it ought to fcription,bat to declare and explain 
be corre&ed. . what wu underftood to be at that 
Oa the fecondveading of the bill, inilant tbecxiding law of tbelaikd. 
May Jilt objefHons were made to The bill, he {aid, was agreeable to 
the preamble, which Oated. " that the direaion, which at a judge he 
b all criminal proJccutionj by in- had himfelf aJwayi given in ca&i 
diAment or intbimacion, the jury of libels. He wtJhed therefore to 
have always had, and by die law of be ranked among iu warmeft adro- 
Eogland were intended to have, z cates ; nererthderi, fince tliey were 
junfdi&iDnover the whole matter in arrived at a period of the feffie^ 
i£ae." After fame debate, the when it wai impo£ible for them to 
vholc paragraph wat omitted, npoQ proceed with it oon&Acntly with the 



i4a] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179*; 

idpca whicb wu due ta then- mdr provided for in the trauiM 

fclvei, to the fubjea itfclf, to the bndget, and whk^uiouitcdutbc 

right* and to the tranqaillitj of - fgm of 3,i33,OOoL 

Esglind, he concurred ia the pra- 

dentpropolalof delcfrbgit. txrsiioiTVt.i. 

Lord Gtennlle fopponed die .. £• 
fiane fide of the qoeftion. He ™^ ... 1,131,00a 
thooghtthat itwooMbeunwifeand ^™y ' ■ * 1.853.000 
indeowon* for their lordOjips to JJ™"?'*' , " . " 443.OO0 
prweed in fncb a iriU without the I>"c;"cy of i«id red 
xffiftance of tlic jndgei, from whom _, ^*." ^' ' ' 400-«» 
a declaration of what wm under- P^cieocy of grants - 107,000 
flood ct> be the exifting law apon MifcelUneoui fervice* 69+.000 
the fabfca voold come with more — ' ' '■ ■ 
weight and anthority, than from any *"^ *«" of thefopjdiei s.jzifioo 
other qiutfter. ■' 
ThemarqnijofLanfikwnefpoke wati ANd miams. 
much in favou of the liberty of the Land and malt tax - 3,750,000 
preij; but aeunH iti Itccndoaf- Sarplat oflaAyear . 303^11 
nefi. He paidfome very high com* Lottery ... 306.150 
{>limentj to the diflingnilhed abili* Snrpliu of the permanent 
tin, profound knowledge, and in. taxeiiaiier having de- 
flex ible integrity, of the judges ' dnaedlheintereff and 

Hi« lordlhip profeAed himfelf ro be charges of the publie 
«zea1oD9 friend to the bill; and ar. debu, civil lift, &c. x,iio,ote 
gned againft the propofed delay. Outllaoding balance of 

The lord cbanoUor'* motion wai accounts • • 154,000 
carried, and the bill of conrfe poft- Probable Lncreafe of re. 
poned. ceipis on tobacco, 

A committee wu appointed, on land-tax arrean, and 
die Sthof April, upon themotionof hemp doty - J I20,oo* 

the chancellor of die exchequer, to — m ^ 

' enquire into the Aate of the public 5>743t47i 

income and expenditare •. The Dcdufl threcqnarten of 
report of this committee, and at the a year's annuity, due 
iame timethe feveral iiccoums re- to the duke of Clarence 9,000 
lative to the public inctpie and ex- -^ — - — -. 

penditnre, werereforred to thecon- Sura total of way* and 
aderadonof acommittee of ways mrans . - jf-5f734,47i 

and iDeans, on the 18th of May. — .i ■-— . 

Mr. Pitt bid, that he fhoold lay Mr. Pitt remarked, that the way* 
before the oommittte, u Ihordyand and means exceeded the fuppUes br 
diflinaiy ai poffible, the articles of a few thoufand pounds on^. He 
cxpenditure.and ofways and means, did not think it neccflary to detain 
of the year. He thought it how- the committee by entering into a 
tw proper to fnnnte from them difculHon of the Date of the finance*, 
tliofe 2rBcles> which had been al- particularly when he confidend the 

• See State Papen, .p, aoo •, 



H-LS TORY OF EUROPE.' [14J 

Tci^ aUe and. iccitnte npor^ wUch he rnbmitud to the coofider* 

wlock thejr hid received from th« «Qon of the committee : 

finance codunittee. I. Relglved, Thuita{>pean,[hn 

Mr. Sheridan admitted that the the fded committee of 1786 pr»* 

dajr wa« at laA arrived, when he ceeded upon a fuppofition, that the 

oouJd agree with Mr. Pitt, that the annual and permanent taxei thent' 

report of the committee of finance fubfiftiiig were likely to prodnce an- 

wu as fair a report ai coold be ex- nually the Turn of ■S>397r^7i I. 

peded. There were nerertheldi a. That the fcle^ committee of 

certain omiffiooi on both Gdei the t786ftate, that a farther conider- 

accoimt, which would not have hap- able increaie in the then SabfiUifg 

pencd, had he htmfelf been a mem- taxei beyond their eftamate might 

oer of the.committee. It was not be expe^cd, if the due colle&on 

however hu intention to difcufi the thereof could be fecurtd by mea- 

report at that time; but he wonid farei adequate to the purpofe, and 

fooD Dame a particular day for the fuch ai would probably afford an 

purpol«. ample provifion for any deficiencies 

On the td of June the hoafe re- which might at any time be fouiid 
foWed itfeU into a committee on the in certain extraordinary refources, 
report of the feled committee ap* before enumerated by the felefl corn- 
pointed to exanune. the feveral pa- mittee. 

pers relative to the public income 3- That it appears, by the report 

and expenditure, when Mr, Sheri- of the feledcommittec of i79i,that 

dan brought forward fome refolu- the pcoduce of rhe faid taxes, from 

tionsontlu fubjeA of the financea, the jth Jaaaary 1786 to the jth 

ofwhicbh; had given a previous January 1787, amonoted only to 

notice. In the commcncemenC of the fuiq of 14,405,7031. being 

hii fpeech he ieverely cenfured the 991,769!. Icfs than the fum efli-' 

general inattention of the hottfe to mated ; 

all revenue concenu. It was not. That the produce of the laid 

he retnarked, a little exiiaordinary, taxes, upon an average of the firft 

when a fele^ committee, which had two years (viz. 17116 and 1787) 

been appointed to examine and re- amounted only to 14,864,834 1, be- 

viiecfac report of the committee of ing 531,637!. lefi than thefumeSi- 

1786, had made an eflimate of the matea; 

probableexpenceofthefuturepeace That the produce of the (aid 

eftablilhment, exceeding the eAi- taxes, upon an average of the firit 

mate of the committee of 1 786 by three years (viz. 1786, 1787, and 

lialf a million, that the houfe fiioold I788)amouniedonly toi 5,017,1651. 

have received that cftimate with- being 360,108 1, lels dua toe com> 

out alking a £ngle qneflion refpeA- mittee ellimated ; 

ing the caufe of the increafe. He That the prodnce of the (aid- 

tben drewacomparifon between the taxes, upon an average of the firft 

report of 17S6 and that of I70l,in four years (viz. 1786, 1787,1788, 

order 10 Ihew, that the expeiwture and 1769) amounted only to 

had exceed«i the revenue. He 15.122,7081, being 174,7611. lefa 

then read the following rerolwioiiS) than the committee eAimatedi 

UiBnieObyGOOl^lC 



•Ml ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

Aiti tltat tite prodnce of the 9. Tlirt the menge expauO- 

&!4 uxet, apon an average of hve tsre during the IkitM pcrioc^ i»- 

ycan(viz. 1786, ijiy, 1788, 17S9, eluding the rams ptidtoihe Jkmc- 

' 179O) bA9 unounted to lican loyxliili. 



1^,4481479 1. leaving *n exceeding of other tcmpen/y mifcelJjiae- 

of5l,«o8l beyond the eiiimate of oaa rervices, and ihe Timm ifliterf 

die laid fc left committee. to the com miOionen for dS (charging 

4. That in thn cakulation thefc- the national debt; and aiihtg the 

U& committee of 17^1 have not eftimted expenceoFthe militia /or 

advened to all ibc addiiional impo- the years 1789 and 1790; but ex- 

fittoni which ought to have been de- dafive of the expence of the a^a- 

dnfted from their eftimate, ment in 1799, and of any addttioii 

5. That the total net prodoce of to the navy debt fince 1786; has 

the public income, upon an average amounted annually to a fam ex- 

afthelaftlive yean (vie, from 6th ceedingt6,^8/>73 I. 

ennaTy 1786 to jth Jitnaary 1791, 10. That the average excels of 

th incliifive) nu amounted an- expenditure, beyond the avenge 

noallyyinclDding a fifty-third week- income, during th« above period, 

^r payment, to a Turn not exceeding ha^ amonoted annually to947i787t> 
die fum of 15,618,77s I. II. That the expence of tbe ar- 

6. That the average expendi- moment in the year 1790, fepxraie- 

fore during die fame period, indud- If prorided for, and not included 

ing the fumi paid'to the American inthe above accouTits,has amoanted 

loyaJiflt, and on account of other to a fam exceeding three millions, 
temporary mifcellaneoui fcrviccs, ii. That it appeari that the ad* 

and the fums ilTued to the commif- dition to the navy debt, fince 31ft 

ficners for difcharging the national December 1 7B1;, i» eftimated by the 

debt; and adding the eftimated ex- feleA committee at 457,9501. and 

pence of the militia for the years that, by an account delivered to tiie 

1789 and 1790; but exclnfive of houfe fince the report of the com< 

the expence of the armament in mittee, this debt appear* to havs 

1790, and of any addition to the been &rther increafed. 
navydsbt fitice 1786; has amoanted 13. That the total amoont of 

annually toafomexceedingthefum the exceeding of expenditnre in 

of 16,855,109!. the £ve years before fiated, excla- 

. ,7. That the average cxcef) of five of thii addition to the nivy 

expenditure beyond the average debt, and of the expence of the ar- 

income, daring the above peri(>d, mamentin i790,amounutothefiini 

tian amounted annually to a fum ex- of 6, i S i ,670 1. 
ceeding 1/236,3341. . 14. That the extraordinarr re- 

8. That the toul net produce of fonrces, by which this deficiencf 

ibf: public income, upon an average has been luppHed during the above 

of the laft three years (viz. from 6th period, have amounted to the fimi of 

January 17^8, M 5th January 1791, 6,191,1^5 '■ ^"'^ b^ve arifen from 

both inclnfive) lus amounted an- the foUowing articles ; viz. 

nttally, includiqga fifty- third iveek- FrnmrefpiteddntiMpaid 
ly p«ymenti to the fain of in by the Eafl India £. 
i6ie30>z861. comjMay - 532,500 

From 



From arreara of laod-tax ■ £. 

grantcdprior to 1786 151,467 
Ditto Dult - - iftS?; 

f tom liims remaining in 

the Excbeqaer 00 5th 

]zaiiaiy i7S6 - 1,172,119 
Frthnimprell ii>oiues,aDd 

iDCHiiu repaid - 820,165 
Praia money repaid on 

account of advance for 

foreign fccret fervice 34,000 
Fro-n fale of French 

priies - . - 3,000 

From army laviogi and 

Oielfea penfionerr - 1,091,147 
From profit on the an- 
nual lottery - - 1,211,692 
Railed by way of lon- 

Q:ie - - 1,002,140' 

D;«o by granting fhort 

annoitiet - 1 87,000 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [14; 

public income and expenditure dar- 
ing the laft live years, and ajfo to 
report to the hQufc what may be 
expeAed to be the annual amount 
in futyre, ftate the expefled expen- 
diture, upon it permanent peace ef- 
tablifhment, including the annaal 
million to be paid to the commir- 
fionen, at the Turn of 15,969,178!. 
a film exceeding the perniRnent 
peace ellablilhmeni, as Hated by the 
committee of 1786, by 490,997!. 

18. That in the report of the fe- 
le^ commiltee in 1786, the ac- 
counts ire Hated to have been pre- 
pared on a calculation of a perma- 
nent peace - cAablilhmenC towarda 
the end of the year 1 790. 

19. That the felefl committee 
of 1791 ftate no lime when their 
cAimate of a permanent peace cf- 
tabliJhment may be expeAed to 
commence. 

10. That theexpenceof thepre- 
fcnt year, according to the fer- 
vico already voted, and excluliva 
of any extra expence for the prefenC 
armament, will amount to the fum 
of 16,833,9101. or more; exceed- 
ing the permanent peace ellabltlh- 
ment of the feleft comtnittcc of 
1786, by the fum of 1.355-739 '• 
and the enlarged eftinate of the 
committee of 1791, by the fura of 
864,741!. 

21. That the feleA committee of 
1786 calculate the amount of the 
permanent peace eftablilhment, un- 
der the live heads of navy, army, 
or^nnnce, militia, aifl mifcellanc- - 
0U3 fervicea, at 3,91 31274 1, viz. 
Navy . - i,SQO,ooa 

Army - - 1,600,000 

Ordnance - • 343,000 

Militia - - 91,000 

Mifccllancous fcrvices 74>^7l 



^■6,191,105 

[y That from the nature of the 
aniclei which have compofed thefe 
(itraordinary aidi, no Gmilar af- 
tiilanccto any confiderable amount, 
cin be eifpeAed in future, excrpting 
f'om the article of a lottery, Ihouln 
tix legiQature continue to think it 
'iglit to avail itfelf of that expe- 
dient. 

lb. That the felefl comminee, 
ippointed in 1786, to examine and 
ftite the accounts relating to the 
public income and expenditure, and 
w report what might be expe^vd 
^ be the annual amount of the faid 
income and c\-perditure in future, 
luve fiatcJ the expefted future ex- 
p;ndiinrc upon a permament peace 
c.libliihmEiit, including the annual 
""illion to be paid to the commif- 
lioncrs,atthe fum of 15,478,181 1. 

17. That the feleft committee, 
arpointcd in the prtfeni year 1791, 
■0 e.':amine into the amount of the 

Vol. XXXlil. 



[J*^3 



r-3-9'3:,7* 



146] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

12. That tbcfeleftconuiiittKof and the elltmate of 1791. by the 

lygi calcukte the amount of the ftim of 5;8,74it. 

peroianent peace 'clUblifhment, un- 2;. That the feleft cominittee. 

der the fame five heads of navy, eftimating upon in average - of thtr 

»nny, ordnance, militia, and mif^- three lall years, and adverting to 

' ' t 4)347>s69l. the additional week's receipt in 
1790, have calculated the future 

- 2,000,000 probable annual income at the fam 

- 1.748,841 of 16,030,286 l.exdufivc of thepro- 



cetlaneoua ferricei) 



Navy 

Ordnance 
Miiitia 
MifcellaneoDS fervj 



37S'°co 



fitso 



IS I iOi^ 1 6 
i; +.347-569 



lottery 
xG. That the receipt of each cf 
the two bft years appears to have 
conftd^rably exceeded chat fum. 

27. That in the receipt of the 
latter year, the great iccreafe ap- 
exceeding, in thefe live articles, the pears to hare arifen under the head 
«ftiniate of 17S6, by the fmn of ofexctfe; and chat, in the article 
434,295 1. of fpirits and fpirit licences aloni-, 

- 23, That the feledl committee the exceeding in (he receipt of the 
of I70I do not appear to have year 1790, over (he receipt of the 
within their province to year 1786, amoonti to the-fmaof 



thou' 

enquire into, or to liaie any ground 

or necffliiy for fuch incrcafe. 

24. That the funis voted for the 
ferviceof the prefent year under the 



above brad.' 
vifion for thi 
3J follow : 
Navy 

Ordnance 
iVIiltcia 

KIifceIlaneoii5 fervii 
including the fun: 



the 



;.':cecding the eftlmat 



1786 by 
the fam of 1,199,037 1, and the ef- 
limace of 179J, by 864,7421. but 
dedufling tbe fum of 306,0001. of 
the fum voted to the loyalif 



S99'3SS'- . , 

28. That It appears to have been 
highly proper iu the felefl com- 
miitee to calculate, upon an average 

luding no pro- of three yean at leaf!, the future 

armament, arc txpefted income ; at the fame time 

it appears to thii committee, that, 

- 1,131,000 on a rivitw of the whole of the ac- 

- ijSj3,ooo counts, the future income may rea- 
44J,ooo fonaWy be expefled to amount to 

95(3 ■ > t)>c fum cAunatcd by the felefl cotii' 

29. That Hpcn thli eflimate, it 
nppcars that our future income it 
calculated as likely to exceed our 

190,000 future expenditure by the amount 
— ■■■- of 6i,icSI. per annum. 
>i2,3ii Income - - i6,030,2S6 

liKpcnditure - - 15-969178 



Balance ' ^ £• 6i,io£ 

;o. That this balance is wholly 
inadt-rjuatc 10 pr:<vide for thofe e: 



ing to be defrayed by the profits of traordinary cxpences which are 
thelottery, then exceeding the efli- aflually forcfecn and admitted hy 
mateof l78Gbyihefumof(j9-_«j7l. the felcit coinir.iltee ; for,"thoL'"h 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. £147 

the fdeft committee fiale, tbat they 33. "nut Admitting tlic future 

do not conceive that " it falls with- incame ta meet the eftimtted cx* 

in their province to confider whtt penditure, or even fo to incretfe, at 

other extnuirdinary expentxi. not with the ud of a lottery to fatisfy 

included in any eftimate before the above certain extra demuuls, in 

them, may occur in a courfc of the courfe of the five yean next 

years;" yet they AirtherAafe, that cnfuing, yet will the public income 

"the only article of this nature, remain wholly nnequal to afford the 

which ha) been brought diflinftly fmalleft aid to any neur uid uoforcr 

under their view, U the amount of feen demand tKai may arife, rithef 

the money remainiTie due upon the for any armament or any otiier nn- 

principal and interelT of the Ame- fbrefeen contingency within that 

rican and Eaft Florida claims, period, or to fpare the fmalleft fnr- 

^.LT-i. !,_ 1 3r.._n._i 1. — J- pjyj towards tne reduction of the 

unfunded debt, already increafedto 
a degree, and continued at an 
amount, wholly unprecedented in 
time of peace, in the ^nnalt of this 

Hated by them to have amounted, country, 

on loth of Ofiobcr 1790, to 34. That the experience of the 

I,J46,o6zI. exclofive of the intcrcfl three lift years, in the courfe of 

payable on fuch part of it as remains which the une.xpefled and heavy 

unililcharged, and exctufive alfo of expenceof two armaments has been 

further annual payments and pen- incurred and iatisfied, while a third 

fions to American loyaIifls_, amount- remains to be provided for, would 

ing to 54,211]. per annum. render it highly improvident in thij 

31. That befidei this article, fo committee not to advert 10 tjie pro- 

ttated by the committee, it appears bjbility of fimilar eventi jecnr- 

from the ordnance eflimate, inlcrted 'ing, 

in their appendix, that the eiti mate 3;. Th^t the funt Aated by the 

of the future annual expence of that felect committee to have been aAu- 

otGceis, "exdufiveof fuch fumias ally applied to the difcharge ofths^ 



. which has been dire&ed by pariia- 
iiKDt to be paid by inHalments 
and it further appears, that this a 
tide, fo diHin^ly brought to t 
of the feleft 



are contained in the eltimate of the public debt. 



board of land and fca officers, addi 
nonal works for fecurity of his ma- 
jeHy'i dock-yards, and of any other 
fortifications 1 or other new works, 
to be carried on in the Weft Indies, 
North America, or elfewherc, " 
33. That to m(et %heCe heavy 



amdeiof inevitable extra expence, debt < 



from which it is admitted that there 
Ihouid bededu^d the* tontine mil- 
lion increafedon the navy debt; and 
aU>E:r articles of debt coniraAed, to 
the amount of 1,603,539!. leaving s 
bahnce of 3,147,411 1. 

36. That in the account of the 



or the expence attendiBg the prefent 
armameat, or for aay future exceed- 
ing tinder the head of " mifcelh- 
nies," beyond the fum Jaft eftimated, 
the ^A committee refer us to no 
extra re&urce thancanberelifdon, 
bw that of a lottery. 



■afted. 



allowance U 



le for fuch part of the old navy 
debt as now bears intereil, and which 
maft be confidered as additional 
debt ; nor arc the fhort annuitiet 
granted in I789 admitted, alt bo iifl» 
iheinftalment repaid, inftead of be* 
ing paid over to (he compiiltwcr* 

lK}> ■ in 



148] A^NNUAI. REGISTER, 1791. 

for reducing the natioj^l debt, v.'as from the houfe of coipmons, nr.tfl 

applied to ihe ferviccs of lalt year ; the caufes of the fame (hall be ex- 

37. That the annual iiiieri;!! of pUined, and the ncceflt;/ of iliem 
the capital Hr-cfc, ftated to have hcciv made niajiifcft. 

purchafeil by the conimilfloncrs Cut The committee was adjourned to 

reducing the national debt, up to the 6th, when the fobjed was re- 

ihe iftof February i;^!, amouius fumed. Mr. Sht-riJan laid, ihaihe 

to the fum of 203,170 I. from which had endeavoured to fliew, how dif- 

U to be deduced the incieafcd an- lident a finance committee fhould be, 

nual charpe for ths inicttft of the when ihcy witcd to prove, wbai 

tnntinc ]i):in, viz. 42,26:1. kaving would be the probable amount of 

the fum in favour of tlie ccmniil- our f«ture revenue and expenditure. 

Ijoiiers i(jc>,9o31.i and if from this The committee of 1786 fell fliort 

fom a further h-.luiflioii is nude for in their calculations by about 

the iucreafc of in;iTi;i'. on the navy tjoo.ccol.; and a!l th;; accounts 

debt. Hated, firce the report of tha which Mr. Pitt had Inid before the 

IcIt'A committee, to amount to public, year after year, beconEeiv' 

49.S88I. that fum will be reduced to ed lobe fallacioui. He reraarkeiT, 

111,020!. that the committee oF 17 86, with a 

38. That the permanent addition great degree of confidence, had laid 
to the peace eJlaUilhmcnt.IlatM by down a peace eftabUfhment, which 
the fdefi conmiticcc of 1701, as to wa.s to have taken place at the end 
remain on tlie five articles before c- of the year 1790; but that thecom- 
numcratcd, amounts 10434,395 1.; Coj mittee of 1791 tuid added between 
that while an annuity- to the amount 4 and 500,000 1. to that peace ef- 

ii.o^ol. has been redeemed tabliihmc.*, without alledging a 



by the commiffioners on behalf c 
the public, in the form of re-pur- 
chiifing debt, an annuity of four 
times that amount is propo' 



ailed o 



tlie narit 



11 the form 



lOf incieafed eI'LabliCiniaii! 

39, That upon due confideraticn 
of the report made this day from 
the committee of the whole houfe, 
to whom the contideration of the 
report from the t.-lc,5l committee of 
1791 was referrsd, and ajfo upcn 
CO 11 fide ration of ths tivo reports of 
1791 and 1786, and of the fweral 
accounts before the houfe relative to 
the public income and expenditure. 

' it appears proper and necefTary to 
declare, that the great incrcafes 
propofcd to the permanent peace 
clliblifiimcnt in the report of 1791, 
oonht not to be confiJcred as .e- 
cciviu^ countenance or <i.pprubn.;ion 



fmgle reafon for fo confiderable a 
increafe. 

Mr. Pitt obferved, that ti would 
be unrcafonable, becaufe the com- 
niiitees of 17S6 ?nd of 1791 had 
diH'cred rcfpefting the amount of 
the peace ellablilhmcDt, to place no 
confidence in any eftimate whatever. 
It was not he thought extraordinary, 
that tlie committee of 1701, per- 
ceiving fcveral particulars, 10 which 
the committee of J7B6 had fcilcd, 
{liould have made provillon for that 
failure in future; nor was fuch 
trifling miAakes 19 be wondered at, 
as the committee of 1 7S6 was the 
firft in the_ hirtory of this coun- 
trj', which had been ap'pointcd to 
alccriain the whole of the peace ef- 
tabliflimpnt. 

Mr. Slitfrid Ill's firft rKolution was 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [149 

msnt. The fecond waa negatived, taws, upon an average of the firft 

llie third and fourth pailetl witK two yenn (tI/.. 17^6 and 1787) 

ajDcndments. amouncrd to it,z95^63l., ijcin^ 

On the foRowin^ day the com- 501 SaSl. Ids than the fum elii- 

mittee took under its confidcration mated. 

Mr. Sheridan's remaining refola- *■ That tlie prmjuce of the fatd 

tions, of whick t)ie iticti pad'^^d tn>rc5, upon an avcrnge of the fiill 

wichoat any alteration ; the iiih, three years, (viz. 17S6, 1787, and 

i7ih. aoih, 2jd, ijth, and 3ctli 178S) amounted to 12,468,091)-. 

faffed with various amendments; b^ing 319,379!. tefs than the fnm 

ilie rejl were either negatived, or eflimatrd. 

withdrawn. " That the produce of the faid 

On the 8th the following report, taites, upon an average of the firft 

containing the refolutions of Mr, four years, (viz. 1786, i787i 

Sheridan, which had paSed accord- i788> and 178^) amounted to 

nig to tlie above ftatenKoi, with '1.653,537!., being 143,93^,!. left 

feveral others, moved in addition by than the fum eflimaced. 

Mr. Pitt and his friends, was re- " That the produce of the faid 

ceived by the cotamltlee, and a- taxes, upon an average of five years, 

greed to. (viz. 1786, 17S7, 1788, 1789, and 

" Refolved, That it appears that 1790] amounted to ia.S79,}o8I. 

the kle& comintitee of 1786 pro- being 81,837!. more than the fum 

ceedcd upon a fuppofition that the eftimated. 



annual and permanent taxes then 
fublilling v/tre likely to produce 
annually the Incn of 1 5,39714-7 1 1. 
viz. the land tax 1,967,6501. the 
malt duty 632,350!., and theperma- 
oeot taxn 11,797,471 !. 

" Relblved, That it appears, by 
the report of the felefl cooiniitiee of 
1791, that the produce of the&id 
permanent taxes, in the year 1786, 
was 11,836,551 1., being ltd by 
960,9401. than the fumeitimated— lum 
in the year 1787, 11,754,7951., 
being lets by 42,676!. than the laid fatd 
fum— in the year 1788,1 1,8) 2,952). 



E bv 1 



That the produce of the faid 
taxes, upon am average of the laSf 
four years, (viz, 1787, 1788, 
17S9, and 179c] amounted to 
13,140,002!., being 342,531!. mc<re 
tlian the fum ellimatcd. 

" That the produce of the faid 
taxei, upon ali average of the laft 
three years (viz. 1788, 1789. and 
1790) amounted to 13,268,405 1., 
being 470,934). more than the 
fum eftimated. 

And that the produce oFthe 

[axes, upon an average of the 

(viz. 17B9 and 1790) 



i). than the amounted to 13,496,132!.. bew 

....-- .-a- £»D £^.1 »A... *u^- J\.^ r..-. ^iiz 



1789. 

13.209,871 1., being more by 
412.400!. tlian the laid fum— and 
in the year 1790, 13,782,393!., 
being more by 984,922!. than the 
(aid fum, including 193,000!. being 
the amount of one Jihy-third week- 
ly payment. 
" That the produce of the faid mount 
t«l3 



698,661!. more than tae fum elti- 
mated. 

" Refdvcd, That in this calcu- 
lation, the felea committee of 1791 
have adverted to all the additional 
impofitions whicli ought to have 
Ixen dedufled from their eAimatCt 
except tobacco licences, which ■• 
'hole to 8i,753l.t 
and 



ijol 



ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



And th&c they have made do allow- by tontine, &nd of 187,0001. ntifed 

Mact fos the diminution arifiog by Ihorc annuities, 

from the excmptionj allowed in the " Refolved, That, over and a- 

horfe ULX> or for the i^^^ o{ the bove the Tumi granted for the fup- 

lax upon linens and Huns. plies, there appears to have been 

" Rcfolved, That no complete an increafe in the navy debtwithio 

account csh yet be given of the the faid period, which is ftated as 

produce of the land and tnalt taxes ^57,950 !. and an arrear incurred 

for the lall five years i ki the ordnanse, under the iiead 

" That the net produce of the of Unprovided, to the amount of 

hod tax appears liable to no mate- 61,9091.] and that the deficienc/ 

rial variation from year to year,, of grants of the year i79oexceeds 

■nd may be Ibted at 1,971,0001., tfiac of the year 17S5 by the Turn 

l>eing 5,0001. more than tiie fum of 80,^901. 

eftihiated; " Rcfolved, That the fum voted 

•^ That the net produae of the for defraying the expence of the 

malt tax in the years 1786, 17S7, armament of 1790, and for die 

tnd 17S8, appean to have been diarge of 6,000 addldona) feamca 

upon an avverage 597,171 1. being for the fervice of the prefert year 

35,1791. tefs than the fum eAi- { amounting to 3,133,0001.) is not 

stated. , included in 'the above account ; 

" Refofved, That it appears, by but tliat a feparate provifion has 
the report of the feleft committee been made for difciiarging tha 
Af 1791, that the total amount of lame, independent of the future in- 
ijtit inceraft nnd charges of the pnb- come of the country, as eftiroaicd 
licdebt, and of the fums iffued fof by thecommitteeof 1791. 
the reduilion thereof, of the charges " Refolved, Tliat the felcfl com- 
upon the aggregate and confolidat- mictee appointed in 17E6 to ex- 
edfund, and of the iums granted for amine and Hate the accounts relato 
the fupplies (including the defi- ing to the public income and ex- 
ciencies of 'land and malt, the defi- pendicurc, and 10 report what might 
ciency of grants for the year 1785, be expefled tobetheanirualamounC 
and the amount of the prices in the of the faid income and expenditure 
lottertci of tlie feveral years, with in future, have ftaied the expefled 
the charges attending them) has future expenditure upon a perma- 
beert, - during the laft live year;, nent peace eftabiilhment, including 
{8,116,916!.; and that the whole the annual million to be paid to 
of the above charges (except the the commilTioneTS, at the fum of 
fum of 207,000!., which remained 15,479,1^11- 
to be provided for in the prefenc " Refolved, That the felefl corn- 
year, under the head of deficiency miltee, appointed in the prefent 
of grants) has bpen defrayed by year 1791 to examine into the a- 
the produce within the (aid five ipount of the public income and 
years of tlie permanent taxes, by expenditure during the laS fiva 
the annual aids on land and malt, years, and alfo 10 report to the 
aod by the fums ariline from ex- houfe wh^i m.ty be expefled to be 
traordinary refources, with the ad- the annunl amount in. future, llato 
4itioDofalo9iiof oneinilliqiTaired the expe>^sd expenditure, upDn 4 

pernMine()t 



HISTORYOF EUROPE. [151 

IKfouoent peace efliUifhment, in- tlie pntnancDC peace efUblifliment 

duding the annual million to be of the THcA committee ori786by' 

paid CO the commifli oners, at the the fum of 1,355.739!. — and the 

(am of 1^.969,1781. which is ex- enlarged eflin^nie uF the commictee 

ciuSve of the fumof iz.ooal. Cnce of 1791 by (he fum of 864,741 1. 1 

c'lnrced on the confolidatcd fund but that there is included in the 

far the payment of an annuity to above fum of 864,7421. an excefs 

liii royal highnefs the duke cf CJa- of 1 3 Ij40S 1. npon the navy, which 

E^ncc; and xiisx the above fum ex- is more than accounted for by the 

«edj the pemianent peace eiiabliih- fum voted for the repairs of fri- 

Mni, as 'ftated by the committee gates in m:rchant> yardi. which 

of 1786, by 490,997]. of which ex pence will not recur again— and 

42i203l, is on account of the in- an excefs of 107,484!. upon the 

ctcafe in the interell and charges of army, which is more than account- 

ihe nauooa] debt; 2,oooL on ac-- ed f»r by no allowance being made 

coant of the interell -on excheqaer in the grants of this year for army 

iitlls; 14^^91, OB the diffijrence in favings, fimilar to that which u 

Recharges on the aggrrgaie and made in the efti mates of 1786 and 

confoJidated funds, and of the pro- i79i,andby an advajiceof 71,5691. 

wKe of tha appropriated duties ; on account of troops ferving in lo- 

iM.oool. in the navy; 1,148,84.2!. dia, which is to be repaid by the 

mtheanny; zy.oool. in the ord- Eaft India company — and an excefs 

iwcej 4,311 t. in the militia; and of 68,676!. upon the ordnance, of • 

;4<i42L in the mifcellaueous ler- which 61,9^71. arifes from the 

^''^•^s- difcharge of ordnance onpro- 

- " Refotved, That the exceeding vided, and alfo, an excefj of 

lathe eltimate Itated by the com- 557,177). ander thehcadof mifcel- 

nitteeof i7gi,on the live heads of lancousfervices, of which 432,444!. 

s^'y, army, ordnance, militia, and 1» on acconnt of American fuffer- 

"lilcellaneous fervices, above the ers, an article of expence exprefsly 

eftunaie ftaied by the committee of excluded from the eftimates above 

■ 7G6, OS the fame live lieads, a- mentioned, and the remainder on 

"tnints to th« fum of 434,2951, account of various tnifce!laneous 

" Refolved, Tliat the leleiS com- fervices peculiar to the prefent year. 

mittee of 1791 do rot appear to " Rclolved, That the fcieftcom- 

wye thought St their duty to in- mittce, eftimatihg upon an averagn 

Soire into, or to ftate any opinion of the three laft years, and advert- 

™p<&ii^ the ground or neceflity ing to the additional week's receipt 

wfuch increaie, under t^e above in 17901 have cJculaied the future 

heads of fenice, the ellimates and probable annual income at the fum 

»=TOilni3 of which come annually of 16,030,286!. which exceeds tho 

■"Mr the revtIJon of parliament. future expenditure, as eftimated by 

" Relblved.That the expence of tJie faid committee, by a finn of 

'"SpEcfent'year, according to the 61,108 1— that the above income 

'"^'ces a'ready voted, and exclufive is calculated upon a revenue which 

•"'nyextracxpencefor the prefent appears to have been progreffively 

snnament, will amount to about increafing, and is exdufive of any 

(nftunof 16,83 j,9jql. exceeding addition to be expefted from the 

[Ji] 4 ameuat 



JS^\ ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

amoant of the »Ke5 of 1789, or 3>8iz,oo5l.; and that the annul in* 
from the increafcd produce of the tereft on the ftock bought, and the 
dutiej on tobacco — and likewife ex- prefent amount of the annaitin en- 
clufive of the proliis of the lottery, pired or unclaimed, appears to be 
which amounted in the prtrTent year 154,804!.: in addition to the mil- 
nearly to 300,0001. and ofany fumi lion aiinoally charged on the con- 
to ^Tife from any incidental or ex- folidaied fund." 
traordinary refources. When the report of thcfe refolu- 
" Refolved, That the money re- tions was made to the honfe, Mr. 
maining due upon the principal Sheridan moved his own refoluiions, 
and intercft of ilie American and in order to have tliem entered upon 
EalV Florida claims, which has the joumaU ; and the minilter put 
been dircflcd by parliament to be the previous qneflion on each of 

fiaid by inftalments, is ftated to them, except the laft. This mode 

:ave amounted, on 10th Oftober of getting rid of them, inllcad of 

179D, to 1, 546,0621. exclulive of negativin;; them, wai confidered by 

the intereil payable on fuch port of Mr. Sheridan as an implied admif- 

ic as remains undifcharged, and ex- lion of his h£ts. WIkd he came to 

clufive a!ro of farther annual pay- the laft, which was a relblutioa 

ments and penfions to American of inference, he altered the pre- 

loyalills, amounting to Sf.ziil. amble a little, lb as to make it ap- 

per annum. ply to the miniiler's refolutions, that 

" Refolved, That, befidesthisar- day received by the houfe j and in 

tide fo Hated by the c^-nroittec, it that fliape it was moved and nega- 

appears, from the ordnance eilimate tived. 

infcrted in the appendt.x, that the Therewaiof courfemuchdebatei 
ettimate of tneir fiiture annual ex- and muchconverfationoa thedifler- 
pence of diat ofHce is exclusive of ent points contained in the oppolite 
fuch Turns as are contained in the fcts of refolutions, dnrinz the va- 
eftimaie of the board of land and rious days which this fabje£t txcu. 
fea ofiicei'] for additional works for pied. We have however conceived 
fecurity of his majefty's dock-yards, it unneceflary to preferve in any de- 
and of any other fortifications, or gree all that was faid, a> the merfts 
other new workj, 10 be carried on of the quellion between the two 
in tlie Well Indies, North AmciiOa, contending parties may bed be col- 
or elfewhere. Itfted from the fitfls and inferences 

" Ri;lblvcd, That during the laft propofed on the one fide, and thofe 

five years, the fum of 5,424,591!. carried on the other, in the form of 

includirAg 67'4,;92i. ari&ng from refolutions of the hoafc. Itwas the 

annuities expired or unclaimed, undoubted ohjcft of Mr. Sheridan, 

and from dividends on ftock bought, by taking the method wi.ich he por- 

hai been applied to the rcdui^iion filed, to have his fentiments dearly 

of the national debt ; that the fums and explicitly flated on record. Mid 

by which the debt bus been in- the minifter profeileJ fairly to join 

creafed within the fame period, iCue. Bui the events that followed on 

appear, by the report of the felefl the continent, and ultimately drew 

commiii'.;e, to ktve amounted to Great Britain into the prefent war, 

1,601,589!. leaving a balance of have nowput an end altogether to 



HJ STORY OF EUROPE. £153 

this dirpate, which related chiefly to ed with accounts from each, fhcwing 

the balance of our permanent income the vuhok receipt and expenditure for 

and ezpcndirare in a lime of peace, three years, on which he could ltiil:e 

and the probable diminution of the an average, and alfo with a f oai- 

natioiul debt, under the plan of parifon of tlic elliinaced and a^ual 

Mr. Piit, without new taxes. receipt and expenditure for the Jaft 

While the finance* of our own year, which might fcrve as a teft of 

coimtry were undergoing thi» full the reliance to be placed on thofc 

and accante difctkffion, another fob- eftimatcs, n'hence alone the balancr 

jeft of the feme kind was, accord, of the current year mull always of 

ing to a. late wife regulation, nccelTity be calculated. This mode 

brought forward hy Mr. Dundas, of keeping; the company's account! 

who opened the lodian budget on was ceitainly a great improvement' 

the z^th of May. After much cor- in the adminiflration of their affairs ; 

itfpondence with the feveral prefi- and the profpefl which thts clearer 

denciei,hawasatlength,for theiiril Infight into their real fituatjon af- 

timcenabledtoftnteihercvenuesof forded, was proporrionably pleaf- 

our Oriental polTeflions from fone- ing. Mr. Dundaa laid before the 

thing like a regular account. Hi- houfe, with very few accompanying 

therto he bad been obliged to make o'.fervations, a variety of papers, 

out nther an eAimate than an ac- which contained the following ge- 

couDt, from a number of detached neral information relative to the 

account) fent home by the feveral Indian finances. 
prefidcDCtcs. He was now rumlih- 



ACTUAL REVENUES 1^17851-90. 



Sterlin-. 

carrent mpeei s,63,c6,56i - jf .5,610,656 

pagoda* - 3i>39<>>9 - i.iSS-^oS 

fiondny - rupees - n^z^o$ - 167,319 

Total Revenue* - ■ - - 7,043,783 



Bcnnl 

Madras 



ACTUAL CHARGES of 17S9-90. 

Bengal - - current rapees 3,12,01,486 - ^f .3,120,149 
Madra* - pagodas - 43-47.537 - >.739'0'i 

Bombay - mpees - 4S,03,685 - SS7.1>o 

£■ S.4>6'27+ 



Total 



154] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



Total revenuci, as above 
A£laal charges, as above 



EKpenccs of Bencooten and Pin 



- 7.0+3.783 
• S'4i 6.274 



1,617.509 
43-944 



Net revenues - - 1,587,765 

It of import faJei, and of certiGcatt) 263,940 



Cedua intcrclt on fhc debt 
Surplus revenue 



«. 8+7 -SO 5 
438426 



Mr. Dundat expreffed a convic- 
tion, that the day'iias much nearer, 
when the rerourcei of India would 
furnifh affiftance to this country, 
than when tbij country would be 
obliged to lend her aid and fupport 
to India. 

He candidly nentioncd one fiift, 
which i[ fi-ems a debt of juftice to 
Mr. Fox to notice. In the month 
of November 17SJ, when the 
latter pentlrman moved his cele- 
brated India bill, lie efiiraated the 
debts of the company at nearly ten 
million!, while the company tliem- 
ielves rated their debts at only four 
millians ; but in truth Mr. JDundas 
laid, before the year 1785, they 
aflually did owe above tea n.-i!- . 
lions. 

An inclination was. Ihewn by fc- 
veral mcmbars to controvert fotne 

eirts of the ilatement made by Mr. 
undas. Mr. Bcnfield in particu- 
lar gave notice of a motion on the 
fabje^t. He meant to have pro. 
pofcd the inftitaiion of a committee 
10 examine (he p.Tpers and accounts j 
but Kc afterwards u'aived 



Jequencc of ihe late period of the 
fvffioii. which, he thought, would 
h.udly alloiv time fcr a report. The 



principal oiijeftions to the Indian 
budget were, that the expences of 
the evifdng war with Tippoo Sul- 
tan did not appear, and that no coo- 
fideraiiun wa* had of ihe company's 
cbcumltances at home, and nn ac- 
count given of the encreafe or de- 
creafe of their debts and property 
here, without which the true fuua- 
tion of their afiUirs could not ' be 
feen. This latter obje£tion was ad- 
mitted ; but it was anfwered that the 
account of the territorial revenues 
was the only fubjeft of thatday, and 
net the commercial concemi or ge- 
neral condition of the company. 
Mr. Dunda:! moved, and carried 
without a divifion, nincieen rcfolu- 
tioifs, to the effeft of the ftatcment 
which has been given above, 

Towardsthe concluTion of the fcf- 
fiou fir Gilbert Elliot endeavoured 
to obtain an exemption from the 
teft aft in fevour of the members of 
the Scottifh church. — His motioii 
wai negatived bv a majority of 87, 

On the 27th of May Mr. Shcij- 
(3an brought forward his promifed 
motion, relative to the internal go- 
vernment of the r0y.1l burghs cf 
Scotland; in the con li J e rati on <■>• 
whjch fu''jcil, tlic hojlc rcfclvi-d 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [jj5 

"to proceed early in the next fef- tunei ; and in this view the bill wai 
,£oD. necelTary to t^em. It wasoppoTed, 
The laft legiflatire raeaTare which bot feebly and ineffeauaUy, by Tome 
paffid [he hoafe, was a bill creating few of the Weft Indian inccrell in 
ttiE Eftablifhmeat of a company "at the hoafe ; and pafled on the 30th of 
Sierra Leone on the coaft of Africa, May, by a conliderabic majority, 
fer the purpofe of cultivating Weft The delign was undoubtedly good 
Indian and other tropical produC- and laudauble, bat the fucc'efs does 
tioni. A fettlemeot had. been at- not promife to be eqoal: at bell it 
tempted on the fame fpot fome few ftill hangs in fufpence. 
years beforcj and a finall diftridi TheleiTtonwaaailengthooncIad- 
was pofchafed from one of the native ed on the lOtli of June, by a fpeceh 
princet; buttheproJeA had entirely from the throne; in which hismajelty 
failed, and not a trace of the feitlers exprefled his particular acknow- 
rEinaincd. This mifcarriage how- ledgments for the meafures which 
ever did not prevent fome adven- hadbeenadoptedindefr.iyingtheex- 
t[irers,ofhQmaneand benevolent in- pences of' the year, in fuch a man. 
teniiona, from reviving the fche'me ner as not to make any permanent 
on a larger fcalc, and with a greater addition to the public bunltens ; and 
capital. Their objefl was to abalifh likewife fjf the provifion* which 
the flave trade, by promoting the had been made for tlie good go- 
gradual civilizatMn 6f Africa, and vernment of Canada. His majelly 
encoaraeing a" commerce there in alTurcd parliaaitiit, tliat he was not 
ihe articles of coffee, cotton, and fa- yet enabled to acquaint them with 

S;ir ; which Mr. Dn-aynes, who had the refulc of the fteps which he had 

ongrefided there, afftrted, from hb taken to re-eftablifti peace between 

ownknowledge.togrOwalmoftfpon- Roffia and the Pone ; but hoped, 

taneoufly in many parts not fir from that this important objeEl might be 

Sierra Leone. At the fame time etFefluated in fuch a manner as not 

they thought it prudent to limit to dillurb the general tranquillity 

their rifle to their refpefUve Ihares, ' of Europe.— Parliament was then 

widiDQt involving their whole for- prorogued to the 16th of Au^ull. 



CHAP. 



156] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



CHAP. VIII. 

&i:fra! fmcij!tmfieit»f the Ncrib Jariug thtyean fjgoanj 1791. Scmrp/ir- 
ricttUii if Ibt d*alb md ckara^fr of the Siafenr Jeftpb tht SeettiJ, 

HaMrhf ictiamial (ram the Hungarian nahilily, a /4vi}vieel!S btfcrt ihc deaib 
tf tit Emperer. TMr refui/rtifm in gtmral granted ; bt/ilaiioit at to tht 
rtjlititli»n efthi nyal ertwn of Hungnrjl ; •wi>icb,bvwl^er,il rcftored a /ie-vi 
4eys iefme tht dtath tfthe im^irer, mid leai-ved ttiiib an txtra-vagsnct nf 

jef. l^spcld, Griauliiuke of Tii/cany, tuhnfiuceed' ta the Aufirian hindilarf 
dvniaioni, arrivfs at Vienna. Critical fialt of CtrmoHy. Di^cuhiis and 
raitarra£Meiils ef Lnopiid, tbrough thi miJiandaB ef bit prtdea£ar. Statet 
liaiU la tt mare imnudiately prejudicid er tndangirtd by a partition ef the 
Ottamam de/EiuioTu. Gnat abjeJlt in vitvi luitb the Prajfian aUianre, ta 
iriitg Aiiftria to a feparate peace •t^ilb thi Porte, Obftinacy rf Jejeph, an 
tbit liead, bad beta an tht pcint ofdraiaiKg ok an inmediate 'war. Leopold 
aiider a lut^ty of appearing fsr Jime lime to perfevere la ibe/atnejjifieiit. 
King ef Pmjpa'l tondua '■Jiilb rcjpiii la Poland. Leopald jhackUd, in hit 
iinduff tuith Pruffia, by maxy peculiar circuixjlar.cet, from 'whicb hii fre- 
deceJIar had keen free. OffiJifinie Ond defeajyue alliaace ittxaeen Pruffia and 
tht Pent itcrcajti Leopald'i di^cultiei. Campaign tptntd am the Datttile. 
Orfiua tokens Ginrgciuo bcjiiged, and WidJin menaced. Gtn. T'barx dt' 

fialtd and killed, and the fiege of Giurgeixe precipitately abandoned. ^rmi~ 

fict #1 tht Damihe. Congrcfs at Rcicbeiitaib, and caniienthaaJ treaty cou~ 
ttsidid htttiicea the Kingt of Hungary and PruJJiaj under the mediation and 
gaai-anlet if Great Briiaia and Hallaad. Seme pariieitlars af ihit treaty, 
tsbiib TcUe-vti Leopold fnm all bit digiialliet. Death of tbi ctkbraltd 
Mar/hal Laudobn, Inltrmarriaget ietieetn ibe royal hatifet af Aufiria and 
Xe^lei^ Ferdinand, Leopold' 1 ftccnd fin,having pre'vioufly abiained the grand 
doihy cfTiiJcanj. Dijealioal, faeiiens, and aifra^iint in Hungary, luilh 
cbiir eaujel. Defigm to tbra^ji aff the Aafirian doriiinion. Firm, temperate, 
aiid judicious conduit 0/ Leopold. Rffufes tojign Zi,aitiiUi predated to him. 
Di:l, fitting at Bada, rtprtftnt their confiituiionUl right to be con/ulttd, anj 
the uccrfpiy cf iktir cancarrntce, 10 render iiaJid anj quefiiont af toar or peace. 
lurapold nufcnii to their fending deputies ti a^fi at tbtir xgacialiont ivith the 
Parte. Vmifiial cancuirenei of circaajtnncei rukich tended tofriifirale the 
ditfigm efthe mcdcontents in Hungary. Farther aceouaf of the facliont and 
fariies •which diiiided that country. AVitr diploma prejentid to Leopold for 
iii ateeptance prcvieut to the ceronaiian, firmly rejected hy him. Leopold 
^atd king af the Rcmant, and crev:nrd Emperor at Frankfort. ArmijlKe, 
utder the mediation if the Pruffian tninijlcr, concluded in tht Grar.d Fizir't 
tamp at Siiifirrai and cangreft appailUed at Sijioviafar negacialing a peace. 
Kpta Emperor arrivei at Pnji^irgb. Met by the diet. Stales cbaefe the 
Jrch-duie Leopold to be Palatine of tht kingdom. Coranation. The Em- 
peror grants, asfavaart, thcfe eonditioni 'which he rejeiled at demaadi; and 
gains the afferent cf tht 'whale nation. Extraordinary change, tuiihin a 

j'iK inci'l.:, ia Leopild't eireumjlatuej. Eaperer rtfiorti the r^blt, pri- 

""iligft 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [157 

•Oikgti, Mid rBufiituti^ef ibt "MllaiKji,^ vahicb they iitrt J^ivtJ ij JW 
fipli, EnUrga lit imnumUui graattd te tht Jenvt. Dtfniii-ve trtMty ^ 

ftate tcacludiii tt Sijtevis viiib the Oticauin taru, uMiUr tbt mttliaiirm ^ 
tht tir^ tdiiiJ fovim. 

THE plealing event, which re- dangerona flate in which he was l« 

a.li'zed the benignarit hopei leave his dominions ; and, probably, 

exprefled hy the king in ciliing through bitter rcfle^irmt on lu« 

kave of his parliameiit, we are now oivn condudt. by whidi thejr had 

to relate^— Bat a« the bleftin^a of tn-eo thus unhappily involved : thi* 

peace were ^"adually diffused ov«r indeed. was conrirmcd, as weJJ far 

iheNonh, and as we ouiitted the fcveral ciicumlUnccs, as by expref- 

whole of this fubjeft in the hillorjr fions wliich Ijarft from himfcif w 

ofthe preceding year, we mul liere diilcrentagoiii«iiigpan)>-yfnis. The 

furiueher progrefe, dep bv ftep, to former circiimli.tnceinducct! himtn 

Germany, Sweden, and kftly in the wilhanlently fora few wcdtslem^t» 

prclent year 10 Rullia. - life.inUiehopeihathemigltt beaiu* 

One great obfiacle to Uie tjuiet of in (bme degree to fettle and compofe 

Germany was removed by the death puUicafTairslwfore he left the world, 
of die Gmpcntr Jofeph the Second, In this melancholy fUtc, his di-aib 

tthichmarked the commencement of was probably fomcwhac acc'Jrra«4 

the year 1790. Hislong and grievous by a heavy_ private calamity, which 

illnefs, frequently attended with ex- went to his heart, and deeply ei»> 

treme bodily torment, rendered the bittered hi.; lalt moments. Thii 

|tave,ifnota weicome,atleaIlane- was the ur.cxpefted death cf his be- 

ceilaryrefa^cfromafttuationafthc bvrd niece, the arch-duchefi Lii- 

greatell nulery. Hcfaced the ap- cabeth,cci.rottof hisncphew Fra«- 

proiche* erf' death like a Chriftian ; cis whom, we have heretoFbic fcai. 

anlhadihc magnanimiiy to o.'der a he had intended to pcopofc to the 

prefcnt often tnou&ind florins to the elc&oral college as king of the Ro- 

phylician who had the courage to ac- mani, and confeqaently his fucccr- 

qnaint Um, not only with the iui- for in the empire. This princcTs 

poffihility of his recovery, but that was of the hoafe of Wirtemberg, 

hi; dillblulion was hoady to Lc ap- and. Htler to the graad-dudiefs dE 

prehendcd; and that, from the na- Ruffia. jofeph ftlt the greater 

tare of his diforder, the &tal (Iroke intereft in her favour, from her hav- 

>'ai liable to be fo fudden as not to ing been chofen by himfelf, on ac- 

afford a moment's previous notice, count of her many excellent qoali- 

He, however, lingered fevera! days tiesj to be the wile of his nephew, 

after this predidion, and nnder tiiis H^ accordingly regarded her with 

hard fenlence ; during which time a confiant and truly paternal affcc- 

he tranfafled as much bufincfs as tion ; and flie became. By tr.any dc- 

wai well poflible in his condition, grecs, the greateft favourits witi 

and figacd a number of aifpatchei. him of his whol: family. The ai- 

Death was rendered more than ufu- tachment was mutual, as the event 

ally i^kfome upon this occafion, nnfortunaiely Ihewed. Forlhcarch- 

tiiroagh the heart-felt fenfe which duchcfs bcinj then, for the fir* 

he emertained of the dilUafled and itma, great \vith child, and the time ' 

of 



158] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

ofpartdritionftpproaching, but not death; preffing his hand with a 

amved, Ihe was To deeply ftnick by fervoar which cauld not have beert 

the dtfmol fituAion of the empc- inugtned, confideringhii weaknefs; 

ror. whom Ihe conltantly attended, and telling him at the Tsme time, 

and by the evident figni of ap- that he truflcd in him for the de- 

prtachtngdiilblutiaii,which(he too fence and prefervatton of his do* 

well perceived, that her afFeflions, minion;. 

thus violently moved, brought on a A few weeks befoFC his death, 
premature labour ; in which fitua- and when he was in fuch a Hate iliat 
tior, though the infant, a daughter, few, probably, who were not blind- 
'furvived. the prince fs unhappily ed by aifeflion^ entertained any 
loft her life. The emperor was To hope of hit recovery, he received 
contionatly nreent in his enquiries a very haughtv memorial from the 
about the health of the arch-du- Hungarian nobility, in which they 
chefs, that there was no poffibility made the following demands, h\ 
of concealing this fatal llroke from very high terms: — The reKoration, 
torn. His grief and anguifh were in the moft ample manner, of their 
£> extreme as to exceed all defcrip- antient rights and privileges — the 
tioo : and he continued momenta- return of the royal crown of Hun- 
lily growing weaker and worfe, gary, which had been removed 
from the Tnurlday on which the from their capital to Vienna, after 
died, until the fucceeding Saturday the death of Maria Therefa — that 
Feb. 20th ■"""''"S' wl"*" he expir- the people ihould be at liberty to 
' ed, between five and fix lay by the German, and to refume 
79^- o'clock, ID the 49th year of their old native drefs — and, that all 
Us age. . public afii Ihould be kept and re- 
He clofed his life with greatligns corded either in the Latin <»- the 
of piety and contrition ; and cer- Hungarian language, inftead of the 
tainly fett, with the ucmoll poig- German, as was now the praOtce. 
■ancy, the difordcrs which had On a compliance with thele reqni- 
fpruag up, and the mifchiefs which fitions, the noble Huns promired, 
bad Ipread to fo wide an extent, on their part, to defend the 
under hi; government; whether he kingdom to the lall drop of their 
attributed them to the real caufe or blood, and to fupply the empe- 
not. He was almoft conftanily at- ror'i armies in general with every 
tetulcd, by day and by night, dur- neceflary which tlieir counuy pro- 
kig the tatter and iiopelels (lage of daczJ. 

bis illnefs, by his two favourite The reception which this memo- 
generali, the Marfhals Lacy and rial met from Jofeph fuAiciently 
Laudohn, and even very conftantly Ihewed how much nis difpofition 
by old Marihal Haddick, notwith- was changed, and how greatly 
Sanding his great age ; and he public and private calamity had 
&eined, on different occafion?, par- tended to foften his. temper. With- 
ticubrly alfeflcd by the thoughts of out any contment upen* the Ian- 
parting from his old military tViends guage or manner of the memorial, 
and companions. He took leave' Hccomplicd wlththegrcaterpart of 
of Laudohn in the moft af^eftionate the requilition! j anil about three 
aiqnner a feiv hotus before hi* weeks before fats death confirmed 

thefc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ijj 

^efeconceffionsbyapoblicdftcrM. the time was paft, ud never after 

Of all hu late regulatioiu, he referv- recovered ! 

ed only three article;, eflablilhing n The crown, with the reft of the 

general ^deration, providing for the regalia of Hur^ary, was not, bow- 

Aippott of the parochial churches and ever, feat off Irom Vienna, until > 

clergy onl of the revenues of fome very few days before the empcror'i 

fupprefTed monafteries, an^ fecuring death ; fo tlia; thcfe precious relklu 

a degree of liberty to the peafamry. ofantiquity, which thnt people rated 

Hisdircriminaiioninretainingthcle, at fo ineAimable a value, did not 

perhipt did himno lefs honour than arrive at chsir ancient capital of 

hij bcillcy in yielding all the lel^. Buda, until the day after bii de- 

Hc feemcd, however, ftill to linger, ceafe. The joy of the Huogarians 

ai to the relloraiion of the mya\ upon this occaiion was abnoll be- 

crown, in a manner which did not yond credibility. Tridmphalarcbe* 

redoand much more to bis credit, were ereflcd in all the towns thro' 

than the fhameful feizure of it had which the cavalcade palTed; and 

done in the firft inftance. For ive not on]y the common people ailem- 

are to bear in mind, tijat he never bled every where in prodigiow 

bad worn that crown as a king crowds to receive it, but were k- 

nbich he feizid as a robber. The companied bv all the neighbouring; 

arfjitrary projeGs with which his nobility; anil fe(}ivityr.r;3 joy were 

head was ever teeming, had prc~ fpread throu^^h the coumrv. 

vented him, during the long period Towards the clofe of the pre- 

of time which elapfed fince the de. ceding year, the emperor feemed 

ceafe of his mother, from ever oh- to liften not unfavourably to fbne 

laining a legal or formal polTcflion oi'ertmes of peace which were made 

of that noble kingdom, by the ufual by the Ottomans. He even pro* 

and necelTary forms of a coronation, pofed the alTembling of a con- 

bccauf.' he would not be botind by grefs at Bucharell to conduft the 

the eft abliibed capitulations or com- negociation^i and as a proof of hi* 

paftj between the fovereign and the bting ferious in lliis hufmefs, be 

people, which were the conditions immediately difpatchcd enprclles to 

mpon which he was to receive tlie London, Pnris, and Berlin, to ac- 

crown. quaint thefe powers with the pro- 

Bui his rpirit was now (o broken poOib and iicm^ndt offered and 

down, and his former projects ap- made, as alfo with the intended ecn- 

peared fo vain, and were, in ihe grefs ; at the fame time he nrmi- 

cffeAs which they produced, fo ex- naTcd the barons Herhat and Thu- 

ceedinglv unfortunate and ruinous, gut, with M. Walburg.fecrctaryof 

that at \he time of paOin^ the de- the court, to proceed to Suchareft 

ereewe have meniioned in favour onhisp.irt. The I'mprefs of RuT' 

of the Hungarians, he bound him' fia to9 fcnt inllrufHons to prince 

fclf by a voluntarv promife, that if Potemkin, at Jaily, containmg a% 

he were alive in tne enfuing month once h^ categorical demands, anl 

ef May, and was at all able to un- ibc w.is alio in treaty with Sweden ; 

derffo ibc fatigue, he would pro- but about the period of Juleph't 

cved to that kingdom for the deaththekftlingerin^hapeofpeocf 

p^rpoCe of being orowned. But was known to have vanished. 

7 tt's 

LH.-reMyCoO'^lc 



i6o} ANNUAL REGISTER, lygu 

We have fo faWy detailed the as if TntendiDg to reftrainthe effcA 

conduA ii\6. aflions of this prince of dirpofitions To pcraicious an£ 

in our foioner yolumes, from the dangerous to mankind, had throivn 

lime of tus iLccclIioii to the Imperial into his compofiiion fa flranee a 

tbrone, on tlie demife oflus father mixture of heterogeneous quabties, 

in"the year 1765, to thatofhisfuc- as fervfd ia a great mtsf are to 

cceding 10 the fole poflelTiOn of all coonteraft and render impotent 

the vaft power and dominion then thefe vices. For he exhibited the 

apFertaini^igcoiliehoufeofAuftria, ftrangc concraft in the fame mind. 

which devolved to him upon the of the. moft glaring ralhnefs, and 

death of his motlier, the cekbraied of the moft contemptible indecilion. 

Maria Therefa, in 17B0, and from of an invincible obftinacy, and of 

thence to the latter inaufpic'Ous a temper the mod usccrtain, vari- 

pcHodofhis life, that an attempt able, and inconftant thai cxlfled; 

xc any farther elucidation of his fo thattliroughtbeconttnualjumble 

charader, than what will naturally of thefe inconfillencies, be ever faiU 

tefult from the pcrufal of thefe ed in the accomplilhment of his 

progreilive narratives, miy appear defigns, and was alivays involved 

fnpcrnuous. In that courfe, we in troubles abroad or at home. He 

have not been tiack in beftowing was, perhaps, the grBateft projeflor 

due praife on many parts of his ofanya^e, at le aft with rcfpctl to 

carlycondu^i'and we have fmce as the multitude, if not to the ralne 

freely ccnftired thofe afts which we or merit, of his projects ; and yet, 

deemed it our duty to condemn, through the fame caufn, tliey al- 

and in wluch we have been very moft conllantJy failed of effcfl. No 

generally fupportcd by the public man ever ex.tendcd his views fer- 

opinion. thcr, or Izbnurcd more for the ag- 

We (ball oljfcrv'c upon the whole, grandizcment of his houfe and fa- 
that few princes have more ftrongly mily, than he did ; and yet, by a 
exciifd the general cxpettaufin of purfuit"bf ill-judged and ill-direc- 
nankind in their favour, or nifcd led meafures, he Clwok the AaLi- 
to a hlahcr pitch the hopes of their licy of the .Houfe of Aullria, and 
own fubjcfls, than Jotph did dor- left it involved in a fiaie of afFair:, 
ing the lirft years of his reign as which led to its degradation ar.d 
emperor i and that there are £e\v lofs of flrength, in a degree, which 
CKamplcsT of any, who forfeited tbe fcarcely f.emed poflible, a few years 
ptiolic opinion on the one hand, before, to have taken place in fo 
and loft the a-ffeftionsof thofe'ihey ftiort a time. Had he the good 
governed on the other, more com- fortune 10 have left the world a fciv 
pkiely than he had the fortune 'to years before his mother, the em- 
do brfjrc his death. An infaliablc prefs queen, he would have left 
ambition, with its natural concomi- behind fo high and enviable a chiw 
ia;it, an ii:cutab!c!iill for money, rafler, that he would fcivc becu 
without regai-d to (he means by pohiied out a? a model for I'-e con- 
uhich it Wis procured, were liis duft of other princes, and men 
Ic'ding Vices; and were rendered would have b;3n dil'poltd to ccn- 
flill niorc'dcp^rading by duplicity (ider hii early departure as a publi: 
ai';d breach of faith. But nature, luls. 

4 -■ A. 



ii,Gooi^lc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [iSl 

' Ai Jafeph the Second, tbongk which had ukenplftCebetnreeaAai^ 

twice muried, died «iiliuui ill'je, tiU and KulTu. 

his brother Leopold, grand-duke We ha*e heretofo^ (hewiii upon 

of TaCeaay, noip become king of dilFercac occjliaas, in the codife of 

Hungiry and Bohemia* and arch- the Ottomm war,how dlredlycon-' 

dukeof Auitria, iuGceedeJ ofcourfe trary to the poliiical intcrellK, and 

10 the poffefltoa of alf bis heredi- how pregniat ivith daager to iha 

urydomiuioni, the Low Countries fecurii)', oi* moft of the oihtr nx- 

tlone excepted. Bat though the tions la Europ;, it would hare been* 

bic empemr'f death had been (o if the combined empires of AuAiit 

king forefeen, and that he had dif- and fiu£ia Jhould lucceed in thair 

pa'.clied fereral cxpreHes to expe- deAgn, of making a pirtitioib or 

uite Lcopuld's departure from Flo- even any ereai dilmcmbBrment, 

tence, it was near, thiee weeks after of the TurKiih domiiuona, We 

Mareh nth '^^ event before ho «vcn Ihewed that thefc dominioni 

' ""^ ^*^ eldeft fon could iwt be lodged in Any other 

™* Fraocit arrived at bands fo conducive to the peace and 

Viennaj whither they were foaa fecurity of Chrillend^m in gcneral-i 

after followed by the new qaeen, as in thofe of their preterit poiTer.. 

accompaoied by a numcrout fiunily fori; and, as the German league 

of princes and priocelTes ber child- was conhned cnLtrely to tliat coun- 

t<n- try, we ventured to point out tb* 

The aSairs of Germany were at necellity there would be for a Welt- 

tliis time in ft very doubiful and em confrd^racy, of a much mote 

cntical iituation, Befides the dif- cxteniire n.^iure. to coutitecaA lbs 

Firences with the new government defigM of (bufe two redlefi and 

of Praace, which were in no degree ambitious power), if thay fbould 

accommodated, we have feen chat a proceed to the lengths at which 

powerful league had fome time be- they were evidently aiming. A- 

rar; bxa formed within tin; eni- mong the Rates, to which their fuc- 

P're, under the aufpices of the kings cefi in this deiign would be the 

of Great Britain and PruiOia, in moli immediately alarming and 

their character of elei^ors, to re- ruinous, were the Germanic body 

Br^a ibc ambitious condu^, and to in ail its parts, the Uufortunats re- 

giunlagaliift tiie dangerous defigns, public of Poland, already defp(»ledr 

"'ributed to the late Joi'eph. Tiio' and inor<: than half ruined witb 

^( chanee whicti had lince taken the two Nortbern kingdoms, one 

pKc ID ilie direAiou of his ambi- of which leemed totally blind to il> 

Uon, prevented hitlierto the necef- iituation and danger. 

"Cy of calling that confeJeracy into The king of PrulSa was anioDr 

*^''oa, yet the commoD danger on thofe the moll deeply and immedi- 

^ih the union was originally ately intereited in Rich ta cveoit 

mindjil. leemed to be only remov- but be held in his hands thofe ef- 

fi fot the pt^feot to a greater dif- icAoal meant of refiHanca and pre* 

^K, but in no degree to be leiTcn- vcntioq which none of the reft pof- 

f°i indeed, it was on the cof^trary fefled. His alliuce fvith Saghnd 

i^b fuppofed to be much increal> and Holland was truly wife and po> 

^> by the unacconntable connexion litical, and realized in no i^til 4»- 

Voi„XXXllX. [ij ^ f/M 



rfia] ANNUAL REGISTER, lyjf. 

• gree the iiez we mciitioned, of Rntion wai fo prsdominant witfe 

ft Weflem league to corb Eaftera diemfelves^ that while one coTcred 

vmUtioa.Wehavenkewifecongra- Sildia widi anni^s, magazines, and 

tiilated Kim on that apparently artillery, the oiher purfiied mes- 

ffrand poltdcal game which he liires exz&ij fioiilar in Bohemia, 

Kemed to be playing in Poland, in Indeed Jofeph Teemed on the poinr 

4rhich the cai^s were To entirely in of renouamg, at kaft in a grear 

liii hands, that it might be faid he meafnre, hb ^foarhc cbjefli on 

kai Itttfe more to do tl^an to deal the Danabe, by the vaft bodies of 

tfaem -out. The means by which troops winch he drew from thence' 

Ke has fince thrown away the ad- to ibnn a powerful army in Bohe- 

4anta£es thus held out to him, will mia. Even marfhal l^udohn waa 

bereaner be diftafled in its proper withdrawn from the feene of hi) 

^ace. We may oMerre for the teoquefls, to take the rommand in 

prefent, thongh it be in the namre that country) and bis field eqaipagca 

of a paienthefis, that by a deviation were adnajly ordered thither Jniin 

ftoro the right line of policy, as Hungary. Thus nothing feemed 

weU aa of rMtitode, he hai loft an doubcfal to the pnblic, but whicli 

epportonity which probably wilt of the parties thou5d commence 

ittvei be recorered, of eftablilhing operations by giving the firft blow, 

a powerful barrier-fbr the fecurity The great objefttvfaich ibe king 

M bis disjointed donintons, 00 thole and his allies had in view, wat to 

fides where they are liable to be bring the emperor, by Whatever 



tver expofed to tbe moft imminem means, to relinquilh the alliance 

danger. Policy, not feldom, over- with Roffia, at leaS To far as related 

ftioou its mark; and perlutps it to the combination againfi the 

liolTefles novice which fo frequently Tarks, and to conclnde a fepataie 

defeats its own defigns, as a fobfti- peace with the Porte, under the me- 

tation of cucming ior wifdom, and diation oFthcfc powers, if the court 

of craft for an honed and liberal of Pcttrfbur^h refafed to accede to 

policy. fkiT and eqattable propofals. It was 

fiut,whatevcrnncertaintyor du- eafily Jeen that this point, fo much 

plicity the king of PrufEa /hewed fought and wiftied for, could not be 

in hii conduftwith refpeft to Fo' t>btained at any left price than a 

land, he Was-fteady in-his aveHlon war. For befides that neither the 

to the combination for the roin of amlrition northeobflinacyof JofejA ' 

th« Turkifh empire, though ex^ Were to be eafily fubducd, his ally. 

treiBely flow and cautious in a- the emprefs, had obtained a petfonal 

dopting meafures for its preven* afcendancy over him, far more 

lion. ]n the mean time the ccurts biirding than any written compafts 

of Vienna and Berlin were upon the or treaties. The weak acd waver- 

wery wordterlns; and the jealou- ing mind of Jofeph feemed to fhrink 

fies, ani tn Otitic s,' and 'continual diF- tyVer'a^v^d, under the Aiperior la- 

ferince^ between the late emperor Jcnts and the mafcoline deci&on of 

«nd the king, had latterly rifeii^ to that extracrdtnary woman, whofe 

fnch a pitch. a> to threaten their fway over hitn was fo anbounded, 

proceeding to the immediate rtitre* that ftie feemed ^ntaneoaQy to di- 

■Blity of wlr, ■ Thii opitiion Orini ^eahts aftion. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [163 

It feCTH probable thst Leopold feared^ a poffibility of their ret*. 
Vnu a* little difpofed to diflblve, or very, bet with the approbatton of 
feven to loofen, the Connexion, with the allied poweri, which muft of 
Raffia, S3 his predeceflbr bad been ; coarfe fail if a war took place with 
but he wai involved in circumftan- Pruffia. Their intrioGc value was 
CM aad rellrainta from which Jo- Hill lb src*t> though it h>d been 
feph had been free, and which to:- mnch leSened withrefpedtotliefe- 
tRlIy changed the nature of their csrity of pofleffion, by that wretch- 
nUdve fiiuatton. His acceffion to ed ^licy which dirmantled their 
the hereditary dominions of Auftria barrier towni, that their total lofa 
would have been bald and defec- wonld have been a moft grierons 
tire, if he fhoald be defeated in his ftroke; a lofs which woiiud hare 
ele^on for king of the Romans, been ill fupplied by the acquiRtlon 
and confeouently deprived of the of any of the defolated provinces 
powers and dignity annexed to the on the borders of the Danube. For 
tide and office of emperor, wMch through the barbarous maxim* of 
tbrongh fo many ages had, with the combined powers, and manners 
link interruption, been held b^ his of their troops, the extent of their 
funily. This was no imagmaiy foccelles could geneiftlly be well 
danger ; for Jofeph had created to ' defined bv that of the deftroAion 
Duny enemies, and excited liich ge- the^ madej exempting, howerer, 
nrral apprehentions of his power entirely from this fiatement, the 
and ambitions defigns in Germany, conduft of the armies commanded 
dial the traniferring of the ompire by marfhal L^udohn, who in all- 
inio another family, whenever his cifes made war like a gentleman 
dtach lodt place, had been long and a CiuiAian, as well as a great 
and often a matter of ferioui con- fddier. 

temjiktieo. Nor was the fuppofed It will be eafily feen, under all 
paafic difpofition, nor the rod na- the critical and cmbarraffing cir-> 
military charafter, of .Leopold, at cuir.ftancei we have mention^, that 
all fnfficient to remove tbe preja- Leopold had a moBc nice and diffi- 
dice;, or to dilpel the apprehen- cult game to play, opon his acccf- 
rinns, entertained of a Houle, which lion to the embroiled dominions of 
had ever been chaTafterized by its (he Ho'afe of Anflria. He feemed 
unbition. If, then, this general almoft onder an inevitable neceffity 
temper and difpofition was to be of diffolving his connexioii with 
brther operated on, by the direft RufCa, at £e fame lime that no- 
CDiniiy of the two moft powerful thing coutd be mote contrary to hia 
dcSorates of tbe empire, it nay be inclination, or in fome refpefls to 
nfily feen. that any well-founded his intereli. For, bcfldes the dan- 
hope of Leopold's fucceeding inhb ger of loGng the Aiendfhip of x 
etcAion, maft have been fmall in- moft potent ally, he muft thereby 
deed. expcA to forego moft of the ad- 
Leopold had likewife another vantages to be derived from a. war, 
fhackle impofed on his ctmduft by which, along with being eminently 
the ill. p<dicy of his predeceflbr. fuccefsful in its latter part, had from 
The Netherhmds were already loft, its commencement been attended 
ud there coold not be a hope, nor with io prodigious an expence of 
[I] 2 men 



16+] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

nen and of treafore, thst the com- ritoty which the coart of Vienna 
penradoni mull have been vail in- hu wrefted from the republic of 
deed, which conld aSbrd any fuit- Poland. — By another article, the 
able return. contrafling panics agree to ratify 

Little verfedai he had ever been a treaty of commerce before con- 
in foreign politics, and Hill lefs in eluded; and the Porte guarantees 
military affair*, be, however, per- the free navigation of the PmiEan 
ceived the propriety of bearing a fUipi in the Mediterranean; and 
good countenance, and of not ap- farther engages to fe^ure that flag 
pearing to dread a German war, from the infults of Tunis, Algiers, 
however much he wilhed to avoid and TripolL — The Pone declares 
it, and whatever hi« nltimaie deter- iti refolution not to make peace 
ininalion might be. The prepara- without the teftitutian of tbe fbr- 
tiont for war were accordingly coo- trclTes, provinces, and above aM, of 
tinued with the fame apparent vi- the Crimea, which its enemies had 
gour and de&gn with which they gained: and the king engaged not 
hadbeenadopiedbyhispredeceHbr-, to difcontinue war until the Pone 
hut nothing more wai done. This had attained thefe objefU.— The 
proof alii nating condufl wai exactly Porte lilcewile engaged to conclude 
.luited to the temper of hi* antago- no peace with the courts of Vienna 
lull, who was much more dilpofed atid Pcterfburgh, without ihe con- 
to military parade and preparatioii, fent of Pruflia, Sweden, and Poland. 
than to the raflinefi of running —By the tburth ariiclc, Sweden 
hallily into ailion. and Poland appear to be equally in- 

An event which took place a eluded with the Immediately con* 
little before tbe death of Jofeph, trafling parties in ihit alliance of- 
leemed to increafe the difficulties of fenfn'e and defcniive ; wluch it is 
Leopold's fituation, and to briig declared is ftill to fubfift between 
the quellion of war, or of a com- thofe four powers, notwithftaniUng 
pjiancewithlhewilhes of tbe allies, the ternunation of the war. — By 
to a p^ntof decifion which could the concluding anicles, the con- 
not be long evaded. This was a quells which may be mode by either 
very clofe alliance, ofFenfive and of the contraLling parties are not 
defenfive, entered into between the to he reltorftl, nniil the court* of 
king of Pruffia and the Ottoman Vienna and Peteilhcrgh agree to 
Porte; the treaty of which was fubmlt tlie ilitTercnccj iublilling be- 
executed at Conllantinople on the tweenthem andl'olandcoihe medi- 
31II of January 1790. ation of the former. The contracl. 

By this treaty the king bound ing partie* Hkewife covenant not 
himfelf at a given time to declare to agree to any peacebut under the 
war Hgainll AuBria and Rulua, in mediation of England and Holland, 
order to compel them to confent And, the king binds biml«lf, alter 
to a moderate and equitable peace, the conclufion of peace, to gaaran- 
On the other hand, the Poric en- tee all the polTeJIions that then re- 
gaged to employ all its force to ob- main to the Porte ; and likewife 
tain at the peace the i<:llitution of engages 10 procure the joint gua- 
Galicia, LodomeiUiandalltheter- lantee of England, tiweden, and 

Poland. 



U.BnieObyGOO'^le 



HITTORT OF EUROPE. I165 

Bobn^, along with h'u own, for all Prnffia and hi* aUies; but plackig 
the tenitoties of the Onoroaa era- hu imoicdiate iiopei principally on 
pire. the former, wbofe fituation and cir- 
Theoverwhelming torrent of foe- cnmftances enabled hira to make a 
ce&whiclihad roconllantly accorti- fpeedy divcHios in his favoar. The 
paoied the amis of the combined death of the emperor was perhaps 
enpirei in the preceding year, and the only thing which could have 
ffkch thrratcned the ipeedy fub- prevented an immediate war be- 
verfiOR of the Ottoman dominion, ' tween Auftria and Prullia, opon 
at li-ifl in Europe, was the iltinulus the new treaty concluded by the 
which operated upon the king of laft with the Porte; but that event, 
Praffia in concluiJing this tfeaty. with the accelGoo of Leopold, oc- 
We have given, in onr 3 1 It vo- cafioned a paufe, until it could be 
lame *, a pantcutar detail of the undetftood what coarfe of mcafnrea 
memorable events of that cam- and line of conduft the new king 
pugn, fo fatally ruinous to the Ot- of Hungary feemed dilpofed topur- 
tomani; and we have ihere like- fue; and it may be laid, until the 
wife Ihewn, that Selim, inftead of two rival monarchs came a little tct 
finking tmder io heavy a weight of know each other, 
miifortune, not only bore it wkh We have (hewn, in the rolume 
ereat conftancy and finnneft, but which we have already cited, that 
Teemed already to have derived the feverities and incomtnodities of a 
fame portion of couni'el and wif- Danubian winter, together with the 
dom from titat fsvere hut excellent noble defence made by the garrifon 
fcboot or inflruSion. For altbougli ofOrfovaiWere no more than fuffi. 
be had afted in all other things, cien^ to check the rapid progrefsof 
diametrically oppofite to the pre- the conquering armies of the con- 
cepts and eriample af his excellent bined powers, and thereby to afford 
oncle, he now recurred to that wife fomc ihort feafon fbr reft, recovery, 
part of his policy, by which he had and recollection, to tlte altonjihed • 
(o much endeavcnired to found up- and confounded Ottomans, 
on £aropean a'liacces fuch a' fyf- Notwithilanding the pnxligioas 
K^rn of Itrengih, as might be fuiS- draughts that were made from the 
tient to redrain the dangerous armies on the Danube, to counter- 
power, and to curb the deftruflivc %& the tkllgnB of the king of Pruf- 
ambition of his combined and moft fia, on the lide of Bohemia and Mo- 
implaable enemiis.whamheconA- ravia, the Auftriant opened the 
dered not only as determined on the campaign in the former quarter un- 
abfoluie ruin of bis empire, but on Hfually early, intending thus to 
tb= final extermination and extinc- bene£t by the tlownefs with which 
tion of tie Ottoman race and the Torks are able to bring their 
name. armies into the field. The good 

Upon thu principle Selim affi- cffeA of this a^^rtncfs and vigour , 

dooully andanrioully foughf, by all foon appeared in the reduAion of 

po£blc meani, to cultivate friend- theftTongfurtrefsafOrlova; which, 

fhip 2nd alliance with the Icing of after all the long and bnve de- 

* Sec Ann.Scg- vol. sxxi. Hift, arttck, pp. 167 to itt. 

[i] 3 ftnces 



i66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

iencu it Jiad )uther;o m«de, faems tp the iqicrftrence of tlie alCe4 

now, iVom whatever caufe, to hav^ powers.aiulfhe weU'foliDd^4oab^ 

Jallen a very cheap purchafe into whether the very critical fitoatioa 

their hand). No detail wax pub- of Leopold's afiain would admit 

liflied of the operations ; but from of his perfeveriug in rej«€iii)g the 

correrpondiQg circuni fiances, this propofals fur afeparate peace, whicti 

event rouH have taken place in the were fo ftronely prell'ea upon him, 

latter cud of April, or very early in and were fupponed by argoraenca 

May. We have underflood, from and motives of fuch a nature, as 

private information, that the Auf- feemed fcarcely to allow of an air 

trians having clofely blockaded the ternattve. In the cafe of LcopcJd's ^ 

place during the whole winter, and defenioa, Ruflia law that Ihewout^ 

a flight 'fliock of an earthquake be, left alone to contend with the 

happening at length to take place, allied powers, \rith Sweden, Po- 

the gairifon were Aruck with a land, and the Ottomans ; a conca- 

fudden panic, under the opinion, lenation of hoftile enmitv, which, 

that the motion of the earth which in fpite of all her haughunefs, could 

they perceived proceeded from the not but make hef pauTe, 
enemies having undermined the The prince of pobourg having 

fortref, and being on the point of , advanced towards Widdin, ana 

blowing it up. This prepoflefiion over-run all the country in that 

Operated lb powerfully, that they courfe, is faid to have obtained a 

inftantly abandoned Uie place; a confiderable viAory over the Turks 

lofs the more vexatious, as it was in the neighbouriiood of that ciiy ; 

furnilhed with a prodigious arti!- though no particulars, even of time 

Icry, and abundantly provided with or plac^, have been mentioned. He 

ilores and magazines. afterwards made conliderablc pre- 

The next objeAs of the campaign parations for the fiege of that plac^ 

on the fide of the Aullrians, alter which fome peculiar circmnAancfs 

, the taking of Orfova, were the of dillance and lituation feem tq 

fiege of Widdin, the capital of the have rendered tedious and difficult ; 

kingdom of Servia, and that of until the change which had fot 

Giutgewo, avcry fliong fortrelson fome time been gradually uki:ig 

the Bulgarian fide of the Danube, place in ihe pohtical condufl of 

The views of the RuSians were Leopold, at length occa&oced th^ 

likewife direflcd, in t)ie firft in- defign to be abandoned. 
llance, to the redjflian of the two But if the war '.anguiOied in othef 

very llrong fortrelTei of Brahilow parts, fuch was not the cafe on th^ 

in WaJachu, and of Ifmaitow on fide of Giurgewo, where the hofli- 

the Danube. The farther views on lijies between the Auftrians an^ 

either fide were not yet avowed or Ottomans were ciofed by a bloody 

known ; but were undoubtedly to fccnc. The only account we hav^ 

be ditcfled by future contingen- feen, which carries any appearance 

cies. of authenticity, glres the following 
For the prefent, and through the Itatemenc of that afiair. That 

fumme% however, an almoft total Leopold being at length determin- 

inafliviiy prev.-dled in the Rullian ed to accoimnoUate the difptiies 

armies i which mult be attributed with the king of Ptttl&a, and con- 

feijucQity 



H-ISTpRy OF EUROPE; • [i«7t 

{f^ftCodT to Cibmit to a puce with and afterwards cxlulrited ip ttimpph. 

the Turfu, he bamanely withed ta on a pike through tha nakt of the 

Eravcnt the nonccclTaiy effunon of Turkllh army. Tlie AuArians left 

umao bh>od, and for that purpofe iivea hundred men dead upon Ui*> 

agreed to conclude an armillice, for fii-'ld, and about tt^d thouland were 

a certain fpeci&ed term, on the bor- defperately wpunded. The befieg-, 

t -TS of the Panube. ing general abandoned lii^ trenche» 

It feems that Giurgewo had been and works, along with eighteen 

for fome time beiieged, and that pieces of ajtiilery, with the at- 

ihc prince of Cobourg being covC' moS precipitation.— Such was die 

tous to obtain polTeflion of that place iH'ue of the laA aflioo in this war 

belbre the armiHice could be rati- between the Aulbians and Otto- 

£ed, diipatcbed general Thnrn with tnans. 

a reinforcement to preit on the . For Leopcdd, who jnlHy held ia 
iiege with fuch vigonr and expedi- veryfmalleftimationcoDqueiliniade 
tion, at might conroel the earrifon on the defolated borderiof Turkey,' 
to a fitrrender within the tune de- when placed in competition witb 
£red. But the Ottomans having a the rich, fertile, and populous pro- 
good deal Ihaken off their laft year's vinces of the Netherlandi, and ht-^ 
panic, began to refame their nfaal tber prompted by the great and im* 
courage ; and being as delirous to mediate oojefts which were at flakci 
preferve their fortreii, u the prince in Germany, determined to extri< 
was to atuin it, they immediately cate himfelf at once from all hit 
difpatched a body of troops to iu difficulties, and to remove the ot^ 
relief The AuArlans under gene- fiaclei which Hood in his way to 
ral Thurn, who covered the fiege, the attainment of the Imperial dig* 
confident of fncceis from their late nity with all its advantages, oy 
vidories, did not wait for the at- a fpeedy accommodation with tht 
tack of the enemy, but marched king of ProSia, and by coqfenting 
boldly to encounter him. They, to an equitable peace with the 
however, met with a reception Porte. 

which they little expefied. Excited In confeqoence of this detenni- 

to madift^ by a fenie of their loflei nation, a congrefs was held at 

and difgraces, the Turks ibught Reichenbach, in SileJia, compofed 

with undefciibable furv; and, after of the minilten of the kings of 

a defperate conflid, breaking the Hungary, Pruflia, Great Britain, 

AoAnan lines, they carried every and the States General; the two 

thing before them, and in defiance latter powers a^ng in the double 

of djfcjpline,.ai well as of natural capacity of mediators and guaran- 

and acquired valour, put them ab- tees- The ability of the ncgocia. 

iblately to flieht. tori, along with tha difpontions 

The fate ortbe brave general waa tending to tramjuUIicy, which pre- 

Jnucb cegreited. After every ex- vailed, with the parties, did not ad- 

ertion which knowledge and cou- mit of much delay in bringing the 

rage cenld didaie or execute to re- bufinefs lo a conclalion. A conven- 

fiu the impetuoJity of his flerceand tion, which takes its t„i„,^,}, 

enraged f(W, his head was carried off name from the place ^ ^_^ ' 

by ibe blow of ajanixary's iabre, where the congrefs were ''^' 

[L]4 allcmbled. 



16.8] ANNUALREGISTER, lyjt. 

aJ&nibled, was accordingly execnt- other handt the king of Pni£ia en* 
ed. which removed the jcaloufie? g>gea to give Leopold his vote oit 
and difFenmces on both lides, and the approaching elcAion for the 
lioc only relieved Leopold from » iinpenal throne, hot under the ex- 
heitvy weight of care, aaviety and pr^rscDnd)tiDn,_^>;aii)tatf, that the 
trouble, but opened and fmoolhed emperor of the Romans Ihall never 
the way to th^ eafy attabment of enier into any alliance with RaSitf 
all hi^ Avpurite objeAs, both in in order that he may be enaUed, aa 
Germany and tke Low CouDiries. chiefof the Gemianic empire, to r«- 
Kor did it lefs lavour the vieirs of fift any attack which R.t>ffix nrighr^ 
iChe allied powers, by its material at a tatare period, be indnced to 
^ndency to prevent the rain or dif- nndertake againii it. The king of 
memberment of the Ottoman em- Pruffia engages to co-operate with 

J lire, which had been the great ob- the maritime powers is their endear 
eft of their interference. vours to appeafe thetroablesin the 

The purport of the t»eaty was, Aaftrian Netherlands, but upon the 
that Aqlirin Ihould renounce hi:r al. exprcfs condition that {.eopold Ihall 
lia^iCE with Ruffia. that Ihc {haU reftore to them all their anciwit pri- 
Open a negociation ,for peace with vileges; which are to be confirtnt-'d 
the Ottoman Porte, under the me- and guaranteed by ihp three allied 
iiaiion of the three allied powers, powi 
conclude an armiftice for the 
terim, and renounce all the c 

Sells made during the -.var. That took place, which, if Leopold had 
: king of Hungary (hall, hcwever, been before otherwise difpofed'l 
be at iibertyto obtain from the would have been a moti»efiilly fnf- 
Porte, by friendly negbci.nion, any ficicnp for inducing him lo adqpt 
fortrefTes oi- places, which' fne miy njcificmeafurcs: indeed it mijht bo 
iimicably con'fent to give up for the laid thiit he thereby loft his fword 
adjuftmentor feciirity of Bis fron- arm. This was the demife of that 
tier; but tjiat if any acquifitlon of juftly celebrated and truly great 
territory is fo obtained on that fide, commatider, the venfrable field 
the king of PrufGa Ihall receive an marfhal Laadofan, who, after hav- 
equivaleni for it Qf equal value on ing. encountered as many dangers 
i)ut of Upper Silefia. That the in the field as perhaps ^y man ever 
kingof Hungary Ihall retain the two did, cioftd. in a fick bed, a long 
provinces of Galicia and Lodoitie- life covered with laurels ai>d glor^. 
rii, which he already polTellei in Po- He departed this life at his head 
land. That, fhould Rufriaperfill jn quarters tn Moravia, on thei^thof 
csrryirg on the war againft the July 1790, in the 7Cth year of his 
Por:eabd SwedrUiand thcfepowen age; and was generally and exceed- 
iJemand the afliliance of PruUia, ac- ingly lamented, <hi account of his 
cordiiig to the treaties fubfiiling be- private virtuet, aa well as of his 
iween tSern, his Pniffian majcfty military talents, and great public 
Ihal! be at free liberty to fulfil thetc fervice*. He was a native ofLivo- 
fngggementj, without the court of nia, a foldier of fortune, whowith- 
Vicpna bking any part, dircflly or out money or intereft rofe merely 
Vdireflly, in tht contefl. On the by Us pwfonal loerit, from lieing t 

fubaltem 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [i«j| 

Mnltem to the Ugheft milttary ho- of troable, in almotl all parts of hU 
poan. After a long apprentice- widely- extended dominions, were 
firip in the Rafliui fervice, under appendage) which lofeph had an- 
thofe celebrated raaflen of war, nexed infeparably frora their pof- 
cooat Munich and general Lacy, feflion to his fucceflbr ; fo Leopold 
he came into diat ofthc houfe of had Hill much diHicultytoencounur 
AuAria about theycar (756; where with hii new fubjeSs of the king- 
he rofc with a rapidity beyond all dom of Hungary. For the evi- 
exampb. The great Frederic of den^ly forced concellionS which hU 
Pruffia faid, that he fometimei ad- predeceJTor had been induced t9 
mired the pofition of other general), make, under all the paroxyfmi an4 
bet that he always dreaded the bat- agonies of pain, terror, weaknefi, 
des of Laudohn. He was undoubt- and approaching death, were in no 
ediy at the time of hi* death the degree fuSicient to remove the ef- 
firft general in Europe. frcl of that continued fyftem of ir- 
Leopold being now fecured as to ritation and defpotifm, with whicK 
his principal objefti, of pt ace, of his he had ib long infulted all the fed- 
ele&ion, and of the recovery of the incj of that brave and generoab 
Nethertaods, had leifure to look butcxceedingly high-rpiriied,fietce, 
into and adjuft his private and fa- and refentfu! people. Their here- 
mily concerns. He had already ditary and inveterate animority to 
fctiied his fecond fon Ferdinand in the Germans, whom they had ever 
poffeffion of the grand duchy of confidered as lawlcfa ufiirpers and 
Tofcanyj an arrangement which tyrants, the ftourge and rain <^ 
had for fome time t>een a matter of their country, with that abhorrence 
public as wdl as political doubt and which fccmed incurable, and reached 
Ipecnlation. He now detefmined to every thing German, to' lawsf 
to cement the union, and to draw manners, and even language, as well 
the ties of affinity more (lofely be- as government, had in a very great 
tween hii own familv and his rela- degree been foftened or worn away, 
tions of the honfe of fjapl-s by in- ■ during the longand lenient admini*^ 
tcrmarriages. His two sldeft Tons, truion of Maria Thcrefa; whofe 
Francii the hereditary "prince of marked attention and fevoor to thi» 
Haneary and Bohemia, and Ferdi- people, was probab'.y not more t* 
nand, the aew gfeat duke of Tuf- o- attributed to gntitudc, than to 
csny, were accordingly, foon after a jiift and wife fyftem of ptdicy. 
. g . the conclufion oF the Had this fyftem beencontinued with 
°" " treaty of Reichenbaeli, equal v.'ifdom, all the ancient animo- 
married to the eldeft princeflbj; lilies and national prejudice] would 
daughcers of the king of Naples; not only have worn away, but in 
and about a month after the third time their very memory would have 
arch-duchcfs, daughter of Leopold, been obliterated. 
wai aiarried to the prince royal of But her fncce/Tor, who feemed 
Naples: that princcft having firft d^llin?d to take evenr thing by the 
made a formal renunciation of all wrong handle, or, if he happefied to 
righioffucceCion toanyof thepof- fdze it by the right, was fure t« 
feSions of the houfe of Auftria. pulh it to an extreme which render- 
As traubles, or at leaft the feeds «d it wrung, not oniy rvvivgd alt' 
t . , the 



s; 



170] AI*NUACR«GISTERi 1791: 

4esDcient Hiiiapfities,!"^ fuppUed, in hii afiairs, a nuinber oTdepotin 

tfcnB with a kecDcr edge, than they arrived at Vieoiu,. f/om Hungary, 

lad MoK poilefleti, jmcc ib,c agct who prefented a long liA oftweaty- 

JMButtatelT fiiocecding theeta tnat four articlei to the Line, which 

pxe thenr birth. It is accoulingly they ftroogJy urged him tongn,prc> 

leporudl, aad the report is prooa- vious to hii coronation for that 

Hyarcll fbwided, thatfcFcral of the luDgdem. Many of thefe articles 

;catp«JaUDes and principal nobi- went to the redxefi of prefent, 

:y, had it ierioully is conteiopla- and to prevent the repetition of 

oott, to ein&ncipate their country pall grievance!, while others tend- 

Iramilie Ai^rian yoke ; that a plan cd to a£brd lecuriiy igainS faturc 

£»- that purpoTc had been aftuaJly Opprefiiaii. Leopold having ma- 

faimcdi. and thai the means had turely confidered the artieles, and 

^ecB pointed out for inltituting and holding them to trench too mcKh 

aeaSanily (uppoidng a gtand army upon the foverei^nty, as likewife, 

«f 150,000 men, for their prefent perhapi, coniideruig the Hunga- 

aid iiitare defence and protcftion. rians to be too importunate and pc- 

Tke Ktenorial whichf ve may re- retnptory in dieir demands, upon 

mtatbcr, the Porte itTucd -early in thefe or other accouatj he icfiiied 

the war> offeriog its utmoll afiift- figning them. And ftilt pctfever- 

aacr (fr the Hungarians, in the re> ing in this determination, upon the 

■svery «f their ancient indepen^ farther urgent folicitation of the 

iate, and rank among nations, depiuiesj he ii faid to have told 

with the moS liberal and di^nte- them, with much apparent ituiifier- 

arited ofer* of*perpetu3[ ailianca ence, that he was not at all anxioui 

and ftiendlhip after, that was ac- about being crowned in Hungary, 

cam^ilhcd, fcnres fliongly to coun- and that he iiad given orders to k- 

Knance thefe reports and optniocs ; cal thole who had been fcnt to pre- 

Ibrk cannot be doabted that the pare for the coronation, 
cmrt of Conftantinopte was inti- Immediately after the treaiy of 

foudy acquainted with the afiairs Reichenbach, the diet of Hungary, 

vf Hungary wiih^e temper of the then fitting in full a£emb]y, fent a 

|ieopte, and with the views and letter to the fovereign, in which 

^ilhes of the great men. they Aated, that having underltood 

Sach was the difardered and cri- that negociations for terminating 

lic»Iftate in which Leopold, through the prefent war were on the poin( 

Ak ill condoA of his predeceflor, of being opened, they coulil not 

ibond the nobleft portion of his.heri- but obfervc. thai, to the great grief 

X involved at the time of his ac- of the Hates, and contrary to the 

n;butthcgreatreliefwhich the fundamental law's of the kingdom, 

treaty of Reichenbach atTorded hira this war had been commcaced 

info many other things, fortunately without their knowledge; and 

extended likewife 10 enable liim to that they would be penetrated with 

cKounter this dilRcuIty. flitl greater grief, if now, that they 

While the conferences at Reich- were alTembled in diet, and beat 

cnbach were ftill in agitation, but npon the re-efiabiilhrnent of their 

evidently drawing to a conduijon rights, the treaty of peace Ihould 

which would render Leopold cafy be concluded without their concur- 



tsai 
lent 



HIiSTORY OF EUROPE.. t»?i 

They Owed, tlut thole eC- p^idfnt u> the crowDi K om-nlfs 

ntial laws which they qaoCed, do thit attempt, And to jMOCnre (he nd- 

noijMnnit a king of Huag&ry u .4rers ia quelUon. 
bcgm a war in the Icingdom, or in £very thing now all at once gob- 

Ihe provinces united to it> without curred, in damplog the hppei ami 

the Knowledge 4nd confent of the icuftrating the dciigns of ibc. mal- 

n^tion; and th^t peace with the contenu; thp new coalition between 

Turki cannot be cpocUided, either Aflftria and Pru^ in the place of 

within or out of the kingdom, but a war, which was confidere^j^ ub- 

with the advice of an Hupg^nan avoidable, and the coBreqaaUMP- 

council. Piefuming that his ma- ing of a peace with the OttoMbo, 

jcity woL^ld readily acknowledge the feemed a doable fetality conveyed 

equity of thefe reprefentations.they by a tingle blow. They were in- 

e'opofed depuues, men of approved deed, at one time.fo niuneroiu, and 
tegrity, knowledge, ana ability ^>peared fo formidable, that Leo- 
in public aflairs, to attend the con- pold had entertained fcrious appra- 
fi;rencet of peace, and other Jiego- henfioni as to the feeurity, and per- 
ciatiDns for the public good. They haps prefervation of the kingdom ; 
conclude, by bereeching the king to and it was intended, when the peace 
admit them to the negociations, in took place, to fend the Hungaruin 
poofonniiy tothe fpirit of theHun- army to the Low Countriea, ui^tg 
garian laws and ctniftitution, which repute them entirely in that king- 
ly will consider as a particular dom by German regiments. Bat 
proof of his majeAy's jultice, and the internal faOiont and diffin- 
asatiewhichwiUbindmoreflrong- tionj, by which they were them- 
ly, that free, iuihfi4> and obc£- felvei torn to pieces, prevented 
ent nation. their being capable of ibrming any 
Leopold relazed upon this occa- great and general union, and prov<d 
fioD, or rather feemed to comply, to him a bond of fecurityj enabling 
through grace and perfqalioD, with bim to play off the difierent part* 
an application, which he not only one agamfi the other, and therel^ 
fecretly wiQied to be made, but had to dujoint anS weaken the whole. 
himfelf been inllrumental inprocur- Of the parties which thus divid- 
ing. For the malcoctcDts were {6 ed the kingdom, the proteftantt and 
numerous, and affairs had jail be- Roman catholics were in a fUte of 
fore run fo high in the diet, that it avowed enmity, the nugnats. Mod, 
had been piopoCei, and the propo- the nc^efle in general, were nearly 
lid ftrongly fupported, to fend mi- at daggers drawn; the pealants ab- 
niAers diredly liom the nation to horred the nobles, and the latter 
Conftanrinopk, jvithout taking no- were not behiud-hand in their ro- 
tice of, or paying any regard id the gards to them. With refpefl to the 
Idog, who were to negociate in its lovereign, the bnlk at leaft of the 
name, atid entirely on its own ac- clergy, JtiUholdingabitterrememf 
count, a treaty of peace with the brance of the late Jofeph, and not 
Ottoman porte. It required, there* much better fatisiied with many 
fore, all the addrefs of the king's parts of Leopold's conduQ in Tat 
miniilers at the diei^ and all the cany, were totally , adrerie to hi< 
weight and ia£ucace ncccllaril/ ap- inBeielbi Uw magnats and comitatsi 

excepting 



175] ANNUAL register; 1791. 

•xccptiapihofc who held gn/t of- and fnendt of the cn>wn, aliovp 

fices ander the crown, were entirely fifty of the moft violmt makon tents 

bcot tigwn it revolauon ; and while wen expelled from that body- in one 

the pCrfEbiHiy rernained. Were eager diy, vhile thofe who remained 

to cement the clofdl alliance and uoi- were gUd to bow down their heads 

on that could be formed with the king in fricnce. 

of Proffia and the Porte. ThenoMefle There was Aill, however, a verf 
were divided; many of them, from confiderable and refpeAable party, 
the juloufy and envy whtcti tfaey which demanded and deferved at- 
1i*R to the magnatj and great pa- tention, and whfch was, perhaps, 
latinei, were favourably difpofed to tnore truly patriotic than any we 
the fovereign ; while others were have yet deicKbed. Tliis was com- 
witlingtofacrificeihtir private ani- pofedofwhat may^termcd and 
inoAtiea for what they deemed the deemed inodetate men. They had 
good of their country. On the never gone the kngths of the vio- 
other hand, the proteftanta, from lent malcontents ; nor did they by 
the ciicum^nces of their fituation, any means endeavour to produce, 
ifrere necelTarily bound to the cmwni or even wifh that the event (bould 
and the peafanig, fenlibte of the be- take place, of an abfoluce rapture 
nefits which they derived through of the kingdcMR from the Aaflrian 
Jofeph, and likeivife kflowing, that dominion, after fo long and (o io(t- 
. nothing but a fimilar interpofition mate a connection between them, 
could incTcafe them, or even pre- now endeared by habit, and^ccr 
ferve whit they had already obtain- mented by nQmberlefiticsof friend- 
ed, were violent in their attachment fliip, cHinity, and mutual kindnefs 
to Leopold. or (Kvice, Boi thij party anii. 
While affaii! hung thus in a Ibrt oufly and eagerly uiflted the refto- 
•f equilibrium between the parties, ration of their ancient conllitation 
but the fcale ftill nthf r prepondcrat- iir all its parts, and in all its origi- 
ing on the fide of the maksntents, nal purity ; and fanher, from a long 
it was fuddenty weighed down to . and bitter experience of ihc little 
thegrouod onthefide of the crown, reliance that wa) to be placed on 
by an acceSien as extraordinary, as ihc /kith of the Auftrian princes, 
it was unexpcflf J, and even un- as well as of the domineering fpirit 
thooghl of on all fides. An Jncre- which ever marked the conduft of 
dible number of Greeks, WaHa- the Germans, whenever they were 
chiana, Serviotes, and Rafcians, entrnAed with the exerdfe of pow- 
who are reprefented as amounting er, they likewife wajited, and pro- 
to four milHoiis, declared them- pofed, that their conllitation, thus 
Mvet to R man lirmly attached to renewed, fhould be fecurcd by the 
the caufc of Leopold, and deter- guarantee of the three neighbour* 
rained to fupport it at all events, ing powers of Pruflia, Sweden, and 
• and iit all cafes. This changed in Poland. Under thete conditipni 
an inihtnt tJie nbole face of. things, they declared they would ever ftiew 
and overthrew at oiKe all the hopet themfelves to be the mod siealous, 
and deigns of the fi^itHu. -The '^thful, and loj-al of his fubje^. 
effect waj immediate in the diet; Adcpntation from the ^ v 
for, the blow being Weil fJ-Uowed djet waited upon Leo- -f^' S'^- 
^ Hiid fupf erted by the minillers poid at V^noa^ with an invitation 



HISTORY OF EUROPE^ [173 

lureqtwfi bu pcHbnil preTence at cDroafttion,liewillnM»fu&toIifte» 

tbeir deliberations, and pirlicDUrly to the grievance!, thr widiet^ and 

at the coronation. Taty likewiie the fupplLcation* of hu liitliful 

prefeDted what was caKcd a new Siaat, and after mature public de- 

oiplonu, containing fupplemenuVy UbEration, to adopt tefbluiu>n» 

articles to thofe wnich it had been thereupon, agreeable to the fpint 

cnfiuinary hitherto for the monarchs of the law* and the true interefis of 

to fign and fwear to, and which it the realm. He concludes wtili an 

was noped and requefted he would expeflation that the flates will ctt-' 

accept. The itiag returned an operate with him, with zeal and <• 

a>rwer by count Palii, the great delity, in the accomplifhment of 

diancellor of Hungary, that he tbefe objeAs ; an eicpeflation on 

had intended bis coronation in Hun- which he trulli with the greater 

gary Ibould have lalcen place of that confidence, as they may be certain 

at Frankfort ; but that the delays in on his part* that whatever is con- 

their own proceedings having ren- formable to the laws, whatever does . 

derett that now impr^icabie, he not derogate from the royal rights.in 

fhould, however, enaeavQur to fulfil a. word, whatever contributes to the 

hiipurpofc in that refpeA by ihc 1 5th general good.he will freely concuriR, 
•f November at farthell ; obfervin^ Leopold was elefled king of the 

that the latenelj of the feafon would Ramans on the 30th of September, 

necellarity preclude his proceeding and made his public entry into 

fiutber into the country thin Pret- Frankfort on the 4th of October; 

burg, which muH of courfe render being the lame day of the moDlli 

that city the place of celebrating on which his biher, the emperor 

tbe coronation. We are to under- Francis, had hereiofdre made a fi. 

Hand, that Buda, the ancient capi- milar proccflion. The coronatton, 

tal, was the place which the Hun- which took place a ^n l. i. 

prians had fixed for that purpofe, few days after, was ^"°'>^^ 9"i, 

in oppolition to Prefburg, the new tinufually ftilendid j '79°' 

capital, which, on account of its and befidcs the perfonal attendance 

vicinity to Vienna, the Auilrians of the three ecclefialHcal eleflors, 

had lon^ rendered the afiual feat with a ^reat number of other Ger- 

of j^vcrnment. mau princes, was rendered more 

With lefpeft to the newly-pro- brilliant by the prefence of the 

pofcd diploma, Leopold declared, king and queen of the two Sicilies, 

that he wai fiimly and invariably with the long train of princes uid 

relblved not to approve or confirm princelTei appertaining to the two 

b)* oath any diploma but thofe prolihc haufes of Napbs and Vi- 

which the conAituttons of Charles enna; indnding in the number the 

the Sixth and Maria Therefa had grand duke of Tufcany, and all the 

already prefcribed to all the kings newly- married pairs, 
of Hungary. That he was the in the interim, while thefeaftairs 

mote finnty and invariably fixed in were in agitation, an armillice, on- 

this relalution,u he was determined der the mediation of count Lull, 

teligioully to fulfil the ftipulaiions the PraJSaaminifter, was concluded 

lb prefcribed, according to the fpi- on the zeth of September, between 

rii and tenor of cenain articles, to tbe prince of &txs Cobourg, on titer 

vluch fa« nfcind. That after the part of the coun of Viciuug and 

the 



1741 AKNUAL REGlSrER, i?9i. 

the grand vizir, in hia camp at Si- the diet, does him fuch high Ro^ 
Ufiria, on that of the Ottonnns. noQr, and contaiiufentimeiiu fa no- 
At the fame time it was agreed, ble, that wc {bwAd confider our- 
that a congrefj for tlie final con- fclvet eiiihy of little Icfs than s 
dnfioD of peace fhoaldbc aiTembled crime, if we omitted its infertion. 
■t Buchareft or Siflovia, as fltould — ^* I hope," fatd he, prefentine 
he fbnnd moft convenient to the his Ton to the nation, " yoa wiU 
jdenipotentiariea, to be compofed " never forget that you are m/fon; 
of the minillers of tiie principal " but fliould it ever be your lot, in 
parties, and of thofe of uic tlu^e "the execntion of your office, to be 
allied mediating powers. " obliged to defend the r^hts of 
Leopold amved at Prefbnrg a " the nation agiinft yoar father, I 
ftw days previous to that appointed " defire yoa will dien forget that 
Ar the coronation. Nptwiihftand- " yon are my fon, and that yoo will 
ii^ all the bickeringi that had taken " ftKAly afi in fappon ofthelaws." 
|ttce, and the nnmlwrlers jealoiilies —He then addrefled the nation in 
which fo long fubfiffed. he was re- the following words ; " This, my 
cetred with every mark of the ot- " beloved fon, I prefent to yoa, a) 
mod joy and enthnliafm both by " a pledge of my fincere regard for 
the people and the ftates. The diet "yon; that he may aft between 
feon afforded a lignal inftance of " yon and mc at a difinterefted 
theb loyalty and attachment to their " mediator and promoter of mutual 
new fovereign. ForLeopoldhaving, " affection." 
tccording to the eftablifhed enftom. We have fcen that the Hnnga- 
ItrefentedthenamesoffoDrofchefirft rians had fome time before propofed 
nobility of the kingdom to the diet, feveral conditional aniclcs to Leo- 
of whom they were to choofe one to pold, which he peremptorily refiifcd 
be palatine of the kingdom, an of- to accept. The application was 
fee of the highefttmft and dignity, now again reni;wed before the co- 
which rendered tlie pofTeirar the fe- ronation, it being, probably, fap- 
Cbnd perfon in it, the ftates unani- pofed, that in the prefent fealbn of 
monfly reqnefted the fovereign that good-humonr, joy, and feltivity, 
be would indulge their wifhes, by nothing could be refufed. But Leo. 
grairting to the nation as their pa- pold, uhering to his former finn- 
iatine tne arch-doke Leopold, his nefs, declared, that he would re- 
fonrth Ton, who was then prefent. ceive the crown on no other con- 
As nothing could be more flatter- diiions than thofe on which it had 
itlg than this propolal, we fcarcely been accepted by his mother ; and 
need fay that it was gladly aflented he thought hs lullre, and the ho- 
IO-; and the new palatine had the nour attached to it, wonld be tar- 
Kttir Mh l^Ppincf'' three days nilhed, if it wasmade the fubjeft of 
„ * after,ofpIacingthean- a bargain. After thi, difplay of a 
'5°* cient crown of St. Ste- firmnels which feemed approaching 
[4ien, fo long and fo greatly the to an ungracioos obftinacy, the ad-* 
objefi of Hangarian veneratioai miration, gratitude, and joy of the 
upon the head of his father. Hungarians will be Tiore eafily con- 
Leopold's fpeech to his fon npon treived than dcfcribed, when, on the 
lis iitwmcitt, in the prefcncc of day fucceedlng the coronation, he 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, (lyj 

of Ui ovn Tree motion, when eveiy hojm and wilhei, utd M kaW «t* 
hope of conceffion wu U an end, tainEd trithtn a Fewoiontlualllhofc 

S ranted them ever^ faTonrabk con- hoaonn and xdvamiges, vUch 
itioD. and ernr future lecnricy, tni^bt have been -a^II deemed tte 
which they coula "with reaJbn and fraiu of ■ profpcrom life. It an^ 
pmpnetj defire. Thvs he gained likewife be faid, that few tn^oiei 
at once the hearts and hand) of that have afforded grtater bcnefin m 
ftuneroos, bnvc, and powerfbl na- any of the parties ihaii Leopold de> 
tioA. rived from that of R«ichntncht W 

Notlung C(yild exceed the judi- which, indeed, he entireTy-owad tte 
ctoni and excellent coodu A of Leo- happy (ettleinent of hii wain. 
poM in ihs whole courfe of his com* Leopold feerned tiow in a tnam 
Riunication with this people. When and difpofition of doi9| wife, jtl^ 
they were apparently at the point and popular things; for tumaiim 
of proceeding to the lafi extremi- the dole of the year he tooVoM 
tie» entirely to throw olT the Auf- to remeiabn- and folfil a tnsStM 
trian dominion; when he wai htm- promife which he either nadtv*' 
felf Qnieitledingovemment, embar- afforded hope of hi* pe rfo r aiag. tf 
raJSed on every hand, involved ia reftoring to the Aatn VF the US- 
difficnltin which Teemed almoll in- lanefe their ancient covftitmitn loit 
extricable, and farrounded with laws, and rcinllatine thera la dv 
enemies and dangers ; in that peril- AUl po&efioa of aU their riglc% 
out fitnatlon, he dtfplayed a firm- privileges, and immunities of wtadi 
nefs with refped to uie Hungarian! they had been deprived by Jollinli: 
which aftonillied every body. Nor a violence and lojury which ul 
did he relax in any degree from «ver fince rankled Sorely ra (hot 
that firmnefs until he had broken minds, and excited the ftrtntgcft 
and fabdned the ^fiions, and faw averfon to his pcrfon^ £0vcnisiti^ 
htmfclf in full pofTeffion of the and even name, 
kingdom ; and nen, by a well- He likewife, abon the Ikme tis^ 
timed, onexpefted, wife, and ge- |;ranted new favonri to the Jnis^ 
neroBs exertion of condelcenfion for whom jofepH had done a {rac 
aitd bvonr, be totally innihilated deal, and indeed mended tharcoB- 
difaffefiion. and bAion, and in an dition fo much, that it did aot Acb 
hrtaot gratified a whole nation, they had much more to txpe& or 

We Stewed ia our firft chapter, teqaire. Leopold; bowever,'-«»> 
thecircamftancei which happily led tended their privileges iHIl liodNr, - 
to Leopold's recovery of^ his loll by decreeing, that in all his Itendi- 
dominionJDtheNetherlands. Upon tary dominions, thofe Jews who Ml 
the whole, it will Icarcely efcape received a proper education alidad 
■ay obferver, that few inen have quired theuecefbrydegreeofknow* 
had the fortnoe, in fo Ihort a (pace ledge, fhonld be aUowed to take aea> 
of tune, not only to extricate their dcmical degrees tn the lay-facidtw^ 
affairs from the. moft embarraHed, and to ad as advocates ; and in At 
difficult, and dangerous iitaation latter qoality to plead the caofe riiber 
uhich could well be imagined, but of Jews or Chriflians indifferently, 
in the fame time to have arrived at In coolequence of this permiffio^ 
the completion of their mofl diftant Mr. Raphael Joel, a Jewi being 

41^ 



t^fi) ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791, 

iviy examinedi and having given 
udsfaclory prooft of bis Abiliiy and 
qiiali&catiaiu, Hnu, io tkc begianing 
M the year tj^i, Admiuedi by the 
univerBty of l*rague, to the degree 
of Doftoc m the Civil Law. 
. The court of Vienna wm octu- 
^ed, during the fore pare of the 
year 1791, in Rcgociatui^ and fet- 
tling ihe terms of a deAoittvc treaty 
of peace with the Pone k Siftovia, 
wider the mediation of the three 
allied powers, whofe minLters 11- 
teodfd the whole time, and who, 
witb equal zeal and ability, were 
inde&tigable in their attentions and 
codeavoii/s to falve the fore remem- 
brances of hoftility, and to recoo- 
cile the oppofite views of the prin- 
cipal parties. Many dilEculcies oc- 
CnTred, aiid unexpefted obllacles 
were thrown in the way, as well by 
the empetor tumfelf, as through 
the means of Kui£». Thefj were, 
however, at length happily fur- 
iRoimtcd, by the powerful intervcn- 
tiOD of the meduting powers, and 
the unwearied application of their 
' miniAers ; although the difierencei 
teemed at one time fo irrL-concilc- 
' ablci that it was apprcheodcd the 
congrefs would li:ive broken up 
without cffecl. 

Every thing beinj at length fet- 
tled, a inoit fair and eqoitable treaty 
of peace, and ta (be T^nc, conJt> 



dering her fallen and ruined fitua^ 
tioQ, a ata& happy and advantage^ 
ouf one, was finally con- . , 

duded at Sillovia; and ^"S" 4t'># 
ine ratifications Ipeadily '' 
after exchanged. The plenipoten- 
tiaries of the allied powers (wbofe 
names and quality, as mediators, 
were aiHxed to the treaty), in order, 
fo far as it cooid be don.-, to exter- 
minate the feeds of alf/mare dilfcr- 
CDcei between the tAO empires, and 
even to cut ojT the pretences fqr 
quarrel, fucceedcd in procuring on 
the fame day the executiua of a 
convenuon for the precife Ipecifi- 
cation and exiffL adjullmeni of the 
limits, which were to be the boun- 
daries of their long •extended fron- 
tter». By this accommod^don, the 
faaughiinefs, pcrverrcnefs, iind am- 
bition of Ruiliaionly remainud to be 
fubdued, in order to obtain the re- 
lioration of tranquillity ufi the bor- 
ders of hurope and Alia, and the 
puuing an end to the moil fai-r.ge, 
cruel, defolating, and bloody war 
which has been known in modern 
times.— But before we proceed to 
reldce the iiTue of the mexfures fo 
long purfucd by the allies for that 

Eurpol'e, we mufl turn ,our view 
ack to the lalt campaign, and t'^c 
peace w. ich fo fuddcniy foilowed, 
with $wedco> 



CHAP. 



HISTORY O.F.- EUR-.OPE. [177 

CHAP. IX. 

Prfparatititt jimJi ly tht king of Stutdn ^ rtnev>iitg tht «Ur agBtnfi Rttf- 

fi* tmlb vigaur in the tamfmga ^lyga. AAfitt ntvi and rxtraardinaryi 
but ^erftftd iKedfkris,fBr gmning thi'^tSiwt and /apfart rftht comnuni, 
uMdifthtpetpU-atUrgttilldefenslttitljcfthinaiUii onJcaHs iti/tmtmtm- 
ieri t/thi{lrrgj,aitdfaiuafthtiirsberi, teft in hit mutcil, and t» affifi ia 
ibt priKcipai 4lefarl7iuliti c/groemmtitt. Extrtint Jtmgtr ^tht nnJifiUiati 
tobich this rajh inmrvatim ikos UabU it fnduet. Gafimwt a^taiitt grtat 
and ainfiud faff liti fnetthtpatti far iht frrfetaiimnf the Tear. CaMfaign 
epcaid unufaallj tarfy in Finland ; itibtrt tht S-mtdts fenttrati tht Rnffian 

frontier, and fej/ifi ihtmfiktrt tffhifra! ftreng and advanimgnui fe^. 
Blaedf aJtian at Karmitnkt^i, vihtrt afma'.l 6edf tf StMi&i, ieing attacied 
hf 10.000 R>^ni under General bigltfliam and tbtprinetrf Anbaiutht 

fanur art rtpuljid and difialed tuith grtat itjs\ that princt, loilhcihtrpriii- 
tipal egictrs, being amang ibi nnmbrr luhvfell in tht cenfiia. Sutetfs of tht 
iing in ferfin, in the difftratt altaci ufan Valiiala ; tatti WihnimftrBnd 
and Biber plaeti ; fxti hii htad qnarleri at Barge, lefarm ajunSiam luiih 
hiigaUej fiet. Rajjiak graidfitti being divided, andfiiU im ihtir ininttr 

Jfatialti atCrahfiadt and Reutl,fhe duktafSudtrmaniabtcanuim^troftbefia. 
Dtfperatt and «*fartnnatt attempt modi by tht dnkt la dtjhvf the Rr^an 

jqnaJraniH ibt pari tf Revel, in 'nihich he kfti tvto Jhipi af the Uni. Gaf- 
tavJtri im ptrfin, at tht head afhiifUtiila, Jnddtnlj appears btfart Frede- 
Yrcfitam, tobere he fortes all the defences afihe harbaur, ^tnd takes ar dtfiraft 
a large ditiifitn ef lit Ri^an galley JUtI, •wbleh mlai ihefeftatianidi bttrning 
and dtftrajing ail the naiual aT/tnalii,f ores, aadinagazints;. Ruffiani having 
taHeSed their /tree, ibe tide effitceji by land andfea btgini ta turn againjt 
the StDtdet i laht lafe every thing luhich they had gained in Carelia, and 
art tbiigtd tt rtpafs tht Kymtnt 'Wifh hji. Sea-fghis on the third and 

faxitb afyant. Ka/h ailelhpi npan Wybt^r'. Dtpltrabli /liaaiian af the 
S-mtdn i tnelefid hf all the united fiirts tf Ruffia In ibe bay af Wybourg; end 
nt emtnannicatien epiit •with ihefta, but hy a narrivi ftrait, •abieh isjlrongiy 
gnarded hf the enemy: and fcarcely any means ef deliverance left. De/pe* 
rate asid blagdy f^ts tn the third and fetrth of yulyi the Siutdes fndeavBar- 
ing taferct their istay ihreiigh tht narrt'Ui inlet, aild then ta evade thefipi- 
riar farce tfihe enemy in the tpenfea. -Pradigioat iefs tf-menatdfoipifuf- 
lainid hy the Stuedei in their ejrape. Date ef Sadermama, initb ihi remain- 
der af hii rained fieet, arrives nf Sv/eaheurg. Gaflamat, vjilb hit light 

fitet, invtlved in fimilar daiiger; bat thaugh f training great Ifi, it it 
net fiiiie in ptepertion ta that ef hit hrtther. Sudden and extraerdiKary 
rrvtrfe tf firtmt. The ting arriving at Sivenk Saund, meets there the 
Pentraniait divifion ef galleys under eelonfl .C'renjiadi : putt again 
immediattlj la fea, in ardtr ta intercept ih; Rujjiaa light fleet ladcr 
the prime ef Nafau, vihich are en tbeir way to Frtderitjham. 
tlLiritiu and dtcijivf viciary otiaintd bii Gujlavut ever the prime ef Njjfau, 
en the gtb and lofh tf July. Sadden and niutpeiitd pti^ci bctiueea 
R^a and Sweden. Stmt obftrvali;is en the canfet and confequeaces of thtt 
event. King tended tuith tkleguy and reproach by hie European allies ftr 
Vol. XXXIII. " \^M] ibit 



1783 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

tbh dtftaitn. Dtfmdt hiwtfi^ ficc^sfaify agaikft ihtfr imvSivett iat 
finJi it maeb mert difficult te vimdicali bimfiyf frtm iht ihargt efvitial' 
mg all /tali aadlrtalj In hii (undaii tuiib rejfi^l It lit Oltuman Perlr. 
Ri0aa firalUal fquadnn in the jirebiftlaga djlrntd Ij tbt Mprina. 
Sthtmifrr » luiiiltr catafaign m ibt Danuht farmtd if tbt Ru/^im gtmrah, 
lubick affBrdnhtm pfudigitiu advoMegti bimt tbtir iiumj, BalalBtj raattd, 
mtid hii army Ittaliy ruined, ra tbi^dt »f Afia. Ruffian amiti art put im 
metien iu lit menlb af' OHeier. Suku etctunl ef tht fiate, ceitdilian, tu§d 
firtngib »/ Ifmailvw. Taitn by fttna bj gf»trtd Sicwartvii^er a icng and 
meft "jKiit dtftiKt, Drtadfut and untqualied taaffacre. Aecoiati oflhi tuuH- 
ieri •wbe art /aid to bavt perijiid on beli fides. Sime fiKciiding aSiva 
bttiMtu tit Ruffiext and ^lurki during tbt j'kmmtr. Trtaiy ef ptatt fnd- 
dealy coKtludtd al iSalatx, Behaviour af tbi etnpreft te tie Bxitijb ctia-l. 
flfni Bf ptact. Cl^tcift^^x an tfeeh ef rtfieaiem. ti'tvi itt^aet anJ 
anfedtra<iii in ,tbis year. Ntvi amftitutieiu tf Pelamd and frante tbii 
year, Sbori taiHrafi eftbt rfueiuticus in tb^ tioc ctmiriti, frcM tbtir 
trigiit in fji^ Itwafisui tf tbefe tvie cowtlrits tfcribed le unjufi and tan- 
bilieut tembiaiUimi eftbt ntigiheiiring Jet/treigns. Trtaiyfer the ptiriiikii 
ef Ptlatd and Franct, pretended t» bave btinfignedaS Pavia, a caarji anJ 
tlttafy fergtrj. Ceng/rtfi al Filnilz. Paper fnrperieitg l» nalaia tbe fe- 
ent arlitlis agreed at PilnitK mnaitbenticalid eiad di/avevud: uturij at- 
tenfifienl ivitb lie pretended Iriaty af Pavia as it tbt agisrs ef Poland, and 
iBtbinemfifienfuiithtbefaa. IJninterrapttd narralyue af lit Pelip revf 
. lutim ta tie end ef i'jgx,'will be givtn in lit ittxi tieitant. Cangre/s ^ Pit- 
nilsi did re/ate le Frantt. Gtnttalftatt tftbe qatfiinn rai/ed ufen it by ibt 
eppafite parliT^am. 7t yadgt fairly ef il, nec^itry ta take a cenrnStd 'uievt 
ef the preceding and/ulfequtnt ei;cali,/rain the iegiltning af 1791 r* tbe dt- 
ilaralian af tiier by France againjt Auftria, im April 179a. That fubje^ 
rtjer^id la tht nex[yrar. Preperetary abfervalitm an lie fiale af Eimfe, 
rsibta the French rt--jeiiiliait breie aai iu 1 7^, ctmfared iiiitb tie claji of 
1791. Fmeh rttiolurian tbe binge efall tbt politics af Kurapt from this 
period —Gtatral eanflu/iin. 

W£haver«n[liatcheeainp3LgD llic RoRUms tkerebji becimi ato^ 

of i78g,afte»beiiigtoicMbk tcrsofthe narrow leas m Ac bot- 

tucccGiul in tiie preceiUng p^rt. torn <^f the BaJtici but die litcners 

and after the perfbrmaijce of niany of )he feaibn preveaced "tlieir being 

diftinguilhed acls of vi>c moll ligaal able to dciive any f<tr^r advantage 

bravery,, ended unfavourabJy to frum tliat fuccefs. 
tije king of Sweden, iluougli the Tiic king of Swedes, whole 

very great fiipertorii)' ^' fOTce ever'adive mind fcaicely fccmed 

nJiicli the RnlGan galley fleet lender ever to flumber, while any praTpcd 

titt prince of Najlka poR'eJled, ia cf eniciprize or danger wat in 

that )aft moft obltinate and blooJy view, uTed eveiy p«fli5lc c 

naval eogageineiH which took place to retrieve the ^>Iune of the « 

Lctween £e eonccndi^ig nations*, by the moft eSeflive preparations 

■ S=« Ami-'R-v VbUxjju. Hill, Art. pp. i>< to 100. 

X ibf 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. ['79 

tor Ute enraing campai^; as it had ^nerallr attended tfioTe bold 
were intending to compel nature and fadden mcarorcs, which, like the 
to give way to that invincible fireconcealcd)naflint,hehadrooften 
ardour, with which be hoped to ftrickcn oat at the inllani of occ»- 
overcoaethe prodigioosfuperioritjr iiofl, wns iulEcienc to render him 
of FoKthe Aas conftantly deftined opinionativc and obflinate in adopt- 
to encounteri ing ar.d purfuin^ the imtnediate 
To give effefl to his defigns, he impulfes of ihat genius which had 
Hfcili principally upon the affcflion never fbrfaken him in uiy emer- 
of the eommoas, which he deter- gency, 

mined lo fecure by all means ; and He opened hi> new Tcheme upon 
by drawing in the clergy as anxi- hii return fromi Finland, by ilTuitig. 
liaries, (who Prom the tinne a( the % declaration, thut all orders of the 
rcfumution had been feclod^d from flate had an equal right to ferve 
all other fhare in pnUic affair! than their ^ountry in all fituaiioni, for 
thit of merely fitting in the diet) which they (honld be fbond ialy 
he hoped to eftablifh fuch a body quatilied by their Hbilicies and 
ofllrengtb within the Itingdom, as talents: and that itwai contrary to 
Ihouldmake him perfidy eafy at reafon and propriety, that any order 
liQine; which could only be accoiTi- fhouid monopoUxe to itfelf the 
plilhed by rendering him entirely tight of filling the high offices of 
independent of the faAioU) and tur- the (late. Upon this new princi- 
biileot nobility, by whom he well pie of cqoaliiing all the orders of 
knew he was generally detefled; and the Hate, he fummoned tohis coun* 
Viho had indeed, for a long" feries cil an equal number of perfons from 
ofyearj, beenin thatmoll ftiamcful each; appointing to one depart- 
habit of betraying and felling the. ment two noblrs, the counts Wacht' 
htinoarandintercfts of their country meifleraTid Boode; with whom were 
W whatever foreign bidder they joined Mcffrs. Rogberg and Ulner, 
touW find, who woald affcrrd the two commoners, or private citi- 
BioS gold for the purchafe. zens : this being the iirft known 
But this raeafure, however ex- inflance in the niRory of Sweden, 
pnlient it might appear for the pre- in which fuch an honour was con- 
lent, was a ffloft dangerons expe- 'fcrrcd upon any perfon not nobly 
timent; and the great number, the bora. T he biftiop of Wolgaft, with 
>jli po6effions, and above all the Mr, Alhman, who had been fecre- 
^fing unconquerable fpirit of the tary to the houfe of peafants in the 
Dobiliiy, coQUdered, could fcarcely lall diet, and Mr. Hankanfon, bor- ' 
kre been expefled, upon Any ra- gomafter of Cartefcrtx)n, Wtre ap- 
lional principles, founded on a joll pointed to another department. 
eilimate of mankind, to produce ef- iiimilar arrangements weremade tn 
ftfts much Itfs fetal, than thofe others. 

"'hich have fince been unhappily This bold inltov&tion attached 

" Ihewn in the event. the people at large to the king, in 

It was among the king's pe- a degree beyond what can well be 

colar qualities, to be dtfpofed to imagined, and enaHed him to carry 

niake light of the greaccft obftades. on hii preparations for war with a 

The Htrjordinary fucccfs which fecilin' andeffefl which he could 
[Af] 2 ' ' not 



i8o] ANNUAL REGISTER* i^^u 

itat himfblf bave expcAed. But it proofsof their sscaluid attaclmciitt 

was an uapardonable blow lo the built, manned, and eqoipped goii' 

pride, importance, and feelinei of bojkU, which ther proeoKd to tb( 

the nobility: while the wound thai lune; add likewifa n" 



inllead of clofing or heal- 
ing by time, continued to increafe, fupport him in the war. He ap- 
feRer, and become every hotir more plied bimfelf to the iU[e» of Pome* 
£angrenoui and incuraUe. raoia for the hnii of t millioB of 
^e ftates granted the king riX-doUars, to be fecnrcd on the le- 
cvery fupport iior the war, which vennea of that coiuitiy : but we do 
the poverty of the coontry coold not know the ftKccfs of thit appli- 
poQibly bear. The afleflinents were plicattoD'. 

very general and comprehensive; Tbrou|h thb cardial fupport at 
they reached to perfona and to home, with the iartber aid of the 
tMngs. Every article of confump- Turkifh fubUdy, which contriboted 
tiOQ, as well as of luxury, every much, through the cLt^ulatioD of lb 
condition of life, \V3S TubjeAed to much &reign fllver dropped into 
its appropriate tax. Clei^y, nobles, tht; country, to.dijrde fpirit and 
all orders ware incladed. The vlgourthroaghaUthedopftrtmmtsat 
minute rcfourcea which now conlli- home and abroad, the tdn^ wu 
tuted the qiiiifi iM^Mc^w would ap' cnabUd to open the canpaign in 
pear curious to the financiers of a l-'tnland unnlually early : and the 
jich country. Amoilg the fmaller Swedes afluilly commenced their 
Articles, a watch in the pocket was operations la the ihonlh of April- 
liable to a tax; but (he wearer of Difdaioing to wait the motions of 
two at one time, p^id confiderablyi the enemy, a body of them pese. 
tiorfes, oxen, and all,animali c^^ trated boldly Into Ruffian SavoUx, 

Sble of affording profit or plea- where they feemcd to carry every 

:e to their owners, were taxed; thing before them, and feized thire 

and what feemed not a little pecu - flrong pofts, which were oonitdered 

liar, the nobility, who were obliged as being of great importance on 

to furnilh quotas of horles for the both tides with refped to the Futnre 

army, were obliged to pay a heavy dpcrationtof thewar; beiidu uking 

' taxofa/. 6i. for every horfe which fome artillery, and making aeon- 

they thas devoted to the kiilg's fer- fidtmble booty in arms, ammuiu- 

vice. The fupplies v.'ere, every tion, fiores, and other articles, 

thing confidered, greater than This inroad, made fo nt^r the 

could have been well expefled i and capital was peculiarly aiarmlng at 
Gonfiderabty exceeded the grants of Peierlbnrgh; nor was the dan^i 

pKceding diets. I'hey amounted more regarded, than indignation 

t no lefs, if the ftatements are excited by the ao<iafiity ef the in- 



1,640.000/. a year; 
wEich was a prodigious fumibrthit 
countty to afford. Some lalvo's 
were made, that the tecenc extra- 
ordinary grants fhouU cot be cnv 
lidered as precedents in future. 
Some of the greater cities, as 



fiitt. 6ne of thefe pofts, 
K.imaiikolki, lying on the boTifers 
of the take Saima, was confidered 
of To much confeijuence, that a boJy 
of ten thoafand of the heft and old- 
efl irwsfi in tile visinky of the me- 
irop0lia»Wcti>Jiag a lifting det:c>i- 
locnt 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [iSi 

SMntof the guardS) and fupported the mad defperate, obftinate, .an<l 
ta ufual by a powerful artSlery, Moody which wc have known or 
were difpatchcd, nnder the coaim heard of. The Raffian) were at 
«f general Ingelftrom and the prince length as Eocally defeated as an ar- 
of Anhalt, not only to diflodge the my could be, where the viftors were 
Swedes from this pofi, but to chalb not able teproficbyapurfuit. They 
them entireljE oqt of the country, kft aboat two thoufaiid of their men 
and give them caafe to beware of dead vpoo the fpot; and their mis- 
venturinEtomakefimilarhiraadir fbttnne was greatly aggravated by- 
The Swedes amounted only to thetofsof the prince of Anhalc, of 
about three dwufand men 1 bat they major general Belboflf, who corn- 
were well entre^che^i and their poft manded the guards,, with other 
ftrong; nor had they yet forgotten officers of diRinAIon, who fell in 
the traditionalhiftoryofthofeiimess ^his bloody conflifV. 
when they leldon tooli tUe trouUe I'his aftion. fe^ms to have taken 
of enquiring into the number or place on Ibme of the days from the 

Juality of their enemy. TheRuf- laftof April to the fecond of May. 
ans, formed i^ three clofe and We <i,rc not informed whether the . 
beavT cohmns, advanced to the king was ^refcnt; but from cir- 
attacic (rf* thic eBtrenchmentl with cumllances it may be conjeAur^d^ 
all their n^^ve (htrlcfinefs, and that he wag in another (Quarter. It 
•dth all the pride and confidence of may, however, with juRice be fai.U 
(ucccTs, which long habits of ri^ry that neither the Swedes nor any 
were capable of' infpmn^. The other nation could, ia the brightel!: 
fliocfcwasdrea^fiil; buttoiheafto- petioda of their military renown, 
nifhroent of the at&Hants was i«- nave atchieved a more glorious ac- 
ceived with a iftantf* and intre- ii«n. Ittikewife fully detnonltrates 
pidity of which they ^d known no that the rapid d.eclcnJion whiclihad' 
example, and which baflM all the been fuppofcd Co have taken place 
fiiryand violence of the attack- In- in the inartiaV genius of that naiitm* 
diffitation and Ihame at the idea of proceeded entirely from ihofe ev<;r- 
beuig repulfpd by fo inferior a. forcc,^ ruinous conjoint caufes of bad go* 
with national pride, animolity, and vernment and imbecility in com- 
a been fcnie of ^e rivallhip which mand, and not from any failure in 
teemed eternal betTtcen both peo- the nature, or degeneracy in the 

Sic, all confpired in pronipCtng the charaflcr of the people at large, 
.uifians rather to perilh than to Itwasnearorabout the . .. j, 
fobmit to the difgrace of being dc- time that this aflton was ^ 
fcated at their own doon, by iuph a fought that the king in ^79°- 
handful of mep. The ^ion wu pcrkm crplTed the Kvmene, aud en- 
accoidingly renewed with all the tered|tul}iaa Finland. Tlie Ruffians 
rage and tbry that man is capable were encamped, round- a ftrong fort 
of on. the one fide, and fupported called Valkiala, where the]| were 
on the other with a cool and deter- deeply entrenched, and well covered 
mined valnurwhichnothingevereT- by every defence which art and aa- 
ceeded. The engagement, confider- ture combined were capable of af- 
ing the paucity of the numbers, was, fording. The cnterprize feemed 
(or about two hoar^ that it condnued, rather defpcrate. The king, how- 
[M] 3 ever,, 



Ill] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791: 

ever, nurched to the attack with number of fmaUm^gements, front ' 

bisuraa[confideiice,and was received the time oftheii pa^n^ che KyOKDe, I 

with DO lefs intrepidity. Theadion were continuallv taking place; nor ; 

Wa; very levere,aiidlailed for /eve- can it be doubted, diat Tuch aa j 
tal hourii but the impetuofity of enemy as the KulEans ucrr in Irme ' 

the Swedes was at length tiiutn- of thefe viftorioui. We ptuSt men 

p}iant,andruniioimtiiigallobftaclet, prefume that thefe were inat;iu£ed 

carried the cntreuchmencs as well as into Iplendid vi£toties, and (hat 

the fort by ftortn. This coiiid not otliers which had ng cxiAeice were i 

have been a cheap purchafe; the fabricated, partly to allay the up. : 

accounts, hovever, llaie, that the prehenGoiisof theiniubitantsorthe I 

number of Swedes killed was not metropolis, and partly to gratify I 

ereat; but that no iinall number, (heir inveterate atiimolity to tbe ' 

including many officers, were wound- Swedes, by capiiVacing accoonts of 

cd, through the continual Ihowers the prodigious carnage and deflrnc- 

of gr^pe-fliot -which were thrown tionwhicfa was madeofthem. Such 

from the batteries. This acquili- arti&ces arc common, particularly 

tion was rendered particularly grate- when the enemy is near at hand, 

ful, as be fide I the artillery and Hores and very dangerous; the Rufiiam; 

X large magaz.ine of provi£ons was from their great power, and the in. 

found in the place. trinfic goodnefs of iheir armiei. 

The Swedes took poiTfflion of have'tets occafion for applying to 

Wilmaciftrand and other places, and fuch fubterfuges than many others. 
the ting fixed his bead quarters at Th= king (cemed to have gained 

Borgo, where he was to be joined confiderable advantages by bis early 

by hit fleet of gallies, and (noiwich- Commencement of tht; campaign; it 

Handing a violent contufion he re- being evident ihat the enemy were 

ceiyedun the Ihoulder at Valkiala) thereby in no fmalldegrcefurprized, 

to taice the command himfelf, and neither their fleets nor armies being 

hoift the royal flag on board the in readinefi for fo untimely and un- 

Amphion. we are here to obferve expeSed an encounter ; for their 

that the RuiHan accounts of thefe grand fleet, compofed of capital 

traolaiftianf are fo direftly contrary uiipE, being divided into nearly 

to thofe of the Swedes as to be ir- equal parts, they were ftill in' their 

recontilcable. By the former, the refpcflive winter Dations in the 

king is reprefented as being fo re- ports of Cronlladt .indKevel. ' Ani 

peaiedly deivated, that if they were the dtikc of Sudermania having 

real he muft not only have beea failed from Carlefcroon with tbe 

drivenOQtof the R'.i^ian territories, Swedifh fleet, about tbe time that 

but his army , entirely ruined; the land forces commenced their 

wHereas fu^ceeding as wellas con- operations in Finland and Savohur, 

curring events fhcw tlie dircil re- he thereby not only became tiAi 

verfe to havc'been the cafe. We mafter of the fea for the prefcnt, 

may well fuppofe, that, fplit into bin feemed to have it much in his 

£nall divifions, as the nature and power to prevent the jundion of the 

circum (lances of the country com- two Ruflian fquadrons, without their 

pelled the contending combatants, running the defperate hazard ofone 

particularly the icvaders, to be, a or the other being intercepted and 

feparately 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. {i8j 

(eparatfly attacked in the attenpt. tttribate die Mlure of the enter- 

Nor wcretbe Rufiian galley fleets ia prize; whiditbey were chcnobliged 

a better fiiuatioD, u/\xh re(pe& to to abaaden with tke ucmoJt preci- 

the meant of juiuSion ami sutval pitation ; the di£cultf of geniog 

aJUllaBce. oat of the barbour becoming fo 

Tlae dMke's riewi, kowever, ex- great tbat it could not 1m effeded 

tentlcd to more decifive and dan- without the motl wvnineiit dangev 

genous feirice, than that af merel/ as well ac focie real conlidera^lc 

preventing t^ junAion of the ene- lofi. The Swedes loft a 60 guk 

Tny's fqaadjoni. The plan waa pto- fliip* which beiDg difmafled sva* , 

bably not his own, for ii was of a taken by theeDoray; anotherof the 

more dcTpefate aat«re than feoned Cune Ibrce was wrecked, and the 

to accord tvkli his character. It mea being taken out, was fee o» 

was no left than an anenq>t 10 de- &re- A tnrd likewife ran on IhoF^ 

Jlroy tbeKalTianflrcciD thefortiiied but being got oA, had the fortun* 

Jiarboitr of ilevel ; lined on all to elcape ta fea wich theloTs of pan 

6de3, as it was, with batteries, and of Iter arullery. -Such was the iCuc 

(nclnding a number of great and of this very talk enterprize, whict^ 

AroDg fliipi (be&des fcigatesj notwithftanding the greamers of iti 

nonnted with heavio- metal than objeA, could not perhaps be julli£e4 

even their rates befpoke, and ready upon any principle of uavaJ tactics. 

equipped for battle. The fcheme any more than of foand judemenu 

extencled,a!oagwith thefliips.iothe Too mudi was certainly truUed to 

total deftrudion of that great naval fortuae, and fhe had not hitherto 

aiienal, with all its docks, Itores, in ihe courie of the war affordei 

and naval magaaines whatever. any,great caufe for relying on her 

iw.v , ,fl. Notwithliapding all favour. 

May 13th. ,1^^ formidable obfta- It wouU have been little fuited 

des, and all the dangers which they to the king's charaAer and difpOr 

had to encountci; the attack of the Ation to fuppofe that he was inac* 

Swedes was fo truly tremendous, tive, at a icalsn when his brother 

as to call into aAton every poUible was engaged in fuch levere and 

exertion, and all the courage of dangerous fcrvice. With better 

:theu' llrOBgly gHardedand proteAed fortune, an the fecond day after thk 

enemy. Vf^ arc illinibrnied as to onfnccefifiil attack upon Revel, he 

the particalars; bat the aflailants Anick a great and efi'eftive blow, 

feem to have penetrated into the A great divifion of the RuHjai) 

very heart of the harbour, and to gall^ fieet was ftatianed at Fre- 

have maintained &r feveral hoars a dericlham, where they waited the 

nofl defperatc cei^fii in the centre junftion of the other tlill greater di- 

of the enemy's fire and fireaeth, vifion, from Cronftadt, to commence 

Jt is indeed laid, that fo &r a» lea- active operatU>ns, and where the 

minlbip and valour could confer forts and de&ncei of the harbour 

national glory, the Swedes were were deemed fully competent to 

entitled to no fmajl portion of iL afford them the moft pcrfeS. feca- 

Jn this Aate of things, to a fudden lity. The king, in the Amphion, 

change of the wind, and to its riling at the head of Eis fleet of gdliles, 

Valonn towards die evening, they fuddenly attacked the place with 
fMj4 irrefiftibl* 



184] ANNUAL REGISTER, 179*, 

imfiAible faiy, ftonned >»dL forced of ih&latttr Ba^t htm pradoced n^ 

the ttefeacct, toolc 38 veflUi, funk tti earlier part: bni thedifparity oF 

10 gnn-boHU, burnt 40 iDOre,a]aiig fores wzi too imnenfe toadnit that 

with jotnnTporu loaded with pro- eittier vslonr or condn3, however 

vifions; dcftroycd the docki, and nobly difptaycil, fiionld be 'cap«~ 

btinied all tbe flock of timber and ble of fnp^ying the- deficiency-. 

Aom which lir.d been accufliulatcd The Ilrong pofts winch the Swedes 

fot the bnilduig and equipping had gained tn SaTcbx or CareCa 

Jleet*^ of thii nature. In a wof£ were sccnrdi^ly faon lecoroed by, 

if the Swedtlh acootints be not ex- the Rnffiaoi; and ai the fonner, 

^SE^nted, the lof* H;oald hare been notwithAandiag tkair inferiority, 

deemed nearly invtrieveable in any made crefy vheic a moll obAinate 

other country ; but in that caqtire refiftance, their loiTei in a number of 

the refbnrces are fo raft, and all fmall aAJona, none of which finc;Iy 

WOf ki of labour are executed with ftemed of much iaiportance, became 

inch little expence or trouble to in the ag^gate very confidenble. 

govenunent,ihat probably little WM The refoli wa*, th%t the Swedes 

thonght of it. At Stockholm, how- were obliged to repafi the Kyinenc, 

erer, it wa^ cpnlidered of fuch im- under (urcumftances of great diSi- 

portance, as to occafion the cele* cnIty,diforder, and danger, wirii the 

Lration of a folemn Tt Dium ; the lofi of mofi, if iiot all of their ar- 

por table irophiei were exhibited tillery. 

with great parade, and a medal was While tfaia difmal change took 

Aruck to commemorate the event. place in the face of a&irs at 

The duke of Sodermania wu land, the duke of Sudennanta 
faid to have had fome other engage- fell in with the Cronftadt . , 
nients with the Rufiiana during the fieet, under the com- '""^ ^ 
lemainingpartofthemonthofMay; mand of vice admiral Kvirfe. An 
but the accounts are (0 confufed engagement took place^ and lafled 
and imperfefl, that it would be ufe- fome houn, which brought out a 
lefs to attempt reciting them. If confeflion, not before made, that the 
they really took place, tbey were Swedilh fiiipi had already fuffernd 
only night and diftant aifairs, whirh fo much, both in their hnlU and rig- 
produced no effeft of any confe- ging, as to be at this ume in very 
qucDce or value, and might be con- bad condition for afUon, leveral of 
fiderCd onlyas aprelude toacourfe them being nearly unraanageattle. 
erf the moll bloody and defperate They, however, fought with great 
anions, of which wc have almoliany courage; and the only dilodviDtige 
knowledge. which they attribute to the bad ftate 

For the Kufiian), having had time of their Oiips, was itidifafaliag them 

to recover from iheir farprize, and from forcing the enemy to a dofe 

to colle^l. their forces, the tide of engagement. The fuccefs of the 

fucccft foon turned againlt tlie a^lion was in no degree decided, 

tiwedes,bathby fcaandlnnd; which when the fleets were obliged to le- 

indced had unifotml}' been the cife parate by ihc approach of night; 

in the progrefs of every campaign the Swedes retiring to the neigh- 

fincc the war began, whatever ad- bouring port of SeaOcer. This the 

vantages th$ jezy brave cxenioBi t^ufliAn acGo\iaU reprcfcntcd as a 

flight* 



HISTORY OFEUROPE. [185 

tt^t; bat tbe facBBiJhig ercnta m ti4ifidoiul fcrce of frHh Oupg) 

fbon fliewad the cepxtuy, _ The and the finding any menu af e{^ 

RoSsB vice ■dminl SpacMii^ had caping from this danMr, difperifii 

a leg &Dt off in ddi repoooQtert ai the fleet wa*. aad deeply in- 

and thfl Swede* &7. ^t t«v of ndved in afUen, feemed to the Ml 

timr fliiaa were lb diiiManded u to u hopaMii ; & that t^e Swedift 

betowedoatof Ike line* 4wt wai apparendjr enclofed ia 

The Swedct having rafittad thwr toili.fnun whidj it coald aat be ex- 

fliipsaii4fBendeddieu rigging dar- tricated. 

ing tbe nighti u modi as tbe time , At tb'\i critical moment, when Ow 

ccwld pottbly admit, mowed ike wiUhed-for coaiequencci faemed in- 

ei^ageiiient in tlie monuag. So eritaUe, an exprcTs was inftandjt 

far as we can judge from comparing difptlched to conrej the welconic 

tbe difcotdaot aocoontii diejr icem aewt to PcteritMirgh, where the 

to have had ndier tbe advantage iafaabitants were greatly alanoed 

daring ferenl hours, thoi^h no- by the &rce and doabtful conAi^ 

thing decifive took [daCD. The which were talpiig place in it* 

Juke's fleet were fuperiar in number nei^iibonThood. 'Hie accotutf wick 

to the Cronfiadt dinfion, but, as all its circumftances, and the par- 

we have feen before, they were ikr liciilarfitiution in which their enemft 

inferior in point of amdioon. The wasinvalved.wereimtnediatelypaa- 

KulSan commanden, uDde¥ thefe ]i!hed, and for fereral days all trne 

circiunflances, accordingly ailed Swedes trembled for the iktc of the 

with gnat judgment in making ufe doke afStidennaoia and his fleet; 

pferery benefit, which the peculiar while the public in geaenl, through 

nature of that lea, and of its winds, all the forrounding and adjoining 

CDrrents, flioals.andillandsaiFerded, countries, con&denid thetn as ctt- 

to avoid being brought to clofe tainlyioIL 

aQioni and our own naval hiftory Bat fortune, which has ever been 

abandandy teftifies, that what our fuppoTcd to bold fuprenie fway ia 

inmea call « Img-fiMt fire is the the afikira of war, feenied now for 

nutft deftroAive of any to the rig- once difpofed to favoar the Swedes, 

giogof Ihipi. Thedetailsnfcircumftancesarevcry 

In this doubtful Rate of things, imperfeA; but it appears, upon tbe 

and in tlie very height of the con- whole, that a fudden fhift of the 

Hid, two Swe(li{h fngates were per- wind, feconded itndoiibtedly by ju- 

crived crowding every £ul they dicious manoeuvres and bold exer- 

cuold carry; and imm^iately after tioni, enabled thadukeof Snderma- 

die Revel ftjuadron came in light, nia to extricate himfelf from the 

cosMing of thirteen ftiips, in fall danger in which be was involved, 

chaceof the frigates, bat at'the fame and to gain, on that very evening! 

time bearingdowndireftly,with the a fecure llation in the iflaod of Bi-: 

noft e^r expedition upon the rear orko, where he either met with, 

of the SvediOi fleet, which was thus or was fpeedily joined by the king. 

IJKrally placed between two iires, with hit floiijla, or fleet of gallies. 

No Eioation coold be more perilous, gun-boats and frigates At the fame 

hwaiimpoffibletoformthe weakefi time that their foperior cnemy« who 

}iape of balng ^blc (Q wichOapd fuch fo lately bad deemed tbem a prey fe- 



il«] ANNUAL REGISTER, 4791. 

«i)rc>n&«]'bBTKl),wercdbIigeilM dMcrmiiMd i^ODdtexnidE oiVfy* 

forego all their liopea and advan- bourg. Tiit pK^eA wu fo full of 

Uge*t and to take a ftaiion bfltwqco dinger, tho-prdb^ilities againft ita 

Am ifland and Peterlbiu^h, to pro- facatiatg. io great, aad the rtuM 

<eA .thai capital fram an >£aiilt, whkh mid attend iu bUarefv cer- 

which, notwithllandiDg.^l the Lollea tain, that »oihtng left than the def- 

Jiiftatned by the Swede*, was a mat* perate Aate of ius aSidrs could, 

ter niiich apprriiended. opdn amy principle of militarjr fkili 

It Ceemcd at this tuoe ai if th> or calculation, in ao^r degree juf- 

Swedcih^ been peculiarly (JeSised lify itt adoptioD. 3(>t GuiUviu 

BoibonertohairfieJcaped from one paid ItetkattcntiaB to calcvlations, 

ittmiiMnt danger than to. plunge whrre t^ey inuiricrcd JiWh tus de- 

tbeoifelrea inio anotherftili grcMcri figns. 

This defliny waa taclnded in the Preparatory to the altu^ on ffae 

wonderful aftivicy of the kin^'* port, though the sunher .o£ Jamd 

iniiid, and a fpirit af enierpnze forces which he had on board the 

which no di^caltin or dangers galley-fleet was ill calculated to ad- 

coold fitbdne. Itispoffible ihathu mitcrf being weakened by a diviHoD, 

£tuatiaa at the iOand of fiiorko, he made a deicant on the neighbour- 

which lies facing the narrow cban- tng coaft of Carelia in perlbn, with 

ad that pailes into thegulph or bay a pan of hii tmops; his objeds be- 

pi Wiboorg, might have had fome ing paftly to diftrad and incrcafe 

fliare in directing Ms vievs ^t this the terror of the enemy; partly to 

time to that city and port- There inveft, fa far as his numbers would 

were, however, motives fufficientlf permit, the city on the land fide; 

flrong for nsderta^ng an enterprise and partly to be in readincrs to join 

againft that place, fuppofi a g the de- ]^ the ai&ult, if riic fleet Ihoold prove 

fign was accompanied witti a rea- fuccefifiil, ^e divided his force in- 

fonaUe proved of faccels. For a to two detachoKnts, which purfued 

large dtvifion of the RulEui galley- feparatecourfes.audivereeach fuc- 

deet lay in thai pc»'t; and as Wy- K.ti&(u\ in ronting and difperfing, 

bonig had been the ancient capital with their ufual vigour xoA promp- 

of Carelia before the ereflwn of titude, fach fmall bodies of Ruffians 

PeierAurgh, and Jay within feventy as coi^d in that dreary conntry oh 

SngliflimilesofibaEplace, the eclat a fuddenbecoIleQcdlo oppofetheir 

which would have attended its re- progrda. 

duction, together with the alarm and In the mean time the fiital event, 

terror which it malt excite jn tjie which there wa^ To much realbn to 

metropoli'', were flrong inducements exped, and fo much caufe to dread, 

to the attempt, and wtwld have been was to take place. Tiic grand 

■.'ircumllcnces highly flattering in Ruffian fleet mtder admiral Tfchil* 

the event. fcfaakoff, and the Ciwiftadt divifiort 

Under the influence Of thele mo- of light gallics under the ccsnmand 

tives, and of that violent paflim of the prince of Naflau, haflened to 

which ever operated upcm the king, the relief of their fellows, and ap- 

not only- Jbr omlating but for ri- peared fuddenly before that narrow 

valliag the moft renowned of his paflagc, which we obferved led into 

rredcccflbrs in' militaiy glory, he the bay of Wybourg. The Swedilh 

fleet 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [i«7 

S«et were in the bay ; and u ther* wu lo remove the obftacle eotinlf 

was no other commniucation with by burning the foarflatianedlhip*. 
the fea but ittrongh that inlet, and This was accordingly attempted; 

that being alrtidy polTened by the bat whether it proceeded from wani 

CDcmy, it might b? literally faid that of &ill in thofc who conduOed tb« 

they were caught in « trap. In liie-lhips, or fromunavoidableacci- 

liiii moft cai.;initODi fituaiion, no dent, it fo fell out, that ialiead of 

ch(HC£ remained but to ftirrender to the eaemytheyfell aboard a Sivedilh 

toe enemy, to fgrce their way out, line of battle Ihip and a frintei 

or to perilh in the attempt. The fe- bothofwhich wereblovn up. Sucli 

cond condition was adopted, and a dreadful miifortune, in the midft 

ih: FcH left CO be determined by for- of a fccne already fo perilous, was 

tune or chance. fufficient to ftrike difmay into tb^ 

The Rufltans had placed four of moft undaunted hearts. It irai im- 

thsir CBjiital (hips, and mounted poiTiblc thatamoti^fuchanumberof 

with their heavier artillery, within men, where every individual was aa 

the Arait, two on each fide, and in equal partaker in the danger, and 

fituations where the incricacies of equally operated upon by the prin- 

tnepaJlage would lay the Swedesen- ciple of felf-prcfervation, but that 

jirdyopentotheirfirc. Theirgrand diforder and confufion muft enfue. 

Sect was drawn up in a line a'sn^; Every thing was afterwards done in 

ihect>afi,4Mtheoutfide of the inlet, a hurry, and every thing accord- 

and at as near a difbiDce as could ingly ill done. Four fliipt of the 

with iaft-ty be taken, while their fri- line, in their fubfequent attempts to 

gates and light fleet wen: ranged pais iheflrait, flruClc upon therotks, 

among the numerous Lilaods which and were abandoned to the mercy of 

lie nearer to the Ihorc. the enemy. 1'he engagement tailed, 

'. . , The van of the Swedifh in fohie mannerorotber.dDringtht^ 

J"^^, jeet, commanded by ad- whoIenight,and throughpartofthe 

miral Modec, had (he fortune, af- fucceeding day, When the Swedei 

fiicjby a favourable gale, to pafs hadpalli:dtlieilrait,theywerectofely 

the tlrait without ceceiving any very purfued along the coafl, and incef. 

eilcntial damage, tiring their broad- lantly aitacked by their exafperated 

fide on each hand with great fpirit enemy; and in this courfe loft t^' 

and eficA npon the ftationed (hips as line of battle fhipi more. The duke 

they pafled. Had this exatnple been had the fortune to efcape to Swea. 

ibllowed by tSe red of the fleet, it burg, with the remains of his ruined 

ivould have been tbrtunate ; but the flecLoniheeveningoftHatday. 
evil defliny of the Swtdes was now The Swedes loA either feven or 

to prevail. The cannonade from the eigni fhips of the litie, (for there is 

four Ihips had been fo powerful, and a Ihip ditference in the oppoJite ac- 

fo admirably maintained, that it count) from 6410 74 ^uns, befides 

llruck tfaofe who were next'to follow fcveral ftoul frigates, in this unfbr- 

with awe; upon which the doke of tunate affair. Another difference 

Sudermania adopted a defign, the between ttiefe accounts is, that the 

befi calculated that could. 1^ con- Swedes fay three or foqr Ibipi were 

ccived in fuch cir'cumfianGes, which bum^ which the Itaflians aflert 



i88] ANNUAL RfiGISTER, 1791. 

Wert taken. The lofs on their fide ^urpoles tha.t related to the pref^ne 
was inconlideriible, excepting iri the war. It was probably on the 5 th, 
fijur fhips which fo nobly muniain- that the king, with the remainder of 
cd the pailage of the itrait. Thefe )ps galley fleet, arrived at, or u 
were nearly reduced to the lUte of night more properly befaidelcsped 
abfolute wreck c, and the daughter to, Swenk Sound. Here he feand the 
on board them wat proportioned to Jfemcraniin divirton of his light 
the havoclc which had been matte fleet, ander the oommatid oFM. dc 
(HI the vclfcls. The few Englilh Croiiftadt,beinghislaJlreroBrce,and 
officers ia the RulHan lervice had which had the happy fortune of' 
riut regard Aiewn to their oattonal not being involved in the general- 
fharafler, as well u to their pnrti- ruin, by iis late irrival diiring his. 
euhr merits, as to have the port of abreiice. Inftead of being dilmay- 
iionour afligned to them on this oc- ed by jofs, or his aritour quelled by 
cafion. Moft of them were em- difaller, this magnanlmons prii>ce, 
|>loyed in this dangerous fervice, whofe unconquerable foul feemed to 
^nd fome parehafed the hc«tpi>r at rife fuperior even to the power of 
^e expence of their lives. furtane, inAantly adopted the bold 

The galley fleet, under the king, ' dcfign of attempting to retrieve his 
vai in Ute moft imnunent danger, ifFkirs, by giving f^ a fignal Mow 
IRid its efcape in any manner wat to the enemy, as would at leail ef- 
a matter of aftoniifament. It did face the memory of the'late dif- 
Ttoe, however, efcape without pay^ graces, if it could iiot entirely re- 
uig the fine due to ralhnefs. Six medy their cftbft. 
flfhis gallies were taken, in which With thb view the king did doE 
were eight hundred foldieri of his )ofe an inRani in fupplvine the re- 
goardsi fixty of the fmaller vefleli mainder oFhis own fquadron witk 
were taken or- deltroycd; four Of provifions and ammunition,, and. in 
the okleft and beli reBiinenis in the' putting ^e vefltrh in the be.1 con- 
ftrvice fafFcred fcverely ; and ninety dition that conid be don^ on- a f»d- 
oStcers were killett, wounded or den. He was no )e^ expeditiobs iit. 
BtiOing. It was computed that the putting immediattily (o fea; hit ob- 
Swedes loft morff than fcven thou^ jeft being to intercept A? prince at 
And men in both engagements. NafTxu, who with the CronHadt 

Bot the facceflion of bloody ac- and Wybourg divifrans was on his 
dons was now fe quick, and the way to Fredericfham. This was 
tranfition of fcenery fo unexpefted an arduous attempt, forbcfidcs [hat 
andfudden, that we Icem rather to the Ruffian i (from certain peculiar 
he wuideriBg io the segiont of old caofes, ighich we have hcrciQibreaf- 
romance, than reading a fober nar- figned) a.re beneK cakulaicd for 
rative of late tranfa&ons. thii fpecies (J vtarfare than any 

It was on the 3d and 4th of July other people, the prince, from his 
that the calamitous affair at Wy- long experience, and great and 
bcurgtook place; which, with the conftant fticcefi againft the Otto- 
former lofs at Revel, feenied irre- mans and Swedes, had acquired the 
trieval))y to. rain, and indcrd nearly reputation of being the nril corn- 
to annihilate the Swedifh naval inaoder in I^urope in condufling 
jKwer, 3t Icalt with icfpcfi to any this kind of bloody combat. 

-The 



HISTORV of EUROPE. [189 

The king had not much time evening; when their ofaj'eft feenu 
to lole in waiting for his ene- to h»vc been 10 get under way ajid 
taiy. On the 8th the hoAile fleet dlfperfe. In thit courfe. Come nia 
appeared in light, the king being dn the Aioils. and ftruck their co- 
beiwceQ tbem and the (hoir, ]t loars. The darkncTs of the night 
was not poflihie that they could put- a flop to the firing of tb* 
avoid being furprircd at perceiring Swedet M eleven o'clock. Th« 
liim. He went himfelf, with colo. nieht vta fpent in removing the 
ncICn>nIladt,totakeavicwof their pnJbnerSi and taking pofleflion at 
pofition and number, and found the vefleb that ftrack. 
them in every refprA formidable. At At three in the morning the tic. 
lalvgth "'"' y^^f^^^i the next tors renewed the aftion^ A Rof- 
^ ' " ' morning the prince ad- fian frigate, and a number of fmaU 
VaDced upon the king's fleet, which craft, were foon taken. The van- 
was already drawn up in order of ba.t- quilhed retreated on all Cdei, and* 
Wcthcinainbodybcirgcommanded let fire to their ftranJed fltips.— 
by colonel Stcdir.ck ; the right They were purfued witjKUt inter, 
wing by colonel Tomingi; and the mifTion till ten at night. The Swedes 
left by colonel Hiclmfliema. Jt ii t»ok forty. five of their veflH«, 
a matter of obfervaiion that all with con&derable artillery, and a 
thefe coBmandcrs were land-of- maltitnde of trophies. We may 
£c«n. judge what extraordinary artillery 

' The king himfelf, who was al. this fort of veSzh carried, by 
ways in the beat of every action, knowing that two forty-pound brais 
was thit day on board the Sera- ntoitrirs were amvrg the trophies; 
phitn galley* and gave the fignal and that the cannon carried ia ge- 
fbr a general engagement. A fu- nerd from 14 to 30 pounds hall ; 
lious conflifl now commenced. The it is obfcrvable that howitzers held 
wings were &r& engaged. The a more thaii common proportion in 
enemy came on with great iierce.> thcie Hits. The prifoners maoont- 
nefs, and fnpported a mofttremen- ed to about 4,500; of whom ato 
doDJ £(e, both of cannon and fmall were officers. Thenumber ofvel^ 
arms; bat they were fo warmly re- fc!s funk and burnt could not be cx- 
cetvcd, and the refinance coutmued afily afcectained, but the wrecks 
with fuch firmnefs, that about noon and vcftigca of ruin, upon 3 long 
their left wing began to rccoil.-~ tineofcoaft, were very numerous. 
Btxh Jidcs about thia time received The lof; of ih: Ruiiiatis in men muft 
reinforcements, upon which the Ruf- have been prodigious : bat no cal- 
fian left wing returned to the culaiion can be made of it. The 
charge, and the fight was renewed Swedes bft but a few vc&Is; and 
through the whole extent of the their loTs in men ivas more mode- 
line with the Qtmofl fury. Abuut rate than ceuld well be conceivrda 
four o'clock fome ot the RulTian confidcring the dellruflive and 
larger gallies qtritted their line, bloody nature of thele mixed and 
others Arack their colour), and pecuIiLtr combats, 
others ibundcred. Several were Thus were the Rufiiani at length 
taken. The beaten enemy, how- deicnted, partly, it may be faid, on 
ever, continued £riog till ten in the thelt own element, and eniiieiy in 
9 their 



tjo] ANN.tJAL REGISTER; 1791. 

their own bvouriteminiwr of fight- can be exceeded by thofe 6^ any 

iag, in which they were deemed tiatiun; and TafiicieDtly Ihewed, tbu 

irreJiftible; To tbac aa the Swedes if it hadnotbeen forthe difaffeftion 

Ibrmerly taught them to cOnquei' and treachery of hii nobtlity and 

by land, they now in return taaght Olficcrj, in the firft campaign-, Ruf- 

the Swedes to beat cbemrdves in £1 wonid have found a moch more 

(his new fev ere mode of deciding formidable enemy in GnRavDs, than 

the fortune of war. The prince. of that untimely afid Fatal check aficr- 

^alTau LikewiTe, who Had plumed wards permitted hint to prove. In 

himfe If highly on beipg the king of fail, ncnwithftanding the vaft power 

Sweden's dire£tadverlary, and .who and the prodi^ona amies of tKat 

fhewedfomcevidcntmarksof onen- cmpii'e, it is pn>bable that Bnllia, 

tation on-his fuccdle* againft him, for many years bjck, has not'owcd 

Vru now compelled to lower hii much lefs of tier fuccefs to politicat 

creft, and to reiign hi» laurel* to a intrigues, and to her pt-culiar talent, 

faperior tot. The fcanty provi- of excitini; internal diJTeniion and 

fion fince made for htm by the court outward difuuioh among her neigh- 

of Petcrftiurgh, the ufual magnifi- hours, than to the force OY terror of 

cenee, expecce, and liberality of her armsi 

thai court b«ing conAdered, fuffi- But, Tplendid and glorious as thit 

ciently (hews that this misfortune viftory wai, except in extricating 

ferred much to wear away the tut' hirn from itnmcdiate danger, it was 

Itiory of hia former exploits. In- not capable in lU effefl ofraijch bet- 

' deed few things could have gone tering the king's condition. He had 

nearer to the heart of the emprcfs not a futiiciirnt army topiofit by it] 

than this defeatj andhisnai'y.whichforicsnamberwaj 

It was undoubtedly among the a very good One, was totally rained. 

moil cjttraordinaiy rercrfci ot for- Sweden, which had drained every 

tune known in modem hiflory; ef- nerve in fupport of the war, wa» 

pecially confidering it to be a naval worii down by in enormous expen> 

aftion; and the general ruin which ces; ihefe, as ufnal, far exceeding! 

had fo recently fallen upon eeery not only all previous calculationir 

denomination and part of the Swc- but whatever could have been 

dilh fleets, excepting merely tl.e thought pofiible, ever after maicing 

Pomeranian light fquadron. a brge allowance for contin^ocirs. 

Wliite we cannot avoid admiring Her lofs of men had betm btenire 

the invincible courage and the un- great; a lofs which file could nearly 

broken fpirit of enterprise in the as ill fpare, as fhe could that of her 

kitig, which rofe fopeiior to ererf treafurc. This viflory, and even 

ilrolce of fortune, too much praile the preceding unfortunate adicmt, 

. cannot be bellowed on the valour produced, however, one eSt&, of 

and firmnefi fo twbly difplaycd by much greater importance than 

bis troops ; which, on both ele- might at £rft view be conceived, 

menti, in all the unequal trials, and They fcrvcd effcAually to cure; or tt> 

all the dangerous fervice of the paft remove, that fupcrcilioos contempt, 

and the prcfcnt campaign, every ani:thatextremeia>[rrar, withwhich 

where contending with a force infi- the emprefs had long been i 



nlielyfupenor, never was, and never habit of treating and of affef^ng t* 

con&dcr 



impre 
of It 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ryl 

confider tbe kii^ tipon all occa- buion, the exuems hanghdnelV 

fioni ; and which delcended to the wicli which that court had inflexibly 

priDce of Ni£ta and othea of her perfevered, in difilaiafilly rejt&ing 

coauwiDden, without at all lofing alt the propolal* for Biediating s 

injr thing by the way. peace with the Ottomans, whicb 

Thefe leDtinenu,if real, or their were made by the allied powers, 

txpreffioo, if not, were now totally The termi in which thii rejeSion 

iltered. The emprer* perceived wi»genenlly conveyed, approached 

and felt, that Ike was contending macb more nearly to infuli, than uy 

widi 3 moft fbnnidable adverfary; the ceociiiatory or friendly langoaga 

wbofe courage and abilitiea would ufttally ettabltOied among power* 

erer render him dai^erOM. He who ve in aneqoality of condition^ 

was tbe firft and tbe only eoemr and who reciprocally cultivate 



iing l^d. 



who, from its foutidationsbeinzl^d, neighbourly good offices.—*' The> 

had erer excited alarm or ^read' " emprefi va3itt vit, and makea 

terror in her ajMal ; and thu he *■ peace, when flie pleafei, without 

sot only fncceeded in performing " cenfultliTg anjr other power." 

once, bat, feetningly inoefpiteofin —^'' Shetsnottobe di&ated to."— ^ 

fbrtitBe, continued in repeating; and "She will not permit any interfe- 

fte&w, that from his neamefs and ** rencewhateverinthemanagiemenc 

lis great qoklitiei, no faperiority of " or goveroment of her afEurs."— 

power might at all times bs fu£ci> Swch w^a the general flile of the 

cat to guard agatnft tbefodden ef- official language which ilTued from 

ftdsofhis tindauntedrpintaadb(dil the court at Pe[erlbar|h. 
cuteiprixe. It maylikewife be well It was at the time fiippoied, and 

imagined that a woman of her cha< probably juflly, that if [he emprefs 

rafter codd not avoid being impref- niled in the proiecution of her grand 

led with relpeAby the extraordmary fcheme, of driving the Turks entire- ~ 

adi, and even "jMl fome fympathy,- ty one of Europe, and placing~her 

diougb an enemy, in tbe herotfm of grand-fon Conitantine upon the 

this ungnlar prince. tbrcme of the ancient Greelt enpe- 

TI1C& fcnament*, together with rers, her next favourite objetFl, and 

the polidcal modvei by which they not much lefs dear to her, wts, ta 

were accompanied, undoubtedly ereft the cob'e provinces of Molda- 

CMitribnted mucii to bring abaut via, Walachia, and Beffarabia into 

that fuddcn and mofl unexpeded an independant Tovereignty, for her 

peace which was now to aftonilb all great favourite, prince Potcmkin ; ^ 

Enit^e^ between thde contending whofe perfonal inAueuce and vaA 

nations, wh^ kmg-eftabliflied en- power, already nearly fupieme, had 

aityaiid rivalfhip would feem al- toBgfpreadjealoufyandai3rm,ifnot 

moll deftioed to be perpetual, if any through the empire, atleaft through 

thing on this earth could befo. But the court, and axiong the principal 

there waa another poUtical motive, nobility. The great and conAant 



which perlu^s operated more Ibrci- oopofition which {he met with froip 

biy apon the court of Peterfburgh the allies, was undoubtedly the canfe 

than thole we have already ftated. whichiDdncedtheemprel) atlength 

AU Europe had feen, with iome de- to abandon thit defignj and in the 

grte of wonder, but nooe of a|f ra> place of an independeoc Ibvun-igniy 



ijii ANNUAL REtSISTERi ijjt. 

an thele provinces, to Tooth Potcm- fideration, yet a very faTOtirite 

kin'i unbition for the prerent by otit) that it would enable that 

■ppoincinghim Hetmanof [heCol- entire to perfevere in its native 

&ck>>an(%ce<]fthe^TeatelliruftaiKl hiDghtincfi with relpea to the 

pwrr in the empire, which lilcevdfe other allies. 

carried in Tome lort the feinbbnce Immediately.oratleaft rery fpcc- 
«f Ibverei^ty; and which ' had dily after the late viAoryt a. ducft 
■erer before been filled up ftnce the private intercouHe between the em- 
4aya of the celebrated Mazeppai prcf^ and the king feenit to have 
BatiBwhatreeardedOckzacow, the pecn commencedi It ij very pro- 
Crimea. Black Sea, and all other babic liiat the general heads of ac- 
pointt of her claim, the peiri^vered commodation were thus ffrded be- 
in mamtainin^ the fane infle^tible tween the principali themfelves ; 
■bAinacy. Tiuj wan fo mach tvfent^ nor 15 it lefi probable (and it hat 
«d by the alHed powers, and the dif- been aflerted] that it wai in the firft 
ferencet upon the fobjcA rofe to inftance laid down as a role, that 
Inch a pitch, that RuiTia was on the iheaJtietoncithcrfidcwercnoc lobe 
point of b^n^ involved in a war confaltcd, nor any mediation what- 
with Great Bricaui and PruOla ; ever refetred [o, bnt that the peace 
vhich waa indeed ot\\y prevented Ihould be the immediate aA, and 
by the powerful oppoficion and «Ia- proceed from the fpantaneons will 
moor which was raifed in England of the partiei, witbont foreign ad- 
■gainfi the intentions of govern- vice or cenfulcation; this equally 
menr. fuiiing the pride of one, and the 
If that event had taken place at peculiar circumHa rices of the other, 
ft certain period, Sweden, which was with refpeft to thofc allies whom lie 
already a fore thorn in the fide of was now aneicpefledly deferting. 1[ 
Ruffia, would have become' not only is likewife 10 be obferved, that the 
ap eaual but a fo^erior enemy, emprefs was as little pleafed or la- 
Flaced by hit fituation on the only tisoed with the condufl of her ally 
voliterable fide of that countryi and Leopold, as the king was widt that 
flipparted by Eogiifh fleets and of Great Britain or Pmflia. 
Pru^n amiei» tiM heroic king General IneelSrom, on the put 
would have been enabled to carry of Kuflia, ancTthe lieutenant gene- 
Ire and fword into the very heart ral Baron d'Armfeldt on that of 
«if the empire ; and poffibly to pro- Sweden, were, without lofs of timcf 
dilcc one of thofe extraordinary re- appoimcd 10 confer and ffttle the 
'Volutions, for which that govern- terms of pcice. They met on the 
sienc has ever been fo rrmorkable : banks of the Kymene, in a lar^e 
an event for which many thoaght tent erefled for the purpofe between 
the pet^lewere at that time fully the advanced poAs of the two hoftile 
ripe. It is then eaUly feenof what camps, on the plainofWerela. As 
vaU importance it was to the coart the commifijoners had not much 
of Peterlburgh to draw oft' Sweden liufinefs to feiilr, and their, ptinci- 
irom an alliance, which was capn- pals were equ.-illy eager for a fp^cdy 
ble of producing fuch dangerous accommodation, the negociations 
coadequcDces ; at the fame time, could not b^- tedious. A lafpenQon 
(though compaiatively a fnull con- of armt was immediately agreed 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. 



tm 



s...„A .,.1, cm; andfliortlylficr 
AugQft i+th. ^ ^^ ^f'p^^^ 

were concluded and ligticd, the ra- ': 
tificationi being to be exduutged 
in fix dayi. Thu new tra^typlaced 
nkotcei^ cxaAly in the lame flue 
they had been before the 'war. All 
the ancient treaties, or more pro- 
perly tbofe which had bcea coa- 
claded ilnce the lelgn of Cbaxks 
the Twelfth] were renewed and 
confinncd. If any change at all 
took place, it was only with refpc^l 
to the recognition, or, perhaps far- 
ther IpeciAcatiiHi, of a daufe ui one 
of the eu-liejl of thofe treaiici, by 
which the Swedet were to be al- 
lowed to puTChaic corn free from. 
duties in Livonia, whenever that 
commodity ejiceeded a certain price 
ie their own couniry i a coiidi'.ian 
which Ruflia had hitherto m.idd lit- 
tle fcruple. of violating upon the 
noil trying and diilreSIiig occa- 
boas. The frontiers were to be 
placed exaOly in the fame lUte 
they had been before the war. 

It will alForii no caufe of furpvize 
that the peace occadoned oiuch Joy 
at Siockholm, when it is knoo'o 
that the public rejoicings at Pe- 
terlbargh were carried to an ex- 
treme, which feemed jittte coLifiil- 
ent, either with the pride of thai 
coart, or with tlie contempt witH 
which they had fo recently alFefted 
to regard and treat their late adver- 
iary and tiew friend. Among other 
inftances of this, a grand Tt Dtiua 
was performed in the great church 
of chat city, to afljlt at the celehra- 
tion of which the emprefs canie in 
perfon from her country palace, as 
did the grand duke, and all the 
other members of the imperial fa- 
mily, from their refpcSive refi- 
deoces; the whole coarC being for 
that day and night in the utmoil 

voL.xxxia. 



fplendoar of what is called ^ii/ji; 
while the capital was (hining with 
illunU nations, and re-echofng with 
acclamations of joy. The magni- 
ficence llkewife ivitli which' the em- 
prefs honoured, and rewarded ths' 
negociltors on both Jides who con- 
cluded the peace, fufficiently teiU- 
fied how much ihe found herfelf In< 
tercficd in that ever.t. . 

Few Incidents could have more af- 
fe£lsd the general face of aiFaIrs in 
Europe ihan tliis uncxpefted peace; 
but it particularly deranged, and in 
a great meafure oivrdirew, the 
fyftem of polities purfued by the 
king of Pruffia for the Jall two or 
three years; and, in the parfuit of 
which he had- been guilty offome 
capital faults, little compatible with 
the charafter ofagreat ft.;tsfman. 
That prince w^s' too full ofrefiae- 
menit in his policy and conduft, and 
was To How m his decifioiis, that it 
carried the appearance of irrefolu- 
lion. By the lirft error he loft that 
charaftcr of fincerity, openneG, and 
fair dealing, fo ef.'jntially ncceflary 
to princes and ftatefmen, (even in- 
dependcntof all moral motives) for 
the mere furtlierancc, and bringing 
[ohappyiflue, their political purlitits. 
With refpefl to ilic fecortl, the lone 
of menace which he aflumed esily 
in the difputes with Aufiria and Ruf- 
fia, the perpetual difplay of his mili- 
tary force and preparniions, with the 
continual movements of his armies, 
(which muft have occafioncd an cx- 
pcnee in fome degree approachijig 
to that of aflual war) undoubtedly 
pro Jucei fome confiderahle effcd in 
the beginning. But when it was ac 
length difcovered that thefe tcnjfic 
appearances were totally harmlefi, 
and were followed by no correfpond- 
ing ertccl, a^id that hii adverljries, 
to ufe a common phrafc, came to 
[A] know 



U.BnreM,,GpOglc 



i94l ANNUAL REGIS1*ER, 1791, 

know thai mui, then neither high ftattd ; wMlehU nftoriei, lu> cob- 
langaage, nor tbe tnovemenQ ofa tiaual bold ecierprwet, hit defdiu, 
FrnSan vrny, produced Kny more uid hi) prodi^ioai tofiei, were in- 
efied duB die common exercifu of dKpatablc reconb (tf tiie mergy 
m rrTinc, Thii wu particularly the wtA which he condafled the war, 
icTalt with refpeft to hit gresi an- and of the un«<j«alted hasards and 
tagonift of Raffia, hAo (oon form- dangert towhich he ha<l,fsr iblon^ 
iA^ a trae eftimate of the real a time, coBtiBVally expftled hi* pcr- 
weight or value which fhouM be fbn, hi) brave troopt, and even hit 
affigned to thele Areata or appear* country, in the purTnit. He recri- 
ancet, feemed afterwards to treat rainatRl with mach point and ieve- 
them with the moft lavertign eon- ri^, ai well at juftke, opon the 
te»ipt. GondnS of the allict. who had fer 
It wu by ihit fort of condufi, three yean, with the coldcft indil^ 
by a fyllem of procrtftination and &rence, beheld lun contesdin; 
tergirerfation, that the court of againft a fiiperiority of force, of 
Berlin now found her politict at which there were few exaatplea, and 
•nee overthrown, her hopes fruf- which nothing lelt than the impa- 
trated i and tl-.at (he law, ivith dif- laileled valour of hii traopt conid 
may, the moll efiefiive member of have fapported even for a Ihort 
die alfiance, with refpcA lo the time; yet through that long period 
making of any fucccfsfut impreflion of continual and unequal coitSiA. 
upon Raffia, after all the wonderful attended at it was with vaiions for- 
exerdons which he had made in the ttae, and freqiently opprefled and 
common caufe, irrecoverably de. oveibome as he wu by irreCAble 
tached from it tfaccugli her own fbrc«, until he was at length Ihut 
' fault, who fuSercd this moft ufeful up in the bay of Wybourg, from 
ally to be reduced nearly to the whence (though he iQere loft a no- 
point of abfolitcely perifliin^, while Ue part of hit fleet) lus deliverance 
the was amilfing herfelf with the in any manner feemed fcarcely 
holiday fports of talking big and fiiort of a miracle, not a fingle fbip* 
parading her armiet. Nor wu the not a fingle man, was fcnc by any 
toft of W ally all the had to appre- of the allies ■• his affiflance w re- 
hend, Ihe wu forely afraid Xand had lief, 
reafon to be To, at ic Teemed highly The king fbnnd it much more 

Erobable) that her late friend wu difficult to vindicate himfetf from 

Dund by the canditions of this, the copplainii and reproachet of 

peace and treaty to become her the Ottomans, beciufe tbey were 

aftcal eneoiy, and to join Denmark moch better ibnnded, than frorn 

in a triple alliance with Rnfiia. tiioTe of his ChriAiak allies. Befidet. 

Nothing Gonld, however, exceed the great fubfiiies whidi the Porte 

die obloquy which was thrown np- had paid to Sweden for the fup- 

onthekin^ofSwedcnfbrthisIhanie- port of the war, the parties were 

fal defertion, at it waj called, of hit nrnily bound by treaty, not to coa- 

kllies; a charge to which were added clade a peace, but by mutual par- 

the moft rrproachfal epithets. Gof- licipalion and confent ; <b that with 

Uvut vindicated his conduft upon re^cft to the Turks, it was an in- 

the grounds which we have lately dc&nHblb and ll«meful violation 

• of 



U.rireM.,G00l^lc 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [195 

«r compact and pit& £nth. The . ed it to be, produced in tbe conn tnd 
news of the peac« ucordingty a^- government, u well as with the'pab- 
poicd I» iacredible at ConEhnti- tic. Tbe loweft popnlace at Con- 
noplc, lint at firft it was not be- fbintioople became fo outrageous on 
lievKl; but when iW account wai thi) occafitm, that it was dangeroua 
to wdl co&£med ai to leave no for fome time for a Swede to appear 
room for tbe poffibility of doobt, in the ftreett. 
notJuBg conk! exceed the ferment We have already fliewn the inac- 
which it excited in that capital, tivity of the Ruffian armies on the 
TbSwedei b«d juft before been borders of the Danube, during the 
aiBong the mofi favoured of the fummcr, and ufual feafon ofaAion, 
Chri£an nations; Gofiavns was in dieyear 1790; and Ukewlfc, that 
iidd as a hero, fcarceljr fecond to this inaOion proceeded frdm politi- 
Charle*theTweUih,«hofechara&er cal and not from military caafes. 
wit Hill held by the Turks in the It, however, fo proved in the eventt 
gKacefi veneration. It *ns only a that this delay of hoftility wat of the 
few day* before die iatcUigence of ntmoft advantage to the RuffianSt 
ihii^ul Atdkc was received, that 'and that few ciicumltances could 
»a nDComnunily liae and valuable have been more latatly rnmous to 
dianand/ which had been fent by their enemy. For the former, ha- 
Gulb*tu,waa prefented to the grand ving direAed all the!; views to the 
leigniof. Both the refidenc Swe- ptofecotion of a winter campaign, 
dilh minilUr, and the bearer of the the Aliatic troops, who formed the 
piernit,were not only received and bulk of the Ottoman armies, had; 
treiied with peculiar marks of dif- according to their eflablilhed cuf- 
tuiQioQ and honour, but had mag- torn, at tne approach of that feafon, 
u&cent pecuniary preCenti beftowed all repaired the Hellefpont, and re- 
00 Aemi while nothing could ex- turned to their native countries, 
ceed the marks of applaufc, appio- Thus the Bnn>pean Turk* were left 
hanon, and even feeming sffefiion fingly to contend with the whole 
which they received from the popu< force of Ruffia'; nor were the former. 
lace ; who appearing to forget their though brave in the highefl fenfe 
ancient pride, bigotry, and animofi- that the term can be onoerftood, al . 
ties, are reported to have hailed die all to be compared in point of bar- 
Swedes ai their Cbriftian brothen. dinefs to the Ruffian foldiers. For - 
AI! thefe circum fiances, all dicfe fii- thefe having been bred in thofe fr<H 
vourable feotiments, ail the Ibong zen Hyperborean regions, compara- 
opinions founded on the honour and lively to whoTe rig(»ir the feverities 
httoirnK^thcking, MWellasonthe of a Ttiraciu winter, which were lb 
Dative honefty and generons Melity dreadful to the ancients, appeared 
far which the nation had ever been to be a fon of fummer, they even 
tmownedi only farvcd now AiU far- preferred a winter campcugn on ths 
tlicr to aggravate the pnbtic mind, Danube to one in any other feafon; 
and to increafe tke prefent ferment at th* fame time that their enemies 
to its utmoa pitch. In a word, no- were torpid with the cold, and fron 
tbiag could exceed the indignation their habits incapable of wlth- 
aad abhorrence, which' this aft of flwKUag ilic JKenncfi of the outward 
bttcBeb and trev^cry, as they deem- air. 

{N]s Duriiif 



UiBnieOb, Google 



1^6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

Curine this ftate of tnaAion on (rade from all futha de{ireda< 

the Danube, aRufiian piratical fqui' tion. 

Aran in the Archipelago, which had Daring the Itate ofiaa&ioa which 
done inhniie mifchief in thofe prevailed on the borden of the Da- 
illands, befides greatly impeding tlie nuhe, the Turki made an UDfuccef- 
trade to the Porte, particularly that ful attempt to penetrate into the 
from Egypt, which was mere valna* RulTian provinces on thelideof Afia; 
b]e than any other, was at length hopingat leaft tonukefuch adiver- 
totally dellroyed, tlirougti ihc an- fion as might be the means of draw- 
daunted courage, or barb.-irous feto- ingpart of their attention, aitd pier- 
city, as it was called, of the Alee- haps of their forces, from the grand 
rinei ; a race of men, who fetling fcene of aAion. On llus defign, the 
all laws at de^ance, liifdained to be ferafquier fiatd Bey, a B^ia of 
frightened by names or by prophe- three tails, had advanced with an 
ties. The Ruffian adventurers, army of forty thoufand men from 
who were joined by others of all Anapa, and entered into the Rof- 
the furrounding cotintrtes, befides fian territories or conquefls. Biit 
repeatedly re-plundering the fmaller prince Potemkin, having received 
illand) in general, had, under the early infbrmaiion of this de£gn, had 
condufl of a major Lambro, feized already taken meafures to defeat it, 
entirely on that of Zia, where they by ordering the Ruffian forces on 
erefted fortilications, and Iiired a thebordersoftheCubao.andtheflde 
body of Albanefe foldiers for their of Caucafus, to a%mble and tepd : 
defence, and for fecuring the future the enemy. 
polTelfion of the ifland. Batal Bey had juft „« . , 

Maviath ^""" '^'2"'"'= ^°" -V^'^ ^"^ ""'" ^"- 

1-00 ' ''''^t'"'l'l'y'3'"l'i"J<edit bsn, when he was immediately CB- 
'° '. might be faid generouf- countered bythe Rulfian army under j 
Jy, undertook to refcue the Archi- general Herman. The fuperiority 
pelago from the enormities commit- of the I'urks was laid to be great, 
ted by their fellow depredators; and but I heir ufuat fortune flill clofely 
being joined by fomc Turkilh vef- adhered to them. They wereeoni- 
fels, which were, however, of little pletety and totally rom«l ; their ge- 
ufe in the aflion, attacked the Ruf- neral. and all his principal officers, 
ftan f<]uadron with fuch irrclifiible made prifonera; their artiller}', 
fury, ih.ic after making a great amounting to above tliirty pieces, 
flaughlcrofthem.anJ linking two of with Atir whole camp, Tentj, bag- 
ttieir bdl vellcls, they forced them gage, proviSons, ammunition, every 
to rUn the refl on Ihore, and fet fire thing belonging to the army, wai 
to them, to prevent tlicir being taken. The Ruffian account of the 
taken. Major Lambro was himfelf aftion is indiftinfl: we may how- 
wounded, andefcaped on ihore with ever gather from it that either a 
his officers, and not wirfiout danger" furprize or an ambulcade contributed 
and diflTculiy, in 3 boat. Thus the fomething xo this very cheap and 
Algerines effcflually performed the decifive viftory. 
fervice they had undertaken, and Some naval affiora, which took 
freed th« illands and the TurkiUi place between the Rufliani and 

Turio 



e.t,, Google 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [197 

Tttite in the Black Sea, are ill re- time of their tnemy, every circum- 

lated, and would be of Itcile ac- Ibnce of wliolc fituitlon they were 

count if it were otherwife. In one perfectly acquainted wiih. For the 

of thefe, it is faid, that a Turkilh ufually ere;:! Oudman army, under 

(hip being fuiTOunded by feveral ihe conduct of the grand vizir him- 

RuSan, and the captain feeing it felf, was (o mil'erably reduced, luit 

in^xiflible toefcape, he boldly grap- only by the Jepartureof the Afiatics, 

pled one of the largeft of the ene- but by the defertion of their Euro- 

iny'« Ihips, and fetting Grc to the peao forces, as to be eRimated at 

powder-room, biew both up toge- only about 411,000 tnen. To com- 

ther. In another, where the Ruf- prehend the caufc of thia extreme 

fiansclaimcd a complete viftory, the weakncHi, we arc to take notice, that 

captain baflia, who commanded the bulk of the Ottoman armies is 

leaiDft them, had, on his return to compoted of men who hold 'their ef- 

Coniiantinople, the title of Gazi, lu tates by military tenures, and who 

Conqueror, beAowed on him by the advance to battle at the he.-wl of their 

grand lignior, which was the great- vaiLIs, as our barons ''ijjn dayi 

ell honour tltat could be confer- old. Thefe men not l^n^lttj^l 

It wu not till late in OAober 



old. Thefe men not b^n^ifcjf'Ta*^ 
diers, though very r^W^ w ^gi*/^^\ 
bravely, ycthaving been .wuKufed '' /^v 
that the Ruflian armies under the to live in eafe and luxuVy, jre ilKjiftU ■^\ 



princes Potemkin, Repnin, and ge- culaied t< ■cp» '/ 

neral Sowarow, began to be in mo- and hardlhips of war; burh(ft^»u A'^ I 

tion. Their movemenu and pi^pa- they may fubmit to them in Wt. 

radoiu fooD Oiewed their determi- mer, abhor and dread beyoud alT'*'^ 

nation oF making a vigorous winter things the feveritlcs of winter fer- 

campaign. Ifnuilow, on the Da- vice. I'he defertion amongft ihem 

nobejWiththeftrongfonrefsofBrai- wa* accordingly great; BOr could 

low, which would complete the can* their commander, notwiihllanding 

•]ueft ofWallacbia, were their imme- the great powers which he polTeU 

dtiteobjefis; and their more remote fed, relttain it either by threats or 

"ere, upon the reduSion of thefe rewards. 

two places, to pafs the Danube, as As the taking of Ifmailow was 

general Romanzow had done in the one of the mod important eveotv 

former war; and carrying fire and and by far the moll cruel and la- 

fwonlinto the heart of the Ottoman mentabic which took place even ip. 

doninioni, to compel the Pone, be- the prefent favage war, and wa^ 

fiire it could poffibly recal its Aiiatic likewifc diHinguifhed by adifplay 

fbrcli, to abandon its european of the molt ferocious LntrepitliEy on 

'Kpcsandconnedions:andtograiify the one fide, and of the molt uq. 

tliEfu^rb pride of the Emprefs, by daunted and uncoiiqiierabk valour 

iccepting fuch terms of peace at Hic on the other, that either was or can 

pWed to grant, without the inter- be exhibited, wc Ihall on thofe ac- 

lertBce or mediation of any otlier counts enter more into the partlcu- 

fwsT. lars of a tranfadion which mult ever 

Nothing could l>emore &vourab1e continue memorable, than we Ihould 

^ the execution of thefe defi^ns have done upon any other occafiofi. 

'W the d^k>rable condiiiOaat Uii* It happens likewife that the details 
IN]S ' given 



t98] ANNUAL llEGISTER, 1791. 

etven of tfali horrid cataflrophe tyofbeingfiUedbythewstenoFdta 
hare been more clear and inKlligi- Dannbe. 

Ue, than any other we ever met (at Todefendthefe works, with msB^T 
leaft fo near the time of aQion) others which remain unnoticed, be- 
whtch related the operationt of ei- fiijes a grand artiUrry, amounting 
tiier a Ruffian or Tiirkifli army. It to more than three hundred pieces, 
H tmethat thefe accoants vary in a tcieft and numf^rons garrifon had 
many refpcfts, bat this circnnfflance been early alluttcd; and on tKe ftp- 
by no means impugns tt^ general preaching feafon of menaced daii- 
TCracity of the raters; who coold ger, the grand vizir in perfon reio- 
enly defcribe thofe things whicK forced it with ij,oooc"ofe« troops j 
cune within the reach of their own (o that Ifmailow might be tmely faid 
refpeflivenanwvobfervadon.inihe to h:ive contained the flower of dw 
Bate of horror, datiger, confulion, Turkifh army. The artillery was 
snd abfolute darknefs, which over- coromitiedentiTelytothecondu^aiid 
^»rcad the fatal fcene through the mnnage of Enropean engineers, of 
coarf« of a long winter's night; yet whom the chief, faid to be an En- 
'by comparing thefa unconneAed glilhman, perilhed with dio left in 
feitements, they afford fufficientfnat- the general denruOion. 
tcr from which to draw fome gene- Qeneral Sawarow, with the army 
lal, though not entirely precife which he particularly commanded, 
ideas, of the nature and coarfe of was appointed to the, arduous taft 
Uifr operation). of reducing this very ftrong and Tery 

" Ifmailow, from the importance importaiit fbrtrefs; an attempt, at 
of its fitaatian. had long fince been that feverefeafon of theyear,whid) 
tendered a place of conliderable mnft hare appeared abfnrd and im- 
fEreagth, according to the Turkilh prafticable, if jodged of according 
ideas and^owledgeOf fortification, to the prefent mode of conducing 
«nd has been conflantly regarded war, and by the rules of thofe mo- 
at the key of the lower Danube. Of dcm laftics, which have been adopt- 
late years, the works were impr-pv- ed and ellablifited by all die other 
ed, enlarged, and ftrengtheiwd, in a military nations of Europe. 
fnonTnafterlymanner.underthcable It would ahnoft fecnTi as if that 
direftion of a Spani(h engineer, general had hit mind heated bf 
The baftions were by him all newly reading the annals of ihofe 
firongly ftced with ffonej and be- ancient ravagers and defttoyeri f^ 
• fides perfeSing and adding ftrength his country (nnlefs indeed he be 
to the old works, he added new ones, himfelf defcendsl from that pap^c) 
accordiug to the modem improved Gengis Khan and Tamerlane, for 
flile of fortification, fo that every thefe conquerors, or rather deftroy- 
part might reciprocally cover and ers of mankind, whofc armies con- 
be covered by another. The town filled of nearly uncountable myriad( 
was furrounded by three walls, each of men, fettbg no ralne whateTer 
ofthefe covered by its proper ditch, upon the lives of their .troops, and 
and all the ditches of canSderable rendering their dead bodies almi^ 
bteadth and depth,, be&dcs their as ufefiil as if they bad been living, 
■ndoubtcdly pofidfing the capabiU- by'applying them to the purpofes 



e.t,, Google 



. HISTORY OF EUROPE. {199 

vt ttSaM ip ditcheii'tnd fitming ce&. It wu divided into eight 

noont* for tkc Icaling oTwalU. djT- columns, the principil being led oy 

liuned to lo& time in befisgiag any general Suwarow in pertoo, the 

pUce, faaweyaT great or.ftrong, but othen by their refpeflive generals, 

by poBiing in iKnamerable hordei of and each caluma ftppropriated toiu 

frefb men in fncceffioD, a* the for- particular point of attacL They 

ner were killed, carried it by the were every where encouotered wi^i 

contikiul application of mere brutal the moll noble and perfpvcring ra- 

fowe. Tacrificing the Duferable in- loof by the Ottoman*. A moll def- 

lubitanu, however numerous, to the peiate CDafii& enfuedi which lafied 

manes of their own flain, of wbam> levaral hours, the I(»veft eJUmates 

ia all other relpedi, they made fo making iij continuance three, and 

light. wa» fo fevcfely fought, that the 

It ii nat eaJy to accosnt from Rufliuu de&nbe it as .a dreadful , 
what other example general Suwa- battle. Theaflkilanta were atlenmh 
row could have derived the defign totally repulfed with a terr^e 
of taking fuch a fbrtreCt as we have llaughter. The Ruffians fecm to 
defcribe?, and fo guarded and de- have been fo daggered by this re.- 
fended, br main force, and thetct^ P'^e, and the llaughter hy which it 
evading the hatdlhipfl and Jncom- was accompanied, that general Su- 
moditin of a regnlar ficge. For warow was faid to have been oblige 
this porpBle he, however, hirrouad- ged to exhibit an extraordinary & 
cd tne plaoe^ with batteries coo- of the moH defperate valour in his 
ftruAed on every jfot of groand own perfoD, in order to re-animate 
which could anCwer the purpofe, and then, and to recal theu- refolution. 
ttide)oad.edwith forges for the heat- He is faid to have fnatched 4 ftaod- 
ing of balU, with the heavieA bat- ard, and running up a TurkiQi bat- 
tering utilleTy and mortars, as well tery, to have phmtea it with his own 
as with every other taadune yet in- h^uds on the top, calling out to the 
Teitted ibr the pouring of (Uftrnc- troops, and aikingthenvwh^her they 
tion into the place. The Ruilian wpuldfafierthedifgracetofall upon 
cavalry of all deaomiaatiEHis were their country, of its Jiandard being 
co^teUed to difnaount, and to take carried in triumph by the inSdels 1 
an eooal Sure with (be loiantry in The adion was accordingly re- 
this defperate aOauU. aewed with redoubled fury, eqch fii^ 

Hk dreadfnl roar of this treraen- appearing fully determined to con- 
dons artillery wai opened at five qurtortodie. The hrilparapettvat ' 
o'dockinthemonuNgof Chrilfanas- At length carried, after another long 
<Uy, tbe z;th of December 1790, and dreadfLil coniliS. The aCiion 
and pooled fbch SMtwers of red-hoc then feetned to become more obllinate . 
balls, boiabs, and carcallea into eve- aad deubtfi]] than it had yet donei 
ry part of tJie town and works, as the Turks draining every nerve to 
tton afibrded a terrible fpecimen of ncover what they liad loft, and all 
the horrors uHticfa were to enfue. thoughts of perfona] prcfervaiion or 
M ftvtn o'clock the RulTian army life being totally dirmiired. TlieRuf* 
advanced to the attack with the ut- fiaoi, however, being reinforced by 
ouft intrepidity, and with all the frelh troops, and ihe Ottomans wea- 
Sijde 4nd cT'nfiH^nr^ sf ^i^ei foe- lied and wotu down by fuch long and 
[A'] ^ contmual 



200] ANNUAL REGISTER, I7}i. 

concinual aftion, thebelieged were at was involved, rofliedile^wratelyapon 

length beaten back to the defence of the bayonets of the cneiDr> ^^ °T6tt 

the fecond parapet. The fuperioiity to fiiorten their DnTery; vriiite tfaofe 
of the afl^ilant; now became appa- . who could reach the Danabc threw 

rent; and ai it invigoratrd their ex- theoifelvcs headlong into it, for the 

- eriions and animated their fpirtts, it famepurpoTe. The ftreet« andpaf- 

equally diminished the hope and de- Tafrei were fo choked by the heapi 

prelTed the exertion of the enemy, ofdead and dyine bodies which lay 

Therccondandthirdparapets.aftcra inthem.as confiderably to impede 

long cojrfe and' raccefConof the moft the progrefs of the rigors in their 

cbllinate and bloody confliAs which, eager feaich for plonder. 
It 13 faid, were ever fought* or are The rifing fun exhibited fuch a 

any where recorded in the annals of fpeAacle in Ifmailow, as it is laid 

hiftory, were finally carried, and had not for feveral ages (hocked the 

about midiiight the conquering Rtif- eyes and feelings of the beholden. 

fians entered the body of the It wai calculated that about 24,000 

place. ^ ***^ the TurkiOl foldicry perilhed 

_ No pen could defcribe, nor, if it from firft to laft in this bloody con- 

'were polTible, could humanity bear uR, including tbofe who threw 

ch^: recital, of the horrors which en- themfelves into the DaDube* No 

iiied. The ferocious viflors, inftead quarter was denundcd, nor woshl 

of being Qruck; with admiration or the demand have been liftened to 

refpeft by the noble defence of the if there had. Among thofe who 

brave garrifon, were fo enraged at fell were a number of the bravel), 

the great Haughter of their fellows moft e:[peTienced, and reoowiied 

which had taken place, that no commanders in the Turkilh xnnia. 

bounds could be prefcribed to the SixorlVvenTartarprinces.of theil- 

cxcefs of their fury, nor did it feem lullrious line of Gherai, likewife pe- 

that any amount of deftrnaitfn, or rifhed with the reft. The Ruflian 

any quantity of human blood, could generals put a flop.to the csniage 

fatiate their revenge. The undif- in the morning, by which a few hun- 

tinguilhed carnage which then took dreds.of pnfonerswereprefervned,iD 

place was rendered more dreadful, ferve as melancholy recorders and 

by the continual heavy firing, the witnefles of the deflrufiion which 

darknefs of the night, the gro:in! of they had beheld, and of the fupe- 

ihedying.andthelamcntablclhrieks rior prowefs of the viAars. The 

of the women and children. All body of the brave governor was 

order and commaiid feem to have found and known, aldiough nearly 

been entirely at an end during the cut to pieces. In confctfuence of 

horrors of tbac dreadful night; and an accurate enquiry let on foot by an 

rt is faid that the officers could nei- Ottoman commander of rank, it 

ther retrain the flanghter, nor pre- appears, that the whole number of 

vent the generij plunder, made by Turks who perilhed in the flaaghter 

the lawlcfg and ferocious foldiery, at ifmailow, iuchiding the inlabi- 

It is ahb ftid that thoufands of the tants of all ages, fexes, and coodi* 

Turks, incapable of enduring the tions.amounted to 30,616. 
fight of the horrid fceoes of deftruc- It was, however, a dearly bought 

tioninwhichallthatwasdeartothcm and bloody purchafe to the viftois. 

8 II , 



HISTORTOF EUROPE, [soi 

It appeared by the MtDrns that deeply involved on the other, could 

1 3 /wo Ruffians had Men in theaf- nocbut greitly facilitate the Tucceb 

lauk It apptui by an extraft of a of the afLilants, if the tffe& even 

letter, tud to be written by our reached no farther than merely the 

countrymeD colonel Cobley, who diflurhance which it cauied in tiie 

commanded the difmounted huiiku minds of the foldierc, and the eene- 

of the Boginthis bloodyaffair, that ral conllemaiion and hopeleTsneb 

his regiment at the commencement whichitcould not but fpiead. The 

of the dorm conMed of 97; eiFec- ColTacks burA into the town about 

tive men, and^ by the returns next the fame time that the grand army 

day it appeared to have loA two did, and no doubt bore a full Oiai^ 

majors, 14 captains and rubalterni, in the enfuing enormities.— Such 

and 600 private men; the colonel wu the lamentable fate of Ifmailoir. 

himfclf oeing likewife feverely The oftentatiout and fantaflic dif- 

wounded. That gentleman had the play of the bloody trophies taken at 

fiognlar fbrianc and honour^ as it Ifmailow,which was fome time after 

may well be confidered in fuch a exhibited at Peteriburgh, was un- 

fcene of horror and confufion, to worthythegreatnefs.themagnanimi- 

prefervc the lives and to proteA ty, andthchighchara^rof theem- 

300 beautifol Circa^an ladies, be- prefs Catherine. The tragedy IhouU 

longing to the governor's haram, have doled at the conclufion of the 

who were on the point of precipi- \ii\ aA on the Ipot. It was attri~ 

tating tfaemfelves into the Danube buted more to a dcfire of gratityiog 

toelrapc the violation of the fql- theexceflive vanltyofprince Potem- 

dien. As this number was too great ttin, which was not eafily fatiated, 

for one harani, it is probable that than to that of the emptels hcr- 

the inhabitants of leveral others feif 

(perhapsofallihofeappertaining to After the afFair at irmailow, the 

the great commanders) had fled Ruffians, under the princes Repnin, 

thither Ibr refuge, as the terror and Galitzin, and other generals, fre- 

confufion increaled. ■ quently crojl'ed the Danube, and 

The Rofliani had a non.'jer of continually routed the Turkawhere- 

arm^ gaJIies, and other light vef- ever they could come up with then, 

feb on the Danube, which were Thefe aftioni were, however, of no 

filled with CoiTacks. The extreme coiifequence to any but the partiea 

avidity of that favage people fur inunediatelyconcemed.and as tend- 

plunder, as well as the dcfperate ing to the attainment of the great 

courage, with which 3 near piofpeft objeft in view, of compelling the 

of it mfpires them, are circumllan- Turks to accept of peace upon any 

ceswell known. The p.irt of the terms the emprefs would vouchfafe 

town which lay new the rivrr was to grant them, without the interter- 

far weaker than any other, aiiJ was ence or mediation of any European 

accordingly attacked by the Cof- power. In the mean time the grand 

likcka with great effeft, at the fanie vizir, with his difpiriicd and, it may 

lime that the army commenced the be (aid, broken-hearted army, was 

grand aflaull. '['his attack on the glad to retire for Iheher inio the 

weak fide, at the lame time that the delilus ai:d faltnelTes of the anticnC 

surifon was fo fully occupied and 'mount Hehiui. 

That 



to»] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

That minifter and general having arn» at Ifinailow. A vaS ■■inbR 

again formed s coniQenble anny, of Tarki, jncluding the coramwid- 

and met with lame fucceiTfa, was at ing balha, and fevera) other general 

length, in the courfe of the rummer, officeri, .were madepiifoners. Se- 

^feated on the Bulgarian fide of the venty-one piecea of artiliery were 

Danube by prince Repnin. The like wife taken, 
a^on wa« only partial i for tHrough Thefe were the laft aOion* of diii 

fciae circumftancea in the nature of lavage war, which with refpeCl to 

the ground, the TorkiOi cavalry carnage and cruelty exceeded any 

were thrown into diforder by the other that has been known in nodem 

Kufllan artillery, a^d routed, before times. ForihediAreflesof the Porte 

the infantry could come up to their were now fo great, and die dangers 

fi^poit. Thismiafbrtnneoccafion- with which die empire wai snviKw. 

cd fach a panic, as ended in a gene- ed fo imminent, that die grand ful' 

ral flight nf the whole army. This tan was obliged to fubmit to ioevi- 

carly (tight, with the extreme rough- table neceffity, and accept of fuch 

»ef» of die country, prevented any terms as the emprefs was pleafed to 

confiderable lofj of mep. diftatc.— Sqch were ,,(1, a -a 

It was nearly about the time of the circumllances un- "^ 

dits defeat in Bulgaria, that a very der which thetreaty of peaceatGa- 

fcloody and hard fought affair took latz was fuddenly concluded^ on the 

place at the city or townof AnapK, f ith of Auguft, 1791. 
Ml the borders of CircalTia, in Afia. True to the character of haughty 

It may be piefomed that the place independence, which Qtt had main- 

wu of no great (Irength, as the tained through the •nMe of this 

Turks entrenched themfelvesftrong- war, the emprefs in the very laS 

It in a fortified camp for its protcc- fcene of it fecRied defitms to mor- 

tuM, Their force is rated in the tify rather than conciliate the allied 

Peterfturgh accounts at 10,000 powers: fuch at leaft was her beha- 

Tnrks, and 15,000 Circafliatu and viour to the Brkjlh court Mr. 

Tartars; all of whom are faid to Fawkener had been fent as an envoy 

kave fought with the greateft ob- extraordinary, to alfift in the ncgo- 

flinacy. Other accounts make their ciation of the peace ; and aboot the 

force much lefs. Whatever their fame time a gendeman cenncfled 

, . J numberi were, the Raffian both by friendmip and blood with 

J ' '^gencralGodowitchattacked the illulirioiu leader of the oppo- 

'' them at eight o'clock in the fitionparcyin the houfe of commons, 
morning, and after a mod defperate arrived at the coorx of St. Peterf- 
andUoody engagement, whidilaft- burg. Whatever was the obJeA of 
«d (or hve hours, he fucceedcd in his vifit, whether^ coUeft for his 
Aorming the camp and the town, friend more accurate infennation, 
though every foot of the ground was fuch as a fiatefman ought to ufe all 
Severely dilpcted. The daughter fai^ means of obtaining on fo great a 
was of courfe great, nor could ooliticat quelHon relative to the ba- 
it be confined to one fide only ; lance of Europe, or any other pur- 
but we do not hear that the viflory pofe lefs laudable, his pretence Oiere 
was fiillied by any of thofe cruelties was by the emprefs made the occa- 
wbich fo deeply Itained the Ruflian fion of (hewing a marked flight la 
* the 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [joj 

the imniflcr of our goverainnit, tended u a barrier wainfi the vietot 

WhenerET Ihe fpokc to tlie latter at of thefe confederated powert, (bap. 

hn pablk conrt, Ihe fo contrived ta ped fhort the firft Aiament that a 

at dw fame tioK fo place the fbrtner ferioos trial was made of ita ilrengtli 

on btr right hand, m the ftation of and folidity, leaving Ruffia free ta 

honour; andon thect]nclDfi<»of the obtain th^ important acqnifitioit 

peace, Ihe gave ptefenti cxaAly of which (he lo much defired to add to 

the fame kind to both, but of her vaft and fbrmidabie empire. Bat 

greater value, and with fome addi- ether combination* foon followed, 

tional articteg, to the reprefentative and were attended by a fucceffioa 

of Mr, Fetx. Neitherof thefe en- of events, flill more momentous, that 

Toys, however, feems to have influ- threaten wholly to fnbvert the ati- 

tnced the terms of the treaty of Ga- tien^ fyllem of Europe, both in the 

hits one way or the other; fince the Norih and the South. 

irocles were in fubllance what had The revolutions of Poland and 

been ofiered by prince Potetnkin at France, one the pretended, and the 

JaJTy before the opeoing of the cam- other the real caufe of a new war, 

pat^in 1790. Raffia retained Oc- afliuned in this year fomething of « 

aakow and the country between the determinate fhape. Both, thougli 

^og and the Dnieper, with the free of an oppofite charafter, and ariiing 

stvigation of the tatter river: the out of very different circnniAancei, 

reft of her conquetls Ihe reliored. begnti nearly about the fame period 

Inallhifloriestherearepariicular «f the yar 1789: both purfued, 

epochs, which feem naturally to di- through tiie yc:ir 1790, the courfe 

vide one portion c^ time from ano. fuited to the genius of each ; the 

ther; where every man of an ob- former in cranqaillity, and aroidl 

ierving and conte'mplative mind the moft fmcere deUglit of all or- 

flops Jnoll involuntarily to reB«ft ders of men, working itfelf purer 

00 many objeAs^ which he had paf- as it went ; the latter with turbn> 

fed wmoticed in his way, and to lence and violence, amidtl the pro- 

tiace by fome fixed land-marks the fc ription, exile, and maflacre of^ the 

seneralcourfeof hisfotnrejourney. higher c la ITcs of fociety, contraA- 

Sach am epoch is the dofe of the ing a fouler ftain of pollution, as it 

T«ar 1791 : it is the narrow ifthmuj proceeded through horrors qf the 

hecween two feat of bkx)d. We moA atrocione kind ; till in thia 

have jail («en the final pacification year both fettled for a Ihort time 

of the three mighty empires. Which into fyftems of government which 

had lb deeply died the ftreams of profelTed equally to look to the 

the Dnieper, the Niefter, and the lingltlh conlHtution : one, as to z 

Danube with human (laughter; and model of excellence only to be at- 

Ve have endeavoured to d eve lope tainedby patient improvement; the 

the political confide rations which other, as to a bungling attempt to 

put an entl to the coaientions of be defptfed by the faperior (kill of 

amlntion. The league which liad the prefenc age. The next year, 

been formed between the emprcfs however, (aw both one and the 

Catherine and the emperor Jo- other al&iled by a foreign force, 

&ph bad been difiblved by Leo- The conRitution of Poland, weak 

pold: and on the other hand the as (he internally was from the con- 

«)Uter.Jejtgae, which had been in- feijuenccs of ncr former anarchy, 

^■""a'^ 



304] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1751. 

fell under it. T&ai of France re- count d'Artois, hearing of the in- 
£]led the Ihocks of invading ar- cencion, repaired to the place, with a 
mies ; but in the fame moment met very fmall andTelefl train of FrentJi 
the dellrudion which hung over it, noblemen. The meeting feemed 
during the whole of its feeble exif- merely to be a party of pleafurer 
tcDce, from the relller$ 3x4 criminal and the time, for the few days it 
intrigueiofhetownintertial&dions; lalled,to be wholly occupied by balls, 
£nce which time ihey liave gone plays, and hunting. The league, 
on mutually butchering each other, or whatever bufinefs aStiaily did 
under various changes of republican there pafs, was kept a profband fe- 
aoarchy, yet all the while adding cret; yet the treaty of Pilnitz baa 
conquefl to cnnquelt, and extending been as familiar in the mouths of 
their dominion by tlie help of their, men, as ever waj the treaty of Weil- 
principles, no lefs than the fword, philia, the Pyreneeg, or Utrecht, 
far beyond the examples of her it ha« been fuppofed, like the pre- 
jnod powerful and ambitious mo- tended-treatyof Pavia,tobavepar- 
narchs. celled out tie lerriionM both of 
The origin of both thcfe inva- Poland and France, as well as to 
Jions (of Poland and France) is by have re-modelled the circles of the 
thcidmirersofthEnewpoliticaldoc- Germanic empire. 
trinns attributed folely to finifter With refpeft to Poland, every . 
views of unjud aggrandizement in thing is furmife and fufpicion. A 
the neighbouring powers, and efpe- paper, it ii true, was circulated on 
daily in the emperor Leopold. An the continent, as containing the Hi- 
inftrument has even been publilhed, pulattons actually agreed at Pil- 
purporting to be a treaty of parti- nitz ; and in it there is certainly men,- 
don, figned by him at Pavia in tlie tion of Poland. But it was in no 
month, of July 1791, and regulat- way authenticated, and has atver 
ing the difmemberment of Poland been fubfequently. owned; on the 
and France. Bat it is on the fjce contrary, it was immediately dif- 
of it ■ a coarfe and clumfy forgery, avowed in an official note of the 
The chief clamour, however, has Pruflian miniller at Munich. Such, 
been diieflcd againil a cungrefs however, as thefe articles are on the 
which certainly did take place at fubjeftofPoland.they areutterlyin- 
Pilnita, 3 fummer refidencc belong- confillent with the treaty aflerted to 
ing 10 the eledor of Saxony, not have been ligned by the cmpeior 
far from Drefden. The emperor, in the preceding month at Pavia. 
accompanied by his (IdeJl fonpran- There (we are to believe] it was 
CIS, p.-ince of Hungary, there met pofjttvely arranged that the em- 
tJtc kii:g of Pn::Ti.i, ar.il hij fon the prefsof RuQia Ihould undertake the 



prince roya!. 


Sor 


•.c kw of thsit m 


afion of Poland, and be .illowed 


principal mi 


;i;lcr 


and f.LVOurite to 


retain for herfclf a part of Podo- 


general iicr 


sir 


prefcnt. Tlie Ih 


; that the eleflor of Saxony. 



» To Ihe Englirti reaileramerertciratofoi 
fi.T'ended ircalj-, Spain was 10 liase Corlica anil Hie french par 
inilCrent Britain it laid To have accctled to this treaty as rarly as March 1791, 
N.' coinincnt ran It necelTary at (bii day. Sec all'u fonw oKcrvations itlalive 
I'uljnd, wluch f.,lUv a little lowtr in die ttst. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ioj 

ftoaM be raifed to the hereditary vigilince and caution, ai well at he 
throne of Poland, which he was to can, through the maze* and intrica- 
traofmit thrOQgh his daughter to the ciei of political intrigue. In this 
descendants of Catherine'] youngelt manner, therefore, we Ihall ooodud 
graRd-fon; and in return that he ourlelves; and in our next volume 
Siould cede LuTatia to Frederick prefcnt an uninterrupted narrative 
William, who was alfo to have of thereirojution inPolitnd.froni its 
Dantzic and Thorn, witli the paja- origin in i^H^ to the nominal re- 
tinaicon the eaft, to the frontiers of eftabiilhment of the foriner anarchi- 
Silefia. But here, a monih after, cal conilitution at the end af iji)i, 
we find every thing unfetlled. All immediately previous to the firft 
fiill remained [o be done ; tor we are avowal at a new parlicion, which 
IcAi that Leopold engaged only to the courts of Pctcrlburg and Berlin 
employ hisinfluencefor the purpofe grounded on the faifc charge of » 
of bringing Catherine into the conneflion with die prevailing; 
fcheme of fettling the Po!i(h crown fa^ions and doClrines of France. 
on the honfc of Saxony, and to ufe The affairs of France certainly 
hit good offices .both with her and didcome unflerconfiderationat PU' 
the republic of Poland to obtain nitz, A feparatearticle (if it were 
Bantzic and Thorn for the king of not in truth the only obligation there 
Pruflia. This is more probable, as formally contradcd) has been pub- 
it u more agreeable to the views lilhed, and there is realiin to think it 
udintereOsOfthecontradling pow- genuine. It relates wholly lo that 
ert; itisIcTsliable to be falfihed, ai country. What it is, we (lull in the 
it is coached in more general terms; proper place marc minutely enquire; 
and it is ca|>able of an interprcta- butat prelcnt iifeemsonly neceilary 
tion free irom all injuliice, as it to Hate generally the <]ucJt\on tvhicit 
in no caie propofes, hoftile force, has been railed upon ii. , By one 
and rather points in one material p^rty it is infilled that no cafe of it;- 
part to the fupport of the new con- terterence by other powers can grow 
lUtDtion ofPoland, which had ^ratui- out ofche internal traiirH^iions of ui 
touOy named the elector of Saxony independent nation; and ik.t the 
for the founder of a new dynaQy. convention of Pilnliv miiS neceiTa- 
But ndther one nor the other ac- rily be viewed only as an unprinci- 
cords with the faft; for the cmprefs Jilcd confpiracV of monarch s againft 
of RuQia invaiied the country under liberty. I'hey have given out " ti.e 
the pretence of aflifting a fmall fac- " league of defp >[s," as a fort of 
tionof the nobility whoclaimed her watch-woid in mii country and 
guarantee of the old anarchy, and throughout Europe; nor will they 
her complaint was e.'tprefsly and evercoiifcnt to mount higher or to 
particularly levelled againft the fub- di.fcend lower in feelcing the ca ufe 
Hitution of an hereditary fpr an of the war and all that h:ts followed, 
cledive monarchy. Amidft thefe of diftjuHingand Ihccking ejioitni- 
contradiflioni the only fafe clue for tics \\\ France, and of milery to the 
theguidanceef thehillorianisiicver furrounding countries, which huue 
10 let out of "his hand the line of been repeatedly ravaged in the name 
fafls which he does know, and by offraternity. On the other hand it 
that help fo explore hii way with h coqtcadedj that the whole Get- < 

cianic 



Dii-raM,, Google 



4o6] ANNUAL REGISTER, fj^t. 

atnic body, and enrf menber of iflemblf tktwgfat their confiitmidn 
it, had many juft exumal canfei of fa fiir comphu, u to be able to 
wai againil France ; aod that in the trace out tneir temaining labourti 
internal tranraftic«u of that king- and Rx the time for the abdicadoa 
dom there exitited fuch drcumflancea - of their own authority; when, con- 
as warranted and demanded a con- feqaetitly, they gave on their part* 
cert of the neighbouring powers for the notice Toon ^r conveyed more 
the common lecurity, agreeably to officially and direSly by M. Mant- 
le received maxima of the taw of morin's circjdar letter in the king's 
Kicions and the prafliceof atl ages; iiame, that foreign flatei might be- 
tbat the concert was but provisional, gin f^rly to eftuiate by iu good 
mod the execution of it declared ta or bad effeds that conftttnuon 



be in a Itaie of fufpence, at the mo- which was to be a pattern of per- 

neot when adnal hoftiliues were fedion to the world. We Qtall 

fcfcedonbytheanitedftrcngthofthe therefore referve Uiti fobjeft estiTe 

republican and anarchical nj^oat of for tlie eariy chapters of the next 

FraDce for the defiruAion of their volume, where we conceive that a 

king : and as the ArongeA proof of general hiflorian, writing of ■ ptft 

the fpiril on both fides, it has been age, woold think it moft expedieni 

obferved, that when Prance firft de- to place it. 

clared war, eight months afar the In the mean time let ns paofe, and 

mngrefs at Pilnitx, the Anltrian fhortly review the ftate of Enrope, 

. forsea in the Netherlands did not fuch as it was before the sxple^n 

exceed, and never had exceeded, ten of the French rerolocion, and ftich 

(houfand men; while France 4iad as it had become at the dole of &is 

> increafed the troops on her frontier year— The benevolent ffuril of im- 

ID no te(s than a hundred and tluny provement, which ftartettatonceiai* 

thou&nd. aflion in every quarter, at <ban a* 

To form a fair and impartial tranqnillityhadbeca reftoredby ib4 

judgment on fuch an expofition of peace of 1763, eariy challenged' our 

the motives which aAuated th« attention, and recuved our prailei 

combined powers (and it is a fhort Several chaptersinthebeginningof 

fummary of the grounds contained onr tenth volwae were occupied in 

in the public dec&rations of Auftria tracing its progrcfs throagb every 

and Pruffia) it is abfolutely elTen- region of Europe, and following it- 

tial. that the reader (hould have be- to the aery feraglio of Conftanti- 

fbre him, in oneconnefled view,the nc^le; fince which time we have 

events which preceded and followed been agreeaUy called ■ on rarioM 

the congrefs of Pilnitz, down to occafions to refnme the narrative, 

the moment of the actual aggremon But when this fubjed laft came ia 

of France : and the period from review before us, not long prior to 

which that furvey ought to com- the revolution in France, ve faw, 

mtlice, feeras to be the opening of and f could not conceal that we 

the y.;ar 1791, when the national faw, lome approaching danger in the 

■ SteparticularhrAnn, Reg. Vol. XIX. Hi ft. Art. p. ijt.and Cbron.p.iab 
—Vol. XXIV. HLlt. Art, pp. ii and tj. Vol. XXVII. Hift. Art. pp. j and f 
—and Vol. XXVIIL Hift. An. p. 1(9. 

t Aiin.Reg.Vol.XXVIII.Wft. Arc. pp. 19.1111130. 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [io/ 

ftFMriiiK paiBoD for mnovation. to prcfied tbSU, who in K*inolneDt of 
which lul nfatm it more or le& re- intolenible injury liad uken that oF 
bwd, u t1»e monl virtoes arc to a cruel mailer; and on a lady of 
tbofe vicer into wiixk they f^ft by high quality, who by her f<;veritiea 
cxcafi} and if we fiill entertained a Iiad caiifed the death) of feveral of 
hoft of the fiaal iffue, it wai a hope her own peafanti, fhe infliaed a p*. 
cfcaftiKed bv fear, and exprelled in a niJhment of (Ufgrace worfe than 
doirirtful wUh. It would be Taper- death, and which in effcA proved 
Snoaa to recapitulate hert all that fatal. We have lately feen how 
liai been already detailed) we flull properly tenaciom of thii point was 
ndearow only to give dte general the Emperor jofeph on hi« death- 
rHiilt.atthexTaofwhicliwerpealc, bed, and his brother and fucceflbr 
aiitthenaSeaedthecDiuntioaofalt rejeded an applicaiion nade to him 
thofe claflt* into which the nations for the repeal of that exception ; 
of Eanipe are diftribated, and cxin~ yet neither the refulal of one or the 
tnft it with the Icene which haifince other occafioned any la&ing dilla- 
rcatttctt our npprehenfioni: adding tiafaAioa to the nobility. In P». 
tlvougfaooc fimie iaddental illuftra- land, under the patroiage of the 
tioni, chiefly from titcanftaiKef not Icing, it had become a ibrt of fafhion 
af magnitnde enoagh to have found among the better and more en- 
1 place in the order of ovrltiAory. lightened noblei, to give freedom 
One ftriking lianuie of the pre- to their peafkntB. The great chan- 
fEDi age i* the efteetn into which cellor ^unoiflti tripled the valne 
igiicattun btu rifen. It hai em- ofhis eUata by it. The fame fac- 
ployed the reasoning of the philofo- cefi attended a fimilar experimen 
pber, and been cheriihed by the of Creptowitz, the vice-chancellw 
hooncy of king*; and it wai a na- of Lithuania, and the abbe Bryzo- 
inial Gonfequfnce of thb lafte that towfki ; and the king's nephew, 
prateOion mould be extended to the prince StanHIaai, particularly dif- 
a^rieved and patient race of meni tingnifhed himfelf, by giving then 
who were engaged in it. This was man than freedom, in undertakiM 
accordingly dcme in fucb mode and to be himfelf their inftruAor, and 
degree ai circnmftancei required or ccKnmunieatiDg to thetn the know- 
allowed. Where chnr bcmda had ledge of ^riculture which he had 
fimncHy been relaxed, they now ob- acqoited in this coiieiry. The 
tainedhrther relief; andwherethey pealaotry of the North were tra- 
iiad ttitl oootinned in vaflalage, the veiling faft toward perfed and 
ptiacei on the throne emntoufly oiiiverial liberty; and it wai the 
cmefttd the bonoor of giving all epioioH of • Roufleaa himfelf, that 
tacoongement to their cmancip». they ought not to attain it too fnd- 
lien. The emprefi Catkerioe not denly. 

•Jy promoted their enfrancluli^. The mercantile intereft advanced 

woKbyherediAi.herexamplqtand ftill mor» rapidly into importances 

her inflacBce, hat direaed the ad- Commerce wai no longer thought 

K'i.iltntion of*jailice lo the &mc to degrade; and the pre-eminence 

ni. Siie fyitrd the life of an op- which it had given to tU« iiland 

* In hii leiitn en Pelaod* 



408] ANNUAL REGISTER, ijjt. 

among the power! of Eorope, Jti- to ihew, that, in France at leaft, tliC 
malatctl all who bul the means and hicrucby was net very tyrasBicali 
the oppornioity, tD fbller ard en- !■ Spain, if any whcie, it,iiHi}r be 
oeafe- it by every artificial aid expeAed to hare mantainci ie M' 
among [heir own fubjeds. To thi* thori[y:'yet there begaa die def- 
end maanfaAoriei weie eftablilhed trvfbon of the' JeToitij thete iha 
tad fapportcd by moft of the crown- crown wa* coiAiBdy ^dng- ints 
cd hnds on tne coniineni. at an iti cofferi frcfli poniou of the cO' 
cnormoo) e^tpence ; and corapaniei c)efiffl]i:al' revennct, with the <o»- 
were erefled, veiled with ample fent of the Pme; and there &ial'- 
inunoiutiei, and foinccimes alTiHed ly the im^dati»a was abridged 
with great ioani. KioRs having thuj of all it» terriUe powen,- and re- 
beccune partners in trade, manure- duced to a netc tribooal of palic*^ 
turers and merchanu were refpecied for the poBifltmeot (bnt not till after 
and honoured ; and onder conftitn- a conviAioa by an open trial) of 
tions, where the nobility formed a foch flagrant tnqiiety, as wsoM be 
large privileged claTs, including tite cognizaUe in aay well-rc{nlated 
geoiryalfo, the more eminent of the country. It had been alfo fimiUrfy 
citizensandburgheriwerefromtime rtllraincd in Satduia, and it had 
to time ennobled in no inconfider- been wholly abolilhed wkhoM a 
able namben. Withoot particn- ftmggie in many Italian ftatcsa in 
larieing other nations, (and many Parma and Ptaccntia, in Milan and 
initancei might be given) this prac- Modonaj while tokratioo was di- 
tice wai fo fre<]uent in France, that redly fccured by law in the greater 
when in the year 1789 the ekdar^of part of the North. In tnilh, never 
the commonalty of Paris flrft met to waa tbe power of the church exer* 
chofe their deputies to the ftates cifed with fo much moderatii» in 
genetal, alarmed' at the danger of gensnl chrooghout Enrape; never 
throning fo nmch weight and re- was it lefsformidabkto the thionei 
fpeftability into the fcale of a rival or to the oonage; never did the 
order, * they refolved, that all citi- great body of the clergy fliew Idi 
zens newly raifed to nobility fhould dilpofition to over -Aram the tighti 
tlill be conlideredas commoners: the of their order in favoor of their own 
beA proof (&nce they were io many perfoBalinteteAiofambitioDOrava- 
as toTnalEefuchamearure neceflary) rice. Someof them might hare the 
that the king had not been parGmo- frailties of men, but very few indeed 
nious in conferring this revratd on had tbe vices which the fcepiici and 
meritorious induAry. Tiii; principal infidels of all ages have attriboted 
min'iAer himfelf, Mr. Nccker, who to priefia. Th^ were too mnch 
then a fecond time waa at tlic head ratAcr than too litdc fecularixod. 
of the Icingdom, was of this defcrip- The fuperciliOns pride, with 
nooi he waa too (as we hare for- which the miliury nobility rf feudal 
tnerly obferved, and the world limes looked down on all odwT 
knows) a &rcigiker and a proteft- renka, and even on man^ of d»r 
ant- own tank who derived their nn- 
This fingle example may fuffice biliiy from other liberal foams. 

' • Seethe/nrM-m!rt«/oftheHotddcrille,p. 7, 

was 

U.rireM„C00l^lc 



. HISTORY OF EUROPE. [») 

«w itaHj to be tnctd, except in Butim of die rngning &ntilv dm 

the reiioce resioiu of the Norths to eBipta7 the utcieflt nobility< 

where it wu cUily weuing awa^. Indeed it voaM be eafy to multiply 

Everj witere elfe, (though a long illnftnttioiu ; the dilficnlty would b< 

line of anceftora bad not yet been rather to fhew in any onntry peribni 

coonrted utto a crime, but wai AiJl of the £rft nak poflefled of all tha 

Rjiardetl with rcrerence] the new firft officei. 

nobility ntore than balanced the old, ' ArtiGcial diftin&ioni, and tidei 

partly throoeh the policy of luogit of honoor, it u tnie, Kill had * 

■nd partly mm the natural opei^- cerenionioa] precedence allowed 

tion of drcomftaBces. Themecof to them in private life; bat the 

the fward had always found tflccefi- accompliihments, the demcanonr, 

folriraltfortbeefficienioficciofthe and the oftenfiblf expenditure of 

iUte (cfpcually the department of a gentleman, were in moft coan- 

fimnce, now become the moA effi- trie« a liif&cient pafs-porc to ge- 

clent)f(»ineTlyiathcchtircbiiien,aTid neral foe iety. though in fome parti 

lately ia the profeflora of tiie law; of the coatineat the place which 

they had been rendered of little in>- each perfon held w the polite world 

portancc in war. by the iufroduc- was aJEgned in nice gradations of 

[ion of ftanding armies, paid by the language. Still wlisre admittxAot 

rovercign power, and the whole was once obtained, perfanal merit* 

(yllem of modern [^ici{ and their talents, and agreeable, quslitiett 

wealth, ai the great land-holders of would infallibly gain an afcendencyf 

Europe, wni daily more and more and by them alone every competitcr 

cclipied by the opulenc^ of the for admiration would foon come lo 

Bonied dafit and from time to time be eilimated. The men of wit and 

vix bitknng po&tive diminntion, letters, in par^cular, were coaned 

fion the pr^UTe of the public bur- and carefled. They were heard 

theps, which had been every where with attention ; their jndgment waa' 

iocreafing with the perpetnal accu- anxioufly fought in all matters of 

BulatioBof debt lince t}ie invention tafte and fentimrat, of art and fu-' 

orfimding, and all which altimately ence; and that which of all things 

H^witb thenwftoppreffiveweighc, motl confifU in praftlcal pmdence' 

if not exclBfively,ai ItHoe think, on vnder the direction of aftrong moral 

ifae landed prapetty of every nation, fenfei the art of government, wae 

The day that the dates-general meafured, like any art the moft-mC'' 

act ia France, three oat of eight chanical, by the fqotre aial levct of 

Biltiifters, who then compoTed the their theories. Whatever they ftid 
oluDet of Verbilles, were not of on any of thefe fiibjedt pafiad ham 

noble birth. Their late prime mouth to mooth throogh all tbs 

suoiiler, M. de Vergcnnes, was circles of blhkn, and was retaiW 

bom cf oUcure parcou in Bur- in }agmals, annals, tad all otW' 

fiody, and created a count, by forms of periedkal.puUiation, ImT 
Ions XV. ; and their late naval the faborditute Laaouren in ae 
■unifter.M. deSartinet r^fed him- fields of literatnrc : it waitraaflatal 
felf Ibldy by bis' tmm merir. We from oae knguigeto anotbrr; anf 
kive fen a Stroenfcc ^vera Dcn- pSnetrated on every fide, ihropgli'- 
Burk i and in Spaia it was a l^te every channel of, coamuitieaBottc 
VoL.XXXill. [O] Thus 



iio] ANNUAL REGISTER, tygn. 

Thus they giMei and modelled ai StUOM wereu minh^undli tl die 

they pleaf«a whit wm ullcd pob- Baftnc wm found to bs at ike tinir 

lie opiiucKi ; they filled the office of of hi demolitioa. 

cenfon in the great cooiiDonwealdi It may be d<Mibtcd, HlMlhci it 

ef Europr. aiKTimperceptiUy r«I>- was a caoTe er an dfeS, bat cer- 

jefled courts and cabincti to their tainly it wax not tbe Icaft advaa- 

controul. tac;«r of ^fab ffcnenl good diTpoC- 

Bat thia mi yet only a contraol tioa aad good naderftudinE, thai 

•fiaBuence; it yet worked only br there oo lonfer aidRed in every na- 

the force of truth, ai fitr as tbelr tien two political partie* fbuaded 

decifiou approved diemfelvet to on a difference of religiona tenets, 

the conJciencea and the wildoin of and having rn confequanc* a cider 

persons tni&ed with tlie aftual ex- conncAien with fbreiga gorem- 

crcife of power. And nndcr thefe menu of the fame kQ, thu with 

circonftancet) it cannot be denied tiieir o#n nflnral govemoieiit 

(and on former cxeafions we have Thit was the great evil, n4ulc ca- 

"a^ntioned it to their credit) that tholics and proteSant% or cathc^in 

tkrir aathoii^ produced £Ood and and diflidents of the Greek cen- 

feumaBe confeqacncca. To tJiat tnunion, were firiving for the na- 

fMT be attribntetf many id the be- Aery in their re^tefiive ftates. The 

Wnicent and falutary meafure^ to weakell faftitm always turned their 

- which allu£on has been already eyei to fome iteighbowia^ fevc , 

yuule. To diat alfe we may per- reign of the fane religions uterell , 

baps zfcribe the general loiiry with tbunfelves. to wM>fe aorititics 

whi^ now prevaileir in all g«vcni- ^ev were ever ready inftroaienti; 

meat*. Be tbe casle however what ana the ftronger fought to make 

it may, the b& itfdf, in many in- themfeives more fure by leagues 

SaiM«, it Ifa-Mtin^. The nle rf and airiances, all of wfaieh were then 

Ktrtnre in Ae adminiftraiion of juf- inRnenced by finnlar confidenuioni. 

4ee bad begun to be generaQv alio- But now ererr comnnBity wti 

liSted, it luving been formally ab> united within idelf, and free to con- 

mealed in Polaad, in the AnJtrtan traft whatever relations it pleaftd 

4onioiMSilnFranceand tnSweden, with others, a t ie n^n g oidy to te i 

Und in feme other countries difiifed: di^btei of Ibnnd policy. 

Vbere the cnnrinal codes were This was the b*ppy ftite of Ee> 

fained wtdl cnti^. new pnniflr* i«pe in the beginwng of the yesr 

•irftt of I mhtgated Irind had been t789> >V1 the remaining vefti^i 

In many eoanviM ftbfiiniMd, or of that fierce fpint which Talbeii 

were dulared to be wider confide- with barbarifm the lofty and ro- 

iVlion; the libei^ of the ptefs bad mantic cowteiy of UKiem laannui, 

' Wn eftabliftiai, tmder lair and had been gradoaHyftrfcciungawiy; 

■ lyfaUe rdt r i fti t>ns, in ftvend nd the flunesof chat telH^ioQsna^ 

kugdone, and in othen <m tacitly which for two cennries Jurf fo of- 

»minif I* aa anent Efficient per- Mn IdndM the torch of civU dif- 

Inpi fiMaKftbcrpurpofMofniefTiI cord, w» tek imto ^e aftn. Ercry 

flrwii public esqeiry wu even fnccecdintgenentionwascfa cha- 

QiMrted by menarcJis i and Uw llaie raAer nader kqd gett^ than the 

^riAoetfaU the gnat patCBtMMtff hk. Thtre'wH&.diS^fioaaflibe- . 

ndit/ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [an 

nVity tku pernded the whole raaSa theif holy writ, thcni|h it ia juAic* 

of DUHkind. All tbe diverfified to hu nenaty to tay, diat he ccr« 

daF« offecwty begu ^ery when tably intended it for no foch pur- 

to hanaoUEe wkh each other in s pofe; for hedefcribei it hirofarsi 

way kitberto nnluiown ; and what- on imperftrd fragineat of z Uitgtt 

ever mgit be the peculiaritieg of work, undertaken without codolt- 

diiTerent confiitutioiis, a Aveetcr ing hit own abilitiui in coitfc- 

falood fteated in all to circakte quence long sbaiidonedt aaJ fcr the 

cJicoagh every member of the poli- moft part deftroyed: it was origi- 

tical body. The loweA of the poo- nally written too, with a dodared 

pie, under eovemneDts the moll reference lo his-own fitoation, aa an 

defpotic, DO longer held their cDon. aAoal member of the fovereignty in- 

tesucei prone to tits earth, but the little rcpablic of Genera. He 

were taagJit to ere A then with a wrote very differently, when he gare 

becomiDg ienfe of t^eir own nature; his advice for the piailical govcro* 

and the brow of authority, inllead ment of Poland, 
ofaaadlere frown,worean inviiing Thegrandmaxim,onwhichallde' 

air of coDtpla^eacy and amenity. pcnd9,istothueffe£l;— tluttbefov^. 

We malE now look at the revcWe reignty of every Hate folely refidea is 

»f the medaL— The Preach revohi- tha a^al majoruy by tale of ihe in- 

!JOD arrived. The principal cauieSt dividuals who compofe the nstion; 

which prepared the way for this and can only be lawfully exercifed 

eveot, we have explained In the by tliem. In tbe Ayle of their ' 

pn)[>erp1ic^thou2bprobAblyinany fchool, it is impreicripuble. inalieiw 

moie coBciuTed tka.a we there no- able, indcfeailble, uid in(Uvi£Ue: 

ticed; bnt onr prcfeot bdineft i* itcannot be relioquilhed by any tt> 

siih its chatkQer and geniu), by cit cooient implied in long acqinef- 

wliich k waa diftingiulhed from all cence ; it cannot be transferred bf 

other FSToiutioiu recorded in hlHory, any politive agreement; it cannot 

andwhichallJhoaldeodeavourclcar- b^ forfeited by any crime, or loft 

ly to iDderftaiid, vho wiih to know by any juit conqaeA of aaother 

anything of the real fiate of Europe power; and it cannot be partial- 

inm that ^riod. It was .made. ly delegated. ft> as to reft ft rifht 

ud wu tlw firft aver profdled to to any portion of it any wben* on 

be made, apoo a Ugh metaphyseal in the majority. All lonns of to- 

pnocipk. It fct o«t by declaring vemnnent are but provifional.xiU it 

Act the rights of the commons at Ihall pleafc the lovereign tt^chai^ 

i''rBQefr~.-not the rights of citiuns, them, which he may do witboMinv - 

«f men in a ftate of political focie- mouve of moral at political n«o<»- 

ty.nDder whatever fw'm of govern- iity> without any confideiation. dlF 

°»iii»^ai,liiU more abltrafiedly. the expediency; for a peopk K»be tnut 

ngbuoffaaa;andthawholeicheme it is cnoagh that they will it. -ie 

Btihe^voIatioDtasitunibldcditiielf, follows Qi courle, that t« dainv as 

'ppearod, and was avowed hy the of right, voder any (ConAttttliOB 

leaden, to be a new flxpcruacnc af whatever, the exercife of th^wholo 

utonptii^ to bring into piadice or any part of the fovereignty, is 

^c fpecvlatioos of KottfTeau. His ufurpauoa and tyraaay; to dilpstt- 

reatile ba the Social Ctmtiaa waa the right of the m^rtv t« ch^nali 
[OJa . & 



ill] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791. 

the funn of gOTenuneiit *t tbeir nghtof imajoritj toldby tkelie*dt 

nere pleafiire and caprice, u trea- and U. is an abfolnte giant of cveiy 

ion and rebellion ; and inlaricAion kingdom to the inferior orden : lif 

it, a« M. de la Faycne, en thafc they are. aM ever will be, dw 

piiociples judly, called it, the nioft many. The authors of the revoln* 

facred ofthc ngliuofnian. lion meant that it fhould be {o. 

There is, hrowereri one little part There is now in dot coamry a let- 

oFRoufTcau's theory which tliey did ter, written as eariy as Jannary 

not aciempt to introduce in their 1790, by a celebrated chanpivn of 

jyftem. Toall the afbof his favc- theu- caufe, in which he laytrin 

reign, h« ikolds it in-Jifpenfably cf- hii own quainC manner, that their 

fential that the vote of every citizen fyfiem. is ■* a new mode afform- 

ihould be taken, and tut they « ing alliances, negatively with 

ihoold be free from all improper in- " courts «td affirmauvely with the 

loence, fuch as.ibrce or fear, paf- « people." 

fion or party. Indeed, if that be fo No foo&cr did thefe dodriaet Kp^ 
«flential, it makea the theory (with- pear triumphant in France, iban 
«at enqidringicto the truth or &Ub- they were eagerly [cceived, and 
hood of it) a mere barren fnbtlety. bnfily propagated, in every part of 
But his difciples fubftituted a more Europe. Whatever bad humours 
praitical majority, the multitude of were alloat, all tan into that chan-* 
Paris, worked up by every art into nel. A new engine of irre£ftible 
what they call a revolutionary force was prefented to the hands of 
power ; and when we confider ambitious men; and ambition wa* 
their principle, we mull take it the firft time awakened in the bo- 
combined with their practice, as foms of thofe, who from their fitua- 
they explain each other, and as tion in life had been far enough re- 
tbey wer« taken together by the moved from her ordinary tempia- 
admirers of their revolution, which tions. There was no man of a con- 
was an a£l, and not a mctapbyfical diiion fo low, but liad the profpcfl 
difquifition. of power opened 10 him, whcQ he 

The tendency of fuch a creed is was tcAd diat h* was a member of 

ebvioiu. At a touch it crumble* the fovereign ; «nd that be. with 

the bond of f very political fociety others of his clafs, whom all know 

now in exiftence, to a rope of fand. to form the arithmetical majority. 

It is a fentencc of depofition to all Ihould exercife the aflu^ fovereiga- 

tbe kingt of Europe, who claim to ty. Nor did the ie&n of power 

be Ibvereigns by the refpeftive con- come alona ; the defire of ricfaci ac- 

AiCationt of their countries, and in companied it. For, men who have 

mhaCa namEi laws are enafUd, long been labouring in penury fee in 

iritichif 6ie moft immediate exer- power only the means of iatisfy- 

cife 0/ Ibwereigaty ; it is Jtn ediS of tng thofe wants which bare made 

ptofcripiion to all artfioctatleal bo- them wreuhed. The French fyf- 

dici, wluch moft be always dange- tem, too, was encourag«l, or not 

rou to the neceSiiry equality of difcooraged, by many of a higher 

this new fyllem, and in mixed go- defcripuoti, who did not coolly and 

vemmcnu have a Ihare in legilU* ferionily moan to go all the lenf^th* 

lion, direAly incompatiUe wtu thv- of the praiQu^e. ' borne thodght it a 

7 treat 



HISTORY OF EUROPE. [Vij 

pat experiment, of which- a com* ■ all countries the Kftcreft enemies 
pewnt trial flioutd be allowed, to the charch. The diftinflions of 
Othen cqnfidAcd it as a leaveni cobiitcy were the theme of niuch 
wfakh, when the unmediate frrnien- coarie ridicule, and they were told" 
Utionhadquietly eraporatediWOuld' to vail to the nobles of hatare; 
leave the ffiafs lighter and more indeed th^'impWaTioa of ariftocracy 
wholerome. There were, befidcs, £gnijied every political reproach to 
in all countries raany ardent fpi- all under the condition of kingi, 
's, who were ready to catch np, who were by a eeneral liatne called 
' ' " t deftotj 



vithUttle or no examinadon, what- nothing but dej^ti anil tyrants, 

overcame recommended to them by The people foon Ihewed figni ot 

tlie ^ions name of liberty ; and on internal commcrtion, and moft wherv 

this fide of the qoeftion were too they had Icaft reafon to complain. 

oHny of that literary intereft, which The inhabitants of Avignon had a 

we hare already rernarked as having mild and paternal foverei?n in the 

Ept to themfelves the formation ana Pope, but by the arts of the demo- 

aredion of pdblic opinion. craitfts they were planged into a 

Here ended at once that cordiality civil war of the moft horrid kind, 

between all orders of fociety in Eo' which we (liall hereafter have oc. 

rope, which made private life To caGon to relate. A revolution on* 

pjcafmg, and pranufei) public bap- this new mode! was attempted in the 

pinefs by degrees to all, who had republic of Geneva, ihou^jh it fail- 

DM yet the fccuricy ofafreeconfti- _ed for this year, but was effefted 

tucion. MutualjealQaficsand aliena.^ the next, and attended with all ihe 

lionfiicceeded-. dilqontentajidaiida- a(r6ctti» congenial to its ereat 

til)" on one fide, difgaft and alarm archetype^ Wliat was callea the 

m the other. Clubs and Ibcie- patriotic party in Holland, again 

A:t were inftituted, and writings railed its head. In Poland, the ci- 

*ere circulated. Of thofe in our ties fent a general deputation to 

o»n country we * have given feme Warfaw, without any legal autho- 

accoant already; but the corre< rity to convoke them, and made de. 

fpondence was not fo conlined. Let- mands, which it'wai not thought 

itrs were read in the Jacobin club right to admit in their full extent, 

at Paris from every capita! of Eu- though by the excellent manage- 

rope; notexcepting Conftantinople. ment of the king, that country. 

All adhered to the principles of the where impatience and violence 

French revolution, but fpoke more might moft have been cxpefted' and 

w lefs freely, according to the pardoned, difplayed a moderation 

greater or lefs degree ot vigilance and a fobriety worthy of better 

awl rigoar io their refpeftivc go- times, and a more happy fate. The 

»«niinen». The clergy were by all elector of Saxony, who by careful 

^tmA with irreverence and con- cEconomy, and wife tegulation, had 

tumdyj for it was no fecrer, char reftored the finances beyond all hope, 

lie moft aftive and zealoDs diflcmi- without adding to the bucthehs oF 

MtortofFrencbprincipleJwere in bis fi|bjea!, wa>, however, alTaitnl 

• See Ann. Rrj,. Vol. XXXII. Hift. Ait.pp. tfiandStj aodtheftfihand fixih 

•hipttts of tm» Volume. ■ " - ■ 



fti4l ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791, 

by- their clamours in his pa!ac<:, nabic profanations of the lioa& of 

Many pioofi too of the fame fpirh God, tiie qioll unrclcDting refine- 

were gtven in die eccleriiillcal dec- meats on barbarity in inaiJacre, and 

tDrates of Germany, though they cannibalirm iUelf, that (ccdcs, the 

were among the price ipaliilei leaA of which wculd formerly liave 

vhich were governca witli molt made the heart recoil, and the blood 

kniiy iit the empire. run cold with horror, came to be 

On the other iide, it cannot be a read with little or no comparative 

BuiteToffurprizeiftheiwo higher emotion. Indeed To depraved wat 

Olden, and cianardu at Sieir. the moral tatie become in too nmay, 

hai, were not conciliated by fuch thai there was nothing which wa* 

hagqage and conduft. They he. not palliated, exculed, and aloioft 

(an to doubt the policy of their juflined, on principles fruttfol of 

tfira Kberalicy, and wiihdre^v the ten thouland future crimes, it hai 

liands which had been lireiched oat been laid to be mercy to prevent 

fat fo many years to ralfe the lower by examples of urrar the miicries 

nnk* to a more refpi^t.iblc llation. of a civil war. The violation of 

Any meafore of cQnce^Tion was now the feciirity due to every nua /rom 

larc, unlef; to carry fome imine- the fociety to which he tvioiusi hat 

diate'objcA of fupe nor importance, been confounded with the nate of 

ortocomnromife fome indantfcar open ho^llility between people aul 

of a gre.'\ter evil. The condufl of piWf le, under the acScoav^lcdged 

the prefs bej^jn to be narrowly ob. law of naiiire and natLoasi and the 

lerved, and tbi: Uu-s wliich ftill re- drgps of blood ipiJlcd in the aflafli- 

m-Ined as checks a^aijit the abufe nations of Paris )uve been c&i- 

of it, to be more rigoronjly put in ~ mated and balanced againlt the de- 

cxecation ; proclamation and edifls llruft'on <if botiles and even tvbole 

were iflucd 1 and where, by the ex- wars; while the tenet, whicb wu 

ifting law, it could be done, the im- afcrihcd as the greateH reproach to 

portatbn and the reading of French the Jeruits, has been generally ap- 

Dooks prohibitMl. Tlie ilate-prt- plied, tiiat the end Unified Um 

fiuu were again tilled with pcrlons rafans ; that the fum of good to be 

KCaled of plots and confpiracies of obtained will on" the whole exceed 

various kinds; and inllcad of that the fum of evil to be fuS'ereiL 

growing confidence which the moll Thefe modes of argument, which 

oefpoiic prince: h:td lately rcpofcd teach men to coalider metaphylicai- 

iii the aS'efUons of their fubjecis, ly the prefent pain of their Fellnw- 

they were every where payinc court creatures, and to reaJbn themfslves 

to their armies, as [hinking tlieni to out of thofe fympathiet which na-' 

be their only fecurity, yet dubious ture gave us to be the main link of 

too of their fidelity. (bciety, lead to pra^coi the dio& 

To (he eyt of the tnoralifl the favage, and to a barbarifm of man- 

noS afflicting iight is the counter- ners much worfe than any which 

revolution in fentiments and feel- exiiled in the darkeil ages. 

ings which now took place. Men . Nor has the politician lefs to li- 

were fo famil!ariz;d to narratives of mcnt or- to apprehend. It b not 

the moll brutal c;itiage to wcmen, only that the rclbrms, fo gratifying 

Jtnd cru^y to age, the mofl aboiiii- to every goad mind. whLcb hftd been 

proceed iii^ 



HISTORY OF EUROPE, [sis 

nocracUog To Jhadily tot the laR it, will think nothing elfe fomttdt- 

W-ind- twenty yean, are at « Me; praftical abufes of power will 

Ihnd; it U not only that the filent be dirreganded on both fides, u an- 

Mwiiqtioii, which had brought to a worthy of confide rati on, in compa- 

._partof Enropefo mnch of the rifon with the more important ob- 

iftirce, Bid wiauld in time have jefts put in i/Tue by the conflifl of 



^t 



broiFghtaHb the fbnn of liberty, is this new principle with (he extHLw 

iiim hack ; bat whatever liberty conflinition of every cOontry ; and 

ef 1 mAderated, ordered, and ba- on one fide, inflead of being honeitl^ 

bnced defsriptinn, feetned to be and calmly oppofed, they will bo 

nioft firmly eftabHEhed, b tottering fecn with a Men fatisfaElion, u 

en in bale. The priiKiple of the adding to the number of the dif^ 

French revolution admiti of no contented.andhattening ruin.— We 

csmpromile, iM tempeTament, no hare fcen fome of thcTe e£e£b ia - 

^atjification. Lie all metaphyfi- onr oivn country. 
ulpofitioM, if truest alljit mufl be Wherever this principle prevail 

line in all cinm, at all places, and more or Icfs, there is and muft ho 

mderjActrcitinftanen; and it is a a French faAion, proportion^y 

principle pmnting nece£&rily to ftrong; and it will be much more 

ptafiice, iDafnitich aa it requir<.-9 the dofny Doited in poliiiu to, fhe 

petpetni] exercifc of the fovereignty great head at Paris than ever 

J>y (he exiftitig Bujority, who can- were the religiom faifiionj, which 

not bind their good faith by any lb long diltraAed Europe, an< 

coD)pa3,howeTerfolenin,fbra year,, hare been fo recently laid at reft. 

a month, a week, or a fingle day. For, the latter became political. 

It fvrallow) Dp at once all that pa- not primarily and neceflarily, but 

trtotirtn ia mixed cooltituuoni, fecondarily and incidentally. Her* 

wliich ij the moil uncommon, the the very ground of dfftinflion ia 

moll liable to mifcenflrnfiion, and the fird and moft i(npnrt:int qnef- 

Ae moft mtre warded, the foberand tion of politics. Thau'pirii ofuni- 

enrigbtened patriotiTQi, which aim- biiion wliicli ttas ro:nicr!j dreaded 

inj; to keep every part in its proper in the French monarchy hai ac- 

poDtionandaaion.muftoccafionally tnatej the French republic from it* 

itlill alike the will of the old and birth, and v.'nh fach a powarful le- 

tt( new fowercign, the prince and vc, planted under the foLiiidaiioM 

At people, and which confttj'.'ent!/ of every goveroment in Europe, Ihc - 

nnnot espea any lar(;e or ladinp threatens fooncr or later to £hake. 

lliire in the hvoai of cither. If them all to pieces. 
Iiij principle ftaikds it* ground for But fuppofc her, by abandoning 

*'|y lengtB of time, every thing that principle of inftability and eter- 

■iil be Acceffiuily puihcd id ex- nal revolution, to fettle at length 

traoe*. into foinething like the legitimate 

Tbey who have not hitherto form of a democratlcal common' 

found fnEcient repulfion in it, to wealth. They who, for the Jake of 

Uttke tiera fly from it, will ap- that principle, have made light of 

ptoach twarer and nearer, till they all the attendant enormities, vviil it- 

^*iK difcfHy within the fphere of tiihate all good to thnt, and wiH 

"> atmJDionj wiiil« they who fear - dill dired their views to France as 

the 

; I),, •,..i.,Coo'^lc 



»i6] ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791. 

ike nuvnlprateftrdtofererf pes- raUe thUqauter ot the jgMx, w 

pie th&t «c or wifb to be mubli- exdnguifh, in oae extreme or the 

cuu by die tame meaiu; ■lui there ocber, all love of wcU-icffulated li- 

11 no naturd bead of any oppofite berty, and to ovnthnw tSc general 

principle to make a fteady coonter- balance of power, fo neccSiuy to the 

aOioD. » the internal isAions and public {calriQ^ The iotticacies of 

external combination) of protcft- the [^ raqniic moie than huoun 

ftnts and c<uh<dica fufficieotljr anta- inteipofitioo to produce a fettanace 

goniEcdeach other to prevent any ^veiopement; and the difficnltia, 

noiverfal predominuicy of either, at the moment of concluding chefe 

On the contrary, if the throne of refiefUons, Teem to be AiJl ihicieen- 

Prance Ihould be again reftored to ug. Yet daring a period of more 

iti place, by whatever event, and than thirty yean, mice thi* Work 

dii« moll tremendons ihock, which commenced, having witnefled lo 

toyahy in all conntriei ever expe- many viciStodei in human affairi ; 

rienced, (hould nitimately pafi by having feen one empire acqulnd 

vithout overtoroing it, though the by Great Britain in the EaA, and 

public danger to Europe will not another loft by her in the Weft, 

Oe the fame, yet every adiduity and while no man even now can acco- 

every exertion will be theii necefiary rately fay, in whaf degree her ge- 

tobnngmenbacktotheijuietpurfait neril profpeticy iiai been affcfiid 

or defence of rauonsl freedom, and by either event; having fome- 

ta ralfe or maintain barriers cnpa.- times known much good to arifc 

ble of limiting power, more than out of apparent evil; and being in 

ever confident of iti own ftrength. thii vtry inllance compelled to ac- 

Such wu the melancholy change, knowledge much nltinute evil in 

vhich in little more than tuo ycjn that fpint of popular reform which 

Iiad been wrought in the flats of we in its origin believed, and in 

Europe; and fuJi the eventual dif- moderation ftill believe, to be fo 

aften 10 which a way had been good, we Ihall not yet abandon all 

opened before the clofe of the year Aope in the dilpeofation* of Provi- 

l79ibytheFrenchrevalction. Tlic dence. In the mean time we Dull 

Srogrefi of gradual improvement purfne the more immediate ta& of 

opped; manner*, morali, religion the hiftorian, in a faithful narrsdve 

on a precipice; tlie internal fyuem of fads, as they arofe, and a candid 



ftopped; manner*, morali, religion the hiftorian, in a faithful narrsdve 

I precipice; tlie internal fyuem of fads as they arofe, and a candid 

:verv country difquieted ; suid explanation of dieir caufes, u &r 

new faOioni created in all, which as our means of infonnaciaa will 

threaten long to agitate and cm- enable us to unravel them. 



CHRONICLl. 



CHRONICLE. 



) A N U A K T. iHunber ofpeople who have perilh' 
ed from falling in the canals, where ' 

. ^'T^HB nniverfity of Dublin, ' they were drowned before affiflance 

' X "^ ''''^ convocation, have could be given them, chough their 

Qoaiuuoully conferred the honoruy cries were diftinAly heard. The 

degree ef Do^r of Laws on the ntambcr of perfona who have pe- 

Rigbt Han. Edmund Barke, as the rilhed in this way is already known 

powerful advocate of the conftitn- to amount to 230. 
tion, the friend of public order, A dreadful accident lately ^, 

viraie, and the happinefs of man-' happened at High Green, ' 

kind; and in leltimonyof the high near Sheffield. A bear kept by one 

refpeS entertained by the uoiverfity Cooper, for the amufcment of the 

(which had the honour of his edu- country people at their wakes, got 

uiioa) for the various endowments loofc, and entered the dwelling of a 

of Ms capacioos mind, and for his perfon named Rogers.— The unfor- 

fupcrior talents and abiliues. tunate wife of the man was fitttog 

.1 The commifConers of Ilamp with one child on her lap, and aiio- 

^ duties met at their office in ther befidc her, when the creature 

Soiaerfet Place, to let to farm " ti\e feized her with all the favage fero- 

liniiei payable on horfea let to hire city incident to his nature, and tore 

for travelling poU and by time, now her in a manner too fhocking to rc- 

oat of leafe. They were let at late. The cries of the poor unfbr- 

anadvaoceof 10,6191. overthefum tunate woman and of the children 

ihcyproduced lail vear. reached Rogers and the bear-keep- 

liaa included thirty-three coun- er, who almoft at the fame' moment 

iin.befidetNorchBritainandWales. entered the houfe, and beheld a 

^ On the lafi day of the late fight fnEcient to appal the moft 

^ year there was fo thick a fog callous mind— what then mull be 
at Amfterdam, that the people could the feelings of a hufband I He flew , 
'notice thur way along the flreets, to the animal, but was anable to 
and ran againft each other, even wrench its jaws from the objed of 
lliDiigh they had tights in their its fury. Cooper then Ibuck it on 
^nu. The accidents it has occa- the head wii^ a hammer, but the 
Soned are verv nnmeront ; but the haft flying off, the blow was oower- 
Boftbrnentablecircomfbuiceiitthe Icfs; it however tamed the bent of 

Voi,. XXXIII. • B in 



a» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

its rage on him, and {wrfued him The j^ gave in their verdid-* 

till he was nearly exhaufted with fa- Ntl Gviliy. 

tigae i and he muft have &llen a Lord Dangarvao read the fol- 

viAim, had not the neighbour!, lowing defence : . 

alarmed at the out-cries, come up " My lord, and gentlemen of the 

with bim, and, at a fecond Ihot, laid jury, 

it dead. The woman expired in "" Whatever flume I onght to 

dreadAil af^ony o« Momky. Mice, and do take to nylMf for 

, A bill ef indidment was the indifcretion which led me into 

*7 found on Friday by the grand the company of the peribn who hat 

jury of Middlefex, agaiaft lord vif- made, and endeavoared to lapport 

coQDi Dungairan, eldell fon of the by perjury, an attack upon my life 

earl of Co»ce, His lordfhip, being and honour, I cannot fnffer myftlf 

/ather heated with wine, met a wo- for a mometit to fuppoft that any 

nan ofr^frVrix, who cajliherfslf credit can be given to fo ftnnge 

Wtlden, at one of the theatres on the and improbable an accvTatioB. I 

preceding night. On the play be- am charged by the unconfirmed oath 

jng over, flie prevailed on him to of a common proftitute with an of- 

take her in a coach to her lodgiugs, fence, which nothing but the loweft 

which drove to No. 45, Rathbone- and worll habits of life and connec- 

placc. Hb lordlhipgave her a gui- tions— the moA abjeft bafenefs of 

nea, but refufed to enter the houTe. mind and contempt of charaAer, 

On this, Mrs. Wcldcn became riot- urged bjr the moll extreme necef- 

ous, and called the watcb ; faying, fiiy, could poffibly prompt any mau , 

if he did not give her another gui- to comiuit.— My fituation, happily, 

- nca, ihe would charge him with is the reverfe of this— I am nor, 

roW^ing her of three guineas and an nor have been in any diArefs of ; 

half. On his refufal, the watchman circumltaaces or want of credit. 

/eized his lordlhip, and detained h'.Ti The very reverfe is my cafe. I 

four hours. His lordlhip'f tridl am confcious that my coadud in , 

came on this morning at the Old lite has ever been jull and h<xioar- 

Bailey, and lalled fix houn.— The able; and that no aAioii of mine 

wretched profecutriK having fworn, has difgraced my own ftationi or 

on the Crtal, that his lordlntp had refiefiedany difcredit upon tfaoJe to 

robbed her in the coach i though whom I have the honour of being 

ihe iad fworn, when before the allied. It will, however, better be- 

jurtice, that /he perceived Jhe had come me to refer yoa, gentlcmenof 

iujt ber money rtxhtn jhe og'trid la gi'ut the jury, to the teftimony of the 

ibt link-hyfo^e grata'Uy far hh li ea- wi toelTes who will be called to (peak 

Ut in caUisgthe cha<k. The jury fald; of my condufl and cbara(ter, than 

it was unnccelfary to proceed fur- to defire yoa to receive ygur in- 

thcr, and begged thai Che defendant formation from my own report, 

might be hsiieM'ahly ae^uiV^J, .. Deeply as my n"nd feels and relenu 

The learsed jujdge faid, he was the unjncriied. difgjace pf the im- 

perfef.ly fa li sited i and although putation atcemfted' to be thror-n 
they had no fuch rec^d as that of upon me, I fiibmit chcarfullj' to a 

an ioj7:Jn;'d^& acqujtyl, yet it would trial by [he laws of my couwry— 

ie remembtrad. ■ J "know thM thofc laws will iiot fuf- 
■ ■ ■ ^^ fet 



CHRONICLE. "j 

fer ctianMl* of ray ruk to dndb tmi to be inprifoned in Newmw 
their juflicc : but I olfo know, ani fiir one jea.T, and one for t£rce 
it is now jaj cvnrolotion and feca- months ; &x in Clericenwell Bride- 
ritjr to know, that tbe pnaifhrnenti well ; nitte to be publicly and £ve 
they infiia, can only f^ upon the privately whipped ; one wu per> 
gailcy bead ; and' that innocence ii mitted to enter u an Eaft India fol- 
iue, proceAed 'by the wifHom and dier, and 14. were delivered by pro- 
integrity of an Englilh jodge and damnttoo. 

jory.— J bare onty'to add my moft Dnilin. Thisday onrpar- ^ 

IbleBB deniil of the charge— to re- I iament met, according to ad- 

3aefl yoor attention to fuch eyi- joumment. In the HooTe ofLords, 

ence a» the learned gentlemen the Right Hon. John Bonrlce, Eari ' 

with whsfe connfel I am a£ftcd . of MayOi having produced the roy- 

Ihall thinlc iHtiper to lay befere yon ; al patent creating hi) ftther ear] of 

And t* declare my entire confidence Mayo, wai introdQced. and took the 

in the TCrdiA of a jury of my coon- oaths ; as was aJfo ihe Right Hon. 

try. Jbr the vindicatioa of my ^o< Arthur Achefon, Vifconnt Gosford. 

DOcr, and the proteAion of my life. The Right Hon. RoSert Clements, 

againft an atUtV. commenced wtdi Baron Leitrim, took the eatlu and 

a view to extort money from me, his feat 

and continoed by malice and wick- Dnadalk. A moft (hocking tranf- 
«dnel«." aftion took place on Friday night 
TIk learned jndge then faid, lafl at Forkhili, within two mitei of 
'" Hy lord Onngarvan, it is but (hti town : at the dead hour of the 
jafticc to yon to (ay, that it ii im- night, the hoafe of the parij}) fchoof- 
poffifale yon can go from diis bar mafler was furronnded by a bandit- 
with ^ leaft impntation on yonr ti, who, having broke in, took the 
chara&er; and as to your impru- man. Ins wife, aitd thnr fon, a boy 
dence in this a^r, yoo feem to be fbuiteen yean old, and cut their 
afrcady peHeAly fenfible." tongnei oai of their heads ; after 
Tbe profecatrixandherwitnefi'es which they took the father and mo- 
retired fipm the conrt, amidfl the ther and chopt off their fingers. 
hilTes and execrations of the an- Soblackandattrocions anaAftands 
mparallcled in the annals of this 



The feffions at the Old country. 
Bailey ended, when jndg- WA/rrW/. Itapiwarsbythe 



19th. 

ment of death was palTed by \fr, advices from India brought ' 
Common Serjeant on the following by the Houghton, one of die corn- 
capital convtds, viz. Ann Rhodes, pany's fhtpi, that major general 
Ann King, Thomas Pointer, Tho- Medows had taken the command 
mas Herliert, John Randall, Neal of the army, which had been col- 
U-Mullen, William Smith, Seze de lefVed in' the Camaiic, and had 
SoDza, John Wallis, Charles Alden, marched into the dominions of 
Danid Bocfceridge, and George Tippoo Sultan; and that Caroor, 
Cook, a boy about 1 3 years of age ; Duraporam, and Coimh«our, had 
17 were lentenced to be tranlport- been taken by him without any re- 
al beyond the feas for fcvcn yearsi fiftance. Major Maitland, who is 
• B I arrived 



4* ANNUAL REGISTER, 179?. 

kmvedin tbeMoughton^airobriiigt die town, ud the lightiuiig was 

*a account of the lurrciidcr of Din- peneivedftlmoftiiidteuiBe io&ntr 

digul. the thunder maluM onljr oae tre- 

The letters from the govemment mendoiu cnlh. It ww protnUy 

or Bengal contain the infonnation, well Air the town, thu the dcAric 

that ueaiiei of alliance hiul been fire wu attnficd hy tkc iron work 

finally concluded by that govern- which oruiiienti the chnrch-ftecpte. 

ment with the Mahrattu, and the It ftnick the weaAeiwoxJc. melted 

-*^izain ; and that lord Cornwallii fame part of it, ioA threw many 

had received from the campte de ftoaei from the Aeeple ; it then cn- 

Conway, goventor-general of the tered the belfryi and melted tfaa 

French pofieffion* to the eaflward wirci, &c. and aUo thole of the 

of the Cape of Good Hope, the clock ; from thence it followed the 

molt unequivocal aiTuraiiGC* of per- iron-rod that guide) the hand of the 

fe£l neutrality. clock, to a dial within the church, 

^ Thu mominjg, between placed en the top of the orgma, and 

' ' three and four o'clock, an in iu way wrelted a piece of knotty 

alarming fire broke out in the count- oak of four inchei Iquare from one 

ing-houle and ware-room of Md£ of the beanu that fuffiort the roof 

Blegari and Co. manufafiuren at of the church, befidei taking with 

Sciennei, on thefouch fideof Edin- it a coaiiderahtepartof the conuce 

burgh. It had got to a confiderx- of the dial; from the dial it pro- 

ble height before it was difcavered, ceedcd down the organ to the cur- 

and from the great qaantity of lint, tain-rod in the front of it, and run - 

yam, linen, &c. in the premiHes, ning from the fouth tothe north 

there was rcafon to expcCt the molt end of the rod, it took down an up- 

ferious confcquences. Several of right iron from the ceiling, and 

the magiftrates attended; and by rent it with fuch violence, that 

the exertions of the company's fer- fplinter* were found Itickine in the 

vants, aHllfcd W the town-guard, a oppofite ceiling, as if dilchaiged 

detachment of the ^^d regiment, from a gun. It then penetrated 

engines. Sec. the fire was got under, through the floor of the gallery, 

anoaverycouiiderable property, in and followed an iron piltar at the 

linen, yarn, ttc. ptefcrved ; but llill foot, and from thence it is fuppcrfed* 

the lofs bcurred is to a great to have gone different ways, after 

amount. The fire was occauoncd Iplitting many of the pews, as 

by fome hot slhes that were put in- uiere are nurks where it palTed, 

' to a wooden bucket, and left on the botli in the windows at the weft, 

iloor of the ware-room, after the as well as that at the end of the 

chimneys were fwepc. earl of Stamford's chapel in the 

^ LivtrfMl. The conllema- eaft. 
*4 ■ tion at Alhtonrunder - Line, A child of eighteen months ^ 

betweenfivcand£xo'clockonMon- old was found dead near Ply- ' * 

day evening, was great Every per- mouth i and it appeared on the c»- 

fon in the Ibeets was To terrified as to roner's inqueft, that the child died 

Oiriek and run into (hops and houfes - in coaTequence of a cat fucking its 

for Oielter. The thunder burlt from breath, thereby occafioning a ftrao- 

~ a cloud which lecmcd to hanz over gulaiion. 

• . s6lh. 



CHRONICLE. •} 

£^ Satlaml. A letter fhiin ndier die Aurora Borealu, nlien 
PaUenwcaia briogs an ac- .firong. 
coonc of a mot mcUiic£>ly cata- TiuidayiliecaleofthecU ^^ 
ftrophe which hafpened tlutc on tyof London a^aiuft the cor- 
'VftAaeBay, the zoth of lanaary, poradon of King's Ljrnn came on 
where the keeper of the li^t-hoiue to be argued in Uie court of King's - 
en the iflaod of Mayo, with hii fa- fieoch. It was a writ of error from 
inily, were alnioft all found fuSb- the court of Common Pleas, where a, 
cated. No light having appeared trial at bar was had on a writ Jt 
on the illand for fame days, the i^oJq jaitlum df ihiJttih (of being 
anxiety of the people in the neigh- qiiit of toll] brought by the city of ' 
booibood was much rufed, but no London, to aflert the right of their 
bost dated approach the iiUnd by citizens being exempted from s toU 
reafoB of the violent ftorms : thefe on coriw demanded oy the corpora* 
being fomewhat abated, one of the tion of Lyniv— A veniiCt bad been 
befl Doats belonging to the town given for tlie city of London, and 
reached the illand in fafeCy, bat the errors were affigned on the in- 
foimd the door of the light-hoare formality of the declaration, Afler 
bolted. This they broke open, and much abflrufe argoment by Mr. Ser- 
were at laft, after <omc delay, met on jeant le Blanc, for King's Lynn, and 
Ac flain by a man ia fach a ftate ai Mr. Serjeant Adair, for Loiidoo, die 
to be onable to give them an ac- court of King's Bench reverfed the 
count of what had oappened. They jodgmeni, on the ground that the 
therefore went to the light-keeper's dectoration did not Sate that the dty 
apartments, ii4iere they found the of London had received fuch an in- 
man ^nd his wife dead, with an in- jury on which an aAion could be 
&nt alive, facking its dead mother's maintained, the corporation of Lynn 
breait. In another bed three chil- having demanded, but not having 
drcn dead, and two but juft living ; received or diftrained for, the ia& in 
they were ezpofed to tne air, ind queftion. It is fuppofed tfau canfe 
feemed to revive, and with the two will be carried to the houfe of lords, 
men, afliftants to the keeper, were On Motuiaycame on before - 
carried to Crail, where the eldelt of the Court of JuIHciary tf. ' 
the children died the next dav. This Edinburgh, the trial of eight perfons, 
fid fcene was produced by the care- charged with having fciKcd by force, 
lelTneii of the afliftancs, who had carried ofi*, and captivating William 
neglefied to brim the alhes in the Wells, of Lochmabane, coaufellor 
lower apartmenu, which the high of that borough. ot> the Sthof July, 
winds had blown ap^ and the fmokej 1790> with a view to defeat the free- 
having no vent occafioned fufib^a* dom of eleflion of delegates for the 
lion. laid borough. Pour of the parties 
a7th. This morning early a pret- did not appearj and Mr. Muono- 
' Vf thick fbowerof rain tellin chie. one of the counfel for the pan- 
and round the metropolis, which was nel, ftated, that they had found bail 
attended with fome Aafhes of li^t- for fix months, to anfwer all alle^a- 
BJDg, but no thunder or wind. The tious againll them ; and ^hai time 
light wa« not vivid, but reftmbled being now clapfed, and they oat of 
•fi 1 the 



6* ANNtfAL rSOISTEH, 1791. 

the kingdom, the fuminoiu waa not have tiDappedtefort}ieiliat;»hs 

properly fervcd ; he therefore prayed then is to Mcome of that f * At the 

that the court ffoald find the Mil not tiiOe that he tefofed tbij ntnirilh- 

fbifeiced, which [heblonUhipsfbnnd mitA, fbl- fear of being obliged to 

Bccordineiy, giTt ttny ttvo or three ptnnidt of 

The foor othen appeared, and meat, thert wai tied round Mt neck 

pleaded cot palty. Mr. Hamilton, a fitken ba?, which cMitained 800 

junior counicl, ftated in their de- affignata ot i^ooo livres each. At 

ftnee, that Well) had pronifed his hi* ontftt in lift he dranlc a pint of 

vote to both parties, and had bllea beer (which rerved him for hipper) 

. upon the expedient of having him- every night at a hoafe much fre- 

fetf carried off to favc hi) honour, qiientedjfromwhichhecarriedhonie 

This plea, however, was oVer-ruled, all did bottlc-corks he could come 

and the trial proceeded to convic- at. Of thefe, in the COurTe cff eight 

tibn. They have fince received (in- yean, be had cdlleAed is many ai 

t^ce a follows: John Lind&y to fold for twelve louis-d'or.afnmthat 

beimprifoned in theCanongategaol laid the foundation of his future for- 

forthreeinonths,topayafineof ;ol. tune, the fnpn-ftmflnre of which 

flerling, and to be. afterwards ba- was rapidly raifed hyhis uncomnon 

niftied Scotland for leven years : foccefs In ftock-jobbin^. He died 

John Lockerby, Peter Foreit, and pofTclTed of three milbona of Uvrcs 

ames Thomburn, to be confined in (125,000!. fterling). 

the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, till aift, at his houfe near Croft- 

Wednefday the ijdinllant; on that fquare, Bifhopfbate-lbeet, aged 69, 

day to be publicly whipped through Mr. Thoriias Kent. Me was n^aoy 

the Arcets of that city, by the hands years remarkable Ibr bit -fir did 



of the common executioner, and manner of living, though potkifki 

then banifhed Scotland for fcveii of ah opulent fortune, zs, ^t»n the 

y^ars : all under the ufual cenilica- loweft Aate of iddigence, he gta. 

tibns, incafe of any of them bein^ dually came into polTeffion of^the 

found in this country during the whole court in which he lived, at 

above period. Mr. Lindfay is to be well as fevera] other anements in 

allowed three months to put his af- difierent pans of the town. Mr. 

fairs in order, previous to going into Kent and his wife were well known 

baniOunent; and the other three for feveral years by riding in the 

from the 33d iuftant to the iftof charaflers of king and queen to 

April. Horn-fair, as well as by accanulat- 

DiSDiIately, at Paris, literally of ing a fufficiency for pnrcha£ng the 

want, Mr. 01tervald,.a well-known lirR houre they lived in by boiling 

banker. This man, originally of bines which they picked op in the 

Neufchatd, felt the violence of the ftrects. Duringthelife ofhi^fponfe, 

dijeaTe of avarice fo ftrongly, that they always kept their birth-days by 

within a few days of his deaUi, no diflribnting beef and beer among 

importunities could induce him to their tenants ; but fince her dea£ 

biiy a few pounds of meat for the thoueh his property has been tn- 

purpofe of making a little foup for creaflng, his difpolition became fa 

nim. "'"ns true," faid he, " 1 pennrious, that firtmi his appearanco 

Ihould sot diUike the fonp,- but I sunong ftnngers, he was frequently 

nuftaken 

■ -"*■ 



C H R O N 1 CLE. »7 

BiifldJcen far » hegfftr. Apsrfiiaor haei»efnmt,fmatie,canliiTalion, 

iame famded pr^^n^, MnentDjr and dukking." Hii places being 

kvowB by the mrac of old Dickt moftly fine euivi enabled hhn to enjoy 

and of the fame tura of mind, hu the (T^hm cub Jignitate, which he did 

Itvtd with him for feveral yean paft, with finguUy advantage to himfetf 

towlwni. aad anin&iitiuace, allhic and his frtendai Amtongftt fie tatter 

property u vriUed. he will be long lamented ss fhe cen- 

Xjch, in Clevelaiid-row, Saint treof good-hufnour, wit,and codvi- 

JuBes'a-pIaccinhii ie*enty>recoad viality. He died very milch in cho 

year, of a violent lirinwycompbuiit^ Jwlbm 9r the charchi having the Bi- 

Georgc Angnftiu Sehvyn, etqaire, bk read to htm conftantly during 

aienwr of parhanwnt lor the bo* the whok of hit ittncTi. 

lOBgh of Lndgerfball, in the county ^____________^^^^^^^_ 

of Wiki, aad ftinnerly rniclenCa- ' 

ti« for the city of GloDCetter. He FEBRUARY. 
wu &irveyor'gcneraI of the crown- 

lands, furveyor of the meltingi, and On this day there waa the , 

ckrk of the iront in the Mint, and higbell flood-tide on the ri- ' 

legiAer in the court of Chancery in vcr Thames that hu ever been re- 

the ijkiid of Barbadocs. He wai menibtred. 

educated at Oxford, to which place Above Wiftninfter Bridge it 

he returned, after makiog the tonr overflowed the banks of the nver on 

of Europe. He had not been at Ox- both fidet, particularly at Milbank, 

ford long;, when, OB account of fomc where it came into the Horfe-ferry 

rappoled religious irregularitiei. he load, and carried. away feverat logs 

hadahinttoleavethecollege.which of timber, &c In Palace-yaid it 

he toiri:> and, being poflwIIH nf a was near two feet deep. It alfo ran 

good fonnne, he threw hiniftlf into into Weftninfler-hail, fo as to pre- 

the fafliionable drcki of the town, vent people pafling for two' hoars. 

He was highly cjoalilied for this Boats came through the paCage of 

l^ere, being poffefled of miich claf- Old Palaoe-yard from the Thames, 

fical knowledge, a brilliant wit) good and rowed up (o Wettminfter-hall 

humour, and a contiderable Ibare of gate. The inhabitants ia Milbank- 

obferration. He therefore was foon fireet were obliged to pafs to and 

noticed as awit ;nd ^vii;a*(,and from their houfes in boats. The two 

divided with tbe'.ate lord Chefter- Scotland -yards, and Privy- gardens, 

£cld moft of the good thing* of their Whitehall, were entirely undo- wa- 

times. Mr. Setwyn took care not ter, andmanyparts rendered impaf-- 

10 be ruined by his mt (as luu been Cible for two hours. People were 

ihe cafe with many othen) ; he had obliged in thofc places to be taken 

" padding as well as praife," being from their houfes on men's backs ; 

in pofleflion of feveral advantageous and feveral poor people, who keep 

paces, which he enjoyed under fe- &nalt fliops near the iurracks in 

vcral adminillrations. He was at Scotland-yatd, had four feet water in 

one time of his Ufk much in the habit tbeir (hops, and their beds iloating 

of gaauM ; bat be (boa gave it up in their rooms, 

[except for trifling fonu), being, as Wettminfter-hall has fuflered 

he (kid, "one of the greatcfl con* much. The water lan in at the great 
• B 4 door 



«• ANNUAL REGISTER, I79I. 

door for more thin an boar, and Upon die notth and weft coifts of 
undid ill that had been doing for Eflex, die inbalMauiU have been 
many week* to render the court dry, greater fnffisren than tbofe of tie 
warm, and comfortable, by braziers, oppofite coanty. Not an ifland bn 
fiovei. aud other arti&ial meau. hai fererely rnftred. Thofe of Pot- 
Above bridge the tide rgfe three feet ten, WaUace, and New England 
higher than afuiL were totally OTerflowed ; in the latter. 

The ground floor of lord Bel- . 400 Iheep werefweptoffbythevio- 
sravc'* houfe, andthe garden,were lence of the Tea. Fonwda aad 
flooded twofeetdeep; at were almoft Canrey Ifleihareltkewife received 
all the gardeni and narfery-groonds matenal injury; and there arc thrae 
round Chelfea and Lambeth. immenre fareachei in the nortk-wcft 

Below bridge the low meadowa walla of Canvey ifland, tfarm^ 

and maHbes were almofi one con- - which the tide Aowi and ebbs with 

tinued Aioal of water for fomc vaft impctuofity. 
bonrt. At Ipfwtch, about 1 1 o'dock in 

In the evening of Tuefday, the the morning, the fearulhed fromiu 

firft of February, it began to blow bed, and overflowed all the gardeni, 

from N.N.W. on thccoaflofKent, malt-houfM, and houfe*, fituated 

which in the night increafed to a near the (alt-water rivers. A boat 

hurricane, with llrong flafliet of was rowed upon the bowline-green, 

l^hccning. In the momtng of The common quay wat quite over- 

Wednefday it was full tide at leafl flowed.and immenfe damage done la 

two fours before the ufuat time, and the goodt in the warehoufuf lodged 

tumbled in with a tremcndooa fnrf, there for the trading hoys. ■ 

threatening dellruflion la every This inundation iias been senC' 

thine that oppofed its fury. rsl upon the Suffolk coaft. At Wood- 

The fea-walls and banks at Sea- bridge, Aldborongb, Orfbrd, and 

falter were in feveral places broken other places, much damage has been 

down and wa{hed away, and the done, 

marfh-Undsfloodedtoagreatdepth; At Powderham calUe, at , 

lb that the ili>ep and other cattle the hon. Mifs Courtenay was ' ' 

were with the greatefidiSicnltydri- Handing near the drawlo^-room fire, 

ven ofl^ in eameft converfation with another 

At Whitftable forae of the ftore- lady, her cbaths unfortunately took 
boufet on the beach were whirled fire, andfhe was ahnoft inftantly en- 
down, anc the waves rolled in fo fu- veloped in flames. Lord Courtenay, 
lioufly, that the inhabitants were who Aood near, had the prefence of 
under ihe tnoft dreadful apprehen- nlind to throw her down, and to roll 
fmm. ' the carpet round her, by which her- 

At Deal the (form was fttUjoore life was laved, but not without bebg 

threatening. The waves there^trfce terribly fcorched. His lordfliip'a 

over the fca-bank into Beach>ftreer, hands and face were liicewife mach 

many parts of which were quite un- burnt. 

dcr water. Fortunately the ftorm Court of Eing's4>ench. Sar- . 

happened in the day-ttne, or much tholomew QgaUn, labourer, in ' ' 

damage would in general have been the Ifle of Ely, had beea indt&ed 

fuftaioed. for the wilful muidcr of Ann hia 
4 wift. 



CHRONICLE. '9 

wife, wbm tht jury foaiid a fpeaai lier left fide, became p«1e. and fell 

v«rdiA, wbkk wi« iaa to ibt; coiin down. Tbe jar/ fbaud that the 

of Kin^i-bench for their con&dera-^ kicks fo given were {•iven with great 

tion. The faAs Hated in this venttfi violence, and by the ktck& the fpleen 

were thefe: Bartholomew Quailn, was borll, of which faid burfUDc; of 

aod Ann his wife, cxbk peaceably thefpleeniheafteiwardsdied. Then 

out ofapoblic'hoide, where they had tlieveTditi found, that from the ^ft 

l>eendrnkiiigtogether,heinli^iior, kick till tbe time (he received the 

fliCDOt; (hat when they got bto the laft kick wu half an hour, ajid that 

S'hway they appeared to be qnar- from the time of receiving the lail 

ling about a b*g which (he wanted kick till (he died was twenty mi- 

him togivetoher; thatduringthe nucei. The fp^ial verdiA likcwife 

time they were fo qoarrelling, the found, that the prifoner on hearing 

fud Ann was fitting in the Areet ; of hii wife's death exprelTed great 

and the jnry found that the fiid Ann forrow. 

rofe from the ground and walked The qaellion for the decilioa of 

along die faid (Ireet, and her huf- the court was, "Whether thefefafts, 

band fidlowed her, andgavehertwo fo found by tbe jury, amounted to 

ST tfaive kicks ; that afterwards fe- the crime of murder, or only to the 

veral (hrieki and cries were heard, olfence of manflaughcer /" 

and the iaid Ann was feen to run The court delivered their opi- 

away from him, ibcryingandfhriek- nions^^jornn, and were unanimous 

tng: and when Ihe ran away he in thinking thai the prifoner was 

overtook her and kicked her down, clearly guilty of the crime of a>iir- 

aod afterwani, when he had kicked der. 

her down, and retired a few paces Oo the following Monday Qaailn 

from her, he retomed to her again, was executed puiTuanc to his fea- 

andwhile Ihe was on the grouMl he ' tcnce. 

gaveherfevenlkickgon tie thighs, Thia day the ground on the , 

and on dw right and left fide oF her N, E. fide of Whitehaven fell- ?"*' 

body ; that when he had fn kicked in in three places, to the great ter- 

her Ihe rofe once more from the ror of the inhabitants; but the acci- 

gronnd ; that Banholomew when Ihe dent was foon dilcovered to have 

rofe kicked her down again ; and been occaGoned by the cardi giving 

after thefaid Annhadbeenfokicked way over an old coal-worl; ivniLh 

down, (he rofe, and laid to the pri- had been worked about fifty years 

loner, •* Ten havt kiUii nu ;"'~and 4gOi and left aniilled up About (he 

vheo a- woman, who was near, afked time the above accident bappe.-icd, 

tl)e ptifoner why he beat his wife l the water broke in upon the prc- 

ind (aid if Ihe had (trength enough feot coal-work, by wludi two men, 

fhe would prevent him fromexerctf- one woman, and five horfes were 

iDg any more barbarity upon her, he drowned. 

W he would ferve her' in the ikme The caft of Left'y and ^ 

Banner. Millswas determined by the ' 

The fpecial verdiA farther Hated, court of King's-bench; the quellion 

i)ut the unfortonate deceafed'got was, " Whedier a bill of exchange 

up, and with great difficulty walked is liable to a proteft if not paid 

about thir^ yards, hold her hand to within banking-hours I" The court 

detennined. 



.uogle 



io» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

detennintd, that it cannot bf pn>< difcoreiy dutt W lodguist wtrt 
tefled till the Any after the day on , neax tlie PantheOD, O^bid-finct) 
which it is due. Thejr alfo &id, where they diicoreped a fick nun 
that bills payable at fo lasmy days in bed, who Xiinu out to be one Par* 
afiei' liglit are not TubjeA to a proteft foas, xnother Mghwaymaa, fii^pofed 
U all, under theaA of K.WilLJK. to hare be«B wounded by Lord 
and that in no care ought more than Falkland's krvutt on Uontiilow- 
6d. to be paid for protefllng, pnr- heathabont three weeluaffot 
foant to that afl. The celebrated coUcaKin . 
16th. This afternoon, about four of mufical inftnmentt, to- '''^" 
^ o'clock, Mr. Arnold wai gether with tlie mufical library, of 
robbed by a fingle highwayman, liie late Duke DfCumlKtland, wete 
whoTe name was Carter, at no great this day knocked down at ChrilUe'i. 
diAance from his own hoafe, near It confifted of an inunenfe colkfiion 
Sevenoaki, Kent. IromecUatety af- of almoft all the compofen in Eu- 
ter the robbery had been comnut- rope, for near 200 yeart palt Han- 
led, Mr. Arnold gave a general del'* works, Haydn's, Banmgsrtcn's, 
alarm, and immediate pnrfuit was and a few odiers, fold very higlt. 
made by Mr. Pitman, maAer of the A beantifnl ton'd organ, by Green, 
Harrow public-houfe on Madam- wilh a piano forte Hop, went for 76). 
fcot-hill, andMr. Hall.fflafterof the '13s. His^RoyalHighnefswasinpof- 
White Hart at Riverhead, and fere- feffion of a violin by Stainer, wfdch 
ral others. The highwayman was has long been the admiration ai>d 
firlt overtaksn by Mi. Pitoan near envy of the amateon. It ii now in 
Seal, and a piilol heard to fire ; and the hundred and tw«nty-firft ytwr of 
«n Mr. Hall's coming up be found its age ; the purchaser is Mr. Bra- 
tiie robber on the ground, and Mr. dyll, at the price of 130 guineas! 
Pitman lying near him quite dead. Another violin, with a tenor and 
having diHocatcd his neck by the violoncello, by the fame maker, 
fall. The highwayman, who had were fold for 138 guineas. Mr, 
received a fhot in the head, was car- Condell bought the tavoorite tenor 
ried to Rivcrhead, where the ball for 50 guineas; and feveral other 
was extr^Sed, fince which he has inArumenu fold at high prices. All 
been committed to Mudftone gaol, the great perfotniers in town wen 
but ftiil lies dangeroofiy ilL After prefent. 

the robbery he was lb incautious as At the lale of the Duke of Cum- 
to flop and drink at one or twS berl and *s books, CateJhy's Natural 
places, and to reqaeft that the par- Hiilory of North Carolina, finely 
ties would fay, in cafe any inqoiry coloui«d, weotat ^. Ij. 151. Mag- 
was made after Bperfon paffing that na Britannia et Hibaniia, «t £. $1. 
way, ih5t he ban gene a contrary toj. The Antiquities of Ancient 
one. It iince appears that after Rome, inclading the Vatican, by 
Mr. Pitman had fired, he attempted Piranelli, Rof), Aquija, &ci at 
to feize the highwayman, but in the £. 524. loj. This fuperb work was 
Ifa-uggle was thrown from his horfe, prefented to the Duke by Pope 
and inftantly killed, as above related. Ganganelli. 

On fearchbg Carter's pockets were This day was execnttd at ^ 

found feveral papers, wluchlcd to a Edinburgh, William Ga- ' 

delby. 



Chronicle.' 'h 

Aetby, one rf die moft notoriont ril- fair opportumty of polTcffing biin- 

bim tbax Kas figured in the tine of felf of money or goMs, by fnitid or 

roguery' in this coontry for many force, til! the day he was coniincd 

yeirs. He appeared upon the plat- in gao!. The fums heftole or ac- , 

fbnn about a quarter of an honr quired by thtcTery and cheating, 

after two o'dock, drefled in white, according to hJs own acconnc, did 

trimmed with blaclc. The awful not nmount to lefs th?.n sooot be- , 

foiemnity, the dreadful apparatus fides what he made by the ruin of ' 

of death, and the near approach of uufortunace women whom he ft- 

etemity, all combined, feemed hei-. duced. He feeoied fo abandoned 

thertoJh^e his frame.nOr agitate his as to glory in his cnmes. 
mind! Hadhedied ina bittercaufe. The SeSions ended at the j 

he could not have evinced greater Old B^tley, when judgment 

fortitodef nor been more coUeCled. of death was paffcd upon Jamea 

He was attended by the Rev. Mr. Tohnfon, who was convifled of ■ 

Finlayfon, Having Jpent fonie burglary on Wednefday lalt; one 

Ume in prayer, he alcended the drop was fentencrd to be tranfported for 

wt:h a firm Hep, and flood witn fourteen years; twenty-ei^ht for 

great compofu re till the apparatus feven years j five to tjc iiqprironed 

was properly adjufted; he then ad- in Newgate; nine in Clerlcenwell 

drefled hirafelfin an audible voice bridewell; fix to be publicly and 

to the multitude, and gave a hillory two privately whipped ; and feren- 

of his life, which feems tohave been teen difcharged. 
one continued fcene of depredation Amonglt the prifoncrs coTj»'fted 

ibd plander; and though only z8 of felonies was John Betville, for 

ytan of age. his criminal exploits Healing at Buckingham-houre a pair 

appeat, both in variety and number, of filver fnuffers and ftand, and two 

to equal, if not exceed) theatchieve- candlefltck noizles, the property of 

mtntsof the moft dexterous grey- his Majefty. 
haired ofender. Mifs Eliza Goter.a young lady 

He particularly mentioned, that of great beauty, and female com- 

the officer on guard in the caitle panion to Mifs Bumey, who had 

ought to examine all hackney- apartments in Bitckir^gham-houfe. 

chairs which go out in the night- and attends upon tlie perfonofthe 

time; for he often got out that queen, was the firil witnefs called; 

Way, and conunitied depredations and Ihe proved, that ofi the evening 

^»nt Edinburgh. of the 24th of January (he left thii 

With his laft breath, he declared property in the an ti- chamber, near 

Falconer, Brace, a^id Dick, who to the queen's dreflibe-rooin, when 
were executed here two years ago flic retired to rell in Mi s Burney'i 
for robbing the Dundee Bank, in- bed-chamber, where (he llepc She 
DOcent of that crime, and acknow- alfo proved, that the prifoner at the 
Wged his own guilt ! bar, who was a Gerinan, had about 

At fourteen years of age he com- four years ago lived as fbotnan to 
mitted hu firft crime, by Sealing a Mifs Bumey. * 

pocket-boc^frcnnaftaiioaer'slhop; William Mofs, the prefent (bot- 
and trom that ume ncvei aiSea a man, proved* that at half paft feven 

o'clock 

., .,..u;>^ie 



la* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791, 

o'clock the next morning, when fae commendatkni of Mili Bnmcy, to 

went bto the anti-chuuber, die pro- whom, he faid, be had written feve- 

peny Wis gone. ral leiteri on tbii fubjefl; pramli*' 

John Beak HrUher, the pawn- ing, that in cafe they woidd excufe 

broker, to whom the public are fo him thii time, he would endeavour 

ffvqucntly indetited fiiv the appre- to nLife- a little money among iiis 

fcenfion of thieves, proved that the own countrymen, and turn his 

prifoneTi on the 4th of February, of- back on England for the remsiiider 

ftfcd fome bits of £lrer to pawn; ofhisdays. 

but that, fufpeding he had notcome TheRecorderfamnieduplheevi- 

boneflly by them, he immediately dencc to the Jury with great preci- 

Inzed himi and delivered him into lion, and pointed out tliofe parti of 

the cafto^y of Macmanui, belong- . it which tended to prove the whole 

ingtothcoiRceinBow-llreet, where charge a capital offence, and ihofe 

information had already been lodged which applied to the Angle felony 

of thii robbery having been com- only. 

initted, and a very accurate dcTcrip- The Jury found him ^Ity of 

tu>n given af the things ftolen;. and flealing to Uie value of thirty-nine 

by theconfeflion of theprifoner, the Ihillingi. 

Temaining part of the property was On the zSth a woman at Abbot'* 

foundin his lodgings. Bromley, of the name of Stretton. 

Mr. Williams, the gentleman of deliberAely poifoned herfclf. Being 

her majefly's filver fcuUery, was dreffed in her beft deaths, flie went 

called to indentify the property; and 10 an apothecary's, complained of 

-it was alio proved, tnat Bucking- being infe lied with rats, and par- 

faam-Palace was the dwelling-houfe chafni a quantity of aHenic to de> 

of the King. ftroy them. On her return hom^ 

The pmoner in his defence can- flie gave orders for clean Sieets to 
didly confelTed the faQ; and ffatcd, be put on her bed, went out to vifit 
that he had been brought from Ger- ■ neighbour, and told lier (he ihould 
many by a nobleman, and recom- die that nigbt. About feven in the 
mended by him to the fervice of evening (he was taken exceedingly 
Mirsfiurney; but that he foon found ill, but refufedtheafiifiance of either 
hlmfclf the objc£t ofalecretand un- prieft or phyfician; and about ten 
merited enmity to the other furvants at night expired, in the moil dread- 
in the Royal Palace ; and, in confe- ful agonies, declaring what Ihe bad 
quencc of their filent flander, was done, v;hcn too late to relieve her. 
loon afterwards didnilTed ; that he —The Coroner's inqueil lat on her 
was reduced to extreme mifery and body, and brouglit in their vcrdiS— 1 
diftrefs, a foreigner in a foreign Lunacy. 

land, wlthoutfriends, money orcre- At Md.rgate, in Kent, fome la- 

dit; th^it.this Tituation had aflUfled bourers, employed to dig the fonn- 

him with occaTional dilb^Qion of dations for fome houfes intended to 

ipind; that ur^edhy necelCty, and be built, about two feet below the 

^in a moment when he was loft to all furface found the remains of feve- 

recoileftion, he committed ilie faff, ral bodies, which were interred in 

He had only to trull to the mercy of graves hewn out of the folid chalk, 

the Jury, and to the favourable re- From a medal found in one of the 



CHRONICLE. 'U 

»»»«», k ia fappoTed they have lain ported by a figare of Viflory on one 

then upwards of lyoo years. It fide.and on the oclier roamfcftly the 

hasonitan Emperor"! head, crown- decoration of » pediment. Part of 

cd with a radial crown; and from the Qutt of a fluted colamn, > pil- 

tJie legend, thoQgh every letter ia after, and a capital, frieze and cor- 

not diibagui(habk, there -mnami no nice of the Corinthian order, finely 

doubt ofitibeisg one of Papienu«'i, executed, were likewife found in 

whoieigned in theyear 237. On the fame place.and were undoubt- 

the reverfe i) the wholelength figure edly part of the fame buildwe. 

of > man, bearing a lance in his An altar, with the following 

right hand, in a nmning attitude ; inrcripcion, wai found at ihe lame 

ivery bold relievo. The infcrip- time and place : 

doou not legible. Al the (ame DEAB SVB 

ODie were feand the remains of a PRO SALVTfi IVT 

IWord and fcabbatd much decayed. »INCOLVMlTAT 

The bbnei, when found, were very MAR AVFID 

entile i but, on being expofed to MAXIMI LEO 

theair.lboacrambled into dull. VI VIS ' 

Afew days fince. as Mr. i^Tip AVPIDIVS BV • 
wu breaking op an old (hip (for- TVC. HE5. LEB. 
ncrly a Spaniard, which, when V. S. L. M. 
Ae was taken, had t .e Gfreatell Died atBach.Mr.CbarlesWray. 
partof her crew killed] he difcover- book-keeper at Hoare'i, in Fleet- 
ed three ingou of gold ofcnnfider- Ureet, 54 years. He has left 500L 
able weight, which he immediately to the Magdalen charity, of which 
lenE ap to the bullion office under a he had been a Mvernor and pro- 
Krong guard of (hip- breakers. It moter from iuinftitution; and 500L 
is fupjMed that this fortunate dif- to the Chancellor of the Excheqnert 
Corerr will inoeafe Mr. Kemp's towards paying olF the national debt, 
weilth 3 J or j^. 30,000, feveral as an example 10 other liberal-heart- 
baila ingota having been fonnd ed and rich old men. This ia not 
fince. She is conOvitiy watched, the firft beqoeft made for that pur- 
udnotaptankfofferedtobemoved [tofe. A Cot. Norton, of Swith- 
>o Mr, Kemp's abfence. wick, Hants, in 1733, left/. 3o/x)» 
The inprovemenu now carrying for the fame end; iMt tho Court of 
"B U Bath, in order to reader the King's Bench, confideiing it only aa 
twnmnnication with the lower town a drop of water poured into tha fea, 
Dme commodious, have been the decreed that the Colonel was infane. 
meani of difcovering the remains of and the money was divided among 
ateaple, probably the moil magni- the heirs at law. 
^Dt building which Bath, the In his 7Sih year, at Hampton* 
^jn^ Situ of at Romans, had then where he has refidedfince his retire- 
to boall of. inent from the fUge, John Beard, 
On the fouth fide of Stall-llreet, efq, formerly one of the proprietor! 
»l»ut^3jeet under the furface, waa and aAing-managcr of Covenugar- 
found a coloflal head encircled in a den theaire.and long a very eminent 
civic wreath, and- another exterior and popular finger, till the lofa of 
"iiULeat forming a niedaUioOffup- hia oesring di(^ualified him front 

perfiuinaag. 



14* ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791. 



perferming. Hit firft nuuriage b 
thui recorded on a handfonie pyrk- 
nidalroonamcnt tnPancnuchiircb' 
yard: 



of Ltij HcnrietM Burd, 

•aljr daoihle- of [imci Eirl of W^cimc 

In the jeu- 17)4 

fti wu miTTied td Lord Edwiid HeiUrt, 

feund foo to the Mirqgii gf Pswii ; 
bj whcm Ac hid iffkie one djugliter, 
Barbui, now Caunitri of Pawn. 
On the tth of Juiiury, i7]8-9, 
Ac becime tbe »ilc of Mr. John Beard j 
who, duiisg an hippjr nnion of 14 yeiri, 
Mnderly loved ber peiron, and adici 

iriia fiocerely feelt hii IbCi j 

ud mu!t fu ncr reftie 

bei isemotj, 

to whidi be coBfuDtei 

Ob> KXii M»ii, i^nccLiii, Kt. xuvl. 

Kefukiictt in pKb" 

By this laily'a 6citb, a joisture of 
f .6ooay»rclev(riveiltoE3rlPo<vis. 
He married, lecondly, a daugiiter 
of Mr. Kich, <pateiitee of CareaU 
garden theatre, whole filler married, 
1. Mr, MOTTia, 1. Mr. Horllcy) 
brother to the £i(hop of St. DavkI's. 
By the death of his father-in-law, 
Mr. Rich, Mc B. found himfdf in 
affluent circamibncci, and h\s 
agreeable taknis fecnred to him a 
^de of bseods in hii retiremeat. 



MARCH. 

« DtiHin. In canfeqticnce of 

'the annval maAjueracic at tiK 

flew rooms in Rutland 'f<]uare, the 

police Ittended, drsied u ufiial witJi 



£ie-Iocki«Bd fixed baTonett. Abont 
ten at nivht an'atarmine mnltitaclc 
aSembleirto gtmff their cariolky ; 
bvt more to uew tnor coniainpt to 
the police, yrha began to exert their 
auibont^ ; when a riot be^an, and 
a fort of faattle was fought, in which 
the police were def^ited, feveral 
killed, and the gicatcft pan wb« 
dcaped with life wtuinded. 

This morning, foon after fix . 
o'clock, a moft drtadfiil Sk 3°" 
broke out in the Albion Mills on 
the Surry fide of Bladcfriars Bridge, 
which raged with fuch nnabating 
fury, that is aboat half an boar the 
whole of that estenlive edifice, to- 
gether with an immmle onantity 
cf flour and grain, wa* rednced to 
allies; the comer wing, occupied 
ta the houle and a£cci of the fa- 
perintendant, only efcapinr tlie fad 
calamity from thr thickuefi of die 
partv-walL It was low water at 
the time the fire was firft difcover- 
«d, and before tbe , cngioa were 
coIleAcd thcif afliflance was iaef- 
feSnal i for the flames burft o«t in 
fo many different dire£Uons, and 
with fiich incredible Jiirf and into- 
lemble heat, that it was impoffible 
to approach on any fide. liH ibe 
roof and interior part of Ac build- 
ing lumMing in completed the ge- 
neral Conflagration in a colmnn of 
fire, fo awfully grand ajtoitlunii- 
nate Sat a while the whole horizon. 
The wind being eaflerly, the flamtt 
were blown acrors Albion- ^ce, the 
houfes on the weft-Gde of which 
were confidenibly rcorched,aad the 
inhabitants greatly alarmed. I& 
the lane adjoining the mills one 
houfe was burnt to the groond, and 
others coniiderably damaged. 

Fartunatsly no lives have ben 
loft faui the property coBfnined ii 

9 «fy 



ii,Coo^lc 



•CHRONICLE. 



•'J 



verygmt; foar tbonraod Tacks of Wtiiffin, and aOced the yoang man' 
cornweieon thepreinirn.ofwhich who waa feedieg the hoWs if he 
onlf thittf are not deftroyed. 
Tbe property iafortd u at Mloivs ; 

At die HandwD-Hand 6,000 
San ^ 5,000 
PbcBsuc ^ S>ooo 
UoioB — 5/J00 
Royal.Excbange 5*000 

36,000 
Ditto on Sock 15,000 



cOnld recommend them to any 

work, or if his mafter would bin 

them. The young man tM tbem 

that hii mnfter was not it homei 

on. which they feized him, and with 

cord) which they brought with 

them, bound him to a p(A jn the- 

liable. Being then joined by five 

Other men, they proceeded to Mr, 

WhilHn'i hoafe, which was at a 

fiaall diRuice from the liable ; and 

Dieeting with Mrs. Whiffin, they 

jf . 41,000^ gave her feveral vioteat blowi with 

■ - ■ — ' oieir bludgeons, wounded her ver^ 

Sot the largeft Infarance was at fcrerely, feized two maid-lervants, 

Lloyd's, to the amoant of 20,oool. who were ri)e only perfons at that 



6tb. , 



_. caafe was tried this 
" week in the cffiirt of King's 
Bench, in which Mr. Atwood, a 
uylor, was plaintiff', and a yonng 
geodeman d^endaat. 



time in the honfe with Mrs. Whif- 
fin, and tied cloths over their faces. 
—Two men renjaised with them> 
armed with pillols, with which they 
threatened to Ihoot them, if they^ 



dm the pbuntiff had'fiimiUKd the cried, out, or attempted to Air, 

defendant wiih clothes, and that Two others alio, armed, kept 

hi) lull amomted to the lam of watch at the door. The other 

£.114 for clothes in the courfe of three rijled the houfe, and, after 

fioiK months ! That the defen- remaining in it upwards ofan hoar, 

daBtatthlt time wa* under age, and went away, carrying with <hem a 

cleik to an attorney ! The defen- g/eat quantity of plate, and other 

dut paid into conn f. 50, and for articles of value to a confideraUe 

the remainder took iffue onthe un- amount. 

rctfonsblenefs of the bill. The This evening, a linv mi- ^ 

jiiry were of opinion that the A 50 nutes before fcven o'clock, ^ 

p»id into court on the part of the a fire broke out « Mr, Turner's, 

defendant was quite enough for all grocer, in Newgate'ftreet, at the' 

the clothes that coidd be ntitffan, back of Newgate -market, whiclr 

ia the courle of feven months, Kir burnt with gre^it^ry for near two 

ana[tDniey'«clerk,anderage; and hours: but the engines being tx- 

therefore immediately ga.vc a ver- tremely wdl fopplied with water,' 

dift fcr the defiindant. and the firemen very ready iff giving 

The moft daring robbery diD thai their affiftance, the fire was extin- 

heen attempted lor feveral years, — ■ • . ■ ■ - . 
vu lately committed at Blacknels, 



t Holwood, in Kent. On die 
aftenKKm of that day, two men, 
■tohai du appearance t»f country 
■abauren, went to the llabks of Mr. 



guiflied without doing any further 
damage than confumfng the gro- 
cer's houfe, and a butchers (hop at 
the back of it. 

A melancholy wcideiit lately hap- 
pened in the neig^botlrhood of Pty>^ 
^ mouth: 



t6» ANNUAL REGISTER, 



1791. 



nondi: Mr. W.Good uidhudaagh- A genteel man went into < 

ter. croffing a ford in tbe parilh of the (hopof MdTn. WiDemm "'^ 

BucMuid, on one Iiorfe, toe witer anil Grceiit the comer of Condnit- 

bciog deep, the horTe loft hit legi, ftreet. New Bond-ftreet, he looked 

hy which iBeaiii the young wonun at feveral articles of jewellery, and 

iell off the borie,aDd_the nther, en- faying that he wai recoounended bf 

deavouring 10 lave lu(dangkt^,fe]t hii fnend the Harquis of Salifbary* 

into the ftrd, and both woe anfbr- who aSually deals at that Oiop, he 

mnatcljr dfowned. orderedapairofdiamondear-riift* 

„^ Fltmet. YeAerday a pro- a diamond necldftce, and a goli 

clamation was iflued, noti- watch let rojnd widi biillianta, to 

lyine the Emperor'i entire ccffian be lent to Lord Mafley, at half paft 

of Tufcany to hit Royal Highnefa fbar, in St. Jainu*s Y\atx. 

the Arch-Dulce Ferdinand; acd,at hlr. Gtecit carried thf article^ 

the fune timCt the firft order of bis which in value amonntcd to npwud* 

Toyil highnelii ai great Duke of of feven hundred pounds. Ilie 

Turcany.confinningallthelawiaBd pretended Lord Malley agreed 

regulation* now exiHing; and con- to take them, and. prelimtcd fbr 

linuing thcregency,andaU perfona, payment a draught for f. 1^00, 

civil and milituy, in their employ- purportioK ta' be drawn Fy Lord 

ments. Upon thii occalion there. Tankervilie on MeOVs. Cootti and 

wai a difcwrgeofall the guns of Co. bankers. The balance. Mr. 

the citadel. Green faid, he had not abont him ; 

. This morning Mr. Walter and Lord MalTey obfervcd. that it 

™ ' was liberated from his con- was of no confetjuence, as he mnA 

fakement in Newgate, in cenfe- have proper caies for the .jewd* 

quence of receiving his majcAy's before lie could prefent them to the 

tnoft gracioBs pardon,at the ioflance lady ; he ther^ore b^ged Mr. 

of. his royal highnefi the piince of C^een to bring fuch cafes, and 

Walesi after an impriloDment of the difference ot the bill, as fbon at 

sear fixtecn months; of which convenient, faying he might leaxt 

period one year was the fencence of the jeweb. 

the court on the protecutioi; of the When Mr. Green went frtim St 

doke of York. Jamc&'s Place, it was too late to go 

Tbe full tenn of his fentence was to Contts's ; but as he had no donbi* 

two years, with fines and fecuri- of the bill, he went home and pie- 

liei. pared die cafes immediately. 

, . Lately at Glalgow. while On Wednefday morning he 

^ ' a merchant in King lireet called again, but 00 Lord Maffey 

was counting fome money and bank- was to be found. Mr. Green thai 

Borcs on the counter, a &iS ox fmall began to entertain fomc fears, and 

lod, over-laid with |Mrd-lime, was went to the honfe of Meffrs. Coutts, 

Ihddenly thruft b at the door, which where he was informed tJiat Lord 

having touched the notes, two of Tankervilie kept no money, and 

them were thereby carried off. and that the bill might be prefumcd to 

before the merchant coutd get out be a forgery. He then went to 

of the fhop, the ingeniouj ioor had Lord Tankervilie, who aflued bin 

audckisefcape. thatit was afbrgery. 

asth. 



CHRONICLE. , 'ly 

^ A proclaniBtion wm iffu- feek to expl^n every tiling. Bnt 

^ edforencoBnging feamen the plain min, who demantLi fy.&s 

«ndfaadmen toenier tEemfelveson in preference, will be fadilied with 

board bis Mfjefty'i ih\p» of war, knowing, that the CheviUer de 

vis. diree poun^ for every able BienentKrg has not pnblifhed it, till 

feaman, forty Ihillingi for every or- he ibund it conlirmMl by repeated 

dinary feaman, and twenty fliiUingt experience. The proofs of its cf- 

for every able landman. ficacy, which he had an opportunity 

I By an account of the of obferving in the fpring of 1787, 

^° ■ expencei already incur- were remarkably ftriking. Seven 

red on the fettlement ofN^w South apricot efpaliers in his gai^en began 

Wales, it appears that the grand to- to bloflbm in the month of March, 

lal, to Feb. 17911 amonnted to the Fearing that they would fuffcr from 

Turn of A 256,676, including the the late frofis, he furrounded them 

one-fit ofLit Majeftv*! Ihips. with cords u above direaed. In 

The Chevalier de Sienenberg, of effed, pretty (harp froUt took place 

Pmguchaslately dtfcovcred ame- fix or eight nights:, the apricot- 

ibod of eflitftaally preferving trees trees in the ncighboaring gardens 

inbloflbm from the fatal cjfeAi of were all frozen, and none of them 

ihofe Sto&s, which fometimcs in the produced any fruit, whilft each of 

fpring deftroy the moil promijing the Chevalier's produced fruit in 

hopes of a plentiful crop of fruit, abundance, which came to ^he 

His method is extremely fimple. greateft perfctlion. 

He furrounds the trunk of the tree in To fatis fy himfelf of the effefls 

blolToin with a wifp of flraw, or of his prefctvative, the Chevalier de 

Iwnp. The end of this he finks, by Bienenberg placed velTels of water 

means ofa Hone tied to it, in a vel- here and there, in the neighbourhood 

fel of Tpring water, at a little dif- of thofe which communicated with 

tioce irom the tree. One ve^l the cords furrounding the trees: the 

will conveniently ferve two trees; ice in the former was not thicker 

or diecord may be lengthened fo as than a llraw, whilft in tha laner it 

to forround feveral before its end is was the thicknefs of a linger. Hence 

plunged into the water. It is nc- he infers, that the cords conveyed 

telliiry that the veffel be placed in the coU from the trees to the water. 

ui open fituation, and by no means Though this explanation may not 

Suded by the branches of the neigh- be fausfa^lory to the philofopher, 

touring tree, that the froK may pro- the faft is nevci'thelefs incoiitef- 

diKE all its effeft on the water, by tible. 

ciMns of the cord communicating Mr. Jeie, Profeflbrof Philofophy 

ttiUi It,— rThis precaution is parti- and Mathematics inthe Academy of 

'skily neceflkry for thofe trees the Licgnitz, has a high opinion of the 

fiowerj of which appear nearly at method of the Chevalier deBieuen. 

the bme time as the lesves ; whi:h berg ; which, however, he does not 

ifeeiate pecaliarly expofed to the coniider as abfolutely new; feme- 

iiT^es of the froft. thing of the fame kind, but in a 

This method is untjoeftionably more clumfy manner, and mingled 

fijigular, and may exercilc the fa- with a fpice of fuperftition, being 

ptity of thofe philofopliers who praftifed in Lower Saxony. On 

Vot. XXXllI. '0 Eafter- 



i8* ANNUAL REGISTER, I7jri. 

Ealter'Cve the peafants make t, par- facraroent' CTCry week; obferrej 

licular kind cf cakei, which they all' the fkfb of the church ; virited 

fet 10 coot on. draw. When the prifoiu; rofe at fbar o'clock, and 

takes are cold, they make cords flf partook of no amuTetaeiits. From 

the fttaw, which they bind round the the exafl method in whiditbey dif- 

trunks of tbeir fniit-tree», taking pofed of each hour, diey acquired 

care to let one end hang down to the the nick-name of Mitbodists. 

ground. This end they cover with In 173; they enberked for Geor- 

the firft fnow that falls^ and are gia, ia order to vonven the Indians, 

£rmly perfuaded, that the virtue and returned to Engiand in 1737. 

which theftraw has received from In 173ft ^^ vifited, at Hemhuth 

their Eaftef'Cve cakes will prove an in Gecmany, Count Ztnzendorfi> 

eSeOualchannagatnll [he poweref the chief of the Moravmns. Inthe 

froA, fbllotv>ng year we find him again 

]7iB0.— idiofffgradoaldecayiin: rn England, and, widi ius brother 1 
'his 88th yearythe Rev. John Wcfley, Charles, at the head (rf the Metho- 
M. A. This extraordinary man difts. He preached his firft &l/ 
wasbornin June 1703, at Epworth, fermen at Bfiltol, on the 2d of 
ftvillage in Lincolnfliire, » which April, 1738. In 174,1 aferiousal- 
place ftis lather, Samuel Wefley, tercarion took pince between him 
vras rcftor; a man much refpetted and Mr. Whitfield. In 174+, at- 
foT piety and learnii^g ; as were his tempting to preach at a public ion 
other fons. the Rev. Samuel and atTaurion.hcMasreguIarlyfilerced 
Charles Wefley, ndiv deeeafed. by the magiHrates. Though be re- 
He wac entered a TchDlar of the nained che reft of his dayi nearer 
Charter-houfeaboQt 171 jjWherehe home, he travelled through every 
continued for feven years under the part of l^ngland, ScoiUnd, and Ire- 
inftruflion of the celebrated I>r. land, eltabliihing congreg.itions in 
Walker, and Mr. Andrew Tooke, each kingdom. In »730 be mar- 
author of " The Pantheon," and ried a laciy, from whom he after- 
contemporary with Dr. Ken rick wxidsparted, and Ihedicd in PjSr; 
Prefcot, late raafter of Catherine by her he had no chLdren. He 
Hall, Cambridge. Being clcAed to' had been gradually declining for < 
Lincoln College, Oxford, he be- about three years pall; yet he flilf 
' came there a fellow abont 171^; rofe at four o'clock, and ptvached, 
tookthe dcgreeof M. A. in I7a6j travelled, and wrote, as ufnal. He 
and was joint tutor with the late preached at Leatherhead on the 
reftor, Dr.Hutchins. During his Wednefday (Feb. 23) before hi* 
refidence there, he was equally dif- death. On the Friday following, 
tinguilhed by application and abi- the firA fympioms of his aj^roach- 
lities; butwhat chiefly charaEterifed ing diflblution ai^)cared. The ftw 
him, even at the early age of 26, fucceeding day* h» fpcnt in praifing 
wa> piety. By reading the works God, and departed on the Wednef- 
of the famous William Law, he, hta day morning. His remains, after 
brother Charles, and a few young lying in hia tabernacle in a kind of 
fricnds.enteredinto thatftriftcourie ftate, drclTcd tn the vow n and caf- 
of life which marks their Sect at fock, band, &c. which he nfually 
the prefentday. They received the wore, and on hii bead the old clert^ 

col 



CHRONICLE. 'is 

Cal cap, a. Bilsle in one hand, and a tribes, the Cherolcees, the ChaOawst 
white handkerchief in the other, the Caiabawj, &c. 
were, agreeably lo hia own direc- At Little Onn, in StaiFordfliire, 
uoni.andafterthemannerof chcin- aged 104, Catherine Harvry. She 
lennent of the late Mr. Whitfield, has left a filler in the fame parilh,' 
depofitcd in a pieceof groandcEar now in good health, a£ed 10a, 
hii chapel at the Foundry, Moor- At Inch Keith, a fmall ifland on 
fields, on the morning of the 9Th in- the north weft coaft of the highlands 
ihni, in the plain^ft manner confift' of Scotland, Archibald Cameron, 
ent with decency. A fefmon, pre* aged iza. Me had fcrved feved 
vioody lo the funeral, was preached Lords of the Ille in the eftipioyment 
by Thomas Whitehead, M. D. of domefKc piper, during tne courfs 
(one of the phyficians CO the London of 94. years; hut his fingers ai Jail 
Hofpiial), accompanied with fuic- failing, he lived en a penfiori allow- 
able hymns, &c. And on the ijih, cd him by the family, 
the different chapels in his conncx- At Wood Ditton, near Newmar- 
ion in London were hnng with ket, aged loo, Mary Smith, widow, 
blaclc.-^His perfonal infloence was She had celebrated her centenary a 
grezter than, perhapi, that of any few days before. 

other private gentleman in any _^ 

ronntry. It is computed that in the " ' ' 

three kingdoms there are 80,00a APRIL. 

members of this fociety. He vifited 

diera alternately; travelled 8060 The difpatches from the ^ 

miles every year; preached three Cape of Good Hope for * 

orfourtimescoiillantly in one dayj government, which had been ftr- 

roTe at fbnr, and employed all his ' warded with the utmofi expedition* 

dme in reading, writing, attending and which were under the care of 

the fick, and arranging the various Mr. Rattray, were unfortunately 

parts of this numerous body of loft, and never heard of fince. 

people. The men who were faved remain- 

4ih,agcd ti3.AnnaGreen,apan- ed on a large rock, with the fea 

per, of tic town of Sprotborough. tvery moment wafiiing over them. 

Lately at Kenllngton, in his 98th from twelve o'clock at night till 

year. Jchn Henry Lydiui, Baron de eight in the morning. 

Qnade, of Dutch extraAion, bat Mr. Rattray had the difpatchei 

bom at Albany in North America, with him on the rock, but was ob- 

in the year 1694, where his family liged to let the papera go, te prc- 

were poflefTed of confiderable landed ferve his life, 

property under the original grant At the quarter-feflions for ^^ 

from James (he firft, among outers, Wcftminffier, a chimney- 

to his anceftors, who went there in fwecper, named Oay, was tried, on 

ihecapacityof a mifljonarj- to con- the profecution of the pariih of 

Vert the Indiana to the chrifllan re' Covcni- Garden,' for cruelty to hii 

ligion. He conld fpeak all the dif- apprentice. Jc appeared, that ih« 

ferent languages (or rather provin- boy was bound apprentice to the 

cial dialeAf) of all the Indiaa defendant by the parijh of SL Mar* 
•C a » tin. 



ao» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

lio,iD Jannary 1790. BeFbrehehad 

ferved two monihs, the defendant 
tied his hands and legs witti a cord, 
and fixcJhimtoaila pie; after which 
tie (Iript him altooil naked, and 
beat him violently with rods and a 
thong whip. This treatment wa« 
feveral times repeated; and In con- 
ftquence of it the hoy lofl the ufe 
of his right arm. At one time, he 
beat him with a fticW, and tore his 
ears in a cruel manner. The only 
reafon ufually alledgeJ by the de- 
fendant- for hia feveriiy was, that 
the boy did not do work enough in 
the mornings. The defendant cal- 
led feveral witnelTei, who gave him 
a good charafter, and faid the boy 
was obAinate and incorrigible. The 
jury found him guilty, and the court 
Sentenced bim to fix months impri- 

fonment, and dlrefted th: apprcn- 

lice to be difcharged. 

A caufe was brought forward at 

Ladcaller aiTizes, .againfi a clergy- 
man for feducing the daughter of a 

Tcfpeftable farmer on pretence of 

man iap.e. Several circumlUnces 

were proved in evidence that con- 

fiderably aggravated the offence. 

The jury therefore gave a verdift 

with 5C0I. damages. 

^ During divine fervice, 



fire broke 
bage. Wills, which confumed a 
ftrra-houfe. with the appurtenances, 
and nine tenements iniiabited by 
poor perfons, who laH ihi;ir all, had 
lio home to go to, and were reduced 
to the uiinoft diftrefs. Ii was oc- 
cafioned by the careleffnefs of a 
woman in throwing hot aJhes upon 
fonie loore fi 



fUrci 



On 



day evening hft their Roy- 
«1 Highiielles the great duke and 
^dutehefsmade their public entry 
into this cajutal,' in a liatc coach. 



drawn by fix horfes, paffinv under 
arch, "beaucifufiy jl 

I the 
gate of the city; followed by hia 
imperial majclty and the king and 
queen of Naples, in a fecond coacb, 
and attended by the nobility aiul 
people of the firfl diiliniVion of the 
court. In their way to the palace 
they were accompanied by an im- 
mcnfe concourfe of people, and the 
houfes in the llreet through which 
they pafled were illuminated. The 
king of N.iplcs fet out for Leg- 
horn on the t^th inlt. 

Yefierday two mtn wereconvifl- 
ed at the Old Bailey, viz. Ed- 
ward Ptitchard, for the murder of 
Martha his wife, by btatlng her cm 
the head, and divers parts of her 
body, with a ftirk; and Charles 
Taylor, for the n^urJer of V/inUrcd 
his wife, by cutting her in the belly, 
arms, thighs, and other paru of her 
body, with a razor. Both of them 
received judgment to b^ hanged on 
Monday, and afterwards to be aoa- 
tomifed, 

William Henry Clarfc, , 

alias Lowins, for robbing ' 
the mail, was found guilty at Chcf- 
terallizes, andonT.hurfday he tvas 
e.vecuted. It was reported that he 
was poITclTed of property to the 
amount of £. 2000 and upwards. 
This daring fellow has fince been 
gihbeted on the lofty hill of Helfty, 
about 7 miles from Cheftcr. The 
cxpencc of profccutlng and bring- 
ing him tOGOiwi&lon is faid to colt 
government more than jf. ijoo. 
. Was launched, at Black- . . 
wall, the Diligence, a new ""• 
fhip intended for difcovcries, under 
the command of Capt. filigh, late 
of the Bounty. She is to be accom- 
panied byabrig; and, after landing 
at Botany Bay, they are to^irocefd 



CHRONICLE. 



Ml 



to OtUieite, in pnrAiit of the muu- 
Bters, and to eodeavour to bring 
the bre^'fruit to be cultivated in 
the Weft Indies. 

J jj The Sefllotn endedat the 
" ' OldBailey, when judgment 
ofdeath was palW upon the follow- 
ing capital convids viz. James 
Kcirey, George Allett, Jane Sharp, 
John Smith, Thomaa Chardand, 
Jofeph Druce, Thomas Cawfey, 
alias Caulbr, John Ryan, alias 
George King, William Jones, and 
Robert jone«. 

One was fentenced to be tntnr- 
ported Tor the term of 1 4 years, and 
41 foe feven years. 

The plague juft fubfided at Con- 
ilantinople, has b:en fuccceded hy a. 
dreadrut fire that has confumed im- 
nenle private property. 

. M. d: Flurien, the Mi- 
^S"- nifler of the Marine De- 
partment, informed the National 
AJTembly of France, that the lateft 
accoonis from St. Dotningo were 
.tnojt alarming; that the troops fcnt 
from France to quell the rebellion 
had become parlies in it ; aad that 
M. de Maudiiit, who had received 
the tha[iks of the AAembly for his 
eondoil, had been beheaded by the 
grenadiers of his regiment. 

This day, at a full meeting of 
"die principal inhabitants of Ipfwich, 
an order was made that no relief 
fliould be granted to any pauper 
who keeps a dog. 
loth About two o'clock, a 
mofl dreadful Ere broke out 
m a houfe in Blakeley-ftreei, Man- 
chefier, which in a Ihort time re- 
duced the fiime to a Ihell, and did 
fonfiderable damage to feveral 
honfes adjoining. This unfortunate 
»wid*nt is fuppofcd to have been 
jwafmned by fomc cloacha being 
«ft to dry before the £r^ as Che 



family had been ironing the even- 
ing preceding. The fire had got to 
fuch a head, thai the ouiiide win- 
dow-ihutters were burning when it . 
was iirll difcovered ; and, being in 
the dfad of nighi, it was fome time 
before the family were apprifed of 
their danger. Of nine pcribns who 
inhabited the houfe, only four weie 
Caved, viz. John Stockton, the 
occupier, who efcaped out of th« 
window, with two of his children; 
and his wife's lifter, who broke her 
leg in making her efcape in the fame 
mdntier. it was fome time before 
the bodies of the fulferers were 
found i and, when dilcovered, the 
youagcli child was at the breail of 
the mother, and two others ciinging 
round her neck; but the fire had 
burnt them lb dreadfully, that it 
was fcarcely pofliblc to dilcovcr 
whether they were human, the lie.idi 
and legs having been burnt oft'. 
Not a finjle article of propeny was 

The monuracrtt crcflcd at Ha- 
nover to the meinorv of hcibnita 
is completed, and Coil upwards of 
5105 dollars. As ihi: fubfcription 
amounted but to 479^ dollars, the 
king of England coiiLiibutcd the 
difference. 

Bangburft, Htaitpfhirl. A girl of 
13 years of age and her miftrefs 
have been committed to the county 
gaol on the confeflion of the former, 
for the murder of the fon-in-law of 
the latter, a fprightly child of foBr 
years of age. The llep-mother ob- 
ferving a particular attention paid 
to the child, perfuaded the girt 






> bed ti 



him between the fe:ither-bed and 
maitrafs, and when he cried out, to 
Hop his mouth, which ihe did, and 
left him. The girl, fome little 
time after this horrid i&, was fo 
• C 3 trouKei 



u^^ie 



«• ANNUAL REGISTER, 179;. 

troafcled in mind, that Ihe revealed amonnt of lool. or upwards, he 
the whole tranfaflion. gave a ftocb hundred in the three 

By the publicatioD of a late decl' per cents.) to perfoiu having bor* 
. fion of the court of king's'bench, rowed le& than lOo). fix mOBthi 
other litigioui fuits of the fame kind iaterefl j and to his hourelLceper, 
may be prevented. A juftice of for ihe fjpport of a favourite dog. 
peace had made an order for the 3I. perann. duriogtbedo^'s life, 
payment of a weekly {am to a wo- Died. — At Farii, April id. the 
man for her child. The church- celebrated count de Mirabeati ; on 
warden! and overfeers of Shelfc, in account of whofe death M- BaiDy, 
ihcWeJl Riding of Yorkfhire, dif- themayorof Paris, ordered the play- 
obtyed thi^ order, becaufe the wo- houTei, and all the pUcei of amofe- 
manrefiredtogointotheworkboufe. mam, to be fliui i)p for three days. 
For this they were indifted: and at 19th, in St. Thomas's Square 
the tiial before Mr. JuAice Bnller, Hackney, in hit 68th year. Dr. 
at the lall York alSzei, a verdifl Richard Price, pallor of a dif- 
was taken for the profccutor, fubjeCt fenting congregation at Hackney. 
10 the opinion of the court of king's <• If (exclaims the author of a hi^l^ 
bench. Lord Kenyan and the court eulogy on his piety and abilities, in 
have fince ellablill)ed thia vcrdift : a periodical publication) we Oionld 
and that the perfon for whom the (ay, that the Dodor deejjly fdt the 
relief is afked i) the only individual far^aftlc fererity, with which Mr, 
liable to be fent to the workhoufe ; Burke treated him in a iate cele- 
for that it would be contrary to brated work, we fhould not perhaps 
every principle of humanity, if, be- be very wide of the truth; but the 
caufe one child Ihould want relief, appartnt caufe of his dilTolatton, OH 
a whole family, perhaps of five or ftpening his body, feeioed to be ft 
more, fhould be liable to be fent to fuppreffion of urine." 
the workhoufc. Latejy at 9,\'pon, aged 100, 

Among numerous other eccentri- Bartholomew Rymer, game-keeper 
cities in the will of the Rev. Mr. to Sir Bellingham Graham, Bart, of 
Wood, late of Rufpo^inSuflex, are Norton Conyers. He (hot game 
the following :t— Qn nic day of his flying in his gyh year, 
funeral he requeued that the parifh 

ringers might begin ringing a peal ' ' 

early ;n the morning, and continue MAY. 

Jo to do till his corpfe was removed 

into the ftrcet, when they Ihould Warfipai, The new confiitD- . 
chime to the f hurchTdoor, end then tion has joft palTcd in the Diet, ' 
toll (ill the attendant clergyman by which the Elefior of Saxony ii 
thought proper to read the burial declared immediate fuccefltu- \a die 
fervice ; and that the fmgers fhould throne of Poland; after whofe de- 
chaunt before the corpfe, from his mife his daughter ts to inherit ; and 
hoilfe to thrchurchryard. He be- the choice of her hiifhandi if (he 
queathed 3000I. tobedifiributedto marries, is to be decided by the 
30 poor men, at the difctetion of fbktes. After this conlUiution had 
his executors. Toperfona whohad paffcd, the king, attended by the 
borrowed money of him to t])e surlhaU of the Qicti and a gteat 

number 



CHRONICLE. 'sj 

niaiA>er of the member!, went to in the following Aatement of the 
ihe cathedral, and took an oatb to iWooHen manufiSlory for that dif- 

mainuin it. trift, from the ajth of March 1700 

jv Mamyof the troops fent out to the zjth of March 1791, viz, 

* for the parpofcof quelling the —Narrow cloth, 154,373 pieces, 

di/larbanccs in the French e«lenics 4,797,594 yards; incrcafed 13.966 

have joined the difaffcfled pany, pieces, 215,472 yards. Broadclocfa, 
and coHullitted great eKceffes. One 187,569 pieces, 5.815,079 yards; 

of the regiments, commanded by increafed 14,981 pieces, 663,402 

coloael Mauduit, had no foorer yards, 

landed than they defcrted their co- Advices received from the , 
lours, and joined the reft. In thij Eaft Indies, by the Princeft '+ 
ii;uaiion they thought p'roper to calj Royal Indiam an, dated January 9, 
to mind a dillurbance that had for- 1791* fay, that on the 17th of De- 
merly happened aiHOng the people, cember, general Abercromby had 
which the colonel had employed forcedadeiachment of Tippoo Snl- 
them to quell: and formed a deter- tan, amounting to 5000 men, to 
mination to compel him to difavow furrender; that he had taken the 
hia fealty to the national aflembly, or fbnrelTesof Cannanore,'Biliapatain, 
deprive him of life. In this frame and Norrcarow ; that by thefe fuc- 
of mind the officer wa; led to the cefTes he had taken 34 fland of cO' 
fcene of the former aSion, and there lours, 68 pieces of cannon, and near 
prelTed to a compliance with their 5000 Hand ef arms, befides ammu- 
demands, which he percmptoJily niijon, military ftorcs, and grain; 
refijfed. They urged, and threat- and that lifo tenant-colonel Hartley 
ceed in vain. Firm in hu opinion, had taken polTeffion of Firickabaa, 
the colonel, firft taking the crols of after having dirperied the corps ijp. 
Sc LoDis from his bc^om and giv- pofed to him at Firefug^rry. 
jng it to a feldier, and then break- The adjourned fellions were . 
ing his fword in two, told the men held at the fellions-hoore in °. 
|hat his honour was in his own keep- the Old Bailey, before the Record- 
ing, hi) life was in their hands ; and er, SheriEs, Sir William PlomcF, 
uifing his breaft, he added, that his and Srook Watfon, Efq; when the 
"inermlnation was fixed, and they prifoners, who were capitally fon- 
mighi ufc iheir pleafure. At this vifted, and received lentence of 
moment a multitude exclaimed, death, but have been refpited daring 
Cstfi! and in an inftant a foldier the royal pleafure, were put to the 
ftvered his head with a fabre, while bar. His Majcfty's letter was reaij 
awiiher pierced his body through to them, fetiing forth, that his Ma- 
with a bayoncL Thus fell an of- jelly had extended to them his moil 
^er of tried bravery and good con- gracious pardon, on condition of 
and', and who, bat a few (hort weeks their being tranfported to New 
before, had been crowned with lau- South Wales during their natural 
ftl, as the true friend and defender livei, which they_ all thankfully ac- 
f)' the colony, cepced, and received that fentenco 
6ih. yeflerday, John Seaton, accordingly. 

efq. treafurer of the Weft Elizabeth Cummlngs, convifted 

Ridingof the county of York, gave in July feflions 1789. was next put to 

• C 4 - ths 



14* ANNUAL REGISTEK, 1791- 

the bar, and the royal clemency of- whicJi in a fhoit time catireljr de- 

fered her, on the a.bove conditions; flrayed that hoofe and two othen 

which Ihe rejefted, declarinz fin adjoiniaKi occupied by a baker. 

•would ratbtr dii, than tucifl efmtrcj and a fchool. Happily no lives 

en Iho/i lirms .' The Recorder then, were loll. 

in a moft pathetic fpeech, addrelTcd A deCperate attempt waa _l 

her, which had no elftfl, till (he lad night made by the pri- ' 

was put in a dark cell by herlelf ; fonen in the Kine'i Bench priibn 

when fhe foon relented, and prayed to efcape. Much damage was done 

for mercy. to the infide part of the prifon ; 

L The following cafe was and the outer gate woald foon kare i 

' ■ :irgued and determined in the been forced but far the fpecdy u-- 

court of King's Bench: rival of two troops of horfe, foU 

The plaintiir, an officer on half- lowed by a party of foot-guards. 

pay, in want of money, applied CO a who went within the walla, and 

money-lender, who, on the ufual af- drew up before the pnfon, where 

£gntnent of his half-pay, regillered every remonfbance and perfaafion 

at the pay-office of the army, ad- being ufed to pacify the rioters, 

vanccd the money required. When the majority of the prifoners at 

two half- years became due, the length retired to their rooms, and 

plaintitF, notwithitanding (he aCign- the riot was fortunately quelled be- 

ment, as above, made a demand oi fore eleven o'clock without blood- 

his half-pay from the paymafters ge- Jhed. 

neral.whorefufcdtopayitjandup- DiEn, — At Dublin, May nth, 

on this refufal he brought his aftioti in hit 5ad year, in an apoplcAic 

upon the cafe to recover it. The fit, Francis Grofe, Efq; F. S. A. of 

Bfiion was tried at the fittings after London and Perth, and captain in 

Hilary Term, before Lord Kenyon, the Surrey militia. He was the an* 

and 3 verdiA found for the plaintiff, thor of " The Aniiqiutjes of Ebc- 

with liberty for the defendant's land, Wales, and Scotland," and fe- 

counfel CO move for a new trial, veral other celebrated publications. 
After m.any learned arguments, and Lately, at Malpas, near Newport, 

cafes cited as precedents, the court Kebecca Jofeph, in the loift year 

were clearly of opinion. That an of her age. She retained all her 

officer's half.pay, l>eing allowed by faculties to the laft, and till within 

the public for the purpofe of main- shout three years of her deceafe 

taining gentlemen in the navy and could walk from lo to i; mileia . 

army until the neceflities of the Hate day without the help of a Itick. | 

required rh«r fcrvicea, neither .^ j 

equity, good confcicnce, policy, nor ' " 
law, would permit them to fell or JUNE. 

ftllign their daily bread. | 

•firh ^' midnight, a dreadful The attorney general raov- n i 

, ■"'"■ fire broke out at Mrs. Sut- ed, ex officii, the court of '"" j 

ton's, the Chequer public-houfe in King's Bench for an order ihat 

Marfh-ilreet, WalthamUow, c-;:c3- Richard Finckarton and feventeen | 

fioned by the maid going into a others Ihouldbe removed out oflbe I 

clofec of linen wj^ a lighted candle. King's Bench prifon to other places I 

flf I 



C H R O K I C L E. 'js 

orconGnement. Many of them, he ants Ihoi^Id be dirpofed of a$ men- 
laid, had been To aflive in the in- tioned by the attorney general, as 
foicedion, that, when the court foon as pollible. If afterwards aoj 
fhoold have heard the faSs, thejr of them appear to be aggrieved by 
would, he believed, fend them to thii order, they mav, by application 
Newgate. He then related in brief to the court, be dilchar^ed. 
the circumftances. that on Monday At eleven o'clock in the j^ 
night the agth of May, feveral of forenoon, a dreadful fire broke ^ 
the prifoners afTembled, and one of oat at Mr. Sanders's patent axle- 
them.of the name of Nugent, Ituck tree mauufadlory in Chambers- 
op a paper, intimating that the flreet, near Rofemary-hne, Good- 
committee of the HoDfe of Com- man's-lieldj, which entirely deliroy- 
mons conld not be able to alTord ed that, the timber-yard of Mr. 
them any relief this feSion. On Maxtoke, who wai oat of town, 
which a tumult arofe, that endan- and thirteen hoilfes, and was widt 
Sered the fafetyofthe prifoe. In dif&culty reft rained frcm breaking; 
Uiia fitualion John Carey, who ap- out afrefh a day Ot two after. The 
peared lo be a leader, addrcITed the damage was edimaied at thiitjr 
prifoneri, faying, " Now u the thoufand pounds. The want of wa- 
tiiae! if you do not exert your- ter at firlt was fupplied by beer 
felres, you are loA for ever ["— from a Urge adjoining ftorehoufe. 
This being often repeated, the tu- Humphrey Bellamy, Efq. of ,j^ 
molt increafed, and it became ne- Ewell, Surrey, and a lady, go- 
ceSary to apply for a military force, ing to that place in a poll chairc. 
The attorney general made no were flopped, near the twelve mile 
doabt bat the court would make ftone on the Epfom road, at ten at 
in order fbr the immediate removal night, by three foot-pads, who rob- 
of the principal offenders, aa de- bed them of two gold watches and 
fired. The alTidavit$ of the mar- other valuable eiFefls, and a CMifi- 
fhal and his deputy were then read ; derable fum of money ; and, drof- 
hy which it appeared, that after ging them both out, cut and wound- 
taUng one of them into cuftody, ed Mr. S. in a moft cruel, wanton, 
the fallowing bill was Buck up in and dangerous manner, befides fir- 
the prifon : ing a pitlol, which burll in pieces. 

" Should there be any tumult in Tlie fame evening, on the feme 

thij place, occafioned by the ex- fpot, thefe villains robbed Mr. 

treme provocation of the lobby peo- Hutchinfon, clerk of Brewers-hall, 

pie, and the indignation naturally and Mr. Ellis, of Whetllone, fur- 

cnited by the detention of Mr- veyor, and beat and bruifcd the lat- 

Pinckarton, it is hoped there will ter with the butt-end of their pil^ 

be no prifoner on the parade who tols as he fat in the chaifc, belidet 

^nU not Hand his ground.— There cutting at him with a hanger. 
ire many who will." Turin. A difpute has lately v 

Lord KenyoR agreed with the taken place in this capital, 

r'nionoftheattorney gcneral,that between the lludents of the uni- 

cafe was urgent; and that ihe verfity and the police, which, from 

different perfons mentioned in the the prudent condufl of the govern- 

affidayiuofthc taaribalaudhijiUSlU inent,has fonunacely fubfid^ with- 



26» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

cut any bad conreqaence. It wai fuic of white Allc which flte wore a 

occafioned by the arreft of one of the opening of a chapel in Good- 

the (ludcnts on a mi.lalcen charge ; man's-fields) to be dcpoGted, tn U 

in confequencc of which the o^er plain a manner as poffible ; ihecof- 

members of the univerfily infilled fin U) be covered with black, and 

on the officer alkirg pardon pub- the officiating clergyman (Mr. 

liely. This not bring cqmplicd Jones, of the Spa-fieldj chapel} 10 

with, the iladents afTcmbled in con- receive lol. for his trouble. Her 

liderable number*, and proceeded very great religious concemj, ai 

to fome afls of viclcnce. The head of 2 very numerous fefl in 

troops having been drawn out, and Great Britain and Ireland, are left 

the officer who had executed the by will in the hands of commit- 

arrell: having afked pardon, [he tu- tecs fur managiDg them in bodi 

mult fubfided without any further kingdoms, 

confequcnces. zjd, at Binfield, Berks, after a 

, The fummit of the hills in long and painful illnefs, Mrs. 
'5™" Kent and Suffex, on Sunday Catharine Macaulay Graham, the 
morning laJl, were covered with ^ hiltorian. This lady had the mis- 
hoar froft and whitened with fnoM;- fortune not only in a great deeree 
Ice of the thicknefs of a fhilling was to OHi'ive the refpefl of the public, 
feen in many phccj. but to witnefs the mortifying re- 

, The fociety for the en- moval of that celebrated monument, 

*7"'- couragement of arts, manu. which was erefled in the church of 

foflures, and comnicrcc, have given St. Stephen's, Walbrook, by her 

a reward of twenty guineas to Mr. once doating admirer, the late Dr. 

J^ockctt, ofDonningion, near New- Wilfon, to perpetuate her literary 

bury, for making twenty-five yards repuution. 

cf cloth from hop-Mks. Lately, Mrs. Buchan, the leader 

DiED.w I7th, at her houfc in of a few deluded people, who for a 

the Spa-fielda, near London, in time re Tided in the neighbourhood 

her 84th year, the Right Hon. of Thorntonhill, near Dumfries. 

Selina Counteff -do wager of Hun- Her followers were greatly reduced 

tingdon. She was born Aug. 1 3, in number ; but Mr. White, once 4 

1707, and was the fecoud daughter, relief-miniller, continuei^ till her 

and one of the three cohcirelles, of laft. Findingftie wasgoingtheway 

Waihington fccond E»rl Ferrers; of all the earth, (he called lier dif- 

was married June 3, 1 728, to Theo- ciples together, and exhorted them 

philu* Earl of Hurttr.gdon, by 10 continue ftedfail and uiUDimous 

whomfhc had iilue four fons and Jn their adherence to the doftrine 

three daughters, of »'hom the Coun- which they had received from her. 

tefs of Moira is the only furvivor. Shethsn tcldthem. ihe hadflillone 

Her ladylliip had been a widow 4; fecret to communicate; which was, 

years; and 10 long ha? a fine bult that (he was the Virgin Mary, tlio 

of her, by Kent, been placed on the real tnoiherofour Lord; that !hc was 

tombofhcrdeceafeiJlord.at Afhby- the fame woman mentioned in the 

tlela-Zouch, in the county cf Lei- Rcvdniions as being cloathed with 

certer, whtrc,by h;r will, (lie hasdi- . iJic fun^ gjc. ^]io was driven into 

rcfiedherownrcmains(dreflcdintliC the wildemefs ; th.^C flie had been 

wandering 



CHRONICLE. •ly 

wandering ib the world ever fioce ordinsiy in the DuUr-honfct tUi 
anr Sa.viour*i days, and for fbme da^decided k ciureof a carious na- 
ttme paft Ste had fojourned in Scot- turc. A yoifng lady bad betrock- 
land : that though here the appeared ed herfelf to a merchant in Aber- 
to die, they neulrd not to be dif- deen ; the marnage-day wat fet, ■ 
couraged> fer Ihe would only fleep honre taken and rurnifhed, ferranta 
a little, and in a Ihort time would hired, and the Udy funiifhc4 with 
again vifit them, and conduA them her marriaee-ring. In the courls 
to the New Jerufalem. After Ihe of a ton^ epiftolary correfpondence, 
died, it was a long time before her (he manifefted the ftrangeft attach- 
enthufiaftic votaries woald ftraight- tnent and moft inviolable fidelity to 
ca or drels the corpre ; nor did him ; hut of a fndden changed ber 
they coffin her until they were mind, and married another. Peel- 
obliged thereto by the fraell; and lag the difappointment, her former 
yStet that, they weuld not bury her, lover bronght an a&ion of damagei 
but bnilt up the coffin in a corner agiinll her and her hafband. a»- 
of the barn, always eitpeAtng that fore it came into court, the lady 
flie would rife again from the dead, died. The i&ion was, however, 
accotding to her promife, and con- infiHed on againll the furviving 
duft them to Jepifalem. At lall, hnffaand; but the Lord Ordinary, 
[be people in the country around, after a full hearing, in the coarfe of 
Ihockea with thefe proceedings, in- wbich there was much humour and 
lerfered, went to a joftice of the ability difplayed, iifmi£ed the ac- 
peace, and got aq '^rder that flic tion. Hii Lord/hip was clearly of 
fhould be buried. opinion, that, till the moment of 

At Kirkby-I,onr4ale, widun the the marriage ceremony, it was in 

fpace of one week, the three fol- the power of the lady to recede. 

lowiDgperfons,wbofe agestogether Though her letters contained the 

amount to ago years ; viz. Eliza- firongefl effufions of love towardi 

beih Sell, widow, ased 97 ; John the pnrfuer, and even a direA pro- 

PrcHon (the oldeft ^eeman of the mife of marriage, yet they at the 

boroigh of Lancaftsr, on record, at fame time Ihewed that her friends 

the time of his death] in his 97th were againft the connexion, and 

year; and Elizabeth Taylor, wi- th^t all their intimacy hail been 

dow, aged 97. There is a ftriking carried on in the moll fecrei man- 

Angularity in the circamn^iice of ncr. Hii Lordfhip therefore con- 

ibee people, tefiding in the fame fidered, that any man who endea- 

lown. departing at the lame period, voors to inveigle a young womaa 

and after attaining to nearly the into a dandcfline marriage, and % 

tame great age. marriage againft the confent of her 

At Salilbitry, aged loi, the wi- friends, was guilty of an imm<lral 

dotv Foor, »St ; confequently, not entitled to 

maintain an adton of damage, when 

' , - his intentions were fruftrated by a 

J (J L Y. returning fenfe of duty upon the 

part of tlie Udy. 

jj EMnBurgli. At the Court EtuiU, A powder-mill be- j. 

' pf SeffioDi IfOfd fiikgrove, m longing to Mr. Brtdgca, near > ' 
( thia 



t 



iS* ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791. 

' thia place, blew ap ; by which acci- Temple, and Mr. JuHds, a pupil h 
dent four men loft their lives, the oftce of fAeiC. Grahams, n- 
The bodiei were fo mutilated by torniea, of Lincola's-lnn, who are 
the explolioD, that they could not brothers of the former. 
be dilbnguiflied from each other. The parties had dined together, 
The head of one of them vtas thrown at the houfc of Mr. Black, the fur- 
to a very confideraHc diftance. veyor, upon Eppin;^ Foreft, on 
, . Mary Doran was brought Sunday ; and. after dinner, having 

' tip to receive the judgment of drunk freely, the latter cxpiciur.^ 

the court for fetting her houfe on fome free opinions concerning reJi- 

fire. She was Sentenced to be im- g^tm, much abrupt language pafled 

prifbned two years in Newgate, and between them. They were rccoi*- 

tfterivardi to find fecurity for her ciled, however, on that day, and 

good behaviour for five years ; her- returned to town in the fame car- 

klf in lool.aad twofurcdesin 50I. riagc. 
each. Va Monday they met again, after 

Same day the following malefac- dinner, at the chambers of Mr. 

tors were brought oat ofNewgate, Graham, Lincoln's - Inn, the bro- 

aod executed according to their ther of the deceafed, where the dif- 

lentences, viz. William Brown and puti; was unfortunately rcoewed, 

iohn Dawfon, for robbing Mr. though apparently wiihoat ma- 

faddocks, at the bottom of High- ligniiy. No challenge was given 

gate-hill, of feventeen guineas and that night; but in the . cnTuing 

a half, tec. — William iiates, Ed- momicff the deceafed called upon 

ward Gilktkey. and Stephen Mack- Mr. Julius for an apology for tome 

away, for atTautting Robert Adair, expreffions ; which t>eing refufetl, 

Efqi Amelia Briftow, and Eliza- they went out together, Mr. Gra- 

beth Dundaj, on the highway, at ham attended by Mr. Ellis, a*d Mr. 

Edmonton, and robbing them of a Julius by Mr. Maxwell, 
gold watch, a ten pound bank-note, A pupil of an eminent fnrgeon 

and twenty guineas. — JofephWood. accompanied them to Blackheath, 

aged fourteen, and Thomas Under- where Mr. Graham fell by a (hot 

wood, aged fifteen, for aflaulting which paiTed almoll through the 

William Becdie, a lad twelve years lower part of the belly. He was 

of.age, and robbing him of a bag, brought to town in a poft-chaife, 

containing a jacket, a fbirt, and and the exertions of the moll emi- 

Waiftcoat, and five-pence in half- nent of the faculty were in vain 

pence, near Salt Peire Bank;— ofed for his relief. The ball hav- 

and Ifabella Stewart, for Healing, in ing laid open the femoral artery, 

the dwelling- houfe of Mr. Good- and it being impoIHble to flop the 

man. in the Strand, a fifty pound difcharge of blood, he expired iu 

bank-note, and twenn-onc gui- the afternoon of the next day. 
neas, the property of Elizabeth A melancholy accident hap- ^ 

Morgan; penedatWalcot.nearBiihop's ' 

^ An unfortunate rtneantri Ciftle, Shro^ftiire. A number of 

took place this morning upon workmen bemg employed to take 

Blackheath, between Mr. Graham, down a brick wall, they andermin- 

au eminent fpedal pleader, of the ad it, in order Uu,( il might (all : 



CHRONICLE. , •29 

Mid fitting down oo a bench near the farrier who 'hid the care of the 
ihe fame, ia order to view it, the horfeafierhiicomiDgintoiheplain. 
fbuadation fuddenly gave way, and liiF's pofleQion. it appeared, how- 
ihc wall fell upon one, Samuel ci-er, thac the horfe wai ill at the 
Cooke, a brisklaycr, and crufhed time of hia delivery, and, growing 
him in fo terrible a manner, that he worfe, Ihorcly died. Two fervaots 
expired in a Ihort time after. His belonging to the defcndaRC gave a 
flither and fcveral oihers narrowly ttHimony diredly contrary to that 
e reaped being hurt, having quitted of the witnelTes on beh^f of the 
the bench but a few fcconds before p^aiatiiF; but Lord ICeoyon partly 
iKc uofbrtuiiatc young man was reconciled the inconfilUncies in fa- 
killed, vourofthe pidntiff. 

, In the court of King's The Jury brought in their ver- 
'^ Bench, an aftion was tried, did fgr the pkinulF, 31!. los. 
Ilopkins vtrfiu Sawyer, which took The coroner's inquell fat . 
mp a cotifiderable part of the lime oi the body of Mr. Graham, '^ ' 
and attention of the court. The killed in a du'J on the i3tli. The 
plaintiiF, laft fpring, purchafed a jurybroug]it in a verditt of man-, 
horfe, for thirty guineas, from the Haughtcr againll Mr. Juliui, the 
(defendant, which was warranted to principal, and acquitted the fecondj. 
be found ; but the horfe dying feme Birmingham, in confequence . 
lime after the purcha fc, in confe- ofan adv<;rtircnient,onThurf- ^' ' 
qnence of unfoundners, the prefent i,\y tlie I4ih in^. upward; of 90 
aftion was brought to recover his gentlemen met at the hotel, :j corn- 
value from the defcndanL The msmorate the French Revalution. 
ciccumdance that created peculiar It is prevlouily to be obferved, that 
difficulty in fearching the true me- fix copies of a fcditioua hand-bill • 
tia of the cafe, was the death of had been left early in the week by 

• Of which the following is a copy : 
" My COvntiymen, 
" Thelecond year of Gallic Liberty, is neiirly expired. At the commencement 
ef the thin), on the I4tb of cliia month, ji is devoutly to be wilhed that every 
f't^nvf to civil and religious ilefpotifm would give ibeir ranflioa to the majcllie 
(ornmon eaule, by a public celebration ul' the Anniverfiiy. 

" Renienihcr— that on the i^th of July the Baftilk, that high altar and c^ftle uf 
^fpoUriD, ftll I — Remember the enthiifiilm, peculiar 10 the eiuii: of Liberty, with 
"hich il wai attacked < — Remember that generous bumatiiiy thai taught the op- 
f^Scd, Roa'ning under the wel^lof inliilted tights, tofpare the lives uf oppref- 
Jbct I— ExtinguiOi the mean prejudices of nations, and let your numbers be col. 
leftcd, and fent as a free-will oHWing to (he National AlTembly I— But is it poHible 
1° forget your own Parliament is venal ; your Minifter hypocritical j four Clergy 
^ Oppnlfoj-,| [he reigning Family extravagant i the Crown of a certain Great 
Peifonagc becoming every day too weighty for the htad tliat wears it — loo weighty 
'IT ibc people that gave it j your Taxes partial and oppreniv« 1 yoiir Rcprel>n(a< 
^on a cruel infult upon the liKred rights of Pioperty, Religion, and Fiecdom f— . 
Hilton the i4Lh of this month prove to the IVcoplianis of the day, that you rtve. 
^ce ihe Olive Branch ; that you will n>ciifi'ce to public tianquillity till the ma- 
^"^^^ Oiall nccliim, " Tie Pbace ef Sim/try ii ia:rfi thtoi tbt War qf Freidiml" 
— Ofthatday letlyranli beware 1" 

fome 



ja" ANNUAL REGlSTEfi, 1791. 

fame petfon unknown in ■ public- ville'a). at Eif; -Kill, where manf 

hoafe; for difcovering the luthor, of the rioten, who werr dmnk, pe- 

printer.orpablilheroTwhich are- rillicd in' the cellar^, dtber by ihc 

ward of oae hnodred guineas wai flames^ or fnffbcation b; the fsllin^ 

oSered by the magiftrates ; and in of the roof. Six poor wretches 

which having been ¥ery pencrally terribly brBifed, were got om alirc, 

copied, canted no (mall &rmenta- and arc now in oar hofpiial, and 

tionin the mindi of the people. In ten dead bodies hare linee been dog 

COnfeqiKnce, on ThurTday afternoon oat of the ruins; but a roan, ff ho 

■ cenfiderabk number of perfons had remained immnred id one of 

gathered round the hotel, hilling at the vaolts from the precedine Fii- 

the gentlemen as they afTembled ; day, worked his way out on Mon- 

and fubleqitent to their departure day, with little injury, 

(which happened two hours after) This afternoon the raagiftratM, 

e*ery window in the front was com- anxious to prefcire the town ih)ni 

pletely demolifhed.notwithftanding fiirther outrage until mSitary aid 

the peribnal appearance and inter- could be procured, attended and 

ference of the magiltrates. fwore in lome hundreds as addi- 

The mob next attacked the New tional conftables, .whe, with mop- 

~ Meeting-hoiHe (Dr. Frieniey's), flavci in their hands, narched up 

and after trying in vain to tear up to Mr. Ryland's to lUfperfe the mob, 

the feats, &c they fet it on lire, who at firft gave'way; but rally- 

and nothing remuDi that could be ing, after a Aout confiift, in which 

confamlJ. many were feverely wounded, the 

The Old Meeting-houfe wa* P„p Ctmitatxi -wia obliged to re- 

completely emptied of pulpit, pews, tire, without ciFeQing any ufcfiil 

&c. which were burnt in the ad- purpofe. 

joining burying- ground, and after- The tfountry refidcnce of John 
wards the buildmg was levelled Taylor, Efq. Bordciley-hall, after 
nearly whh the ground; it bnng the greateil part of its fplendid fur- 
confidered dangerous from its £tua- nlture had been demolilbed or car.' 
loon to fet.it od fire, ried away, was fet on fire, together 
Dr. Prieftley't houfe at Pair-hill with the out-ofiiceSi ftablcs, ricks 
Bext met a fimilar fate, with the of hay, &c. and altogether exhibit- 
whole of his library, and colleilion ed a mofl tremendous fcene of de- 
«f apparatus for phiiofophical ex- vaflatjon, 

peiuients. Here one of the riaiers In the night of Friday, thehouTe 

was killed by the falling of a cor- of Mr. Hutton, in High-Areet, wss 

nice-ftone. completely firipped ; hii large flock 

On Friday mraning the infa- of paper, his library of bodts, and 

tnat£d mob continued their depre- all his furniture, dcRroyed or car- 

dationi, for there was no armed rird away. Fire was feveral timet 

farce in the town, and the civil brought by a woman (women ami 

power wai not fuffidcnt to reprefs boys were particularly afUve in all 

' them. the depredations}, b,ut the majoritf 

.About "noon they attacked and of the populace, in tenderncii to tht 

demoltlhed the elegant manfion of town, would not fuffer it to be ap- 

Mr. JohnRyland(rau Mr. Balker- plied, 

Froo 



CHRONICLE. 'ji 

Ftbin Mr. Hutton'a they pro- county, who molt ifeimburre tSe fof- 

cecdedtohUcoantry-houfeatWalh- fere»; for the reports were fovagoe 

wood-heath, about three miles fiom and various of the Dumber and the 

town, which, with its offices, tbey (Irengxh of the uirurgenti, and h»v- 

rtducsd to afhes. ing no mUitary, lave a few undifcl- 

Saturday morning the rioteri pluied recruiti, no force coiild be 

nade an attack oii Mr> G. Hum- feiicout againlt tham, IntbeaJter- 

phreys's houfe at Spark-brook, but noon aod evening fmall parties of 

were repnlfed, and one man kilted; three or five levied contributions of 

the mob, however, on a fccond at- meat, tiquor, ^nid soncy, with the 

tick carried their point, and went lame indiiFerence that tbey would Ic' 

off after ranlkcking the hoafe of all vy pariih taxes [but the night palled 

iti valoable funuturei but did not withoutinterruptioninthe town, 

bum it. On Sunday the rioters bent iheir 

Mr, William Roflell'i hoiifc at courfe towards Ktngfwood, feven 

Showell-Green experienced all the miles ofF, extorting money ,and li' 

TioIeDce of fire and devallation. quors by the way. — There the dif- 

Tbe hooTe of Mr. T. Hawkes, fencing mceting-honre,mdthedweU 

Mofeley -Walk- Green, was llripped ling-houfc of their minillEr, Here re- 

of its furniture, which was cidicr duced to alhes, as were the premifes 

broken to pieces or carried away. of Mr, Cox, farmer, at WorAockr 

Mofeley-haJl, tbe relidence of the fame day. 

tie dowager countefa of Carhamp- The reports of every hour of thi» 

loB, but the property of John Tay- day appt-ared calculated to excite 

lor, efi]uire ; Mr. Harwood'r, and alarm in the town, whilll depreda- 

Mr. Hohlbn's, a dUTenting miniller, ticw and extoition were committing 

were all on 6re at once. in the furrounding villages and 

Lady Carbampton.who is mother country feats. 
13 ihcdutchefi of Cumberland, and Sund-iynightifoon after ten, three 
hlitid, had notice on the preceding troops of the ijthregimenl of light 
day to remove her eScQa, at their dragoons arrived, amidlt the accla-< 
TCDgeance was not direfted againft mations of the inhabitants, whole 
Iicr: tbe good old lady gave dircc- hopes and fears had been vifibly de- 
mons accordingly, and lir Robert picted through the day > in every 
and captain LawJey immediately at- counienancc, as reports of the near 
tcndedon their noblerelation, whom approach of the foldiery werefpreail 
tbey accompanied in fafety to Can- or contradicted. Tiie town waa 
*dl, Gr Robert's feat. immediately illuminated, and before 

The whole of Saturday bufinefs morning every thing was tolerably 
Ml at a ftand, and tbe fhops moflly i^iet, but the rioten were ftill con- 
dole flint np, notwithftanding the tmuing their depredations in tbe 
appearance of the magiftratei, and coontry, 

fevrral popular noblemen and gen- Their viJlts to Mr. Hunt's at La- 

tlemen, who difperfed hand-bills, dy-wood, Mr. Coates'sat the Five- 

fignedbythemfelves.exhortingthem ways, and Dr. Withering's Edgbaf. 

■0 rciire peaceably, and warning tan-hall, were attended with great 

tlKm of the confequenccs to tne alanoi but not the injury reported. 

Tbey 



U.rire.l.yCoO'^lc 



31* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

The}r exbaulled the cellars at each a faair-drefler, concealed' llienifeltet 

place, a.nd received various fumt of under the altar. They had taken a 

money to prevent their proceeding CODpleof bottles of wine with [hem, 

to further violence, but were at the and Ibmethtng to eat. A&er having 

laft-menuonedplaceiingreatforccat bre ak titled- taey cut a few fmall 

the time the troopi arrived; wbich holes through the boards, the better 

they no fooncr bad intimation of to fee what was going forward at the 

than they began to llJnk off in fmall Champ de Mars. They were per- 

parties i and the peafantry taking c«ived, and dragged by the mob to 

courage put the reft to flight in-va- the committee of the feAion. The 

rious dircAions. fitting officers, convinced that they 

So rapid were the light-horfe in had no had deCgn, ordered ihcm lo 

their route for the reUef of this the invalids; buion a Tudden iiwas 

place, thatlheycamehereinoneday repotled t/iai ihey had malcbu is 

from Nottingham, a diflancc of 59 ihtir poctrli tc fit fire to fiiai psteHer, 

miles, but to the great injury of their and thus bl^vi up the altar ef Lltrlj ! 

horfca, one of which, a famou:; old The lu'o unli^riunate men were im- 

horfe, that had been in the regiment medisteiy torn from the proteiiion 

l3 years, died the following day. of the national go:: rd. The firilin- 

On Monday three troops oi' the tention of the rabble wa5 to hang 

nth regiment of dragoons came them up on the lamp-iron ; but the 

in, and Col. de Lancy to take the cord breaking, die pliilofophical 

command. butclisrs iient to '■jierk ivili kaivti. 

On Tuefday there were fiying rn- atJ t^fia- katimg lut off their heads, 

mours of depredations near Hngley, fifct ibtm nn p'ta, and tarried litM 

Halefowen, &c. and in the evening eiiKi tbtfireeli ! 
certain information was receivco. This day two proclama- ^ 

that a party of rioters were then at- tions were ilTued from tlie *' 

tacking Mr. Male's, of Belle-vue ; a fecretaryof ftate's office, the one of- 

few of the light dragoons immedi- fering a reward of one hnndred 

atety went to his affinaiice; but they pounds for d if covering and apprC' 

had been prcvioufly overpowered by nending ever)' perfon concerned 

a body of people in that neighbour- in the late riots at Birmingliam ; and 

hood, and ten of them are now con- the other ofTerbg the famerewardfbr 

fined at Halefowen. difcovering the author, printer, or 

On Wednesday the country for ten publifherot the celebrated hand- bill. 
miles round was fcoured by the light- A few days fince, as a poor ^ 

horfe, but not one rioter to be met woman was gathering chick- ' 

vith, and all the manafaAorieg are weed in a £eld adjoining the lonju 

at work as if no interraption had lane, known by the name of Cm 

Uken place. throat-lane, which leads from Ken* 

1 7th ^'"'' On Sunday morning, nington Common to Camberwelh 

' 'in confcancnce of the invita- ihe t'uddenly perceived the body of 

(ion of the duos, a great concourfe a man upon the ground near the 

of peopleaflembiedonandabouE the ditch, with his throat cat, and the 

altar of liberty. Two men, one a blood Hreiming near him. On his 

loldier with a wooden leg, the other rij-ht-hajid lay tlie razor withnhich 

he 



LHi-reM,, Google 



CHRONICLE. *3j 

be had deflro^ed himrdf, and alb near Salilbnry, the widow Blake* 

hi) cravat, fo deliberately had he aged too. 

doneic The poorwoman'a fliriek), 

at the fight of a fpeftacle fo horrid, 

foon broQ^ht all the hbourcn in the AUGUST. 

-"■-*■' ' brick-ields, and the 



paflengers within hearing. On ex- The foUowing experimenu ^ 
araination he appeared to be about were lately made on board a ' 
thirty year* old, well-drefled, in a fliip in Portfmouth harbour, by Mr. 
genteel drab-colonred coat, toil*- Hill, carpenter of the AQive, and 
nette waitlcoat, fuflian breeches, the inreotor of a inachine for drawing 
lace new-falhioncd blue threadllock- bolls out of fhips fides, &c. ift. 
ings with white doclu, filver Ihoe he Itopped a <hot-hoIe on the ontlide 
and knee buckles, and in his pocket of the fnip, foor feet under water, in 
two half-gniaeu, four fhiUings and the fpace of one minute, without af- 
fix pence in £Iver, and fome half- liftance from any perfon out of the 
peace. Having no papert about velTel. ad. He llopped.in the fame 
him which could lead to a difcovery manner, a fpace in the Ihip's fide 
of who he wai, he was taken to fonrieet Hnderwater,of foarfeet by 
Lambeth bone-honre to be owned. four inches, in two minutes and « 

On the 26th, about two o'clock half. During the time of elFeftually 

in the morning, a fiie broke oat curing both leakt the Ihip made 

to the admiralty of Amllerdam ; only ten inches water in the well, 

and, though every endeavour was jd. An experiment on the chain- 

ded to cxaaguilh it, confumed in a pump, with a new conAruflcd wheel 

few hours the whole of that fine of Mr. Hill's invention, which adi 

building, and a large magazine of upon infinitely better principles than 

fails, arms, and other ftorei, fuS- that at prefenC in ufe, is much lafcr, 

cient. it i> faid, for the equipment left liable to be ont of order, aiid 

of thirteen Ihips of war. The canfe will be a material faving to govem- 

of this nmfbrtnne u not yet afcer- Oient in chains and faucers. 
tained. Mr. JeScrTon, the late American 

DiiD— at York, inhia 93d year, miniller at the court of France, ha* 

John Kenion, efquire. After be- communicated to an eminent iioufe 

queathing fome legacies to particu- in the city a difcovery, which, if 

Ur frientM, he has left his fortune to fanfiioned by experience, will be of 

charitablepurpofeiiviz.iool.totbe the utmoll importance. A perfon 

county- holpital; 100I. to the blue- nearBoiion,wbowasa fhip-builder, 

coatboyiaodgrey-coatglrlsfchool; hai folicited a patent from the 

aod lool. to the lunatic afylum in United Stateefbramodeofprelcrv- 

thit city ; zool. to the hofpitals in ing thip-timber from being worm- 

Muichefter; and the refidueia tobe eaten. During the thirty years he 

applied inapprenticingpoorchildren h&a been a bridge -builder, he hat 

belonging to the town of Rochda^ alwayt foakcd fuch timbers as wer« 

in LaacaOiire, hit native place. to be under water in oil, and has 

At Valencia, aged I'll yearii found this method to preferve them 

P^chal Serin. ever fince he waa in that employ- 

At Stratford andei the Caffle, Aent. 
ToL. XXXUI. • D J»th, 



34* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

■ The inhabitants of Bir- thcTe Unns; and theminiSeriofUil 

■ tningham, at a public meet- majeAy and the kingof Prnflla agree, 

iog, voted an addrefs of tbanka to on the part of thrir rcfpeftive love- 

his majeft)' for his paternal care, ma- reigns, that if the Forte Ibould de- 

riifefted for their fecarity during the cline to enter into ncgociacioii ci 

late riot). They alfo voted thanks, this bafis, their majellics will leave 

and pieces of plate of lOO guineas the termination of the war to the. 

value.tothtirjuftice^ialfoihanksto ccurfe of thofe cvenu to which ic' 

iheearts of Aylesford and Plymouth, may lead. 

Sir Robert Lawley, the honourable TTiis mormng, as bis ma- ^ 

captain Pinch, and the fevetal other jefty was pafling, in his car- ' 

gentlemen who exerted themfclves riige through the Park to Su 

to fapprefi the riots; thanks and James's, a gentleman diefic-d in' 

elegant drefi-fwords to captain Pol- black, ftandine in the Green-pirk, 

hill, comets Hilton and Seymour ; clofe to the rails, within a few yardi 

with tool, to the noncommifiioned of Mr. Copley's pavilion, joft as tiie 

officers and privates of the i;th re- carriage came oppofite where he 

giment of dragoons, for their great Rood, was obferved to pull a pap;r 

vigilance. haftily from his pocket, which be 

' . IVhiuhaU. Minillerial ftuck on the r-iil, addrcfled to the 

^ ■ notes have been delivered at king, throw off his hat, difcharge a 

Peterlbargh.byMr. Whitworthand piftolinhit ownbofom, andinftant- 

Mr. Fawtencr, and count Goltze, ly fall. Though furroondcd with 

on the part of his majelly and of the people collefted to fee the king pafi, 

king of Fruffia, and by count Ofter- the rafh aft was fo fuddenly perpe- 

man on the part of the emprefs of irated, that no one futpefled his fa- 

Ruflia, relative to the terms of pa- tal purpofe I'llI he had acompiifted 

ciiicaiion between Rullia and the ic. He expired immediately, la 

Forte; his left hand was a letter, addreffed 

Jn thefe notes the miniftcrsof his " To the coroner who fha!l take 

majeftyandthekingofPrulTia agree, an ioqueft on James Sutherland."— 

on the part of their refpeflive fove- This unfortunate gentleman, Jamf* 

reigns, that their majeftics will pro- Sutherland, efquirc, had been fuf- 

po(e to the Porte to conclude a peace pended from his office of judge- 

with Roflia on the terms of the cef- advocate of Minorca on the fecond 

fion of the diftria of Oczakow, from of Auguft, 1780; for which, en 

the Bog tt) theDniefter; her imps- the ajd of July, 1783, he brought 

rial majeily engaging not to difturb an ailioti againft general Murray, 

the free navigation of the latter ri- the governor, and obtained a verdia 

rer, hot to favourandproteflit, [to with j.oool. damages. General 

which condition the Porte is lo be Murray was indemnified by parlii' 

equally and reciprocally bound) and mentj and the failure of I'ome ap- 

her imperial mijefty being alfo to plications to goYcrnment having at 

reftorc to thePoiteat'theconelufion a fubfeijoent period reduced Wr. 

of the peace all other conquefts Sutherland to great diftreft, haJ 

whatever. The mlnifter of her im- greatly deranged his mind. He wai 

pcria! majefly agrees on the part of very genteelly drefled ; had only 

his, fovereign^ make peace oh two penc« and fomc letters in bis 

pocket*. 



CHRONICLE. •ss 

}h>cket). The letters were carried jefty doth judge it no longer ne- 

to the fccretary of ftace's office, ceflarj to continue the fudbonntiM: 

One of them was addrelTed to the his Majefty is thereupon pleafed, by 

king. Thccoroner'sinqtteftbrought and with the ftdvice of hij privy 

in their verdiA lunacy. council, to order and declare, that 

The following melancbaly accl- the faid bodntiet fluU from hence- 

dent happened at Woodford, in Ef- forth ccafe, determine, and be no 

feit, on the night between Monday longer paid or payable; any thing in 

and Taefday M : Mr. Thompfon, the faid order of the 39U1 of laft 

fiirgeon,ofihatpIace,being alarmed month contained tot the contrary 

by a noife, occafioned, as waj fup- notwithltanding. Whereof all per- 

pofed, by fame thieves who were at- fons concerned are to take no* 

tempting to r(^ his houfe, rofe, and tice, and goTcra tbemfeWei accord* 

having awalcened a fenrant who had ingly." 

been a long time in the &mily, and A few days fince Wil- - j^ 

who wasmnck refpeAed forhiaho- liamGray.aboot aj yearsof 

nefty and fabriety, they both armed age, being employed tin a fcaffbld 

themfelres with blnnderbalTea, and ere^d for the purpofe cf painting 

went but into the garden. Mr. the fpire of Great Uarlow chorchi 

Thompfon Hationedtne fervantata by the breaking of one of thepul> 

particular comen by which he fup- liei, fell with pnrt of the feaSijld 

pofed the thieves malt pais, if they upon the battlements on the roof 

had not already made a retreat, de- of the chnrch, from the roof of the 

firing him to remain on thefame fpot church to the ground, being in the 

till he fhouid take a turn roand the whole futifouricorefeelperpendicu* 

garden. The fervant having ira- lar. His right hand was lumewhat 

prudently left the place where he waj lacerated, but he had po bone broken 

dcGred to waicb, was met by his or dlQocated. 
raaDer inanotberpartofchegardent W^hittbaik On Saturday , 

who, tnJcing him for one of the lad oneof hismajefty'smef- " *' 

hoalebreakers, difcbarged his blan- fengers arrived at the o£ce of tht 

iicrb[ifsa[him,andlodged the whole Right honourable Lord Granville, 

contents in his body. The man died his majefty's principal fecreiary far 

almoft inftantly, four balh having foreign affairs, with difpatches from 

lodged in his lungs. the Right honourable Sir Hobert 

Tiiis day theft^owingprocUma. Murray Keith, knight of the badi, 

■ion was i^ued by the king in coun- his Majelly's envoy e:(craordinaj7 

cil : « Whereas his Majefty was and minifter plenipotentiary to the 

pleafed, by his order in council of court of Vienna, and plcnipoten- 

ih; sgth of lafl month, to direfl that tiary to the congrefs of Siltovia, 

the bountiei granted by his Majef- conuining an account that a defini- 

ty"! proclamarion of the 35 th of tive treaty of peace was Jigned on 

March, 1791, to able and ordinary the 4th infiant between the Empe- 

InmentwhoihoDldenterthemfelvcs ror and the OttcHnan Pottc, under 

to ferve in \as Majefty's royal navy the joint mediaiicn of liis Majeftyi 

as therein mentioned, Ihoold be con- of the king of Pmffia, and of the 

tinued until the 31^ day of this in- States General of the United Pro* 

^t Auguft : and whereas hii Ma- vinces; and tihat ;*paratc conven. 
• Da lieit 



S6* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

don betwecD hu Imperial Majefty ral and muity freedom, diat a fpirit 

and the Ottoman Pone, for fettling of intolerance (hoald break out 

the limits between the two empires, againSaaothErcWtof men with lucb 

was afterwards ligned on the fame fary. 

day. '* Gentleroe», you arc the gnar- 
_ , WaniiUk. On Monday d'lani of your conntry. Yon will 
^^ ■ the jid, the nifi prim bar examine padently, coolly, and deli- 
was opened by Mr. Baron Hotham berately; and I am happy that this 
at ten o'clock. At eleven baroD arduous, thongh painful talk, hai 

' Ferryn came into oontt on thecrown fallen into the hands of gentlemen 

fide, and delivered a charge to the who are as tenacious of iheir hoaour 

grand jury, in which, among other a: tbey are of the fafety, happioefs, 

thing), he (aid, "In the calendar, tranquillity, and nability of thiecoo- 

gentlemen, you will perceive the fiitution c^ their country." 

names of many prifoners, who, in The trials commenced the ■ie:Tt 

open defiance to the laws of their day, when Francis Field, aEas R«d- 

couniry, have wickedly and wan> ney, was indifted for fetting fire to 

tonly, in contempt of all legal au- thehoujeof John Taylor, efiidare, of 

thonty and government, deilroyed AlloniDrarBirminghamiOBtliei jtb 

and lia fire to the houles of their «f Jnly laft. 

fellow-fubjefU. This devaftadon Witnefleswerecalled.wbodearly 

was particularly levelled at a dafs proved that the prifoner waa feea to 

of fubjefis who have ibr a lone fe- feed the fire kindled In the bonlc, 

lies of years, by the wifdom of the huzzaine all the time, 

cftablifhed law, enjoyed the exerctfe The jnry retired, and after an 

of their religious tenets with free to- honr'scon£den.tian, brought in their 

leration of government. verdiS— Guilty. 

" I fhall nocenterintoanyof tht William Rice, aifo of the parifh 

c^ufes which may be ur^ed upon the of AAoo, wa£ bdifled for demolifh- 

^refent occafion as having tended to ing the honfe of William Hunon, 

excite this papular tumuli; becaufe eftjnire; bat he proving ra «£^ 

tfany body of men had offended the was acqaitted. 

laws, they were amenable for their Robert Whitehead was indiAed 

cotaduft to their country. Bntwhat- for the lame ofience. Mr. Htitton'i 

everivas the caufe or the motive for two fervants fwore to his aClivity in 

ihple ontrages, on no pretext can demoIiSiing the honfe, and thai he 

diey be jnftified or palliated. had fratched a nin from one of the 

** k is rather extraordinary and witneJlei, and Knocked htm down 

fingular, Aat at a time when the with the bui-end of it. Tlus evi- 

lawt which have long difgraced the dencc was confirmed by two other 

ftatnte books againft the Roman ca> witnefi'eai but was flatly contradifled 

(holies hav<£, under the mild and by another, wbofe evidence went to 

blefiied government durii^ the pre- prove, that tiie prifoner, fo far from 

, ient rel^nof his Majelly, beenobli- oeing a rioter.did every thing in his 

tcrated, and the fituauon of the ca- power to quell the riot ; and fboi 

diolics, fo far at refpefts their reli- refpeOable witoeB^ fwore that he 

E'ons principles, plated ooder the had a good charaa<r. Ttx jury 

ppy and wife kIbcocc of a libc- brooght inthMrveidift— Notgiuliy> 



C H R O n: 1 C L B. •37 

On 'WedttefSuj the 14th, John (Wore pofitive!y to the Mt. The 
Green. Jo'nt Clifton, and Barcholo- jnrybroHght in their verdid—Gntl- 
mew Pi(h-r, were capitally indiAed tj. 

fer detnolifhing theboufe of Jofepfa DxniclRafE, af«di6,wa«charg;ed 
PrieRley, LL. D. with bcgirtning tO pall down the 

After a fong trial. Green »nd dwelliBg-houfe of ^hn Taylor, ef- 
Fiflier were ibtind guilty, death; and quire, at Alton; but iaconfideradon 
Clifton, on account of many fa- of his youth, no evidence was called 
»onr»b!ecircnmftances, and the lef- againft hira, Ht waj canfeqaeatly 
ritnony of feveral refpeftahle per- acquitted. 

fons to his good charaScr, was ac- On leaving the town, the judge' 
quitted. ordered the four rioters, Francis 

Joba Stokes, Indifted far pulling Field; alias Rodney, John Green, 
down the old meeting-houre, was BarthoJomew Filher, and William 
next put to the bar. Tire counfcl Hands, with Edward Brown, far' 
(00k an objeftion to the indiftraent, highway robbery, and Williain Mil- 
faecaofe it charged Am the meeting- lington, for horfe-ftcaling, to be tjt- 
bonfe was fituate in Philip-ftrcet ; ecuted on the 8th of September, 
whereas the regiiter proved that it IVhitihall. In confequence ^^ 
was originally licenfed as being li- of the late edifl of the Spa- 3°*" 
tuated in Old Meeting-honfe lane, nilh govomBicnt refpcfting fcrelgn- 
The counfel for tie crown gave the ers, the principal merchant* and 
ptwfecotion up. — Not guilty. Other Bntilh fubjcftj refiding in 

William Shulccr, the bellman of AHcant, were on the 7th required 
Birmingham, was indiAed for be- by the governor to declare, whether 
ginning t» demo'ilh the houfe of they chofe to be confidered and 
John Ryland, efquire, in that town, claffed fbreignen Tranfisntrt or Dt- 
The evidence of the three firft wit- mieiliadu. On their preferring the 
n^fles was very (horg againft him, latter clafs, they were ordered to 
hot their tellimony was impeached leave Alicant within fifteen daysj ' 
by feveral other witnelTei. Otheri and were required to take an oath 
gave him a very eicellcnt charadlcr, of implicit obedience to the laws of 
asan honed, inofti;nfive man, whofe Spain during that period. MelT. 
only ^ult was, that he loved a drop Keith and Macdonald having de- 
of liquor. The jury, therefore, in clincd complying with this order, 
perfefl cotKor rente with the opinion they were confined in the ca&]e of 
of the judge, brought in their verdiA Alicant. 
■—not guilty, On the receipt of this intelligence 

Jofcpfa Carelefs was indifled for stMadrid,count Florida Blancaim- 
lie fame oflence. Two witnelTe* mediately afftired lord S(. Helen's 
fivore to the faft charged againft the that he entirely difapproved of every 
prifoner. Butathird witnefsftated, part of the governor's conduft; 
thattheprifonerhadcnScavonred to that orders Ihoold immediately be 
preferve fome pigs on the pre- fent for the relcafc of Me^eurt 
Bnfes. The jury acquitted him. Keith and Macdonald, without a 

William Hands was indifted for moment's delay jand that the go- 

A« (aine offcD^c. Tw9 witnefies remor fhouEd be caHed upon ta 

•P 3 prove 



UiBnieOb, Google 



2^* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

frovt any cliarge he might have were not miHaken; for fbon after 
made agalnft thenii ^oi on hit bil- they faw a namber of canoes com- 
ing to make it good, that thofe gen- ingoff to them, in one of which was 
tlemen (bould certainly receive due the good old king. 
fitisfaSion. Coant Florida Blinca Immediately on hit coming on 
ai^ded, that he had the preceding board he went up to the captain^ 
evening fent out circular orders on taking him, from his drefi, to be hi* 
thiafubjeA, which wonld, he trufted, former friend captain Willbn, and 
lecure hii . majefty'i fubje^ fettled immediately felt on his arm for the 
at Alicant from any furdicf moleff- hiu, (a marlc of honour lie conferred 
alion. on capt^n Wilfon), and enqoired 

Within a few hours afterthiicour what wai become of it. Finding hia 

TcHaiion, count Florida Blanca fsnt miftake in the perfon, and being in- 

liord St. Helen'* the aboye-menr formed that captain Wilfon w»» 

tioned order for the releafe of Mef- alive and well in England, he ex- 

fieors Keith and Macdonald, which preflcd great iatisfa^ion. Captain 

hia excellency immediately for- M'Cluer then gave him to uiidcr' 

warded to Alicant. lland the death of Lee Boo. and 

' the diforder of whiph he died, ftir, 

' • ■ ' ■ ■ - - ■ which event the good old man faid 

SEPTEMBER. ^^^ )ic had prepare4 his mind : that 

he had counted up to Tome fcors 

, WiflrfAr. Thjsmorning.fixm moons; but the time being pilt, he 

3 ■ after five, their majefties and haddefpairedofcirer feeingtheEng- 

iheir royal highneffca ihc princeft liih more, judging that they had 

fojral, princcfs Augulia, and prin- either perilhedin their voyage to 

ce& Elizabeth, fet out for Wey- China, or did not intend to retnni 

mouth. _ again to viiit his iflands. 

Whiithall. Theii majeAies and He vas, however, perfefliy coo- 

the tfi:ee princeiTei arrived fafely at fidenc in the goodnefs of the Eng- 

Weyniouth, a little ?iter Cx o'clock tifh, ai)d that ^ptain Wilfon woiJd 

on Saturday evening. take car* of his fon. In relating the 

j^ Advices have been received death of Blanchard f the fearoanwho 

' ' by the lord Thurlow Eaft bad been left thereby bis dcfire) he 

Jndiaman, that the Panther, of two was full of grief, and could hardly 

hundred tons, commar.ded by lieu, utter himfel^fo much did he feel hu 

tenant M'Cluer, with the Endra- lols. 

your, of fixLy tons, had tailed from Blanchard was mortally wounded 

Bombayon the i3dorAugufI,i7oo, jo an engagement with the pet^le 

and arrived fafi^ly at the Pelew of Pellilcw, and died foon after, as 

idands. did ihofe great and good friends of 

On their arrival they obfetved captain Wiifon and his crew. Raa 

two cf noes, which made toward the Kook and Aria Cooker. Duringtbe 

(hore mftcad of coming to the fliips, time of captain M'Cluci's ftay at the 

as had b?pn expefled. Thefr,|thej' iflands, which was near a month, the 

fuppofed, ^ere going to give ah ac- uunoft harmony and friendfbip pre- 

tount 10 Abba fhulle of their ar- vailed, and the good old king libe- 

rival; and ia this con jeflurc they rally fupplied ibcm witb'fiin and 



CHRONICLE.. '39 

STiM nrhen the canoes came in, u known : Tevenl barrel s of tar were 

ufcd to de to his former friend). on lire before it was difcoirered. A 

Captain M'Claer hai taken a Ton nmnber orengino attended, both on 

and a daughter of the king's iviih the river and on the Ihore; but, front 

faim to China, and means to call at the difficulty of finding water for the 

the iilands'again id his pallkge to latter, and the impoSibility of bruig- 

Bombay. In his joomal the captain ing the former near enough, the 

fays, *' Having pitched my tent in a flames for s long time fpread with 

bay oppofite to the Ihip, I fonni) the uCmoA fury. Ji wis fix or fe- 

mvfetf in a perfeA paradife, and vea o'clock in the morning before - 

ccold have been liappy to iiave con- the violmce of the flames was any 

tinued here the remainder of my way got under, by which tun: above 

days," 50 houlcs were bnmt down, many 

„ . EdwardBrown, forahigh- of them warehouft;], containing 

way robbery; WUiiam Aft!- property to a very confiJerable 

Vmgton,forftea]ingamare; Prancii amount, of which very liule was 

Field.aliasRodney.andJohnGreen, faved. "Phc flames liaving com- 

fer being concerned in defraying municated tc> the Ihippin^ in the 

the houfes, &c. of John Taylor, el- riwer, great ^ars were entertained 

quire, and Dr. Prieftley, were ex- that a number of veflels woutd fail 

ccuted near Warwick, agreeably to a prey to the rage of the fire, ai 

their femences. The uiuiappy men there was no poffibility of drawing 

appeared at the fatal tree with manly them off, owing to the water being 

firmnefs and refignation, and their ebb. The Ranger, Captain Swain, 

whole conduA after condemnation from the Soath Seas, and a fmill 

evinced the tmeft penitence. Green, brig, were-bumt; but, by great eJt- 

however, to the )a<l tnonent de- ertions, the flames were prevented 

ckred he tooknopartindemoliMng from communicatirtg to any oUNr- 

Dr. Prieflley's houfe (for which he vefleb, at leafl from deftroying any 

was convifted), bat that he was other. A great number of poor 

merelya fpeftator there; thowh he faraiiies have been burnt out, and 

acknowledged he onght to fo^r, at their little all deHroytd. 
hewasveryaftiieindettroyingMr. About fi« o'clock in the ^^ 

Hottoa's houfe. morning, the poft-boy car- > ' 

Hta MajeRy's free pardon hat rying the mail (on horfeback) froin 

been granted to Bartholomew Filh- Warrington to Mancheficr was mur- 

er. one of the condemned rioters; deredaboutamilefrom Wafrington,. 

and a'refpiie for fourteen days was the mail opened, and the letters in ' 

on Wediiefday received at War< the following bags were taken out 

wick. and carried away, viz. the Chefter 

. Abouthalfpallteno'clock bags for Manchefter and Rochdale, 

'^ at night, a dreadful fire andthe Liverpoor bags fbr Roch- 

bndceoutnearCherryOardenStaira, dsBe. 

Rotheriiithe, near LondoDi which. Two men (by accent Iriffimen) 

fnrni the tide being low, and little were feen to leave the place where 

water to be had, burnt with greac the robbery and murder had bean 

fiiry a confiderable time.' It began committed in a precipitate manner, 

at a cbuuUei's, but how is roc and to go towards Warrington. 

• D + The 



40* . ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

The rider wit found abogt fix iHand of C»ba; nfludl caBliiuie& 

o'clock on Friday ttoraing, after till the next day, it half paftcwo in 

the whole of the oighc had been the aiienicion, with fuch force, u 

Jpent in Cearching for bim, in to caufe the greateft flood ever 

Britch Srodt, about a uitle from known in that coaniry. 
Warrington (murdered) ; the bod^ The tobacco-mitli belon^a^ to 

laid with the bee downwardi, hu the king of Spain were intirely 

handi tied upon hii back, and Mi carried away by the wateri, ana 

feet tied together. the viUa^Ct >n which they Itood, it 

^ Georre Dingier wai no nore. Two hundred and fifty- 

' ' execDtedoppoljteihe debt- feven of the inhabiunu pcri'hed is 

ors door at Newgate, according to it. 

hia fenteoce, for 3» wilfiil murder In the fpot where the milU Aood, 

of hii wife. the water, and, ai it is thought, X 

■ th ^^ Old Bailey frffioni flighieartbquake.opeaedthegrouiid 

' ' ended, when judgment of to the depA of fony-fire feet, and, 

-death was palled on John Portf- iq one of the c^niag^ a river ap- 

mauth. Thomu Playtcr. Thonuu peared of the pOrcA watof. Jn the 

Collis, William Triftram, lobn lite of a boule,' occupied by the 

Berry, Robert Clark, 1 hamaJ fiaft- count 'Baxrctto. cavities were difco- , 

op, John Siaiprdn, Thonjai Jones, vered moie than fuity (bet deep, 

and John Herbert. front one of which rofe a thick 

Fifteen capital convifla, who had fmoke. 
been refpitcd daring bii majelly** At tbc^iitaacc of fQur leaguei 

Slcafnre, were pardoned on con- frngt thencB, the torrent waj fo 

ition of beinK tranfportcd to New great, that none of th* ip}iabiuDU 

South Wales for life. One of them, elcaped, aad all the upper part of 

Thomai Ch^land, refufed hia j>ar- the foQ, ia why;h com or fruits 

don, and was ordered to b4 connned were' growing, Vi% carried away, 

in a folitary cell, till hit aujcily's The numbers dnch). or (ha extent 

fvtbcr plcainre be kno^m. Ann of the siiifi>)tune, cwM not be im- 

Gale, anothci: COoviA, who has two mediaicly a&crtaioedj but the 

children, declared Sie would rather calcqlftion «aa, that ^oca pcifont 

die than leave her cfiildren behind had perifhed, with tattle qf va- 

hpT. when the Recorder foid he rioos Undi, M the number of 

would da every thing ui his power ii.7<v. 
that her cbiUnn might be ponnit- Wpawwi. Hitmajeftyin 

ted to go with her. ' council wat this' day pkafcd 



aSth. 



24^1. 



n in Twwnill- to daelaee hii confent to a cootraft 



Itreet, Clerkenwelt. quitted of matrimony between bis royal 
.r. ,-...: V.,. ... .., r, tkeankci' 



hpr houfe, leaving two chiUrea highoeft the dnke of York and her 

alone therein* who tiftBwd acaee in royal highoels the priticeft Frcde. 

which three fcrreti were canfine& r^uc C&rlotu UlriijuB Catherine 

when the latter- aiocked ooe of ofProflia. dded ckughtex of hit 

the children, . and ioK cat ia makAy the kii^ of PruiCa; which 

cyei. confeuc hia najeAy hai alfa canred 

On thetiftof janeatday-brcalc, to be figoified aodec tha great 

there fcU a T(ry f iolcat nia in the feal. 

39th. 



CHRONICLE. «4i 

9odi ^ffh^- Gewge Pa- conduft at Mr. Ryhn4'» hoofs' 

*y™'vidron, for forgery, and during tlje late riots, did not ap- 

James Planket, latdjr a &ld(cr, for pear, and tliat the part he jook there 



robbery, both under fcntcnce of was to prsferve. and not to deftroy 

death, and who were to have been Mr. Rj'hnd's properly, humane!/ 

txecated on the z6th inlUnt, found ^niied m obtaining and [irefentiac 

ineans to make their efcapc. When a petition to his niajefty in his (a- 

the tifo under-gaoleri went np, TOur, upon which ) refpite for four- 

about ten o'clock at nieht^ to lock teen daya was granted : previoiu 

up the prifoiieri, plnnket begged to the ejipiratioiiof which, Mr. jnf- 

hemighthaveapoEof porter,which tice Bond was fent down with ano- 

was granted; and, having drank ther refptte for feven days more, 

beanily, he ofieted the remainder and to inveltigaie the allegation 

to his keeper, who, while hf was flated in the petition in favour of 

(irialung, had a pvftol held to his theprifoner: and, on Sunda^r fe'n* 

throat by Flunket, who fwore he night, very faiiifaflory evidence 

hid net an hour to live, i^he fpokc was adduced before the magillrates 

a word. Ai the {ane ioliant Da- of this town, Mr. juftice Bond^ fic 

\-idfon held a pifiol at the heart of Robert Lawley, hart, the high 

the other under-keeper ; and, hav- bailiff, and many of the moArefpfc- 

ing terri&ed them by threats, they table gentlemen of this place, in 

boand them with cords, which they fuppon of the favourable circum- 

hsd provided for the occafion, on- ftances dated on behalf of the pri- 

chaiiied themfelves from the bar to foner, which were returned to the 

which they were chained down to fecreiary of Hate by Mr. Bond; the; 

the Soor, and i^alked off unfufpeit- refult of which ha$ been, the arrival 

ed. The two under- gaolers were of another refpite on Saturday, dur~ 

oidered by the Magifttates to be ing his majerty'a pleafure, and oa 

iniprUbned. Tuefday, of a free pardon. 

^^ At theqaanerfedionsat At Dublin, on the 19th of Sep- 

S™"*" Sudbury, on an affair of an tember, the fitfi flone of the new 
aflault, the jury, not agreeing on . Houfe of Induftry, on an extenfivc 
their verdifl, about midnight broke plan, was laid by the right honour- 
open the door of the room In which able Thomas ConoUy, as the firf^ 
they were inclofed, and made off, movcr'of abill for the eilablilhment 
every man to his own houfe. Next of a regular lyftem for the fupport 
Inoming tb'yalTemblcd; bat, being of the poor of^that kingdom, 
then no longer confidered as the Died— 7th, at \fadrid, aged 
rame Jury, were dirmiJTed b^ the 100, Don Carlos Felix O'Meale. 
Court, who determined to apply to He was an old lieutenant -genera^ 
the Attorney General for advice in of the Spanilh army, a great favo- 
a »fc fo unprecedented. rite of his monarch, and had been 

Xirmingbam. From fome clr- governor of ' the Havannah. He 
cumQances which appeared from was the fon of ijir Neale O'Neale, 
tbceudence again ft William Hands, of the province of UlSer, who wai' 
upon his triD, fome gentlemen, killed at the battle of tiie fioyne. 
who were led to apprehend that Lately at an a!ms-houfe in Mon- 
ths whole truth rcfpedinf; hit mouth, aged lot, Sarah Price. 
' " ■ ■ When 



41* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 



When about 50 (he could not fee 
without the help ofglatrw; but a* 
Ihe further advanced in yean, (he 
recovered her fight to fuch a decree 
as to (ee to thread the fnuuleft 
needle, till within a few dafi of her 
deceafc. 

In St. Elisabeth's, a^ 1 10, a 
negro woman named Cooba. 

At Edinburgh, in his 105th year, 
John Strachan. 



OCTOBER. 

, Bcrlii. The day before 

ytHerday, in the evening, 

the wedding of Princefs Frederica 

W33 con fu ID ma ted with the Uuke 

of York. 

About fix o'clock, all peifoni 
who were of princel/ blood alTen)- 
bled in gala in cbe apartments of 
the Dowager Queen, where the 
diamond crown was put on the head 
of Princefs Frederica. The Gene- 
rals, Miniders, AmbaJTadors, and 
the high nobility, alfcmblsd in the 
while iuiU. 

Immediately after it ftrock feven 
o'clock, the dulte of York led the 
princefs, whofe train was carried by 
four DamtJ dt la Cear, preceded by 
ihe gentlemen of the chamber, and 
the court officers of ilate, through 
all the parade apartments, into the 
white hall. After them went the 
kir.g, with the Queen Dowager; 
Prince Lewis of Pruffia; with the 
reigning queen (the crown prince 
- was abfent, by indifpofition) ; the 
hereditary prince of Orange, with 
Princefs Wilhelmina ; Prince Henry, 
third fon of the King, with the he- 
leditary Stadtholderefs, bis aunt : 
Prince >VilheIm of Pruffia, wiih 
Princefs Augufta; the dake of 
Wein^r, with the fpoufe of Prince 



Henry of Prtiflia; tie reigning dufce 
of Mecklenburg Streliiz, with the 
hereditary Princefs of Srunfwick. 

In the while hall, a canopy was 
ereftedofcdniron velvet, andaTfoa 
crimfon velvet fopha for the mar- 
riage ceremony. 

when the young conple tad 
placed themfelves under the canopy, 
before the fopha, and the royal 
family ftood round them, the upper 
coonreJlor of the contillory, Mr. 
Sack, made a fpeech in German. 
This being over, rings were ex- 
changed; and the illuffrious couple, 
knecHng lyi the fopha, were married 
according to the rites of the reform- 
ed church. The whole ended 
with a prayer; and twelve gans 
placed in the garden firing three 
round', the benediftion was given. 
After which, the new-married cou- 
ple received the congraiularions of 
the royal family, andthey returned 
in the fame manner to the apart- 
ments, where the royal family, and 
all perfo^i prefent, fit down to 
card-tables; aft^ which, the whole 
court, the high nobility, and the 
imbafliidDrs, laldowo to fupper. 

The fupper was ferveu at fix 
tables. The firll was placed under 
a canopy of crimfon velvet, and the 
vifluals ferved in gold dilhes and 
plates. Lieutenant- General Bom- 
ftedt and Count BluM had the 
honour to carve, without being feat- 
ed. 

The other five tables, at which 
fat the Generals, Minilteri, Ambaf< 
fadort, all the officeri of the court, 
and the high nobility, were ferved 
in other apartments. 

Thofe who did the imMturi at 
thefe tables were— At the firll. 
Prince Sacker, minifter of Rate— 
At the fecond, General Mollendorif 
.^Atthe tltird. Count Jinckenltein, 
minifter 

,H,„,„Goi>g,e 



CHRONICLE. •« 

nlnifter of fiate.^At the fourtb, 30; the fbnner had been in t)i« 

tcmiiE Sdralembur^ Ueuteaant-ge- profeffion of the Uw, and was re- 

neral and miniAer of flace— At the puted to hive Tome fonune, ai had 

£f[h, major-general BifchoSiwer- t)ie lady, and both were from York- 

itt. < (hire. On Wcdnefday morning the 

Dnrio^ fnppCT, mafick continued a8th alt, it wai currcntlj- reported 

playing in the galleries of the firft in the Ihip, that Mr. D. (a cuddf 

lull, which immediately began pallengcr) had, by looking throngli 

when the company entered the the keyhole of the door of their 

luU. apartment oq Tnefday afternoon. 

At the defert, the royal table wai discovered them in an improper 

lenredwitha beaatiful fet of china, fitiiation; chat he kid called another 

nude in the Berlin manni^flory. perfon to be wluiefi of the fame; 

Sapper being over, the whole af- that they alarmed the partie* by 

fetnb)/ repaired to the white hall, knocking at the door, and retired. 

R)iere the trampei, timbrel, and The affair being univerfally made , 

D^her nufick, were plaving; the known, a referfe took place at table 

Bimbeau dance was begun, at during dinner between the gentle- 

Kfuch the mioilten of ftate carried men and the panic],' and an expJo- 

ihe torches. With this ended the nation was fo far gone into as to 

ftftiviiy, convince the latter that their _guilt 

The new couple were attended was public. They accardin^ly 

to iheir apartment by the reigning foon retired from table, and remain- 

Qoeen and the Qaecn Dowager, ed that day and Thurfday in their 

TlieDuke of Yorkworeon this apartment. On Friday morni.ig the 

diy the EngliJb unifarm; and the 301J1, upon a fervant's knocking at 

Princefi Fredeiica was drefled in the doer, and not b:ing able to ob- 

1 fiiit of dra/ d'ar^au, ornamented tain admittance or attention, a faf- 

■iih diamonds. picion arofe, and the gunner was 

The palace of the Margrave of defired to go over the Jhip's quar- 

Aafpach was illuminated. ter, and look into their apartment, 

f^ The houfe of Sir Jame* on which he difcovored that they had 

' S.\nderfoa, Roxby, and Co, delboyed themfeives. The gen- 

- )>in-merctMiits, at the bottom of tleman was found fitting in the 

f^li-ftnet-hill, was broke open and quarter gallery, with a fuTee and a 

mhbed of bills of exchange, ca(h, piJtol, with the Utter of which he 

Jic. to the amoant of 1800I. had ftiot htmfeU' through the head; 

A moA unhappy aSau has lately the lady was lying in the balcony, 

occnTred on board the Fitzwilliam and a difcharged piAol near her, 

Ea&-Iiidiaman,jull arrived: Agen- with which fhe had Ihattered her 

deman and hi* niece were paHen- head in a Ibocking manner. They 

Eetiin thelhipfrom Bengal,having had been dead for Tome time, and 

pari of the Captain's cabin, or it was about fcven in the morning 

'ound-houie, alTigned to themfelves when this part of the melancholy 

^ accommodation, and lived at the bufincfs was publicly known in the 

Captain's table ; the gentleman was fhip. Their bodies were committed 

a v'idower, and appeared to he about to the deep at mid-day. 
4} yean of age, and his niece about Some letters were found written 

by 



44* ANNUAL IlEGISTEB, 1791. 

by t)ie lady, addrefled to feveni drcD,k fine bey of abont fbarorfire 

fiiends and relatioiu; one to the yeanof age.having benrleft by the 

Captain, tfaankinz. bim for hit maid at play in the room with his 

kindnefsi one to t^e peribn whofe brothers, approached fo near the fire, 

|kcal curiofity had occafioned the that the flamucaaght his pin-cloth; 

difcovery, upbraiding him for cruel and, though the child fcmined im> 

ofEcionfnefi ; and one to a eeatle- mediately for help, and all poflibtc 

Btan who wu in the fame fhip, and afflftance was afforded, he £ed on 

who paid his addrelTes to the lady, Tnefday. 

■flTumig him, that ftie efteemed him WindpT, Their majeflin ,— i 

highly ; but declaring, that it never and the ptincefj royal, prin- '^ 

was her intention to impofe on him cefs Augufla. and princefi Eliza- 

a, woman whofe ccnduA he could beth,(etout fromGloucefter Lbdge, 

not apptovie, ^nd whofe affeftioos Weymouth, on Saturday morning 

prere oeroted to another. a little before fix o'clock, and ar- 

. Gla/gmi;. In confequence rived here at Hx in the aitemoon, 

'""'of «[y heavy rains, whiph in perfefl heakh. 
)re had for the two precading Vienna, Stpt. yih. The nitifica- 

day), the river Clyde yefterday tioni of the treaty of peace, and 

overflowed its hanks, and rofe to of the convention between his 

Aich a height as to lay all the imperial majefly and the Ottoman 

lower part ' of this city feveral Porte, were exchanged on the 

feet under water. The ftjrnlinrc ajd ult. at SiAora, by the Auf- 

and goods in the houfes which the trian and Turkifh plenipotenti- 

ivaier reached have been very much vies, in due form. And on the 5ih 

damaged; and as the harveft is not of this month, £r Robert Murray 

yet qniirgoc-in in thisconntry, great Keith, his Britannic majefty's pleni- 

rantiiies of cut com have been potentiary at the above congrdV, 

cpt away by the flood from the returned to this city, 
fends overflowed by the river. The* On Satarday, at foax in _^^ 

water rore To high as to reach the the moniinff, the watch ar *♦"*•- 

cells of the mad-houfe. The in- the Bank difcovered a fire in that 

Santaneous efleft which the dread partof the buildings which is lately 

«f the water had upon the lunatics, appropriated for ovens to bum the 

was very remarkab|r>— the whole of uielefs papers; a large beam which 

them, even the molt furious, were ran acrofs t^e chimnqr nmk fire, 

rendered quiet and tradable, and and communicated to the carpen- 

allowed themfelves, trembling like ters* workfhop^, whjch in an honr 

children, to be condufled to apart- were wholly deftroyed. The fire 

menis on the upper flory, where was then got under, and no farther 

they remained calm and peaceable, damage ^nfued. Several bank di- 

as long as ih; pourt-yard remained reftors attended ,TT7-It may be necef- 

covered by the water. fary to add, that this fire in no vny 

, . A moil diftreffing circum- aflefled, or could affeft, the repofi- 

' fiance happeri^i at the boufe tojiej of the public accounts, &c. 

of Dr. Ford, head of Magdalen Hall, which are amply fecured againS the 

0:ifbrd. One cf the Doflor's chil- p oflltnlity of being injured by fire. 

15th. 



CHRONICLE. *\s 

' . AccoQDti -were reorired fe«id to hare paSed. He u the 

'^ ' this msniing at the Admi- perfon who feme time filice wu im- 

nhy, by the Daphne sian of wart ^ifone4 in tke King''3 Bench, knd 

from Jamaica, which place Ae left endeavoured to make hii Hcape 

Sept. 10, that a dreadful in(urre£iioa from ihenee. The del» for whidi 

hid takeo place at St. Domingo, he was d«a>Md ii faid to amount to 

among the negroes and free people, jocx)l. 

and chat they wcrein arttg to tlve The feflinnt ended at tbe . 

■amber of Iroin 35,000 to 40,000 Old Bailey, when judg'ment ^ 

BCD, and were fuppofed to have in of death wat pafled upon li capital 

cbeir poflcffion sbont 5000 ftand of conviAi; one was featenced to be 

anu, had deflroycd ahiut aoo fugar tranfported for 14. yean, aS for Ic- 

plintaiiom, and a number of come, ven years, feur to be imprifoned in 

be and had killed and deftroyed all Newgate, and nine in Clerlteiwell 

the white people that ftll in their Bridewell; 11 were pablicly and 

way, it ii fi^pofed to a mat two privately whipped; one judir> 

amonnL The rea&o affigned for neot refpited, on condition af his 

the revolt of thefe people is, the enliflin^ as an Eail India foldiert 

late decree paffed in the National one (nz. ^wikc Bronghton) for 

Adembly. Itappeatv that the re- robbing the Mail, ordered to be 

loh was confined to the French &nt to Cambridge, five to be fenc 

i'An&i but it was imagined it to Surrey, and 34 ware difeharged 

would become general throagh the by proclamation. 
iHasd. Thu evening, about feven ft* 

By other infonnation we learn, doclc, it was difcovercd that Ox- 

chat the white people at St. ley, one of the men imprifoned upon 

Domingo had difpatched a fhip to a charge of being; concerned in fome 

AiKiica, praying for a£illance: of the mail robberies, had made hi> 

that the news of the infurredim efcape fram Clerkenwell priToiu 

being received at Jamaica, Lord Some bricldayera had been employ- 

Effiagham had coUefled all the ed daring the day in repairing the 

Iroopf together, to be ready on the outhoufei in the yard, and their 

lift aknn; and it was expected ladder, by a ftrange neglefi, was 

thuraaruallaw would be proclaim- left there after it was dark. This 

cd. We are haf^y to fay, that no man was a prifoiKr in a place called 

(etion confequence is app-ehended the Lodge, where the confinement 

upong our own iflands : and the 19 tefs ftnA than in fome other parti 

military at Jamaica is on the mofl of the prifon, and had been indulged 

Rfpedxble feodng, and very hh- with very light iron*. Heafcended 

nnooa. the ladder without difcovery or fuf- 

„fL This evening, about feven picion, and was prefently beyond the 

' o'clock. Count de Vertcil- walls of the prifon. In pa£ng 

lu made hu efcape ftY»t the Fleet over fome leads belonging to an 

Enioa, la a manner fo unfoTpeflcd adjoining houTei he thre\v dmrn an 

y the keepen, that the firft intellt. earthen pan placed thcrd for the 

gence leading to a difcovery was receptini of birds, which circnm- 

jiven by tlte aulfasr of the Bell-Sa- fUnce firA dil(»>vered his cfc-ipe by 

vage inn, thiongh which he was the noilc of the falling pieces. In- 
formation 



46* ANNUAL REGI STER, 1791. 

formation wai gi«en to the prifon- igaio, bat not till the Raatt }ai 
keepen (hat (ome perfon bad been got to fiich an height that, every 
paDing over thofe leads, iind he wu attempt to get out of ibe frtnit door 
TRimnlUtcly parfued, but haa not proving abortive, flie, with one of 
JFCI been taken. the men, got into the yard. She 

The molldreadfutriotihave lately there firil perceived that her cloih<i 
bappened at Avignon, in which fe- were on ^re, which the man hid 
vcril people loA their lives. One fcarceljr extinguifhed, by aSfiiog 
■Dan, the companion of Joordain, her to get into the water-tuU bC' 
furnamed Cut-threat, was aflaiCnated fore a beam felt, with the explofion 
in a church, at the foot of the altar, of the roof, and broke his arm. At 
Above fifty others have become the fame time, both the roof and 
nifcrable vidims to popular &ry. the gable end of the next hoole. 

Died, at hii apartments in Mil- Mr. Gibbs's, wa> forced into the 
ftJm-ftreet, Bath, of a total dticay, ftrcet, by which a perfon, who 
in his 64th year, Bamber Gafcoyne^ lodged in the garret, was thrown 
Efq. receiver-general of hii majef- out of his bed upon the groond at 
ly'i cuftoms, one of the lords com- feveral yards diltance; this maji') 
titifiioners of the admiralty, ver- thigbs were broke, and he is otbet- 
durer of Wnltham fbrefl, LlTex, wile much hurt, it was not tilt 
formerly M. P. for Liverpool, and fome time after the principal ex- 
only fon of Sir Crifp Gafcoyne, ploGon, that the two unhappy peo- 
knt, lord'mayorof Londonin 1753, pie in Mrs. Clttherow's yard were 
and who died in 1761. found by the populace almoS in- 

tombed in the fmoking Tains : the 
S^-^^~—^^^—^-^^^^^^^ Bung woman wai coni^yed to St. 
.,_,_... ... artholomcw's hofpita], and the 

two men to St. I'homai'sj two of 

. The following melancholy whom are fince dead, it is fnp- 

\ accident occurred in the pofed that her mother and the other 

koDfcof Mn. Clitherow, firework- journeyman fella IkcrlGce to an 

maker, near Hal (moon alley, Bi- tf tempt to extingoifli the flames in 

Ihopfgale-llreet ; the ihop below, ai the principal 

Mn. Clitherow, with t<vo jonr- part of (he powder, which wju dt- 
ncy men, her fon, and eldeft daugh* pofited in the garret, was a con£- 
ter, being at work in her fhop, to derable Mme before it took £rc. 
complete fome orders againd Fri- Happily only fix lives were loft, 
day, about half pad one o'clock in viz. thofe of Mrs. Clitherow, one ' 
the morning fome tea was propofed journeyman,* her fon, and three 
as a rcfrelhment ; while this was daughters t nor were any other 
drinking, fome of t!ie materials perlons hurt than thofe aboie 
upon which they had been at work, mentioned. Mrs. Clitbcrow's houfe 
by unknown means took fire, is entirely confnnedi but the two 
whenMr:. Clitherow'seldeftdaugh- adjacent are only confiderably da- 
tcr ran up flairs to alarm her three maged, as were the wSidows and 
fillers, who were in be4. Her tiling of almoft aU the koufes a* 
Afters pteiling her as to the fafety far off the ^ot* U Bco«4-ftrcct 
ol her mother, llie cune down buildings. 

It 

IM -...lyGooi^lc 



CHRONICLE. •4? 

Tt is rentarksble, that the hte they waoted, fired ■ [nftol at bim. 

hulband ot Mri. Clitheraw had a the coDteata of which lodged ia ht» 

iimilar aceidcDi on the fame fpot body, and he expired in great 

about diiny yean fince, when feve- agony yefierday morning, 

ral lives were lofl. EJiMburgb, On Tuelday , 

. Afewday»fiiiceMr.Kirk'» morning, about twenty mi- '** ' 

' coiton-milU, at Bamford, in nucea arier nine, a newly-finilhed 

the county of Derby, were de- gUfs-houfe at Pumbarton, fnppofed 

liroyed by Ere i which wiu lb rapid, to be the largeft iu Great Bri< 

that only the walla of that great tain, the cone being izo feet in 

vork were left Handing, The da- height, fuddcnly fell down. At this 

mage is computed at 8,oool. and a time there were twelve men in the 

coniiderable number of meii> wo- inUde, employed in removing the 

men, and childrei), are for a time IcaiTolding, all of whom were bu- 

deprived of -the meaits of getting , ricd in ,the mins. The greateft 

their bread. exertioos were made to remove the 

> As Tome men were lately lubbiDi, and fix of the men were 

^ employed in drawing a pond got oat alive, but two of them are 

■t Hinton Abbe^, they found a hu- nnce dead : fo tliat eight out of the 

min flcelcton, in a fitting pollure, twelve have loft their livei, and the 

ih; IkuU not above fix inches cover- other fcur aie not out of danger, 

ed with mud. It is fuppofed to be The hour of breakfaft was unfur- 

che remains of Walter Robtnfon, tunalely altered the day before froM 

£fq. uncle to the late Stocker Ro- nine till ten o'clock, 

binfon, Efq. He was drinking at This day came on, in'the , 

a publi(;fhoufe in the neighbour- court of king'a-bench, a " 

hood about £fty-two years fince, long depending caufe on behalf of 

and was fuppofed to have been the feamen oi the late commodore 

murdered in bis way honi^, as he Johnftone'slquadron, and the troops 

bd not been feen or heard of jinc;. on board chat fqoadron, under the 

The fum of a fhoufand pounds, command of general Medows. The 

"iih interefi, is among the ^- qucftion h:id been argued fix times. 

cluned dicidends at the bank in . It originated from a meditated at- 

lii) name. A pair of high-heeled tack upon the Cape of Good Hope 

Ihoes were found whole, a fn«!l in the late war, and the capture of a 
diSance off. The bones i^cra caie-/ Dutch veJTcl iij Saldanha Bay, which 

fully buried in the church-yard. the lords and comniituoneis of ap- 

_jL Birmingham. Between ten peal had detfrmined to be ' good 

' and eleven o'clock on Saxar- and lawful prize to the king,' and 

day night, the family (after they »*hich the court of king'j.bench 

"«e ^one to bed) at the Boll's affirmed. 

Hcid public-boufe, in Erdington, Siaikbolm. A Mr. d' Aiken, a 

King difturbed by a violent knojk- phyHcian ofOrebo, haiinventedn 

ing at the door, Mr. Gorton, the powder, which, being infufed in 

mailer of the howfe, got up to his water.wiileKtlnguilh tnemoildread- 

cha ruber window, and leaning out fulfires;, A number of experiments 

•I it, he obferved three men, one have already been made with greM 

ef whom, upon his eoquiting what fuccefs.and he is to repeat them, in 

pielerce 



48« ANNUAL REOISTER, 1791. 

prefence of his majefir, at Drot- of Lime-hoaie, for hu invetidon of 

hingbolin, wWeanDmMrof hoafei an apparatoa fbr eifcfluiUy rerain- 

iMve ^eady been built for that inr and applying to uTe the ef&nual 

porpote. oil of hops during the boiling of 

John PortfrnoDtfa, (br fi»lii|g a worts for beer, which was formerly 

bay gddingrof the price oFiol. the lolE in the air. By Iba fame sppa- 

property of Patrick Smeedi, and a rams, warer in a veflel of any fiie 

black gaiding, of the price of lol, may be heated to boiline-heai, 

the property of Thocnas Wood; indioat the application (M fire. 

William Triftran and John Berry, qnicker than it could be heated by 

for ftealing a gelding of the price tf aftual fire. 

5I. the property of John Cult; Tho- Su/tbamfltii. On Wed- . 
■tasEaftop. for Sealing and driving nefday morning laft, about ^ 
away eight ihcep, of the price of two o'clock, a dreSidfol firt broke 
SI. the pn>percyof Jofeph Sellon; out at Bu^te-haU, in this town, 
«nd Robert Oatit, for aSaulcing occaiioDrd, it i> fuppofed, by the 
William Dawlbn in a field, near the Atet which were dtuly kept in 
lugh-way, and robbing him of a the boofe to dry it, it being then 
aictal watch, nine guineas, and a nninhabiced, and underling great 
black leather pocket book, value alteratians. A) the wind wat re- 
lit. 4.S. $d. and a bank note value maricably high, the engines exceed- 
io(. his property, were executed be- iDglyom (rf' repair, and there being 
fere Newgate. a kardty of water, that large and 
. Thecoort of King's Bench antient building was Ibonredaced to 
'^ ' delivered their opinion on a aftiet. 
fpecial verdift returned to thetn in ffhiniall. On Friday the . 
Ae fittings aiter the laft term on an Duke and Dachefi of York ' " ' 
aAion againll the printer of a landed at I>oTer, and arrived the 
morning paper, for having publilhed day following, between five and fix 
dierein illegal fchemes kr the lot- in the afternoon, at York Houfe, in 
tery; when their lordthips nnani- p^rfi^ health, 
moully determined that hc^ had in- ' It is a htt, not generally Icnowo, 
cnrred the penalt)^. ' that as the Duke of York was tra- 
16 h The printer of a morBing veiling through pan of France, on 
paper was brought Dp in tlw Ms way home, a frantic mob aJTem- 
coart of King's Bench, to reeeive bled ramd his royal highnefi'i 
judgment for a libel upon the lord carriage, and werfc with extreme 
lientenant of Ireland and Lady difficulty prevented from defiuiog 
Fitzgibbon. Mr. Jnftice Alhhurft the .^jn^ on the pannels ! 
palTed fentence on the defondanC, Laitdm. At fcven o'clock . 
that he (hould be imprifbncd in in the evening, the Arch* ^ 
Newgate for 12 months, and at the bilhop of Canterbnr^, the Lord 
end of that period enter into a Chancellor, and the Bilhop of Lon- 
recognizance for hii good behaviour don, came to the queen's houfe; 
for three years. the Archbifhop attended by two 
A Ihort time ago, a pateat palTed pages and his train-bearer ; and the 
^M great ftal to Mr. Hare, brewer, Lortl Chancellor la hit full robei. 



UiBnieObyGOOl^lC 



CHROfilcLt. *4» 

Kith Uie great leal of Englaod car* hu maJcAy, uid attempteil to kneel' 

tied before him, and hb train (vlikfa his majefty with fome diffi- 

borne. culty prtTenced; and, raiCng her 

At half paft eight o'clock, the in Ba arUiii affediooately embriced 

Pfbcc of Wale*, the iSoke and icr. 

Duchefs of York, and the Duke of The certificate of the marriage 

Ckrence, entered the Qjieen'a was then Jigned by their majefiiest 

houfe, and were immediately con- the priOce of Wales, the dake of 

doSed to her majefiy'a 4''tw>ng-> Clarence, and laftly by the Ior<) 

room. chanceUoi. After which, the bi- 

The fiilhopi and tlie ChanceUor (hops and the lord chanvllor, re- 

wfre in a feparate room for near tired, and inimcdiaiely left th« 

three quartern of an hour, preparing queen's houfe. 
tbefonnoftlie regifter. The royal family retnmed to th* 

At nine o'clock, the btlhaps and ^>ieen's drawing-room; and at i) 

the lord chancellor having intimated few minutes before eleven o'clock^ 

ibai iher were ready, they were ad- the duke and duchefs of York went 

mitted into her majelly's drawing- to York-houfe i where they were 

nwin; npon which the proceflioil, accompanied by the prince of Wale* 

mended by the officers of the and the duke of Clarence, an ele- 

thapel royal, proceeded to the grand gant fupper having been provided 

faloon, Bo<MU of the roartiage ce- By dircftion of the duke of York, 
remony were delivered to all the The prince of Wales gave the 

royal £unily by the archbilhap of duchefs away. 
Canterbury. Thedachefs was drefTed in white 

At the requcA of the archbllhop, fatin, with tafiidsf and fringe of gold, 

1 table waa direfiedto be placed in and a number of diamonds; in hef . 

the falooDi which was formed as an head-drefs fbe wore feathers, and 

iltar, and was narrow enough for three brilliant pins prefented to her 

t^irchbilhop to reach acrofs, .and by the king at the royal villt on 

join the hands of the royal pair. Tuefday. The duke wat in hts 

At half paft nine, the ceremony regimentali-^the prince Was in » 

was perfomed by the archbiihop of chocolate-colOTired drefTed fuit, and 

Caiterbury, a£Aed by the bi^op the duke of Clarence in his full un^- 

ef l/DOdon : his majefiy Handing at form. 

one end of the altar, and her iha- Yefterday, wai a Qilendtd ,,^ 

jefty at the other extremity; the drawing-roam at St. James's, ' 

iiiie and duchefs of York in the on account of the prefendng of tfao 

centre ; the archbifbop Ofpofite to dDcbe& of York at courL Thp 

then, and the lord chancellor ftand- duke and daeheTs went in the fame 

ins behind hitn ; the Brlscff Bf ooach, aocompaiued by lady Anae 

Wales next to the ducheB' of York) Fitzroy. Her royal highnefs was 

ud the diik« of Clarence next to handed from the carriage by H. 

the duke of York. The princefiu Bunbury, efq. by whom Ihe was 

vere feaied on chairs at a diflascti condufted to the private chamber, 

fiom tbealur, in the faloon. where (he was met by l»dy Sydney, 

As foon as the ceremony was £• lady Mary Howe, and tady Caroline 

■■i'hed.theduchefiof Vvruwem to Waldegiave, who led her into the 
Vol, XXXIU. • fi dfawiag' 



JO* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

drawing room, xnA prelected her to ard the Third's banes, fell on Sl» 

their majefties and the princefles. turdajr laft, about eteven o'tJock. 

The ceremony over, the nobility Its foundation has been fome time 

paid ihcir perpefts to the illallrious Tiltbly decaying ; and the Ute rains 

ftranger, and at half paft three o* Jiaving fwelled the waters wbich 

clock her highnerj returned to paffed under it, probably took aWay 

York-houfe. The duke did not Its principal luppon on that end 

leave the drawing-room till near toward St. Aultin's well, which oc- 

five. Calioneditx dellrudioti. 

ri Cfftnbagnt. Inthemonth Dud— oo the 3d, aged loi, 

*°"^ of June laft, it waj made Mrs. Afkham, of York, 
known, that a dangerous (hoal had i6th,in thepariOiof Hcnbory, in 

been dlTcovered in the Cattcgat, the county of GlouceAer.aged loz, 

between the ifland of Anholt and Abraham Fiftipool, who enjoyed fo 

the town of Warberg in Swe- DninterrUpCed a ftate of health, that, 

tien. The court of admiralty haa till witMn the laft fix months, he 

now given orders to the keeper conllantlyattended thegalebetwev* 

of the royal records of fea charts, KingfweftonandHenbury. 

that the faid (hoal (upon which is 

found only nineteen feet water, with '■ ' """" 

alarge ftonyorrockybotiom) Ihall DECEMBER, 

be immediately engraved upon the 

place of the forvey of the Cacccgat The pope has fent to all „ 

ibr 1790, and there laid down ex- the courts,- and to Hit the 

aaty agreeabJc to the report of his princes of Europe, wichont excep* 

Danifh majefty's ofticprs, appoint- tiou, along memoire, in which he 

ed this fummer to furvey thcfc fully deuils the unjuft proceedings; 

grounds. and the con trad idory, atrocious, and 

It is further found, by the cxaft barbarous meafures. of the French 

fiirvBys lately made, that the ifland fii-difunt conftitaent alfembly, rela- 

of Anholt and Anholt Reef are fi- tive to the nfurpnion of Avignon 

tuated near one and one third of an and of the Comtat. 
Englilhleagaemoreiotheeaftward,' He complains that tiis aflembly, 

in the fame btitude, than they are af^er having loudly protefted that 

laid dmvn in the aforefaid charts they renounced the fpirit of con- 

of 1790. This error will be cor- queft, and after having acknow- 

refled in the new charts. ledged the right of the Holy See to 

It is alfo r^Jid, that the Ihoal in Avignon and the Comui VenaiiEn, 

queftion lies E. N. E. f. om Anholt confirmed by an undiftuTbed poiTef- 

lighi-hourr, and at about twenty fion for more than five centurie% 

Engtifh miles diftance from it. have been guilty of the mod Kor- 

■ Narthampton. The me- Tiblc crimes, and have (hed torrents 

*? / morable Bow-bridge, which tjf blood, with a view to nfnrpthis 

has long been vifitcd by every country- 
curious ttranger who has p.iffed William Jalliffi!,Efq.wasbrought 

through Leiceller, on account of up to receive the judgment of ihe 

in hiring the accidental monii- coqrt of King's ficnch, {ha\ing 

ment over the grave of king Rich- -been convicted at the laA alliaei for 

■ ~' ... KiogftODi 



CHRONICLE. •51 

Eingfton, of diftribndng papera, and the payment of the expencei 

widtavietcofprejudicing theminds incurred on their recovery. The 

of the jitr^, on the trial of an infor- lord chancellor made fome pointed 

ntadon againfl him).— The court animadverfioDi oa xhzfiramble for 

lentenced liim to fix monthj impri- the reward and cxpencci : and it 

Ibonuntin theHUng*! Bench pHlbn, vns finally fettled, that 3000]. fhonid 

aod a fine of one hundred pounds, be depofiied by Madame da Barrtf 

and to be imprifoned until he paid to anlwer aH demands, which are 

the fine. Mr. Jolliffe addreffed tn be Ut:uidatcd by arbitration, and 

himfrlf to the court, faying, that he the jewels immediately delivered 

^prifed their Lordlhips that he op. 

vai a megiber of parhament, and John Frith, who has been , 

that he Ihould inform the houfe of for a confiderable time con- ' ' 

hii buag imprifonedi — To this fined in Newgate for high treafon. 

lAjrd Kenyon made this anfwer, in throwing a Hone at hia majefty, ' 

"Thedefendant muft-becommitted was, upon the motion of Mr. Gar- 

ia execution of his fentecce." row, his counfet, put to the bar. 

On the 7th was held a general The affidavit! of a phyfician and 

coart of the proprietors of the Si- furgeon were produced, purporting. ' 

eria Leone Company, when it was thac they hadatccuded ana examined 

rcTolved, that a capital of not lefs the ftate of mind of the prifoner 

tian 50,0001. (hould be added to fince his confinement in Newgate,, 

^^irir former capital of ioo,oool. and that they had found that he wa> 

hefbre refolvcd upon, in confidcra-' an infane perfon. The attorney 

tion of the incrcafing magnitude of general faid, he had feen and ad-' 

their afi^ain, and of the wifh ex- milted the truth of the affidaths. 

rrtfled by many proprietors to re- He was authorifeti to inform the' 

'onunend more new fubfcribers than court, thathe was in pofleffion ofthe 

acapitat of ioo,oool. would allow Icing's fign manual, by which his 

of: it was alfo refolved, that the majefty confented to the prifoner'a 

whole of [he fubfcriptioiis fbould be being difcharged from the gaol of 

pjidatonce,withinonemonth after Newgate, upon condition Uiat fe- 

lii^Oiould be called for by the di- curity was given that he fhould be 

it^ors; and that each proprietor confined in fome proper pjace a* 

niould give in his fhare of recom- a lunatic, or in fome other manner 

mcndations of new fubfcribers on or taken care of, fo as to anfwer hU 

hfforEthe 13th inA. who are to be majefty's moft graciooe intention*. 

billotted for on the aoth init. Such Bail were then produced, and th« 

deficiency as may remain from any prifoner was ordered to be U- 

foprieior (ailing to fill up his ftare berated. 

tnhe I3thin(l. IS to befupplicdby In the afternoon as feveral ^l 

<^ proprietors in general, on or young men were Ikaiting on 

Wo«ihe ift of February. the ice on the Canal in St. }ames't 

i^.^ In the court of chancery. Park, two of them fell inj two 

application was made for others, endeavouring to refcue them, 

funher diredions as to the re-d«li- Jhared the fame fate, by the ice 

''try of Madame du fiarre's jewels, giving way; they were iu the water 
9 . • E 2 more 



51* ANNUAL REGISTER, lyyt, 

more' than half an hour, wh;n oiie, jury gave a. verdifl of lOjOOot da- 

Uy the afliilance of a ladder, was mages, 

?;ot out, but three were unfortunate- This evening.as aacldcr- g^ 

y drowned'. A boat was brought ]y woman, houfekeepcr to 

from Weftmtnfter Bridee,- but toa Mr. Francis, of St, Jamet's^fquarr, 

late; the bodies were u£en up, and was filling by the kitchen fire, the 

oirried to threepuUic-honfes, where flames caught her cloaths, and bum- 

the ufoal means prefcribed by the ed her in To terrible a inmner, thai 

Humane Society were *itd, but [he expired in a few bouis after- 

without the defircd efi'etl. narJs, 

, In the morning a moft The right hon. the lord ^, 

'3"*" dreadful fire broke out at mayor, the aldermen, ftie- 9^ 

tke fu^-houfe of Mr. Engell, rift's, and commcKi council of ibt 

Welldoie Square, which entirely city of London, w^itted upon t!ieir 

ooitfunied the fame, tagether with ropjhighriclluthedukeaiidducheli 

liuee baidei ContjgHOia toil. There of York, and prefented their com- 

vers about joo tons of fugar, rough plimentatv oongratulations on their 

Mtdvefioed. The conihgration WHS late iiiarr;xge, 

tnly. dreadful, and raged with the The fiJltuwing is the dttke tff 

ntmofi fury for above four hours.— York's anfwer : " I return yea my 

The lof* i» oliaiaeed at upwards of nvoft hearty thanks for this addref?, 

30> ool. Ho full of fen time nts of attachmen: 

° . Was (fied at Gttildhall, to the houfe of BeiittTwick, and of 

'+""• the OMk of— — - Martin, affeaion tome, 

Efij. agair.ft — — Petiie, Efq. " Your expreffions of joy on the 

Tkiawasaiiaflionaguinft the do- occafion ofmy marriage give'me the 

fcndant for criminal convarfation highcft fatisfadiQn; and the city of 

with the plairtiiF's wife. — The da- London may rely upon my unabat- 

maget were laid in the declaration itig zeal for their welfare and prtf- 

al xOiOOoL fperity, and on my conllant endea- 

Mr, BearcroiV, on Ae part of the vour to pteferve- their affeftion and 

pkintifi', Hated, that he was the regard." 

eldeft fon of a gentleman of large Ther>>llowiogi» theDachefs'san- 

fiittune in the county of Galway, in fwer, viz. " X thank you for your 

Ireland. In the year lyjjhe mar- congratidations^oexptcfliweoflOTC 

ried a lady of beauty and accom- and duly to the king our Sovereign, 

pIKhtnents, a Mifs Veley. With and of affcQion to the duke of YoA 

her he lived happily for the fpac« and iryfeif. They make impref- 

of fourteen' years, having had, dur- lions on my mind, and it (hall Iwmy 

ing that time, nine children by hec. conllant and unremitting fludy to 

At the end of that .period he was continue todeferve the e&emof the 

under the necelTity of leaving his city of London." 
wife at Paris, where he had refided At half pall ao'clock,a fire . 

for fome time, and of returning to broke cut in Mifs Le Clerc's ^ ' 

England. During his abfence the apartmems, on the fecond floor in 

defendant was introduced to iho Richraond-houfc, Privy- Garders, 

acquaintance of his lady, whom he whichwasoccalionedbyafturkbav- 

after a fhon period feduced.— The ingfhot from the firetothebedfunii- 



C H RON t C LE. »53 

«rc WTiere Ae jTonng l»Hy hy lodkmg-ghli ef great value wm 

kQaep, Tkc dole was then writing broken and left behind, tbe others 

a lettn in' the library, wlaere the were cariietl dowK the great Aair- 

fcreak&ft-clotfa unu Uid. In a few ckCe. 

nioates sfierwardi, his ^aec, the The book* in the ltbnir<r were 

ductiefsiOidMirtLeCIere ^chedtt- fived by being threwn from the 

che& caryiaga &vQuritc dog vnder window* npon mattreffe*, which the 

her arm) Ich the kmfe, ud thela^ ftranger, wboreened tocwidiidthe 

din were e^iced'tto the duke Uf whole, hadordered to be placed ua. 

BKcleugh'f by a gentleman, who der them. The model of the neW 

appeared to be a. n-ien^ ttf the fa> hnufe intended to be boilt bjr the 

■nily, and wfia met itlls party upOA Duke at Goodwood, Knd4]l the va- 

ibeSeps. - - — ' Ittable hnfti from tbe lilfnr^, wett 

The duke rtWmeiio tihe yard df .a!fo faved. 

bis houfe, und thfeW batfg then r6 About one o'clock the whole 

cagiQK, an,ii rety little rcxdttiefi ei- Hiof fell in ; three fjoatifig engines 

Oier in the aiftoilini'iid fervants, or on the river placed the wMcronthe 

tlie pt^ul^uc, TO aiffoVd altillance, he Mft fide, and a number of engines 

feemed likely to bt in a Vdiy ftibtt ih the yard played very rapidly j fo . 

time a wimefs Co thie deftruttion of -that fcon after four o'clock they 

bb eatire property ihere. ' A geft- 4;oc it aearly nndeft His Royal 

tltman at this tiihe ftri ap the great Higlinef* the Duke of York, with 

flair-cafe, and prefi^itly afierwaTdb abotK 300 of the Coldftream regi- 

fame of the pajSil)at:e, encouraged tnent, aiHftcd the watermen, and 

by his eiamf le atiH'cnircaty, foUow- kept off the mob. 

ei Eightor nine perfens fecmed During the- rage of the life, a 

rtenroheefcpltfyeibyhiidireftioh &T<Jurite fpanie! dog of the Duke's 

in lowering fmnitore from rhe win- was obfervcd at (he window of an 

dows,^ ana bearing It down ftairs, apartmcBt, jumping and making 

Threi looking- glafliS, faid to be endeavours to force his way throngS 

voith twelve hundred poands, were the glafe. His Grace ottering n re- 

(hu) relcaed ; two large cabineta, wad to ^tsy perion that would favf 

conQlning tiii grace's paperi, were him, a w^terisan, by means oflad- 

Wered from the rails of the balco- ders faliened together, roouoted to 

"y by this unknown genlleman. th^ window, threw Up the fafli, »ni 

Upon the whole it appears, that farouglft the dog down fafe. The ' 

the endeavouri then uled for the Dake gave him ten geinea;, and 

prfTerraiion of the valuable furnl- the Doke of York one, for this a& 

Oire and cffefls were fo far fucccrs- ©f humanity and courage. 

ful, that all the papers in the olJice The pifturea, and moft of the no- 

fioniing towards the garden, and merons writingi and curious books, 

appropriated by the duke to ord- which his Grace pollened, we are 

nance bufmefs, are faved; all the extremely happy to hear, are laved. 

furniture of the firft floor, even to At foch a fire, tije loti of proper^ 

the hangings of the duke's bed; all is not the hi^cft coa^rationi 

I" s private papers, with the letter fcience often fatten irreparably, 

which he had left aufinifhed, and the No lives were loft, nor have we 

''aluAble paintings, are faved. One heard of any material accident fnf- 
• E 3 tained ' 



SA-* ANNUAL REGISTER. 1791, 

tabled by the perfoni who tS~ about s;ol. a yeulbr evn-.tntl u 

&&«d. adnuity of 300I. u. jear for liie ; 10 

Several rcTpfflAble bdckle-nuiia- a yoong lady who hai L'ved tor 
ht&ateri frnm Binninghan, Wal- ' fome yean in the hoaSt witK lady 

&11, and Wolyerbampion; waited FranceiPIood, looal.; to George 

n^n hii Royal Highnefs the Prince Hn&m, an old aad &ithfiU fervam 

4^ Wales with a petition, ietting wltoin he had fettled on liis eftate, 

forth thediftreir^&tuacianof thou- 1000 1. aqd the rent of his fann ; to 

ikod* in the diSereat bronchei of h.u own n>an 300 1.; tad to all his 

the buckle manuraflare, from the other fervanU of every deJcripuoa 

iafhion now, and for fome time a full year** wages; to Lad/ Fiao- 

back, lb prevalent, of wearing Ihoe- ces Flood, all the renuioder f^ hi) 

firings inftead of buckle*. Hi« perfonal property, and alt the re- 

Royal Highnelj, after conlidcring mainder of nis eftates, amounting 

the peucion very attentively, gia- to more than 4000J. a year, ibr the 

cioully promised hiiutmoftaJliftance ter;n of beriutnrallite; and at her 

by bis example and influence. death, the whole of the lauded pro- 

. The Roman Catholic inha- periy to the nniverfity of Dubliii, 
^ ' Intants of Kerry county .in for the purpole of founding a pro- 
Ireland have prelented an addrela ieHbrihip, and enconraeiDg the 
to the Lord Lieutenant, profelBng ftudy of the Irifh or-Erie language; 
their loyalty and attachment to the fot parchaAng manufcripti and 
government, with a folemn dedan- printed booki in that language, and 
don, that they hold in abhorrence m the fcveral dialeOa conncded 
all writingi and adiani tending to with it, wbereibever they can be 
excite fedition or &voar ^dtion. found; and al{b manufcript* and 
The addrefi is Jigned by Lord printed books in (he claffical and 
Kenmare and Gerard Teahan-^ modem languages ; and for grant- 
the fonner as reprefcntative of the ing fix liberal annoal premiums for 
inhabitants, the latKr as primate of the befi compofitions in profe and 
the clergy, verfe in the IriQi, Greek, or Latin, 

I The Faceley and Birming- and Engliih languages. And fhouid, 

^ ' ham canal, which ha« proved through any detc& in his will, or 

Jo advantageoai to that feat of in- from the operation of any fiatnte of 

duftry and arts, on which was ex- force in this kingdom, his bcquefi 

{tended upwards of ioo,oool. a few to the univerfity not prove valid, 

vears ago, is now fa fkr improved he then leaves the eftates meant fbr 

in value, that a fhare which coft that leaned feminary to Ambrsfe 

140I. was lately fold by auAion for Smith, Efq. whom, together with 

)«8dI. Lady Frances Flood, he appoints 

DiEb on the 2d, Henry Flood, joint executors of his will. 
Efa. member of the privy council Lately, at Plymftock, near Ply. 

of Xreland.^He has by his lalt will mouth, aged 77, Captain Thomai 

bequeathed a property of about Rayment, of the royal navy. Asa 

800I, a year to his kinfman War- lieutenant, in the war of 17J5, be 

den Flood, Efq.— to Ambrofe ferved with dilUnguilhed repnta- 

Smith, Efq. his confidential lawyer tion; was prefcnt at the reduftion 

and friend, a landed property of of Lotulbourg, the taking af Que- 
bec, 



CHRONICLE. 



•SJ 



itec, ud die fiege of Bellofle ; at nxietage revived in Mi peribn ; and 
all widdi placet he wu lererely aftenviinls married Mif> Steele, 
yiomdei, inTomooh ihat he waa fifter to the Right Hon. Thomas 
return lo England for Steele, M. P. who forvivej him. 
kii iiealth. He commanded a cut- He poflelTed an immeofe eftate in 
ter on the Wepnouch ftacioR. On the North, where he was dillin- 
tlielatepeace he oltcntoolc chepre- guifhed for a warm and generoas 
fcDC Eul of Chatham a cruize in ^itit, which fometimeg, however, 
the Channel for the benefit of liti carried him into romantic iranfac- 
lifilth i and thoavh repeatedly tiont. Hit excurlion to Lapland, 
alked what be wilh^ in the line of apoii a wager, and his return with 
Uiprofeffion, by the.Duke ofGraf- (wo Lapland girU and rein-deer, 
ton, when firfl lord of the admiral- are well remembered. See the 
ty,,he declined any prefertnent bat " Tour through Sweden, Swediflk 
the command of a cutter, faying, Lapland. Finland, and Denmark. 
ID hiiUont way, "If the admiralty By Matthew Confett, Efq. Stock- 
thought his ferrices and wounds did ton, 1789. " 4(0. from May 14 to 
DOC demand promotion, he would Augnft 12, 17S4. The Lapland 
not ilk. it." When hia Majefty vi- girU were returned fkfe to their 
fited Plymouth, in Auguft, 17S9, native country, after an abfe^ce of 
Lieutenant Rayment wu prefented fereral niiantlis, with jol. and a 
V> him. with otber officers, and par- cargo of trinkeu; and the rein>dreT 
ticolar mention made of him by the h^ve bred in England. 

Earl of Chatham. Hii Majelly. _^ 

with hia ufual benignity, ordered " 

the board of admirdty to put his BIRTHS for the Year lygt. 
nuue ai a mafter and commander 

the lift. This honeft, rough Jan. 1. Lady of Thomas Boothby 



lailor declared he felt more f^fu 
at being thus promoted than at any 
circnmfbnce of his life. Subfe- 
^uent to his promotion, th^ wonnds 
in his leg gave him great pain ; 
and feveral fmall bones working 
oat, be determined to fuffer am- 
putation of the limb aSeAed. He 
underwent the operation with great 
fortitude, not even uttering a figh 
or a groan ; and declaring to Uie 
furgcon, that if he wonld mi knife 
he would find leg, and bid him take 
care m •• belay well, and mind his 
backOayt." 

At Bath, Sir Henry-George Ra- 
venfworth Liddell, bart. of D urham. 
He fucceeded the late Lord Ravenf- 
worth i« his eftatci, when the title 
iKcame extuiA, and only the ba- 



Parkyns, Efq. M. P. 
daughter. 
Feb. 1. Countefa of Aylesford, a 
. daoghier. 
6. Lady of fir Richard Cbtt 

Glynn, a,fon. 
II. Lady of Samuel Thornton, 
' E^. M.'P. a daughter. 

14. Lad/ Apfley, a Ton. 

15. Lady Mary Palk, m(e of 

Lawrence Palk, Efq. M. 

P. a fon. 
Lady Elizabeth LoAuj, a 

Ton. 
Lady Deerhurft. a Ton. 

16. Hci Catholic mjelty, z 

princefs, baptifcd by the 
.name of Maria Therefa 
Philippa, &c. Sec. to the 
number of fixty names. 
• B 4 Mar. 



j6» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791; 

5. Lady ofSr Thomas Rum. 

bold, bvt. m daaghter. 

Lady of the Hon. Mr. 

Pecra, a daughter. 

10. Lady of Sir Gregory 



Mar. 14. Lady of William Adam, 

Elq. M. P. ft Ion. 
April 5. Lady Leflie, a daaghtcr. 
}7. Marchioneli of SaWbnry. 
a Ton and heir. 
Lady Cathvioc Rodney* 
« daughter, 
fj. Lady oTSir James Tylney 
Lon& bart. a dauebter. 
At ue H>g>>e> Lady 
Auckland, a fon. 
34. Countefs of Taokerville, 
a daagbter. 
I^ay 4. Coiinteii of Cavan, afon. 
ij. Matchimers de Cboifeiilf 

a fon. 
19. Lady of Reginald Pole 
Carcw, Efq. M. P. a 
^aghter. 
%t. I^ady of Dr. Cleaver, 
tnlhgp f)f phefter, a 
daughter. 
JO, Lady of' Geofge pinch 
Hanqn, Efq. a fon and 
neir. 
■ 3|. Lady of Gerard Noel 
'fidwardi. £fq. M, P. a 
daughter, 
Ttme 3. Dtichefi of Montrofe, a 
.daughter. 
9, Lady of Richard Jbl«plt 
^ulivan, Efq. M. P. a 

14. Lady Cathcart, a daagh- 

16. Lat^M.'Staar^adangh- 
ter. ■ : ^ 

Lately, Countefi of' Lin- 
coln, a daughter. 
JxAy 4. Vifcoanceft Baybam, 9 
daughter. 
. sj. Lady of Sir William FoifT 
lis, a danehter, 
xS. Vllcounteis V^etprt, 4 
daughter. 
Aug. ]. Lady Charlotte Lenox, a 
fan and heir. 
4. Lady of Jameg Lowtherf 
' 'Efq. M, P. a ^iaughter. 



Page Tpmer, bart, afon, 
ft. Lady Elizabeth Howard, 

lady of lleraanl Howard, 

Efq. prefomptive heir to 

theDokc of Norfolk, a 

fon and heir. 
13. Lad^ of Lord Bi«wnlow, 

afoni 
SI. Duchefi of Laiafter, a fen 

and heir, ' 
Sept. 13. Dvcbefs of Northanber-^ 

Und, a dapghjtr.' 

15. Lady of Scrope Bernard, 

Efq, M. P. a fob. * 
«i. Lady of the Hon. colond 

Pox. a fon, 
Conntpfi <^ Granard, « 

fon. 
19. Lady ^ndrd, a dangh- 

ter. 
Oft 9. CquBteTi of La^derdale^ 

a daughter. 
II. Lady ^altaun, a fob. 

16. Hon. Mr*, Dtammond, of 

Perth, a fan. 
S7. Countafi Spencer, a Too. 
t^0v>4. Lady Sufasnaii Xborpe^ 

a oiaghter, 
6. Lad^ of Sir John Sin- 
clair, bart. a daughter, 
13. Vifcountcis Stppford, « 

fon and heir. 
10. Countefj of HarringtOOf 

a daughter, 
ai. Lady of Sir William 

Wake, b^rt, a foa and 

heir. 
24. Vifcountefs Fal^vtli, » 

daughter. 

17. Lady Balg^nie, a fon. 
sS. Lady of Sir John fred^ 

rick, bart a foni' 
Dec. }. Lady of Sir Cecil Bi. 
Ihopp, barL a daughter. 
' ' {-ately. 



CHRONICLE. 

iMIety, Camiteft foaSat, , 



•J7 



fj. Lady of da Hon. coloae) 

Rodney, a lint. 
I4. Lailjr of Vifcoont Qi^f 

a ion lAd heir, 
so. Lady Compron, a dtngb-r 

ler. 
x8. Lady ef the Hon. Edw, 

Foleji a Ton jiod heu*. 



MARRIAGES tot tjie Year 1791, 

Jan. 5. Right Hon. Joba Charle* 
VUHcra, tp MUJ Mary 
^orbn, danghter of the ' 
Han. ftdntiral Porbet. 
6, Earl Fauconbcrg tC MiTs 
Chefhyre, daaghter of 
the licaJ.Chlelbyre, Ef*^. 
of Beaiungton, Heitj. 
)9. Lo#d Dvcis to Mn. 
ChiU. 

Sir John Ro^r palmer, 
bai-t. to Mift Aldiaro. 
74. Sir Henry Tetnpeft, bait, 
to Mif^ 5. PHtchard 
Lamben. 
2^ Vifconnt Stepford, to 
Lady Maiy Montaffa 
Scott, daagiter of the 
Dwke-of Bitcdeuoh. 
feb, li, Henry Aagaftni XeiceT. 
ter, Efq. bidiher to Sir 
John PknrinE Leicefter, 
ban. to MiftXetitia So. 
) pbia Smyth) daughter of 
Nicholai Oi^en Smyth 
Owen, Efq. of Coodo; 
ver, Salop. . 
Rairibn Hart Qoddam, 
Elij. late forernor of 
Bombay, toMifa Tudor, 
of St. JamesVftrcet. 
St. Benjamin Bond Hopkinj, 
Efq. M. P. to Mir» 
' flight, fiftcr pf Robert 



Knight. £fi]. «f anrrell), 
in Wanvicldhire. 

S4. ManiU fiercaford, Efq, 
foB of the Right Hon, 
Johh Beresfbn^raLady 
Prancea Arabella Lev- 
fbn. 
Rev. Mile) Beevor, fya 
•f Sir Thotna* Beevor, 
bart. to MiTi Beevor, 
daaghfer of James Bee. 
Jror, Efq. of Norwich. 
Afarcll ^5. Fiwidi John Bfowne, 
Efo. M. P. for Dorfet. 
to Mifi Baring, daagh- 
ter of John Baring, Efq. 

^g. John Snton, Efq. cap. 
tain in the navy, to Mif« 
Hotham. daughter of 
Baron Hotham. 

J.O, WiUiam Richardfon, Efq. 
accomptant'generai to 
the Eaft Jndia company, 
to Elizabeth Coa»t«4 
dowager of Winterton. 
April 4, Lord Strahaven, to ^ift 
Cope, filler tb the i>n- 
cheft of Dorfet. 

16. Lord chief baron Eyre, 
to Mifi SouthwcH. 

f J. Thomas T^yrwhitt Jonei, 
Efq. M. P. to Mili Har- 
riet William I, daaghter 
of Edward WUIiaraj. 
Kfq. of Eaton, ShroPr 
Oiire. 
George James Earl of 
iChoToioodeley, to Lady 
Georgian a Charlotte 
i^rtie, danghter of Pe- 
regrine, third 0ulce of 
Ancafter. 

s6. Vifconnt Fielding, foa ta 
the Earl of DenNgh, to 
Mifs Powyi, daughter 
of ThonHU Powys, Efq.j 
M. P. for Northamp. 

(n nfliir p, 

sS. Jatnei 



58* ANNUAL REGISTER, ly^u 



xS. ' f&rrieJ «irl of Cardigan, to 
Udy Elizabeth Walde- 
gnvc, danjjhteii of John 
third eul Watdegrave. 

29. Lionel earl of Dyfart, to 
Mifs Lewis, filler of Hen- 
ry Grefwoid Lcwis> ef- 

M^r & Sir Sidney Stafford Nonh- 
cote, baronet, to Mifs 
.Baring, daoghter of 
Chaiies Bating, efquire. 
16. Henry Cturleu ntarquis 
of Worcofter, to lady 
CkarlbtteLcreron Cow- 
er, dsHghter of the mar- 
qabof Staffbrd,- 
£4. Reverend £dward May 
Drummond, brother to 
the earl of Kinnoul, to 
Mi& Auriolf of Porta- 
eal-ftrect, Grofvenor- 
^uare. 
J«M i. Francis Buller Yarde, eT- 
quirtj mtmlier of parlia- 
ment, to Miff Halliday. 
Sir Thomas Cave, baro- 
net, to lady Lucy Sher- 
rard. 
4< ChambreyBnbazonPon- 
fonby, cf(]uirc, to lady 
Harriot Taylor. " 
12. Robert Knight, efqaire, of 
Barrils, Warwiclilhire, 
. to the honourable Mifs 
F. Dormer. 

16. Williatai Farrington, et 

quire, of Shaw -half, Lao- 
caOiire, to Mifs Wilbra- 
ham Bootle, danghrer of 
B icbard W ilhraham Boo- 
tle, efquire. 

17. Sir Jimes FouUs, baronet, 

to Mifs Dallu. 
Jl. Thomai Smith, efqulre.of 
the Inner-Temple, to the 
bonourable MiJi Mary 



HdyHiitchtnC)n,daag^ 
ler of hml Doaouglv* 

27. Williain Robert Plili- 
^ . inore,elquire, totbe ho- 

nDnrable Mifi Sarah 
Henley Ongley, daugh- 
ter of the lace lord One- 

•ky. * 

July 4. Philip lord Sherard, to 
Mifs Eleanor Monckion. 
daughter oF the hooour- 
•able John Monckton. 
1 1. Sir Nellon Rycroft, baio- 
Dct.to'MifsRead.dangh- 
■ . ler of the late Henry 
Read, efquire, of Cro- 
wood, Wilts. 
13. John Chardtn Molgrave, 
'• elquire, etdeft fon of fir 

. . Philip Mufgrave, baro- 

net, to Mifs FUmer, 
daiighterof the reverend 
Edward Filmer, reCtor <^ 
Crandale, Kent. 
ao. Lord William Banclerlt, 
, ... to Mifs Carter Thd- 
wdl. 
13. Lord Le Delpencer to 
' Mif) Eliza Eliot,daogh- 
ler of Samuel Eliot, ef- 
." ^aire, cf Antigna. 
21. Sir George Wombwell, 
baronet, to lady Anne 
fiellaiyfc, daughter of ihe 
carl of Fanconberg. 
31. Honourable Richard Chet' 
wynd, eldeft fon of vif- 
connt Chetwynd, to Mifs 
Charlotte Canwright, 
daughterofthe late Tho- 
mas Canwright, efqoire, 
of Aynho, Notthamp- 
tonfliire. 
Aug. I. Charles MUne, efquire, of 
Prefton-hall, Kent. n> 
MiJa Harriot Dyke, 
daoghttr 



U.gnia.t,,G00gle 



CHRONIC L E, 



^Dghtez of fir John 
Dixon Dyke, baronet. 
4. Lord HcDty Fitzgerald, 
' to Mifi Boyle, daughter 
of the late honourable 
captain - Roben floyle 
WalGngham. 
9. John Trevelyan, efquJre, 
eldeft Ton of fir John 
Trevelyan, baronet, to 
Mifi Maria Wilfon, 
daagbtec of lleutenant- 
^eneral fir Thomas Spen- 
cer Wilfon, baronet 

15. William Plumer, efquire, 
member, of parliament. 
to Mifs Jane Hamilion, 
daughter to ihe late ho- 
nourable and reverend 
Dr. George Hamilton. 

iS: Colonel Grevilie, to Mifs 
Graham, fifter to fix B^-1- ' 
lingham Graham, baro- '. 
net. 

19. Earl of Damley, to Mifs 
£Iizabeth Brownlowi 
daughter of the right he- 
nourable William btown- 
low. 

24. Hugh Barlow, efquire, 

member of parliament for 
Pembroke, to Mifi Cref- 
pigny, daughter of Phi- 
lip Champion Crefpig- 
ny, eftjutre. 

25. CaptatnPagetBayly,bro- 

thor to the earl of Ux- 
bridge, to Mifs Cole- 
pepcr. 
29. Rev, fir Kichard Kaye, 
baronet, dean of Lincoln, 
to Mrs, Mainwarin^. 
Snu 6. Sir William Hamilcoa, 
K. i. to Mifs Harie. 
15. Marq^v* of Blandford, to 
lady Sufan Stew^t, 
daughier of the carl of 
Galloway. 



'a 

. The doke of York, to the 
pTincefs>royal of Pruffik. 

. The hereditary prince of 
Orange, to princcfs Pre- 
derica Sophia Wilhel- 
mina of PrnJIia. 
Lately, kird Gr&ntley, ta 
Mifs Midgley, daughter 
of the lace Jonathaa 
Mtdgley, efijuire, ofB:- 

. Timothy Shelly, efquin^ 
member of parliament, 
10 Mifs PUfold, of Well 
Grinftead. 

. Reverend WillSara Sney4, 
to Mrs. Emma CectU 
daughter of the late Tho- 
mas Vernon, efquiro, of ■ 
Hambury, Worcetter- 
fhire, and late wife oS 
Henry Cecil, efquire. 

. Margrave of Anfpach an! 
B^reith, to Elizabeth la- 
dv Craven. 

, Georye William Rickets, 
efquire, of Bifhop's-Sut- 
ton, Hants, to Mifs Le. 
titia Mildroay, of Twy- 
ford. 

. Earl of Monnt-CaiTiell, 
to the honourable Mili 
King, daughter of lord 
Kinglborough. 

i. Sir George ArmyCage^ 
baronet, to mifs Marf 
Bowles.daughterofOld- 
fietd Bowles, efquire, of 
North -Allon, OxfoM- 
ftiire. 

I. Captain J. Smith, of the 
royal-navy, to vifeount- 
els dowager Dudley and 
Ward. 

. Colonel Charles Gould. 
10 the honourable Mif* 
Dormer. 

PRO- 



,i„Goi>5lc 



<o», ANNUAL REGISTEk, 1751, 

PROMOTIONS for the V«r ^yof th=tre.furT.Ti«Mr. St«l^ 

*79'- Thomas St«k Efq. » be one ef 

January. John Haglies, Horatio Ids aajefty's moft howmrablc privjr 

Spry, William Soater, Harry Ir,ne», council. 

jameg Francis Pcrlcins, and Mr.u- The reverend Charles Masnen 

lice Wemyfs, lieutenant . colon.-Is Suiton <o the dean«7 of Peterb&- 

of raanoN, to be colonels in the Toagh, vice the reverend Dr. Charki 

jarmy. Tarrant, dcceafed. 

John Watfw), cfquirc, to lif his 'fhe honourable Spencer pevcir^ 

^ajelty'sconfal at Venice, vice.£o- to the offices of cleric of the ironst 

fcert Richie, erquire, deceafed. ^od ftrveyor of melting-houfcs, in 

Sir Robert Chambers, knight, to tke tower of London, vice Gcai^c 

fee chief juftice of the fupreaic Selwyn,erqQire, deceafed. 

«oort of judjcatnrc at Fort William, W. Dunkin, eAjulre, lately ap- 

ia Bfengal, vice fir Elijah Irapeyt pointed one of the judges of the fa- 

fcnight, refigned. ^reme court at Bengal, to the honour 

William Dunkin.erqHire, to be one of knighthood, 

fif the judge* of the fiipreme court Lord Charles Henry Somerfet to 

fif judicature at Fort William, iiv be gentleman of the bed-chamber to 

Bengal, vice fir Robert Chaaibers, the priiice of Wales. 

^nrpht. April. RighthononraWcThomai 

The dignity of baron of the Harley to be lieutenant and cuftos 

kingdom of Ireland to the right ho- rotulorucn of Radndrlhlre, vice hii 

ftonrable Alleyn Fiti-Herbert, by late brother, the earl of Oxford, dc- 

thc name, Aile, and tide of Baron Sti 'ceafe^. 

Helen's. The dignify of a baronet of the 

Arthur vifconnt Gosford to be Icitigdom of Great Britain to Ste- 

governor of the county of Armagh. phcnLulhington.ofSouih-hillpar'K, 

February. James Eavl of CaHi- in Berks, c^aire, chairman of the 

van to be governor of Windfor Eaft-lndia company, an'1 the hein 

Cajlle. male of his body, Uwfully begot* 

■ The dignity of a baionet of the ten. ' 

kingdoniofGreatBritaiotoCharles Right honourable Thomas Ord 

■Wwre Malet, efquire, refident at to be governor of the Ifleof Wight, 

Poonah, in theEuft Indies; vice the duke of Bolton, refigned. 

Asalfoto JohnKennaway.eftjuirc, Major General O'Hara to the 

captain of infantry in the ferviceof command of the 7<th regiment of 

ihe Eaft India Company, and reft- foot, vice £r Archibald Campbell, 

dent at Hydrabad, dccpafed. 

The dignity of a baronet of Ire- BarneBame, rfqujrp.io be a com- 
mand to Thomas Ltghton, efquire, of mifTioner of taxes, vice Daniel Ball, 
Mertrille, in the county of Dub- vftiuire, deceafed. 
lin. Kjght honourable George vif. 

March. Mr. Steele and the ho- count Parker to be cAmptrolIer of 

nourable Mr. Ryder to the office of his majefly's houfehold, and one of 

ioint paynjafter, vice duke of ^>on- his majclly's moft honourable privy 

troft and lor^ lylnlgrave, refigned [ council. 

Major- 



CHRONICLE. 'ii 

Major-generat Bavid Dtindai to dtarlu Pole, of Woelrertont ur 

fie coloDcT of the 11(1 regiment of Hantt, cTquire, 

foot. RobertHowell Vaoghan.of Nan-' 

May. The right honowabte lord nau, in Merionethlhire, erquke. 

GrenviBe,cbe right honoarableWil-' Reverend Charles Rich (UtcBoP 

Uam Pitt, the right honourable Hen- tock) , of Rofe-hall, Suffolk, LL. D.' 

tyDundaa.ihcrighthonourabielord Charlej Grave Hudfon, of Wan- 

FreclcridcCaiappell,hngraGe Untet lip, in LeiceRerlhire, efquire, 

dukeof Montro&iUid the right ho- George Ivifon Tappj, of Hintoit. 

Bourable Thomai Steele, to be his Admiral, in Hants, eiquire. 

tnajefiy's commiffioners Bn the af« George Chad, of Thurafbrd; ii^ 

feira of India. Norfolk, erquire ; and 

June. TherighthonOBrableHen- Serney Brc»rave, of Worflead,- 

ly Dnndas lo be one of hi* majefty'a hoofe, in Norfolk, efquire. 

principal fccretaries of (late, vice the Sir James Ptachy.taronet, to Iw 

diike of Leeds, religned. mafler of the robes to his majcfly^ 

The right reverend father in God, vice the earl of Cardigan. 

Dr. ShateBaningtatt)biIhopof Sa- The honourable vice-admiral Ra>. 

ttlbnryr to be biflwp of Dur.'iam, bert Digby, tobegroom of hisma* 

vice Dr. Tkomat Thiutow, de- jcfty's bed-chamber. 

ceafed, John earl of Chatham, Charlei' 

The right honoonble fir William George Lord Arden, S^nnel lord 

Hxmilcoo, K.B. to he one of bii Hood, honourable John Thomas 

najcfty't ntoft bonOBnU: privy- Townlhend, Alan Gardner, John 

CtMUoJ. - Smyth, and CharlesSma!lPybus,ef. 

Tlw dignity of' a baronet of the quirvs, lobe lords of the admiralty. 

kingdom «f Great Britdn to the The dignity of a marquis of th« 

MIoivisg eenricraen, and the re- kingdom of Ireland to the right ho- 

Jpeftive Ann male of their bodies, nourable Arthur earl of Donegal, br 

kwfbtlybegodcn; viz. the name, ftyle, and cirle of marquiis 

Waller James James, of Ltngley- ofDonegal; alfo to the right ho - 

hall, iR Berks, efijnire. nourable Charles earl of Drogheda,. 

Lie Qtenant- general Sir Wilitam by the name, ftyle, and title of mar- 

Edkine, knight. quia of Drogheda. 

Henry MMtin, efquire, comp- James Atlaa Park, efquire, of 

trailer of his nujefty's navy. Lincoln's -inn, barrifter at law, ap- 

C. W. BoaghcoD Roufe, of ReoTe pointed (by the chancel! or of his ma^ 

Leoch, in WoTcefterOiire, efquire. jefty's duchy of Lancafter} vjce- 

Chriftophei Hawkins, of Trewi- chancellor of the county palatine of 

dKB, to Cornwall, efquire. Lancalkr, vice SwtnncrMn, dc 

jobs Call, ofWlutefon], in Com- ceafed. 

wall, eJqoire. ThonuH Lord Welles, created 

Gleorge Jackfon, of Hiirtham- nfcountNorthland.of I>unganoon, 

ftoufe, in Wili«, efqoire, jodge-ad- in the county of Tytone. 

vodate of his maiefty's fleet. Arthur Lord Harberton, create^ 

Ralph Woofuoro, efquire, late vifcount Harberton, of Carbury, in 

•avoycxtnurdinary to Denmark. thecoonty of Kildare. 

Hobcrt 



«2» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

RobertBoyd.erq.appointedajaf- nujelVy's agent uid canfal-gener^ 

tice of the court of king's-bench in aX Algiers. 

IrelandiviceBradflreqt, deceafed. Hugh Elliot, efqaire, to be hh 

July. Lord Hervey, envoy ex- mijef^'s envoy extraordinary and. 

traordinary at Florence, to be mi- minifter plenipotentiary to the coun 

nifter plenipotentiary at tha^ conrt. of Drefoen. 

Dr. John Douglas, bi(hop of David Gray, efquire, to be his 

Carltfle, tranflated to ihe fee of Sa- majelly'i fecretary oiflegatioa to tbe . 

lilbury. court of Drefden. 

Major-general Alured Clarke to Francii James Jackfon, elbnire, 

be colonel of the 60th regiment of to be his majefty's fecretary of cm- 

' loot. tjaiTy at the court of Madrid. 

Jofeph Hewitt, efquire, to be a Reverend Robert Darley Waddi- 

jofBce of the court of^ king'S'bench lovecothedeaneryofKippon.York. 

in Ireland. fliirej vice the reverend Fnutds 

George earl of Morton created Wanley, D. D. deceafed. 

baron Douglas, of Lochleven, in the Thomas Stepney, efqaire, to be 

county of Kinrofs. groom of the bed-chaniber; and 

Auguft. William Woodley, ef- the honourable Jieutenant-colonel 

quire, to be govemorof the Leeward Charles Monfon to be equerry lo 

Charibbee illandi. the duke of York. 

The reverend Edward Ven able s Right henoorable lady Ann Fitz* 

Vernon, LL. D. to the biihoprick rev, and the right honourable lady 

of Carlille. Elizabeth Spencer, to be Udies of 

Dr. James Comwallis, bifhop of the bed-chamber to her royal high- 

Lttchfield and Coventry, to the nefs the duchela of York. 

deanery of Windfor and Wolver- William Lindfay, diiaire, to be 

' hampton.and regiftryof theknights refident at Venice, vice fir Francit 

of themoft noble order of [he garter Vincent, baronet, deceafed. ' 

thereunta annexed, vice Dr. John . December. GeorgeMartinLeaJce, 

poug]a.<. efquire, to be Chcller herald of a;mis 

Oftober. The right honourable vice John MartinLeake,ef<]aireire- 

the vifcountefs Sydney to be one of ligned. 

the ladies of the bed-chamber to her Jacob earl of Radnor to be lord 

majefly, vice the dowager countefi lieutenant of the conniy of Berks, 

of Effingham, deceafed. Honourable Arthur Paget to be 

Lieutenant-general Smith to be his majeily'sfecretaryoflegatioaat 
lieutenant-general of marines, vice the court of PeterlhnrgL 
lieutenant-general Mackenzie. Daniel Hailes. efquire, to be en- 
November. Morron Eden, ef- voy extraordinary .10 the court of 
qaire. to be his majcfty's envoy ex- Copenhagen. 
traordinary and miniiler plenipoten- William Gardtnei, efquire, to be 
tiary to the court of Berlin. mi'iil^er plenipotentiary to thecourt 

Honourable William Eliot to be ofWarfaw. 

hi? majefly's fecretary of legation to Colonel Saipuel Hulfe appiunted 

ihc court of Berlin. treafurerj J. Kcmyft Tynte, ef^uir^ 

Cfa«rles Mate, efquire, to be his mallcrandcoinptroller of tbe^toafe- 

ioMj 



CHRONICLE. 'Sj 

hald ; colonel Chirles Leigh groom conmefs Veraey, the la^y of Ralph 

of the bed-chamber ; the honourable earl Verney, one of the daoghtert 

major George Hanger equerry ; and and coheirs of Henry Herring, ef- 

major J. Doyle fccrctary to his roy- quire, of London and Egham, mcr-" 

al higKnefs the pfince of Watei. chant and bank-direSor, and aunt 

Captain J. W. Payne, of the roy- to fir Robert Clayton, baronet. She 

al nary, to be aHdicor and fecretary was bom February 4, 1716, and 

of the duchy of Cornwall. married to hia lordftup September 

Reverend I(aac Milner, D. D. 11,1740. 
F.R.S.andmafterofQuecn'»Col- George Aognftns Selwyn, ef-" 

lege, Cambridge, 10 the deaniy of quire, member of parliament. 
CarliQe. AtGrlttleton, in Wiliflure.Reir- 

Thc right honourable lord Gren- admiral John Houlton, 
*ille to the oScei of ranger and In GroTvenoi-fquare, after a few* 
kemer of St. James's-park, and of da^s illnefs, L\icy Knightley, ef- 
Hyde-jMrk, vice the carl of Orfotd, qmre, of Fawefly, in the county of 
decea(ed. Northampton, which county he re- 
John King, etqoire, to be ander> prefented in parliament many yean, 
fbcretary of ftate< He married the daughter of fir 
Captain Thomas Seabright to be James Dalb wood, baronet, and filler 
eenileman-olherof theprivy-cham- to fir Henry Dalhwood, baronet, 
ber in orJinary to his majefty. the duchefs of Mancheiler, and the 
G. A. Fcchell, efquire, to be re- countefiof Galloway. Dyingwith- 
teiver-genenl of the cuAoms, vice out ifiu'e, his eflatci which is very 
Samber Cafcoigoe, clqniret dc- confiderable, and has beenin theb- 
ceafed. mijy for many centuries, devolves to 
hti next brother, Valentine Knight- 
" ley, elbuire. 
DEATHS foftheYeari79i. At Dover, the right honourable 
James Cunningham, carl of Glen- 
Jannaty. In GreatGeorgeftreet, cairn, baron Kilmaurs in Scotland. 
WcHminfter, after a fortnight's ill- February. In Parl^lane, after a 
nef]. Lady Young, wife of Sir Wil- long and painfiil illnefe, in the Z4.th 
Ham Young, baxonei, member of year of her age, the lady of fir 
parliament. Charles Rofs, baronet, mzmber of 
At Badfidfe-honre, in the county parliament, to whom Ihe was married 
of Dumbaiion, lady Helen CoL about three years fince. She was 
quhoun, late wife of fir James Col- counters of the Roman empire, and 
quhoun.andaunttothelatecountefi eldefl daughter of the late general 
t^ Sutherland. James Count Locl:har[, of Lee, wh4 
At Althorpe. in the county of died at Pila, in .Tufcany, in Febru- 
Notthampton,bonoarableMr. Spen- ary. 1790. 

ccr, lecond Ion of earl Spencer, Lady Mary St. John, lady of A» 

Reverend George Caileion, of honourable major Frederick St. 

Birtholotnew-lane, coufin to lord Jchn. 

D'jTClieller. At Brompion, Erfkine Do"gla*t 

tiuddeoly. at his lo-dftip's home M. D. brother to the late fir [ohn 

in Curzon-firecl, Ma,.-iatr, Mary Douglas, baroaet, of. ktlbeadZ-nrnl 

S'-eai 
n,.,..:A.uoglc 



^4* Af^NUAL feEdfSTfeR, 179% 

gre^nq>liewofWilliim firftdnlu Suinborooeh, baron lUby, New- 

of Quecnlberry. nurcb, anaOveriley, and a baronet. 

The honourable. Mif« LcfliCf He was bora b Novembec, 171Z; 

daughter of Lord Balgonid. wa« lineally defcended from the 

At Twickenham, lady Mary Sa- younger brother (ffr William) of 

vile, it'ifc of Dr. Morton, principal Tkomulhccelebracedearlof Siraf- 

librarian of the BHtiaiiBiireum,tii0- fvi^, tieheaded in i6fi; in wliofe 

thcr of the late fir George Savilt, fon all the titles failed, except the 

baronet, and ttie prefeat cgantefa of bf roqy of Raby, but were revived in 

Scarborough, and danghter of John TVmu, eldell foo of fir William^ 

Pratt, efquire) married, 1732, to fir 1711 (id Anae), who died 1739, 

George Savile, baronet, wl|0 died in leaving ilTue the late earl, who mar- 

>743> ^y w^") ^ ^ ^° ^^4 ''■^^i ^pnl ift> I74t> Anne, feand 

^uehtin. daughter vid coheir of John Camp- 

The coontefj dowager of Tut- b«!t, late duke of Argyle, who died 

IcervUle, mother of the prefent earl, February fth, 17^5. but had no 

She was daughter of fir John AOi- ilTue. His lordffiip dyin^ without 

ley, baronet, of Patelhalt, Stafford- iiTue, the titled of earl •TStraffbrd 

Sure. and vifcount Wentwortb, u well as 

At W)iatrey,1adyMitahell,daa|h- the barony aT Raby, devolve to his 

ter of John Brace Stewart, elqiurc, nepbeir, Frederick Thomaa Went- 

ef SimbiScr, and widow of fir Joha worth. 

Bruce Mitchell, baronet, of Welt- At Par», in hii 49th year, right 

fiiore. ^ honounible lord Spencer Hamilton^ 

Suddenly, at hCT return fron pay- uncle to the prefent duke of. Ha- 

iog morning- vifitj, to receive a fe- milton, and one of the getiUcmeii 

Iw party offriends at dinner, in her of the bed-chamber to' the prince of 

33d year, the widow of the late Jir Walei. 

Robert Fletcher. It i) luppofed a Lady Barclay,reliA of Ae'latefir 

blood-velTel buril tn her head, as fhe William, and mother of the prefent 

complaloed of an uncommon fenfa- fir Jamei Barclay, banan,f captain 

tion there tyo dayi before. She in the royal navy. 

was daughter of the late Mr. Pybna, At her houfe at Finchley, in ■ 

banker, and niece to Mrs. Black* very advanced age, lady Mai^' Har- 

bnrne, of Bulh-hill. ris^ relift of fir Thomai Harris, 

March. In Bruton-ftreet, lady knight. She wai tlie youngcQ of 

Mary Pallc, wife of Laurence Palk, the two dauvihters and coheirefies of 

cfquUe, member of parliament for fir Thoma; Hare, of Stow Bardolph, 

AJbburton, in the county of De- Noi&Jk, knight, who died in 1759. 

Tou. At Exeter, aged feven/ the foa of 

At Hampton, Middlefex, in his lord St. John. 

S5th year, fir Robert Carr, baro- At Bath, Edward BnOer, efqnire, 

net. of Port Looe, Cornwall, brother to 

At his feat at Went worth -caftle, judge Buller. 
in the county of York, the rieht ho* Onthe SoMbParadcBathithela- 
Bo'DTable William Wentworth, earl dy of fir W;itliam Wbeler, bamuW 
of Strafibrd, vifcount Wentworth, ofLeamington-Haftane.intheconn- 
qf Wentwoith Woodhoule, baron of ty of Warwick) and datighter aitd 
J hcireff 



CHRONICLE. *6s 

heiiels of the Ute Giles Koightley, had no iShe, lb that the dilei ar« 

efqaire, of Woodford, in the coaoty. extinA. 

of Northampton. AihiihoofeinUpperGrofvenor- 

At Hampton-court, Anne coun- flreet, fir Archibald Cunpbell.K.B. 

teJj dowager Ferrers (relid of late governor and commander in 

Walfaineton earl Feirers, vice-ad- chiefon the coaft of Coromandel, 

miraj ofthe bine) and aunt to Ro-- colonelofthe74chre^imentof foot, 

bert the prefent carl Ferrers, to a major-general of"^his -tnajefty'j 

whom a. confidcrable joininre de- fbrcea, and reprefentative in parlia~ 

volves by her death. Her !ady(hip ment for Stirling, S;c. in Scotland, 
has been a widow fmce OAober ift, April. In child-bed, Henrietta, 

1778, when her lorddiedat Chwt- vifcountefs St. Afaph, daughter of 

ley-caftle, and was buried at Stann- the marquis of Bach. 
ton-Harold- Dying without iifue, InQueen-Anne-flreet,inher7Sth 

hewas fucceeded byhiibrotherRo- year, lady Charlotte Rich, only 

bert; and he, in 17S7, by the pre- daughter ofthe late earl and conntefs 

fent earl, his fbn and namefake. af Warwick and Holland. 

Ac his honfc in Curzon-jireet, . Ac his feat atWallhan-pton, near 

May-Pair, aged 78, Ralph earl Ver- Lymington, Hants, in his S5th year, 

ney In the kingdom of Ireland, onC' fir Harry Barrard, baronet, 
of the reprefentatives for the county At his feat in Scotland, where he 

of Buckingham. Hiicoiuitefsdied haid been indifpofedfome time, John 

January zo. Sir John Vemey, ba- vifcount Arbnthnot. He is foc- 

ronet, of avery antient family in the ceededby his fon Robert, anin&nt, 

coonty of Backs, in 1703 was ere- only fbnr yean of age. 
ated, by Queen Anne, baron Beltur- At Florence, in a decline, the 

bet and vilcounc Fermanagh in Ire- honourable Mrs. Beckford, relift of 

land. He had one {on, Ralph, (who Peter Beckford, efqiure, and d^iugh- 

fucceeded Jiim in 1717) and three ter of lord Rivers, 
daaghcers, one of which married fir At Afpley, in Bedfbrdlhh'e, Ar- 

Tlunnas Cave, of Sunford-ball, ba- thur Owen, efouire, uncle to £r 

ronet; another married colonel John William Owen, baronet 
LoTctt. This Ralph was created May. Sir William Parfons, ba- 

earl Veniey in the lcin|doro of Ire- ronet, member of parliament for 

land in 1743, and dicdin 175a- He King's-cOunty, Ireland, 
had two font: 1. John, who on Jo- At his feat at Booterflown, near 

ly z, 1736, married MiTs NichoU. Dublin, fir Samuel Bradflreet, ba- 

He died in Jnne following, hu ronet, one of the jufHces ofthe court 

wife being then with child of a of Jdng's-bench in Ireland, 
daughter, who is now living, z. In Cavendifh-fqnare, fir William 

Kalph, wboon September 11, 174O1 Jones, baronet, of Ramibary-manor, 

married the daughter of Henry Wilts. 

Herring, efquire, of Mincing-lane, Lady Dryden, reliA of fir John 

December 9, 1741, Richard Cal- Dryden, baron eL 
vert, efqoirc, brother to alderman At Aberdoor-honfe, in Scotland, 

Calvert, married Mrs. Vemey, the lieutenant general Roberc Watfon. 
widow of John Veracy. She died At her hoofe, the corner of Park- 

about two years age.— The laft earl lane, after a long and painful illncfs. 
Vol. XXXIil. • F Henrietta, 



S6* ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

HenrietU^ dowigcr-countefs Grof* Selina coanteT* dowager of Has- 

Tenor. ' tiavdon- 

At hit ttoafe at Brompton- Grove, Lately, at Yeverdain, in Svitzer- 

Middlefex. in hu 90tii year. Sir land, lieutenant-general Sir Frcde- 

John Mylne, baronet, of Barnton, rick Haldiroand, K. B. colond of a 

in North Britain, captain of Cowei battalion of the tioth, or royal Amc- 

caflle.in the ille of Wight (in which rican reginiem, andlate goreroorof 

lie is fucceeded by colonel Drauly, the province of Canada, 

of the firft regitnent of guards), Ac his lodgings in Hampftcad, fir 

captain of inv^ids in tbe illand of David Murray, baronet. 

Gnernfey, and one of the oldeft offi- At Hallow-parlc, in tbe rannty of 

cen in Lis majefty's fervice. Worcefter, in an advanced age, lady 

Ac bi] feat at Calder-caflle, in Mary Douglas, baranefs Momiog- 

Scotland, the honourable JohnSan- ton, wife of William Weaver, ef- 

dilands, uncle to lord Torpichen. quire,3nddaughterafGcorgef(NUtk 

Achighoufein Portland-place, in lord Momington. 

his jpth year, the right reverend At Stubbs, in Scotland, fir Fran- 

Tlionias Thurlow, D.D. blfhop of cis Elliot, baronet. 

Durham. After a very Ihort tllndi, lir Lio- 

At Fortrofe, theJadyoffirAlex- nel Lyde, baronet, of Bedford- 

tuider Mackenzie, baronet, of Coul, fquare, and of Ayot St. Lawrence* 

10 whom he bad been married 60 Herts. 

years. Lady Anne Hamilton, relifl of 

In her fii ft year, lady C^'penter, lord Anne Hamilton, fon of James 

widoAr of George lord Carpenter, fourth duke of Hamilton. 

grandmother of the prefent earl of Anne coimtefs dowager of Heber- 

' Tyrconnel.andmothcrofihe coon- deen. 

tefs of Egremont. At Pangbouro, fir Edward Manly 

Ac Roehampton, fir Gerard Van- Pry ce, baronet, 

neck, ti.rooet, of Heviogham-hall, July. At Rameceaa, near Calaist 

SulToIk. after a tedious illnefs,ihe lady of fir 

At Dublin, in her j^th year, ta- Thomas Champneys, baronet, of 

dy Emma -Elizabeth Proby, eldeft Orchardleg-houie, in the coomy of 

daughterof the earl of Carysforc Somerfet. 

At HeatoQ, lady Egerton, relifl At his father's feat, in Scodaod. 

of fir Thomas Egerton, baronet, and lord Downe, eldell fon and heir of 

mother of lord Grey de Wilton. the earl of Moray, 

Ac Logicalmond-houfe, in Scot- At Antrim-honfe, in Merrioa- 

land, lady Catherine Drummond. fquare, Dublin, tbe moft noble Ran* 

At hii feat at ShavLDgton, in ihp dal!-William M'Donnell, mirquiii 

county of Salop, John Needham, earl, and baron Antrim, vilcoaot 

tenth vifcount Kilmory. Dunluce, one of his majeflj'a moll 

June. Ac Tenby, in the county of honourable privy council, governor 

Pembroke, after a long ilinefs, John of che county of Antrim, knight of 

Knox, efquire, of Waringsford, in the bath, a tMronet, and graod-maf- 

the county of Down, in Ireland, ter of ancient mafons io England, 

only brother of lord Welles. He wu born November ^, 1749; 

focceeiicd 



Up-iieObyGOOl^lC 



CHRONICLE. '€7 

focceeded hit father. Oaober ij, ' At Wanftead, Bflex, Mrt. Thnr- 

177$ ; married, Jnly 3, 1774. Le- low, widow of the lite bilhop of 

ritia TrevOTi daaghter of Harvey Duriam. 

lord viTcoDni Moantinorra, nliA InKenninrton-Iane.Vaiixhall.tbe 

of the honoarable Arthur Trevor, hoDoorable Hjibella' Sc(Kt, widow oJF 

Iba of Arthur h>rd vifcoont Dun- tfaehononrable jahnScott,atilylm>- 

gaanon : bjr whom he tiu left iiTue ther to the earl of DeloraiDc. 

Anne-Catherine, and Letitia- Mary, Sir FraDcii Vincent, barooet, re-' 

both bom Augnft II, 1 778,0a whom fident for the coart of London at 

the eartdom and vifcounty are en- Venira. 

tailed by patent, Mav a, 1785. Hia September. Sir Brook Brydgei, 

lordjhip wai created a marquis in baronet. 

Augaft, 1789. Sir George Cayley, baronet. 

In Derbyibtre,inhii4,3dycar, flr Humphry Steveni, efqnire, ma. 

William Fittherbert, of TiltngtOR- jor-general in the army, and lieute- 

hall, in that county, baronet, one of nant-colonel of the 3d regiment of 

his najefty's jofticet of the peace for fbot-guardi. 

the laid county, aad recorder of the Catharine marchionefs of Aber^ 

boroarh of Derby ; in which office corn, at Bentley Priory, Stanmore. 

he isfucceeded by John fialgny, af- Shewaidaaghterof &r JofephCop- 

qniretofDaffield. Hewastheeldell ley. 

brother of lord St, Helena, ambaf- At Woodbury-hill, nearGamlin- 

iadoT at Madrid, and married a gav,inCambridgelhire,thehDnour- 

danghter of baren Perryn, able George Lane Paricer, brocher 

At Hamburgh, after a few days to the earl of Maccleafield, lieute- 

illnels, in her 69th year, her ferene nant-general in the army, and colo- 

highoefs the duchefa- dowager of nel of the 11th regiment of dra- 

Mecklenbonrg Schwerin. goona. 

AugaH. At Valenciennes, John AtDunlany-caftle, inlreland>the 

Byron, efqnire, cldefi fon of the late lady of lord Dunlany. 

hooonrable admiral Byron, born Fe. Sir Francis Gerrard, baronet, 

braary 7, 1756. He married lady The right honourable l34y Eliza- 

Conyers, after her divorce from the beth Hay, fifter to the late and aunl 

prefcnt duke of Leeds, 1779. to the prefent earl of Kinnool. 

At bis honfe in Sloane-ftreet, At hisfeatof Gno]1-calUe,inGIa« 
Benjamin Janningi, efquire, hnf- morganlhire, lir Herbert Mack- 
band to the vifcountds dowager worth, bnronet, F.K.S. one of the 
Dudley and Ward. vicc-prefidL-nts of the marine fo- 
AtbisfeatatDean's-CDort.WAn- ciety, colonel of the Glamorgan- 
bomcaged aB.firWiUiam-Thomas Ibire militia, and member m thft 
Hanham. baroncL Theiitleandef- tail parliament for Cariiff, as wna 
me devolve to his uncle, the reverend his father (who died Auguff zo, 
Jamei Hanham, of the Ctofe, Salif- 1765) in 1739- He was created 
bnry,redor of Winter bom- Zelfton, a baronet Auguft a^, 1776. 
J>ar4et. Oftober. At Tonnantine- honfe, 
AtGreat-MarIow,in Ireland, the in Scotland, lord Haddo. The un- 
tight hononrablc ilowager baionefs fortunate accident which occalioned 
M«flcr< ^^ death is very fingular. After 
• F 2 handing 



68»- ANNUAL REG I S TER, 1791. 

I 

faanding Udy Haddo and her Qfter after hi* death, 176].' a. SirGeotj* ' 

inio her potl-chaife, to go to attend Howard, K.- B. She was one of the 
ttie Aberdeen racei, whicb com- ladies of the bed-chamber m bet I 
nenced next day, hit lordlhip had majeltv. 

juft noanted hii horicj and in lean- At nb feat at Ftrle, near Lewei, 
ing forward, the animal llruck him in Suflex, after a long and pueii 
a violent blow wii,h his head on the illnefs, the tight hononraUcWilliam 
chcft, which dunned tiim To much Hall Gage, vifcount Gage sf Caf- 
that he fell. His groom immediately tle-llland in Ireland, and bann 
ran to hia afliAance, and in a few mi. ^'g^ °f ^>rle in England; ^y- 
notes he wa» fo far recovered aa to mafier, 1780, of hi» ntajefty's pen- 
be able again to mount his horie fions, and F.R. S. K.B. mid men- 
with apparent cafe ; but before he ber of parliaincnt for the dnquc- 
had proceeded 3 few yards, the fer- ports of Seaford, 1744 and 17;^ 
vant pei^eivedbimtobefciEedwiih His lordihip married, February 3. 
afuddeagiddinefs, andhefelltothe I757> Mifs GideoD> daughter of tiie 
ground motion! efs. Theburfbngof late Sampiba Gideon, clqiiirc, acj 
ft blood-vej&l is fuppofed to have fifter of the prefent lord Eardfn'i 
been the immediate ca«& of his who died in 1733, and by whom lie 
death. had no ifliie. 

At Niagara, in Canada, fir Wil- At Sunnifide, in Scotland, reai- 
Uam ErQtme, baronet, of Cambo., admiral Ingiis. 

At Duni'op, in Scotland, the dow- At Edinburgh, lir Robert Dtl- 
■ger hdy Wallace, rclifl of fir Tho- zell, baronet, of Brans, 
ma: Wallace, baronet. On boartl his majefty's Ihip 

At his houfe in Great Qaeen- Diana, in her paffage from Jamaia 
ftreet, WefSrainller, in his Both year, Ki New-Y«rk, whither her ladylhip 
tie u tenant -general John M'Keozie, ^vas going for the recovery ofhtt 
colonel-commandint and adjutant' health, Catherine countefs of £-'- 
general of-the marine forces. He fingham, wife of the eari of Effing- 
commanded the marines at the cap. ham, governor of Jamaica, to whom 
ture of Selleifle, in 1761, where that fhcwas married in OAober, ij^y 
corps gained immortal honour by She was daughter of Metcalfe Froc- 
their gallantry and good condufl. ter.efquire, of Thorpe, near Wakf- 
The general (then a lieutehant-co- field, in the county of YmIc, by ^ 
ionel) was fcverely wounded there, lirll wife, Martha, filler of the IW 
At her houfe in town, by an apo- John Difney, efqnire, of Lincoli, 
pledlic tit, the dowager-caQntcfs of and was born September it, 174** 
Glafgow. Her Jadyfhip was the PreVious'toher ladyfhip's deiifa,^ 
daughter of George lord Rofs, and exprelTcd a. wilh, that when dead 
was married to the late carl in her body might be opened, ntuch 
I775. was accordingly done, and the Hw 

At Chelfea- college, Elizabeth found clofely adhered to the rietit 
countefs -dowager of Effingham, fide ; in which fitdation it appev'*' 
daughter of Peter Beckford,eiquire, to have been fome time, 
of Jamaica. She married, i.Tho- At his houfe at Snaicftrooic, Ep- 
nas fecond earl of Effingham ; and ping-ibtcfti rear-admiral John Hu- 

riiiA 



U.BnieObyGOO'^le 



CHRONICLE. •«> 

rilOBtWfcowu firft ca^juin under Gr At her Itosle in Epping-fotcftt 

G«orge Pocockcia all theenga^ Mn. Harrifon.rcltA of the late rear, 

mcnttwith theFrencfaadmiralMon- adniira] HarriCon. 

fieurd'Ache.and at the taking of the AihjihoureinQueeD'Anne-ftrecti 

Havannab. Wefltninller, iir TWaai Rumbold* 

At the Hoo, near Welniyn, Heti^ "baroneL 

lady G«orgUna Beaoderlc, daughter Mift Jenkinfoiti fifler to lord 

of the doke of St. Alban*. Hawken}ury. 

Tbt hooourable Thomas Henry At Albynt, EITex, the lady of 

OoTcntry, yoitngefl ha of lord lieu ten ant -general fir Robert Boyd, 

Deerhorft. K.B. governor of Gibraltar. 

At Chellcr.]e-Rreet, fir Blackfton Sir William Fagg, baronet. 

Canyers, baronet, late collector of At Jamaica, Thomas Howardr 

the cuftoms at the port of Newcaf- earl of Effiagham, lord Howard, 

tie, and captain m the marines, govemof- general of that illand, and 

1757. He wasofa vcryaniient fa- a colonel in the army. He had been 

mUy, feated at Houghton Comeia, for fome lime in a dacgerons ftate 

and Sockburn, in the county of of health; and it was partly in the 

I>arlKiii, foon after the conqueft. hope of amendraent from the di- 

Juhn wa Grft created a baronet by male, that he folicited the appoint- 

C'-actes I. ; and from him was line ment to the governincnt of Ja- 

all V dcfcended the late baronet, whoTe tnaica, 

father, Iir Ralph, married Jane, only At his feat at Aldenham, near 

daughter of Ralph filackilon, ef- Bridgnorth, in the county of Salop, 

quire. in his Both year, fir Richard AAon, 

In Switzerland, the right hMour- baronet, fourth baronet of the fami- 

ab e William lord Craven, Iord>liea- ly- He wai Iheriffof Salop, in 17; i, 

tenant of the county of Berks. and married, 1744, lady Anne Grey, 

At Donnybrook, near Dublin, daoghterof theearl ol Stamford, 

the right honourable William lotd The right honourable lord Chet- 

Chetwynd. ' wynd. 

At his houfe of Barraa, in Scot. In Clarges-flreet, the lady of iir 

land, Iir William Ogi'vie, baronet. William Wake, baronet, after being 

November. Baniber Gafcoigne, lafdy delivered of a Ton and heir the 

cfquire, receiver- general of the cnf- preceding day. Her death waa oc- 

loms. . cafmned oy an insurable difsrder in 

On her jonmey to Southampton, her Aomach, fuppofed of long dunt- 

from-which place (he was to embark tien. 

for the fouth of France, for the re. The reverend John Shirley Fer- 
covery of her health, Mifs Percy, mor, brother-in-law to lord vifcount 
daughter of the late duke of Nor- Conyngiiam. 
Uiomberland, and balf.&fter to the At his feat at Hoddel^on, Huts, 
prefent duke, and to the earl of Be- fir John Baptift Hicka, baronet, of 
Tcrley. Beverfton, m the county of Glou- 
At his hoofe in Lower Grofvenor- cetler. He is fucceeded in tuls 
Sreet, lieateoant. general Fruicii by Howe Hick*, efquire, of Whit- 
Smith, colonel of tbc nth regiment combe-park, in the coun^ of Glon- 
•f ioot. cefter. 

. F 3 At 



■^^^-"«i'^ 



70* ANNUAL REG ISTER, 1791. 

At Bath, fir HenivGeorge Ra- botbtnd), the Hgbt boaonnUeBS* 

' TnirwoTth Liddell, of Durham, ba- ubeth Onnlby Rowley, vlla«n(e& 

ronet. Langfbrd, of Langfard-Iadgc, aul 

WiUiam D ntton N;ipper, eTquire, baronefi ofSmrnner-hiU, in the coon- 

brother to the right honourable lord tyofMearii. Herladyfhip maniBdi 

Shirebom. on the 3ifl of Angoftf 1 73X, Her- 

December. AtGrantliain,inLin' culea Langibrd Rowley, efqatiei by 

colnflure, in lut 70th year, FraDcii whom Ihe hwl iflne three foiii and 

Cockayne Coil, cfqnire, member of feurdaaghieri; m.Hercolei.mnti- 

porliament. ber of pirlument for the conniy of 

Aged B6, Evan Lloyd Vugluni Antrim ; Clotwoithy and Arthm, 

cfquire, of CorfygedhI, memMr of both deceaJed ; Jinc, married to 

parliament in the two laft and pre- Thomag earl of BeAire; Catheriac, 

lent fefliont for Merionethihire, to Edward -Michael lord LongforJ; 

North Wales. Elizabeth, and Maria. She wu 

Of a long iUnefs, George third raired to the peerage of Ireland ia 

earl of Orford, vifcoont and baron 1776, by the titlei of vifcooDttTi 

Walpoie, baron of Houghton, and Langfordi and baronefi of San- 

(from the death of his mother in mer-hlU, with limitations of the bo- 

Ijtt) baron Clinton and Say, He noun of vifconnt and baron to ha 

fru grandfon of the firft earl of Or- heirg-male by the right hOnouraUr 

ford, prime-minifter of George IL H^rcnlei Lanefbrd Rowley; ani 

a.nd was bom April i , 1 730 ; and in Ihe is focceeded in thefe honoars by 

the late reign enjoyed die place) of her cldeft and only furviving ion, 

■lord of the bed-chamber, and of Hercules, bom in OAober, 1737, 

lord lieutenant and cQftos i^nlonmi and who is yet anmarricd. She tni 

of 'the county of Norfolk, and of the daughter of Clotworthy Upton. 

the coonty and city of Norwich t efquire, member of parliament fill 

. in all which he was continued by Newtown, 1695, and for the cooacy 

hii prefent majefty, who appointed oT Antrim, from 1703 tohisdeaihi 

him alfo, 1 763, ranger and keeper of 1735, by Jane, danghter of Joii 

St. James's and Hyde-parks. He Ormlhy, efquire. 

was airo tieward of the corporation At Fern-hill, Windfor-ibreS, ia 

of Yarmouth, her 63d year, lady Mair Koollyd 

At Buckland, Berks, in his 90tk relifi of &r Fronds Knoflys, btm< 

year, fir Roben Throckmorton, bli- net, and daughter of fir Robert Ken- 

Tonet. datl Cater, of tLempfton, in ihe 

At bis feat at Winterdynot in county of Bedford, She vu mu* 

Worcefterlhire, fir Edward Win- ried in 17J6. 

luneton, baronet. At Edinburgh, die right hoooDr- 

Sir George Richardlbn, baroneti able lady Mary Campbell, reliS of 

of Abingdon-ftrect, Weftminfler. Doueal Campbell, efqoire, of Glea- 

Inher SSih year, honourable Mra. laddie. 

Martin, fifter to the right honourv* At his feat at Craigie-fialli Scot' 

ble lord Fairfiuc. land, in his Bid year, the bonoor- 

At Summer-hill, In thefioiinty of able Charles Hope WeJr. Hein> 

Ideath, ia IreUnd (the fett of her the fccosd ion of Charlei the£rt 

mA 



Up-iieObyGOOl^lC 



CHRONICLE. 



•7« 



tui of Hopetonn, who was focreated 
in 17031 and uncle of the prefent 
earl. The name of Weir he took in 
addition to that of his family, in 
confeqiience of his nurriage with the 
heir of fir William Weir, of Black- 
wood, baronet, by whom he had two 
Tom and a daughter.— From his te- 
cood lady, who was the daughter of 
the late and flfter of the prelent earl 
of Darlington, he was divorced ; and 
her fecond holbandwas the honour- 
able brigadier-general George MoD- 
fon, who died in 1777. in the Eaft 
Indies, one year after lady Anne. 
Two Ions remained to Mr. Weir 
from thi( match.— His third lady, 
who brooght him one fon.and three 
daughters, was Mifs N. Duocar, 
whofurvireshim. 

Id hU fifth year, the honoarable 
Charles Yorke, fecond fon of the 
Mii of Hardwickc. 



SHERIFFS affointtd bj l"' Ma- 
jtftj in Coumeil.fir tbt Ttar 1 79 1 . 

Strijkiri. Timothy Hare Earl, of 
SwaIlow£eld- place, efqaire. 

SiJ/erMiri. F. Pym. of Hafell- 
haJl, efqidre. 

^•uij. Sir Robert Batefon Har- 
ney, of Langley-park, baronet. 

CamitrlanJ, Edmund Lamplugh 
Irton, of Irton, efquire. 

Cbtfl,ir,. Charles Watkin John 
Siakerley, of Somerford, efquire. 

Cantridge and Hunlingdm, Geo. 
Tbornhill, pf Diddingtoo, efquire, 

pevoH^irt, Walter Palk, of Mar- 
Irigh, elquire. 

Utrfiifiirt. John Calcraft, of 
"empfton, efquire. 

Dtrijjhirt, John Broadhurfi, of 
'ofton, enquire. 

„Mf. Donald Ciuaeron,ofGrcM- 
Df Old, efquire. 



GUnt^irfinri. Michael Hlcki 
Beach, of Williamftrip, efquire. 

Btrtjwdfliirt. Mathew Rapcr, of 
Afhlyns-hall, efquire. 

Htrrfirdpirt. Thomas Stallard 
Pennoyre, of the Moor, efquire. 

Ktnt. James Drake Brocknuni 
of Beechoorough, efquire. 

Lticifitrjhirt. John Frewen, of 
Cold Overton, efquire. 

Lim^Blnjbirt. RobeitMitchellRo- 
binfon, of Hanthorpe, efquire. 

Mmmeulhjbiri. William Uairifon, 
ofRagland, efquire. 

Horthuinhtrland. J.Wood^Bcad- 
nell, efquire. 

Norihamptonpirt. Sir Williain 
Wake, of Courteenh^, bttronet. 

Norfilk. Sir John Eeoo. of Ball 
Dereham, Kent. 

NtitiKgbamJhirt. George de Ligtte 
Gregory, of Lemon, efquire. 

Oxferdfrin. J. P.AurioUofWood- 

Xjuland^iri. Thomas Woods, the 
youngef, of Brook, efquire. 

Shnipjbin. Thomas Pardoe, of 
Fairtree, efquire. 

Somrrfttfiirt. Abraham Elton, of 
White ftan ton, efquire. 

Sufferdph-i. Moreton Walboufe, 
of Hatherton, efquire. 

SuffhIA. Sir William Rowley, of 
Stoke, baronet. 

Coann of SauihamftaH. Cbarlei 
Poole, of Woolverton, efquire. 

Surry. Henry Bine,ofCarflialton, 

Su/tn. JohaDrew.ofChichefter, 

WarviUkfiirt. Charles Palmer, of 
Ladbrookc, eiquire. 

WentfierfiiTe. Henry Wakeman, 
of Clalmes, efquire. 

WikfixTt. John Awdjy, of Norton, 
efqnire. 

Teri/hiri. Sir George Annytage* 
of Kirkleea, baronet. 

• F 4 SOUTH 



7a» ANNUAL REGISTER 



SOUTH WALES. 

Ctfrnarr^. George Griffith Wil- 
liams, of Llywynywermod.], cfqni/e. 

Pimbraki. William WhederBow- 
tn, of Lanipflor, efquire. 

Cardigan. DavidHughci.ofVey. 
nog, efquire. 

Glaiwrgan. John Richard), of 
Cardiff, efqairc. 

BrKon. WaJier Jeffreys, of Bre- 
con, efquire. 

Rajiter. Thomas Jones, of Pen- 
terigg, efquire. 

NORTH WALES. 

AmgUfta. Herbert Jones, of Llyn- 
Mq, efquire. 



1791. 

Carnar^nf^in. Thomu Llo^ 
of H"nire Fenwa, efquire. 

Meriau/i, Griffith Roberts, of 
Sodynllyn, efquire. 

Meittgomerj. JohnMoxoo.ofVi]'- 
BDr, efquire. 

DtBhighfiirt. John Jones, of 
Ctfhcocn. efquire. 

Flint. G. L. Wardlc, of Harti. 
heath, efquire. 



SHERIFF app^inttd fy hh Rmi 
tiighfte/i the Prnce i/ Wzlts, i, 
Ci>iainl,yar the Tear 1791. 

CeuHtyc/Corww^l. SirWillian 
Moiefwotxh, of Pencarrow, barth 



I '73 ] 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. 



4tcuuit eftht CapfuTt »f Cannanore 
and Turuckabad, tuitb /rvtrai 
farts «H tb§ Malabar Coaft- 



Campti 



r Camuam-t, 



7pi. 



r» %tephi7i Lupinglon, Efq. Ciair- 
mou vf the Honvarabli the Csarl of 
Bireaort foT tTavfatlng all AJairi 
cf iht Vnittd Eiiglip Baft India 
Campany, 

StK, 

THE Priocers Royal, which 
arrived at Telli cherry the 
7<h inHant, in her way to Eogland, 
hivirg icfi Bombay previous to chc 
arriY^ of the Drake fnow, which 
carried the account of the capture 
of Cannanore, I now do myfelf the 
pleafure to fend you, for the infor- 
mation of (he honourable the fcleft 
committee, a detail of every mate- 
rial circumftance which has taken 
place, from my lirll determination 
of coming to Tellicherry to the 
prefent time, which I flatter myfelf 
*ill meet the approbation of the 
nononrable company. 

The eficDtial affillance given the 
Tfivancore Raja, by a deuchmeni 
nnder Lieut. Colonel Hartley, has 
Jong fince been known in England. 



It was my intention, as footi as <dxK 
feafon would admit, to aJTemble the 
force of this prefidency. to emand- 
pate the Malabar princea, witii 
whom alliances had been conclBded, 
and afterwards to co-operate with 
General Medows. His fuccefsful 
advance through the Coimbatore, 
and the fanguine expeflations uni- 
verfally held of a fpeedy termina- 
tion of the war, induced his lordfhip 
to cenfidei any aSRance aa unn&- 
celTary; to place the troops whh 
Lieutenant Colonel Hartley, and 
on the Malabar coal), under Gene- 
ral Me do ws's orders; and to' con- 
fine my attention to granting the 
Marattao whatever force they might 
require. A'detachment of artiUery, 
and two battalions of native troops, 
were fent them before the rains. 
This corps has fincc been augment- 
ed with a batulion of European 
infantry, and another of fepoyi, 
under Colonel Frederiok*s command. 
By the latell accounts from Bom- 
bay, the reinforcement was expeO- 
ed to join the Maratta army em- 
ployed at the fiege of Darwar. 

Agreeably to the fyftem adopted 
by hii Lord(hip and General Me- 
dows, Lieut. Colonel Hartley, u 
foon as the feafon admitted, march- 
ed to Palicauccherry, and (^ened 
the communication from this coaft 
with the Madras army, at that time 
Hationed in the Coimbatore. Sup- 
.plies 



74» ANNUAL. REGISTER. 1791. 

plies of military floret were Ctat tides; had iovitea afbite AatioBed 
tbem from Bombay ; but che iocon- by Tippoo in die Chericitl cooncty, 
TcnieDce of traofporting them by and whicli had retired u the open- 
land pointed out the ncceSity of iog of the campaign, to return to 
opening the Paniani river. In the their defence; and had at length 
mean time, the enemy's advance openly avowed their hoftile inten- 
Inco Coimbatore, and the retreat tiona. 

of Lieut, Colonel Floyd from Satti- On the loth, the force that could 

mnngulum, prevented General Me- befpared for the purpole, encamped 

'dows from afcending the Gbauts, on the heights of Egar. ItconMcd 

and obliged him to detain Lieut, of hia Majefty's 77th regimcDt, 

• Colonel Hartley, with his detach- leven companierof the ift Bombay 

meat, at Falioautcherry, to fotm regiment, the 2d, jd, 10th, and urn 

magazines of grain. battalions of native in&ntry, the 

From thij change in the more- flankcompanieiof the 6th, and two 
mentsoriginallyintended.hisLord- companieg of artillery, amoanting 
ftup was convinced, that a diverfion to upwardi of 3000 difciplined men. 
en the Malabar coaH might be at- On the i>th and ijth the neigh- 
tended with beneficial confequcncei. bouring Rajas joined, y/'ah abo«it 
As foon at I was acquainted with his 2000 irregular Nairs. 
wilbes that I would in perfon pro- The 14th the liiw moved towards 
ceed hither, J refolved, with the the enemy. They were ftrougly 
little force tbat could be Tpared from polled on heights to the fouthwsrd 
Bombay, to cmbarlc for I'ellicherry, and eaftward of Cannanore, defend- 
xnd on the fpot determine, if an cd by a chain of Aone redoubts, 
attempt could be made with pro- witji cannon in them. On viewing 
prieiy to clear the country of a their pofitton, I determined to gain ' 
force ftationed by Tippoo to awe poflel&on of Avery redoubt in the 
die garrilbn of Tellioierry, and centre of their polb, whicli would 
curb the Nairs, who were univer- enable me iS attack either of their 
&U difpofed to join os. wings with the gteatell paK of my 

On my arrival, the jth of Decern- force. Notwithftanding much re- 

ber, I was informed, that the force fiiUitce during the day, I took po<{ 

to the fouthward of Tellicherry had futliciently near ta erefl a battery, 

affembled, and had marched towards which early in the morning of the 

Lieut. Colonel Hartle}^, at that i5tJi demolifhed the defences, and 

time ordered to Paniani> to keep obliged them to evacuate the place. 

the communication open. Much ai At the fame time the left brigade 

I wifhed to aJTilt him in a meafure advanced in line, and attacketfihe 

lb imporuot in its confequcnces, I height of Cailey. The refiAance 

found it imprafUcablc to take a was trifling, confiderine the ftrengib 

ctapa fufficient for the purpofe, an- of the ground occupiecTby a brigade 

left Cannanore was nrft reduced, of the enemy's troops. They re- 

The govemmentof that diftrid had) treated under thegnnsof Carleyre- 

doricg the rains, made a treaty doubt, and through the town of Can- ' 

with the chief of Tellicherry; had nanore. In the nightof the ijth a I 

evaded a compliance with the ai- battery wu laifcd againfi Cariey, I 

wLiih 



o,„...,GoOgK 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. •75 

which fnrrendefcd U dajr-braak ed. I have alfo grett plntan u 

Den morning. tffnTine yon, I have evenr reafon ta 

Bf tbefe operatiotii I wat in be peifeAly fatlilkd witn~ die gal- 

{wlleffion of the bcighti antt works lantry and difcipline of the troops, 

to the fonthward, aad by a final! whofc behaviour equalled tny moS 

movenieat to my right, conld fanguine citpeditionG, 
completely prevent the enemy') re- I was now at liberty to have affifi-J^ 

treat. Convinced of the danger of edlteutenantColonelHartley; but ' 

their finution, they offered to capi- his little detachment had complete- 

tnlate. The artidei were agreed ly defeated and difperfed the corpa 

OQ in the evening, and holtages oppored to them, and were in poT- 

caoie into my camp. feffion of Tnruclcabad, the capital 

Onthe morning of the 17th, the of thU coaJi It confifted of hli 

CiDnaQoretroops.amoaniingtoSoo Majefty's 75th regiment, the grc- 

Bien, retired within tlie town, and nadier native battalion, and feven 

Tippoo*! forces paraded in front of companiei of the 7th battalion, 

their encampment, and, agreeably amounting to about 1600 men, witb 

to the termt that had been granted, 10 pieces of cannon, 500 Travan- 

farrendered their aims and all Cir- corehorle,abatta1ionof Travancore 

ur property, and engaged not to Sepoysf and a body of irregular 

fcrre during the war. They con- Nairs. The enemy's force was 

fitfed of zoo horfe, a corps of gre- about 10,000 men, pofted at Vent- 

nadiers, two brigades of tegular in- zetty Cottah, whither Lieutenant 

&Dtry, and rocket-boys. irrcKuIars, Colonel Hartley marched on the £th 

frcamonntuig to upwards of 5000 of December. They retreated oa 

mea. The fon of Cannanore was his approach the 7th, and the fon 

rununoned immediately afterwards, furreodered on the 8th 19 the mom- 

and fnrrendered without condi- ing. They were found polled in a 

tioni. wood in the front of the village of 

The fort of Biliapatam, the capital Tervanangnriy. The dctachm^t 

of the Cherulut Raja, iitaatcd on forced them from thence, and at- 

the South bank of the river, and tacked the village, as well as the 

Narrcarow on the North, alfo fur- grounds on both lides of it, which 

rendered in the evening, and the were woody, and inierfefted with 

garriJbn received the lame terms hedges and mud banks. The 

with the reft of Tippoo's troot». enemy retreated, after difputing the 

They have fince been ail Tent onaer ground; and formed in front, and 

in efcott to the Canara country. on the flanks of the fort of Trinca- 

By thefe fucccfles we have taken lore, the efplanade of which extends 

Ihir^-foor (land of colours, 68 to the village; but our troops ad- 

piccei of cannon, a quantity of vanced with vivacity and fpiri:, 

unmunition, military llorei and pnrfued them into the coven-way, 

?rain, and near jooo ftand of arms, where many of them were killed, 

have the hononr to endofe a re- obliged the fort to forrender, and 

toraofthem, and of the killed and totally ^ifperTed them. Upwards 

wounded of the detachment, which of 800 were taken in the fon, and 

I am happy to obferve, is much more numbers were killed in the di^reot 

uHiag thu could have been expe A- uucics. 

9 Mootanb 



^6* ANNUAL REGISTER. lygr. 

By a Isner from Lieatenant Co* 
louel Hardey, received fioce wndng 



MooUub Khan, who conuntndcd 
diem, retreated to Turuckabad, ajid 
the next day he left it, wich about 
zooo men, and a conCderable {am ia 
fp:c!e, aod fled to the Ghauts. 
LicD tenant Colonel Hartley ad- 
vanced to that place on the joth, 
when ijoo men, the remains of 
their army, laid down their arms. 
A corfidcrable quantity of military 
and other ^orei were captured, and, 
in particular, the gnni taken from 
the Travancore linei. 

The polls of Barrigurry and 
Cootahpore, in the Cartanad coun- 
try, Hill remained in pollbmon of 
Tippoo's troops. A detachment 
from hence marched againfl them 
thez^thof December, and returned 
on the jth inllant with 400 piifon* 
cTs, u.'hich they had taken v/ichout 
any lofa. The po/b furrendered, 
after a little oppofition, on nearly 
the fiime terms as Cannanore. 

The objcft that induced me to 
vifit the coall, being completed, and 
the ancient Nair princes in poRef* 
fion of their diflxiAs, fom Biliapa- 
tam river to Cape Comorin, no- 
thing remains to be done with the 
little force under my command. 
Having reafon, however, to imagine 
his Lordfhip wilhes to unite the 
detachments, and beirg perfuaded 
tlicvmay beof eflentiai confequence 
to his future operations, I have de- 
termined to remain and wait his 
orders. 

I am pleaf.d at an opportunity 
of aflurtng you, that Captain Byron, 
of his Majefty's (hip Phtsnix, has 
been of elfcniial fervice, not only 
by a well-dSrcAed fire from hb ihtp, 
but in his exertions in forwarding 
the public ilotcs, and in bndine, 
with two eiglitecn-pounders, hu 
marines and a part of his crew, to 
Kfliil us in the reduClion of Carle/ 
and Barra gurry. 



the above, dated Toruckabad.The 
6th inAant — he advifes me, that be 
had received orders from Gencial 
Medowi to deliver over charge of 
Palicauicherry to Major Cuppage, 
who was coning from Coimlutore 
with two regiments for that par- 
pofc, and that be and hia detach- 
ment were then to conHder them- 
fclvea as under my orders. 

Enclofed you will pleafe to re- 
ceive a general return of the troop) 
encamped at this place; and I have 
the honour to remain. 



Rob El 



Sir, &c. 
' ABEKcaouB' 



General rettim of the troops en- 
camped near Cannanore, under 
the command of Major General 
Abercromby, Jan. 8, 1791. 

Total for duty, 4,603. Total 
Sick and wonnded, 396. 

Rob. Abeicrombt. 

General return of ordnance flores, 
&c. taken in Cannanore Fort and 
other fubordinates. Camp near 
Cannanore, Dec. x6, 1 79a. 
Guns.^Total, 1 thin^- two poun- 
der, 7 twelve ditto, 7 nine ditto, 9 
eiglit ditto, 23 fix ditto, 8 four ditto, 
a two ditto, J I fwivels. 

Carriages— -Tot »], 1 thirty-two 
pounder, 7 t*elve ditto, 7 nire dit- 
to, 9 eight ditto, 23 fix ditto, 8 four 
ditto, 2 two dltt". 

Shot. — Total, tthirty-twopouR- 
der, 38 twenty -four ditto, 459 
eighteen ditto, 973 twelve ^tto, lEi 
nine ditto, 979 fix ditto, 93 four 
ditto, 1016 di latent ii ECS. 

Powder.— Total, 311 cartridges. 
19 chefts, 19 jars. 
Stores.— Total, 61 faantypikes. 



APPENDIX tothe CHRONICLE, •jy 

45 ^nges, a; ladles and worm!, i tions, both of body and miiid, which 

Hnber, 4 U' Hocks, 104. quoins. are required bj the varioiudiitieg of 

R. JtMti, Major Artillery. my prefrnt fitaadon; nor fhoald I 

S, JHcbmuij, AA. Mil. Sec. now h&ve alluded to them, but that 

I am under the indifpenfable ne- 

Retnm of killed, wonnded and mif- ceffity of Hating them, as the caufo 

fing of hii majefiy't and the ho- of m]f being obliged, on this occa- 

nonrable company's troops, urdec fion, inftead of entering into a detail 

the comraand of Lieatenant Col. of paxiiculan, 10 limit myfelf to * 

Hartley, in the aSion of Tiiva- concife and general account of oor ' 

nangurry, Dec lo, 1790. l>tB operations, and of my Aitare 

Total, 5 kiUed; jo wounded; a i°^"aons. 

miflin? preparauons for the cam- 

NaSesoftheOfficerswtKinded.- P^S." ^''"H '^^ completed «■ 

Capt. Lawman. Artillery; Capt. W^"*' '^V""'', "".^^ " 

BlMhford. Engineers; Liiutenant ^fT °'' Va ^ ^^ "^"11 

Charles StewaS.TthbatUlion; Lt. "d. h^vmg reached Vellore on th« 

Fireworker Powell, Artillery. '"''*. "^ '"^^ "f^ ^° I*'"' 

7./for/A,,L;eat.CoI.Com. ^' ^ purpofe of drawing from 

$. AH^bmuii, Aa. Mil. Sec. ^=,"=' * '^F''' ^TJ^ ^'^l'^^ 
■' vifions, and an addition that had 

Return of killed and wounded of ^'^ P'^P*"'* ?*>. "«^ battering 

his majefty's and the honourable train, and of receiving fome ftorea 

company-, troops. «nd«r the com- "^ Ta ■ *"" '^ , 

manS of Major General Aber- ^ \^^^' P*""""", " "/ '^"^=^' .»* 

cromby. the i+th and Mth of VeUore, employed every means i,i 

Dec near Cannanore. niy power to obtam accurate de- 

fcnptions of the different ptflTes 

Total. 8 killed; 75 woynded. that lead into the Myfore country; 

Mr. Cockran, furgeoa's mate, »nd having feen fufficient ground* 

wounded. to be corifideot that the Moogly 

One fcpoy of the nauve infantry, pjf, coold eafily be rendered prac. 

and many of the Nairs, woimded, ticable, I turned off to the right at 

Md fince dead. Vellore, and not only afcended the 

R. Sitiair, Dep. Adj. Gen. oa.fi without mnch difficulty, bnt. 

S. Aucbmiay, AS. Mil. Sec by having tak'en a route that Tippoo 

• does not feem to have expefted, 1 

was alfo lucky enongh to advance a 

AtemaU tftbt C^tart ^Bangalore, conlidcrablc diftancc into his coun- 

•■■tn Lr r- . ^ n- a try before it was poffible for him to 

J^^r rl'"4 »/ D.jja^r. ^^ ^^ ^^^ ,^^(j obftruftion. 

fir AJk.r, c/ th* HcnourahU lb. ^j,^ ^^^ ^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^ q^^ 

^""if^TT ^ ^k /fi'-^ »>» '"/ 'n <>" «">«« " Bangalore. 

E^d tr>U,Hg H tb, £^ In. .ndfurrendered to US without rcfiftl 

* apce; but, as neither of them were 

Hooovable Sirs. jn.a tenable condition, nOr at tliSt 

I fli^ not trouble your honour- time of any value to uc, I leftthent 

■Ue GOUR with ui explanaaoa-of tu>oocu[^ed, after difanning wmI 

ikt uture of the inceilant exer- difmifling their fmall garrifons. 

I ar- 



7»» ANNUAL REGISTER, 17J1. 

I arrived before Bmgilore on garriibn, were put to ibe firot^i 

dte afiemooD of the 5iii of March, and our loTi, io proportion to tha 

and on the 6th the engiiieera were natiuc of the eatcrpiife, frms 

em^oyed ia reconnoitering the tremel)' ioconfiderabk. I can 

place, both in the niomuig aod however, help expreffing, on thn 

evening: on their latter excur.lon, occalion, nj fincere regret for th* 

Lientenant- Colonel Floyd, who ef- death of that brSLve and valuable 

corted them with the whole cavalry, officer Lieotenant- Colonel Moor- 

-difcovered the rearof Tippoo's line hoofe, who was killed at the ■^■^T^^^T 

of march, apparently in great con- of the Petiab on the yth of March. 
jiifion, and unfortunately fafiered I have not yet been able to ob- 

himfelf to be tempted, by the flat- tain correfHift: of theordnaoce, or 

tering profpeS of finlcing an im- of the different articlu that were 

portant blow, to deviate' from the foaod in the magazines of the 

orders he had ic^ved from me, place; and 1 can therefore only lay, 

and to attack the enemy. Hii fuc- in general, that there were npwardi 

CeTsat firft was great, but the length of one hundred fe r vices ble pieces of 

and ardour of the purfuit threw hia ordnance, near fifty of which were 

iquadroiu into great confiifioa. In braft, a large quantity of grmiiv 

this ftate they were charged by and an immenfe Jefitt of military 

Tippoo't cavalry, and being oat of fiores, 

the reach of all fupport, they were AlthoughTippooapproached onr 

obliged to retire with great preci- portion, and even cannonaded the 

jntatioh, and with the lofs of above camp, both on the 7th and ■ 7thj yet 

aoo men, and near 30a horfea. on toefe occa£on9, and on all othert 

Lientenant-Colooel Floyd received during the fiege, he took hit mca* 

a very fevere wound in the Ace; furea mth fo much cautioq, as pat 

from which, however, I have the it efiefiaatly out of my power to 

pleafure to add, that he ii now per- force him to j^fk an a^on; and on . 

icAly recovered. the night of the aSaoIt he retired, in 

TheiliruccefiofouTexamination, great nafle, from the fouth fide of 
tiie fear of tofing time, and many the fbrtrefs, where he was then 
other circumltaocei, of which the potted, immediately upon his bring 
hopes of obtaining a fup^y of fo- acquainted with its ^1. After 
nge was not the Tcafta indnced me giving forae repair; to the breaches 
to determine immediately to at^ck making a nomber of necelTary ar« 
the fort from the Patt^ fide. The rangemenU, and leaving the train 
^ettab was accordingly afiaulted of heavy artillery to be refitted 
and carried on the momii^ of the dmiDg my abfence, I moved bom 
yth; and the fiege ofthe fort, which Bangalore on the 28th, with thede- 
wat Tcitdeted fingalatly arduous, not fign of fecuring a faf: and fpeedy 
only by the fcarcity of fantn, and jimfUon wiiha large body of cavil- 
the ftrength of its works and garri- ry that the Nizam Jiad promifed to 
fi)n,tHu2ib bythepxefeaceofTip- lend to me, and of receiving a rein- 
poo and )ui wh^ army, w>» luippi> fbrcement of troops, and a rupply of 
If lermifkated by an ^nlt ou (b« provifioaa and flores, which I bad 
Ktghtof the jlfl, in which the Kel* feme ttow before ordered to be in 
f^, ti>4 4 gteU BUK^t of W Ifadiadf to join me, by the way of 

Aab<m 1 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. ^79 

Amboor, from the Caraatk, cod- number of the corps with precifiont 
fidering ihole as necelTary prelimi- but I fnppofe it to Amount to fiftem 
nary mearure* for enabling me to or futteen Uioafand faorfe; aad 
proceed to the attack of Seringapa- though they are extremely defec- 
tum; and I, at the fame time, com • tiveinalmoftevery point of military 
niBnicated my intentions to Gene- dilcipUne, yet, as the men are in 
rat Abercromby, and direflcd him general well mounted, and the 
to ufc e»cry exertion in his power, chiefs have given me the llrongeft 
that might be confiilent with the alTuranccs of their difpofiiion to do 
ikfety of the corps under his com- every thing in their power to pro- ■ 
mand, to prepare himfelf, in the mote the faccera of our operations, ( 
manner that I prefcribed, to give am in great hopes that we Iball de< 
neeffedual afiillance when I (hould rive material advantage from their 
reach the enemy's capital. aSifiance. 

T^tpoo having made a move- Thisjunfiionbeingaccomplifhed, 

mem to the weftward on the fame I marched on to eftedl my next ob- 

day that I marched from (he neigh- jefl without lofs of time : and hxr- 

bourbood of Bangalore, I fell in ing arrived at my prefent camp on 

with hU rear, at the diilance of about the 1 8ih, and ordered the moll expe. 

eigbt or nine miles from that place; ditious meafures to b« taken for 

biit, from the want of a fufficient tranfporting the flores from the 

body of cavalry, it was found im- head of the pafs, I fhall commence 

praSicable, after a purfuit of conii- my march again to the weftward on 

dcrible length, either to bring him the azd, and, after calling at Bao- 

to aOioQ, or to gain any advantage galore for the heavy artillery, I truft 

overhim, except (bat of taking one uat I Ihall find it prafticabte ta 

bnfs van, which, owing to its car- reach Seringapatam before the isth 

nage breaking down, he was oblig- of next month. 

td ID leave npon the rqad. No ufeful pnrpofe could be pro- 

My firft objcA being to form a moted by my enumerating the dif- 

junflion with the Niaun's cavalry, ficulues which I hare already en- 

I made fuch movement), or took countered in carrying on the opera- 

Tncb politioas, ai 1 knew would ef- tions of this campaign, andit wottld 

tefluiU^ prevent Tippoo from in- be equally unprofitable to enlarge 

lercepting them, or even from dif- at prefent upon the obftaclcs which 

tiirbing their march; but, altiiough Ifbrefee to our future progrefs; they 

1 was at great pains to point out the are, however.offo weighty a nature, 

fafetyof the march to Rajah Teige that under di&renc circumtlances I 

Wiint, and to encourage him to Ihould andonbtedly >£l with more 

proceed, the etfe&t of my recom- caution, and defer the attempt upon 

nnidatiDtu and rcquefts were but the enemy's capital till after the 

iotj; and, after wafte of bme, enfuing raini ; but, acquainted as I 

wbicb, at this late feafon of the am with the unfettled ficuatioii of' 

ytu, was invaluable, and which political aHairs in Europe, an4 

^mofi exhanfted my patience, ibii knowing that a procraflinated war 

janQion was not made till the 13th would occafion aimoft certain rain 

■oSanc to your finances, I confidcril u it 

It it not eafy 10 afcettaiD th« duty which 1 owe to my ftation anj 



«o» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791. 

to my conntiy, to difregard the dmdon with all the mvmben of de 

hazard to which my own military confederacy, I Qiould, after cone 

icputation may be tjcpofed, and to municating with the other power:, 

proIecute,witheTery rpeciefofpre- tranfmit oor joint feDtiments upon 

cintion that my judgment or ex- them. 

perience can fuggeft, the plan which I fhall refer yoo entirely at pre- 
u moS likely to bring the war to feni to the accounts that you will 
a* early decifion, ' receive from the dillerent go.'em- 
1 have, at the hme time, been menis of the details of their reipec- 
the more encouraged to- perTevere tive bufinefi; and fhaU only add, 
in the execution of my original in- that the perlbnal attention thai I 
tentions, as bwh the Niiam and. have expericnceil from the mcmben 
the Mahtaitaa have of late (hewn an of the Aipreme board, and the zeal 
uncommon alacrity in fulfilling their ' which they have manifelled, Jince I 
engagements, which by the fmallcA left Calcutta, in promoting the pub- 
appearance of backwardnels on our lie good, have given me very parti- 
|Nut, would be immediately cooled; cular fatisfafiion. 
xnd which, I truft, will, in addition ' The Swallow packet will remain 
to oor own eilbrts, cITentially con- in readlnefi to be difpatched in An- 
tribute to counterafl many of the guH, or fboner, if it fhonH be 
(tilad vantage I which the difficulty thought expedient; and 1 fhatl, by 
Cf the march, the rilk of fearcity of that opportunity, have the konoor 
provifions and forage, and the ap- of writing folly to you on leveial 
praach of the raioy feafon, prefent of thofe fubjeAi, on which yea 
arainft the undertaking; and, if moft, no doabt, be atixloos to re- 
ihofe obftacles can be overcome, the ceive minute information.^I can- 
capture of Seringapatam will pro- not, however, conclude this letter 
hably, in it) confequences, fumifh without bearing the noft ample 
an ample reward for our labours. teftimony to the zeal and alacnty 
A few daye after oof faccefi at which have been uniformly maoi- 
Bangalore,Tippoo repeated hit pro- felled by hit majeSy's and the com- 
politions to open a negociation for pany's troops, in the perfbrmance 
terminating oar differences; but oftheVarioua duties of fatigue and 
whether with a Gncere defire to ob- danger in the courfe of this cam- 
tiun peace, or mth the infidious paign; and aiTuring you, that they 
hopet of inciting jealoafies in oar are entitled to the moll diaiogaifhcd 
allies, by induciug me to liften to mark) of your approbation, 
his idvancct, is not certain. The I have the honour to be, 
line for my conduS, however, was With the greateft refpeft, 
clear ; and, conformable to our trea- Honourable Sirs, 
ties, I declined, in civil and mode- Yoar moll obedient, and 
laie terms, to receive a perfon of MoA humble fervaot, 
confidence, 00 hii part, to difcufi the CoaNWAl.Lis> 
fitparate intereili of the company ; Can^ at Vni^iightrrf, 
bnt informed him. that, if he fhould April 21, 1791. 
think proper to make propofitiona. 
ia writing, for a general accommo- ■ ■ - ■ '■ 



UigniaObyGOO^k' 



APPENDIX to the CHROJJICLE. •81 

•icr frcm I'AbW B.ynal » ibt niowming. Cat, it be trte that I 

XojiLal ymmbhcfYkt^'if. M«j maftrecollea with horror, that I m 

■"■'■' •' tiotoneof thofei whom telhfyin^ 1 

' * '" ' generous indignation againft arbi- 

GcDtlemen, trary power, hkre perhaps armed ti> 

)N ArriWng in t)m capital after centioufnefs ? Do religion, the laws, 

a long abfence, jny heart and the royal Authoritj', the public order* 

)bs are turned towards you ; and requite back from philorophy and 

Qioold. have thrown inylelf at the reaTon, the ties which United them 

=t of yoor anguft aflembly, would to that great fociety of the French 

y age and inErmities have fuSercd nation ; as if, in purfuing abufei, in 

e to fpeak to you, without too flating the rights of the people, atid 

rong an emotion, of the great d>e duties of the prince, our crimi- 

lings wrhich you have done, and of nal efforts had broken thefe ties? 

II that remains ibr you to do, in or- Bat no, the bold conceptions Af 

er to confer upon this agitated land philofophy were never prefented by 

hat peace, liberty, and profperit/i us as the rigoroos meafure for aAs 

vhich it is your intention to pro- oflegillation. Youcannot attribute ' 

.are to As. to us ag errors what coitid only re- ' 

Do not imagioe, ffentlemeii, that fuU from a falfe interpretation of our 

1 am one of thofe wno are ignorant ■ principles. And yet, ready to de- 

of tbe indefatigable zeal, the talents, fcend into the grave, ready to quit 

tnc infbnnation, and the courage this immenfe family, of which I 

nhich you have (hewn in your im- have fo ardently wt(hcd the welfare, 

menfe labonrs. A fufficient number what do I fee around me! Religious 

of otber perfons Iiave addrefled you troubles, civil dilTention, the con- 

npontbefefubjeftsi afuSicient num- tentions of Ibme, the audacity and ' 

ber have reminded you of the title pafHons of others, a government en- 

which you have to the efteem of flaved by popular tyranny, the fanc- 

the nation: for my part, whether luary of the lawsfurrounded by un^ 

yoQconfidermeasacitizen availing governable meni who will alternate- 

himfelf of his right to petition, or ly cither diSate or brave rhem ; 

whether, in indulging m^ gratitude foldiers without difcipljne, chiefi 

in an anincumbered Right, you per- without authoriiv, miniilers without 

niit an old friend of liberty to re- means, a king, the firft friend of his 

ftore to you what he is indebted, for people, plunged into affl.i£tion, ont- 

ihe protetUon with which yon have raged, threatened, deprived of all 

honoured him, I befecch you not to authority, and the public power ex- 

rEjL-A ufeful truths. X have long illingbut in thofe dubs, where igno- 

fiared to fpeak to kings of their du- rant and brutal men dare to decide 

ly ; permit mc now to fpeak to a upon all political qneflions. 

pecf le of their errors, and to the Such, gentlemen, is, beyond all 

reprefentatives of the people, of doubt, the true fituation of^Franct 

llic dangers with which we are all Another pci^aps would not dare to 

thieatened. tell it you( but .1 dare, becanle I 

I confcfs that I profoundly lament confider itas my duty; becaufe I am 

the diforders and the crimes which on the verge ofcighty years of age; 

bve covered ihia empire with becaufe no one caoacciUene of re- 

Vot.XXXin. ^G fretting 



W ANNUAL REGISTER, i7srt. 

eretling tlw fo/mtfr governniaBt ) inrokine the fignal fbr-^IeftniAioSr 

Eecaufe in lamentieg over the pre- which the ^fUouii and the innorit- 

feift Qale of defoUtionof thechurch ots as dangerous as the iaftiousr 

of^ ranee, na one can accuTe me of are mdy to inflifL 

being a &natic yriefl ) becaufe m I have heaKi thofe infidioos infi- 

co;i£<lering the re-eftabhihnAnt of noations, which imprefs jou witlr 



the lagitunate aiithorit)' ai [be onlr falTe terrors, to turn afide your at- 
means of (afety. no oae wlU aecufe tention from real dangen; irfaidi 
me of being the partisan of def- infpire you with fetaJ dutroAs, to io- 
potifm, and of cnpeding favours duce you to deftroy fucceffively aU 
from it; becaufe in attacking be- the props- of riiaaarchical gorem- 
fofe yoa thofe writers who haTc ment I hare panicnlarly Ibad- 
blown the kingdom into a flamct dercd on obferringiiitheirnewlifet 
and perverted iu uaderAanding. no that people who are deiirODS of he- 
one. will xecvie me of not kiiowiny ing free, not only difregard the fo- 
the value of the liberty of tb« prefi. ciaJ virtues f^ honmiur and jnftice, 
Alas! i was full t^ hope and joy the fole bails of true liberty, bm r»- 
when I law vou lay the ibondatioBs ceive with eagerDcfi the new feeds 
of the public hap^neii, attack all of corruption, and faficr themfelres 
ftbufes, protlaim all rights, ynd fub- to be fig^roitnded with new caulet of 
jefl the different parts of this em- flavery. 

pire to the fame laws, to an nniform Ah ! gcntlcroent what do I net 
regulation. My eyes were filled fuScr, on feeing in the midft of the 
wftk tears when 1 (aw the vilelt and ca[utal, and in the very focus of is- 
the moft wicked of men employed fcmnation, thii fednced people ea- 
a& ioftruraents in bringing about a gerly adopt with a ferodona joy the 
nleful revolntion; when I faw the molt criminalpropolals, fintle at the 
holy loveofpatttoitGnproftituted to details, of af&ffinations, fing their 
vUiiuny, and Ucentioufne^ march in crimes aa if they were cooqnefts, 
triumph under the banners ofUber- Aitpidly invite enemies to the revo- 
1y. Terror was mingled wfth my lution, iallj tt by con^lailaitce, and 
juft grief, when I bel^d all the re- Auit ^eir eyes upoa all the evils 
fimnees of government defrayed, with which they overwhelm them- 
Bfd feeble barriers fnbllitated to the fdvet \ for this unhappy people are 
nccethiy for an aftive and repreffing iznorant that an infinity of catami- 
force. I have every where Ibugln ties may fpring from a foigle crime. 
the veftiges of that central aullio- I fee tbeni langh and dance on the 
rity which a great nation depofin in ruins of their own msrality, even on 
thehands of the monarch for its own the brink of the very ahyfs which 
fafcty; I have been no where able tnay fwallow up their hc^xv; this 
to find them; I have fought the ptln- fpcAacle of joy is that by wluch I 
^pleftwhereby-properryTs prqfervad, have been the moft deeply affefied. 
Md I haw feen the ni' attacked; I Your indi^crence witb nip€& to 
bareendeavonred to find Doder what this alarming deviation of thcpob- 
Ihetler lecariry ahd individual li- He underltanding, is the ^rA and 
Wriy repofcd, and I have feen au- perhaps the kHe cauTe of the change 
imtky always gathering ftrength which has taken place with reTped 
front ths miihiwri<i-«itrfrii«gt and «» ^u,- of th>t dun^e whereby the 

conufi 



APPEMDTXtotiieCHItONlCLfe. »ii 

tonapt adulatioo. or the itiunnnrs tuation iu iaa perhapt midered yoa 
Aifled by ku, bare faccetded the vnahle to preferve it from total ra- 
pait hamaigca btAowed gpon your 'in. but by meafiirinK back your 
irft lAoun, ftepe.orbyindicacinguiatrctrogadtf 

Bat with vhaterer coofape the nurch to your Aicceirors. Ought 
tppFoad) of my l»& hour infpirei ^ou to be afraid of being the fole ub- 
XKi whatever duty even that love of }e& of ail tht virulence with wtictt 
liberty wkich I profdTed before yun the altar of liberiy is nHailcd? 6e- 
cxifted, iinpofet apon me, I never- lieve, gentlemen, that this heroic fa> 
thelefc experience in a Jdrefling you criGce will not b« the Itafl confola- 
thal refpefi and fort of fear, of tory of ihofe remembiancu which 
vhicb a* man can divcA himfclfi you will be permitted to preferve, 
when he places hiofelf in thought in What men mail thofe be, who, leav. 
a Date of immediate commonicaiioD ing to their country all the good 
Mth the repicrcDiatires of a greet tetuch they have been able to do, 
peMle. accept and claim for themfelvw 

Ought ] to flop here> or to conr' alpnf the reproaches which have 
tiaoetofpexk toyoaaa topoAerity f been deferved b^ real and leriona 
'■—Yes, gentlanen, I bcbeve you evils, but of which they could onl^ 
worthy of hearing ibij language. accvfe dte circiaftances ! I believe 

I hate meditaad unougbcnit the you, gentlemen, worthy of fo high 
Whdc ooU^e of my life en the iiJeaa a defliny, and that idea encouragea 
which you have lately applied to the me to point oat to you, without) re- 
KgenetMioD of the kii^dom ! I me- fcire, thofe defeflive parts which 
dilated on them ata time vrhen. re- you have introduced into the French 
jtfledby^lthefbeial in(tituiion<,fiy eonilitatlon. 

allche iiterefls, fay all the prejiftlkei. Called upon to reeenerate France^ 
theyonly pefentedthefedufiionof you ought &rft lohave confidered 
atonfolatory »iSi] at that time no what you could ofefully piefcrve of 
notives induced me to weigh the the former government, and paiti- 
^ificutties of appjicaiion, and the colarly that par^ of It which it would 
fcrrible inconvenieaciei annexed to be improper to abandon, 
abftrafliom, when they arc invefted France was a monarchy; its ex- 
with the force which commandf man lent, its wants, its manners, its na- 
and thmgs, when the refillance of lional fpirit, were invincible objec- 
tiuDgs aod the paffioni of men ar« tions to republican formi: being ever 
^Keibjy clemcnu to combine. admitted into it without occaJjoning 

What I neuhcr oaght Kir could > total diflblution. 
foTcfee, at die rime and in the air- The monarchical power was vi' 
enirftaaces uadffrwnich4 wrote, the teted by twocaafes; its bafeiwere 
tircamUncu aiid the limiein^^hich furroupoed by prejudices, and its 
you a&reqtire chat you lb«uld keep limits were defiped but by partial 
*" accoBDt of; and I think it my refinances. To purify the prin- 
^aiy to tell you that you have not c^les, by eftablilhing the throne 
'^^ciently done fo. upon its true bafij, the fovereij;nty 

By this fole but cominiKd lanlt, of the nation; to afcertain its limits, 

CB have vitlued your work; you by placing threi in the national re- 
^ ?UMd yowfithrea in inch a. fi- prefetitation, was what you ought to 
• G a havo 



«♦• ANNUAL BEGISTEB, t79f. 

huve done, and you think that yoti I will oot point out to y<m aU 
have done it. the fmalti which may be afrnbed to 

But in organizing thefe two pow- circDinlfauices ; of tboTe yon are 
ers, the ftrength and the fucccTt of yourfelves aware : but why will yoa 
the conftitution depended upon their liiffer the e*tl to exift which it ij in 
cciuilibriumi and you had to guard yoQrpowcr to deSroyf Why.after 
R^ainft the propenfity of your ideai. Having prodaimed the dogtna of U- 
You ought to have (een that in the bertyin religioiu opinions, will yoa 
funeral opinion, the power of Icings fufFer the clergy to be overwbelnied 
is on the decline, and thit the right) with perfecutioni and oniragcs, be- 
ef the people are On the encreafe : caufe they do not obey your rdi- 
thus, by weakening be}:ond meafure gioui opinions ? 
that which naturally tends to annihi- Why, after having t^onTecnted 
lation, and by firengthening beyond the principles of individual liberty, 
all proportion that which natarally do yon faffer to exift in yonr bo- 
fcnds to increafe, yoa arrive by foms an intiuifition, which fenres ai 
force at this melancholy refuit, a a model and a pretext to all diofe 
iiirg ivithaat auiitritj, and m penflt inferiorinquifitkiBx whicha fadioU 
loiihcui rtflraint. uncafinels has generated in cvety 

By abandoning yourftlvcs to the part of the empire ? 
wanderings cf opinion, you have fa- Why do not wu fhodder at the 
voored the iiifluence of the multi- audacity and the faccefa of ifcofc 
tude, and in^nltely multiplied po- writers who profane the name of 
fnlar eleftions. Did you not forget patriots? More powerful than your 
that eleftiors incelTanity renewed, decrees, they daily pull down what 
and the tranlient duration of power, you ercfi. You are de£rous of a 
are a fource of relaxation in politi- monarchical government, and they 
cal jurifditlions .' Did you not fof- endeavour to render it odious : Yon 
get that the firength of government are defirous that the people Ihonid 
ought to be proportioned to the eajoy liberty, and they wiih to make 
number of thole whom it has to pro- them the inoft ferocious of tyrants: 
vide for, and whom it ought to pro- Yon are deiirous of refbrming the 
teft? manners, and they command the 

You have preferved the name of triumph of vice, the impanitj- of 
kinf;, although in your conftitution crimes. 

it is not only no longer ofeful, hot I will not mention to yon, gen- 
cven dangerous. You have reduced ttcmen, your operations of finance; 
his infiience to that point which God forbid that I Ihould encreafe 
•"rruption may ufurpj you have in your uneafinefs, or diminilh yoar 
fafl invited him to combat a conJli- hopes upon that fubje£l. Thepub- 
tution which inceflantly (hews him lie fortune is yet entire in yonr 
wliat he is not, and what he may hands ; but recolleft, that where a 
be. government is neither powerful nor 

This, gentlemen, it a vice iuhe- refpcfted. there can be neither taxes, 
rcrt in your conftitution; a vice credit, nor an afcertaincd KCeipt or 
which will deftroy it,' if you and expenditure. 

your fucceiTors do not h.-illen to ex- What form of government can 
tirpctc it. fta£d againft this new aJTumption of 

power 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE 'Sj 

poirerof the dobs ? Yoa have As- principles, is vexed u tiieir exagge- 

llroyed all the corporatiotu, «nd the rattcm. 

molt Colofial and moll formidable of The Glence of Its ptiii^et may be 

sggregadons is rtifmg itfelf upon that of terror ; but da not afpirc, 

jonr heads, to the deftniAion ofall' gentiemen, to the fi»l ho.iour'of 

other powers. France at prefcnt rendering yourfelves dreadful by 

contains two kindsofpeople exceed- extravagant innovations, as dange- 

ingiy unlike. That confining of the rous for yoarfclves as for .your neigh- 

vinuDQs aixt of the moderate fpiritt, hours. Open once more the annals 

is fcattered, filent, and alarmed; of the world; call to yoBraltiltance 

whilft men of vioknt difpo£tions, of the wifdom of ages, and foe hoiv 

which die other confiSs, crowd toge- many empires have pcrilhed by 

ther, eleflnfy each other, knd form anarchy. I-t it time to put an end 

thofe terrific volcano* which vomit to that by which we are defolated, to 

forth fuch qoantities of inflamed Aop the revenges, the fedition's, and 

lava. conunotions, and to reflai« to U4 U 

Yon have made a declaration of length penoand confidetice. 

rights, and that imperfcA declara- To attain this fitlatar/ end, there 

tion has fpread throughout the em- is but one jnode,anii that is by jc- 

inre of France numerous feeds of vifLng your decrees, by iinittng and 

uarchy and diforder. ftrda^ening ttw powers weaJtei)ed 

Conltantly hefitatine between the by difperfion, by entrufting to ^e 

ptiodples which a &lfe modefty pre- king all the force neceflary to maio- 

venu you from modifying, and cir- tain the power of 'the laws, and by 

cnmftances which exton exceptions particularly watching over the In 

(romyoa, you conltantly do too'lic- berty of the primary alTemblies, 

lie farthepabIicgood,aiid too much from which fadions have driven all 

according to your doftrine. You wife and vlrtaous citizens. 

are frequently both inconfequcnt Do not imagine, gentlemen, that 

■ndimpoliucat the timewhen you the re-eftablilhment of the execn- 

cndeavoar to be neither, Thna, by tive power can l>e the work of your 

perpetuating the flavery of the ne- fucccfibrs j no, they will take their 

groes, you have notthelefs.byyour feats with lefs power than you pof^ 

■ifcifion refticfling the mulattoes, fefs : they will have to acquire that 

given an aUrm to commerce, and popular opinion of which you have 

expofed your colonies. dijpofed ; you only are able to cre- 

Be affored, gentlemen, that none ate anew what you have deftroye^ 

of thde obfervations efcape the or fuffered to be detlroyed. 

ffvois of liberty: they demand ■ You have laid the foundation of . 

Iwck from yoor hands the depofit of the litwrty of every realbnable eon^ 

^epubtieopinioniofthepnblicrea- llitaciont by fecuring to the people 

ftn, of which you are but the or- the right of making their laws, and 

S>ns, and which no longer poflefs determining their taxes. Anarchy 

■""y charader. Europe confidera will even Iwallow up thefe impor- 

T°a with aftonifhment : Europe, tant rights, if you do not place them 

which may be Ihaken to its fbanda- under the proteftion of^ an aftivo 

"*"'• b]f Hk pmpaeation of your and vigorousgovemmentj anddef- 
• C 3 petifm 



86* ANNUAL REGISTER^ 1791, 

paiirm iwaiu aa, if yon condnne to diffi: I'ty fk vine oar IWet, Hyb4 

rejcfl the tutelar/ protcOion of roy- fam •bii (above my infnnuiw) 

al authoriiy. Mas great 10 a man who never could 

I have coljefted my ftrength, bo Jl of afflocace ; yet 1 looked 

l^ntlcmen, 10 fpeak to you the au- forward wkfa > pleafing confidence | 

ftere bngnage of truth. Forgive, my ill and (folately embanked bwa 

in favour of my zeal and love for Uk tea) was b^innuig to repay 

my country, what nay appear too ne moft bouniirLdly : it destred m* 

flee io my rcmonftrancei, and be- 300I Uie lafi year, with a proniiiing 

licve my ardent willwt for yoor appcaiaiiGe c^ greater thing* liar 

Slory, aj much u my profbund ic- year* to come. I had reb«ult ay 

je£L tiaufe, ke. and goL my fiMnily toge- 

G: T. Ravnal. theragain. 

In till; fituaiion of my hSun, the 

■ '■ ' ■ id of this moDtbproducedatidfoa 

f^ttir fnm Mr. John Harriott, b/ O"' coail higher hy a foot than if 

Roci!ford,w ElftK, u Mr, More, re mem be red by tlie oldeft man Hv- 

Sitrttarj •>/ thi Sttitff /tr tbt En- "»«. My iOand fcU a viflim IO it* 

temrattnma »/ Jrli, STr. Afirib- «vsges : above one-fourth part of 

img tbt EJiiii if tb* %i lidtt thi. .1-411 or bank had fepled (00 

Pebrnarya, 171)1, qu I^idwbicb account ofKS beyig «i; new earth) 

itSadinch/tdfrxm lit Su. "Cir a foot more than the reft : this 

_, ■« ii- , rt ■ WIS intended to have been rajfed 18 

Sir, RocMord, Feb. 2+. i„chcs hK fummar, had not my Id* 

THE kindneii and /ri.ndihip from the &'e.and th«con(^u«»t at- 

exprefled in your le tier ckim lention to rebuilding, obliged me in 

iny waimefia£kiiawledemenu;ai)d, defer it, *nich occalioned Ae tols 

^ you requeft to be iuformed of the of my irtand j for. aowing fcven or 

leal Aate pf my miffoitunes, [ wjll eight incbei deep over ijo rod in 

fndeavour to place it in u dear a length of wailing, it flooded the 

poiqtofvicwaspoffible; for.having wholeiOand. Attending to the M 

nothing to reproach myftlf with.in of the tide. I foand ray ifland left 

regard to iuch accmnalatcd mi*for- full of watts., toofiital a proof of tbe 

Junes a* I have experienced m fo ftrength of re/ walls, though it fatii- 

Ihon a time {accident* which h»- fad me there wa* no breath. Br 

aiKi fegacity f ould neither forefee extraordii.ary exertionv I drained 

por prevent), I have tjp reafon to the water four feet below tke forfee 

be afharaed 4E being unfortunate: of thebwidina few day«i Ithenhtd 

M the contrary, 1 feel a fecrct ttti*. ,he waJl* forveyed, and u efcinale 

ft^on in having endeavoured to do made of what it woaU »«iwte to 

my duty a» a man whofe view* are «(«>r them, and rocttie the iOand 

Bpi wholly cftnnncd to thi* fpot, horn a fonikr accident. TUi 

jnd bow my head without repining attomted to joolij 1 had it noc. 

^0 the difpofal of Providence. ,nd coold not think Of borrowing 

It WW no longer than the isth of without 1 greater oMtainty of pay- 

Ma^h, J 790, that I had the heavy »eot thmi I could pretend to ; for, 

tnufortUiw to have my houfe, barn, if my ifland Ihotild bectme a total 

juid out-ofi?ces, all burnt down, with loft, I tncw I had not fufficicnt be- 

3 " ■ ■■ fi^ 



APPENDIX lotfee CHRONICLE. •«? 

fidetop^ WktcioiveA already.' I namniaof mf property did nai 

tberefofc dut not think my(elf at amaiint to more than i^ccl. befide 

liberty to lay out moiwy ihu be- my half-pay u a lieutenant. I had 

long;d to othera without their con- thie fatitfadion to find my coodufl 

Tent, tliongh to lave the muerable approred. My creditors, infteadfsf 

wreck of my own fbftane ; sodf u diftreffing, foothed me, and toIqii- 

thcre was a neceffity of comiitg to a tarily^ro^Ki&dtandagreed to accept, 

rpeady detBrmiaacion, 1 refelved on ten Ihiilingi in the pound, 

fending to every one I owed a fnm Suth, Sir, ii the diAraOed litu- 

of money exceeding aol.requeftinp tien of aiy afiaies ; and I do not 

their meeting each oiliEr on Wed- wonder at thtre being varioui re- 

aef(liy,thc9th; infonmng them the p(»ta concerning it, ttionrh I am no 

realbn,*Bd that I htobM then lay way) i^jprehenfivr of there beirf 

bcfi>re them a faU flatc o£ntf af- arty to the prejudice of my charsc- 

&iit. tej- ; for in that, poor as i an, smi 

This WBi.ite&A.ttaie in 4ny life an fortunate as I have been, X fn> 

Idiftmftnl nyowafcrtitode. At- nt-iheftd£^ft fcnitiny. - 

tempting to fpealE, I found okyfeif 1 remain, * 

mcapabteof stlcjiog. Myfeetings .Sir, 

overpowered tnc, and I waa obliged Yoar very famnble ftrvaat, 

to leave the itism abrnptly. lean 'Johk H/kkiott* 

only f»y, dier were the f«eSngi of ^__^______^____^^^_^___ 

afither (conadetin^ his mijforunei ■ 

1* afiefttsg hi( chUSren) that «»*r- Dinaimt of tit Laneafliire HtHtiam 

came me. I have ben i» vanoo* Steietyfir tbt Rtctvtrj »f Pirfiia 

engagements by fea and land; I wM aptarmih dteJiy Drowmne.^m/ 

ifltbefecmdearth<]aaJteoffLiflion; Mber BttcUi if Soffhtathn. 
tn iFvera) on the ilUnd rX Sumatra'i 

belonged to a Slip that lud the Drmming^ 
pUgne on board in Turkey; fhifr 

wrecked off Plymouth after an ab- I.1T7HEN the body ia taken 

&ace of two years i wounded and VV out of the water, ftrqiatil 

rendered incapable of farther aiftive wrap it dofely in a coot, blanket, or 

^Tvice in India ; yet never kne* the other warm covering : and convey it 

want of couiase before. In Crery gently to .the neareA commodious 

odier point erf view, I eonld en- houJi:, with the face npwudf, and 

coanter danger ind difficoiiies WiiSi thehead alittie riifed. 

irtacer refolutioa. . IL Lay it on a bed or mattrdi 

The Hate of my tfiln wjs thus; which has been heated ty a warm- 

I h]«l, by fire and water, wtthia one ing-psn, is a diamber'contaimng x 

/ear, kift upwards of j^oool.; but, fire: or, during fiimmer, in the fun- 

)f enabled to' fecure tiie iUand, itfy fhine. Dry the body completelr 

k>(i would be Tcdoced to about with warm cloth a, aad afterwards 

2,000]., laying the damage to the rub it diligently, but gently, with 

l*nd from the eiFca of the Talt. water hot-flaausls ao-dieil^iiide, near the 

at the loweft eftimate, but it may heart. Apply ta the band* and 

P<*Ve MnCderiAly more. 1 owed feet cloths wnu^ out of hot water; 

Hthtr motvt^a >,;ooL «iiA>(be -and h«atad .hci«s; or botdet or 
*C 4 bladder! 



88» ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791; ' 

blxldcrs halffitted with iiot water; fill of &»ir of nuAaiJ, or a tea 

ot bags of hot graint or fa.nd, to tKe fpopnful of powdered pepper, gin- 

ftotnach and arm-pict. Let a heal< ger, or other fpice. Ram, brandy, 

ihvperfon, of the fame lex with the' or jir, mbced with fix times. iis 

IMeivr, lie down nncloihEd, <jn the' qaaniity of hot wacer.'whk Ae ad- 

rigtl-fide-oi the bocly; and be cm-- dhionof muiUrd, &:c. may be ufed 

plowed in rubbing.andaidingoclier inltcad of wijie. 

neceffary operatifnt. ■ • ' V. As Jbon u die patient ca* 

^i■3. tub of'Wami water be in fwallow, adrainiOer to him, by 

iVaditiefs, let the body be placed im ^oonfuls> hot winCf or fpirits inij:* 

it up to the neclc, and aonuimed m oi with water. 

it half an faonr; The wuerlhoidd ' VI; When life b coiBfJetdy re- 

liot be hotter than can be comfort- florcd, the fufferer fhouJd reuuin at 

iritly borne by thaafliftaifta; andthe lefl in a. .worm bed; be Supplied 

Iteu of all the application t before maderateIywithwine-whey,ale-pof^ 

4iFafbed(hoald bemodafice. let, or other nouriihios dniilu; and 

When the body. is.takBK oiK.af gentle fweating flioipd be cdcobi 

the tub of water, it tnufl be wiped nged. 

dry i laid upon the bed ; and treat- . ■ 

ed accoidiniF tO'-iheTrulei already : 

given. ' ,1 ^"«"'^- 

lU, During the foregoing ope- : - 1. If a medical afliftuit be pre- 
ratlbns, put the" pipe' orTpair" tff ftnt, let him take a few ouncei of 

j^Uowa iD;oooeafth? noltnl^.the bJood.ftMn the jugular veitu: or 

.other noftril and the mouth being apply a tupping glafj to the 

tflpfed by an aiuftant; and blow neck- 

gentTy, till ihe br^aft be a little raif- ; H. The other methodi of treaty 

ed. Let the mouth and nftilril then ntent are to be the fame as recom- 

be left free, and an- eafy prelTure piendq^ for the recovery of drowned 

made upon the brcaft. Repeat .perlbBS|. 
thli.-irratadan of -naturalbrcaihin 



N. B. If no bellows be at ham!. Sptinklethe&ceandthewlioIebO' 

Jei 40 affiftant blow into the noftrlls dj" «(ith'coW water, if the heal ofthe 
of the drowned . perfoa with hia Ci*«rer.l?e above or equal to that of 

.Ineadiv through a quil^Beed.cu'^any a living pcrfon. But if the body 
other fmall pipci.: .. .1 fed cold, apply wartnthaiadually; 

>. IV.. When braathing begina to aid ufe the means directed undtr 
be renewed, 1« a feather dipt in , 'i"^ ^^^^ °^ drowning. A fmall 
fpirit ofhartfltorn or (harp muftard, floan;ity of blood may alfo be taken 
lie occaGon3% introduced into the , ftoin t^ jngular veLu. 

; nolliiiU. Pepper, or fniiff ftlfciinay ■ ■^____ 

be blown into them-L' A gJyfte* ■ 
Atonld now be given without delay, ; freji. 

conp^cd of equal part: c^wine and ' Take thebody tothe aewAroora 
hot water, wit^ a.iBuU taUe fpoon- • wiijk » fii^pl^ce, b^t not near the 



tit, iRvb it with fnow or cold wa- 
tfr. Annapi mnnlh and breathing 
by flow degren, and tbe way di- 
rcfled for the recovery of drowned 



APPENDIX to the CHRONI CLE. H^ 

SoDth Wales. LaiJ btfwt tht 



Ertrafts of a Lftwr frcm Go- 
vernor Pliilllp to the Right 
Hcnoorab'c Lord Sydney ; 
d.rfd Svdnry Cove, ijUi 

TTTHEN the Supply left Nor- 
VV fo''< I"an<i. the people wero 
all very ■ healthy, and they had 



SinDil/iring in CbiU-Birtb, ij Can' 
/Muml unJtr 8id-CUthti, Src 
I. In AUi-barn children, blow 
U( into tho (BOuth. through a quill, 
«ranyfnialltube, dU thebreaft be a 



Litle rufed; then gently prefs the „taWe) in the grcateft atundancej 

theft ; and repeat thii procefj till they get fi(h when the weather per- 

natural bpeathiqg begin*. Gently „;„ ^^ [,oat to go without iho 

rab the body with warm flanoels; jeef_ j,nd, attimei.in foch ooanti- 

and fiMKDt the legi and feet with ,5^,^ ,h3t fift i, ferved to the people 

water of a nioder»tc 4«Ercc of in Uea of fait proviiions. They 

™'' make their lines from the fUx plant, 

II. When 9. child hu been fmo- but unfortunately we have not any 

tliered under the bed-dothes, if the perfoo ^bo nnderftands how to drcft 

body be too not) at la conunonly the jt. 

ofc.expofeit fora ihofi timetoa 'naif a pod of cotton being fbond 

ftream of frefti air, aad fprinkle a „„ ^^ )SaxA, ftppoTed to be brought 

jiHle cold water on the face and ^hcfe' by a bird, and a cocoa nut. 

brealli then Ml the lungs, and fbl- which wai perfcftly fomMl,and ap- 

W ilw other diroftwni above de- peered to have been but a fliort 

limed. , , ^ time iri the water, being thrown 

No other meau but tbofe here „„(,„ (he beach, have given fome 

recommended are ever to be en- rcafon to fuppofe that both thefe ar. 

ployed; except by the authority of riclej will be found in fome ifland 

fopejudicioiwphyricwn, or of one „ no great diflance. 

of the medical affiOants of the 8a- lo^j Howe Illand has been wc- 
ciety. 

U. B, Jb allthe above cafes, im- 
diately difpatch a qielTeagcr for 

Biedkal aflilUnce : fend, alTo, ano- ,,^„^ „„, 

(her aeflengcr to the neareft houfe, fg„ urtle. 

where warm water, grains, or other j bid the hi 



amined, but no frelh water, or eood 
anchorage, being found, it can be of 
no other advantage to this fettle, 
ment, than occafionally fupplying % 

of Informing 
- , . , , . ■, yonr lordlbip, that a fetilement ' 

procured; with a good lire, and a intended to be made at a plac. . 
wuin bed for t^ reception of the „a„ed Rofe Hill. At the head of 



unfortnoate peribn. 



t»Tmai eflMUrs, Uc. amd JttuMi, 
rfituivt tt lit SrtlltmaU in New 



this harbour there u a creek, which 
at half flood has water for large 
boats to go three miles up ; and one 
mile higher the water is frefh, and 
^e foif good. A very i^allriona 



UigniaOb, Google 



JO* ANNUAt REGISTER, 1791. 

naD, whom {broDght from Englud, dml, from tke |;o«vrBor (• de 

ii employed there at prefent, and. prinu Ibldkr, whoie finmOMi is 

liv under his dircdion one hundred not more eligible at thu tiiiK iftim 

cpnvifis, who are employed in dear- he liad taj nafoa to fxpcd it ooaU 

iBg and cujiivatine die gTOund. A be in the conHe of tbe three Tcut 

bam, granaryj ana otli»' secellary ftacion. And it is the {amc with tke 

buildings, are ereded, and twenty- convifis; and tliore who have beca 

leveo acie« in com promife a good any ways indoftnous, have vegeta' 

jCTOp. The foil is good, and the Ues in plenty. The buildings now 

coaooy.fortwentymilesta the weft- carrying on a» of brick and fte*e. 

ward, which is as far a) I have exx- The boufe intenied for myftf wai 

vined.JUyiweUibrcnttivadon; but is confill of only ihnerooois, fast 

even iliere, the labour of clearing kaving a good fbmidadaB, haa bee* 

titcgraundif verygreat;andlhave enlarged, coatains fix rooma, and i* 

lecn none <hat can tte cultivated fo wAl bailt, that I prrfnme it wffi 

without cntung down the timber, ftand (or a gr«at number of years. 

«zcept fixne &w particular fpots, 'Hie florei hare been lately «ver- 

whicb, from their fitoatioD, (laying run witb mts, and t^y are equally 

M a ditfance Ijoia either of the bar- nuireroai in the gardens, wherethey 

boars) can be of do advantage t^ do conSdcrable aunege; and ai the 

OS at proleat; and I prefunie the loft in the ftom could only be knowa 

jneadoivT mentioned in Captain by removing ^ the prtnriliotis, that 

Cook's Vayac«i were fMnfrom the wai ordereiT to be done, and fluny 

bigh grounds about Botany Bay, caOu of flour and rice were Jbond 

^Mid from whence they appear well to be damaged or totaliy defttoyed. 

totheeye, bat when examined, ar< Theloft in ihofe two anidetbytbe 

found to be maribes, the draining of rats, finc^ lawdine, has been nON 

which weuldbea work<ifiime,and than twelve thoaJand wdgbt. 

|iot to be attempted ^ ^ ^ (f^r Vegetables and |»o«ifioii* hav. 

tiers. ing been freqaently Aoten in the 

The captain's gnard, wMdi nniil night from convidi and otheiih 

lately did duty at Rofe HUl, is nam twelve ^nviiks were cbo&n rs a 

reduced to a lieutenant and twetv* nightw^fch ; ud they h«TV«a«afly 

jiiivaces, and intended merely as * anlwered the end propofed, its n^ 

goard to the ftore whicb contains bery living be^ c^mrnkted -for fe- 

ihe provilions, and which is in tl)e wral monuu, »nd the connAs in 

redoubt, for I am now kaSiAe thejf general have lately bphpved better 

is nothing to be appreliendcd from than I ever exp^ked. Only two 

the natives ; and the little attention conviAs have Jufferej deatli in the 

which had been de£red of the offi~ kit year. Foof were executed te 

vers, more than wJuit was imme- firA year, 

diaiel^ garrilbn doty, when at Role As near two years have now paf. 

Ifitl. u now no longer racjuired. fed fince we firft]anded in this coimr 

At Sydney Cave, all ^e officers trv, fome jud^ent may be foi.med 

are in good huts, and tho men in or the climate ; and I bdieve a finer 

barrackt; and, although nuny un- or more hoahhy climate b not to 

jbrereen di£culiici have been met be found in any pan of the worid. 

, with, I believe tbcf e is no; an indivi- Of one thoufana and thirty people 

wha 



AWENDIX iBtho CHRONICLE, 'ji 

)vfao were Unded, many of whom therto ncceflar^, but it u Vtended 

Were tvom out by old age, tlie with many inconveoiences, for 

(carvy, and variooi dilbrdeis, only which the advantages ariGng to the 

kvtrty-two have died io one-aDd- officen do not inake aiMcnda. It 

Itwenty Huiotlu} and by the lujr- will not, thereibre, be continued af; 

geon') reiuras, it appesK that twen- ter thi<; deiachment is relieved, mt- 

t/'liK of thofe died /rom di&rdert leCa particularly direftcd. The nnm- 

of long fianding, and which it u bers employed in cultivation will of 

more than probable would have car- courTc be increafed, as the neceflatr 

lied them off much fooner in Eng- oulldings are finilhed, bat whtca 

I^. Fifiy-Bine children have been will be a. work of time; for the 

bora in the above time. ' numbers in this fectlemeDt wlio d» 

la December tlie a^ra. at ftolii nothing towards their own fup- 

BUl was got-ia : Ae com was exr pofti exceed tholf employed for the 

ceeding good ; abotu two hundred public. 

VuHieli of wh^t, and futy of bar- In Noyember, the Supply lailej 

ley, with a fmaU quantity of Sax, for Norfolk Ifland lyith Tome coiw 

Jadiaa corn, snd oat£, all which is rifls, and returned after being ab- 

[wfiarved for feefL ftere 1 beg fenc fijt week*. — All the people in 

leave to oblervc to your lordlhip, that ifland were welL and thdr 

dut if faitlers ar? fent out, and the cropi, after all they had fuffered 

pmmBa divided amonrll ihem, this from rat^, tnrds, and a worm which 

fetdement will very OiQrtly main- jiad done them conllderable damagCj 

tain itklf ; bai without which, thii fo good, that they had grain foli- 

coantry Cfnnpt be ccltivaiaii to any pient for iix months bread for evenr 

advanuge. Ac pretest I have only one itpon the ifland, referving fut* 

OBe perfon (lyho haf abovE an hBD? ^cieni for their next year's crops. 

drcd conviOs under his direction) Early in January, 179a, the Suj>. 

wbo is employed in culpvabng the ply again failed for Norfolk Ifland. 

eroand Am' the public benefit, and .with more convifb; and in ber 

sthureiunied the quantity of corn pallage left a fmall party on Lonl 

^ve-mentktDed lna> (he pablic Howe Illand, to turn turtle; but in 

^e; the officer! have not niicd fifteen days only three were taken; 

i^ilBctent to fiipport the little Jlock fo that no great advantages will ac- 

^y have. Some ffound I have cruc at prefent from thence. The 

W in caiiiyaeon wiU return about ifland has freih water, but uo good 

forty balhds of wheat into ftore ; anchoring ground. 

w dat the produce of^thc labour of Since the deaths mentioned in a 

*|k cosviAs employed in cnltiv^- former part of this letter, one wo- 

™ hat been very flkort of what .man has fufTered ibr a robbery, 6ve 

"ifhx have been ezpcfted, and children have died, and twenty- 

^nich I take the liberty of point- eight children have been bom ; 

»% «nt Io yow lofdfliip in thu making in all feventy-feven deathf* 

I«ce, to jhew, as fislly ts poffible, and eighty-feven births. 
"eftaie of this colony, and the ne- 

(effiiy of the conviaa being em- "* ~~~* 

Pwyed by thofe who have an inte- ExtraA of a Letter from Go- 

™ in their labour. The giving vernor Phillip to the Right 

wnriOs to the efficcrs has bwn Iji- Hono^ntble Lord Sydney ; 

dated 



ja^ ANNUAL REGISTER, 1791.. 

dated Sydney Cove, 13th tDond Hill as being the bead of the 
Feb, 1750. ri«r, it there growing very (hal- 
low, and dividing into two branche*. 
In order to get a knowledge of The hieh rocky coontry wbicb 
the country round thii fettlement, formi Broken Bay ij loft as yon 
frequent excuHians have been made proceed up the ^Hawkefbury, and 
lince the Ihips failed, in November the banks of the riwer are there co- 
1788; foon afrer which 1 went to ve red with timber, the foil a rich 
Sotany Biy, and the five days fpent tight moald ; and, judging from the 
in that harbour confirmed me in the little we law of the country, I Hiotild 
bfnnioD I had lirft formed of it— fnopofe it good land to a very cob- 
thac it afforded no eligible fitnation fiderabie extent ; the other branches 
far fixing tl\e fetitement, and was a of frefh water arc Ihod, but prvbi- 
bad harbour, not aflbrding good fe> bly Tuti many miles farther into the 
curity for ihips againA the eafterly country than we could tncc then 
winds, which frequently blow very with our boats. On thefe rirers 
liard in the winter, and which hu we faw great numbers of wiM 
t>een farther proved by Captain dacks, and fame black fwans ; and 
Hunter, and the firft lieutenant of on the banks of the Hawkefbury, 
the Sirius, when there to fnrtey the feveral decoys made by the native) 
bay. to catch the quail. 
- After having been feveral timet Richmond Hill (near the feot of 
with the boats to Broken Bay, in which a fall of water prevented out 
order to examine the different proceeding iirther mth the boats) 
branches in that harbour, a river u the foothern extremity of a ranee 
-was found; bat the want of provi- of hills, which, ninoingtothe ooru- 
fions obliged us to return without ward, moll probably join the moon- 
being able to trace it to its fource, tains which lay nearly parallel to the 
which has fince been done; and in coatt, firom fifty to fixty miles in- 
the fixteen days we were then out, land. The foil of Rtchmood Hill 
all thofe branches which had any is good, and it lies well for calti*i- 
depth of water were traced as far tion. Our profpeA fitMn the hilt 
at the boats couM proceed. was very extenlive to the Ibvtliwanl 
The breadth of this river (named and eaftward; the coontry appear- 
ihe Hawkelbuiy) is from 300 to ing, from the height ta which we 
800 feet; and it appears, from the were, to'be a level covered widi 
fonnding) we had, to be navigable timber: then is a Hat of fix or fe- 
for the largeft merchant Ihipt to ven miles between Richmond Hill 
the foot of Richmond HiU ; but as and a break in the moantains, which 
the water near the head of the rl- feparates Lanfdownand CannaitlKa 
ver fometimes rifes, after very Hills; and in thisflat,! fuppote.dw 
heavy rains, 'thirty feet above its Hawkelbury continsei its anuie, 
■ common le^el, it would not be fafe but which could not be feen ftir the 
Ibr fliips to go fo far up; but fifteen timber, that, with very few exc^ 
or twenty tniles below Richmond tions, covers the cooiiuy wherever 
Hill, they would lay in frefh water, the foil is good. 
»nd perfeAly lafe. I fpeak of Rich- The great advanugei of (a noUe 
4 triwt 



,.„Coc,gle 



A.-pPENDIX'tttl«' CHRONICLE. »»> 

I mir,' when ■ fettleinent ctn be luid -fer tillage as molt in Eit^andf 

lode on its banlut wS be «bvuNu (feme few paruaulur fpots excet>t-> 

n your XiOrdlhip. . ed, the foil of which is poor, buC 

Tlie Icttletnent made at Poit ban a very linall propottioa to the 

Jackfon, near the head of the bar- mod land) I propofe that tn& of 

hour (Rofe Mill) very fiilly anfwcrs und for thofe lettlers which may be 

tiy cxpefiiatiDDi ; the foil is ex- lent out) and tfiougb they will be 

ceeding gtxxl, lies well for eolttva*' - placed it fonle dillance from eacli 

Don, and is well watered. Six iniles otbeti for the convcniency of water, 

to the fbathwardi there is a IJnall (from one to three or four miles) 

frefh-water river; and zo miles to uiey wilt have nothing to appre- 

the weftward, there U a more con- bend from the natives, who avoid 

fiderable rive^ the iburcc of which thofe parts we molt frequent, and 

1 fnppofe to lie at dte foot of the always retire at the fight of two or 

mountains. Tbe banks of this ri- three people who are armed. 

ver, which moil probably empcie* As the labour of clearing the 

icfeif into the Hawkeibttry, are ground of timber will be grea^ I 

high; the foil a good light mould, think each fettler (hould not have 

and covered with tree*; the wood lefs than twenty men on hia farm, 

offome of thefe trees is very light; which 1 fuppofe to be from five 

they are about the fixe oflamwal- hundred to one thoufand acres: ic 

cui ireet) which they rclemble; will be necelTary to give that num- 

ihty {hed their leaves, and bear a ber of convids to thofe fettlen wba 

(inall frnit which is faid to be very come out, and to fupport them for 

xholefbme. This river likewife two years from the public ftoies; 

frequently rifci thirty feet above its iiithat[ime,if they are any ways in- 

COBSKM level; it is, as far as 1 have dufirious, they will be in a fituatioft 

Imd it, &om 30a to 400 feet in to fupport themfelves, and I do not 

breadth. I named it the Nepean, think they would be able to do it 

and its Ibnrce will be traced in the in Icfs rime. At the expirauon of 

coarfc of the winter ; and from iu the two yenn, they may return half 

^uks i hope to reach the maun- theconviAs they have lieen allowed, 

tains, which has been attempted fay and »ipa]d want no farther aHiltance 

» party wJio crofled the ri vert but from govern merit, 

sfier the firft day's journey, they It m.iy be ncceflary to gmnt 

met with fuch a conftant fnccefljon lands to ofHcers and foldiers, who 

of deep ravines, the fides of which becoming fettlers, will of courfe be 

w<re frequently inaccefllble, that eniitledtoeveryiadulgence; buLfew 

"^ returned, not having been able of the officers now here have reaped 

W proceed atmve fifteen miles in any great advantage from being 

five days; when they turned back, allowed convifls ; anJ it is altondej 

t^y fuDpofcd themfelves to be 12 with uuavoidable inconveniences, 

'Biles ftom the foot of the moun- from thofe convifts being left f^ 

'^iiu. • much to themfelves, and from their 

Aithelandfbrfeveralmilestotha mixing with the fbldiets. Itmaybe 

uuiihwatd, and twenty miles to the &und more to the advantage of the 

*e4ward of Kofe Hill, that is, to crown and the officer likewife, if 

we baaki of the Nepean, is as fine officers on duty in tlue lettlement 



*Ki« illowed a certain qalnuty of ai praniriDg lire ftock to 1 

fniD to fupport tbeii live ftock. ftom, bat wbkk watnot ikibk 

vntil they have a market to go to, ly wanted; and What die Siiiui 

and I make no donbt, but that in coold have brang;ht for die «»• 
the thiid year from the time lettlen fnoiptioB of Cuch a number of peo- 

■rrlve, there will be a market Mwtl pie, wontd bare been bqt a very 

fvpi^ied with graitit poultry, hogs, Aoall relief. Hpwe liland htd 

and goats, of all which there £u beeo tried fereral timet, and ooly x 

been a great increafe, but killed, «ry few turtle procured, 
irora wuiting cvm to (iipportthem; The goodaeri of the foil on Nor- 

and tbe natives fo freqaently letting folk ilUnd.aBd the indaftry oftbofH 

Snto the country, which they do employedthcpe.mideredthatiSuid 

to cMch the opofliim, flying fqnir. a refourcc, and the only one that o& 

Tel> and other animali, has prerenced ftred, when, fram the dme which had 

fwine from being tariKd out, as Was faffed fince my letters might be (ap^ 

intended. rnfed to have been received in £cg- 

If this plan, of diAHbnting land, there wa* reafon to fappdcl 

ttnotigll tbe fettlers thofe convi& feme acoideat had bappcnad to the 

who are not immediately necCCary Aore fliipifcntont. 
ibr carrying on the public works, I therefore ortbned two ctenpaoies 

isapprovedof,andwhich I propofe, of matines to be ready to embuk 

as appearing to me the molt likely with a number of canviA«, by the 

to render this fettlement indepen- jthofMarch.if no (kip arrived be- 

ieni for the neceiTaries of life, in the fore that time ) and a pn^rtion of 

Oiortetl time pofliUe.thereare many what provifivns and lloiea nmain- 

regulatioDS which will of courfet^e ed in this Jottlemct it being put on 

place. board the Siriiii and fappTv, fixty- 

, . , five officeft and sieft, widi five 

_ _ , , - -, wdmen and chUdren ficm the de- 

ExtnajofaLetterJ^omGo- tachtecnt witi civiUepartment, one 

vemor Phillip to LorJ Syd- hindred and fixteen male and fixiy- 

reyj dated Goremmenc feven female conviftij with twenty- 

HooTe, bydney Covej April ^veo children, embarked and bile^ 

"•*79^ the 6ih of March. 
The quantity of floar brought T-.c advanrxgc I expeAed hy 

ftfuntheCapcofGnodHopebytiie Tending away inch ■ number of 

Sirius, was lefs than I expeAed-^ pf.^ple, was from the Gulegardea 

four months flour only for the fet- ground they would leaTe, and which 

tlcmcnt, and a year's provilions fbr would afEft thole who remained, and 

the Ihip's . company ; and it was ne- the lilhwhic>' might be caogbtia the 

ceflarv to give the (hip a very con- winter wo ild go thefanher ; at tbe 

£derable repur before Ibe could be fame time, thoft (ent to Norfolk 

fent to Tea again, which wai not Ifland \vouU have refonrcei in the 

completed befcfe the middle of Ja- greuabunbnceol vegetables r»led 

soary, when I had reafon to exp.A thrre, and in lilh asC birds, which 

ffliipt from England in the courfe of ihisrettlementcoiiMnoiaArd them; 

a KW weeks. The fending to the and it was my inientioi) to haK 

i4*ndi would bave antweitd a> far fent nMM soBvvtto ts that iOai,- 



APPENDIX to the CHRONICLE. *9S 

iF tliare- had not bsen this necef- fitoition v!Il admit of, and whic^ 

fity. u to be the principal objeA, whra 

The proviiioiu fent, with what the necefliLries of life are fecured to 

wuoatheiiland, and the wheat and thefettlers. 

Indian com raifcd there, more than A» from the great increafe rf 
would be necellary for feed, wa> corn and other vcectable food 
calculated to laO: full as long a* the which may becxpeSed from a com- 
provifiona in thii place; and at nioninduilry, and info fbrtileafoil. 
Nwfolk Uand, from the richnefs after » certain quantity of ground is 
of the foil, X man may fupport him- cleared and in cultivation, as well 
felf, with little aSiHance ftom the u from the mtural increafe of 
ftoM, after the timber is cleared fwine and other animals, it ca«noe 
anfiy, be expedient that all the convi£U 
As I wiihed to fend an ofiicer to Ihould be employed in attendinv 
England who cwild give fuch infbr- only to the objedl of proviHons, yoA 
ninon u cannot be conTeyed by are to caufe the greateft poffible 
krten, and the detachment waj now number of thefe people to be am- 
dirid^I replaced the oficer who ployed in cultivating and drelling 
w»j fup^ntendaot and command- the flax jJant, a^ a means of acqui- 
ant at Norfolk IQand. by Major ring cloathing for themfelves and 
Roli; the o&er I have recalled other perfims, who may become fet- 
Wing been two years on the iiland, tler», as well as for a variety of mari- 
i) veiy capable of pointing out the time pnrpofes, and ft>r which its 
advantages wbich mav be expeAcd fuperior excellence renders it a de- 
from it. and I thiok it promifes to Arable objeft in Europe. 
anfwCT very fiiUy the end propofed You will, at every opportunity, 
by making the feitlement; it will be tranfmic to me all foch remarlcs or 
a place of lecurity for the convifts, obfervation* as you may make re- 
wbere thev will foon fnpport them- fpeSiog tlie nature of the foil on the 
feltet, and where they may be nd- iiland, and point out fuch means as 
Wntagdonfly employed in cultivai- may appear to yon the maft likely 
iog the flax plant. toanfwerthe views of government 
^__^__^ in the cnltivatwn of the flax plant, 
inn- andinrenderingthatillindindepen- 
ExtraOs from Inftruaions ^^^^ f^^ ^^e ncceffaries of life, and 
gives by Governor Phillip f^^ ^te order and government of the 
to the Lieutenant Cover- f^ji^, thereon, that fuch Informa- 
Dor, daring his Command jjj,„ „gj, fj-om me be tranfmitted to 
at Norfolk Iiland; dated hismajefly'sminifters. 
%d March, 1 79a. 
You will caufe the convids to be ^.^— ^ 
tmployed in the culuvaiion of the D^cripiitn ef HirJiH IJIanJ. 
land, in fuch manner as ffaall ap- 
pear to yon the beft cakulated 10 Norfolk Iflaod is fitiiated in, the 
tender thatfettlcment independent, latitude 29" 00', and in the longi- 
»s for aa refpeftj the neceffarie* of tude of 168° W eaft: its form »» 
life, paying fuch attention to the nearly an oblong, and contains from 
srftitatiHi of llic flax plant as yoor twelve to foorteen thoo&nd aef^ 



5«* ANNUAL REGlSTEIi, lyjt, 

The face of the coontry is hilly, timber.the reft is too hard and IcDot- 

■ndfomeofthcvallies ire tolerably ty for ufe; it romctimes h^pem. 

large for the fize of the illand ; many that after cutting oiF twenty feet 

of the hills are very ftecp, and fomc from the butt, it becomes rotten or 

fbw Co vety pErpendicular, that they Ihakey, for which reafon no depcn- 

ciinnot be cultivated; but where dancecaiy bepot in it forlareemafl^ 

fuch frtuations are, thev will do or yards. The timber of Uie jrine 

ver)- well for ftiel; on the tops of ia very nfefiil in building, and is 

the hills are Tome extenfive Hafi. very plentiful along the eai&; its 

Mount Pitt is the only remark- difperfed (ituation in the interior 

able high hill in the iiland, and is partsef theiftand, iswcU calculated 

about one hundred and tifty fathoms for ereCling fuch buildings as may 

high. The clifts which furround be neceflary. From what I have 

the iiland are about Forty fathoms feen of this wood, I think It is verf 

high, and perpendicular; the bafii durable. Two boats have been 

of the illand is a hard firm clay, built of it, and have anfwered the 

The whole ifland is covered with a purpose fully, 

thick wood, choaked up with under- The live oak, yellow wood, Mack 

wood. wood, and beech, are all ot,k clafe 

The ifland is well fupplicd with grain, and are a durable wood, 

many ftreams of very fine water; The flay plant of New Zealand 

many of which are fufiiciently large grows fpontaneoully in miiny earn 

to turnany number of mills. Thele of [he illand, bat moftly abounds on 

fprings are foil of very large eels, the fea COall, where ;here is a very 

From the coaft to the iummlt of great quantity of it; tiw leaves of 

Mount Pitt, is a continuation of the which the (lax is made, are, when 

richeft and dcepeft foil in the world, full grown, fix ftet long and Ux 

which varies from a rich black inches wi<le ; each plant contains 

mould to a fat red earth; we have fevrn of thofe leaves ; a llrong 

dag down forty feet, and found the woody ftalk rifes from -the centre, 

fame foil; the air is very whole- which bears the Sowers; it leedi 

fbme, and the climate may be called annually, and the old leaves arc 

a very healthy one : there has been forced out by young ones every 

no ficknefs fince I firft landed on the year. Every method has been tried 

ifland. to work it, but I much fear that unii! 

There are five kinds of trees on a r.siiveof New Zealand canbecar- 
the ifland, which are good timber, tied to Norfol!: Illand, that the iv.e- 
vi?., the pine, live oak, a yellow thod ofdreiling that valuable con- 
wood, a hard black wood, and a modity will not be known ; and 
wood not unlike the Englifh beech, could that be obtained, J have no 
The pine trees are of a great fize, doubt but Norfolk Ifland would very- 
many of which are from iSotozao fpon clothe the inhabitants of New 
.feet in heiffht, and from fix to nine South Wales. 
feet in aiameter. Thofe treo There are a- great qoantity of 
which are from loo to i So feet in pigeons, parrots, hawksf and other 
htignt, ate in general found ; from finaHer birdf, which are now in a 
(he root to tlie lower branches, wild Hate. 

tlKre is from So to 90 feet of found The ground is much infeftMi nitb 

diJfcreet 



A^PENbiX tdtiic CHliONlciLE. 'fj 

d liferent kio 4s p{_ the snib wormi Sydoer.BAy, it. is verygooij here, 

*hic!i are very deftmftive to the as it alfo is in Cafcade Bay, on the 

( ";ronrth of vegetables; they are nioll- tiorch fideof the iflaod. 

y tfoublefonie about the fpring. During the winter mdnthi,. Vlr.. 

It it to be hoped t£it when ihore from ^pj-i! to Augufl, the gensral 

ground is cleared away, that this winds ace the foath and Tou^-weft, 

tvi] will eeafe vi-lth hedvy ^Jes at times, tu tbe 

There is no quadntpede on the rummer, the Touth-eaft wind blows 

iilind, except the rai> which is much almod conllaiit. 

(mailer th»n tht Noriviy rat : thefe The fpring li vlfiBle in Ailgaft, 

vermin were very troublefome when but the native trees, and many 

lirft we landed, bdt at pttfent there plants in the liland. are la a con- 

are but very few. ftahc Aale of flowering : the (um- 

The cotftj of the ifland aboand mer is, wtt^p^an^pM^times the 

vith very fine &fh. No op^naiu- dronglitf are ver/^ftjtjHll the 

ii« were ever loS of lending the grain ^id^&UMjpean planVim^ed 

boat out,*hlch enabled tis to make' in DecWber^Qi^^bru>l9'\ta 

a faring of two pounds' of meaif Auguft may/bv^allJcf jEj^Araidy 

each man, a week. fealon, not tfiM4^4j^hereHs iny 

Thecoaftso^lfae iflandareiii ge- ftated times for w iiti-4o-^efe 

neralfiecp too, uid, excepting at months, as it is fornetinies very fine 

Sydney, Anfim, Ball, and Caicade weather for a fennight togttber, 

Say), they are inacceflible, being but when the rain does fall, it is in 

furronnded by fteep per